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The Lewis Carroll Society of North America 

Winter 2012 

Volume II Issue 1 9 

Number 89 

Knight Letter is the official magazine of the Lewis Carroll Society of North America. 

It is published twice a year and is distributed free to all members. 

Editorial correspondence should be sent to 

the Editor in Chief at 


Submissions for The Rectory Umbrella and Mischmasch should be sent to or 

Submissions and suggestions for Serendipidity and Sic Sic Sic should be sent to 

Submissions and suggestions for All Must Have Prizes should be sent to 

Submissions and suggestions for From OurFar-Flung Correspondents should be sent to 

© 2012 The Lewis Carroll Society of North America 
ISSN 0193-886X 

Mahendra Singh, Editor in Chief 
Patricia Colacino, Editor, Rectory Umbrella 

Ann Buki, Editor, Carrollian Notes 

Cindy Watter, Editor, Of Books and Things 

James Welsch is^ Rachel Eley, Editors, From Our Far-Flung Correspondents 

Mark Burstein, Production Editor 

Andrew H. Ogus, Designer 


Mark Burstein, 

Cindy Watter, 

Clare Imholtz, 

Annual membership dues are U.S. $35 (regular), 

$50 (international), and $100 (sustaining). 

Subscriptions, correspondence, and inquiries should be addressed to: 

Clare Imholtz, LCSNA Secretary 

11935 Beltsville Dr. 

Beltsville, Maryland 20705 

Additional contributors to this issue: 
Alan Tannenbaum, Mary DeYoung, and Clare Imholtz 

On the cover: Thomas Perino, see p. 37. 

The image of the Reverend Robinson Duckworth that appeared on the color insert 

in our previous issue is © the National Portrait Gallery, London, 

and was used with their kind permission. 

KL regrets the oversight. 

















Epic Fales 


Oleg Lipchenko 's Snark 




From Under Ground to Wonderland Part II 


The Mad Hattery 




An Early Alice in China 


George WaZA^- 5 Wonderland 




The Pamphlets of Lewis Carroll: 
Newly Discovered Additional Pieces 


A Is for Alice 67'The Wonderland Alphabet 




New Russian Illustrated Editions 


The Political Alice 




Thomas Perino 's Pays de Merveilles 


Future Meetings 



Alice 150 


Everything Alice 







Leaves from the Deanery Garden 
Sic Sic Sic — Serendipity 


Art & Illustration — Articles & Academia — Books — 

Ravings from the Writing Desk of 


Events, Exhibits, & Places — Internet & Technology — 
Movies & Television — Music — Performing Arts — Things 




Savile Clark &' Slaughter's Mice Revived in Japan 31 


Alice at the Tate Liverpool 32 


Lewis Carroll (poem) 33 






Sooner or later, anyone who's ever had to 
navigate anything Carrollian through the 
editorial process will be tempted to follow 
the Bellman's example and simply tingle their bell. 
Bell-tingling is a time-honored system of evading both 
maritime and editorial responsibilities, and frankly, 
it's far more melodious than clattering about with 
computer keyboards. 

Of course, logically speaking, a bell-tingled 
Knight Letter would most probably resemble a perfect 
and absolute blank, a thing of nonsensical perfection 
but unlikely to impress even the most casual reader, 
much less the eagle-eyed members of the LCSNA! 
They are made of sterner stuff and demand genuine, 
black-and-white substance to their nonsense. 

Luckily for this editor, this issue of the Knight 
Letter is satisfyingly nonblank, an accomplishment 
that he has pulled off almost despite himself, as the 
other staff members of this journal will grimly af- 
firm. Thanks to our many talented and hardwork- 

ing contributors, these pages' primal blankness has 
been thoroughly expunged by an embarrassment of 
Carrollian riches. We have the conclusion of Matt 
Demakos's truly exhaustive statistical analysis of Un- 
der Ground, a firsthand account of a Japanese revival 
of Henry Savile Clark's Alice, some newly discovered 
CLD logic pamphlets, and even a fascinating explana- 
tion of the political implications of Lewis Carroll in 
early twentieth-century China. And as an extra treat 
for our by-now politically nauseated American read- 
ers, we have an analysis of Alice written by a profes- 
sional politician blessed with that rarest of political 
talents: a genuine sense of humor. 

Add to that all our usual news, reviews, and other 
conventional signs and I think that even the most dis- 
cerning members of the LCSNA will be much pleased 
when they find this to be a Knight Letter they can un- 








^T^^r^^> th^ sublime symmetry: The fall 2012 LC- 
^^^\ SNA meeting was nothing if not a Carrol- 
M. Vlian Homecoming Celebration set against a 
most familiar backdrop — NYU's Fales Library, home 
to the famed Berol Collection, the Society's archives, 
and, as of September 29, eleven LCSNA meetings. 

The traditional prequel to the meeting — the Max- 
ine Schaefer Memorial Outreach Reading — was also 
an encore, having taken place the day before at down- 
town Manhattan's Earth School (where we had done 
a reading in 2010) on the very soggy morning of Fri- 
day the 28th. Rain notwithstanding, the assembled — 
about 30 fourth graders and their teachers — proved 
an avid audience for the "Mad Tea-Party" scene read 
by Patt Griffin (as Alice and the Dormouse), Cindy 
Watter (the Mad Hatter and March Hare), and Ella 
Parry-Davies, one of this year's speakers, who lent her 
lovely British accent to the role of Narrator. The kids, 
who were completely engaged in the performance 
(laughing in all the right places and enthusiastically 
taking part in the post-reading Q&A — always a good 
sign), had several additional comments and ques- 
tions for the cast, who moved about the classroom 
handing out copies of Wonderland to their new fans. 
Autographs were requested and granted before the 
students and presenters trotted off to lunch. 

On Saturday the meeting got under way at 11:30 
A.M., with President Mark Burstein welcoming all 
and sundry, followed by a rundown of current Soci- 

ety business, which included announcing tentative 
plans for our next six meetings (p. 26); an update on 
AlicelSO, 2015's NYC multi-venue extravaganza (p. 
26); and publication plans (Volume 5 [Games] of the 
Complete Pamphlets series, under the editorship of 
Christopher Morgan; and a facsimile edition of Conn 
6i IXapcmerb Jluea, the incredibly rare first Russian 
translation [1879]). 

Elections were then held. August Imholtz pro- 
posed the slate (all incumbents, save for Sandra): 

Vice President 

Patt Griffin 

Mark Burstein 
Cindy Watter 
Fran Abeles 
Clare Imholtz 
Matt Demakos 
Ellen Schaefer-Salins 

Sandra Parker-Provenzano 
James Welch 

The slate was elected by vocal acclamation. 

The first speaker to take the podium was Robin 
Wilson, President of the British Society for the His- 
tory of Mathematics; Emeritus Professor at the Open 
University, Milton Keynes, and Gresham College, 
London; and a Lecturer at Pembroke College, Ox- 
ford. The author of several volumes on the popular- 
ization and communication of mathematics and its 
history, Robin entitled his talk "Lewis Carroll in Num- 
berland" after his book of the same name. 


Robin Wilson 

Andrew Sawyer 

Wilson first assured everyone in the audience 
who might not be as mathematically savvy as he (or 
Dodgson) that he would be approaching the topic "in 
a nontechnical way." (Silent sighs of relief from the 
numerically challenged.) 

To ease the audience into the subject matter, he 
opened with a discussion of the famous "Dear Mag- 
gie" letter (January 30, 1868) with the self-portrait of 
Charles Lutwidge Dodgson attempting to lecture with 
his hand spread over his face, and his eyes peering in 
alarm through his fingers. The missive ends with CLD 
giving his love and best regards to Margaret and her 
mother, and to her "small, fat impertinent brother 
[his] hatred." Noted Robin, the letter illustrates two 
aspects of Carroll: "a lover of children and a teacher 
of mathematics." 

Carroll was a mathematical prodigy, and the sub- 
ject pervaded his life and works. As a child, he once 
made a maze in the snow as intricate as the famous 
maze at Hampton Court; he also made a three-dimen- 
sional maze for his sisters. As a young boy he asked his 
father to explain logarithms and, at age twelve, wrote 
a complicated two-page document on how to trisect a 
right angle. 

Wilson showed rather a grim engraving of an 
Oxford viva voce (oral) exam of the period, which 
"looked like an exorcism," but Carroll, of course, did 
fine. In his finals at Christ Church, he got the highest 
marks in mathematics that year, but disappointingly 
then failed to win the Senior Scholarship. He was 
awarded a mathematical lectureship, however, and 
his teaching career lay before him. 

Geometry was Carroll's main mathematical en- 
thusiasm — the actual geometry textbook he used as 
a boy is here in the Berol Collection. Geometry was, 

moreover, a Victorian enthusiasm: there were no few- 
er than 200 editions of Euclid in nineteenth-century 
England! Euclid was considered the best training 
for the mind, and it was required background for a 
career in the church or the army. Carroll was not a 
particularly original geometer, but knew the subject 
thoroughly, and wrote all sorts of pamphlets to ex- 
plain Euclid to his students. However, there was in 
genesis at the time a movement against Euclid and 
toward a more practical, less stodgy course of study. 
In response, Carroll, a traditionalist, wrote a very witty 
play, Euclid and his Modern Rivals [an excerpt from which 
was the text on the sphere in the very first Wikipedia logo in 
2000! -Ed.]. 

Carroll often used wordplay and humor in his 
mathematical writings, just as he used math in his 
humorous and fantastical writings. He wrote a letter 
to fourteen-year-old Wilton Rix proving that 2x2 = 
5. Another humorous work, Dynamics of a Parti-cle, is 
both a parody of Euclid and an argument for anti- 
Gladstonian politics. An Elementary Treatise on Deter- 
minants was his most original serious work. He also 
developed an original method of condensation (a 
method of computing the determinants of square ma- 
trices), which is today recognized as very important. 

Carroll hated unfairness and he used mathemat- 
ics to brilliantly demonstrate what is wrong with vari- 
ous voting methods. He did the same for tennis tour- 
naments, coming up with a method (prior to the days 
of seeding) that ensured that the best three players 
would come out on top. 

And, as we all know, mathematics pervades the 
Alicehooks {e.g., when the Red and White Queens in- 
terrogate Alice about addition and subtraction), the 
Snark (e.g., when the Butcher demonstrates a diffi- 

Andrew Saiuyer's Alice 

Adam Gopnik 

cult-sounding but actually simple arithmetic problem 
to the Beaver), and Sylvie and Bruno (e.g., the making 
of a Fortunatus's purse, also known as a Mobius strip, 
out of handkerchiefs). 

At one point Robin, in full professorial mode 
(thanks to his British accent and tweedy ambience 
he really did appear to have come straight from cen- 
tral casting), made a geometry-inspired joke with the 
punch line "Here's looking at Eu, did." 

Many thanks to Robin Wilson for launching the 
day's roster of lectures with humor, charm, and exper- 
tise. Readers are referred to his highly recommended 

Andrew Sawyer (BFA in Graphic Design from 
Rhode Island School of Design, currently working as 
a freelance graphic designer in Oakland, California) 
next took the podium. He is described on his website 
as a "Graphic Designer/Problem Solver/Multimedia 
Innovator," a trio of skills he incorporated into his 
jaw-droppingly meticulous project, a typographic Al- 
ice's Adventures in Wonderland. 

This limited-edition artist's book reproducing 
Carroll's text using only typographic symbols and 
geometric elements shows off Andrew's affinity for 
bookmaking and his ability to perceive Carroll's text 
through a designer's kaleidoscope eyes. His compre- 
hensive presentation — complete with images from 
(a) his inspirations (a Tokyo restaurant called Alice 
of Magic World; The Recombinant Alice, a sophisticated 
mix-and-match flip book published in 1999; and the 
Washington Ballet's typographically sassy ad for its re- 
cent production of Alice in Wonderland); (b) his pro- 
cess; and (c) the final product — was fascinating. 

Sawyer offered a visually staggering look at the 
diverse — often origami-like — pages that make up his 

book, as well as the real deal: A copy of the hand- 
stitched book (printed on graph paper, purple ve- 
lum, and cardstock) was on display during the break 
(much to the delight of both the collector contingent 
and the certifiably "curiouser"), including Andrew's 
custom-laser-cut birchwood slipcase offering a beauti- 
fully simple rendering of the letters "AW." 

Andrew's book can be viewed as a sort of graphic 
doppelgdnger to Carroll's text. For example, his treat- 
ment of the Cheshire Cat is both "cryptic and ghost- 
ly," with dialogues printed so only half of each letter 
(printed in purple) is seen on split pages, read easily 
only when the two pages are overlapped. 

The book uses just two typefaces, ITC Stone Serif 
and ITC Lubalin Graph, because he "liked the qual- 
ity of the very round O and very square X and how 
they complemented each other; they reflect the sa- 
tirical and playful qualities of the text." Typographic 
symbols portray Wonderland denizens and resonate 
vrith their character (a frenetic White Rabbit, for ex- 

As Mark commented at the conclusion of An- 
drew's talk, the book is "quite a treasure and unique 
in the annals of Wonderland editions." It was printed 
in an edition of ten; you can see it on andrewsawyer. 
net — a few copies are still available. 

Next, Adam Gopnik, the prominent critic, novel- 
ist, raconteur, and staff writer for the Nezv Yorker, in 
his third appearance before the Societ)', received a 
warm welcome, for good reason: Repeated visits in 
the Gopnikian sense instinctively trigger anticipation 
for whatever subject he chooses — in this case "Syhie 
and Bruno, Examined." 

Adam began his talk with a nod to the two pre- 
vious speakers, pointing out that Carroll was one of 


Raymond Smullyan 

the inventors of expressive typography, and adding 
that he considers Carroll a "generative figure" inso- 
far as "everything that came after him was affected by 
him." He v^ent on to observe that Carroll was the J. K. 
Rowling of his time and cited how S&B suffered criti- 
cally when compared to Wonderiand and Looking-Glass, 
much as Rowling's new adult-centric novel, The Casual 
Vacancy, hasn't lived up to Harry Potter's, blockbuster 

Moving on to Sylvie and Bruno — an eristic enigma 
at best to most lovers of the Alice books — ^Adam con- 
ceded that while SisfB remains to most readers "a kind 
of black hole of [Carroll's] works," being the "least 
read, referred to, and most bewildering and puzzling," 
he himself not only found the S&'B books fascinating 
but has, since he was a kid, read and reread them. He 
even wrote a musical adaptation of "The Mad Garden- 
er's Song" while in college at McGill. 

Unlike most of us who find S&^B a challenge, 
Gopnik being Gopnik — with his ability to see, ana- 
lyze, and present lucent observations with the rum- 
pled panache of a standup comic with a Mensa card 
in his wallet — ^was able to make a persuasive argument 
for taking the 56r'J5 plunge again, using his scrutiny of 
the book as a road map. 

Of the opinion that the chapters in Si^B were 
written alternately by two people — Carroll and Dodg- 
son ("both sides of his persona at the same time, 
which is a remarkable thing") — Gopnik cut a wide in- 
tellectual swath as he described why he felt the books 
were both interesting and essential for Carrollians. 
Further, although the S&B duad is far more self-con- 
scious, "sentimental" (Adam noted this word is often 
misused, as "overly tender in ways that challenge our 

emotional defenses"), and drawn out than the Snark 
and the Alice books, they do succeed in working on 
five "sedimentary" levels: 

■jir Fairyland and Oudand, a classic usurpation/res- 
toration story; 

•k a "realistic" Victorian romance, with a love 
quadrangle (Lady Muriel, Arthur Forester, Eric 
Linden, and the unnamed narrator) involving 
a believer (Muriel), a disbeliever (Eric), respect 
for convention (even though we are already in 
the age of Oscar Wilde), and the ethical prob- 
lems raised by Muriel and Eric's broken engage- 

•k moral quarrels and reasoning, touching upon 
religious concepts, the truth of Christian faith, 
and other serious ethical questions, such as "can 
inherited wealth be justified?" that Dodgson's 
gifts as a logician attempted to answer; 

•k Carrollian comedy: the three mad professors 
who take ideas to their logical extremes, e.g., 
preventing drowning through selective breeding 
to make people lighter than water, represent a 
"sharp dig at Utopian/Spencerian thinking"; 

k comic verse that, rather than being produced by 
comic characters, rises up unpredictably, such 
as "The Mad Gardner's Song," which Gopnik 
considers "the best verse Carroll ever produced," 
with its final stanza, "He thought he saw an Ar- 
gument . . ." warranting recital. 

The book's five levels operate simultaneously 
and spontaneously, with the serious moral discourse 
alternating with wild comedy. He called the comic 
verse sublime, while the romantic, sentimental novel 
about marriage is "kind of icky." He described Car- 
roll's nonsense poetry as a "lightning bolt striking the 
primordial soup of his imagination." Sylvie and Bruno 
is, in a way, a model of a postmodern novel, with its 
"interpenetration of the fabulous, fantastical, and the 
real. . . . Carroll was the first author to pull this off." 

Gopnik then discussed the glosses of two oppos- 
ing commenters, W. H. Auden and William Empson, 
Christian and atheist, on Carroll's work, noting that 
religious doubt — overtly dramatized in S&B — ^was the 
essential Victorian condition. Carroll welcomed the 
rise of intellectualism during the period, yet he saw 
its emotional limitations, and further, he believed he 
would be able to resolve this very Victorian tension in 
S&B. He failed. The Fairy Duet ("It Is Love") at the 
close of Concluded, which Carroll believed his greatest 
poem, unfortunately is irw/y sentimental, i.e., emotion 
willed into being. 

This account of Adam's talk can hardly do jus- 
tice to his ability to weave massively complex ideas, 
opinions (incidentally, his aversion list includes Harry 
Furniss's S&'B illustrations) , and humor with barely a 

note and nary a visual aid. Fortunately, Mr. Gopnik 
has kindly promised to consider writing up his talk in 
its entirety for our next issue. 

A break ensued as we stretched our legs, caught 
up, shopped, informally interrogated the speakers, 
and prepared for the second half of a very full and 
frabjous program. 

Raymond Smullyan is a most delightfully eccentric 
American Renaissance gentleman: mathematician, 
concert pianist, logician, professor of philosophy, 
and magician. The subject of a 2001 documentary. 
This Film Needs No Title by Rao Ruspoli, Smullyan cel- 
ebrated his 93rd birthday last May and lives a singu- 
larly carpe diem lifestyle that has embraced a catalog 
of two dozen books, including Alice in Puzzle-Land: A 
Carrollian Tale, for Children Under Eighty, introduced by 
Martin Gardner. 

Smullyan, a natural performer with a penchant 
for playing head games (of the nicest kind), dubbed 
his lecture "Carrollian Logic and Other Matters" — a 
title that allowed him to indulge his passion for pok- 
ing at sense sans sensibility. His opening salvo, "Be- 
fore I begin speaking, I have something to say ..." 
was followed by a long pause, then audience laughter 
as we "got" it. Ray was clearly in his element as he 
launched into a puzzle-discussion of existence that 
led into anecdotes (with illogical twists) about a bus 
driver, a weatherman, and an art critic. 

He then delivered a rather mind-blowing riff 
on the difference between "sound" and "valid" syl- 
logisms. In fact, keeping up with Smullyan, vrith his 
puckish personality and tendency to keep his audi- 
ence off-guard, was no easy feat — ^fun, but not easy. 
For instance, he used the Tea Party scene in Wonder- 
land for exploring "vacuous predication, a theorem 
of logic"; played around a bit vrith the White Knight's 
song in Looking-Glassr, and confessed to "feeling a little 
bit ashamed" of himself when he took on the con- 
voluted (albeit provable) subject of "true vs. false" 

Suffice to say Smullyan is a lovable, logical (or il- 
logical, depending on his mood) force of nature who 
entertained the socks off all us on everything from 
No-Yes answers to Carroll as an ardent anti-vivisection- 
ist — ^whether we could keep up or not. This is one lec- 
ture — make that performance — we'll not soon forget. 

When Ella Parry-Davies, a Master of Arts candi- 
date in Performance Studies at Goldsmiths College, 
University of London, replaced Mr. Smullyan at the 
podium the difference between the two was strik- 
ing: Smullyan looks like a mildly frenzied Dickensian 
character in search of a novel, while Parry-Davies is 
the essence of young, put-together, twenty-first-cen- 
tury style and fashion-model good looks, all punctu- 
ated by short cropped hair and the color pop of a red 
necklace. The juxtaposition of these two speakers was 
pure genius, especially when you add that her talk, 

Ella Parry-Davies 

"Alice Through the Iron Curtain: Illustration as an 
Alternative Narrative in Russian Alices" proved to be 
pretty much the polar opposite of Smullyan 's glee- 
fully untethered presentation. 

Parry-Davies, who is also a contributing edi- 
tor for the online theatre publication Exeunt, began 
her presentation by discussing the first translation 
of Carroll's work into Russian, in 1879, which used 
Tenniel's illustrations [a facsimile ofiuhich will soon be 
in your hands] . She went on to explain how later Sta- 
lin's dictatorship was marked by an unprecedented 
level of control over every aspect of art production; 
unofficial art circles were unable to engender either 
published criticism or media attention until the mid- 
1980s. Artists, Stalin said, were meant to be the "en- 
gineers of human souls," i.e., ideologically useful. Of 
course, Carroll's text was itself seditious. "The self- 
reflexivity, then, of Nonsense, its recourse to fantasy 
and imagination and its lack of engagement with the 
'real world' concerns of labor and productivity made 
Carroll's work at best useless and at worst highly sub- 
versive within the Soviet regime." 

Her discussion of formalism and its "defamiliar- 
ization" began with the work of Franciszka Themer- 
son, who was actually Polish, not Russian. Her world 
is represented in the starkly contrasting aesthetics of 
minimalist and schematic line drawings in red and 
blue juxtaposed with her renditions of Tenniel's Al- 
ice, who 

thus becomes a symbol of a symbol; that famil- 
iar character we know so well from Tenniel's 
iconic images is defamiliarized. The reader is 
suddenly asked to look at not who Alice is, but 
at how she is pictured. 

We come back to the distinction between 
looking at and looking through. This distinc- 
tion essentially sums up what formalism is: 
The medium — whether that is visual art or 
language — draws attention to itself, rather 
than allowing us to look through it, to what it 

Her sensitive criticism involved perspective, illu- 
sion, style, insight, focus, technique, semiotics, con- 
text, reception, and perception in the illustrations 
of Andrei Martynov, Yuri Vashchenko, Julia Gukova, 
Aleksandr Dodon, Tatiana lanovskaia, M. Svedanov 
and S. Ivancheva, Valery Alfeevsky, and Mai Miturich. 
She concluded: 

For the child reader in particular, this dispar- 
ity between verbal and visual narratives is im- 
portant, helping him or her learn that stories 
can be told from many perspectives, or as an 
ideological critic may note, that no narrative 
truth is absolute. In my mind, these Russian 
artists are amongst the most successful of Car- 
roll's illustrators, because they epitomize one 
of the most important and characteristic qual- 
ities of the illustrated work: the dynamic, pro- 
gressive and exciting dialogue between words 
and images. 

Founding member and former president David 
Schaefer's "A Newly Discovered 1928 Looking-Glass 
Film Reel" was the next presentation of the afternoon. 
An undisputed authority on the film adaptations of 
the AlicehooV.%, David recendy was able to track down 
a single reel of a vintage Looking-Glass film that had 
long been considered lost or nonexistent. 

David took a few minutes prior to showing his 
newfound treasure to share some tantalizing nug- 
gets, such as the fact that the original was printed on 
celluloid film with four background colors (orange, 

David Schaefer 


green, red, and yellow) added by hand. The fore- 
ground colors, applied either with a stencil or by the 
Handschiegl process, have faded to near-invisibility 
over time. 

He also noted that the young lady playing Alice, \^- 
ola Savoy, was fifteen, and that all the animal characters 
in the movie were played by "littie people," or in the 
vernacular of the early twentieth century, "midgets." 

When did Alice first go through the Looking- 
Glass in the movies? There is complete confu- 
sion in the motion picture world. Was it 1915, 
or was it 1927, or perhaps 1928? And who di- 
rected a production entitled Alice Through a 
Looking Glass, anyway, or was there ever such 
a motion picture? Well, yes, there was such a 
motion picture. I was able to purchase reel 
five of this 'lost' movie. The location of the 
other four reels is unknown. 

The companion Alice in Wonderland film, also di- 
rected by W. W. Young and starring Viola Savoy, is well 
known; in fact, it is available in (almost) toto on DVD 
(see p. 40). Images from it appear in a 1918 Grossett 
and Dunlap publication of Wonderland. David made 
the case that although Looking Glass was not released 
until 1927 by Pathe, it was most probably filmed at 
the same time (1915), although the inter-tities were 
produced in the latter year. 

We then watched the missing reel, which was 
quite amiable, albeit it would have been nice to have 
musical accompaniment, as was done in theaters at 
the time. All in all, a grand retro adventure where 
madness meets madcap. We applaud Dave for finding 
this gem and sharing it with us. 

The final presentation, "Thirty Years Later," was 
an interview with founding member Morton Cohen 
by founding member Edward Guiliano, three de- 
cades after their ground-breaking interview was pub- 
lished by the LCSNA in Soaring with the Dodo. [ This 
"YouTube moment " was fully recorded in high-def video, and 
is being considered for release it in its entirety in some yet-to- 
be-determined venue. -Ed.] 

Edward began the session by noting that Morton 
was the first person in academia to study Carroll (in 
1962), breaking all kinds of new ground in doing so. 
He then asked Morton what changes he's observed 
since those formative years, to which Morton respond- 
ed, "a distinct and ever-growing interest in Carroll in 
academe . . . like a rolling stone picking up moss." 

The exchange moved on to how advances in com- 
munication have expanded access to Carroll, with 
Morton observing that journals have made it possible 
for the nonacademic public to gain insight into liter- 
ary figures. This morphed nicely into Edward's bring- 
ing up the Internet and suggesting that perhaps the 
Web is responsible for (my words, not Guiliano's) too 

much of a muchness out there in cyberspace when it 
comes to Carroll. 

Morton disagreed, citing how valuable a role the 
Internet plays in disseminating information that boosts 
Carroll's profile with the general public. Morton sees 
the Internet not only as an outlet where academics can 
publish their works, but as a vast cultural oudet giv- 
ing everyone with Wi-Fi and a dream instant access to 
Alice-themed "plays, musicals, TV productions, ballets, 
and symphonies." 

Around this point, Edward turned the topic to 
Browning and Dickens and how their "abundance in 
language" and ability to create unforgettable charac- 
ters ran parallel to Carroll's. "All three have a sense of 
melodrama and the grotesque," said Edward. "Melo- 
drama was very Victorian," Morton commented. 

Acknowledging the common ground of "promo- 
tional interest groups" such as the Browning, Dick- 
ens, and Carroll Societies, Edward ushered Morton 
to the subject of the founding of LCSNA, remarking 
that the British Society had been founded just a few 
years before. 

Morton's pride in our Society came out most 
strongly as he referenced the publicadons produced 
over the decades, from the Knight Letter'?, stunning 
evolution to the Mardn Gardner memorial book and 
everything in between, calling it "an astonishing ac- 

The Society, Edward pointed out, is made up of 
academics, collectors, ardsts, aficionados, and arm- 
chair scholars, and Morton expressed his gratitude 
to collectors: "I couldn't have done the work I did 
without the collectors in the world," he said, referring 
mainly to his acclaimed two-volume work The Letters of 
Lewis Carroll (1979). 

Then Guiliano upped the interview ante by 
bringing up the endlessly debated topic of Carroll's 
wanting to marry Alice. Morton said, "having read his 
letters to her and having access to his diaries, I came 
to the absolute conclusion he wanted marriage." He 
went on to recount that, following the Sotheby's auc- 
tion of Alice's effects several years ago, he was able to 
study a letter to Alice from her sister Lorina, written 
when they were quite elderly, which confirmed that 
much of the ongoing speculation surrounding the 
sudden rift between Carroll and Mrs. Liddell had its 
link to some suggestion of marriage. 

Asked about the possibility of more letters being 
published as so many have surfaced in the past de- 
cades, Morton recalled that while he was ensconced 
in academia he had two secretaries to take care of his 
calls. Xeroxing, and so forth. Now that he's retired he 
has to do everything himself. Still, all hope need not 
be abandoned. He's been gathering materials, and 
stated outright, "There is more in the offing." 

Edward Guiliano and Morton Cohen 

The one-on-one concluded with Morton sharing 
two quite "remarkable experiences" from his life: 

I was invited to make an address at Oxford 
Library and there I was with all the dons and 
professors in their robes. First the Chancellor 
got up and addressed the secretary regarding 
funds, after which he sat down and then got 
up again and said, "And now we have Mor- 
ton Cohen," and sat down. At the reception 
afterward someone said to me "You seemed 
nonplussed when you got up to speak." I re- 
sponded, a bit peevishly, "Well, one is usually 
introduced." "Not at Oxford, Morton. If you 
have to be introduced you wouldn't have been 
asked here." 

In 1996, 1 returned home after a trip to a large 
brown envelope. Inside, the message read, "At 
the pleasure of the Queen, we would like to 
appoint you a Fellow of the Royal Society of 
Literature." I thought it was a joke . . . they 
didn't pick Americans! I found out later there 
were one or two others. 

The meeting adjourned around five P.M., and 
the hungry majority walked to Monte's Trattoria, a 
few blocks from NYU, where we had the upstairs to 
ourselves. Taking full advantage of this quite wonder- 
ful hobnobbing opportunity, we talked, laughed, ate, 
and had a perfectly divine time, including entertain- 
ment by a table-hopping sleight-of-hand magician/ 
stand-up comic named Ray Smullyan. 

Afterwards, members of the group headed up- 
town to Janet Jurist's flat for wine, snacks, and addi- 
tional chitchat. We concluded the banquet by . . . 

Th£ author would like to thank Cindy Watler, Clare Imholtz, 
and David Schaeferfor their valuable contributions to this 



From Under Ground to Wonderland Part II 




Under Ground's chapter iv 

The final chapter of Under Ground begins with Alice 
encountering three gardeners (three spades from 
a deck of cards), who are busily painting roses on a 
white rose tree red. They quit bickering with each 
other to offer a bow to Alice, who in turn inquires 
about their present occupation. While Two explains. 
Five calls, "the Queen! The Queen!" and they, along 
with Seven, suddenly fall face down. A grand proces- 
sion arrives (a full deck of cards) and pauses in front 
of them. After asking Alice her name, the Queen 
of Hearts demands to know who the gardeners are, 
to which Alice replies rudely, causing the Queen to 
threaten her with execution. The Queen discovers 
the gardeners' mistake and declares, "Off with their 
heads!" The procession moves on, and Alice secretes 
the gardeners in her pocket. After the Queen invites 
her to play croquet, Alice learns from the White Rab- 
bit that the Marchioness and the Queen are one and 
the same. Alice finds the game curious: The balls are 
hedgehogs, the mallets ostriches, and the arches sol- 
diers (the clubs). 

The game ends with all those sentenced to ex- 
ecution in custody, leaving only Alice and the royal 
couple. The Queen asks if Alice has seen the Mock 
Turtle and, as she answers in the negative, takes her 
to a Gryphon, who is ordered to take her to the tur- 
tle. The Turtle, sobbing all the while, slowly tells his 
history. The two creatures scold Alice for asking why 
they called an old master, who was a turtle, "Tortoise." 
("Because he taught us.") 

The Gryphon and the Mock Turtle describe the 
Lobster Quadrille. The seals, turdes, salmon, "and so 
on," with lobsters as partners, form two lines on the 
shore, advance twice, change lobsters, retire, throw 
lobsters as far into the sea as they can, swim after 
them, turn a somersault in the sea, change lobsters, 
and go back to land again. They demonstrate the first 
figure to Alice while the Mock Turtle sings "Salmon 
Come Up!": 

"Beneath the waters of the sea 
Are lobsters thick as thick can be — 
They love to dance with you and me. 
My own, my gentle Salmon!" 

After the dance, the Mock Turde sings the verse 
of "Beautiful Soup" and the chorus. After he asks the 
Turtle to repeat the chorus, the Gryphon hears the 
words "the trial's beginning." He takes Alice's hand 
and they rush to the trial, leaving the melancholy 
words of the song behind. 

Alice finds the King and Queen on their thrones, 
the Knave in custody, and the White Rabbit before 
the King with a trumpet and scroll. After blowing 
three blasts, the Rabbit reads the accusation, "The 
Queen of Hearts she made some tarts. . . / The Knave 
of Hearts he stole those tarts. . . ." The King calls for 
the evidence then the sentence, and the Queen coun- 
ters, "First the sentence, then the evidence!" 

Alice declares this "Nonsense!" She refuses to 
hold her tongue, and yells, 'You're nothing but 
a pack of cards! Who cares for you?" The cards fly 
up into the air, and as they fly down upon Alice, she 
awakes from her dream, with her sister brushing off 
the leaves that had fallen upon her. Before running 
to have her tea, Alice tells her sister "her Adventures 
Under Ground."' 

As can be seen in Figure 1 (see KL 88: 17), the 
chapter not only grows more significantly than other 
chapters when brought into Wonderland, but, accord- 
ingly, is divided into more chapters as well. One could 
argue, for these reasons and others, that each succes- 
sive chapter of Under Ground receives progressively 
more alterations. To this point, and as can be seen as 
well from Figure 1, unlike the previous chapter, the 
growth here is not condensed into one major addi- 
tion, but scattered and quite bewildering to detail. 

The addidons are well known to readers of Won- 
derland: the Cheshire Cat's appearance at the croquet 
game; the Duchess's everything-has-a-moral walk with 
Alice; the Gryphon and Mock Turtle's numerous 
puns on his school days ("Drawling, Stretching, and 
Faindng in Coils"); Alice's recitation for them of "'Tis 
the Voice of the Sluggard"; Alice's recollection of how 
courtrooms operate; The Hatter's, the Cook's, and 
Alice's testimony; and the pronoun-confusing verses 
used as evidence against the Knave of Hearts, the de- 
fendant. It is often said that the additions to Wonder- 
land are "A Mad Tea-Party" and the trial scene (and 

sometimes "Pig and Pepper"). But the trial scene only 
increases Chapter 4 of Under Groundhy 44 percent, and 
thus is not even half the growth of the final chapter. 

Of all these scenes, however, one has a character 
that seems out of character: the Duchess. She appears 
here to be pleasant and talkative with a propensity to 
moralize, traits certainly not present before. "[P]er- 
haps it was only the pepper," Alice theorized, "that 
had made her so savage when they met in the kitch- 
en." That Carroll had to place such an explanation on 
Alice's lips hints — and this is the last hint — that Car- 
roll may have initially kept the Under Ground concept 
of the dual Queen/Marchioness tides intact during 
the revision process. 

There is another addition, which is actually a re- 
placement, but with a much longer text. Instead of 
"Salmon, Come Up," the Mock Turtle sings "Will You 
Walk a Litde Faster." Unlike the replacement poem 
for the earlier "Mouse's Tale," this replacement is 
more suitable to the plot of the book. 

Interestingly, only the new characters from "Pig 
and Pepper" and "A Mad Tea-Party" are given major 
roles in these expanded chapters. The characters 
original to Under Ground that do appear are only given 
minor roles, as inane jurymen, and some of them are 
not even mentioned in the text, being only seen in 
the illustrations. The first of the new characters to re- 
turn is the Cheshire Cat, who makes an appearance at 
the croquet grounds, a more spectacular appearance 
than he let on he would make. Soon after, Carroll 
brings back the Duchess, who teaches Alice a great 
deal about morals. And further on in the story, in the 
trial scene, he brings in the Hatter and the Cook to 
give testimony. Either the new characters were fresh 
in his mind or Carroll used them as assurance that 
his new material would fit in with the old. If he had 
brought in the Dodo and the Caterpillar to testify 
instead of the Hatter and Cook, perhaps the added 
chapters would not have felt to him braided enough 
into the adventures. 

As before, there are many minor additions as 
well. Alice, when with the gardeners, wonders about 
the rule when she first meets the Queen: "Alice was 
rather doubtful whether she ought not to lie down on 
her face like the three gardeners, but she could not 
remember ever having heard of such a rule at proces- 
sions." The Queen explains where mock turtie soup 
comes from. As part of the rules for the Lobster Qua- 
drille, Carroll adds that the jelly fish must be cleared 
before beginning, and he also adds a second verse to 
"Beautiful Soup," creating a favorite Carrollian rhyme 
("Who would not give all else for two p / ennyworth 
only of beautiful Soup?") Finally, Carroll adds anoth- 
er "Off with her head!" as if you-know-who hadn't said 
it enough, directed at Alice right before she accuses 
them of being "nothing but a pack of cards!" 

And as before, there are several minor differ- 
ences worth noting. Alice hides the Gardeners, after 
the Queen's threat, not in her pocket, but in a large 
flower-pot. Being about a foot high at the time, she 
would have found it difficult to place the cards in her 
pocket, and Carroll probably realized that readers 
would imagine her about the same size as the char- 
acters anyway, given the text and other illustrations. 
(Even in Carroll's illustration in Under Ground, Alice 
is the same size as the cards.) Instead of the White 
Rabbit explaining to Alice that the Queen is the Mar- 
chioness, he explains that "She's under sentence of 
execution" because "She boxed the Queen's ears." 
And has been noted many times, the mallets are os- 
triches in Under Ground and flamingoes in Wonder- 
land. Of course, flamingoes, for many reasons, are a 
more practical choice. 

In Under Ground there is no mention of Alice 
growdng at the end of the story, but in Wonderland it 
is mentioned four times, effectively creating suspense 
for the reader, who knows the end of the tale is fast 
approaching. The first mention occurs in Chapter XI 
when the Hatter is giving evidence. The other three 
take place in the next chapter when Alice herself 
gives evidence. Her height is even referenced in the 
King's Rule Forty-Two: ''All persons more than a mile high 
to leave the court." 

To see how these major additions, minor addi- 
tions, and various changes are placed within the con- 
text of the plot, see Figure 5. It should be noted that 
the figure does not include material unused from 
Under Ground, as Carroll used everything. No sen- 
tence or paragraph is thrown out, excepting a few mi- 
nor words and phrases and the two major deletions 
("Salmon, Come Up" and the White Rabbit's expla- 
nation that the Queen and the Marchioness are one 
and the same). As mentioned in the introduction, it 
would seem only natural for an author who is revis- 
ing his tale so drastically to begin fresh and not be 
distracted by the old material. That Carroll used it all, 
every sentence, hints that his changes were done spo- 
radically, and that they "came of themselves" v«thout 
any premeditated plan. 

Under Ground's Epilogue 

In the short epilogue, Alice's sister remains on the 
bank, "thinking of litde Alice and her Adventures." 
She begins to dream, "after a fashion," of an ancient 
city on a river and "a boat with a merry party of chil- 
dren." One of the children was named Alice and she 
was listening to a story, the same as the dream her 
own sister had told. After the boat drifts around a 
bend, she imagines her sister, "in a dream within the 
dream, as it were," as a woman, telling stories to chil- 
dren, and how she would sympathize with their feel- 





The gardeners paint the rose bushes 

The royal party enters 

Alice speaks with the White Rabbit 

Alice plays nonsense croquet 
(w) Cheshire Cat appears 
(w) Queen orders the Cat beheaded 
(w) Alice has trouble with the game 
(W) The Cat vanishes as Duchess appears 

(w) [Alice wonders about the rule when Queen enters] 
Alice hides Gardeners in pocket [in large flower-pot] 
Queen is Marchioness [Duchess boxed Queen's ears] 
The mallets are ostriches [flamingoes] 


(w) Alice walks with a moralizing Duchess 
(w) Queen threatens Duchess who runs off 
(w) Queen takes Alice back to game 

All sentenced but King, Queen and Alice 
Queen takes Alice to the Gryphon 
Gryphon takes Alice to the Mock Turde 
The Mock Turde tells Alice his story 
(w) Turde tells of, puns on, school classes 

(w) [Queen explains what mock turde soup's made from] 


Turde describes Lobster Quadrille 
They dance without the lobsters 
(w) They speak of whidng; her adventures 
(w) Alice recites "Voice of the Sluggard" 
Turtle sings "Beautiful Soup" 
Gryphon hurries Alice to the trial 

[Must clear jelly fish before beginning] 
Turde sings "Salmon Come Up" ["Will you walk 
a litde faster"] 
(w) [The Turde adds a second verse 
to "Beautiful Soup"] 


King [wigged] and Queen on thrones 
(w) Alice recalls knowledge of courtrooms 
(w) Alice remarks "stupid things" of the jury 
White Rabbit reads "tart" rhyme accusa- 
(w) The Hatter and Cook give testimony 
(w) The next witness is announced: Alice 


(w) Alice upsets jury box; King gets angry 
(w) King makes up rule 42; asks for verdict 
(w) Rabbit says more evidence, reads poem 
(w) They discuss die importance of poem 

King calls for the end of the trial 

Queen corrects the King 

Alice objects loudly 

'You're nothing but a pack of cards!" 

Alice awakes by her sister 

King asks for evidence then sentence [asks just for the 

Queen says sentence then evidence [then verdict] 
(w) [Queen shouts, "Off with her head!"] 

(w) marks expansions in Wonderland ; text in brackets represents Wonderland 

Figure 5. The expansion of Under Ground 's Chapter 4 into Wonderland 's last five chapters 

ings, "remembering her own child-life, and the happy 
summer days." 

Carroll substitutes a different dream for Wonder- 
land. It begins with the sister dreaming of Alice her- 
self, "the bright eager eyes," the "tones of her voice," 
and the "queer litde toss of her head, to keep back 
the wandering hair." Soon, however, the dream turns 
into her little sister's dream of the White Rabbit, the 
Mouse, the March Hare, the Queen, the pig-baby 
and the Duchess, and all the others. She knows that 
if she opened her eyes the dream would end, "and 
the raiding teacups would change to tinkling sheep- 
bells, and the Queen's shrill cries to the voice of the 

shepherd boy." The last part of the dream, the image 
of Alice as a grown woman, is the same as in Under 
Ground, but wdth minor edits. 

Jean Gattegno notes there "is far too direct a ref- 
erence to Oxford" in the sister's dream ("an ancient 
city, and a quiet river winding near it along the plain") 
and suggests Carroll's need to delete the words. Keep 
in mind, however, that Carroll crosses out the whole of 
the sister's dream, and the reason for the whole being 
deleted is what should be addressed. Also, the galley 
sheet version of the dream (see Figure 3, KL 88: 19) is 
quite different from the Under Ground version, yet the 
Oxford allusion is in situ and unchanged. Carroll had 


no qualms about the allusion. Nor did he likely feel 
the need "to separate the story from the situation that 
brought it into being"as Gattegno later claims — after 
all, the material is used for the prefatory poem.- Nor 
did Carroll likely care to excise "parochial allusions"as 
Hudson claims.-^ In fact, one could argue that Carroll 
made more parochial allusions. The treacle well, a 
forty-minute walk from Carroll's rooms, is associated 
with Frideswide, the patron saint of Oxford, who in 
the late 1850s was depicted in stained glass in Christ 
Church Cathedral itself. In Looking-Glass, Carroll al- 
lowed Tenniel's depiction of the Sheep's shop to be 
based on an Oxford store front, and Carroll included 
an acrostic poem that spelled out the name of a Christ 
Church resident: "Alice Pleasance Liddell."^ 

The Under Ground version of the sister's dream 
wasn't really removed at all, but transferred and 
revised for the prefatory poem: 

All in the golden afternoon 
Full leisurely we glide; 

Ah, cruel Three! In such an hour, 
Beneath such dreamy weather. 
To beg a tale of breath too weak 

The dream-child moving through a land 

Of wonders wild and new. 
In friendly chat with bird or beast — 

And half believe it true. 

Thus grew the tale of Wonderland: 

And now the tale is done, 
And home we steer, a merry crew. 
Beneath the setting sun. 

The last stanza even reads as if it were adapted 
from the last part of the sister's dream, where she 
hopes Alice "would keep, through all her riper years, 
the simple and loving heart of her childhood": 

Alice! a childish story take. 

And with gentle hand 
Lay it where Childhood's dreams are twined 

In Memory's mystic band, 
Like pilgrim's withered wreath of flowers 

Plucked in a far-off land. 

The galley sheet also hints that he may have found 
it awkward to have both the prefatory poem and the 
dream in the same work. This is shown in the edits 
themselves, several of which attempt to edit out some 
of the words and phrases used in the new poetic ver- 
sion. Thus "merry crew" from the poem and the origi- 
nal dream becomes "happy crew" in the galley revision. 
And "Full leisurely we glide" from the poem forces the 
original prose version "went slowly gliding a boat" to 
be edited out completely. The word "tale," used in the 

poem four times, causes the word to be stricken from 
the original, replaced twice by the word "story." Even 
the word "beneath," used twice in the poem ("beneath 
the dreamy weather" and "Beneath the setting sun"), 
is edited out of the original prose version; "beneath 
the bright summer day" becomes "under the bright 
summer sky." It seems as if Carroll is attempting to 
keep both by creating a gap between the two. 

In the end, he gave the sister a new dream, likely 
believing that the inclusion of both the sister's origi- 
nal dream and the newly created prefatory poem 
would have been awkward. He had no sense of fidel- 
ity to the original material, either the boat tale or 
the original manuscript. Despite what Alice Liddell 
and Green claim, he had no restrictions on his "fresh 
ideas," neither did they have to be connected to the 
Liddell family or to some real event. In this case, for 
whatever reason, he found a need to replace the sis- 
ter's dream and rightfully did so, the book now being 
more than twice as long, with a dream that reviews 
young Alice's actual dream. 

There are a few other concepts on the galley 
sheet that need to be mentioned. He writes at the top 
(the actual document is cut off) "new page," and it 
is so in the first publication. He also notes for some 
reader to "see M.S.," which refers not to a full "M.S." 
but to a handwritten document attached to the gal- 
ley. The major differences between the texts are the 
addition of boats and the parenthetical explanation 
as to how the sister knew the name of the child on 
the boat, which, in truth, does need explaining. For 
some reason, Carroll worked out the line breaks in 
the last paragraph, not a task a writer needs to per- 
form. Concern for the page breaks are seen with the 
three slashes to the immediate left of the text, which 
block out 22 lines, the exact number of lines per page 
in the first edition of Wonderland. 


Several scholars have written about the difference 
between Alice's Adventures under Ground and Alice's 
Adventures in Wonderland. Derek Hudson writes (in 
part quoted above), "The general tendency in the al- 
terations is away from parochial allusions and mere 
child's play towards what Falconer Madan has called 
'more advanced and reasoned ingenuity' — the result 
being a book that has kept the affection of children 
and won the admiration of adults."" "The earlier sto- 
ry is far more dominated by Alice," Donald Thomas 
observed in his biography of Carroll, citing, "There 
is no Pig and Pepper, no Duchess, no Cheshire Cat, 
no Mad Tea Party."'' Gattegno concludes that the first 
version relates "adventures that happened <o Alice" and 
the revised "takes Alice through a world where things 
happen outside her." He also reasons that "the first 
manuscript told the story of an adventure, the final 
text is more the story oi a. journey.' 









(u) (w) 

(u) (w) 

(u) (w) 

(u) (w) 

(u) (w) 

(u) (w) 


1 Down the Rabbit-Hole 

2 The Pool of Tears 





3 1 





3 A Caucus-Race 

4 The Rabbit Sends in a Bill 



1 1 






5 Advice from a Caterpillar 

6 Pig and Pepper 

7 A Mad Tea-Party 








2 2 




8 The Queen's Croquet-Ground 

9 The Mock Turtle's Story 

I o The Lobster Quadrille 

I I Who Stole the Tarts? 
12 Alice's Evidence 



1 11 





1 3 







1 1 


5 4 

3 22 

9 19 

2 8 

5 16 

8 7 

(u) Attribute originated in Under Ground; (w) Attribute originated in Wonderland 

Figure 6. The effect of the edits on the humor in Alice's Adventures. All attributes originated in Under Ground were carried over to 

Wonderland, except three in-jokes: Alice's cousins and the "pokey house" (from Chapter 2); the Duck's singing, Alice being like sisters with 
the Lory, and the Dodo leading the way to the cottage (from Chapter 3); and the original sister's dream (from the Epilogue). Though there are 
many separate references to the actual boat trip in the prefatory poem, it is counted as only one in-joke (as is the sister's original dream), but 
with another point for the Liddell/ little pun. The names of the girls in the treacle well, all playing on the three Liddell sisters' names, and the 
pun on Liddell/ little is counted as one in-joke. Puns built on common phrases, such as "Laughing and Grief, " are counted as one pun. (Readr 
ers who wish to count them separately, can add six puns to chapter 9.) 

One way to begin a discussion on the conse- 
quences the edits had on the story is to begin with an 
evaluation of how they affected the chief character- 
istic oi Alice's Adventures, the humor. Figure 6 divides 
the humor into six attributes, three lingual (invokes, 
puns, and wordplay) and three nonlingual (philo- 
sophic, physical, and surreal). Despite taking a wide 
view of the term, the chart omits attributes of humor 
(irony, exaggeration, and sarcasm, for example) that 
are not major ingredients of Carroll's particular wit. 

The first of the lingual set are the in-jokes. Of the 
five in Under Ground, three were not brought over to 
Wonderland (see the note at the bottom of the chart) . 
As previously discussed, proof that Carroll did not 
delete the in-jokes per se is evidenced by the added 
invokes in Wonderland (namely, the Liddell/littie pun 
in the prefatory poem, the references to the boat trip 
in the poem itself, the story taking place on Alice Lid- 
dell's birthday, and the word-playing on the names of 
the girls in the treacle well, including the repeated 
Liddell/littie pun).** Although there may be several 
undetected invokes — owing to missing diaries and 
unrecorded events — ^we can safely conclude that Car- 
roll was indifferent to them when they had to be de- 
leted for unrelated reasons. It must be admitted, how- 
ever, that in the end there are fewer known in-jokes 
per word in Wonderland than in Under (Jround. 

Carroll shows no signs of being indifferent to the 
puns, the next of the lingual set, which are more plen- 

tiful in the expanded version of his tale, a fact that 
has been mentioned by others. Carroll builds off his 
initial pun in Under Ground — "We called him Tortoise 
because he taught us" — ^with a whole slew of double 
entendres, many as forced as the original. Carroll 
puns on mathematical principles (Ambition, Distrac- 
tion, Uglification, and Derision), scientific disciplines 
(Mystery and Seaography), language studies (Laugh- 
ing and Grief), artistic disciplines (Drawling, Stretch- 
ing, Fainting in Coils), school lessons (lessen), and 
on fish names (the use of whiting instead of blacking, 
for shoes made of soles and eels). 

The last of the three lingual sets is wordplay, 
which, for this analysis, does not include invokes or 
puns. Examples of this type of humor are the misuse 
of the word "Antipathies," the poetic parodies (each 
poem counted as one), "a drawing of a muchness," 
and the Latin play on "mouse." As the figure shows, it 
increases twofold in the new material — Carroll's game 
is wordplay, and he ups the ante for his new readers. 

The first of the three attributes for the nonlin- 
gual, the physical, shows a notable increase in Won- 
derland, according to Figure 6. Most of the physical at- 
tributes in the original tale took place when Alice was 
trapped in the White Rabbit's house, which includes 
Bill's sky-rocketing through the air, and the Gryphon 
and the Mock Turtle's dancing the Lobster Quadrille, 
"jumping about like mad things." Carroll bumps these 


ideas up a notch in Wonderland with the addition of 
the Caucus-race, the scene in the Duchess's home 
(including the Cook's throwing of the fire-irons), the 
scene at the March Hare's home (especially with the 
placing of the Dormouse in the teapot) , and the trial 
scene (including the suppressing of the guinea pigs, 
the throwing of the Dormouse out of the court, and 
the placing of the Lizard head downwards in the jury 
box). This latter scene also includes Alice's growing 
not at a "reasonable pace," as the Dormouse says, but 
"in that ridiculous fashion." In Under Ground Alice 
does not grow back to her normal size before the end 
of her dream. When we include the new characters 
in the mix, especially the Duchess, the Cook, and the 
Hatter, we see a certain zaniness in Wonderland not 
present in the original. 

The second nonverbal attribute, the philosophic, 
also shows a notable increase in Figure 6, and is fur- 
ther detailed in Figure 7. Both figures take a restric- 
tive view of the philosophical content, charting only 
those moments that are directly philosophical, in oth- 
er words, on the surface and obvious to the average 
reader. The first of the five occurrences that appear 
in Under Ground, all of which appear in Wonderland as 
well, is atypical of Carroll's handling of philosophical 
material. After Alice asks, "Do cats eat bats?" or "Do 
bats eat cats?" Carroll uncharacteristically editorial- 
izes: "as she couldn't answer either question, it didn't 
much matter which way she put it." It would become 
his practice to give such thoughts to Alice or to the 
characters instead. It's our philosophical puppy, as 
out of place as that all-too-realistic dog to come, and, 
as would be expected, it appears early. 

The main philosophical character is the Caterpil- 
lar, of course, who asks, "Who are you?" with the ef- 
fective emphasis "Who are you}" in Wonderland. The 
question harks back to Alice's thought "if I'm not 
the same, who in the world am I? Ah, that's the great 
puzzle!" from an earlier chapter. The character of 
the Caterpillar seems to have sparked a philosophical 
growth in the story — fourteen of the sixteen philo- 
sophical moments in Fig. 7 come after Alice's meet- 
ing with him. The first is one of the most effective 
edits in the book. Instead of having the caterpillar say 
that the mushroom's "top will make you grow taller, 
and the stalk will make you grow shorter," Carroll al- 
ters it to: "One side will make you grow taller, and the 
other side will make you grow shorter." This master- 
fully gives Alice something to ponder about and to 
eventually solve with a 180-degree reach. But it also, 
philosophy aside, gives Alice a better reason to mis- 
takenly choose the side that makes her shrink. In the 
Under Ground version, Carroll weakly has to make her 
forget what the Caterpillar says for a comic episode to 
take place: her chin striking her feet. In Wonderland, 
it's a probable outcome, albeit unwelcome, of trial- 

Five of the last six philosophical quotations chart- 
ed in Figure 7 involve the King of Hearts, a character 
who deserves more attention than he has received. 
Perhaps his most notable moment occurs during the 
trial, when he reasons, "If you didn't sign it," speak- 
ing to the Knave, who denies even writing the verses, 
"that only makes the matter worse. You must have 
meant some mischief, or else you'd have signed your 
name like an honest man." Peter Heath, in The Phi- 
losopher's Alice, notes how the King reasons like a Baco- 
nian who "supposes Bacon's failure to make mention 
of Shakespeare's plays to be sure evidence that he 
wrote them himself"'' It should be mentioned that, 
even in Heath's more sensitive approach to the disci- 
pline, which should flatten the disparity between the 
two books, a majority of the annotations (84 of the 
143) pertain to the Wbn^/an</ additions.'" 

The last of the three nonlingual attributes of hu- 
mor, the surreal (we did say this would take a wide 
view of the term), shows that Carroll added surreal 
details at the same rate as in the original recount- 
ing. The first takes place in the White Rabbit's house, 
when the pebbles thrown at Alice turn into little 
cakes, which Alice eats to become small again. The 
next two involve the Cheshire Cat, a surreal charac- 
ter itself, when it vanishes slowly and when its head 
appears during the croquet game. The sister's new 
dream is also surreal, but it simply takes the place of 
the original, surreal dream. 

Taking all these attributes together, the humor 
per word grows more than twofold in Wonderland. 
If we take only the attributes that gained in number 
(the puns, wordplay, the physical and philosophic), 
the humor is even denser, more than threefold as 
thick. In this regard. Wonderland is considerably more 
entertaining to read than Under Ground. 

The two books are differently proportioned. The 
beginning of the story contains many references to 
Alice becoming emotional — about being the wrong 
size or missing her cat — ^which represents about 33 
percent of Under Ground but only 20 percent of Won- 
derland. The ending of the book, on the other hand, 
where Alice meets the characters represented by the 
playing cards, represents 23 percent of Under Ground 
and 39 percent of Wonderland. The effect on the 
reader of this is debatable, however. For example, the 
reader will spend more lime, owing to the minor addi- 
tions, with an emotional Alice when cuddling up with 
Wonderland as opposed to Under Ground. 

There are difficulties in drawing conclusions 
about what Carroll specifically set out to accomplish 
when deciding to publish Alice's Adventures. It is not 
even certain that he at first intended to make the 
story longer. Carroll initially slated Tenniel for twelve 
pictures, which became twenty, then twent)'-four (evi- 
denced from sample title pages), then thirt)'-four 
(from his diary) before becoming the final forty-two." 



{V) (w) 





"But do cats eat bats, I wonder?" And here Alice began to get ratlier sleepy, and kept on saying 
to herself, in a dreamy sort of way "do cats eat bats? do cats eat bats?" and sometimes, "do bats eat cats?" for, 
as she couldn't answer eitlier question, it didn't much matter which way she put it. 

[S]he waited for a few minutes to see whether she was going to shrink any further: she felt a little nervous 
about this, "for it might end, you know," said Alice to herself, "in my going out altogether, like a candle, 
and what should I be like then, 1 wonder?" 



"1 think 1 remember feeling rather different. But if I'm not the same, who in the world am I? 
All, that's the great puzzle!" 



At last the Dodo said, "Ei'n-yhotly has won, and all nuist have prizes." 



"If 1 eat one of these cakes," she thought, "it's sure to make some change in my size; and as it can't possibly 
make me larger, it must make me smaller, I suppose." 




"Wlio are you?" said the caterpillar. "I — I hardly know, sir, just at the present...." 

"[W'lho are you?".... "I think you ought to tell me who you are, first." 
"Wliy?" said the caterpillar. 
Here was another puzzling question . . . 

Alice remained looking thoughtfully at the mushroom for a miniue, trying to make out which were the 
two sides of it; and, as it was perfectly roimd, she found this a very difficult question. However, at last she 
stretched her arms round it as far as Uiey would go, and broke off a bit of the edge with each hand. 

"I have tasted eggs, certainly," said Alice . . . "but litUe girls eateggs quite as much as serpents 

do, you know." 
"I don't believe it," said the Pigeon; "but if they do, why tJien they're a kind of serpent, 

that's all I can say." 

This was such a new idea to Alice, that she was quite silent for a miniUe or two. 




"If I don't take this child away with me," thought Alice, "they're sure to kill it in a day or two: wouldn't it be 
murder to leave it behind?" 

"Would you tell me, please, which way I ought to walk from here?" 
"That depends a good deal on where you want to get to," said the Cat. 
"I don't much care where — " said Alice. 
"Then it doesn't matter which way you walk," said the Cat. 

"Well then," the Cat went on, "you see a dog growls when it's angry, and wags its tail when it's pleased. Now / 
growl when I'm pleased, and wag my tail when I'm angry. Therefore I'm mad." 




"Not the same thing a bit!" said the Hatter. "Why, you mighljust as well say that 'I see what I eat' is the same 
tiling as T eat what I see'!" 

"Does your watch tell you what year it is?" 

"Of course not," Alice replied very readily: "but that's because it stays the same year for such a long time 
"Which is just the case with mine," said the Hatter 

"Take some more tea," the March Hare said to Alice, very eamesUy. 

"I've had nothing yet," Alice replied in an offended tone, "so I can't take more." 

'You mean you can't take less," said the Hatter: "it's very easy to take more than nothing." 



The executioner's argument was, that you couldn't cut off a head iniless there was a body to cut it off from . 
. . The King's argument was, that anything that had a head could be beheaded, and that you weren't to talk 



"Tut, tut, child!" said the Duchess. "Everytliing's got a moral, if only you can find it." And she squeezed 
herself up closer to Alice's side as she spoke, [etc.] 



"Take off your hat,"llie King said to die Hatter. 
"It isn't mine," said the Hatter. 
"Stolen!" the King exclaimed. 




riie \Miite Rabbit interrupted: "t/nimportant, your Majesty means, of course" . . . "Unimportant, of course, 
I meant," the King hasuly said, and went on to himself in an undertone, "important — unimportant — unim- 
portant — important — " as if he were trying which word sounded best. 

"Please your Majesty," said the Knave, "I didn't write it, and they can't prove I did: there's no name signed at 

the end." 
"If you didn't sign it," said the King, "that only makes the matter worse. You must have meant some mischief, 

or else you'd have signed your name like an honest man. 

"If there's no meaning in it," said the King, "that saves a world of trouble, you know, as we needn't try to 
find any." 

Figure 7. The major philosophical moments in Alice's Adventures. Text that originated in Under Ground is given 
a bullet point in the (u) column, and text that originated in Wonderland a bullet in the (w) column. 

This suggests that even the greater length of his story 
simply "came of itself." It would be foolish to claim 
that Carroll consciously decided to add a slew of puns 
into the tale because the public thrives on them. They 
"came of themselves." But did he specifically desire 
to add more physical humor, more zaniness? Perhaps 
so. Was the added philosophical content a conscious 
decision as well? It may have suggested itself subcon- 
sciously since his story was now going to be read by 
adults, rather than by a single child and her friends. 

The evidence shows that Carroll worked his tale, 
backwards and forwards, rethinking this and that, 
with himself, with his publisher, and with his illustra- 
tor. Nothing was a foregone conclusion — he had no 
specified template before him. 

In a speech given in 2007, Robert Winter, a 
Beethoven scholar, refuted the oft-told "bio-pic" no- 
tion that genius is "dictation from God ... I got the 
red phone, you don't." Some composers, Gustave 
Mahler'- and even Beethoven himself, for example, 
propagated the notion. Winter has a more down-to- 
earth approach to genius, finding in it three main 
components: tenacity, curiosity, and the "ability to 
undertake trial-and-error," calling them "the heart of 
art making." He demonstrated the last component 
by playing Beethoven's early attempts at writing his 
"Ode to Joy" theme for his Ninth Symphony. Indeed, 
some of his melodic attempts are laughably unworthy 
of such a giant of classical music. '^ 

Winter's Beethovenian scenario is mirrored in 
Carrollian studies. Carroll's "bio-pic" contains Collin- 
gwood's statement that his uncle had the heavenly 
power to remember "word for word" almost all of his 
oral tale. It contains Green's near-Biblical faith that all 
of the episodes in Wonderland (not just Under Ground) 
derived from the Deanery Garden of Eden, a faith up- 
held by Lennon and even Alice Liddell herself. 

But Carroll had his lame melodies. He hacked 
out the first "Mouse's Tale" and "Salmon Come Up," 
and struck some sour notes with his word choices 
now and then. Under Ground can be seen as a step in 
Carroll's trial-and-error process that ended in Won- 
derland. The evidence includes several sample title 
pages, several sample text pages, and an edited gal- 
ley sheet that implies the existence of a mass of ed- 
ited galley sheets, which together show that Carroll 
worked up and revised even the new material (Ten- 
niel's letter regarding the missing pieces in "A Mad 
Tea-Party"). Carroll rewrote the sister's dream in 
rhyme, succeeded, and likely attempted to keep the 
original dream after some editing, but failed. Carroll 
used trial-and-error — and he had the curiosity to cre- 
ate such a wildly imaginative book and the tenacity to 
publish it for a mass audience. 

' Under Ground, pp. &i-[9\]. 

^ Jean Gattegno, Lewis CarroU: Fragments, pp. 21-2. 
Gattegno mentions the deletion of the single line in 
the cottage scene that referred to the river at Oxford 
("fringed with rushes and forget-me-nots"), failing, 
however, to mention that the whole of the scene is 

^ Derek Hudson, Lewis Carroll: An Illustrated Biography (New 
York: Clarkson N. Potter, 1977), p. 126. 

^ Martin Gardner, The Annotated Alice, pp. 200, 203, 273-4. 
The similarities between Tenniel's depiction of the 
Sheep's shop and the Oxford shop may not be striking to 

^ Ibid. Madan's comment refers specifically to the Gryphon 
and Mock Turtle episode. See Sidney Herbert Williams, 
Falconer Madan, et al.. The Lewis Carroll Handbook, rev. by 
Roger Lancelyn Green, rev. by Denis Crutch (Hamden, 
CN: Dawson, Archon Books), p. 146. 

^ Donald Thomas, Lewis Carroll: A Portrait with Background 
(London: John Murray, 1996), p. 155. 

^ Fragments, pp. 22-3. 

** Alice Liddell mentioned that Duckworth sang "Star of the 
evening, beautiful star," "Twinkle, twinkle, litde star," and 
"Will you walk into my parlour, said the spider to the fly." 
The last two appear only in Wonderland and so could be 
counted as in-jokes added in. He added a verse to the first, 
thus expanding an in-joke. Alice and Caryl Hargreaves, 
"Alice's Recollections of Carrollian Days" in The Comhill 
Magazine, ]u\y, 1932. 

^ Peter Heath, The Philosopher's Alice (New York: St. Martin's 

Press, 1974), p. 115. 
'" This is a rather important conclusion in this paper, so 
it was thought only fair to include the data. Of course, 
the matter is subjective, and readers may find a more 
philosophical moment than one listed in Figure 7. The 
real test, however, is if a complete list, created by one or 
several readers, challenges the conclusion put forth here. 
" For twelve illustrations, see Lewis Carroll to Tom Taylor, 
December 20, 1863, Letters, p. 62; for twenty and twenty- 
four illustrations, see Handbook, plate 2, op. p. 132; for 
thirty-four illustrations, see October 12, 1864, Leivis 
Carroll's Diaries: The Private Journals of Charles Lutwidge 
Dodgson, ed. Edward Wakeling, vol. 5 (Luton, Beds: 
The Lewis Carroll Society, 1999), p. 16; for forty-two 
illustrations, open the book! 
^^ Mahler wrote of his Eighth Symphony, "On the threshold 
of my old workshop the 'Spiritus Creator' took hold of 
me and shook me and drove me on for the next eight 
weeks until my greatest work was done." The overall 
format of the piece was revised a couple of times before 
the Spiritus Creator settled in on the final shape. Edward 
Seckerson, Mahler: His Life and Times (New York: Midas 
Books, 1982), p. 105. 
'^ Robert Winter, speech given at the Beyond Belief: 
Enlightenment 2.0 symposium. The Frederic de 
Hoffmann Auditorium of the Salk Institute for Biological 
Studies, November 1, 2007, available online: http:// 
enlightenment-2-O/robert-winter (accessed January 
201 1). The remarks cited are found after 9:30 (minutes- 
seconds), 34:15, and 40:38. 



An Early Alice in China: 
A Rumor and a Translation 




On the FAQ page of Lenny's Alice in Wonderland Site 
(, 11 questions 
are listed. The 11th one asks whether it is true that 
the AlicehooVs were banned in China and, if so, why?' 
Lenny first gave a definite yes and recently changed 
his yes to a more cautious answer. In either case, 
Lenny's source of information seems to be a New York 
Times report which relied on the 1978 publication 
Banned Books, 387 B.C. to 1978 A.D., written by Anne 
Lyon Haight and Chandler B. Grannis. 

Lenny stated, "It is said that it happened in 1931 
by the Governor of Hunan Province, General Ho 
Chien, who found it an insult to humans to have ani- 
mals acting in the same complex manner as a human, 
like using human language. His fear was that children 
would think humans and animals were equal and on 
the same level, which was 'disastrous. '"- 

The above description is actually true, except for 
the second "it" in the quoted passage, if "it" refers to 
the banning of the Alicehooks. No, there was no ban- 
ning of the Alice books; and, yes, there was a related 
controversy; but, no, the controversy didn't focus on 
the Alice books. Let us then go back in time and have 
a look of what in fact happened and in what social 
climate such a controversy would have transpired. 

On March 5, 1931, Shen Bao (a well-known news- 
paper in China from 1872 to 1949) published an ar- 
ticle titled "A Request to an Educational Reform of 
School Syllabi." The article was written by Ho Chien, 
the then Chairman of the Hunan Provincial Govern- 
ment (in plain words, the Governor General of Hunan 
under Chiang Kai-shek's Nationalist government). 
In the article. Ho Chien accused the primary school 
textbooks of his day of committing grave vulgarities 
and absurdities by using expressions such as "the cat 
said," "the duck said," "brother dog said," "grandpa 
bull said," etc., turning animals into human-language- 
speaking creatures and even giving animals respectful 
forms of address. 

That was only half of his criticism. The second 
half was directed towards passages such as, "Papa, 
you're building houses for other people every day, but 
you don't even have one for yourself," which was for 
Ho Chien an agitation for communism. It sounded 

very much like the kind of political anxiety harbored 
by the U.S. senator Joseph McCarthy in the 1950s. 

General Ho Chien, who happened to be a 
scholar of Chinese classics, was a very controversial 
figure both within and outside politics. The act that 
guaranteed him a place in history, however, was his 
execution of Wu Ruolan, the pregnant wife of the 
liberation army general Zhu De, in 1929 (he hung 
her decapitated head at the entrance of Ganzhou 
City of Jianxi Province to warn other communists and 
would-be communists) and of Yang Kaihui, wife of 
Mao Zedong. 

Ho Chien 's extreme anticommunist sentiment 
seem to have merged with his ultra-Confucianism, 
although the two positions (communism and Confu- 
cianism) do not necessarily contradict each other in 
theory. But somehow, he got the idea that his ultra- 
Confucianism was the solution to defeating commu- 
nism, and the key was to educate young minds with 
his own version of ultra-Confucian morality, which 
bizarrely included a firm demarcation between hu- 
man beings and animals.'^ Specifically, animals in 
stories should not speak any human language. The 
consequences of this policy would be unimaginable 
because it would mean an uprooting of some of the 
finest traditions of Chinese literature. Journey to the 
West (seventeenth century CE) certainly features a 
talking monkey and a talking pig, and the magnifi- 
cent anthology of semi-horror and the surreal, Strange 
Stories from the Lodge of Leisure (eighteenth century CE) 
features not only talking foxes but also trees with a 
thousand-year-old spirit that had mastered the human 
language perfectly. This ignited the so-called "words 
of the birds and the language of the beasts" debate. 

From the May Fourth Movement of 1919 until 
the Japanese invasion in 1937, Chinese children's lit- 
erature prospered, with high hopes of liberating the 
creativity of young minds after nearly three hundred 
years of suffocating Manchurian rule. The desire to 
liberate the minds of the Chinese people was an in- 
tense one at that time for very specific historical and 
political reasons. 

The three hundred years of Manchurian rule 
(the Qing Dynasty) was very detrimental to the Chi- 
nese mind. First, it was during the era of Manchurian 
rule that China was forced to isolate herself from the 


world that she once freely explored. In order to rule 
the Chinese people culturally as well as politically, 
Manchurian aesthetics was imposed upon the Chi- 
nese people by law to such a degree that all men had 
to choose between being beheaded and shaving their 
entire head except for an ugly Manchurian queue — 
very much against the long-haired tradition of both 
Confucianism and Daoism! The traditional bright- 
colored Tang, Song, and Ming loose clothing styles 
were banned and were replaced by, for example, a 
skimpy black Mandarin jacket over a grey gown for 
men. Guilt by association was widely practiced upon 
intellectuals, thus preventing any creative develop- 
ment in both the humanities and the sciences. This to 
a certain extent answers Joseph Needham's question 
of why scientific development in Europe around the 
time of the Italian Renaissance started overtaking that 
of China, which had led the world for approximately 
2000 years.^ No wonder it was exactly during the late 
Ming Dynasty (sixteenth and seventeenth centuries) 
that science in Europe laid the groundwork for its fu- 
ture edifice. 

Further, the weak and corrupt latter years of the 
Qing Dynasty happened to coincide with Western im- 
perialist expansion in Asia. This coincidence pushed 
China onto the brink of being partitioned by Western 
powers. Indeed, this process of partition was under 
way, but this grave crisis also invigorated the begin- 
ning of a slow-moving Chinese renaissance that has 
continued on and off into the twenty-first century, 
notwithstanding political and social obstacles of vari- 
ous kinds. Rescuing the country depended not only 
on rebuilding the country's economic and military 
might, but on liberating the minds of the people — 
a prerequisite to a rebirth of culture and historical 

Hence, in response to General Ho Chien's gro- 
tesque accusation, leading intellectuals of his day 
fought back. The first one was the great social critic, 
novelist, and revolutionary Lu Xun. In his Editor's 
Preface, dated April 1, 1931, to the Chinese transla- 
tion of the Hungarian fairy-tale epic poem Jdnos Vi- 
tez, written by the Hungarian poet and revolutionary 
Sandor Petofi, Lu Xun counterattacked in his usual 
pungent style: "Recently, regarding children's stories, 
both civil and military officials are expressing their 
brilliant ideas. Some say cats and dogs shouldn't talk, 
and calling them mister is depriving human decency; 
some say kings and emperors have no place in sto- 
ries, for it violates the spirit of the Republic. None- 
theless I believe it to be 'man of Qi fears the sky fall- 
ing."' Seriously, it doesn't matter much, because the 
minds of children differ from those of the civil and 
military officials by having the ability to evolve. The 
minds of children never stay in one spot. When they 
come to grow a beard, they might still want to ride on 
the shoulders of giants and become a king on a fairy 

island. Later when they have learnt a bit of science, 
they will come to know that giants and fairy islands 
do not exist. If some still have such wishes, it can only 
be evidence of a natural born mental defect, in which 
case such persons would still be a good-for-nothing 
even if they manage not to have read a fairy tale in 
their entire lifetime."'' 

A wave of intellectual opinions ensued defending 
the cultural significance of children's literature, and 
the debate was humorously dubbed the "words of the 
birds and the language of the beasts" debate. 

All in all, no children's literature featuring talking 
animals was banned. As far as evidence is concerned, 
the Shen Bao Index 1931 recorded only Ho Chien's re- 
quest for syllabus reform, on page 216.^ The oppos- 
ing voices of leading intellectuals of the day made 
it impossible for General Ho Chien to venture into 
unknown, nonmilitary territory. The recently trans- 
lated Alice's Adventures in Wonderland happened to be 
around and was drawn into the dispute by Ho Chien's 
blanket accusation. Why did I mention just Alice's Ad- 
ventures in Wonderland? That's because following the 
success oi Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, its Chinese 
translator Chao Yuen-ren was set to start translating 
Through the Looking-Glass. Chao worked on the man- 
uscript, and its final proof was prepared as early as 
1931 in Shanghai; unfortunately, the 1931 Japanese 
bombing of Shanghai destroyed the final proof. It 
was not published until 1968, when the first Chinese 
translation of Through the Looking-Glass, also by Chao, 
saw the light of day in the United States. Therefore, 
the plural form of "the Alice books" in Lenny's ques- 
tion isn't correct either, since only Alice's Adventures in 
Wonderland had been published by 1931. 


The May Fourth Movement mentioned above was 
mainly an anti-imperialist political movement. But 
the seeds of awakening were sowed in the mid-1910s 
and -20s. This was called the New Culture Movement, 
and it prepared the ground for the nationwide May 
Fourth Movement. In the spirit of rescuing and re- 
building the nation, the New Culture Movement was 
arguably the most pluralistic and exciting period in 
the intellectual history of modern China. Also, ironi- 
cally, thanks to Ho Chien's article attacking children's 
literature and the ensuing debate, the general public 
came to better understand the nature of children's 
literature, more authors tried their hands at writing 
stories for children, and more intellectuals engaged 
in investigating the theoretical basis of children's lit- 
erature. It was during this time that children's books 
sprang up like mushrooms in China. 

Let us name some names. In 1923, Ye Shengtao 
published The Strazvman, which was an anthology of 
short stories. It is usually referred to as the first work 
of children's literature in New China. Other well- 


known writers of the time included Bing Xin {Letters 
to Little Readers), Zhang Tianyi {Lin Senior and Lin Ju- 
nior) , Chen Bochui {Miss Alice) , He Yi ( The Wild Brat) , 
Yan Wenjing {Winds of Four Seasons) , and Jin Jin {Red 
Masks) , among others. 

During the 1920s and 1930s, the literary scene in 
China witnessed not only local writers (from all in- 
tellectual camps) attempting fabulous stories, fables, 
fairy tales, and allegories for children, but also trans- 
lations of foreign works of children's literature. The 
Shakespearean scholar Liang Shih-chiu translated Pe- 
ter Pan into Chinese in 1927. The famous Hungarian 
Jdnos Vitez'W2iS translated into Chinese in 1931, as was 
already mentioned above. The Harvard scholar Chao 
Yuen-ren translated Alice's Adventures in Wonderland 
into Chinese at an incredible speed in 1921. It took 
him only two seasons, namely spring and summer 
of that year. Another famous writer, Shen Congwen, 
wrote Alice's Travelogue in China in 1928 as a "Chinese 
sequel" to the original Alice's Adventures in Wonderland 
and had it published as a series of monthly install- 
ments in New Moon Magazine (March issue-October 
issue, 1928). You get the idea. 

What might interest both Chinese and non-Chi- 
nese CarroUians is Chao's 1921 translation. It has al- 
ways been hailed as the first Chinese translation of 
Alice's Adventures in Wonderland. There is an amusing 
anecdote, however, that might take away the prize 
from the hands of professor Chao. 

Seemingly, the Scotsman Reginald F. Johnston, 
who was the English language tutor of the Last Em- 
peror of the Qing Dynasty, Aisin-Gioro Puyi, might 
have verbally translated at least part of Alice's Adven- 
tures in Wonderland into Chinese for Puyi when he was 
fourteen years old — that is, in 1920, one year ahead 
of the publication of Chao's translation.** In his mem- 
oir, Puyi claimed that he "read" (the original Chinese 
expression was ambiguous and didn't really mean 
"read") Alice's Adventures in Wonderland when he was 
fourteen. Butjohnston arrived in Beijing only in 1919 
when Puyi was thirteen and didn't speak any English, 
which means that Puyi couldn't have read Alice ziier 
one year of learning English. The only possible sce- 
nario would be that Johnston, who could speak Chi- 
nese, retold the Alice story to Puyi in Chinese:^ In this 
case, Johnston's verbal version could be the "first" 
Chinese translation of Alice, which "beat" Chao's 
hugely famous 1921 translation by one year! 

A few words about Chao's translation are in or- 
der, for it has been deemed as a classic in its own 
right. Although Chao's classic translation is revered 
by many, it has never stopped translators of later gen- 
erations from re-translating Wonderland (and Through 
the Looking-Glass) , because Chao's translation was in- 
deed inadequate in many ways. 

Chao had a natural talent for picking up vari- 
ous dialects and different languages. It has been 


circulated that he could speak over thirty Chinese 
dialects, was fluent in English, German, and French, 
and could handle Japanese, ancient Greek, Latin, and 
Russian pretty well too. His forte nevertheless was also 
his weakness. His talent for learning languages didn't 
automatically make him a gifted linguist, contrary to 
popular opinion. A brilliant language theorist he was 
not; he was more like an empirical compiler of pho- 
netic data. This lack of theoretical concern or ability 
regretfully created serious defects in his translation of 
Alice. Among all the available Chinese translations of 
Alice, I must admit that Chao's version pleases me least. 

Translating Alice into Chinese is extremely diffi- 
cult. For very obvious reasons, the translator has to un- 
derstand the formal structures of the various informal 
arguments presented by Alice and some of the other 
strange creatures in the story. A lax or too creatively 
inclined translation could easily render a valid argu- 
ment invalid or vice versa. Next to a little bit of formal 
training in logic, the translator would require some 
skill in practicing the philosophy of language, espe- 
cially in theories of meaning and language-games. 

Chao majored in mathematics and minored in 
physics and music in his undergraduate years (1910- 
1914) at Cornell University. Then he entered Har- 
vard and earned a doctorate in philosophy. Yet one 
can hardly blame Chao for missing all the logic and 
the philosophy (of language) in Alice; the logic of 
language, after all, was a rather new discipline in the 
1910s. Whitehead and Russell's three-volume monu- 
mental Principia Mathematica was only published in 
1910, and Wittgenstein's misguided masterpiece Trac- 
tatus Logico-Philosophicus wouldn't appear for another 
eleven years, that is 1921, the same year that Chao's 
translation of Alice wou\d appear. 

Aside from all this, the real sin of Chao's trans- 
lation consists in missing the humorous undertones 
and foreignness of a rather British story. One exam- 
ple of each should suffice to illustrate the point. 

In the first case, Chao's translation attempted the 
ridiculous by making Alice and all the litde creatures 
down the rabbit-hole sound very childish by using a 
lot of so-called final particles in the dialogue. Some 
final particles in Chinese grammar are usually mean- 
ingless characters attached as an appendix to the end 
of a Chinese sentence for the purpose of expressing 
the tone of that utterance. Children sometimes like 
to overuse final particles, thus creating a kind of kid- 
speak. But in Alice, Alice insists on talking solemnly 
most of the time, and sometimes quite pensively. The 
fun of reading really comes from hearing Alice try- 
ing to talk and think like an adult. In Chao's transla- 
tion, that whole aspect doesn't work anymore. Sadly, 
even the very cool Caterpillar was made to sound a 
little childish in Chinese. Obviously, Chao was pre- 
occupied with the idea that Alice is a story book for 
children, which led him to impose a childish tone on 
many of the characters in the story. 

In the second case, Chao's translation for some 
reason imposed a Chineseness on Alice. Tiiat I think 
is a serious violation of a translator's taboo. A major 
part of the fun of reading translations of a foreign sto- 
ry is exactly its foreignness: foreign locations, foreign 
people, foreign behaviors, and foreign references. 
The attraction stems from the reader's curiosity about 
the beyond and the unfamiliar. In Chapter 3, "the 
archbishop" was translated as "the great (Buddhist) 
monk." Understandably, Chao was trying to make the 
character intelligible for the Chinese children recent- 
ly liberated from Manchurian isolation. Although 
it doesn't work for my literary taste, there may still 
be room to argue his case. But even worse is, for ex- 
ample, chapter 9, where "tortoise" was translated as a 
familiar Chinese nickname in order to recreate a pun 
("old Wang" / being forgetful) that was not quite the 
original pun of "tortoise" / taught us). But the trans- 
lator's new pun has erased the cause of Alice's confu- 
sion: there is a difference between something being a 
turtle and calling (i.e., naming) that turtle "Tortoise," 
however strange it may sound 

No offense is intended. I merely wish to put 
Chao's translation in its rightful place in history. 
Without a doubt, he accomplished many firsts in his 
translation o( Alice. He was the first Chinese to notice 
Carroll's great work and even compared it to Shake- 
speare's dramas. I couldn't agree more. He was the 
first to have translated Alice. He was the first to have 
translated Aliceinto modern vernacular Chinese. The 
list goes on. Chao's translation should be regarded 
as an experiment in a time of political and cultural 
chaos; it should be admired, not worshipped. 

As stated above, it's not easy to translate the Al- 
ic^ books into Chinese. Humor, jokes, and puns, etc., 
are very much language (and culture) dependent. All 
jokes and puns written in a semi-inflectional language 
like English are in general almost impossible to trans- 
late into an analytic language like Chinese (and vice 
versa). In addition, Carroll's meticulous construction 
of arguments in informal language and his deliberate 
couching of significant logical concepts in ordinary 
language make it even more difficult for a Chinese 

translation to carry forward both the humor and the 
logic. I personally would never dare to even try. Chao 
and many Chinese translators of later generations 
have been courageous. Although so far no Chinese 
translation in my opinion has come close to covering 
both the humor and the logic of the Alice books, we 
have time. We'll wait. 

[Professor Chao graciously addressed the West Coast Chap- 
ter of the LCSNA on this subject on May 4, 1 980. - Ed.] 

' Lenny's Alice in Wonderland Site. URL: http://w\vw.alice- Accessed onjmie 30, 

2 Ibid. 

^ The ancient sage Zhuangzi, who advocated eqnalitv' 
among all living beings, certainly would have disagreed 
with Ho Chien's ultra-Confucian adrenal gland. 

^ It is interesting to notice that the Four Great Inventions 
of China entered Europe at the end of the Middle 
Ages. Given the wave of Arab scholars teaching Indian 
and Arab mathematics and ancient Greek philosophy 
in European universities, it is safe to claim that the 
Renaissance of the West was launched partly and 
significantiy by the East. 

^ This is a parable recorded in the ancient text Liezi 
(fifth century BCE) in which a man from the state of 
Qi worried all day long about the sky falling. It means 
something like the English idiomatic expression "never 
trouble trouble till trouble troubles you," but the subtext 
of "man of Qi fears the sky falling" is richer and more 

^ Editor's Preface to the Chinese translation of Sandor 
Pet6fi'syano5 Vitez (translated by Sun Yong, and edited by 
Lu Xun), published by Hufeng Books (Shanghai), 1931. 

' Shen Boo Index 1931 (in Chinese), Shanghai Books. An 
online version of the book can be accessed at http:// 

* Aisin-Gioro Puyi, The First Half of My Life: From Emperor to 
Citizen (in Chinese), Qunzhong Press, 2003. Reginald F. 
Johnston, Twilight in the Forbidden City, Oxford University 
Press, 1985. 

^ Chao Yuen-ren supported this interpretation in his 
preface to the Chinese translation oi Alice's Adventures in 

Lio MarkTatuUi 








The Pamphlets of Lewis Carroll — the immensely impor- 
tant project undertaken by the LCSNA to publish six 
volumes on six different subjects on which Charles L. 
Dodgson wrote important works — has unexpectedly 
turned up pieces that were unknown to the series edi- 
tors and to the editor of three of the four published 
volumes when those volumes were assembled. These 
pieces offer an exceptional opportunity to add new 
facts about, and insights into, Dodgson 's known work 
in mathematics, political theory, and logic. 

The Lewis Carroll Handbook (LCH) is the main bib- 
liographic reference for the pamphlets series. In the 
preface to the revised 1979 edition, the author, Denis 
Crutch, writes, "This revision of the Handbook of 1962 
attempts to complete the original plan of putting at 
the reader's elbow a book that will be at once a biblio- 
graphic account of Dodgson's writings and a history 
of their composition and development." He goes on 
to say that "[A] 11 the articles have been corrected and 
updated, and new ones added . . . pieces by Dodgson 
freshly brought to light, manuscripts and proofs of 
work unpublished at the author's death . . ." [LCH, 
xvi]. In the same spirit, the thirteen items reported 
on here do not appear in the Handbook. 

One additional piece, inexplicably not included in 
Volume 2 of the pamphlets series, is listed in the LCH 
as The Science of Betting, which was published in The Pall 
Mall Gazette and The Times in November 1866. 

The abbreviations that follow are references cit- 
ed frequently in this article: 

ET Mathematical problems and solutions section 
of the Educational Times 

LCH The Leivis Carroll Handbook 

LCP Lewis Carroll and the Press: An Annotated Bibliogra- 
phy of Charles Dodgson 's Contributions to Periodicals 

MQS Mathematical Questions and Solutions from 

the "Educational Times, " with Many Papers and 
Solutions in Addition to Those Published in the 
"Educational Times" 

The collections in which the reported items and 
related material were discovered are: 

Alfred C. Berol Collection in the Fales Library/ 
Bobst Library at New York University 

Joseph Brabant Collection in the Thomas Fisher 
Rare Books Library at the University of Toronto 

David and Denise Carlson, private collection 

Dr. Selwyn H. Goodacre, private collection 

Arthur P. Houghton Collection at the Morgan 
Library in New York 

Jon A. Lindseth, private collection 

Charles Lovett, private collection 

The Morris L. Parrish Collection of Victorian 
Novelists at Princeton University 

Jeffrey Stern, private collection 

Warren Weaver Collection in the Harry Ransom 
Humanities Research Center at the University 
of Texas in Austin 


Eight pieces included in this volume are not listed 
in the LCH. Of these eight, three undated items — 23, 
24, and 25 — are templates for examination questions, 
tided: Arithmetic I, Arithmetic II, and Arithmetic. 
Item 15, entitled Formulae and dated 1878, is a cy- 
clostyled sheet of primarily trigonometric and loga- 
rithmic formulas. These four items are in the Carlson 

A longer set of similar formulas constitutes the 
undated item 6, dded: Formulae (Group C), which 
was produced with an electric pen. This item is in the 
Brabant Collection. Charlie Lovett established 1877 
as the probable date of its creadon. 

Item 8. "Proof Sheets: Propositions I, 11" is undated, 
but probably from 1882. The galley proofs of these 
two theorems in the Warren Weaver Collection were 
intended for a book Dodgson planned on the topic 
of circle-squaring. The statement of the first theorem 
is: "The area of a Circle is less than four times, and 
greater than twice, the Square on its radius." The 
statement of the second theorem is: "The area of a 
Circle is less than 3 and 1/3 times, and greater than 2 
and 2/3, of the Square on its radius." 

By ten years after the death of the eminent math- 
ematician Augustus De Morgan in 1871, Dodgson 
was growing tired of answering the many letters from 
mathematical dilettantes who thought they had man- 


aged to construct a circle whose area equaled that of 
a given square. A proof that such a construction was 
impossible was established in 1882, but would-be cir- 
cle-squarers persisted well into the twentieth century. 
It seems Dodgson wanted to refer them to his book, 
rather than continue to answer their letters. The rea- 
son that he did not publish his book is unknown. 

Item 1 8. "Response to 'Infinitesimal or Zero,'" from 
1886, is a letter by William John Clarke Miller, editor 
of the mathematical problems and solutions section 
of the ET, which was collected and reprinted, often 
with additions and corrections, in two volumes per 
year, as MQS. In his invaluable book LCP, in number 
C.242, Charlie Lovett provides the citation from the 
ET as V.38, 1 July 1885, p. 233. 

For part of a sequence of questions and solu- 
tions appearing in the mathematical problems and 
solutions section of the ET and in MQS during the 
period 1885 to 1889, Dodgson provided solutions to 
two questions posed by others (numbers 7695 and 
8200) and participated in published discussions, 
when he disagreed with another mathematician's 
solution to one of these questions. He also posed a 
question of his own, number 9588. All of them deal 
with probability and illustrate where Dodgson was 
able to handle the material in the questions posed, 
and where he was not. 

Item 18 concerns Question 8200: "A random 
point being taken on a given line, what is the chance 
of its coinciding with a previously assigned point?" Eu- 
gene Seneta writes that problems like this one, which 
involve an uncountable sample space, were not set- 
tled until it became possible to allocate the uniform 
probability distribution to a line segment of length 
1, in accordance with A. Kolmogorov's general prob- 
ability axioms of 1933. Hence any such point can exist 
with a probability of zero. Dodgson, however, could 
not accept that a possible event can have zero prob- 
ability. He wrote, " I re-affirm, as absolutely axiomatic, 
that, when an event is possible, its chance of happen- 
ing is not zero" [Seneta 1994, 218]. For him, an axiom 
involves a person's belief system, which depends on 
his informed intuition. So, for example, in geometry, 
Dodgson could accept the possibility of two lines be- 
ing parallel to a given line through a point not on 
that line (hyperbolic geometry) because he was famil- 
iar with asymptotic lines. But he could not accept the 
idea of a geometry where no parallel lines exist (el- 
liptic geometry). 

Item 55. "Rule for Finding Easter-Day for any Date 
till A.D. 2499" is undated, but we now know from a 
letter dated 8 September 1897 that Dodgson wrote 
to David Thomas, a fellow of Trinity College, Oxford, 
that the date of the Rule is 1897. The galley pages 
of the Rule are in the Jeffrey Stern and Selwyn Goo- 

dacre Collections, and the letter was published in 
Lindseth 1998, 52-53. 

The problem Dodgson worked on is not a simple 
one. The Christian Church, at the Nicene Council 
in 324, decreed that Easter Sunday must fall on the 
Sunday following the full moon in Rome assumed to 
occur on the fourteenth day from the day of the pre- 
ceding new moon, after the vernal equinox (taken to 
be March 21). Hence Easter Sunday must fall before 
April 25, but the full moon can occur more than 14 
and 3/4 days after the preceding new moon, and the 
vernal equinox sometimes falls slightiy before or after 
March 21. 

In his letter to Thomas, Dodgson mentions the 
method he created ten years earlier for finding the 
day of the week for any given date. Such a method, 
together with a rule for finding Easter Sunday, is the 
main ingredient of a mechanical perpetual calendar, 
which first appeared early in the twentieth century. 


Additional Piece. The Science of Betting, numbers 55:1, 
la, and 159a (1 and 2 in the LCH), published in The 
Pall Mall Gazette on 19/20 November 1866 and re- 
printed in The Times on 21 November, both with a 
letter of correction of an error discovered by Dodg- 
son's friend and colleague Vere Bayne. Dodgson's 
betting rule is his version of pari-mutuel betting, 
known in England as "betting round." He first wrote 
about his discovery in a diary entry of 1 2 March 1856, 
and sent a letter to the editor of Bell's Life in London 
and Sporting Chronicle on 5 May 1857, signing it as 
Mathematicus. Charlie Lovett includes all of this ma- 
terial in numbers C. 44-47 of LCR For a complete 
discussion of Dodgson's Rule and its connections 
with his publications during the period 1882-1883 
on lawn tennis tournaments, see Abeles, 2000. 



Item 29. A single piece, tided "Redistribution," went 
unrecorded in the LCH. Appearing in the St. James's 
Gazette on 22 October 1884, it is the final letter in a 
long set of letters by Dodgson and several other writ- 
ers of the time on the parliamentary representation 
of voters, and the redistribution of seats in Parlia- 
ment. These letters supply the background necessary 
to understand Dodgson 's pamphlet The Principles of 
Parliamentary Representation, his most important work 
on election theory. The pamphlet appeared for pri- 
vate distribution the very next day and publicly on 5 
November. Dodgson hoped it would influence the 
outcome of the Reform Bill (it passed), which extend- 
ed the franchise to agricultural workers and farmers, 
thereby increasing the electorate by two-thirds. 

Roger L. Green included this letter on redistribu- 
tion in his article "Lewis Carroll and the St. Jaynes's 
Gazette'' in the 7 April 1945 issue of Notes and Queries. 
Charlie Lovett lists it as number C.234 of LCR 


In Volume 4 of the pamphlet series there are four 
items that do not appear in the LCH. These are item 
3, The Four Syllogisms, Analytical, and item 11, the 
Table of Contents from Carroll's book Symbolic Logic, 
Parti, both from the Berol Collection; item 7, Quadri- 
lateral Diagram, from the Houghton Collection; and 
item 13, Logic Problem Worksheet, from the Linds- 
eth Collection. 

Item 5. "The Four Syllogisms, Analytical" is an un- 
published manuscript graph giving a visual proof of 
two logical statements. Together with item 2, Seven 
Diagrams, both of which carry the date 1887, they 
provide evidence that Dodgson was an early unrec- 
ognized contributor to a branch of mathematics later 
called graph theory, which has its origins in work by 
Leonhard Euler in the eighteenth century. 

Item 7. In "Notes and Calculations on Problems in 
Symbolic Logic" (September 1892?), an unpublished 
manuscript, Dodgson pardy worked out a sorites prob- 
lem involving four sets a, b, c, d, using a quadrilateral 
diagram. The Parrish Collecdon has another of these 
diagrams, but in his publications Dodgson did not use 
diagrams for more than three sets to solve logic prob- 

In the manuscript, the three premises are given 
in subscript form. They are: abg, there is no a that is 
b; c,b'j|, every c is b; and dja'^ , every d is a. The quad- 
rilateral diagram he used to represent the premises 
appears right. 

Examining the six possible cases, i.e., the possible 
relations for each pair: ab, ac, ad, be, bd, cd, Dodg- 
son represented them with six diagrams, but his 
treatment of them is incomplete, and he marked the 

manuscript page "not to be used," suggesting that he 
found his diagrammatic method wanting — a conclu- 
sion borne out by his subsequent preference for his 
tree method to handle sorites problems involving 
more than three sets. 

Amirouche Moktefi discovered this manuscript, 
and, in his doctoral thesis, he completed the solu- 
tion of the parts Dodgson presented, to yield: ajb^ 
and bja,, for the first case; ajC,, and Cja,, for the sec- 
ond case; a',d|, and d,a'yfor the third case; Cjb'^and 
b'jC^ for the fourth case; b|d„ and djb^ for the fifth 
case; and c,d„ and d,c„ in the sixth case. Dodgson 
gave these assignments for the letter terms: "ducks" 
to a; "waltzers" to b; "officer" to c; and "my poultry" 
to d [Moktefi 2007, 243-244]. 

In Symbolic Logic, Part I, this problem appears 
as number 5 on p. 112, and its solution is on p. 158. 
Dodgson wrote similar problems intended for part II 
of his book on symbolic logic. They were formulated 
in the period 1887-1894, and he set them up in 1896 
in the same form as this problem. They appear in 
Bardey's edition of Dodgson 's Symbolic Logic as num- 
bers: 44-48 [Bardey 1977, 409-410]. 

Item II. The Table of Contents of Symbolic Logic, Part I, 
from 1894(?), is the later of two versions of the table 
of contents, both of which differ substantially from 
the published version in his book published two years 
later. These early galley pages indicate important in- 
sights into Dodgson's thinking about logic, including 
his definition of logic as " [T] he science of reasoning 
rightly," and the inclusion of a monomial diagram 
to depict "some" and "no" propositions. Neither of 
these topics appeared in his later publications. Also, 
he listed several additional topics that he planned to 
include in his later symbolic logic books. These are: 
alternation, i.e., the nonexclusive use of "or" relating 
two or more propositions; the presence of superflu- 
ous premises in arguments; and normal sequences of 
propositions such as "if A then B." It seems he de- 
cided to include these three topics in the never com- 
pleted Part II of his Symbolic Logic. 












Item 73. Logic Problem Worksheet, 1885 (?), contains 
a variant of a logic diagram for three sets that has 
a small "+" representing a nonempty region, a sym- 
bol John Venn sometimes used in his logic diagrams, 
but not before the second 1894 revised edition of 
his book on symbolic logic. This unpublished manu- 
script shows that Dodgson, not Venn, introduced this 
symbol. However, Dodgson did not use it in his pub- 
lished work, preferring the symbol "1" instead. 


The sixth and final volume of the pamphlets series 
will include any additional pieces by Dodgson from 
the last two volumes that are not listed in the LCH. 
Alerting members of the research community cur- 
rently working on Dodgson/Carroll's writings — and 
there now are many more scholars since the pam- 
phlets series was initiated! — to these newly discov- 
ered pieces is this author's primary motivation for 
presenting the information contained in this article. 


Abeles, Francine F, ed. The Mathematical Pamphlets of 
Charles Lutwidge Dodgson and Related Pieces. Vol. 
2 of The Pamphlets of Lewis Carroll. New York: 
LCSNA, 1994. 

The Political Pamphlets and Letters of Charles Lu- 
twidge Dodgson and Related Pieces: A Mathematical 
Approach. Vol. 3 of The Pamphlets of Lewis Carroll. 
NewYork: LCSNA, 2001. 

The Lo^c Pamphlets of Charles Lutwidge Dodgson 

and Related Pieces. Vol. 4 of The Pamphlets of Lewis 
Carroll. NewYork: LCSNA, 2010. 

Abeles, Frahcine F. "Betting Round aka Pari-Mutual 
Betting: A Note on C. L. Dodgson." Proc. Canadi- 
an Society for History and Philosophy of Mathematics, 
V. 12. J. H. Tattersall, ed. Providence, RI: Provi- 
dence College, 2000, 176-183. 

Bardey, William Warren, ed. Lewis Carroll's Symbolic 
Logic, 2nd ed. NewYork: Clarkson N. Potter, 1986. 

Green, Roger L. "Lewis Carroll and the St. James's 
Gazette." Notes and Queries. 7 April 1945, 134-135. 

Lindseth, Jon, ed. Yours Very Sincerely C. L. Dodgson 
(alias "Lewis Carroll"): An Exhibition from the Jon A. 
Lindseth Collection of C. L. Dodgson and Lewis Car- 
roll. NewYork: The Grolier Club, 1998. 

Lovett, Charles. Lewis Carroll and the Press: An An- 
notated Bibliography of Charles Dodgson 's Contribu- 
tions to Periodicals. New Castle, DE/London: Oak 
Knoll Press/ British Library, 1999. 

Moktefi, Amirouche. Deduire et Seduire: La 

Logique Symbolique de Lewis Carroll. Doctoral 
dissertation, Universite Louis-Pasteur, Stras- 
bourg, 2007. 

Seneta, Eugene. "Probability." In The Mathematical 

Venn, John. Symbolic Lo^c. London: Macmillan, 1881. 

Symbolic Logic, 2nd rev. ed. New York: Burt 

Franklin, 1971. First published 1894. 

Williams, Sidney Herbert; Madan, Falconer; Green, 
Roger Lancelyn. The Leivis Carroll Handbook. Re- 
vised edition by Denis Crutch. Folkestone, Kent, 
England: Wm. Dawson & Sons, 1979. 

^NM'/ ^W/ ^W 

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Amanda Listoria 
The Library of 


Abigail Gibbon 

Megan Lowry 

Kathryn McGehee 

Susan Reynolds 

-.^=5"?^ -ij ME Me,. Jr5=:. ^5=^ 

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Chris Morgan 

Marsha Summerson 

Diane Steele 

Jessica Teters 

Corinna Waxman 

Christopher Tyler 

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♦^ ♦^ *^ 4-^ '::^/f^ ♦^ ♦^ ♦^ ♦^ 



Ti^H^E Pi^O^L^I^T^I^C^A^L A^L^I^C^E 





In the endless commentaries on Alice, it is diffi- 
cult to find a description of the political skills of 
that little conniver who threads her way through 
a rather inhospitable country armed with little more 
than the political instincts of the Victorian colonial 
power in which she was raised. Tiny Alice personi- 
fies in many ways tiny England mastering the nine- 
teenth-century globe with nothing more than lofty, 
self-assured fortitude and, yes, more than a tiny bit 
of political guile. 

Wonderland is, of course, a Land, a polity. It is, 
to be precise, a kingdom, ruled by an eccentric royal 
family of the Lancastrian line (as one would guess 
from the red painting of the roses). There is an 
equally eccentric, somewhat unstructured aristocracy 
represented by the ill-fated Duchess and Knave, and 
there is some kind of political order in which proper- 
ty rights, such as for the Rabbit's house, are respected 
by the local citizenry, who, in that populist style so ab- 
horrent to Carroll, are ready to burn it down in order 
to get the intruder Alice out. 

The Victorian England of Carroll's day was a set- 
ting in which politics was knockabout give-and-take 
featuring two of history's political heavyweights, 
Disraeli and Gladstone, who make their thinly dis- 
guised appearances in the Alice stories. Carroll, an 
outspoken Tory, was not above depicting Disraeli as 
Bill the Lizard, the consensus candidate of the local 
crowd as their champion to evict Alice from the Rab- 
bit's house. (Bill fails, just as — one suspects — Disraeli 
himself failed, in Carroll's eyes, to restrain political 

But it is Alice herself who politically navigates 
this bizarre and challenging country. She does so 
vrith the coolness, self-discipline, and aplomb (and a 
certain political adroitness) that have won over gen- 
erations of children and adults for the century and 
a half since her Adventures were first published. The 
book and its Looking-Glass successor are full of politi- 
cal allusions and examples of Alice's innate ability to 
manipulate difficult challenges and irrational oppo- 
sition through devices that a working politician can 
only admire. 

Indeed, at the very outset of Wonderland, Alice 
feels called upon to organize the little creatures who 

have been caught in her pool of tears. She takes charge 
quickly and deftly, as any British colonial might; like 
an instinctive ward-heeler, she "find[s] herself talking 
familiarly with them, as if she had known them all her 
life" and leads them out of the pool ("Alice led the 
way and the whole party swam to the shore"), and fol- 
lows the Dodo's aptly named Caucus Race. Like any 
good colonial, she supplies the prizes, which go (in an 
overly lavish but not uncommon political touch) to all 
of the participants. She is ready, like too many mod- 
ern politicians, to solve even nonexistent problems, 
for example when the mouse says "not" which Alice 
assumes is a "knot" to be untied — by her, of course. 
And she quickly becomes aware of the frightened re- 
action of the local mouse and bird population to any 
mention of her beloved cat, just as any good British 
colonial of the day would soon make himself aware of 
local sensitivities in the Colonies. 

And Alice can be politically artful when neces- 
sary — when the Cat asks her opinion of the Queen 
of Hearts, who is threatening to decapitate one 
and all, Alice is as quick on her feet as the most 
astute politician: 

"How do you like the Queen?" said the Cat in 
a low voice. 

"Not at all, said Alice, "she's so extremely — " 
Just then she noticed that the Queen was 
close behind her, listening, so she went on, 
" — likely to win that it's hardly worth while fin- 
ishing the game." 

The Queen smiled and passed on. 

In her colloquy with the flowers in Looking Glass, 
Alice seems instinctively to know how to disarm the 
opposition, "hoping" as she believes, "to get [the Ti- 
ger-Lily] into a better temper by a compliment." 

Like many politicians, Alice gamely adapts to un- 
expected changes in the rules — if she has to play cro- 
quet with a restless flamingo as a mallet, she is ready 
to go with the flow without complaint. But when the 
time comes to abandon a prior commitment that 
has turned out to be untimely or embarrassing, she 
makes a quick switch characteristic of a seasoned poli- 
tician. Thus, when the Duchess's baby, whom Alice 
has bravely rescued, turns into a pig in her arms, she 
abandons it without a qualm: 


"If you're going to turn into a pig, my dear," 
said Alice seriously, "I'll have nothing more to 
do with you. Mind now!" 

Nevertheless, like the resourceful politician she 
is, Alice is ready to take political advantage even from 
this unexpected change. If the baby had grown up, 
she reasons, "it would have made a dreadfully ugly 
child: but it makes rather a handsome pig, I think," 
which turns Alice to "thinking over other children 
she knew who might do very well as pigs." Politicians 
would recognize this as an opportunistic attempt to 
salvage advantage from an unfortunate and unfore- 
seen turn of events. 

The book of Alice's adventures, in fact, includes 
a subde political aside that encapsulates England's 
traditional ability to overcome its handicaps of size 
and resources. Alice, in a moment of confusion in the 
forest, asks the Cheshire Cat "which way I ought to 
go from here," to which the Cat replies that "[Tjhat 
depends a good deal on where you want to get to." 
When Alice says that she wants to get ''somewhere,''' the 
Cat answers: 

"Oh, you're sure to do that," said the Cat, "if 
only you walk long enough." 

This advice seems to reflect the British knack, 
so evident in the late nineteenth and early twentieth 
centuries, for "muddling through" its difficulties to 
the consternation of its Continental rivals. Let's just 
keep walking, Carroll seems to say, and we will oudast 
larger, more aggressive, or more diverse rivals. 

But it is the larger political questions of Carroll's 
day (and ours) that loom in Wonderland. The King 
(to say nothing of the bloodthirsty Queen) is an auto- 
cradc monarch with some serious personal problems; 
he is clearly not very intelligent, and many of his pro- 
nouncements cast clear doubt on his mental stabil- 
ity. What are we to do, Carroll seems to ask, about 
autocrats, dictators, monarchs, and other rulers who 
acquire and maintain power but whose judgment may 
be cHnically impaired? After all, within the century, 
England was titularly ruled by an unstable king, and it 
is not surprising that Alice voices her concern about 
threatened political chaos in this picturesque but po- 
lidcally off-center country: 

"I don't think they play at all fairly," Alice 
began in a rather complaining tone, "and they 
all quarrel so dreadfully one can't hear one- 
self speak — and they don't seem to have any 
rules in pardcular; at least if there are, nobody 
attends to them." 

What graver threat have we today than the possi- 
bility that some mad ruler will ignore the commonly 
accepted rules of humanity and blow the planet to bits? 

Finally,- a major political quesdon is raised at 
AAFW^ climax, the trial of the Knave. The question 
deals with two critical elements in Victorian political 
life, order and fairness. In addition to its apparent re- 
spect for property and privacy. Wonderland possesses 
a jury system that gives its citizens the elementary 
right to trial by jury. Although one might question 
the jury selection system in place at the time of the 
Knave's trial, it was the jury's verdict that was clearly 
to be determinative of his guilt or innocence, despite 
the fact that the King was presiding as both judge and 
sovereign at the trial, a clear violation of England's 
unwritten constitution (a violation to which Alice cu- 
riously does not object, other than to note the King's 
general ineptitude). 

However, when the Queen insists on imposing 
the sentence (no doubt "Off with his head!") before 
the jury has rendered its verdict, Alice is finally moved 
to open resistance to the dangerously dotty royal fam- 
ily. She rises to her full height: 

"Stuff and nonsense!" said Alice loudly. "The 
idea of having the sentence first!" 

And so, Victorian England has its constitutional 
limitations expressed in high dudgeon by this other- 
wise cool and reserved little politician. As Alice fights 
off the courtroom occupants, the dream of Wonder- 
land is shattered on a critical point of political prin- 

Carroll himself was not above the maneuvering 
rampant in Oxford politics, writing occasional pam- 
phlets opposing or supporting some policy or person. 
The many priesthoods conferred by Oxford became 
in fact "livings" doled out by the secular arm of Eng- 
land, based, for the most part, upon secular political 
considerations. One thinks of Trollope's outgoing 
prime minister sifting through livings he can no lon- 
ger grant and the wide repercussions of his erstwhile 
power, and one can imagine the influence upon Car- 
roll of Oxford's role in the hard-nosed politics of his 
day, which manifests itself in the Alice books. 

After all, when Alice's adventures are done, she 
has survived her journey through Wonderland, not 
v«th the intervention or miraculous help of some 
fairy godmother, as happens to other children in oth- 
er children's stories of the day, but through her own 
political craft, skillfully adroit and artfully exercised. 
Rule, Britannia! 

Jack Bronston is a retired naval officer, laivyer, and politi- 
cian who served in the New York State Senate for 19 years. 


APRIL 19-21, 2013 

NOVEMBER 2 OR 9, 2013 

sculptor Karen Mortillaro; 

George 6^ Linda Cassady, who present 

the annual Wonderland Awards at USC; 

&" Dan Singer will host us in LOS angeles 

SPRING 2014 

(site of our founding 40 years ago) 

FALL 2014 

Joint LCSNA/LCSCanada meeting in TORONTO 

SPRING 2015 

in conjunction with the grand opening 

of the Center for the Study of Children's Literature 


OCTOBER 10-11, 2015: in NEW YORK 

as part of the citywide celebrations of Alicel50 




An online auction will be held the first week of December, 2012; proceeds are targeted for 
use by our Alicel50 committee. If you have spare Carrollian items in good condition, do 
contact me. Visit our website in November for details, and please be generous with your 
donations and bids. 


This will be the largest outreach project in the Society's history. We are in need of volun- 
teers, even now. Please consider donating a bit of your time for this outstanding endeavor. 


For an exhibition at the Society of Illustrators in New York and a matching venue on the 
West Coast (either the Charles Schulz Museum or the Museum of Cartoon Art) we are seek- 
ing holders of original cartoon art who might be able to lend us pieces. We are also looking 
for examples of great book illustration art (original art only, not posters or prints) for an- 
other exhibition. Please let us know what you may be able to lend. 



Joel Birenbaum 

(630) 637-8530 





The Deaneny Ganden 

Dear Editor, 

An addendum to the amusing 
"Age of Alice" article {KL 88:10- 
12): In what is thought to be Al- 
ice's first appearance on TV (Dec. 
15, 1950) — the episode "Alice in 
Wonderland" on the anthology 
series The Ford Television Theatre — 
Iris Mann, who was then eleven, 
portrayed Alice. 
Byron Sewell 

Another: a few years after that, Kraft 
Television Theatre 's "Alice in 
Wonderland " show of May 5, 1 954, 
featured Robin Morgan, twelve, in 
the title role. She grew up to become 
an extraordinary feminist activist, 
scholar, author (her 1 970 anthology 
Sisterhood Is Powerful has been 
widely credited with helping to start the 
women's movement in America), and 
editor of Ms. - Mark Burstein 


Dear Editor, 

Those members still unconvinced 
by the hyphen detected and ex- 
plained in my previous letter {KL 
88:31) should be aware that the 

highly symbolic use of color in 
both books is also indicative of 
their true authorship. We may 
discount "orange" marmalade and 
"brown" bread as descriptive of 
foodstuffs, "white" as the normal 
color of paper, and the "golden" 
of the crown of TTLG as its manu- 

However, in AAfW, the word 
"golden," as in "the golden after- 
noon" and the "golden scales "of 
the crocodile, clearly represents 
the Queen's happy life with Albert, 
the last being a pun on the equal 
weight of their love and happiness 

The White Rabbit, a model of 
purity, a devoted servant to the 
Queen of Hearts (and of his), is 
Albert himself, and his frequently 
mentioned white kid gloves are 
obviously their children. The blue 
caterpillar who leaves the heroine, 
though not without a final bit of 
advice, is the color of sadness. The 
green leaves are the trap of life, 
later to be mocked in song. 

Although it is tempting to also 
discount the red and white roses 
as having inherent color, we must 
accept them as another symbol of 
Victoria's marriage. Her happy life 
is gone, misplaced; it cannot be 
repaired. Alas, the only expression 
of her intensely crimson passion is 

The tarnished silver laughter of 
the introductory poem to TTLG is 
a heightened result of the mixture 
of white and black: a reference to 
the Queen's black garments, even- 
tually enlivened a bit with white. 
This is quickly followed by the 
trees "dressed in green," the life 
she is forced to continue, though 
hemmed in by the green hedges 
of the chessboard. 

The broken white ratde again 
represents the purity of their bro- 
ken love. Upon seeing it, Tweedle- 
dum 's eyes turn yellow, a clear sign 
of ill health, like Albert's. Its loss 
is quickly followed by a reference 
to the thick black cloud of her 
depression. Green pigs are the 


opposite of the pink pigs of nature; 
everything is upside down and 
backwards without her husband, 
whose blue eyes appear in the mel- 
ancholy, loving figure of the White 
Knight, soon to be swallowed up 
by the black shadows of the Forest. 
The last color to be mentioned is 
the yellow livery of the Frog, now 

at last a cheerful reminder of the 
optimism Victoria felt about her 
potential reunion with Albert after 
her own death. 

Dr. Bernard Femly Bowers, BA, 
DVM, DoD, LLD, etc. 

Thank you, Dr. Boiuers. The chromatic 
nuances of your Byzantine Wonderland 
are a cautionary reminder to all Car- 

rollians that fresh air and plenty of 
sunshine are a poor substitute for ex- 
pert medical care. Prince Albert's own 
untimely demise is a salutary example 
of the dangers of spending too much 
time indoors reading literature, even 
nonsense literature. 

— The Editor 

Like a modern-day White Rabbit, 
he was wearing an enormous 
orange watch, but didn't seem to 
be in any particular hurry. 
Alexandra facobs, "Critical 
Shopper, "The New York Times, 
June 21, 2012. 


Under the rule of despots like 
the Red Queen, we are forced to 
play mad games with inadequate 

instruments — balls that roll away 
like hedgehogs and sticks that twist 
and turn like live flamingoes — 

and when we don't succeed in 
following the instructions, we 
are threatened with having our 
heads chopped off. . . . When the 
Red Queen demands that the 
court should give the sentence 
first — "verdict afterwards" Alice 
quite rightly answers "Stuff and 

Alberto Manguel, in his 
introduction to AAIW, with 
engravings by George A. Walker 
[see page 35] 

Campion "felt that, intellectually 
speaking, he was having a 
conversation with someone at the 
other end of a circular tunnel, and 
was in fact standing directly back to 
back with her. On the other hand, 
of course, it was possible that he 
had become Alice in Wonderland." 
Margery Allingham, More Work 
for the Undertaker, 1949. 


The wide garage door in the 
eight foot high stucco wall had 
now opened, revealing not the 
interior of a garage but a sunny 
jungle, crowded tropical trees 
and shrubbery through which 
a blacktop drive meandered, 
disappearing toward unimaginable 
splendor. It was like a scene 
in a children's book — Alice in 
Wonderland, perhaps — in which 


the opening in the wall leads to a 
completely different world. . . . 
The limousine nosed along the 
drive into the jungle lushness, 
and the broad wooden door slid 
downward again, snicking shut. 
"Drink me," Mike muttered. 

Donald Westlake, The Comedy Is 
Finished, Titan Books, London, 
2012. Published posthumously. 

By the time Lewis Carroll wrote 
Through the Looking-Glass, in 1871 — 
140 years ago this month — Alice's 
Adventures in Wonderland (1865) 
was already a beloved book. So 

the pressure was on; Carroll feced 
a real "follow-that problem." His 
difficulty was increased because of 
his estrangement fi-om Alice Lid- 
dell's family, and anyway, the "real" 
Alice was six years older, had grovm 
up. The Alice of the books is such 
an individual girl — opinionated, 
bossy, always telling people off, even 
though she's in a world she doesn't 
understand, in which she doesn't 
even know what size she is — that it's 
hard not to believe she was modeled 
on a real girl, but now that model 
was gone and Carroll had only his 
memory of that lost original. "Still 
she haunts me, phantomwise," he 
wrote in the book's epilogue, and 
thank goodness she did, because 
Through the Looking-Glass was any- 
thing but an anticlimax, giving us 
the Jabberwock, Tweedledum and 
Tweedledee, and the Walrus and the 
Carpenter to add to Carroll's pan- 


theon of magnificently nonsensical 

I thought about Lewis Carroll 
when I began writing my second 
children's book, Luka and the Fire 
of Life, twenty years after the ear- 
lier Haroun and the Sea of Stones. I 
was worried about the "follow-that 
problem" too, and it comforted me 
that a writer I admired so greatly 
overcame his (far greater) problem 
with such brilliant flair. 

Salman Rushdie, "Flashback," 
Vanity Fair, January 2012. 


The Cheshire Cat could evanesce 
by leaving just a smile, so 
maybe I can avoid attention by 
disappearing away from my laugh? 
Garry Wills, " Why Is This Man 
LaughingT, The New York 
Review of Books, /Mn^2i, 2072. 


This flat is full of sound. There is 
a squeaky baby I have not yet seen, 
who cries like a toy being pressed. 
His mother croons and sounds like 
the Duchess in Alice. 

Mavis Gallant, "The Hunger 
Diaries, "The New Yorker, 
July 9 &' 16, 2012. 

Such a statement, made to Lord 
Uffenham in other circumstances, 
would have plunged him into 
abstruse speculation as to how 
mad hens were, when wet — how 
you detected this dementia — and 
where such birds might be held to 
rank in eccentricity of outlook as 
compared, say, with hatters. 
P. G. Wodehouse, Money in the 
Bank, Herbert Jenkins, London, 


Nobody loves hats more than Miss 
Manners, except possibly the Mad 
Hatter, but even she acknowledges 
that human beings outrank them. 

Miss Manners, The Washington 

Post, August 20, 2012. 

J» • 


Hold a red rose over the blue 
flame of a common match, and the 
colour will be discharged wherever 
the fume touches the leaves of the 
flower, so as to render it beautifully 
variegated, or entirely white. 
If it then be dipped into water, 
the redness after a time, vnW be 

Godey's Lady's Book, May 1841. 


As I stood there wondering 
what to do with the hog — the 
method favored by Lewis Carroll's 
Queen of Hearts, using as a ball 
in a croquet game, was not an 
immediate option — 

Sarah Lyall, The Anglo Files: 
A Field Guide to the British, 
W. W. Norton and Company, New 
York, 2008. 


Could be it was off-with-his-head 


Reginald Hill, Killing All the 
Lawyers, St. Martin 's Press, 
New York, 1997. 

She looked over the glass at him, 
her expression wry. "Would moles 
make any sense?" 

Now Chee laughed. This conver- 
sation, more and more, reminded 
him of his very favorite tale from the 
white culture, Alice in Wonderland. 

Tony Hillerman, People of 

Darkness, Harper &' Row, 

New York, 1980. 

Listening for worms seems like 
something that would fit right in 
with citizen science, or "Alice in 

James Gorman, "Books on Science, 
The New York T'ime%, June 12, 


A brilliant illustrator can 
transform any story, revealing 
its possible meanings and 
sometimes changing them. Alice 
in Wonderland and Through the 
Looking-Glass would be less scary 
without John Tenniel's drawings 
(especially those of the Duchess 
and thejabberwocky), and 
Winnie-the-Pooh less lovable 
without the help of Ernest 

Alison Lurie, "Something 

Wonderful Out of Almost 

Nothing, "The New York Review 

of Books, July 12, 2012. 


"So, Mr Clibtree," you say sourly, 
"as assistant secretary in charge 
of Snarks and Boojums in the 
Ministry of Jabber-wocky, you are 
entirely opposed to this scheme, 
are you?" 

J.B. Priestley, Delight, Harper &' 

Brothers, 1949. 

"Listen!" I barked, suddenly. "Did 
you know that even when it isn't 
brillig I can produce slithy toves? 
Did you happen to know that the 
mome rath never lived that could 
outgrabe me?" 

James Thurber, "The Black Magic 
of Barney Haller, " in The New 
Yorker, August 27, 1932. 

"The man who wrote the story, 
Lewis Carroll, made it all up. The 
whole thing." 

Charlotte's eyes grew big, then 
she shook her head. "Even Alice?" 

"Including Alice." 

"No," Charlotte said with ab- 
solute certainty. "That's silly. It's 
Alice's story." 

Deborah Cromble, No Mark 

Upon Her, William Morris, New 

York, 2012. 



First, of course, kudos and props to those 
who made the fall New York meeting such 
a runaway success, Marvin Taylor to begin 
with (in absentia, regrettably). Marvin, the director 
of the Fales Library at NYU, and his associate Brent 
Phillips ensured that all went very smoothly indeed. 
A toast to our visitors from afar: Kazuhiro Yoshimoto 
of the LCSJapan and Tatiana lanovskaia from Toron- 
to, to name a few. I have to add my mother, Esther, 
who is formally known as Mrs. Louis Carroll English 
(really!!), attending an ^.T^'wrnKKaBaet^K^BJU^';!'^ 
LCSNA gathering for 
the first time. And to 
the brilliant speakers: 
Robin Wilson, Andrew 
Sawyer, Adam Gopnik, 
Raymond Smullyan, 
EUa Parry-Davies, Da- 
vid Schaefer, Morton 
Cohen, and Edward 
Guiliano. And to the 
remarkable Patt Grif- 
fin, who gave the Max- 
ine Schaefer reading 
along with Cindy Wat- 
ter and Ella Parry-Da- 
vies and acted as Lois 
Lane (well, more like 

Superwoman) in reporting Saturday's meeting And 
to Janet Jurist and Ellie Heller for their generous hos- 
pitality to our out-of-town guests. 

This past July 4th marked the sesquicenTenniel 
(150th anniversary) of a certain boat trip up the Isis 
on which a certain Tale was Told. Although Alice fa- 
mously "gave herself very good advice (though she 
very seldom followed it)," I actually obeyed my own 
counsel of the last two "Ravings" and sat down that 
day on a riverbank with my children Martin, ten, and 
Sonja, six, and read them several chapters of Alice's 
Adventures under Ground. 

I'm very excited about our next meeting, which 
will be April 19-21, 2013. Stephanie Lovett and Char- 
lie and Janice Lovett will be our hosts in Winston-Sa- 
lem, North Carolina, for a very full, multiple-venue 
three days. Tentative plans include a talk by Charlie; 
a reading/ performance of Dan Singer's new play, A 
Perfect Likeness, about a meeting between Dodgson 
and Dickens; a chamber music concert featuring 
some of Carroll's favorite tunes; a talk by Jett Jackson 
about her Alice paintings; a Victorian Choral Even- 
song service featuring 
a sermon by Mark Goo- 
dacre based on an out- 
line by Rev. Dodgson, 
and "other surprises." 
Handouts will include 
a catalogue of exhibits, 
an updated version of 
Charlie's article about 
Carroll's typewriter 
(with text actually 
typed on the machine 
and laid into every 
copy!), and more. By 
all means, make plans 
to be there! 

Alice had got so much into the way of 
expecting nothing but out-of-the- 
things to happen, that it 
seemed quite 
dull and 
stupid for life 
to go on in the 
common way. 


&• WALTER slaughter's 

Kimie Kusumoto 

Before the curtain went up on this 
Japanese performance of Henry 
Savile Clark's Alice, I had a chance 
to address the audience. As a ref)- 
resentative of the Lewis Carroll 
Society of Japan (LCSJ), I gave a 
short congratulatory message to 
the performers of the Alice musi- 
cal, the Yotsukaido Boys and Girls 
Chorus Group. Because of the tsu- 
nami disaster that devastated the 
northern part of the main island 
of Japan, they had to wait one year 
to put it on stage. They had not 
suffered directly from the tsunami, 
but at that time most such events 
were automatically canceled. 

This chorus group consists of 
children aged 2 to 18, all amateurs 
who love singing. They have to 
leave the group when they be- 
come 18 years old, so the 2011 
performance was the last chance 
for the oldest children to perform 
on the stage, but as it was such a 
special occasion, four members 
were allowed to play their roles as 
ex-members for this year's perfor- 
mance. I am sure it was their assis- 
tance that made the musical such 
a success. Carroll said the play 
couldn't make enough of an im- 
pression without the help of adult 

Canollmn Notes 

actors or actresses, and I think in 
this performance the ex-members 
confirmed Carroll's strong belief. 
As I have abruptly cited Carroll, 
you might wonder why. Well, this 
performance, which was held in 
Japan on March 18, 2012, was a 
revival of the musical that Car- 
roll worked on with Henry Savile 
Clarke, the librettist and director. 
It was completed in four months 
and performed in the Prince of 
Wales Theatre in London in 1886. 
We know that Carroll was very 
pleased to have realized his long- 
time dream. 

I wrote a book whose title 
translates to Encounters with Alice 
(Michitani, 2007), which was 
mainly about Sir John Tenniel and 
Henry Savile Clarke. These two 
people met Carroll and worked 
together v«th him to send Alice to 
the world. I owed a lot to Charles 

C. Lovett's wonderful book Alice on 
Stage, as well as to Edward Wakel- 
ing's collection, access to which 
he offered to me so generously. A 
young Japanese translator, Mr. Yuu 
Okubo, read my book and was in- 
spired by it. He found the libretto 
mentioned, translated it into Japa- 
nese, and posted the translation 
on his website. The director of 
the Yotsukaido chorus group, Mrs. 
Masako Oki, read it and thought it 
fit to be played by her members. 

Mrs. Oki said they had a hard 
time finding Walter Slaughter's 
music and gaining permission 
to use it, but finally the way was 
cleared. Along the way, I heard, 
they found out that the original 
manuscript of the music is now in 
Australia. When Mrs. Oki played 
the original music of Walter 
Slaughter, she found it monoto- 
nous and lacking in a rhythm that 
attracts children's interest, so 
she had to change it a lot. On 
the other hand, she appreciated 
the libretto, which expressed the 
unique characters so well and also 
included various duets, which 
children love so much. 

Savile Clarke's original musi- 
cal play consisted of two parts, 
but on this occasion only the first 
part was given. Still, it was quite 
satisfactory, and the audience of 
about 500 — half of them were 
children — ^seemed well satisfied. 
This abridgment also reminded 
me of Carroll's comment that he 
was reluctant to put the two Alice 
books in one play. 

Alice was played by two girls, 
which didn't cause any confusion; 
both acted beautifully. The impor- 
tant supporting roles of the play, 
the Caterpillar, Hatter, Cheshire 
Cat, and Queen of Hearts, were 
played by ex-members. They were 
marvelous — especially the Hat- 
ter! I have never seen the Hatter 
performed more brilliandy. I think 
it must be that because the actors 
were forced to wait to perform for 
such a long time, their roles were 
more deeply fixed in their minds, 
and each person understood his 


or her role better. And I find once 
more that the attractiveness of the 
staging of Alice lies in the unique 
characters of Wonderland, so the 
supporting players' acting has a 
strong influence upon the success 
of the play. 

And I wondered all the time 
what Carroll would have written 
down in his diary if he had sat by 
me and seen this musical play, re- 
vived after 125 years in the Far East! 



August A. Imholtz, Jr. 

From Nov. 4, 2011, through Jan. 
25, 2012, the Tate Liverpool 
mounted what surely will prove to 
have been one of the most com- 
prehensive Alice exhibitions in 
the long run-up to the Wonderland 
sesquicentennial and the many 
exhibitions now being planned 
for 2015. We arrived Merseyside 
on a bright cool morning in late 
January and, never having been to 
Liverpool, we did not know what 
to expect beyond Beatles. We were 
pleasantly surprised not only by the 
Tate but by the city itself. 

This northern outpost of 
London's Tate Galleries is in a 
refurbished warehouse complex 
on the city's Albert Dock, which 
dates from Liverpool's important 
commercial shipping past. "Albert 
Dock," according to a website de- 
scription, "was opened in 1846, 
and was the first structure in 
Britain to be built from cast iron, 
brick, and stone, with no structural 
wood. As a result, it was the first 
non-combustible warehouse system 
in the world." In addition to hous- 
ing the Tate, Albert Dock is home 
to the Beades Story museum, the 
Merseyside Maritime Museum, and 
the International Slavery Museum. 
From the Tate's entrance, one 
looks across the water to the mod- 
ern Museum of Liverpool, and in 
the distance the skyline of the city's 
art deco buildings can be seen. 

We were fortunate enough on 
that day to be visiting Alice in Won- 
derland Through the Visual Arts, as 
the exhibition was called, in com- 
pany with a number of other Car- 
rollians, including Edward Wakel- 
ing — who is so knowledgeable that 
as soon as he happened to answer 
a question posed by a puzzled 
onlooker, a group of twenty to 
thirty people gathered around 
him, hanging onto every word of 
this quiet-spoken and generous 

The Alice exhibition occupied 
several galleries of the upper part 
of the building. As one entered the 
galleries, one saw, in a kind of vesti- 
bule, George Dunlop Leslie's mar- 
velous 1879 painting Alice in Won- 
derland [KL 76:36] in which a litde 
girl stares longingly straight out- 
ward (into Wonderland, one might 
wonder) . She is nestled against the 
breast of her mother, who is read- 
ing from a book that looks for all 
the world like not only a red cloth 
six-shilling A&^but — and it cannot 
really be — the facsimile edition of 
Alice's Adventures Under Ground. It is 
a perfect prelude to the rest of the 
show and, I think, the themes it 
sought to evoke. 

The central treasure on display 
was the fair-copy manuscript of 
Alice's Adventures Under Ground on 
loan from its home in the British 
Library in London, where it has 

been since 1948 when a group of 
American well-wishers bought it at 
auction and anonymously donated 
it to the British people. Filled with 
Lewis Carroll's own illustrations — 
some of which, like the shrunken 
Alice in Chapter III, are really 
quite charming and very amus- 
ing — the Under Ground manuscript 
is of course the proper place to 
begin an exploration of Alice and 
the visual arts. 

Carroll's photography, both 
famous (5^ George and the Dragon) 
and less well-known examples of 
his work ( The Dream — a haunting 
piece) , his wet collodion photo- 
graphic apparatus, the early H. 
Savile Clarke play text and promo- 
tional materials, and many items 
on loan from private collections 
filled the cases and, in few in- 
stances, adorned the walls of the 
main room. The breadth of Car- 
roll's creative range clearly took 
shape as one moved from vitrine 
to vitrine: from the famous Alice 
biscuit tin (a landmark in product 
marketing that even an organiza- 
tion as sharp as Disney would have 
been proud to have conceived) to 
his drafts of his original drawings, 
to the Wonderland Postage-Stamp 
Case, and more. 

A goal of the exhibition was to 
document the influence of Alice 
on the art of the last 150 years — a 
tall order, and one frankly impos- 


sible to fulfill, even in an exhibi- 
tion space as massive as that of the 
Tate Liverpool. The continental 
surrealists, who in many ways ad- 
opted Carroll in advance of most 
British and Americans, were on 
display in the middle room. Espe- 
cially prominent were the illustra- 
tions of Max Ernst for Alice and the 
Snark and the dozen Salvador Dali 
Alices (rope-skipping girl and all). 
Even Oskar Kokoschka's politically 
disturbing 1941 painting Anschluss 
-Alice in Wonderland wsls there. All 
of those works are a world away 
from the Pre-Raphaelite works of 
William Holman Hunt, Arthur 
Hughes, and Sir John Everett Mil- 
lais that had so captivated Carroll 
and were also on view. There is 
a lot separating Tenniel's classic 
Alice swimming in the pool of 
tears from Kiki Smith's several 
interpretations of that scene, but 
there is still some continuity, if only 
through the prominence of littie 

Alice among the collective animal 

A number of the contemporary 
avant-garde works, such as Pierre 
Huyghe's 2002 A Smile without a Cat, 
were a littie hard to grasp, showing 
far less continuity with Tenniel (or 
Carroll, for that matter), including 
some of the X-rated works. 

If one did not look from pre- 
cisely the right angle at Tim Rol- 
lins's White Alice III (in which a 
barely transparent white paper was 
superimposed over a set of blown 
up pages from Alice) one could 
not read the text at all. A. A. Bron- 
son's set of framed mirrors (two 
rows of six, presumably a motif 
for the twelve chapters of Looking- 
Glass}) was very hard to make 
out. Likewise, I fear, with some of 
the sculpture: Rodney Graham's 
People's Edition of Alice in a large 
wooden joiner's box-like case was 
difficult to appreciate, although 
Bill Woodrow's towering Humpty 
above a set of precisely angled and 

balanced crates, his Humpty F — 
Dumpty, was marvelous. 

And some paintings had but 
the most tenuous relationship, in 
a few cases barely even a nominal 
one, to things Alice. One more 
criticism could be made of this 
otherwise very intriguing exhibi- 
tion: The cards in the exhibit 
cases seldom gave sufficient infor- 
mation on the objects displayed, 
their importance, and why they 
had been selected. 

The catalog produced to ac- 
company the exhibition deserves 
a review of its own. The number 
of visitors to the Alice exhibition 
amounted to some 27,375 and 
thereby set a record for atten- 
dance at a Tate Liverpool show; 
in fact the figure was four times 
what they usually draw. Alice was 
clearly alive and well during her 
brief Liverpudlian sojourn. 

[The catalogue is available from shop. The exhibition moved to 
the Hamburger Kunsthalle from June 
22 to September 30.] 

Lewis Carroll 

Jane Yolen 

Down and 




He fell 

Into a life 

Of writing 


His books 

And mathe- 






His head. 

Till wonder 


Every child 




Are beguiled. 

Was he a sinner? 
Are we 
Are his puzzles 
All too 
Did he speak 
In Jabberwocky? 
Are his wonder 
Too talky? 
Even critics 
But all his books 
With me. 

Copyright 2012 by Jane Yolen. From 
the May/June 2012 issue q/"The 
Horn Book Magazine. Reprinted by 
permission of the author. 


oV^ """"^ ^^ 

The Hunting of the Snark 

Illustrated by Oleg Lipchenko 

Limited Edition, 2011 

ISBN: 978-0-9783613-2-7 

Published by Treasure Studio, 

Toronto, Canada 

$100 -$150 

Trade Edition, 2012 

Tundra Books 

ISBN 978-1770494077 

Hardcover, $17.95 

Doug Howick 

Oleg Lipchenko's Snark is a mas- 
terly creation and an absolute joy 
to read, reread, peruse, explore, 
share in, become a part of, partici- 
pate in, visit with, embrace, and 

The details of the full-page 
cover illustration, with the crew 
gathered in front of a trophy wall, 
give a warning of the surprising 
pleasures that lie within. In 
the Limited Edition, a by-line 
beneath the illustration heralds 
"Oleg Lipchenko's thoughtful 
and meticulous visualisation 
handiwork" — and it certainly is! 

Under the artist's hand, all 
members of the Bellman's crew — 
including the Bellman himself — 
have become personalities in 
their own right. This reviewer is 
privileged to have one of the first 
ten copies, purchase of which 
entitled me to a "hand drawn 

additional personage on the 
copyright page." It happens that I 
requested the Broker, not because 
I've ever had any particular regard 
for him but because Lipchenko 
had mentioned that he saw him 
as "a young Oxford or Cambridge 
graduate, busy in the financial 
field just enough to spend most 
of his time in fields of tennis 
and cricket." As a cricket-loving 
Australian, whom else would I 
select? Thus, my personal copy 
has an exclusive illustration of the 
Broker as a varsity cricketer! 

If Carroll's Snark is an enigma, 
then Lipchenko's version is 
a conundrum, challenging 
the Snarkophile to explore its 
mysteries. Just as an example, on 
the front cover, one of the hunting 
trophies on the wall behind the 
assembled crew is the mounted 
head of a stag/moose/ram/ 
goat with glorious curled horns/ 
antlers, whereas on the back 
endpaper denoting "The End?" 
we see that same wall without the 

crew and the trophy depicted with 
its left ander truncated so that it 
resembles a thimble. 

This is a hardcover book wixh a 
dust jacket, with 48 (unnumbered) 
pages fully illustrated in a unique 
and glorious manner. It is a 
profound, illustrative study of 
Lewis Carroll's poem. In fact, 
readers who are familiar with 
the words do not need to read 
them at all, because once you 
have identified each of the 
crew members, you can follow 
the entire story through the 

As the Limited Edition was 
restricted to only 100 copies, I am 
certain that each one is already 
a valuable item, as well as an 
enjoyable one. 

The Mad Mattery 

Marge Simon (poems) 

&' Sandy DeLuca (art) 

Elektrik Milk Bath Press, 2011 

ISBN 978-0-9828554-1-6 


Ruth Berman 

An unusual item for CarroUians, 
The Mad Mattery began when 
Marge Simon had a get-together 
with her friend Sandy DeLuca, 
and it occurred to them that it 
would be fun to do some kind of 
collaboration. Simon found her- 
self especially taken vnth DeLuca's 
paintings of "strange women in 
weird hats ... all shapes, types, 
and sizes, some funny, some scary, 
and most of them wicked in one 
way or another" and started vmt- 
ing poems to go with the hatted 
images. In looking for a theme to 
tie together the images and the re- 
sulting poems, it occurred to them 
that they were clearly talking about 
a Mad Mattery. Simon and DeLuca 
created four Carrollian like- 
nesses to occupy the core of the 
50 paired poems and paintings: 
"The Mad Hatter's Portrait," "Red 
Queen," "In the Presence of the 

Surf's up for the Bellman and company in 
this dramatic rendering by Oleg Lipchenko. 


White Queen," and "Go Ask Alice." 
Although the fourth poem is addi- 
tionally a reference to the Jefferson 
Airplane song "White Rabbit," and 
to Beatrice Sparks's anti-drug novel 
Go Ask Alice, the poem is not par- 
ticularly about drugs, but about the 
speaker's fear of "that girl from the 
/ singles bar you met / yesternights 
ago," a girl who invades the speak- 
er's home with her "Cheshire style" 
and her "clock on time / with your 
worst nightmare." The references, 
as in the preceding three poems, 
refer more directly to Carroll than 
to Slick or Sparks, and the narrator 
seems to be experiencing a fear of 
and fascination with the extraor- 
dinary upending an ordinary life, 
rather than expressing a specific 
fear of drugs. The accompanying 
painting shows a girl in a green 
hat (suitably tagged with a white 
sales label), surrounded by cards, a 
watch, and a gleefully belligerent- 
looking Cheshire Cat head. The 
confident, or perhaps ominous, 
sales tag says, "Bloody Good." 

There is also a brief Wonder- 
land reference in the painting of 
"Strange Ladies," when a sardonic 
cat head makes an appearance in 
one corner (balanced in the other 
corner by a teacup) . As they "dis- 
solve into the late / afternoon shad- 
ows," the poem comments, "The 
city is a Cheshire cat, / sharpening 
its claws / on the warm cement." 

The fascination with the invasion 
of the ordinary by the wonderful 
leads to references to a variety of 
mythologies, in addition to the core 
Wonderland references, such as J. 
M. Barrie's Neverland ("The Leafy 
Hat"), voodoo ("My New Voodoo 
Doll," "Voodoo Queen"), Buddhism 
("Best Dressed Buddha," "Blue Rose 
Buddha"), the Aztec Quetzalcoad 
("Marina"), and H. P. Lovecraft 
("Lovecraft's Wife"), all, of course, 
proudly be-hatted. 

Elektrik Milk Bath Press 

PO Box 833223, 

Richardson, TX 75083; 


Alice's Adventures in Wonderland 

Introduction by Alberto Manguel 

Wood engravings by 

George A. Walker 

The Porcupine's Quill, 

Ontario, Canada 
ISBN 978-0-88984-339-4 

Andrew Ogus 

George A. Walker has repurposed 
the woodcuts in his deluxe 
Cheshire Cat edition of Wonderland 
(AX 55:4, 58:18) for an elegandy 
produced trade edition and an 
alphabet book (below). ^N^\ker 
continues the tradition of 
Tenniel's wood engravings, though 
without the expert hands of the 
Dalziels. Rather than meticulous 
illustrations of complete situations, 
his own small spot engravings 
fall, like Tenniel's, in a variety of 
positions. The trim size is a slightiy 
unconventional but very appealing 
5'/4 X 8% inches. The type is well 
chosen and laid out, satisfying to 
read. A fascinating but sometimes 
inaccurate (see "Sic, Sic, Sic," p. 28) 
introduction by Alberto Manguel 
completes the book. 

A Is for Alice 
George A. Walker 

The Porcupine's Quill, 
Ontario, Canada 

ISBN 978-0-88984-323-3 

The Wonderland Alphabet: Alice's 

Adventures Through the ABCs and 

What She Found There 

Alethea Kontis 

Illustrations by Janet K, Lee 

Archaia, 2012 

ISBN 978-1-936393-86-2 

Andrew Ogus 

The first task in writing an 
alphabet book is to define one's 
parameters: animal, vegetable, or 
mineral. Or source: almost all the 
examples come from Wonderland, 
with a smattering of references 
to the Looking-Glass world ("K" 
is for Knitdng in Walker's; "J" for 
Jabberwocky in Kontis's)? Both 
understandably use the subde 

"Axes" for "X" and "Snooze" or 
"Snoring" for the elusive "Z"; 
otherwise there is relatively little 

George Walker cleverly pres- 
ents relevant quotes from the 
book(s) on left pages facing one 
of his wood engravings on the 
right. This interesting limitation 
of working backwards from exist- 
ing art sometimes bends the tra- 
ditional rules a bit ("I" is for the 
Duchess in Jail). Matched with 
the format, second color, and 
nicely textured paper of his trade 
edition of Wonderland, it makes an 
attractive pairing. 

Alethea Kontis's contrived 
poems have none of the flavor of 
Carroll. Janet K. Lee's lavish il- 
lustrations are as confused as the 
fussy, precious typography that 
wraps up and down and around 
the pages, with an annoying dis- 
connect between the funny and 
lively cartoonish Alice on the 
cover and the saccharine pictures 
inside. And what is the use of the 
board-book format? I can't imag- 
ine a toddler being interested; an 
older child would find it insult- 
ing, and a discerning adult unin- 

Walker's Tea Party; the Hatter giins 
without a cat 


npuK/iWHenufi Amicbi 

6 Cmpane Hydec 

Alice's Adventures in Wonderland 

Translated and introduced 

by Boris Zakhoder 

ISBN 978-5-99-02284-8-1 

Aaucu 6 SaaepKaAbe 

Through the Looking-Glass 

and What Alice Found There 

Translated and introduced 

by Vladimir Orel 

ISBN 978-5-9902284-5-0 

Both illustrated by 

Gennady Kalinovski 

Studio 4 + 4, 2012 

Anuca e Cmpane Hydec 

Alice's Adventures in Wonderland 

Translated by Boris Zakhoder 

Illustrated by Vladimir 


Slovo, 2010 

ISBN 978-5-387-00123-9 

Andreiv Ogus 

Looking at editions of Carroll's 
familiar text in an unfamiliar 
alphabet is a fascinating and 
unsettling experience. Is this what 
it means to be illiterate? Well, not 
quite. Even though both sounds 
and sense are lost, at least a bit 
of the latter can be guessed at 
by recognizing the situations 
illustrated and their sequence. 

Gennady Kalinovski's versions 
were originally published by Dets- 

Kalinovski's Alice arrives at the tea party in 
a party dress. Also see inside back cover. 

kaya Literatura in 1977 and 1980 
(reused in a color edition they 
published in 1988) in a smaller 
format. Now these lovely art edi- 
tions effectively use the classic 
combination of red ink, black ink, 
and white paper in this beauti- 
fully laid-out text. Perhaps it is 
the somewhat elongated trim size 
(8V4 X 13 inches) that is somehow 
reminiscent of Barry Moser's Pen- 
nyroyal editions, but Kalinovski's 
style certainly is not. While there 
are echoes of other linear artists, 
such as Ralph Steadman, Ronald 
Searle, and Saul Steinberg, this is a 
calligraphic style all his own. 

Startling and imaginative spot 
red or black illustrations of various 
sizes break gendy into or follow 
the text, or fall gracefully into the 
margins, somedmes with tantaliz- 
ing captions. The pictures capture 
the feeling of the dreamlike text in 
both books: Alice is, briefly, beauti- 
fully dressed for the tea party; the 
Duchess walks with a mincing step; 
the lion and unicorn go through 
many variations in their chapter, 
each delightful and effective. An 
overdressed White Rabbit and the 
wild dance of the Gryphon and 
the lobster-like Mock Turtle in- 
voked out-loud laughter. 

Looking-glass opens with a help- 
ful chessboard (though I couldn't 
find Alice in her square) and an 
intriguing, bewildering rebus. 
Chapter-opening spreads are red 
on the left pages — textured and 
linear in Wonderland, smoky and 
atmospheric in Looking-Glass — the 
facing right-page chapter tides 
made of Victorian poster type 
gone mad. An exquisite portrait of 
Alice follows what appears to be an 
exuberant double-page explication 
of the chess moves, calming the 
reader for what is to come. Mir- 
ror imaging appears throughout, 
in subtie ways. The picture of the 
White Knight in a moonlike land- 
scape is tender and moving. 

Throughout, Kalinovski chooses 
unusual incidents to illustrate: the 
pomp of the Hearts' court cards' 
procession is enlivened by demonic 

cupids; a long beak protrudes mys- 
teriously from Alice's castle door. 
Another sensitive portrait faces the 
closing poem. Both books reward 
careful scrutiny and return visits. 
Highly recommended. inexpensive but elegant volumes 
can be ordered directly from the editor, 
Elena Borisova, ivho speaks excellent 
English, for $20 each, plus postage, at The books can 
be mailed anywhere on Earth; however, 
they can take up to three months to be 
delivered, given the state of the Russian 
Post. Be patient; it's worth waiting for. 

Vladimir Klaviho-Telepnev takes 
a virtually opposite approach to 
Kalinovski's. Here the pictures 
are atmospheric photographs that 
evoke both the work of Victorian 
pioneers and Jonathan Miller's 
twentieth-century film. 

A combination of metallic gold 
and black inks makes lovely duo- 
tones. The beautiful Alice (sadly 
sophisticated and overly made up 
in a peculiarly Russian style) falls 
down the rabbit hole in a three- 
page sequence and then interacts 
convincingly with masked figures 
and models (where did he get 
that Dodo?) or wanders through 
mysterious landscapes. Though 
the poses are occasionally a bit 
precious and suggest a fashion 
magazine more than Wonderland, 

Klaviho-Telepnev 's tea party, with a very 
Russian Alice 


and there is some inexplicable 
repetition, overall this is a lovely 
and fascinating production. 


Alice au pays des merveilles 

Translated and illustrated 

by Thomas Perino 

Seuil Jeunesse, 2008 

ISBN 978-2020979672 

Andrew Ogus 

Here's an interesting spot to check 
in French translations: What is the 
Lizard's name? In Sophie Koechlin's 
translation {KL 87: 51) he remained 
true to himself as "Bill." Thomas 
Perino has called him "Pierre" 
rather than Guillion, a diminutive 
of Guillaume. The familiar ubiquity 
of the name takes care of the sense, 
trumping its sound. 

But let me concentrate yet again 
on pictures rather than the conver- 
sations in a barely familiar tongue. 

Once more a brilliant red for the 
chapter tides enhances an attrac- 
tive, legible, and lively design. The 
pictures vary wildly in size, some 
marginal images falling into the 
text, some leaping across the pages 
as, Alice-like, the text lines shrink 
to accommodate them. Yet these 
alterations are never disconcerting. 
Perino's skillful wood engravings 
make excellent use of the elegant 
patterning and flat shapes endemic 
to this technique, particularly in the 
controlled chaos of Alice's fall. 

His imagination is enchanting. 
In a charming reversal, when Alice 
regards the beautiful garden for 
the first time, we see her enormous 
eye peering through the flower- 
framed door, as if we are enjoying 
the garden ourselves. The Hatter's 
folded paper-boat hat obscures 
half his face. The brilliant scene 
of cat, queen, king, and headless 
executioner (see cover) subdy 
arms the last-named with a sword 
rather than an axe, reminiscent of 
Anne Boleyn's request for a French 
executioner who would wield a 
sword. The sour-faced Queen of 
Hearts waves a rose like a weapon; 
an enormous, cheerful "griffon" 
slumbers across most of the spread. 

in which the reader is invited to 
''regardez I'image." In a spirit of inclu- 
sion, the Mouse's tale is reversed 
to white out of the silhouette of 
a black cat. Alice herself is a bit 
ambiguous: Her oversize head 
suggests a small child, but her body 
seems a bit older. Except for the 
post-mushroom bite, she seems to 
have no neck. These are the most 
minor of complaints; M. Perino's 
work is a welcome addition to the 
Alice canon, in any language. 


Everything Alice: The Wonderland 

Book of Makes &' Bakes 

Hannah Read-Baldrey 

6^ Christine Leech 

North Light Books, 2011 

ISBN 978-1-4403-1440-7 

In this DIY age, it seems inevitable 
that such a compendium be made. 
Full of how-tos and lovely photo- 
graphs of the finished products — 
as well as decorative matter such 
as an amusing page advertising the 
Tweedles as family lawyers — this 
project, written by two English- 
women who work for Hobbyycraft 
magazine, abounds with love, 
familiarity, and enthusiasm for 
Carroll's work. Plans for dolls, 
samplers, costumes, clothes, orna- 
ments, tea cozies, and the like, 
plus lots of recipes, abound. 

A detail of Thomas Perino 's tea party: 
patterning and a paper hat 


Since our last issue, the tides 
released by the inexhaustible 
Evertype include L'Travers du 
Mitheux et chein qu Alice y demuchit, 
a Looking-Glass translation by 
Geraintjennings intojerriais, a 
form of the Norman language 
spoken in Jersey, in the Channel 
Islands, off the coast of France 
(ISBN 978-1-904808-96-1); Trans 
la Spegulo kaj kion Alico trovis tie, 
a Looking-Glass translation by 
the late Donald Broadribb into 
Esperanto (ISBN 978-1-78201- 
001-2); Snarkmaster: A Destiny in 
Eight Fits, a mystical prequel to 
the Snark, written and illustrated 
by Byron W. Sewell (ISBN 978- 
1-78201-002-9); Alice Through 
the Needle's Eye, a republishing 
of Gilbert Adair's 1984 sequel, 
with the original illustrations 
by Jenny Thorne (ISBN 978-1- 
7820 1 -000-5 ) ; The Haunting of 
the Snarkasbord, a "dark parody" 
by Alison Tannenbaum, Byron 
W. Sewell, Charlie Lovett, and 
August A. Imholtz,Jr., illustrated 
by Byron W. Sewell (ISBN 978-1- 
904808-98-5) ; Les-aviretes da Alice 
6 payis des merveyes. Wonderland 
translated by Jean-Luc Fauconnier 
into Walloon, a regional language 
of the Walloon community of 
Belgium and France (ISBN 978-1- 
78201-005-0); Laureen Johnson's 
translation into Shetland Scots, 
Alice's Adventirs in Wonderlaand 
(ISBN 978-1-78201-008-1); Moray 
Watson's into Scottish Gaelic, 
Eachdraidh Ealasaid ann an Tir 
nan longantas (ISBN 978-1-78201- 
015-9); and Alice's Adventures in an 
Appalachian Wonderland, translated 
into Appalachian English by Byron 
W. and Victoria J. Sewell (ISBN 
978-1-78201-010-4), a sample of 
which goes: "'Up the crick,' the 
Bobcat says, wavin hits right paw 
roun, 'lives an ol bar what thinks 
he's Chief Cornstalk: an down the 
crick,' wavin t'other paw, 'lives a 
Civil War Vetran who fitt on both 
sides, agin hissef Visit whichever 
you like: they's both tetched.'" 



2008 was a bad year in 
Australia for depictions of 
naked children in art. Po- 
lixeni Papapetrou's pho- 
tograph of her six-year-old 
daughter caused a scandal, 
even being denounced by 
the prime minister. Papa- 
petrou {KL 72:43-46) has 
responded to the scandals 
by channeling Lewis Car- 
roll and a simpler time 
when pre-pubescent beau- 
ties could be depicted in art with- 
out the authorities being called. 
Her kids once again pose for her 
in The Dreamcatchers, a 2012 exhibi- 
tion at the Nellie Castan Gallery in 
South Yarra, but this time they are 
clothed, masked, and posing in 
tributes to Carroll's photographs. 
(Her 2003 portrait of her daugh- 
ter is called "Olympia as Lewis 
Carroll's Beatrice Hatch before 
White Cliffs.") "He was a roman- 
tic," she told The Age. "He thought 
that young girls were made in the 
image of God, that they were per- 
fect. He thought they were abso- 
lutely beautiful — and they are." 

"Alice as a Beggar Maid" is one of 
the best-known portraits Dodgson 
made of Alice Liddell; a print was 
on display at the Carnegie Mu- 
seum of Art in Pittsburgh, PA, last 
summer, eventually to become 
part of the permanent collection. 
The 1858 albumen print, along 
with the 1860 glass negative of 
"Alice with Garland" and works by 
other pioneering photographers, 
has been promised to the museum 
by William Talbott Hillman, a New 
York art collector. 

A small gallery in Oxford, Eng- 
land, staged a cosmopolitan show 
in honor of this year's milestone 
Alice Day. The 03 Gallery, which 
is located within Oxford Castle, 
hosted works by international 
contemporary women artists, 
including Adriana Peliano and 
Katarzyna Widmanska, and videos 

from the USC's Wonderland 
Awards. The exhibition ran from 
July 7 to August 5. 

A Spanish artist using the online 
moniker "Kodomos" created sev- 
eral eerie black-and-white "Alice in 
Wonderland" illustrations. "The 
artist uses creative mark-making 
and layering to craft the dreamlike 
illustrations," writes Adriana 
Peliano on her alicenations blog. 
"In Kodomos's world the White 
Rabbit is monstrously large, and 
shadowy landscapes reveal an even 
more surreal and nightmarish side 
of the fantasy story." 

Move over. Sergeant Pepper's 
Lonely Hearts Club Band. Discuss- 
ing the Divine Comedy luith Dante is a 
spectacular, gigantic painting by 
the Chinese ardsts Dai Dudu, Li 
Tiezi, and Zhang An (2006, oil on 
canvas) . The original is an impres- 
sive 20' X 8.5' (6m X 2.6m). There 
are hundreds of famous and influ- 
ential people depicted, from Dar- 

All Far-Flung items and 
their Hnks, implicit or 

explicit, are from www. 

and can be accessed by 
using its search box. 

win to Jack Kevorkian. 
Finding Carroll is harder 
than finding Waldo: He's 
hiding under a tablecloth 
between Vladimir Putin 
and Shirley Temple, hold- 
ing a sack of animals. 


The medical and psychi- 
atric communiues could 
be said to have a few is- 
sues concerning the Alice 
books, and these were 
entertainingly, if briefly, reviewed 
on the Oxford University Press 
blog on July 4, 2012, by Edward 
Shorter and Susan Belanger. Most 
tantalizing was the account of an 
ardcle from 2000 that appeared in 
the journal Respiratory Physiology, 
in which authors Whitelaw and 
Black of the University of Calgary, 
not altogether seriously perhaps, 
interpret the Dormouse's "severe 
daydme somnolence" as "a cardi- 
nal symptom of obstructive sleep 
apnea," and observe that in Ten- 
niel's illustration "the teapot fits 
tightly around [the Dormouse's] 
neck, thus compressing the air in 
the pot and producing continuous 
positive airway pressure, which is 
the best treatment for obstructive 
sleep apnea." 

In the regular New York Times travel 
column "36 Hours," Seth Kugel 
demonstrated admirable priorities 
when he made Christ Church the 
first stop on his weekend tour of 
Oxford, England. He was also 
ready to admit that the draw of the 
place has a lot more to do with 
Charles Dodgson — and the fact it 
was the location of some film 
about wizards — than its status as a 
hallowed hall of learning. 

History Today once again cele- 
brated today's history on July 4, 
2012, with a full-page piece called 
"The Alice in Wonderland Story 
First Told," by Richard Cavendish. 
The article faithfully recounts the 
day in question, 150 years earlier. 


when there was a certain boat trip 
on the river Isis. At theAtlantic. 
com, author Maria Popova (of 
Brain Pickings) also celebrated the 
anniversary, with an article called 
"Meet the Girl Who Inspired 'Alice 
in Wonderland,'" recounting the 
events surrounding the inspiration 
and creation of the book. 

Several conferences in 2013 may 
be of interest to our readers: The 
44th Annual Northeast MLA Con- 
vention will be held in Boston, MA, 
from March 21 to 24, with the 
theme "Romanticism and Chil- 
dren's Literature." Further afield, 
the Society for the History of Chil- 
dren and Youth will hold a confer- 
ence titled "Space and Childhood 
in History" at the University of 
Nottingham in England from June 
25 to 27. Further afield still is "Re- 
translating Children's Literature," 
to be held at the University of 
Rouen in France from February 8 
to 9. And finally, if your wanderlust 
is really strong, head to Maastricht 
University in the Netherlands, 
August 10 to 14, for the 21st Bien- 
nual IRSCL Conference, which will 
have as its theme "Children's Lit- 
erature and Media Cultures." 


DA TOP Books is a publishing 
house more accustomed to deal- 
ing with "mature content" than 
children's stories, yet they pub- 
lished three new Alice-ish books 
intended for the under-eights in 
the past year — and very strange 
books they are, too. The first, Alice 
in Fairyland, is described as "an 
experimental rendition of the 
world-known masterpiece." Writ- 
ten by John Prost and illustrated by 
fantasy artist Alex Yat, it starts out 
along familiar lines — "Alice was be- 
ginning to get very tired of sitting 
by her sister on the bank . . ." — but 
soon Alice meets a giant thorn-cov- 
ered grasshopper with "Eat me or 
I'll eat you" etched on its body, and 
things take a novel turn. The sec- 
ond title, Alice, The White Rabbit and 
The Curious Creatures, is illustrated 
by Prost and described as a "clas- 

sical rendition" of the aforemen- 
tioned "world-known masterpiece," 
although, as it seems to contain 
only the first five chapters of AATW, 
it must be considered an abridged 
classic. The third title puts us back 
on more familiar ground, with 
AATWnewly illustrated by Kathy 
Neste in dense black-and-white 
scenes placed within incongruous 
photo-montaged covers. 

Adriana Peliano's facsimile version 
of Alice's Adventures under Ground, 
Aventuras de Alice no Subterrdneo 
(Editora Scipione) won third place 
in the Projeto Grafico (Graphic 
Design) category of the 54th an- 
nual Jabuti ("Tortoise") awards of 
the Camara Brasileira do Livro 
(Brazilian Book Guild). Adriana is 
also the President and founder of 
the LCS of Brazil and more infor- 
mation about her AAUG can be 
seen in KL 85:22. 

Alice Illustrated: 1 20 Images from the 
Classic Tales of Lewis Carroll (Dover, 
2012), edited by Jeff Menges, is a 
journey through the varied works 
of dozens of illustrators who have 
brought the Alicehooks to life. The 
images in this large art book are 
complemented with an essay on 
the artists by Menges, and "a bib- 
liophile's perspective" by our own 
President Burstein. 

LCSNA member and artist Tatiana 
lanovskaia, has illustrated and self 
published The Hunting of the Snark 
in a black and white edition (Tania 
Press, 2012). It's available for $30 
US, postage not included. Her 
lovely Wonderland playing card 
decks and her colored and black 
and white versions of AAIW, TTLG, 
and The Mad Gardener's Songnre 
also available. She can be con- 
tacted at 

Alice in Deadland, Through the Killing 
Glass, and Off With Their Heads are 
an independently published trilogy 
of post-apocalyptic adventure nov- 
els by Mainak Dhar. For those who 
like their Alices world-weary and 
armed to the teeth, the premise 
sounds promising: "Fifteen year- 

old Alice has spent her entire life 
in the Deadland, her education 
consisting of how best to use guns 
and knives in the ongoing war for 
survival against the Biters. One 
day, Alice spots a Biter disappear- 
ing into a hole in the ground and 
follows it, in search of fabled 
underground Biter bases." Dhar's 
books are available in various 

Into an already overstimulated 
market of tributes and parodies 
come 50 Shades of Wonderland and 
50 Shades of Alice Through the Look- 
ing-Glass by Melinda DuChamp. 
Online reviewers consistently 
praise both books for their mo- 
ments of comedy and — we are 
serious — their cover art. Available 
for Kindle only. 


The London 2012 Olympic open- 
ing ceremony was a quirky cel- 
ebration of the United Kingdom's 
proudest achievements that de- 
lighted viewers around the world, 
many of whom had no idea what 
was going on. In a scene that paid 
joint tribute to British children's 
authors and to the National 
Health Service, the Red Queen, 
Cruella deVille, and Voldemort 
loomed over children's hospital 
beds only to be driven back by a 
flock of Mary Poppinses and an 
army of aproned nurses. 

The Liddell family, with young 
Alice in tow, regularly vacationed 
in the Welsh seaside town of Llan- 
dudno, but local pride in this 
association suffered a blow in 
recent years when the Wonder- 
land-themed visitor centre was 
forced to close, and the house in 
which the family stayed was de- 
molished. Now, in an effort to 
reestablish the connection, local 
authorities have given the go- 
ahead to the construction of an 
Alice-themed sculpture trail 
around the town, and this year 
hosted a grand 2012 Alice Day 
party on the town pier, at which 
900 Llandudno schoolchildren 


set a new world record for number 
of jam tarts consumed in an 
hour — 1,716, to be precise. 

A columnist at the San Francisco 
Chronicle, Jon Carroll, is publishing 
the text of AAIW one sentence at a 
time at the end of his column, 
having previously published King 
Lear in the same way. He began 
AA/Won July 25 this year; check in 
tomorrow for the latest gripping 
installment. As of November 8, he's 
up to "To be sure, this is what gen- 
erally happens when one eats 

The "skeleton and fiber" of Car- 
roll's classic tales, along with many 
of the major characters, take a 
startling new transformation in 
RabbitHole, V.J. Waks's dark, 
twisted fantasy, a book of "adven- 
ture, magic, and sorcery." 
Bergerac, 2012; $17; ISBN 978- 


The Internet is full of websites with 
party-planning advice, but only one 
of them is run by Matt James, Eng- 
lish entrepreneur and architect of 
Elton John's first annual "White 
Tie and Tiara Ball." Under "Party 
Themes" James provides a small 
dissertation on the many elements 
that could make up an Alice in 
Wonderland-themed event — from 
invitations to decorations to minia- 
ture doors constructed out of read- 
ily available household supplies, 
he's got it covered. 

The popular tech blog 
had several Alice-related articles 
this year. In "A Math-Free Guide to 
the Math in Alice in Wonderland," 
the blogger eases into the numbers 
by beginning: "It's a strange story 
that seems to be the result of a 
drug trip, but is actually a scathing 
satire of the new-fangled math that 
the professor was seeing invade his 
area of study." They also posted a 
fresh review of Jan Svankmajer's 
Alice called "The Weirdest Alice in 
Wonderland Movie Ever Made." 

C. M. Rubin continues to be the 
resident Alice expert at the Huff- 
ington Post's Books department, 
with a slew of new articles. Just this 
summer, she posted "Alice - Mark 
It With A Water Stone" (July 18), 
"Alice — Join the Race!" (June 11), 
"Alice: Why July 7, 2012?" (June 3), 
"Alice — In Germany" (July 26), 
and "Alice — True Or Not True?" 
(June 19), the latter about a cer- 
tain Carroll myth. 

There's an group art exhibition 
with several LCSNA members par- 
ticipating in Ontario. "Alice 
in Sunderland" will run from Octo- 
ber 13 till February, 2013 at the Law 
Office Art Gallery (85 River Street, 
Sunderland, ON). The works of 
Andy Malcolm, George Walker, 
Oleg Lipchenko and Tatiana 
lanovskaia will be exhibited. The 
show is curated by Cria Pettingill. 


PBS's popular Antiques Roadshow 
featured some lovely Alice in 
Wonderland carved doorstops, 
appraised at $10,000-$ 15,000, on 
an episode which aired May 14. 
The appraiser, Noel Barrett, said, 
"Alice in Wonderland is so much a 
part of our culture. And this imag- 
ery is just ingrained. And what to 
me is really exciting is, in carved 
wood, whoever created these did a 
masterful job of adding dimension 
to the wonderful Tenniel illustra- 
tions, which of course are touch- 
stone imagery of Alice." The guest 
originally paid $100 for them at an 
estate sale. 

BBC's Inspector Leivis, on Masterpiece 
Mystery (also on PBS in America) 
had an episode in Season V called 
"The Soul of Genius." The dead 
body in this whodunit was a profes- 
sor obsessed with The Hunting of the 
Snark, and of course the Inspector 
has to delve into the poem to search 
for clues, i.e. a "legendary riddle 
hidden in Carroll's philosophical 
story of an impossible quest for the 
unknowable." Oxford's Botanical 
Gardens are also visited. 

Over on basic cable, Syfy's Ware- 
house 13 told a creepy tale involv- 
ing Lewis Carroll's mirror, which 
aired on August 27. In the epi- 
sode, a U.S. secret service agent 
finds the looking-glass in the 
warehouse, and accidentally un- 
leashes an evil spirit from the 
other side, namely the "murder- 
ous" ghost of Alice Liddell. The 
mirror enjoyed a call-back to the 
series after successful appear- 
ances in two episodes during 
Season One (iO. 83:48). 

Alice has become a recurring 
spokescat for Purina's Friskies, 
having many thirty-second adven- 
tures, if not quite to Wonderland 
then at least "into the nutritious, 
delicious world of Friskies® Plus!" 
In one advertisement, she jumps 
through a looking-glass into a 
brightly-colored flowery world, 
visiting a tea party attended by 
the chickens she's presumably 
about to eat. 

On KL 88:48, we joked about how 
Raven Gregory's graphic novel 
prequel to Return to Wonderland 
was to be called Alice in Wonder- 
land. Indeed, the books have 
been among the top ten indepen- 
dent comics of the past few years. 
Now, the news from Comic-Con 
is that the television rights for 
the whole Zenescope series were 
won by Lionsgate, apparently 
following a "six-studio bidding 
war." Look for Alice Liddell's 
busty ass-kicking daughter to 
enter a mad Wonderland on a 
major network sometime in the 
next few years. 

If (big if) you're into what Alex 
(A Clochvork Orange) would call "a 
bit of the old ultra-violence," I 
suppose you'll want to know 
about Alice in Murderland from 
Brain Damage Films (2011) and, 
to a lesser extent. Malice in Won- 
derland (Magnolia/Magnet, 2010) 
both available on DVD. 

On the bright side. The Alice in 
Wonderland Classic Film Collection 
contains a lovely 52-minute, 


nearly complete print (David 
Schaefer's collection includes some 
scenes that are not included here, 
such as the Tea-Party) of the 
charming but once-feared-lost 
Viola Savoy film, directed by W. W. 
Young, with a sweet, period-sound- 
ing soundtrack; two Virginia Da\is 
Alice in Cartoonland shorts from 
Disney (1925), Alice in the Jungle 
and Alice Rattled by Rats; Gene De- 
itch's Alice in Paris (1966) "intro- 
ducing stories by Ludwig Bemel- 
mans, Lewis Carroll, Crockett 
Johnson, James Thurber, and Eve 
Titus," and featuring the vocal 
talents of Carl Reiner and Howard 
Morris; and the full British 1972 
musical adaptation with Peter Sell- 
ers, Dudley Moore, and Fiona 
Fullerton in its usual bargain-base- 
ment-quality-transfer glory. Quite a 
deal for around $10, all in all. 

Alice in Wonderland: A XXX Anima- 
tion Parody from Adult Source 
Media, 60 minutes of X-rated "3-D" 
CGI. Watch the trailer on YouTube 
before deciding whether to spend 
your $30 on this piece of hentai. 


German-based South Korean com- 
poser Unsuk Chin finished her first 
opera, Alice in Wonderland, in 2007, 
and it opened that year in Munich, 
where it was voted "Premiere of the 
Year" by Opemwelt. ]une 2012 saw 
its North American premiere at the 
Opera Theater of St. Louis, alter- 
nately delighting and confounding 
the critics. Scott Cantrell of the 
Dallas Morning News called it "the 
most 'out there' work I've seen in 
22 years of coming here." Appar- 
ently, the caterpillar is played by a 
clarinetist with a children's chorus 
as its body. The libretto is by David 
Henry Hwang, and this production 
was directed by James Robinson. If 
you'd like to hear it, Achim Frey- 
er's original "radical" 2007 produc- 
tion is available on DVD, as well as 
an audio recording, conducted by 
Kent Nagano. 

Rap Genius, the excellent website 
of hip-hop annotations, does not 

have an entry for "Alice in Wonder- 
land," a song from producer Gensu 
Dean's debut album, Lo-Fi Fingahz 
(Mellow Music Group, released 
February 28, 2012). That leaves us 
alone in the wilderness to tran- 
scribe and interpret just what fea- 
tured rapper David Banner is talk- 
ing about, and why. Over a funky 
beat created by Dean on the classic 
SP-1200 drum machine. Banner 
chants the chorus: "Baby, you Cin- 
derella / And would probably be / 
I stuck in the dungeon / [some- 
thing something] motions may be 
/ But you can live in my palace / 
Alice in Wonderland / Alice in 
Wonderland." In the two verses, he 
tells the story of a broken girl with 
sexual baggage, and the music 
video shows a pill-popping Alice in 
a downward spiral. "Alice in Won- 
derland, Alice in Wonderland," 
Banner repeats at least twenty 
times like a machine-gun mantra. 
"Sometimes your dreams don't 
come true," Gensu Dean adds as a 
palinode at the track's flickering 
twilight. "Because God knew they'd 
be a nightmare." 


Judi Dench and Ben Whishaw are 
to star in a new play on London's 
West End. Peter and Alice vnW portray 
a fictional encounter between Alice 
Liddell and Peter Llewelyn Davies 
(who inspired J. M. Barrie's Peter 
Pan) and will premier in March 
next year. The play has been writ- 
ten by John Logan, who previously 
won an Academy Award for the 
screenplay of Gladiator, a movie 

remembered for its epic fight 
scenes. Can we expect a no-holds- 
barred showdown between Alice 
and Peter? If so, my money is on 
Alice. [In real life, Alice met Peter 
Davies at the Bumpus Bookshop in 
London on June 26, 1932, Britain's 
answer to America's centenary celebra- 
tions. She was 80, he 65 - Ed.] 

A rather different encounter 
vrill be depicted in Kara Lee 
Corthron's play AliceGraceAnon, 
which premiered at the Iron- 
dale Center in New York on 
October 18. Alice (of Wonder- 
land, not Alice Liddell), Jeffer- 
son Airplane singer Grace Slick, 
and the anonymous diarist in 
the 1971 novel Go Ask Alice are 
the culturally connected, if 
anachronistically united, pro- 
tagonists. Under the direction 
of Kara-Lynn Vaeni, the three 
shared the stage with live video 
and soundscapes, as well as the 
10-member Spectacle Brigade 
chorus, a live band playing the 
role of Jefferson Airplane. 

In October this year, a former 
hospital in the Williamsburg 
neighborhood of Brooklyn be- 
came the setting for an immersive 
theatrical experience inspired by 
AATW. In Then She Fell the perfor- 
mance group Third Rail Projects 
guided audiences of just 15 peo- 
ple per show into the hospital 
basements for an individualized 
and rather creepy-sounding tour 
of Wonderland. 

Tempest Productions put on an 
"Alice in Wonderland Journey" 
on the Hoboken waterfront in 
June. "Participants can follow 
Alice, the White Rabbit, and 
other characters from the Lewis 
Carroll classic as they journey 
through Sinatra Park searching 
for 'six impossible things,' before 
ending with a Mad Hatter Tea 
Party," reported Hoboken Now. 

This August saw the 16th New 
York International Fringe Festival 
and with it Alice and the Bunny 
Hole, a new "sex comedy" written 


by Alex DeFazio and performed by 
Elixir Productions, a group dedi- 
cated to "plays and performances 
about gender, sexuality, and the 
impact of sexual identity on society, 
human relationships, and the self." 
The premise: "Alice thought she'd 
calculated the perfect life — until 
she discovers a wonderland of 
fools, go-go boys, and one Black 
Bunny that scrambles her formu- 

A new adaptation of AA7W was 
performed in Serenbe Playhouse, 
part of the 1000-acre Serenbe com- 
munity outside of Atlanta, GA, 
from June 1 to July 28. According 
to promotional materials, play- 
wright Rachael Teagle may have 
attempted the impossible by pre- 
senting "an introverted Alice, 
closed off from the world, her 
imagination, and, most tragically, 
her ability to dream." Luckily, we 
have some faith in believing in 
impossible things. 

What if correspondence between 
Lewis Carroll and the young Alice 
Austen had inspired the latter's 
career as a pioneering Staten Is- 
land photographer? What if history 
was malleable and most of what we 
take as fact was simply made up at 

some point in time and repeated 
over generations? Historian Ed 
Weiss asked these questions and 
more in "The Forgotten History of 
Staten Island," a series of installa- 
tions and outdoor readings around 
Staten Island between September 
and December 2011. The enter- 
taining story of "Alice Austen's 
Amazing Adventures in The Won- 
derland of Staten Island," written 
by the chimerical historian Dr. D. 
I. Kniebocker, can still be read 

Shoppers at Burjuman, an 800,000- 
square-foot mall in Dubai in the 
United Arab Emirates were recently 
treated to an "Alice in Wonderland 
Cirque Stage Show." The 30-minute 
show featuring contortionist rabbits 
and a live playing-card band was 
produced by CMart Worldwide and 
performed twice daily from June 21 
to 30. 


Earlier this year, rumors flickered 
through Fashion Land that eccen- 
tric designer and editor-at-large 
for Vogue Anm. Dello Russo was 
creating a range of Alica-inspired 
accessories for the retailer H&M. 
Previews of the range are now 
appearing ahead of an October 
launch, and the look is definitely 
"Victorian Bling": equal parts 
AAIW and King Solomon 's Mines. 

For a slighdy more laid-back 
Alice look, a Hawaiian boutique 
called Alice in Hulaland sells its 
own range of colorful hula-Alice 
t-shirts for men, women, and 
children. Visit them online or in 
Maui, you choose. 

An Alice Tea Party Pillowcase Set 
from Urban Outfitters ($34) 
gives you the choice of reclining 
on Tenniel's tea-table or on the 
side of the Cheshire cat. Just 
hope he doesn't disappear on 
you halfway through the night. 

Kindle owners who want to caf)- 
ture some of that old-fashioned 
book-reading experience can 
now do so literally: Kindle cases 
made from the original covers of 
the 1943 Macmillan edition of 
AA/W using traditional book- 
binding techniques can be pur- 
chased from for 
around $50. If after a few months 
your fellow commuters start 
looking at you suspiciously, you 
could always switch to a Dracula 
case, made by the same company. 

Wonderland Sticky Notes ("While 
you were down the rabbit hole 
. . .") from the Unemployed 
Philosophers Guild, $6.50. 



Above, Kalinovski's Alice. Opposite, the Red Knight gallops off {see page 36).