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Full text of "The Kremlin's espionage and terror organizations;"

O' 5 Oc'C ^9/ 



HARVARD COLLEGE 
LIBRARY 




GIFT OF THE 

GOVERNMENT 
OF THE UNITED STATES 



us Doc 2.791 



Committee on Un-Americ6ua Activities 
House 
86th Congress 



Table of Contents 

(Since these hearings are consecutively paged 
they are arranged by page number, instead of 
alphabetically by title 



1. The Kremlin's Espionage and Terror Organizations '^^^^ 



2-k, The Southern California District of the 
Communist Party. Structure - Ob,iectives - 
Lead ership . pts . 1-3 



5. Current Sti«.tegy and Tactics of Communists 
in the United States (Greater Pittsburgh 
Area - Part l) 

6. Problems of Security in Industrial Estab- 
lishments Holding Defense Contiracts (Greater 
Pittsburgh Area - Part 2) 

7. Problems Arising in Cases of Denaturaliza- 
tion sind Deportation of Communists (Greater 
Pittsburgh Area - Part 5) 

8. Communist Infiltration of Vital Industries 
and Current Communist Techniques in Chicago, 
111. , Area 

9-10. Passport Security - Pt.1-2 



5'^ 



M^6 






THE KREMLIN'S ESPIONAGE AND TERROR 
ORGANIZATIONS 

TESTIMONY OF PETR S. DERIABIN 
Former Officer of the USSR's Committee of State Security (KGB) 



HEARING 



BEFORE THE 



COMMITTEE ON UN-IMEEICAN ACTIVITIES 

HOUSE OF REPEESENTATIYES 



EIGHTY-SIXTH CONGRESS 

FIRST SESSION 



RELEASED MARCH 17, 1959 



Printed for the use of the Committee on Un-American Activities 
INCLUDING INDEX 




HARVARD COLLEGE LIBRARY 

DEPOSITED BY THE 
UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT 

APR 7 lSo9 

UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
87927» WASHINGTON : 1959 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
United States House op Representatives 

FRANCIS E. WALTER, Pennsylvania, Chairman 
MORGAN M. MOULDER, Missouri DONALD L. JACKSON, CaUfornIa 

CLYDE DOYLE, California GORDON H. SCHERER, Ohio 

EDWIN E. WILLIS, Louisiana WILLIAM E. MILLER, New York 

WILLIAM M. TUCK, Vii-giuia AUGUST E. JOHANSEN, Michigan 

Richard Arens, Staff Director 
II 



CONTENTS 



Page 

Synopsis 1 

Testimony of — 

Petr S. Deriabin 3 

Index i 

III 



Public Law 601, 79th Congress 

The legislation under which the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities operates is Public Law 601, 79th Congress [1946], chapter 
753, 2d session, which provides: 

Be it enacted hy the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States 
of America in Congress assembled, * * * 

PART 2— RULES OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

Rule X 

SEC. 121. STANDING COMMITTEES 

)(!****** 

18. Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 
iti ***** * 

(q) (1) Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(A) Un-American activities. 

(2) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommit- 
tee, is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (i) the extent, 
character, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(ii) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and attacks 
the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitution, and 
(iii) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in any necessary 
remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such 
times and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, 
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary, Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 

******* 

Rule XII 

LEGISLATIVE OVERSIGHT BY STANDING COMMITTEES 

Sec. 136. To assist the Congress in appraising the administration of the laws 
and in developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem neces- 
sary, eack standing committee of the Senate and the House of Representatives 
shall exercise continuous watchfulness of the execution by the administrative 
agencies concerned of any laws, the subject matter of which is within the jurisdic- 
tion of such committee; and, for that purpose, shall study all pertinent reports 
and data submitted to the Congress by the agencies in the executive branch of 
the Government. 



RULES ADOPTED BY THE 86TH CONGRESS 

House Resolution 7, January 7, 1959 

♦ ***♦•• 

Rule X 

STANDING COMMITTEES 

1. There shall be elected by the House, at the commencement of each Con- 
gress, 

******* 
(q) Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 

♦ * * * * * ♦ 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 

♦ ♦****• 

18. Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(a) Un-American activities. u u -xi. 

(b) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (1) the extent, char- 
acter and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(2) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American prop- 
aganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitu- 
tion, and (3) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress 
in any necessary remedial legislation. ^^ xi. tt /• x at. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to tHe 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such times 
and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, has 
recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 

* * * * * * * . 

26. To assist the House in appraising the administration of the laws and in 
developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem necessary, 
each standing committee of the House shall exercise continuous watchfulness 
of the execution by the administrative agencies concerned of any laws, the subject 
matter of which 'is within the jurisdiction of such committee; and, for that 
purpose, shall study all pertinent reports and data submitted to the House by 
the agencies in the executive branch of the Government. 

VI 



SYNOPSIS 

The operations of both the KGB (Committee of State Security) 
and the GRU, the Soviet military intelligence service, are portrayed 
by Petr S. Deriabin, a former officer of the Soviet secret police ^vho 
defected to the West in 1954, in tlie accompanying testimony. The 
KGB, in addition to being responsible for carrying out foreign espio- 
nage for the Soviet Union, is also charged with protecting the 
U.S.S.R.'s internal security. As part of this latter function, it guards 
and maintains surveillance over the top Soviet leaders. 

There are approximately 16,000 officers in the KGB who are as- 
signed not only to provide physical security to the leaders of the 
Soviet Government but also to maintain a surveillance over them, 
Deriabin stated. 

He described the luxury and debauchery of the private lives of the 
top leaders of the Soviet Government and pointed out the intrigue 
and distrust which pervades their relationsliips. 

The foreign section of the Soviet civilian espionage service 
(KGB), consisting of 3,000 officers in headquarters in Moscow and 
about 15,000 officers around the world, "is responsible for espionage 
and counterespionage abroad ; also for surveilling Soviet and satellite 
citizens who travel abroad; and is responsible for carrying out oc- 
casional assassinations, kidnaping, blackmail, and similar activities." 
Deriabin stated. 

He continued : 

Soviet intelligence most of the time is using methods like 
blackmail, bribery, and they include prisoners of war who 
spend some time inside the Soviet Union. They are using 
immigrants. Sometimes they send as immigrants to another 
country their own citizens to make some kind of spy net- 
work. Actually, they are working in two ways. They use 
legal channels and illegal channels and foreign missions 
and exchange groups, too. 

For instance, when the Soviet delegation is going abroad, 
it always includes some intelligence or counterintelligence 
officers. 

For instance, in 1957 there was a Soviet delegation, a con- 
struction delegation in the United States, which includes one 
Soviet intelligence officer whose name is Major Zagorsky, 
who was a member of that Soviet delegation. When the 
Moiseyev dancers were here, Lieutenant Colonel Aleksandr 
Aleksandrovich Kudriavtsev was a member of the Moiseyev 
dancers who is working for Soviet intelligence for many 
years, and he is a colonel. Both of them were working with 
me in Moscow while I was there. 

Another example was in 1956, when the Soviet religious 
delegation was here, the Soviet Orthodox Church. The chief 



2 THE KREMLIN'S ESPIONAGE AND TERROR ORGANIZATIONS 

of that was Archbishop Nikolai. He is not a member of 
KGB, but he is an agent of KGB since World War II, who 
gives information to KGB. KGB is asking him and he is 
giving information. He is actually an agent. 

In addition to the civilian foreign espionage service (KGB^, there 
is also the military foreign intelligence service (GRU) which has 
many more agents than does the civilian foreign espionage service, 
Deriabin asserted. 

With reference to the methods used by these two foreign espionage 
operations of the Soviet Government, Deriabin stated: 

The firet thing is blaclanail and bribery and Communist 
sympathies, Communist sympathizers, and using methods 
of provocation. This is the general method. 

* * * * * 

I would say they use open code, secret writing, couriers, 
contacts with legal residents, by radio and through agents 
whom they send to take information. 

***** 

Of course, they are working through other branches, such 
as the diplomatic, press, Intourist, commercial relations, 
scientific and professional groups, and cultural exchanges. 
Every possibility they use for their intelligence work. 

After describing the many branches of the Soviet secret police 
organizations operating against the people themselves in the Soviet 
Union, Deriabin concluded : 

Moscow is the headquarters of the Soviet secret police. 
Each Soviet Republic has another headquarters. In each 
region and district they have a branch of the KGB in Soviet 
life, I would say economical, cultural, and political life inside 
the Soviet Union watched over by some kind of directorate 
which is under KGB. 

If it is cultural life, it is under the political directorate; 
the economical life to the economical directorate, and the 
military life to militaiy directorate. They are taking care 
of all the people. They are working through sources and 
agents. 

Every Soviet office, every Soviet collective farm, every 
factory, has a representative of KGB who has his own agents 
in the factory, in the office, and everywhere. There are so 
many agents and sources who are working for the KGB, in 
every Soviet apartment building and everywhere. You can 
find them everywhere. 

I would say, in general, about every 15 persons in the 
Soviet Union are covered by 1 source or 1 agent inside the 
Soviet Union — an informer. 



THE KREMLIN'S ESPIONAGE AND TERROR 
ORGANIZATIONS 

Testimony of Petr S. Deriabin, Former Officer of the U.S.S.R/s 
Committee of State Security (KGB) 



U.S. House of Representatives, 
Committee on Un-Americax Activities, 

Washington^ D.G. 
The committee met in executive session, pursuant to call, in room 
226, House Office Building, Hon. Francis E. Walter (chairman) 
presiding. 

Committee member present : Representative Francis E. Walter, of 
Pennsylvania. 
Staff member present : Richard Arens, staff director. 
The Chairman. May we come to order. 

Will you raise your right hand, please? Do you swear the testi- 
mony you are about to give in the matter now pending will be the 
truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 
Mr. Deriabin. Yes, I do. 

TESTIMONY OF PETR S. DERIABIN, A FORMER OFFICER OF THE 
SOVIET COMMITTEE OF STATE SECURITY 

^ The Chairman. May the record today reflect that the witness who 
IS about to testify has been the subject of careful, thorough checking 
by the Committee on Un-American Activities with appropriate secu- 
rity agencies of the Government of the United States, and found to be 
thoroughly reliable, trustworthy, and in all respects bona fide with 
respect to his background and the experiences which he shall now 
relate for the fiirst time for public revelation. 

^ Before proceeding, I might say that, moreover, it is the informa- 
tion of this committee from unimpeachable intelligence sources in this 
Government that, over the course of the last 5 years, the witness who 
IS about to testify has rendered to the Government of the United 
States, via intelligence and other appropriate agencies of the Govern- 
ment, invaluable services. 

Now, Mr. Arens, you may proceed. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly state your full name. 

Mr. Deriabin. My name is Petr Sergeyeviv Deriabin. 

IVIr. Arens. Where and when were you born ? 

Mr. Deriabin. I was born in the U.S.S.R. in Siberia, a small village 
named Lokot, in 1921— February 21, 1921. 

Mr. Arens. Now, would you kindly give us just a brief word about 
your early life prior to the time that you reached adulthood ? 

37927°— 59 2 o 



4 THE KREMLIN'S ESPIONAGE AND TERROR ORGANIZATIONS 

Mr. Deriabin. My parents were peasants until 1930's. In the 1930's 
tliey were forced to the collective farms. My father died in 1936 and 
mv mother died in 1941. 

I graduated from the Soviet Teachers Institute after 2 years. I 
was working as a teacher from 1937 mitil 1939. In 1939 I was called 
into the Soviet Army, where I spent from 1939 mitil 1914:. In that 

time I was ■ -, a • ^ k o 

Mr. Aeexs. In what capacity did you serve m the boviet Army i 

Mr. Deriabin. In the Soviet Anny I was in the first year Deputy 
Chief Political Commissar in the Sergeants School, noncommissioned 
ofScers' school, and then I was secretary in the Komsomol (Communist 
Youth League) . 

Mr. Arens. What was that school ? 

Mr. Deriabin. Before I was in school I was Deputy Political Com- 
missar. Then I was assigned to, and was secretary of, the Youth Com- 
munist League in my regiment— in my infantry regiment. 

Mr. Arens. How long did you serve in that capacity 'i 

Mr. Deriabin. For 1 year. 

Mr. Arens. Then what was your next assignment ? 

Mr. Deriabin. The next assignment was when World War II ■ 
started, and at that time I was in the war from 1941 until 1944. At 
that time I was deputy chief of Materiel Company on the Stalingrad 
front and the Ukrainian front, and then I was assistant to the chief of 
staif of a regiment. , ■, . ., , xi 

During the war I was wounded four times, and then through the 
party committee of my division, by order and by myself, I joined 
the Counter-intelligence School in Moscow. It was in April 1944. 

In that school I spent 1 year, until April 1945. Since 1945 and 
1947 I was working as case officer in the headquarters of the counter- 
intelligence in Moscow. ^nA'-l 

Mr.^ARENS. Then what was your next assignment after 194^ { 

Mr. Deriabin. In the same year, 1947, I spent a few months m, I 
would say, the MVD,' in the State of Altai. I was in that provincial 
MVD office as a case officer and chief of the surveillance group. 

Mr. Arens. When did that service in that capacity terminate? 

Mr. Deriabin. It was over in February 1947. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly tell us your next assignment? 

Mr. Deriabin. The next assignment was since, I would say, March 
1947, mitil April 1952, 1 was working in the Guard Directorate of the 
Soviet secret police. 

Mr. Arens. Where were you stationed ? 

Mr. Deriabin. The station was in :Moscow. _ 

Mr. Arens. Wliat were your particular duties ? 

Mr. Deriabin. My duty was I was 1 year case officer and m the 
second year senior case officer and deputy chief of subsection and 
chief of subsection in that Guard Directorate. Actually the work 
was I was checking the people and officers who were working lor 
the Guard Directorate. Actually, that Guard Directorate was taking 
care of guarding Soviet leaders, members of the Central Committee 
of the government. 

Mr. Arens. What was your next assignment ? 

1 Ministry of Internal Affairs (secret police agency), which was then responsible for the 
Internal security of the Soviet Union. 



THE KREMLIN'S ESPIONAGE AND TERROR ORGANIZATIONS 5 

Mr. Dekiabin. From April 1952 until September 1953 I ^Yas work- 
ing in the Austrian-German section, for the Soviet Intelligence 
Directorate. 

JVIr. Arens. "Where were you stationed ? 

Mr. Deriabin. The station was in Moscow, too. 

In September 1953, I was assigned to Vienna and was working as 
intelligence officer in the Soviet MGB ^ station in Vienna. 

Mr. Arens. Then tell us in a word, please, sir, what transpired 
next in your life. 

Mr. Deriabik. I was in Vienna until February 15, 1954. I decided 
on that day, February 15, 1954, I went to American headquarters in 
Vienna and asked for asylum. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us in a word what happened next. 

Mr. Deriabin. I spent a few days in the American Zone in Austria 
in asking them permission to go to the United States, because they 
asked me what I would like to do and what I am going to do. First 
I asked them about political asylum. They gave me, I would say, 
about 10 days or 2 weeks, then I arrived in the United States and was 
smce, I would say, February 28, 1954, I leave for United States. 

Mr. Arens. Now would you kindly proceed at your own pace to 
tell us about the Okhrana,^ its size, responsibilities, and its methods. 
First of all, what is the Okhrana ? 

Mr. Deriabin. Okhrana is actually the secret service of the Soviet 
State Security, and is responsibile for guarding its leaders against 
the people. The size— I would say the exact number of officers work- 
ing there in 1953 was 16,000 officers. Actually, the Guard Direc- 
torate IS just in Moscow, because they are especially to guard the 
leaders of government. 

Mr. Arens. And a word about its methods ? 

Mr. Deriabin. Well, they are guarding physically, armed and un- 
armed civilians, the people. They carry out surveillance and opera- 
tions, security checks of all the people that may come in contact with 
the government leaders, in addition to providing physical security. 

Mr. Arens. Does the Okhrana also maintain a surveillance over the 
hierarchy itself within the Soviet Government? 

Mr. Deriabin. Yes, they do. 

Mr. Arens. Why? 

Mr. Deriabin. Well, as far as I know, all Soviet leaders doesn't 
trust each other and in this purpose they have the civilians against 
each other. 

Mr. Arens. To whom did the Okhrana report when you were in it? 

Mr. Deriabin. Okhrana actually reported to the Central Committee 
or the Soviet Communist Party, 

Mr. Arens. And what was the source of its information ? 

Mr. Deriabin. Well, actually there was the chief of the Guard 
Directorate who was responsible, during Stalin's day, to Stalin; and 
after Stalm died he was responsible to Malenkov and, the last time 
I believe, responsible to Khrushchev. Actually, to be chief of Guard 
Directorate, you were under the Central Committee. The Minister 
ot State Security, he is the boss, but he is not actually the boss. 

^TPR'^i^*^''? "^ ^u^^^. Security, the Soviet foreign espionage service. Technically tha 
Eh 1954 absorbed by the MVD on March 6, 1953, and remained a part of it unt5 

mea^ng^"'<^uard'' °or' 'Wni-^nHn'lf "' S*" ^^"^ ^^"^"*. ^"''^^ P"'"^^' '^ ''^ «'«" ^ R"«slan term 
^^S^eSL:^^^'^l^l.,ti^^'i^:l^-^i,^o the MVD's Guard Directorate, 



Q THE KREMLIN'S ESPIONAGE AND TERROR ORGANIZATIONS 

Mr Arens He is tlie head of it but not actually the boss ? ^ 

Mr! Deriabin. That is right. Actually the Central Committee is 

the boss of the Guard Directorate. , ^ ., ^ ^ i r^ u^.-. 

Mr, Arens. Then the man who is head of the Central Committee 

would be boss of the Okhrana ? 
Mr. Deriabin. That is right. u^ • •.. • 4: 

Mr. Arens. From what sources does the Okhrana obtain its mtorma- 

^^Mr Deriabin. Well, of course, they use as sources agents in the 

households, barbers, cooks, waitresses, drivers, and others who are 

working around leaders. -, , j. .1 • -j.^ 

Mr. Arens. Can you give us ca further word about their security 

^ Mr Deriabin. The guard officers, they are around the leaders all ~ 
dav and all night. "VVlien a leader is sitting in the office, the guards 
are around the office. When leaders are going in the parade, demon- 
strations, making speeches, traveling, taking a rest, always Okhrana 
is with them, any place and everywhere. 

Mr Arens. Did you have personal experience ot being at close 
range with the principal leaders of the international Communist 
apparatus stationed in Moscow ? ^ . , , i tut 

Mr Deriabin. If you say about Soviet leaders, who I believe are 
leaders of international communism, I saw all of them. I was close 
to them, not exactly working close to them, but I saw them m the 
offices; I saw them in the demonstrations, in the Red Square, ot some 
meetings, conferences, and so on. ,, , , ^ , . -...f 

For Distance, Stalin, Khrushchev, Malenkov, Bulganm, Mikoyan, 
and others. Although as an Okhrana agent I did not work with them 
in their o-overnmental capacities in administering the affairs ot state, 
I did as^'an Okhrana man, have intimate contact with them in their 
offices' in their private lives, such men as Stalm, Khrushchev, 
Malenkov, Mikoyan, Zhukov, Bulganm, and virtually all ot the top 
leadership at one time or another. ^ 

Mr. Arens. On the basis of this intimate observation of these lead- 
ers of international communism in your capacity as an Okhrana agent, 
do you have any observations to make respectmg their so-called 
humanitarian concepts and dedication to the people? _ 

Mr. Deriabin. I would say working in the Guard Directorate, 1 
found that Soviet leaders do not work for their own people. Ihey 
are working and living just for themselves. Actually, when they are 
making speeches and talking to the people that they are servmg lor 
the people, actually it is not true. . ct .1 

Most of them are serving for themselves. Of course, most o± the 
Soviet leaders are real Communists and they believe m Communist 
theory. Some of them don't know actually what is capitalism. I 
would like, if it is all right with you, to put one example m. 
Mr. Arens. Please do. » , • *. 4. 

Mr. Deriabin. I was in the U.S. Congress a few days ago, ]ust to 
see around, and I saw where Congressmen dined. It seems to be the 
same as other restaurants in the United States, especially Washing- 
ton, Virginia, and Maryland. I didn't see too much difference be- 
tween what the Congressmen eat and what the people eat m the 
restaurants. 



THE KREMLIN'S ESPIONAGE AND TERROR ORGANIZATIONS 7 

Well, if I would say to the Soviet people about the U.S. Congress- 
men, how they are living and dining and working in that place, they 
would never believe with me, because all Soviet people think that the 
U.S. Congressmen don't work for the people; that they have big 
offices with gold and packets of money and are just taking a rest while 
they are working for the Congress. 

The Soviet people think about this because in the Soviet Union all 
ministers or members of the Soviet Congress have big offices ; they have 
the best service in the Soviet Union ; they have cars, drivers, chauf- 
feurs, barbers, and so on, and guards around them. 

Soviet leaders explain to the people that they have to live better 
than the people because they are working all day, all night, for the 
people; that that is the reason why they have to have everything. 
Actually, they are not worried too much about the people. They are 
concerned for themselves. 

Mr. Arens. From the experience which you had as an Okhrana 
agent, with close association or contact with the top echelon of the 
Communist apparatus in Moscow, do you care to express yourself re- 
specting the way in which they conduct their private affairs, their 
private lives ? 

Mr. Deriabest. Well, every Soviet leader has his own private life, 
and the people don't know how they live. They don't like to show 
to the people how they live. Actually, the guard officer has to sign 
the paper before they take a job to guard somebody that they will never 
talk to anybody about what they are doing, with whom they are doing, 
with whom they are working, and how they are working. Every 
Soviet leader has his own private life. All of them have good houses, 
which belong to the government. Actually, they live in it. 

They have private hospitals, stores, drugs, and private homes where 
they are taking rests and everything. But the people know that all of 
these places belong to the govermnent. Actually the Soviet top 
leaders use them. 

The people don't know about that. The top leaders have their own 
collective farms which raise vegetables and fruits, and lakes where they 
are growing fish for them, and on the collective farms they grow 
sheep, produce milk and butter and everything. 

For example, Stalin's family ; of course, I saw so many times Stalin's 
son, Vasilii, who was actually an alcoholic and a thoroughly corrupted 
individual; always too much drinking, with prostitutes, organizing 
loud parties in his own place and somewhere else. 

If you take, for example, some Soviet top echelon leaders, for in- 
stance, secretary of Moscow Party Committee one time was Mr. Popov, 
who was organizing many, many times parties, I would say every 
week two or three, with prostitutes, with dancing on the tables and 
too much drinking. 

For example, one Soviet Minister of Railroad Transport was Kova- 
lev, who made a big w^eclding party for the daughter. He built a 
railroad spur from Moscow to their country house, about 40 kilometers. 
Then there was the marriage train, with many cars on it, and a few 
hundred guests who went on that party. They spent the govern- 
ment's money .^ Kovalev has a big house near the Black Sea. I didn't 
see in the United States some millionaires live like Soviet ministers 
live in that country. 



8 THE KREMLIN'S ESPIONAGE AND TERROR ORGANIZATIONS 

Mr. Arens. After your assignment with the Okhrana, you said you 
were transferred to the foreign section of the MGB, which I under- 
stand is now the KGB.^ Can you tell us something about its size, re- 
sponsibilities, and methods ? 

Mr. Deriabin. I would say the size of the foreign section of the 
Soviet civilian intelligence is about 3,000 officers in headquarters in 
Moscow and about 15,000 officers around the world, working as repre- 
sentatives of the Soviet Government abroad. The foreign section of 
the Soviet civilian intelligence service is responsible for espionage and 
counterespionage abroad ; also for surveilling Soviet and satellite citi- 
zens who travel abroad ; and is responsible for carrying out occa- 
sional assassinations, kidnaping, blackmail, and similar activities. 

Mr. Arens. What are the methods used by the MGB ? 

Mr. Deriabin. Soviet intelligence most of the time is using methods 
like blackmail, bribery, and they include prisoners of war who spend 
some time inside the Soviet Union. They are using immigrants. 
Sometimes they send as immigrants to another country their own 
citizens to make some kind of spy network. Actually, they are work- 
ing in two ways. They use legal channels and illegal channels and 
foreign missions and exchange groups, too. 

Foi- instance, when the Soviet delegation is going abroad, it always 
includes some intelligence or counterintelligence officers. 

For instance, in 1957 there was a Soviet delegation, a construc- 
tion delegation in the United States, which includes one Soviet in- 
telligence" officer whose name is Major Zagorsky, who was a mem- 
ber of that Soviet delegation. When the Moiseyev dancers were here, 
Lieutenant Colonel Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Kudriavtsev was a 
member of the Moiseyev dancers who is working for Soviet intelli- 
gence for many years, and he is a colonel. Both of them were working 
with me in jNIoscow while I was there. 

Another example was in 1956, when the Soviet religious delegation 
was here, the Soviet Orthodox Church. The chief of that was Arch- 
bishop Nikolai. He is not a meml)er of KGB, but he is an agent of 
KGB since World War II, who gives information to KGB. KGB is 
asking him and he is giving information. He is actually an agent. 

Mr. Arexs. To what extent does the MGB, now the KGB, employ 
or exploit what we would generally call low-level informers within 
a country in which they are operating ? 

Mr. Deriabin". Well, of course, Soviet intelligence is using all kinds 
of persons if it is possible to recruit them, on any level — the low level, 
the middle level, the high level. 

Mr. Arexs. What information can you tell us on this record re- 
specting Col. Rudolf Abel ? 

]Mr. Deriabix. Well, as far as I know, he had in his apartment a 
radio and other technical equipment, and he was working under deep, 
deep cover. I would say he was doing spy work, was going to take 
some kind of scientific information from the United States. 

Mr. Arens. Now, may I ask you a pointed question respecting de- 
fectors : To what extent does the KGB use phony defectors in hopes 
that they would gain the confidence of authorities of free countries ? 

Mr. Deriabin. They use them very often because it is very hard 
now for Soviets to put their own agents inside the United States or 

^ Ooniniittpe of State Security, so named In March 1054 when the MVD lost a number 
of Its former functions. The KGB now has charge of both Internal security and foreign 
espionage for the Soviet Union. 



THE KREMLIN'S ESPIONAGE AND TERROR ORGANIZATIONS 9 

other Western countries. It is very hard to recruit, actually, Ameri- 
can people to be Soviet spies. For this reason they are using their 
own agents. They order them to go to the United States under politi- 
cal asylum— ask for political asylum, and then become Soviet spies. 
Through them they are going to find methods of American intelli- 
gence, how America is working. Maybe America will recruit them 
and send them back inside the Soviet Union if they can be used for 
her purposes. Or another thing is to penetrate immigration or- 
ganizations, groups, trying by penetrating the immigration barriers 
of various nations to break down the various organized emigre gi'oups 
within the free countries. This is a special effort. 

Of course, sometimes they send an agent and order him not to start 
work until given a signal. Maybe he will stay 10 years or more and 
then start to work. 

Mr. Akens. Do they have "sleepers" ? 

Mr. Deriabin. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. And a sleeper is a man who is idle until he is given a 
signal ; is that right ? 

Mr. Deriabin. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. The KGB is, of course, not the only Soviet intelli- 
gence service, 

Mr. Deriabin. No; it is not the only Soviet intelligence service. 
There is another intelligence service under the General Staff of Soviet 
Army. Tliey call them GRU, Soviet military intelligence, which is 
under the General Staff of the Soviet Army. 

Mr. Arens. Then is it a fair characterization,_ in general, that the 
Soviet has two major intelligence services engaging in foreign espio- 
nage, the KGB and the GRU, the latter being the intelligence opera- 
tion of the military ? 

Mr. Deriabin. Eight. 

Mr. Arens. What are the main targets for Soviet intelligence 
operations in the West ? 

Mr. Deriabin. The first, Soviet intelligence working against the 
United States, and the second, against NATO members. 

Mr. Arens. What is the top priority ? 

Mr. Deriabin. The first enemy for the Soviet Union is the United 
States, and the second, the members of NATO organizations. 
Against them, Soviet intelligence works. 

Mr. Arens. What do these intelligence services seek here ? 

Mr. Deriabin. They are going to find any kind of information about 
the United States and members of NATO— economic, political, mili- 
tary, including everything that is possible to use in the future. 

Mr. Arens. Based upon your background and experience, please 
describe briefly how the Soviet intelligence operations are organized 
in a typical Western free country, perhaps, may I suggest, the United 
States. 

Mr. Deriabin. Soviet intelligence works in two ways. First, legal 
residents and, second, illegal residents. I would say legal agents and 
illegal agents. 

For instance, the United States has a Soviet Embassy. In the 
Soviet Embassy there is a legal Soviet resident or boss of Soviet 
intelligence and some other officers who are working for the embassy. 
They are KGB officers. 



10 THE KREMLIN'S ESPIONAGE AND TERROR ORGANIZATIONS 

In another case there is an illegal resident, for example, as was 
Abel— Col. Rudolf Abel. 

I wonld say in each country Soviet intelligence has one legal resident 
and maybe one, two, three, or more illegal residents. 

They also have legal Soviet intelligence working under the Soviet 
Embassy, Tass correspondents, Soviet trade organizations, interna- 
tional organizations, personnel such as in the satellite embassies and 
consulates. 

Mr. Arens. Do you mean Tass, the Soviet press representatives? 

Mr. Deriabin. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Based upon your background and experience, is it your 
judgment they presently have espionage agents in Tass? 

Mr. Deriabin. Well, actually I would say 60 or 70 percent of the 
representatives of Tass are KGB members, actually Soviet intelligence 
officers. 

Mr. Arens. And what about Amtorg, the Soviet trade organization 
which is operating in the United States ? 

Mr. Deriabin. I believe, and I believe it was before as it is now, 
that tiie Soviet used Amtorg for its intelligence work. For instance, 
the Foreign Trade Ministry has its own intelligence agency. I would 
say if you ask Ambassador Menshikov,^ he knows very well how Soviet 
Foreign Trade Ministry works in the intelligence field. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have firsthand information respecting Am- 
bassador ]\Ienshikov's background in intelligence work? 

Mr. Deriabin, Actually, I don't know if Menshikov is a member 
of Soviet intelligence or Soviet ]\IGB, but Menshikov was working 
inside Soviet Union as Minister of Foreign Trade and Deputy Min- 
ister of Foreign Trade, and I know in that ministry he has his own 
intelligence section which is working close to KGB intelligence service. 
Sometimes KGB intelligence puts their own officers in the intelligence 
section of the Trade Ministry, and went abroad as representatives. 

]\Ir. Arens. I don't believe, sir, our record is quite clear on your 
estimate of the number of GRU military intelligence personnel 
operating out of Moscow. "Would you care to give us your best judg- 
ment on that ? 

Mr. Deriabin. I would not presume to give a precise estimate, but 
I am confident that there are many more agents in the military intelli- 
gence of the Soviet empire than there are in the civilian service, the 
KGB. 

Mr. Arens. "What were the instructions given to the civilian intelli- 
gence service, of which you were a part, respecting strategies, tactics, 
and activities of that service against the United States ? 

Mr. Deriabin. In July or August 1953, when Panyushkin ^ became 
a boss of Soviet intelligence, he gave instructions to all intelligence 
officers, and that instruction said — actually, it was mailing his point in 
a letter and in a meeting, which was in Moscow in August of 1953. He 
said that it is very hard now to get information from the United 
States, and we have to organize our work against the United States 
from other countries, especially from organized bases in Latin Amer- 
ican countries. Then we have to work against the United States from 
East Germany, from Austria, and other European countries. 

^ Mikhail A. l\renshIkov. present Soviet Ambassador to the United States. 

«Maj. Geu. Alexsaudr S. Panyushkin, Soviet Ambassador to the United States, 1947-52. 



THE KEEMLIN'S ESPIONAGE AND TERROR ORGANIZATIONS H 

What Panyushkin said was that everybody knows our first enemy 
is the United States and the NATO organizations. We have to work 
against them. That was it in general. 

Mr. Aeens. May I ask, how does this square up with the professions 
of Khrushchev for peaceful coexistence and the hand of friendship 
which he professes to be constantly extending to the free countries, 
particularly to the United States ? 

Mr. Deriabin. I don't believe what Klirushchev is saying. I know 
what Khrushchev is doing. When Khrushchev said that he is for 
peace he is really not for peace. He is going to build communism not 
just in the Soviet Union. He would lilce to build communism around 
the world. 

Mr. Arens. If we have concluded on that subject, may I inquire if 
you would like to give us further detail on the various methods by 
which the Soviet intelligence service recruits agents in the free coun- 
tries. 

Mr. Deriabhst. The first thing is blackmail and bribery and Com- 
mimist sympathies, Commmiist sympathizers, and using methods of 
provocation. This is the general method. 

Mr. Arens. How do the Soviet agents in the free countries com- 
municate with the Moscow headquarters ? 

Mr. Deriabin. I would say they use open code, secret writing, 
couriers, contacts with legal residents, by radio and through agents 
whom they send to take information. 

Mr. Arens. Aside from its own professional staff of officers and 
trained agents, do the Soviet intelligence services make use of other 
branches of the Soviet Government ? 

Mr. Deriabin. Of course, they are working through other branches, 
such as the diplomatic, press, Intourist, commercial relations, scien- 
tific and professional groups, and cultural exchanges. Every possi- 
bility they use for their intelligence work. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have facts about any kidnapings or assas- 
sinations by the Soviet intelligence services operating m the West ? 

Mr. Deriabin. Well, I had some comiection with kidnaping Dr. 
Walter Linse in 1952 from West Berlin. 

Mr. Arens. Would you tell us about it, please, sir? 

Mr. Deriabin. Well, I am going to talk about Lausman,^ though I 
didn't mention it. 

Lausman was the Czechoslovakian Minister in June 1948 in 
Czechoslovakia. Then he left Czechoslovakia. He was living in 
Salzburg, in Austria. He was working for freedom and was talking 
about what is going on in Czechoslovakia. Czechoslovakia intelligence 
asked Soviet intelligence to help them to kidnap Mr. Lausman. 
Czechoslovakia sent three agents to Salzburg. They gave some kind 
of narcotics and drugs to Mr. Lausman, put him in a car, and took 
him through the West Austrian Zone to the Soviet Zone, and the 
Soviets gave them two cars and guards, etc., and they took Mr. 
Lausman to Prague, to Czechoslovakia. As far as I know, Mr. Laus- 
man woke up when he was in Prague. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have any other cases which you could recount 
from your own knowledge ? 

1 Bohumil Lausman, Deputy Prime Minister and Administrator of Industry in Czecho- 
Blovakia before tlie Communist coup in 1948. 



12 THE KREMLIN'S ESPIONAGE AND TERROR ORGANIZATIONS 

Mr. Deriabin. In West Berlin there is an organization, Free Jurists 
Union.^ In 1952, that Free Jurists Union was going to organize an 
international conference of jurists there. At that time, Soviet intelli- 
gence had a plan to kidnap Dr. Friedenau, who was boss of that. When 
the plan was all ready to kidnap Dr. Friedenau, he left West Berlin 
and went to Stockholm, to Sweden, to prepare a meeting with other 
jurists. 

Dr. Linse, who was the chief of economic section in that Free Jurists 
Union, was in charge to organize tliis international meeting. Then 
Soviet intelligence, using their agents, who were Germans by nation- 
ality, kidnaped Dr. Linse from West Berlin to East Berlin. While 
kidnaping him Dr. Linse started to struggle. One man took a gun, 
one Soviet agent, and sliot him in his leg to put Dr. Linse inside the 
car. They put him inside the car and took him to the Soviet Zone. 
Then there was the trial. 

After a while they took him inside the Soviet I^nion. I don't know 
what happened, if they put him for 25 years in jail or they killed him. 

But in that time they answered the Western countries that they 
did nothing to Dr. Linse, that they had nothing to do with him, with 
Dr. Linse. 

Mr. Akexs. I understand you were present in IMoscow at the time 
of Stalin's death ; is that correct ? 

Mr. Deriabin. Right. 

Mr. Arens. Did you gain any information or impressions about 
the circumstances of his death and the power struggle which followed? 

Mr. Deriabin. In this question, I would say I saw a movie here on 
TV about Stalin's death. I would say 70 or 75 percent of the show in 
that movie is true. I am telling this because at that time while I was 
working in the Guard Directorate, and while I was working in the 
Intelligence Directorate, it was many, many times a shakeup in the 
Guard Directorate. The leadership or the bosses in the Guard Direc- 
torate, there was five of them in 1951, 1952, and 1953, for 3 years it 
was five new bosses. 

Mr. Arens. JNIay I ask you in passing what happened to the various 
bosses ? 

Mr. Deriabin. I would answer better if I give you a name. The 
first boss was Lieutenant General Vlasik. 

Mr. Arens. What happened to him ? 

Mr. Deriabin. They put him in jail. He was staying for a few 
weeks and then he was dead in jail. Whether they beat him or so — 
he was healthy when they took him and put him in jail. 

Then actually guarding Stalin, were three colonels. _ One was sent 
to Xovosibirsk ; one colonel was sent to Omsk, in Siberia ; one colonel 
was sent to Molotov city, in northeast Russia. It was known as Perm. 

Actually, they sent them in the concentration, not to be bossbut 
sent as assistant to boss — everyone to be an assistant to a boss in a 
concentration camp. 

When Stalin was alive, in 1952, it was making orders by Malenkov 
and some other leaders that they cut Stalin's guards 50 percent in 
1952'. Then there was another boss, Ignat'yev, who lost his job. Now 
he is working as a party boss in some Soviet Republic. 

* Investigating Committee of Free Jurists, also known as League of Free Jurists. 



THE KREMLIN'S ESPIONAGE AND TERROR ORGANIZATIONS 13 

There was another boss, Major General Kusmechev, who was shot 
just after Stalin's death. I was talking about who was exactly boss. 
There was a big shakeup in the Guard Directorate, and they sent so 
many people to Siberia. So after Stalin died, no member of his Guard 
Directorate was left in Moscow. Everybody was ordered to go to 
Siberia or somewhere. Nobody stayed to work for KGB or for in- 
telligence. Thej^ were completely sent out, all over the place. The 
particular organization was disbanded. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have information respecting the power struggle 
which followed Stalin's death ? 

Mr, Deriabin. When Stalin died, we were waiting that Malenkov 
would become the boss of the Communist Party and Molotov would 
become the boss of the Soviet Government. It doesn't happen. We 
found 2 or 3 weeks after Stalin's death that Beria was domg some- 
thing, was going to take over the Soviet Government. 

Actually in June 1953 I was walking the Moscow streets and I saw 
tanks and troops around Moscow. The next morning when Beria 
was arrested— actually it was nighttime— I met some friends of mine 
working in the Guard Directorate. I asked them why were tanks 
around the Moscow streets, and that man answered to me that he 
went to Beria's home — actually, he was responsible for checking 
Beria's guards, officers, and he said he found the military officers 
staying around Beria's house, that Beria was arrested. 

Mr. Arens. What significance do you attach to the fact that there 
were tanks and troops around Beria's home ? 

Mr. Deriabin. Well, at that time I was thinking something is going 
wrong. I was going to the office and was going to find what it wa?, 
because at nighttime, I think at 2 o'clock at night, I was going home, 
after my work. Actually we worked most of the time at night. 

I found the tanlfs. I didn't get any information until the morning. 
But in that time, so many KGB officers were fired and put in jail, 
and actually I didn't know whether I would be alive or not. 

Mr. Arens. You have told us about the apparatus which guards the 
high echelon of the Communist Government officials, and you have 
told us about tlie two principal segments of their overseas intelligence 
operations. Although you did not personally serve in the secret police 
which operate against the people themselves in the Soviet Union, could 
you give us a word about the organization, structure, number, and ac- 
tivities of that service in the Soviet Union? 

Mr. Deriabin. Well, under Soviet secret police there are so many 
directorates. I would like to tell you that there are two important 
directorates, the secret political directorate, which is watching Soviet 
intelligentsia, and government employees, and who is not working in 
the factory or in the field. 

Well, they have a few sections in that directorate, and under each 
section they have the responsibility to answer for some ministries, 
some departments of government. 

There is another economical directorate under the secret police, 
which is taking care of Soviet industry, machinery, and agriculture. 

They are watching the people and giving information for the Com- 
munist Party and for the government, what is going on inside the 
Soviet Union. 

The third is the military counterintelligence, which is working by 
the same methods as the secret political directorate or the economical 
directorate, but just inside the Soviet Army. 



14 THE KREMLIN'S ESPIONAGE AND TERROR ORGANIZATIONS 

Moscow is the headquarters of the Soviet secret police. Each Soviet 
Eepublic has another headquarters. In each region and district they 
have a branch of the KGB in Soviet life, I would say economical, cul- 
tural, and political life inside the Soviet Union watched over by some 
kind of directorate which is under KGB. 

If it is cultural life, it is under the political directorate; the eco- 
nomical life to the economical directorate, and the military life to mil- 
itary directorate. They are taking care of all the people. They are 
working through sources and agents. 

Every Soviet office, every Soviet collective farm, every factory, has 
a representative of KGB who has his own agents in the factory, m 
the office, and everywhere. There are so many agents and sources who 
are working for the KGB, in every Soviet apartment building and 
everywhere. You can find them everywhere. 

I would say, in general, about every 15 persons in the Soviet Union 
are covered by 1 source or 1 agent inside the Soviet Union — an in- 
former. 

Mr. Arens. Is the record clear that it is your judgment that ap- 
proximately 1 out of every 15 persons in the Soviet Union is either 
an informer or an agent for the secret police ? 

Mr. Deriabin. Do not make a mistake. Soviet KGB is working 
close to the Communist Party. And the Communist Party has to 
get all information to the KGB about the people, and the KGB has 
to give information to the Communist Party about the people, too. 

If you put together the members of the Communist Party and the 
sources of KGB, it will be exactly what you say. 

Mr. Arens. Is there any other comment or observation that you 
should like to make on this record, which you understand will be 
made public? 

Mr. Deriabin. I would say now so many correspondents and Amer- 
ican people are talking about the new Soviet laws, which was pub- 
lished in September 1958, and sometime Khrushchev said that KGB 
does not have too much authority now as it had before. I would say 
it was the election in March and February inside the Soviet Union, 
in each Republic election, the Supreme Council of the Eepublic, 
through tlie Soviet press which I rend now sometimes, I see— I found 
49 chiefs of KGB and MVD elected to membership of the Supreme 
Council during the last election. 

I would say before, when Stalin was alive, it was less members 
of KGB who were elected working for the government than it is 
now. The Soviet criminal code, published in 1958, is stronger than 
it was as the Soviet criminal code before. 

Mr. Arens. Have you any comments to make on a public record 
respecting other prospective defectors, such as yourself, or any others 
who, at one time, had plans to defect ? 

Mr. Deriabin. To answer this question I would say that, of course, 
there are some Soviet officers in intelligence work or Soviet diplomats 
who would like to join the West. But there are so many difficulties 
for them to do this. All of them have some relatives or parents, or 
close relatives, inside the Soviet Union. ^ 

If some of them go to the West, it means that the Soviet Govern- 
ment, especially KGB, will put their relatives in jail or send them to 
Siberia because there is the Soviet law about that. 



THE KREMLIN'S ESPIONAGE AND TERROR ORGANIZATIONS 15 

Of course, these officers who would like to join the West, they 
don't like to be an enemy of their relatives. That is one thing which 
stops them. 

Another thing is most of the Soviet officers who are abroad now, 
especially in the United States or in other countries, they don't know 
well how is life in other countries, and they don't know well how 
the new government will meet them. 

The third thing is they don't know what to do in this country. Ife 
is very good to say, "I got freedom," so they have to work when they 
join the West and do something. Most of the Soviet diplomats and 
intelligence officers, they didn't do any kind of jobs, especially phys- 
ically or something else. All their lives they serve for the govern- 
ment, as intelligence officers, as a diplomat or some other representa- 
tive. It is very hard for them to start a new life. They then don't 
know exactly if, for instance, the U.S. Government will help them 
or not. I wish they could know of my experience. I find so many 
friends in the United States and everything is just fine. 

But first when I arrived I didn't know what to do, how to live, and 
so and so. Of course, Americans have helped me a lot, and I am in 
good shape now. 

Mr. Arens. You have told us, off the record, have you not, certain 
instances in which high-ranking Communists behind the Iron Curtain 
have, to your certain knowledge, built up bank accounts in the free 
world? 

Mr. Deriabin. In answer to this question, I would say that the 
Soviet secret service is taking care of all Communist lenders around 
the world. They like to have any kind of information about them, 
especially about the leaders of satellite countries. Actually they have 
advisers to guard them. Especially when I was working in the 
Austro-German section, we had a special branch which was taking 
care of East German Government, the East German police, and the 
East German military service. 

We had the files, specially on Walter Ulbricht, who is Deputy 
Premier in East Germany. 

In the file of Walter Ulbricht there was information that Ulbricht 
has a niece or some relatives in the United States, and through her he 
put money in an American bank for his future. If something hap- 
pens in East Germany, he will have money then. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have any other instances like that you can tell 
on the public record ? 

Mr. Deriabin. Well, about Rau, Deputy Premier of the East Ger- 
man Government, the KGB thought that he was an agent of the Nazis 
during the war. 

In talking about satellite countries, I would like to say that the 
Soviet secret police always like to have information about the leaders 
of satellite Communist parties. For example, everybody knows that 
in Hungary, Hungarian dictator Eakosi is now inside the Soviet 
Union. One Soviet KGB colonel, his name being Yevkimenko, who 
was Soviet intelligence adviser to the Plungarian Government, he had 
his own sources around Rakosi. One of his sources went to see Rakosi, 
it was 1951,- and told him that Soviet boss of intelligence would like 
it if he became his informer or his agent. 



16 THE KREMLIN'S ESPIONAGE AND TERROR ORGANIZATIONS 

Rakosi called the Soviet adviser and told him, "Wliy are you going 
to have agents around me? You have to know that I am the first 
agent of the Soviet Union." 

The Chairman. May I express to you appreciation not only for 
your cooperation evidenced by the testimony which you have given 
today, but, likewise, for your cooperation with this comniittee, its 
staff, and agencies of the Government of the United States since your 
arrival on these shores. 

Thank you. 

(Whereupon, the hearing adjourned subject to the call of the 
Chair.) 



INDEX 



Individuals 

Page 

Abel, Rudolf 8, 10 

Beria (Lavrenti) 13 

Bulganin (Nikolai) 6 

Deriabin, Petr Sergeyeviv 1,2,3-16 (testimony) 

Friedenau (Theo) 12 

Iguat'yev (S. D.) 12 

Khrushchev 5, 6, 11, 14 

Kovalev (Ivan V.) 7 

Kudriavtsev, Aleksandr Aleksandrovich 1, 8 

Kusmechev 13 

Lausman, Bohumil 11 

Linse, Walter 11, 12 

Malenkov (Georgi) 5, 6, 13 

Menshikov, Mikhail A 10 

Mikoyan (Anastas I.) 6 

Molotov (V. M.) 13 

Nikolai ( Dorofeyevich Yarushevich) 2,8 

Panyushkin, Aleksandr S 10, 11 

Popov (Georgi M.) 7 

Rakosi (Matyas) 15, 16 

Rau 15 

Stalin, Josef 5, G, 7, 12, 13, 14 

Stalin, Vasilii I 7 

Ulbricht, Walter 15 

Vlasik 12 

Yevkimenko 15 

Zagorsky (Sergei A.) 1, 8 

Zhukov (Georgi) 6 

Organizations 

American-Russian Trading Corp. (Amtorg) 10 

Amtorg. {See American-Russian Trading Corp.) 

Communist Party, Soviet Union 14 

Central Committee 5, 6 

Moscow Party Committee 7 

Free Jurists Union. {See Investigating Committee of Free Jurists. ) 
Investigating Committee of Free Jurists (also known as Free Jurists 

Union and League of Free Jurists) 12 

Komsomol (Communist Youth League) 4 

Moiseyev Folk Dance Co 8 

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) 9, 11 

Tass News Agency 10 

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, Government of : 

Counter-intelligence School (Moscow) 4 

Foreign Trade Ministry 10 

Ministry of War (Army) : 

GRU (military intelligence) 1, 2, 9, 10 

Sergeants School 4 

Secret Police 1-16 

Guard Directorate 4, 5, 6, 12, 13 

Intelligence Directorate 5, 12 

KGB 1, 2, 8, 9, 10, 13, 14, 15 

MGB 5, 7, 8, 10 

MVD 4, 5, 8, 14 

Okhrana 5, 6 

Supreme Soviet Council 14 

i 

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