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Full text of "Laboratory exercises in anatomy and physiology"

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HARVARD UNIVERSITY 



LIBRARY OF THE 



Department of Education 



COLLECTION OF TEXT-BOOKS 
Contributed by the Publishers 



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LABORATORY EXERCISES 



IN 



ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 



BY 



JAMES EDWARD PEABODY, A.M. 

Instructor in Biology in the 
High School for Boys and Girls ^ New York City 



NEW YORK 

HENRY HOLT AND COMPANY 
r898 



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HsurvBrd Umverslty, 
BeptPfMucatbn Library 

OI^R^Aff© COLLt^t^ U««<^i«\i 

1931 

Copyright, 1898, 

BY 

HENRY HOLT A CO 



KOBKItT DKUMMOND, imnrTXHt NIW TOUV, 



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PEEFACE. 

Every pupil in the study of human physiology 
should be led to see that most of the materials re- 
quired for observation and experiment in this subject 
•are furnished by the organs and tissues of his own 
body. The following laboratory directions aim pri- 
marily to familiarize the pupil with the working of his 
own organs of motion, circulation, respiration, and di- 
gestion. Much of the necessary supplementary ma- 
terial (soup-bones, meat, foods, etc.) can be easily 
obtained by the student. The pieces of apparatus 
needed for the class demonstrations and experiments 
(test-tubes, bell-jars, thistle-tubes) are usually found 
in the chemical or physical laboratory of the school. 

At the beginning of each topic of study I have given 
directions which in my experience have been found 
necessary to guide the pupil in his observations and 
experiments. The questions which follow these direc- 
tions have been framed with the object of leading the 
student to seek the facts from the material itself. The 
student should be trained especially to distinguish in 
the experiments observed results from the infererhces 
that may be drawn from those results. 

I have found that a considerable amount of labora- 
tory work may be most profitably done by the pupil 

iii 



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IV PREFACE. 

at home and reported in class at the next recitation 
period. This is especially true in the study of foods, 
yeast, and bacteria. Iodine and Fehling solution are 
furnished the pupil and test-tubes are loaned. We 
have found that four fifths of the test-tubes ' are re- 
turned uninjured. In the pa^es that follow I have 
marked thus * the exercises adapted for home study. 
The mark t indicates a demonstration before the 
class by the teacher. The remaining exercises (un- 
marked) would best be performed by each pupil in 
the laboratory under the direction of the teacher. 

The following method of recording the laboratory 
observations has been found to work successfully. 
The observations and conclusions are briefly recorded 
by the pupil in his note-book as the work is done. 
Some little time is taken for discussion at the close of 
the period, when the facts are clearest in mind, special 
care being taken to see that correct inferences have 
been drawn. That the work of the day may be more 
firmly fixed in the mind of the pupil he is required to 
write on paper of a certain kind and size and present 
at the next lesson a carefully prepared statement of 
(1) the steps in the experiment, (2) the results ob- 
served, (3) the conclusions which were drawn from 
the experiment. These papers, together with the 
drawings and other work prepared in class, are ar- 
ranged in a cover belonging to each pupil, and consti- 
tute his laboratory book. 

The descriptive terms dorsal and ventral, anterior 
and posterior, median and lateral, employed in com- 
parative anatomy, are used in the following directions, 
since they seem preferable to the more indefinite 



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PREFACE. V 

terms front and back, upper and lower, middle and 
side, commonly used in books on human physiology. 
I have adopted throughout the food study the term 
nutrients (for food-materials, food-stuffs), and nitrog- 
enous substances (for proteids, albuminoids, gelati- 
noids, etc.) ; these terms are used in the publications 
of the U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

I have found the study of the material at the Amer- 
ican Museum of Natural History (especially the skele- 
tons and teeth of mammals) a valuable means of review 
and of awakening interest in the subject. With a defi- 
nite list of questions (see p. 73) in the hands of each 
pupil a division of thirty to fifty can be directed in 
this work. Time should be taken at the close of such 
study for a comparison of notes and for general dis- 
cussion. 

Some knowledge of the cell is so essential to any 
intelligent comprehension of the subject of human 
physiology that it seems necessary to introduce fre- 
quent discussions of protoplasm and its properties. 
Circulating protoplasm is easily demonstrated in the 
cells of the plant Nitella. Epithelium (including 
gland and ciliated), muscle and nerve cells should be 
shown if possible. The study of yeast and bacteria is 
suggested to give the pupil some acquaintance with 
the physiology of the cell, as well as a knowledge of 
these organisms. 

Since physiology unfortunately precedes physics and 
chemistry in the ordinary High School courses of 
study, it is necessary to give the pupil some idea of 
the fundamental principles of these subjects. It seems 
wise to discuss oxidation and its products more or 



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VI PRBPAOE. 

less thoroughly. The structure and physiology of 
the organs of special sense (eye, ear), as well as the 
thorough consideration of levers, should be' omitted, 
in my judgment, until after a course in physics has 
been taken. 

It is not expected that all of the following experi- 
ments will be performed in the limited time usually 
assigned in the curriculum to this subject. The exer- 
cises are, however, sufficiently varied to* allow a wide 
range of choice. The laboratory work on a given 
topic should if possible be given before the study of 
that topic in the text-book. 

The teacher will find the following reference-books 
to be valuable in experimental physiology : Stirling's 
"Outlines of Practical Physiology," (P. Blakiston, 
Son & Co., Philadelphia); Foster and Langley's 
" Practical Physiology" (The Macmillan Co., N. T.) ; 
Klein's "Micro-Organisms and Disease" (The Mac- 
millan Co., N. T.). Additional exercises are suggested 
in " Outlines of Requirements in Anatomy, Physiol- 
ogy, and Hygiene" (Harvard University). 

Suggestions for many of the following exercises 
were found in the publications of J. T. Bergen, B. P. 
Colton, H. Newell Martin, H. P. Bowditch, M.D., and 
in the books mentioned above. The outline for the 
study of bacteria was suggested by Dr. T. M. Prud- 
den, College of Physicians and Surgeons, N. Y. The 
experiments with the joint apparatus ( 8 ) were 
adapted from the " Harvard Eequirements," by Dr. 
G. W. Fitz of Harvard University, who devised the 
apparatus. Many valuable suggestions have been 
given by Dr. C. B. Davenport of Harvard University. 



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PREFACE. VU 

I am especially indebted to Dr. Margaret B. Wilson 
of the N. T. Normal College fojr carefully revising my 
manuscript. 

J. E. P. 
High School fob Bots and Oirls, 
New York City, July 13, 1898. 



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TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

I. Thb Skeleton and Musclbs. 

PAOB 

1. Structure of Bones 1 

2. Composition of Bones 2 

8. Classification of Bones 4 

4. Study of Muscles 4 

5. Study of Lean Meat (Muscle) 8 

6. Structure of a Joint 9 

7. Study of the Joints in tlie Body 11 

8. Experiments with Joint Apparatus 18 

II. Foods. 

9. Acid and Alkaline Reactions 17 

10. To Determine the Amount of Water in Foods 18 

11. To Test Foods for Starch 19 

12. To Test Foods for Grape-sugar 20 

18. To Test Foods for Nitrogenous Substances , . . 22 

14 To Test Foods for Fats and Oils 24 

16. To Test Foods for Mineral Substances 24 

16. The Analysis of Flour 25 

17. The Study of Milk 26 

III. The Processes of Digestion and Absorption. 

18. The Study of the Mouth 29 

19. To Prepare Artificial Digestive Juices 81 

20. The Digestion of Starch 82 

21. The Digestion of Mineral Substances 83 

22. The Digestion f Nitrogenous Substances 84 

28. The Diirestion of Fats 86 

24. The Principles of Osmosis 89 

25. Outline for Recording the Digestion of Nutrients.. . 42 

ix 



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X TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

rv. The Blood and CmcxiLATiON. 

PAOB 

26. Composition of the Blood 42 

27. Change in the Blood after Mixing with Oxygen 44 

28. Microscopic Study of Blood-corpuscles 44 

29. Study of the Heart 45 

30. Circulation of the Blood in the Tail of the Tadpole. 46 

81. The Pulse in the Pupil's own Body 47 

V. Oxidation and its Products. 

82. Properties of Carbon 48 

83. Tests for Carbon Dioxide 48 

34 Temperature of the Body 49 

VI. Rbspibation. 

85. Action of the Diaphragm and Lungs 60 

86. Circulation of the Air in the School-room 51 

87. Inspired and Expired Air 52 

VII. Thb Skin. 

38. Study of the Skin 53 

VIII. Excretion. 

39. Study of the Kidney 66 

40. Study of Excretion 58 

IX Nervous System. 

41. Sensations of Touch 58 

42. Sensations of Taste and Smell 60 

X. Supplementary Work. 

43. Study of Yeast 62 

44. Study of Bacteria 67 

45. Comparative Study of the Mammalian Skeleton. ... 73 

XL Rules for the Use op the Compound Microscope. . 75 

XII. List op Apparatus and Chemicals FOR A Class op 24.. 79 



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LABORATORY EXERCISES 

IN 

ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY. 

1. STBtTCTTTBE 07 BONE8. 

Materials : A clean rib of lamb or pork cut smoothly across the 
end ; two clean soup- bones, one sectioned transversely, the other di- 
vided into halves lengthwise. (After completing the study of the 
structure, lay aside the bones for the experiments in 2.) 

A. Structure of a soup-bone (long bone). 

1. Study of cross-section of a long bone. 

a. In what respects is the layer of bone- 
tissue which covers the outside dis- 
tinguishable from the tissues within ? 

6. How is the bone-tissue arranged within 
this outside layer? 

c. What is the consistency of the marrow 
which fills the spaces in the bone- 
tissue ? 

d. How does the color of the marrow in the 
marrow-cavity differ from the color of 
the spongy bone? Can you suggest 
any reason for this difference ? 

6. Make a diagrammatic drawing of the 
cross-section of the bone magnified 
twice (X 2), labelling hard bone, 
spongy bone, marrow. 



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2 LABORATORY EXJSRCISES, 

2. Study of longitudinal section of a long bone. 

a. Identify all the structures seen in cross- 

section, viz., hard bone, spongy bone, 
marrow. 

b. What additional facts in regard to the 

structure of a long bone do you learn 
from the longitudinal section ? 

c. Make a drawing of the longitudinal sec- 

tion, labelling as in the previous 
drawing. 
B. Structure of a rib (tabular bone). 

1. Can you distinguish in the cross-section of 

the rib the hard bone, spongy bone, and 
marrow ? 

2. How do long bones and tabular bones differ 

in plan of structure ? 

3. Make a diagrammatic drawing of the cross- 

section of the rib (x 2), labelling all the 
parts. 



2. Composition of Bones.* 

Materials : Two clean ribs ; the two halves of the soup-bone used 
in 1 ; diluted hydrochloric acid (6 parts water to 1 part acid) ; weigh- 
ing balances ; a piece of wire. 

A. Action of acid on bone. 

Compare the two ribs as to form and size ; 
place one of them in a bottle of diluted muriatic 
acid. Allow the bone to remain in the acid for 
a few days and then compare the two ribs again. 

* This exercise may b9 performed by the pupil at home. 

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COMPOSITION OF BONES. 3 

1. Has the acid changed the form of the bone ? 

2. Has it changed the size of the bone ? 

3. What change do you observe to have taken 

place ? 

4. Pour some of the liquid in which the bone 

has been soaking into an evaporating- dish 
and heat over an alcohol-lamp or over a 
gas-flame until the liquid has disappeared. 
What kind of substance is left in the dish ? 
(This substance is a kind of mineral matter 
formed from the mineral matter of the bone 
by the action of the acid.) 

5. What properties of bone are due to the pres- 

ence of mineral matter ? 
B. Effect of burning bone. 

Weigh half of the long bone used in 1. Tie a 
piece of wire about it and place it in a hot coal 
fire. Allow it to remain for a half -hour and then 
remove it carefully by means of the wire. 

1. Write in your note book a brief account of 

all the changes which you observed while 
the bone was in the fire. 

2. Has the bone been changed in form or size ? 

3. What change can you see in the bone ? 

4. What part of the bone has been most affected 

by the fire ? 

5. Try to break the bone ; what is the use in 

bone of the substance which has been lost? 

6. Weigh the bone and determine what per cent 

of the original bone remains as ash (mineral 
matter) and what per cent has disappeared 
(animal matter). 



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4 LABORATORY EXERCISES. 

C. Effect of boiling bones in water. 

Place the other half of the soup-bone in a pint 
of water and allow it to simmer on the back of 
the stove for 4 to 6 hours. Strain the liquid 
through a cloth and allow it to cool. 

1. Describe the substance which is obtained. 

2. Set aside a small portion of this "soup-stock" 

to test it later for nutrients. 



3. CLASSIFICATIOir OF BONES. 

From the articulated skeleton make lists of 

1. Long bones (distinguished by shaft and artic- 
ular extremities or heads). 
3. Short bones. 

3. Tabular or flat bones. 

4. Irregular bones. 



4. Sttjdt of the Muscles.'^ 

Definitions. 

1. The part of the muscle which contracts is the 

heRy; the bands or cords at the ends are the 
tendons. 

2. The end of the muscle which moves least is 

called the origin; the part which moves 
most, the insertion. 

3. Muscles which bend or flex the limb are called 

flexors; muscles which straighten or extend 
the limb, extensors. 



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8TUDT OF THE MUSCLES. 5 

A. The biceps muscle. 

1. Clasp the front of the right upper arm with 

the left hand ; draw up or flex the right fore- 
arm as far as possible. What changes do 
you notice in the belly of the muscle ? 

2. Span the biceps muscle of the right arm by 

placing the tips of the fingers of the left 
hand at the angle of the elbow in front and 
the thumb as far up on the arm as pos- 
sible ; again flex the right forearm. What 
changes in the muscle other than those al- 
ready enumerated do you notice ? 

3. Roll up the sleeve as far as possible. With 

a tape-measure get the circumference of 
the upper arm when it hangs free, and 
again when the forearm is strongly flexed. 
Write down your results. 

4. Place the fingers of the left hand at the angle 

in front of the elbow of the right arm ; flex 
and extend the right forearm several times. 
Note the cord or tendon at the lower end 
of the biceps muscle. To which of the 
bones of the forearm does it seem to be 
attached ? 

5. Determine if possible by moving the forearm 

the bones to which the upper end of the 
biceps is attached. 

6. Find on the articulated skeleton in class the 

rough prominences to which the tendons of 
this muscle are attached. 

B. The triceps muscle. 

1. Clasp the back of the right upper arm with the 



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6 LABORATORY EXERCISES. 

left hand ; forcibly straighten or extend the 
right forearm. Locate the belly of the 
triceps with reference to the belly of the 
biceps. Locate both muscles with refer- 
ence to the humerus. 
2. By flexing and extending the forearm deter- 
mine the position of the lower tendon of 
the triceps. To which bone of the forearm 
is it attached ? 
C. The flexor muscles of the fingers and of the thumb. 

1. Clasp the front side of the right forearm near 

the elbow ; clench the hand quickly and 
forcibly. Locate the belly of this flexor 
muscle with reference to the bones of the 
forearm. 

2. Press the forefinger and thumb strongly to- 

gether. What change is noticed in the 
thick mass of muscle at the base of the 
thumb ? Along what bone does the flexor 
muscle of the thumb lie ? 

3. Measure the circumference of the forearm 

when the hand is open, and again when it is 
tightly closed. Record your results. Com- 
pare with figures for biceps. 

4. Flex the fingers and note the movements of 

the tendons in the wrist. Along what bones 
do these tendons pass ? 

5. What would be the form of the hand if the 

flexor muscles of the fingers were located 
in a position corresponding to the flexor 
muscle of the thumb ? What is gained by 
placing these muscles in the forearm ? 



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STUDY OF THE MUSCLES. 7 

D. The extensor muscles of the fingers. 

1. Straighten back the fingers as far as possible 

and by feeling of the back of the forearm 
locate the belly of the extensor muscles of 
the fingers. 

2. Move the middle finger alone. Describe the 

movements of the tendons on the back of 
the hand. 

3. Flex the middle finger of each hand until it 

touches the palm of the hand; place the 
two hands together (palms facing) so that 
the tips of the forefingers, fourth fingers, 
and little fingers touch, pressing the backs 
of the middle fingers closely together. Try 
to separate each of the pairs of fingers, still 
keeping the middle fingers pressed together. 
Explain result. 

E. The muscles which move the ankle. 

1. Stand on tiptoe and locate in the calf of the 

leg the belly of the extensor muscles of 
the foot which cause this movement. To 
which bone is the lower tendon of this 
muscle (tendon of Achilles) attached ? 

2. Determine the position of the flexor muscle 

of the foot by flexing the ankle as far as 
possible. Which is the larger, the flexor 
or the extensor ? Why ? 

F. The jaw-muscles. 

Alternately close the jaws tightly together and 
open them. Find the muscles which cause 
these movements. Watch in the glass and 
describe the movements of these muscles. 



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LABORATORY EXERCISES. 



Fill out in your note-book a table like the following : 



Name of muscle. 



Origin at- 
tached to what 
bone or bones. 



Biceps 

Triceps 

Flexor muscles of fingers. . . 
Extensor muscles of Sngers. 

Flexor muscles of foot 

Extensor muscles of foot.. . . 



Belly opposite 
what bona 
or bones. 



Insertion at- 
tached tow. hat 
bone or bones. 



5. Stitdy of Lean Meat (Muscle). 

Materials : Slices of meat from the shank of beef about an incli 
thick. Cut the slices into blocks about a half-inch square. The 
structure is more clearly seen if the meat is allowed to dry in the air 
for a few hours. Dissecting needles, slide and cover glass, com- 
pound microscope J" objective. 

A. Gross structure of muscle. 

1. What is the shape of the small bundles (fas- 

ciculi) of which the muscle is composed? 
Do all of the bundles appear of the same 
shape when seen in cross-section ? 

2. What are the characteristics of the material 

surrounding the bundles (perimysium) ? 

3. Can you distinguish any fat in the piece of 

meat which you are studying ? If so, where 
is it situated ? 

4. Is tendon present ? 

5. Make a drawing of the piece of muscle show- 

ing cross and longitudinal sections (X 5). 
Label bundles, perimysium, and fat and 
tendons if present. 



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8TU0TURE OF A JOINT, 9 

B. Microscopic structure of muscle. 

Separate with dissecting needles a small por- 
tion of the muscle ; cover it with water and tear 
it apart with the needles until you have the 
smallest portion of the bundle which you can 
get. Place this bit of muscle on a glass slide, 
add a drop of water, and tease it out with 
needles ; cover with glass and examine under 
the high power of the compound microscope. 

1. Of what is the piece of muscle found to 

consist ? 

2. Why is this kind of muscle called striped 

muscle ? 

3. Draw a muscle-bundle as seen under the 

microscope. Label fibres, cross-stripes. 

6. Stbuctitbe of a Joiht. 

MaUi'ials : Fresh leg-joint of lamb or veal ; scalpel. 

A. Movement at the joint. 

1. Holding one of the bones in a fixed position, 

in how many directions can the other bone 
be moved ? 

2. Why is the joint immovable in other direc- 

tions ? 

B. Muscles and tendons. 

1. Dissect away the muscle with the scalpel; 

by what are the muscles attached to the 
bones ? 

2. Try to stretch or break these cords (tendons) ; 

what properties of tendons does this dem- 
onstrate ? 



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10 LABORATORY BXERCI8ES. 

3, What is the advantage of the absence of 
muscle -tissue over joints ? 

C. Ligaments. 

1. What kind of tissue holds the bones together 

after the muscle is removed ? 

2. How is this tissue attached to bone so as to 

allow movement at the joint ? 

D. Joint-ca\ity. 

1. Cut through the ligaments with a scalpel so 

as to open the joint-cavity ; what is the 
appearance of the liquid within (synovial 
fluid)? 

2. Suggest the use of the synovial fluid, 

E. Cartilage. 

1. Cut thin slices of cartilage from the ends of 

the bones ; what are the characteristics of 
cartilage ? 

2. Why is cartilage placed at the ends of bones 

where motion occurs ? 

F. Bones. 

1. Describe the way the bones fit together at the 

joint. 

2. Is twisting motion possible at this joint ? 

G. Periosteum. 

Stick the point of the scalpel into the surface 
of the bone where all the muscle has been re- 
moved. Peel off some of the thin membrane 
(periosteum). 

1. What are the characteristics of periosteum ? 

2. Where do you find periosteum on long bones ? 
H. Make a list of all the structures found in the joint, 

giving the use of each. 



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STUDY OF THE JOINTS IN THE BODY. 11 



7. Stttdt of the Joihts in the Bodt. 

A. Ball-and-socket joiDts. 

1. Note on the articulated skeleton what bones 

form the joint at the shoulder. 

2. Point out the bones forming the hip-joint. 

3. State the points of resemblance between 

these two joints. 

4. Mention all the differences in the structure of 

these two joints which you can see. 
6. Move your right arm and right leg at the 
same time from a vertical position in an 
arc toward the right; state the greatest 
range of motion possible at the shoulder- 
joint and at the hip-joint. 

6. In the same way move the arm and leg in an 

arc forward as far as possible ; backward 
as far as possible. Compare the range of 
motion at each joint. 

7. What other kinds of movements are possible 

at these joints ? 

8. Press the thumb on the hip-bone during 

these movements, then on the edge of the 
shoulder-blade. Is either of the two 
girdles movable ? 

B. Hinge-joints. 

1. .Determine from the articulated skeleton the 

bones which form the hinge-joint at the 
elbow. 

2. What bones form the joint at the knee ? 

3. What projection at the elbow occupies a 



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12 LABORATORY EXERCISES. 

position corresponding to the knee-cap or 
patella ? 

4. Move the right forearm and the right leg at 

the same time ; state in which direction 
(i.e., anteriorly or posteriorly) each is bent. 

5. Is lateral motion possible at either joint ? 

6. Make a list of all the other hinge-joints in 

the body, naming the bones which form 
the joint in each case. 

C. Pivot-joints. 

1. Place the right forearm on the table with the 

palm of the hand upward. Without lifting 

the elbow from the table turn the hand 

until the palm of the hand rests on the 

table. 

a. Which of the bones of the forearm has 

crossed the other ? 
6. Note on the articulated skeleton what 

two bones form this pivot-joint at 

the elbow. 

2. Study the two top vertebrae of the spinal 

column ; move the vertebrae on each other 
to show how a person may turn his head 
from side to side. 

D. Gliding joints. 

1. Count on the articulated skeleton the bones 

forming the wrist. 

2. How many bones form the ankle ? 

3. Which bones are the larger, those of wrist or 

ankle? 

4. Move your right wrist and right ankle in the 

same direction at the same time. At which 



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EXPERIMENTS WITH JOINT APPARATUS, 13 

joint is the greater range of movement 

possible ? 
6. Move your lower jaw in as many directions 

as you can. 

a. At what joint does this movement take 
place ? 

6. To which class does this joint belong ? 
6. Study the joints between the vertebrse ; move 

the vertebrae on each other to show how 

one may bend the back or twist the spinal 

column. 



8. EXPEBIMEKTS WITH JOINT APPABATITS. 

Note. — This apparatus was devised by Dr. G. W. Fitz of Harvard 
University. The experiment is adapted from ' * Outline of Require- 
ments " for Harvard. 

A. Action of biceps muscle. 

1. Fasten at hole No. 3 the lower end of the chain 

attached to balance No. 1, and suspend this 
balance from the wire which slides on the 
upright rod. This balance represents 
amount of force exerted by the biceps 
muscle. 

2. Fasten at hole No. 5 balance No. 3, so that it 

hangs below the square tube. This balance 
shows the weight, in palm of the hand lifted 
by the biceps muscle. 

3. Balance No. 2, attached to upright rod and 

sleeve, shows amount of pressure in joint. 

4. Pull up the sliding wire on the upright rod. 



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14 LABORATORY EXERCISES. 

6. Pull on balance No. 3 until the square tube is 
at right angles to the upright rod, i.e., the 
forearm is horizontal. 

6. Bead the pressure in pounds and fractions of 

pounds on each balance, and record them in 
the table given below. 

7. Fix the sliding wire in other positions on the 

upright rod, and get other sets of figures. 

8. Record all your results in a table as follows : 



Balance No. 1. 



Balance No. 2. 



Balance No. 8. 



9. What relation do you find to exist between 
the force exerted by the biceps (balance 
No. 1) and the sum of the forces exerted at 
the joint (balance No. 2) ^nd on the palm of 
the hand (balance No. 3) ? 
10. Determine from a study of your results above 
how much force must be exerted by the 
biceps muscle in order to lift 10 pounds in 
the palm of the hand. How much force 
must be exerted to lift 25 pounds ? 
B. Action of triceps muscle. 

1. Fasten at hole No. 2 the lower end of the 

chain attached to balance No. 1, and sus- 
pend this balance from the wire which slides 
on the upright rod. This balance repre- 
sents the amount of force exerted by the 
triceps muscle. 

2. Fasten at hole No. 5 balance No. 3, so that it 



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EXPERIMENTS WITH JOINT APPARATUS. 15 

may be used to pull up the square tube. 
This balance shows the weight in palm of 
hand moved by triceps muscle. 

3. Balance No. 2, attached to upright rod and 

sleeve, shows amount of pressure in joint. 

4. Pull up the sliding wire on the upright rod. 

5. Pull up on balance No. 3 until the square rod 

is at right angles with the upright rod, i.e., 
the forearm is horizontal. 

6. Fill in several sets of figures in the following 

table by experimenting in a manner similar 
to that suggested in A, 6, 7 above : 



Balance No. 1. 



Balance No. 2. 



Balance No. 3. 



7. What relation do you find to exist between 
the force at the joint (balance No. 2), and 
the sum of the forces exerted by the triceps 
(balance No. 1) and at the palm of the 
hand (balance No. 3) ? 
Action of the calf-muscles. 

1. Fasten at hole No. 1 the lower end of the 

chain attached to balance No. 1, and sus- 
pend this balance from the wire which slides 
on the upright rod. This balance shows the 
amount of force exerted by the muscles in 
the calf of the leg which pull on the tendon 
of Achilles. 

2. Fasten at hole No. 4, by means of the pin, 

balance No. 3, so that it may be used to pull 



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16 LABOBATOBT EXERCISES. 

up the square tube. This balance shows 
the pressure exerted on the floor by the ball 
of the foot. 

3. Balance Ko. 2, attached to the upright rod 

and sleeve, shows amount of pressure on 
ankle-joint exerted by weight of body. 

4. Experiment with this arrangement of the lever 

apparatus until you obtain several sets of 
figures. (See directions A, 4, 5, 6, 7 above.) 
5. Eecord all your results in a table as follows : 



Balance No. 1. 



Balance No. 2. 



Balance No. 3. 



6. From a study of your results above compute 
the following : 

When a person weighing 150 pounds stands 
on one foot with the weight on the ball of 
the foot — 

a. What pressure is exerted on the 

floor? 
6. What force is pulling on the tendon 
of Achilles in order to produce the 
above position ? 
c. What is the pressure on the ankle- 
joint ? 
Answer the same questions when the per- 
son weighs 100 pounds. 



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ACID AND ALKALINE REACTIONS. 17 



9. Acn) AND Alkaline Reactions. 

Materials : Diluted hydrochloric acid, dilute caustic soda solution ; 
red and blue litmus paper; evaporating-dish, alcohol- lamp. 

A. Tests for acids and alkalis. 

1. Place a drop of very dilute hydrochloric acid 

on blue litmus paper. Result? 

2. Place a drop of very dilute caustic soda solu- 

tion on red litmus paper. Result ? 

3. Place a drop of the hydrochloric acid on the 

tongue. What is the taste? 

4. In the same way determine the taste of the 

soda solution. 

B. Neutralization. 

1. Pour a small amount of the hydrochloric acid 

into an evaporating- dish ; add caustic soda, 
drop by drop, until pieces of red and blue 
litmus paper remain unchanged when 
dipped into the liquid. This process is 
called neutralization. 

2. Evaporate the liquid in the dish to dryness 

over an alcohol- or gas-flame. 

a. What is the appearance of the substance 

which is left ? 
6. What is its taste ? 

C. Definitions. From the above experiments — 

1. Give some characteristics of an acid. 

2. Give some characteristics of an alkali. 

3. Define neutralization. 

D. Applications. 

1. Test with litmus paper the following sub- 



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18 



LABOBATOBT EXERCISES. 



stances dissolved in water : soap, lemon- 
juice, ammonia, cream of tartar, saliva, bak- 
ing-soda, apple-juice, sugar, white of egg. 
Arrange all the substances you have tested in 
a table like the following : 



Acid. 



Alkali. 



Neutral. 



10. To Detebmine the Amottitt of Wateb in Foods. 

Materials : Piece of lean beef -steak ; two potatoes ; weighing bal- 
ances. 

A. Percentage of water in beef-steak. 

1. Weigh the piece of meat and put it aside in a 

warm dry place ; weigh the next day. 
Continue the weighings each day until the 
figure remains constant. (The loss is 
mostly water.) 

2. Record your results in tabular form as fol- 

lows ; 



Wt. of steak. Loss of original wt. Per cent, of loss. 



First day... 

Second day 

Third day., 

etc. 



B. Percentage of water in potatoes. 

1. Eemove a thin layer of peel from one of the 
potatoes ; weigh each of them and lay aside 



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TO TE8T FOODS FOR 8TARCH. 19 

in a warm dry place. Weigh each day, and 
record results for each potato in tabular 
form as above. 
What is one use of the peel of potato ^ 



11. To Test Foods fob Stabch.* 

Materials : Corn-starch, grape-sugar, white of egg, mutton tallow, 
water; iodine solution ; test-tubes, glass jar, alcohol-lamp. 

A. Method of applying iodine test. 

Put a small amount of corn-starch in a test- 
tube, add water and shake the mixture. 

1. Does the starch dissolve ? 

2. Boil the mixture. 

a. What change do you notice ? 

6. Has the starch dissolved ? (Place some 
sugar and water in another test-tube, 
boil, and compare with the boiled 
starch.) 

3. Pour a little of the starch paste into a test- 

tube, add a drop of iodine, and record re- 
sult. 

4. Add a few drops of the starch mixture to a 

large glassful of water ; stir in a few drops 
of iodine. What is the result ? 

5. Pour a small amount of iodine into a test-tube 

of water. What do you observe ? 

6. Put a small amount of grape-sugar into a test- 

tube ; into a second test-tube some white of 
egg mixed with water ; and into a third tube 
put some mutton tallow (fat). Add a little 
iodine to each. 



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20 LABORATORY EXERCISES. 

a. Do you notice any change in the color 
of any of the substances ? 

6. Do any of the colors resemble at all 
the change of color resulting from 
the addition of iodine to starch ? 
7. From the preceding experiments state how 

you may determine whether a substance 

contains much starch, little starch, or no 

starch. 
B. Application of iodine test to various foods. 

1. Test as many foods as you can by adding hot 

water to each on a porcelain dish and then 
applying iodine (e.g., oatmeal, flour, meat, 
egg, milk, parsnip, potato, onions, apples 
(both green and ripe), beans, rice, pepper). 

2. Tabulate your results in columns under the 

following heads : 



Much starch. 



Little starch. 



No starch. 



12. To Test Foods fob Obape-sttoab.^ 

Materials : Grape-sugar, corn-starch, white of Qgg, mutton tallow, 
raisins, onions, grapes, granulated sugar, and other foods; Fehling's 
solution ; test-tubes, alcohol-lamp. 

A. Method of applying Fehling's test. 

1. Dissolve a small amount of grape-sugar (glu- 
cose) in water in a test-tube. 
a. What is the taste of the solution ? 



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TO TEST FOODS FOR GBAPF-8UQAE. . 21 

b. Add some Fehling's solution and boil. 
What changes do you notice ? 

2. Into the first of three test-tubes put some 

white of egg mixed with water ; into a sec- 
ond tube some corn-starch ; and into a third 
tube some mutton tallow (fat). Add Fehl- 
ing's solution to each and boil. 

a. Does any change take place in the 

color of the Fehling's solution ? 

b. Do any of the colors resemble at all 

the color of the Fehling*s solution 
when it was boiled with grape-sugar ? 

3. How can you determine whether or not grape- 

sugar is present in a given food ? 
B. Application of Fehling's solution test to various 
foods. 

1. Test as many different kinds of foods as you 

can, first treating them with water, boiling 
in a test-tube and then boiling with Fehl- 
ing's solution (e.g., onions, grapes both ripe 
and unripe, pears, granulated sugar, honey, 
molasses, meat, egg). 

2. Tabulate your results in columns under the 

following heads : 



Grape-sugar present. 



Grape-sugar absent. 



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22 ^ LABOBATOBT EXBRCI8E8. 



13. To Test Foods fob Nitbooenotts Substances. 

Materials : White of egg, com-starch, grape-sugar, mutton tallow, 
piece of meat, milk, peas ; concentrated nitric acid and ammonia ; test- 
tubes, beaker-glass, thermometer, alcohol-lamp. 

A. Effect of heat. 

1. Pour a small amount of the white of an egg 

into a test-tube. (White of egg is composed 
of nitrogenous substances.) Place a chem- 
ical thermometer in the test-tube, and hold 
the tube in a beaker-glass of cool water. 
Gradually heat the water, stirring contin- 
ually with the test-tube, 
a. What change takes place in the egg 

albumen ? 
6. At what temperature does this change 

occur ? 

2. In the same way try the effect of heat on milk 

(heating several times); on meat. Becord 
results. 

B. Smell when burning. 

1. Place a small piece of lean meat on the top 

of a coal fire and allow it to burn. Have 
you ever noticed this smell before ? If so, 
what caused it ? 

2. In the same way test milk, peas, or beans. 

Besult? 

C. Effect of nitric acid and ammonia. 

1. Pour a little concentrated nitric acid on a 
piece of hard-boiled egg in a test-tube, 
a. What do you observe ? 



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TO TEST FOODS FOR NITROGENOUS SUBSTANCES. 23 

6. Wash oflF the egg with water, add a 
little concentrated ammonia, and note 
result. 

2. Put into a test-tube some starch paste made 

as in 11 above ; into a second tube some 
grape-sugar; and into a third test-tube 
some mutton tallow (fat). Add a little con- 
centrated nitric acid to each of the three. 
a. Do you observe any change in the 

color of either of these nutrients ? 
1). Pour off the acid and add a little con- 
centrated ammonia. Is any effect no- 
ticeable ? 

3. Test with a drop of nitric acid the skin on the 

tip of one of your fingers, 
a. What is the result ? 
J. Of what material is the human body 
partly composed ? 

4. Apply the nitric acid and ammonia test to as 

many foods as you can (e.g., gelatin, peas, 
white meats, onions, fruits). 

5. Tabulate your results in columns under the 

following heads : 



Nitrogenous substances present. Nitrogenous substances absent. 



D. From the above experiments state briefly three 
ways of testing foods for nitrogenous sub- 
stances. 



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24 LABORATORY BXERCI8F8. 



14. To Test Foods fob Fats and Oils. 

Materials : Ground flaxseed, corn-meal, milk, egg ; ether or ben- 
zine ; beaker-glass. 

Caution ! Never handle benzine or ether near a flame or a hot 
stove, since the vapor of these substances is very inflammable. 

A. Method of extracting oils. 

To two or three teaspoonfuls of the ground 
flaxseed add an equal volume of ether or ben- 
zine ; stir the mixture and let it stand for ten or 
fifteen minutes. Filter and place the liquid 
aside in a good draught of air until the odor of 
ether or benzine has disappeared. 

1. What kind of substance have you obtained ? 

2. What is its smell? 

3. Why is benzine used to remove grease-spots 

from clothing ? 

B. In the same way extract the fats from milk ; from 

egg- 

C. Rub a little of the flaxseed on paper. What effect 

does it have on the paper ? (This is a simple 
way of proving the presence of fats.) 

15. To Test Foods fob Mineral Substances."^ 

Materials : Piece of meat, oatmeal, egg, milk ; spoon or piece of 
metal. 

A. Method of testing for mineral matter. 

Place a piece of dried meat on a spoon or on a 
shovel, and let it burn on a hot coal fire or over a 
gas-flame until no other change can be brought 
about by heat. 



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THE ANALYSIS OF FLOUR. 25 

1. What is the appearance of the substance 

which is left behind? (The ash is the min- 
eral substance.) 

2. What is the eflFect of heat on this substance ? 
B. In the same way test oatmeal, egg, and milk. What 

do you learn in regard to the presence of mineral 
substances in these foods ? 



16. The Akaltsis of Flottb.'^ 

Materials : Flour, water ; concentrated nitric acid and ammonia, 
iodine, Fehling's solution ; cotton cloth, test-tubes, glass dish, piece 
of metal. 

Moisten some flour with water until it forms a tough, 
tenacious dough ; tie it in a piece of cotton cloth, and 
knead it in a vessel containing water. Set aside the 
dish with the water. 

A. Gluten. 

1. What are some of the characteristics of the 

substance (principally gluten) within the 
cloth ? Draw it out into threads. 

2. Test it with nitric acid and ammonia. What 

kind of nutrient is gluten ? 

B. Carbohydrates. 

1. Test with iodine a small amount of the sedi- 

ment in the water which you used at the 
beginning of the experiment. What part of 
the flour was washed through the cloth ? 

2. Test with nitric acid and ammonia another 

portion. Are nitrogenous substances pres- 
ent? 



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26 LABOBATOBT EXEHGI8E8. 

3. Test a small portion of the sticky mass in the 

cloth with iodine. What is the result, and 
what is your conclusion ? 

4. Place a little flour in a test-tube, add water 

and boil ; add Fehling's solution and boil 
again. Is grape-sugar present in flour ? 

C. Mineral matter. 

Place a small amount of dry flour on a piece 
of tin or other metal and cause it to burn over 
a flame. 

1. What changes take place ? 

2. What is left after the burning ? 

D. Summary. 

1. What nutrients are present in flour ? 

2. State how each of these nutrients may be 

separated from the rest. 



17. The Study of Milk.* 

Materials : Pint of fresh, rich milk ; nitric acid and ammonia, 
Fehling's solution, iodine, caustic soda, osmic acid, vinegar ; test- 
tubes, lactometer, cloth, piece of metal, alcohol-lamp. 

A. Fats. 

Put the milk into a clean glass dish, and allow 
it to stand over night. 

1. What layers can be distinguished ? 

2. Remove by means of a spoon the top layer 

into a bottle or cup (No. 1). 

3. Place a drop of it on unglazed paper. Let 

the paper dry for some time. What kind 
of nutrient is shown to be present in milk? 



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THE 8TUDT OF MILK. 27 

B. Nitrogenous substances. 

1. Boil the rest of the milk ; what change is no- 

ticed ? What kind of nutrient is affected in 
this way by heat ? 

2. Bremove the scum from the milk and place it 

in a second cup (No. 2). Test a little of it 
with nitric acid and ammonia. Eesult ? 

3. Add vinegar to the rest of the milk and strain 

through a cloth. What kind of substance 
is left in the cloth? Test it with nitric 
acid and ammonia. Besult? Place this 
substance in cup No. 2. 
0. Carbohydrates. 

1. Test a small amount of fresh milk with Feh- 

ling's solution. Eesult? (Milk-sugar or 
lactose sometimes gives the test with Feh- 
ling's solution like grape-sugar.) 

2. Test milk with iodine. Is starch present ? 
D. Specific gravity of milk. (In class.) 

1. Pour some good rich milk into a tall glass jar. 

Test it with a lactometer and record specific 
gravity. 

2. Set the milk aside to allow the cream to rise. 

Eemove the cream and test the skim-milk 

with the lactometer. 

a. What change in specific gravity do you 

note? 
6. Explain this change. 

3. Determine the specific gravity of a second por- 

tion of milk. Dilute the milk with water 
and again find specific gravity. (Fresh un- 
skimmed milk usually has a specific gravity 



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28 LABORATORY EXERCISES. 

of 1028 to 1034.) How can adulteration of 
milk be detected ? 

E. Microscopic examination of milk. (In class.) 

1. Place a drop of milk on a clean glass slide, 

and cover with a cover-glass. Examine 

under the compound microscope. 

a. What is the appearance of the oil- 
globules ? 

6. Are they all of the same size ? (The fat 
in milk is said to be in a state of 
emulsion.) 

2. Place a drop of dilute caustic soda at the 

edge of the cover-glass. What is the eflFect 
of the soda on the oil-globules ? 

3. Prepare a second drop of milk for examina- 

tion as directed above (1). Place a drop of 
osmic acid solution at the edge of the cover- 
glass. What is the eflFect of the osmic acid 
on the oil-globules? 

F. Reaction of milk when tested with litmus. 

1. Test some fresh milk with red and blue litmus 

paper. Is it acid, alkaline, or neutral ? 

2. Set the milk aside in a warm place and allow 

it to sour. Again test it with the red and 
blue litmus paper. What is its reaction 
now ? (The souring of milk is caused by 
the action of certain micro-organisms called 
bacteria. See study of bacteria, 44.) 



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THE STUDY OF TEE MOUTH. 



18. The Stubt of the Mouth * 

Take a position with your back toward a strong 
light and study your mouth-cavity by means of a 
hand-mirror. 

A. Walls of the mouth-cavity. 

1. Press the forefinger against the upper, lower, 

and side walls of the mouth ; in which of 
these regions are the walls rigid (bone) ? in 
which regions are they yielding (muscle) ? 

2. What differences do you note between the 

outer and inner coverings of the cheek ? 
What are the characteristics of mucous 
membrane (inner covering) ? 
3. ' Pull aside with the forefinger one corner of 
the mouth. Notice the small elevation on 
the inside of the cheek. Opposite what 
tooth does it lie ? (The duct from one of 
the salivary glands opens on this elevation.) 

4. Press the tongue down with the forefinger. 

Describe, with figure, the opening into the 
throat or pharynx. 

5. If possible, locate and describe the tonsils. 

B. The teeth. 

1. Close the jaws and open the lips ; do the 

front teeth of the upper jaw cover the ends 
of the lower teeth or vice versa ? 

2. Are the front teeth of the upper jaw larger 

or smaller than those of the lower jaw ? 

3. Count your teeth and record result in a table 

like the following : 



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30 



LABORATORY EXERCISES. 



Incisors... 
Canines . . . 
Bicuspids. . 
Molar 



Right half of 
upper jaw. 



Left half of 
upper jaw. 



Right half of 
lower jaw. 



Left half of 
lower jaw. 



4. Place a piece of string between the teeth and 
describe motion of jaws in biting it oflf. 
Describe the movements of the jaws in 
chewing. 

C. The tongue. 

1. What is the shape of the tongue ? 

2. Where is the tongue attached? 

3. What parts of the walls of the mouth-cavity 

can be touched by the tip of the tongue ? 

4. What diflferences do you note between the 

upper and lower surfaces of the tongue ? 

D. The use of the lips and tongue in speaking. 

1. Pronounce the vowels of the alphabet : 

a. Are the lips closed or open ? 
6. Does the tip of the tongue touch the 
teeth? 

c. Does the tip of the tongue touch the 

palate ? 

d. How is the shape of the mouth-cavity 

altered to pronounce these diflFerent 
letters ? 

2. What consonants necessitate the closing of the 

lips ? (These consonants are called labials.) 

3. What consonants require the tongue to touch 

the teeth or the palate ? (These are called 
the lingual consonants.) 



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TO PBEPARB DIGESTIVE JUICES. 81 



19. To Pbepabe Digestive JniC£8.t 

Materials: Cardiac end of pig's stomach ; pancreas of pig ; gall of 
ox ; strong glycerin, .2% solution of hydrochloric acid, 1.5^ solution 
of sodium carbonate ; solid pepsin, pancreatin, and ox-gall. 

A. Preparation of pepsin solution. 

Procure the stomach of a pig, wash it out with 
a gentle stream of water. Tear off the mucous 
membrane from the cardiac (oesophageal) end of 
the stomach. Dry the membrane between folds 
of blotting-paper, and mince it finely. Place in a 
bottle and add 5 times its bulk of strong glycerin. 
Set aside for several days, stirring occasionally. 
Filter through muslin. (The glycerin dissolves 
the pepsin.) The glycerin extract may be kept 
almost indefinitely. 

When required for use in digesting nitrogenous 
substances, add 10 times its volume of ,2% hydro- 
chloric acid, and filter. 

Instead of preparing the glycerin extract an 
artificial gastric juice may be made by dissolving 
solid pepsin in water and adding the hydrochloric 
acid. 

B. Preparation of pancreatin solution. 

Leave the pancreas of a pig moistened with 
water for a day ; then mince it well and add 10 
times its volume of strong glycerin. Set the 
mixture aside for several days, stirring occasion- 
ally. Filter through muslin. (The glycerin dis- 
solves out the pancreatin.) 

The glycerin extract acts on starch and nitro- 
genous substances. When required to digest 



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32 LABORATORT EXERCISES. 

fats add 10 volumes of 1.5^ solution of sodium 
carbonate, shake and filter. 

An artificial pancreatic juice may be made by 
dissolving solid pancreatin in water and adding 
the sodium carbonate solution. 
C. Preparation of bile. 

Procure the fresh gall-bladder of an ox ; wash 
it, make a small opening with a knife, and collect 
the bile in a bottle. (The bile of herbivorous 
animals is green in color ; human bile when fresh 
is a golden-brown liquid.) 

A solution of solid ox-gall in water may be 
used instead of the contents of the gall-bladder, 
if the latter cannot be easily obtained. 



20. The Digestion of Staech. 

Materials : Gom-starcli, pancreatin solutioD, saliva ; test-tubes ; 
alcohol-lamp. 

A. By saliva. 

Put a small amount of corn-starch in a test- 
.tube, add water and boil ; dilute the paste until a 
smooth, thin mixture is formed. 

1. Pour into a test-tube a small amount of this 

starch mixture, and test with Fehling's 
solution. What is the result and what is 
your conclusion ? 

2. Allow some saliva to flow from the mouth into 

a clean test-tube;^ test it with Fehling's 
solution. What is your inference ? 

♦Saliva sufficient for the class may be obtained by the teacher 
before the exercise. 



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THE DIGESTION OF MINERAL SUBSTANCES. 33 

3. Pour some saliva into the starch paste made 

at the beginning of the experiment, shake 
the mixture and warm gently for a moment 
or two. Test with Fehling's solution. 
Eesult ? 

4. What is the effect of saliva on boiled starch ? 

5. Name several foods already studied which 

might be partially digested by saliva. 

6. Hold a small amount of the boiled dilute 

starch paste in the mouth. What is the 
taste at first ? Do you notice any change ; 
if so, what change ? 

B. By pancreatic juice. 

1. Dissolve a little pancreatin in water. Test 

a small portion of it with Fehling's solu- 
tion. What is your conclusion ? 

2. Add some pancreatin solution to some of the 

starch paste ; warm and test with Fehling's 
solution. Result ? 

C. What digestive juices of the human body act upon 

starch ? 



21. The Digestion of Minebal Substances. 

Materials: Table-salt, phosphate of lime, diluted hydrochloric 
acid ; evaporating-dish, alcohol-lamp. 

A. Soluble salts. 

Put some table-salt into a test-tube, add water, 
and shake well. 

1. Does the salt dissolve? How do you know? 

2. In what part of the alimentary canal may salt 

become liquefied, and how ? 



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34 LABOBATORT EXEBGI8E8. 

3. What is meant by a soluble salt or soluble 
mineral substance ? 
B. Insoluble salts. 

Put some phosphate of lime (one of the con- 
stituents of milk) into a test-tube, add water, and 
shake well. 

1. Does the substance dissolve ? How do you 

know? 

2. Add a little diluted hydrochloric acid and 

shake. What change do you observe ? 

3. Evaporate to dryness in an evaporating-dish 

some of the liquid obtained in 2. 

a. What is the appearance of the substance 

which is left ? 
h. Will it dissolve in water ? 
c. Into what kind of a salt has hydrochloric 

acid changed the insoluble salt ? 

22. The Digestion of Nitbooenous Substances. 

MaUriaU: Hard-boiled egg ; pepsin and pancreatin solutions, hj- 
drochloric acid, bicarbonate of soda ; test-tubes. 

A. Test No. 1 

Thoroughly mince a piece of hard-boiled egg, 
and place a portion of it in a test-tube ; half-fill 
the tube with water ; add some pepsin. Label 
the tube " No. 1, Minced egg + pepsin." 

B. Test No. 2. 

Place in another test-tube the same quantity 
of minced egg, water, and pepsin as in tube No. 
1 ; add a little dilute hydrochloric acid. Label 
" No. 2, Minced egg + pepsin + hydrochloric 
acid." 



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THE DIGESTION OF JSITROQENOUS SUBSTANCES. 35 

C. Test No. 3. 

Put a lump of the hard-boiled egg in a test- 
tube ; add water, pepsin, and hydrochloric 
acid as in tube No. 2. Label '* No. 3, Lump of 
egg + pepsin + hydrochloric acid." 

D. Test No. 4. 

Into another test-tube put some of the minced 
egg ; half-fill the tube with water and add pan- 
creatin ; pour in a few drops of dilute hydro- 
chloric acid. Label "No. 4, Minced egg + V^^' 
creatin + hydrochloric acid." 

E. Test No. 5. 

In a fifth test-tube mix the same quantity of 
minced egg, water, and pancreatin as was used in 
No. 4 ; add to the mixture a little baking-soda. 
Label "No. 5, Minced egg + pancreatin + 
baking-soda." 

Shake all five mixtures well and set them 
aside in a warm place. Examine them at the 
end of the first few hours, at the end of 24 
hours, etc. 

F. Eesults. 

1. Compare tubes No. 1 and No. 2. 

a. In which tube has the egg been lique- 
fied or digested ? 

6. Is the acid necessary for gastric diges- 
tion? 

2. Compare tubes No. 2 and No. 3. 

a. In which tube is digestion more com- 

plete ? 

b. What do you learn in regard to the ef- 

fect of thorough mastication of food? 



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36 LABORATORY EXERCISES. 

3. Compare tubes No. 4 and No. 5. 

a. In which tube has digestion taken 

place ? 
h. Does pancreatin perform its digestive 

action in an acid or in an alkaline 

medium ? 



23. The Digestion of Fats. 

Materials: Butter, olive-oil, lard, white of egg ; sodium carbonate, 
caustic soda, hydrochloric acid ; bile, pancreatin ; test-tubes, ther- 
mometer, beaker-glass of water, alcohol-lamp, apparatus-stand ; com- 
pound microscope, slide, cover-glass. 

A. Effect of heat on fats. 

1. Put a small piece of butter in a test tube ; 

hold the test-tube and the thermometer in 
a beaker-glass of water, and heat the water. 

2. At what temperature does the butter melt ? 

3. Does this change take place below the tem- 

perature of the body (98.5° Fahrenheit) i.e., 
will butter melt in the mouth ? 

B. Emulsion of fats. 

1. In a test-tube shake up a few drops of olive- 
oil with some caustic soda solution. 

a. What change takes place in the appear- 

ance of the mixture after shaking? 
(This mixture is called an emulsion.) 

b. Put a drop of the mixture on a glass 

slide, cover with a cover-glass, and ex- 
amine with a compound microscope. 
(1) What is the appearance of the oil 
droplets ? 



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THE DIGESTION OF FATS. 37 

(2) Compare this appearance with that 
seen in milk. 

2. In a test-tube shake some olive-oil with a 

mixture of white of egg (albumen) and 
water, 

a. What is the appearance of the mixture ? 
6. Examine a drop under the compound 
microscope as directed above. 

3. Shake up a few drops of the olive-oil with 

water in a third test-tube. 

a. Compare the mixture of oil and water 

with the mixtures formed in 1 and 2 

above. 
6. What differences do you notice in the 

tubes ? 

4. Summary. 

a. Define an emulsion. 
6. State two ways in which an emulsion 
may be made. 
C. Saponification of fats. 

1. Put a little lard or olive oil in a test-tube, add 

caustic soda, and boil. 

a. What is the appearance of the mix- 
ture? 

6. Examine a drop under the compound 
microscope as directed above. Do 
you see any difference between this 
mixture and that formed in B 1 
above ? 

c. Taste of the mixture. What kind of 
substance has been formed ? 

2. What is meant by saponification.? 



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38 LABORATORY EXERCISES, 

D. Effect of acids and alkalis on fats. 

1. Pour a little melted butter into each of two 

test-tubes. Add to test-tube No. 1 some 
diluted hydrochloric acid ; to test-tube No. 
2 some sodium carbonate solution. Shake 
both tubes well, and allow them to stand 
for a few moments. 

2. Does the butter remain mixed better with an 

acid or with an alkali ? 

E. The digestive action of bile. 

1. Test with litmus paper the bile solution. Is 

it acid, alkaline, or neutral ? 

2. Pour a little melted butter into a test-tube; add 

some of the bile solution. Does the mixture 
resemble that formed in B 1 or B 3 above ? 

3. Examine a drop of the mixture under the 

compound microscope. Does this observa- 
tion agree with that made in 2 just above ? 

4. Pour a little thin starch paste into a test- 

tube ; add some bile, and after a time test 
the mixture with Fehling's solution. Does 
the bile act upon starch ? 

5. Place in another test-tube a little minced 

white of egg ; add bile and set aside for a 
day or two. Does the egg dissolve? 

6. State what kinds of food-stuffs are acted upon 

by bile, and what kinds of food-stuffs are 
not acted upon. 

F. The digestive action of pancreatic juice. 

1. Prepare some artificial pancreatic juice as di- 
rected in 19 B, adding the sodium carbon- 
ate solution to make it alkaline. 



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TBB PRINCIPLES OP 08M08I8. 39 

2. Shake up a little melted butter with some of 

this pancreatic juice. What kind of a mix- 
ture is formed ? Examine under the com- 
pound microscope. 

3. What kind of food-stuffs are digested by the 

action of pancreatic juice (compare pre- 
vious experiments), and what kind of food- 
stuffs are not acted upon i 

24. The Principles of Osmosis, f 

Materials: Tubes of animal intestine, thistle-tube, beaker-glass, 
grape-sugar, starch, white of egg, butter, salt, Fehling's solution, 
iodine, nitric acid and ammonia. 

Procure the intestines of a sheep. Clean and 
inflate them ; tie at intervals of 8 inches, and 
allow this animal membrane to dry. Cut the suc- 
cessive portions of the intestines in such a way 
as to form small tubes closed at one end. 
A. Experiments to determine what nutrients will pass 
through an animal membrane. 

Suspend by a piece of wire in a beaker-glass 
of water one of the test-tubes made by cutting 
up the dried intestines. Carefully pour into the 
tube a solution of grape-sugar. Allow it to stand 
for an hour. 

1. Test the water on the outside of the tube with 

Fehling's solution. What is the result? 

2. Will grape-sugar pass through an animal 

membrane ? 

3. Using other tubes of animal membrane, deter- 

mine whether starch, white of egg (al- 



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40 



LABOBATOBT BXBBCI8B8. 



bumen), butter, or salt solution will pass 
out into the water outside the tube. (See 
Experiments 10-14 above.) 
4. Classify all the substances you have tested in 
a table like the following : 



Crystalloids. 
(Substances which will readily 
pass through an animal mem- 
brane.) 



Colloids. 
(Substances which will not readi- 
ly pass through an animal 
membrane.) 



B. Experiments to illustrate osmosis. 

Slit open one of the tubes made from the 
sheep's intestine and cover the larger end of a 
thistle-tube with a piece of this membrane, ty- 
ing it tightly. Pour into the smaller end of the 
thistle-tube a rather thick solution of grape- 
sugar, half-filling the tube. Stand the thistle- 
tube (membrane down) in a glass dish filled with 
water up to the level of the grape-sugar solution. 
Mark this point on the glass dish. Connect a 
long piece of glass tubing to the smaller end 
of the thistle-tube and support it in a vertical 
position. Examine the apparatus at the end of 
several hours. 

1. Notice the level now reached by the liquid 

within the thistle-tube. What change has 
taken place since the experiment was 
begun ? 

2. Measure the difference between the level of 

the liquid within the thistle-tube and the 
level of the liquid in the glass dish. 



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THE PRINCIPLES OF OSMOSIS. 41 

3. Test the water on the outside of the thistle- 

tube (in the glass dish) with Fehling's solu- 
tion. What is the result ? 

4. How do you account for this result ? 

5. Which of the two liquids (the water in the 

glass dish or the grape-sugar solution in 
the thistle-tube) was the denser at the be- 
ginning of the experiment ? - 

6. Has more liquid passed into the thistle-tube 

or out from it ? How do you know ? 

7. When two liquids of different density are 

separated by an animal membrane what 
change takes place ? 

8. Is the greater flow of liquid from the less 

dense to the more dense or vice versa ? 

9. Mark the level of the liquid in the thistle-tube 

at the end of each successire 24 hours. 
What inferences do you draw ? 

Note. — ^Parcliment paper may be used instead of the dried slieep's 
intestine to cover the end of tlie thistle-tube. Or a membrane may 
be obtained which will tfnswer the purpose by dissolving the mineral 
portion of an egg-shell, leaving the lining membranes intact ; the 
membrane may then be tied to the end of the tube. 

C. Application of the experiments. 

1. In what respects does the experiment with 

the thistle-tube illustrate the process of 
absorption from the alimentary canal ? 

2. In what respects does the experiment fail to 

illustrate that process ? 



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42 



LABORATORY EXERCISES. 



25. Digestion of Nutbients. '^^ 



Kind of nutrient. 

Water , 

Soluble salts 

Insoluble salts. . . . 
Starch 

Sugar 

Fats 

Nitrogenous foods. 



Digested in 



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Changed to 



Absorbed in 



26. Composition of the Blood. 

Materials : Concentrated nitric acid and ammonia, iodine solution, 
Feliling's solution ; test-tubes, alcohol-lamp ; three bottles of blood 
material prepared as follows : Fill bottle No. 1 with blood of the ox, 
(at slaughter-house), set it aside at once where it will not be dis- 
turbed, and leave it for a day or two, labelled ** Clotted Blood." 
Collect some blood in a pail and rapidly whip it with a brush-broom 
or some twigs for several minutes ; fill bottle No. 2 with the red 
liquid remaining in the pail, labelling it "Defibrinated Blood." 
Collect the stringy substance clinging to the broom, wash it with 
water until it is white, and place it in bottle No. 3 in a 2^ solution of 
formalin or in 80jJ alcohol ; label it "Blood-fibrin." 

A. Study of clotted blood. 

1. What is the shape, size, and consistency of 

the blood-clot? 

2. What is the color of the clot ? 

3. What is the color of the liquid berum ? 

4. Pour off the serum into another bottle of the 

same size ; what proportion of blood ap- 
pears to be serum ? 



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COMPOSITION OF THE BLOOD. 43 

5. What change in the clot do you notice after 
the removal of the serum ? 

B. Study of blood-serum. 

1. Pour a small portion of the serum into a test- 

tube and heat gradually over an alcohol-, 
lamp ; what change takes place ? What 
kind of food-stuff do you conclude to be 
present in the serum ? 

2. Test the serum with iodine ; what is your in- 

ference ? 

3. Test another portion of the serum with Feh- 

ling's solution. Besult? 

4. Place a drop of the serum on a piece of paper ; 

how is the paper affected? What other 
food-stuff do you therefore conclude to be 
present? 

5. Heat a small amount of the serum in a spoon 

until it has burned ; what kind of substance 
is left? 

6. Name all the kinds of food-stuffs you have 

found present in blood-serum. 

C. Study of blood-fibrin. 

1. Remove a piece of fibrin from bottle No. 3 ; 

pull it apart. What are some of its char- 
acteristics ? 

2. Test the fibrin with nitric acid and ammonia ; 

what is its composition ? 

D. Study of defibrinated blood. 

1. What ingredient of the blood is wanting in 

bottle No. 2 ? (See directions above.) 

2. What is the effect on coagulation of removing 

this substance from blood ? 



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44 LABORATOBT EXERCISES. 



27. Change in the Blood after Mixing with 

OXTGEN.f 

Materials : Defibrinated blood used in 26 ; glass bottle and stopper. 

A. Pour a small quantity of defibrinated blood into a 

glass bottle. Describe its color. 

B. Stopper the bottle tightly and shake it violently 

for a minute or two. 

1. What change has taken place in the appear- 

ance of the blood ? 

2. What caused this change ? 



28. MicBoscopic Study of Corpuscles, f 

Materials : Prepared slides of frog's blood and of buman blood; 
compound microscope (500 diameters). 

A. Corpuscles of frog's blood. 

1. How many distinct types of solid bodies (cor- 

puscles) can you see in the frog's blood ? 

2. Is there any variation in the form or size of 

different corpuscles of the same type ? 

3. Draw two corpuscles (differing as much as 

possible) of each type, much enlarged, label- 
ling nucleus and cell-body. 

B. Corpuscles of human blood. 

1. What is the form of the corpuscles in human 

blood ? (Examine several corpuscles before 
deciding.) 

2. In what respects do these corpuscles diflfer 

from those found in frog's blood ? 



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STUDY OF THE HEART. 45 



29. Stttdt of the Heabt. 

Materials : Sheep's heart dissected according to the directions given 
in Martin's •* Briefer Course," pp. 211-215 (Edition 1896), pp. 363- 
869 (Edition 1898). 

A. Using the descriptive terms anterior and pos- 

terior, dorsal and ventral, right and left (with 
reference to the animal), locate the following 
structures in the heart, giving, when possible, 
the number of each : 
»1. Auricles. 5. Mitral valve. 

2. Ventricles. 6. Papillary muscles. 

3. Semilunar valves. 7. Chordae tendinese. 

4. Tricuspid valve. 

B. Name the chamber of the heart with which each of 

the following blood-vessels is connected : 

1. Aorta. 3. Pulmonary veins. 

2. Pulmonary artery. 4. Venae cavae. 

C. State all the differences which you note between — 

1. Dorsal and ventral surfaces of the heart. 

2. Anterior and posterior ends of the heart. 

3. Auricles and ventricles. 

4. Largest veins and largest arteries. 

5. Mitral and tricuspid valves. 

6. Mitral and tricuspid valves and semilunar 

valves. 

D. Enumerate the differences between the right and 

left sides of the heart. 



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46 LABORATORY EXERCISES. 



30. ClBCULATION OF THE BLOOD IK THE TAIL OF THE 
TADPOLE.t 

Out a hole a half-inch square near the end of a piece of thin board 
three inches long and one inch wide ; glue a thin cover-glass over the 
hole. Cover tlie rest of the piece of wood with absorbent cotton 
soaked in water. Lay a live tadpole on the cotton, placing the tip of 
the tail on the cover-glass. Lay a cover-glass on top of the tail, and 
fasten cheesecloth over the animal to keep it in place. Keep a plen- 
tiful supply of moisture about the animal, by allowing the end of the 
strip of cloth to dip into a dish of water. Examine the tip of the 
tail with a compound microscope magnifying about 75 diameters. 

4 

1. At the highest focus note the epithelial cells 

forming the outside layer of the body cov- 
ering. What is their shape ? 

2. What is the shape of the dark pigment-cells 

seen just beneath the epithelial cells ? 

3. Focus still lower and study the flow of the 

blood in the small capillaries. 

a. Is the current steady in all the blood- 

vessels which you see ? 

b. Do the red corpuscles alter in shape as 

they move along? 

c. Can you distinguish any colorless cor- 

puscles ? 

d. Draw a small area of the tail, represent- 

ing the course of the capillaries. In- 
dicate by arrows the course of the 
blood in each capillary. 

Note. — If tadpoles cannot be obtained, the web of a frog's foot 
may be examined after confining the frog on a larger piece of board 
than that described above. 



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THE PUL8E IN THE PUPIL'S OWN BODY. 47 



31. The Pttlse nr the Pupil's own Body.* 

To take the pulse place the forefinger of the left 
hand on the radial artery of the right hand at the 
lower end of the radius bone on the palm side. 

A. Variations in the pulse-beat. 

1. Make out in your note-book a statement of 

your pulse-rate taken under the following 
conditions : 

a. Before rising in the morning. 

b. Just before eating breakfast. 

c. Just after breakfast. 

d. Just after some violent exercise. 

2. What is your conclusion from these observa- 

tions ? 

B. Find your pulse in the following places on your 

body, locating each with reference to the bones 
of the skeleton : 

1. On the side of the head in front of the ear. 

Trace this artery as far as possible. 

2. On the back of the head near the top of the 

neck. 

3. On the side of the lower jaw. 

4. In the hollow back of the knee-joint. 
6. On the ankle. 



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48 LABORATORY EXERCISES, 

32. Pbopebties of Cabbon.* 

Materials : Match, meat, flour, egg ; alcoliol-lamp. 

A. Strike a match and allow it to burn until the wood 

is charred. Extinguish the flame. 

1. What is the appearance of the substance (car- 

bon) which is left ? 

2. Hold it in the flame of an alcohol-lamp. 

What change takes place in the carbon ? 

3. What kind of substance is left ? Heat this as 

hot as you can. Describe any changes. 

4. What is one method of showing the probable 

presence of carbon in a substance ? 

B. Scorch some meat, some flour, and some egg. 

1. Do they contain any carbon ? Why do you 

think so ? 

2. How is the human body supplied with new 

portions of the element carbon ? 

33. Tests fob Cabbon Dioxide. 

Materials : Splinter of wood ; bottle and stopper ; lime-water. 

A. Insert one end of a splinter of wood in the cork ; 
light the splinter, place it in the bottle and cork 
tightly. 

1. Eecord your observations. 

2. Insert a glowing stick ; result ? (The hot 

carbon has united with the oxygen of the 
air, forming carbon dioxide.) 



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TEMPERATURE OF THE BODY, 49 

B. Pour a small quantity of clear lime-water into the 
bottle in which the stick was burned, stopper the 
bottle and shake, 

1, What change do you notice in the lime water ? 

2. State the method of testing for carbon di- 

oxide. 



34. Tempebatttbe of the Body.* 

A. Place the bulb of a chemical thermometer beneath 

the tongue, closing the lips over it. 

1. To what point does the mercury rise ? 

2. Is the temperature which you have deter- 

mined the same as that found by the other 
pupils? 

3. Take your body temperature on a cold day, 

then on a warm day ; do you notice any 
difference ? 

4. Determine whether the body temperature is 

the same after violent exercise as it is be- 
fore. 

B. Production of heat. 

1. How was heat produced in experiment 32 ? 

2. How is heat produced in your body ? 

3. Is light produced in the human body (as in 

32)? 



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50 LABORATORY EXERCISES, 



35. Action of the Diaphbaom and the Lungs. f 

Procure a bell jar with an opening at the top for a stopper. Place 
a marble in the centre of a sheet of rubber, tie the rubber about it, 
and stretch the sheet of rubber over the larger end of the bell jar, 
tying tightly. Secure a rubber stopper (provided with two holes) 
which will fit the opening in the top of the bell jar. Tie a toy bal- 
loon to the end of a glass tube and pass the latter through one of the 
holes in the rubber stopper. Through the other hole pass a glass 
tube, attaching to the upper end a piece of rubber tubing closed with 
a clamp. Insert the rubber stopper in the opening at the top of the 
bell jar with the toy balloon within the jar. 

The balloon represents a lung ; the glass tube to which it is tied, 
the windpipe ; while the bell jar itself represents the chest-cavity, 
and the sheet rubber the diaphragm. 

A. Exhaust some of the air from the bell-jar by apply- 

ing the mouth to the rubber tubing, and then re- 
place the clamp. 

1. Is the pressure of air greater now within the 
. bell jar or without ? 

2. What is the effect on the sheet rubber of re- 

moving air from within the jar? Explain. 

3. How is the toy balloon affected ? Why ? 

B. Seize the marble tied into the sheet of rubber and 

make the latter move up and down. 

1. Does the air within the bell jar have more or 

less room when the rubber is pulled down ? 

2. Is the pressure within the glass jar greater 

or less than when the rubber diaphragm 
was pushed up into the glass bell jar ? 

3. What is the effect on the rubber balloon of 

thus increasing the size of the cavity in 
which the balloon is hung ? Why ? 



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CIRCULATION OF AIR IN SCHOOLROOM. 51 

C. Application to the action of human diaphragm and 
lungs. 

1. In what respects does this model illustrate 

the process of inhaling and exhaling air in 
our own bodies ? 

2. In what respects does the model fail to illus- 

trate the process of respiration ? 



36. ClBCTTLATION OF AlB DT SCHOOLBOOM.f 

Materials : Concentrated hydrochloric acid, concentrated ammonia; 
evaporating-dishes. 

Four into an evaporating-dish some concentrated 
hydrochloric acid ; into another dish pour some con- 
centrated ammonia. 

A. Bring the two dishes near together. 

1. What is the effect? 

2. Place the two dishes near the hot-water or 

steam-pipes. Describe the course of the 
fumes. 

3. Place the dishes near the opening to a venti- 

lator. What course do the fumes take ? 

4. Draw a diagram of the room and indicate by 

arrows the course of the moving air as 
demonstrated by the fumes. 

B. Open a window, and place the two dishes near a 

steam-pipe near the window. 
1. Does the moving air take the same course as 
before ? 



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52 LABORATORY EXERCISES. 

2, Does the open window help or retard the 
ventilation of the room? 

Note. — Gunpowder or flash-paper may be used instead of the 
acid and ammonia. 



37. INSPIBED AND EXPIBED AlR. 

Materials: Thermometer, bottle fitted as described in C below ; 
lime-water. 

A. Diflference in temperature. 

1. Note on a thermometer the temperature of 

the air in the room. 

2. Breathe for a few seconds on the bulb of the 

thermometer. Note temperature. 

3. What is the diflference in temperature between 

inspired and expired air ? 

B. Diflference in amount of moisture. 

1, Breathe again upon the polished bulb of the 

thermometer. Describe result. 

2. What substance is thus shown to be one of 

the wastes excreted by the lungs? 

C. Diflferences in chemical composition. 

Secure a bottle fitted with a rubber stopper 
with two holes. Through one hole in the stop- 
per pass a glass tube (No. 1) until it reaches 
nearly to the bottom of the bottle. Pass the 
end of another tube through the other hole, al- 
lowing the tube to project but a short distance 
into the bottle ; attach a piece of rubber tubing 
to the upper end of this tube (No. 2). Half-fill 
the bottle with clear-lime water and insert tho 
stopper. 



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8TUDT OF THE 8KIN. 63 

1. Apply the mouth to tube No. 2, exhausting 

the air from the bottle. Describe result. 

2. Draw into the lungs through the lime-water 

a considerable quantity of air in this way. 
Does any change take place in the lime- 
water ? 

3. Does inspired air contain a large amount of 

carbon dioxide ? 

4. Apply the mouth to tube No. 1 (which passes 

below the level of the lime-water). Expel 
the air from the lungs through the lime- 
water. Describe any changes in the lime- 
water. 

5. What is your inference from 4 ? 

D. Name three differences between inspired and ex- 
pired air. 



88. Study of the Skin.* 

Materials: Clean needle ; printer's or mimeograph ink. 

A. Epidermis. 

1. Wash the hands thoroughly in warm water, 

then dry them ; rub together the palms 
and fingers of both hands briskly for a 
moment. What do you see on your hands 
as the result ? (This material was a part 
of your non-living epidermis.) 

2. Run the point of a clean needle beneath the 

thin outer layer of the skin on the palm of 

the hand. 

a. Does the needle cause blood to flow? 



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54 LABORATORY EXERCISES, 

Is the outer layer of skin (epidermis) 
supplied with blood-vessels ? 
6. Does the insertion of the needle cause 
any pain? Can you feel the point of 
the needle touch the skin? Would 
you infer that nerves entered the epi- 
dermis or not ? 

3. In what regions of the surface of the hand 

is the epidermis thickest? How do you 
know ? In what region is it thinnest ? 

4. Press the tip of the forefinger on a piece of 

cloth covered with some thick ink (print- 
er's ink or mimeograph ink is best), then 
press the fingertip on a page in your note- 
book. Study the impression made, 
a. Are the black lines (made by the ridges 
on the finger) all of the same width ? 
Are they all parallel to one another ? 
h. In the same way take the impression of 
the tips of your other fingers and of 
your thumb. In what respects do 
these various impressions differ ? 

c. Where else on your hand can you see 

similar ridges ? 

d. What other lines are visible on the 

palm of the hand ? 
B. Hair. 

1. On what portions of the hand is hair found ? 

Where is it wanting ? 

2. Compare the hair on the surface of your 

hand with that on the hand of an older 
person. What difference do you note ? 



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8TXTDT OF TBB SKm. 66 

3. Do blood-vessels run into the hair ? How do 

you know? 

4. Which part of the hair is supplied with 

nerves ? How do you know? 

C. Nails. 

1. What different areas do you notice in your 

thumb-nail? How do they differ in ap- 
pearance ? 

2. Make a drawing of your thumb-nail, showing 

these different regions. 

3. Scrape off a little of the outer surface of the 

nail ; does this cause blood to flow ? Are 
nails supplied with blood-vessels ? 

D. Deeper layers of the skin. 

1. With the thumb and forefinger of the right 

hand grasp a portion of the skin on the 
back of the left hand. Can you lift the 
skin from the muscles and tendons lying 
below ? 

2. In the same way determine whether the skin 

on the palm of the hand and on the fingers 
is closely or loosely attached to the under- 
lying tissue. What do you find to be 
true? 

3. Determine the effect of. pushing a clean nee- 

dle point a little distance into the tissue 

lying beneath the epidermis. 

(a) Is the under skin (dermis) supplied 

with blood-vessels? How do you 

know? 
(6) Is the dermis supplied with nerves? 

How do you know ? 



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66 LABORATORY EXSRGI8E8. 

E. Blood system in the skin. 

1. Press the finger of the right hand on the back 

of the left hand ; quickly remove the fin- 
ger. What difference do you note in the 
color of the spot pressed and in the skin 
about this spot ? Give an explanation of 
this difference. 

2. From the preceding experiment can you ex- 

plain the cause of sudden paleness in the 
face? 

3. State the difference in the relative quantity 

of blood flowing through the cheek when it 
is flushed and when it is pale. 



39. Study of the Kidney of the Sheep. 

MaieriaU : Fresh kidneys of sheep or pig in capsule, prepared for 
the pupil as follows : Slit the capsule on convex side enough to allow 
the kidney to be removed; cut the kidney from the convex border 
toward the hilum sufficiently to open up the cavity within ; replace 
the kidney within the capsule ; probe. 

A. Exterior of the kidney. 

1. Describe the capsule by which the kidney is 

surrounded. 

2. Carefully remove the kidney from the cap- 

sule, taking care not to tear the latter. 
Where is the capsule attached to the kid- 
ney? 

3. What is the shape of the kidney ? 

4. What is the color of the kidney. Why ? 



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STUDY OF THE KIDNEY OF THE SHEEP, 57 

5. How many tubes can you find connected with 

this organ? Can you suggest the use of 
any of these tubes? (The depression in 
the kidney to which the tubes pass is 
called the hilum.) 
B. Gross structure of the kidney. 

1. Pull apart the halves of the kidney sufficiently 

to look within. 

2. What is the shape of the cavity near the 

hilum (sinus of the kidney) ? 

3. By means of a probe locate the tube (ureter) 

which passes out from this cavity. 

4. The layer on the outside of the kidney sec- 

tion is called the cortical layer. 

a. Does this layer anywhere reach down 

to the sinus? 

b. What characteristics distinguish the 

cortical layer from the rest of the solid 
portion of the kidney ? 

6. The bodies which form the medullary portion 

of the kidney within the cortical layer are 
called the pyramids of Malpighi. 

a. Why is the name pyramid given to them ? 

b. Do these pyramids project into the sinus 

of the kidney ? 

c. Press one of the pyramids of Malpighi. 

Can you see any substance ooze out ? 



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68 LABORATORY EXERCISES. 



40. Study of Exceetioh.* 

A. Excretion from sensible perspiration. 

1. Find the exact weight of your body imme- 

diately after breakfast. Eecord the figure. 

2. Exercise vigorously for several hours without 

eating or drinking. 

3. Find again the weight of the body. Do you 

note any difference in weight ? 

B. Excretion from insensible perspiration. 

1. Lay the palm of your hand (when your body 

feels cool) on a cold mirror. What evi- 
dence do you find of the activity of the 
skin? 

2. Lay the back of your hand on the mirror. 

a. Do you find any difference between the 
amount of perspiration from the palm 
and from the back of the hand ? 

6. Study your hand on a hot day and an- 
swer the same question. 

41. Sensations of Touch.* 

Materials : Pen and ink, pin, ruler, pair of scissors. 

A. Blindfold a person, touch lightly some portion of 
his body with a pen dipped in ink, and ask him 
to point out with a pin the point touched, as 
soon as you have removed the pen. 
1. Measure the distance with a ruler between 
the ink-dot and the point touched with the 
pin. Record result fts directed below in 4, 



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8EN8ATI0N8 OF TOUCH. 



69 



Try the experiment several times on the same 
region of the body. Do the results agree ? 

Try the experiment on different parts of the 
body. 

Record results in tabular form as follows : 



Part of body experimented upon. 



Distance between points. 



1st trial. 2d trial. 8d trial. 



B. Apply lightly the points of a pair of scissors (sep- 
arated about a quarter of an inch) to the palm 
of your hand. 

1. Can the points be felt as two, or do they feel 

as one ? 

2. Separate the points of the scissors a little 

more than a quarter of an inch, and apply 
again. At what distance apart can the 
points be felt as two ? 

3. In the same way determine at what distance 

apart the points can be felt as two on the 
tip of the middle finger, on the tip of the 
tongue, on the back of the neck, on the back 
of the hand. 

4. Record your results in tabular form as fol- 

lows, placing the smallest distance first, 
and arranging the distances in order from 
smallest to greatest. 



Part of body experimented upon. 



Distance between points. 



6. Apply the points of the scissors at the upper 
part of the arm, near the elbow, at the 



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60 LABORATORY EXERCISES, 

wrist and on the palm, noting at what dis- 
tance apart the points are felt as two. 
a. Is the distance greater as you approach 
the shoulder or as you near the hand ? 
h. Does it make any difference whether the 
points are applied in transverse or in 
longitudinal axis of the arm ? 
0- Cross the middle finger of the hand over the fore- 
finger, and rub the tips of these two fingers 
against the point of your nose at the same time. 
What impression do you receive in regard to 
your nose ? 

42. Sensations of Taste and Smell."*" 

Materials: Potato, onion, apple, spices, flavoring extracts, sugar, 
salt, mustard, quinine solution, vinegar. 

A. Flavors of substances. 

1. Secure a bit of potato, a bit of onion, and a 

bit of apple ; close your eyes and hold your 
nose tightly; place each of the three in 
your mouth successively. Can you dis- 
tinguish by taste one piece from the others ? 

2. Keeping the eyes closed, repeat the experi- 

ment without holding the nose. 

a. Can the foods be distinguished now? 

b. What do these experiments teach you in 

regard to the real nature of what is 
commonly thought to be the taste of 
certain foods? 

c. Why are many foods tasteless to a per- 

son with a cold in the head ? 



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SENSATIONa OF TA8TE AND SMELL. 61 

d. What method of taking disagreeable 
medicines is suggested by these ex- 
periments ? 
3. Close your eyes and hold your nose ; experi- 
ment with spices, sugar, salt, mustard, 
quinine solution, vinegar, peppermint, va- 
nilla, etc. Record your results as follows : 



Substances distinguished by 
taste alone. 



Substances distinguished by 
taste and smell. 



B. Wipe the tongue dry and place upon it a bit of 
sugar. 

1. Can the sugar be tasted ? 

2. To what condition must foods be brought in 

order to be tasted ? 

3. What use of the saliva in the mouth does 

this suggest ? 

4. Give a reason which may explain why sand is 

tasteless ? 
0. Localization of taste sensations on the tongue. 

1. Place a bit of sugar on the tip of the tongue ; 

another bit on the back of the tongue. 

a. In which case is the sweet taste more 
distinct? 

6. Determine whether sweet substances 
are tasted more distinctly along the 
middle of the tongue or at the edge. 

2. By using a bit of salt determine in the same 

way what region of the tongue is most af- 
fected by saline substances. 



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62 LABORATORY EXERCISES. 

3. Prepare a strong solution of quinine by dis- 

solving sulphate of quinine in water by the 
aid of sulphuric acid. Determine what 
portion of the tongue is most sensitive to 
bitter substances ; the portion which is least 
sensitive. 

4. Test the various portions of the tongue with 

vinegar. 

5. Record your results as follows : 



Kind of substance. 



Part most affected. 



Part least affected. 



Sweet . 
Sour . . 
Bitter . 
Salt. . . 



43. Study of Yeast.* 

Materials for liome work : Compressed yeast, molasses ; two pint 
bottles, small bottle ; refrigerator ; stove ; thermometer. 

Materials for class demonstrations : (A, 9, 10, D) ; Flask, rubber 
cork (two holes); U-tube, test-tube; chemical thermometer; glass- 
and rubber-tubing; water bath; condenser; compound microscope 
(500 diameters), slide; cover-glass; lime-water, eosin or methyl 
violet. 

A. Study of the growth of yeast. 

Mix about an eighth of a cake of compressed 
yeast in a tablespoonful of water and stir until a 
smooth thin mixture is formed. Add this to 
about a half-pint of water in which a tablespoon- 
ful of molasses has been dissolved. Place this 
mixture in a wide-mouthed bottle which holds 
about a pint ; stopper very loosely. 



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STUDY OF TEA8T. 63 

1. State in your note-book the color of the mix- 

ture. Does it appear clear or muddy? 

2. What is the smell and taste of the mixture ? 

3. Place the liquid where the temperature is 70° 

to 90'' F. Determine the exact temperature 
by the use of a thermometer, and record it. 

4. At the end of several hours examine the liquid. 

What evidence is there that the yeast is 
'' working " ? 

5. Determine the effect of temperature on the 

working of yeast in the following manner : 
a. Shake up the mixture when it is working 
well, and pour some off into a small 
bottle; immerse the latter up to its 
neck in ice-water for an hour, or place 
it in a refrigerator. 

(1) What is the effect on the activity 

previously noticed in the liquid ? 

(2) Warm the liquid again to the tem- 

perature of the room and record 
result. 

(3) Yeast is a plant. Has it been killed 

by the cold? Give reason for 

your answer. 
h. Fill the small bottle again with some 
more of the working yeast mixture ; 
place it on the stove and boil it, taking 
care not to break the bottle. Allow 
the mixture to cool to the temperature 
of the room. 
(1) What effect does boiling have on 

the activity of the yeast ? 



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64 LABORATORY EXERCISES. 

(2) Keep the mixture for a day or two. 
Was the yeast killed by the heat ? 
c. Summary. 

(1) What temperature do you find to 

be most favorable for the growth 
of yeast ? 

(2) What IS the effect of extreme cold ? 

(3) What is the effect of a high degree 

of heat ? 

6. At the end of 24 hours smell the mixture of 

molasses and yeast remaining in your large 
bottle. How does it differ from that ob- 
served in 2 ? 

7. Taste of the liquid at the same time. Com- 

pare with result obtained in 2. 

8. What differences do you note in the color 

or in the general appearance of the mixture 
since the experiment was begun? (Com- 
pare with observations in 1.) 
t9. Pour some of the yeast mixture which is 
working well into a glass flask. Insert a 
rubber cork in the mouth of the flask 
through which passes one arm of a U-tube. 
Half-fill a test-tube with lime-water. Al- 
low the free end of the U-tube to dip below 
the surface of the lime-water. Be sure all 
the connections are tight. Set the appara- 
tus aside in a warm place for a few hours. 
a. What change has taken place in the 

lime-water ? 
6. What kind of gas is produced by the 

growth of yeast ? 



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8TUDT OF TEA8T. 65 

tlO. Pour into another flask some of the yeast 
mixture which has been working for some 
time. Procure a rubber stopper with two 
holes. Through one hole pass the bulb of 
a chemical thermometer so that it reaches 
half-waj down to the bottom of the flask. 
Through the other hole pass a glass tube, 
allowing it to project just inside the flask. 
Connect this glass tube with rubber tubing 
to a condenser (used in distillation). Place 
the flask over a water-bath, and keep the 
temperature at the point where the ther- 
mometer registers 78** C. Collect the liquid 
which comes from the condenser. 

a. What is the smell and taste of the 

liquid? 

b. Apply a lighted match to a little of it. 

Will it burn ? 

c. What kind of substance is formed when 

yeast " works," or when fermentation 

takes place ? 
B. Into a half -pint of water put a spoonful of the thin 
yeast mixture (of yeast and water) ; set aside in 
a warm place beside the other mixture. Exam- 
ine at the end of 24 hours. 

1. Do you see any evidence of activity in the 

mixture ? 

2. What kind of substance was present in the 

preceding experiments which is absent in 
this experiment ? 

3. What do you infer from this experiment ? 



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66 LABORATORY EXERCISES, 

C. Summary. 

1. What conditions are necessary for the rapid 

growth of yeast ? 

2. What changes are caused by the yeast in a 

mixture in which it is growing ? 

3. What substances are produced by the growth 

of yeast ? 

D. Microscopic study of yeasi (In class.) 

By means of a pipette put a drop from the bot- 
tom of a yeast mixture on a glass slide ; cover 
with a thin cover-glass, and examine under the 
high power of the microscope. 

1. What is the color of the solid bodies (yeast- 

cells) which you see ? 

2. Teast-cells form new cells by budding, the 

bud (daughter-cell) usually remaining at- 
tached to the cell (mother-cell) which pro- 
duced it. 

a. Draw a group of cells showing a mother- 
cell and two daughter-cells. 
6. Draw a group of cells showing a mother- 
cell, two daughter-cells, and two grand- 
daughter-cells. 

3. Can you distinguish a nucleus in any of the 

yeast-cells ? 

4. Place a drop of stain (eosin or methyl violet) 

on the slide at the edge of the cover-glass, 
allowing it to run beneath the glass to 
stain the cells. Can you make out any 
further facts regarding the structure of 
yeast ? 



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STUDY OF BACTERIA. 67 



44. Stttdy of Bacteria. 

Materials for home work (C) : Three bottles (two provided with 
stoppers), ice-box, thermometer ; pint of milk. 

Materials for class-room work (A, B, D) : Flask, hot-water filter, 
i)eaker, Petri-dishes, cotton-wool, needle, compound microscope (500 
diameters) slide, cover-glass ; 60 gr. gelatin, 1 lb. lean beef, 6 gr. 
peptone, 6 gr. salt, caustic potash, methyl violet, corrosive sublimate 
solution (1:1000). 

A. Study of the growth of bacteria. 

" Nutrient gelatin, most useful for the growth 
of all kinds of bacteria, is prepared in this way: 

" One pound of lean beef is cut up, to it is 
added one pint of water, and is kept boiling in 
the digestor or any other vessel for from half to 
three quarters of an hour. After having been 
strained through fine calico it is filtered through 
paper into a beaker ; bring up by adding water 
to 600 ccm. ; add to this 60 grams of the finest 
gold-label gelatin cut up in small pieces, 6 grams 
of peptone, and 6 grams of common salt. Dis- 
solve on water-bath, but do not let the water 
boil ; neutralize with carbonate of soda or, better, 
with liquor potasssB till faintly alkaline ; boil 
for half an hour, filter by hot filter into a ster- 
ile flask plugged with sterile cotton-wool, and 
bring it up to boiling-point, at which it is kept for 
a few minutes. This can be kept as stock gela- 
tin." — Klein, " Micro-Organisms and Disease," 
Macmillan & Co. (For further directions refer to 
this or other books on bacteriology.) 

Pour some of the nutrient gelatin into several 



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LABORATORY EXERCISES, 

Petri dishes which have been sterilized, quietly 
replacing the covers on the dishes, also the cot- 
ton plug in the flask. Number the dishes 1, 2, 
etc., and write date of each part of the experi. 
ment. 

Keep some of the dishes carefully close(3 
throughout the experiments. Label each of 
these dishes "Not exposed." 

Open several of the other dishes, exposing tho 
gelatin to the air of the room for one-half minute. 
Beplace the covers, and label each dish " Ex* 
posed to the air one-half minute." 

Open other dishes sufficiently to spread om 
the surface a little of the dust from the floor o? 
from the street. Label each dish " Exposed 
to dirt." 

Open a third set of dishes of the gelatin and 
pour on the surface a very little of the city watei 
obtained from the school faucets. Label each 
"Exposed to city water." 

Set aside the dishes where the temperature is 
about TC F. Examine the dishes at the end of a 
day or two. 

1. Do you find any differences between the 

dishes which have been exposed to the air, 
the dirt, and the water, and those which 
have not been exposed ? 

2. Draw a figure of the dish you are studying, 

representing carefully the form and size oi 
the spots (colonies of bacteria or mould). 

3. Study the same dish several days later. 

Make a careful drawing as in 2 above. 



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STUDY OF BACTERIA, 69 

Have the colonies changed in size or ap- 
pearance since your last study? 

4. Describe the color of the colonies. 

5. Do any of the colonies appear to affect the 

gelatine around them ? 

B. Microscopic study of bacteria. 

Carefully lift the cover from one of the plates 
of gelatin which has been exposed. Touch one 
of the colonies of bacteria with the point of a 
needle, and then rub the needle-point on a clean 
glass slide ; add a drop of water to the spot 
touched by the needle, and cover with a cover- 
glass. Examine with the highest powers of the 
microscope. 

1. What is the color of the tiny bodies (bacteria) 

which you see ? 

2. Do you find more than one kind of bacteria ? 

If so, what is the shape of each ? 

3. Do any of the bacteria seem to be in motion ? 
4 Place a drop of stain (methyl violet or eosin) 

at the side of the cover-glass and allow it 
to run beneath the glass, staining the cells. 
Can you make out any further points of 
structure in the bacteria ? 

C. Growth of bacteria in milk (at home). 

Secure three clean bottles of about the same 
size, two of them provided with stoppers. 

Into one of the bottles pour some good fresh 
milk ; cover and place in the ice-box, or in some 
other cold place. Label the bottle " No. 1." 

Pour into the second bottle about the same 
amount of milk, and set it aside in a moderately 



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70 LABORATORY EXERCI8B8, 

warm place, leaving it uncorked. Note the tem- 
perature by means of a thermometer. Label 
"No. 2." 

Clean the third bottle and the cork in boiling 
water. Boil some of the milk 15 minutes, and 
pour it into the bottle while hot. Cork the 
bottle and place it beside the second bottle. 
Label "No. 3, Sterilized milk." 

Examine the three bottles of milk at the end 
of 12 hours. 

1. Do you notice any difference in the smell or 

taste of No. 1, No. 2, and No. 3? 

2. Boil the milk in bottle No. 3 again ; clean the 

bottle and cork in boiling water as before, 
and replace the milk in the bottle ; cork 
the bottle. Put bottle No. 1 back in the 
ice-box ; return bottles No. 2 and No. 3 to 
the place from which you took them. 

3. Examine all three bottles at the end of a 

second 12 hours. Have any further changes 
taken place ? 

4. Carry out the directions given in 2 above a 

second time. Bepeat your examinations at 
the end of each successive 12 hours for 
two or three days, each time boiling the 
milk in bottle No. 3. Eecord in your note- 
book each time the changes which you 
observe in each of the bottles. 

5. The changes in the milk are caused by the 

growth of bacteria from the air or on the 
bottles or stoppers. 



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STUDY OF BACTERIA. 71 

a. What effect does a cold temperature 
have on the growth of bacteria ? 

h. What effect does boiling have on the 
growth of these cells ? 

c. What is the most favorable temperature 

for the growth of bacteria ? 

d. What effect do some bacteria have on 

the milk ? 

e. Compare the results obtained in this ex- 

periment with those already obtained 
in the experiment with yeast. 
D. Sterilization. 

Prepare three dishes of nutritive gelatin as 
directed above. 

Eemove the cover from No. 1, and allow it to 
remain exposed to the air for several minutes. 
Label it " Gelatin No. 1." 

Remove the cover from a second dish, expose 
it as in No. 1 ; then pour over the surface a thin 
film of corrosive sublimate (1 : 1000). Eeplace 
the cover and label " Gelatin No. 2 + Poison." 

Expose a third dish of gelatin to the air for 
the same length of time as in No. 1 and No. 2. 
Heat this dish for a half-hour every 12 hours in 
a steam sterilizer or over a water-bath. Label 
" Heated Gelatin." Keep all three dishes 
covered, and set them aside where the tempera- 
ture is about 70° F. 

Compare the three dishes at the end of three 
days. 

1. What differences do you note between the 
three dishes ? 



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72 LABORATORY BXMROIsm 

2. What is the effect of the poison (corrosive 

sublimate) on the growth of bacteria ? 

3. What eflfect does heating and cooling have on 

the growth of bacteria ? 

4. In what two ways may a substance be steril- 

ized? 

E. From all your experiments state— 

1. What conditions seem to favor the growth of 

bacteria ? 

2. What conditions seem to hinder the growth 

of bacteria ? 

F. Practical questions in bacteriology. 

1. Why are fruits cooked before canning ? 

2. Why should fruit-jars be filled completely 

before screwing on the cover ? 

3. Why do fruit-jars sometimes burst long after 

being filled ? 

4. Why is grass dried before putting in the barn ? 

5. Why are milk, meat, etc., put in the refrig- 

erator in summer-time ? 

6. Why should the prohibition against spitting 

in public places be rigidly enforced ? 

7. Why should sweeping be done so far as* pos- 

sible without raising a dust ? 

8. Why are hard-wood floors more healthful than 

carpets. 

9. Why should the teeth be brushed often ? 

10. Why should the refuse be removed from the 

streets every morning early, especially in 
summer-time ? 

11. Why should sink-drains be carefully in- 

spected ? 



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STUDY OF THE MAMMALIAN SKELETON, 73 

12. Why should wounds be carefully cleansed 

and dressed at once ? 

13. Why are typhoid fever, diphtheria, and other 

infectious diseases often better treated in 
hospitals ? 

14. In what ways do bacteria prove to be of 

benefit to mankind ? 

15. In what ways do they prove to be "man's 

invisible foes"? (Bead "The Story of 
Bacteria," " Dust and its Dangers," "Drink- 
ing-water and Ice Supplies, and their Eela- 
tions to Health and Disease," by T. M. 
Prudden, M.D. PubUshed by G. P. Put- 
nam's Sons.) 



45. COMPABATIVE STUDY OF THE MAMMALIAN SKELETON. 

(At the American Maseum of Natural History, 8tli Ave. and 77th St.) 

Note. — The skeletons of the lion, horse, seal, musk-ox, sea lion, 
and elephant are among those best adapted for observation. 

A. Spinal Column : 

1. How many vertebrae are found in the neck 

(cervical) region ? 

2. How many vertebrae bear ribs (dorsal ver- 

tebrae) ? 

3. How many vertebrae in the lumbar region ? 

4. Can you determine how many vertebrae have 

united to form the sacrum ? 

5. How many vertebrae in the tail (caudal ver- 

tebra) ? 



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74 LABORATORY EXERCISES. 

6. In what regions of the spinal column are 

curves noticeable? How do they differ 
from the curves in the human skeleton ? 

7. Are spinous processes specially developed in 

any region ? Can you suggest any reason 
for this ? 
B. Bibs and sternum. 

8. How many ribs has the animal ? 

9. How many are attached to the sternum ? 

10. Is the sternum a single piece of bone ? If not, 

of how many parts does it seem to consist? 
0. Anterior appendage. 

11. Can you distinguish a shoulder - blade 

(scapula) ? 

12. Has the animal a collar-bone (clavicle) ? 

13. Is the humerus relatively long or short com- 

pared with the whole appendage ? 

14. What is the relative size of radius and ulna ? 

15. Is it probable that rotation of the radius 

about the ulna is possible ? 

16. Is the projection (" funny-bone ") on radius or 

ulna? 

17. How many wrist-bones (carpals) in the an- 

terior appendage? 

18. Does the animal walk on the palm of the 

hand or on the tips of the fingers ? 

19. How many fingers (or toes) of anterior ap- 

pendage does it use ? 

20. How many bones are there in each finger ? 

21. Is a thumb distinguishable ? 

22. What use does the animal make of the an- 

terior appendages ? 



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STUDY OF THE MAMMALIAN SKELETON. 76 

D. Posterior appendage. 

23. Is a knee-cap (patella) distinguishable ? 

24. What is the relative size of tibia and fibula ? 

25. How many ankle-bones (tarsals) are found in 

the posterior appendage? 

26. How many toes of the posterior appendage 

does the animal use ? 

27. Does the animal seem to be adapted for swift 

or for slow locomotion ? Give reasons for 
your answer. 

E. Teeth. 

28. What is the dental formula (number of in- 

cisors, canines, grinders in each half-jaw) ? 

29. Did the animal probably eat animal or vege- 

table food ? Reason for answer. 



46. Rules fob the Use of the Compouhd 

MiCBOSCOFE. 

I. To lift the microscope^ always grasp it firmly by the 

pillar beneath the stage. 

II. To use the low power objective. 

1. Place the stand so the two arms of the foot 

face the window. Keep the microscope 
out of tbe direct sunlight. 

2. See that the nose-piece is in the position 

which will bring the low-power objective 
over the opening in the stage. 

3. Move the tube up or down by the rack and 

pinion until the lower end of the low-power 



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76 LABORATORY EXERCISES. 

objective is a little more than a quarter of 
an inch above the level of the stage. 

4. See that the plane side of the mirror is facing 

the source of light. Looking down through 
the tube, move the mirror about until the 
field of the microscope has the best possi- 
ble illumination. (The field of the micro- 
scope is the lighted circular area which 
appears when looking down through the 
tube.) 

5. Place the slide on the stage (cover-glass 

on top) in a position so the object to be 
examined is over the centre of the hole in 
the stage. Fix the slide in place with the 
clips. 

6. Look through the microscope, and slowly 

move the tube up by turning the rack and 
pinion until the object is seen as clearly 
as possible. Be careful liever to push the 
tube down so the objective touches the 
slide. 

7. In examining a slide, focus the tube by 

means of the fine adjustment-screw. When 
the screw is turned in a direction like the 
hands of a clock, the objective is lowered ; 
when turned in the opposite direction, the 
objective is raised from the slide. 

III. To use the high-power objective, 

1. Place the slide upon the stage and focus 
upon it with the loio-power objective as 
directed in II above. 



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THE USE OF THE COMPOUND MICROSCOPE. 77 

2. Turn the mirror so the concave surface faces 

upward. Looking through the tube, move 
the mirror about until the field of the 
microscope has the best illumination. 

3. Place the eye at the level of the stage and 

carefully turn the nose-piece so the high- 
power objective is brought into position 
above the hole in the stage. If the lower 
end of the objective touches the cover- 
glass, turn the fine adjustment-screw in a 
direction opposite to that of the hands of 
a clock. 

4. When the objective is in position look at 

the object through the microscope, and 
focus slowly with i\iQ fine ajdjustmentscrew 
until the image is clearest. Take great 
care as directed in 3 above to see that the 
objective does not- touch the cover-glass. 

5. After using the high-power objective, turn 

, the nose-piece so as to leave the low-power 
objective in position over the diaphragm. 

IV. The pupil should learn to look through the 

microscope with both the right and the left eye. 
Both eyes should always remain open. 

V. Approximate magnifications of the Bausch and 

Lomb microscopes. 

1. 2-inch objective with 2-inch eye-piece magni- 

fies about 15 diameters. 

2. 2-inch objective with 1-inch eye-piece magni- 

fies about 30 diameters. 

3. f-inch objective with 2-inch eye-piece magni- 

fies about 50 diameters. 



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78 LABORATORY EXERCISES. 

4. f-inch objective with l-inch eye-piece magni- 

fies about 100 diameters. 

5. ^-inch objective with 2- inch eye-piece magni- 

fies about 250 diameters. 

6. ^-inch objective with 1-inch eye-piece magni- 

fies about 450 diameters. 



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APPAIUTUS AND CHEMICALS ttEQUlRBD, 79 

List of Apparatus and Chemicals required to 
Supply a Class of 24. 

Articulated Skeleton, $25 (may be obtained of The 
Kny-Scheerer Co., 17 Park Place, New York City). 

Joint apparatus devised by Dr. G. W. Fitz of Har- 
vard University, $5 (may be obtained of H. Sumner, 
Wood Avenue, Hyde Park, Mass). 

The following supplies will be furnished to schools 
by Bausch & Lomb, 1123 Broadway, New York City, 
at the special prices quoted. (The numbers and let- 
ters refer to Bausch & Lomb's Catalogue.) 



1 Compound Microscope, AABl, 

%-%" $25 60 

24 Mafirnifiers, 5-10" diameter, 

QD 8 00 

1 WeiKhinif Baianee,'*NoV7ia6.'! 18 50 
24 Evaporating: Dishes (porce- 
lain), No. 4480, 60 cc 2 70 

24 Alcohol Lamps, No. 8693 c, 

lOOcc 750 

1 GroHS Slides (8x1"), No. 7315. 64 
1 oz. Round Cover-glasses, %!\ 

No.2 76 

24 Scalpels, No. 6480 4 50 

24 Pairs Forceps, straight. No. 

5850 450 

60 Dissecting Needles, No. 6950. . 1 57 
72 Test-tubes, 150X16 mm., No. 

8905 1 12 

1 Chemical Thermometer, No. 

8783B 94 

1 Lactometer, No. 3754 38 

12 Iron Apparatus Stands, No. 

6095,3ring8 9 00 

24 Pieces Wire Gauze, 8X3", No. 

6216 per lb. 38 

24 Glasw Stirring-rods, No. 4566 . 90 
10 Ft. Glass Tubing, 5 mm., No. 

4560 88 

1 ThiHtle-tube, No. 40-»0, 30 mm. 09 
24 Beaker Glasses, 98 mm., No. 

4395 800 

1 Glass Bottle, 8 oz., provided 
with rubber cork, 2 perfora- 
tions, No. 4820, cork No. 5296 10 
1 Bell Jar with opening at the 
top, 180 X 100 mm.. No. 4510. 75 

1 Piece of Sheet Rubber 15 

2 Florence Flasks, 260 cc., No. 
8850 26 



1 Hot- water Filter, No. 4005. . . $3 00 
12 Petri Dishes, 80 mm., No. 

3802 1 80 



CHEMICALS. 

H lb. Hydrochloric Acid (C.P.), 

500cc 24 

^ lb. Nitric Acid (cone), C.P., 

600 cc.. No. 7767 26 

^ lb. Ammonia (cone), C.P., 

500 cc. No. 7767 12 

J4 lb. Sulphuric Acid, No. 7769, 

500 cc 24 

1 oz. Iodine, No. 7732 38 

6 oz. Potassium Iodide, No. 

7758 1 50 

y lb. Ether Sulphuric, 250 cc, 

Nc7775.... 82 

5 gr. Cai^stic Potash 12 

5 gr. Caustic Soda 12 

100 cc. Lime-water .. 12 

100 Pieces of Re<l Litmus-paper, 

2 X H'\ No. 7600 08 

4 gr. Quinine 12 

500 cc. 95j( Alcohol, No. 7788 61 

100 cc. Glycerin, No. 7790 26 

5 gr. Pancreatin (Fairchild) ... 06 

6gr. Ox-gall 12 

6gr. Pepsin 12 

10 gr. 1 ommon Salt 05 

1 gr. Phosphate of Lime 12 

10 gr. Glucose 12 

600 cc. Fehling solution, No. 7776 1 60 

10 gr. Eosin. No. 7874 26 

10 er. Methyl Violet, No. 7896 ... 26 

1 lb. Gtelatin, No. 7847. 68 

12gr. Peptone 10 



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November i8q8 

SCIENCE 
REFERENCE AND TEXT-BOOKS 

PUBLISHED BY 

HENRY HOLT & COMPANY, '^ ^^ll^rvX^'' 



Books marked * are chiefly for reference and supplementary use^ and are 
to be found in Henry Holt &> Co.*s List of fVorks in General Literature. 
For further particulars about books not so marked see Henry Holt 6^ Co.^s 
Descriptive Educational Catalogue. Excepting James' Fsychologif.s, 
Walker's PoLincAL economies, and Adams' Finance, all in the Ameri- 
can Science Series^ this list contains no works in Philosophy or Economics. 
Pottage on net books 8 per cent, additional. 

Bmerican Science Settee 

1. Astronomy. By Simon Nbwcomb, Professor in the Johns Hopkins University, 

and Edward S. Holdkn, Director of the Lick Observatory, California. 
Advanced Course, 512 pp. 8vo. $2.00 «^/. 
The same. Briefer Course. 352 pp. 121110. $1,12 net. 

2. Zoology. By A. S. Packard, Jr., Professor in Brown University. Advanced 

Course. 722 pp. 8vo. $2.^0 net. 
The same. Brief er Course. {Revised and enlarged, iZqT.) 338 pp. %i.x^net. 
The same. Elementary Course. 290 pp. lamo. 80 cents net. 

3. Botany. By C. E. Bbssey, Proft-ssor in the University of Nebraska. 

Advanced Course. 611 pp. 8vo. S2.20 «/•/ 
The same. Briefer Course. (Entirely new edition^ \Z^.) 356 pp. %x.\inet. 

4. The Human Body. By H. Neweli. Martin, sometime Professor in the Johns 

Hopkins University. 

Advanced Course. {Entirely new edition, 1896.) 685 pp. 8vo. $2.50 net. 

Copies without chapter on Reproduction sent when specially ordered. 
The same. Briefer Course. (Entirely new edition revised by Prof. G. Wells 

Fiiz, iSgQ.) 408 pp. i2mo. $1.20 net. 
The same. Elementary Course. 261 pp. i2mo. 75 cents net. 
The Human Body and the Effect of Narcotics. 261 pp. x2mo. $1.20 net. 

5. Chemistry. By Ira Remskn, Professor in Johns Hopkins University. 

Advanced Course, (Inorganic entirely new edition^ 1898.) 850 pp. 8vo. 

$3.80 net. 
The same. Briefer Course, (Entirely ne7v ediiiony 1893.) 435 PP- $x.i2 net. 
The same. Elementary Course. 1272 pp. z2mo. 80 cents net. 
LAhor Aiory MsinusA (to Elementary Course). 196 pp. i2nio. ^o cents net. 
Chemical Experiments. By Prof. Remsbn and Dr. W. W. Randall. (For 

Briefer Course.) No blank pages for notes. 158 pp. Z2mo. 50 cents net. 

6. Political Economy. By Francis A. Walker, President Massachusetts Insti- 

tute of Technology. Advanced Course. 537 pp. 8vo. $2.00 net. 
The same. Briefer Course. 415 pp. i2mo. $1 20 net. 
The same. Elementary Course. 423 pp. i2mo. $1.00 >i^/. 

7. General Biology. By Prof. W. T. Srdgwick, of Massachusetts Institute of 

Technology, and Prof. E. B. Wilson, of Columbia College. (Revised and 
enlarged^ 1896.) 231 pp. 8vo. $1.75 net. 

8. Pfvchology. By William James, Professor in Harvard College. Advanced 

Curse. 689 + 704 pp. 8vo. 2 vols. $4.80 «<•/. 
The same. Briefer Course. 478 pp. i2mo. |i.6o net. 

9. Physics. By George F. Barker, Professor in the University of Pennsylva- 

nia. Advanced Course. 902 pp. 8vo. $3.50 «^^. 

10. Geology. By Thomas C. Chambrrlin and Rollin D. Salisbury, Professors 

in the University of Chicago. (/« Preparation.) 

1 1. Finance. By Henry Carter Adams, Professor in the University of Michi- 

gan. Advanced Course, xiii + 573 pp. 8vo. $3.50 Mr/. 

(I) 

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HENRY HOLT <&* CO:S WORKS ON SCIENCE. 

Allen's Laboratory Exercises in Elementary Physics. By Charles R. 
Allen, Instructor in the New Bedford, Mass., High School. 
PupiVs Edition .* x + 209 pp. i2mo. 80c., net. Teachers' Eai- 
Hon; $1.00, net, 

Arthur, Barnes, and Coulter's Handbook of Plant Dissection. By J. C. 

Arthur, Professor in Purdue Univ., C. R. Barnes, Professor 
in Univ. of Wisconsin, and John M. Coulter, President 
of Lake Forest University, xi + 256 pp. i2mo. $1.20, net. 

Atkinson's Elementary Botany. By Geo. F. Atkinson, Professor in 
Cornell. For beginners. Fully illustrated. 

Barker's Physics. See American Science Series. 
Barnes' Plant Life. By C. R. Barnes, Professor in University of 
Chicago. Illustrated, x + 428 pp. i2mo. 

Beal's Grasses of North America. For Farmers and Students. By 
W. J. Beal, Professor in the Michigan Agricultural College. 
8vo. Copiously lU'd. Vol. I., 457 pp. $2.50, net. Vol. II., 
707 pp. $5. net, 

Bessey*s Botanies. See American Science Series. 

Black and Carter's Natural History Lessons. By George Ashton 
Black, Ph.D., and Kathleen Carter. (For very young 
pupils.) X -[- q8 pp. i2mo. 50c., net. 

Bumpus's Laboratory Course in invertebrate Zoology. By H. C. Bum pus. 
Professor in Brown University. Revised. 157 pp. i2mo. 
$1, net, 

Cairns's Quantitative Chemical Analysis. By Fred' k A. Cairns. Re- 
vised and edited by Dr. E. Waller. 417 pp. 8vo. $2, net, 

Champlin's Young Folks' Astronomy. By John D. Champlin, Jr., 
Editor of Champlin's Young Folks* Cyclopcedias. Illustrated, 
vi + 236 pp. i6mo. 48c., net. 

Congdon's Qualifative Analysis. By Ernest A. Congdon, Professor 
in Diexel Institute. 64 pp. Interleaved. 8vo. 6oc., net. 

Crozier's Dictionary of Botanical Terms. 202 pp. Svo. $2.40, net, 

Hackel's The True Grasses. Translated from "Die natllrlichen 
Pflanzenfamilien" by F. Lamson-Scribner and Effie A. 
Southworth. V ■\- 228 pp. Svo. $1.50. 

Hall's First Lessons in Experimental Physics. For young beginners, 
with quantitative work for pupils and lecture-table experiments 
for teachers. By Edwin H. Hall, Assistant Professor in Har- 
vard College, viii -I- 120 pp. i2mo. 65c., net. 

Hall and Bergen's Text-book of Physics. By Edwin H. Hall, Assist- 
ant Professor of Physics in Harvard College, and Joseph Y. 
Bergen, Jr., Junior Master in the English High School, Bos- 
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Hertwig's General Prineiples of Zoology. From the Third Edition ot 
Dr. Richard Hertwig's Lehrbuch der Zoologie, Translated and 
edited by George Wilton Field, Professor in Brown Univer- 
sity. 226 pp. 8vo. $1.60 net, 

HowelPs Dissection of the Dog. As a Basis for the Study of Physi- 
ology. By W. H. Howell, Professor in the Johns Hopkins 
University. 100 pp. 8vo. $1.00 net, 

Jackman's Nature Study for the Common Schools. (Arranged by the 
Months.) By Wilbur Jackman, of the Cook County Normal 
School, Chicago III. 448 pp. i2mo. %\,io net, 

Kerner & Oliver's Natural History of Plants. Translated by Prof. F. 
W. Oliver, of University College, London. 4to. 4 parts. 
With over 1000 illustrations and 16 colored plates. $15.00 net, 

Kingsley's Elements of Comparative Zodlogy. By J. S. Kingsi.ey. Prof, 
in Tufts College. With abundant laboratory drill. 357 pp. 
l2mo. $1.20 net, 

Macalister's Zoology of the invertebrate and Vertebrate Animals. By 

Alex. Macalister. Revised by A. S. Packard. 277 pp. 
i6mo. 80 cents net. 

MacDougal's Experimental Plant Physiology. On the Basis of Oels' 
PJlanzenphysiologische Versuche, By D. T. MacDougal, Uni- 
versity of Minnesota^ vi -|- 88 pp. 8vo. $1.00 net, 

Mac.'oskie'S Elementary Botany. With Students' Guide to the Exam- 
ination and Description of Plants. By George Macloskie, 
D.Sc, LL.D. 373 pp. i2mo.. $1.30 «^/. 

McMurrich's Text-bock of Invertebrate Morphology. By J. Playfair 
McMuRRiCH, M.A., Ph.D., Professor in the University of Cin- 
cinnati, vii 4- 661 pp. 8vo. New Edition, $3.00 net, 

McNab'S Botany. Outlines of Morphology, Physiology, and Classi- 
fication of Plants. By William Ramsay McNab. Revised by 
Prof. C. E. Bessey. 400 pp. i6mo. 8oc. net, 

Martin's The Human Body. See American Science Series. 

*Merriam's Mammals of the Adirondack Region, Northeastern New 
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and Boundaries of the Region, its Geological History, Topogra- 
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By Dr. C. Hart Merriam. 316 pp. 8vo. %2,.^onet, 

Newcomb & Holden's Astronomies. See American Science Series. 

*Noers Buz ; or, The Life and Adventures of a Honey Bee. By 
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Noyes's Elements of Qualitative Analysis. By Wm. A. No yes. Pro- 
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Packard's Entomolot;y for Beginners. For the use of Young Folks, 
Fruit-growers, Farmers, and Gardeners. By A. S. Packard. 
xvi + 367 pp. i2mo. Third Edition^ Revised, %\,^onet. 

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Outlines of Comparative Embryology. By A. S. Packard. Copi- 
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■ Zoologies. See' American Science Series. 

Perkins's Outlines of Electricity and Magnetism. By Chas. A. Perkins, 
Professor in the University of Tennessee. 277 pp. i2mo. 
$1.10 net, 

Pierce's Problems in Elementary Physics. Chiefly numerical. By 

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Randolph's Laboratory Directions in General Biology. 163 pp. i6mo. 
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Remsen's Chemistries. See American Science Series. 

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Brief Guide to the Commoner Butterflies. By Samuel H. Scudder. 

xi 4" 206 pp. i2mo. $1.00 net, 
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♦Step's Plant Life. By Edward Step. . Popular Papers on the 
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/. Book of Experiments, xiv + 7g pp. 8vo. Paper. 50c. net, 
II, Text-Book, XV + 133 pp. i2mo. Cloth. 65c. net, 
III, Box of Apparatus. $2. 00 net {actual cost to the publisher s\ 

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