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Knight Letter 





T/^^ Lewis Carroll Society of North America 


spring 2012 

Volume II Issue 18 

Number 88 

Knight Letter is the official magazine of the Lewis Carroll Society of North America. 

It is published twice a year and is distributed free to all members. 

Editorial correspondence should be sent to 

the Editor in Chief at 


Submissions for The Rectory Umbrella and Mischmasch should be sent to or 

' Submissions and suggestions for Serendipidity and Sic Sic Sic should be sent to 

Submissions and suggestions for All Must Have Prizes should be sent to 

Submissions and suggestions for From Our Far-Flung Correspondents should be sent to 

© 201 2 The Lewis Carroll Society of North America 
ISSN 0193-886X 

Mahendra Singh, Editor in Chief 
Patricia Colacino, Editor, Rectory Umbrella 

Ann Buki, Editor, Carrollian Notes 

Cindy Watter, Editor, Of Books and Things 

James Welsch & Rachel Eley, Editors, From Our Far-Flung Correspondents 

Mark Burstein, Production Editor 

Andrew H. Ogus, Designer 


Mark Burstein, 

Cindy Watter, 

Clare Imholtz, 

Annual membership dues are U.S. $35 (regular), 

$50 (international), and $100 (sustaining). 

Subscriptions, correspondence, and inquiries should be addressed to: 

Clare Imholtz, LCSNA Secretary 

11935 Beltsville Dr. 

Beltsville, Maryland 20705 

Additional contributors to this issue: 
Clare Imholtz, Dr. Selwyn Goodacre, Mark Richards and Rose Owens 

On the cover: A tribute to the journey up the Isis, collage by Andrew Ogus. 

1 ^ 










Boston Tea Party 


A Frost in Brazil: Antonio Peticov 


Carrollian Juvenilia: Parisot's 
Unknown Translations 


The Age of Alice 


Alice Through the Pinhole 


From Under Ground to Wonderland 




SesquicenTenniel Poster 


leaves from the Deanery Garden 


Sic Sic Sic 

Ravings from the Writing Desk of 


All Must Have Prizes 


Alicel50: A Call for Support 








Alice into the Looking-Glass Art Exhibtiion 


Carroll's Typewriter 


Lewis &" Leonard 





The Alice Project's AAT^ 41 


Wilfred Dodgson of Shropshire 41 


John Vernon Lord's TTLG 43 


The Carrollian Tale of Inspector Spectre 43 


Yayoi Kusama 's AAIW 44 


Everlasting 44 


Lostfish 's A Travers le mirroir 45 



Art &" Illustration — Articles & Academia — Books (sf Comics — 
Events, Exhibits, df Places — Internet isf Technology — Movies 
&" Television — Music — Performing Arts — Things 46 





his issue of the /<^ marks the ISO'*" anniver- 
sary of CLD & Go's boat ride upon the Isis 
on July 4th, 1862. Whether you are a devotee 
of the A to books or the Snark or Sylvie and Bruno, that 
seminal afternoon is the raison d'etre of all things 
Carrollian. On that particular day, Charles Lutwidge 
Dodgson truly became Lewis Carroll and conjured up 
his own version of an eternally radical art form, non- 
sense, which continues to enchant and sometimes 
even perplex us to this day. 

To celebrate this white stone day, our talented 
designer, Andrew Ogus, has conceived and designed 
a special full-color poster of images, with a poem by 
Brian Sibley, commemorating this sesquicentennial 
of the conception of Alice's Adventures under Ground. 
In addition to Andrew's chromatic tribute, we also 
present the first part of a two-part analysis of AAUGhy 
Matt Demakos, a detailed and definitive account of 
the many differences between it and its final incarna- 
tion as AAIW. 

The Spring Meeting in Cambridge, MA was en- 
livened by the announcement of the re-launching 
of the Canadian LCS and further updates on the 
Alicel50 project. Readers interested in participating 
in the latter should refer to page 37, where Joel Bi- 
renbaum goes into the details, and Canadian readers 

interested in the former should contact Dayna Nuhn 

Francophiles will be intrigued (or maybe just 
shrug their shoulders) by our publication of a pre- 
viously unknown Henri Parisot translation of some 
juvenile poetry of LC, while movie buffs might enjoy 
our semi-exhaustive survey of the ages of the many 
cinematic Alices of the last 109 years. As usual, this 
is all interspersed with news of various Carrollians in 
Europe and Brazil doing things with pinholes and 
dead Italian surrealists plus the usual cavalcade of 
errant typewriters and other assorted bibliographic, 
musical, and Internet oddities of a nonsensical bent. 

And on a penultimate note, we'd like to welcome 
Patricia Colacino and Rose Owens to our ragged 
band of KL contributors; Patricia is helping out with 
the Rectory Umbrella, and Rose is doing various writ- 
ing chores. Many thanks to both for giving so gener- 
ously of their time and talents. 

In summation, this issue of the KL has a definite 
theme but refuses to change its usual contrariwise sys- 
tem of avoiding a definite theme, for if it was so, it 
might be; and if it were so, it would be; but as it isn't, 
it ain't. 







M round noon on Saturday, April 27, our 
Spring 2012 meeting was convened in the 
Houghton Library of Harvard University. 
The LCSNA has met before in this venue, and this 
particular session was especially auspicious since vari- 
ous watercolors, drawings, and prints by Edward Lear 
were on display in the meeting room as part of the 
library's Natural History of Ediuard Lear exhibition. 
These exquisite works by the other great master of 
High Nonsense provided a perfect ambience for our 
Carrollian activities. 

The Houghton's coordinator of programs, Pe- 
ter Accardo, welcomed us to Harvard, which was, as 
he reminded us, the home of the fabled Harcourt 
Amory Collection, donated to the Houghton Library 
by Amory 's widow in 1926. Heather Cole, the assis- 
tant curator of the Houghton's Modern Books and 
Manuscripts collection, informed us that she was busy 
planning a major exhibit to celebrate the sesquicen- 
tennial in 2015. 

Our president, Mark Burstein, then updated 
members on various Society issues. Our Facebook 
page has been updated, and all members and their 
friends and family are urged to "like" it (logically 
speaking, you have no choice). He also announced 
the dates and venues of upcoming meetings, which 
are recounted in his Ravings, p. 34. 

No mention of Alice 150 could be complete with- 
out Joel Birenbaum, who gave us a brief update of the 
planned celebrations. He noted that Alicel50 could 
be encapsulated into two basic activities: the exhibi- 
tions and the conference. The former are many in 
number and scope and v«ll be designed to attract the 
general public. The latter will last two days and may 
well be be folded into the regular LCSNA meeting. 
Above all, as Joel pointed out, is the need to ensure 
that Alice 150 will appeal to the younger generation 
and that it will get them interested in both Lewis Car- 
roll and the Society. Please see page 37. 

Our first speaker was Dr. Selwyn Goodacre, the 
former editor of Jabberwocky, the journal of the Lewis 
Carroll Society (UK) — now called The Carrollian — 
and a well-known and truly learned Carrollian. His 
bibliographic survey of the various print facsimiles of 
Alice's Adventure under Ground told a well-known story, 
but one that has rarely been done with such wit and 
charm. He covered the meteorological myth of cool 
and wet weather on July 4, 1862; Carroll's writing and 
illustrating the manuscript (and the story of the photo 
on the last page); the various facsimile printings dur- 
ing and after his lifetime and how they handled that 
page (including the text); the peregrinations of the 
manuscript itself and how it ended up in the British 
Library (and its occasional travels since); the tale of 

Selwyn Goodacre 

Matt Demakos 

how the photograph was questioned and at long last 
removed to reveal the drawing underneath; and a won- 
derful Portuguese translation — ^with typeface and lay- 
out matching the original — from the talented Adriano 
Peliano, which Dr. Goodacre declared "a total gem." 

Our next speaker was Matt Demakos, whose en- 
tire discussion of the textual variants between Under 
Ground and Wonderland can be found on p. 16 (and 
will be continued in the next issue). 

At this point, the meeting paused so that Charlie 
Lovett could distribute keepsakes to the assembled 
members. His monograph, Feeding the Mind: A New 
Chapter in the Publication History of a "Sparkle from the Pen " 
of Lewis Carroll, shattered the myth of the publication 
history of this essay, long thought to have been first de- 
livered as a lecture in 1884 and not to have seen print 
until 1906. In fact, it was originally printed in 1861. 
Charlie's scholarship was impeccable, and his inclusion 
of facsimiles most generous. Dayna Nuhn announced 
the resurrection of the LCS Canada, a welcome bit of 
news indeed, and distributed a keepsake, A Return to 
Wonderland by Ada Leonora Harris, a short pastiche 
that originally was published in Blackie's Children's An- 
nual in 1929. To top off this outbreak of Canadian en- 
thusiasm, her fellow Torontonian, Oleg Lipchenko, 
had just received the first copies of his beautifully il- 
lustrated The Hunting of the Snark and was distributing 
copies to lucky subscriber members, and selling others. 

Our next speaker was Mark Richards, the chair- 
man of the LCS (UK) , who had much to say about A 
Tangled Tale and its undeserved obscurity in Carrol- 
lian circles. He nominated it as Carroll's most typi- 

cal work — as opposed to those maddeningly popular 
Alice books — on account of its highly evolved sense of 
word- and math play and its dry and incisive sense of 
humor. He urged members put off by the Tale's math- 
ematical puzzles to focus instead on the fine quality of 
their writing, for the latter quality is just as important 
to their final effect as the brain-teasers they contain. 

A Tangled Tale first appeared in serial form in The 
Monthly Packet of Evening Readings for Members of the 
English Church, a magazine aimed at young Anglican 
girls and edited by Charlotte Yonge, a friend of Dodg- 
son's. One popular feature of the magazine was its 
"Spider Subjects," a regular column whose pseudony- 
mous respondents were dubbed Spiders. One would 
suppose that most of the Spiders were young girls, but 
it was clear from their answers that they were of all 
ages and sexes, but were, according to Mark, the ideal 
Carrollian readers. 

Beginning in April 1880, Carroll contributed a 
series of problems to the journal, each of which he 
called a Knot. The first Knot was entitled "Excelsi- 
or" — probably as a gende jab at H. W. Longfellow's 
poem of that name — and involves a travel problem 
posed by two knights. The full solution and Carroll's 
gently mocking, humorous commentary upon the an- 
swers received appeared in June 1880. 

Nine more Knots followed in the magazine, 
each setting a different problem and discussing the 
answers to the previous Knot. The problems ranged 
from genealogy to voting problems, the latter being 
a subject in which Carroll was deeply interested and 
had done original research. 

Mark Richards 

As the Knots appeared, certain patterns and pro- 
clivities became apparent, as the problems became 
more interlocked and more digressive. What had 
begun as disparate and unrelated puzzles began to 
share characters and situations with greater frequen- 
cy. The medieval knights of ELnot One reappeared in 
Knot Three as travelers in the impending twentieth 
century, reflecting a certain science-fiction, time-and- 
space theme in Carroll's work that reappears in full 
force with Sylvie and Bruno. 

These enthusiasms continued unabated in Car- 
roll's commentary upon the submitted answers to his 
Knots and his concealment of his readers' identity 
with genuinely Carrollian pseudonyms. One fine one 
in particular was Bradshaw of the Future, a sly subver- 
sion of that famous Victorian compendium of railway 
schedules. The commentaries were increasingly hu- 
morous and at the same time demanding, for Carroll 
insisted upon all answers being properly worked out 
in full. Those who did not measure up were subjected 
to a good dose of Carrollian ribbing, which was not 
always well received by his victims, who were, in the- 
ory at least, young Anglican women. LC liberally be- 
stowed such epithets as "hapless," "malefactors," and 
even "desperate wrongdoers," upon them, and when 
his readers' protestations reached a certain pitch, he 
was forced to issue a defense in print. 

The last Knot appeared in March 1885, and in 
July of that year Carroll approached Macmillan with 
the idea of publishing the collected Knots with their 
answers and commentaries as a Christmas book. The 

Knots were modified slightly and their order changed, 
and the book appeared in the shops on December 22, 
1885. Carroll had contracted the American illustrator 
A. B. Frost to provide ten drawings. In the approval 
stage, Carroll had entirely rejected four of the draw- 
ings, which so infuriated Frost that he refused to have 
anything more to do with the project. 

The book was dedicated to Edith Rix, a young 
woman who first came to Carroll's attention when she 
submitted solutions to some of the magazine Knots. 
He had replied to her with a detailed critique, and 
over time they became good friends. He described 
her as the cleverest woman he had ever known, strong 
praise indeed, and he took a friendly interest in her 
religious and secular education — at one point even 
advising her mother to eschew sending young Edith 
to Girton College (in Cambridge University) on ac- 
count of the "fast and mannish" nature of the female 
students there. (Mark drily pointed out that his own 
wife was a Cambridge U. graduate, and furthermore, 
Edith turned out to be quite an eccentric by Victorian 
[and Carrollian] standards. She wore her hair short, 
rode a bicycle, and dispensed with wearing stockings 
in the countryside.) 

On March 27, 1886, Carroll thanked Macmillan 
for forwarding him the mostly negative review clips, 
although the book sold well and went into four print- 
ings. It was deemed too trenchant by some critics, 
too full of puns by others, and it has not fared well 
with either biographers and scholars. Morton Cohen 
devoted little space to it, and Donald Thomas seems 
to have confused it with Pilloiv Problems. Curiously 
enough, Stuart CoUingwood called it the most popu- 
lar of all Carroll's works, although he may have had 
ulterior motives. 

On the basis of various contemporary references 
and meanings, Richards speculated that the curious 
structure and tenor of the work might be a result of 
some sort of hidden authorial constraint. CoUing- 
wood's praise may provide a clue, if one proposes that 
many of the characters in the Knots are based upon 
friends and family of Carroll. Mark speculated that 
several of the Dodgson youngsters may be hidden in 
the book (Stuart and Bertram CoUingwood, in par- 
ticular) and that Professor Balbus may be a reference 
to the Republican consul, Lucius Cornelius Balbus, 
whose patronym in Latin means "the stammerer" — 
and his first two names do smack a bit of that other 
Latinized pseudonym, Lewis Carroll. 

It was only fitting that our next speaker, Alan 
Tannenbaum, would give us a short talk about Ar- 
thur Burdett Frost, the semi-illustrator of A Tangled 
Tale and the fully engaged illustrator of Rhyme? and 
Reason?. Frost was born in Philadelphia in 1851 and 
became an engraver's apprentice when young. De- 
spite being told by his employer that he had no talent 

Andrew Woodham's winning statue, Queen Victoria of Hearts 

for drawing, he went on to have a successful career 
in illustration, beginning with his first major book, 
Charles Heber Clark's Out of the Hurly Burly, which 
sold extremely well but is forgotten today. Frost went 
on to work for Harper and Scribner's, did the original 
illustrations for the various Uncle Remus books by Joel 
Chandler Harris, and ultimately gained a name as a 
cartoonist and America's premier illustrator of sport- 
ing and rural scenes. 

He joined Harper's art department in 1876 where 
he picked up various fresh styles — despite being col- 
orblind — and then went to London in 1878 to refine 
his professional techniques. It was there that he first 
met Carroll, who was then on the hunt for an illustra- 
tor for his 1869 collection of poems entided Phantas- 
magoria. At first, the (other) famous Punch cartoonist, 
Linley Sambourne, got the job, or at least part of it, 
"The Lang Coortin'" poem, for which Carroll pur- 
chased one illustration, which is now lost. Frost finally 
got the job and began working on it once he returned 
to the U.S.A. 

The logistics of such a project were difficult in 
Victorian times; the artist would send blocks to the 

Linda Cassady 

U.K via steamship, and Carroll would do his correc- 
tions (or changes, which is not the same thing, de- 
spite some editorial delusions) and then return them 
to the U.S.A. The process took five years in all, and 
in 1883, "Phantasmagoria" and several other poems, 
including the Snark, were finally published by Mac- 
millan as Rhyme? and Reason ?. 

Frost returned to Carroll but with less produc- 
tive results, as we heard earlier in Mark Richard's 
talk. Frost had been engaged to do A Tangled Tale 
until the two men fell out over excessive changes. As 
Allan noted, Frost was quite dismissive of Carroll in 
his letter to the bibliophile Ray Safford, calling the 
poet "the fussiest little man I ever met, finicky and 
fussy." Strong stuff from an illustrator, and indicative 
perhaps of the much stronger social and commercial 
position that illustrators held in the publishing circles 
of fin de siecle America. 

Our next speaker was Linda Cassady, who, along 
with her husband George, sponsors the Wonder- 
land Award at the University of Southern California. 
Since 2004, they have been sponsoring this multidis- 
ciplinary competition among California university 
students, a contest open to any type of expression or 
elaboration upon the works of Lewis Carroll. The en- 
tries are judged by academics, creative professionals, 
and students on the basic criteria of Carrollian spirit, 
originality, quality, and a statement of purpose. Linda 
admitted that the latter had become a necessity after 
they had received some rather vague, indecipherable 

Christopher Morgan 

The Wonderland 2012 first-prize winner was An- 
drew Woodham, a molecular biology student, who 
created a four-foot-tall statue made of playing cards, 
entided Queen Victoria of Hearts. There were many 
other winners in many other genres, including games, 
crafts, creative writing, poetry, music, movies, and even 
movement. The other genres' winning entries ranged 
from an intricately shaded and rendered pen drawing 
executed in a single line to a hilarious video involv- 
ing a young coed's quest for a live lobster to quadrille 
with on the sunny beaches of LaLaLand. A common 
denominator was the lack of a common denominator 
aside from their interest in Carroll. The students came 
from all disciplines, and they submitted work that 
often had nothing to do with their studies; a blood 
technician's chic fashion designs spring to this writer's 
mind as a good example. Linda said that several of the 
young people had remarked to her that working with 
Carroll's remarkable literary templates had relaxed 
them and given them a feeling of deep fulfillment that 
their regular studies did not always supply. 

Linda and George are hoping to expand the 
competition beyond California's borders and one 
member of the audience pointed out to her how 
neatly the Wonderland Award might fit into the ever- 
evolving Alice 150 plans. For further information 
about the Cassadys' generous and fascinating contest, 
go online to 
wonderland/ and 
index. php/main/comments/photos_from_eighth- 
annual_wonderland_award_ceremony/. In addition. 

you can see the 2009 Exhibit Catalogue at http:// 

Our final speaker was Christopher Morgan, 
whom Mark Burstein introduced as a "geek god." 
In addition to his cosmic digital omnipotence, Mr. 
Morgan is a founding editor of Popular Computing, 
a musician, a bibliophile, a puzzle designer, and an 
organizer of the Gathering4Gardner. He is also an 
accomplished amateur magician, and his purpose at 
our meeting was to demonstrate Carroll's repertory 
of magic tricks to us. 

Performing simple magic tricks and illusions for 
both adults and children was very popular in Victo- 
rian England, and Carroll's fondness for amateur 
magic has been well documented in various letters, 
diaries, and reminiscences. So, Mr. Morgan asked, 
which magic tricks did Carroll do? As it turns out, 
John Fisher's Magic ofLeivis Carroll and Martin Gard- 
ner's Th£ Universe in a Handkerchief ?ind Mathematics, 
Magic and Mystery furnished enough evidence to allow 
Chris to give us an abbreviated but authentic Carrol- 
lian conjuring session. 

Lewis Carroll and Martin Gardner (who was voted 
one of the top 100 magicians of the century by Magic 
magazine) shared this passion but performed only for 
family and friends. Several tricks were demonstrated, 
beginning with the passing of a rope through the 
nose and proceeding onto a higher intellectual plane 
with some truly delightful illusions involving mirrors 
and missing parts of dollar bills. 

One of the most effective tricks was the Handker- 
chief Mouse, which Isa Bowman also remarked upon, 
an intricate twisting up and manipulating of hand- 
kerchiefs until they leap around like maddened mice 
upon the magician's body. There were origami-like 
puzzles, card tricks, geometric paradoxes, and much 
more, all of them favorites of Carroll and clearly still 
entertaining to modern audiences. 

Where did Carroll learn his magic and find his 
supplies? Morgan showed us advertisements for W. H. 
Cremer's Conjuring Saloon on Regent Street, where 
Carroll would have found "instructions given daily . . . 
with apparatus of the finest perfection." 

Naturally, Carroll put some conjuring tricks in 
his books, in particular Looking-Glass. Morgan point- 
ed out and then performed the Sheep's standing- 
up of eggs in "Wool and Water," a common trick of 
the time. He also noted that Haigha's extraction of 
a sandwich from his Magic Bag was a variation of the 
so-called Egg Bag Trick. 

In sum, both performance and explanations 
were quite entertaining and furnished all of us with 
an unexpected glimpse into the quotidian pastimes 
of Carroll and Victorian society. With that, our meet- 
ing officially closed, and most of us repaired to a 
nearby restaurant for food, drink, and stimulating 

The next day, Sunday, furnished a special treat 
for members who were still in Boston. On a bright 
and very pleasant morning and "golden afternoon," 
about 42 members and guests were treated to a splen- 
did tour of the Tannenbaum collection, in Chelms- 
ford, Massachusetts, about 35 miles northwest of 
Boston. Climbing on a stepladder in Our Town stage 
manager fashion, Alan welcomed all to the huge li- 
brary room he and Alison had built onto their house, 
the older part of which dates from 1770. He spent 
less than a minute per shelf talking about the con- 
tents of the 84 bookshelves (behind glass doors, each 
with a cabinet knob depicting, in order, a scene from 
AAiW), the vitrines of figurines, the original illustra- 
tion art on the walls, and the collection of (the only 
two) Alice in Wonderland pinball machines ever pro- 

duced — in working order! A special exhibit case held 
some of the rarer and unique items, including books 
from Carroll's own library, a blue The Hunting of the 
Snark inscribed by Carroll to Henry Holiday's daughter 
Winifred, a delightful mirror-writing inscribed card by 
Carroll in French, and much more. The guests spilled 
outside into the beautiful gardens to continue conversa- 
tions about all things Carroll — of which there seemed 
to be an unending supply. A liddle keepsake in celebra- 
tion of the 150th anniversary, a 1-inch-high facsimile of 
Under Ground made by Lee Ann Borgia, complete with 
the final-page drawing and the photo, was taken away by 
each of the attendees. All who were fortunate enough 
to be able to visit Alison and Alan owe them their grati- 
tude for a most splendiferous day. 

Alaii Tannenbaum (far left) amidst his collection 







The recent spate ofCarrollian interest amongst Brazilian 
artists seems to continue unabated. Yet another fine artist, 
Antonio Peticov, has been inspired by the Alice novels to 
create various surrealist-inflected works. We interviewed 
Antonio via e-mail recently. 

KL: Could you tell us something about your education and 
background and how you became an artist ? 

ap: I did not go to any university because I was 12 
years old when I discovered my vocation. Since 
then I've been researching and studying all 
things related to art and culture, wdth a predi- 
lection for math and themes such as illusions, 
ambiguity, and the fantastic. My attention has 
become focused on magic realism and sacred 

I lived 15 months in England, 14 years in 
Milan, and another 14 years in New York City. 
Since 1999 I've been living and working in Sao 
Paulo, Brasil. 

KL: What led you to Lewis Carroll? 

AP: Lewis Carroll has been a presence in my life 
since I was a child, but his connections with 
Martin Gardner enlarged my interest in all of his 
work and life. When I was living in the States, I 
used to be a member of the LCSNA. 

KL: Your style in the Carrollian pictures we've seen is 
very Mediterranean; there is an open, sunny, and yet 
mythic feeling to your work. It's reminiscent of Alberto 
Savinio. How did you make the connections betiveen 
Carroll and this other visual and artistic tradition ? 

ap: I am indeed greatly indebted to Alberto Savinio, 
whose work has been an inspiration to me. 
However, during all the years that I lived abroad 
I was recognized as a "Brazilian painter," espe- 
cially owing to my intense use of colors in all of 
my work. In addition, pastel dravsdng has been 
one of my passions, and I often study old master 
drawings and etchings in search of inspiring 
images that I can reinterpret. Gustave Dore is 
also one of my favorites. 

KL: It is unusual to see anyone illustrating Rhyme? and 
Reason?. What about these poems interests you? 

ap: I have a volume of The Complete Illustrated Works 
of Lewis Carroll I am amazed by the work of A. 
B. Frost, who, besides Tenniel, best illustrated 

Carroll's work. Besides, Lewis Carroll poems are 
delightful reading. 

KL: Hoiv did you make the anamorphic art? It's very inter- 
esting and seems quite complex to execute. 

AP: I first started doing anamorphic art by hand, 
with lots of "elbow grease." But now I have 
found a way of doing it using the computer. 

KL: Are you active in the Brazilian LC Society ivith Adriana 
Peliano, and if so, have you done anything xuith the 
Society (or Adriana) that you want to show or discuss? 

ap: I didn't know about the Brazilian LC Society 
until last October, when I organized a Brazilian 
"Celebration of the Mind" event here in Sao 
Paulo and had Adriana Peliano as one of the 
speakers. She was great explaining to us her rela- 
tion vnth Alice and the work that came after it. 

KL: It seems that Brazilian artists interested in Carroll 
(that we know of) are creating work that is very ener- 
getic yet intellectual, very youthful yet looking to the 
past, and also deeply interested in surrealism. Do you 
have any theories about this Brazilian taste for CarroU 
and surrealism ? 

ap: In truth, I know very few Brazilian artists who 
have any interest in Carroll's work. But I think 
that Adriana's work is superb. 

Interested members can view and purchase more of Anto- 
nio's work online at either or www. 
antoniopeticov. com. br. 

'Unerringly, " by 
Antonio Petkoxi 






I inherited from my father a copy of the French art 
magazine Cahiers d'art. It is numbered No. 5-10, 
and was published in late 1939. Although the mag- 
azine is devoted mostly to the visual arts, it does con- 
tain some short written material, including poetry. 
Imagine my surprise when I found a page devoted to 
poems written by Lewis Carroll, and translated into 
French by Henri Parisot. I confess that 1 did not rec- 
ognize any of them. 

Before I go any further, I had better say a few 
things about my background. 1 am a retired gende- 
man, and my high school French has faded through 
the years, so I could not read these poems very well. 1 
came to really appreciate Lewis Carroll in college. It 
was then that I discovered my love of science, math, 
and particularly logic. I was an avid reader of Scien- 
tific American, and Martin Gardner's Mathematical 
Games column. It was also then that a friend gave 
me The Annotated Alice. I enjoyed how Carroll played 
with logical concepts, and my father, who was an avid 
book collector, noticed this and found me a first edi- 
tion of The Hunting of the Snark and an early edition 
of Tangled Tales. I had great fun with these. Through 
the years I have returned to them many times, but I 
didn't explore the world of Carroll any further. Then 
my daughter gave me The Annotated Alice: The Defini- 
tive Edition last year. I had a great time reading it, and 
at the end I found out about the Lewis Carroll Society 
of North America. I explored the Web site, and joined 
the LCSNA. 

I wanted to ask someone about the poems in 
Dad's old Cahiers d'art. On the LCSNA Web site was an 
option to ask questions. I asked about my magazine, 
and this started a correspondence with Mark Burs- 
tein I sent him a copy of the Lewis Carroll page. Mark 
was able to identify the poems as early verse, and said 
that Parisot was a respected translator of Carroll's 
works. Mark added that he had not seen these trans- 
lations before, and they might be rare. He encour- 
aged me to come to the fall meeting in New York, and 
bring the magazine. My wife and 1 did this, and had 

a wonderful time, but no one was able to tell me any 
more about these translations. 

Since then I have done some more searching 
on the Internet. I have found copies of Cahiers d'art 
for sale, but none as old as 1939. If the translations 
were commissioned by the magazine, they may not 
exist anywhere else. I am sure that many copies were 
sold in 1939, but I wonder how many of them have 
survived in private hands to today. I would also like 
to hear comments on the quality of the translations. I 
think they are good, but as I said before, my French is 
rusty. I would be very curious to hear any other infor- 
mation about them. 


The first paragraph on the opposite page is a transla- 
tion from the French introduction as it appeared in 
the magazine; it is not completely accurate. 

"Melodies" are four limericks (two together as verses in 
the third poem) that appeared as "Melodies" in the 
Dodgson family magazine Useful and Instructive Poetry 
(1845), the first beginning, "There was an old farmer 
of Readall." In the translation the limerick form has 
been abandoned, and the farmer has moved to Read- 
ing; similar liberties are taken throughout. 

"^ Chanson de la Fausse Tortue" (The Mock Turtle's 
Song) is from Alice's Adventures under Ground (1865); 
"Beneath the Waters of the Sea," is an early version 
of the "Lobster-Quadrille" and parodies a Negro min- 
strel song Carroll heard the Liddell sisters singing the 
day before the Isis expedition. Parisot later translated 
both Wonderland and Under Ground in full, in which 
his translation of this poem is different. 

""Unjouf is "As It Fell upon a Day" from The Rectory 
Magazine (1850); "Ma Fee" is "My Fairy" from Useful 
and Instructive Poetry. 

These poems are commonly available in collections 
of Carroll's complete works. -Mark Burstein 


Poemes de Jeunesse 


NOTEBOOK manuscripts: "USEFUL AND 
magazine" "the comet," "the ROSE- 
BUD," "the star," "the will-o'-the- 
wisp," AND "the rectory UMBRELLA." 


II y avait un vieux fermier de Reading 
Qui se faisait des trous dans la figure 

avec une epingle; 
II I'enfon^ait bien plus profondement 

qui'il ne faut 
Pour transpercer seulement la peau, 
Et pourtant, chose etrange a dire, il fut 

nomme bedeau. 

II y avait un vieux drapeir excentrique 
Qui portait un chapeau de papier brun; 
II s'eleva jusqu'a un certain point, 
Pourtant il paraissait hors de ses joints : 
La raison en etait «la vapeur», disait-il. 

II y avait une fois un jeune homme 

de Harcourt 
Qui devenait de plus en plus court; 
La raison de ce fait 
Etait I'auge qu'il avait sur la tete, 
Laquelle etait remplie du mortier le plus lourd. 

Sa sceur, nommee Lucy Stevens, 

Devenait de plus en plus mince; 

La raison, la voici : 

Elle couchait dehors sous la pluie 

Et n'etait jamais invitee a aucun diner. 


Sous les eaux de la mer 

Sont les homards epais comme ils peuvent 

I'etre — 
lis aiment danser avec toi et moi, 
Mon cher et mon gentil Saumon! 


Saumon, viens par ici ! Saumon, viens par la! 
Saumon, viens entortiller ta queue autour! 
Parmi tous les poissons de la mer 
II n'en est pas un d'aussi bon que le Saumon! 

Comme j'etais assis devant I'atre 
(Et oh, mais le cochon est gras !) 
Un homme monta le sentier en hate 
(Et en quoi me soucie-je de cela?) 

Quand il parvint a la maison, 

II s'arreta un instant pour souffler. 

Quand il arriva devant la porte. 
Son visage devint plus pale qu'avant. 

Quand il fit tourner la poignee, 
L'homme tomba evanoui sur le sol. 

Quand il traversa le couloir, 

Encore et encore je I'entendis tomber. 

Quand il atteignit I'escalier, 

II cria et arracha sa chevelure de corbeau. 

Quand il penetra dans ma chambre 
(Et oh, mais le cochon est gras!) 
Je le transpergai d'une epingle d'or 
(Et en quoi me soucieje de cela?) 

J'ai une fee a mes cotes, 
Qui dit qu'il ne faut pas dormir, 
Quand la douleur me fait fondre en larmes, 
Elle dit : «I1 ne faut pas pleurer». 

Si plein d'entrain je souris et grimace, 
Elle dit : «I1 ne faut pas rire»; 
Si dans mon verre je verse un peu de gin, 
Elle dit : «I1 ne faut pas boire». 

Si par hasard je veux gouter un mets, 
Elle dit : «I1 ne faut pas mordre»; 
Si vers les guerres je me dirige en hate, 
Elle dit : «I1 ne faut pas se battre». 

«Que faut-il faire?» m'ecriai-je a la fin. 

Fatigue du penible devoir. 

La fee tranquillement repond 

Et dit : «I1 ne faut pas questionner». 

Moralite : «I1 ne faut pas». 

(Traduit de I'anglais par Henri Parisot.) 







Calling Alice "ageless" might prove to be more 
literal than metaphorical, a notion that also 
applies to the title of this article, which ad- 
dresses the perennial question, "Why is almost every 
film actress who plays Alice far too old?" 

It is extremely unlikely, but not impossible, that 
Dodgson, toward the end of his life, attended an 
entertainment in a theater where a silent film was 
shown; however, we do know for certain that he had 
a wealth of experience with theatrical productions of 
his masterworks. Charles Lovett's excellent history, 
Alice on Stage (Westport, CT: Meckler, 1990), recounts 
Dodgson 's involvement with such endeavors, such as 
the diary entry for September 28, 1872, in which he 
noted an eight-year-old actress named Lydia Howard, 
who he felt "would do well to act 'Alice' if it should 
ever be dramatized." 

On December 7, 1874, he attended the first such 
"staged" production, a private theatrical performance 
at the house of Thomas Arnold,' which featured Ar- 
nold's daughters and a family friend, Beatrice Fearon, 
nine, as Alice.- The reader may wish to peruse Lovett's 
book for its catalogue of many such productions, from 
the first professional one (Buckland's in 1876, featur- 
ing Martha Woolridge, ten, in the lead) through the 
famous 1886 Savile Clarke musical starring Phoebe 
Carlo, twelve, and its revival at the Globe Theatre in 
1888, with Isa Bowman, fourteen, and beyond. 

Alice Liddell was ten on the famous boating trip 
up the Isis where the tale was first told. But how old 
is the Alice of the stories themselves? Based on the 
crude drawings that Carroll himself did for Under 
Ground and the polished ones done by Tenniel for 
Wonderland, she could be anywhere from seven to ten. 
But, of course, the text of Looking-Glass (Chapter V) 
reveals her as being exactly seven-and-a-half in that 
tale, and Gardner's oft-cited footnotes posit rather 
definitively that therefore her adventures in Wonder- 
land took place on her seventh birthday.^ 

Despite the higher standards for realism in film 
than on the stage, the majority of actresses who have 
played Alice in movies have been in their teens or ear- 
ly twenties, a far cry from what Carroll originally envi- 
sioned. There have been only two where the age was 
even close to correct. Natalie Gregory in the two-part 

made-for-television Irwin Allen production in 1985 
was around nine during its filming.^ (That movie was 
inexplicably nominated for five Emmys, including 
one for hairstyling, which is somewhat odd given the 
ghasdy-looking blond wig Gregory wore throughout.) 

The other actress is Kristyna Kohoutova in the 
stop-motion animated movie Neco z Alenky (1988), 
released in English as Alice, directed by a Czech, Jan 
Svankmajer. There is no official birth date given for 
the actress, but an undocumented reference on a 
website and our best guess make her out to be be- 
tween seven and eight when the movie was filmed. 
This strange film does not follow either of the two 
novels exactly, but at least the young actress does not 
wear any wigs. In fact, her hair and face are closer 
to Tenniel's drawings than those of any other actress 
playing Alice we've ever seen. 

Mention could arguably be made of five-year-old 
Virginia Davis, who appeared in Disney's Alice's Won- 
derland in 1923, and Kathryn Beaumont, best known 
for the 1951 Disney cartoon, but who also appeared 
live as the character in a number of television shows 
(she was ten when she began fulfilling her contract). 

There are a multitude of reasons for this discrep- 
ancy, of course, beginning with the talent and experi- 
ence needed to carry a motion picture, although it is 
hard to imagine that no suitable actresses of the right 
age could ever have been found. Child actors have 
often demonstrated immense gifts, from Shirley Tem- 
ple, who was but three whilst filming her first shorts 
and features, through Elle Fanning, who was even 
younger than that when she played in I Am Sam (and 
who was the most likely candidate for the role of Alice 
in a film proposed by Les Bohem to DreamWorks [KL 
74:9]; she would have been exacdy seven). ^ There is 
also the misbegotten twentieth-century canard con- 
cerning Dodgson 's allegedly prurient interest in girls, 
which may also have informed these casting decisions 
to make her older.'' 

The problem is that it inherendy affects the 
gestalt. Interactions of adults — even ones who are 
"mad" or happen to be inhabiting the bodies of cater- 
pillars or cats — ^with teenagers are intrinsically differ- 
ent from their exchanges with a girl who has barely 
turned seven and has a child's view of the world. 


"--- — -- 


Adventures in Wonderland 




100 30-m 






BBC "The 
Wednesday Play" 
(Dennis Potter) 

72 m 

Deborah Wading 





2 90-m episodes 



Janette Bundle** 


Alice in Wonderland or Alice's Adventures in Wonderland 





May Clark 





10 m 

Gladys Hulette 





52 m 

Viola Savoy 





55 m 

Rudi Gilbert 






Charlotte Henry 





1 h 23 m 

Carol Marsh 






Anne-Marie Malik 






Fiona Fullerton 






Natalie Gregory 





5 20-m episodes 

Giselle Andrews 












Tina Majorino 






Mia Wasikowska* 





PfH Ltd. 




Through the Looking-Glass 





Judi Rolin 






Sarah Sutton 





93 m 

Natalie Gregory 




Channel 4 

1 h 23 m 

Kate Beckinsale 


* as an adult 
** as a child 


Following is a list of not all, but certainly the most 
important, movies, miniseries, and television specials, 
along with the age during filming of the actress play- 
ing Alice. Animated versions are not included, as 
voice actresses are indeed ageless, as Janet Waldo — 
who was 42 when she performed Alice in the 1966 
Hanna-Barbera extravaganza and 63(!!) in an ani- 
mated Looking-Glass released by Australia's Burbank 
Films in 1987 — can attest to. We have also not includ- 
ed "adult" tides, filmings of other genres (e.g., stage 
productions, ice skating, ballet, opera, and musicals 
such as Alice at the Palace [1982] , in which she was por- 
trayed by a 32-year-old Meryl Streep), obscure films 
such as the 1928 Through a Looking-Glass for which we 
could not determine the age (or the name) of the 
actress, non-English-language films, etc. However, we 
did feel that certain films that are not strict adapta- 
tions but nevertheless portray a young Alice in her 
Wonderland are relevant. 

Tom Arnold "The Younger" (1823 -1900) was a British 

literary scholar, the son of Thomas Arnold, headmaster 

of Rugby School. He was also the younger brother 

of the poet Matthew Arnold, the father of author 

Mrs. Humphiy Ward, the grandfather of Julian and 

Aldous Huxley, and later in life a professor of English 

literature at University College, Dublin, where one of his 

students was James Joyce. 

Miss Beatrice Fearon was born in 1865, according to 


The Annotated Alice (Wonderland, chapter VII, note 4, and 
Looking-Glass, chapter I, note 1); AA: The Definitive Edition 
(Wonderland, chapter VII, note 6, and ditto). 
In a meeting of the West Coast Chapter of the LCSNA on 
June 26, 1983, at the Los Angeles home of CBS VP Bill 
Self, Irwin Allen led a discussion on the miniseries he was 
considering making. One of the present authors (MB) 
distinctly remembers making the request of Mr. Allen 
that the actress "for once be about the right age." 
The late, beloved Carrollian Hilda Bohem's son, Les, 
won an Emmy for writing the Sci-Fi (now SyFy) channel's 
miniseries Taken, 2003, produced by Steven Spielberg. 
A notion explored by Emily Aguilo-Perez in her master's 
thesis, and summarized in a talk given to our Society last 
year (i^ 87:2-3). 

Alice's 80th birthday. 




Aliec Tliroii4|li tlie Piiili4»le 




■^^C "W^^y interest in the Alice books was reignit- 
g \# % ed a couple of years ago when I first saw 
M. friend Michael Cook's marionettes, 

which depict the characters from Alice's Adventures in 
Wonderland and Through the Looking Glass. The pup- 
pets were made by his mother, the artist Margaret 
Littleton Cook, in the 1940s. I immediately knew 
I wanted to use them for a photographic project. I 
didn't realize how inspiring the journey into Wonder- 
land would be. 

Michael, a professional orchestra conductor, was 
thrilled to see the puppets live again through the pho- 
tographs, and he lent his voice to the sound installa- 
tion. On his advice I got a copy of Martin Gardner's 
Annotated Alice and immersed myself in the stories in 
preparation for making the photographs. 

I was immediately captivated by the many levels 
on which the narrative functions. The challenge of 
photographing a dream world was very exciting. Per- 
ception, time, and identity are at the core of both the 
books and my photographic work. My objective was 
to evoke the atmosphere rather than to illustrate par- 
ticular scenes. 

My technique is pinhole photography. Pinhole 
photography is the root of all photography (even Lew- 
is Carroll used more sophisticated equipment than I 
do). My homemade cameras are simple wooden box- 
es. They have a tiny aperture, literally a pinhole (no 
lens), no viewfinder, no wind-on, no auto anything. 
I use sheets of 5 X 4 inch film, and 
the exposures can take hours. For 
the Alice series I used a mixture of 
studio flash and tungsten lighting. 

I found many parallels between 
my working methods and Carroll's 
stories. Both the books and the pho- 
tographic process date back to Vic- 
torian times, yet the modern pho- 
tographer, like the reader, brings to 
them a contemporary point of view. 
These photographs should evoke a 
new understanding, while a Victori- 
an framework remains present like a 
ghost, like Alice's formal, somewhat 
antiquated language. 

The adventures begin with the fall down the rab- 
bit hole, and this is where I began the photographic 
work. Losing solid ground and letting go are always 
necessary when embarking on a journey or new proj- 
ect. When Alice lands, she suffers a kind of amnesia, 
which frees her to go further. 

Her first interactions challenge her identity, her 
physical size, and her mental continuum. Who am 
I? — a fundamental existential question — hangs in the 
periphery of these pictures. 

The Hatter declares, "You mustn't beat time or he 
won't do anything for you." Wonderland time, Look- 
ing Glass time, exposure time: rather than being con- 
densed into a millisecond, time is expanded to min- 
utes and hours. 

Carroll refers to the subjective nature of dream- 
time: clocks staying at the same time, making time do 
what you want, or running to stay in the same place. 
In Victorian portraiture, the effect of time is to make 
the sitters look stiff and static. However, with pinhole 
photography, movement inevitably creeps into the 
long exposures and gives life to the puppets and the 

Working with pinhole photography is very slow 
and reflective. Each stage of the process is both active 
and passive; between bouts of activity there is a lot of 
waiting. The lapse between making the exposure and 
developing the film allows one's 
memory and expectations of the 
image to ripen, so that when it 
comes time to print, ideas have 
often changed considerably. 

Alice's fall 

Perception, which is a critical 
theme in the books, is at the 
heart of the photographic work. 
Alice's experiences as a giant and 
as a tiny person are similar to the 
way camera angles and choice of 
viewpoint can change our under- 
standing. Humpty Dumpt)' talks 
about things meaning what you 


want them to mean. Photography, like writing, recre- 
ates reality as one chooses. We can apply the literary 
and theatrical expression "suspension of disbelief — 
the observers know that they are not looking at some- 
thing real (it's a subjective view) but cannot help but 
believe it. 

"Why it's a looking glass book, of course! And if 
I hold it up to a glass, the words will go the right way 
again." We can also compare the topsy-turvy Looking 
Glass world to the nature of black-and-white photog- 
raphy. The image that is projected through the pin- 
hole is upside down and back to front. The negatives 
are reversed spatially and tonally; dark areas appear 
light and vice versa. To arrive at a final print in which 
things appear the right way round, the photographer 
must first work with its opposite, the negative. 

One often has to go in the wrong direction be- 
fore finding the right way. In the darkroom, scale and 
composition are manipulated to create menacing at- 
mospheres, or evoke fear, vulnerability, or whatever 
you choose. 

There are also similarities with a game of chess, 
and like Carroll, although I try to stick to the rules, 
there are times when it's necessary to create my own. 
Each chess piece moves in a particular way; similarly, 
one cannot arrive at the final print without correcdy 
developing the film. Each photo is an adventure into 
unknown territory — ^you know the way to go, but you 
don't know where you are going to arrive. What is 
projected through the pinhole is inevitably different 

from the way we see things. It is free from the subjec- 
tivity and editing that goes on in our brains; the im- 
ages reveal aspects often overlooked by the eye. 


The third theme I explore in the installation is that 
of political satire and social criticism. Our contem- 
porary society would appear to be far from Victorian 
England, but Carroll's observations are still relevant 
today. Compare the Queen of Hearts to many dicta- 
tors: "the world's gone mad" or "upside down" and 
"nonsense rules." In every country we have judicial 
farces like the Knave's trial. We don't have to look far 
to find bureaucracies that function on their own logic 
and thrive on their own inefficiency. 

Alice pursues the White Rabbit 

Underlying these themes I also considered the Alice 
books from a Buddhist perspective. The adventure 
starts when Alice goes down the rabbit hole, to an 
inner world projected by her mind. She crosses the 
chessboard, becomes a queen, and wakes up — is this 
not a spiritual journey? 

Along the way, she encounters manifestations of 
what in Buddhist language would be called disturb- 
ing emotions: anger (the Queen of Hearts), pride 
(Humpty Dumpty), fear (the White Rabbit), laziness 
(the Dormouse), to name a few. The Cheshire Cat 
tells Alice she must be mad to be there, since they are 
all mad there. Wonderland could in fact be compared 
to the Buddhist concept of samsara, our deluded 
mental condition that implies that our perception of 
reality is false. Tweedle Dee and Tweedle Dum char- 
acterize the positive and negative duality inherent in 
this condition: "nothing would be what it is, but every- 
thing would be what it isn't. And contrariwise, what it 
is, it isn't, and what it isn't, it is. You see?" 

Carroll himself brings up ideas similar to Bud- 
dhist concepts such as emptiness in Through the Look- 
ing Glass. Emptiness could be summarized as the 
essential quality of all things. Nothing exists in an 
absolutely independent way but only in interdepen- 
dence and because of causes and conditions. Alice's 
meeting with the fawn in "the wood where things have 
no names" brings this to mind. Consider the universe 
as a whole and all things as parts that relate to one 
another. In the wood, when Alice and the fawn meet, 
there is no fear to keep them apart. Upon leaving the 
wood, memory and convention return, and separate 
the two. Names are simply labels, and, Alice says, are 
"useful to the people that name them." Many of the 
puns in the books allude to the difference between 
the word and the thing. In Buddhism one aspect of 
the realization of emptiness is the vast spaciousness 
beyond language. Language and conceptualization 
contribute to keeping things separated and obscure 

the connections and interdependence of all things. 
Carroll often uses nonsense as a means to refer to this. 

Perception and illusion are common concerns in 
Buddhist philosophy and the photographic process. 
The pinhole camera without viewfinder indiscrimi- 
nately records the world of light and dark, challeng- 
ing our assumption that our view of reality is fixed 
and objective. 

The photograph can be viewed in terms of empti- 
ness. It has no existence of its own, on its own, but is 
entirely dependent upon causes and conditions. Con- 
sider the subject of the photo, the materials it is made 
of, the light necessary to expose the film and paper, 
the photographer who sets in motion the process, 
and finally a viewer to interpret the image. Each of 
these contributes to the photograph, but they are not 
of the photograph. Even the word "photograph" ex- 
presses the interdependence of light and graphism. 

As the work progressed, I found more and more 
underlying similarities between my photography and 
these books. The playful nature of the puppets and 
their use as a base for abstract concepts mirrored Car- 
roll's playful approach to language. The photographs 
become an invented physical evidence of Alice's jour- 

ney through Wonderland and the Looking Glass. Al- 
ice is transformed from Carroll's fictional character 
into a marionnette character by Margaret Littleton, 
and then by me back into two dimensions, this time 
as a photograph. 

"The Red Queen shook her head, 'You may call it 
"nonsense" if you like,' she said, 'but I've heard non- 
sense, compared with which that would be as sensible 
as a dictionary!'" 

The photographic and sound installation Al- 
ice aux pays de merueilles was on view at the Chateau 
de Lacaze, Lacaze, France, from the 28th of April 
through the 29th of May, 2012. You can find more in- 
formation about my work at 

Mabel Odessey was bom in New York and left the comforts 
of American suburbia at the age of 17. She lived on an 
Israeli kibbutz and traveled through Europe and North 
Africa. In the 1 980s, she discovered pinhole photography in 
the UK, luhere she also obtained her BA in Art and Design. 
For the last 20 years she has lived in southwest France 
with her family. She exhibits and leads workshops in North 
America and Europe. 

The Queen of Hearts 



From Under Ground to Wonderland 



Alice was be^nning to get very tired of sitting by her sister on the bank, and of having nothing 
to do: once or twice she had peeped into the book her sister was reading, but it had no pictures 
or conversations. 

— Lexvis Carroll, Alice's Adventures under Ground 

Were these the opening words to the story 
Lewis Carroll told on the famed river 
journey? Were these even nearly the same 
words he used 150 years ago, on the fourth day of July, 
when he and Robinson Duckworth rowed Alice Lid- 
dell and her two sisters to Godstow? His nephew and 
first biographer, Stuart Dodgson Collingwood, would 
have us believe so: "His memory was so good that I 
believe the story as he wrote it down was almost word 
for word the same that he had told in the boat." Oth- 
ers have written of a fidelity between the verbal and 
the written tale as well. Roger Lancelyn Green even 
claims that when Carroll wrote out Alice's Adventures 
under Ground, the handwritten version of the verbal 
tale promised to Alice, there were "big bits missing 
which Dodgson wrote in afterwards."' 

Some writers are more skeptical. Not only do 
Jean Gattegno and James Playsted Wood suggest a sig- 
nificant difference between the verbal and handwrit- 
ten story,- but Lewis Carroll does so himself. "In writ- 
ing it out," he is on record as saying, "I added many 
fresh ideas."^ His revisions show no faithfulness to the 
original boat tale, and his words "fresh ideas" conflict 
with Collingwood's and Green's statements. 

The skeptic can point out — some may say specu- 
late on — the probable differences between the verbal 
rendition and the first handwritten account (which 
Carroll eventually published in facsimile). It is highly 
unlikely, for example, that the verbal tale had the eight 
full verses of the "Father William" parody. Since Car- 
roll also admitted that he sent Alice "straight down a 
rabbit-hole, to begin with, without the least idea what 
was to happen afterwards,"' it is hardly likely he had 
the foresight to toss in all those delicious hints that 
Alice was dreaming, let alone to give Alice's sister a 
perfect slumber-inducing object, a thick-paragraphed 
book with "no pictures or conversations."'' 

We do not have to speculate, however, on the dif- 
ference between Under Ground and Alice's Adventures 
in Wonderland, the first published version of the tale. 

as both can be easily pulled from the shelf and exam- 
ined. Broadly speaking, Alice's Adventures under Ground 
is a handwritten book of 12,772 words, consisting of a 
short one-line dedication, four untitled chapters, and 
amateurish illustrations by the author. Alice's Adven- 
tures in Wonderland, on the other hand, is a skillfully 
typeset book of 26,710 words, consisting of a long 42- 
line poetic dedication, twelve titled chapters, and pro- 
fessional illustrations by John Tenniel. Of these dif- 
ferences, Carroll only explained the altered title and 
the need for a professional illustrator. "I have tried 
my hand at drawing on the wood," he wrote Tom Tay- 
lor, a leading playwright, "and come to the conclusion 
that it would take much more time than I can afford, 
and that the result would not be satisfactory after all." 
Three and a half months later, he received Tenniel's 
consent to draw the illustrations, and six months 
later he shows concern over the tide. "I first thought 
of 'Alice's Adventures under Ground,'" he wrote to 
Taylor again, "but that was pronounced too like a 
lesson-book, in which instruction about mines would 
be administered in the form of a grill." After diagram- 
ming a few tides, Carroll concludes "Of all these I at 
present prefer 'Alice's Adventures in Wonderland.'"'' 

Figure 1 illustrates the growth in the text, the most 
significant difference between the two versions.The 
first section shows the four chapters of Under Ground, 
and the middle section shows the twelve chapters of 
Wonderland, with the light gray areas marking the 
approximate location of the lengthening text. The 
last section shows the percentage difference in words 
between Under Ground and Wonderland. (Figure 1 is 
based on the numbers in Figure 2.) 

Still speaking broadly — we will discuss the plot 
differences later — Figure 1 shows the changes Carroll 
made from Under Ground chapter to Wonderland chap- 
ter. He split chapter one of Under Ground into two 
chapters, adding words or phrases sporadically, (the 
scattered gray areas in Figure 1). He split chapter two 
in half as well, but with a more concentrated addition. 








VI. Pig and Pepper 

VII. A Mad Tea-Party 

VIII. The Queen's Croquet-Ground 

IX. The Mock Turtle's Story 

X. The Lobster Quadrille 

XI. Who Stole the Tarts? 

XII. Alice's Evidence 


[ Epilogue ] - 

Figure 1. Carroll's Additions to the Alice Story. The above maps out the difference between Alice's Adventures 
Under Ground ant? Alice's Adventures in Wonderland. The first section represents Under Ground, 
dividing out the four untitled chapters. The middle section represents Wonderland, with the light areas 
mapping out the additions and the dark areas the commonalities with Under Grovmd. (Each light gray speck 
equals approximately 10 wards.) The diagonal lines illustrate the location of Vnder Ground 's chapter breaks 
in Wonderland. The last section represents the percentage o/Under Ground (dark areas) found in each 
chapter o/Wonderland. Diagram by Matt Demakos. 


Under Ground 


Under Ground in Wonderland 










Chapter Titles 










[ Dedication ] 










Down the Rabbit-Hole 










The Pool of Tears 










A Canciis-Race and a Long Tale 










The Rabbit Sends in a LitUe Bill 










Advice from a Caterpillar 






Pig and Pepper 







A Mad Tea-Party 







The Queen's Croquet-Ground 







The Mock Turde's Story 







The Lobster Quadrille 







Who Stole the Tarts? 








Alice's Evidence 







[ Epilogue ] 






Figure 2. SeparatinglJnder Ground 's Words mto Wonderland 's Chapters. The numbers pertain to the original 
publication dated 1866 (actually published in 1865), and not to any later edition. Long dashes, symbols, chap- 
ter numbers and titles, are not counted as words, and hyphenated words are counted as one word. Though the 
texts were carefully checked over, the numbers should be considered approximations. 

the large gray area after the 5,000-word mark, which 
represents the insertion of the caucus-race. He also 
places the chapter break between chapters two and 
three a bit earlier for Wonderland. The most signifi- 
cant change made to chapter three, however, is the 
addition of two new chapters, "Pig and Pepper" and 
"A Mad Tea-Party." Finally, the figure shows that he 
tore the last chapter apart completely, expanding it 
and dividing it into five full chapters. 

Several have spoken of the ideas that stretched 
Under Ground into Wonderland. "No doubt he added 
some of the earlier adventures," Alice (Liddell) Harg- 
reaves wrote, "to make up the difference between Al- 
ice in Wonderland and Alice's Adventures Underground.'"' 
Several biographers, such as Lennon,* use this state- 
ment as fact, and Roger Lancelyn Green, as stated 
earlier, believed the added material was actually left 
out of Under Ground. This complete faithfulness to 
the famed river journey or the idea that every con- 
cept in Wonderland musi have a connection to the Lid- 
dell family conflicts with Carroll's awn words. In his 
article "'Alice' on the Stage," he wrote unequivocally 
that "fresh ideas" were added not only when he first 
wrote out Under Ground but also when he expanded it 
into Wonderland: "and many more added themselves 
when, years afterwards, I wrote it all over again for 
publication." He also specified when and where these 
ideas occurred: "an idea comes at night, when I have 
had to get up and strike a light to note it down — 
sometimes when out on a lonely winter walk, when 
I have had to stop, and with half frozen fingers jot 

down a few words." But what he stresses most of all in 
his article about the creation of Alice's Adventures in 
Wonderland is that every idea ""came of itself (Carroll's 
italics). He mentions the phrase, in slightly different 
wording, four times in one paragraph. "I cannot set 
invention going like a clock," he admitted. The ideas 
in Alice's Adventures and even Through the Looking-Glass 
were "made up almost wholly of bits and scraps."^ 

He does not mention, as Alice and others sug- 
gest, his new ideas coming from extempore storytell- 
ing. In truth. Wonderland's prefatory poem only paints 
a negative picture of such storytelling. The narrator's 
"leisurely" boating expedition is interrupted by a 
"cruel Three" who "in such an hour, / Beneath such 
dreamy weather" "beg a tale of breath too weak," 
which, after "its quaint events were hammered out," 
leaves the teller "weary" and his "wells of fancy dry." 
Note how the article's phrase "invention going like a 
clock" is analogous to the prefatory poem's "quaint 
events were hammered out," both suggesting not 
craftsmanship but labor or hackwork — a clang, clang, 
clang that cannot stop but must continue, even if un- 
inspired ("'The rest next time — ' 'It is next time!'"). 
The repeated phrase, ""came of itself can be read as 
a indictment as well against extempore storytelling, 
which can often be forced, producing mere padding 
(a form of writing Carroll takes pains to rail against 
in the article). Carroll's diary also shows him guard- 
ing against the pressures of creating impromptu tales 
by having a stock of known oral tales handy when an 
occasion called for one. No doubt Carroll was in im- 



But her sister eat still just as she left lier, 
leaning her head on her hand, watching the 
setting BUD, and thinking of little Alice and of all 
her wonderful adventures, till she too began 
dreajiiiiig after a fafihion, and this was her 
dream : — 

She aaV an ancient citv./aud a quiet river^ 
winding ne\r it along the plaftn : boats were row- 
ing up and Mown the streann, and one of them 
hfid a merrApaJt'ty of chfldren on board— she 
could hear thet voices zxA laughter like distant 
music on theV^ater — And among them was 
another little Ali^, (ao yfehe named her in her 
dream,) who sat li^aiifg with bright eager eyes ' 
to a story that was\>«Ing told, and she tried to 
catch the" words of t\4 story, and lo 1 it was 
the dream of her o\viy\h.tle sister. 

So the boat slo\^y Vound its way up the 
stream, under the bright \tu»m er sky, with its 
happy crew and its inusic of voices and laughter, 
till it passed round one of tt^ many turnings of 
the river, and eher saw it noVore, 



through alJher^iper years, the simple and lov- 
ing Eeart of ber) childhood : and how she would 

'"'^fher jbout herj other little cliildren, and make 
thevr eyes) bri ght and eager with many a won- 
derful talel perhaps even with these very 

" advintm-es oE. the rtttl(> A iw» of long-ago : and 
faovy she would feci \vith) all their simple sorrows, 
and find a, pleaaure j in all their simple joys, 

^_ remembenng het owu. \ child-life, and the happy 
^ummer days. I 

/uB^r\ ^ 

Figure^. Galley Sheet for Mice's Adven- 
tures in Wonderland. 
Reproduced with the kind permission of 
The Governing Body of Christ Church, 



pressive form on July 4, 1862, but the bulk of what we 
know as Wonderland, and likely most of its worthiness 
and its inspired ideas, were created in solitary, inter- 
mittent moments long after the initial boating expe- 
dition. Only a fraction, anywhere from twenty to thir- 
ty-five percent of Wonderland was told on that famous 
July day, the story being expanded on another boat 
trip (and perhaps on some previous occasion), again 
for Under Ground, and yet again for WonderlandJ" 

Carroll did not discuss how these ideas took phys- 
ical shape, though there are several clues. There sur- 
vives a Wonderland galley sheet prepared by his printer 
vrith Carroll's correcdons, both deletions and inser- 
tions (see Figure 3)." What is already typeset, disre- 
garding Carroll's handwritten corrections, is a fine il- 
lustration of Under GroMn<i dissolving into Wonderland. 
It contains words solely found in Under Ground and 
words solely found in Wonderland, and a few words of 
its very own. Another clue is found in the only surviv- 
ing letter from Tenniel regarding Wonderland: "Could 
you manage to let me have the text of 'A Mad Tea- 
party' for a day or two? There is much more in it than 
my copy contains."'- Evidence of how Carroll physi- 

cally worked is also found in the surviving text. Sur- 
prisingly, though he gready alters the last chapter of 
Under Ground, very little is thrown out, and at times, a 
small part of the original text is surrounded by long 
sections of new material. It would be more expected, 
with such a drastic revision, for a writer to disregard 
wholly the old material and write with an undistracted 
mind. But not Carroll — in his expansion of chapter 4, 
he uses all of Under Ground for the most part, except- 
ing one poem replacing another. 

These clues show us that Carroll's methods for 
working on Wonderland were exactiy like his methods 
for Looking-Glass, The Hunting of the Snark, and the Syl- 
vie and Bruno books.'-* The galley sheet shows that he 
was in the habit, even at this early date, of sending text 
to a printer knowing full well it would only be used to 
make probable alterations. The Tenniel letter shows 
that Carroll worked haphazardly, squeezing in his "bits 
and scraps" to improve — let's not say fill out — the sto- 
ry. And this is also supported by the fact that he throws 
away little of Under Ground, even when gready altering 
the story line, which suggests that new material was be- 
ing added at different times, not all at once. 


There are several sample title pages and several 
sample text pages, one even in double columns.'^ 
These show Carroll at work on the book, however, and 
not on the creation of the material within. Like the 
other documents, they do show the use of trial-and- 
error, a point we will discuss later on. 

The first evidence that Carroll was writing for 
publication is his May 2, 1864, diary entry: "Sent 
Tenniell (sic) the first piece of slip set up for Alice's 
Adventures, from the beginning of Chap. III."'' This 
suggests that he actually began writing about a month 
before, when he received Tenniel's consent to draw.''' 
It is possible that he was reworking the text before 
engaging an illustrator, but it seems unlikely that he 
was expanding the text during the stage when he was 
considering illustrating the story himself; he was well 
aware of his procrastination with the Under Ground 
illustrations, and perhaps of his own lack of skill as 
well. The first sign of completing the text, although 
we have no idea if it was the full text, comes on De- 
cember 15, 1864, when he sends it to Macmillan: "It 
is the only complete copy I have. I hope you may not 
think it unfitted to come under your auspices."'" So, 
roughly speaking, Carroll created Wonderland from 
April to December, 1864. 

What did he set out to accomplish in those 
months? Did he specifically decide to make the sto- 
ry more zany, more physical, more philosophical, 
or more refined? Or did he simply want to make it 
longer, having no regard to the overall effect? These 
concepts are best discussed after a chapter-by-chapter 

Under Ground's chapter i 

The first chapter of Under Ground begins with Alice 
sitting on a river bank with an elder sister, who is 
reading a book that bores the young girl. Alice spies 
a white rabbit and follows it down a rabbit hole. She 
falls slowly and eventually lands on sticks and shavings. 
After following the rabbit down a long passage, she 
comes into a hall with many doors, all of which are 
locked. On a glass table, she finds a golden key that fits 
a small door behind a curtain, not seen on a first time 
around. The door, about eighteen inches high, leads 
into a beautiful garden. Desiring to enter the garden, 
Alice goes back to the table and finds a botde with a 
label reading "DRINK ME." She drinks it and shrinks, 
but she cries when she realizes the door is locked and 
the key is on the table. Soon she finds an ebony box 
under the table — again, not seen before — ^with a cake 
in it and a card with the words "EAT ME." She first 
tries a bit of the cake and then finishes it off. 

Alice soon grows so tall she says goodbye to her 
feet. Now being too large to fit through the door, she 
cries yet again, creating a pool of tears. She tries to 
ask the white rabbit for help, but he only gets scared 
and runs away, dropping his nosegay and gloves. She 

begins to wonder if she is Gertrude or Florence and 
tries to recite "How doth the little crocodile." After 
unknowingly putting on the rabbit's gloves, she be- 
gins to shrink. She believes the nosegay is making 
her shrink too fast, so she drops it. She goes back to 
the curtained door, but it is locked, and the key, alas, 
is still on the table. At this time, however, she slips 
and finds herself in her own pool of tears. She hears 
a mouse splashing about and begins talking to it but 
unfortunately continually mentions Dinah, her cat, 
which angers it. The mouse promises to tell Alice why 
it hates cats and dogs, once they reach the shore. The 
chapter ends with Alice leading the animals, as many 
others have also fallen into the pool, to the shore. '^ 

As can be seen in Figure 1, of all four Under 
Ground chapters, the first is the most like Wonder- 
land. The chief differences are that Carroll splits the 
chapter in half (at the split in the paragraphs above) 
and adds 346 words, giving it about an eight percent 
growth. Section (b) shows this growth to be scattered 
rather than condensed. 

There are several additions, all of which are rela- 
tively slight when compared to the additions in other 
chapters. When Alice is falling down the rabbit hole, 
Carroll now has her name the people she may meet 
on the other side of the earth: 

"The Antipathies, I think — " (she was rather 
glad there was no one listening, this time, as it 
didn't sound at all the right word) 

and he gives the White Rabbit some worrying to 
do before he ignores Alice's question: 

he came trotting along in a great hurry, mut- 
tering to himself as he came, "Oh! the Duch- 
ess, the Duchess! Oh! won't she be savage if 
I've kept her waiting!" 

Later in Under Ground^ the white rabbit explains 
to Alice that the Marchioness (who is the Duchess in 
Wonderland) and the Queen of Hearts are one and the 
same person. The above hints — and there will be two 
more hints — that Carroll was going to keep that re- 
lationship intact for Wonderland, as there is little rea- 
son in the plot for the White Rabbit to worry about 
the Duchess. In fact, we never learn what business 
the Rabbit had with the Duchess, or with the Queen 
for that matter."' Carroll also adds Alice's thought on 
how to properly speak to a mouse, as well as her Latin 
conjugation of the creature's name: "A mouse — of a 
mouse — to a mouse — a mouse — O mouse!" The lon- 
gest addition, however, which is noticeable in Figure 
1 (around the 3,600-word mark), occurs when Alice, 
after she slips in her own pool of tears, thinks she 
could go back by railway: 

"and in that case I can go back by railway," she 
said to herself. (Alice had been to the seaside 
once in her life, and had come to the general 


^^^^^^^^^^^mllnjljn- iZmtind fl 

K Wnnd^Innd J^^^^l 


The LiddeUs (¥), the Writing (*), 
6?= the Pictures (♦) 

The Writing (*), 
(Sr" the Pictures (♦) 


17 Boat trip to Nuneham with 
Duckworth, "heavy rain" 



3 Boat trip canceled, rain, hears 
"Sally Come Up," plays croquet 

4 The Alice trip 

5 Writes headings on train 
8 Meets in Gallery 



1 Does crest books and hears 

"Beautiful Star" 
6 Continues "interminable fairy-tale" 

on boat trip to Godstow 



13 Falls in with, "a rare event of late," 
begins writing Alice, hopes to finish 
by Xmas 

21 Crest books, parlour-Croquet in 
rooms, no Ina 

28 Deanery, dinner, music, parlour- 



4 Spends three hours at deanery, 
story-telling, games, crest books 





10 Finishes text before this date, 
pictures "not nearly done" 

16 Deanery dinner, games 

17 "destined to meet... perpetually" 
19, 24 Meets girls 



9,10, 13,20,21 Meets girls 

10 Borrows a natural history book to 

illustrate Alice from Deanery 
13 Begins poem "in which I mean to 

embody something about Alice" 



^7, 17, 21, 22, 27, 29 Sees the girls, 
sometimes without a sick Alice, 
visits them at grandparents, various 



1, 5, 6,14, 16, 20, 25, 16 Takes two boat 
trips, experiments with new croquet 
game, dines at the Deanery, takes 3 
walks, Liddell baby dies 



9, 15-18, 23-25, 27 Takes two boat 
trips, helps at the bazaar, takes to 
the Circus, tea at Deanery, receives 





16 Drawing on wood condemned 
20 Sees Jewitt, woodcutter, will 

5 Sees, with mother, at theatrical in 

Berner's rooms, "held aloof 
17, 19 Writes to see girls, doing so two 
days later, music and talk 




20 Writes Tom Taylor: "Do you know 
Mr. Tenniel... whether he could 
undertake... a dozen wood-cuts... it 
has been read and liked by so many 
children. ..often asked to publish... 
I would send him the book..." 



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The LiddeUs (V), the Writing (4), 
6^ the Pictures (♦) 

The Writing (#), 
(Sf the Pictures (♦) 


25 calls on Tenniel with Tom Taylor 
letter, favourable, but must see 

12 Pictures "not yet" done 



5"got his consent to draw ... for 
'Alice's Adventures Underground" 

6 Runs into, with Prickett, inspects new I V may 
grand stand 

12 Tries in vain for a boat trip (Rhoda \ 
for Ina) "but Mrs. Liddell will not 
let any come in future — rather 
superfluous caution" 

7 Runs into, with Prickett, on a walk V JUNE 
with Cookson 


4 ♦ \ 2Sends Tenniel first slip, beginning of 
Chapter 3 
I 17 Calls on Tenniel who is out 
: 30 Sees Tenniel 


i 9 'Alice's Hour in Elfland' 

I 21 Asks Taylor about title (diagrams) 

; 21 Sees Tenniel (after Macmillan) who 

agrees to new size 
; 28 'Alice's Adventures in Wonderland' 

\ 17 Tenniel not home 




4 ; 2 Sends chapter three to Combe 

♦ ; 19 Macmillan writes: title pages, likes 
dde, best to publish late Oct 
or early November, "Tenniel's 
drawings in the book need no such 
meretricious help" 

13 The "pictures in MS finished" 


12 Calls on Tenniel, shows him 
drawing on wood "only thing he 
had," Alice sitting by pool of tears, 
settle on 34 pictures 

28 Tenniel not home, at Dalziels, some 
pictures, all Father William 

26 "MS. Finally sent to Alice" 

4 NOVEMBER 4 : 20 Book delayed, perhaps owing to the 

death of Tenniel's mother 


4 i 15 Sends Macmillan endre text 


26 Sees Tenniel [no details] 

8 Tenniel letter discusses "two 
Footmen," selects Hatter's 
riddle and Dormouse in Teapot, 
against Twinkle, mentions having 
incomplete text 

8 Sees Tenniel, who is doing 30th 

6 Sees Richmond's "The Sisters" 
painting: Ina too severe, Alice 
lovely, not quite natural, Edith best 


1 1 Runs into Prickett with Alice, 
"seems changed a good deal" not 
"for the better... the usual awkward 
stage of transition" 



20 Sends last portion marked Press 

4 Plans for Alice to receive white 
vellum copy on anniversary 

: 19 Hears from Tenniel, dissatisfied 
with printing of pictures 

# : 28 Tenniel approves print 


14 Sends Alice "new impression" 


conclusion, that wherever you go to on the 
English coast you find a number of bathing 
machines in the sea, some children digging 
in the sand with wooden spades, then a row 
of lodging houses, and behind them a railway 

There are several minor replacements. The "sticks 
and shavings" she falls on become "sticks and dry 
leaves" (shavings are indeed hard), and the little "door 
about eighteen inches high" becomes "about fifteen 
inches high." The change in height may be owed to 
Tenniel's illustration of Alice holding back the curtain 
hiding the door. If Carroll did not revise the height of 
the door, given the average height of girls today and 
the increasing height of human beings, Alice could 
only be some age older than nine, whereas the revi- 
sion makes her some age older than five. Since Carroll 
makes Alice exactly seven — though, admittedly, this is 
only known through a close reading of Looking-Glass — 
the revision seems justified.-" The "ebony box" with a 
card spelling out "EAT ME" becomes a "glass box," a 
more fairy-tale-like object, with currant lettering on 
the cake itself, and the "nosegay" the white rabbit is 
carrying, and which Alice picks up, becomes a "fan." 
Carroll may have decided to quell the notion that 
the rabbit was courting the Duchess (perhaps at Ten- 
niel's suggestion).-' The girls "Gertrude" and "Flor- 
ence," whom Alice describes unfavorably and whose 
identities she believes she may have assumed, become 
"Ada" and "Mabel." Alice had two real cousins with the 
names Florentia Emily Liddell and Gertrude Frances 
Elizabeth Liddell, and it would be inappropriate for a 
mass-produced book to portray them so insensitively, 
even if jokingly. There is litde doubt that the names 
refer to them, since Florentia, the daughter of Henry 
Thomas Liddell, the first Earl of Ravensworth, is comi- 
cally described as living in a "pokey little house," and 
with "next to no toys to play with."-- Lastly, Carroll 
adds a more precise size, "three inches high," to Alice 
after she shrinks for the last time. 

The chapter also receives several style changes, 
true for the whole of the book. In Under Ground, Car- 
roll did not consistently place Alice's thoughts in 
quotation marks, but he did so for Wonderland. He 
also was not consistent in capitalizing the names of 
the main characters, but was so for Wonderland — ^the 
"white rabbit" becomes the "White Rabbit," for ex- 
ample. Even the "Mouse" gets more respect. Some of 
the characters did not receive a gender in the earlier 
work either, but in the later work they become "he" 
or "she" and "him" or "her," instead of the undigni- 
fied "it" (though there are exceptions, especially the 
birds). Lasdy, Under Ground tended to have long para- 
graphs, which Carroll wisely divided for Wonderland, 
although there are some cases of fusing paragraphs. 

Just about every sentence in the chapter receives 
an alteration of some kind, whether it is a substitu- 

Down. ciown. down. Would the fall never come to an end? "I 
wonder how many miles I've Allien by this time?" SIFsatd «he-aloud-ri 
"I must be getting somewhere near the centre of the earth. Let mc sec: 
that would be four thousand miles dowTi, I think — " (for , you see , Alice 
had Ica.'nt several t-hings of this sort in her lessons in the schoolroom, and 
though this was not a vtry good opportunity «(-tor showing off her 
knowledge, as there was no one to iw«f-liixten to her. still it was good 
practice to say it over t-) " — yes. that\ about the r.ght disuuicc r— but 
then I wonder what Latitude or Longitude or Loiitude l i n e ohall I b e in 
I've gpt to ■'" (Alice had h«-oM the slightest :dea what Long i tud e 
Latitude was, or Lat i tude Longitude cither, bu; she thought they were 
nice grand words to say.) 

Presently she began again ■-. "I wonder if I shall fall right through 
the earth! How funny it'll be-teem to come out among the people that 
vtaVn with their hcjds downwards' The Antipathies. I think — " (she was 
nther glad there was no oi>e listening this time, as it didn't sound at all 
the right word) " — Hbut I shall have to them what the name of the 
country is, you know. Hicase, Ma'am, is this New Zealand or Australia?" 

( and she tried to curtsey as she spoke . ( fancy curtseying as 

you're falling through the air! dOo you think you could manage it?) " 
sAnd what an ignorant little girl she'll think me for asking! No, it'll 
never do to ask: perhaps I shall see it written up somewhere." 

Figure 4. Sample Edits in Chapter 1 of Under Ground, forWon- 
deland. Additions are shaded, and deletions crossed out. Ital- 
ics represent underlining in Under Ground and are such in 
Wonderland. The insertion of the "Antipathies" is the longest 
in Wonderland's ^r5t chapter. 

tion, an insertion, a relocation of a word, a deletion, 
or a change in punctuation. This is best illustrated 
in Figure 4, which gives a sample of Carroll's edit- 
ing. In actuality, the chapter received approximately 
132 changes in punctuation, 128 substitutions (word, 
phrases, or sentences), eighty-four insertions, eigh- 
teen re-ordering of words, eighteen deletions, and 
eleven paragraph splits. Though this accounting will 
not be offered for the other three chapters, a flip 
through a document containing all the edits shows a 
steady stream of revisions throughout the work. 

Under Ground's Chapter n 

The second chapter begins with Alice and the animals 
assembling on the bank. To get them dry, the mouse, 
around whom they all sit, recites a history about Wil- 
liam the Conqueror, the driest thing he knows. The 
mouse pauses — only stopping once before, when 
the Lory interrupted — and asks Alice how she is get- 
ting on. As the plan does not seem to be working, 
the Dodo suggests "an immediate adoption of more 
energetic remedies — " which prompts the Duck to 
blurt out "Speak English!" The Dodo, offended, leads 
them to a cottage where they can get dry and where 


the mouse can tell them his story. Alice, the Lory, and 
the Eaglet, led by the Dodo, arrive first and, comfort- 
ably wrapped in blankets, enjoy the warmth of the 
fire, while awaiting the others. Back on the bank, the 
mouse tells his "long tale," which Alice imagines as 
being in the shape of a tail. In poetic verse, he tells 
about living under a mat and how a dog and cat had 
sat on each rat crushing each flat. The Mouse accuses 
Alice of not listening and leaves, shaking its ears when 
Alice calls to it to come back. After Alice mentions 
that her cat Dinah could fetch it back, and her ability 
with birds as well, the other animals begin to depart. 
Alice soon is alone, "sorrowful and silent," and picks 
up her spirits again only to reminisce about her time 
vsdth the animals. But her prattling is interrupted by 
the sound of pattering feet. 

It is a very anxious white rabbit, worrying about 
the Marchioness and his missing white gloves and 
nosegay. Mistaking Alice for Mary Ann, the rabbit 
demands she go back to his house to fetch the miss- 
ing items. She finds the house with the brass plate 
reading "W. RABBIT, ESQ." and locates the gloves. 
Before leaving, she drinks from a botde and grows 
so large she has to put her arm through a window to 
make room for herself. After first trying to open the 
door to get inside, the rabbit goes around to the win- 
dow. Alice makes a snatch at it, causing it to crash into 
what she believes is a cucumber-frame. After another 
snatch at the rabbit, and Pat the gardener, with yet 
more crashing noises, she hears that they are plan- 
ning to send Bill, a lizard, down the chimney. But she 
sends him flying with a kick of her foot. When they 
begin discussing the idea of burning down the house, 
Alice threatens to set Dinah on them. She suddenly 
begins to shrink, however, back to three inches tall. 
She runs out of the house, past a crowd of animals, 
some of which are nursing Bill. The animals rush at 
her, but she escapes into a deep wood.^^ 

Carroll again splits the chapter in two for Won- 
derland, as can be seen in Figure 1, but this time add- 
ing a short scene from Under Ground's chapter 3 to 
Wonderland's chapter 4, thus creating a new chapter 
break. That 385-word scene is Alice's encounter with 
the large puppy, which many have found to be odd- 
ly realistic in a book filled with unrealities. The less 
prominent location may show Carroll in agreement, 
or may have been an attempt to balance out the chap- 
ter lengths (at least at some stage in the rewriting), 
or it may have been done to allow the "Advice From 
a Caterpillar" chapter to begin with the tide charac- 
ter.-^ More notable, however, are the two scenes that 
lengthen the story, viewable on the figure after 5,000 
words and after 8,000 words. 

The first replaces the scene where the animals 
walk along the river to a house to dry off: 

"I only meant to say," said the Dodo in a rather 
offended tone, "that I know of a house near 
here, where we could get the young Lady and 
the rest of the party dried, and then we could 
listen comfortably to the story which I think 
you were good enough to promise to tell us," 
bowing gravely to the mouse. 

The mouse made no objection to this, and 
the whole party moved along the river bank, 
(for the pool had by this time begun to flow 
out of the hall, and the edge of it was fringed 
with rushes and forget-me-nots,)-' in a slow pro- 
cession, the Dodo leading the way. After a time 
the Dodo became impatient, and, leaving the 
Duck to bring up the rest of the party, moved 
on at a quicker pace with Alice, the Lory, and 
the Eaglet, and soon brought them to a little 
cottage, and there they sat snugly by the fire, 
wrapped up in blankets, until the rest of the 
party had arrived, and they were all dry again. 

Alice and her sisters would have recognized the 
episode as portraying an earlier boating expedition 
to Nuneham with Duckworth, two of Carroll's sisters, 
and his Aunt Lucy, when "heavy rain came on." The 
children had to walk three miles through the rain to 
a house Carroll knew, to dry off their clothes. As many 
know, the Dodo and the Duck represent Carroll and 
Duckworth, and the Lory and the Eaglet represent 
Lorina and Edith. As with the events in the story, Car- 
roll did split off from the others, arriving at the house 
with the faster-walking girls before the rest of the par- 
ty. Unlike the characters in the story, the party walked 
to the house in a drenching rain.^'' 

Carroll replaced the scene with the much longer 
caucus-race. Alice asks what it is, and the Dodo de- 
clares "the best way to explain it is to do it." In short, 
the Dodo draws "a sort of circle" — the animals run 
around for about a half hour — the Dodo declares the 
race over — he decides, after being asked, that all win 
prizes — ^Alice hands out comfits from her pocket. The 
scene ends with the Dodo solemnly presenting Alice 
with her prize, a thimble, also from her pocket. 

The second scene to add weight to the text is a 
pure addition, and not a mere substitution. In Un- 
der Ground Alice simply begins to shrink after being 
trapped in the white rabbit's house. In Wonderland 
Carroll gives her a reason for shrinking. After Alice 
hears the others threatening to burn down the house, 
there is silence and Alice hears the Rabbit say, "A bar- 
rowful will do, to begin with." Suddenly, she is pelted 
by littie pebbles. They turn into cakes, however, and 
Alice eats them, believing that they certainly can't 
make her any bigger and so they must, and do, make 
her grow smaller. 

There is another minor addition (just viewable 
in Figure 1 as a short gray line above the 5,000 word 


mark) where Carroll has the Duck interrupt the 
Mouse's "William the Conqueror" speech, after the 
words "the patriotic archbishop of Canterbury, found 
it advisable — " 

"Found what?" said the Duck. 

"Found it," the Mouse replied rather 
crossly: "of course you know what 'it' means." 

"I know what 'it' means well enough, 
when /find a thing," said the Duck: "it's gen- 
erally a frog or a worm. The question is, what 
did the archbishop find?" 

The Mouse did not notice this question, 
but hurriedly went on. 

Giving the interruption to the Duck may be the 
reason Carroll has the Eaglet instead of the Duck, as 
in Under Ground, interrupt the Dodo's lofty speech 
with "Speak English!" 

There are two replacements that do not show up 
on Figure 1, as they are about the same word length as 
the originals. Carroll replaced the mouse's tale in Un- 
der Ground with a different poem in Wonderland. The 
new poem tells of a dog, Fury, who wants to prosecute 
a mouse and condemn it to death. Though the origi- 
nal poem may be considered poetically weak, the new 
poem, despite being better versed and rhymed, feels 
out of place. The original poem "fulfills the mouse's 
promise to explain why he dislikes cats and dogs," 
Martin Gardner explains, "whereas the tale as it ap- 
pears here contains no such reference to cats."-' The 
second substitution replaced a paragraph that con- 
tained references to the deleted cottage scene: 

"I do wish some of them had stayed a little lon- 
ger! and I was getting to be such friends with 
them — really the Lory and I were almost like 
sisters! and so was that dear little Eaglet! And 
then the Duck and the Dodo! How nicely the 
Duck sang to us as we came along through the 
water: and if the Dodo hadn't known the way 
to that nice little cottage, I don't know when 
we should have got dry again — " 

The deletion eliminated a three-part invoke. In 
the first part, the Lory and the Eaglet, who became 
"almost like sisters!" with Alice, represent her true sis- 
ters Lorina and Edith. In the middle part, the Duck, 
who "sang to us as we came along through the water," 
represents Duckworth, in truth, a talented singer. 
And in the last part, the Dodo, who knew "the way 
to that nice little cottage" represents Carroll, who 
did suggest the house in which the rowing party took 
shelter. Carroll replaced the paragraph with Alice's 
bemoaning that she may never see her cat again, thus 
retaining the character's melancholic state. 

There are several minor changes in the chapter. 
When the mouse tells the driest thing he knows, they 
sit around Alice in the original but, more properly. 

around the Mouse in the revision. The Marchioness 
gets the revised title of Duchess, a character that we 
meet later, and the white rabbit loses his courtesy title 
on his house plaque: "W. RABBIT, ESQ" becoming 
simply "W. RABBIT." 

Of all the changes in the chapter, most attention 
has been given to the deletion of the cottage scene. 
Anne Clark uses the deletion to illustrate a point that 
Under Ground "contained a lot of private jokes which 
were amusing to Alice and her sisters, but which 
Dodgson felt would be unsuitable for a wider audi- 
ence." Gattegno writes, "details that were too true to 
history were left out,"-*^ a comment also referring to 
Alice's reminiscence of the scene. 

But Carroll not only keeps some invokes and true 
events in the story, he adds some as well. He keeps 
the line where the Lory says "I am older than you, 
and must know best," certainly an invoke of the same 
timbre as the "almost like sisters" line, and he even 
corrects the last word to "better." He keeps the par- 
ody "Beautiful Soup," based on the sisters' singing of 
"Beautiful Star," and even adds a verse. He adds more 
invokes and true events in his names for the girls in 
the treacle well (which obliquely refer to the Liddell 
sisters), when he has the story take place on May 4 
(Alice's real birthday), and when he creates the prefa- 
tory poem (a reference to the July 4 boating expedi- 
tion). He had no qualms about invokes per se, and 
even shows a predilection for them, which is exempli- 
fied in the ones found in Looking-GlassP 

It is more likely that the cottage scene was delet- 
ed because Carroll noted that the chapter would have 
been awkwardly short if something were not added 
(see Figure 1). So he created a longer method for 
drying off the characters, one more in tune with the 
direction his new material was taking, perhaps first as 
an addition but ultimately as a replacement for the 
cottage scene. Naturally, the main attributes of the re- 
placement scene (zaniness, surrealism) hint at the at- 
tributes in the original scene he found objectionable 
(tameness, realism), especially since they oppose one 
another. He had to eliminate references to the de- 
leted scene and did so despite the elaborate in-joke; 
others, he knew, would be created or were already 
created. Carroll realized there was no place for Alice 
to become "almost like sisters" with the Lory and the 
Eaglet without the cottage scene, where the three, 
with the Dodo, "sat snugly by the fire, wrapped up in 
blankets, until the rest of the party had arrived," and 
there was certainly no place for the Duck to sing with- 
out the scene where "the whole party moved along 
the river bank ... in a slow procession." 

Under Ground's CHAPTEB. hi 

The third chapter of Under (/round begins with Alice 
wandering in the wood, determined to first grow big 
again and second to enter the "lovely garden." She 


encounters a large puppy and inadvertently picks up 
a stick to protect herself. But the puppy believes Al- 
ice, who is hiding behind a thistle, wants to play with 
the stick. She finally escapes when it stops to pant, a 
good distance from Alice. As she rests against a but- 
tercup and fans herself with her hat, she realizes that 
she must eat or drink something to grow larger. She 
spies a mushroom and eventually finds a caterpillar 
smoking a long hookah on the top, "taking not the 
least notice of her." 

After some time, the caterpillar languidly asks, 
"Who are you?" Alice, with some difficulty, explains 
how she isn't herself, and how confusing it is "to be 
so many different sizes in one day." The caterpillar 
does not sympathize; as Alice points out, it will even- 
tually turn into a chrysalis and into a butterfly. An- 
noyed with the caterpillar's temper, Alice walks away, 
but the creature calls her back again with something 
important to say: "Keep your temper." The caterpillar 
asks her to repeat "Father William," and Alice does 
so with the usual effect of its coming out all wrong. 
She states that she would like to be taller, as "three 
inches is a wretched height to be," which insults the 
creature. Before crawling off the mushroom and 
away in the grass, the caterpillar tells Alice, "the top 
will make you grow taller, and the stalk will make you 
grow shorter." Forgetting which does what, she tries 
the stalk and becomes suddenly shorter. She just 
manages, her chin barely able to open, to eat the top 
to make her taller. Her neck grows high above the 
trees, and when she winds her head back down again 
to see her hands, she meets a large pigeon, who calls 
her a "serpent!" The pigeon complains about ser- 
pents stealing her eggs, and Alice declares that she 
is a "little girl." She nibbles the different pieces of 
the mushroom until she is the right size again. Now 
with half her plan accomplished, she wonders how 
"to get into that beautiful garden — how is that to be 
done, I wonder?" 

Just as Alice says the words, she spies a door in a 
tree and enters, finding herself back in the hall and 
near the glass table. With the help of the golden key 
and the pieces of mushroom (to make her fifteen 
inches high), not to mention her past experience, 
she finally manages to pass through the door and 
into the garden.'*' 

As can be seen from Figure 1 , Carroll did not split 
the chapter in half like the two previous chapters — 
despite its having two main sections, the Caterpillar 
and the Pigeon scenes. Instead, he brings the chapter 
into Wonderland almost as is, being that it is the short- 
est in Under Ground and short enough for Wonderland, 
even if it retained the opening puppy-scene. Though 
the two new chapters — "Pig and Pepper" and "A Mad 
Tea-Party" — are technically within the chapter, Car- 
roll likely perceived them as additions between Under 
Ground?, two last chapters. 

Carroll inserts the "Pig and Pepper" episode by 
having Alice not come across the door in the tree 
(the beginning of the third paragraph of the synopsis 
above) but across "an open place, with a little house 
in it about four feet high." And so begins the chaj> 
ter: the meeting with the frog- and fish-footmen — 
the strange occupants: the Duchess, Cook, cat, and 
baby — the ill treatment of the baby — the Cook's 
throwing of pans — the transformation of the baby 
into a pig — the meeting with the Cheshire Cat in a 
tree — its remark that "we're all mad here" — its van- 
ishing and reappearance, and its slow dissolve into a 
grin. The chapter ends with Alice at the house of the 
March Hare, and her eating a mushroom until she is 
two feet high. 

As has already been mentioned, in Under Ground 
the Queen and the Marchioness are the same char- 
acter, a fact Alice learns from the white rabbit in the 
last chapter. Though Carroll cleaved the two apart for 
Wonderland, there is a vestige of the old relationship 
in "Pig and Pepper," despite its being a wholly new 
chapter. It occurs when the Duchess says, "Talking 
of axes" — a comment prompted by Alice's mention 
of the earth's axis — "chop off her head!" The threat 
predates the character of the Queen of Hearts, whose 
threats are also not taken too seriously, and hints — 
and there wdll be one more hint — that Carroll may 
have initially thought to keep the relationship intact 
while first composing the new chapter. 

"A Mad Tea-Party" follows directly behind "Pig 
and Pepper." The plot is familiar to many, being one 
of the more popular chapters in the book: the meet- 
ing of the March Hare, the Hatter and the sleepy Dor- 
mouse — the large table with open seats — the raven 
and writing-desk riddle — the Hatter's "Twinkle, Twin- 
kle Little Bat" — the Dormouse's story of the sisters in 
a treacle well — and the placing of the Dormouse in 
the teapot. The chapter ends with Alice finding the 
tree with a door (the third paragraph of the synopsis 
above). Carroll edits the first part of the last sentence 

Then she set to work eating the pieces of 
mushroom till she was about fifteen inches 


Then she went to work nibbling at the mush- 
room (she had kept a piece of it in her pocket) 
till she was about a foot high. 

The edits respond to the previous changes. Since 
the door was changed from eighteen to fifteen inches 
high, Alice would naturally make herself lower than 
fifteen inches, and since two long chapters were add- 
ed after Alice's meeting with the Caterpillar, there is 
good reason to remind the readers about the pieces 


of mushroom in her pocket. (Notice how skillfully he 
handles the reminder, wording it tangentially so as 
not to insult the older readers.) Since "A Mad Tea- 
Party" contains this little linking episode, technically, 
the only full chapter added to Wonderland is "Pig and 

Tenniel mentions in a letter to Carroll that in 
his copy of the "Mad Tea-Party," the scene where the 
Hatter asks his riddle — "Why is a raven like a writing- 
desk?" — "comes close upon" the "Twinkle twinkle" 
scene, but knowing full well that Carroll added materi- 
al to the chapter." This hints that either Carroll added 
the discussion about "I see what I eat" being the same 
as "I eat what I see" or that he added the discussion 
about the Hatter's watch, or perhaps both. Whatever 
was added, it shows Carroll working his new material, 
expanding and editing it as he did with the old. 

The watch discussion also includes — after Alice 
refers to "Time" as "it" — the Hatter's retort: "If you 
knew Time as well as I do, you wouldn't talk about 
wasting it. It's him." Interestingly, part of Carroll's ed- 
iting duties at the time was to revise the use of pro- 
nouns (he, she, it, him, and her), which may have sug- 
gested the Hatter's comment. For example, the line 
about the Mock Turtle is changed from "Alice could 
hear it sighing as if its heart would break" to "Alice 
could hear him sighing as if his heart would break" 
(italics added). 

Carroll has the caterpillar say, "the top will make 
you grow taller, and the stalk will make you grow short- 
er," but in Wonderland, he amusingly has the caterpil- 
lar say, "One side will make you grow taller, and the 
other side will make you grow shorter" — a vagueness 
that adds a nice philosophical puzzle, solved wonder- 
fully by Alice's 180-degree reach. Wonderland has an 
added dialogue in which the Pigeon does not believe 
that little girls eat eggs (like snakes) and says that, if 
they do, then they are a kind of serpent, which also 
adds a nice philosophical touch, giving Alice pause. 
Lastly, Carroll adds a bit of emergency to Wonderland 
when Alice tastes the mushroom for the first time; she 
must quickly eat the other half before shrinking even 

This essay will be concluded in the Fall 2012 issue of the KL. 

Epigraph. Lewis Carroll, Alice's Adventures Under Ground: 
A Facsimile of the Original Lewis Carroll Manuscript (Ann 
Arbor: University Microfilms, 1964), 1. 

' Stuart Dodgson Collingwood, The Life and Letters of Lewis 
Carroll (New York: The Centuiy Co., 1898), 106; Roger 
Lancelyn Green, The Story of Lewis Carroll (New York: 
Henry Schuman, 1951), 58. 

^ Jean Gattegno, Lewis Carroll: Fragments of a Looking-Glass, 
translated by Rosemai7 Sheed (New York: Thomas Y. 
Crowell, 1974), 20;JamesPIaysted Wood, The SnarkWas 

a Boojum: A Life of Lewis Carroll (New York: Pantheon, 
1966), 68. 

' Lewis Carroll, "'Alice' on the Stage," The Theatre, n.s., 9 
(April 1887): p. 180. 

' Ibid. 

* Carroll, Under Ground, p. 1. For early examples of hints 
that Alice is dreaming, see Carroll, Under Ground, pp. 1, 

'' Lewis Carroll to Tom Taylor, December 20, 1863, and 
June 10, 1864, in The Letters of Lewis Carroll ed. Morton 
Cohen (New York: Oxford University Press, 1979), pp. 
1:62, 65. 

' Alice and Caiyl Hargreaves, "Alice's Recollections 
of Carrollian Days: As Told to her Son," The Comhill 
Magazine73, no. 433, n.s. (July 1932): p. 5. 

" Florence Becker Lennon, Victoria Through the Looking- 
Glass: The Life of Lewis Carroll (New York: Simon and 
Schuster, 1945), p. 115. 

■' "'Alice' on the Stage": p. 180. 

'" Carroll only details one other time telling the Alice 
story. On a boat trip with a friend named Harcourt, he 
tried playing a game of "Ural Mountains," one he likely 
devised, which "did not prove very successful, and I 
had to go on with my interminable faiiy-tale of 'Alice's 
Adventures.'" If this indeed is only the second time he 
told the tale, his exaggerated phrasing is yet another 
negative description of extempore storytelling. Lewis 
Carroll, August 6, 1862, Lewis Carroll's Diaries: The Private 
Journals of Charles Lutwidge Dodgson, ed. Edward Wakeling, 
vol. 4 (Luton, Beds: The Lewis Carroll Society, 1997), 
p. 115. For oral tales told to children, see under "Story- 
telling" in the index to the Diaries zbove (vol. 10, p. 122). 
' ' Lewis Carroll, galley sheet for Alice's Adventures in 
Wonderland, Deanery Collection A8, Christ Church 
Library, Oxford. 
'■^ John Tenniel to Lewis Carroll, March 8, 1865, in 
Lewis Carroll and His Illustrators: Collaborations and 
Correspondence, 1865-1898, Morton Cohen and Edward 
Wakeling, eds. (Ithaca, New York: Cornell University 
Press, 2003), p. 12. 
'^ See, for example, the galley sheets to the "Wasp in a Wig" 
episode (Lewis Carroll, A Wasp in a Wig: A "Suppressed" 
Episode o/Through the Looking-Glass and Wliat Alice 
Found There, Martin Gardner, ed. [London: Macmillan, 
1977]); Henry Holiday's comments on working with 
Carroll for the illustrations to The Hunting of the Snark 
(Heniy Holiday, Reminiscences of my Life, in Lewis Carroll: 
Interviews and Recollections, Morton N. Cohen, ed. [Iowa 
City: University of Iowa Press, 1989], p. 119), and 
likewise, Harry's comments on working with him 
for the illustrations to the Sylvie and Bruno books (Hariy 
Furniss, Confessions of a Caricaturist, in Lewis Carroll: 
Interviews and Recollections, p. 225). 
'^ These documents, in Christ Church Library, are not 
dated, and some may have been created after the first 
publication of Wonderland, especially the version of the 
tale in two columns. 
'■'' Carroll, May 2, 1864, Lewis Carroll's Diaries, p. 297. Carroll 
may be referring to chapter 3 of Wonderland, where the 
animals assemble on the shore, instead of chapter 3 of 
Under Ground, where Alice meets the enormous puppy, as 


the latter is not even a chapter break in Wonderland. Then 
again, it may refer to neither episode, given the fact that 
Carroll worked and reworked the book. 
Ibid., April 5, 1864, p. 284. 

Lewis Carroll to Macmillan, December 15, 1864, in Lewis 
Carroll and the House of Macmillan, Morton Cohen and 
Anita Gandolfo, eds. (New York; Cambridge University 
Press, 1987), p. 36. 

Carroll, Under Ground: A Facsimile of the Original Lewis 
Carroll Manuscript (Ann Arbor: University Microfilms, 
1964), pp. 1-23. The text for Wonderland is based on 
a facsimile edition included in the Riverside Records 
boxed set, containing four LPs of Cyril Ritchard reading 
of the stoiy: Lewis Carroll, Alice's Adventures in Wonderland 
(New York: Crown Publishers, 1957). The paragraph 
breaks in each of the four synopses given for Under 
Ground represent the chapter breaks in Wonderland. 
Owing to the nature of this paper, and so as not to 
burden the reader, who likely has another edition, 
citations will not be given for Wonderland. 
When Alice first sees the White Rabbit later in the book, 
he is in the grand procession "talking in a hurried 
nervous manner, smiling at everything that was said, and 
went by without noticing her." This may be Carroll's way 
of saying he was almost late, just stepping in line. 
Alice says in reference to the March Hare, "as this is 
May it won't be raving mad," and she later answers the 
Hatter that it is "The fourth." So the stoiy takes place 
on Alice Liddell's real birthday. But we only know she is 
seven from statements made in Looking-Glass. She tells 
the White Queen, "Tm seven and a half exactly" and 
Humpty Dumpty "Seven years and six months." That 
makes it November 4, which accords with the allusion 
to the next day being Guy Fawkes Day in the opening 
chapter. Though there is no way to prove that only six 
months elapsed between the stories, and not a year 
and a half, Tenniel's drawings make it a surety. Carroll, 
Wonderland, pp. 92, 99; Lewis Carroll, Through the Looking- 
Glass (London: Macmillan, 1872), pp. 3-4, 99, 119. For 
average height, see 
Carroll altered the line "Were walking hand-in-hand" in 
"The Walrus and the Carpenter" poem "to suit the artist." 
It is unclear what Tenniel objected to, but it may have 
been the notion of a romantic relationship between an 

animal and a human, as suggested here with the White 

Rabbit and the Duchess. See Lewis Carroll to Edith A. 

Goodier and Alice S. Wood, March 20, 1875, Letters, 

p. 222. 

Edward Wakeling, e-mail message to the author, 

November 26, 2010. Florentia is not mentioned in the 

diaries, nor in any notes. But Carroll met Gertrude and 

wrote in his diaiy on September 21, 1855, very favorably 

of her: "The youngest Liddell, Gertrude, is even prettier 

than my little favourite Freddie: indeed she has quite 

the most lovely face I ever saw in a child." She was about 

three years old at the time. Lewis Carroll's Diaries: The 

Private foumals of Charles Lutwidge Dodgson, ed. Edward 

Wakeling, vol. 1 (Luton, Beds: The Lewis Carroll Society, 

1993), pp. 131-2. 

Stuart Dodgson Collingwood, The Life and Letters of Lewis 

Carroll (New York: The Centuiy Co., 1898), 106; Roger 

Lancelyn Green, The Story of Lewis Carroll (New York: 

Henry Schuman, 1951), 58. 

Admittedly, Carroll's chapter titles do not always refer to 

the initial topic in the chapter (for example, "The Mock 

Turde's Story"). 

Gattegno, Lewis Carroll: Fragments, pp. 21-2. Gattegno 

mentions the deletion of the phrase "fringed with rushes 

and forget-me-nots," failing, however, to mention that the 

whole scene was deleted. 

Carroll, June 17, 1862, Diaries, vol. 4, pp. 81-2. For Alice 

Liddell's memory of the incident, see Alice and Caryl 

Hargreaves, "Alice's Recollections of Carrollian Days," 

p. 7. 

Martin Gardner, The Annotated Alice: The Definitive Edition 

(New York: Norton, 2000), p. 34. 

Anne Clark, The Real Alice (New York: Stein and Day, 

1981), pp. 93-4; Gattegno, Lewis Carroll: Fragments, p. 21. 

See, for example, the word "pleasance," Alice Liddell's 

middle name, in the prefatory poem (unpaged); the 

terminal poem, an acrostic on her full name (mentioned 

above as an Oxford allusion as well); and the Rose and 

the Violet in "The Garden of Live Flowers" chapter, 

Alice's sisters Rhoda and Violet (so it is said). Carroll, 

Looking-Glass, pp. 28-34, 223-4. 

Carroll, Under Ground, pp. 46-67. 

See note 12. 






Leaves fROo:? 
t/:^6 Deanejiy Ganden 

Dear Editor, 

While working on our Alice 150 
project, we discovered that Weaver 
cites a 1924 Budapest edition of 
Alice in Hungarian and in turn 
cites its listing in W & M, 1931. 
It is also listed in W, M & Green, 
1962. Neither book gives a source. 
Weaver did not have a copy 

Our Hungarian bibliographer 
finds the book in no Hungarian 
bibliography or library and so has 
concluded it is a "ghost" edition. 
I am making a survey of Carroll 
and Alice collectors to see if any- 
one has a copy. I lack the book. 
Anyone who has the book or 
knows of a copy can contact me at 
Thank you, 
Jon Lindseth 


Dear Editor, 

As you know, there is an ongoing 
controversy about the authorship 
of the Alice books. Another proof 
that they are in fact written by 
Queen Victoria herself may be 
found in the presence of a hyphen 
in both "Looking-Glass," the last 
word of the last title in the last of 
the series of two books, and in the 
Queen's own last name, "Saxe- 

Dr. Femly Bowers, BA, BFA, MA, 



In transit in California 


Dear LCSNA, 

On behalf of our Fourth grade 
students and staff, please accept 
my most sincere thanks and appre- 
ciation of your visit to our school. 
The members of the LCSNA did 
a truly remarkable job of making 
Alice and her fellow characters 
come alive for our students, many 

of whom have not had the plea- 
sure of reading this classic. 

Our students were amazed and 
delighted by the reading. I can tell 
from their reaction that the books 
will be treasured for many years. 
The special memory they will have 
about that presentation today and 
their special keepsake will last just 
as long. 

I witnessed the students reading 
the books for the remainder of the 
school day; many of them are well 
on their way to finishing it in the 
next few hours. Thanks again for 
brightening our day, and for pass- 
ing on the special pleasures of a 
most wonderful book. 


Nicholas Leonardos 


Maria L. Baldwin School 

Cambridge, MA 


... one scene segues into another 
like the scenes in Alice — and 
Carroll must of course have 
been inspired by the inconstant 
landscape of dreams ... 

Penelope Lively, How It All Began, 
Viking Penguin, Neiv York, 2011. 

The conclusion of the dream is 
almost as predictable in Lewis 

Donald Thomas, Henry Fielding, 
St. Martin 's Press, New York, 

"It was the very best butter," he 
said, and for some reason this 
idiotic remark made Susan laugh 
as well. 

... she didn't want to be found 
looking like a sick Cheshire cat. 
Margery Sharp, The Nutmeg 
Tree, Grosset & Dunlap, New 
York, 1937. 


"...Means nothing to me, sir!" 
"Nor to me." Wycliffe grinned. 

"In Alice, the jurymen added up 

the dates given in evidence and 

reduced their answers to pounds, 

shillings, and pence." 

Smith did not smile. "That 

would be before we went metric, 

I take it, sir." 

W.J. Burley. Wycliffe and the 
Four Jacks. Avon Books, 1987. 


... he turns and looks back over 
their heads to the house bathed in 
brazen unnatural light. In its front 
courtyard a man with bucket and 
brush is methodically painting the 
plastic roses a brilliant, glamorous 

Alison Lurie, Foreign Affairs, 
Random House, New York, 1 984. 

Most of the names were famil- 
iar: George Bernard Shaw, W. T 
Stead, Cunningham-Grahame, 
Annie Besant, Lord Tennyson. 
Others meant little: Marie Spartali 

Stilman, Adam Adamant, Olive 

Schreiner, Alfred Waterhouse, 

Edward Carpenter, C. L. Dodgson. 

There were some surprises. 

'Gilbert?' Sir Charles asked. 'Why? 

The man's as much a vampire as 

you or I. 

Kim Newman, Anno Dracula, 
Simon and Schuster, 1992. 


[Mr. Aghayan] said: "We have a 
problem here. I want you, tomor- 
row, to go to the May Company, 
and buy me, and bring here, the 
Red Queen's costume." (Alice's 
Red Queen did not shop at the 
May Company.) 

The New York Times, October 
15, 2011, in the obituary of Ray 
Aghayan, costume designer and 
winner of an Emmy for a 1967 
TV movie o/ Alice Through the 
Looking Glass. " 

"Oh . . . well, you know that kind 
of cat that grins all the time? 
Heard of that? Well, I'm the kind 
that makes, you know, weird 
faces," said Maurice desperately. 
Terry Pratchett, The Amazing 
Maurice and His Educated 
Rodents, Harper Collins, Neiv 
York, 2001. 


"Oh, if only one had a key and 
could get into the gardens and sit 
on one of those seats. I feel like 
Alice in Wonderland about it." 
Elizabeth Taylor, Mrs. Palfrey at 
the Claremont, The Viking Press, 
New York, 1971. 

Maria, the untidy woman in charge, 
hair flying and papers everywhere 
on the desk, like the White Queen 
in steady employment, had said 
over the telephone that there was a 
nice house which had just come on 
the market. Should she send them 
the particulars? 

Philip Hensher, King of the 
Badgers, Eaber and Faber, New 
York, 2011. 


But on most other matters, to 
change the metaphor, it was like 
going down the rabbit hole. 
Reginald Hill, The Woodcutter, 
Harper-Collins, New York, 2010. 


There were blatant messages 
hanging opposite indecipherable 

Steve Martin, An Object of 
Beauty, Grand Central Publishing, 
Neiv York, 2010. 


Lewis Carroll .... claimed to have 
found 165 individual fairies 
depicted in The Quarrel Between 
Oberon and Titania. One at- 
traction of the business of such 
detailed scrutiny was that these 
scantily clad creatures are not 
"real" ladies, but innocuous fairies 
from another world, tastefully 
veiled in the trappings of allegory 
or myth. 

Jeremy Paxman, The Victorians: 
Britain Through the Paintings 
of the Age, BBC Books, an 
imprint ofEbury Publishing 
Company, 2010. 


The mad, disheveled, but conge- 
nial older man in the back office 
with the missing teeth did nothing 
but put together anagrams based 
on Alice in Wonderland. 

Edmund White, Jack Holmes 
& His Friend, Bloomsbury, New 
York, 2012. 



\BAN-der-snach\ , noun; 

1. An imaginary wild animal of 
fierce disposition. 

2. A person of uncouth or uncon- 
ventional habits, attitudes, etc., 
especially one considered a men- 
ace, nuisance, or the like ... 
Bandersnatch was invented by 
Lewis Carroll in 1871 in his book 
Through the Looking-Glass. 

Dictionary, com 's Word of the Day, 
Wednesday, October 5, 2011 


An article in the SF Chronicle's Style 
section on Sunday, October 9, by 
Aidin Vaziri, "Mission's Viracocha 
Not Just a Glorified Garage Sale," 
says: "One of the prize pieces is a 
barely held together copy of 'Alice 
in Wonderland' from 1828. 'It's 
not all that rare,' Siegel [the pro- 
prietor] says. 'But it is a really nice 

A brief article about actor Bene- 
dict Cumberbatch in Tuesday's 
Washington Post included a quirky 
name change that looked more 
like an iPhone autocorrect fail. 


A photo of what looked like a 
tj^o was tweeted by AFP photog- 
rapher Alex Ogle, who seemed to 
come across the name change by 
AFP journalist Susan Stumme. 

In both the print and online 
versions of an article about the 
PBS Sherlock star criticizing Down- 
ton Abbey, Cumberbatch 's name 
appeared drastically differently the 
second time it was mentioned in 
the article. Even though editors 
spelled his name correctly in the 
article's lede, Cumberbatch was 
later referred to as "Bandersnatch 
Cummerbund" in the third para- 


Here's a beautiful 1949 edition of 
Alice's Adventures in Wonderland a.nd 
Through the Looking Glass, illustrated 
by Leonard Weisgard — only the 
second version of the Lewis Carroll 
classic, and the first with color illus- 
trations. — post by Maria Popova 
on Brain 

The project attracts the attention 
of a clandestine American intel- 
ligence agency called the Director- 
ate of the Extremely Improbable, 
whose director. Red Queen (yes 
we are down the rabbit hole), 
says: "Our job is to assess threats 
to national security that we don't 
know exist, using methods we 
don't know work." 

Cameron Martin, in a review of 
The Coincidence Engine by Sam 
Leath, NYT Book Review, March 
25, 2012. 


Reading the transcript of Tues- 
day's Republican debate on the 
economy is, for anyone who has 
actually been following economic 
events these past few years, like fall- 
ing down a rabbit hole. Suddenly, 
you find yourself in a fantasy world 
where nothing looks or behaves 
the way it does in real life ... Well, 
the Cheshire Cat-like Rick Perry — 
he seems to be fading out, bit by 
bit, until only the hair remains ... 
Paul Krugman, "Rabbit-Hole 
Economics, "The New York 
Times, October 14, 2011. 

^i -^i -^i 

Ife: Ife: )tk 

Linda Cassady 


Ann Mayo 

Gabriela Tully 

^i^^^p Jl^ 

Elizabeth Rice-Munro 



Henri Ruizenaar 

Heather Cole 

R^« A 

Melissa Sanders 

Carrie Daignault 


Sarah Sterling 

Brittany Erdman 


Sally Turlington 

Jeremiah Farrell 

Joan Frankel 

Beverly Hock 

Deborah J. Lightfoot 

Christopher Tyle 

Ife Ife Ife: 

♦fe ^t^ ♦fe *fe ♦fe ife 


^ ^tlClO h ^ ^^ MARK BURSTEIN 

First, of course, kudos and props to those who 
made the spring Boston meeting such a suc- 
cess, Number One being Alan Tannenbaum, 
who arranged for the venue, speakers, dinner, after- 
party, transportation, hotel, and all such matters, in 
collaboration with his wife, Alison, to be sure. To the 
staff at the Houghton Library, in particular Peter Ac- 
cardo, coordinator of programs, and Heather Cole, 
exhibition curator, who will be curating a Carroll ex- 
hibition at the Houghton during 
the Alicel50 celebrations. To our 
visitors from afar: Selwyn and Janet 
Goodacre and Mark and Catherine 
Richards from England; Linda and 
George Cassady from the West 
Coast. And to the fine speakers: 
Selwyn, Mark Richards, Matt De- 
makos, Christopher Morgan, Lin- 
da Cassady, and Alan. 

Boston is such a perfect venue: 
Where else can you literally take a 
train to Wonderland? It's the last 
stop on the MBTA Blue line, and 
is named after a defunct turn-of-the-century amuse- 
ment park. Harvard and the Houghton provided 
beauty, a sense of history, and pleasure. Although it 
was necessary to allow an extra hour to "pahk a cah in 
Hahvahd Yahd," it was well worth it. 

Two significant anniversaries this year: first, Al- 
ice Liddell's 160th on May 4, which coincides with 
the annual Star Wars day ("May the Fourth be v«th 
you"). Still to come: July 4, 2012, the sesquicenTen- 
niel (150th anniversary) of a certain boat trip on the 
Isis, celebrated in this present issue. I can only repeat 
what I said in KL 87: "As this event will be falling on 
our national holiday celebrating our freedom from 
our erstwhile British oppressors, it may be difficult to 
get media coverage. ... If nothing else on that day, 
reenact it yourself: grab a copy of Under Ground or 
Wonderland to read (or download the Cyril Ritchard 
recording from Amazon into your mobile device), in- 
vite a child or three, pack a picnic, find a spot along a 
nearby river (extra credit if you row there) , and linger 
in the golden gleam." 


Our updated meeting schedule for the next 
three years: 

September 27, 2012, at the Fales Library at New York 
University, Washington Square campus in New 
York; confirmed speakers include Adam Gopnik 
on Sylvie and Bruno, Robin Wilson, author of 
Lezvis Carroll in Numberland, and David Schaefer 
on his discovery of a reel of a 1929 Looking-Glass. 

April 20, 2013: Stephanie Lovett 
and Charlie Lovett will be our hosts 
in Winston-Salem, North Carolina. 
Tentative plans include talks by 
Charlie Lovett, author of Alice, on 
Stage, and a reading or production 
of Dan Singer's new play about a 
meeting between Charles Dodgson 
and Charles Dickens. 

Fall, 2013: Sculptor Karen Morti- 

llaro, actor/ playwright Dan Singer, 

and George and Linda Cassady will 

arrange a meeting in Los Angeles. 

Spring, 2014: "Somewhere in New 

York," as the saying goes. 

Fall, 2014: Dayna (McCausland) Nuhn, Mahendra 
Singh, and Andy Malcolm, along with Tania 
lanovskaia and Gleg Lipchenko, have agreed to 
host a joint LCSNA and LCSCanada meeting in 

Spring, 2015: San E 

in conjunction 

opening of the Center 

for the 

Study of 



at San 

Diego State 


FaU, 2015: Octo- 
ber 10-11 in 
New York City 
for Alice 150. 




I don't know what it is about ceramic figu- 
rines, but people have loved and collected 
them for centuries. It is no different in the 
world of Alice and Disney. In fact, the Disney 
Company has spent a great deal of effort in recent de- 
cades promoting their own line of very expensive col- 
lectible ceramic figurines via the Walt Disney Classics 
Collection. But the history of Disney figurines goes all 
the way back to the 1930s, when Mickey Mouse was a 
worldwide sensation. 

In the 1950s, when Disney's Alice in Wonderland 
was released, the Disney Company licensed several 
manufacturers around the world to produce ceramic 
figurines. In the United States there were four com- 
panies: Evan K. Shaw (formerly known as American 
Pottery, later known as Metlox), Hagen-Renaker, Re- 
gal China, and Leeds China. 

Evan K. Shaw held a license to produce Disney 
figurines from about 1943 through 1955 or 1956 and 
produced some of the most beautiful Disney figu- 
rines ever. In 1951, they produced a series of eight 
character figures from Alice in Wonderland, and four 
teapots. The eight character figures are Alice, the 
White Rabbit, the Hatter, the March Hare, the Dor- 
mouse, Tweedledee, Tweedledum, and the Walrus. 
A few of these figures have overglaze painted details, 
so they are sometimes found without them: the Hat- 
ter's price tag, Tweedledee and Tweedledum 's col- 
lar names, and the White Rabbit's heart. The four 
teapots are not functional, but rather are whimsical 
figurines based on some of the crazy teapots seen in 
the film during the "Mad Tea Party" sequence. They 
have equally whimsical names: Tea 'n Cream, Tea 'n 

Sugar, Tea for Three, and Magic Tea. There 

are no identifying marks on any of the Evan 

K. Shaw pieces; each bore a foil label with the 

character's name, though these are seldom found 
intact. It is likely that the Alice figures were only pro- 
duced for the years 1951-52, and the teapot figures 
may not have been commercially available at all. The 
teapots do appear in the product catalog from 1951, 
and I have seen three in the collection of a former 
Metlox employee, who graciously sold two of the 
three to me — but otherwise, to my knowledge, no one 
has ever found one "in the wild." 

Hagen-Renaker held the license for Disney figu- 
rines after Evan K Shaw, from 1955 tol961. Walt Dis- 
ney himself said that Hagen-Renaker produced the 
finest miniature figurines he had ever seen. Many of 
you probably know of Hagen-Renaker figurines, even 
if you do not recognize the name. The HR company 
produced (and still does produce) miniature animal 
figurines glued to small square cards. I myself remem- 
ber them in my local Hallmark store when I was grow- 
ing up. Hagen-Renaker produced a series of Disney 
miniatures that were sold exclusively in Disneyland. 
In 1956 the company added an Alice in Wonderland 
set to the line, designed by Nell Bortell, which consist- 
ed of four figures: Alice, the Hatter, the March Hare, 
and the Caterpillar. 

The Alice figure did not come on a card; she is 
what is known as a shelf sitter. Instead of the card 
she had a foil label with her name on it (much like 
the Shaw figures), although the foil label is almost 

Hagen Remaker's Alice 

Shaw i White Rabbit 


never found. The Caterpillar figure is a little odd — 
by himself he will not stand up properly. Collectors 
have speculated that the Caterpillar was originally 
supposed to be sold with a mushroom figurine. This 
would explain why his underside is curved, but I 
imagine that it would have been far too expensive 
to manufacture a two-part figurine. Several pictures 
have surfaced over the years of this figure sitting on 
a mushroom, but in all cases the mushroom was pur- 
chased separately by the collector just for display pur- 
poses. The Hatter is difficult to find, given his design: 
standing with outstretched arms and holding a tea- 
pot. The March Hare is perhaps the most entertain- 
ing of the Hagens, as he is holding just half a cup of 
tea. The Hatter and March Hare figures were origi- 
nally sold on the litde square cards, although finding 
them that way is extremely difficult. 

The Alice in this set is much more common than 
the other figures, and it has been suggested that the 
other three figures were only sold in 1956 or there- 
abouts, while Alice was sold for a much longer pe- 
riod of time. There is no documentation of which I 
am aware, but painting styles on HR figures from this 
era varied, and as time went on, the painting became 
more simplistic. There are Alice figures that feature 
this simpler style of painting (known as "dot eyed" 
versions), but there have been no recorded instances 
of the other three in this painting style. 

Regal China is probably best known for its Lit- 
tle Red Riding Hood series of cookie jars and other 
kitchen accessories, but they also produced a large tea 
set for Disney's Alice in Wonderland, with each piece 
boldly incised on the bottom: Alice in Wonderland © 
Walt Disney Productions. It is unclear if this set was pro- 
duced at the time of the film's release (presumably), 
but there is a photo dated 1953 that appeared in Life 
magazine showing Roy Disney seated in a room full of 
Disney merchandise, and one of the pieces of this set 
is visible. The set includes the following items: Alice 

cookie jar, Alice salt and pepper shakers, Tweedledee 
and Tweedledum salt and pepper shakers. White Rab- 
bit creamer. White Rabbit sugar bowl. King of Hearts 
milk jug, and Mad Hatter teapot. Of this set the Mad 
Hatter teapot is the most sought after piece and is ex- 
tremely rare, although the sugar bowl is more difficult 
to find. The Alice S&P set comes in several colorways 
including full color, white with gold highlights, white 
with gold and painted highlights, and plain white or 
blank. I've also seen the White Rabbit creamer and 
sugar bowl, the cookie jar, and the Mad Hatter teapot 
as blanks. 

The figures by Shaw, Hagen-Renaker, and Regal 
are very high-quality art pottery — the Shaw company 
catalog even goes so far as to call their pottery "na- 
tive American art." The pottery produced by Leeds 
China, which held a license to produce Disney pieces 
from 1944 tol954 is of a different quality altogether 
(choose your own adjective: utilitarian, lesser, inex- 
pensive, cheap). But that is not to say that some of 
the pieces they produced are not attractive, just not 
as pretty as from the other companies. For the most 
part, Leeds pieces consist of cookie jars, planters, 
salt and pepper shakers, and banks; and nearly all 
of their pieces (especially in the 1940s) were deco- 
rated overglaze. Fortunately, the Alice in Wonderland 
pieces (some of the last pieces they produced) were 
all decorated underglaze, with one exception. They 
produced a heart-shaped planter, a double planter, a 
very rare jumbo single planter, a bank, and a cookie 
jar. The cookie jar is the exception to the underglaze 
rule for Leeds: the blue variation of the cookie jar 
is entirely decorated overglaze, and is strange colors 
to boot, whereas the white variation is all underglaze. 
And there are variations on most of the other pieces 
too (I love variations). The heart planter comes plain 
and with gold highlights, as does the bank (the gold 
highlighted bank is exceptionally rare). The double 
planter comes in three different colors: blue, red, 
and yellow. All of the pieces can be found with either 
blue or black eyes. As previously noted, the Alice in 
Wonderland set was produced near the end of their 
license period, and are therefore in general much 
harder to find than other character pieces. 

This only scratches the surface of the Disney figu- 
rines created for Alice in Wonderland. In future arti- 
cles, we will explore figures of the 1960s and 1970s, and 
the vast category of foreign figures. Until next time! 

Regal's Tweedles salt and pepper set 




A Call for Support 


'^here are numerous opportunities for con- 
tributing to the success of Alice 150: Celebrat- 
ing Wonderland, and as specific needs arise 
we will notify you here. 


We need an indexer for Volume 1 of Alice in a World of 
Wonderlands /The Translations of Lewis Carroll's Master- 
piece. This is an analysis of the more than 100 transla- 
tion languages. This volume will have about 125 es- 
says, both the introductory and the language essays. It 
is an all unpaid volunteer effort with over 170 writers. 
The book will go to the publisher in the fall of 2013 
and be published in time for the Fall, 2015 "Alice 
150" celebration in New York. Interested members 
should contact Jon Lindseth 


Columbia University will be mounting an exhibit fo- 
cused on the exhibit they had in 1932, on the occasion 
of the centennial of Carroll's birth. We would like to 
know if anyone has memorabilia from the 1932 event, 
and would be willing to lend it for display. We would 

also like suggestions from our members on what Alice 
items they think would be particularly impactful in 
our exhibit of collectibles. Suggestions of other events 
that would broaden the appeal of our celebration also 
would be appreciated. No idea should be considered 
too big or too small. If you have items or suggestions, 
contact me 


Although we are still looking for more brilliant ideas, 
the time has come to speak of implementing the ideas 
we already have. To this end we need qualified people 
to fill positions on the following committees: budget, 
fundraising, conference planning, education, graph- 
ic design, merchandizing, entertainment, hosting, 
and speakers bureau. If you are interested or know of 
anyone who could fill these positions, contact me at and we can go into further 



The Noyes Museum of Art 
The Richard Stockton College 
of New Jersey, Oceanville, NJ 

Clare Imholtz 

The Noyes Museum of Art has just 
hosted the first multi-artist show 
dedicated to Alice that I know of 
in this country. If not the first, 
the show, which ran from Febru- 
ary 3 through May 20, 2012, was 
certainly the largest. And it was 
very popular: almost 500 people 
attended the opening. The Noyes 
exhibited some 30 paintings, 
sculptures, books, and other mul- 
timedia objets, featuring mostly 
regional (New Jersey, Pennsylva- 
nia, and New York) artists, but also 
some from as far away as Califor- 
nia, Florida (the popular Maggie 
Taylor), and Canada (LCSNA 
members Andy Malcolm and 
Tania lanovskaia) . 

Upon entering the gallery, 
viewers immediately saw a large oil 
painting by Victor Grasso entitled 
Drink Me. Alice, wearing juvenile 
bee-stripe stockings and a much 
more grown-up shape-shifting blue 
party dress, strikes a note 
that is repeated by several 
other works in this exhibi- 
tion: the loneliness of girl- 
hood, the changes wrought 
by growth, the uncertainty 
and fears that must be faced 
as the external world be- 
comes curiouser, curiouser, 
and often more menacing. 
Works by Csilla Sadloch 
(Alice upside down on a 
swing), Sarah Petruziello 
(a tense, fully developed 
Queen Alice building a 
house of cards atop a dan- 
gerous substructure be- 
neath her skirt), and Nancy 
Morrow (Alice/Betty Boop 
clones falling, tumbling in 
an indeterminate space) 
seem to illustrate the same 
sense of threat and disjoint- 

Carrollian Notes 

Some of the art strikes a lighter 
note: Valerie Young's extravagantly 
fanciful gold Alice Car, which 
makes you wonder if Alice (repre- 
sented by her shoes) is planning 
a road trip with Toad of Wind and 
Willoxvs fame; Marisa Dipaola's 
giant 10-foot X 10-foot soft White 
Rabbit house (who could resist 
crawling inside?); Jacqueline San- 
dro's winsome 12-foot-high Queen 
of Hearts, her gown made of old 
playing cards sewn and wired 
together; and Sally Laird Mcln- 
erney's Cheshire Cat, formed of 
honeysuckle vines, taxidermy eyes, 
and tines of plastic forks as teeth. 

I was also very taken wdth, 
among others, Doreen Pritchard 
Adam's exquisite Caterpillar 
mosaic of Venetian glass, Andy 
Malcolm's psychologically fraught 
juxtapositions of classic Alice 
images with Alice Liddell as the 
beggar-girl, Tania lanovskaia's de- 
lightful multilevel (in every sense) 
Queen Alice, Dallas Piotrowksi's (an- 
other LCSNA member) elegant 
time-challenged White Rabbit, 
and Nancy Palermo's hilarious 
and very American depiction of 
Dee and Dum as two good ol' boys 
drinking beer outside their trailer 
on a warm summer night. 

Alice, the gift that never stops 
giving. I hope other museums 
will be encouraged to host similar 
exhibitions, especially as her ses- 
quicentennial draws nigh. 

"I'm Late" by Dallas Piotrowski 


Rose Oivens 

Memories of one of the world's 
most famous children's authors, 
Lewis Carroll, were evoked in a 
Leicestershire sale room in Febru- 
ary, when an early t^'pewriter came 
under the hammer at Gildings in 
Market Harborough. 

It appears Carroll ac- 
quired the typewriter on 
May 3"', 1888, as his diary 
entry states, "May 4, (F). 
Chandler came across to show 
me hoiu to work the 'Hammond 
Type-Writer', which arrived 
yesterday. " It is still in work- 
ing order, in its original 
polished wood fitted case. 
Inside the attractively 
shaped lid, at the top of the 
manufacturers instructions, 
in clear, spidery black ink 
handwriting, it is inscribed 
'Rev. C. L. Dodgson, Ch.Ch. 

The Hammond type- 
writer itself is a rare item 
and the provenance for 
the typewriter is fascinat- 
ing — from Dodgson to the 
present. So while it is clear 
from the dates that Dodg- 


son did not write his most famous 
Alice books on this machine, it is 
thought he completed a mathemat- 
ics treatise on it, as well as a small 
number of items of correspon- 

Mark Gilding said: "It is a very 
exciting item to be handling and 
we are pleased to be offering it for 
sale in our Fine Art 8c Antiques 
auction on February 21. 1 am sure 
that it will attract great interest 
through its association with such 
a well known Victorian gendeman 
who has achieved so much popu- 
larity over so long. To see his name 
and college handwritten in the lid 
is a fascinating personal link with 
him too. 

"Also the typewriter itself is of 
tremendous appeal as it is so early 
when such office equipment was 
only really just being developed. 
These machines were made by 
James Hammond, who became suc- 
cessful in the 1880's. The fact that 
it is in such fine condition and of 
such a great design, complete in its 
original box, just adds to its inter- 
est to collectors from this country 
and further afield. My client has 
decided to offer the typewriter for 
sale in the hope that it will find a 
new home with a private collector 
or institution who will treasure this 
important object. Although it is 
difficult to assess how much this 
typewriter may realise in the cur- 
rent auction market, my pre-sale 
estimate is £2000-3000". 

The typewriter sold for £6500 
(plus premium) to Charles Lovett, 
who promises to make a keepsake 
on the typewriter for every at- 
tendee at the Society meeting on 
April 20, 2013 in North Carolina. 


Mark Burstein 

The Arne Nixon Center for the 
Study of Children's Literature 
at the Henry Madden Library at 
California State University, Fresno, 
presented Down the Rabbit Hole with 
Lewis Carroll and Leonard Weisgard 

... .^.^.MmO*^ 




^ ^ 

Above, the typewriter's case. Right, the 
typewriter itself. Below, useful instruc- 

tions. Note the handxvriting. 


^Btoi^^alzT ''^ 

_,:,___ ^ ^ 

I j^<?>/, <?. J_,.X)o<jic^^0Ti, t>h. Ch,, Oxfcr 


The operator shouki first carefully study thcf pamphlet of t 
Before operatinR the machine one of the ribbon spools 

ened by (?i\ 

inft a few bnck 
If both spool 

ward turns to the thumb nut projectinR ce^^^^:'^^ 
are fast on their shafts the keys will work -^ 

trally abo' 

hard, and whenever they do. one of the spools should be at once loosened. 

The main spring should not be disturbed unless its tension is insuf- 
ficient, and then an additional quarter or half turn of its shaft will generally 
overcome any sluggish movement of the carriage. More than two additional 
turns should never be ffiven to the shaft of the main spring. Should the 
carrtajje refuse to move, or the hammer fail to work, it may be due to 
excessive tension of the main sprinft, which should be at once lessened. 

To remove the type-wheel, take hold ol the hub with the thumb and 
second finder, press toward you on the knob of the catch with tho first finder 
and puH vertically upward. To replace type-wheel, push it down until the 
catch snaps over the hub. Keep the machine covered, so as to exclude dust 
at all times when not in use, .ind wipe its nrckel-plated and other accessible 
parts daily with a soft cloth or chamois skin. 


from September 16 through Octo- 
ber 26, 201 1. 1 was most delighted 
when Angelica Carpenter invited 
me to return to the Nixon Center, 
site of our fall 2004 meeting {KL 
74:9-13), to view the superb exhi- 
bition she and Diane Mello had cu- 
rated. In true nineteenth-century 
style, and in keeping with Alice's 
journey to the Third Square, I 
elected to undertake the voyage to 
Fresno via railroad. 

Author and illustrator Leonard 
Weisgard was born in Connecticut 
in 1916, spent much of his child- 
hood in England, and moved to 
Denmark at the age of 53, where 
he remained for the rest of his life 
and where his descendants live 
today (two of them, his daughters, 
Chrissy and Abby, flew in for the 
exhibition opening). He was the 

illustrator of more than 200 chil- 
dren's books, often in collabo ra- 
don with Margaret Wise Brown, 
and won the 1947 Caldecott medal 
for The Little Island, which Brown 
wrote under the pseudonym 
Golden MacDonald. 

Seven of Weisgard 's original 
color illustrations, in his magical 
signature style, for a 1949 Harper 
8c Brothers edition of Alice's Adven- 
tures in Wonderland and Through the 
Looking Glass were on display, along 
with its black-and-white chapter 
headers — and a panoply of other 
Carroll material — in the spacious 
Leon S. Peters Ellipse Gallery. 
The Pete P Peters Ellipse Bal- 
cony above contained a wealth of 
original art from Weisgard's other 
works, on loan from his family, 
from Little Golden Books to New 


Yorker covers. The marriage of the 
two creators of works for children, 
Lewis and Leonard, was a fortu- 
itous one. 

The Carroll exhibition, beauti- 
fully displayed in a spacious, sunlit 
room, consisted of around 200 
books and 150 other artifacts, 
mostly from the Nixon's own su- 
perb collection, with a few items 
on loan from artists and collectors. 
To be seen were Carroll's crib- 
bage board, Alice's flutina, the 
Xie Kitchin Tea-Merchant (On Duty) 
photograph, letters, calling cards, 
felt sculptures, Limoges china, 
puzzles, games, lithographs by 
Anne Bachelier, woodcut illustra- 
tions by Barry Moser, whimsical art 
by Aliki and Dutch comic creator 
and illustrator Willy Schermele 
(her Wonderland came out 1950), 

Alice-themed Peanuts originals, the 
complete set of as-yet-unpublished 
Edward Gorey-style illustrations by 
Byron Sewell (text by Joel Biren- 
baum), original art from local BFA 
students, and maquettes and ana- 
morphic bronze sculptures (nearly 
four feet tall) lent by Los Angeles 
artist Karen Mortillaro, whose truly 
astonishing work will be the theme 
of our spring 2014 meedng. 

Other glass cases highlighted 
varied interpretations of the Alice 
stories, including first-edition 
picture books, translations, movie 

scripts, poems, sheet music, pop- 
culture spin-offs, and an illumi- 
nated manuscript. Even the labels 
were a particular pleasure — not 
too surprising coming from An- 
gelica, whose Lewis Carroll Through 
the Looking Glass (Lerner, 2002) is 
a superb biography for tween read- 
ers. As befits a modern exhibition, 
the labels also contained QR codes 
for further exploration. 

On the return train trip, in 
company vrith a Goat, a Beetie, 
a Horse, a gentieman dressed in 
white paper, a paronomastic Gnat, 
and a (wise) Guard staring at me 
through various optical devices, I 
happily reflected back on the day, 
certainly worth a thousand pounds 
a minute. 

Karen Mortillaro's Pool of Tears 


Alice's Adventures in Wonderland 

The Alice Project 

Dan Bergevin, editor 

Published by Capitalized Living 

ISBN 13: 978-0-9802479-8-5 

(hardcover) $29.95 

ISBN 13: 0-9802479-8-5 

(paperback) 22.95 

Andrew Ogus 

Once again AA/Wcontains mul- 
titudes: 58 very different artists 
have each contributed a single 
illustration to this project. The 
result is wildly uneven, ranging 
from the sublime to the ridicu- 
lous, the lovely to the horrifically 
inappropriate. It's probably not 
fair to single out only a few artists 
from the fifty-eight, but I particu- 
larly like the hilarious paper foot- 
men of RalfWandschnieder, the 
3-D courtroom of Kristiaan der 
Nederlanden, the brilliant near 
abstraction of the growing Alice 
by Francesco Gulina, and Carmen 
Virginia Grisolia's subtly funny 
gardeners, with their clever visual 
pun. Federico Reyes Galvan's 
enormous, ingratiating puppy 
is matched with an elegant but 
elderly (well, at least grown-up) 

This book is also a fascinating 
example of the changing face of 
publishing: From posting of the 
concept on the Web to publica- 
tion took a mere three months. At 
first glance, the interlaced chapter 
headings seem overdone, but they 
work well with the overall concept. 
Sadly, the same cannot be said for 
the dark type, whose font inex- 
plicably changes from attractively 
readable to darkly less so, between 
the introduction and the running 
text. Information on contacting 
each artist is provided, and all 
proceeds from the sale of the book 
go to Oxfam. 

o\^ ^'^^ X, 


Wilfred Dodgson of Shropshire. Land 
Agent and Lewis Carroll's Brother 

David Lansley 

White Stone Publishing, 2011 


ISBN 978-0-904117-36-3 

August A. Imholtz,Jr. 

Even the most fervid Lewis Car- 
roll enthusiasts might ask, "Why 
a biography of Lewis Carroll's 
brother Wilfred?" Author David 
Lansley, who is certainly a Carroll 
enthusiast and a very serious Car- 
roll collector as well, answers that 
question straightaway in his book's 

Countless interpretations and 
biographical accounts have been 
written about Lewis Carroll. 
Increasingly, it became evident 
to me how scant and patchy was 
our knowledge of his brother, 
Wilfred. The brothers were very 
close and came from a large and 
loving family. As an important 
friend, companion, and first- 
hand witness of his brother, it 
seemed to me that a more com- 
plete picture of Wilfred might 
serve to inform us about aspects 
of Charles' character in a new 
way. The second inspiration for 
writing the book was the proxim- 
ity of Wilfred's Shropshire haunts 
to those of my own upbringing — 
the towns of Bridgnorth and 
Ludlow, the villages of Cleobury 
North and Burwarton and the 
Clee Hills. 

It is often hard to serve two 
purposes equally well, but Lans- 
ley generally succeeds, though 
perhaps a little more with the 
local history — note that he puts 
Wilfred's career first in the book's 

subtitle — than with any dramatic 
or telling revelations about his 
famous brother's life. 

"Wilfred Longley Dodgson was 
born 9 September 1838 at the 
Daresbury parsonage in Cheshire, 
the seventh child and third son of 
the Rev. and Mrs. Charles Dodg- 
son" — so begins David Lansley 's 
biography of this brother of Lewis 

In the first several chapters, 
he treats the Dodgsons' family 
life at Croft, Wilfred's education 
at Twyford School, and his years 
at Christ Church with his older 
brother, from 1856 to 1860. Al- 
most as much attention is given in 
the early chapters to the family of 
Alice Donkin, whom Wilfred, after 
a lengthy courtship, married on 
August 8, 1871. At Oxford, Wilfred 
took his examination and passed 
the school of Literae Humaniores 
in 1860. He then, it is presumed, 
entered a kind of agricultural 
apprenticeship under Edward 
Donkin. He learned surveying — 
applied geometry, in a sense — as 
a preparation for his career as a 
land agent. His first position was 
with the firm of Pickering and 
Smith, which performed surveying 
and other work for the Ecclesiasti- 
cal Commissioners for England, 
the body charged with "the gen- 
eral management of Church prop- 
erty . . . and a proper distribution 
of Church funds." 

Finally, in 1871, Wilfred secured 
what would remain his lifelong 
employment: the position of land 
agent for the Shropshire estates — 
some 16,000 acres — ofGustavus 
Russell Hamilton-Russell, Viscount 
Boyne. A land agent in Victorian 
England "was a managerial em- 
ployee who conducted the busi- 
ness affairs of a large landed estate 
for a member of the landed gentry 
of the United Kingdom, supervis- 


ing the farming of the property 
by farm labourers and/or tenants 
and collecting rents or other pay- 
ments. In this context a land agent 
was a relatively privileged position 
and a senior member of the es- 
tate's staff." It was thus a respon- 
sible and relatively remunerative 
position, in Wilfred's case paying 
£180 per annum in 1880, or about 
£154,000 in today's currency. A 
paragraph or so about who Vis- 
count Boyne was, however, would 
have been helpful in understand- 
ing Wilfred's letters to him and his 
lordship's dealings with his land 
agent, as well as with the widow 
after Wilfred's death. 

Carroll took several photo- 
graphs of the young Alice Jane 
Donkin — a different version of the 
well-known "Elopement" photo- 
graph reproduced from a private 
collection is reprinted — and later 
maintained a caring and help- 
ful relationship not only with his 
brother and sister-in-law but also 
with their children. For example, 
Lansley states that when Wilfred 
and Alice's daughter Edith went 
up to Oxford to begin her studies 
at Lady Margaret Hall (studies that 
lasted, unfortunately, only one 
term), Carroll "took good care of 
his niece ... had tea with her at 
her rooms during term, and saw 
her off to Cleobury." 

Wilfred composed verse 
throughout his life, although 
neither in the quantity nor with 
the orginality of Carroll's brilliant 
pieces. One of Wilfred's poems 
("A Better Gift") had been helped 
into print in the periodical The 
Sketch on May 16, 1894, by the 
efforts of brother Charles. That 
poem and another published one, 
"Amantium Irae" are reprinted by 
Lansley. He also prints — I believe 
for the first time, since it does 
not appear in Morton Cohen's 
The Letters of Lewis Carroll, where 

one finds only a single letter from 
Charles to his brother Wilfred — a 
long letter of October 30, 1881, in 
response to Wilfred's request for 
assistance vrith a practical mathe- 
matical question regarding a prob- 
lem in hydraulics, namely "how 
many pipes of a small calibre will 
discharge in a given time as much 
as one of large calibre." 

Mentions of Wilfred in the 
Carroll literature most familiar to 
Carrollians refer to his marriage to 
Alice Donkin ( a young woman 13 
years his junior, in whom he had 
become interested when she was 
only 14 years old), and a cryptic 
passage in Carroll's diary entry for 
October 17, 1866. Since those two 
items have sometimes been con- 
fused, let's take the diary remark 
first. Carroll wrote: 

On Saturday Uncle Skeffington 
dined with me, and on Sunday I 
dined with him at the Randolph, 
and on each occasion we had a 
good deal of conversation about 
Wilfred and about A.L. — it is a 
very anxious subject. 

Lansley thinks the subjects are 
two: Wilfred's pursuit of Alice Jane 
Donkin is the first subject; quite 
separately, he construes the initials 
"A.L." to refer not to Alice Donkin 
(possible only by a slip of the pen) 
nor, more intriguingly, to "Alice 
Liddell," but rather to Carroll's 
"Aunt Lucy and the anxiety caused 
by her failing vision." In that latter 
exegesis, he follows the opinion 
of Edward Wakeling, however 
pedestrian such an explanation 
might appear to the conspiracy- 
inclined. Discussion of Wilfred's 
relations vrith the Donkin family 
and his marriage and long life with 
Alice — they had ten children — of 
course occupies much of Lansley 's 

Wilfred was a committed con- 
servative politically, a fact borne 
out by his essay "The Rural Poor," 
which was published in The Land 

Magazine oi A^riX 1899, and is re- 
printed in the book's Appendix I. 
Comparison with Carroll's politics 
would have been an interesting 

In addition to his small tal- 
ent for light verse, an interest 
in sketching — many amusing 
examples of which are here re- 
produced — and his enthusiastic 
contributions to family magazines, 
Wilfred had much in common 
with Lewis Carroll, but there were 
also notable diffferences: Wilfred 
was a married man with ten chil- 
dren, he was a lifelong sportsman, 
he spent his life in practical pur- 
suits rather than the theoretical 
world of symbolic logic, and he 
moved in far less rarefied strata of 
society than his brother. 

Sometimes Lansley seems to di- 
gress — not an unknown proclivity 
among those caught up in the web 
of details of genealogical research 
and local history — and he tells us 
just a little more, I believe, than we 
really may need to know. 

If Lansley does not shine a 
spotlight on any previously un- 
known and critical events in Lewis 
Carroll's life, the light reflected by 
Wilfred rounds out our portrait 
of Carroll. Just as when we learn 
that Nixon liked dogs, that fact 
changes to a small degree, at least 
in some minds, how we regard 

Lansley's work was exhaustively 
researched in so far as he drew 
extensively from local community 
archives, family papers and remi- 
niscences, published materials, 
and holdings of private collectors. 
The book itself is beautifully pro- 
duced by the British Lewis Carroll 
Society with over 50 illustrations, 
many published here for the 
first time. A number of these are 
in color, including a humorous 
sketch by Wilfred displaying some 
similarities to Lewis Carroll's own 



Through the Looking-Glass, and 

What Alice Found There 

With illustrations and an 

afterword by John Vernon Lord 

and textual corrections and 

foreword by Selwyn Goodacre 

Artists' Choice Editions 2011 

Standard edition: 

ISBN 978-0-9558343-1-8 


Special Edition: 

ISBN 978-0-955343-5-6 


Andrew Ogus 

This new volume from John Ver- 
non Lord will delight aficionados 
of his work. As in his AAIW, a deep 
reading of the text has led Mr. 
Lord to some unusual concepts in 
his illustrations, as described in his 
afterword, and his TTLG shares the 
same virtues and vices of its prede- 
cessor (/a 83:39). Three-hundred 
and sixty-four colored boxes that at 
first glance suggest a periodic table 
represent a year of Unbirthdays, 
with a blank box for Alice's actual 
birthday; multiples of his own eye 
take the place of the staring guests 
at Queen Alice's feast. Once again 
there is a melange of illustration 
styles, including what seems to be a 
child's portrait of Humpty Dumpty 
(an entire book with such illustra- 
tions would certainly be interest- 
ing), an attractive broken egg, and 
a delightful frog. Alice barely ap- 
pears, as a pawn and prematurely 
on a stamp (surely she would have 
to become Queen before being so 
honored?). The Red Queen re- 
sembles Queen Victoria, the actual 
author, according to some. And 
once again the text is interrupted 
by pictures, with scatterings of 
marginalia. It is worth turning the 
very last pages of the volume, but 
I will not spoil the delights to be 
found there. 

Selwyn Goodacre has contrib- 
uted a fascinating and thoughtful 
introduction, and Mr. Lord's after- 
word includes extremely interest- 
ing speculation on the other great 
Victorian nonsense writer, Edward 

Lear. The special edition includes 
four giclee prints, one of which 
illustrates "The Wasp in a Wig" 
chapter, not included here. 

The Carrollian Tales of 

Inspector Spectre 

Written and illustrated by Byron 

Sewell, with contributions 

by Edward Wakeling and 

August A. Imholtz,Jr. 

ISBN 978-1-904808-81-7 

Mahendra Singh 

Michael Everson deserves many 
kudos for making so many obscure 
and recondite Carrollian texts 
available to the general public. 
We've seen Lewis Carroll Espe- 
rantoed, Nyctographed, and even 
Zumorigenflitted, but we have not, 
as yet, seen Lewis Carroll subjected 
to the sordid realities of the police 

We can thank Byron Sewell for 
resolving this situation with this 

latest offering from Evertype. He 
has penned an ingenious (and 
perhaps inevitable) saga of crime, 
international intrigue, and even 
young romance, all of it spun out 
of a simple tale of grave robbing 
in Guildford. The violated grave is 
the Rev. C. L. Dodgson's, and the 
criminal violators are two dipso- 
maniac yeggs of a low mental and 
moral caliber, bent upon turning a 
quick profit by ransoming the Rev- 
erend's remains back to the Lewis 
Carroll Society. 

The unflappable Inspector 
Spectre is assigned the case, and 
things move along at a snappy pace 
in a rather clever parody of the 
contemporary British crime novel/ 
TV show. The plot is nicely thick- 
ened by the criminals' startling 
discovery of the two books that 
were interred in the coffin along 
with their author: a first-edition 
A/Wand a diary — one of the infa- 
mous missing diaries, which have 
exercised the minds of Carrollians 
for so many years. 

The two yeggs' attempt to sell 
both books and bodily remains is 
long, mosdy fruitiess, and utterly 
hilarious. It would be unfair to 
spoil the many surprises of the in- 
genious and black-humored plot; it 
is a comedy of errors turned Grand 
Guignol by the avenging spirit of 
the indignant Lewis Carroll. De- 
spite the best efforts of Scodand 
Yard and the LCS, things come to 
a disdnctly sdcky end for almost 
everyone involved in the Carrol- 
lian caper. Exploding phalanges, 
shell-shocked ungulates, and 
death-dealing poltergeists figure 
large in the story, and to top things 
off, Byron had the commercial 
instincts to throw a North Korean 
hit-squad into pulpy mix. Ripped 
from today's headlines indeed! In 
addidon, Julia Roberts, Kim Jong- 
Un, Edward Wakeling, and Mark 
Richards have various entertaining 
cameo roles. 

The macabre plot is furnished 
with a romandc subplot involv- 


ing two West Virginians who are 
following things through the 
medium of the National Enquirer. 
Tuck and Jada. Tuck is a Carrol- 
lian who's immured himself in 
the Appalachians for unknown 
reasons, and Jada is a widow (man- 
slaughtering widow, actually) with 
a penchant for strong drink and 
Alice-themed tight skirts. 

Byron's pen and ink drawings 
perfectly grace the story; they re- 
minded this reader of the stippled 
and crosshatched drawings of the 
old Penguin science texts of the 
'60s, carefully rendered depictions 
of disparate scenes and objects 
done with a deadpan objecdvity. 

But there's more than grave- 
robbing to this Evertype publica- 
tion. There's an interval of sorts in 
which Edward Wakeling lays out 
his own forensic skills in an excel- 
lent essay on the missing CLD 
diaries. It's all very carefully re- 
searched and thoroughly reasoned 
out, and in the end, Wakeling 
has built a watertight case against 
Charles Hassard Wilfrid Dodgson 
as the vandalizing executor and 

The second and final act of the 
book is a funny and very clever 
short story by August A. Imholtz, 
Jr. He's penned another Inspector 
Spectre mystery, "The Oxfordic 
Oracle," which is set in Carroll's 
lifetime and purports to explain 
the genesis of Sylvie and Bruno as 
well as various tidbits of Carrol- 
lian minutiae. A weird melange 
of spiritualism and noxious gases 
intoxicates a gaggle of disparate 
seance attendees, among whom is 
our CLD. The inebriated spiritual- 
ists have collective visions of a deli- 
cious CarroUian madness, and the 
reader will have great fun catching 
all the allusions and references. 
Among other things, nineteenth- 
century German Idealism endures 
a vigorous pummeling, which is 
always a good thing in print. The 
story is nicely explicated by Henry 

Furniss's 56''fi drawings, and my 
sole quibble is that there could 
have been more of them and re- 
produced a bit larger. 

In summation, a very funny 
read and strongly recommended. 
Lewis Carroll and crime make a 
great combination, especially when 
leavened with a bit of wickedly non 
sequitur hillbilly romance. 

Lexvis Carroll's Alice in Wonderland 

With artwork by Yayoi Kusama 

Penguin Classics 

Penguin USA, New York 

ISBN 978-0-141-19730-2 

Andreiu Ogus 

The reader who is absent from the 
realms of modern art theory, chat, 
and learned critical explanation, 
leafing through Yayoi Kusama's 
Wonderland, may be led to ask, 
"What is the use of a book whose 
graphics threaten to overwhelm 
its text?" Certainly it's interesting, 
if not exactiy refreshing, to come 
across such an approach, where 
the familiar characters are for the 
most part replaced by brightly col- 
ored abstractions. There is an exu- 
berant irrelevance to the recycling 
of elements from Kusama's works, 
some op art-like, at least one 
reminiscent of Paul Klee's delicate 
line drawings. Her mushrooms are 

cute when displaced from their 
original background, but what is 
the connection between a danc- 
ing pumpkin and pigs or pepper? 
Is an image from the trial scene a 
misunderstanding of what a tart 
is, or a charming, newly drawn 
picture of a strawberry-enhanced 
cake? Alas, without a catalogue rai- 
sonne or a great deal of research 
on the Internet or elsewhere, one 
cannot be sure. 

In the spirit of the harshly col- 
ored pictures and hopefully mind- 
blowing drawings, the book is 
dotted throughout with Kusama's 
characteristic vivid polka dots, oc- 
casionally and imaginatively ex- 
ploding the text out of its pleasant 
format. Phrases sometimes sud- 
denly and wildly increase in size, 
much as Alice does. Was this the 
work of designer Stefanie Posavec 
or the artist? Such novel typogra- 
phy works well in this context. It's 
fun to speculate what it might be 
like in a more traditional setting. 

On the very last page of the 
book, Ms. Kusama reiterates the 
assertion we read in KL 87: "I, 
Kusama, am the modern Alice in 



Mark Burstein 
Since our last issue, the titles 
released by the pertinacious 
Evertype include Alicia in Terra 
Miribili, an updated edition of 
the 1964 Latin translation by 
Clive Harcourt Carruthers with 
an extended glossary section 
(ISBN 978-1-904808-69-5); Alice's 
Adventures in Wonderland printed 
in Carroll's Nyctographic Square 
Alphabet {KL 75:8-10), with a 
foreword by Alan Tannenbaum 
(ISBN 978-1-904808-78-7); Byron 
W. Sewell's The CarroUian Tales of 
Inspector Spectre, illustrated by the 
author (ISBN 978-1-904808-81-7), 
reviewed on p. 43 ; Alice's Carrdnts 
in Wunnerlan, the first translation 
into Ulster Scots, by Anne Morri- 


son-Smyth (ISBN 978-1-904808- 
80-0); L's Aventuthes d'Alice en 
Emervil'lie, translated intojerriais, 
the Norman language of Jersey as 
spoken by William the Conqueror, 
by Geraint Jennings (ISBN 978- 
1-904808-82-4); Dee Erldwnisse von 
Alice em Wundalaund, translated 
into Mennonite Low German, also 
known as Plautdietsch, by Jack 
Thiessen (ISBN 978-1-904808-83- 
1); a new edition of Phyllis in Piskie- 
land, written in 1913 by J. Henry 
Harris and illustrated by Patten 
Wilson (ISBN 978-1-904808-84-8); 
La Aventuroj de Alico en Mirlando, 
an updated edition of Donald 
Broadribb's 1996 translation into 
Esperanto (ISBN 978-1-904808- 
86-2); Les-Aventures d Alice o Peyis 
des Mervey, translated into Borain 
Picard by Andre Capron (ISBN 
978-1-904808-87-9); La aventuras de 
Alisia en la pais de mervelias, trans- 
lated into Lingua Franca Nova by 
Simon Davies (ISBN 978-1-904808- 

88-6); Na Hana Kupanaha a Aleka 
ma ka Aina 'Kamaha'o, translated 
into Hawaiian by R. Keao NeSmith 
(ISBN 978-1-904808-97-8); and 
a dark, humorous parody, The 
Haunting of the Snarkasbord: A Port- 
manteau by Alison Tannenbaum, 
Byron W. Sewell, Charlie Lovett, 
and August A. Imholtz,Jr. (ISBN 


A Trovers le miroir 

Lewis Carroll 

Translated by Jacques Papy 

Illustrated by Lostfish 

Mc Productions/Lostfish 

Soleil Productions Paris 2011 

Andrew Ogus 

My initial reaction to the illustra- 
tions in this French TTLGwas, in 
fact, "How French!" I'm not quite 
sure what that means, but there is 
definitely something sophisticated, 
elegant, and intellectual going on 
here. The restricted color palette 
(brown, pink, a little blue) is ap>- 
pealing and often quite lovely, and 
very subtly applied. But the red 
noses and cheeks quickly become 
wearing; the mincing characters 
look essentially alike, except per- 
haps the disdainful White Sheep, 
who is more leonine than ovine. 

The red Lion itself and the op>- 
posing white Unicom are effete, 
coyly posing dancers rather than 
fighters. Alice's costume is just this 
side of suggestive — ^well, sometimes 
it falls onto the other side; the 
striped stockings of the original 
Alice taper from voluptuous thighs 
to tiny ankles, providing too much 
evidence under minuscule skirts. 
In fact a strong whiff of eroticism 
floats throughout these affected il- 
lustrations, sometimes veering into 
the grotesque, where even the Red 
and White Knights have cleavage. 
The drawings are admittedly well 
executed in their very particular 
style, the type and layout attrac- 
tive. An edition not for children, 
and for few adults. Curiously, Mile. 
Lostfish has not done an accompa- 
nying AATW. Perhaps it's just 
as well. 



The Noyes Museum of 
Art in Oceanville, NJ pre- 
sented exhibition called 
"Alice: Into the Looking 
Glass" iranrom February 3 
until May 20. The show is 
described as a "diverse se- 
lection of works rang[ing] 
from illustrations based 
closely on Carroll's text, to 
works which allude more 
subdy to the original story, 
offering new and some- 
times challenging interpretations." 
Included is LCSNA member Dallas 
Piotrowski's The Clintons, delight- 
fully depicting Hillary and Bill as 
the Queen and King of Hearts. 
There was also a panel discussion 
called "Lewis Carroll and the Alice 
in Wonderland Stories" on March 
20, featuring August Imholz. 

The Publisher's Weekly blog PWxyz 
ranked "The 5 Books that Inspire 
the Most Tattoos," finding AAiWin 
second place. Their online re- 
search seems to be thorough, even 
if the methods aren't scientific: 
"We spent an untold number of 
hours combing the Internet's two 
most extensive literary tattoo sites: 
Contrariwise: Literary Tattoos and The 
Word Made Flesh, then cross-check- 
ing the most frequently occurring 
tattoos with Google searches and 
Google image searches, all to get 
to the bottom of what books in- 
spire the most tattoos and why." 
Lewis Carroll's book was beat out 
only by . . . Slaughterhouse Five by 
Kurt Vonnegut, only because of 
the popularity of the phrase "So it 
goes." So it goes. 

Jenny Portlock, a wood engraver 
from Bury St Edmunds in Suffolk, 
UK, has taken inspiration from 
Lewis Carroll for years. Now you 
can see some of her art on her 
new website, www.woodengravings. 
eu. "I print my wood engravings 
and linocuts onto hand-made 
papers using an antique cast-iron 
press and have designed my own 

exhibit was initiated at the 
fabulously named Maison 
d'Ailleurs Museum of 
Science-Fiction, Utopia 
and Extraordinary Jour- 
neys in Yverdonles-Bains, 

imprint which is hand-embossed 
into each print," writes Pordock of 
her process. "Each original engrav- 
ing and linocut is part of a small 
limited edition and prices range 
from £50-£150." 

Silver, Salt, and Sunlight, an evoca- 
tively titled exhibition at the Mu- 
seum of Fine Art, Boston, is cel- 
ebrating the pioneers of early 
photography in Britain and 
France. Lounging among the 
Roger Fentons and Francis Friths 
is Dodgson's picture Xie Kitchin 
Asleep on Sofa, taken in 1873. The 
exhibition will run until August 

Mervyn Peake illustrated AAzW 
and The Hunting of the Snark in the 
1940s, amongst many other imagi- 
native classics. His fantastic pic- 
tures were on display at the Laing 
Art Gallery in Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne from October 15, 2011, to 
January 8, 2012, in honor of 
Peake 's 100th anniversary. This 



All Far-Flung items and 
their links, implicit or 

explicit, are from www. 

and can be accessed by 
using its search box. 

Famous Japanese illustra- 
tor Hirai Takako released 
a 2012 calendar called, 
naturally, Alice in Calendar- 
land, including pretty 
pictures of floating tea 
cups, floating hot dogs, houses of 
cards, and other Wonderland- 
themed imagery. 

Three contemporary artists in- 
spired by Lewis Carroll exhibited 
at the Leith Gallery in Edinburgh, 
UK, during March 2012. Large, 
colorful, surrealist oils by Marie 
Louise Wrightson were the main 
event, accompanied by bronze 
sculptures from the Robert James 
Workshop and delicate mimsy 
borogoves wrought in stained glass 
by Emma Butier-Cole Aitken. 

In Italy, the Modern and Contem- 
porary Art Museum of Trento and 
Rovereto hosted a grandiose cel- 
ebration of Alice from February 25 
to June 3. On display are works by 
Max Ernst, John Everett Millais, 
and Anna Gaskell, among many 

Finally, the museum event of the 
season has clearly been the Tate 
Liverpool's Alice in Wonderland 
exhibition, curated by Christoph 
Schulz, which ran from November 
4, 2011, to January 29, 2012. Even 
for those (like us) unable to dash 
over to England to see it, the exhi- 
bition generated plenty of enter- 
taining reviews and commentary, 
as well as an outstanding cata- 
logue. The exhibition will be re- 
viewed in our next issue. 


An article by the resident "Ex- 
plainer" Brian Palmer online at 
Slate last December sought to 


answer the question "What do you 
do on a Scientology Cruise Ship?" 
"They hang out in the Starlight 
Room, play shuffleboard, and 
achieve Operating Thetan Level 
VIII," is part of his explanation. 
And, according to him, our favor- 
ite novel is also on the syllabus: 
"Classic examples [of training exer- 
cises] include staring another stu- 
dent in the face for hours without 
blinking, or reading Alice's Adven- 
tures in Wonderland to each other." 
This was news to us, but apparently 
the use of Carroll's classic in Scien- 
tology training is well documented. 
During the exercise, called "Dear 
Alice," the coach judges the 
trainee on whether the memorized 
passage of A4iWis communicated 

Author Salman Rushdie celebrated 
the 140th anniversary of Through 
the Looking-Glass in a brief but per- 
sonal article for the January 2012 
Vanity Fair. He cites Carroll's excel- 
lent sequel as an inspiration to 
writers suffering a "Follow-That 
Problem," name-dropping his own 
children's books in the process, 
and concluding: "it comforted me 
that a writer I admired so greatiy 
overcame his [follow-that] prob- 
lem with such brilliant flair." 

C. M. Rubin is a regular contribu- 
tor to the Huffington Post on mat- 
ters of Aliceology. In the past year, 
she has posted articles on Alice's 
legacy ("Alice," December 15, 
2011); on Sir William Blake Rich- 
mond's painting of the Liddells, 
The Sisters (1864), which was at the 
Tate Liverpool exhibit ("Alice — in 
Wales?" January 16, 2012); on the 
Alice in Wonderland show at the 
Modern and Contemporary Art 
Museum of Trento and Rovereto, 
and what Alice means to Italians 
("Alice in Italy," February 23, 
2012); and even an article called 
"Freedom: What Do July 4th and 
Alice in Wonderland Have in Com- 
mon?" (July 1, 2011). Rubin's is a 
distant relative of the Liddell fam- 
ily, her devotion to keeping Alice 
in the news is admirable. 

The online magazine io9 (covering 
"science, science fiction, and the 
future") published a clever article 
called "What Happens When Alice 
and Anti-Alice Meet? (A Celebra- 
tion of Lewis Carroll's 180th Birth- 
day)" on January 27. The anony- 
mous author posits an anti-Alice, 
through the looking-glass, and 
compares Carroll's mirrored uni- 
verse to anti-matter in quantum 
mechanics. "Unbeknownst to Car- 
roll, matter and anti-matter have 
never much liked each other. The 
moment that Alice, a girl of matter, 
pokes her hand through the mir- 
ror and poof! is magically whisked 
into the reflection, she will ex- 
plode in a brilliant flash, emitting 
energy in proportion to her mass- 

E9 n 

In "What Alice did" {Prospect Maga- 
zine, Issue 187), Richard Jenkyns, 
professor of classics at Lady Marga- 
ret Hall, Oxford, considers the 
lasting impact of the Alice books: 
"We have grown so used to bun- 
nies in bluejackets with brass but- 
tons that it is hard to remember 
how comparatively recent such 
things are ..." 

Alice's great-grandson Hugh St 
Clair had a short article in the 
Hujfington Post, titled "What was 
the real Alice in Wonderland like? 
Her great-grandson is fascinated." 
The article, which was posted on- 
line on November 25, contains 
litde to surprise, except perhaps 
his admission, "As a child, I never 
read Alice." 

As part of "Visions and Voices: the 
University of Southern California 
Arts and Humanities Initiative," 
experts from three different fields 
met for a discussion of "Wonder- 
land and the Mathematical Imagi- 
nary." The trio consisted of Marga- 
ret Wertheim, an Australian 
science writer; Francis Bonahon, a 
professor of mathematics at the 
use Dornsife College; and Jim 
Kincaid, Aerol Arnold Chair in 
English at the USC Dornsife Col- 
lege. Among them, the three 

brought expertise in the cultural 
history of physics, coral reefs, hy- 
perbolic geometry, quantum topol- 
ogy, and Victorian culture, lunacy, 
and perversion. The discussion was 
held at the historic Edward L. 
Dohenyjr. Memorial Library, Los 
Angeles, CA, on 
February 22. 

"Further Adventures in Wonder- 
land: The Afterlife of Alice" was a 
one-day conference held on De- 
cember 1, 2011, in Manchester, 
England. Speakers included Jus- 
tine Houyaux and Neil Elliott 
Beisson from the University of 
Mons in Belgium, who discussed 
Tom Waits and Alice, and 
Franziska Kohlt from the Univer- 
sity of Sheffield, whose paper was 
entitled "Into the X-Box and What 
Alice Found There: American 
McGee's Alice: Madness Returns." 

The Nabokovian #67 (Fall 2011) 
contains the article "Sebastian 
Through the Looking Glass," by 
Zachary Fischman, which investi- 
gates Aj4zWas a subtext for The Real 
Life of Sebastian Knight ( 1941 ) , 
Nabokov's first novel in English. 

Princeton University Library Chronicle, 
Vol. LXXII No. 3 (Spring 2011) 
contains "Parrish the Thought: 
Alice's Misadventures at Christ 
Church, Oxford," in which August 
A. Imholtz, Jr., discusses Morris 
Parrish 's littie-known failed attempt 
to donate his Lewis Carroll collec- 
tion to that Oxford college, a series 
of events that resulted in his giving 
it to Princeton instead. 

Salmagundi, Nos. 172-173 (Fall 
2011/Winter 2012), contains the 
essay "Lewis Carroll and Lolita," by 
Jeffrey Meyers. 

Charles Jennings, a British "learn- 
ing and performance consultant," 
attempts to draw lessons in man- 
agement strategy from Lewis Car- 
roll in three articles published in 
issues of the magazine Inside learn- 
ing Technologies and Skills (Novem- 
ber 201 1, December 201 1, and 
January 2012). In the final article, 


"Managers and Mad Hatters: Work 
that Stretches," Jennings suggests 
that many people feel that their 
managers, like the Hatter, pose 
riddles for them to resolve, without 
providing appropriate guidance or 



There's no arguing that Alice in 
Wonderland is the obvious tide for 
a prequel to the comic book series 
Return to Wonderland. Graphic nov- 
elist Raven Gregory has now writ- 
ten several installments in his Won- 
derland universe, beginning with 
Return to Wonderland (2007) and 
followed by various "Tales from ..." 
and "Escapes from . . ." The original 
Return to Wonderland followed Alice 
Liddell's granddaughter Calie, 
but according to Comic Book Re- 
sources, "the fate of Wonderland's 
original protagonist has remained 
untold, until now." So the prequel, 
called Alice in Wonderland, will 
star an Alice Liddell bustier and 
blonder than you've ever seen her. 
Zenescope will release the hard- 
cover on July 31, 2012. 

Jennifer Adams and Alison Oliver 
believe that it is never too early to 
start children on the classics of West- 
em literature. Following on adapta- 
tions oijane Eyre and Pride and Preju- 
dice aimed at the under-3s, comes 
Alice in Wonderland: A Colors Primer 
(Gibbs Smith, 2012). The sturdy 
board book teaches colors with the 
aid of a white rabbit, a green fi"Og, a 
blue caterpillar, and others. 

If you were wondering what to 
listen to in your car as you travel 
between Cut Bank, Montana, and 
McNab, Alberta (about a 105-min- 
ute drive, depending on traffic at 
the border), how about download- 
ing Dodgson's mathematics book 
The Game of Logic, read as an audio- 
book and free on iTunes? The 
work is a part of the Lit2Go collec- 
tion, a collaboration between the 
Florida Department of Education 
and the University of South Florida 
College of Education. They also 

have a complete audiobook of 
Symbolic Logic, if you're planning a 
longer drive. 

Not tired of comparisons between 
the political Tea Party and the Mad 
Tea Party? Try mAlice in Wonderland: 
A Tea Party Fable (TBTM Media, 
2011). Michael Stinson and Julie 
Sigwart of 
have adapted Carroll's book and 
recast most of Wonderland as cur- 
rent GOP politicians. Karl Rove is 
the White "SuperPAC" Rabbit, John 
Boehner is the Mock Turtie, Rush 
Limbaugh is the Gryphon . . . you 
get the picture. Why are compari- 
sons to Wonderland always used as 
insults in political analogies? 

Batman follows the White Rabbit 
down the rabbit hole to battle 
none other than our favorite arch 
villain. Mad Hatter, in a new 112- 
page full-color hardcover graphic 
novel Batman: Through the Looking 
Glass, written by Bruce Jones and 
Sam Keith, released by Titan Books 
in January 2012. With a new big- 
budget Batman movie every year or 
so, how long before we see DC 
Comics' Mad Hatter battle the 
Dark Knight in a summer block- 

Witches, vrizards, and Wonderland 
mix in the new Waterspell {ant2Lsy 
trilogy by Deborah J. Lightfoot. 
Lightfoot tells us that her books 
are "strongly connected" to 
Through the Looking Glass and "The 
Jabberwocky": " Waterspell is about a 
homeless teenager who conjures 
the Jabberwock as her weapon 
against two wizards. One of them is 
her kidnapper; the other is her 
rescuer — unless he kills her first." 
The trilogy is published by Seven 
Rivers Publishing and is available 
to order online. 

Perfect for teatime, Mad Hatter 
Crosswords (St. Martin's Griffin, 
2011) reproduces 75 New York 
Times crosswords published be- 
tween January 2009 and April 
2010. The Mad Hatter connection 
wouldn't seem to go beyond the 

title and cover illustration, though 
it is possible that once you open 
the book you may wish that your 
watch had stopped at 5:55 too. 


Each winter, Jon Rowley of Taylor 
Shellfish Farms leads guests up 
and down the moonlit sands of the 
Washington coast on nighttime 
oyster picnics, inspired by the Wal- 
rus and the Carpenter. The most 
recent outings were January and 
February this year, the midst of icy 
winter, but Rowley, based in Shel- 
ton, WA, makes them sound rather 
appealing: "Lantern light, freez- 
ing weather, plump, sweet oysters 
just rousted from their beds and 
opened on the spot, award-winning 
'oyster wines' drunk out of Reidel 
stemware, a bonfire — just the right 
mix of magic and madness." Con- 
tact Rowley at (206) 963-5959 for 
further details. 

A plaintive headline caught our 
eye on December 1 1 last year: 
"Lonely walrus seeks companion." 
The article, in the Sunderland Echo, 
was announcing the launch of a 
fund-raising campaign to create a 
carpenter for a large bronze walrus 
that sits in a public park in the 
north of England. In 2000, a grant 
from the national lottery funded 
the $54,000 walrus, but no carpen- 
ter to keep him company. "We 
thought it was right to do this," 
said Sylvia, chairman of the 
Friends of Mowbray Park. "The 
poem is 'The Walrus and the Car- 
penter,' but all we have is the wal- 
rus. It could be any old walrus 
vrithout its carpenter." 

Library nerds and other biblio- 
philes have pounced on an online 
database called "What Middletown 
read," the complete records of the 
Muncie Public Library between 
1891 and 1902, and the labor of 
Ball State University English profes- 
sor Frank Felsenstein. "Could you 
see how many times a particular 
book had been taken out? Could 
you find out when? And by whom? 


Yes, yes, and yes," writes David 
Plotz at Curiously, Av4?W 
doesn't seem to have been ac- 
quired until 1900, but after that it 
was checked out a little more than 
once a month until the records cut 
off in 1902. 

"Springing to Life: Movable Books 
8c Mechanical Devices," at the 
University of Rochester Rush 
Rhees Library, is an exhibit of over 
50 examples of "interactive" books 
with nary an iPad in sight. Robert 
Sabuda's Alice pop-up is there, as is 
work by Voitech Kubasta, though 
not his 1960 pop-up Alice. The 
exhibition will run from January 23 
to August 17, 2012. Call (585) 
275-4477 for hours. 

The secretive Swallowtail Supper 
Club created a "Down the Rabbit 
Hole" dining experience for gas- 
tronomes in the know in Vancou- 
ver, Canada. The fine dining club 
presented a Wonderland-themed 
five-course meal in a pop-up res- 
taurant in a secret location be- 
tween November 24 and December 
17 last year. 

The ILLOIHA Fitness Club, lo- 
cated deep underground in Tokyo, 
has a climbing wall that looks curi- 
ously like the rabbit hole that Alice 
tumbled down. In designing the 
wall, the architecture firm Nendo 
chose to embrace the urban, inte- 
rior setting: handholds are pro- 
vided, not by naturalistic clifflike 
features, but by randomly arranged 
picture frames, bookcases, and 
flower vases. Just don't expect to 
land as softly as Alice did if you 
happen to fall off. 

President Obama's 2009 Hallow- 
een party, with such guests as 
Johnny Depp and Mia Wasikowska 
in their costumes from Tim Bur- 
ton's film, was not especially re- 
marked upon in 2009. In 2012, 
however, after it was mentioned in 
Jodi Kantor's book The Obamas, it 
became a mini-scandal, with right- 
wing pundits claiming it was secret 
and extravagant, and the White 
House firing back that it was prop- 

erly publicized and for military 
families. Rush Limbaugh called it a 
"Hollywood-esque-type Henry VIII 
bash." Stephen Colbert used heavy 
doses of CarroUian puns while 
covering "Alicegate," such as "this 
malice in blunderland continues to 
Depp-en." We recommend the 
January 10 episode of The Colbert 
Report for his epic rant on the sub- 
ject, which ends with a slightly 
sloppy rendition of "Jabberwocky." 

Speaking of Halloween, don't 
Alice and Steampunk seem like 
good ingredients to make a per- 
fect haunted house? Third Rail 
Projects created a spooky Steam- 
punk Haunted House at Abron's 
Art Center in Lower Manhattan 
last October. Through the Looking 
Glass "borrowed from author 
Lewis Carroll's dark side." It was 
so scaiy children under 8 were not 
allowed in! 



Batman: Arkham City, a sequel to 
the award-winning videogame Bat- 
man: Arkham Asylum, was released 
at the end of last year. In the game, 
the Mad Hatter, voiced by Peter 
MacNicol, has joined the ever- 
growing roster of villains the caped 
crusader must defeat. The game 
is based on DC Comics' Batman 
series, in which Jervis Tetch, aka 
Mad Hatter, is a crazed scientist 
who conceals sinister mind-control 
devices in his oversized top hat. 

If you went to on 
October 21, 2011, you probably 
noticed a girl in an Alice-blue dress 
doodling on their logo. That day's 
"Google doodle" honored classic 
Disney artist Mary Blair on her 
100th birthday. Blair did the origi- 
nal conceptual sketches for Dis- 
ney's 1951 Alice in Wonderland. 

Typographer Stefan Huebsch says 
that his new typeface "Lith" is in- 
spired by Alice in Wonderland and 
the Brothers Grimm fairy tales, 
though we also detect a touch of 

Tim Burton in the mix. The 
whimsical and eldritch typeface 
comes with alternate letters, liga- 
tures, and icons, and can be 
downloaded for $22 from www. 

A new WordPress website theme 
also claims Alice as inspiration. 
"Alice" designed by Raygun (sin- 
gle site license, $25), offers a 
clean and tidy layout, though it 
appears more minimalist than 
Victorian. The theme is also de- 
scribed as "flexible-width" and 
"responsive." Perhaps that's where 
Alice comes in? 

Since January this year, players of 
the Sims Social, a version of the 
popular Sims videogame adapted 
for Facebook, have been able to 
purchase Alice in Wonderland- 
themed items with which to deco- 
rate their imaginary world, as well 
as undertake themed "quests" in 
the company of other virtual Sim 

On wonderlandbooks.blogspot. 
com, Caterina Morelli is carefully 
cataloging her large collection of 
illustrated editions of AAiW. She 
described the blog as an updated 
card catalog: "every post is an 
index card for a book." The blog 
is currently in Italian, but Morelli 
has ambitions to create an English 
version. If you are interested in 
helping her with this project, drop 
us a line and we'll put you in 

Digital collage artist Kenneth 
Rougeau, whom we mentioned 
here in KL 84, continues to cre- 
ate AylzWand 7TLG inspired art 
and merchandise at his website. 
He has also released a free digital 
book/computer program of Alice 
(although the software is unfortu- 
nately very 1990s). 

According to American paleon- 
tologist Leon Claessens, we know 
less about the dodo than we do 
about dinosaurs that have been 
extinct for millions of years. Yet 
dodo studies took a significant 


step forward in January, when Claes- 
sens and his team at Massachusetts 
College of the Holy Cross used 
advanced scanning technology to 
digitally capture a rare complete 
dodo skeleton. The fully manipu- 
lable 3D images are now available to 
the world online at, 
where it is hoped that researchers 
(and, in our thinking, illustrators) 
will be able to make good use of 


Controversial British director Ken 
Russell, known for The Who's 
Tommy and many other classic 
films, passed away on November 
27, 20 11. The crew who were work- 
ing on his final film are expected 
to finish it with a new director, 
and guess what the project was? A 
"raunchy musical version oi Alice 
in Wonderland,'' according the UK 
Guardian. That's right, his unfin- 
ished symphony was based on the 
1976 film starring Kristine DeBell, 
the original X-Rated Musical Com- 
edy (which somehow triply failed 
at music, comedy, and pornogra- 
phy). Composer Simon Boswell 
said, "It was in many ways a perfect 
Ken Russell film — raunchy and 
funny. Alice in Wonderland is almost 
his perfect vehicle, with sexual 
freakery and religious aspects." 

If you want to hear a great actor 
read a great poem, John Hurt was 
on Charlie Rose's show on PBS on 
December 13, 2011. He recited 
"Jabberwocky" from memory, ex- 
plaining that he had memorized it 
at age nine. The full episode can 
be watched at; the 
poem comes about two-thirds of 
the way in. 

American Pickers, The History Chan- 
nel's reality show about antique 
hunters, had an episode airing 
December 19, 2011, called "The 
Mad Catter," which featured the 
original papier-mache and clay 

model for Dinah on the Central 
Park Alice statue. (The show 
streams on Netflix, so as soon as 
Season 3 is released, it should be 
rentable there and elsewhere.) 

An episode of CS/ which aired on 
March 21 might well have been 
called "When Wonderland-themed 
weddings go wrong." In the epi- 
sode (boringly called "Malice in 
Wonderland"), the team are called 
to the scene of an "Alice in Won- 
derland" wedding in Las Vegas, 
which has been tragically inter- 
rupted by a white rabbit and a 
Cheshire cat wielding assault rifles. 

ABC's fantasy drama Once Upon a 
Time also took a Wonderland 
theme for an episode called "Hat 
Trick" on March 25. Lead character 
Emma, who is able to pass between 
fairy tale New England and the 
more familiar version, is given 
drugged tea and abducted by a 
man in a top hat, and in the course 
of her imprisonment learns just 
what it was that drove him mad. 

In George R. R. Martin's classic 
1996 fantasy novel A Game of 
Thrones, "grumpkins and snarks" 
are mentioned as make-believe 
monsters used to frighten children. 
Although it's a minor detail, it's no 
doubt a nice nod from Martin to 
Carroll. Since the book was adapted 
into a beloved HBO series last year, 
now available on DVD, you can now 
hear the word enunciated with 
satisfying condescension by the 
excellent actor Peter Dinklage: "Ah, 
ah, yes, yes, [protect the realm] 
against grumpkins and snarks and 
all the other monsters your wet 
nurse warned you about." 


The world wished a happy 75th 
un-Unbirthday to composer David 
Del Tredici on March 16. The 
composer has used Carrollian 
influences heavily throughout his 
career, and several institutions 
celebrated his milestone with 
performances. Leonard Slatkin 

(conducting) and Hila Plitman 
(soprano) reprised their rendition 
oi Final Alice (1976) on March 1 
with the Detroit Symphony Orches- 
tra. Opera on Tap and American 
Opera Projects offered up two 
delicious nights of Alice-themed 
music on March 25 and 26 at the 
Galapagos Art Space in Brooklyn, 
including the composer himself 
playing piano in his White Knight- 
flavored piece "Haddocks' Eyes" 
(1986), starring Amy van Roekel. 
Also on the program was a cirque/ 
burlesque performance by Rita 
MenWeep, excerpts from Manly 
Romero's opera Dreaming of Won- 
derland, and parts of Susan Botti's 
opera Wond^rglass. 

So many Afe operas! And here's 
another one: Opera Theatre of 
Saint Louis presented the "much- 
anticipated" American premiere of 
Unsik Chin's opera Alic£ in Wonder- 
land, with a libretto by playwright 
David Henry Hwang. The European 
debut in 2011 was called "the world 
premiere of the year" by Opemwelt. 
Ashley Emerson will star as Alice, 
and Michael Christie conducted six 
performances between June 13 and 
23, 2012. 



Alice did not hesitate to join the 
dance in three recent ballet pro- 
ductions. The San Diego Ballet's 
Alice: Wonderland was performed at 
the Lyceum Theatre, San Diego, 
CA, on October 15 and 16. Di- 
rector and choreographer Javier 
Velasco incorporated hip hop 
dancers as a modern take on char- 
acter dances, not unlike the ma- 
zurkas and waltzes that are woven 
"into Swan Lake. At almost the 
same place and time, the California 
Ballet returned to an Alice in Won- 
derland choreographed by Charles 
Bennett, elder statesman of the 
American Ballet Theatre and New 
York City Ballet. First performed 
by the company in 1995, this pro- 
duction took place at the Poway 
Center for the Performing Arts 


in Poway, CA, also on October 15 
and 16. Six months later and 2,500 
miles away, the Washington Ballet 
performed the world premiere of 
their own artistic director Septime 
Webre's Alice (in Wonderland) at 
the Eisenhower Theatre in Wash- 
ington, D.C. The performance, 
which ran from April 11 to 15, was 
notable for Webre's choreography, 
for original music by composer 
Matthew Pierce, and for flamboy- 
ant costumes designed by Liz Van- 
dal, previously a designer for the 
Cirque du Soleil. 

One the most famous actors in 
Australian cinema, Jack Thompson, 
has recorded a CD of Lewis Car- 
roll's poems. When interviewed on 
a Brisbane radio station last Novem- 
ber, Thompson traced the origins 
of his love for Carroll's verse to a 
happy encounter with 'You Are 
Old, Father William" at the age of 
six. A CD of the recordings can be 
purchased from 
for around $20. 

A performance of "Jabberwocky" 
in American Sign Language, by 
Gabby Humlicek, wowed judges at 
the Iowa School for the Deaf and 
won her a place at the Poetry Out 
Loud state finals in Des Moines, lA. 
Humlicek readily admitted that it 
was "a really challenging poem" to 
turn into ASL but said that it 
helped that she was "a gregarious 
signer." Humlicek went on to com- 
pete with hearing students at the 
State final, which was won by Gwen 
Morrison from Marshal town with 
renditions of "Insomnia" by Dante 
Gabriel Rossetti and "The Black- 
stone Rangers" by Gwendolyn 

Snark in the Park was promised by 
Skin Horse Theater last March. 
The small theater company's adap>- 

tation of The Hunting of the Snark 
was performed in the sculpture 
garden at the New Orleans Mu- 
seum of Art on March 10 and 
March 17. Evening performances 
{Snark in the Park after Dark!) took 
place at the Backyard Ballroom, 
also in New Orleans. 

Last November in Wichita Falls, 
Texas, Midwestern State Univer- 
sity's McCoy School of Engineering 
collaborated with the school's 
theater department to present a 
new high-tech theater piece called 
Bandersnatch. The show used 
shadow puppets, mechanical cos- 
tumes, and other modern pup- 
petry techniques to tell a comedic 
story based on "Jabberwocky." It 
was written by Brandon Smith and 
Josh Blann, who wondered what 
became of the boy after "Jabber- 
wocky" ends, imagining him to 
have further monster-slaying ad- 

The Manhattan Project, under the 
direction of Andre Gregory, cre- 
ated their classic avant-garde pro- 
duction of Alice in Wonderland in 
1970. There was a new perfor- 
mance at the Greenbelt Arts Cen- 
ter in Greenbelt, Maryland, on 
November 27, 2011. 

The acrobatic dance troupe 
Galumpha will be touring all over 
New York state this spring and sum- 
mer. The troupe was founded in 
2002 and, though there is nothing 
whatsoever Carrollian in their 
performances, we have to admire 
their name. 



Oh, how the flow of new Alice mer- 
chandise diminishes to a trickle 
only a few short years after a per- 
tinent Hollywood blockbuster! 
There are a couple of small items 
to be mentioned this issue, but in 
lieu of past bounty, we would like 
to take the opportunity to remind 
you of the existence of www.etsy. 
com. Etsy is an online market 
dedicated to independent artists 
and artisans. A search for "Alice in 
Wonderland" on the home-page 
yields, at last count, over 21,000 
handmade gifts, for the most part 
attractive, unique, and reasonably 
priced. A sampling of yi&^inspired 
works on offer would include leath- 
erbound journals, button badges, 
sculpted soaps, and birthday party 
accessories. While handmade jew- 
elry and clothing abound, there 
are surprises too, such as an Alice 
in Wonderland embellished toilet 
seat. All in all, it's a great place 
to look for one-of-a-kind gifts for 
yourself, your loved ones, and the 
smallest room in your house. 

Shabby Apple is an online clothing 
boutique with a youthfully vintage 
vibe. Their new Mad Hatter collec- 
tion includes Victorian-leaning 
lace dresses and full-length skirts 
with names like Frabjous Day (a 
bold print tea-dress) and Jabber- 
wocky (a black, pleated, floor- 
sweeping skirt). 

The soft toy industry has moved on 
a long way since Roosevelt's name- 
sake bear. The Toy Vault Company 
is now making a Jabberwock plush 
doll, for sale on The 
Jabberwock is artfully rendered 
with adorable snatchingjaws and 
posable limbs all ready to whiffle 
into a nursery near you.