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Knight's American 
mechanical dictionary 

Edward Henry Knight 

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Plate I. betweew brook l' 

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.sn ktS7> VBw YORK CITY. See Suspension Bridge, 

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s AWD K«w YORK CITY. See SutptmUm Bridge. 

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i^est of Per^amol ^pliantts in Smtt anb % ^rts. 




" Thus Time brings all things, one by one, to sight, 
And Skill evolves them into perfect light" 

LuoBETius, Book V. 





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;^Of . / 7 - / 7 2 > 


4 <^> ^^ryf* 

Entered according to Act of Ck)ngress, in the year* 1872, 


in the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington. 


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More than twenty years ago the author commenced collecting memoranda of 
mechanical and scientific information with a view to forming a systematic digest, 
but without any well-defined prospect of its publication. Somewhat over four 
years ago he was requested by the present publishers to undertake tlie work 
which is now put iprth, and since then hsis devoted to it the principal part of his 
time. While engaged in this duty, much encouragement has been afforded by 
repeated assurances that there was great need of such a work, and by ready and 
valuable assistance from personal friends of the author, experts in various depart- 
ments of science and industry. 

After carefully considering the mode of presentation, it was thought best to 
adopt the form of a Dictionary, — a " word-book," which describes things in the al- 
phabetical order of their names, — and not that of an Ejicydopoedia, which considers 
them in the order of their scientific relation. A Dictionary answers directly the 
questions propounded ; an Eiicyclopcedia is a collection of treatises. 

The aim has been to place the information in the most systematic order, so that 
any specific point of detail may be readily reached when required. A book or a 
mind, though a closely packed repository, unless order has supplemented industry, 
is unavailable in an emergency, reminding one of " the fool i* the forest " : — 

*' And in his brain — 
Which is as dry as the remainder biscuit 
After a voyage — he hath strange places crammed 
With observation, the which he vents 
In mangled forms." 

As to the general scope of the book and the method pursued in its preparation, 
it must, in the main, speak for itself. While the greater portion of the work is 
occupied, of course, by details of solid import, there is some little romance and a 
great deal of interest in the study of the History of Inventions. Without deviating 
into irrelevancy, the author has sometimes become 

" A snapper-up of unconsidered trifles," 

worthy of a more careful estimate. 

" First the blade, then the ear, then the full corn in the ear," is the natural order 
in invention, as well as in other departments of mind and in the Kingdom of Grace. 
When we read Pliny's account of the reaping-machines in the plains of Ehoetia, 
about A. D. 70, we wonder that, the idea once blocked out, the macliine should after- 

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iv PREFACE. • 

wards relapse into utter oblivion. It was the time that was " out of joint." At the 
latter end of the last century and the early portion of the present, attention was again 
directed to the reaper, and the machine described by Pliny, and by Palladius three 
centuries later, was reinvented exactly : it yet survives in our clover-header. This 
instance is by no means singular. One favorite form of rotary steam-engine, upon 
which treatises have been written within two years past, is but a reproduction of 
the seolipile of Hero, which revolved in the Serapeum of Alexandria in the second 
century B. C. Many similar examples might be cited, but this duty belongs to the 
body of the book, and not to the Preface. 

In the adaptation of machinery to common use, our country excels all others : 
for instances, the reaper and the sewing-machine. These became useful instru- 
ments in American hands, not merely by facility of adaptation, but, most distinctly, 
by the invention of those all-important points which constituted success. A rea- 
sonable share of space in this work, therefore, has been devoted to the feature of 
Mechanical Evolution ; the aim being to give not only the present state of the respec- 
tive arts, but also the various stages by which the relatively perfect appliances at- 
tained their development. 

Sviyject-matter Indexes are introduced in their alphabetical order throughout the 
body of the work, and a list of the principal ones follows this Preface. These will 
afford means for ascertaining the names of the technical implements of the respec- 
tive Arts, Manufactures, and Trades, and also serve as cross-indexes for the terms so 
cited. The subjects indicated are necessarily considered in their alphabetical order ; 
for instance, the five hundred "Agricultural Implements" are not treated in a 
single article, — as they would be in an Encyclopaedia, — but each in its own place 
under its own name. Their assemblage, however, in a single list, or index, is con- 
venient for many purposes, and it is estimated that over twenty thousand technical 
words have been thus gathered in groups. 

Every useful machine is an illustration of the laws which the Creator has im- 
pressed upon matter. There is a touch of sublimity in the thought that while so 
much around us is mundane and fleeting, there are some things in which we are 
allied to the intelligences of other worlds. Mechanics is a science and an art, and 
Mathematics affords the statement of its lawa. Whatever may be the terms and 
conditions of other existences, and in whatever mode their experiences and attain- 
ments may find expression, it is certain that we have a mutual interest in these 
allied sciences. As every thread of knowledge is a filament of the great central 
cluster and will lead thereto if rightly followed, so may each study form a clue 
which will lead us towards the Source whence emanates all that is worth knowing. 

With these convictions, the author cannot be otherwise than profoundly im- 
pressed with the majesty of his subject and his own insufficiency, but the philoso- 
pher will consider leniently this attempt to summarize the mechanical appliances 
which have been developed by the experiences of at least forty centuries. 


Washington, D. C, December 15, 1873. 

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Volume. I. 

PLATI. SUBjaOT. Paob. 

I. SUSPENSION BRIDGE. {East River, N, Y,) .... FrmMvUu, 

II. PIER AND CAISSON. (lUinais and 8t. Louis Bridge,) .... 49 

III. ARCHED-BEAM ROOF. (Hudson River and Harlem RR Depot, N, F.) 189 

IV. ARMOR-PLATED VESSELS. (English and American.) , ... 150 
V. ARTESIAN WELL. (GreneUe, Paris, France,) 168 

VL BATTERY-GUN. (QaUing%^Egyptian Service,) 249 



IX. CHAINBRIDGE. (Ooer the River Dnieper, at Kieff, Russia,) 518 

X. COMPRESSED-AIR ENGINE. (Bardonn^che, Mont Cenis Tunnel) 602 


CHINE 671 

XII. FLOATING DERRICK. (New York DepaHment of Docks,) 689 



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The Spedflc Indexes in the following list are to be found in their alphabetical places in the body of the 
index embraces the technical appliances, etc., appertaining to its subject. 

A^cultaral and Husbandry Implements. 

Air Appliances and Machinery. 



Artincial and Prosthetic Appliances. 

Astronomical Instruments. 




Bits, Boring. 

Blacksmith s Tools and Appliances. 

Blocks, Nautical. 




Bookbinder's Tools and Processes. 




Calculating and Measuring Instruments. 



Carriages (see Vehicles). 





Ciyil Engineering. 



Cooper's Tools. 

Cotton, Flax, Wool, Hemp, and Silk. 


Currier's Tools. 

Dental Apparatus and Appliances. 



Domestic Appliances. 

Drafting Instruments and Appliances. 



Electrical and Magnetical Appliances. 






Fine Arts. 








Gas Appliances. 




Grinding and Polishing. 






Hydraulic Engineeringand Devices. 

Ice, Manufacture and Uses of. 



Jaw Tools. 






Lathes and Appliances. 

Leather, Tools, Machines, and Appliances. 



Lights and Photic Appliances. 


Looms (see Weaving). 

Masonry and Architecture. 



Metal- Working Tools and Machines. 




Mining Appliances and Terms. 

Musical Instruments. 


Nautical Appliances. 


Optical Instruments. 

Optical Toys, Scenes and Effects. 

Ore (see Metallurgy). 






Plasterer's Tools and Work. 


Plumbing and Sheet-Metal Work and Tools. 

Pottery and Clay. 


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Railway Engineering and Plant. 
' Registers. 

Saddlery and Harness. 

Sewing-Machines and Attachments. 


Steam- Engine (Parts and Appliances). 
Steam-Engines (Varieties). 
Stoves and Heating Appliances. 

Sui^cal Instruments and Appliances. 




Tinman's Tools. 






Vehicles (Tools, Appliances and Parts of). 

Vehicles (Varieties). 






Weapons and Accouterments. 



Wire- Working. 

Wood- Working Tools and Machines. 


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Ab'a-cis^oos. A small square stone or tessera for 
a tesselated pavement. 

Ab'a-oos. An instmment used from time im- 
memorial in performing the operations of addition 
and subtraction. 

A smooth board with a marginal ledge formed the 
writing and calculating table of the Greek school- 
boys and accountants. For writing, it was strewn 
with sand, upon which marks were made with a 
stylus ; thus mey learned to write, and on this they 
executed ^metrical figures. The primary use of 
the board is indicated by its name, which is derived 
from the first three letters of the Greek alphabet, 
A B r. It was called an abcuc, and retains the name, 
but slightly modified. 

The abax strewed with sand is tliepiUvis eruditus, 
or the Mejiaa Pythagorea of classic authors. 

For arithmetical calculation, the same board was 
used without the sand, to contain the counters, which 
were arranged thereon in parallel rows, representing 
respectively units, tens, nundreds, thousands, etc. 
Solon (about 600 B. C.) refers to the arbitrary de- 
nominations of the several lines, in a metaphor which 
compares the different grades of society to the differ- 
ent values of the counters in the several rows. 

The counters were pebbles, beans, or coins, espe- 
cially the former. The Greek word for the counters 
of the aba4ms was derived from a word si^ifying a 
pebble. Pytha^ras, the great arithmetician, hated 
beans, — an antipathy he derived from the E^ptian 
priests, his instructors. About the same timeDaniel 
was eating pulse in Babylon without grumbling, 
and Horatius was hewing down the bridge of the 

The Roman word caZculus, from which we derive 
our word calciUate, was the diminutive of calx, a 
stone, and referred to the pebbles which formed the 
counters of the abacus. 

Sometimes the counters were shifted to the right 
in counting, sometimes to the left. It is stated that 
the Greek and Roman practices differed in this re- 
spect. Several varieties of instruments are repre- 
sented on the ancient monuments. 

The step was easy from a flat board with shifting 
counters arranged in rows, to a board with grooves 
in which the pebbles were rolled. Afterwards we 
find pellets strung upon wires, and thus the Chinese 
have used it for ages. • 

The illustration shows the last-mentioned form of 
the device, arranged for decimal counting. The 
number indicated by the beads on the right hand of 
the frame is 198,764, and it will be seen that by 
transposing the beads to one side or the other, as 
required, either addition or subtraction may be read- 


ily performed. A person accustomed to the instru- 
ment will perform _. - 
these operations with ^' * - 
great rapidity and^ 
accuracy. The Chi- 
nese term the instru- 
ment a stoan-moan, 
and are very dexter- 
ous in its use. 

The original of the 
Chinese abacus has 
been supposed to be 
the "knotted cord," 
used in China for 
keeping accounts be- 
fore the invenrion of 
writing. The knots 
are miSe movable by 
substituting sliding 
beads. Hence like 
wise seems to have 
been derived the mode of keeping the Chinese 
TuTig-tien, or perforated coins, which are strung 
upon a cord. 

One form of the Chinese abacus has two compart- 
ments, five beads in one and two in the other ; the 
former have the value of one each, the latter five 
each. The wires are nine in number, and each runs 
through the two compartpaents. 

The Romans, contrary to the customs of the Phoe- 
nicians and Greeks, from whom they received their 
alphabet, expressed their numbers 1, 2, 3, not by 
the first letters of the alphabet, but by strokes, 


ill this respect unconsciously copying the Chinese 
numerals of the same value. 

The difference in the direction of the figures gives 
the numerals in each the same position across the 
column; for the Roman writing is in horizontal 
column, the Chinese verHcal. 

The resemblance between the Chinese and Roman 
numerals extends much further than the above, and 
shows a common origin. 

Perhaps it may be accounted for by the studies of 
IMhagoras in India, and the subseouent instruction 
of Numa in the school founded by the sage of Samos 
in Crotona, a city of Magna Grescia. (Plutarch.) 

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(eomman^ known as "Anbic"). 








20 XX 

80 XXX 

The resemblance cannot be accidentaL Pythagoras 
and Kung-fu-tze (Confucius) were contemporaries. 

Another mode among the Chinese of expressing 
20, 30, etc. was by placing 2, 3, etc. before the sicn 
of ten ; so that they in some degree anticipated the 
Hindoo, where a numeral before the zero expressed 
so many tens, e. g. 

ChlnMe. Ana>io. 

I . 

The great advance in the Hindoo over the other 
systems of notation was in giving a place valtie to 
figures. In Sanscrit, the initial letters of the San- 
scrit names of the Indian numerals are employed from 
1 to 9. The original zero was a dot. The Greek 
letter omicron (o) was afterwards substituted, and 
forms our naught. It is amusing to see the com- 
bination of Hmdoo and Roman figures during the 
fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, such as 
(Written.) (To be read.) 

x3 13 

x4 14 

40 1 41, etc. 

Showing that the force of the zero and the value 
from position were bot understood at first, even when 
the new characters had become customarv. 

The decimal and duodecimal systems of arithmetic 
were in use in Egypt at the earliest period of its 
known history. For the respective systems the 
numbers of counters in the rows would vaiy, each line 
representing a multiple by 10 or 12 of the line below 
it. There is no representation of the abacus for count- 
ing on the B^nrptian monuments. " The Assyrians 
counted by 60 s as well as by lOO's." — Rawlinaon. 

The instrument was probably invented by the Chi- 
nese, and passed thence westwardly through India 
and Arabia to Europe. The evidences of ancient 
trade on this line are found at both ends and at in- 
termediate points. The glass bottles with Chinese 
inscriptions, found with the Egyptian mummies, 
prove the existence of trade relations between those 
nations before the founding of Athens, and also dis- 
sipate the myth of Pliny as to the discovery of glass 
by certain mariners of Phoenicia, a few centuries 
previous to the time at which he made his curious 
collection of vagabond information. 

Over this famous route travelled the mariner's 
compass, gunpowder, the art of glazing pottery, of 
making paper of pulp, and much else that we value. 
Felting of animal fiber was also derived from Asia, but 
probably entered Europe by a more northern route. 

The Greek and Roman nuiufration was decimal, 
but their system of notation was very unfortunate, 
as any one may ascertain by trying a sum in multi- 
plication : 


The Oriental system of notation was introduced by 
the Arabs, and was credited to them, but they more 
properly term them Indian numerals, referring to 
their derivation from the Hindoos. Thi3 system of 

notation passed with the Saracens along the north- 
em coast of Africa, and was carried by them into* 
Spain. The caliphate of Cordova was established 
by Abderahman, A. D. 755, and the university at ' 
that place was founded A. D. 968. At this dis- 
tinguished seat of learning was educated the famou» 
Gcrbert of Auvergne. This enlightened ecclesiastic 
was successively a schoolmaster at Rheims (where- 
he introduced the abacus, the Arabic numerals, the 
clock, the oigan, and the globe), archbishop of Ra- 
venna, and, eventually, Pope Sylvester II., to which 
position he was elevated by the decree of the Em- 
peror Otho III. Patron and prelate died of poison 
shortlv after, about A. D. 1002. 

Gerbert was probably the first to use in a CHiris- 
tian school the nine digits and a cipher, which 
proved, as William of Malmesbury said, "a great 
blessing to the sweating calculators." 

A translation of Ptolemy, published in Spain in 
1136, used the Hindoo notation. The Hindoo nu- 
merals were introduced into England about A. D. 

The accounts of the kings of England, previous to 
the Norman Conquest — and the same is probably 
true of most contemporary European nations — were 
calculated by rows of coin disponed as in the abacus, 
that is, placed in parallel rows which represented 
gradually increasing denominations in the ascending 
series. At the Conouest an amplification of the 
same idea was introauced, the calculations being 
performed by the teller^ at a laige table called a mc-- 
carium. This had a ledge around it, and was cov- 
ered by a black cloth ruled with chequer lines. 
Hence the woi-d Exchequer, as applied to English 
national finances. 

In the twelfth century, this table was five by ten 
feet, and its cloth cover was divided by vertical and 
horizontal lines. The horizontal bars represented 
pence, shillii^ pounds, tens, hundreds, tnousands 
of pounds. Coins were used for counters ; the first 
and lowest bar advanced, by dozens, the number of 
pence in the shilling ; the second, by scores, the num- 
ber of shillings in the pound ; the higher denomina- 
tions by tens. This was a true abacus, and was used 
down to a comparatively recent period. 

The accounts of merchants were kept in Romaui 
numerals till the close of the sixteenth century, 
and the use of the abacus was maintained to a. 
much later date. Until 1600 its use was a branch 
of popular education. 

Offices for changing money came to be indicated 
by a checker-board, and the sign was afterwards 
appropriated by the keepers of inns and hostelries. 
This shows that people met at such places to settle 
accounts, a frienoly drink being a tnbute to **min& 
host." The Jerusalem and Lloyd's coffee-houses are 
noted in the history of trading companies ; the lat- 
ter especially. The checker-board on the doorpost 
of the tavern is about the last phase of the abcMis, 
in Europe at least. 

The cneckers on the posts of an inn door are to be- 
seen upon a house in disentombed Pompeii. 

The tally system was also introduced into Elngland 
at the Norman Ck>nquest. This was not for calcu- 
lating, but for keeping accounts. The name of the 
device came with it across the Channel, being de- 
rived from the French tailler, to cut, the tally-sticks^ 
being cut and notched with a knife. A squared 
stick of hazel or alder was prepaixjd, and the money 
account was notched on the edpe, small notches 
representing pence ; laiger, shillings ; still laiger, 
lK>unds. The stick was then s])lit longitudinally, 80> 
as to leave notch-marks on each portion ; one part 
was laid away in the exchequer strong room, the 

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other was given to the creditor of the government. 
When the person came for payment, his portion of 
the stick was laid against that in possession of the 
exchequer, and if they tallied the claim was admit- 
ted, perhaps paid. 

This system survived the introduction of Arabic 
numerals into England about 670 years. In 1826 
the time came for the venerable system to abdicate 
in favor of the other Oriental method which had 
been asserting itself for so long. The pile of sticks, 
in companies, regiments, and origades, that had by 
this time accummated was something terrific. The 
question was. How to get rid of them ? Prescriptive 
custom would prevent their being issued to the 
poor, or sold to oake the bread of the people, as the 
Alexandrian library heated the baths of that impe- 
rial city ; so one fine day in 1834 they were to be 
privately burnt. A stove in the House of Lords was 
selected as a proper place for the incremation of 
another relic of the past ; the wainscoting of the 
chamber protested by catching fire, the House of 
Lords set fire to the House of Commons, and both 
were burnt to the ^und, — a grand funeral-pile. 

The bakers insisted for some years in keeping 
tally-stick record of loaves purchased by their cus- 
tomers ; some of us recollect it. 

The oldest surviving treatises on - mathematics 
are by the famous Alexandrians, Euclid, about 
B. C. 300 ; Ptolemy, A. D. 130 ; and Diophantus, 
A. D. 156. 

Decimal fractions were invented 1482. 

The first work on arithmetic published in England 
was by TonstaU, Bishop of London, 1522. The Ital- 
ians had been in that neld many years before. 

{Architecture,) The crown member of the capital 
of a column. 

Ab'a-ka. A fiber from which Manilla-rope is made. 
Ropes and cables of this material float in sea-water. 

Aiya-mu'ruB. A buttress or second wall, built 
to strengthen another. 

Ab'ap-t^s'ton. (Surgical. ) A trepan saw. 

Ab'at-jour'. (Building.) A skylight, or aperture 
for the admission of light. 

Ab'at-voiz^ A sounding-board over a pulpit or 

Ab'at-tiB. (Fortification.) An obstacle employed 
in military operations for delaying the approach of 
an enemy and keeping him under fire as long as 
possible. It is formed of trees or lai*ge lu&ba havini^ 
the branches under two inches in diameter chopp^ 
off, the larger ones being sharpened and interlaced, 
and pointed toward the enemy. The butt ends 

Fig. 2. 


are secured by pickets, and may be partially em- 
bedded in the earth to prevent them from being 
readily remov^. 

Abattis are usually placed in front of the ditch 
in field fortifications, but they may be placed in the 
ditch against the counterscarp ; in the former case 
they should be protected from the enemy's fire by a 
small glacis. 

In a wooded countjy an abattis is readily formed 
by felling the trees in such a way that their branches 
shall interlace, leaving the trunk connected to the 
stump by a portion not cut ; the stump should be 
high enough to protect a man behind it. 

A small parapet formed of logs and backed by 
eailh may be thrown up in the rear of the abattis, 
which thus constitutes a very efficient and available 
means of defence. 

The abattis is referred to by Herodotus, Thucyd- 
ides, and Xenophon, and was a common military, de- 
fence derived from savage life. An abattis of thorny 
shrubs or limbs is the usual defence of an African 
Kraal against predatory beasts. 

Abb. (Weaving.) Yam for the warp. 

Ab-dom'i-nal Sup-port'er. A bandage for the 
compression of the relaxed abdominal walls, intended 
to assist the muscles in holding the viscera in place. 
The simplest are made of elastic rubber covei-ed with 
silk or cotton ; thev encircle the body from the navel 
to the pubes. Others are made of two steel springs 
passing over the crests of the pelvic bones, with a 

small pad resting on either side of the spine, and a 
large frontal one ; their posi- 
tion and action being simi- Fig 8^ 
lar to that of a person hold- 
ing his abdomen with both 
hands. They are of various 
patterns and designs ; are used 
in cases of obesity, before and 
after parturition, and sometimes 
in cases of umbilical hernia. 

Moody's Supporter, 1864, 
has a corset A, with lacings c djl 
and air-bag B secured by elastic | 
plates h to the stays. The pad 
acts as an elastic truss. 

There are various forms, pat- Abdominal Supporter. 
ented and otherwise. 

A-bee'. (FabHc.) A woven stuff of wool and 
cotton made in Aleppo. 

A-beam'. Opposite the center of the ship's side ; 
as, " the wind is abeam." 

Ab'e-run'ca-tor. A weeding-machine. 

A-bout'Hiledge. The lai^gest hammer used bv 
blacksmiths ; wielded by the helper, turn-about witn 
the smaller hammer of the blacksmith himself. 

A-bra'dant A material, generally in powder, 
for grinding. The term includes emery, sand, glass, 
and many other materials. Laps, glazers, rifles, pa- 
per, etc. are armed with abradants. See Emery ; 
and Grinding and Polishing Materials. 

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A-breu-voir'. (Architecture.) The mortar-joint 
or interstice between two voassoirs of an arch or the 
stones of a wall. 

AHbrid. A brushing-plate aroand a hole in which 
a pintle works. 

Ab-sorblng-welL A well or shaft, duff, bored, 
or driven through a retentive stratom to aUow sur- 
face or spring water to pass to a porous stratum be- 
low the former, so as to form an outlet for drainage. 

Such wells are made at discretion in England, but 
in France are regarded with jealousy, and their use 
is only permitted after an examination and report by 
experts as to their possible effect upon watercourses, 
drainai^ or irrigation of other properties, etc. 

In the United States they are but little used, and 
are not under public regulation. 

Absorbing-wells are known as dead toells in the 
South of England ; they are made in the gravel, 
the upper portion being close-steened work and the 
lower open-steened work. The bottom is tm- 
paved, to allow the water to infiltrate. 

A-but{ting-jolnt {Carpentry.) A joint in 
which the fibers of one piece are perpendicular to 
those of the oth^r. 

[Afachinery.) A joint in which the pieces meet 
at a right angle. 

A-but'ment A fixed point or surface, afford- 
ing a relatively immovable object against which 
a body ahits or presses while resisting or moving 

PiK. 6. 

MowAle Abutment. 

4. {Fire-arms.) The block at the rear of the barrel 
of a fire-arm (especially a breech-loader), which re- 
ceives the rearward force of the chaise in firing. 

It has the function of the breech-pltig or breech-pin 
in the muzzle-loading fire-arm. 

Rg. 7. 

in the contrary direction. 
Fig. 4. 

See Pier ; Skewback. 

1. {Building.) 
A structure which 
receives the lateral 
thrust of an arch. 
The abutment may 
be a pier or wing 
walls forming a hor- 
izontal arch ; or the 
arch may be con- 
tinued to a piled or 
hewn foundation, 
which is then the 

2. {Machinery.) 
A solid or station- 
ary surface against 
which a fluid re- 

a. The wed^ 
which lifts the pis- 
ton of one form of 
rotary steam - en - 
cine, and which 
forms a surface for 
the steam to react against as it presses the piston 
forward in its circular ]^th. 

b. The wedge block m a rotary pump, where the 
piston traverses an annular chamber. 

c. One of the 
ylinder heads 
f a steam-en- 
ine, receiving 
he back press- 
ire of the steam 
rhich is made 
ffective upon 
he piston. • 

3. {Carpen- 
ry.) Thejunc- 
ion of two 
deces of tim- 

jer, where the 
Filed Abutfnmi. ^^^ ^^ ^^^ j^ 

at a right angle to that of the other, or nearly so. 

Pier Abutment. 

Slationetry Abutment. 

A similar term is applied to the corresponding por- 
tion in breech-loading cannon. 

In Fig. 6, the a£ut7nent D is movable upon an 
axis so as to expose the rear of the bore for the in- 
sertion of the cartridge. 

In Fig. 7, the ahUmevt D is stationary, relatively 
to the stock, and the barrel slips away from the abut- 
ment to allow the insertion of the cartridge. The 
variations in the arrangement are very numerous, and 
the different devices form the subjects of numerous 
patents in the United States and foreign countries. 
See Fire-arm ; Breech-loading. 

5. {Suspension Bridge.) The masonry or natural 
rock in and to which the ends of a suspension cable 
are anchored. 

Pig 8. 

Stupenti4m Bridge Abutment. 

6. {Hydraulic Engineering.) A dam is in some 
sense an abutment, as it sustains the lateral thrust 
of water. See Dam. 

A-but'ment Arch. An end arch of a bridge. 

A-can'tha-lus ; A'oan-tha^o-liiB. An instru- 
ment for extracting thorns or splinters from a wound. 

Ac-oerer-a'tor. 1. A light van used in England 
for conve3ring mails between post-offices and raUway- 
stations, etc. 

2. A cannon, with several powder chambers, whose 
charges are exploded consecutively, in order to give 
a constantly increasing rate of progression to the pro- 
jectile as it passes along the bore. 

Digitized by 




Ao'oent-ed Let'ters. Vowels having signsabove 
them (or below, in the case of the cediUa " 9 ") to 
indicate a specific pronunciation ; as : — 

Acute, d 

Grave, k 

Circumflex, & 

Diffiresis, a 
Long, a 

Short, & 

Ao-olp'i-ter. (Surgery.) A bandage applied 
over the nose ; so called from its likeness to the claw 
of a hawk. 

Ao-oom'mo-da'tion Lad'der. (NatUical.) A 
ladder suspended at the side of a vessel to facilitate 
the passage to and from the boats alongside. 

Side ladders and stem ladders hang from these 
parts of a ship. 

Ao-oor'de-on. A /ree-re^ instrument introduced 
into England from Germany about 1828. The exte- 
rior form of this instrument is a parallelopiped. The 
action consists of a bank of vibrating reeds or tongues 
which are operated by the bellows. Keys open the 
air-ducts to the respective reeds as the bellows are 
expanded and contracted. Dampers are attached 
to the end, which is grasped by the left huid, 
while the other end is furnished with keys by which 
the notes are sounded by the fingers of the other 

The concertina is an improved form of the accor- 

A common form of the accordeon is shown in the 
engraving, which affords three views : — 

A general exterior view ; 

A sectional view in the plane of the key-board, and 
exhibiting the separate wind-celU ; 


A sectional view at right angles to the latter, and 
exhibiting the parts concerned in the course of the 
air, — damper, oellows, ducts, and cells. 

a a is a rectangular box, the lower portion of 
which is of air-tight flexible material forming the bel- 
lows and wind-cnest ; <; is a partition forming the 
top side of the wind-chest, and the lower surface of 
the large cell d, and the ten smaller cells e e. In the 
bottom of each cell are two apertures cut throu^ 
the partition c ; each of these apertures is covered 
on one side by a thin metaUie plate, which has a 
lonff rectangular opening in which a free reed plays 
as the air passes through the opening when the bel- 
lows is in action, and the appropriate key is lifted. 
See Fa££ Reed. 

On the side of each aperture, opposite to that oc- 
cupied by the reed, is a flap or valve of thin leather, 
cemented by an edge to the partition c. The reeds 
of each cell are fixed one to the upper side of the 
partition and the other to the lower side ; the reed 
above the partition is sounded when the bellows is 
extended, and that below the partition when the 
bellows is collapsed ; the flap of leather, in each case, 
prevents the sounding of tne reed> when the wind 
goes in a direction contrary to that described. 

The large cell d has also apertures, which are 
provided with reeds and valves at the respective 
ends of the apertures, as just described. The plates 
of these reeds have two or three tongues of greater 
size and lower tone, forming a base which chords 
with the other notes by which the air is played. 

The tops of the cells e e d, or the partition c, are 
covered with buff leather, against which the under 
side of the cover i i slides when it is pushed into 
closed position. 

In the cover, over each of the small cells, is a hole 
closed by a key k, and over the lai^ cell d are two 
holes, one at each end, closed by the keys I Z, which 
are moved simultaneously by the knob m. The 
valve n, at the bottom of the wind-chest, forms a 
damper by which the bellows may be extended or 
contracted, when required, without sounding a note. 

Several notes may be sounded together, and, the 
reed of each small cell being different, the compass 
is equal, tones and semi-tones being counted, to the 
numoer of reeds. 

The accordeon differs from the melodeon more in 
size and the mode of manipulation than in principle. 
The latter will be considered by itself, but may be 
stated to be of such size as to constitute a piece of 
standing furniture, having its keys in a bank, like a 
piano, and foot pedals for the generation of wind, by 
which the reeds are vibrated as the action of the 
keys opens the corresponding valves. The same in- 
strument is known in England as the harmonium, 
and has been known at various times by the names 
of seraphine, seolophon, symphonium, etc. 

Faas, June 13, 1854, combines, with the diatonic 
scale of the large keys, two other scales, viz., 
one for producing all the intermediate notes or 
semi-tones, and the other founded upon the sub- 
dominant of the diatonic scale ; both arranged so as 
to be fringed by a single set of small keys, to enable 
the performer to produce harmony in any key. The 
valves of the lower, or small, keys stop two series of 
apertures opening from the wind-chest below. The 
two series of apertures are alternately opened and 
closed by means of a wind-stop, with two rows of 
apertures arranged in alternate order. These are 
governed by levers jointed to the wind-stop and to 
one another. 

A sounding-board gives strength and resonance to 
the tones, and allows space for the described arrange- 
ment of the valves. 

Digitized by 





rwurirJi i^rwvirwinal 

Jrniil^HWHH iJqL 



Faas, August 12, 1856. Immediately beneath 
the perforated board through whose openings the air 
enters, is a thin sliding board with corresponding 
apertures. By means oi a handle the operator ad- 
justs the position of the board so as to vaiy the 
strength of the tones by regulating the quantity of 
air admitted to the reeds. Double keys close the 
apertures of the base reeds, the smaller keys cover- 
ing holes through the larger ones, by which arrange- 
ment an entire octave of base notes is produced. 

Zimmerman, July 10, 1866, has certain distin- 
guishing keys between the consecutive octaves, 
which give tne same tone in either inflating or com- 
pressing the wind -chest. 

Pries, June 21, 1864. The accordeon is so con- 
structed as to admit of its being played in any key, 
Fte. 10. ^ accompa- 

^ ny an orches- 
tra ; this is 
by arranging 
double key- 
boards, one 
on each side 
of the instru- 
ment, which 
admit the ad- 
ditional num- 
ber of keys, 
arranged for 
the addition- 
al reeds ne- 
cessary for 
the purpose. 
The Keys in 
the respec- 
tive banks of 
each end represent octaves, and the respective ends 
represent different chromatic scales. 

The instrument is called by the inventor an 
orchestrony and the banks of keys are placed at an 
angle with the side, so as to present the keys moro 
conveniently to the fingers of the performer. 

Ao-oouple-ment. [Carpentry.) A timber tie 
or brace. 

Ac-oou'ter-mentB. {Military.) The devices by 
which a soldier carries his arms, ammunition, etc. 
These vary in the different arms of the service, 
according to the exigencies of the case. 

Those for infantry consist of a cartridge-box and 
plate, cartridge-box belt and plate, waist-belt aild 
plate, gun-sling, bayonet-scablmrd, and cap-pouch ; 
to which, on a march, are added the knapsack, 
canteen, and haversack. 

The infantry cartridge - box is made of black 
bridle - leather, with an outer flap which turns 
over, covering the top, and is fastened by a short 
strap to a brass button ; inside of this is a lighter 
leatnem cover to protect the ammunition when, as 
in action, the outer flap is necessarily left unfas- 
tened. A brass plate is generally affixed to the 
flap, but is not essential, being rather ornamental 
than useful. In the interior of the box are two 
tins, each having an upper and a lower compart- 
ment, the former being oivided into two parts, one 
containing six and the other four loose cartridges, 
while a bundle of ten is placed in the lower com- 
partment, which IB open at the side ; the box thus 
contains forty cartridges when filled. At the side 
is a small pocket, covered by a flap, for containing 
the implements, or "appendages," oelonging to the 
musket, as the screw-driver and cone-wrench, wiper, 
ball-screw, spring- vice, and tumbler-punch. 

PriesU Aeeordton, 

Two loops are attached to the back for the pas- 
sage of the cartridge-box belt, which passes diag- 
onally across the body in front and rear from the 
left shoulder to the right side, where it passes 
beneath the waist-belt and is secured to the car- 
tridge-box by two buckles. For ornament a round 
brass plate (in the United States service stamped 
with an eagle) is attached to this belt so as to tall 
about the centre of the* chest of the wearer. The 
waist-belt, as its name imports, passes around the 
waist, and carries the bayonet-scabbard and cap- 
pouch ; it also serves to keep the cartridge-box and 
belt in place close to the bony ; it is fastened by a 
brass plate of oval shape, having two studs and a 
hook, the studs entering two holes in one end of the 
belt, which is drawn tight and the hook inserted in 
a hole at the other end. 

The bayonet-scabbard is made of black bridle- 
leather ; it is triangular in shape, to fit the bayonet, 
and has a brass ferrule at its bottom for ornament 
and protection ; its length is 19^ inches ; a leather 
loop, or frog, is attach^ to the upper part of the 
scabbard for inserting the waist-belt. 

The cap-pouch is also made of black bridle-leather, 
and has a flap and inner cover, the flap being 
fastened by a brass button ; the pouch is 3 inches in 
length and depth, and is lined with sheep-skin with 
the wool on, to prevent the caps from being jarred 
out and lost when the flap is not buttoned. A cone- 
pick, of steel wire, bent so as to form a ring at one 
end, is inserted in a loop in one comer of the cap- 

The gun-sling is of russet bag-leather, 1 J inches 
wide and 46 inches long ; it has a standing loop 
at one end and a brass hook at the other, with 
a sliding loop between. For use it is passed 
through the guard-bow and middle-band swivels of 
the musket, the hooked end passed through tho 
loops and inserted in one of a series of holes punched 
in the slin^ ; the gun may then be slung across the 
back, leaving both hands free, or it may be sus- 
pended from any suitable object. 

All belts in the United States land service are 
black, and are made either of leather or of a strong 
species of felting, called 6itjf, probably because belts 
were formerly imide of that color. 

Until within a very few years a separate belt was 
used for suspending the bayonet-scabbard, passing 
over the left shoulder and crossing the cartridge-box 
belt diagonally on the breast, which was ornamented 
with a plate at the crossing ; the intersection of 
these two white lines, particularly when relieved 
against the dark-blue ground of the uniform, ren- 
dered the soldier as perfect a target as a marks- 
man need desire, the plate representing the "bull's 

The cartridge-box belt has sometimes been dis- 
pensed with, particularly for riflemen, the whole 
weight of the accouterments, with, in this case, 
the addition of a heavy sword-bayonet and scabbard, 
being borne by the waist-belt, which of course had 
to TO drawn very tight, forcibly compressing the 
abdomen, and causing great and unnecessary fatigue 
or even permanent iiyury. 

This arrangement was, we believe, generally con- 
demned by medical men, and in fact by every one 
who thought on the subject ; but as the weapon 
above mentioned was in very limited use, toward the 
close of the war especially, the evil was not so gen- 
eral as it might have been. 

The cartndge-box for cavalry resembles in exter- 
nal appearance that for the infantry, but is smaller, 
and its two loops are arranged so as to pass the 
saber-belt thr<vign them. Those used by our troops 

Digitized by 




•during the late war were varioosly arranged in the 
interior to suit the supposed necessities of the car- 
tridges of each particiilar kind of carbine, as Bum- 
side s, Merrill's, etc., etc. That adapted for a paper 
cartridge, as Sharp's, of which a greater number was 
issued than of any other, appeared to answer very 
well for others, though, no doubt, for metallic 
•cartridges a special box is better. 

The cavalryman is also provided with a small 
box or pouch for revolver cartridges and a cap- 

The saber-belt, to which all the preceding are 
attached, consists of a waist-belt, with two brass 
rings for the shoulder-strap and saber-slin^^, and a 
brass loop sewed at one end to receive the plate, 
which is rectangular and connects the two ends of 
the belt together. The shoulder-strap passes from 
a ring on the left side over the right shoulder, and 
returns, supporting the saber, which is suspended 
by two saber-slings passing from the brass ring at 
the waist-belt througn two iron rings on the simer- 
^cabbard, and buttoned. 

The accouterments for horse artillery merely con- 
sist of a pistol cartridge-pouch and a cap-pouch, 
both similar to those above described, and a saber- 
belt which differs from the cavalry-belt only in the 
omission of the shoulder-strap. 

A number of patents have been granted in the 
United States for improvements in the construction 
of, and in slinging accouterments. Since the com- 
mencement of the late war thirty-five patents have 
been granted in this branch of inventions. Atten- 
tion has been directed to several points : — 

First. The ea^e of the soldier in carrying his 
knapsack, etc. has been attempted to be secured : 1. 
By making one portion of his accouterments balance 
4inother, as in Mann's, Mizner's, and Wood's; 2. 
By a saddle-piece resting on the hips, as in Dick- 
ey's ; 3. By suspension-hooks on the shoulders, as 
in Sweeney's; 4. By a frame reaching from the 
shoulders to the buttocks, as in Baxter's ; 5. By 
modes of shifting the weight occasionally to vary 
the point of pressure and relieve the otherwise con- 
■stant strain, as in Short's and Siis's. 

Secondly. In arrange- 
Fig. U. ments for making the 

knapsack do service as a 
shelter, couch, or mat- 

Thirdly, In devices for 
the more compact arrange- 
ment of the compartments 
of the knapsack, haver- 
sack, or cartridge-box to 
1 increase their utmty, read- 

iness for duty, and light- 

The accompanying cuts 
will render it unnecessary 
to give a lengthened de- 
scription, and the exam- 
§les are placed in the or- 
er stated, founded on the 
similarities of purpose and 

Mann, December 8, 
1863. The cartridge-box 
is worn in front of the 
person, and acts as a 
counterbalance to the oth- 
er accouterments, the 
[.weight of the whole be 
«,.o««,cy».„y,T.y ^ing thrown upon ♦>^' 
Accouterments. shoulders. 


Wood, May 16, 1866. ««. 12. 

The devices refer to tl 
means for slinging tl 
gun, bayonet, cartridg 
box, and canteen so as '■ 
counterpoise each oth 
and the knapsack. Tl 
gun is hung to hooks c 
the strap. A hook on tl 
cartiidge-box adapts it 1 
be attached to any part ( 
the equipment. The bay 
net is also slung by a hoc 
on its scabbard. 

When the accoute 
ments are shifted to tl 
rear, the hind side of tl 
belt is connected to a rir 
beneath the knapsack, 1 
help sustain the belt. 

MiZN£it, January li 
1866. The haversacl 
which is carried on tl 
shoulders, forms a coui 
terpoise for the cartridg 
boxes, which are worn c 
the front of the belt ; tl 
upper portion of the divis- 
ional haversack is occupied 
by boxes, to contain three 
days' meat, coffee, sugar, and salt, in separate cases ; 
the lower or bag-like portion being adapted to con- 
tain an equivalent quantity of bre^. A strap pass- 

ng. 18. 

Woo<rs Mode o/sHnging 

Mizner''8 Cavairy AceoutermenU. 

Fig. 14. 

ing along the bottom and up one end of the 
cartridge-box affords the means for elevating the 
packages of cartridges, which 
ht closely therein, and are diffi- 
cult of removal by the fin- 

Dickey, March 21, 1865. 
To relieve the soldier of the 
backward pulling of the knap- 
sack it is partially supported^ 
by a(^'ustable standards rising] 
from a saddle-piece, which I 
rests upon the hips. ' 

Sweeney, February 4, 1862. 
The knapsack is so suspended 
that an air space mav inter- 
vene between it and the back 
of the soldier. The curved Diekey^s Kfumaek 
pads e rest upon the shoulder. Supporter* 

Digitized by 





Sweeney^t Knapsack. 

Fig. 16. 

Wk- Ifi- and the bars JB 

descend there- 
from to the back 
pUite D. The 
knapsack is se- 
cured by plates 
to these parts, 
md rigidly held 
it a distance 
^m the back. 
March 17, 1863. 
This improve- 
_nent is intend- 
ed to prevent 
the pressure of 
the knapsack upon the small of the back and the 
cramping of the movement 
of the arms, and it con- 
sists in supporting the 
sack by strips of wood 
extending from the shoul- 
der to the hips ; also in 
I securing the chest-straps 
I so as to leave the arms 

Short, January 28, 
1862 ; December 14, 1862. 
The mode of slinging the 
knapsack permits it to be 
loosened so as to fall away 
from the shoulders and 
spine of the wearer, as a 
means of shifting the 
weight and pressure, and 
allowing circulation of air 

r'tist the back of the 
permits it to be raised 

Kg. 17. 

1864. This invention consists in the employment 
of a pair of suspending straps which pass over the 

Baxter^s Kttaptack Sing. 

Skorfs Knapsack. 

or lowered in a vertical line according to the con- 
venience of the sol- 

Flg. 18. 

Sms*s Knapsack. 

dier. The neck and 
\ shoulder strap is con- 
i I nected to the upper 
y part of the knap- 
m sack by intermediate 

straps, and the lower 

Sart of the same is 
esigned to prevent 
lateral swaying dur- 
ing quicK move- 

Sirs, May 17, 

Fig. 20. 

Wtber^s Knapsack. 

shoulder in connection with another shorter pair 
of straps attached to the top of the knapsack near 
its center, and also a pair of straps 
attached, one to each end of tbe 
knapsack, for the purpose of 
varying the position and shift- 
ing the weight of the same when 

Weber, January 81, 1866. 
The frame of the knapsack is 
capable* of being changed into a 
couch, and the cover forms a 
shelter. The central section has 
jointed and folding sides. 

Rush, March 25, 862. The 
frame of the knapsack is made 
of two parts, hinged together. 

Rushes Knapsack. 

At the thick end of one part are pivoted two arms, 
which, when thrown out, rest upon the edge 
of the knapsack, and serve to hold the canvas 
for forming a bed. 

Frodsham and Levett, October 1, 1861. 
This invention consists of an india-rubber 
casing made water-tight and containing a bag 
of finely cut cork or other filling, thus form- 
ing a life-preserver. A pocket is made in 
the rubber casing to contain articles of cloth- 
ing, thus forming a knapsack, which when 
unrolled becomes a bed, the contained articles 
fonning a pillow. 

MizNER, November 27, 1866. The' knap- 
sack is combined with a havei-sack. The straps 
that secure the parts of the sack together, 
when packed ana folded, are not sewed to the 
material, but are riveted to each other, and 
also to the sling-straps. The latter pass 
from the knapsack over the shoulders, be- 
neath the armpits, and unite behind the 

McEvoY, January 7, 1862. The body is 

Fig. 21. 

Frotfsham ant/ LettWs Knapsack. 

Digitized by 




Fig. 22. 

]l£xHer^s Ktuqmaek, 

McBvoy't Knaptack. 

made of wicker-work, and has partitions and doors ; 
it is covered with waterproof material, and con- 
tains medicines, lint, bandages, splints, and surgical 
instruments. It is design^ to be carried by the 
suigeon's orderly in an engagement or during field 

Ao-ou'mu-Ia'tor. An india-rubber spring which 
accumulates lifting force^ and is applied to many 

Tie. 24. 

specific purposes on board ship, in machine- 
shops, etc. 

An ap|>aratu8 used in working hydraulic cranes 
and other machines where a steady and powerful 
pressure of water is required. The accumulator is 
intended as a substitute for a natural head, as being 
more compact. Sir William Armstrong, in the first 
applications he made of this principle to hydraulic 
cranes, employed a natural head of water as the mo- 
tive agent, obtaining the same by pumping water 
into tanks at an elevation of about 200 feet ; but 
subsequently he has always employed the accwmulaU 
or, as offering the advantages of greatly increased 
capacity for pressure, and aless pnme cost of erec- 
tion. The accumulator is shown m Fig. 24 ; it con- 
sists of the large cast-iron cylinder a, ntted with the 
plunger b, which works water-tight by means of the 
gllind c, and packing. To this plunger is attached, 
by means of the bolts /, and strongcast-iron cross- 
head e, the loaded weight-case d. Thus a pressure 
is obtained upon the water in the cylinder, equal 
to a column of water 1600 feet high, or 660 lbs. 
upon the square inch. As the water is pumped into 
the cylinder by the pumping endues through the 
pipe h, the piston, with the weighted case, rises, 
bem^ guided by the strong wooden framework g, 
and IS made to regulate the amount of water pumped 
in, by actuating a throttle-valve in the steam-pipe 
of the pumping engine, which it closes after having 
reachea a certain height. "When the cranes, etc. 
are in operation, the water passes from this cylinder 

through the pipe t, to those actuating the motion of 
the cranes, and the weighted plunger naturally de- 
scends, always keeping up a constant pressure upon 
the water ; in descending, the same causes the throt- 
tle-valve to open again, and the water is again 
pumped in, 

A'ces. (Nautical.) Hooks for the chains. 

A-oet'i-fi-er. An' apparatus for exposing cider, 
wort, or other wash to tlie air to hasten the acetifi- 
cation of the fermented liquor. See Graduator, 

Ao'e-tim'e-ter. See Acidimeter. 

Ac'e-tom^e-ter. A hydrometer suitably gradu- 
ated for .ascertaining the strength of acetic acid and 

Aoh'ro-mat'ic Con-denB'er. An achromatic 
lens or combination used to concentrate rays upon an 
object in a microscope. See Carpenter on the Micro- 
«opc, pp. 117-119, ed. 1857. 

AohTO-mat'ic Lens. Achromatic, literally col- 
orless, lenses were first introduced by John BoUond, 
of London, about the year 1758. Ever since the in- 
vention of the telescope it had been a desideratum 
with astronomers and opticians to obtain a lens 
which would give a perfect ima^ free from color 
with a moderate focal length, it having been found 
by experience that it was necessary to increase the 
length of focus of the object-glasses of telescopes in 
the proportion of the square of the magnifying power 
desired, to obtain distinct vision. This was owing 
in part to the distortion or spherical aberration, 
causecl by the rays striking the lens at greater or 
less distances from its center, being refracted at dif- 
ferent angles in proportion to the greater or less con- 
vexity of the lens, and converging to different foci 
more or less distant from the latter ; but principally 
to the dispersion or decomposition of the ught, as in 

{>risms, to two of which, joined at their bases, the 
ens is in fact equivalent. See Prism. 

This fringed or colored appearance mav be observed 
about the margin of almost any object viewed 
through a lens of short focal lengtn, such as an or- 
dinary microscope. 
The excessive length which had to be given to re- 

Digitized by 





fracting telescopes in order to obtain what is now 
considered a very moderate magnifying power, 100 
feet for a power of 200, led Gregory and Newton to 
the construction of reflecting telescopes (see Tele- 
scope), and these for many years were almost the 
only kind in use. The dispersion of light, or the 
length of the spectrum formed by prisms naving the 
same refracting angle, varies greatly in different sub- 
stances though their refracting powers may be equal 
or nearly so. 

Newton had supposed that the dispersion was al- 
ways proportional to the refraction, and it was in 
the course of a series of experiments undertaken in 
order to verify this theory of Newton, which had 
been controverted, that Dollond was led to his dis- 

He found that a prism of white flint glass whose 
refracting angle was about 25 degrees refracted the 
light in a nearly equal degree with one of crown 
glass whose refracting angle was 29 degrees, but that 
the dispersive power of the former was much greater ; 
so that, when they were applied together to refract 
contrary ways, a beam of lignt passed through them 
was separated into its component colors, althoujgh 
the incident and emergent parts of the beam contin- 
ued parallel. 

From this he inferred that if two lenses, one con- 
vex and the other concave, — which are in effect 
equivalent to two prisms refracting in different ways, 
— were so arranged as that the dispersive power of 
the flint glass would be corrected by the crown glass, 
that the image produced by the excess of refraction 
of the latter would be sufficiently colorless and dis- 
tinct to bear an eye-glass of much shorter focal 
length and consequent magnifying power than could 
be applied to a non-achromatic, double-convex lens, 
formed of a single piece of glass ; and by further 
experiment he ascertained the most advantageous 
focal lengths to be given to each glass in order to 
produce clearness and distinctness. 

He adopted a combination of three lenses, the 

middle one being of flint glass and double concave, 

and the two exterior ones of crown glass, double 

convex, believing that 

Fig. 26. it produced better re- 

! suits and more effectu- 
ally corrected the spher- 
ical aberration ; the 
combination of two 
glasses is now, however, 
universally adopted. 
It has been proposed 
to use metallic solutions 
and other liquids which 
Achromtuie Lmus. have a higher dispersive 

power than flint glass, 
enclosed in glass disks of the proper curvature her- 
metically sealed at their edges, in place of that 
article for the concave lens, but though several 
of these substances appear to have given excel- 
lent results experimentally, they have never been 
brought into general use. 

On account of the difficulty of obtaining a good 
article of flint glass, more particularly, and the 
trouble and skill required in grinding and polishing 
the faces of each piece so that they may have the 
proper curvature and fit accurately together, achro- 
matic lenses have always been and will probably 
continue to be very expensive, especially the larger 
sizes. Dr. Dick mentions one of 54 inches aperture 
and 54 feet focal length, which cost 200 guineas. 

Plopl, an optician of Vienna, has recently invented 
an improvement on the achromatic, which he calls 
the dialytic telescope, in which the several different 

kinds of glass composing the compound object-glass 
are not placed close together, but at regulated dis- 
tances apart. This arrangement allows a shorten- 
ing of the tube. 

Chester More Hall, of Essex, England, invented 
the achromatic telescope in 1729, but did not make 
it public. Dollond haa to invent it over again. 

Aold-im'e-ter. An instrument for detennining 
the purity or strength of acids, founded on the 
principle that the strength of any sample of acid is 
proportionate to the quantity of alkali which it 
will neutralize, or the quantity of carbonic acid gas 
which it disengages from a carbonate of soda or 
potash. An accurate and economical apparatus for 
this purpose is proposed by Dr. Ure, as follows: 
a graduated glass cylinder, having a discharge tube 
and capable of containing 10,000 grains of distilled 
water, is attached by a flexible tube to a Florence 
flask containing a supersaturated solution of car- 
bonate of soda or potash, in which is a test-tube 
containing a sufficient proportion of acid by weight 
to evolve carbonic acid gas equal in volume to the 
contents of the cylinder. Bicarbonate of soda is 
preferred, as one equivalent of any acid disengages 
irom it two equivalents of carbonic acid gas, and the 
quantities of various acids required to evolve a vol- 
ume of gas equal to 10,000 grains of distilled water 
are as follows : — 

Anhydrous sulphuric acid, 16.80 grains. 

Oil of vitriol, 20.58 " 

Anhydrous nitric acid, 22.67 ** 

** hydrochloric acid, 15.33 " 

" acetic acid, 21.42 " 

Crystallized citric acid, 80.64 " 

" tartaric acid, 63.00 " 

By tilting the flask the test-tube is upset and the 
acid brought in contact with the alkaline solution^ 
liberating the carbonic acid gas, which passes over 
into the cylinder, displacing a bulk of water eaual 
to that of the gas evolved, the amount of whicn is 
shown by the graduations on the side of the cylin- 
der. This indicates the strength of the acid. For 
example, if the water should be depl-essed to the 
mark 50 on the cylinder, it shows that the sample 
contains but fifty per cent of pure acid. This appa- 
ratus is the converse of the alkalimeteTf which see. 

A-oifl'ca-liB. A small mason's pick, with a flat 
face and pointed peen. 

A-oock!bilL 1. The situation of the yards 
when they are topped up, at an angle with the deck. 

2. The situation of an anchor when it hangs 
from the cat-head by the ring only. 

A-oou'me-ter. An instrument invented by Itard 
for measuring the degree or extent of hearing. 

A-oous'nc In'atni-mentB. Instruments or ap- 
paratus pertaining to the ears, the perception, 
measurement, or projection of sound. 

I. Those appertaining to the ear are, — 1. PrO' 
sihUic. 2. For exploration. 3. For operation, 

1. Of the prosthetic are the 


Cane Trumpet. 

Comet. X 

Conversation Tube. 

Ear; Artificial. 

Ear of Dionysius. 

Ear Trumpet. 


Tympanum ; Artificial. 

2. Exploration, 

Ear Speculum. 

Digitized by 





3. Operaium, 

Ear Spoon. 

Ear Syringe. 

Eustachian Tube Instrument. 

Meatus Knife. 

Organic Vibrator. 

II. Instruments for making or conveying audi- 
ble sounds. • 

(Not including those of a prosthetic nature cited 
in Class I.) 

Acoustic Telegraph. 

Air pipe. 

Alarms. ( Varieties ; see Alarms. ) 

Musical Instruments. (FarieiieSf see Musical 

Speaking Trumpet. 
Speaking Tube. 
Steam whistle. 

III. Instruments for measuring the quality' of 
sound, the extent of hearing, the number of vibra- 
tions in a given time, etc. 







IV. Auscultation Instruments. 


(See the above in their alphabetical order.) 

A-oouB'tlo TeFe-graph. A tel^^ph making 
audible instead of visual signals. 

In this sense — the most general — every aoimder 
may be included in the class, for it is capable of 
being, and is, used to convey information by an 
arrangement of repetitive blows and intervals. 

The present common use of the Morse instrument 
brings it within this categorv, the signals beinff read 
by ear rather than by consulting the paper ribbon. 

The speaking-tube may be considered another 
form, conducting a puff of air to the other end, 
where it operates a whistle, or the sound is recog- 
nizable as an audible expression. 

Briffht's (English Patent) is adapted to communi- 
cate phonetic signals. It consists of an axle having 
a magnet and double arm ; the magnet, when acted 
upon by electro-magnetic coils, causes the axle to vi- 
brate or deflect in one direction, thus sounding a bell 
by means of a hammer-head on one arm ; the subse- 

auent reversal of the electric current causes a muf- 
er on the other arm to sto|> the sound. 

In a more perfect form, Bnght's Acoustic Telegraph 
consists of a hammer in connection with a lever, 
which is acted upon by every polarization of a set 
of electro-magnets by the local current, and there- 
• upon strikes a small bell. A pair of these bells 
are connected to each wire ; one bell is struck by 
the passage of the positive, and the other of the 
negative current, the alphabet being readily formed 
by the difference in their tones and the number of 

Another form of audible telegraph consists of a 
wire which is tapped and conducts the sound to a 
resonant diaphra^. 

Wilson's Patents, 1866, refer to the production 
of a musical note by the action of a valve governed 
by the electro-magnetic current. The sound is 
continuous or intermittent, and variable in tone 
or pitch, as may be required. 

Ao'ro-ter. A small pedestal placed on a pedi- 
ment and serving to support a statue 

Ac-tin'o-graph. An instrument for registering 
the variation of the chemical intensity of the sun*8 
rays. As contrived by Mr. Hunt, it consists of a 
fixed cylinder on which is placed a prepared photo- 
^phic paper covered by a revolving cylinder hav- 
ing a triangular opening divided by tars through 
which the direct rays of the sun pass ; their effect 
upon the paper indicates their chemical intensity at 
different times. 

Ac'tl-nom'e-ter. An instrument for measuring 
the power of the sun's rays, invented by Sir J. F. 
"W. Herschel about 1826. A hollow cylinder of 
glass filled with a colored liquid is soldered to a 
thermoraeter-tube blown into a ball at the upper 
end ; being exposed alternately to the sun's rays and 
removed to the shade, a comparison of the differ- 
ences of expansion of the liquid indicates the rela- 
tive intensity of the solar raoiation. 

The discovAy of the presence of another principle, 
associated with the light and heat derived from the 
sun, seems to have been made some years ago by 
Mr. R. Hunt in England. 

Sir J. Hei-schel proposed to establish, as a unit for 
the intensity of solar heat, that value which would, 
in a minute of time, dissolve a thickness equal 
to one-millionth part of a meter of a horizontal sheet 
of ice, when the sun's light falls vertically upon it. 
This he calls an actine, and from experiments made 
by him at the Cape of Good Hope he determined 
the value of a degree on the scale of one of his 
aciinometera to be equivalent to 6.093 actines. 

The actinometer is useful in determining the 
quantity of solar heat which is absorbed in passing 
through the different strata of the atmosphere, for 
which purpose the observations must be made at 
stations differently elevated above the level of the 
earth or sea. It may also be employed to deter- 
mine the diminution of heat which takes place 
during eclipses of the sun. 

See Mcmwd of SciemJtifiG Inquiry^ published by 
the English Board of Admiralty^ 

One form of actinometer is sometimes called a 
photometer. The former name indicates that its 
purpose is to determine the actinic power of the 
solar rays, while the latter name indicates a meas- 
urer of the intensity of the light. 

One use of the actinometer is to ascertain the 
proper time for exposing a plate in the camera, or 
a sensitized paper in the pnnting-frame. The box 
has a spring Dottom and a glass and wooden cover. 
On the under side of the glass are secured a series 
of thin strips of paper arranged in layers so that 
each layer projects over the edge of the strip above 
it, thus producing a graduated semi-transparent me- 
dium. The number of. layers of any particular 
point is indicated by black figures on the lowest 
strips of paper. Upon this false bottom is spread 
a series of strips of paper rendered sensitive by 
saturating with alkaline 'chromate. The apparatus 
is then exposed to the light, and the strips of sensi- 
tive paper will be successively darkened according 
to the clepth of over-lying paper. See Photometer. 

Ac'tlon. ' An exertion, applied in machinery to 
an effective motion ; as, — 

A single action ; illustrated in the ordinary lift- 
pump, the atmospheric engine, etc. 

A double action, in which the go and return mo- 
tions are each made effective or are positively 
effected by the motor : as the double-acting pump, 
throwing a stream at each course of the piston ; the 
ordinary high -pressure steam-engine, in which the 
piston is driven each way by the force of stream. 

(Music.) The movements or working parts of a 
stnnged or wind instrument, which is operated by 

Digitized by 





a key-board ; such as an organ, piano-forte, melo- 
deon, etc. 

It includes the portion between the keys and 
the strings, — the portion engaged in striking and 

The actions are known, by a peculiarity in the 
instrument, as grandy square, piccolo, single, double, 
upriaht actions ; or from the inventors, as Broad- 
wood's, CoUard's, Erard's, Steinway's, etc. See 

Fig. 26. 

Piano-Forte Action. 

A is the key ; B, the hammer which falls back 
upon the check, and a bar mid length of the stock, 
called the hammer-rail. (7 is an adjustable bar on 
which is mounted the jack, whereby the hammer 
is actuated. E is the rail to which the hammer 
is hinged. 

Ao\i-punct'ti-ra'tor. Derived from acus ( Lat. ), a 
needle. An acicular instrument for treating certain 
complaints, such as headaches, lethargies, etc. It is 
of great antiquity in the East, and of late years it has 
been introduced somewhat extensively into Europe 
and the United States. The essential apparatus 
employed is simply a set of needles set in a handle, 
or detached needles, which by a slight rotary move- 
ment are passed to the required depth beneath the 
tissues and allowed to remain for a length of time 
varyinff from a few minutes to an hour. 

In the sixteenth century, according to Jerome Car- 
dan, the practitioners of this art travelled from place 
to place, and rubbed their needles with a magnet 
or substance which they pretended rendered tneir 
insertion painless. Without any such application, 
however, the punctures are so minute that pcdn is 
not felt after tne first insertion of the needle. 

The needles are sometimes used for conducting 
the ealvanic current to parts at some distance be- 
neath the surface of the skin, and are sometimes 
made hollow for the injection of a sedative into the 
tissues, for the relief of neuralgic affections. This 
latter mode of application was suggested by Dr. 
Alexander Wood of Edi^ibui^gh, Scotland. See 
An-«8THETic Apparatus. 

It is sometimes called a Derrhopathic 
or Irritation Instrument, and is used to 
introduce a vesicatory liquid beneath the 

FiRMENiCH*8 instrument, March 18, 
1862, may be considered a type of its 
class. The piston containing the needles 
is adjustable in its cylinder, which holds 
the medicinal preparation. The needles 
^^ project through the diaphragm to the 
required extent, and the epispastic liquid 
insinuates itself along with the needles 
into the punctures. 

Klee's acupuncturator, June 19, 1866, 
has a regulating nut g, to a^'ust the 
depth of penetration of the needles which 

Sroject through the diaphragm to con- 
^ uct the liquid from the cylinder A and 


introduce it through the skin. The needles h are 
stocked in the piston £, whose stem d is sleeved 
in the stem-screw cf. 

In Oriental countries the needles are made of 
gold or silver. In China their manufacture is regu- 
lated by law. They are of different sizes, some 
about four inches in length and having spiral han- 
•dles to facilitate their rotation after insertion. Thev 
are driven in by a small, lead-loaded hammer with 
a leathern face. Their use is very common in 
China and Japan, and was communicated to 
Europe by the physician to the Dutch Em- 
bassy in the seventeenth centuiy. It was 
revived in France in 1810. The £nfi;lish 
needles are long, made of steel, and have 
knobbed heads to facilitate turning after 
introduction. The tendency here, judging by 
the patents, is to have the needles in clusters. 
The operation is well performed by a tubu- 
lar needle connected with a syringe, by which 
a weak solution of morphia is injected into a 
diseased tissue, producing local anesthesia. 
See An-«sthetic Instruments ; Hypoder- 
mic Syringe. For the reverse use of hol- 
low needles, see Trocar. 
A'coB. A needle. As, — 
AciLs Cannulata ; a trocar, or tubular needle for 
discharging liquids. 

Aeus Inierpundoria ; a couching-needle used in 
operations for cataract 

Acus Ophthalmica : one used in operations for 
ophthalmia or cataract. 
Acus Triquetra ; a trocar, or three-sided needle. 
Ao'u-ten-ao'u-lum. A needle-holder or for- 
ceps ; a needle-handle ; a porte-aiguille. 

A-dapf er. 1. A glass-tube open at both ends, 
and used to connect a retort with its receiver. 

2. A receiver with two opposite necks, one of 
which admits the neck of the retort while the other 
is joined to another receiver. It is used in distilla- 
tions to give moro space to elastic vapors or to increase 
the length of the neck of a retort. See Aludel. 

3. A tube to adapt or fit an accessory apparatus 
to the body of the microscope, as the adapter which 
carries the analyzer of the polarizing apparatus, etc. 

Ad'a-tis. A species offine cotton cloth made in 

Ad-den'dum. (Gearing.) The difference between 
the real and the geometrical radius of a circular 
cog-wheel ; that is, between the radius of the piidh 
circle and the outer circle which touches the crests 
of the teeth. 

Ad'dloe. The obsolete name of an adze ; which 

Add'ing BCa-ohine'. An instrument or machine 
by which adding of numbers is effected. See 
Abacus ; Arithmometek. 

Ad-dress'ing BCa-ohine'. A machine for ad- 
dressing newspapers and magazines in which the 
same series of names is repeated from time to 
time as the day of issue recurs. There are two 
modes. One is to print the addresses consecutively 
upon slips which are gummed on the back and fed 
intermittingly to the cutter which cuts off each 
address. This is then pressed upon the folded 
paper or pamphlet, which is placea in position to 
receive its direction. The other mode is to set up 
the type of each address in a form, and so arrange 
the forms that they are successively presented at a 
s|)ot to which the enveloped papers are consecu- 
tively fed. 

Over twenty patents have been granted in the 
United States on machines for this purpose. 

One of the earlier forms of this device is that de- 

Digitized by 





scribed in Moeser's patent, June 24, 1851. The 
different addresses are set up in columns in a galley, 
and are brought under the action of a stamp, being 
moved intermittingly by means of a slide ; the 
addresses are exposed aericUim at a slit in a plate, 
allowing the paper or object to be printed to be 
pressed down upon the address beneath the slit 
of the plate, ana shielding the paper from the ad^ 
joining lines. This series of addresses forms a me- 
chanical record on which changes may be made as 
they become necessary. This patent was reissued 
January 30, 1866, and was extended to the year 1872. 

Campbell, January 20, 1863. The addresses are 
set up in parallel columns, and are secured in a 
common chase* The machine is supported over the 
chase by end-pieces, and is automatically advanced 
after each depression of the platen. Resting upon 
ways which span the chase is a traversing bed-piece 
with an upnght, affording a pivotal 

attachment for a lever which a'"" ^'^-' 

elevates and depresses a plat< 
guide-rod. The elevation of 
by means of the toggle, act 
wlieel, which, mashing into a 
vances the platen to delivei 
impression on an advanced poii 
exhausting all the addresses i 
column, the bed-piece is mo 
ally to bring the platen into cc 
ence with the next column, 
is fed beneath the platen just 
to the down stroke of the Ic 
form is previously inked so 
address is ready to deliver it 
sion when called on. 

Tiffany and Soule, March 
The type addresses are conta 
partitional galley or chase, 
moved by a pawl dependent 
platen lever, as the latter is r 
pinion on the shaft, whose i 
thus actuated by the lever-pa 
means of forwarding the gaU 
at a time, and each line of 1 
comes to the wide pinion is separated 
from the rest by elevation so as to ex- 
pose it at the slit in the plate above, in contact with 
the paper which is placed upon it below Jhe de- 

Flg. 29. 

Tiffany and SouieU Addressing Machine. 

scending platen. A sheet metal plate depresses the 
type after the impression is delivered. 

Soule, October 2, 1860. The forms of the ad- 
dresses are arranged in columns in the chase F, 
and the plate moves intermittingly above it. The 
oscillating platen C is pivoted to oearings D, on the 
plate j4, wnich has a slit brought into correspond- 
ence with each address in turn. The plate is 
advanced intermittingly, after each impression, by 
the contact of the descending lever with an oblique 
end to one arm of the bell-crank which is pivoted to 
the plate, the other end of the lever engaging a rack 
on tne bed-plate. 

Soviets Addressing Machine. 

ScHUH, April 26, 1869. The hopper C contains 
the documents, which are discharged consecutively 

File. 30. 

8ehuh-s Addressing Mdchins, 

by the movements of a sliding g^te which is pro- 
vided with a heel or step which drives the document 
before it from beneath the pile. The type ad- 
dresses are fed down an inclined board ^, and 
thence are forwarded along 
a level channel E, to the ^- 31. 

point beneath the platen 
P. On arriving at this 
point they are successivalyr 
raised by the action of a 
piston X, which is raised 
Dy a cam on a horizontal 
shaft beneath. The ad- 
dress is elevated to meet 
the descending platen P, 
and the paper introduced 
between tnem receives the c 
pressure from one and the 
impression from the other. 
The type is then forwarded 
by the type-shifter O, along 
the elevated channel g, 
from whence the addresses 
are removed in gangs. The 
notice-bell R is actuated by 
the t3rpe at intervals to an- 
nounce that a certain gal- 
ley is exhausted. Davis^s Addrfssin^ Machinf. 

Digitized by 






BowLUS, May 1, 1860. The 
chain has type-boxes e, which have spring 
sides for clasping the forms, each of which 
constitutes an address. The forms are 
placed in a column in the feed-box A, are 
taken one at a time by the pockets in th« 
feed-wheel B, and are trans- 
ferred to the type-boxes in 
the endless chain. They 
I are ^carried \>y the latter^ 
beneath the inking-rollers H 
/, which are presented con- 
secutively to tlie forms, hav- 
ing previously received ink 
from the ink-supply rollers 
G H. The paper-feeding 
and printing-roller M has a 
travelling apron which feeds 
the strip of paper to the 
forms, and tne latter are 
cleansed, as they return in the re- 
versed position, by the rotary brush 

iV, which rotates in the wash-tub 0, and in contact 
with the type. 

Doty, January 26, 1864. This machine is for cut- 
ting off addresses from a strip of paper previously 
printed and gummed on the respective sides. The 
strip is fed from a spool 0, and is drawn over the 
concave bed K by the oscillating arm F^ whose 
finger i engages the paper. The gummed side of 
the paper being underneath is moistened by the 
wet sponge a, and passes between the stationary 
cutter E and the descending cutter D, which is 
depressed by the spring plunger 6, and so actuated 
by the spring (2 as to make a shear-cut upon the 
strip of paper as it removes the address. The feed 
levers F are pivoted to the frame, and actuated by 
projections from the descending plunger. 

In Dick's machine, October 4, 1859, the ad- 
dresses are set up in columns in a form, and the 
printed sheet is cut into strips, each of which has a 
column of addresses. The reverse side is pasted, 
and the slip is fed forward one address at a time ; 
the descending stamp-shear removes the address and 
presses it upon the wrapper or the paper, as the 
case may be. The pressure of the machine on the 
pile of wrappers operates the cutter and removes 
the label. 

In Peck and Wright's machine, January 12, 
1864, the wooden blocks upon which the addresses 
are cut are bevelled upon one side, so that a series 
of them, when placed in a column galley, forms a 
continuous ratchet, of which each block is a separate 
tooth by which they are fed forward, preserving the 
reauisite intervals. 

In some cases the quads of the forms afford teeth 
by which the column is advanced. 

Bakrinoton, June 14, 1859. The cylinder has 

Fig. 84. 

Doty^s Addressing Machine. 

Dick's Addressing Machine. 

grooved ribs for holding forms of type and present- 
ing them consecutively at the proper point for 
delivering an impression. 

Marshall, November 1, 1859. The "forms" 
constitute links of an endless chain, which unwinds 
from one drum and winds on to another, being inked 
on their passage by one set of devices, and the con- 
secutive links depressed by a stamp on reaching a 
certain point of their progress at which is presented 
the paper or envelope to be superscribed. 

NoRDYKE, March 1, 1859. The envelopes on an 
endless conveyer are fed beneath the forms which are 
fed upon one track and discharged upon another, 
being subjected at a given point to the action of a 

Carpenter, May 5, 1857. The forms are placed 
in pockets in the periphery of a wheel. The news- 

Digitized by 





paper being held above the fonn, the platen is de- 
pressed by a treadle and the impression obtained. 
On releasing the treadle the spring raises the 
platen, and the pawl turns the cylinder one tooth, 
bringing the next name in series beneath the 

Campbell, January 17, 1860, patented a machine 
for printing addresses on the maigins of news- 
papers, simultaneously with the printing of the 
newspapers, by means of cells or boxes, containing 
the addresses set up in type and conveyed to the 
form by means of an endless apron having an auto- 
matic, intermittent movement. 

Batley, January 17, 1860. The type are ar- 
ranged on slats, so connected together as to be 
moved successively through the machine. The pa- 
pers are fed into the machine by finger bars and 
spurs, and the addresses elevated in succession to 
make the impression. 

Lord, September 7, 1858. The type forming the 
addresses are inserted in boxes secured spiraUy on the 
periphery of a revolving cylinder. The newspapers 
or envelojies are successively pressed a^nst the 
type in tne boxes by a horizontally reciprocating 
maten whose action is in concert with the cylinder. 
The inking apparatus is caused to follow the spiral 
arrangement or the form, being gradually moved by 
a screw similar to a lathe-feed screw. 

Harrild*s machine (English) consists of a slid- 
ing groove of some length, in which is placed a galley 
containing as many of the required directions as it 
vdll hold set up in type and locked up. A treadle 
moves it along, one notch at a time, under a parch- 
ment frisket, till a direction arrives just under the 
aperture cut in the frisket, the newspaper envelope 
is laid over it, and the treadle brings a platan down 
upon the newspaper. 

The galley then passes along, notch by notch, till 
its directions are exhausted, when it is superseded 
by another. 

Ad^he'sion Car. A car whose wheels are adapted 
to grasp a rail or to bear upon it in such a way as to 
have an adhesive or tractive power greater thui that 
due merely to the weight of imposition. 

Among the forms may be mentioned : — 

The cogged rail. See Railroad. 

The center rail, with a horizontal pair of gripping- 
wheels. See Railroad ; Center Kail. 

Another form is a wheel with an angularly 
grooved periphery, which bites the flanges of a 
double-headed rail. 

In the early history of railroad engineering 
many devices, especially the cog^d rail, were em- 
ployed to give adhesion, or tractive grip upon the 
rail. These were eventually laid aside as more cor- 
rect views were attained. In climbing inclined 
planes, however, devices of this kind are yet found 
useful, and arQ noticed under the appropriate heads, 
cited above. 

CoifjffUienU of Adhetivn of Locomotives per Ton upon the 
Dnving' Wheels. 

When the rails are very dry, . . 670 
When the rails are very wet, . 600 

In misty weather, .... 860 
In frost or snow, .... 200 

In coupled engines the adhesion is due to the 
load upon all the wheels coupled to the drivers. 

The adhesion must exceed the traction of an 
engine upon the rails, otherwise the wheels will 

Ad'it. A drift, or nearly horizontal tunnel form- 
ing a road or drain in a mine, by which the ore is 

extracted or water carried off. Its dischaiging end 
is at the natural surface. A day-level, or soxigh. 

The great adit in Cornwall drains the waters 
from the Gwennap and Redruth mines, and is near- 
ly thirty miles long. It discharges its waters into 
the sea, forty feet above hi^h-water mark. 

Adit;s may be driven eituer along the course of a 
vein or bed or through an unproductive stratum of 
rock, and are frequently run in a direction trans- 
verse to the general bearings of the veins or lodes, 
with a view to exploration ; such an adit is termed 
a cross cut. 

In the early working of a mine, the adit, from mo- 
tives of economy, is made as short as practicable ; 
but as the operations progress it is often advisable to 
drive another at a lower level and of greater length, 
to avoid the difficulty of pumping or lifting the wa- 
ter from a considerable depth. 

Ad-ju8tlng Sorew. A set-screw of an instru- 
ment by which one part is moved upon another, 
either for focus, level, tension, or otherwise. 

Ad-joBt'ihg Tool. (Hoi-ology.) A tool by which 
the snail of the fusee is regulated so that its increase 
of diameter may exactly countervail the decreased 
strength of the spring as it unwinds in the barrel. 
The object is to obtain an exactly equal power at all 
times upon the train. 

Ad'mi-raL A leading ship <jf a squadron. (From 
Sar. Emir, the Sea.) 

" To be the mast 
Of some greet ammiral.** — Paradise Lost, B. L 

A-do'be. Adobes, or unbumt bricks, are prin- 
cipally in vogue in the plains of Shinar and Egypt, 
and in China and certain portions of North Amenca 
inhabited by the Puebla Indians. If well bwmed, 
the clay forever loses its plasticity, and cannot again 
be reduced to a mortar. If it be merely dried, it 
will assume its original condition, as it came from 
the pug-mill. Such has lately (1871) been the 
experience of the Chinese in the vicinity of the 
Hoang-ho, whose houses of adobes are reduced to 
mud-heaps by the overflow of the river. Mr. 
Tomlinson, C. £., of London, has treated tins 
matter more fully than any other author writing 
in our langua^, and he says : '* The first action ^ 
heat is to drive off hy^rometric water ; the clay 
then becomes dry, but is not chemically changed, 
it does not cease to be plastic. On continuing to 
raise the heat, the chemically combined water is 
separated, and the clay undergoes a molecular change 
which prevents it from taking up water again except 
mechanically. With the loss of this chemically 
combined water clay ceases to be pla.stic.** 

In the directions which have been published for 
building with adobes, it is recommended that they 
should be guarded, by some material impervious to 
water, from absorbing moisture from tne ^und, 
and also that the roof should be made to project not 
less than two feet in order to shed the water and 
prevent its running do\Mi the walls. These direc- 
tions seem to indicate the weak point, and the ex- 
periences derived from the dry plains of Asia and 
Africa, and the elevated arid regions of Northern 
Mexico and Lower California, do not apply so well 
to our more humid climate. 

The mold for making adobes resembles the ordi- 
nary brick-mold in having four sides and having 
handles at the ends, but no top or bottom. It is 
much laiger, however, and sometimes a pair are 
placed in a single frame. It is placed in position on 
the drying-ground, filled with clay, and when the top 
is smoothSi by a striker, the mold is carefully raised, 
leaving the adobe to dry for a few days, when it is 
turned to expose the other side. A few weeks of 

Digitized by 





favorable weather complete the drying. 

It does not ap- 

It is a 
cheap material and easily built iip. 
pear likely ever to become a favorite mode of build- 
ing in those parts of the United States which are at 
present most thickly populated. It will not do to 
make too general a statement in a country whose 
climate varies between Alaska and Mexico. 

Ad-vioe'-boat. A fast-sailing vessel used for 
reconnoitering. First used, ray the authoiities, in 
■spying the operations of the French fleet in Brest, 
previous to the battle of La Hogue, 1692. Of course 
Themistocles and the consul Uaius Duilins never 
had any light amphiprorse to *' overhaul " the Per- 
sians or the Carthaginians, ** and when found make 
note on." 

Adse. The adze is a very ancient tool, and has 
a curved blade whose edge is at right angles to the 
handle ; differing from the axe, in which the blade 
is parallel to the handle. The forms and sizes differ 

Fig. 86. 

Fig. 87. 

Egypdem Adze, (Thebes.) 

the edges curved or straight, the blade generally 

The figures in the accompanying cut are from a 
building in Thebes ; one is holding a carriage-pole or 
tongue, while the other is dressing it to shape with 
an adze. 

In the other illustration the blade of the adze is 
shown confined by a band or strap to the helve. The 

Fig. 88. 

-with the character of the work, and in some cases 
the bit is gouge-shaped in addition to its curve in 
the plane of its motion. It is swung in a path of 
about the same curvature as the blade, the shoulder- 
Joint being the center of motion, and the entire arm 
■and tool forming, as it were, an inflexible radius. 
The above cut from Holtzapffel gives an idea 
of the presentation 
J^- 8ft. to their work of va- 

^ rious wood-cutting 
^ tools, a a represent 
the axe or hatchet, 
with two bevels ; b, 
the broad-axe, or sin- 
gle-bevelled axe ; c, 
the adze ; d, the In- 
dian angular-bitted 
adze ; e, the chisel ; 
/, the mode of pres- 
entation of a metal- 
cutting tool, intro- 
Adzt, duced for the sake of 

Fig. 36 is the modem adze. 
"The adzes of ancient Egypt were of different forms ; 

Egyptian Adze. (Thebes.) 

adze appears often in the Egyptian painting and sculp- 
ture, and was the principal tool in ancient Egypt for 
fashioning articles of wood. Its blade was of bronze 
and the handle of tamarisk. 

The Roman adze (ascia) is shown on many ancient 
monuments. Some have a rounded edge, some a 
straight. It was then, as now, a ship-buflder's tool. 

The aciaculua had a similar rounded head, but was 
a stone-mason's tool, having a square face and point- 
ed peen. 

Among many of the West India Islanders adzes 
and axes of shell were used. 
When it was procurable Fig. 89. 

they were made of flint ; this 
was worked into the shape 
of a tool and attached -by 
sinews or cords to a helve, 
or fastened to a withe (see 
Axe), or, as in Figs. 39, 40, 
the cutting material of shell, 
flint, or o&idian was lashed 
to a stock. Metal super- 
seded the other materials in 
most pai-ts of the world, but < 
many barbarous nations of 
America and Polynesia yet 
make their weapons of the 
material generally discarded 
at a very distant date in the 
Old World. 

Fig. 89 represents three 
stone adzes of the South 

Digitized by 





Fig. 40. Pacific, and Fig. 40 a stone adze 

of the Chalam Indians, who oc- 
cupy the shores of Puget Sound. 
It suggests the most ancient form 
of the tool, employed especially 
for digging out the canoes from 
the soUd log. These canoes were 
common at a period before the 
discovery of iron in Europe, and 
their remains are there found as- 
sociated with the implements of 
the stone and bronze ages. 

The stone adze of the Tahitians, 

when visited by Captain Cook, was 

similar to those represented in Fig. 

89. Large ones for cutting down 

trees weighed from six to seven 

Chalam Adze, pounds ; smaller ones, for carving, 

out a few ounces. All of them 

needed continual sharpening, for which purpose a 

stone was kept in reaoiness. 

Adzes are Imown as 

FlcU, when the blade has a straight edge ; 
Rowndingy when the edge is curved ; 
Notching^ with a straight blade and straight 

2S-o1i-an. A contrivance attached to pianos 
by which a wind instrument may be introduced as 
an accessory at the pleasure of the performer, air 
bein^ supplied by a bellows worked by a pedal. 

.S-o'u-an Harp. A species of musical instru- 
ment, the sounds of which are produced by currents 
of air passing over its strings, which are commonly 
fifteen in number. Its principle may be familiarly 

Pig. 41. 

JBoiian Harp, 

shown on a large scale by the action of the tele- 
graph wires stretched from one pole to another. 
On a windy day especially these will be found, by 
any one stationed near, to emit musical tones rising 
and falling in proportion to the strength of the 
wind, and more or less grave in proportion to the 
tension of the wires. 

Were the number of wires increased, and their 
length and tension pnroperly varied, these would 
constitute a perfect ^lian. 

A common mode of construction is to make a box of 
thin wood and of suitable length, to set beneath 
a window-sash. It may be five or six inches 
in width and depth. At one end of the box are 
pins equal in number to the strings employed, 
and at the other as many pegs ; the strings, be- 
ing made fast to the pins at one end, are tuned 
by turning the p€«8 at the other. The box 
is open on the sides presented towards the 
room and to the exterior air, and the strings 
are sounded by the passage of the air through 
the box. Catgut is ustudly employed for the 

It is supposed to have been invented by 
John J. Schnell, musical-instrument maker to 
the Countess d'Artois. It was suggested by 
the vibration of the strinfls of a harp placed 
in a breezy situation. Exposed for sale in- 
1789 under the name of Anano Chords, 

Its use was revived by Kircher. 

One of the Talnfuds says that the harp of David 
sounded when the north-wind blew on it, and it 
has been suggested that he had an iBolian, as we 
understand it. The sounding of his harp by a gust 
of wind would be nothing extraordinary if it stood 
near his north window, which was probably open 
for air and chosen for its coolness ana shade in the 
climate of Judna. David wrote a good deal in 
praise of shade and 900I drink. 

.SS-o-U'na. {^MvMc,) A modification of the accor- 
deon, by Wheatstbne, leading to the concertina. 

.Si-ori-pile. Was invented or first described by 
Hero, of Alexandria. It 
was a rotary engine, in F*** 42. 

which steam issued from 
the ends of bent arms and 
by reaction rotated the hol- 
low shaft or sphere to which 
the arms were attached. 
S^ro's engine revolved in 
the Serapion about 150 
B. C, and many applica- 
tions for patents in the^ 
United States and other 
countries have been made 
for the same device within 
a few years past. Invent- 
ors seem loth to give up this 
simplest form of engine, 
but it is not probable that 
it will ever prove a useful Hero's Steam-Emgim, 
or economical one. 

The above cut is copied from Hero's "SpiritaUa," 
edited by Woodcroft, of London. See Steam- 

Ely's iEoUpile, 1867, is adapted for rotating a 
toy. It is poised with its boiler on a central verti- 
cal pivot, and is connected by a bend with the shaft 
on whose platform the toys are displayed. 

A more serious attempt at applying the principle 
of the iEolipile is Banta's Rotary bteam-Engine, 
Afa^ 28, 1867. The hollow arms rotate in closed 
cyhnders, and their shafts are so connected as to 
be continuous, the packing of the series being per- 
formed at one operaflon. The steam passes in at 
the axis of each, and issues at a tangent, driving 
the wheel by reaction. 

It is attempted to obtain the use of the steam in 
a number of successive chambers, in apparent for- 
getfulness of the loss by back-pressure. The steam 
enters at the left, and, issuing from one pair of 
arms, escapes into the first chamber ; from thence it 
passes to the second wheel, so called, and emerges 
mto the second chamber, and -so on. The hubs of 
the wlicels are clutched together, so that their cumu- 

Flg. 48. 

Efy'A JBoUpiU. 

Digitized by 





FUc. 44 

Rotary Steam-Engine. 

lative effect is eventually utilized upon the maift 
shaft, on which is the pinion. See Reaction 

JES-ol'o-phon. The seraphine ; the predecessor 
of the melodeon and parlor or^n. 

JB'o-luB. A small ventilating machine for renew- 
ing the air of apartments. 

A'er-a'tor. 1. An apparatus for making aerated 
waters. These consist simply of pure water im- 
pregnated either naturally or artificially with gases, 
and are used largely, when combined with vegetable 
acids and sugar, as refreshing refrigerating beverages 
in warm weather, and in medical practice during 
feverish conditions. The insipid taste of meltea 
snow or rain-water is chiefly due to the small quan- 
tities of gases therein contained ; but when such 
water has come in contact with the atmosphere by 
trickling down a ledge of rocks, and rushing along 
a boiling, rapid stream, or being dashed to and fro 
by the winds, it absorbs the gases from the air and 
is naturally aerated. Ebullition dissipates the gases 
contained in spring-water, rendering it as flat and 
insipid to the taste as before it was aerated. The 
waters of many mineral-springs are aerated in a natu- 
ral way by the gases arising m>m the decomposition 
of minerals washed together from their subterranean 
beds. The first attempt to prepare artificial aerated 
waters was made by M. Venel by dissolving in a pint 
of water two drachms of fossil alkali to which' he 
added an equal quantity of muriatic acid. He used 
a vessel with a narrow neck to prevent the escape 
of gas, depositing the ingredients in such a manner 
that they would not communicate with each other 
until after the vessel was corked. In this case the 
gas evolved in a vial nearly full and closely corked 
suffers such a degree of compression as to greatly 
promote its combination with the water. M. Venel 
supposed that the real ingredient to which it owed 
these qualities was common air. Two memoirs of 
his experiments were read before the Royal Academy 
of Sciences in 1750. Dr. Priestley greatly improved 
upon the discoveries made by Venel and others, and 
in 1767 contrived an easy method of impregnating 
water with the principle then denominated "fixed 
air," by placing shallow pans of water near the sur- 
face of the fermenting vessels of a brewery, which in 
a few hours became pleasantly impregnated with the 
escaping gas. He found upon experiment that the 
impregnation was accelerated by pouring the water 
from one vessel into another ; but it did not occur 
to him till the year 1772 that this could be effected 
by the gases dislodged from decomposing chalk and 
other calcareous substances confine<l in an air-tight 
Dr. John North's apparatus for iii\pregnat- 

ing water with carbonic acid was invented in 1775. 
Between the years 1807 and 1852 thirty-one Eng- 
lish patents were granted for apparatus and methods 
for preparing aerated water, and fifteen patents for 
vessels to hold such waters, and for methods for 
bottling. The most common beverage is Carbonic 
Acid WcUer^ generally spoken of as soda-water, 
though it seldom contains any soda. It is pre- 
pared in large (Quantities by placing whiting, chalk, 
or marble-dust in an air-tight, lead-lined vessel with 
water and sulphuric acid. The flulphuric acid com- 
bines with the lime to form sulphate of lime (plas- 
ter of Paris), and carbonic acid is evolved as gas. 
The latter is received in a reservoir, and is after- 
wards forced into water agitated by machinery so 
that the latter absorbs about five times its own vol- 
ume of the gas. The water then constitutes a brisk 
sparkling liquid, with a pungent but pleasant acid- 
ulous taste. It may be prepared on a small scale, 
for family and medical purposes, by using the appa- 
ratus known as the Gazogene or Seitzogene. 

The complete apparatus is shown in Fig. 45, and 
also the separated jmrts. The lower globe is filled 
with water by means of the long funnel, and then 
the tube is closed by the stopper, and the powders, 
consisting of bicarbonate of soda and tartaric acid, 
are then placed in the upper globe by means of the 
small funnel. The stopper is then withdrawn, 
and the long tube is inserted and screwed closely 

Fig. 46. 

Portable Soda-Water AppanUui. 

down. The apparatus is then inclined so that the 
upper globe is about one third filled with water, 
then placed erect and allowed to stand two hours. 
If the screw stopcock at the top 
be opened, the carbonated water will ?i— ' 

flow out readily into any vessel 
placed to receive it. Occasionally 
bisulphate of potash is used in- 
stead of tartanc acid, to save the 
expense of the latter. ^ 

The devices which are ordinarily ^ 
called Soda- Water ApparattLS, or 
Soda- Fountains J are those used in 
drawing the beverage and mingling 
it with the flavoring synips, etc. 


In the bottle for aerated liauids, 
patented by Warker, Marcn 18, 
1862, the spout of the metallic 
fountain -heaa is lined with glass to 
keep the liquid from contact with 
the metal. The shoulder on the 

top edge of the neck, the alternate 

grooves, and the ridges on the neck w^j^, Bottufor 
are used to strengthen the attach- Atrated Liquids. 

Digitized by 





Fig. 48. 

Wg. 47. ment of the metallic cap to which 

the fountain-head is screwed. 

In Pratt's apparatus for aerat^ 

ing liquids, September 10, 1867, 

the plunger Ki8 a concavity which 

cames down the air ; the latter 

is expelled as the plunger reaches 

-jD the convex bottom, and is driven 

1^ through the holes in the tube 

1 and disseminated through the 

' liquid in the outer vessel. 

Meglone, August 14, 1866. 
The tube is introduced through 
the cork ; the liquid enters holes 
at its lower end, and is discharged 
- at the goose-neck, when the stop- 
J^att*s Aerator. cock is opened. The bottle may 
be charged by means of an aux- 
iliary tube, also passing through the cork, and either 
removed or closed when the bottle is filled vdth 
the aerated liouid. 

The liquid contents of these bottles 
may be aerated by means of a simple air- 
\ pump placed in temporary connection 
11 with the tube when the eduction nozzle 
IJ is removed ; or chemicals may be intro- 
duced whose reaction liberates gas when 
they meet in solution. The aeration of 
sparkling champagne and Catawba is 
produced by adding a small amount of 
white sugar to the wine in bottling, the 
slight fermentation eliminating alcohol 
therefrom and liberating carbonic acid- 
gas. The effervescing drinks, such as 
ginger-beer, are also dependent for their 
ebullition upon the fermentation of the 
ingredients and the development of the 
same gas. Carbonic acid, in moderate 
quantities, has a very salutary effect 
upon the stomach, while it is so fatal 
wnen breathed into the lungs. As "^ 
''after damp " or ** choke damp " of 
miner, it has often killed tnose 
survived the explosion of the carbur 
At the Black Hole, near Calcutta 
killed one hundred and twenty-four persons 
were confined in a room eighteen feet square 
order of Dowlah, Viceroy of Bengal, June 20, 
1756. As a gaseous result of the combustion 
of carbon, — as of charcoal, for instance, — it 
has destroyed the lives of many who have 
gone to sleep in ill-ventilated rooms. 

Machines are made on a large scale for 
charging soda-fountains. 

Cameron's aerator has a gas-generator a 
made of cast-iron, lined with sheet-lead to 
prevent the action of the sulphuric acid upon 
the iron. The vessel contains fifteen gallons, 
and is partially filled with water and whiting 
or other carbonate of lime. The agitator o 
is also covered with sheet-lead, and its stem 
passes through a stuffing-box c, at the top 
of the vessel. The acid-holder e is formed 
of lead, and has a sapacity of two gallons, and 
is partially filled with oil of vitriol. The acid 
is kept from running down into the generator 
by means of the conical plug/ which fits into 
a conical seat in the leaden pipe g. This plug 
is attached to a rod, and moves up and do\^ii 
through the stuffing-box A, and is preventecl 
from turning round by means of a pin A:, mov- 
ing in a slit in the bridle / ; the screw-nut is 
riveted loosely into the top of the bridle. ITie 
pipe 71, which forms a communication between 

Soda- Water 


the top of the acid-holder e and the pipe a in which the 
plug-rod moves, pi^serves an equilibnum of pressure, 
so as to prevent the acid from rising higher in the 
pipe s than the level of the acid in 5ie acid-holder ; 
by which means the brass- work of the stuffing-box is 
preserved fVom injury. To prevent any of the sul- 
phuric acid from being carried over by the efferves- 
cence, an intermediate vessel o, containing about 
three gallons, is formed of lead or lined with that 
metal. The intermediate vessel is filled with water 
above the eduction-pipe from the generator a. 

The impregnator v holds about sixteen gallons, 
and is made of cast-iron lined with lead, or of 
tin-lined copper, and the agitator m is covered 
with lead or is made of wood. The impregnator is 
filled to the dotted line with water, to which, in 
making saline waters, the proper proportion of sesoui- 
carbonate of soda, carbonate of magnesia, or otner 
in^edients is added. 

For the ordinary soda-water no medicament is add- 
ed. A pressure-gauge t is connected by a leaden pipe. 

The operation is as follows : — 

Bv turning the nut m the plug is raised, and acid 
is allowed to run into the generator a, when it acts 
upon the carbonate, disengaging the carbonic acid 
gas in quantity proportioned to the amount of acid 
admitted. The plug is again lowered when the as- 
certained proper amount has entered the generator. 
The gas passes bv the intermediate vessel into the 
impregnator i>, where it is absorbed by the water. 

The aerated water is drawn off from the impreg- 
nator into glass bottles, and tightly corked ; or is 
removed and placed in connection with the ordinary 
soda-fountain apparatus by which the liquid is 
drawn into glasses. 

Bakewell's soda-water apparatus (English) has 
the generator and impregnator in the same vessel, 
separated by a diaphragm, and connected by a pipe. 

Fig. 49. 

Oameron?8 Afrator. 

Digitized by 






The' vessel is on trunnions, and. is oscillated so as 
to allow a pendulous stirrer in the lower vessel to 
agitate the solution of the carbonate of lime. The 
gas passes to the upper chamber, where it performs 
a circuitous course in the water which absoros it. 
..^ - „. ,« Other apparatus 

depends upon me- 
chanical means for 
ii\jecting the gas 
into the water oy 
_ means of a pump 
or syringe. 

Many other de- 
vices might be 
cited, but tney con- 
tain substantially 
the same parts un- 
der modified ar- 
rangements, — a 
generator with a 
means for admit- 
ting the acid, a con- 
ductor for the gas, 
and an impregnator 
in which the water 
is permeated by the 
gas evolved. 

Thomas's apparatus for bottling mineral waters, 
June 18, 1867, is applied directly at the spring. 

The water is drawn from a considerable depth 
through a pipe let down in the spring ; a perfo- 
rated plate of glass is placed in the water below the 
mouth of the tube, and jets of gas from a reservoir 
are dischai^ged below the plate. 

The object is to charge mineral-water with gas, or 
to add an extra supply of gas thereto. 

2. A contrivance for fumigating grain in bulk, to 
destroy fungi and insects. 

Fig. 61. 

Appanutusfor bottling at the l^pring. 

Fontaine^s Airial Rmlufoy, 

A-e'rl-al Car. A car adapted for traveling in 
the air. 

The name is somewhat loosely applied, and may 
mean one of three things : — 

1. The basket or receptacle of a balloon. 

2. A car whose weight is partially or entirely 
counterbalanced by a balloon, and which travels on 
wires by means of driven wheels. See next article. 

8. A car on an elevated railway. 

A-e'ri-al Rail'way. An attempt to govern the 
balloon or aerostat by guiding rails or wires 
stretched between posts. 

Fontaine's Aerial Railway, February 5, 1867, 
may be taken as a sample. 

The weight of the car is counterbalanced by an 
attached balloon. The cigar-shaped car is driven by 
steam, the deeply indented side-wheels travelling up- 
on wires which rest upon brackets whose flanges pro- 
ject into the circumferential depressions in the wheels. 

The wire-way supported on posts has been adopted 
for carrying freight. See Wire- way. 

A'e-ro-njr'dro-dy-nain'io "Wheel. A mode 
of transmitting power to great distances proposed by 
a Belgian engineer, Mr. CaUes. The plan of Mr. 
Calles is to make use of air under a certain degree 
of compression as the vehicle of the force to be trans- 
mitted, not by accumulating the air thus employed 
in reservoirs, but by driving it, by the operation of 
the original motor, directly mto a tube extending to 
the point of final application, where it is to be dis- 
charged beneath a wncel submei*ged in water, which, 
it is to turn by its ascensional force. See Air as a 
Means of transmitting Power. 

A'er-om'e-ter. An instrument invented by Dr. 
M. Hall, for ascertaining the mean bulk of air or 
gases in pneumatic experiments. 

It consists of a bulb of glass of four and one half 
cubic inches' capaci^, blown at the end of a long 
tube whose capacity is one cubic inch. This tube is 
inserted into another tube of nearly equal length, 
which is supx)orted on a sole, and the first tul^ is 
sustained at any required height within the second 
by the pressure of a spring. Five cubic inches of 
atmospheric air, at a medium density and tempera- 
ture, are introduced into the bulb and tube, ot the 
latter of which it will occupy one half. The other 
half of this tube- and part of the tube in which it is 
inserted are occupied oy the liquid of tlie pneumatic 
f-rmirrK T>ift n/tinf. r%f iha tubc at which thc air and 
le figure 5 to denote five 
md lower halves of the 
3 five parts, representing 
The external tube has a 

. ) A light gauze or imi- 

50 N. 

A^e-roHiteam En'- 
g;ine. An engine in 
which the expansive 
power of combined heat- 
ed air and steam is used 
in driving a piston. 

The Air Eiigiiie fol- 
lowed closely in the wake 
of the Watt Steam-En- 

Oliver Evans, during 
the latter portion of the 
last century, suggested 
the combination of the 
"^ heated gases and air 
with the steam, as a 
motor. He called it a 
Volcanic Engine, which see. 

Glazebrook used moistened hot-air in his Air 
Engine, English Patent, 1797. See Air En- 

The air is moistened before reaching the cylinder 
in Paine's Engine, United Sutes Patent, November 
30, 1858. In this case it is the cool refrigerated air 
that is moistened, and the amount of moisture 

Digitized by 





would be very far below saturation when the air 
came to be heated. 

The same may be said of Glazebrook's, 1797, with 
the additional remark that Glazebrook condensed 
the air in the preliminary process, before exposing 
it to moisture, so that the heat incident to its con- 
densation would enable it to absorb more water, but 
still far less than would be sufficient to saturate it 
when it came to be heated by the furnace. 

Fig. 62. 

Bennett^s AmsUam Bngiiu. 

Bennett,' United States Patent, August 8, 1888, 
introduced, or at least adopted, two new features : 
1. He conducts the incoming charge of air to the 
furnace, and makes it the means of maintaining com- 
bustion under pressure ; 2. The furnace is 
air- tight, and the volatile results pass through 
the steam-boiler, are washed, and pass, fully 
saturated, to the cylinder. See Air Engine. 

The steam and air might have been com- 
bined in any rec^uired relative ratio in this 
boiler, but the inventor does not appear to . 
have supposed any specific proportion was I 
necessary, a a is a vertical cylinder con- J 
stituting the shell of the boiler, b b a small- 1 
er cylinder placed within the former and ' 
forming the furnace and ash-pit; this is . 
entirely surrounded by water, c is a tube 
connected with a blowing-machine, and hav- 
ing two branches d and e, — the former of 
which admits a portion of air above the fuel, 
and the latter a portion into the ash-pit 
below the fire-bars. Two throttle-valves, 
or dampers, //, are provided to regulate 
the draft through each Dranch. pr is a short 
cylindrical neck, through which the smoke 
and heated air pass into the steam-chaQi- 

ber, where they mix wij;h the steam, and with 
it pass to the working cylinders. The neck g is 
covered with a valve n opening upward, the sides 
of which are turned down to cause the heated air to 
pass through the water, and thereby give out a 
portion of its heat to the latter ; this also serves to 
wa^ the heated air and arrest grit which would 
injure the cylinder and piston, t, a safety-valve, k, 
a valve by which the pipe that conveys the steam 
to the engine can be closed when required ; Z, the 
pipe by which the water is conveyed to the boiler 
from the feed-pump ; the end of this pipe enters the 
boiler and delivers the water on to the top of the 
valve h ; this is with a view to prevent the valve 
becoming excessively heated by the action of the 
fire, m is the fuel-spout by which coal is intro- 
duced into the fireplace ; on it is bolted the hopper 
n, having at its upper end a flat sliding valve o, 
and another one p at its lower end ; these valves 
slide in grooves, and are moved by me^s of racks 
and pinions. They are ground to their seats so as 
to make air-ti^ht joints^ and during the whole time 
the engine is in operation the coal-hopper is kept 
dosed oy one or other of these valves. In kin- 
dling the fire the valves o and p are both opened, 
lighted kindling is dropped through the chute, and 
then a quantity of fuel. The valves are then closed, 
the blower started. When the engine is set to work, 
it forces air into the furnace both above and below 
the fuel at each stroke, which, having no vent to 
escape but at the valve A, accumulates in the fur- 
nace until its pressure somewhat exceeds that of the 
steam upon the valve h, when it lifts the valve, and, 
rising up through the water, mixes with the steam, 
and passes along with it to the engines. ^ is a 
slider, by opening which the ashes from the furnace 
can be withdrawn ; when this is requisite the dam- 

Eers// must be first closed, v is the blow-oflf cock, 
y which the water can be discharged from the 
boiler when req^uired, and w is a hole covered by a 
door for removing any mud which may have accu- 
mulated. At a; is a glass gage to show the height 
of the water in the boiler, and at y is a glass eye- 
piece through which the state of the fire can be 
ascertained, z is the man -hole of the boiler. 

William Mont. Storm's experiments in com- 
bined air and steam covered the period 1851 - 55, and 
perhaps later. His Cloud Engine, in which steam 
and air, in a condition resembling fog, were used 
to propel a piston, was exhibited at the fair of the 
American Institute, New York, in 1866. The ma- 
chine appears to have failed to realize the expecta- 
nt 68. 

TxHgtr^s SUam-Otneraior. 

Digitized by 





lions of the inventor. There was a lack of adjust- 
ment somewhere, it may be supposed, but the end 
is not yet. 

In Washburn's Air-Heater and Steam-Generator, 
United States Patent, September 5, 1865, the air is 
also introduced under pressure into the furnace, and 
then passed through a cleansing- tank before being 
added to tiiie steam evolved in the coil of pipe which 
constitutes the steam-generator. In this apparatus 
full saturation is obtained. See illustration m Air 

Stillman's Hot Air and Steam Generator, August 
9, 1864, has also the combination of air and steam. 

BiCK ford's Patent, June 6, 1866, may also be 
examined in this connection. 

In T anger's Steam Generator, December 4, 1866, 
the air is injected, into the pipes E and / by means 
of a force-pump, and after being heated while passing 
through tne convolutions of the pipes F and J, is 
forced into the boiler by nipples, as shown at K. 

In Tarr's Aero-Steam Engine, 1867, the air is 
heated within the furnace, and is thence forced 
through the pipe into the steam-chest, where it min- 
gles with the steam coming through the pipe ; and 
the mixture of steam and hot air is by means of a 
slide-valve admitted alternately above and below 
the piston in the ordinary way, so as to produce the 
usual reciprocating motion. 

Warsop's En^e (English), 1869, is started by 
steam in the ordmary manner. A jingle-acting air- 
pump, worked from the crank shaft, compresses air 
to a little more than the boiler pressure ; the air 
then passes through a long circuit of straight and 
coiled pipe, which traverses the exhaust-pipe, makes 
several spiral coils in the chimney, then descends at 
one side of the fire-box, is exposed to the full fire, 
and finally passes by a valved opening into the 
boiler at the bottom of the water-space. 

Warsop's object is similar to that of several of his 
predecessors, to make steam assist the ex|)ansive 
force of air, and to avoid the difficulties of lubrication 
incident to the use of hot air alone. He attempts 
to obtain the maximum effect from mixed air and 

Fig. 54. 

steam by instituting a certain approved proportion 
between the t^'o. It is ouite probable that such a 
ratio may be found, and tnat it may secure substan- 
tial economical advantages. 

The pipe A^ through which the air is forced into 
the boiler by the action of the air-pump, is of iron, 
and is 1^ inches in diameter outside, and 1 J inch 
bore. On leaving the pump the pipe is first led to 
the heater By shown on the left oi the engraving^ 
whebein it is exposed to the exhaust steam. The 
heater consists, as will be seen, of a cast-iron cylin- 
drical vessel placed in a vertical position and pro- 
vided with two branches — one near the bottom and 
the other near the top — through which the exhaust 
steam respectively enters and escapes from the cas- 
ing. At the top of the heater is placed a small 
cylindrical tank J), exposed at the bottom and sides 
to the exhaust steam, and perforated around the 
upper part of the sides, so that in the event of its 
receiving an excess of water the latter may overflow 
and fall to the bottom of the heater. Through a 
stuffing-box at the bottom of the tank there passes 
a tube with a rose E at the lower end, this tube 
being carried by a float Fj which swims in the 
water at the bottom of the heater, as shown, and, 
by means of a cord passing from the top of the tube, 
works a cock Cr, which regulates tne supply of 
water to the tank at the top of the heater. 

The air-pipe A^ after leaving the heater just 
described, passes along the exhaust-pipe C to the 
chimney H, and, descending the latter spirally, as 
shown, passes into the flue beneath tne boiler. 
Here it is led backward and forward, as shown in 
the plan, and after making several convolutions in 
the smoke-box, is led back to the front of the boiler, 
where it communicates with a valve-box, contain- 
ing an ordinary, light clack-valve. The object of 
this valve is to prevent water from entering the air- 
pipe when the engine is stopped. From l£e valve- 
hox a pipe is led down witnin the boiler to the 
bottom of the latter, this pipe being perforated at 
intervals on the upper side. The perforations are 
placed closer together at the farther end of the 

pipe than they 
are at the end at 
which the air en- 
ters, and by this 
means an equable 
y/ distribution of the 
'// air at the differ- 
// ent parts of the 
//. boiler is insured. 
;^ The lengths of 
y, the various por- 
y/ tions of the air- 
y/ pipe are as fol- 
'// lows : In feed- 
% water heater, 12 
/a feet ; in exhaust- 
/// pipe, 18 feet 6 
7/ inches ; in chim- 
y/ ney and flues, in« 
/' eluding coils in 
^ smoke - box and 
■// under boiler, 58 
^ feet; total, 88 feet 
ji 6 inches. The 
y- total external sur- 
'^^face exposed by 

Wanop'** Aero- Steam Engine- Boiler. 

^^Hhis pipe is thus 

lA The principal 
dimensions of the 

'// about 862 square 

I feet. 

Digitized by 





boiler are as follows : Len^h, 8 feet ; diameter of 
shell, 3 feet 6 inches ; diameter of fire-box flue, 
2 feet 2 inches ; length of fire-box and combustion - 
chamber, 5 feet ; and length of tubes, 3 feet. The 
tubes are 41 in number, most of them being' 2g 
inches, and some of them 2A inches diameter. 
The total effective heating sunace exposed by the 
boiler is about 130 square feet. 

JB'thi-opft Min'er-aL A compound of sulphur 
and mercury, so called on account of its blacl^ness. 
The black sulphuret of mercuiy, formed by tritu- 
rating together mercury and sulphur until the two 
combine and form a black powder. 

iE^thri- o - scope. 

Fig. 66. 


An instrument for 
measuring the degrees 
of cold arising from 
exposure under dif- 
ferent conditions of the 
sky. A highly pol- 
ished metallic cup or 
concave * mirror is 
placed upon a pedestal 
of convenient hight, 
and a differential ther- 
mometer is placed 
within it so that one 
of the bulbs of the 
thermometer shall be 
exactly in one focus of 
the mirror ; the other 
bulb being not in 
either focus is not af- 
fected by the pulsa- 
tions, the effects of 
which on the cup are 
concenti-ated upon the 
first bulb, the air in 

which being suddenly contracted upon its exposure 
to a clear sky, the liquid in that branch of the stem 
is caused to rise. The cup is kept covered with a me^ 
tallic plate, except at the moments of observation. 

Af fi-nage. The act of refining or making purer, 
as the affinage of metals. 

Aft'er-rake. The part of the stem which over- 
hangs the keel. 

Aft'erHiall. (Nautical.) A sail whose center of 
effort is abaft the general center of effort of all the 
sails. Head-sails are relatively before the said 
point, and by means of these head and after sails a 
ship may be maneuvred. 

Aft'er-tlm'bers. {Shipbuilding.) 1. Radiating 
cant'frames, abaft the fashion-pieces and below the 
wing-transom, stepped partly on the dead-wood and 
partly on stepping- pieces bolted to the sides of the 
inner stem-post. 

2. Those abaft the midship section. 

Ag^a-ba'nee. {Fabric) Cotton embroidered with 
silk, made in Alep)x>. 

Ag'ate. (Printing.) 1. A size of type between 
Pearl and Nonpareil ; called Ruby in England. 

Agate, or Baby. 

2. The draw-plate of the gold-wire drawers ; so 
called because the drilled eye is an agate. 

3. The pivotal cup of the compass-card. 
Age'ing. (Pottery.) The storage of prepared 

clay, to allow it time to ferment and ripen before 
using.^ The sUp^ consisting of levigated clay and 
flint, is mn in a thin solution through sieves and 
brought to a creamy consistence. Tnis is boiled 
down to give it more solidity, and is then stored 
away, sometimes for years, being occasionally cut 

out in chunks and slapped to expel air and develop 
the plasticity. During the ageing process a slight 
fermentation occurs, carbonic acid and sulphureted 
hydrogen are disengaged, and the mass is improved 
in texture and Quality. The clay is thus allowed 
to temper in cellars or under cover, sometimes for 
several years. 

In China, a potter prepares the clay for the sue- 
ceeding generation while working up that be- 
queathed to him by his ancestors. 

(Wine and Liquors.) Devices for this purpose 
subject the liquid to heat and agitation ; some of 
them using the combined action of heat, electricity, 
and attrition. See Wine-ageino Apparatus. 

(Cali/u) Printing.) The exposure of printed cali- 
coes in a sufliciently moist and warm air to allow 
the colors to permeate and mature. An apparatus 
was patented by Thom, England, for applying air 
loaded with moisture of a given temperature to the 
printed fabric, which is then folded and allowed to 
rest for a few hours in that condition. 

A-giBt'ment A dike or embankment to prevent 
the overflow of land abutting upon a streamer the sea. 
,Ag'i-ta'tor. A rotating beater or armed shaft for 
mixing and disturbing articles mechanically sus- 
pended in water, such as 

The pulp in the stuff-chest of a paper-machine. 

The mash in the mash-tub of a brewery. 

The mixture of starch, sugar, etc., and water, in. 
the washing process of starch-maldng. 

Ag'rl-cuLlt'ur-al Im^ple-ments. These are 
treated, as fully as the limits will permit, under their 
respective heads ; it is needless to repeat here the 
history of their propessive development or the 
order of their succession. See the following, under 
their respective heads : — 

Agricultural and Husbandry Implements, eto. 





Atmospheric chum. 

Auger. Earth-boring. 










Band for baling. 

Band for binding grain. 

Band-cutting machine. 





Bar-share plow. 







Binding attachment 

Bog-cutting plow. 
Bow. Ox 

BuU-nose ring. 


Beehive, swarm-indicator Cattle-pump. 

for Cattle-stall. 

Bee-tax. Cattle-tie. 

Belly-roll. Caving-rake. 

Bill. Chaff-cutter. 

Bill-hook. Cheese-cutter. 

Binder. Cheese-hoop. 

Digitized by 







Cheese- vat. 


Chicken-msing appara- 













Clutch for catching ani- 











Corn-husk splitter. 




Corn-row marker. 


Com-shocking machine. 

Corn-stalk cutter. 

Com-stripping knife. 

Cotton-brush chopper. 







Cotton-seed cleaner. 

Cotton-seed planter. 

Cotton-seed preparing. 





Cream slice. 



Cultivator plow. 




Cutter. Harvester 


Diamond plow. 








Double plow. 

Double-mold-boerd plow. 

Double shovel plow. 



Drill. Barrow. 

Drill. Grain. 

Drill. Harrow. 





Edging shears. 

Egg-hatchinff apparatus. 

Expanding plow. 








Fence-post driver. 













Fork. Horse hay- 






Frait-preserving house. 



Furro wing-plow. 

Ga^ wheel. 




Garden ladder. 

Garden shears. 

Garden syringe. 




Gaveung attachment for 

Grain -thrasher. 


Grass-seed separator. 

Ground auger. 




Guard finger. 


Hair-clipping shears. 





Harvester rake. 



Hay-band machine. 








Hay-raker and cocker. 









Hedging tools. 







Hoe. Horse. 




Hog-nose- trimmer. 


Hog-scalding tub. 






Horse hay-fork. 





Hot-bed frame. 


Hummeling machine. 






Insect trap. 






Land-paring machine. 





Layering implements. 





Manure-driU. Liquid 










Milking apparatus. 



Milk -strainer. 












Ox-yoke. (See Yoke.) 







Picker. Cotton 




Plow (varieties ; see Plow). 



Portable fence. 



Post-hole borer. 

Post-hole digger. 
















Raker and loader. 


Rake. Horse hay. 




Reel. Harvester 

Reversible plow. 

Digitized by 









Roller. Land 






Rotary cultivator. 

Rotary digger. 

Rotary harrow. 

Rotary plow. 

Rotary spader. 



Sap-bucket hook. 















Shears. Pruning 

Shears. Sheep. 

Sheep-dippinff apparatus. 

Sheep-foot trimmer. 



Sheep-shearing machine. 

Sheep-shearing table. 


Sheep- washing apparatus. 

Sheller. Com 


Shovel plow. 


Side-hill plow. 

Sinffle-shovel plow. 

Skeleton plow. 


Skim-colter plow. 

Skinning apparatus. 

Slaughtering apparatus. 


















Stacking derrick. 






Steam-engine. Agricultu- 



Stocks for refractory ani- 








Subsoil plow. 

Sugar-cane planter. 

Sulky plow. 



Sweet-potato cultivator. 

Swing-moldboard plow. 

Swing plow. 






Tobacco-curing apparatus. 




Treble-shovel plow. 









Tumwrest plow. 












Wool-packing table. 



Ag'rl-oalt'ar-al Steam'-en'gine. A steam- 
engine specifically adapted for use in thrashing and 
some other farm operations. Its principal j)eculiar- 
ity consists in compactness and portabihty. See 
Portable Steam-Enoine. 

Aioh'B Met'aL An alloy of copper, zinc, and 
iron, used for guns. Patented in England, Febru- 

ary 8, 1860, by Johann Aich, Imperial Arsenal, 
Venicf .* It is composed as follows : — 
Copper, . . 60. 
Zinc, . . 88.125 
Iron, .1.5 

It resembles the Keir metal, English patent, De- 
cember 10, 1779, which lias, — 

Copper, . . 100 ) (100 

Zinc, . . 75 > or, ^ 80 

Iron, . .10) (10 

Also the sterro-metal of Rosthom, Austria, 1861^ 
which has, — 

Copper, . . 56.04 ) ( 57.68 

Tin, . . 0.83 f ^, ) 0.15 

Zinc, . . 42.86 ( ^^* 140.22 

Iron, . . 1.77) ( 1.86 

Austrian navy brass has, - 




Chinese Packfong has, — 




Nickel, . 

See Alloy. 

Ai'guiUe. A needle. Among masons, a stone- 
boring tool. A priming- wire. 

Aim-frontlet. A piece of wood hollowed out to 
fit the muzzle of a gun, so as to make it level with 
the breech, formerly in use among gunners. Wood- 
en front-sights on a similar principle are still used 
on board ship in case of emei^genc^, as when an acci- 
dent ocdurs to the proper metal sights. 

Afr and Steam Bn'gine. See A^ko-Steam 






Afr Applianoes and 


Acoustic instruments. • 

Acoustic telegraph. 



Aerial railway. 

Aero - hydro - dynamic 



Air and steam engine. 

Air as a means of trans- 
mitting power. 

Air as a water-elevator. 


Air bed and cushion. 





Air-chamber for pumps. 

Air-compressing machine. 

Air-cooling apparatus. 

Air-cushion for pipes. 


















Airohydrogen blow-pipe. 




Air-pressure filter. 










Air-tube for conveyance. 







Atmospheric jdarm. 

Atmospheric chum. 

Atmospheric engine. 

Atmospheric governor. 

Atmospheric hammer. 

Atmospheric railway. 

Atmospheric spring. 





Digitized by 












Caloric engine. 

Captive balloon. 

Carbonic-acid engine. 

Carbureting- macnine. 

Car- ventilator. 


Compressed-air engine. 


Cylinder blower. 

Detonating tube. 



Disinfecting apparatus. 

Ear. Artificial 

Ear comet. 

Ear instruments. 


Eccentric fan-blower. 



Exhaust fan. 










Foot- bellows. 



Gunpowder engine. 

Hydrostatic beUows. 


Insect exterminator. 


Leech. Artificial 


Magaeburg hemispheres. 




Pneumatic drill. 

Pneumatic lever. 
Pneumatic pile. 
Pneumatic pump. * 
Pneumatic railway. 
Pneumatic spring. 
Pneumatic trough. 
Pneumatic tube. 
Pneumatic tubular dis- 
Pneumatic valve. 
Rotary blower. 
Rotary fan. 
Screw ventilator. 
Sound -board. 

.Thermometric ventilator. 
Torricellian vacuum. 

Vacuum apparatus. 

Ventilating millstones. 

Air as a Means of transmitting Power. 

So far as our information extends, the hrst person 
to use compressed air as a means of transmitting 
power was that ingenious Frenchman, Dr. Papin 
of Blois, about A. D. 1700. We shall have occa- 
sion to refer to him in the History of the Steam- 
Engine. He was the first to apply a piston in 
the steam-cylinder, and was the inventor of the 
digester, and the steelyard safety-valve, — the best 
and simplest effective form yet devised. 

Papin used a fall of water to compress air into a 
cylinder, and led it thence bv a pipe a distance of a 
mile. Having reached its destination, it was em- 
ployed to drive a piston in a cylinder, the power 
Deing intended to work a pump. The distance, the 
friction, and the leakage were too much for the 
Doctor, and the inversion of the process, making the 
primary engine exhaust instead of condensing, had 
no better effect. Thinking that it was the volume 
of air in the pipe which made the second cylinder 
unresponsive to the action of the primary cylinder, 

Digitized by 





** The general disposition of parts will be readily 
understock by reference to the dia^m : — 

" The diameter of the wheel exhibited was 9 feet ; 
its breadth 4J. It carried 80 buckets, curved in 
such a manner that 13 of them (figured to the left) 
always retained a certain quantity of air in their 
upper portion. 

" The air was introduced under the bottom of the 
wheel, through a curved pipe. The air thus blown 
into the buckets had naturally a tendency to gain 
the surface of the water with a force equivalent to 
the weight of displaced water, and this upward ten- 
dency caused the rotation of the wheel, and at the 
same time brought back the discharged buckets 
successively before the orifice of the tuyere. 

"The wheel made six revolutions per minute, so 
that three buckets were filled with air every second. 

"The air rushed with a velocity of 82 metres per 
second through a pipe 0.095 metres in diameter. 
The quantity discnai^ged was consequently 0.227 
cubic metres per second, equivalent to 0.075 cubic 
metres for each bucket or cell. During every sec- 
ond of time, 18 buckets were thus partly filled with 
air, their total capacity being 0.988 cubic metres. 
The same bulk of water being displaced, a constant 
power of approximately 988 kilogrammes; or 2,168 
lbs., per second was obtained. 

"The internal diameter of the wheel being 2.26 
metres, its annular surface 8.05, and its width 1.5,' 
it is readily computed that the 80 buckets occupied 
a space of 4.585 cubic metres, and that each cell 
cubed 0.158 cubic metres, — a portion of which 
space, eauivalent to one half, or to 0.075, alone 
contained air. 

"If the application of force be supposed to have 
been applied at one quarter of the depth of the 
wheel under water as an average, then the speed 
of any point of its surface would have been 2. 445 x 
6 X M7 -J- 60 aas 0.77 metres= 80 inches. 

" Multiplying this speed by the 988 kilogramme- 
tres, we find the power transmitted per second to 
' have amounted to 757 kilogrammetres. If we de- 
duct herefrom 20 per cent for losses by friction, 
reaction of water, etc., there remain 606 kilogram- 
metres, or 260,000 foot-pounds, as available work- 
ing-power per minute, — equivalent to an 8-horse 

" The forcing of the air was effected by means of a 
91-horse steam-engine, — the compression of the air 
being one quarter of an atmosphere. In the exam- 
ple exhibited, 88 per cent of the power of the engine 
was thus transmitted to the wheel, and this through 
a pipe 510 feet long and presenting 14 elbows. 

"The above-described new method of transmission 
of motion may prove of very great value in many 
situations where the application of belts and shaft- 
ing, parallel motions, such as are used in mines, and 
other similar contrivances, is impracticable. It 
anight also be applied with success to the driving 
of machinery in cities for the smaller branches of 
industry, — the compressed air in such a case being 
conveyed through mains and pipes laid below the 
surface of the streets in the same manner as is at 
present practised for our water and gas supplies." 

By reference to Wire Rope, several instances 
may be found where power is transmitted to a dis- 
tance much beyond what is possible with belting 
or shafting, the ordinary expedients. In one case, 
at Frankfort on the Main, the power is thus trans- 
mitted 8, 200 feet. In a second case, at Schaffhausen, 
in Switzerland, the power of a number of turbines, 
amounting in the aggregate to 600-horse power, is 
transmitted more than a mile, crossing the river 
Rhine to the place where the power is to be distributed. 

Machinery in mines and tunnels is frequently 
driven by the power of compressed air, which is 
condensed into a reservoir by steam or water power 
on the surface of the ground, and conducted by pipes 
to the deep-seated spot where the drill or mining- 
machine is at work. 

"At Mont Cenis the air-pipes must be as much 
as five miles in len^, and the loss of pressure is 
not such as to impair the working of the drills ; but 
I am without accurate information as to its extent. 
At Hoosac they are one and a half miles long, and 
the loss is two pounds to the square inch. At 
Nesquehoning they are one third of a mile in 
length, and there is no appreciable loss of pressure. 
In this c^ise the air is woAed at about fifty pounds 
per square inch ; and the difference in pressure at 
the steam-valves, when the power is generated, and 
the air after it is compressed, may be taken at 
about ten per cent when the best compressors are 
used. It will then be seen that the loss of power 
from the friction of the compressing machinery, and 
from the movement of air in the pipes, is not of a 
very serious character, and, if the pipes are tight, 
the pressure is well maintained while the machinery 
is standing." — Steele. 

" The compression of the air by which the drills at 
the Hoosac Tunnel are driven is effected at the east 
end of the tunuel by water-power ; four 20-hoTse 
turbines being employed, which operate sixteen air- 
pumps, each of 18j-inch bore and 20-inch stroke. 

" The air is compressed to 65 pounds to the square 
inch, or a little over four atmospheres, and con- 
ducted through an 8-inch cast-iron pipe to the drills 
at the tunnel heading, where branch pipes connect 
several drill-cylinders with this 8 -inch pipe. With 
six of the drills at work and making 250 strokes 
per minute, the gage on the air-pipe at the heading 
of the tunnel shows a pressure ot 63 pounds against 
65 pounds at the pump-rooms, one mile and a half 

" The engineers of the Mont Cenis Tunnel have 
expressed themselves strongly in favor of the view 
that the plan is truly economical, and as their 
experience in the use of this form of applying power 
has been lar^r than any which has been elsewhere 
enjoyed, their statements deserve consideration. At 
the date of the report on the progress of the work 
in the tunnel during the year 1868, they were 
engaged at a distance of nearly two thousand 
metres from their reservoirs of condensed air, 
and were driving nine borers with a force of 2)- 
horse power each. The tube conveying the air to 
the perforators was two decimetres (nearly eight 
inches) in diameter. The air was under a pressure 
of six atmospheres, and its velocity in the tube was 
nine decimetres (three feet) per second. The trans- 
mission of the power to this distance, and under 
these conditions, was attended with no sensible loss. 
The pressure was not perceptibly less at the work- 
ing extremity of the tube when all the perforators 
were in operation than when the machinery was 
entirely at rest. 

"A series of experiments was instituted in 1887, 
by order of the Italian government, to determine 
the resistance of tubes to the flow of air through 
them. These experiments were made previously to 
the commencement of the work upon the tunnel, 
and while the feasibility of employing compressed 
air to furnish the motive-power of the boring appa- 
ratus was considered still questionable. It was the 
aim of the investigation not merely to ascertain the 
absolute loss of force occurring in the transmission 
of air through tubes of certain particular dimen- 
sions, but to determine, if possible what are the 

Digitized by 





laws which govern the variations of resistance, 
when the velocities of flow and the diameters of 
the tubes are varied. From the results of the ex- 
periments were deduced the three conclusions fol- 
lowiug, namely, — 

" I. The resistance is directly as the length of the 

**II. It is directly as the square of the velocity 
of flow. 

* * III. It is inversely as the diameter of the tube. " 
See Report of Dr. Barnard, United States Commis- 
norter at the Paris ExposUion. 

This great work is happily completed. See 

In the Verpilleux pump, water is made the means 
of transmitting power. See Force- Pump. 

The transmission of power by means of compressed 
air has now become an established fact, notwith- 
standing the clear decision which was rendered 
r'nst it, from the supposed nature of the case and 
principles involved. Its use in the Hoosac and 
Mont Cenis Tunnels in driving the boring-ma- 
chines is referred to under Tunnel. Its use in the 
Govan CJoUiery, Scotland, is referred to under 
AiR-CoMPRESsiNO MACHINES. See also Air-En- 
OINE, Co)(PR£88ED. Its use as a liquid elevator is 
considered in the next article. 
Air as a Water Elevator, Compressed. The 
first attempt to raise water 
Hg. 68. by the pi-essure of a body 

of compressed air, so far 
as our present information 
extends, was that by Dr. 
Papin, of Blois, France, 
about 1695. His experi- 
ments were particularly 
directed to utilizing the 
power of a fall of water 
m compressing air which 
was conveyed a mile or 
more to a cylinder at the 
mine, where it was in- 
tended to work a pump 
by reciprocating a piston 
in the manner of a steam- 
eneine. The experiment 
failed, as has been already 
stated (see Air as a 
Means of transmitting 
Power), but has since 
. been successful in operat- 
I ing rock-drills at Hoosac 
I Mountain, Mont Cenis, 
^ and many other places. 
It does not appear that 
Dr. Papin tried the direct 
pressure of a body of air 
upon the water ; in a 
manner similar to the press- 
ure of steam upon the sur- 
face of the water in the 
so-called steam-engines of 
Baptista Porta, 1600 ; De 
Cans, 1620 ; Marquis of 
Worcester, 1655 ; Savery, 

1698. See Steam -Engine. 

Chemnitz Water-Elevator. For many years past 
— probably a century or 
more — water-elevators operating by condensed air 
have been used at the mmes of Chemnitz in Hun- 
gary. A high column of water is used to condense 
a column of air in a pipe, so that the power of 
the apparatus is proportioned to the vertical height 
of the fall which is available. In the mountainous 

districts of Central Europe some remarkable falls 
are thus utilized, some of which are referred to 
under Turbine. In the Black Forest of Baden 
turbines are ninning with falls of 72 and 854 feet, 
and having diameters of from 20 to 18 inches re> 

In the figure, the vertical elevation is out of all 
proportion small, but the principle involved is not 
affected thereby. It should be understood that the 
height of the fall above the surface of the ground 
should be as great as the depth below the surface 
of the ground of the water to be elevated. If the 
fall be in excess of the lift, so much the better. 

a is the shaft of the mine, and c the surface of the 
earth ; d is the penstock of the water at the top of 
the fall, and k the pipe which leads the water to the 
air-tight box/ at the surface of the ground. The 
closed box / communicates by an air-pipe with the 
air-tight box e which is submenred in the siimp-hole 
at the bottom of the mine. The eduction water- 
pipe h has its lower end submerged in the water of 
the box e, and conducts the water to the surface c 
when the apparatus is in action. A cock I in the 
fall-pipe k is closed or opened as the alternating to 
be described requires. The box / has also cocks 
at m and* 71, and the box e an inlet valve g on its 

The operation is as follows : — 

The cocks I and m being closed, the cock .n is 
opened to allow the air to escape from box e and the 
water to flow thereinto by the valve-way g. The 
cock n \b then shut, the water-cock I opened, when 
the column of water in the pipe k will fill the chest/, 
expelling the air therein and driving it down the pipe 
i into the box e, expelling the water therefrom to a 
certain extent, that is, until the pressure of the con- 
densed air in the box e is eoualled by the weight of 
the vertical column in the aischaijje-pipe h ; which 
should have a valve at its lower end opening upward- 
ly. The cock I is now closed and the cock m opened, 
allowing the water to run out of the box / and the 
air from e to fill box /, while water enters the lower 
box by valve-way g. The cock m being closed and 
the cock I opened, the air is again forced from /into 
e, repeating the process just described. 

An early example of raising water by the dejec- 
tion of a condensed body of air is the patent of Up- 
HAM, January 6, 1809, of which the annexed cut is 
an illustration. 

Vis. 59. 

l^jham^s Pitmp. 

Pressure on the bellows ii^jects a body of air into 
the chamber A in the well, and drives a body of wa- 
ter from thence through the eduction-pipe which 
leads to the discharge above the sur&ce of the 
ground. When the bellows is raised, the v^ve at 

Digitized by 





the foot of the eduction-pipe closes and water enters 
the chamber by tho induction-valve. The repeti- 
tion of the motion again ejects water, and so on. 
The required degree of pressure in the air-chamber 
is attained by means of an air- valve in the bellows ; 
after that, if the level of the water remain the same, 
the same body of air is made the agent, by its verti- 
calpulsations, of ejecting the water. 

Tne use of compressed air in forcing liquids from 
deep wells or shafts has received a great accession 
from the oil enterprises in Western Pennsylvania 
and other places. 

Perhaps as many as fifty patents 
Kg. 00. have been granted for various forms 
of Ejectors, the different iforms of 
which will be considered under that 
title. These are founded on the 
same principle as the Giffard in- 
jector , which is a favorite device for 
boiler supply. In the ejectors an 
annular stream of fluid under com- 
pression (air or steam) is emitted 
around an axial nozzle communicat- 
ing with the liquid to be moved ; 
or, conversely, a central stream of 
compressed fluid to propel a film of 
liquid through an annular open- 

J In the deep oil-wells, which con- 
sist of a vertical shaft of a few inches' 
diameter and several hundred feet 
y*s Slfector. depth, it is advisable to have all the 
apparatus included within a single 
tube as in the two following cases : — 

Mowbray, December 18, 1864. The current of 
compressed air from the engine above descends the 
middle pipe B^ and is emitted at the annular open- 
ing between the cup a and the bulb b on the central 
pipe. The area of the annular opening is adjust- 
able, and the effect of the emission of the stream of 
compressed air is to draw up the liquid from the 



Fig. 61. 

Angierand OoeU' 

Anfi«r and fh>ekn*s Rector. 

space C, and elevate it to the surface through the 
space intervening between the tubes B and A. 

Angier and Crocker, De- 
cember 13, 1864, have a de- Wg- 68. 

vice for the same purpose. 
Fig. 61 shows a section ot the 
well iu which the seed-bag i/ 
(see Well-tube Packing) is*^ 
shown. Its purpose is to pre- 
vent the descent of the water 
from above to the bottom of 
the well whence the supply of 
oil is drawn. The bulbous 
deflector and encircling cup 
are arranged for action as de- 
scribed in the preceding case. 
B is tho air-descending, A the 
oil-ascending space. /* is a 
perforated tubular foot for the 

Anoier and Crocker, Oc- 
tober 11, 1864. Fig. 62. The 
current of compressed air 
passes down the tube / e, 
whose lower end is recurved 
upwardly and ends in a small 
orifice at which the air is 
emitted. As the air passes JUbfrn^Ai'i Tra<«r- /toiler, 
through the throat d into the 
pipe b, it tends to produce a partial vacuum in its 
rear, and 

draws an an- 
nular film < 
water wit 
it from th 
space A f 
tne bottoi 
of the wel 
The actio 
is the san 
as in th 
former cas< 
except thi 
iu tnis th 
moving flui 
is a jet cei 
tral to th 
film of wat< 
moved by i 
and in tli 
cases the a 
and oil wei 
cent films, 
of pipes in 
next follo\ 
great dept] 

1,1864. ] 
an ejector 
but adapte 
not fatal tc 
The air or 
recurves uj 
etrates th( 
water ascei 

While th 
erly belon^ 
which are 

Fig. 64. 

consiaerea at 

Feau'^B OU-Iijectoir, 

Digitized by 





greater length under that title, it will be useful to 
give a slight sketch of the modes of utilizing the 
compressed air, the subject-matter of this article. 

The ejectors described are direct-acting and the 
pressure continuous. It remains to cite one or two 
emplo^g the pulsative or alternate action of air. 
This IS accomplished by alternate pressure and 
exhaust, and is claimed to be very effective. . 

Pease, March 28, 1865. The current of air is 
made to oscillate in the downcast tube, acting like 
an elastic piston in its effects upon the contents of 
the chaml]«r A\ which is placed low down in the 
well A. Fig. 64. The upper end of the pipe is con- 
nected alternately with two cylinders, lu one of 
which is a body of compressed air, while iu the other 
is a partial vacuum ; the exhaust and pressure of 
the respective vessels being effected by an air-pump. 
The rock -bar h is oscillated on its pivot, and acts 
alternately upon the valves, bringing the pipe a 
in connection with the pressure and exhaust iu 
turn, and giving the pulsative movement to the col- 
umn of air in the pipe. As the air rises therein, 
the induction-valve (jr, at the foot of the chamber, 
lifts and admits oil from the well to the chamber 
A\ and as the column of air descends, the said valve 
closes and the oil is raised through the pipe m, the 
valve % rising to allow it to pass to tne upward 
dischaige-pipe e. The seed-bag d acts as a packing 
between the exterior pipe and the wall of tne well, 
and prevents access of water from fissures to the 
water, oil, or brine at the bottom of the well. 

Woodward, May 30, 1865. 
Fig. 65. The piston reciprocates in the air- 
cylinder, and by adjustment of 
the valves h h, is the means of 
exhausting from the chamber A or 
of forcing air into the said cham- 
ber. As the air is withdrawn, the 
chamber is filled by the induc- 
tion-pipe, the valve a opening for 
that purpose. When the air is 
compressed into the chamber, the 
water is ejected by the pipe B. The 
action is not pulsative, as in the 
preceding case, but is alternate by 
the operation of the same cylinder 
and piston, and is effected by chang- 
ing the position of the cocks h h. 

A Hydraulic Engine, so called, 
patented in England by Seidler 
some forty years since, may be 
classed among the alternate-acting 
water-elevators operated by com- 
pressed air. The construction will 
appear by reciting the series of 
operations when it is in action. 
Supposing the piston P to com- 
mence its upward stroke, the air 
in the cylinder C will be driven 
through the valve c in the upper 
head and by means of the pipe h 
into the submerged vessel A:, forc- 
ing the water contained therein 
through the valve-way t and by 
WooduK^sAir^ S«*5? 9^^ t^^ eduction-pii)e to 
Pump. the discharge-chute s. Air will be 

supplied to the cylinder below the 
piston by the opening of the valve 6. 

When tlft piston descends, the air will pass from 
the lower to the upper side of it by means of the 
valve d, and the operation will be continued till 
the water is driven out of A:, when the two-way 
cock c will be turned to change the communica- 
tion ; the air then passing by pipe g to the tank I. 

Seidler^s En^ne. 

The air which was forced into k is permitted to re- 
enter the cylinder through the pipe tr, as shown 
by the dotted lines in the cock c, so that no air 
will be required to enter at the valve b except 
at the commencement of the operation, or to make 
up for any air lost by leakage or discharged with 
the water. When tne air is liberated from the 
tank kf it is again filled with water by the valve 
m, the valve t being shut by the pressure of 
water in the pipe 0. While this is proceeding, 
the water is being discharged from the tank I 
by the valve-way u into the pipe 0, as before 
described in relation to the tank k. The cock e 
is turned by hand or by machiner}% after such a 
number of strokes as may be sufficient to empty 
a division of the tank. 

Air'-bath. A therapeutic apparatus for the ap- 
plication of air to the body, in a jet or chamber, 
locally or generally, refrigerated or heated. 

The compressed-air appai-atus is the reverse of 
the vacuum appliance, which proposes to increase 
the surface secretion and local circulation by ex- 
hausting air ; an operation analogous to dry cup- 
ping. See Depurator. 

Ware's Compressed Air-bath is for subjecting a 
patient to an enveloping atmosphere of air under 
pressure. The chamber A has a non-conducting 
outer wall B^ and a metallic inner wall, the inter- 
vening space being occupied by coils of pipe a, which 
may be steam -heated. A safety-valve in the floor 
limits the pressure. H is the door of entrance, 
which shuts air-right. The patient has command 
of the air and steam valves by which the chamber 
is charged and the steam -coil heated. «/' is a 
seat, F a tie-rod, I an eduction water-pipe. 

Digitized by 





Wan^s Compressed AiT'BatA. 

Air-bed and Air-cuahlon. These were known 
in the beginning of the eighteenth century, and 
were at first made of leather and afterward of air- 
tight or Mackintosh cloth ; at present they are 
made of vulcanized india-rubber. The bed is a sack 
in the form of a mattress, divided into a number of 

air-tight compart- 
1^- 68. ments, and having 

a projection at one 
end forming a bol- 
ster ; each com- 
partment has a 
valve through 
which it is inflated 
by a bellows. Air- 
cushions are mere- 
ly small sacks filled 
with air through a 
tube at one comer 
or end, by means 
of an air-condenser 
or by expiration 
from the lungs : 
escape is prevented 
by a screw-stop- 
cock. These arti- 
Linden?s Air-Bed. cles are useful to 

travellers and in- 
valids, being light and elastic, but are liable to be 
torn or punctured, and thus rendered worthless. 

Linden, October 7, 1862, has adapted the elastic 
bed to be used as a part of the infantry equipment. 
The air-bed has an outside flap of enamelled cloth 
or leather, cut longer and wider than the bed so as 
to form a coverlid for the person who lies upon the 
inflated bed. When the bed is collapsed it can be 
folded in such a manner as to form a knapsack, and 
is provided with straps to enable it to be worn as 
Such when on the march. 

Hamilton, July 16, 1867, ties the upper and 
lower surfaces of the bed, of air-proof material, by 
means of cords which are secured to buttonrheaded 
screws and cap-nuts, which clamp the mateiial and 
make the joint air-tight. 

Gilbert, February 11, 1868, stuffs the beds with 
elastic, hollow spheres of rubber. The same device 
was employed by a patentee in England, whose bed 

is described in the English Cyclopaedia, Lon- 
^ don, 1859. It was found to be too expensive 
for general use. An inflated air-bed is shown 
under Bed ; copied from a Geraian work of 
A.D. 1511. 
Air'-blast See Blower. 
Air'-brick. An iron box made of the size 
of a brick^ and having a grated side. It is 
buUt into a wall, and forms a ventilating open- 

Air, Car'ba-ret-ing. See Carbureting 
Gas and Air. 

Air'-oas'ingi A. sheet-iron casing around 
the funnel on board a steam-vessel, to pre- 
vent the transmission of heat to the deck. 

Air'-chaxnl>er for Pumpa. This was used 
by Dr. Papin of France about 1696, but had 
been described nearly two thousand years pre- 
viously by Hero in his 
** Spiritalia." It was at- Fig. 69. 

tached by Perrault, in 
=3 1684, to the fire-en^e 
^ {Pompe Portative) of Du- 

^ It is intended toequalize 
the flow of water from a re- 
ciprocatingpump. The ac- 
tion of the pump being intermit- I 
tent, the tendency is pulsative ' 
and the delivery in jerks. The 
body of air confined in the upper 
part of the chamber forms an 
elastic cushion against which 
the water impinges when lifted ; 
when the pump-piston stops 
to commence its return move- 
ment, the air again expands and 
continues the flow of water dur- 
ing the interval of inaction of 
the piston ; the valve falls as Air-Chamber, 
soon as water ceases to enter 
the chamber, to prevent return of the water by the 
induction -pipe, when the air expands. 

Air'-com-press'ing Ma-cnine'. A machine 
adapted to condense air as a motor, or for ventilation 
in snafts and mines. For this purpose air is partic- 
ularly well adapted, because its exhaust in the mine 
shaft or tunnel afibrds a direct means of ventilation 
by supply of vital air at the point where the work 
is under way. The works at the Mont Cenis and 
Hoosac Tunnels are notable instances of the use of 
compressed air carried to a great distance. The air- 
compressing engine of Sommeilleur at Bardonneche 
worked the rock-drills at the Italian end of the 
Mont Cenis Tunnel, and was operated by the dis- 
placement of air from a pipe by a heavy column of 
water obtained from the hills. See Compressed- 
air Machine ; Tunnel. The escape of steam at 
the point of work is not so desirable as that of 
air for two reasons : the condensation of tlie former 
prevents its acting to produce an outflow of air to- 
wards the mouth, as is produced by the escaping 
and expanding air ; and it only adds to the damp- 
ness and obscurity of the usually wet shaft or 
drift, instead of being a source of supply for 
breathing, from the healthy region of the exterior 

Many of the devices for merely assisting ventila- 
tion are no more than blowers (which see), but for 
use as a motor a more positive condensation is re- 
quired. By the law of Mariotte, the elastic force of 
air varies in the proportion of its density ; the great- 
er the pressure tne smaller the volume. Assuming 
the natural pressure to be 15 }x>unds to the squara 

Digitized by 





inch, by reducinff the volume to one half we shall 
have a pressure of 30 pounds to the square inch ; to 
one quarter, 60 pounds ; to one tenth, 150 pounds ; 
to one fortieth, 600 pounds. 

The stroke of a piston in its cylinder, therefore, 
if it reduce a body of air to one twentieth its origi- 
nal volume, will subject it to a pressure of 300 
pounds to the square inch. The air is generally al- 
lowed to escape oy a valve-way before the approach- 
ing piston, and is collected in a reservoir, wnence it 
passes to the machinery where its expansive force is applied. The circumstances of position and 
use are so very varied that no general statement of 
its mode of application will apply. Sometimes it is 
stored in reservoirs at the point where it is used as a 
motor or a ventilator. 

FiSK AND Waterman, January 17, 1866. The 
reservoirs for compressed air are located within the 
mine, and connected by comparatively large induc- 
tion-pipes with the air-forcing pump at Ihe mouth 
of the mine. The object is to exert a uniform 
pressure at the working point, where compressed air 
IS used as a motor, and to prevent a stoppage of the 
ventilation during a temporary stoppage of the com- 
pressing-engine at the mouth of the mine. The 

Fig 70. 

air by the duct E to 
the cy Under C. The 
motion is repeated ; 
the intervention of 
the water, as in 
the last-preceding 
case, obviating the 
necessity for an air- 
tight packing to 

cember 26, 1865. 
A pump C F, of 
ordinary construc- 
tion, IS enclosed 
within a large air- 
chamber X, which 
has no bottom, but 
is suspended in an 
open vessel of wa- 
ter ^, so that the 
water may rise high 
in the chamber, and 

Fig. 72. 

Ransom's Air-Compresring Pump. 

Fiff. 71. 

Fisk and Waterman's Comprtssed'Air Reservoir. 

eduction-tubes by which the air is discharaed from 
the reservoir are of comparatively small diameter, 
and are provided with stop-valves. 

Holly, May 22, 1866. Water is urged by the pis- 
ton C and forced 
through the curved 
pipe into the res- 
ervoir L. As the 
piston recedes, the 
valve in the head 
of the air-cylinder 
T is opened, to 
.supply the cylin- 
der with air. Wa- 
ter collecting in 
the reservoir is 

HoUy^s Air-Compressing Pump, 

I by a pipe 
to the cylinder T. 
Water between the 
piston and the air 
V permits a water- 
■- tight instead of air- 
tight packing to be 
used, the air re- 
treating before the column of water at each forward 
stroke of the piston and following it during its 
return stroke. 

Ransom, August 8, 1865. The two cvlinders are 
connected at bottom by a hollow bed- plate A, and 
have a constant amount of water, which is made 
the intermediate between the piston in the cylinder 
B and the air which occupies cylinder C. As the 

Siston descends, the column of water rises in cylin- 
er C and ejects the air, which passes through the 
valve-way c into the dome Z>, tne pressure closing 
the valve d. As the piston is rais^, the water re- 
treats, the valve c closes, valve d opens and admits 

when driven back by the force of the air may continue 
a pressure thereon and thus keep up a continuous 
blast. This may oe oetter adapted 
for a blower, but, by arranging for a 
high vertical column of water, it may 
be applied to more positive and high- 
pressure purposes. 

Patrio, April 18, 1865. This de- 
vice is intended to be placed at the 
foot of a waterfall, the water acting 
in alternate compartments E, E^ which 
are separated by a flexible diaphragm 
connected to an adjusting-bar &, that 
operates the inlet and outlet water- 
valves c a of each chamber. When either com- 
partment is emptied of the water contained therein. 


Fig. 78. 


an air-valve is opened and the air rushes in and 
fills the space vacated by the water, when, at the 
proper time, by the action of the floats F, and levers 
f ft acting upon the diaphragm, the inlet- valve is 
opened, the water enters by virtue of its gravity, 
and the air is compressed and forced out of that 
compartment to a suitable reservoir, where it is re- 
served for use in any suitable engine. 

The eflScient force depends upon the height of the 
column of water, and the consequent force with 
which the air was ejected by the water which dis- 
placed it. 

Jameson, March 13, 1858. The air is compressed 
(or rarefied by the inversion of the process) by the 
successive action of pistons in cylindera connected 

Digitized by 





Fig. 74. 

Patricks Air- Compressor. 

by pipes, whose valves govern the direction of the 
flow. Each piston is connected to a crank on the 
common rotary-shaft beneath. As the air passes 
from one to the other, it receives an additional con- 
densation, and is eventually stored in the reservoir 
71, at the end of the series ; from thence it is drawn, 
as required, to act as a motor, a blast, or for any 
other purpose for which it is adapted. The cylin- 
ders are enveloped by passages where a heater or re- 
Pig. 76. 

Jameson^s Air-Qmtpressor. 

frigerant may be placed to act upon the air. Air 
develops sensible neat as its volume is diminished 
by compression, and if it be used for cooling purposes, 
as in ice-making, its preliminary cooling before it is 
allowed to expand will make it more efleotive in ab- 
sorbing sensible heat when freed. 

Arthur, July 25, 1865. An air-pump is com- 
bined with a series of air-vessels by means of pipes 
and stop-cocks, or valves, in such a manner that the 
air compressed into one air-vessel may be used 
to supply the pump when compressing air into one 
or more other air-vessels to a higher tension, the air 
entering the pump-barrel being thus already com- 

Flg. 76. 

pressed to a certain tension. The amount of increase 
in tension which the pump is required to produce 
need not exceed that at which it will work advanta- 
geously. In the last reservoir in the seiies the air 
IS further compres.sed by forcing water into the low- 
er x^art thereof by means of another pump. The 
air is compressed more and more by the suc- 
cessive operations, a single ]>ump being required. 
The pump is connected to' such one of the reservoirs 
as may be required, and discharges into another or 
others, the power required to work the pump being 
only the difference Detween the pressure in the 

Dennison, October 23, 1866. The pistons ara 
attached to cranks set at 180" on tlie same shaft, and 
reciprocate in cylinders of varj'ing diameters, the 
larger having an air induction-pijMj, and discharging 
into the smaller, which has an eduction-pipe. A 
water-jacket keeps the parts cool. By this means 
the air receives a double condensation ; the differ- 
ence between the sectional areas of the cylinders is 
such that in ea«h a similar amount of i^ower is ex- 
erted. The induction and eduction pipes of the 
single-acting cylinders are provided with valves 
which govern the direc- 
tion of the air, opening 
nd closing automati- 
ally. The pij^e B con- 
lucts water to the jack- 
ts around the cylinders, 
o remove tne heat 
volved by the compres- 
lion of the volume of 
he air. The pipe C re- 
noves the water. The 
bstraction of heat, of 
ourse, lessens the pres- 
ure. This is desirable 
or some purposes, not 
or others. Hot water 
r steam, acting in the 
everse direction to a 
efrigerant, would be 
dapted to increase the 
fleet of the air as an 
xpansive motor. Al- 
emate expansion and 
contraction was the 
whole principle of the 
M. I. Brunel Gas-Eiigine Patent, England, 1804. 

Wg. 77. 

Arthur^ s Air- Compressor, 

Dennison' s Air- Compressor 

Digitized by 





Heated carbonic-acid gas is preferable to air for 
developing a laige force in small space. See Gas- 
engine. See also Air-engine ; Compressed- aik 
Engine ; Air as a Water-elevator. 

Air^-cona In marine engines ; to receive the 
gases which enter the hot- well from the air-pump, 
whence, after ascending, they escape through a pipe 
at the top. — Admiral Smyth. 

Air'-oooring Ap'pa-ra'tus. I n this article will 
be considered the devices for cooling a current of 
air, for purposes of health and ventilation, and not 
those involved in producing anaesthesia by cold, the 
manufacture of ice, or the cooling of fruit and meat 
chambers. These will be considered under their 
a[)propriate heads. The purpose of the former two 
of these is to reduce the temperature below the 
freezing-point, and of the latter to reduce it nearly 
to that point, while for purposes of ventilation the 
aim is to. reduce to a moderate degree the passing 
volume of air which escapes and gives place to that 
which is following. 

The circulation is not a necessary incident to ice-, 
making or to the fruit-house, though in the latter 
there is no doubt that circulation of air is a valu- 
ble feature in retaining the purity of the atmos- 
phere in the chamber. 

Another large class of inventions in which an 
artificial blast of cold air is employed is the beer 
and li(^uid coolers, which are of three kinds : those 
in which an artificial blast is driven through the 
arms of the stirrer to cool the contents of the mash- 
tub ; those in which the liquid is passed through 
a refrigerating vessel and is cooled by contact there- 
with; those in which refrigerating effects are im- 
parted to a vessel containing liquor on draft, to 
reduce its tendency to fermentation or to make it 
more, palatable. See Liquid-cooler ; Ice-manu- 
facturing ; Anjbsthetio Apparatus ; Fruit 
AND Meat Chamber. 

The East Indian Tatta is a screen of finely woven 
bamboo in a frame which fits into a window-open- 
ing. It is kept constantly moist by tAckling 
water, and thus cools the air as it enters the apart- 
ment, while the screen also excludes insects. 

The same effect is produced by an arrangement 
which keeps moist the mosquito-bar around the bed. 
The Alcaraza is a Spanish form of the same 

Somes's plan for ventilating ships, February 28, 
1865. The design of the apparatus is to expose a 
current of air to contact with vessels or pipes filled 
with water taken from a distance below tne surface. 
The system of pipes is arranged at any convenient 
submeii^d point on the ship s sides, and the air is 
forced in contact therewith by the motion of the 
vessel, or the action of the waves. The cooled air 

is conducted by 
B^' 78. pipes to cool and 

ventilate the va- 
rious apartments 
in the vessel, or 
the grain or other 
perishable freight 
with which it may 
be loaded. 

See also Thiers's 
American Pat- 
ent, 1871. See 
Ship - ventilat- 

In Somes's plan 

for ventilating, 

cooling, and heat- 

Sonus^s fiftfp. Vetuiiator. ing the Capitol, the 

air is introduced into a vault so far beneath the 
surface as to be free from the changes of tempera- 
ture incident to the seasons. The aif is conducted 
by a conduit, in which it is exposed to pipes whose 
contents have a warming or refrigerating effect 
upon the passing air. Purifying and moistening in- 
fluences are also brought to bear upon the air. 

In his patent of October 15, 1867, vacuum and 
compressing chambers are used in combination with 
the pumps which create the current of air. Atom- 
izing tubes are added to reduce the temperature and 
impart moisture, the disseminated liquid becoming 
vaporized and absorbing free caloric from the air. 
Another plan is to force a body of air through pipes 
which pass to the cold earth below the surface, or 
to expose air to the contact of pipes filled with 
water which has been conducted to the said depth. 
It is suggested, in connection with this, that the 
air may be condensed in the cooler and become 
further cooled as it expands. 

Shaler's air-cooler. May 80, 1865. The case 
contains a series of cells so arranged as to form a 

Kg. 79. 

Shaler's Air-cooling Apparaius. 

tortuous passage. The .chambers are filled with ipe, 
and the air is caused to circulate through the pas- 
sage by means of a fan. 

In Maine's apparatus for cooling and disinfecting 
air, December 4, 1866, a continuous apron of porous 
material is passed through the tank 'containing the 
disinfecting and cooling liquid, and thence passes 
over rollers rotated by clock-work, its surface being 
exposed to a current of air, generated by a fan 
which is driven by the same motor as the rollers. 
See Air-FILTER. 

Air'-oush'ion for Pipes. The object is to avoid 
the jar which occurs when a column of water in 
motion is suddenly arrested. Various means have 
been tried, prominent among which are air-cham- 
bers. Air, however, is gradually absorbed by the 
water, and as a means of imprisoning it and still 
allowing it to contract when the jar comes, and 
afterwaras to expand, it is enclosed in a ball of 
ber. This is Fig. 80. 
shown in 
Bevan's pat- 
ent, March 
14, 1865, and 
in some oth- 
ers. The ar- 
80 allows the 
expansion of 

the water, in freezing, without bursting the pipe. 
The sack is placed in an enlargement of the pipe, 
and so caged as not to stop the now. A continuous 
tube of the same material, and containing air, is 
arranged in the tube also. 

Air'-draixL {Building.) A cavity around the 
subterrauean walls of a building, protected by a 
wall on the earth side, and designed to prevent 
the absorption of moisture by the wall. 

Air'-drilL A drill driven by the elastic pressure 

Bewm'^s Air- Cushion for Pipes. 

Digitized by 





of condensed air. The construction usually resem- 
bles the reciprocating steam-engine, compressed air 
being substituted for the steam ; the dnll-stock is 
attached to the piston-rod. It is usually termed 
the Pneumatic Drill, which see. 

Air'-en'-gine. For more than a century the at- 
tention of mechanicians has been tlirected to means 
for making air and gases available in driving ma- 
chinery. The inventions resulting from these efforts 
have led in different directions, or to different sets 
of specific means. 

Ahouton (France, 1699) had an atmospheric fire- 
wheel, or air-engine, in which a heated column of 
air was made to drive a wheel. A smoke-jack is a 
familiar instance of the same on a small scale. So 
are the toys now attached to stove-pipes and repre- 
senting incipient men (monkeys) sawing wood, etc. 

Some have attempted to make available the ex- 
pansion of air, previously mechanically condensed 
and stored in reservoirs. It was not understood, 
apparently, that the valuable effect would only be 
equal to the force employed in condensing the air, 
minus some friction, leaka^, and other incidentals. 
This form settled down into two classes of ma- 
chines : 1. Those which were locomotive in their 
character, as in Bompas's air-driven carria^ (Eng- 
lish patent, 1828), where air was condensed m tanks 
and admitted to the alternate ends of a cylinder, 
which had a reciprocating piston, connected in the 
usual manner to the crank and drive-shaft. The 
same device, substantially, was used by Von Rathen 
in 1848, at Putney, England, where he ran an air- 
locomotive at the rate of ten or twelve miles an 
hour. See Compressed-air Engine. 2. Those 
in which a bodv of air is condensed into a reservoir, 
placid at the bottom of a shaft, or in a situation 
where the prime motor cannot be set up. In this 
case the engine in the mine is run by tne air from 
the reservoir during a lull in the force of the prime 
motor. This was the subject of a patent in Eng- 
land, to Medhurst, 1799. He condensed air to 
one fifteenth of its volume, and stored it for this 
purpose. The air-reservoirs of FiSK (U. S. patent, 
1865) have a similar purpose. See A IR-COM press- 
ing Machine. 

Another form of air-engine has consisted of two 
chambers filled with air or gas, and connecting by 
pipes with the respective ends of a cylinder in 
which a piston reciprocates as the bodies of air in 
the said cylinders are alternately expanded and con- 
tracted. Stirling's engine (English patent, 1827) 
was of this character, and is stated by Chambers to 
have been unsuccessfiil, owing to mechanical defects 
and to "the unforeseen accumulation of heat, — not 
fully extracted by the sieves or smill passages in the 
cool part of the regenerator, of whicn the external 
surface was not sufficiently laige to throw off the 
unrecovered heat when the engine was working with 
highly compressed air." Mr. Stirling was stated, by 
the same authority, to have been the originator 
(1816) of the regenerator wherein the heat of the 
exhausting air is made to heat surfaces which com- 
municate neat to the incoming air for the next 
charge. The distinctive form of apparatus was no 
doubt new with Mr. Stirling, but tne main idea is 
much older, as it is found in the English patent 
of Glazebrook, 1797. Stirling's regenerator is de- 
scribed as '* consisting of a chamlSr or chambers 
filled with metallic sieves of wire-gauze, or minutely 
divided metallic passages, througn which the air is 
made to pass oiUioard from the cylinder, after hav- 
ing performed its work on the working-piston of the 
engine, leaving a gniat part of its heat m the sieves 
or narrow passages, to be given out by them again 

to the returning air, which is made to pass inward 
through the same sieves or narrow passages, and by 
a slight accession of new heat from the furnace, to 
produce another effective stroke of the piston. By 
repeating this process at each stroke of the engine, 
it is evident that a lai*ge portion of the heat that 
would otherwise go to waste will be used many 
times over, and thus a smaller amount of new heat 
will require to be supplied from the heating furnace 
of the engine, and a corresponding saving of fuel be 

Such is the description, but the statement is open 
to objections. 

A further improvement of Messrs. Stirling was 
patented in England, in 1840. 

In this engine two strong air-tight vessels are con- 
nected with tne opposite ends of a cylinder, in which 
a piston works m the usual manner. About four 
fifths of the interior space in these vessels is occupied 
by two similar air-vessels, or plungers, suspended 
to the opposite extremities of a beam, and capable 
of being alternately moved up and down to the 
extent of the remaining fifth. By the motion of 
these interior vessels the air to be operated upon is 
moved from one end of the exterior vessel to the 
other ; and as one end is kept at a high temperature, 
and the other as cold as possible, when tne air is 
brought to the hot end it becomes heated, and has 
its pressure increased, whereas its heat and pressure 
are diminished when it is forced to the cold end. 
Now, as the interior vessels necessarily move in 
opposite directions, it follows that the pressure of 
the enclosed air in the one vessel is increased, while 
that of the other is diminished; a difference of 
pressure is produced on opposite sides of the piston, 
which is made to move from one end of the cylinder 
to the other. The piston is connected with a fly- 
wheel, and motion communicated in the usual way. 

In this engine the air received heat at the tem- 
perature of 650** Fah., and dischai^d the )ost heat 
at that of 160* Fah. The efficiency of a theoreti- 
cally perfect engine with those limits of temperature 
would be 0.45, and its consumption of coal 0.73 of 
a lb. per horse-power per hour. The actual con- 
sumption of coal per horse-power per hour was about 
2.2 lbs., being three times the consumption of a 
theoretically perfect engine, and corresponding to 
an actual efficiency of 0.15, or one third of the maxi- 
mum theoretical efficiency. Stirling's air-engine was 
therefore more economical than any existing double- 
action steam-engine. The following is a compari- 
son of the consumption of bituminous coal of speci- 
fied quality per horse-power per hour : — 

1. For a theoretically perfect engine, working ^^^ 

between such limits of temperature as 

is usual in a steam-engine . . .1.86 

2. Fora double-acting steam-engine, impelled 

to the utmost probable extent . .2.50 

3. For a well-constructed and properly 

worked ordinary steam-engine, on an 
average 4.00 

One engine constructed in this manner had a 
cylinder 12 inches in diameter, 2 feet stroke, and 
is stated to have worked to 20 horse -power ; another 
engine with a cylinder 16 inches in diameter, 4 feet 
stroke, worked up to 40 horse-power. The latter, 
we are informed, did all the work of the Dundee 
Foundry Company for three years ; using only one 
fourth the amount of fuel previously consumed by 
its predecessor, the steam-engine. It was then 
laid aside, owing to some difficulty in renewing the 
heater. Perhaps it incurred a heavy expense in wear, 
tear, and the burning out of parts. 

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The construction of the engine seems to have 
been essentially a duplication of the invention of 
Parkinson' and Crosley, English patent, 1827. 

In this engine the air-chamber is partly exnosed, 
by submergence in cold water, to external cold, and 
its upper portion is heated by steam. An internal 
vessel moves up and down in this chamber, and in so 
doing displaces the air, alternately exposing it to the 
hot and cold influences of the cold water and the hot 
steam, changing its temperature and exj)ahsive con- 
dition. The fluctuations cause the reciprocation of 
a piston in a cylinder to whose ends the air-chamber 
is alternately connected. 

While treating of that form of air-engine which 
depends upon tne variation in the themiometric 
condition of a body or bodies of air, which connect 
with the opposite sides of the piston alternately, it 
may be well to mention the engine of Bruxkl, in 
which carbonic acid gas b stored in two chambers, 
communicating with the respective ends of the cyl- 
inder and operating the piston therein by their 
thermometric fluctuations. See Gas-engine. 

A third form of the apparatus embraces but few 
features, but these have been modifled according to 
the convictions of independent inventoi-s to such an 
extent that they are represented by eighty patents 
now before the writer. 

These features may be described as found in 
Glazebrook's English patent, 1797 ; a condensed 
statement of which is as follows : 1. A force-pump 
to compress the cool air ; 2. a chamber in which 
the^ fluid is saturated with moisture (this is 
not" retained by all the modem forms, but is by 
some) ; 3. A heater where its expansive force is in- 
crpased ; 4. A cylinder in which its expansive force 
is utilized against a piston ; 5. A mode of utilizing 
the heat of ths outgoing air, to heat the new charge 
of compressed cool air for another stroke. Of this 
latter feature, more hereafter. 

In Glazebrook's, the piston of the working-cylin- 
der and that of the pump-cylinder connect with the 
opposite ends of the working-beam. This inventor's 
statements of the principles of the operation of his ma- 
chine are worthy of being quoted at length, but must 
be condenseil for our purpose and limits. His engine 
was of the diflerential order, and he states the measure 
of power to be the difference of force exerted in the 
working and air-compressing cylinders, of which the 
latter is much the smaller, and the extra force in 
the former is due to the accession of heat derived from 
the furnace wherein the air is heated after compres- 
sion in the smaller cylinder, and before it is aamit- 
ted to and allowed to expand against the piston in 
the larger cylinder. Viewing the history of the air- 
engine for the seventy years succeeding Glazebrook, 
we may at least say that he is a great anticipator. 

Glazebrook's second patent, 1801, has a refriger- 
atory, whose use is not, as in Randolph's (Scotland, 
1856), to cool the pump wherein the air is con- 
densed (see Compressed-air Engine), but is used 
for depriving the escaping gas of its heat, in case a 
gas be used of so expensive a character as to pre- 
clude its being ejected into the atmosphere after 
using. This is probably the commencement of 
using the same air over and over again. He cites 
carbonic acid and other gases and compounds. He 
only antedated by three years the engine of Brunei, 
which was intended to be used witliout any escape 
of carbonic acid ; two volumes of which were made 
to fluctuate in temperature alternately, and produce 
a pulsation in the chamber placed between them, 
and in which the piston worked. 

Lilley's air-engine, English patent, 1819, may 
be simply noticed as. in the same line of invention. 

The air is compressed by mechanical force ; passed 
through heated tubes, expanded against a piston^ 
and then escapes into the open air. 

The first working-cyhnders of the Ericsson were 
168 inches in diameter, and the piston had a stroke 
of 8 feet, the air being introduced at natural press- 
ure into the heater. The inade^iuacy of the power 
developed, and difficulties incident to the scale of 
the machinery induced him to make it more com- 
pact by condensing the air mechanically, and redu- 
cing the size of the working-cylinders to 72 inches 
diameter, and 6 feet stroke. This condensation he 
did not claim as his own invention, as we under- 
stand ; but it is claimed for Stirling at the date of 
his second patent, 1827. This, however, is not cor- 
rect, for it is found in the specification of Lilley, 
English patent, 1819, and in Glazebrook's, 1797. 
This patent of Glazebrook, in connection with his 
improvement of 1801, may be considered the most 
remarkable one of the series, and has just been men- 
tioned. The action of Ericsson gave a ^reat impe- 
tus to the invention and building of air-engines ; 
examples will be cited presently. Air-engines on a 
small scale are extensively used in driving printing- 
presses and such like work. It is believed that 
they are especially suitable for positions where wa- 
ter is scarce, and suggestions have been made for 
their use in prairie farming, without anything defi- 
nite being reached in that direction. 

The claims put forward for the Ericsson engine 
indicate that he expected to use the same portion of 
heat in producing mechanical power over and over 
again. One who advocated tlie cause stated that 
** the basis of the caloric engine is that of returning 
the heat at each stroke of the ])iston, and using it 
over and over again." "This result," he remarks, 
*' Captain Ericsson has attained by means of an appa- 
ratus which he styles a regenerator, and so perfectly 
does it operate that the heat employed in first set- 
ting the engine in motion continues to sustain it in 
full working-force, with no other renewal or addi- 
tion than may be requisite to supply the inconsider- 
able loss by radiation." 

This would be the legitimate conclusion of the 
premises stated, and the reductio ad absurdum^ one 
would have thought, would have opened the eyes of 
the claimant. If the statement were true, the en- 
gine would become hotter and hotter, unless the fire 
was almost put out when the engine commenced 
running, and the power would be used over again to 
an extent which would put to the blush the me- 
chanical' equivalent of a unit of heat in a theoreti- 
cally perfect engine ; a consummation unexpected, 
to say the least. 

The effect of the claim is, that the heat of the 
outgoing air is perfectly withdrawn by the re^nera- 
tor and transferred to the charge of incoming air 
on its way to the engine, and this without the expen- 
diture of power. The fallacy of the statement, for 
which Mr. Ericsson may not be responsible, is in 
supposing that the air could be passed into and 
through the regenerator in the manner proposed, 
without the exertion of power. The air, as it enters 
the regenerator, would expand with the increment of 
heat acquired therein, and a given volume would re- 
quire the expenditure of a force to drive or draw it 
through equal to that which the heat thus absorbed, 
and expansive condition acquired, would be capable 
of exerting. 

If no power were exerted to induct the air, under 
these circumstances of expansion, only a part of 
the charge required would pass into the chamber, 
and that which reached the furnace would be al- 
ready attenuated by expansion. Expansion presup- 

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poses the expenditure of power, and is produced by 
heat in this case ; the relation of heat to power, and 
jibnversely, must not be ignored. The interposition 
of the air-pump does not affect the problem, for the 
attenuation of the air by heat will necessitate a 
greatei power to condense a body of air, of given 
normal volume, into the space where its expansive 
powers are to be exerted. 

The regenerator was used by Stirling, 1816, and 
Glazebrook, 1797, in air-engines. The forms of the 
regenerators, ho'w;/pver, differ considembly. Stirling's 
IS described in this article, and Glazebro6k's appears 
to have been like a modem air-heater in which the hot 
current heated pipes filled with the incoming air. 

Mr. Ewbank, speaking of the Ericsson regenerator, 
says : ** The principle on which this invention i*ests 
is the repeateu use of the same caloric. In this en- 
gine, as in the steam-engine, heat is the animating 
principle ; and in using over and over again the 
same heat, he virtually uses over and over again the 
same power. He claims to have succeeded, in sav- 
ing upwards of 90 nor cent of the heat expended in 
raising a loaded piston, and in retaining and com- 
pelling it to do the same work over again." Paine 
m his United States patent, November 30, 1858, 
moistens and refiigerates the incoming air so as to 
reduce its bulk, for the sake of getting a partially 
condensed volume for the supply of the air-pump. 

A writer in the English Encyclopaedia states the 
Ericsson experiments as follows : — 

"In the summer of 1852 two of Ericsson's caloric 
engines were at work in a factory at New York ; 
and as newspaper paragraphs frequently appeared, 
presenting most favorable accounts of the working 
of these engines, arrangements wei-e planned for 
building a snip of 1000 tons' burden, to be pro- 
pelled by hot air instead of steam. It was antici- 
pated that the Atlantic might be crossed by such a 
ship in fifteen days, at a vastly cheaper rate than 
by the superb but costly Cunard steamers,, theieby 
more than compensating for the quicker passage 
of the latter. Tne ship was 250 feet long, and hoi 
paddle-wheels 32 feet in diameter. On its first trial- 
trip, January 4, 1853, the ship made twelve knots 
an hour with the wind, and answered her helm well ; 
she only used six tons of fuel per day, and was pro- 
nounced a success by her friends. 

" On the second trial, the maximum speed attained 
was nine knots, — obtained, as asserted, at a cost only 
one sixth of that of steam. After this, unfavorable 
circumstances, one by one, came to lighi ; and the 
ship named the * Ericsson,' in honor of the inventor, 
failed to establish the validity of the principle in- 
volved. Influenced by the results of further ex- 
periments made in 1854, the indefatigable inventor 
took out another . patent in 1855 for certain novel- 
ties in the apparatus. In this new caloric engine, 
the heated air, after performing its duty by raising 
the piston in the working-cylinder, is made to cir 
culate thi'ough a vessel containing a series of tubes ; 
and the current of heated air, in passsing through 
this vessel or regenerator, is met by a current of 
cold air, circulating in an opposite dii-ection through 
tlie series of tubes on its way to the working-cylinder. 

"Thus there is cold air within the tubes. and hot 
air without, an interchange takes place, or rather an 
equalization, by a transference of caloric from one 
to the other. 

'* The current of cold air, on its way to the working- 
cylinder, after thus haWiig been partially heated by 
the transference of caloric, is made to pass through 
a series of tubes or vessels exposed to the fire of a 

' ' The action of the engine itself is what is called 

* differential,' the motive energy depending on the 
difference of areas in the working and supply cyl- 
inders. [And the superior energy of the chaise in 
the former due to its increment of heat derived from 
the furnace. — Ed.] 

"The heater and regenerator are supplied with 
fresh compressed atmospheric air at each stroke of 
the engine. 

** In the year now under notice [18651 the old 
caloric engine was taken out of the 'Ericsson,' 
and steam-engines substituted. Captain Ericsson 
would not admit, however, that this was an evi- 
dence of failure in his plans ; he still asserted the 
soundness of the principle, and the economy in fuel. 

" The first engine made was, he said, too cumbrous 
for the available amount of power in the ship, and 
the losses by leakage and friction were greater than 
had been anticipated. A second was made ; but the 
joints of the pijKis of the heaters were not good, and 
could not bear a greater pressnit* than such as would 
produce a speed of seven knots an hour. Surcharged 
or overheated steam was used, because the hot air 
escaped, and then occurred a dislocation of the 
whole machinery by an explosion. 

** This action led to the substitution of steam- 
boilers ; but even then Ericsson would not admit 
that the principle of his caloric endue was proved 
to be unsound ; seeing that the accident had arisen 
from mechanical defects, and that the change con- 
sisted only in the use of steam-boilers instead of 
air-heatere." The English writer is here incorrect, 
as she was supplied with steam-boilers aind engines. 

The " Ericsson " made a trip from New YoTk to 
Washington, and is said to have used an enormous 
quantity of "tallow in lubricating her machinery. 
This difficulty is avoided in some of the smaller 
machines now built, by saturating the air with 
steam. See Aero-steam Engine. 

In a paper read by Mr. Raukine before the British 
Association in Liverpool, September, 1854, is a suc- 
cinct statement of the principles underlying this 
subject of invention ; from it we derive the follow- 

** Heat acts as a source of mechanical power by 
expanding bodies, and convei-sely^ when mechanical 
power is expended in compressing bodies, or in 
producinj^ friction, heat is evolved. This mutual 
convertibility of heat and mechanical power is ex- 
pressed in the following law : * That when mechani- 
cal power is produced by the expenditure of heat, 
a quantity of heat disappears, bearing a fixed pro- 
portion to the power produced ; and conversely, that 
when heat is produced by the expenditure of me- 
chanical power, the quantity of heat produced bears 
a fixed proportion to the power expended. This 
law has been established chiefly by the experiments 
of Mr. Joule on the production of heat by the fric- 
tion of the particles of various substances, solid, 
liquid, and gaseous, and he has ascertained the 
fixed proportion which heat and mechanical power 
bear to each other in cases of mutual conversion. 

** The unit of heat — or so much heat as is suffi- 
cient to the temperature of one pound of water 
at ordinary temperatures by one de^e of Fahren- 
heit's thermometer — rec^uires for its production, 
and produces by its disappearance, or, in other 
words, is equivalent to, 772 lbs. of mechamcal 
power ; that is, so much mechanical power as is 
sufficient to lift a weight of 1 lb. to a height of 772 
feet. This quantity is known as Joules equivalent, 
or the dynamical specific heat of water at ordi- 
nary temperatures. The dynamical specific heats 
of other substances may be determined by direct 
exiwriment, or by ascertaining the ratios to that of 

Digitized by 





water. Thus, to heat 1 lb. of atmospheric air, main- 
tained at a constant volume, by 1* Fahrenheit, 
requires the expenditure of 130.5 foot lbs. of 
mechanical power. This is the real dynamical 
specitic heat of air. The apparent dynamical spe- 
cific heat of 1 lb. of air, under constant pre^ure, 
is, for l** Fah., 183.7 foot lbs. ; the difference, or 
53.2 foot lbs., being the mechanical power exerted 
by the air in expanding, so as to preserve the same 
pressure notwithstanding the increase of its tem- 
perature by 1*. The apparent specific heat of air 
at constant pressure exceeds the real specific heat 
in the ratio of 1.41 : 1. All quantities of heat may 
thus be expressed by equivalent quantities of me- 
chanical power. The heat required to raise 1 lb. 
of water from the freezing to the boiling point, 
and to eva()orate it at the latter temperature, is 
1,147.5" X 772 = 885,870 foot lbs.: of which 
180"* X 772 = 138,960 foot lbs. is sensible heat, or 
that employed in raising the temperature of the wa- 
ter ; while the remainder, 967.5^X772 = 746,910 
foot lbs., is the latent heat of evaporation of 1 lb. 
water at 212" Fah., or the heat that disappears in 
overcoming the mutual attraction of the particles 
of water, and the external pressure under which it 
evaporates. The mechanical eauivalent of the avail- 
able heat produced by 1 lb. of ordinary steam coal 
may be taicen on an average of that of the heat 
,reQuired to raise 7 lbs. of water from 60" to 212" 
Fan., and to evaporate it at the latter temperature, 
that is to say, in round numbers, 6,000,000 foot 
lbs. The total heat is much greater, but there is 
a loss in the gases which ascend the chimney. 

" Heat, being convertible with mechanical power, 
is convertible also with the vis viva of a body in 
motion. The British unit of heat, 1" Fah* in 
1 lb. of water, is equivalent to the vis viva of a 
mass weighing 1 lb. moving with a velocity of 223 
feet per second, being the velocity acquired in fall- 
ing through a height of 772 feet. A mass of water, 
of which each particle is in motion with this ve- 
locity, has its temperature elevated by 1" of Fah. 
upon the extinction of the motion, by the mutual 
fnction of the particles. Heat communicated to a 
substance produces in geneml three kinds of effects 
(omitting the chemical and electrical phenomena): 
1. An increase of temperature and expansive press- 
ure. 2. A change of volume, nearly always an in- 
crease. 8. A molecular change, as from the solid 
to the liquid, or from the liquid or solid to the 
gaseous state. The heat which produces the first 
kind of effects is known as sensible heat, and makes 
the body hotter. In the second and third kinds of 
effects heat disappears and becomes latent ; but may 
be reproduced by reversing the change which caused 
it to disappear. In evaporating 1 lb. of water at 
212" a quantity of heat disappears equivalent to 
746,910 foot lbs. The pressure of the steam pro- 
duced is 2,116.4 lbs. on the square foot. The vol- 
ume is probably about 26^ cubic feet more than 
that of the liquid water. Multiplying these two 
quantities together, it appears that the heat ex- 
pended in overcoming external pressure is equiva- 
lent to only 56,085 root lbs., leaving 690,825 foot 
lbs. for the mechanical equivalent of the heat which 
disappears in overcoming the mutual attraction of the 
particles of the water. Whereas the latent heat of 
expansion of a permanent gas consists almost entirely 
of neat which disappears in overcoming the external 
pressure. Thus the product of the volume in cubic 
feet of 1 lb. of air, at 650" Fah., by its pressure in lbs. 
per square foot, is 59,074 foot lbs. If that 1 lb. of 
air be expanded under pressure to 1^ times its origi- 
nal volume, and still be maintained at the constant 

temperature of 650" by being supplied with heat 
from an external source, the work performed by it 
in expanding will be 59,074 X hyperbolic logarithm 
of 1^ = 23,958 foot lbs., and this quantity will also 
be sensibly equal to the mechanical equivalent to 
the heat supplied, and which disappears during 
the expansion. It is this heat which disappears in 
producing increase of volume under pressure, which 
is the refu source of power in the performance of a 
thermo-dynamic engine ; as it is a portion of this 
heat which is actually converted into mechanical 
work, while the heat expended in producing eleva- 
tion of temperature produces merely a tendency to 
the development of power. When an elastic sub- 
stance has to perform mechanical work through the 
agency of heat, it goes through a cycle of four pro- 
cesses, which,* taken together, constitute a single 
^stroke of the engine. 

** Process A. — The substance is raised to an ele- 
vated temperature. This process may or may not 
involve «n alteration of volume. 

** Process B. — The substance, bein^ maintained at 
the elevated temperature, increases m volume and 
propels a piston. During this process heat disap- 
pears, but an equivalent quantity is supplied from 
without, so that the temperature does not fall. 

** Process C. — The substance is cooled down to its 
original low temperature, with or without a change 
of volume. 

** Process D, — The substance, being maintained at 
its depressed temperature, is compressed, by the 
return of the piston, to its original volume. During 
this process heat is produced ; and in order that it 
may not elevate the temperature of the substance, 
and give rise to an increased pressure, impeding 
the return of the piston, it must be abstracted as 
quickly as produced, by some external means of 
refrigeration. The substance, being now brought 
back to its original volume and temperature, is 
ready to undergo the cycle of processes again ; or it 
may be rejected, and a fresh portion of the sub- 
stance employed Tor the next stroke. In the latter 
case the operation of expelling the substance may 
take the place of process Z>. In some cases the pro- 
cesses B, Cy or D may be first in the order of time. 
During the cycle of processes the working substance 
alternately increases and diminishes in volume in 
contact with a moving piston. During the increase 
of volume the pressiire of the substance against the 
piston expends mechanical power in compressing the 
working substance. The increase of volume takes 
place at a higher temperature, and therefore at a 
nigher pressure than the diminution of volume; 
consequently, the mechanical power communicated 
to the piston exceeds that taken away from it. The 
surplus is the power of the engine^ available for per- 
forming mechanical work. The efficiency of the 
thermo-dynamic engine is the ratio which the 
available power bears to the mechanical equivalent 
of the wnole heat expended. If the heat com- 
municated to the working substance entirely dis- 
appeared, the power produced by that engine 
would bis the exact equivalent of the heat ex- 
pended, or 772 foot lbs for each unit of heat, and 
its efficiency would be represented by unity. A 
perfect engine would produce power to the amount 
of 6,000,000 foot lbs., for eacn pound of coal con- 
sumed ; and as a horse-power is 1,980,000 foot lbs. 
per hour, the consumption of coal would be 0.33 lb. 
per horse-power per hour. But of course there is a 
waste of heat and power to be allowed for in every 
engine before we can arrive at its actual efficiency.' 

The efficiency of a theoretically perfect engine, 
working between the same temperatures as Ericsson's, 

Digitized by 





would be 0.404, corresponding to a consumption of I supporting combustion in the furaace, the volatile 
0.82 lb. of coal per horse-power per hour. The ac- 1 portions pass off by the pipe D to the wash-box E, 
tual consumption was 1.87 lbs. of anthra- 


cite, or 2.8 lbs. of bituminous coal. This is ^' 82. 

about 3. 4 times the consumption of a theo 
retically perfect engine, and corresponds to 
an actual efficiency of 0.118, being less 
than the maximum theoretical efficiency in 
the ratio 0.295 to 1. The waste of heat and 
power, therefore, in Ericsson's engine must 
have been very great, though it was economi- 
cal of fuel as compared with steam-engines. 

Many of the modem forms of air-engines 
conduct the incoming charge of air to the 
furnace and make it the means of maintain- 
ing combustion. The volatile results, abound- ^ 
ing in carbon and deprived more or less 
perfectly of the oxygen, require washing to 
remove the dust and soot which would oth- 
erwise pass to the cylinder. Combustion is 
thus maintained under pressure, a condition 
considered by many to oe very favorable to 
the economical use of the fuel. 

Some of the air-engines of late construction 
use a larger or smaller proportion of steam, 

partly as a motor and partly as a lubricator of the | where the grit and soot are arrested. ^ is a water- 
supply pipe and / a hand-hole for with 

Washburn's Air- Heater and Steam- Generator. 

Fig. 81. 

BenneWs Air-Heaier and Steam- Generator. 

parts which are apt to grind, working in the hot, 
dry air. See AJsro-steam Engine. 

Benneit, August 3, 1838. This is a combined 
air-heater and steam -generator, the combustion being 
maintained under pressure. The air is forced in by a 
|)ump, and enters above and below the grates in quan- 
tities regulated by the dampers a, a, in the branches 
of the pipe B. Coal is introduced through the charger 
C above, without allowing any notable amount of air 
to escape. The upper valve c ^ing withdrawn, a 
charge of coal is dropped on to the lower valve, when 
the upper valve is shut, and the withdrawal of tlie 
lower one allows the coal to fall into the furnace A. 
The volatile products of combustion pass through 
the water-trap Z), and mingle with the steam gener- 
ated in the jacket E. The caloric current is purged 
of its grit and soot by the water in the trap x), and 
the combined heated air, gases, and steam pass by 
the pipe F' to the engine. An equal pressure is 
maintained in the furnace and in the steam-generat-' 
ing chamber. 

Washburn, September 5, 1865. The water pass- 
es by pipe O to the coil B, where it is converted into 
steam wnich passes off by pipe C. Air from a force- 

combustion of the fuel 
under pressure. 

After the foregoing 
treatise on the early 
history of the air-en- f 
gine and the considera- 1 
tion of the principles 
involved, the remain- 
der of this article will 
be devoted to examples 
of the air-engines which 
have been introduced 
during the last twenty 
years. They are about 
eighty in number, and 
may be divided into 
five classes, in all of 
which the air is ex- 
panded by heat. (Air- 
engines into whose ac- 
pump enters the ash-pit A by the pipe ^, and after ! tion heat does no enter 

drawing* accumulated matter arrested in 
the bath. After being deprived of im- 
purities, the air passes by the pipe K, aiid 
joins the steam, the two passing by pipe 
L to the engine. The pressure through- 
out the apparatus is equal, the air and 
water being forced into it at a pressure 
equal to that of the outgoing steam and 
air. The steam-generating tube By being 
exposed to pqual pressure within and 
without, may be of light material, and 
the hot-air current may vaporize a por- 
tion of the water in the cleanser E, 
which is also supplied under pressure, 
p The strength is in the outer wails. 

Stillman, August 9, 1864. The air- 
heating chamber is surrounded by a steam- 
generator, the steam from which is made 
the means, by injectors, of introducing 
the supply of air below the grate of the 
furnace, and also at a higher point, where 
it acts to assist the draft. For this pur- 
pose the steam in the generator is maintained at a 
nigher temperature than the air in the furnace, 
and acts as a substitute for the air-pump in afford- 
ing a supply of air for 

Fig. 88. 

StiUman^s Hot- Air and 
Stfntn- Generator, 

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as an eflTective agent are considered under Com- 
pressed-air Engine, which see.) 

Ist. Those in which the air is compressed into a res- 
ervoir, emitted in graduated amounts, heated, used 
effectively against a piston in a cylinder, and then 
discharged. This is the most numerous class. Some 
of them pass their aii'-supply through the furnace, 
and in others it is only heated by the furnace. In 
the fonner the discharge of the air is a necessity, 
not so in the latter ; this brings us to the 

2d. Those in which the air or gas is not expended, 
but the same air is caused to return to the heater 
and be again expanded and .utilized. This is the 
subject of the English patent of Glazebrook, 1801, 
and I^ubereau, 1859 ; and the United States patent 
of the latter dated 1849. 

3d. Those engines in which the air or gas is not 
expended, but occupies two reservoirs communicat- 
ing with the cylinder on the respective sides of the 
piston ; the air in said reservoir bein^ alternately 
neated and cooled to change its expansive force and 
thus reciprocate the piston. This was the form of 
Brunei's engine, British, 1804 ; and Stirling's, 
British, 1827 ; and Peters's, 1862. 

4th. Those engines in which water or steam is min- 
ffled with the air to moisten it and keep the work- 
ing parts from abrasion ; in some cases being intro- 
duced in quantity to be positively co-operative. 
These are Aero-steam Engines, which see. 

6th. Those engines in which the power derived is 
transferred to a body of water, to prevent burning 
the working parts and to obviate tne necessity for 
air-tight ioints. 

It will be apparent that only a few representa- 
tive examples can be shown within the limits assign- 
able to this subject, in which, as is commonly the 
case, some inventors have numerous patents embra- 
cing details of construction, as the working of their 
engines developed defects and elicited remedies. 

The first class is after the similitude of the Glaze- 
brook, 1797, and Lilley, 1819. 

Ericsson patented improvements in air-engines 
in 1851, 1855, 1856, 1858, and 1860. The following 
affords an example of one of his endues. 

Ericsson, specification patent of July 31, 1855, de- 

Eriesson^s Air-Ensinf (1855). 

scribes the invention substantially as follows (the 
illustratioH is reduced, from the omcial draAving, for 
this work) : — 

b is the working-piston ; c, the supply-piston ; /, 
the exhaust-port ; <j, the induction-port. The re- 
generator consists of tubes k ; m are the heater- 
tubes. By means of a hand air-pump, applied to 
some part of the regenerator, a supply of atmospher- 
ic air is introduced at about the pressure of the at- 
mosphere, and then the engine is in a condition to 
begin its operation. Starting with the pistons of 
one engine in the position represented in the lower 
view, Fig. 84, at the extremity of their outward 
stroke, as the crank «, moving in an upward direction 
is making that part of its circuit near the outer 
dead-point, and therefore imparting but little mo- 
tion to the working-piston 6, the supply-piston c is 
carried from the working-piston and towards the head 
of the cylinder with a rapid motion by the action of 
the cam on the roller of the arm gr, the cam rotat- 
ing in the direction aforesaid, and its acting face 
being formed as represented, that the piston may 
be gradually started, rapidly accelerated, and, near 
the end, gradually arrested, and there retained in a 
state of rest as the extremity, of the cam passes the 
roller. During this inward motion of the supply- 
piston, tire working-piston will be opened by the* 
pressure of the atmosphere, to permit cold air to 
enter and fill that part of the cylinder between the 
two pistons. So soon as the supply-piston stops, 
the exhaust-|)ort closes, and the continued inward 
motion of the working-piston begins to compress 
the cold air thus supplied, which of course closes 
the self-acting valve rf, through which the supply 
was admitted by atmospheric pressure. Thus sup- 
plied, cold air continues to be compressed by the 
working-piston, until the end of its inward stroke ; 
and, as tne power for effecting this compression is 
derived for tne time being from the other engine, it 
is important to oljserve the condition of the connec- 
tions. At the time the supply-piston of one engine 
is started, and the air is entering bv atmospheric 
pressure, and when the arm o, on rock -shaft/), with 
which the working-piston is connected by the rod 
n, is at its greatest leverage, the coiTesponding aim 
of the rock-shaft of 
the opposite engine 
is at its shortest lev- 
erage, but is moved 
inwards, and the sup- 
ply-air, by reason of 
tx'ing gradually com- 
pressed, increas(is the 
resistance, the arm o 
gradually shortens in 
leverage, and the 
same arm of the op- 
posite engine gradu- 
ally, and in nearly the 
same ratio, 
in leverage, on the 
principle of the bent 
levor ; thus applying 
the power required to 
compress the supply- 
air to the best ad- 
vantage. It should 
be borne in mind, 
. however, that the 
^ power thus applied 
to compress the sup- 
ply-air IS not actually 
expended, but merely 
borrowed ; for it is so 

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much added to the elastic force of the air by which, 
when heated, the engine is impelled. 

Just before the supply-piston begins the inward 
stroke, just described, the eductiou-valve g is 
opened, the induction-valve h having been previ- 
ously closed so that the charge of the heated air, by 
which the previous stroke of the engine was effect- 
ed, is permitted to escape freely into the atmos- 
phere, so that the power required to move the 
supply-piston inward is very slight, the air escap- 
ing freely to the atmosphere on one side, and enter- 
ing by atmospheric pressure on the other, through 
the valve d ; but as the heated air exhausts or es- 
capes from the cylinder, it passes around and among 
the series of small tubes Ar, of the regenerator, thus 
imparting its heat through the metal of the tubes to 
the cold air contained inside of the tubes, which air 
is thus partially heated preparatory to being finally 
heated in passing througn the heater- tubes. In this 
way much of the heat which would be otherwise 
wasted is saved. The supply of cold air having been 
introduced and compressed, the engine is prepared 
to be impelled by the expansive force of the heated 
air. The eduction-valve gr, having been closed dur- 
ing the greater part of the inward motion of the 
working-piston, the induction-valve h is now 
opened, which admits the heated air from the heat- 
er of the cylinder by which the supply-piston is 
forced outwards towards the working-piston. The 
form of the fall of the cam I ia such as to cause 
the piston to be carried back with a rapid acceler- 
ated motion, until it comes nearly in contact with 
the working-piston ; and, at first, in this outward 
motion of tne supply-piston, the already com- 
pressed supply-air between the two pistons is 
still further compressed, not by the power of 
the engine, but by the elastic force of tne heated 
air, the supply-piston being as it were suspended 
between the heated air from the heater on one side 
and the cold air of the other, with the self-acting 
valve r (in the side of the cylinder) interposed be- 
tween the two ; for it must be remembered that, as 
the heater and regenerator are in communication, 
the air, which is a perfectly elastic fluid, will be un- 
der equal pressure m both, notwithstanding a por- 
tion is more highly heated than the other ; and, as 
the supply-air in the cylinder is simply separated 
from tne air in the regenerator by the interposed 
valve r, in the side of the cylinder, the supply-pis- 
ton will bo moved outwards by the heated air, until 
the supply-air is compressed to an equal tension, 
and then the further motion of the supply-piston, 
effected by the cam /, as it approaches tne working- 

Siston, will transfer the supply-air from the cylin- 
er to the regenerator, through valve r. The only 
power expended by the engine in this transfer will 
be the small amount required to move the supply- 
piston, between two equal pressures, to give the 
slight preponderance to the one necessaiy to open 
the valve r, through which the transfer"^ is made. 
The moment the supply-piston passes this valve and 
overtakes the working-piston, the preponderance of 
pressure ceases, and the valve closes by gravity. 

The specification states : ** I claim the method of 
supplying fresh air to the engine, compressing and 
transfemng it to the regenerator and heater, or 
either, by the action of the supply and working 
pistons within the one cylinder, operating on the 
principle and in the manner substantially as de- 
scribed, whereby the air is admitted, under atmos- 
pheric pressure, as the supply-piston is moving from 
the working-piston, as the previous chaige of heated 
air is exhausting ; so that the said supply-piston 
moves in equilibrio, or nearly so, and by which 

also the supply-air is finally compressed and then 
transferred to the regenerator and heater, or either, 
as the supply-piston moves between the supply-air 
and heated air, during the periods of the nearly sta- 
tionary position of the working-piston. 

**I also claim, in combination with the double- 
piston movement of each cylinder, the methods of 
connecting the working-pistons of two single-acting 
engines to constitute a double-acting engine, by 
means of two sets of vibratory arms attached to each 
other, and vibrating on a common center connected 
with the two working-pistons, and with the two 
cranks on opposite sides of the crank-shaft, the two 
sets of arms acting on the principle of the bent- 
lever, and the crank -shaft being so located relatively 
to the cylinders and the centers of vibration of the 
arms, substantially as described, that the working- 
piston shall be at the end of its inward stroke at the 
time the crank is passing the dead point farthest 
from the jwint of connection of the connecting-rods 
with the vibrating-arm, as described, by which the 
power of that working-piston which is being im- 
pelled by the heated air is applied to the best ad- 
vantage to operate the other working-piston during 
its return-stroke, and by which also the working- 
piston I'emains nearly at rest during the time the 
supply-piston is making that part of its outward 
stroke, during which the partially compressed air is 
finally and fully compressed and transferred to the 
regenerator and heater, or either, as described." 

Since the experiments on a large scale, a smaller 
size of the Ericsson engine has been made efficient. 

An Englishman, who was deputed to examine the 
engine, made a published report in which the fol- 
lowing is found : — 

" They all gave complete satisfaction and appar- 
ently ample power for the purposes to which they 
were applied ; but without experiment it is impossi- 
ble to say what quantity of power they actually 
furnish respectively, but, judging by the appearance 
of things, they all worked well and with surpris- 
ing regularity, evidently developing a much larger 
amount of power from a given quantity of coal than 
could be obtained from steam-engines, as at present 
constructed, of corresponding powers. And being 
such that they may be placed m any location from 
which a chimney may be reached, and not requiring 
water or skillea attendance, they are particularly 
desirable as a driving power for small manufac- 
turers, who are thereby enabled to conduct their 
operations in the business parts of the cities, by 
occupying upper lofts. 

" No attention is required for them while run- 
ning, beyond what is necessary to throw in a few 
coak occasionally, which is all that is required to 
keep up a constant and uniform motion, — which 
considerations become of importance to those who 
require a small power only. 

"As to the appreciation of this machine by the 
public, it may well be said that whereas it was a few 
years ago looked upon as a mere mechanical curi- 
osity, it is now regarded and acknowledged as a 
reliable motive power." 

The "London Engineer" adds : "That it is pos- 
sible to construct an air-engine which will bum 
less coal than an average steam-engine has been 
almost proved, but it is wrong to argue from this 
that the steam-engine is * used up.' Something 
more is wanted than economy of fuel. We need 
permanence, absence of wear and tear, compactness, 
simplicity, and safety. In every one of these points, 
except perhaps the last, hot-air engines cannot bear 
a moment's comparison with the steam-engine. No 
large hot-air engines have ever been constructed and 

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worked with success. The rubbing surfaces must 
be huge, and an efficient lubrication becomes an 
impossibility, hence friction is enonnous. The di- 
mensions of the working parts must be very great, 
or the temperature of the air very high. Surfaces 
nearly red hot cut into each other, and friction nins 
away with the power of the machine, the destruc- 
tion of which is imminent each day. Considerable 
improvements may be effected in lubrication, but 
experience with the steam-engine conclusively 
proves that the limit of temperature consistent with 
practical working is very soon passed. It is not 
safe to use superheated steam much hotter than 
280 degrees, the cast-iron of the cylinders and 
valve faces becoming disintegrated and spoiled at 
higher temperatures. If air of no greater tempera- 
ture is used, we have an effective pressure of not more 
than 7 lbs., or thereabouts, per square inch. Marine 

Fig. 85. 

SliUman^s Air-Engine. 

engines with cylinders of 100 inches in diameter must 
be replaced under such a condition with others of 15 
feet or 16 feet in diameter. Then would come huge 
air-pumps and regenerators. The machinery would 
take up as much space as boil- 
ers and steam-engines togeth- ' 
er ; and all this to save per- 
haps a quarter of a pound of 
coal per horse per hour." 

Stillman, June 26, 1860. 
The air is compressed and 
worked in a single cylinder 
by a single piston. The air 
is compressed in the space 
below the piston By passes 
by pipe E to the heater, and 
thence, by valve F to the ef- 
fective' space A above the pis- 
ton. As the piston rises, air 
is drawn in between the hol- 
low piston-rod B and the 
plunger 0, cooling the for- 
mer, and is ejected again as 
the piston descends. The in- 
duction-air enters at pipes art, 
as the piston rises, the an- 
nular valve R being raised by 

the friction of its stuffing-box upon the hollow piston- 
rod B'. The cylindrical chamber X is attached to 
the piston-rod B, and rises and falls therewith so 
as to alternately draw and expel air through the 
annular space be-* 

tween it and the Flir. 86. 

cylinder, for the 
purpose of cooling 
the latter. 

Roper, June 9, 
1863. The furnace 
is lined with fire- 
brick on all sides 
except the bottom. 
The air is con- 
densed in the pump 
above and passes 
down by the pipe 
Zy being admitted 
above or below the 
grate in quantities 
proportioned to the 
requirements of the 
fuel. The air passes 
from the furnace A 
by an opening rf, • 
and is admitted, on 1 
the rising of valve 
a, to the space H, 
when it is ren- 
dered effective 
against the piston 
B. The exhaust- 
valve h is raised 
to allow the de- ^ 

scent of the piston, Roper'^s Air-Engine. 

the valves being 

automatically worked by the usual means, and the 
cut-off being adjustable as required. 

Baldwin, February 14, 1865. In this engine 
the air is driven out of the force-pump A by the 
descent of the piston B^ which is connected by pit- 
man C with the crank D. The air from the pump 
A passes, by passages ff, to the tuyeres / around the 
furnace J, into which it issues by a series of open- 
ings on the inner faces of the annular tuyeres. 
These air-passage rin^ are interchangeable with 
the movable rings which form the lining of the 
furnace. The air passes from the primary to a 
secondary furnace, and thence by passages and 
valve-ways to the working-cylinder 3/, where it 

Fig. 87. 

Bnltlwin's Air-Engine. 

Digitized by 




acts upon the piston F to raise the walking-beam 
E, and the latter connects by pitman G with the 
cmnk D. 

The disk-valves are made of flexible material, and 
are guided by marginal, vertical pins, which form 
a cage to restrain the disks from lateral movement, 
but permit free, vertical play. The air, after ex- 
panding in the working-cylinder, becomes sensibly 
colder and is exhausted into the atmosphere. A 
connecting-rod eccentrically joumaled to the main- 
shaft operates toes which trip the inlet and exhaust- 
valves of the working-cylinder. 

Messer, March 7, 1865. The cylinder Ay air- 
pump ^, and furnace C are on a plane, and the fced- 
Dox D over the latter. The packed portion of the 
piston works in the upper part of the cylinder, 
which is cooled by air in the passa^ ^, leading from 
the air-pump to the furnftce. A check-valve in the 
passage prevents the reflux of air. The foundation- 
pkte of the en^ne has high sides m, and forms a 
water-reservoir m which steam is generated by ra- 
diation from the furnace-walls. A top-plate n forms 
the top of the resei-voir, and the cylinder is pro- 
tected by a double wall which prevents immoder- 
ate subtraction of heat therefrom. Air from the 
pump circulates through the hollow grate-bars. A 
pump is provided for ii^ecting combustible fluid, to 

Fig. 89. 

Witeox^s Air-Engine. 


Messer'' s Air- Engine. 

mix with the solid fuel in the furnace, and all the 
volatile products of combustion are passed through 
the working-cylinder, the induction and eduction 
valves being worked in the usual manner. 

Wilcox, May 16, 1865. This engine is sub- 
stantially on the principle of the engine of Sir 
George Cayleys (about 1830). The fire is fed with 
air, under pressure of a pump, and the volatile pro- 
ducts of combustion are passed through the work- 

With each descent of the piston air is drawn 
through the inhaling valve Fy and fills the space 
above the piston. On the ascent of the valve the 
air is driven through the re^nerator, and becomes 
partially heated by contact with the ducts carrying 
out heated exhaust-air. It thence passes by pipe S 
to the furnace, a part entering above and a part 
below the grate as regulated oy the faucet-valve. 
This valve is worked automatically by a thermostatic 
arrangement, so that when the fire oecomes unduly 
heated the supply driven through the fuel is de- 
creased and combustion checked. The compressed 
and heated air thence passes, by pipe By to the 

valve-chest /. The raising of the valve admits air 
to the effective space below the piston, and closes 
by the tripping of the adjustable cut-off arrange- 
ment ; this is effected late or early in the stroke, 
as may be required. 

The doors of the furnace and ash-pit are 
secured by cramps and hollow bolts to the 
walls, and are removable to replenish the 
fuel, or for grinding or packing to make an 
air-tight joint. 

2. The second class is as the principle of 
the English patents of Glazebrook, 1797 ; and 
Parkinson and Crosley, 1827. 

Laubereau, April 10, 1849 ; patented in 
England, 1847. Tnis engine is the first which 
embodies the peculiar features of a furnace in 
the air-heating chamber, and a hollow plunger 
of corresponding form. 

The air is alternately dilated and contracted 
by absorbing and giving out caloric, the air 
when separated by heat forcing up a piston 
in a cylinder, which is in turn forced down 
by the pressure of the atmosphere when the 
air is condensed by the abstraction of heat, 
J the air for the alternate dilatation and con- 
traction being carried over a heating and 
cooling surface by the motion of a plunger in 
a cylinder that communicates with the cylin- 
der of the engine. The plunger is made hollow, with 
its external and internal surfaces made of some good 
conductor of caloric separated by a non-conductor, 
the said plunger being adapted to move within a 
surrounding cooling- vessel and so combined with a 
heating-vessel made of some good conductor of 
caloric, and heated by the application of heat inter- 
nally, that the said hollow plunger shall alternately 
cover and uncover it, and thus cause the contained 
air alternately to pass over the heated surfaces to 
dilate it, and then over the cold surfaces to con- 
tract it, the said surrounding vessel being in con- 
nection with a cylinder to which is adapted a 
working-piston. The operation is as follows : 
before heat is applied, air is admitted, under the 
pressure of the atmosphere, through one of the 
valves or cocks ; fire is then made in the furnace 
until the contained air is dilated; a portion of 
which is then permitted to escape through one of 
the valves or cocks, which is then closed. The 
heat is then continued until the air has acquired 
sufficient elasticity to force up the piston. This 
communicates motion to the crank -shaft, and toward 

Digitized by 





the end of the upward motion of the piston, the 
cam on the main shaft moves the plunder until it 
covers the heater, and this motion of the plunger 

Fig 90. 

Laubfreau's Air-Engine (1847). 

causes the air contained between it to pass l^e- 
tween its outer surface and the inner surface of the 
surrounding vessel, and to accumulate at the back 
end of the plunger, so that, the heat being en- 
tirely shut in, the air is cooled by contact with 
the cold surface of the surrounding case and outer 
surface of the plunger, the air thus contracted pro- 
ducing a partial vacuum which permits the piston 
to be forced down by the pressure of the atmosphere 
above. As the piston approaches the end of its 
downward stroke, the cam moves back the plunger, 
which transfers the cold air fix)m the outsiae to the 
inside, thus causing it to pass in a thin film over 
the surface of the heater and the inner and heated 
surface of the plunger. It is thus again dilated, that 
by its elasticity it may again force up the piston. 

Fig. 91. 

Laubrreau't AirEn^fU (I860). 

In this way each stroke of the plunder causes the air 
to pass over the heated surfaces to dilate it, and then 
over the cold surfaces to condense it. The plunger 

also has the effect to 
shut in the heat of 
the heater, receiving 
heat therefrom in 
the mean time while 
its external surface 
is kept cold by the 
surrounding case, 
the non-conductor 
intei-posed between 
them preventing the 
heat of the internal 
surface from being 
transmitted to the 
external surface. 

This engine has 
been since modified 
(patent in England, 
July 22, 1859) by 
the* introduction of 
a valve in the pas- 
sage between the 
heater and work- 
ing-cylinder, and at 
the eduction from 
thence into the 
pipes which conduct 
the air back from 
the working - cylin - 
der to the cool end 
of the chamber. 

This air-engine is 
said to be coming 
into great favor on 
the continent of Eu- 
ro^, and in the later 
form is very compact. The operation of the engine 
is so similar to the preceding that it does not call 
for a lengthy description. The jacket around the 
cool end of the air-cnamber has a current of water, 
or some other means of refrigeration, so as to render 
it more i)rompt and efl'ective in its action on the air. 
The worldng-cylinder is connected alternately to 
the it*spective ends of the chamber below, by pas- 
sages wliose valves o|)en and close, according to the 
direction of the cunvnt. 

ScHWAUTZ, December 20, 1864. This invention 
is thus described olficially : *' The object of this 
invention is to produce an air-engine to work upon 
the recuperative system, and thus to use the same 
air over and over. Its novelty consists, first, in 
the generator, which is composed of a strong flat- 
sided vessel, with rounded neck at the 
top, which is suspended over the fire in 
the furnace. From the bottom of this 
generator protrude downwards sevei-al 
bottle-shaped tubes w^hich are open to- 
wai-ds the inside space of the generator. 
This generator is filled with a liquid 
whose boiling-point is veiy high, say 
from 500** to 700^ The air heated in 
the generator passes through a pipe to 
the cylinder, which constitutes the sec- 
ond novel feature of the engine, and is 
composed of three distinct parts, the 
central one of which is the workinc- 
cylinder, the end ones being filled wim 
small tubes, into which rods are fastened 
to the piston -neck for the purpose of 
^ Agitating the entire body of air durinff 
the process of expansion. The third 

Digitized by 





feature of novelty consiBts in passing the gas, after 
it has expended its force upon the piston, through 
the generator, which is constructed rectangularly, 
and has a dividing plate in its center. This vessel 
is filled with horizontal tubes, which are closed at 
both ends, and are partially filled with a fluid which 
is designed to extract the heat from the air or gas 
as it passes from the engine, and transmits it to the 
air which is passing to the opposite side of the 

3. The third class is on the principle of the Stir- 
ling engine, described in a preceding portion of 
this article. 

Peters, November 18, 1862. The air is heated 

Fig. 92 

Peters'' s AirEugi ne 

in two vessels connected with two opposite ends of 
the working-cylinder, and the invention consists in 
so ojierating the two plungers that 
the one in either heating- vessel is 
stationary in its uppermost posi- 
tion, ^ith the space below it full 
of heated air, wtiile the working- 
piston is making the stroke from 
the end of the cylinder in con- 
nection with that vessel, the plun- 
ger in the other heating vessel mak- 
ing both its upward and downward 
stroke in the mean time, and caus- 
ing the latter vessel to be filled 
with heated air to produce the 
return stroke of the working-pis- 
ton. The gland which is used to 
compress the packing in the stuf- ^ 
fin^-box is made with a deep cup *J 
in Its upi)er part for the reception 
of oil, and around the up|)er edge 
of this cup is secured a leather 
collar in close contact with the 
plunger-rod, so as to prevent the 
escape of air. 

The engine of Napier and Rankike, patented in 
the United States, September 19, 1864, and in Eng- 
land June 9, 1853, is of this class. 

4. The fourth class includes those which use steam 
to lubricate the parts ; an example will be given, 
but it is not to be inferred that it is confined to 
one. The immense expenditure of grease has in- 
duced the use, in many or perhaps most of the air- 
engines, of moistened air as suggested by Glaze- 
brook 1797, Oliver Evans about the same time, and 
by Bennet 1838. 

BiCKFORD, June 6, 1865. The air is compressed 
in the reservoir by an annular piston ; entering at 
the valve D during the down stroke, and passing 
through the piston during the up stroke. It U 
moistened by passing through a body of water B 

Fig. 96. 

Biek/oriPs Air- Engine. 

before reaching the compressed-air reservoir J, See 
Abro-steam Engine. 

5. Of the fifth class is the patent of Shearer, 
September 3, 1861 ; in which two cylinders are 
used "with two pistons, the faces of which are in 
contact with water, which is caused to pulsate by 
the action of bodies of air. Tlie air is acted upon 
alternately by heating and»refrigerating means. 

Kritzer, July 29, 1862. This invention also 
belongs to the fifth class. 

The working-cylinder, shown in longitudinal sec- 
tion in Fig. 94, is filled with water, which also extends 
into the lower portion of each of the vertical cylin- 
ders above. Tne lower portion of each upper cyl- 
inder forms an air-condensinff space. The spaces 
/), above the pistons J, are the air-heating spaces 
where it is made effective. To the bottom of each 
piston is attached a sprinkling-trough of light metal, 
with perforated sides, so that at each descent of the 

lig. 94. 

Eritxer's Air-Bngim. 

piston it will be filled with water, and as it rises 
will distribute the same upon the inside of the cyl- 

Air^-en'-gine, Corn-pressed'. Under the head- 
ings Air AS A Means of transmitting Power, 
Compressed-air Engine, Air as a Water-ele- 
vator, reference has been made to the use of com- 
pressed air as a motor. The devices incident to the 
application of the air to drive machinery have usu- 
ally been of a character similar to those of a steam- 
engine. A piston reciprocating in a cylinder by the 
impact of the air admitted to the sides alternately, 
the induction and eduction being governed by 

In the Govan Collierv, Scotland, the compressed 
air is made to drive a high-pressure engine at the 

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bottom of the shaft. See Compressed-air Engine. 
At the Hoosac Tunnel the drills are driven by com- 
pressed air, and the same is true of the tunneling- 
machine used at Mont Cenis Tunnel, lately com- 
pleted. See Tunnel. 

Air'-es-oape'. An air-trap which allows air to 
escape from the upper bend of a water-pipe. It 
consists of a ball-cock, which, in falling a certain 
extent, opens the air-valve, and closes when the 
water rises to the level for which it is set. 

Air'-ez-haust'er. An air- trap, by which collect- 
ed air may escape from water-mains, etc. 

An air-pump, or vacuum-fan, by which effete air 
is removed from a shaft, mine, room, or other place. 

A vacuum ventilator in contradistinction to a 
plenum ventilator, which operates by forcing in air. 

Air'-fil'ter. Dr. Stenhouse's air-filters were set 
up at the Mansion House, London, in 1854. 

The mode of filtering air is by a wire screen, 
which arrests floating and flying bodies of any mag- 
nitude, and then exposes the current of air to the 
contact of water. 

The most conmion exemplifications of the devices 
are to be found in the railroad-car ventilators. In 

Fig. 95. 

Fig. 97. 

Ruttan's Car- Ventilator. 

Ruttan's patent, January 9, 1866, the air is caught 
by hoods above the car-roof, and led into a chamoer 
where the plashing water absorbs the dust and also 
confers upon the air a wholesome moisture. ' In 
winter, in addition to 
Fig. 96. this purification, the air 

is conducted through 
the heating - chambers 
i of a stove before being 
I disseminated inside the 

Medcalfe's appara- 
_ tus for ventilating rail- 
road-cars, January 22, 
1856. The current of 
air is received by a self- 
regulating bonnet on 
the roof, and conducted 
by several passages to a 
water-chamber, whence 
it passes through a num- 
ber of fixed wire screens before reaching the interior 
of the car. The air is carried into the car through reg- 
isters or by pipes around the stove. From the car it 
passes through a similar apparatus, devoid of water. 

Bausman, April 9, 1861. In the upj^er part of 
either end of and extending across the car is i>laced 
a trunk or box, having;; near its orifice a depression 
which forms a water-chamber, in which are mounted 
a series of fans, so arranged as to be set in motion 

Mfdcal/e^s Air-FtUer. 

Bttusman's Car- Ventilator. 

by the resistance of the air as the car moves along. 
Above the fans is a water-chamber, the bottom of 
which is perforated to allow the water to drop on 
the fans. In the rear of the trunk is ft register for 
admitting air to the car, the air being divested of 
dust in passing through the spray caused by the 
operation of the fans. 

FuRNis, September 17, 1861. Arranged within the 
flaring mouth of a case is a wind-wheel connected 
with a shaft. Upon the shaft are secured a series 
of radiating arms and a perforated disk, which re- 
Fig 98 

Fumis^s Ventilator. 

volves in a water-chamber as the car moves alonff, 
so that tihe particles of dust coming in contact witn 
the arms will adhere to the same, and the air enter 
the car in a cool and pure state. 

Beardslet, October 29, 1861. A galvanized 
iron case contains a reservoir and a perforated plate, 
and is provided with a funnel-shaped tube, which 
passes into the ventilator a little below said }>erfo- 
rated plate. Another tube passes through the car 
and enters the top of the ventilator. I^ae fimnel- 

Fig. 99. 

Beardsley's Car- Ventilator. 

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shaped tube by which the air enters the ventilator 
is aajusted by means of a rod passing through the 
top of the car, the open end oein^ turned in the 
direction in which the car is moving ; the other 
tube receives the foul air from the car, whence it 
passes through the ventilator. By reversing the 
funnel-shaped tube the air is ejected from the car. 
Cinders and dust are prevented from entering the 
car by coming in contact with the tube, which is 
surrounded with water. 

In Whelpley and Stoker's apparatus for remov- 
ing dust and gases from air, March 6, 1866, the 
spray-wheel and the draft-wheel are placed in sepa- 
rate and communicating chambers. The object is 
to remove the dust and gases from air which issues 
from the pulverizers and 3ie chimneys of furnaces for 

Fig. 100. 

WhdpUy and St&rer^s Drafi and Spray Wheel. 

reducing metal. The air is admitted by the trunk 
into the chamber, where it is exposed to a dash of 
spray from the wheel, and thence passing to the fan- 
cnamber is subjected to jets of liquid, chemically 
prepared to act upon the gases present. The jets 
proceed from the hollow shaft, which is pierced with 
noles for that purpose. 

Herbon, January 12, 1858, attaches to the pul- 
pit or rostrum an 
^- 101. air-pipe by which 

a supply of fresh, 
pure air is afforded 
to the speaker. 
The air in its 
course is passed 
through a trough 
and beneath a plate 
which forms a trap. 
Water in the trough 
imparts moisture 
to the air, and at 
the same time ar- 
rests dust and such 
extraneous matters 
or vapors as are 
soluble in water. 
The latter mav be 

Herron^s Vidpit- Ventilator. 

medicated to impart the desired quality to the reader 
or speaker, and the valve is adjustable to permit the 
free exit or turn the current through the water- 
trough as may be required. 

Alr'-flue. A tube by which heated air is con- 
veyed into an apartment. 

Air'-foun'tain. A contrivance for producing a 
jet of water by means of compressed air. 

Air'-fun nel. A cavity formed by the omission 
of a timber in the upper works of a vessel, to form 

a duct for the admission of pure air and the escape 
of foul. 

Air-far'nace. A term used to signify a furnace 
having a natural draft, no blast. 

Air'-grafing;. An iron grating in a wall, to 
allow ventilation. 

Air'-gan. The air-^n is a pneumatic engine 
for firing bullets or ottier projectiles by force of 
compressed air. The child's popgun illustrates the 
principle of the air-gun : a pellet is forced through a 
tube or quill by a rammer from the larger to the 
smaller end, where it sticks fast, and anotner pellet 
is put in 'and pressed forward in the same manner, 
condensing the air between them, when the pressure 
on the first pellet overcomes its frictional adherence 
to the sides of the tube, the pellet is released, and 
is projected by the force of the expanding air. The 
ancients were acquainted with some kind of an 
apparatus by which air was made to act upon the 
shorter arm of a lever, while the longer arm impelled 
a projectile ; and it is said that Ctesiphus of Alex- 
andria, a celebrated mathematical philosopher, who 
lived B. C. 120, constructed an instrument in 
which the air, by its elastic force, discharged an 
arrow from a tube. (Montucla, ** Histoire des 
Math^matiques," Vol. 1. p. 267.) The first ac- 
count of an air-^un is found in David Rivault's 
" El^mens d'ArtiUeiie." He was preceptor to Louis 
XIII. of France, and ascribes the invention to a 
certain Marin of Lisieux, who presented one to 
Henry IV. of France, about A. D. 1600. An 
instrument of this kind was invented by Guter 
of Nuremberg about A. D. 1666. Various shapes 
have been adopted, from that of the ordinary mus> 
ket to a gun resembling a common, stout walking- 
stick. It consists of a lock, stock, barrel, and ram- 
rod ; and is provided with proper cocks for filling 
it with compressed air by means of a force-pump. 
The lock is only a valve which lets into the oarrel 
a portion of the air compressed in a chamber in the 
stock when the trigger is pulled. The gun is loaded 
with wadding ana ball in the ordinary way, and 
when fired there is but little noise, and none of 
the other concomitants of gunpowder, smoke and 
odor. The usual range to which the air-gun propels 
a bullet is from sixty to eighty yards. In those 
guns having a sliding trigger, two or three bullets 
are successively and separatwy introduced, and may be 
expelled by one mass of condensed air. Air-guns have 
also been constructed upon the principle of revolv- 
ing pistols, admitting the expulsion of several bullets 
after once chai^ng with compressed t^r. Some 
varieties have an air-pump attached by means of 
which a more powerful compression of air may be 
produced. One air-gun in the form of a cane has 
two barrels, — one small one for the reception of 
bullets, and one large bore for the reservoir of 
compressed air. Elastic springs have also been 
used in connection with compressed air, but the 
latest improvements are those of Cornelius Borda. 
The reservoirs of the gun are filled with a mixture 
of oxygen and hydrogen in due proportion for 
producing water. The gun is provided with a small 
electric littery connecting with the trigger. The 
moment a portion of the ^as is let out, an electric 
spark is produced, occasioning the instantaneous 
combustion of the mixture, and a high pressure in 
consequence of the excessive heat resulting from the- 
chemical transformation. This gun is said to propel 
a bullet as far as an ordinary musket. The noise- 
lessness of ordinary air-guns is accompanied by 
slight projectile force, and the gun of Borda in 
exploding a body of gases in confinement would 
probably cause as niuch sound as the combustion of 

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gunpowder in quantity sufficient to generate the 
same projective force. Shaw's air-gun, patented in 
1849, combines an endless band of vulcanized india- 

Pig. 102 

Air- Gun. 

rubber with an air-exhausting apparatus ; the elec- 
tricity is so applied as to compress the air at a single 
stroke of the air-pump the moment before it is dis- 
chaiiged. The steam-gun, exhibited in London a 
few years ago, exemplified a much more forcible 
agent than air for the propulsion of bullets. 

In Fiff. 102 the upper chamber is the reservoir 
of air, which is condensed therein by means of the 
piston and valve in the stock. The lower tilbe is 
the barrel, and the ball is rammed down to its lower 
end as usual. The gun being sighted, the motion 
of the trigger moves the valve, which admits a body 
of air to the rear of the ball and expels it from the 

Lindner, December 16, 1862. The lever con- 
forms in shape to the stock of the gun, and is the 

Vig. 103 

thence into the barrel, driving out the projectile. 

This and the preceding are only toy-guns. 

GiFFOBD, February 9, 1864. The barrel is in 
communication with 
the inside of the 
trigger-box, in the 
interior of which is 
a valve-piston, con- 
sisting of a steel rod 
carrying a ring fitted 
with a caoutchouc 
disk for closing com- 
munication. Air en- 
ters the barrel by a 

bell-shaped chamber. By pressing strongly on the 

extremity of the rod, the disk is compressed and 

Fig. 106. 

JJndner''s Air- Gun. 

means of retracting the piston. The piston, when 
released by the trigger, is driven forward by the 
elastic force of the condensed spring, projecting the 
bullet from the barrel by further compression of the 
air. The spring is a helical ribbon, and condenses 
into a simple 'coil when the pressure of the lever is 
applied. The barrel is breech-loading, tilting on a 
pivot so as to expose the rear for the reception of 
the ball, and being locked shut by a catch. A pro- 
jecting india-rubber ring at the joint of the barrel 
makes an air-tight joint when the barrel is closed. 
The projectiles have an expanding portion, which 
enters the rifle-grooves of the barrel to increase the 
accuracy of the flight. 

Gedney, September 24, 1861. The hollow han- 
dle is formed of india-rubber or other flexible air- 
tight material, 
*^K- 104. and communi- 

I cates with a 
[short tube 
placed beneath 
the barrel and 
connected therewith by means of a 
passage. A valve of cork closes the 
between the hollow handle 
and the tube, and is pressed into its 
seat by a rod. To discharge the pis- 
tol, the rubber handle is compressed 
until the pressure of the air over- 
comes the adhesion of the valve to 
Gedn^'s Air- ^^ ^^*' when it is driven back ; the 
PistoL air then escapes into the tube and 

Giffard^t Air- Gun. 

closes the reservoir orifice. By suddenly releas- 
ing the piston-valve the elasticity of the caoutchouc, 
combined with the pressure of the compressed air, 
causes the sudden opening of the reservoir orifice 
and emits a blast of air to the rear of the pro- 
jectile. The air is compressed into a reservoir be- 
neath the barrel, by means of a piston working lon- 
gitudinally in a valved interior tube, and the valvu- 
lar arrangement is to give an instantaneous emission 
of air and an immediate closure, so as not to waste 
the air by a protracted opening of the valve-way. 
i The South American Indians of the Amazon 
and Orinoco use a species of air-gun or blow^-pipe 
for propelling poisoned arrows. It consists of a 
long, straight tube in which an arrow is placed and 
expelled by the breath. Near Pard, it is very in- 
geniously made of two stems of a palm, of different 
diameters, one fitted within the other to secure per- 
fect straightness ; a sight is fitted to it, near the 
end. The arrows u.sed are fifteen to eighteen inches 
long, having a little ball of down, from the silk 
cotton-tree, twisted round the smaller end so as to 
make it fit closely in the tube. In the hands of a 
practised Indian this is a very deadly weapon, and 
as it makes no noise he frequently empties his 
quiver before he gathers up his game. 

Warburton, the eminent naturalist who wandered 
in these countries, gives a good account of their modes 
of hunting. See sSso Humboldt, and the Researches 
of Sir Eobert H. Schomburgk in British Guiana. 

A similar weapon is found among some of the 
Mala^ tribes, ana is called by them the sumpitan. 

Aristotle was acquainted with the fact tliat the 
air has weight, stating that a bladder inflated with 
air will weigh more than an empty one ; as he was 
not acquainted with glass globes, which can be 
exhausted of air without losing their shape, we may 
infer that his statement with reganl to the bladder 
was intended to apply to a hypothetical one which 
possessed the stifthess of glass, or else that the air 
was considerably compressed in the inflated bladder. 
Hero of Alexandria, in his ** Spiritalia," shows his 
knowledge of the elasticity of air, and how it could 
be used to produce many effects. He shows the air- 
Ctesibus developed the pump into an air-gun. 

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Plate II. Illinois akd st. louis bridoe. Set page A9. 

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He was probably the tutor of Hero ami the contem- 
porary of Archimedes. Otto Guerieke i-eiii vented 
and applied the air-pump ; Boyle made it a valuable 

Air'-heat'er. A stove or furnace so arranged as 
to heat a current of passing air, for warmth or ven- 
tilating pui-poses. See Heating Furnace ; Heat- 
ing Stove ; Heating Appauatus, etc. 

Fig. 106. 

Ah' Holder. 

Air'-hold'er. A vessel generally of a cylindrical 
fonn, with its open end plunged in a tank of water, 
and intended to contain air or gas. Its use is com- 
mon in a vai'iety of machines and appanitus where a 
steady and moderate current of air is required, as in 
machines for carbureting air and gas, aspirators, 
etc. Also in machinery on a larger scale, such as 
blowers, ventilating-machines, etc. 

The air is introduced by a bent pipe turned up- 
ward inside the tank and holder, and is educed in a 
similar manm^. On a small scale the vessel may 
be charged with air by raising the upper valve 
and lifting the holder, and the air may be with- 
drawn by a fle.^ible pipe attached to the holder. Sec 
AsiMiiATOR ; Caubuketing Air; Blower, etc. 

Air'-hole. {Foundbig. ) A hole or cavity in a 
casting produced by bubbles of air in the liquid 
metal. A vent-hole in a mold for casting. 

{Furnace.) A draft-hole in a furnace. It is some- 
times guarded by a register ; sometimes stopped by 
a luting or plug of clay. 

Aix'ing-stage. A platform on which powder, 
etc., is dried by exposure to sun and air. 

Air'-jaok'et An air-tight swimming-jacket ca- 
pabh; of inllation. 

A gaiTOent with inflatable lining or pockets to 
serve as a life-preserver. 

Air'-lev'eL (Surveying. ) A goedetic instrument 
invented by M. Thevenot. The level is determined 
by means of an air-bubble in a glass tube nearly 
filled with colored spirit. Generally tenned a spirit- 
level ; though the air-bubble is the dominant feature. 
See Lkvf.l. 

Alr'-lock. (Hyd.Eng.) A pneumatic contrivance 
in a hollow caisson whose lower chamber is filled with 
compressed air to exclude the water. ' A tnmk con- 
nects the submerged chamber with the extenial air, 
and has two valves. The descending workman en- 
ters a chamber in the tube at the atmospheric press- 
ure ; the upper valve is closed, and his a^tartment 
is chained with air from the lower chamber ; the 

I lower valve is then opened to admit him to the 
I working-chamber. 

The cut on the page opposite is a sectional view 
of the East Pier and Caisson of the lUinois and St. 
Louis Bridge, in course of construction by Captain 
James B. Eads, across the Mississippi. The view 
shows the interior of the main entmnce-shaft and 
air-chamber, and the working of one of the pump. 
The caisson is represented as having descended 
thi-ough 60 feet of sand, silt, and gravel which form 
the sand-bed of the river ; 20 feet of excavation re- 
maining before the bed-rock is reached. 

The pier of masonry is built on a strong bulk- 
head of timber and iron, supported on a curb which 
rests on the sand-bed, and is strengthened and siis- 
tained by timber girdere which divide the working 
space beneath into several chambers which commu- 
; nicate through holes in the jwirtitions. The pier is 
enclosed by an iron envelope //, which is water-tight, 
and prevents access of water to the pier and the 
workmen. Until the curb of the caisson reached 
the sand-bed it was sustained in erect position by 
screws from the trusses of the guide-piles, but was 
afterwards preserved erect by digging away the sand 
equally at all the points upon which it rested. 
/ / are timber braces which sUp]>ort the shell H. 
AT AT are pontons alongside, which support the 
steam-engine, air-pump, mixing and hoisting ma- 
chinery, and the offices and quarters for the 
staff and hands. S is the steam-engine which 
drives the air-pump i?, and the air is conducted by 
the hose U down to the chambers B B, where the 
excavating is proceeding. The sand is loosened by 
water and the pick, and is driven by condensed air 
up through the sand-pumps E E^ which discharge at 
D. The air-locks ^ ^ are chambers intervening be- 
tween the main entrance-shaft F^ where the air is at 
the natural pi-essure, and the chambers B By where it 
is in a much condensed condition. The visitor steps 
from the shaft F into the air-lock Ay the door of in- 
gress is closed, and condensed air is then adnutted. 
When an equilibrium is established between the 
chambers A and By the door between is opened, and 
the visitor finds himself on the scene of action. As 
the caisson descends, successive courses of stone are 
laid on the piers by means of traveling-purchases 0, 
which move on the wire ropes M J/ by means of hoist- 
ing-ropes X N. O O are side shafts ; J J cabins for 
oiwrators of purchases ; XX hydraulic jacks for lifting 
materials ; V pipe for water to sand-pump ; V V 
trusses for guide-piles ; Z inixing-ix)om ; X office. 
See Caisson. 

Air'-ma-chine'. A machine forventilatingmines. 

Air'-met'er. An apparatus for measuring the 
quantity of air passing along a pipe, or pas.sing 
into or from a chamber. 

There are various foims : the fan, rotating spiral 
vane, expanding bag, cylinder and piston, revolv- 
ing }iartially submerged meter- wheel, etc. As their 
principal aclaptation is to measuring gas, to avoid 
unnecessary repetition they are assembled under 
Gas-meter, which see. 

Air'o-hy'dro-gen Blow'pipe. An apparatus 
invented by Dr. Hare, in which the issuing air is 
assisted by a jet of hydrogen to intensify the fiame. 
See Blowpipe. 

It is es|)ecially used in autogenous soldering. 

Air-om'e-ter. The term is applied to aliollow 
cylinder, closed above and open below, with its 
lower edge plunged in a tank, and used to con- 
tain air. Tlie terra has been derived from its sim- 
ilarity in sha])c to a gasometer, the change in 
the first syllable indicating the difi'erent contents. 
Its use as' a meter is unfvoquent, and it is prop- 

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erly called an aii^holder among experts. See Aik- 


Air -pipe. {SUam-engiiic.) 1. A small copper 
pipe leading from the top of the hot-well through 
the ship's side, for the discharge of the air and 
uncondensed vapor removed by the air-pump from 
the condenser. 

2. A pipe used to withdraw foul air from or force 
pure air into close places. 

Air'-poise. An Instrument to mea.sure the weight 
of air. 

Air'-port. An opening in a ship's side for air ; 
closable by a shutter, side-light, or dead-light, ac- 
eonlinsr to circumstances. 

Air'-press'-ure Fil'ter. A filter in which the 
percolation of the liquid is assisted by atmospheric 
pressure, induced by a partial vacuum in the lower 

Spencer's air-pressure filter, June 4, 1867, is 
paiticularl^ adapted for the use of pharmaceutists. 
G \b the air-pump, secured by a clamp to the edge 

FlK. 107. 

opvnrera rtuer. 

of the table. The filter A rests on a packing on 
the lip of the bottle B. The air is withdrawn 
from this latter to increase the rate of filtering. 

Claim. — First, in an atmospheric filter composed 
of the tunnel A, bottle or jar B, and air-pump C, 
the employment of a p«icking h for the purpose of 
producing an air-tight joint between the tunnel and 

Gntber's Filter 

bottle, the whole combined and operating as hereis 
set forth. 

Second, the arrangement of the filtering medium 
d d with the removable j>erforated diaphragm /i 
when oi)erating in connection with the shoulders 
c c, as herein set forth. 

D is the air-eduction pipe. The vessel A stands 
in the collar-piece/, the latter on the bottle, whose 
lip has a packing-^^ket. 

In Grubeu's air-pressure filter, April 3, 1866, 
the filtration is a.ssisted by an air-forcing and air- 
exhausting pump, connecting by pipes with the two 
chambers separated by the filtering substance, j 
and k are the o^ienings of the plenum and vacuum 
pipes into the chambers E and F, The lid is fas- 
tened on, and has an air-tight imcking. The pump 
G draws air from chamber Fj and impels it into 
chamber E. For Water - puessu re Filter see 

Air'-pump. Invented by Ctesibus of Alexan- 
dria, or previous to his time. Hero, of the same 
city, the author of the ** Spiritalia," shows it in 
connection with several of his pneumatic contriv- 
ances. He also shows a fire-engine with a pair of 
single-acting pistons attached to a walking-beam and 
operating alternately in their respective cylinders. 

February 15, 1665, Mr. Samuel Pepys, the gos- 
siping author of the famous Diary, was admitted a 
member of the Royal Society, the 'meetings of which 
were held at Gresham College. He says : — 

"It 13 a most acceptable thing to Hear their dis- 
course, and see their exi>eriment8 ; which were this 
day on tire, and how it goes out in a place where 
the ayre is not free, and sooner out when the ayre is 
exhausted, which they showed by an engine on pur- 
pose Above all Mr. Boyle was at the meet- 
ing, and above him Mr. Hooke, who is the most, 
and promises the least, of any man in the world 
that 1 ever saw." 

The air-pump was reinvented by Otto voa 
Guericke of Magdeburg, about A. D. 
1650. Since then this instrument 
has been much improved by Hooke, 
Papin, Hawksbee, and Boyle. Many 
varieties of structure have been de- 
vised, the principle of all being the 
same. The basis or essential part in 
the air-pump is a metallic or glass 
tube answermg to the barrel of a 
common pump or syringe, having a 
valve at the bottom opening upwards : ] 
and a movable piston or embolus, 
answering to the sucker of a pump, 
the piston or cylinder being 
furnished likewise with a valve 
opening outward. The pump 
must be closely fitted by aj 
metallic connecting-tube open 
ing into or under the vessel ' 
which is to be exhausted, which 
is usually formed by placing a 
bell-glass, called the receiver, mth the edges 
ground smooth, and smeared with lard or 
wax, on a iat, smooth plate or table. When 
the piston is at the bottom of the barrel, and 
is then dmwn up, it lifts out the air from 
the Iwirrel ; and a portion of the air from the 
receiver by its own expansive force i)a8ses 
through the connecting-tube, and occupies the 
place below the piston which would other- 
wise be a vacuum. The air in the receiver 
and barrel is thus nireliwl ; the piston is now 
forc«Hl down, closing the valve jiiaced at the 
mouth of the connecting-tube, and causing 



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the air in the barrel to escape through the valve in 
the piston. This operation is again and again re- 
peated until the receiver is so nearly exhausted that 
the clastic force of the remaining air is no longer 
sufficient to open the valves. The form of the pump 
may consist of two barrels (each having a piston) 
having a junction with each other at the point where 
the connecting-tube is attached, and operated alter- 
nately by a lever attached to each piston and sup- 
ported at a point midway between them, or by means 
of teeth orcogs cut in the piston-rod, and operated by 
a cog-wheel, as shown in the accompanying ficn^re. 
The valves may be made of bladder, oiled silk, or 
gutta-percha, the best form of which is a small hollow 
cone vrith a slight cut at the top ; stop-cocks must 
be attached so as to control the admission of air. 
The pressure ©f the atmbsphere being about fifteen 
pounds to every square inch of surface, care must 
be taken that the receiver and ban-els of the pump 

Fig. 110. 

HmeJabet*» Air-Pump. , 

be 80 constructed as to bear this weight without 
accident. A gage to ascertain the pomt of rare- 
faction can be made by introducing the lower end 
of a graduated glass tube, connecting with the i*e- 
ceiver, into a cup containing mercury ; as the air in the 
receiver is exhausted, the pressure of the atmosphere 
on the surface of the mercury will force it ud into 
the graduated tube, so that' its rise and fall will 
indicate the rarefaction. A per- 
Flg. HI. feet vacuum can never be made, 

for it is evident that the exhaus- 
tion can never be complete ; even 
theoretically, there must always 
be a portion of air left, though 
that portion may be less than any 
3-B assignable quantity. Many use- 
ful and interesting experiments 
can be performed with the air- 
pump, illustrating the effects of 
atmospheric pressure and other 
mechanical properties of gases. 

In Siemen's air-pump the two 
cylinders or barrels differ in size 
and arrangement. The smaller 
barrel is applied either to the 
bottom or top of the lai^r, while 
the valved pistons belonging to 
each arc attached to one and the 
same piston-rod. The air with- 
drawn from the receiver is con- 
SiemtfCn Air-Pimp, densed in the lower cylinder to 

one fourth of its original volume, and thus has suffi- 
cient elasticity to pass through the discharging valve 
and escape, the opposing pressure of the atmosphere 
on that valve being thus counteracted from witnin. 

In the illustration, A is the exhausting-cylinder, 
B the second cylinder, equal in length to tlie first, 
and fixed to its lower part, but having only one 
third or one fourth of its sectional area, and conse- 
quently one third or one fourth of its cubical con- 
tents. The cylinders are separated by a plate forming 
at once the bottom of the upper and top of the lower 
cylinder, the only passage between them being a silk 
valve i/. In each cylinder works a valved piston, 
P and p, attached to a piston-rod common to both, 
and passing through a stuffing-box in the plate. 
The distance between the pistons is such, that when 
P is in contact with the top of the upper or exhaust- 
ihg cylinder A, p is in contact with the top of the 
smaller or lower cylinder ; and when P is in contact 
with the bottom of the lai^e cylinder, p is in con- 
tact ^vith that of the small cylinder. The table or 
pump-plate E^ placed above the lai^e cylinder A^ 
supports the receiver /2, or other vessel to be ex- 
hausted, from which the air fiows through the 
valve V, during the descent of the piston. The 
motion of the pistons is effected by means of a short 
crank with a jointed connecting-rod, converting the 
circular motion given by the lever-handle into a 
vertical one, which is maintained by means of a 
cross-head, with roUere working between guides. 
The action of the pump is as follows : The de- 
scent of the piston P tends to produce a vacuum in 
the exhausting-cylinder A^ by causing a difference 
of pressure above and below the firet valve r, in the 
top of Af so that the elasticity of the air in the 
receiver causes it to pass through the valve v. At 
the same time the air below P is pressed through 
the valve t/, in the plate which separates the cylin- 
ders, and enters B^ in which a vacancy is simul- 
taneously made for it by the descent of the piston 
p ; and in consequence of the difference of capacity 
of the two cylinders it becomes reduced to one 
fourth of its original bulk, its elasticity bein^ pro- 
portionally increased. The air contamed in the 
small cylinder below the niston p will in like man- 
ner be pressed through the valves v" i/" into the 
external atmosphere. During the ascent of the 
pistons the valves v xl will be closed and w id 
opened by the downward pressure of the air in the 
cylinders, and if if' will be closed by the atmos- 
phere, thus allowing the air in each cylinder to pass 
through the pistons as they rise, in order that in 
the following downward movement the air, which 
during the previous stroke of the pump issued from 
the receiver into the exhausting-cylinder, may be 
withdrawn from that into the lower cylinder, while 
the air condensed in the latter may be finally ex- 
pelled into the atmosphere. See A ir-com pressing 

The air-pump of Boyle was inconvenient, as it 
demanded alternate opening and shutting of the 
stop-cock and valve, and difficulty was also experi- 
enced in making the piston descend when the air 
Avithin the pump was greatly rarefied. 

Hawksbee's air-pump, previously cited, had the 
duplica^ cylinders, with pistons which were moved 
by means of a crank and pinion. The piston-rods 
were toothed racks, whicn were engaged by the 
pinion, to which a reciprocating rotary motion was 
imparted. The bottom of each cylinder communi- 
cated by a pipe with the receiver on the platform. 

Smeaton's air-pump was an improvement on 
Hawksbee's in two respects. Hawksbee had found 
considerable difficulty in opening the valves and ex- 

Digitized by 





Kig. 112. hausting the 

air at the bot- 
tom of the bar- 
rels, owing to 
the fact that 
^ the pistons did 
not shut down 
close on to the 
bottom. The 
first defect 
arose from the 
smallness of 
the orifice m 
the bottom 
of the cyHii- 
der through 
which the air 
entered ; the 
bladder being 
kept moist 
with oil ad- 
hered to the 
metal and re- 
sisted the up- 
waixl pnsiure 
at so small an 
opening. This 
defect Smea- 
ton cured by 
exposing a 
greater sur- 
face of bladder 
to the upward 
action of the 
air. He used 
a congeries of 
holes consist- 
ing of six hex- 
agonal open- 
ings surround- 
ing a central 
one. The parti- 
tions between 
these holes 
were filed near- 
ly to an edge, 
and the whole 
formed a crat- 
ing on wliich 
the bladder- 
valve lay, of- 
fering but slight cohesive opposition to the raising 
of the valve as the piston ascended and the air 
from the receiver pressed upward against it. 

Fig. 113. 

Smeaton's Atr-Puntp. 

Rotary Air Pump. 

To prevent lodgment of the air in the lower part 
of the barrel, he removed the extenial pressure from 
the piston-valve, by making the piston move 
through a collar of leather, and forced the air out 
by a valve applied to the plate at the top of the bar- 
rel, which opened outwaixily. 

Cuthbertson of Amsterdam introduced the im- 
provement of mechanically opening an escape for 
the air without depending upon its elastic force to 
open the valve leaaing to the cylinders. 

Air force-pumps are used for the supply of air- 
carbureting machines. A conmion form of these 
consists of what is called a meter-wheel, from its 
resemblance to the measuring- wheel of a gas-meter. 
Fig. 113. In the illustration the buckets M are 
curved, and gather in the air of the chamber A. As 
the wheel rotates the air is discharged, near the axis, 
into chamber 0, and is conducted by a pipe to the 
hollow trunnion through which it is dischai^ged. 

Another form of air-pump used in carburcting- 
niachines is on the principle of the gravitating air- 
holder, which consists of a weighted inverted cylin- 
der whose lower edge is submerged in a tank. Seo 

A conversely acting device on a lai*ger scale is 
used for pumping air irom mines. 

In the Amialcs dcs PoiUs ct Cfia7is8^es, an air-pump 

Fig. 114. 





Ventilating Air-Pump 

is described, used to ventilate a shaft 6 feet in 
diameter and 220 feet deep. The work had been 
several times susj>ended, owing to the accumulation 
of carbonic acid gas, and the ordinary bellows had 
been found ineffectual. 

A large tub (Fig. 114) was firmly placed on balks 
on a level with the top of the shaft, and filled witli 
water nearly to the brim. 

An air-tight pipe from the bottom of the shaft 
was brought through the tub, and had its upper 
edge a very few inches above the water ; it had a 
vfjve on the top. 

A smaller tub, reversed, was suspended within 
the lower tub by cords, which were made fast to 
the ends of the levers. 

The upper tub had a very short pipe at top, with 
a valve opening upward. 

The upper tub being allowed to descend by its own 
weight, the air within it was exj>elled through the 
upper valve ; when again raised, by pulling the 

Digitized by 





handles attached to the ro|>es, the air was drawn 
up through the valve-way at the upper end of the de- 
scending tube, and by continuing this iveiprocating 
action, a circulation was created at the veiy bottom 
of the shaft. 

Bunsen's air-pump is a means of withdrawing air 
by entangling and carrying it with a falling body of 
water. It is specifically known as an asjiirator in 
its uses to obtain atmospheiic pressure in filteiing, 
in removing eflete or poisonous air from apartments 
or the vicinity of gangrenous wounds. See Aspiha- 
TOR. The same principle is involved in the ** water- 
|)ump8,'* so called, which withdraw the air and steam 
trom the evajwrating and vacuum pans of sugar-re- 
fineries, the injection-chamber of the condensing 
steam-engine, etc. Air-pumps are also constructed 
to act on the principle of the Giffaixl Injector, the 
active column being a body of water or steam. Sec 
Steam-jet ; Ejector. 

Apparatus for compressing air as a motor, as a 
water-elevator, etc., are considered under several 
heads. See Air as a Water-elevator ; Air- 
compressing Machine ; Air as a Means of 


2. {Steam- 
P'k- 116 engine.) A 

pump used in 
steam -e n- 
' gines to re- 
move the air 
and uncon- 
densed steam 
from the con- 
denser in or- 
der tq perfect 
the vacuum 
therein, and 
in the cylin- 
der to which 
it is period- 
ically con- 
Air-Pump. nected. 

jB is the in- 
jection-chamber, which is submerged in the cistern 
C. The uncondensed gases and water escape by the 
valve-way O, called the foot-valve, and ascend 
through the valve of the pump-lucket p as the lat- 
ter descends. The next ascent of the bucket drives 
them out at the valve-way Q into the hot-well. 

Air-reg'u-la'tor. A contrivance for determin- 
ing the quantity of air admitted in a given time. 

Registers and dampers are the usual devices ; the 
former has usually a sliding and the other aii oscil- 
lating motion. Furnaces, stoves, ovens, etc., are 
usually furnished with some means for regulating 
the supply of air ; when the heat of the stove is 
made to regulate the register the device is called a 
Thermostat (which see). 

Air-regulators may be made to act on the principle 
of the gas-regulator, the degree of pressure detei-m inmg 
the area of the o^^ening, so that a given quantity may 
pass in a given time irrespective of the pressure. 

Air'-sout'tle. (Ship-building.) An opening in 
a ship's side for the admission of air, closed in 
stormy weather by a shutter. 

Air'-shaft A shaft in a mine, usually vertical, 
or nearly so, by which the mine is ventilated. 

Air^-spring. An elastic device depending for its 
action upon the tension of an imprisoned body of 
compressed air. 

Air-springs have been made to act as brakes, to 
receive recoil of guns, as buffers, and for other pur- 
poses. See Pneumatic Spring. 

Air -3 1 ova. A heating stove which is employed 
to heat a sti^^am of air directed against its surface. 
Of this class are Heating FuniaceSy and some kinds 
of Heating Stoves. 

There are two common forms, with a great variety 
of each : — 

1. The furnace such as is used in churches, largo 
halls, and some dwellings ; consisting of a stove 
sunx)unded by a casing of metal or brickwork, 
into which the air is led, and from which, after being 
heated, it passes by air-ducts to the apaitment. See 
Heating Furnace. 

2. A stove, a part of whose interior is occupied 
by passages in which air circulates against the tire- 
chamber and Imi'k, after which it is dischai^ed into 
the room. See H bating Stove. 

Air-ther-mom'e-ter. An instrument in which 
the contraction and expansion of aii- is made the 
measure of temperature. It differs from the ordi- 
nary thermometer, which depends on the contraction 
and expansion of liquid in an hermetically sealed 
tube. The air-thermometer is the older form, and 
its invention is variously ascribed to Drebbel of 
Holland, about A. D. 1600 ; to Galileo ; and to 
Santorio of Padua (1561-1686). The instiiiment 
was constructed as follows : The air in a tube being 
slightly rarefied by heat, the lower end was plunged 
into a colored liquid, which, as the air cooled, was 
drawn into the tube. The expansion and contraction 
of the air, by changes of temperature, varied the 
height of the liquid in the graduated tube. It was 
a faulty arrangement, as changes in the atmospheric 
pressure would vary the result, and the ti*uth could 
only be ascertained by 
correction with reference F'g- 116. 

to a barometer. 

Hero, B. C. 150, an in- 
strument is descril)ed 
wherein water is made 
to rise and fall by tho 
changes of temperature. 
The Sjmnish Saracens 
used a Ibi-m of hydrome- 
ter to detect variations in 
temperature. SeeAREO* 
meter; Hydrometer; 

Heat expands the air, 
forcing down the li(|uid, 
and cold has the con- 
trary effect. The tem- 
perature is thus indi- 
cated by the height of 
the liquid in the tube. 

Sturmius's differen- 
tial air-theiTOometer con- 
sists of two bulbs united 
by a tube which is bent 
to form two lejyp, against __ 
one of which is attached 
a graduated scale. A 
quantity of sulphuric 
acid colored witn carmine is iotroduced into the 
tube so that its upi^r surface corresponds with 
zero on the scale. The ball, above the scale is termed 
the focal ball. 

The amounts of air in the respective ends are so 
adjusted that when the bulbs are both exposed to 
the same temi)erature the liquid will fill one leg 
and the horizontal portion of the tube, the level of 
the graduated tube standing at zero. When both 
the bulbs are exposed to the same temperature no 
change takes place in the position of the liquid; 

Air- Thermometer of Santorio. 

Digitized by 





Fig. 117. but when the focal boll is exposed 
to heating or cooling causes, the air 
'will expand or contract, and the 
column of liquid in the graduated leg 
will ascend or descend as the case 
may be. This thermometer is par- 
ticularly adapted for ascertaining the 
particular degree of heat accumu- 
lated at a mrticular point, while 
the surrounding atmosphere is but 
little affected, as in the focus of a 
reflecting mirror, etc. 

Leslie, in his experiments on heat, 
made great use of this differential 
thermometer. By coloring the focal 
ball and leaving the other white, 
silvering or gilding one of the balls, 
covering one with a moistened en- 
velope, etc., he constituted the instrument a pho- 
tometer, tethnoscope, hygrometer, etc. 

Air is more equable in its expansion than mer- 
cuiy with equal mcrements of temperature. 

The following shows the indications on the two 
scales at the same temperatures ; correction being 
made for the expansion of the glass. 

Air Thermometer. Mercurial Thermometer. Diflbronce. 

Differential Air- 



















In effect, however, the expansion of the glass is 
about equal to the increase of the rate of the expan- 
sion of the mercury, so that the mercurial glass 
thermometer is accurate as liigh as 662**. 

For temperatures above the boiling-point of 
mercury, air-thermometers are used. .Dry air, when 
confined, incr?ases in volume § for every 180", and 
is believed to be perfectly equable in its rate of 

A bulb or cylinder with a tube of platinum is 
connected to a glass tube at right angles therewith. 
The glass tube is of uniform bore, is filled with 
mercury, and terminates below in a recurved bulb. 
The glass tube is divided into a number of spaces, 
each equivalent to J of the total volume of the 
platinum bulb or cylinder, with ^ of its stem. The 
other ^ is supposed to be Ijeyond the immediate 
influence of heat. The platinum bulb and § of its 
stem are plunged in the furnace, and the depression 
of the mercury by the heated and expanded air 
within the instrument pressing on it more powerfully 
than the extenial air, will indicate the decree of 
tcmptM-ature. Each degree of the glass stem is equal 
to 180' Fah. 

Air'-trap. Sometimes called sUnch-trap. It 
is an adjunct to a vessel of any kind, such as a 
washbowl, water-closet bowl, urinal, or sink, which 
dischat^s by pipes or sewers up which a current of 
foul air is liable to .pass. 

Some of them are very simple in their character, 
and consist of a water-pan in which is submerged 
the end of the dischai^-pipe of the bowl above. 
This shuts off the passage of air, and an overflow 
is afforded to the water as it reaches a certain 

Ciiaigie's sink, July 2, 1867, is of this charac- 
ter, and its essential feature has been familiar to 
builders and housekeepers for many years. In the 
illustration the novel feature is found in the mode 

of attaching 
the trap - cup 
to the bow-j 
and the dis- 
charge-idpe to 
the bend of 
the cup. 

Caur, De- 
cember 6, 
1864. A spout. 

Fig. 118. 

Craigie^s Sink. 

continuous from the bottom of the basin, descends 
into the water held in a depressed part of the 
receptacle. The flow of water into the upper part of 

FiK. 119. 

Can's Urinal. 

the basin is regulated by a valve controlled by a cam 
movement. Ihe drip from this flow, falling upon 
the top* of this receptacle, is conducted by flanges to 
a descending tube, which is turned upward within 
the receptacle, so as to form an inverted siphon, and 
thus deliver its 

water into the^ "g- ^^' 

receptacle with- ^111 1] i Jfil 

out permitting l|l| II i 

the gas to as- v^™ , v,' " v ■ v ^ ^^^JJ^Hi/' ^""" '^ ==^ 

Carson, Sep- 
tember 25, 
1860. A perforated plate opposes the ]^)assage of 
matter likely to choke the pipe, which enters a cham- 
ber beneath the sink. The water passes to the cham- 
ber beneath a plate whose edge is submerged in 
liquid and forms a trap. 

Marquis, September 4, 1866. A double trap is 

Carson's Sink. 

Marquises Stop-Hopper. 

Digitized by 





formed by eom{)elling the water to pass by a sinu- 
ous course through a circular pan ami then through 
au annular pan, on its way to the discharge- pijK?. 

Air'-trunk. A pipe or conduit for conducting 
foul or he ited air from a room, theatre, or ward. 

Alr'-tube. A small, wrought-iron tube hung in 
a coal-box from the deck, and filled with water, for 
the purpose of ascertaining the tempemture of the 
coals by a therinomiter, as a precaution against 
spontaneous combustion. 

Air'-tabe for conve3ring Letters, Goods, 
and Passengers. This idea suggested by l^r. 
Prtpin aboit 1695, patented by Medhurst in England 
1810, on the air-compression piinciple, and by Val- 
iancy in 1824 on the exhaust principle, has come 
into operation to some extent, and is considered 
under the haatl of P.VEUMATic Tube (which see). 

Air'-valve. {Steam- Eivjine.) A valve in a steam- 
boiler, which opens inwardly to allow air to enter 
when the internal pressure is below the atmospheric. 
This may bj produced by the condensation of steam 
when the fire is drawn, and tfte device is to prevent 
collapse of the boiler. 

Air'-ves'seL An air-reservoir ; it is applied to 
those air-chamb3rs from whi^h the air is to l>e 
drawn for use, as in carbureters, and one foiin of air- 
pump. See AlR-iloLDER. 

A chamber on the ejection-pip3 of a pump, to 
renler th3 stream continuous. S?e Air-chamber. 

Aisle. {/4rch.) A side-division of a church, par- 
tially separated from the nave and choir by columns. 

Aitch'-pieoa {Mlniny.) The i)art of a plunger- 
lift in which the clacks are fixed. 

A-jambe'. A French window with four casement 
windows, separately hingitl and fastened. 

Aj'a-tage. 1. The spout or nozzle of a funnel. 

2. A tube applied to the sides of a discharging 
orifice in a vessel, in order to obviate the resistance 
to the discharge incident to the contraction of the 
fluid vein. This resistance may amount to 0.45 of 
the whole theoretical delivery. 

The addition of a cylindrical tube to the opening 
"will cause a greater discharge, the head and sec- 
tional area remaining the same. 

If the ajutage be cylindrical, and the water fill 
it entirelv, the increase in the discharge, when the 
length of the ajntage does not exceed four times its 
diameter, is in the proix>rtion of 1.33 to 1.00. 


The effective discharge may be still further in- 
creased by making the ajutage of the form repre- 
sented by the accompanying figure, provided the 
liquid fill it entirely. This ajutage is composed of 
two portions of cones upon the same horizontal axis ; 
th:^ first has the form of the contracted vein, the length 
of the second is three times that of the first, and the 
ot waning into the tube from the chamber is J of the 
size of the delivery opening. The efliective discharge 

through an ajutage of this description is generaUv 
stated to be in the pro^wrtion of 3 to 2 of that which 
would take place through an orifice in a thin plate. 
Venturi gives the following data : — 

Orifice of deliveiy . . . . 0.0338 w. 
Orifice of entry .... 0.0406 m. 
Angle of sides of external tube . 6.6* 

The length nine times the diameter of the effec- 
tive opening. 

He found the dischai^ge to be increased to 1.46 
times the theoretical discharge, and 2.4 times the 
discharge that would have taken place had the ori- 
fice been in a thin plate. 

Al'a-bas'ter. 1. A species of marble, white or 
colored. Sometimes called Oriental alabaster, to 
distinguish it from 

2. A ^nular, compact, serai-pellucid gypsum 
which is found in masses, white or colored, and is 
readily turned into vases and ornaments. 

A-larm.' An audible warning. Alarms, mechani- 
cally considered, are of many kinds ; the purpose or 
construction of each is usually indicated oy its 
name. They are placed in such positions or under 
such circum.stances as to give waniing of danger or 
to call attention. 

Mm-inc Alarms ai-e fog-bells, whistles, and trum- 
pets, operated by the tide, the waves, the current, 
the wind, or by clock-work. 

Shoal Alarms are similarly actuated, being situ- 
atetl on spits or banks, anchored, moored, or at- 
tached to piles. 

Nautical Alarms, on shipboard, are to indicate 
a leak or the accumulation of bilge- water. 

Burglar Alarms are attached to doors or windows 
to give notice of surreptitious entrance by thieves. 

Fire Alarms are actuated automatically by ther- 
mostatic arrangements, and give notice of fire, as 
their name indicates. 

Clock Alarms are attached to timepieces to strike 
an alarm at a given hour. 

Oas Alarms indicate an escape of gas, either in a 
room, or from the fissures in a coal-mine. 

High-pressure Alarms are for indicating a danger- 
ous pressure of steam in the boiler. 

Loio-water Alarms are for indicating the subsi- 
dence of the water-level in the boilt r below the 
point of safety. 

A Pocket Alarm is to notify a person of the 
abstraction of a book, etc. from the jacket. 

Telegraphic Alarms are to call the attention of 
the operator to his instrament. 

Tilly Truvk, Safe, Lock, and Door Alartns arc to 
call attention to the opening of the objects to which 
they are attached. 

The Watchman's Alarm may be a rattle used by 
the police, or a systematic mode of communicating 
a signal' of danger. 

Funnel and Barrel-filling Alarms are to indicate 
that the vessel is nearly full. 

A Mill-hojyjier Alartn is to indicate that the giist 
is about exhausted, and thus notify the miller that 
more grain is needed. 

There are over two hundred patents in the 
United States for various foiTOS of alarms. 

See under the respective heails : — 

Alarm check- valve. 
Alarm -lock. 
Alarm- watch. 

Bank alarm-telegraph. 
Bilge- water alarm. 
Burglar alarm. 

Clack-mill alarm. 
Clock alarm. 

Atmospheric alarm- whistle. Door alarm. 

Digitized by 





Earthquake alarm. 
Electi'ii: alarm. 
Electric annunciator. 
Fire alarm. 
Fire-damp alarm. 
Fog alarm. 
Gas alarm. 

Nautical alarm. 
Pocket alarm. 
Safe alarm. 
Shoal alarm. 
Steam-boiler alarm. 
Steam-whistle alarm. 
Telefirraphic alarm. 

and when it struck the determined 
hour, it struck lire likewise out of a 
flint, which fell among tinder, to light 
him a candle ; it was the invention of 
one Caravagio of Sienna in Italy." The 
Mai-quis of Worcester, 1655, suggests 
that the tinder-bo.\ may foim a sei-vice- 
able pistol. This is anticpating some 
of the burglar alarms of our own time. 

The clock alarm consists of a bell r—- 
or wire coil and a hammer which r^J^^ 
is set in motion by an aiTangement 1-^^11 — 
substantially similar to the recoil 
escapement in the attached cut. A 
weighted cord or spring, being wound 
on the axis of the scape-wheel, ro- 
tates it 08 soon as it is tree to move. 
If we suppose a short hammer in- 
stead of a long pendulum attached to 

the axis of the pal- 
lets, and the wheel to 
be driven with suf- 
ficient force, it will 
oscillate the hammer 
and cause the head 
to strike on alternate 
sides of the bell inside 
which it vibrates. 

If the alarm were 
always to be let off 
at the some time it 
would only be neces- 
sary to set a pin in 
the proper place in 
the twelve -hour 
wheel to raise the 
lifting-piece which 

Klg. 124. 

Recoil Escapement. 

lets off the alarm at that time. To make it capa- 
ble of a^ustment, the discharging pin is set in 
another wheel (without teeth), whicn rides with 
a friction spring upon the socket of the twelve- 
hour wheel, and has a small movable dial attached 
to it, with figures so arranged in reference to the 
pin, that, whatever figure is made to come to a 
small pointer set as a tail to the hour-hand, the 
alai-m shall be let off at that hour. The letting off 
does not require the same ai)paratu8 as the stiiking 
movement, oecause it is not to strike a definite 
number of blows, but to go till it is run down. 

The lifting-piece is nothing but a lever with a 
stop or hook upon 

it, which, when *'*«• 126- 

it is dropped, 
takes hold of the 
alann-wheel, and 
disengages itl 
when raised. \ 
neL A funnel 
which indicates 
that liquid in the 
barrel has risen 
to a certain 
point. The fun- 
nel being placed 
over the bung- 
hole of the bar- 
rel, the rising 
liquid raises the 
float, which de- 
taches the but- 
ton from its btop 

and rings the Alarm Funnel 


Fig. 126. 

Eutenevr^s hock-Afarm. 

Digitized by 





A-larm'-look. In the Marquis of Worcester's 
" Century of Inventions," No. 72, A.D. 1655, a lock 
is referred to whicli, if tampered with by a stranger, 
will start an alarm beyond the control of the intrud- 
er. As usual, the thing is mei-ely hinted at, the 
purpose of that Digest of Inventions being more to 
act as a raminder to the inventor than as a specifi- 
cation for another reader. 

EUTENF.UR, September 19, 1865, (Fig. 126,) has an 
arrangement of devices by means of which any move- 
ment of the latch-bolt causes two hammers to strike 
a bell. A plate covers the key-hole to prevent the 
admission of a key from the outside ; the plate is 
held closed by a bar attached thereto and projecting 
through the case. , The two hammers are so pivoted 
as to be trippe<i by the motion of the latch-bolt, 
striking the bell on the recoil. 

Deckow, December 12, 1865. The device con- 
sists of a bell, hammer, escapenient, and a spring. 
The bolt Is so arranged as to trip the escape-wheel, 
when moved in either a vertical or a horizontal direc- 
tion, and release the ham- 
Fig. 127. mer, which is oscillated 
^ ' ^^ ■uJ-,^ -^^ (^-^ ^^ rapidly to give a quick suc- 
l yy'^^^^^^^^>\ cession of strokes upon the 
l^/j^ X\^ bell. 

A padlock with an alarm 
attachment is shown in 
Fig. 128. The shackle B 
is fastened by screws Z Zy 
whoso heads are exposed. 
Thev are connected by chains 
to the arm H of a trigger /. 
The barrel X is moved by 
the spring P, a cap is 
exploded, a ball projected, 
and fire communicated 
througii the opening R 
into the magazme S. . D 
is a cover for the screw-heads Z. T is the fallen 
face-plate of the lock-case. 

Fig. 128. 

Fig. 129. 

Dterow^s Alarm. 

Andrew^ s Alarm' Lock. 

A-larmMook for Tilla. Alarm-locks are at- 
tached to tills so as to ring when the drawer is 
pulled open. The devices are numerous. In Fig. 
129 is shown one in which the contact of the head 
a with a detent beneath the counter causes the said 
head to vibrate and swing the hammer-rod which 

Tucker's Alarm- nil' 

sounds the gong. By raising the trigger E the 
drawer may be opened silently. 

A-larm'-watoh. An instrument, not necessarily 
a timepiece, with going works, and adaptetl to nm 
down and saund an alarm after a specific interval of 
time. See Watch Alarm. 

Al-ba'ta. German silver, composed of nickel, 
copper, and zinc ; with the addition of small quan- 
tities of lead or iron in some formulas. 

It is a white alloy, used for table- ware, etc., and 
resemble^ the Chinese Packfong, or white copper. 

The follo>\'ing arc some of the formulas : — 

Common, Nickel, 4 ; Copper, 20 ; Zinc, 16. 

Better. ** 6 ; " 20.; ** 10. 

For rolling, " 25 ; " 20 ; " 60. 

For casting, " 20 ; ' " 20 ; " 60 ; Lead, 20. 

Packfong, " 31.6 ; " 40.4 ; ** 25.4 ; Iron, 2.6. 

See Alloy. 

AVber-type. (Photojr.) The process is as fol- 
lows : ** A plate of glass is covered with a solution 
of albumen, gelatine, and bichromate of potash, 
dried and exposed to light until hardened. It is 
then again covered with a solution of gelatine and 
bichromate of potash, and when diy exposed under 
the negative, and the film is then found to possess 
qualities analogous to a drawing made with fatty 
ink upon lithograph stone. All those portions of 
the filni that were acted upon by the light will re- 
fuse water and take ])rinting-inK, while those por- 
tions which were protected from light bv the nega- 
tive will take water and refuse ink. The ink and 
water will be absorbed by the film just in accordance 
with the gradations of light and shade in the nega- 
tive. To produce a picture, wet the surface of the 
film, then apply ink, lay on paper, and pass through 
a press ; the operation being substantially the same 
as lithography. The process is said to be rapid, and 
excellent pictures of all sizes may be printed in 
admirable style." — Photographic News. 

Al 'bo-lite Cement Invented by Riemann. 
Mix calcined and finely pulverized magnesite (na- 
tive carbonate of magnesia) with infusoiial earth, 
and stir in chloride of magnesium. Among the 
properties of the cement, as enumerated by the 
inventor, are a high degree of plasticity, and of 
hardness after it has become fixed, and a spontane- 
ous development of heat as soon as it is solidified to 
the consistency of wax, this increasing in propor- 
! tion to the size of the mass into which it has been 
I molded. It is extremely hard, a peculiarity in- 
I cr«*ased by its elasticity, and adheres very well to 
stone, wood, and dry oiled surfaces, but cannot be 
used under water. It is now largely employed in 
the preparation of ornamental moldings, for which, 
however, in consequence of the above-mentioned 
development of heat, gelatine molds must be cau- 
tiously used. By coating ornaments of gypsum 
with this cement it imparts to them a great degree 

Digitized by 





of hardness. It is also used for repairing wom- 
down sandstone ste])s, for facing stone and wooden 
steps, for tire-proof coating to boards in the interior 
of houses, and also ft)r preserving railroad-ties, etc. 

Al^am. A book arranged to hold {)hotogranhs, 
autographs, or memorial addresses of a private char- 

The principal concern of the mechanic arts with 
the album is with devices for sewing the leaves iu 
the book, making the slip-pockets for the recep- 
tion of cards, clasps, and securing devices for the 
leaves of the cover. 

The album was originally the tablet on which the 
Roman pnetor's edict was written. It was whitCf 
and hung uj) as a bulletin-board in a public place. 

It is now a book of friendly memorials : signa- 
tures, prose or noetic t;ffusions, or photographs. It 
dates back to tne church blank-book, or i^Ai/e-page 
book, in which were inscribed the names of bener 
factors of the church, in order that the appointed 
prayers might be made as the feast-days of their 
chosen saints n*curred. 

The Venerable Bede, in his preface to the Life of 
St. Cuthbert, A. D. 721, speaks of the record of the 
saint's name in the album at Lindisfame. The name 
frequently occurs in ecclesiastical and other writings. 

Al'bu-men Process in Photography. This 
process antedated the collodion, wliicii is much 
more sensitive. It was invented by Niepce de St. 
Martin. The glass receives a coating from a solu- 
tion of albumen to which bromide and iodide of 
potassium and a drop of caustic potash have been 
added, and after drying is exposed to the fumes of 
iodine. It is then silvered in a bath of nitro- 
acetate of silver, and dried. After passing again 
over the vajwr of iodine it is ready for the camera. 
The image is developed by a solution of gallic 
acid, and fixed by a solution of hyposulphite of 
soda. — Mayall. 

Al'car-ra'za. A vessel of ]K)rous earthenware used 
for cooling the contained liquids by evaporation 

from the exterior surface. See Ice-machine. The 
word is Arabic, and the device was introduced into 
Europe by the Spanish Saracens. 

Alcarrazas are made of a sandy marl made up into 
paste with saline water and lightly fired. 

"In niches where the current of air could be 
artificially directed hung dripping alcarrazas." — 
Description of iht Allmmbra, 

Ai'co-hol En'gine. An engine in which the 
vapor of alcohol is used as a motive-power. 

The first suggestion of the machine was by Rev. 
Edmund Cartwright at the latter end of the last 
century. The reason why the elastic vapor of 
alcohol was 8up()osed to be preferable to that pro- 
duced from water is that it boils at a temj^reture 
considerably below that of water. It must be recol- 
lected, however, that all leakage and escape of alco> 
hoi is not alone an absolute loss of a valuable 
material, but that such leakage is very dangerous, 
owing to the inflammability of the material. 

Howard's alcohol engine, English patent, 1825, 
was in use at the Rotheniithe Iron-Works for some 
time, but apj>eare to have wearied out the patience or 
means of the inventor, no engine of that description 
being now usefully employed so far as we are aware. 
The engine referred to was intended to work up to 
24 horse-power. 

The engine had two vertical cylinders A B, of equal 
capacity, connected by a pipe C, at the lower part 
of each. A quantity of mercury or oil, which will 
not vaporize at the heat to be applied, is placed in 
each cylinder, so as to fill the l)ase of one and 
nearly the whole of the other. 

Within the cylinder B \a2l piston, exposed above 
to the pressure of the atmosimere, and packed in 
the cylinder in the usual manner. In the other 
cylinder ^ is a thin metallic dish Z>, floating freely 
upon the surface of the oil. A tube E^ terminating 
in a nozzle pierced with small holes, passes through 
a stuffing-box in the cover of the cylinder A^ in 
which also is a flap-valve opened by a rod H as 

KmtHUiTs Alcohol Ensinf. 

Digitized by 





occasion requires. The vnlve is otherwise kept to 
its seat by a spring. / is the stuffing-box of the 
Vidve-i-dd ; K the safety*- valve. The piston has a 
phig by which a certain quantity of the fluid is 
admitted above its upper surface, there to remain. 
iV is a dischai*ge-cock. o o are ai^nd-buniers, 
which heat the cylinders A B hy direct action 
uiwn their lower surfaces, the hot-air flue extending 
around them and terminating in the chimney P, 
which has a i-egister-cap a by which the draft is 

By moans of a foree-pump i?, worked by the 
engine, a small quantity of alcohol is drawn from the 
condenser and injected through the pipe £ into the 
dish />, which floats upon the hot oil in the cylinder 
j4, and is thereby flashed intb steam. The exjmn- 
sion of the alcohol de])res8es the column of oil in 
the cylinder ^, driving it through the passage C into 
the cylinder i^, where it raises the piston. 

When the piston has attained its highest eleva- 
tion, the valve O is opened and the vapor escapes 
by pipe *S^ to the condenser, which consists of an 
unper and lower chamber connected by pipes V. V. 
These pipes are suiTounded by flannel constantly 
wetted by water diipping from the trough AT, and 
the evaporation is expedited by a continual draft 
of air from the rotating fly Z^ which is driven by the 
engine. Y is the lower trough, which receives the 
su|>erfluous water, and IV is the bottom chamber, 
which contains the condensed vapor and from which 
it is drawn by ])ump 11 to produce each upward 
movement of the piston. A cork or wooden pack- 
ing in the couuecting-pi])e S prevents the conduc- 
tion of heat from one jiart of the apparatus to the 
other. The condensation of the alcoholic vapor 
causes the return of the oil into the cylinder A^ and 
tho atmospheric pressure causes the piston to de- 
scend, c, bf are the pipe and stop-cock by which 
the atmospheric contents of the condenser are with- 
di-awn, i>revious to starting the engine, d is the 

by which the 
condenser may 
be dra^xn from 
the chamber 
W. f is the 
pijie at which 
the chamber 
W is charged 
with alcohol. 
It is closed by 
a screw - pipe 
when the ma- 
chine is in ac- 

me-ter. A 
modification of 
the hydrome- 
ter, for the 
purpose of as- 
certaining the 
specific gravi- 
ty and conse- 
quent amount 
of alcohol in 
spirituous lio- 
uors,etc. This 
may either be 
so constructed 

_ * as to be sunk, 

GuUC$ Aleohohntur, by weights, to 

a uniform depth in the liquor testrtl, or ii; ir.r.y indi- 
cate the gravity by the amount of its submci^Tncc, as 
shown on a graduated stem, taking either pr.rc 
alcohol or ** proof " iw a standard ; the latter nimle of 
construction is more convenient in practice, and more 

generally adopted. The absolute percentage of alco- 
ol, or the degree above or below proof, is deduced 
from tables constnicted for that purpose and corre- 
sponding to various temperatures of tlie liquid. 

Guru, June 28, 1850. In this alcohohiieter the 
evaporation of a fixed quantity of alcoholic fluid is 
made to exhibit the exact pereentage of alcohol con- 
tained in the said liquid. "While the tube E is yet 
detached from the apparatus, it is partially filled 
with mercury, and then receives a definite r.mount 
of the alcoholic liquid to be tested. When in- 
verted and placed in position in the iustnmient the 
liquid and mercury change places, the foimer occu- 
pying the upper part of chamber E. Heat being 
applied, by means of the spirit-lamp B^ to the water 
in chamber (7, the vajior rising therefrom, filling 
chamber D, heats the mercury and the nlpoholic 
liquid, the temperature being indicated by the 
thennometer A. As alcoholic vajior is elimmated 
from the liquid it jjresses upon the colunm of mer- 
cury, causing it to rise in the stem G^ and the height 
of the column against the graduated scale indicates 
tht* amount of spirit. 
The ebullition alcoholmcter of Vidal is founded 

I upon his discovery _, .^ 

! that the boiling tern- **' "*^ 

perature of alcoholic 
liquors is propor- 
tional to the quan- 
tity of alcohol con- 

I tained in them. It / 

I consists of a spirit- '' 
lamp, beneath a j 
small boiler, into 1\ 

I which a large cylin- \ 
drical glass bulb is 
plunged, having an 
upright stem of such 
caliber that the 
quicksilver con- 
tained in them may, 
by its expansion and 
a.scent when heated, 
raise before it a little 
glass l!oat in the 
stem, Avhich is con- 
nected by a thread 
with a similar glass 
bead that hangs in 
the air. The thread 
passes round a pul- 
ley, which, turning 
with the motion of 
the l>eads, causes the 
index to move along 
the graduated circu- 
lar scale. 

The numbers on 
this scale represent 
percentages of abso- 
lute alcohol ; so the nural)er opposite to which 
the index stops, when the liquor in the cylinder 
over the lamp Doils briskly, denotes the percentage 
of alcohol in it. 

Siemen's alcoholmcter, Berlin, 1869, is thus 
described: **As the spirit — no matter of what 
strength — leaves the still, it passes into a cylin- 
drical vessel, and from this, through a drum some- 
thing like that of an ordinary gas-meter, into the 

Ebullition Aleoholmeter. 

Digitized by 





cask which is to contain it. On its way through 
the apparatus it is measured, gaged, and regis- 
tered witii tho greatest possible exactness. First, 
its bulk or volume is measured and indicated "in 
gallons and decimal parts ; and, second, the quan- 
tity of either absolute alcohol or of proof-spirit 
which it contain.? is measured and indicated inde- 
pendently. The raL'asurement and n*gistration of 
the total bulk or quantity of spilit which pas.^es 
over is obviously done directly by the rot^ition of 
the drum, each of the thre3 divisioni of which holdo 
exactly five g-allons. Th? indicjition of tbc- strength 
of the spirit U dons by a swimmer in the cylin- 
drical vessel into which th'^ alcohol first enters as it 
leaves the still. This swimmer is attached to a 
[winter, which, in being elevated and depressed by 
the lowering or lising ot the swimmer, according to 
the varying 8p?.eific gravity of the liquid, limits the 
rcciprocatinpj movemjnta of a graduated tongue in 
connection with the counter-work. Thus, not only 
do the distiller and th^ excis3man know at a glance 
how much spirit in total has been distilled within 
a giv^n time, but likewise how much proof-spirit 
it is equivalent to. — Engineer. 

See also Liquid-metek. 

Al'cove. {Architecture.) A recess separated from 
a main chamber by columns, anta;, an<l balusters, j 

A recess in a room for a bed or for seats. | 

A-lem'bic. The head or cap which is placed 
upon the cucurbit, and which discharge's by its beak 
into the receiver. The cucurbit contains the liquid 
to be distilled, and the alembic is hit.'d thereto to 

Fig. 138 


Erevent the escape of vapor which is raised by the 
eat of the fire, and is conducted to the receiver to 
be condensed. Some alembics have an awrture in 
the head to admit material to the retort when the 
stopper is temporarily removed. 

We are indebted to the Arabs for this apparatus 
and its name. Zozimus, who flourished about A. D. 
400, described the operation of purifying water by 

Djafar, the great Arabian chemist, about A. D. 
875 discovered nitric acid, which he obtained by 
the distillation in a retort of Cyprus vitriol, alum, 
and saltpeter. He obtained aqiia-regia by the ad- 
dition of sal-anmioniac, and no doubt felt that in 
obtaining a solvent of gold he had discovered the 
long-desired aurum potahile. 

Khazes, the Arabian, l)om 860, obtained absolute 
alcohol by distilling spirits of wine with quicklime. I 

A child Bechil, of the same peofde, distilled to- 1 

gether an extract of urine, clay, lime, and powdered 
charcoal, and obtained phosphorus. 

A bluid-( alembic is one having a capital with no 

A-len'Qon Lace. Also called blonde. A vnriety 
of lace formed of two threads, twisted and woiked 
to n hexagonal mesh. 

Alcn^oii pohit is formed of two threads to a pillar, 
with octagonal and squai-e meshes alternately. 

Al'eu-rom'e-ter. The name given to an instru- 
ment invented about 1849, by M. Boland, a ParisipJi 
baker, for determining the quality of the gluten in 
dilferent specimens of wheaten flour, and their 
const»quent adaptation for bread-making. A tube 
of about six inches in length is divided into two 
parts, of which the smaller one, about two inches in 
length and holding a given amount of glut<;n, is 
screwed on to the longer tube, which is fitted with 
a piston having a graduated stem. The apparatus is 
then exposed to a moderate degree of heat, when the 
{gluten expands, forcing up the* piston, the amount 
of expansion being indicated by the distance the 
stem protrudes from the tube. It was found that 
gluten obtained from flour of good quality would 
expand to four or five times its original bulk, and 
had the smell of warm bread, while that of bad flour 
became viscid, \vith a tendency to adhere to the tube, 
and in some instances emitting an unpleasant odor. 

All-dade. {Optical Inslr. ) The movable aim of 
a graduated instrument carrying sights or a telescope, 
by which an angle is measured from a base line ob- 
served' through the stationary or level line of sights. 

Used in theodolites, astrolabes, demicircles, and 
numerous other angulometers. 

A-lign'ment (Engineering.) The ground plan 
of a road or earthwork. 

Allia-liin'e-ter. The object of this instrument is 
to ascertain the value of the alkalies of commerce. It 
was invented by Dr. Ure, about 1816, or by Mr. 
Descroizelles, and consists essentially of a gniduated 
tube closed at one end, each graduation correspond- 
in|j to a sufficient ijuantity of sulphuric or other 
acid to neutralize a given amount of pure soda or 
potash dissolved in water. The stren^h of the 
alkali is inferred from the amount of acid required 
to neutralize it. 

The instrument recommended by Dr. Faraday 
consists of a burette supported upon a foot and 
graduated into one hundred equal parts, p. j^^ 
the space between each two of the divis- J~' 
ions being capable of containing ten y**^^^ 
grains of distUled water. The upper ! f 
part of the instniment is shaped, as ' »» 
shown in the figure, for the convenient 
introduction of the test acid and its 
subsequent delivery in drojis. 

To employ it for estimating the amount 
of carbonate of potash in any sample of 
pearlash, weigh out 100 grains of the 
ash, dissolve them in boiling water, so 
that, when cool, the mixture has a spe- 
cific gravity of 1.1268. Filter if neces- 
sary', and tinge blue with infusion of 
litmus ; then fill the alkalimeter to 65 
with the test acid, diluting with water 
to 0°, and add the diluted acid grad- 
ually and cautiously until the reddening 
effect is produced ujwn the dissolved 
sample. The number of measures of 
acid required represents the percentage 
of carbonate of potash in the sample. ^^^^^^ 

To estimate the amount of potash con- j^jitailmtter. 
tained in the sample, either as caustic 
l>otash or carbonate of potash, fill the alkalimeter to 

Digitized by 





49 with the test acid, the 100 measures being again ; 
made up with water. The number of divisions of , 
this dilute acid required to neutralize 100 grains' 
of the sample will correspond to the proportion of 
pure potasn in the sample. 

For the determination of carbonate of soda, the 
alkalimetcr must be filled to 54.6 with thatest acid, 
which must then be used as before. For the esti- 
mation of caustic soda, the operator will require to 
fin the instrument to 23. 4. The number of meas- 
ures requii-ed to change the blue of the solution to 
red will in both cases correspond to the percentages 
of caustic or carbonated alkali requii*ed. 

All-a-long'. A bookbinder's term to denote that 
the sewing- thread passes from end to end of the fold, 
or directly between the distant points of punctura- 

Allege. {Fr.) A ballast-boat. 

Al-lette'. {Archilecixire.) A wing of a building ; 
a buttress or pilaster. 

Alley. {Printing.) The compositor's standing- 
place between two opposite franies. 

Al-loy'. An alloy is a combination by fusion of 
two or more metiils, as brass and zinc, tin and lead, 
silver and copper, etc. 

Many alloys are composed of definite chemical 
proportions of their component metals, whilst in 
others the metals unite in any proportions. 

The best-known and perhajw tne most generally 
useful alloy is brass, which is formed by the fusion 
together of copper and zinc. 

The Ck>lossu8 at Rhodes was said to have been 
constructed of brass B. C. ^288. Bronze is a much 
more ancient alloy than brass, and has been known 
from a very remote antiquity. Seo Brass and 
Broxze^ All alloys are opaque, have a metallic 
luster, are more or less elastic, ductile, and malleable, 
and are good conductors of heat and electricity. 
Those consisting of metals of very difierent degrees 
of fusibility are usually malleable Avhen cola and 
brittle when hot. Metallic compounds containing 
mercury are amalgams. Metals do not unite indiP 
ferently with each other, but have certain affinities ; 
thus silver, which will hardly unite with iron, com- 
bines readily with gold, copper, or lead. Alloys are 
generally harder and less ductile than the mean of 
their constituents, and their specific gravi|;y is usu- 
ally either greater or less than this mean. (See Ta- 
ble.) The melting-point of alloys is usually below 
that of either of the simple metals composing them ; 
thus, an alloy of 8 parts bismuth, 5 lead, and 
8 till, fuses at the heat of boiling water, or 212**. 
See Fusible Alloys. 

They very frequently ]M>sses3 more tenacity than 
their constituents would seem to indicate ; thus 
an alloy of 12 parts lead and 1 part zinc has 
double the tenacity of the latter metal, or about six 
times that of lead. 

They are, in general, more easily oxidized than 
their component metals. An alloy of tin and lead 
unites with oxygen so readily «3 to take fire and 
bum when heated to redness. 

A very slight modification of the components of- 
ten produces a great change in the mechanical prop- 
erties ; brass, containing two or three \yQV cent of 
lead, is most readily turned, but works badly under 
the hammer, while that of the best quality for ham- 
mering is not turned with facility, owing to its 

The precious metals, when employed for coin or 
jewelry, are invariably alloyed to increase their 
hardness ; the degree of fineness, or proportion of 
pure metal, being usually estimated in carats or 
twenty-fourths. In this case the term " alloy " is 

often understood to apply merely to the baser metal 
with which the gold or silver is conibined. Thus 
the British standai-d for gold is 22 parts pure gold 
and 2 parts alloy, or 22 carats fine ; for silver, 222 
parts pure silver and 18 parts alloy. 

The alloy for gold is an indefinite proportion of 
silver arid copper ; that for silver is always copper. 
The standard for silver plate is the same as for coin ; 
that for jeweler's gold is 18 carats, but for some pur- 
^joses the fineness is reduced to 12 and even 9 
carats ; silver is used for the alloy, and copper may 
be added to heighten the color. 

Silver and pallatlium unite in any proportions, and 
it has been found that this alloy is not so readily 
tarnished as silver ; it has been used for the gradu- 
ated scales of mathematical instruments. Platinum 
has been used with silver for similar purposes, but 
requires greater care in fusion to make the combina- 

Steel is mucli improved for cutlery by being al- 
loyed with about yjyy part of silver ; it is also im- 
proved by f^Tf part of platinum. 

From one to two per cent of rhodium has also 
been combined with steel, with excellent results. 


Ancient Bronao Sword, 

Ancient Kronzo Svrord, 

Tbomcff, England . 
Ancient Bronxo Axc-| 

hoad, Ireland . 
Amient Bronae Wedge, 

Amient Brocae Knife; 

Amaro, t^outh Amcr-j 

ica . . . . 
Coin of Iladrian . { 

" '' Tacitus . 

" " Probus 




40.4 I 




" " Pompoy . I 

Chlncrc Wliito Copper 
( Parlcfong) 

Keirn Metal, Enplih 
Patent, Dec. 10, 1779 100. 

Kein Metal, English 
Patent (another for- 
mulfi) . .100. 

Trat table Yellow Metal 
(old formula) . 

Fontainemorenu'c Eng- 
lish Patent, 1888 . 

Cutler's English Pat- 
ent, 188S 

SorcKa White Braes, 
1840. . . •! 

Parked English Pat-, 
ent, 1844 . .' 

Parke's English Pat- 
ent (another for-! 
mula) . . .' 

Parke's English Pat-j 
ent (another for- 

Stirling's Gun -Metal,' 
English Patent, 1846 50. 

Stirling's " British 
Gold." English l>at- 
ent, 1846 . . 400. 

Fell-Metal (Grcnnnn) . 71. 

Aich's Metal, Kngli-h 
Patent, Feb. 8. 1860 «" 

Rosthom's Oun-Metal, 
Austria, 1861 . 

Rosthom's Oun-Motal 
(another anslyf i;*) . 

NaTy Brass, Austria 

Parisian Clock Bells . 

Birkholx Metal, United 
States Patent, Mar. 
11,1862 . 



2.00, 1.89 




I 5. 


4.5 128. C7. 





55.04 8842.86 

57.68 0.15 


72. 26.5 

40 ?2 


.74 1.73 

.61 2.33 
.80 .45 
19 16.66 














2 29 
;8 22 


M I 

Digitized by 





An English work of 1853 cites the addition of 
one to two per cent of iron to brass to give strength 
and sonorousness ; and further states that *' laige 
gnns, lai^ screws, propeller-vanes, mill-brasses, 
railway-bearings, bells, and other articles are made 
of a metal in which copper, zinc, tin, and iron, all 
take i)art." 

{Brass,) The alloys of copper and zinc retain 
their malleability and ductility when the zinc is 
not above thirty-three to forty per cent <rf the alloy. 
When the zinc ia m excess of this a crystalline 
chan^ter begins to prevail. An alloy of 1 copper, 
2 zinc, may bo crumbled in a mortar when cold. 

Yellow brass, that files and turns well, may con- 
sist of copper 32, zinc 9 to 18. A greater propor- 
tion of zinc makes it harder and less tractable ; with 
less zinc, it is more tenacious and hangs to the file 
like copper. 

Yellow brass (copper 2, zinc 1) is hardened by 
the addition of two to three per cent of tin, or made 
more malleable by the same proportion of lead. The 
tin whitens it ; the lead reddens it. Sec Brass. 

{Bronze.) A compound of copper and tin. The 
addition of tin increases the Risibility of copper. 
The red color is not materially affected by the 
addition of 5 ports tin to 32 copper, which makes 
engineer's brasses ; it is consideraoiy whitened when 
32 copper is alloyed with 12 tin, this being the limit 
of bell-metal ; and is auite white when 32 copper, 
16 tin, is reached, this oeing speculum metal, wlien 
it has ceased to serve for producing sound it is 
used for reflecting light. 

A small addition of zinc to a bronze alloy assists 
in the mixing, and increases the malleability without 
materially affecting the hardness. Lead increases 
the ductility of gun-metal, at the expense of its 
hardness and color. !Mr. Donkin proposes the 
addition of nickel. Dr. Ure suggests antimony. 
The addition of from two to four i)er cent of iron to 
the gun-metal is claimed to make an extremely 
tough alloy. See Gdn-metal ; Bronze. 

Sir J. Gardiner Wilkinson mentions finding a 
bronze chisel among the chippings of the limestone 
rocks in the neighborhood of Thebes, where it had 
been accidentally left by the workmen in ancient 
times. It is 9^ inches in length, diameter at the 
summit 1 inch, and weighs 1 lb. 12 oz. 

FUSIBLE ALLOYS {Composition of). 

Newton 'i 

Newton *« (another for- 
mula) . 

j '.Vootl'a 

Pr.tcnt (March 

V.'ooa'rf i.V.tent for nillr}? 
teeth 0:)t. 4,1 S'M) I 

































150 -leo 








Holtzapffel*s list is as follows : — 

Tin. Lead. Binnath. Mercory. MelUng-pdnt 

558 T. 
8 122 

According to a table arranged by Professor P. H. 
Vander Weyde, the fusion points of the under- 
mentioned alloys are as follows : — 







1 • 

















































167 *■ F. 























Pure tin . 



, , 

. 428 

Pure bismuth 

, , 

, , 


Pure lead 




. 617 

















































A more extended table of the fusible points of 
the ordinary triple alloys is given in the Bulletin 
(U la SociUi Chimiqtie : — 


112 'C. 











The Egyptians soldered with lead as long ago as 
the time of Thothmes, B. C. 1490, the time of 
Moses. Pliny refers to the art, and says it requires 
the addition of tin for use as a solder. The tin 
came mainly from fhe Cassiterides (Cornwall). 

Gold Alloys. 

Gold. Silver. Copper. 

18-carat gold of yellow tint . 300 m 54 

18-caratgoldof red tint . 360 42 78 

16-caratgold .... 36 12 

16-camt gold nearly (yellow tint) 20 7 5 

lO-camt gold nearly (reil tint) 20 2 8 

11 -carat gold nearly . . 20 11 11 

Gold solders are made from gold of the quality of 
the article, say 18 or 16 carats, to which ia udded 

Digitized by 





JL of silver and one -^ of copper ; or a lar^r 
proportion of silver and copper for ware of infenor 


Blanched Copper (Mock Sllrer) 

Imitation Gold {Uermiitadrs) ; 
(this roramblos gold in color 
and speciflc gravity) . 


llanheim Gold 

or . . . 

Morale Gold ( Hamilton and 
Parker's Patent) . 

Pinchbeck .... 

Mock Platinom 

Bath Metal .... 

Very hard Bronae (Chantrey's) 

Speculum Metal . 


Martin's Patent, Aug. 28, 1859 

OrMoln . 

Tombac (Malay, tambaga, cop- 

Red Tombac 

Mock Silver (Toneas^s Patent, 
1866, England) 

Mock Gold (Hackert's, patented June 11, 1867), cream of 
8 OS. ; saltpeter, 1 oi. ; melt, and add melted copper, 
borax, 1 oi. ; sine, 1 oi. ; tutty, 1 os. 




§• fi 


O P 

























» , - ' F .5 



1 4 



its, compensates for the contraction, causing the 
alloy to retain the full size of the mold, making the 
letters sharp. 

Sometimes, from motives of economy, the neigh- 
boring parts of machinery are not wrought ac-* 
curately to correspond one with the other, but metal 
is poured in to fill up the intemiediatc siiacc and 
make contact. Antimony is an essential addition 
in such cases to prevent the contraction tlie lead 
edone would sustain, and which would defeat the in- 
tended object, as the' metal would othenvise become 
smaller than the space to be filled. 


SOLDERS {Composition of). 


** •* 

Hard Spelter . 
Gold* . 

For Bmxing Steel 
Hardest Silver 
Hard Silver 
Soft SUver . 
For Aluminium (Sterr's.Mar.lO, 
1868) . 
























2 4 
19 1 
4 1 





*. I 


Speculum Metal 


Hard Pewter 

Best Pewter . 

Pewterer's " Temper 

Pot Metal (used also for 
jkacets) . 

Shot Metal 

Cowper's alloy far turn- 
ing in the roar tnaint 
for subsequent print- 
ing as letterpress 

Bkldery Ware 

Britannia Metal 

Britannia Metal (an- 
other formula) 

Britannia Metal (Urd- 
ner's) . 

Britannia Metal (Over- 


i 476 

• Various proportions are employed, according to the fine- 
ness of the article, so as not to risk the test of assay. 

TYPE-METAL {Cmnposition of). 


For the smallest and most brittle 


For tho?o a grade softer . 

*' medium tdzed types 

" large types .... 

" largvst and softest types 

•• stereotype plates 

" " " now recipe . 

Bestoy's patent type-metal (1866, 





30; 201 8 

German Tutania . 
Spanish " 
Queen's Metal 
Queen's Metal (anoth- 
er formula) 
Parisian White Metal 
Ccnnmon AlbataorOer-| 

man Silver . . 20 
Best Albata or German! 

Silver . . .120 
WTiite Copper or Tute-| 

nag ... ,60 
Packfong (Chinesci '40.4 
Packfong (mi>ro malleo-l 

ble) . . .6 
Packfong |G8.89 

German Silver (finest 

quaUty) . . I 1 
German Silver (for roll-' 

ing) ... ,20 
German Silver (for cast-l 

ing) . . . 120 
German Silver (original I 

formula) .26 

German White Copper 88 

From four to six per cent of tin is used in the 
smaller types, and sometimes a small amount of 

In this alloy the antimony fulfils another service 
besides imi)arting hardness. Antimony expands 
somewhat in cooling, whereas lead conti'acts consid- 
erably ; tlie antimony therefore, within certain lim- 





















































I 7 

I 1 







Special Formulas. 

A metal that expands in cooling ; useful in filling 
defects in iron castings : — 

Lead . . .9 
Antimony . . 2 
Bismuth . . 1 

Babbitt metal : — 

Copper . . 1 

Kegulus of Antimony 1 
Tin . . .10 

Melt the copper first, then the antimony, then the 
tin, strewing charcoal-powder over the crucible to 

Digitized by 





prevent it from burning away. Cast it in bars. It 
should not be kept hot on tne fire any longer than 
is absolutely essential. Wash the box to be tinned 
with alcohol, and tlien sprinkle powdered sal-ammo- 
niac on it ; liold it over the fire until the same fuses, 
then plunge it in melted tin. All jiarts not to be 
tinned must be washed with clay. Muriate of zinc, 
- that is, zinc cut \vitli muiiatic acid, may be em- 
ployed instead of the ammoniac, where it can be 
obtained. When the box is tinned it will take the 
Babbitt, but it must be pretty bot before the Bab- 
bitt is poured in. 

Babbitt's English Patent gives the proportions : — 

Tin . . . 60 

Antimony . . 5 

Copper ... 1 

BiRKHOLz's metal : — 

Cast-iron . . 2 lbs. 

Charcoal . . 2 oz. 

are heated in a crucible to a white heat ; add thereto 

Copper . . .60 lbs. 
Heat till both are melted together, then add 

Borax . . 4 oz. 

Zinc ... 38 lbs. 
making 100 pounds of the composition. 

These are the mateiials and almost exactly the 
proportions of the Austrian Navy gim-metal. See 


Iron (p. 61). 

Dinsman's metal for journal-boxes 

, patented Feb- 

ruary 27, 1866 : — 



Glass . 




Prussiate of Potash 

i oz. 



In his patent of October 15, 1867, 

1 oz. of tin is 

substituted for the 8 oz. of lead. 

An alloy of 

Silver ... 80 

Platinum . . 20 

resists the tarnishing action of sulphur. 

Baron Wetterstedt's alloy for sheathing for 
ships : — 

Lead . . .100 
Antimony . . 8 

Kennelly's patent, March 31, 1863. For horse- 
shoes : — 

American Charcoal Iron 30 lbs. 
Bone-dust . . . 4 oz. 
Manganese . . . 2 ** 
Ferrocyanide of Potash . 1 ** 
Hematite . . . 1 " 
Wolfram . . . 7 ** 

melted and cast in molds of the required shape. 

Johnston's patent, November 26, 1867. For 
dental uses : — . 

Sodium or i>otassium, or nu amalgam of either, 
is added to mercur}' to fucilitate its union with sil- 
ver, tin, cadmium, platinum, etc. 


Brander's patent, February 12, 1867. 
roofing : — 

Lead . . .75 
Zinc ... 25 
are made into an ingot, coated with pure tin, and 

Brayton's patent, August 6, 1867. For eye- 
lets : — 

Tin . . .4 

Zinc ... 1 

Taylor's patent, January 8, 1867. For sabots 
of projectiles : — 

Lead . . ..4 
Tin ... 1 
for moderate charges. The tin is increased 
heavier chai-ges and projectiles to the extent of 
Lead . . .120 
Tin . . . .78 
With projectiles of 300 \\\s, and over, 3 lbs. of 
copper are added to the alloy for a sabot. 


Two new alloys of tin and lead arc described in 
a recent French publication. AVliile containing less 
tin than is usecl in common pewter, they ai-e said 
to possess most of its advantages. They are not 
acted upon by vinegar, sour wine, or salt-water. The 
first is made by melting 1 jmrt of tin with 2.4 parts 
of lead. The lead is first melted and skimmed, then 
the tin is added, and the mixture is stiiTed continu> 
ally with a wooden stick until it begins to cool, to 
prevent the lead from settling to the bottom. 
This mixture has the density of 9.64, and its 
melting-point is 320° Fah. It may be i-olletl 
cold, and the plates do not crackle when bent. It 
takes a veiy good polifch, and tainishes but little on 
exposure. It will mark ]:aper like lead, and is so 
sort that it may be scratched with the nail, but it 
will not foul a saw or file. 

The second alloy is made by melting together in 
the same way 1 i;art of tin with 1.25 parts of lead. 
This alloy is less elastic and harder than the fore- 
going. It is rather brittle, less malleable than the 
former, and fills up a file. Neither of these alloy's 
was acted on by boiling with acetic acid for half an 
hour, and standing in the acid for twenty-four hours 
longer, nor hail £alt-water any action upon Ihem ; 
hence they may be useful for £omc kinds of 


Alloy for organ -pipes : — 
Tin . 


For the body . 
Or . 


Tin. Antimony. Nkkd. 



Burton's patent, February 12, 1867. For plow- 
shares : — 

Copper . . .14 
Tin . . . 14 
Zinc . . .77 
Antimony . * . 3 

Lead ... 1 

Cock -metal is an alloy of copper and of lead for 

Metallic injection for anatomical preparations : — 

Bismuth . . .1 

I.ead ... 1 

Tin ... 1 

with the addition of a small amount of mercury. 

Digitized by 





Hackeet's patent, May 17, 1864. For knobs 
and hardware : — 

Copper ... 8 
Arsenic . . 8 
Cream of Tartar . 2 

Ppeiffbr's patent, August 14, 1866 : — 
Lead . . . 98 

Copper ... 1 

Tin . . . i 

Antimony . . | 

Bismuth . . . | 

Hood's alloy for ship's bolts (England, 1844) : — 
Copper . . .40.4 
Zinc . . . 8.8 

Lead . . . 16.6 

Antimony . . 6.1 

Strubino's box metal for bearings (Engl., 1849) : — 
Zinc . . .76 

Tin ... 18 
. Antimony . . 2i 

(Oreide.) An analysis of this new compound by 
a Qerman chemist gives the foUo.wing : — 
Copper . . .79.7 
Zinc . . . 13.6 
Nickel . . .6.09 
Iron . . . 0.28 

Tin . . . . 0.09 
The two latter he regarded as mere accidental 
According to another formula oreide consists of 
Pure Copper . . 100 
Zinc or (preferably) Tin 17 
Magnesia . 6 

Sal-ammoniac . .8.6 
Quicklime . . 1.8 
Tartar of Commerce . 9 
See Oreide. 

An alloy for silver coin, etc., upon which experi- 
ments have been made in France, and which is said to 
render the metal more homogeneous than the com- 
mon alloy of pure copper, less liable to be tarnished 
by sulphuret&d hydrogen, and which, when tough- 
ened by continued romng, may be restored by sim- 
ple heating, is as follows : — 

Copper .98 

Zihc ... 72 

To be added to Silver . 886 

Maoee's alloy for moldboards of plows. Septem- 
ber 9, 1871. 

Copper . •. . .85 
Tin .... 12 
Zinc .... 3 

Aluminium bronze, consisting of copper 90, alumin- 
ium 10 per cent (by weight, we suppose), has been 
stated to have the strength of cast-steel ; a state- 
ment apparently confirmed by Mr. Anderson of the 
Royal Gun Factory in England, and by the experi- 
ments of Mr. Morin, Nanterre, where it was found 
that the tensile strength of this metal ia of 6,828 
kilogrammes to the square centimeter. At the same 
time a very important point was determined, — the 
transverse strength or resistance to being bent. 
This was found to be for brass, 2.22; gun-metal, 
0.15 ; aluminium bronze, 0.05. That is to say, three 
equal bars of these different metals were fastened at 
one end so as to be perfectly horizontal, a certain 

equal weight was placed at the free end of each bar, 
and the result measured by an instrument for tiiat 
purpose. Brass bent at 2.22 de^es of the instru- 
ment, the other metals as indicated above, thus 
showing the resistance of aluminium bronze to be 44 
times greater than brass. The transverse strength, 
the resistance • to permanent flexion, resistance to 
friction, and the superior resistance to oxidation dis- 
played by this metal, although the latter quality 
has not yet been accurately determined, admirably 
qualify it for delicate mechanism and also for pur- 
poses where hardened steel was entirely employed. 
The tenacity of this alloy is astonishmg, and is 
hardly equalled by any other metal ; it is more 
difficult to cut than gold or brass, but the cut is 
very clean and smooth. 

The alloy of iridium and osmium, called iridos- 
mine, is the hardest of all alloys, and is used for 
pointing the Hawkins ** Everlasting Pen " (English). 

Miclon, of Paris, proposes a new alloy for the 
manufacture of all metallic articles, — bells, hammers, 
anvils, rails, and non-cutting tools. The alloy con- 
sists of twenty parts of iron turnings or tin waste, 
eighty parts of steel, four parts of manganese, and 
four parts of borax ; but tnese proportions may be 

When it is desired to increase the tenacity of the 
alloy, two or three parts of wolfram are added. 
When the cupola is ready, the iron and steel are 
poured in, then the man^nese and borax, and the 
vessel is filled up with coke. 

A number of other alloys are known and used, 
including some of Eastern origin. The latter are 
generally of little practical importance. Such are — 

Aurum Musivum, same as Mosaic gold. 

Clinquant, same as yellow copper ; Dutch gold. 

Caracoly, composed of gold, silver, and copper. 

Calin, a Chinese alloy composed of lead ana tin. 

Electrum, an ancient alloy of gold and silver. 

The following table afifords a ready means for the 
conversion of decimal proportion into divisions of the 
pound avoirdupois. The proportions of metaU in 
lormulas for alloys are sometimes stated in one way 
and sometimes in the other. 

of lb. 



of lb. 

2 1 

! Dec. 
, of lb. 


of lb. 









6 1 





2 1 .2578 




6 2 





8 ' .2617 




6 8 





4 , .2656 




6 4 





6 1 .2695 




6 6 





6 1 .2784 




6 6 





7 i .2778 




6 7 





8 1 .2818 




6 8 





9 I .2862 




6 9 





10 .2891 




6 10 





11 1 .2980 




6 11 





12 , .2069 




6 12 





13 .8008 




6 18 





14 1 AH7 




6 14 





15 i sm 




6 16 




. .8126 








1 .8164 




7 1 





2 .8203 




7 2 





8 .8242 




7 8 





4 I .8281 




7 4 










7 6 










7 6 










7 7 





8 j .8487 




7 8 





9 .8476 









10 I .8516 




7 10 










7 U 










7 12 









7 18 

.1172 1 









7 14 

.1211 1 




15 .8711 




7 16 

1260 2 

.2500 1 


' .8760 




Digitized by 





It is believed that alloys are more 

perfect when 1 

compounded according 'to atomic proportions, or by 

multiples of their chemical equivalents, instead of 
by volumes. The chemical equivalents of the metab 

upon the hydrogen scale, now most usually adopted, 
are appended to the following list of metals : — 








700 «>F. 



Antimony . 












Cadmiutai . 




Cobalt . 




SoiT.- .• 



(cast) 81.6 




Iron (wroaght) 




Iron (cut) . 




Umd . . 








Mercury (boiU at) 


18 JS 


Nickel . 





hardly Airible 



Platinum . . 

i» <i 



Rhodium . 

«t It 



Silver . 



(cast) 108.0 

Tin . . . 








For a more complete Hst see Atomic Weights of 
Metals ; Metals. 

lUoyt of greater Sl[>eci/k Gravity than the Mean of their Com- 

Gold aitd Zinc. 
Gold and Tin. 
Gold and Bismuth. 
Gold and Antimony. 
Gold and (Cobalt. 
Silver and Zinc. 
Silver and Lead. 
Silver and Tin. 
Silver and Bismuth. 
Silver and Antimony. 

AUofS having a Spw\fie Cfravity inferior to the Mean of their 

Copper and Zinc. 
Copper and Tin. 
Copper and Palladium. 
Copper and Bismuth. 
Copper and Antimony. 
Lead and Bismuth. 
Lead and Antimony. 
Platinum and Molybdenum. 
Palladium and Bismuth. 

Gold and Silver. 
Gold and Iron. 
Grold and Lead. 
Gold and Copper. 
Gold and Iridium. 
Grold and Nickel. 
Silver and Copper. 
Copper and Lead. 

Iron and Bismuth. 
Iron and Antimony. 
Iron and Lead. 
Tin and Lead. 
Tin and Palladium. 
Tin and Antimony. 
Nickel and Arsenic. 
Zinc and Antimony. 

(Remarks.) The various proportions and relative 
qualities as to melting-point and gravity are col- 
lected from a multitude of sources, the best attain- 
able. The authorities, however, differ somewhat 
widely, and this can only be accounted for from the 
fact that so few metals can be obtained pure. The 
differences in the metals obtained from different 
localities are often unsuspected, and are fully 
proven in the variable statements of the cohesion in 
the tables compiled by Muschenbroek, Ti-edgold, 
Barlow, Brown, Kumford, Rennie, Telford, Brajoiah, 
and others. 

The difficulty that has thus arisen has caused vari- 
able statements in the formulas for bell and ordnance 
casting, and has very considerably affected the exact- 
ness of^ statement in all the alloys, especially the more 
fusible ones, where the various combinations of lead, 
tin, and bismuth give such variable results. 

It appears to oe scarcely possible to give any 

sufficiently general rules, by which the properties 
of alloys may be safely inferred from those of their 
constituents ; for although, in many cases, the 
working qualities and appearance of an alloy may 
be nearly a mean proportional- between the nature 
and qualities of the metals composing it, yet in other 
and frequent instances the deviations are excessive, as 
will be seen by several of the examples following. 

Thus, when lead, a soft and malleable metu, is 
combined with antimony, which is hard, brittle, and 
crystalline, in the proportions of from twelve to 
fifty parts of lead to one of antimony, a flexible 
alloy is obtained, resembling lead, but somewhat 
harder, and which is rolled into sheets for sheath- 
ing ships. Six parts of lead and one of antimony 
are used for the large, soft printers* types, which 
will bend slightly, but are considerably harder than 
the foregoing ; and three parts of lead and one of 
antimony are employed for the smallest types, that 
are very hard ana brittle, and will not bend at all ; 
antimony being the more expensive metal, is used 
in the smallest quantity that will suffice. The 
difference in specific gravity between lead and 
antimony constantly interferes, and unless the type- 
metal is frequently stirred, the load, from being the 
heavier metal, sinks to the bottom, and the anti- 
mony is disproportionally used from the surface. In 
the above examples*, the differences arising from 
the proportions appear intelligible enough, as, when 
the soft lead prevails, the mixture is much like the 
lead ; and as the hard, brittle antimony is increased, 
the alloy becomes hardened and laove brittle ; with 
the proportion of four to one, the fracture is neither 
reluctant like that of lead, nor foliated like anti- 
mony, but assumes very nearly the grain and color 
of some kinds of steel and cast-iron. In like man- 
ner, when the tin and lead are alloyed, the former 
metal imparts to the mixture some of its hardness, 
whiteness, and fusibility, in proportion to its quan- 
tity, as seen in, the various qualities of pewter, in 
which, however, copper and sometimes zinc or anti- 
mony are found. The same agreement is not always 
met with ; as nine parts of copper, which is red, and 
one part of tin, which is white, both very malleable 
and ductile metals, make the tough, rigid metal 
used in brass ordnance, from whicn it ootains its 
modem name of gun-metal, but which neither admits 
of rolling nor drawing into wire ; the same alloy is 
described by Pliny as the soft bronze of his day. 
The continual addition of the tin, the aoftcr metal, 
produces a gradual increase of hardness in the mix- 
ture ; with about one sixth of tin the alloy assumes 
its maximum hardness consistent with its application 
to mechanical uses ; with one fourth to one third tin 
it becomes highly elastic and sonorous, and its brit- 
tleness rather than its hardness is greatly increased. 

When the copper becomes two parts, and the tin 
one part, the alloy is so hard as not to admit of be- 
ing cut with steel tools, but crumbles under their ac- 
tion ; when struck with a hammer, or even suddenly 
warmed, it flies in pieces like glass, and clearly 
shows a structure highly crystalline, instead of mal- 
leable. The alloy has no trace of the red color of 
the copper, but it is quite white, susceptible of an 
exquisite polish, and, being little disposed to tarnish, 
it is most perfectly aidaptc^ to the reflecting specu- 
lums of telescopes and other instruments, for which 
purpose it is alone used. 

Copper, when combined in the same proportions 
with a different metal, also light-colored and fiisi- 
ble, namely, two parts of copper with one of zinc 
(which latter metal is of a bluish-white, and crys- 
talline, whereas tin is very ductile), makes an alloy 
of entirely opposite character to the speculum 

Digitized by 





metal; namely, the soft yellow brass, which be- 
comes by hammering very elastic and ductile, and 
it very easily cut and filed. 

Again, the same proportions — namely, two ports 
of copper and one or lead — make a common in&rior 
metal, called pot-metal, or cock -metal, from its 
employment in those respective articles. This alloy 
is much softer than brass, and hardly possesses 
malleability ; when, for example, the beer-tap is 
driven into the cask, immediately after it has been 
scalded, the blow occasionally breaks it in pieces, 
from its reduced cohesion. 

Another proof of the inferior attachment of the 
copper and lead exists in the fact that, if the molds 
are opened before the castings are almost cold 
enough to be handled, the lead will ooze out, and 
appear on the surface in globules. This also occurs 
to a less extent in gun-metal, which should not on 
that account be too rapidly exposed to the air ; or 
the tin strikes to the surface^ as it is caUed, and 
makes it particularly hard at those parts, from the 
proportion|il increase of the tin. In casting large 
masses of gun-metal, it frequentlv happens that 
little hard lumps, consisting of nearly half tin, work 
up to the surface of the runners, or pouring-places, 
during the time the metal is coolini;. 

In brass this separation scarcely happens, and 
these molds may be opened whilst the castings are 
red-hot without such occurrence ; from which it 
iq>peare that the copper and zinc are in more per- 
fect chemical union than the alloys of copper with 
tin and with lead. 

The malleability and ductility of alloys are in a 
great measure referable to the degrees in which the 
metals of which they are respectively composed 
possess these characters. 

Lead and tin are malleable, flexible, ductile, and 
inelastic whilst cold, but when their temperatures 
much exceed about half-wav toward their melting- 
heats, they are exceedingly brittle and tender, 
owing to their reduced cohesion. 

The alloys of lead and tin partake of the general 
nature of these two metals ; they are flexible when 
they are cold, even with certain additions of the 
brittle metals, antimony and bismuth, or of the 
fluid metal, mercury ; but they crumble with a small 
elevation of temperature, as these alloys melt at a 
lower degree than either of their components, to which 
circumstance we are indebted for the tin soldera. 

Zinc, when cast in thin cakes, is somewhat brittle 
when cold, but its toughness is so £u* increased 

when it is raised to about 300** Fah. that its manu- 
facture into sheets by means of rollera is then 
admissible ; it becomes the malleable zinc, and 
retains the malleable and ductile character in a 
moderate degree, even when cold, but in bending 
rather thick plates it is advisable to warm them to 
avoid fracture. When zinc is remelted, it resumes 
its original crystalline condition. 

Zinc and lead will not combine without the 
assistance of arsenic, unless the lead is in very 
small quantity ; the arsenic makes this and other 
alloys very brittle, and it is, besides, dangerous to 
use. Zinc and tin make, as may be supposed, 
somewhat hard and brittle alloys, but none of the 
zinc alloys, except that with copper to constitute 
brass, are much used. 

Gold, silver, and copper, which are greatly supe- 
rior in strength to the fusible metals above named, 
may be forged, either when red-hot or cold, as soon 
as they have been purified from their earthy mat- 
tera and fused into ingots ; and the alloys of 
gold, silver, and copper are also malleable, either 
red-hot or cold. Fme or pure gold and silver 

are but little used alone ; the alloy is, in many cases, 
introduced less with the view of depreciating their 
value, than of adding to their hardness, tenacity, 
and ductility. The processes which the most severely 
test these qualities, namely, drawing the finest 
wires, and beating gold and silver leaf, are not per- 
formed with the pure metals, but gold is alloyed 
with copper for tne red tint, with silver for the 
green, and with both for intermediate shades. 
Silver is alloyed with copper only, and when the 
quantity is small its color sufiera but slightly 
from the addition, although all its working qudities 
are greatly improved, pure silver being little used. 

The alloys of similar metals having been consid- 
ered, it only remains to observe that when dissimi- 
lar metals are combined, as those of the two oppo- 
site groups, namely, the fusible lead, tin, or zinc, 
with the less fusible copper, gold, or silver, the 
malleability of the alloys, when cold, is less than 
that of the superior metal, and when heated barely 
to redness they fly in pieces under the hammer ; 
and therefore brass, gun-metal, etc., when red-hot, 
must be treated wim precaution and tenderness. 
Muntz's patent metal, which is a species of brass 
and is rolled red-hot, appeara rather a contradiction 
to this; but in all probability this alloy, like the 
ingots of cast-steel, requires at firet a very nice 
attention to the force applied. It will he also 
remembered the action of rollera is more regular than 
that of the hammer, and soon gives rise to the 
fibrous character, which, so far as it exists in metals, 
is the very element of strength, when it is uniformly 
distributed throughout their substance. 

The strength or cohesion of the alloys is in general 
greatly superior to that of any of the metals of 
which* they are composed. For example, the relative 
weights which tear asunder a bar of one inch 
square of the several substances stand as follows, — 
all the numbere being selected from Muschenbrcek's 
valuable investigations, so that it may be presumed 
the same metals, and also the same means of trial, 
were used in every case : — 


10 Copper, 1 Tin, 82,098 
8 ** 1 " 86,088 
6 " 1 •* 44,071 
4 " 1 " 86,789 
2 " 1 " 1,017 
1 « 1 «t 72& 


Barbaxy Copper, 22,570 
Japan ^' 20,272 

English Block Tin, 6,660 
^^ »♦ " 5,822 

Baaca Tin, 8,679 

Malacca Tin, 8;m 

The inspection of these numbera is highly con- 
clusive, and it Bhows that the engineer agrees with 
the theory and experiment in selecting the propor- 
tion six to one as the strongest alloy ; and that the 
optician, in choosing the most reflective mixture, 
employs the weakest but one, its strength being 
only one third to one sixth that of the tin, or one 
twentieth that of the copper, which latter constitutes 
two thirds its amount. 

See HoltzaplTers ''Turning and Mechanical 
Manipulation, Art. * * Allots. 

It IS much to be regretted that the valuable labore 
of Muschenbrcek have not been followed up by other 
experiments upon the alloys in more general use. 

One curious circumstance will be observed, how- 
ever, in those which are given, namely, that in the 
following alloys, which are the strongest of their re- 
spective groups, the tin is always four times the 
quantity of the other metal ; and they all confirm 
tne circumstance of the alloys having mostly a 
greater degree of cohesion than the stronger of their 
component metals. 

Digitized by 






4 English Tin, 1 Lead, 10,607 

4BancaTin, 1 Antimony, 18,480 
4 " " 1 Bismuth, 16,692 
4 Snglish Tin, 1 Ooolar Zinc, 10,258 
4 " " 1 Antimony, 11,323 

Cast Metals. 

Lead, 886 

Antimony, 1,060 
Zinc, 2,689 

Bismuth, 8,008 

Tin, 8 jtll to 6,660 


For other matter in regard to metals, see Metals. 
The varieties of alloys are considered under their 
specified heads as follows : — 

Aich*8 metal. 


Aluminium bronze. 

Ai^ntum mosaicum. 


Aurum mosaicum. 

Babbitt metal. 

Bath metal. 

Bell -metal. 

Biddery ware. 


Blanched copper. 


Britannia metal. 






Expanding alloys. 

Fusible alloys. 

German metal. 

German silver. 

(German steel. 

German tutania. 

German white copper. 



Hard solder. 

Imitation gold. 

Journal-box metal. 

Manheim gold. 


Mock gold. 

Mock platinum. 

Mock silver. 

Mosaic gold. 

Muntz's metal. 

Al'ma-dy. (Vessel.) An African canoe made of 
the bark of trees. 

Airman. {MetaJlurgy,) A furnace used by refin- 
ers for separating metals. See ALMoxD-rrRNACE. 

Al'mond-for'naoe. The word is probably cor- 
rupted from 


Parisian gold-colored al- 
Parisian white metal. 

Pewterer's sdlder. 
Pewterer's temper. 
Plumber's solder. 
Queen's metal. 
Red brass. ^ 

Red tombac. 
Rosthom's gun-metal. 
Sabot metal. 

Soft solder. 

Spanish tutania. 
Speculum metal. 
Spelter solder. 
Statuary brass. 
Stereotype metal. 
Tinman's solder. 
Tula metal. 
White brass. 
White malleable alloy. 
White metals. 
Yellow metal. 

Fig. 186. 

Watkew's AknoHd-Feeler. 

Aunan (Alle- 
mandf Ger- 

Iman) furnace. 
A furnace 
used by refin- 
ers for separat- 
ing all kinds 
of metals from 
cinders, etc. 

peel'er. • A 
small machine 
used by con- 
fectioners and 

almond - peel- 
er, October 30, I 

1866. The thin peel is removed from the scalded 
almond kernels by passing them between two elastic 
bands of India-rubber, traversing side by side in the 
same direction, at different velocities. 

Almonds came from Persia, and were introduced 
into England, 1570. 

Al'mu-can'ter Staff. An instrument having an 
arc of 15**, formerly used to obtain observations of 
the sun's amplitude at the time of its rising and 
setting, to find the variation of the compass. 

Al-pao'a. (Fabric,) a. A cloth in which the 
wool of the alpaca (a species of the llama, inhabit- 
ing Peru) is combined with wool, silk, or cotton. 

b. A soft dress-goods, an imitation of the former ; 
having a cotton chain and •woolen filling, plain 
color and highly finished surface. 

Ai'pha-bet TePe-graph. An apparatus which 
marks symbols on paper by pressure, as Morse's ; 
or by chemical action, as Bain s ; or impresses type 
on paper, as House's or Hughes's ; in contradistinc- 
tion to one whose indications are observed by the 
fluctuating position of a needle or needles, as Cooke 
and Wheatstone's, or the bell-telegraph of Bright. 
See Recording Telegraph. 

Al-phon%iiL (Surgical.) A kind of bullet- 
forceps. Named from Alphonsus Ferrier of Naples. 

Al'tar. 1. The low ridge which intervenes be- 
tween the puddling-hearth and the stack. 

2. One of the steps at the side of a graving-dock. 
The steps are from nine to sixteen inches in hight, 
and from nine to fifteen inches wide, except the 
broad altar^ which is eighteen inches wide. 

Alt-az-i-mutha. See Theodolite ; Transit. 

Al-tim'e-ter. An instrument for taking altitudes 
geometrically, or for measuring vertical angles, as 
the quadrant, sextant, etc., or the vertical Hmb of 
the theodolite. 

One of the first references to means for measuring 
height is in connection with the most worthy arti- 
ficial object in the world, then or now. Thales is 
said, by Plutarch, to have been in Egypt in the 
reign of Amasis, and to have taught the Egyptians 
how to measure the height of the pyramid oy its 
shadow. This is interesting from its association of 
names and places, but is absurd in itself. Thales 
went to Eg>'pt to learn,* not to teach. During the 
reign of the same king, Egypt was visited by Py- 
thagoras and Anacreon, the friends of Polycrates of 
Samos ; Pythagoras, amon^ other things, learned to 
abominate beans, the peculiar aversion of the Egyp- 
tian priests. Eeypt was also visited about this 
time by Solon (Herodotus, I. 80), who came as a 
student, and fdfterwards introduced some of the 
Egyptian laws into his Athenian code. 

Al-tdn^car. (Metallurf/i/.) A factitious kind of 
salt used in separating metals. 

Al'ti-soope. Clark, March 13, 1866. This 
invention consists of an arrangement of lenses and 
mirrors in a vertical telescopic tube, by means of 
which a person is able to overlook objects inter- 
vening between himself and the object he desires to 
see. When the sections of the tube are extended, 
the view is received unon an upper mirror placed 
at an angle of 45" ana reflectea thence down the 
tube to a lower mirror, where it is seen by the ob- 
server. The image is magnified by lenses inter- 
vening between the mirrors. The telescopic tubes 
are so connected that each in turn acts upon the 
next in series, as it comes to the end of its own 
range, and thus the desired elevation is arrived at. 
The means of extension is a winch and cords. 

Stevens, January 6, 1863. This affords a means 
for training guns to a given angle with the axis of 
the vessel, or on an object, while the gunner re- 

Digitized by 





mains beneath the gun-deck. Thei*e is attached 
beneath the deck to the pintle of the pivoted gun 
a graduated index-plate, by which its horizontal 
bearing may be read. A telescopic tube, with two 
rectangular bends and with reflecting mirrors at the 
angles, is so placed as to be used from beneath the 


Stevens's JUtiseope. 

deck ; two of these may be so situated as to form a 
base of sufficient length to obtain, by simultaneous 
observation, the distance by triangulation. Two 
screw-propellers, working in contrary directions, 
rotate the vessel so as to bring the guns to bear on 
the required point. 

The upper and lower limbs of the telescopic tube 
are parallel ; the one above deck is presented towards 
the object, the other to the eye. The image of the 
object, after being twice reflected, reaches the eye 
of the observer, ^vhose person is not exposed. 

A portable altiscope, adapted to enable a person 
to look over the heads of a crowd, is formed of a 
hollow cane with perforations near its respective 
ends, opposite two reflectors arranged at ancles of 
45** in tne cane. The cane being held vertically, and 
the upper orifice presented towards the object to be 
viewed, — a speaker, for instance, — the image is re- 
ceived upon one mirror and passes down the cane to 
the other, where it is observed by the person. Slides 
cover the openings when not used for observations, 
and the cane has then an ordinary appearance. 

Al'tl-tadeln%tru-ment8. Theodolites, sextants, 
transit instruments, and many others having spe- 
cific names, are used for taking altitudes, wliile some 






















9 72 


















58 61 





* For a Btatate mile the eurrature » 6.99 inches. 

of them have also adjustments in azimuth. These 
are treated specially imder the above and other 
titles, and are also referred to under Astronomi- 
cal Instruments. 

The altitude and azimuth circle is used for meas- 
uring the altitudes and azimuths of stars, as its 

name implies, 
and is com- 
posed of two 
graduated cir- 
cles, one verti- 
cal and the oth- 
er horizontal. 
It is thus of 
r general appli- 
o Jean Picard, 
the great 
f French astron- 
omer, 1620- 
1684, is said to 
have been the 
first to apply 
the telescope in 
the measure- 
ments of angles. 
ter. A name 
for the theodo- 
lite, which see. 
Al'to-rili-e'vo. The high relief of a sculptured 
object from the plane surface to which it is attached. 
The degrees of prominence of the object are 
indicated by the terms : — 

AltOf or high^eliefj when the object projects 
more than half its thickness, frequently being 
attached at a few places to the plane surface. 

Mezzo, or demi-rcliefj less prominent, say one 
half the thickness or a little less than half. 

Basso, or low-relief, a slight prominence, as in 
medals and coins. 

Al'u-del. A pear-shaped receiver, used in the 
Spanish furnaces for subliming mercury. 

The aludels are fitted together longitudinally in a 
row, the neck of one fitting into the bulb of another, 
being luted together at the joints with softened 

Fig. 187. 


loam. The mercury condenses in the aludels, and 
gradually works its way to the lower one of the 
series, which is tapped to allow the metal to flow off. 

The aludel furnace has a vaulted chamber above 
the fuel chamber, and in the former the blocks of 
cinnabar are built up. The fumes of the metal 
pass into a number of strings of aludels, and, being 
condensed, are received in a common duct which 
leads to St reservoir. 

Al'u-min'i-tiin. Equivalent, 13.7 ; symbol, Al.; 
specific gravity, 2.56 cast, 2.67 hammered ; fus- 
ing-point, 1250" Fah. 

Next to silica, the oxide of aluminium (alumina) 
forms, in combination, the most abundant constitu- 
ent of the crust of the earth (hydrated silicate of 
alumina, clay). 

Common alum is sulphate of alumina combined 
with another sulphate, as potash, soda, etc. It is 
much used as a mordant in dyeing and calico-print- 
ing, also in tanning. 

Aluminium is a shining, white, sonorous metal. 

Digitized by 





haying a shade between silver and platinum. It is 
a very light metal, being lighter than glass, and 
only one fourth as heavy as silver of the same 
bulk. It is very malleable and ductile ; does not 
oxidize when exposed to moist or dry air, is not 
chemically affected by hot or cold water. Sulphu- 
reted hydrogen gas, which so readily tarnishes silver, 
forming a black film on the surface, has no action 
upon this metal. 

Alimiinium is of great value in mechanical den- 
tistry, as, in addition to its lightness and strength, 
it is not affected by the presence of sulphur in the 
food, — as by eggs, for instance. 

Dr. Fowler, of Yarmouthport, Mass., obtained 
patents for its combination with vulcanite as ap- 
plied to dentistry and other uses, February 7 and 14, 
1865. It resists sulphur in the process of vulcani- 
zation in a manner which renders it an efficient and 
economical substitute for platinum or gold. 

Aluminium is derived from the oxide, alumina, 
which is the principal constituent of conmion clay. 
Lavoisier, a celebrated French chemist, first sug- 
gested the existence of the metallic bases of the 
earths and alkalies, which fact was demonstrated 
twenty years thereafter by Sir Humphry Davy, 
by eliminating potassium and sodium from their 
combinations ; and afterwards by the discovery of 
the metallic bases of barytes, strontium, and lime. 
The earth alumina resisting the action of the vol- 
taic pile, and the other agents then used to induce 
decomposition, twenty j'^ears more passed before the 
ehloruU was obtained by Oerstadt by subjecting 
alumina to the action of potassium in a crucible 
heated over a spirit-lamp. The discovery of alumin- 
ium was at last made by Wohler in 1827, who 
succeeded in 1846 in obtaining minute globules or 
beads of this metal by heating a mixture of chloride 
of alumina and sodium. Deville afterwards con- 
ducted some experiments in obtaining this metal at 
the expense of Napoleon III., who subscribed 
£1,500, and was rewarded by the presentation of 
two bars of aluminium. The process of manufacture 
was afterwards so simplified that in 1857 its price 
at Paris was about two dollars an ounce. It .was at 
first manufactured from common clay, which contains 
about one fourth its weight of aluminium, but in 1855 
Rose announced to the scientific world that it could 
be obtained from a material called ** cryolite," found 
in Greenland in large quantities, imported into Ger- 
many under the name of "minteral soda," and used 
as a washing-soda, and in the manufacture of soap. 
It consists of a double fluoride of aluminium and 
sodium, and only requires to be mixed with an 
excess of sodium, and heated, when the mineral 
aluminium at once separates. Its cost of manufac- 
ture is given in the following estimate: for one 
pound 01 metal, 

16 lbs. of cryolite at 8 cts per pound . . $1.28 
2i lbs. metallic sodium at about 26 cts per lb. . 70 
Flux and cost of reduction . . .2.02 


Aluminium is used largely in the manufacture of 
cheap jewelry, by making a hard, gold-colored 
alloy with copper, called aluminium bronze, con- 
sisting of 90 per cent of copper and 10 per cent of 
aluminium. Like iron, it does not amalgamate 
directly with mercury, nor is it readily alloyed with 
lead, but many alloys with other metals, as copper, 
iron, gold, etc., have been made with it and found 
to be valuable combinations. One part of it to one 
hundred parts of gold gives a hard malleable alloy 
of a greenish-gold color, and an alloy of f iron and 

^ aluminium does not oxidize when exposed to a 
moist atmosphere. It has also been used to form a 
metallic coating upon other metals, as copper, brass, 
and German silver, by the electro-galvanic process. 
Copper has also been deposited, by the same process, 
upon aluminium plates to facilitate their being 
rolled very thin ; for unless the metal be pure, it 
requires to be annealed at each passage through the 
rolls, and it is found that its flexibility is greatly 
increased by rolling. To avoid the bluish-white 
appearance, like zinc. Dr. Stevenson McAdam rec- 
ommends immersing the article made from alumin- 
ium in a heated solution of potash, which will give a 
beautiful white frosled appearance, like that of 
frosted silver. 

F. W. Gerhard obtained a patent in 1856, in 
England, for an "improved means of obtaining 
aluminium metal, and tne adaptation thereof to the 
manufacture of certain useful articles." Powdered 
fluoride of aluminium is placed alone or in combina- 
tion with other fluorides in a closed furnace, heated 
to a red heat, and exposed to the action of hydrc)gen 
gas, which is used as a reagent in the place of 
sodimn. A reverberatory furnace is used by prefer- 
ence. The fluoride of aluminium is placed in shal- 
low trays or dishes, each dish being surrounded 
by clean iron filings placed in suitable receptacles ; 
dry hydrogen gas is forced in, and suitable entry 
and exit pipes and stop-cocks are provided. The 
hydrogen gas, combining with the fluoride, ** forms 
hydro-fluoric acid, which is taken up by the iron 
and is thereby converted into fluoride of iron." 
The resulting aluminium "remains in a metallic 
state in the bottom of the trays containing the 
fluoride," and may be used for a variety of manu- 
facturing and ornamental purposes. 

The most important alloy of aluminium is com' 
posed of 

Aluminium . . 10 
Copper . . . .90 

It possesses a pale gold color, a hardness surpass- 
ing that of bronze, and is susceptible of taking a fine 
polish. This alloy has found a ready market, and, 
if less costly, would replace red and yellow brass. 
Its hardness and tenacity render it peculiarly 
adapted for journals and bearings. Its tensile 
strength is 100,000 lbs., and when drawn into wire 
128,000 lbs., and its elasticity one half that of 

General Morin believes this alloy to be a per- 
fect chemical combination, as it exhibits, unlike the 
gun-metal, a most complete homogeneousness, its 
preparation being also attended by a great develop- 
ment of heat, not seen in the manufacture of moist 
other alloys. The s^iecific gravity of this bronze is 
7.7. It IS malleable and ductile, may be foi^ged 
cold as well as hot, but is not susceptible to roll- 
ing ; it may, however, be drawn into tubes. It is 
extremely tough and fibrous. 

Aluminium bronze, when exposed to the air, tar- 
nishes less quickly than either silver, brass, or com- 
mon bronze ; and less, of course, than iron or steel. 
The contact of fatty matters or the juice of fruits does 
not resnlt in the production of any soluble metallic 
salt, an immunity which highly recommends it for 
various articles for table use. 

The uses to which aluminium bronze is applicable 
are various. Spoons, forks, knives, candlesticks, 
locks, knobs, door-handles, window - fastenings, 
harness-trimmings, and pistols are made from it; 
also objects of art,, such as busts, statuettes, vases, 
and groups. In France, aluminium bronze is used 
for the eagles on military standards, for armor, for the 

Digitized by 





works of watches, as also watch-chains and orna- 
ments. For certain parts, such as journals of en- 
dues, lathe-head boxes, pinions, and running gear, 
it has proved itself supenor to all other metals. 

Uulot, director of the Imperial postage-stamp 
manufactory in Paris, uses it in the construction of 
a punching-machine. It is well known that the 
best edges of tempered steel become very quickly 
blunted by paper. This is even more the case when 
the paper is coated with a solution of gum-arabic 
and then dried, as in the instance of postal-stamp 
sheets. The sheets are punched by a machine the 
upper part (head) of which moves vertically and is 
armed with 300 needles of tempered steel, sharp- 
ened in a right angle. At every blow of the 
machine, thoy pass through holes in the lower, fixed 

J)iece which correspond with the needles, and per- 
orate five sheets at evenr blow. Hulot now sub- 
stitutes this piece by aluminium bronze. Each 
machine makes daily 120,000 blows or 180,000,000 
perforations, and it has been found that a cushion 
of the aluminiimi alloy was unaffected after some 
months* use, while one of brass is useless after one 
day's work. 


Gold-oolorod malleable 

Alloy . 
ParisiMi gold -colored 

Alloy . 
White malleable Alloy 
Hard Bronze . 
Non-oxidlxable Alloy 
Hard, bright (likesil- 

Yer) Alloy 
Baur's Patent, Oct. 27, 

1868 . . 
Minargent . 

Farmer's Patent, Sept. 
6, 1864 . 


Farmer's aluminium alloys, patent April 28, 
1863. Copper is the first element, aluminium the 
second ; the other light-colored metals are added 
singly or collectively, as by the following formulas, 
in which the proportions of atoms are stated. (See 
article Metals, for table of the chemical equivalents 
of the metals. 

Ag., Argentum, — Silver. 
Cu. , Cuprum f — Copper. 
Fe., Ferruriiy — Iron. 

Al., AluminiuTn, 
Ni., Nkkd. 
Zu.f Zinc. 

The four following formulas produce alloys which, 
from their color and fineness of texture, nearly re- 
semble gold, whence they are termed chrysoid, being 
adapted for use in the manufacture of watch-cases, 
chams, and ornamental jewelry : — 

Cu. Al. Ag. 
Ag.+ 24 (Al.j + Cu.^) = .91 80 + .0616 + .0203 
Ag. +24 (Al.i + Cu.^) = . 9241 +.0570 + .0188 
Ag. +24 (Al., + Cu..) =.9330 + .0504 + .0166 
Ag. + 24 (Al.i + Cu..)« .9400 + .0450 + .0150 

The three following formulas produce alloys for 
journal-boxes, etc. for machinery : — 

Cn. Al. Zn. 

Zn. +2 (Al., + Cu.«> = . 8643 + . 0622 + . 0734 
Zn. +2 (AL, + Cu.,)==. 9053 + .0435 + .0512 
Zn. + 2 (AL, + Cu.„) = .9273 + .0333 + .0894 

These alloys are hard and tenacious, but are char- 
acterized by considerable shrinkage in cooling from 
a molten state, the last-mentioned alloy having 
considerably more shrinkage than either of the oth- 
ers preceding it. The said alloys have, when drawn 
into wires of about one thirtieth of an inch in 
diameter, a tensile strength to the square inch of 
section xn. the preceding order of aoout 90,000, 
103,000, and 84,000 lbs. 

The following alloys are adapted for gun-metal, 
being hard, tenacious, laminable, and ductile. 
Cn. Al. Pe. 

Fe., +(Al.i + Cu.„) = .9203 + .0267 + .0530 
Fe., + (A1., + Cu.^) = . 9399 + . 0446 + . 0149 

Cn. Al. Zn. Fe. 

Fe., -h Zn., 4- (Al., + Cu-,) = .8386 4- .0302 4- .0712 4- .0600 
Fe., -f Zn., -J- (Al., -|- Cu.„) = .8666 -f -0249 -f .0588 -j- -0496 

The tensile strength of the above alloys when 
reduced to wire, as above referred to, is for the 
sauare inch of section about 82,000 lbs. for the first 
of the last series of formulas, 84,500 lbs. for the sec- 
ond, and 107,700 lbs. for the last. 

Where zinc or tin, or both, enter into the alloys 
in place of silver, the color of the resultant alloys is 
somewhat afiected, and the luster is diminished. 

In the following allocs nickel forms the third 
element of the combination of the first formula and 
platinum the third element of the combination of 
the second formula. 

Cn. Al. Ni. 

Ni. 1+6 (Al., + Cu. J = .9129 + .0634 + .0237. 

Cu. Al. PL 

PI. 1+21 (Al., + Cu.g) = . 9117 + .0656 + .0225. 

Those alloys into which platinum is introduced are 
less affected by acids than those in which silver 
takes the place of platinum ; either the platinum or 
the silver gives a nigh luster to the alloy, platinum 
producing this result in a greater degree than silver. 

In those alloys in which are introduced iron or 
other li^ht-colored metals, which are difficult of 
fusion, it is preferable to bring the easily fused 
metals into a molten state, and then to mix those 
less fusible with them in the form of shreds, parti- 
cles, fine wire, or thin plates. 

Aluminium and its alloys are combined with vul- 
canite in the patents of Fowler, February 7 and 
14, 1865. 

According to some analyses, wootz (Eiast Indian 
steel) is alloyed with aluminium. 

Lancaster's (1858, England) gun-metal : copper, 
90 ; aluminium, 100. 

Al'tun Leatli'er. Leather tanned by a compo- 
sition of alum and salt. Three pounds of salt and 
four of alum are used to one hundred and twenty 
middle-sized skins, which are placed in a tumbling- 
box with a sufficient quantity of water. The process, 
vfiih. the succeeding operations, is described under 
Tawino, which see. 

Alum was used as a tanning agent by the Sara- 

Al've-o-lar For'ceps. A cutting-forceps or nip- 
pers for gnawing away protruding portions of the al- 
veolar rid^e, to get a better base for a denture, or to 
remove points which prevent the healing of the ^ms. 

Am'a-a'sa. Pieces of glass used in enameling. 

A-mal'gams. An amalgam is a compound of 
mercury with another metal or metals. It differs 
from an alloy in possessing merburj' as a constitu- 
ent. Compounds of other metals, with no mercury 
included, are alloys, whatever may be their com- 
parative quantities or complications. Mercury, does 
not combine with all other metals, but unites with 
notable readiness with gold, silver, copper, zinc, tin, 
lead, palladium, and bismuth. It is the great means 

Digitized by 





of selecting and aggregating by absorption particles 
of gold and silver which are set free by tne com- 
minution of their matrix, but are so distributed in 
the powder as to rei^uire a congregating agent. The 
quartz rock having been pound^ or ground so as 
to reduce it to powder, loosening the firm bond of 
the rock upon the particles of metal distributed 
through it, the mercury is well mixed with the dust, 
water being added to form a pulp. The mercury 
insinuates itself throughout the mass, and absorl^ 
the precious metals therein. Being removed from 
the sand and dust of the rock, the quicksilver is set 
free by sublimation, leaving the non-vaporizable 
metals in the retort. The quicksilver fumes are 
gathered and condensed for re-use. 

Pliny says, ** The most convenient mode of gilding 
copper is to employ mercury, which is applied in the 
form of an amalgam to the copper, to enable it to 
retain the gold leaf when laid thereon." They also 
understood the art of obtaining mercury by subli- 
mation of cinnabar, or by stamping and application 
of vinegar. In the process by destructive distilla- 
tion, the cinnabar was placed in a flat earthen pan 
covered with a lid and then enclosed in an iron pot 
luted with clay. Heat being applied, the fumes were 
condensed and collected in globules on the li^. 

In some cases the quicksilver is presented in the 
form of vapors which condense and unite with the 
metals to form au amalgam. 

Auriferous sands are subjected to the same pro- 
cess of amalgamation by bringing them in contact 
with a body of mercury. The mechanical processes 
are described under Amalgamators, which see. 

The application of an amalgam of sodium and 
mercury m extracting precious metals was invented 
by Wurtz of New York, and patented in the United 
States, June 27, 1866. Crookes, of England, subse- 
quently to the date of Wurtz's application for 
United States patent, made application for a patent 
in England for the same invention. 

The extraction of the precious metals by amal- 
gamation has hitherto been much impeded and its 
cost increased by the presence in the ores of com- 
pounds of sulphur, arsenic, antimony, bismuth, or 
tellurium, which, by covering the gold with a thin 
film of tarnish, prevent its entering into combina- 
tion with the mercury. The use of sodium amal- 
gam, under these circumstances, is to prevent the 
** sickening " and ** flouring '* of mercury which the 
presence of these compounds, and especially of sul- 
phate of iron, is so apt to produce. 

The official statement of Wurtz's invention is as 
follows : This invention consists in adding to quick- 
silver, to be used in the amalgamation of gold, silver, 
ete., a small quantity of an amalgam of mercury 
and sodium, or other equivalent metal, as potas- 
sium ; by this addition the mercury more readily 
attacks the precious metals. Mercury treated' in 
this way will also form a mercurial film or coat- 
ing on iron or steel, so as to form amalgamated 
surfaces, to take the place of the usual copper plates. 
The mercury so treated is less liable to ** flour:" 

Claim. — First, the combination with quick- 
silver, when used for the extraction by amalgama- 
tion of metals from their ores or their mixtures with 
other materials, of metallic sodium or metallic potas- 
sium, or any other highly electro-positive metal 
equivalent in its action thereto, as above set forth. 

Second, in those amalgamations in which amalga- 
mated plates of copper or other metal are used, the 
substitution for the plates of copper or other metal ol 
iron coated with quicksilver combined with sodium or 
other highly eleetro-positive metal, as above set forth. 

Third, the coating of iron, steel, or other metallic 

surfaces between or under which ores or other mate- 
rials are crushed, with quicksilver combined with 
sodium or other highly electro-positive metal, as 
above set forth. 

Fourth, the prevention of the granulation or 
flouring of quicksilver when used in any method of 
amalgamating ores or other materials by addition 
thereto of sodium or other highly electro-positive 
metal, as above set forth. 

The valuable work of Phillips on mining gives 
the compendium following : A quantity of sodium 
amalgam dissolved in a hundred times or more its 
weight of quicksilver is said to communicate to the 
whole a greatly enhanced power of adhering to 
metals, and particularly to those which, like gold 
and silver, are situated toward the native extrem- 
ity of the electro-chemical scale. This power of 
adhesion in the case of the two metals is so great 
that the resistance which their surfaces, when in 
their native state, often oppose to amalgamation (a 
resistance much greater, ana more general than has 
been hitherto recognized, and due to causes as yet 
uninvestigated) is instantly overcome, whether their 
particles be coarse or impalpable. Even an arti- 
ficial coating of oil or grease, which is usually such 
an enemy to the combination of mercury with other 
metals, forms no obstacle to immediate amalgama- 
tion by this prepared quicksilver. The atoms of 
quicksilver are, as it is described, put into a sort of 
polaric condition by a minute addition of one of 
the metals which range themselves toward the 
electro-positive end of the scale ; so that its afliinity 
for the m^re electro-negative metals is stated to be 
so greatly exalted that it seizes upon and is instan- 
taneously absorbed by their surfaces, just aa water 
is absorbed by a lump of sugar, or other porous sub- 
stance soluble in it. 

Such quicksilver even adheres strongly to surfaces 
of iron, steel, platinum, aluminium, and antimony ; 
an adhesion which, however, in the case of these 
metals, is not a true amalgamation, there being no 
penetration into the sul)8tance of the metal ; so that 
the superficially adherent quicksilver may be readily 
wiped off", just as water may be removed from glass. 
The only metal as yet experimented on, which can- 
not be enfilmed by the use of sodium amalgam^ 
appears to be magnesium. 

Application of Sodium Amalgam to Working Onr 
of the Precious Metals. 

This consists in adding from time to time, to the 
quicksilver used in amal^mation, about one hun- 
dredth part of its weight of sodium amalgam. The 
frequency with which the amalgam is to be added 
cannot be exactly specified, as it will be found to 
•depend on a multitude of circumstances, — such, for 
instance, as the. temperature, the purity and quan- 
tity of the water used, the ratio borne by the sur- 
face of the quicksilver to its mass, the amount and 
mode of agitation of the quicksilver, the nature of 
the process and apparatus used, the character of the 
ore, strength of the amalgam, etc. ; so that this 
important point can only be determined in each 
case by experience. Some general indications may, 
however, be derived from the experiments which 
have been made. It is said that less sodium ia 
requisite in cases in which much water is employed, 
and when the water is frequently renewed, — as, for 
instance, in the riffles of a sluice, and in all forms 
of amalgamators through which a continual current 
of water is kept running, — since mercurial solutions 
of sodium are but little aflected by water free from 
acid, alkaline, or saline impuritie-s. 

In cases, however, in which but little water is 

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employed, and especially where the ore and quick- 
silver are ground together into a slime, the water 
soon becomes alkaline, and oxidation of the sodium 
sets in, necessitating its frequent renewal. 

In such cases the following manipulation is rec- 
ommended. The whole amount of cjuicksilver to 
be used for working up a batch of slimes, say fifty 
pounds, is prepared by dissolving in it one per cent 
of amalcam No. 2, or better, two per. cent of the 
soft amsdgam No. 1, which dissolves more readily ; 
one half, or twenty-five pounds, is then thrown into 
the mill with the ore, and, as the incorporation pro- 
ceeds, certain fractional parts of the other half are 
added at intervals, varying according to circum- 
stances, until the whole has been introduced. If, 
as is usual, the quicksilver has been separated from 
the slimes of a previous operation, it will retain a 
certain amount of sodium, and therefore require 
fresh amalgam in proportionately smaller quantities. 

No. 1 amalgam contains two per cent and No. 
2 four per cent of sodium ; the latter is a hard, 
brittle solid, remarkably infusible, requiring a tem- 
perature nearly as high as the fiisin^-point of type- 
metal to melt it, and may be cast into ingots, and 
packed either under petroleum, or in air-tight iron 
cans filled with dry lime. 

In sluicing operations, the soft amalgam No. 1 is, 
on account of its ready solubility in mercury, most 
recommended ; and in these cases it is practicable 
to test the quicksilver in the riffles, ana ascertain 
when the magnetic quality requires restoration, by 
throwing in a few grains of gold-dust. Similar 
tests are easily applied to slimes, and in amalga- 
mating generedly, a slip of tarnished sheet-copper 
is a suitable agent for such testings. It may be 
remarked that the amalgam No. 1 is at any time 
easily prepared from No. 2, by melting it in an 
iron ladle with its own weight of quiclSilver. In 
copper-plate amalgamation — that is, in cases in 
which auriferous materials are brought into contact 
with amalgamated metallic surfaces — it is recom- 
mended to substitute for quicksilver itself the pasty 
amalgam No. 2. 

In these modes of amalgamation great economy 
in wear and tear of apparatus, as well as in first 
cost, is said to be effected by using plates or sur- 
faces of iron instead of copper. The power of coat- 
ing or enfilming iron is stated to render these amal- 
gams peculiarly valuable in every form of apparatus 
' for amalgamation which has internal surfaces of 
iron ; for these, becoming coated with quicksilver, 
immensely extend its chances of contact with parti- 
cles of gold, so fine as to remain suspended in the 
water. Other important services are expected by 
the inventors to arise out of this power of enfilming 
' iron, such as keeping the surfaces of stamps and 
of other apparatus med in crushing ores continu- 
ally coated. In like manner, as the power of adhe- 
sion of quicksilver to other metals is exalted by the 
presence of the alkali-metals, so also is its own 
cohesion stated to be greatly increased. -It is 
rendered more difficult to mechanically divide, and 
when thus divided again runs instantly together 
upon contact. Hence new results of great value 
are said to have been obtained. For instance, the 
so-called ** flouring" or granulation of quicksilver, 
which in the amalgamation of ores always occasions 
losses both of the quicksilver itself and of its amal- 
gams with the precious metals, is stated to be 
reduced to a minimum, or altogether prevented. 

The recovery of "floured" quicksilver and amal- 
gams from slimes and similar mixtures is also said to 
be greatly facilitated and accelerated thereby. For 
this purpose some sodium amalgam is thrown into 

the separator, and . collects and incorporates all the 
scattered globules of auriferous amalgam. It is 
here necessary to call attention to a method of 
manipulation generally applicable when sodium 
amalgams are used, and particularly so in all cases 
in which the ore is ground or agitated with quick- 
silver in contact witli metallic iron. This arises 
from the liability of abraded particles of iron to 
adhere to the amalgam. 

The following plan is, therefore, in such cases 
recommended. Th© amalgam, after separation from 
excess of quicksilver, and before^ retorting, is fused 
in an earthen dish or iron ladle,' witji, if necessary, 
the addition of, a little quicksilver to make it more 
liquid ; and the iron, which forms a scum on the 
surface, is skimmed off. The excess of quicksilver 
may, after cooling, be again separated from the 
amalgam in the usual way. Any amalgam which 
adheres to the iron scum is readily detached by 
boiling in water to remove the sodium. This pro- 
cess depends on the fact that adhesion to the iron 
totally disappears with the extraction of the last 
traces of sodium from the quicksilver. It is, in 
fact, possible to remove all iron from the amalgam 
by boiling in water without any previous fusion, 
particulany if the water be made somewhat acid or 
alkaline. The presence of iron can be readily de- 
tected by the magnet, which may also be sometimes 
used with advantage in separating iron from amal- 
gam after all the sodium h&a been extracted. There 
are still other substances which may be found adhe- 
rent to the amalgam when sodium has been used, 
such as platinum, or osmiridium, or both, with iron, 
and these may be freed from the latter by the magnet. 

The sodium amalgams prepared in accordance 
with the recipes of Mr. Crookes are known respec- 
tively as A f if and. (7 amalgams. 

Each of these contains three per cent of sodium, 
in addition to which B ha^ a small quantity of zine 
in its composition, and C a little tin. An amalgam 
(A), of seven times the strength of the above, is 
prepared in solid bars for shipment when the ex- 
pense of freight or land carriage is great. Amal- 
gams £ and C cannot be prepared in the concen- 
trated form. It is recommended that one part by 
weight of amalgam ^ or C be dissolved in thirty 
parts of the mercury which is to be used In the 
amalgamating, triturating, or grinding machines, 
and the effect which it produces on uxe mercury 
noted from time to time during the operation. If 
it retain its fluidity and brightness to the end of 
the operation, it is a sign either that a Sufficient 
amount or too much has been added, and a second 
experiment should be tried with a less quantity of 
amalgam. But if it be "floured," or "sickened," 
or any loss occur, more amalgam may be added 
until the best proportion is arrived at. 

Mr. Crookes states that amalgam B will generally 
be found effective, but if the ore contain an excess 
of any mineral which has a deleterious action on mer- 
cury, more especially if it contain bismuth, it will be 
advantageous to employ amalgam C instead of B. 

When the best proportion of amalgam ^ or C is 
determined, small quantities of amalgam A should 
be introduced into the mercury, already containing 
amalgam B or C, in the proportion of one part of 
amalgam A to one thousand of mercury. This 
quantity of amalgam A can be added every few 
hours, according to circumstances, but one charge 
of amalgam B or C will, it is stated, usually be suf- 
ficient for several days. Under some circumstances 
it will be found advisable to add amalgam B or C 
every few days, but a little experience and com- 
parison with the results obtainea by the old plan 

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will soon show how these several agents are best 

The process of extraction of the precious metals 
by the lead-bath will be found under Lead-bath 
FOR THE Extraction of Gold and Silver. 

Other processes for gathering gold (excepting 
Amalgamators, which see) are included under the 
general title Gold-washf.r. 

The ore-crushers are described under Ore-stamps, 
etc. ; Ore-grinding Mills ; Arrastras. 

An amalgam of mercury and tin is used to coat 
the back of looking-glasses and glass mirrors. 

This amalgam consists of mercury, 3 ; tin, 1. It 
is formed by laying a sheet of tiurfoil on a table, 
covering it with mercury, and then, by a sliding 
movement, placing the sheet of glass over it. 

An amalgam of gold is also used by jewelers to 
overlay other metals by a fine film of gold, after 
which the mercury is dnven off by heat. 

In Mallet's process (English) for preserving iron 
from rust and ship's sheathing from fouling, the 
iron is dipped in an amalgam of zinc, sodium, and 

The process is as follows : — 

The plates are cleansed in a warm solution of 
equal parts of acid (sulphuric or hydrochloric) and 
water. The scale and oxide are removed from the 
metal by scouring. The plate is then placed in a 
prepaHng-hath consisting of a saturated solution of 
hydrochlorate of zinc and sulphate of ammonia. It 
is then immersed in a bath formed of 

Mercury . . . . . 202 
Zinc 1,292 

To each 2,240 pounds of which amalgam 1 pound 
of potassium or sodium is added. 

The iron is speedily heated, and is withdrawn 
before it reaches 680*" Fah., at which temperature 
it would be soon dissolved by the alloy. 

A similar process, so'far as the manipulation is 
concerned, is passed through in the paUadiumizing 
process, in wnich, after cleansing, the plates are 
uumersed in a fused amalgatri of palladium aud 

Amalgam for the electrical machine : — 

Zinc 2 

Tin 1 

Mercury 4 

Melted in the order named, in an iron spoon. 
Shake the fused amalgam till cold, triturate in a 
mortar ; sift ; rub up the powder with lard, and 
apply with a palette-knife to the rubber of the 

Amalgam for silvering the insides of hollow glass 
spheres : — 

Mercury 3 

Lead 1 

Bismuth l 

A-mal''tiiig Zinc Plates. Zinc plates 
for the voltaic batteir are amalgamated with mercury, 
so that no action of the sulphuric acid takes place 
on the zinc when the circuit is not closed. 

To amalgamate the plates, they are first pickled in 
dilute sulphuric acid (acid 1, water 8) in a stone- 
ware pan. A little mercury, being poured into the 
pan, IS rubbed on both sides of the plate by means 
of a swab. The plate is washed in clean water, 
placed on its edge to drain, again rubbed wilii 
mercury and drained. 

Another method is to clean the plates with emery, 
pickle, and wash. Then dip the clean plates in a 
mixture of equal parts by weight of bichloride of 

mercury (corrosive sublimate) and acetate of lead. 
Rub with a cloth, and they are ready for use. 

A-mal'ga-ma'tor. It appears from Pliny, A.D. 
79, that the ancients were acquainted with amal- 
gams, in their uses for separating gold and silver' 
from earthy particles, and m gilding. 

Pliny says: "Mercury is an excellent refiner of 
gold, for on being shaken in an earthen vessel with 
gold, it rejects all the impurities that are mixed 
with it. When once it has thus expelled these 
impurities, there is nothing to do but to separate it 
from the gold ; to effect which it is poured upon 
leather, and exudes through it in a sort of perspira- 
tion, leaving the pure gold behind.** 

Vitruvius (B. C. 27) describes the manner of 
recovering gold from cloth in which it has been 
interwoven. The cloth, he says, is to be put in an 
earthen vessel, and placed over the fire in order that 
it may be burnt. The ashes are thrown into water, 
and quicksilver added to them. The latter unites 
with the particles of gold, the water is poured off, 
and the residue put into a cloth, which being 
squeezed with the hands, the quicksilver, on ac- 
count of its fluidity, oozes through the pores, and 
the gold is left pure in a compressed mass. It is 
commonly stated that the ancients did not under- 
stand the art of recovering mercury by retort and 
receiver, but a description of the apparatus by 
Pliny (see Amalgams) contradicts this. It does 
not, however, seem to. have been much practised. 

In the year 1582, Herberer described the washing 
of gold as he saw it practised at Selz, not far from 
Strasburg, and at that time quicksilver had long 
been used for that purpose. 

The cinnabar mines of Peru were discovered 
about 1566 by Garces, who observed the Indians 
using a native red earth for paint. It does not 
appear to have come into general use in the silver- 
mines of Peru, as a means of extracting the silver 
from the earthy particles, till 1571, when Pero 
Fernandas de Velasco came to Peru and offered to 
refine the silver by mercury, as he had seen in the 
smelting-houses in Mexico. His proposals were ac- 
cepted, the old methods abandoned, and that of amal- 
gamation pursued as it is practised at present. 

In 1572, Hawks writes that ** an owner of a mine 
must have much quicksilver, and as for this charge 
of quicksilver, it is a new invention, which they find 
more profitable than to fine their ore with lead." — 
HakluyVs Voyages. 

The number of patents granted in the United 
States for amalgamators cannot be readily stated, as 
so many of the crushers, grinders, and arrastras 
become amalgamators by the addition of mercury. 
To state the whole number would give an exag- 
gerated view, as many of them are merely mechanical 
grinders without any specific adaptation to the re- 
quirements of the mercurial process. The number of 
patents for amalgamators in the United States may 
be approximately stated at two hundred and sixty, 
January, 1872. 

With the exception of the argentiferous salena, 
silver is ^nerally found in the form of britue sul- 
phides disseminated through the gangue or vein 
stone. These particles, in the operation of grinding 
or stamping, are reduced to a fine powder, which 
floats off in water in the process of concentration. It 
becomes necessary, therefore, to apply a gathering 
agent which will collect them, and the notable 
activity of quicksilver in entering into combination 
with the precious metals has caused its selection as 
the desired agent. The subject is specially treated 
under Amalgams, and the mechanical processes and 
manipulation are the subject of this article. 

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The processes aod machines for the amalgamation 
of silver are various, and are : — 

The Patio process. The Barrel process. 

The Hot process. The Pan process. 

The Estula process. 
These will be separately considered. 

Succeeding the description of the pan process, a 
nimiber of examples of Gold Amalgamators are inserted 
which cannot readily be classed : acting by grinding, 
stirring, heat, lixiviation, panning, sluices, centru- 
ugal action, electric action, and by mercurial fumes 
acting on a falling column of pulverized ore. 

The Patio Process has long been in use in 
South America, and is now employed in Mexico, and 
now or lately in Nevada. It was invented by 
Medina in 1557. The materials necessary for the 
reduction of silver by this process are, magistral, 
common salt, and mercury. The magistral is made 
from copper pyrites reduced by stamps and arrastras 
to a fine powder. This is exposed to the air for some 
months and calcined in a furnace, a little salt being 
added. The effect is the production of a soluble 
sulphate of copper. 

The silver ore is reduced by stamps and arrastras, 
or by the more modem forms of ore-grinders, to a 
fine powder which becomes a mud by the addition 
of water. The mud or " slimes " is then removed 
from the arrastra and deposited in walled receivers 
called "lameros," where it parts with a portion of 
its water and accumulates till it becomes sufficient 
to form a ** torta." It is then spread to the thick- 
ness of about a foot, and after drying to a suitable 
consistence receives from three to five per cent of 
salt, which is tramped in by animals. The day 
after the incorporation of the salt, the ma^tral and 
mercury are added, being evenly spread over the 
"torta," as it is called, to the extent of one per 
cent of the matter in the heap. The proportion 
varies according to the richness of the magistral in 
the sulphate of copper. This is tramped in, and 
mercury is added ; tnree and one half to four pounds 
for every mark of silver supposed to be in the heap. 
(The mark is eight Spanish ounces of 443.8 gr. each.) 
This is trodden for four hours. Chemical action 
now commences, and the mass is carefully sampled 
from time to time to ascertain its condition and test 
the sufficiency of the proportion of magistral. If 
too little, more is added ; if too much, lime is added 
to prevent loss of mercury. The treading of the 
torta every alternate day expedites the action. The 
mules are hitched four abreast and blindfolded, 

Fig. 188. 

Fig. 189. 

TKi Patio Proctst. 

being guided by a halter held by a man standing on 
the central platform. 

The trea<ung occupies about eight 
hours on each occasion, and in addi- 
tion the mass is turned over twice 
a week with wooden shovels. In- 
corporation by a mortar-mill would 
probably be more thoroughly effec- 
tive with a given amount of power. 

When the mercury has absorbed all \ 
the silver, the mass is washed by agi- 
tation in a series of tanks provided 
with rapidly revolving stirrers. The 
rate of motion of these is gradually 
reduced, and the metallic or heavier 
particles commence to sink. As soon 
as a test shows that the upper strata 
have but a trace of metal, a plug is 
withdrawn, which allows the earthy 
particles in suspension to be run off. 
The amalgam and heavier ' mineral 
particles are separated by a subse- 
quent washing, and the amalgam placed straintr {fiowi 
in a stone trough, when it ia treated TiUmann). 
with a further amount of mercury and 
subjected to frequent washings, which bring the 
amalgam into condition for the strainer, whose upper 
portion is of leather, and the lower closely woven 
canvas. A quantity of mer- 
cury strains through and is col- 
lected. The remaining amal- 
gam is emptied on a feather- 
covered table and formed into 
bricks of a triangular shape, 
which are then ready for the 
process of retorting. 

Varney, March 18, 1852. 
This device is for expediting 
the straining of the amalgam. 
The tube, being closed at bot- 
tom, is filled with mercury. 
The amaleam is poured into 
the vessel, and the cock at 
the lower part of the tube 
is then opened. The quick- 
silver flows out, causing a 
Torricellian vacuum above it 
and beneath the strainer. 
The quicksilver in the amal- 
gam IS then forced through barney's Strmner, 
the strainer by the pressure of the atmosphere. 

In some other 
strainers the 
vacuum is pro- 
duced by me- 
chanical means, 
such as an air- 
•pump. In some 
others it is ef- 
fected by the 
condensation of 
steam. If the 
pipe be long 
enough it may 
be obtained by a 
body of water, 
but the mercuri- 
. al column, as in 
I Vamey's, brings 
the apparatus 
within much 
^ more compact 
The operation 

Fig. 140. 

1 ' 




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. by which the separation of mercury and silver is 
effected is conducted by the aid of a lai^ iron or 
copper bell, which is placed over the amalgam, 
and around which is kindled a charcoal fire. A 
circular tank of masonry is constructed below the 
floor of the burning-house, through which a stream 
of water is constantly caused to flow ; and in 
this is placed an iron tripod, covered by a round 
plate*, having a hole in its center for the escape of 
mercury. On this plate are piled- the bricks of 

Fig. 141. 

Lifting the BeU ( Tilmann). 

silver, to such a height as to reach to within a 
short distance of the top of the bell, which, when 
placed over them, leaves a space of about an inch 
between its sides and the column of amalgam. When 
thus arranged, the bell is lowered over it and the 
bottom secured, either by lute, or by a water-ioint 
constantly supplied by means of a pipe. Aaobes 
(unburn t bricks) are now built around the arrange- 
ment in the form of a hollow wall, leaving an annu- 
lar space between them and the bell, of about ei^jht 
inches in width. This is tilled with charcoal, which 
is ignited, and as the temperature increases the 
mercury becomes volatilized, and passing into the 
chamber below the floor is condensed, collects in a 
liquid form, and escapes by an iron pipe into a 
proper receptacle. The fire is thus kept up during 
about fifteen hours, after which the apparatus is 
allowed to cool, and when sufficiently cold the 
bell is removed, either by a windlass or by means 
of simple blocks, as shown in the figure. 

This silver, which is found to have assumed a 
porous structure and a beautiful frosted ap]^>earance, 
IS called by the Mexicans plata piiia, and is placed 
in leathern bags for removal to the smelting-house, 
where it is assayed and run into bars. The silver 
obtained by the patio process of amalgamation is 
in most cases very nearly pure, being generally 
above 990 fine ; and in many cases, as at Gua- 
naxuato, almost absolutely pure silver is obtained. 

By the patio procQss, the amount of quicksilver 
lost varies irom ten to twenty-four ounces per mark 
of silver, eight ounces (3.556.5 grains), and the 
time occupied is from fifteen to forty-five days. 

The comminution of the ore in arrastras is not 
a necessary feature of the patio nrocess, as in places 
where water-power is abundant tne ore is reduced to 
a proper graae of fineness by stamps. A large num- 
ber of patents for crushers and grinders -have been 
patented in the United States, which are intended 
to act upon a constant, mo<lerate supply of the 
broken ore, and reduce it by a succession of 

operations to the fineness required. See Obe- 

The nature of the chemical reactions of the patio 
process has been much misunderstood, but Sonnes- 
chmid has given a solution which is now accepted. 
According to his theory, that poi-tion of the silver 
which exists in the ores in a native state is alone 
capable of uniting directly with mercury ; and if, 
in grinding with this metal any ores which do not 
contain silver in the metallic foi'm, a small quan- 
tity of amalgam be obtained, it is pro- 
duced by the action of some snbstanoe 
which in presence of mercury has the 
property of reducing the silver existing 
in a state of combination. These com- 
pounds, as well as the native metals, are 
susceptible of conversion into muriate 
of silver under the influence of muriatic 
acid liberated by the action of the sul- 
phuric acid of the magistral on a solu- 
tion of common salt. The muriate of 
silver thus formed may be destroyed by 
the addition of alkaline earths, but the 
silver will then be converted into an 
oxide which has no longer the property 
of forming an amalgam with mercury. 
Farther, that as certain metals have 
the peculiarity of separating others in 
a state of purity from the acids with 
which they are combined, mercuiy 
performs tnis part with regard to sil- 
ver, by taking from it the muriatic 
acid, by which a portion of it is de- 
stroyed while the remainder forms an amalgam with 
the liberated silver. This reduction of the silver 
by the action of muriatic acid on metallic mercury, 
together with the direct action of the same on 
that metal, are the two causes occasioning the 
loss of (quicksilver ; the direct action of the acid 
manifesting itself whenever it becomes necessary to 
make a further addition of magistral. The mer- 
cury lost remains in the residue, either in com- 
bination with muriatic acid, or in the metallic state ; 
the former representing the deficit known as oott- 
sumido (consumed) and the latter forming that por- 
tion of the loss classed as perdido (lost). 

The Hot Process. This is employed in South 
America on a peculiar class of ores, containinff a 
large proportion of native silver, or in which that 
metal occurs in the form of chloride, iodide, or 
bromide. The ore is roughly stamped, reduced to a 
certain grade in the arrastra, ana washed on an 
inclined plane, by which the richer portions are con- 
densed into an amount two per cent of the original 
bulk. The refuse may be graded and sorted, and 
the richer part subjected to a saving process. The 
finer portion is removed to a "cazo," a copper- 
bottomed vessel over a furnace. Water is added to 
make a liquid paste ; when ebullition sets in salt to 
the amount of from five to ten per cent of the weight 
of the ore is added. Tlie boiling mass is then stirred, 
and mercury added at intervals. This must not 
exceed twice the weight of the silver contained in 
the ore. This is determined by repeated tests. 
The operation completed, the liquid matter is re- 
moved and added to the ingredients of a **torta,** 
while the solid portions are stored in wooden cis- 
terns, and are subsequently washed and treated as 
described undef the patio process. 

An enlargement oi the not process consists of a 
larger copper vessel called a * * fondon, " in which blocks 
of copper are drawn around as the porphyry blocks 
of an arrastra. It is heated by a furnace below, as in 
the case of the "cazo." The charge of the latter 

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may be about 100 pounds, while that of the *'fon- 
don" is from 1,200 to 1,500 pounds, and the time 
for working them off is about six hours in each 
case. The sulphides are not reduced by this pro- 
cess, and are tjierefore added to the material of 
th*j patio, but do not require the addition of magis- 
tral, as they contain a sumcient amount of chloride 
of copper to convert the sulphides of silver into 
chlonde ; the copper is furnished by the attrition 
of the bottom of the vessel, which is kept clean, by 
the paddle in the case of the "cazo," and the cop- 
per block in the case of the "fondon." The prop- 
er proportion of the mercury and the mechanical 
action prevent the loss of mercury by adherence to 
the bottom of the pan. 

The EsTUF-\ Process. In some of the colder and 
more humid districts of Mexico, a modification of 
the patio process has been employed. The ground 
ore, instead of bein^ exposed m the open air on a 
paved courtyard, as m the ordinary patio process, is 
placed under a shed, and the usual method of patio 
amalgamation proceeded with, until the operation is 
about half completed. The ore is then removed 
into a chamber termed an estufa (stove), which has 
under it a fireplace six or eight feet long, so con- 
nected by side flues with small chimneys as to 
elevate the temperature of the room containing the 
ore. Here it is exposed to a gentle heat, and al- 
lowed to remain during two or three days, when it 
is again removed, and the reduction completed by 
the ordinary method of patio amalgamation. 

By this process, the time required for the reduc- 
tion of the ore is less than by the patio, and the 
yield of silver greater ; the loss of mercury, on the 
other hand, is more considerable. 

The Barrel Process. An apparatus of this de- 
scpption was in use at the latter part of the 
last century in Germany. It is descrioed as ''an 
apparatus consisting of eighteen small, cylindrical, 

ng. 142. 

Freiberg Amalgamator {vertUtU tectum). 

yertical vessiels, arranged in a circle, in which the 
ores were mixed with mercury and constantly agi- 
tated by a vertical spindle in each tub, the. spindles 
being worked by. a. large, horizontal spur-wheel 
placed in the center." 

The amalgamating apparatus ' of Freiberg con- 
sisted of wooden casks arranged in rows and driy.en 

by pinions upon their shafts engaged .by the teetl^ 
of a large spur-wheel. Each cask had a circular 
aperture, closed by a. lid while revolving, and 
opened as required to receive a charge of roasted ore 
by a spout from the hopper above ; or opened, when 
in the reverse position, to discharge its contents 
into the hopper oelow, after the argentiferous mer- 

Fig. 143. 

cury had been withdrawn at another opening, which 
at other times is closed by a plug. Each barrel is 
charged with 300 pounds of water and 1,000 pounds 
of finely ground ore ; fragments of iron are added, 
the barrels closed and set in motion. When the 
material is reduced to a paste of the proper consist- 
ence, 600 pounds of mercury are added to each cask, 
and the closed barrels revolved for 16 hours at, the 
uniform rate of 13 revolutions per minute. By the 
addition of water and subsequent revolution at a 
slower rate, the mercury is separated from the 
slimes and collects in a mass below the water, which 
holds thq major part of the earthy particles in sus- 
pension, by the aid of moderate agitation. The 
mercury is then withdrawn by removing a plug and 
conducting the metal by a hose to a spout and 
receiver. The passage oi earthy particles indicates 
the time to stop the flow. The plug is replaced, 
the lid withdrawn, and the muddy residuum dis- 
charged into troughs below. The cliloride of silver 
contained in the roasted ores is, as in the Freiberg 
process, decomijosed by agitation with iron frag- 
ments, the chloride combining with it to form 
protochloride of iron, while tne reduced metallic 
silver becomes subsequently dissolved in mercury. 
The chlorides of lead and copper which may be 
present are reduced at the same time as the chloride 
of silver, and enter into the composition of the 
amalgam produced. The chlorides in the roasted 
ores are, by trituration with iron, reduced to the 
state of minimum chlorination, before the addition 
of the mercury, allowing the latter to act upon the 
silver immediately, and obviating the conversion of 
the mercury into calomel, which would not be again 
reduced and would prove a loss. 

The muddy residuum,- previously referred to, is 
re-treated, if sufficiently rich, by roasting, etc. 

The amalgam obtained is filtered in the usual 
manner, and the remainder distilled to sublime' the 
mercury. The metallic resiilt is then refined. 

The Darrel process at the Ophir and other mines 
in Nevada is. preceded by (frying the ores in a; 
kiln ; dry stamping, screening through wire sieves, 
and roasting in reverberatory furnaces for from 4^ 
to 6 hours. About 5} per cent of salt is added by- 
portions in the furnace, this ore being stirred, and, 
before drawing, 1 J to 8 per cent of carbonate of soda 
is added to decompose the , sulphates and chlorides 
of copper, zinc, etc., and prevent loss of quicksilver. 

The roasted' ore is then screened and the barrels 

Digitized by 





are charged with it. The charge of each barrel is 
2,000 pounds of ore, 450 pouuds of iron fragments, 
and water suflScient ; they are then revolved for 3 
hours. From 860 to 400 pounds of mercmy are 
now added to each barrel, which are then revolved 
for 12 or 13 hours at the rate of 12 revolutions per 
minute. They are then filled up with water, ag^in 
run for 2 hours, and the water drawn off. The 
amalgam is strained through a canvas bag to remove 
a portion of the quicksilver. The tailings are 
washed in a settler, and thence passed through a 
series of sluice-boxes into a flume about 600 feet 
long and 4 feet wide, provided with riffles. 

'file amalgam is distilled in circular retorts. 

The Pan Process. This process was designed 
especially for operating upon ores of poorer quality, 
dispensing with roasting incident to the barrel pro- 
cess and to the frequent manipulations and loss of 
time incident to the patio process. The ores of the 
mine being sorted into three grades of comparative 
richness, tne first, assaying over $ 90 per ton, and 
containing a great deal of sulphur and refractory 
metals, is stamped dry and reserved for the barrel 
process ; while the second, from $ 40 to 1 90 per 
ton, and the third, from 1 20 to $ 40 per ton, are 
stamped wet and treated by the pan process. 

The crushed ore,- after passing through the screen 
of the stamp-box, is conveyed to the settlers, passing 
from one to another till the water runs off clear. 

The pans are very various in their construction, 
and a number of them will be show^n in this section 
of the article on amalgamation. Tlie common pan 
is a round, wooden, or cast-iron tub, six feet in di- 
ameter, two feet in depth, and with a Hat bottom. 

Fig. 144. 

the apertures J. The false bottom is made one inch 
less in diameter than the bottom of the pan itself, 
and has an aperture in the center an inch laiver in 
diameter than the base of the pillar, in which the 
vertical shaft works. To fasten the bottom in its 

Common Amalgamating JFVm. 

A false bottom of l^-inch iron is inserted into 
this, and a hollow pillar in the center admits the 
passage of an upright shaft which is generally worked 
oy gearing beneath the pan, capable of communi- 
cating to it from fifteen to twenty revolutions per 
minute. It is sometimes geared much higher. 

To the wooden arms a are attached the blocks 
bt also of wood, to which are fastened the iron 
shoes c, by means of the bolts d, passing up through 
the arms. Each shoe has also an iron pin, about 
an inch in length, which fits into the wooden 
block and keeps the iron-facing steadily in its 
place. On the shaft / passing through the central 
pillar f is the yoke g, which, being fitted with a 
sliding key, can be raised by means of the screw h ; 
and the ends of the yoke itself, being attached to the 
wooden cross-arms, the mullers will be raised at the 
same time. Steam is introduced into the pan by 
the pipe t, the discharge being effected by means of 

place, and prevent the mercury from finding its way 
under it, strips of cloth, about two width, 
are lapped around the edge 
of the false bottom, as well as 
applied against the sides of 
the pan. 

A little iron cement is then 
poured in, and the bottom 
secured in its place by means 
of well-dried wooden wedges 
tightly driven between the 
two layers of cloth. These 
wedges, which are driven 
J- quite close to each other, 
must be somewhat shorter 
than the thickness of the 
^ false bottom, thus leaving a 
space above them which is 
subsequently covered with a 
paste of iron cement, that is 
allowed to set before using 
the apparatus. About one- 
horse power is required to work 
this pan, which wiU amalgamate from one and a half 
to two tons of ore in the course of twenty-four hours. 
Norton, September 18, 1860. The annular re- 
volving funnel G distributes the powdered material 
by pipes H to the space near the central pillar 
through which the vertical shaft passes. The 
grooves in the faces of the muller and bed -plate 
are arranged in curved lines, so that the material is 
fed from the center towards the circumference before 
it reaches the discharge-openings 0. Projecting 
points, as the muller and oed-plates, act upon the 
fed material, and force it from the center as it 
passes from the pipes ff into the mill, giving it an 
eccentric motion, and causing it to come repeatedly 
under the triturating operation. The balance-rynd 
with its mullers is adjustable vertically on the 
shaft to regulate ^e proximity of the grinding 

Varney, December 16, 1862, and July 12, 1864. 

Digitized by 





A stationary bed-plate is attached to the floor of 
the pan Ay and has radial grooves which are filled 
with wood. The rotary-disk has radial, open grooves, 
formed by the intervals between the sectional pieces 
which are attached to the face of the disk and form 
the mnllers. The disk itself is an annulus, and is 
connected by arms i with the outer tube A, which 
forms the balance-rynd and rests upon the central 
pillar m, being rotated by the central shaft which 
IS driven by gearing below. The opening in the 

ng. 146. 

Yamty's Amalgamaiing Am. 

center of the rotating disk is considerably larger 
than the tube A,. so as to leave a hiatus in which 
the material collects. The action is such that the 
ore will pass outward from this central space be- 
tween the faces of the upper and lower mulfers, and 
arriving at the peripheral opening is drawn in by 
spiral scrapers «, which are supported from above and 
return the pulp over the top of the upper muUer, to 
the centrar space, for a repetition of^the operation. 
The shoes are renewable, and are secured to the disk 
by rivets which are cast in them. The operation of 
this apparatus is as follows : The space about the 
periphery of the lower muller is filled with quick- 
silver, and the pan nearly filled with pulp of the 
proper consistency to flow easily ; the snaft is now 
made to revolve at a proper speed, from sixty to 
eighty revolutions per minute, by which the upper 
muller is rotated. The pulp between the mullers, by 
means of the centrifugal force developed, is made to 
pass out through the radial channels between the 
dies, as well as between the grinding surfaces of the 
upper and lower mullers ; also into and over the 
quicksilver, thereby causing amalgamation. 

The outward motion of the pulp has the effect 
of keeping the quicksilver entirely away from the 
grinding surface, thereby obviating what has often 
proved a very serious difficulty, namely, the grinding 
of the mercury. 

The rotation of the upper muller causes the pulp 
in the pan to revolve witn it. This current is met 
by the cuneiform projections and curved plates, and 
thereby turned toward the bentral opening in the 
upper muUer. The radial slots between the shoes, 
running from the central opening to the outward 
one, allow currents of considerable size to pass with 
great velocity ; and the pulp filling these slots, 
being continually thrown outwardly, tends to pro- 
duce a vacuum. By this the pulp in the body of 
the pan is set in motion, causing a rapid and abun- 
dant flow downward at the center, and upward 
along the inner surface of the pan. The pulp is 
thus made to circulate until the complete pulver- 
ization of the quartz and amalgamation of the metals 
have taken place. 

Coleman, August 18, 1868. The muller of this 
pan is driven, as are the preceding, by the central 
vertical shaft which is projected up the central 
cavity of the annular pan. The shaft supports a 

balance-rynd ct, to whose ends are attached the mul- 
ler C, which revolves between two plates B D, re- 
spectively below and above. The muller C has cor- 
rugations on its upper and lower surfaces, as have also 

Fig. 147. 

CMemoit** Amaigamator, 

the surfaces with which it comes in contact. The 
vertical position of the rotai-v- wheel or muller is ad- 
justed by the central wheel i, and that of the upper 
plate D by the set screws c, which are four in num- 
ber and set at opposite points. By this double ad- 
justment the spaces between the grinding surfaces 
are gradually approached, as the pulp becomes finer 
in the progress of the work. 

Wheeler, December 8, 1868. The lower face of 
the rotary-muUer has spirally curved grooves which 
act in apposition to reversedly curved spiral grooves 
on the bed-pUite or stationary muller. Fig. 148 
is a vertical sectioo, and Fig. 149 shows the pan in 
perspective, the muller being raised and tunied bot- 
tom upwards. The dies a are attached to the bed 

Fig. 148. 

WheeUr^s Amalgamating Am. 

of the pan, and the shoes b to the rotary-disk ; this 
is attached to the hollow cone F (see Fig. 148), 
which is connected to the vertical shaft (7, and 
that to gearing beneath the pan. The dies a 
are kept in their places by the central ring c, and on 
the sides by the inclined ledges rf, under which their 
edges are wedged. Spiral ribs are fixed on the 
periphery of the rotary-muller, and act in concert 
with reversedly spiral ribs d attached to the side 
of the pan to create an upward current in the pulp, 
which is then swept toward the center again by 
curved guide-plates attached to the blocks e on tha 

Digitized by 





Kg. 149. 

Wheder^s Amalgamator. 

inside of the pan. This pan is 4 feet in diameter at 
the bottom, is said to require from 2J to 3 horse 
power to run it effectively, and is geared for sixty 
revohitions per minute. The muUer is connected to 
its driver bv a universal joint. The pan has a double 
bottom, and is heated by steam admitted to the space 
thus formed. 

Wheeler, July 14, 1863. This machine is con- 
structed for saving the mercury from the pulp or 

Wuder''s Separator. 

waste matter which escapes from the ordinary amal- 
gamators, and consists of a tub with concave bottom 
and a central depression, in which is a vertical tubu- 
lar rotary-shaft having arms on which pads are 
placed, which rub on the bottom and collect the 
particles of mercury which run down into the cen- 
tral chamber ; water is supplied through the hoUow 
shaft, which may be decanted off by a siphon or 
cocks, and the quicksilver drawn off by the lower 
tube connected with the gathering-chamber. 

Hepburn and Peterson, April 19, 1864. This 
pan differs mainlv fr«m the foregoing in the shape 
of the bottom, which is inclined towards the center, 

or shaped like an inverted cone. The shoes are 
bolted to the face o'f the conical muller in such a 

Fig. 161. 

AxrtaXfamating Pan. 

way as to leave intervals which form spiral grooves. 
The dies of the bed are fastened to the pan bottom, 
and have a similar arrangement, forming spiral con- 
ductors whereby the pulp is led towards the periph- 
ery ; ascending against the sides of the pan, it de- 
scends by gravitation over the upper surface of the 
rotary- muller, is collected at the center, and again 
driven outwards. A constant and active circulation 
is thus established without the aid of the curved 
scrapers shown in some of the preceding examples. 
The chai^ for this pan is about 1,400 pounds, and 
the time requisite for working it from two to four 
hours, according to circumstances. The rate of run- 
ning is from fifty to sixty revolutions per minute. 
The muller is supported upon a balance-rynd, as in 
the previous examples, and is adjustable vertically 
by hand-wheels, a thimble, and a tubular screw. 

The following two are examples of planetary mo- 

Hansbrow, October 27, 1863. The pan has the 

Fig. 162. 

Hcuubrow^s Amalgamating Fan, 

Digitized by 





same features as the foregoing, but the action of the 
mullers is different. The vertical shaft is driven 
by gearing below, and passes up through a central 
cavity in the annular pan. On the summit of the 
shaft is an ann in which are journaled the vertical 
shafts of the dependent mullers. Each of the latter 
shafts has a pinion which engages a circular station- 
ary rack on the inner edge of the pan, so that, as 
the mullers revolve around the main .shaft, they 
have also a rotary motion on their own axes. They 
thus acquire what is called a planetary motion, ro- 
tating as they revolve. 

The grinding effect of this motion is very satis- 
factory, and the mullers wear nearly evenly. The 
effect of a simply revolving muller is to wear the 
fastest nearer the periphery, as that passes over a 
greater frictional surface in describing a larger cir- 
cle. This difficulty is, however, met by Dodge's 
l)atent, described elsewhere in this article. 

Ken YON, July 19, 1864. This, like the one im- 
mediately preceding, consists of a circular pan, 
through the center of which passes a vertical shaft. 
To the upper end of the shaft is attached a cross- 
head fitted with a yoke, through which a screw 
passes and rests upon the end of tne shaft. At the 
ends of the cross-nead, bows are attached carrying 
the vertical shafts, upon which are pinions gearing 
into a stationary wheel. At the end of each shaft 
are placed arms, and at their ends are irons for 
receiving the mullers. The mullers have a quad- 
rangular arrangement at the ends of arms o, sim- 
ilarly disposed and radiating from the shafts /. 
As in the preceding example, they have rotation 
on their own axes by the engagement of their 
respective pinions w with the stationary wheel 7i, 

Fig. 153. 

Kenyon^s Amalgamating Pan. 

and have also a revolution in the track formed 
by the annular pan, owing to the rotation of the 
shaft a and cross-head. The adjustment of press- 
ure of the mullers on the face of the pan is ob- 
tained by the set-screw t, which passes through the 
yoke h and rests on the shaft a. Each muller 
receives a cycloidal movement. 

The process of working in pans is not merely a 
mechamcal trituration of the material, and an 
exi)osure of it to the contact of mercury. These, 
of course, are necessary incidents, but the chemical 
reactions of the constituents are in many respects 
similar to those described under the patio process 
and the barrel process of Freiburg and Nevada. 
The enei^ of the treatment, however, has the effect 
of exx>editing the decomposition of the material and 
the combination of the precious metals with the 

In operating, the charge having .been placed in 
the pan, the muller is put in motion, and gradually 
lowered as the material becomes pulverized. Steam 
is theix injected into the mass, raising its tempera- 
ture to 200' Fahr., care being taken to retain a proper 
consistence. The muller being slightly raised, quick- 
silver is added in a shower from a canvas bag, to 
the extent of from ten to fifteen per cent of the 
material under treatment ; sulphate of copper and 
sulphuric acid are also added in small quantities ; 
also salt in some cases. Many suggestions of ma- 
terials to be added are rife among tne miners, but 
appear to be empiric in their character, and not 
derived from critical chemical consideration of the 
reactions taking i)lace or required. The running 
of the pan to complete the amalgamation is con- 
tinued lor three or four hours. The pulp is then 
thinned so as to flow out of an opening in the 
bottom of the pan, and is conductea to the sepa- 
rator ; or it may be thinned and settled in the pan, 
reducing the jmlp .*>o as to allow the heavier por- 
tions to settle, and decanting the mere liquid either 
by siphon or by opening the cocks on tne side of 
the pan, beginning at the uppermost and proceeding 
downwards m order, as the condition of the settling 
renders advisable. Several of the examples show 
these cocks, but others are so arranged that the 

Kn will tip on its hinges and dischai^e its contents. . 
the lai^er pans, where it is desired to make the 
work as continuous as may be, the whole charge of 
the pan is drained off and subjected in a separator 
to a second process of dividing the earthy particles 
from the metal, in order that the pan may be 
expeditiously rechai^d and proceed with its work. 

One of these separators is shown in this article, 
but the common pan (also shown) is frequently 

In the separator the pulp is mixed with a large 
quantity of water, and a regular steady supply kept 
up, 80 as to carry off the lighter particles of earthy 
matter, at first from holes in the upper part of the 
])an ; but as the separation proceeds tne discharging- 
point is gradually lowered, until eventually nothing 
but the heavier pyrites and liquid amalgam is left. 
The amalgam is drawn off from the bottom, and the 
pyrites then scooped out, and after being further 
washed in another separatiiig-pan, to remove the 
last traces of amalgam, it is reserved for final treat- 
ment by calcination and reduction in barrels. The 
amalgam is now carefully washed in clean water, 
dried with flannels, and finally removed to the 
amalgam-room, where it is strained through thick 
coni(^ bags of canvas twelve inches in diajmeter at 
the lai*ger end, and two feet in length. 

After the bags have drained for some time, they 
are beaten with a round stick to cause a further 
quantity of the mercury to run off. The hard, dry 
amalgam is finally removed from the bags and 
weighed into store. 

The mercury run off from the bags is technically 
known as "charged quicksilver," and after being 
mixed with retorted mercury is returned to the 
pan-room for farther use. Charged quicksilver is 
preferred to the pure metal, as with it amalgamation 
IS found to proceed more rapidly. 

Amalgamation of Roasted Ores. In some 
of the mining districts of Nevada, and particularly 
in the neighborhood of Austin, where the ores con- 
sist of various compound sulphides of silver, contain- 
ing a considerable amount of antimony, the ordinary 
pan process, as practised at Virginia City, cannot be 
advantageously employed. The ores from this part 
of the State consequently require roasting before 
being subjected to amalgamation, and then, when 

Digitized by 





worked in the f>an8, afford better results than those 
obtained from the ores of the Comstock vein treats 
in their raw state. Each battery of five stampers 
will crush (dry) four tons of ore daily, through a 
wire-gauze screen of forty holes per linear inch. 
One thousand pounds of this crushed ore are roasted 
with eight per cent of common salt ; the time 
occupied in the furnace by each charge being, on 
an average, six hours. Pans are most commonly 
employed, and are charged with trom eight hundred to 

one thousand pounds 
Fig. 164. 

of roasted ore, which 
occupies five hours 
in working. A mill 
often stampers, with 
all the necessary 
furnaces, pans, and 
appliances, will treat 
eight tons of ore in 
the course of twen- 
ty-four hours, with 
a total consumption 
of about ten cords 
of wood. It is stat- 
ed that the loss of 
silver in the neigh- 
borhood of Austin, 
where the ores con- 
tain little or no 
gold, seldom ex- 
ceeds seven per cent 
of the assay value. 
Spencer, Novem- 
ber 22, 1864. The treatment is designed to desul- 
phurize the ore simultaneously with its exposure to 
the mercurial fumes. The ore, finely pulverized, is 
placed in a vessel with a small amount of mercury, 
and the vessel then strongly closed. Heat is then 
Fig. 156. 

^Mtuer's Amalgamator. 

Amalgam Retort, 

applied, so as to vaporize the mercury. After this 
treatment the ore is placed in any suitable ama^a- 
mating vessel, and washed and treated in uie 
usual way. 

Retorti NO. The silver or gold amalgam is treated 
in the assay-office, and the mercury separated by dis- 
tillation in a cast-iron retort with a luted cover, 
placed upon an arch of fire-brick, and having another 
arch above it, being, with the exception of one end^ 
enclosed within a chamber. Fig. 155 shows the 
arrangement of the retort and chamber. The chai^ 
of amalgam is weighed and placed in a semicircular 
tray divided by a transverse partition. Before 
being put in the tray the amalgam is coated with 
milk 01 lime or a thin wash of clay, a sheet of paper 
being sometimes placed under it ; by these means 
the amalgam is prevented from adfhering to the 
tray. The tray being placed in the retort, the cover 
is closed and carefully luted with a thin paste of 
clay and wood-ashes. The fire is then lighted in 
the furnace, and the heat verv gradually raised 
until the retort is at a bright red heat. The flame 
and smoke from the furnace pass through the tinea 
a a, etc., up into the chamber b and around the 
retort, the smoke, etc. ascending into the chim- 
ney d through the flues 1, 2, 8, etc., and the cham- 
ber c, the draft being i-egulated by dampers at- 
tached to these flues. A horizontal pipe D is fitted 
into the inner end of the retort, and is so connected 
to the vertical downcast pipe E that they admit of 
bein^ readily separated for cleaning ; the pipe £ 
terminates in a chamber open at the bottom, ana im- 
mersed sufficiently deep in a tank of water to keep 
it air-tight,* but not to allow of water being drawn 
up into the heated retort, and passes through an 
outer pipe F, in which a current of water circulates 
from below upward, having its exit by a pipe at the 
top. As the retort becomes heated the volatilized 
mercury passes through the pipes D and E, bein^ 
condensea in its passage through the latter, and 
reservoir G, from whence it is 

f has ceased to distil over, the 
ool gradually, and when cold the 
hdrawn, and it and the mercury 
er are weighed for the purpose 
ere has been any leakage from 

i is placed over the furnace- 
escaping vapors into the flues. 

Accordinff to Phillips, the 
cost of working from f 45 to 
$50 ores by the pan process 
is, in those portions of the 
State of Nevada in which 
water-power can be obtained, 
nearly as follows : — 

P«r toiK 
Stamping wet, through 

No. 6 screens . . $ 1.50 
Milling, including, the 

loss of mercury, etc. 6.00 
Totad cost including 

wear and tear . . $ 6.50 
' The loss of mercury amounts 
to from li to IJ pounds for 
each ton of ore containing sil- 
ver to the amount of from 
$ 35 to $ 50 per ton. 

The Barrel Process as ap- 
plied to gold is exemplified m 
many forms. In Fi^. 156 the 
gold is amalgamated m hollow 
revolving cylinders upon hori- 

Digitized by 





Fig. 166. 

inder turns thereon. The pipe D connects 
with a retort, and conducts therefrom the 
mercurial fumes which pass into the cylin- 
der through perforations in the lower part 
of the pipe. The end 2/ of the pipe dips 
into a vessel of water that condenses any 
mercurial vapor which passes over when the 
stopcock g is opened. The cock regulates 
the pressure of vapor in the cy%der, which 
has a door by which it is chai^ged and un- 

Staats, March 18, 1866. The ore is placed 
in a closed vessel in company with an al- 
lowance of quicksilver, and is then rotated 

Fig. IW. 

Wright's Barrel Amaigamator, 

zontal axes, the trunnions being hollow to admit the 
pulverized ore from one cvlinder into another. The 
cylinders are connected by flanges or S-pipes with 
grooves turned into the axes or trunnions, and rings 
are fitted into the grooves and covered by the 
flanges ; the whole are so connected as to make them 
water or steam ti^ht, and so arran^d as to give a 
fall of about six inches to each cylinder. The cyl- 
inders contain rollers, knives, burnishers, and other 
analogous arrangements to produce friction, scour 
the ore, and assist the contact with the quicksilver. 
Heath, February 17, 1863. This machine con- 
sists of a cylinder which rotates upon an axis diago- 
nal with the true cylindrical axis, and is formed 

with a corrugat- 
Fig. 157. ed interior sur- 

fiuje, the corru- 
gations running 
parallel with 
the true axis 
and across the 
end ; it is also 
provided with 
annular ribs, 
which project 
from the inside 
of the cylinder 
1 in a plane paral- 
- lei to the heads 
and at right an- 
gles to the axis 

Heath't Amaigamator. 

of the cylinder. The effect of the obliquity of the 
axis of rotation is to make the contents slide and 
roll as the machine is rotated. A lid admits to the 
interior, and the latter is also entered by a pipe. 
Hall, February 28, 1866. The horizontal rotat- 

Fig. 168. 



HaWs Cylmdtr Amalgamator. 

ing cylinder A has internal lifters c c, which raise and 
turn over the pulverized quartz contained there- 
in. The central pipe is stationary, and the cyl- 

Fig. 160. 

on its horizon- 
tal axis above 
the fire in the 
furnace. The 

fumeseliminat- g^^,. Amalgamator. 

edby the heat 

from the mercury penetrate the material as it is 
agitated by the rotation of the vessel. 
Sturoes, September 18, 1866. The barrel amal- 

rBktor has a pocket to retain 
mercury and distribute it 
to the ore as the barrel revolves. 
The cylinder is stayed by dia- 
metric bolts. 

Gold. Ths BatUry Process. ^ 
In the amalgamation of gold"" 
ores the auriferous quartz is 
broken by a crusher into pieces 
of about a pound weight and 
is tfien stamped. For wet 
crushing, stamps are used weigh- Stmget^t Amaigamator. 
ing from five to nine hundred 
pounds including the stem, and are driven at the 
rate of seventy blows per minute with a fall of from 
six to nine inches. They are fed bv an attendant 
whose duty it is to regulate the supply of ore, water, 
and quicksilver, when that metal is used in the bat- 
tery for amalgamating the free gold present 

Amalgamation in the battery requires careful 
attention, principally to avoid the too rapid addi- 
tion of quicksilver, which should be supplied in 
very small quantities only. 

To amalgamate the free gold in a battery, the 
quantity of quicksilver to oe used is about one 
ounce weight to each ounce of gold present ; this 
is sufficient to collect the gold and form a dry 
amalgam. If, therefore, a mill vdll stamp twenty- 
four tons of ore in twenty-four hours, and the ore 
contain an ounce of gold per ton, it will be neces- 
sary to put into the battery an ounce of quicksilver 
every hour. When, in addition to gold, the rock 
under treatment contains metallic silver, the amount 
of mercury added must be proportionably increased. 
More than eighty per cent of the assay value of the 
gold in the ore may by careful manipulation be thus 
obtained. The gold amalgam accumulates in the 
comers and crevices of the battery box, between the 
dies, on the breast of the mortar, over which the 
cruiiied ore is washed into the settUng-cistems, and 
is even found in considerable quRntities adhering to 
the stamp-shoes. The amalgam thus obtained is 
very hara and heavy, and is commonly so rich in 

Digitized by 







Dodgers Amalgamator. 

gold as to be worth as much as ten dollars per ounce. 
The crushed ore is taken off from the mortar by a 
supply of water, equal to the run of f -inch pipe to 
each set of five stsimps, passing through screens in 
the back and front of the box. These screens are 
made of thin Russia iron perforated with holes 
punched by sewing-needles. 

Auriferous sand is treated in divers amalgamating 
machines ;vit being already in a comminuted state, it 
is not necessary to put it through the battery. 

Dodge, May 3, 1864. This invention relates to 
an arrangement of the rotary-shoes of the machine, 
whereby the outer ones, which are subjected to the 
most wear in consequence of having the greatest 

speed, may al- 
Flg. 161. ways be ad- 

justed so as to 
run in contact 
with the bot- 
tom of the pan, 
and the wear 
thereby com- 
pensated for. 
in the ordi- 
nary amalga- 
mating ma- 
chines the out- 
■ er shoes, in 
consequence of 
being subject- 
ed to more wear than the inner ones, soon become 
comparatively useless. 

The adjustable shoes are attached to supplemental 
bars, which are hinged to the radial arms D^ and are 
also connected thereto by springs which permit ad- 
justment of the pressure. 

Miscellaneous Afachines. The following are diverse 
in their construction from those previously cited, and 
are not strictly referable to either of the classes, 
while partaking of some of the features of the "pan" 
and the ** barrel " process. 

Charles, September 25, 1866. The inclined 
panners B are suspended by rods from the frame, 

and are oscillat- 
Fig. 182. ed by machin- 

ery. They dis- 
charge into a 
trough which 
leads the ore- 
dust and water 
to a ffrinding- 
pan. The ore 
and water enter 
the eye of the 
runner, and pass 
between it and 
sy the bed-plate to 
Charleses Amalgamator. the periphery, at 

which they are 
discharged by a spout to a series of amalgamat- 
in^-boxes, each of which consists of a case Ji con- 
taining a series of copper pans placed in vertical 
series. The upi)er muller X has a rotary motion, 
and the lower one an oscillation, derived from the 
crank and pitman 0. The shell M, whose floor forms 
the lower muller, travels on rollers as it oscillates. 

Brock, May 1, 1860. The upper surface of the 
revolving disk e is divided into a number of recepta- 
cles, and the lower surface of the disk above it is 
ribbed. The respective disks revolve in different 
directions. The receptacles are filled with mer- 
cury, and the action of the upper plate o is to feed 
the pulverized ore from the center continuallv to- 
wards the periphery, its gravity keeping it as 

Fig. 168. 

Srock^s Amalgamator. 

a film in contact with the mercury upon which it 
floats and travels. The disks are rotated by the 
engagement of their respective pinions with bevel- 
wheels on the driving-shaft. 

Battels, January 6, 1863. This apparatus con- 
sists of a series of toothed annular plates H /, 
secured to the casing of the machine and inclining 
down towards the center, and a corresponding num- 
ber of revolving toothed plates E F, mounted on a 
vertical shaft, forming basins in which the meT€ury 
is contained and occupying the spaces between 
the stationary plates. The material to be washed 

Fig. 164. 

Battels^ s Washer and Amalgamator, 

or scoured, falling on the outer part of the upper 
stationary plate, is acted on by the teeth of the 
revolving plate above, and passes inward by its own 
gravity until it falls on the center of the revolving 
plate E next below, whence it is carried outward by 
centrifugal action until it falls on the stationary 
plate / next below, and so on to any extent re- 

The vertical shaft is stepped in a lighter-bar, 
which is raised or lowered to adjust the proximity 
of the teeth on the rotating disks to those on the 
stationary ones. The amalgamated metals collect 
in the central pockets, and are removed therefrom 
as they accumulate. 

PiETSCH, May 3, 1864. The upper part of the 

Digitized by 





consists of a 
double series 
ofpans, the al- 
ternate ones 
revolving in 
different di- 
rec t ions. 
Each is 
smooth on its 
upper sur- 
face, but has 
teeth below, 
which agitate 
the material 
in the pan 
next be- 
neath. The 
ore and water 
are compelled 
into a tortu- 
ous course, 
falling over 
the edge of 
each pan in 
the series, 
and being 
caught by the 

lone beneath. 

j After reach- 

FUtxh's SepanUor and Amalgamator. ins the ]^int 

0, the ore IS led 
in again to the center, and the action is repeated. 
The neavy particles accumulate at the bottoms of the 
pans, and are thence removed 
to the amalgamators below, 
where they are agitated by 
stirrers above and in contact 
with the mercury which oc- 
cupies the depressions in the 
bottoms of the pans ; the 
pans communicate by a cen- 
tral channel. 

Eendrick, May 29, 18M. 
Theagitator^ operates in the 

Fig. 166. 

Peck^s Amalgamator. 

ing platform. £ach pan empties iuto the one next 
below it in the series. The belly of each pan has 
some mercury, and the combined vertical, longitu- 
dinal, and partial rotary movement is to settle the 
heavier matters to the bottoms of the pans and jshift 
the lighter material to the pans next below. The pe- 
culiar complex motion of the pans is intended to im- 
itate the hand motion in panning. 

Partz, July 14, 1863. The powdered ore is dis- 
tributed in a dry state over the current of mercury 
flowing upon the inclined surface of the metallic 
trough. The surface of the latter is amalgamated 
with mercury, and that which flows to the lower 
end is re-elevated and again distributed upon .the 
trough. A current of water and an agitator- wheel 
assist in removing the tailings which reach the 
receptacle at the lower end of the trough. 

Fig. 168. 

Kendrirk^a Amalgamator. 

bottom of the tank, being driven by the vertical 
shaft C and the gearing above. The box E occupies 
a position near the bottom of the tank, ana is 
heated by steam introduced by the pipe a. b is the 
discharge-pipe for the water of condensation. 

Peck, Febi-uary 21, 1865. The pans are ar- 
ranged in successive order upon steps on the swing- 

Partz^s AmalgamtUor. 

Hill, January 1, 1861. This operates by centrif- 
ugal action. The rotating basin nas a central de- 
pression to contain the mercury, and its surfaces are 
amalgamated to cause adhesion of the amalgam, as 
it is formed by the contact of the mercury with the 
precious metals in the pulverized ore. The water, 
quartz, and lighter impurities are expelled over the 
edge of the basin by centrifugal force, while the 
heavier, valuable results settle into the central pocket, 

October 4, «g- ^^ 

1864, subjects 
the finely pul- 
verized dust of 
ores, in connec- 
tion with mer- 
cury, to a 
powerful agita- 
tion and cen- 
trifugal action, 
by placing 
them in a par- 
tially covered 
revolving pan ; 
the form of the 
rim prevents 
the loss of the Hiirs Amalgamator. 

Digitized by 





metallic portions, while tHe lighter impurities are 
ejected over the edge of the pan, into which a stream 
of water constantly flows. 
Whelpley and Stoeer, September 11, 1866. 

Fig. 170. 

interior surface by the centrifugal force, and the 
metallic particles are seized and amalgamated by the 

The supply is derived from the tank T by pipe P, 

Fig. 178. 

Whelpley and Storer's Amalgamator. 

The outer cylinder is supported on shaft attached 
by a hub to an internal plate. The interior of the 

Phelps's Amalgamator, 

cylinder is coated with mercury ; the pulp, being 
introduced during rapid rotation, is spread over the 


! . /////////////// 

Adams and Worthittgton^s Amalgamator. 

and the tailing dis- 
charged by Dij)e S. 
Phelps, October 
18,1846. The low- 
er roller revolves in 
a trough of mercury 
Of and distributes it 
upon the upper 
rollera A B, wnich 
are brought into an 
electric circuit to in- 
crease their attrac- 
tive energy in accu- Day's Amalgamator. 
mulating the adher- 
ing amalgam, which is subsequently scraped off and 
fafis into the receiver 0. The pulp is supplied to the 
upper rolls through a spdht proceeding from a tank 
J. The jackets hold the ores to the rollers for a spe- 
cific portion of their revolution. 

ADAJfs AND WoRTHiNGTON, February 12, 1864. 
This invention consists in pulverizing the quartz or 
metalliferous substances containing precious metals 
to an impalpable powder, and precipitating and 
discharging this aust either in a calcined or 
otherwise prepared condition, in order to isolate 
the metallic particles from their sulphurous 
or other foreign combinations, into an atmos- 
phere of hot vapor of quicksilver. On the up- 
per end of a vertical stationary cylinder is fitted 
a short cylinder, which is made to turn therein, 
the same being provided with a screen or hopper. 
Below the stationary cylinder is a pan in which 
stirrers are made to operate. Communicating 
with the main cylinder, by means of a tube placed 
a little below the screen in the upper cylin- 
der, is a furnace or still for distilling the Quick- 
silver which falls with the calcined particles of 
ore through the stationary cylinder. 

Day, September 26, 1865. The retort is set 
in a furnace A^ and delivers fumes of mercury 
into the vertical tube Z). The pulveriaed ore 
from the hopper C is delivered by a feed- wheel 
in graduatea quantities, and falls the length of 
the tube, at the lower end of which it is deliv- 
ered by a discharge-wheel, so that the fumes 
may not escape. The length of the tube may 
be such as is found sufficient for the purpose. 

Digitized by 





and the respective wheels E F are connected by a 
driving-chain. The particles of the precious metals 
combine, in falling, with the mercurial fumes with 
which the tube is charged. 

Hall, December 27, 1864. This invention con- 
sists of a series of curved pipes connected with 
quicksilver basins in such a manner that the lower 
end of the upper pipe and the upper end of the 
second pipe wUl enter the bottom of the first basin, 
the end of the other pipe extending slightly above 

HaWx Amalgamator. 

the bottom of the vessel. The lower end of the 
latter pipe and the upper end of the pipe A enter 
the bottom of the pan, and so on throughout the 
whole series. 

He claims an apparatus for separating gold from 
foreign substances, composed of a scries of bent pipes 
or tubes combined by means of a series of connect- 
ing-basins containing quicksilver. 

To aid the process of amalgamation various pro- 
cesses have been adopted to render desulphurization 
by roasting more effective, among whicn may be 
cited the following : — 

Raht, August 21, 1866, forces air through the 
mass of fused metal, to remove sulphur, arsenic, and 
antimony. The apparatus may be similar to the 
" Bessemer." 

Ryerson, August 14, 1866. The ores are heated 
in a muffle in the presence of a current of air; 
behind each muffle is a passage in which binoxide 
of nitrogen is generated, whicn mixes with the air 
and sulphurous acid passing from the muffles ; the 
mixture is driven by fans into receivers in company 
with a steam-jet. The receivers are charged with 
ore previously desulphurized in the muffles. The 
sulphurous acid is converted into sulphuric acid, 
and combines with the base metals in the receiver ; 
the sulphates are dissolved out by water, leaving 
the gold free ; the silver may by the usual method 
be afterwards precipitated from the solution of 
mixed sulphates. 

Whelpley and Storer, September 11, 1866. 
In this process the chemical reagents are blown in a 
finely divided state upon the heated ore by means 
of a blast of air or steam. The interior of the fur- 
nace is stated to have an atmosphere charged with 
** coal in aerial or air-borne combustion." 

Fleury, July 3, 1866, mixes the sulphurets 
or tailings with coal-dust, and bakes them into 

a metalliferous coke. This is ^und, heated, and 
treated with steam, after which it is amalgamated. 

Brower and Campbell, January 23, 1866. The 
ores are smelted with a suitable flux, such as carbo- 
nate of soda, and the fused mass precipitated into 
cold water, to disintegrate the mass and expel the 

Whelpley and Storer, September 11, 1866. 
The cylindrical vessel is connected with a hopper at 
one end, an exhaust-pipe at the other end, and has 
a series of rotary agitating arms attached to a shaft 
passing through the said cylinder. The hopper has 
a grating and a feed-brush. Air may be admitted 
to the cylinder through a grating. 

The inventors claim, first, brightening metallic 
particles in finely pulverized and desulphurized 
ores, when such brightening is effected on the prin- 
ciple of mutual attrition m a cylinder alternately 
closed during the brightening process, and opened 
to set free the charge by means of a valve in the 
exhaust-pipe, intending to claim for this end the 
principle of alternately closing and opening the 
cylinder, so as to do the work in a close cylinder, 
as well as the combination of the cylinder- valve 
and exhaust-pipe for the purpose and substantially 
as described. 

A fine grating prevents in the feed-hopper the 
passage of any but very fine dust into the cylinder. 

In their patent of June 13, 1865, they separate 
metals from mixtures of earth and metal by the 
action of gravity in counteraction to currents of 
air in an upright pulverizing-mill, the air mov- 
ing upward to carry off the finer dust of earthy 
matter, while the metal falls by its superior gravity. 

Within the cylindrical case is a revolving shaft 
provided with blades. The case is provided with a 
nopper and an air-aperture at the top, and an air- 
outlet and an outlet for the ore through the con- 
ductor at the bottom. The conductor communicates 
with a box, which is provided with an air-aperture 
and door. This box communicates with another 
box by means of a pipe, the latter box being also 

{)rovided with an air-aperture and a door. A tube 
eads from this latter box to the center of a 
spray-wheel which is contained in a box, the bot- 
tom of which is covered with water, and the said 
box is provided with shelves in the upper part. 

The same inventors have an apparatus for desul- 
phurizing ores, by roasting, while falling through a 
chimney above a furnace. 

Electric action has been called into play to secure 
the deposit of gold and silver from the earthy mat- 
ters with which it is 

associated, and has ^*K 175. 

also been used to 
energize the action 
of the amalgam. 

Corson, May 5, 
1868. The ores are 
contained in an in- 
sulated pan or bar- 
rel, and subjected 
to electric action 
therein. The bat- 
tery is formed in 
the pan, and is in- 
dependent of ex- 
terior influences, 
theanodeand cath- 
ode being expased 
in the slime and 
amalgam, and con- 
nected by a metal- 
lic strip. Corson's Amalgamator. 

Digitized by 





For other adaptations of Electro-Metallurgy to 
the collection of the precious metals, see Gold and 
Silver, Electro-met alluroic Processes for 
Collection of. 

In Rybrson's apparatus, June 4, 1861, the sub- 
stance containing the gold and silver is introduced 
into the cylindrical vessel, provided with a hemi- 
spherical or dished bottom, in a finely divided state, 
together with mercury and water. Superheated 
steam is introduced by the coiled pipe into the bot- 
tom, of the vessel, escaping into the mass by a series 
of small holes. The vapor of the mercury is con- 
densed against the bottom of the cover of the vessel, 
and falls in a finely divided state through the mass. 

The extraction of the precious metals by immers- 
ing the powdered ore in a lead -bath has been called 
amalgamation, but the term is incorrect ; it forms 
an alloy, not an amalgam. It will be considered 
under Lead Process for Extraction of Pre- 
cious Metals. 

Bursill's English patent of Febmary 12, 1853, 
describes a mode which partakes of a combination 
of the mercurial and lead processes, and may be men- 
tioned here. 

He treats auriferous and argentiferous ores with 
an amalgam formed by the union of mercury with 
a readily fusible alloy of lead and bismuth ; or lead, 
bismuth, and tin. The ore is immersed in the bath 
of molten m^tal. 

The lead process preceded the mercurial, at least 
on this continent, having been practised from time 
immemorial by the Indians of Peru. 

Heister's new process for the reduction of ar- 
senical sulphurets and other refractory ores is thus 
described by the San Francisco Times. **To all 
outward appearance the machine is very simple, 
consisting of three barrels, one of cast-iron and two 
of wood. The iron cylinder is about half filled with 
sulphurets or pulverized ore, and revolved over a 
moderate fire for an hour, keeping it below a red 
heat. The ore, having been thoroughly heated 
through, is drawn out into a wooden cylinder, and 
ten per cent of quicksilver added, and the opening 
then made air-tight, to prevent the fumes of the 

guicksilver from escaping. After revolving for two 
ours, the ore and quicksilver are found to be 
intimately mixed togetner, and the gold and silver 
amalgamated. The charge is then drawn off into 
the third barrel and diluted with water, and after 
revolving for two hours the quicksilver and amal- 
gam are drawn off. The secret of this process is in 
this last barrel, used as a settler ; for, in every in- 
stance, with the most refractory arsenical sulphu- 
rets, and with combinations of lead and iron, the 
quicksilver is found at the bottom, collecting and 
forming an amalgam containing over ninety per cent 
of the gold and silver, while the only appreciable 
loss in quicksilver in a month's working was what 
was §pilt by carelessness outside. The cost of working 
five tons a day ought not to exceed $ 30. A five- 
hoi-se engine would give an excess of power, and by 
grading the barrels properly two common laborers on 
a shift could keep the machine going to full capacity. " 
A process said to yield excellent results was 
described in the " Alta Califomian " of August 30, 
1866. See also "American Journal of Mining" 
(now the "Engineering and Mining Journal '), 
Vol. II. p. 48 ct seq. 

•* The dry rock is crushed, and afterward submitted 
to the action of balls in a drum to insure full pulver- 
ization, it being desirable that the powder should ap- 
proach as near the fineness of wheat-flour as possible. 
A charge of this powdered quartz is then placed in 
an air-tight cylinder, the interior of whicn is fur- 

nished with a worm of pipes to convey superheated 
steam therein. Added to the chai^ is a given 
quantity of quicksilver, which is first heated by 
tne introduction of ordinary steam ; the super- 
heated steam is then turned on, and the whole 
seethed or boiled for an allotted period. On the 
top of this cylinder a water-bath is placed, and as 
the mercurial vapors rise they become condensed. 
Thus the system of thoroughly impregnating the 
crushed rock with quicksilver is carriS out with 
efficiency. After thus cooking, the cylinder door is 
opened, and the whole mass dischai-ged upon a 
novel shaking- table, which is worked by the power 
of the steam employed in the previous operation. 
This table is built of copper on a wooden frame, with 
rollers and rifiles of peculiar construction, which, 
when it is in motion, give the water, amalgam, and 
dust the same action as the ocean-surf, — an under- 
tow. As the mass descends, the amalgam, from its 
metallic weight, gradually clears itself from the 
quartz-dust, and the result is, that it is all col- 
lected in the troughs of the riffles, containing every 
particle of metal, be it precious or base, the quartz 
holds. The mode of applying super-heated steam 
to the crushed rock desulphurizes it, freeing the 
metals, and all that is necessary is to retort the . 
amalgam to obtain the result of the yield." 

The "Journal of Mining," August, 1868, mentions 
the following as a reported success, but without 
vouching for it : "Zinc added in small quantities to 
the quicksilver used in amalgamation augments, in 
a remarkable degree, the retentive i>ower of the latter 
for gold and silver. It is stated that one ounce of 
zinc, or less even, should be used to ten pounds of 
quicksilver. The action in this case is said to be 
about the same as when sodium amalgam is em> 
ployed. The beneficial result is thought to lie in 
the fact that zinc has a tendency to crystallize in a 
needle or barb-like fonn ; hence, when disseminated 
in minute particles through the quicksilver, the 
power of the latter to take up tlie atoms of gold and 
silver with which it may be brought in contact 
becomes very much intensified. This method of in- 
creasing the efficiency of the amalgamation process is 
said to nave been in vogue in the Mexican mines." 

Many valuable improvements have first been no- 
ticed in the current journals of the day, the " Engi- 
neering and Mining Journal," "Scientific Amer- 
ican," and " American Artisan." Books and their 
editors cannot keep pace with the march of improve- 
ment, which is incessant, and naturally finds its 
expression in these scientific papers. See also 
"Mines, Mills, and Furnaces," bv R. W. Raymond, 
United States Commissioner of Mining Statistics : 
J. B. Ford & Co., New York. 

A-mal'gam, E-leo'tri-oaL For covering the 
cushions of electrical machines. 

Zinc, 1 oz. ; grain tin, 1 oz. ; melt in an iron ladle, 
and add mercury, 2 oz. Stir with an iron rod, pour 
into a wooden box chalked on the inside, and 
agitate till cold ; or stir till cold, and then powder. 

The powder is spread on the cushion, which is 
previouslv smeared with tallow. 

A-mal'gam Gild'ing. Grain gold, 1 ; mercury 
8 ; unite by gentle heat and stirring. 

In using, first rub the brass, copper, etc., with a 
solution of nitrate of mercury, and then spread a 
film of amalgam. Heat volatilizes the mercury and 
leaves the gold behind. 

A-znal'gam Ma-nip'u-la'tor. A dentist's in- 
strument to facilitate the preparation of amalgam for 
filling excavations in canons teeth. It has a cup 
at one end for taking up the desired amount of 
filings of powder, and a curved spatula at thu^ 

Digitized by 





other end for combining the mercury with tiie 
filings and packing it in the cavity. 

A-xnal'gam Sil'ver-lng. Silver, 1 ; mercury, 
8 ; mix with heat, and stir as with gold. 

Apply as the gold amalgam, previously using a 
wash of nitrate. 

For silvering the insides of hollow glass vessels, 
globes, convex mirrors, etc. : — 

Lead, tin, and bismuth, each 1 part ; melt, mix, 
and cool to the lowest point at which the alloy will 
remain fluid ; add mercury, 10 oz. Warm the glass, 
pour in the amalgam, and roll the glass round and 
round. The amalgam will adhere readily at a cer- 
tain temperature. 

A-mal'gam Var^nish. Melt grain tin, 4 ; bis- 
muth, 1 ; add mercuiy, 1 ; and stir till cold. Grind 
fine with white of egg or varnish. 

A-man'do-la. A green marble having the ap- 
pearance of a honey-comb. 

Axn-a-sette'. A horn instrument for collecting 
painters* colors on the stone. 

Am^be. A raised stage for a rostrum. 

An old chirurgical machine invented by Hippo- 
crates for reducing luxations of the shoulder. 

AmHsro-type. A picture taken on a plate of 
prepared glass, in which the lights are represented 
in silver, and the shades are produced by a dark 
background, visible through the unsilvered portion 
of the glass. — Webster. See Photography. 

Aml>a-lanoe. Late events in the United States 
have directed attention to means for the trans- 
portation and care of the sick and wounded. Deal- 
mg strictly with the mechanical aspects of affairs, 
it may be stated at once that ambulances are of three 
kinds, four-wheeled, two- wheeled, and those adapted 
for i)ack -saddles. 

Fig. 176. 

MoxeiCs Ambulance. 

Moses, September 28, 1858. The sectional fold- 
ing-seats are arranged along the sides, and may be 
converted into coucnes. Hammocks form an upper 
tier for patients. An adjustable door serves for 
a table. The surgeon's medicines and implements 
are carried in cases, which fit in and under the 
seats, or in drawers under the body of the vehicle. 
The water-keg is su8j)ended beneath the rear, its 
faucet defended by the step. 

McKean, October 11, 1864. The 
stretchers are run in longitudinally up- 
on rollere, which rest upon a false bot- 
tom suspended by rubber springs from 
the sides of the carriage. The water- 
vessel is sufficiently elevated to supply 
the wounded by a flexible pipe wnich 
is under their control. A fan is sus- 
pended from the roof. The side-slats 
are vertical and are controlled by a sin 
gle rod ; their beveled edges enable thei 
to shut closely and present plane exte- 
rior and interior surfaces. 

Arnold, April 5, 1864, suspends his 
cots upon pivots, which enable them to 
swing in accordance with the inclina- 

tion of the ground, so as to avoid the rolling mo- 
tion of the patient. The pivots themselves rest on 
springs, whioh give some resiliency when the car- 
nage receives vertical motion, and thereby lessen 
the jar. 

RucKER, Allen, and Smith, November 6, 1866. 
This is a double or single tier ambulance. Each 
couch of the y. y^ 

lower tier is di- —^ * - 

vided longitu- 
dinally and 
hinged. It 
may lie flat 
upon the floor, 
while the upper 
tier is occu- 
pied by other 
patients; or it 
may be bent so 
as to form a 
seat and sup- 
port, while the 
stretchers of the 
upper tier are 
placed on edge 
against the car- 
riage sides and — — 
form backs for ^•^^' ^'*» *^ ^^'* ^^''^•^ 
the seats. The sides are separately adjustable. 

The two-wheeled ambulances are spring carts 
with provision for recumbent or sitting patients. 

Hayward, May 16, 1865. The stretchers may 
be adjusted for recumbent or sitting patients, the 
legs operating to support them in eitner capacity 
w"hen the stretchers rest on the ground. The pack- 
saddle has wedge-shaped sockets to receive cor- 
responding wedge-shaped blocks on the legs of the 

SiJs, 1863, WiLKiNS, 1864, Slatter, 1865, and 
others have patented improvements which might be 
cited would room permit. 

This description of service was brought to great 
eflSciency by Baron Larrey, during the wars of 
Napoleon I. The experience was almost lost in the 
peace interval, judging by the ambulance arrange- 
ments in the Crimea, 1854. At the battle of tne 
Alma, in which 1,986 British and 1,360 French 
were killed or wounded, the generals of both armies 

Pig. 178. 

HaywartTs Ambulance. 

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appear to have been taken by surprise. The Eng- 
lisn were least efficient, the French improvised 
chairs or panniers slung over the baoks or mules, 
like one of the illustrations preceding. Our own 
service, 1861 -65, was well performed, after things got 
in running order. Perhaps the Crimean heroes might 
say the same, with the concluding proviso. 

Am'bii-la'tor. Sometimes called a perambulator. 
An instrument for measuring distances. See Odome- 
ter. The word " ambulator * is often erroneously ap- 
plied to a velocipede, and to a traction-engine, whose 
mode of propulsion is by oscillating bars whose feet 
come in contact with the around in somewhat 
similar maimer to the natural action of the legs of 
animals or of man. The light carriages driven by 
hands or feet will be considered under the heading 
Velocipede. See also Traction-engine. 

A-merl-oan Leath'er. An enameled cloth im- 
itating leather. 

Aml-oi's Prism. A glass prism mounted be- 
neath the stage of a microscope to obliquely illu- 
minate an object beneath the stage. The prism has 
a flat-bottom side and two lenticular siaes, com- 
bines the refracting and reflecting powers, and 
throws a converging pencil of rays upon the object. 
It has three adjustments : one on a horizontal axis 
to direct the rays upward at the required angle ; 
one for distance from the axis of the microscope, to 
vary the obliquity ; one by rotation on a vertical 
axis, to determine the direction whence the rays 
shall proceed. 

Am'ma-ni'ao-al Bn'g^e. This motor seems to 
be yet in an inchoate state, but has received some 
attention in Europe. The machine described is the 
invention of M. Froment. The London ** Mechanics' 
Magazine" thus refers to it (it appears to have 
been at work — or rather in action, for it was 
not usefully employed — at the Paris Exposition) : 
"Strong liquid ammonia is used in the boiler, and 
the vapor generated is said to be a mixture of at 
least eighty parts of ammoniacal gas and twenty 
parts of steam, so it may be fairly called an ammo- 
niacal engine. The principal recommendations of 
ammonia, when applied as a motive-power, consist 
in the small amount of fuel required, and tie short 
time it takes to get up the steam, so to speak. The 
economy in fuel is very considerable, being about 
one fourth of that required to generate steam alone. 
As regards the boiler, it may be of either of the 
ordinary forms, the only complete novelty being 
the apparatus for condensing the steam and ammo- 
nia. The gas disengaged (about six atmospheres at 
110** Centigrade with an ordinary solution of ammo- 
nia) does its work in the cylinder and then escapes 
into the tubes of a condenser, where the steam is 
condensed and the gas is cooled. The gas then 
meets with a cold fiquid from an injector, which 
dissolves it, and the solution is carried on into 
a vessel called the *dissolver,' from which it is 
pumped back into the boiler to do its work over 
a^in. The liquid for the injector is taken from 
the boiler, ana is cooled before meeting with the 
ammoniacal gas by passing through a worm sur- 
rounded with cold water." 

*' Ammonia, at the temperature of our atmos- 
phere, is a permanent gas of well-known pungent 
odor. It is formed by the union of three volumes 
of hydrogen to one of nitrogen, condensed into two 
volumes. Its density is 696 ; air being 1,000. The 
density of the liquid, compared with water, is 76, 
or about one quarter lighter than that liquid. I.ts 
vapor at 60"* Fahr. gives a pressure of 100 pounds 
to the square inch, while water, to give an equiva- 
lent pressure, must be heated to 825* Fahr. The 

volume of ammoniacal gas under the above-named 
pressure is 983 times greater than the space occu- 
pied by its li(|uid, while steam, imder identical 
pressure, occupies a space only 303 times greater 
than water." — Annals of Chemistry (French). 

*' Ammoniacal ^as, which is an incidental and 
abundant product in certain manufactures, especially 
that of coal-gas, and which makes its appearance in 
the destructive distillation of all animal substances, 
is found in commerce chiefly in the form of the aque- 
ous solution. It is the most soluble in water of %11 
known gases, being absorbed, at the temperature 
of freezing, to the extent of more than a tnousand 
volumes of gas to one of water ; and at the tempera- 
ture of 50" Fahr., of more than eight hundred to 
one. What is most remarkable in regard to this 
property is that, at low temperatures, the solution 
18 sensibly instantaneous. This may be strikingly 
illustrated by transferring a bell-glass filled with 
the gas to a vessel containing water, and mana^g 
the transfer so that the water may not come into 
contact with the gas until after the mouth of the 
bell is fully submerged. The water will enter the 
bell with a violent rush, precisely as into a vacuum, 
and if the gas be ^uite free from mixture with any 
other gas insoluble m water, the bell will inevitably 
be broken. The presence of a bubble of air may 
break the force of tne shock and save the bell. 

"This gas cannot, of course, be collected over 
water. In the experiment just described, the bell 
is filled by means of a pneumatic trough containing 
mercury. It is transferred by passing beneath it a 
shallow vessel, which takes up not only the bell- 
glass, but also a sufficient (Quantity of mercury to 
keep the gas imprisoned until the arrangements for 
the experiment are completed. 

"The extreme solubility of ammoniacal gas is, 
therefore, a property of which advantage may be 
taken for creating a vacuum, exactly as the same 
object is accomplished by the condensation of steam. 
As, on tlie other hand, the pressure which it is 
capable of exerting at given temperattires is much 
higher than that which steam affords at the same 
temperatures ; and as, conversely, this gas requires 
a temperature considerably lower to produce a given 
pressure than is required by steam, — it seems to 
possess a combination of properties favorable to the 
production of an economical motive-power. 

"Ammonia, like several other of the gases called 
permanent, may be liquefied by cold and pressure. 
At a temi)erature of 38.5'' C, it becomes liquid at 
the pressure of the atmosphere. At the boiling- 
point of water it requires more than sixty-one 
atmospheres of pressure to reduce it to liquefaction. 
The same effect is produced at the freezing-point of 
water by a pressure of five atmospheres, at 21* C. 
(70" Fahr.) by a pressure of nine, and at 38* C. 
(100* Fahr.) by a pressure of fourteen." — Barnard, 

Lamm's Ammonia Engine is driven by the ex- 
panding pressure of liauefied ammonia, and b spe- 
cially ^apted for small powers, especially portable 
engines for street cars, etc. The ammonia is to be 
liquefied at a central station, at which the reservoirs 
on the cars receive their supply. 

The engine is driven by the force of the gas upon 
the piston, and the gas is exhausted into a body of 
water surrounding the gas reservoir. The absorption 
of the gas by the water is instantaneous, and the 
water derives an increment therefrom which is 
imparted, through the walls, to the contents of the 
reservoir. See " Engineering and Mining Journal," 
Vol. X. p. 65. 

Am-mo'ni-iun. ' The hypothetical metallic base 
of ammonia. Equivalent, 18 ; symbol, NH*. Only 

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known in its combination with mercury as an 

The salts of this metal, volatile and otherwise, are 
used in pharmacy, chemistry, and as stimulants. 

Axn'mu-ni'tioii. In its most comprehensive 
signification, this includes artillery and small-arm 
projectiles with their cartridges and the percussion- 
caps, friction-primers, etc., by means of which they 
are fired ; also war-rockets and hand-grenades. For 
Artillery, when the projectiles, their cartridges, 
primers, etc., are packed in the same box, it is 
designated in the IT nited States service as fixed am- 
munilion ; this is the description furnished for field 
and rifled siege artille^3^ For larger calibers, the 
projectiles and cartridges are put up in separate 
boxes, round solid shot, however, being generally 
transported loose. 

Up to 12-pounders for smooth-bore ordnance the 
cartridge is attached to the projectile ; above that 
caliber the shell or case-shot are filled, the fuse in- 
serted^ and the sabot attached ; in this case, the pro- 
jectile is said to be strapped; shells of 8-inch caliber 
and upwards are seldom filled previous to issue, this 
operation being performed as they are required at 
the place where they are used. Projectiles for 
rifled artillery are always separate from their car- 

Fixed ammunition for field artillery is put up 
in boxes of uniform size for each caliber, each con- 
taining a given number of rounds, viz. : — 

Smooth-bore 6-pounder gun . . li 

Smooth-bore 12-pounder gun . . 8 

Smooth-bore 12-pounder howitzer . 12 

Smooth-bore 24-pouuder howitzer . 6 

Smooth-bore 32-pounder howitzer . 4 

Rifled-bore 3-incn'or 10-pounder gun 10 

Ammunition for small-arras is known in the United 
States service as small-ann cartridges. In these the 
ballet and cartridge are invariably put up together 
in boxes of 1,000, except some descnptions of 
patented cartridges, whicn are put up in boxes 
containing 600 or 1,200, and repeating-cartridges, as 
Spencer's, in which the box is made to contain a 
multiple of the number which fills the breech - 

Rules have been laid do^^-n for determining the 
proper supply of ammunition of each description for 
an army m the field. 

That assumed by the British authorities allows 
300 small-arm cartridges .per man for six months' 
operations ; of which an army of 60,000 men should 
have 2,680,000 with them, besides those in reserve. 

This amount is understood to be in addition' to 
that carried in the cartridge-boxes of the men, 60 
rounds each in the case of an infantry soldier. 

The wagons for this service are intended to carry 
20,000 rounds each, and are drawn by four horses. 
Several wagons are organized into an equipment 
under the charge of a detachment of artillery ; 
several such equipments would be attached to an 
army of 60,000 men, one for each division of infan- 
try and a proper proportion for the cavalry ; the 
remainder being in reserve. 

The proportion given in the United States Ord- 
nance Manual is 100 rounds for each man, 40 rounds 
in the cartridge-box, and the remainder in reserve 
for infantry. 

Ammunition for cannon : 200 rounds for each 
piece, both of the reserves and active batteries ; the 
ammunition which cannot be carried in the chests 
of the caissons to be kept with the reserves. 

During our late civil war it is believed that, where 
at all practicable, the amount of readily accessible 

ammunition, both for artillery and small-arms, was 
kept largely in excess of the above standard. 

A supply-train, under the char^ of an ordnance- 
officer, was attached to each division, from which 
issues were made as required to the company or 
regimental officers, upon properly approved requi- 

The wagons of which these trains were com- 
posed were generally drawn by six horses or mules, 
and were capable of carrying from 40,000 to 60,000 
rounds of small-arm cartridges, or an equal weight 
of artillery ammunition. 

See Weapons ; Projectiles. • 

Am'mn-nition-cheBt. The box in which the 
fixed ammunition for field cannon is packed. One 
is carried on the limber of the gun-carriage, and one 
on the limber and two on the body of each caisson. 

The chest is of walnut, and has a hinged lid, 
which is covered with sheet copper ; it is lastened 
by means of a hasp and tumbuckle, and secured 
by a padlock. 

The interior dimensions are 40 inches long, 18 
inches wide, and 14J inches deep ; and it is divided 
into compartments varying in number from 12 to 
60, acconiing to the caliber of the gun, by longi- 
tudinal and transverse partitions. 

The shot, shell, case, and canister, with their car- 
tridges, are inserted in these compartments, each in 
a separate part of the chest ; and over these is fitted 
a tray for containing the fuses, friction-primers, and 
small implements required for the service of the 

The chest is fastened in position by means of 
stny-pins and keys^ and is readily removed or re- 

Am'phl-type. The amphitype process in pho- 
tography is an application of the calotype process, 
taking its name from the fact of negative and posi- 
tive pictures being produced by one process. It 
originated with Sir John Herschel. — PhctograpkU 

Am'pli-tnde Com'pass. An azimuth compass 
whose zeros of graduation are at the east and west 
points, for the more ready reading of the amx)litude8 
of celestial bodies. 

Am-ptilla. Any vessel haying a belly, as cucur- 
bit«, receivers, etc. 

Am'pn-ta'ting-knife. A long, narrow-bladed 
knife used for making the incisions in amputations. 
The ancient suigeons endeavored to save a covering of 
skin for the stump by having it drawn upward pre- 
vious to making the incision. In 1679, Lowdham, 

Fig. 179. 


of Fxeter, England, suggested cutting semicircular 
flaps on one or both sides of a limb, so as to pre- 
serve a fleshy cushion to cover the end of the bone. 
Both these modes are now in use, and are called the 
** circular" and the " flap " operations. The latter 
is the more frequently used. 

Amputation was not practised by the Greeks ; 
at least, Hippocrates (B. C. 460) does not refer to 
it and did not practise it. Celsus notices it 
(A. D. 30). Cautery, pitch, etc. were used to ar- 
rest the bleeding. The needle and ligature were 
introduced about 1660, by the French suigeon Per^. 

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He was surgeon to Henry II., Francis II., Charles 
IX., and Henry III. of France, and though a Protes- 
tant was concealed in the king's chamber on the 
night of St. Bartholomew. The king is said to 
have lemarked, ** There is only one Per^." A com- 

Slete set of sui^cal instioinicuts of bronze was 
iscovered at Pompeii. The 'tourniquet was in- 
vented by Morelli in 1674. 

Basso-relievos in the temples of Kamak, Teutyra, 
and Luxor show that the ancient Egyptians per- 
formed amputations of limbs, without the touniiquet, 
however, or the mode of ligating the severed arte- 
ries ; it is merely a cutting and sawing, followed by 
the cauteiy, styptii^s, or compress. 

Tlie chirurgeon . of ancient times was principally 
employed in reducing fractures and luxations, in 
ti-eating wounds, applying topical remedies, and in 
the application of simple or strange drugs with 
occult charms and pow-wows. 

One form of amputating-knife found at Pompeii 
in 1819 had a thick back and a wavy edge, and 
is supposed to have been used by the blow of a 
mallet on its back. 

Am'pu-ta'tiiig-saw. Amputating-sawsare mod- 
ifications of the tenon, frairuy johU, and cnmm saws. 

They are of 

Fig. 180. 


Amputating' Sawi. 

sizes from 4 to 
14 inches in 
length. Some 
have edges more 
or less curved, 
and the smallest 
of these dwin- 
dle down to a 
nearly circular 
?^ plate of steel 
less than one 
inch in diam- 
eter, serrated 
round the edge, 
except where a 
slender shank 
terminating in 
a wooden han- 
dle is riveted 
to the edge of 
the saw- plate. 
These are 
known as Hey 's 

saws, and are used in making exsections, operating 
on the cranium and metacarpal bones, and in remov- 
ing carious bones from deep-seated places. 

Am'a-sette'. A stocked gun mounted on a 
swivel, and canying a ball or charge of buck-shot 
of from 8 to 32 ounct*s' weight. 

An'a-baB'ses. {Fabric.) A coarse blanketing 
made in France for the African market. 

An'a-Ola«'tio Qlass. A sonorous, flat-bellied 
glass made in Germany, having a thin, flexible, 
slightly convex bottom, which is capable of flapping 
back and forth by the expiration or inspiration of 
the breath when the mouth is applied thereto. As 
the bottom is drawn in or out it makes a loud 

An'a-oos'ta. {Fabric) A woolen diaper made 
in Holland for the Spanish market. 

An aes-thet'io Ap'pa-ra'tus. Anaesthesia is a 
term made use of in medicine to denote a deprivation 
of sensibility to external impressions, affecting a 
part or the whole of the body. In some nervous 
diseases a portion of* the body may liecome par- 
tially or totally insensible to pain, while the sensi- 
bility of another part may become excessively acute, 
or in a state of nyper»sthesia. The division of a 

nerve, as is well known, produces an entire depriva- 
tion of sensibility in those parts of the body de- 
pendent on it. 

When the insensibility is confined to the surface 
of the body it is termed peripheral ; but when aris- 
ing from a cause acting on the brain or spinal mar- 
row, from one or the other of which all the nerves 
emanate, it is called central. 

Means for inducing temporarily either of these 
conditions with safety to the patient have been long 
sought for in surgical practice. The Indian hemp. 
Cannabis Indica, was anciently employed ; and it 
appears that the Chinese employed some prepara- 
tion of hemp for producing insensibility during 
surgical operations, more than fifteen hundred yeara 
ago. Mandi-agora was used by the Greeks and 
Romans for the same purpose, and appears to have 
continued in use, in comoination with opium and 
other drugs, so late as the thirteenth century, the 
patient inhaling the vapor from a sponge saturated 
with these substances. The mandragora, however, 
at times induced convulsions, and though mention 
is made of its amesthetic powera for producing a 
" trance or a dee]»e terrible dreame," in operations 
for the stone, towartl the close of the sixteenth cen- 
tury, it, or similar tigents, appeara to have gradually 
gone out of use. 

It seems a little singular that sulphuric ether 
should not have been employed for the pur|wse 
for some three centuries, unless, as has been sug- 
gested, it is the substance spoken of by John Bap- 
tista Porta of Naples, who published a book on. 
Natural Magic in 1597; this "quintessence" was 
extracted from medicines by somniferous "men- 
strua," and was kept in leaden vessels tightly 
closed to prevent its escape. The cover being 
removed, it was applied to the nostrils of the 
sleeper, who was thereupon thrown into the most 
profound sleep, etc., etc. 

In 1784, Dr. Moore of London tried the expedi- 
ent of compressing the nerves of a limb preparatory 
to amputation ; but this caused much "pain. 

Narcotic poisons will induce anajsthetic condi- 
tions of the body, in which surgical operations may 
be performed without apparent pain to the subject. 
The same is true of alcohol. The peculiar nervous 
condition induced by what is called animal magne- 
tism has also produced insensibility to pain, during 
which operations have been i>erformed. 

The modem ansesthetic agents are : cold applica- 
tions, protoxide of nitrogen (laughing-gas), cnloro- 
fonn, ether, amylene, kerosolene. 

Sir Humphiy Davj' suggested the use of protoxide 
of nitrogen as an aneesthetic agent in surgical 
operations. It was used by Dr. Wells of Hartford, 
Conn., in 1844, in dental oi)erations. It has now- 
attained great favor. 

Chloroform is a terchloride of formyle (the hypo- 
thetical radical of formic acid). Its discovery is 
claimed by Soubeiran, Guthrie, and Liebig, whose 
claims have about an even date, 1831. The verdict 
seems to have settled in favor of the former. Its 
first use as an ansesthetic was by Dr. Simpson of 
Edinburgh, 1847. 

Hydrate of chloral has recently become quite un- 
pleasantly prominent in the list of anodynes, seda- 
tives, and hypnotics. 

Ether was known to the earliest chemists. The 
discovery of its use as an aniesthetic was made by 
Dr. Jackson or Dr. Morton of Boston, in 1846. A 
contest ensued between the parties to prove pri- 
ority, and was much debated m the scientific jour- 
nals of the day. In an application to Congress for 
a remunerative appropriation of $100,000, the rep- 

Digitized by 





resentatives of Dr. Wells came, 
iu with a claim to the first in- 
veution. The enterprise failed, 
but mankind owes a debt of 
gratitude to each. 

Amylene is a colorless liquid 
obtained by distilling fusel oil 
with chloride of zinc. It was 
discovered by M. fialard, of 
Paris, in 1844. First used by 
Dr. Snow in 1856. 

Kerosolene was derived from 
the distillation of coal-tar by Mer- 
rill of Boston. Its as an an- 
sesthetic was made known iu 1 861 . 

Nitrate of ethyl, of which the 
chemical formula is C4 Hs 0, Nob 
possesses remarkable amesthctic 
properties ; it has a very fragrant 
and agreeable smell, a sweet, but a bitter after 
taste. Its boiling-point lies at 185"* Fahr., and its 
specific gravity is 1.112 at 62.5** Fahr. It burns 
with a white flame, is uot soluble in water, but easily 
so in alcohol. 

Various forms of apparatus are used in the admin- 
istration of aneesthetic agents. Some consist of 
cups which contain the sponge saturated with the 
liquid and exposed to the current of air as it passes 
to the lungs. Others pass the air through a body 
of liquid. The administration of nitrous-oxide re- 
quires a different arrangement, and the tube con- 
necting the bladder with the mouth-piece has valves 
so arranged as to pass the gas to the mouth during 
inspiration, and aliow the expired breath to pass to 
the atmosphere instead of contaminating and weak- 
ening the contents of the bag. 

These are more properly considered under In- 
HALEiis (which see), as that has become the term 
by which they are generally known and patented. 
A class of inventions which preceded the inhalers 
just described are termed Respirators (which 
see), and are not adapted for the introduction of 
anaesthetic or curative medicaments iilto the lungs, 
but are intended as air-heaters or filters, and are 
used by two classes of persons, -^ by consumptives 
to temper the rigor of the air in cold weather, by 
causing the air to rush rapidly tlirough a succession 
of narrow passages ; and by mechanics, cutlers • 
especially, to arrest particles of steel and grit which 
permeate the air where the grinding is carried on. 

The auKsthetic apparatus which operates by topi- 
cal application of cold is ordinarily in the form of 
an Atomizer (which see), and consists of a tube 
whose lower end communicates with a body of 
liquid, and whose contracted upper end is exposed 
to a blast at right angles to the axis of the upper 
tube and across the orifice thereof. This has the 
effect of raising the liquid, which is dispersed as it 
reaches the opening, and, assuming the form of fine 
spray, becomes a great absorber of sensible heat, and 
consequently lowers the temperature of the air in 
its vicinity. The air, thus cooled, is projected 
upon the part where local anesthesia is required, 
and by absorbing the heat of the part renders the 
nervous svstem of the part incapable of feeling, 
calloused by cold. 

Bags of ice have been laid upon the part affected 
to produce insensibility by freezing. 

For freezing mixtures, see Ice, Manufacture of. 

An'aes-thetlo Re-frig'er-a'tor. An appara- 
tus for producing local anesthesia by the application 
of narcotic spray. 

The apparatus consists of a bottle to contain the 
ether or other fluid to be used ; through a perfo- 

\Vhite''s AruBSthetie Refrigerator. 

rated cork a double tube is passed, one extremity 
of the inner part of which goes to the bottom of the 
bottle ; above the cork a tube, connected with the 
bellows, pierces the outer part of the doublp tube, 
and communicates by a small aperture at the inner 
end of the cork with the interior of the bottle. 
The inner tube for delivering the ether inins upward 
to the extremity of the outer tube. 

When the bellows are worked, a double current of 
air is produced ; one current descending and press- 
ing upon the ether, forcing it along the inner tube, 
and the other ascending through the outer tube 
and playing u^ion the column of ether as it passes 
from the inner tube. 

Put the ether into the bottle, nearly filling it, 
then insert the tube with the cork firmly, and fit 
the nozzle to give the jet desired ; the bulb on the 
extremity of the rubber-tubing, being now grasped 
in the hand and rapidly used as a. hand-bellows, — 
the other bulb acting as a reservoir, — keeps up a 
steady pressure upon the ether and produces a con- 
tinuous jet. 

The small wires, called stylets, are used to 
graduate the spray, which is made finer or heavier 
by the use of the oifferent sizes. 

Remove the nozzle and insert the stylet in the 
small tube. The hook on one end of the wires is 
to prevent their slipping into the tube. 

Two nozzles accompany the instrument ; the straight 
one for producing arsingle jet, and the double curved 
one for operating on both sides of a molar tooth. 

An'a-glypli. A chased or embossed ornament. 

An'a-glyp'to-graph. An instrument for makine 
a medallion engraving of an object in relief, such 
as a medal or cameo. A point is passed over the 
medal at an angle of 45', and conmiunicates motion 
to a diamond etching-point. The diamond partakes 
of the motions of the tracer, following the curves 
of the object, making the lines relatively open on 
the sides of the protuberances upon which the 
light is supposed to strike, and making the lines 
closer on the sides opposed to the light. See Me- 
DALLic Engraving. 

A'nal-di-la'tor. (Surgieah) An instrument for 
dilating the sphincter muscle for the examination 
of hemorrhoids or fistula in ano. 

An'a-lem'ma, A form of sun-dial now disused. 

A'nal-apec'alum. {Surgical.) An instru- 
ment for distending the anal opening to expose the 
inner surface of the rectum, in case of hemorrhoids, 
fistula in ano, etc. See Speculum. 

An'a-lyz'er. The upper or eye prism of the 
polarizing apparatus. 

The first ot the two colimms in the Coffey Still ; 
the second being the rectifier. See Still. 

Digitized by 





An'a-plas'tio In'stru-anent. For the opera- 
tion of forming a nose upon the face. The Tajglia- 
cozzian operation. See Khinoplastic Pin. 

An'a-staf io En-grav'ing and Printing. In- 
vented by Wood in 1841. An en^ving or other 
printed sheet is moistened with dilute phosphoric 
acid, and pressed on to a clean surface of zinc, 
which is etched thereby in the place not protected 
by the ink. The plate is kept damp by acidulous 
solution of gum, and in the printing process only 
takes ink from the rollers at the points where the 
ink of the original impression first adhered. 

Zincography is the term applied to drawing upon 
zinc for subsequent treatment as above. 

An'ohor. 1. Anchors were, according to A]^l- 
lonius Rhodius and Stephen of Byzantium, ongi- 
nally made of stone, or of logs of wood covered 
with lead. These were succeeded by a bent rod 
with a single fluke. The invention was ascribed by 
Pliny to the Tuscans ; Strabo ascribes the addition 
of the second fluke to Anacharsis the Scythian. 
They were first fon;ed in Engldnd, A. D. 578, 
when Titillus reigned in East Anglia. The general 
shape of anchors is well known, consisting of two 
arms terminating in broad expansions termed flukes, 
and attached to a long shank, to which is fixed a 
stock of wood or iron at right angles to the arms, 
to insure the perpendicularity of the flukes when 
the anchor is on the bottom, in order that they 
may take firm hold of the ground. Small anchors 
termed grapnels, and having four or more arms, 
are used for boats, and at times for small vessels. 
The mushroom-anchor, so called from its shape, is 
much employed in the East Indies by the native 
vessels called grabs. The weight of the largest 
anchors, for vessels of 1,000 tons or less, is about 
1 cwt. for each 20 tons measurement, or .0025 of 
the tonnage. Various improvements have been pro- 
posed upon the ordinary anchor, of which the most 
prominent are Rodgers's, Trotman's, and its modi- 
fications, Isaacs's and Lenox's. 

In Trotman*s anchor the arms are passed 
through the shank, which is slotted, and are held 
by a bolt, thus bringiM; the upper arm and fluke 
down on the shank, and allowing the lower one to 
penetrate deeper when the anchor is on the bottom. 

Fig. 182. 


lyotman'^s AMchor. 

This arrangement, aided by the horns on the back 
of the flukes, also prevents fouling. At a trial made 
in 1853, under the auspices of the British Board of 
Admiralty, to determine the comparative general 
merits of various descriptions ox anchors, their 

comparative merits were decided to be as follows, 
the Admiralty anchor being taken as unity : — 

Trotman . . 1.28 Honibal (or Porter) 1.09 

Rodgers . 1.26 Aylen . . 1.09 

Mitcheson . . 1.20 Admiralty . 1.00 

Lenox . . 1.18 Isaacs . . .73 

Notwithstanding the numerous recent modifica- 
tions claiming to he improvements, an anchor differ- 
ing little from the old- 

Fig. 188. 

Skgtisk AdmiroUy Anehor. 

fasnioned type, excepting 
that even tne very largest 
sizes have iron stocks, 
still maintains its place 
both in the navy and 
merchant service of the 
United States. 

Anchors require to be 
made of the very begt and 
toughest wrought - iron. 
They are made by welding 
together a fagot of bars 
under a steam or trip 
hammer, the -smaller and . 
more difficult portions be- 
ing shaped and rounded 
o^ and the whole anchor 
finished up bv hand. This 
portion oi the work, es- 
pecially in the case of a 

larfi;e anchor, is one of the most arduous labors of tke 
smith's shop ; as the workmen are unable to stand 
the intense neat from the huge mass of red-hot metal 
and wield the ponderous sledge-hammers employed 
but for a very sliort space of time, each strikes his 
blow and falls back to make room for another, who 
in turn retires to give place again to his predecessor, 
and so on until the iron becomes too cool for further 
hammering. This evidently requires a considerable 
share of strength, activity, and endurance on the part 
of the men, who are not only compelled to strike 
while the iron is hot, but have to put in as man7 
and as heav^ ' strokes as they possibly nan in the 

Isaacs's anchor has a flat bar of iron from palm 
to palm, which passes the shank elliptically on eajch 
side, and from each end of the stock to the mid- 
length of the shank are fixed two other bars to pre- 
vent fouling. 

Fig. 184. 

Jsaaes^s Anchor, 

Digitized by 





Porter's anchor, or Honibal's as it is some- 
times called from the purchaser of the right, is 
very similar to Trotman's (which see), the latter 
being an improvement upon Porter's, with some 

Fig. 186. 

Lenoxes Jnehor. 

modifications in the shape of the flukes and their 
horns. Lenox's improvement (1832-39) con- 
sisted in an improved 
mode of welding, and 
in rounding off the 
sharp edges and lines; 
also in reducing the 
size of the palms, the 
object being to obtain 
a stronger anchor and 
prevent injury to the 

RoDOERs's anchor 
has a shank with a 
wooden core, for giving 
more surface, and con- 
sequent strength for a 
given weight of metal. 
Williams's anchor, 
patented March 16, 
1858. This anchor has 
three flukes hinged to 
a block at the lower 
end of the shank, and 
so set that two of them 
may penetrate the 
gTouna at the same 
time, while the third 
falls down upon the 
shank to prevent 
the cable from being 
fouled. The flukes 
are set at 120"* apart 
and hinged in a sep- 
arate block. 

Morgan's anchor, 
patented June 21, 
1864. The arms are 
separately pivoted 
near the end of the 
shank, and are con- 
nected by a curved 
bar passing through 
a hole in the shank. 
When one fluke has 
hold of the ground 
its arm rests against 
and is supported by 
the crown-piece, 

while the other arm falls down upon the shank, 
obviating the danger of fouling and by means of the 
curved bar assisting the first arm to bear the strain. 

lig. 188. 

JHg. 18D. 

Morgttn^s Anchor. 

MarshaWs Anchor, 

Wmiam^s Anchor. 

Marshall's anchor, patented October 17, 1865. 
Antedated March 6, 1865. 

The arms are straight and turn in an arc of a 
circle, moving sepaititely on a pivot passing through 
the crown. Each is provided \vith barbs or projec- 
tions to help the fluke to take and retain its hold, 
and the oscillation is checked by cusps on the thick 
portion of the crown, so that the arms have a given 
inclination to the shank. 

Latham's an- 
chor, patented 
August 21, 1866. 
The shank A B 
is made of two 
pieces, which 
separate at their 
lower ends to al- 
low the passage 
of the mid(Oe 
fluke. The arm 
C turns in the 
shank and has 
three parallel 

The weight b; 
these means is 
concentrated at 
the lower part 
of the anchor. 
When the anchor 
is let go, the 
flukes make 
about a quarter of a revolution, lying in the posi- 
tion shown in the illustration when they enter the 
ground. The shoulder on the crown-piece comes 
against the shank and restrains the oscillation of the 
arms in either direction, and the anchor stows com- 
pactly by bringing the arms parallel with the shank, 
the middle arm or fluke lying in the space between 
the two portions of the shank. 

Stuard's anchor. Among the single-armed an- 
chors may be mentioned Stuard's (English), which 
has a very short shank made in one piece with the 
arm, the pile being bent, but not welded. The- 
stock is a wrought-iron bar with knobs on the end, 
which cant the anchor so that its fluke penetrates 
the ground as it is dragged along. One hole in the: 

Latham^s Anchor. 

Digitized by 





shank is for attachment of the cable, and a shackle 
at the crown is for the buoy-rope. 

The largest nnchor in the world, according to 
Charles Ryland's " Iron Trade Report," was made at 
H. P. Parke's Works, Tipton, Staffordshire, for the 
Great Eastern, and weighs eight tons exclusive of 
the stock. Its dimensions are : Length of shank, 
twenty feet six inches ; of wood-stock, nineteen 
feet six inches ; trend of arms, seven feet four 
inches. It is somewhat different in form from ordi- 
nary anchors, the palms or blades being divided or 
split so that it may more readily pierce the sea- 

The parts of an anchor are as follows : — 
a to 0, shank ; 6 to c, square ; rf to e, arm ; / to 
flr, palm, fluke, or kevel ; h to t, point, pee, or bill ; 

Pig. 191. 



I to k, blade ; M to JV, crown ; o, ring ; p, stock ; 
dj throat or crutch. 

For checking and regulating the motion of the 
cable as it runs towards the hawse-holes while the 
anchor is dropping, and for holding the cable after 
the anchor has taken hold, four kmds of apparatus 
are used together or separately, — Controllers, 
BiTTS, Stoppers, Compressors (which see). 

To cast or drop anchor is to let go the anchor. 

To ride at anchor is the condition of the vessel 
when anchored. 

To sioing at anchor is when the ship obeys the 
change in the direction of the tide while at anchor. 

To toeigh anchor is to heave it out of the ground. 

To hack an anchor is to strengthen its hold of the 
ground by means of a second anchor laid down 
ahead of the other, and fastened to the crown of the 
latter by a cable. 

An anchor is foul when the cable is twisted 
around it or the anchor is entangled with a wreck 
or another anchor. 

The anchor bUes when the fluke takes hold of the 

To s^ceep for an anchor is for the recovery of a 
lost anchor by sweeping the bottom with the bight 
of a cable or hawser. 

Parting : Breaking cable and leaving the anchor 
in the ground. 

An anchor is a-cock-bUl when it is suspended per- 
pendicularly from the cathead ready to let go. 

It comes hmm when dragged from its hold by the 
pulling of the cable. 

An anchor is a-stay when the angle of the cable 
with the water is about that of a stay. A long-stay 
apeak when coinciding with the main stay ; sJwrt 
stay when with the /ore stay. 

It is a-peak when the cable is drawn in so tight 
as to bring the ship directly over it. 

It is a-toeigh, or a-tripy when lifted clear of the 

It is a-vxish when lifted to the surface of the water. 

It is hove up when lifted to the hawse-hole. 

It is hooked when cat-fall is fast to the rinc;. 

It is catted or havZed up when lifted by the ring 
to the cathead. 

It is fished when the fluke next to the ship's side 
is lifted to the fish-davit. 

It is o)i-board when the fluke is lifted to its rest- 
ing-place on the bill-board. 

It is in-hoard when on deck. 

It is secured when all is made fast, the cable and 
buoy-rope unbent, and the anchor stowed, 

Tne weight of Anchor and Kedge is given exclu- 
sive of that of its stock. 

Bower and Sheet Anchors should be alike in weight. 

Streami Anchors should be ^ the weight of the best 

Kedges are light anchors used in warping. 

2. The block, frame, or masonry deeply buried 
in the earth, to which the cables or wires of suspen- 
sion-bridges are attached. See Anchor, Suspen- 

An'ohor and Collar. A form of hinge for a 

lock-gate. The anchor is let into the stone coping ; 

the collar is attached like a clevis to the anchor, 

I and forms a socket for the pintle of the heel-post of 

the gate. 

An'ohor-balL 1. A contrivance of Captain 
Manby, R. N., for saving life in cases of shipwreck. 
It is a ball having several hinged prongs fitting in 
slots, which are intended to catcu in the rigging 
of a stranded vessel. 

It is fired from a mortar, and carries a light line 
by which a stout rope may be carried ashore from 
the vessel. 

The French use a ball for this purpose having a 
harpoon passing through it, on the rear end of 
which a line is wound. 

2. A carcass or incendiary ball affixed to a grapnel 
by which it is intended to adhere to and fire a vesseL 

An'chor-bolt. {Machinery.) One having an 
expanded shank to prevent its drawing out. 

An'ohor-ohooks. Blocks on which a stoioed 
anchor rests. 

An'dior, Sus-pen'sion-oalale. The anchors of 

Fig. 192. 

Suspension- CTiain Anchor. 

Digitized by 





the chains of tlie Menai Suspension Bridge are cast- 
iron plates having a bearing against the solid rock. 
Three oblique circular shafts six feet in diameter 
and sixty feet in depth were blasted into the solid 
rock, a considerable space being left between each 
shaft. At the bottom is a cross-tunnel which runs 
horizontally and at right angles to the inclined 
shafts. The iron plates, weighing 2,240 pounds, 
were fitted into seats in the face of the rock at right 
angles to the chains which are bolted thereto, a, 
cross-tunnel ; b, anchor ; c, suspension-cable. 

An'ohor-drag. See Drag- Anchor. 

An'ohor ZiB-cape'ment The anchor escape- 
ment superseded the crown-wheel escapement for 
clocks. It was invented by Clement, a London 
watchmaker, in 1680. By some it is ci*edited to 
Dr. Hooke. 

The anchor has two arms whose bent ends resem- 
ble flukes in some degree, and thus give rise to the 
name. It is suspended from a horizontal axis, on 
which it turns freely along with the dependent stem, 
which terminates at its lower end m a fork or 
crutch between whose prongs the pendulum-rod 
passes, so that the motions of the pendulum are 
communicated to the anchor, and the pressure of 
the wheel upon the pallets of the ancnor is also 
comnmnicated to the pendulum so as to make up 
for tlie small loss by friction incident to its action. 

"The great advantage of this escapement over 
the old crown-wheel is that it allows the escape to 
take place at a small angle of vibration, thereby 
preventing the necessity for the maintaining power 
acting upon the pendulum with so great force as by 
the old |)lan ; and by the introduction of a heavy 
ball, leaving that to be done by the uniform power 
of gravity which before was dependent upon the 
impulse given by the wheel to the pallets." 

Clement, in connection with tliis escapement, 
introduced his mode of suspending the pendulum 
by a thin piece of flexible spring, a mode which has 
remained m favor ever since. 

Fig. 198. 

the slope of the pallet will drive the tooth on the 
right a little way back and produce the recoil. 

The other figure shows the dead-beat escapement, 
in which the slope of each pallet sto]^)s at the points 
where the teeth fall, the rest of each pallet form- 
ing portions of a circle of which the axis is the 
center. The tooth having passed the pallet, the 
continued motion of the pendulum merely holds 
the tooth, but does not give it any backward mo- 
tion. See Dead-beat Escapement; Recoil 

An'dior-gate. A heavy gate, such as is used 
in the locks of canals, requires for its upper bearing 
a collar which is stayed -by the adjacent masonry. 
Barbed metallic projectfons from the collar are em- 
bedded in the masonry, and resist displacement of 
the gate while enduring strain or swmging on its 

An'ohor-lln'lng. Sheathing on the ship's plank- 
ing, under the fore-channels, to keep the bill of the 
anchor from ripping the ship's side when hauling it 
up, or fishing. 

An'chor, Mush'room. The mushroom anchor 
is used for moorings, and is said to be a favorite in 
the East Indies. Its name indicates its form, hav- 

Fig 194 



Anchor E$eapemetU, 

Figure 198 shows two forms of anchor escapement i 
one 18 on the recoil principle and the other is the 
dead-beat ; the former is so called because each tooth 
of the wheel makes a back or recoil motion after 
escaping from the pallet. In the figure one tooth 
is represented as naving just escaped from the 
anchor, and a tooth on the opposite side of the 
wheel has dropped* on to the pallet. The pendu- 
lum continuing its course a little farther to the left, 

Mmkrocm Anchor, 

ing a central shank and a head of a bowl shape, 
which requires no stock on the shank to cause it to 
engage with the ground over which it is dragged. 

An'chor-ring. The ring of an anchor by which 
it is bent to the cable. A jew's-harp shackle is now 

An'chor-Btook Plank'lng. {Ship-building. ) 
Each plank has one straight edge, the other consist- 
ing of two equal slopes. 

An'ohor-trip'pers. These are devices for * * trip- 
ping " or casting loose a ship's anchor. In some of 
them it is suspended bv its ring from the cat-block or 
a tripping-bolt ; in otners it is fastened at each end 
by chains which are cast loose simultaneously. 

Duncan, April 28, Fig. 186. 

1863. The anchor hangs ^^^^^,^^^ 
from a clutch-ring on the ^ 
cat-block, which is bus- - 
pended below the cat- 
head. When the fall is 
cast loose, the block de- 
scends, and the clutch is 
opened by the chains 
which are attached to the 
cathead, and to the pro- 
jecting levers or prongs 
on the respective halves of 
the clutch. A single mo- 
tion, the slackening of 
the fall, operates the trip- 
per ; the clutch is opened 
when the chains are made 
taut by the descent of 
the block. 

Stacey, December 27, 

1864. The anchor is 
suspended by its ring from Ihmecai*» Anchor^ Hipper. 

Digitized by 





SUuey^s Anekor- Dripper. 

the hook of the fall- 
block, which depends 
from the cat-head. The 
tripping-rope is attached 
to an eye on the fall-block 
hook, and is belayed to 
a pin on the cat-head. 
When the fall is cast 
loose, and as soon as the 
slack of the tripping-rope 
is exhausted, the said rope 
upsets the hook, and 
casts loose the anchor. 
, Holmes, April 28, 1857. 
A- short chain is attached 
to the ring of the anchor, and the link on its upper 

end is transfixed 
^* ^7* ^ by a pin which has 

its bearings in a 
block. By turn- 
ing the handle half 
a revolution in one 
direction, the screw 
upon the shaft will 
cause the pin to 
recede, and disen- 
gage itself from the 
unK of the chain. 
The thread works 
in a spiral groove or nut, by which it receives lon- 
gitudinal motion when partially rotated. 

Heitman, May 16, 1865. The anchor is sus- 
pended by a shank-painter and a ring-stopper. One 
end of each chain is fast to the vessel, while the 
ring at its other end rests upon a pivoted latch- 
Fig. 198. 

HolrMs^s AnehoT'Tripper. 

Heitman's Anchor- "Dipper. 

piece. These latch-pieces ai^ supported upon a 
oar, which is rotated to give simultaneous disen- 
gagement to the latches, and cast the anchor loose. 
The movement of the bar is effected by raising a 
lever which rests upon 

Fig. IW. 

CfUtson^s AncKoT'Tripper. 

the rail, 

There are thirteen 
United States patents 
for anchor-trippers. 

Gibson, December 
5, 1865. In this de- 
vice the fluke of the 

^^anchor rests on a block 
) Af which is pivoted in 

J a notch of the gun- 
wale. A bar By at- 
tached to said block, 
is held by a shackle-bar 
C, when the latter is 
in its upper position. 
By sliding the shackle 

in its staple, the bar is released, and the block A 
freed to rotate under the weight of the anchor, 
which is thereby "tripped." 

Burton's anchor-tripper (English). The stand- 
ing end of the cat-head stopper is worked into a 

Fig. 200. 

Burton'' i Anchor-Dripper. 

ring placed around the end of the bolt b c, which 
is pivoted at d, on the cat-head a. The other end 
c of the bolt is oblique, and is held down by the 
clamp <J, turning on the pivot /, the clasp bciDg se- 
cured by a hasp g, and pin k. The cat-head 
stopper passes through the nng of the anchor, over 
the thumb-cleat k, and is made fast round the 
timber-head I. "When it is required to let go the an- 
chor, a handspike is inserted, so as to bear against 
the clasp «, and hold it closed while the pin h is 
withdrawn, and the hasp g is cast ofl". The hand- 
spike being then removed, the oblique end c of the 
bolt throws open the clftmp «, and the bolt revolving 
on its pivot d allows the standing end of the cat- 
head stopper to fall ofl*, and the anchor to drop. 

Spences tripper (English) is especially intended 
for casting oflF tne shank-painler, which holds the 

Fig. 201. 

8penc«''s Anchor-Dripper. 

shank and flukes to the ship^s side, while the cat- 
head stopper holds the ring of the stock. 

a is a carriage bolted to the gunwale ; & is a bolt 
which is pivoted at i to the carriage, and sustains 
the chain-end of the shank-painUr ; c is a lever 

Eivoted at /to the upper side of the carriage a, and 
aving a hook d at its end which holds the bolt h 
in an upright position. When the shank-jKiinter is 
to be cast off, a pry is taken ui¥)n the end of the 
lever by a handspike till the pin g is removed. The 

Digitized by 





lever e is then oscillated till the hook d is disen- 
gaged from the bolt d. The latter is immediately 
rotated by the weight of the anchor, and the shank- 
painter is cost loose. 
Anch'y-lo'slB Ap'pa-ra'tus. An a])paratu8 for re- 
lieving the strain 
^8-202. upon the flexed 

Is articu- 
the limb 
nee from 
!r of lev- 

)2 shows 
for the 
he upper 
sr bands 
d around 
and low- 
being set 
ly at the 
11 figure 
} the key 
nea or 

a; An- 

Anchylosis Apparatus. COXie. An elboW 

or angle. Aquoin, 

An ornamental keystpne. A console. 

The angle of a knee-tumbler. 

An'co-ny. (Metal-working.) A piece of partially 
wrought bar-iron, partly finished in the middle, but 
unwrought at the ends. 

An'cove. (Architecture,) A console on each 
side of a door to support a cornice or entablature. 

An-cylo-mele. A curved probe used by sur- 

And'i-rons. These are used upon the hearth to 
support the burning logs and brands. Sometimes 
called dog-irons, and familiar to all who have been 
acquainted with the old-fashioned fireplace. 

Smylie, July 12, 1843. The horses of the andi- 
rons are adjustably connected, so as to place them 
at any convenient distance apart and Iceep them 
steady. They are guarded by a safety-bar against 
the danger of upsetting. 

LooAN, Marcn 27, 1860, has a bottom plate or 
frame, in combination with two upright angular 
bars, in sucn a manner 

Fig. 203. 


that the same 
firmly in its place and 
allows a free circulation 
of the heat. 

The name andiron is 
supposed to be derived 
from the Anglo-Saxon 
)\brand-iron. Others de- 
prive it from hand-iron. 

For the large kitchen 
fire, the andirons were 
very strong and massive, 
but usually quite plain. 
In the hall, that ancient seat of hospitality, they 
were also strong and massive, to support the weight 
of the huge logs ; but the standards were kept bright 
or ornamented with brass rings, knobs, rosettes, heads 
and feet of animals, and various grotesque forms. 
In kitchens, and in the rooms of common houses, 
the andiron, as its name implies, was of iron ; but 

Log€tn''s Andiron. 

in the hall the standards were of copper or brass, 
and sometimes of silver. 

Until the seventeenth century wood was the ordi- 
narv fuel. It was burned in holes dug in the floor, 
on hearths in the middle of the floor or against the 

Fig. 204. 

wall. Chimneys are a comparatively- modem inven- 
tion, and no traces of them are founa previous to the 
twelfth century. See Chimney. 

In the baronial halls of England the logs were 
liberally piled on the hearth in the middle of the 
hall, being confined witliin the two standards of the 
andiron, their ends resting on the billet-bar for the 
purpose of admitting air beneath them, and thus 
promoting combustion. 

A-nem'o-graph. An instrument for measuring 
and recording the direction and force of the wind. 

An'e-mom'e-ter. An instrument for determining 
the force of the wind. The most simple form of 
this instrument is a board or other plane surface of 
given area, which is presented to the wind and has 
a spring attached by which the direct force of the 
wind is measured on a principle precisely similar to 
that of an ordinary spruig-balance. A scale may be 
attached, which will show the absolute pressure in 
pounds and' fractions to the square foot or inch. 
The earliest known anemometer was that of Dr. 
Crombie, 1667, afterwards improved by Wolfius and 
others. Dr. James Lind of Windsor invented, 
about the year 1775, a very convenient and accu- 
rate anemometer which is well suited for private' 
obser\'ers or those desiring a 
portable instrument occupjrinff a Fig. 206. 

small space. It consists of a 
graduated glass tube having two 
arms, one of which has the up- 
per part bent perpendicularly ; 
the tube is mounted on a stand, 
the two arms being in a verti- 
cal position, and tne bent por- 
tion horizontal, so that its mouth 
can be presented to the wind. 
Water is poured in until the 
instrument is filled to the middle 
or zero of the scale. For use, it 
is placed so that the mouth shall 
receive the full force of the wind, 
which depresses the water in that 
arm and causes it to rise in the 
other. As the pressure of the 
atmosphere at the earth's surface ^ 
will ordinarily sustain a column lifuf « Anemometer, 
of water about 38 feet in height, 
which is equivalent to about 2,060 pounds to the 
square foot, if we suppose the wind to blow with 
a force sufficient to cause a difference of level of 
one inch in the two branches of the tube, this 

Digitized by 





Fig. 206. 

I Mr. Ostlek's apparatus, or some modification of 

consequent velocity of revolution of the fly, and 
trace a corresponding line on a fixed cylinder, 
which is divided by vertical lines representing the 
points of the compass ; as the wina changes, the 

Sencil is moved round on the surface of the cylin- 
er, and caused to register the direction as well as 
* the velocity of the wind, the former by its rotary 
and the latter by its vertical motion. 

Ottier's Anemonuter. 

for public institutions, or where it ia desired to keep 
a perfect record of the changes in the force and 
velocity of the wind. The essential parts are a 
plate, having its face constantly presented to the 
wind by a set of vanes at right angles to it ; the 
force of the wind on this plate causes it to move an 

Digitized by 


















perfq. ft. 













Pleasant, brisk breeze. 
Very brisk. 
High wind. 
Very high. 


A storm or tempest. 
A CTeat storm. 
A hurricane. 
( A hurricane that tears 
49.200 < up trees, carries build- 
( ings, etc. before it. 
'enty varieties of anemometers are de- 
works devoted to physics, under the 

lient form of anemometer, adapted for 
the force of currents in pipes or flues, 
by a piece of cardboard C, of known 
suspended to one arm of the beam of a 
I placed at the edge of the mantel-piece 
imng current. Tne graduated stem of 
sken thermometer t was suspended to 
>ther end of the beam, and was placed 
glass vessel containing water; weights 
placed on the card-board till the zero- 
le graduated stem was level with the 
he. water. The degrees were read with 
ice of a magnifier G, and the num- 
%es moved indicated the force acting 
. The value of each degr^ was founa 
weights to the card. In this way it 
Ined that the force of the upward cur- 
Fig. 209. 

Stuntz'^s Anemometer. 

which the record is to be made, a uniform velocity 
beiu^ riven to one of the rollers by clock-work. A 
penciliolder is attached to the lower part of the vane- 
shaft, and the proper mark is made on the highest 
part of the a{)ron above the roller. A pricker, actu- 
ated by a spring through mechanism operated by a 
wiHd-wheel, makes perforations in the paper, the 
number occurring in a given length denoting the 
velocity of the wind during the intervals of time in- 
dicated by a scale on the paper. 

The foUowing table, calculated by Smeaton, shows 
the force and velocity of the wind : — 

Velocity Per Pressura 

per hoar, second. per sq. ft. 

Hilee. ft. lbs. 

1 1.47 006 Hardly perceptible. 

2 '2.93 .020 ) T -i xiui 

3 4 40 044 I perceptible. 

5 7 83 123 ^®'^*^®» pleasant wind. 



rent at the mantel-piece was considerable, and that 
it varied in strength. It was strongest in the cen- 
ter, but extended to both sides of the mantel-piece ; 
this upward current had a force of from 15 to 4} 
grains to the square foot ; the force diminished as 
the fire got low, but the same action went on even 
when the fire was extinguished. 

The greatest pressure of wind ever registered at 
Glasgow Olwervatory was 65 lbs. per foot. Profes- 
sor Airy, however, states that it may reach 80 lbs. 
per foot in this country, while Mr. Scott Russell 
asserts that 40 lbs. per foot is about the maximum 
force which it is necessary to reckon upon in con- 
structing roofs, etc. This is identical with the 
maximum registered at Menai Bridge. 

A-nem'o-8Cope. An instrument for showing 
the course or direction of the wind. A weathercock. 
It is related that Andronicus Cyrrhestes built an 
octagonal tower at Athens, having at each side a 
statue of the god to whom the wind blowing from 

Digitized by 





that quarter was 
dedicated ; and in 
the middle of the 
tower was a small 
spire having a cop- 
per Triton, which 
t)cing put in motion 
by the wind pointed 
to the deity from 
whom it proceeded. 
The custom of plac- 
ing vanes on the top 
of church-steeples 
is at least as ola as 
the middle of the 
ninth century ; and 
as these vanes were 
frequently made to 
resemble a cock, the 
emblem of clerical 
vi^lance, they re- 
ceived the name of 
weathercocks. In 

the ages of ignorance the clergy frequently styled 
themselves **the cocks of the Alinighty." 

Varro is said to have been the first who connected 
the vane by a rod to a dial in the interior of a 

This instrument is mentioned by Vitruvius, and 
was introduced in mansions in the time of Wil- 
liam III. 

On the Hall of Commerce, London, is an anemo- 
scope connected with an index and dial in a room 
below, like that of Varro above mentioned. 

When thus arranged, the shafts connecting the 
vane and index should be made of cane, bamboo, or 
other light material. 

The .anemoscope may be combined with the ane- 
mometer, thus indicating both the direction and the 
force of the wind. See Anemometer. 

An'e-roid Ba-rom'e-ter. An instrument for 
indicating atmospheric pressure, invented by M. Vidi 
of France. The action of the aneroid depends on the 
pressure of the atmosphere on a circular metallic 
box hermetically sealed and having a slightly elastic 
top, the vacuum serving the purpose of the column 
of mercury in the ordinary barometer. 

The arrangement is illustrated by the accompany- 
ing figures, the first showing tne face ana the 
second the interior of the instrument, which is 
made about 4f inches in diameter across the face 
and IJ inches thick. 

The pressure of the atmosphere is shown by the 
hand pointing to a scale which is graduated with 
40 divisions to the inch ; one or two thermometers 
are affixed to the face, but are not essential. 

The second figure shows the internal construc- 
tion, as seen with the face removed, but with 
the hand still attached, a is a flat, circular me- 
tallic box, about 2$ inches in diameter and J of an 
inch deep, having its upper and lower 8ur£eu:es 
corrugated in concentric circles. This box or 
chamber, being exhausted of air through the short 
tube 6, which is subsequently made air-tight by 
soldering, constitutes a spring which is aflected 
by every variation of pressure in the external at- 
mosphere, the corrugations increasing its elasticity. 
At Uie center of the upper surface of the exhausted 
chamber is a solid cylindrical projection x, about 
half an inch high, to the top of which the principal 
lever c deis attached. 

This lever rests partly on a spiral spring at d; 
it is also supported by two vertical pins with per- 
fect freedom of motion. The end e of the large or 

Fig. 210. 


principal lever is attached to a second or small 
lever J\ from which a chain g extends to A, where 
it works on a drum attached to the arbor or axis 
of the hand, connected with a hair-spring at A, 
changing the motion from vertical to honzontal, 
and regulating the hand, the attachments of which 
are made to the metallic plate i. The motion origi- 
nates in the corrugated metallic box a, the surface 
of which is depressed or elevated as the weight of 
the atmosphere is increased or diminished, and this 
motion is communicated through the levers to the 
axis of the hand at h. The spiral spring on which 
the lever rests at d is intended to compensate for 
the efi'ects of alterations of temperature. The actual 
movement at the center of the exhausted box from 
whence the indications emanate is very slight, but 
by the action of the levers this is multiplied 657 
times at the point of the hand, so that the move- 
ment of i^T^tli part of an inch carries the hand 
through three incnes on the dial. See also Bourdon 

Fig. 211. 

Aneurism Needles. 

An'oa-rlsm Nee'dle. A needle for passing a 
ligature around a dilated artery. 

An'ea-riun Tonr'ni-quet. An instrument'for 
bringing a pressure upon a sanguineous tumor re- 
sulting from the dilation or rupture of the coats of 
an artery. 

The instrument has two legs and a hinge-ibint. 
The pressure being adjusted as required, the hinge 
is ^ oy the key so as to make it rigid. 

An'gar-i-pola. {Fabric.) A kind of coarse 
linen made in Spain. 

An'ge-lot A musical instrument of the lute kind. 

An'gel-Bhot See Chain-rhot. 

An'gle. The arris or edge, salient or receding, 
fonned by the junction of two surfaces not in the 

Digitized by 





Fig. 212. 






Tongue and groove. 
See Joint. 


Aneurism TbunUquet. 

same plane. Various are the modes of attaching 
the two portions ; among other devices may be 
cited : — 


Pieces at the angles of structures are known as — 

Angle-brackets, ansle -rafters, angle-ribs, angle- 
bars, angle-staffs, angle-tie, etc. 

An'gle-bar. (Carpentry.) The upright bar at the 
meeting of two faces of a polygonal or bow window. 

An'gle-beacL A strip having a rounded edge, 
and placed at the vertical e.Kterior angle formed oy 
plastered surfaces. A beaded-edge angle-staff. 

An'i^e-brace. A comer-drill. An angle-tie. 

An'gle-braok'et (Carpentry.) One beneath 
the eave at the comer of a building, and projecting 
at an angle of 45" with the face of each wall. 

An'gle-float A float made to fit any internal 
angle of the walls of a room. 

A float is a plasterer's trowel. 

An'gle-gage. A gage for setting the reflectors 
on a frame for the « exhibition of light under the 
catoptric system, has two long arms connected by 
a graduated arc. The arms, having been first placed 
at the angle which is supplemental to that of the 
inclination of the axes of tne two adjacent mirrors, 
arc made to span the faces of the reflectors, one of 
which is moved about till its edges are in close 
contact with the flat surface of one of the arms of 
the ga^. 

The instrument has piany other applications. 

A gage for determining angles of hexagonal nuts. 
The graduated bar A has graduated arms B and C ; 

Fig. 218. 

Kellogg^s Angk- Gage. 

the latter movable, and provided with a block whose 
edge fonns with it an angle of 120" as a gage for 
hexagonal prisms. 

An'gle-i'ron. (Afachinery.) A bent piece joining 
the sides of an iron structure. See Angle-joint. 

A description of iron which is used for ship's 
knees, for uniting the edges of plates which meet at 
an angle, and for other purposes too numerous to 
mention. On a larger scale, with more than one 
bend, it may form a beam, girder, or rail, the differ- 
ence consisting rather in proportions and purpose 
than in construction. The fagoting and construc- 
tion of wrought-iron beams will be considered under 
Beam, Wrought- iron. Some devices substan- 
tially similar in inventive features will be found 
under Railroad-rails, Fagoting, and Rolling; 
the difference between a railroad-rail and a girder 
is one of shape and proportion of the parts, as will 
be seen by comparing their cross-sections. 

Lewis, April 26, 1864. The rollers have flat 
fiEices, and a central triangular groove, and rib re- 
spectively, so that the bar can be introduced 
between the rollers flat, instead of comerwise. The 
effect of this is, that both sides of the angle-iron 
when finished nm parallel to the layers of the* 
original bar, and not crosswise, as ia the case with 

one side of the angle-iron when rolled in the ordi- 
nary manner. The parallelism of the wings with 
the top of the pile is maintained till the bar is 
reduced nearly to its proper thickness, "when it is 
finished by passing it through a plain rectangular 
groove which turns up the wings and finishes them 
with a grain conformable to that of the original bar. 
The ordinary angle-iron is a bar whose section 

Fig. 216. 



forms two sides of a triangle, but the term now 
includes other shapes, such as the cruciform, etc. 

a is an angle-iron forming two sides of a right- 
angled triangle ; b 

is a flatter form Kg. 216. 

with two flanges, 
and is called ^^ctum- 
iiel-iron " ; c is cra- 
cifomi in cross-sec- 
tion. It is called 
** cro88 half -lattice 
ir(m." Box-CHrderand T-Btm. 

Digitized by 





d, Fi^. 216, shows the application of angle-iron 
in making a box-girder, or wroueht-iron cell ; is a 
form having a (rZid and web. it is called T-iron. 
Other forms are known as Z-iron, I-iix)n, etc. 

Fig. 217 shows the mode of using angle-iron in 
compound girders, tanks, and other structures. 

/ shows its application to uniting the angular 
junction of two plates. 


g shows a beam strengthened by angle-plates at 
each side. 

h shows angle-plates unvting a tread-plate and 
its web. 

Angle-bars for shipbuilding are bent and worked 
into the various forms required in ships, by men 
called angle-iron smiths ; they are then punched 
with holes, generally about the center of the arm, 
and by the rivets inserted in these holes the anrfe- 
iron is attached to the plates of the ship. The 
dimensions are usually given in the specification of 

Fl(c. 218. 

AngU-Ironsfor ^ipbuUding. 

a vessel in this form, namely, 3 in. x 8 in. x ^ 
in. This means that each arm of the bar is to be 
three inches from the angle, and the thickness in 
the center of arm, or at the rivet-hole, half an 

As angle-iron is generally applied for the ribs of 
a ship, the arm which is perpendicular to the sur- 
face of the plates is that which is in the position 
to afford the greatest stiffness to the shell. On this 
account angle-iron has been rolled with arms of 
unequal lengths, that the greatest strength may 
be obtained from a given quantity of iron. 

a, 6, c, d, are angle-irons and braces for flooring 
in iron ships. 

e shows the connection of outer skin and inner 
flooring by angle-irons. 

/ is the arrangement of angle-irons and braces 
for stiffening ship^ bottom longitudinally ; answer- 
ing to the keelson in wooden vessels. 

g, keel ; showing its connection to the outer skin 
and beams. 

Fig. 219. 

AngU-honsJbr l^ipbuUding. 

a, J, c, d, «, /, are angle-irons and beams employed 
for flooring in iron ships. 

g, outer skin and flooring of an iron steamer with- 
out keel ; showing the mode of connection of the 
two, and the longitudinal stiffening-plates and 
angle-irons of ship's bottom aqd flooring. 

The angle-iron and plates for building iron ships 
are heated in reverberatory furnaces, of which two 
are generally placed together, the flues from them 
leading to one chimney. They are formed of brick 
and have a brick turned ai-ch, the sides being se- 
cured by binding-plaUSf like a puddling-ftimaot. 

One furnace is made wide, say 4^ x 10 feet, and is 
suitable for heating plates ; the other long and nar- 
row, say 2 feet wide by 26 feet long, and is used for 
heating the angle-bars which go to make the frame. 
An iron sill is placed across tne doorway on which 
the angle-iron slides in entering or withdrawing. 

The furnace A has the usual grate-bars, and a 
pan B beneath, filled with water, cools the ashes as 
they fall and thus preserves the bars from ii^juir. 

This furnace is fed with coals, the flame of which 
passes along the chamber C, and over the brick bed 
i>, on which the plates or bars are laid. The roof 
over the whole is a brick arch, about two feet from 
the bed, acting by reverberation, to concentrate the 

Digitized by 





heat upon the iron. The flame and hot air then 
escape down a narrow flue, situated across the 
mouth of the furnace, and leading by the main flue 
to the chimney. The end at which the plates or 
bars are inserted and withdrawn is closed by a 
door Fy framed of iron, and enclosing tire-bricks. 
This, beiuff very heavy, is suspended by a chain, 
and this chain is attached to a lever O, having a 
balance-weight H suspended from it, that the men 
may have less difficulty in raising and lowering it. 

FiK. 220. 

AngU'Iron Furtuue. 

An'gle-joiiit Angle- joints differ according to 
the material, thickness, purpose, and exposure. 

a, b, ai^e joints which ai-e 
entirely dependent upon sol- 
der ; such are used with tin- 
ware and sheet-lead. 

c is a miter-johit. It is 
used for thicker metals with 
hard solders. 

d m 2i. butt-joint; other- 
wise similar to c. 

<; is a lap-joirU ; the metal 
is ci*eased over the hcUchet- 
^ ^ stake or by the spinning-tool. 
It requires solder. 

/, one plate is bent rec- 
tangularly, and the other is 
doubly bent so as to recurve 
back on itself, lappinganmn/^ 
the edge of the other. It 
needs solder to keep it from 
slipping apart. 
J ^ nas a fold to each plate ; 
these lock upon each other 
^g and require no solder to per- 
fect their hold, although it 
may be added to make the 
joint air and water tight 
where the closure is not ab- 
solutely perfect. 

A is a riveted joint, one 
plate being bent to lap upon 
the other. This joint is 
called the folded angle, and 
; is common in all sizes of 
work, from domestic uten- 
sils to steam-boilers. 

i, the edge of one plate 
is fonned into tenons wnich 
Angte-joints. enter mortises in the other, 

and are there riveted. 
j resembling t, except that the tenons are pro- 
longed, so as to be retained in the mortises by cotters, 
k, one plate makes a butt-joint with the other, 
and is attached by L-formed rivets or screw-bolts, 
whose heads are riveted to one plate, while their 

screw-stems pass through the other plate and are 
fastened by nuts. 

1, the two plates are secured by being bolted or 
riveted to an angle-iron, which is straight or bent 
into sweeps accoraing to the shape of the object. 

An'gle-me'ter. Any instrument for measuring 
angles. The term seems to have become more par- 
ticularly applied to an instrument made use of by 
geologists for ascertaining the dip of inclined strata. 
In the broader sense of a measurer of angles it 
would include a great number of astronomical and 
surveying instruments for measuring angles, such 
Euits, sextants, theodo- 
8 in altitude and azi- 
adaptation, as augu- 
ictors, etc., which are 
treated under their 
U respective heads. 
An'gle of Re- 
pose'. (Civil Engi- 
neering.) 1. The ut- 
most inclination at 
M which a carriage will 
— stand at rest upon 
a road. At the an- 
gle of repose, the 
gravity of the load 
and the friction of 
the load are equal. See Friction. 

2. The natural angle at which the soil of a cut- 
ting or embankment will stand without slipping. 
See SiAjpE. 

An'gle of Sight (Ordnance.) The natural 
angle of sight is the angle between a line drawn 
through the axis of the bore, and a line drawn 
from the rear of the base-ring to the swell of the 
muzzle or to the top of the sight. 

An'gle-plane. A plane whose bit reaches into 
a re-entering angle. 

An'gle-raft'er. (Carpentry.) A rafter at the hip 
of a roof, receiving the heads of the jack-rafters or 

An'gle-etafil A strip of wood fixed to the ver- 
tical angle of a wall flush with the plastering of the 
two planes. It is designed as a substitute ror plas- 
tering in a situation so much exposed. 

A round staff* is known as an angle-bead. 

An'gle-tie. {Carpentry.) A brace-piece in the 
interior angle of a wooden frame, securing two side- 
pieces together and occupying thereto the position 
of a hypothenuse. 

An-go'ra. (Fabric.) A light and fashionable 
cloth made from the wool of the Angora goat. 

An'gu-lar Fila A locksmith's tile for working 
into the corners of the wards in keys. 

An'gu-lar Gtoar'ing. The wheels are quadri- 
lateral, and the speed of the driven wheel is variable. 
The driving-wheel, ro- 
tating at regular speed, 
will impart a quicker 
rate to the other wheel 
when the angle of the 
former is in contact with 
the flat side of the lat- 
ter, and convei*sely. Has 
been used in printing- 

Fig. 222. 

An'gu-lar In'stru- 
ments. (Surveying.) One in which the horizontal 
angles are measui-ed by a divided circle and verni- 
ers as well as by the needle ; as the superior kinds 
of railroad comjiasses, the engineer's and surveyor's 
transits, etc. 

An'gu-lar I'ron-band. A feirule angular in its 

Digitized by 





cross-section. A square, or other sided collar or 

An'gu-lar Thread. A screw-thread whose pro- 
jection beyond the barrel of the screw is triangular 
in cross-section. In contradistinction to a square 

An-gn-lom'e-ter. This instniment is defined by 
Francis as one for measuring exterior angles. The 
terms angle^meter and ^nioraeter might oe held 'to 
mean the same thing judging by their derivation, 
but the former is applied to instruments used by 
geologists for measuring the dip of strata, and the 
latter for measuring the angles of crystals. 

A try-square may be termed an angulometer, ** a 
bent measure." 

Thayer, August 26, 1862. This invention consists 

in so construct- 


T%aytr*s Ftane Angulometer. 
in the same plane, and carries 
Fig. 224. 

HaWs Angulometer, 

ing and hang- 
ing a pendulum, 
and connecting it 
with a portion of 
the surface of a 
sphere, that itwill 
indicate at «nce 
whether any plane 
to which it IS ap- 
plied is level ; and 
if not so, will show 
the degrees of the 
angle, whether of 
elevation or de- 
pression, which 
such plane makes 
with the horizon. 
The i^endulum 
moves vL\ion three 
or more bearings 
upon its top a 
graduated arc, 
acting in com- 
bination with 
the spherical 
surface and the 
opening there- 

Hall's angu- 
lometer has two 
hingedlegs, and 

a graduated arc which indicates the dihedral angle. 

An instrument called a mdrans^ for measuring the 

angle for the facets of gems in cutting and polishing. 

Genevese Angulometer. 

The gem is cemented on the end of a rod which 
is clamped between the jaws a, which are closed like 
a vise by means of a set-screw passing through 
them. Each of the jaws haa on the inside a hemi- 
spherical cavity into which is fitted a brass ball. 
A tube passes through the ball, and carries at its 
upper end a small graduated disk. The cement- 
stick, carrying the stone to be cut, fits within 

the tube sufficiently tight to hold it while '''j- 
a facet is being cut, and the upper end of 
the stick has a pointer by which the divis- 
ions on the disk are read off. 

The vertical angle of the tube is deter- 
mined by the quadrant c, fixed on one side 
of the jaws a, and the tube is retained at any 
angle by closing the jaws upon the ball. The 
divisions of the quadrant admit of any degree 
of vertical inclination upon the skive^ or of* 
vertical position when grinding the tabic or 

The facets around the stone will be deter- 
mined by twisting the cement-stick in the ^^^ 
tube, until the index marks the required 
division on the disk h. 

An'i-mal Black. Carbonaceous Fig. 227. 
matter obtained by the calcination of ^ 

bones in close vessels. Used in filtering, 
deodorizing, defecating, discoloring syr- . 
ups, liquors, solutions. 

Anl-mal Char'coal. Calcinedbones 
prepared for sugar-refining. See Bone- 
black Furnace. 

An'i-mal Clntoh. A gripping device 
for catching animals by ttie leg. It is 
especially used for slinging animals dur- 
ing the operations of slaughtering. 

In the noose form, Fig. 226, the chain 
is attached to one end of ,the plate, and 
the key on the end of the chain engages 
in the* slot to form a bi^ht for looping 
around the leg of the animal. 

In another fonn. Fig. 227, thegambrel 
of the animal is clutched by the gripping- 
jaws which are attached by cnains to 
the frame, whose roller travels on a 
way -rod to transport the hog from the 
"sticker " to the scalding-tub, or from 
the latter to the "gutter.^' 

An'i-mal'cule Cage. A cell in 
which living microscopic objects are Hog-Hoiater. 
kept and exposed to view. 

An^i-mal-iz'tng Pi'ber. The process of confer- 
ring upon vegetable fiber the physical characteristics 
of animal fiber. Cotton, under the microscope, is a 
ribbon-shaped tube, and when treated with a cold, 
strong solution of caustic soda, shrinks and assumes 
the form of a simple cylinder. It becomes stronger, 
smaller, and has an increased capacity for receiving 
coloring matter. 

An'i-mal Poke. A yoke placed upon an animal 
to keep it from pushing down or jumping fences. 
See Poke. 

Anl-mal Pow'er. The expression of the nu- 
merical values of the results of tne labor of men and 
animals, particularly horses, is a subject which on 
account of its eminently practical bearing has at- 
tracted considerable attention among scientific as 
well as practical men. 

A work entitled '* De Motu Anamalium " was pub- 
lished as far back as 1680 by Borelli, but Coulomb, 
who devoted a great deal of attention to the matter, 
has furnished more information of practical value 
than any other writer. 

The unit of value employed by Coulomb was 1 
kilogramme (2.2047 pounds) transported a distance 
of one kilometre (6.214 miles) the total force exerted 
being estimated by the number of kilogrammes of 
the burden multiplied by the number of kilometres 
it is transported during a working day of eight 
hours ; these measures are of course readily reducible 
to any other denominations, as pounds and miles. 

Coulomb ascertained that on an average a man 

Digitized by 





could travel unloaded 31 miles per day ; and sup- 
posing his weight to be 160 lbs., the expression for 
the effect exerted by him would in tnis case be 
160x31=4,960 pounds carried one mile per day. 
He found also, by the average of the work performed 
by the porters of Paris, that a man could carry a 
burden equal to 128 lli. 9.72 miles per day. As- 
suming the weight of the man to be 160 lbs., the 
total effect produced would be equivalent to 160 + 
128 X 9.72=2,799 ; but the transportation of his own 
weight formed no part of the useful effect, which is 
consequently expr^sed by 128 x 9.72=1,244. 

The useful enect is found to be at a maximum 
when a man is loaded with 121 pounds ; under this 
burden he can walk 10^ miles per day, giving an 
effect of 121x10^=1,250. 

A porter going short distances with a burden and 
returning unloaded, as usually occurs, carries 135 
lbs. 7 miles per day. A man can wheel 150 lbs. in 
a wheelbarrow 10 miles in the same time. 

The maximum effect of a strong man exerted for 
2i minutes is estimated* at 18,000 pounds raised one 
foot in a minute ; and the force of a man of ordinary 
strength exerted in lifting is equivalent to 30 lbs. 
raised 2J feet per second for ten hours, or 4,500 
lbs. raised 1 foot per minute ; the estimated power 
of a horse being equivalent to 33,000 pounds raised 
one foot in the same time, according to Boulton 
and Watt's experiments.' 

The following statement by Hachette shows the 
force, exerted by the strength of men applied in 
various ways, expressed in terms equivalent to the 
number of pounds carried by a man one mile during 
a day of eight hours. 
Drawing alight four-wheeled wagon over 

moderately uneven ground . . 857 lbs. 
Pulling horizontally at a rope attached 
to a weight and passing through a 

puUey 878 •• 

Rowing in a boat 374 " 

Pushing horizontally, as at a capstan . 368 ** 
Taming a winch and axle . . 159 " 

The above estimates are based on the average 
strength of men generally, and in many instances, 
especially in carrying weights, are largely exceeded ; 
thus it is said that a London porter will carry 200 
lbs. on his shoulders at the rate of three miles an 
hour, but such efforts cannot be sustained for any 
great length of time. The porters of CJonstanti- 
nople are said, by a judicious distribution of their 
burdens, to cany much greater weights than this 
for considerable distances. 

The useful effect of a horse walking in 
a circle, as in turning a mill, is es- 
timated at 800 lbs. 

A horse canying a load of 200 lbs. 25 

miles per day 6,000** 

An African dromedary carrying his 
rider (160 lbs.) can travel for 9 or 
10 hours at the rate of between 7 
and 8 miles per hour ; say 160 x 9^ 

x7i= 11,400** 

An Asiatic camel can carry a load of 
from 500 to 800 lbs. .at the rate of 
2} hours ; this for a day of 8 hours 
would give (assuming the load to 
be 600 lbs.) 600 x 8 x 2i or . . 12,000 ** 
A draft-horse can draw 1,600 lbs. 23 miles per 
day, the weight of the carriage being included. 

In hauling for short distances and returning 
unloaded, a horse will draw on a good road 2,000 lbs. 
or more, exclusive of the weight of the cart. 

In drawing a load the greatest effect is found to 
be produced when the traces are perpendicular to 

the collar ; as the position of the horse changes in 
heavy pulUng, the traces become more nearly paraUel 
to the road. With very heavy drafts, loading the 
back of a horse is found rather advantageous than 
otherwise, by not compelling him to incline forward 
so much ana enabling him to use his muscles in a 
more advantageous position. The circle in which a 
horse moves in turning a mill should not b^ less 
than 25 or 30 feet ; 40 feet is better. 

According to Tredgold, a horse can draw, as indi- 
cated by the dynamometer, 125 pounds at the rate of 
24 miles per hour, which for one day will give 125 x 
2i X 8=2,500. By the experiments of Boulton and 
Watt they determined that a good horse can draw 
125 pounds at the rate of 3 miles per hour, 125 x 3 x 
8=3,000 pounds one mile in a day. Multiply this 
amount by the number of feet in a mile, and divide 
the product by the number of minutes in 8 hours ; 
the result is 33,000, which stands for the number of 
pounds raised one foot per minute, and this is now 
the admitted measure of a horse power. 

Anl-maUk In the nomenclature of the mechanic 
arts, the names of animals have not been entirely 
overlooked e. 



















































Each of these useful animals is described in its 
alphabetical place. 

Anl-mal Trap. A device for catching animals. 
There are numerous varieties ; some to set in the 
path of the animals, others are pulled off by a per- 
son on watch ; the more common forms are those in 
which the animal is the cause of his own capture 
by meddling with the bait, or by crawling into his 
prison in search of food. 

A few instances of different arrangements will be 

1. The guiHotine-trap has a descending knife or 
row of spikes which descends vertically upon the 
animal which is tampering with the bait. 

2. The rotating-elaw is actuated by a spring on 
the axis, and is released by nibbling at the twdt. It 
strikes the animal, and throws him to a distance, 
resetting itself. 

3. The dead-fall is a weight or spring bar, re- 
leased by the animal, either by stepping on a plat- 
form or touch- 
ing the bait. ^' 228. 

4. Thesmp- ^ ■■ -^ ==^ 
ping^jaw-trap ^ II • ' 
is shown in the 
familiar form 
wherein the 
jaws are actu- 
ated by a 
spring released 
by the depres- 
sion of a small 
platform be- 
tween them. 

Anotherform- _^ 

of jaw-trap is Sprint^ Jait^TYap. 

Digitized by 





seen in Fig. 228, in which the spring and jaws are 
made of one strip of steel, and the brace, which 
keeps them apart, has the bait attached ; a trigger 
releases the jaws, which grasp the animal that 
is pulling upon the bait. 

The illustration shows 
Fig- 229. the mode of setting the 

trap. The forward part 
stands on two legs, and 
the bow at the rear is sup- 
ported on a little crotch. 

5. The falling-cage. This 
may be a wire basket, as 
in Fig. 229. The bell- 
shaped cage is suspende<l 
vertically above the plat- 
form V it rests upon a tog- 
gle-jointed bar, and is 
releajsed by the baited 
trigger, which allows the 
toggle to double up. 
Another form of dropper 
280. A disk with a circular 

Falling' Qtge 7)up. 

1^ shown in Fig. 
series of vertic^ wires. 

The arm which rises ver- 
Hg. 280. tically from the falling disk 

has at top a staple which 
rests on the top of a vibrata- 
ble lever, to which the bait 
is tied. 

The fall of the disk im- 
prisons or impales the ani- 

6. The gravila ting-plat- 
form has many forms. 
Fig. 231 may be taken as 
an illustration. 

Pressure on the swinging 
bait-box releases the plat- 
form, which swings and pre- 
cipitates the animal into 
the cage beneath. The ad- 
justable weight returns the 
platform to place, when it 
Decomes reset. 

The essential features of 
these traps are a falling 
platform, a resetting de- 
vice, and a receiver beneath. 
The resetting is sometimes 
Dropping- Qtge 2V«p. done by a spring, some- 
times by a weight, in some 
cases by the animal in passing to an interior cham- 

Fig. 231. 

PaUing-Ftat/orm IVop. 

7. The rotaiing-plaffonn. Fig. 232, has a number 
of platforms brought successively into use. 

A series of wings is attached to a rotary-shaft 
that is actuated by a weighted cord, so that they 
consecutively assume a horizontal position, fonning 
a platform ujion which the rat stands while nibbling 

at the bait, 
and from 
which he is 
thrown down 
into the trap. 
In anoth- 
er form, the 
wheel is ro- 
tated by a 
coiled spring, 
the radial ^ 
wings being ^ 
in turn de- 
tained by their | 
latches, which ^ 
catch upon a ^^' 
detent-lug on 
the case. The 

ng. 282. 

Rouxnf-ruaform. TYap. 

motion of the oscillating platform disengages the 
latch, the wing descends, and the next becomes 
ready for duty. 

Fig. 233 has a duplication of the rotary 
feature. The invention consists of two radial ro- 
tating-platforms, each held in position by separate 
triggers, but the wires controlling them come to- 
gether at the bait-hook, which forms one of them. 

Fig. 238. 

GateheWi Trap. 

Each wire is connected with a rock-shaft, and the 
triggers or detents are withdrawn by the pulling of 
the bait by the animal, whose resting-place is at 
the center, upon two wings. Upon the animal 
falling into a receptacle below, the trap is reset. 

8. The falling-doar. Several forms of traps which 
come under this class are familiar to the public, 
some with one door, and some with two. 

Fig. 284. 





rr^rr. rrr.A / AVAW/M '^/W. '/////TTTTA 

FrUltnu'Door TVap. 

Digitized by 





Fig. 234 is open at both ends, when set, the doors 
B being supported by triggers. The animal stand- 
ing on the platform G^ to reach the bait on the 
hook, operates the rods /, G, and releases the doors, 
which fall simultaneously. This darkens the trap, 
and the animal lifts the grating in passing to the 
light chamber M, Th^ opening of the grating G 
resets the trap. 

9. A diding-gcUe. Of these there are several 
varieties. In Fig. 285 the animal passes through 
one of the holes into the first chamber. His weight 

Fig. 286. 

Sliding- Oate 2Viip. 

on the platform brings the shutters over the holes 
and prevents his return. In passing through the 
grated door into the next chamber he resets the 

Jn Fig. 236 the box is provided at its center 
with an oscillating platform, to which is rigidly 
attached an upright leaf or partition of the same 
width, which has its openings for the entrance 

Kg. 288. * 

In another form the box forming the trap is pro- 
vided with two apartments, separated in the usual 
way by a hinged grating, or self-closing door. In 
the first apartment is arranged a revolving shaft 
armed with vanes or paddles, and actuated by a 
spring. The animal, on entering this first apart- 
ment, releases by means of a treadle the detent of 
the revolving vanes, which press the said animal 
forward, causing him to enter the inner chamber, 
the said detent immediately checking the further 
revolution of the vanes. An index on the outside 
of the trap indicates, by the number of vanes re- 
leased, the number of animals caught. 

10. The ca^e. This class includes those in which 
an inverted wire basket is entered between a set of 
converging wires which oppose a return. 

Sometimes this form of trap has a grated inclined 

11. The noose. This is a very -old form of 
snare, con-sistin^ of a running noose placed in the 
path of the animal. Such were the ** aprifiges to 
catch woodcocks," of old Polonius. They are used 
by poachers in England for snaring hares, and by 
boys for catching the less aristocratic rabbit. 

Fig. 288. 

Baleer''s TVap. 

of the animal so arranged that when it depresses the 
tilting platform by its weight, the said attached leaf 
or ]9artition is thereby swung past said opening, 
leaving the opposite side of the platform in like 
manner open to admit the next visitor. The en- 
trapped animal escapes on either side into a closed 

Fig 287. 

Among barbarous nations and fron- 
tiersmen a snare of this kind is attached 
to a sapling bent over and held by a 
^ trigger. The 
springing of the Fig. 289. 

sapUng, tightens 
the noose, and I 
swings the animal 
clear of the ground. 

The common mouse-trap is 
another form of the noose. A J 
bow of spring wire is depressed 
at an opening, and the tam- //, 
pering with the bait allows ^ 
the loop to spring up 
and strangle tne animal 
T^ against the top of the 
"^ opening. (Fig. 238.) 
Anklets. Cunning- 
ham, March 20, 1866. 
The frame is made in 
three portions, reaching 
from a garter-band on 
the leg to the skate. The 
upper two portions are 
extensible on each other 

JUwMng-Gau 2hip. piece hinged to the lower 

Ctmmngham^s AnkU' 

Digitized by 





one to permit the said motiou. It is intended to 
stiffen the ankle-joint and prevent the ankle turn- 
ing sideways in skating. 

The term is also applied to an article of dress 
which forms an extension above the top of the 
bootee or the shoe, and forms in some cases a protec- 
tion for a weak ankle, in others is merely an orna- 
mental extension. 

Stockings, stiffened with steel springs or whale- 
bones, worn as a protection to weak ankles, may also 
be termed anklets. 

See Gaiters. 

Annealing. Annealing is a process used in the 
manufacture of glass and iron for the purpose of 
rendering them less brittle. It is performed bv 
allo^%4ng them to cool very gradually from a high 
heat, a sudden reduction of temperature rendering 
them hard and brittle. The singular properties of 
enameled glass are strikingly shown in Prince Ru- 
pert's drops and the Bologna vial. The former are 
prepared by allowing melted glass to drop into 
water, where the drops which are not broken by 
contact with the water form irregularly elongated 
globular bodies tapering to a tail at one extremity. 
These will bear a considerable blow on the thick 
end without breaking, but if a small piece be 
snapped off the tail the whole immediately falls into 
powder, emitting a cracking sound. 

The Bologna vial is a rude flask of some three or four 
inches in length by about one in diameter, and from 
-^(T to ^ of an inch in thickness. 

If a leaden bullet be dropped into it from a height 
of three or four feet, or it be struck a smart blow on the 
outside with a stick, it will not break, but the drop- 
ping of a grain of sand or a small sharp fragment 
of flint into it will cause it to crack and fall to 

Upon the proper annealing of glass much of its 
utilitv for many purposes entirely depends, and for 
vessels which are to be subjected to great extremes 
of heat and cold, careful annealing is absolutely in- 
dispensable. Its neglect is one of the principal 
causes of the breakage of so many lamp-chimneys, 
tumblers, etc.; whose cost often forms such a con- 
siderable item in domestic expenditure. See Glass. 

Annealing is also a necessary process in the manu- 
facture, by drawing, of wire and small tubing, as well 
as in making brass, copper, or sheet-iron vessels by 
hammering and rolling ; the metal, by compression, 
becoming too hard and brittle for further reduction 
until annealed, after which it recovers its former 
softness and pliability. 

When molten glass is allowed to cool slowly, its 
particles assume a fibrous arrangement, which im- 
parts a certain elasticity to the whole mass, so that 
it can transmit vibrations from one extremity to 
the other. When suddenly cooled, the interior par- 
ticles are enclosed by the solidification of the exte- 
rior before they have assumed the fibrous condition 
which insures the elastic structure or condition. 

Glass may be annealed by placing it in tepid 
water, boiling it for a considerable length of time, 
and then allo^^ing it to cool gradually. 

Glass-ware is annealed by placing it, while yet 
hot, in an oven, technically called a /«t, in which 
the glass is allowed to cool very gradual Iv. A com- 
mon form of the leer is a long oven, with sliding or 
travelling pans to hold the glass-ware, which enters 
at one end, as hot as it comes from the hands of 
the glass blower or presser, and by the gradual 
accession of pans of ware is pushed to the other 
end, whence it issues at a temperature which per- 
mits it to be handled. The particles of glass are 
supposed to assume a different structural relation, 

when thus slowly cooled, which favors their cohe- 
sion, and permits a certain degree of resiliency or 
elasticity. When cooled suddenly, there scans to 
be an inherent strain, a compulsoiy union, but 
faulty and fragile static condition, whose equilib- 
rium is disturbed by an excitant in the form of a 
blow, which generates a tremulous motion among 
the particles, and permits them to yield to thS 
disruptive force. This disruptive tendency may 
arise from want of homogeneity, unequal contrac- 
tion, or something else. 

In the annealing of metals, cast-iron for instance, 
the metal is brought to a red heat, and then al- 
lowed to cool slowly. The rationale of this process 
has been variously explained, and the most reason- 
able seems to be that the particles of metal take a 
different arrangement under these circumstances 
from that assumed by them when allowed to cool 
rapidly. In the latter case the exterior portion 
of the metal contracts first, and presses upon the 
interior portion, and the particles of the latter 
may thereby be compeUed to take an arrangement 
which they would not were the cooling to take 
place at an equal rate in every part, and tne process 
of cooling be long protracted. It does not seem 
to be determined wnether the protraction of the 
process is merely necessary to insure an equal rate 
of cooling in every part, but it is not a violent' con- 
iecture that the said slowness may favor a particu- 
lar aggregation of the particles, which gives them 
the greatest possible cohesion attainable with the 
structural nature of cast-iron. In making cast-iron 
malleable, as it is termed, a process much used in 
making builders' hardware, the metal is kept for 
several hours at a temperature a little below the 
fusing-point, and then allowed to cool slowly. 
From tne prolongation of both stages of the process 
in this case, it is evident that the perfect result is 
best attained by giving the particles time, and not 
violently changing their structural relation ; unless 
it be held that chemical changes in the furnace 
(such as parting with a portion of the carbon) 
have to be taken into consideration, and that the 
change is not .all in the mechanical disposition of 
the particles. Tempering and annealing are nearly 
allied, but the processes are not confounded in the 
arts, owing to their different technical applications. 
The word "annealing" is derived from the An^lo- 
Saxon signifying to " kindle," and the heating is a 
necessary preliminary whether to withdraw the 
hardness incident to hammering and rolling of 
malleable metals, or the hardness incident to the 
rapid cooling of a casting in its mold. The pro- 
traction of the process of cooling the casting has a 
favorable effect upon its toughness and comparative 
softness. This is plainly seen bv comparing them 
with chill-harden^ articles, which are rendered 
hard and brittle by the sudden cooling. 

Exposure of the hot steel to a cold surface renders 
it hard. This is usually done by dipping the red- . 
hot metal in water, but other cold surfaces which 
are rapid conductors will answer the same purpose. 

A thin, heated blade placed between the cold 
hammer and anvil is hardened by rapid cooling. 

Thicker pieces, under the same cireumstances, are 
somewhat hardened, but may be filed. 

Placed on cold cinders, or other bad conductor^ 
the steel cools more slowly and becomes softer. 

Placed in hot cinders, and allowed to cool by 
their gradual extinction, it becomes still softer. 

Encased in a close box %vith charcoal-powder, 
raised to a red heat, and allowed to cool very slowly, 
it reaches it« softest state, except by a partial de- 
composition, as in the following process. 

Digitized by 





The steel is placed in a close box with iron tum- 
infls, filings, or scales, lime, or other matters, which 
wul eliminate the carbon from the steel, and reduce 
it to the condition of pure, soft iron. This is the 
process used in softening plates and dies under the 
modem system of bank-note engraving invented by 
Jacob Perkins (cited below). 

Analogous processes are had in the case of cast-iron, 
producing the various grades of hardness, from the 
chilled cast-iron to the soft malleable iron-castings. 

The annealing of steel, to soften it for the uses 
of the die-sinker and engraver, is effected by heating 
it to a bright cherry red, and suffering it to cool 
gradually in a bed of charcoal. Another process, 
adopted by the writer, has been to imbed the steel 
blanks or fomngs in lime within a cast-iron box. 
This is heated to redness in the fire, remaining a 
sufficient time to insure an equal heat of the articles 
inside ; the box is then removed and buried in hot 
ashes, which protract the process of cooling for sev- 
eral days. See Tempering. 

Perkins's process of transfer-engraving is as fol- 
lows : — 

A soft steel plate is first engraved in finished 
style, either by hand or mechanically, or the two 
combined, and the plate is then hardened. A de- 
carbonized steel cylinder is next rolled over the 
hardened steel plate by powerful machinery until 
the engraved impression of the plate appears in 
relief upon the roller, the hollow lines of the plate 
. being salient ridges on the cylinder. The roller is 
then reconverted to the condition of ordinary steel, 
and hardened, after which it serves for giving the 
intaglio impressions to any number of decarbonized 
plates, every one of which is an absolute counterpart 
of the original. Each plate when hardened will 
afford 150,000 impressions, and in the event of acci- 
dent to the tranafer-roUer, any number of new 
rollers with the design in cameo may be obtained 
from the orimnal plate. 

The metallurgic process was explained by the 
inventor in the thirty-eighth volume of the Transac- 
tions of the Society of Arts. He there states that to 
decarbonize the plates they are placed in a vertical 
position in cast-iron boxes not less than three 
fourths of an inch thick, and surrounded on all sides 
by iron filings not less than oiie half an inch thick. 
The boxes are then placed in a furnace, and, after 
being heated, are allowed to cool in the most 
gradual manner by stopping off all the air-passages, 
and covering the boxes with a layer of cinders six 
or seven inches deep. 

The plate or roller, as the case may be, having, 
in the softened state, received its impression, is 
reconverted in a similar box, wherein it is packed 
with sifted charcoal, made from leather scraps. 
After being heated in this cementing box and fur- 
nace from three to five hours, the plates or rollers 
are hardened by plunging vertically into cold water. 

The use of steel plates for engraving has but 
comparatively lately superseded that of copper, and 
its peculiar value arises from the fact that by the 
processes of hardening and annealing it is made to 
assume the opposite conditions of extreme hardness 
and sufiicient softness, so as in the former state to 
endure wear in printing, and also preserve the sharp- 
ness of its lines when enduring immense pressure 
against a soft steel roller or plate ; and in the latter 
case to be readily cut by the graver or dry point, 
and have sufiicient plasticity to yield to pressure, 
and insinuate itself into the finest lines of the har- 
dened steel against which it is pressed. 

The use of steel in preference to copper may be 
credited to Mr. Perkins and the engraver Warren. 

Warren annealed his plates at a high temperature 
in earthen boxes packed with pounded oyster-shellsi 

The practice in the Bank of England, as modified 
by Oldham, is to anneal at one time four cast-iron 
boxes, each containing from three to six steel plates, 
surrounded on all sides ^ith fine charcoal, mixed 
with an equal quantity of chalk, and driven in hard. 

The reverberatory furnace employed has a circu- 
lar cast-iron plate or bed upon wnich the four boxes 
are fastened W wedges, and as the plate is slowly 
and continually revolved by power from the steam- 
engine which orives the prinnnff-presses and other 
machinery of the building, the plates are exposed to 
an equal heat. When the required temperature is 
attained, all the apertures are carefully closed and 
luted to exclude the air and extend the cooling over 
at least forty-eight hours. 

The surfaces of the cylinders and plates are thus 
rendered exceedingly soft to the depth of about ^ 
of an inch, so as to be almost as impressible as 
lead and readily yield to the pressure of the transfer- 
press, where they are brought in contact with the 
counterpart portion, the softened cylinder with the 
harden^, onginally engraved plate, or the softened 
plate with the hardened roller, whose design was re- 
ceived during the soft stage from the hardened plate, 
which had been engraved during iU soft condition. 

In some cases the extremely soft surface of the 
plates is planed off. In the Bank of England the 

Slates are used for printing without previous har- 
ening, as they can then be repaired, the parts 
brought up sharply by re-rolling under the transfer- 
roller. Danger of warping is also avoided. 

Though belonging to the hardening, and not to 
the aniualing process, it may here be mentioned, to 
complete the subject, that Oldham, Jr., has intro- 
duced a plan for precipitating the plates instantly 
into water, so as to prevent even an instantaneous 
exposure to the aip ; thus avoiding scale, or even a 
rough discoloration. See Tempering. 

Many recipes are extant in the trade for anneal- 
ing and hardening compounds ; such are frequently 
heirlooms and preserved with jealous care. Lime 
and ox-gali are recommended by the operators in 
the English mint as an annealing composition. 

For annealing of cast-iron, see Malleable 

Ede gives the following directions : — 

"In the annealing of steel, the same care is re- 

J[uired in the heating of it as there is in heating it 
or hardening, for overheating the steel is as injuri- 
ous in one case as in the other. In the process of 
annealing, artists differ very much, some approving 
of heating the steel and burying it in lime, some of 
heating it and burying it in cast-iron borings, while 
others approve of heating it and burying it in saw- 
dust. A far better plan is to put the steel into a 
box made for the purpose, and fill it with charcoal- 
dust, and plug the ends up so that the air is kept 
from the steel, then to put the box and its contents 
into the fire till it is neated thoroughly through, 
and the steel is at a low red heat ; it must then be 
taken from the fire, and allowed to remain in the 
box, without opening the box till the steel is cold. 
Then when taken out the steel will be nice and clean * 
and very soft, and without those bright spots which 
some mechanics call pins, and which are no small im- 
pediments to the filing and working of steel, and, in 
fact, the steel is believed to be improved by the pro- 
cess. A piece of stout gas-pipe, with a bottom weld- 
ed in, and a piug made for the other end, makes a 
very good box for a small quantity of steel ; but, for a 
large quantity, the box must be laige in proportion. 
If uie steel is very lai^, it is as well to make a char- 

Digitized by 





coal fire to heat it in, and then let the steel and the 
fice get cold together before it is taken out, and it 
will be equally soft. But it sometimes happens 
that a piece of steel is wanted in a hurry, and the 
steel, perhaps, is too hard to work on, and cannot 
wait for its being softened in a box ; in such cases 
it may be heated in an open fire, and buried in 
charcoal-dust till it is cold, or if it be heated to a 
red heat sufficient to be seen in a dark place, and 
then plunged into cold water, it will work more 
pleasantly, but not so soft as if it wei'e heated in a 
box with charcoal. There ai-e many that do not 
know the value of a good tool, because the steel 
they work on has never been properly annealed, and 
before the tool has half done its duty it is worn out, 
or wants repairing ; whereas, if the steel had been 
properly annealed, the same tool might h^ve lasted 
ten times as long without repairing. 

The process of annealing gongs, cymbals, bells, 
and mortal's of bronze, is a complete inversion of the 

Srocess cited above. The gong, for instance, which 
erives its name from the Chinese tshouivg^ a bell, is 
a compound of copper, 78 ; tin, 22. When cast, it 
is very brittle, from the quantity of tin, which is 
double the percentage of gun-metal (copper, 90 ; 
tin, 10), ana between that and the proportions of 
speculum metal (copper, 46 ; tin, 20). The speculum 
metal is called by lire the whitest, most brilliant, 
hardest, and most brittle of alloys. (Iridosmine is 
harder.) The gong when cast is as brittle as glass, 
but by being plunged at a cherry-red heat into cold 
water, and being confined between two disks of iron 
to keep it in shape, it becomes tough and malleable. 
Other bronze articles may be similarly tempered or 
annealed, as it has been variously termed. 

There are several ways of hardening copper, — by 
the fumes of phosphorus, by an alloy of the latter, or 
some other metals, — but these render it brittle and 
destroy its Usefulness for most purposes. In com- 
mon with many others, Prescott regrets the loss, or 
rather our non-discovery, of the lost art of tempering 
bronze. After a careful examination of what has 
been written on the subject, the writer is inclined to 
the opinion that the hardness was imparted by judi- 
cious alloying with tin and iron, by the hammer, 
and by a careful use of the annealing process to 
confer toughness upon the back while tne edge was 
allowed to maintain the hardness necessary for 
maintaining a sharp edge. See Bronze ; Alloys. 

Lewis's Annealing Box. The top, bottom, and 
sides consist of three separable pieces, to prevent 
warping by the heat of the annealing oven. The 
bottom forms a tray to receive the rectangular 

Fig. 240. 

LewisU AnmeaUng Bkc. 

frame forming the sides ; the top is strengthened 
by ribs, rests on rabbets in the sides, and is fastened 
by transverse rods. 

Washburn's Wiue-annealer. The wire is placed 
in a box, which is then chai^ged with a gas which 
will not oxydize the wire when the latter is heated. 
This is for the purpose of preventing the formation 
of scale, and obviating the subsequent use of an acid 

Rg. 241. 

(^) ^ 




Wa$fUnim^8 Annealing Box. 

bath to cleanse the wire. The vessel is provided 
with stopcocks by which the air in the interior is 
displaced and an artificial atmosphere or ^ substi- 
tuted. This is applicable to otner articles besides 

McCarty, June 11, 1861. The device is intended 
for annealing cut-nails. The process consists in 
confining them in a suitable vessel, subjecting both 

Fig. 242. 

Me Carty^s Annealing Box. 

vessel and contents to a red heat, and allowing the 
whole to cool from six to twelve hours, according 
to the size of the nails and tube, and maintaining 
the vessel air-tight during the heating and cooling 

Much attention has been directed to the annealing 
of cast-iron car- wheels. The obiect is to make the 
web soft and tough, so as to withstand the jar and 
strain incident to use, and at the same time have a 
hardened rim which vnW bear the wear. 

Whitney, April 25, 1848, placed the wheels in a 
pile in a cylindrical pit or case in which they were 
closely covered and left to cool gradually. A non- 
conducting jacket protracted the period of cooling, 
and contributed to the efiectiveness of the operation. 

Geisse, April 19, 1869. The wheels, wnile hot, 
are removed from the molds and piled in a cylindri- 
cal oven, where they are allowed to cool gradually. 
A blast of air is carried through the centers of the 
hubs, which, as the wheels are symmetrically piled, 
form a continuous air-duct, at the top of which is a 
conductor leading to the chimney. Dampers at the 
ash-pit and also in the chimney afibrd means for 
regulating the passage of air and thereby modifying 
the rate of cooling. By the means described, the 
wheels are induced to commence cooling at the cen- 
ters, the cooling gradually extending outward. The 
heat at no time is sufficient to draw the chill which 
has been conferred upon them in the mold. The 
object is to prevent the hubs shrinking away from 

Digitized by 





Fig. 248. 

Geisse^s Annealing Oven. 

the rims after the latter have cooled, as is apt to be 
the case when the cooling is initiated in the reverse 
Mo WRY, May 7, 1861. The car- wheels, alter- 
nating with layers of charcoal, 
^'^AL are built up into a pile in 

a pit, whicii is so arranged 
that the quantity of air may 
be graduated to regulate the 
combustion^ which Is designed 

Fig. 246. 

Mowry*s Car-Whed 

Moore^s Car 'Wheel Annealing. 

to be protracted. The double walls of the pit or 
annealing case form a non-conductor to retain the 
heat, and allow but a very gradual cooling to the mass. 
MooKE, December 5, 1865. The w^heels are re- 
moved from the molds while hot, are piled one above 
another in a vertical pit, with intervening rings so 
placed as to separate the chilled tire from the web 

which is to be an- 
nealed. The inte- 
rior space around 
n the hubs is filled 
^ with charcoal, and 
the outside space 
around the tires is 
filled mth sand. 
The charcoal, be- 
ing ignited by the 
heat of the wheels, 
bums slowly, and 
anneals the web 
of the wheel, while 
the sand protects 
the tread from the 
same action, re- 
taining the chilled 
surface which it 
has acquired in 
ju^ Moore, Octo- 
^ ber 9, 1866. This 
^ varies from the 
ISbonl's Oar -Wheel Annealing. preceding in the 

mode of introducing the air-draft, and in the mode 
of isolating the tires. 

The car-wheels are piled upon supporting rings at 
the bottom of the case, so that a passage is formed 
by the holes through the hubs for cold air, and an- 
other passage around the tread of the wheels for the 
draft for burning the charcoal, which is distribu- 
ted upon the perforated flanges of the ring inter- 
posed between each wheel. 

The openings in the base of the annealing caae 
are the means of admission of atmospheric air to aid 
in the combustion, and this supply is graduated to 
suit the requirements of the case. Another opening 
admits air to pass upward through tlie hubs to cool 

Ells's furnace for annealing and polishing sheet- 
iron. The sheets of metal to be operated on are placed 
in an iron box or muflfle, with layers of oxide of 
iron, lime, and animal charcoal between them, heat- 
Fig. 247. 

EUs^s Annealing Fumaee. 

ins the whole to about eight hundred degrees in a 
suitable furnace, meanwhile subjecting the box to a 
rocking and rotating motion. 

The attrition of the particles during the opera- 
tions of heating and cooling is to give the peculiar 
mottled and polished appearance of Russia sheet- 

In Wood's annealing furnace, 1867, the box has 
track wheels. Its lower 
plate has an upwardly ^ 248. 

projecting rim to hold 
the sand used as luting. 
The top is a rectangular 
box, wnich is inverted 
over the pack of sheets, 
and is clamped at the 
bottom portion. 

The plates are held in 

rigid compression be- ^^ ^^ 

tween the wagon bottom k^;;ii<;^^?^?s:ss>^>^;>;^^^^ 
and the inverted box ; Wood's Annealing Fumaee. 
the object being to pre- 
vent discoloration. The truck has wheels by which 
it traverses on the railway, and is thus run in and 
out of the oven. 

Worcester, September 25, I860. This arrange- 
ment is intended to give a solid support to the bed- 
plate of the box which contains the pack of sheet- 
iron or the other iron articles which are to be an- 
nealed. When the carriage is run into the oven 
with its load, consisting oi some tons of iron, if the 
bed-plate be supported m but a few places it is apt 

Digitized by 





to warp, which is destructive of the apj^aratus and 
ii^orious to the load then under treatment. In this 

Fig. 248. 

Worcester's Annealing Oven. 

oven are dwarf- walls on the sides of the oven, below 
the level of the bed-plate of the box as it is run into 
the oven. After the box has reached its position 
longitudinally, the winch at the end of the carria^ 
is turned and the bed lowered till it rests on the walls. 
A further turn or two of the winch lowers the sup- 
porting posts, so that they run clear of the bed-plate 
when the carriage is withdrawn. The withdrawal 
of the charge is the converse of the former action ; 
the carriage being run beneath the bed-piece of the 
box, the winch is turned so that the posts elevate 
the bed-plate from the walls, and the carriage is 
then withdrawn with its load. 

In Wood's patent, July 9, 1867, the sheets are 
compressed between the top and bottom of the box, 
which are temporarily clamped together. The ob- 
ject is to prevent warping and discoloration. 

M ALONE, May 22, 1 866. The furnace is at one end 
of the annealing chamber ; the caloric passes along the 

]ltaUnu*f Annealing Fumaee, 

upper flue, dives down side flues to the lower flue, 
and thence passes by apertures and cross flues to the 
chimney. The object is an even heat at all parts. 

Reynolds, February 13, 1866. This is an oven 
for decarbonizing and annealing iron. The caloric 
current from the furnarie passes by the flues M M, 
beneath the arches K AT, in the chambers, and 
thence by the diving-flues S S, and the lower flues- 
N, to the chimney. 

Annealing and tempering devices, especially in- 
tended for wii-e, and which act continually upon the 
wire as it passes through, will be considered under 
Wire Tempering and Annealing. As before re- 
marked, annealing and tempering are nearly allied ; 
the strictly tempering devices, however, are more 
conveniently considered under Tempering (which 
nee), as they generally consist in means for giving 
peculiar grades of temper to axes, cutlery, scythes. 


Reynolds'^s AnnecUing Fumaee. 

springs, etc., and in devices for securing the integ- 
nty of the articles under the great strain and 
change incident to the process. 

An-neal'ing Aroh. The oven in which glass-ware 
is allowed to cool gradually in order to anneal it. It 
is called a leer in some departments of glass-making. 

The annealing arch of the plate-glass manufacture 
is called a carquaise ; the front door, the throai. ; the 
back door, the gtceulette (little throat) ; it is heated 
by a furnace along the. side, called a tisar. The no- 
menclature is French, and indicates the source 
whence the manufacture was derived. 

An-neal'ing CoFor. The color which steel takes 
in tempering or exposure to progressive heat. 

An-nealing For'naoe. A furnace in which 
metals are heated nearly to fluidity, and then allowed 
to cool slowly, so as to render them less brittle or to 
make them malleable. 

Or, — as with glass, — a furnace in which the 
heat is retained for a considerable period in order 
that the process of cooling may be protracted. A 
glass-annealing furnace is called a leer. 

Gold, silver, and zinc are occasionally annealed in 
the process of working, to render them more trac- 
table. The process is of more especial and frequent 
application, however, to steel, bee Annealing. 

The annealing furnace for gold or silver in Jillets 
or planchets has an iron table in front on which a 
cast-iron carriage is loaded with the metal in jointed 
and luted tubes ; the car and its load are then run on 
to the floor of the furnace, and the door is lowered. 

An-neal'ing Lamp. A dentist's appliance for 
heating foil used in iilling excavations in carious 
teeth. It is a small alcohol lamp on a stand, and 
has a tray of mica or german-silver in which the 
foil is placed. The foil is more adhesive when 

An-neal'ing Ov'en. A chamber in which arti- 
cles are placed to allow them to cool gradually so as 
to make them tough. See Annealing. 

The annealing arch for glass is called a leer. 

An-neal'ing Pot. A closed pot set in a furnace, 
and used for exposing an object to heat without 
forming a scale of oxide. 

Pots for annealing wire are made annular, so as to 
receive with as little vacant space as possible the 
wire which is coiled therein. The smaller the 

Fig. 262. 

Wire-Annealing Pot. 

amount of air in the closed pot, the less the dete- 
rioration of the surface of the wire by exposure of 
its heated surface. 

Digitized by 





An-nilii-la-tor, Fira An apparatus for extin- 
guishiDg fire by the rapid production of carbonic- 
acid gas, which excludes the vital air from the com- 
bustible material. See Fire Annihilatok. 

An'on-lar Bit A boring bit which cut^ a circu- 
lar channel, but does not rout the central portion. 

Wads, buttons, and some other things, are made 
by a tool of this kind. 

One form of the diamond drill makes an annular 
groove, leaving a central cylindrical plug of stone. 
See Diamond Drill. 

Several annular boring tools are described and il- 
lustrated imder Auger, which see. 

An'na-lar Bor'er. A description of rock -boring 
tool, in which a circular groove is made in the stone, 
leaving an axial stem of unbored matter. The 
tool descends until the stem is nearly as long as the 
wings of the tool ; then, the latter being withdrawn, 
a grapnel is introduced into the hole, the stem 
broken off and raised. The borer is then relowered 
and the work proceeds. This mode of boring is con- 
venient for affording a perfect section of the strata, 
giving, if care be taken, the dip as well as t^e qual- 
ity. See RocK-BORiNo Tools ; Grapnel. 

Annn-lar-Cyrin-der Steam'-en-gine. A 
form of direct-acting steam-engine invented by Mauds- 
Fig. 268. 

lay, England, and patented by him in 1841. It con- 
sists of fixed inner and outer cylinders, between 
which is an annular steam space a, occupied by a 
piston c. This piston has two rods, d dy which pass 
through stuffing-boxes in the cylinder-head, and are 
keyed to the cross-head «. The latter connects by 
rods// with the guide-block gr, which reciprocates in 
the open-ended cylinder h. To a pin on the block 
g is attached the connecting-rod A, which passes to 
the crank on the paddle-sh^t. 

In another form of this engine the cylinder is 
annular and has 

Fig. 254. 

Annular' Cylinder ThbU Steam-Engine, 

Mnnd^y^s Annular- Cylindfr Sleam-Bngine, 

two piston - rods 
which connect to 
a cross-head plate, 
slotted to permit 
the movement of 
the connecting- 
Yod which passes 
thi-ough it. Rods 
pass up from this 
plate to an upper 
cross-head whose 
slides are within 
the annular cyl- 
inder. The con- 
necting-rod passes 
from this cross- 
head to the wrist- 
pin of the crank. 

It may be ne- 
cessary to remark 
that the Trunk 
Engine and the 
Annular - Piston 
Engine are dis- 
tinct devices. 
There is a certain 
similarity of ap- 
pearance, the in- 
ner and concen- 
tric cylinder, the most salient featui-e of novelty in 
appearance, being present in each engine. 

In the Annular -Cylinder Engine both cylinders 
are fixed and the piston reciprocates in the annular 
intervening space. 

1 1) the Trunk Engine the an - 
nular piston is attached to the 
inner cylinder (the t'runk) and 
reciprocates therewith ; the 
latter slides in stuffing-boxes 
at the ends of the fixed outer 
cylinder. See Trunk En- 

In another form of this de- 
scription of engine the parts 
ai-e somewhat modified. The 
two cylinder-heads are con- 
nected by a trunk which is ' 
of flattened form J5, as shown , 
in the plan. The piston A 
is of corresponding snape, and 
not strictly annular. It is 
connected by the rods H H, 
with the cross-head 0, from 
which proceeds the connect- 
ing-rod E leading to the crank 
/. The rods H H pass 
I through stuffing-boxes in the 
' upper head C, and the tnmk 
B connects the heads C D. 

Perhaps the most gigantic 
steam-engines in the world are 
the three engines, the Leegh- AnnMlar^Fiston Engine. 

Fig. 266. 

Digitized by 





water, the Cruquius, and the Lynden, erected 1840- 
50, for the purpose of draining the Haarlem Lake. 
This had an area of 45,230 acres, and a maximum 
depth of seventeen feet below the level of the boezem, 
or catch -water basin, of the district. The boezem 
carries the collected waters to the sea, into which it 
discharges by sluices at Katwyk on the North Sea, 
and at Spamdam and Halfweg on the Y, or the 
Southern end of the Zuyder Zee. See Koniiiklijk 
InstUut van Ingenieurs^ 1857 - 9, plaai 3, 4. 

Each of the three engines mentioned has two 
steam-cylinders placed concentrically, the one 
within the other, the outer of twelve feet diameter, 
and the inner one of seven feet diameter ; both are 
secured to one bottom and covered by one cover, 
but the inner cylinder does not touch the cover 
within \\ inches. There are two pistons, twenty- 
six inches deep, the compartments of which are 
fitted with cast-iron plates ; the outer piston is an- 
nular, and has a packing on both sides ; beneath 
this annular piston a constant vacuum is main- 
tained when working. The two pistons are con- 
nected by five piston-rods to a ^eat cross-head 
weighing about 190,000 pounds. Eight connecting- 
rods from the cross-head pass to the inner ends of 
eight working-beams, to whose outer ends the pis- 
ton-rods of eight pumps are suspended. These 
pumps are situated in a circular series around the 
steam-engine, theworking-beams 
radiating from an axis coincid- 
ing with a vertical prolongation 
of the cylinder piston-rod. (See 
Draining, for an illustration 
of the engine. ) 

The working of the engine is 
as follows : — 

Steam is admitted below the 
central piston, and lifts it, the 
annular piston, the cross-head, 
and the inner ends of the pump- 
beams ; causing the pump- pis- 
ton to descend. A hydraulic ap- 
paratus is brought into action to 
maintain the parts in this posi- 
tion until the pump- valves have 
had time to change. The equi- 
librium-valve is then opened, the 
steam passes above both pistons 
and drives them down, the 
pressure being nearly equalized on the upper and 
lower sides of the small piston, while nearly two 
thirds of it acts on the upper side of the annu- 
lar piston, which has a partial vacuum beneath 
it, to aid in the work. The effective stroke is also 
aided by the dead weight of the cross-head, which 
weighs over ninetv tons, and by the weight of the 
pistons and rods oi the engine. 

Each engine has two air-pumps of forty inches 
diameter, and five feet stroke. The steam is cut 
off in the small cvlinder at from one fourth to two 
thirds of its stroke, according to the load, and is 
then farther expanded in the firge cylinder. 

When working with the net power of 350 horses, 
the average consumption is 2j pounds of Welch 
coal per horse-power per hour, or 76,000,000 pounds 
of water raised one foot hi^h with 94 pounds of 
coal. The duty of the engines has been as high 
as 87,000,000. See Duty. 

The Lynden and Cruquius engines work eight 
pumps, each of seven ty-tnree inches diameter and 
ten feet stroke. The Leeghwater works eleven 
pumps of sixty-three inches diameter, ten feet 
stroke, each engine being calculated to lift sixty- 
six cubic meters of water per stroke. 

Fig. 266. 

The three engines are capable of discharging 
2,000,000 tons of water in twenty-four hours at 
their full depth. They were erected by two Eng- 
lish companies. 

An'n.u-lar Qear'- 
"WheeL A wheel whose 
teeth are on the concavity of 
an annulus, or ring, which 
is destituteof web or spokes. 

An'nu-lar Mi-orom'e- 
ter. A form of the circular 
micrometer invented by 
Fraunhofer of Mnuich, con- 
sisting of an annular glass ■ 
disk whose central aperture 
is about half an inch in diam • 
eter and bounded by a me- 
tallic ring which is cemented to the inner edge of the 

T)ie metallic ring is used to determine differences 
of declination between stars, from the differences 
of time occupied by them in traversing different 
chords of the ring. See Circular Miorometsr. 

An'nu-lar Pan. A ring-shaped trough in which 
the vertical grinding-wheels of an ore-crusher re- 

The main shaft may stand in a central aperture 
of the bed and receive motion from a horizontal 

Kg. 257. 

AnmUwr Wheel and Pinion. 

AxmuUar Pan, 

shaft beneath. The pulverized ore, mixed with 
water, is loosened up oy rakes, and scraped from 
the sides to the wheel-tracks by knives. The wheels 
follow different tracks. 

The pan form of amalgamator is a favorite, and 
several illustrations may be seen under Amalgama- 
tor, Figs. 144-153, WD. 78-81. 

An'nu-lar Sa^v. The annular saw for cutting 
pearl-button blanks is a steel tube with a ser- 
rated end. 

The annular saw of the suigeon is the trepan^ or, 
preferably, the trephine ; which see. Other varie- 
ties of annular saws are known as crown, barrel, 
drum, or q/linder saws ; which see. 

An'na-lar Valve. A gravitating-plate valve of a 
circular form and with a circular central aperture. 
It works upon a stem by the upward pressure of 
water, and closes an annular aperture when the lift- 
ing force is removed. See illustration in Screw- 
Propeller Steam-Engine. 

An'nu-lat-ed Corunm. A clustered column girt 
by bands. 

An'nu-let. A flat molding ; a small square 
member in the Doric capital. 

An-nun'oi-aptor. Annunciators are substitutes 

Digitized by 





for the old-fashioned arrangement of bells iu hotels, 
etc. Instead of each room being connected to a 
separate bell in the othce of the hotel, the bell-pull 
of each room is connected to a single bell, which 
gives notice to the clerk or porter, and at the same 
time a pendulum with the number of the room is 
caused to vibrate, or the shield is removed from a 
number corresponding to that of the room. The 
devices are vanous. The general scheme is to con- 
nect the wire from the room to a numbered plate, 
which is moved up to an opening and thereby ejc- 
poses its number to view. The wire at the same 
time trips a trig^r which actuates the hammer of 
the bell. A variation in the modo of operation is 
found in those annunciators whose openings are all 
covered by pivoted shields, the numbers being per- 
manently attached in the rear. The motion of the 
wii-e trips the sounding-hammer as before, and at 
the same time trips the shield to which it belongs, 
and causes it to oscillate from before the opening 
and expose the numl^er to which it belongs. A 
crank operated by the hotel clerk restores the 
normal condition after the number has been ob- 

HoRSFALL, October 4, 1853, and Hale, April 22, 
1856, are among the earlier inventors. 

In Horsfall's, the wire from the room operates 
a rod whose horizontal lifting and trippitig arm ex- 
tends beneath its appropriate swinging index-plate. 
The rod and arm are arranged in such remion 
to the rocking-frame which carries the alarm-bell, 
that, as either of the rods is raised for the pur- 
pose of tripping one of the index-plates and expos- 
ing its number to view, the frame and bdl will be 
also raised, and the pendulous hammer allowed to 
descend some distance. When the rod descends 
after tripping the index-plate, the rocking frame 
and bell also descend, and the contact of the short 
arm of the hanmier with a lever causes the hammer 
to sound the alarm, subsequent to the exposure of 
the number. 

The index-plates are thrown back to their cover- 
ing position by an eccentric rod and connecting 

In the example annexeil, a crank arm is at- 
tached to the center of the lever, and is acted 

Fig. 268. 

Hotel Annunciator. 

upon by the wire, carrying a pendulum in front of 
the face of the annunciator, and by its vibration 
denoting the wire acted upon and the number of 
the room. 

la Fig. 259 the annunciator is so arranged that 
the lifting of any wire shall not alone expose the 
number of the apartment, but shall lift a plate, and 
through the connecting wire cause the hammer to 
strike upon the bell. The slides, with the numbers 
upon their faces, have projections on their rear with 
holes through which the wires pass, and the upward 

matic annunciator. The chamber of the guest and 
the hotel office are each provided with an indexed 
gage, consisting of a hollow tube containing a colored 
liquid. At the back of each tube is a graduated in- 
dex marked at intervals, "fire," "light," "water," 
"brandy," "towels," etc., as may suit the aver- 
age of customers. The respective tubes are con- 
nected by an air-pipe, into which air is injected by 
the guest, to raise the liquid in the respective tubes 
to the point which indicates his wants*. 

An'ode. That pole of the galvanic battery by 
whirh the electricity enters into the substance suffer- 
ing decomposition ; the positive or + pole. This 
nomenclature was adopted by Professor Faraday. 

Digitized by 





A-nor'tho-BCope. The name gjiven by M. Pla- 
teau of Brussels to an instrument invented by him 
and intended to produce a peculiar kind of anamor- 
phosis by means of two disks rotating rapidly one 
before the other ; the hinder one is transparent and 
bears distorted figures, while the front one is opaque 
and is pierced with a number of narrow slits. On 
revolving the disk the distortions appear as amusing 
and interesting figures and pictures. As in other 
toys of a similar kind, the etfect de^nds upon the 
persistence of impressions on the retina. — Grande. 
It probably suggested the Zoetrope\ which has lately 
become so popular in the United States. See ThaUt 
^ATROPE ; Phenakistoscope ; Stroboscope. 

An'sas. (Artillery.) The handles of some kinds 
of brass ordnance. 

An'ta. {Architecture.) A pilaster occurring at 
the corner of a flank wall. 

An'te-fix'se. (Architecture.) a. Ornaments 
placed below the eaves of a Grecian temple ; perfo- 
rated to allow the escape of water from the roof. 

h. Blocks covering the termination of the ridge 
foimed by the overlap of the tiles on a Grecian roof. 

An'te-mu'raL {Fortification.) An outwork con- 
sisting of a high, strong wall with turrets, for the 
defence of a gate. 

An-ter'i-des. Buttresses. 

An'te-so-la'ri-um. A balcony facing the sun. 

An-te-ven'na. An awning, or shade roof. 

An'tho-type. A photographic process in which 
the colored juices of the wild Popi)y, rose, stock, 
etc., are effaced by the action of light. 

An'thra-oene. A solid crystalline hydrocarbon, ac- 
companying naphthaline in the distillation of coal-tar. 

An-thra-oom'e-ter. An instrument for measur- 
ing the amount of carbon in a given case. — Beil. 

An'ti-at-tri'tion Com'pound. For the bear- 
ings of machinery and axles of carriages. See Lu- 
bricant ; Alloy ; Anti-friction Composition ; 
Anti-friction Metals. 

An'ti-cli'iial Lina (Mining Engineering. ) The 
axis of curvature on the arch or saddle of a range, on 
each side of which the strata dip. Opposed to Syn- 

An'ti-frio'tion Bearing. A rolling bearing for 

Fig. 261. 

Antufrietion Bearing. 

an axle or ^dgeon. The intention is that the parts 
primarily m contact shall not rub against each 
other, but move in unison. In one form the roller 
surfaces impinge upon the surfaces of the axle 
and its box (Fig. 261) ; in another form the rollers 
are on axles (see Fig. 263). A familiar illustration is 
also found in the improved form of hanging grind- 
stones (see Fig. 265). 

The " Palier Glissant," of Girard, consists of a 
journal box whose lower part is grooved and has an 
aperture communicating with a pipe through which 
water under a heavy pressure is introduced beneath 
the journal. The effect of this is to slightly lift the 
journal, allowing a very thin film of water to escape, 
which effectually lubricates the bearing, entirely 
preventing contact of the metallic surfaces. 

This is analogous to the hydraulic pivot for tur- 
bine wheels, invented by the same engineer, in 
which the weight of the 
turbine and its vertical Kg- 282. 

shaft is supported by a 
water cushion, in the same 
manner as is the horizontal 
axis in the former case. r 

An'tl-frio'tlon Box. ^ 
An enclosure for the balls 
or rollers of a step or bear- 

An'ti-frio'tlon Com- 
po-Bx'tion. A lubricat- 
ing material or compound 
to diminish friction of Anti'/rietion Box. 

parts moving in contact. 

The compounds are numerous, and include the fol- 
lowing materials in various combinations : — 

Alloys. See Anti-fric- Mucilage. 

TioN Metals. 
Borings of Metal. 

Fiber, Animal. 
Fiber, Vegetable. 

Oils of various kinds. 
Pasteboard saturated with 


Shavings of wood. 
Silicate of soda. 
Tannic acid. 

Wood saturated with oil. 
Wool flock. 

An'tl-fric'tion Met'als. Alloys principally used 
for bearings of machinery and for journal boxes. 
Several are described under the head of Allots 

Some variations are found in the formulas, com- 
paratively few agreeing even in the composition of 
Babbitt's metal, patented in 1839, and so much used 
throughout this country and in Europe. The fol- 
lowing table will give the composition of several : — 

Babbitt's . 

Another formula 


Belgian, for objects ex- 
posed to friction 
" exposed to shocks 
" exposed to heat . 




Engl. Pat. 896 of 1863 . 



. 1 







5 1 


2 1 











17i 1 026i 1 

16, ,8 1 


62 34 . 11 


2.5 1 76 4.5 i 









Digitized by 




An'tir-frio'tion Press. A press in which the 
power is obtained by the rolling of two cams against 
an intermediate roller. See Rollino-Cam Press. 

An'ti-fric'tlon Pulley. A device for the pur- 
pose of lessening the friction of the sheave on its 
pin. An annular system of anti-friction rollers sur- 
round the pin, and rotate on their own axes as they 
revolve on the pin. They are maintained at their 

Fig. 268. 

AnH'JHction Pulleys. 

proper relative distances by a ring or series of links, 
so that the faces of the rollers themselves do not 
come in contact, as contacting faces, under these 
circumstances, would be revolving in different direc- 
tions, and great friction would result. 
An'ti-fdo'tion Step. A bearing at the end of a 

rotating shaft, to' 
yig- 264. dimini^ the fric- 

tion of the con- 
tact with the step 
when pressure is 
applied longitu- 
dinally. In the 
step for propeller 
shafts, tne loose 
collar j5 has anti- 
friction wheels on 
radial axes, which 
act between a 
collar on the pro- 
peller shaft and a 
fixed plate trav- 
ersed by said 
shaft. The ob- 
ject is an anti- 
friction l>caring to take the end strain of the shaft. 
A somewhat similar arrangement is used for ver- 
tical shafts in .some cases. See Fig. 262. 

An'ti-frio'tion "Wheel The wheels C C form 
a rolling bearing for a shaft, so as to diminish its 
friction thereon ; the bearings for the axis of a 
grindstone, for instance, as shown in Fig. 265. 
Analogous devices are found in many machines and 
in carriages. See Journal Bearings ; Axle. 

An'tl-gug'gler. A small tube, inserted into the 
mouth of a bottle or carboy to admit air while the 
liquid is running out, and thereby prevent guggling 
or splashing of corrosive liquid. 

An'ti-in'oms'ta-tor. A device or a composition 
to prevent the incrustation of steam-boilers. 

One class of improvements in this line is mag- 
netic ; it depends upon keeping up an electric 
action which prevents the adherence of the scale of 
salts of lime, etc. 

Another class consists of mechanical agents, and a 
third of chemical. See Incrustation in Boilers. 
An-tim'e-ter. An optical instniment for measur- 

AntirfHttion Step. 

Fig. 266. 

Anti'friaion WkeeU. 

ing angles. A modification of Hadley's Quadrant, 
long since superseded by superior instruments. 

An'ti-mo-ny. Equivalent, 129.03. (Symbol, Sb: 
Stibium.) Specific gravity, 6.8; Melts at 995.5, 
Fah. ; passes off in vapor at a white heat. It has a 
peculiar taste and smell. It is a bluish -white, brit- 
tle metal, and is much used in hardening type-metal, 
to which it also imparts the faculty of not shrinking 
in cooling. It enters into the composition of some 
other alloys, such as one kind of speculum metal. 

Its salts are much used in medicine and pyrotech- 

Antimonjr was known to the Hebrews as a cos- 
metic. With it, it is supposed that the wicked 
Jezebel painted her eyelids and eyebrows, B. c. 884, 
just before she was thrown out of window by the 
orders of the cruel Jehu, who trod her under the 
feet of his horse, and left her to be devoured by 

The Arab women use kohl to increase the brillian- 
cy of the expression of their eyes, as the Hebrew 
women did down to the times of Jeremiah and Eze- 
kiel, and later. It is yet an Oriental custom. Lit- 
tle toilet boxes and bottles for kohl are found among 
the relics of the ancient Egyptians, and are j)reservea 
in many collections ; for instance, in the Abbott 
Collection in the X)OS8ession of the Historical Society 
of New York. 

Basil Valentine introduced the metal antimony 
into the practice of medicine. Observing that some 
swine fattened surprisingly (|uick after the adminis- 
tration of the drug, he tried it on some of the monks 
in his vicinity, who had become much attenuated 
by their Lenten fast. The account says that the^ 
were all killed, and hence the name Anli-moine. It 
was previously called Stibium^ and yet retains that 
title in scientific nomenclature. 

An'tl-mo-ny Fur'nace. The antimony furnace. 
Fig. 266, as at present used, is a reverbemtory whose 
hearth is formed of clay and sand solidly rammed 
together and sloping from all sides towards the 
middle, at which place is the discharge oiiening, 
temporarily closed with coal-ashes. Tlie air chan- 
nel passes up through the fire-bridge, and t}i»' fi't* 

Digitized by 





Fig. a06. 

Ai^imony Furnace. 

is in the chamber at the end, the flame reverber- 
ating in the chamber above the ore. The charge is 
introduced at the usual opening, which is closed by 
a door while the operation is in progress. The 
slag is drawn off at the same opening. The sul- 
phuret of antimony is found associated with gauges 
of quartz, sulphate of barytes, and carbonate of lune, 
and is easily fused therefrom by the application of 
heat in the fiimace described. It is not obtained 
perfectly pure therefrom, but is fused again under 
coal-dust in crucibles on a reverberatory hearth. 

The former mode of obtaining the metal from the 
ore consisted in exposing it in luted crucibles which 
are placed in a furnace (Fig. 267). The crucibles 
have openings in the bottom, and are luted to a 

Kg. 267. 

Antimony Orueible. 

pei-forated tile which forms the roof of a lower 
chamber containing a pot into which the metal 
escapes as the operation proceeds. The gaHgue re- 
mains in the crucible above. This method is found 
to be very destructive of crucibles. 

The crude antimony is purified by repeated ex- 
posure at moderate heats to expel the sulphur and 
fuse the metal. The difficulty in the treatment arises 
from the volatility of the metal, which escapes if 
excess of heat be applied. This is in the domain 
of chemistry. 

The ordinary alloys of antimony are : — 

Type Metol 
Stereotype Metal 
Music Plates 
Britannia Metal 

Antimony. Lead. Tin. Copper. Bismuth. 

1 4 

1 6 

1 1 1 

8 100 2 2 

1 12 

An'ti-qua'ri-an. A size of drawing^per measur- 
ing 52^ X 30^ inches, and weighing z83 pounds to 
the ream. 

An-tique' [an-teek']. (Type.) A fancy style in 
which each stroke of the face has an equal thick- 
ness. There are many varieties. 

An'tl-Bep'tlo. See Wood, Preservation of ; 
Food, Preservation of. 

An'viL {Forging.) 1. This is ordinarily a mass of 
iron which sustains a piece of metal while the latter 
is being forged to shape. In its ordinary form, where 
the hammer is worked by hand, it has a si^uare 
central block, and a strong, projecting, and pointed 
piece of steel called the beak or honi. The quarter 
has holes for tools such as cutters and swages, and 
the whole is mounted on a block. Isaiah speaks 
(xlis 7) of him that smites the anvil in connection 
with the art of the goldsmith, and also refers to 
the subsequent soldering. 

In heavy operations, such as the forgings of 
heavy ordnance and shafting, the anvil consists of 
an enormous iron block imbedded to a considerable 
depth and founded on piles or masoniy. 

rig. 268 shows the ordinary blacksmith's anvil^ 

Fig. 268. 

Antril and Tools. 

and illustrates the methods of making bolts. 

a face of the anvil. 

b horn or beak. 

c hardy hole, with rounding-iron inserted. 

n body or web of the anvil. 

In forming a bolt by the drawing-dmon process, 
the size of the bar of iron is reduced at proper 
intervals by fullers, and the operation is completed 
by the rounding-irons, shown at c and rf, leaving 
the head of the full size of the bar A, which is then 
cut off with a chisel. 

In upseUing, the body of the bolt remains of the 
full size of the bar, while the head is enlarged by 

Digitized by 





upsetting, that is, driving the end down upon the 
body with a hammer, thus forming an enlargement ; 
or it is eulaiged by jumping^ tliat is, beating the 
heated end forcibly on the anvil ; in either case, 
the head of the bolt is finished by means of the 
heading-tool, two varieties of which are shown at 
c and/. 

The third process of bolt-making is by welding 
or builditig up ; a bar of flat iron is bent around 
the horn of the anvil, as shown at i, and the bar of 
round iron intended to form the body is inserted 
through it ; the ring is then cut off at the proper 
length by the chisel, shown at k, and the head 
finished as usual. ^ is a swage for forming hexag- 
onal heads to bolts, or other hexagonal or tri- 
angular forms, and /, m, represent bolts, in the first 
of which the head is partially made, and in the 
latter completed. 

Tubal Cain, the descendant in the sixth genera- 
tion of Cain, is the first recorded blacksmith, and 
the necessities of his craft must have inti'oduced 
the anvil before the time of Cinyra of Cyprus, who 
is credited with the invention by PHny. 

The anvil of the Greeks and Romans (irunis) was 
usually of bronze, and was shaped like our own. 
It had a horn, and was mounted on a wooden block. 

Among numerous varieties of anvils for special 
trades, and to give a more extended usefulness to the 
space occupied by the implement, may be cited one 
in which a shears and punching - machine are com- 

rig. 268. 


Anvil Shears and Punch. 

tly placed beneath the anvil, and are worked by 
landcrank, pinions, and segment-rack. 

Another anvil has a secondary horn, is socketed 
upon the beak of the anvil, and confined tliere by 
a ninged link. On the upper surface of the secon- 
dary horn are grooves into which the shoe is driven 

Fig. 270. 

r^ ^ 


SO as to bevel the inner edge, to facilitate its free- 
ing itself from snow which becomes packed inside 

In Fig. 271 the anvil is supported by a stout 
spring, whose recoil is par- 
tially counteracted by the Fig. 271. 
light springs above. The ob- 
ject is a certain amount of re- 
siliency without jar as the 
anvil regains its normal posi- 

The gold-beater's anvil, 
when using the forging-ham- 
mer, is a block of steel, four 
inches long, and three broad. 
The ingot is reduced by this 
operation to a thickness of 
one sixth of an inch. 

The anvil used in the sub- 
sequent operation is a block 
of black marble twelve inches 
square at top, and eighteen 
inches deep, framed in a wood- 
en block. 

Anvils are tempered in a 
^/loatf instead of being merely Spring Anvil. 

dipped. The rapid formation 

of steam keeps tne water from close contact with the 
metal, and in the float a copious stream of water is 
poured upon the surface to be hardened, falling par- 
ticularly upon the center of the face. 

Large anvils are slung from a crane into a tank 
beneath a fall of water, where they are hardened ; 
being lifted before the main bulk of the iron is 
cooled, the remaining heat is allowed to draw the 
temper to the right degree, when the anvil is in- 
stantly immersed. 

The casting of an anvil weighing 358,000 pounds 
is thus desciibed by the ** London Engineer : — 

** Another immense casting has been turned out 
by the Midland Works, Sheffield, viz. a 160-ton 
anvil-block for a steam-hammer. In the center of 
the floor a great pit was du^, and in this the mold 
was formed, the anvil being cast with its face 
downward. The mold was 12 feet square at the 
base, and 11 feet 6 inches deep, and it was es- 
tinjated that nearly 170 tons of iron would be 
required to fill it. At intervals outside the shop 
were five furnaces, and at six o'clock in the morn- 
ing these commenced to pour their molten con- 
tents into the huge chasm, and continued until 
about five o'clock, when the operation was declared 
to be successfully completed. From four or five 
different points streams of liquid fire were slowly 
rolling to the edge of the pit, where they fell 
amidst showers of starry sparks into the vast mass 
beneath. A metallic rod was thrust through the mass 
to test its peifect liquidity, and, this having been 
satisfactorily proved, the top of the pit was carefully 
closed, to be opened no more until the metal has 
cooled, which will probably be in about seven 
weeks. The arjvil is intended to be placed in a 
gim -manufactory in the vicinity. The bed consists 
of a first course of great piles, which have been 
driven by steam-power 15 feet into the solid ground. 
Upon these is a thick bulk of oak, solidly braced 
and bolted together, and the combined mass forms 
the bed of the anvil. Only about half a foot of 
its bulk will appear above ground. The block will 
have to sustain the blows of a 25-ton steam-hammer 
which will be employed in forging 600-pounder and 
300- pounder guns for Mr. Whitworth." 

Mr. Ireland, of Manchester, England, has a porta 
ble })lant for casting large anvil-blocks in the posi- 

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tion they are to occupy on the premises where they 
are to be used. He furnishes everything but the 
iron and the blast. 

" The plant used at Mr. Bessemer's works con- 
sisted simply of a cupola 4 feet in diameter within 
the lining, and 12 feet deep to the charging-door, 
constructed on the "upper tweer" principle. A 
belt about 2 feet 9 inch&s deep surrounds the cylin- 
der at aboijt 7 feet from the ground, and into this 
belt the blast is delivered by two large pipes, one 
on either side. The upper row of tweers consists 
of sixteen orifices, each about 3 inches in diameter, 
ranged ec^uidistantly above the level of the main 
supply pipes, which discharge into the lower por- 
tions of tne belt. The lower tweers are only four 
in number, each about 8 inches in diameter, dis- 
posed opposite each other, but not opposite the 
main pipe^. By this means the blast is very equally 
distributed through all the tweei-s. At the time 
of our visit, this cupola was bringing down 9 or 
10 tons of iron per hour, and Mr. Ireland has 
recently cast ah anvil-block, weighing no less than 
205 tons, at the Bolton Iron and Steel Works, at 
the rate of 25 tons per hour, with two cupolas 
precisely similar to the one under consideration. 
The consumption of coke is very moderate, when 
once everythmg is well warmed up, not greatly ex- 
ceeding one cwt. of coke per ton of iron. A strange 
contrast exists between such operations as this and 
those in which Mr. Ireland first engaged in the 
year 1809, when he, in common with many other 
foundei-s, considered it a good day*s work to melt 
a single ton of iron in ten hours. 

** It is not easy to see how the casting of large 
masses can be more economically effected than 
under this system. . Thp lining of the cujx)la being 
removed, it is brought into the condition of an 
ordinary boiler shell of no very excessive weight, 
easily admitting of transport by either rail or water. 
The whole affair being carried out by contract, 
the manufacturer is saved an immense amount of 
trouble and responsibility, while all the operations 
being conducted by those who possess a special 
knowledge and experience of the matter in hand, 
the best results are sure to be obtained at the 
least possible outlay. In many case^, without the 
existence of such a system, the manufacturer would 
find himself compelled to erect a cupola of large 
dimensions for which, the 
block once cast, he would 
have no further use." — 
London Engineer. 

2. In the Laidley car^ 

tridge (Fig. 272) is an anviU 

plate A which is held in 

Cartridge Anvil. position by a shoulder d 

on the capsule. On the 

plate is a nipple which holds the percussion -cap. 

Fig. 272. 


Fig. 278. 


and the latter is exploded 
by a blow on the rear, de- 
livered by the nose of the 
gim-lock. B is the bullet 
retained by spinning down 
the edge of the capsule. 

3. A little pennon on 
the end of a lance. 

An'vil-out'ter. A 
shears operated by a blow 
of a hammer, for the use 
of V>lack8miths. 

The lower cutter is upon 
one end of a lever whose 
other end is elevated by a 
spring to open the jaws. 

The jaws are closed by a blow of the hammer upon 
the ou er end of the lever. 

A-or'tio Com-presB'or. An instrument for com- 
pressing the aorta to limit the flow of blood from 
thence to the divided femoral artery in cases of am- 
putation at the hip joint. See Surgeon-General 
Barnes's Jieport^ Circular No. 7. 

Ap'er-ture. 1. (Architecture.) An opening inn 
wall or partition, for a window, door, ventilation, or 
to form a recess. 

The sides are jambs. . 

The top is the head, or lintel. 

The bottom is the sUl, or threshold. 

2. (Optics.) The orifice in the end of a telescope 
or other optical instrument through which light en- 
ters. The diameter of the exposed portion of the 
object-glass ; as, *' 6-inch aperture." 

Aphlo-^'tic Lamp. Literally, flameless. A 
lamp in which the wick, of platinum wire, is kept 
constantly red-hot by the slow combustion of alco- 
hol, heated by the \**ire itself. 

A'pi-a-ry. A place where bees are kept. It gen- 
erally assumes the fonn of a house forming a com- 
mon shelter for the hives, but in some cases tie 
hives are more closely associated and form a cluster 
of families, occupying a bee "palace." This is fre- 
quently an oi-namental structure, with a number of 
apartments for brood comb, and outlying, removable 
boxes for containing surplus honey. The ijiterior 
has provision for ventilation by gauze-lined tubes, 
and the portions communicate by: ducts, or by 
holes in the partitions. Provision is made for part- 
ing oflf certain portions which are removable with 
their tenants and provisions to form a nucleus for 
another cluster of families. The intention of the 
bee-palace arrangement has been to give the bees 
the advantage oi combined effort and at the same 
time prevent natural swanning by making colonies 
removable. Experience indicates that they rffn 
well for a season and then dwindle, becoming a prey 
to their natural enemies, among which the most 
fatal is the bee moth. Individual families are com- 
paratively short-lived, and modem apiarists have ob- 
tained such a command over' the fraternity, that the 
families may be divided at pleasure, with a frequen- 
cy and success dependent upon the resources of the 
bees for food and the salubrity of the season, always 
bearing in mind the tribal economy of the bees, 
which requires the presence of a queen. 

In some parts of the world the apiary consists of 
a collection which are formed into a village with 
avenues. They are sheltered in winter-quarters, and 
on the approach of spring are carried out to favor- 
able localities, where they work during the honey- 
making season. This is especially the case on some 
parts of the continent of Europe, where bee-keeping 
is systematized and followed as a regular branch of 
industry, the aim being to glean the favorable terri- 
tory of all the bee-supi)orting nutriment. 

Fig. 274. 


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The devices in apiaries, not considering those be- 
longing to hives, which are considered separately 
(see Beehive), are for ventilation, protection against 
storms and depredators, and for housing during 

In the compound hive (Fig. 274) the apartments 
are associated side by side in an outer case, and com- 
municate with each other laterally, and each with its 
removable honey-box above. This is an illustration 
of the lateral arrangement ; others are associated 

In Fig. 275 is shown another form of apiary 
whose "pigeon-holes" are occupied by drawers 
which are interchangeable and made to commu- 

Fig. 276. 


n|cate as required. Doors inclose the front, and 
the whole is mounted on a pillar to raise it out of 
the way of mice, etc. Ventilating arrangements 
are made in the interior, the ramifications extending 
to the pockets which contain the drawers forming 
the apartments. An ornamental character is given 
to the whole to make it an agreeable object in a 
bower or on a grass plat. 

Another bee-palace has a frame on which the 

Fig. 276. 

liives are supported, shelves for honey-boxes, doors 
for examination or change, and an enclosing shed 
above for protection from heat and wet. The lower 
part of the case has inclined sides and a falling door 
at bottom for the discharge of offal. 

In Fig. 277 the moths and grubs falling from the 
hives are directed, by the inclined sides of the lower 
portion, into the trap beneath. The trap has a 

Fig. 277. 

m^//////^/M^ m<^//////m 


funnel-shaped conductor, a perforated diaphragm, 
and a detachable bottom by which the insects and 
offal ai*e removed. Additional apartments for the 
extension of room are added above and on the sides, 
and admittance to them is afforded as requited by 
withdrawing the slides which command the ducts of 
communication. * 

Fig. 278 shows a hive which has a sunken hatch- 

FiK. 278. 


Digitized by 





way in the center, extendluf^ into a pit so as to 
bring the floor of the hive about on a level with the 
surface of the ground. The walls and ceiling are 
double, and have a layer of non-conducting material. 
A central chimney removes the vitiated air, and i-e^- 
isters determine the admission of air to each hive m 
the group. It is supported by posts which rest in 
cups of water to prevent access of ants and mice. 
The devices have particular reference to means for 
maintaining an even temperature ; the double sides 
and non-conducting material obstructing the pas- 
sage of heat outward in winter, and also moderating 
the effect upon the bees of the summer heat strik- 
ing upon the sides of the hive. The equality of the 
temperature is also conserved by the nearnes.s of 
the ground, while provision is made for removing 
effluvia or corrupt air which might accumulate in the 

Apla-nat'io Lens. A lens constructed of dif- 
ferent media so as to correct the unequal refrangibil- 
ity of the different rays. 

The object to be attained is that rays parallel to 
the axis of the lens or diverging from a point on its 
axis, after passing through it and sutrering refrac- 
tion at its surface, shall converge to a single point, 
the true focus. See Achromatk; Less. 

A-pol-lonl-oon. A large chamber-organ played 
by key-boards or by barrels, and exhibited in Lon- 
don some years since. It was constructed by Flight 
and Robinson in 1817. It had 1,900 pipes, 45 stops, 
5 key -boards and 2 barrels. The number of keys 
acted upon by the cylintlers was 250. 

Ap'o-me-oom^e-ter. An instrument for measur- 
ing hights, invented by a Mr. R. Millar, and manu- 
factured in Ixindon. 

The apomecometer is constructed in accordance 
with the principles which govern the sextant, viz. : 
As the angles of incidence and reflection are al- 
ways eq^ial, the rays of an object being thrown on 
the plane of one niirmr are from that reflected to the 
plane of another mirror, thereby making both ex- 
tremes of the vertical hight coincide exactly at the 
same point on the horizon glass, so that by meas- 
uring the base-line we obtain a result equal to the 

The eye of the observer when in position will be 
at the lower end of the hy^wtenuse,* and the summit 
of the object at the other. Keeping the line of vis- 
ion, which forms the base, exactly horizontal, the 
observer approaches the object till the images coin- 
cide, when the base will agiee in length with the 
perpendicular, and the measured length of the for- 
mer will ^ve th(^ hight of the latter. 

A-poph'y-geB. A molding of a rounded concave 
form. See MoLDiso. 

A-pos'tle. {Nautical.) A knight-head or bol- 
lard-timber where hawsers and heavy ropes are 

A-pos'tro-phe. An elevated comma-shaped point 
('), to indicate an abbreviation, as "don't for "do 
not " ; to mark the plural of figures or letters used 
as \\;ords, as ** two 20's," ** the font lacks A's" ; or 
to mark the possessive, as '* lago's trick." 

Ap'pa-ra'tiis. 1. A set of tools or implements 
for a given duty, experimental or operative. 

2. A complex instrument or appliance, mechan- 
ical^ or chemical, for a sj>ecific action, or opera- 

3. {Nautical.) A ship's war equipage and am- 

Ap-par'el. 1. Body clothing. 
2. {NatUical.) The masts, rigging, sails, and 
other gear of a vessel. 

Ap-pend'a-ges. {Shiphuildi-ng.) Relatively small 

portions of a vessel projecting beyond the general 
shape, as shown by the cross -sections and water-sec- 
tions. These parts usually consist of, — 

The keel below its rabbet. 

Part of the stem and stem-post. 

The rudder, rudder-post, and screw (if any). 

These volumes are calculated'separately and added 
to the main part of the displacement. 

Ap'ple-cor'er. Many of the apple-parers have 
attachments for dividing the fruit into quarters, or 
still more minutely ; m some cases tne apple is 
pushed from its impaling fork against a cutting-tube 
with radial knives, the tube receiving the core and 
the knives making the division. A device for cor- 
ing, slicing, and stringing fruit is shown in Fig. 
279. The fruit is placed above the coring-tube and 
its radial knives, and is pressed down upon the 


Fig. 280. 

Apple- Cortr. 

same by a plunger whose central part projects suffi- 
ciently to drive the core into the tube. The quar- 
tera are pressed upon sharp plates which enter the 
fruit a short distance, and are the means of introdu- 
cing strings which depend from the said plates ; the 
successive pieces push their pred- 
ecessors off the plates, and the 
pieces are thus strung and sus- 
pended until a sufficient quan- 
tity is gathered. The strings are 
then removed and empty ones 

Fig. 280 is an example of an 
implement consisting of a tube 
or circular cutter of sheet metal, 
slightly tapering from the cut- 
ting edge, and with four or more 
radial cuttere projecting from 
its circumference. The central 
plunger serves as a guide in aj>- 
plying the implement, and is 
afterwards the means of ejecting 
the core. 

Ap'ple-par'er. This is an 
ingenious American device, and 
created mingled emotions of ad- 
miration and amused surprise 
when it was introduced into Eng- 
land; the dateis not remembered, 
but it was referred to as a novelty ^ 
about 1840. Theiv are now over ^^^^ ^p^,. ^nd 
eighty patents, which apjwar to Quarterer, 

Digitized by 





agree in one respect, that is, the rotation of the fruit 
on the end of a fork. The operation requires two 
motions, which vary in the different machines. 

1. The cutter describes a semicircle in the plane 
of the axis of the fork while the fruit is rotating, so 
that it may remove a paring from the stem to the 
blossom end, following tlie rotundity 

of the fruit. 

2. An oscillatory motion is given 
to the fork, whose stock describes 
an arc in the plane of its length, 
presenting the rounded surface of 
the rotating apple to the knife, which 
cuts a continuous paring fi-om the 
fruit, from the stem to the blossom 

The first patents recorded are those 
of CoATES, 1803, and Cruttenden, 
1809 ; Gates added the quartering 
in 1810. The Patent-Office records 
^rished in the fire of 1836. We ' 
find that in Mitchel's patent, April 
13, 1838, the first granted after the 
fire, that the knife was operated by 
hand while the fruit was impaled 
upon a fork which was rotated by 
gearing. The pared apple was then pushed through 
an onening with a cruciform knife arrangement, By 
which it was quartered. 

Fig. 281. 

by gear connection wth the hand-crank shaft. The 
knii'e returns automatically to the place of com- 
mencement after making its 'effective sweep. 

In Fig. 283 the rotation of the fork is obtained 
by one motion of the hand in an arc of a circle, the 
smaller cog-wheel on the main shaft gearing into 

Fig. 288. 

In Fig. 281, date of 1857, the threaded shaft draws 
the slide, bringing the paring-knife against the sur- 
face of the apple which is impaled on the fork. 
The knife-stock is so pivoted on its shaft as to pre- 
sent the blade to the apple while following its con- 
vexitv to some extent. The work is not so thor- 
oughly done on the ends as by later inventions in 
which a positive semicircular sweep is given to the 
fruit or knife. The slicing-knife, which follows the 
parer, cuts the apple into a spiral, leaving a cylin- 
orical core-piece attached to the fork. In a later ma- 
chine, cams on the main and an intermediate wheel 

combine to oscillate 

Fig. 282. 


a rack, which sweeps 
the paring-knife al- 
ternately from the 
stem to the calyx of 
one apple, and in a 
contrary direction 
on the next. The 
device is attached by 
a clamp to the table. 
In Fi^. 282, the 
apple is impaled on 
the revolving fork, 
and the knife is made 
to sweep around au- 
tomatically, as its 
platform is revolved 

the curved rack and moving the larger cog-wheel 
which runs the pinion on the fork-shwt. The par- 
ing-knife and its stock have no motion on each other, 
but have such a progressive and rotary 
movement, that, as the apple is revolved, the 
knife will pass from the stem to the blos- 
som end of the apple, and adapt itself to the 
varying form and inequalities of the fruit 
being pared. The knife is automatically 
moved away from the fruit after the effective 
sweep, and resumes its operative position 
when returned to the starting-point. 

Ap'ple-quarter-er. An implement for 
dividing apples into quarters. 

A wooden plunger is pressed down upon 
the apple placed on a central point,* and 
forces it Mtween the four knives. In 
another form it is a coring-tube with four 
radial wings. 

Fig. 284. 

^^^^^^ ^i^'''^ 


Ap/pll-ca-tor. A surgical instrument, of form 
and proportions adapted to its specific uses, for ap- 
plying caustic, a tent, or other application to a deep- 
seated part. 

Ap-point'mentB. 1. (Persovud.) Accoutennents 
other than arms and ammunition. 

2. {Naval. ) The furnishing or equipment of a 

Digitized by 





Ap-proach'. In a military sense, either a route 
by which a fort, fortified town, or other military 
position, may be approached for the purpose of 
attack ; or the trench or protected road constructed 
by the besiegers for conveying ordnance, ammuni- 
tion, and stores, or for marching bodies of men to or 
from the parallel's ; in the latter case approaches 
may be either excavations, with the earth there- 
from thrown up as an embankment on the side ex- 
posed to the enemy's shot, or they may be formed of 
sand-bags, gabions, fascines, or anytmng, in short, 
which will stop a cannon-bEill. The works of this 
kind constructed durinsf the siege of Sebastonol in 
1854 and 1855 are probably without a parallel in 
modem history, if indeed they were ever equalled in 
the history of sieges. They embraced seventy miles 
of sunken trenches, and no less than sixty thousand 
fascines, eighty thousand gabions, and one million 
sand-bags were employed to protect the men working 
in the trenches and at the different batteries. 

A'pron. 1. A board or leather which conducts 
material over an oi)ening ; as, the grain in a separa- 
tor, the ore in a bvddle or frame, etc. 

2. The sill of a window or a dock entrance. 

3. The floor of a tail-bay. See Canal Lock. 

4. A leaden plate over the vent of a gun. 

6. A leathern covering for the legs of the person 
occupying the driving-seat of a vehicle. 

6. The piece that holds the cutting tool of a 

7. (Plumbing.) A strip of lead which leads the 
drip of a wall into a gutter ; a flashing. See Gut- 

8. {Shipbuilding. ) A timber within the stem of a 
vessel in prolongation of the dead wood. It strength- 
ens the stem, and affords wood for the reception of 
the plank of the bottom and the heels of the fore- 
most timbers. See Stem. 

A'pron-pieoe. (Carpentry.) A horizontal piece 
supporting the upper ends of the carriage-pieces or 
rough-strings of a wooden staircase. 

A •pilching-piece. The carriage which supports 
the steps is pitched or slanted against it. 

Apfeie, Ap'sifl. (ArcJiitecture.) a. The arched 
roof of a house, room, or oven. 

b. The domed semicircular or polygonal termi- 
nation of the choir or aisles of a church, where the 
altar was placed and where the clergy sat, in Gk>thic 

A-qaa'ri-um. A vessel containing salt or fresh 
water in which living specimens of aquatic animals 
and plants are maintained ; sometimes called viva- 
rium or aqtca vivariwn.' From the earliest times 
animals living in water have been kept alive in 
small vessels for exhibition or transportation by fre- 
quently changing the water, yet it is only since the 
nse of modem chemistry and i)hysiology tnat the tme 
principles of the a^^uarium have been discovered. 

As the air contained in the water is breathed by 
the animals and loses its vitality, the resulting 
gaseous product becomes deleterious and must be 
removed : this is the office of the plants in the 
modem aquarium ; these restore the oxygen and 
abstract the excess of carbonic-acid gas, their func- 
tion in the subaqueous vegetation being similar to 
that performed by the ordinary terrestrial flora. 

But, besides the animals and plants properly pro- 
portioned to each other to maintain the unitomi 
composition of the air in the water, it has been found 
necessary to add certain animals which feed on de- 
composing vegetable matter and act as the scaven- 
gers in this community ; such are the various species 
of molluscous animals, as the snails, etc. It is of 
importance to guard against the preponderance of 

animal life, for an excess of animals over plants in a 
given space will disturb the balance and lead to their 
destmction. The demonstration of these conditions 
is due to R. Warrington, 1850. In some cases where 
the supply is continuous, the fresh water maintains a 
healthy condition ; and the same effect has been at- 
tained by a succession of bubbles of air introduced 
into and ascending through the water to maintain 
the natural equilibrium destroyed by the animals 
breathing therein. Agitation of the water produces 
the same results more or less perfectly, but the effect 
is not so pleasing unless it be introduced withscenic 
devices or machines, such as paddles, wheels, mills, 
or moving automatons which require a supply of 
water to make them constant. 

In 1849 N. B. Ward grew sea-weed in artificial 
sea-water. A great at^uarium, one hundred and fifty 

Fig. 286. 


feet long and thirty-six feet wide, was constmcted in 
1860 in the Jardin d' Acclimation in Paris by Alford 
Lloyd of London. The same gentleman erected a 
magnificent aquarium in Hamburg. 

Fig. 286 shows an arrangement for the introduc- 
tion of air for the revivification of the water. It is 
an air-forcing apparatus consisting of an inverted 
weighted vessel whose edges are submeiged in the 

Fig. 2S6. 

Cutting^s Aquarium. 

water of the reservoir, and which connects by a flex- 
ible pipe with the interior of the tank. A."» the in- 
verted weighted air-holder descends gradually, it 

Digitized by 





forces air through the flexible .pipe into the aqua- 

The aquarium of the Paris ElxjMsition was a re- 
markable success, and has given rise to much more 
ambitious stmctures. The aquarium of Brighton, 
England, for instance, occupies ground 716 leet in 
length, with an average width of a hundred feet. 
The aquarium proper is divided into three corri- 
dors. The first is divided again into nineteen bays, 
which are roofed over with bricks, groined vaulting 
of red and black alternating with red and buff. The 
arches, ribs, and bosses are of Bath stone. The ex- 
treme length of the corridor is broken most effec- 
tively by a central square 55 by 45 feet, the groined 
vaulting forming a sort of cloister around the square, 
whQe the centrS portion is covered with an elabo- 
rate ornamental iron roof, partly glazed with antique 
colored glass. The tanks are arranged on either 
side, twenty-eight in number, averaging in size from 
II X 20 feet to 55 x 30 feet. The whole front work 
of the tanks is of Portland stone, ornamented 
with appropriate devices of fish, shells, marine mon- 
sters, and aquatic symbols. These fronts are in- 
closed by plate glass of great thickness, secured to 
the stonework by waterproof cement. The area of 
water surface visible in tne rear of the glass is 9 feet 
wide by 5 feet deen. The light of the corridors is 
only transmitted tnrough the water, thus affording 
to the visitor the sensation of being under water 
without the inconvenience of a wetting. At the 
eastern extremity of this corridor, which is 220 feet 
in length, the visitor finds before him the entrance 
to a fine conservatory. This entrance is at the junc- 
tion of the first and second corridors ; the latter, 
running north and south, forms right angles with 
the first corridor. The conservatory is 160 feet 
long by 40 feet wide and 30 feet high. The orna- 
mentation of this apartment is in keeping with that 
of the other parts of the building. It is chiefly in- 
tended for a sort of subterranean promenade, and is 
ornamented with plants, ferns, small aquaria, etc. 
Corridor No. 3, which is approached from No. 2, is 
of the same length as the conservatory, contains 
twenty tanks, some for fresh-water, others for salt- 
water fishes. At the end of this corridor are the 
engines and the store tanks, boiler, retiring and 
naturalists' rooms, and another flight of steps lead- 
ing to the terrace. 

The water for the tanks is supplied, by means of 
pumps, from reservoirs beneath the floor of the 
builoing ; and by an arrangement of pipes and 
pumping the water is kept constantly in motion 
throughout the aquarium. 

The whole cost about $ 250,000. 

A-qaatlo Box. An accessory to the microscope 
in the form of a shallow glass cell in which algse or 
animalculffi are placed for observation. 

A'qua-tint. A peculiar style of engraving on 
metal said to have oeen invented by St. Non, a 
French artist, about 1662. Otherwise stated to 
have* been invented by Le Prince, Metz, 1723. 
The process, briefly described, is as follows : A sur- 
face of resin is spread upon a polished plate in such 
a manner as to leave innumerable little uiterstices 
between the resinous particles. This surface cov- 
ering is called a ground, and may be made in two 
ways, — the dry process and the solution process. 

The dry process is performed by dusting over the 
very sligntly greased surface of the plate a shower 
of finely powdered resin. The surplus having been 
removed oy tapping the plate, which is held in a re- 
versed position, the particles are caused to adhere 
to the plate by warming the latter over a lamp, or; 
what is much better, the moderate diffused heat of a 

piece of burning paper. In the interstices between 
the particles of resin the plate is exposed to the ac* 
tion of acid, of which presently. 

The solution process consists in dissolving the 
resin in alcohol and flooding the plate with it, allow- 
ing the liquid to run off ; a film adheres to the plate 
and cracks in drying, leaving innumerable fine fis- 
sures where the plate is exposed. 

The design is now placed on the "ground," or it 
may have been previously etched in ; the latter is now 

S referred. A wall of wax being erected around the 
esign, it is flooded with dilute acid, as explained 
under Etching (which see). For copper plate, 
dilute nitrous acid is used (acid, 1 ; water, 5). For 
steel, dilute nitric and pyroligneous acid is used 
(nitric acid, 1 ; pyroligneous acid, 1 ; water, 6). As 
soon as the lighter tints are sufficiently bit in, the 
acid is removed and the plate washed and dried. 
The light portions being stopped out, that is, covered 
with Brunswick black to protect them from farther 
action of the acid, the latter is again applied for 
the second tint, and so on. The delicate gradations 
are obtained by flooding tind fetUhcringj which are 
nice technical operations, requiring ^kill only at- 
tained by practice, and for a descnption of which 
we cannot spare room. This is a cheap and effec- 
tive mode of engraving, and is not estimated at its 
proper value. The eflect produced is like a drawing 
m india ink. 

For different grounds the resin is more or less 
diluted ; thegreater the dilution the finer the ground, 
that is, the more delicate and numerous are the in- 
terstices in which the acid acts. A different ground 
is also obtained by a change of ingredients. Ber- 
gundy pitch, mastic, frankincense, and other resins, 
give various patterns of grounds, so to speak. 

Aq'ue-duot. A conduit for the conveyance of 
water. More particularly applied to those of con- 
siderable magnitude intended to supply cities and 
towns with water derived from a distance for- do- 
mestic purposes, or for conveying the water of canals 
across rivers or valleys. Pocock describes one 
erected by Solomon for conveying water from the 
vicinity of Bethlehem to Jerusalem. This was 
formed by earthen pipes about ten inches in diame- 
ter, encased with stone and sunk into the ground, 
and would seem to have conformed to its inequalities, 
indicating a more advanced state of hydraulic engi- 
neering in Solomon's time than is commonly sup- 
posed to have been possessed by the earlier Romans, 
who were justly famed for their works of this kind, 
which have never been surpassed in strength and 

The earliest account of any a(}ueduct for convey- 
ing water is probably that which is given by Herodo- 
tus (who was bom 484 B. c). He describes the 
mode in which an ancient aqueduct was made by 
Eui)alinu.s, an architect of Megara, to supply the 
city of Samoa with water. In the course of the 
ai^ueduct a tunnel, nearly a mile in length, was 
pierced through a hill, and a channel three feet wide 
made to convey the water. 

The first of the Eoman aqueducts (Aqua Appia) 
was built, according to Diodoms, by Appius Clau- 
dius, in the year of the city 441, or 812 B. c. The 
water which it supplied was collected from the 
neighborhood of Frascati, eleven miles from Bome, 
and its summit was about one hundred feet above 
the level of the city. 

The second ( Anio Vetus) was begun forty years after 
the last-named, by M. Curius Dentatus, and fin- 
ished by Fulvius Flaccus : it was supplied from the 
country beyond Tivoli, forty-three miles distant. 
Near Vicovaro it is cut through a rock upwards of a 

Digitized by 





mile in length, in which part it is five feet high 
and four feet wide. The water of this aqueduct 
was not good, and therefore only used for the most 
ordinary purposes. 

The third (Aqua Martia) was supplied fix)m a 
fountain at the extremity of the mountains of the 
Peligni. The water entered the city by the Es- 
quiline Gate. This aqueduct was the work of Quin- 
tus Martins, and had nearly seven thousand arches 
in a course of thirty-nine miles. 

The fourth (Aqua Tepula) was supplied from the 
vicinity of Frascati! 

The fifth (Aqua Julia) was about six miles long, 
and entered the city near the Porta Esquilina. 

The sixth (Aqua Virginis) was constructed by 
Agrippa thirteen years after the Julia. Its summit, 
in the territory of Tusculum, was about eight miles 
from Rome, which it entered by the Pinoian Gate. 
This water still bears its ancient appellation, being 
called Acqua Vergine. 

The seventh (Aqua Alsietina, called also Augusta, 
from the use to wnich Augustus intended to apply 
it for supplying his Naumachia) was brought irom 
the lake whose name it bears. 

The eighth (Aqua Claudia), begun by Caligula 
and comj^eted by Claudius, is about forty miles in 
length. It enters the city at the Porta Nevia, near 
the Esquiline Mount. The (juality of the water 
which this aqueduct supplies is better than that of 
any of the others. It was built of hewn stone and 
supported on arcades during seven miles of its 
length. After a lapse of eighteen hundred years it 
still Continues to furnish Modem Rome with pure 
and wholesome water. 

The ninth (Anio Novus, to distinguish it from the 
second-named water) was begun and finished by the 
same persons as the last-mentioned. It is the water 
of the Anio, which, being exceedingly thick and 
muddy after the rains, is conveyed into a large reser- 
voir at some little distance from Rome, to allow the 
mud to subside. 

The Acqua Felice is modem, and was erected by 
Sixtus V. m 1581. 

The Popes have, from time to time, been at con- 
siderable pains and expense in repairing and renew- 
ing the aqueducts ; but the quantity of water de- 
livered is constantly diminishing. In the ancient 
city the sum-total of the areas of the different pipes 
(which were about an inch in diameter) through 
which the above immense quantity of water was de- 
livered, amounted to about 14,900 superficial inches ; 
but the supply was subsequently reduced to 1170. 

The waters were collected in reservoirs called 
easUlla^ and thence were conveyed through the 
city in leaden pipes. The keepers of the reservoirs 
were called castellani. Agrippa alone built thirty 
of these reservoirs during nis sedileship. There are 
five modem ones now standing in the city : one at 
the Porta Maggiore, Castello dell' Acqua Giulia, 
dell' Acqua Felice, dell' Acqua Paolina, and that 
called the Fountain of Trevi. 

The aim of the Roman aqueduct-builders was to 
conduct the water along with an equal fall during 
the whole distance from its source to the point of 
delivery ; and for this purpose, instead of allowing 
the conduits to follow tne natural slope of the 
ground, they almost always erected long and mas- 
sive stone arcades wherever it was necessary to cross 
a valley, instead of availing themselves of the well- 
known property of water to find its level. This was 
perhaps necessary in the then state of the mechanic 
arts, the art of casting iron pipes of lai^ size being 

It has been calculated that the nine earlier aque- 

ducts of Rome had a total length of more than 249 
miles, and the supply of water to Ancient Rome was 
computed by Professor Leslie, on the authority of 
Sextus Julius Frontinus, who was inspector of the 
aqueducts under the Emperor Nerva, and who has 
left a valuable treatise on the subject, at fifty mil- 
lion cubic feet per day for a population of one mil- 
lion souls. This gives the immense average per 
head of fifty cubic feet, or three hundred and twelve 
piUons, per diem, — a consumption quite unequalled 
m modem times, except in the city of New York, 
where it is said to have formerly amounted nearly 
to this quantity. 

The aqueducts of Metz, Nismes, and Segovia are 
also strikmg examples of the attention paid by the 
Romans to the subject of supplying water to their 
towns and cities. 

It does not appear that the ancients were by any 
means ignorant of the applicability of pipes for con- 
ducting water, and it is difficult to conceive how it 
could have been distributed to the baths and foun- 
tains of Rome without their aid. Their system ap- 
pears to have been the result of calculation and 
design, and it is notable that in the greatest works of 
the kind of modem times, such as the aqueduct of 
Marseilles and the Croton Aqueduct, their leading 
nrinciples have been carried out, and t)ie use of pipes 
lollowmg the elevations and depressions of the hills 
and valleys has been in a great degree dispensed 
with, where the water had to be conveyed along a 
course of considerable length, — though, in general, 
without resorting to such an extensive, or indeed ex- 
cessive, use of long and expensive arcades as the 
Romans employed. 

The advantages of this system seem to be, more 
perfect freedom froin deposition of mineral substan- 
ces in solution in the channel way, owing to the 
more uniform and regular flow of water which can 
be obtained ; facility of constructing traps or wells 
along the route for the disposition of sediment ; 
greater security from intermption and opportunity 
for repair in case of accident. 

The aqueduct of Nismes, or the Pont du Gard, in 
France, is one of the earliest constmcted by the 
Romans out of Italy, and is supposed to have 
been built in the time of Augustus ; it was intended 
for carrying the waters of the Eure and Airan from 
the vicinity of their sources to the town of Nismes. 

The commencement of this aqueduct was con- 
ducted along the sinuosities of a hill, entirely un- 
der ground, and was often cut in the rock itself. 
SmaU bridges were thrown over the streams crossed 
in its course, and it passed over a series of arches, 
resembling thase of the upper part of the great 
arcade of the Pont du Gard, followed the crest of a 
hill to avoid unnecessary hight in the piers, and 
after a course of about 9-J miles arrived at the Pont 
du Gard, by which it is carried over the river 
Gardon at a hight of more than 157 feet above the 
surface of the stream below. 

This magnificent stracture consists of three tiers 
of arehes, on the upper one of which the water-way 
is carried. • The length at the level of the string 
course surmounting the lower tier of arches is 662 
feet, and at the string course of the second tier 885 

The lai^ arch through which the river passes is 
80 feet 5 inches in span, the three on the nght side 
of this are 63 feet, and the smaller ones 51 feet 
Those of the upper story are all equal, 15 feet 9 
inches in span ; their piers vary in width, and do 
not come immediately over those below. 

The whole is constmcted of freestone, from the 
foundation to the third course above the cymatiom 

Digitized by 





covering the piers of the upper story, 
employed for filling 
haunches of the first 
The stones were la 
raised by the lewis, 

Rubble was. I was taken to prevent leakage 

Fiff. 2«9. 

Section of Upper Story, 
enlaxged tcale. 

which are still to be 
gravity of each stone 

The dimensions o 
width and 4 feet 9 : 
out its entire length 
is estimated to have 
14 to 18 millions of ^ 

Ine entire length %jl buc cuj^ucuui^b is uvcr ^u^ 

The aqueduct of Segovia, Spain, was built by the 
Emperor Tnyan, and is of squared stone laid with- 
out mortar, and in crossing a valley has a length 

lilIC UU^ailAC CMjIIUJlbb^U 

Aqueduct of Segovia. 

of more than 2,200 feet ; it is in many places nearly 
100 feet high. An elevation and plan are shown in 
Fig. 288. 

The waters of the Aquae Julia, Tepula, and Martia at 
Rome were conduct- ' 
ed through a triple 
aqueduct, forming 
three channels, one 
above the other, as 
shown in the accom- 
panying section ; 
the Aqua Martia be- 
ing the lowest, the 
Aqua Tepula the 
middle, and the 
Aqua Julia the uj>- 
permost of the se- 
ries. Particular care 

sons in charge to examine the ^'*Te^''^!^lirH^'^ 
condition of the conduits at ^^* 
any time, and they were required. to report con- 
stantly upon their efficiency and state of repair. 

The accompanying illustra- 
tion (Fig. 290) shows one plan 
adopted by the Romans for con- 
veying water across a valley. 
. The aqueduct was erected by the 
Emperor Claudius for supplying 
a palace in an elevated part or 
the ancient city of Lugdunum 

The channel -way, both in as- 
cending and descending, was 
formed by masonry, tiles, and ce- 

The work was performed as 
follows : A level pavement was 
formed of brick, on which was 
raised a frame or caisson of tim- 
ber planks ; against the sides 
of this, squared stones were laid in regular courses, 
and their interior filled in with rubble in a dry 
state, after which a grouting of liquid cement was 
poured in to consolidate the whole. Lime, fine 

Lyons A*pieilHet 

Digitized by 





gravel or sand, mixed with a due proportion of wa- 
ter, formed this grouting. After a sufficient time 
had allowed this work to consolidate, the caisson 
was mounted upon another course or layer of tiles, 
and similar operations to the tirst took place. 

The bricks or tiles used were 21 inches in length, 
12 inches in breadth, and 1 J inches in thickness. 

The whole of the water conduit was coated with 
cement ; at bottom, its thickness was 6 inches, at 
the sides 1 J inches. 24 inches from the bottom of 
the canal, at distances of 80 inches apart, the side 
walls were stayed with iron ties to prevent their 
being burst apart. 

In the ancient amieduct at Lvons, called at one 
part of its course Mont de Pile and at another 
Ohamponest, the water was brought over eight 
bridges in the usual manner, and a siphon was em- 
ployed for conducting it across the ninth. At this 
point the valley is very deep, and a reservoir was 
built from which leaden pipes of large size, bedded in 
the sides of the valley, conducted the water to others 
laid over a bridge in an inverted curve ; they were 
then conducted up the opposite side of the valley, 
and delivered the water into a reservoir at the same 
level as the first ; from this they were conducted 
imder ground for some distance, and thence, by a 
bridge of ninety arcades, to another reservoir, from 
whence it again descended into a valley through 
similar leaden pipes, crossing a river and ascending 
the other side of the vallev, where it was delivered 
into a reservoir on that side. From thence it was 
carried, partially over arcades, to a reservoir at one 
of the gates of the city, from whence again it was 
carried by leaden pipes, first falling and again rising 
until it reached the i-eservoir from whence it was 
finally distributed ; in this last instance the pipes 
were bedded in solid masonry, and not carried over a 

The total length of this remarkable piece of work, 
which certainly seems to combine all the known 
appliances for conveying water without the aid of 
extraneous mechanical power, was 13 leagues, and 
the fall in this distance upward of 850 feet. 

Wherever the aqueduct was tunneled in the sides 
of the hills at a considerable distance below the sur- 
face, wells were sunk to carry off any vapors which 
might accumulate, and to admit light and air ; they 
al^ afforded access to any workmen who might be 
employed to make repairs or remove accumulated 
deposits in the channel : these wece at distances of 
120 feet apart. Perpendicular vent-pipes were also 
erected for ventilating purposes. Tne walls, where 
the work was above ground, were two feet thick, 
and the arches were i-oofed over to shed rain. The 
entrance to the aqueduct was through iron deors 
opening internally. The undei*ground portions 
were accessible by traps or man-hole-s brought up a 
little above the level of the soil. 

Pipes, in cases where a very large supply of water 
is not required, undoubtedly posse^ss many advan- 
tages, andTin very broken and rugged localities their 
use, either alone, or in combination with masonry or 
brick conduits, along the more level portions of the 
route, is indispensable without increasing the cost of 
the work beyond all reasonable bounds ; but it 
would seem, both from the experience of antiquity 
and tliat of more recent times, that the stone or 
brick channel into which the air is freely admitted, 
and to which ready access can be had for the re- 
moval of impurities or obstructions, is, when the 
engineering difficulties and cost are not too great, 
preferable to any other. 

This of course does not apply to the delivery and 
discharge of water within cities or towns ; there. 

metallic pipes of some kind are indispensable. Cast- 
iron is tne material now universally employed for 
the lai^r pipes of this description, called mains, and 
is perfectly unobjectionable in eveiT respect. Leaden 

Sipe is very extensively employed in Duildings for 
ischai^g water, but, unless kept constantly filled, 
is a very dan^rous material, its salts being active 
poisons. Lining uith tin is a good expedient. 

In China and Japan, bamboos of large suse are 
used to convey water from one point to another. 

The ancient works executed under the later Ro- 
man emperors for the supply of Constantinople 
combine the system of aqueducts with the collection 
and impouudms of water by means of reservoirs 
at the head of the aqueduct. The impounding res- 
ervoirs are situate about twelve miles from the city, 
on the slopes- of a range of mountains which form 
the southeastern prolongation of the ereat Balkan 
chain. There are four principal .aqueducts, one of 
which conveys the water collected by three separate 
reservoirs, while the other three are each supplied 
by its own reservoir. Besides these extensive pro- 
visions for securing water to the city, there are im- 
mense subterranean reservoirs, one of which, now 
in ruins, is called the Palace of the Thousand and 
One PUlars, not because this is the precise number 
supporting the roof, but because the number is a 
favorite one in the expression of Eastern hyperbole. 
This great subterranean cistern is supposed to have 
been made by the Greek emperors for the purpose 
of storing water in case of a siege or similar calam- 
ity. Altnough originally of great depth, it is now 
nearly filled up with earth and rubbish. It is sin- 
Ijular that in tne nineteenth century we are reviving 
in our covered reservoirs, for the purpose of storing 
water in a state of freshness and unuorm tempera- 
ture, the practices which were followed nearly two 
thousand years ago by nations whose modem de- 
scendants ai'e half barbarians. 

Works of great magnitude were, according to 
Garcilasso, constructed for purposes of irrigation 
by the ancient Peruvians, previous to the conquest 
of that country by the Spaniards. 

On the western slopes of the Andes there are im- 
mense districts where rain never falls, and which are 
incapable of cultivation unless watered by artificial 
means. The Incas cansed numerous aqueducts to be 
constructed for this purpose : one of these is stated 
to have been 120 leagues in length and 12 feet in 
depth, and to have watered a tract of country more 
than 50 miles in width ; another was 150 leagues in 
length, traversing an extensive province and irrigat- 
ing a vast and and district of pasture land. 

The Peruvians do not appear to have advanced so 
far as the use of bridges or pipes for conducting the 
water across valleys, — their purpose probably did 
not require it, — but gave their aqueducts a sinuous 
course, winding around the mountains and through 
the valleys with sufficient inclination to allow the 
water to flow freely. 

The French aqueducts referred to in this article 
are most of them of great magnitude and impor- 
tance, and the most stupendous work of the kind 
ever projected originated in France. This was the 
aqueduct of Maintenon, which was undertaken in 
1684 and abandoned in 1688, during which timie 
22,000,000 francs are said to have been expended 
upon it. It was intended to have brought water 
from the river Eure at Pongoin to Versaifies, a dis- 
tance of nearly 25 leagues, and embraced an arcade 
of masonry 16,090 feet in length, comprising three 
tiers of arches at its hi/^hest part. 

The illustrations (Fig. 291) exhibit to the 
scale, — 

Digitized by 





1. The FtnU du Oard Aqueduct, at Nismes, un- 
der which the river Gardon passes, and which was 
built by the Romans, possibly by Agrippa. The 

conduit is 157 feet above the river, and is referred 
to above. 

2. The Solani Aqueduct of the Ganges Canal ; 

Fig. 291. 

the area of the water-way is eighty times that of the 
Pont du Gard. 

8. The Boqurfavov/r Aqueduct, erected by Mon- 
tricher to conduct the waters of the Durance to 

The aqueduct for supplying Marseilles with water 
extends from the river Durance, a distance of 51 
miles, though a very hilly country. It comprises 
78 tunnels, having a united length of over 12 miles. 
It has 500 bridges, embankments, and other artificial 
constnictions. Marseilles lies in a large arid basin, 
and the aqueduct approaches the edge of the basin 
at a hight of 500 teet above the level of the sea. 
Branches extend to and irrigate the area of 25,000 
acres, and also supply the city of Marseilles. The 
bridge over the valley of the Arc is 1,287 feet in 
length and 262 feet in hight. It is formed of a 
triple tier of arches ; is said to have occupied from 
700 to 800 workmen for seven years, and to have 
cost $ 750,000. The water channel is 30 feet wide 
at top, 10 at bottom, and is 7 feet deep. It deliv- 
ers 11 tons of water per second. 

The aqueduct of Cnirk on the Ellesmere and Ches- 
ter Canal in England is noted as being the first in 
which iron was employed, the bottom of the water 
channel being of cast-iron and the walls of masonry ; 
that of Pont-y-Cysyllte, on the same canal, has the 
entire channel made of cast-iron arches or ribs rest- 
ing on pillars of stone. 

It carries the waters of the canal across the valley 
of the Dee. It is upwards of one thousand feet in 
length,. consisting of nineteen arches of equal span, 
but varying in their hight above the ground. The 
three shown in elevation in Fig. 292 are the high- 
est, being those which cross the river Dee itself; 
the surface of the canal is one hundred and twenty- 
seven feet above the usual level of the water in the 
river. The aqueduct itself is a cast-iron trough 
formed of plates with flanges securely bolted to- 

gether. ' This trough is supported upon cast-iron 
arches, each composed of four ribs, supported upon 
piers of masonry. The towing-path overhancs the 
water, being supported at intervals on timber pillars. 
Watt's submeiged aqueduct across the bed of the 
Clyde was an articulate pipe whose joints rendered 
it flexible, so as to acconmioclate itself to the shape of 
the river-bed. It is stated to have been a success. 

Fig. 292. 

Pont-y-Cysyllte Aqueduct. 

The Croton Aqueduct was commenced in 1837 
and completed in 1842, costing $8,575,000. 

Its length is 404 miles, 33 miles of which dis- 
tance it is built of stone, brick, and cement, arched 
above and below. It has a capacity for discharging 
60,000,000 of gallons pr day. It is carried over 
the Harlem River by pipes laid upon a brid^ con- 
sisting of fifteen arches, eight of 80 feet and seven 

Digitized by 





of 50 feet span, lising to 114 feet above low-water 

At the spot where the Croton dam is constructed, 
the surface-water of the creek was about 38 feet 
lower than tlie elevation required as a head for the 
delivery of the water into tlie city of New York at a 
sufficient hight. By going farther up sti-eam a 
dam of less hight would have been sufficient, but 
the supply of water would of course have been 
smaller. The medium flow of water at the dam is 
about 50,000,000 gallons daily, and the minimum 
in very dry seasons about 27,000,000 gallons. 

The water is set back upon the course of the 
creek by the dam, about six miles, forming the res- 
ervoir, which has an area of about 400 acres, now 
called Croton Lake. The available capacity of this 
reservoir down to the point where the water would 
cease to flow into the aqueduct is estimated at 
600,000,000 gallons, in addition to which the re- 
ceiving reservoir in the city is capable of containing 
150,000,000 more when full, which together aflbrda 
reserve supply of 750,000,000 gallons in seasons 
of extreme drought. In case of necessity other 
streams might be turned into the Croton River at or 
above the reservoir, or into the aqueduct. 

From the dam at the lower end of Croton I^^ke to 
the receiving reservoir there is no essential change 
made in the form of the channel-way, except that, in 
crossing the Harlem River and a valley on Manhattan 
Island, iron pipes are used instead of masonry ; at 

these places the 
Fig. 293. pipes fall and 

rise again so 
that they are al- 
ways full. The 
channel-way of 
masonry is nev- 
er entirely 
filled, so as to 
cause a pres- 
*sure on its in- 
terior surface. 
To avoid this, 
six waste weirs 
Earth Excavation. ed at suitable 

places to allow 
the water to flow off" upon attaining a certain level. 
Fig. 293 is a section showing the kind of masonrv 

used in earth 

Fig. 294. 

Rock Timnrl. 

Rork Exm-ation. 


^ The foun- 

f dation is of 
concrete, the 

'^ side walls of 
stone, the 

. bottom and 
sides of the 
interior faced 
with brick, 
and the to]) 

. covered with 
an arch of 

After the 
mason r}' was 
finished the 
was filled U]) 
around it and 
over the top 
of the cover- 
ingarch, gen- 
ei-Jlly to the 

depth of three or four feet, and in deep excavations 
up to the natural surface. 

Fig. 294 shows a section in open cuttings in rock. 
The rock was excavated to the requisite depth and 
width, and the bottom filled in witn concrete to the 
proper hight and form for receiving an invert<;d arch 
of brick ; the side walls were of brick bonded with 
an outer casing of stone, built up closely against the 
sides of the rock. On the exterior of the roofing 
arch, and filling the space between it and the rock, 
spandrels of stone were built. 

When finished, the space above the masonry was 
filled in with earth. 

Fig. 295 is a section in tunnel cuttings in solid 
rock. In hard, 

sound rock the Fig. 295. 

natural rock 
often served as 
a roof, but 
when soft, a 
brick arch was 
built over the 
channel walls 
and the space 
between its up- 
per surface and 
the rock tilled 
in with well- 
rammed earth. 
In some cases 
where the rock 
was originally 
hard, it was 
found to be- 
come soft and insecure upon exposure to the air, ren- 
dering it necessary to arch over the channel-way to 
support the natural roof. 

Fig. 296 is a section in earth tunnel cuttings. In 
dry and compact earth the excavation for the bottom 
and sides was 

made of just suf- Fig- 296. 

ficient size to re- 
ceive the mason- 
ry built closely 
against it ; the 
top was made 
high enough to 
give room for 
turning the roof- . 
ing arch, and v 
when complete } 
the s])ace above it ^ 
was filled with 
earth closely 
rammed. In wet 
earth the excava- 
tion was made 
larger and the top 
and sides sup- 
]X)rted by i)rops 
of timber and plank until the masonr}' was com- 
pleted ; the vacant space around it was then com- 
pactly fille<l with earth. In crossing valleys, the 
aqueduct was supported on a foundation wall of 
stone, laid dry, and sloping embankments of earth 
were thrown up on each side of it. 

At intervals of a mile apart, ventilating ahafts of 
stone were erected over the aqueduct, rising about 
14 feet above the surface of the ground ; every 
third shaft was provided with a door to aflbrd en- 
trance to the interior of the aqueduct for the pur- 
l)ose of inspection or repairs. Openings two feet 
square were also ma«le in the top of the roofing arch 
every quarter of a inile ; each of these was covered 

Earth TVniw/. 

Digitized by 





by a flag-stone, and its position indicated by a small 
monument projecting above the surface ; these are 
for the purpose of obtaining entrance or increasing 
the ventilation if necessary. Where the line of the 
work was intersected by streams, culverts were built 
to allow the water to pass under without injury to 
the aqueduct. 

In connection with the reservoir at the dam is a 
tunnel and gate-chamber. The gate-chamber is not 
directly connected to the dam itself, but is at a dis- 
tance of upwards of 200 feet. The water is con- 
ducted from the reservoir to the gate-chamber by 
means of the tunnel T, which is cut through the 
solid rock of the hill, having its entrance above the 
dam, its center being about 12 feet below the sur- 
face of the water, so that the entrance of floating 
liodies is prevented. In winter, when the reservoir 
is frozen over, there is no obstruction to the flow of 

water into the aqueduct, and in summer the water 
is drawn from a level where it is cooler and pui*er 
than at the surface. 

The gate-chamber has two sets of gates, the one 
being called regulating gates, R, and the other guard- 
gates, G, G. The regulating gates are made of gun- 
metal, and work in frames of the same material, fitted 
to stone jambs and lintels ; the guard-gates are of 
cast-iron, working in cast-iron frames, also attached 
to stone jambs and lintels. 

The gates are managed by means of wrought-iron 
rods, having a screw on their upper part working 
in a brass nut set in a cast-iron socket-cap. 

The accompanying view (Fig. 297) exhibits a sec- 
tion of the hill through which the tunnel is cut, 
showing its entrance into the reservoir, the gate- 
house and gates, and the point of discharge into the 
channel- way of the aqueduct. 

Kg. 297. 

TMnt and Ga e- Chautut , 

In the center of the dam and on its ridge is a ^te- 
house over a culvert passing through the aam. This 
culvert is 80 feet below the surface of the water 
when the reservoir is full, and has gates opened by 
rods rising up into the gate-house^ When the river 
is low, the water which is not carried off" by the 
aqueduct may be allowed to pass through this 
culvert, preventing any from passing over the 

The bottom of the water-way of the aqueduct at 
the gate-chamber is 11.4 feet below the surface of the 
reservoir, and 154.77 feet above the level of mean 
tide at New York City. 

The aqueduct is divided into different planes of 
descent from the gate-chamber at the dam to that of 
the receiving reservoir on Manhattan Island, and is 
as follows : — 



Flnt plane of aqoedact 
Second plane of aqueduct 
Length of pipes acroM the Har- 
lem Rirer 
DUEerence of level between the 

endB of the pipc« . 
Third plane of aqueduct 
Length of pipes acroes the Bfan- 

hattan Valley 
Difference of level between the 

endB of the pipes . 
Fourth plane of aqueduct 















I 201,117.42 88.090 I 48.68 

The hight of the interior of the aqueduct is 8 
feet 6i inches, and the greatest width 7 feet 6 inches ; 
the interior having a sectional area of 53.34 square 
feet. On the first plane the aqueduct is laiger, be- 
ing 2.05 feet higher at the gate-chamber, 2.31 feet 
higher at 2,244 feet from the chamber, and diminish- 
ing to the head of the second plane, where it is of the 
dimensions above stated. 

The curves used in changing the course of the 
aqueduct are generally of 500 feet radius ; in some 
cases a radius of 1,000 feet or even more was em- 

The receiving reservpir is located between Sixth 
and Seventh Avenues and Seveuty-ninth and Eighty- 
sixth Streets in the upper part of the city of New 
York. It is 1,826 feet long and 836 feet wide at the 
top of the external walls of the embankment, having 
a total area of 37 acres, the area of the water-surface 
being 31 acres. The reservoir is divided into two 
divisions by means of an embankment, either of 
which may be used independently while the water 
is drawn off from the other, in case of repairs, 

The greatest depth of water in the north division 
is 20 feet, in the south, 80 feet, and the total capa- 
city of the whole 160,000,000 gallons. The ac^ue- 
duct enters a gate-chamber in the south division, 
where there are regulating gates for discharging 
the water into either division by a continuation of 
the aqueduct within the reservoir. The two divis- 
ions are connected by a cast-iron pipe for equal- 
izing the level of water in each. There is also a 
waste weir for the escape of surplus water into a 

The embankment is of earth, protected on the 
outside by a stone wall four feet thick, the face 
of which is laid in mortar ; the Inside slope has 
a stone facing, 15 inches thick, laid without mor- 

From the receiving resei-voir the water is carried 
by iron pipes to the distributing reservoir, a dis- 
tance of 2.17 miles, with a fall of four feet. The dis- 
tributing reservoir is 436 feet square at the base and 
425 feet square at the comers, having an area of 
rather more than four acres, and a capacity of 
20,000,000 gallons. 

The outside walls have openings, so that by enter- 
ing a door one may walk entirely round the reser- 
voir within the walls, giving a greater breadth with 

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a given amount of material, and affording an oppor- 
tunity of examining the work for the purpose of 
obviating leakage, and also preventing water from 
finding its way to the exterior and causing iiyuiy to 
the wall by freezing. This open space rises to with- 
in about eight feet of the water-line. Inside of the 
wall is an embankment of puddled earth faced with 
hydraulic masoniy 15 inches thick. 

From the distributing reservoir the water is dis- 
tributed over the city oy means of cast-iron pipes 
of from 36 to 4 inches diameter. 

The total cost of the work was $ 8,576,000, includ- 
ing the purchase of land, etc., being within five 
per cent of the engineer's estimate. In this the 
cost of the distributing pipes within the city is not 

The Washington Aqueduct was built at the ex- 
pense of the United States government, for the 
purpose of supplying the cities of Washington and 
Georgetown with water, and is distinguished by 
some bold features of engineering. The most re- 
markable of these is the bridge over Cabin John 
Creek, ne^r the upper termination of the work, the 
widest spanned stone arch at the time of its con- 
struction ; it has a span of 220 feet and a rise of 57 
feet 8 inches. 

The bridge over Rock Creek is also a peculiar and 
noteworthy application of the results of modem 
science and mechanical skill. The water is carried 
across this stream (which divides the cities of Wash- 
ington and Georgetown) by means of two arches of 
cast-iron pipes of 3 feet 6 inches interior diame- 
ter, formed of sections with fianges firmly screwed 
to each other and braced ; upon these are laid a 
bridge over which the street cars pass, and which 
serves as a public avenue of communication between 
the two cities. The span is 200 feet, and the rise 
20 feet. 

The aqueduct whiph supplies Madrid with water, 
and has a large surplus for irrigation, is fed from 
the river Lozoya, where it emerges from the Guarda- 
rama Mountains. This work was constructed under 
the superintendence of Don Lucio del ValU, be- 
tween 1851 and 1858, and is 47 miles in length. The 
river gorge is crossed by a cut-stone dam, 98 feet 
in hi^t, its wings abutting upon the solid rock of 
the hillsides. The artificial lake thus formed con- 
tains 100,000,000 cubic feet of water. The cost of 
the whole work was 57,897,368 francs. 

The ** canal," as it is termed, has seven miles of 
subterranean galleries, 4,600 feet of aqueducts, and 
8,600 feet of inverted siphons at the crossings of 
three valleys. The siphon of Bedonal is 4,600 feet 
in length. The transverse section of the water- 
way has an area of about 20 square feet, and it dis- 
charges 6,600,000 cubic feet of water per day; 
one fifth is required for town service, the remain- 
der being used in irrigating a tract of nearly 5,000 

The town service has 45 miles of brick culverts 
about six feet high, and 60 miles of cast-iron pipes. 
It supplies 35 public fountains, and has 3,000 plugs 
for fire and irrigating purposes. 

A novel expedient for tne support of an aqueduct 
across a densely wooded ravine was su^ested by 
Mr. MTaggart, the resident engineer for the Rideau 
Canal in Canada. In a part of the country trav- 
ersed by the canal, materials for forming an em- 
bankment, or stone for building the piers of an 
aqueduct, could not be obtained but at a great ex- 
pense. The plan consisted of cutting across the 
large trees in the line of the works, at the level of 
the bottom of the canal, so as to render them fit for 
supporting a platform on their trunks, and on this 

platform the trough containing the water of the 
canal was intended to rest. 

Ax'a-besque [ar'a-besk]. 1. (ArchiUcture.) A 
species of ornament, either painted, inlaid, or carved 
in low relief, employed for decorating flat surfaces. 
It usually consists of convoluted and intertwined 
curves, intended to represent foliage, tendrils, and 
openwork checker patterns. 

In a degraded form, various figures of animals, 
real or imaginary, have been intrSiuced in the at- 
tempt to make it more consonant with the later taste 
for florid pmament. The Koran forbids the repre- 
sentation of the human form, but some have even 
deviated so far from the original designs of the Arabs 
as to blend satyrs, sirens, and mermaids in the d^ 
sign. This Ls on a par with the taste which de- 
grades consoles into caryatides and pillars into 

2. (Bookbinding. ) The English term for the im- 
pressed ornamental work on tne sides of cloth and 
leather-bound books. 

It is produced by the pressure of hot plates or 
rollers having the pattern engraved on them. 

Ar-bao^oio. {Fabric.) A coarse woolen cloth 
made in Sardinia jfrom the wool of an inferior breed 
of sheep, called the Nuoro. 

Ar'bal-eBt. A kind of cross-bow used formerly 
by the Italians, and introduced into England in the 
tlliirteenth century. The arrows shot irom it were 
termed quarrels. 

Ar^or. (Machinery.) a. An axle or spindle of 
a wheel or pinion. The term is specially used in 

b. A mandrel on which a ring, wheel, or collar is 
turned in a lathe. 

Ar-oade'. A vaulted avenue. A covered pas- 

A number of streets in London and Paris are thus 
vaulted over, and are well known to many of our citi- 
zens ; the Lowther and Burlington Arcades of the 
former city, for instance. 

As one mode of connecting down-town and up- 
town of New York City, the arcade system has been 
proposed. Even of this, many forms have been 
suggested. One is to form a sub-way, a main-way, 
and an elevated railway. 

Ar-oade' Rall^wav. The upper roadway to be 
supported by iron columns, and having gas and 

Fig. 298. 

Anode Raihoay. 

water tubes ; the main-way by masonry, through 
which the sewers and pneumatic dispatch pass. 
Access to be had to the various levels by ramps 
and staircases. 

Aro^on-tant. An arched buttress forming a lat- 
eral support for the foot or haunch of another arch. 

ArolL The antiquity of the arch, says Wilkin- 
son, is traced to the time of Amunoph I., who 
reigned 1540 B. c. He also thinks it probable that 
the chambers of the brick Pyramids at Memphis, 
erected by the successor of the son of Cheops, would 

Digitized by 





prove to be vaulted over with arches, which would 
carry back the antiouity of the arch to 2020 b. c. 

In one of the Egyptian ppamids is an arch 
tamed over three stones which formed a stone 

arched ceiling 
Fig. 298. to the sarcoph- 

agus chamber. 
Tne two outer 
stones were set 
edgeways and 
inclined in- 
ward, having 
the other 
placed upon 
them, forming 
an nrch. 

Over these 
stones was 
turned a brick 
arch, the ra- 
dius of which 
was 6 feet 2 
inches, and the 
span 11 feet. 
It consists of 
four courses, and is 3 feet 10 inches thick. The 
stones beneath were 4 feet long, and 15 inches in 
breadth. At the back the joints were packed with 
chips, and the whole was grouted with fluid mortar. 
This tomb is of the time of Amunoph 1., 1540 
B. c. The stone arch at Saccara is of the time of 
Psammeticus II., 600 B. c. The arches of the tombs 
of Beni Hassan are coeval with Osirtasen II. and the 
Viceroy Joseph. 

Arehes are found in Chinese bridges of great an- 
tiquity and magnitude ; and as before shown, those 
of Egypt far antedate the periods of Greece or Rome. 
Arehed vaults are found among the ruins of Nineveh. 
A building at Mycen», in Greece, called ** Treas- 
ury of Atreus,*' has an interior pointed dome of 48 
feet diameter, and of about the same hight, the sec- 
tion presenting two intersecting arcs of about 70 feet 
radius. The difficulty of working voussoirs has 
been evaded by mak- 
Ilg* 800. ing the beds horizontal 

/ throughout, the top be- 
/' ing formed of a flat stone. 
The soffit of each course 
was then cut to the re- 
quired angle with its bed 
by means of a templet 
cut to the radius of the 
vault (Fig. 800). 

This form of areh 
is sometimes known as 
the ** Egyptian," and 
of course is an arch 
merelyin name, the con- 
structive principle be- 
ilivft. ing entirely different, as 

the stones of which it 
is c mposed are only subject to vertical pressure. 

The Greeks did not allow arches to appear in 
their visible architecture, but used them for covering 
drains and the like, as in the temjple of the Sun at 
Athens and that of A^Uo at Didymos. It was, 
however, contrary to their architectural principles to 
admit any but straight lines into any visible part of 
a building, except, perhaps, as mere ornamentation, 
tiius sacrificing in many instances convenience to 
secure that severe simplicity of outline by which 
their public structures were characterized. The 
Romans made very free use of them. The Cloaca 
Maxima, or Great Sewer, of Rome, is the oldest known 

example of Roman workmanship ; it is believed to 
have been constructed more than five hundred years 
before the Christian era, and is yet in a perfect state 
of preservation, still continuing to i)erform its origi- 
nal functions. That people also used arches as tri- 
umphal monuments ; the arch of Titus was erected 
A. D. 80 ; that of Trwan, A. D. 114 ; and of Con- 
stantine, A. D. 812. The Gothic style, which origi- 
nated about the ninth century, and soon spread over 
the whole of Europe, was emphatically the style of 
arches. Its special characteristics are the clus- 
tered pillar ana the i)ointed arch. The mediseval 
masons treated them with a boldness and freedom 
unknown to the builders of Ancient Rome. 

Their constructions display an astonishing amount 
of practical science, and clearly show that their taste 
was equal to their skill. Long before the properties 
of the catenary had been developed by Hooke, it is 
more than probable that they were known in prac- 
tice to the old Freemasons who built Henry Yll.'s 
chapel and other structures of similar and previous 
date. The span and hight of some of the principal 
vaulted arched structures are as follows : — 


Tarqnin I. 
18th M 


The Cloeca Bfaxlma 

^ Temple of Peace 
Cathediml of Salisbury 

** of Amiens 
Weetminster Abbey 
Bfllan Cathedral 
St. Peter's, Rome 
St. Pnnrs, London 


























1 : 1.76 




For examples of arches used in bridge construc- 
tion, see Bridge. 

The term "arch " in its widest signification, is com- 
monly understood to mean almost anything of a 
curved shape employed for the purpose of Wring 
weight or resisting pressure, but in its more restricted 
medianical sense may be defined as a collection of 
wedge-shaped bodies termed voussoirs or arch-stones, 
of which the first and last at each extremi^ are 
sustained by a su])port or abutment, while the inter- 
mediate ones are held in position by their mutual 
pressure and the adhesion of the mortar or cement 
interposed between them. The center voussoir a, in 
the highest part, 

or eroicn, of the Kg. 801. 

arch, is called the 
keystone. The in- 
ferior surface of 
the arch, b dfe c, 
is the intradoSf or 
soffii, but this lat- 
ter term is some- 
tiroes restricted 
to that part of the 
under surface in 
the immediate vicinity of the keystone, or crown. 
bdfCe, are the^nJb of the arch. The exterior or 
top surface is called the extrados, or back . The points, 
6 c, where the intrados meets the abutments, are 
called the springings; their horizontal distance apart, 
the span ; and the distance, g f^ from the center of 
this to the center of the intrados, the rise or height 
of the arch. 

The simplest, as it is the earliest, form of arch, is 
that of a segment of a circle, generally less than a 
semicircum^rence, such as is found in the works of 
the Romans. The Gothic architects about the tenth 
century originated the pointed arch, formed by two 
arcs of circles described from different centers, and 
meeting at the crown. Three and four centered arches 
were introduced into the later Gothic architecture. 


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Three' CerUered Arch. 

Fig. 808. 

In the three-centered 
ai-ch the lower p»irt to 
the bends of the haunch- 
es was fonned by tlie cor- 
responding oppopite arcs 
of one circle Laving its 
center in a line perpen- 
dicularly beneatn the 
crown 01 the arch, the up- 
per opposite sides to the 
I crown being described 
with equal lidii, greater 
than the radius of the 
lower part, from centers 
at equal distances on each 
side of the perpendicular passing through the crown 
of the arch. 

The four-centered arch was, as its name imports, 
described from four centers, 
the two lower centers being 
perpendicularly under the 
two upper ones ; from the 
latter are described the lower 
parts of the arch near the 
risings, and from the former, 
with greater radii, the upper 
parts to the crown ; of this 
lorm is the Tudor arch, bear- 
ing somewhat of a resem- 
blance to the ellipse. The 
elliptic arch is employed 
laigely in bridge building and 
in the construction of vaults, 
drains, etc. 

In Fig. 304 are shown some of the forms of arches 
employed in architecture. 

a. The Semicircular arch, de- 
scribing half a circle. 

b. The Segment arch, stnick 
from a point below the spring- 

t c. The Elliptic arch is not 
always truly elliptical, but is 
sometimes formed by the com- 
bination of the arcs of several 

d. The suited arch rises from 
points below its center. 

e. The H&raeslwe arch is pe- 
culiar to the Moorish or Arabic 
style of architecture. 

Various styles of pointed arch- 
es were employed by the Gothic 
architects, as show^n in Fig. 305. 

a. The Equilateral arch ; so 
termed because the two spring- 
ing points and the crown of the 
'intrados form an equilateral 

h. The Lancet arch is more 
pointed than the equilateral 
arch ; and 

c. The Drop arch less so. 

d. The Segmental Gothic arch, 
h composeii of two segments of 
circles meeting obtusely. 

c. The Ogee arch was intro- 
duced at a later period of Gothic 

/. The Tudor style prevailed 

during the close of this most 

graceful order, and was so named 

m>m the then ruling family of 

Fbmu of Arches. the English dynasty. It has 

Four- Centered Arch. 

Fig. 804. 

a much flattened arch, low moldings, and a pro- 
fusion of panelings. 

Fig. 805. 

Fig. 806. 

Foiled Arches. 

Foiled arches. Fig. 306, 
^.-:^2:::^. are SO called from the com- 

/<y\^f^^ partments, imitating the /oi/!9 

Mk \ / yiWv of a leaf, into which they 

U.L—^\l...^jj^/ are divided : as, — 
/\ a, ft, c. Trefoils, 

d. Cinque/oil. 
Oothie Arches. e. Polyfoil. 

The latter is principally 
met with in Saracenic and Romanesque buildings. 

The Flat arch (Fig. 307) is very generally em- 
ployed in doorways, fireplaces, and windows of build- 
ings ; its intrados has no 
curve, though the vous- Fig. 807. 

soirs are arranged so as 
to radiate to a center, 
and are laid in parallel 
courses ; where any con- 
siderable pr«»8ure is to 
be resistea, it is usu- 
ally supported by hori- 
zontal bars of iron or 
wood laid across Uie 
opening and having their 
ends supported in the Flat Arch. 

wall on each side. 

In some examples of old date the voussoirs are 
held up by indented joints which fit into each other. 
In tliis form of arch it is manifest that almost the 





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Fig. aoe. 


L 4 


Fireplace of Coningahwrgh Castle. 

whole pressure is vertical, and that the arch is sup- 1 
ported principally by the cohesion of the 
parts ; so that it cannot be used for cov- 
ering any but narrow openings. As at 
present employed in brickwork, its princi- 
pal use is to relieve the pressure on a 
oeam or lintel below it. 

Oblique, generally called skew, arches 
have their axes oblique to their faces, and 
on account of the difficulty of their con- 
struction are seldom employed, unless in 
railroad bridges where the direction of the 
line of the road renders it necessary to 
cross streams obliquely to their courses. 
In sucli cases it is necessary that the piers 
should be parallel to the current of the 
stream, in order to offer as little resistance 
as possible and afford a free passage to tho water. 
A bridge arched in this manner is said to have 
been built near Florence as early as 1530, but their 
general introduction dates no farther back than the 
era of the commencement of railroad construction, 
about or a little previous to 1830. 

The ordinary method of building a skew arch (Fig. 
390) is to make it a portion of a hollow cylinder, 
the voussoirs being laid in parallel spiral courses, and 
their beds worked in such a manner that in any sec- 

Fiff. aoo. 

of spirals intersecting at right angles 
the coursing joints, or those which di- 
vide the stones of each course, so that 
the voussoirs are rectangular on the 
soffit, except those quoins or voussoirs 
on the faces of the arch where the sec- 
tion exhibited is elliptical. 

In Fig. 310, instead of radiating the 
bed-joints from the center of the cylin- 

[\^ der, they are made perpendicular to the 
~7 curve of the soffit on the oblique sec- 


Of the parts of an arch, — 

The top is the extrados, or hack. 

The under-side the intrados^ or soffit. 

The line from which it commences is 
the springing line. 

The stones of the arch are voussoirs. 

The lower one on each side is a spring' 
cr, or rein. 

The middle one is the keystone, and the course 
Fig. 810. 

Skew Arch. 

tion of the cylinder perpendicular to its axis the 
lines formed by their intersection with the plane of 
section shall radiate from the axis of the cylinder. 
In this mode of construction the soffit of each stone 
will be a portion of a cylindrical surface, and the 
twist of the beds will be uniform throughout the 
whole of the arch ; so that we have only to settle 
the amount of the twist, and the stones can then be 
worked with almost as great facility as the voussoirs 
of an ordinary arch. The heading joints, or those 
.which divide the stones of each course, are portions 

Skew Arch, 

the key-course. 

The upper portion is the vertex^ or crown. 
Midway between the croicn and the springings are 
the haunches^ or Jlanks. 

The springers, or reins, rest on imposts, abutments, 
or piers. 
The extreme width is the span. 
The rise of the curve in the center is the versed 
sine, or rise. 

The space between the haunch and the outscrib- 
ing rectangle is the spandrel. 

The joints between voussoirs are the ain-eu- 
voirs; which are perpendicular to the surface 
of the soffit. 

The exposed vertical surface is the /ac«. 
An Annealing Arch is the oven in which 
glass is allowed to cool gradually. See An- 

An Arabian Arch is one of horseshoe shape. 
The diameter is less at the springings than 

A Basket-handle Arch ia a three-centered, 
low-crowned arch. 

A Blind ArcJi is a closed arch ; one which 
does not penetrate the structure. Commonly 
employed for mere ornamentation, to make one 
face of a building correspond in character with an- 
other front where there are actually arched openin^^s. 
A Catenarian Arch is one in the form of an in- 
verted catenary curve, or that which a chain sus- 
pended at each end naturally assumes. 

A Compound Arch has an archivolt receding in 
steps ; giving the appearance of a succession of re- 
ceding arches, of varying spans and versed sines. 

A Concentric Arch is one of several courses whose 
curves have a common center. Common in Norman 
and Saxon architecture. 

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Fitmaet Areh. 

A Discharging Arch is one which is formed in a 
wall to protect a space beneath from the superin- 
cumbent weight. 

An Jrch of Equilibrium is one in which all parts 
are of similar strength, and the whole capable of 
standing without abutments. ' 

An Arch of EguipoUenee is one in which the 
voussoirs are sustained by mutual opposition ; tlie 
thrust of the crown being transferml from one 
stone to another till it reaches the abutments. 

A Funuxce 
Kg.SU. Arch itf one 

which spans 
the fire-cham- 
ber and sup- 
ports a battery 
of kettles ; or 
it may form 
the ceiling and 
roof of a metal- 
lui^c funiace, 
— ^ a puddZiiig 
furnace, for in- 

A Groined 
Arch is one in- 
tersected by other arches cutting across it trans- 
versely. The 
point of junc- 
tion is a. (jrrom. 
An Inflect- 
ed Arch is a 
reversed or in- 

verted arch. 

An Invert- 
ed Arch is one 
with the 
crown down- 
wards, as in 
the floor of 
a tunnel, the 
space beneath 
an opening in 
a foundation- 
wall, 'etc. 

A Lancet 
Arch is a narrow peaked arch, which was much em- 
ployed for windows during the prevalence of the 
Gothic style of architecture, known as Early English. 

A Laminated Arch is one made of successive thick- 
nesses of planking; bent into shape, and secured to- 
gether by treenails or otherwise. See Arched 
Beam ; Laminated Arch. 

A Rampant Arch is one whose abutments are on 
an inclined plane. 

A Relieving Arch is one on the spandrel of an 
arch, to distribute and limit the pressure. 

A Skem or Schema Arch, is a circular arch not 
over 180*. 

A Skew Arch is one whose line of direction is 
oblique with its abutment. See Figs. 309, 310. 

A Straight Arch is one built with voussoirs, which 
give a level intrados, used as the head of an aper- 
ture in a wall. 

A Splayed Arch is a funnel-shaped arch ; one 
whose two end sections are unequal. 

A Tweer or Tuyhre Arch is an arched opening 
in a furnace-wall at which the blast-pipe enters. 

A Tymp Arch is the arched o)ienmg at which 
the metal is discharged from a smelting-fumace. 

2. {Mining.) An unworked portion of the ground. 

Aroh-4>o&rcL (Shipbuilding,) The part of the 
stem over the counter, under the knuckles of the 
stem timbers. 

Aroh-briok. A compass brick, or one of wedgn 

Aroh-bnf troML A fljring buttress ; reaching 
fi-om the outer wall of an aisle to the clear-story of 
the nave to form a lateral support against the thrust 
of the roof. 

Arohed Beam. (Carpentry.) A beam cut, bent, 
or built into an arched form to support a structure, 
as a ceiling, roof, or viaduct. 

One form of the arched beam is exemplified by 
the roof of the dining-room of the Chartertiouse 
School, London (Fig. 312). This much-perverted 
charity is well housed, and the roof of the i-efectory 
is formed with circular ribs in four thicknesses of 
l}-inch deal four inches wide, with saw-cuts half 
an inch in d^pth on the under sides, and put to- 

S ether with inarim glue^ on a cradle center. The 
otted lines show the collars, which are dovetailed 
one inch into the sides of the principal rafters. The 
principal rafters, being five inches wide, project on 
one side an inch before the face of the circular ribs, 
which are only four inches wide. On the collars 
rest the purlins supporting the rafters. The ceiling 
joists are spiked up to the circular ribs. 

The five main arches of the Ouseboume Viaduct 
of the Newcastle, North Shields, and T^emouth 
Railway, England, are built of arched beams ; three 

Tig. 812. 

Boofvoer Lnun^Room at Charterhouse SchooL 

of these have a span of 116 feet each, and the oth- 
ers have 114 feet span. The hight of the rails 
above the bed of the stream is 108 feet, and the 
width of the viaduct is 31 feet, — 26 for a double line 
of rails, and 5 for a foot-path. At each end of the 
viaduct are two arches of masonry, and the total 
length is 918 feet. The two middle piers are 
erected upon piles from 21 to 27 feet in length. 
All the piers are of masonry, and tapered upward, 
the principal being 21 feet wide between the foot- 
higs and 15 feet at the springing of the arches. 
The piers are continued upward, of reduced dimen- 
sions, to the level of the roadway, the whole of the 
five main arches, spandreling, and superstmcture 
being formed of timber. The radius of these arches 
is 68 feet, and their rise or versed sine about 33 feet 
The ribs forming the arches are composed of 
planks of Kvanized Dantzic pine, the lengths of 
which vaiT from 20 to 46 feet, by 11 inches wide 
and 3 inches thick. The thickness of each rib is 
made up of fourteen planks so bent as to form an 
arch, and laid together so as to break joint both 
transversely and longitudinally. They are fastened 
together by oaken treenails, 1} inches in diameter 
and 4 feet apart, each treenail perforating three of 
the planks. Between each joint in each direction 
is placed a layer of strong brown, paper dipped in 
boiling tar. 

Digitized by 


Digitized by 


Digitized by 





The smndrels are formed of trussed framing, and 
the platform of the roadway, which is composed of 
d-inch planking, is supported upon transverse beams 
laid 4 feet apart. The platform is covered with a 
composition of boiling tar and lime, mixed with 
l^vel in applying it, and thus forming a coating 
impervious to water. 

The arched beam has been very extensively used 
in the timber bridges of the United States. See 
Wooden Bridok ; Arched- Beam Roof. 

Arched-Beam Bridge. A bridge whose span 
either consists of a compound beam, or one in which 
such a beam forms one element in the truss, as in 
many of the wooden bridges of the last dentury and 
the present. See Wooden Bridge. 

Compound arched beams of iron are also becoming 
common, and many beautiful bridges are now made 
on this principle. See previous article. 

The arched beam is now a favorite foim of bridge. 
Angle-iron of varying cross-section is freely \ised. 
See Iron Bridge. 

Arched-Beam Roof. In the sixteenth century 
Philibert de Lorme, a French architect, invented an 

Fig. S18. 

De LomuU Arched Beam. 

arched beam (Fig. 818) made of pieces of timber 
which were cut into short arcs of the required circle, 

§ laced edgewise, and bolted together, breaking joint, 
eyeral roofs in Paris and London are, or were, of 
this construction. 

It was a disadvantage of this plan that the pieces 
were necessarily short, as they would otherwise pre- 
sent a cross grain to the strain. 

The largest roof of one span, in its day, was that of 
the Imperial Riding-House at Moscow, built in 1790 

Fig. 814 




D Dj 

Imperial Rtding-House. 

(Fig. 814). The span is 285 feet. The members of 
the arched beam are notched together (Fig. 815) so as 

Fig. 816. 

Fig. 816. 

Notched Arch-Beam. 

to prevent slipping on each other. The ends of the 
arched beam are prevented from spreading by a tie- 
beam, and the arch and tie are connected together by 
vertical suspension-rods and diagonal braces. 

Colonel EMys arched beam (1817) is constructed 
on a principle differing from both of the foregoing 
(Kg. 316). The ribs in this roof are formed of planks 
bent round on templets to the proper curve, and kept 

Emy^s Arched-Beam Roof. 

from separating by iron straps, and also by the radi- 
ating struts which are in pairs, notched out so as to 
clip the rib between them. 

The principals, wall-posts, and arched rib form 
two triangles, firmly braced together, and exert no 
thrust on the walls ; the weight of the roof, being 
thrown on the walls at the feet of the ribs, and not 
at the pole plate, permits the upper portion of the 
walls to be comparatively light. 

The Colonel erected a roof of this description in 
1825 at Marac, near Bayonne. 

The principle has been extensively adopted in 
wooden oridges in the United States and in Eu- 
rope. See Wooden Bridge. 

The illustration opposite represents the roof of 
the Union Passenger Depot of the New York and 
Harlem Railway, projected by Commodore Vander- 
bilt, and constructed from the designs of J. C. Buck- 
hout, C. E. The roof is 652 feet long and 199 feet 
2 inches between walls. It is supported upon 32 
semicircular trusses, which are spaced 20 feet 4 
inches between centers, extending from a point 2 
feet below the rails to an elevation of 94 feet from 
the springing line to the extrados of the arch. Each 
truss has at its foot two tie-rods 2J inches ii; diam- 
eter, with a turn-buckle at the mid length. The 
pitch of the roof is formed by rafters secured to the 
top chord of the arch. 

The trusses weigh about forty tons each, and wei-e 
raised in sections by means of a movable staging 
80 feet high, 160 feet long, and 30 feet wide, moving 
on ways, and shifted along step by step as the work 
of raising the tnisses progressed. About 8,000,000 
pounds of iron were used in the structure, 10,000,000 
tricks, 20,000 barrels of cement. 

The car-house is lighted through three skylights, 
extending over the entire length of the roof, — one on 
the center, double-pitched, and a single one on each 
side of the center, and having altogether 80,000 square 
feet of glass, — nearly two acres. The north end is 
closed by an iron front, the south end by the building 
containing the principal offices of the Company. 

The roof covers nearly three acres, the station it- 

Digitized by 





self about four acres. The station is designed for 
the use of the Hudson River, Harlem, N. Y. Central, 
and N. Y, and New Haven Railways, having lines 
of rail for each company, besides those for the Pourth 
Avenue horse-cars which run into and to and from 
this station, which was opened for traffic October 7, 
1871. The gas-burners of the building are lighted 
at night by electricity ; 25,000 feet of electric wire 
being used, and 20,000 feet of gas-pii>e. The 144 
steam-radiators are heated by 15 miles of steam-pipe. 

The roof is ventilated bv six lines of ventilating 
slats 6 feet high and 8 inches wide, with a Z-shaped 
interval between the slats. 

The i-oof of the St. Pancras Station of the Midland 
Railway, England, covers nearly four acres. The 
roof had at the time of its erection, and may yet 
have, the widest span of any in existence, 240 feet, 
and the space beneath is unbroken by ties or braces. 
Its style IS subdued Gothic, with segments meeting 
at its crown. The roof springs from the platform 
level, the principal ribs each having the form of a 
four-centered arch, the radii of the curves being 57 
feet and 160 feet respectively. The two central 
curves — those of 160-feet radius — meet at an an- 
gle in the center at a hight of 96 feet above the 
platform level. The length of the roof is 690 feet, 
with a clear span of 240 feet, covering five platforms, 
ten lines of rails, and a cab-stand 25 feet wide, thus 
making a total area of 165,600 square feet. Its 
hight at the ridge is 125 feet above the level of the 
road. There are twenty-tive principal ribs in the 
roof, 29 feet 4 inches apart from center to center, 
and each weighing about 50 tons. The station 
walls rise, behind the soring of the principal, the 
space at the top being filled m with open ironwork. 

The roof is glazed about 70 feet on each side of 
the center, and the remainder is covefed with slates. 

The transverse girders which support the floor 
of the station take the thrust of the roof. They are 
connected so as to fonn continuous girders across 
the station, and rest on the walls of the I7i-feet 
story beneath. Besides being tied to the giniers, 
the feet of the ribs are each secured bv four 3- inch 
bolts to an anchor-plate built into the wall and 
strongly fastened. 

Arched But'tress. A fljring buttress, or arc- 

Ar'ohiL The extract of Orcliilla weed, used for 
dyeing, usually evapomted so as to form a solid mass 
Uke indigo. Called also OrcJiil and Cudbear. 

Ar'clu-me-de'an DrilL A drill whase stem 
consists of twisted pinion wire, or a core having steep 
spirals. A nut with internal oblique grooves is re- 
ciprocated on the stem and rotates the latter. A 
Persian Drill (which see). 

Ar'chl-me-de'eui Fro-peller. A propeller con- 
sisting of a continuous spiral vane on a hollow core 
running lengthwise of the vessel. It is an amplifica- 
tion and extension of the screw. Figure 817 shows 
it in horizontal and transverse sections. See Screw 

Ar'ohi-me-de'eui Rail'i^Tay. A form of railway 
in which a continuous shaft rotates on pillars erected 
between the lines of rail, the shaft having a spiral 
rib which acts as a screw upon a pedestal below the 
car to propel it along the track. 

Ar'chi-me-de'an Screw. The invention of Ar- 
chimedes when in Kgypt, about 260 B. c. It consists 
of a hollow inclined screw, or a spiral pipe around 
an inclined axis ; the lower end is submerged in the 
water and the upper end discharges. 

Strabo refers to a water-raising machine of this 
kind, used to supply the garrison of the Memphite 
Babylon, on the Nile, and worked by 150 men. 

Fig. 817. 

ArehimecUan PrqatQer, 

it was also used as a draining pump by the Tur- 
detani of Iberia in the time of Strabo. This was 
the country of the Guadalquiver. See Scekw, 

Ar'chi-tecf ura The classic orders are five : • 
DoriCf loiiic and Corinthian (Greek) ; Tuscan and 
Composite {Roman), The more modem is Gothic^ 
which has several varieties : Anglo-Roman^ B. C. 55 
to A. D. 250 ; Anglo-Saxon, A. D. 800 to 1066 ; An- 
glo-Norman, 1066 to 1185 ; Early English or Point- 
ed, 1135 to 1272 ; Pure Gothic, 1272 to 1377 ; Flor- 
id, 1377 to 1509 ; Elizabethan, 1509 to 1625. The 
subject is copiously and admirably treated in many 
excellent works. Its interest in a work of this char- 
acter is not as an art, but as requiring machinery 
to hew and shape the stones, construct the founda- 
tions and the roof, and also calling for ingenuity in 
providing the building with its material accessories for 
safety, ventilation, warmth, light, and convenience. 
The following are dates assigned by some authori- 
ties for the buildings mentioned : — 

The Pyramids . (about) B. C. 1500 
Memnonium . . . " 1350 
Solomon's Temple . . . " 1004 
Birs Nimroud, . . . " 900 
Jupiter Capitolinus . . . ** 616 
Parthenon . ..." 438 
Pantheon . . . A. D. 18 

Coliseum . . . . " .70 
St. Sophia . ..." 532 
Mosque of Omar, at Jerusalem ** 687 
Caves of Ellora ..." 700 
St. Peter's, Rome . . . " 1626 
St. Paul's, London . . " 1710 
The tent is the original of the Chinese style. 
The cave is the original of the Eg>'ptian. 
The log cabin suggested the Grecian. 
The avenue oftrerjt the wondrous Gothic nave. 
The possession of iron and various facilities of 

Digitized by 





work have yet inspired no one. Some are anxious to 
buUd iron houses as much like stone as possible ; 
the most ambitious attempt is an immense barn at 
Sydenham, England, — an . engineering success, but 
not a work of inspiration. 

The Egyptian capitals were the prototypes of 
those of the Grecian and Roman orders ; and the 
various ceramic works of the Greeks and Etruscans 
were strangely like those of the Nile people. The 
opening of the Egyptian ports by Psammeticus, 
670 B. c, was fortunate for the nations on the 
northern shore of the Mediterranean. 

For Specific Index of Architecture, see Mason's 

AND Bricklayer's Work. 

Ar'ohi-ton-nere. A name for the Steam Gun. 

Ar'chi-traTre. {Architecture.) That portion of an 

entablature which rests upon the columns ; the lintel. 

(Carpentry.) The molding ai*ound a doorway or 

window. The respective portions are known as the 

transverse architrave, and architrave jambs. 

Ar'chi-volt. {Architecture.) a. A molding run- 
ning round the face of an arch. 

b. The inner curve formed by the voussoirs or 

Aroh'-atone. A wedge-shaped stone used in an 
arch ; a voussoir. In some furnaces the chamber, or 
an opening thereinto, is covered by a flat ashlar, 
which is called an arch-stone. 

Aro'o-graph. An instrument for describing arcs 
of circles without the use of centers. A thin and 
pliable strip of metal whose ends 
Fig. 818. are attached to the wooden bar 
may be sprung into the required 
shape ana then fastened by set 
screws. Unless the stock have 
means for extension and contraction^ 
the range of arc which may be de- 
scribed will be but limited. The 
device is susceptible of many varia- 
tions, and is useful as a templet or 
marker for many purposes. 
Arcograpk. A-re-om'e-ter. An instrument 

used by the Spanish Saracens A. D. 
It had a bulb and stem similar to a hy- 


drometer ; floating in liquid, its stem was more or less 

submerged by the changes in the density of the 

liquid due to changes of the temperature, and thus 

constituted a thermometer. 

Nicholson's areometer consists essentially of the 

funnel a, the cylinder 6, rod c m, and the table or 

plate d. 

The instrument is so arranged that when set in 

distilled water and a definite weight laid upon rf, it 
will sink to a mark m made on 
Fig. S19. the rod. To determine the spe- 

cific gravity of a mineral, it is laid 
on the plate rf, when it will of 
course depress the instrument in 
the water. Additional weights 
must be added to bring the mark 
m to the level of the water, and 
the amount of these subtracted 
from the standard weight already 
referred to will be the weight of 
the mineral in the air. Call this 
weight p. Remove the mineral 
from the plate, and place it in the 
funnel or nollow cone a ; immersed 
in the water the areometer will not 
sink quite to w, say about to c, 
the body losing in water an amount 

^ m of weight equal to that of a quan- 

Nieholson's Ar«<nn.' ^^^7 ^^ ^^»^^^ ^^ precisely the same 
eter. volume with itself, that is, equal to 

that of the water displaced. Additional weights * 
are now to be laid on a until the level m is again 
reached. This amount, which we will eall p\ ex- 
presses the weight of an equal volume of water. 
We have thus ascertained tlie weight of precisely 
equal volumes of water and of the mineral, and as 
water is the standard taken, -^. will express the ratio 
of the two, or the specific gravity of the body. 
Thus, X : 1 : : p : p', and x = '^. 
The areometer of Pappus, the Greek philosopher 
contemporary with Theodosius the Great, A. D. 
379 - 395, is described by Al-Kh&zinl the Saracen, an 
eminent writer of the twelfth century, the author of 
the "Book of the Balance of Wisdom," and sus- 
pected to be identical with the great Al-Hazen, 
whose celebrity is associated with the Cordovan 
period of Spanish history. It was a graduated brass 
tube which floated vertically in liquid and indicated 
by the line of submergence the degree above or below 
the "equator of equilibrium," the specific gravity 
of the matter weighed. 

The surmise of Chev. Khanikoff, indorsed by Dra- 
per, that Abu-Jafar Al-Eh^in! and Al-Hazen were 
identical may be correct. They were certainly con- 
temporaries, but the former, whose name it is impos- 
sible to find in any other part of the Persian an- 
nals, fails in some respects to answer for 'Abu-'Alt 
Muhammad Bin 'al-Hasan 'Ibu 'al-Haitham, said 
to be of Basrah. 

The book referred to Q.bove as the writing of Al- 
Rh^ni was composed, as is seen in the Dedi- 
cation, at the court of the SaMke Sult&n Sanjar, 
who reigned over a large part of the ancient Khali- 
fate of Baghdad from A. D. 1117 to 1167. 

The areometer of Pappus is very similar to the 
Volumeter of Gay Lussac. 

Gay Lussac's scale areometer consists of a cylin- 
drical glass tube in the lower 
part of whicha ball his blown. Fig 820. 

and, being continued, finally _ 

terminates in another ball c. 
The latter is filled with shot 
or mercury, to cause the in- 
strument to sink vertically in 
distilled water to a certain 
point, the zero. The specific 
gravity of a liquid is ascer- 
tained by the depth of depres- 
sion, its weight being equal to 
that of the liquid displaced. 
It is a form of hydrometer. 

A-re-o-Btylbs. Aninter- 
columniation of four diam- 
eters width. 

Ar'gand Gas'-bum-er. 
The Argand Gas-burner has 
a circular series of holes on the 
upper edge of a cylindrical 
chamber, having a central 
aperture to allow access of air 
to the inside of the flame. 

The jets from the series of 
holes unite to form a cylin- 
drical flame. The holes are 
about one sixth of an inch in 
diameter, and when there are ' 

ten holes in the circle, the Qay Lusaac^s Areometer. 
middle opening will be four 
tenths of an inch in diameter ; with twenty-five open- 
ings, the central aperture will be about one inch in 

The following formula is ^ven for the number of 
holes, central aperture, hight of flame without 
smoking, and appropriate size of chimney : — 

Digitized by 





No. of 








Diameter of Olus 


In Fig. 321 the lower section of the burner has 
an orifice for the gas, which is more 
Fig. 821 . or less obstructed by the end of a screw 
which is either turned dii-ectly by 
hand, or, when vertical and inclosed 
within the burner, is turned by a 
lever projecting through a slot there- 

Ar'eand Lamp. Invented by 
Ai^nu, a native of Geneva, about the 
year 1784. It consists of two concen- 
tric cylindrical tubes between whicli 
is fitted the annular wick used in this 
peculiar burner. The annulus inclos- 
ing the wick is closed at the bottom, 
and communicates, by a pi]ie, with the oil reser- 
voir. The interior tube being open, free access 
of air is allowed to the inte- 
Wg 822. rior and exterior of the flame, 

insuring more equal and perfect 

In a round solid wick, burning 
any of the fatty oils, such as 
sperm, a large proportion of the 
carbon, which in that class of oils 
is greatly in excess of the hydro- 
gen, escapes unconsumed and is 
wasted, rising in the form of 

The annular wick has double 
the surface of a solid one of the 
same diameter exposed to the 
contact of the atmosphere, and 
as the flame is also thinner its 
b temperature is more uniform, and 
^ the vapor from the center of the 
wick IS consumed equally with 
that from its exterior. The com- 
Arftmd Lamp. bustion is also greatly aided by 
the draft caused by the glass 
chimney, continually bringing fresh supplies of oxy- 
gen in contact with the flame and protecting it from 
currents of air. The chimney was the invention 
of L'Ange. 

Argand died in 1803. A French mechanic named 
Carcel patented an improvement in 1800, in which 
the oil 18 pumped from the reservoir to the wick by 
power denved from a spring or by the ascending col- 
umn of air above the chimney. This is called the 
Mechanical Jyitnp, and is used in the large lamps 
for the Dioptric system in lighthouses. 

The Argand burner as mo<lified by Fresnel for the 
Dioptric system in lighthouses has four concentric 
wicK.s, the outer one 3J inches in diameter, and the 
great heat produced is carried off by two nican.s, — 
overflowing the wicks with oil, and by means of the 
ventilator devised by Faraday. The oil in su])er- 
abundant quantity is puniped into the wick-tubes 
and flows over the top. The ventilator is a tube 
• having several sections, the lower portion of eo/ch 
being flaring, and receiving the upper end of the 
section below, which enters it a short distance. The 
top of the lamp-chimney enters the lower section 
and produces a great draft. 

The Ai^nd lamp first made effective the Catop- 
tric system for lighthouses. 

The annexed engraving shows the lamp in its 
lower position, withdrawn from its place in the focus 
of the ^mraboloid reflector a 
for trimming. 6 is the bum- He* 828. 

er, and c a cylindrical foun- 
tain containing twenty-four 
ounces of oil. The oil-pipe, 
burner, and fountain are con- 
nected to a frame d, which 
is movable in a vertical 
direction upon guide-rods e 
/, by which it can be let 
down by simply turning the 
handle g. 

An aperture of an ellip- 
tical form, measuring about 
two inches by three, is cut 
in the upper and lower part ^ I 
of the reflector, the lower 
serving for the free egress 
and ingress of the burner, 
and the upper, to which the 
copper tube h is attached, 
serving for ventilation ; t 
shows a cross-section and a 
back view of the main bar of 
the chandelier or frame on Jrgand Lan^. 

which the reflectors are 

ranged, each being made to rest on knobs of brass, 
one of which is soldered to the brass band /, that 
clasps the exterior of the reflector, m is an oil cup 
to catch drip. A frost lamp is placed at this point 
in winter to keep the oil in the wick-tube in a 
flowing condition. 

The tubular wick -burner (Fig. 824) has a wa- 
ter-chamber B G" interposed between the wick- 
tube and the oil-res- 

ervoir, so as to prevent 
the heating of the 
contents of the lat- 
ter. The wick occu- 
pies an annular space 
formed by two con- 
centric wicks. M 
is the deflector plate, 
and C I 2L frustrum 
to reflect upwanl the 
heat which reaches 
the inside of the tube. 
CF' is a perforated floor 
to prevent the con- 
duction of flame, on 
the principle of Da- 
vy's safety- lamp. The 
water has an overflow 
down the central air- 
tube. K is the base 
ring for the chimney. 

cu-ry. Silver amal- 

Ar^gen-tan. An 
alloy of nickel cop- 

Fig. 824. 

Dopp^s Argand Lamp. 

\wT and zinc. Albata ; German Silver^ (which 

Ar'gen-tine. White metal coated with silver. 

Ar'gen-tine Glass. An ornamental gla.ssware 
having the sheen of silver. It is the invention of 
Apsley Pellatt, and is formed by inclosing delicate 
white Argentine incrustations of dry porcelain clay 
with solid and transparent glass. 

The dry figures are placed on a red-hot bulb of 
flint glass and immediately covered with a thin layer 
of very fluid glass. 

Digitized by 





The exterior layer is polished, and gives 
a silvery brightness to the white figure. 

Ar-gen-tom'e-ter. A graduated tube 
used for ascertaining the amount of silver 
in a solution by the admission of a definite 
bulk of chloride of sodium solution. 

Ar-gen'tom Mo-sa'i-oom. An alloy, 
or rather amalgam, of tin, bismuth, and 
raercuiT, used for coloring images of plas- 
ter of Paris. Argentum Munvum. 

Ar'giL Potter's clay, from the Latin 
argilla ; white clay. 

Ar'go-sy. A merchant-ship of the Med- 
iterranean ; specially of the Levant. The 
term is now antiquated. 

A'ri-es. The battering-ram, so called be- 
cause the metallic head of the beam was 
sometimes fashioned like the head of a ram. 
As a means of battering walls it is said to 
have been invented by Artemanes of Cal- 
zomene, a Greek architect, about 441 B. c. It is de- 
scribed by Josephus, who states that it was some- 
times supported on the shoulders of men who ad- 
vanced on a run ; at other times it was slung from 
a frame, and operated by ropes. 

Philip of Macedon is said to have been the first to 
place the frame on wheels, at the siege of Byzantium. 
Plutarch informs us that Marc Antony, in the Par- 
thian war, made use of an aries 80 feet long. Vi- 
truvins says they were sometimes 106 to 120 feet in 

A-rith-mom'e-ter. An instrument for assisting 
in calculating. The most ancient form is the Aba- 
cus (which see). This has a series of wires, the 
balls on which represent units, tens, hundreds, etc., 
and is used by sliding the balls on the wire, to 
tabulate the result of each successive increment or 
decrement of numbers. 

If the balls were numbered and several series 
were strung upon a ring, they might be passed con- 
tinuously in tne same direction, as the addition re- 

The Arabs, to whom we are indebted for the in- 
troduction of the Indian numerals, termed their 
treatises "Systems of Indian Arithmetic." The 
word cipher is the Arabic tmplwra, — ** blank" or 
** void ; alluding to its integral value. The word 
algebra is also Arabic. The words ehemiae^ coUoriy 
are also Arabic, and to the Arabs Europe is also in- 
debted for the introduction of the garment and the 
material. Mohammed Ben Musa wrote a treatise 
on a^bra in the latter part of the ninth century. 
The Khalif Al-Maimon measured a degree of lati- 
tude on the Red Sea shore. This, when the teach- 
ings of Constantinople and Rome were on the scale 
and standard of Byron's Grand Seignoir, — 

*' He knew, becaoM he saw, the moon wm round, 
AIbo wm certain that the earth was square." — Don Juan. 

An arithmometer was suggested by the Marouis 
of Worcester in his ** Century of Inventions," out 
was not described. It was adapted for addition and 

Sir Samuel Morlond, in 1672-73, published a 
treatise* on the use of two arithmetical instru- 
ments adapted for addition and subtraction. 

In Fig. 325, instead of balls on a wire, a series of 
sectional belts operate numbered wheels, which are 
rotatable in one direction only. The numbers on 
the peripheries of the wheels are exposed at a row of 
openings in the case. The sections of the belt are 
perforated so as to be moved by a j)eg, the selection 
of the place for the peg being assisted by a row of 
numbers over each belt. 

Fig. 825. 

ft A T «_A i_5T 

I o|olo|o|o[o 
7 « & 



». TS, s V^ » 



o I o I o I o I o I o 

,«*.?, 7,«, ft,f ,?,» 



o o 


o^l o 


_o| o 


ol o 

Computing MaddnM, 

The Calculator (Fig. 826) has disks numbered on 
their peripheries and arranged on a common axis. 

Fig. 826. 


They are moved by cogs exposed conveniently to be 
operated by the nnger, -and are so connected that 

Fig. 827. 


Digitized by 





FJg- 828. the motion often 

cogs on the disk 
ofunits rives the 
next disK a sin- 
gle impulse and 
registers ten, and 
80 on through the 
series. Tne re- 
sult is visible at 
a slit in the case. 
Fig. 327 has 
also the num- 
bered disks, 
which are moved 
by handles 
sweeping in cir- 
cular arcs. It 
performs the op- 
erations of ad(U- 
tion, subtrac- 
tion, multiplica- 
tion, and divis- 
ion, the results 
appearing at dif- 
ferent slits in the 
case. Space will 
not permit an 
exact elucidation of the mode of operation of this 
ingenious machine. 

Another form of arithmometer is that in which 
disks of varying diameters overlie each other, and 
communicate motion to each other in regular series, 
as in Fig. 328, the units to the tens, these to the 
hundreds, etc. The principle is substantiallv the 
same as those previously described, but the device 
has a compact appearance, and the result is read on 
a dial. 

One other form is analogous to the disks of a gas- 
meter register, which is in fact an arithmometer. 

Fig. 829. 

Disk Arithnonuter. 

it is transmitted through the series ; but in adding 
machines each wheel must have capacity for inde- 
pendent rotation to register thousands, hundreds, 
tens, and units, not affecting those below it of lesser 
denomination, but each imparting to the one above 
it one tenth of its own motion. 

Registering devices are to be seen verj' perfectly 
constructed in steam-enrinfes and printinc-presses ; 
in the fonner to record me number of revolutions of 
the shaft for economical purpose in estimating the 
consumption of steam, the slip of the paddles, etc., 
and in the latter case for keeping record of the num- 
ber of impressions. See Calculating Macuixe, 

Ark. A flat-bottomed boat made of a frame and 
boards which do not usuallv overlap, but are nailed 
to the frame and have tne interstices calked or 

It is used on the Western rivers to transport pro- 
duce, pelts, merchandise, etc. 

Ar-lien-axiB'e. {Fabric. ) A kind of Spanish linen. 

Arm. {Angle-Iron.) 1. One of tne wings or 
flanges of angle-iron. The side-ann of the angle- 
iron in a ship's frame forms the /aytw^r-sunace 
to which the plates are riveted. The other arm 
is in the plane of the transverse section of the 


CXphering Maddtu, 

See Fig. 829. The different disks are arranged on 
their separate axes, and usually have their numbers 
on their circular faces. A revolution of the unit 
wheel gives one tenth of a revolution to the wheel 
registering tens, and so on ; the numbers of the 
wheels api)ear at the series of openings in the slit, 
and are read consecutively. In the gas register the 
impulse is all imparted to the unit wheel, and from 

2. {Kiiecs.) One of the members or projections 
of a kiue. With timber knees, the arms are usually 
two, resting respectively against the beam, and the 
ship's sides. With iron knees, the arms may be 
more numerous, and may embrace other sides of the 
object to which they appertain. 

3. {Nautical.) One of the projecting members of 
an anchor, terminating in a fluke or palm which 
takes hold on the ground. 

The arms unite at the crown. 
The throat is at the junction of the inner edge of 
the arm with the shank. 

The trend is that part of the shank reach- 
ing from the throai towards the siock^ a dis- 
tance equal to the length of the arm. 
The pee or bill is tlie point of an arm. 

4. The outer piece of an overshot watcr- 
I^IL^" wheel bucket. Also called the wrist. The 
l^|~*N' inner piece is the floor or bottom. .See 


5. {Vehicles.) That part of the axle which 
passes through the hub of the wheel. The 
axlc-spindle. When of wood, it is strength- 
ened by metallic straps called skeins, and 
sometimes by a conical sheath called a thini' 

In carriages it is of iron, in continuation 
of the iron axle, or it is inserted into the 
end of a wooden axle. See Axle. 

6. Of a hammer. The handle of a trip- 
hammer, which receives the impulse of the 

7. Of a T^-indmill. The beam which sup- 
ports a sail ; the sail itself ; also called a 

3. A spoke of a gear-wheel. 

9. An end of a yard. 

10. A weapon; as, side-arm, fire-arm, 

Arm, Ar-ti-fi'oial. Artificial arms are adapted 
for amputations alwve or below the elbow, respective- 
ly. In the fonner ease the movements, in tne most 
perfect artificial arms, are derived from the motions 
of the stump ; the backward motion of the latter ex- 
tending the joints of the prosthetic arm and hand, 
and the forwaixi motion of the stump flexing the 
said joints. These motions are derived from bars or 

Digitized by 





cords which connect the forearm to a shield on the 
shoulder, as in KoelIer*s, or to bands on the body, as 
in Condell's and in Uren's. 

In these cases the upper ann consists of a socket 
to receive the stump of the limb, and is secured by 
straps to the person with a certain degree of riifidity. 
The anterior and posterior tendons or rods have a 
firm attachment at or near the shoulder, pass along 
or through the upper section, and are attached to 
such points on the forearm that, as one or the other 
is tightened, the forearm is flexed or extended. In 
some cases the oscillation or the elbow-articulation 
is obtained by cords which have direct or intermediate 
attachment to the forearm, as in Condell's and Peter- 
son's ; in others the cords or bars move a toothed 
wheel which engages a pinion on the elbow axis 
and gives motion to the forearm, as in one of Koel- 

The backward motion of the stump, it will be 
apparent, tends to strain the anterior tendon, which 
is so connected to the forearm behind the elbow- 
joint as to extend the'forearm. The forward motion 
of the stump strains the posterior tendon which 
connects to tne forearm in front of the articulation, 
and thus flexes it as the stump is moved forward. 
These motions follow the natural ones, as, for instance, 
in the act of raising the hand to the mouth it is 
usual to oscillate the arm forward on the shoulder as 
a pivot, and backwardly as the hand descends. In 
the natural arm the pivotal position of the forearm 
is varied so as to cause the said arm to swing in 
an arc which will bring the hand to the required 
place, say the mouth, for instance ; in the aitificial 
arm, the motion on the shoulder is the generator of 
the motion on the elbow, and a certain amount of 
practice and adjustment is required to proportion 
the parts so that the consentaneous action of the 
parts which produce the com^und motion may, 
without apparent constraint or indecision, land the 
hand at tne object. When the trunk of a person 
aflbrds points of attachment for the flexor and ex- 
tensor straps, the motions of the shoulder itself, 
relatively to the thorax, and involving the clavicle 
and scapula, may be made to assist in executing the 
motions required. 

The primary motion of the stump having been 
communicated to the forearm by the means described, 
(and the special devices are various and very inge- 
nious,) the motions of the hand are derived from 
that of the fore-arm by means of tendons, slides, or 
other attachments. The construction will farther 
appear when considering some of the varieties of 
aitificial arms, though it will not be possible to 
aflbrd space for an exhaustive description even of 
the sixteen patents which have been selected and 
are now before the writer. 

One class of arms does not receive motion from 
the stump, but retains the position at which it is set 
by the other hand, or assumes and retains it by 
swinging it in one direction or the other till it is 
engaged by a spring latch. Drake's, also Lindsay 
and Vance's, are illustrations of the former ; Lincoln's 
of the latter. 

To secure the requisite lightness and oflbrd room 
for the operative devices, artiiicial arms are made 
hollow. The material is various, and some patents 
have been issued for the use of specific materials, 
such as rawhide, which has a toughness and strength 
hardly to be excelled. Vulcanite, papier-macn^, 
layers of fabric alternating with glue, veneers, card- 
board, and hollow wooden blocks shaped to the 
natural contour, have all been advocated and used. 

The tubular form does not always extend to the 
metacarpus, and the fingers especially are frequently 
made of solid jointed blocks, with tendons, cartilaxpe, 
and ligaments. These prosthetic parts perform tne 
functions of their correlatives, as being tlie means of 
motion, giving resiliency to the contact of the paHs, 
and specific connection to the phalanges. In the 
latter case, the hingeing of the parts, it must be ad- 
mitted that the liumau mechanic has assumed a 
hard task in attempting to copy the natui-al articu- 
lations, and. that he has done commendably with the 
materials at hand. 

In Condell'h arm the loop appendage is a yoke of 
webbing for the attachment of the socket to the 
stump, and for securing such a rigid connection to 
the body that the three straps proceeding down the 
humerus may be utilized when the stump is moved 
backward, forward, or rotated, in pixxincing extension 

Fig. 830. 

CondeWa Arti/ieial Arm. 

Digitized by 





and flexion of the arm and the forward motion of the 
metacarpus which opens the phalanges. The axis 
moves with the forearm, and a stud P thereon affords 
a point of attachment for the spring JV, whose duty is 
to assist in extension. The straps 1/ L^ are respec- 
tively attached to the yoke in posterior and anterior 
positions, and to the arm of the rock-shaft L a,t F 
and M respectively. The draft on 1/ acts to flex, 
and on i>" to extend, the forearm, by means of the 
link B, which is pivoted to the forearm anteriorly. 
The flexor and extensor motions described apply to 
the forearm, but do not involve the action of the 
hand, the metacarpus of which is hinged by a 
through pin to the mid-wrist. A post g is perma- 
nently attached in the hollow of the arm, and a 
spring tendon 2t passes from it to a point on the 
metacarpus back of its wrist articulation, so as to 
oscillate it backwardly. This spring being constant, 
the normal position of the metacarpus is rearward 
and the fingers and thumb closed. The relation of 
the motion of these to that of the metacarpus will be 
presently described. The forward motion of the hand 
and the opening of the grasp are effected by a slight 
rotation or the shoulder, which draws upon the strap 
e, oscillates the post d, and by means of the tendon e 
draws forward the metacarpus extending the pha- 

The forward portion of the forearm is sleeved 
upon the butt or wooden part in which the post g 
is secured. By the partial rotation of the forward 
portion the ulna-radial motion is given (by the oth- 
er hand), to vary the presentation of the palm ; the 
tendons which actuate the metacarpus still main- 
taining the same relation, that is, having their 
points of attachment thereto at opposite sides of 
the axis of vibration. 

The frame-piece m of each finger is pivoted to a 
point on the metacarpus i, and the rod ^t the back 
of the hand is pivoted to the frame-piece and also to 
a point on the forearm at o, so that when the meta- 
carpus is moved, by the means previously described, 
the frame m is oscillated on its pivot, and gives the 
primary deflection to the finger. The second sec- 
tion of the finger-frame is pivoted to a point on the 
frame m, and is connected by a link to a stud per- 
manently attached to the metacarpus ; by this 
means is obtained the additional deflection proper to 
the second phalange. The additional deflection due 
to the third phalange is given by a rod attached to 
it and to the frame-piece m. The same arrange- 
ment is adopted for each finger, and the action of 
the phalange is cumulative, the second and third 
phalanges participating in the motion of the first, 
and having an additional motion derived therefrom ; 
the third m like manner participates in the motion 
of the second and third, and has a motion of its own 
derived from its predecessors. The proportion of the 
parts of respective fingers is so regulated that, in 
closing, the second, third, and small fingers receive a 
gradually accelerated motion in the order stated, so as 
to imitate the natural closure of the hand, in which 
the little finger most nearly approaches the palm and 
the others stand in receding order. 

The motions of the thumb are substantially equiv- 
alent, being derived from its diverse points of at- 
tachment to the metacarpus and to a point on the 
forearm, so as to be closed by the backward motion 
of the former, and conversely, as already stated in 
regard to the phalanges of the fingers. 

In Fig. 331 the shoulder-cap is the basis for the 
movements of the arm, forearm, wrist, thumb, and 
fingers. The strap C is hinged to the cap A, and 
connected by a roa to the ring L. The straps D E j 
of the upper arm are also hinged to the cap and the I 

lower part of the upper arm ; from the ends of the 
straps D E proceed the slotted bars H N, to whose 

Fig. 881. 

Artificial Arm. 

lower end the forearm is pivoted. The three 
straps mentioned are the means of suspension of 
the arm, forearm, and hand, and the stump of the 
natural arm within this outer skeleton is the means 
of imparting motion to the foi<earm, wrist, and 
fingers. The ring L is connected to the strap C^ and 
hinged to the torearm behind the elbow-joint ; it 
is guided in its motions by the slotted bars H N, 
sliding down the said slots as the stump is moved 
forward, and thereby thrusting upon the point of the 
elbow and flexing the forearm. 

Pivoted to the bars H JVi near the elbow-axis, 
are the bifurcated ends of the wire Y, which actu- 
ates the fingers and thumb, flexing them as the ann 
bends, by means of tension on the tendons which 
pass through the metacarpus and then diverge to 
follow the phalanges. By means of the lever JT, 
the spring-dide 6, and the notched slot, the thumb 
and fingers can be connected to or disconnected firom 
the arm and forearm, so as to receive motion therefrom, 
or otherwise as may be desired. In the rotary move- 
ment of the stump the upper end of the strap D 
runs on a rod attached to the shield A under the 

Fig. 332 is for amputations above the elbow. The 
shoulder-joint is imitated by a cap or collar and a 
hoop which turns- on the collar by looped brackets, 
which sUde upon a wire ring suspended to the lower 
edge of the collar. The case which holds the stump 
is attached to the hoop by a hinged joint, and turns 
with it. The motions of the stump, whether rotary 
or back and forth, turn the hoop, and by means of a 
system of jointed levers, the fixed points of which 
are on the collar, and the case for the stump, motion is 

Digitized by 






Fig. 888. 

Artifieial Arm. 

communicated to a seg- 
ment-wheel at the elbow- 
joint to which the levers 
are attached, and this 
wheel, acting upon a pin- 
ion on the foreann, causes Jrtifieial Arm, 
it to be flexed and ex- 
tended according to the motions of the stump, 

The hoop D D sUdes on the collar of the artificial 
shoulder Ay the two portions being bracketed to 
a ring B between them. The hinge motion of the 
shell F of the upper arm is effected by the stump, 
and the segment-gear H, being linked posteriorly 
to the shoulder-piece, is rotated by the motions of 
the upper arm, which tighten or slacken the said 
link-connection R. 

In Fig. 333 the flexion of the forearm operates 
the fingers, and the spring in the wrist tends to 
close them. To studs h on the upper arm are at- 
tached rods o o, which connect with a sliding plate 
in the wrist, to which the flexor rods w w of the 
fingers are attached. The elbow connection of the 
rods is in the rear of the elbow articulation of 
the limb, and the forward motion of the forearm 
draws upon these rods so as to flex the fingers 
against the force of the spiing I, which assists in the 
return extension. 

In each finger is an arrangement of rocking rods 
by which a positive motion is imparted in consonance 
with the motions of the slide in the wrist.* The 
fork-holder is inserted in the palm of the hand, and 
consists of four elastic flaps which clasp the end of 
the fork handle. A certain amount of rotatory ad- 
justment (by the other hand) is pemiitted to the 
wrist, so as to vary the presentation of the palm, in 
imitation of that performed by the ulna-radial motion. 

Palmer gives a sinuous course to the flexor 
tendons of the fingers by means of sheaves, aud 
opens the fingers by means of extensor tendons 
antagonizing the flexors by springs. The ball-and- 
socket wrist-joint is held together by cords. 

In his foreann, the flexor and extensor tendons 
are similarly actuated, but the closing of the hand is 
efiected by means of a stiap to which the flexor ten- 
dons are attached. The strap is clamped in the 
flexed position when required. 

Fig. 884. 

Artificial Arm, 
In Fig. 334 the fore and upper arm are hinged 

Fig. 886 

Artificial Arm. 

Digitized by 





together, and pi-ovided internally with a lock-plate 
to retain them in a flexed position when required. 
To release the forearm a projecting csCtch is touched, 
which disengages the catch-plate, allowing the arm 
to swing, lo fasten the forearm flexed, it is swung 
forward, when the lock catches of itself. The hand 
is secured on the forearm, and it and the Angers are 
rigid in a grasping position. The thumh shown 
in the smaller figure has a constantly acting in- 
ternal spring, ana retains articles placed in the 
grasp between the thumb and Angers. The hand 
may be detached, and a hook substituted therefor. 

In Fig. 335 each articulation has a ratchet and 
spring* pawl attachment whereby any flexion impart- 
ed is maintained until freed by a means which trips 
the triggers. The forearm at the elbow-joint has a 
ratchet, and a spring pawl is pivoted on the upper- 
arm piece. By pressing on the back of the imwi, the 
latter is disengaged and the forearm freed. By the 
other means cited, the thumb and Angers are flexed 
80 as to gi*asp an object, and are maintained in their 
bent positions by their respective ratchets and 
pawls. By pulling out the button «, the cross-bar p 
IS driven up and overturns the rods /, which will 
bring the fingers back to their distended position. 

In the above, the hand has necessarily been con- 
sidered in connection with the arm which actuates 
it, and in some cases owing to its being associated 
with an arm of peculiar constniction, although its 
OAvn operative parts had no necessary connection 
with that specific arm. For some other varieties of 
hand structure, see Hand, Artificial. 

Ar'ma-ment. A term expressing collectively all 
the cannon and small-arms, with their equipments, 
belonging to a ship or fortification ; frequently ap- 
plied, in a more restricted sense, to theartillery alone. 

The armament of ships and forts has undergone a 
very great change within the past thirty yearsl. 
About 1840 the 32-pounder gun was most usually 
employed both on Shore and shipboard, 24-poundei-s 
forming no inconsiderable proportion of the armament 
of our forts. 8-inch and even 10-inch guns and how- 
itzers were, however, mounted to some extent in the 
more impoi-tant seaboard fortifications. 

The armament of a line-of-battle ship mounting 
eighty-four guns consisted of tw6nty-two 32-pounders 
of 57 cwt. and ten 8-inch shell-guns of 63 cwt. on each 
of the two gun-decks, and twenty 32-pounders of 
lighter weight on the spar-deck ; that of a 50-gun 
frigate was similar, omitting the battery of one gun- 
deck. In 1857 a 40-gun steam frigate was armed 
with tw^enty-four 9-inch guns on the main -deck and 
fourteen 8-inch and two 10-inch pivot -guns on the 
spar-deck ; 11 -inch pivot-guns were also introduced 
as a part of the armament of steam sloops and smiiUer 

Rifled or breech-loading ordnance was practically 
unknown. The commencement of our late civil 
war brought with it the era of 15-inch smooth-bores 
weighing 50,000 pounds, and at or shortly after its 
close 20-inch guns, weighing more than 100,000 lbs. 
and carrying a ball of 1,060 lbs., had been cast. The 
foixner of these classes now forms the usual ai-mament 
of our monitors. Rifled guns of calibers up to 10 
inches (as the Parrott 300-pounder) were also intro- 
duced, and this size has been exceeded in Europe, 
30-ton Ai-mstrong breech -loadera, carrying a projec- 
tile of 600 lbs. weight, being now in use in the 
English navy, while North Germany and other con- 
tinental nations are little, if any, behind in this re- 
spect. In the United States service great reliance 
has been placed on the *' smashing' qualities of 
round projectiles of lai^ caliber fired from smooth- 
bore guns when employed against iron-clad vessels, 

while the impression of Eiiropean artillerists is that 
they are comparatively inefhcient in competition 
with elongated projectiles dischaived from rifled 
guns ; these are, accordingly, the only kind now em- 
ployed abroad on first-class war vessels, and appear 
to have almost, if not entirely, superseded smooth- 
bores, with the exception of mortars in the armament 
of fortifications. 

Ar'ma-ture. A piece of soft iron applied to a 
loadstone or connecting the poles of a horseshoe 

In certain forms of electro-magnetic instruments a 
magnetized armature is employed, which may either 
be a permanent magnet of steel or an electro-mag- 
net. The armature must have a polarization the 
opposite of that of the magnet ana by its use the 
recoil-spring may be suppressed. 

Arm Pile. A name from the German. A Juind 

Ar'mU. An ancient astronomical instrument. 
When composed of one ring placed in the plane of 
the equator for determining the time of the equi- 
noxes, it is called an equinoclial armil. A\1ien of 
two or more rings, one in the plane of the meridian 
for observing the solstices, it is called a solstitial ar- 
mil. — Whewell. 

The equinoctial armil of the ** Square Porch " 
of Alexandria is referred to by Hii)parchus and 
Ptolemy. A solstitial artnil is also described by 
Ptolemy (see Whewell, I. 201). These armils are 
divided into pirts of sixths of degrees (10'). The 
reading was stated in parts of the circumference. 
Thus, Eratosthenes stated the interval between the 
tropics to be -JJ of tlie circumference. Ptolemy 
used a part of a circle, a qiiadrant. 

It is supposed that Eratosthenes suggested to 
Ptolemy Euergetes the construction of thelarge ar- 
miliary or fixed circular instniments which were long 
in use in Alexandria. Eratosthenes of C}Tene was 
bom B. C. 276, and left Athens at the in\ntation of 
P. Euergetes, who placed him over the library in 
Alexandria, where he remained till the time of P. 
Epiphanes about B. C. 196. He is celebrated for 
his attempt to measure the magnitude of the earth. 
He discovered the obliquity of the ecliptic, which 
he made to be 23* 51' 20". He ascertained that 
Syenein Upper Egypt (lat. 24''10'N.) was in the tropic, 
a vertical gnomon casting no shadow at noon on the 
day of the summer solstice, and thence determined 
its latitude to be equal to the obliquity of the eclip- 
tic. Observations at Alexandria determined the 
zenith of that place to be distant -^ part of the 
circumference of the earth from Syene, the are of 
the meridian between the tAvo places being equal to 
7** 12', which was measured by the Ptolemies and 
found to be 500 stadia. This gives roughly 250,000 
stadia for the circumference of the earth. The 
Olympic stadium was 202J yards. See Odom- 

Ar'mll-la-ry Sphere. An instniment to illus- 
trate the motions of the heavenly bodies. It was in- 
vented by Eratosthenes about B. C. 255, and was 
employed till the tii6e of Tycho Brahe, A. D. 1682. 
It was ordinarily made of brass, and disposed in such 
a manner that the greater and lesser circles of the 
sphere are seen in their natural position and motion. 
It was perhaps the principal agent in asti-onomical 
observations in the museum of Alexandria, which 
was founded by Ptolemy Soter, B. C. 298, and was 
plundered by Cyril A. D. 415, who probably thought 
the sphere was some heathenish machine for invok- 
ing the infernal gods. 

It was used by Aristarehus, who first took the 
heliocentric view of the solar system ; by Archimc- 

Digitized by 





(lea, the grand master of mechanics, contempora- 
neously with the building of the great wall of 
China ; by Eratosthenes, the originator of astronomi- 
cal gec^raphy ; by Hipparchus, the father of mathe- 
matical astronomy; and by Ptolemy, the astronomer, 
A. D. 150, whose system was accepted down to the 
time of Tycho Brahe, A. D. 1582, and until Coper- 
nicus, Kepler, aud Galileo revived the true views of 
Aristarchus, the heliocentric theory promulgated 
nearly two thousand years before. 

Fig. 886. 

ArmUlary Sphere. 

The earth. 

Hour circle. 

North pole of the heavens. 

Arctic circle. 

Tropic of Cancer. 

Celestial horizon. 

Celestial equator. 
g. Ecliptic. 
h. Tropic of Capricorn. 

Antarctic circle. 



k. South pole of the heavens. 

I. Solstitial colure (summer). 

m. Solstitial colure (winter). 

The armillary sphere consists of a frame with 
a horizon on which are represented the 860^ the re- 
gion of the heavens, the calendar, and the hight of 
the sun for every day in the year. Two notcnes in 
the horizontal circle, and corresponding to its north 
and south points, receive the fixed meridian, whose 
plane is perpendicular to, and center coincident 
with, that of the horizontal circle. Within this me- 
ridian the other circles, as well as the small terres- 
trial globe, may all be rotated together on the com- 
mon axis of the heavens and earth. The meridian 
can be moved in ita notches, still retaining its verti- 
cal plane, and in this manner the general axis may 
be placed at various angular distances with the ho- 
rizon. The center of tne small terrestrial globe is 
coincident with that of the general armillary sphere. 
The hour circle is fastened to the north pole of the 

fixed meridian, and has a movable index, which when 
fastened revolves with the axis. It is still used 
in demonstrathig astronomical problems. 

The armillary sphere of the Hindu astronomers is 
described in the Sanscrit treatise^ **S<irya-8idd- 
h&nta," translated by Rev. E. Bui^ess, and pub- 
lished in the Journal of the American Oriental Society, 
Vol. VI. pp. 141 -498, New Haven, 1860. The in- 
strument was illustrative of the positions and motions 
of the heavenly bodies, rather than for astronomical 
observations ; in this respect differing from the 
Greek, Arab, and early European instruments. 

Arm'ing. {Nautical. ) A plug of tallow in the 
hollow at the bottom of a souifding lead, to bring 
up sand, minute shells, infusoriae, etc., from the bot- 

Arm'ing-press. {Bookbinding.) A screw press 
having a platen heated by gas-jets, and serving to 
fix the gold-leaf upon the book-covers upon which 
it is impressed. See Block i no- rRESs. 

Armlet. A clasp or loop for confining the sleeve 
to the upper portion of the arm. Used to loop up 
the short sleeve of children's dresses. 

A protecting sleeve of leather or metal, worn on 
the forearm, and used as a shield for the arm or as 
a covering for that portion of the coat-sleeve. 

Ar'mo-rer'B Gage. For verifying the dimen- 
sions of the various parts of small-arms are templets 
of various sizes and shapes, rings, and cylindrical 
or conical gages for interior dimensions. 200 are 
embraced in a complete set for the various arms 
made at the Government armory, of which about 78 
are used for the rifle-musket alone. 

Of these, the caliber ga-ge measures the diameter of 
the bore. 

The dimension gages show the length of the barrel 
and its diameter at various distances, the value in 
inches and parts being measured by the caliper gage. 

Other gages measure the proper dimensions of the 
breech-screw and its thread, and those of the counter- 
bore of the barrel which receives it ; others, again, 
the form, dimensions, and position of the sights. 

A separate gage is required for the lock-plate, and 
for eacn separate part of which the lock is composed ; 
as the mainspring gage, sear gage, bridle gage, tum- 
bler gage, hammer gage, etc. ; also gages for the vari- 
ous dimensions of the stock, of the bayonet, and of 
each of the appendages which accompany the gun. 

The number of 200, above given, might be swelled 
to several thousand, by including those requii-ed for 
inspecting the various carbines and pistols made by 
different parties for the United States government ; 
all which were made so that the parts of the same 
kind might be interchanged. 

Ar'mor, Per'aon-aL Defensive clothing or cov- 
ering for the body in battle. 

Scale and chain annor were common among the 
old Egyptians (time of Rameses III.) and Assyrians, 
also among the Persians and Romans. Dr. Abbott's 
collection in New York contains the iron helmet and 
scale armor of Sheshonk, or Shishak, the king of 
Egypt who overthrew Rehoboam, seven years after 
the de^th of Solomon. The scales are the shape of 
the Egyptian shield round end downward, and some 
of them are marked with the cartouche of the king. 

The Sarmatians wore scale armor of pieces of horn 
or horse-hoofs fastened to a linen doublet. 

Goliath was armed with a coat of mail (1 Samuel 
xvii). It is frequently spoken of by Homer. De- 
metrius, son of Antigonus, had a coat of mail made 
of Cyprian adamant (perhaps steel). Cypnis was • 
famous for its armor. The ancient Sc3rthians had 
armor composed of horse's hoofs curiously strung and 
jointed together. Hengist the Saxon had scale 

Digitized by 





armor A. D. 449, and King John of England pos- 
sessed a hauberk of rings set edgewise, 1200. The 
cavaliy of Heniy IIL had coats of mail. Henry 
VIL had a steel cuirass, 1500. Since the intro- 
duction of fire-arms the use of armor has been 
gradually discontinued, and it is now confined to 
the heavy cavalry or cuirassiers of European armies. 
As worn at present, it generally consists of a helmet 
of brass strengthened with steel, and a cuirass com- 
posed of a front piece, or breast-plate, and a back 
piece strongly laced or buckled together. The suc- 
cess of the French cuirassiers in the famous cavalry 
combat at Eckmuhl, 1809, was in a large degree 
owing to their wearing complete cuirasses, wnile 
the Austrians wei-e only provided with breast- 

For illustrations and descriptions see Frost's Pic- 
torial Histories, and the Iconographic Encyclopcedia. 

Of ancient armor some remarkable examples are to 
be found in the tribolites of the Silurian age, "a 
family in whose nicely jointed shells the armorer of 
the Middle Ages might have found almost all the 
contrivances of his craft anticipated, with not a few, 
besides, which he had failed to discover. They were 
covered over, back and head, with the most exqui- 
sitely constructed plate-armor ; but as their abdo- 
mens seem to have been soft and defenceless, they 
had the ability of coiling themselves round on the 
approach of danger, plate moving on plate with the 
nicest adjustment, till the rim of tne armed tail 
rested on that of the armed head, and the creature 
presented the appearance of a ball defended at every 
point. In some genera, as in Calymene, the tail 
consisted of jointed segments till its termination ; 
in othera, as in Illanus, there was a great caudal 
shield, that in size and form corresponded to the 
shield which covered the head ; the segments of 
Calymene, from the flexibility of their joint-s, fitted 
close to the cerebral rim ; while the same effect was 
produced in the inflexible shields, caudal and 
cephalic, of Illtenus, by their exact coiTespondencc, 
and the flexibility of the connecting rings, which 
enabled them to fit together like two equal-sized 
cymbals brought into contact at every point by the 
hind." — Hugh Miller. 

Ar'mor-plat'ed Ves'BeL A vessel whose ex- 
posed portions are protected by iron plates. The 
Elating reaches a certain distance below the water- 
ne when in fighting tiim. Sec Ai{mor-platixg. 

Ar'mor-plates, Ham'mer-ing and Roll'ing. 
Armor-plates may be either hammered or rolled. 
"When it is desired that the armor shall be of one 
thickness of stout plate of from four to six inches, 
hammered iron seems to be prefemble on account of 
the increased tenacity conferred upon the plate by 
the closer interlacing and condensation by this pro- 
cess. Owing principally, however, to the greater 
rapidity with which rolled plates can be manu- 
factured, and the facility with which they can be 
laid together and boltwi so as to constitute ar- 
mor of any required thickness, and the ease with 
which a damaged plate can be replaced, the rolling 
process has been more generally resorted to in this 
country, Hammered-iron plates are made from 
" blooms," wliich may be procured from the forge, 
or preferably made at the works where the plate is 
forged. Any description of good scrap >vrought-iron 
will answer for tljis purpose, as it is soon converted 
into one homogeneous mass under the steam-hammer. 
The scraps are piled into "fagots" of convenient 
size, and placed in the furnace. After reaching a 
welding heat, they are taken from the furnace by 
touf^ suspended from a chain, and laid upon an 
anvil under tl»e steam-hammer. By the first blow 

of the hammer an iron rod, one end of which is held 
by a workman, is welded into the fa^t for the pur- 

Cof turning and manipulating it while being 
mered. A very few minutes' pounding by the 
heavy hammer sufiices to bring the mass into the 
bloom shape, — a bar of homogeneous iron some four 
or five feet in length and six inches thick ; when 
sufficiently hammered, the handle is cut off, and the 
bloom is ready to take its place in combination with 
others in the formation of a plate. In this operation 
a lon^ and stout bar of round iron, flattened at one 
end, is used for supporting the pile, which is com- 
posed of several layers of blooms laid in tiers one 
upon the other transversely ; these are placed in the 
furnace upon the flattened end of the above bar, 
which is suspended near its mid length from a crane, 
and is clasped by tongs or handles to enable the 
workmen to turn and move the mass as desired ; 
when sufficiently heated for welding, which requires 
several hours, the pile is drawn from the furnace, 
swung round and placed upon the anvil by the 
crane assisted by the handles neld by the workmen, 
and subjected to the action of the hammer. 

When the blooms are thoroughly welded and the 
pile drawn down to about the required width and 
thickness of the plate, another pile of blooms isadded, 
welded on to its end, and the operation thus con- 
tinued until the desired length is attained. When 
this operation is completed, the plate is again heated 
and passed under the hammer, water being thrown 
upon it as it is advanced forward, which assists in 
removing scale and cleaning and smoothing the 
plate ; these are then drilled to receiving the bolts 
tor fastening them into position on the ship, and 
afterward bent to the required curve. 

The operation of rolling the larger description of 
armor-plates involves a number of appliances not 
usual in ordinary rolling-mills. The mass of iron, 
being heated in the furnace, is drawn thence by 
chains attached to the steam-rollers and received hy 
a wrought-iron car. The forceps being detached 
and the chains clear from the rolls, the car is ad- 
vanced to the head of the incline, which it then 
traverses by its own weight, and lands the edge of 
the plate into the grip of the rotating rolls. The 
plate is received on the other side of the rolls by an- 
other wrought-iron truck. Tlie rollers being set 
nearer to each other by about an inch, their mo- 
tion is reversed, the plate landed into their grip, and 
carried through to the other side. This is repeated 
again and again, setting the rollers closer between 
each operation, until the required dimensions are 
obtained. Sand is thrown on the plate from time 
to time, and water, which detaches the scale of oxide. 
This is removed by scrapers! The plate, bein^ then 
laid upon the floor, is subjected to the action of 
15- ton rollers, which levels and smooths the sur- 
face. The dimensions here stated refer to the appa- 
ratus used in rolling a 15-inch armor-plate in Eng- 

Ar'mor-plat'ing. The application of iron ifor 
this purpose is of very modem origin. Cast-iron 
plates had been proposed long before as a revetment 
or facing for fortifications ; but this material was soon 
found unsuitable, on account of its brittleness, and 
consequent liability to be fractured by shot. 

Iron armor was suggested in the United States in 
1812, in France in 1821, and was experimented 
upon in England in 1827 at the su^nrestion of Gen- 
eral Ford, who proposed to protect fortifications l^ 
wrought-iron bars. 

Gregg's United States patent, March, 1814, was an 
iron -clad bomb-proof steam vessel, and will be no- 
ticed presently. 

Digitized by 


Digitized by 


ThuDdanr. ARMOR-PLa 

Digitized by 


PLACED VES8EIA Monitors. Dunderbeiu. 

1 .«! J- • V Monitor. 


Digitized by 


Digitized by 





The first practical use of wrought-iron plates as a 
defense for the sides of vessels appears to nave been 
made by the French during the Crimean war. 
These vessels, — floating batteries, as they were 
termed, — though they seem to have had sufficient sea- 
going qualities to enable them to navigate the Medi- 
terranean and Black Sea, were of light draft and ex- 
posed very little surface above water ; they rendered 
very efficient service, especially at the bombardment 
of Kinburn, in 1855, and their success probably led 
to the adoption by the French government of armor- 
plating on a much more extended scale ; *' La Gloire," 
launched in 1859 or 1860, having been the first large 
iron-plated ship afloat. Her armor consisted of 
4J-inch rolled-iron plates, supported by a backing 
of wood some three feet in thickness. 

England, with the determination not to be be- 
hind her Continental neighbor, commenced the con- 
struction of iron-clads immediately afterward. The 
most noted of those first built in England was the 
* * Warrioi, " whose armor was of 4 J-inch plates, backed 
by and bolted on to 18 
Fi^. 887. inches of teak wood ; 

the plating, however, 
merely covered the 
midship portion of the 
vessel for some 200 feet, 
^leaving a large space 
both at the bow and 
stem of the vessel un- 

Another class of iron- 
clads in the British 
Navy, represented by 
I the ** Royal Oak," were 
wooden ships of the 
line, not originally in- 
' tended for carrying ar- 
Section " Warrior^s " Armor, mor, but which have 
been covered with 44- 
inch iron plates bolted on to their wooden hull. 
In one respect they have the advantage of the ** War- 
rior," their sides being completely mailed from stem 
to stern, asare thoseof "LaGloire." The * 'Minotaur," 
and others of her class, were originally constructed 
to receive plating. They are of verv large size, about 
6,650 tons, and are also completely protected, the 
plating extending throughout their entire length, and 
to a depth of several feet below the water-line ; it is 
similar to that of the ** Warrior," from 4i to 5^ inches 
thick, having, however, a wooden backing of but 9 
inches, which is said to be, and no doubt is, too 

thin to insure the 

Fig. 888. 


great rigidity re- 

The armor adopt- 
ed for the ''Her- 
cules," which was 
another typical form 
of English iron- 
plating, consists of 
an outer plating of 
rolled iron 8 inches 
thick, inside of 
which is 12 inches 
of wood, 1^ inches of 
iron, and 26 inches 
of wood, in the or- 
der named, and an 
interior iron lin- 

Mr. Chalmers's 
system, for which 
he claims very su- 

Fi«. ax). 

perior efficiency and 
strength, is repre- 
sented in the an- 
nexed figure ; it is 
composed of alter- 
nate layers of iron 
and wood, the out- 
er iron plating be- 
ing strengthened by 
horizontal plates 
interposed between 
the beams of the out- 
er layer of wood. 

This armor has 
been severely tested 
in England, and is 
reported to have 
given very gooil re- 

It is understood that the "Palisser" bolt, in 
which the shank is reduced to the same diameter as 
that of the smallest part of the thread, is now used 
for fastening armor-plates in the British navy. 

The subject received very early attention in this 
country, and as early as March, 1814, a ** Ball-proof 
Vessel " was patented by Thomas Gregg, of Fayette 
Co., Pennsylvania* The design enibraced a flat 
upper deck, from which the sides and ends sloped 
outwardly to the water-line, where the upper part 
of the vessel was very broad, overhanging the sub- 
merged portion and protecting the rudder and 
means of^ propulsion. The gun-deck was nearly 
level with the water-line, and ports were cut in the 
sloping sides. The external appearance of this 

Fig. 840. 


Gregg* $ Ball-proof Vessel. 

floating battery seems to have been very similar to 
that of the confederate ' * Virginia, " formerly the * ' Mer- 
rimac, ' ' or some of our Western iron-clads. Copper or 
iron was proposed as a covering for the exposed por- 
tion. It does not appear that a vessel was ever ac- 
tually constnicted on Gregg's plan, but the invention 
is interesting as emboilying some of the features 
which were afterwards adopted by both North and 
South during the emergencies of our late war, and 
as showing that only some seven years after the first 
successful application of steam as a motive-power for 
vessels, it was proposed to employ it as a means of 
propulsion for iron -clad floating batteries. 

In 1842 the late R. L. Stevens commenced at 
New York the construction of an iron-clad war- 
vessel, under an agreement with the government, 
which seems to have never l>een completed. 

Digitized by 





This vessel, it is understood, was intended for 
speed, her lines being very sharp. Her dimensions 
have been stated as follows : — 

Extreme length . 

420 feet. 

Beam .... 

52 " 

Depth from fighting-deck 
Draft with coal and stores 

• 28 ** 
20 ** 6 inches. 

Fighting-draft . 

. 22 " 6 " 

She is provided with compartments into which 
water is admitted upon going into action, so as to 
sink her two feet deeper in the water, thus leaving 
a lesser exposed surface. These compartments may 
be rapidly emptied by steam-pumps. The side 
armor extends outside of the null from stem to 
stem to a distance of four feet below the line of 
fighting draft, and is plated with 3^-inch iron. 
The armor of the casemate, which is sloping and 
has a shot-proof deck, is composed of 6^-inch plating 
backed bv 14 inches of locust timber, in which are 
imbedded 6- inch wrought-iron beams at distances of 
two feet fi-om each other. The upper deck is of 
1 A -inch iron plates resting on 6-inch wrought-iron 
girders, filled in with timber and lined with ^-inch 
iron plate. The guns are to be used en barbette 
upon the top of the casemate, and are to be loaded from 
below, by machinery, through holes in the deck ; they 
are ])ointed from within, and by means of a grad- 
uated index within the casemate each gun may be 
broughtto bear simultaneously on the same object. 

Captain Ericsson designed the Monitor class of 
vessels in 1854, though the idea seems to have lain 
dormant till the times were propitious. The ** Mon- 
itor" attacked the ** Merrimac*' March 9, 1862, and. 
on the 11th of May following, the latter comraittecl 
suicide. The revolving turret was invented by T. R. 
Timby, and was patented by him in 1862. Captain 
Coles introduced a modirtcation into the British 
navy, and was lost when the ill-fat«d double-turreted 
" Captain " foundered off Cape Finisterre, July, 1870. 
The ** Captain" liad two large turrets placed amid- 
ships, in each of which were mounted two 25-ton 
rifled guns, throwing solid donated projectiles of 
600 pounds, or shells of proportionate weight. In 
t\>e forecastle and poop were two or three guns of 
smaller caliber. The thickness of her plating varied 
from six to ten inches. She was full-riggeil, had 
two independent screws, engines of extraordinary 
power, steering apparatus of curious perfection, and 
a picked crew of 500 men. 

The original "Monitor"' foundered off Cape Hat- 
teras with all on board. 

Th^re are now 54 irop-clad monitors in the United 
States service. The plating of the deck and over- 
hanging poition of the hull usually consists of five 
1-inch iron plates, backed hy and bolted on to a 
wooden backing some three or more feet 
in thickness. The revolving turret is com- 
posed of elev(m similar plates, firmly bolted 
together, and so arranged as to break joints. 
As might naturally be supposed, the late 
war was fertile in the production of de- 
vi«; -3 for tlie protection of war vessels, dis- 
playing more or less inge- 
nuity and adaptability to that 
object. In the first and most 
numerous class of these, so- 
lidity and strength, derived 
from the arrangement of the 
plates and the manner of fas- 
tening and backing them, 
were principally taken into 
consideration ; while in the 
s<M>.ond it was pro|K)sed to 

deaden the force of a ball striking the armor by 
giving the latter a considerable degree of elas- 
ticity or resiliency, allowing it to yield and after- 
ward return to its normal position. Some ex- 
amples of each of these classes will be given, as 
illustrating the different modes proposed in order to 
arrive at the same result. These are arranged 
according to the dates of the patents. Among the 
first was that of F. 

COMTEHSE, April 22, 
1861, who proposed 
to employ convex 
rounded shields, par- 
tially overlapping 
each other, attached 
to the sides of the ves- 
sel by loops and eye- 
bolts, for the purpose 
of causing the ball to 
glance off upon strik- 

Warden's patent, 
Febi-uary 25, 1862, vt- 
embraces a wrou^jht- L* 
iron lattice framing, 
in and upon which 


^v>»^< r//^ iiit v^^--4<^: 

Warden'' $ Armor- PUuing. 

Fig. 848. 

igh.A f^. 

an iron body is cast, so that, the latter being frac- 
tured, the pieces would still maintain their places, 
and protect, or par- 
tially so, the side of 
the ship. 

JuNEs's Defensive 
Armor for Land and 
"Water Batteries, 
April 15, 1862. 
In this invention 
the armor-plates have 
edge and intermedi- 



Joneses Irmor'PtaUng. 

ate flanges, and are placed in two tiers having interme- 
diate cushions „, ,j^ 
between them ; '^' ^**** 
they rest 
against founda- 
tion • cijshions, 
the whole be- 
ing bolted to- 
gether and to 
the casemate or 
side of the ves- 
sel by bolts, 
which are pro- 
vided with elas- 
tic washer- 

AND North - 

OaUender and NortkntpU Armor. 

Fig. 845 

Fig. 841 

BnMarcTs Armor 

Digitized by 





BUP's Defensive. Araior, May 27, 1862, is composed 
of ribbed plates which are fastened to interior con- 
cave stringers by bolts passing through the strinsers 
and into metallic tubes between them ; each plate 
has a lap at its edge to fit the con*esponding edge 
of the next plate, to which it is riveted. The nuts 
are on the outside. 

Ballard's armor, June 24, 1862, consists of a 
series of inner iron ribs A A, with interposed 
wooden frames B B, longitudinal covering bara or 
plates C C, diagonal bars or plates D £, and outer 
covering plates F F. 

Fig. 846. 

HotehkUs^s Armor. 

HoTCHKiss's "Metallic Defensive Armor" for 
vessels and fortifications is formed by a series of 
plates, in which the lower ones over 
Fig. 847. lap the higher, so that when any one 
of them is struck by a projectile, the 
projecting edge may become detached, 
<^ glancing the shot on to the next plate, 
by which it is further deflectea and 
prevented from penetrating the armor. 
;i^ The cut represents the action of a cy- 
^ lindrical bolt whose edge has impinged 
upon one of the lapping plates ; the 
dotted lines show tne bolt in a subse- 
quent position, in contact with the 
piece 01 armor-plate which it has re- 
moved, and glancing upon the succes- 
sive plates. 

Wood's armor, September 23, 1862, 
uj comprises sets of inner and outer plates, 
the fonjier secured to the vessel by 
^ bolts whose heads are covered by the 
^ latter, each plate in the one set having 
^ a rib which fits between ribs on a 

• plate of the other set, the two plates 

WootPs Armor, oeing connected together by pins pass- 
ing vertically through the ribs. Lon- 
^tudinal spaces are left at intervals between the 
inner and outer plates for the introduction of wood 
or an equivalent material. 

Babbitt's armor- plating, January 13, 1863, for 
ships or batteries, is composed of wedge-shaijed bars 
laid crosswise to two other sets of bars, the whole be- 
ing dovetailed together and filled in with cast metal. 
Montgomery's armor, February 10, 1863, de- 
pends much upon its resiliency to resist the im- 
pact of projectiles. The outer plates are notched 
into eacn other, and fastened together and to a 
corrugated plate by a rod. This corrugated 
plate rests agaii^t the outer casing, between which 

and « the inner 
casing are cyl- 
inder of vul- 
canized rubber 
placed perpen- 
dicularly to the 
casings, the 
whole being bolt- 
ed together. 

Brady's meth- 
od of " Afiixing 
defensive Armor- 
Plates," March 
3, 1863, is bv at- 
taching tnem 
edgewise to the 
object to be pro- 
tected, and se- 
curing them by 
means of bolts, 
whose ends pass 
into cavities in 
the inner edges 
of the plates, and 
are made fast by 
being enlarged 
thei-ein, or by 

Fig. 848. 

BedtbiWs Armor-Plating. 

being intersected by transverse apertures through 
which pins or keys may be passed. 

In Wap- 
pich's sys- ^- 849. 

tem, March 
3, 1863, the 
outer plates 
have projec- 
tions ])assing 
through the 
hull and in- 
terior plat- 
ing, where 

they are Montgomery's Armor. 

keyed ; each 

outer plate has also projections or lugs k, entering 
the casing d to a. certain distance, and receiving 

Fig. 8S0. 

Fig. 851. 

Brady^t Armor-Plating. 

the bolts /, which are 
keyed to the interior 

Slate : it has also notched 
anges, or bent ends, pass- 
ing into the casing ; these 
are emj)loyed to bind the 
ends of the plates to- 
gether, and increase the 
stAbility of the armor. 
The outer adjoining edges 
of the plates are grooved 
for the insertion of india- 
rubber strips, as at m, for making the joints water- 
tight. The port-holes are strengthened by iron 

Digitized by 





Fig. 862. plates o, extending around 

their edges, and also by an 
encircling frame or ring r, 
between tlie inner and out- 
er plating. Each plate may 
be so arranged as to be 
pushed out, upon removing 
the keys h, and others 
substituted. This system 
of plating is designed for 
circular turrets, as well as 
for plain or slightly curved 

T IT F T s * 8 Construction 
and Defence of War Vessels, 
March 24, 1863. The sides 
of the vessel are recessed by 
bending inward the frame 
and thA plating thereon, 
thus maintaining the sym- 
meti-y of the outward form. 
Recesses are made in the 
sides, in which the fixtures 
m m are secured, having 
eyes into which screw-bolts 
f f Are hooked. These 
screw-bolts pass through 
the casing to the outside 
of the straps g, where they 
screw into nuts. 

Eads's Defensive Ai-mor 
for Marine and other Bat- 
teries, July 14, 1863, con- 
T^i^^t Armor. sists of inner angle-irons, 

the flanges of which pass 
between the horizontal layera of armor-plates. Dow- 
el-pins, inserted in holes in the flanges, enter the 

Fig. 868. 

Fig. 8M. 

Fig. 865. 





— 1 


■ fWi 

















U D — 0- 

layers of armor-plating above and below them, thus 
binding the whole together. The plates are so ar- 
ranged as to break joints. 

TwiNiNo's ** Means of Checking and Resisting 
Missiles," July 28, 1863, embraces an arrangement 
of successive plates or layers with successive inter- 
vals between, and with lugs, angle-irons, or projec- 
tions, when necessaiy ; the mode of constructing 
the successive layers and spaces between is by 
bending forward and back a single plate, or several 
plates in layers, from the outside to the inside, the 
plates being bolted together occasionally at their 
contacting portions. 

The arrangement of Dimpfkl's armor, Aug. 4, 

T^ining^s Armor. 

1863, will be readily un- Di„,pfeVs Armor. 

derstood by reference to 

the cut. The ends of one series of plates are let into 
grooves of a transverse set of T-iron plates, which 

Fig. 866. 

CaudweWs Armor. 

are bolted to the Kicking, 
cation to either land 
or marine batteries. 
Cat* D well's Con- 
struction of Ships of 
War. This invention 
was iMitonted in Eng- 
land April 10, 1863 ; 
in the United States, 
Januaiy 19, 1864. 
The design embraces 
a corrugated iron- 
plated roof with j>ort- 
holes in the corruga- 
tions ; the port-shut- 
ters are composed of a 
numlier of separate 
plates of iron or steel 
one above another, 
and fit into grooves 
in the edges of the ar- 
mor-plates. Around 
the vessel, just alwve 
the water-line, is a 

It is intended for appli- 

CoUins^s Armor. 

Digitized by 





projecting lip, to which india-rubber, or other similar 
mateiial, may be attached. 

Colli X8'8 Amior for Ships and Fortifications, 
April 19, 1864, consists of a framing of wrought- 
iron tubular ribs B By with external coils of steel 
wire a a, and surrounding c&shi^s of india-rubber 
b 6. Cormgated plates e e conhne the tubes to- 
gether, and serve as attachments for the inner and 
outer skins c d. 
Carpenter's Ship's Armor, May 23, 1865. In 
this device the middle 
Fig. 858. ' plates, of steel or w rough t- 
[^ iron, have dovetailed pro- 
■.; je(!tion8 fitting into corre- 
^ sponding grooves in their 
V outer facing which, as 
( well as the inner backing- 

^ plates, are of chilled cast- 
iron. Staples pass through 
the inner and middle plates 
u and into the outer one ; 
Carpenter''s Armor, the loop of each staple is let 
into a recess in the side of 
the vessel, and is caught by a bolt which passes 
through the side and is secured in the interior. 

The following statement from the ** London Times " 
contains the dimensions of a number of English iron- 
clads, with the thickness of their armor, etc. 










1,250 880 





Black Prince 

6,1091,860 880 














1,3')U400'59. 83 




1,3V) 400, 59! 36 





l,:j.30 400 59' 36 




4.089 800280 6f) 82 1 





8J0 280,66 82 





6()02S0!54 18 





600 2SO 54| 16 




l,a»273 59 32 


( Wood ship, 
i side 29^ in. 



1,00V273'58 82 


" 29i *• 

Prince Consort 


1,000273 58 32 

" 29 " 

Royal Alfroa 


800273 58; 32 

4}, 6 

" 29 " 

Royal Oak 


8)0 2?3 68 



" 291 " 

Lord Clyde 


1,000280 69 



" 3U " 

Lord Warden 


1,000 280 69 


" 3U •* • 
" 30} " 



800262 59 













I Wood ship, 
{side 22 in. 



400225 47 



" 26 " 



200195 88 


" 19 " 



160 190 86 



" 19.> " 



1,0180 82 






160160 82 




Water Witch 


167 182 82 




Prince Albert 


500240 48 





800 240 62 



( Wood ship, 
{ side 86 in. 



850 220 42 



|, ^eoo 



350220 42 



** The British naval authorities have lately tried 
a practical, if expensive, experiment by anchoring 
their biggest and newest iron-clad, the " Glatton," in 
Portland harbor, and detailing another ship to make 
her turret a target for 600-])ound projectiles. The 
Admiralty is probably satisfied with the trial, for 
although the turret was pretty badly damaged it 
was not disabled. The experiments will be contin- 
ued in the hope of tinding a system of iron-plating 
which will resist any possible projectile, and a pro- 
jectile which will knock to pieces any possible sys- 
tem of iron-plating." English Ptifter. 

This is of a piece with the old problem, which 
modem slang would call a conundrum : " When an ' 
irresistible body comes in contact with an immova- 
ble object, what is the result ? " 

Ar'mor, Sub-ma-rine'. Submarine armor may 
be held to include all the devices to be attached to 
the person by which one is enabled to descend in the 
water, be protected from extreme pressure while sub- 
merged, w furnished with vital air and with means 
for signaling the persons above and for assisting the 
ascent to the surface when necessary. These devices 
have been used in connection with the diving-bells, 
but the latter is not a necessary auxiliary. In the 
article on the diving-bell some instances of subma- 
rine armor are given, but only as incidentals. 

Submarine armor has not as clear claims to antiq- 
uity as the diving-bell, if we accept the accounts of 
Aristotle and Jerome. The earliest distinct account 
of the diving-bell in Europe is probably that of 
John Taisnier, quoted in Schott's Tcchnica Ouriosa, 
Nuremberg, 1664, and giving a history of the descent 
of two Greeks in a diving-bell, ** in a very large ket- 
tle, suspended by rope, mouth downward" ; which 
was in 1538, at Tolwlo, in Spain, and in the pres- 
ence of the Emperor Charles V. 

Beck man cites a print in editions of Vegetius on 
War, dated in 1511 and 1532, in which the diver is 
represented in a cap, from which rises a long leather 
pipe, terminating in an opening which floats above 
the surface of the water. 

Dr. Halley, about 1717,* nwwle a number of im- 
provements m the diving-bell, and among them a 
leather cap for the head of the diver, with windows 
in front for the eyes. This helmet was used by the 
diver when he left the bell, from which he received a 
supply of air through a flexible tube. 

The essential parts of submarine armor consist of 
a helmet and a protection for the body. These are 
rendered necessary by the great pressure of the wa- 
ter even at moderate depths. For instance, at a 
depth little exceeding five fathoms (30 feet), this 
pressure amounts, including that of the superincum- 
l)ent atmosphere, to about 29 pounds to the sijuare 
inch, being an excess of some 14.7 pounds over that 
due to the atmosphere alone. For depths not ex- 
ceeding 15 or 20 feet, armor for the body is not 
l^erhaps absolutely essential, though very desirable 
if the diver is required to remain a considerable 
time under water ; this part of the apparatus may 
Ih? constructed of ledther, vulcanized ruober, or gutta 
l)ercha, or of metal. The helmet is almost necessa- 
rily made of metal. It has glass windows to enable 
tlie diver to see, and two tubes, — one for supplying 
him with fresh atmospheric air from the surface, and 
the other for the eduction of the exhaled air. 
Weights are attached to the body of the diver or to 
the armor, if the latter is not sufficiently heavy of 
itself, to enable him to exert his full power under 
water ; the human body being very nearly of the 
same specific gravity as that fluid. A line is at- 
tached to the apparatus,, by which the operator is 
lowered to any given depth, or hauled to the surface 
by the assistants, and by which he CAn signal to 
them when necessary ; for this purpose, however, an- 
other line is usually employed. Many different con- 
structions have been proposed and executed. One 
of the best of the earlier forms was that of M. Klin- 
gert of Breslau, 1798, in which the helmet was made 
of strong tin, and the jacket and drawers of leather. 
Inhalation was made through a tube embraced by 
the lips of the diver, who, by the expansion of his 
chest at each inspimtion, forced out of the helmet 
into another tube leading to the surface a ouantitv 
of previously exhaled :iir precisely equal to tiie fresh 

Digitized by 





air taken into the lungs. In some of the older forms 

the helmet itself was made large enough to hold a 

quantity of air sufficient to supply the diver for a 

considerable length of time, differing little, in fact, 

from the diving-bell. The apparatus of Mr. Rowe, 

1763, consisted essentially of a copper tube lai^e 

enough to contain the 

Fig. 869. body of the diver and a 

limited supply of air 

ould be renewed 

ne to time by a 

►r force-pump, and 

nndows and wa- 

holes for thi* 

These cases have, 

, been completely 

ed by the diving- 

1 it by the more 

forms of armor, 

which will be 

ud. See Diving. 

59 shows a figure 

ig-dress, attached 

L is a reservoir of 

}ed air sufficient 

the diver several 

It is strapped to 

s, and commuhi- 

;h the interior of 

r by a pipe which 

lucet. Expansi- 

; are attached to 

ilders, which are 

jVHUt by inflation 

..WW. i..t* compressed-air 

Diving Apparatus. i-eservoir when required. 

The air-knapsack is 

weighted so as to enable the diver to sink to his work. 

The air- tube enters the at a |K)int over the e^ir. 

The artist has made rather a close fit of the dress 

and mask, and the efiect is rather too cliei-ubic. 

In Fig. 360 is shown a resjnrator designed to be 

attached to the 
helmet of the 
diver whereby 
air is supplied 
from a force- 
pump in tlie ves- 
sel which floats 
on the surface of 
the water. It 
has an induction 
and an eduction 
valve, which 
both open in the 

Fig. 800. 

Hawkinses Mouthpiece/or Diving 

same direction, giving way respectively to the blast 
of fresh air and to the force of the exhaled breath. 
While the breath is being inspired by the diver the 
induction-valve is open to admit fresh air, and when 
expiration occurs, the induction-valve is closed, and 
the air passes out by the eduction-valve and the 
flexible tube, which latter reaches to the surface of 
the water. 

In Fig. 361 the diver is completely incased in the 
armor, which has flexible jointed limbs occupied by 
the legs and arms of the occupant, and enabling him 
to move from place to place and grasp the objects of 
his search or perform his other duty in the premises. 
The joints of the limb-casings have articulations 
corresix)nding to those of the person, and are flexed 
and extended by the natural motions of the diver. 
The prosthetic hands, which are attached to the 
ends of the tubular arm -casings, consist of tongs or 
nippers, operated by rods, which are moved by the 
natural hands inside. The body and head of the 
person occupy the chamber, which is large enough to 
permit free motion, and the chamber is attached to 
the person by bands, and a girdle about the loins. 
An exterior reservoir, partially encircling the cham- 
ber, contains compre.ssed air, which is admitted to 
the chamber by a faucet, as the air may become 
vitiated by breathing. The opening of another 
faucet peniuts the vitiated air to escape through the 
tube wnich leads to the surface of the water. If the 

Fig. 861. 

l^itips'n Subnurrinr Annnr. 

Digitized by 





operator wish to ascend without assistance, he turns 
another faucet, which peimits air to pass from the 
chamber into a collapsed bag attached to the top of 
the apparatus. As the bag becomes inflated, it dis- 
places water and renders the whole apparatus buoy- 
ant. To descend again, he closes the cock leading to 
the balloon, and opens another which allows the air 
to esca}>e from the balloon, which is collapsed by 
the pressure of the water. The compressed air is 
intended to form a supply for the trip, the connec- 
tion with the surface consisting of a lifting and 
lowering rope and the eduction air-pipe. 

Other armor for submarine explorations consists 
merely of helmets which have tne necessary win- 
dows to allow the diver to see his work, and are pro- 
vided with induction and eduction tubes to furnish 
the operator with a supply of vital air and carry off 
that which is vitiated. 

Some exploring apparatus are adapted for making 
observations without descending. These consist of 
tubes, telescopic or otherwise, the lower end being 
brought into near proximity to the object ; and in 
one case '— Knight's English Patent, about 1847 — a 
second tube was provided, down which was projected 
light from a lamp or the reflected light of the sun, 
so as to illuminate the object whose character or 
position it was desired to ascertain. 

In 1839, Thornthwaite (England) adopted a 
waist-belt of india-rubber cloth, to which was con- 
nected a small, strong copper vessel charged with 
highly compressed air. Tlie belt is put on in a col- 
lapsed state, and the diver descends ; but when he 
wishes to rise, by a valve he allows the compressed 
air to fill the belt, which increases his levity and as- 
sists his ascent. 

The armor used by Mr. Dean in 1834, when he 
descended to the wreck of the Royal George (sunk 
off Spithead, August 28, 1782), was composed of in- 
dia-rubber, made perfectly water-tight, and having 
a metallic helmet which i-ested on the shoulders and 
admitted free motion of the head. Three glass win- 
dows admitted light and allowed the diver to exam- 
ine the remains of the ship. A flexible tube was 
connected to an air-pump above, and admitted air 
to the helmet. A sinking- weight of 90 pounds was 
attached to his T)erson. 

A race in submarine armor took place in Boston 
harbor on the 4th of July, 1868. The course was 
2,100 feet, reaching fronv Long Wharf to the Cu- 
nard Docks on the East Boston side. Each diver 
had a submerged direction-line, and each arrived 
safely, being accompanied by his boat with its usual 
air-pump rigging. The time made was 17, 18^, and 
21 minutes respectively. Each received a prize. 

Ar-mo-zine'. (Fabric,) A thin plain silk, gen- 
erally black, and used for clerical robes. 

AxmB. The club was the first offensive weapon. 
By knots and points it became a mace ; an edge and 
a pole convei-ted it to a battle-axe. It was adapted 
for thrusting by giving it a point, and became a 
pike or spear ; and when adapted to be thrown be- 
came a dart or javelin, which might be recovered by 
a line, as among the Moors. Shortened and pointed, 
it became a dagger or poniard, and by receiving an 
ed^ became a sword, scimeter, or similar weapon. 
Pointed, and associated with a motor to propel it, we 
see the arrow and its bow, which is, critically con- 
sidered, a really beautiful invention. See Archery. 

"The first weapons of mankind were the hands, 
nails, and teeth ; also stones and branches of trees, 
the fragments of the woods ; then flame and fire 
were used, as soon as they were known ; and last- 
ly was discovered the strength of iron and brass. 
But the use of brass was known earlier than that of 

iron, inasmuch as its substance is more easy to work, 
and its abundance greater." — Lucretius; d. 61b. c. 
at. 44. 

History commences after the invention of the bow 
and arrow, and the Australian race seems to have 
diverged from the parent stock before its introduc- 
tion, as they, and they only, do not possess it. 
They have a curious analogue, however, in their 
flexible speai-s, which are bent, when adjusted for 
throwing, so that their reaction in straightening 
may increase the force of the projection. The pecu- 
liar course of their flight when they did not straight- 
en perfectly may have suggested to them the very 
unique weapon, the boomerang,' which was imported 
into England as a curiosity perhaps 30 years ago. 

During the historic period we find the most an- 
cient weapon noted in the Bible is the swoi*d. It 
was the ** instrument of violence," as Jacob called it, 
wherewith Simeon and Levi slaughtered th6 Sheche- 
mites (Genesis xxxiv. 25). 

Phineas, the grandson of Aaron, carried a javelin. 
Tlhud had a short dagger (Judges iii. 16). David de- 
clined SauKs sword, and used a sling, but afterward 
took the sword of Goliath. Many centuries before, 
all these weapons had been used in China, India, 
Assyria, and Egypt. 

Pliny ascribes the invention of the sling to the 
Phoenicians. The Balearic Islanders were celebrated 
for their expertness in its use. 

Slings and bows were employed by all the nations 
of antiquity, but among ^hose who attained the 
highest military reputarion, as the Greeks and Ro- 
mans, were looked upon merely as auxiliary weap- 
ons, and the soldiers who used them were considered 
as an inferior class. The heavy-armed soldiers, who 
composed the strength of their armies, were armed 
with the spear and sword. The former, as used by 
the Greeks, was some 16 or even 18 feet in length, and 
enabled them to form a line of battle 16 men deep, — 
a solid mass capable of withstanding the most vio- 
lent shocks, or of breaking the firmest ranks of any 
enemy who was not armed and disciplined like 
themselves ; it was, however, deficient in mobility and 
activity. The Romans, on the contrary, preferred an 
order of formation and weapons which admitted of ' 
greater activity and allowed more scope to the efforts 
of the individual soldier. Besides a lighter spear, 
their principal weapon was the piluTfif a short and 
massive javelin with a triangular iron head, which 
was darted by hand when within a few^ paces of 
their opponents, after which they drew their swords 
and advanced for close conflict. The Roman foot- 
soldier*s sword was a short, two-edged weapon, 
greatly resembling the foot-artillery sword formerly 
used in the United States Army, and was adapted 
for either cutting or thrusting, though the soldier 
was instructed to prefer the latter as more effective 
and permitting him to preserve a better guard of his 
own person. 

The formation of the legion was in eight ranks, 
and a distance of three feet was preserved between 
each file, as well as each rank, thus allowing ample 
room for the maximum effort of each separate man. 

The offensive arms of the cavalry were a javelin 
and a long broadsword. 

Cavalry does not seem to have performed such^an 
important part among the Greeks and Romans as it 
did among the more Eastern nations, as the Parthi- 
ans, whose mounted archers, on more than one occa- 
sion, defeated and almost annihilated the legions of 

No important change in arms, except the introduc- 
tion of tne cross-bow, seems to have been made until 
the introduction of gunpowder ; though the charac- 

Digitized by 





ter of the forces employed underwent a complete 
revolution. As Europe settled down into the gloom 
of the Middle Ages, disciplined armies became un- 
known, and the barbarous nations of the North who 
had overrun it, in the course of time becoming 
converted into peaceful tillers of the soil, had lost 
their former militarv habits, and in times of war 
d^eneratedinto little betterthan camp followers. 

Cavalry, including the knights and men-at- 
arms by whom they were attended, constituted 
almost the entire strength of an army, and being 
nearly invulnerable to the ordinary weapons 
used by the footmen of that day, such as pikes 
and bills, were capable ol putting tx> flight or . 
slaughtering with impunity many times their ^ 
own number of the latter, who were in geneni 
destitute of armor of any kind. The introduc- 
tion of fire-arms has gradually effected an en- 
tire change in the composition and discipline 
of modem armies, and though the lance and 
sword or saber are still employed, they are used 
merely as auxiliaries. See Artillery, Fire- 
arms, Projectiles, etc. For a list of arms 
of various kinds, cutting, missile, etc., see 

" Ships' arms are cannons, carronade, mortars, 
howitzers, muskets, pistols, tomahawks, cut- 
lasses, bayonets, and boarding-pikes." — Admi- 
ral Smyth. 

Arm'-Ba'^. Another name for the hand-saw. 

Arm'strong Gun. A description of ord- 
nance adopted in the English artillery for all 
field-|^ps and man^ of lai^er caliber. 

It IS built up of different parts, so disposed as to 
bring the metal into the most favorable position for 
the strain to which it is to be exposed. See Can- 


Armstrong Gtm. 

The illustration does not show the mode of hiild- 
ing up the gun, but illustrates the mode of breech- 
loading. Tne inner portion of the barrel is made of 
coiled iron or steel, welded ; that mode of construct- 
ing being adopted to avail the tensile strength of the 
metal in resisting the bursting force of the discharge. 
The mode of reinforcing differs somewhat in the dif- 
ferent calibers and styles of the arm, but consists, 
generally speaking, of a number of reinforce bands 
of superior strength and thickness, over and in the 
vicinity of the charge-chamber and the parts weak- 
ened by the transverse cavity in which the breech- 
block is slipped. 

a is the chai^-chamber. 

b the gas-check. 

c is the breech-block which slides in a transverse 
slot d. The breech-block is traversed by the vent. 

e is a breech-screw having an axial aperture m, 
through which the charge is introduced from the 
rear, when the breech-block c is withdrawn. After 
the charge is inserted in the chamber a, the block c 
is replaced, and the breech-screw e is screwed up, 
forcing a projection on the anterior face of the breecn- 
block into the conical seat at the rear of the bore. 

and tightening the gas-check b in its seat, to pre- 
vent any escape of gas rearwardly. 

Ar'mure. (Fabric.) A lady's dress-goods, hav- 
ing a cotton chaia and woolen filling, twilled. 

Ar'my Wag'on. A wagon designed for the use 
of foot-soldiers on the plains, and so oonstracted 

Fig. 868. 

Armf Wagon. 

that the men can quickly jump off the seats when 
attacked, and spring back again at once. The term 
is also applied to wagons for stores and ammunition. 

Ar'notf 8 Stove. The original form of Dr. Ar- 
nott's stove is shown in Fig. 364, and perhaps illus- 
trates its peculiar principle better than do the 
subsequent modifications. 

a b d represent a box of sheet-iron, divided by 
the partition g h into two chambers, communicating^ 
freely at the top 

and bottom ; e is Fig- 864. 

the fire-box, 
formed of iron, 
lined with fire- 
brick and resting 
on a close ash-pit 
with a door at b, 
near which is a 
valved opening ^ 
by which air en-< ^ 
ters to feed the fire 
when the door is 
shut ; i is the door 
of the stove by 
which fuel is in- 
troduced ; c is the 
chimney-flue. -M-t 
When the ash-pit -=-^ 
door and tne 
stove-door are 
shut, the quantity of air admitted by the valved open- 
ing in the ash-pit is only just sufficient to support 
combustion, and only a small corresponding quantity 
of air can pass away by the chimney. The whole box 
then soon becomes filled with hot air, or smoke 
from the fire circulating in it, and rendering il 
everywhere of as uniform temperature as if it were 
full of hot water. Thb circulation takes place. 

The Amott Stow, 

Digitized by 





because the air in the front chamber around the 
fire-box, and which receives as a mixture the hot air 
issuing directly from the fire, is hotter, and there- 
fore specifically lighter, than the air in the posterior 
chamber, which receives no direct heat, but is 
always losing heat from its sides and hack ; and 
thus, as long as the fire is burning, there must be 
circulation. The whole mass of air revolves, as 
marked by the arrows, with great rapidity. The 

Quantity of new air rising from within the fuel, and 
tie like quantity escaping by the flue e, are very 
small, compared with the revolving mass. The 
methods of regulating the supply of air will be 
noticed presently. 
With this stove. Dr. Amott, during the •evwne win 

Fig. S87. 

ter of 1886 - 37, was able to 

in his library a 
uniform tempera- 
ture of from CO" to 
63'. The quan- 
tity of coal used 
(Welsh stone- 
coal) was, for sev- 
eral of the colder 
months, 6 lbs. a 
day, — less than 
two cents' worth, 
— a smaller ex- 
pense than that of 
the wood used in 
lighting an ordi- 
nary tire. The 
grate or tire-box, 
fully charged, 
held a supuly for 
Another com- 
mon form of this 
stove is shown in Fig. 365. A B C Disthe outer 
casing ; E the fire-box over which is a dome k, with 
a funnel p, to carry off the products of combus- 
tion ; h is the stove-door, ana g the regulator by 
which air is admitted. The device for automati- 
cally regulating the supply of air is described under 
Thermostat (which see). 

Ar'que-buse. This piece, an early attempt at a 
portable fire-arm, had a massive stock laid to the 


The Amott Stove, 





shoulder, and an offset near the muzzle by which it 
might be rested against an object, to break the 
recoil. It was fired by a match, it was used in the 
battle of Morat, where the Swiss defeated Charles 
the Bold, 1476. 

Ar-ras'tra. One form of machine for commi- 
nuting ore. The name is derived from the Spanish 
word meaning " to drag," and is indicative of the 
machine. It consists of a pan in which the ore is 
placed, and a vertical rotating post, to whose radial 
arms are attached thongs by which blocks or muUers 
are dragged over the ore in the pan. They are 
very common in Mexico, where thiy operate upon 
argentiferous ores, and, according to Humboldt, do 
excellent work. They have ^n superseded to 
some extent by other forms of grinding-mills. See 
Amalgamating Mills ; Ore-stamp ; Ore-crusher. 

Three arrastras are patented in the United States. 


Fiff. 867 has the distinct arrastra characteristics, and 
is designed for the reduction of precious mettds from 
ores and tailings : it has a cast-iron pan provided with 
two flanges, placed on opposite sides, and termi- 
nating in a ball-pivot, which rests in a cup-shaped 
bearing on the frame, by which means the arrastra 
can easily be tipped when the contents are to be 
drawn off. A cup-shaped cavity serves also as a 
bearing for a ball-pivot at the lower end of the 
hollow shaft. . 

In another form the circumferential band on the 
inside surface of the arrastra is connected with the 

Elg. 868, 


positive pole of the battery, and the metallic radial 
gutters are attached to the encircling wire connected 
to the negative pole. The arrastras being filled 
with the pulverized ore, water, and mercury, the 
electric current is caused to pass through the mass, 
and is intended to facilitate the separation of the 
metals from their chemical combinations, and further 
their amalgamation with the mercury. 

Fig. 369 is designed as an improvement on the 
Bertola Mill, October 20, 1857, but differs from it 
in the fact that the mullers/aie linked to the arms 

Digitized by 





k of the rotating- 
shaft, so that each 
is free to accommo- 
date itself to the 
material over which 
it is di-agged. The 
basin in which the 
mull ere revolve 
consists of a circu- 
lar iron trough 
through whose cen- 
ter the rotating axis 
pcL^ses up, being 
driven by machin- 
ery beneath. The muller, in his former patent, was 
not operated as in an arrastra, was not dragged, but 
was a block slipped over the central boss in the pan, 
and formed of an annular disk from whose opposite 
edges a portion was removed, leaving concave sides. 
The bottom of the muller was grooved, and the part 
removed left spaces for the ore on each side, between 
it and the basin. It 

Bertola's Arrastra. 

Fig. 870 

Bertola's MUl, 1867. 

was revolved by a shaft 
above, lowered into op- 
erative contact with it 
as I'equired, and the 
pulp was discharged by 
openings near the bot- 
tom, which were un- 
stopped when the pan 
was tilted on a hori- 
zontal axis. Openings 
- above and at the bot- 
1 tom, respectively, dis- 
charge tne water and 
the amalgam pulp. 

The arrastra, as usually constructed, and described 
by Phillips, consists of a circular pavement of stone, 
about twelve feet in diameter, on which the q^iartz 
is ground by means of two or more large stones or 
mullers dragged continually over its surface, either 
by horses or mules, but more frequently by the 
latter. The periphery of the circular pavement is 
surrounded by a rough curbing of wood or flat 
stones, forming a kind of tub about two feet in 
depth, and in its center is a stout wooden post, 
firmly bedded in the ground, and standing nearly 
level with the exterior curbing. 

Working on an iron pivot in this central post is a 
strong, upright wooden shaft, secured at its upper 
extremity to a horizontal beam by another journal, 
which is often merely a prolongation of the shaft itself. 
This upiight shaft is crossed at right angles by two 
strong pieces of wood, forming four arms, of which 
one is made sufficiently long to admit of attaching 
two mules for working the machine. The grinding 
is performed by four lar^e blocks of hard stone, 
usually porphyry or granite, attached to the anns 
either by chains or thongs of rawhide, in such a 
way that their edges, in the direction of their mo- 
tion, are raised about an inch from the stone pave- 
ment, while the other side trails upon it. These 
stones each weigh from three to four hundred 
pounds, and in some arrastras two only are em- 
ployed, in which case a single mule is sufficient to 
work the machine. Fig. 371 is a sectional view of 
a Mexican arrastra as usually constructed ; A is the 
upright shaft ; B^ the arms, to which the mullers 
O are attached ; and Z>, the central block of wood 
in which the lower bearing works. 

Some of the arrastras used by Mexican gold- 
miners, for the purpose of testing the value of 
quartz veins, are very rudely put together, the bot- 
tom being made of unhewn flat stones laid down in 

Mexican Arrastra. 

clay ; but in a well -constructed arrastra, intended 
to be permanently employed, the stones are carefully 
di^ssed and closely jointed, and after being pla«ed 
in their respective i)Ositions, are grou ted-in with 
hydraulic cement 

Ar-rest'er, Lightening. An instniment used on 
telegraph-lines, by which static electricity of high 
tension (lightning) is discharged from the line to 
the earth, to prevent injury to the telegraph instru- 
ments or the operators. 

It consists of an interposed resisting medium 
which is traversed by a current of high tension, 
and allows the charge to pass to the earth, but 
which opposes the passage of the ordinary voltaic 
current. See Lightning Akrester. 

Ar'ris. The external angle or edge formed by 
the meeting of two plane or curved surfaces, 
whether walls, or the siaes of a stick or stone. 

Ar'riB-fillet. A triangular piece of wood 
])laced under a lower course of slates, tiles, or 

Ar'riB-gnt'ter. {Carpentry.) A V-gutter fixed 
to the dripping-eaves of a building. 

Ar'ris-pie'ces. The portions of a built mast 
beneath the hoops. 

Ar'ris-wiBe. Diagonally arranged ; said of 
tiles or slates. 

Ar'ro'W. The missile which is projected by a 
bow. Bundles of arrows were called sheaves. 

It is usually of reed or of wood, and tipped with 
the best accessible materials ; such as bone, flint, 
obsidian, metal. 

The old English rule waa to have the arrow half 
the length of the bow, and the latter the length of the 
archer, so that a cloUt-yard sivafi was used by a man 
six feet high. 

The holt was a peculiar arrow adapted to be shot • 
from a cross-bow. The arrow of an arbalest was 
termed a quarrel. 

Immense quantities of fiint arrow-heads are found 
in the Celtic barrows throughout Europe. The ar- 
row-heads of the Scythians and Greeks were of bronze, 
and had three flanges like a bayonet ; such have 
been found at Persepolis and Marathon. The ** bar- 
barians," say the classic writers, use barbed {adun- 
ccB, hamatoi) and poisoned (venenatce) arrows. The 
poison on the arrow was called toxicum^ from its 
relation to the bow, and the word was extended to 
poison in general. 

The shaft was of polished wood, cane, or reed. 
The latter actually gave names to the weapon, — 
arundOy calamiis. The Egyptians used reed shafts ; 
their arrows were from 22 to 34 inches in length, 
and are yet extant. 

The monuments show feathered shafts. 

In the time of Homer, arrows were sometimes poi- 
soned. The poisoned arrows of the Indians of Guiana 
are blown through a tube. They 'are made of the 
hard wood of the CokarUo tree, are about the size of a 

Digitized by 





knitting-needle nine inches long, and mounted on a 
yellow reed four or five feet long. One end is sharp- 
ened, and poisoned with woorai ; the rear end re- 
ceives a pledget of cotton to act as a piston in the tube. 
The etfective range is about forty yards. The hard- 
wood spike can be removed at pleasure ; twelve or 
fifteen such spikes are carried by the hunter in a 
little box, made of bamboo. The poisoned spike is 
cut half through, at about a quarter of an inch 
above the point where it fits into the socket of the 
arrow ; and thus, when it has entered the animal, 
the weight of the shaft causes it to break off, the 
shaft falls to the ground uninjured, and is fitted 
with another poisoned spike and used again. 

In like manner the arrows of the Bushmen, 
Africa, often have the shafts partly cut through, so 
that they may break and leave the point in the 

The serrated weapon of the sting ray is used by 
the Malays for heading some of these blow-arrows, 
with the express intention that they might break off 
in the wound. 

The arrow-heads of the Shoshones of North Amer- 
ica, said to be poisoned, are tied on purposely with 
gut in such a manner as to remain when the shaft 
IS withdrawn. 

A similar idea is carried out in a Venetian dagger 
of glass with a three-edged blade, having ^ tube in 
the center to receive poison. By a certain wrench 
the blade was broken off, and remained in the 

" In passing overland from the Essequibo to the 
Demerara," says Waterton, " we fell in with a herd 
of wild hogs. An Indian let fly a poisoned arrow 
at one of them ; it entered the cheek-bone and broke 
off. The hog was found dead about 170 paces from 
the place where he had been shot. He afforded us 
an excellent and wholesome supper." The wild 
tribes of the Malayan peninsula, who use poisoned 
arrows, eat the meat of animals killed by these deadly 
weapons, without even troubling themselves to cut 
out the wounded part. 

There is reason for supposing that the discover}'- 
of the various poisons used for weapons, and the 
practico of applying them to such a purjwse, arose 
spontaneously and separately in the various quar- 
ters of the globe. Poisoned weapons are used by 
the Negroes, Bushmen, and Hottentots of Africa ; 
in the Indian Archipelago, New Hebiidcs, and New 
Caledonia. They are employed in Bootan, Assam, 
by the Stiens of Cambodia, and formerly by the 
Moors of Mogadore. The Parthians and Scythians 
used them in ancient times. 

The composition of the poison varies in different 
races ; the Bushmen, Hottentots, and others, using 
the venomous secretions of serpents and caterpillars. 
In the Bosjesman country. Southern Africa, the na- 
tives hunt the puff-adders, in order to extract the 
poison. They creep upon the reptile unawares, and 
break its back at a single blow. The poison-glands 
are then extracted ; the venom is very thick, like 
glycerine, and has a faint acid taste. . This is mixed, 
on a flat stone, with an acrid poisonous gum, called 
** park! " ; after beine worked until it becomes of the 
consistency of thick glue, it is spread over the barbed 
head of the arrow and for about two inches up its 
point. The arrows are then dried in the sun. Each 
warrior carries some iuilf-dozen of these devilish 
weapons, a wound from one of which is as deadly as 
the bite of the adder itself. 

In Ceylon the cobra-tel poison is extracted from 
certain venomous snakes, such as the Cobra de Ca- 
pello (from which the poison takes its name), the 
Carawella, and the Tic polonga ; arsenic and other 

drugs are added, and the whole is " boiled in a hu- 
man skull." Three Kabra-goyas {Uydrosauras aaZ- 
vator) are tied near three sides of the fire, with 
their heads toward it ; they are tormented with 
whips to make them hiss, so that the fire may 
blaze ! The froth from their lips is added to the 
boiling mixture, and as soon as an oily scum rises to 
the surface, the "cobra-tel" is complete. Probably 
the arsenic is the most active ingredient in this 

The Ceris are said to prepare poison for their ar- 
rows in the following manner: "They first kill a 
cow, and take from it its liver ; they then collect 
rattle-snakes, scorpions, centipedes, and tarantulas, 
which they confine in a hole with the liver. The 
next pixxjess is, to beat them with sticks, in order 
to enrace them ; aAd, being thus infuriated, they 
fasten their fangs and exhaust their venom upon 
each other and upon the liver. When the whole 
mass is in a state of corruption, the women take 
their arrows and pass their points through it ; these 
are then allowed to dry in the shade." 

The Indians of Choco and Barbacoas use the 
" Veneno-derana," or frog poison, which is obtained 
by placing a species of yellow frog, that frequents 
the swamps, over hot ashes, and scraping on the 
viscid humor that arises. After thus torturing the 
frogs, they are allowed to escape, in order that they 
may serve another time. " Veneno-de-culebra," or 
snake poison, is also said to be used in Choco. 

(Fortification.) An advanced work at* the foot of 
the glacis, consisting of a parapet whose faces form 
a salient angle. It has communication with the cov- 
ered way cut through the glacis. 

(Surveying. ) One of the iron- wire pins employed 
in marking the chainage. One is placed in the 
ground at the end of each chain. 

An arrow is ten inches long, with a loop at the 
upj>er end, and is all the better for a red flag to ren- 
der it conspicuous. 

Called also a chain-pin. 

Ar'se-nio. A soft, brittle, and poisonous metal 
of a steel-gray color. Equivalent, 75 ; symbol. As. ; 
specific gravity, 5.7. It volatilizes, exhaling an odor 
of garlic ; fuses at 400** Fah., and is easily in- 
flamed. It combines with oxygen in two propor- 
tions, forming arsenious and arsenic acids. The 
former salt is As. 75, O. 24 ; the latter, As. 75, 
0. 40. The former is the common white arsenic of 
commerce, very poisonous, and a dull white powder, 
sp. gr. 3.07. 

It is used to alloy lead for shot-making, causing 
the metal to pour more readily, and hardening the 

Ar'se-nic Fur'naoe. A furnace in which arseni- 
cal pyrites is decomposed by heat, producing white 
arsenic, which is an oxide of the metal chemically 
known as arsenious acid, the arsenic of commerce. 
Arsenic is combustible, oxidizing so rapidly as to 
bum with a livid flame, the fumes being condensed 
in large chambers which resemble the successive 
stories of a house. The floors have openings, so that 
the fumes traverse each apartment, and the light 
powder is deposited. 

The furnace is a muffle m, with an inclined sole, 
and having a fire-chamber beneath. The sole rests 
upon brickwork which has numerous openings, 
forming circulatory flues d around the muffle, 'tm 
arsenical pyrites is introduced at the hopper/, and 
the smoke escapes by the flues 1 1. 

The condensing chambers have openings by which 
the collected arsenic on the respective floors is re- 
moved, the lower chamber being entered by the 
duct 0, which proceeds from the muffle. 

Digitized by 





Fig. 872. 

Jrsenie Ptamae*. 

The deposit in the lowest chamber is the purest. 

Ilg. 878. 

Omdtnnng Chambtr. , 

Ar-te'rl-al Com-pres'sor. (Surgical.) A foim 
of tourniquet invented by Signoroni, tobeused in am- 
putations at thehip joint, to control the circulation at 
the groin without impeding the return by the veins. 

Ar'te-ry Claw. (Surgical.) A locking forceps 
for seizing an artery. 

Fig. 874. 

Arterp Faretpt. 

Ar'teiy For'ceps. 

An instrument for catch- 
ing an artery. These for- 
ceps are made straight, 
curved, plain, or rat- 
toothed, spring-open, 
spring-shut, or catch. 

The illustration shows 
three forms. 

Ar'te - ry-o - 1 o m e'. 
A post-mortem or dissect- 
ing instrument, for slit- 
ting an artery. 

Ar-te'8ian WelL 
Artesian wells are so 
called because it was 
generally supposed that 
they were first used in 
the province of Artois, 
France. They appear, 
however, to have existed 
in Egypt at a very remote 
date, and are said to be 

found in the province of On-Tong-Kiao, in China, 
of the depth of from 1, 500 to 1, 800 feet. The principle 
of their action is this : water percolating through, per- 
vious strata, such as sand, gravel, or chalk, is finally 
arrested in its downward course by an impervious stra- 
tum of rock or clav, causing it to accumulate in the 
pervious stratum aoove aa in a reservoir, and when the 
source of supply is higher than the level of the ground 
at the place where the well is bored, the water will lise 
to the surface, or even considerably above it ; in many 
cases issuing from the mouth of the well with suffi- 
cient force to throw a jet of the water to a great 
hight, or admit of its being carried high enough for 
distribution to the upper stories of buildings. 

The term ** artesian " is only properly applied to 
wells in which the water rises to or above the surface, 
so that in case a laige number are collected in a single 
neighborhood, some or all of them, particularly those 
toward the higher part of the basin, may become 
converted from artesian into ordinary wells. In the 
London basin, where a great number of artesian 
wells have been boi-ed, the general level of the wa- 
ter has been very much diminished. 

It generally happens that more than one, freouent- 
ly many, water-bearing strata are penetrated before 
one is reached which has a sufficient head to cause 
an overflow at the surface ; in such cases others be- 
sides the. lower one may be made available, if 
thought advisable. 

The wells of the London basin will perhaps afford 
as good an illustration of the theory and action of 
artesian wells as any other example ; the character 
and succession of the beds having been more care- 
fully studied and worked out than almost any oth- 
ers where such wells are located. 

These wells derive their supply from the pervious 
strata of the plastic clay and chalk. These strata 
are covered in part by the formation called the Lon- 
don clay, which is, in most of its beds, tough and im- 
permeable to water, so that the rain falling on those 
parts of the porous chalk and other pervious strata 
below it, which are not covered by the supeijacent 
impervious clay, percolates through them till its farther 
progress downward is stopped by the **gault," an- 
other stratum of impervious clay, and accumulates 
tween it and the overlying clay, which acts as a cover 
to this vast subterraneous reservoir to the level of the 
line B A. The water, reaching points, as C, at the 
lower levels of the junction of tne chalk and clay, 
the pervious and the impervious strata, comes to the 
surface in the form of springs which act as discharge- 
outlets. In this case a horizontal line, as A B, 
drawn, through C, indicates the general level of the 
water in. the basin, unless disturbed by faults or 
shifts in the strata permitting a part to be carried 
off at a lower level. In the latter case, if the outlet 
had an area of capacity for carrying off an amount 
in excess of the supply received from the clouds, it 
would determine tne water-level ; if less, the level 
would fluctuate somewhere between tliis lower point 
of discharge and the line A B, in proportion to the 
amount of rain falling on the exposed portions of 
the pervious strata. 

If a boring be made anywhere through the over- 
lying clay beds, it is evident that the water will rise 
by hydrostatic pressure until it has attained the 
same level as iu the chalk beds below, and if the 
surface of the ground at that point be below this 
level, the water will rise to the surface and overflow 
as at (7 or H, which it did a few years ago in the 
valley of the Thames between London and Brent- 
ford, though it is said that latterly there has been an 
average fall of about two feet per year in the wells 
of the London basin, so that in many of those wells 

Digitized by 


Digitized by 


Plate V. oremklle, paris. france. Smpagtin. 

Digitized by 





Fig. 876. 



Section of the London Basin. 

which formerly overflowed the water is now raised 
by pumps. 

At St. Ouen, in France, water is brouf^ht tip from 
two strata at different levels, the ascending force of 
the water from the lower stratum being greater than 

that in the upper. 
««• 876. This is effected by 

means of two pipes, 
one within the oth- 
er, with a sufficient 
interval between 
them to allow the 
free passage of wa- 
ter. The smallest 
pipe brings up the 
water from the low- 
, erstratum^to the 
^ level of the highest 
part of the fountain 
6", while the water 
from the upper stra- 
tum, whicn does 
not attain so high 
a level, passes up 
through the outer 
pipe to a! ; by this 
means, should the 
water from the low- 
er stratum be pure 
and that from the 
upper impure, the 
former may be 
brought up and 
discharged sepa- 
rately without be- 
wai of St, Ouen. ing mingled with 

or contaminated 
by the former. Both these streams are used for 
supplying the canal basin at St. Ouen, which is 
above the level of the Seine. 

The well at Calais is 1,138 feet, and that at 
Douchery, in the Ardennes, France, 1,215 feet, in 
depth. The English wells are of less depth, vary- 
ing from 70 or 80 to 620 feet. The fountains m 
Trafalj;ar Square, London, are supplied by wells of 
this kind, 393 feet deep. Those of London are all in 
the chalk, and it is believed that bv deeper boring, 
so as to reach either the upper or lower green-sand 
formations, a more ample supply of water could be 

The essential apparatus for boring as generally 
practiced consists of an auger or borer attach^ to 
rods (which are successively screwed on to each other 
as the work progresses, anil which afford a measure 
for the depth of the boring), and tubes of an exterior 
diameter equal to that of the well, which are pushed 
down one after another to prevent the caving in or 
filling up of the well by earth or rock. One of the 
most celebrated artesiaa wells is that at Grenelle, a 
suburb of Paris, which took nearly seven years and 
two months of difficult labor to complete ; it is 1,802 
feet in depth, and when the water-bearing stratum 
of green-colored sand was reached, the water was 
discharged at the rate of upwards of 880,000 gallons 
in 24 hours ; the force was such that the water could 
be carried to a hight of 120 feet above the surface. 

The temperature of the water from the depth of 
1,802 feet was considerably higher than the mean 
temperature at the surface. In the cellars of the 
Pans Observatory, at a depth of 94 feet, the ther- 
mometer was found constantly to remain at 63^06 
Fah. ; in the chalk, at a depth of 1,319 feet, it 
marked 76^3 ; in thegault, at 1,657 feet, 79^6 ; and 
the water flowing from the well has a uniform tem- 
perature of 81'. 8, indicating a rate of increase of 
1°.7 for each 100 feet below the limit of constant 

• The springs which supply the King's Bath, at 
Bath, England, have a temperature of 117*, and the 
spring of Orense, in Gallicia, has a temperature of 
180" Fah. 

The artesian Brine-well of Kissingen, in Bavaria, 
was begun in 1832, and in 1850 water was reached at 
1,878 feet. The depth reached by farther boring was 
about 2,000 feet. The water has a temperature of 66* 
Fah., and issues at the rate of 100 cubic feet per min- 
ute. The ejecting force is supposed to be derived 
from a subterranean atmosphere of carbonic-acid 
gas, acting with a force of 60 atmospheres. The 
tubings are concentric, water rising between the 
outer and middle tubes, passing down between the 
middle and inner tubes to the bed of rock salt„ where 
it is saturated, and then raised in the middle tube 
to the surface. 

The artesian well at Passy, near Paris, is proba- 
bly the largest well of the kind that has ever been . 
sunk. It IS carried through the chalk into the low- 
er green sands, which were reached at a depth of 
1,913 feet, the bore finishing with a diameter of two 

Digitized by 





Six years and nine months were occupied in reach- 
ing the water-bearing stratum, when the yield was 
3,349,200 gallons per day of 24 hours, subsequently 
increased to 5,582,000 gallons, and then continued at 
3,795,000 gallons per day. The total cost of the well 
was £ 40,000. It was lined with solid masonry for a 
depth of 150 feet, then wood and iron tubing was in- 
troduced to 1,804 feet from the surface, and below that 
there was a length of copper pipe pierced with holes. 
The variety of boiing tools which have been em- 
ployed in making artesian wells is very great, and 
the utility of somtf of those figured and described in 
works on the subject, if one may be allowed to judge 
from their shape and appearance, is very question- 
able. The mode adopted by the Chinese, who have 
for many ages been in the habit of boring for salt or 
fresh water is one of the most primitive. 

Their wells ai-e often from 1,500 to 1,800 feet deep, 
and bored in the solid rock. A wooden pipe five or 
six inches in diameter inside is sunk into tne earth, 
and covered with a stone having the same aperture 
as the pipe. A steel tool weighing 300 or 400 pounds, 
concave above and rounded beneath, is suspended 
by a cord from the extremity of a lever and lowered 
down the tube ; by leaping on the end of the lever, 
the piece of steel is suddenly elevated about two feet 
and allowed to fall by its own weight, being 
Fig. 877. partially rotated at each movement. When 
© three inches of rock have been crushed, the 
n steel is raised by means of a pulley, bring- 
'^ ing with it the material which has accumu- 
lated on its upper concavity. 

Should the attachment of the steel head 
be broken, another steel head is employed to 
break the first, an operation perhaps requir- 
ing months. IJnder favorable circumstances 
it is said nearly two feet of rock may be 
penetrated in 24 hours. 

A modification of the above has been em- 
ployed in Europe, in which tlie upper part 
Roek'DriU.of the tool is mclosed in a cylinder (see 
Fig. 377). These are suspended by a rope, 
the twisting and untwisting of which imparts a suffi- 

FJg. 878. 





cient circular motion. When theapparatus is with- 
drawn from the hole, the lower end of the tool closes 
the bottom aperture of the cylinder, which brings up 
the mass of comminuted rock to the surface. 

A common mode of boring is shown in Fig. 378. 
Two men walk around and turn the handle of the 
boring-tool, which is screwed into an iron rod. 
In moderately soft ground the weight of the two 
men and the rotation of the handle will cause the 
boring-chisel to penetrate, but in rock it requires to 
be hammered down, the men shifting its position 
from time to time to enable it to act on a fresh 
portion of the .rock. This operation is great- 
ly facilitated by suspending the boring-rods Fig 379. 
from a beam, nxed at one end and worked 
by a man at the other, assisting by its elas- 
ticity the efforts of those below in alternately 
raising and depressing the tool to give it the 
necessarj' pounding motion. When the hole 
has by this means been opened as far as the 
length of the tool will allow, it is withdrawn, 
and a valved cylindrical auger (Fig. 379) in- 
troduced, which being turned, the valve is 
opened by the pressure of the comminuted 
rook or earth below, and fills the cylinder, 
which is then withdrawn. See Auger ; 

For raising and lowering the apparatus, a dearer. 
tripod formed by three poles is erected over 
the mouth of the pit, from which a block and at- 
tached tackle is suspended ; this is made fast to a 
claw, represented at Fig. 380, which is passed under 
the shoulders of the upper rod. When this is raised 
sufficiently, a fork is passed under the shoulders of 
the section below, the upper one is detached by 
means of a suitable wrench, and the lifting 
again proceeded with. Instead of the Fig. 880. 
springing beam, a windlass is sometimes em- | 
ployed for giving the percussive motion to I 
the tool ; several turns of the suspending | 
rope being taken around the windlass, the 
friction of the rope will be suflBcient, when ' 
aided by the strength of a man having hold 
of the end of the rope, to prevent it from 
slipping when the windlass is turned, the 
man taking up the slack and aiding the up- 
ward motion. When the whole apparatus 
is raised a short distance in this way, the Ckai. 
rope is slacked, and the apparatus falls with 
its whole weight, penetrating and crushing the rock 
below. The windlass is kept constantly m motion 
in one direction, and the percussive motion is main- 
tained by alternately holding fast and slacking the 
end of the rope. 

In Fig. 381, a is a plan and elevation of an auger 
used for boring in clay or loam, b is an **S** chisel 
for hard rock, c exhibits a hollow valved auger for 
boring through sand or bringing up rock previously 
pulverized by the chisel, rf is a spring reamer for 
enlarging a hole previously bored ; this is passed 
down through the pipe, and, on reaching its bottom, 
expands to a distance regulated by the screw and 
swivel connecting the two spring cutters, the cutting 
edges of which are placed reversely. Figs. 382 and 
383 exhibit different kinds of tools for earth and 

The rods freouently break in boring, and for raising 
the portion broken off below, various devices have been 
contrived, one of the most simple of which is repre- 
sented in Fig. 384. It consists merely of ^ worm, 
which screws around the rod, which is only retained 
by friction when lifting. This is only available 
when the weight of the broken part is insufficient to 
overcome the friction. 


Digitized by 





Fig. 881. 

« ± 




WeO-Boring Tbols. 

The forms of boring and eleyating tools which 
have been employed nkve been much modified by 

Fig. 882. 

WeU-Boring Tools, 

the experience in boring the oil-wells of the petro- 
leum region. A great impetus was given to the 

exercise of in- 
* genuity in this 

line by the exi- 
gencies of this 
branch of in- 
dustry ; the 
inventions in- 
cluding boring- 
tools, tool- 
grabs, tool-jars, 
derricks, rod- 
reamers, well- 
tubes and 
tube - packing, 
** seed - bags," 
ejectors, and 
engines specifi- 
cally adapted 
to sinking the 

WeU-Boring Tbols. 

shaft and raising the oil. 

The boring of the artesian well at Belcher's Sugar 
Refinery, St. Louis, was effected by a simple wedge- 
shaped drill, the size of which varied according to 
the diameter of the bore ; this drill was screwed to 

a wrought-iron bar 30 feet long and about ^* 881 
24 inches diameter, weighing several hun- 
dred pounds. To the bar was screwed a pair 
of slips, so that the drilling was efifected by 
the weight of the bar alone. To this were 
fastened the poles, each of which was 30 
feet long. These were screwed together, and 
were made of two pieces of split hickory- 
wood joined and riveted in the center. To 
the last pole was fastened a chain, the other 
end of which was attached to a spring-beam 
worked by a steam-engine running with a 
speed of about 80 revolutions per min- 
ute and having 14 inches stroke. The 
boring-apparatus was constantly turned by 
hand-power. The boring was commenced in jj^^ 
the spring of 1849, and continued at inter- Lifter. 
vals till March, 1855. For performing all 
the work connected with tne boring, the labor 
of four men was, in general, daily required. This 
well was finished at the expiration of 33 
months' steady work, and attained a depth of 2,197 
feet, at a cost of 1 10,000 ; that at Crenelle, 400 
feet less in depth, was more than seven years in 
boring, and is said to have cost about $70,000. 
From this depth of 2,197 feet the water can be car- 
ried to a hignt of 75 feet above the surface. It is 
a minei-al water, havinga salty taste and a strong odor 
of sulphur, and possesses great medicinal virtues. 

The well bored at the county buildings of St. 
Louis Co., Missouri, has reached a depth of 3,285 
feet without obtaining a flow of water. 

The artesian wells at Chicago are 700 feet deep, 
and dischai*ge about 1,250,000 gallons daily, with a 
head of 126 feet above the surface of Lake Michigan. 
The water is very pure and cool for the d^th m)m 
which it comes, having a temperature of 57\ 

The well at Louisville, Kentucky, is even deeper 
than this, and yields a medicinal water allied in 
quality to the Blue Lick and Big- Bone' Lick, 
springs of the same state. 

Some years ago a boring was commenced in the 
public s<]^uare surrounding 9ie State House at Colum- 
Dus, Ohio, with the intention of endeavoring to 
obtain a head of water which could be carried to the 
upper part of that building for its ordinary supply, 
as well as in case of fire, etc. A depth of rather 
more than 2,700 feet was penetrated, mostly, if not 
entirely, through Silurian strata, but none was 
reached where the water had a sufficient head to 
rise to the surface. 

Artesian wells were made in ancient times in the 
Oasis of El-Bacharich, and were described by Olym- 
piodorus, a native of Thebes', who lived in the fifth 
century A. D. Their depth is said to be from 200 
to 500 cubits, and the water issues at the surface. 
They have been noticed by Arago. A Frenchman 
has reopened several of those which had become 
stopped. The reopened wells are from 360 to 480 
feet deep. 

The Moniteur Algirien gives an interesting report 
on the newly bored Artesian wells in the Sahara 
Desert, in the province of Constantine. The first 
well was bored in the Oasis of Oued-Rir, near Ta- 
mema, by a detachment of the ForeLm Legion, con- 
ducted by the engineer, M. Jus. The works were 
begun in May, 1856, and, on the 19th of June, 
a quantity of water, of 1,060 gallons per minute, and 
of a temperature of 79* Fwi. rushed forth from 
the bowels of the earth. The joy of the natives was ' 
unbounded ; the news of the event spread towards 
the south with unexampled rapidity. People came 
from long distances, in order to see the miracle ; th« 
Marabouts, with great solemnity, consecrated the 

Digitized by 





newly created well, and gave it the name of "the 
well of peace." The second well, in Teraakin, 
yielded 9 gallons, of 79" temperature, per minute, and 
from a depth of 279 feet ; tnis well was called.** the 
well of bliss." A third experiment, not far from 
the scene of the second, in the Oasis of Tamelhat, 
was crowned with the result of 33 gallons of water 
per minute. The Marabouts, after naving thanked 
the soldiers in the presence of the whole population, 
gave them a banquet, and escorted them in solemn 
procession to the frontier of the oasis. In another 
oasis, that of Sidi-Nached, which had been com- 
pletely ruined by the drought, the digging of ** the 
well of gratitude" was accompanied by touching 
scenes. As soon as the rejoicing outcries of the sol- 
diers had announced the rushing forth of the water, 
the natives drew near in crowds, plunged themselves 
into the blessed waves, and the mothei-s bathed 
their children therein. The old Emir could not 
master his feelings ; tears in his eyes, he fell down 
upon his knees, and lifted' his trembling hands, in 
order to thank God and the French. This yields 
not less than 1,136 gallons per minute, from a depth 
of 177 feet. A fifth well has been dug at Gum 
» Thiour, yielding 29 gallons per minute. Here a 
part of the tribes of the neighborhood commenced at 
once the establishment of a village, planting at the 
same time hundreds of date-palms, and thus giving 
up their former nomadic life. 

Ar-tic'u-la-tor. 1. An apparatus for obtaining 
correct articulation of artificial dentures. 

The lower plate is modeled from the natural jaw. 

Fig. 886. 

Denture ArtieulaSor. 

and moves on cone-shaped pivots in V-shaped grooves 
without hinges, being retamed in i>osition by elas- 
- tic rubber bands or rings. A 
Fig. 886. backward, forward, and lateral 

motion is provided for, corre- 
sponding with the movements 
of the natural jaw, by which the 
arrangement of the denture can 
be practically tested without dis- 
turbing the articulation. The 
upper plate has a backward and 
forward movement of two inch- 
es, and may be retained at any 
point by the set-screw. The 
upper plate has a double bend, 
so that, when reversed from the 
position shown in the cut, an 
increase of one inch in the space 
is obtained between the plates, 
allowing for both upper and 
ArtieuUuor. lower dentures. 























Tympanum " 

2. An instrument for the cure of stanimering. A 
tube in the mouth permits the passage of air, when 
the muscles of the mouth are suddenly closed by 
spasmodic action. A strap around the throa.t has a 
pad whose pressure is regulated by a ispring. Its 
action is to keep the glottis open, and prevent the 
spasmodic constriction which is the cause of the 
trouble in articulation. 

Ar-tl-fi'cial . An object imitating nature, 

such as an artificial stein or flower; sometimes having 
a prosthetic purpose, as an artificial lirnJb or eye. 

See under the respective heads : — 

Arm, Artificial. 

Auricle ** 




Flowers ** 



Gems ** 

Gums ** 

Hand ** 

Horizon ** 


Ivory ** 

Ar-tiller-y. The word seems to have a very 
extended signification, having been ori^nally applied 
to military engines of every description capable of • 
throwing heavy missiles, as the ballista, catapult, 
etc. Uzziah made use of them at Jerusalem 810 
B. c. They are described (2 Chronicles xxvi. 15) as 
** invented by cunning men, t6 be on the towers 
and upon the bulwarks, to shoot arrows and g<%at 
stones withal." The Chinese claim to have used 
cannon 618 B. c, and engines for throwing heavy 
stones yrere used in Sicily 300 B. c. Each Roman 
Legion under the early emperors was furnished i^-ith 
an artillery train, consistmg of 10 lai^er and 55 
smaller engines for throwing stones and darts, which 
accompanied it on its marches. These engines ap- 
pear to have corresponded to the siege artillery of 
modem times, and were merely employed in the at- 
tack and defence of fortified places. Their want 
of portability probably prevented them from being 
of much service in pitched battles on the open field. 
The date of the introduction of fire-arms as artillery 
appears involved in great obscurity. The artillery 
of the Moors is said to date back to 1118 ; from the 
few faint and imperfect allusions which occur here 
and there in old writers, it seems pi-obable that 
their invention bore some analogy to rockets, or the 
projectile was self-propelling. 

The following are some of the dates ascribed to 
the introduction of some military engines and artil- 
lery : — 

Catapult invented by Dionysius of Syracuse, b. c. 899 
Gunpowder artillery used in China a.d. 85 

Cannon throwing stones, weighing 12 pounds, 

300 pacea 757 

The Moors use artillery in attacking Sara- 

Tlie Moors use engines throwing stones and 

darts by means of fire .... 1157 
The Chinese employ cannon throwing round- 
stone shot against the Mongols 1232 
Cordova attacked by artillery . 1280 
A mortar for destroying buildings, etc. de- 
scribed by Al MaiUa, an Arab historian . 1 291 
Gibraltar taken by means of artillery 1308 
A cannon in the arsenal at Bamberg . 1323 
Balls of iron thrown by means of fire used by 
the Moors 1331 

Digitized by 





Ten cannon prepared for the siege of Cam- 
bray 1339 

The Moors defend Algesiras against Alphonso 

XI. by means of mortars . . 1343 
Four pieces said to have been used by Ed- 
ward III. at Crecy 1346 

An iron gun with a square bore, for carrying 
a cubical shot of 11 pounds' weight, made at 

Bruges J346 

Artillery used by the Venetians at the siege 

ofChioggia 1366 

Artillery used by the Turks at the siege of 

Constantinople 1394 

Red-hot balls nred by the English at the siege 

of Cherbourg 1418 

The great cannon of Mahomet II. employed 

against Constantinople ... 1 453 

Louis XI. of France has twelve cannon cast to 

throw metallic shot, for use as a siege train. 1 477 
Brass cannon first cast in England . . 1521 
Iron '* " " u *i 1547 

Howitzers introduced .... 1697 
Maritz of Geneva introduces the method of 

casting guns solid and boring them out . 1749 
Carronades invented by General Melville . 1779 
Forcontinuationof the subject and details, see Ord- 
nance ; MouTARS ; Projectiles ; Weapons, etc. 
In European services, artillery is divided into 
Field Artillery Horse Artillery 

Foot ** Marine *• 

Garrison ** Siege ** 

Heavy ** Standing ** 

Ar-tUler-y Car'riage. In the United States 
service, wrought-iron is now exclusively used as a 
material for garrison and sea-coast gun-carriages. 

Experiments have also been made, promising a 
successful result, upon wrought-iron for field car- 

The only field carriages so called now used in the 
United States service are those for the 3-inch 
rifled and the 12-pounder smooth-bore gun, the 6- 
pounder smooth-bore, the 12, 24, and 32 pounder 
nowitzers having gone out of use. 

The term * Afield carriages " is in the service only 
applied to such as are employed as light artillery : 
those adapted for the 4i-mch rifled, tne 18 and 24 
pounder smooth-bore guns being denominated siege ; 
and those for the larger calibers, from 32-pounder to 
20-inch, and for the larger rifled guns, being denomi- 
nated sect-coast and garrison. The construction of 
field and siege carriages) is necessarily very similar, 
both being intended to transport the guns mounted 
on them, as well as to afford a support during 
firing ; while garrison gun-carriages are merely in- 
tended to subserve the latter purpose, not requiring 
to be moved, except from one front of a fortihcation 
to another. 

The main wooden parts of a field gun-carriage are 
the stock, the cheeks, and the wheels. 

For gun-carriages which are intended permanently 
to remain in position, an additional fixture is re- 
quired, — the chassis ; a frame, as the word implies, 
on which the carriage rests, and by means of which 
it is aimed in a horizontal direction, and upon which 
it is run backward and forward. 

The iron parts of a field gun-carriage are very 
numerous, the principal being the lunetU at the end 
of the stock ; the trunnuni plates^ on which the 
trunnions of the gun rest ; the cap-squares, which 
cover the trunnions and prevent the gun jumping 
off at the moment of finng ; the proTonge hooks, 
around which the prolonge is coiled ; and the bands 
at the ends of the cheeks and around the axle. 

There are also arrangements for supporting the 
two rammers and sponges, the worm, and the ma- 
ncuvering handspikes. 

Ar-tiller-y Lev'el. An instrument adapted to 
stand on a piece of ordnance, and indicate by a pen- 
dulous pointer the angle which the axis of the piece 
bears to the horizontal plane. By its means any 
required angle of elevation is given to the piece. 

Ar'ti-mor-an'ti-co. An alloy of tin, sulphur, 
bismuth, and copper, made in imitation of the an- 
cient j ewelry . 1 Resembles gold of 1 8 carats purity, 
and is made in Italy for factitious trinkets. 

Artz'ber-ger. A device which originated on the 
continent of Europe, and was used in England in the 
early part of the present century as an intermediate 
between the piston-rod and the axle to be driven. 

The power of the steam-engine, as in the Griffith 
Steam Carriage, 1821, is communicated from the 
piston-rods to the axle of the driving-wheels, through 
the means of sweep-rods, the lower ends of which 
are provided \*ith driving pinions and detents, which 
operate upon toothed gear altaclied to the driving- 
w-heel axle. The object is to keep the driving-pin- 
ions always ia gear with the toothed wheels, how- 
ever much the engine or carriage may vibrate. 

A8-bestu8. A fibrous mineral which may be 
split into threads and filaments and resists fire. It 
is also known as amiajiihtts, or earth-flax. The 
nanie indicates the substance, or rather the quality 
(in Greek, asbestos, — inextinguishable). Ithaamany 
uses among the ancients. ■ Mineralogically speaking, 
it is a variety of hornblende and pyroxene, and 
occurs in many parts of the world. It is found in 
great abundance in a few localities in the United 
States, and great attention is now directed to fitting 
it for the uses of the aris and manufactures. 

The notices of its uses among the ancients are 
numerous. Herodotus refers to cloth made of it by 
the Egyptians. Its uses for paper, napkins, socks, 
drawers, nandkerchiefs, are referred to by Varro, Stra- 
bo, and Pliny. Marco Polo mentions it, and Baptista 
Porta speaks of its being spun in Venice. Asbestus 
cerements and wrappings for the bodies of the dead 
previous t-o incremation were in common use with 
those whose circumstances permitted it. Shrouds 
of asbestus of the time of the Roman Emperors have 
been discovered, and are in the museums of the 
Vatican and of Naples. The Romans dug their 
asbestus in Corsica ; their mica in Spain. 

Its modem uses are indicated in the following 
patents, and the enumeration is made at some length, 
as the subject has been but lately revived, and one 
interested can in no other way so readily reach the 
present state of the art, — to borrow the conventional 
phrase, which is as gooil as anv other. • 

1. Safes, lining for : W. Man; English, 1834. 
. Hyatt, several patents, United States, 1869-70. 

2. Lamp- wick : British patents : 

2071 of 1853. 145 of 1857. 

2647 of 1855. 1610 of 1863. 

Lord Cochrane, 1818. 

8. Absorbent in lamps : Boyd, 1869. 

Beschke, 1866. 
in carburetors : Bassett, 1862. 

4. Fire-brick and crucibles : Peters, 1862. 

English patent 2318 of 1862, asbestos, fire- 

clay, and graphite. 
Lewis, 1871.. A covering of asbestus twisted 

into a Top and wound around a crucible. 

5. Packing for hot-air engines : Lanbereau, 1859. 

for explosive engines : Drake, 1865. 

for steam - engines : Drake, 1865. 

combined with hair : Murphey, 1870. 

loose flock asbestus ; Hoke. 

Digitized by 





Peters, 1862. 

Selden and Kidd, 1865. 

Spencer, 1868. 

French, 1869. 

6. Boiler covering : 

Hardy, 1869. 
Murphy* 1870. 
RUey, 1871. 
Murfey, 1870. 

7. For forming a radiating snrface, as in gas- 
stoves, fire-grates, and broilers. 

8. In porcelain manufactures, of teeth especially, 
placed on the side of a muffle to isolate the bis- 
cuit from the slide, to preveut its becoming at- 
tached thereto in the process of baking. 

9. As an anti-friction composition for journal- 
bearings, pistons, etc. 

British patent, 2048 of 1858. Devlin, 1860. 
Peters, 1862. Devlin, 1865. 

Botticher : witli soapstone and cotton, 1864. 
Kelly : with graphite and iron-filings, 1870. 
Johns: with caoutchouc, 1868. 

10. For molded articles : Whitmarsh, 1868. 

11. For roofing cement : Johns, 1868. 
Kidwell, 1868. Moore, 1868. 

12. Flooring cement : Whitmarsh, 1867. 
18. Electric insulator : English patent, 362 of 1865. 

14. In refrigerators : Hyatt, 1870. 

15. In ink : Smilie, 1863. 

16. For paper : English patent, 1413 of 1853. 
Johns, 1868. Schaeffer on Paper, an old 

German book, describes asbestus paper, and 
contains a specimen. 

17. For coffins — mixed vrith clay : 1870. 

18. For ropes strengthened with other materials, 

Stevens, 1870 and 1871. 

19. For yam : separated into filaments by alkaline 
treatment, and then treated like wool : 

Rosenthal's patent, 1872. 

As-bes'tus Stove. A stove heated by ^ and 
having asbestus spread over the perforated pipes, in 
order to obtain an incandescent mass, which radiates 
heat, but does not consume. 

Asbestus is used for lamp-wicks ; as a filling for 
iron safes ; for firemen's clothes ; and in the laoora- 
tory as a wrapper for articles which are to be con- 
sumed to ashes. See Asbestus. 

As-oend'ing Let'ter. (Printing.) Capital let- 
ters, and the small ones which rise above the line. 
They are 6, rf, /, A, k, (. 

As'oi-a. (jSargical.) An axe-shaped bandage. 

Ash'ea B-jeo'tor. An arrangement on board 
large steam- vessels to reduce the labor of hoisting 
out the ashes in buckets. 

A chamber or tube is formed, rising from the 
stoke-holes, and opening above the water-line into 
the sea. By means of a jet of steam the ashes are 
directly driven from the engine-room into the sea, 
through the tube, the arrangement of which prevents 
the possibility of its being choked up. A similar 
method has also been adopted on stationary land- 
engines whose boilers are fixed below ground. 

Ash'-fur-naoe. A furnace in which the mate- 
rials for glass-making are fritted. 

Ash'lar; Ashler. {Masonry.) 1. (a) Rough Ash- 
lar : a block of freestone as brought from the quarry. 

(6) Smooth Ashlar ; a block dressed ready for use. 

(c) Flane Ashlar ; a block in which the marks of 
the tool are dressed out. 

(d) Tooled Ashlar ; a block in which the surface 
has parallel vertical flutes. 

(e) Random-tooled Ashlar ; a block whose git)OV- 
ings are irregularly cut with a broarl tool. 

if) Chiseled Ashlar; a random -tooled ashlar, 
wrought with a narrow chisel. 

ig) Boasted Ashlar ; same as chiseled. 

(A) Pick or Haminer-dressed : it is known as Com- 
mon Ashlar. 

(i) Bastard Ashlar is asUlar-work backed up with 
inferior work. 

(J) Pointed Ashlar ; the face-marking done by a 
pointed tool or one very narrow. 

{k) Rusticated Ashlar ; the face of the block pro- 
jects from the joint, the arrises bein^ beveled. It 
may be rough or smooth-faced, or variously tooled. 

(/) Herring-bone Ashlar has a tooling of oblique 
flutes in ranks running in alternate directions. 

(w) Nigged Ashlar ; a building-block dressed with 
a pointed hammer. 

(«) Prison Ashlar ; the surface is wrought into 

A smooth face around the joint is called a margin- 

The walls of the principal entrance of the gate at 
Thebes are at their base not less than 60 feet in 
thickness, llie stones are squared on all sides, not 
merely on the external faces, and are built-in solid, 
no rvhble-toork being introduced to fill up the space 
between the facing walls. 

The face of an ashlar is the front exposed surface 
when built into the wall. 

Flanks ; the sides. 

Beds; upper and lower surfaces. 

Back ; rear surface. 

2. {Ashlar.) A facing of squared stones or thin 
slabs used to cover walls of brick or rubble. 

3. (Carpentry.) A vertical strut or quartering 
uniting the floor-joisting of the garret with the 
rafters above, forming the studding for the wall of 
the half-story room, cutting off an acute angle 
which may be utilized for closets. 

Ash'-leach. A hopper in which ashes are placed 
while the soluble 
salts are removed Fig. 887. 

by lixiviation. The 
leach is suspended 
upon journals which 
have bearings in the 
standards of the 
frame. The axis is 
at or about the cen- 
ter of gravity, so 
that the leacli may 
be tipj)ed to dis- 
chai^ge Its spent con- 
tents. A hook and 
staple hold it in op- 
erative position. 

(Carpentry. ) Short 
upright nieces be- 
tween the noor-beams 
and raftera in gar- 
rets for nailing the 
laths to. This cuts 

off the sharp angles beti^een the floor and ceiling, 
giving a more convenient and tasteful appearance 
to the room. Ashlarino. 

Ash'-pit A cavity below the grate-bars of a 
furnace for receiving the ashes. 

Ash'-plate. The back plate of a furnace. 

Ash and Coal Sift'er. Sifters for coal are 
made on a large scale for mines, and are actuat^'d by 
machinery, the object being to remove the dust 
which is unsuitable for ordinary stoves and fur- 
naces. They consist of rotary wire-screens into 
which the coal is jjassed, or of a succession of in- 
clined screens over whifh the coal passes by gravity, 
the jarring of the pieces assisting in keeping oi>en 
the meshes of the screen. 

For household use, as ash-sifters, they assume 
several fonus, — rotary screens ; reciprocating sieves 


Digitized by 





Fig. 888. 

Rotary SiJUr. 

in boxes ; oscillating 
sieves adapted to fit the 
tops of barrels ; consec- 
utive incliued sieves, 
which sort the material 
into grades ; and sifters 
adapted to the ash-pits 
of stoves and furnaces. 
In Fig. 388 the wire 
sieve is volute-shaped 
in transverse section, 
and its horizontal shaft 
revolves on bearings in 
a case. The lid of the 
latter opens to charge 
the sieve when its open 
mouth is presented up- 
wardly, as in the .cut. 
By revolving in one di- 
rection the contents are 
retained in the sieve, 
except the dust, which 
The operation completed, 

falls through the meshes, 

the sieve is revolved in the other direction, which 

discharges the larger 

fig. 889. 


contents into a re- 
ceptacle placed to 
receive them. 

In Fig. 389 a cen- 
tral bearing is sup- 
ported by radial arms 
inside the barrel, 
and supports the cir- 
cular sieve which Is 
oscillated above it. 
The central post of 
the sieve passes 
through a hole in 
the cover, and a 
cross-handle above 
affords the means of 

The sifter for 
stove-hearths has a 
handle and a spout, and is placed below the hearth- 
plate in the ash-pit of the stove. Its office is to 

catch the ashes 
Kg- 880. from the grate. 

It is vibratable 
in place, while 
the nearth-plate 
prevents the es- 
cape of dust. 
The finer por- 
tions fall into 
the pan below, 
and the contents 
of the sieve are 
thrown on the 
fire. There are over eighty patents on ash and coal 
sifters. • 

• As-phalt' Pave^mant. As employed in Europe, 
this is prepared from a dark brown bituminous lime- 
stone which is found in the neighborhood of the 
Jura Mountains. This stone is reduced to powdej, 
mixed with mineral tar and grit, and the whole 
exposed for several hours to a strong heat in large 
caldrons, being continually stiiTed until the in- 
f;redients are thoroughly united. The composition 
18 then run into molds forming cakes about eigh- 
teen inches square and six inches thick, and weigh- 
ing 126 or 130 pounds. The blocks are laid upon 
good, well-rammed foundations. They do not ap- 
pear to stand the wear incident to a large city, but 

Stove-Hiearth Ash- Sifter. 

have been laid with advantage in corridors and as 
pavement in railroad stations in Europe. Various 
analogous compounds have been patented in the 
United States for paving and roofing. See Pave- 
ment ; Roofing. 

Afl-phal'tum Fur'nace. Asphaltum, or native 
bitumen, is largely used for pavements, roads, roofs, 
and as a water-proof cement. For pavements, etc., 
it is mixed with sand or gravel, ana laid while hoi 
upon a foundation of broken stones, pebbles, oi 
gravel. The Seyssel Asphalt is a compound of a 
bituminous limestone, ground fine, heated, mixed 
with a small poi-tion of tar, and considerable sand. 
The material is brought from the Jura Mouh tains, 
and, for a while, was very popular in Europe. • 

Beds of mineral pitch exist in many parts of the 
world, and are applied as fuel, to yield a liquid 
hydrocarbon, for paying woodwork, as cement, and, 
as has been said, for roofing, paving, etc. As it 
re(juires to be laid on while not, a portable furnace 
(Fig. 420) is required, from whose boiler it is ladled 

A^ahaUum Furnace. 

out and spread in its warm, plastic condition upon 
the surface to be treated. 

A number of formulas for compounding the mate- 
rial will be given under Roofing (which see). 

In laving pavement, the thickness of the asphaltum 
is regulat^l by strips of wood, dividing the space 
into transverse sections. The material is spread by 
the shovel or a wooden spatula, and the surface 
beveled by a floating rule which rests upon the 
upper edge of the strips. Slate dust, fine sand, 
plaster of Pari.s etc., may be dusted upon the top. 

As'pi-ra'tor. An apparatus for passing a regu- 
lated supply of air in contact with a contrivance 
which determines its chemical character or its con- 
dition, hygrometric or otherwise ; or for passing 
given quantities of air in contact with a substance 
whose changes are the subject of observation. A 
jar filled with water is provided with a cock, by 
which the water is allowed to escape at a given rate. 
The space in the jar, above the water, is connected 
by a flexible pipe with the duct in which the chem- 
ical ingredients are placed or witli the hygrometer 
chamber. The uses are various, and will readily 
occur to the expert, in connection vnth. the quanti- 
tative admission of air or gases to chemical solutions, 

Digitized by 





Fig. 882. ignited tapers, or 

oi^nic matters. 
The measure of 
the water which 
has flowed from 
the jar is of 
course coincident 
with the air 
which has taken 
its place. 

The use of the 
aspirator is rec- 
ommended in the 
healing of great 
amputations, by 
Surgeon of the 
Hotel Dieu, Par- 
is. The liquids 
exuding from the 
surface of the 
wound coming in 
contact with the 
air, poisonous 
putrefaction en- 
sues ; to arrest 
this action, Dr. 
Aspirator. Maisonneuve, af- 

ter dressing the 
wound with lint saturated with antiseptic liquids, 
brings into use an aspiratoiy apparatus which with- 
draws the contaminated air 
Fig. 898. from the presence of the 

Jl^»• wound. 

A form of aspirator in- 
vented by Spreneel is now 
miicli used in the labora- 
tories in Europe, esnecially 
in expediting filtering. 
The water from a reservoir 
passes in by the supplv- 
pipe Af and drops into the 
discharge-pipe C', carrjing 
with it a pellicle of air ; 
this is repeated in quick suc- 
ceasion, and the effect is to 
withdraw air bythe pipe B^ 
from the chamber with 
which the said pipe is con- 
nected. The discharse-pipc 
C is 30 feet lony. The vac- 
uum attained is said to be 
as high as 29 inches of mei^ 

Sprengel used mercury, 
which permits a discharge- 
pipe of say three feet in 
length. Bunsen lengthened 
the pipe and used water. 

Guerin's apparatus for 
this purpose consists of a 
hemispherical balloon pro- 
- - vided with three tubula- 

SprengeVt Asptratot. tures, the central and lar- 
gest one being fitted with a 
manometer of very simple construction, a gradu- 
ated glass tube terminated by an india-rubber ball 
filled with mercury. The ball is inclosed in the 
balloon, so that in proportion to the vacuum effected 
in the latter the former is dilated, in consequence of 
which the mercury in the tube falls, a .scale showing 
the amount of fall, and hence also the degree of 
rarefaction in the balloon. The second tubulature 
receives a tube communicating with the receiver of 

an air-pump ; and by a third, communication is 
efTectea between the balloon and each patient or 
hospital bed by means of india-rubber tubes, so that 
''pneumatic occlusion," as it is called, may be ex- 
tended simultaneously to all the patients confined in 
the same surgical ward. There are stop-cocks for 
regulating the degree of vacuum in the central ves- 
sel, and the part under treatment is covered i**ith a 
sort of india-rubber hood which protects it in each 
case from the action of the external air. 

Aspirators are also used to prevent the heating 
of grain in bulk, by causing a constant circulation 
of air through its mass. 

The aspirator, substantially as shown in Fig. 393, 
is used in maintaining a partial vacuum in the con- 
densers of steam-engines, vacuum-pans, etc., where 
a discharge-pipe of 30 feet perpendicular length can 
be obtained. 

The aspirator is also used in picking up pieces or 
sheets 6f paper, for feeding into paper-folding or 
envelope macliines. 

As-pir'ing Painp. 1. A pump in which the 
mechanical action is due to the forcible ejection of 
air from the lungs. A suction-pump. 

2. A pump used to draw air from a chamber or 
vessel. See Aspirator. 

Aa8. {Paper- Making,) A post in the bridge of 
a pulp-vat to lay the mold upon while the water 
drains from it. Used in the hand- made paper work. 

AB-sa7^ An operation for testing the propor- 
tion of any metal in an ore or alloy. 

There are several modes of procedure : — 

1. By specific graWty. 

2. Bv the touchstone. 

3. The wet method, — by liquid solvents. 

4. The dry method, — by fluxes and fire. 
As-say' Bal'ance. A delicate balance used in 

assaying. See Balance. 

As-say' Fur'nace. A Fig. 894. 

furnace with a chamber or 
muffle in which the metal 
is exposed to heat. 

The funiaces used for cu- 
pellation differ considera- 
t)ly in shape and mode of 
construction : one form is Cypd. 

represented in Fig. 395. 

The muffle a is an oven-shaped vessel made of 
baked fire-clay, closed at one end and open at the 
other, and 

having also 
openings in 
its sides and 
top ; its in- 
ner closed ex- 
tremity usu- 
ally rests on 
a ledge or 
shelf in the 
furnace, and 
its open end 
is luted to the 
entrance of 
the furnace, 
and has be- 
fore it a small 
platform on 
which the 
hot cupels 
(shown on an 
scale in Tig. 
394) can 

Fig. 885. 

Muffle and Fumaee. 

Digitized by 





staDd when withdrawn from it. I n this position it can 
be equally heated in every part, while the apertures 
in the sides and top allow a current of air to pass 
through its interior and into the furnace itself. 

As-se-gai'. A light projectile spear employed 
by the Kaifirs. 

As-aem'bling. By assembling b understood 
the act of putting in their respective places and fas- 
tening together the component parts of an article 
composed of a number of distinct pieces, so as to 
form a complete and perfect whole ; as, the cheeks 
and stock of a gun-carriage, with their connected 
parts ; the lock, stock, ana barrel of a musket, etc. 

The term is more peculiarly applicable to the tit- 
ting together parts which are maae strictly to fixed 
shapes and dimensions so as to be promiscuously in- 

The system of interchangeability of parts was first 
introduced into the French Artillery service by 
General Gribeauval, about the year 1765. 

Previous to this time each part of a gun-carriage 
was made specially for that ^^rriage alone, and 
could not be used for repairing any other, unless 
after extensive alterations. Gribeauval simplified 
the system, or rather want of system, then in vogue, 
by reducing the carriages into classes, and so arran- 
ging many of the parts that thev could be applied in- 
discriminately to all carriages of the for which 
they were made.' This system was farther simplified 
and extended, and was finally applied in the 
United States arsenals and armories to all articles 
made up of pieces, the improvements- in machinery 
enabling most articles to be made accurjitely to ]mt- 
tem without depending on the e^e and hand of the 
workman. This has been earned to a very high 
pitch of improvement by means of the machinery at 
the Colt's arms factory and other manufactories of 
small-arms in this country ; and the beauty and util- 
ity of the system, by which exact equality of di- 
mensions is insured in ever}' one among thousands 
of almost microscopic screws and other small parts, 
are particularly exemplified in the work of the Amer- 
ican watch and sewing-machine companies. 

This system of interchangeability and assemblage, 
which by enabling a large proportion of perfect and 
serviceable articles to be made up from the parts of 
similar articles which have been broken or injured 
in use, instead of permitting them to be cast into 
the scrap-heap, is one of the most beautiful triumphs 
of modem mechanism. 

It has proved itself capable of adaptation to large 
as well as small machinery, and is now applied 
to the locomotives of the Pennsylvania Central Kail- 
road, whose parts are made interchangeable. 

The first notice in this country of this excellent 
mode of manufacturing a number of articles designed 
to be exactly similar, is the breech-loading rifle of 
John H. Hall, of North Yarmouth, Massachusetts, 
patented May 21, 1811, and which he refers^ to in 
the following tenns in a letter to the War Depart- 
ment : "Only one point now remains to bring the 
rifles to the utmost perfection, which I shall attempt 
if the government contracts with me for the guns to 
any considerable amount, namely, to make eveir 
similar part of every gun so much alike that it will 
suit every gun, so that' if 1,000 guns are taken 
apart and the limbs thrown promiscuously together 
in one heap, they may be taken promiscuously from 
the heap and will all come right. ' 

In 1816, 100 of these arms were made ; 2,000, in 
1827. In 1836 Congress voted $10,000 to Hall, 
bein^ at the rate of one dollar per arm for all made 
on his principle to date. 

As^em^ling Bolt One used for holding to- 

Astatic Needle 

gethef* two or more removable pieces, as the cheeks 
and stock of a field gun-carriage. 

As-sis'tant En^gine. An accessory locomotive, 
to assist the ordinary train engine in ascending 
heavy grades. 

A donkey engine. A small engine used in oper- 
ating a large one for moving the lever, or carr}'ing 
the ny-wheel over a dead-center. 

Aa-Bize'. A' layer of stone, or one of the cylin- 
drical blocks in a column. The number of ctssizes 
in the Great Pyramid was 20S (Kenrick). Several 
have been removed from the apex, which now pre- 
sents a platform of 26 feet square. The assizes vary 
from two feet two inches to four feet ten inches in 
depth. From five to twelve feet is the common 
length of the stones, except in the king's chamber. 

A column is said to be numolWiic, or else to consist 
of assizes. 

A-stat'io Nee'dle. A magnetized needle whose 
polarity is balanced 

so as to remove its Kg. 896. 

tendency to assume 
any given direc- 

It was in 1820 
that Oersted, of Co- 
penhagen, an- 
nounced that the 
conducting wire of 
a voltaic circuit 
acts upon the magnetic needle, and thns recalled 
into activity that endeavor to connect magnetism 
with electricity which, though apparently on many 
accounts so hopeful, had hitherto been attended with 
no success. Oersted found that the needle has a 
tendency to place itself at ri^ht angles to the wire, a 
kind of action altogether difierent from any which 
had been suspected. 

If two similar magnetized needles are placed par- 
allel, but with their poles turned in opposite direc- 
tions, and are suspended by a thread without twist 
so as to move freely, they have little tendency to 
place themselves in the magnetic meridian. 

The action of terrestrial magnetism upon one 
needle neutralizes its action upon the other, and 
consequent\y thfe needles remain indifferent. A 
needle of this description is called astatic^ and is used 
in the construction of the astatic galvanometer. 

If one of the needles be placed in a coil of wire ex- 
cited by an electric current, on the passage of the 
current the needle is deflected ; and its deflections are 
more considerable than those of a simple needle, be- 
cause there is, in the first place, but little resist- 
ance to overcome, and secondly, because the current 
acts upon two needles instead of one, the upper 
needle being deflected in the same direction as the 

As'teL (Mining.) Overhead boarding or arch- 
ing in a gaUery. 

As-tig'ma-tisxn Ap-pa-ra'tus. {Optics.) An 
instrument for detecting the presence and amount of 
the defect in vision arising from a certain want of 
sjrmmetry in the lens or cornea. 

It may consist of two revolving rings divided to 
6^ each ring being furnished with spring to hold a 
cylindrical glass | a diaphragm fitting in one ring^ 
and a movable slit in the otner. The object is to 
test whether the eye has greater power to detect dis- 
tinct separation between closely ruled lines in a ver- 
tical, or horizontal, or intermediate position. 

Astra-gaL (Carpentry.) a. A small molding 
of a semicircular section with a fillet beneath it. 

6. One of the rabbeted bars which hold the jmnes 
of a window. The astragals of the lanterns in the 

Digitized by 





Stevenson lighthouses are diagonal, so as not to inter- 
cept the light in the azimuth which they subtend. 

(Ordnance.) An outwardly curved molding. 
The astragal of a cannon is the molding at the front 
end of the chase. 

As'tra-gal Plane. (Joinery.) A bench plane 
adapted for cutting astragal moldings. 

As'tra-gal TooL A wood-turnm^ chisel having 
a semicircular concave face, for turning beads and 

As'tral Lamp. A lamp with an annular oil res- 
ervoir connecting by two pipes with the wick tube, 
the" latter being on the 
Fig. 897. summit of the pedestal. 

It is designed to obviate 
the interception of light 
by the oil reservoir, 
which when placed cen- 
trally casts a shade upon 
the table. 
'« In the arrangement 
shown at Fig. 397 the 
oil is contained in the 
annular chamber a sur- 
rounding the burner 6, 
which is of the Argand 
kind (see Akoand), and 
the lower part of the 
chimney, and thence de- 
scends to the foot of the 
wick through the two 
tubes c c. 
Astral Lamp. It will be seen that the 

downward rays of light 
from the burner are not at all intercepted in the 
immediate vicinity of the lamp, except by the two 
small oil pipes, and that they are not niaterially in- 
terfered with, within a radius beyond which the 
light would be insufficient for reading or working 
by ; even this is obviated in a considerable degree 
by the ground-glass globe d surmounting the an- 
nulus, wnich disuses and equalizes that part of the 
light which is not east downward. The chimney e 
assists combustion, and carries off the volatile pro- 
ducts thereof. 

As'tro-labe. The common astrolabe (not the 
astrolabe of Hipparchus, used in determining the 

altitudes of the 
Fig. 898.. 


stars) is used for 
measuring an- 
gles. It IS gi-ad- 
uated to degrees, 
and sometimes to 
(juarter - degrees. 
A strip is at- 
tached in the 
direction of the 
diameter, passing 
through 0" and 
ISO', and has a 
tongue by which 
it is placed cen- 
trally upon the 
stand. This strip 
has two fixed 
diopters or sight- 
vanes. Another 
strip turns about 
the center, one 
end of which in 
the half - astro- 
labe (both ends 
in the full astro- 
lab<*) traverses 

the graduated limb and canies other sight-vanes. 
The middle line of this alidade coincides with the 
axis of the sight-vanes and the center, and is 
marked upon the beveled edge of the alidade as an 
index. The diopters are botn ocular and objective, 
for fore and bacK sighting. A small compass may 
be attached at the center, and the tongue fitted up 
with nut and screw so as to permit the circle to be 
brought from the horizontal to the vertical position 
for the ])urpose of measuring altitudes. 

To ineasure an angle with the astrolabe, the latter 
is placed with its center over the vertex of the angle, 
and tuiTied until the fixed diopters sight in the 
direction of one side. The movable strip with its 
diopters is then sighted in the direction of the oth- 
er side, and the angle contahied between the two 
strips is n^ad off. Telescopes may be attached in 
place of the alidades. Thus arranged, it becomes 
allied to the theodolite. 

Tycho Brahe's Astronomice Instauratce Mcehani- 
ca gives several cuts of astrolabes. The astrolabes 
of Hipparchus, Ptolemy, Alhazen, and Tycho Brahe 
did not agree in all particulars of construction. 
They have been superseded by more improved in- 

The astrolabe was invented to ascertain the posi- 
tion of the sun with regard to the ecliptic. (Whewell. ) 
The instrument as described by Ptolemy consisted 
of circular rims, movable one witflin the other, or 
about poles ; and contained circles which were to 
be brought into the position of the ecliptic, and of a 
plane passing through the sun and the poles of the 
ecliptic. See Armillary Sphere. 

Tne asiroiabon which Martin Behaim attached to 
the main-mast belongs originally to Hipparchus. 
ArVhen Vasco de Gama landed on the east coast of 
Africa, he found the Indian pilots at Melind ac- 
quainted with the use of astrolabes and cross-staffs. 

Afl-trom'a-ra. A concave representation of the 

As-trom'a-ter. An instrument invented by Sir 
John Herschel for comparing the intensities of li^ht 
of the stars one with another by the intervention 
of a natural standard, such as the moon or the planet 
.Jupiter, brighter than any of the stars to be com- 
pared, and giving an amount of light which, if 
not absolutely invariable, varies in such a manner 
that its changes are susceptible of calculation. Jupi- 
ter, being sufficiently bright, and his light being in- 
creased or diminished only in proportion to his dis- 
tance from the sun, is considered as well adapted for 
the purpose. 

The process, as described by Sir John, ** consists in 
deflecting the light of the moon by total internal re- 
flection at the base of a prism so as to emerge in a 
direction exactly coincident with that of the unde- 
\ fleeted light of one of the stars to be compared. It 
is then received upon a lens of short focus, by which 
the image of the moon is formed, which, viewed at a 
! considerable distance by an observer placed in or 
near the axis of the lens,*will appear to him as a star. 
This artificial star is then approached to or removed 
from the eye until its light is judged to be exactly 
equal to that of the real star, whicn lying in nearly 
the same direction from the observer will be seen 
side by side with the artificial one by the same eye, 
or with both eyes at once without the aid of a tele- 
scope, as in the ordinary mode of natural vision. 
The distance of the eye from the focus of the lens 
being tlien measured, the prism and lens are to be 
placed so as to form another similar arrifidal star 
in a direction nearly coincident with that of the 
other star under comparison ; and, another equaliza- 
tion being made and distance measured, it is obvious 

Digitized by 





that the intensity of the lights of the two stars, or 
at least their efl'ects on the retina under the circum- 
stances of companson, will be to each other in the 
inverse ratio of the distances so measured respec- 

The term " astronieter " has been also applied to an 
object-glass micrometer, as well as to an instrument 
for finding the lising and setting of stars and their 

As-lTO-iiom'i cal Clock. A clock regulated to 
keep regular tinn' ; sidereal, not mean. 

Afl-tro-noml-cal In'stra-ments. The first 
phenomenon recorded in the Chinese annals is a 
conjunction of five planets in the reign of Tchuen- 
hiu (2514-2436 B. v.). The record is verified by 
Fr. de Mailla and others, and identified with 2461 
B. c. Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, and Venus were, with 
the moon, comprised within an arc of about 12" 
in the constellation Pisces. The emperor Yao, 
2367 B. c, determined the length of the moon's 

An orrery is said to have been constructed in the 
second century A. D. in China ; the account states 
that it represented the apparent motion of the 
heavenly bodies round the earth, and was kept in 
motion by water dropping from a clepsydra. 

The heliooentric, the true theory of our solar sys- 
tem, was taught in Ancient Egypt, and there Pythag- 
oras learned it. This great philosopher perceived 
its truth, and CArried it to Asia Minor, where it lan- 
guished and died. The Egyptian race were origi- 
nally emigrants from Asia, probably Arabians, and 
may have brought their astronomical knowledge 
with them. It is also possible that the Chaldees 
were participants in the true theory many ages be- 
fore Greek explorers touched the borders of the 
Mesopotamian nations. 

Eratosthenes of Cyrene, the Alexandrian astrono- 
mer, set on foot the first Hellenic measurement of an 
arc of the meridian, having its extremities at Alex- 
andria and Syene, and for its object the approxi- 
mate measurement of the earth's circumference. The 
measurement was the paces of pedestrians, but is in- 
teresting as among the earliest recorded instances of 
this broad generalization, where a philosopher rose 
from the consideration of the narrow limits of a sin- 
gle country to the knowledge of the magnitude of 
the entire globe. A more ancient Chaldean meas- 
urement is mentioned, the count being obtained in 
camels* paces, 4,000 paces to the mile, 33^ miles to 
half a degree, — circumferenc i of the earth, 24,000 
miles. See Comptts Reiidus, T. XXllI. p. 851, 1846. 

Another measurement of a degree of the meridian 
was made under the orders of the Khalif Al-Mamun 
in the great plain of Sinds-char, between Tadmor and 
Rakka, by obs^^rvers whose names have been pre- 
served to us by Ebn Junis, tenth century. 

** Each sage went for what he wanted to the 
proper mart of science : for not only Pythagoras 
studied astronomy at Heliopolis, where it was pro- 
fessed with the greatest ^lat ; but Eudoxus got his 
geometry at Mempliis, whose priests were the most 
profound mathematicians ; and Solon was instructed 
m civil wisdom at Sais, whose patron deity being 
Minerva (as we are told by Herodotus and Strabo), 
shows politics to have been there in most request." — 
Warburton's *• Divine Legation of Moses, Vol. I. 
Book II., ed. 1742. 

The earliest observations in Babylon were 2234 
B. c. Of their instruments we have no record : 
dials and zodiacal circles probably. The invention 
of the zodiac is by many experts credited to the 
Egyptians, and the reasons cited are entitled to 
high consideration. It is of high antiquity, and if 

pre-Eg}'ptian was derived from the Orientals. 
Mazzaroth, cited in Job xxxviii. 31, 32, probably 
referred to zodiacal division. 

One of the earliest instruments on record is that 
in the Memnonium, the great palace of Rameses II. 
It consisted of a golden zodiac or circle on which 
were engi-aved the days of the year, with the heliacal 
rising and setting of the stars by which each day 
was -known. This golden planisphere was placed 
immediately over the sepulchre, upon a base 365 
cubits (547^ feet) in circumference, or about 182 feet 
in diameter, and one cubit in thickness. It was 
divided and marked at every cubit with the days of 
the year, the rising and setting of the stars according 
to their natural revolutions, and the signs ascertained 
from them by Egj-ptian astrologers. 

Rameses reigned in the fourteenth century B. c, — 
the century after the settling of the land of Canaan 
by Joshua and the century before the Argonautic 
Expedition. The golden circle was carried away by 
Cambyses when he plundered Egypt, 525 B. c, 
about the time of Kung-fu-tze (Confucius). 

Ptolemy Euergetes, 246 B. c, placed in the 
square porch of the Alexandrian Museum an equi- 
noctial and a solstitial armil, the graduated limbs of 
these instniments being divided into degrees and 
sixths. There were in the ob*servatory stone struc- 
tures, the precursors of our mural quadrants. On 
the floor a meridian line was drawn for the adjust- 
ment of the instruments. There were also astrolabes 
and dioptras. The above were used from 246 b. c. 
to A..D. 417, and similar instruments at Cbrdova, 
A. D. 1000. Tubes with sights were probably used 
at both places ; lenses being added in 1608. 

See articles under the following headings : — 



Meridian Circle. 


Mural Circle. 

Optical Instruments. 




Reflecting Circle. 

Refraction Circle. 




Universal Instrumept. 

Zenith Sector. 

Zenith Tube. 




Armillary Sphere. 

Artificial Horizon. 




Azimuth Circle. 

Azimuth Dial. 







Dip Sector. 

Equatorial Telescope. 

In Europe, the Arabs were the first to build 
observatories ; the Giralda, or Tower of Seville; was 
erected under the superintendence of Geber the 
mathematician, about A. D. 1196, for that purpose. 
After the expulsion of the Moors it was turned into 
a belfry, the Spaniards not knowing what else to do 
with it. The same people mistook the vertical gno- 
mons of Quito — beneath the line — for idols, and 
upset them, crossing themselves devoutly. Of the 
obelisks of Egypt, the round towers of Ireland, and 
the gnomons of Quito, the last is the least distinctly 

The native observatory at Benares, India, is an 
elevated terrace, and will afibrd us a good idea of the 
probable appearance of the observatories of Ancient 
Chaldea ; of the Caliph Almanza ,• of Uleg Beg, 
grandson of the great Tamerlane. The latter is 
said to have had a quadrant as high as the Church 
of Sancta Sophia at Constantinople. 

Sir Robert Barker's description of the observatory 

Digitized by 






Native Observatory ai Benares. 

of Benares is as follow^ : " We entered this building, 
and went up a staircase to the top part of it near the 
river Ganges, that led to a lai^ terrace, where to my 
surprise and satisfaction, I saw a number of instru- 
ments yet remaining in the best preservation, stu- 
pendously large, immovable from the spot, and 
built of stone, some of them being upwards of 
twenty feet in hight ; and though they were said to 
have been erected many hundred years before, the 
graduations and divisions of the several arcs ap- 
peared as well cut and accurately divided as if they 
nad been the performance of a modem artist. The 
execution in tne construction of these instruments 
exhibited a mathematical exactness in the fixing, 
bearing, and fitting of the several parts, in the 
necessary and sufficient suppoits to tne very large 
stones that compose them, and in joining and fasten- 
ing them into each other by means of lead and iron 
cramps. The situation of the two lai^ quadrants, 
whose radius is nine feet two inches, by being at 
right angles with a gnomon at twenty-five degrees 
elevation, are thrown into such an oblique situation 
as to render them the most difficult, not only to 
construct of such a magnitude, but to secure in the 
position for so long a period, and affords a striking 
instance of the ability of the architect in their con- 
struction ; for, by the shadow of the gnomon thrown 
on the quadrants, they do not appear to have altered 
in the least from their original position ; and so 
true is the line of the gnomon, that, by applying the 
eye to a small iron ring of an inch diameter at one 
end, the sight is carried through three others of the 
same dimensions, at the extremity of the other end, 
distant thirty-eight feet eight inches, wiUiout ob- 

The earliest modem observatory of importance in 
Europe was erected by the landgrave of Hesse Cassel 
in 1561. It occupied the whole upper portion of 
his palace, and was well fumished witn astronomical 
instraments. Tycho Brahe, about the same period, 
made material improvements on the landgrave's in- 
struments, and constmcted a quadrant capable of 
showing single minutes. He afterwards erected an 
observatory on the island of Huen, under the pat- 
ronage of the king of Denmark ; it was fumisned 
with quadrants, sextants, circles, astrolabes, globes, 
clocks, and sun-dials. These instmments were 
• divided to single minutes, and some were so divided 
as to read to ten seconds. 

The royal observatory at Paris was completed in 
1671, and was placed in char^ of M. Cassini, after 
having been fumished with instmments at a very 
great expense. 

Tbe Greenwich Obser^Titory was erected five years 
later ; Flamstead, under the title of Astronomer Royal, 
was its first superintendent. 

The Yale College Observatory was started in 1828, 
a donation made by Mr. Clark being expended in 
buying a telescope of Mr. Dollond of London. It 
has a focal length of ten feet, and five inches aper- 

The Williams College Observatory was the first 
regularly constituted oliservatory in the United 
States, 1836. It has a Herschelian reflector of ten 
feet focus, mounted equatorial ly ; also a v transit 
instrument and compensation -clock. 

The Hudson Observatory of the Western Reserve 
College, Ohio, was built and furnished in 1838, 
having an equatorial, transit, and clock. 

The High School Observatory of Philadelphia was 
fumished in 1840. 

The West Point Observatory about 1841. 

The Tuscaloosa Observatory in 1843. 

The Washington Observatory about 1844. 

The Georgetown, D. C, Observatory in 1844. 

The Cincinnati Observatory in 1845. 

The Cambridge Observatory in 1847. 

The Amherst Observatory in 1847. 

Dartmouth, Newark, Shelbyville, Ky., Buffalo, 
Michigan University, Albany, and Hamilton Col- 
lege, have also observatories. 

A good article on the astronomical observatories 
of the United States may be found in Harper's 
Magazine, June, 1856. See also '* Observations at 
the Washington Observatory," volume for 1845. 

For more full details than in the articles named, 
see Chambers's Astronomy ; Dr. Pearson's Practical 
Astronomy ; Loomis's Practical Astronomy ; Simm's 
Treatise on Instmments ; Heather pn Mathematical 

As-tro-noml-oal Ziantam. One with panes 
or slides ha\'ing perforations whose relative size and 
position represent stars in a given field of the 

As-tro-noml-oal Tel'e-soope. A telescope in 
which the image is inverted, composed of a conver- 
ging object-glass A B^ and of a converging eye-glass 
C lL Rays of light falling from any point IT of a 

Digitized by 





Astrmumdeal TeUseope, 

Fig. 400. distant ob- 

ject M N, 
and falling 
^i: on the whole 
surface of 
the object- 
elass are re- 
fracted into 

the upper point in the principal ^ocus. In like 
manner those proceeding from tne point N are re- 
fracted into the lower point, and thus an inverted im- 
age is formed at the focus of the object-glass. The 
eye-glass is placed so that its focus shall coincide 
with the place of the image, consequently rays di- 
verging from any point on the image, and falling 
on the lens C D, are Yendered parallel and enter 
the eye at E, where they produce distinct vision. 

The len^h of the telescope is equal to the sum of 
the focal distances of the two lenses, and the mag- 
nifying power is equal to the focal length of the ob- 
ject-^Iass divided by the focal length otthe eye-glass. 
This telescope was first described by Kepler in his 
Dioplriee, 1611, but does not appear to have been 
executed till 20 or 30 years later. 

A lai^ instrument of its class was mounted at 
York, England, by Cooke. See Fig. 401. 
It is mounted equatorially on the German princi- 



Oo9h$U TtUacopt, 

pie, having a finder at the side, as is usual with that 
class of instruments. Sidereal motion is communi- 
cated to the instrument by clock-work. Its object- 
glass is 25 inches in diameter. 

The new refracting instrument for the Naval Ob- 
servatory of Washington,- D. C, is being made by 
Alvan Clark, of Cambridgeport, Mass., and will 
probably be completed during the present year (1873). 
its object-glass is complete, and has a aiameter of 
27 inclies. It is the largest of its class, and great 
hopes are reasonably entertained of its performances. 

Large telescopes, equatorially mounted, are in the 
observatories of Cambridge, Eng., Cambridge, U. S., 
Chicago, Albany, Alleghany, and Pulkowa, Russia. 
The equatorial of Melbourne, Australia, is a reflector. 
See Telescope. 

As'tro-acope. 1. An astronomical instrument 
composed of two cones, on whose surfaces the con- 
stellations, with their stars, are delineated, and by 
means of which the stai's may be known ; an im- 
perfect substitute for the celestial globe. — Webster. 

2. An astronomical instrument provided with 
telescopes, for observing the stars, invented and de- 
scribed by William Shukhard, of Tubingen, in 1698. 

AB-tyllen. {Mining.) A small-dam in an adit 
or mine to prevent the full passage of the water. 

At-a'baL A Moorish musical instrument re- 
sembling a tabor. — Croly. 

At-a-rixn^e-ter. A philosophical instrument 
used in a fixed observatory. 

Ath'a-nor. The original Base-Burning Furnace, 
It was used by the old alchemists to ensure a con- 
stant supply of fuel to a furnace intended to keep 
up a contmued heat for many consecutive days. 

Alongside the furnace-chamber was a hollow 
tower containing charcoal, and fitted with a close 
cover to prevent the passage of air. The lower part 
communicated with tne fireplace, and as the contents 
of the latter burned away, the fuel from the tower 
subsided into the fireplace and kept up the fire. 

The subject has been am plified of late years. Watt 
introduced it into his steam-boiler furnace about 
1767. Many stoves are now constructed on that 
principle in EngUnd and in the United States. 

At what time the venerable alchemists first con- 
trived the athanor we do not know. We presume 
that Hermes Trismegistus, Aristotle, and their co- 
laborers of E|?ypt and Rome, may have done without 
it, but that It may have arisen when Roger Bacon, 
Albertus Magnus, Paracelsus, Raymond Lully, and 
Basil Valentine set about the search. This latter scope 
embraces several hundred years of valuable services. 

The supply-chamber is termed a Magazine (which 
see). See also Smoke-consumino Furnace ; Stove, 
Base-burnino ; Cooking-Stove, Base-burning. 

Atlas. 1. A size of drawing paper measuring 
33 X 26 inches, and weighing 100 pounds to the ream. 

2. The Indian satin of commerce. 

3. {Architeelure.) Plural, Jtlantes. Male human 
figures serving as pillars ; called also Telamones. 
Tne name is derived from an intended resemblance 
to Atlas or Ajax. A somewhat different style of 
figures, in which the attitude exhibits the appear- 
ance of less violent exertion, are called Persians. 

Female figures employed for the like purpose are 
termed Canratides. 

At-mi-dom'e-ter. Babington's atmidometer 
for measuring the evaporation from water, ice, or 
snow, consists of an oblong hollow bulb of glass or 
copper, communicating by a contracted neck wiUi a 
globular bulb beneath, weighted with mercury or 
shot. The upper bulb is surmounted by a glass or 
metallic stem graduated to grains and fractions, on 
the top of which ih a light shallow metal pan. 

Digitized by 





For use, the instrument is placed in a vessel of 
water having a cover with a circular hole in it 
through which the stem protnides. 

Distilled water is poured into the pan on top until 
the zero on the stem is brought down to the level of 
the cover of the vessel in which the instrument 
floats. As the water in the pan evaporates the stem 
rises, and the amount of evaporation in grains and 
parts IB indicated by the scale. 

An adjustment for temperature accompanies the 
instniment. — Brande. 

At-mom'e-ter. An instrument to measure va- 
porous exhalations. An cvaporometcr or hygroscope. 

It was invented by Professor Leslie for determin- 
ing the rote of evaporotion from a humid siirface in 
a given time. 

A thin ball of porous earthenware, two or three 
inches in diameter, with a small neck, has cemented 
to it a long and rather wide tul>e of glass bearing di- 
^^sion8, each of them corresponding to an internal 
section equal to a film of liquid that would cover 
the outer surface of the ball to the thickness of one 
thousandth of an inch. The divisions are ascer- 
tained by calculatiftn, and arc numbered downward 
to the extent of 100 to 200. To the top of this tube 
is fitted a brass cap, having a collar of leather, and 
whiSh, after the cavity%l« been fiUed with distilled 
water, is secured tightly. The outside of the ball be- 
ing now wiped dir, the instmment is suspended 
out-of-doors to the free action of the air. The quan- 
tity of evaporation from a wet ball is the same as 
from a circle having twice the diameter of the sphere. 
In the atniometer the humidity transudes through 
the porous surface just as fast as it evaporates from 
the external surface, and this waste is measured by 
the descent of the water in the stem. As the pro- 
cess goes on, a corresponding portion of air is intro- 
duced into the ball and rises into the tube. 

A modified form of the atmometer consists of a 
vessel of porous earthenware, having a given area of 
surface and filled with water, poised at the end of a 
balance, and the loss in a given time noted by weights 
on the othtr end. 

A thermometer inserted into the vessel will indi- 
cate the tem{>erature of the evaporating liquid, and 
would form a hygrometer on the principle that the 
degree of cold generated by evaporation is propor- 
tional to the dryness of the air. 

At-tnos-pher'ic Alarm'-'Whis'tle. A whistle 
blown by the air. It is principally used as a nauti- 
cal alarm, being attached to a buoy, or placed on a 
pile or floating vessel, to warn ships from* a shoal or 

3>it of land. It is to be distinguished from audible 
arms produced by clock-work or other machinery 
by which a blast of air is impelled through a whistl*- 
or horn. These are considered under Fog-Alarm ; 
Nautical Alaum ; which see. 

Cabell's Atmospheric Alarm -Whistle, 1867, is 
sounded by the alternate eduction and induction of 
air from or into an annular chamber, which is par- 
tially filled with water and oscillated by the motion 
of the vessel, assisted by other power, if necessary. 
The motion may be made to work an air-pump to 
increase the energy of the blast, or its effectiveness 
mav be augmented by gas, generated by chemical 
action in the chamber. 

The chamber D has air-spaces b h' communicating 
by valves c c\ on either side of the dividing plate a, 
with the blast-whistle J. d et are vacuum w-histles. 
which act alternately as the chamber sways in one 
direction and the other, supplying air to that side of 
the chamber which is abandoned by the water. The 
funnel O is the means of supplying the chamber D 
with water. Oil upon the sur&ce of the water in 

Fig. 402.' 

Cabell* 8 Atmospheric Alarm-Whistie. 

chambera b V prevents evaporation, t e' are Valves 
to the vacuum-whistle ports. / is an air-cham- 

At-mos-pher'ic Chnm. A chum in which at- 
mospheric air is driven into the milk in order to 
a^tate it, and also to obtain the specific effect of the 
air upon the 

milk m aggre- Hg. 408. 

gation of the 

There are 
many modes of 
doing this : — 

1. The air- 

In this case 
the air is driv- 
en by mechan- 
ical means into 
and thiough 
the milk by 
mean of a pis- 
ton working in 
a cylinder, or 
by a bellows. 

In the ex- 
ample (Fig. 

403) the air is Atmospheric Ckitm. 

driven by the 

bellows C through the pipes b bf, passes out at c, and 
is distributed through the milk by the perforated 
diaphragm F, G^ is a vessel in which hot or cold 
water may be placed to temper the milk. The bel- 
lows-handle E 18 supported by a post on the chum A. 

2. The centrifugal chum-dasher. 

This is usually a vertical tube with radiating arms 

Digitized by 





Fig. 404. at the bottom. As the tubular dash- 
er is rotated, the air is expelled at 
the ends of the radial arms, a supply 
entering at the open upper end of 
the tube. 

There are many modifications of 
this principle, but they all possess 
this substantive feature. 

3. The reciproeating dasher. 

In this case the tubular dasher has 
a valve which opens, on the upw^-rd 
motion, to admit air, and closes when 
the down stroke ejects the air from 
the tube into the milk. 

In Fig. 404 the dasher is dupli- 
cated, the upper part being connected 
to the tubular shaft B and the lower 
part to the inner plunger / F. As the 
tube B rises, the plunger / descends, 
^ 2SJ the valve g closes, and air enters at 
the upper valve-way in A. As tlie 
tube B descends, the upper valve 
closes, the plunger expels the air 
through the valve-way a, out at the 
bottom of the tube and into the creiun. 
In another form (Fig. 406) air at any desired tem- 
perature is forced into the chum at a point near the 

Fig. 405- 


* Atmospheric Oiwm. 

bottom by the reciprocating ait*- pumps, and has exit 
through the lid. As a ^iston^rises, air enters be- 
neath it by the valves / in the supply-pipe H. As 
the piston descends, the valve closes, and the air is 
delivered into the cream by the pipe L. Tlie action 
of the pistons is alternate. 

At-mos-pher'io Bn'gine. Invented by Dr. Pa- 
pin, of Blois, France, in 1695 ; improved by New- 
comen, 1705, and Watt, 1769. It was the first good 
steam-engine on a working scale, and is the founda- 
tion of the Cornish engine. The present form of 
the engine has Watt's improvements. 

In it the steam from tne boiler is conducted be- 
neath the piston, rather allowing it to rise than ac- 
tually lifting it, as the weight of the pump-rod 
causes the pump-plunger to descend. The effective 
stroke is obtained by the condensation of the steam 
beneath the piston, when the pressure of the atmos- 
phere on the latter lifts the pump-rod and the water. 

In another application of the engine, the atmos- 
phere raises the pump-rod, and the weight of the lat- 
tet forces up the water. 

The illustration shows the old atmospheric engine, 

Fig. 406. 

Newcomen's Atmospheric Engine. 

in which water 
was injected into 
the cylinder itself 
for the purpose of 
condensing the 
steam below the 
piston, in order 
that the pressure 
of the atmosphere 
might be availed 
to force down the. 
piston and make 
an effective stroke. 
The piston-rod F 
is connected to one 
end of the working- 
beam. The piston 
is shown as rising 
in the cylinder C, 
steam being ad- 
mitted to it by 
pipe S and valve 
V. When the piston has attained its maximum 
bight, the valve F is closed, shutting off the steam, 
and the valve D is opened, admitting water at the 
injection -aperture. The water speedily condenses 
the steam, and the piston is depressed by the weight 
of the atmosphere. 

The water escapes by the pipe j&to the cistern 
called the hot-welly whence it is drawn for the sup- 
ply of the boilel". The valve F opens outwardly to 
allow the water to escape. The air escapes by an- 
other pipe at the valve-way G. 

The valves of this engine were originally in the 
form of faucets, which were turned by hand at the 
proper times, as we see in Worcester's, Papin's, and 
Savery's engines. The same plan was adopted in 
Newcomen's until an ingenious boy, Humphrey Pot- 
ter, being placed in charge, devised in 1716 a means 
for connecting the lever-handle's of the spigots to the 
working-beam, so that the motion of the latter was 
the means of opening and closing the respective 
valves at the proper times. 

To the engine of Newcomen, Watt added, among 
other improvements, the separate condenser and the 
air-pump. By 

the former he Fig. 407. 

avoided the 
cooling of the I 
cylinder at each 
down stroke of 
the piston ; by 
the latter he i 
made the vacu- 
um beneath the 
piston more , 

In the im- 
proved form the J 
steam is admit- 
ted by pipe /S' and 
which ejects the wi 
and air resulting f 
jection of water ir 
denser at E, 

In starting the < 
pistons of the cyuuucr luiu 

air-pump being both up, any WatH^s Atmospheric Engine. 
accumulation of water at the 

bottom of the latter is drawn off by the faucet F, 
which is then closed. The valve B is then raised 
above the steam-pipe S, so as to fill the cvlinder, 
condenser, and passage D with steam, which ejects 

Digitized by 





the air at the valve Q. The slide B is then lowered, 
so as to shut oft' the siipnly of steam ; the iinection- 
faucet / is opened, discharging water into the con- 
denser E, causing both pistons to descend. This is 
the effective stroke of the engine, and as the piston 
of the air-pump descends, the results of condensation, 
together with some steam and air, flow through the 
valve-way between the condenser and air-pump 
chamber, to be ejected, as the piston A rises, on the 
return stroke. The rising of the piston A closes the 
intermediate valve and opens the eduction-valve Q. 

The latent heat of steam being about 950°, steam 
at 212*' may be said to have 960" latent and 212° 
sensible heat,= 1162^ Steam mixed with 5^ times 
its weight of water at 32** will raise the latter to 
Clearly boiling heat, though the water requires a 
great increment of heat to raise it a few degrees 
more, as so much heat becomes latent in passing to 
the condition of steam. 

The formula for construction of these engines is 
given as follows by Cresy. 

The cylinder has a diameter equal to half its length. 

The velocity in feet per minute should be 98 
times the square root of the length of the stroke. 

The stroke of the air-pump should be half that of 
the cylinder, and the diameter of the air-piston three 
eighths tliat of the steam-piston. 

The area of the steam passage is : as 4800 is to the 
velocity in feet per minute, so is the area of the cyl- 
inder to the area of the sieam passage. 

To ascertain the quantity of steam, multiply the 
area of the cylinder in feet by half the velocity in 
feet ; add one fifth for cooling. This result divided 
by 1480 gives the quantity of water required to sup- 
ply the boiler. 

Twenty-four times this quantity of water is re- 
quired for condensation. 

The injection-aperture should be one thirty-sixth 
the diameter of the cylinder ; the conducting-pipe 
one ninth. 

To ascertain the power, multiply 6.25 tiroes the 
square of the diameter of the cylinder in inches by 
half the velocity of the piston in feet per minute ; 
the product expresses tne effective power, or the 
namber of pounds elevated one foot nigh per min- 
ute ; the horse-power is found by dividing tne result 
by 33,000. 

At-mos-pher'io Gov'em-or. An apparatus for 
^veming the motion of machinery by means of an 
imprisoned body of air subjected to pressure. The 
illustration shows one form of apparatus in which 
the brake-lever D may be brought into contact with 
some moving'wheel of the machine to be regulated. 
The pressure of the air in the cylinder A upon the 

Hg. 408. 

AJhnospheric Oovfmor. 

piston C is the measure of the power brought upon 
the brake D. This pressure may be decreased by 
allowing air to escape through the stop-cock F^ or 
increased by the action of the valved piston B^ b'. 

At-mofl-pher'ic Ham'mer. A power-hanmier 
driven by the force of compressed air. 

In some cases the air is employed merely to lift 

the hammer ; in other cases air is also employed as an 
a(yunct in the effective stroke. In the latter case 
the operation is much like that of the steam-ham- 
mer, the main difference being in the substitution 
of air for steam. 

In Hague's English patent some forty years since, 
an atmospheric hammer is shown, in which the 
helve is raised by the pressure of the atmosphere be- 
neath a piston above, the hammer-helve, the air be- 
ing exhausted from above the piston by means of a 
pump ; the hammer falling by its own weight when 
the air is admitted above the piston. 

In Fig. 409, a 6 is the hammer turning upon the 
fulcrum at 6 ; c the anvil ; d a cylinder situated 
immediately over the hammer ; e the piston con- 
nected with the hammer by the bar/ and the slings 
g \ h B. slide-valve worked by the lever I, which is 

Fig/ 409. 

Hagu€*s Atmotpheric Hanmur, 

struck by a pin on the bar/ when the piston arrives 
at the top or the cylinder, depressing the valve so 
as to shut off communication with the air-pump and 
admit atmospheric air above the piston, permit- 
ting' the hammer and piston to fall by their own 

Towards the close of the descent, the hammer, by 
means of a line attached to it and to the lever 2, re- 
verses the position of the latter and of the slide- 
valve, thus re-opening the communication between 
the cylinder and the air-pump, k is the pipe leading 
from the air-pump to tne cylinder ; m is a cock'for 
shutting off the communication with the air-pump 
when the hammer is not at work ; n n are spanners 
for opening and shutting the cock. 

The atmospheric hammer (Fig. 410) has an air- 
pump and hammer combined in the same frame. 
e is the band-wheel which derives its motion 
from the motor, — steam or water, as the case 
maybe, v is the pitman, and pthe piston op- 
erated by a MTist on the band-wheel e and condens- 
ing the air in the cylinder o. The compressed air 
is stored in a reservoir a h, and conducted to the 

In this chamber are a slide-valve Ic and stationary 
valve d cty the former operated by the valve-rod ^D 
from the friction-wheels y d. 

The head of the hammer h is attached to a piston 
gr, which works in the cylinder/, into which air is 
admitted — like steam to a double-acting steam- 
engine — alternately above and below the piston. 
The friction-wheel h' is spline-keyed upon the shaft 

Digitized by 





Hg. 410. 

Atmot-pkerie Hammer. 

d, and is adjustable upon the latter longitudinally, so 
that its perimeter shall come in contact with the 
under sioe of the wheel y at points more or less dis- 
tant from the axis of the last-mentioned wheel. In 
this way the valve is made to admit more or less 
air to the cylinder according to the force required 
and the duty to be performed. If the wheel b' be 
near the center of wheel y, but little motion is im- 
parted, the stroke is (^uick, and the blow light ; but 
if the wheel V is earned nearer to the periphery of 
the wheel y, the hammer is slower in its motion, and 
a more forcible blow is given. 
The valve-plate df <f is adjustable, but not involved 

in the ac- 
M«-411. . tive mo- 

tions of the 
Its adjust- 
ment affects 
the area of 
opening in 
the air in- 
du ct ion- 
valve ports. 
The stop- 
cock ^ is an 
escape for 
air when re- 
quii-ed. i 
J are ham- 

»mer and an- 
vil faces, re- 


In anoth- 
er example 
(Fig. 411) 
is recipro- 
cated by pit- 
man con- 
nection K 
to a wrist 
on a crank- 
shaft C, op- 
erated by a 
band on 

Atmospheric nammv. 

wheel N. The hiffht of the hanmier F above the 
anvil is graduated by the acyustment of its piston- 

I rod / ; and its stroke by the aciyustment of the 
the crank-shaft, 
le standard of the frame, 
tmmer (Fig. 412) derives the decision of its 
Di the force of 

ed air. The I5ig.412. 

■ head is at- — 

bo a piston B 
n a cylinder F, 
er being con- 
)y a pitman I) 
ttk -wheel F ro- 
y the motor, 
cylinder as- 
m enters the 
the cylinder, 
air being com- 
below the pis- 
ton, the 
hammer is 
lifted. As 
^ the cylin- 
der de- 
scends, air 
is com- 
above the piston, and 
is stored up to produce ) 
a sudden blow, by in- (^ 
stant expansion after 
the crank and con- 
necting-rod turn the Pnamuaie Hammer. 
bottom center. 

At-mos-pher1o Line. The equilibrium line of 
an indicator card, which shows that the steam 
pressure is equal to that of the atmosphere. 

At-mos-pher'ic Ptiinp. One in which the pres- 
sure of the air forces water into the pipe below the 
plunger. The usual form of Zt/%-pump, though some 
lift-pumps elevate the water from immense depths 
in mines. The attempt in 1641 of a Florentine 
pump-maker to make an atmospheric pump which 
would elevate water 50 or 60 feet having failed, the 
Grand Duke asked Galileo to account for the failure. 
His reply was not to the purpose, but Torricelli ten 
years afterwards explained the cause. Galileo was 
by this time "in his grave." Malice had "done 
his worst .... nor steel nor poison " could " touch 
him further." 

At-mos-pher'io Rail'way. The idea of convey- 
ing carriages in a tube by means of atmospheric 
pressure seems to have originated with Dr. Papin, of 
blois, in France, about the end of the seventeenth 
century. This extremely versatile man was the first 
to apply steam to raising a piston in a cylinder. 
He was the inventor of the Digester, and to this was 
first applied the lever- weighted safety-valve, also the 
Doctor's invention. The experiments actually en- 
tered upon by the philosopher of Blois, in the mat- 
ter of compressed air, were principally directed to 
the transmission of power thereby. See Am as a 
Mrans of transmitting Power. 

He placed air-compressing ennnes in positions 
where the compression could be effected by a fall of 
water, and pipes were to convey the air to the mine, 
where it was to be allowed to expand against a pis- 
ton and work a pump. For some reason the project 
failed in its execution, but has been more successful 
in other hands. 

The suggestion of conveying goods, parcels, and 
passengers by compressed air appears to have been 
rather a chance suggestion than to nave been seriously 
entertained, and it has been again and again revived 
in the 130 years that intervened between Papin 

Digitized by 





and Medhuret, who again urged the project about 

Medhurst, in 1810, published an account of **a new 
method of conveying goods and letters by air," and 
in 1812 extendea the idea bo as to provide for the 
transmission of passengers, whom he proposed to 
transport at the rate of fifty miles per hour. His 
project consisted of an air-tight tiibe, containing a 

C*r of cast-iron wheel- tracks on which the carriage 
to run. The carriage had the form of the tube 
and a certain amount of packing to prevent the 
leakage of the air, which was condensed behind it 
and formed the propelling power. 

His calculation was as follows : — 

To obtain a speed of 60 miles per hour, in a tube 
six feet in diameter, would recjuire a constant im- 
pelling force of 861 pounds moving at the rate of 73 
feet per second, equal to the power of 180 horses. 
Taking the consumption of fuel of a steam-engine of 
that size at 12 bushels of coal per hour, three tons 
of goods might thus be conveyed 50 miles at a cost 
of- 12*. and at the speed mentioned. The project 
fell upon the dead ear of the public. 

Twelve years afterward the idea was revived in a 
changed form. Retaining the tube and carriage of 
Medhurst, Vallance, in 1824, obtained a patent in 
England for his modified plan, which consisted in 
using a partial vacuum in front of the carriage, al- 
lowing tne natural atmospheric pressure in the rear 
to impel the carriage. In this he differed from 
Papin and Medhurst, who proposed a plenum in the 
rear, and not a vacuum in the advance. 

Vallancc's tunnel was to be of iron or vitrified 
clay, and he constructed a short tube in his garden 
at Brighton, which worked on the moderate scale 
on which it was applied, and was occasionally no- 
ticed in the journals of the day. 

So far all the inventors have proposed that the 
carriage shall travel in the tube in the manner of a 
piston. The next proposition introduces a new fea- 

In 1884, Pinkus, an American citizen residing in 
England, took out a patent for an apparatus which 
he termed a Pneumatic Railway, and laid the foun- 
dation of most of the successful applications of the 
atmospheric principle which have since been intro- 

Pinkus's patent embraces a main with a continu- 
ous longitudinal slot on its upper surface, and an 
elastic gravitating valve to fill the slot. The tube 
was to be about forty inches in diameter, laid down 
between a pair of rails on which the carriages were 
to run, and having within it a piston attached by a 
vertical arm to the leading carriage of the train. 
The vertical arm passed through the slot in the up- 

per part of the tube, and displaced the valve as the 
piston advanced, the valve closing in the rear of the 
arm after allowing some air to enter. The valve 
consisted of a thick cord saturated with a composi- 
tion of wax and tallow. 

Clegg patented some improvements in 1839. 

The valve works on a ninge of leather or other 
flexible material, which is practically air-tight, sim- 

rig. 418. 

CUggU Valve dosed. 

Clegg^s Valtfe open. 

ilar to the valves commonly used in air-pumps ; the 
extremity or edge of the valve is caused to fall into 
a trough containing a composition of beeswax and 
tallow, or other surotance which is solid at the tem- 

eerature of the atmosphere, and becomes fluid when 
eated a few degrees above it. 

An outer flap of sheet-iron / covers the leather 
valve when the slot in the tube is closed behind the 
colter C, and is raised before the colter by the ob- 
lioue roller I), Figs. 414, 416. 

The tube ^ was coated inside with hard tallow, 
to make it perfectly smooth, and the piston B was 
furnished with a rod <S', about 14 feet long, to which 
were attached rollers ff H, which pressed open an 
air-tight valve along the top of the tube as tne pis- 
ton advanced. The piston was attached to the first, 
or driving, car by means of a colter C, and to the 
driving car was attached a copper vessel, several feet 
in length, heated with coke, for the purpose of melt- 
ing the composition after the valve had oeen pressed 
down by the closing roller. 

The valve behind the Ufting-bar was held up for 
a sufficient time by the rollers U U,to allow the air 
to pass in behind the piston. 

The pipe was divided by valves into three-mile 
sections, a steam-engine working the air-pump of 
each. The main was cast in sections nine feet long, 
joined by an oil cement. 

An experimental line was laid down at Wonii- 

Hg. 4i; 

CUgf^t Aimoiphrrir Railwaj/. 

Digitized by 





wood Scmbs \iy Cleag and Samuda. The line was 
ibalf a mile long, witn a rise of 1 in 120 for a part of 
the distance and 1 in 115 for the remainder. The 
diameter of the main was nine Inches. The exhaus- 
tion WM produced by means of an air-pump 37 
inches in mameter and 22 inches stroke, worked by 
a condensing engine of IG-horse power. 

This arrangement was employed from 1844 to 
1855, on the line from Kingston to Dalkey, Ireland, 
If miles long. It is stated that an exhaustion of 
15 inches coSd be produced in two minutes, and a 
rate -of 50 to 60 miles an hour could be obtained. 
The rise is 71i feet in 3,050 yards. 

The diameter of the main was 15 inches. The 
double-acting air-pump was 66^ inches diameter, 
with a stroke of 66 inches. It was worked by a 
high-pressure condensing-engine of 34 inches diam- 
eter and 66 inches stroke, working expansively. 

The stoppage was effected by a powerful brake, 
and, if necessary, by an arrangement operatable from, 
the car, by which the valve was opened in advance, 
so as to destroy the vacuum. 

Railroad engineers expressed very various opinions 
on the feasibility of the new project, Brunei and 
Stephenson took opposite sides, as usual, and the 
plan was tried in South Devonshire, on the Croydon 
Railway, and elsewhere. It eventually failed by 
reason of complexity and liability to 
get out of order, leakage of air im- 
pairing the vacuum. 

The advantages are : facility in 
ascending heavy grades, rendering 
less cost necessary in leveling ana 
^^rading ; and security against collis- 

Another form of conveying the mo- 
tion of the piston in the atmospheric 
tube was invented b^ Pilbrow, and 
was intended to avoid the continu- 
ous opening in the tube, and the 
necessity for the valve which closed 
it on the Pinkus principle. Pilbrow 
made a toothed rack on the edge 
of his piston, which rack engaged 
with a series of pinions in air-tight 
boxes attached to the sides of the 
tube at short intervals. The verti- 
cal axes of these pinions passed up- 

Fig. 416. 

ward through stuffing-boxes, and at the top were 
provided with other pinions which geared into racks 
on the sides of the carriages. Thus, the motion of 
the piston rotates the pinions successively as it 
advances along the line, and they communicate 
motion to the carriage. It is not known to the 
writer whether this device ever came into practical 

Keene and Nickel's Atmospheric Railway (Eng- 
lish) was designed to act by compressed air in a tubs 
laid along, under ground, between the lines of rail. Sta- 
tionary above the surface are certain standards with 
grooved sides, in which are elastic pipes fed from the 
reservoir-pipe below. Beneath the carriage to be 
driven are rollers which are made to condense the 
elastic pipes into the hollowed sides, and the air, 
being admitted in the rear, expands against the 
peripheries of the drums beneath the carriage, and 
forces them to rotate and the carriage to advance. 

Henry's Atmospheric Railway, English Patent, 
August 7, 1845, specifies a side slit in the atmos- 
pheric tube, and the longitudinal valve closed by 
the pressure of a long bag or hose, inflated with air 
and protected by a shield of wrought-iron bolted to 
the tube. 

The vacuum in the tube is produced by first filling 
.with water a number of large, close reservoirs con- 

Vig. 417, 

Pilbrow*8 Atmospherie RaUway. 

EHevaUd RaUwaif. 

nected w^ith the tube by pipes and valves, opening 
the communication between the tw^o, and then allow- 
ing the water to run off. 

The same mode of producing the vacuum was 
described in Aitken's English Patent, February 24, 

In another application of the air, a tube laid 
throughout the fine is filled with compressed air, 
and is used as a reservoir wherefrom compressed-air' 
locomotives may renew their supply of air. 

This is suggested in connection with one form of 
Elevated Railway. 

In one form (Atmospheric Elevated Railway), the 
tube, which extends the whole length of the railway, 
is filled with compressed air, for the supply of the 
tanks on the cars, which form reservoirs for the 
supply of the air whereby the air-engines are 
driven. The tube at suitable intervals has valves 
and discharge-pipes for the supply of the engines on 
the cars. 

The original proposition to use a transportation- 
tube and compression or exhaustion of air for the 
conveyance of lighter articles of freight and letters, 
has been put in practice successfully. A company 
was formed, and a permanent line laid down in 1859, 
for conveying parcels and light goods from the 

Digitized by 












































































































































































































Sn. . 





















. 80.8 










Euston Square Station and the Post-Office in Evers- 
holt Street, London, and an extension was opened 
in 1865. 

This realizes the dreams of Papin and the hopes 
of Medhurst, nearly two hundred years after the 
busy speculations of the first and fifty years after 
the disappointment of the second. 

A late act of Congress (1872) appropriates $ 15,000 
for a pneumatic dispatch-tube between the Capitol 
and the Government Printing-office, Washington. 

The pneumatic dispatch-scheme has been put in 
operation at the Crystal Palace, Sydenham, England, 
to convey regular passengers.- 

The tube extends from the Sydenham entrance to 
the armory near Penge G^te, a distance of about a 
quarter of a mile ; and it is, in fact, a simple brick 
tunnel, nine feet high and eight feet wide, — a size 
that renders it capable of containing an ordinary 
rail way -carriage. The piston is .rendered partially 
air-tignt by the use of a fringe of bristles extending 
nearly to the brickwork of the tunnel and its floor. 
A fan 20 feet in diameter is employed to exhaust or 
to force in air, and perhaps it is 'impossible to devise 
any other expedient so well calculated to answer 
the required purpose. It must be remembered that 
either a plenum or a vacuum equivalent to .5 of an 
inch of mercury is quite sufficient to propel even f^ 
heavy train at a high speed on a moderately level 
line. In the present instance the motive-power is 
supplied by an old locomotive borrowed from one of 
the railway-companies, which is temporarily mounted 
on brickwork. The tires have been removed from 
the driving-wheels, and these last put the fan in 
motion by straps. 

The line is a quarter of a mile long ; a very small 
portion of it, it any, is level, but it has in it a 
gradient of one in fiheen, — an incline which no 
engineer would construct on an ordinary railway ; 
and as it is not a level line, so it is not a straight 
one ; for it has curves of only eight chains radius, 
which are shorter than those usually found in exist- 
ing railways. The entire distance, 600 yards, is 
traversed m about 50 seconds, with an atmospheric 
pressure of but 2^ ounces. The motion is, of course, 
easy and pleasant, and the ventilation ample, with- 
out being in any way excessive. See Pneumatic 
Tubular Dispatch. 

At-mos-pherlo Spring. A spring formed by 
a confined body of air either operating by means of a 
cylinder and piston or by an air-tight Img. 

It has been suggested for gun-carriages, to take 
the jar of the recoil, and also tor railroad- cars. See 
Pneumatic Spring. 

A-tomlo "Weights. The appended list of 
chemical equivalents differs much from those of old- 
er and other authorities, but is offered as the best 
•within the reach of the present vrriter. It differs also 
from a short list of chemical equivalents on page 66. 


OompiUd aceordint to the Latett DetenmnatioHS, Jinr the Use 

of the StmUttts of tkt School of Mines, 

QAumina QUUge, Jan., 1872. 


Hydrogen = 1. 




0. 8. 



Al. 13.7 



Sb. 122. 



As. 75. 



Ba. 68.5 



Bi. 210. 



B. 11. 


Br. 80. 


Af om-i-ser. The atomizer is designed to re- 
duce a liquid into spray for disinfecting, cooling, or 
perfuming purposes. 

Several mfferent modes of operation are adopted. 
One style consists of a blast of air presented at ri^it 
angles across an opening in tiie ena of a tube which 
communicates with a supply of the liquid. This 
acts somewhat on the principle of the Gifhrd In- 
jector, raises the liquid, and by contact disperses it, 
reducing it to a fine spray. Tne contiguous air and 
fluid tubes are connected to the verticJ or cup tube, 
so as to be reversible in relation thereto. 

The atomizer-tube is used to diffuse a cooled 
liquid in spray to render it more effective in absorb- 
ing the sensible heat of a room or vessel. There are 

Digitized by 





ng. 418. many adapta- 

tions to boats, 
granaries, hos- 
pitals, fruit- 
chambers, and 
for making ice. 
In the atom- 
izer (Fig. 418) 
the atomizing 
blast is ejected 
by an elastic 
bulb, and cross- 
es the orifice of 
the tube leading 
from the vessel 
of liquid, whose 
contents are 
thereby raised, 
and driven, in 
the form of 
spray, through 
the shield, 
which directs it 
upon the part 
where local an- 
esthesia is re- 
Aiomizer. quired. The 

shield has a 
ilaring and cylindrical portion, is hinged to the liq- 
uid vessel, and adjustable in relation thereto, and 
drains into the vessel. 

In another apparatus for impregnating the air 
with antiseptic vapors, to prevent infection and 
purify the atmosphere of hospitals, etc., a trough 
holds the antiseptic liquid, such as tar, carbolic 
acid, turpentine, etc., from which the vapors are to 
be generated. A frame contains a number of verti- 
cal perforated plates, which, after dipping in the 
liquid, are supposed in a raised position, so as to 
put with their vapors to the atmosphere. 

Fig. 419. 

FUwy^s Atomizer. 

In Fig. 419 the vessel is supported on vertical 
pivots above a gas-burner, and contains a disinfecting 
liquid or perfume. When heat is applied, the vapor 
escapes by the hollow arms above, revolving the 
vessel, on the principle of Hero's eeolipile, and dis- 
seminating steam and spray in the apartment. The 
apparatus is supported upon a pivot erected upon 

the frame of the Fig. 420. 

shade, which is 
secured to the 
gas-burner in 
the usual man- 
ner. The atom- 
izer is also 
used in connec- 
tion with an air- 
carbureting ap- 

In the early 
and simple forms 
of inhalers the 
liquid was va- 
lorized by heat, 
and this is a 
desirable condi- 
tion for some 
modes of treat- 
ment. In many 
cases, however, 
the increased temperature produces injurious effects. 
A means of changing the liquid into mist, which 
does not act on the Giffard principle, as in the 
modem form of atomizer, is shown in Fig. 420. 
The rotary wheel has hollow, radial arms, terminat- 
ing in very small orifices, through which the liouid 
is thrown in jets by centrifugal action. The 
liquid is ejected against oblique plates attached to 
the ends of the radial arms of another wheel which 
rotates in a direction the reverse of the foiiner. 
The contact of the liquid with the plates reduces it 
to a spray, which pervades the chamber in which the 
operation is carried on, and the patient is caused to 
breathe the mist either by a tube or otherwise. 

In the ansesthetic instrument for dental purposes, 
each tube is bifurcated, so as to reach the inner and 
outer sides of the jaw simultaneously, by the branch- 
es d d. The straight tul)e a carries the air-blast, 

Fig. «2L 

Atomizing Wheel, 

Cutter^ 8 Atomizer. 

and thus draws a current of liquid whose rapid evap- 
oration produces cold and local anessthesia. The lower 
end of tne bent tube h is dipped in the liquid, and it 
discharges at its end, while the air-tube ac dischai^s 
just in advance of it, producing a spray of the liquid. 
The atomizer is adapted for operation by hand or 
foot bellows (see Fig. 181). It consists of a hollow 
curved tube, made of German-silver, one extremitj- 
of which has an adjustable conical cap, while the 
other passes down into the bottle through a perfora- 
tion in the cork. A short distance above the cork 
this tube has another tube joined to it at right 
angles, and which is attached to the india-rubber 
tubing. Within the second tube there is contained 
a capillary one, which extends from within a line or 
two of the extremity of the cap nearly to the bot- 
tom of the bottle, and beyond tne bottled extremity 
of the larger tube. Near its upper extremity this 
capillary tube perforates a cylinaer of metal, which 
almost completely occupies th£ caliber of the larger 
tube, and would entirely plug it up except that it 
ha^ longitudinal grooves upon its surface. Pressure 

Digitized by 





upon the hand-ball forces air throu£;h the other ball, 
and so to the cavity of the curved tube. One col- 
umn of this air passes upward through the tube, 
and the other downward into the bottle. The up- 
ward column passes through the grooves in the cir- 
cumference of the plu^ into the cavity of the cap, 
and escape-s through the capillary orifice at its tip. 
This column of air, passing over the extremity of the 
capillary tube, creates a vacuum in it, which is sup- 
phed by the liquid contents of- the bottle, u^ion 
which one of the columns of air is pressing. The 
other column of air divides into spray the drops as 
they issue from the inner tube. 

The theaters of the Romans were fitted up with 
numerous concealed pipes, that passed in eveiy 
direction along the walls, and were connected to 
cisterns of water or to machines for raising the lat- 
ter. Certain paits of the pipes were very minutely 
perforated, and were so arranged that, by turning 
one or more cocks, the liquid escaped from them, 
and descended upon the audience in the form of dew 
or extremely fine i-ain. This effectually cooled the 
heated air, and must have been exceedingly refresh- 
ing to the immense multitudes, especially in such a 
climate as Italy. 

** The dining-rooms of Nero's golden house were 
ceiled in such a manner that the attendants could 
make it rain either flowers or liquid perfumes. At 
one feast 100,000 crowns were expended in perfumed 
waters. " — Ewbank's Hydraulics, 

It is possible that the Romans extinguished flames 
in the same manner. See also Sir William Congreve's 
English patents Nos. 3201, 3606 ; 1809 and 1812. 

At-taohed' Corumn. (Architectiire.) One 
partially imbedded in a wall. An inserted column. 
At-tech'ment Screw. A binding screw. 
AVtiLc. An upper story, when the ceiling is hor- 
izontal. Otherwise it is a garret. 

At'tle. {Mining.) Rubbish containing little or 
no ore. Synomjrms : addle ; adall ; attal. 

At'wood's Ma-chine^. A sci- 
FSg. 422. entilic apparatus to illustrate the 
theory of accelerated motion. 

It consists of a wooden column, 
about 10 feet high, resting on a base 
and supporting a series oi anti-fric- 
•tion wlieels, which support a large 
central roller, over wnich passes a 
cord having equal weights at each 
end, so as to be in equilibrio. By 
means of a giTiduated staff at one 
side the rise of one and fall of the 
other weight are indicated in feet 
and inches. 

A small additional weight, being 
added to one of the large weights, 
causes it to descend with a velocity 
due to its excess of gravity over the 
other ; and this beinc very small, the 
motion is correspondingly slow, ren- 
dering the resistance of the air in- 
appreciable, and enabling the rate of 
descent to be ascertained with great 

The counterpoise weights of this 
apparatus enable the constant accel- 
eration of speed caused by gravity 
in a falling body to be shown and 
measured w^ithin the space of a few 
feet more accurately and satisfacto- 
I rily than could be done by the fall 
Atwoo<rs Machine, of a weight not thus countei-poised 
from a considerable bight. 
It limy also be employed to illustrate the laws of 

retarded motion, impact of bodies, and resistance of 
fluids, afi well as other phenomena of a similar nature. 

Alhazen the Saracen, A. D. 1100, in his *' Book of 
the Balance of Wisdom," considered the subject of 
gravity, and asserted that it diminished with the 
aistance. It was reserved for Newton to determine 
that it decreased as the square of the distance. 
Alhazen determined correctly the relation be- 
tween the velocities, spaces, and times of falling 
bodies. The University of Cordova was the intel- 
lectual center of Europe in his day. The Ehalif 
Alkamen's library was so large that its catalogue 
filled 40 volumes. The people of Cordova could 
walk paved streets at nignt 10 miles in a straight 
line, by the light of public lamps, when London and 
Paris were dark and dismal mud-holes. 

Galileo, bom 1564, considered the subject of 
acceleration of foi'ce, and determined the relation 
between the spaces of descent and the times. He 
used inclined planes, by the aid of which he con- 
veniently diminished the velocity without changing 
the nature of the result 

Au'ger. The first boring-tool may be assumed 
to have been an awl of some kind. Pliny states 
that Dffidalus invented the gimlet, — 1240 b. c. It 
was destitute of a screw-point, but it may have had 
a hollow pod, and a cross-head forming a handle. 
Awls are shown in Egyptian tombs of 1706 and 
1 490 B. c. The screw-point was added to the ^pm- 
let in course of time, and, within our own recollection, 
the twisted shank, which makes it self-dischai^g. 
This hint was taken from the auger proper, which may 
be called a magnified gimlet, now that their specific 
features have become so closely assimilated in form 
and function. The auger {terebra) was a Greek tool. 

The Teredo navcUis is much older still, and carries 
an auger in his head ; ^— a great bore he is. 

From the early descriptions, the auger appears to 
have been considered a shipwright's tool. It for- 
merly had a curved, sharpened end, and a concavity 
to hold the chips ; this was a pod auger. To this 
a lip was subsequently added for some kinds of 
boring, and in course of time the depression grew 
into a spiral, which allows the chips to escape while 
the bonng proceeds, instead of withdrawing the 
tool as the pod becomes filled. 

The TvrisUd Auger is an American invention, and 
•was made by Lilley, of Mansfield, Connecticut, 
about the beginning of the present century, and 
afterwards by Gurley, of the same place. 

Fig. 428. 

Fig. 424. 

V Hommedieu^s Atu^er. 

Sketttr*s American 

Digitized by 





Fig. 426. Augers may be classified as au- 

gers; hollow augers; aunular au- 
gers ; taper augers ; augers with 
secondary borers, reamers, or coun- 
tersinks, or having expansive cut- 
ters. Aug:er-gaffes, au^r-handles, 
' and machines for making augers, 
will be considered separately. 

L'Hommedief's jiuger, 1809 
(Fig. 423), has two pods, two cut- 
^ ting-lips, a central screw, and a 
twisted shank. It is hardly fair to 
say that it is perfect of its kind, as 
^ so many improvements have fol- 
lowed ; but it is, on a smaller scale, 
like Stephenson's "Rocket" En- 
gine, the type of its class. The 
form of auger which in England is 
called the "American" pattern 
' was patented by Shetter, March 
21, 1831. It has a spiral blade 
^ around a cylindrical core, and was 
long a favorite. The "good work- 
men" who "never quarrel with 
their tools" do not seem to have 
retained this form in the estima- 
tion it once held. It probably offers more impedi- 
ment to the discharge of the chips than does the 
shank made from a flat blade twisted into a 
fig. 428. spiral. Some auger-shanks have an in- 
creaae twist as they recede from the point ; 
I this gives a ^ater freedom of discharge by 
I increasing the caliber of the canal as the 
chips ascend. 

In the auger (Fig. 425) the cutting-lips 
\ commence at the screw or point, and extend 
/therefrom nearly at right angles, until 
. about half-way from the center to the outer 
) point, and then curve upward and forward, 
giving a nearly semicircular form to the 
I outer portion of the lips, which are curved 
' in the horizontal and vertical planes. 

Co6i?9 AMger. 

The auger (Fi^. 426) permits the forma- 
Lon of cutting-lips at any point on the 
length of the spiral, by cutting off the twist 

at any point, m a plane vertical, or near- 
ly so, to the axis of the auger, and then 
jj^y,^,, sharpening its edges. The front surfaces 
Auger, of the twist are concave, and the rear convex. 
The Slotting Atiger cuts laterally, the 
work being fed a^inst its side. It is used in wood- 
mortising and slotting machines. The twist is 
formed into a number of chisel-shaped lips 
Fig. 427. rising from the edge of the twist and pre- 
senting sharp edges in the direction of the 
bore 01 the auger, so that the wood may be 
cut laterally if pushed against the instru- 
ment after the hole has been bored to a suffi- 
cient depth for the proposed mortise or slot. 
The end-lips may be made chisel-shaped or 
hollow like a gouge, as desired. If the auger 
' or bit be held in the rapidly revolving arbor 
of a mortising or boring machine, the mortise 
I may be cut at full depth, at one operation, 
by moving the wood laterally against the 
auger. The corners of the mortise are after- 
wards cut out by a chisel. 

Hollow Attgers are used for forming tenons 

on the ends of spokes, bedstead- rails, chair 

Stouing rounds and legs, table-legs, and many other 

Augfr. articles. Those on a more extended scale, 

which allow the material to pass clear through 

them, are properly turning-machines, and are adapted 

for making scythe-snaths, broom-handles, etc. 

The hollow auger, as a Fig- 428. 

tool, operates to a certain 
len^h on the object, after 
which the auger or the ob- 
ject is withdrawn. Means 
for measuring the stroke 
are fi-equently found in 
the construction of the 
tool, as by the depth of 
the socket ; but other means 
may be used, andare known 
as auger-gages. 

This tool (Fig. 428) is 
adjustable for boring holes 
of different sizes. The ro- 
tary disk has eccentric slots 
acting upon pins inserted 
into the bacKs of sliding 
cutter-heads, so that they 
are driven out or drawn in 
simultaneously, and fas- 
tened by a jam -nut, which 
holds them in the required 
adjustment. The above is 
adapted to be used as a bit 
in a brace. 

Fig. 429 has cross-han- 
dles like an auger. The 
cutting-tool is so attached 
as to project within the 
opening, and the size of the 
tenon is regulated by the HoUow Auger, 

a€yustment of the angular 

rest. The tool has the usual auger-handles, in which 
respect it differs from most of its class. They are 

Fig. 429. 

HoUovf Auger, 

usually attached to braces or to mandrels rotated 
in bearings similar to those of the lathe-head. 

A dozen others might be cited, but these are 
probably sufficiently descriptive. Fig. 480. 

Annular Augers cut an annular groove, 
leaving " laud " on the inside and outside of 
the channel. The example (Fig. 480) is 
adapted for boring cyUndncal blocks out of 
a board, the lower edge of the tube being 
serrated. Fitted inside the tube is a cylin- 
drical plug with a central point. On the re- 
duced shtmk of the plug is a spiral spring, 
which keeps the point extended, except when 
pressure is applied to the tool in bonng. 

The cutters on the end of the tube (Fig. 
431) make an annular groove and leave a core 
of wood in the center, the chips being with- 
drawn continuously by the spiral blade on 
the tube. The cutting-Ups start at the pe- 
riphery of the bit, and extend towards the 
center in concave lines, till they terminate at 
the inner portion of the tube, where their 
direction approaches a line parallel with the 
axis of the auger. In a subsequent form a 
number of tubes are arranged concentrically, 
so as to cut concentric, annular grooves sim- 

Digitized by 





Fig. 481 

Fig. 482. 

Jnmilar Auger. 

Annular Borer. 

ultaneously, and produce a nest of cyl- 
inders out of the same stick or board. 
Yet another form is found in the 
I tool (Fig. 432) sometimes known as a 
button- tool. It has an upright cen- 
ter standard, with a line feeding-screw 
on the lower end. The cutter is at- 
tached to a radial arm, and is adjust- 
able, so as to describe the diameter 
required for the hole. The cutter is fed to its work 
by the thread on the standard, and the chips are 

ejected by the 
_^~ curved neck. 

rrri Taper Au- 

gers are uaedfoT 
reaming out 
making butter- 
prints, etc. 
The center bit 
bores a hole, and 
is succeeded by 
the taper ream- 
er, which has a 
throat for the 
chips, cut 
through from 
the eag^ of the 
bit on one side 
to the opposite 
side 01 the 

The Bung- 
hole Reamer 
(Fig. 434) has a 
tapering pod, 
and a cuttmg- 
lip on one 
side ; the lower 
_._.,_, . ^ end is closed to 

'"*»'=*^^""'- receive the 

chips, and is oj^en at the top, except a bail to which 
the handle is fastened. On one side is an adjustable 
gage and index to determine the size of the bore. 

The ordinary form of bunghole borer is shown in 
Fig. 485. This has a volute-shaped blade with a 
sharpened, salient spiral edge and a gimlet point. 
It, fike most of its class, is for reaming out bung- 
holes and taps. 

Augers are sometimes provided with secondary 
borers, reamers, countersinkers, or expansive cutters. 
In Fig. 436 the reamer or secondary borer is 
formed in two pieces, and is clamped to the auger- 
shank at the required distance from the end of the 
tool, and at the same time is adjustable to ream out 
a hole of the required diameter. The clamp is 
shown separately in the upper portion of the figure. 
In Fig. 437 the countersink is attached to the 

auger-shank at the ^' 484. 

required spot, but 
does not entirely ( 
surround the 
shank, the opening 
the twist of the 
shank, so that the 
dischscrge of chips 
is not interrupted. 
In Fig. 438 the 
plate is received 
into a longitudinal 
slot in the auger- 
shaft, and one end 
is secured by a tem- 
per-screw. A pin, 
passed through 
one in the series of holes in the shaft, engages a hole 
in the oblique series in the plate, and determines 

Bunghoie Reamer, 

Fig. 486. 

Fig. 486. 

Crocker'' s Taper Auger. 

the radial adjustment and conse- 
quently the diameter of hole bored ^ 
by it. 

The shanks and turned cutting- 
edges of the expanding bits in 
Fig. 439 pass through a mortise 
in the head of the tool, and are 
secured to their adjustment by a 
key. Their radial adjustment 
adapts them to bore hole^ of vary- Cknmter-Borer. 
ing sizes. 

In Fig. 440 the cutter is a(^'ustable eccentrically, 
and is held by -a dovetailed groove and tenon. Tie 
cylindrical core is solid, and the 
center point is removable. The Kg. 487. 

spiral has a shai'p edge. The ad- 
justment of the cutter on its ec- 
centric pivot varies its radial 
sweep in coring, and it is thereby 
adapted to bore a hole of the re- 
quired size, within the limit of its 

Among the other uses of au- 
gers may be mentioned that of 
felling trees in the Mammoth 
Grove, Calaveras County, Califor- 
nia. This grove is in a gently 
sloping vallev, heavily timbered, 
situated on the divide or ridge be- 
tween the San Antonio branch of 
the Stanislaus River, in latitude Comuertink. 
38* north and longitude 120" 10' 
west, and 5,200 ^et above the level of the sea; 
here, within an ar(»a of about eighty acres, and high 
above the surrounding trees of the forest, can be seen 

Digitized by 





Tig. 488. 



o o 
o o 
o o 
o o 
o o 
o o 


Expanding Auger. 

the stately heads of these evergreen forest giants, 
the Sequoia gigarUea. These trees are now growing 
in many parts of 
Kg. 489. Great Britain and 

France, from Califor- 
nia cones or burs, and 
no native trees are 
equal to them in the 
rapidity of their 
— growth. 

) There are twenty of 

these trees that will 
average 25 feet in 
diameter at the base. 
One of the largest now 
Expttn$ibU AMgtr. standing is cidled the 

** Mother of the For- 
est,'* and has been stripped of its bark 116 feet high, 
and still measures in circumference at the base 84 

Fig. 440. 


BxpantibU Anger. 

feet ; 20 feet from the base, 69 feet ; 70 feet from the 
base, 48 feet 6 inches ; 116 feet ri!om the base, Sd 
feet 6 inches ; circumference at the base, including 
bark, 90 feet. Itshight is 310 feet, and it is supposed 
to be 8,000 years old ; the average thickness of the 
bark is 11 inches, but in some or the trees it is as 
much as 22^ inches. 

The **Big Tree," as it was called, contained 
500,000 feet of inch lumber. It was felled by five 
men working 22^ days, making 112^ days' labor to 
fell one tree. This tree measured 92 feet in circum- 
ference at the base. It was not cut down vrith axes, 
but was bored down with long pump-augers, and 
the wood remaining between the holes was cut off 
vdth chisels on the end of long sticks. A building, 
in which was a telegraph -office, was erected on the 
stump, which served as a floor, having been hewn 
off smooth. A bowling-alley was also built on the 
remainder of the tree, after a lan^e part of it had 
been worked up into canes and sold. 

The body of the '* Father of the Forest" which 



lies half buried in the earth, measures 110 feet in 
circumference at the base, and 200 feet in length to 
the first branch, and, bdpg hollow, a person can 
walk that' length erect. The estimated hight of 
this tree when standing is 400 feet. The ** Burned 
Tree," prostrate also, is hollow 60 feet, and jtersons 
can ride on horseback through it for that distance ; 
it is 97 feet in circumfei-ence, and was 880 feet high. 
There are several other trees of immense size, and 
variously named. 

Au'ger-bit. A boring-bit with a twisted shank, 
which clears the chips out of the hole. 

An auger of a size adapted to be set in a brace or 
stock, to be revolved thereby. 

Au'ger, Barth-bor'ing. A tool for boring holes 
in earth which is not too compact. There are quite a 
number of these, varying in de- 
tail, but possessing the same gen- ^te- 441 
eral characteristics. The ordinary ^ 
kind (Fig. 441) has a nearly cir- 
cular disk, with a lip projecting 
downward, to scrape up the earth 
which accumulates above the 
blade as the latter is rotated. 
The blade is occasionally raised to 
the surface to dump its load. 

This raising to dump the load 
is a general characteristic of post- 
hole augers, and renders the oper- 
ation somewhat tedious. The de- 
lay has induced arrangements for 
enabling the tool to hold a lai^ Post-Hole Auger. 
amount of earth, and attempts to 
make its discharge continuous. 

In Fig. 442 the shaft has a point, cutting-lips, 
and a floor on which the earth is i*eceived. It is 
forced into the ground by the screw on the shank, 
which rotates in a nut at the junction of the legs of 

Tig. 442. 


Earth-boring Attger, 

the tripod, which is raised above the spot where the 
auger enters. The end of the screw-snaft is keyed 
to a stirrup, in which it turns. Above the stirrup 
is a coupling-piece, having inclined projections fitting 
in corresponding recesses in the upper part of the 
stirrup in such a manner that the shaft is made to 
operate the screw when boring a hole in the ground, 
and a reverse motion of the shaft will raise the 
screw out of the ground without turning it. 

In Fig. 448 the shaft has a screw point and 
angular wings, above which is the floor of the dirt- 
chamber. The soil is scooped up by the usual 
flange, and is elevated in the X;hamber by the spiral. 

Digitized by 





FJg. 448. which is braced by the axial rod. The 
cylindrical case is the measure of its ca- 

Ipacity in withdrawing a load. 
Other inventions might be cited, but 
the above represent all the varieties ex- 
cepting minor differences. 

All these are worked by hand, and re- 
move the soil by lifting the tool at in- 
tervals from the hole and discharging 
it. This may be considered the nonna! 
character of a post-hole au^r. 

There are numerous devices for pen- 
etrating the ground where the appa- 
ratus acts to disintegrate the matter 
■ with which it . comes in contact : these 
are called DiiiLts, Driven Well- 
Tubes, Well-Borek8, etc., and may 
be found described under other heads. 

The first is either jarred or rotated 
to grind its way through soil and rock, 
andis associated ^^-ith devices for lifting 
the detritus by sand-pump, by a stream 
of water, or by the upward force de- 
rived from the concussion of the drill 
with the rock. 

I The second consists of a tube which 
is driven or screwed into the earth, and 
is generally intended to remain as the 
permanent nump-tube ; for this purpose 
it has a solid point, to withstand the 
contact of the obstacles which it is ex- 
pected to pierce or displace, and holes 
which are unclosed to admit the water 
after the wet stratum is reached ; these 
will be explained under their appropri- 
ate heading. 
M Mah ' ^^^^ third are devices of a more ex- 
EarthrboHng tensive character than mere hole-diggers. 
Auger. and are used in sinking Artesian v^clls, 
oil and salt wells, and in boring for 
mineral lodes. 

Au'ger-fau'cet A faucet with an attached auger, 
by which the necessary hole is made in the head of the 
cask. As soon as the auger has about penetrated the 

Fig. 444. 


stave, a blow is given to the auger, which breaks away 
the scale of wood, and the same blow settles the auger 
into its position. The bit is attached to the faucet, 
and is projected or retracted by a rack on its shank 
within the faucet, actuated by a thumb-screw. A 
frustal projection on the cap affords means for oper- 
ating the device by a brace. 
Au'ger-^gage. A device to be attached to the 
shank of an auger to limit the 
Fig. 445. penetration. The countersinks 

of some of the compound augers 
and the sockets of the hollow au- 
I gers effect the same purpose in 
some cases. 

The example (Fig. 445) has a 

Auger-Oage, . _ 

pair of bars, secured by temper- 
screws to the spiral shank, so as to form a gage of 

Another form has a tel- Fig. 446. 

escopic tube attached to 
the shank, larger in diam- 
eter than the worm, and 
adjusted as to length by 
means of two temper- 
screws whose ends bear , 
against the spiral shank. | 

Fig. 446 is for making < 
tenons of a given length 
on the ends of spokes, j, 
etc., and is adapted for 
hollow augers. The rear 
of the stock has a thread 
traversed by an adjust- 
able screw, which, by con- 
tact with the end of the 
stick, determines the 
depth of the hole and 
consequently the length 
of tenon to be cut. A 
jam-nut secures the ad- 

Au'ger-han'dle. The Qagefor HoUmo A^er. 
tang of the auger is in- 
serted perpendicularly into its handle, and the end is 
usually clinched or riveted on to a washer. Means 
have been contrived for making the auger removable 
from its handle, so as to make one of the latter 
answer for vaiying sizes of augers, and to dislocate 
theparts for convenience of stowage. 

The devices for this purpose consist respectively of 
a slotted sleeve, a notcned key, a nut on the 
screw-shank, gripping jaws, a spring cateh. 

Pliny (died a. d. 79) recommends for auger- 
handles the wood of the wild olive, box, oak, dm, 
and ash. He says nothing about the augers. 

Au'ger-maklng Ma- chined Augers are made 
by different processes. They are cast ; swaged be- 
tween dies ; twisted as they pass through dies or by 
the successive motions of the parts of sectional dies ; 
or they are grasped by tongs and twisted by the hands 
of a skilled workman, and afterwards finished be- 
tween dies. 

One maker casts the screw-auger in a two-part 
fiask, the pattern of the central shaft and the seg- 
mental spirals being so divided as to permit them to 
be drawn from the sand piecemeal. 

Many of the inventions in this line refer to dies 
of peculiar form, and succes.sions of dies of such 
form as to cause the blank to gradually assume the 
shape required. One has a pair of swaging dies, by 
which the twist is formed either by a succession of 
blows or by drawing through. The lips are made 
between dies of the required form, or are bent down 
by an operation subsequent to the formation of the 
spiral shank. 

Fig. 447 is a machine for turning the lips of 
augers. The spiral shank is clamped between the 
jaws with the lips projecting toward the wrench. 
The latter being advanced, the hub in its center 
embraces the center point and the lips of the auger. 
The workman then seizes one of the handles of the 
wrench -wheel and turns it towards himself, and 
while the auger is held straight by the engagement 
of its center point in the axis of the hub, the wrench 
bends the lips into the required position, the lips 
being turned simultaneously and their shoulders 
being left in the same line. Fig. 1 is a side eleva- 
tion ; Fig. 2 a horizontal section ; Fig. 3 is a face 
view of the wrench, and Fig. 4 is % view of the 
blank before the lips are turned. 

In another machine the revolving and longitu- 
dinally moving shaft has a transverse slot in its end. 

Digitized by 





means of the cams on the shafts E, The first pair 
of jaws seize the auger, and, being the exact nega- 


in which the flat portion of the blank A (Fig. 449) 
is inserted, the shank being held by a pair of tongs. 

Fig. 448. 

Maekitu/or mmkimg Augen. 

A series of dies, D (Fig. 448), arranged to clasp and 
hold the anger as fast as it is twisted, completes the 
process in one operation. The screw on the shaft 
B gives an intermittent longitudinal movement to 
advance the blank, which is twisted by the contin- 
uous rotary movement. A (Fig. 449) represent* the 
blank, which is forged or swaged in a drop, and has 
a longitudinal rib or feather running along its center 
to insure the requisite stiffness and stren^h. 

The shaft B (Fig. 448) is provided with a cylin- 
der Cy having a screw, or spiral groove, cut upon 
its surface, with a gaining twist. A pin securea to 
the frame under the cam works in the grooves, 
serving as a nut. The shaft, being rotated by the 
crank or a pulley, is drawn back as it turns by 
means of the screw-cam. When half a turn is made, 
the first of the jaws D D zit forced together by 

Fig. 449. 




' Auger-tKisting Dies a$ui BUtnk. 

tive of its twist, hold it firmly and prevent further 
twisting. The next pair come to their work on the 
next half-turn, and so on until all the jaws have 
performed their oflSce, when springs under the jaws' 
force them simultaneously apart as the cams rotate 
TOwt their centers. It will be seen, by reference to 
Fig. 449, that the faces of the laws are dies, exactly 
corresponding to the twist of the auger. 

Au'ger, Square-hole. An auger to cut square 
holes was described in the Journal of the Franklin 
Institute, Philadelphia, 1826, as the invention of 
Mr. A. Branch, of New York. It consisted of a 
twisted auger operating in a sauare socket which 
had a sharp lower edge, and wnich cut away the 
margin of tne square hole as the auger itself bored 
a round hole in advance. 

Hancock's Sqiuire-hole Borer (English) was in 
operation about the same time in London, and 
operated in a 
similar manner, 
a is a strong 
frame, fastened 
by screws h to 
the bench c ; d 
is an octagonal 
socket tapped to 
receive tne ver- 
tical screw e ; to 
this screw is at- 
tached, by a cir- 
cular tenon and 
mortise, the 
square perforat- 
ing instrument 
/, which slides 
up and down 
through a rec- 
tangular hole in 
a brass guide g 
when the screw 
e is turned by 
the cross-handle 
at top. The 
square incision 
is made by di- 
rect pressure 
downward, at 
the same time 

Haneock^s Sjuare-AoU Auger* 

that the center-bit m cuts out a 

round hole, the chips rising up and passing oat at 

Digitized by 





the two open sides of the square cutter. A is a 
piece of wood being bored. 

The detached auger is shown on a larger scale ; 
the tenon i is inserted in a cavity in the screw e, and 
made fast by a cross-pin which goes through both. 
This arrangement allows a ready substitution of 
angers of diflferent sizes. The lower extremity of 
the revolving portion holds the center-bit m, which, 
owing to the collar n, cannot ascend or descend 
without the square cutter which cuts out the angles 
beyond the range of the circular borer. 

The square-cutting tool is a bar of steel with a 
round hole drilled out of the solid, and the edges are 
formed by filing and grinding them to the bevels, 
shown in th^ enlarged figure. 

Merritt's Machine/or boring Angular Holes, May 
24, 1864. The holes are bored by rotary cutters ; 
fixed, and reciprocating in a plane at right angles 
to the axis of the hole. The relatively fixed au^r 
makes a round hole, as usual ; certain cutters which 
partake of the circular motion have also a recipro- 
cation towards and from their axis of rotation, being 
projected outward and again retracted four times in 
a rotation, to cut out the angles left by the i*ound 
auger, thus making a square hole. See Bori no- 

Au'ger-twist'er. A machine for giving the 
twist to blanks for screw-augers. There are many 

Fig. 461. 

a corresponding extent, and the action is iuqiarted 
to each disk in consecutive order, bringing the flat 
blank into a regular spiral. The opening of the 
disk -sections releases the auger. 

Au-gef ; Au-gette'. (Mining.) A priming-tube 
connecting the charge-chamber with the gallery, or 
place where the slow-match is applied. 

Au'ral In%tra-ment8. See Acoustic Instru- 

Au'ri-ole. An artificial external ear, made of 

futta-percha, bleached and colored. Retained by 
and or clasp. 

Auricles consist of two trumpets shaped like ram's 
horns, and connected bv an adjustable spring pass- 
ing over the crown of the head. They are flattened 
on one side in order to fit closer. The mouth- 
piece, being above the ear, is pointed forward ; the 
neck, passing back and downwards close to the ear, 
tapering towards the ear-piece, which is made of soft 
rubber or ivory. They are easily concealed, espe- 
cially by ladies, who can dress their hair over 

The interior ear is furnished with the means of 
dealing with the three characteristics of sound : its 
typanum, for intensity ; its cochlea, for pitch ; its 
semicircular canals, for quality. 

Au-rio'u-lar Tube. A speaking-tube ; either 

portable for the use of deaf persons, or between 

stories, apartments, or parts of an 

apartment, for the conveyance of 

Auger- Tipisier, 

forms of machines for this purpose ; in one tlie blank 
is pressed between rolls upon a slide-rest, whi6h are 
drawn together by a hand-screw. The blank is 
twisted simultaneously with the action of the 
rollers g g. 

The twist is regulated by the rate of longitudinal 
motion of the rest E upon the ways of the lathe, 
relativelv to the rate of revolution of the front cen- 
ter a, which carries the blank. The degree of prox- 
imity of the rollers g g ia determined by the right 
and left screw J, which gives an ad^i'ustment of the 
carriers G on the rest E. The screw J is operated 
by the hand-crank shown in the plan-view. 

In another form the auger- die consists of a series 

of pairs of circular metallic plates, superimix>sed on 

each other, each plate 

ng.462. having a peculiarly 

rT- nT7„„ ...."r TP.. ^^*^P^^ mortise through 

IlirK^lli — i ll l .hr Pv D the center, and provided 

also with projecting and 
overlapping studs upon 
its peripher)'. When 
these plates are arranged 
so that all the mortises 
are in line, they admit 
the flat bar of heated 
metal, which forms the 
auger-blank. The up- 
per plate is then re- 
volved, and after a cer- 
tain extent of motion its 
stud engages the one be- 
Au§er Dit. low it, which is moved to 

Au'ri-lave. An ear-brush« 
Au'ri-BOfidp. An instrument 
for operating njwn or cleaning the 
meatus auditorius. 

Au'ri-soope. (Surgical,) An 
instrument for ascertaining the 
condition of the Eustachian pas- 

Au'ram fol'mi-nans. Ful- 
minate of gold. A powder of gold 
and aqua regia. So called from the report it makes 
when exploaed by percussion or attrition. 

Au'mzn mu-ai'vum. Sulphuret of tin, used 
as a bronze powder. 

Aus-cul-ta'tion In%tm-ment An instrument 
for the purpose of distinguishing diseases of the viscera 
by observation of sounds in the part affected. It is 
particularly applied to the thorax. See Stetho- 
scope ; Plexi meter, etc. 

Au'tho-type. A type or block containing a 
fac-simile of an autograph. Such are or were used 
for franking official envelopes, signatures to routine 
correspondence, and as lal^ls to prevent fraudulent 
imitations of the contents of the package. 

Au-to-ohro'no-graph. An instrument for the 
instantaneous self-recording or printing of time. 

Au'to-olava A French stewpan, with a lid 
^und on, steam tight. The lid is clamped down on 
Its seat by twisting it round under ears on the side, 
or by means of a bail and screw, a gasket of linen 
being used. It is a form of Dr. Papin's digester, 
and should have a safety-valve. See Digester. 

Aa-to-dy-nam'io El'e-va-tor. One in which 
the weight of a falling column of water is made to 
elevate a smaller column to a hight above the 
source ; and in which the changes of the valves 
are automatically produced. 

Such are water-rams, the fountain of Hero, etc. 
See Water-elevator. 

Au-to-ge'ne-oiui Sol'der-ing. The Junction 
by fusion of the joining edges of metals, witliont 
the intervention of solder. The edges, being brought 
together and brightened, are heM under a jet of 

Digitized by 





burning gas urged by a blow-pipe, which melts the 
edges so that they run together. 

Au-to-graphac Ink. Ink suitable for transfer- 
ring to stone, writings or drawings executed in it 
upon prepared paper. Ti-ansferring ink. 

Dry soap 100 

White wax 100 

Mutton suet 30 

Shellac 60 

Mastic 60 

Lampblack 30 

melted, and worked into an ink. 

Au-to-graphlo Pa'per. Paper prepared to re- 
ceive a drawing or writing in a suitable mk, and to 
part with the same to the surface of the lithographic 
stone or zinc plate, in the process of transternng. 
The paper is covered with size, which resists the 
penetration of the ink into the paper. The drawing 
or writing is executed on the sized surface, so that 
when the paper is damped it may become detached 
from the ink, instead of carrying some of the ink 
away with it, as it would do if the ink were allowed 
to be partially absorbed by the paper. The size is 
made of 

Starch 120 

Gum-arabic 40 

Alum 21 

This is spread on the paper, which is then dried and 

Or, for transfer of writing to stone, lay on the 

Siper three successive coats of calves' -foot jelly, one 
yer of white starch, one layer of gamboge. Allow 
each to dry before applying the next. Smooth by 
passing through the lithographic press. Write on 
the gamboge surface. In transferring, damp the pa- 
per, place the ink-surface on the stone, and run it 
through the press. The ink leaves the gamboge 
surface and adheres to the stone. 

A very fair transfer may be obtained from a good 
quality of writing paper. 

Au-to-giaphlc PresB. A portable printing- 
press for taking impressions of autograph signatures 
from a lithographic stone, or form of type. 

Aa-to-graphlo Tel'e-graph. Invented by the 
Abbe Caselli. An instioiment for transmitting auto- 
graphic communications, accomplished by the aid 
of two pendulums having a movement absolutely 
synchronous. One of the pendulums carries a pen 
or pencil of fine platinum wire, in connection with 
the line and the line battery, over the surface of 
the dispatch previously written in insulating ink 
upon a metallic paper. The other pendulum, at the 
corresponding station, carries an iron pencil, like- 
wise in connection with the line, over a paper pre- 
pared with a solution of the yellow cyanide of potas- 
sium. The electric circuits are so disposed, that 
when the platinum point in its passage over the 
original writing touches the metallic simace of the 
pai>er, there is no emissiou of current along the 
line ; while, on the other hand, when the point 
touches the insulating ink, an emission of current 
takes place, and' the iron point passing at the other 
end of the line over the prepared paper leaves on it 
a blue mark. The movement of the two pendulums 
being precisely equal, the reproduction of the dis- 
patch is absolutely exact. 

The same apparatus has been made to transmit por- 
traits executed in insulating ink upon metallic paper. 

Au-to-matlo Fire. The automatic fire or ex- 
plosive mixture of the Greeks was made from equal 
parts of sulphur, saltpeter, and sulphide of antimony, 
nnely pulverized and mixed into a paste, with equal 

l)arts of the juice of black sycamore and liouid 
asphaltura, a little quick-lime being added. The 
i-ays of the sun would set it on tire. — Draper. 

Au-to-matlo Lamp. A lamp used by dentists 
in the operation of vulcanizing. When properly 
adjusted, the flow of gas or alcohol is arrested by a 
spring cut-oif, I'eleased by the breaking of a fusible 
alloy, and extinguishing the flame when the heat 
reaches a point slightly above that required to fin- 
ish the process of vulcanizing. 

Au-'to-mat'ic Mallet A tool used by dentists 
in plugging teeth. There are several forms, but 
they agree in the delivery of a blow by pressure of 
the tool on the filling of the tooth cavity. See 
Dental Hammer. 

Au-to-mat'io Vcdve. A valve operated by the 
fluid in progress, in contijidistinction to one operated 
by the positive action of a part of the machinery. 

Au-tom'a-ton. A machine whose motive- • 
power is concealed within itself, or, as the term is 
more generally .understood, a machine which im- 
itates the actions of men or animals, and, being 
moved by clock-work or other similar instrumental- 
ity, appears to perform certain acts by its own 
volition. Among the most remarkable of antiquity 
were the automatons of Hero of Alexandria, who 
flourished about 217 b. c. They were made to move, ' 
as if alive, by machinery under the floor, and to 
utter sounds by the action of air driven by water 
through small pipes, or by means of air rarefied 
by heat. His works are extant in Greek, and have 
been frequently translated. They contain many 
curious anticipations of modem devices, as well as 
many curious tricks and effects no doubt intended 
as a part of the machinery of the priests to amuse 
the speculative and astound the ignorant. Archy- 
tis's nying dove was made about 400 b. c. Friar 
Bacon's speaking head, 1264 a. d. An automatic 
coach, horses and passengers, was made by Camus 
for Louis Xiy. when a cmld. Yaucanson made an 
artificial duck which quacked, ate, and drank ; its 
food undergoing a change simulating digestion. 
Yaucanson also constructed a flute-player, 1788. 
The writing automaton was a pantograph, decep- 
tively worked by a confederate, 1769. The autom- 
aton chess-player was also a deception, 1769. 
Maelzel made a trumpeter in 1809. An automaton 
speaking several sentences was exhibited in London 
about 1810. See Brewster's ** Natural Magic." 

The speaking machine invented by a Viennese, 
exhibited in Europe many years since, and lately in 
this country, is not an automaton, but is played by 
keys. The thorax is a bellows, and the sounds are 
made by the passage of air past reeds which simu- 
late the larynx, and modulated by artificial tongue, 
palate, teeth, and lips. 

The drawinc automaton constructed by M. Droz, 
of the Chaux de Fronds, was a figure of a man the 
size of life, operated by clock-work and springs, and 
capable of executing six different drawings. It 
used a metallic style, and drew on vellum. The 
transitions from one point to another were done by 
lifting the style, without slurring. It is fully 
described in Dr. Hutton's Mathematical Dictionary. 

M. MalUardefs writing automaton executed four 
pieces of writing in French and English. It was 
the figure of a boy resting upon one knee and draw- 
ing with a pen upon paper laid on a brass tablet. 
The writing consisted in each case of seveitd lines, 
and, after finishing each line, the figure returned to 
the bc^nning of the Une to dot and cross the let- 
ters. The hand has two horizontal and one vertical 
motion ; the down strokes of the pen were made 
relatively thicker by an increase of pressure. 

Digitized by 





The annexed engraving is a fac-simile of a drawing 
executed by the automaton of M. Droz. 

Fig. 468. 


Au-tom'a-ton Bcd'anoa A machine for weigh- 
ing planchet or coin, automatically sorting the 
pieces into/?*// and light weight, respectively. See 
Coin-weighing Machine. 

Au-tom'e-ter. An instrument to measure the 
quantity of moisture. 

Au'to-phon. A barrel-organ, the tunes of which 
are produced by means of perforated sheets of mill- 

Au'to-phyte Rib'bon. A Swiss ribbon printed 
by zinc plates which have been produced oy the 
photozinco process from a real lace original. 

Au'to-typ^ A phototypic process. The gel- 
atine is whipped into a froth witti warm water and 
sugar, skimmed, cooled, cut into blocks, and mixed 
4nth the pigments. To this creamy /luid the sen- 
sitizing agent, bichromate of potash, is added, and 
the liquid is conveyed to a trough in a room with 
orange-colored curtains, where a traveling sheet of 
paper is covered on one side with the compound. 
The tissue with its coat of sensitive varnish is then 
dried, and a piece of the re<|uired size is exposed to 
the sun's rays in connection with a collodion nega- 
tive obtained in the ordinary manner. The required 
time having elapsed, the tissue is taken out of the 
case and plunged into cold water with its face 
downwards on a plate of glass, metal, or another 
paper, coated witn a light solution of gelatine and 
chrome alum. The surfaces having united, the 
whole is plunged in a bath of hot water, when the 
parts of the composition not hardened by the action 
of the light are dissolved, and the paper slips off, 
the tougher parts remaining attached to the plate, 
and successive rinsings remove the cloud of colored 
gelatine until the picture is free. This is the Swan 
process of Carbon jYirUing (which see). 

The next step is to prepare the ** plate" for the 
printing-press. This consists of a mc^e of mount- 
ing the carbon-print upon a substratum of similar 
material backed by a glass or metallic plate, so that 
the picture may be used as a printing surface. A 
mixture of gelatine, albumen, and bichromate of 
potash is mixed and filtered. A sheet of j)late-gla8s, 
about half an inch thick, is then leveled m a drying- 
box, wanned up to a temperature of 100' Fahrenheit, 
and coated with the preparation. In about two 
hours the first coating is ary. The second coating 
consists of gelatine, albumen, and bichromates, with 
the addition of a small quantity of an alcoholic so- 
lution of resinous gums ; to this is added a aaup^on 

of nitrate of silver with a few drops of a solution con- 
taining an alkaline iodide. After washing out the 
excess of bichromate from the first coating, tne second 
preparation is applied to the plate, which is a^ain 
subjected to a high temperature in the dryin^f-box, 
and becomes thoroughly dry and ready for use in two 
or three hours. The tough ** negative" film is then 
laid down upon the plate-glass of the pressure-frame, 
and the plate, now completely coated with^t sensi- 
tive surface, is laid upon it. The whole is exposed 
to the sunlight, and the progress of the printing can 
be easily ascertained by looking througn the plate 
from the back. After exposure, the plates are well 
washed in cold water, rinsed thoroughly, and 
allowed to dry ; they are then ready for the press. 
Subsequent operations depend upon two simple 
truths : first, that the gelatinous film will absorb 
WAt^T ; and, secondly, that any greasy mixture 
of the nature of printer's ink, or any pigment 
prepaqpd in like fashion, abhors the contact of 
water, and absolutely refuses to adhere to those 
portions of the plate which have absorbed that fluid. 
The success of the operation does not depend upon 
the relief of the plate, but on the faculty of gela- 
tine for absorbing water, and then, as a matter of 
course, resisting tne imposition of a fatty ink. See 

Au'to-ty-pog'ra-phy. Invented by George 
Wallis, London. 

By this method drawings are so executed that they 
can afterwards be impressed into soft-metal plates. 
The drawings are executed preferably on gelatine 
with a peculiar material which is salient and makes 
a simken impression in the plate against which it is 
driven by passing between a pair of rollers. 

The resulting plate is printed from as an 
ordinary copperplate. See also Molding from 
Perishable Objects ; Nature-printing. 

Anx-illa-TT or Feed'ing En'gina Is fitted 
to supply tubular boilers with feed-water when the 
lai^ engines are not working and the ordinary feed- 
pumps are therefore inactive. 

Anx-illa-ry Screw. A screw in a fully 
masted vessel ; used in calms, working to wind- 
ward, or in emergencies. It is so rigged as to be un- 
shipped when not in use. 

A-vant'-fOBse. {Fortification.) A ditch at the 
foot of the glacis. 

A've-ler. A machine for ridding the grains of 
barley of their aims or avels, A Hummeli no- 
machine, which see. 

A-ven'tu-rinei A fancy glass of a brownish 
color with gold -color spots, produced by small 
fragments of copper and iron in the mass. 

A-ven'tu-rine Qlaas. This ornamental glass is 
used for weights and ware, the filing of metal 
giving a spangled appearance ; in imitation of a re- 
splendent variety of reldspar, whose color arises from 
imbedded minute lamellar crystals of oxide of iron. 

It is prepared by fusing together for 12 hours a 
mixture of 800 parts pounded glass, 40 parts of 
copper scales, 80 parts iron scales, and cooling the 
mixture slowly. 

A-ver-tm'oa-tor. A long name for a pruning- 
shears with a long handle, to which the fixed blade 
is attached ; the movable blade is operated by a 
cord and reopened by a spring. It makes a draw- 
cut. See Pbuning-shears. 

A.'wl. A pointed, piercing instrument in com- 
mon use and of great antiquity. It is evidently 
older than the needle, which has not yet superseded 
its use, though it has supplanted it in ordinary sew- 
ing. The hides which covered the osier framework 
of the coracle of the ancient Briton, and the birch 

Digitized by 





bark which covers the canoe frame of the Chippewa 
Indian, were and are sewn into place by means of 
an awl, which opens the way for the thong or deer- 
sinews. The awl is referred to in Exodus xxi. 6, 
and Deuteronomy xv. 17, where a Hebrew servant 
who refused to leave his master when his sixth year 
of bondage was completed, was brought to the door- 
post and his ear boi-ed through with an awl, after 
which he became a slave for life. The Egyptian 
awl of the time of Thothmes III., contemporary 
with Moses, is shown in a Theban tomb. The 
pointed Instrument was placed in a nearly spherical 
handle, to lit the palm of the hand. An awl differs 
from a needle in tnis, that one is attached to a han- 
dle and is retracted, while the other passes through 
the article and carries the thread which is attached 
to it. 
The sewing-machine needle, so called, is really an 
awl, except in that 
Fig. 464. small class where the 

needle and its at- 
tached thri^ are driv- 
en through the fabric, 
making a running 
stitch (Smith's, 
DalWs, and others). 
In many kinds of goods 


Pcuking-NeedU and Bodkin. 



and materials it would seem so much better to have 
the awl provided with an eye near the end, that it 
is singular it did not come into general use for sew- 
ing machines many years back. The idea was not 
new, for in the needles used in packing hampers (a. 
Fig. 454) the eye was placed near the point as in a 
bodkin, b, and the twine was pushed through be- 
tween the meshes of the lid and the basket, so 
that it could be grasped by the hand without push- 
ing the needle clear through. The upholstery nee- 
dle and thatching-needle are ancient and eye- pointed. 
The eye-pointed needle was one of the principal 
claims in the patent of Elias Howe, Jr., whicn netted 
him so large a fortune, and which, originally granted 
in 1846, was made by an extension to last to 1867. 
Awls vary in shape 
Fig. 456. with the purposes for 

which they are intended, 
The round awl tapered to 
a point, a, is used for a 
marker or scratch-awl. 
The awl of a diamond 
shape, 6, is used by har- 
ness-makers to form an 
opening for the needles 
which carry the threads. 
The round-shanked, bent- 
ended awl, c, ia used by 
shoemakers to make a 
curved channel, which is 
followed by the bristle 
Aipls. forming the point of the 

wax-end. The brad-awl, 
d, is used by carpenters to form an opening for brads, 
etc. It has a cylindrical shank, sharpened to a 


*ig- 466. at the end. 

The awl e, 

used by wirc- 

workers, is 

Sewing-Awl. square, and 

sharp on all 

four edges ; its shape renders it less liable to split the 


The sewing-awl (Fig. 456) is used by workers in 
The pegging-awl is straight, and is strong enough 

to drive into wood. The ferrule on the '*«. 467. 
end of the handle is provided with a hol- 
low shank made square. On the out- 
side of the shank is a screw-thread, over i 
which screws a c^p having a hole for | 
the insertion of the awl. The flange of 
the awl is nipped between the cap and 
head of the ferrule and firmly secured. 

In one form of pegging-awl the socket 
gripping the awl is surrounded by a 
deeve, which is projected by a spiral 
spring within the handle, so as to assist 
in extracting the awl by pressing upon 
the leather. 

A convenient kit of small tools in- 
closed in a handle is shown in Fig. 458. 
The serrated shank of either tool is 
clasped in the gripper as the latter is 
screwed into the socket. A receptacle A^^in^.^ii^. 
in the large end holds the tools. 

The awl- handle in Fig 459 is a locking pliers, 
whose jaws are adapted to hold either of the tools ; 
those not in use are 
inclosed in the hoi- Fig. 468. 

low handle when the 
latter is closed. A 
boss on the end of the 
handle forms a ham- 
mer. The figure 
shows an elevation, 
open ; and a section, 

. In Fig. 460 the eye- 
pointed awl introduces the thread, which is fed from 
a spool concealed within the handle. 

Atol and Tools. 

Fig. 468. 

Fig. 480. 



A'wu'er. A machine for taking olf the avels or 
aunu^ ofbarley. See Hummelino-machinb. 

A'wu'ing. A shield or shade for protection from 
the rays of the sun ; usually attached to buildincs, 
and especially to protect store-fronts and add to the 
comfort of pedestrians. The ordinary mode of sup- 
porting a roll of canvas, by means of i-afters resting 
against the building and upon posts at the curb, need 
hardly be described. The canvas is tacked to a 
roller and is furled by means of a running rope, 
being protected, when furled, by a pent-roof on the 
wall of the building. 

So far as ingenuity has been exercised upon this 
subject it has generally been upon modes of lower- 
ing and winding, having especial reference to shad- 
ing sidewalks and show-windows. Some devices, 
however, have been intended for window-shades, and 
are modified in shape and mode of operation to suit 
their location. 

Awnings of linen were first used by the Romans 

Digitized by 





in the theater, when Q. Catulus dedicated the 
Temple of Jupiter, b. c. 69. After this, Lentnlus 
Spinther is said to have first introduced coUon awn- 
ings in the theater at the ApoUinarian Oames, July 
6, B. 0. 68 ; they were red, yellow, and iron-gray. 
By and by, Csesar the Dictator covered with awn- 
ings the whole Roman Forum, and the Sacred Way, 
from his own house to the ascent of the Capitoline 
Hill ; this was 46 B. o., and is said to have appeared 
more wonderful than the gladiatorial exhibition 
itself. Afterward, without exhibiting games, Mar- 
cellus, the son of Octavia, sister of Augustus, when 
he was edile and his uncle consul the eleventh time, 
on the day before the Kalends of 
August, July 31, 28 B. c, pro- 
tected the Forum from the rays of 
the sun, that tlie people enga^ied 
in lawsuits mi^ht stand with less 
^ injury to their health. Pliny 
says : '* What a change from 
the manners that prevailed under 
Cato the Censor, who thought 
that the Forum should even be 
strewed with caltrops ! " 

The awnings extended, by the 
aid of ropes, over the amphithea- 
ter of the Emperor Nero, were 
dyed azure like the heavens, and 
bespangled with stars. The atri- 
um, or hall of audience, of the 

Fig. 468. 

there are two pulling cords, one of which spreads 
the awning and the other folds it up. 

Fig. 46ft. 


Roman houses, had an opening 
in the middle, which was coveied 
in summer with a red awning. • 
In Fig. 461 the awning is rolled 
upon a shaft having permanent bearings in the box 
wnich assumes an architectuitd form in the entab- 
lature of the shop- 

Fig. 462. 

Metallic Awning. 

front. The hem of 
the awning is fas- 
tened to a bar, which, 
when closed, forms 
the architrave, but 
which swings open 
when the awning is 
unfurled from the 
roller in the box, 
and is supported by 

Cted extension - 
from the pilas- 
ters of the store- 
front. As the awn- 
ing unwinds, the 
hoisting-rope coils 
on the roller, and 
becomes the means 
of refurling. 

In Fig. 462 the 
metallic plates 

which form the awning are arranged to lap one over 
another, each plate being fitted between guides, 
which are attached to the lower end of the plate im- 
mediately above it. The plates are connected to tog- 
gles, which are operated by arms and a windlass, to 
raise and fold the plates, or to distend them into 
effective pasition. 

In the Louver awning each slat of the awning is 
pivoted in the rafter, and is connected by crank-arms 
to a bar which is operated by coixls, so as to act, like 
a Venetian shutter, upon all the slats simultaneously 
and exclude the direct rays of the sun, while permit- 
ting a diffiised or reflected light to enter the store. 

In another form the light wooden slats of the 

awning fold over each other like the leaves of a fan. 

' The slats are arranged on a suitable frame, and 

Laxy-Tongs-ExUnsion Auming. 

In Fig. 464 the lower edge of theawning is attached 
to the boards, which are secured to the si(k extensors. 
The extensors are made in 
toggle-sections, operating Fig. 466. 

as lazy tongs. The upper 
edge of tne awning is 
coiled on a roller operated 
by a cord ; it is held by a 
pawl, to keep the canvas 
stretched. The spiral 
spring acts to keep the 
arm extended. 

Fig. 465 shows front 
and tapered side-slats, 
which slide one beneath 
the other, beingconnected 
together by plates with \ 
headed studs, which work 
in slotted plates affixed on 
the adjacent slats. 

The end-slats collect 
like the folding parts of a 
fan ', the roof-slats take 
position in vertical par- 
allel series when closed. 

Aze. A chopping and 
felling tool. It has an eye by which it is attached 
to the helve. The edge is in the plane of the sweep 
of the tool ; it therein differs from the adze. 

Pliny, who wrote about A. D. 60, felt bound to 
state an inventor for everything, and ascribed the 
invention of the axe to Daedalus, of Atliens, about 
1240 B. c. It is, however, to be supposed that 

Ardud Awning. 

Digitized by 





when Cecrops, three hundred jrears before, forsaking 
Egypt and leavine ciyilization behind him, landed 
in Greece, he had axes wherewith to dear a spot 
for the Tillage he founded. 

About the year 1098 B. c. we read that the He- 
brews went to Philistia ** to sharpen every man his 
axe " (1 Samuel xiii. 20) ; and about 893 b. c. " the 
axe-head fell into the water " while the man was 
chopping (2 Kings vi. 5). Previous to these two 
latter dates, and two hundred years before the time 
of Dsedalus, we find that the Mosaic law, 1451 b. c, 
had anticipated the foUowing supposed case : — 

"As when a man goeth into the wood with his 
neighbor to hew wokmI, and bis hand fetcheth a 
stroke with the axe to cut down the tree, and the 
head [Hebrew, iron] slippeth from the helve, and 
lighteth upon his neighbor that he die, he shall flee 
^ unto one of those cities [of refuge] and live." 

In Deuteronomy xx. 19, it is forbidden to " force 
an axe " against the fruit-trees of a besi^d city, 
1451 B. c. Later, so valuable was skill in the use 
of this tool, we learn that ** a man was famous 
according as he had lifted up axes upon the thick 
trees " (Fsalms Ixxiv. 5). 

The axe has a ctittin^ edge of steel attached to a 
wrought-iron head, which has an eye pcu^el to the 
chord of the curved cutting edge. It is found 
among all nations who have the materitd and skill 
for its manufacture, the substantial form having 
descended from the stone age, when a withe or 
elastic handle was bent around 
Fig. 468. acircular depression on the head, 

and the edge was sharpened to 
the extent the constitution of 
its material would bear, or ac- 
cording to the means at hand 
for dressing it ; as in the case of 
chipping an edge on a flint 

The accompanying cut repre- 
sents a stone axe of highly pol- 
' ished, dark greenstone, found 
within a primitive canoe, at a 
depth of 25 feet below the sur- 
face of the ground, in the Valley 
of the Clyde, Scotland. The 
canoe was hewn out of a single 
oak, and was exhumed from 
beneath the site once occupied 
by an ancient church. This axe 
Primitive Axe. is exactly like a number which 
have been recovered from the 
mounds and fields of the West. It is the same 
weapon termed a celt by archseolog^ts. 

Tne axes, fasces, trumpets, sacrifices, divination, 
and music of the Romans were introduced from the 
Etrurians. Auger and oracle still exist in the land 
of their adoption. 

The mention of the axe (d^ifirj) occurs frequently 
in Greek authors. A crooked one for shipbuilders, 
and a double-bladed one for a weapon, are also 
mentioned. The English word stale for an axe- 
helve is derived from the Greek. 

The Roman bipcnnis was a double-bladed axe 
with the eye in the center, like some of our modem 
ones. See Double-bitted Axe. 

The Egyptian axe was of iron, steel, or bronze ; 
the color seems to indicate the former metal in some 
cases, but it was generally of bronze. The handle 
was split to receive the blade, which was secured by 
bronze pins and leather thongs. It was used as a 
weapon in felling timber, shivering gates, etc. 

Figure 468 diows three Egyptian axes. The lai^r 
one belonged to Salt's collection, and is now in 

the British Museum. Kg. 467. 

The blade is of 

bronze, 18^ inches 

long and 2^^ inches 

broad. It is secured 

by silver pins in a 

tube of the same 

metal. The tube was 

adapted to contain a 

wooden handle. 

The other figures 
are of axes from 

The Peruvian axes, 
chisels, knives, -and 
awls were made of an 
alloy of copper and 
tin. The bits of 
their axes were about 
the same shape as 
ours, but the heads 
were inserted in the 
handle instead of the 
handle in the axe- 
head. Iron was un- 
known among them. 
Tin, added in certain 
proportions to thecop- 
per, gives it the hard- 
ness of steeL SeeAL- i 
LOTS : Anneauno. C 

Copper axes with 
single and double 
bits have been found 
in a tumulus near Chillicothe, Ohio. A small 
hole through the middle of the two-ed^ axe 
indicates that it was secured to the helve byiashing. 

Egyptian Jbo» ( 2V6a). 

Fig. 468. 


Venmaan K