Skip to main content

Full text of "Knight Letter No. 87"

See other formats



Xntgfit Letter 



The Lewis Carroll Society of North America 

.. c 





*»*T/- .,(• 


» ^ 



^ ; 


*/ )\ 





»' S C 

/ /- 

Winter 2011 

Volume II Issue 1 7 i 


Number 87 

Knight Letter is the official magazine of the Lewis Carroll Society of North America. 

It is published twice a year and is distributed free to all members. 

Editorial correspondence should be sent to 

the Editor in Chief at 


Submissions for The Rectory Umbrella and Mischmasch should be sent to 

Submissions and suggestions for Serendipidity and Sic Sic Sic should be sent to 

Submissions and suggestions for All Must Have Prizes should be sent to 

Submissions and suggestions for From Our Far-Flung Correspondents should be sent to 

© 2011 The Lewis Carroll Society of North America 
ISSN 0193-886X 

Mahendra Singh, Editor in Chief 

Ann Buki, Editor, Carrollian Notes 

Cindy Watter, Editor, Of Books and Things 

James Welsch & Rachel Eley, Editors, From Our Far-Flung Correspondents 

Mark Burstein, Production Editor 

Andrew H. Ogus, Designer 


Mark Burstein, 

Cindy Watter, 

Clare Imholtz, 

Annual membership dues are U.S. $35 (regular), 

$50 (international), and $100 (sustaining). 

Subscriptions, correspondence, and inquiries should be addressed to: 

Clare Imholtz, LCSNA Secretary 

11935 Beltsville Dr. 

Beltsville, Maryland 20705 

Additional contributors to this issue: 
Clare Imholtz, Fernly Bowers, Yoshiyuki Momma 

On the cover: The suppression of a guinea pig, from Alice au Pays des Merveilles, 
illustrated by Rebecca Dautremer. See review on p. 51. 









Occupy Wonderland! 


A Perfect and Absolute Mystery 


Through a Carrollian Lens: Emily Aguilo-Perez 
The Curious Door: Charles Dodgson isf the If/ley Yew 


The Hunting of Alice in Seven Fits 




All Must Have Prizes 



Beaver Problems: Snark Arithmetic 
& Truculent Allusion 


Little Alice in America 


Lewis Carroll: Man of Science 



Leaves from the Deanery Garden — Serendipity — Ravings 33 
On the Discovery of an English "Jabbenvocky" 36 







Simon Says 

The Love-Ins 

Beware of Greeks Bearing Snarks ? 


Snarked! 0, 1, and 2 


Alice's Adventvires in NYC Wonderland — 
the Text Generation 


The Logic Pamphlets of Lewis Carroll 








Forgotten the English? Alice aux pays des mervielles 51 



The Pre-Raphaelite Lens: British Photography 
& Painting 1848 -1875 





Art Of Illustration — Articles & Academia — 

Books — Events, Exhibits, & Places — Internet & Technology — 

Movies 6f Television — Music — Performing Arts — Things 53 





r his issue of the Knight Letter talks of many 
things whose time has come, ranging from 
Adriana Peliano's surrealist-inflected tour 
of the Alician multiverse to Doug Howick's filling-in 
of the infamous blank spots in the Bellman's map. 
Alison Gopnik and Alvy Ray Smith have uprooted the 
obscure Carrollian role of Oxford's Iffley Yew, and 
just in time to furnish food and shelter for August 
Imholtz's mathematically challenged, tree-climbing 
Beaver. More logically minded readers can mull over 
Sen Wong's wide-ranging review of the latest install- 
ment in the LCSNA/University of Virginia's ongo- 
ing publication of Carroll's pamphlets, while more 
poetically-minded Carrollians can enjoy a well-earned 
giggle over Alan Levinovitz's Wittgenstein-influenced 
back-translation of "Jabberwocky." 

We also have for you Clare Imholtz's explanation 
of the Anglo-American Little Alice confusion, a bit 
of bibliographic sleuthing that also serves to air out 
Carroll's disdain for Americans. Then there's Cindy 
Watter's brave review of an uber-hip text-message-ese 
version of Wonderland, a review that may well deliver 
the coup de grace to our more hyperdigitized Carrol- 
lians. The latter may wish to throw their Kindles on a 
bonfire of vanities and return, chastened, to the sim- 

pler pages of the several other, more orthodox paper 
and ink Carrollian-themed publications reviewed in 
this issue. 

Our ongoing series of member profiles, "Through 
a Carrollian Lens," continues with a contribution from 
Emily Aguilo-Perez, and we hope that other members 
will also pluck up the courage to send in their own 
stories of Carrollian peregrinations. One peregrina- 
tion in particular is taking on global proportions: the 
Alicel50 project. Jon Lindseth and Joel Birenbaum 
are leading this complex multinational effort, and any 
members who wish to assist them would be very wel- 
come. Further details can be found in Joel's current 
installment of All Must Have Prizes, which also tackles 
Madison Avenue's tacky love affair with Alice and her 
irresistible branding allure. 

Our more alert readers will have noticed by now 
that the dominant theme of this issue is the strenu- 
ous avoidance of any dominant theme. This is no 
accident. Everything has a theme if only you can find 
it, and what better way to keep it safely hidden from 
chronic, sharp-chinned moralizers than by putting 
it into the nonsensical service of this issue of the 
Knight Letter} 










Mgain hosted by former LCSNA president 
Edward Guiliano, now president of the New 
York Institute of Technology, again the LC- 
SNA enjoyed a fabulous meeting on a scintillating fall 
day in New York City. We began with brief talks by Joel 
Birenbaum and Jon Lindseth, who are leading our 
efforts to organize "Alicel50: Celebrating Wonder- 
land," which will mark the 150th anniversary of the 
original publication of Alice's Adventures in Wonderland 
in 1865. Potentially the most ambitious Alice event 
ever held, Alice 150, which focuses on Alice in the 
popular culture and not the dusky groves of academe, 
will include multiple exhibitions in New York — at the 
Grolier Club, the Morgan Library, NYIT, the New 
York Public Library, Columbia University, New York 
University, the Museum of Comic and Cartoon Art, 
and Sotheby's — as well as satellite events across the 
country. More venues are being sought. 

It all happens in October 2015. Alice 150 will also 
include themed windows at Bergdorf s, a gala dinner, 
and a multivolume book on translations — to include, 
for some 112 languages, essays and back-translations 
of the majority of pun-filled Chapter 7 ("A Mad Tea- 
Party"), said to be the most difficult to translate. A 
back-translation means that the foreign-language ver- 
sion is translated back into English, as literally as pos- 
sible, to reveal how true (or, in many cases, untrue) it 
is to Carroll's original. 

The organizers need your help, particularly with 
planning events for children and youths, and particu- 
larly from people located in the New York area. Vol- 
unteers should please contact Joel Birenbaum (joel@ for particulars. 

Our first speaker, Adriana Peliano, is an artist, 
writer, translator, and founder of the Sociedade Lewis 
Carroll do Brasil. Adriana, who is already known to 
most of us through her recent writings in this journal, 
was garbed appropriately in a pink, red, and black 
dress of her own devising, with an image of Alice 
(printed on a tea towel) , a black net overlay for a pin- 
afore, and a detachable neck ruffle. 

Adriana's theme was transformations wrought by 
Alice — "Alice and I constantly recreate each other," 
she began. We transform ourselves each time we read 
Alice, and our readings transform Alice, again and 
again. Accompanied by her husband, Paulo Beto, on 
the synthesizer, and by her own Alice art and other 
videos constantly shifting on the screen behind her, 
Adriana presented a brilliant talk, adorned with wit, 
(e.g., "What is the use of a book ivith pictures and con- 
versations?" she queried), which you may read on p. 
25. Adriana distributed a wonderful keepsake, Fringe 
Alice, actually a magical "oracle" which, if you bring it 
to life (instructions are included), "will listen to your 

As Adriana suggested, the only fixed and immuta- 
ble thing about Alice is change: change as an unend- 
ing kaleidoscopic possibility-filled dialogue between 
Alice and her readers. Change was a theme to be car- 
ried forward by many of our speakers. 

Next up was James Fotopoulos, an experimental 
filmmaker, whose most recent piece, Alice in Wonder- 
land, is a 98-minute video adaptation of Henry Savile 
Clark's 1886 staged Alice in Wonderland: A Dream Play 
for Children. James started making this film after see- 
ing an exhibit of Carroll's photographs; he was par- 
ticularly struck by a photograph of Marion Terry in 
which Carroll deliberately let the brick wall behind 
the backdrop show. This rejection of artifice — like 
Charlie Chaplin's letting the makeup on his face 
show in the film The Circus — seemed to James to offer 
a direct route to the past, and a hook by which to con- 
nect yesterday's media and technologies to today's, 
and amateur artists to professionals. He performed 
surgery, he stated, to "restore" Carroll's photographs 
to contemporary relevance by abstracting 245 draw- 
ings, done in coral and gray, from them. On these 
images, he superimposed Walter Slaughter's music 
from the Savile Clark play, similarly deconstructed, to 
provide a narrative for his film — a spine, as he said, 
along which he brought together personal referents, 
including his responses to the work of John Ruskin, 
Thomas Eakins, and other nineteenth- and early 
twentieth-century artists. And Alice in Wonderland, the 
book? The book — its tide, actually, as he has admit- 
tedly never read the book — was only a "vehicle" from 
which to jump into film. Fotopoulos said that it takes 
him years to make films, and then he doesn't under- 

Mary Ann (later "Marion") Terry (1853-1930) 
in chain armor, July 1875. 

Adriana Peliano 

stand what he has done for years afterward. Perhaps 
that explains why the clips he showed (regrettably fol- 
lowing rather than preceding his ruminations) were 
so difficult for the audience to understand (at least 
for now). The film is definitely a changed "Alice." 

We took a short break here, enabling attendees 
to purchase various Carrollian wares, including a 
"facsimile" of Alices Adventures under Ground in Car- 
roll's "handwriting," but translated into Portuguese 
by Adriana, and a few examples of the ongoing se- 
ries of Alice translations published by Evertype, the 
publishing company run by LCSNA member Michael 
Everson. In fact, earlier, during the announcement 
period, Everson had engagingly read a selection from 
the Scots translation he recently published — Ailice's 
Aventurs in Wunnerland. 

LCSNA member Emily Aguilo-Perez's talk, en- 
titled "Good Alice, Naughty Alice," based on her Mas- 
ter's in English Education thesis at the University of 
Puerto Rico, gave more examples of how Alice chang- 
es. Why, Emily asked, do recent adaptations such as 
the Burton and SyFy films make Alice a teenager or 
young adult, rather than the little girl she was, and, 
perhaps more puzzling, why is this new, older Alice 
frequently presented with marriage proposals? Em- 
ily suggests that these phenomena are a response to 
the unfortunately widespread contemporary percep- 
tion of Carroll as a pedophile, and she gave several 
examples of images on the Internet illustrating this 
perception, citing "Internet rule 34," which states that 
anything that exists can be made sexual ("There is 
porn of it."). An older Alice not only appeals more 
to an adult audience, but can be eroticized without 

Mark Burstein and Emily Aguilo-Perez 

having the issue arise. Of course, many recent Alice 
adaptations are very sexualized — far more so than the 
Burton or SyFy versions — and sometimes even porno- 
graphic; American McGee's Alice and Lost Girls come im- 
mediately to mind, and even Dreamchild, years back, 
alluded to Carroll's supposed predilection. 

Suitors and proposals appear in both the Burton 
and SyFy productions, and also, I can note, in the 
play Alice by Mary Hall Surface, which premiered in 
2008. What's with these suitors? I wondered at the 
time. Emily suggests that the suitors, present only to 
be rejected by Alice, represent our cultural rejection 
of the uncomfortable notion that Alice Liddell might 
have married Charles Dodgson. Alice has changed, 
Emily noted, as our image of childhood has changed, 
increasing our anxiety about violations of childhood 

LCSNA founding member and renowned Carroll 
scholar Prof. Morton Cohen, up next, promised "no 
visuals, only words." Morton spoke about Carroll's 
creativity in a talk called "Lewis Carroll's Epiphanies," 
refining ideas he had first presented at LCSNA's 1997 
meeting in Collegeville, Minnesota. We are all imita- 
tors, said Morton; only a few of us are creators. There 
are two types of creators: visionaries, whose imagina- 
tions spin continuously; and mortals, like Carroll, 
who experience inspired visions once or twice in their 
lifetimes. The latter type Morton contrasted with An- 
thony Trollope, who was successful and disciplined, 
but not inspired. Carroll too was disciplined, but un- 
like Trollope, twice in his life was visited by the divine 
spark of inspiration — when writing Alice's Adventures 
in Wonderland and again when writing The Hunting of 

the Snark. Both sparks arose out of life events. Wonder- 
land's creative surge, Morton stated, was due to Car- 
roll's enchantment with Alice Liddell. 

Frequently in the six years before Wonderland was 
written, Carroll marked his diary with a white stone — 
a symbol, for Carroll, of the intensity of his feelings — 
and each white stone day was connected with either 
Alice Liddell or photography. Twelve years later, an- 
other intensely emotional event — the mortal illness 
of his cousin Charlie Wilcox — precipitated Carroll's 
inspired writing of the Snark. Only on these two oc- 
casions was Carroll to reach such heights. Morton 
stressed that such flashes — epiphanies, as he termed 
them — were not the product of Carroll's own self, but 
were mysteries prompted by earthly events. Looking- 
Glass, while remarkable, was the product of Carroll's 
rational disciplined mind, and not inspiration. 

Our next speaker was Alison Gopnik, a profes- 
sor of psychology and philosophy at the University of 
California, Berkeley, an expert on child development, 
author of the best-selling The Philosophical Baby, and 
sister of writer Adam Gopnik (who has himself twice 
addressed our Society). Alison stated that this oppor- 
tunity to address the LCSNA was the culmination of 
an obsession she'd had since she was two years old and 
first encountered Alice. Her engaging talk bore a tide 
worthy of Conan Doyle or John Dickson Carr: "The 
Curious Door: Charles Dodgson and the Iffley Yew." 

While recently on sabbatical in Oxford, Alison 
and her husband, Alvy Ray Smith (who is not only the 
co-author of Alison's talk, but an expert genealogical 
researcher and a co-founder of Pixar) , began a nifty 
and thorough piece of detection when they visited 
nearby Iffley and saw, standing in the yard of the lo- 
cal twelfth-century Romanesque church, a large, old 
(and as it turned out, very famous) yew tree with a 
stone-filled opening about four feet by four feet at its 
base. Alison immediately realized how such a large 
hollow entrance into a tree would captivate children's 



Alison Gopnik and Morton Cohen 

vivid imaginations and irresistibly summon them in, 
just as Alice entered the doorway in a tree in Under 
Ground. She set out to see if the tree that Carroll drew 
on p. 67 wasn't in fact the Iffley yew. As Alison's talk, 
with all its fascinating and well-documented detec- 
tion, is reprinted on p. 17, we will not rehearse her 
arguments here. 

Alison concluded her talk with a few trenchant 
observations from her research on children's imagi- 
nations. When children imagine alternate worlds, 
they are essentially creating intuitive theories; they 
are generating counterfactuals in order to under- 
stand their world, just as adult scientists do. Child- 
hood, which lasts longer in human beings than in 
any other species, is the time in which we do our per- 
sonal R&D (research and development); adulthood 
is for production and marketing. Carroll saw the links 
between children's wide-ranging imaginations and 
adult logic and empiricism. He knew that any child 
would recognize that huge hole in the Iffley yew as 
a doorway to another world. Years ago, Alison wrote, 
"At twenty Alice changed my life." It appears Alice is 
still doing that — and not only for Alison. 

Jeff Menges, a fantasy artist and illustrator, was 
our final speaker. Jeff is the editor of Dover's forth- 
coming Alice Illustrated, a collection of 125 Alice illus- 
trations, which includes notes by Jeff and an intro- 
duction by LCSNA president Mark Burstein. Most of 

the illustrations in the book will be by Golden Age 
illustrators, those from the 1880s to the 1920s, a pe- 
riod that just happens to be Jeff s specialty. Jeff stated 
that it has been fun to collect the illustrations, and 
he appreciated Mark's help with that. He noted that 
there are three scenes that evidently must, de rigueur, 
be included in every Wonderland: the caterpillar, the 
tea-party, and the flying playing cards. 

Jeff showed sample illustrations from the Wonder- 
lands of about fifteen or twenty artists, with succinct 
comments on each from the point of view of a graph- 
ic artist. He mentioned, for example, Rackham's sub- 
tle tonal quality, the surreal visage of Peter Newell 's 
caterpillar, Millicent Sowerby's overuse of profiled 
faces, the resemblance between Mabel Attwell's char- 
acters and the "Campbell Kids," the exquisite compo- 
sition of Charles Folkard's dancing spoons, and so on 
through Gwynedd Hudson, Milo Winter, Harry Roun- 
tree, and many more, culminating in Barry Moser. 
Moser, who is the only post-Tenniel artist in the book 
not of the Golden Age, is included because of Jeffs 
admiration for his work and because of Barry's gener- 
osity in allowing Dover to print his images. Jeffs talk 
was a delightful survey of art from one of our favorite 
books, and a most enjoyable way to close our formal 
meeting. From NYIT, we went a few blocks north on 
Broadway to Cafe Fiorello, where we enjoyed a deli- 
cious dinner and scintillating conversation. 











Ml though I have sailed on most of the oceans 
on this planet, I have no particular interest 
in ocean charts other than an interest in 
the Bellman's blank one in The Hunting of the Snark. 
However, in 2007 the well-known illustrator and ani- 
mator Michael Sporn opened a discussion on his 
"splog" comparing the depiction of the Bellman's 
map in his own film of the Snark (1989) with those 
of several other illustrators — namely Barry Smith 
(1995), Mahendra Singh (2007), Quentin Blake 
(1976), and Ralph Steadman (1975). This prompted 
responses from several people, including Mahendra 
Singh, the current editor of the KL, and myself. Mi- 
chael explained that he'd had trouble finding fur- 
ther illustrations, as most of his books were then in 
storage, and he invited me to contribute any other 
Snarky maps I'd like him to show. 

As my predominant interest in the Snark has been 
comparing the interpretations of a wide range of il- 
lustrators (see KL 82, "The Hunting of the Butcher"), 
I sent Michael several straightaway, some of which he 
showed in a further post extending the discussion a 
week or so later. In that post, he showed the maps cre- 
ated by Frank Hinder (1989), Harold Jones (1975), 
Michael Capozzola (2005), Kelly Oechsli (1966), 
John Lord (2006), Max Ernst (1950), Jonathan Dixon 
(1992), and Helen Oxenbury (1970). 

As Michael had not used all of my offerings at 
the time, Mahendra suggested that I should write a 
paper about "the blank chart." It's been very much 
an "on again, off again" production, but finally, this is 
it — and I have more offerings than I realized. 

In searching the World Wide Web for further in- 
formation (or inspiration), I discovered another blog 
quite unrelated to Carroll or the Snark and entitled 
"Underdog of Perfection" (http://blog.room34. 
com/archives/410), in which the author disclosed 
that he was afraid of blank spaces on maps. He added 
that the promising term "cartophobia" turned out to 
refer to the much more mundane (and much more 
understandable, I suppose) "fear" of maps in the 
sense of being intimidated by maps and not under- 
standing how to read them. His problem was precisely 
the opposite: He loved maps and could study their 
minutiae in detail for hours. And he thought that 

must be exactly why "voids" on the maps freaked him 
out so much ... it's like stepping into nonexistence. 

There we go again! How often do we hear the 
concept of nothingness linked to Carroll? In the Dis- 
ney movie, Alice says, "If I had a world of my own, ev- 
erything would be nonsense. Nothingvroxild be what it 
is, because everything would be what it isn't. And con- 
trariwise, what is, it wouldn't be. And what it wouldn't 
be, it would. You see?" 

In 1982, Stefan Kanfer of Time magazine dis- 
cussed the publication of the Centennial Edition of 
Martin Gardner's Annotated Snark by Kaufmann, and, 
drawing heavily on Gardner's Preface, commented: 
"The Snark is a poem about being and nonbeing, an 
existential poem, a poem of existential agony. The 
Bellman's map is the map that charts the course of 
humanity; blank because we possess no information 
about where we are or whither we drift. The Snark is, 
in Paul Tillich's fashionable phrase, every man's ulti- 
mate concern. This is the great search motif of the 
poem, the quest for an ultimate good. But this motif 
is submerged in a stronger motif, the dread, the ago- 
nizing dread, of ultimate failure. The Boojum is more 
than death. It is the end of all searching. It is final, 
absolute extinction, in Auden's phrase, 'the dreadful 
Boojum of Nothingness.'" 

The blank ocean chart echoes Alice's dialog with 
the Cheshire Cat, in which we learn that it doesn't 
matter which way you go if you don't much care 
where you're going. 

The chart is a concept to stir the imagination. 
Why else would Carroll have produced a picture of 


Astonishingly, there is scant information to give a de- 
finitive answer to such a basic question. Furthermore, 
there are many references that state quite categorical- 
ly that the illustrator was Henry Holiday. This I doubt. 
In my opinion, the most authoritative references 
regarding Henry Holiday's Snark illustrations are "De- 
signs for the Snark" by Charles Mitchell (1982) and 
the writings of Henry Holiday himself, such as "The 
Snark's Significance" (1898) and "Reminiscences of 
My Life" (1914). 


Scale of Miles. 


f ■ ' 




















s *"' t CumptHs-Pnints. N, E. S, M 


Figure 1. The original Ocean 

Figure 2. A frequently cited Ocean Chart 

Mitchell surveys and catalogues: "(a) Henry Holi- 
day's known drawings for the Snark, (b) the known 
proofs of Joseph Swain's cuts (of the blocks) and (c) 
the surviving wood blocks of the nine illustrations." 
He meticulously traces and verifies all of these and, 
regardless of the chronology of their creation or adap- 
tion; it suffices that I summarize here those drawings 
by Holiday that progressed to become woodblocks 
faithfully cut by Swain and that survived finally to be- 
come illustrations in the first edition of the Snark: 

Fit the First 

The Landing 

The Crew on Board, the 
Butcher and the Beaver 

Fit the Third The Baker's Tale 
Fit the Fourth The Hunting 

Fit the Fifth 
Fit the Sixth 

The Beaver's Lesson 
The Barrister's Dream 

Fit the Seventh The Banker's Fate 

Fit the Eighth The Vanishing 

These are the "nine illustrations by Henry Holi- 
day" so frequently reproduced and mentioned in ref- 
erences. For all the published detail about the origins 
and development of the nine illustrations, there is 
surprisingly little detail about the front cover illustra- 
tion, although Holiday records that the illustration 
for the back cover originated from a sketch he had 
made of a bell-buoy at Lands End. However, add the 
illustrations of the front and back cover to the other 

nine, and we have eleven — and no mention anywhere 
of the Ocean Chart! 

I am convinced that it was indeed Carroll who 
produced it! There is absolutely no evidence that it 
was produced by Holiday — so who else? It is Carroll's 
Ocean Chart! 


The fascinating thing about my investigations into the 
Bellman's map is that there are so many references to 
it by people with no particular interest in either Carroll 
or the Snark. Many of these are by cartographers, ge- 
ographers, mathematicians and a whole lot of others. 
Maybe this is the reason for so many inconsistencies . 

For example, one of the most frequently cited il- 
lustrations attributed to Henry Holiday is as shown in 
Figure 2 beside the original in Figure 1. Now I sim- 
ply do not know where the version in Figure 2 came 
from, but it gets a lot of reproduction on the Web. 
Maybe some of our readers can enlighten me. Not 
only is it not by Holiday (see above), there are several 
ways in which this illustration differs from that of the 
original edition, notably: 

Inclusion of "SOUTH" at base 
Inclusion of "Compass-Points, N, E, S, W." 
Exclusion of "OCEAN-CHART" 
Exclusion of "of Miles" after "Scale" 
Different sequence of dots on scale 



j,7^7J77T7-,ji < R .i|. W ■^fr-fr*TTj [ 

75 Uncharted Territories 
for OfT'the-Beaten-PathfindeTS 

Figure 3 . The Carte Blanche Atlas 

The sequence of dots on the scale has always in- 
trigued me. The original has a "22132" arrangement, 
but I have been unable to make anything of that. I've 
also wondered whether it was a message in Morse 
code, which had been invented by Samuel Morse in 
1844. If so, it would spell "IIESI," which doesn't make 
any sense to me either. Again, maybe some of our 
readers can enlighten us. 

A common textual misquote is "He had brought 
a large map ..." The Bellman didn't bring a large map 
representing the sea, he bought one. At least, that is 
what the crew were given to understand. Really? Are 
we, the readers, as gullible as the crew members? Are 
we to believe that, previous to the voyage, the Bell- 
man had spent his own money to buy a large map 
representing the sea? 

As the map had "not the least vestige of land," 
it really was of no consequence which sea was rep- 
resented on the map. Thus, we must look for other 
clues or instructions as to how the crew should locate 
the Snark. 

Maybe a clue had already been foreshadowed in 
Carroll's Preface, in which he explains that although 
he might do so, he will not point "to the strong ar- 
ithmetical principles so cautiously inculcated" in the 
poem itself. He goes on to explain Rule 42 of the Na- 
val Code under which "No one shall speak to the Man 
at the Helm." And the acronym for Man at the Helm 
is — MATH. How's that for cautious inculcation? 

L A T I T V P E N O R T II K g U A T O B 



























Svult vj .Vtfc* . 

Ocean Chart with Ship's Tracts 

Figure 4. Ocean Chart with ship 's track 


Very few Carrollian scholars seem to have analyzed 
the Bellman in any great depth. However, John Tu- 
fail (2003) suggested that there might have been two 
Bellmen, the one a navigator, supremely confident in 
his ability to successfully guide his ship and his crew, 
and the other an imposter whose main credentials 
seem to be his ability to impose his authority on a mis- 
guided crew. While not in favor of the two-Bellmen 
theory, I suggest that there are sufficient behavioral 
contradictions to indicate that — in common with oth- 
er more famous nautical and military leaders, such as 
Admiral Lord Nelson and Napoleon Bonaparte — the 
Bellman's mood swings may have been attributable to 
bipolar disorder. 

So if he bought the map rather than brought it, 
maybe he didn't bring it at all. There is no indica- 
tion that he actually gave it or showed it to the crew — 
he merely talked to them about it. The crew found 
that they could understand the concept of a blank 
map because they really had no idea of where they 
were going or whether they were on the right course. 
Other maps with "conventional signs" that are "such 
shapes, with their islands and capes" would have dem- 
onstrated the fact that they were lost, as a result of 
their own incompetence, and the fact that their brave 

Captain "had only one notion for crossing the ocean 
and that was to tingle his bell." 

So to talk of a possibly nonexistent blank map was 
the Bellman's way of covering up his own incompe- 
tence — of which he was very well aware. He was a con 
man who covered his incompetence with blustering 
bravado. He always needed to appear to be in control 
of any situation, and if not, to divert the attention of 
his crew with booze (grog) or jokes or even quota- 
tions to make him look grand. It is typical that he mis- 
quoted the opening words of Mark Antony's oration 
at Caesar's funeral in Shakespeare's Julius Caesar (as 
noted by Martin Gardner) . 

The reason the Bellman usually wears the "mys- 
terious smile as if he knows something that nobody 
else could understand" (Oleg Lipchenko in KL 86) 
is that he knows he's a twit but he thinks that nobody 
else does! So he gives steering commands that his 
crew cannot interpret, and therefore they wonder 
"what on earth was the helmsman to do?" The answer, 
of course, is that they were not on earth but on the 
ocean, where steering was determined by the MATH 
of the difficult art of navigation, rather than by the 
perplexed and distressed Bellman. So the MATH en- 
abled them to circumvent the danger and to land at 
last. Once they had done so, the Bellman quickly re- 
gained his leadership status and attempted to over- 
come their low spirits by telling bad jokes. When that 
only made them groan, he gave them all enough 
booze to win back their support — "so they drank to 
his health and they gave him three cheers." 


In order to do justice to my task, I felt that I need- 
ed to be sure that I understood the basics of cartog- 

raphy. I therefore delved into an amazing publication 
called The Carte Blanche Atlas (Figure 3). I soon re- 
alized that this was a reliable source of information, 
as it contains Carroll's Ocean Chart and cites Fit the 
Second without errors. 

I learned that there are crucial differences be- 
tween a blank map and a blank page. Unlike a blank 
page, a blank map: 

is designed by a cartographer 

is a frame 

represents a space or "territory" 

has orientation 

is readable 

has accuracy 

suggests scale (though it may sacrifice exactitude 
in favor of visual utility) 

is informative (unavailability of data does not 
equal nonexistence of data) 

is something unexpected 

Obviously, the Ocean Chart meets all of these cri- 
teria, and if it's perfect, then don't try to fix it! Howev- 
er, just a few years ago, a project was set up to add color 
to the original Snark illustrations, and they couldn't 
resist adding to the Ocean Chart (Figure 4). 

There has been some discussion by Martin Gard- 
ner (1962) and Clare Imholtz (2003) comparing the 
Bellman's map in the Snark and the 1:1 scale map 
mentioned by Mein Herr in Sylvie and Bruno Conclud- 
ed. Certainly, the latter would have been the largest 
map ever created. However, the Klencke Atlas (1660) 
at almost six feet tall, with 41 printed wall maps on 
paper, is the largest book in the world (Figure 5). It 

Figure 5. The world's largest (printed) 

Figure 6. The world's smallest 
Snark map 

is possible that my miniature copy of the Bellman's 
Map, at 1 x 1 inches (3.8 x 3.2 cm) is one of the small- 
est (Figure 6). 


I have been fascinated by the many different ways in 
which the many Snark illustrators have interpreted 
the details of Fit the Second as they relate to the so- 
called "Blank Map" and the ways in which the illustra- 
tions suggest that the Bellman conveyed the informa- 
tion to his crew. 

In the hope that at least some of my readers take 
a second look at each of them, I have selected 21 of 
these. They are depicted below in chronological or- 
der of publication. 


Blake, Q. (1976). The Hunting of the Snark. Folio 

Society, London. 
Bo Press (2009). Bellman's Map. Bo Press Miniature 

Books, Riverside, California. 
Castle, T. (2005): 

Capozzola, M. (2005). 
Conley, C. (2007). The Carte Blanche Atlas of Uncharted 

Territories. Perfect-bound Paperback, USA. 
Dixon, J. (1992). The Hunting of the Snark. Lewis Car- 
roll Society of North America, New York. 
Ernst, M. (1950). La Chasse au Snark. Editions Pre- 
mieres, Paris 1950. 
Fisher, J. (2010). The Hunting of the Snark. The Folio 

Society, London. 
Gardner, M. (1962). The Annotated Snark. Simon & 

Schuster, New York. 
Gardner, M. (1981). "The Annotated Snark." In 

Lewis Carroll's "The Hunting of the Snark. "William 

Kaufmann, Inc., in cooperation with Bryn Mawr 

College Library, Los Altos, California. 
Hinder, F (1989). The Hunting of the Snark. Carroll 

Foundation, Flemington, Australia. 
Holiday, H. (1898). "The Snark's Significance." 

Academy, 29 January. 
Holiday, H. (1914). Reminiscences of My Life. Heine- 

mann, London. 
Howick, D. (2009). "The Hunting of the Butcher." 

Knight Letter II, Issue 12, Number 82. 
Imholtz, C. (2003). Borges and Carroll: On a Scale 

of One to One. Knight Letter Vol. II, Issue 1, 

Number 71. 
Jones, H. (1975). The Hunting of the Snark. The 

Whittington Press, Andoversford. 
Kanfer, S. (1982). "Books: Wonderland Without 



Kerman, D. (1989). The Hunting of the Snark. Shva 
Publishers, Israel. 

KlenckeJ. (1660). The KUncke Atlas. 

Lipchenko, O. (2011). "Butcher in the Ruff: Render- 
ing the Snark (A Work in Progress)." Knight Letter 
II Issue 16, Number 86. 

Lord, J. V. (2006). The Hunting of the Snark. Inky 
Parrot Press, Artists' Choice Editions, Church 
Hanborough, England. 

Minnion.J. (1976). The Hunting of the Snark. John 
Minnion, London. 

Mitchell, C. (1981). "The Designs for the Snark." In 
The Hunting of the Snark. William Kaufmann. 

Oechsli, K. (1966). The Hunting of the Snark. 
Pantheon Books, New York. 

Oxenbury, H. (1970). The Hunting of the Snark. 
Heinemann, London. 

Pomar, J. (1999). La Chasse au Snark. Edition de la 
Galerie PILTZER, Paris. 

Puttock, B. (illustrator), and Cathy Bowern (author) 
(1997). The Hunting of the Snark Concluded. 
Angerona Press, Ryde. 

Rosett-Hafter, G. (2007). The Hunting of the Snark. 
Bell Books, London. 

Rubinger, A. (2000). The Hunting of the Snark. Gal- 
Kalderon Publishing, 22 Nahmani St., Tel Aviv, 

Singh, M. (2007). The Hunting of the Snark - Fit- 
fully illustrating Lewis Carroll 8c other graphic 
agonies, www.justtheplaceforasnark.blogspot. 

Singh, M. (2010). The Hunting of the Snark. Melville 
House, Brooklyn, New York. 

Smith, B. (1995). "More Things in Heaven and 
Earth." Grazer Philosophische Studien, 50. 

Sporn, M. (1989). The Hunting of the Snark. Michael 
Spom Animation, New York. 

Sporn, M. (2007a). http://www.michaelsporn 

Sporn, M. (2007b). http://www.michaelsporn 
animation. com/splog/?p=l 300. 

Steadman, R. (1975). The Hunting of the Snark. 
Michael Dempsey, London. 

Tigertail Associates (2004). The Hunting of the Snark. 
Tigertail Associates, Los Angeles (with restora- 
tion and color rendering of the original illustra- 
tions by Henry Holiday by George Gennerich). 

Tishkov, L. (1991). Ohota na Snarka. Rukitis, Moscow. 

Torgard, A. (1994). EftirSnarki. Forlagio Sprotin. 

Tufail.J. (2003). The Illuminated Snark. International 
Carroll Conference, University of Rennes 2, 
October 17-18. 

2. Helen Oxenbury, 

i. Kelly Oechsli, 1966 

4 . John Minnion, 1976 

3. Harold Jones, 1975 

5. Quentin Blake, 1976 


7. Frank Hinder, 1989 

8. Michael Sporn, 1989 

i o. Jonathan Dixon, 1 992 

9. Leonid Tishkov, 1991 


14- Ami Rubinger, 2000 


1 8. Geneva Rosett-H after, 2007 

20. Mahendra Singh, 2011 

1 9. Jeffrey Fisher, 2010 

21. Oleg Lipchenko, 2011 





ntirotub a Carrolmn Lens 

I remember the first time I "met" Alice in Wonder- 
land. I was maybe five or six years old, and my mom 
played a videocassette that she had used to record 
several cartoons, including the Disney movie. She had 
recorded it when it premiered on the Puerto Rican 
network that was then called Tele-Once. Although the 
movie was in Spanish and I understood the conversa- 
tions, I really did not have any idea of the depths of 
Alice's story. For me, it was just a movie about funny 
characters, colorful places, and beautiful songs. My 
attraction to the movie began with my 
fascination with the Mad Hatter, for he 
was the character that I loved the most. 
His big hat and funny comments made 
me want to one day sit down for tea with 
him. During a trip to Disney World in 
the summer of 2008, when meeting that 
character, I — a 22 year old at the time — 
almost started to cry. Then I met him 
again in 2009, and it was as magical as 
the year before. 

Though the Hatter remains a favor- 
ite character, Alice has taken a very spe- 
cial place in my heart. I began to see some 
resemblance between Alice and myself. 
At first, when I was a child, I thought the 
Disney movie was about a little girl who 
got lost in the woods and just wanted to go home. I 
could relate to that. Not long before that, I had gotten 
lost at the supermarket and thought that I would nev- 
er see my parents again. But I remembered the very 
good advice that my parents had given me, and I went 
straight to the manager's office, where my parents 
were paged and soon picked me up. I always thought 
that Alice should have done something similar, but in 
a way she was thinking similarly to me; she thought 
about all the good advice that she had been given and 
tried to apply it to her situation, although for her it 
was not successful. After that, I read the books, fell in 
love with them, and understood how many important 
elements the movie had removed. Yet, I never imag- 
ined that a story I loved so much would become such 
an important part of my life. 

In 2008, during a Literature Festival at my univer- 
sity, the University of Puerto Rico at Mayagiiez, I had 

the honor of portraying Alice in one of the drama 
skits. By that time no one was aware of my love (and 
beginning obsession) with Alice and the stories. It 
was a magical moment for me to put on a blue dress, 
white stockings, a white pinafore, and become a little 
girl again. I had to recite the lines I had been memo- 
rizing throughout my childhood while watching the 
Disney movie. In this particular case, the director of 
the skit had done a mixture of the book and the Dis- 
ney animation. I had been preparing for this role my 
whole life — so much so that I was able to 
improvise and actually become Alice in 
another skit, where we had no script and 
different literary characters were being 
interviewed. At that moment I became 
Alice. On other occasions I also became 
the Mad Hatter. In fact, for three con- 
secutive years I dressed up as the Hatter 
for Halloween. It was always fun to be 
someone different, especially someone 
from my favorite story. Of course, playing 
dress-up and memorizing lines have not 
been the only moments of my life where 
Lewis Carroll played a role. 

The stories about Alice had an enor- 
mous significance in my life as a gradu- 
ate student as well. Every time I read the 
books, I am able to discover something new; I am able 
to laugh at a new joke I finally understand. I find new 
linguistic features that puzzle my mind and challenge 
my intellect. More importantly, every time I read the 
books, I am able to identify with Alice for different 
reasons. In a way, I am a real-life Alice. I remember 
not fitting in and always being odd in school. I never 
wanted to follow the crowd, and I did not give in to 
peer pressure, but it was never a painful experience 
for me. Alice is somewhat different from everyone 
around her and she does not always do what she is 
told. She speaks her mind and stands up to others, 
even adults, always defending her beliefs. Most of all, 
she cares about those around her, both good and bad, 
and she tries her best to understand the pains and 
frustrations of the people and creatures she has con- 
tact with. Alice, more often than not, does not fit in, 
not in the real world and not in Wonderland; yet she 


always follows her heart, even if it means being differ- 
ent. She goes through difficult moments in Wonder- 
land, yet she is able to overcome any struggle, turning 
what could have been a nightmare for someone else 
into an adventure. The stories about Alice became my 
outlet and my comfort when I felt that I did not be- 
long anywhere, especially because I felt a connection 
to her that I have never felt with any other fictional 

Curiouser and curiouser, it was the newer Alice 
who was emerging in the films of the twenty-first cen- 
tury that I could not identify with anymore. In Tim 
Burton's 2010 film and in SyFy's Alice, the character 
was an adult, yet despite her being closer to me in 
age than the Alice of the books, there was a certain 
magic, a part of the original character, her charisma, 
her personality, that just was not there anymore. The 
new Alice was the heroine of the story, but for very 
different reasons. She was not driven by curiosity, she 
was afraid to explore, she despised being in such a 
fantastical place. All that magic had been taken away 
from the adult versions of Alice, and all that was left 
was a woman who had a prophecy to fulfill. She was 
to slay a monster. Seeing this change in the story mo- 
tivated me to explore why this had happened and to 
write my master's thesis about her. My aim was not to 
criticize the movies or to pinpoint everything that was 
changed from the books, but to understand how Al- 
ice had grown up. It did not happen overnight. This 
growth was not the result of eating a piece of mush- 
room; the change happened progressively. It was for 
this reason that I took on the challenge of delving 
more closely into the adaptations of Alice and the 
representation of the character. 

It was also during this time that I became aware 
of the existence of a frabjous group named the Lewis 
Carroll Society of North America, and after learn- 
ing more about it, I became a member. I discovered 
even more about the joys of Wonderland through this 
group. It offers an academic yet friendly forum where 
scholars and fans of Lewis Carroll's work can get to- 
gether in an intellectual exchange. Being a member 
of this society has provided me with different forums 
and resources I would have not found otherwise, and 
better prepared me for my research. The first meet- 
ing I attended was at the Rosenbach Museum and Li- 
brary in Philadelphia in April, 2010. This was my first 
time traveling by myself, so I felt like Alice exploring 
a new world on my own. Nevertheless, I loved every 
moment of it! Not only was I able to meet new people 
and visit historical places, I was able to learn so much 
about Alice and I felt special in being able to see some 
of Carroll's original documents. I was already excited 
about the following Fall meeting and became even 
more excited when I found out that Jenny Woolf was 
one of the speakers. Her book was one of the main 

sources for my thesis, and I really wanted to meet 
such a brilliant person. 

Having already made arrangements to go, three 
days before the November meeting, tragedy struck. 
My grandmother passed away, and even though I 
had my plane tickets and suitcase ready, family always 
comes first, especially when there is a loss. However, 
in spring 201 1 I had the opportunity to fly to the West 
Coast for the first time and attend another amazing 
LCSNA meeting, this time in San Francisco. Once 
again, I met another group of wonderful Wonderland 
"creatures," and this time I was able to spend more 
time with them. Despite being sick the entire week- 
end, I had one of the most Wonderful times of my 
life. I couldn't believe I was having so much fun while 
also doing further research for my thesis. Moments 
like those reminded me why I had chosen Alice as 
the topic for my thesis, and they made me realize that 
I truly enjoyed and loved the work I had to do; even 
more so when I was invited to speak at the fall 2011 
meeting — a real honor for me! It is exciting to be 
able to share my work, my thesis, my Wonderland with 
such a fantastic group of people. 

During the examination part of my thesis defense, 
one of my professors asked me, "Did you choose the 
topic because you were passionate about Alice in Won- 
derland?" My answer was, "Yes and no." Of course, I 
briefly explained to them my contradictory response. 
Yes, I have always loved the stories, the characters, the 
music, the costumes, and pretty much anything relat- 
ed to Alice. Once in a while, I would talk to my friends 
and family about Alice in Wonderland, and every time 
I visited Disney World, I wanted to meet some of the 
characters. Yet, I never thought of it as being passion- 
ate about the stories, I was just a fan. In retrospect, I 
think it could even be called an obsession. I collected 
pins, bought Alice in Wonderland t-shirts, bought dif- 
ferent versions of the books, and watched more movie 
adaptations. It wasn't until I selected Alice as the topic 
for my thesis that I truly became passionate about it. 
So, no; in a way, I didn't choose the topic because I 
was passionate about it — I became passionate about it 
because of my thesis. 

This answered another inquiry from my profes- 
sor: "When did you find out you were passionate 
about Alice in Wonderland?" Once I began the research 
process, I became more immersed in everything Won- 
derland. I read more than fifty books and articles 
about Lewis Carroll, about Alice, about other films, 
and I watched even more movies based on the stories. 
I read novels, comics, fan fiction, and lyrics, among 
other things. Each text I read added to my already 
enormous fascination with the stories and, of course, 
the author. All I could talk about was Alice; my friends 
constantly sent me Alice-related links to videos, blogs, 
articles, restaurants, hotels, and anything imaginable. 
I became known as "the Alice girl" in my department, 


and some professors even called me Alice. If some- 
one were to discuss Alice in a class or in any random 
conversation, they were careful about not misquoting 
or making erroneous references about the stories, for 
they knew I would probably correct them if they did. 
Writing a thesis about Alice became my Wonder- 
land, the place where I could escape to and be myself. 
Never in a million years would I have thought that a 
nonsense children's story would have so much mean- 
ing in my life. The mere thought of it makes me think 
that I may be just as mad as a hatter. But I cannot 
forget what the White Queen told Alice: "Why, some- 
times I've believed as many as six impossible things 
before breakfast." Writing my thesis helped me be- 
lieve in impossible things too. One of these things was 
that even if I am an adult with many responsibilities, 
I am still a child at heart, and there is nothing wrong 
with that. In Tim Burton's and the SyFy Network's 
versions, Alice became an adult, and because of this, 
her experiences in Wonderland became tasks rather 
than adventures; they became a burden rather than 
an opportunity to be free and be herself. Alice had 
forgotten the child version of herself; she had erased 

her adventures from her memory, and she had been 
pulled into the abyss of adulthood. 

The opening song for the 1951 Disney film adap- 
tation asks the following questions: Where is the land 
beyond the eye, that people cannot see, where can it be? ... 
Alice in Wonderland, where is the path to Wonderland? I 
believe the path to Wonderland lies in each person's 
ability and willingness to be a child, for it is only by 
freeing ourselves from the burdens of adulthood that 
we can look at the world with innocent eyes, and dis- 
cover that there is an adventure in everything, every 
day — -just as it happened with Alice, who was finally 
able to embrace Wonderland when she allowed her- 
self to be a child at heart. I think a lot of us, members 
of the LCSNA, have been able to find that child in our 
hearts, and we can be silly, mad as hatters, nonsensi- 
cal, and happy solving life's riddles. We can be em- 
braced by Lewis Carroll's wonderful creation by en- 
joying a book "for children" without feeling ashamed. 
So let's all continue to embrace the child in all of us, 
let's continue with the fun, and more importantly, 
let's continue exploring Wonderland, for there is still 
so much more to discover. 





The Curious Door: Charles Hodgson s the Iffley Yew 




Mfei Adventures in Wonderland lives because 
it speaks to the imagination of children ev- 
erywhere. But it is so potent partly because 
it was originally composed for and about one par- 
ticular child. Charles Dodgson turned the everyday, 
specific, banal events of Alice Liddell's life into magic 
and dreams — or rather, he revealed the magical and 
dreamlike character of each child's experience of 
the everyday, specific, and banal. Dinah, the treacle 
well, and the Sheep's shop are enchanted versions of 
specific, real cats and wells and shops, and the wet, 
bedraggled party of animals in the pool of tears was 
originally a wet, bedraggled party of spinster sisters 
and children caught in an English summer rainstorm. 
These transformations of the everyday into the ex- 
traordinary help make Wonderland so compelling. 

We suggest another such link between the real 
life of Charles Dodgson and the Liddell sisters and 
what looks like a particularly surreal and unlikely 
detail in the book — the door in the tree. The door 
appears after Alice leaves the Mad Tea Party, and it 
leads her back to the hall: 

"At any rate I'll never go there again!" said 
Alice as she picked her way through the wood. 
"It's the stupidest tea-party I ever was at in all 
my life!" Just as she said this, she noticed that 
one of the trees had a door leading right into 
it. "That's very curious!" she thought. "But ev- 
erything's curious today. I think I may as well 
go in at once." And in she went. 

The passage is very similar in Alice's Adventures 
under Ground, Dodgson 's original version of the story, 
which included more specific references to actual 
events. However, it takes place just after Alice encoun- 
ters the pigeon, and it has one significant difference: 
the "door" is a "doorway." 

"However, I've got to my right size again: 
the next thing is, to get into that beautiful 
garden — how is that to be done, I wonder?" 
Just as she said this, she noticed that one of 
the trees had a doorway leading right into it. 
"That's very curious!" she thought, "but every- 
thing's curious today: I may as well go in." And 
in she went. 

The door in the tree is also the subject of a full- 
page illustration by Dodgson — one that was not re- 
produced by Tenniel in the later book (Fig. 1). 

We suggest that this curious tree was based on a 
real tree, the Iffley Yew, a very old hollow tree with a 
four-foot opening in one side — a child-sized doorway, 
if not a door — growing in the churchyard in the village 
of Iffley, two miles down the Thames from Oxford. 

We will establish the following: 

1. The Iffley Yew was well known in the early 
nineteenth century, and Dodgson would almost 
certainly have read about it as a picturesque and 
historically significant local landmark. 

2. Dodgson knew Iffley well, particularly the 
Church, and visited it often, particularly be- 
tween 1862 and 1864 when he was writing Alice's 
Adventures under Ground. He had several cleri- 
cal friends who lived there. He planned to take 
photographs there. 

3. Dodgson went to Iffley with Alice Liddell and 
her sisters on at least two occasions, and possibly 

4. There is a photograph of the Iffley Yew by the 
Oxford photographer Henry Taunt that we 
can date to between May 18, 1862, and March 
8, 1866, a period roughly contemporaneous 
with the composition of Alice's Adventures under 
Ground. The photograph shows the opening 
in the tree clearly, and the tree bears a striking 
resemblance to Dodgson's illustration. 


Iffley Church was, and is, famous as one of the most 
beautiful and best preserved Romanesque churches 
in England. It dates from the 1170s, with very few 
alterations since. It is particularly well known for its 
fantastical, grotesque, and very Carrollian carvings of 
real and mythical animals, including gryphons. 1 In 
the churchyard there is an exceptionally large and 
old yew tree, currently some 25 feet in girth. The tree 
is hollow. Currently, the cavity has been partially filled 
with concrete, stones, and earth, but the east side still 
has an opening about three feet high and a foot off 
the ground. From the outside, the opening is now 
completely hidden by the branches that reach to the 
ground (Fig. 2). 


Figure 2. The Iffley Church and Yew today (July 2011). 

Figure 1. Dodgson's illustration for Alice's 
Adventures under Ground. 

Figure 3. Illustration from Skelton's Antiquities of Oxfordshire, 1823. 

The tree was rather different in the nineteenth 
century, however. Descriptions and pictures of the 
tree appear in many sources. It was described care- 
fully in John Loudon's standard Trees and Shrubs of 
Great Britain in 1838: 

The Iffley Yew stands in Iffley churchyard, 
near Oxford, nearly opposite the south-east 
corner of the church, and between that and 
an ancient cross. This tree is supposed to be 
coeval with the church, which, it is believed, 
was built previously to the Norman conquest. 
The dimensions of the tree, kindly taken for 
us in September, 1836, by Mr. Baxter, were as 
follows: — Girt of the trunk, at 2 ft. from the 
ground, 20 ft., and at 4 ft. from the ground, 
where the branches begin, 17 ft. The trunk is 
now little more than a shell, and there is an 
opening on the east side of the tree which is 
4 ft. high, and about 4 ft. in width; the cavity 
within is 7 ft. long, 4 ft. wide, and 4 ft. high in 

the highest part. The height of the tree is 22 
ft.; and there are about 20 principal branches, 
all of which, except two, are in a very vigor- 
ous and flourishing state. The diameter of the 
head is 25 ft. each way 2 

In The Gentleman's Magazine of 1804 there is a 
description of two bored travelers who "alternately 
thrust themselves into the tree," a description which 
fits the dimensions described in Loudon. :i The tree 
was also described and illustrated in Oxford guide- 
books such as The Oxford University and City Guide of 
1818, ' Antiquities of Oxfordshire of 1823 (Fig. 3), 5 and 
Memorials of Oxford of 1837, 6 among others. Engrav- 
ings of it appeared in The Illustrated London News of 
1845 7 and The Penny Illustrated News of 1850. s The de- 
scriptions emphasize both the great age of the tree 
and its picturesque appearance. It also appeared at 
length in the self-consciously "artistic" travel writ- 
ings of The Wanderings of a Pen and Pencil by Francis P. 
Palmer and Alfred Crowquill in 1846, which include 


Figure 4. Illustration from 
The Art-Journal 
of June 1, 1857. 


appealingly Victorian descriptions of both the Iffley 
cottages ("dainty bowers of delight" where "the syl- 
labubs in the open air were charming") and the Yew 
itself: "The roots of this surprising vegetable hero 
were probably strong in earth when Richard the Lion- 
hearted was beating down the Paynim chivalry in the 
Holy Land." 9 

Most significantly of all, for our purposes, the tree 
was both described and illustrated, with the opening 
prominently depicted, in The Art-Journal of June 1, 
1857 (Fig. 4): 

The church-yard contains an aged yew tree — 
so aged that no stretch of fancy is required to 
believe it was planted when the first stone of 
the sacred structure was laid.* 

* It has been generally stated that yew-trees were planted 
near churches to supply bow-staves for archers, at a 
time when archery was much practised, and enforced 
by law. But the custom is now believed to be much 
older, and to be a relic of paganism; these trees being 
sacred to the dead from a very early period, and there- 
fore especially venerated by die Druids, were adopted 
by the Romans and Saxons; hence "the church was 
brought to the tree, and not the tree to die church" for 
the eminent botanist Decandolle notes that the yews 
at Fountains and Crowhurst are 1200 years old, while 
that at Fortingale, in Scotland, is believed to be 1400 
years old.'" 

This passage and the picture were part of a year- 
long serialization called "The Book of the Thames, 
from Its Rise to Its Fall" by the editor of the Journal, 
Samuel C. Hall, and his wife. The Art-Journal was the 
leading art magazine of its time and an early advo- 
cate of photography. We know that Dodgson read it, 
since some of his first photographs in 1856 were pho- 
tographs of pages from the Journal." 

So the Yew, like the Church, was well known as a 
picturesque, historically significant, and romantically 

(if not always entirely accurately) depicted ancient 
relic in Dodgson 's time. 


Dodgson's diaries record two visits to Iffley in 1857.'- 
The diaries from April 1858 to April 1862 are missing. 
Eleven further visits are recorded in the period be- 
tween May 1862, when the diaries recommence, and 
November 1864, when Dodgson presented the fin- 
ished Alice's Adventures under Ground to Alice Liddell." 

Dodgson had several friends and acquaintances 
who lived in Iffley between 1857 and 1864. They in- 
cluded William Henry Charsley; James Rumsey and 
his family; the "Perpetual Curate" of Iffley, Thomas 
Acton Warburton; and John Slatter and his family. 
Dodgson specifically records visiting and dining with 
the Charsleys, the Rumseys, and Warburton in Iffley 
in his diaries." Dodgson was also friendly with William 
Ranken, who succeeded Slatter as Vicar of Sandford- 
on-Thames in 1862 and, according to the diary, lived 
in lodgings in Sandford, a short way farther down the 
river from Iffley. 15 John Slatter, Elizabeth Rumsey, and 
Thomas Warburton are all listed as living in Iffley in 
the 1861 census (with James Rumsey listed separately 
in Oxford at his college). 16 

Although he does not specifically record visiting 
him in Iffley in the extant diaries, Dodgson was par- 
ticularly close to John Slatter and his family. Slatter 
was born in Iffley and was Vicar of nearby Sandford- 
on-Thames from 1852 through 1861. '" He had a 
first in mathematics at Oxford, and was an amateur 
astronomer, meteorologist, and antiquarian, and he 
had a young daughter, Bessie. In the Letters, Dodgson 
records a visit from "some friends. . . the John Slatters" 
to see photographs on December 18, 1860, when the 
Slatters lived at Iffley (in fact, in "an awful breach of 
court etiquette" he uses this visit to excuse himself 


from sending the photographs to Prince Albert to 
view). 18 He also photographed both John Slatter and 
Bessie in 1860 and photographed seven-year-old Bes- 
sie again (with a guinea pig) probably in 1861. 19 Slat- 
ter became Vicar at Streatley and moved there early 
in 1862, when Ranken succeeded him at Sandford. 
According to the diaries, Dodgson visited the Slatters 
at least four times at Streatley between 1 862 and 1 864, 
although they were now a train ride away. 2 " It seems 
very likely, then, that Dodgson also visited the Slatters 
at Iffley during the period of the missing diaries. 

Dodgson also had close connections to Iffley 
Church. The diaries record that he attended services 
there three times. He also records visiting the Rec- 
tory three times and interacting with the Rev. Thomas 
Warburton, the Perpetual Curate and de facto Vicar, 
and his extended family of sisters-in-law, nieces, and 
nephews. And he records assisting with the church 
school and playing croquet in the Rectory garden. 21 

At the time that Dodgson visited Iffley, Warbur- 
ton and Iffley Church were at the center of Barchester 
Towers-Mke religious and aesthetic controversies. Rev- 
erend Warburton himself is a figure straight out of 
Trollope, a man marked by irascibility and arrogance 
as well as energy and zeal. He was an enthusiast for 
both High Church theology and medieval architec- 
ture and history — he wrote a book called Rollo and 
His Race: Or Footsteps of the Normans — and he worked 
hard, in spite of substantial opposition, to return the 
church to what he thought of as its original state. He 
was responsible for restoring the ancient cross that 
stood direcdy in front of the Yew in 1857, and for 
adding a newly carved top to replace the original. 
(The unrestored cross can be seen in the Antiquities 
of Oxfordshire and The Art-Journal engravings (Fig. 3 
and Fig. 4). He also removed a fifteenth-century per- 
pendicular window in the church in 1857, replacing it 
with a restoration of the original Romanesque oculus. 
He equipped it with vivid Victorian stained glass com- 
memorating the death of his brother. He also wanted 
to remove the fifteenth-century windows inside the 
church, but couldn't overcome the opposition from 
the architects and the community. ~ 

Dodgson (and Alice Liddell) were particularly 
close to another enthusiast for medieval architecture 
in general and the Iffley Church in particular — none 
other than Alice's father, Henry Liddell, himself. Lid- 
dell was both a vice-president and a frequent member 
of the governing committee of the Oxford Architec- 
tural Society, originally known as the Oxford Society 
for Promoting the Study of Gothic Architecture. He 
continued as member through at least 1870. John Slat- 
ter was also a member. In 1841 Liddell presented a no- 
tably sensible and moderate paper to the society about 
the possible restoration of the Iffley Church, arguing 
for restoring the oculus but not the side windows. 2:( 

It is hard for us now to recapture the intense 
Victorian enthusiasm for all things medieval — War- 
burton referred to the fifteenth-century windows as 
"Tudor blemishes" and even the moderate Henry Lid- 
dell startlingly argued for the removal of "Italian alter 
(sic) pieces and square sleeping-boxes and all the oth- 
er incongruities with which our Churches have been 
disfigured since the period called 'the Renaissance' 
when all true taste seems to have departed from us." 24 

Dodgson was no exception. He was an enthusiast 
for the Pre-Raphaelite movement in art, which also 
advocated a return to pre-Renaissance aesthetics, and 
was a personal friend of many of the Pre-Raphaelite 
artists. Of course, he also saw the comic side. "Jab- 
berwocky" began as a parody of obscure Anglo-Saxon 
poetry, and there are many references to Normans 
and Saxons in the Alice books. Alice thinks that the 
mouse might have come over with William the Con- 
queror, "For, with all her knowledge of history, Alice 
had no very clear notion how long ago anything had 
happened" — a description that might apply to the 
chroniclers of the Iffley Yew who combined Normans, 
Saxons, and Druids into a single hazy medieval past. 
But there was no doubt that Iffley Church and the 
Yew were part of that past, and Dodgson would surely 
have shared Warburton 's and Henry Liddell 's fascina- 
tion with their medieval character. 


In his diaries, Dodgson records his intention to take 
photographs at Iffley on four separate occasions, 
though it's not clear whether he actually succeeded 
in doing so. The first record is a May 1857 entry made 
during the time that the Thames series was appear- 
ing in The Art-Journal: "I am thinking of going over 
someday to photograph the church there, and they 
undertake to borrow for me a room at the Rectory, 
which is at present uninhabited." 25 

In June of 1862 he records that he is planning 
to take photographs of the Rumseys and the Warbur- 
ton children, among others, in the Rectory, and in a 
later June entry he visits the Rectory and arranges to 
take his camera there on July 10. 26 (By then Warbur- 
ton had restored the Rectory and moved in.) In fact, 
however, on July 10 he records taking photographs 
in Christ Church, so it seems unlikely that he also 
did so in Iffley. On the other hand, one surviving pic- 
ture from that time, 0785 in Dodgson 's photograph 
numbering, is a photograph of Mrs. Rumsey and her 
daughter Leila (short for Cornelia). 27 The number- 
ing suggests that it was taken sometime in July, so it 
seems that it was either taken in Christ Church on 
July 10 or possibly taken in Iffley on a different day. 
Leila, according to British birth records, was born in 
1857 in Iffley, and so was almost five years old injury 
1862, which also fits her age in the picture. 2829 


Figure 5. Old photographs 

of If/ley Church and the 

Yew (English Heritage 


- --.—-:3> 

5a. 1862-1866 *P 

5b. 1870 

* %dt^^M 

On July 14, 1862, Dodgson again records that 
he had "settled to send my camera over" to Iffley on 
"Monday [July] the 20"', if nothing prevents" (though 
this was actually July 21). 30 But, again, it is not clear 
whether he succeeded in doing so. Finally, he also 
includes Augusta Warburton, the Rev. Warburton's 
niece — whom he had planned to photograph in the 
June 1862 entry — in a long list in the diary of children 
either already photographed or to be photographed, 
dated March 25, 1863." The list also includes Bessie 
Slatter and Cornelia Rumsey, as well as the Liddell 
sisters. No photograph of Augusta survives, however. 
So we cannot prove that Dodgson actually took pho- 
tographs in Iffley Rectory, but he certainly planned 
to do so and looked at Iffley with a photographic eye. 


So Dodgson knew Iffley and the Church well. But 
what about Alice? One of the first records of the re- 
commenced diaries reads 

May 26, 1862 

Went down the river with Southey, taking Ina, 
Alice, and Edith with us: we only went to Iffley. 
Even then it was hard work rowing up again, 
the stream is so strong.' 2 

This record takes place a little before the wet ex- 
pedition to Nuneham that inspired the pool of tears, 
on June 17, and the famous trip to Godstowwhen the 
story was first told, on July 4. :,:1 Wakeling notes that 
there were almost certainly earlier expeditions with Al- 
ice and her sisters on the river. In her reminiscences, 
Alice Liddell says that they took both full-day excur- 


Figure 6. The 1862-1864 

illustration and 

corresponding detail from 

the 1862-1866 photo. 

sions, including dinner, to such places as Nuneham 
and Godstow, and shorter afternoon ones including 
only tea. Iffley would have been a good destination 
for a shorter trip. 34 

In May of 1863, when he was still working on the 
pictures for Alices Adventures under Ground, there are 
two diary records of Dodgson walking to "a little be- 
low Iffley" and "by Iffley" with the Liddell children. 35 
Again, it seems at least plausible that there were more 
such walks during the period of the missing diaries, 
when Dodgson saw the Liddell children frequently. 

Finally, in her recollections of the wet trip to 
Nuneham — recorded, of course, many years later — 
Alice mistakenly recalled that the cottage where they 
took shelter was in Iffley. (It was actually in Sandford, 
and Dodgson and Duckworth walked to Iffley to get 
a fly to rescue the others.) This at least suggests that 
Iffley was familiar territory. 36 

Alice had turned ten on May 4, 1862, just before 
the boat trip to Iffley recorded in the diary. We don't 
know her exact height, of course, and, as the fictional 
Alice would point out, it was constandy changing in 
the period when Wonderland was conceived and writ- 
ten. But, by at least one estimate, the average height 
for eight-year-old British schoolgirls in 1908-1911 was 
114.9 cm., or 3 ft. 9 in., while the average for twelve 
year olds was 135.2 cm., or 4 ft. 5 in. 37 So it seems very 
likely that Alice would have been somewhere under 
four feet tall. 

This also seems to be true of the fictional Alice. 
The Alice of the book is seven and a half years old 
in Through the Looking-Glass and presumably seven in 

Alices Adventures in Wonderland. In Tenniel's illustra- 
tion of the door in the hall, in Alices Adventures in 
Wonderland, the still normal-sized Alice is just about 
three times taller than the 15-inch-high door behind 
the curtain in the hall, or a little below four feet. In- 
terestingly, Dodgson actually altered the height of the 
door from Alices Adventures under Ground to the final 
manuscript. In Alices Adventures under Ground, the 
door is 18 inches high and does not appear in the il- 
lustration. So presumably he changed it to make Alice 
the right height in the Tenniel drawing. We know that 
he was extremely concerned about small details of the 
illustrations, and in a book where height changes are 
so central, getting the "normal" Alice right would 
have been important. 

This would make both the real and the fictional 
Alice just the right height to fit through the four-foot 
opening in the tree recorded by Loudon. Any child, 
let alone a particularly bright and imaginative one, 
would relish the idea of walking through an opening 
that was just about her size, into the middle of a tree. 


One might wonder if any old hollow tree would look 
like the tree in Dodgson 's illustration. In fact, how- 
ever, even this very tree, 150 years later (see Fig. 2), 
doesn't look much like the illustration in Alice's Ad- 
ventures under Ground — the tree branches extend to 
the ground, and the hole has been partially blocked 
up. The illustration is also only vaguely like the 
(somewhat impressionistic) early nineteenth-century 
engravings. A tree is a living and changing organism, 


however, so one would want to compare the illustra- 
tion to a contemporaneous photograph. Fortunately, 
a number of nineteenth-century photographs of the 
Iffley Yew can be found in the English Heritage Ar- 
chives. 38 They include several glass negative plates 
taken by Henry Taunt, a well-known local Oxford 
commercial photographer. The earliest dated plate is 
from 1870 (see Fig. 5b), but there is another, undated 
plate which has to be even earlier since several grave- 
stones that occur in the 1870 picture are missing from 
it (see Fig. 5a) , 39 

In fact, since this photograph is set in the church- 
yard, and, as a large glass negative, has excellent de- 
tail, it is possible to date it fairly precisely by examin- 
ing the gravestone inscriptions. Cross-checking with 
the Iffley Parish Burial Register and the surviving 
gravestones in the current churchyard provides even 
more information."' It's immediately apparent that 
there is a cross dated October 1859 in the foreground 
of both pictures (circled in Fig. 5) and a stone dated 
October 1866 immediately behind it in the 1870 pic- 
ture that is absent from the earlier one (enclosed in 
a rectangle in Fig. 5). Both dates can be confirmed 
in the Burial Register. So the photograph must date 
from the period between 1859 and 1866. 

Closer examination shows that the gravestone in 
front of the restored ancient cross in the first picture 
has been replaced by a different stone in the 1870 
shot (enclosed in a rectangle in Fig. 5). The new 
stone, which can be read in close-up, still exists in a 
stack at the side of the churchyard and commemo- 
rates Martha Luff, who died in 1866 and — again, ac- 
cording to the Iffley Parish Burial Register — was bur- 
ied March 8, 1866. Even more detailed inspection of 
the photographs shows a small cross off to one side 
near the church in both the earlier and later shot 
(circled in Fig. 5). This cross, though broken, is still 
in the same place and commemorates Eliza Hearne, 
who died in 1862 and was buried May 18. This means 
that we can date the earlier photograph to the pe- 
riod between May 18, 1862, and March 8, 1866, just 
the time when Wonderland was being written. (Cross- 
checking the Burial Register and the record of extant 
inscriptions shows that this is as precise a date as we 
are able to get.)" 

Fig. 6 shows the detail from the 1862-1866 pho- 
tograph that corresponds to the illustration. Allowing 
for the Pre-Raphaelite curves that Dodgson applied 
to the branches, and a slight change of angle, they are 
strikingly similar. In a later photograph from 1885,'- 
as now, the hole is blocked up with stones, but it is 
open in both the 1862-1866 and 1870 photographs, 
and, just as Loudon described it, extends to the same 
height as the first branches. 

In particular, if we take the proportions given in 
Loudon's book, the hole in the tree is four feet tall 
and equivalently wide, extending from the ground to 

the point where the branches start. In the illustration, 
Alice is just under the height of both the tree branch- 
es and the door. 


So what do we know with some certainty, and 
what can we infer? We can be fairly certain that Dodg- 
son knew about the Iffley Yew, that he visited Iffley 
twice in 1857 and eleven times between 1862 and 
1864, that he had friends, including child-friends, in 
Iffley, that he attended services at the church three 
times, and that he also visited the Rectory three times. 
We can also be fairly certain that he intended to take 
photographs in Iffley Rectory and that he visited If- 
fley with the Liddell sisters twice. We can be fairly cer- 
tain that, in the 1860s, the tree had a hole that could 
be entered, that the hole was about four feet high by 
four feet wide at maximum extension, and that the 
tree strongly resembled Dodgson's illustration. It is 
definitely not certain but is highly plausible that there 
were other unrecorded visits to Iffley during the pe- 
riod of the missing diaries between 1858 and 1862. 

Putting this all together leads to what is undoubt- 
edly an inference, but surely not a wild or implausible 
inference. It is an inference that fits everything we 
know about Dodgson's genius — both his genius with 
children and his literary genius — and about the gen- 
eral genius of children themselves. The inference is 
that the children Dodgson knew, including the Lid- 
dell sisters, and Alice in particular, would have en- 
joyed the special imaginative child pleasure of find- 
ing a child-sized, unlikely hiding place (a shed, a 
treehouse, an attic, a garden nook). An ancient tree 
with a four-foot doorway would certainly be seen as 
curious and enchanting by every child we know. The 
further inference is that Dodgson would have delight- 
edly joined in that imaginative pleasure. And the still 
further inference is that Dodgson — though perhaps 
here we should say Carroll — would have transformed 
that everyday bit of childish imaginative play into a 
memorably strange and curious door, in this most 
memorably strange and curious of books. 

1 Sherwood, Jennifer, and Nikolaus Pevsner (1974). 
The Buildings of England: Oxfordshire. Harmondsworth: 
Penguin Books, pp. 658-662. 

2 Loudon, John Claudius (1838). Arboretum et Fructicetum 
Britannicum; or, The Trees and Shrubs of Britain. London: 
J. C. Loudon, vol. 4, p. 2076. 

1 Urban, Mr. (1804). "Stones in an Old Yew— The 

Kingsland Doctress," The Gentleman's Magazine. London: 

Nov., vol. 96, p. 995. 
1 Iffley (1818). The Oxford University and City Guide [&c] ; To 

which is added, a guide to Blenheim, Nuneham [&c.]. Oxford: 

p. 193. 
:> Skelton, Joseph ( 1823) . Engraved Illustrations of the 

Principal Antiquities of Oxfordshire. Oxford: J. Skelton, 

Billington Hundred, p. 8. 


6 Ingram, James (1837). Memorials of Oxford. Oxford: 
John Henry Parker, vol. 3, Iffley, p. 9. 

7 Iffley Church ( 1 845 ) . The Illustrated London News, 
Oct. 25, p. 261. 

* Camera Sketches (1850). The Penny Illustrated News, 

Jan. 26, vol. 1, no. 14, p. 112. 
9 Palmer, Francis Paul, and Alfred Crowquill (1846). 
The Wanderings of a Pen and Pencil. London: Jeremiah 
How, p. 288. 

10 Hall, Mr. and Mrs. Samuel Carter (1857) . "The Book 
of the Thames, from Its Rise to Its Fall," part 6, The Art- 
Journal London: June 1, vol. 3, p. 190. 

" Wakeling, Edward (2011). Charles Dodgson Photographic 
Database, <>, nos. 0096-0099. 

12 Wakeling, Edward (ed.) (1995). Lewis Carroll's Diaries: The 
Private Journals of Charles Lutwidge Dodgson, Vol. 3: January 
1857-58. Luton, Beds.: The Lewis Carroll Society, pp. 
48-49, 54. [Henceforth referenced as Wakeling, Lewis 
Carroll's Diaries, Vol. 3.] 

IS Wakeling, Edward (ed.) (1997) . Lewis Carroll's Diaries: 
The Private Journals of Charles Lutividge Dodgson, Vol. 4: May 
1862 to September 1864. Luton, Beds.: The Lewis Carroll 
Society, pp. 69, 74, 75-78, 81-82, 87, 88, 161, 176, 196, 
200, 260. [Henceforth referenced as Wakeling, Lewis 
Carroll's Diaries, Vol. 4.] 

1 ' Wakeling, Lewis Carroll's Diaries, Vol. 3, pp. 48-49, 54; Vol. 
4, pp. 69, 74, 75-78, 87, 161, 176, 260. 

15 Wakeling, Lewis Carroll's Diaries, Vol. 4, pp. 74, 81-82, 106. 

"' England census, 1861, Iffley Parish, Oxfordshire, Iffley 
Turn, registration district Headington, sub-registration 
district St. Clement, class RG9, piece 890, folio 104, 
p. 2, GSU roll 542717, lists at no. 9 John Slatter, 44, 
clergyman born in Iffley, wife Elizabeth, 49, daughter 
Elizabeth A., 7, and mother Ann, 75, and lists at no. 
6 Elizabedi Romsey (sic), 35, a clergyman's wife, son 
John T. M., 6, daughters Elizabeth F. C, 3, and Mary 
H., 1; England census, 1861, Iffley Parish, Oxfordshire, 
Iffley village, reg. district Headington, sub-reg. district 
St. Clement class RG9, piece 890, folio 112, p. 17, GSU r. 
542717, lists at no. 88 Acton Warburton, 47, Perpetual 
Curate of Iffley, and mother Anna, 77; England census, 
1861, St. Mary the Virgin Parish, Oxfordshire, St. Mary 
Hall, reg. district Oxford, sub-reg. district Oxford, class 
RG9, piece 893, folio 73, p. 34, GSU r. 542717, lists at no. 
181 James Rumsey, 37, a clergyman. The 1861 census 
was enumerated Apr. 7, 1861, widi information stated 
as of that date. All images of the census online at 

17 Wakeling, Lewis Carroll's Diaries, Vol. 4, p. 72, in a note 
by Wakeling; John Slatter signed the Sandford Parish 
Register from July 4, 1852, through December 15, 1861, 
with W. H. Ranken succeeding him (Family History 
Library, Salt Lake City, microfilm 952330). 

18 Cohen, M. (ed.) (1979). The Utters of Lewis Carroll. 
London: Macmillan, p. 46. 

19 Wakeling, Edward (2011). Charles Dodgson Photographic 
Database, <>, nos. 0582, 0583, 
0736, estimates 1862. 

211 Wakeling, Lewis Carroll's Diaries, Vol. 4, pp. 102, 135, 
185, 295; Slatter signed the Streatley Parish Register 
from January 9, 1862, to March 28, 1880 (Family Historv 
Library, Salt Lake City, microfilm 1040688). 

21 Wakeling, Lewis Carroll's Diaries, Vol. 3, p. 54, Vol. 4, pp. 

74,76-78,87, 103, 176. 
-'-' Tyack, Geoffrey (2003) . "The Restoration of Iffley Parish 

Church," Oxoniensia, vol. 68, pp. 114—130. 
2:1 Proceedings of the Oxford Society for Promoting the Study of 

Gothic Architecture. Oxford: Oxford University, pp. 6, 10, 

12, 18,25,70. 

24 Tyack, Geoffrey (2003) . "The Restoration of Iffley Parish 
Church," Oxoniensia, vol. 68, pp. 114—130. 

25 Wakeling, Lewis Carroll's Diaries, Vol. 3, p. 54. 

211 Wakeling, Lewis Carroll's Diaries, Vol. 4, pp. 76-78, 87. 

27 Wakeling, Edward (2011). Charles Dodgson Photographic 

Database, <>, no. 0785. 
' Birth certificate, General Register Office, registration 
district Heading Union, sub-district St. Clement, 
Elizabeth Frances Cornelia, born Aug. 22, 1857, Iffley, 
Oxfordshire, father James Rumsey, clergyman, mother 
Eliza Rumsey formerly Medlycoth [sic, should be 
Medlycott], registered Sept. 28, 1857. 

29 Taylor, Roger, and Edward Wakeling (2003) . Lewis Carroll- 
Photographer. Princeton: Princeton University Press. 

90 Wakeling, Lewis Carroll's Diaries, Vol. 4, p. 103. In a note, 
Wakeling states that Dodgson discovered on July 22 that 
several of his dates, including this one, were off by one, 
and that Dodgson then corrected them; the 20th here 
was corrected to the 21st. 

sl Wakeling, Lewis Carroll's Diaries, Vol. 4, pp. 177-181. 

32 Wakeling, Lewis Carroll's Diaries, Vol. 4, p. 69, with a note 
by Wakeling. 

93 Wakeling, Lewis Carroll's Diaries, Vol. 4, pp. 81-82, 94-95. 

M Cohen, Morton (ed.) (1989). Interviews and Recollections: 
Lewis Carroll pp. 84-86. 

85 Wakeling, Lewis Carroll's Diaries, Vol. 4, pp. 196, 200. 

36 Cohen, Morton (ed.) (1989) . Interviews and Recollections: 
Lewis Carroll p. 86. 

S7 Hatton, Timothy J., and Richard M. Martin (2009). 

"Fertility Decline and the Heights of Children in Britain, 
1886-1938," IZA Discussion Papers 4306, Institute for the 
Study of Labor (IZA). 

:w English Heritage Archives, <www.englishheritagearchives.>, reference no. BB57/01327, dated 1860-1922, 
and CC54/00378, dated 1870. Examining the stones in 
the 1870 photograph confirms the date. 

,9 The gravestones marked with rectangles in the 1870 
photograph were used to establish an upper bound on 
the date of the earlier photograph, and those marked 
with ovals the lower bound. The tall cross next to the Yew 
was restored in 1857 (cf. Fig. 3 and Fig. 4). 

10 Oxfordshire Parish Register Transcripts, Headington Reg. 
District, Vol. 1, Iffley Burials, 1572-1986, Oxfordshire 
Family History Society, compact disc OXF-HED01. 

11 Monumental Inscription Transcript, Iffley, St. Mary the 
Virgin Parish Church, Oxfordshire Family History Society, 
compact disc OXF-MMFF. 

12 English Heritage Archives, <www.englishheritagearchives.>, reference no. CC54/00379 dated 1885. 
Examining the gravestones in the photograph confirms 
the date. 





The Huntinc? of Alice in SeV<hi Pits 





Alice was raised on a ship of dreams, in a liquid look- 
ing-glass, following the currents of desire, imagina- 
tion, and curiosity. She was born on a river, with its 
switchbacks and reflections, following and fighting 
the flow, in the geometry of laughter and strange par- 
adoxes. We do not read a book; we dive into it. It surrounds 
us, constantly. 1 Sitting on the bank, Alice would ask 
herself: and luhat is the use of a book without pictures and 
conversations? Alice has been perhaps the most illus- 
trated book of all time. This shows that we continue 
to answer the question that Alice did not ask: and what 
is the use of a book with pictures and conversations? 

A river child, Alice moves amongst mazes where 
one is lost and found in mysterious rhythms. The 
great paradox running through Alice's adventures, 
according to Deleuze, 2 is the loss of her own name, 
her infinite identity, her eternal becoming. When the 
caterpillar asks, Who are you? Alice does not know the 
answer. / know who I was . . . but I think I must have been 
changed several times since then. In her typically paradox- 
ical manner, Alice says no, but also says yes: I know 
who I am; the transformation continues. Like Alice, 
when it seems we know who we are, we're already 
someone else, and what we think we are, is what we 
once were. And the world that we know is changing 
every second. The girl, born into the River of Heracli- 
tus, knows that being and nonbeing are in constant 
conversation, in an eternal cycle that is being 
created at all times. 

When Alice says that she only 
knows who she was, she is saying that 
we are always in motion. And when she 
was drawn by John Tenniel in Victorian 
England, a tradition of Alices was born 
that would follow in this path. :i But 

Alice is no longer the Victorian Al- j/& *jj ; 
ice, instead she is a living kaleido- 
scope of all of the possibilities. ' How 
many artists were in fact driven by the 
need to overcome the stereotypical imagery of the 
girl and her amazing world, and by the quest for 
new adventures in expression? Instead of the ques- 
tion "Who is Alice?" there are now paths leading 
to that which Alice might come to be. . . . 


As the twentieth century progressed, the concept 
of illustration underwent profound transformations, 
in dialogue with the radical changes happening in the 
visual arts. Artists broke down the barriers between 
the outside world and the experiences of the mind, 
questioning the idea of a mimetic approach to illus- 
tration. The transformations in the universe of the 
arts and counterculture were re-creating Alice's expe- 
riences in the melee of her dream world and wonder- 
land. At the end of that century, Alice's looking-glass 
shattered into a million pieces, spreading within the 
collective imagination new meta-Alices in a nonsensi- 
cal, magical hourglass of alicinations. 

The artists and illustrators were driven to discov- 
er or invent new relationships between text and pic- 
tures. The identity of the subject was subverted by the 
allure of the unknown and inexplicable. Rather than 
repeat, illustrators started to provoke and transgress. 
They questioned the classic idea that art should imi- 
tate or interpret an exterior reality. They also began 
to seek out subversion, paradox, and experimenta- 
tion. 5 The present time is filled with otherness and 
difference. Intertextual readings, metalanguage, mul- 
tiple assemblies, nonlinear narratives. Abracadabra! 

Since the beginning of the last century, each de- 
cade, through its different visions and styles, created 
its own Alices: art nouveau, art deco, sur- 
realist, pop, psychedelic, futuristic, Gothic, 
naive, ethnic, dark, steampunk, pop 
surrealist. 1 ' Alice is, by turns, a sweet 
and ingenuous girl, a questioning 
feminist, a perverted child, a mad 
and bloody assassin, a drugged adult, 
seeker of worlds beyond conscious 
thought, a delirious psychedelicist, or 
an armor-clad and shielded warrior, 
always multiple and mutating. 

Alice moves beyond illustration 
into art, into movies, into fashion, 
into animation, into games, into com- 
ics, into the mix that now reigns and requires 
other comprehensions. And they all coexist in 
our alicinatory times of mixtures and count- 
less seams and transitions through multiple 
networks. I do not know of another girl with 
so many faces, a traveler from an imaginary 



Elena Kalis 

Polixeni Papapetrou 

world, bringing with her the paradoxes that defy our 
senses and our common sense. The Alice books do not 
fit into any mold or explanation, instead spreading a 
worldwide net of creative possibilities. 

We live in an image culture of collage and montage, of 
velocity and voraciousness: one image quickly devours an- 
other, transforming into another image, ready to be devoured, 
Norval Baitello explains. Images seduce and absorb 
us, but with the loss of our ability to create consistent 
connections and sensible relations, the devouring 
process is reversed: We go from indiscriminately de- 
vouring images to being indiscriminately devoured by 
them. We lose ourselves in labyrinthine deserts, and 
instead of always seeing the otherness in that which 

is the same, different Alices upon each reading, we 
find ourselves mired in the sad adventure of always 
seeing sameness in the other; we see nothing new in 
the thousands of Alices in circulation. Decipher me 
or I will devour you. 7 

The story of Alice is already so well known that 
it becomes fragmented, repeated, displaced, decon- 
structed, gnawed upon by artists from everywhere, in 
every way. With her serpentine neck, Alice navigates 
among hybrid identities, blends, contrasts, oddities, 
merchandise, gato por lebre, s and senselessness that 
everybody buys and believes without understanding 
why. She sets out for the new and looks back to rein- 
vent herself all over again. This is Alice. Alice is all of 
them and none of them, and she opens herself up like 
the largest kaleidoscope ever seen. Good-bye, feet! 

Alice strolls along the margins and between the 
lines; she crosses borders, a traveler through the un- 
known, but also through stock phrases, cliches, the 
commonplace, distortions and cheap simplifications 
that insist on impoverishing life and art. As we travel 
through Alice's landscapes, we also travel through 
our own interior landscapes. New Alices learn that a 
path has not been set; rather, it opens as one goes 
forward. 51 

Alice is an invitation to duplicity (for this curious 
child was very fond of pretending to be two people), multi- 
plicity {she began thinking over all the children she knew 
that were of the same age as herself, to see if she could have 
been changed for any of them), becoming (/ know who I 
was, but I think I must have been changed several times since 
then), and the loss of one's own name ( This must be the 
wood ivhere things have no names. I wonder what'll become 
of MY name when I go in?). We must create new forms 
of expression to give way to new Alices more sensitive 
to these subtle and free becomings . . . 

McLuhan understood that Lewis Carroll peered 
into the looking-glass and saw the time and space of 
the electronic man. Before Einstein, Carroll had al- 
ready penetrated the ultrasophisticated universe of 
relativity. Every moment in Alice has its own time and 
space. And the fragmentation of time into a multi- 
tude of small fractions of the present joins with the 
fragmentation of space into a multicolored, trans- 
figured kaleidoscope. 10 Pieces of Alices from around 
the world give themselves over to the tasks of living, 
eating, drinking; they become involved in an endless 
party and its infinite possibilities. 

Why continue living as Alice seated at the table 
set for tea, sullen and silent, as depicted by Tenniel? 
What we now seek is a way to remain time's friends (as 
the Hatter suggests) and to free ourselves from the 
senseless and repetitive rituals in which the guests at 
the tea party find themselves trapped. It is an invita- 
tion to new Alices — nomadic, mutating Alices, mul- 
tiple and simultaneous. Marcel Duchamp was "con- 
vinced that, like Alice in Wonderland, [tomorrow's 


artists] will be led to pass through the looking-glass 
of the retina, to reach a more profound expression." 11 


In Carroll's own illustrations from the Under Ground 
manuscript, Alice is spontaneous and spiritual, but 
also anguished and melancholic, close to the ideal- 
ized image of the artist's soul. She echoes romantic 
myths of the Pre-Raphaelites and their languid femi- 
nine figures, with oblique gazes and overflowing locks 
that would enchant the surrealists. She seems closer 
to a magical world than a logical one. At the same 
time, we glimpse hybrid and mythamorphic creatures 
in the book that invoke the grotesque beings of Hi- 
eronymus Bosch. Are these drawings not among the 
precursors of the surrealist bestiaries, a mix of dream 
worlds and fabulous monsters? 

But when the expanded work was published in 
London, it was illustrated by John Tenniel, a famous 
illustrator from the Victorian periodical Punch. A 
commonly held belief remains that rarely was an 
author as well served by an illustrator as was Lewis 
Carroll by John Tenniel, even though the work has 
been illustrated subsequently by thousands of artists 
throughout the world. 

We still confuse the images and the text, which 
together seem to tell the same story. We often lose 
sight of whether the images are in fact faithful to the 
text or whether we create, from them, a new text. Is fi- 
delity possible among images and texts of these Alices} 
Does Tenniel's Alice remain the most perfect illustra- 
tion of the work for the contemporary eye? 

Who passively defies the Queen, with her arms 
crossed? Who confronts a mad cat, in search of new 
directions, with her hands behind her back? 

If I empathetically project myself onto Tenniel's 
Alices, I feel like a tamed and contained Victorian girl 
who would not dirty her dress, would not throw her- 
self into the well, would not unfold herself into a ser- 
pent to discover its dangers, would not think of eating 
bats. (These Alices, who are in the text, do not appear 
in Tenniel's pictures.) Tenniel's Alice doesn't change, 
and awakens at the end of the book essentially the 
same. Really? 

Alice is not transformed; Alice is transformation. 
How many adventures might she still experience, how 
many paths would she choose, how many Alices might 
still come into being? If life is a dream, Alice is unable 
to wake up; instead, she aiuakens. I am talking not only 
about what was written, but also about understand- 
ing that we ourselves are different with every reading, 
and that new Alices are born within us. Alice extends 
beyond the borders of the book and will live a multi- 
tude of adventures among constellations of dreams, 
thoughts, and emotions. 

Tenniel's Alice sits sulking at the table where tea 
is served, without free will. Similarly, all those who 

insist on reproducing the commonplace formulas re- 
main trapped in a repetitive tea-time ritual. Many of 
today's Alices unfold in new manners of expression 
and pictures, awakening in different arts, taking on a 
life of their own in a multitude of cultures. Consider- 
ing these friends from modern times, what Alices are 
we capable of? 

Through readings and re-readings, I have select- 
ed artists in seven groups, in which I seek out: 

Enigmatic Alices that destabilize the common- 
place and suggest new readings: Alain Gauthier, 12 
Dusan Kallay, 13 Jonathan Miller, 14 Martin Ba- 
rooshian, 13 Nicole Claveloux, 16 and Unsuk Chin. 17 

Metalinguistic Alices that reflect on language 
and expression and challenge the standards of 
representational art: Abelardo Morell, 18 Anthony 
Browne, 19 Catherine Anne Hiley, 20 John Vernon 
Lord, 21 Ralph Steadman, 22 and Suzy Lee. 23 

Conceptual Alices that inhabit labyrinths and 
paradoxes: Randy Greif, 24 Iassen Ghiuselev, 25 
Julia Gukova, 26 Luiz Zerbini, 27 Oleg Lipchenko, 28 
and Sergey Tyukanov. 29 

Alices that cross intertextual borders and visit 
characters from other stories: John Rae, Dorothy 
Furness, and Edward Bloomfield. 30 

Alices of metamorphic bodies challenging 
hybrid identities and erotic dreams: Arlindo 
Daibert, 31 Kuniyoshi Kaneko, 32 Nicoletta Cec- 
coli, 33 Tania Ianovskaia, 34 Tanya Miller, 35 and 
Vince Collins. 36 

Alices that journey through the world of dreams 
and the marvelous, proposing magical games: 
DeLoss McGraw, 37 Elena Kalis, 38 Kokusyoku Sum- 
ire, 39 Maggie Taylor, 40 Phoebe in Wonderland,^ and 
Alice-themed tea houses in Tokyo. 

Some Alices that journey through leftover night- 
mares and challenge the frontiers between the 
mind and the unconscious: American McGee, 42 
Anna Gaskell, 43 Camille Rose Garcia, 44 Alice in 
the Undenuorld (Dark Marchen Show), 45 Trevor 
Brown, 46 and Jan Svankmajer. 47 

Alice is Alices is Alice. 


Let us now journey through time with Alice herself 
as our guide on her adventures in being depicted by 
artists other than Tenniel. 

Alice became lost in imaginary labyrinths until 
she arrived at the Gradiva art gallery, created by An- 
dre Breton in 1937. She saw the name Alice above the 
door, among other surrealist muses. She then read a 
passage from the gallery's pamphlet: 

From the book of children 's images to the book of po- 
etic images.™ 


Salvador Dali 

Surrealism had transported the Victorian girl to the 
book of poetic images. That was when she saw a grin 
hovering in the air that said Alice's adventures down the 
rabbit hole or through the looking-glass encourage us to seek 
out other cracks leading to the marvelous. 49 

Lewis Carroll left the doorway to our dreams 
open a crack. Alice went through it and found herself 
in a labyrinth of mirrors, an endless game, projections 
of herself created by surrealist artists. Surrealist muse, 
sphinx, femme enfant, Alice unfolds into multiple vi- 
sions of a modern myth. She enters portals to the 
unknown, plumbing the depths of the unconscious, 
rites of passage; the revelation of a sibylline and ar- 
chaic female, she becomes mixed with landscapes of 
a world in ruins, in the echoes and phantasms of the 
nightmares of war and of the dawning of a new world. 

Carroll was broadly shared by the surrealists. He 
was read, and often invoked, by Paul Eluard, Gisele 
and Mario Prassinos, Guy Levis Mano, Max Ernst, 
Dorothea Tanning, Leonora Carrington, Henri Pari- 
sot, Frederic Delanglade, Henri Toyen, Rene Mag- 
ritte, and Salvador Dali, among others. Max Ernst 
would illustrate some of his words, and confess that 
he was his second favorite writer after Lautreamont. 50 

Continuing her journey, Alice entered a portal 
and was taken aback by a series of prints and illustra- 
tions by Salvador Dali that depicted her adventures in 
Wonderland (Maecenas, 1969). She became a myste- 
rious figure jumping rope through a landscape filled 
with Dali's obsessions, such as the melting clocks of 
the Persistence of Memory series. The clock became 
the Hatter's table, set for tea, with time madly stopped 
at six in the afternoon. If the clocks reveal the me- 

chanics of measuring linear time, the melting clocks 
refer to relative time and the universes of memory 
and pleasure. 

Dali simulated delirium, speculating on the pro- 
priety of the uninterrupted becoming of every object 
upon which he carried out his paranoid activity. Dali's 
counterfeit paranoia, the "paranoiac-critical meth- 
od," allowed him to reorder the world according to 
his inner obsessions. The limits between the real and 
the imagined became ambiguous. And his paintings 
began to represent a space in which everything that 
can be seen is potentially something else. Wonder, 
dreams, and the unconscious serve as the stages for 
metamorphoses, where the objects, symbols of irra- 
tional desires, are subjected to sudden mutations, an 
uninterrupted becoming. Clocks, mushrooms, cater- 
pillars, butterflies, cards, not letters — these shapes 
are constantly being diluted, blending and transform- 
ing. Wanderer in a dream world, Alice is stunned to 
discover that everything is in a constant creative flux. 

The constant presence of Alice's shadow in all 
of Dali's images refers to the Romantic dilemma of 
the double identity, suggesting a loss of bodily iden- 
tity. In Dali, Alice was a faceless silhouette, a mirror of 
herself in shadow and reflection. Surrealist Alices are 
bodies in metamorphosis and becoming, in a space 
of dreams and wonder. Dali's Alice gives way to the 
ghostly and kaleidoscopic presence of a multitude of 
double Alices, nameless in the contemporary imagina- 
tion. Dali's Alice opens doors to new Alices, who ask 
new questions of the smile in the air — without Dali. 


Alice went to visit the Czech surrealist Jan Svankmajer, 
who illustrated the two Alice books in two rare and 
strange Japanese editions.' 1 His drawings went be- 
yond the limits of conventional illustrations, creating 
unexpected relationships between pictures and con- 
versations. They are collages that reinvent the world 
imagined by Lewis Carroll, proposing new mysteries 
and paradoxes along a surrealist journey. 

Metamorphosis in surrealism became a violent 
and animalistic need, straining the limits of human 
nature. Life is a dream. The surrealist monsters 
showed Alice that subjectivity was not that safe and 
stable place that she had been made to believe. Al- 
ice found herself inserted into an imaginary jungle of 
sphinxes and chimeras, among collages with multiple 
identities that emerged from subterranean, strange, 
and archaic worlds. The drawings were mounted and 
dismounted, metamorphosing between images of bi- 
ology and botany, dolls, Victorian illustrations, and 
sex symbols — double, multiple becomings. 

In the "Jabberwocky"'s portmanteau words, there 
was a bestiary of beings such as tones and mome raths. 
Word collages were turned by Svankmajer into mon- 
ster collages, hybrid and enigmatic beings. Alice's 


body was unstable and mutating, a puzzle without 
any right answer. Alice is a portmanteau of impossi- 
bilities. When the caterpillar asks Alice, Who are you?, 
Svankmajer's Alice is a drawing, a doll, a mushroom, 
lace, texture, pulse. The caterpillar and Alice meet 
with a vital elan, filled with the power of becoming. 

Alice continued along and watched fragments 
of Svankmajer's experimental animated film that re- 
vealed unsuspected dimensions of herself. Much of 
the animation was created through an explosive mix- 
ture of stop motion and a wide variety of surreal ob- 
jects and hybrid, bizarre bodies. The characters might 
be played by machines, socks, clay, antique dolls and 
toys, meat, and even skeletons and the remains of 
bodies used in taxidermy experiments. The settings 
were ruins: decadent, subterranean landscapes, trans- 
formed into a somber and dissolute atmosphere. 

Svankmajer adapted Carroll's story according to 
a personal dialogue with the dream world and his own 
childhood: a world inhabited by desires, latent sexual- 
ity, fears, anxieties, mysteries and obsessions. We are 
also confronted with our own childhood, our own Al- 
ices, fears, and shadows: inner alchemies. Each time 
we watch the film, we dream anew and Alice becomes 
a different one, among silences and whispers. I am 
reminded of the letter Paulo Mendes Campos gave 
to his daughter, Maria de Graca, when she turned fif- 
teen and received Alice as a present: This book is crazy, 
Maria, the meaning is inside of you. 52 


Alice looked at her reflection in the water of the 
river, and it transformed into the silly, naive girl in 
a blue apron known by many, for many years, as the 
"real" Alice. Her story, recreated in a cartoon by Walt 
Disney's dream factory, would become powerful, di- 
luting the collective imagination, and stunting the 
metamorphoses of the girl who was constantly in 
transformation. Inspired by Tenniel's original illus- 
trations, this Alice would turn into the new ultimate 
icon, imposing for a long time a fixed and hegemonic 
public identity on the girl of many faces. 

In the cartoon, Alice laments the fact that non- 
sense has been converted into moral lessons and good 
behavior. Like Walt Disney's princesses, the cartoon 
Alice is a passive and defenseless young woman facing 
a crazy, senseless world. Wonderland showed insanity 
to her so that she might desire sanity even more. It 
showed misfits, so that she might want to fit in. The 
characters showed her how the system worked, so that 
she could learn to integrate herself into it, toe the 
line, and assume her role in society. 

Alice realized that Disney's cartoon simultane- 
ously brought her story to the world and hid her criti- 
cal and subversive potential. But at the same time, 
Disney's movie became a countercultural and psyche- 
delic icon in the 1960s as an ode to surrealism, insan- 

ity, and creativity. Alice was curious to see how each 
work remained open to multiple, contradictory, and 
oftentimes paradoxical readings. 

Alice discovered that many years later, at the start 
of the twenty-first century, Disney would produce an- 
other film about her, this time directed by a dark and 
imaginative director named Tim Burton. In this film, 
after many years, Alice returns to "Underland" in or- 
der to defeat the terrible dragon, the Jabberwocky 
(sic), as had been foreseen in a prophecy. Everyone 
asks her: Are you the real Alice? 

She decides that she is not. In this movie, the 
nonsense is contained within reductionist formulas 
of a hero's journey. Alice is expected to become a 
warrior, to defeat and destroy the enemy in a Mani- 
chean world, to kill the dragon in order to awaken 
and assume her colonizing role in England's world 
domination. Alice takes over her father's project of 
conquering China. 

The real me, Alice thought, is not a warrior, but 
an explorer. She does not kill the enemy, but learns 
through him. She does not want to take over the 
world, but instead comes to know herself. For her, 
Wonderland is not a batdefield, but a voyage, a game, 
a garden, and an adventure. That is why this movie 
is so unbearable, Alice thought. Because it shows the 
nightmare and the insanity that we now inhabit. 

Once more, thanks to Tim Burton and Disney, 
with their considerable investment in promoting 
the film, Alice's presence in the collective imagina- 
tion was strengthened in an unprecedented manner. 
This is not only because of what the film shows, but 

Jan Svankmajer 


Kokusyoku Sumire 

because of what it stimulates. Even with the insistent 
repetition of symbols of consumption, possibilities 
for new becomings and friendships are reborn over 
time. Countless creative and existentialist possibilities 
might arise from among both those pleased and dis- 
pleased with the film. The film offered them a chance 
to reread the book, to discover other images, other 
means of expression, other voyages; to produce, to 
create, to feel, to discover, and ultimately dialogue 
with and embark on an adventure, each in his or her 
own way, in this exciting world that still challenges us 
to take the plunge. 


The first time I read Alice, I imagined myself falling 
down with her until we reached the other side of the 
world, where people lived upside down. For a child in 
Brazil, this meant Japan. Many years later, I find that 
Japan is home to some of the most stimulating Alices 
alive today, in ordinary life in the city of Tokyo, shar- 
ing dreams, creating new worlds. Girls and boys who 
are children and adults at the same time dress as Vic- 
torian dolls, reinventing John Tenniel's illustrations, 
among other passions and pursuits. With gestures, 
mannerisms, aprons, lace, socks, ties, and ruffles, Al- 
ice is becoming a new way of living the countercul- 
ture in alicinatory neighborhoods such as Harajuku, 
Shinjuku, and Akihabara, places where otherness and 
altered-ness are celebrated, embracing the wonder 
within the contemporary cartography, journeying 
through time and the invention of oneself. 

The birth of the Gosu-rori (Gothic Lolita) culture 
coincided with the translation of Fushigi no kuni no 
arisu by Sumiko Yagawa, as Sean Somers showed me 
in his thought-provoking article "Arisu in harajuku."' 

She is my white rabbit, leading me to this surprising, 
and in large part misunderstood, reality. Yagawa stim- 
ulated the blooming of a counterculture that frees 
the imagination from repressive and repetitive social 
routines, opening the possibility of new friendships 
with time. 

Wonderland (Fushigi) reveals an atmosphere of 
sensations, including charm and wonder, but also 
mystery, strangeness, and fear. Fushigi no kuni no arisu 
was translated in order to penetrate the existential 
needs of a generation, particularly the marginalized 
and outcast youth, who could, in this way, face mal- 
aise, depression, violence, and rejection through the 
wonder manifested in everyday life. 

Fushigi is not an inducement of daydreams or 
escapism, Somers points out, but a creative therapy 
and an "alchemy of metamorphoses," a subversion of 
the standards for women, breaking down barriers be- 
tween ugly and beautiful, sweet and perverse, violent 
and delicate. Lolitas seek to prolong their childhood 
and question dominant culture in a childish manner 
and a dollish pose, in a game of being and nonbeing 
that crosses the line between art and life. Do Hello 
Kitties eat bats? Do bats eat Hello Kitties? 

Yet, it is important to keep in mind that the prac- 
tice of wandering metamorphosis is now part of the 
logic of contemporary fashion. The creation and ex- 
pression of oneself as an exercise in creativity has now 
become a marketing gimmick. We live in a culture of 
"differences" that combines alleged creativity with a 
desire to be unique, but only according to static for- 
mulas of existence. As Cristiane Mesquita points out: 
"Clothing serves as a means of expression in an ex- 
istential landscape. But fashion also offers the mar- 
ket ephemeral and easily substituted identities." How 
can one be distinguished from the other? Alice is our 
challenge. 51 

Alice is able to disturb, to intrigue, to destabilize. 
She puts us in contact with uncertainty, unpredict- 
ability, turbulence, the untamed. Breaking with hege- 
monic models of existence, the new Alices must in- 
vent universes by paying attention to their own inner 
landscapes. Alices give themselves over to existence 
and say: I am a question. 55 


7, Kusama, am the modern Alice in Wonderland, stated 
Japanese pop artist Yayoi Kusama, who since the 1950s 
has alicinated psychedelic worlds. In paintings, col- 
lages, poems, daring acts, sculptures, fashions, weird- 
ness, and surprising installations, she shares patterns, 
repetitions, obsessions, and visions of the infinite. 

Kusama was hospitalized for years for mental 
disorders, and her works reflect her challenging per- 
ception of reality, where the boundaries between the 
body, the self, and the environment mix and mingle 
in proliferations of repetitive dots that pulse and vi- 


brate with the cosmos. We're all mad here . . . otherwise 
you ivouldn't have come, said the Cheshire Cat. Kusa- 
ma plays with mirrors and kaleidoscopes to produce 
bright patterns with stunning effects, incorporating 
an almost hallucinatory vision of reality, in an experi- 
ence that is at once sensory and spiritual. 

In the 1960s, the artist went to New York, where 
she carried out a series of political performances, 
under the philosophy "Love forever," promoting a 
reaction against the Vietnam War and all authoritar- 
ian, repressive, and conservative powers. These body 
paintings and orgiastic choreographies were per- 
formed before the sculpture of Alice in Central Park, 
in 1968. For Kusama, Alice was the grandmother of 
the hippies, and she became Alice, a year after Grace 
Slick sang "White Rabbit" with the Jefferson Airplane. 

Kusama arrived in Central Park as the Hatter, 
with her nude dancers, inviting everyone to drink 
the tea that was being served under the magic mush- 
room. Red, green, and yellow dots could represent 
the earth, the sun, or the moon, according to Kusama. 
She painted little circles on the bodies of those pres- 
ent, so that people would divest themselves of their 
outlines to return "to the nature of the universe." 
From a criticism of the repressive powers symbolized 
by the social routines of Alice's teatime, Kusama has 
moved towards friendship with time, crossing bound- 
aries between bodies and cosmic rhythms, diluting 
the boundaries of the self. 

And if Alice were not in the dress, but in its folds? 
If she were not in the blue material, but in the shadow 
and the light of a multicolor prism? If she were not in 
the hair, but in the rumors of its movement? Not in 
the apron, but in the traces of an intimate encounter? 
Not in the shoes, but in the steps into the unknown 
and the uncertainty about which path to take? Not 
in the pictures, but in the conversations? Not in the 
conversations, but in the question marks? Not in the 
words, but in the pauses that breathe between them? 
Not in the behavior, but in the beating of the heart? 
Not in a face, but in a dream? Not in a being, but in 
the becoming? 

The author wishes to thank Mark Bursteinfor his 
generous collaboration; Isabelle Nieres-Chevrel and 
Mark Richards for kindly sharing research material. 

1 Manganelli, Giorgio. Pinoquio: um liwro paralelo (Sao 
Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 2002), 116. 
2 Deleuze, Gilles. A logica do sentido (Sao Paulo: Editora 
perspectiva, 1974). 

3 Ovenden, Graham, and John Davis. The Illustrators of Alice 
in Wonderland (London: Academy Editions; New York: 
Martin's Press, 1979). 

4 The mixture of Carroll's two Alices is intentional, since 
I am not referring to the book, but to the Alices who 
journey forward and unfold in multiple journeys in 
different media and forms of expression. 

Yayoi Kusama 

■' Hubert, Renee Riese. Surrealism and the Book (Berkeley: 

University of California Press, 1988). 
6 Ovenden, Graham, and John Davis. The Illustrators of Alice 

in Wonderland. 
1 This paragraph incorporates ideas from Prof. Dr. Norval 

Baitello, Jr.'s As imagens que nos devoram - Antropofagia 

e Iconofagia (CISC, 2000), 


8 Gatopor lebre is an expression in Portuguese that literally 
translates as "cat in the place of hare" and refers to 

a clever con or what is sometimes referred to as a 

9 Machado, Antonio. "Caminante no hay camino, se hace 
el camino al andar," in Machado, Regina. Acordais (Sao 
Paulo: DCL, 2004), 63. 

10 Ideas from Marshall McLuhan's Understanding Media: 
The Extensions of Man (New York: McGraw Hill, 1964) 
discussed in Augusto Campos's O Anticritico (Sao Paulo: 
Companhia das letras, 1986), 126. 

11 "Where Do We Go from Here?" (Ou allons-nous?) , a 
talk delivered at the Philadelphia Museum College of 
Art on March 20, 1961, first published in the Duchamp 
issue of Studio International 189 (Jan.-Feb., 1975), repr. 
in Jennifer Gough-Cooper and Jacques Caumont, 
"Ephemerides on and about Marcel Duchamp and 
Rrose Selavy, 1887-1968" in Pontus Hulten, ed., Marcel 
Duchamp, Work and Life (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 
1993). Translated by Helen Meakins. 

12 Carroll, Lewis. Alice au Pays des Merveilles. ill. Alain 
Gauthier (Paris: Rageot, 1994). 

13 Carroll, Lewis. Alica v krajine zdzrakov, ill. Dusan Kallay 
(Bratislava, Slovakia: Mlade leta, 1981). Translated into 
and published also in German (Dausien, 1984), French 
(Grund, 1985), and Japanese (Shinshosha, 1990). The 
Slovak edition was reprinted by Slovart in 2010, and is 
forthcoming in English. 

14 Jonathan Miller's movie Alice in Wonderland, BBC, 1966. 

3 1 in Wonderland 

Carroll, Lewis. Les aventures d 'Alice au Pays des Merveilles, 
ill. Nicole Claveloux (Paris: Flammarion, 1972). 
Unsuk Chin's opera Alice in Wonderland. Prem. Bavarian 
State Opera, Munich, 2007. 

Carroll, Lewis. Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, ill. 
Abelardo Morell (New York: Dutton Children's Books, 

Carroll, Lewis. Les Aventures d Alice au Pays des Merveilles, 
ill. Andiony Browne (Paris: Kaleidoscope, 1988). 
Carroll, Lewis. Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, ill. John 
Vernon Lord (Oxford: Artists Choice Editions, 2009). 
Ralph Steadman's illustrations to editions of Wonderland 
(London: Dobson Books, 1967) and Looking-glass 
(London: Mac-Gibbon &: Kee, 1972) have often been 

Lee, Suzy. Alice in Wonderland (Verona: Grafiche Siz, 

Electronic music composer Randy Greifs Alice in 
Wonderland, first released on the Staalplaat label in The 
Netherlands between 1991 and 1993 and re-released by 
Soleilmoon in 2000. 

Carroll, Lewis. Alice's Abenteuer im Wunderland, ill. Jassen 
Ghiuselev (Aufbau-Verlag, 2000), released in English in 
2003 by Simply Read Books (as Iassen Ghiuselev). 
Carroll, Lewis. Alice im Wunderland, ill. Julia Gukova 
(Esslingen, Germany:J. F. Schreiber, 1991). 
Carroll, Lewis. Alice no pais das maravilhas, ill. Luiz Zerbini 
(Sao Paulo: Cosac Naify, 2009). 

Carroll, Lewis. Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, ill. Oleg 
Lipchenko (Toronto: Tundra Books, 2009). 

John Rae wrote and illustrated New Adventures of Alice 
(Volland, 1917), in which she visited Mother Goose 
characters; Dorothy Furness illustrated Brenda Girvin's 
Round Fairyland with Alice (Wells Gardner Darton, 1948), 
in which she \isits fairies around the world; Edward 
Bloomfield illustrated Howard R. Garis's Uncle Wiggily and 
Alice in Wonderland (Bloomfield, 1918). 
Japanese artist Kuniyoshi Kaneko has depicted Alice 
in a variety of media, from book illustrations to video 
games. A survey of his works may be found on http:// php?ID=32. 
Carroll, Lewis. Alice in Wonderland, ill. Tania Ianovskaia 
(Toronto: Tania Press, 2005 and 2008). 

Vince Collins's self-produced short film Malice in 
Wonderland (1982). 

Carroll, Lewis. Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, ill. DeLoss 
McGraw (New York: Harper Collins, 2001). 
Carroll, Lewis. Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, ill. Maggie 
Taylor (Palo Alto, CA: Modernbook Editions, 2008). 
Silverwood Films, 2008, directed by Daniel Barnz and 
starring Elle Fanning. 

Computer game designer of American McGee's Alice (2000) 

and Alice: Madness Returns (201 1 ) . 

Clearwater, Bonnie. Anna Gaskell. Catalog (Museum of 

Contemporary Art, North Miami, 1998). 

Carroll, Lewis. Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, ill. Camille 

Rose Garcia (New York: Harper Design, 2010). 

Brown, Trevor. Alice (Tokyo, Japan: Editions Treville, 

Svankmajer is mainly known for his 1988 film Alice (Ncoz 
Alenky) . His book illustrations to Wonderland and Looking- 
glass are discussed in the next section. 
From the book of children's images to the book of poetic images. 
On the bridge that links dreams to reality. 
On the border between Utopia and truth. 
Breton inaugurated the Gravida Gallery with a pamphlet 
dedicated to the surrealist ideal of childish femininity, in 
which the cited passage could be read. Bradley, Fiona. 
Surrealismo (Sao Paulo: Cosac & Naify, 1999), 49. 
Mabille, Pierre. Mirror of the Marvelous (Rochester, 
Vermont: Inner Traditions, 1998). 
Nieres-Chevrel, Isabelle. "Alice dans la mythologie 
surrealiste," in Lewis Carroll et les mythologies de I'enfance, ed. 
Sophie Manet (Rennes: Presses Universitaires de Rennes, 
2005), 153-65. 

Fushigi no Kuni no Arisu (Tokyo: Kokushokankokai, 
2011) translated by Satomi Hisami, illustrated by 
Jan Svankmajer. Kagami no Kuni no Arisu (Tokyo: 
Kokushokankoka, 2011) translated by Satomi Hisami, 
illustrated by Jan Svankmajer. 

Campos, Paulo Mendes. "Para Maria da Graca," in Para 
gostar de ler 4, cronicas (Sao Paulo: Atica, 1979), 73-76. 
Somers, Sean. "Arisu in harajuku" in Alice Beyond 
Wonderland: Essays for the Twenty-first Century, ed. 
Christopher Hollingsworth (University of Iowa Press, 
2009), 199. Sumiko Yagawa is referred to in the article 
in the Japanese manner, patronymic first, i.e., Yagawa 

Mesquita, Cristiane. "Roupa territorio da existencia" in 
Fashion Theory: A revista da moda, corpo e cultural, no. 2 
(Sao Paulo: Editora Anhembi Morumbi, 2002): 121. 
Adapted from ideas from Rosane Preciosa's Producdo 
Estetica: Notas sobre roupas, sujeitos e modos de vida (Sao 
Paulo: Anhembi Morumbi, 2005). 






Tfee Deaneny Gauden 

I was initially surprised (not to say 
deeply shocked) at Adam Gopnik's 
recent likening of the work of 
Charles Dodgson/ Lewis Carroll 
to that of Norton Juster/Norton 
Juster. (The New Yorker, October 
17, 2011). What was Mr. Gopnik 
driving at? If he is right in saying 
"[The Phantom Tollbooth is] the clos- 
est thing that American literature 
has to an 'Alice in Wonderland' 
[sic] of its own ... with illustrations 
that are as perfectly matched to 
Juster's text as Tenniel's were to 
Carroll's ..." perhaps we should 
simply recognize AATWand TPT 
as the respective products of ap- 
proximately two thousand years 
of the development of Western 
civilization in Britain as compared 
to approximately one tenth that 
amount of time in the United 

I do agree with Mr. Gopnik's 
remarks about the illustrators of 
the respective books. The richness 
of Carroll is reflected in the exqui- 
site detail and complexity of Tenn- 
iel's drawings. Juster's simplicity is 

perfectly aligned Feiffer's fluidity, 
though I must question whether 
TPT is the latter 's best work. 1 

This is not the place for a de- 
tailed critique of either book, but I 
cannot help feeling that TPT does 
not even plumb the depths of the 
Pool of Tears. There is simply no 
comparison between the quality 
of Carroll's language and Juster's, 
to say nothing of the quality of 
the puns. Where Carroll invents, 
Juster inserts.-' While TPTmay 
delight a precocious reader often, 
does it do the same for readers of 
twenty, thirty, forty, and so on, as 
does AATW? 

Full disclosure: before reading 
Mr. Gopnik's article I reread TPT, 
and while it did occasion the oc- 
casional chortle it certainly did not 
give the satisfaction, stimulation, 
or inspiration AATW and TTLG 
always provide this reader of ad- 
mittedly advanced years. ' Perhaps 
it is best to say that Mr. Gopnik's 
article proves once again that 
comparisons are odious (as well as 
sometimes alarming), and wistfully 

yearn for a view into the future 
to see the reactions of its readers 
to see if TPT is indeed a classic. 
For myself, I will continue to steer 
readers young and old toward 
Wonderland rather than Diction- 

Fernly Bowers, PhD, DVM, etc. 

French Gulch, California 

1 In tribute to Mr. Juster, I was quite 
surprised to learn that there is 

no picture of the hero actually 
driving past the tollbooth; I had 
only imagined a very clear image of 
Feiffer's nonexistent drawing of this 

2 As has been noted elsewhere, 
Carroll's books have pervaded our 
culture and are among the most 
quoted in the world; I for one have 
never come across a reference 

to TFT that is expected to be 
understood by the casual reader. 

3 One should never ask a gentleman 
his age. 


As a further comment to Mark 
Burstein's article "Am I Blue?" 
in Knight Letter 85, 1 note that 
Alice wears a blue dress (with red 


trim) in the set of Coloured 
Lantern Slides that was pro- 
duced between 1893 and 
1898 by Primus, the London 
photographic company, and 
sold in three boxed sets of 
eight slides each for home 

viewing. The slides, which mim- 
icked but varied from Tenniel's 
illustrations, can also been seen 
in an edition of Wonderland issued 
by Harry N. Abrams in 1988, ac- 
companied by the original "Lan- 
tern Lecture" abridgment of the 

text. In these pictures, Alice wears 
striped socks, as she does in Look- 
ing-Glassr, in Tenniel's Wonderland 
they are plain. 

Yoshiyuki Momma 


One of [Charles Schulz's] favorite 
compliments of Peanuts was hear- 
ing it compared to Lewis Carroll's 
Alice in Wonderland. 

Rheta Grimsky Johnson, Good 

Grief, The Story of Charles M. 

Schulz, Pharos Books, New York, 




"Can't say. Is she a Snark or a 
Boojum? Only time will tell." 
Robertson Dairies, The Lyre of 
Orpheus, Viking Penguin, Inc., 
New York, 1988 


In St. Aubyn's world, whoever 
controls the retelling controls 
the event. We might call it, after 
Lewis Carroll, the Humpty- 
Dumpty effect. 

Zadie Smith, reviewing At Last, 
by Edivard St. Aubyn, Harpers, 
August 2011 

Then [Adenauer] took a trip to 
Oxford and visited Balliol — where 
his nephew Hans had been an 
undergraduate — and New Col- 
lege. He was also scheduled to visit 
Oriel, but here unpleasantness set 
in: a group of students at the gates 
became so abusive that the police 
directed the official cars through 
Canterbury Gate and into Christ 
Church instead. . . . An under- 
graduate . . . pointed out the statue 
of Dean Liddell, the father of the 
real-life Alice in Wonderland. He 
began to explain that the Deanery 
Garden was at the centre of an 
important English children's book 


when Adenauer suddenly stopped 
and smiled, quite unruffled by the 
demonstration he had witnessed, 
and astonished everyone present, 
British and German alike, by reel- 
ing off long quotations from the 

The Oxford Times, May 11, 2011, ref- 
erencing Charles Williams, Adenauer: 
The Father of the New Germany, 
Little, Brown and Company, 2000. 


Everything was smaller than he 
remembered it — it was like Alice's 
Adventures in Wonderland, and he'd 
drunk the magic tonic. He felt like 
his head was sticking out of the 
chimney, and his arm was out the 

Lev Grossman, The Magician 
King, Viking, New York, 2011 


When she did this, she suddenly 
descended several inches, giving 
the disconcerting impression that 
she was shrinking, like Alice after 
consuming the botde labeled 
"Drink Me." 

Rebecca Mead, "Precarious 
Beauty, " the New Yorker, 
September 26, 2011 

"Oh," he said, faindy ashamed to 
be drinking the guy's tea after he'd 
reduced him to some capitalized 
character out of Lewis Carroll. 
Thomas Mallon, Arts and 
Sciences, A Seventies Seduc- 
tion, Ticknor & Fields, 
New York, 1988 


'You are very decisive yourself. 
Especially for someone who has 
lived so far from the centre of 

"But it's the centre of things for 
me," I said, and "I'm sixteen years 
old. Alice was a child and every- 
thing was every day for her. She'd 
seen nothing odd. She just lived in 

"Her dreams say otherwise." 
Jane Gardam, Crusoe's Daughter, 
Atheneum, New York, 1986 


There is not a word in the Alices, 
nor a line of drawing, to be ex- 
plained or regretted. 

F.J. Harvey Darton, Children's 
Books in England, Cambridge 
University Press, 1 932 


She could tell from the way I 
squirmed that I found this answer 
highly unsatisfactory. It was a Mad 
Hatter answer, a March Hare an- 
swer. Mama couldn't expect to 
read me the Alice books a hun- 
dred dmes and get away with such 

Michael Faber, The Apple: 
Crimson Petal Stories, Canon- 
gate Books Ltd., Edinburgh, 2011 



First, of course, kudos and props to those who 
made the fall New York meeting such a suc- 
cess, starting with Edward Guiliano and his 
fine staff at NYIT, especially Jennifer Cucura, in this 
smoothly operating and in all ways superb venue; to 
Andrew Sellon, who so nobly stepped in to arrange 
for our dinner; to those who traveled from Chicago, 
Cleveland, California, North Carolina, and even far- 
ther afield — Ireland, Brazil, and Puerto Rico to be 
precise; to Janet Jurist and Ellie 
Heller for their generous hospital- 
ity to our out-of-town guests; and to 
our fabulous presenters: Adriana 
Peliano, Paulo Beto, James Foto- 
poulos, Emily Aguilo-Perez, Mor- 
ton Cohen, Alison Gopnik (and 
her silent partner, Alvy Ray Smith) , 
Jeff Menges, and Michael Everson 
in a most delightful surprise ap- 
pearance, reading a passage from 
Ailice's Aventurs in Wunnerland in 
his hilarious Scottish burr. 

The Alice 150 project planning 
is proceeding apace, thanks to the diligent efforts of 
Jon Lindseth and Joel Birenbaum. We have produced 
a "vision statement"; attracted a PR management firm 
whose other clients include Target, GE, and Google; 
and have contracted with Oxford University Press for 
the Alice in a World of Wonderlands volumes, a worthy 
successor to Warren Weaver's Alice in Many Tongues. 

July 4, 2012, will be the 150 th anniversary of a cer- 
tain boat trip on the Isis. As this event will be falling on 
our national holiday celebrating our freedom from 
our erstwhile British oppressors, it may be difficult to 
get media coverage. However, we will be working with 
the LCS(UK) to come up with something apropos. If 
nothing else, on that day, reenact it yourself: Grab a 
copy of Under Ground or Wonderland to read (or down- 
load the Cyril Ritchard recording from Amazon into 
your mobile device), invite a child or three, pack a 
picnic, find a spot along a nearby river (extra credit if 
you row there), and linger in the golden gleam. 

As I am one who likes to plan things well in ad- 
vance, here is our meeting schedule for the next three 
years: Spring 20 12: April 28th at the Houghton Library 
of Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts, 
and the next day at Alan and Alison Tannenbaum's 

collection in nearby Chelmsford. Fall 2012: most like- 
ly New York University. Spring 20 ly. Stephanie Lovett 
and Charlie Lovett will be our hosts in North Caro- 
lina. Fall 20 1 y. the amazing sculptor Karen Mortillaro 
and the indomitable Dan Singer have offered to ar- 
range a meeting in Los Angeles. Spring 2014: "Some- 
where in New York," as the song goes. Fall 2014: Day- 
na (McCausland) Nuhn, Mahendra Singh, and Andy 
Malcolm, along with Tania Ianovskaia and Oleg Lip- 
chenko, have agreed to host a joint 
LCSNA and LCSCanada meeting in 
Toronto. Spring 201 5: San Diego, in 
conjunction with the grand opening 
of the Center for the Study of Chil- 
dren's Literature at San Diego State 
University. Fall 2075: October 10-11 
in New York City for Alicel50. 

Meetings such as the one we 
just had (and the ones coming up) 
are truly magical times to meet up 
with friends old and new. I particu- 
larly treasure an afternoon spent at 
my mom's Manhattan apartment 
with my longtime cyber- and Skype friend Adriana 
Peliano, whom I got to meet face-to-face (along with 
her husband, Paulo) for the very first time. The al- 
ways delightful Maxine Schaefer reading, 
this time at Horace Mann (reluctant 
though I was to mention that I had, 
in fact, attended their biggest rival, 
The Fieldston 
The meeting 
itself, of course, 
including the 
breaks. Relax- 
ing conversa- 
tion over a fine 
Fiorello dinner. 
Janet's convivial 

So Alice got up and ran 
off, thinking while she ran, 
as ivell she might, ivhat a won 
derful dream it had been. 




On the Discovery 01 an rLn^Iish Jabberwocky 




"^ W hile browsing the philosophy section of a 

% #% # Chicago antiquarian bookshop, I found 
ml jLi coffee-stained piece of paper folded 
inside a copy of Ludwig Wittgenstein's Philosophi- 
cal Investigations. On it, in a neat script, was written 
a note, followed by a version of Jabberwocky in my 
native tongue! Yes, it was in English. An unidentified 
author (the sheet was unsigned) had rendered Car- 
roll's poem using only authentic English words. It was 
the first time I had ever seen the feat attempted. 

I reproduce here the short note preceding the 
translation, the poem itself, and some annotations 
explaining the poet's intentions. These last, please 
understand, are no more than educated guesses, but 
I am fairly confident about their accuracy. Of course 
nonsense, even sensical nonsense, is no friend of con- 
fidence, and so I have withheld my speculations about 
the second half of the poem in hopes that other inter- 
preters might feel free to make their own. Please en- 
sure your dictionary is up to the task — I have looked 
up all the words and confirmed their sensicality, but 
oftentimes only by resorting to my trusty OED. 

Transcription of note (this portion of the paper 
was afflicted with coffee stains that mercifully spared 
the translation itself): Nonsense, nonsense, nonsense. 
Too much nonsense is [illegible]. Plenty of words al- 
ready, enough for nearly any [illegible] . Why not sub- 
stitute a [illegible] version for children? [illegible] 
without nonsense. 


'Twas grilled eve, and the slubbering skunks 
Did whirl and windle in time's way; 

All wimpy were the feathered monks, 
and monotremes did bray. 

"Beware the Jabber-cock, my son! 

The jaws that bite, the claws that loot! 
Beware the Ju-Jak bird, and shun 

The scurrilous Bandicoot!" 

He took his vorax sword in hand: 

Long time the Soddish foe he sought — 

So rested he by the Pando tree, 
And stood awhile in thought. 

And as in huffled thought he stood, 
The Jabber-cock, with eyes of flame, 

Came whiffling through the bilgy wood, 
And gorbled as it came! 

One, two! One, two! And through and through 
The vorax blade went slice-dice-hack! 

He left it dead, and with its head 
He went gallanting back. 

"And, hast thou slain the Jabber-cock? 

Come to my arms, my beamish boy! 
O grampus day! Huzzah! Hurray!" 
He snortled in his joy. 

'Twas grilled eve, and the slubbering skunks 
Did whirl and windle in time's way; 

All wimpy were the feathered monks, 
and monotremes did bray. 


Jabberwocky /Jabber-cocky: Self-evident. 

brillig/grilled eve: In the 1855 issue of Misch-Masch, 
Carroll independently confirms brillig as meaning 
"The time of broiling dinner, i.e., the close of the af- 
ternoon." Here "grilled eve" evokes that very culinary 
hour — eve means "the close of the day" — while dupli- 
cating the visual and acoustic weight of brillig's dou- 
ble 1. Although the full import of Humpty-Dumpty's 
later definition (4:00 in the afternoon when you begin 
broiling things for dinner) is not completely incorpo- 
rated, the use of "grilled" must be counted a valiant 
effort in that direction. And given the alternate sense 
of "grilled" as "fearful," one would be hard-pressed to 
find a better alternative. The rest of the poem is, if 
nothing else, the chronicle of a fearful evening. 

slithy/slubbering: The noun form of "slubber" means 
"slime," and the verb means "to soil," as well as "to 
run or skim over something in a slovenly manner." 
Elsewhere, Carroll defines his original term as a com- 
bination of lithe and slimy. Here, perhaps, the trans- 
lation is closer to the nonsense sense of slithy than 
slithy itself, thanks to those rich deposits of meaning 
that only time and reality can bestow upon a word. 

toves/skunks: Toves, Carroll informs us, are a species 
of badger with smooth white hair, long hind legs, and 
short horns like a stag, that live chiefly on cheese. 
Skunks and badgers both belong to the Mustilidae 
family, and the skunk's smooth hair (admittedly white 
and black) as well as its well-known taste for cheese 
make it an ideal substitution. 

gyre /whirl: A problematic translation. As it turns out, 
gyre is a real word, an archaic form of gyrate that ap- 
plies especially to circular oceanic surface currents. 
This causes difficulty for everyone involved: Humpty- 
Dumpty defines it as "to go round and round like a 
gyroscope"; Carroll writes at one point that it means 
"to scratch like a dog"; and our translator appears to 
have replaced a perfectly legitimate word — perhaps 
for the sake of alliteration? 

gimble/windle: Gimble, again from Carroll: "to screw 
out holes in anything." And from Humpty-Dumpty 
we have "to make holes, as with a gimlet." "Windle" 
straightforwardly describes the motion of screwing: to 
move circularly or sinuously; to turn over and over, or 
round and round. 

wabe/time's way: Alice herself correctly intuits that 
"wabe" refers to the grass-plot around a sun-dial, and 
Humpty-Dumpty confirms her intuition. Here that 
sense is rendered as time's way. A loose translation, to 
be sure, chosen most likely for the sake of the rhyme. 

mimsy /wimpy: "Mimsy" could be "unhappy" (Carroll) 
or a portmanteau of flimsy and miserable (Humpty- 
Dumpty). "Wimpy" functions as a portmanteau of two 
other English words, limp and weepy, which them- 
selves correspond to flimsy and miserable quite nice- 
ly. Of course, wimpy is no mere portmanteau — on its 
own it means weak or sniveling. 

borogoves/feathered monks: One Carrollian primary 
source has borogoves as a sort of extinct parrot. Monk is 
often used by avian enthusiasts as shorthand for monk- 
bird, a type of parrot. "Feathered" emphasizes the avian 
sense of monk, and may also refer to the extinct practice 
of tarring and feathering unscrupulous holy men. 

mome raths/monotremes: "Monotreme" designates 
those rare mammals that lay eggs, such as duck-billed 
platypuses. As such, it is a fitting stand-in for the con- 
troversial "mome raths" — Carroll asserts they are 
"grave turtles," while Humpty-Dumpty maintains that 
they are homesick green pigs of a sort. This web of 
Carrollian metaconfusion is reflected in the very real 
biological confusion of the monotreme. 

outgrabe/bray: Here there is no confusion. All sourc- 
es identify "outgrabe" as the past tense of "outgribe," 
meaning "to squeak or whistle loudly." Braying can 
refer to any loud, harsh cry, although it is usually as- 
sociated with asses, not monotremes. 

catch/loot: Some small change in meaning for the 
sake of rhyme — a fair exchange, I think. 

Jubjub/Ju-Jak: The Jubjub bird is described extensive- 
ly in Carroll's The Hunting of the Snark. To condense: 
It is an exotic bird, and one to be feared. Jujak is the 
standard romanized Korean name for the Chinese 
vermillion bird, a mythical creature that represents 
fire and controls its surroundings by magic. 

frumious/scurrilous: In The Hunting of the Snark, 
Carroll provides an extraordinary explanation of fru- 
mious: "This also seems a fitting occasion to notice 
the other hard words in ("Jabberwocky"). Humpty- 
Dumpty's theory, of two meanings packed into one 
word like a portmanteau, seems to me the right 
explanation for all. For instance, take the two words 
'fuming' and 'furious.' Make up your mind that you 
will say both words, but leave it unsettled which you 
will say first. Now open your mouth and speak. If 
your thoughts incline ever so little towards 'fuming,' 
you will say 'fuming-furious.'" 

"Scurrilous" connotes both fuming and furi- 
ous — it refers to vituperative or invective language. 
In the margin, the translator has written "spurious + 
scuttling." "Scuttle" is descriptive of action taken in 
a street fight, as in this citation from the OED: "Five 
men, or rather lads, were in the dock (at the Man- 
chester City Sessions) charged with 'scutding'..." 
"Spurious," of course, means illegitimate (particularly 
of writing), and it seems the translator might here be 
sacrificing literal translation for a play on words. 

bandersnatch/bandicoot: The bandersnatch is often 
understood as a swift-moving creature capable of 
extending its neck. "Bander" is also an archaic term 
for "leader." The bandicoot is a small marsupial with 
sharp teeth and fierce territorial instincts, capable of 
running extremely quickly. 





You Can Get Anything You Want, in Alice's Restaurant 



■^^^^^s we approach 2015, my thoughts 
^^^\ are consumed with the promi- 
M. Xnence of Alice in popular culture, 
as that is the theme of the Alicel50 celebration. 
The use of Alice in advertising is an important vantage 
point from which to view the phenomenon of Alice's 
omnipresence in everyday life. What is presented 
here is a sampling of magazine and newspaper ads 
to show how Alice was used to promote products over 
the years. What are not included here are ads for Alice 
products such as movies, records, books, toys, etc. 

I have to admit that I approached this column in 
a looking-glass fashion, conclusion first and research 
after. Usually this works out fine, since I have a fairly 
inclusive knowledge of Alice collectibles. This time, 
however, I was way off target. My preconceived notion 
was that Alice characters and themes were so mallea- 
ble and applicable that they could be used cleverly to 


.. ,tfiU 1 iiit 

' In >/>rmj>, when woods art- Retting green, 
Oft uii/i ii Guinness am I seen." 

'In summer, uhen the (J<i>\ are /<>»#, 
'A Guinness, />/ms<.-' is Mill my song." 

'In autumn, wnen the leaves are brown, 
I like to qiuiffa Guinness down." 

'In winter, when the fields are white, 
A Guinness is <i cneer/itl tight," ^ 

*V."T" .£&J=*A 


suit most any product. I still think this is true, 

but the evidence shows that, more often than 

not, Alice was not used to the greatest effect. In 

many cases, illustrations of Alice characters were 
put in ads just to attract readers' eyes to an ad they 
might otherwise not read, and little or no attempt was 
made to inject any Carrollian humor or logic. 

Cream of Wheat produced a Mad Tea Party ad 
in 1901, followed by a marvelous Queen Alice ad in 
1908 ("To the Looking-glass World it was Alice that 
said/'I've a scepter in hand I've a crown on my head/ 
Let the Looking-glass creatures whatever they be/ 
Come and eat Cream of Wheat with the Queens and 
with me"'). The first decade of the 1900s also gave us 
a single ad per year for Peter's Chocolate from 1904 
("'This isn't a circus,' said the Hatter severely to Al- 
ice. 'It's a tea-party and you're not invited.' 'Oh, yes, I 
am,' said Alice. 'There's PETER'S CHOCOLATE on 
the table and that's always inviting.'"), and a Water- 
man's Pens ad also in 1904. In later years, the Alice 
motif was used by other cereal and chocolate compa- 
nies, and the use of Alice by these products does not 
seem unreasonable. The first half of the twentieth 
century was rounded out by ads for Lowney's Choco- 
late, Post Toasties, Western Electric, Whitman Candy, 
Quaker Oats, Steinway Pianos, Electrolux Gas Refrig- 
erators, Guinness, Wrigley Gum Nash automobiles, 
the Cunard Line, Heinz, Ford ("'MY,' said Alice, 'the 
new Ford is such fun to drive!'"), Comptometer, San- 
ka, Textron Menswear, Dumont televisions, Kayser 
Hosiery, Welch's Grape Jelly, Red Goose Shoes, Phil- 
co, and Rose's Lime Juice. The Wrigley Gum ad was a 
tie-in with the 1933 Paramount movie starring Char- 
lotte Henry. The Western Electric ad promoted their 
tall telephone, but gas refrigerators, automobiles, 
menswear, and lime juice haven't even got a tenuous 
connection, and how many of you even know what 
a comptometer is? And the diversity of this range of 
products is exceeded in the latter half of the century. 

Alice was fair game for advertising any product 
from 1951 on, and the Disney movie added a new 
dimension to Alice in advertising land. The Disney 
Alice was used by General Electric ("I never guessed 
what made me cross/Poor lighting was the matter./ 
With soft and cool fluorescent light/I'm now a gay 
Mad Hatter"), Roval Desserts, Libbv foods, Swans 


Down cake mixes, and NBC White Bread. Non- 
Disney Alice still maintained prominence in this era 
with: Sirrine Engines, Metlife, Post Toasties, Owens- 
Corning Fiberglass (Alice in Insulation-Land), Burl- 
ington Industries, Maidenform ("I dreamed I was a 
mad hatter in my maidenform bra"), Boeing, Merrill 
Lynch, Ryan Industries (cryogenics), Sony, Douglas 
aeronautics, Smirnoff Vodka, Rexall drugs, Alcan Ca- 
ble, Hi-C juice, Fender Guitar, Mobil Oil, Precision 
Monolithics, IBM, and Microsoft. Fender exploited 
the connection between rock music and drug use, by 
showing the hookah-smoking caterpillar playing two 
Stratocaster electric guitars (thereby also taking ad- 
vantage of the caterpillar's multiple appendages). 

I would have to say that the heyday of Alice in 
advertising was 1930-1970. The Guinness ads, which 
appeared between 1931 and 1958, were definitely 
the cleverest of the bunch, with excellent copywrit- 
ing and fine illustrations. They also win the award 
for longest time span. Philco's campaign of 1948 was 
of high quality as well as extensive, and appeared in 
eight different major magazines. The breadth of this 
campaign makes these the easiest ads for collectors 
to find. An ad for Quaker Oats was probably the most 
collectable ad for a time, because it was illustrated 
by Jessie Wilcox Smith, although this artwork was no 
match for her famous Alice illustration in Boys and 
Girls in Bookland, published by Cosmopolitan in 1923. 
Basildon Bond and BOAC are the only two ads that 
also have Lewis Carroll in them. The Precision Mono- 
lithics ad campaign of 1979 was highly successful and 
was awarded the Industrial Advertising Award (KL 
14:4). This was a case of a talented marketing service 
manager, Gene McClenning, using his great interest 
in Alice to sell an unlikely set of products. 


^A tin- looking,^. 

«*-C U CM* WH1 *n»tf» 

u*» ft »Mt«»i ** »M 

•m imx M * mm* -ami ** 

*« Hff IBM >t Mw** 

■'■ i \u\*%* :L 
>«"•**' •»,»»* m»*> '\ 
i.-:' WM u- *»■: '■■■• v 
jttfcM "•■• •* mamma ' 


If you collect Alice ads, the temptation is to pick 
the highpoints. Having a few of the ads in your col- 
lection is nice, but the more you have the better ap- 
preciation you will have for Alice's place in advertising 
history, and in popular culture. 

^\i/ ^i/ ^\i/ ^i/ ^\i/ s,,. co ^-lik \ik fe lik lik 

3f* M+ 31* 31* 3f* 

EIM B ♦?=_ *S=^. *5=- *S=^. ♦S^-. 

Kevin Barr 


ffes&i&tiiS^ V\ 

Kevin Kenjar 

Lauren Benjamir 


Richard Kopley 

Johnny Boyd 


Tina Martin 

John Bramble 

W^M Jb 

Donna Muse 

SuAn Carey 


Doug Proctor 

Wendy Chevrier 

Hayley Rushing 

David Day 

Joann Siegel 

Michael Dirda 

Laia Garcia 

Alexander Fobes 

Laurence Gareau 

Steve Hoberman 

John Kemeny 

Alexander Snow 

Louise Spunt 
Marc Villafanna 

Ilk fe 



+ \ik 


l|k \jk 





August A. Imholtz, Jr. 

In "Fit the Fifth: The Beaver's Les- 
son" of Lewis Carroll's unsurpassed 
nonsense epyllion The Hunting of 
the Snark, the Beaver bemoans the 
fact that he had lost count of the 
number of times his companion, 
the Butcher, had cried ovit on 
hearing the Jubjub Bird. 

Here is that whole short passage: 

"Tis the voice of the Jubjub!" 

he suddenly cried. 
(This man, that they used 

to call "Dunce.") 
"As the Bellman would tell you," 

he added with pride, 
"I have uttered that sentiment 

"Tis the note of the Jubjub! 

Keep count, I entreat; 
You will find I have told it 

you twice. 
'Tis the song of the Jubjub! 

The proof is complete, 
If only I've stated it thrice." 
The Beaver had counted with 

scrupulous care, 
Attending to every word: 
But it fairly lost heart, and 

outgrabe in despair, 
When the third repetition 

It felt that, in spite of all possible 

It had somehow contrived to 

lose count, 
And the only thing now was 

to rack its poor brains 
By reckoning up the amount. 
"Two added to one — if that could 

but be done," 
It said, "with one's fingers and 

Recollecting with tears how, 

in earlier years, 
It had taken no pains with 

its sums. 

The problem, however, goes 
beyond the Beaver's racking of its 
poor little brain to reckon up the 
amount. A beaver cannot add "two 
to one" or do any addition "with 
one's fingers and thumbs" for the 

Carrollian Notes 

simple reason that a beaver has no 
thumbs. Perhaps because that is 
so obvious a fact, Martin Gardner 
did not mention it in his otherwise 
rich and extensive annotations 
in either his The Annotated Snark 
(1962) or his The Annotated Snark: 
The Definitive Edition (2006). 

Carroll of course would have 
seen beavers in the Ashmolean 
Museum in Oxford, where an 
American beaver is listed in the 
1836 Catalogue Descriptive of the 
Zoological Species, Antiquities, Coins, 
and Miscellaneous Curiosities. And 
perhaps it is even more impor- 
tant to note that Carroll owned 
a copy of The American Beaver by 
Lewis H. Morgan (Philadelphia: 
J. B. Lippincott, 1868). See also 
Charlie Lovett's excellent work 
Lewis Carroll Among His Books (Jef- 
ferson, North Carolina: McFarland 
8c Company, 2005), in which he 
notes, regarding another beaver 
conundrum, that "speculation as 
to the gender of ( the Snark Bea- 
ver) should perhaps be colored 
by Morgan's assertion that the 
mother is the most important 
member of the Beaver colony" 
(p. 217). 

Beavers may be divided into 
two species: the North American 
beaver (Castor canadensis) and 
the Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber). 
Physiologically, according to An- 
drew Kitchener, "Although super- 
ficially similar to each other, there 
are several important differences 
between the two species. Eurasian 
beavers tend to be bigger, with 
larger, less rounded heads, longer, 
narrower muzzles, thinner, shorter 

and lighter underfur, narrower, 
less oval-shaped tails and shorter 
shin bones, making them less 
capable of bipedal locomotion 
than the North American species. 
Eurasian beavers have longer nasal 
bones than their North American 
cousins, with the widest point 
being at the end of the snout for 
the former, and in the middle for 
the latter. The nasal opening for 
the Eurasian species is triangular, 
unlike that of the North American 
race, which is square. The fora- 
men magnum is rounded in the 
Eurasian beaver, and triangular 
in the North American. The anal 
glands of the Eurasian beaver 
are larger and thin-walled with a 
large internal volume compared 
to that of the North American 
breed. Finally, the guard hairs of 
the Eurasian beaver have a longer 
hollow medulla at their tips. Fur 
colour is also different. Overall, 
66% of Eurasian beavers have pale 
brown or beige fur, 20% have red- 
dish brown, nearly 8% are brown 
and only 4% have blackish coats. 
In North American beavers, 50% 
have pale brown fur, 25% are red- 
dish brown, 20% are brown and 
6% are blackish." (Andrew Kitch- 
ener, Beavers, 2001; Stowmarket: 
Whittet, p. 144.) One would sus- 
pect that the Beaver in the crew 
of the Snark expedition is a Eur- 
asian one. Interestingly, the bea- 
ver has been extinct in England 
since the sixteenth century, so 
perhaps the Bellman impressed 
him into naval service on an ear- 
lier voyage. 

There is no other occurrence 
of a beaver in the text of any of 
Lewis Carroll's fictional works, 
although Tenniel's illustration at 
the beginning of Chapter III of 
Alice's Adventures in Wonderland 
may depict a beaver at the ex- 
treme right of the picture, above 
the crab. Most of Tenniel's pool 
of tears menagerie are derived 
from Carroll's own illustration 
of this scene in Alice's Adventures 
Under Ground, so one can safely 
infer that Carroll deliberately 


selected the Beaver. In his "Dou- 
blets" contribution to Vanity Fair 
22 (Oct. 11, 1879), one of the 
challenges Carroll poses is to 
change the word BEAVER into the 
word BRANDY by altering one let- 
ter at a time, for that is, of course, 
how the Doublets game works. 

In a Nov. 24, 1877, letter to 
his cousin Lucy Wilcox, however, 
Carroll intriguingly writes: "Why 
shouldn't we enjoy the things we 
'have to' do? Why, I believe even 
the beaver that had to go up the 
tree was glad to do it. At least, 
you know, it could have stayed 
below if it had liked." Professor 
Morton N. Cohen wryly observes 
in his note on that passage that 
"We cannot identify this particu- 
lar beaver" ( The Letters of Lewis 
Carroll, Oxford: Oxford Univer- 
sity Press, 1979, Vol. 1, p. 288). 
From Carroll's tone and his clear 
supposition that Lucy would be 
familiar with this beaver story, it 
would seem that the reference 
must be to some fable or story. 
And yet, which one? There is only 
one fable dealing with beavers in 
Aesop, but that beaver does not 
climb a tree, nor do the other ref- 
erences to beavers in Aristotle or 
in more obscure classical authors 
recount any tree-climbing beavers. 

In the January 1871 issue of The 
Galaxy (Vol. 11, no. 1), an Ameri- 
can magazine, Mark Twain had 
published the following anecdote: 

While up the river I heard 
the following story show- 
ing how an animal can rise 
when necessary superior to 
its nature: "You see," said 
the narrator, "the beaver 
took to the water and the 
dog was after him. First the 
beaver was ahead and then 
the dog. It was tuck and 
nip whether the dog would 
catch the beaver, and nuck 
and tip whether the beaver 
would catch the dog. Fi- 
nally the beaver got across 
the river and the dog had 
almost caught him, when 
phit! Up the beaver skun up 
a tree." 

"But," said a bystander, 
"beavers can't climb trees." 

"A beaver can't climb 
a tree? By gosh, he had to 
climb a tree, the dog was 
crowdin him so!" (p. 156) 

The only other reference to 
a beaver in a tree that I can find 
occurs in a fable "The bear in the 
quicksand" in a 2004 anthology, 
Brilliant Stories for Assemblies, edited 
by Paul Urry (Edinburgh: Brilliant 
Publications). Here is the relevant 

"Please," begged the bear. 
"Won't someone help and 
get me out of the sand?" 
Straight away the beaver ran 
up a tree. She ate quickly 
through some vines and 
dragged them to the side of 
the quicksand ..." (p. 8) 

In spite of Urry's statement 
that this is an ancient Greek fable, 
I can find it nowhere in ancient 
Greek literature. In fact, if any- 
thing, it might sound at first more 
like a Sanskrit fable than a Greek 
one, except for the fact that there 
are no beavers in India. 

There is at least one more 
tree-climbing-beaver expression 
to be found in Henry C. Row- 
land's Across Europe in a Motor Boat 
(1908) on p. 124: 

"On the whole we felt that 
the most arduous part of 
our journey lay behind us, 
while the crucial point, that 
of getting up the shallow 
Main and into the old Lud- 
wig Canal, was now removed 
but a few days. All that we 
were able to learn on this 
important question was of 
the most discouraging char- 
acter, but as Pomeroy cheer- 
fully remarked, it was simply 

a case where the Beaver had 
to climb the tree!" 

Perhaps when all nineteenth- 
century British newspapers 
and periodicals are digitized, 
it will be possible to determine 
whether one or more of them 
reprinted Twain's tall tale of the 
tree-climbing beaver. If so, that 
might have been the beaver to 
which Carroll alludes in his let- 
ter to his cousin Lucy Lutwidge. 
Until then, this particular Beaver 
reference will likely remain just 
another gnawing problem. 



Clare Imholtz 

Lewis Carroll had a poor opin- 
ion of Americans. He dumped 
rejected copies of three of his 
books — Wonderland, The Game of 
Logic, and The Nursery Alice — in 
this country. (All three rejected 
editions are now rarities for collec- 
tors.) About Nursery Alice, Carroll 
said that he could not possibly 
sell the rejects, which he deemed 
"too gaudy," in England — to do 
so would ruin his reputation — but 
they would do very well for Ameri- 
cans, who cared little about quality. 

That may have overstated the 
case, but perhaps Carroll had rea- 
son to be upset with us. During his 
lifetime, several U.S. periodicals 
mistakenly gave Carroll credit for 
composing a poem that was actu- 
ally written by his cousin, Menella 
Bute Smedley, a rather sweet and 
sentimental poem that Carroll 
might have parodied in Wonder- 
land, were it not by his cousin, of 
whom he was quite fond. Worse, 
these periodicals got the title of 
Carroll's book wrong, saying that 
Smedley's poem appeared in 
" Little Alice in Wonderland." 

The problem, however, did 
originate in England, and with 
the venerable weekly The Specta- 
tor, which reviewed Wonderland 
twice, first on December 23, 1865, 
and then again, inexplicably, on 
December 22, 1866, as part of 


a package review of twenty-one 
children's books. On the second 
occasion, The Spectator twice called 
Carroll's book Little Alice in Wonder- 
land, never once providing the cor- 
rect tide. Little Alice 'was the third 
book reviewed, following Hans 
Christian Andersen's Stories for the 
Household (they spelled Andersen's 
name wrong, too) and Aunt Judy 's 
Christmas Volume for 1866, in which 
Smedley's poem (the title of which 
they also got wrong) had appeared. 

The review praised all three 
books. The comments about 
Aunt Judy and Little Alice abut one 
another closely, as there are no 
paragraph breaks throughout the 
entire piece. Speaking first of Aunt 
Judy, The Spectator writes: 

We must ask our readers to believe 
in the worth of the stories and the 
general contents on the strength 
of our assertion; but we can give 
a specimen of the verse which is 
by no means above the average, 
and is still in our opinion amongst 
the most taking that we have ever 
seen in productions of this kind. 
The stanzas are the opening ones 
of the "Child's Address to the 
Rose" — a poem dedicated to Ceci- 
lia Tennyson, and in their pleasing 
simplicity worthy of their destina- 
tion, supposing the lady in ques- 
tion to be a poet's daughter: — 

"White rose, talk to me! 

I don't know what to do. 
Why do you say no word to me 

Who say so much to you? 

"I'm bringing you a little rain, 
And I shall be so proud 

If, when you feel it on your face, 
You take me for a cloud. 

"Here I come so softly 

You can not hear me walking; 
If I take you by surprise 

I may catch you talking. 

"Tell all your thoughts to me. 

Whisper in my ear; 
Talk against the winter, 

He shall never hear. 

"I can keep a secret 

Since I was five years old; 

Tell if you were frightened 
When first you felt the cold; 

"And in the splendid summer, 
While you flush and grow, 

Are you ever out of heart. 
Thinking of the snow?" 

We must not omit to mention 
that there is a pretty illustration 
attached to this poem, and that 
the engravings generally are 
above the average, and decid- 
edly enhance the charm of the 
volume. Little Alice in Wonderland, 
we are not surprised to see, has 
reached a fifth thousand; so 
much clever and yet genuine fun 
in the letter-press, and so much 
grace and humour in the illus- 
trations have never before been 
found within the same compass. 
The sweet figure of little Alice 
contrasts delightfully all through 
the book with the funny creatures 
and people she encounters in her 
most exciting journey; and as she 
never makes a slip in her man- 
ners or loses her sense of propri- 
ety in the most trying situations, 
her story may be considered as 
strictly moral as it is exquisitely 
amusing. This is the last of the 
three books that every child 
ought to have. 

The comments on Aunt Judy end 
with the word "volume," and those 
on Wonderland begin with the word 
"Little." Only about a quarter of 
Smedley's poem, which was actu- 
ally titled "A Child to a Rose," is 
quoted in the review. 

Within a month, a careless 
reader, fortunately anonymous, 
somehow incorporated "A Child to 
a Rose" into Little Alice, and hand 
in hand the two crossed the Atlan- 
tic. Every Saturday, a U.S. weekly, a 
self-proclaimed "Journal of Choice 
Reading Selected from Foreign Lit- 
erature," reprinted the verses from 
the Spectator review in its January 
26, 1867, number, saying, "We find 
the following graceful verses in a 
volume entitled Little Alice in Won- 
derland, a child's book, illustrated 

by Tenniel, and published in 
London by Macmillan." 

The spurious title must have 
stayed in circulation for a few 
years. In August 1869, The West- 
ern Monthly (later The Lakeside 
Monthly), a Chicago journal, pub- 
lished a review of Mopsa the Fairy 
by Jean Ingelow, which stated 

"Mopsa" is just a little suggestive 
of another fairy tale that has 
become household property — 
"Little Alice in Wonderland" 
and we should not be surprised 
to know that the author was 
well acquainted with it. There 
are certain unconscious resem- 
blances between the two — the 
same odd transitions and queer 
way of putting things, so marked 
in "Little Alice." This is particu- 
larly noticeable in Jack's dream, 
when charmed to sleep by little 
Mopsa 's story in the land of 
the "one-foot-one" fairies — that 
same wonderfully grotesque 
imagery, that stepping over into 
the realm of careless vagaries, 
which almost unpleasandy sug- 
gests insanity. We consider this 
a decided blemish on "Little 
Alice's Adventures," but doubt 
whether it is marked enough to 
be censurable in "Mopsa." 

Publication of Lee and Shepard's 
edition of Wonderland in Spring 
1869, which was more widely 
reviewed and advertised than 
the Appleton edition of 1866, 
must have helped to extinguish 
incidences of the false tide. No 
further references are found for 
twenty years. Then, on December 
14, 1889, The Critic (New York) 
prints a letter from one "W.L." of 
New London, Connecticut, who 
quotes the passage from the Janu- 
ary 1867 Every Saturday, and asks, 
"Was this in the first edition of 
the book which has since become 
so well known under the title of 
'Alice's Adventures in Wonder- 
land,' and which was perhaps first 
published under the title given 
above?" Sadly for W. L., no reply 
is recorded. 



Fran Abeles 

On August 17, 2011, The Centre 
for Philosophy of Natural and So- 
cial Sciences at the London School 
of Economics was the setting for 
the first meeting devoted entirely 
to Lewis Carroll's work in the sci- 
ences. The sponsors and organiz- 
ers of this historic event were Mark 
Richards, chairman of The Lewis 
Carroll Society (UK); assisted by 
Amirouche Moktefi, a postdoctoral 
fellow at the Logic, History and 
Philosophy of ScienceArchives 
Poincare laboratory at Nancy Uni- 
versity; the eminent mathematical 
historian Ivor Grattan-Guinness, 
currently at the London School of 
Economics; and a mathematician 
well known on both sides of the 
Atlantic, Robin Wilson, president- 
elect of the British Society for the 
History of Mathematics. 

All the available seats were 
booked (and a long waiting list 
remained) for the daylong confer- 
ence that began at 9:45 a.m. After 
everyone had introduced them- 
selves, Mark and Amirouche of- 
fered some introductory remarks. 
Mark then presided over the first 
session of three talks. Robin, who is 
the author of the recent mathe- 
matical biography of Carroll, Lewis 
Carroll in Numberland (2008), spoke 

on "Charles Dodgson and Oxford 
University." Fran Abeles, editor 
of three volumes in the Lewis 
Carroll pamphlets series published 
by the LCSNA (mathematics, 
political theory, logic), presented 
a paper on "Charles Dodgson 's 
Engagement with Nonfinite 
Processes, 1885-1895." Edward 
Wakeling, editor of the ten vol- 
umes of the published edition of 
Lewis Carroll's unabridged diaries, 
described "Charles L. Dodgson 
and His Mathematical Circle." 

The second morning ses- 
sion, chaired by Robert Thomas, 
editor of Philosophia Mathematica, 
consisted of Ivor's talk (dedi- 
cated to the memory of Tony 
Beale), "The Appreciation of 
Carroll by Bertrand Russell and 
Philip Jourdain," followed by 
Amirouche's paper, "What Makes 
Lewis Carroll's 'Symbolic Logic', 
Symbolic." (Carroll's symbolic 
logic was the topic of Amirouche's 
doctoral dissertation.) 

From the very beginning of 
the conference, and continuing 
up until the very end, Catherine 
Richards, assisted by LCS com- 
mittee member Sarah Jardine- 
Willoughby — who also baked the 
cakes — took care of all of us with 
varied and delicious refreshments. 

In the first of the two afternoon 
sessions, chaired by LCS member 
Sarah Stanfield, Mark, who also 
is a specialist on Carroll's logic, 

spoke on "Dodgson and Darwin." 
Eugene Seneta, the author of 
all the authoritative published 
articles on Carroll's work in 
probability, and a fellow of the 
Australian Academy of Sciences, 
presented his paper, "Lewis 
Carroll and Probabilistic Science: 
Some Influences and Contacts." 
David Singmaster, the well-known 
mathematician and editor-des- 
ignate of the games and puzzles 
volume in the Lewis Carroll pam- 
phlets series, gave the final paper 
in this session, "Lewis Carroll's 
Mathematical Puzzles." 

The lively final session, last- 
ing until 5:30 p.m., was a panel 
discussion led by Amirouche, who 
posed provocative questions to 
the panelists: Fran Abeles, Mark 
Richards, Edward Wakeling, and 
Jenny Woolf, author of the recent 
biography of Carroll, The Mystery 
of Lewis Carroll (2010). Their re- 
sponses elicited many remarks as 
well as additional questions from 
the audience. 

LCSNA members will be 
informed when the conference 
proceedings are published. The 
success of this first-time event has 
inspired Mark to plan another 
devoted to Carroll as a scientist 
that could take place within the 
next few years. Stay tuned! 



Mark Burstein 

Photojournalist Peter Simon, in 
his coffee-table biography Eye and 
I (Bulfinch, 2001), writes about his 
warm memories of childhood sing- 
alongs with his talented pianist 
father, his mother, and his three 
musical sisters. Two of the sisters, 
Carly and Lucy, recorded two 
albums for children in 1963-64 
and a third, The Simon Sisters Sing 
the Lobster Quadrille and Other Songs 
for Children, for Columbia in 1969. 
It contained a minor hit, "Wyn- 
ken, Blynken and Nod," as well as 
Lucy's setting of Carroll's poem. A 
compilation, called Carly & Lucy 
Simon Sing Songs for Children, was 
released in 1970 by Children's Re- 
cords of America, and has recendy 
been reissued on CD by Shout Fac- 
tory (ISBN 9781603991933). 

Sadly, Peter's father, Richard, 
died in 1960, but the litde publish- 
ing company he had founded in 
1924 with his pal Max Schuster 
continues to thrive; in fact, it 
remains to this day one of the 
most successful English-language 
publishers. Peter's eldest sister, 
Joanna, a mezzo-soprano, won 
the Metropolitan Opera auditions 
in 1962, and went on to a storied 
operatic career. The middle sister, 
Lucy, became a composer for mu- 
sicals, best known for her setting 
of The Secret Garden, and has won 
two Grammys. Wonder whatever 
happened to Carly? 

*s ^d . 



Mark Burstein 

Released by Columbia Pictures in 
1967 and recently become avail- 
able on DVD (Sony Screen Clas- 
sics by Request) , this wretched 
endeavor, produced by low-budget 
schlockmeister Sam Katzman, 
was one of the first "exploitation" 
films to portray the newly emerg- 
ing counterculture, albeit in a 
clueless, negative manner. Patri- 
cia Cross (Susan Oliver) and her 


boyfriend Larry Osborne (James 
MacArthur — you know, "Danno" 
Williams of Hawaii Five-O) , portray 
two students in an unnamed San 
Francisco college who are expelled 
for publishing an underground 
paper, The Tomorrow Times. As a 
result, a philosophy professor, Dr. 
Jonathan Barnett (Richard Todd), 
resigns his teaching position and 
is soon convinced by a sleazy, con- 
niving hippie to become a Timothy 
Leary-type advocate for the youth 
movement and, specifically, the use 
of LSD. He gains a cult following. 

The movie's most memorable 
scene depicts Patricia's lurid 
"trip," in which she drops too 
much acid at a "happening" 
(party) after a band proto-raps 
a song about Wonderland. She 
quite believes she's Alice — as 
the other characters morph into 
their Wonderland equivalents for 
an extended musical sequence, 
during which she attempts some 
modern-dance poses, grooves on 
other costumed characters singing 
and dancing, sheds some clothes, 
seduces a danseur (no explana- 
tion of who he is supposed to be), 
and engenders a psychodrama 
freak-out in a nearby room. 

The sensational nature of the 
film caused it to be banned 
in the United Kingdom. I 
would ban it too, but only 
because it's truly unwatch- 
able, even in a "stoned- 
out, so bad it's good" way. 
The completist needs it, of 
course, and kudos to Geoffrey 
Chandler for digging it up. Far 
freakin' out, man. 

As to the perpetrators of this 
unholy mess? Book 'em, Danno 


Doug Howick 

If you wanted to introduce a 
friend or acquaintance to The 
Hunting of the Snark, what better 
and easier way to do so than by 
buying the latest edition? "What's 
easy about that?" I hear you won- 
der. But Greek publisher Paravion 
Press has devised a novel way to 
give anyone a Fit, with a minimum 
of Agony on your part. 

Paravion Press publishes 
postcard-sized (15.0 x 10.5 cm) 
(5" x 4") editions of favorite 
short literary works that are 
tailored to be sent by mail. At 
the beginning is a page "for your 
correspondence," in case you want 
to add a few words of your own, 
and each book comes with its own 
envelope, so that it's ready to mail 
with just the addition of a name, 
an address, and a stamp. 

The Hunting of the Snark is 
one of the latest publications by 
Paravion Press. With illustrations 
by Nic Rawling, designed by Will 
Brady, and set in Linotype Swift 
by Masterpiece Printers Inc., 
in New York, it is crisp, clearly 
printed, and perfectly easy to read. 
Each of the eight Fits is printed 
in full, although the dedication 
inscription to Gertrude Chataway 
and the preface by Carroll are not 

Of course, the idea of a small- 
sized edition of Snark is not new. 
The first pirated copy of the work, 

Seeking the Snark with forks and 

hope, by Nic Rawling 


published by James R. Osgood and 
Company of Boston in 1876, was 
actually smaller than this latest 
edition, but it was still a hardcover 
book rather than a softcover 
booklet. So also were the many 
Macmillan, London, Miniature 
Editions first published in 1910 — 
and I do have a treasured copy 
of the Barbara J. Raheb, Tarzana, 
California, 1981 miniature, which, 
despite its 57 pages, is a really tiny 
2.2 X 1.5 cm! No, this booklet is 
more similar to the 1960s edition 
of the Snark published by J. L. Carr 
of Kettering, Northamptonshire, 
and reprinted by Quince Tree 
Press in 2004. 

The illustrations by Nic 
Rawling, whose work was 
previously unknown to me, are 
unusual and quite unlike those 
of any other Snark illustrator. I 
have lately learned of Rawling's 
performance collaborative The 
Paper Cinema, which is part 
animation and part puppetry, for 
which Nic cuts out hundreds of 
images from his own drawings and 
projects them onto a large screen, 
to form layered scenes. 

The two major illustrations 
in this publication are just such 
compositions. The first depicts 
the Bellman, wearing a folded 
newspaper boat as a hat and 
tinkling his bell, within a collage 
topped by the finger of a hand 
indicating the way to go. The 
other features two large forks held 
by the Butcher (in obligatory ruff 
and dunce's cap), as well as by the 
Beaver, in the midst of a selection 
of strange, creepy, unrecognisable 
creatures. There are also a few 
smaller sketches of walking 
thimbles, scattered into the text, 
including the front cover. 

I like it! Go to www.paravion to order at US $10.00 
per copy, or less for multiple sets. 


Snarked! 0, 1, and 2 

Written and illustrated 

by Roger Langridge 

Kaboom! Studios 

A Division of Boom Entertainment 

Andrew Ogus 

One measure of an author's achie- 
vement is the lives that his or her 
characters may be given by the 
hands of others. Roger Langridge 
has based his delicious comic book 
series on two of Carroll's relatively 
obscure figures: the Walrus and 
the Carpenter. In the prequel to 
the series (Issue 0), we are intro- 
duced to the louche heroes, Wil- 
berforce J. Walrus and Clyde Mc- 
Dunk (nice to know their names), 
and their fellow protagonists, 
Princess Scarlet and Prince Russell 
(a.k.a. "Rusty"), the children of 
the Red King — who has gone off 
on a mysterious sea voyage. 

The book is chock-full of hi- 
larious drawings and characteriza- 
tions, but there is also a sense of 
invisible threat throughout; an 
excidng adventure is imminent. 
While aimed at young readers, 
the comic offers plenty of jokes, 
puns, and Carrollian references 
to delight readers of all ages. The 
back of volume is jammed with 
fun stuff, including abbreviated 
versions of The Hunting of the Snark 
and the original Walrus and Car- 
penter poem (curiously, with a 
couple of stanzas left out) , as well 
as puzzle and game pages, cast 
sketches, the Jabberwock newspaper 
("You Too Can Believe Six Impos- 
sible Things Before Breakfast"), 
and the Princess's diary. 

The adventures continue in Is- 
sues 1 and 2, with the appearance 
of the Cheshire Cat (who has to 
pay a visit to a girl in Oxford, the 
Gryphon, more cast members, the 
number 42 and deeper character- 
izations and threats to our heroine 
(who fears only Snarks) and silent 
hero (well, he's too young to talk). 
There's a brief section of the origi- 
nal Snark, which I for one would 
like to see expanded into its own 
book. Issue 3 will be out in Decem- 
ber. I can hardly wait. 

Alice's Adventures in NYC 

Wonderland — The Text Generation 

SMJ Crimp 

Illustrated by Arielle Jessup 

Hatter Publishing (2011) 

Kindle edidon $5.99 

Cindy Watter 

An amusing, if occasionally pain- 
ful, conceit, available only on 
Kindle as of now. As a rule, read- 
ing a book for review is a pleasant 
experience. One has an excuse to 
avoid the tedium and squalor of 
housework, and lying on a couch, 
flipping pages is a reassuringly cozy 
way to spend the day. Obviously, 
Kindles were not made for some- 
one like me. The author kindly 
sent me a link so I could download 
her book, and I read it on the 
screen of my computer. I am of 
an age to associate the computer 
screen with work, not games or so- 
cializing. This means that my read- 
ing experience was excruciating. 

But who cares about me? With, 
at best, twenty-five years of (rapidly 
declining) spending power left, I 
am less important than the typical 
preadolescent. Apparently that is 
the market for an Alice that has 
been translated into text-messag- 
ese. This Alice, like the original, is 
a dream within a frame story, but 
with a twenty-first-century Alice 
(who is somehow related to the 
original Alice, and I do not know 
how that is possible unless Mrs. 
Hargreaves's last remaining son, 
who accompanied her to New York 
in 1932, sowed a few too many wild 
oats on the visit). This Alice (now 
nine years old, not seven, and 
extremely oriented to the culture 
of conspicuous consumption) goes 
with her mother to Central Park, 
falls asleep, and the rest is a famil- 
iar story. 

The author kindly provides an 
epigraph explaining the purpose 
for this translation: "Sometimes 2 
re-tell a gr8 story u hve 2 know the 
language of th day." Right away 
there is the problem with th/the — 
both are used. As if reading the 


work were not difficult enough, 
the text-message style of spelling 
is not consistent. There are, for 
example, several different spellings 
for Central Park: CP, C Park, C Prk, 
Central Prk, etc. "Great" is "gr8" 
and "grt." "Wonderland" is some- 
times capitalized, sometimes not. 
In addition, in the glossary there is 
confusion with plural, possessive, 
and contraction. Shouldn't "PIR — 
Parent's in room" be "Parents"? 
And shouldn't "YSAN — Your such 
a nerd" use "You're"? "HHHIS" has 
no definition. "DL" is defined as 
"lowdown" but I know that "keep it 
on the down low" means "keep it a 
secret." And somehow I don't think 
"WAB" means "What a bunch." 
The twenty-first-century Alice likes 
Justin Bieber, Ralph Lauren's kid's 
candy store, and "Eliose," who 
must be Kay Thompson's creation 

The actual book is quite close 
to Carroll's original, and not com- 
pletely in text message style, thank 
goodness. I was happy to see that 
"melancholy" remained in place, 
a testament to Carroll's (and 
Crimp's) belief that children can 
learn a challenging vocabulary. 

While I deplore a nine-year-old 
who wants Christian Louboutin 
anything, I smiled at the brand- 
name placement for the three 
Alice's Tea Shops in Manhattan, 
and the author thoughtfully en- 
courages readers to go to the Alice 
statue in Central Park, and even 
provides the cross street. 

Judging from her e-mail, Susan 
Crimp is a delightful person, and 
her pen name is worthy of an Eng- 
lish Edwardian murder mystery 
writer. I would love to be able to 
tell readers that this version of 
TBBITWWW (the best book in the 
whole wide world) is an absolute 
necessity, but it is not. It is an af- 
fordable curiosity for the collector, 
and it may well lure a determinedly 
wired tween into Wonderland. I do 
appreciate the ONNTA (Oh no not 
this again) abbreviation; it seems 
much more ladylike than the fa- 
miliar BOHICA (bend over here it 

comes again). Now I shall lie down 
in a dark room with a cold rag on 
my forehead. 


The Logic Pamphlets of Lewis 

Carroll and Related Pieces 

Edited by Francine E Abeles 

291 pages 


Press of Virginia 

ISBN 978-0-930326-25-8 

Sen Wong 


The Logic Pamphlets (Volume 4 of 
The Pamphlets of Lewis Carroll) 
is a collection of three sets of 
Dodgson/Carroll's papers, letters, 
and worksheets: The first set has 
to do with syllogisms and puzzles 
arising from the syllogistic forms; 
the second set has to do with the 
hypothetical and problems arising 
from arguments based on hypo- 
thetical propositions (including 
replies from other philosophers 
and logicians); and the third set 
contains logic exercises and exam- 
ples for instructional purposes. 
In addition to a general in- 
troduction, the volume editor, 
Francine F. Abeles, has written an 
independent introduction to every 
set of the collected papers. All the 
introductions are written with such 
clarity that aficionados who are not 
well versed in the logic discipline 
are provided with enough basic 
information to facilitate an appre- 
ciation of Carroll's logic writings. 



Let's cut to the chase and go back 
to the nineteenth century to see 
what Dodgson's colleagues were 
doing at the time. Dodgson passed 
away in 1897; two years later, in 
1899, David Hilbert published his 
Grundlagen der Geometrie {Founda- 
tions of Geometry, hereafter GG) , 
which demonstrated a new meth- 
odology for independence and 
consistency proofs in geometry, but 
which was also meant for the entire 

classical mathematical enterprise. 
Gottlob Frege was taken aback 
by the theoretical "errors" that 
he read in the book and initiated 
a correspondence with Hilbert. 
The younger Hilbert tried to 
explain his methodologyto Frege 
but without success, and having 
grown tired of Frege 's nagging, 
he ceased correspondence after a 
few exchanges. Frege wouldn't let 
it go, however, and started writing 
two series of articles, both titled 
Uber die Grundlagen der Geometrie 
(On the Foundations of Geom- 
etry) . This was the infamous (if 
you think that Frege had a mo- 
mentary lapse of reason) or excit- 
ing (if you think that Frege was 
on to something) Frege-Hilbert 
Controversy, which over a century 
later is still making noises. But we 
are not going to talk about the 

The nineteenth century was a 
crazy century for geometry. Hil- 
bert 's GG may be seen partly as 
a reaction to just that craziness. 
During the semester of 1898- 
1899, Hilbert taught a course of 
lectures on Euclidean geometry 
at the University of Gottingen. 
The main results of the lectures 
were later rearranged and pre- 
sented as a memorial address 
celebrating the unveiling of the 
Gauss-Weber Monument at Got- 
tingen in the early summer of 
1899. It seems that GG was not 
only an attempt to demonstrate a 
new methodology in doing clas- 
sical mathematics, it was meant 
to be a sort of "conclusive" pre- 
sentation of Euclidean geometry, 
and such a "conclusive" presenta- 
tion turned out to be a formal 
axiomatic system in which things 
such as points, straight lines, and 
planes were developed logically. 
Where did such an urge or need 
come from? 

Entering the nineteenth cen- 
tury, Euclid's postulates were not 
so "self-evident" anymore. His 
notion of postulates was found to 
be inadequate, and our "Euclid- 
ean" intuition of space was a little 


shaky. First there was a Russian 
mathematician, Nikolai Ivanovich 
Lobachevsky (1792-1839), who 
removed the parallel postulate 
from Euclid's list of postulates. 
From there, he constructed his 
non-Euclidean geometry. The 
Italian geometer Eugenio Beltrami 
(1835-1900) created a model 
called a "pseudosphere," which 
provided an interpretation in 
which Lobachevsky 's geometry was 
demonstrated to be (relatively) 
consistent, whereas Euclid's paral- 
lel postulate was false — while his 
other postulates (axioms) were true! 
At the same time, the Hungarian 
mathematician Janos Bolyai (1802- 
1860) independently worked out 
a non-Euclidean geometry simi- 
lar to that of Lobachevsky — not 
to mention Bernhard Riemann 
(1826-1866), who constructed a 
geometry in which the shortest dis- 
tance between two points was not a 
straight line. 1 

Jose Alberto Coffa, a historian 
of philosophy, has given us this 
vivid picture of the time: 

During the second half of the 
nineteenth century, through a 
process still awaiting explanation, 
the community of geometers 
reached the conclusion that all 
geometries were here to stay. 2 

It is a stunning description. 
Was there such a happy consensus 
among geometers in the second 
half of the nineteenth century? 
Amid the mushrooming of non- 
Euclidean geometries, Hilbert 
probably found it desirable to put 
Euclidean geometry on a solid 
modern foundation — a system of 
axioms set out in GG — on the one 
hand, and on the other, to dem- 
onstrate a rigorous way of doing 

Dodgson was born in 1832. All 
the major non-Euclidean geom- 
etries of the nineteenth century 
were practically invented during 
his lifetime! But it seems that he 
paid absolutely no attention to the 
hustle and bustle of the newfound 
strangeness of space and time. As 

far as geometry was concerned, 
his focus was Euclidean geometry 
only. This was the first interesting 
phenomenon referred to in this 
section's title. 

He certainly was aware of the 
heretics and their work in geom- 
etry; in fact, he even wrote about 
them in a book called Euclid and 
His Modern Rivals, which took the 
form of a whimsical dialogue. It 
was published in 1879 and was 
a defense of Euclid through the 
mouths of Minos — sounds Greek, 
doesn't it? — and Euclid against the 
"blasphemy" of a professor Nie- 
mand — sounds German, doesn't it? 
Indeed, it's German for "nobody." 
Not only that, but curiouser and 
curiouser, it sounds almost like the 
name of the infidel Riemann! 


Let's turn now to logic. There was 
another controversy in England, 
several decades earlier, although 
not as famous. As remarked by Sir 
William Hamilton (1788-1856), 
the period between John Locke 
and the early nineteenth cen- 
tury was quite barren of any real 
contribution to logic in England. 
So Hamilton proposed the quan- 
tification of the predicate (of a 
subject-predicate sentence type) 
in the 1850s. It was not a new idea. 
At least two Gottfrieds had done 
it: one was Leibniz (1646-1716), 
the other Ploucquet (1716-1790). 
Johann Heinrich Lambert (1728- 
1777) and Georg von Holland 
(eighteenth century) had tried it 
too. Frederic de Castillon (eigh- 
teenth-nineteenth century) also 
had quantified the predicate. Even 
the Englishman George Bentham 
(1800-1884) quantified the predi- 
cate in a table of propositions in 
his Outline of a New System of Logic, 
published in 1827. Augustus De 
Morgan (1806-1878), professor 
of mathematics at the University 
of London, said rightly that many 
predecessors had done it already, 
although Hamilton insisted that it 
was his innovation. The result was 
a quarrel that lasted 27 years, from 

1846 until the curtain finally fell 
in 1873. 

It was an exciting time in Eng- 
land. Logic was on its way to be- 
coming a legitimate independent 
discipline. Dr. Abeles has already 
mentioned a few logicians in her 
introduction; I'll repeat some of 
those names with additional infor- 

De Morgan started writing 
about logic in 1847 with Formal 
Logic; or, the Calculus of Inference, 
Necessary and Probable. George 
Boole (1815-1864) published his 
first book, The Mathematical Analy- 
sis of Logic, Being an Essay toward a 
Calculus of Deductive Reasoning, on 
exactly the same day De Morgan 
published his Formal Logic. Hav- 
ing throughout the years changed 
some of his ideas and refined oth- 
ers, in 1860 De Morgan published 
his Syllabus of a Proposed System of 
Logic, which was possibly meant to 
be a definitive textbook of logic. 
De Morgan and Boole were the 
two most important contributors 
to British logic in this period. Like 
Hamilton, De Morgan was bent on 
improving the traditional Aristo- 
telian logic within the framework 
of the categorical syllogisms. For 
example, his first move was to en- 
large the number of propositional 
types by manipulating all the com- 
binations and distributions of two 
terms and their negations. The so- 
called De Morgan's Laws are essen- 
tially laws of distributions. But he 
introduced also the notion of an 
arbitrary and stipulated "universe 
of discourse," and that has turned 
out to be enormously significant. 
We shall come back to this when 
we talk about Carroll's attitude 
towards the existential import of 
universal propositions. 

In the case of Boole, his major 
work was An Investigation of the Laws 
of Thought, on ivhich Are founded the 
Mathematical Theories of Logic and 
Probability, which was published in 
1854. Abeles has rightly pointed 
out that he was "algebraizing logic, 
i.e., rewriting syllogisms in a new 
notational system rather than in- 


venting a new logical calculus." 
However, he made a breakthrough 
by giving the old logic a purely 
extensional interpretation. Terms 
(small letters) are now treated 
strictly as classes of objects or 
things. Symbols such as " + ", " — ", 
and "X" serve as binary operators. 
Boole's algebra of logic is a simple 
and elegant system that is also very 
intuitive. In fact, Boole's own pre- 
sentation was axiomatic, though 
not rigorously axiomatic. 

Nonetheless, it was complained 
that Boole's algebra was not so 
much a system of logic as an al- 
gebra of the numerals 1 and 0, 
meaning Boole's algebra is not 
"logical" enough. One person who 
held such an opinion was William 
Stanley Jevons (1835-1882). For 
Jevons, the real glitch was that 
Boole's system was a calculus of 
objects (or things) taken in their 
extension. So he set out to sort 
of rework Boole's algebra, and 
the result was, in his own words, a 
calculus of terms in intension. For 
some reason, Jevons 's logic is not 
studied anymore. As C. I. Lewis 
(1883-1964), his colleague across 
the Atlantic, commented, "On the 
whole Jevons' methods are likely to 
be tedious and have little of math- 
ematical nicety about them." 3 

Lewis's predecessor Charles 
Sanders Peirce (1839-1914), 
who was largely unknown in his 
lifetime, was an original mind in 
many disciplines. His contributions 
ranged over mathematics, geodesy, 
metaphysics, logic, semiosis, theory 
of reasoning, and much more. In 
logic alone, his ideas were so many 
and so original that it's not pos- 
sible to hint at anything in a sen- 
tence or two. I shall take a risk and 
mention just what I think is the 
gem (next to his theory of signs) 
of Peirce's fully mature mind. Late 
in 1896, he invented a system of 
existential graphs (EG), a system of 
logic diagrams, neglected for over 
half a century, which was worked 
out (alpha and beta) for the first 
time from his manuscripts by Don 
D. Roberts in the 1960s and finally 

published in the 1970s. EG not 
only can express and deduce Ar- 
istotle's syllogisms, it can handle 
predicate logic quite well. There 
are three parts in EG: the alpha 
part for pro positional logic, the 
beta part for quantificational logic, 
and the gamma part for modal 
logic. EG constitutes an effective 
topological graph method of proof 
that is highly visual, and it is ex- 
actly because of this visual aspect of 
the system that EG seems to have a 
quality of reflecting how we "per- 
form" reasoning. 

From the "new" world, we move 
back to the "old" world, and our 
story has come full circle. The 
father of first-order logic was busy 
as a bee developing his new system 
of logical notation (Begriffsschrift 
or Conceptual Notation). In paper 
after paper, he tried to clarify the 
extremely important concept of 
function; in order to set a founda- 
tion for arithmetic, he analyzed 
deeply the concept of number 
(Grundlagen der Arithmetik or Foun- 
dations of Arithmetic). After years 
of laying this foundation, he finally 
made his move, and in Grundg- 
esetze der Arithmetik (Basic Laws of 
Arithmetic), he used his new logic 
to construct a solid foundation for 
arithmetic (the backbone of clas- 
sical mathematics, of course), only 
to see his foundation collapsed by 
a letter from a young man from 
England. That young man was 
Bertrand Russell, and in the letter 
was a paradox that was later known 
as Russell's Paradox. 

Here's the second unusual 
phenomenon. In such an exciting 
time, when British logicians were 
trying to algebraize Aristotelian 
logic, when American logicians 
were dissatisfied with the limita- 
tion of the categorical propositions 
and the syllogistic argument types, 
and when the German Frege was 
inventing a theory of quantifica- 
tion and creating a new logic, why 
did Dodgson adhere to Aristotelian 
logic, in exactly the way he clung 
to Euclidean geometry despite the 
blossoming of new geometries? 

It is certainly not unusual 
for some scholars to cling to an 
orthodox or traditional posi- 
tion in some discipline within 
a certain period of time. The 
above two questions arise from 
the intertwining of two contexts. 
If I'm successful in presenting a 
vivid picture of the activities of 
the geometers and the logicians 
of the nineteenth century, the 
reader should have sensed the 
intellectual richness, adventure, 
and invention of the time, in at 
least those two fields. But what 
really makes a student of Dodg- 
son scratch her head is that, if 
he had a philosophy of language 
at all — as I think he did — it was 
a very modern one. ' His attitude 
towards language (natural lan- 
guage at least) was quite flexible. 
He certainly understood that 
language is an artifact. The Witt- 
gensteinian slogan "the meaning 
of a word is its use" applies per- 
fectly to the Alice books. Dodgson 
anticipated Wittgenstein and 
preceded all the ordinary lan- 
guage philosophers of the 1930s 
and 1940s. Dodgson was no dog- 
matist. Evidence was strewn every- 
where throughout the Alice books 
that he was fully convinced that 
language can be used to do many 
different things and that there 
is no such thing as the inherent 
meaning of a word. If he could 
embrace such an open attitude 
towards language, why couldn't 
he accept at least the possibility of 
a non-Euclidean geometry and a 
non-Aristotelian logic, especially 
a logic that goes beyond categori- 
cal sentences? What could be the 
stumbling block? 

My best guess would be his 
religion. Dodgson was ordained 
as a deacon of the Anglican 
Church (1861), though he never 
took holy orders and he also 
seemed to have doubts about that 
particular theology. Some of his 
diary entries point to his deep 
personal sense of "sinfulness," 


perhaps to a degree unusual for 
the average Christian. It seems that 
such a deep sense of sin required 
a deep sense of religiosity. If so, 
it is possible that Dodgson could 
not imagine a God who would 
have created more than one kind 
of space or more than one logic, 
when the Christian God is com- 
monly referred to as the Absolute. 
There can't be two geometries, 
and in the case of logic, Kant's 
famous mistaken claim that Aristo- 
tle's logic was a complete science 
must be right. Is this what stopped 
Dodgson 's unusually creative mind 
from going beyond the Aristotelian 
syllogistics? This might be a good 
research topic for Carrollians. 


Once Dodgson 's adherence to 
Aristotelian logic is set as a back- 
ground, his adherence to similar 
treatment of the universal categori- 
cal propositions follows naturally. 
The traditional square of opposi- 
tion originating with Aristode 
reveals logical relationships among 
the four types of categorical sen- 
tences A (Every S is P) , E (No S is 
P), I (Some S is P), and O (Some S 
is not P), as conceived by Aristode. 
The most controversial and criti- 
cized relationship in the twentieth 
century was probably the relation 
of subalternation between A and 
I (and also E and O). Aristotle 
thought that if every S is P, then 
some S must be P. This is the so- 
called "existential import" of the 
universal (affirmative) sentences. 
But he made this assumption for 
a reason, actually an ontological 
reason. There is a fundamental dif- 
ference between Plato's philosophy 
and Aristotle's philosophy. Unlike 
his teacher Plato, who was con- 
cerned with ideas and the abstract 
mathematical realm, Aristotle was 
more down to earth and was con- 
cerned more with the realm inhab- 
ited by individuals (objects). I'm 
not prepared to say that Aristotle 
didn't have a concept of the empty 
domain or a universe of discourse 
that is empty, but it seems that his 

ontology assumes a non-empty 
universe. In a non-empty universe, 
A implies I would look natural. If 
every S is P, then it should be true 
that at least some S is P. In the case 
of Aristotle, his ontology enforces 
the relation of subalternation, i.e., 
the existential import of universal 

In the case of Dodgson, if he 
subscribed to Aristotle's ontology 
and assumed that there could only 
be one logic, his acceptance of the 
existential import of universal cat- 
egorical sentences is obvious. But 
there is a technical reason for him 
to assume the existential import of 
universal categorical sentences. It 
has been touched upon by Abeles 
in highlighting Hugh MacColl's 
(1837-1909) criticism of Dodg- 
son 's Symbolic Logic, Part I, a and I 
shall add a few words in that re- 
gard. In the Eighth and Ninth Papers 
on Logic, Dodgson asks his readers 
to bear in mind the assumption: 

That the proposition "all x are y" 
is the sum total of the two propo- 
sitions "some x are y n and "no x 
are not /'.'■ 

If you look at this definition 
of A, there is a surprising lack of 
intuitiveness, and it certainly is not 
"natural." I suspect that this defini- 
tion was a result of the way he con- 
structed his logic diagrams. 

Let us go to Carroll's biliteral 
diagrams. 7 The I proposition is 
given the following definition: 

Now, how do we define an A 
proposition such as "all x are y"? 
All we have to do is to combine 
the above two diagrams into one: 

Some xy exist 
- Some x are y 
+ Some y are x 


It's simple: If some xy exist, we put 
a dot in the upper-left cell. If there 
is no x at all, i.e., no x exists, put 
a circle in the upper-left cell and 
another in the upper-right cell, as 

No x exist 



All x are y 



Since all x are y, xy' must be 
empty; hence, a circle in the 
upper-right cell is a must. But we 
still have to show that all x are y. 
In Dodgson 's notation, nothing 
else could be done except by 
putting a dot in the upper-left 
cell. This would mean that 
everything that is x is also y. The 
problem is, the dot is an existential 
symbol. The existential import 
of the A proposition is thus 
smuggled in. In this notation, 
there is no way the A proposition 
does not carry some existential 
implication irrespective of 
Carroll's ontological inclination. 
Therefore, in Carroll's logic 
diagram notation, existential 
import is indeed a technical 

Furthermore, if we compare 
Carroll's verbal and diagrammatic 
definitions of the A proposition, 
the intuitiveness that the former 
lacks immediately reveals itself 
vividly in the latter. It appears that 
the influence of his diagrammatic 
notation on his logical investiga- 
tion cannot be underestimated. 

Apart from that, Carroll prob- 
ably didn't envisage the close and 
tight relationship between logic 
and mathematics. It is necessary 
for mathematics to handle empty 
domains, and the same goes for 
logic. Nowadays, we know that 
universal propositions do not 
necessarily have any existential 
import, thanks partly to De Mor- 
gan's introduction of the concept 
of "universe of discourse," with 
which we can specifically indicate 
an empty universe, and partly to 
the introduction of quantifiers by 
Peirce and Frege independently. 


Let <t> and T be predicates, x and 
y individual variables, and the A 
proposition can have two variants 
in the language of first-order logic. 
If we restrict our universe of dis- 
course to everything that is <J>, 'Vx 
IV would mean everything (viz. <t>- 
thing) is a T-thing. But if we do not 
restrict our universe of discourse, 
we can write ' Vx (Ox D Tx) ' which 
would mean the same, i.e., every 
O-thing is a T-thing, or, in more 
clumsy wording, for all things, if 
it is a O-thing, it is also a T-thing. 
Obviously, "All superheroes wear 
speedos or tights" does not imply 
the existence of some speedo/ 
tights-wearing superhero (s), for 
the simple reason that superheroes 
constitute an empty domain! 

The interesting thing to be 
noticed here is that the A proposi- 
tion can be written as a conditional 
(or hyperthetical), in which the 
antecedent (protasis) helps to set 
the domain for the conditional. 
Talking about hypothetical, it's 
time to move onto the last section 
of this essay. 


What was Dodgson's view on the 
hypothetical? I have the impres- 
sion that Dodgson could not quite 
make up his mind on the matter — 
that's why he kept writing puzzles 
and paradoxes using hypothetical 
sentences. So I'm not going to 
answer that question here. Instead, 
I'll talk a litde bit about his A Dis- 
puted Point in Logic* and use it to 
clarify a few things, to enhance the 
pleasure of reading the second set 
of papers in the presently reviewed 

Dodgson presented A Disputed 
Point in Logic, dated 1894, in the 
following manner: 

DP: There are two propositions, 

A and B. 

Let it be granted that 
If A is true, B is true ... (i) 

Let there be another Proposi- 
tion C, such that 
If C is true, then if A is true B is 
not true .... (ii) 

According to Abeles, "This is 
the first of a series of sheets Dodg- 
son had printed on the Barbershop 
Paradox." This, then, seems like a 
good place to begin. 

First of all, this type of argument 
was nothing new even in Dodg- 
son's time. The Megarian School 
of 4 BCE was very fond of this type 
of argument. A common method 
of disputation used by those Mega- 
rian philosophers was a combina- 
tion of reduction ad absurdum with 
conditionals (or hypothetical). 
If an opponent made a claim or 
assumption P, it would not be un- 
common for a Megarian philoso- 
pher to construct an argument of 
the following form: 

MA: If P then Q, if P then ~Qj 
therefore P is not possible. 

What the Megarian philoso- 
phers wanted to argue was that 
if we can infer both 'Q' and *~Q' 
from 'P\ 'P' cannot be possible; 
i.e., 'P'cannot be asserted. DP 
looks very much like a version of 
MA, but does it really? 

Let's look at DP one more time. 
First we have two propositions, A 
and B. Then we assume (i). But 
what is (i)? The formulation of (i) 
dangerously borders on a confu- 
sion of object language with metalan- 
guage, the same problem that had 
haunted philosophers and logi- 
cians since almost the beginning 
of ancient Greek philosophy, until 
Tarski and Carnap started clearing 
the muddy waters in the early part 
of the twentieth century. Literally, 
(i) is a conditional whose anteced- 
ent is "A is true," and its conse- 
quent is "B is true." Let us call this 
literal reading (i)': 

(i)' If (A is true), then (Bis 

The original "trick" conceived 
by Dodgson was that (i) was sup- 
posed to be: 

(i) if A then B 

in which A is true, whereas B 
is also true. Philo the dialectician 
from the Megarian School had 

already given a material inter- 
pretation of the conditional such 
that a conditional is construed 
as false where the antecedent is 
true and the consequent is false. 
When the antecedent is false, 
whether the consequent is true or 
false does not matter; the condi- 
tional is construed as true. And of 
course, where the antecedent and 
the consequent are both true, the 
conditional is construed as true. 
Now in (i), Dodgson wanted to 
insist that A be true and B be true 
among the three possible cases 
in which (i) can be construed as 
true. This is one source of the 

However, under our literal in- 
terpretation, the two conditionals 
can be laid out as follows: 

(i) ' If (A is true) , then (B is 

(ii)' If (C is true), then [if (A 
is true), then (B is not true)]. 

Let us introduce a "1" to stand 
for true and a "0" to stand for not 
true, so that the following pre- 
sentation will be clear. We now 
know that a conditional can be 
construed as true in three cases, 
so (i)' can have a "1" when we as- 
sign a "0" to both (A is true) and 
(Bis true). 9 

Next, we move on to the sub- 
conditional of (ii)', i.e., [if (A is 
true), then (B is not true)]. Since 
we have assigned a to (A is true) 
in (i)', we assign the same value 
(that is, 0) to (A is true) in (ii)'. 
Since (B is true) in (i)' is assigned 
a 0, we cannot assign the same 
value to (B is not true) in (ii)'; 
instead, we give it a 1. It means 
that for the subconditional of (ii) 
', the antecedent has a 0, and the 
consequent has a 1; hence, the 
entire subconditional should be 
assigned a 1. 

Since the subconditional is the 
consequent of (ii)' and it has the 
value 1, the entire (ii)' has to be 
assigned a 1 for the same reason, 
irrespective of the truth value 
of its antecedent, which is (C is 


The funny thing is that the truth 
values of A, B, and C may be irrel- 
evant under our literal interpreta- 
tion. If Dodgson wanted DP to be 
a sort of logical puzzle, a careful 
reformulation would be a start. 

1 Edna E. Kramer. The Nature and 
Growth of Modern Mathematics. 
Princeton University Press, 1981, 
Chapter 3. It is said that the 
mathematical giant Johann Carl 
Friedrich Gauss (1777-1855) 
discovered similar results to those of 
Lobachevsky and Bolyai. If you wish 
to push further, there was an Italian 
priest, Girolamo Saccheri (1667- 
1733), who actually discovered 
Lobachevskian geometry without 
knowing it in the course of trying to 
prove Euclid's parallel postulate in 

8 Alberto Coffa. "From Geometry 
to Tolerance: Sources of 
Conventionalism in Nineteenth- 
Century Geometry," in Robert 
Colodny, ed. From Quarks to Quasars: 
Philosophical Problems of Modern 
Physics. University of Pittsburg 
Series, Vol 7, Pittsburgh: Pittsburgh 
University Press, 3-70. 

:! C. I. Lewis. A Survey of Symbolic 
Logic (originally published by the 
University of California Press in 
1918). Dover Publications, Inc., 
1960, 78. 

1 Sen Wong. Hijacking Alice: 

Underground Logic and Mirror-image 
Language, in Chinese and to be 
published in 2011. 

5 The Logic Pamphlets of Charles 
Lutwidge Dodgson and Related Pieces, 
ed. Francine F. Abeles, Vol 4 of 
The Pamphlets of Lewis Carroll. NY: 
The Lewis Carroll Society of North 
America, 2010, 5. 

6 Ibid., 228. There is a similar 
assumption concerning E and O 
sentences. I shall talk only about the 
A and I case as an example. 

7 Ibid. I assume that the reader 
is familiar with Carroll's logic 
diagrams; if not, pages 54—55 of 
The Logic Pamphlets would suffice for 
an understanding of the coming 
explanation in this section of the 

K The Logic Pamphlets, 112. 

9 We are considering only one 
combination of truth values, viz. 
antecedent (0) and consequent (1), 
as an example in our discussion. 


Alice au pays des merveilles 

Lewis Carroll 

Illustrated by Alain Gauthier 

Translated by Jacques Papy 

Rageot Editeur 


ISBN: 2700211529 

Alice au pays des merveilles 

Lewis Carroll 

Illustrated by Rebecca Dautremer 

Translated by Sophie Koechlin 


Gautier Languereau 


ISBN: 2013933762 

Andrew Ogus 

Approaching a translation of a 
book one knows well in one's na- 
tive tongue with only a rudimen- 
tary knowledge of the other lan- 
guage is almost like a dream; the 
scenes are familiar, the characters 
recognizable, yet everything is new; 
we grope for meaning and find it 
in memory. Alas, though myjunior 
high school crush on the beautiful 
Mme. Bass carried me far in higher 
grades, my grasp of French is now 
insufficient to make a good com- 
parison of these two translations of 

Alain Gauthier 's elegant Cheshire Cat. Note the 
equally elegant flamingo. 

Wonderland. So I will skip over the 
conversations and concentrate on 
the pictures. 

Freed from Anglo-Saxon at- 
titudes, Alain Gauthier plays 
freely with the text, creating ef- 
fective, dreamlike conjunctions 
of characters and ideas (though 
I don't know exactly what they 
are). His adult Alice floats naked 
but shod in the arms of the Hat- 
ter, Hare, and Dormouse; em- 
braces the Caterpillar in one of 
the few in-text sketches; wears 
a bathing to dance in the arms 
of a louche, seductive Lobster 
with seeing eye claws; moons the 
King and Queen and their jurors. 
The Three of Clubs is painting 
a Mona Lisa-like portrait of our 
heroine, delicately reddening 
the roses that turn his painting 
into a playing card; the numer- 
als 5 and 7 are incorporated into 
his brilliantly colored doublet. 
The full-page illustrations are 
sharp, flat, surreal, and almost 
completely satisfying. Some situa- 
tions rate more than one picture, 
the first seeming to spring from 
Alice's mind, only to be replaced 
with a disappointing reality. Thus 
the Dormouse initially appears 
with a remarkable resemblance 
to Mickey Mouse, but a few pages 
later, at the tea table, he is "real," 
though with a catlike face. A few 
line drawings in bright colors 
break up the double-columned, 
closely set type here and there. 

Like Tenniel, Rebecca Dau- 
tremer bases her Wonderland 
firmly in reality — but the reality 
of a dream, where impossible 
situations become possible and 
ordinary. Her Alice, recogniz- 
ably based on Carroll's photos 
of the child Alice Liddell, moves 
through a gorgeously painted 
Wonderland of rich, suggestive 
background color and rich, sug- 
gestive background architecture. 
Look for the telling details: a sign 
advertising croquet, an observant 


ant. The hall of the Pool of Tears 
looks like an old factory, with beau- 
tiful arching roofs and numbered 
doors; Alice almost bursts out 
of a flimsy summer porch in the 
White Rabbit's house; the porcine 
Duchess's kitchen is a shambles of 
toys, books, and utensils. The Tea 
Party is held under a glass canopy 
dangling with tea bags carefully 
labeled in French, but the "No 
Fishing/Swimming/Ice Skating/ 
Picnicking" sign in the scene of the 
fleeing Caucus racers is in English. 

Every aspect of this book is a 
pleasure, even with a limited grasp 
of the language. The type is ele- 
gant, but (my only caveat) the text 
page is a bit wide. The full-page or 
full-spread illustrations are punctu- 
ated with delightful monochrome 
drawings, charming character 
studies that sometimes morph into 
storyboards, such as the transition 
of the baby into the pig or Bill's 
flight observed. Alice's various 
instructions to eat or drink are set 
off in pretty frames that add to the 
charm of the text. This is an Alice I 
will return to again and again. 


The Pre-Raphaelite Lens: 

British Photography and 

Painting, 1848-1875. 

Waggoner, Diane, et al. 

Washington DC: Nadonal 

Gallery of Art, 2010. 


ISBN: 978-1848220676 

Clare Imholtz 

Victorian painting and photography 
developed and prospered by learn- 
ing from each other's virtues. This 
stunning book reproduces more 
than 125 high-quality full-page 
photographs and paintings from 
the third quarter of the nineteenth 
century, to demonstrate how the 
new art of photography directed 
the Pre-Raphaelite painters toward 
realism and modernity, and how the 
Pre-Raphaelites nudged photogra- 
phers to seek artistry rather than 
provide just bare representation of 
a subject. The book's lead author, 
Diane Waggoner, is an associate 
curator of photographs at the Na- 
tional Gallery of Art and a Carroll 
scholar, who addressed our Society 
in our spring 2006 meeting at USC. 



M I 



r L f^ 


Sic transit Bill in Rebecca Dautremer's storyboard like illustration. 

In her chapter on portraiture, 
Waggoner examines Dodgson's 
photographs and those of Julia 
Margaret Cameron, David Wilkie 
Wynfield (the first to make pho- 
tographs slightly out of focus) , 
and other photographers. The 
chapter centers on the alluring 
Ellen Terry, particularly her hus- 
band G. F. Watts's lovely painting 
of her, The Choosing — the one 
wonderful product of their short 
(and probably unconsummated) 
marriage — and how it influenced 
both Dodgson and Cameron, 
despite their antithetical styles. 

While Dodgson gets his due, 
Cameron is the star. The power 
and beauty of her intimate close- 
ups — the "large heads" that 
Dodgson so objected to, some- 
times (though not always) out of 
focus (which he also disliked) — 
cannot be denied. I count twenty- 
five photographs by Cameron in 
this book and nine by Dodgson. 
On the dust jacket, we see Cam- 
eron's striking photograph of 
Alice Liddell as Pomona, goddess 
of fruit and fruitfulness, her hair 
blending into the lush foliage 
behind her. Alice stares straight- 
forwardly at the camera, serious 
now but still as much in com- 
mand as when she was Dodgson's 
Beggar Maid some 14 years before. 
Alice's sister Edith was possibly 
the sitter for a related Cameron 
photograph, The Sunflower. 

The book includes a marvel- 
ous section on early nature pho- 
tography, including some by little- 
known pioneering artists. It was 
produced to accompany the ex- 
quisite exhibition, The Pre-Rapha- 
elite Lens: British Photography and 
Painting, 1848-1875 (Oct 2010- 
January 2011) at the National 
Gallery of Art, Washington DC, 
and later at Paris's Muse d'Orsay 
(March-May 201 1) under the 
more romantic title Une ballade 
d'Amour et de Mort, referencing no 
doubt the Victorian fondness for 
narrative photography. 



Karen Mortillaro has been 
making bronze sculptures 
of Carroll characters for 
years, but her new series 
of each of AAJWs twelve 
chapters is especially ex- 
citing. She has used the 
ancient concept of ana- 
morphia to translate flat 
images into three-dimen- 
sions, creating what she 
calls anemographic sculp- 
tural illustrations. They 
were on display at one of the many 
regular Alice-related exhibits at the 
Arne Nixon Center for the Study 
of Children's Literature in Fresno, 
CA, this one called Down the Rabbit 
Hole with Leiuis Carroll and Leonard 
Weisgard, which ran September 16 
to October 26, 2011. The exhibit 
also featured Alice-themed art 
in Peanuts by Charles Schulz and 
original art from uber-Carrollian 
Byron Sewell. 

Argentinian artist Norberto Conti 
has an unlikely trio of muses: 
Alice, Bobby Fischer, and quantum 
physics. Together they inspire even 
more unlikely paintings in which a 
litde girl in a blue dress, an anx- 
ious-looking chess player, and 
Schrodinger's cat wander around 
plunging landscapes of quantum 
foam. Hard to imagine until you 
see it. Conti's work was exhibited 
at the Los Angeles Art Show by the 
Ward Nasse Gallery in January. 

The Jeff Charbonneau and Eliza 
French photography exhibit in 
San Francisco was said, by the San 
Francisco Chronicle, to be "Lewis 
Carroll ... inspired." The exhibit, 
called Circumspect, was also de- 
scribed by Photograph magazine as 
"Fellini's take on Lewis Carroll." 
And Charbonneau says: "Our 
vision of the solar system and the 
universe is based on a very simple 
idea: How would you view it as a 
child or see it in a tangible form 
that you can interact with?" The 
art looks lovely, even if the reladon 
to Carroll is merely high-concept. 
(Could any art featuring girls in 
wondrous lands be considered in 


some way related to Carroll?) 
Circumspect ran through Septem- 
ber 14, 2011, at E6 Gallery. 

Fine bronze sculptures based on 
Tenniel's illustrations were exhib- 
ited at the UK's Hampton Court 
Flower Show in July. Editions of 
the figures cast using the tradi- 
tional lost-wax method are avail- 
able from the Robert James Work- 
shop, where Robert (Bob Ellis) 
and James (Jim Coplestone) cre- 
ate storybook characters and origi- 
nal commissions for enchanted 

"These Alices by Katarzyna Widma- 
nska are amongst the nicer I have 
met recently," writes Adriana 
Peliano of Brazil's Lewis Carroll 
Society on one of her many excel- 
lent blogs. It's true, we also want to 
meet Widmanska's Alices. "They 
are intense [and] recreate the 
story in a contemporary perspec- 
tive keeping a strong dialogue 
between our well known refer- 

ences and the singular 
universe of the artist. It 
plays with identity and 
performance, with the 
possibilides of stage and 
fashion photography to 
capture imagination with 
its subtleties." One of them 
is of a topless Alice in a 
creepy rabbit mask, whom 
we'd like to meet, so long 
as it's not in a dark alley. 

Ohio-based artist Kollar 
Anderson is working on a series of 
paintings called The Wasp in the 
Wig. The bright acrylic creations 
are inspired by Carroll "but, like 
the Wasp, include situations that 
could exist in Wonderland, but 
did not make it into the book." 
Paintings include "Phyxiated," a 
vision of the Queen of Hearts in 
her younger days, and "Cheshire 
Tins," portraits of cats on 50 re- 
cycled cat food tins. Anderson 
exhibited in The Hive Gallery and 
Studios in Los Angeles in March. 

A handsome oil-on-canvas portrait 
of Lewis Carroll was painted by 
Manchester, UK, artist Mike 
Lopuszansky. The painting now 
resides in a private collection in 
Daresbury — "the best possible 
place for it" notes the unbiased 
Daresbury Chronicle — but postcards 
are available for sale, 100 for £20. 

Maggie Taylor's beautiful altered 
digital photography was on dis- 
play in Carlsbad, CA, at the Wil- 
liam D. Cannon Art Gallery from 
July 17 through September 9. "I 
had been doing some digital work 
with rabbits, holes in the ground, 
and Victorian children," she told 
the North County Times at her stu- 
dio in Gainesville, Florida. "Sev- 
eral people remarked that it re- 
minded them of 'Alice in Won- 
derland.' So I started to do a few 
images like that, but I didn't know 
how much it would take over. Now 
it's three years and 45 images 
later." That's what happens when 
you follow rabbits. 




Do adults enjoy AA/Wbecause it is 
"a symbolic retreat from the disap- 
pointment of reality"? Dr. Louise 
Joy of the University of Cambridge 
thinks so. "Books such as Lewis 
Carroll's Alice in Wonderland and 
Roald Dahl's/araes and the Giant 
Peach offer a world where self- 
consciousness is overthrown and 
relationships are straightforward," 
Joy said, "but relationships in the 
real adult world are often fraught 
by miscommunication and the 
impossibility of understanding one 
another properly." (Sounds a lot 
like Wonderland to us!) Joy's re- 
search was discussed in a number 
of UK newspapers in October and 
will appear in her forthcoming 
book Literature's Children. 

Arthur Rackham illustrated AATW 
in 1907. Our friends over at the 
Arthur Rackham Society had a few 
articles about Carroll in Issue No. 
45 (April 2011) oi the Journal of the 
Arthur Rackham Society (JARS). 
"Rackham 's Mice and a Few Rats — 
Part 5" by Dorothy Gibbs covered 
Rackham 's Pool of Tears, Caucus 
Race, and Trial Scene, and "Illus- 
trators of Alice" by Chris Tomasze- 
wski had a nice spread of 23 illus- 
trations. Membership to the Arthur 
Rackham Society is $20 a year. 

On November 17, Dr. Francine F. 
Abeles gave a talk at Montclair 
State University in NJ titled, "Auto- 
mated Deduction Techniques in 
Lewis Carroll's Symbolic Logic." 
She has also published a paper in 
the journal Linear Algebra and its 
Applications titled "Nineteenth 
Century Roots of Quasidetermi- 
nants," which includes a discussion 
of Dodgson's condensation algo- 
rithm. The citation is: v. 435, 2011, 
pp. 1019-1024. 

Alvy Ray Smith, Fellow of the 
American Society of Genealogists, 
has created an extensive genealogy 
of Reginald Hargreaves (husband 
of Alice Liddell) in web-book form. 
The document "looks like a book 

but acts like a web page." Within it, 
information on five generations of 
Hargreaves can be navigated via 
hyperlinks. The latest version of 
the ongoing work can be down- 
loaded from 

If you can't make it to the Morgan 
Library in New York, but you still 
want to see the letter Lewis Carroll 
sent to illustrator Harry Furniss 
that contains Carroll's sketch of an 
albatross turning into a postage 
stamp (from "The Mad Gardener's 
Song" in Sylvie and Bruno) , you 
need go no further than the Huff 
ington Post. Manuscripts cataloger 
Carolyn Vega posted it there on 
June 7 with a short essay. "I'm 
aware it's an almost impossible sub- 
ject!" wrote Carroll to Furniss. "But 
don't you think there is a certain 
zest in trying impossibilities?" 
Furniss responded by vowing never 
to work with Carroll again. 

An account of Dame Gillian Beer's 
lecture "Alice in Time," delivered 
at the Radcliffe Institute for Ad- 
vanced Study at Harvard on March 
24, 2011, was published in the 
Summer 2011 edition of the Rad- 
cliffe Magazine. 

The UK's Guardian newspaper has 
investigated the dubious connec- 
tion between Salvador Dalf and the 
proliferation of bronze sculptures 
sold under his name. These in- 
clude the famous Alice in Wonder- 
land bronze, now known to have 
been created after Dalf's death, 
although based on one of his draw- 
ings. In an article titled "The 'al- 
most' Dalf trade" published June 3, 
the Guardian quoted the frvistrated 
head of the Salvador Dalf Founda- 
tion: "You look at a sculpture and 
you don't know what you are see- 
ing — is it one out of 10, or 300 in 
three different patinas, so it's 900? 
And did Dalf make it or not, or is it 
made by a third person with Dalf's 
permission or not?" 

The cover feature in the August 
2011 Princeton Magazine by Stuart 
Mitchner, called "Alice's American 
Cousin," was about author Joyce 

Carol Oates's lifelong love of 
Alice. Included in the magazine is 
an image of LCSNA member 
Dallas Piotrowski's Wonderland, 
which hangs in JCO's study and 
portrays her as Alice opening out 
like a telescope. 

Two of our international mem- 
bers in the Far East have pub- 
lished books on Carroll. In Seoul, 
Kang Hoon Lee published a Ko- 
rean language "Study of Alice in 
Wonderland," and in Japan, the 
Keizai-Shirin (Hosei University Eco- 
nomic Review) was a special issue 
"in honor of Professor Kimie 
Kusumoto's retirement." The 
Professor (not the Other Profes- 
sor) is a longtime LCSNA mem- 
ber, and the review contained 
Carrollian articles by LCSNA 
members Edward Wakeling, Au- 
gust Imholtz, Matthew Demakos, 
Yoshiyuki Momma, and Clare 

"Return to Wonderland" by Al- 
berto Manguel, published in The 
Threepenny Review 126, Summer 
2011, discusses the place of the 
Alice books in our lives. Manguel 
is a prolific writer, editor, and 
book collector whose book-, The 
Dictionary of Imaginary Places, was 
a travel guide to fantastical places 
including Oz, Atlantis, and Won- 

"My name means the shape I 
am — and a good handsome shape 
it is, too." Linguists have been 
ruminating on Humpy Dumpty's 
theories for over a century. Now, 
his discussion about words' mean- 
ing is being used by scientists in 
conjunction with new studies 
about an innate connection be- 
tween sounds and representation. 
David Robson's article in the July 
16, 201 1, issue of Neiv Scientist, 
"Kiki or bouba? In search of lan- 
guage's missing link," quotes our 
handsomely rotund friend at 
length to discuss studies that "sug- 
gest that we seem instinctively to 
link certain sounds with particular 
sensor)' perceptions." 


In September The Spectator maga- 
zine ran a competition for a poem 
that began "Twas brillig . . ." and 
continued in the style of Carroll, 
using all new neologisms. The 
competition was won by one Ray 
Kelley with a poem that began 
"Twas brillig, and the benneteaux 
/ Did fish and tsonga in the beck; 
/ All murray were the delpotros, / 
Primed to outstepanek." Runners- 
up included Mary Holtby ("Twas 
brillig, and the Attendick / Was 
wambling in the droozy reeds. . .") 
and Brian Murdoch ("Twas brillig, 
and the harry potts / Did dore and 
dumble in the print. . ."). A cromu- 
lent effort by all. 

And finally, it's time for your semi- 
annual New Yorker magazine Alice- 
reference roundup. On May 9, 
Jane Fonda was described as "a 
kind of sexual Alice in Wonderland 
of the future" by Roger Vadim, and 
Donald Trump was drawn as the 
Cheshire Cat. The June 27 issue 
contained an article about Walmart 
heiress Alice Walton's art museum 
in the Ozarks called "Alice's Won- 
derland." "How to Be Good" (Sep- 
tember 7) by Larissa MacFarquhar 
mentioned Oxford philosopher 
Derek Parfit's small house contain- 
ing "tiny, twisting staircases like 
Alice in Wonderland." And don't 
miss Jhumpa Lahiri's story (June 
13) "Trading Stories: Notes from 
an Apprenticeship," which con- 
tains this excellent sentence: "Like 
the labels on the cakes and bottles 
that Alice discovered under- 
ground, the essential gift of my 
award was that it spoke to me in 
the imperative; for the first time, a 
voice in my head said, 'Do this.'" 
Thanks to our spies who would 
never miss a Carroll reference in 
the New Yorker. 


Courteous Helen Smith, author of 
Alison Wonderland (AmazonEncore, 
August 2011), announced the fol- 
lowing: "I have to warn Lewis Car- 
roll fans that any direct reference 
to his work in my book begins and 

ends with the pun in the title, but I 
have no doubt that I have been in- 
fluenced by everything I have ever 
read, including his books." Her 
book, about a woman who takes a 
job at the same all-female detective 
agency she hired to trap her cheat- 
ing husband, has been positively 

There's a new history of pen names 
out by Carmela Ciuraru (real 
name?) called Norn de Plume: A 
(Secret) History of Pseudonyms 
($24.99). The story of Lewis Car- 
roll's name is apparently given 
prominent placement. 

The latest titles from the indefati- 
gable Evertype Publishing include 
Byron W. Sewell's Alix's Adventures 
in Wonderland (ISBN 978-190480 
8725) and Alopk's Adventures in 
Goatland (ISBN 978-1-90480876-3), 
a new edition of Florence Adele 
Evans's Alice's Adventures in Picture- 
land (ISBN 978-1904808633), and 
a Scots translation of AATW ( ISBN 
978-1904808640). Scots is a Ger- 
manic language closely related to 
Scottish Standard English. The 
translation is by Sandy Fleming, 
who says of it, "As faur as I ken, this 
beuk sets oot the first translation o 
Ailice's Aventurs in Wunnerland intae 

Who knows what evil lurks in the 
hearts of men? THE SHADOW 
KNOWS! Sanctum Books, which 
republishes classic noir pulps, 
prints collections of The Shadow 
magazine. In the third story in vol. 
50, The Man from Shanghai and 
Other Thrillers," "Lamont Cranston 
and Joe Cardona go undercover as 
Tweedledee and Tweedledum to 
investigate murders at an Alice in 
Wonderland ball in Bruce Elliott's 
Jabberwocky Thrust'" (1947). 

A fine new facsimile of AA/Willus- 
trated by Harry Rountree has been 
released by Dover Publisher's Calla 
Editions ($40). The book has been 
freshly typeset but faithfully repro- 
duces all 92 of Rountree 's original 

A new "brain-boosting" book by 
Robert Quine and John Nolan 
has an amusing title: 106 Impos- 
sible Things Before Breakfast 
($14.95). The question is, is it 
possible to do that many impos- 
sible things without pushing 
breakfast back at least to brunch? 

Clare Imholz thought she discov- 
ered the shortest adaptation of 
AA/W Dalmation Press's new 
Disney Alice in Wonderland ($1, 
available at Target) . It's 2.5 by 3 
inches (a very good size indeed) 
and only 38 words long. It begins 
"Alice followed the White Rabbit 
into a strange world," and you're 
already 24% done. However, we 
found a shorter version — 29 
words long! — in Jason Huffs 
book AutoSummarize. For compari- 
son, that one begins, "Poor Alice! 
Alice felt dreadfully puzzled." 

Enigmas and Riddles in Literature, 
by Eleanor Cook (Cambridge 
University Press, 2006), offers 
both a history and an anatomy of 
the riddle. Chapter 7 is titled 
"Case Study II. Mapping Riddles: 
Lewis Carroll and the Alice 
Books." Why we did not mention 
the book in 2006 is an enigma 
not examined in this book. 

A very thorough graphic noveliza- 
tion called The Complete Alice in 
Wonderland — 186 full-color 
pages — was published last year by 
Dynamite Entertainment. The 
adaptation was written by John 
Reppion and Leah Moore, and 
lest it be anything but completely 
complete, they even included 
"The Wasp in a Wig" chapter. 

If the novel Alice in Zombieland 
didn't satisfy your taste for brains, 
there's now also a new comic 
called Zombie Fairy Tales, zombiefy- 
ing beloved classics such as "Little 
Dead Riding Hood," "Moldy- 
locks," and, of course, "Alice in 

The front cover for the new pa- 
perback edition of Rethinking 
Maps: New Frontiers in Cartographic 


Theory (Routledge, $44.95, greatly 
reduced from the $150.00 hard- 
cover edition) pays homage to 
Henry Holiday's famous "Ocean- 
Chart" illustration for The Hunting 
of the Snark (1876). The title of the 
book is right smack in the center 
of the "perfect and absolute 
blank" — if only Holiday had 
thought to put something inside of 
the blank! 

Both Babel Tower (Random House, 
1996) and its sequel, A Whistling 
Woman (Random House, New 
York, 2002), by A. S. Byatt, contain 
many Carrollian references. In the 
latter, the heroine even becomes 
the host of a television show called 
"Through the Looking-Glass," in 
which animated Tenniel figures 
scamper about the screen while 
she conducts interviews. 



Events were held in seven conti- 
nents to honor the legacy of Mar- 
tin Gardner with the second an- 
nual Celebration of Mind. People 
gathered to share mathematical 
conundrums, magic tricks, and 
memories of Gardner on or 
around October 21 — what would 
have been his 97th birthday. 

Libya has been no tea party this 
year, but press photos from Gad- 
dafi's stormed compound revealed 
some unexpected tea cups: a mad 
tea cup ride — a mini version of 
Disneyland's iconic attraction — was 
discovered in the back yard, along 
with other abandoned fairground 
rides once intended for the de- 

posed dictator's grandchildren. Or 
was it Gaddafi himself who liked to 
go for the odd spin? Libyan Carrol- 
lians will focus more on the apt- 
ness of their late dictator being 
hoist upon his own "Sentence 
first — verdict afterwards" petard. 

Lynne Truss, author of the best- 
selling grammar-romp Eats, Shoots 
and Leaves, spoke of her lifelong 
fondness for Lewis Carroll on the 
BBC Radio 4 program Great Lives. 
Truss included Carroll as a charac- 
ter in her 2010 novel Tennyson's 
Gift. The interview also featured 
Robin Wilson, author of Lewis 
Carroll in Numberland. You can still 
listen to the half-hour program on 
the BBC iPlayer website. 

"Further Adventures in Wonder- 
land: The Afterlife of Alice," a 
one-day interdisciplinary confer- 
ence, will be held in Manchester, 
UK, on December 1 this year. The 
plenary paper will be given by Dr. 
Will Brooker, Reader and Director 
of Research in Film and Television 
at Kingston University, London. 
The conference is being held in 
association with the Journey through 
Wonderland: Alice in Multi-Media 
exhibition at The Portico Library, 
Manchester, running from October 
7 to November 30. 

"This tea party serves up relax- 
ation, not politics" was the head- 
line of a story in the business sec- 
tion of the Napa Valley Register, June 
7, 2011. The story featured two 
ladies from Napa County who will 
put on tea parties in the hostess's 
home. Their business is called 
Rose and the Nightingale and is 
based in American Canyon, CA. 

There was a one-day meeting ex- 
ploring C. L. Dodgson's interests 
in and contributions to science, 
organized by the UK Lewis Carroll 
Society's chairman, Mark Richards. 
The event was held at the London 
School of Economics on August 17. 
There's more information about 
the meeting from Dr. Fran Abeles 
on page 43, and the website www. has 
images of the speakers, including 
Fran Abeles and Edward Wakel- 
ing, amongst others. 

If you receive Google News Alerts 
for "Lewis Carroll," as we do, you 
may begin to wonder why our 
favorite author "dropped back to 
pass, but never had a chance as 
Jerod Maddox came flying in on 
the back side and sacked him to 
end the half." Lewis Carroll is the 
name of the quarterback for the 
Geneva County Bulldogs, a varsity 
football team in Hartville, Ala- 
bama. Keep playing, Lewis, we'd 
love to finally see a Lewis Carroll 
in college football or the NFL one 



Here's your occasional reminder 
that the LCSNA has various social 
media connections. In addition 
to the Far-Flung blog at lewis, we have a twitter feed 
©AliceAmerica (a good way to 
receive reminders about the blog 
posts or text us compromising 
images of your Carroll obsession) 
and an active Facebook group. 
Friend or unfriend us! Re-tweet 
us! Leave us comments! Join the 
online discussions! 

We were lucky enough to have 
Emily R. Aguilo-Perez, M.A.E.E., 
of the University of Puerto Rico- 
Mayagiiez Campus (and speaker 
at the LCSNA's Fall 2011 meet- 
ing), write a guest post on our 
blog, a review of a review of the 
fine 1987 film The Care Bears Ad- 
ventures in Wonderland. The Nos- 
talgia Critic's entertaining video 
review from ThatGuyWithThe- was in turn entertain- 
ingly reviewed by Aguilo-Perez. 
The original movie, which has 
never been re-released on DVD, 
can be found quasi-legally on 
YouTube. "WARNING ... THERE 

Adriana Peliano keeps up at least 
six impossible blogs before break- 


fast, and now the Sociedade Lewis 
Carroll de Brasil has a new website 
with lots of flashiness and Flash. 
Check out www.lewiscarrollbrasil. — available in either English 
or Portuguese. 

Who would buy the domain name 
Surely not a typesetter? Wrong! 
When the circumlocutory online 
location was offered in an eBay 
auction, the successful bidder was 
Michael Everson, publisher of 
many Alice translations, linguist, 
and typesetter. The link now redi- 
rects to the Evertype website. 

AA/Whas been translated into over 
a hundred languages, but sadly 
most of these translations are 
meant for human beings. WON- has rectified this; 
as part of their Books2Barcodes 
project, they have translated Alice 
into 2D QR code. In fewer than 
200 convenient installments, smart- 
phones with barcode-reading apps 
can easily convert this back into 
Carroll's original. 

The blog Alice's Illustrated Adven- 
tures in Wonderland, Illustrated by 
Almost Everybody, is a great ex- 
ample of one job done well. Its 
anonymous creator set out the 
twelve chapters of AATW'xn twelve 
posts and then interspersed the 
text with illustrations by, well, ev- 
erybody (almost): Tenniel, Dalf, 
Rackham, Peter Weevers, Maggie 
Taylor, and many more, even Lewis 
Carroll. Then he or she stopped. 
That's it. There's nothing else on 
the blog. 

In addition to being a well-known 
poem, The Hunting of the Snark is 
also an online game in which play- 
ers seek hidden objects in quirky 
illustrations inspired by the ex- 
ploits of a Baker, a Beaver, and a 
Banker. The game was created by 
Long Leaf's Friends — the solo 
project of a Polish illustrator called 

When the British Library offered 
an iPod/iPad/iPhone download of 
the original manuscript of Alice's 
Adventures under Ground, the book 
was downloaded over 25,000 times 
in two weeks! Part of a series called 
eBook Treasures, the manuscript is 
presented in a virtual "3D" envi- 
ronment in which you can turn 
pages, zoom in, and see everything 
up to and including original coffee 
stains in crystal-clear detail. Under 
Ground and a growing number of 
other precious manuscripts are 
yours, in electronic form, for 
around $10 each, from ebooktrea 

Saliq Ali has created a handy app 
for the casual reading of 20 letters 
and acrostics of Lewis Carroll at 

The founder of Project Gutenberg, 
Michael Stern Hart, passed away 
on September 6 this year. After 
Hart heard of children "eagerly 
reading Alice in Wonderland on the 
computer," it was one of the very 
first books he digitalized for the 
project (AX 71: 27). Free, of 
course, it is currently the sixth 
most popular download on the 
site, downloaded almost 12,000 
times in a recent one-month pe- 



The website is 
a good place to raise money 
for an independent art project. 
Some filmmakers in San Fran- 
cisco — Chandra Reyes (Writer/ 
Director), Laura Chenault (Direc- 
tor of Photography) , andjorna 
Tolosa-Chung (Co-Producer) — are 
campaigning there for a future 
Carroll-derived indie movie, Be- 
hind Shattered Glass. "The film is 
about a young woman who, with 
the sudden loss of her love, takes 
sanctuary in a new strange world," 
writes Reyes. "I believe that every 
filmmaker that grew up reading or 
watching Lewis Carroll's fairy tale 
has an Alice in Wonderland story 
within them that needs to be told." 

They're less than halfway to their 
goal of raising $2,000, and there 
are perks to donating, such as 
movie posters, copies of the film, 
and, for high rollers, an illus- 
trated copy of the script. 

There's a strange new film/art 
project from Japan whose title is 
translated as Arisu in the Under- 
world: The Dark Mdrchen Show. 
According to Adriana Peliano, 
"Arisu's Adventures in Wonder- 
land from Lewis Carroll is en- 
tirely transformed into a Japa- 
nese Gothic Lolita wonderland. 
. . . For a start, the lead is played 
by a man. The viewer can deter- 
mine whether it is kitsch, camp, 
or cult." We're not sure what 
exactly that means, but the art 
and imagery from the film look 
amazing, and their chaotic web- 
site is full of 
wonders. It's for sale as an elabo- 
rate "art album + DVD." 

In the wake of their mediocre 
Alice miniseries, Syfy (formerly 
the Sci-Fi Channel) aired a 
made-for-tv movie Jabberwock on 
September 10. Steven R. Monroe 
directs "the story of a young 
squire (Michael Worth) who, 
alongside his brother (Tahmoh 
Penikett), must become a war- 
rior to save his people and the 
woman he loves (Kacey Barn- 
field) after a horrific beast is 
unleashed on the village." The 
campy CGI monster makes us 
nostalgic for the days of Clash of 
the Titans. 



Naxos has released composer 
Maurice Saylor's "magnum opus," 
The Hunting of the Snark: An Agony 
in Eight Fits, on CD and wherever 
all fine digital music files can be 
downloaded. You can hear the 
excellent Cantate Singers toss 
lines from Carroll's poem around 
in a choral whirlwind, accompa- 
nied by Saylor's Snark Pit-Band. 
The other tracks on the album, 
music Saylor wrote for silent 


films, played by The Snark Ensem- 
ble, are also really fun. 

The great country revival duo Gil- 
lian Welch and Dave Rawlings have 
released their first album in almost 
a decade, The Harrow & the Harvest. 
(It's really good.) They went on 
Fresh Airxriih Terry Gross to plug it, 
and at the end of the show, Gross 
asked them to play a cover, "to 
surprise us with a song that we 
might not think that they like." 
They chose Jefferson Airplane's 
"White Rabbit," and it's a pretty 
damned beautiful cover of that 
song. Starting at 41 minutes into 
the show, Welch explains why they 
chose that song, and then their 
version of it gets cut off for the 
credits. However, naturally, they're 
plugging it as a special single on 
iTunes, for $1.29. Your far-flung 
correspondents also got to see 
Welch and Rawlings perform it at 
San Francisco's Hardly Strictly 
Bluegrass Festival this October. 
Remember what the dormouse 
said. . . . "'That I can't remember,' 
said the Hatter." 

An entirely synthesized and ani- 
mated "Vocaloid" musical called 
Alice in Musicland has proved very 
popular online but may take a bit 
of explaining here. The part of 
Alice (and possibly all the other 
parts as well — the technology is a 
little mysterious to your faithful 
correspondents) was "sung" by 
Hatsune Miku, a singing synthe- 
sizer application that was created 
using vocal samples from Japanese 
actress Saki Fujita. Hatsune Miku, 
one of many singing personas 
created using the Vocaloid soft- 
ware, has apparently become a 
virtual idol: Her album topped a 
Japanese weekly album chart, and 
she even performed "live" in Tokyo 
last year. The 12-minute musical is 
heartfelt, moving, and very high- 


Michael Haverty, of Atlanta's Cen- 
ter for Puppetry Arts, staged an 
impressive "avant-garde puppetry- 
based show" called The Colour of 
Her Dreams in April and May 201 1 
at 7 Stages Theatre Mainstage. 
The lovingly crafted show was a 
more personal project than usual 
for the director. Haverty 's mother, 
Keturah Curbow, was an artist who 
suffered from bipolar disorder 
and died when he was a teenager, 
but she left behind hundreds of 
Alice-inspired paintings, sketches, 
and notebooks. "My mother used 
Alice as an avatar to work through 
her challenges. In a way, she became 
Alice." The play brings her imag- 
ery to life, including the largest 
dormouse puppet we've ever seen. 
Haverty also published an accom- 
panying book of Curbow's art, and 
there are images and videos of the 
project at 

It was a bumper year for new Lewis 
Carroll-inspired theatre at the 
Edinburgh Fringe festival in Scot- 
land. Nine productions (at least) 
imagined, re-imagined, or strug- 
gled to imagine Carroll's life and 
works. Plays included Alicia en La 
Loteria, which explored notions of 
cultural acceptance and belonging 
with a Hispanic Alice; Waiting for 
Alice, which portrayed an unfin- 
ished Wonderland heavily in- 
debted to Samuel Beckett; and 
Alice's Wonderland, a new "dark 
take" on the story, but one acted by 
children. The best reviews went to 
The Carroll Myth, performed by 
Schmuck's Theatre Company — 
which imagined the troubled rela- 
tionship between Carroll and the 
Liddels that may have led to the 
destruction of sections of Carroll's 
diary — and Belt Up Theatre's Out- 
land, inspired by Sylvie and Bruno 
(unusually), which suggested that 
epileptic fits governed Carroll's 
creative life. More details of the 
productions and links to reviews 
can found at 

A Lewis Carroll-inspired theater 
installation, with interactive as- 
pects and impressive scope, hap- 
pened in different parks around 
Seattle in July and August. WON- 
DERLAND: Alice Adventures is part 
of 4Culture's Site Specific Perfor- 
mance Network. "A free theatri- 
cal park escapade, WONDER- 
LAND is inspired by and adapted 
from Charles Dodgson (Lewis 
Carroll) 's Alice stories, as well as 
Dodgson 's wordplay, math games 
and puzzles. An all-ages adven- 
ture, theater and visual arts 
weave whimsically together 
within a parkland, playing with 
the creative perspectives of imag- 

The shocking theft of a statue of 
Lewis Carroll from a small UK 
town has inspired a play called 
Alice in Thunderland. In an added 
twist, one of the writers previously 
appeared as a character in Brian 
Talbot's graphic novel Alice in 
Sunderland. The play, described 
by its writers as "low-brow," inter- 
weaves characters from Alice's 
adventures with a fictionalized 
account of the crime. There was a 
reading of the play at Sunder- 
land's Royalty Theatre in June. 

June 1-5 at the Soho Playhouse, 
NY, saw Alice au pays des Merveilles 
performed by The Beautiful Soup 
Theater Collective. In the play, 
"loosely inspired by Chagall's 
painting Paris Through the Windoiu, 
a young American Alice follows a 
mime from a suburban park into 
an elevator and finds herself in a 
strange new world. 

Congratulations to Lookingglass 
Theatre in Chicago for winning 
the 201 1 Tony for best regional 
theater. Their "signature play" is 
Lookingglass Alice by founding 
member David Catlin, which 
inaugurated the company in 
1988. Chicago theaters have won 
a record five Tonies for best re- 
gional theater. 




Carroll, together with Ernest 
Hemingway, William Shakespeare, 
and others, has been honored by 
reproduction in paper doll form. 
Dover Publications' Literary Greats 
Paper Dolls features 35 paper dolls 
of famous authors along with cos- 
tumes inspired by each author's 
own creations ($9.99). Want to 
dress up Lewis Carroll as the White 
Rabbit? Or Alice? You can. 

She magazine posted an online 
round-up of Wonderland-inspired 
home furnishings on August 23. 
New to us were the tea cup chande- 
lier ($196 from Walmart) and the 
Cheshire Cat tapestry wall hanging 
($109 from Medieval Wall Tapes- 
try). Curvy bookcases (they look 
drunk) and plastic thrones were 
also recommended for giving your 
house that Wonderland vibe. No- 
table by its absence was the giant 
teacup stool sold in four loud col- 
ors by UK retailer Mocha ($255). 

Wearing a label around your neck 
that says "Eat Me" is not OK, unless 
of course it is attached to a tiny 
stoppered bottle full of miniature 
treats. This unusual necklace is 
listed as "Necklace in Wonderland" 
on for $24.99. 

The New Holland Brewing Com- 
pany, from Holland, MI, is making 
a Mad Hatter India Pale Ale 
(5.3%) and a much madder Impe- 
rial Mad Hatter Imperial Pale Ale 
(9.4%). The non-Imperial Hatter is 
described as "dry-hopped for a 
distinctive, floral hop aroma; subtly 
balanced with delicious malt 
notes." Recommended to un-teeto- 
tallers everywhere. 

"Wonderland Keys," a white silk 
scarf from Tiffany's & Co, is 
printed with a shower of vintage 
keys in either black and white or 
gold and blue. At $275 it is one of 
the most affordable accessories on 
their website. 

Fishs Eddy's range of dinnerware 
featuring Tenniel illustrations may 
be on the wane. Marked-down 
items include plates, cereal bowls, 
and salt and pepper shakers, and it 
is not clear that the lines will be 

The Story Book Tea Company was 
created "to help engage children 
with classic literature through the 
sacred ritual of afternoon tea." So 
far their merchandise consists of 
the mysteriously titled "Alice's 
Pawfect Tea-Party Kit," a book- 
shaped box containing tea time 
supplies, chapter seven of AATW 
in a little booklet, and a narrated 
tea party guide on CD ($24.99, 
refills of edibles available sepa- 

Each Halloween reliably brings 
ever weirder interpretations of 
Alice and friends, but costume 
retailer Spirit has really gone over 
the edge this time: Dress your 
darling child as "Mad Hatter Mr. 
Hyde," and cackle with delight as 
your baffled neighbors hand out 
candy to a snarling gargoyle in a 
gigantic top hat.