(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Kootenai Falls wildlife monitoring study"

1 



MONTANA STATE LIBRARY 

S 333.95 E29klac. 2 

Kootenai Falls wildlife monitoring study 



3 0864 00047776 3 



15" 



KOOTENAI FALLS 

WILDLIFE 

MONITORING STUDY 



Fourth Annual Report 
for the period 
September 1, 1982 - September 1, 1983 



STATE DOCUMENTS COLLECTION 

JUL 151985 

MONTANA ZJ^Tr. li'iTiM^'i 

1515 E. '.t'n AVe 
HELENA, MONTANA 5V620 



MONTANA DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES AND CONSERVATION 

ENERGY DIVISION 

32 So. Ewing 

Helena, MT 59620 

December 1983 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 



This study was funded by Northern Lights, Inc. of Sandpoint, Idaho. 
Inventory data were gathered by Pat Nichols and Larry Thompson of the 
Department of Natural Resources and Conservation [DNRC], and Stacy Kiser, under 
contract to DNRC. Larry Thompson, Biological Sciences Coordinator in the 
Facility Siting Bureeu, DNRC, prepared this report. Graphics were prepared by 
June Virag. William Phippen, DNRC, edited the report. The text was processed 
by Joanne Brown. 









u ■ . 



\ 



n 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

LIST OF FIGURES iv 

LIST OF TABLES v 

LIST OF APPENDICES vi 

INTRODUCTION 1 

METHODS 2 

Species List Update 3 

Project Area Wildlife Census 4 

Bald Eagle Survey 4 

Harlequin Duck Special Studies 5 

Bighorn Sheep Studies 5 

Amphibian and Reptile Search 6 

WEATHER 6 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 7 

Species List Update 7 

Project Area Wildlife Census 19 

Bald Eagle Survey 27 

Harlequin Duck S^jecial Studies 28 

Bighorn Sheep Studies 29 

Amphibian and Reptile Search 33 

ERRATUM 34 

LITERATURE CITED 35 

APPENDICES 36 



m 



LIST OF FIGURES 

Figure 1. Seasonal variation in tota L numbers of species encountered 

during project area censuses.... 22 

Figure 2. Seasonal variation in average numbers of species encountered 

during area censuses 23 

Figure 3. Seasonal variation in average numbers of dippers encountered 

during project area wildlife censuses 24 

Figure 4. Seasonal variation in average number of Canada goose, mallard, 
common goldeneye, and common merganser encountered during 
project area wildlife censuses 25 

Figure 5. Seasonal variation in duck use of the project area 26 

Figure 6. Observations of bighorn sheep during roadside surveys, 

September 1 982-Saptember 1 983 30 

Figure 7. Seasonal variation in average number of bighorn sheep 

observed during roadside surveys 32 



TV 



LIST OF TABLES 

Table 1. ScheduLe of September 1 982-September 1983 field work, Kootenai 

FaLLs wildlife monitoring study 3 

Table 2. Summary of weather parameters at Libby, September 1982-July 1983 7 

Table 3. Summary of data collected on amphibian, reptile, and bird species 
observed on the Kootenai Falls study area, 
Janua ry 1 978-Augu8t 1 983 8 

Table 4. Summary of data collected on mammals observed on the Kootenei Fells 
study area, 
January 1978-August 1983 16 

Table 5. Results of project area wildlife censuses, 

September 1982-August 1983 19 

Table 6. Bald eagle observations made during the monitoring study in the 

Kootenai Falls area, September 1 982-September 1983 27 

Table 7. Harlequin duck observations in the Kootenai Falls area, September 

1 982-August 1 983 28 

Table 8. Results of bighorn sheep roadside surveys, Kootenai Falls 

study area, 1983 33 



LIST OF APPENDICES 

A. Habitat Categories 36 

B. Codes Used for Recording Wildlife Observations 37 



vi 



INTRODUCTION 

Northern Lights, Inc. (NLI], a rural eLectric cooperative based in Sandpoint, 
Idaho, submitted an application to the Montana Department of Natural Resources and 
Conservation (ONRC) in 1980 to bui Id a hydroelectric dam and generating plant, known 
88 the Kootenai River Hydroelectric Project, in the Kootenai Falls area of Lincoln 
County, Montana. In 1978, NLI contracted with ONRC to conduct a baseline wildlife 
investigation in the project erea. The results of that study, completed in 
September 1979, were published later that year (DNRC 1979). 

To keep the wildlife data base current and to determine the nature of 
year-to-year variations in wildlife use of the project area, NLI contracted with 
DNRC in October 1979 to monitor wildlife in the study area (see ONRC 1979 for a 
study plan]. This study was designed to provide e data base for documenting 
project-related impacts and for determining the success of mitigation and 
compensation programs, should the Board of Natural Resources and Conservation issue 
a certificate for the project at the Kootenai Falls site. 

The first annual report (DNRC 1981a] documented results from the first year of 
the Kootenai Fells wildlife monitoring study (September 2, 1979, through September 
1, 1980]. The area monitored in that study was the same as the area inventoried 
during the original baseline study (DNRC 1979, pp. 2-3], although some surveys also 
were conducted along U.S. Highway 2 between Libby and Troy. 



The second annual report (DNRC 1981d] highLighted results from the second year 
of the Kootenai Falls wildlife monitoring study [September 1, 1980, through 
August 31, 1981). The area investigated during that monitoring period was basically 
the same as studied during the first monitoring period. Some modifications in 
monitoring study design, as suggested in the first annual report [DNRC 1981a), were 
employed in the second year of monitoring. 

The third annual report [DNRC 1982) presented the results from the third year of 
the wildlife monitoring study [September 1, 1981, through August 31, 1982). The 
study area was the same as in the past two years of monitoring with some 
modifications in study design, as suggested in the second annual report. 

This study presents the results of the fourth year of the wildlife monitoring 
study [September 1, 1982, through September 1, 1983). 



METHODS 



Field techniques and analytical methods used in this study were as described in 
the baseline studies report (DNRC 1979, pp. 109-112) and the first annual report 
[DNRC 1981a). A brief summary of methods employed for individual study segments 
follows [see also table 1). 



Table 1. Schedule of September 1982 - September 1983 field work, 
Kootenai Falls wildlife monitoring study. 



Dates 



Observer'' 



Type of Field Work 



December 30, 1983- 
January 3, 1983 



PN 



Project census, bald eagle 
survey, bighorn sheep 
counts. 



April 11-14, 1983 



May 27-30, 1983 



PN, LT 



SK 



July 29-August 1, 1983 SK 



Riparian wildlife census, 
bighorn sheep count, am- 
phibian and reptile search 

Project area census, 
harlequin duck survey, big- 
horn sheep count, amphibian 
and reptile search. 

Project area census, 
harlequin duck survey, big- 
horn sheep counts, amphi- 
bian and reptile search. 



1 PN = Pat Nichols 
SK = Stacy Kiser 
LT - Larry Thompson 

Species List Update 



The species Lists presented in the baseline report [DNRC 1979) were updated. 



Project Area Wildlife Census 

This census was designed to collect data that would allow comparison of wildlife 
use of the project area between months and between years. The methods used were 
patterned after the standard winter bird study (Kolb 1965] and breeding bird census 
techniques (Hall 1964, Van Velzen 1972] used in the original inventory, but were 
expanded to include all vertebrate species. The area censused included: the entire 
Kootenai River and its shorelines from 50 m (164 ft] below the proposed dam outlet 
to the upper end of the proposed reservoir; the lend that would be inundated by the 
dam at a forebay elevation of 610 m (2,000 ft]; the land that would be affected by 
railroad relocation; and all remaining lend between U.S. Highway 2 and the Kootenai 
River (see appendix B) . The entire area was censused for three consecutive days 
during each of four study periods, following the instructions outlined in the 
baseline report (DNRC 1979, appendix F] . 

Bald Eagle Survey 

The Kootenai River between Libby and Troy was surveyed for bald eagles on 
December 30, 1982, end January 1, 1983 (1 count each day], following the methods of 
Meyer (1979]. Observations were made from U.S. Highway 2. Bald eagles seen during 
project area wildlife censuses and other monitoring field work also were recorded. 



Harlequin Duck Special Studies 

In addition to surveys made during project area wildlife censuses, special 
searches of the Kootenai Falls area for harlequin ducks were conducted in May and 
July-August. In May, emphasis was placed on determining the total harlequin duck 
population and the number of pairs present in the project area; in July-August, 
emphasis was placed on locating broods. 

Bighorn Sheep Studies 

During the study period, several different methods were used to gather 
information on bighorn sheep. These methods are described below. 

Bighorn sheep were observed from strategic viewpoints along U.S. Highway 2 
during each of the four survey field trips (table 1). The cliffs north of the 
Kootenai River within the project area and within 1 mile (upstream) of the project 
area were surveyed with a spotting scope. The researchers followed a controlled 
observation schedule. During eech survey, the north bank of the river was searched 
for 10 minutes from each of 10 observation points along U.S. Highway 2. Two such 
surveys were conducted in January, six in April, three in May, and three in July. 
Observations of bighorn sheep made during these surveys, as well as those made in 
conjunction with other field work, were recorded on meps and standard data sheets. 
Observations of deer also were recorded. In April, the Sheppard Meadows (DNRC 
1981b) were searched for tracks or other evidence of bighorn sheep use. 



Amphibian and Reptile Search 

During April, May, and July-August, at least four hours each month were spent 
searching likely habitat in the project area for amphibians and reptiles. 



WEATHER 



Table 2 summarizes weather data collected at the NOAA Libby recording station 
(Libby 1 NE Ranger Station) for the period August 1982 through August 1983. The 
data show that the winter of 1982-83 was much warmer and drier than normal. Average 
monthly temperatures ranged from 0.7 to 7.6 Fahrenheit degrees [averaging 4.2 
degrees) above normal from December through March. Monthly precipitation was near 
normal throughout this period. Snowfall, which totalled 39 inches, occurred during 
the period November through April. Although data on average snowfall at this 
recording station are not available, snowfall during the same period the previous 
winter, November 1981 through April 1982, totalled 46.9 inches. Snow depths in 
1981-82 were relatively low; the greatest depth (15 inches) was recorded in December 
1982. During the winter of 1981-82, the maximum snow depth (26.7 inches) occurred 
in January. 



Table 2. Summary of weather parameters at Libby, August 1982-JuLy 1983 



Maximum Snow 
Month Temperature'' Precipi tation^ SnowfaLL Depth on Ground 

[degrees F.] (inches) (inches) (inches) 



August 1982 


65.8(+0.5) 


0.9(-0.2) 










September 1982 


56.3(-0.5) 


1.2(-0.1) 










October 1982 


44.4(-1.1) 


1.3(-0.6) 










November 1982 


31 .6(-1 .6) 


2.5(+0.1) 


8.3 


2 




December 1982 


26.4(+0.7) 


2.8(+0.4) 


24.9 


15 




January 1983 


30.3(+7.6) 


2.4(-0.2) 


4.3 


12 




February 1983 


34.8(+3.8) 


1.1 (-0.4) 


« 


6 




March 1983 


40.7(+4.5) 


2.0(+0.8) 










April 1983 


45 .6 (+0.6) 


1.1 (-0.1) 


1.5 







May 1983 


54.6(+0.93 


0.5(-1.0) 










June 1983 


60.B(-0.1) 


1.7(+0.2) 










July 1983 


63.7(-3.0) 


2.0(+1 .2) 










August 1983 


69.2(+3.8) 


0.6(-0.5) 











'^ Monthly average (departure from normal) 
2 Total (departure from normal) 
* Data unavai lable 



RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 

During this monitoring period, 77 species of vertebrates were observed — 1 
amphibian, 1 reptile, 68 birds, and 7 mammals. These included five new 
species — Wood Duck, Caspian Tern, Eastern Kingbird, Evening Grosbeak, and Clark's 
Nutcracker. These new species bring the total number of species observed since the 
studies began in 1978 to 123 (1 amphibian, 1 reptile, 93 birds, and 28 mammals). 
Data on these species are summarized in tables 3 and 4. (NOTE: Nomenclature and 
phyLogenetic sequence have been updated to conform to AOU (1983). 



a 
o 



a uj u 
z o > 

u t- 
(n UJ a. 

< 3 u 

T 3 -I 

T 3 Z 

1 < >- 

< Q. CC 
Z < IT 

u. Lu m 

-3 < Z 



o a 

I I 

o 1 

I I 

< < 

-1 I 



< 
I 
I 



a 

z 
I 
en 

< 



I 
I 

o 
I 

< 



< 
I 
I 



< 
I 
I 



t — 

I- a 

n 3) CD 

05 — 

T3 



■a 

:<. 

■a •. 
c J 

o ^ 



< 
z 



< 
z 



« 






B 


» 




m 




J3 


m 




m 






=3 


3 






u 


o 


1 


1 


< 


cr 


1 
m 


k 


E 
03 


(0 


^ 


1 

(0 



=3 



m 



? 



< 



X 
m 



cr 
I 



•a 

c 
a 



\a 






Q 



CO 

a. 



-Tec 
x"c3 

Q O 



o 

Z K 
X CO 
X oc 

uTa 

LU a. 



> 
< 



a. 



U CM 
O CO 



o 

CC 



CC 
Ul 



m 

C3 



CO 



03 



en 



< 
u. 



cs 



oc 
m 



03 



» X 

cn u 






en 



CO 
CO 



X 

en 



X 
03 



> 
< 



X 
03 



e 

3 CO 



gg CD 
I- -3 





IS 








T3 






C 


(D 




O 


JC 




E 


:» 




(0 


■a 






c 




a 


CD 




en 


> 




ID 


C 




c 


o 


a 


0} 


■a 


^ 


03 




o 


a 


z 


< 


j=. 


c 


< 




i~> 


en 


U3 


»-* 


o 


(D 


LU 




CO 




-- 


_1 


c 


l-t 


^ 


CL 


HH 


o 


X 


3 




K 


4-1 


^ 


ID 

a 




Si 




< 


o 




tz 


CD 








a 




03 


c 


w (A 


C 


CO 


O c 


o 


C CJ 


O O 


a 


a •.- 


1- U 


<B 


O I. 


IS 


U 


C3) 03 


T3 — 


** 


xi 


03 "D 


03 



a 



a O TJ 03' 



o 
at 
a 



o <B 



(At c (sf (Oj c tof 

oj[ -f- ai[ — ' aj CD a3J 

<f L "^f CD <f ■.- <f 



■o 



5 

a 



3 
ID X 



I 



C 3 

a ca 

E 

e 

o 

u 



C3 , 
Q 

U3 33 ' 
- CJ 

» 3 _ _, 

on* -•as- 



a lu u 
z o > 

U 1- 

cn Lu a. 

< 13 u 
T = -I 
T 13 Z 

1 < >- 

< a cc 
z < (X 
LL uj m 

-3 < Z 



O 
CO 

< 



1 


D 


1 


Z 


1 


o 


Ul 


1 


< 


1 



z 
< 
z 
I 



I 
I 

o 
I 

< 
I 

-3 

I 

< 



I 
1 

o 
I 
I 
I 

-} 
z 
< 

I 
u. 

I 



I 

< 



I 

< 
I 
I 
I 



(D m 



m 



CD 



CD 



m 



^ 

o 



I- CO 



:S 





< 






ZJ 




3 








■= 






1 

m 




tl. 
























cc 


3 






3J 




CC 


cc 


=3 


L 


i 




i 




i 


1 
a 


1 

m 








t 














a 




.^. 
































o* 




a cy 


> 
















-cu 














z__ 




a - 


z' 
















* T- 














z 




o cu 


I_^ 


r- 


















cy 










I_ 




z o 


LL 
















-CM 




c^ 








a 


CD 


CO 


z - 


LU 


«- 


CD 




cu 








-O) 








o 


cu 


o 


LL 


en 


UJ ^ 


O 


<n 


«I 


cu 






















z 


a 


C3 


a IV 


CD 


CD 


cy 


CO 


cu 



13 
I 

a 



3 
i 



V ^ 



CM 
CU 



k 



I 

CQ 



¥ 



cc 
I 



CU 
CL 

a 



CJ 

u 



> 



CD 
CS 



CO 



u 
o 

CO 
C3 

U < 

CC o 

C3 O 
C/1 CL 



< 

o 



o 

CL 



C3 
CL 



a 

CO 
CO 

a 
u 

CJ 

a 

c 

bf 



en 
o 



o 

cc 



CO 

o 







o 






oc 


< 


DC 


CD 


LL 


m 


CD 








IT 


< 


< 


ILI 


o_ 


O^ 








CD 


* 


* 


CD 


(/] 


en 



o 

o 
I 



O 3 

z a 



o z 

E 
E 



>> CD 
O Q. 



a 


tti 




O 




o 


a 


3 


CD 


w 


3 


.,_ 


c 


o 




(- 


o 


o 


t- 


10 


o 


m 


_. gg 


J3 


J^ -*- 


> 


B > 


E 


s a 


t- 


u t- 


3 


o E 


£ 


4J O 




X 10 


o u 


CO Q 


O 






O CD 


o 




a. E 



fot L. (s| en 4-1 — ' m[ ••- ml t— o 

OJ CD Ob t- t- -^ — • 3f C ah l- 

—4 cf (D« T34-I -^s-r '-*-r c'o 

C of T3 of O ^ O CJ ^ Oj O Oj O > 

■^oi ocnf -Dot 4J<J i_« <^-4 -*-x 



3S ^ 



E 

< 



o 

CJ 



I 
I 
I 

1 

< 



I 
1 
1 

< 
-J 



I 
I 
I 
1 

< 



111' 
< I I < 

T 1 I -^ 



-3 -) ^ 

I I X 

< < 1 

I I I 

I I I 

1 -3 I 



m 



m 






I, 



cc 
1 



a. 
I 



cr 
1 



Z3 
I 



CC 

1 



cc 



cc 



cu 



o 



< 
o 



CO 

C3 



o 
cc 



cc 

Q. 



o 






o 
en 

u 
u 






en 













4 


CD 


u 


o 


C 


o 


(3 


3 


c 




O 




c 


u 


j£ e 




u 


s 


CO 





O 10 


a 


o e 


x: o 


■a 


> 


w -? 




O CD 


£ — 


*> d 


a X 


O) aJ 


u ' 




■.- -o 


^ (D 


a a 


z i- 


* CO 


c c 


o 


tn o 




c x: 


> 


C rN 


O CJ 


JC O 


(. 


E 


u 


D 


E 


o 


o 


o 


— ' 


z 


u 


CD 





u 


■^l 


3 




4J 




t- (0 


_J 


O (D 




^ -* 


L. a 


O -^ 


0) t- 


O Q 


X -P 



u c 

>• o 

-' -a 

u. •<- 

a 

o iS 



10 



O UJ u 
z o > 
O U I- 
CO UJ Q. 

< = IB 
-3 3-1 
-3 13 Z 
X. <>■ 

< D. OC 

z < cr 

U. UJ CD 
-3 < Z 



< 
-3 
-3 
X 
< 

I 

I 

I 



I 

1 
I 
I 

< 
I 

-3 



O 
I 

< 



O 
I 

< 
-3 



< 
I 
I 

-3 



o a 

I I 

o o 

< 

-3 



I 
I 

O 
I 
I 
I 

-3 
I 

< 
X 

I 

-3 



«3- — 
I- O 
n CD CD 



03 "O 

— 3 



CO 





cy 




cu 


cu 




13 




a 


cy 


> 




a t. 


m 


c o 


"^ 


(D (0 





< 
I 



13 
I 



< 
I 



-3 



3 
^ 



CC 
I 






u 



m 



< 
i 

< 



m 



3 
k 



CQ 



CC 

I 



4 i. 

3 =3 



CD 



CC 



C2 CS 

u. cy u. 







o 


cy 




- 








cy 


cu 




c^ 














cy 








Ol 


in 












»- «» 


cy 




cy 








-cy 






cy 








o » 


CO 












»- c^ 


cy 




^ 








-cy 






cy 








r^ - 


o 












^ cy 


^■ 


o 


o 








-cy 




cy 


cy 








CD - 


" 




* 




cy 


^- 


- «- 




^- 


a> 


cy 


cy 


cy 


-1 cy 


X 


cy 


«- 


cy 



cy 
cy 



cy 
cy 



§ 























< 


Z 


a 






































o 


D_ 


in 






































» 






















i 




















i 


cn 

o 


i 




























































C/3 








E 












CO 


o 


u 


















Q 








m 












o 


CC 


u 




























































o 






O 


cr 


CC 


cr 








C3 O 


Q U 


en 








s 




S5 






< 






cn 


a 


CD 


a 








CL U 


CL U 


o 










O 
















































jT 


CJ 




2 


< 


< 


< 




* 


u 


» U 


* u 


X 


» 




< 


CO 




» 




X 


a 


cr 




o 


o 
to 


o 




o 


u 


D CE 


c:3 cr 


a 


a 




CD 


o 




o 




o 












B — 
o c 










































-> c 








































a 


-I o 








































c 


O Q 










O 












o 










E 










K -r- 






10 


o 


O 












o 










t. 






t- 


m 


u} t: 








c 


x: 












•D 










m 






o 


to 


c 






L. 


a 


u 




03 a 








O 











*^ 




03 




o 


T3 O 






o 


.,. 


c 




O 3 








J£ 




£ 






(D 




D 


o 


B — ' 


a> 01 








£ 


> 




•o -• 









u 




u 





c 


T3 




C 


u 


o a 


a 




a 




E 


£ 




a -• 






3 







4J 


■♦- 





C 




C 


.^ 


-• x: 


C K 




o 


IS 


t- 3 


t- 




■^ - 


o 




U 


£ 


C 





o 


•«- 


3 • 




o 


jQ 


-• w 


•^ > 






4J 


a -^ 


> 




O Q 









u 


o 


£ 


c 




Q. 


T3 


u 


^ 


a 


K I- 




4-> 


m 


^ ci 


£ 


X 


-^ a 


■a 




c 




u 


^ 







• OD 


C 


> 


o 


K a 


1 o 




o 




o u 


o 


a 


c O 








o □ 


T3 





3 


■a 


1 


a. 




4J 


c 


tn *J 


JC ** 




3 


o 


a 


o 


L. 


o - 


j£ 


^ 


■o 








Z 





(0 x\ 


JD 




u 





a Q 




L. 


>. *J 


E- 


B I- 


o 


t. 


u 


§ 


o x> 


^ 


u- 




c 


c_ w- 


w^ 03 


O) 


03 


K O 


c c 


3 C 


B 




to 4-> 


U C3 


O XI 


C tl 


■o ^ 




Jf 3 


O 


3 


■o 


o 


o 


C 


c 


3 


o ^ 


(D -*- 


o -a 


O 


a 


-3 T- 


^ or 


c 


o 


03 


£ 


a 


O £ 





L. 


o 


u 


a. o 


t- o 




C 


-J Q, 


O (J 


cr — 




■a 


U 


3 •- 


cj a 


> [0 


C3. 


u 




■»- 


J3 




•p 




s •^ 


(D 13 


^ 


C^ 


— ' o 


t- > 


a 




c 


m o 


Z <- 


3 


03 3 


O, 







C 111 


1 











£ 


^ -^ 




(0 


O -Q 


aii: 


c — ' 


O 


3 


- c 




C > 


CC an 


3 


c 


3 


U 3 


4J 


3 





<-• 


L «A 


u a 


c 


c 


B -r- 


1 u 


u o 


B 


1- 


c a 


U3 U 


O t- 


(. 


O c 




C 


l_ 


3 


u 





«J 


U i- 


-a 


c 


> 


CJ} u. 


^ o 


0} ^ 


CJl 




03 > 


- 3 


u o 


C C3 


1 


o 


O 


_. a 


C 





u 




o 


o 


h- 


h-t 


o »— 


£ en 




■£ 


-■ o 


JC Z 


-- o 


O U 


J£ CL 


' <^ 


Q. 


Q. 


4-) 


Q. 


XI 


o> 


E " 


(J 


4-> 




to 




4J 


c 






t- 


c- 




O 


c 




o 


u 




1 




B 


>s 


03 




o 


o 


c. 


c- 




03 


o 


03 


g 


o 


3 




L. 


o 




■D 




O 




O 




c- 




o 


o 




*A 




E 


o 


~J 


O 




o 


£ 




O 




c 


u. 


LU 




1- 


> 


z 


CD 




(n 


CJ 


< 


L3 


CD 


X 




m 


L3 




oc 




CD 



11 



O LU U 

z o > 

U h- 

co LU a. 

< = cs 

-3 13 -1 

-J 3 Z 

1 < >- 

< Q. CE 

z < cc 
u. LU m 

-3 < Z 



O 

I 

< 



< 

z 



a 



It — 
•■ O 
O CO 

o en 
en — 



a -a 

•^ 3 

I- cn 



< 
I 
1 

-i 



I 
1 

o 
I 
I 

-3 



< 

2: 



I 
I 

X 

< 
I 
1 
1 



m 



a 
u 



CM 

a 

Q. 





* 


» 


1 


m 


CQ 




cc 


< 




i 


1 








3 


cr 


< 


1 


1 

00 


i 



IT 
UJ 

< 



< 

IE 



I 

c 
I 

I 

-3 
1 

< 
1 
I 
I 



< 
I 

-3 
1 

< 
X 

I 
I 






3 
I 



1 
I 

< 



I 
I 

< 



I I 

I I 



m 



3 
I 



I 



o 








cvi in 








-cu 








a> - 








T- < 








-CU 








r^ -■ 








«- m 








- cu 




-3 


T- 


«3- - 






cu 


-CU 


T- 


cu 




m cu 


cu 


cu 


<3- 



CQ 



CU 

CVJ 



o 
cu 



P3 



1 



3 
I 



cc 



CO 


cu 


T- 


cu 






OD 


^ 




cu 


in cu 




- cu 


C3 


z - 


cu 


- ^ 




1-1 cu 


m 



a 

Q. 



U 

DC 



O 



a 



o 
cc 



u 

CJ 

CD 
DC 

C3 

a 



CJ 

u 



3: 
o 



cn 
o 



a 

< 



a. 



* < 



CJ 

u 






CO 



u 

O CJ 



o 
c a 

o t. 

I- o 

c a 
o o 



c -a 
a o 
ft. -* 



C Q — ' "O 

cn c 

c 

^ (0 
T3 

C 3 

g 3 



o 
■a o 



a 3 

3 

m a 



a -r- 

f cn 

c 

J3 3 

3 O 

CC z 



_ 

1 cc 



•a 
c 



o _ 

cn o 

- a 

•O T3 

C ' 

o 

(0 



CD 

c 
a> 
u 

ID 

m 
o 
a 



£ 
^ 



c 

oi -4 

> ot 

o o\ 



c 
> 
o 
I- 



S-CJ 



3 

to t- 

- a 

c n 

O f 

DO (D 

C U 



cn 









12 



■O LU U 

o »- 

U] LU Q. 

< => C9 
T => -I 
-3 3 Z 

1 < >- 

< Q. CC 

z < cr 
11. uj 
-3 «t Z 



I 
I 

I 
1 
I 

-3 

T 
I 



I 
I 

I 
I 
I 

-3 



< < 

I -3 



-3 -} -) ^ 

s: I I z 

< I I < 



X 

1 
I 
I 



1 
I 
I 

-3 
I 



o 
I 

< 



1 — 

t. o 

n o CO 

o O) 

ji: «- 

_ u: — 

o 

■a 



(/3 



=3 
I 



13 
I 



cr 

I 






< 
I 



=3 
1 

.a 



3 
I 

£1 



I 



i3 



Z3 
I 



U 

<J3 



CC 
I 

a 



* 
m 



S 



cu 

CM 



cu 
cy 



o 

CM 







cu 














cu 


























CO 


^ 






cu 






cu 


cu 






cu 


















CU 


cu 









T- 


cu 


CVI 


CM 


cu 






cu 


cu 
















^ 


^- 


IT) 


cu 







^ 


CVJ 


cu 




cu 




cu 


cu 






^ 













a 




T- 


cu 


CD 





cu 


cu 


n 


cu 


cu 


n- 


cu 



cu 
cu 



o 
cu 



i 


g 


en 




u 
u 


z 







u 

CJ 


8 

CC 




u 




IT 

a 


u 


C3 

CJ 



i 


8 

en 

a 







s 


2 

oc" 
oc 


ay 
a 


05 

» 


< 





i 


s 








s 


s 


* 





u 
u 



s 







A 












s 


z 




GO 


0^ 




Q. 








CJ 




tn 


u 













k 


U) 


cs 


D^ 





CC 








cn 


» 


CC 








CC 



> > o 

CS of TS o] U 

CM O M I 

^3 B 'S S> : 



» o 



°i 



a) 

Q 

O CD 
— ' O 
J3 -^ 
I- O 
O I- 

* -a 



X u 



J3 *Jt 



— ' a 

n — 



4Jf (- -D 



-0 <D 


a o 


CO a 


<■ CD 





k a 


-D a 


>*-.- 


a. -^ 







03 C 


E C3 


0) 


oc -c 


u t- 


3 (- 


- t- 


a 


> 


C T3 


■a -9 


c 


f- L. 


o 


c c 


** 


-• 




CD 


-^ O) 


rs 



ai -4 c « 
o -^ c 

4J -^ 



Q.(Si 











a 


a. 


N 


K 


N 


en 







-*- 




Q 


t- 


Q 


a 





c- 


CD 













c 


_< 


C3. 









cn 








S 




X 



a 
a. 

03 



13 



O LU CJ 
Z O > 
O O I- 

(0 uj a. 

< 3 o 

-3 3-1 
-3 3 2 

a: < >- 

< 0. CE 

z < cc 

U. UJ CD 
-3 < Z 



I 

< 
-3 
-3 
X 
< 

I 

I 

I 



I 

I 

O 
Ul 

I 
I 

-3 

I 
< 

I 

I 

I 



I 
I 

I 
I 

< 

I 

-3 
Z 
< 

I 

I 

I 



re 



^ — 
C O 

CO m 
a m 

U5 — 



m 



m 



X 
A 



.a 



IS ^ 



I 

m 



cc 
I 



cc 
I 



u 
I 
m 



L3 

I 
ffi 



CM 

o 

> 

o t- 

I. o 



o 

en 

-cu 
«» - 



o 

CM 



D 
C\i 



C3 
O 



O 

Q. 

cn 



u 






















tJ 






















C/} 






u 




z 




CJ 




< 




o^ 






CJ 




o 




tJ 




o 


























a 






CI) 




o 




z 




cn 




a 






o 




CJ 




C3 




c 










» 
















z 






cc 




» 




» 




CO 




o 






111 




o^ 




o 




oc 


























* 


DC 


cs 


a 


O 


cn 




o 




CJ 


tJ 


o 


a 

a 
o 


cc 
a 


a 


o 


a 




□. 




o 


o 

a 
q 

O 




> 


«j 




■u 




(0 






CO 


Q 






u 


T) 


o 




(- 








CD 




c 


o 


c 


(D 




*• 




CO 


^ 


O 


00 




^ -" 


•f- L. 


.w 




m 




3 


J= IS 


> 




X 


I. a 


^ o 


o 




o 




C^ 


o — 






o 


ffl 0) 


X t^ 


3 




c 






C c- 


JC 0) 


o o 


c 


— ' c 


o o 


C 








a 


-- *J 


(0 c 


O E 


0} 


K 


u 


o 




> 






(*- 


o o 


c o 


JC 


o o 


CD 


Ji 


—i 


t. 




o 


•O CO 


a j: 


3 > 


o) a 


■D — • 


13 3 


O B3 




3 








(S Q 


-3 £ 


c o 


(D _« 


O c 


<D -* 




O 


c 




o -< 


O ■■- 




f- c. 


m o 


■o J= 


A O 


a 






(S 


C2 at 


u c 


•O (3 


*> w 


Z c 


O W 


IS o 


CD 





2 


3 


= 


cs a 


O U 


c u 


c- 


(D O 


o ■- 


01 


■«— 


IS 


T3 


c -o 


a 


>s C 


3 O 


C 3 


£ -< 


t- c 


o 


K 




L_ 


o c 


cn CO 


m 3 


CD -< 


t- 4J 


1 O 


CD -r- 


c- 


O 


cn 


(9 


u m 


c w 


1 -3 


D. 


a cn 


c Z 


Cl. 


CJ 


-I 




o 


■- o 


■^ X 


Ji 


K 


4J 


■ 


0) 






o 




c 


c 


I. 


O 


la 


o 


c 


•o 




c 




o 


o 


a 


c 


0) 


c 




o 








1 


> 


o 


cn 


X 


CD 


(L 


cc 




a! 




UJ 



14 



Table 3. (continued) 
Footnotes: 

' Habitat category abbreviations as in appendix A. 

2 See appendix B for Location codes of river stretches (Letters) and upland 
areas (numbers) . 

3 Status: W - Overwinters in area (at Least one record each during January 

and February) . 
w - Transient in winter, 
sm - Spring migrant, 
fm - Fall migrant. 
B - Breeds on area (nest or dependent young located) . 
b - Probably breeds on area (territorial males or pairs 

Located) . 
s - Summers on area in small numbers but no evidence of 

breeding . 
t - Occurs but no evidence of breeding. 

Abundance: A - Abundant; found in Large numbers in appropriete habitats. 
C - Common; found in moderate numbers in appropriate habitats; 

15 to 50 registrations. 
U - Uncommon; small numbers in appropriate habitats; 2 to 15 

regi strations. 
R - Rare; few sightings; 1 or 2 registrations. 

^ Indicates status of species in Lati Long No. 1, as reported by Skaar 
(1980). 

^ Months when seen are indicated by Letter abbreviations in sequence, 

January through December (Note: Very little field work was carried out in 
September and November.) 



15 



B 
JZ 



cu 



cu 

o 



09 

8 






CO 

in < 

- oi 
»j - 

- CD 

m cvj 



tu 
o 



3 



00 

o 



C CM 

O GO 
C» 



o a 

« D 

•r- < 
A I 

O CO 

■c r» 
en 



a c 



o e 

U (0 

o 

















a 










o 




^^ 


>- 




» 








^^ 










■n 3 














» 


o 




t^ 








"E 






«»- 




o o 










«> 




a 
















o o 




o o 










o 




fc— 


? 6 




• 








L. • 






c 




1. 










o 






C. —J 




cn 








-- » 






^ o 




-• c — 










en 




10 u 


O CD 




o 


» 






W Q 






a. -a 




f- o Z 














1- CJ 


£ O — 








u 














O Q. Q 


IS 




w 




c 




o — 


10 X 




X 


y 


(D 




m CD 






(D CO 




t. o - 


3 




3 








w 


c cn 




o 


o 


■o 




o a: 






CO 




C9 


*^ 












■*- 4J 


X •*- » 








o 






GC 


cr 


O JC 




a c a 


o 




(D 




m 




C 09 


^TlS 








u 




m 4-> 


DC 


oc 


L- 4J 




c ■*- •• 


4-1 




4J 




c 




O 01 




« 


*» 






3 CD 






OD C 




o cc 










o 




O L. 


o o — 




= :: 


0) '-I 


■Q 




o s 






"D O 




— ' c- oc 










"O 




O 


CD > 


C3 


_. to 


CO 


<D 




Q <- 


>« 


>• 


c c 




a a ^' 


>^ 




>. 




13 




c <■- 


I. o 


OC 


o cc 


t~ CL 


1- 




o 


<S 


a 


Q 




> 


o 




a 










Gl o -> 




*J w* 


p ^ 






•- U~ 


s 


B 


Q. C 




U3 -«- 4-1 


B 




K 




E 




c 


C CO -> 






*^ 


c 




■o 


1 


1 


\ O 




a c- ID 


1 




1 








■a CO 


o XI a 


T3 


» "D 


"D 


L. 




c t- 


(^ 


W 


u 




S 


u- 




(*- 




—i 




o -^ 


_. o <>- 


C 


4-1 C 


c c 


(D 




o o 


o 


o 


•r- (D 




I- <•- I- 


o 




O 




10 




c u 


CO 


a 


ID a 


o o 


^ 




-^ "D 


1 


1 


^ o 




o o o 


1 




1 




C- 




o a 


•o a 


-^ 


e — ' 


■D -J 


(D 




(0 O 


u 


^ 


C- 




b. 


4J 




** 




o 




> Q. 


CO C X 


01 


1- CD 


O (D 


® 




o u 


jC 


J= 


a a 


,_ 


C £ 


x: 




£ 




> 


r-« 


o -^ 


^ m *» 


CD 


O 01 


u m 


B 




to 


OS 


03 


(D (S 


S 


0} 4J J£ 


a 




C3 




m 


z 


o c 


c 


O 


1*. ID 


c 




_ 


c- ^ 








Q. I- (■ 










to 


a 


CO 


o m s 


c 


c 


"O c 


C 


» 


D) O 


L. 


t. 


CDT3 




O O 01 


L. 


r-% 


C 


^— t 




fc 


^ c 


J3 -• O 


a 


o c» 


a 




o 


c- 






3 C 


□ 


C .□ 




o 




a 




tn 


T3 ■»- 






3 


L 






c 


•o 


"O 


o o 


CL 


C O 


T3 


a 


T3 


c^ 


a> 


a 




4-1 O O 


c 


2 5 


c 


■Q 




(D c 


o 


a 


o 






a 




(D 




u 




ID T3 


3 Ik. .C3 


o 


c s 


Q, 


4J 

CD 


•^ 1. 


o 

I- 


o 




c 


^ 10 -.- 

CO J£ c 


o 

c- 


fe 


O 


Si 


a 


i 


C 01 
■>- Q. 


O 

c c c 


u 


D ^ 


t- ^ 

O I. 


Q. 


O 


(0 4J 






C <D 


a 


^ O J 

cut. 


»J 




— rf 




■^■ 




IS a. 


O 01 


a 


••- a 


4-> O 


o 


t. 


Q. O 


.^ 


.,. 


O t- 


> 


•r- 


oc 


••- 


cc 


c 




E a 


-o > *J 


□. 


c ex 


a. 


c_ 


o 


-T- ID 


(D 


o 


&£ 




O I. — 


D 


cc 


o 


E 


o 


«- 


O 1- 


c T- •a 




o •«- 


it 


H 


u- 


cr B 


cc 


cr 


L. 


00 *> u- 


CC 




cc 




u 


cu 


cr 1- 


=} c C 


cc 


U t- 



lA 







CD 

3 

-~ m 
at — ' 
o 3 

T3 LJ 

O C 

Q 

-• E 

a 

4J. 0) 



<•- u. 

o 



c 

3 
E 



£ 

a. 
o 

CD 



o 



o 

k 
C2 

c 



(J 
■o 



1 

T3 






u 

o 
a 



cn 

13 



16 



OJ 

■o 
o 



C\J OJ 



^ i 



o 
n 

ai 

CD 

in 



cu 
cu 

o 

in 



en 



ID - 

•CU 

ID »^ 

CO "■ 



CO '- 

— o 

•IE 



e E o — 



o 
e 



(0 CL 

u o 

o tr 

L. ^^ 
— CT CD 



I 



a 

a. 



■-• (J 
I- a: 
a - 

tt — 



4J 4-> J£ 
O 

BOO 



O J3 C — 



CD O 

-■ - I 

CD —'4-1 

0) -> £ 

o •^ a 



C3. C 

OD -" 



C CO --^ 

D 3 IC 

> O LU 

O 3 •■ 

o -a > 

CO ■•- < 

^ ok 



••- O U 

flO O (D 

E C > 

o o -^ 

IT O 1- 



CO 

D ~ 

o m 
3 o 

•D * 

— u 

O IE 

o - 

•o * 

ID 



T3 -D 

to O 

O O 
-"3 — 
(T 

C >.o 

o — • — 

4J O CO 

o -. » 

4J 3 O 
O C3) T3 
C9 O O 
O c- o 



O — < -o 
CO ^ t. 
C C O 

o o a. 

T3 c a. 

o o 

£ a. .c 

O) o. U3 
3 O 

o c 



o u 
I— *j o 



coo — 
o o K m 

C_ Ik- ^ 

o c o 
*j -.- I u 

O 4J o 

S -O £ J3 

O 33 

£ > ' 

+J c- u O 
•^ O > 

S 03 -o O 
.DOC 
■D O O CB 

a <- 

*J o -< » 

O ID -<- -— 

•r- ^ ffl » 

U O t- o 

o 

CD 4-> ^ cc 
ID 3 ID GC 
O i3 4-* * 

o cn 

O CO -.- - 
v> 3 jo Q 

ll- C O Q. 

o jQ j: — 



4J U 

U 

a. 3 

o u 

o o 

«-• o 

CO — 

o z 

C CD O 
o -> - 

o o 

■a o. 

> 3 
■-.DC 

O -^ 

O 00 o 

■DO-" 

o -D a 

C ID TS 

o -< o 

4J _. O 

^ ■«- — > 

O j: !•- 



X O 

Q ■- 

— ™ o 



<>- cc 

U 13 

o o 

■o o 



a c 
o o 

o — ' 



■o 

o 



o - 
> u 
— cc 
cc — 



o c 

Q.--- 

>. o c 

«J c o 

c > 

*J o -.- 

O 4J C- 

4-> 

— CO 

n a jz 
■c o 

C I*, 
c ^ O 

ui -£ 
I ID ** 

a u- L. 

O I*- O '^ 

i3j_. In 

3 XI to - 

o Ji a 

o o - 

c u a.u 

-- o tt 

— 13 • 

>> o c tn 
— ' o o Q 

— CD 

c- CD CO Z 

O o <»- o 
E «- - 

— -a — o 

u c -- cc 

Q. O O — 



o 

3 




U 






m 


r 


3 


a 


■a 




3 




a 


> 


u 


ID 




C 


a 


c 


c 


01 


a 


a 








□t c C( 

o o ot 

o c 5[ 



^-» o 

c 



4 it 



1 

I i 



o 
a 



■r- -a 
a. 
E -' 



a. 
a 
a 



E 
E 

o 
u 



> — 

o 

K *> 

o I 

"O OS 



CD 

3 



17 



Table 4. [continued) 
Footnotes: 

'' Habitat category abbreviations as in appendix A. 

2 See appendix B for Locetion codes of river (Letters) and upland (numbers) 
portions of the study area. 



18 



Project Area WiLdLife Census 

Results of the wiLdLife censuses conducted in the project area during the study 
period are summarized in table 5. 

Table 5. Results of project area wildlife censuses, September 1982-Augu6t 1983. 

Average number known present per trip 



Dec.- July- 

Species Jan. Apr. May Aug. 



Unidentified Garter Snake - - 0.3 0.7 

BIRDS 

Great Blue Heron 
Canada Goose 
Wood Duck 
Mallard 

Harlequin Duck 
Common GoLdeneye 
Common Merganser 
Unidentified Duck 
Osprey 
Bald Eagle 
Red-tai led Hawk 
American Kestrel 
Ruffed Grouse 
KilLdeer 

Spotted Sandpiper 
California Gull 
Unidentified Gull 
Mourning Dove 
BLeck Swift 

Unidentified Hummingbird 
Belted Kingfisher 
Hai ry Woodpecker 
Northern Flicker 
Pi leated Woodpecker 
Unidentified Woodpecker 
Empidonax Flycatcher 
Eastern Kingbi rd 
Violet-green Swallow 
Northern Rough-winged 

Swal low 
Barn Swallow 
Steller's Jay 
Common Crow 
Common Raven 
Black-capped Chickadee 

19 



0.3 


1.3 


1.0 


1.3 


2.7 


4.0 


6.3 


- 


- 


0.3 


0.6 


- 


13.7 


45.7 


20.7 


5.3 


- 


1.0 


2.3 


- 


31.0 


7.7 


0.3 


- 


5.0 


8.0 


2.3 


9.0 


3.3 


- 


2.0 


- 


- 


- 


0.7 


3.0 


1.3 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


0.7 


- 


- 


0.3 


1.7 


- 


- 


- 


0.3 


- 


2.3 


1 .7 


0.3 


- 


- 


11.0 


3.3 


- 


0.3 


- 


1.0 


- 


- 


0.3 


0.7 


- 


- 


1.3 


1.0 


- 


- 


- 


0.7 


- 


- 


0.3 


1.3 


- 


0.7 


0.7 


0.3 


- 


- 


- 


0.3 


- 


3.7 


1.7 


2.0 


- 


- 


0.3 


- 


- 


- 


0.3 


0.3 


- 


- 


0.7 


0.3 


- 


- 


- 


0.7 


— 


22.0 


* 


5.3 


_ 


_ 


* 


3.0 


- 


- 


5.3 


5.3 


0.3 


18.3 


0.3 


- 


7.0 


30.3 


13.0 


22.0 


0.3 


1 .3 


1.7 


2.7 


3.7 


6.7 


8.3 


14.7 



Table 5. [continued) 



AvBraae number known p resent per trip 
Sped es 



Dec- Jul-y- 

Jan. April May Aug. 



Mountain Chickadee 1 .0 - 

Chestnut-backed Chickadee - 1.0 

Red-breasted Nuthatch 0.3 4.7 1.3 0.7 



Winter Wren 0.7 0.3 

Dipper 

Golden-crowned Kinglet 

Ruby-crowned Kinglet - 0.3 

Townsend's Solitaire - " 0*7 



4.7 3.0 1.7 0.7 

26.7 13.0 7.7 



Swainson's Thrush 



MAMMALS 

Unidentified Chipmunk 
Columbian Ground Squirrel 
Red Squirrel 
Unidentified Vole 
White-tai Led Deer 
Mule Deer 
Bighorn Sheep 



3.3 1.3 



American Robin - 29.7 16.3 3.7 

Varied Thrush - 18.0 9.7 0.3 

Unidentified Thrush - ~ ~_ °*^ 

Cedar Waxwing ~ ~ 



Red-eyed Vi reo 

Nashvi lie Warbler - ~ ' -^ 



2.3 9.7 

3.0 2.3 



11.7 2.3 

0.3 0.7 



Yellow Warbler 

Yellow-rumped Warbler - - 

Townsend's Warbler - ~ ~ "'^ 

American Redstart - ~ 0.3 

MacGillivray's Warbler 



4.0 0.3 

1.7 4.3 

0.3 1.7 

1.0 1.7 

0.7 30.0 25.3 15.7 

15.3 2.7 2.7 

3.3 2.0 



Unidentified Warbler 

Western Tanager 

Chipping Sparrow 

Song Sparrow 

Dark-eyed Junco 

Brown-headed Cowbi rd 

Pine Grosbeak - ~ ^'^ ~ 

Red Crossbill - 6.3 - 

Pine Siskin - 31.7 12^ 23^3 

Evening Grosbeak ~ 1.0 

Unidentified Passerine 7.3 - 37.3 21^3 

Unidentified Bird - 0.3 



6.7 3.0 3.0 

0.3 0.3 

0.7 2.0 0.3 14.7 

- 0.3 

1.7 1.3 0.7 

1.3 

0.3 - - 1-0 



20 



Table 5. (continued] 



Species 



Total number known present during census period 
Dec- July- 

Jan. April Mey Aug. 



NMrtitDer of Species 












Water Bi rds 




7 


11 


13 


9 


Other Bi rds 




B 


18 


33 


33 


AIL Birds 




15 


29 


46 


42 


Mammals 




2 


3 


4 


7 


Total Bi rds & 


Mammals 


17 


32 


50 


49 



Present in Large numbers but no count made. 

Seasonal variation in numbers of species encountered during project erea censuses 
each month is shown in figures 1 and 2. Study data show that the number of 
water-releted bird species (waterfowl, shorebirds, herons, gulls, ospreys, bald eagles, 
dippers, belted kingfishers) remains relatively constant year round, with a slight 
increase during the breeding seeson. The number of species of other birds, although 
relatively high throughout the year, increases considerably during the breeding season. 

Census results for the dipper are shown in figure 3, and variations in average 
monthly abundance of the most common waterfowl species, as determined by the censuses, 
are portrayed in figure 4. Seesonal variations in duck numbers are shown in figure 5. 
This figure shows that river sections M and N (see appendix B) are the most heavily 
used by waterfowl, especially in April. 



21 



onv 




J-i 


nnr 


m 


o 






1) 


wnr 




O 


AVM 




M 


UdV 




D 


tnn 




6C 


83d 






N»P 




3 


330 




T3 


AON 




13 

0) 


130 






d3S 




•u 


9n» 




3 


TflC 




o 


Nnr 


<71 


C 
0) 


AVM 




w 


«dV 




•H 


MVW 




o 
(1) 


SJd 
uwr 




c 
en 




en 
<u 

3 
C 



C 
o 



i-i CO 

to 0^ 

> -* 

I 

iH ON 

ra r-- 

C ON 

o ^ 
en 

nj - 

0) en 

CO 0) 

en 

3 

• CO 

t-H c 

0) 
0) o 



•H 
Pi- 



K> (\J (\J OJ PJ 

S3i33dS dO uignnN 



22 




r- 330 

- AON 



- 100 



9n» 




Q) 


nnr 


*o 


O 




» 


;-i 


Nnr 




C 


AVN 




r. 


MdV 




•H 


Mvm 




3 


83i 




T3 


Nvr 






030 




P 


AON 






100 




c 

3 


d3S 




O 


snv 




c 

(11 


nnr 


CO 




Nnr 


o; 


CD 
(1) 


AVW 




U 


UdV 




0) 

D 


MW 




CO 


e3i 




u- 


Nwr 







030 






AON 




a; 


100 




E 


d3S 




C 


onv 




Q) 


Nnr 


91 


u 

(U 


AVH 




> 

re 



UdT 
UVM 

a3d 

Nvr 

030 
AON 
100 
d3S 

onv 
Tnr g 
Nnr - 
Avn 

MdV 

MVM 

e3j 
N»r 

030 
AON 
100 
d3S? 

9> 

Bn* - 



fa 
C 
o 
en 
cfl 
0) 
C/2 



CM 



CO 

00 

0-. 

.— ( 
I 

CT^ 



3 ra 

to 01 

•H U 

t^ re 



S3l03dS JO M38WnN 39*«3A» 



23 




CO 
l-i 



o 

o' 
u 
p 

C 
•H 
IJ 

-a 
<u 

Vi 
(U 

4-1 

c 
=) 
o 
o 
c 
<u 

en 

Vj 
(U 

o. 
D. 



>4-l 

o 

05 
Vj 

•i 

c 

<u 
oc 

CO 
S-i 

> 

CO 



c 


• 


o 


en 


•H 


00 


J-i 


C7N 


CO 


f— 1 


•H 


1 


Vj 


C5^ 


CO 


r~- 


> 


a^ 


1— 1 
CO 


^ 


C 


m 


O 


0) 


tn 


tn 


CO 


3 


0) 


CO 


M 


C 




OJ 




CJ 


• 




fn 


cu 




14-1 


0) 


•H 


(J 


i-H 


3 


13 


bCiH 



■g 



i.N3S3Md NmONX M39«nN 30VM3A* 

24 



Sim W3AIH U3d iN3S3Hd 



ION 3f)VH3AV 



z 
o 



o 
o 



' I ' 

! 1 I 

■ i □ 




iN3S3Md NMON)* «38MnN 30»a3AV 



25 



UJ 



.o 



i^ S 




0) 

s- 



u 

0) 
•I — ; 
O 

u 

a. 

0) 



m 



c 

o 

•H 



CO 



c 
o 
en 
cfl 
<u 



<D 

D 
bC 
•H 



aniw «3AiM W3d sxono 



26 



Bald Eagla Survey 

During the monitoring study, bald eagles were observed in December 1982 and January 

19B3 (table 6] . 

Table 6. Bald eagle observations naade during the monitoring study in the Kootenai 
Falls area, September 1982-September 19B3. 

Location Minimum Number 

Date Observer'' (River Section)^ Known Present 

December 30, 1982 PN Q,S,T 3 adults^ 

December 31, 1982 PN L,0,Q 4 adults 

January 1, 1983 PN P,T 4 adults 

January 2, 1983 PN N 1 adult 

'^ PN=Pat Nichols 

2 Location codes as in appendix B 

3 Observation made during bald eagle surveys 



27 



Harlequin Duck Special Studies 

Information on harlequin ducks observed during the monitoring period is presented 
in table 7. During August 1982, DNRC searches for broods were unsuccessful. 



Table 7. Harlequin duck observations in the Kootenai Falls area, 
September 1982-August 1983. 



Date 






Minimum 


number 


■ Known 


present 




Location 




Obi 


server 


Males 


Feme 


lies 


Pai rs 


Total 


[R 
Sei 


i ver 
ction}'' 


1 0-24-82 


R. 


Hermsmeyer 


l2 


_ 




_ 


1 


Be 


Low Libby Dam 


4-1 2-83 


L. 


Thompson 




- 




- 


1 




L 


4-13-83 


L. 


Thompson 




- 




- 


1 




I,J,M 


4-1 4-83 


L. 


Thompson 




- 




- 


1 




L 


4-29-83 


C. 


Wolf 




1 




1 


2 




L 


5-1-83 


R. 


Hermsmeyer 




1 




1 


2 


10 


mi E Libby 


5-7-83 


R. 


Hermsmeyer 


5 


- 




- 


5 




L 


5-9-83 (?) 


C. 


Wolf 


4 


1 




- 


5 




L 


5-27-83 


S. 


Kiser 


2 


- 




- 


2 




L 


5-28-83 


S. 


Kiser 


3 


- 




- 


3 




L 


5-29-83 


S. 


Kiser 


4 


- 




- 


4 




L 


5-30-83 


S. 


Kiser 


4 


- 




- 


4 




L 


6-1-83 


c. 


Wolf 


1 


1 




1 


2 




L 


6-11-83 


c. 


Wolf 


1 


1 




1 


2 




L 


7-11-83 


c. 


Wolf 


1 


1 




1 


2 




L 


7-27-83 


c. 


Wolf 


1 








1 




L 



Abbreviations as defined in appendix B 
In eclipse plumage 



28 



Bighorn Sheep Studies 

Locations of bighorn sheep observations recorded during the roadside surveys are 
shown in figure 6. During censuses of bighorn sheep from U.S. Highway 2 (see table 
8), the greatest number of sheep observed on any one census was 35 on May 27, 1983. 
Late May observations showed higher numbers than in June 1982. A notable census was 
that of July 30, 1983, whan 30 sheep were observed. Prior to 1982, Low numbers of 
sheep had been observed in the area in August. Figure 7 shows seasonal variation in 
average numbers of sheep observed during the roadside counts. 

On April 13, 1983, a ground search on the Sheppard Meadows was conducted. 
Pellet groups (not identified to species) were observed in all meadows; the heaviest 
concentrations were in the downstream meadow in and around the orchard. Sheep 
tracks were observed all along the road that runs through the meadow. 

On April 4, 1983, 133 sheep were counted during a MDFWP helicopter survey. A 
lamb-ewe ratio of 30:100 was obtained, and a ram-ewe ratio of 58:100 was obtained 
(Brown 1983] . 



29 



?:t:^^:si; ■ -<>*si:r:.4r'fc.;;s?s;:sej«5^ 








0) 
CO 

,Q 
o 

P 
<u 

c 

!-i 
O 

J= 
bC 

•H 

.c 

O 
Ui 

u 

3 
C 

(U 
6t 

^ 

> 

C 
•H 

C 

o 

•H 
4-1 

nj 

•H 

> 



a) 

> 



rt 


D 


C 


W 


o 




en 


<U 


tc 


ID 


0) 


•H 


in 


M 




10 




to 


• 


O 


r^ 


!-i 


0) 


an 


Vj 


c 


3 


•H 


w; 


M 


•H 


=) 


PL( 


13 



IN3S3Ud riMON>l U3aNnN 35V83AV 



32 



Table 8. Results of bighorn sheep roadside surveys, Kootenai Falls study area, 1982-83 







Starting 


St 


arting 


No. Obs. 


Min. 


No. Sh 


eep Known 


Present 


Date Ob 


server'' 


Time 


Station No. 


Recorded^ 


Rams 


Ewes 


Other^ 


Total 


Dec. 31, 1982 


PN 


1245 




1 


4 


2 


1 


1 


4 


Jan. 1, 1983 


PN 


1417 




1 

















Jan. Average 










2.0 


1.0 


0.5 


0.5 


2.0 


April 11 


PN 


1710 




1 


29 


12 


3 


10 


25 


Apri I 12 


PN 


0712 




10 


38 


10 


5 


17 


32 


April 12 


PN 


1208 




10 


9 


4 


5 





9 


April 12 


PN 


1644 




10 


38 


8 


2 


13 


23 


April 13 


PN 


0600 




1 


40 


18 


4 


5 


27 


April 13 


PN 


1430 




1 


13 


6 





3 


9 


Appi I Average 










27.8 


9.7 


3.2 


8.0 


20.8 


May 27 


SK 


0530 




1 


35 


4 


16 


15 


35 


May 28 


SK 


1354 




1 


26 


1 


7 


18 


26 


May 29 


SK 


1840 




1 


12 





6 


2 


8 


Late May Average 








24.3 


1 .7 


9.7 


11 .7 


23.0 


July 29 


SK 


0800 




1 


20 


2 


6 


12 


20 


July 30 


SK 


1830 




1 


30 





8 


22 


30 


July 31 


SK 


1430 




10 


1 








1 


1 


Late July Average 








17.0 


0.7 


4.7 


11 .7 


17.0 



1 PN=Pat Nichols, SK=Stacy Kiser 

2 Includes multiple observations of the same individuals 
^ Includes Lambs and unclassified sheep 



Amphibian and Reptile Search 

During the 1982 monitoring period, one Coeur d'Alene salamander was found on 
April 11, 1983, and unidentified garter snakes were seen on May 28 and July 30, 
1983. 



33 



ErtRATUM 



In table 5, p. 20, DNRC 1982, 46.3 should be entered for the March-April census 
of the Pine Siskin; zero (-) should be entered for the March-April census of the 
Dark-Eyed Junco. 



34 



LITERATURE CITED 

American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1983. 

Auk, Vol. 99, Special Supplement, pp. 1-16. 

Brown, G. 1983. 

Letter to L. Thompson, July 15. 

DeSimone, R. 1980. 

Wildlife study of the proposed Libby reregulation dam area with special emphasis 
on borrow sites. Montana Depertment of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Helena, MT. 

DNRC. 1979. 

Kootenai Falls wildlife inventory and impact analysis. Final report. Helena, 
MT. 

DNRC. 1981a. 

Kootenai Falls wildlife monitoring study. First annual report. Helena, MT. 

DNRC. 1981b. 

Kootenai Falls wildlife monitoring study. Second annual report. Helena, MT. 

DNRC. 1982. 

Kootenai Falls wildlife monitoring study. Third annual report. Helena, MT. 

Hall, G.A. 1964. 

Breeding bird censuses — why and how? Audubon Field Notes 18:413-416. 

Kolb, H. 1965. 

The Audubon winter bird population study. Audubon Field Notes 19:432-434. 

Meyer, J.R. 1979. 

Northwest Montana/North Idaho transmission corridor bald eagle study. 
Bonneville Power Administration. Portland, OR. 

Skaar, P.O. 1980. 

Montana bird distribution. P.O. Skaar, 501 South Third, Bozeman, MT. 

Van Velzen, W.T. 'a/2. 

Breeding-bird census instructions. Amer. Birds 26(6) : 929-931 . 



35 



a — ' 



C OJ TD IB U 
- — u 3 3 

ji ^ o « :i 



^ — ' o 

O -< O Q 



JZ o « o 



OJ 0] — • -- 



s 


c 




-_ 


. 


K 


? 




0) 


lA 


OJ 








4-1 


to 


O 




JI 


in 


£ 


t_ 




4-) 




s 




(_ 




D 


a 


CD 


3 


01 


U) 


LO 


■^ 


— • 


f- 


> 




Q. 


— 1 


o 


ID 


(□ 




0) 


OJ 


tn 


(□ 




X 


3 


u 




u- 


CD 


c- 


u- 


c 


- 


T) 


01 


O 


JJ 


SI 


U} 


U- 


U3 




.0 


Ul 


3 


Ul 




in 


1) 


3) 




S 


o 


:} 


— • 




01 


(0 


u 


■o 


■o 


X 


-o 




■a 




O 


T3 


(U 


T3 


3 


3 


o 


3 


c 


D 


33 




3 




3 










J] 




U- 


J 








a 


U 


0) 


U 


0) 


U 




3 


O 


_^ 


O 


c 


c 


in 


c 


c- 


c 


K 




c 


o 


c 


1 
i 


1 
1 


T3 

C 


1 

I 


<-> 

03 
G. 


1 


O 


3 


T 


X 

Ifl 


F 







lA 






3 






H 


QJl 




Q 


LT] 








(- 


V 



£0[ L- r-l 

e o al 



T3 — ' 
* CD 03 



— ' o *j e 



(U CO oj j3 rs 



^ 


in 


Ul 








Jl 


M 


1) 


(- 


■n 


J3 


3 


C3 




C) 


O 


U} 



0] 


Ul 




-i 




c 




u. 


IJ 


n 


U) 


f il 


Q 








a 


Til 


< 


^ 



i_. 


■/I 


0) 




(3 




(D 


.Tl 




«-> 


ro 


C 


— 


fli 




■□ 






> 


C) 


13. 


u 


CL 


a 



I 



o 


Ul 




3 


.Tl 


U 


: ) 


U 




tB 




> 


ra 




Ul 


•T! 


3 


£ 



Cl 3 0)1 -J 



— 3 



a.1 a.! ¥ 



u 


_, 


w 




~ 


m 


o 




<D 




3 


3 


tU 


X 




J5 






jT 


._- 


3 


3 


3 


Jl 


a, 


_* 


4-> 


C 


3 


JJ 


>■ 


CO 


s 




Q 


LL 


1— 


en 


C2 


< 





■—3 3 3 31 

-< *^ c a ::J 

CO 0) — ' Q O 

c/:) C2 <r c^ i:^' 



3I 
2^ 



OJ CO 

3 5 



e 


fO 


■:: 


li 


c- 




n 


3 


a 


c_ 




(S 


J 


u 



i? £ 



*J| C- t_ = 

:dI :i3l a.1 zz 



m I- o 
LD LO a: 



t— 
< 



3. — • 





3 


ifl 


^ 


en 




.n 






Q. 




U) 








CD 





< 


CO 




tn 




y- 


c- 


£ 


t_ 


tu 


ID 


t_ 




;j 




C31 


T3 


Q 


(D 


■a 


i-> 


a 






c_ 


cn 


C 


3 


z 


C 


03 


C3 




(D 


o 


< 


13 
















t*- 


0) 


03 


(S 


>s 


a 


t_ 


>* 


3 


> 


lU 


J)£ 


z 


(0 


a 


U 


3 


c_ 


a 


3 


a 


X 


U) 


c_ 












0) 


CD 


en 


cr 


01 

< 
CL 


X 




u_ 



XI n ^ . 

JD C\j »- 



___ — t-QLJ OQC-J^OT^IU XXX< 



LD CD I — • < Q 



a "3 *j 



< — ' O I— 



CO 33 Q ^ t_ 



*J < -• u 



, X X ■•-» X ■ 



3 


cni 






3) <1 





t— 






1 


en 




< 


iB 


X 


_, 


^— 


< 


:;) 




UJ 




rr 




> ) 




u_ 



^ Q CO ^ LI- I 



3n - u — . '*- I 

O i3 jO 03 Jl 3 W 

c: 3 i) "-J 3 10 

Oi jz ~ :o (- i: *-j 

c a: 2 S B 3) -Z 

— X X ; *^ — :ji 



= a 


3 


to 






U 


- 


■3 


>■:] — 


X 





XI 


X 


J) — , 




CD 






u 





CO 


C3 




3 


c_ J) 


3 


33 






-> Ji 


;- 




a IT) 




TD 


Cl 


31 


cn 3) 


03 


_j 


■3. :: 






3 


3 


3 a 


X 






3 


3 








a c 





B 



oiu::.ciaQ0TxcLCOO 



Ol 


03 


J3 


ji 




U 


yj 


03 




a 


03 





y 


3 





U 




VI 


y 


3 


2; 




3 


in 


3 


>s 


ifi 





«- OJ (73 ^ 



36 



wWwff 









M^<^^^^/■ /,:V|f|/'^^'':./'^^^>%§ 














o 



CO 

X 

•H 
-O 

c 

p. 
< 













i 



4 






'^' " ■ ■ Kt! u 



KOOTENAI FALLS 

WILDLIFE 

MONITORING STUDY 



Third Annual Report 
for the period 
September 2, 1981 - September 1, 1982 



STATE DOCUMENTS COLLECTION 
JULl OiJDD 

MONTANA '■^l.^-'^ li^;- '.;,• 

1515 r. o::i A\S. 
HELENA, MOi-^TAf-'A iViOO 



MONTANA DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES AND CONSERVATION 

ENERGY DIVISION 
32 So. Ewing 
Helena, MT 59620 



December 1982 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 



This study was funded by Northern Lights, Inc. of Sandpoint, Idaho. 
Inventory data were gathered by Pat Nichols, of the Department of Natural 
Resources and Conservation. Larry Thompson, Biological Sciences Coordinator in 
the Facility Siting Bureau, DNRC, reviewed this report. Graphics were prepared 
by June Vi rag . William Phippen, DNRC, edited the report. The text was 
processed by Rose Ann Montgomery. 





'\ 


4i 





TABLE OF CONTENTS 

LIST OF FIGURES i i 

LIST OF TABLES i i i 

APPENDICES i V 

INTRODUCTION 1 

METHODS 2 

Species List Update 3 

Project Area Wildlife Census 4 

Bald Eagle Survey 4 

Harlequin Duck Special Studies 5 

Bighorn Sheep Studies 5 

Amphibian and Reptile Search 6 

Sma I L Mamma L Trappi ng 6 

WEATHER 6 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 7 

Species List Update 7 

Project Area Wildlife Census 19 

Bald Eagle Survey 24 

Harlequin Duck Special Studies 25 

Bighorn Sheep Studies 26 

Amphibian and Reptile Search 3D 

Small Mammal Trapping 30 

RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE MONITORING 31 

LITERATURE CITED 32 



LIST OF FIGURES 



Figure 1. SeaBonaL variation in total (top) and average (bottom) numbers 

of species encountered during project area censuses 21 

Figure 2. Seasonal variation in average numbers of dippers encountered 

during project area wildlife censuses 22 

Figure 3. Seasonal variation in average number of Canada goose, mallard, 
common goldeneye, and common merganser encountered during 
project area wildlife censuses 23 

Figure 4. Observations of bighorn sheep during roadside surveys, 

September 1981 - September 1982 27 



1 1 



LIST OF TABLES 



Table 1. Schedule of September 19B1-September 1982 field work, Kootenai 

Falls wildlife monitoring study 3 

Table 2. Summary of weather parameters at Libby, September 1981-July 1982 7 

Table 3. Summary of data collected on amphibian, reptile, and bird species 
observed on the Kootenai Falls study area, 
January 1978-August 1982 8 

Table 4. Summary of data collected on general habitat use and local 

distribution of mammals observed on the Kootenai Falls study area, 
January 197B-August 1982 16 

Table 5. Results of project area wildlife censuses, 

September 1981-August 1982 19 

Table 6. Bald eagle observations made during the monitoring study in the 

Kootenai Falls area, September 1981-September 1982 24 

Table 7. Harlequin duck observations in the Kootenai Falls area, September 

1981-August 1982 25 

Table 8. Results of bighorn sheep roadside surveys, Kootenai Falls 

study area, 1982 29 

Table 9. Kootenai Falls small mammal trapping results, 

August 1982 30 



1 1 1 



APPENDICES 

A. Habitat Categories , 33 

B. Codes Used for Recording Wildlife Observations 34 



1 V 



INTRODUCTION 

Northern Lights, Inc. (NLI), a rural electric cooperative based in Sandpoint, 
Idaho, submitted an application to the Montana Department of Natural Resources and 
Conservation (DNRC) in 1980 to build a hydroelectric dam and generating plant, known 
as the Kootenai River Hydroelectric Project, in the Kootenai Falls area of Lincoln 
County, Montana. In 1978, NLI contracted with DNRC to conduct a baseline wildlife 
investigation in the project area. The results of that study, completed in 
September 1979, were published Later that year (DNRC 1979). 

To keep the wildlife data base current and to determine the nature of 
year-to-year variations in wildlife use of the project area, NLI contracted with 
DNRC in October 1979 to monitor wildlife in the study area [see DNRC 1979 for a 
study plan). This study would provide a data base for documenting project-related 
impacts and for determining the success of mitigation and compensation programs, 
should the Board of Natural Resources and Conservation issue a certificate for the 
project at the Kootenai Falls site. 

The first annual report IDNRC 1981a) documented results from the first year of 
the Kootenai Falls wildlife monitoring study (September 2, 1979, through September 
1, 1980). The area monitored in that study was the same as the area inventoried 
during the original baseline study (DNRC 1979, pp. 2-3), although some surveys also 
were conducted along U.S. Highway 2 between Libby and Troy. 



- 1 - 



The second annual report (DNRC 1981b) highlighted results from the second year 
of the Kootenai Falls wildlife monitoring study (September 1, 1980, through 
August 31, 1981). The area investigated during that monitoring period was basically 
the same as studied during the first monitoring period. Some modifications in 
monitoring study design, as suggested in the first annual report (DNRC 1981a) were 
employed in the second year of monitoring. 

This third annual report presents the results from the third year of the 
wildlife monitoring study (September 1, 1982, through August 31, 1982). The study 
area was the same as in the past two years of monitoring with some modifications in 
study design, as suggested in the second annual report. 



METHODS 



Field techniques and analytical methods used in this study were as described in 
the baseline studies report (DNRC 1979, pp. 109-112) and the first annual report 
(DNRC 1981a). A brief summary of methods employed for individual study segments 
follows (see table 1). 



2 - 



Table 1. ScheduLe of September 1981 - September 1982 fieLd work, 
Kootenai Falls wildlife monitoring study. 



Dates 



Observer 



.1 



Type of Field Work 



January 6-9, 1982 



PN 



Riparian wildlife census, 
bald eagle survey, bighorn 
sheep counts. 



March 4-B , 1982 



PN 



Bighorn sheep counts, 
meadow observation 



March 29-31 , Apri I PN 
1-3, 1982 



Riparian wildlife census, 
bighorn sheep tracking, 
bighorn sheep count, am- 
phibian and reptile search 



June 12-17, 1982 



PN 



Riparian wildlife census, 
harlequin duck survey, big- 
horn sheep count, amphibian 
and reptile search. 



August 2-5, 1982 



PN 



Riparian wildlife census, 
harlequin duck survey, big- 
horn sheep counts, amphi- 
bian and reptile search, 
small mammal trapping. 



PN = Pat Nichols 



Species List Update 



The species lists presented in the baseline report (DNRC 1979) were updated, 



Project Area Wildlife Census 

This census was designed to collect data that would allow comparison of wildlife 
use of the project area between months and between years. The methods used were 
patterned after the standard winter bird study (KoLb 1965] and breeding bird census 
techniques (Hall 1964, Van Velzen 1972) used in the original inventory, but were 
expanded to include all vertebrate species. The area censused included: the entire 
Kootenai River and its shorelines from 50 m (164 ft) below the proposed dam outlet 
to the upper end of the proposed reservoir; the land that would be inundated by the 
dam at a forebay elevation of 610 m (2,000 ft); the land that would be affected by 
railroad relocation; and all remaining Land between U.S. Highway 2 and the Kootenai 
River (see appendix B) . The entire area was censused for three consecutive days 
during each month of January, April, June, and August 1982, following the 
instructions outlined in the baseline report (DNRC 1979, appendix F) . 

Bald Eagle Survev 

The Kootenai River between Libby and Troy was surveyed for bald eagles on 
January 6 and 8, 1982 (1 count each day), following the methods of Meyer (1979). 
Observations were made from U.S. Highway 2. Bald eagles seen during project area 
wildlife censuses and other monitoring field work also were recorded. 



- 4 



HarLeguin Duck Special Studies 

In addition to surveys made during project area wildlife censuses, special 
searches of the Kootenai Falls area for harlequin ducks were conducted in June and 
August. In June, emphasis was placed on determining the total harlequin duck 
population and the number of pairs present in the project area; in August, emphasis 
was placed on locating broods. 

Bighorn Sheep Studies 

During the study period, several different methods were used to gather 
information on bighorn sheep. These methods are described below. 

Bighorn sheep were observed from strategic viewpoints along U.S. Highway 2 
during each of the five survey field trips (table 1). The cliffs north of the 
Kootenai River within the project area and within 1 mile (upstream] of the project 
area were surveyed with a spotting scope. The researchers followed a controlled 
observation schedule. During each survey, the north bank of the river was searched 
for 10 minutes from each of 10 observation points along U.S. Highway 2. Three such 
surveys were conducted in January, six in early March, five in Late March-early 
April, three in June, and three in August. Observations of bighorn sheep made 
during these surveys, as well as those made in conjunction with other field work, 
were recorded on maps and standard data sheets. Observations of deer also were 
recorded. In April, the Sheppard Meadows (DNRC 1981a) were searched for tracks or 
other evidence of bighorn sheep use. 



- 5 



Amphibian and Reptile Search 

During April, June, and August, at least four hours each month were spent 
searching likely habitat in the project area for amphibians and reptiles. 

Small Mammal Trapping _^ 

Two snap-trap lines (each consisting of 25 stations with two traps per station] 
were run for three consecutive nights (August 2-4, 1982), one in riparian 
cottonwoods at the head of Kootenai Falls, and the other in adjacent riparian 
grassland. Capture data were recorded on standard data sheets. 



WEATHER 



Table 2 summarizes weather data collected at the NOAA Libby recording station 
(Libby 1 NE Ranger Station) for the period September 1981 to August 1982. The data 
show that the winter of 1981-82 was warmer and wetter than normal. Average monthly 
temperatures ranged from -2.7 to +3.5 degrees Fahrenheit (averaging +1.7 degrees) of 
normal from November through March, and monthly precipitation averaged 0.8 inches 
above normal. Snowfall, which totalled 46.9 inches, occurred during the period 
November through April. Although data on average snowfall at this recording station 
are not available, snowfall during the same period the previous year, November 1980 
through April 1981, totalled 21.5 inches. Snow depths in 1981-82 were relatively 
high; the greatest depth (26.7 inches) was recorded in January 1982. During the 
winter of 1980-81, the maximum snow depth (10 inches) occurred in December. 



- 6 - 



Table 2. Summary of waather parameters at Libby, September 1981-July 1982 



Maximum Snow 
Month Temperature'' Precipitation'^ SnowfaLL Depth on Ground 

(degrees F.) (inches) (inches) (inches) 



September 1981 


57.1(+0.3) 


0.8(-0.5) 








October 1981 


43.4(-2.1) 


0.7(-1.3) 








November 1981 


35.4(+2.2) 


2.B(+0.3) 


1.0 


1 


December 1981 


28.0 (+2 .3) 


2.6(+0.3) 


12.7 


7 


January 1982 


25.4(+3.0) 


2.5(+0.1) 


26.7 


18 


February 1982 


27.4(-2.7) 


3.1 (+1.6) 


5.1 


15 


March 1982 


39.2(+3.5) 


2.3(+1 .0) 


« 


7 


Apri L 1982 


42.5(-2.8) 


2.6(+1.5) 


1.4 





May 1982 


52.0(-2.0) 


1.7(+0.2) 








June 1982 


63.9(+3,6) 


2.9(+1.1) 








July 1982 


64.5(-2.5) 


1.3(+0.6) 










61.> -^-^J 


^ i;q ,, rcT 


{_ 


u 



^ Monthly average (departure from normal) 
2 Total (departure from normal) 
* Data unavai lable 



RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 

Species List Update 

During this monitoring period, 52 species of vertebrates were observed or 
trapped — 47 birds and 5 mammals. These included two new species — the boreal 
chickadee and the pine grosbeak. These new species bring the total number of 
species observed since the studies began in 1978 to 118 (1 amphibian, 1 reptile, 88 
birds, and 28 mammals). Data on these species are summarized in tables 3 and 4. 



- 7 



O UJ CJ 

o > 

CJ I— 

in UJ Q. 

< Z3 tS 
T = -I 

1 < >- 

< a. cc 
s: < cr 
u. Lu m 
-0 < z 



1 



< 
I 



< 
I 



CO 8} CO 

cn " 



U) T3 
■f- 3 

CO 



< 



u. a 
a a. 
CJ o 



s en 
-Tct 
x'cs" 

Li. Q. 
D O 



z en 

X. cc 

LL C3 

UJ D. 



> 
< 



cn 



cn 



cn 



cn 



B u 
E 

3 00 

cn rv 



— ■ tj 

< -^ 

- *> cn I 

O W LU 

1- oil n 





o 


(0 






m 




m 




U3 


4-1 


< 


Q 


CD 




cr 


(D 




ft 


c_ 




m 


CO 





O ffll 



a> —« 0) cn 



>N -* ^ 



T3 03 — ' (0 



c 


0] 


a> 




x> 


o 




jC 


o 


a 


C3 


o 




o 


c 


D 


o 


CD 



T3 


(D 






O 


CO 


CD 


J= 




a 


CO 


0} 




o 


K 


3 


o 


m 



- 8 



|0 LU CJ 

|z o > 

O CJ 1- 

cn LU a. 

< 3 CD 
-3 =1 _J 

-1 ^ z 

3: < >- 

< Q. OC 

X < a: 

LL UJ CO 

T < 2 



< 



< 



I 



o 

I 



t- a 
ml CD en 



CO 

I 

E 



a. 
o 



X 

C3 C/) 
U. OC 



> 
< 



CO 






CD 





01 








(A 




c 




0) 




u 


Jt 




c 


ID 


CD 


E 


X 


(D 




■- 



Ol 


(D 


CO 


— ' 


LU 






3 


c 


a 


0) 


< 



Q cn 

CD CD 





w 




D 




■*J 




(S 


(U 


(D 




(0 


cn 




CO 




iU 


(D 




xi 



a Oi 

- GJ 

a. - 

O Oi 

z o 

- OJ 



u 

CJ 


CJ 
CJ 




a 
cn 










<J 

CO 


Q 

cn 




CO 

a 










CD 


£ 




CJ 
CJ 










CJ < 

a; o 


cn 


cn 

Q 


Q 












< 

o 


O 


CJ 
CO 





Jl 




3 








t- 


.^ 


v 


CD 


> 


[- 


(- 


4-) 


CD 


0) 


Q 

to 



'J 



3 

cn 





LO 




3 








[- 




"□ 




(0 


t_ 


t- 


0} 


03 


OJ 


-C 


TD 


u 





01 








u 




CO 


t- 




01 


3 


Q. 


o 




(D 


Q. 


e 





m 








U} 




c 




0} 




t- 




0} 




X 


^ 


s 


C3 






(U 


■□ 


T3 



Q 


LU O 


Z 


O > 


° 


O H- 


to 


VJ Q_ 


< 


3 C5 


-3 


3 -1 


-3 


Z3 Z 


Z 


< > 


< 


Q. o: 


Z 


< cc 


LL 


LU CD 


-3 


< z 




(- o 
(0 CO 

n) en 



< 

I 
I 



■r- I] 



cc 


a; 


1 

'0 


!._ 


cc 


u 


i 


1 



OJ CO 

S o 






a 



o 


ca 


a 


"O 






O) 


03 


c 


C 




CD 


c 


rsi 



o u 

E 





in 














4-> 


■kJ 


(*~ 


CD 




X 


s 


tD 


CO 


Ul 



4J 


to 


l4_ 


l- 




D 


£ 


*-> 


en 


(D 




0) 


UD 


^ 


- 


CJ 



■D 


U3 


03 


03 


4J 


■M 


(D 


=) 


O 


CD 


t. 


C 


^ 


o 


4-> 


C- 


I 


01 


CD 


< 



H 3 ui] 



J) 


03 






b- 


> 


Ol 


t_ 


c: 


03 




O 


^ 


CO 




a 


■D 


03 


03 


X 





cn 




3 




+j 


c_ 


CO 


cu 


03 


-s<: 




u 


.^ 


03 


a 



o o 

E 



0) 10| 



o o 



o -a 
o -^ 



10 



I 
I 
o 



I 
I 
o 



< 
I 



-3: 
J 



I 






< 



I 



0) CO 

X o 



CM 


OJ 


CT) 






CM 


m 


cn 


- 


cu 


T- ^ 


CM 




- CM 


CM 


U) 


CD - 




CVJ 


r- n 






- CM 


CM 


o 


r^ - 




^ □ 


T- CM 


O 


- CM 


- CM 


CM 


CD - 


CD - 


■■ 



cn 

Q 


z 


< 

OD 








o 

a. 


cn 


CJ 

CJ 








a cj 
a CJ 


Q CJ 
D. CJ 


cn 

Q 








s o 


S CJ 


s 





0) 




c 








Ul 




Ui 




to 


s 




o 


CO 




j: 


—J 


^ 



c 


CD 


Oi 


*^ 




(D 


c 


C 


(D 




CD 


u 


t_ 


> 


O) 


J= 


1 


u 


4-> 


(D 


(U 


1— 



m a 

O L. 

-< Q 

— ' O 

(O 13 

K -r- 

CD 



_, 


K 




> 


CD 


(- 


S 


0] 


CO 


«-) 




a 


■□ 


o 


0) 


T3 


CD 


-r- 


c 


o 






K 


m 


1 


4-3 


-C 


Ol 



O CJ 

E 
E 



o u 

E 
E 



CD 


U) 


at 


3 


-a 




m 


— « 


^ 




o 


a 




(0 


^ 


o 


CJ 






t_ 


■D 


4J 


01 


o 



a. 


10 


o 


3 


D 


L. 


1 


(0 


^ 


Q. 




^ 


10 


.c 


c 


u 


0) 




o 


T3 


CO 


CU 


01 




w 


■_ 


3 


X 


C_ 



CJ 


m 


4^ 




CD 


to 


^ 


c 


4-> 


o 


3 


T3 


Z 


m 




c 


T3 


CD 


(D 


o 



CO 


CO 


CD 


4-> 


ffi 


4-> 


t_ 




.o 


U) 



15. - 



I O LU CJ 
O > 
O C_) (— 
Ul LU Q. 

< =) ca 

-3 ;3 -1 
T 3 2 

< >- 

< Q. CC 

< tr 
u. LU m 

-3 < Z 



^ — 

?0 to CD 
CO Ol 

-a; r- 
c cn — 
5 



o 

D. 



! ;- 



^ - 



I -. 











ID 




03 


c 


D 


(D 


L. 




m 


s 


^ 




+j 


C 


ta 


o 


o 





CD 


T3 




(- 




■ ^ 


(D 


JD 


4-> 


4J 


ID 


CG 


E 


CJ 


3 




Q 



U) 4-3 

:3 CO 
c- :3 



h- 


LO 




3 


(0 


c_ 




O 


c 


-c 


o 


4-1 


03 


(0 


c 


u 



XI t- — ' 








-^ 




■o 




c 


(D 


0) 


L. 


U) 




c 


CD 


s 


4-> 


o 


•- 





o 


CO 


O] 


m 




■M 


CO 


CO 


• 


(D 


■D 


T3 


c 


CD 


(D 


> 


to 


X 





<D 


4J 




CD 


3 


— > 


T3 


O) 


C 


c 


0} 






:^ 


CO 




ol 



0} 


CO 


c 


a 


s 




o 


3 


u 


O 


CJ 


0) 


1 


cc 



1? 



O UJ u 

z o :> 
o o I- 

cn uj Q. 
< ^ CD 

-3 ^ — i 

-3 r3 z 

Iz < ^ 

|< Q. [T 

U<a: 

' U- UJ CO 
T < Z 



1 I 



< 



< 
I 



o 

1 



a 

oj 



a 















B 


a 










C/) 

Q 




Q 










z 


Q 



_. 


CO 


-□ 


*J 


c_ 


(□ 


(0 




% 


(S 




o 


(U 


CO 


c 


c_ 


£ 


o 


o 

L. 


> 


u 


E 


1 




cu 


ID 


OJ 


> 



-a 


ID 


03 


O 


Q. 




E 


O 


3 




L. 


-o 


l 


c 


S 


<33 


O 


O 





aj 








o 




(D 


JC 




c 


□ 


CD 


0} 


— ' 


c 



(A 


(0 


T3 


o 


CD 


CD 


QC 


J= 




a 


C 


o 


o 


4-1 


o 


CD 




cn 



Q 


CO 


TD 




CD 


_j 


0} 


ID 


Z 


C 




1- 


c 


3 


L. 


4-> 


a> 


w 



c 


CD 




C 


4-1 




c 


c 


3 


(D 


m 


CD 




CO 


-r- 


CD 


— ' 


a. 



- 13 - 



Q LU CJ 

Z O > 

O CJ t— 

LO uj a 

< 3 CO 



-3 :i3 z 

< Q. CC 

2: < cr 

u_ Lu m 

"3 < Z 



< 



Q 

o 



s 

Q 





(A 






c 


—1 




03 


ji: 


3 


to 


XJ 




c_ 


CD 


CD 




CJ 



■□ 


Ifl 











LD 


(U 




:3 


C 


■a 


CO 


u 





IS 




CJ 





X 




(D 




C 




m 




j= 


Ol 


Q 


c 


a 




c~ 


«-l 


4-3 


d 





3 


(U 


03 






a 



- 1A - 



Table 3. (continued] 
Footnotes : 

' Habitat categories abbreviations as in appendix A. 

2 See appendix B for Location codes of river stretches (Letters) and upLand 
areas (numbers) . 

^ Status: W - Overwinters in area (at Least one record each during January 

and February) . 
w - Transient in winter, 
sm - Spring migrant, 
fm - Fa L I migrant. 
B - Breeds on area (nest or dependent young Located) . 
b - Probably breeds on area (territorial males or pairs 

located) . 
s - Summers on area in small numbers but no evidence of 

breeding . 
t - Occurs but no evidence of breeding. 

Abundance: A - Abundant; found in Large numbers in appropriate habitats. 
C - Common; found in moderate numbers in appropriate habitats; 

15 to 50 registrations. 
U - Uncommon; small numbers in appropriate habitats; 2 to 15 

regi strati ons . 
R - Rare; few sightings; 1 or E registrations. 

^ Indicates status of species in lati Long No. 1, as reported by Skaar 
(1980) . 

Months when seen are indicated by Letter abbreviations in sequence, 
January through December (Note: Very Little field work was carried out in 
September and November; none was carried out in December). 

New entries are Listed in italics. 



- 15 



C OJ 

CD OD 



CO CL — '— 

—• — cr. cc 



3 to — — 



lU 


CD 


CD 


*J 




-o 


iL 


[fi 


0) 


CD 


U3 


u 


i 


(D 






C- 


■a 


c S 


cn 


CD 


- Q 




£_ 


■ — 1 


^ 




"O 


CO 


c 


01 4-3 




C_ 


Q. tfl 


t_ 


a: 


Q. CD 


to 




(D i:- 


a 


U) 


U O 




03 



a. 



Q 

"O CL 



^ U I — • 



■- cc 


c 


CO CE 


o ^ 


(X — 


U OJ 



en 


f 1 


Q 


CO 


c_ 


CJ 




o ^^ 


CD 




Jl 






*j 






c 


0) 






ri 


CE 


:3 


-o ■« 


a 


£- 


o 


CD — ' 



o -■- j«: CD +j 






— 3 • 



CO 


cr 


C- 


nr 


*J 




□ 




~ 


"C 




"D 


<J 


r 


L. 


r 


CO 


<D 


CD 


(D 


03 




T3 




1^ 


aj 


03 


03 


a 


iXl 


a 


(0 



E O 

3 a 

C/) ^ 



-^ ca 



16 



s i 



03 

rv CO 



^- CD 



5 

(S) — 

— o 

(DSC 



E E U 



u o o — 



U) to IC — ' 



^ ^ 





01 


(D 


c 




^ 


m —^ 


4J 


4-> 


— CJ 






t- iX 


X 


(D 


CD - 


o 


> 


Q. CD 




O 


— CE 


s 


^ 


X — 


CD 


< 



tc — ' ^ 







CD 




0} 


u: 


c 




4-3 






3 ^ 


o 




S} 






c^ 






en 






>,0 


w 




CD 




o 




(D 




> 




4-3 




O 




CO 




(D 


-• 3 


cn 




3 




4-* 


3 O 


0) 




o 


m 


o 


CT T3 


> 




3 


CD 


en 


ffi a 






XJ 




u 


(- ij) 


JC 






CD 


> 


5: 


c 




o 


cr 




>v 


(0 




cu 






— "^ 


JD 




TD 


s" 


CO 


4J t: 








c 


c 


c a 


C£l 








(S 


(D JX 


D 


cr 


US 




T3 


t- Ci. 


O 


LU 


4J 


0) 




(D <i, 


3 




to 


t- 




Q.-C 


T3 


> 


CD 


o 


m 


O. C-;. 




< 


t. 


^ 


3 


CD 


O 




o 


to 


O 


s: 


0) 


as" 


u- 




t_ 




-a 


en 




- 


^ 


i- 



C^ "D JC >s 



O — ' — 



•^ C 03 





C- 


1 ^ 


-Q 


C3) 




(«- 


u- 




^ 


o 


x; 


u 




(_ ^ 


E 


C 










m 


J>: 


4-> 


0) 


c 


a 








L. 


t- 




.c 


o 




4-> 




1 t. 


4^ 


i- 




CD 


o 






C- 


u- 


CD 




4-» — 




L. 




"O 


■D 




(- 


XI 


o 


S 


T3 


J= -5 


a. 


3 




a; 


cu 




■r- 








(D 


cn 


o 


U 




u 


a 




(<- 




j= 


^ 


> 




lU 


U 










1 


to 


4-> 




L. 


f~ V 


*j 


o 




c 


■3 




(0 


(*- 


:_ 




0} 


s. 


u 








C 




CD 


c»- 


o — 


c 


(0 


■C t3 




o 


z 




C 






3 


C 1— 




^ 


CO E^ 




to 


o 


u: 






3) 




Cfi 


-a 


o 


O ^ 


o 






J*: 


c 




3 


X3 


(0 - 


3} 




c- 




CD 


Q 


u 






O 




-^ Q 


4J 


o 


—' 


■c 




CL 


(D 


CD 




3 


■c 


i- Q. 


CD 


m 




CD 


4-1 




C- 








(D 


E - 






a X 


> 


3 






3. 




C 


4-> 


Q. CD 


U 


Q 


c- C 


t- 


n 


C 










CD 


cc 


o 






o 






u- 


O 








-3 • 


to 




- C 


LO 


ID 


o 


o 


O 




>> 


U 


c cn 


tc 


3 


J3 CC 


-C 


ID 












o 


CD ^ 


CD 


^ 


4-J 


o 


■a 


c 


4J 


t— 


. — , 


-^ 


C3 








a t/^ 








s 




s 


(- 


tc 


X Z 


C 


X 


*J Q 


c 


to 


■a 


u 






X 


a 


s- O 


(U 


u; 




CD 


— ' 


o 




c 


>. 


E 




u- 


■U 


3 


li o" 


4~) 




o 


Q} 


> 


CJ 




■o 


— O 


»^ 


u 


CD CL 


u- 






c 




a: 


c_ 


c 


^ d: 


o 


^ 


x: — 


O 


^ 


u- 


o 


CL 




Q. 


D 


U — ' 



a 5i 



to 


CO 


3 


3 


4-> 


4-3 


o 


O 


1- 


t- 


CJ 


u 






E 


E 



i 



17 



'' Habitat category abbreviations as in appendix A. 

2 See appendix B for location codes of nver (Letters) and upland (numbers] 
portions of the study area. 

Italics indicate new observations. 



18 - 



Project Area WilQlife Census 

Results of the wiLdLife censuses conducted in the project area during the study 
period are summarized in table 5. 

Table 5. Results of project area wildlife censuses, September 19ai-August 1982. 



Average number known present per trip 
Mar.- 
Species Jan. Apr. June Aug. 



BIRDS 










Great Blue Heron 


- 


0.3 


0.3 


— 


Canada Goose 


4.3 


6.7 


- 


0.7 


Mallard 


0.3 


29.0 


10.7 


18.3 


Common Goldeneye 


21 .0 


23.3 


0.3 


- 


Harlequin Duck 


- 


- 


0.7 


0.7 


Common Merganser 


3.7 


7.3 


32.7 


15.0 


Unidentified Duck 


- 


— 


0.3 


— 


Red-tai led Hawk 


- 


- 


- 


0.3 


Bald Eagle 


0.7 


0.3 


— 


- 


Osprey 


- 


- 


2,3 


2.0 


American Kestrel 


— 


— 


0.3 


— 


Ki lldeer 


— 


— 


1.3 


— 


Spotted Sandpiper 


- 


- 


3.3 


1 .3 


California Gull 


- 


— 


— 


0.7 


Unidentified Gull 


- 


- 


— 


3.7 


Mourning Dove 


- 


- 


1 .0 


4.0 


Belted Kingfisher 


- 


— 


— 


0.7 


Common Flicker 


- 


- 


— 


0.7 


Pi leated Woodpecker 


- 


0.3 


— 


— 


Downy Woodpecker 


0.3 


- 


- 


— 


Wi How Flycatcher 


- 


— 


1 .0 


— 


Empidonax Flycatcher 


- 


— 


1 .3 


0.7 


Violet-green Swallow 


- 


5.0 


19.3 


2.0 


Barn Swallow 


- 


— 


0.3 


2.3 


Stellar's Jay 


- 


0.3 


— 


- 


Common Raven 


1 .3 


1 .3 


- 


0.3 


Common Crow 


1.3 


13.7 


16.0 


14.7 


Black-capped Chickadee 


- 


3.0 


1.3 


1 .7 


Boreal Chickadee 


- 


0.7 


— 


— 


Chestnut-backed Chickadee 


- 


0.7 


— 


— 


Unidentified Chickadee 


- 


2.0 


— 


- 


Dipper 


4.3 


4.7 


4.7 


1.7 


Gray Catbird 


- 


- 


1 .7 


— 


American Robin 


- 


11 .7 


11 .0 


1 .7 


Varied Thrush 


- 


9.3 


0.3 


— 



- 19 - 



Table 5. (continued) 



Average number known present per trip 
Mar .- 
Species Jan. Apr. June Aug. 



Swainson's Thrush - 0.3 5.7 - 

Veery - - - 1 .0 

Mountain Bluebird - 

Townsend's Solitaire - 

Cedar Waxwing - 

Red-eyed Vi reo - 

Yellow Warbler - 

Yel low-rumped Warbler - 

MacGi I li vray ' s Warbler - 

American Redstart - 

Unidentified Warbler - 

Brown-headed Cowbird - 

Pine Grosbeak - 

Pine Siskin 

Dark-eyed Junco - 

Song Sparrow - 

Unidentified Sparrow 

Unidentified Passerine 0.7 

MAMMALS 

Unidentified Chipmunk 

Tree Squi rrel 1 .7 

Bighorn Sheep - 

Unidentified small mammal - 

White-tailed Deer - - 1.0 



0.3 


- 


- 


0.3 


- 


0.7 


- 


1 .3 


1 .7 


- 


2.3 


- 


- 


5.7 


0.7 


- 


6.0 


2.0 


- 


1 .7 


- 


- 


1 ./ 


- 


- 


1 .3 


- 


- 


1.3 


- 


- 


- 


2.7 


- 


- 


0.3 


46.3 


9.0 


6.7 


15.3 


12.7 


5.0 


0.3 


- 


- 


5.0 


0.7 


16.0 


_ 


2.3 


4.3 


- 


2.0 


5.7 


2.0 


- 


2,7 


- 


- 


0.3 



Seasonal variation in numbers of species encountered during project area censuses 
each month is shown in figure 1. Study data show that the number of water-related bi r 
species (waterfowl, shorebirds, herons, gulls, ospreys, bald eagles, dippers, belted 
kingfishers) remains relatively constant year round, with a slight increase during the 
breeding season. The number of species of other birds, although relatively high 
throughout the year, increases considerably during the breeding season. 

Census results for the dipper are shown in figure 2, and variations in average 
monthly abundance of the most common waterfowl species, as determined by the censuses, 
are portrayed in figure 3. 

- 20 - 



3R 

36—1 
34 
3? 
50 - 
PB - 
^ 26 

S ^^ 
Si 22H 

o 20 
a 18 — 

UJ 

i 16- 

i 1^- 

12 - 
10 - 

8 

6 

4 — 

2 - 






I I I I I I 



I I I I I i I I 11 11 I i"n "I I I 



I I I I I I 



D UJ O O 
< CO o ? 



u Z CD CC en 
< UJ < O. 



u 5 <I 5 



333UJOOUJ<UJ<Q-<333 



-5 u S < 5 



1961 



1982 




WATER BIRDS 



I " 'I I ' I " (' " !' r ' T T-r I 1 I I I I ' I I I r- r- T 'i't i r" i - ' r '| | ""f"r" 'i "" i 



~i I r 



o 


n 




> 


o 


7 


m 


or 


cr 


>- 


TT. 


1 


o 


a 


i~ 


> 


O 


T 


CD 


fX. 


(T 


V 


7" 


J 


O 


n 




> 


<> 


7 


m 


or 


fr 


V 


r 




to 


1 






n 








<l 


n 




) 




-> 


hi 


o 


o 


UJ 




III 




a 




-) 




-) 


hi 


(> 


o 








< 


Q. 


< 






-> 


< 


in 


O 


z 


Q 


-~> 


u. 


3 


< 


3- 


^ 


-3 


•I 


in 


o 


7 


a 


'"5 


li 


3- 


< 


i 






< 


to 


o 


z 


Q 




u. 


2 




> 






< 



1979 



1982 



Figure 1. Seasonal variation in total (top) and average (bottom) 

numbers of species encountered during project &vq& censuses. 



21 



r 

h- CO o <r ro PJ 

lN3S3ad NMON)< dBaiNHN 30VU3f\V 

- 22 - 



- snv 
-nnn j^ 
Ninn - 




a; 

0- 



1- 

> 

re 



c 
a 
o 



c 
o 



X —I 

> 3 

.— I n: 

re o 



CO 



Cv] CI. 



3im )J3AIU U3d INBSlUd NMON>« )J3eNnN 30V»3AV 
<r lo rj - o „ 



o 
o 
o 

< 
o 

«I 
z 
< 



>- UJ 

z z 

UJ < 

_j Q: 



o 
o 

z 
o 

Z 
o 
o 



z 
o 

z 
s 
o 



11 



Q O 



T" 



T 



T" 



T 



o 



o 



o 




Figure 
common 
wi Idli 



o o o o o 

IT) ^ to csi — 

lN3S3ad NMONX a38WnN 30Va3AV 

variation in average number of Canada goose. 



3. Seasonal variation in average number of Canada goose, mallard, 
goldeneye, and common mergansers encountered during project area 
fe censuses. 



- 23 



Bald Eagle Survey 

During the monitoring study, bald eagles were observed in January and March 1982 

(table 6] . 

Table 6. Bald eagle observations made during the monitoring study in the Kootenai 
Falls area, September IGBI-September 1982. 



Date 



January 6 
January 7 
January 8 
March 4 
March 5 
March 3D 



Observer^ 



PN 
PN 
PN 
PN 
PN 
PN 



Location Minimum Number 

(River Section)^ Known Present 



N 

L,N,T 

P 

P 

R 

N 



1 adult^ 

3 (2 adults, 1 sub-adult] 

2 adults 
1 adult 

1 adult 
1 adult 



'' PN=Pat Nichols 

^ Location codes as in appendix B 

^ Observation made during bald eagle surveys 



24 



Harlequin Duck Special Studies 

Information on harlequin ducks observed during the monitoring period is presented 
in table 7. Harlequin ducks were observed in November 1981, and May, June, July, and 
August 1982. An active nest was discovered in a logjam at the head of the falls and 
observations of at least two young were made (Wolfe 1982). During August 1982, DNRC 
searches for broods were unsuccessful. 



Table 7. Harlequin duck observations in the Kootenai Falls area, 
September 1981-August 1982. 



Date 



Minimum number known present 



Males 



Feme les Pai rs 



Total 



November 29, 198l2 

Apri I 17, 19825 1 

Apri I 24, 1982^ 1 

Apri I 28, 19825 2 

May 7, 19823 1 

May 15, 1982^ 1 

May 19, 1982^ 2 

May 20, 1982^ 2 

May 25, 19823 1 

June 1, 19823 -| 

June 4, 19823 2 

June 12, 1982"^ 1 

June 13, 1982^ 2 

June 14, 1982^ 2 

June 15, 1982^ 1 

June 17, 1982'* 1 

June 20-30, 1982^ 1 

July 18, 19825 

August 2, 1982"* 2 



1 




T 

2 

3 

4 

5 

« 



1 

2 

2 

3 

2 

2 

3 

4 

2 

2 

3 

2 

3 

3 

1 

1 

4* 

3* 

2 



Abbreviations as defined in appendix B 

Shot by hunter - John Jeresek 

Observed by Paul Hamlin 

Observed by Pat Nichols, DNRC 

Observed by Carl Wolfe, Kootenai National Forest 

Two downy young observed (Wolfe 1982) 



Location 

(River Section)'' 



P 

L 
L 
L 
Q 
S 
L 
P 
M 
S 
J 
L 
L 
L 
M 
L 
L 
L 
M 



- 25 



Bighorn Sheep Studies 

Locations of bighorn sheep observations recorded during the roadside surveys are 
shown in figure 4, During censuses of bighorn sheep from U.S. Highway 2 (see table 
8), the greatest number of sheep observed on any one census was 51 on April 2, 
1982. From early March, the numbers of sheep observed increased through early 
April. June observations showed lower numbers than in April. A notable census was 
that of August 5, 1982, when 25 sheep were observed. Prior to 1982, only extremely 
low numbers of sheep had been observed in the area in August. 

On April 2, 1982, a ground search on the Sheppard Meadows was conducted. Eight 
bighorn rams in two groups were observed on rocks 20 ft. above and 100 ft. to the 
east of the upstream meadow. Pellet groups {not identified to species) were 
observed in all meadows; the heaviest concentrations were in the downstream meadow 
in and around the orchard. Sheep tracks were observed all along the road that runs 
through the meadow. 



26 - 




CN 












o- 












^ 












^ 












1) 












/^, 












F 






— 1 






OJ 


^^ 




■ — * 






^j 


• 




u 






- Q. 


O 




Cl 






O 


N 




< 






1 


■J) 




>, 








Q- 




v_ 






a 


3 




rz 






cr 


O 




u: 






_H 


u 


'~ 


1 








iC 


u 


s: 






L- 




•— 


u 






o 


CJ 


^ 


i_ 






r^ 


*_■ 


■ 


^ 






^ 


f^ 




S 




—J 


0- 


u 


>^. 






■A 


*J 


.— 


*-« 


o 


a; 


D 


Q. 


■D 


u- 


.-J 


^ 


SL 


D 


c 


^ 


T 


3 


3 


W 


— ■ 


UJ 


J 


— 


< 



II II II 



o<ac>c> 



27 - 



Table 8. Results of bighorn sheep roadside surveys, Kootenai Falls study area, 1982. 



Date 



Starting Starting No. Obs. Min. No. Sheep Known Present 
Observer'' Time Station No. Recorded^ Rams Ewes Other^ Total 



Jan. 6 PN 


0920 


1 


Jan. 6 PN 


1350 


1 


Jan. 8 PN 


1530 


1 


Jan. Average 






Mar. 4 PN 


0830 


1 


Mar. 4 PN 


1225 


10 


Mar. 4 PN 


1526 


1 


Mar. 5 PN 


0850 


10 


Mar. 5 PN 


1225 


1 


Mar. 5 PN 


1550 


10 


Early Mar. Average 






Mar. 29 PN 


1645 


10 


Mar. 30 PN 


1420 


10 


Apr. 1 PN 


1315 


1 


Apr. 2 PN 


0624 


10 


Apr, 2 PN 


1707 


1 


Late Mar. -Apr. Averac 


36 




June 12 PN 


1909 


10 


June 13 PN 


0730 


1 


June 13 PN 


1240 


1 


June Average 






Aug. 2 PN 


1313 


10 


Aug. 4 PN 


1753 


1 


Aug. 5 PN 


0634 


10 


Aug. Average 




















































0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


D.D 


4 


1 





3 


4 


4 








4 


4 


1 








1 


1 


6 


6 








6 


1 








1 


1 








D 








2.7 


1.2 


0.0 


1.5 


2.7 


13 


3 


7 


3 


13 


24 


2 


9 


9 


20 


20 


5 


4 


4 


13 


56 


2 


26 


23 


51 


11 


3 


1 


6 


10 


24.8 


3.0 


9.4 


9.0 


21 .4 


19 


4 





15 


19 


12 


10 





1 


11 


8 





4 


4 


8 


13.0 


4.7 


1 .3 


6.7 


12.7 


2 





1 


1 


2 

















25 


17 


3 


5 


25 


9.0 


5.7 


1.3 


2.0 


9.0 



'1 PN^Pat Nichols 

^ Includes multiple observations of the same individuals 



Includes lambs and unclassified sheep 



- 29 - 



Amphibian and Reptile Search 



During the 1982 monitoring period, no reptiles or amphibians were observed, 



Small Mammal Trapping 



Table 9 presents the results of 1982 small mammal trapping. 



Table 9. Kootenai Falls small mammal trapping results, August 1982, 



FLoodplain Riparian Trees 
Grassland and Shrubs Total 



Total number of captures 

Total number of species 

Total biomass (grams) 

Captures per species: 

Masked Shrew 
( Sorex cinereus ] 

Deer Mouse 

( Peromyscus mani cu latus ) 

Long-tai led Vole 

( Mi crotus longi caudus ) 

Meadow Jumping Mouse 
( Zapus princeps ] 

Flying Squi rrel 
( Glaucomys sabrinus ) 



11 
3 
255.3 



7 

3 

208.9 



18 
5 
464.2 



11 



30 



RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE MONITORING 

The monitoring study should be continued, and work should continue toward 
selection of a suitable control area on the Kootenai River. 



- 31 



LITERATURE CITED 

DNRC. 1979. 

Kootenai FaLLs wildlife inventory and impact analysis. Final report, Helena, 
MT. 

DNRC. 1981a. 

Kootenai Falls wildlife monitoring study. First annual report. Helena, MT. 

DNRC. 1981b. 

Kootenai Falls wildlife monitoring study. Second annual report. Helena, MT. 

Hall, G.A. 1964. 

Breeding bird censuses — why and how? Audubon Field Notes 18:413-416. 

Kolb, H. 1965. 

The Audubon winter bird population study. Audubon Field Notes 19:432-434. 

Meyer, J.R. 1979, 

Northwest Montana/North Idaho transmission corridor bald eagle study. 
Bonneville Power Administration. Portland, OR. 

Skaar, P.D. 1980. 

Montana bird distribution. P.D. Skaar, 501 South Third, Bozeman, MT, 

Van Velzen, W.T. 1972. 

Breeding-bird census instructions. Amer, Birds 26 (6 ) :929-931 . 

Wolfe, C. 1982. 

Telephone conversation with Pat Nichols, DNRC biologist, December 15, 1982. 



32 - 



3 33. "IS- 

mo -'if 



KOOTENAI FALLS 

WILDLIFE 

MONITORING STUDY 



PLEASE RETURN 

Second Annual Report 

for the period 

September 2, 1980 - September 1, 1981 



STATE DOCUMENTS COLLECTION 

JUL15i965 

HELENA, MOiJTAf.'A 5?t520 



MONTANA DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES AND CONSERVATION 

ENERGY DIVISION 

32 South Ewing 

Helena, MT 59620 
December 1981 






1) 



y 



y- 



a 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

LIST OF FIGURES ii 

LIST OF TABLES iii 

INTRODUCTION 1 

METHODS 2 

Species List Update 2 

Project Area Wildlife Census 2 

Bald Eagle Survey 3 

Harlequin Duck Special Studies 3 

Bighorn Sheep Studies 3 

Amphibian and Reptile Search 3 

Small Mammal Trapping h 

Census of Yaak Falls 4 

WEATHER 5 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 6 

Species List Update 6 

Project Area Wildlife Census 6 

Bald Eagle Survey 18 

Harlequin Duck Special Studies 22 

Bighorn Sheep Studies 22 

Amphibian and Reptile Search 26 

Small Mammal Trapping 26 

RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE MONITORING 27 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 28 

LITERATURE CITED 29 



LIST OF FIGURES 



Figure 1. Seasonal variation in total (top) and average (bottom) 

numbers of species encountered during project area censuses ... .19 

Figure 2. Seasonal variation in average numbers of dippers 

encountered during project area wildlife censuses 20 

Figure 3. Seasonal variation in average number of Canada goose, 

mallard, common goldeneye, and common merganser encountered 

during project area wildlife censuses 21 

Figure 4. Observations of bighorn sheep during roadside surveys, 

September 1980 - September 1981 24 



11 



LIST OF TABLES 

Table 1. Schedule of September 1980-September 1981 

field work, Kootenai Falls wildlife monitoring study 2 

Table 2. Summary of weather parameters at Libby, 

September 1980-1981 5 

Table 3. Summary of data collected on amphibian, reptile, 
and bird species observed on the Kootenai Falls 
study area, January 1978-August 1981 7 

Table 4. Summary of data collected on general habitat use 
and local distribution of mammals observed on the 
Kootenai Falls study area, January 1978-August 1981 15 

Table 5. Results of project area wildlife censuses, 

September 1980-August 1981 17 

Table 6. Bald eagle observations made during the monitoring study 

in the Kootenai Falls area, September 1980-September 1981.. ..18 

Table 7. Harlequin duck observations in the Kootenai Falls area, 

September 1980-August 1981 22 

Table 8. Results of bighorn sheep roadside surveys, 

Kootenai Falls study area, 1981. 23 

Table 9. Kootenai Falls small mammal trapping results, 

August 1981 26 



111 



APPENDICES 

A. Habitat Categories 30 

B. Area Codes Used for Describing Wildlife Distribution 31 



IV 



INTRODUCTION 

Northern Lights, Inc. (NLI), a rural electric cooperative based in 
Sandpoint, Idaho, submitted an application to the Montana Department of 
Natural Resources and Conservation (DNRC) in 1980 to build a hydroelectric 
dam and generating plant, known as the Kootenai River Hydroelectric Project, 
in the Kootenai Falls area of Lincoln County, Montana. In 1978, NLI 
contracted with DNRC to conduct a baseline wildlife investigation in the 
project area. The results of that study, completed in September 1979, were 
published later that year (DNRC 1979). 

To keep the wildlife data base current and to determine the nature of 
year-to-year variations in wildlife use of the project area, NLI contracted 
with DNRC in October 1979 to monitor wildlife in the study area (see DNRC 
1979 for a study plan) . This study would provide a data base for documenting 
project-related impacts and determining the success of mitigation and 
compensation programs, should the Board of Natural Resources and Conservation 
issue a certificate for the project at the Kootenai Falls site. 

The first annual report (DNRC 1981) documented results from the first 
year of the Kootenai Falls wildlife monitoring study (September 2, 1979, 
through September 1, 1980). The area monitored in that study was the same as 
the area inventoried during the original baseline study (DNRC 1979, pp. 2-3), 
although some surveys were also conducted along U.S. Highway 2 between libby 
and Troy. 

This second annual report highlights results from the second year of the 
Kootenai Falls wildlife monitoring study (September 1, 1980 through August 
31, 1981). The area investigated during this monitoring period was basically 
the same as that studied during the last monitoring period. Some 
modifications in monitoring study design, as suggested in the first annual 
report (DNRC 1981) were employed this year. 



METHODS 

Field techniques and analytical methods used in this study were as 
described in the baseline studies report (DNRC 1979, pp. 109-112) and the 
first monitoring report (DNRC 1981). Three biologists worked in the study 
area during the study period (see table 1). A brief summary of methods 
employed for individual study segments follows. 

Table 1. Schedule of September 1980 - September 1981 field work, 
Kootenai Falls wildlife monitoring study. 



Dates 



Observer (s) ( 1 ) Type of Field Work 



October 14-19, 1980 



PN 



Riparian wildlife census, bighorn 
sheep count . 



January 7-9, 1981 



PN 



Riparian wildlife census, bald eagle 
survey, bighorn sheep counts. 



April 3-7, 24, 1981 



LT. SK 



Riparian wildlife census, bighorn 
sheep tracking, bighorn sheep count, 
amphibian and reptile search, 
census of Yaak Falls. 



June 2, 12-16, 1981 



LT, SK 



Riparian wildlife census, harlequin duck 
survey, bighorn sheep count, amphibian 
and reptile search. 



July 31 & 
August 2-5, 1981 



PN 



Riparian wildlife census, harlequin duck 
survey, bighorn sheep counts, amphibian 
and reptile search, small mammal 
trapping. 



(1) 
PN 
LT 
SK 



Pat Nichols 
Larry Thompson 
Stacy Kiser 



Species List Update 

The species lists presented in the baseline report (DNRC 1979) were 
updated. 



Project Area Wildlife Census 

This census was designed to collect data that would allow comparing 
wildlife use of the project area between months and between years. The 
methods used were patterned after the standard winter bird study (Kolb 1965) 
and breeding bird census techniques (Hall 1964, Van Velzen 1972) used in the 
original inventory, but were expanded to include all vertebrate species. The 



area censused included: the entire Kootenai River and its shorelines from 
50 ra (164 ft) below the proposed dam outlet to the upper end of the proposed 
reservoir; the land that would be inundated by the dam at a forebay elevation 
of 610m (2,000 ft); the land that would be affected by railroad relocation; 
and all remaining land between U.S. Highway 2 and the Kootenai River (see 
Appendix B) . The entire area was censused for three consecutive days during 
each month of October 1980, and January, April, June, and August 1981, 
following the instructions outlined in the baseline report ( DNRC 1979, 
appendix F) . 

Bald Eagle Survey 

The Kootenai River between Libby and Troy was surveyed for bald eagles on 
January 7, 8, and 9, 1981 (1 count each day) following the methods of Meyer 
(1979). Surveys were made from U.S. Highway 2. Bald eagles seen during 
project area wildlife censuses and other monitoring field work also were 
recorded . 

Harlequin Duck Special Studies 

In addition to surveys made during project area wildlife censuses, 
special searches of the Kootenai Falls area for harlequin ducks were 
conducted each study day in June and August. In June, emphasis was placed on 
determining the total harlequin duck population and the number of pairs 
present in the project area; in August, emphasis was placed on locating 
broods . 

Bighorn Shee p Studies 

During the study period, several different methods were used to gather 
information on bighorn sheep, as described below. 

Bighorn sheep were observed from strategic viewpoints along U.S. Highway 
2 during each of the five survey field trips (table 1). In October and 
January, the cliffs north of the Kootenai River between Libby and Troy were 
surveyed with a spotting scope. Beginning in April, this method was modified 
to include only the project area and the area within one mile (upstream) of 
the project area. Researchers also followed a more controlled observation 
schedule. These changes were suggested in the first annual report (DNRC 1981). 
During each survey, the north bank of the river was searched for 10 minutes from 
each of 10 observation points along U.S. Highway 2. Six such surveys were 
performed in April, three in June, and three in August. Observations of 
bighorn sheep made during these surveys, as well as those made in conjunction 
with other field work, were recorded on maps and standard data sheets. 
Observations of deer were also recorded. In April, the Sheppard Meadows 
(DNRC 1981) were searched for tracks or other evidence of bighorn sheep use. 

Amphibian and Reptile Search 

During April, June, and August, at least four hours each month were spent 
searching likely habitat in the project area for amphibians and reptiles. 



Small Mammal Trappin g 

Two snap-trap lines (each consisting of 25 stations with two traps per 
station) were run for three consecutive nights (August 2-4, 1981), one in 
riparian cottonwoods at the head of Kootenai Falls, and the other in adjacent 
riparian grassland. Capture data were recorded on standard data sheets. 

Census of Yaak Falls 

The census of Yaak Falls (DNRC 1981) was discontinued because prior 
observations indicated that the site is unsuitable as a control or 
compensation area. 



WEATHER 

Table 2 summarizes weather data collected at the NOAA Libby recording 
station (Libby 1 NE Ranger Station) for the period September 1980 to July 
1981. The data show that the winter of 1980-81 was exceptionally mild. 
Average monthly temperatures were 2.3 to 9.6 degrees Fahrenheit (averaging 
4.9 degrees) above normal from November through .March, and precipitation 
averaged 1 inch below normal. Snowfall, which totalled only 21.5 inches 
over the winter, occurred only during the period November through February. 
Although data on average snowfall at this recording station are not 
available, snowfall during the same period the previous year, November 1979 
through February 1980, totalled 39.6 inches. Snow depths in 1980-81 were 
relativ'ely low; the greatest depth, 10 inches, was recorded in December 1980. 
During the winter of 1979-80, the maximum snow depth of 13 inches occurred in 
January. 



Table 2. Summary of weather parameters at Libby, September 1980- July 1981. 

Maximum Snow 
Month Temperature ( 1 ■) Precipitation( 1) Snowfall Depth on Ground 

(degrees Fahrenheit) (inches) (inches) (inches) 

September 1980 56.9(+0.1) 

October 1980 45. 7 (+0.21 

November 1980 35. 5 (+2. 3) 

December 1980 30.3(+4.6) 

January 1981 32.0(+9.6) 

February 1981 33.1 (+3.0) 

March 1981 40.9(+5.2) 

April 1981 46.3(+1.0j 

May 1981 54. 4 (+0.4) 

June 1981 56.6(-3.7) 

July 1981 65.5(-1.5) 
_ 

Monthly average (departure from normal 



1 .9(+0.6) 










0.7 (-1.3) 










1.9(-0.5) 


1 


.5 


1 


4.1(+1.8) 


15 


.9 


10 


1.0(-1.4) 





.8 


1 


1.7(+0.1) 


3 


.3 


3 


0.3(-1.0) 










1.7(+0.6) 










3.5(+1.9) 










3.4(+1.5) 










1.2(+0.5) 











RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 

Species List Update 

During this monitoring period, 56 species of vertebrates were observed or 
trapped--45 birds, 10 mammals, and one amphibian. These included 2 new 
species--the canyon wren and veery. These new species bring the total number 
of species observed since the studies began in 1978 to 116 (1 amphibian, 1 
reptile, 86 birds, and 28 mammals). Data on these species are summarized in 
tables 3 and 4. 

Project Area Wildlife Census 

Results of the wildlife censuses conducted in the project area during the 
study period are summarized in table 5. 



O UJ <_) 

z o > 

C_3 t— 
CO UJ Q. 
■1 = 
-3 =1 . 
-5 = Z 

1 «t >- 

•X a. a 
3E < q: 

Li_ LlJ CQ 

-:; < z 









) 1- o 

» TS 00 

: «3 a^ 



^ 



I I I 

m s 3 



Q. 



3 O 






-zi 



3 



C3 

3 



O CO 



*t) ..- 












e a; 








•O -:>£ 








■— >i 




• 




fO -o 




Q. 


C t/1 


OO c 




O. 


O *C 


«D 




i/i 


t_ — 


OJ > 






QJ -O 


c 


01 


tA 


3: o 


QJ C 


.^ 




(- 


— O 


13 


JZ 


Oi OJ 


< -o 


C 


o. 


3 ^ 


- O 


oo 


to 


o 




O ^ 


LU 




c 


en (o 


*J 


1 


t. 


E 


QJ 


C- QJ 




0) 


TJ 


tn 


■t-J "O 


3 .— 


►— 


4-> 


f 


Q 


TJ »- 


(u a. 


Q. 


t- 


t— 


cr 


oj <i: 


o 


LU 


*0 






1_ 


(_) 


ac 


C3 




CO 


LD 





iA 








i/> 




c 




0) 




"O 




'n 


a 


c 


VA 




o 


u 



















(/) 




















3 




















U 








































c 


%A 


















o 


3 












TO 








4-> 










TS 


u 






c_ 


TO 
















TO 


4-> 












3 


C TD 






(/> 


^ 










cn 


>i c 




'o 




3 




TJ 




'W 


O) c 


OJ TO 




<V 


^ 


t- U 


(O 


a> 


(O 


c c 


>^ «o 


c *— 




.O 




0) 3 


1- 


h- 


Qj CO 


o ^ 


O) .— 


OJ i/l 






-^ v» 


Wl O 


ll> 


'o 


f— i- 


<u o 


c u 


■D -r- 




TO 


U 3 


c 


Q. 


■o O 


O 


en-.- 


OJ 








3 O 


TO l/i 


O) 


Qj U 


"O u 


•.- »- 


"O <T3 


O TO 




TO 


o ■<- 


cn OJ 


(_ 


oi o; 


a> t/' 


-x a> 




CJ .— 


T3 




c 


1- 4-1 


4-> 


c fc- 


cn-<- 


E 


O TJ 


TO 


TO 


TO 


c o 


cu >■ 


un 


•>- u 


C "O 


c »o 


CJ ^ 


in £ 


QJ 


^ 




ac -o 




5 




*« 


a. 


- Q. 


f 


O. 


3 (- 


o 


<— i-a 


1 en 


^ i/i 


U trt 


C OJ 


X 0) 


0) 


a> 


cr*J 


-o ^ 


TJ 'O 


C «9 


1 'o 


•r- <T3 


o u 


o u 




o 


OJ bO 


<u o. 


5 C 


QJ C 


OJ c 


1- C 


£ ^ 


t- 3 


>«- 


3 


^ -r- 


■o o 


■o < 




3 < 


^«c 


£ CD 
1-^ 


t- CD 


-1 


CO 


1- X 





O LU O 
Z O > 
O (_J » 

CO Lxj a. 



-D o z 
3: «i >- 

<c o. a: 
X «: Qc 



z: 






CD 



t- o 

TS 00 



>1 



'^ 



OJ 


(- 


C5 l/l 


t^ 


O) 


*> * 


(V 


^ 


u- tx 


JZ 


j3 




3 


O 


o o- 






> 


OCNJ 




• fSJ 


sT 


a. • 






IE ■-< 


O CM 


•CNJ 




Li_ • 


Z O 


• m 


•CNJ 


UJ ^H 


z: * 




*a^ 


Q <T> 


UJ •— < 






CCi CO 


Q r^ 



to 

a 



0) •*-> 

en O) 



3 E 



'- <; 
o 

CJ3 



0) Ll_ 

E 
< 



O «I| — —1 



O UJ (_} 

z o > 

O O )— 
t-0 LlJ I 

< = ts 

-5 => _l 
-O =) Z 
X < >- 

•x a. a: 
3: <t q; 

U- LU CO 
-O < Z 



I- o 

-^ CO 
1^ CT> 



^ 



3 O 



o 

O 



-:J 

















Ln 














































4-' 


^ 


•o 














C- 










(- 01 


l/l 


C 




»3 


l- 




0) 








4-> 


■•- d 


■O 3 


O 


w^ 


t^ 


o 




CT 






z 


to 


^ o 


t_ W- 


»- >i 


3 


3 


.^ c 










UO 


X 


CTt-— 


■<- 3 


<u u 


4-J 


o 


X -^ 




C 




X 




>« 


C i— 


JD L 


^ ■— 




L_ 


T} E 








3 


■o 


t/» 




CT> 


t/J fl3 


(- t- 


a> u 


JZ 




t/i 




13 


OJ 




E TS 


C U1 




OJ 3 


> n 


4-> O^ 




OJ 


4-> 


> 


*J 


tn 


E u 


-•- 3 


V4- OJ 


^ «o 


O E 


J3 <X> 




-a 


*•- 




'O 


<U 


3 


E J- 


cn — 


u 


o 


cn.^ 


»*- 






•^ 


o 


4<' 


^ 'D 


E O 


C >i 


■.- tA 


TJ 






o 


z 


1- 


(- 


3 




3 ^ 


.- L. 


— 0) 


cm3 


Z 01 


3 




CO 


Z3 


J= 


fW 


a> 3 


H CI 


^ OI 


U- 4-> 


C •^' 


"o 


U-i 


Oi 




4~> 


*J 


C 


CL .— 


ur\ 


U 


Q. 


f- ro 


c «- 




ct 


in 


a> 




o 


o >— 


t/> *T3 


•O TJ 


C tJ 


c c 


o o 


^ 


d 




tj 


0^ 


I- 


•1- Q) 


3 1 — 


(U Ol 


o .— 


(- OJ 


£ J= 


o 


>i 


X 


j= 


4-> 


Oi 


»— *-» 


O QJ 


4-> QJ 


£ o 


3 1^ 


t C_> 


TS 


o 


3 


(_) 


■r- 


«t: 


— to 


**- UO 


— ^ 


t CJ 


o 


O 






•o 




JC 




<TJ 


3 


(U 


o 





yi 


c_ 


3 


OJ 


*J 


jm: 


-^ 


o 


O) 


QJ 




o. 




•o 


o. 





l/t 




c 




O) 




o 


L. 


or* 


a> 


O) 


.^ 


X) 


o 


3 


OJ 


O. 



>1 

C -f- 

l a- 



<— C 

u_ o 
s — 

O Q. 

— E 



Q 


UJ o 


z o > 


O <_) t— 


lO UJ O- 


«t ZD C3 


^ ZD —I 


-3 ZD Z 


s <: >- 


•a: Q_ Of 


z: <t cc 


U. UJ CD 


^ <C 31 


n ■rt ."-^ 


0* 


t- o 


o 


ro OO 


c 


fO o% 


"3 


-ii .— t 


■o 


t^ — - 


c 




3 




J3 

<: 




T3 




C 


> 


*D 


W "O 




••- 3 


«/> 


£ -M 


3 


h- OO 


■«-) 




'O 




4-) 




oo 








^ 



3 O 



-J 



00 • 


• 


r-« CO 




-og 


CM 






>-* C^J 


o 


•CO 


CSi 


« - 






OS 


_J OJ 


<— 1 



01 



-— O ZJ 



-.- <T3 K 



o E 

>,LjJ 



c 


4-> 


QJ 


a» 


OJ 


c 


t- 




Ol 


o 


1 


>1 


*~> 


J= 


a; 


u 




'D 


o 







u 




o 








o 




o 








^1 




0) 


2 


c 


o 


u 




o 




f. 


03 


a. 


s 


o 


vn 


TD 






OJ 


t- 


0) 


— ' 



— ^ 0) 



>1 




t3 


fo 


■^ 


4-> 




4-> 


in 






o 


l_ 


o 


OJ 


c 




<t> 




>1 


Oi 


o 



Jii f— 



10 



O U h- 

ut uj a. 



I <t 3- 

< a. Qc 

t <: or 

Li_ UJ CO 



z 2: 

z: a^ 






I 



I 



I I- o 
I m CO 





^ 




OJ 




> 


Ol 


(^ 


t- 


OJ 


QJ 


Wl 


x: 


^ 


3 



-:J 



o 

CM 
CO 



C\J 


ir> 




(\j 


00 


■> 




<■ 




CSJ 


f^ 






pn 


•> 


CNJ 


•^a- 






CM 


fO 


C\J 








Q 


(^ CE 

CD 


Z 
Q 


3 


3*«t 

CD 


3" 



(^ 




to f— 



C 4-> 



O) C 









1- E 
-c O 
"O QQ 



11 



O CJ >— 
l/> UJ cl 

<: =3 o 

^D ZD -J 

^ = ; 
s: <: 5- 

«< o- ce 
i: < cc 

U. LU CD 

-r> < =c 



■ o 

TJ CO 

I -:^ .-» 
1 I/) - 






n o 



tJ 





(. 






TJ 












c 
















Of 












t- 






OJ 




fo 








»« 














*o 


O) <D 




■o 








•t) 


■o 




c: 




^ 






CX 






<— *-» 




c 


^ •-- 






■!-> 


t- 




•D 




;_ 


« 




(D 




^ 


J3 TJ 


t- 


a> 


t- O) 




■^ 


^ o 


•r- 




■^ 




m 


4-> 


t. 


u 




o 


<- C 


<u 


tn 


*o ^ 


*-> 


(J 


t_ 0) 


Xi 




O 




3 


*o 


(U 






O) 


«T3 O 




c 


3 E 


C- 




(TJ r— 


X 


l- 












H- 




4-> 


3 i- 


J3 


3 




TJ 


•t-) 


^ cn 


o 


0) 


t- > 


O i/» 


■o 


O) 


JD 


3 


I. 


o 


O 


t- 


o 


i/> o 


■M 


3 


X OJ 


CJ 


■*-» 


01 o 


<U 3 


OJ 


u 


t- 


L. 


o 


Q. 


"Q U 


•u 


4-> 


- *J 


</> 


t- 


O c= 




m 


cn-o 


I- > 


c 




'a 








a> 


3 




>% 


T3 




-o 


■o 




tJ 3 




X 


•w 


3 


1} 


^ 


*T5 


Q. «0 




<o 


lO Wl 


OJ 


«o 


ra m 


0) 


trt 


C "— 


> f- 


o 


L. 




i- 


t_ 


U 


E «-> 


U1 


(J 


I- ■•- 


ce 


cn 


OJ >— 


■o 


3 


fl 


CT 


(. 


o 


0) 


O 


TJ 




3 -.- 






> c 




to 


z — 


13 


I. 


h- TS 


cn 


o 


> 




> 


3 


o 


t- o 


"O 


o 


.- l- 


c 


SI 


Of 


OJ 


^ 


cn 


c o 


1 










C- 


1 t- 


c 


t- 


— o 


<t) 


Cl 


c c 


x: 


4-> 


c c 


••- <u 


0^ 






'e 


S 


XJ 


5 -O 


OJ 


•o 


. — L. 


u 


O 


t_ t- 


1 


o 


t- t) 


f— l_ 


CT> 




> 


u 


o 


c 


o c 


i/1 


c 


— o 




■»-> 


(V 3 


c: 




<D »- 


J3 ■»- 


c 


Oi 


x: 


OJ 




OJ 


>— OJ 


c 


a> 


o a 


(_ 


<v 


*J ■»-> 


2 


o 


*-> -^ 


i;=» 




> 


t/1 


> 


ni 


o 


-— o 

At 


5 


Q 


o o 


i 


LTt 




O 


£ 


1/1 O- 





TS 




C 




<u 




o 


cn 


E 


c 


rt3 






4J 


fO 


C 


C 


3 




CD 


t- 




01 




t/> 




1/1 


3 


TJ 


IM 


O- 



12 



O UJ <_) 

z o > 

O t_> h- 

u^ uj a. 
■t => (J 

-3 =3 —I 



s: <t >• 

<I Q- ce 

I «t cr 






U. UJ CD 



I- CT> 



< 
■o 



'^ 



t_ OJ 


CSJ 


OJ *fl 




^ ^ 


o 


3 o 


CM 



-J 



CM 

O 
CM 

CD 







o 






x: -.- 




t/» 


u ■*-» 




3 


C V) 




C 








M- (. 




O. 


■D ■«-> 


c 


C/1 


O i/l 






tn — 


.^ 






iA 


OJ 


C 'oi 




3 


tJ 3 


to 


■o 


U "O 




t- 


■^ t_ 


O) 


'D 


t- *rj 


c 


o 


0; o 






E 


o. 




< 






C7> OJ 

C X 

o 



s — 
o a. 



13 



o 



L. 
VI 

a» • 
O) in 

L. C 
O 

o -^ 
o I- 






in ■•- 
• t- 



.— trj 



4_> a> 

flj C 



T3 

3 
C 



C 

o 
o 



to 
H 



.— 4-> C 





4-» -O 




*r) 4-> 




fO <D 




4J t- O 




U 01 




•^ J3 *-» 




O (- 




X3 TJ 




.— ^ 




<T3 x: CSJ 

x: 




tfl *4- 




a; - 




u o 




OJ *j v> 








4~t n3 *^ 




.-^ flO OJ 




(^ -r- to 




"D Q- O 




■r- i- *J 




O) c= 




t_ Q.-»- 




<!->(- a> 




Q. O ^ • 




*tj o -o 




O i- to lA 




o ■•- 




L. a.J= c 




O in > 




a. ex o 




— (U 0) 




Q. m Of ••- 








IT3 *^ ■*-» 




c E c 




c to to 






c — >- t~ 




3 




-r- t_ ^J 




O .— 4-> 




«1 Q. t/1 




>^ « 3 




(/) 1_ o ••- 




•1- J=) 


CJl 


c Ol *- en 




-t-> t- 


c 


O) JD Q. a> 




C O t/» 




^ E Q. t- 




(U .M t- 


■o 


E 3 *« ^ 




T? ■>- OJ 


OJ 


:d c CO 




C *- ^ 


<v 


c c 




<U »- E 


t- 


tv -^ )- 




CX O) 3 


JD 


O) 4-» O 




0) -*-> C 




Ol «o v> 




■O— ' 


^•- 


L_ t- 1. •-) 






O 


*0 OJ OJ 




l_ 'tj .— 




^ -o ^ - 




o <u m 


<v 


Q E trt 




L E 


u 


C E 3 Ol 




JJ <TJ i/> 


c 


•>- C C 




tA 


0) 


C -t- 




Ol C C 


"O 


■O •*- ^ -M 




c o — 




c .— ^ 






> 


3 TD 5 cn 
o c e •-- 




t/1 »tJ 


Ol 


4-> 


<T3 T3 dJ 




14- 3 tn */i 


C 


, Q) <Xi L. 


o 


O 


TJ 


4-) t- O) 'D 


c 


-*«- • » 


t- 


C TS t- 




4J C QJ 


CT 




4~> 


c • o '^ 




3 


m c E 


i 


^ 


-o o e - 




f- . — V) 




c E o <u 


CD 


E CO JD t_ 


(/) 


3 E u «- 


c 


"O "U OJ 


t- 


JD O C ID 




.— Ol -O E 


3 


«i: o =3 o: 


L. 


-— <U O E 


u 




O. 


*t) t- L. 3 


u 


1 1 1 1 


tn 


Li_ CQ O- to 


o 





- . 3 



■fc> 4-) O 






«-> E 

OJ 4-> 
^ O. 



■^ •— «£ 



CO 
0) 
*J 
o 
c 
■tJ 
o 
o 
[^ 



I I I I I I t I 

3XEEcD-0»/»-»-> 






14 



■o 



o 



o 
o 



•a 



01 <o 






t-H 


c 




o 


4J 




w 


■o 


3 


01 


Ol 




73 


o 


<r 


OJ 












O 00 


u r^ 




en 


V 


»-• 



o 

CM 

.-« ^ VD 



0) 



o — ^ 



.ii 





=> :r 


Ti: 


o o 


H) 


o • 




CD 




•-CC 


c 


T3 — ' 


t. 


c 


a> 


m 4-> 


4-> 


<— (/> 


lA 


tn 0) 


(I) 


vt c- 


X 


m o 








o> 




f- 




c to 


■o 


to "O 


0) 


^ a> 


n 


1- u 


o. 


to 




a. TD 


t. 


•.- 0) 


— 


a: 1- 



o o 


o^ o 


t- 


c o 


<u ai 


o 


-a -o 


.— c 




(^ a* 


o </l 


.g- 


— £ 


(O 


<- ■►J 


0) c ^-- 


-.- i_ 


I- -.- z 


■«- o 


<D O 


r c 


t_ - 


1/1 


C OJ o 


;? 8 


0) > Qc: 


o.-f- • 


CT» 


O i- C£ 


3 0) 


a: 


O 0) 


c •^ — 


O 1- 




U 


4-) 


• t/i 


l/l £ */1 


c 


J^ 4-> Ol 


0* -o 


c t- (- 


a. c 


<o o o 



HI <- 

I- 4J 

O 4-> 

</l X 

-c E 

3 ID 

O O 



o -o 



trt 0; 



3 



^ 



-O "— "— 



.^ -.- (/> 



C ^ 3 



2 



■o — 

4-> C 3 

U 

(- t/l t/1 

OJ .— .— 

"O — <— 

C 'O ts 



a» — -^ 













t/1 






,~^ 












-— * 
















3 






in 












tn 












(/> 


c 






3 








m 




3 








^ 




'9 


TJ 

jh 


cn 




U 

c 


„ 




____^ 


3 
TO 


L- 


U 

c 


in 












t„ 


E 

3 


3 




o 


in 




m 




o. 


TO 


T3 








^ 


^_^ 


OJ 


■o 


, 


in 


3 


m 


a> 


3 


a. 


> 


3 








'a 
4_> 


t/) 


4-> 




3 


in 


T? 


C 




■o 


.^ 


TO 




TO 








3 


TJ 


o 


(^ 


3 


3 




tn 






CT 


=*:> 


U 




c 
u 


c 
> 


c 

3 

cn 


c 
u 

E 


in 

3 

O 


U 

in 

3 

CL 

o 


U 

**- 

3 

tn 

to 


C 
O 

i 

TO 
in 

TO 


in 

3 
(> 
3 

U 

in 


1- 
TO 

tn 
in 

I' 

O 


c 
■o 

TO 

c 

TO 
U 

1. 


o 

a. 

TO 

1 


C 
TO 

E 
m 

3 
O 
in 
>1 


in 

>1 

C 
O 

u 


in 

0) 

cd 

in 
3 
4~> 


cn 

c 
o 

3 
-t-J 




X 


0) 


> 


3 
Q. 


E 


'i 
TO 

4-1 


i 

TO 
+-> 


TO 

E 


o 

3 
TO 


O 
-t-> 
in 


O 


E 
O 


4-> 

OJ 


O 

o 


O 

u 




o 


o 
to 




— 1 




Oh 

to 


3 
UJ 


3 
UJ 


TO 


tD 


TO 


1— 


01 


o 


E 


s: 





r- a> 
o — 
> -*- 



15 



in • 



3 



CM ^H r~, ^^ , 



3) 



■- ^~ >. 



en «o 
I- X 



5 



(13 -^ CT> 



<u 1- 



XJ UJ 





o 






Wl 


(U O 




4-1 






4-> 

to 


■o a. 


• 


CT> 






4-> 


iA 


c 


C 




Ol 




•— C 


o 






«/» 


J3 






TJ 




c 


fO ^— ^ 


•>- *o 


4J 


<o 




at 


^ 3 


J= .— 


fl3 


0) 




"O 


Q 


CL 


4-> 




T3 




>* * 


T3 


0) 




OJ 


■o 


-K CC 


OP T3 


Cn 


c 


O 


c 


u a: 


1- o 


a> 


o 


3 


«o 


o - 


Ol o 


> 








<- CO 


JD .— 




4-> 


>> 


1. 


o 


E "^ 


tA 


<o 




a> 


c • 




a,-^ 


■*-> 


U 


■*-► 


■'- o 


IS a; 


O CD 


<v 


TJ 


2 


O- 


j= 


= C3 


C71 




X 


T3^^ 


Q.-*-* 


•o - 


<D 


3 




OJ 


a> 


^ o 


> 


CT 


^ 


> >* 


<D C 


U (X 




& 


4J 


I- «D 


+J O 


0, . 


0) 




(D » 


t/> 


"O 3 


iA 




X 


t/l 1 


a* 


O 


c 


>> 




-g-s 


B = 




« 




■o 


trt 


*J 


a> 


1 


t- 


-M Ol 




C 


4-> 


O 4J 


•o t- 


V> 1- 


.c 


0) 


*« 


(/l £ 


0; 3 


cu o 


CTi 


1- 




.— C7> 


> O 


t- £ 


3 


rta 


u 


«tJ -P- 


0) O 


O (/» 


O 


Q. 


o 


(. 


•«> 


l- 


Q. 


v> 


4-1 


t/» 




J= 


■fl 


Irt 


3 -O 


J3 o 


t- VI 


*-* 




t) 


JD rQ 


o m 


OJ X 




.* 




O 




w- o 




t- 


c 


£ i- 


c 'lo 


■i- X) 


1— 


OJ 


OJ 


LO .— 


OJ 


C <tJ 


TS 


> 


+J 


3 -^ 


-t-j +j 



O. 4-> 4-> 



O ^ — O E 



L. <V **- 



.^^ 


c 


w» CD 


3 


•tJ 






v» 


-— OO 


<_> 


OJ 


,— Q 


cr 


Q. 


«-» • 




>> 




4-» 


4-1 


c * 


in 


•M 


■^ o 


0) 


<T3 


^ cc 


1- 


4-> 


1_ — - 


o 




(. 


<*~ 


jO 


Q) t- 




tl 


4-> <U 


t_ 


£ 


> 


T) 




C t- 


T3 


1- 


(L t_ 


0) 


-r— 


^ 


U 


<4- 


O 0) 


T5 


(/) 


jO ■•-» 


C 


TJ 




TJ 




• «*- 




cn 


w o 


C 


3 


«*- 




O 


»*- £Z 


t) 


Q 


3 4-» 


"a. 


C 


£i O 


■o 




c 


o 




■o 


o 


>> 


a> tA 






■*-> -^ 


(^ 


■^ 


'c t- 


f- 


2 


uX 


<D 


E 


o 


> 




(/I T3 




L. 


irt C 


cc 


a. 


« fD 

















Irt 




















3 




















C 




















to 


(/> 




















3 




TS 














c 


C 


*/ll 


U 








lA 




trt 




O 








"W 








3 


CT 




t/l 


-C 


yi 


a» 




1/1 




C 


(. 


E 


c 




<=ii 


t_ 


c 


c 


W» 


fU 




OJ 


<u\ 


Ol 


oT 


O) 


o 


O) 


c 


u 


> 


£ 


-o 


J3 


u 


c 


trt 


•o 


*o 








TS 




c 






<D 


t- 


1. 


t/> 


\A 


c 


M 




u 


> 


c 


-«-> 


i 


3 


3 


to 




l- 






*D 


(O 


a; 


a> 


u 


TJ 


a 




(O 


U 




*T» 








C- 


















U) 


4-> 


to 


o 


"oi 


•D 


iA 


tn 


o 


o 


3 


m 


3 


■4~> 


4-> 


t- 




3 


u 


o 


> 


■o 


Q 


o 


wo 


+J 


c 


Wl 


o 


o 


L. 


c: 


'O 


O" 


3 


3 


to 


1- 


■o 


TD 


OJ 


O 


r^ 


z 


E 


— 1 


tj 


ID 


O 


o 


o 



a. 




o o 

»-, ^ 

o — 



16 



Table 5. Results of project area wildlife censuses, September 1980-August 1981, 





Average number 


known p 


resent per 


trip 




Species 


Oct. 


Jan. 


Apr. 


June 


Aug. 


BIRDS 












Great Blue Heron 


1.0 


0.7 


- 


- 


1.3 


Canada Goose 


1.7 


- 


3.3 


2.0 


- 


Mallard 


1.7 


- 


27.0 


10.3 


1.3 


Common Goldeneye 


0.3 


47.3 


20.0 


- 


- 


Harlequin Duck 


- 


- 


- 


3.7 


- 


Common Merganser 


1.7 


1.7 


9.3 


6.7 


5.0 


Unidentified Duck 


- 


0.3 


- 


- 


- 


Bald Eagle 


0.3 


1.7 


- 


- 


- 


Osprey 


- 


- 


0.3 


1.7 


1.0 


Killdeer 


- 


- 


1.3 


1.0 


- 


Spotted Sandpiper 


- 


- 


- 


12.3 


0.7 


California Gull 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2.7 


Mourning Dove 


- 


- 


- 


1.3 


0.3 


Black Swift 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1.3 


Unidentified Hummingbird 


- 


- 


- 


0.3 


- 


Belted Kingfisher 


- 


- 


0.3 


0.3 


1.0 


Common Flicker 


1.0 


- 


3.0 


1.0 


1.0 


Downy Woodpecker 


0.3 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Violet-green Swallow 


- 


- 


7.3 


N . E . ( 1 


- 


Rough-winged Swallow 


- 


- 


- 


N.E.d 


- 


Common Raven 


1.7 


0.7 


2.0 


3.3 


0.3 


Common Crow 


1.0 


1.7 


14.7 


16.3 


7.0 


Black-capped Chickadee 


5.3 


2.7 


7.3 


1.3 


1.3 


Red-breasted Nuthatch 


4.0 


0.7 


13.0 


2.0 


0.3 


Gray Catbird 


- 


- 


- 


- 


0.3 


Dipper 


1.0 


3.0 


3.0 


1.7 


1.7 


Winter Wren 


- 


- 


0.3 


- 


- 


Canyon Wren 


- 


- 


- 


1.0 


- 


American Robin 


- 


- 


16.3 


12.3 


- 


Varied Thrush 


- 


- 


1.7 


2.3 


- 


Swainson's Thrush 


- 


- 


- 


5.3 


- 


Veery 


- 


- 


- 


- 


0.3 


Townsend's Solitaire 


- 


- 


1.0 


0.7 


- 


Golden-crowned Kinglet 


- 


0.7 


15.7 


- 


- 


Cedar Waxwing 


- 


- 


- 


13.7 


- 


Red-eyed Vireo 


- 


- 


- 


0.3 


0.3 


Unknown Vireo 


- 


- 


- 


5.7 


- 


Yellow Warbler 


- 


- 


- 


1.3 


0.3 


Nashville Warbler 


- 


- 


- 


0.3 


- 


Yellow-rumped Warbler 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1.0 


MacGillivray 's Warbler 


- 


- 


- 


- 


0.3 


Unidentified Warbler 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1.3 


Brown-headed Cowbird 


- 


- 


- 


2.3 


- 


Pine Siskin 


16.7 


3.0 


90.2 


8.0 


3.7 


Red Crossbill 


- 


- 


5.7 


- 


- 


Dark-eyed Junco 


- 


- 


5.3 


- 


- 


Song Sparrow 


4.0 


- 


16.7 


15.7 


2.3 


Unidentified Sparrow 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 



17 



Unidentified Passerine 
MAMMALS 

Unidentified Chipmunk 
Tree Squirrel 
Bighorn Sheep 
Unidentified 
small mammal 



0.3 



6.7 



0.3 


- 


4.7 


1.7 


0.3 


3.0 


- 


2.3 


- 



0.3 



25.0 



0.3 



21.7 

2.3 
6.3 



1 
NE=no estimate made because of large numbers and constant movement 

Seasonal variation in numbers of species encountered during project area 
censuses each month is shown in figure 1. Study data show that the number of 
water-related bird species (waterfowl, shorebirds, herons, gulls, ospreys, 
bald eagles, dippers, belted kingfishers) remains relatively constant year- 
round, with a slight increase during the breeding season. The number of 
species of other birds is relatively high throughout the year, but increases 
considerably during the breeding season. 

Census results for the dipper are shown in figure 2, and variations in 
average monthly abundance of the most common waterfowl species, as determined 
by the censuses, is portrayed in figure 3. 

Bald Eagle Survey 

During the monitoring study, bald eagles were observed in October 1980, 
and in January 1981 (table 6). One adult bald eagle was seen during the 
January 7 bald eagle survey, and two adults were seen during each of the 
following two surveys (January 8 and 9). This indicates that the degree of 
use in 1981 was the same as that reported for 1980 (DNRC 1981). 

Table 6. Bald eagle observations made during the monitoring study 
in the Kootenai Falls area, September 1980-September 1981 



Date 



Observer ( 1 ) 



Location 

(River Section) (2) 



Minimum Number 
Known Present 



10-17-80 
1-7-81(3) 
1-8-81(3) 
1-9-81(3) 



PN 

PN 
PN 
PN 



L 

T 

Q,T 

T 



1 adult 

1 adult 

2 adults 
2 adults 



(1) 

PN=Pat Nichols 
(2) 

Location codes as in Appendix B 
(3) 

Observations made during bald eagle surveys 



18 



AO- 
38- 
36 — 
34 — 
32- 
30- 
28- 
^ 26- 

iJ 2"- 

Si 22- 

fe 20- 

£ 18- 

i 16- 

i i"- 

12- 

10- 

8- 

6- 

4- 

2- 

0- 



MAMMALS 




UOOO'lOO 
lOliJOOOOOOOOO' 

o o o 5 .T>oo o o o t> r 



OOOOOOO' 



30000 } 
'>0000')OOOOOOOC 



I I I I I I I I I I 

OQ-K>oz(ntt:o:>- 

3ijJUOliJ<UJ<Q>< 
<tOOZQ-3li.3<5 

1979 



vioo'^ 


','o'; 


.,Dn 


i"? 


OAO 


"' ; 


','':•, 


,,,„ 


1 1 

3 3 

T -3 


1 

o 

3 
< 


1 

a. 

UJ 


1 

o 
o 


1 

> 
o 

Z 


1 

o 

UJ 
Q 


1 

z 
•a 

-5 


1 

00 
UJ 

u. 



1980 



1981 



28-1 




981 



Figure 1. Seasonal variation in total (top) and average (bottom) 

numbers of species encountered during project area censuses. 



19 




I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



ZDQCcQ:>-2_iOQ.i->oza3Q:Q:>-z_ioQ.t->oz 

<lij<Q-**333ljJOOlii<lLl<Q.<333liJOOUJ< 
-5u.5<2-5-><<rtOZQ-5lj.5<2-j-3<C002Q-5 



1979 



1980 



OQ (r or V z _) o 

UJ < O- •* 3 3 3 

u. 5 < Z -J -> < 

1981 



Figure 2. Seasonal variation in average numbers of dippers encountered 
during project area wildlife censuses. 



20 



CANADA GOCSE 
MALLARD 

COMMON GOLDENEYE 
COMMON MERGANSER 




19 
18 
17 
16 
h 15 



- 14 



111 



U 13 "= 

' *^ I.I 



- 12 



> 
<r 

LlI 

a. 
-III- 



10 ui 
ir 
a. 



- 9 



z 
o 



- 7 



8 ^ 

IT 

UJ 

m 

Z 

6 UI 

< 

a: 

5 UI 

> 
< 



- 4 
3 
2 

h I 



z CD cc ir > 

< UI < Q. < 
-> u. 2 < 5 



1979 



1980 



Figure 3. Seasonal variation in average number of Canada goose, mallard, com- 
mon goldeneye, and common mergansers encountered during proiect area w'ldlife 
censuses. 



21 



Harlequin Duck Special Studies 

Information on harlequin ducks observed during the monitoring period is 
presented in table 7. Harlequin ducks were observed only in May and June of 
1981. A minimum of 8 ducks (including at least two pairs, 3 possibly 
unpaired males, and one possibly unpaired female) was known to be present 
during the study period. During August 1981, searches were made for broods 
but none were observed. Flows in the river were very high, 20,000 cfs or 
greater, which might account for the lack of broods in the area. Comparing 
these data with those obtained in 1980 (DNRC 1981), it appears that use of 
the falls area by adult harlequins increased considerably in 1981. 

Table 7. Harlequin duck observations in the Kootenai Falls area, 
September 1980-August 1981. 



Date 



Minimum number known present 



Males 



Females 



Pairs 



Total 



Location 

(River Section) (1) 



May 23, 
May 31, 
June 13 
June 14 
June 15 
June 16 



1981(2) 
1981(2) 
1981(3) 
1981(3) 
1981(3) 
1981(3) 



3 
3 
2 
2 
2 
2 



8 
6 
4 
5 
4 
4 



J,L 

L 

L 

L 

L 

L 



(1) Abbreviations as defined in Appendix B 

(2) Observations by L. Schelvan (USFS) 

(3) Observations by S. Riser 

Bighorn Sheep Studies 

Locations of bighorn sheep observations recorded during the roadside 
surveys are shown in figure 4. In October 1980, two groups of sheep were 
observed on cliffs above the Kilpatrick property. One group consisted of 6 
lambs and 7 ewes; the other contained 3 ewes. In January 1981, a group of 6 
ewes was observed at the salt lick on the Sheppard property. Table 8 
summarizes results of the roadside surveys conducted in April, June, and 
August, for which different methods than those used for the October and 
January surveys were employed. In April, at least 40 different sheep were 
observed. The average number of individual sheep known present during the 
six April surveys was 26.2; the average number of observations recorded was 
35.5. In June, only 6 different sheep were observed, and in August, only 3 
were sighted. This decrease in sheep sightings is thought to be due to (1) 
decreased observability due to leaf -out and use of dense cover by sheep, and 
(2) summer movement of sheep to somewhat higher elevations, as indicated by 
other data obtained during the study period. During April visits to the 
Sheppard meadows, no known bighorn sheep sign was observed. 



22 



Table 8. Results of bighorn sheep roadside surveys, Kootenai Falls study area, 
1981. 



Date 


Observer 


Starting 
Time 


Starting 
Station No. 


No. Obs. 
Recorded 


Min. 
Rams 


No. Sheep Known Present 
Ewes Other3 Total 


April 4 




LT 


1702 


10 




85 




18 




22 







40 


April 5 




LT 


1715 


1 




34 




5 




17 




6 


28 


April 7 




SK 


0618 


1 




18 




7 




6 




4 


17 


April 7 




SK 


1155 


1 




25 




6 




8 




10 


24 


April 24 




SK 


0545 


10 




28 




20 




7 




1 


28 


April 24 




SK 


1210 


10 




23 




5 




10 




5 


20 


April Aver 


age 










35. 


5 


10. 


2 


11. 


7 


4.3 


26.2 


June 12 




SK 


0545 


1 




6 




1 









5 


6 


June 13 




SK 


1200 


1 




2 









1 




1 


O 


June 13 




SK 


1945 


1 




4 









2 




2 


4 


June Average 










4. 





0. 


3 


1. 





2.7 


4.0 


August 2 




PN 


0750 


1 




3 









2 




1 


3 


August 2 




PN 


1925 


10 

























August 4 




PN 


1421 


10 

























August Ave 


rage 








1. 





0. 





0. 


7 


0.3 


1.0 



lSK=Stacy Kiser, PN=Pat Nichols, LT=Larry Thompson 
Includes multiple observations of the same individuals 

-"Includes lambs and unclassified sheep 



23 



.4'V^ 



\fe 



Ar.A \', 



•-^\> 



^^^' 



iia 



// £?o 



:r^>.^ 



nV-— . 



V/.: 



•.LiBf 



•'II \ 



mm^'^^ 



^i'i^ 






MW 



feS^.f- 



^/ll 



^ :'/''' II'* 



B:'i 



Huh III • 



///// 



mmm^^ 



-^:rS>^; 






.\~i^^ 



V)! 1 <] it ' 



^y^Lc^ ) 



i^vn; 



•^N^vc 






' ' ' 1 i M/ ■'. 



// 



7 



'^mf 



m. 



mm 



u i:t 



^v 









y^ 



,;*/'t.^:- 



^:^^^,v 






^ 



"^im^ 



i:;m^'^ 



/K--: 



VVVV 



:<c^n 



?;'' •/' 



-n 



%-,- 



mil 



\t;^ 



^^^.. 






^gg^TTFl^ 



//,./.#/,' 



~^;'^ 



ll/il 



' o' • i V :/t / y 



6C-1 






CO 


C CO 






u 


•H 0^ ^N 


CO 




c 


1-1 -< • 


3 




T-( 


3 4) 


o 




o 


•T3 W N 


•V 




(^ 


Q) -H 


n 






Cl. J3 W 


(U 




C 


0) S 


2: 


^ 


o 


01 0) O. 




u 


•H 


j: -u 3 


•a 


o 


4J 


W D- O 


u 


iH 


CO 


0) l-i 


(Q 


n 


> 


g M ec 


D. 




u 


O. 


u 


01 


O O (U 


0) 


»H 


CO 


x: 00 4J 


x: 


CO 


X 


60 On Cfl 


M 


to 


O 


iH •-< O 








^ •r4 


II 


II 


n 


Vi -o 


A 






U-i (U c 

O ^ -H 


\ 


K 


± 


B 


1 




m 


U] <U CO 








C 4-1 1-1 








o a o 








•H 0) XI 








4J w s 

flj ^ 








> ~ (fl 








V4 (A 








(1) >. C 








0) 01 •'-' 


Vl 






XI > £ 


01 






o n <-• 


X 


iH 




3 -H 


o 


•H 


0) > 


CO ^ 


4-1 


)>■ 


C "li 




o 


a. 


3 3 


sr u CO 


o 


< 


<-) -3 


•o u 








0) 1-1 0) 


It 


R 


n H 


H (0 X 








3 T3 E 


r^< 


y^ 


^/^ 


60 « 3 


w 


v^ 


^ Xy 


•^ o z 




^ 


^^ v^ 


tl< M ^ 









/','^f 



1/ 



X 



f 



,ZJ 



-ao.- 



'T / //y 



n \i 



/'//////■/, 



//, 



//.//////y-'/v 



I III 



lt<l Vv^ 



»^a;u^ 



-^ 



\-Vv 



^^^: 



,v^. 



^ 



'V^ 



.\\\ 



'<>i 



ix: 



i:- 



^^ 



fA\ 



°o^c^ 



w^ 



v\ 



Amphibian and Reptile Search 

On April 3 and 5, 1981, five different Coeur d'Alene salamanders were 
observed at two sites in the vicinity of 1980 sightings- -under moss on cliffs 
near the U.S. Highway 2 retaining wall above the proposed tail tunnel outlet. 
Two specimens, collected in 1980, were deposited with Montana State 
University in Bozeman. 

Small Mammal Trapping 

Table 9 presents a summary of the results of 1981 small mammal trapping. 

Table 9. Kootenai Falls small mammal trapping results, 
August 1981. 



Floodplain 
Grass land 



Riparian Trees Total 
and Shrubs 1981 



Total number of captures 

Total number of species 

Total biomass (grams) 

Captures per species: 

Masked Shrew 
( Sorex cinereus ) 

Yellow pine Chipmunk 
( Eutamias amoenus ) 

Deer Mouse 

( Peromyscus maniculatus ) 

Long-tailed Vole 
(Microtus longicaudus ) 

Meadow Jumping Mouse 
( Zapus princeps ) 

Flying Squirrel 
( Glaucomys sabrinus ) 



577 



21 



15 
4 

ill 



12 



40 

6 

888 



33 



26 



RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE MONITORING 

The monitoring study should be continued as modified (DNRC 1981), and 
work should continue toward selection of a suitable control area. 
Preliminary study indicates that the section of the Kootenai River below 
Troy, as well as that part of the river between Libby and the proposed Libby 
Reregulation Project site, may be the best potential control areas, although 
they are by no means ideal. During the winter and spring 1982 monitoring 
studies, an effort should be made to investigate bighorn sheep use of the 
Sheppard property. This will be especially important if the winter of 1981- 
82 is more severe than 1980-81. The monitoring contract should be amended to 
include a late February-early March field trip to further investigate the use 
of the Sheppard property by bighorn sheep. 



27 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 



This study was funded by Northern Lights, Inc. of Sandpoint , Idaho. 
Inventory data were gathered by Pat Nichols. Stacy Kiser, and Larry Thompson 
of the Department of Natural Resources and Conservation. Graphics were 
executed by June Virag. William Phippen, DNRC , edited the report. Typing 
was done by Joanne Brown. 



28 



LITERATURE CITED 

DNRC . 1979. Kootenai Falls wildlife inventory and impact analysis. Final 
Report. Helena, MT. 

DNRC. 1981. Kootenai Falls wildlife monitoring study. First annual report. 
Helena, MT. 

Hall, G.A. 1964. Breeding bird censuses--why and how? Audubon Field Notes 
18:413-416. 

Kolb, H. 1965. The Audubon winter bird population study. Audubon Field 
Notes 19:432-434. 

Meyer, J.R. 1979. Northwest Montana/North Idaho transmission corridor bald 
eagle study. Bonneville Power Administration. Portland, OR. 

Skaar, P.D. 1980. Montana bird distribution. P.D. Skaar, 501 South Third, 
Bozeman , MT. 

Van Velzen, W.T. 1972. Breoding-bird census instructions. Amer . Birds 
26(6) :929-931. 



29 



e 
o 
o 



O O 



O ^ — « 



U ^^ li 



0) 0) ^ 






O fO v- •-< 



U -r-* cr (0 O 



•H (T] fflJ-O W 






nj 


« 




3 


3 


m 


*-» 


u 




tfi 


in 


rH 


tti 


(0 


D 


u-> 


u~. 


U-. 


m 


W 


3 


(L 


tv 


o 


•o 


■c 





^ ^ 3 

u .-H O O U3 
(C (13 I- C 3 



U_. I- 14- C C 



3 3 OJ 3 0) 3 

t-Hi— ij2^ kirH ifi en 

u u u 4-j u r-4 a 

■M ^ c ■>-' c •--* re 3 



■H re m 

> 3] tn E 

(C en OJ re 

i: re' TJ -^ - 



:z h|e: ti- 



Di 03 H O 
P3 U tn DC 



u 


re 


01 


N 


< 


1-f 




j: 




t~i 


en 





1-t 


E 


g 


re 

If) 


CJ 


,—t 


c 


re 




CQ 



CM (Ni ^ 



i§ 



at) c 
E 



3 re 01 tn 

C 3 U)\*-> 
^ in O-l O 



|d- h 



rel re 

or 6C 

3 
tnl tn 



w en 



E 


re 


3 


(U 


l^ 


.—1 


^ 


3 


re 


^. 




a; 


bO 


u 



•H 3 Ld 



c 
>i o 



CM 
•■ CN lA CO n r^ CT^ 



I Q U O CT, 2 3 U 
: to U P- O Q Q CAl 



o in 

^ < 



rs 







0) M 






ar H 


t-< 


l-i 


01 < 


11 


0) 


> H 


4-) 




uu 


re 


re 


u O 


3 


:3 


4-1 > 


3 


4-1 


re 



1 








-TD H 


-a 




















en 






OJ 






>. 


















C < 


c 










CN 






re 




•^ 


oi 




re 


>> 










'i~> 








re H 


re 










en 


m 






^ 






3 


re 










00 








.— 1 K-l 








•o 




-a 




en 


u<^ 


U 


c 




1 


3 










o 


,,^ 






C^ CO 


-D 






o 




o 




tH 


3 


X 


re 


W4 


^-v 


t4-l 


t 










•~i 


"U 






5S 


c 






o 




o 




QJ 


o 


3 


XI 


0) 


en 


O 


l4-< 












c 






re 


T3 




3 




3 


Ul 


U-t 


Q 


u 


QJ 




3 




o 










u 


re 




in 






C 




oc 




c 


3 


•H 


1 


X. 


c 


w 


O 


4J 












o 






3 


tf, K 


« 


re 









o 


O 


c 


0) 


ey: 




01 


U 


£. 


i~i 












a. 






CL LO 


en 


(—( 


-C 


Q 


■a 


4-> 


3 


o 


c 


-*>, 


•z. 


3 


QJ 


OC X. 










^ 


:3 




re 


o a: 


re 


tn 


en 


1 


o 


4-> 


•o 


u 




u 




1 


<4-l 


l-t 


oc 








c 


o 






H 


t^ < 


V-i 


en 


1-1 


1- 


o 


o 


■H 




Ph 




u 


)-• 


*H 


DC 


•H 








c 


o 




)-i 




tj S 


o 


re 


re 


01 


3 


tn 


U 


(J 


-v 




u- 


-H 


1H 


c 




PC 








-ICO 


oc: 


^ 


re 


•n 


4-t 




i~< 


X ^ 




-o 


OC H 




QJ 


o 


re 




u- 


u- 


o 


QJ 








0^ 


en o -H 




u 


cc 


c 


3 O 


c 


O 


H- 






o 


< 


c 


Q 





en 








o 


C 


TJ 




u 




to —i tn 


"O 


o 




re 


°§ 


re 




-1 < 




< 


Q 


H 


re 




3 


o 


en 


w 


w 






re 


"0 




ON 


u en (A 


01 


Di 


,_H 






OJ 


T^ (- 


3 


1 


1 


►-t 






c 


t-i 


re 


re 


re 




•— « 


o 


u 


< 


^^ 


o en 01 


in 




Cj 


OJ 




t-i 


3 


re *-< 


O 


X. 


l-< 


CQ 


1- 


in 


o 


o> 








w 


l-> 


t-i 


re 






CJ o u 


o 


Oi 


> 


o> 


^' Q 


re 


(J 


4^ CQ 




u 


OJ 


S 


re 


oc 


4-1 


-o 


oc 


oc 


oo 


oc 


0) 


rH 


X 


c 


U 


3 u U 


O- 


V- 


re 


v- 


o >'. 


a. 


(/> 


%^ 


_- ( 


t- 


-o 


a 


re 


4-1 


c 


3 


3 


3 


re 


3 


■H 


u 


01 


a: 


cn u 3 


X 


re 


)-i 


u 


O < 




Q> 












c 


o 


o 





o 


O 


c 


o 


re 


i-i 


a. 


;£ 


3 m 


UJ 


CQ 


o 


Vi 


Di .-1 


a: 


U. 


u 


12 


cc 


< 


H 


p^ 


LO 


o 


Pm 


Q 


Q 


Q 


Crt 


PU 


PC 


o 


o 


Q 


>> trt 










tn 






(Q 








LO 


















p:; 












^ QJ 










trt 






;=3 








W 


















U 










0» 


»-i T3 *-< 










S 






Oi 








tf 




























0> 


re -H re 














X 








o 




























\n 


w i: ^ 










o 






V!) 








pb 


















O 










~* 


(N m >3- 



30 



- -<^ 



t.# 



-?fc? 



"'*^,. 



^v\ 



^ 



^^^'^ 



^^SN^-S' 



-■^-' 



m 



y^ . 



'7/ 



V 



'-r 



l'^ 



'/' 



iA TVMlllV 



% 



SJy. 



.^^. 



'^fy 



y^^ 



'J'j 



:<^ 



^I'li 



m n 



<.ii 



CM 



-^ 



\\ 



^X 



60 




c 




•H 




.o 






t 


U 


m 


CO 


■V 


0) 


c 


•o 


3 




O 


u 


m 


o 




K-l 


01 




3 


m 


0) 


(U • 


c 


•a c 


(U 


o o 


u 


a -H 




U 


(0 


rt 3 


0) 


<u ^ 


^ 


U -H 


< 


< u 




u 


iJ 



% 



y\ 



.-i^ 



\ 



V 



CD 



0) 

pa "O 

X <u 

•a •<-• 
c '-" 
0) -o 

p. rH 
CI. tH 

< » 



vW 



^ 



(?■ 



m 



\ 



;^. 






>/• 



Mi 



:^^^ 



30 copies of this publication were published at an estimated cost of $2.98 per copy, for a 
total cost of $89.40, which includes $89.40 for printing and $.00 for distribution. 



B 33. ir 



KOOTENAI FALLS 

WILDLIFE 

MONITORING STUDY 









First Annual Report 

for the period 

September 2, 1979 - September 1, 1980 



fifji 


COCUMt'NYo 


COLlELTittJ 




JUL 1 5 


1985 


'VvC 


■,;■■::.■.■-:;.. ':.ta- 


l~: [.rj'il.'-.\X', 




i5!o v.. •;; 


: AV=?. 


Hft 


|>'tA, MCi ;'T-* 


I'A 5?6:o 



MONTANA DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES AND CONSERVATION 

FACILITY SITING DIVISION 

32 South Ewing 

Helena, MT 59620 

June 1981 



i 






H 



V 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

LIST OF FIGURES ^i 

LIST OF TABLES ^^^ 



INTRODUCTION, 



1 



METHODS 2 

Species List Update ^ 

Project Area Wildlife Census ^ 

Bald Eagle Survey ^ 

Harlequin Duck Special Studies ^ 

B ighorn Sheep Survey ^ 

Amphibian and Reptile Search 5 

Small Mammal Trapping 5 

Census of Yaak Falls 5 

Vegetation Analysis--Riparian Tree/Shrub Habitats 6 

Vegetation Analysis--Sheppard Meadows 6 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 9 

Species List Update 9 

Project Area Wildlife Census 9 

Bald Eagle Survey 14 

Harlequin Duck Special Studies 14 

B igliorn Sheep Survey 17 

Amphibian and Reptile Search t 21 

Small Mammal Trapping 21 

Census of Yaak Falls 21 

Vegetation Analysis--Riparian Tree/Shrub Habitats 23 

Vegetation Analysis--Sheppard Meadows 23 

RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE MONITORING 33 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 37 

LITERATirRE CITED 38 

APPENDIX 39 

i 



LIST OF FIGURES 



Figure 1. Locations of riparian tree and shrub 

sampling plots 7 

Figure 2. Seasonal variation in average numbers of vertebrate 
species encountered during project area wildlife 
censuses 13 

Figure 3. Seasonal variation in average numbers of dippers 

encountered during project area wildlife censuses 13 

Figure 4. Seasonal variation in average numbers of Canada goose, 
mallard, common goldeneye, and common merganser 
encountered during project area wildlife censuses 15 

Figure 5. Locations of bighorn sheep observations, September 1979- 

September 1980 18 

Figure 6. Dominant vegetation of the downstream Sheppard meadow 25 

Figure 7. Dominant vegetation of the middle Sheppard meadow 26 

Figure 8. Dominant vegetation of the upper Sheppard meadow 28 

Figure 9. Bighorn sheep observation stations 35 



11 



» 



LIST OF TABLES 



Table 1. Schedule of September 1979 - September 1980 field work, 

Kootenai Falls Wildlife Study 3 

Table 2. Summary of data collected on new species encountered during 
the first monitoring period (September 1979 - 
September 1980) 10 

Table 3. Results of project area wildlife censuses, October 1979 - 

August 1980 12 

Table 4. Harlequin duck observations in the Kootenai Falls area, 

September 1979 - October 1980 16 

Table 5. Summary of Kootenai Falls small mammal trapping program, 

October 1979 and August 1980 22 

Table 6. Number of woody stems less than 3 inches d.b.h. inter- 
cepted in two transects (74 feet long and an arm's 
length wide) through each of ten riparian vegetation 
study plots 24 

Table 7. Percent canopy coverage of nine plant communities 

in three grassy meadows upstream from Kootenai Falls 27 



^1 



INTRODUCTION 

Northern Lights, Inc. (NLI), a rural electric cooperative based in 
Sandpomt, Idaho, submitted an application to the Montana Department of 
Natural Resources and Conservation (DNRC) in 1980 to build a hydroelectric 
dam and generating plant, known as the Kootenai River Project, in the 
Kootenai Falls area of Lincoln County, Montana. In 1978, NLI contracted DNRC 
to conduct a baseline wildlife investigation in the project area. The 
results of that study, completed in September 1979, were published later that 
year (DNRC 1979). 

To keep the wildlife data base current and to determine the nature of 
year-to-year variation in wildlife use of the project area, NLI contracted 
with DNRC in October 1979 to continue pre-certification wildlife monitoring 
(see DNRC 1979 for a study plan) . This study would provide a data base for 
documenting project-related impacts and determining the success of mitigation 
and compensation programs, if the Board of Natural Resources issues a 
certificate for the site. 

This First Annual Report documents results from the first year of the 
Kootenai Falls wildlife monitoring study (September 2, 1979, through 
September 1, 1980). The area monitored in this study was the same as that 
inventoried during the original baseline study (DNRC 1979, pp. 2-3), although 
some surveys also were conducted along U.S. Highway 2 between Libby and Troy. 



METHODS 

Field techniques and analytical methods used in this study were as 
described in the baseline studies report (DNRC 1979, pp. 109-112). Three 
biologists worked in the study area a number of times during the study period 
(see table 1). A brief summary of methods employed for individual study 
segments follows. 

Species List Update 

The species lists presented in the baseline report (DNRC 1979) were 
updated, with emphasis placed on refining habitat preference and local 
distribution data. 

Project Area Wildlife Census 

This census was designed to collect data that would allow comparison of 
wildlife use of the project area between months and between years. The 
methods used were patterned after the standard winter bird study (Kolb 1965) 
and breeding bird census (Hall 1964, Van Velzen 1972) techniques used in the 
original inventory, but were extended to include all vertebrate species. The 
area censused includes: the entire Kootenai River and its shorelines from 50 
m (164 ft) below the proposed dam outlet to the upper end of the proposed 
reservoir; the land which would be inundated by the dam at a forebay 
elevation of 610m (2,000 ft); the land which would be affected by railroad 
relocation; and all remaining land between Highway 2 and the Kootenai River. 
The entire area was censused for three consecutive days during the months of 



■IVible I 



Dates 



Schedule of September 1979 - September 1980 field work, 
Kootenai Falls Wildlife Study. 



Observer (s) 



Type of Field Work 



October 8-11, 1979 



PN- 



1/ 



Riparian wildlife census, bighorn sheep 
count, Yaak Falls census, small mammal 
trapping 



January 15-17, 1980 PN , LT 



Riparian wildlife census, bald eagle survey, 
bighorn sheep counts, census of Yaak Falls 



April 8-11, 1980 



PN 



Riparian wildlife census, bighorn sheep 
tracking, bighorn sheep count, reptile S 
amphibian search, Yaak Falls census 



June 2-4, 1980 



PN 



Riparian wildlife census, harlequin duck 
survey, bighorn sheep count, reptile & 
amphibian search, Yaak Falls census 



August n-14, 1980 



PN,LT,JB 



Riparian wildlife census, harlequin duck 
.survey, bighorn sheep counts, amphibian 
& reptile search, small mammal trapping, 
census of Yaak Falls, habitat description, 
meadow vegetation analysis. 



Vl'N-Pat Nichols 
I,T=Larry Th(jmpson 
JB=Jeff Birkby 



October 1979, and January, April, June and August 1980, following the 
instructions outlined in the baseline report (DNRC 1979, Appendix F) . 

Bald Eagle Survey 

The Kootenai River between Libby and Troy was surveyed for bald eagles on 
January 16 (2 counts) and January 17 (,1 count), following the methods of 
Meyer (1979). Surveys were made from U.S. Highway 2. Bald eagles seen 
during general surveys and riparian habitat censuses were also recorded. 

Harlequin Duck Special St udies 

In addition to surveys made during riparian habitat censuses, special 
searches of the Kootenai Falls area for harlequin ducks were conducted each 
study day in June and August. In June, emphasis was placed on determining 
the total harlequin duck population and the number of pairs present in the 
project area; in August, emphasis was placed on locating broods. 

Bighorn Sheep Survey 

One day per visit, the cliffs north of the river between Libby and Troy 
were surveyed with a spotting scope from strategic viewpoints along U.S. 
Highway 2. All observations were recorded on field maps and data sheets. 

On April 10 and 11, ground searches for evidence of sheep use were 
conducted on the north shore of the Kootenai River adjacent to known bighorn 
sheep range. These data also were recorded. Differentiating between deer 
and bighorn sheep sign was difficult. 



Amphibian and Reptile Search 

At least four hours was spent each month during April, June, and August 
searching likely habitat in the project area for amphibians and reptiles. 

Small Mammal Trapping 

Two snap-trap lines (each consisting of 25 stations with two traps per 
station) were run for three consecutive nights (August 11-14, 1980), one in 
riparian cottonwoods at the head of Kootenai Falls, and the other in adjacent 
riparian grassland. Capture data were recorded on standard data sheets. 

Census of Yaak Falls 

Water and shoreline habitats of Yaak Falls, including those areas within 
100 m (328 ft) of the head of the falls (upstream and downstream), were 
censused for vertebrates on October 10, 1979, and January 17, April 8, June 
2, and August 12, 1980, to determine the area's suitability as a future 
control study or compensation area. 



Vegetation Analysis--Riparian Tree/Shrub Habitats 

Riparian tree and shrub habitats (including the riparian cottonwood, 
cottonwood-conifer , and birch-alder communities described by Olsen-Elliott 
and Associates (1979)) on the south terrace immediately above Kootenai Falls, 
were sampled August 12-13, 1980, using the methods of James and Shugart 
(1970). This terrace would be flooded by the proposed reservoir. Ten 
vegetation plots, each 0.44 ha (0.1 acre) in size, were permanently staked 
and sampled. Locations of these plots are shown in figure 1. 

Vegetation Analysis--Sheppard Meadows 

Three grassy meadows on the north bank of the river about 1.5 miles above 
the head of Kootenai falls (DNRC 1979, p. 62) also were sampled using the 
canopy-coverage methods of Daubenmire (1959). These meadows are believed to 
be a source of early-spring forage for bighorn sheep. Because impounding the 
river could alter the vegetative composition and, thus, the use of these 
meadows by bighorns, the Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks 
(DFWP) has expressed concern over the project. 

The property on which the meadows lie, formerly owned by Mr. Dale 
Sheppard, was purchased by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to mitigate the 
impacts on wildlife habitat caused by Libby Dam. The land is scheduled to be 
turned over to the State of Montana, and managed by DFWP for bighorn sheep. 







U 



c 



r. 

•rl 



c 
u 

o 



The following methods were used to determine the distribution of 
vegetation in the meadows: 



1) Approximate measurements of the length and 
width of each meadow were made. 

2) Major community types in each meadow were determined by 
subjectively identifying relatively homogeneous stands 
of associated plant species within a contiguous area. 

3) Three ten-meter transects were laid out within selected major 
community types in each meadow. The transects were placed in 
what appeared to be the most representative part of each 
community, and were generally oriented parallel to the 
Kootenai River. 

4) A measuring tape was stretched the length of the transect, and 
Daubenmire coverage frames (Daubenmire 1959) were placed on 
alternating sides of the tape at one-meter intervals. 

The percent of canopy-coverage for each plant species within 
each frame was noted and recorded on data sheets. 

5) Color photographs of the major community types were taken. 
These are on file with DNRC in Helena. 

6) Canopy-coverage data, originally assigned a cover class number 
(Daubenmire 1959), were converted to percent coverage for 
each plant species, using the midpoint for each class. 

7) Maps of each meadow were drawn on topographic 
maps at a scale of 1:1,200. 



RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 
Species List Update 

During the monitoring period, 70 species of vertebrates were observed or 
trapped--l species of amphibian, 1 reptile, 55 birds, and 13 mammals. Also 
during the monitoring period, 13 new species (1 amphibian, 12 birds) were 
found, bringing the total number of species observed since the studies began 
in 1978 to 124 (1 amphibian, 1 reptile, 84 birds, and 28 mammals). Data on 
those new species are summarized in table 2. The types of data included and 
the abbreviations used are as described in the baseline study (DNRC 1979, pp. 
23-29). 

Project Area Wildlife Census 

Results of the wildlife censuses conducted in the project area during the 
study period are summarized in table 3. 

Seasonal variation in numbers of species encountered during project area 
censuses each month is shown in figure 2. Study data show that the number of 
water-related bird species (waterfowl, shorebirds, herons, gulls, ospreys , 
bald eagles, dippers, belted kingfishers) remains relatively constant year- 
round, with a slight increase during the breeding season. The number of 
species of other birds is relatively high throughout the year, but increases 
considerably during the breeding season. 

Census results for the dipper are shown in figure 3, and variations in 
average monthly abundance of the most common waterfowl species, as determined 
by the censuses, is portrayed in figure 4. 



o 



Q M 

2 O 

O U 

t/l U 

< O 
>n 3 rJ 
fo 3 Z 

s < >< 

< 0. a 
s < o; 
[k u pa 

Ij rt z 



(U 


1-1 


C 


u 


n3 


CO 


c 


fl 


a> 


03 


jt: 


<H 


TI 


t/i 




C 






3 






XI 






< 






TJ 






C 






m 






t/i 






D 






JJ 




>, 


(fl 


U) 


T3 


jJ 


-H 


O 



1^ 


0) 


0) 


U) 


x: 


X3 


2 


O 



c 


■H 


f3 


0) 


•-H 


^ 


fO 


>. 


Ul 


■a 




c 


a 


fO 


c 


> 



H 


w 




Vj 


T) 





<D 


u 


U^ 


in 


C 


-H 


H 


13 





U} 


■P 




•i-i 


--* 


■H 


fO 


3 


■P 


t/1 


fd 




X 


'O 


m 


QJ 


Ul 



■H -H V^ 4J 



^ 


U) 


cr- 


OJ 


H 


^ 


2 


H 




G 


C 


TJ 





^-^ 







g 


-C 


G 


o 



3: — u ~- 





n3 


A< 


-U 


Ui 


U 


TJ 


0) 






3 


O^ 





0) 


•X3 


c 



3 — a — 



01 


n] 


r. 






1—1 


c 


01 


u 


c 


(U 


in 


*J 


3 


m 


4-» 


a> 


I/) 



( 



TO 






XI 
0) 



XI 

e 

01 

o 
<u 
a 

s: 
en 
3 
O 



J3 



a 
•a 
u 
o 



« 


■ 1-1 

4-> 


}^ 






OJ 


u 





C 


(U 


1-^ 


o 


TJ 






(1) 


1^ 



<4-l 


(A 


iJ . 


fl3 


"O ^ 




0) 


s 




.H 


■3i5 


T 


4-" 


o ^ 


a» 


fO 


^3 


3 


" 


a 


T' 


to 


(0 » 


-H 


0) 


,^ 


U-) 


IM 


C (J> 




<TJ 


"< 1- 






_. CT> 




c 


■o ^ 


0> 


■H 


(1) 




in 


w c^ 


■H 


kj 


•■1 z 




OJ 





a. 


a 







4J 




a 


n) 


a 


•H 


1^ 




m 




4J 


4J 





CP 




c 


ftJ 


TJ 


Q. 


c 


c 


■rH 


■H 


U 


OJ 




■H 




l^ 


4J 


u 


t3 




Ul 


D- 


UJ 




0) 


LO 


1-4 







U) 


dj 


)^ 


OJ 


M 


Cn 


13 


vj 


at 




CU 


V 




^ 


-Q 


§ 


a 


u 


■H 



3 


01 


m 


U) 









OJ 


IM 




3 


-H 




C 


OJ 


a 







14-. 


OJ 


c 


g 




a 



18 
TJ 



11 



Table 3. Results of project 


area wi 


Idlife 


censuses, 


October 


1979-August 1980. 


Avera 
Species 


ge numbe 
Oct. 


r known 
Jan. 


1 present 
Apr. 


psr trip 
June 


Aug. 




BIRDS 

Great Blue Heron 


0.5 




0. 3 


0.7 


0. 3 




Canada Goose 


4.0 


21.3 


2.3 


5.3 


0. 3 




Mallard 


15.3 


36.3 


32.0 


22.3 


14.3 




Gadwall 


0.8 


- 


- 


- 


- 




Green-winged Teal 


- 


- 


1.3 


- 


- 




Blue-winqed Teal 


- 


- 


- 


.7 


- 




Common Goldeneye 


- 


68.3 


17.3 


- 


- 




Bufflehead 


- 


- 


0.7 


- 


- 




Harlequin Duck 


- 


- 


- 


1.0 


1.0 




Hooded Merganser 


- 


0.7 


- 


- 


- 




Common Merganser 


5.3 


8.0 


6.0 


22.7 


12.0 




Unidentified Duck 


- 


- 


- 


- 


0.7 




Red-tailed Hawk 


- 


- 


- 


- 


0.7 




Bald Eagle 


- 


2.0 


- 


- 


- 




Osprey 


0.8 


- 


- 


1.0 


1.7 




American Kestrel 


- 


- 


- 


1.0 


- 




Ruffed Grouse 


0. 3 


- 


- 


- 


- 




Killdeer 


- 


0.3 


0.7 


2.3 


- 




Spotted Sandpiper 


- 


- 


- 


3. 


2.0 




Unidentified Gull 


- 


- 


- 


0.3 


- 




Mourning Dove 


- 


- 


- 


1.0 


0.7 




Common Nighthawk 


- 


- 


- 


1.0 


- 




White-throated Swift 


- 


- 


- 


- 


n. 3 




Unidentified Hummingbird 


- 


- 


- 


0.3 


- 




Belted Kingfisher 


1.3 


- 


- 


- 


1.0 




Common Flicker 


0.3 


- 


1.0 


0.7 


- 




Pileated Woodpecker 


- 


0.3 


- 


- 


- 




Hairy Woodpecker 


- 


0.3 


- 


1.0 


- 




Unidentified Woodpecker 


- 


- 


- 


- 


0.7 




Unidentified Flycatcher 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1.3 




Violet-green Swallow 


- 


- 


- 


17.0 


- 




Barn Swallow 


- 


- 


- 


0.7 


- 




Unidentified Swallow 


- 


- 


2.0 


3.0 


4.0 




Steller' s Jay 


1.3 


- 


0.7 


- 


- 




Common Raven 


0.8 


9.3 


.3 


1.0 


6.3 




Common Crow 


9.8 


1.3 


14.7 


10.7 


11.0 




Chestnut-backed Chickadee - 


0.3 


- 


- 


- 




Black-capped Chickadee 


3.0 


13.3 


6. 3 


5.3 


4. 3 




Red-breasted Nuthatch 


2.3 


2.3 


1.3 


1.0 


3.3 




Gray Catbird 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1.0 




Brown Creeper 


- 


0.3 


- 


- 


- 




Dipper 


5.0 


7.7 


1.3 


3.0 


1.7 




American Robin 


0.8 


- 


13.0 


4.7 


0.3 




Varied Thrush 


1.5 


- 


2.0 


- 


- 




Mountain Bluebird 


0.3 


- 


0.7 


0.7 


- 




Townsend's Solitaire 


2.3 


0.3 


1.0 


1.0 


- 




Golden-crowned -King let 


5.8 


5.3 


- 


- 


- 




Cedar Waxwing 


- 


- 


- 


- 


4.0 




Red-eyed Vireo 


- 


- 


- 


4.0 


0.3 




Northern Shrike 


- 


0.7 


- 


- 


- 




Nashville Warbler 


- 


- 


- 


0.7 


- 




Yellow Warbler 


- 


- 


- 


1.7 


- 




Yellow-rumped Warbler 


- 


- 


- 


2.0 


- 




American Redstart 


- 


- 


- 


1.3 


0.7 




Unidentified Warbler 


- 


- 


- 


- 


0.3 




Western Meadowlark 


0.3 


- 


- 


- 


- 




Brown-headed Cowbird 


- 


- 


- 


0.7 


- 




Pine Siskin 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2.0 




Rufous-sided Towhee 


- 


- 


0.7 


- 


- 




Dark-eyed Junco 


- 


0.3 


32.3 


2. 7 


0.7 




Chipping Sparrow 


0.5 


- 


- 


0.3 


l.U 




Song Sparrow 


3.0 


2.0 


12.7 


8.3 


B.O 




Unidentified Sparrow 


0.5 


- 


- 


- 


0.7 




Unidentified Passerine 


0.5 


1.0 


- 


- 


10. 1 




MAMMALS 

Unidentified Chi|jmunk 


f.. 3 


. 


_ 


1.3 


4. ! 




Tree Squirrel 


2.0 


2.0 


- 


- 


J. 7 




Bighorn Sheep 


8.8 


- 


1 . 


- 


- 




White-tailed "eer 


0.8 


- 


1. 3 


- 


- 




Muskrat 


0. ( 


- 


0.3 


- 


- 




REPTILES 

Unidentified garter snak 




_ 


_ 


0. 3 


_ 





12 





40 




38 




36 




34 




32 




30 




28 


10 
UJ 

o 

UJ 
Q. 


26 
24 
22 


U. 
O 


20 


K 

UJ 
03 

Z 

z 


18 
16 
14 



12- 
10- 
8- 
6- 
4- 
2- 
0- 



MAMMALS 




OTHER 
BIRDS 



no o n o n 
To nooooooo" 
^ ^ A ^ ^ I I I 1 1 1 il 1 1 n n n n n n n n n n 
^uiTijvTuu i J P U5u')Q ("-f>i->[)ooQooooonooo 

0000000000000000'J'")0000000000000< 
■OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO 
DOOOOOOOOOOOr - ^ ^ __ OOOnOOOOOO' 

oooooooooooo lA/Zl I t R inooooooooo 

DOOOOOOOOOOOC " ' ^1* OOOOOOOOOO' 

■ oooooooooooo QIDf^Q loooooooooo 

DOOOOOOOOOOOC Dir\L^O OOOOOOOOOO' 

■oooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo 

30000000000000000000000000000000' 

oooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo 

30000000000000000000000000000000' 

OOOOOQOOOOOOOOOOOQOOO^'^O'^OOOOOO'^ 



I I I I I I I I I I 



o 


a. 


K 


> 


(J 


z 


OD 


(T 


(T 


V 


z 


-I 


o 


■D 


UJ 


O 


o 


UJ 


<s 


UJ 


< 


a. 


4 


3 


D 


Z) 


< 


to 


o 


z 


Q 


-> 


U. 


s 


< 


2 


-5 


-3 


< 



1979 



1980 



■:asomx ".'.in n; 



:'■- rrca vili.;i:l 



cc.nsi'sc;;, 



10-1 



9- 



z 

UJ 

trt 

UJ 

a 

z 
$ 
o 

z 

a: 

UJ 

m 

UJ 

o 
< 

UJ 



7- 



5- 



4- 



3- 



2- 



I - 




I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



Z 03 CC (E >- Z 
< UJ < 0. ** 3 

-3 u. 2 < 2 -> 



_ie)Q.i->ozo3Q:Q:v 

D3UJOOUJ<UJ<Q.< 
T<«OZQ-5U.2<2 



1979 



Z -I o 
3 O 3 
-J T> < 

1980 



M."('rt; '3. ^rasonal variation in average nvin'-ers of (-irpor.s encountered 
'urir;'^ T-i-o-jcct area "ildlife censuses. 



13 



Bald Eagle Survey 

During the monitoring period, bald eagles were observed only in January. 
No bald eagles were seen during the first two roadside counts, but two adults 
were viewed during the January 17 count, one near China Rapids and the other 
near the Libby city limits. At least two eagles, one adult and one juvenile, 
were known to be present in the project area (near China Rapids) during 
wildlife censuses. The adult was probably the one observed near China Rapids 
during the roadside count. 

Harlequin Duck Special Studies 

Information on harlequin ducks observed during the monitoring period is 
presented in table 4. On October 8, 1979, a female harlequin was seen in the 
Kootenai River approximately 3 miles upstream from Kootenai Falls, and on 
October 12, 1979, an adult female harlequin was shot by a hunter on the 
Kootenai River near the mouth of Cedar Creek, 7 miles upstream from Kootenai 
Falls (John Jeresek, pers . comm.). This is an unusually late record for this 
species in Montana. On June 2, a pair of harlequins was seen feeding and 
loafing among rocks in China Rapids. Despite an intensive search, no broods 
were located by DNRC biologists. However, in July 1980, a brood of three 
young was seen with one adult female and two adult males among the rocks in 
river section M just above the falls (Rogers 1980; Wolf pers. comm.). This 
is the first documentation of harlequin ducks breeding in the study area. 



14 



■ CANADA GOOSE 

• MALLARD 

D COMMON GOLDENEYE 

O COMMON MERGANSER 




I I r I I I I I I I I 
zmtrccvz-iOQ.(->ozmQ:Q:>-z 
«iuj<a.<3Z)3iuooiiJ<iii<*'^**3 
-9U.5<5-3-><t0OZO-3ii.5<5-s 



f^ 



_l o 



1979 



1980 



Figure A. Seasonal variation in averape numbers of Canada Roose, 
nallnrc , comron rrolcicneyc, ani.' conKon ror^anser encounterci" durin" 
prniect area '-.'ilc'l iCr cons'ines. 



15 



Table 4. Harlequin duck observations in the Kootenai Falls area, 

September 1979-October 1980. 



Date 



Minimum number known present 



Males 



Females 



Pairs 



Total 



Location 



(River Section)-—' 



1/ 



October 8, 1979 
June 2, 1980 
June 3, 1980 
August 11, 1980 
August 12, 1980 



Q 

P, ti 

M 
M 
M 



1/Abbreviations as defined in the baseline study (DNRC 1979, pp. 14-16), 



16 



Bighorn Sheep Survey 

During bighorn sheep roadside counts, 52 sightings of bighorn sheep were 
recorded (20 ewes, 1 ram, 19 lambs, and 3 unidentified). Locations of these 
and other bighorn sheep sightings are shown in figure 5. 

On October 10, 1979, during the riparian survey, a group of 10 sheep was 
observed just upstream from the proposed dam's discharge tunnel outlet. This 
group consisted of 5 rams, 3 ewes, and 2 lambs. Later that day, another 
group of 12 sheep was observed on the open slopes above Kootenai Falls. This 
group contained 4 rams, 5 ewes, and 3 lambs. 

On April 10, 1980, a group of three sheep was observed during the project 
area census. This group, bedded on the open bluff across the canyon near the 
proposed discharge tunnel outlet, was composed of 1 ewe and 2 lambs. 

During April 1980, a ground search for evidence of sheep use was 
conducted on the north shore along the proposed pool. Sheep tracks and 
droppings were found along the jeep trail and in the apple orchard, but no 
sheep were seen. A bedding area, with numerous beds, was present in the 
orchard in the lower Sheppard Meadow. Whether this bedding area was being 
used by sheep or deer could not be determined. 



17 




U 0) 

<U N 

U) -H 

O • 

c: u 

Q) o^ o 
CJ .-I (J 

a o) 
^- e rt 

O U O 

^ 4-1 -H 

t CI 1:3 

•rl (U C 

,:•-. to -H 

I 
L- a^ 0) 

ON O 

M ■-I ^ 



b n f>. ^ 

d C C 0^ C^ O -O 

O 0) -H ^ .-I M O 3N 

O iJ ^ ON CO rH 

0) -H 4) W --I *-l 

c " -i-t i; 3 

U) Ui o to t, 3 3 

(1) G 01 O •"- < ""1 "=^ 

3 -H E I! II II II II 



^ 



Amphibian and Reptile Search 

During August 1980, a population of Coeur d'Alene Salamanders ( Plethodon 
Vandyke i ) was discovered under moss on cliffs near the U.S. Highway 2 
retaining wall. This area, proposed as the site for an access tunnel to the 
powerhouse, is one of the very few sites in Montana in which this species 
(listed as a species of special interest or concern in Montana (Flath 1981)) 
is known to exist. No other amphibians were observed during the monitoring 
period. 

The only reptile found was an unidentified garter snake ( Thamnophis spp.) 
which was seen during the June wildlife census. 

Small Mammal Trapping 

Table 5 presents a summary of the results of 1979 and 1980 small mammal 
trapping. 

Census of Yaak Falls 

No vertebrates were observed in the Yaak Falls area during the October 
1979 and April 1980 censuses. On June 2, 1980, a single dipper and 4 black- 
capped chickadees were observed at the falls, and on August 12, 2 robins and 
a raven were observed on the shoreline near the falls. Based on these 
limited data, it appears that Yaak Falls does not provide a habitat 
comparable to that of Kootenai Falls, and would not be suitable as a control 
or compensation area. It is recommended that the census of Yaak Falls be 
dropped from the monitoring study. 



21 



M-l 
O 

Hi 



to 

Eh 



a 



lij 



o 

00 








CTi 








i-H 






CM 


iZ 


CM 


00 


O 


a> 


in 




O 


r- 


.H 




n 


0^ 








r-i 








o 






CT\ 


CO 


a^ 


in 


o 


cr. 


■sT 




(y\ 






w 




XI 




3 




1-4 


O 


£ 


CO 


W 


<r> 




(-1 


XI 


ca 


c 


en 


(T5 


r~ 




Oi 


U1 


iH 


0) 




OJ 




U 


O 


B 


CO 




C^ 


C 


rH 


ro 




-H 




M 




T! 


cy^ 


a 


r-- 


•H 


O 





O 




CO 


T3 


C^ 


c 


r-H 


fC 


te 


.H 


a> 


•J) 


r^ 


m 


G\ 


m 


.— 1 


u 




c 






O 


r^ 


CO 


■r^ 


(y> 


tC 


r-H 


rH 




& 




Tl 







01 





r- 


rH 


01 



ro 
O 



O 
^3- 



CO 
rsi 



0) 

3 

(0 

o 

o 

i-l 



3 



10 
4-1 
O 
Eh 



OJ 
■H 
O 
0) 

a 
in 

14H 



!h 
0) 



3 



rd 
-t-i 
O 



O 






in 

.-H 



00 
00 



in 






in 

(Nl 



e 

(0 



w 

e 
o 

Xi 



4-1 





in po Ln 



I n fN 



in o ro 



CN 
'3• 



01 

in 



lO 



I C1J 



I -g- ro 



in r~ 



in kd I 



m 

0) 

■r4 
O 
0) 

a 
tn 

Q) 

a, 
w 

0) 

!h 
3 
4-1 

a, 

It! 

o 



</> 

3 

0) 0) 
Sh C 

x: -H 

CO u 



0) 0) 

^ !-i 

U) O 

(0 CO 

s — 



s c 

0) to 

M 1-4 

x: 01 

CO (0 

> 

4-1 

c X 

(0 (U 

!-J IH 

01 o 

iTJ CO 

> -- 



72 



o 
in 



in 



CM 










,^ 








w 












Ul 




,— - 




3 












3 




■H 




u 




^ 




^ ^ 




4-) 




M 




•H 




tn 




U) 




(0 




(U 




c 




3 


01 


X 3 




.H 




ft 




1? 




T! 


tn 


C Tl 




3 




ft 




> 




3 


3 


3 3 




u 




nj 




M 




(0 





e (0 




•rH 




tjl 




>1 


0) 


u 


s -— 


a, 




c 


0) 






U) 


M 


-H 


tn 


■H -H 




rO 


r-4 


Ul 




c 





01 


Di ft 


x; MH 




6 





>1 




c 


> 


c 


C 0) 


U 3 






> 


E 




Q) 







■H U 


l4 




in 







0) 


ft 


TD 


.-H 


ft c 


TD 


0) 


3 


73 


c 


H 




0) 




e -I 


Q) tn 


w 


u 


(1) 








in 


.-H 


U) 


3 U 


■-H (0 


3 


U) 


X 


■H 


> 


3 


■rH 


3 


i-:i ft 


•rH -rH 





>, 





M 




4-1 


rfl 


4-1 




rO e 


s 


E 


to 


x: 


s 





4-1 





3 tn 


4-1 fO 







X! 


4-) 





1-4 


1 


Sh 


5 s 


1 4J 


iH 


S-4 


1 


0) 


T) 


o 


01 


o 


'O ft 


TD 3 


0) 


<u 


TD 


.H 


CO 


•H 


c 


•rH 


(0 m 


OJ w 


0) 
Q 


CU 


01 


u 


1 


2 


a 


s 


tu N 



M 



Vegetation Analysis--Riparian Tree/Shrub Habitats 

Results of the 1980 riparian tree and shrub analysis are presented in 
table 6 and the appendix. The ten plots studied, representative of the 
structurally-diverse riparian tree and shrub communities which would be 
inundated by the proposed Kootenai Falls dam and reservoir, were found to 
support nine species of trees and 20 species of tall (4.5 feet or taller) 
shrubs or tree saplings. Overall density of trees was 436 trees per acre, 
and shrub density was 7,330 shrub stems per acre. Average ground cover was 
62.5%, average canopy-coverage was 67.5%, and average canopy height was 46.0 
feet. Color photographs taken at each plot are on file at DNRC. 

Vegetation Analysis--Sheppard Meadows 

Results of the vegetation studies conducted in the grassy Sheppard 
Meadows are summarized in figures 6-8 and table 7. Descriptions of the three 
meadows follow. 

Downstream Meadow . This meadow (see figure 6) lies on a bench 7,100- 
8,300 feet upstream from the falls. Meadow elevations range from about 2,000 
to 2,008 feet (msl). The meadow is about 230 m long and 40 ra wide. Two 
barns, an apple orchard, and a fallen root cellar and homestead foundation 
occupy the meadow. A small spring flows into the meadow just west of the 
root cellar. This meadow is bounded on the north by dense coniferous 
forests, and on the south by the river bank, which supports a fringe of 
scattered trees (primarily Pseudotsuga menziesii and Pinus ponderosa ) . 



23 



Table 6. Number of woody stems less than 3 inches d.b.h. intercepted in two transects (74 feet lonq and an arm's 
length v;ade) through each of ten riparian vegetation study plots. 



Plot number 



Species 



Acer glabrum 
Alnus incana 
Amelanchier alnifolia 



Betula spp. 
Cornus stolonif era 
Crataegus douglasii 
Eleagnus commutata 
Juniperus scopulorum 
Philadelphus lewisii 
Pinus ponderosa 
Populus trichocarpa 
Prunus spp. 
Ps eudotsuga menziesii 
Rosa spp. 
Rubus ideaus 
Salix spp. 
Sambucus cerulea 
Shepherdia canadensis 
SymphoricarpQS albus 



4 


2 


16 


12 


11 


6 


4 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2 


- 


- 


- 


1 


1 


8 


5 


10 


18 


74 


35 


23 


44 


63 


- 


32 


4 


- 


1 


2 


2 


- 


- 


3 


- 


25 


4 


2 


- 


4 


6 


140 


129 


- 


2 


4 


1 


2 


- 


1 


1 


2 


- 


5 


2 


- 


1 


- 


4 


14 


- 


_ 


1 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


- 


7 


- 



12 



22 



1 
14 



7 
47 



25 



53 



31 



30 21 



11 



105 
1 



1 
1 
1 

46 



1 

9 

2 

12 



11 
5 



38 



3 


57 


7 


19 


5 


277 


- 


44 


8 


388 


- 


13 


_ 


27 



45 



145 

1 

17 

126 
2 

268 

6 

10 

3 

1 

51 



Thu:)a plicata 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


- 


1 


- 


1 


3 


TOTALS 


84 


73 


134 


188 


113 


147 


110 


259 


199 


159 


146b 



24 



> 



> 




25 



•^' 



)A\ 



I 



^SLf 



/ 



fi 



K> 



/■ 



y\ I 



\H Vr 



\ 





o 






























a. 
p. 


1 
W 1 '.^ 
















«] 


ri 11 
















K 1 


1 1 ^d^ 
















•H 1 


Uilai 


J*-^^ , 














CO 


V4 


^ Tin 


) 














■J) 


<y 


r ji 


r •- 












col 


O 
U 


>H 


' (1 ■ 








J 


S « 






•-1 


0) 


eu 


/If 








O 


2 •-• 






-< 


-3 


« 










(U 


>. ^ 




)-i 




^\ 


C 




/ ff « 








u- 


m O 




(U 




14- 


O 


'• 


f M 










2^ wj 




■H 




•f-J 


rJ 


F-< 


CO 1 


//] 








ri 


^ -^ 




x: 




c 


C.1 


CO 1 






N>^ 




O r- 




o 




iH 


O 


en 









*r 


II 


"^ -H 








Cj 


Vj 


3 


u 


# f . 






^ 




« 




ra 






CJ 


C 


u 


II # 






tt 


, — 1 




^ 




U 




•rH 


ID 


/I » 






rj 


K 


Vl 




OJ 




o 


^ 


P- 


C 


/# ■ 






2 


> 


C 


01 




E 




•H 


c 1 ■ O 1 


//|V> 






2 


u 


3 






< 




CO u 


^1 co' 


P 1 


/■/A 






«- 


4-1 


*'"' 


u 




•. 


C3 C 


oil C- 


en 


■/ 1 








c 


C- 


C 




■H 




1 C 




iH 


3 


If 1 






II 


'•-i 


D 


cs 




*M 




l+-' r— 1 


c 


CO 


C 


1/ I 








1— 1 


rH 




CT. 




C 1/ 


•H 





•H 


M I 








u 




o 




a 




1 _ 


r '. o 


PH 


k ■ l| 






1 




O 


E 




•H 




■^ -^.^ 


£. 




■ 11 




- 


c 


t-- 


< 




CJ 




^ 


<j 


». 




^1 






P 


4J 


CD 
O 




5 




t.. - 

•H -H 


r! -t 


•H 
•H 




1 






1 


a 


o 


C3 
C 
U 
cc 




CO 




O -H 


CO 'r 


arpa 
us t 


en 
en 
•H 




( 








C 




o 


CO 




3 




■H O 


CO ■"- 


rH 


P 


\ 








o 


*> 


o 


Cfl 




en 




M rH 


-r^ C^ 





3 


OJ 










n 


u; 


rc 


O 




4J 




u 


r. t 


1 ^ 


P 


t: 




i ll 








^^ 


■H 


o 


l-i 




o 




a (fi 


•rH 


' U 







lll^lli 








., 


Cfl 


•H 


0) 




-a 






C col -H 


P, 


to 


\l ll 








f-H 


C 


t-4 


t3 








c in 


'^ t 


Ih 


" c. 


\ \ 111 \ 










OJ 


4J 


C 




u 


CO 


C_ C- 


•ri = 


4-1 


-O 3 










II 


4-1 


,,, c 




m 


•H 


r-i 


• . r 


1 0) tn 


iiiW'- 










CO 


K 


c 




p 


M 


> 0. 


'4IJ CT; 


u u 


ill \\^ 


^■". 






CJ 


>-l 


D 




' o 


£ rS 


'-Ic 3 


(U 


f 1 \\l 


-J 






.-H 


C-C;^ 


(B 


w 


t.. IM 


£1 CO 


4J -3 




.■\ 






CO 


^. ? 


p 


'^ 


C -iH 


3 '-I 


'.; 3 3 


4-1 3 










o 


c;: P- 


c 


tj 


D C 


U -H 


:- P- 


(0 <U 




i 






L'; 


o o 


•r-l 


c 


O .-1 


.c ^ 


h-i c^ 


u en 




^' 








p p. 


Pl. 


ex: 


r-' c^ 


tT P 


If P P 


CLO P- 


\n, 


^•' 






C 

-a 


^ d -h' 


rj 


r-1 <-■ 


: ' r-~ 










(T) 


•-H f-H 


1 — 1 


.— * p-H 


r .-Hi 1 


M»i 


J 






o 










1 IJN 


6 






e 








r 




iVt,'"^ 






^ 








CJ 




r 


J 




p 


£ . 






en 
c 

> 




. 


3 




L". 


c: 


--J 


-^1 


CO 


\/a\ 


' 


i^ 






c 


C 


G 


o 




^. 1 ' 






o 


e... 


^- 


I-< t-J 1 


ol 


^tai U 




1 




tH 


c^ 




O 


c 


t 


1 


OlI\« 


1 


) 




'J 


u 


o 


4-J 


o 


CO 






"4/ 






;-; 


p 


U 


If: 


rH 






Ir 




■H 


CTl 


c 


n 


r'l 


— 1 










c; 


r-1 


tn 


CJ 




f^ ' J 


/If 


\) 






^ 


P- 


■=|h 


u: 


5i 












i-) 


c: 


G n 


cf'l 


u| 


! -H ^ 


B \ 1 m 










•H 


-iU. 




'^l 


"k' Vl 


i 1 L 








U- 


CO 


4-1 (t 


=^i 


rtl 


- -0 fj 


/ 1 ' 








O 


a 


r„ ,■_) 1 


tj 


J' 


•■-^ OJ !?^ 


T p ' 










OJ 


''-' '• 


^1 


& '. 


C OJ 0-. 


\ ' 








r^ 


.M 


r -;| 


l-'l 


rH -M 


. , => « ^ 


\ Ti 








O 


OJ 






C -- 1 


"■ M 


\ -. I 








•H 


»-■ 


c:l "' 


ci 


- ! c- 


H 1 <« 


f i 


r 








4J 


O. CO! 


° 


4J 


*-' i ^ <^ 


L-l 








to 


p. ^ 


^1 


', [^ 


rt c ^4 


TX 1 


\ ll 








4-1 


Cl L 


> 


rJ y 


u - CO 


s 


1 w 








OJ 


o • r 


, c 


H -J 


00 


t^l 




1 








t. 


Cl. cs: ^- 


CO O 


rH -H 


•'" ■ 


^ 


,5 


• 


Jli\ 








> 




GO 


-■ 


'-' 


3 


^ 


n^ 








4-J 


W 1 r-\ ^, 


CO < 


5' 


1 u : 


•H 







/ ir" 






,'" ^ 


CI 




"1 


/\ 1 I'- 






f-* 


c a •.• 


', 


rH X 


1 1 ".-^ 


H- 


T* 


,' 


ll/ \ 1 




* 


3 


u.\ u ■' 


■*" "1 


col 


"^ ''' i 




\ 


If \ i\ 








o a '.: 


O -H 


C 


1 3 1^ "1 






>1*, 1 


\i \ 1^ 






■H 


u '. n CJ ' 


•H en 


H, >-- 


rH CT p 






^ ' 


« \ At 


\ 




r; 


c« 


rH r-- 


^\ 12 


CJ c 


3 I- U( 


C- P- 




/. V 


« \ 1 


h 







c u 




4->' OJ 


•h| u 


c c 3 


r. c 


Iff' i 


H \ y^ 






O CO 


O. CJ 


^1 


^ 'r^ 


^'^\^\'^ 


cjt w; 


^A\ / 


1\\\ 


u 






1-1 r-i 


tj 


cj: 


a, 


O ' I- 


P- tfl 


, 


\V 


^- 






>- C nj o 
& 1 O ^ r 
c CJ r; . c 






CO ,r 


^ Ph "1 '^ 


lA A 1 


ll 1 I 


\\' 




1 ~ 


3 
(■ 

c 




■-"I c 


■ r= '" =^ 1 n 


~ w y 


1 J V 


\\ 






V- C a r 1 


"^i 


'J ' 


- ^ t^ e V r 


'. \l i 


Jorl \ 


1) 




Zl 


t.l Strn'-, 


c 


> i , ' 


. c eg c> c 


5^ 


\^' 






J 






'■H 


r> 1 


I , 


(^ 


r- 




J r 


f U) 




1 , . 1 



\ 



ttj. 





tn 


1 


D 


y. 




c 


D 


^ 


E 


n 


r-l 


'J 


s 



its 

r Id. 



^ 1 .'^ 
o in 



J-l 


6 


u 


u^ 


o 


'3 


u; 


u 


c 


n 




■0 


v^ 




t- 


f- 



o i 

c 
H < I 



o 




C 


___ 


3 













W 






O 


>- 


n 






























Li 


5 






o- 


^ 




r- 


< 


a. 



E 


e 


E 


P 




D 


o 


■H 


■H 


a 






X 


O 





<0 


14J 


u-> 


M 


-^ 


■H 


r3 


^ 


U 


H 


H 


H 



27 



n:.n idiw 




0) 



> 

1-4 

c 



o 






II 

I— I 
o 

02 



c 

to 

c 

-J 
>-l 
ca 
p- 
(X 



o 
ex 

c 



c 
c 



a 

a 
> 






p- 

c 
tn 

ta 

3 

4-1 

<u 

3 
(J 



en 



3 



u 


djl 




«l 


0/ 


n &■ 


o 


)-j 


< 


n 




•'-' 


t-" 


*, 


•H 


cl 


n3 


m 


(S 


f" 


P 


0) 


t- 


u 


M 


■rA 


>- 


•H 


(T 


N 


K 


^1 


U 


c 


O 


4:; iJ 


r. 


OJ 


O 


c 


,c. 


E 


^\ 


rt tr 


u 


u 


^ 3' 


■ H 


« 


•r-i 


(-1 rH 


M 


t^ 


Vj 


tt) 3 


■u 


3 


iJ 


> C- 




m 




o c 



o 

3 



3 a: 



•s.\ 
c 

3| 3 
tn o 



■^ 3 
dj 3 
01 c 



a^ C ■— I r ; n ■ 



ra 




c~ 




u 




CO 


e; 


o 


3 


c 


vj 




^ 


o 


w 


•H 


.H 




^ 



'. 3 



^1.1 

tn " 
f 

tnl -u' 

(Oi >- j 
4-1 t- 



p- tj; 
p 
tn ' 



tn 

0^ 



x:' to 

•H 

^ tn 

• c 

p. a> 

p. 4-> 

tn to 



t . in 

3 

c 0) 
CO 






c! 



p' 

to; 
o 



u 
to 
tJIP-l 



Q- P- 
P P. 

en tn 

to| to; 

\^\^^' 

i^i^I 
<y 01 



■>« 




r 



c 
o 
u 



u 

f. 



iKi'i nj:,v>i 



29 



The meadow, which was once a hayfield, is dominated by a number of 
introduced grasses. Most of the meadow is dominated by a mixture of 
Agropyron repens , Poa pratensis , and Plantago lanceolata . When canopy- 
coverage was measured in August 1980, Agropyron repens appeared to be the 
dominant grass in the three transects sampled (table 7). Poa pratensis , 
Medicago lupiluna , and Taraxacum officinale appeared to have a greater 
canopy-coverage in early summer than is indicated by this August sampling; 
this is true in the other meadows as well. 

Transect No. 1, located in a representative stand of the predominant 
community type, contained a large amount of Plantago lanceolata . Transect 
No. 2 placed on the south side of the road near the edge of the meadow, 
contained a large number of Achillea millefolium inflorescences and very 
little Plantago . Transect No. 3 was placed in a community type in which 
Filago arvensis was abundant . 

In the southwestern corner of the meadow, seedlings of Populus 
trichocarpa , Prunus virginiana , and apple are becoming established among the 
grasses. Small patches of Bromus tectorum occur on steeper, sandy slopes at 
the edges of the meadow. 

Middle Meadow . This meadow lies 9,500-10,200 feet upstream from the 
falls. It is approximately 260 m long and 50 m wide (see figure 7). 
Elevations range from about 2,006 to 2,014 feet (msl). A powerline crosses 
the meadow's northern edge, and a dirt road crosses near its southern edge. 
Unlike the other meadows, that portion of the meadow near the riverbank 
slopes gradually toward the river, rather than dipping sharply to the water's 



^ 



edge. This gradual sloping may have resulted from frequent inundation and 
deposition of sandy alluvial soil. 

The meadow is bounded on the west and east by forests of Pseudotsuga 
menziesii and Pinus ponderosa . The northern edge, at the base of a steep, 
rocky slope, is fringed by Betula and Alnus . Clumps of Betula , Alnus , and 
isolated Pinus ponderosa occur in the western third of the meadow. A grassy 
community with clumps of heavily-browsed Amelanchier alnifolia and other 
shrubs forms a band across the northern third of the meadow. Much of the 
remainder of the meadow is dominated by Agropyron repens and Poa pratensis . 
Transect No. 1 was placed in this latter community type (see table 7). 
Transect No. 2 sampled a community type dominated by Plantago lanceolata and 
Poa pratensis . Although not included in the transect, clumps of Agrostis 
alba are present in this community. Transect No. 3 was placed in a community 
type dominated by Filago arvensis and Bromus tectorum . Over 60% of this 
community type consists of bare ground, indicative of the poor water-holding 
capacity of the sandy soil. Young Populus trichocarpa seedlings are invading 
the meadow near its western and eastern edges. A fringe of scattered Populus 
trichocarpa and Pinus ponderosa delineates the southern edge of the meadow. 

Upstream Meadow . This meadow (see figure 8) lies 11,300-12,800 feet 
upstream from the falls. It is about 480 m long, and has a maximum width of 
30 m. Elevations range from about 2,006 to 2,012 feet (msl). A small stream 
lined with Populus trichocarpa , Acer glabrum , Betula , and Alnus incana 
divides the meadow into halves. The northern edge of the meadow, which abuts 
a steep rock cliff, is lined with Betula , Alnus incana , and Acer glabrum . 
Tanacetum vulgare , Melilotus alba, and Centaurea maculosa dominate the bank 



31 



between the river and the meadow. A fringe of Populus trichocarpa occurs 
along part of the bank. 

Most of the meadow consists of a community type dominated by Poa 
pratensis ; Phleum pratense is a co-dominant in some areas. Transect No. 1 
sampled this community type (see table 7). Transect No. 2 was placed near 
the northern edge of the meadow where three seeps or springs create an area 
of saturated soil and standing water. The community type here, dominated by 
Carex rostrata , Mimulus guttata , and Equisetum pratense , contains many 
wetland plant species. Transect No. 3 was placed among a patch of Populus 
trichocarpa saplings which are invading the Poa pratensis - and Agrostis alba - 
dominated grassland just east of the stream. 



RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE MONITORING 

The monitoring study described in the baseline report (DNRC 1979) should 
be continued. However, results of this year's monitoring suggest the 
following changes in study design: 

(1) October Monitoring . Fall conditions do not seem to differ enough 
from those of August to justify an additional week of study. Therefore, 
October monitoring should be discontinued. 

(2) Yaak Falls . Yaak Falls does not appear suitable as a control area 
for the project area wildlife census or as a compensation area. Thus, the 
Yaak Falls census should be discontinued. However, if the dam is to be 
constructed, a control area for the project area censuses must be selected 
and added to the monitoring program no later than two years before the dam is 
constructed. Since an ideal control area does not seem to exist, the stretch 
of the Kootenai River immediately above the principal study area may be the 
best location for control studies. 

(3) Meadow Vegetation Monitoring . The vegetation of the three grassy 
meadows described in this report (the "Sheppard Meadows") should be 
quantitatively studied the year before scheduled inundation and during 
alternate years thereafter, using the methods employed in this study. 

(4) Bighorn Sheep Studies . To more precisely monitor seasonal use of 
the project area by bighorn sheep, those study methods used during the 
baseline study and this monitoring study should be combined. Combining these 



33 



methods will provide an index through which use of project area habitats can 
be compared between seasons and between years. 

The proposed technique for future monitoring is as follows: 

The north bank of the Kootenai River--including cliffs, benches, and 
shoreline--wil 1 be searched with a 20X spotting scope from ten fixed 
observation points along U.S. Highway 2 (see figure 9). Exactly 10 minutes 
will be spent searching for sheep from each point; all observations from the 
viewpoint will be recorded on maps and standard data sheets. Sightings made 
while traveling between viewpoints, and duplicate observations of the same 
group of animals, will be noted. Weather, snow cover, and visibility 
conditions also will be recorded; the survey will not be conducted when 
visibility is impaired by fog or precipitation. 

During January, June, and August field trips, researchers should 
attempt to visit each station three times: once in early morning, once at 
midday, and once late in the evening. In late March and early April, each 
station should be visited six times, with observation times rotated so that 
each station receives some morning, midday, and evening monitoring. In 
addition, the Sheppard Meadows will be ground-searched for tracks or other 
evidence of bighorn sheep use during the March-April visit. 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 



This study was funded by Northern Lights, Inc. of Sandpoint, Idaho. 

Inventory data were gathered by Pat Nichols, Jeff Birkby, and Larry Thompson 

of the Department of Natural Resources and Conservation. William Phippen, 
I 

DNRC , edited the report. Typing was done by Joanne Brown. 



> 



37 



LITERATURE CITED 

Daubenmire, R.F. 1959. A canopy-coverage method of vegetational analysis. 
Northwest Sci. 33:43-64. 

DNRC. 1979. Kootenai Falls wildlife inventory and impact analysis. Final 
Report. Helena, MT. 

Flath, D. 1981. Nongame species of special interest or concern. Mont. 
Dept. Fish, Wildlife, and Parks, Helena, MT. 

Hall, G.A. 1964. Breeding bird censuses--why and how. Audubon Field Notes 
18:413-416. 

James, F.C., and H. Shugart , Jr. 1970. A quantitative method of habitat 
description. Audubon Field Notes 24:727-736. 

Jeresek, J. 1980. Personal communication with Larry S. Thompson. 

Kolb, H. 1965. The Audubon winter bird population study. Audubon Field 
Notes 19:432-434. 

Meyer, J.R. 1979. Northwest Montana/North Idaho transmission corridor bald 
eagle study. Bonneville Power Administration. Portland, OR. 

Olson-Elliott and Associates. 1979. Kootenai Falls project - vegetation 

impacts assessment and inventory. Prepared for Montana Dept. of Natural 
Resources and Conservation, Helena, MT. 

Rogers, T.H. 1980. The nesting season: Northern Rocky Mountain- 
Intermountain Region. Amer. Birds 34:911-914. 

Skaar, P.D. 1980. Montana bird distribution. P.D. Skaar, 501 South Third, 
Bozeman, MT. 

Van Velzen, W.T. 1972. Breeding-bird census instructions. Amer. Birds 
26(6):929-931. 

Wolf, C. 1981. Letter to Larry S. Thompson, February 25, 1981. 



•^R 



^J^p-'-jnT" 



! FIELD ?.HEFT -OR VtGTTaTiON DATi 



location : i<'00T<.<"^ I ^ '\U..< 

Size 



I DESCRIPTION Of AREfi 



^^ [j)^T(y<e_a_di^C''On to npOT^St ♦ own hovrxj DOSt oMce • 

DATE ftUU IyJT IX-I^JtS) I LATITUDE - LONQIUDE ^ 



TQDor.RAFVIY : 



TENTH -ACPE CIRCLES 



=] 



T REES - (piAWFTFR S'ZE CLASSES fl-H- 3-6, 6-9 . 9-15 . i5- 2i . Zi-?"^. 27-33. 33-ao, >401 



SPtCiFS*. 

I ift^g*" &-l c>l» <-Lil^ 



Circ le I 



C";'; : 



f' P.i<.;r '^o A ji^mT 



±11 



«ft(H),B(5?.CC''T 



[>,Jjt t>-;- W»jr(t>! D(3) 






9 l^.,^H<At,»«r\ fiAQn 



AC-'i C(')' 



ift(H).B;') 



±11 



^Vh P'' 



AC) 



JillCSi. 



ftCt .iiB<n.c(0 



TToT 



A<5) 



"B(^\CC),£C) A(7;,5(»,p;3l,t;i) E^M.FC) i D(i), FC) 



Liii. 



^C'^'.at' 



X 



Circio'; 



iiJU£_ 



A( %1),B(8) 



»A()9l.9e>g).cC4-) , 



^(^1 



A(n 



lAt') 



i SHRUBG : fJUMBL'R OF WOCPv ST^MS LEES Tuyj 3 l^CHES d b h irjTERCCPTED IN 2 ARMLENGTH TRANSECTS) 



I L 



^\ 



35 



^3 



30 fof foT 



^3 



1^5- 



5^ 5H- 



I GROWD COvEB i20 RANDOM t OR - SIGHTINGS THROUGH OCULAR TUBE FOR PRESENCE Of? ASSENCc OF GFiEE^ VEGETATION] 



i 



\%t 



? + 



^^ 



\%± 



l(r t 



CANOHf COVER l2'0 + OR - SIGHTINGS THROUGH OC uiA P T LI SE FOR PRESEfJ :E OR f-HEENCE OF GP=i^^ '.'^Gf ^ATiCN I 



! -I- 



n-o + 



i?-t- 



lO-^ 



CANOPY HEIGHT; (MAXIMUM CA'JCPV HEIGHT IN FEET) 



JO 



1 ho I ^Q'_ ..; ^0 



TlNTh-ack: CIRCLES 



J 



SPECIES*. 



,^ ft '-'^ 'i < ^L^Ut'."" 



^.^LMU! S^Jft|J^ 



^ ■ BfcfULf^ ^pp. 



Ljl BE.TULA SNl,(r 1 ^^') 



6 l.1h\>llr\i: tiOlAJ-'il.kO) 



TREES I:-;a>,'ETER SIZE CLA SSES a-h ?-6, t-". q-lt , 1^- 2 i .2i-2", 2^-? J. IS- ^Q, xlQ) 
Circ l e b j Ci'de 7 I Circn fl 



AU1 



ftfiM«(i;),c(0 



C"ce<il' I C.rc.^l cT 



^{ >'r } , 3'■ . ^) 



-A0°) 



Ji^:s_ 



A(l-).e(7 



7 pi^jVjr PoMPLR^Sft 



tLiO. 



A(b),BC') 



IA01_ 



■■("i . SCj ) 



,<•!-', P C ■ 'I 



13 



P -Popui-u; rRJcHocW'M 



6C) 



'^^'>.C-C' ) 



g ?RJMJi v/^&IN^'fc fJf, 



'^^'.l■. 



lOfitv ii oriJUi yfAj:itsil 



(■(I ) , 0(w.E^') 



rr^' 



J II Tu^y p. pljc^tA i 



KCM 



, 1% ruj Tfl. <,Nh(s 



^<:n 



i I "^ \/ -J "- fjo ^ ^ S^t^'j- 



iCO 



ftv )i flu i 



H (a J 



V- 



; SHRUBS i NLVBER OF WOOE:'' STEMS LESS THA.N 3 INCHES tj 6 n INTERCEPTED IN 2 ARMLEfJG'^H ■■PANSECTS) 



"T 



cr. 



- 1 



^^ 



7b 3^ ni ?? 

1 1 I 



\31 i feO 



?0 7t 



GROUND CCvEP ( 20 RANDOV + OR - SiGhT'IMGS THROUGH OCULAR TUBE FOP PRESENCE OR ASSrN'TE OF GFiEEN VEGETATICN) 



nr; T 



X 



r i 



T + 



v-,ANCF» tOVLR l?0+ OR - SiCHTiriGS TnSOUGH OCULAR 'UBE FOR PPES'"'.CE OP ABSENCE 0- '^^EE'-' -.TGr-AT'ONI 



n^ 



I lO-f- 



J_LL 



jn + 



CANCPY HEIGHT: (MAXIMUM CAr.OPY HEIGHT IN FEET) 



T^-^ 



\ ^ 



(oO 



3r 



T~^ 



\ 1 o 



' 'Jse obbrevtoteri descnptiO'-.s o^ t'ees, inruDS. or ne'bs to aesiqnate species tc De laeniif.eo ioie' »c sr-xDcir cctt, ^eor'-"'Ooea 'pcU n is -'Tiponom 
10 'a*?'>tifv only tne '<ve c!ct* ron* sppces 



esimoted vees/oce 



To cf'eck ihe adequocy o* fne sofr^pie- Totoi numcer of trees '" 5 ci'desji 2 ■ 

Totoi number of irees n 6 circles "16 = 
Oitference = 
If thr -iittprence is less than 25 t'ees. the sample is odequo^e if t is greoter ^^p"_2 S t rees, se e pr ocedure 



/\pf'i::;DI}' (cniitluui--d) 



SUMMARY SHEET FOR TEMTH-aCRE CIRCLES 


























NUMBER OF CIRCLES ■ ±^ _ 


O 


a; UJ ^ W 








trees; I 

OENSITY 


BASAL area' 


c 


FREQUENCY ' 


S=EC1ES 


NUMBER OF TREES IN ALL CIRCLES 
B> DIAMETER SIZE CLASS 


CROSS SECTIONAL AREA OF THE TRUNK 
AT 4 5 FT FROM THE GF^XNO ( d & h ) 




0. 1 

is 


A 
3-? 


B C j D 1 E 1 F 1 G 
S-9'9-l5'i5-2li2l-27'27-323>4C 


>40 






A» 9 C 
a 1)1(031 (08) 


D 1 E i F I G '"fJ'"! ' 


1 A ^e*^ <^\j.hru\^ 


as- 


1 














i-fc 


7-fc fc.O 


■2.V 


0.3 


„ 


1 1 




2.^ \Lt 


X 


■+.3 




2 A 1t\\i 5 1 Ot.av\c<, 


87 


^ 














'il 


=(1 


10.1 


a. 7 


I 1 












"1.1 


G.2 


3 


(>i 




S '^ihjf Sviat( 


:i 
















1 


Z 


OS 


i7.a 
















0.5. 


0.( 


1 


a.( 




" Retulo. iV. 


CKo 


fab 


9 












i5-l 


HI 


son 


IH.fc 


n.« 


7. a 












"H.io 


lt..l 


7 


,4.<t 




^ ne T^lc^ ;yMX£^ 


1 




1 












10 


IC 


13 


0,<) 




17.? 




I 






l.ll l.l 


1 


-t.^ 




6Cvo1c^,^„( J,ojy»V/, 


5.T 


f 


1 












^2 


31 


!•? 


a.T 


ja 


0.^ 












H.7 :^.o 


7 


11.1 




' P.»NUJ po^if/oiO. 


J 


1 




/ 




I 






5" 


? 


1 . ( 


0.1 


0.(<, 




l.« 




4.1 






1.4-|H.7 


3. 


lO.fc 




8 PofujlyJ triclMXHffC 




3 


/ 


3 


1 


1 




1 


10 


ID 


T-'l 




0.1 


o.s 


S.4- 


3.1 


H.l 




10.1 


X5.1 iS.g 




^ [rtif^is j-*-s,r,;c?.k-o^ 


7 
















7 


7 


l.t 


0.7 






1 




1 


o.7;o.t 


3 


fc.+ 




'0 1 S<u<loTwt^« r*frti,ei 


/ 




1 I 


/ 








H- 


H 


e."f 


P.| 




0.8. 


I.S 


■3.1 


1 


5.S h.t 


Z 


4-3 




" TV-,J> P,|,C1^V 


2 


-F 


3 


5 


JJ 


3 






10 


iO l4.J 


0.1 


i-l 


a-f 


'I.O 


1? 


14.1 


1 


n-.gjn.i 


•7 


14.1 




';■■ TtiU|» 51^0.1) 






1 










1 


1 


o-a 






o.y 












O.g Ic.S 


' ^.1 




TOTALS 


1 




1"' 


1 


"f "r~ 




~3 


7 


7 
Hffc 


l-(o 
|.X3'», 


<J.I 


1-5, 
11. -4- 


n.fc 


li.o" 


'5.? 


l.-*.? 




1".3 


7.1.5 '"i.r 


t^'oo?. 




TREES/ACRE 
Ibi SIZE CLASS) 


J^S 


n 


IT 


10 


5- $■ 




3 


BJSAl AhtA „„ J, 
(HT STf CLAS* ' ' 


1* •*■ 


13.1. 


<)i.o 


..-.^ 


it.f ' ho } 






RELATE KNSITY j-7|l, 
(B> ■:.ZE CLASS 1 1 ' "•• 


W V 


:>.1 !i-3 


I.I !i.i 




0.1 


liELATlV/La- . J.,^ ,1^, 


X.fc 


"■?j'^.7|i5.h: lH.o 




SHi^llB' Tolal VTu^ slom 


ii 0' 


■fonsecT". 


: pt' Circlein ICK) OiviOed by " e fiufODer ot )ron^^:ts = 733 O - "^^ 


L Me""' f>*-' ocre 




GRCi 'iN J COVER Trtoi Di-fsps' + ) ecorGec:._'0 ctQ^^'tnqs oer rirctei ■ ;00, ovLieij Dv '^e 'orot rcf^r^f of ^q'^tr^gs ■ <o 


Cov*. 





ranOPY COVER Totcii pluses i->). -eco ded IZOst 


gMcnqs pe'Crt:e)« lOO.divided by me totoi numCier of s.ijiiinqs' b7. 5" % Conooy Cover 


Ca.'JO'- i-,tii-.'. AierMe-+(o.O Rooge' 


^_?..- 


■^0 


note:j. 




' 30SQ v'O 

r.„. « 01 :" 
^.. ,.-. 




NwfTf:*.- tu 'jn.' ore 


2 ■( 

ifc - 
■ g . 

i 3 - 


6 ■ 
B 


t 




(Mrns l| 

0* ire 
t-"0- 


a»e - 




of ir»e 

— « 


eitcyi 

00 


umtJet 




4 b 'eat Id & ft > 


j. .1-. ''-_:.}LE<nii-. 
"r')' D0^3' V 





It I ■■ J 

liO- o 



QjlXL. 



■ >r as'"TC'(;o c.i;- 






40 



-'■1*':m<*'> 



<'^^' 







«^*