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Full text of "Ladak, physical, statistical, and historical ; with notices of the surrounding countries"

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4 



L A D A K. 



L A D A K, 



:>HYSICAL, STATISTICAL, AND HISTOEICAL; 



NOTICES OF THE SURROUNDING COUNTRIES. 



BY 



ALEXANDER CUNNINGHAM, 

BREVET MAJOR, BENGAL ENGINEERS. 



LONDON: 

Wm. H. ALLEN AND CO., 

7, LEADENHALL STREET. 

1854. 






CARPENTIER 

LONDON: 

printed et cox (bros.) and wtman, great queen street, 
lincoln's-inn fields. 



PREFACE. 



I HAVE endeavoured in the following pages to give, 
to the hest of my ahility, and according to my means of 
information, a full and accurate account of Ladak. I 
have t^vice visited the country, in ISIG and again in 
18i7, and on each occasion by a different route ; I have 
read every work that I could procure (and I have neither 
spared pains nor expense) regarding Ladak or Tibet. I 
therefore am willing to think that the various informa- 
tion which I have collected, may not prove altogether 
uninteresting, even to the general reader. For the 
antiquary and scientific enquirer, there are several 
subjects which I would fain hope may merit attention. 
The subjects for the antiquary are : — 

1. The identification of Ladak, or Khd-chan, with the 
Akhassa Regio of Ptolemy, and with the Kie-chha of 
Fa Hian. — Chap. I. 

2. The proof that G-raucasios was a Tibetan word, and 
the consequent deduction that the Tibetan people and 
language were once spread over a much greater extent 
of country than they now occupy. — Chap. XIV. 

3. A copious vocabulary of the Tibetan language 



M41U'V8 



VI PREFACE. 

compared with the various dialects of the Dards, of 
the Afghans and Kashmiris, of the Hindu races of 
the Himalaya, and of the Indo-Tihetans of Kanawar. — 
Chap. XV. 

4. A concise account of the religious helief and 
practice of the Tibetan Buddhists, and of the rise of 
the present grand Lamas ; with a description of the 
different buUdirigs, rites and ceremonies, and ritualic 
instruments of their religion. — Chap. XIII. 

The subjects for the man of science are : — 

1. The determination of the snow-Hne on the several 
mountain-ranges of the Panjab. — Chap. II. 

2. The length of course, and the minimum discharge 
of the rivers of the Panjab, compared with that of the 
Ganges. — Chap. III. 

3. The cataclysms of the Indus and the Sutluj ; the 
former caused by a glacier, the latter by the fall of a 
mountain. — Chap. III. 

4. The determination of the cause of the prevailing 
day and night wind in Ladak. — Chap. VII. 

5. The observations for temperature, Chap. VII. ; 
and the Tables of Magnetical and Meteorological 
Observations. — Chaps. XVI. and XVII. 

6. The discovery of fossil fresh-water shells in the 
sandy-clay formations above the level of the present 
salt-icater lakes of Ladak, proving that the lakes were 
once fresh, and of much greater extent. 

7. The tables of the stature and longevity of the 
people of Ladak, and the accurate measurements and 



drawings of sl^ulls compared with those of the Kash- 
miris. 

To several kind friends I am indebted for valuable 
assistance in this work. 

To Colonel Bates, for the landscape-views wliicli bear 
his name, and for many important observations for 
temperature. 

To Dr. Carter, A.B., for the cUfferent qualitative 
analysis of the salts and waters of the lakes and hot 
springs. 

To Lieut. Maclagan, Bengal Engineers, for the survey 
of the Pia VaUey, in Spiti. 

ALEX? CUNNIXGHAM, 

Srevet Major, Engineers. 



SIMLA, 
oOl/i Atiffugt, 1853. 



CONTENTS. 



I. — Inteodtjction. 



I. Early Notices of Ladak 


Tage 1 


2. Modem Travellers 


7 


II. — Geogbapht. 




1. General Description 


... 16 


2. Boundaries and Extent 


... 17 


3. Diiferent Names of Ladak 


... 18 


4. Districts of Ladak ... 


... 20 


5. Neighbouring Countries 


... 25 


[II.— MOUHTAIKS. 




1. General Eemarks 


... 41 


2. Trans-Tibetan or Karakoran Eange 


... 45 


3. KaOas Eange 


... 50 


4. Trans-Himalayan Eange 


... 52 


5. The "Western Himalaya 


... 57 


6. Mid-Himalaya, or Pir Panjab 


... 65 


7. The Outer Himalaya, or Dhaola Dhar 


... 74 


rV. — ElTEES. 




1. General Eemarks ... 


... 82 


2. The Indus 


... 84 


3. The Shayok Eiver 


... 94 


4. The Zanskar Eiver 


. 96 


5. Other Tributaries 


... 97 


6. Cataclysm of the Indus 


... 99 


7. The Jehlam Eiver 


... Ill 



CONTENTS. 



8. The Chenab Eiver 

9. The Eiu-i Eiver 

10. The Eyas Eiver 

11. The Suthij Eiver 

12. The Spiti Eiver 

13. Cataclysm of the Sutluj 



v. — Lakes and Speings. 

1. Names of Lakes 

2. Pangkong Lake 

3. Tsho-EulLake 

4. Tshomo-Eu'i Lake 

5. Tsho-Kar Lake 

6. Tunam-Tsho 

7. Hanle-Tsho ... 

8. Chandra Dal and Suraj Dal 

9. Hot Springs 



VI. — EoADS, Passes, Beidges. 

1. Principal Eoada 

2. The Western Eoad 

3. The South- Western Eoad 

4. The Southern Eoad 

5. The South-Eastern Eoad 

6. The Eastern Eoad ... 

7. The Northern Eoad 

8. The North- Western Eoad 

9. Passes — Heights 
10. Passage of Eivers — Fords, Bridge 



VII. — Climate. 

1. General Eemarks 

2. Winds 

3. Eain and Snow 

4. Temperature 

5. Moisture 

6. Eadiation 

7. Supposed Mildness of former Climate 



CONTENTS. 



XI 



VIII. — Peoductions. 

1. Animal 

2. Vegetable 

3. Mineral 



195 
218 
229 



IX. — COMMEECE. 

1. Home Trade 

2. Poreign Trade 

3. Foreisru Trade in Foreign Productions 



238 

ih. 

241 



X. — GOTEENMENT. 

1. Nature of Government — Various Offices 

2. Eelations with surrounding States 

3. Administration of Justice ... 

4. Eevenue 

5. IVElitary Eesources . . . 

6. Postal Establishment 



257 
261 

262 
268 
275 

283 



XI. — People. 

1. Population ... 

2. Origin 

3. Physical Description 

4. Dress 

5. Pood 

6. Social Customs 

7. Houses — Public and Private 



285 
290 
291 
303 
305 
306 
312 



XII. — HiSTOET. 

1. Under Native Kulera 

2. Conquest of Ladak ... 

3. Conquest of Balti ... 

4. Invasion of Tibet by Zorawar Sing 



316 
333 
346 
351 



XIII. — Eeligion. 

1. Early Eeligion of Tibet 

2. Tibetan System of Buddhism 

3. Different Sects — Lamas 

4. Dress — Eitualie Instruments 



356 
360 
367 
372 



XU CONTENTS. 

5. Religious Buildings — Images ... ... ... 376 

6. Eites and Ceremonies ... ... ... ... 383 

XIV, — Language. 

1. Alphabet — Pronimciation ... ... ... ... 387 

2. Former Limits of the Tibetan Language .. . ... 390 

3. Printing 392 

4. Eeckoning of Time . . . ... ... ... ... 394 

XV. — CoMPAEisoN of the Various Alpine Dialects, from the 

Indus to the Ghagra ... ... ... ... ... 897 

XVI. — Magnetioal Obseevations 421 

XVII. — Meteoeological Obseetations 442 



LIST OF PLATES. 



1. Section through the Mountain Ranges of the Panjab, from 

Kangra to Karakoram . ... . . page 18 

2. Distant View of Dayamur taken from Harpo-La (Pass, 12,000 

feet) 44 

3. Bed of the Indus, at the Eongdo Bridge 88 

4. Wooden Bridge over the Indus, near L6 ... ... ... 87 

5. Ancient Lake System of Ladak 136 

6. The Kyancj, or Wild Horse (Equus Kyang) ... ... ... 195 

7. Homs of the 8ha., or Wild Sheep ; the Rdplio-chhe (Markhor, 

or Large Wild Goat) ; and the Skit, or Stag of Ladak ... 198 

8. The Piirik Sheep 210 

9. Extinct and Existing Shells of Ladak, Balti, and Kashmir . . . 231 

10. Skull of Nomadic Boti of Ladak (4 Views) 296 

11. Skidl of Settled Boti of Ladak (4 Views) 297 

12. Pelvis of Nomadic Boti of Ladak 300 

Cap of the Gyalpo of Ladak. 

The Jao of Ladak (6). 

13. Skull of a Male Kasa of Kashmir City (4 Views) 300 

14. SkuU of a Female Kasa of Kashmir City (4 Views) . . . 300 

15. Women of Lower Kanawar . . ... ... ... . . 304 

IG. Women of Upper Kanawar ... .. , . ... ... 304 

17. Men of Pin, in Spiti 303 

18. Man and Woman of Spiti, and Woman of Ladak ... ... 304 

19. Landlords' Wives, from Nurla, in Ladak . . . . ... 304 

20. View of the Monastery of Hanle, in Eukchu ... ... 313 

21. Palace at Le 314 

22. Portrait of Jigten-Gonpo, the Dharma Raja of Bhutan . 370 

23. Abbot and High Lama of Lama Turru ... 372 

24. A Low Lama, and a Getslml of Spiti . . . . 372 

25. The Z)nZi«, or Bell (full size) 373 

26. The Dorje, Sceptre or Thunderbolt 374 

27. The ilf«»i-cA/jo«-^7ior, or Prayer-cylinder ... ... ... 374 

28. The CT/jot^-^e?;, or Mausoleum 377 

29. Eastern Pillar, called Chomo, at Dras 381 

30. Western Pillar, called Chomo, at Dras 382 

31. Tibetan Horn-Book 392 

Map. 



RULES FOR PRONUNCIATION. 



Throughout this work the vowels and consonanta are to be pro- 
nouuced in the following manner : — 



<*, 


as in distance, America. 


d, 


as in dandy. 


a, 


as in father, half. 


n, 


as in ninny. 


i, 


as in din, sin. 


P, 


as in puppy. 


i. 


as ee in seen. 


ph, 


the same aspirated. 


u, 


as 00 in poor. 


i, 


as in baby. 


u, 


as u in pare. 


m, 


as in mummy. 


e. 


as in there, they. 


ts. 


as in catseye. 


ai, 


as y in my. 


tsh. 


the same aspirated. 


0, 


as in more. 


ds, 


as ds in windsail, groundsel 


au, 


as ou in our. 


w, 


as in woman, dwarf. 


k. 


as in kick. 


zh, 


z aspirated. 


M, 


the same aspii-ated. 


s, 


as in zigzag. 


9, 


as in giggle. 


A. 


aa in hair. 


«y. 


as in sing. 


y> 


as in yon. 


cTi, 


as in church. 


r, 


as in roar. 


chh 


the same aspirated. 


I, 


as in lull. 


J, 


as in jest. 


sh, 


as in ship. 


»!/, 


as ni/ in tanyard. 


s, 


as in senses. 


t, 


as in tittle. 


h 


as in heart. 


th, 


the same aspirated. 







I.-INTRODUCTION. 



1. The earliest authentic notices of Ladak scarcely 
reach so far back as the beginning of the Clu'istian 
era. In A.D. 399-400, when the Chinese pilgrims, 
Fa-Hian,* Hoei-King, and others, reached Yti-thian 
(or Kotan), the former determined to remain behind 
for some time to witness the procession of images, while 
Hoei-King proceeded in advance to Kie-chha. After 
the procession had taken place, Fa-Hian travelled by 
Tsu-ho and Yu-hoet, and over the Tsung-Ling moun- 
tains southward to Kie-chha, where he rejoined Hoei- 
King. On those mountains, which were one month's 
journey in breadth, the snow, it is said, never melted, 
and the natives of the country were known by the name 
of " men of the snowy moimtains." From Kie-chha 
the pilgrims proceeded westward to Tho-hj, which they 
reached in one month. From this account, it appears 
to me that there can be no doubt of the identity of the 
ancient Kie-chha with the modern Ladak. 

2. To reach Ladak from Kotan there were two roads 
open to the pilgrims, the western by Kukeyar and the 
southern by B/uthog (or Rudok). By either route the 

* See the Fo-hue-hi, by INTessrs. Eemusat, Klaproth, and LanHresse, 
or the Translation bv LaiHlav. 



2 LADAK. 

travellers would have to cross the Karakoram moun- 
tains ; hut as Tsu-ho is stated to have been only 1,000 li 
(about 166 miles) from Su-le (or Kashgar), it is clear 
that !Fa-Hian must have followed the western route. 
This is more distinctly proved by the Chinese identifi- 
cation of Tsu-ho with Chu-kiu-pJio, which was exactly 
1,000 H to the westward of Kotan. Tsu-ho was there- 
fore midway between Kotan and Kashgar. Klaproth 
identified it with Kukeyar, and he is probably correct. 
I'rbm Tsu-ho the pilgrims proceeded to the south, and 
over the Tsung-Xdng, or " Onion Mountains." Prom 
Kukeyar to Ladak the road lies to the south over 
the Karakoram mountains, which, even as high as 
17,000 feet, are covered with -ndld leeks, thus justify- 
ing the Chinese name of Tsung-Ling, or " Onion Moun- 
tains."* To the westward of Kie-chha, at one month's 
journey, was Tho-ly, or (as it is written by Hwan-Thsang) 
Tha-li-lo, which is an exact transcript of Darel, one of 
the Dardu districts on the Indus ; and which Hwan- 
Thsang places to the westward of Po-lu-lo or Bolor, that 
is, the modern district of Balti. As Darel is just one 
month's journey from Le, the district of Ladak corre- 
sponds exactly in geographical position with the ancient 
kingdom of Kie-chha. 

3. But the other details, recorded by Ea-Hian, seem 
to place this identification beyond all doubt. The country 
was " mountainous, and so cold that no grain but corn 
ever ripened," which is exactly the case with Ladak. 
Kie-chha, moreover, possessed a stone vase of the same 
colour as Buddha's abns-dish, besides a tooth of Buddha. 

* I owe this fact to Dr. Thomas Thomson, my brother Commissioner 
on the Tibetan frontier, whose spirit of enterprise carried him to tlie 
top of the Karakoram pass. 



INTRODUCTION. 3 

Now, one of these relics (the alms-dish) still exists in a 
temple to the north of L^. It is a large earthenware 
vase, similar in shape to the two largest steatite vases 
extracted from the BhUsa Topes.* But Ladak also pos- 
sessed a tooth of Buddha, which was formerly enshrined 
at Le in a dung-ten, or solid mound of masonry similar 
to the Topes of BhUsa and of Afghanistan. The dung- 
ten still exists, though ruinous : but the holy tooth is 
said to have been carried away by Ali Sher, of Balti, 
upwards of 200 years ago, when Ladak was invaded and 
plundered by the Musabnans of the west, who, most 
probably, threw the much-prized relic contemptuously 
into the Indus. At any rate, it has never since been 
heard of. 

4. Lastly, the name of Kie-chha, and the designa- 
tion of the people as " men of the snowy mountains," 
both point unmistakably to Ladak, which is still known 
as Klia-pa-chan, or Kha-chan, " abounding in snow," or 
Snow-land, and the people as Klia-pa-chan-pa, or Klia- 
chan-pa, " men of the snowy land."t 

5. In the Cesi of Pliny, and in the A-khassa regio of 
Ptolemy, I believe that we have the earliest mention 
of Ladak. Of the former PHnyJ says, " hos includit 
Indus montium corona circumdatos et solitudinibus." 
This description is literally true of the people of Kha- 
pa-chan, or Snow-land, whose whole coimtry lies along 

* By Lieutenant Maisey and myself. See ray account of the opening 
and esaminatiou of " The Bhilsa Topes, or Buddhist Monuments of 
Central India," printed for Smith, Elder, & Co. (1853). 

t Kha, or Kha-pa, is " snow," and chaii means " full." Perhaps 
Naser-ud-din KaMcliah, who reigned in !Midtan and Sindh, and after- 
wards disputed the empire of India with Altanish, was a Ladaki. Pto- 
lemy's ^-^7irtMa rf^/o is no ^oxibt Klin-chan-yul, " Snow-land," or Ladak. 

+ Plin. Nat. Hist. vi. e. 20. 

B 2 



the Indus and its tributaries, whilst at the same time it 
is completely surrounded by deserts and by mountains. 
The position of Ptolemy's A-khassa regio agrees equally 
well with that of Ladak ; for he places his district 
between the Chatse Scythse on the north, and the 
Chauransei Scythae on the south-east, and to the east- 
ward of the Bylta3. The first must be the people of 
Chang-thang* (or the " northern plains ") to the north 
and east of Ladak ; and the second are most likely the 
people of Khor, who dwell to the south-east of Ladak ; 
while the Byltse are certainly the inhabitants of Balti, 
or Little Tibet. 

6. A later mention of Ladak, under a new name, is 
made by another Chinese pilgrim, Hwan-Thsang, towards 
the middle of the seventh century. He states, that from 
Khiu-lu-to (or Kullu, a hill district to the north of 
Simla), at 2,000 U (or upwards of 300 miles) across the 
mountains, is the kingdom of 3£o-lo-pho, which is also 
called San-pho-ho. The former is an exact transcript 
of Mar-po-yul,\ or " low land," to distinguish it from 
the high lands of Chang-thang and Ngari. The other 
name of San-pho-ho is a literal transcript of Tsang-po, 
or the " river," which is a common designation for the 
Indus in Ladak, and in fact for any great river in the 
Tibetan language ; San-p)ho-ho is, therefoi'e, the country 
on the Tsang-po, or Indus. 

7. These notices of Ladak bring us down to that 
interesting period when the Devanagari alphabet of 
India was introduced into Tibet from Kashmir, in the 
first half of the seventh century of our era. Thumi 
Sambhota was the first who taught the Tibetans the use 

* Byang-thang, pronounced Chang-thang, the Chan-tJuin of our maps. 
t Mar-po-yiil, tlie " low-eoiiutry." 



INTRODrCTION. 5 

of the Kashniirian characters, which remain unclianged 
to this day.* 

8. In the begiunmg of the eleventh century Palgyi- 
gon occupied Ladak, and Tashi-Degon took possession 
of Purang.f In A.D. 1314, Rinchana Bhoti invaded 
Kashmir.^ As he entered the valley by Gagangir, 
on the Sindh river, he must have advanced through 
Dras, one of the districts of Ladak. It is probable, there- 
fore, that he was the ruler of Ladak. At that time 
Kashmir had been invaded by an army of 60,000 horse, 
under the command of Dallach, the minister of a neigh- 
bom'ing chief, named Karma Sena. The invaders ad- 
vanced to the capital, which, being deserted by the Raja 
Sena Deva, Avas plundered and biu'ned. Dallach con- 
tinued his devastations to the eastern end of the vaUey, 
and retired by the Pass of Tar-bal.§ Numbers of the 
Kashmiris then waited upon Rinchana, who was em- 
boldened to advance against the troops of the Raja Sena 
Deva. The raja fled ; the Bhotiyan chief was victori- 
ous, and assumed the sovereignty of the country. He 
strengthened himself by marrying the daughter of Rama 
Chandi'a, the general of Sena Deva ; and reigned for 
three years, from A.D. 1315 to 1318, the undisputed 
master of Kashmir. 

9. Half a century before this time the celebrated 
Marco Polo had visited the court of the great Kublaij 
Emperor of China. He had sojourned in the hills of 
Badakshan for the sake of his health ; and he describes 
the countries of Wakham, Pamer, Bolor, and Kashmir. 

* Csoma de Koros, Tibetan Grammar, p. 178. 

t Csoma, in Prinsep's useful tables, p. 131. The names are written 
JPal-giji-mGon and hKra-sliis-lDe-mGon. 

X Eaja Tarangiui. § That is, tbe " Tar-biU " iu Kashmiri. 



6 LADAK. 

By some it has been supposed tliat he must have entered 
Tibet ; but the wonderful account which he gives of the 
people proves that his information could only have been 
obtained by hearsay. Indeed, notwithstanding the early 
and wide-spread fame of Prester John, there is no authen- 
tic record that Tibet had been visited by any European 
prior to the seventeenth century. 

10. Dui'ing the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, 
when the Jesuits and Capuchins possessed several mo- 
nasteries in Lhasa, a considerable number of missionaries 
must have resided for many years in Tibet ; and yet no 
more than two of these religious fraternities have left 
any record of their travels and observations behind 
them. 

11. The first of these is Le Pere Hippolyte Desideri,* 
who travelled for six months, between August 1715 and 
March 1716, through the greater part of the country, 
from Ladak through Uuthog to Lhasa. Of his travels, 
the only account that I have seen is that Avhich was 
published by Klaproth. It is a concise, but very useful 
geographical account. 

12. The second is Fra Pranciso Orazio della Penna 
di Billi, a Capuchin, who travelled to Lhasa in 1730, and 
resided for some years in the monastery of his order in 
that city. His account is exceedingly valuable, not- 
withstanding his prosy repetitions, t He was a man of 
observation, and his account of the Buddhist religion, 
as practised in Tibet, is full and accurate. 

13. In A.D. 1774 George Boglej was deputed to 

* Nouveau Journal Asiatiqiie, torn. viii. pp. 117 — 121, by the cele- 
brated Klaprotli. 

t Nouveau Journal Asiatique, torn. siv. 

J See the Preface to Turner's Tibet, pp. xiv — xvi. 



INTRODUCTION. 7 

Tibet by Warren Hastings. The Dalai Lama,* or Grand 
Lama of Lhasa, was then in his minority, and the coun- 
try Avas ruled by the Tashi Lama of Tashi Lhunpo. No 
account of this mission has been preserved, which is the 
more to be regretted as Bogle would seem to have been 
a man of superior intelligence. 

14. In A.D. 1783 a second mission was despatched by 
"Warren Hastings to Tibet. Captain Turner, the head of 
the mission, succeeded in reaching Tashi Lhunpo, but he 
was prevented from going to Lhasa " by a consideration 
of the present state of that government,"! as the Gyat 
sub Rinpoche " had u.surped, even from the hands of the 
Dalai Lama, the greatest portion of his temporal power." 
The Regent of Tashi Lhunpo also dissuaded + the envoy 
from making the attempt, for fear of offending the Chi- 
nese. Captain Turner's account of his embassy is the 
most curious and interesting work on Tibet that has 
yet appeared. 

A Chinese work, called " Notice of the Provinces of 
Wei and Tsang," was written by Ma-shao-yiin, the Com- 
missary-General of the Chinese army, which was sent to 
expel the Gorkhas from Tibet in 1786. § His account is 
short but interesting, especially in the notices of the 
various religious festivals. 

The adventurous Moorcroft lived for two whole years 
in Ladak, from September 1820 to September 1822. 
His account of the country is marked by great shrewd- 
ness of observation, and by the most scrupulous accuracy. 
A more truthful chronicler than Moorcroft never lived. 

* Ta-lhi-bLa-ma, is the Dalai Lama of Europeans. 
t Account of an Embassy to the Court of the Teshoo Lama, in Tibet, 
by Capt. Samuel Tiu-nor. % Turner's Tibet, 4to. p. 253. 

§ Nouv. Journ. Asiatique, toni. iv. et vi. 



b LADAK. 

The Botis of Ladak, the Kahlou of Le, the merchants 
of Kashmir, and the Rajah of Rajaore, all spoke to me 
of the English traveller with the highest respect.* As 
there has always heen a suspicion of foul play in the 
manner of his death, the second of the following letters, 
addressed by Trebeck to Syad Muhammad Shah, is of 
considerable interest and importance, as it distinctly 
states that Moorcroft died at Andkhui, after some days' 
illness. 

Translation of a parwanali addressed by Moorcroft to 
Syad Muhammud Shah Kashmiri : — 

" Your letter has arrived, and your faithful services 
have become known to us. The paper bearing the seals 
of the merchants and other friends at that place (Kabul), 
addressed to Muhammad Murad Beg, the ruler of 
Kunduz, wliich you forwarded, has been shown. Our 
escape has been effected, and we have started for 
Bokhara. Remain in Kabul until our retm-n, and 
consider your salary fixed at the same rate as formerly. 
Take fifty pieces of gold from Khoda Baksh Khan, the 
merchant, for your expenses, and continue day and night 
to note whatever takes place. More is superfluous." 

Syad Muhammad Shah was a young Kashmiri, who 
had accompanied Moorcroft from his native country to 
Kashmir. On the dcpartui-e of the travellers for Ballvh, 
he was discharged at his own request ; but as he 
remamed in Kabul, he was employed by them as a 
news- writer, and on the occasion of Moorcroft' s deten- 

* Biirnes has recorded the estimation in which Moorcroft's memory 
was held by the people of Balkh ; and I am happy to add here the 
testimony of Major Edwardes (A Tear in the Panjab, i. 52) to the same 
effect. " I am glad to be able to contribute the smallest white pebble 
to poor Moorcroft's cairn ; and cannot pass on without recording that 
my friend Swahn Khan spoke of him highly in every way." 



INTKODUCTIOX. 9 

tion by Murad Beg, of Kunduz, the Syad was of some 
service in procming letters from the authorities and 
merchants of Kabul to prove that the travellers were 
merchants,* and that the object of their journey was, as 
they professed it to be, " the establishment of a com- 
mercial intercom'se which would be as beneficial to 
Turkistan as to India. "f The published account of 
Moorcroft's travels states that fifty of the principal mer- 
chants and bankers of Kabid, unsolicited, had forwarded 
a certificate that Moorcroft was, as he pretended to be, 
a merchant ; but the above ^;rt;vrrt/?n'//, addressed by 
Moorcroft to the Syad, shows tliat this certificate liad 
been obtained through him. 

Translation of a par-u-anah, addressed by Trebeck 
(after Moorcroft's death) to Syad Muhammad Shah 
Kashmiri : — 

" The afi'airs of that place (Kabul) have become 
known from the perusal of your letter. Day and night 
contmue to note whatever may occur. You may have 
heard that ]Mr. AVilliam Moorcroft, ofter a few days' 
illness, died at Andklm'i, whither he had gone to pur- 
chase liorses. As he had written to you to remain at 
Kabul imtil his return, you had better stay until my 
arrival, which you may expect shortly. Consider your 
salary fixed at the same rate as formerly, and set your 
mind at rest in every respect as far as I am concerned. 
Continue to write the news," &c. 

The Syad's services on these occasions were afterwards 
attested in a certificate, which was fm-nished to liim 

* Moorcroft's Travels, vol. ii. p. 418. " I found ou 1113- arrival a 
Kdsid from Kabul, vrho brought me a certificate that I ■« as, as I pre- 
tended to be, a merchant." 

t Moorcroft's Travels, vol. ii. p. 425. 



1 LADAK. 

under the seals of Yar Muhammad Khan and Sultan 
Muhammad Khan. The original is now in my posses- 
sion. In this certificate they state that, " when the 
Sahibs arrived at Kiinduz, they got into trouble, and 
were relieved from their difficulties by the services of 
the Syad, who was then at Kabul, and that, in conse- 
quence of his zeal and devotion, the Sahibs begged him 
to remain in Kabul until their return." 

I obtained all these documents in original from the 
Syad himself, who, as a Shiah Musulman, had sought 
and obtained service at the Shiah court of Lucknow. 

Towards the end of the year 1834<, the eccentric 
Dr. Henderson reached Le, the capital of Ladak, dis- 
guised as a Musulman, calling himself Ishmail Khan. 
His disguise was soon penetrated, but he was kindly 
treated by the Gyalpo, who at once saw, in the oppor- 
tune arrival of a British officer, a possible means of 
averting the ultimate conquest of his kingdom. In 
August 1834, Ladak had been invaded by Zorawar 
Sing, the local Governor of Kashtwar, under Raja Gulab 
Sing, of Jammu. At the time of Dr. Henderson's 
arrival at Le, the invaders had taken possession of the 
western provinces of Suru and Dras, and had advanced 
into the vaUey of Paskyum. Henderson's presence 
immediately recalled to the Gyalpo' s memory the offer 
\A'hich he had once before made, through Moorcroft, 
of allegiance to the British Government. The rulers of 
India had abeady snatched Sindh from the rough grasp 
of the Lion of Labor, and the simple Tibetan vainly 
thought that they would be equally willing to save 
Ladak from the arms of his lieutenant. Dr. Henderson 
was therefore applied to ; but as he had crossed the 
British frontier against the positive prohibition of his 



INTRODUCTION. 11 

Government, and was now in Ladak Avlien he ought to 
liave been in Calcutta, he was unwilling to make any 
communication which would at once expose his violation 
of the orders of his Government. The draft of the 
original tender of allegiance which was forwarded by 
Moorcroft was shown to him ; but his position prevented 
him from acting as Moorcroft had done. His refusal 
irritated the Gyalpo, and he was prevented from leaving 
Ladak without being actually imprisoned.* MeanwhUe 
the people were informed that a British envoy had 
arrived, and that the invaders would speedily be obliged 
to depart. Zorawar Smg immediately reported the 
circumstance to his master, Raja Gulab Sing, who 
applied to the Maharaja. Ranjit Sing at once " ad- 
dressed the political agent at Ludiana to ascertain 
the meaning of such proceeding. The agent satisfied 
Ranjit Sing with an assm^ance that Dr. Henderson, the 
traveller, had passed the Sutlej in direct violation of 
the orders of his Government ; and that there was not 
the slightest idea of interfering with E,anjit's plan of 
extending his conquests northwards. Zorawar Sing, 
after this explanation, was desired to proceed with his 
operations ;"t upon which Henderson was allowed to 
depart. In fact, he was detained so long as his pre- 
sence was of service to the Gyalpo in delaying the loss 
of his kingdom. J 

Dr. Henderson was provided with instruments ; and 
as, according to Baron Hugel, he had some tact for 

* My information agrees with Hugel's. The Baron obained his 
version from Henderson himself. I got mine from the Botis of Ladak, 
and the officers of Zorawar Sing's force. 

t Qnotcd from Hugel's Travels, p. 102. 

J Vigne, vol. ii. p. 337, says that Henderson himself complained to 
Ranjit of his detention at Le. 



12 LADAK. 

observation, an account of his travels would have been 
particularly valuable. He vras probably the first Euro- 
pean who had ever visited Skardo, or Little Tibet. He 
took that route to avoid the invading army of Dogras, 
and succeeded in reaching Kashmir in November 1835. 
All his observations were lost, along with his baggage, 
on the road between Ladak and Kashmir.* In 1847, I 
made repeated inquiries for English books, or English 
writing, with the hope of recovering some of Hender- 
son's notes, but all in vain. 

Ladak was visited by Mr. Vigne shortly after Ilore- 
Tdtsi had been placed on the throne by ZoraAvar Sing. 
Erom Balti he proceeded through L6 to the Nubra 
valley, and returned by the same route. His short stay 
in Ladak was unfortunate ; for, owing to the mutual 
jealousy of himself and the Dogra authorities, he was 
deprived of all means of obtaining information. His 
notice of Ladak is therefore the least interesting part 
of his rambles in the Alpine Panjab. His accounts of 
Kashmir and Balti are fidl of valuable information, 
which is half lost for want of arrangement. 

Early in 1846, when the result of the first Sikh war 
had made Uaja Gulab Sing the undisputed master of 
Ladak and its dependencies, and he had no longer to 
guard himseK against the power of the Sikh chiefs, it 
seemed not improbable that the hope of plunder and the 
desire of revenge might tempt him to repeat the expe- 
dition of 1841 into the Lhasan territory. Such an 
occurrence would at once have stopped the importation 
of shawl wool into our territory, and have closed the 

* Baron Hugel's Travels, pp. 129, 151. Hendersou's servant re- 
ported that liis baggage was lost in the suow iu the Naubak Pass. I 
presume that tlie Namijika Pass is intended. 



INTRODUCTIOX. 13 

whole of the petty commerce of our hill states \\h\i 
Tibet. It was possible also that our peaceful relations 
with the Chinese emperor might be considerably embar- 
rassed by his Celestial Majesty's ignorance of any dis- 
tinction between the rulers of India and the rulers of 
Kashmir". As it seemed desirable to prevent the chance 
of such an occiu-rence, the British Government deter- 
mined to remove the most common cause of all disputes 
in the East, — an unsettled boundary. For this purpose 
two officers were deputed, in August 18i6, to the 
Tibetan frontier of Ladak, to ascertain the ancient 
boundaries between the two countries, and to lay down 
the boundary between the British territories and those 
of Maharaja Gulab Sing. The settlement of this 
boimdary was one of some importance to the hill states, 
and more especially to our new acquisition of Nurpur, 
which received all its shawl wool from the traders of the 
eastern hill states, and not fi"om Kashmir. Immediately 
after the war, I had pointed out that, by giving up to 
Maharaja Gulab Sing the southern dependencies of 
Ladak, we had actually interposed a rival territory 
between our own provinces on the Sutluj and the shawl- 
wool districts of Chang-Thang. The southern boundaiy 
of Spiti was, in fact, not more than thirty miles from 
Rampur, on the Sutluj. As the annual revenue of the 
Spiti district, derived from all sources, does not amount 
to more than seven hundred rupees, no difficulty was 
experienced in making an exchange of territory with 
Maharaja GuMb Sing, and Spiti was added to the 
British dominions. 

It then became necessary to define the northern 
boundary of Spiti, with the other districts of Ladak. 
The two commissioners deputed for this purpose were 



14 LADAK. 

the late lamented Vans Agnew and myself. We left 
Simla on the 2nd August, 1846, and proceeded due 
north through Mandi, Kullu, and Lahul, to the Bara 
Lacha Pass, just beyond which stands the well-known 
phdlang-danda, or boundary-stone, between the British 
province of Lahul and the Ladaki district of Zanskar. 
From this point we proceeded to the Tshomoriri lake, 
and I mapped in the British boundary from the phdlang- 
danda to the Chinese frontier. 

We were accompanied by Anant Ram, the Vazir of 
Shassa, in Kanawar, who was deputed to attend us by 
the Raja of Bisahar, because he knew Hindustani, and 
could both speak and write Tibetan. To him we in- 
trusted the Governor-General's letter addressed to the 
Chinese Governor of Lhasa. Anant R^am proceeded by 
Tashigong and the valley of the Indus to Garo. On his 
arrival, the people at first refused to let him see the 
Governor ; but as he persisted (according to liis instruc- 
tions) in declining to make over the letter to any one 
but the Governor himself, he was at length admitted 
within the fort, and then presented the letter. The 
Governor remarked that no letter had ever yet been 
received from the British authorities, and that his only 
communications to the westward were with the Raja of 
Bisahar. Anant Ram replied that he was the servant 
of the Bisahar Raja, who had directed him to accompany 
the British oflScers to the Chinese frontier, for the 
purpose of delivering the letter in question. On this, 
the Governor remarked that he would forward the letter 
to Lhasa, but that an answer could not be received for a 
whole year. A tent was then provided for Anant Ram, 
and he remained at Garo for eight days, and was well 
treated the whole time. 



INTRODUCTION. 15 

Early the following year, as soon as the passes were 
open, the Raja of Bisahar reported that some Chinese 
authorities had arrived at Garo, and that they had 
been despatched by the Governor of Lhasa. It was 
therefore determined to send a second commission to the 
Tibetan frontier for the purpose of laying down the 
ancient boundary between Ladak and Tibet. Three 
commissioners were ajipointed, — 

Captain (now Major) Alexander Cunnuigham, of the 
Engineers. 

Lieutenant (now Captain) Hemy Strachey. 

Dr. Thomas Thomson. 

Captain Henry Strachey had already distinguished 
himself by liis bold and successful visit to the holy weU 
of Manasarovara in the previous year, and Dr. Thomas 
Thomson was well known as one of the first botanists in 
India. The mission was supplied with portable mag- 
netic and meteorological instruments ; but as only one 
barometer was procurable, the observations for atmo- 
spheric pressure were confined to the parts of the country 
which Captain Strachey visited. My observations for 
temperature and moisture were continued from the 
south-eastern boundary of Spiti, throughout Ladak and 
Kashmir, to Shamsabad on the western frontier of the 
Panjab. I observed the magnetic dip, declination, and 
intensity at Puga, Le, and MolbU in Ladak, at Trinagar, 
the capital of Kashmir, and at Shamsabad. All these 
observations, with the exception of those at Ladak, were 
taken on the regular term-days laid down for monthly 
magnetic observation. 



16 



II.-GEOGRAPHY. 



1.— GENEEAL DESCEIPTION. 

The most striking feature in the physical aspect of 
Ladak is the parallelism of its mountain-ranges, which 
stretch through the country from south-east to north- 
west. This general direction of the mountain-chains 
determines the courses of the rivers as well as the houn- 
daries of the natural divisions of the cotmtry. The 
general aspect of Ladak is extreme barrenness. Seen 
from above, the country would appear a mere succes- 
sion of yellow plains and barren mountains capped with 
snow, and the lakes of Pangkong and Tshomo Riri 
would seem like bright oases amidst a vast desert of 
rock and sand. No trace of man nor of human habita- 
tions would meet the eye : and even the large spots of 
cultivated land would be but small specks on the mighty 
waste of a deserted world. But a closer view would 
show many fertile tracts along the rivers, covered with 
luxuriant crops, and many picturesque monasteries, from 
which the chant of human voices ascends on high in 
daily prayer and praise. The yellow plains along the 
Indus would then be seen covered with flocks of the 
shawl-wool goat, and aU the principal thoroughfares of 
the country dotted with numerous flocks of sheep laden 
with the merchandise of China and of India. 



BOUNDARIES ANB EXTENT. 17 

The territory of Laddk is one of the most elevated 
regions of the earth. Its different valleys He along the 
head-waters of the Indus, the Sutluj, and the Chenab ; 
and the joint effects of elevation and of isolation amidst 
snowy mountains produce perhaps the most singular 
climate in the kno\\TL world. Burning heat by day is 
succeeded by piercing cold at night, and everything is 
parched by the extreme dryness of the air. The rarefied 
atmosphere offers but little impediment to the sun's 
rays, which during a short summer are sufficiently 
powerful to ripen barley at an elevation of 15,000 feet, 
although the temperature falls below the freezing point 
every night. This climate is equally favourable to 
animal life. The plains between 16,000 and 17,000 feet 
are covered with wild horses and hares and immense 
flocks of domestic goats and sheep ; and the slopes of 
the hUls up to 19,000 feet abound with marmots and 
Alpine hares. Such is the extreme dryness of the 
atmosphere, that no rain falls and but little snow, and 
both meats and fruits are cured by mere exposure to 
the air. 



2.— BOUNDAEIES AND EXTENT. 

Ladak is the most westerly country occupied by the 
Tibetan race who profess the Buddhist faith. On the 
north it is divided by the Karakoram mountains from 
the Chiuese district of Kotan. To the east and south- 
east are the Chinese districts of Rudok and Chumurti ; 
and to the south are the districts of Lahul and Spiti, 
now attached to British India, but formerly belonging 
to Ladak. To the west lie Kashmir and Balti, the 
former separated by the western Himalaya, and the 
c 



18 LADAK. 

latter by an imaginary line clraAvn from the mouth of 
the Dras river to the sources of the Nubra river. 

Its greatest extent is from north-west to south-east, 
from the head of the Dras river, in longitude 75° 30', 
to Chibra, on the Indus, in longitude 79° 10', a dis- 
tance of 240 miles. Its greatest breadth is 290 miles, 
from the Ivarakoram Pass, in north latitude 35° 10', 
to the Rotang Pass in Lahul, in latitude 32° 25'. 
Its mean length is 200 miles, and its mean breadth 
150 miles. Its whole extent is therefore only 30,000 
square miles. 

The natural divisions of the country are : 1st, Nubra 
on the Shayok : 2nd, Ladak Proper, on the Indus : 3rd, 
Zanskar, on the Zanskar river : ^th, Eukchu, around the 
lakes of Tshomo Ru'i and Tsho-Kar : 5th, Purik, Suru, 
and Dras, on the different branches of the Dras river : 
6th, Spiti, on the Spiti river : and 7th, Lahul, on the 
Chandra and Bhaga, or head-waters of the Chenab. 
These also are the actual divisions of the country, for 
the natural boundaries of a mountainous district gene- 
rally remain unaltered, in spite of tlie changes wrought 
by war and religion. 

Ladak is divided politically between Maharaja Gulab 
Sing and the East-India Company. To the former 
belong all the northern districts, to the latter only the 
two southern districts of Lahul and Spiti. 

3.— DIFFEEENT K^AMES OF LADAK. 

Ladak, in Tibetan La-tags, is the most common 
name of the country ; but it is also called Mar-yul,* or 

* AMar-yul or AMar-po-yul, " Eed-land." Csoma de Koros spells 
the name Mar-yul, the " low-coimtry ;" but as Hwan Thsang, in A.D. 



DIFFERENT NAMES OF LATIAK. 19 

Low-land or Red-land, and Kha-clian-pa, or Snow-land, 
both of which names are used by the old Chinese 
travellers ; by Fa-Hian, A.D. 400, who calls the king- 
dom Kie-chha ; and by Hwan Thsang, A.D. 64-0, who 
calls it 3Ia-lo-pho. The name oi Kha-chan-pa, or Snow- 
land, is also applied to the Lhasan kingdom of Great 
Tibet. The two central districts of Great Tibet are 
(IBus, and gTsang, usually pronounced Z7and Tsang, or 
jointly TJ-Tsang. But the uncorrupted pronunciation is 
preserved by Ptolemy in Dahasce, who must be the 
people of dBus ; and in Tm'ner's Pue-lcoa-chin, which is 
most probably dBus-Kha-pa-chcoi, or the " snoTvy land 
of dBus.'" Laddk was formerly subject to Lhasa, to 
which it paid a small tribute xmtil A.D. 1834, when it 
was seized by Zorawar Sing, the enterprising general of 
Maharaja Gulab Sing, of Jammu ; and it now forms a 
part of his new kingdom of Kashmir. 

Ladak is inhabited by a peculiar race of people, who 
call themselves Bot-pja,* who speak a peculiar language 
called Tibetan, and who profess the religion of Buddha, 
vmder a peculiar hierarchy of monks called Lamas. The 
name of Tibet is entirely unkno^vn to the people as well 
as to the Indians, who call them Bhotiyas, and their 
country Bhutan. The use of the names of Bot and 
Bhutan is probably not older than the tenth or twelfth 
centmy, when the Buddhists, having been expelled from 
India, the hill country in which they settled naturally 
acquired the name of Bauddha-sthan or Bauddh-than, 
and Bod-tan or Bot. 

According to Klaproth, Tibet is a Mogul word, which 

640, calls it Ma-lo-pho or Mar-jJO, that is " red," there is still some 
doubt about the true meaning of the name. 

* The name is spelt £od, but pronounced Bot. 

c 2 



20 LABAK. 

should more properly be written Tubet. But the name 
of Ti-bat (t-^i^rJ) is mentioned by Abu Zaid Al Hasan, in 
A.D. 915, by Ibn Haukal in about A.D, 950, by Abu 
Rihan in 1030, and afterwards by Edrisi in A.D. 1154', all 
long jirior to the Mogul conquests of Changez Khan in the 
13th century, before whose time it is highly improbable 
that any Mogul names could have been in use in Persia. 
Mir Izzet Ullah says that Tibet is a Turki word sig- 
nifying shawl-wool : but I should tliink the shawl- 
wool was called Tibeti because it came from Tibet. 
One might as well derive the name of India from indigo. 
There is no trace of the name of Tibet nor even of Bot 
in any of the classical authors : but the people are most 
probably described under the name of Seres, the inhabi- 
tants of Chinese Tartary, from whom the western mer- 
chants obtained their silks. According to Pausanias,* 
" the Greeks called the silkworm Ser, but the people of 
Serika probably gave it another name." Now the 
Tibetans call a worm Srhi, or Srin-bu, and the silkworm 
JDar-kyi-Srin ; and Pausanias says that the silkworm 
was twice the size of a beetle, S£<pi]v. As the Greeks 
had not seen the silkworm ^hen they first used the 
name of Ser, it seems to me more than probable that 
they would have adopted the native name rather than 
have invented one of their own. 



4— DISTEICTS OF LADAK. 

The different districts of Ladsik have been partially 

named according to theii- relative geographical positions ; 

as Nnh-ra, the western district (or Wesses), and Lho-yxd, 

the southern country (or Suffolk). To the south-east 

* VI. p. 2(j. 



DISTRICTS OT L,AI)AK. 21 

of Ladak, but to the north of Nyari, lies the exten- 
sive province of Chang Tliaiig, or the " northern 
plains." Ladiik itself is called Mar-yul or Low-land, 
perhaps from its inferior elevation to all the siu*round- 
ing districts. 

Niibra* or the north-western district of Ladak, 
includes all the country drained by the Nubra and 
Shayok rivers. It is by far the largest district in the 
country, being about 128 mUes in length by 72 miles in 
breadth, with an area of 9,200 square mUes. It is 
bounded on the north by the Karakoram mountains, 
and on the south by the Kailas range, which divides the 
Indus from the Shayok ; and it extends from the frontier 
of Balti, in east longitude 77°, to thePangkong lake on the 
borders of Rudok. The mean elevation of the inhabited 
parts of the country, from an average of fourteen obser- 
vations at different places, is 12,763 feet. 

Ladak is the central and most populous district of the 
country, from which it is sometimes called Maiig-yul, 
or the " district of many people." It stretches along 
the Indus in a north-westerly direction from Rukchu to 
the frontier of Balti, a length of 120 mUes, with an 
average breadth of 33 miles. Its area is about 4,000 
square mUes, and the mean elevation of the inhabited 
portions, as deduced from observations along the Indus, 
is 11,500 feet. 

Zanskar includes aU the country lying along the two 
great branches of the Zanskar river, in a general direc- 
tion from south-east to north-west. It is bounded by 
Ladak on the north, by Eukchu on the east, by Lahul on 
the south, and by the small districts of Pm'ik and Wanla 
on the west. The southern boundary is formed by the 

* yub-ra, WL'steni. 



22 LADAK. 

great Himalaya itself, the western boundary by the 
transverse range of Singge L4, and the northern boun- 
dary by the Trans-Himalayan chain. Its greatest length 
is 72 miles, but its mean length is not more than 56 
miles, and its mean breadth is about the same, or 55 
miles. It has an area of 3,000 square miles, and a mean 
elevation of 13,154 feet, as deduced from seven different 
observations along the course of the valley. The name 
of Zangs-kar* means " white copper " or brass ; but I 
have no idea why it is so named. 

Muhcliu is the most elevated district in Ladak, and one 
of the loftiest inhabited regions in the known world. 
The mean height of the plains, as determined from 
twenty-one different spots where I encamped in 1846 
and 1847, is 15,634 feet. This is the mean height of 
the great plain of Kyang, which extends from the foot 
of the Thung-lung Pass to the fords of the Sum-Gal, a 
length of 35 mUes. It is also the height of the plains 
around the Tsho-kar, or White Lake, and of the long- 
sloping plains from the Lanak ridge to the Para river. 
Rukchu is bounded on the north by Ladak Proper, on 
the east by the Chinese district of Chumurti, on the 
south by Lahul and Spiti, and on the west by Zans- 
kar. Its length from the Thung-lung Pass to the head 
of the Hanle river is 90 mUes, and its mean breadth 
about 62 miles, which give an area of 5,500 square 
miles. 

Furik, Suru, and Drasi are three small districts to 

* Zangs-dKar, " copper-white." 

t These names are not all Tibetan, as Dras is the Kashmiri name for 
the district of Hem-hahs. In Tibetan they are written Pu-rig ; Sii-rii ; 
and Hem-babs. The last name means " snow-fed or snow-descended," 



insTiucTs 01- ladAk. 23 

the west of Zauskar, on the high road between Kashmir 
and Le. To Punk belong the villages of the "VVaka and 
Phugal rivers, from their soiu'ces in the transverse range 
of Singgc La to Kargyil, below their junction. The prin- 
cipal places in Purik are Mulbil, Paskyum, and Sod, 
each of which once had a petty chief of its own. Sum 
also owned a petty cliief wiio lived at Lung Kartse, the 
principal place in the valley. The river is sometimes 
called by this name, but more generally by that of Suru. 
The Suru river joins the Waka-chu immediately below 
Kargyil. Dms is the most westerly of tliese small 
districts. Its Tibetan name of Hem-babs (snow-fed 
or snow descended) is descriptive of its most striking 
peculiarity, as the most snowy district of Ladak. 
It owes this peculiarity to the great depression in 
the Himalaya, at the head of the Dras river, wldch 
allows the constantly humid vapours of Kashmii* to 
pass to the north of the mountains, Avhere they become 
condensed by the cold, and are precipitated in rain 
or snow, according to the season of the year. These 
small districts extend in length from the frontier 
of Balti to Zanskar, a distance of 84 miles, and in 
breadth from the head of the Suru vaUey to the 
Photo-la, a distance of 50 miles. The area is 4,200 
square miles, and the mean height of the inhabited 
parts, as determined by the elevation of thirteen camps, 
is 11,196 feet. 

Spltl* is bounded on the north by Rukchu, on the 

Hem being the Sanscrit Hima, wluch has long been natm-alized in Tibet. 
See Csoma's Tibetan Dictionary, in voce. 

* Spi-ti. In Kullu and Kanawar this district is generally called 
Piti, but the proper name is Spiti. 



24 LAUAK. 

west by Lalml and Kullu, on the south by Kanawar, 
and on the east by the Chinese district of Chumurti. It 
comprises the whole valley of the Spiti river, from its 
source to the junction of the Para, a length of about 64 
miles. Its mean length is not more than 52 miles, and 
its mean breadth only 36 miles, which give an area of 
about 1,900 square miles. The mean elevation of the 
inhabited parts, as determined by the heights of eight 
camps, is 12,986 feet. 

Lalml (or Lho-yul, the " southern district ") is 
bounded on the north by Zanskar and Rukchu, on the 
west by Kashtwar, on the south by Chamba and Kullu, 
and on the east by Spiti. It comprises the valleys of 
the Chandra and Bhaga rivers, as well as that of the 
Chandra-Bhaga or u.nited stream as far as Treloknath, 
below which the people are of Hindu race and religion, 
with but little admixture of Tibetan blood. With the 
single exception of the valley of the Indus, Lahul pos- 
sesses more cultivable land, and a less rigorous climate 
than any of the other districts of Ladak. There the 
currant and the gooseberry are both found wild, and in 
the lower parts of the valley towards Treloknath the 
mountain slopes are covered with fir trees. Like Kana- 
war, Lahul partakes somewhat of the climate and pro- 
ductions of India as well as of those of Tibet. The 
people, their language, and their dwellings are mostly 
Tibetan, but with a strong mixture of Indian origin. 
Lahul is 68 miles in length by 34 in breadth, which 
give an area of 2,312 square miles. The mean elevation 
of its inhabited parts, as determined by the heights of 
nine camps, is 11,063 feet. 

The foUowinff table of the extent and mean elevation 



XEIGllBOURING COU.NTKIKS. 



of the different districts of Ladak is added for the sake 
of comparison. 



1 1 



Nubra 

Ladiik 

Zanskar 

Eukclm 

(_ Piirik-Suni-Dras 



Extent in sq. miles. 

... 9,216 ... 

... 3,960 ... 

... 3,080 ... 

... 5,580 ... 

... 4,200 ... 

• 26,036 






Spiti .. 
Laluil 



2,312 

1,872 



4,184 



Mean height. 
.. 12,763 

. 11,500 

13,154 

.. 15,634 

.. 11,196 

.. 12,986 
.. 11,063 



Total sq. miles 30,220 ... Meau height 12,613 



5.— NEIGHBOTJEING COUNTEIES. 

The countries to the north, the west, and the south of 
Ladak are inhabited by people who speak at least four 
languages quite distinct from Tibetan. To the north 
the people of Yarkand and Kotan speak Turki ; to the 
west, beyond Balti, the people of Astor, Gilget, and 
Hunza Nager speak different dialects of Dardu, while 
the Kashmiris have a language peculiar to themselves ; 
and to the south the people of Chamba, Kxillu, and 
Bisahar speak a dialect of Hindi, which is chiefly derived 
from Sanskrit. To the east and south-east the people 
of Eudok, Chang-Thang, and Ngari speak Tibetan only. 

To the north of the Karakoram range, lie the Chinese 
districts of Yarkand, Kotan, and KashgAr, which, with 
the exception of the Chinese functionaries, and Tartar 
soldiers, are wholly peopled by Musulmans. As I found 
it difficult to obtain any truth-like information regarding 
the statistics of these countries, I confined my inquiries 
to their natural productions, in the hope of meeting with 



26 



LADAK. 



something that would tend to determine their approxi- 
mate height ahove the sea. All my informants agreed 
in stating that the people of these countries usually 
drove two and three horses abreast in their carriages or 
wagons, and that even four horses were occasionally 
harnessed abreast. On hearing this, I asked the widtli 
of the streets, but I obtained no satisfactory reply. Some 
said ten yards, some twenty yards : but when asked to 
mark out the width on the ground, not one of them 
showed more than twenty-five feet. 

Yarkand. Moorcroft was informed that the popvda- 
tion of Yarkand was between 50,000 and 60,000, a num- 
ber which would require about 10,000 houses. Of these 
I was told that 500 houses belonged to Kashmiris alone, 
and thirty or thirty-two to Argons, or half-bloods. The 
productions were stated as follows. 



Crops. 


Vegetables. 


Fruits. 


Trees. 


Eice 


Cucumber 


Grapes 


Deodar 


Jawar 


Kadu 


Apricots 


Plane 


Wheat 


Tarolii 


Peaches 


Elajagnus M. 


Barley 


Onions 


Apples 




Pease 


Radishes 


Pears 




AIsi 


Turnips 


Plums 




Mmig* 


Carrots 


IMidberrJes 




Urdt 


Spinach 


Melons 




MasurJ 









In the hill provinces of India we know that the deodar 
does not flourish under 5,000 feet, and that rice is seldom 
seen above 6,000 feet. We know, also, that both are 
found in Kashmir, which has a mean elevation of 5,300 
feet. But as Yarkand lies at least four degrees to the 

* Phaseolus Muugo. f Dolichos pUosus. J Cicer leus. 



XEIGUBOUKING COUNTRIES. 27 

noi'tliwarcl of Kashmii', tlie limits of the growth of deo- 
dars and of rice will of course he reduced. I do not, 
therefore, estimate the height of Yarkand at more thau 
4,000 feet ahove the sea. 

At Kotan and Aksu the produce was said to be the 
same, with the sole addition of gram or pulse (Cicer 
arietinum) ; I should therefore estimate the height of 
these places at somewhat less, or between 3,500 and 
4,000 feet. 

The produce of Kashgar was said to be much the 
same as at Yarkand, with the single exception of rice, 
of wliich but very little is grown. As this indicates a 
somewhat higher elevation than Yarkand, I estimate 
the height of Kashgar at about 4,500 feet above the 
sea. 

The districts lying along the Indus, to the westward 
of Ladak, are inhabited by two distinct races, the Tibe- 
tans, who have become Musulmans, and the Dards. 
They speak wholly different languages, and even the 
Dards themselves speak three distinct dialects, which 
have but few words common to all. The Tibetan dis- 
tricts are Khapolor, Chhorbad, and Keris, on the Shayok; 
Khartakshe, Totte, and Parguta, on the Singge-chu ; 
Shigar, on the Shigar river ; and Balti and Rongdo, on 
the Indus. The district of Astor, also, must once have 
belonged to the Tibetan race, as the chief even now 
bears the title of Mahpon, and traces his descent from 
the same common ancestor as the Gyalpos of Balti, and J^ 

several of the other states.* ru-^f'-'^ 

Chhorbad extends along the Shayok river, from Chu.- -^^^ t^XXf 
lung, on the frontier of Ladak, to Daho, on the boundary c^.-vju^s 

of Khapolor, a distance of forty-two miles. Beyond this, 

* See also Vigne, Travels, vol. ii. p. 251. 



28 LABAK. 

Khapolor stretches twenty-five miles further down the 
Shayok, the whole length of the chiefship being sixty- 
seven miles. As the mean breadth is about thirty miles, 
the area wiR be 2,010 square mUes. The mean height 
of the villages is about 9,000 feet. The chiefs of Kha- 
polor have for several generations acknowledged the 
supremacy of the Gyalpos of Balti, but their ancestors 
most probably had possession of the country for several 
centuries before the rise of the Balti dynasty, whose very 
title of Makpoii, or " General," betrays that they are the 
descendants of some military chief. The chiefs of Kha- 
polor and Keris, who both trace their families up from 
Bewan-cho, declare that all the chiefs of these countries 
are descended from Bikam, the tenth generation from 
Bewan-cho, But Ahmed Shah of Balti, and the other 
chiefs of his family, traced theii' origin to a Fakir, who 
had married the daughter and only child of the reigning 
Gyalpo. The probability is, that the Makpons are de- 
scended from an adventurer named Bokha, who about 
A.D. 1500, established himself in the valley of the Indus, 
and obtained the title of Ilakpon, or General. 

The foUoAving is the genealogy of the Gyalpos of Kha- 
polor. It opens with Sultan Sikander, or Alexander the 
Great, whose successors were Abraham and Isaac. This 
part is evidently fabulous ; but from Sultan Yagu, the 
39th name, the List is perhaps tolerably correct, for the 
name of Yagu has descended to the present day as a 
title in the family, the present chief being styled Sultan 
Yagu Daolat AH Khan. As there are sixty-seven 
princes in all, down to this time, the approximate date 
of Sultan Yagu's accession to power may be found by 
allowing a period of fifteen years for each reign. This 
estimate fixes the rise of Sultan Yagu in A.D. 1110, the 



NEIGHBOURING COUNTRIES. 



29 



very year in wliich Sikander Butshikan, tlie Idol-breaker 
of Kaslimir, died. The coincidence of time is curious, 
and it is not improbable that Sultan Yagu may have 
been despatched by the bigoted Sikander to propagate 
the religion of Muhanomed amongst the Tibetans on the 
Indus. 



GYALPOS OF KHAPOLOR. 





Names. 


Probable 
Date. 




1 


Sultan Sikandar 






2 


„ Ibrahim 






3 


„ Isliak 






4 


Abdul Ealimad 






5 


Mir Barahir 






6 


Arman Samahir 






7 


Beshrab Xam 






8 


Tinlu Tung 






9 


Sultan !Malimud 






10 


Mehndi Ghazali 






11 


„ Ibrahim 






12 


Malik Haider Shah 






13 


Sultan Malik Ghazali 






1-1 


„ Malik Shah 






15 


„ Juned Shah 






16 


„ Haider Shah 






17 


„ Haider Kanir 






18 


„ Shah Ibrahim 






19 


„ Johar Fani 






20 


Najm Malik 






21 


,, Malik Eustam 






22 


„ Mehndi Mir 






23 


Malik Mir 






24 


„ Malik Jahar 






25 


Saad UUa Khan 






26 


„ Karim Beg 






27 


„ Jalil Khan 






28 


„ Eustam Beg 






29 


„ Atta Ulla Khan 






30 


„ Khalil Khan 







30 



LADAK. 





Names. 


Probable 
Date. 




31 Sa 


ad Takub Khan 






32 


, Mir Gliazi 






33 


, Malik Purnur 






34 


, Babur Malik 






35 


, Mokhim Khan 






36 


, Shah Azim Beg 






37 


, Gohar Beg 






38 


, Malik Shah Slmjii 


A.D. 




39 Si 


iltau Tagi; 


1410 




40 


„ Yagu Latif Beg ... 




1425 




41 


„ Tagu Sher Ghazi 




1440 




42 


„ Yagu Ahmed Ghazi 




1455 




43 


„ Nut Ghazi 




1470 




44 


„ Alemgir Ghazi 






1485 




45 


„ BiWAN-cno 






1500 




46 


„ Hil Ghazi 






1515 




47 


„ Sher Ghazi 






1530 




48 


„ Beg Mantar 






1545 




49 


„ Torab Khan 






1560 




50 


„ Salmunde 






1575 




51 


„ BrolDe ... 






1590 




52 


„ Malik Baz 






1605 




53 


„ Arzona 






1620 




54 


„ Tikam ... 






1635 




55 


„ Bikam 






1650 




56 


„ Kurkor ... 






1665 




57 


„ Bairam ... 






1680 




58 


„ Mir Khan 






1695 




59 


„ Ibrahim ... 






1710 




60 


„ Ghazi Mir Cho 






1725 




61 


„ Huseu Khan 






1740 




62 


„ Eahim Khan 






1755 




63 


„ Hatim Khan 






1770 




64 


„ Daolut Khan 






1785 




65 


„ Mahmud Ali Khan 




1800 




66 


„ Yahia Khan 




1815 




67 


„ Daolut Ali Khan 




1830 


now reigning. 




has a son, Md. Ali Khan. 







NEIG1IJ50URING COUNTRIES. 



31 



Keris. The small district of Keris is situated along 
the lower course of the Shayok, just above its junction 
with the Indus. It is about sixteen miles in length, 
and ten miles in mean breadth. Its area is not more 
than 160 square miles, and the mean height of its vil- 
lages above the sea is about 8,000 feet. The present 
chief, Kuram Ali Khan, claims descent from Biwan-cho, 
one of the Gyalpos of Khapolor, and he gives the fol- 
lowdng genealogy of that family. 



Names. 


Probable 
Date. 




1 


Biwan-cho 


1500 




2 


Leo 


1540 




3 


Eaja Ali Mir Sher 


1575 




4 


Ahmed Mir 


1610 




5 


Amir 


1645 




6 

7 


Ali Khan 

Jlir-Beg 


1680 
1715 


f reigning in 
[ A.D. 1685. 


8 


Mirza-Beg 


1750 




9 


Zulfikar Khan ... 


1785 




10 


Kuram Ali Khan 


1820 





Parguta. The present chiefship of Parguta extends 
from Sarmik, ten miles above the confluence of the 
Shayok and Indus, to Goltari, near the junction of the 
Dras river, thus including both Khartakshe (or Khar- 
Mang) and Tolti. Its length is about forty-three miles ; 
its mean breadth thirty-two miles ; and its area 1,548 
square miles. The mean height of its villages above the 
sea is about 7,800 feet. 

The Gyalpo of Parguta claims to be the eleventh in 
descent from the Makpon Bokka, who is perhaps the 
same as the fakir whom Vigne mentions as the progeni- 



32 



LADAK. 



tor of all the Makpon families. The following is the 
genealogy, with the probable dates of accession. 





Names. 


Probable 
Date. 




1 


Makpon Boklia 


1500 




2 


Sher 


1530 




3 


„ Ghazi 


1560 




4 


„ Ali Sher Khan 


1590 




5 


„ Ahmed Khan ... 


1620 




6 


„ Sher Shah 


1650 




7 


„ Azizcho 


1680 




8 


„ Azim Khan 


1710 




9 


„ Sahadat Khan 


1740 




10 


„ Abdul Eahim 


1770 




11 


Mahomed Ali 


1800 




12 


Ali Sher Khan 

Son, Jafar Ali Khan. 


1830 





Ali Sher Khan, the fourth in descent from Bokha, 
conquered Ladak and Khapolor, and bequeathed them 
to his son, Ahmed Khan, who was the last of the su- 
preme Makpons. On his death the country was divided 
amongst his sons : but the former chief of Khapolor soon 
declared his independence, and ejected the new ruler, 
Sultan Khan. The Gyalpos of Balti always selected 
then* wives from this family, as the most exalted of 
their neighbours 

Shigar. The little chiefship of Shigar is confined 
entirely to the valley of the Shigar river, a large feeder 
of the Indus, to the north of Balti. Its length, from 
south-east to north-west, is seventy-two miles, and its 
breadth thirty-six miles. Its area is 2,592 square miles ; 
and the probable mean height of its villages above the 
sea is not less than 8,000 feet. Shigar possesses a 
Gyalpo of its o^^ti, but he has generally been subject to 



NEIGHBOURING COUNTRIES. 



33 



the cliiefs of Balti. The foUowing genealogy was ob- 
tained from Suliman Khan, the pi-esent chief of Shigar. 
It is curious, for two reasons — first, because the title of 
Tham, or King, borne by the earlier princes, proves that 
the family must be connected with the Dards of Hunza- 
Nager, whose chiefs bear the same title at present ; and 
second, because the approximate date obtained for the 
first chiefs accession, agrees very nearly with that of 
Sultan Yagu, of Khapolor. It is probable, therefore, 
that the Khapolor and Shigar families both owe then- 
rise to some common cause, perhaps connected with the 
extension of the Muhammedan relieion. 





Name. 


Probable 
Date. 




1 


Amachah 


1410 




2 


Chah-tham 


1455 




3 


Chamartham 


1470 




4 


Taksir Grao-tham 


1485 




5 


Khomulgo-tham 


1500 




6 


Gobulgo-tham 


1515 




7 


Khau ... 


1530 




8 


Makhan 


1545 




9 


Ram 


1560 




10 


Eahmiim... 


1575 




11 


Daolat Shah 


1500 




12 


Haripal Marchak 


1G05 




13 


Ambarot ... 


1620 




14 


Ghazi Mir 


1635 




15 


AliMir 


1650 




16 


Ama Chan De 


1665 




17 


Ghir-ze 


16S() 




18 


Haidar Khaa 


1695 




19 


Hasan Khan 


1710 




20 


Imam Kuli Khan 


1725 




21 


Kuli Khan 


1740 




22 


Azeni Khan 


1755 




23 


All Khan 


1770 




24 


Husen Khan 


17S5 





34 





Name. 


Probable 
Date. 




25 
26 
27 


Mohammed Khan 

Kuli Khan 

Suliman Khan 


1800 
1815 
1830 





Balti, or Balti-yul, is called Palolo, or Balor, by the 
Dards, and Nang-kod by the Tibetans. Balti is the 
most common name, and perhaps the oldest, as it is pre- 
served by Ptolemy in Byltse. The country is also fre- 
quently called Skardo, from the name of its well-known 
fort and capital. This name means either the " inclosed 
place," or more probably the " starry place," as the 
Lamas of Ladak write the name, Skar-^na-mBo.* Vigne 
states that the Botis of Ladak caU it Sagar-khoad,t 
which is only a variety of the same ; for Skar-kod means 
simply the " starry biulding." The Dogra soldiers 
always call the place Kardo ; but the true name, as 
written by the Tibetans, is Skardo. 

Balti proper is a small district bounded by Shigar 
on the north, by Keris and Parguta on the east, by 
Gures on the south, and by Astor and Bongdo on the 
west. Including the table-land of Deotsu, it is about 

* The name is written Skdr-mBo, or Skar-ma-mDo, and is so pro- 
nounced by the people. Zskardo is a eockneyism of the Kashmiris, for 
no Musuhnan can pronounce the double consonants in s, without putting 
an i before them, as in the common name of iSmith. A remarkable 
instance of this peculiarity is found in the name of a place in Wakhan, 
which Marco Polo calls Scassem, and "Wood, Ishkashm. As Wakhan 
was still a Kafir country when Taimur invaded India, the initial i must 
have been added by the Musulmans. The double consonants in s, and 
the letter v are the Shibboleth of the Musidmans. 

t Travels, vol. ii. p. 2i9. Skar-hGod, is the proper name. Vigne's 
derivation of Skar-kod (Sagar-khoad) from words in two different lan- 
guages, from Sagara, the ocean, in Sanskrit, and do, two, in Persian, is 
quite inadmissible. Sayar is only another attempt to pronounce the 
double consonant Sk in Skar. 



NEIGHBOURING COUNTRIES. 



35 



sixty miles long and thirty-six miles broad. Its area is 
about 2,160 square miles, and the mean height of its 
villages above the sea is about 7,000 feet. 

The Gyaljios of Balti trace their descent from a Eakir 
who married the daughter and only child of the ruling 
sovereign. As the chiefs of Parguta, who are of the 
same family, trace their descent from Makpon Bokha, 
it is probable that the Fakir and Bokha are the same 
person. The story, as related to Vigne by Ahmed Shah 
liimself, is as follows : — The last Gyalpo had an only 
daughter, whose hand was sought by twelve petty chiefs. 
Before any choice was made, a fakir was found sitting on 
a large stone in the village of Shikari. He remained 
seated day and night, and in a short time acquired a 
reputation for sanctity ; after which the young lady was 
given to him by the consent of all parties. In proof of 
this story, the people still show the holy stone called 
Biirdonas,* or the " smooth stone cushion," on which the 
holy man was wont to rest, and on which the heu" appa- 
rent was always inaugurated on his reaching manhood. 

The following is the genealogy of the Gyalpos of Balti, 
with the probable dates of their accession. 





Name. 


Probable 
Date. 




1 


Ali Shee 


1590 


conquered Ladak. 


2 


Ahmed 


1620 




3 


Shah Murad 


1650 




4 


Eafi Khan 


1680 




5 


Siiltan Murad Khan ... 


1710 




6 


Zafar Khan 


1710 




7 


AUSherKhan 


1770 




8 


Ahmed Shah 


1800 


deposed by Zorawar Sing. 


9 


Mahomed Shah 


1840 





* Vigne, Travels, vol. ii. p. 251, calls the stone Burdo Xest, but tlie 
true name is dBur-rDo-rXgas, or Btirdoiias. 
D 2 



30 LADAK. 

Ali Slier, a descendant of the Fakir, is the first chief 
of whom anything is mentioned. He built the fort of 
Skardo, and conquered Ladak in the reign of Jehangir, 
or about A.D. 1610.* His son Ahmed Shah lost Ladak. 
Shah Murad, the third prince, is said to have taken pos- 
session of Gilgit, Hunza-Nager, and Chitral, and to have 
reconquered Ladak. His reign extended from about 
1720 to 1750 A.D., and his conquest of Ladak was pro- 
bably only a plundering excursion into the western dis- 
tricts, which the plunderers dignified with the name of 
a conquest. The last independent chief was Ahmed 
Shah. In 1840 his country was invaded by Zorawar 
Sing, and after a short siege, the fort of Skardo svirren- 
dered for want of water. In the winter of 1841, Ahmed 
Shah accompanied the unfortunate expedition against 
Lhasa ; and on Zorawar Sing's death, was taken prisoner 
and confined in Balwalte near Lhasa, where he soon 
after died. Balti is now held in jaghir by Muhammad 
Shah, the disinherited son of Ahmed Shah, who pays an 
annual tribute of Es. 7,000 to Maharaja Gulab Sing, of 
Kashmir. 

Bongdo is the last Tibetan district on the Indus to 
the westward of Balti. On the north he Shigar and 
Hunza-Nager, and to the west and south are Gilgit and 
Astor. The namef means the " district of defiles," and 
is descriptive of the bed of the Indus, which throughout 
Hongdo is a deep rocky gorge. The district extends 
from Gurbidas to a tree at Makpon-i-Shang-Rong, a 
distance of forty-five miles, with a mean breadth of 
thirty-two miles. Its area is about 1,440 square miles, 
and the mean height of its villages about 6,200 feet. 

* See also Vigne, vol. ii. p. 253. 
t Roivj-mDo, " Defile-district." 



DARDU DISTRICTS ON THE INDUS. 



87 



The chief of Rongdo claims descent from the Makpons 
of Balti, to whom the district has always heen subject. 

The following list gives the genealogy of the chiefs, 
with the probable dates of accession. 





Name. 


Probable 
Date. 




1 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 


Ali Sher 

Ahmed Khan 

Ali Shah 

Daolat Sher 

Assad TJlla Khau 
Mahomed Ali Khan 
Murad Khan 
Abbas Beg 
Ali Khan... 
Husen Khan (sou) 
Abdullah Khan (grandson) 




1590 
1620 
1650 
1680 
1710 
1740 
1770 
1800 
1830 


now reigning. 



DAEDU DISTEICTS ON THE INDUS. 

Of the country inhabited by the Dards, my informa- 
tion is scanty but interesting. When I was in Kashmir 
I found the Vazirs of Gilgit and Nager in attendance 
upon the Maharaja Gulab Sing, by whose permission 
they came twice to visit me. As they both spoke Per- 
sian and a little Hindustani, I obtained from them tole- 
rably complete vocabularies of the dialects of their own 
districts, and a less perfect vocabulary of the dialect of 
Chitral. The words in these vocabularies are correctly 
wi-itten according to the spelling in the Persian character, 
which all the Dards make use of in writing their own 
language, of which there are three distinct dialects, — the 
Shina, the Khajunah, and the Arniya. 

The Shind dialect is spoken by the people of Astor, 
Gilgit, Chelas, Darel, Kohli, and Palas. 



38 LADAK. 

The Khajunah dialect is spoken by the people of 
Hunza and Nager. 

The Arniya is spoken in Yasan and Chitrdl. 

These dialects have little ia common with each other, 
and are widely different from those of the surrounding 
people. 

Astor is situated on the left bank of the Indus, below 
Makpon-i-Shang-E-ong. It has an area of about 1,600 
square miles. Its cliief claims descent from Ali Sher of 
Balti, and takes the title of Makpon. 

Gilgit* is situated on the right bank of the Indus, 
along the lower course of the Gilgit river. It is about 
100 mUes long from north to south, with a mean breadth 
of twenty-six miles. Its area is therefore about 2,500 
square miles. The chief takes the title of Trakhna, from 
an ancestor. 

The districts of Chelas, Darel, Kohli, and Pdlas, lie 
along both banks of the Indus below Gilgit and Astor. 

Sunza-Nager is a small tract of country on the upper 
course of a large feeder of the Gilgit river. It is named 
from two to^vns situated close to each other, on opposite 
banks of the river. The two districts have an area of 
1,672 square miles. The chief of Hunza is called 
Girkhis, and the chief of Nager is called Magalato. 
The former name is no doubt the same as the Kii-ghis, 
who inhabit the steppes of Pamer to the north of Huuza- 
Nager beyond the Karakoram. I presume that this 
district was formerly inhabited by the Dards, and that 
they were displaced by the Elirghis nomads. The chiefs 
of Shigar who take the Khajunak title of Tham, must 
also be Kirghis. 

Yasan is a large district on the upper course of the 

* ]n Tibetan GijiUpjid. 



DARDTJ DISTRICTS ON THE INDUS. 39 

Oilgit river. It is seventy miles long from south-east 
to north-west, -with a mean breadth of sixty miles. Its 
area is therefore about 4,200 square miles. The chief 
places are Yasan and Chatorkun. The chief takes the 
title of Bakhto, which is the name of his tribe. 

When Mahmud Ghaznavi invaded India in A.D. 1030, 
the people of Gilgit, Astor, and Ch^las were Turks, who 
spoke the Turki language.* These Turks were of the 
Bhatdicari tribe, and their king took the title of Bliata 
Shah, or king of the Bhuta tribe. I presume that these 
are the same as the Bakhto of the present day; but 
their language has become mixed with that of aU the 
surrounding people, and no longer bears any affinity to 
Turki. 

Chltrdl is a large district on the upper course of the 
Kunar river. The king takes the title of Shah Kator, 
wliich has been held for nearly 2,000 years, and the 
story of their descent from Alexander may be traced to 
the fact that they were the successors of the Indo- 
Grecian kings in the Kabul valley. 

The large and interesting coimtry of Kashmir, and 
the small principalities of the Alpine Panjab to the 
south of Ladak, are too numerous to be treated of in 
this place. 

To the east and south-east of Ladc4k lie the Chinese 
districts of Rudok, Chang-Thang, and Ngari. 

Rndok lies immediately to the east of Ladak and 
Rukchu, but its climate is like that of the latter district. 
The principal feature of Rudok is the great Pang-kong 
lake, which stretches through the whole length of the 
country from east to west, a distance of aljout eighty 
miles. As the mean breadth is about sixty miles, the 

* Eeinaud's Fragmens Arabes, &e. p. 117. 



40 LADAK. 

area of this district will be 4,800 square miles. The 
mean height is probably not under 14,500 feet, as the 
lake has an elevation of 14,200 feet above the sea. 

Chang- Tliang comprises the two districts of Chumurti 
and Garo on the Indus, but its extent to the eastward 
is unkno'mi. The monastery of Tashigong is the chief 
place in those districts; but the government of the 
country is in the hands of the Gar-pon or Deputy 
Governor of Garo. 

Ngarl* embraces the whole of the upper valley of 
the Sutluj, from the Manasarovara lake to the crest of 
the Porgyal mountain. It is subdivided into three 
smaller districts, Guge, Gangri, and Purang. Guge is 
the largest of the three, and contains the well-known 
towns of Tholing and Tsaprang. Gangri is the country 
around the holy lakes, and Purang is the upper valley 
of the Gogra or Kamali river. 

* mNgah-ris. This district is called Hyun-des (Sanskrit, Sima-des) 
by the Hindus of the Cis-Himalayas ; Jii/un being their term for snow. 
Hyun-des has been supposed to mean the Huns ; but the name is not 
Huna-des, but Hyun-des, " Snow-country," which is a literal translation 
111" the Tibetan name of Kha-pa-chan, or " Suow-land." The hill word 
hj/un reminds one of the Greek ^loiv. 



41 



III.-MOUNTAINS. 



I.— GENEEAL EEMAEKS. 

The great Himalaya, whicli bounds India to the 
north, in one continuous chain of gigantic peaks, from 
the southward bend of the Brahmaputra to the holy 
lake of Manasoravara, is extended to the westward from 
the sources of the Sutluj to the magnificent peaks of 
Dayamur ; and from thence to the sources of the Gilgit 
and Kunar rivers, where it joins the mountains of 
Pamer and Hindu Kush. Though less lofty than the 
eastern Himalaya, the western half of the chain is second 
to none else ; and it is probable that some of its peaks 
may yet be foimd superior even to the most elevated of 
the Andes.* A single glance at the map of India will 
show the reasons that have induced me to consider the 
Bara-Lacha range as the continuation of the true Hima- 
laya. It will be seen that the Eastern Himalaya divides 
the waters of the Tsang-po from those of the Ganges 
and its tributaries, while the Bara-Lacha forms the 
water-shed between the Indus and its five afiiuents. It 

* The highest peaka of the Andes are Sorata, 25,267 feet ; Illimani, 
23,952 feet ; and Chimborazo, 21,440 feet. The mean of the three ia 
23,553 feet. The highest peaka in the Western Himalaya are, Nanda 
Devi (or Jawahir), 25,749 feet; Gyu Peak, 24,764 feet; Monomangli, 
23,900 feet ; and Porgyal, 22,700 feet. The mean of these four peaks 
is 24,278 feet. 



42 LADAK. 

will also be seen that the western, as well as the eastern 
chain, separates the great Hindu family of India from 
the Botis of Tibet. Some mixed races are found to the 
south of each chain : the Lahulis and Kanawaris to the 
west, and the Gorkhas and Bhutanis to the east. Lastly, 
it will be seen that both ranges form the lines of demar- 
cation between the cold and dry climate of Tibet, with 
its dearth of trees, and the warm and humid climate of 
India, with its luxuriance of vegetable productions. 
These facts, joined to the great elevation of the range, 
are, I think, sufficient to warrant the selection of the 
Bara-Lacha chain as the continuation of tlie true Hima- 
laya. But there is one marked diiference between the 
eastern and western ranges which can scarcely fail in 
striking the most casual obsei'ver. The inferior moiui- 
tains of the eastern chain generally rvin at right angles 
to its axis, whereas those of the western chain are mostly 
disposed in subordinate parallel ranges. The general 
parallelism of the principal moimtain-ranges of the 
world, — of the Himalayas and the Altai, in Asia, — of the 
Atlas, in Africa, — and of the Alps and Apennines, the 
Pyrenees and Carpathians, in Europe, — has already been 
noticed by Humboldt and others. But this parallelism 
also exists in the subordinate ranges of the western 
Himalaya. Thus we find no less than two distinct and 
independent ranges to the south of the western Himalaya, 
both stretching in the same general direction from south- 
east to north-west. These ranges I propose to caU the 
Mid-Umidlaya, and the Outer, or Sub-Himalaya, leaving 
the name of Sewalik unchanged for the lowermost sand- 
stone ranges. 

Beyond the Himalaya the same system of parallel 
chains wiU be observed in at least three distinct ramres 



GENERAL REMARKS. 43 

of mountains, wliicli I propose to call the Trans-IIlmd- 
lay a, the Chushal, and the Kdrdkot'am, or Trans- Tibetan 
chains. These names are by no means intended to super- 
sede any that may now exist, but only as descriptive 
appellations of extensive mountain-ranges which at pre- 
sent have no general names. 

1st. The Trans- Tibetan range is that which we call 
the Bolor and Karakoram, on the west ; and which pro- 
bably merges into the Kuen-lun, on the east.* It is in 
fact the northern Hmit of the Tibetan people, and of their 
peculiar language. To the north are the people of Balti, 
Ladak, and Chang-Thang, who were known to Ptolemy 
as the Byltae and Chatce Scythce. 

2nd. The Kailds, or Gangri range, runs through the 
midst of western Tibet, along the right bank of the Indus, 
to the junction of the Shayok. Neither Moorcroft nor 
Vigne has given any name to this range, though both 
of them crossed it several times, and in different places. 
I have ventured to call it the Kailds, or Gangri range, 
because those names are equally celebrated by the Hin- 
dus and Tibetans. Kailds, or " Ice-mountain," is the 
Indian Olympus, the abode of Siva and the celestials. 
Gang-ri, or " Ice-mountain," is called Ri-gyal, or King 
of Mountains, by the Tibetans, who look upon Ti-se, or 
the Kailas Peak, as the highest mountain in the world, t 

* Humboldt's Cosmos, vol. ii. p. 154. " The Hindu Kush, or Indian 
Caucasus, is a continuation of the Kuen-lun of North Tibet." 

t Kailds means " crystalline, or icy," and is derived from Kelds, 
crystal, which is itself a compound of he, water, and las, to shine. The 
Tibetan name of Gangri {Oangs-Ri) means " ice-mountain," and Eigyal 
(^Ei-rGyaT) means " mountain king." This is the origin of the name of 
Mount Argillos, which Plutarch (De Fluviis) gives to the mountain on 
which Bacchus was born. Mount Eiyhi, in Switzerland, is the same as 
the Tibetan Ri-go, the mountain. 



44 LADAK. 

3rd. The Tm)is- Himalayan range divides the head- 
waters of the Sutluj from those of the Indus, and 
extends to the western limits of Rongdo and Astor. 

4th. The Bara-Lacha (or "Western Himalaya) has 
already heen noticed. It is the main chain of this vast 
maze of mountains, and even on the banks of the Indus, 
where all the other ranges dwindle, the true Himalaya 
maintains its lofty supremacy in the magnificent peaks 
of Dayamur.* 

5th. The Mid-Himdlaya, or Pir-Panjdl range, divides 
the valleys of Spiti, Lahul, Kashtwar, and Kashmir, on 
the north, from those of Kullu, Punach, and Chamba 
on the south, and terminates on the western bank of the 
Indus, in the celebrated peak of Mahaban. 

6th. The Outer, or Sub-IIimdlaya, stretches through 
Sukhet and Mandi, to the westward, between Kangra and 
Chamba, where it is called the Dhaola Dhdr, or White 
Moimtain. Still further west it forms the Ratan Panjal, 
and terminates in the well-known peak of Gandgarh. 

These different ranges form the principal features, and 
consequently the natural boundaries of the hiU states of 
the Panjab. The whole mass of mountains, from the crest 
of the Karakoram range to the plains of the -Panjab, 
has an average breadth of 250 mUes, The breadth of 
the Himdlaya, from the crest of the Bara-Lacha range 
to the plains, is about one-half of the whole breadth ; for 
though not more than ninety miles broad from Lahul to 
Hushiarpoor, it is nearly 150 miles broad through Kash- 
mir to Jammu, on the south. Its length, from the 
source of the Indus to the source of the GUgit river, is 
600 miles. 

* See Plates II. and III. for views of this splendid mountain, which 
I have seen from Raniuagur iu the Panjab. 



45 



II.— 1st. TEANS-TIBETAN EANGE. 

The Kurakoram, ov Titans- Tibetan chain, forms the 
natural houndary of Ladak, and the small Musulman 
districts of Balti, Himza-Nager, and GUgit on the 
north. Nothing whatever is known of tliis range to the 
eastward of the upper Shayok river, and of the northern 
portion we know but little. At the head of the Shayok 
river, it is called Kara Koram, Avhich is a Turki word, 
signifying the " Black Mountains." To the north of 
Balti it is known as the Bolor range : but this name is 
only the common appellation of Balti, amongst all the 
races of Dardu origin. It is, however, of some value, 
as it enables us to state precisely that the Bolor moun- 
tains, which have hitherto occupied an uncertain position 
in our maps, are no other than the mountains of Balti. 
As this district formerly included Hunza-Nager and 
Gilgit, the Bolor moimtains may now be defined as ex- 
tendiag for 300 mUes from the source of the GUgit and 
Yasan rivers, in east longitude 73°, to the source of the 
Nubra river, in east longitude 77°. From the latter 
point eastward, as far as the most remote sources of the 
Shayok river, the continuation of the chain, about 150 
mUes in length, is best known as the Karakoram range. 
The whole length of the chain, from the eastern sources 
of the Shayok to the head of the Gilgit river, is 450 
miles, the general direction being from east to west. 

The learned Humboldt supposes the Bolor mountains 
to be the transverse chain, running from north to south 
across the Indian Caucasus, and dividing the sources of 
the Oxus from those of the Yarkand and Kashgar rivers. 
But that chain is universally called Pamer, a name 



46 LADAK. 

which it has home for many centuries. In A.D. G32-40, 
the Chinese pilgrim Hwan-Thsang mentions the district 
of Pho-mi-lo, or Pamer, which he makes 167 miles in 
length from west to east. To the south of Pamer he 
places Fo-lu-lo, or Bolor, of which he says that the 
south-eastern part of the district is inhahited, and that 
the country produces much gold. Both these facts are 
true of the present Bolor or Balti ; the higher mountains, 
moreover, aboim.d in rock-crystal, which is consequently 
called the Belor-stone, or simply Belor. The transverse 
north and south range of mountains is called Belut- 
Tdgh, or the " Cloudy Mountains ;" and this name has, 
I believe, been confounded with Bolor.* Marco Polo is 
the next who mentions Pamer and the neighbouring 
districts : I have two copies of his works before me, but 
they differ so much that I feel quite puzzled which to 
follow. After the mention of Pamer, the earlier copy 
has the following — " Prom hence, the way to Kathay 
leads for forty days' journey between the east and the 
north-east, through mountains, hills, and valleys, in 
which there are many rivers, but no villages, except 
that some huts and cottages are to be seen amongst the 
moimtains. * * * * The country is called P«fo?«." 
The other copy thus renders the above — " Leaving this 
place, he (the traveller) has to go on forty days between 
north and north-east, and passes many rivers and deserts ; 
and in all this journey finds neither verdure nor habita- 
tion. This country is called Belor. The people live in 
very lofty mountains." In the later copy, the editor 

* In speaking, tlie two T's in Belut-Tagh would coalesce, and the 
traveller, who knew that Tdgli meant a mountain, would conclude that 
Behi-Tiifjh was the true name, which would at once be confounded 
with Beiur-Tiigh. 



TRANS-TIBETAN RANGE. 47 

(Ilugli Murray) has apparently corrected the Palow of the 
older copy to agree with his own identification, and has 
moreover changed the direction from north-east by east, 
to north-east by north, perhaps with a view of bringing it 
nearer to the true bearing of Kashgar, which is the next 
place mentioned. Now it is evident from Hwan-Thsang's* 
statement, that the district of Fa-lo-lo, or Bolor, must, 
in his day, have extended to the north of the Karakoram 
range, and that the northern portion from Sir-i-kol to 
Khafalun, was then, as now, almost uninhabited. This, 
therefore, in my opinion, is the country which Marco 
Polo describes. 

The Kdrakoram Pass was traversed by the Chinese 
pilgrim Pa-Hian, in A.D. 399. f He calls the range 
Tsimg-L'mg, or "Onion Mountains," a name which they 
must have received from the number of wild leeks that 
grow upon them, and scent the air in all directions. 
They were found by Dr. Thomson on the elevated 
plateaux to the south of the pass. Mir Izzet TJllah no 
doubt alludes to the strong and unpleasant smell of these 
wild leeks, when he ascribes the headache and difficulty 
of breathing that are usually attendant on ascending 
great heights, to the Esh, which is a Turki word, signi- 
fying "smell. "J 

The actual height of only one point in this range has 

* Fo-kwe-ki. Appendix. The situation of Belor to the South of the 
Karakoram is also distinctly proved by the testimony of Abu Eihan, 
■who accompanied Mahmud Ghaznavi to India. Speaking of Kashmir 
he says, " La partie situee au midi et a I'orient appartient aus Indiens, 
et la partie qui se trouve a I'occident depend de plusieurs rois, dont le 
plus proclie est Belor Shah," that is, the king of Balti. 

t Fo-kwe-ki, c. iv. 

% Quarterly Oriental Magazine, March, 1825, p. 113. The Gerards 
attributed their headaches to the same cause. 



48 LADAK. 

yet been ascertained, namely, the Karakoram Pass, which 
Dr. Thomson found to be 18,660 feet above the sea. 
Vigne was of opinion that the height of this pass would 
be found " somewhat under 15,000 feet," and Mr. Thorn- 
ton argues, in favour of this opinion, that it was suflBi- 
ciently depressed to permit Mir Izzet Ullah's passage in 
the end of October. But though this argument will 
hold good for the southern Himalayas, it will only mis- 
lead when applied to the northern ranges of Tibet, on 
wliich the snow falls so scantily that many of them may 
be crossed even in December.* A single peak to the 
northward of Sassar was estimated by Dr. Thomson at 
24,000 feet. The estimate may perhaps be a little too 
high, but I have great confidence in the accuracy with 
which a practised eye may measure heights. 

To the eastward, this range maintains its superior 
elevation, as Captain H. Strachey found several of the 
passes, on one of its ramifications to the northward of 
Ruthog, to be between 18,000 and 19,000 feet in height. 
To the westward, the same general loftiness may be 
inferred, from the known heights of some peaks in the 
neighbouring ranges t of Hindu Kush and Pamer (or 
Belut-Tagh). The average height of the peaks may be 
estimated at 21,000 feet, and that of the passes at 
upwards of 18,000 feet. To the eastward of the Shigar 
valley. Dr. Falconer crossed a pass 16,200 feet, on a 
spur of the Karakoram. 

* On the 1st of December, Trebeck crossed the Manbar Pass, 
16,500 feet high ; and on the 9th of the same month he crossed the 
Chang-la, which is not under 17,000 feet. Zoniwar Sing crossed the 
Umasi-la, between 18,000 and 19,000 feet, in October, and the Thung- 
lung, 17,500 feet, in the end of November or beginning of December. 

t Hindu Kush, according to Macartney, 20,-193 ; and by Wood, 
20,248 ; and the Pamer Peaks, 19,000. 



TRANS-TIBETAN RANGE. 49 

Vigne* was informed by the Yarkandi merchants that 
*' the snow does not remain upon Karakoram for the 
greater part of the year." But my informants, who 
were also Yarkandi merchants, stated exactly the reverse ; 
and we know that Izzet UUah, in the beginning of 
November, found snow and ice the whole way over the 
pass. It is always difficult to ascertain the snow limit 
from the information of travellers and merchants, who, 
though they generally discriminate sporadic falls of 
snow, yet very rarely make any distinction between beds 
of snow sheltered in ravines, and the mass of exposed 
snow on the moimtains that braves the noon-day heat 
of a whole summer. I believe that the Karakoram Pass 
is rarely, if ever, entirely free from snow, although at no 
period of the year does the snow accimiulate upon it in 
any great mass. There was of course much snow on 
the pass when Dr. Thomson ascended it in July 1848, 
and it was lying much lower on the northern than on 
the southern face. The probability is that the Karako- 
ram Pass has about the same elevation as the snow-line 
of the range, and this would at once account for the dis- 
crepancies of the diiferent authorities. I would there- 
fore fix a height of 18,500 feet as the snow limit on the 
southern face, and of 18,000 feet or even less, for the 
northern face.f Eor the snow-Une, which in Rukchu 
is about 20,000 feet, has akeady begun to descend, and 
in the Pamer range to the north of the Karakoram has 
been estimated by "Wood at rather more than 17,000 
feet. J 

In the Shayok and Nubra valleys, the prevailing rock 
is limestone. § Granite occurs in the ridge between the 

* Kashmir, II. p. 364. t See Plate T. 

t Wood's Oxus, p. 364. § Izzet UUah, Dr. Thomson. 

E 



50 LABAK. 

rivers, and clay-slate towards the source of the Shayok. 
The limestone continues towards Ruthog, and the waters 
of the Pangkong lake hold a sufficient qviantity of lime 
to form a calcareous deposit, which cements the pehbles 
together in patches of concrete at the bottom of the 
lake. But the mass of mountain is composed of granite 
and gneiss, which in this, as well as in the other lofty 
ranges of India and Tibet, form the highest peaks and 
crests of the ridges. 



III.— 2nd. KAILAS EANGE. 

The Kailds or Gangri range runs through the midst 
of Western Tibet along the right bank of the Indus, 
from its source to the junction of the Shayok. At this 
point it is cut both by the Indus and by the Shigar 
river ; beyond which it stretches to the north-west, 
dividing the two valleys, and is terminated at the junc- 
tion of the Hunza and Nager rivers. The general direc- 
tion is from south-east to north-west, and the whole 
length of the range from the celebrated peak of Kailas 
to Hunza-Nager is not less than 550 miles. In many 
of our maps the main stream of the Indvis or Singge- 
chu, is laid down to the northward of the Kailas moun- 
tains, and the Garo river or Higong-chu is degraded to 
a mere tributary, which falls into the great river at 
Tashigong. But all my informants agreed in stating 
that the Garo river was the Singge-chu or Indus, and 
that the stream which joined it at Tashigong was not 
larger than the IIanl6 river. The Kailas or Gangri 
range therefore extends in one unbroken chain from the 
source of the Indus to the junction of the Shayok. It 
forms the natural boundarv between Ladak, Balti, and 



KAILAS RANGE. 



51 



llongdo on the soutli, and Uuthog, Nubra, Shigar, and 
Hunza-Nager on the noi'th. 

Tliis range has been often crossed by Europeans, but 
always on the same high roads, which generally lead 
over the lowest and easiest passes. We have the heights 
of six of these passes in diiferent parts of the range. 



Passes. 


Feet. 


Authority. 


1 

2 
3 

4 
5 
6 


Tsaka-la 
Kongta-la 

Chang-la 

Lazgung or Sabu-la ... 
Le Pass 
Hanu Pass 


15,000 
15,495 
18,105 
17,066 
17,600 
16,890 


Trebeck. 
Moorcroft, MS. 

Ditto do. 
Dr. Thomson. 

Ditto. 
Col. Bates. 


Mean height 1G,792 or 16,800 feet. 



As the average height of these passes approaches 
17,000 feet, the general elevation of the range may be 
estimated at not less than 20,000 feet. The height of 
the celebrated Kailas peak has been determined by 
Lieut. R. Strachey at 20,700 feet. A peak which I 
measured on one of the spm's of the range to the north 
of Mahe was 18,500 feet. In this part, as we may see 
from the heights of the Kongta-la and Tsakala Passes, 
the range is much depressed, but in the neighbourhood 
of Le, wherever I could see the ridge, it was entirely 
covered with snow in the begianing of October. As 
the lofty passes to the northward of L6 are said to be 
always clear of snow at the end of summer, the snow- 
line on the Kailas or Mid-Tibetan range may be esti- 
mated at 19,000 feet,* or more, on the southern face ; 

* In the .Journal As. Soc. Bengal, vol. sviii. p. 302, Lieut. E. Strachey 
e.stimates the snow-line on the southern face of Kailas at not less than 
19,500 feet, which agrees with my observations. See Plate I. 
E 2 



and at 18,500 feet on the northern face. In the south- 
eastern portion of the range, between the elevated table- 
lands of Ohang-Thang, Rukchu, and Ngari, the snow- 
limit will of course he higher than in the north-western 
portion, which divides the valley of the Indus from the 
Shayok. In the neighbourhood of JA, therefore, we 
cannot estimate the height of this range at less than 
20,000 feet ; and although it may be somewhat depressed 
between the Pangkong and Tshomoriri lakes, yet it 
rises again towards the south-eastern extremity, where 
the lofty peak of Kailas towers over the holy lakes of 
Manasarovara and Ptaw-an Hrad. On this part of the 
range the snow never disappears, and this fact has origi- 
nated the name of the mountain both in Sanskrit and in 
Tibetan, in which languages Kailas and Gangri respec- 
tively mean the " Ice Mountain." 

The geological structure of this range is chiefly clay- 
slate, gneiss, and granite. In the neighbourhood of Le 
it is wholly of granite of a very coarse texture. 

lY.— 3rd. TEANS-HIMALATAN EANaE. 

This range is a branch of the lofty jRi-G-i/al, or King 
of Mountains, which it certainly equals, and perhaps 
surpasses in height. It branches off from the Gangri 
mountain to the south of Garo, and extends in one 
unbroken chain through the districts of Chumurti, 
Rukchu, and Zanskar, to the junction of the Zanskar 
river, Avhich rushes dark and turbulent through a vast 
chasm in the mountain, where human foot has never 
trod. Prom this it extends to the junction of the Dras 
river with the Indus, where it is again cut through by 



I 



TRANS-HIMALAYAN KANGE. 



53 



the Dras river at a narrow gorge called the Wolf's 
Leap ;* hut heyond this point it stretches in one un- 
hroken chain to the great southward sweep of the Indus 
at the junction of the Gilgit river. Its general direc- 
tion is from south-east to north-west, and its extreme 
length is upwards of 350 miles. It forms the natural 
boundary between Ladak, Balti, and Rongdo on the 
north, and Riikchu, Zanskar, Purik, Dras, and Astor, 
on the south. 

This range is much better known than either of the 
preceding chains. I have the measurement of four 
peaks determined by myself in 1847, and of no less than 
eleven passes, of which I have myself crossed five. The 
foUo^^dng are the heights of peaks in the neighbom'hood 
of Ilanle, and in other parts of the range. 



Peaks. 


Feet. 


Authority. 


1 


Eongo Peak 


20,786 


A. Cunningham. 


2 


Changlung, N. Pk. ... 


20,357 


Ditto. 


3 


Changlung, S. Pk. 


20,141 


Ditto. 


4 


Hanle Peak 


20,650 


Ditto. 


5 


Lanak Peaks 


20,000 


Ditto. 


6 


Tshomoriri Peaks 


21,000 


Ditto. 


7 


GyaPeak, W.of Gya... 


21,000 


Ditto. 


8 


TokPeak (S.ofLe) ... 


21,000 


Ditto. 




Mean heigh 


t 20,616 feet. 



The mean height of the peaks in the eastern part of 
the range, is therefore not less than 20,500 feet. 

The following table shows the height of different 
passes in the eastern half of the range. 



Vigne, Map and Travels in Kashmir, vol. ii. 



54 



Passes. 


Feet. 


Authority. 


1 


Pass ahove Chumur . 




18,500 


Capt. H. Strachey. 


2 


Liinak ... 




18,746 


A. Cunningham. 


3 


Nakpo-Gondiug 




18,000 


Ditto. 


4 


Polokonka 




16,500 


Ditto. 


5 


Thunglung 




17,500 


Ditto. 


6 


Kandu La 




16,600 


Moorcroi't. 


7 


Pangache La ... 




16,495 


Dr. Thomson. 


S 


Siugge La 




16,952 


Ditto. 


Mean height 17,911 feet. 



The Western half of the range beyond the valley of 
Zanskar becomes gradually lower and lower until it 
sinks suddenly into the Indus at the precipitous defile 
of Makpon-i-Shang-llong. The following are the heights 
of some of the western passes. 



Passes. 


Feet. 


Authority. 


1 

2 

3 
4 
5 


Namyika 

Biirgi Pass on Deotsu ... 

Alampi La 

Sir-i-Kotul 

Harpo-La 


13,000 
15,600 
15,500 
16,000 
12,100 


A. Cunningham. 
Dr. Falconer. 
Vigne corrected. 

Ditto. 
Col. Bates. 


Mean height 14,440 feet. 



On this half of the range the snow annually disap- 
pears, excepting on some of the loftier peaks which have 
not yet been measured. To the northward of Paskyum, 
I saw snow still lying in October 1847, but it was pro- 
bably only new snow, wliich had been falling for some 
days before. I estimate the highest peak of this portion 
of the range at 17,000 feet. On the eastern half of the 
range in Rukchu and Ngari, the mean height of the 



TKANS-IIIMALAYAN UAXGK. o5 

snow-liiie is about 20,000 feet. Dr. Gerard* indeed 
asserts that on the southward aspect the snow " has 
no well-defined boundary at 21,000 feet ;" and further 
that some of the points which he measured had " an 
absolute height of 22,000 feet free of snow." But a 
very slight examination of his own data will show that 
his most elevated snow-line was under 21,000 feet. In 
the month of September for two successive years, 1846 
and 1847, I found snow lying on the ridges to the eas^ 
and west of the Tshomoriri Lake, which rise to an 
elevation of 20,000 feet. This agrees with Dr. Gerard's 
observation, also made in the month of September, that 
the snow-line on the mountains to the north of the lake 
rose to a height of " 20,000 feet and upwards."! Above 
this, he says, the snow rested " in vast bodies, having a 
clitf of several hundred feet." As he afterwards adds, 
that "it had ceased to melt," 20,000 feet or upwards 
(or about 20,000 feet) must be taken as the snow limit, 
as determined by Dr. Gerard's observations for the 
Tshomoru'i mountains. In September 1847, I found 
the Lanak Pass (18,746 feet) perfectly bare, but the peaks 
to the north and south of the pass (about 19,500 feet) 

* Eesearelies, Asiatic Society of Bengal, vol. xviii. pp. 25-1-56. But 
when he wrote the first account of his travels, which was read before 
the Asiatic Society of Bengal, his altitude of the snow line was less 
lofty. I quote his own words : " The whole circumference of Lake 
Chimorerel is embayed by mountains, but hdlward, on its north- 
eastern shore, the mass of elevated land rose very abruptly from the 
water's edge, and entered the regions of snow, which had an uniform 
irmrgin of 19,000 feet." This was the south-western aspect. See 
Plate I. 

t As we have already seen, by the last note, that Dr. Gerard esti- 
mated the snow-line on these mountains at only 19,000 feet, the " 20,000 
feet and upwards," is perhaps intended for the actual height of the 
mountains themselves. Mr. Aguew and myself estimated them at 
between 20,000 and 21,000 feet. 



56 LADAK. 

had still large patclies of snow upon their eastern and 
northern slopes. In the same month, the four peaks 
which I measiu-ed in the neighboiu'hood of HanM at 
different heights between 20,000 and 21,000 feet, and 
averaging 20,483 feet, were all jDartially covered with 
snow. The general height of the ridge was about 
20,000 feet, and the snow was lying along nearly the 
whole line of crest to the west. On the eastern face it 
evidently descended lower, as on the Lanak peaks. I 
estimate the snow-line of Rukchu at not more than 
20,000 feet on the western and southern slopes, and at 
19,500 feet, or even less, on the eastern and northern 
slopes.* 

The great height of the snow-line on this range is 
caused chiefly by the radiation of heat from the elevated 
plains of Rukchu and Garo, and by the reverberation of 
heat from the bare sides of the mountains. It is in 
part also due to its situation in the midst of lofty snowy 
mountains, which intercept the ascending vapours on all 
sides, and prevent the precipitation of moisture within this 
ice-bound region. As the mass of land rises, the snow-line 
recedes higher and higher, notwithstanding the increase of 
the latitude. This is shown clearly in Plate 1, which 
exhibits a section of the momitains from the southern 
base of the Himalaya to the northern foot of the Kdra- 
koram. In this section the snow-line is seen to rise 
with the mass of land untO. both attain their greatest 
elevation in Rukchu. From this tract the snow-line 
descends as the country falls to the northward towards 
Yarkand and Kotan. But the fall is less rapid than the 
rise. From the eastern peaks of Kullu in latitude 31^° 

* Plate I. 



THE WESTERN IIIMaLAVA. 57 

to the Liinak and Hanle ranges in llukchu, the rise of 
the snow-line is fully 4,000 feet, while the increase of 
latitude is only one degree ; hut from llukchu to Pamer 
the increase of latitude is five degrees, wliile the fall of 
the snow-Hne is only 3,000 feet. We must therefore 
attribute the greatest part of this difference to the in- 
fluence of latitude. 

Of the geological structure of this range I can only 
speak generally. The Lanak ridge consists of a core of 
granite nearly overlaid by clay-slate. To the west of 
the pass, the plain of Dongan is strewn with roUed 
boulders of granite for several miles. Thence to the 
Thung Lung Pass the higher ridges are of gneiss, and 
the slopes of mica and clay-slates. Throughout Zanskar 
from the Lachalang Pass to the Singge-la the chief for- 
mation is limestone, and beyond that the ridge consists 
of mica and clay-slates crested by granite, which is the 
prevailing rock on the table-land of Deotsu. Trap 
occm's in the volcanic district between Hanle and the 
hot-springs of Puga. 

v.— 4th. THE WESTERN HIMALAYA. 

The great Himalaya forms a natural boundary between 
India and Tibet. On the east it presents the lofty peaks 
of Kanchinjinga and Dhwalagiri, which rise to the vast 
height of more than 28,000 feet. To the westward it is 
less kno\Mi, but the peaks that have been measured 
between the sources of the Sutluj and the Chenab give 
an average elevation superior to that of the Andes. 

The general direction of the western Himalaya is the 
same as that of the other chains which have just been 



58 LADAK. 

described, from south-east to north-west. The whole 
length of the chain from the peak of Monomangli to the 
sources of the Gilgit and Kunar rivers is not less than 
650 miles. It is pierced in three places by rivers, by 
the Sutluj and Para at the base of Porgyal, and by the 
Indus at the foot of Dayamm\ Its greatest elevation is 
the lofty peak of Nanda Devi (Jawahir) 25,749 feet, 
and its greatest depression, the pass of Seoji-la, 11,700 
feet, between Kashmir and Ladak. Throughout its 
whole extent it forms the boundary between the races 
of Hindu origin and the pure Tibetans of Ladak and 
Balti. To the south-east it divides the Tibetan district 
of Garo from the Indian province of Kumaon. Midway 
it separates the Ladaki districts of Hukchu, Zanskar, 
Purik, and Dras, containing only pure Botis or Tibetans, 
from the provinces of Spiti, Kullu, Lahul, Ivashtwar, and 
Kashmir, whose inhabitants are chiefly a mixed race of 
Indo-Tibetans. To the westward it was once the boun- 
dary between the Dards of Chelas and the Tibetans of 
Astor and Gilgit ; but the Dards have since penetrated 
to the northward, and the Gilgitis of the present day are 
a mixed race of Dardo-Tibetans. 

To the south of the Sutluj the heights of many of the 
loftiest peaks have been determined by Webb, Hodgson, 
and the Gerards, but to the north of the Sutluj, no 
heights were ascertained by them, except only that of 
Porgyal by Alexander Gerard. Beyond this, not more 
than five peaks have been measm-ed, with more or less 
precision, but the general accuracy of these measure- 
ments is proved by the ascertained elevation of several 
passes. The following table gives all the heights to the 
south of the Sutluj. 



TUE WESTEEN HIMALAYA. 



69 



Peaks. 


Height. 


Authority. 


1 


Mouomangli or Gurla ... 


23,900 


Lieut. E. Strachey. 


2 


Kuiilas Peak 


22,513 


Trigonometrical Map. 


3 


Gula Ghal Peak 


21,258 


Ditto. 


4 


XX 


20,479 


Ditto. 


5 


XIX 


22,707 


Ditto. 


6 


xvni 


22,511 


Ditto. 


7 


XV 


22,491 


Ditto. 


8 


Naada Devi 


25,749 


Ditto. 


9 


XIII 


22,385 


Ditto. 


10 


XII 


22,385 


Ditto. 


11 


ANo. 1 


23,531 


Ditto. 


12 


XI 


20,758 


Ditto. 


13 


ANo. 3 


23,317 


Ditto. 


14 


N 


23,482 


Ditto. 


15 


L 


22,266 


Ditto. 


IG 


K 


22,570 


Ditto. 


17 


I 


23,300 


Ditto. 


18 


IX 


21,383 


Ditto. 


19 


YIII 


23,236 


Ditto. 


20 


Badrinath Peak 


22,954 


Ditto. 


21 


VII 


23,441 


Ditto. 


22 




22,754 


Ditto. 


23 


H 


21,894 


Ditto. 


24 


G 


22,556 


Ditto. 


25 


U 


21,612 


Ditto. 


26 


Kedamath 


23,062 


Ditto. 


27 


M 


22,792 


Ditto. 


28 


St. Patrick 


22,798 


Ditto. 


29 


St. George 


22,654 


Ditto. 


30 


Eudru Himala ... 


22,390 


Ditto. 


31 


Swarga ... 


22,906 


Ditto. 


32 


The Pyramid 


21,579 


Ditto. 


33 


JaonliPeak 


21,940 


Ditto. 


34 


E. C 


21,772 


Ditto. 


35 


F 


21,964 


Ditto. 


36 


G. Srikanta 


20,296 


Ditto. 


37 


Eock Peak 


21,076 


Ditto. 


38 


"Windy Peak (Kyobrang) 


20,169 


Ditto. 


39 


Glacier Peak 


20,544 


Ditto. 


40 


Ealdang or W. Kailas . . . 


21,103 


Ditto. 




Mean Jieigh 


t 22,274 1 


jet. 



60 



LADAK. 



The distance from Monomaiigli to the Raldang and 
Kyobrang Peaks, is only 175 miles, and between these 
points we find no less than forty peaks, whose well 
ascertained heights exceed 20,000 feet, and which yield 
an average of more than 22,000 feet. The passes are 
less known, because only the most frequented have yet 
been measured. The heights, however, of nine of them, 
have been ascertained chiefly by the Gerards and 
Stracheys. 



Passes. 


Height. 


Authority. 


1 


Lankpya 


17,750 


Capt. H. Strachey. 


2 


Lakhar 


18,300 


Lieut. E. Strachey. 


3 


Unta dura 


17,700 


Ditto. 


4 


Kyungar Ghat 


17,700 


Ditto. 


5 


Balch dhura 


17,700 


Ditto. 


6 


Deo Ghat 


18,000 


Trigonometrical Map. 


7 


Niti Pas3 


16,570 




8 


Kyobrang 


18,331 


Capt. A. Gerard. 


9 


Gangtang 


18,295 


Ditto. 


Mean height 


17,816 feet. 



The average height of this part of the range, by taking 
the mean of the greatest elevation, and greatest depres- 
sions, is not therefore less than 20,000 feet. 

To the westward, the heights of the following peaks 
and passes have been ascertained, with more or less 
accm-acy. 



Peaks. 


Height. 


Authority. 


1 
2 
3 


Pyramidal Peak 

Porgyal 

Chang-Eaziug Peak ... 


20,106 
22,700 
20,500 


Capt. A. Gerard. 

Ditto. 
Dr. Gerard. 



THE WESTERN HIMALAYA. 



01 



Peaks. 


Height. 


Authority. 


4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 


Gyu Peak* .... 
Parang Peaks ... 

Zanskar Eidge 

Ser and Mer ... 

Bal Tal Peak 

Dayamur 

Peak to N. of Peshawur 


24,764 
19,500 
20,000 
20,000 
19,650 
20,000 
20,493 


A. Cunningham. 

Ditto. 
Dr. Thomson. A.C. 
Hugel and Vigne. 
Jacquemont. 
Vigne. Col. Bates. 
Macartney. 


Mean height 20,771 feet. 



Height. 



Authority. 



Meyung La 
Parang La 
Bara Liieha 
Umasi La 
Seoji La 
Gutumi Pass 



17,700 
18,500 
16,500 
18,123 
11,634 
12,000 



Capt. Gerard. 
A. Cunningham. 

Ditto. 
Dr. Thomson. 
A. Cmmingham. 
Vigne corrected. 



Mean height 15,743 feet. 



Taking the means of the greatest heights and. greatest 
depressions, the average elevation of this portion of the 
range will be upwards of 18,000 feet ; and as that of the 
other half was found to be upwards of 20,000 feet, the 

* The height of this peak depends upon the correctness of the hori- 
zontal distance. From Chang-Eaziug it bore 152° 16' West, with an 
elevation of 5° 24' after correction for error of collimation. I estimated 
the distance at between twenty and thirty miles ; and as I afterwards 
observed the same peak from the foot of the Lanak Pass, I got another 
bearing which made the horizontal distance twenty-four mUes. Should 
the dist.ance be not more than twenty miles, the height wiU still be 
22,659 feet ; but the greater height is supported by the authority of 
Dr. Gerard, who, from his lofty station, 20,400 feet above Chang- 
Eaziug, saw to the J^orth a detached group of white tops, which he con- 
cluded, from the angles they subtended, to be 24,000 feet above the sea. 
Eesearches Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. xviii. pp. 255, note. 



62 LADAK. 

mean heiglit of the crest of the western Himalaya, from 
Monomangli to the source of the Gilgit river, may be 
assumed at 19,000 feet. 

On this range the snow-line can be determined witliin 
very narrow limits. On the three passes crossed by 
Lieut. E-. Strachey,* each about 17,700 feet, no snow 
was found in September. The Lakhar Pass, 18,300 feet, 
and the Jayanti Pass, 18,500 feet, were also free from 
snow. " But the line of perpetual snow was evidently 
near, for though the Jayanti ridge was quite free, and 
some of the near peaks were clear, to perhaps upwards 
of 19,000 feet, yet in more sheltered situations, un- 
broken snow coiild be seen considerably below the ridge :" 
and Lieut. Strachey concluded " that 18,500 feet must 
be nearly the average height of the snow-line at that 
place."! 

Alexander Gerard found no snow on the Kyobrang 
Pass (18,313 feet), even in July, and it was equally bare 
when visited by Jacquemont. On Porgyal, in October, 
the Gerards{ found no old snow below 19,400 feet, and 
their station on the Chang-Razing mountain, 20,400 feet, 
was also clear ; but as Dr. Gerard mentions a range due 
north, and a peak to the westward, while he is perfectly 
silent regarding the lofty peaks to the south, it seems 
certain that their station was on the northern exposure 
of Porgyal. I can myself vouch for its southern faces 
being covered with masses of snow in the end of August 

* Journal Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. xviii. pp. 298, 299. 

t See Plate I. 

J Researches Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. xviii. p. 254. The name of 
Por-Gyal is written Spor-rGyal, the " lofty twins," the double Peak of 
Por-Gyal being compared to the constellation Gemini {rQyal) the s is 
sometimes pronounced, just as in the name of Spiti, which is also called 
Piti, although it is invariably written Spiti by the Lamas. 



THE WESTERN HIMALAYA. 63 

and beginning of Septombei' 1847, when the northern 
side seemed generally bare. The absence of snow on the 
Pyramidal Peak of Porgyal, 20,106 feet, is more to the 
purpose, as it is certain that the Gerards could only have 
seen this peak from the south and west. On crossing 
the Manerang Pass, on the 30th of August, Alexander 
Gerard found the last half mile was over the perpetual 
snow, which he distinguishes from the fresh covering of 
the former night, in which the foot sank from three to 
twelve inches. On descending the Pass to the north, he 
" travelled over the snow for a mile." On recrossing the 
Pass, on the 7th September, he found that " the snow 
had not descended above 400 feet ; but the great field of 
ages had a new and deep covering."* The snow, there- 
fore, remains for the whole year on the Manerang Pass. 
From the Manerang Pass, Alexander Gerard observed 
"very distinctly the Paralasa (Bara Lacha) range, covered 
with snow." I estimate the height of this part of the 
range at 19,500 feet. On the 8th September, 1847, I 
found no snow on the southern face of the Parang Pass, 
18,500 feet, but there was a glacier one mile and a half 
in length, on the northern face, on which the snow was 
frozen hard. Snow was lying in patches on many of the 
peaks, at about 19,000 feet, but chiefly on the western 
and southern faces. The exposed faces to the north and 
east were bare. In September 1846, I crossed the Bara 
Lacha Pass, 16,500 feet, twice ; and on both occasions 
found it entirely free from snow. The Umasi-la, 18,123 
feet, was crossed by Dr. Thomson, in June, at which 
time it was, of course, covered with snow : but it was 
not clear in October 1846, when traversed by Vazir 
Gusaun, the minister of the Mandi Baja. In this part 

* Alexander Gerard's Tour of 1821, pp. 155-56, Calcutta edition. 



64 LADAK. 

of the range, therefore, the snow limit does not exceed 
18,000 feet, and is probably not' more than 17,500 feet. 
On the Baltal Peak, 19,000 feet, close to the Seoji-la, 
the snow remains throughout the year. Dayamur, or 
Nanga Parbat (the bare mountain) is, as its name im- 
plies, free from snow ; but this is owing entirely to its 
precipitousness, which prevents the snow from finding 
any resting-place. Snow, however, does lie in the lioUow 
between the peaks. 

The following are the different heights of the snow 
limit on the western Himalava. 



Snow Limit. 


Height. 


Authority. 


1 

2 
3 
4 
5 


On the Kumaun Eange 
Pyramidal Pk. of Porgyal 
Maiierang Eange 
Parang Range ... 
Bara Lacha to Umasi ... 


18,500 
20,106 
18,000 
19,000 
17,500 


Lieut. E. Strachey. 
A. and J. Gerard. 
A. Gerard. 
A. Cunningham. 
Ditto. 


Mean height 18,021 feet. 



Tliis height agrees so closely with the elevation de- 
duced by Lieut. E.. Strachey, that we may conclude, 
with some confidence, that the snow-line, on the south- 
ern face of the western Himalaya, is between 18,500 feet 
and 19,000 feet. On the northern exposure, the snow 
limit is somewhat higher. The Gerards, as we have 
seen, foiind the northern face of Porgyal bare, to a 
height of 20,400 feet. In September 1847, I observed 
very Little snow on the northern faces of the Parang 
Peaks, about 19,500 feet, while in September 1846, the 
crest of this range, as I saw it from the banks of the 
Tshomoriri lake, was sheeted in snow. To the west- 
ward, as the ridge diminishes in height, with the general 



THE MID-IIIMALAYA RANGE. 05 

fall of the country, the snow-line falls somewhat loA\cr, 
and in the neig-hbouvhood of the Bara-Lacha Pass is 
not more than 18,000 feet. The mean of these obser- 
vations is 19,133 feet, or in round numbers, upwards 
of 19,000 feet.* 

The mass of the western Himalaya, from the Sutluj to 
the Indus, is limestone. The ridges of Kyobrang, Pa- 
rang, and Umasi-La, are all limestone, while the sides 
are chiefly overlaid with clay-slate. At Seoji La, the 
formation is mica-slate, but the mass of the northern 
mountains of Kashmir, and the peaks of the magnificent 
Dayamur, are all of limestone. 

YI.— 5th. THE MID-HIMALAYA, or PIE-PAN.TAL EANGE. 

This chain consists of four distinct masses of mountain, 
which may be styled the Bisahar, the Lahul, the Pir- 
Panjal, and the Swat ranges. The Bisahar range is an 
offshoot of the western Himalaya, extending for about 
sixty miles, from the lofty cluster of Jamnotri peaks to 
the Sutluj, below Shatul. It is continued to the north 
of the Sutluj by the Lahul range, which stretches to the 
north-west for 160 miles, to the great southward sweep 
of the Chenab, in Kashtwar. Beyond this again, it is 
continued in the same direction by the well-known Pir- 
Panjal, to the great southward sweep of the Jehlam, at 
Mozafarabad, and across the Jehlam to the Indus, at 
Derband, To the west of the Indus it terminates in the 
Swat mountains, which extend for about seventy miles 
to the junction of the Swat and Panjkora rivers. This 
portion of the chain, though not remarkable for its 
height, is worthy of most particular examination, for the 

* See Plate I. 
F 



sake of identifying the celebrated Aornos, which was be- 
yond all doubt situated in this range, and which I believe 
to have been the well-known mountains of Mahaban. 

The whole length of the Mid-Himalaya or Pk-Panjal 
range, from the Jamnotri peaks to the Swat river, is 
about 470 miles. Between the Jumna and the Indus 
the direction is from south-east to north-west, as in the 
other ranges ; but beyond the Indus the Swat mountains 
run almost due east and west. 

The general elevation of this range can be determined 
with tolerable accuracy from the ascertained heights of 
a considerable number of points. The following tables 
show the heights of the principal peaks and passes in 
the different portions of the range. 



BISAHAR RANGE — PEAKS. 



Peaks. 


Feet. 


Authority. 


1 


Jamnotri, Great E. 


20,91G 


Trigonometrical Map. 


2 


Ditto Black E. ... 


21,155 


Ditto. 


3 


Ditto Lower E. ... 


20,122 


Ditto. 


4 


Hleft 


20,501 


Ditto. 


5 


H right 


20,668 


Ditto. 


6 


H middle 


20,668 


Ditto. 


7 


The Cone 


21,178 


Ditto. 


8 


a No. 39 


19,481 


Ditto. 


9 


L 


19,512 


Ditto. 


10 


The Needle 


19,044 


Ditto. 


11 


J 


17,425 


Ditto. 


12 


1 


17,331 


Ditto. 


13 


h 


17,337 


Ditto. 


14 


gShatulPeak 


17,035 


Ditto. 


15 


d or Pyramidal ... 


17,174 


Ditto. 


16 


b 


16,982 


Ditto. 


17 


a 


17,044 


Ditto. 


Mean height 


19,033 feet. 



THE MID-HIMALAYA RANGE. 
BISAHAR RANGE — PASSES. 



67 



Passes. 


Feet. 


Authority. 


1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 


Nalgim Pass 

Eupin ... 

Xibrang 

Burang or Buranda 

Tusu 

Shatul 


14,891 
15,460 
16,035 
15,179 
15,877 
15,556 


A. Gerard. 
Ditto. 
Ditto. 
Ditto. 
Ditto. 
Ditto. 


Mean height 15,499 feet. 



By taking the mean heights of the peaks and passes, 
or greatest elevations and greatest depressions, we 
obtain the average height of the Bisahar range at 
17,250 feet. 



LAHUL RANGE — PEAKS. 



Peaks. 


Feet. 


Authority. 


1 


Western P. 


18,798 


Trigonometrical Map. 


2 


Kotgarli Peak 






17,353 


Ditto. 


3 


No. 9 Black 


.. 




16,203 


Ditto. 


4 


k Peak ... 






17,730 " 




5 


j Obelisk Peak 






18,062 




6 


f 






19,310 




7 


e 






19,366 




8 


d 






19,922 


>A. Cunningham. 


9 


c 






19,948 




10 


b 






20,064 




11 


a 






21,786 




12 


Kali Debi Peaks 




18,500 


J 


Mean he 


ght 18,920 feet. 



F 2 



68 



LADAK. 
lAhUL range — PASSES. 



Passes. 


Feet. 


Authority. 


1 

2 
3 


Rotang Pass 

Kali Debi Pass 

Saj Pass 


13,000 

16,700 
15,500 


f Moorcroft, 
( Dr. Gerard, A. C. 
A. Ciumingham. 
Dr. Thomson. 


Mean height 15,066 feet. 



The mean height of the Ltihul range is therefore close 
upon 17,000 feet, and that of the united Bisahar and 
Liihul ranges upwards of 17,000 feet. 

PIR-PANJAL RANGE. 

Of the Pir-Panjal itself we know much less than of 
the other portions of the Mid-Himalaya. The height 
of the loftiest peak was ascertained by Jacquemont to 
be 15,000 feet, and that of the lowest pass 9,690 feet. 
The mean of these two gives 12,345 feet for the average 
height of the crest, which is certainly not too much, as 
the heights of two of the most frequented passes ap- 
proach 12,000 feet. The Pir-Panjal Pass is 11,970 feet, 
and the Mirbal Pass is 11,400 feet ; and the mean 
height of the three measured passes is 11,020 feet. The 
following are the heights of different points in the Pir- 
Panjal. 



Points. 


Feet. 


Authority. 


1 

2 
3 

4 


Highest Peak 

Tatakuti 

Dydyum 

Kol-Narwah 


15,000 
14,000 
13,000 
12,500 


Jacquemont. 
A. Cunningham. 
Vigne. 
Ditto. 




Mean height 


13,625 feet. 



THE MID-HIMALAYA BAKGE. 69 

The mean of the mean heights of the peaks and passes 
is 12,322 feet, which agrees with the mean before 
deduced from the greatest elevation and greatest de- 
pression. 

Of the height of the Swat range I cannot speak with 
any certainty. The peak of Mahaban, as seen from the 
Yusiifzai plain, at diiferent distances between twenty-five 
and thirty miles, I estimated at 6,000 feet, or rather 
more, and the highest point in the range is probably not 
more than 7,000 feet. 

On the Pu'-Panjal and Swat ranges, the snow en- 
tirely disappears; but it remains throughout the year 
on the lofty ranges of Bisahar and Lahul. Of the glacial 
lines of the Bisahar ranges, we know but little, although 
the Gerards made a special excursion to most of the 
passes in tliis range for the purpose of ascertaining the 
snow-Hmit. The following passages, however, bear upon 
the subject and corroborate each other. 

In describing the Buranda Pass (15,179 feet), which 
they visited in October, 1818,* the two brothers. Dr. 
John Gerard and Captain Alexander Gerard, state that 
" the eastern wall rises "with a considerable inclination 
for 500 or 600 feet ; thence starting backwards, it ter- 
minates in a crown of snow, perhaps 1,500 or 2,000 
feet higher." * * * «« its western side rises to a 
towering summit deeply clad in snow, and corresponds 
with the opposite or eastern one, being about 2,000 feet 
in height." Prom these statements, we learn that both 
flanks of the pass were certainly bare of snow to 
15,179 + 600 = 15,799 feet, and most probably much 
higher ; for the eastern peak is said to terminate in a 
" crown of snow," and the western peak in a " summit 

* Tour of 1818, p. 22, Calcutta edition. 



70 LADAK. 

deeply clad with snow." Now, as the height of the 
peaks on hoth sides is stated at 17,000 feet or somewhat 
less, we may fairly estimate the snow-line on the 
southern faces of the Bisahar range at about 16,000 
feet. 

Another passage* leads to a similar conclusion : " Tufts 
of moss and grass with a light soil are seen all the way 
to the top (of the Buranda Pass), and even rise on each 
side to 200 and 300 feet, whUe higher up on the rugged 
cliffs that are doomed to sustain perpetual snow, ani- 
mated nature finds a habitation." The snow-limit by 
this account was therefore certainly as high as 15,179 
+ 300 = 15,479 feet, which was the boundary of vege- 
table life, and was no doubt somewhat higher. 

Again, some days later, on the Rupin Pass, 15,460 feet, 
at the head of the Pabar river, Alexander Gerard f de- 
scribes the strata of the range to the south of the Pabar 
as vertical, and that above the summit of this " mural 
portion," which " preserves an elevation of between 
15,000 and 16,000 feet, to near Jangleg," the "rocks 
slant towards the summit, and upon the slope lie banks 
of congealed snow and ice, having a perpendicular broAV 
of packed appearance, so much resembling blocks of 
marble and quartz, that I doubted for some time of 
their reality." This account is more explicit than any 
other that I have seen in Alexander Gerard's travels. 
Prom the Pupin Pass to near Jangleg, a distance of 
about eight miles, banks of snow lay upon the slope of 
the ridge, while the summit was entirely covered with 
packed snow. This agrees with the other statements 
that no exposed snow was seen below 15,500 feet ; that 
above that Hne it was observed in banks or patches ; and 

* Tour of 1818, p. 24, Calcutta edition. f Ditto, p. 27. 



THE MID-niMALAYA RANGE. 71 

tliat everywhere at 17,000 feet the snow was lying in 
undisturbed masses. 

The B/upin Pass, 15,460 feet, was crossed by Captain 
Ilerbert and Captain Patrick Gerard, on the 30th Septem- 
ber, 1819. In his map, Ilerbert writes along the upper 
course of the Rupin river, " all snow in September ;" but 
Patrick Gerard describes the snow wliich they found on 
their way to the Rupin Pass in detail.* " Distance from 
encamping-groimd to large snow-bed 2j miles, where 
crossed a dangerous chasm. Steep ascent through 
patches of snow (half a mile), fresh and melting fast. A 
quarter of a mile farther on, 7io snow. To pass over 
snow, soft, knee-deep, thigh-deep, and neck-deep, 3^ 
miles across eternal snoAv." The soft knee-deep and 
neck-deep snow was of com*se freshly fallen. We have 
thus another independent and distinct proof that the 
llupin Pass (15,460 feet) was clear of old snow on the 
last day of September. 

These different observations of the Gerards on the 
Bisahar range may be taken as sufficient evidence to 
prove that there is no perpetual snow below 15,500 feet, 
and that the actual snow-Hmit is somewhere about 
16,000 feet. 

On the 17th September, 1849, I took from Simla the 
bearings and altitudes of several peaks and snow-lines 
in the Lahul range with a very good theodolite, reading 
to half-minutes. To test the performance of the instru- 
ment, I first took the altitude of the Shall Peak, which 
gave an elevation of 9,629 feet above the sea, or six feet 
in excess of that determined by the trigonometrical 
survey. I next turned it upon the Tural Peak, which 
is the highest in the Dhaola Dhar or Kangra range, 

* Patrick Gerard's Mauuscript Journals. Toui- of 1819. 



72 



XADAK. 



with a resiilt equally satisfactory ; the deduced altitude 
being 16,167 feet, or ten feet less than the mean alti- 
tude obtained from my former observations at Kangra 
and Nurpur. Lastly, I took the altitude of the Kotgarh 
peak beyond the Sutluj, to the north of Rampur. The 
altitude obtained was 17,353 feet, or eighty-one feet 
less than Captain Herbert's elevation by trigonometrical 
survey. These altitudes do not of com'se pretend to any 
very great accuracy, but they may be depended upon as 
near approximations to the truth. Their errors will 
arise chiefly from the difficulty of obtaining the correct 
distances of points that have not yet been laid down by 
a regular trigonometrical survey. The following table 
gives the heights of the snow-lines on the Lahul range 
as observed from Simla.* 





Height of Pk. 


Lower Edge of Snow. 


1 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 


One 

„ e 

„ f 

„ g, Kotgrah Peak . . . 
„ j, Obelisk Peak ... 
„ k 


19,948 

19,366 
19,310 
17,434 
18,062 
17,730 


17,656 
16,837 
17,399 
15,983 
16,179 
15,940 


Mean. 

[ 17,297 
[ 16,034 






Mean height 




16,665 



The difference between the heights of the snow-line is 
simply accounted for by the difference of position in the 
observed points. The first three are situated in the 
Kullu range, and are fully exposed to the action of the 
south-west monsoon, which blows direct up the valleys 
of the Parbati, Gomati, and Sainj rivers. The other 
points are situated at the intersection of the lofty trans- 

* See Plate I. 



THE 3IID-niMALAYA RANGE. 



73 



verse chain which forms the watershed hetween the 
valleys of the Byas and Sutluj rivers, and which runs in 
the same direction as the monsoon. In its passage 
along the ridge, the heat of the blast is gradually abs- 
tracted, until when it reaches the snow it is reduced to 
the temperature of the surroundmg atmosphere. 

We have thus foiu* distinct and independent observa- 
tions for the height of the southern snow-line in different 
parts of the Mid-Himalayan range. 





Feet. 


Authority. 


1 

2 
3 

4 


In Kumaun 

In S. Bisahar ... 

In j\^. Bisahar 

In E. Kullu 


16,000 
16,000 
10,034 

17,297 


Lieut. R. Strachey. 
The Gerards. 
A. Cunningham. 
Ditto. 




Mean heighl 


16,333 feet.* 



On the same range, but farther north, I found the 
KaH Debi Pass, 16,700 feet, covered with snow in July, 
and I was assured that the snow never disappeared from 
the crest of the Pass. On the whole, therefore, the 
mass of observations agree in fixing the snow-limit on 
tlie southern exposure of this range, at 10,000 feet and 
upwards. 

On the northern exposure, the snow-line is probably 
about 17,000 feet. On crossing the llotang Pass, in the 
end of Avigust, 1816, I observed that the snow on the 
northern face of the Lahul range did not generally 
descend below 17,000 feet, although on particular peaks 
it was lying in masses as low as 16,500 feet. On the 

* Even if we allow only 15,500 feet for the height of the snow-line in 
the South Bisahar range, as observed by the Gerards, the mean height 
of the southern e.\posiu'e of the outer Ilimalaya will be 16,208 feet. 



74 LADAK. 

Bisaliar range, as we have already seen from the obser- 
vations of the Gerards, the snow remains throughout the 
year ; and as the mean height of the peaks which came 
under their observation, does not exceed 17,200 feet, it 
is certain that tlie northern snow-line cannot be higher 
than 17,000 feet. Erom the correspondence of these 
observations with my own, we may conclude that the 
northern snow-line of the Bisahar and Lahul ranges is 
somewhat under 17,000 feet. 

According to Herbert, the great mass of the Bisahar 
range is gneiss. The same rock occurs in the Lahul 
range, on both flanks of the Uotang Pass : but beyond 
this it is succeeded by limestone, which forms the crest 
of the Kali Debi ridge, flanked by silicious schist on the 
north, and by trap on the south. Beyond this, at the 
Saj Pass, Dr. Thomson found mica and clay slates; 
and limestone at the Banahal Pass, on the Pir-Panjal. 
But the mass of the Pir-Panjal, according to Vigne, is 
basaltic. 



VII.— Gtli. THE DIIAOLA DHAE or OUTEE HIMALAYA. 

The outer, or Sub-Himalaya, stretches from the bend 
of the Byas, at Mandi, to the well-known peak of 
Gandgarh, on the Indus. It attains its greatest height 
between the Byjis and Uavi, in the precipitous range of 
hnis called the Dhaola Bhdr* or White Mountain, to 

* This range is called by several names in our maps; as, " Mony Mas 
Kidar" tliat is, Mani-Mahes-hi-dhar, or the mountain of the holy lake 
of Mani-Mahes, which, however, is not situated in this range, but 
beyond the Eavi. Hugel calls the range " Palam Kidar " and " Chamba 
Kidar," from the names of the districts to the north and south of the 
range. The true name is Dhaola, from the Sanscrit Bliavala, white ; 
and this was most probably the original name written by Abu Eih'an, 



THE OUTER HIMALAYA. 75 

tlic north of Kangra. The general direction is from 
south-cast to north-west, as in the other ranges, and the 
whole length is nearly 300 miles. The Sub-Himalaya 
is pierced by the Ravi, the Chenab, the Punach, and 
the Jelilam rivers, wliicli divide it into several distinct 
ridges. 

The most easterly of these separate ridges is the 
Dhaola Dhar, which forms the natiiral boundary between 
Kullu and Mandi, and between Chamba and Kangra. 
It is about eighty miles in length, and is of sufficient 
height to be covered with snow for about eight months 
of the year. I have observed this range for four suc- 
cessive years, and I can state positively that the snow 
entirely disappears from it every year, although the 
crest of the ridge has an average height of 15,000 feet. 
In the end of November, 1846, I marched from Kangra 
to Nurpur, and observed these mountains daily, and they 
were then entirely bare of snow. On the night of the 
30th November, snow fell in considerable quantities, 
and did not disappear until the end of the following 
rains. In September and October, 1848, when I was at 
Simla, I observed this range carefully ^\dth a telescope, 
and could not discover a speck of snow on any part of it. 
Again, on the 16th and 17th of September, 1849, before 
leaving Simla, and when not a patch of snow was visible 
with a telescope sufficiently powerful for observing the 
occultation of Jupiter's satellites, I took the bearing and 
altitudes of several peaks and passes, for the purpose of 
verifying the measiu'ements which I had formerly made 
from Kangra and Nurpm\ The following table gives 
the results of all these measm'cments. 

■who calls these mountains JjUj Bhdlel, an easy corruption of J.lj>J 
Dhaola. See Reiuaud's " Fragments Arabes et Persans," p. 94. 



76 



L.VDAK. 





Nurpur. 


Kangra. 


Simla. 


Mean 
Height. 


A 


Balen Peak ... 


13,783 ft. 


— 


14,138 


13,960 


B 


Cleft Peak ... 


14,981 


— 


— 


14,981 


C 


Andrar Peak . . . 


15,642 


— 


— 


15,642 


D 


Tural Pass . . . 


— 


— 


14,808 


14,808 


E 


Tural Peak ... 


16,145 


16,210 


16,167 


16,174 


F 


Tkilau Peak ... 


— 


15,220 


— 


15,220 


G 


Sangiir Peak . . . 


— 


14,529 


— 


14,529 


II 


Satmaru Peak 


— 


13,575 


— 


13,575 


K 


Peak 


— 


14,240 


14,701 


14,470 


L 


Peak 


— 


15,109 


14,244 


14,676 


M 


Sural Peak . . . 


— 


15,644 


15,207 


15,425 


N 


Peak 


— 


— 


15,975 


15,975 


P 


Thamsar Peak 


— 


— 


15,826 


15,826 






Mea 


n height ol 


tlie range 


15,020 



The discrepancies \\'hicli appear iu these results are 
mostly attrihutahle to the difficulty which I experienced 
in identifying the peaks from the different stations. I 
had taken the precaution of making outline sketches of 
the crest, as seen both from Nurpur and from Kangra ; 
but from Simla, at a mean distance of eighty-five miles, 
and at a much greater elevation, the ridge presented 
such a different appearance that I could not satisfy my- 
self as to the identity of more than two or three points. 
The Tural peak, which is the highest in the range, was, 
of course, readUy recognized, as well as the Tural Pass 
to the Avestward. Two other peaks, K and M, agreed 
tolerably well with the outlines, and with the bearings 
on the map : but the others were all doubtfid. One, L, 
which I thought I had recogrdzcd, was most probably 
not the same peak, but I have retained it in the table 
because its height, as determined from Simla (although 
it is so much beloAv the other), docs not decrease the 



THE OUTER HIMALAYA. 77 

average elevation of the range by more than thirty-four 
feet. By striking out this one observation, the average 
height will be 15,05i feet. 

The elevation of tliis range is of considerable import- 
ance in determining the long-unsettled question of the 
snow -line, which, on the joint authority of the great 
Ilumljoldt and the learned Colebrook, had been fixed at 
13,000 feet, between 30^ and 32° of latitude. Lieut. 
Richard Strachey,* of the Engineers, was the first to 
correct this error, and to determine by observation that 
" the height of the snow-line on the more prominent 
points of the southern end of the belt, may be fairly 
reckoned at 16,000 feet, at the very least." This con- 
clusion is fully borne out by my omti observations, one 
half of which were made before the publication of Lieut. 
Strachey' s paper. The ascertained height of the Dhaola 
Dhar, which rises abruptly from the low plains of Kan- 
gra, 3,000 feet, to a mean elevation of 15,000 feet, and 
of 10,000 feet in its loftiest peaks, proves most clearly 
that the snow-line, in the southern Himalaya, cannot 
be under 16,000 feet. 

The geological structiu'e of this range is almost un- 
known. In 1839, when I descended the valley of the 
Ravi, along the northern spurs of the Dhaola Dhar, I 
noted that the whole of the formations, at from 3,000 to 
8,000 feet, were of clay and mica slates, and mostly of a 
very fine description, well adapted for roofing. The 
crest of the ridge is, however, most probably granite and 
gneiss, both of which I found on crossing the Chuari 

* Journal Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. xviii. p. 292. Since the publication 
of this paper, however, Alex. Keith Johnston, in his beautiful Physical 
Atlas, p. 16, has stated the height of the southern snow-line on the 
Himdlaj'a at 15,000 feet. 



78 LADAK. 

Pass, to the south of Chamba. Between Chamha and 
Chiiari, the gneiss was overlaid by chlorite and mica 
slates. On the south of the range, the same fine roofing- 
slates (both mica and clay) are found to the north of 
Kangra, and to the north of Mandi. Both on the north 
and south of the range, the beds of some of the small 
streams are washed for iron-sand, which, after washing, 
yields as much as 90 per cent, of pure metal. The 
same iron ore is worked at Kuman, near Mandi, where 
it occurs in thin black, sparkling ribands, in a soft 
grey sandstone. The sandstone is pounded with, a hard 
round boulder, and after wasliing yields about the same 
quantity of metal as the other. 

The second portion of the Sub-Himalayan range ex- 
tends from the Ravi to the Chenab, a distance of fifty- 
five miles, and forms the natural boundary between 
Chamba and Bhadrwar, on the north, and the small dis- 
tricts of Chaneni, Bandralta, and Balawar, on the south. 
Between Bhadrwar and Chamba, the passes of Bhadr 
Dhar and Chatr Dhar are upwards of 10,000 feet in 
height, and the ridge may therefore have an elevation 
of 12,000 feet, or even more. To the south of Chaneni 
it breaks into a remarkable triple-peaked mountain, 
which is held sacred by the Hindus, under the name of 
Tr6-kuta Devi (the three- peaked or trident goddess). 

The central portion of the Sub-Himalaya is the well- 
known Ratan Panjal, which is crossed by the Bhimbar 
road to Kashmir. The pass of Ratan Pir, from which 
the mountain (Pmijdl) derives its name, has an eleva- 
tion of 7,700 feet, and the highest peaks rise to about 
11,000 feet. It is clothed to the very summit with 
magnificent trees, and its glens are not surpassed in 



THE OUTER UIMALAYA. 79 

beauty by anything that I have seen in the Himalaya, 
always excepting the lovely valley of the Byas. The 
length of tliis ridge is eighty miles, from the neighbour- 
hood of Chaneni to the southern bend of the Punach 
river. 

The foiu'th portion of the Sub-Himalaya is altogether 
unknowTi. It extends from Koteli to Dhangali, the 
Ghakar capital on the Jehlam, a distance of twenty-five 
miles. 

The fifth, and most westerly portion of the Sub- 
Himalaya, stretches from the Jehlam to the Indus, a 
distance of nearly seventy miles. It rises to an eleva- 
tion of more than 7,000 feet, and is well clothed with 
trees on its northern slopes. 

In this general survey of the mountain-ranges that 
bound the Panjab to the north, I have purposely omitted 
all mention of the vegetable products that occur at dif- 
ferent heights, as this subject naturally forms a part of 
Dr. Thomson's botanical labours. I have also omitted 
all notice of glaciers : not that I am unaware of their 
existence, but because I have seen so few of them that I 
have nothing to say of them which is worth recording. 
In 1839, 1 traversed a magnificent glacier which spanned 
the valley of the Cheli rivulet, below the Kali Debi Pass 
(16,700 feet). It was fissured in all directions, and 
down the main fissure, which was five feet wide, I saw 
the stream trickling at a depth of more than 300 feet. 
The surface was covered with hardened snow and im- 
bedded stones ; but the mass, as seen in the fissures, 
was clear transparent ice, filled with white specks. This 
glacier was about one mUe long, and a quarter of a mile 
broad, with an average depth of 200 or 300 feet. In 



80 ladak. 

the same range, Dr. Thomson saw a similar glacier to 
the north of the Saj Pass, about thirty miles to the 
north-west of Kali Debi. In 18i7, I crossed a second 
and larger glacier, to the north of the Parang Pass, 
18,500 feet. It extended dowai the head of the Para 
river for 2f miles. At its termination, it was fifty feet 
high, but a quarter of a mile upward it was fully 
150 feet thick. Its upper end was covered with hardened 
snow, but the lower end was half-hidden in fragments of 
stone, which were mixed into the ice for several feet in 
depth. It was fissured in many places. A still larger 
glacier was observed by Dr. Thomson, on the northern 
side of the Umasi-La, on crossing into Zanskar. It ex- 
tended from the top of the pass, 18,123 feet, down to a 
level of 14,500 feet, and cannot have been less than three 
or four miles in length. All these glaciers are mere still 
masses of ice, that are only dangerous when one has to 
cross them ; but both above and below Sassar there are 
several gigantic glaciers that span the noble vaUey of 
the Khundan river. At diflFerent times, the river has 
been completely dammed for several months by these 
mighty barriers, until the accumulated waters have 
burst their icy chains, and swept away all traces of man 
and his puny labours, for several hundred feet above the 
river. 

The folloTving table gives a summary statement of all 
the information collected regarding the great mountain- 
chains in the north of the Panjab.* 

* See Plate I. for a general section through all those mountain-ranges, 
which exhibits the heights of the loftiest peaks, and the elevations of 
the different snow-lines and table-lands. 



THE OUTER HIMALAYA. 



81 







Length 


Elevation 


Mean 


Snow-line. 


No. 


Chains. 


in 
Miles. 


highest 
Peak. 


Height of 
Chain. 






South. 


North. 


1 


Kiirakoram, or 














Trans-Tibetan . 


450 


24,000? 


20,000 


18,500 


18,000 


2 


Kailas or Gangri, 














or IVIid-Tibetan . 


550 


20,700 


29,000 


19,000 


18,500 


3 


Trans- Himalaya, 














orTshomoriri... 


350 


21,000 


19,300 


20,000 


19,500 


4 


Western Hima- 
laya, or Bara 














Lacha 


650 


25,749 


20,000 


18,500 


19,000 


5 


Mid-Himalaya, 














or Pir-Panjal ... 


470 


21,786 


17,000 


16,000 


17,000 


6 


Outer Himalaya, 
Dhaola Dhar . . . 


300 


16,174 


15,020 


the 
disappears 


inow 
annually. 



82 



IV.-RIVEES. 



I.— GENEEAL EEMAEKS. 

From the lofty mountains around the holy lake of 
Manasarovara, spring four celebrated rivers, the Indus, 
the Sutluj, the Gogra, and the Brahmaputra. These 
four sources are represented in the ancient Chinese 
maps ; and the well-known story regarding them is 
common both to the Hindus and the Tibetans. The 
classical Ganges is fabled to flow from a cow's mouth ; 
and to each of these four rivers is assigned an equally 
wonderful origin. The Indus is said to flow from a 
lion's mouth, S'mgge-kha-bab ; the Sutluj, from an 
elephant's mouth, Langclien-kha-bab ; the Gogra, from 
a peacock's mouth, Macha-kJia-bab ; and the Brahma- 
putra, from the holy horse's mouth, Ta-chhog-kha-bab.* 
The fable is evidently of Indian origin, as elephants and 
pea-fowl are only known to the Tibetans by pictures, 
and because the source of the Brahmaputra, or river of 
Lhasa, is ascribed to Ta-chhog, the holy steed of Sliakya 
Thubba, or Buddha. 

* Kha-po, or in composition simply Kha, is a moutli, and hah means 
" descended." The different names are Seng-ge-Mia-hab, " lion's mouth- 
descended ;" gLaiig-chen-kha-hah, " elephant's mouth-descended ;" rMa- 
hga (pronounced Ma-cha)-]cha-hah, " peacock's mouth-descended ;" and 
rTa-mChJiog-kha-bah, " Ta-chhok's mouth-descended." Ta-chhok is the 
name of Sakya's steed, and means " the best horse." 



GENERAL REMARKS, 83 

The most remarkable feature about the Indus and its 
tributaries, is the general parallelism of their courses, 
which has been determined by the directions of the 
principal mountain-chains. In the " Novum Organum," 
Bacon has noticed the " sLniilitudines physicae in configu- 
ratione mundi," and the same similarity may be ob- 
served in the peculiar knee-bends which are common to 
all the Panjab rivers. For the curious southward sweep 
which occurs in the Sutluj below Bilaspur, is also found 
in all the other rivers : in the Byas, below Hajipur ; in 
the Ravi, near Bisoli ; in the Chenab, below Kashtwar ; 
in the Jehlam, below Mozafarabad ; and in the Indus, 
at the gorge of Makpon-i-Shang-Rong. The same re- 
turning bend also occurs in the Kishen Ganga, above 
Mozafarabad. 

The most common name for a river is chhu ;* as, 
S'mgge-chlm, the Lion river, or Indus; and Zaiiskar- 
chlm, the river of Zanskar. "VVlien a river is spoken of 
generally, it is either called Chhu-chhen, or Tsangpo, 
or Tsangchhen. The first means simply the "great 
river," but the latter is a genuine name for a river, and 
is applied to the Indus as weU as to the Brahmaputra, 
although it belongs strictly only to the great river of the 
Lhasan territory, which flows through the province of 
Tsang. It is now used to signify any large river, in the 
same way as Ganga is applied in India. Smaller streams 
are called Dok-po, the "narrow water," or brook; and 
Drag-po, the " rapid water," or torrent ; or Tsang-chung, 
the " small stream ;" but Dok-po is the common term.f 

The river system of Ladak consists entirely of the 
three great mountain-feeders of the Indus, the Singge- 

* Chhu, " wiiter," generally, a river, 
t Gro(j-po, pronounced Dokpo. It is also spelt Dog-po. 
G 2 



84 LADAK. 

chlm, or Indus Proper, the Shayok, and the ZansJcar 
rivers. But as my account of Ladak embraces the dis- 
tricts of Lahul and Spiti, which once belonged to it, my 
description of the rivers must necessarily extend to the 
Chenab and Sutluj : and to complete the subject I will 
add some short notices of the other three rivers of the 
Panjab, — the Jehlam, the Ravi, and the Byas. 

II.— THE INDUS. 

By some the real source of the Indus is at present 
considered an unsettled point,* notwithstanding the dis- 
tinct and explicit statement of Moorcroft,t that "the 
Sinh-kha-bab rises from the Gangri or Kailas range, a 
short way to the south-east of Gartop" (Garo). The infor- 
mation collected by Moorcroft agrees exactly with that 
which I obtained from different people, that the Garo 
river is the Singge-clahu or Indus, and that there is no 
gi^eat eastern branch. My principal information was 
derived from Anant Ram, the vazir of Shasso, in the 
Sungnam valley, who was despatched to Garo by the 
late Vans Agnew and myself in September 1846, with 

* Thornton, Gazetteer, in voce Indus, relies upon Gerard, whom he 
calls " probably the highest authority upon the subject." The two 
Gerards are certainly the highest authorities for mountains, as they 
discovered some that were not less than 30,000 feet in height, or 2,000 
feet higher than the loftiest known peaks. These are stated to be on 
the left bank of the Indus, in Eupshu : but when Dr. Gerard visited 
Eupshu he actually passed, unconscious, within eight or ten miles of the 
position of those stupendous peaks, which, at a distance of eighty-four 
miles, had thrown both the brothers into raptures ! Thornton strangely 
quotes Vigne as confirming the height of these mountains ; but Vigne 
simply says that he looked for them, but they were " not in sight." 
Vigne was too honest a traveller to lend his name to such a statement. 

t Travels, I. p. 3G3. 



THE INDUS. 85 

the Governor-General's letter to the Governor of Lhasa. 
He went from IIanl6 tip the valley of the Slnggd-chu to 
Garo, or rather to Higong, which is the winter residence 
of the Governor. For the Garo of our maps, wliich was 
visited by Moorcroft, is chiefly a summer encampment, as 
its name implies, on the right bank of the Iligong-chu, 
while the other Garo is situated two marches lower down 
the river, and on the left bank. The former is called Gar- 
Yarn, or upper encampment, and the latter Gar-gang,* 
or the snowy encampment, because the people retire to 
it during the winter, or snow season. Anant Ham 
passed by Tashigong, but he saw nothing of the great 
eastern branch, which I believe owes its existence 
entirely to Gerard, who could only account for the two 
names of Higong-chu and Singge-chu by supposing 
them to belong to different streams. 

Thornton, who never misses an opportunity of sneer- 
ing at Arrowsmith, states in a note that " the existence 
of this river and confluence is alleged on the credit of 
the map accompanying Moorcroft's Travels, and stated 
to have been compUed from his notes and field-books." 
Now the map referred to, which was published in 1841, 
represents the eastern Sinh-kha-bab by a dotted line, 
whereas in Arrowsmith's map of Northern Asia, pub- 
lished in 1834, the eastern branch is defined as distinctly 
as the Garo river. This branch is just as boldly deli- 
neated by the "accm'ate" Walker in Sheet XI. of the 
map of India, published in 1836, by the Society for the 
Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. These dates prove 
that previous to the publication of the map of Moor- 
croft's and Trebeck's Travels, an eastern branch of the 
Indus had been inserted in our best maps, and that 

* sGar, a cainp ; Yar, or Yam, up, upwards; aud Gangs, ice, snow. 



86 LADAK. 

Arrowsmith, after he had seen Moorcroft's and Trebeck's 
notes and field-books, was so doubtful of its existence, 
that he only represented it by a dotted line in the map 
illustrating Moorcroft's travels,* 

According to my iuformation, the true source of the 
Indus lies to the north-west of the holy lakes of Manasa- 
rovara and Rawan Hrad, in the south-western slopes of 
the Gangri or Kailas mountain, in north latitude 31° 20', 
and east longitude 80° 30', and at an estimated height 
of 17,000 feet. From its source to Garo, the Indus was 
followed by Moorcroft in 1812. Within eight or ten 
miles of its source it was 240 feet broad and 2^ feet 
deep in July, and at Garo, about forty miles from its 
source, it was " a clear, broad, and rapid, but not deep 
river." On the 19th September, 1847, I measured the 
Indus at an uninhabited spot named Ranak, a few mUes 
above the junction of the Puga rivulet, and about 2G0 
miles from the source. The stream was there 240 feet 
broad, with a mean depth of 1*7916 feet, and an extreme 
depth of only three feet. Its greatest surface velocity 
was 3"658 feet per second, or 2| miles per hour, and its 
mean surface velocity was 2*727 feet per second, or 

* Mr. Thornton, Gazetteer, in voce Hindu Kush, accuses Arrowsmith 
of embellishing the Hindu Kush with " a goodly peak." Mr. Arrow- 
smith might return the compliment by pointing to the " Panda Talao," 
with which the Walkers have emhellished the eastern branch of the 
ludus. Mr. Thornton then contrasts Mr. Walker's " usual admirable 
accuracy," as displayed in his map of the countries between the Sutluj 
and the Oxus. But in this " admirably accurate map " I find Baron 
ITugel's Mulial, and Vigne's MUiil Mori, inserted as two distinct 
places ten miles apart ! Walker's excellent map of Afghanistan is 
likewise disfigured by several errors : thus I find Shabkader and Chep- 
koder, the latter being only the French spelling of the same name ; 
Daueh Chekow is printed instead of Danish-kot ; and Antre Koustam 
instead of Kustam's Cave. 



THE INDUS. 87 

nearly one mile and seven furlongs per hour. Prom 
these data I found the discharge of the Indus to be only 
774 cubic feet per second. The stream was quite clear, 
but sluggish, running between grassy banks, half sand, 
half mud, the sand being quick, and the grass coarse, 
long, and yellow. The banks were flat and low, and 
the bottom generally muddy. Below this the character 
of the stream was quite changed, and the waters rushed 
impetuously down a narrow channel full of huge boul- 
ders and enormous rocks. 

It will be observed that the Indus at H&nak had the 
same breadth, and but little more depth than where 
Moorcroft saw it above Garo ; but as the current was 
"rapid," its velocity cannot be estimated at less than 
five or six miles an hour. TMs would give a discharge 
of about 1,500 cubic feet for July, and of 560 feet for 
September. If this estimate be correct, it is certain 
that no large stream can join the Garo river above 
Ranak. 

The course of the Indus from its source to Ranak is 
to the north-west, and the distance is about 260 mUes, 
and the fall 2,600 feet, or about ten feet per mUe. 

From Ranak to Pitak, opposite to JA, the distance 
is 130 miles, and the direction the same as before, 
almost due north-west. The fall of the river is 3,200 
feet, or 24'6 feet per mile. Above Ranak the Indus is 
generally fordable, but from thence to lA it can only be 
crossed by bridges. From Le to ^le junction of the 
Dras river, a distance of 125 mUes, the river changes its 
course to west-south-west. From this point to the 
junction of the Shayok river, a distance of seventy-five 
mUes, its course is generally north-north-west, and from 
thence to Skardo, a distance of thirty mUes, it makes a 



.'A 



88 LADAK. 

sweep up to the northward, and retviming to the south 
resumes its former course to the north-north-west. 

At Nyimo, just twenty-five miles below Le, the Indus 
is joined by the Zanskar river, a dark and turbulent 
torrent of equal, or perhaps of greater size. The junc- 
tion of the united Waka, Siiru, and Dras rivers with the 
Indus takes place at Moral, and the confluence of the 
Shayok and Indus just above Keris (7,500 feet). 

On the 26th of November, Dr. Thomson foimd the 
Indus at Skardo 520 feet broad, with a mean depth of 
7'11 feet, and an extreme depth of 9^ feet. The mean 
surface velocity was 2*128 feet per second, or about 1^ 
mUe per hour. The greatest surface velocity was 2"586 
feet per second, or rather more than If mile per hour. 

From these data I calculate the discharge at 4,525 
cubic feet per second in the winter. Of this amoimt 
about 2,000 cubic feet are probably supplied by the 
Shayok river, and the remaining 2,500 cubic feet by the 
Indus Proper. The small rivers of Wanla, Waka, Suru, 
and Dras probably supply 500 cubic feet, and the Zan- 
skar river about 1,000 cubic feet; thus leaving 1,000 
cubic feet for the discharge of the Indus at Le during 
the winter season. 

Prom Skardo to Rongdo and from Rongdo to Makpon- 
i-Shang-Rong, for upwards of 100 miles, the Indus 
sweeps sullen and dark through a mighty gorge in the 
mountains, which for wild sublimity is perhaps un- 
equalled.* Rongdo means the " country of defiles," and 
Makpon-i-Shang-Rong means the "craggy defile of 
Astor." Between these points the Indus raves from side 
to side of the gloomy chasm, foaming and chafing with 

* See Plate III. for a view of the bed of the ludus at the Kougdo 
Bridge. 



L 



THE INDUS. 89 

ungovcniable fury. Yet even in these inaccessible 
places has daring and ingenious man triumphed over 
opposing nature. The yawning abyss is spanned by 
frail rope bridges, and the narrow ledges of rock are 
connected by ladders to form a giddy pathway over- 
hanging the seething caldron below. At Makpon-i- 
Shang-E/ong, 4,500 feet, the Indus cuts the Trans- 
Himalayan chain of mountains by a bold and sudden 
sweep round to the southward, where it receives the 
waters of the Gilgit river, a mighty stream, perhaps not 
inferior to any one of the mountain tributaries. From 
Skardo to Rongdo the distance is 40 miles, and the 
fall of the river 800 feet, or 20 feet per mile. From 
Rongdo to the Shang-Rong the distance is 75 miles, 
and the faU 1,700 feet, or 22-6 feet per nule. 

From the junction of the Gilgit river to Attock, 1,000 
feet above the sea-level, the course of the Indus is to 
the south-west. The distance is 300 mUes, and the fall 
of the river 3,500 feet, or 11-G feet per mile. This part 
of its course is but little known ; but even at Ohind, 15 
mUes above Attock, I found the current of the Indus 
much more rapid than that of any other river of the 
Panjab. 

From its source to RA-nak, the Indus is a broad and 
fordable stream, rolling its sluggish waters through open 
grassy plains. Its general width is about 250 feet. 
From Ranak to the junction of the Zanskar river, the 
stream is a brawling rapid from 100 to 150 feet broad ; 
and thence to the confluence of the Shayok it is a 
furious torrent, raving from side to side of a narrow 
ravine. At the Khallach bridge, the channel is only 
50 feet vnde below and 60 feet above. In the winter 
the lower part of the Indus is frequently frozen over, 



90 LADAK. 

and in 1841 Zorawar Sing's troops crossed the Indus on 
the ice. 

The whole length of the mountain course of the Indus 
from its source to Attock is 1,035 miles,* and the whole 
faU is 16,000 feet, or 15-4! feet per mile. From Attock 
to the sea the length is 942 miles, and its whole length 
from the Kailas mountain to the Indian Ocean is 1,977 
miles. The minimum discharge of the Indus between 
Attock and Mithankot is about 16,000 cubic feet, which 
I have estimated in the following manner : — 

Discharge at Skardo 4,500 cubic feet. 

Shigar, Gilgit, and Astor rivers . . . 4,000 
Small unknown streams ... ... 2,500 



11,000 
Kabul river ... ... ... ... 5,500 



16,500 



Loss by evaporation between Attock ") , ^.-^ 
and Mithankot ... ... ) ' 

Total discharge 15,000 

In May, when it has been increased by the meltiag of 
the snows, its discharge is six times as great, or 91,791 
cubic feet ; and in July and August, when swollen by 
the seasonal rains, it reaches its maximum discharge of 
135,000 cubic feet, or nine times that of the winter 
discharge. These estimates are for the Indus itself 
above the confluence of the Panjnad. Below the con- 
fluence, the minimum discharge of the Indus is about 

* My measurements have all been made by adding one half to the 
measured lengths obtained by the compasses. Thornton reckons the 
mountain course of the Indus at 700 mOes, but the practised Geogra- 
pher Alex. Keith Johnston estimates it at 1,060 miles, which is 
within a few miles of my own estimate. See Johnston's Physical Atlas, 
p. 45. 



THE INDUS. 



91 



27,000 cubic feet. The discharge in May is 160,671 
cubic feetj* and the maximum discharge is 230,000 
cubic feet. 

The discharge of the Indus at R^nak has ah-eady been 
stated at 774 cubic feet in September ; and I estimate 
its winter discharge below Le at 1,000 cubic feet. As 
the Zanskar river is about the same size, the minimum 
discharge of the Indus Proper may be taken at 2,000 
cubic feet ; and tlie maximum discharge, at nine times 
the minimum, will be 18,000 cubic feet. That this esti- 
mate is not too great, can be proved by the known rise 
of the river (36 feet) at the Khallach bridge, where 
the stream is confined between almost perpendicular 
rocks, only 55 feet apart. A discharge of 18,000 cubic 
feet at this point would require a surface velocity of 
not more than 8^ miles per hour, or of 12-46 feet 
per second. 

The waters of the Indus are supplied by the rivers of 
the Panjab in the following proportion. 



1 

2 
3 

4 
5 


Sutluj 

Byas 

Ravi 

Clienab 

Jehlam 

Loss 


Cubic Feet. 


Authority. 


5,700 
3,100 
2,700 

4,700 
4,000 


Major Baker, Engineers. 
Major Cunningham. 
Col. Napier, Engineers. 
Major Cunningham. 
Estimated. 

evaporation, permeation, &c. 


20,200 
.. 8,200 by 


Panjnad ... 
Indus Proper 

Minimiun discharj 


.. 12,000 cu 
.. 15,000 


bic feet, discharge. 


'e 27,000 cu 


bic feet. 



Wood, in Barnes's Cabul, p. 374. 



92 



LABAK. 



The following table exhibits the discharge of the 
Indus below Mithankot in several months of the year.* 



Dr. Lord corrected. 


Wood. 


Burnes corrected. 


In Marcb 26,357 

„ April 66,660 

„ May 160,162 

„ June 163,483 

„ July 223,678 

„ August 230,177 

„ September ... 217,110 


160,674 


67,837 



In his Memoii- on the Indus, Sir A. Burnes has as- 
signed to the Indus a discharge of 80,000 cubic feet in 
April, and then contrasted this amount Avith the mini- 
mum discharge of the Ganges, as published by George 
Prinsep. But the comparison is doubly incorrect, for 
the lowest state of the Indus occurs in March, when, as 
we have seen, the discharge is not more than 27,000 
cubic feet : and the discharge of the Ganges, at Sikrigali, 
as stated by George Prinsep, is so manifestly wrong that 
it is quite astonishing how any one could have repeated 
such an absurd mistake. On turning to George Prin- 
sep's statement, I find that he assigns 21,500 cubic feet 

* Dr. Lord, Medical Memoir of tbe Valley of tbe Indus, p. 65, states 
the discbarge in May at 310,393 cubic feet ; but bis calculation must 
have been made from the surface velocity instead of from the mean 
velocity of the mass. I have therefore reduced all his discharges by 
multiplying them by the factor '5 16. This makes the May discharge 
agree with that of the accurate Wood. Sir A. Burnes makes the breadth 
of tlie Indus, at Tatta, 670 yards or 2,010 feet, the depth 15 feet, and 
the velocity 1\ miles per hour. From these data I have calculated the 

discharge according; to the formula v=- 



(,/.,_l)2 + , 



1 ; in which s is the 

surface velocity, and w tbe mean velocitj' of the mass. The result agrees 
closely with Dr. Lord's corrected discharge. 



THE INDUS. 93 

as the discliarge of the Ganges at Sikrigali, and 20,000 
at Benares. The latter, as Burnes remarks, " differs in 
but a trifling degree from that at Sikrigali;" and the 
near agreement of these two, he conceives to be a proof 
in favour of the correctness of the estimated discharge.* 
Had any one told him that the discharge of the Indus at 
Mithankot was the same as at Dera Ghazi Khan, above 
the junction of the Fanjnad, he would at once have 
exposed the absui'dity ; and yet he takes the Ganges at 
Sikrigali to be the same stream as the Ganges at Be- 
nares, although between these points it receives the 
tribute waters of the Gumti, the Gogra, the Son, the 
Gandak, the Baghmati, the Gogari, the Kosi, and the 
Mahanadi; of which the Gogra alone is fully equal 
to the Ganges at Benares. 

As the comparison of the two rivers is a subject of 
much interest, I will here state all that I have gathered 
regarding the discharge of the Ganges. The estimated 
discharge at Benares was, without doubt, derived from 
the measui'cments of James Prinsep, who was for several 
years Assay Master of the Benares Mint, and whose 
high attainments in all branches of science are sufiicient 
to guarantee the correctness of his calculations. Indeed 
the accuracy of James Prinsep's discharge of the Ganges 
at Benares is most satisfactorily proved by the measured 
discharge at Ghazipur, which from data published by 
the Rev. R. Everest,! I have calculated at 21,757 cubic 
feet. The only other minimum calculation which I 
possess, is luckily that which is most wanted, the mini- 
mum discharge of the Ganges at the head of the Delta. 
For this I am indebted to the late Colonel Wilcox, who 

* Burnes's Travels, I. p. 199. 

t Journal Asiat. Soc. Bengal, I. p. 241. 



94 LADAK. 

was formerly employed on the Great Trigonometrical 
Survey, and afterwards in the Observatory of the King 
of Oude. The measurements were taken above Comer- 
colly and Pubna, and included the streams of the Ja- 
linghi and Bhagirathi, as well as the main river. The 
discharge of the Ganges at this point was found to be 
96,000 cubic feet, or more than three and a half times 
that of the Indus. The maximiun discharge of the 
Ganges at Ghazipur, calculated from the data furnished 
by the Rev. R. Everest, I find to be 476,761 cubic feet, 
or more than double that of the Indus at its greatest 
height. The maximum discharge of the Ganges, at the 
head of the Delta, cannot therefore be estimated at less 
than 1,500,000 cubic feet, or just six times that of the 
Indus. George Prinsep* states the maximum discharge 
at Sikrigali, at 1,850,000 cubic feet ; but my calculation, 
from his data, gives only 1,430,800 cubic feet. This re- 
sult might have been anticipated from the much greater 
extent of the Himalayan chain, drained by the Ganges, 
and from the known greater fall of rain in the Gangetic 
basin. The latter cause is probably the chief one, as it 
is known that the annual faU of rain increases rapidly 
from the Jamna, eastward. 

III.— THE SHATOK EIVEE. 

The principal mountain tributary of the Indus is the 
Shayok, or Khundan river, which rises in the Karako- 
ram mountains, to the northward of L^, in N. latitude 
36°, and E. longitude 78°, and to the south-eastward of 
the Karakoram Pass. Prom its source to the neigh- 
bourhood of Sassar, it makes a bold sweep of sixty miles 

* Gleanings in Science, III. p. 185. 



THE SHAYOK KIVEE. 95 

to the west and south. Thence, for fifty miles, to Man- 
dalik, it takes a south-easterly course ; and onward, to 
the town of Shayok, which gives its name to the stream, 
it flows due south for fifty miles more. Erom the 
source to this point, the whole length of the river is 170 
miles, and the faU 6,000 feet, or 35-3 feet per mile. A 
short distance above the great north-western bend, the 
Shayok receives the waters of the Chang -chhen-mo, or 
Great Chang river, whose course has been explored by 
Captain H. Strachey ; and below the bend it receives 
the waters of the Long-Komna, from the south-east. 
From Shayok to Hundar, the course is west-north-west, 
and the distance is about eighty miles. Near this place 
it receives the Nubra river, a considerable stream, about 
100 miles in length, from the north-west. Beyond this 
point it pm-sues the same direction to its confluence with 
the Indus, at Keris, a distance of 150 miles. Erom 
Shayok to the junction, the distance is 230 miles, and 
the fall is 4,500 feet, or 19"6 feet per mile. From its 
source in the Karakoram to Keris, where it joins the 
Indus, the whole length of the Shayok is just 400 miles, 
and the total fall is 10,500 feet, or 26*4 feet per mile. 

The general character of the Shayok is exactly the 
reverse of that of the Indus. Its upper course is rush- 
ing and tm'bulent, down a narrow glen, but its middle 
course is either broad and rapid, or divided into nume- 
rous channels, in an open valley ; and in these places 
where the waters are much scattered, the river is generally 
fordable, although not without difficulty.* Between 
Tertse and Unmaru, there are seven distinct branches, 
of which three are between 300 and 400 feet in width, 
and the others much smaller, with an average depth of 

* For this iiiformatiou I am indebted to tlie kindness of Dr. Thomson. 



96 LADAK. 

two feet. At Surmu, the Shayok is also forded by two 
separate channels, each 300 feet broad, with a depth 
varying from two to three feet. At the Tm-tuk bridge, 
the river narrows to seventy feet, and in the lower part 
of its course, the Shayok is generally a furious rapid, 
confined between precipitous cliffs. In the height of 
summer, when the stream is much swollen by the melted 
snows, the fords are always difiicult. In the winter, the 
passage is easy ; and even in the lower part of its course 
the Shayok is frequently frozen over, and the stream is 
crossed upon the ice. I estimate the winter discharge 
of the Shayok at 2,000 cubic feet, the increased discharge 
in May at 12,000, and the maximvim discharge in 
August at 18,000 cubic feet. 



IV.— THE ZANSKAE EIVEE. 

The Chiling-chhu, or Zanskar river, is formed of two 
principal branches, Zanskar '^xo^ev, and the Sum- Gal, or 
river of the " Three Fords." The head- waters of the 
Zanskar river are the Yunam, the Serchu (or YeUow 
River), and the Cherpa, all of which rise to the north of 
the Himalaya range, near the Bara Lacha Pass. The 
head of the Cherpa river, which is the most remote 
source of the Zanskar river, is situated in N. latitude 
32° 40', and E. longitude 78°. The united stream, below 
the junction of the Cherpa, is not fordable until the end 
of September ; and the Cherpa itself is not fordable after 
mid-day, even in the beginning of September, as both 
the rapidity and depth of the stream are much increased 
by the daily melting of the snow. The united stream, 
called Lingti, follows a north-westerly coui-se, as far as 
Phadam, the chief place in the Zanskar district. Prom 



OTHER TRIBUTARIES. 97 

its source to Phadam, the distance is 130 miles, and the 
fall 4,000 feet, or 34-6 feet per mile. At Phadam the 
Lingti receives a small stream from the west, and then 
takes a due northerly course for upwards of eighty miles, 
to its junction mth the Indus, opposite Nyimo. In this 
part of its course the faU is only 1,500 feet, or 18-7 feet 
per mUe. The whole length of the Zanskar river is 210 
miles, and the total fall is 6,000 feet, or 28-5 feet per 
nrile. 

About twenty-five mUes above its junction with the 
Indus, the Zanskar river receives the waters of the Sum- 
Gal, or river of the " Three Pords." The head-waters of 
this tributary rise in the mountains to the westward of 
the Tshomo-Riri lake, in N. latitude 33°, and E. longi- 
tude 78°. Three branches, of about equal size, join their 
waters to form this river ; and as each of these streams is 
forded separately within the short distance of one mile, 
the united stream has received the descriptive name of 
Sum-Gal, or the river of the " Three Pords." Prom its 
source to its junction with the Zanskar river, the course 
of the Sum-Gal is north-north-Avest ; its length is 110 
miles, and its fall is about 5,000 feet, or 45-4 feet per mile. 

I estimate the discharge of the Zanskar river at 1,000 
cubic feet in the winter, at 6,000 cubic feet in May, and 
at 9,000 cubic feet at its maximum, m August. 

v.— OTIIEE TEIBUTAEIES. 

Of the other mountain tributaries of the Indus, there 
are only four that are deserving of particular notice : the 
rivers of Dras, Shigar, Gilgit, and Astor. 

The Dras river is formed of the united streams of the 
Waka, the Suru, the Dras, and the Kuksar rivers. The 

H 



98 LADAK. 

Waka-chu is formed of two main branches, the Waka 
and the Phu-gal, both of which take their rise to the 
north of the Hunalaya, near the Vingge-la, in N. lati- 
tude 33° 40', and E. longitude 76° 30'. Each stream is 
fordahle above the junction, biit the united stream is 
crossed by bridges. The whole length of the Waka-chu 
is about 100 nules, the general direction being north- 
north-west. The Suru river rises to the north of the 
Hunalaya range, in N. latitude 34°, and E. longitude 76°. 
Its length is about sixty miles, and its direction about 
north-north-east. The Dras river rises to the north of 
the Himalayan range, near the Seoji La Pass, in N. lati- 
tude 34° 12', and E. longitude 75° 45'. Its whole length 
is about eighty-five miles, and its general dh-ection is 
north-east. The Kuksar river rises to the westward, in 
about 34° 40' N. latitude, and 75° E. longitude. The 
length of its course is unknown ; but it is probably not less 
than 100 miles. Its general direction is easterly. The 
whole of these streams unite near Kargyil, below which 
they cut the Trans-Himalayan range, at the narrow 
gorge called the Wolf's Leap, and join the Indus oppo- 
site Mural. I estimate the discharge of the Dras river 
at not less than 500 cubic feet. 

The Shigar river rises in the Karakoram moimtains, 
in N. latitude 36° 20', and E. longitude 75°. It takes a 
south-easterly direction for 100 miles, and then tm'ns to 
the south-south-west for nearly forty miles, to its jimc- 
tion with the Indus, opposite Skardo. The discharge of 
this stream is probably about 500 cubic feet. 

The Gilgit river is one of the principal moimtain- 
feeders of the Indus. Its upper course is formed of two 
principal branches, the Yasan and Parasot rivers. The 
former rises in N. latitude 37°, and E. longitude 73°, at 



CATACLYSM OF THE INDUS. 99 

the point where the Kiirakoram merges into the Hindu 
Kush. The source of the Parasot is in 3G° 10' N. lati- 
tude, and 72° 40' E. longitude, on the eastern face of the 
range which gives rise to the Chitral, or Kunar river. 
After a separate course of seventy-five miles each, the 
two streams join above Roshan, in latitude 36° 20', and 
longitude 73° 30', and take an easterly course for twenty- 
five mUes, to Gakuch, where they are joined by the 
Chator-Kun river, from the north. Thence to the town 
of GUgit its course is east-south-east, for fifty mUes, 
below which it receives the joint tribute of the Hunza- 
Nager rivers. It continues the same course for about 
thirty miles further, to its junction with the Indus, 
below the defile of Makpon-i-Shang-Rong. The general 
direction of the stream is to the east-south-cast, and its 
whole length not less than 180 miles. The minimum 
discharge is probably 2,000 cubic feet, or even more. 

The Astor, or Hasora river, falls into the Indus in 
latitude 35° 30', and longitude 74° 35'. It rises to the 
cast of the great mountaia of Dayamur, and takes a 
northerly course of about 100 miles. 

VI.— CATACLYSM OF THE INDUS. 

Since Moorcroft visited Ladak, there have been no 
less than three inundations of the Indus, of which the 
last and greatest occui-red in 1811. Vigne was the first 
to make known the second of these cataclysms, which, 
from the information of the people, he attributed to its 
right cause,* the bursting of a glacier in the upper 
course of the Shayok river. In 1812, when Izzet Ullah 
went from Le to Yarkand, he travelled up the Shayok 
* Kashmir, II. p. 362. 
H 2 



100 LADAK. 

river, from its great western bend to its source in the 
Karakoram mountains ; and in 1822, when Moorcroft 
was at Le, the road by the Shayok was still clear. The 
information which I obtained regarding the Shayok or 
Khundan glacier, dates the first stoppage of the river in 
the fourth year after Moorcroft left Ladak, and in the 
same year that Jeliangir Khoja came from Yarkand, or 
in A.D. 1826. The river was dammed only for a short 
time, but the road was permanently obstructed. The 
second cataclysm happened in 1833, when, to use Vigne's 
account, " the protecting glacier gave way, and the 
mighty flood, no longer confined, rushed down the valley 
of the Shayok, destroying every village that came 
within its reach." The third cataclysm occurred in 
1841, when the gallant Syam Sing Atariwala (who fell 
at Sobraon) was encamped in the bed of the river. 
Suddenly down rushed the wave of the inundation, 
thirty feet in height, and the whole camp took to flight : 
most of the men were saved, but the baggage, camp 
equipage, and gims, were swept away. 

The cataclysm of the Val de Bagnes, a small feeder of 
the Rhone, is the only great flood of this kind of wliich 
I can find any account ; but the Val de Bagnes is scarcely 
five mUes in length, wliile the glacier of the Khundan 
river is not less than 800 miles from the fort of Attock, 
past whose walls the flood rushed in one tremendous 
wave about 30 feet high, and continued its overwhelming 
coiu'se to the Indian Ocean, a distance of 1,750 miles. 

Who that from Alpine heights his laboring eye 

Shoots round the wide horizon, to survey 

Indus or Ganges rolling their bright floods 

Through mountains, plains, through empires black with shade, 

And continents of sand, will turn his gaze 

To mark the windings of a scanty rill ? Akexside. 



CATACLYSM OF THE INDUS. 101 

The Val de Bagiies is a petty brook, while the Khun- 
dan is a mighty river, scarcely inferior to the Indus 
itself at their junction above the fort of Skardo. 

As a magnificent natural catastrojihc on so grand a 
scale as that of the cataclysm of the Indus is Avorthy of 
the most particular examination, I trust that the follow- 
ing details will prove both interesting and valuable. 

When Vigne and Dr. Falconer* were at Skardo in 
1837, they heard that the Shayok or Khundan river had 
been often "blocked up by avalanches and masses of 
ice," and that a flood had occurred not many years 
before. Both of these travellers heard of a lake in the 
upper course of the Shayok river, but as j\Iir Izzet 
Ullah does not mention it, I conclude that my informa- 
tion regarding the origin of the lake is correct. In two 
different parts of the Shayok or Khundan river, above 
and below Sassar, the bed of the stream is completely 
spamied by enormous glaciers. The upper glaciers above 
Sassar were seen by Dr. Thomson in 1848. They had 
descended from two lateral ravines on the western bank, 
and had been thrust right across the bed of the river by 
their own weight. But the lower glaciers on the Khun- 
dan are those to wliich my informants attributed the 
obstruction of the river, and they were imanimous in 
ascribing the flood to the long stoppage and sudden 
escape of the accumulated waters of the Khundan. The 
exact position of the great glacier is known within a 
few mUes. It is situated somewhere between Sassar 
and the jvmction of the Chang-Chhenmo, and as the 
distance between these points is only 50 mUes, we may 
place the glacier with tolerable certainty at about 30 
miles below Sassar, and 20 nules above the junction of 
* Journal Asiatic yoc. Bengal, X. p. 617. 



J02 LADAK. 

the Chang-Chhen-mo. This part of the course is now 
quite iaaccessible, owing to the accumulated mass of ice 
and snow. The high road from Le to Yarkand formerly- 
ascended the bed of the Khundan or Shayok river the 
whole way to its source in the Karakoram mountains ; 
but since the obstruction of the channel, the road now 
takes a more westerly direction up the Nubra river, and 
then crosses a lofty pass to Sassar on the Khundan. At 
tliis point it again leaves the Khundan, on account of 
the upper glaciers seen by Dr. Thomson, and proceeds 
over a rugged and elevated tract to the head-waters of 
the river. 

In these cold and lofty regions, almost every ravine is 
filled with a glacier, which, except during a very warm 
summer, never moves, but is bound to the rocks every 
night by the icy chains of frost. A glacier is melted on 
its under surface by the liigher temperatm-e of the soU, 
and on its upper surface by the thawing of the snoAV 
under the direct rays of the sun. The heated stones 
that lie on the top form hollows and clefts that admit 
the external air, and little rills of water trickle over the 
sides in aU directions. The glacier is thus furrowed by 
holes, penetrated by cracks, and undermined below, until 
it becomes narrower than the ravine which contains it. 
It then descends by its own weight, and is either rent 
to pieces by unequal pressure, or checked by some 
opposing obstacle. In a very warm and dry summer 
the glaciers in the lateral ravines of the Khundan would 
be so much diminished by melting and evaporation, that 
they would be impelled onwards by their own gravity 
right across the channel of the river. This I suppose to 
have been the case towards the end of September 1826, 
from which time the channel of the Ivhundan river has 



CATACLYSM OF THE INDUS. 103 

never been clear, and the accumulated waters have 
formed a lake of considerable size, to which the people 
have given the name of Niibra Tsho, or the Nubra Lake. 
The accoimts which Vigne received were "various and 
most conflicting, but all agreed that it was very large ;" 
and he concluded that it might be " three or four miles 
in length and less than a mUe in width." My informant, 
who had seen the lake, said it was four or five kos (eight 
or ten miles) in length, and less than a quarter of a kos 
(half a nule) in breadth ; and such is the shape, that I 
should suppose it must take in the confined channel of 
the Khundan river. 

In 1833* this barrier was burst, and the accumulated 
waters rushed down the valley of the Shayok, destroy- 
ing every village within their reach ; from Nubra to 
Skardo, a distance of 120 mUes, the flood-wave descended 
in a single day, at the rate of ten miles an hour ; and 
the marks of its fury were still to be seen at Skardo in 
1837. So well was the cause of this iaundation known 
to the people, that it was believed " that the same 
terrific visitation might be expected to occur agaia at no 
very distant period. "f 

The expected cataclysm occvirred in June 1841, but it 
was immensely greater in volume and more devastating 
ia its efi'ect* than the previous inundation of 1833. 

Diu-ing December 1840 and January 1841, the Indus 
was observed to be unusually low between Torbela and 
Attock. X In February and March it became lower, and 

* Two dift'erent informants fixed the date as follows: — one said four- 
teen years before 18i7, that is in 1833 ; the other said " just before 
Zorawar Sing invaded Ladak." As the invasion took place in ISSJt, 
the cataclysm may be dated in 1833. 

t Vigne's Kashmir, II. p. 362. 

+ Major James Abbott. Journal Asiat. Soc. Bengal, XVII. p. 230. 



104 LADAK. 

was even fordable not> far above Attock ; but in April 
and May, tliough still very low, it was no longer fordable, 
as tlie depth of the stream had been much increased by 
the melted snows. Early in June the barrier was burst, 
and the collected waters of nearly six months rushed 
with overwhelming violence down the narrow valley of 
the Shayok, sweeping everything before them. Houses 
and trees, men and women, horses and oxen, sheep and 
goats, were carried away at once, and all the alluvial 
flats in the bed of the river, which had been irrigated 
with laborious care, were destroyed in a moment. Tliis 
happened in the middle of the month of Jyeth in the 
Sambat year 1898, or about the 1st Jvme, A.D. 18-il. 

According to the testimony of the people of Chulung 
and Tartuk, on the western boundary of Chhorbad, the 
wave of inundation passed their villages at two o'clock in 
the afternoon. As these villages stand on opposite 
sides of the river, and are ten miles apart, the concur- 
rence of testimony may be taken as a proof of its correct- 
ness. Two days afterwards, and exactly at the same 
hour, the flood passed by Torbela, a distance of 550 
miles. The rate is 11-4583 miles per horn-, or 16-81 feet 
per second, being only just half that of the flood- wave 
of the Val de Bagnes in 1818 at its first burst into the 
valley of the Rhone. The fall from the Khundan gla- 
cier to Torbela is 16,000 feet, or just 20 feet per mile. 

The devastating effects of this terrible flood were still 
quite fresh in 1847. At Tertse, one of the widest parts 
of the valley, they could be traced to a height of more 
than 20 feet above the stream, where straws and twigs 
were massed together in lines two or three feet broad, 
and upwards of half a mile from the channel of the river in 
October 1817. But the most striking eftect of the flood 



CATACLYSM OF THE INDUS. 



105 



was the entii*e absence of trees in the valley of the 
Shayok, while the lateral vaUey of Nubra was full of 
trees upwards of a hundred years old.* There were of 
coiu'se many young trees in the bed of the Shayok, but 
they were the growth of only a few years. At Surmu 
and at other places in the Khapolor district, numbers of 
fruit-trees Averc observed standing amidst large tracts of 
sand and gravel. 

The following table shows the loss of life and property 
in most of the villages along the Shayok from the junc- 
tion of the Nubra river to the fort of Skardo. 



Districts. 


Houses. 


People. 


Horses. 


Oxen. 


Sheep, 
Goats. 


Khals 
of Land. 


Trees. 


Nubra 

Chborbad 
Khapolor 

Keris 

Skardo 

Parguta 

Total ... 


19 
140 
163 

20 
9 


S3 
8 
1 


18 

1 


114 

4 


1,040 


178 
364 
859 
127 
107 
10 


140 

4,900 
1,190 
1,200 


351 


92 


19 


118 


1,040 


1,645 


7,430 



From this list we learn that the principal loss of life 
occmTcd in the Nubra district, where the valley of the 
Shayok expands to about half a mile in breadth. There 
the shepherds and herdsmen, with their flocks and herds, 
Avere overwhelmed in the midst of the open plain, with- 
out a chance of escape. In the lower part of the valley, 
where the channel is confined, and where the vUlages are 
generally built high above the stream, there was no loss 
of Ufe. Even amongst the low-lying hamlets in the bed 
of the river, the loss of life was trifling, for the distant 
roar of the rusliing waters was a sufficient warning to 
* Thia fact was commuuicated to mu by Dr. Thomson. 



106 LADAK. 

the people who had beheld the inundation of 1833, and 
with a few exceptions they all made their escape up the 
mountains. 

The effect of the inundation at Torbela has been so 
graphically described by Major James Abbott from the 
lips of an eye-witness, Ashraf Khan, of Torbela, that I 
wUl quote it entire.* " At about 2 p.m. a murmuring 
soimd was heard from the north-east among the moun- 
tains, which increased until it attracted universal atten- 
tion, and we began to exclaim, ' What is this murmur ? 
Is it the sound of cannon in the distance ? Is Gandgarh 
bellowing? Is it thunder?' Suddenly some one cried out, 
' The river's come.' And I looked and perceived that all 
the dry channels were already filled, and that the river 
was racing down furiously in an absolute wall of mud, 
for it had not at all the colour or appearance of water. 
They who saw it in time easUy escaped. They who did 
not, were inevitably lost. It was a horrible mess of foul 
water, carcases of soldiers, peasants, war-steeds, camels, 
prostitutes, tents, mules, asses, trees, and household 
furniture, in short, every item of existence jumbled toge- 
ther in one ilood of ruin ; for Raja Gulab Sing's army 
was encamped in the bed of the Indus at Kulai, three 
kos above Torbela, in check of Painda Khan. Part of 
the force was at that moment in hot pursuit, or the ruin 
would have been wider. The rest ran, some to large 
trees which were aU soon uprooted and borne away ; 
others to rocks, which were speedUy buried beneath the 
waters. Only they escaped who took at once to the 
mountain-side. About five hundred of these troops 
were at once swept to destruction. The mischief was 
immense. Hundreds of acres of arable land were Licked 

* Journal Asiat. ISoc. Bengal, XYII. p. 231. 



CATACLYSM OF THE INDUS. 107 

up and carried away by the waters. The whole of the 
Sisu-trees which adorned the river's banks, the famous 
bargat-tree of many stems, time out of mind the chosen 
bivouac of travellers, were all lost in an instant." 

Throughout the mountain-course of the Indus the 
devastation caused by this terrible flood in the low lands 
along the bank of the river was complete. All the cul- 
tivated lands were swept away, and not even a single 
tree was left standing to mark the spot where careful 
tillage and laborious irrigation had for hundreds of years 
wrung luxiu'iant crops from the thirsty soil. The fields, 
the houses, and the trees, were all overwhelmed in one 
common ruin ; while man and the animals which he has 
domesticated, horses and oxen, sheep and goats, gene- 
rally managed to escape. 

The ruin caused by tliis awful inundation in the bed 
of the Indus, between Torbela and Attock, was so over- 
whelming and so vast, that " it will take hundreds, if 
not thousands of years, to enable time to repair, with its 
healing hand, the mischief of that terrible hour. The 
revenue of Torbela has in consequence dwindled from 
20,000 to 5,000 rupees. Chach has been soAvn with barren 
sand. The timber, for which the Indus has been cele- 
brated from the days of Alexander untU this disaster, 
is now so utterly gone, that I vainly strove throughout 
Huzara to procure a Sisu-tree for the repair of the 
field-artillery carriages. To make some poor amends, 
the river sprinkled gold dust over the barren soil, so 
that the washings, for several successive years, were 
farmed at four times their ordinary rent."* 

Opposite Attock, the waters of the Kabul river were 
checked and forced backward for upwards of twenty 
* Major James Abbott. 



108 



LADAK. 



miles, by the mighty wave of inundation. The fort of 
Akora, and the village of Messabanda, were overthrown ; 
and when I saw them in January 1848, were mere scat- 
tered heaps of ruin. 

As everything connected with this tremendous inun- 
dation must be interesting, I have attempted to ascer- 
tain, approximately, the mass of the accumulated waters 
in the Nubra Tsho, or Lake, formed by the glacier bar- 
rier, as well as the mass and height of the cataclysmal 
wave. In calculating the accumulation of water, I have 
estimated the usual winter discharge of the Khundan 
river at 800 cubic feet, or less than one-half of the dis- 
charge at its confluence with the Indus. The increased 
discharges in April and May are based upon the known 
rates of increase in the discharge of the Indus, which 
have already been given. The accumulation began in 
December. 



Date. 


Velocity. 


Accumulation. 


December 1840 
January 1841 
February „ 
March „ 
April „ 
May „ 


800 cubic ft. per sec. 

800 „ 

800 „ 

800 „ 
2,000 „ 
4,800 „ 


1,249,920,000 cubic ft. 
1,249,920,000 
1,128,960,000 
1,249,920,000 
5,064,000,000 
12,918,320,000 


22,861,040,000 



From this amount a considerable deduction must be 
made for loss by evaporation and percolation. I do not, 
therefore, estimate the whole mass of accumulated waters 
at more than 20,000,000,000 cubic feet. But even this 
would be sufficient to form a lake twelve miles in length, 
with an average breadth of 526 yards, or 1,578 feet, and an 
average depth of 200 feet. The surface of the lake would 



CATACLYSM OF THE INBTJS. 109 

have been half a mile or more in breadth, and the depth 
at the lower end, against the glacier, would have been 
400 feet. As the fall in this part of the bed of the river 
is somewhat less than thirty-five feet, a lake of tliis depth 
would be exactly twelve miles in length. 

The bursting of the barrier was, I have little doubt, 
caused by the cutting powers of the overflowing waters, 
which must quickly have worked enormous clefts in the 
outer face of the glacier. In a few days these clefts 
would have been worn deeper and deeper, until the icy 
mass at length gave way under the mighty pressure of 
the vast liquid body. Then the imprisoned waters burst 
forth with a roar of exultation, lashing themselves into 
foam against the rocks, careering madly from side to 
side, and sweeping all things before them in the wild 
might of their untamed strength. 

According to the information given by the people of 
Chulung, on the Shayok, the flood was three whole days 
in passing ofi"; two days in full height, and the third day 
considerably decreased ; on the fourth day the flood had 
mostly gone by, but the stream was still much swollen. 
The following calculation shows the daily discharge of 
water for each of the three days of flood, with a small 
allowance for the fourth day. 

Daily discharge. 

1st day at 100,000 cubic feet per second, 8,640,000,000 cubic feet. 
„ 6,998,400,000 „ 

3,499,900,000 „ 
1,728,000,000 



2nd „ 


80,000 


3rd „ 


40,000 


4th „ 


20,000 



Total discharge in four days ... 20,866,300,000 



Total mass of accumulated water, 20,000,000,000 



By dividing the maximum discharge of 100,000 cubic 
feet per second by the ascertained velocity of ll'4i583 



110 LADAK. 

miles per hour, or 16-81 feet per second, we obtain 5,948 
square feet as the sectional area of the cataclysmal wave. 
Prom this I have deduced the rise of the river in differ- 
ent parts of the channel according to its width. These 
heights, however, do not give the actual rise of the 
water, which must always have been greater immediately 
above every narrow part of the channel. 

Width of River. Rise. 

Above Tertse 250 feet broad 2379 feet. 

NearTurtuk 100 „ „ 59-48 „ 

The height of the flood below Tertse was ascertained 
to have been between twenty and thirty feet, by the 
broad lines of straw and twigs which marked the ex- 
treme limit of the inundation. In the open plain of 
Unmaru, the waters must have been kept at the same 
level as at Tertse, by the obstruction offered to their 
passage ia the narrow channel between Chulung and 
Turtuk. Tliis would account for the lines of straw and 
twigs being observed about half a mile from the present 
bed of the river. 

The valley of the Indus, below the junction of the 
Shayok, narrows in some places to 100 feet, and even 
less. At these points, therefore, the flood must have 
risen to a height of sixty feet at least, and must have 
caused a considerable back wave up the confined channel 
of the Indus proper, or Le river. And this was actually 
the case, for the effect of the inundation is said to have 
been felt for nearly thirty miles up the Indus, whUe at 
Sarmik, ten miles above the confluence, the lower cul- 
tivated lands were destroyed, and no less than 1,200 
fruit-trees were swept away by the back-water flood. 

At Skardo, where the river expands to 520 feet in 
width, and where the sandy flats rise at least thirty feet* 

* Vigne, II. p. 2C0, states that water is found at a deptli of ton yards. 



THE JEHLAM RIVER. Ill 

above the general level of the stream, it is probable that 
the flood did not spread much beyond the usual limits. 
The rise would, therefore, *not have been more than ten 
feet. But below Skardo, in the confined and rocky 
channel, which is the prevailing character of the bed of 
the Indus throughout the Rongdo district, the flood- 
wave would have risen to its full height of sixty feet ; 
and at the " Craggy Defiles" of Makpon-i-Shang-Rong, 
the cm-bed waters must have been massed up at least 
100 feet in height. 

At Ghori Trap, below Attock, where the width of the 
river is not more than 250 feet,* the wave of inundation 
must have attained a height of at least 23*79 feet ; and 
this will at once account for the height of the waters at 
Attock, which are said to have submerged the fort of 
Khairabad by their sudden rise of nearly thirty feet. 

From Attock to the sea the inimdation pursued its 
ruinous course, but I have no information as to the 
extent of the coimtry flooded, or the numbers of people 
swept away. According to the papers of the day, the 
devastation of the three Deras, — Ismad Khan, Ghaze 
Khan, and Fateh Klian, was very great ; and I trust 
that fidl particulars of this extraordinary flood may yet 
be collected by some of the many British ofiicers now 
stationed along the Indus. 

YII.— THE JEHLAM EIVEE. 

The Jelilam river takes its name from the town of 
Jehlam, beneath which it flows. In Kashmir, it is called 
Beliat, a contraction of the Sanskrit VUasta, which the 
Greeks slightly altered to Hydaspes. The Jelilam drains 

* Wood's Oxus, p. 125. 



112 , LADAK, 

the whole valley of Kashmir : and the reputed sources 
of its principal feeders are all esteemed holy. The Behat 
takes its rise in. the small pool of Vira Nag, which Je- 
hangir walled round ; bvit its true som'ce is some mUes 
fm-ther to the south-west, m N. latitude 33° 30', and E. 
longitude 75° 25'. Its most distant som'ce is in the lake 
of Sesha Nag, at the head of the Lambodari, or Lidar 
river, which joins the Behat below the town of Islama- 
bad. Between Shahabad and Islamabad, it receives the 
river of Brang ; and a few miles below Bij Bihara, it 
receives the united waters of the Veshau and Shupyen 
rivers. The Veshau, or Veshavi, rises in the holy fount 
of Kosa Nag ; and the Shupyen river in the Lake of 
Nandan Sar. Below the city of Srinagar, the Behat is 
joined on the east by the Sindh, which is the largest of 
aU its tributaries. Erom this junction the river con- 
tinues its north-westerly com-se to the Wular lake, which 
it leaves above the town of Sopur, and then flows on in 
a south-west direction to Barahmula, receiving midway 
the waters of the Lolab river. The whole length of the 
Behat, from its source to Barahmula, is 150 mUes. From 
Shahabad to Barahmula, the river is navigable. The fall 
is only 400 feet in 120 miles, or 3'33 feet per mile ; and 
the usual rate of the em'rent is about a mile and a half 
per hour. Vigne* says that a piece of wood throAvn into 
the stream at Kanibal, will reach the city in 24 hours. 
As the distance is about 04 miles, the rate will be 2f miles 
per hour : but I was 2y hours in descending the stream 
from the Islamabad bridge to the Bij Bihara bridge, 
a distance of little more than six miles, with two men 
gently paddling the boat. Again, in descending the 
stream from Bij Bihara to Wantipur, I went on shore to 

* Kashmir, II. p. 22. 



THE JEHLAM RIVER. 113 

warm myself by walking, and I distanced the boat, 
although it was paddled by two men. I do not therefore 
estimate the velocity of the current at more than 1^ mile 
per hour, and I believe that it is considerably less. 

At Islamabad, the breadth of the stream is 120 feet, 
with a maximum depth of 12 feet 3 inches. It is 
spaimed by a log bridge, 118 feet in length, with two 
openings. At Bij Bilulra, below the junction of the Lidar 
river, it is spanned by a bridge 250 feet in length, with 
foiu" openings. BetAveen these points the water is beau- 
tifully clear, and the bed of the river is generally sandy, 
and ripple-marked, and covered with shells and broken 
pottery. In a few places the bottom is stony, but the 
stones are all small and rounded. At Pampur the Beliat 
is spanned by another log bridge, 325 feet in length, 
with five openings ; but the water is slightly muddy, and 
the bed of the river can no longer be seen. Below Pam- 
pur, and opposite Panthasok, the abutments and two 
piers of a stone bridge are just visible above the water. 
In its course through the city of Srinagar, the channel 
of the river is narrowed to 250, and even to 200 feet, 
with, a varying depth of from six to twelve feet. The 
stream is very sluggish, and the surface of the water in 
many j)laces is covered with the green slime common 
to stagnant pools. In December, Moorcroft found the 
river 210 feet broad, with a mean depth of nine feet, and 
a velocity of 2,400 feet per hour, or of 0-6666 feet per 
second ; which gives a discharge of 1,150 cubic feet per 
second. 

At Sambhal, or Sambhalpur, below the junction of the 

Sindh river, the Behat is spanned by another bridge, 

310 feet long, with five openings. The average depth of 

the water is about fourteen feet at the same place. On 

I 



114 LADAK. 

the 16th December, Trebeck* found the depth of water 
from one to three fathoms. Assuming twelve feet as the 
average depth in December, and the rate of the current at 
2,400 feet per hour (the same as at Srinagar), the winter 
discharge of the united streams of the Behat and Sindh 
rivers will be 2,480 cubic feet. At Barahmulaf the dis- 
charge is most probably not more, as the waters of the 
Lolab river may be supposed to supply the great loss by 
evaporation on the Wular lake. 

From Barjxhmula to Mozafarabad, the Behat pursues 
an easterly course for 100 miles. The total fall between 
these places is 3,800 feet, or thirty feet per mile ; and the 
character of the river entirely changes from a placid and 
sluggish stream to a raving torrent. Below Tattamula, 
and about sixteen miles from Barahmula, the rocky cliffs 
rise almost perpendicularly fi'om the river to a height of 
300 and 400 feet ; and in some places that I noticed, the 
bare steep cliffs were not less than 800 feet above the 
stream. 

As the height of the Behat, near Tattamula, is about 
5,000 feet above the sea, the whole of Kashnur must 
have been submerged by the waters of the river, before 
the wearing down of these cliffs. J The level of the 
Kashmirian lake would have been about 5,800 feet above 
the sea, and from 50 to 100 feet above the Karewahs, 
or isolated alluvial flats now remaining in Kashmir. 

* Moorcroft's Travels, II. p. 220. 

t Tills name Is properly Vardha-mula, the Boar Avatar's spring. 
The Vardha Ganga is now a dry hole, fifty feet long,°thirty feet broad, 
and twenty feet deep. The spring has become dry, but the place is 
stiU esteemed holy. 

X As Tattamula (Sanserif, Tapta-mida), tlie " hot spring," may 
indicate volcanic action, the immediate cause of the bursting of the lake 
may have beau the sudden rending of the rock by an earthquake. 



THE JEHLAM RIVER. 115 

The grovit Karewah of Nonagar, opposite Avantipiir, 
which rises from 200 to 250 feet above the plain, is a 
mass of lacustrine deposit. I searched in vain for shells 
as I crossed over the Karewah to Payachh : hut I was 
more fortunate at Wantipur, where I obtained numerous 
specimens of Cyclas rivicola in the horizontal strata of 
clay and sand at different heights up to nearly 200 feet 
above the present level of the river, and about eighty feet 
below the presumed level of the lake. The high level 
land of Marttand was probably not submerged, but the 
horizontal beach-marks are still quite distinct on the 
limestone cliffs above the cave of Bhaumajo and the holy 
spring of Bhawan, Above Ramuki Serai, on the Shup- 
yen river, the Karewah forms a bank about 100 feet in 
height, in horizontal strata of different kinds. The 
uppermost twenty feet are composed of stiff alluvial soil ; 
the next twenty feet of rolled stones and loose earth ; and 
the lowermost sixty of iudm'ated blue clay. The last 
must have been deposited by the lake in its state of 
quiescence ; but the middle stratum could only have been 
formed by the fixst grand rush of waters on some sudden 
burst of the rocky barrier below Tattamula ; and the 
uppermost would have been deposited by the subsiding 
waters as they reached the newly-formed level. Then, 
as the rocky bed was gradually worn down, the different 
streams worked new channels for themselves in the 
former bed of the lake, until the present Karewahs of 
Nonagar, Pampur, and Kanikpur were left first as 
islands in the decreasing lake, and eventually as long 
flat-topped hills in the midst of the open plain, just as 
we now see them. The Karewah of Nonagar is about 
five miles in length by two and a half miles in extreme 
breadth. 

I 2 



116 



Above Uri the Behat has once been spanned by a 
stone bridge thrown across a very narrow part from cliff 
to cliff; but to judge from the lowness of the remaining 
portions of the abutments, the bridge must have been 
swept away by the very first extraordinary rise of the 
river. High up on the right bank stands a ruined serai 
of the Mogal emperors. Opposite Uri the river is now 
crossed by a suspension-bridge of leather ropes. Above 
Hatiya there is a second suspension-bridge of twisted 
leather ropes 258^ feet in length. 

At Mozafarabad the Behat is joined by the Kishen 
Ganga, a considerable stream which rises in the moun- 
tains to the north of Kashmir, in N. latitude 34° 30', 
and E. longitude 75° 20'. It flows first to the westward 
through the districts of Gures, Suti, and Drawa, then 
turning to the south-west it pursues its course through 
Kerigam and Kama to Mozafarabad. The late Mr. Vans 
Agnew ascended tliis river on his way to Gilgit ; but as 
he was not a surveyor, his travels were confined to a 
mere descriptive account. The whole length of the 
Kishen Ganga is not less than 180 miles, and its probable 
discharge about 1,000 cubic feet. The total discharge 
of the Behat below Mozafarabad wiU therefore be 3,500 
cubic feet. 

Below Mozafarabad the Behat sweeps suddenly round 
to the southward, and after receiving the Kunihar river 
continues the same course to the town of Jehlam, a dis- 
tance of 150 miles. The fall in this part of the river is 
1,200 feet, or only eight feet per mile. The Kunihar 
river rises in the Nila moimtain, eight days' jom-ney to 
the north of Mozafarabad. Its \\'liole length is about 
100 miles. From the junction of the Kunihar to Dhan- 
gali the Behat has been surveyed by Mr. Ingram, an 



THE CHENAB RIVEK, 117 

assistant to Lieut. D. Robinson, of the engineers ; and in 
tliis part of its course it receives no tributary worth 
mentioning. Near Mangali, at the foot of the hills, it 
is joined by the Punach river, a considerable stream, 
which is said to rise in the lake of Nandan Sar, in N. 
latitude 33° 35', and E. longitude 74° 40'. It takes an 
easterly coui-se between the Pir-Panjal and Ratan-Panjal, 
ranges past Bahramgala to Punach, where it turns to 
the southward, and follows a south-westerly course to 
its junction with the Behat or Jehlam. Its whole 
length is 140 miles, and its discharge about 500 cubic 
feet. 

The whole discharge of the Behat or Jehlam as it 
enters the plains is therefore just 4,000 cubic feet ; this 
estimate is borne out by the statements of Moorcroft, 
who says that the river at Jehlam in October was 450 
feet broad and from twelve to sixteen feet deep, with a 
current of about a mile an hour. These data give a 
discharge of 4,800 cubic feet per second for October, 
which would certamly be reduced to 4,000 cubic feet by 
Pcbruary and March. The whole mountain course of 
the Behat, from beyond Virnag to Mangali, is 380 miles, 
and its fall is about 8,000 feet, or twenty-one feet per 
mile. From the hills to its junction with the Chenab 
between Jhang and Uch, its general direction is south- 
south-westerly, and its length about 240 miles. Its 
whole length from its source to its confluence with the 
Chenab is therefore about 620 miles. 

VIII.— THE CHENAB EIVEE. 

The Chenab is formed of two principal feeders, the 
Chandra and the Bhaga, from which it derives its Saus- 



118 LADAK. 

krit name of Cliandra Bhaga. Ptolemy calls it Sandabal; 
but the Greek historians of Alexander named it the 
Akesines, because its proper name was one of ill omen.* 
The Chandra and the Bhaga rise on opposite sides of the 
Bara Lacha pass, in N. latitude 32° 45', and E. longitude 
77° 22', at an elevation of 16,500 feet above the sea. The 
Chandra flows at first to the south for fifty-five miles, and 
then sweeps suddenly u^p to the north-west for sixty miles 
farther, to the junction of the Bhaga river at Tandi. The 
fall to this point is 7,500 feet, or sixty-five feet per mile, 
for the Chandra river, and 125 feet per mile for the 
Bhaga river, which has a course of only sixty miles to 
the south-west. At Koksar, twenty-five miles above 
Tandi and 10,000 feet above the sea, the Chandra river 
averages 200 feet in width, with a mean depth of two and 
a half feet, and a current of not less than four miles per 
hour in October, when it is fordable with very great diffi- 
cidty. The discharge at that time is therefore not less 
than 2,000 cubic feet per second ; and the minimum dis- 
charge is probably about 1,500 cubic feet, or of the united 
stream below Tandi about 2,000 cubic feet, Trom Tandi 
the Chandra Bhaga pursues a north-westerly com-se to 
Kashtwar, a further distance of 115 miles. The whole 
length to this point is 330 miles, and the fall is 11,500 
feet, or 34 '8 feet per mile. 

Between Tandi and Kashtwar the Chandra Bhaga 
receives many snow-fed torrents of considerable size, of 
which the largest are the Cliukam and Chatrgarh rivers. 
The discharge at Kashtwar cannot therefore be less than 

* Bishop ThirlwaU says perhaps owing to its similarity in sound to 
AXf Joi'Opou (pnyns, " devourer of Alexander." Aka-sin in Pushtu -n-ould 
mean river of the Akas ; who probably gave their name to the town of 
Akanawar or Aknur. 



THE CHENAB RIVER. 119 

4,000 cubic feet, or just double that at Tancli, which is 
half-way between the source and the town of Kashtwar. 
Below the town it receives from the north the large 
river of Wardwan, about sixty miles in length, by which 
the discharge is probably increased to 4,500 cubic feet. 

At Koksar, 10,000 feet above the sea, which is the 
liighest inhabited village on the Chandra river, a suspen- 
sion-bridge of twisted birchen ropes is annually con- 
structed. A second suspension-bridge of the same kind 
formerly spanned the mouth of the Bhaga river at Tandi, 
but this was carried aAvay some time after Dr. Gerard's 
visit in 1830. In 1839 I saw the ropes lying high and 
dry on the northern bank ; but when I visited Tandi 
again in 1846, there was no trace of them. A small 
wooden bridge of thirty-eight feet span, and forty feet 
above the stream, is thrown across the Bhaga river about 
four miles from Tandi. Kfteen miles below Tandi, and 
five miles above Treloknath, the Chandi'a Bhaga is 
crossed by a couple of spars covered with loose planks. 
The bridge is eighty-five feet long and forty-three feet 
above the water. Two miles above this bridge the river 
was not less than 300 feet broad. Above Chatrgarh and 
opposite Kashtwar, the Chandra Bhaga is crossed by 
suspension-bridges. 

Prom Kashtwar the river sweeps suddenly round to 
the south-west as far as Doda. It then tm^ns due west 
towards the fort of Biyasi, where it resumes its south- 
westerly course to Aknur, at the foot of the hUls, a total 
distance of 150 miles. In tliis part of the course the fall 
is 4,000 feet, or 26-6 feet per rmle. It receives the 
Banahal and the BudhU, above Aknur, and the two Tohis 
of llajaori and Chaneni above Vazirabad. By these and 
some other smaU streams, its winter discharge is increased 



120 LADAK. 

to 4,750 cubic feet per second. This discharge has been 
calculated from my own data obtained at Eamnagar in 
January 1849. Our military bridge of boats afforded 
me every facility for obtaining the most accurate mea- 
surements, and I have therefore full confidence in the 
correctness of the result. The river was divided into two 
streams ; that on the left bank having a maximum depth 
of fifteen feet four inches, and that on the right bank a 
maximum depth of ten feet six inches. The total breadth, 
including the sand-bank in the centre, which was barely 
covered with water, was 646 feet, or, excluding the sand- 
bank, 533 feet. The greatest sm-face velocity was 3'6666 
feet per second, or just two mUes and three-quarters per 
hour. The mean depth was exactly five feet, and the 
mean surface velocity 2*3 feet per second, or nearly one 
mile and five furlongs per hour. I have calculated each 
portion of the stream separately, and the result gives a 
discharge of 4551"038 cubic feet per second. A similar 
result may be obtained from the rough measurements of 
Sir Alexander Burnes,* made at the same place in the 
middle of February. His data make the breadth 900 
feet, greatest depth nine feet, and current one and a half 
mile per hour. Taking four and a half as the average 
depth, the discharge will be 4,860 cubic feet. I only 
give this to show the correctness of my own measure- 
ments. 

From the Bara Lacha pass to Aknur, the length of 
the Chenab is 380 miles, and the whole fall is 15,500 
feet, or 40*8 feet per mile. From Aknur to Mithankot 
the length is 570 mUes in a south-south-west dii'ection, 
and the Avhole length from its source to its junction with 
the Indus is 950 miles. 

* Burucs' Travels, Vol. I. p. -t6. 



THE CHENAB KIVEK. 121 

During the dry season the ChenAb is fordable in many 
places between Sodi-a and Ramnagar. Opposite Sodra 
in 1848 there was a good ford, crossing no less than 
seven branches of the stream. The Ramnagar ford was 
open diu-ing the whole of our operations in December 
1848, and January and Pebruary 1849. The other fords 
were constantly liable to shift, but three days before the 
battle of Gujrat I discovered a good ford between Vazir- 
abad and Ramnagar, by which Brigadier Markham's 
brigade crossed the Chenab on the 19th Febrviary. 

I have no means of ascertaining the maximum dis- 
charge of the Chenab during July and August. Macart- 
ney measured it in July at Vazirabad, when the stream 
was 7,590 feet (nearly one mile and a half) broad, with 
a depth of fourteen feet, and a current of five miles an 
hour ; but these data are too vague for even an approxi- 
mate result. The depth for one half of this breadth was 
probably not more than one or two feet. 

In July 1839, I found the main channel of the 
Chenab above Vazirabad to be 2,760 feet broad, but the 
depth could not be ascertained with any certainty; in. 
many places it was more than eighteen feet. The mean 
depth was probably about nine feet, and if Ave allow two 
and a half mUes as the average rate of the current, the 
maximum discharge woidd be 56,000 cubic feet, or with 
the sis small branches to the westward, not less than 
60,000 cubic feet. The increase of the Indus is nine- 
fold, while that of the Ganges is fifteen-fold. The mean 
between these is twelve-fold, which, if applied to the 
Chenab, would give a discharge of 54,000 cubic feet for 
the maximum. The actual maximum discharge is pro- 
bably between 50,000 and 60,000 cubic feet. 



122 LADAK. 



IX.— THE EAVI EIVER. 

The Kavi is tlie smallest of tlie Panjab rivers. In the 
hills it is generally called Rawa or E,awati, which is only 
a spoken form of the Sanskrit Travati, from which the 
Greeks made Hydraotes. The E,avi is formed of three 
principal branches, — the Uavi proper, the holy BudhU, 
and the Nai, wliich make a triple junction below Wulas, 
in the district of Chamba. I have seen all these rivers 
myself, and am indeed the only European who has yet 
visited the head-waters of this stream. 

The E-avi rises in the petty dismembered state of 
Bangal, in N. latitude 32° 20', and E. longitude 77° 0'. 
It takes at first a south-westerly course, and then bend- 
ing to the north-west receives its principal tributaries at 
Wulas, a distance of sixty miles from its source. Its 
highest springs rise at the junction of the Dhaola Dhar 
and Lahul mountains, at an elevation of not less than 
16,000 feet. As the height of the river at Wulas is only 
5,000 feet, the faU is 183-3 feet per mile. Erom AVulas 
to Bisoli it continues its easterly course for fifty miles, 
and then turns to the south-west for twenty mUes, to the 
neighbourhood of Tirikot, where it enters the plains. 
Its whole length is only 130 miles, while its faU is 
15,000 feet, or 115-4 feet per mUe. 

The sacred Budhil rises in the Lahul mountains, to the 
north of the Ravi. Its whole com'se is not more than 
thirty-five mUes from east to west, while the fall is 
11,000 feet, or 314-3 feet per mile. Below Barmawar, 
the former capital of Chamba, the Budhil is crossed by 
a Avooden bridge formed of spars covered with loose 
planks. The width is four and a half feet, the span 
sixty-eight feet, and the height above the river ninety- 



THE RAVI RIVER. 123 

eight feet. This bridge has a hand-rail knee high on 
each side. A petty feeder of the Budhil rises in the 
small and holy lake of Mani Mah^s. 

The Nai river rises on the western face of the KaH 
Debi mountain, in the Lahtd range. Its general course 
is to the south-west, and its whole length is only thirty 
miles. Its fall is therefore 366-6 feet per mile. 

The E,awa or Hawati, just above the junction of the 
BudhU and Nai at Wulas, is spanned by a birchen-rope 
suspension-bridge 116 feet in length. It is therefore 
about double the size of the BudhU river. Below Wulas 
the road leaves the river and crosses over the mountains, 
to avoid the precipitous cliffs which overhang the stream. 
At Mahila, ten miles above Chamba, the Ravi is crossed 
by another suspension-bridge of 169 feet span. Between 
the bridge and Chamba the river takes a sudden sweep 
to the left, between overhanging rocks not more than 
fifteen feet apart. A curling wave returns to meet the 
rushing stream, and a shower of mist is perpetually 
rising from the shock. Then all is smooth, and the 
stream pours headlong into a gulf below, and is instantly 
dashed back by the opposing rocks in a huge curling 
wave. 

Just below Chamba the Ravi receives a considerable 
feeder from the north. This is the Sawa, or Sar Nala, 
which rises in the Saj Joth, in the Lahul range. On 
entering the plains the Ravi takes a south-westerly 
course past Lahore for 430 miles to Chichawatni, where 
it turns to the west, and after seventy miles more falls 
into the Chenab below Sirdarpur. The whole length of 
the Ra\'i from its source to its confluence with the 
Chenab is 630 miles, and its minimum discharge is 2,700 
cubic feet. The Ravi is fordable throughout the winter 
season, but the bed is full of quicksands. 



124 



X.— THE BYAS EIVEE. 

The Byas is perhaps tlie best known of all the Panjab 
rivers, from its source to the foot of the hiUs below 
Mirthal. Its Sanskrit name is Vipdsa, from which the 
Greeks made Hyphasis and Bibasis. The common name 
of Byas is derived from the small pool at the source of 
the river, wliich is called Vyas Biklii or Vyasa Bishi. 
This sacred spot is situated in the Botang pass, at the 
head of the Kullu vaUey, in N. latitude 32° 25', and E. 
longitude 77° 10', at an elevation of 13,000 feet above 
the sea. Por seventy-five miles the river flows nearly 
due south past Sultanpur, the capital of Kullu, to the 
village of Larji, where it is joined by two large tributa- 
ries, — the Sainj and the Tirthan. Above this it receives 
the Parbati and the Gomati rivers from the east, besides 
many smaller streams. The Gomati is fordable vnth 
difficulty, but tlie others can only be crossed by bridges. 
The Sainj has a com'se of about fifty miles, the Parbati 
and the Gomati of forty miles, and the Tirthan of thirty 
miles. Prom the source to Larji the faU is 9,400 feet, 
or 125-3 feet per mile. Prom Larji the Byas sweeps 
suddenly to the westward through a narrow chasm in 
the rocks several hundred feet in depth. The stream is 
deep and rapid, but before the wearing do^vn of this 
cleft the whole of the lower part of the valley must have 
been submerged. Prom Larji to Mandi the distance is 
not more than twenty-five miles, while the fall is 1,000 
feet, or forty feet per mUe. 

The Byas continues its westerly course through tliis 
narrow channel to Mandi, above Avhich it receives the 
Ul river from the north, and the Sukhet river from the 



THE BYAS KIVER. 125 

south. The former is upwards of fifty miles in length, 
and the latter about thirty mUes. At Mandi the river 
is crossed by a boat for the greater part of the year, 
but during the height of the seasonal floods the cur- 
rent is too strong for a boat, and the passage is then 
made on inflated skins. Between Sultanpur and Larji 
the river can only be crossed on skins, but from 
Sultanpur upwards it is spanned in many places by 
spar bridges. 

From Mandi to Mirthal the general direction of the 
river is to the west ; but the course is very winding, and 
the length cannot be less than 150 miles. Between 
these points it receives several large streams from the 
north, of which the cliief are the Binwa, the Nigwal, 
the Ban-Ganga, the Gaj, and the Chakki. 

The Jjiiiica rises in the Dhaola Dhar range, and after 
a southerly course of forty miles past Baijnath falls into 
the Byas opposite Kamalagarh. The road from Kangra 
and Mandi ascends this stream to its source, and crosses 
over the Sm-ai pass into Chamba on the upper course of 
the Ra^ i. 

The Nigioal rises in the same range, and after a 
southerly course of forty miles through the beautiful 
districts of Palam, falls into the Byas opposite the large 
town of Shujanpur-Tira. 

The Ban-Ganga is formed of two principal feeders, — 
the Ban-Ganga and the Patal-Ganga, which rise in the 
Dhaola-Dhar, and join immediately below the fort of 
Kangra. The general direction as far as Kangra is 
south-west, but below the fort the stream winds very 
much, and changes its direction first to the south and 
then to the west as far as Haripur and Guler, from 
whence it resumes its south-west direction, and falls into 



126 LADAK. 

the Byas at the village of Nireyana, after a course of 
about sixty miles through the district of Katoch. 

The Gaj or Ghar-Gaj is one of the largest feeders of 
the Byas, and was thought worthy of mention by Abu 
E;ihdn, who accompanied Mahmud of Ghazni to Kangra. 
It is formed of the united streams of the Gaj, the Kohli, 
the Bral, the Debar, and the Bhet, all of wliich rise in 
the Dhaola Dhar range, and flow to the south through 
the district of Guler. The whole length of the Gaj to 
its junction with the Byas below Siba is not less than 
sixty miles. 

The Chakki rises in the western end of the Dhaola 
Dhar, and is the smallest and longest of all these 
northern tributaries of the Byas. Its whole length from 
its som'ce near the Chuari pass to its junction with the 
Byas at Biyanpiu'a below Mirthal is not less than 
seventy miles. 

On the sou-th the Byas receives only one feeder of any 
consequence, — the Kunihar, which joins it a few miles 
above Nadon ; but except in the rains, it contains very 
little water. 

Erom Mandi to Mirthal, a distance of 150 miles, the 
fall of the river is only 1,600 feet, or 10'6 feet per mile. 
The whole fall from the source to Mirthal is 12,000 feet, 
or forty-eight feet per mile. In this part of its com'se 
the Byas maintains its supremacy as the most beautiful 
river in the Panjab. From Biyanpura, below Mirthal, 
the Byas flows in a south and south-westerly du'ection 
past the towns of BahUa, Bhairowal, and Govindwal, to 
its junction with the Sutluj at Hariki-patan, a distance 
of 100 miles. The whole length of the Byas, from its 
source to its confluence with the Sutluj, is 350 niUcs, and 
its minimum discharge is not less than 3,000 cubic feet. 



THE SUTLUJ RIVER. 127 

On tlie lOth November, 1838, I measured the Byas a 
few miles above its junction with the Sutluj. Its breadth 
was 450 feet, and its greatest depth seven feet four 
inches. Its greatest surface velocity was 4'04! feet per 
second, or a little more than two miles and three-quar- 
ters per horn*. The discharge was then 3,425 cubic feet, 
from wliich w^e may calculate the minimum discharge at 
not less than 3,000 cubic feet. 

During the melting of the snows the Byas rises every 
night in the plains from one foot to one foot and a half. 
It attains its maximum in the morning and subsides 
during the day. When I was making the bridges at 
Govindwal for the passage of the army in March, 1846, 
I pitched my tent on the sand close to the water's edge, 
and in the morning I was surprised to find one line of 
tent-pegs completely under water. This rise is caused 
by the melted snows of the Dhaola Dhar, which are 
brought down duxing the day by the Binwa, the 
Nigwal, the Ban-Ganga, and the Gaj, and which do not 
reach Bhau'owal and Govindwal untU past midnight of 
the second day, after a lapse of 36 hours. The Byas is 
fordable in many places in the plains. 

XI.— THE SrTLUJ EIVEE. 

The Suthij is the largest and longest of all the Panjab 
rivers. Its Sanskrit name is Satadm, or the " hundred 
channelled," from which the Greeks made Hesudros and 
Zadadros ; but the common names throughout the hills 
are Satludr, or Satrudr, and Sutluj. The Tibetans call 
it Lang-chlien-kha-bah, or " elephant-mouth-fed " river, 
according to the commonly received notion of the descent 
of rivers from animals' mouths. 



128 LADAK. 

The rise of the Sutluj iu the holy lakes of Manasaro- 
vara and Rawan-Hrad has been satisfactorily ascertained 
by the adventurous journeys of Captain H. Strachey and 
Lieut. R. Strachey. The most remote sources of the 
Sutluj are the eastern feeders of the holy lakes, in N. 
latitude 30° 35', and E. longitude 81° 35'. Numerous 
small streams flow from all sides into the great lake of 
Manasarovara, which overflows at its north-eastern 
corner into the lake of Rawan-Hrad. From this point 
to its junction mth the Spiti river, at the base of Porgyal, 
the Sutluj takes a west-north-westerly direction through 
a country but little kno-mi, but which I believe to be 
similar to that of the upper valley of the Indus. From 
its som-ce to the confluence of the Spiti river the length 
of the Sutluj is 280 miles, and the whole fall is 9,400 
feet, or 33"8 feet per mile. 

From the base of Porgyal to Bilaspur the Sutluj takes 
a west-south-westerly direction for 180 miles. In this 
part the fall increases to thirty-nine feet per mile, and 
the river becomes a furious torrent. Many old channels 
still exist to show that the Sutluj once flowed at a higher 
level, and that all the aUuvial flats must have been the 
deposits of a series of lakes. Eddy-worn holes also may 
be seen high up in the rock, even up to 1,000 feet above 
the present level of the river. Two of these ancient 
channels are on the left bank, one just above Rampur, 
and the other opposite the Wongto bridge. The Rampur 
channel is 150 feet above the stream, and 100 feet broad, 
between large dykes of quartz, the intervening mica- 
slate ha-\-ing been scooped out for some depth. A little 
higher up, the river has made a perpendicular cut 
through one of these quartzose dykes about sixty feet 
deep. 



THE SUTLUJ RIVEK. 129 

From Biltispur the Sutluj makes a sudden sweep to 
the north-west, and then back again to the south-east, 
roimd the end of the lowermost range of hills, and finally 
enters the plains at Ropar. The distance is 100 mUes, 
and the fall about 500 feet, or five feet per mUe. The 
whole length of the Sutluj, from its source beyond 
Manasoravara to the foot of the hills at Ropar, is 560 
mUes, and the whole faU about 17,000 feet, or thirty 
feet per mUe. From Ropar, the Sutluj takes an easterly 
direction for 120 miles past Lodiana, to the confluence of 
the Byasat Hari-ki-patan, beyond which it flows to the 
south-west for 400 miles to its junction with the Chenab 
opposite Uch. The whole length of its course is, there- 
fore, 1,080 miles, or 130 miles more than the length of 
the Chenab. 

The minimum discharge of the Sutluj at Ropar is 
5,400 feet. As a small addition must be made for the 
Sirsa Nadi, the Kali Vehi, and the Dhaoli Vehi,* we may 
reckon the discharge of the Sutluj, above its confluence 
with the Byas, at 5,500 cubic feet, or just 1,000 cubic 
feet more than that of the Chenab. The Sutluj is ford- 
able in many places above the junction of the Byas, 
below which it becomes deeper, and is usually called the 
Ghara river. 

Like the other Punjab rivers, the Sutluj has a daily 
rise and fall, owing to the increase and decrease of the 
melted snows. On 29th May, at Kepu, below Kotgarh, 
I measured a rise of ten inches, the higher level being 
obtained at 3 a.m. In July the Spiti river at Kyi 
attained its maximum of four inches and a half at 

* In November, 1838, I measured the Kali Vehi and Dhaoli Vehi, 
an^ found tliat each of them discharged a little more than 100 cubic 
feet per second. 

K 



130 LADAK. 

3 P.M. This is in fact the hour at which I have found 
that all these snow-fed streams reach their highest leveL 
If, therefore, we assume that the Sutluj, at tlie mouth of 
its last great feeder, the Baspa, reaches its maximum at 
3 P.M., we shall obtain a mean velocity of six miles and 
a quarter per hour as far as Kepu, a distance of seventy- 
five miles. 



XII.— THE SPITI EIVEE. 

The Spiti river, which is perhaps as large as the Sutluj 
itself, is formed of two principal branches, — the Spiti and 
the Para-ti or Zang-sum river. It takes its rise near 
the Bara Lacha Pass, in N. latitude 32° 4', and E. longi- 
tude 77° 40', at an elevation of 16,500 feet (the height of 
the Bara Lacha Pass). From its source to the village of 
Mane, it flows in a south-easterly direction for eighty- 
five miles, and then turns to the eastward for thu'ty- 
five miles to its junction with the Para river. The fall 
is 6,000 feet, or fifty feet per mile. Prom Chang- Ra- 
zing the river tiirns to the south for twenty-five miles, 
through a narrow rocky channel to its confluence vsdth 
the Sutluj. The fall to this point is 2,000 feet, or eighty 
feet per mile ; and the whole fall, throughout its entire 
course of 145 miles, is 8,000 feet, or fifty-five feet per 
mile. 

In the upper part of its course, the Spiti river partakes 
of the general character of the Tibetan streams, and 
spreads its waters over a breadth of nearly half a mile. 
It thus becomes fordable, during the winter season, as 
far as Dangkhar, where it receives the Pin river from 
the south. Below this, it is crossed by several suspen- 
sion-bridges. Opposite Rangrig, it is spanned by a spar 



THE SPITI RIVER. 131 

bridj^e with a hurdle footway. At Shalkar, below the 
junction of the Para, it is crossed by another spar bridge 
ninety- two feet long ; and there is a third wooden bridge 
between Liya and Nako. 

The Para-ti, or Para river, was considered by Alex- 
ander Gerard to be larger than the Spiti ; but there is 
no comparison between the two. The Pard is only a 
very large rushing torrent, while the Spiti is a very deep 
rapid river. The Para rises in the Parang Pass, to the 
north of the Bara Lacha range, in N. latitude 32° 25', 
and E. longitude 77° 50', at an elevation of 18,000 feet. 
It first flows for about twenty-five miles to the north- 
east, and for about twenty-five miles to the east as far 
as Chumur. From this point it turns to the south-east, 
and afterwards to the south-west, to its junction with the 
Spiti at Chang-Razing. Its whole length is 130 miles, 
and its fall about 7,500 feet, or 57'7 feet per mile. 

Just above the confluence of the two rivers, there is a 
hot spring named Zang-sum, and the lower part of the 
Para is sometimes called by this name. Alexander 
Gerard took the Zang-sum for another river, and has 
accordingly entered it in his map. But it is quite evi- 
dent that he mistook the Gyu, a small tributary which 
joins the Spiti just above the confluence of the Pari'i, for 
the Para itself. I surveyed this locality with some care, 
and can therefore state positively that Alexander Gerard 
was mistaken. 

Four miles above its confluence with the Spiti, the 
Para river is spanued by a single block of granite, which 
forms a vast natural bridge eighty-five feet in length, 
and from twenty -five to tlm-ty feet in breadth and depth. 
The stream below is contracted to a raging torrent, not 
more than fifteen feet in width. 
K 2 



132 LADAK, 

XIII.— CATACLYSM OF THE SUTLUJ. 

About midniglit on tlie 2Gtli day of the montli of 
Kartik, and in the Sambat year 1819 (10th November, 
A.D. 17G2), the shoulder of a vast mountain gave way, 
and fell from a great height headlong into the Sutluj. 
The sUp took place in the neighbourhood of the hot 
springs at Seoni, about twenty miles nort h by west fom 
Simla, where the river is confined between precipitous 
cliffs that i-ise several thousand feet above the sti'eam. 
The narrow channel was instantly choked with a vast 
mass of rock, earth, and rubbish, to a height of more 
than four hundred feet, and the stream for the space of 
forty days was so completely dammed that the water 
ceased to flow below the barrier. The bed of the Sutluj 
was reduced to a succession of deep pools, scattered 
amongst the huge boulders and angular masses of rock, 
and the people passed over with dry feet. The waters of 
the river accumulated till they rose nearly four hundred 
feet in height opposite the E,ana's residence at Bhaji, and 
the effect of the obstruction is said to have been felt as 
high up the river as Rampur, a distance of forty kos, or 
about sixty miles. At Bhaji, a lofty semal, or cotton- 
tree, which was half-submerged, is still pointed out ; and 
as the height of this cotton-tree above the Sutluj is esti- 
mated by the Eana at 120 yards, the rise of the river 
cannot have been less than 400 feet. 

A similar account was obtained by Alexander Gerard* 
in 1817, when numbers of people who had witnessed the 
flood were still aUve. "About fifty-five years since, 
forty or fifty miles above this towTi (BUaspur), an im- 

* Kanawar, p. 55. G-erard says fifty-five years ago ; that is, from 
A.D. 1817 ; wliidi gives A.D. 17C2, agreeing with my date. 



CATACLYSM OF THE SUTLUJ. 133 

mense moimtain gave way, filled the bed of the Sutlnj, 
and arrested the stream for six weeks. During this 
time the inhabitants were anxiously looldng out for the 
biu'sting of the embankment. "When it did give way, 
the rush of such an overwlichning body of water may be 
more easily conceived than described. People Avere sta- 
tioned on the heights all along from the place where the 
stream was stopped as far as Bilaspur, and they gave 
notice of the approach of the flood by firing matclilocks. 
The news arrived in time to save the inhabitants, but 
the whole of the town was swept away." 

This account is not quite correct, for it was only the 
lower town that was swept away, as the houses of the 
upper town, including the Raja's palace, and several old 
temples, are situated on an elevated flat far above the 
reach of any inundation. The distance from Seoni to 
Bilaspur is not more than forty-five miles by the river, 
and about thirty mUes by land. The wave of inundation 
would therefore have reached Bilaspur in three hours, 
at the rate of fifteen mUes per hour, while the news of 
the bursting of the barrier coidd have been signalled by 
matchlocks in half an hoiu*. 

As my information is derived from the Eana of Bhaji, 
in whose principality Seoni is situated, I have full confi- 
dence in the general accuracy of my account, even in- 
cluding the statement that the bed of the Sutluj became 
quite dry for the space of forty days. At first I was 
disinclined to believe this startling fact, but a little 
reflection showed me that it must have been the case ; 
for as the fall of the Sutluj in this part of its course is 
not more than twenty feet per mUe, the accumulated 
waters must have filled the bed of the river for twenty 
mUcs before they attained a height of 400 feet, level 



134 LADAK. 

with tlie top of the harrier. To fill this gulf would 
have required the accumulated discharge of the river for 
ahout forty days. The minimum discharge being 5,400 
cubic feet at Ropar, the discharge at Seoni in November 
cannot be less than 5,500 cubic feet. This discharge 
accumulated for forty days would have amounted to 
19,008,000,000 cubic feet, a mass of water which would 
only just have been sufficient to fill the gulf in the bed 
of the Sutluj for twenty mUes above the barrier to a 
mean depth of 200 feet, with an average breadth of 900 
feet. The flow of the river must therefore have been 
quite stopped below the barrier for the whole period of 
forty days. 

When the accumulated waters once began to pour 
over the obstructing barrier, the mass of loose earth and 
rocks must have been speedily cut up in all directions, 
until it soon yielded to the pressure of the mighty body 
of water ; and the long-imprisoned river burst its fetters 
and rushed headlong down its rocky channel in one 
mighty wave, from fifty to more than one hundred feet 
in height This occurred on the fifth day of the month 
of Paiis/i, or the 19th of December. Of its progress in 
the hills I know nothing more than Avliat I have already 
quoted from Gerard of the destruction of the lower town 
of Bilaspur. But after reaching the plains, the mighty 
wave was swept more and more to the northward by its 
own speed off the Sewalik hills at K-opar, and thus took 
a new course under Phalor to the north of the old chan- 
nel until it joined the Byasat Hari-ki-patan, where its 
further course to the northward was stopped by the stiff 
high cliffs on the right bank of the Byds. From this 
time the Su.tluj, when swollen by the annual rains, con- 
tinued to pour its waters down the new channel until 



CATACLYSM OF THE SITTLUJ. 



135 



^ 



about A.D. 1790, when the whole body of water finally 
deserted the old bed by Lodiana and Dharinkot, and 
jomed the Byas at Hari-ki-patan, some thirty miles above 
the former point of junction at Firozpur. Tor six months 
the Sutluj remained above its usual level until the rise 
of the river in June, when the last remains of the once 
mighty barrier were swept away by the swollen river. 

The following table embodies aU the principal points 
of information contained in the preceding pages. 







Length. 


Fall per mile. 


Discharge. 


Rivers. 


In 
Hills. 


In 
Plains. 


Total. 


In 

Hills. 


In 

Plains. 


Min. 


Max. 


1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 

9 
10 

11 

12 


Indus Proper 

Shayok 

Zanskar 

Jelilam 

Chenab 


1,035 
400 
210 
380 
380 
130 
150 
560 


942 

240 
570 
500 
100 
520 


1,977 
400 
210 
620 
950 
630 
350 

1,080 


16 

26 
28 
21 
40 
115 
48 
30 


4 
4 
5 

8 
4 




1-06 


16,500 
2,000 
1,000 
4,000 
4,550 
2,700 
3,000 
5,500 


54,000 


Rivi 


By.-is 


Sutluj 


PanJQa^l 

Indus alone 

Indus and Panjnad 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


12,000 
15,000 


100,000 
130,177 


27,000 


230,177 


Ganges at Ghazipur 
Ganges at Pubna . . 


250 


1,500 


1,750 


52-0 


0-66 


21,757 
96,000 


476,761 
1,500,000 



Ancient 




LAKES A>'D SPKIXGS. 137 

unknown ; but from the neighbourhood of Ruthog to its 
north-western extremity beyond Pangmik, the Pangkong 
Lake is not less than eighty-five miles in length, with 
an average breadth of about thi-ee miles.* The extent 
of the kno^Ti portion is, therefore, upwards of 250 square 
mUes, or about the same size as the holy lake of Mana- 
sarovara. The superior size of this lake may be ioferred 
from tlie probable etymology of its name, Pang-kong, 
which means the " extensive concavity" or hoUow ; or 
Fang-Miing, the "extensive pit." The water is clear 
and extremely salt.f This lake has been surveyed by 
Captain H. Strachey, whose observations place it at an 
elevation of 14,224 feet above the sea. In former ages 
there can be no doubt that the Pangkong Lake had an 
outlet at its north-western extremity, through a gorge 
ia the limestone clifi"s,i into the present scanty stream 
that passes by Muglib, and joins the Shayok river just 
above the village, which gives its name to the stream. 
At some remote period, therefore, the waters of the 
Pangkong L^e must have been fresh ; a fact which has 
been placed beyond all doubt by Captain H. Strachey's 
discoveiy of fossil shells of the Z'/mncea aiiricularia in 
the ancient clay deposits above the present level of the 
lake. The mountain-ranges at the north-western ex- 
tremity of the lake are of limestone, which probably 
affects the waters of the lake, as the small pebbles on its 
shores are firmly united tosrether by calcareous matter. 

The Tslio-Hiil,^ or "Bitter Lake," is situated about 
five mUes to the south of Pangkong. It is about sixteen 
miles in length, and somewhat less than two miles in 

* Moorcroft, I. p. 435. + Ibid. I. pp. 434-35. 

t This gorge was traversed by Moorcrolt (I. 434.) 
§ Bui-la bad. felid, bitter. 



138 LADAK. 

breadth. Its waters are extremely bitter. On its shore 
Captain H. Strachey likewise fouad fossil shells of the 
lAjmncua auricularia and of some kind of Helix, of which 
the specimens are perhaps too small to be identified with 
certainty. The waters of this lake must, therefore, once 
have been fresh. 

The Tsliomoriri,* or "Mountain Lake," is a very fine 
sheet of water, about sixteen miles in length from north 
to south, and from two to three miles in breadth. It is 
situated in the middle of the elevated district of Rukchu, 
in N. latitude 32° 50', and E. longitude 78° 15', at a 
height of 15,000 feet above the sea. Its name is charac- 
teristic of its situation in the midst of moimtains, by 
which it is completely shut in. The summits of these 
movmtains rise to a height of about 5,000 feet above the 
lake, and 20,000 above the sea. To account for its name, 
the Ladakis have invented a story, wliich though silly 
enough, is quite as good as many that have been gravely 
recorded by learned Greeks. The story was probably 
originated by the inventive Kashmiris. "A woman 
riding a yak was carried into the lake. At first the yak 
swam boldly out, and the woman was delighted : but 
after a time the animal grew tired, and sank deeper in 
the water. The woman {chomo) became frightened, and 
screamed out Ri-RL Ri-Ri,i until the yak sank and she 

* TsJto-mo-Iiki-ri, " Lake Mountainous." — Running water, being 
active, is considered as a male, as Tsanrj-po, the river of Tsang ; — and still 
water, being passive, as a female, as Tsho-mo. Po and Mo are the mas- 
culine and feminine affixes, but they are seldom used in composition. 
Ri is a mountain ; and Eld-ri-yi, or simply Bld-ri, is the adjective, 
mountainous. 

t A-ra-ra, commonly pronounced Re-re, or Ri-ri, is the Tibetan 
exclamation of surprise or fear. As the word is wTitten with an initial 
vowel, it is certainly borrowed from the ludiau Ari-ari, ibr there is no 
word in the Tibetan language beginning with a vowel that is not of 
foreign origin. 



LAKES AND SPllINGS. 139 

was drowned : since whicli tlic people liave always called 
the lake Chomo-HlrL" 

This lalce has no outlet at present, and the waters are 
consequently brackish, although not very perceptibly so 
to the taste. But the time has perhaps once been, when 
the Tshomoriri lake was a noble sheet of fresh water, 
about thirty miles in length, from the foot of the Nakpo 
Gonding Pass to the low ridge that now separates the 
lake from the bed of the Para river. When encamped 
at the south end of the lake in September, 18-iG, both the 
late Mr. Vans Agnew and myself estimated the height 
of this ridge at 700 feet ; but it must have been somewhat 
more, as the bed of the Parang river at Norbu Sumdo is 
15,700 feet. From this point, however, the apparent 
height of the ridge is not more than 150 feet. Tliis will 
make its actual height above the lake between 800 and 
900 feet. Such, therefore, must have been the depth of 
the lake in former days, if, as is supposed, it once had 
an outlet towards the Para river. In September, ISiG, 
I was encamped for three days on its banks. The water 
was beautifully limpid and of a deep blue colour. Here 
and there I observed white patches of saline matter, but 
I could not discover any shells. The salts are hydro- 
chlorate of soda and hydro-chlorate of magnesia. I 
could not see any fish in the water, but the wild fowl 
were numerous at the northern end of the lake. On the 
18th September I fixed a pole in the water, wliich I ex- 
amined twice dm'ing that day, and again early the next 
morning ; but I found no perceptible difference between 
tlie levels of the day and night. The extra quantity of 
water that is supplied during the day by the melted snow 
must, therefore, be compensated by the greater evapora- 
tion during the heat of the day. In the same month of 



140 LADAK. 

the year, Di*. Gerard* could not find any water-mark 
above five feet, whicli he consequently fixed as the limit 
of fluctuation ; but I doubt whether the rise and fall of 
the lake amount to so much as one foot. In the middle 
of May, Trebeckt says that it is " frozen over sufficiently 
to be crossed by a man ; " and according to the informa- 
tion that I received, it is usually frozen over by the end 
of October. During the winter there can be no fluctua- 
tion of level, as the whole surface of the ice is protected 
from the sun's rays by a mass of snow about knee deep. 
Towards the end of May or the beginning of June the 
ice breaks up and melts, and by the end of July the 
surface of the lake attains its highest level, which from 
the water-marks that I saw, cannot be more than one 
foot above the winter level. 

Tliogji-CJimimo is the name of the "Salt-covered 
Plain," J in the midst of which lies the Tslio-Kar, or 
" White Lake," or as it is called by the Hindus of 
Chamba and Bisahar, Khaorl-Talao, or the Salt Lake. 
It is situated about thii-ty miles to the north-west of 
the Tshomoriri, in N. latitude 33° 15', and E. longitude 
77° 50', at an elevation of 15,684 feet§ above the sea. It 
is extremely irregular in shape ; its greatest length from 
east to west being about five miles, and its extreme 
breadth about two and a half miles. It is supplied at 
its south-eastern corner by a small stream ten feet broad 
and one foot deep, which flows slowly from a small fresh- 
water lake. In the middle of the south side, where a 

* Eesearches As. Soc. Bengal, vol. xviii. p. 259. 

t Moorcroft's Travels, II. p. 52. 

X The proper name is probably TJiani^-TsJia-chan-yno, " Plain-sait- 
fuU-of." 

§ Dr. Gerard, As. Ees. Bengal, vol. xviii, p. 200, makes the elevation 
15,500 feet. 



LAKES AND SPRINGS. 141 

rocky pi'omontory juts out into the lake, the water is very 
deep. On the north and east sides it is shallow ; but on 
the west, the steep slope of the mountains appears to be 
continued beneath the surface. The water is exceed- 
ingly brackish and bitter, and the whole of the ground 
on the south-eastern shore glitters Avith a saline matter, 
which forms a thick crust of some extent. The southern 
road passes over this vast cake of salt, which cracks and 
crunches beneath the feet of the traveller. The salt is 
natron, or sub-carbonate of soda. On all sides the 
mountains stUl retain the ancient beach-marks in 
distinct bnes, at all heights up to about 150 feet above 
the present level of the lake. In the numerous deposits 
of fine alluvial clay, both white and yellow, we found 
myriads of fossil shells of the LymncBa auricularia, and 
a few specimens of a Cyclas, preserved inside the 
Lymntea. When these animals existed, the lake must 
have formed a vast sheet of fresh water with a narrow 
passage to the westward, which connected it with a 
second and larger lake, that must have covered the whole 
of the present plain from Kyang, from the foot of the 
Thung Lung Pass to the forks of the Sum Gal river, a 
length of about thirty-five miles. In the clay deposits 
of this plain, as well as in the connecting gorge, we 
found myriads of the same fossil shells {Li/mncea auri- 
cularia) before mentioned. The Tsho-kar lake abovmds 
"with many kinds of water-fowl, especially with wild geese 
and Avild ducks. To the south of the Tsho-kar there is 
a small fresh-water lake of no great depth, that supplies 
the salt-water lake. It is a very favourite haunt of the 
Kyang, or wild horse. 
The Yunam Tsho is a small sheet of fresh water in the 



142 LADAK. 

bed of the Yunam river, which flows through it. In 
former times it must have been of some extent, and of 
considerable depth. Wlien I saw it, in September, 1846, 
it was only 1,000 yards long and 500 yards broad. 
Moorcroft was informed " that it had been more exten- 
sive, but had been contracted by the falHng into it of 
masses of rock." The gradual decrease in size has, 
however, been brought about by a very different cause ; 
by the constant wearing away of the rocky barrier, which 
once dammed the river about one mile below the present 
end of the lake. Between these points the river has 
worn a channel through a mass of fine cream-coloured 
clay,* which once formed the bed of the Yunam lake. 
I found the lake of a very pale yellowish colour, which 
it had received from the cream-coloured clay deposits in 
the bed of a small stream upwards of half a mile above 
the lake. The extreme length must once have been 
about three mUes, and the breadth varying from a 
quarter of a mile to more than a mUe. 

The Smile-Tsho is the largest sheet of fresh water 
that to my knowledge exists in Ladak. The extent of 
open water is not great, but the whole extent of swamp 
is between three and foiu" miles in length. It is princi- 
pally supplied by a rivulet called the Kongra-chu, which 
drains the lofty range of mountains to the westward of 
the Tshomoriri lake as far south as the Lanak Pass. A 
second feeder flows from a southern range of mountains, 
that divide Hukchu from the Chinese district of Chu- 
mur-ti. A third small stream, which joins it from the 
north-west, is fuU of fish, which attain a size of fourteen 
or fifteen inches. To the east of the lake is situated the 

* Moorcroft, I. p. 217, also notices tliis fine clay. 



LAKES ANU SPRINGS. 143 

picturesque monastery of Hanle, on the end of a rocky 
spur about 500 feet above the plain. Round the foot of 
this spur the waters of the lake find an outlet into the 
long and level plain of Mangkang, through which the 
Ilanle ri'vailet winds from side to side for a distance of 
tliii'ty miles. Towards the northern end of the valley 
there are several low flat-topped hills, wdth large masses 
of alluvial clay deposits still adhering to them in hori- 
zontal strata. As the total fall from Hanle to the 
northern end of the valley cannot be more than 150 feet, 
there can be little doubt that the Hanle Tsho once 
covered the whole of these level plains, and formed a 
noble lake fully forty miles in length by fifteen mUes in 
extreme breadth, to the south of Hanle. The plain is 
now pretty thickly covered with Dama or Tibetan furze, 
which here grows to the unusual height of three and 
four and even five feet. 

Small pieces of water are numerous all over Ladak, 
but none that I have seen are deserving of notice for 
any peculiarity, excepting the celebrity of their names. 
Two of them are mentioned by Abul Fazl in the Ayin 
Akbari.* " From the top of the mountains of Keetwar 
(Kashtwar) issue two springs, one called Chancba and 
the other Bhaga ; * * they unite their streams and are 
then called Chandi-a Bhaga," which is the well-known 
Sanscrit name of the Chenab. The Suraj Dal is a smaU 
oblong sheet of clear green water, dammed at the 
western end by masses of splintered rock that have 
fallen from above. It is about a quarter of a mile long 
and only half as broad. A small rill of melted snow 
flows into it from the east ; but the rill is altogether so 

* Gladwin's Ajan Akbari, II. p. 108. 



144 LADAK. 

insignificant, that tlie Suraj Dal may fairly be considered, 
as it is reputed to be, the source of the Bhaga river. 
But the Chandra Dal, although double the size of the 
Suraj Dal, is situated at least twenty-five miles below 
the real source of the Chandra river, in the Bara Lacha 
Pass. It is, however, always spoken of as the source of 
the Chandra river. Dal is a Kashmiri term for any 
sheet of water, whether large or small : but it is also a 
Tibetan word, signifying " stiU, quiet."* 

Many hot springs exist in different parts of Ladak ; 
but the best known are those of Nubra, Puga, and 
Chushul. The first two were visited by Moorcroft, who 
found the waters " quite clear, and of the same tempera- 
ture of 167°, at mouths distant two hundred yards from 
each other," Below the springs were beds of soda. 

The hot springs of Puga,-\ I have myself examined. 
The springs occur in the bed of a rivulet called the 
E.ulang-chu, for a length of about two miles. The 
springs vary in strength, from gentle bubbling to strong 
ebullition, and in temperatm'e from 80° to 148°, the 
hottest containing chloride of soda and sulphuretted 
hydrogen in solution, and those of low temperature con- 
taining chloride and borate of soda, both in solution. 
Sulphur occurs on the northern bank of the rivulet in 
pure transparent crystals, and in thin laminfE dissemi- 
nated throughout the gypsum rock. The volcanic neigh- 
bom-hood of Puga is something like that of the Tuscan 
lagoons near Monte Cerbole, which now supply Eui'ope 
with the same minerals : " These lagoons consist of 
springs in a furious state of ebullition, whose vapours 

* JDal, " quiet ;" compare the Euglisli " dull." 
t Bu-ga, a liolo. 



LAKES AND SPRINGS. 145 

contain boracic acid, and the ground is covered with 
crystallizations of sulphur and other minerals."* The 
volcanic agency is stUl active in Tuscany ; in Ladak, 
though not extinct, it is evidently dying. 

The hot spring of Chushul was visited by Moorcroft 
and Trebeck. It is without taste or smell, but is said to 
have medicinal properties. Its temperature is 96°. 

* M'Culloch's Commercial Dictionary — Art. Borax. 



146 



VI.-ROADS, PASSES, BRIDGES. 



I.— EOADS. 

In Tibetan every road is called Lam ; but the high- 
roads are distinguished by the name of Lain-chhen, or 
" Great Roads," and Gya Lam, or " Passable Eoads."* 
The principal road is that between Kashmir and Yar- 
kand ; the next in importance is the road to Lhasa, via. 
Garo, and the third is that which leads through Rukchu, 
Ldhul, and Kullu, to the cities of Nurpur, Amritsar, 
and Ludiana. Some of the other roads, though not 
mvtch frequented by merchants, are still deserving of 
notice, as they have on three different occasions been 
made use of by the conquerors of Ladak. About A.D. 
1600, the Musalmans of Balti, under Ali Sher, invaded 
Ladak on the west by the valley of the Indus. In 1686, 
the Sokpos or Sacse invaded it on the east by the Eudok 
road ; and in 1834, the Hiadus of Jammu, under Zora- 
war Sing, invaded it on the south by the route from 
Kashtwar into Sum. Moorcroft mentions another com- 
mercial line between India and Kotan,t " which was 
frequented in the time of Shah Jehan and closed by the 
Chinese subsequently to their acquisition of Kashgar." 

* Lam, a road ; Lam-chJien, a great road ; l),rOya-lam, a passable road. 
t Transactions Koyal Asiat. Soc, I. p. 55. 



ROADS. 117 

In another place* he says that this road ran through 
Garo and lluthog to Sarikia, half-way hctwcen Yarkand 
and Kotan ; and in a third placet he states that from 
Iludok across the mountains to Kotan is a journey of 
three or four days only. Now both the Chinese geo- 
graphers and the Jesuit missionaries agree in placing 
Kotan in N. latitude 37°, or just three and a haK degrees, 
or about 250 miles, to the north of Rudok. The journey 
must therefore be one of three or four weeks, instead of 
three or four days. The only probable explanation of 
Moorcroft's statement is, that the frontier of Kotan is 
only three or four days' journey from Iludok. His very 
mention of Sarikia, a place half-Avay between Yai'kand 
and Kotan, shows that Moorcroft must have known the 
true distance of Kotan, as his own munshi, Izzet Ullah, 
makes Sarighout (or Sarikia) just tliirteen marches from 
Le. It cannot, therefore, be less than eighteen or twenty 
days' journey from Iludok. The road from India to the 
Niti Pass, through Garo and Iludok to Yarkand, is, 
therefore, the same as that from Lhasa to Yarkand, by 
the valley of the Indus. The two routes join at Garo, 
and follow the Indus to Kak-jung, from whence the 
traveller may proceed cither down the Indus to Le, and 
across the mountains to the Shayok river, or he may 
cross the Tsaka La and proceed direct to the Shayok by 
Chushal or Pangkoug. 

The different roads that lead to Le, on all sides, are 
the following : — 

1. The western road from Kabul and the Punjab, 
through Kashmir. 

2. The south-western road from the central Punjab, 
through Jammu, Kashtwar and Zanskar to L6. A 

* Travels, I. p. 373. t Travels, I. p. 3G1. 

L 2 



148 ladAk. 

brancli of this road runs from Zanskar through Rukchu 
toL6. 

3. The southern road from Lahor and Amritsar, 
through Kullu, Lahul and Rukchu to L^. A branch 
road from Bisahar, via Spiti, joins this road in Rukchu. 

4. The south-eastern road from Lhasa to Garo and the 
Indus to Le. A branch from India, via the Niti Pass, 
joins this road at Garo. 

5. The eastern road from Chinese Tartary, through 
Rudok and the valleys of Chushal and Sakte to Le. 

6. The northern road from Yarkand and Kotan, over 
the Karakorum mountains and down the Shayok and 
Nubra rivers to Le. The old route, which is now closed 
by glaciers that dam the stream, followed the Shayok 
from its source to Sassar, and thence either continued 
down that river, or across the mountains and down the 
Nubra river to L^. 

7. The north-western road from Balti, via the Shayok 
and Indus rivers, to Le. 

II.— 1st. THE WESTERN EOAD. 

The road from Kashmir traverses nearly the whole 
extent of Ladak from west to east, from the Seoji La, at 
the head of the Dras river, to Le. From the Kashmi- 
rian Pass it follows the course of the Dras river to its 
junction with the Suru river, up which it proceeds as 
far as Kargyil. From thence it ascends the Purik vaUey 
past the fort and town of Paskyum, as far as Waka, 
where it leaves the Waka river, and crosses the Namyika 
Pass (13,000 feet) to the bed of the Kanji river. Thence 
over the Photo La, an easy pass (13,240 feet), to the 
village of Lama Ymnai, from which it foUows the course 



THE WESTERN ROAD. 119 

of the Wanla-clui to its junction with the Indus, below 
the bridge of Khallach, where it crosses the river to its 
right bank. Erom this point it ascends the Indus, past 
the villages of Nurla, Saspul, Bazgo, and Nyimo, to 
Pitak, where it leaves the river and turns to the north- 
east for a few mUes to the city of Le. The whole 
distance from Kashmir to Le is 228 nules. 

I have travelled this road myself, and I can vouch for 
its being one of the most excellent and most easy routes 
to bo found throughout the Alpine Punjab. It is 
passable from March till November, when it is closed 
by the vast masses of snow that accumulate on the 
Kashmir side of the Seoji La, and which render the 
passage very dangerous, both in ]\Iarch and April as 
well as in November. The greater portion of this road 
which lies in Ladak was made by Zorawar Sing after 
the conquest of the country in 1834. The large bridge 
over the Indus at Khallach, as well as the smaller bridges 
on this road over the Wanla, Kanji, Waka, Suru, and Dras 
rivers, were all built by the energetic invaders, who, 
knowing the value of good communications, have since 
kept them in excellent repair. No road can well be 
worse than the few marches on the Kashmirian side of 
the pass, which are stiU in the same state as described 
by Izzet Ullah* m 1812 : " The road is diflacult and 
rocky, so as to be impassable to a mounted traveller." 
This is the most frequented of all the roads into Ladak, 
with perhaps the single exception of the northern line 
from Yarkand to Le. 

The following table shows the names and distances of 
the stages. 

* Quarterly Oriental Magazine, INIarch 1825, p. 104. 



15a 



LADAK. 



1 


Grandar Bal 


2 


Kangan 


3 


Surbara 


4 


Gagangir 


: 5 


Sonamarg 


G 


Baltal .. 


7 


Maten . . 


S 


Driis . . . 


9 


Jasgund 


10 


Kbarbu 


11 


Kargyil 


12 


Dok ... 


13 


Molbil 


14 


Cbarak 


15 


Hesku 


IG 


Lama Turru 


17 


Kballach 


18 


Nurla ... 


19 


llemis-tokpo 


20 


Siispul . . . 


21 


Bazgo ... 


22 


Tharu... 


23 


Le .. 



PROM KASHMIR TO l6. 

Miles. 

. 9f left bank of Sindh river, 

. 9-J rigbt bank ditto. 

. 9f left ditto ditto. 

. lOf rigbt ditto ditto. 

. 7} ditto ditto ditto. 

. 8f ditto foot of Pass. 

. 15|- cross the Seoji La (Pass). 

. Hi left bank of Dras river. 

. 7| on the left bank (opposite). 

. 121 right bank ditto. 

. llf at junction of Waka and Suru river. 

. llf left bank of Waka river. 

. 8f right bank ditto. 

. 7i cross the Namyika Pass. 

. Ill right bank of Kanji river. 

. 9 cross the Photo La (Pass). 

. Sf cross the Indus by bridge. 

. 8i right bank of Indus. 

. 8f ditto ditto. 

. 9f ditto ditto. 

8 ditto ditto. 

. 11^ ditto ditto. 

. 11| ditto ditto. 

228 miles. 



III.— 2ud. THE SOUTH-WESTEEN EOAD. 

During the first years of the occupation of Ladak by 
Zorawar Sing, the different roads from Jammu to Le 
were constantly traversed by the Dogra troops, who 
latterly always took the route through Kdshtwar and 
Zanskar in preference to that of Kashtwar and Suru — ■ 
which they thought considerably longer. Dr. Thomson 
travelled from Jammu to Le, in 18 18, but he took the 
hill route, from Bhadawiir to Chatrgarh. In the same 



TUE SOUTH-WESTEKN ROAD. 151 

year he had also traveUed from Kashmii- to Jammu. 
We are therefore able to compare the route from Jammu 
to Jj6, via Zanskar, with that by Kashmir. The com- 
parison is altogether in favour of the road by Kashmir, 
with respect to the facility of crossing the different 
passes, which are less lofty and much more easy of ascent 
and descent than those of the other road. With respect 
to distance, the two roads are much about the same. 
The road travelled by Dr. Thomson is actually eighteen 
miles longer than the route by Kashmir ; but as the 
route from Zanskar to Le, via Marka and ICiyo, is two 
days' journey less than that followed by Dr. Thomson, 
the two roads by Kashmir and Zanskar may be con- 
sidered about the same length. 

From Jammu the Zanskar road proceeds direct 
through Ramnagar to Bhadarwdr, a distance of seventy- 
three miles. From thence it crosses the Bhadri-Dhar 
Pass, 10,165 feet, into the Chamba district, and over 
the Saj-Joth (li,794- feet) into the vaUey of the Chandra- 
bhaga near Chatrgarh, a further distance of 116 miles. 
From the Chenab the road crosses the Bara Lacha range 
by the Umasi-La or Bvirdar Pass (18,125 feet) to Phadam, 
the chief town in Zanskar, a distance of fifty-six mUes. 
In this rugged district the road is bad and difficult. At 
first it follows the com'se of the Zanskar river as far as 
Chand-La, where it enters the mountains. Beyond 
Pangache it proceeds over another pass (16,495 feet) and 
descends rapidly to the river, which it crosses by the 
Nira bridge. From thence it ascends the lofty moun- 
tains that bound Zanskai' on the west, and enters the 
Wanla district by the Sing-ge-La (16,952 feet), from 
which it follows the Wanla river to Lama Yurru, and 



152 



LADAK. 



thence to L6, as in the first route. The lofty passes on 
this road are seldom open before June, and they are 
always closed by the end of October. 

The following are the marches made by Dr. Thomson 
from Jammu to L6. 





Miles. 






Miles. 


1 Tuton-ki-kui (the mul- 




Brought forward . . . 189 


berry well) . . 


8 


23 


Chishot 


8 


2 Sarolii Sar ... 


. 7 


24 


Sumcham 


... 8 


3 Thalaura 


8 


25 


Camp ... 


... 6 


4 Eamnagar 


.. 10 


26 


Ditto ... 


... 5 


5 Garta ... 


7 


27 


Ditto ... 


... 10 


6 Pata 


9 


28 


Markim 


... 10 


7 Dudu 


.. 6 


29 


Phadam 


... 9 


S Camp ... 


.. 8 


30 


TuBgde 


... 8 


9 Bhadarwar 


.. 10 


31 


Chandla 


... 10 


10 Camp ... 


7 


32 


Sumdo 


... 10 


11 Langera 


8 


33 


Pangache 


... 9 


12 Dego 


.. 11 


34 


Nira ... 


... 8 


13 Buju 


.. 10 


35 


Tulchimg 


... 5 


14 Kaltor 


.. 11 


36 


Plutaksa 


... 11 


15 Banderi 


.. 7 


37 


Haunpata 


... 8 


16 Camp 


7 


38 


Wauk 


... 10 


17 Ditto 


.. 9 


39 


Khallach 


... 11 


18 Ditto 


.. 12 


40 


Nurla ... 


... 8 


19 Pargwal 


.. 8 


41 


Saspol ... 


... 10 


20 Asdhari 


.. 10 


42 


Nyimo 


.. 10 


21 Shol 


9 


43 


l'c ... 


... 11 


22 Lyundi 


7 















Total m 


dies ... 374 


Carried forward 


.. 189 









From Phadam there are two other routes to Le, the 
direct route through Zanskar and the winter route 
through Eukchu. The latter was taken by the Vazir 
Zorawar Sing, in the winter of 1835, when all the passes 
on the more direct road had loner been closed. 



THE SOUTHERN EOAD. 



153 



TWO ROUTES FROM PHADAM IN ZANSKAR TO Lfi. 





"VVlNTEE EOUTE. 




Direct Eoute. 


1 


Muni. 


1 


Tonde. 


2 


Yang Jhiil. 


2 


Jand-ld. 


3 


Maleug. 


3 


Sum do. 


4 


Kina Jhula. 


4 


Dagmoche. 


5 


Zougmar. 


5 


Kama Sumdo. 


e 


Chuniik Marpo. 


6 


Rabrang. 


7 


Tokpo Soma. 


7 


Marka. 


S 


Chanip. 


8 


Kyo (Skyo or Skio) 


9 


Dong cliechan. 


9 


Sliingo (Pass). 


10 


Pachiilong. 


10 


Eiimbak. 


11 


Kyang-cho. 


11 


Pitak. 


12 
13 


Rukchin. 
Debraug. 


12 


L<5. 


14 


Gya. 






15 


Miru. 






16 

17 


Ugshi. 
Hemis. 






18 


Thagua Goupa. 






19 


Chachot. 






20 


Le. 







IV.— 3rd. THE SOUTHEEN EOAD. 



By tliis route the shawl wool is hrought to the large 
cities of Nurpur, Amritsar, and Ludiana, all of which 
make a return in manvifactured shawls and coarse 
hrocades. The roads from all these places meet at 
Mandi (the market) or Maudinagur (market-city) on 
Ihe Byas river, the capital of the small state of that 
name. From Nurpur the merchants proceed via 
Kangra and Baijnath; from Amritsar, via, Hushiyarpoor 
and Nadon ; and from Ludiana, via Eopar and Bilaspur ; 
the distances of the first and last heing about 120 miles; 
of the second, about 150 miles. 

Erom Mandi this road proceeds by the u-on-mines of 
Kuman to Sultanpur, the cnpital of Kullu. From 



154 LABAK, 

thence it ascends the Byas to its source on the E-otang 
Pass (13,000 feet), and descends upon the Chandra river 
at Koksar, the flbrst village in Lahul, at an elevation of 
10,000 feet. It then follows the Chandra river to its 
junction with the Bhaga, opposite Tandi, from whence 
it ascends the latter to its source in the Bara Lacha 
Pass (16,500 feet). Prom this pass it descends the 
Yujiam river into Rukchu, and thence crosses the 
Ltmga-Lacha Pass (17,000 feet) to the triple confluence 
of the Sumgal river. There it ascends the plain of 
Kyang to the crest of the Thuug-Lung Pass (17,500 feet), 
from whence it descends the Gya rivulet to the Indus at 
Ugshi, and thence down that river to Le. All the 
passes on this route are easy, especially the Bara Lacha, 
over which a road might be made passable for carriages, 
so gradual is the ascent and descent. The Bara Lacha 
and Rotang Passes are generally closed in the end of 
October, and are not open again until the end of May or 
beginning of June. The most difficult part of this route 
is the crossing of the Chandra river, as the suspension- 
bridge of birchen-twig ropes is annually overwhelmed 
beneath a dense mass of di'ifted snow. In August, 
1846, the late Mr. Vans Agnew and myself were 
detained for two days opposite Koksar until the bridge 
was partially put up, when with the assistance of plenty 
of rope, which we had purposely carried with us, we 
managed to pass over all baggage without any difficulty. 
From Mandi the route is as follows : — 

Miles. 

1 Kuman ... ... 11 an iron-mine. 

2 Bajaora ... ... 14 riglit bank of Byas river. 

3 Sultanpiir ... ... 9 capital of Knllu. 

1 Dwara ... ... 10 right bank of Byas river. 

Carried iorw ard . . 41 



THE SOUTHERN KOAD, 



155 







Miles 






Brought forward 


.. 4t 




5 


INIonali 


.. 14 


right bank of Byaa river. 


6 


Ralha 


.. 10 


camp foot of Pass. 


7 


Koksar 


.. 11 


cross the Rotaiig Pass. 


8 


Sisu 


.. 10 


riglit bank of Chandra river. 


9 


Gundla 


9 


ditto ditto. 


10 


Kiirdang 


.. 10 


left bank of Bhaga river. 


11 


Kolang 


.. 13 


right bank ditto. 


12 


Darclia 


.. 10 


ditto ditto. 


13 


Patseo 


.. 8 


a rude stone bridge. 


U 


Mongba 


.. 10 


foot of Pass. 


15 


Kelang 


.. 12 


cross the Bara Lacha. 


16 


Charpa 


.. 8 


mouth of Cherpa river. 


17 


Sumdo 


.. 14 


foot of Pass, 


18 


Siimgal 


.. 12 


cross Langa Lacha Pass. 


19 


]\Iiire-Tslio . . . 


.. 10 


a small pond of fresh water. 


20 


Eukchin 


.. 7 


Boti camp. 


21 


Larsa 


.. 14 


foot of Pass. 


22 


Gya 


• • 14f 


cross the Lunga Lacha. 


23 


Miru 


• • 7i 




24 


Ugslii 


.. 7i 


left bank of Indus. 


25 


]\larchalang . . . 


.. Si 


ditto ditto. 


26 


Chacliot 


.. 11 


ditto ditto. 


27 


Le 


.. 91 


cross Indus by bridge. 




Total 


.. 283| 


miles. 



The Bisahar road, via Kullu, joins this road at Siil- 
tanpur, the capital of Kullu, from which llampur is 
eight marches distant. Since 1846, this road has heen 
much improved by the British government, and the 
access to Kullu, both from Simla and from Bampm*, is 
now easy. The road from Bisaliar, through Spiti into 
Rukchu, joins the above road either at the crest of the 
Bara Lacha Pass or at the foot of the Thung Limg Pass. 
The former is the more easy route, but the latter is the 
more frequented. From Bampur the road ascends the 
Sutluj river to the Wongto bridge, where it passes over 
and enters the mountains to Babe. Erom thence it 



156 LADAK. 

crosses the Tari Pass (15,282 feet) into the Pin valley, 
which it descends to the junction of the Pin river with 
the Spiti. The latter is crossed by a jhula to Dangkhar, 
from whence the road proceeds to the monastery of Kyi 
and up the left hank of this stream to Losar, where it 
changes to the right bank. Beyond Losar it leaves the 
Spiti river and crosses the Kulzum Pass (14,821 feet) 
into the upper course of the Chandra river, which is 
quite uninhabited, and ascends the stream to its source 
in the Bara Lacha Pass. The other road branches off 
from the monastery of Kyi and crosses the Parang Pass 
(18,502 feet) into Rukchu at the source of the Para river. 
It then follows the river to Norbu Sumdo, whence it 
crosses a low range of hills to the southern end of the 
Tshomo-lliri lake. From this lake it crosses the Nakpo 
Gonding Pass (18,000 feet) and the Polokonka Pass 
(16,500 feet) to the Tsho-kar or Wliite Lake, beyond 
which it joins the first road at the foot of the Thung- 
Limg Pass. 

The following are the stages on the road by the Bara 
Lacha Pass. 



FROM RAMPm TO ti. 







Miles 




1 


Gaora 


.. 10 


left baiik of Sutlej. 


2 


Sarahau 


.. 10 


ditto ditto. 


3 


Tranda 


.. 14 


ditto ditto. 


4 


Nichar 


.. 12 


ditto ditto. 


5 


Tangpa 


.. 11 


cross the Sutlej. 


6 


Larsa 


.. 16 


cross the Tari Pass. 


7 


Mud 


.. 12 


on Pin river in Spiti. 


8 


Tangti 


.. 12 


ditto ditto. 


9 


Dauglikar 


.. 15 


cross the Spiti Pass. 





Lara ... 


.. 8f 


left bank of Spiti river. 


1 


liangrig 


.. Si 


ditto, halting-grouud. 




Carried Ibrward 


.. 128'- 





THE SOUTH-EASTERN KOAD. 157 

Milea. 
Brought forward ... 128^ 

12 Chikyam 10 

13 Kirla 12 

14 Losar ... ... ... 12 right bank. 

15 Camp... ... ... 10 foot of Pass. 

16 Ditto ... ... ... 9 cross the Kiilzum La. 

17 Ditto 12 left bank of Chandra. 

18 Ditto 14 ditto ditto. 

19 Ditto 12 ditto ditto. 

20 Ditto ... ... ... 12 cross the Bara Lacha Pass. 

232i 
Thence 12 to Le, 122| miles. 

Total ... 355-1- miles. 

The following are the stages on the road by the Tsho- 
mo-E.iri Lake. 

FROM RAMPUR TO L^. 

Miles. 



11 


Rangrig 


129i 




12 


Gyihbar 


6* 




13 


Bongrochan 


8f 




14 


Tratung Kongma 


7 


cross the Parang Pass 


15 


Camp 


11 




16 


Norbu Sumdo 


11 




17 


Tshomo Eiri ... 


10 


south end of lake. 


18 


Korzo Gonpa 


13 




19 


Earazung 


11 




20 


Polokouka Pass 


15 


2 miles to W of Pass 


21 


Tsho-kar 


11 




22 


Larsa 


16 
252| 






Thence 6 to L 


e, 57|- 






Total ... 


310 miles. 



v.— 4th. THE SOUTH-EASTEEN EOAD. 

Of the portion of this road that lies between Lhasa 
and Kailas, very little is known except by report. 



158 LADAK. 

From Lhasa, which I do not think can be less than 
ten or eleven thousand feet above the sea, the road 
ascends the Sanpu river, past Tashi Lhunpo and Galdan 
to its source on the eastern face of the Kailas mountain. 
It then crosses tliis moimtain to the northern bank of the 
holy Manasarovara Lake (15,200 feet). The dii-ect dis- 
tance between these points on the map is upwards of 10° of 
longitude, which in the 30th degree of latitude are equal 
to 600 English miles, to which one-haK* more must be 
added for the windings and ascents and descents of a 
road in a mountainous country. This will give a dis- 
tance of 900 miles, equal to a journey of three months, 
which the people always state it to be. From the 
Manasarovara Lake to Garo the road has been traversed 
by Moorcroft. The distance is about 110 miles, or ten 
days' journey— past the Lake of Rawan Hrad, and over 
several lofty spurs of the Kailas range, which give rise 
to numerous small feeders of the Sutluj and Indus. 
Garo itself is situated, according to my information, on 
the main branch of the Indus, which is there called the 
Higong-chu or Higong river, simply because it flows 
past the village of that name. From Garo to Chibra, 
and thence to Le, the road lies dowa. the valley of the 
Indus, and generally along the bank of the river. The 
distance from Garo to Le is not less than 350 miles, or 

* This is not a mere assumption, but a fact deduced from actual 
surveys. Thus my survey makes the distance between Le and Kashmir 
228 English mUes. The difference of longitude is 2° 40', which, in 
the latitude of 34°, is equal to 154 miles ; to which by adding one-half 
more, we obtain 231 miles, which is within three miles of tlie actual 
measurement. Again, tlie difference of latitiide between Mandi and 
Le is 2° 30', equal to 174 English miles. By adding one-half more, we 
obtain 2G0 miles, the measured distance, according to my survey, being 
283 miles. 



THE EASTERN ROAD. 159 

about tliirty-fivG days' journey. The whole distance 
from Lliasa to Ld is therefore about 1,350 miles, a 
journey of four months and a half. 

The principal places on this route are the well-known 
Tashi-Lhunpo, the residence of the Tashi Lama, who 
was visited by Turner ; Galdan, wliich Avas for some 
time the residence of the Tibetan court ; Garo, which is 
now a great mart for the interchange of the productions 
of India and China ; and Tashi Gong, which is a cele- 
brated monastery. I will say nothing more regarding 
this road, as all the accessible portions of it have been 
traversed by Captain H. Strachey. 

VI.— 5th. THE EASTEEN EOAD. 

This road leads from the unknoT^Ti countries inhabited 
by various Mongol tribes, through Rudok to Le. Notliing 
whatever is known of it to the eastward of Rudok, 
except that by it the Mongol tribe of Sokpo invaded 
Ladak in 1686 and 1687 ; and again in the beginning of 
1841, immediately after Zorawar Sing's death, about 
three thousand Changpas* are said to have entered 
Ladak for the pm-pose of assistiug the young Gyalpo. 
They advanced to Le, where they remained about six 
weeks ; but on the approach of Dewan Hari Chand and 
Vazir E-atanu with troops from Kashmir, they fled 
hastily back again by the same route. As this road has 
been surveyed by Captain H. Strachey, from the neigh- 
bourhood of E-uthog to JA, any further remarks from 
me are quite unnecessary. 

* Byang-pa, pronounced Chanff-pa, " northern men," or men of 
Chang-thang, the northern plains. 



160 



VII.— 6th. THE NOETHERN EOAD. 



This road leads from Yarkand and Kotan, over the 
Karakoram mountains (18,660 feet) to Le. The best 
account of it that we possess is that by Izzet Ullah, who 
traversed it in 1812. But since that time several glaciers 
have stretched their mighty masses across the bed of the 
Shayok, and the old road by the river has been com- 
pletely closed. The new road from Karakoram leaves 
the Shayok, or Khundan, river at the foot of the pass, 
and crosses over an elevated table-land to Sassar, where 
it again meets the Khundan. A short distance above 
Sassar Dr. Thomson examined two glaciers that stretched 
across the river. From this point the road quits the 
Khundan and crosses a lofty range to the bed of the 
Nubra river, above Panamik. It then follows the course 
of the Nubra river to its junction with the Shayok, from 
which it proceeds direct to Le. 

Izzet UUah's route was the following : — 





FROM 


YARKAND TO L^. 






Hours 




Miles. 


1 

2 
3 

4 
5 
6 


Chagachag 

Tokaji 

Langer 

Aurtang 

Ak Masjid 

Khalastau 


4 

9 

10 

2 
9 

7 


— 


6 
134 on the Kerghalek r 
15 

3 

13i 
10* 


7 


Chakilak 


6 


= 


9 


8 


Mizar ... 


6 


= 


9 


9 
10 
11 


Tezak Lak Payin 
Tagni Dawan 
Yartoli 


8 
9 
5 


= 


12 
134 

74 right bank of river. 


12 
13 


Bagh Haji Mohammad 
Igersal di 


2 
9 


= 


3 

134 


14 


Taghteh 


7 


= 


104 




Carried forward 


93 


= 


1394 



THE NORTHEUN TJOAU. 



IGl 



Brought forw 
Khatalim 
Aktagh 
Surighout 
Camp . . . 



1 Camp to S. of Pass 

2 Tapchau 

3 Khundaii 

4 ChongTasli ... 

5 Tartobi 
Maudalik 

7 Dong Bailak ... 

8 Cliong Aolang 

9 Clioug Jangal 

10 Chunchar 

11 Dakclui Dunga 

12 Adgain 

13 Digar... 

14 Camp ... 

15 Lahu . . . 

16 Le ... 



Miles. 

93 =139,V 

9 = 13J 

10 = 15 

9 = 13, V 

7 = 10 J foot of Karakoram Pass. 

128 =192 miles. 

10 = 15 
10 = 15 

10 = 15 right bauk of Sh.ayok. 

9 = 13 ^T right ditto. 
7 = 10^ 

5 = 7| left ditto. 

10 = 15 left ditto. 

9 = 13| right ditto. 

4=6 right ditto. 

9 = 13^ right ditto. 

4 = G right ditto. 

7 = lOi left ditto. 

... 4| 

... 12 

7i cross a Pass. 



Karakoram to Le 
18 Tarkand to Karakoram 



172i miles. 
192 



34 marches. 



Total 



SGU miles. 



Dr. Thomson's route from Le to Karakoram Pass is 
a more dii'ect one, and consequently a shorter one ; the 
whole distance being only 147^ mUes, or twenty-five 
miles less than Izzet UUah's route. But the longer 
route up the Khundan river had the advantage of being 
tolerably level, whereas the present route crosses no less 
than three lofty passes, and is besides much more rugged 
and difficult. The Karakoram Pass is not less than 
ISjGOO feet above the sea, and it is perhaps very nearly 



162 



19,000 feet high. Dr. Thomson's route from Lc to the 
Karakoram Pass is as follows : — 



1 


Camp 


2 


Kardong 


3 


Kalsar 


4 


Diskit 


5 


Lyakj ung 


6 




7 


Chirasa 


8 


Panamik 


9 


Takshe 


10 


Changlmi 



Carried forward 



Miles. 

G 

10 

9 

8 
5 

]" 

10 
4 



Brouglit forward 

11 Camp 

12 Ditto... 
1.3 Ditto... 

14 Sassar 

15 Margai 

16 Camp 

17 Ditto... 

18 Ditto... 

19 Karakoram Pass 

Total 



Miles. 
.. 68^ 



9 
12 
12 
10 

1471 



VIII.— 7th. THE NORTH-WESTERN ROAD. 



Tlu's road leads from Balti and the neighbouring 
Musalman district up the bed of the Indus to Le. 
During the svimmer season, when the waters of the 
river are much swollen by the melted snow, the Indus 
route is very difficult, and travellers generally prefer 
ascending the Shayok river as far as Chhorbad, and 
thence crossing the mountains by the Hanu Pass, 16,890 
feet, to the Indus at the fort of Hanu. Prom Hanu to 
Le the route ascends the Indus. Both of these routes 
have been travelled by Mr. Vigne. Dr. Thomson's 
route was by the Shayok alone ; and to him we are 
indebted for the survey of that river between Tirit and 
Keris, where it joins the Indus. The distance from 
Skardo to Le, by this route, is 236 miles, or just eight 
miles more than the road from Kashmir to L(5. The 
following are the marches from Le to Skardo, by the 
Latsa Pass, 17,666 feet. 



THE NORTH-WESTERN ROAD. 



163 





Miles. 






Miles 


1 Sabu 


G 




]?rought forward 


147 


2 Foot of Pass 


12 


17 


Turtuk 


7 


3 Digar 


5 J 


IS 


Pranii 


11 


4 Chatti 


IG 


19 


Siksa 


7 


5 Tirit 


8h 


20 


Kabus 


8 


6 Tagar 


81 


21 


Surma 


12 


7 Panamik 


13 


22 


Khapolor 


7 


8 Chirasa 


10 


23 


Karku 


10 


9 Lyakjung 


9 


24 


Bragar 


4 


10 Hundar 


9i 


25 


Klines 


6J 


11 Tertse 


10 


26 


Kuril 


6 


12 Unmaru 


5i 


27 


Keris 


8 


13 Karu 


9i 


2S 


Uolochu 


9 


14 Waris 


8 


29 


Camp 


9^ 


15 Bogdan 


7 


30 


Skardo 


4 


IG Chulungka .. 


9 














Total 


236 


Carried forward . . 


147 










The above are the principal thoroughfares through- 
out Ladak. Many other roads might be enumerated in 
all directions, but they arc less frequented and more 
difl&cult. These by-paths are called Lam-than,* and 
Lam-dogpo. They are used chiefly by the people of the 
country in passing from their own districts into the 
next ; such are, — 1st, the road over the Omba La, between 
Suru and Dras ; and 2nd, the road over the Vinge La, 
between Zanskar and Purik. Other roads are used only 
by smugglers ; but these are always difficult, although 
frequently more direct than the high-roads. One of the 
best known of these smugglers' paths is that which 
leads from the Chinese district of Chumurti into Lahul 
and Kullu. Erom Chumtirti the road is followed over 
the Budhpu Pass to the bed of the Para river. From 
thence a rugged path leads over a lofty mountain to the 

* Lam-phran, pronounced Lfim-ZJimi. " little road ;" and Lam-Doq- 
po, " narrow road." 

M 2 . 



161 



LADAK. 



upper course of the river, which is crossed a second 
time, and over another range of mountains to the head 
of the Charpa river. From the hed of the Charpa 
different routes were followed over the mountains to the 
upper and uninhabited course of the Chandra river, 
from whence the northern road leads over the Bara 
Lacha Pass into Laliul, and the southern i-oad direct 
into Ivullu by the Parbati river. 



IX.— PASSES. 

A Pass in Tibetan is called La. The crest of a Pass 
is named La-tse, and the foot of a Pass La-tsa* The 
last word is variously pronounced : by some it is called 
Larsa, of which spellmg many examples may be found 
in our maps at the bottom of Passes ; by others it is 
called Lacha, as in Bara Lacha (for Bara Latsa). Others 
again pronoimce the s distinctly ; which last has given 
rise to Dr. Gerard's spelling of Para Lassa. Rong is a 
defile, and chong-rong is a narrow defile. The principal 
passes have already been mentioned in my description 
of the high-roads of Ladak ; but a tabular enumeration 
of them may be useful for comparison. 



Names. 


Heights. 


Authorities. 


Positions. 


Karakoram ... 


18,G60 


Dr. Thomson . . . 


Head of Shayok river. 


Sassar 


17,500 


Ditto 


between Nubra and 
Shayok river. 


Hanu ... 


10,890 


Col. Bates 


between Indus and 
Shayok river. 


Le Pass 


17,GGG 


Dr. Thomson ... 


between Le and Nubra. 


Lazgiing 


17,500 


(estimated) . . . 


ditto ditto. 



* L(i is the simple form. La-rTse, is the crest of a Pass. 



PASSES. 



165 



Names. 


Heights. 


Authorities. 


Positions. 


Changla 


18,105 


Moorcroft, MS. 


between Indus and 
Long Kongma. 


Kongta-la 


15,495 


Ditto 


between Long Kongma 
and Chushal. 


Singgc 


16,952 


Dr. Thomsou . . . 


between Zanskar and 
Lama Yurru. 


Vingge 


— 






Pangaehe 


16,495 


Dr. Thomson . . . 


in Zanskar. 


Photo La 


13,240 


A. Cimninghani 


between Kashmir and 
Le. 


Xamyika 


13,000 


Ditto 


ditto ditto. 


Thung Luug . . 


17,500 


Ditto 


South of Le. 


Polokonka 


16,500 


Ditto 


near the Tsho-kar. 


jVakpo Gouding 


18,000 


Ditto 


to North of Tshonio 
Eiri lake. 


Lanak ... 


18,746 


Ditto 


between Tshomo Eiri 
and Hanle. 


Lunga Liielia 


17,000 


Ditto 


between Zanskar and 
Eukchu. 


Parang Lii 


18,502 


Ditto 


North of Spiti. 


Bara Lacba ... 


16,500 


Ditto 


between LahiJ and 
Zanskar. 


Umasi La 


18,123 


Dr. Thomson . . 


between Kashtwar and 
Zanskar. 


Seoji La 


11,031- 


A. Cunningham 


between Kashmir and 
Dras. 


Harapo La 


12,104 


Col. Bates 


in Astor. 


Kutzum 


14,851 


Capt. Broome ... 


between Laliul and 
Spiti. 


Manerang 


18,612 


A. Gerard 


between Kanawar and 
Spiti. 


TariPass 


15,282 


Lieut. Maclagan 


ditto ditto. 


Eotang Joth . . 


13,000 


A. Cunningham 


between Kidlu and 
Lahul. 


Kali Joth 


16,700 


Ditto 


between Lahul and 
Chamba. 


Saj Joth 


15,500 


Dr. Thomson . . 


ditto ditto. 


Pir Paiijal ... 


11,970 


A. Cunningham 


South of Kashmir. 


Tural Pass . . 


14,808 


Ditto 


between Kangra and 
Chauiba. 



166 



X— PASSAGE OF EIVEES. 

The great rivers of Ladak are crossed by ferries, fords, 
and bridges. Fording is the most usual means of crossing 
botli the Indus and the Shayok, in the upper parts of 
their sources, where their waters are widely spread and 
shallow. In the neighbourhood of Le, where the Indus 
becomes deep and rapid, it is spanned by three bridges, 
and just below L^, where the current is less rapid, 
people are ferried across on inflated skins. The Zanskar 
river is bridged in two places : and is not I believe 
ever fordable. In Lahul the Chandra and Bhaga rivers 
are both bridged ; but I have seen the Chandra forded 
at Koksar in October, and I have been ferried across it 
at the same place in September. In Spiti, the Para 
river is crossed by a natural bridge formed of an 
enormous mass of rock that has fallen across the 
stream ; and the Spiti river itself is bridged in several 
places. In the winter season it is fordable in many 
places. , 

A ford is called Gal in Tibetan ; and the name is 
applied to one of the principal branches of the Zanskar 
river, which is called Sum-gal, or the " Three Fords," 
because it is formed of three streams that are forded one 
after the other just above their junction. In the summer 
the fording of many of the streams can only be accom- 
plished in the morning ; for after ten and eleven o'clock 
the waters are so much increased by the melted snows 
that they become quite unfordablc. This I have myself 
witnessed with the Chandra river in October, and with 
the Charpa river in September ; and I have ascertained 
that it is also the case with the Spiti river. 



PASSAGE OF RIVERS. 167 

A ferry is called Grn-kha, and the ferryman Gru-ba. 
In Ladak itself the ferrymen use only rafts made of 
inflated skins ; but on the Sanpu river, even above 
Lhasa, boats are said to be niunerous ; and there has 
always been one on the Indus at Skardo. The name, 
therefore, is well knoAvn in Ladak, more particularly as 
most of the Lamas have visited Lhasa. The common 
people are ferried over on a single inflated skin {jphagpa), 
but great men usually have a raft formed by placing a 
bed over two inflated skins. The skin is generally the 
lude of a butfalo, with the openings carefully sewn up, 
excepting one of the hind legs, which is kept for in- 
flation. The skin floats with the legs uppermost. The 
ferryman throws his arm over it, holding the closed leg 
in his left hand, and a small wooden paddle in his right. 
The passenger sits down, native fashion, on the skin, 
and secm-es liimself by holding the ferryman's shoulder 
as well as the leg of the skin. The ferryman paddles 
with his right hand, and pushes the skin forward by 
striking out his legs as in sAviniming. I have often 
crossed the Eyas and Chandra rivers in this way. The 
raft is managed in the same manner ; but it cannot be 
used either in such rough water or in such rapid 
currents as the single skin. 

The bridges of Ladak have different names, according 
to the materials of which they are constructed. The 
finest bridges, such as those of Le and Khallach, are 
caUcd Shing-zam, or " Wooden Bridges," because they 
span the river with large beams of poplar. A smaU. 
bridge over the Bhaga river in Lahul is dignified with 
the name of Bo-zam, or the " Stone Bridge," because 
the footway is made of rough stone slabs. Chag-zam* 

* Zam-pa is a bridge ; and the different terms of Slihig, wood ; rBo, 



168 LADAK. 

or " Iron Bridges," and Gru-zam or " Boat Bridges," 
are known only in the Lhasan territory ; but the Chug- 
zam or suspension-bridge is common in many parts of 
Ladak. 

One of the finest specimens of the SJdng-zam or 
wooden bridge that I have seen, is the great bridge over 
the Indus near L6. I have given a sketch of it in 
Plate V. It Avas built by Zorawar Sing, and is called 
Clihog-lam-Sco'-Zampa,^ or the " New Bridge on the 
high-road." The Khallach Bridge is similar in con- 
stru.ction. They are both railed, and may be ridden 
over with perfect safety. As the details of construction 
may be seen quite as clearly in the sketch as in any 
description, I will only give the dimensions of these two 
bridges. 

The Le Bridge is a double one, the smaller one having 
a span of thirty feet, and the larger one of eighty feet. 
Both are strongly and substantially built of poplar 
spars, laid touching each other. On each side is a stovit 
railing — the clear breadth between the railings being 
eight feet. Height above the stream (on 2nd October) 
fifteen feet. 

The Khallach Bridge is seventy-seven feet long and 
eight feet broad, with a stout railing on each side. 
Height above the water (on the 15th October) forty- 
five feet. This bridge is protected by a small square 
field-work of sun-dried bricks, which covers the northern 
end on the right bank. It is occupied by twelve men, 
who are relieved regularly from Le. 

stone ; IChags, iron ; arc added to discriminate the material of w liicli 
the bridge is formed. 

* Chhog-Iam-Sar-zam-iia, " high-road new bridge." — See Plate V. fur 
a view of this bridge. 



PASSAGE OF RIVERS. 169 

The Chug-zam or suspension-bridges arc different 
from i\\GJ hulas or swinging-bridges of the Hindu states 
of Chamba and Bisahar. The passenger wallcs across 
the former, but is pulled across the latter. Suspension- 
bridges are common on the Indus and Sliayok above 
their jimction. They are used also in Zanskar, Spiti, 
and Lahul ; and in the Hindu state of Chamba. Tlic 
Chug-zam is formed of two stout ropes of twisted birch- 
t^vigs, about the thickness of a man's arm. The ropes 
are suspended side by side, about five feet apart at the 
ends : but they are drawn nearer together in the middle 
by the weight of the side-ropes and roadway. The side- 
ropes, about one inch, thick, are also made of birchen 
twigs, and in them is laid the roadway : which, in 
the bridges that I have seen, always consisted of three 
ropes (of the same size as the suspension-ropes) laid side 
by side. In the best bridges of this kind the side-ropes 
are connected by a close wattling of wicker-work from 
end to end, to prevent passengers as well as sheep and 
goats from slipping through. The Chug-zam is a very 
cheap and a very easy mode of bridging a stream ; and 
when ncAV and well constructed, it is a very safe and not 
an unpleasant way of crossing. But some old bridges 
of this kind that I have crossed were both difficult and 
dangerous. In them the suspension-ropes formed a 
great curve, the sides were unwattled and completely 
open ; and the roadway in many places was reduced to 
a single rope. Alexander Gerard* states that he should 
"think the best Su-zum {Chug-zam) of 100 feet not 
altogether safe : " but I have crossed several of greater 
span, and one of very nearly double that span. 

* Kaiiiiwar, p. 35. 



170 



Span. 
The Koksar Chug-zam over the Cliandr<a . . 106 feet. 
Wulas „ „ Eavi ... 116* „ 

Mahila „ „ ditto ... 169 „ 

The last span was undoubtedly too great for this kind 
of bridge ; for though the points of suspension Avere six 
feet apart, yet in the middle the ropes could only be 
kept asunder by a piece of wood. The perpendicular or 
versed sine of the arc was thu'ty feet. I find the fol- 
lowing remark recorded in my note-book immediately 
after crossing this bridge in August, 1839 : — " "When 
riding rapidly in a coach, trees, houses, and fields all 
seem to be moving past, while the coach stands still ; 
but just the reverse happens in crossing one of these 
bridges ; for the bridge seems to be carried along side- 
ways, whUe the boiling river appears to stand still." 



171 



VII.-CLIMATE. 



I.— GENEEAL EEMAKKS. 

The various meteorological processes which combine 
to form a climate, are all generated by the sun. Thimder 
and lightning, snow and rain, the pleasant breeze and 
the mighty whirlwind, all alike owe their origin to the sun. 
Through the changes produced by the varying dilfusion 
of solar heat through the atmosphere, the still air is put 
in motion, and becomes a gentle breeze, a high wind, or 
a mighty hurricane. By the sun's beams the multi- 
tudinous waters of the ocean and its tributary rivers are 
vapourized and formed into clouds, which, rising Avith 
the ascending and heated air, are borne upon the A\dngs 
of the wind to loftier or more northerly regions, where, 
as they become condensed by the cold, they smk with 
their burthen towards the earth, and fall down in the 
shape of rain, hail, or snow. The rain washes over the 
surface, or permeates through the ground, the snow 
melts as it falls, and percolates through the fissures of 
the rocks ; botli to appear again in countless rUls, which 
join and form mighty rivers, that bear back again to the 
sea all the water formerly abstracted by evaporation. 

II.— WINDS. 

The constancy of the prevailing Avinds in different 
quarters of the globe is one of the most interesting 



172 LADAK. 

phenomena of nature. In the Trans-Himdlayan districts 
of Ladak, tlie dry wind is nearly ahvays southerly and 
westerly, both in summer and in winter. This fact was 
partially observed by Alexander Gerard,* who remarks, 
that " on peaks upwards of 20,000 (feet) and at heights 
of 16,000 (feet) the winds were always W. or S.W." 
The same fact was also noticed by my brother. Captain 
Joseph Cunningham, who resided for nearly a whole 
year, including one entire winter season of 1841-42, in 
the districts of Upper Kanawar, Spiti, and Chumurti. 
He observed that " the winds blew almost constantly 
from the south or south-west, as noticed by the Gerards. 
A northerly wind was of rare occurrence, "t 

"When I first observed the steadiness of the day -breeze 
in these regions, I was under the impression that the 
wind blew constantly in the same dkection from the 
south-south-west and west, but after a few days' observa- 
tion I found that the morning wind blew generally from 
the north-east. It then struck me that the prevailing 
winds alternated day and night, like the land and sea 
breezes on the coast of India. I was confirmed in this 
opinion by finding on one occasion a dvie northerly wind 
blowing about midnight, and when I afterwards began 
to observe the magnetical instruments, I always found a 
light northerly breeze from two to five in the morning, 
which, as the day broke, gradually took a north-easterly 
direction. I then observed the course and strength of 
the wind at half-hour intervals, and my first day's 

* Kanawar, p. 62. 

t M oorcroft rarely nieulious the winds ; but iu one jilaco he inci- 
dentally alludes to tlicni. Speaking of tlio slieep-lblds of Kalvjung on 
the Indus, he says that they were " screened from ihc prevailing winds 
by the hills to their aoiUh."—!. 110. 



WINDS. 173 

ohservations at once convinced me that my opinion was 
riiijht. I continued my observations at different places 
during August, September, and October, and always 
with the same results. Since then my opinion has been 
most completely substantiated by my brother's obser- 
vations for one whole year in Spiti. 

The generality of travellers get too much fatigued 
with their exertions by day to be able to make any 
observations at night ; and thus the south-westerly wind, 
Avluch was found to prevail during the day, was supposed 
to last through the night, and to be a mere continuation 
of the south-westerly monsoon, wliich blows up the 
valleys of the Chenab, the Byas, and the Sutluj. But 
as the day-and-night wind of Ladak blows throughout 
the entire year, it is clear that it must be due to some 
other cause ; for in the intertropical regions the course 
of the wind is dependent upon the sun's declination, 
wliich when northerly attracts the ascending current of 
heated equatorial air in its own' direction, thus producing 
a south wind. But as this stream of air, when it 
reaches the higher northerly latitudes, where the sm'face 
motion of the earth is less rapid, still retains its superior 
equatorial velocity, it gains daily more and more upon 
the easterly motion of the earth, until at length, when it 
descends to the surface, it becomes a south-westerly 
breeze, which blows steadily during the six months of 
the sun's northern declination. But when the declina- 
tion becomes southerly, just the reverse of this process 
takes place ; for the ascending current of heated air 
follows the sun towards the south, thus producing a 
northerly breeze, which, owing to the difference of rota- 
tory velocities before mentioned, gradually becomes a 
north-westerly breeze, which blows steadily diu'ing the 



174 



LADAK. 



six months of the sun's southern declination. These are 
the monsoons or seasonal winds, which depend entirely 
upon the sun's position in the ecliptic; the south-westerly 
monsoon being the summer wind, and the north-easterly 
monsoon the winter wind. But the alternation of the 
day-and-night wind throughout Ladak is constant 
throughout the year ; and as the subject is one of some 
interest, I will here attempt to explain what appears to 
me to be the cause that generates it, and that afterwards 
carries it round all the points of the compass. 

This cause is, I believe, the great mid-day radiation 
of heat from the bare surface of the vastly elevated 
plains of Ladak and the neighbouring districts, which 
have a mean height of 13,000 feet above the sea. The 
following table shows the extent and mean elevation of 
these great masses of table-land. 

EXTENT AND MEAN HEIGHT OF THE TIBETAN TABLE-LAND. 





Extent. 


He 


ght. 














Sq. miles. 


Total. 


Sq. miles. 


Mean. 


Eukcliu ... 


5,5S0 




15,634 




Giiro 


6,500 




15,500 




Eudok 


4,800 




14,500 






1G,S80 




15,211 


Zanskar ... 


3,080 




13,154 




Spiti 


2,:312 




12,986 




Nubra 


9,210 




12,763 




Ngari 


9,000 




12,500 






23,608 




12,851 


Ladak 


3,960 




11,500 




Piirik 


4,200 




11,196 




Lahul 


1,872 




10,535 






10,032 




11,077 


Sq. niilea 


50,520 


Mn. Iieiglit 


13,026 



WINDS. 



175 



Now as nearly one-half of our terrestrial atmosphere 
lies beneatli the level of these elevated regions, the 
highly rarefied air offers but little check to the direct 
transmission of the solar rays, which are more powerful 
in Ladak, at a height of 15,000 feet, than in the low- 
lying plains of India. At Gwalior the greatest heat of 
the sun's raj^s in the hot winds of 1850 was 133° ; at 
Simla, 7,500 feet, it was 184° ; but in E-ukchu, 15,500 
feet, Trebeck observed a solar heat of 144°, and in the 
same district Gerard measured the incredible rise of 
158°, wliich is only 27° below the boiling point of water 
in that district. 

Towards mid-day the lower strata of the atmosphere 
become rapidly heated, and the rarefied air begins 
streaming towards the north pole, as a light southerly 
breeze. As the day advances, the current of air quickly 
increases in strength imtil it becomes a high wind, 
which blows steadily during the afternoon, with occa- 
sional gusts of great violence. In the evening it 
becomes fainter. The progress of this wind is well 
shown in the following observations made by myself 
with land's wind-sause. 



DIRECTION AND PRESSURE OF THE WIND. 



Time. 


Direction. 


Pressure. 


lOh. 30m. A.M. 


N.E. 


fiiint 


11 00 


E. 


very faint 


11 30 


S. 


light puffs 


Noon. 


s.w. 


0-2 


12 30 P.M. 


AV.S.W. 


0-4 


1 00 


w.s.w. 


0-5 


1 30 


W. 


0-8 


2 00 


W. 


10 


2 30 


KW. 


1-2 


3 00 


W.N.W. 


0-8 


3 30 


N.W. 


0-8 


4 00 


N.N.W. 


10 


4 30 


N.N.AV. 


0-4 



176 LAUAK. 

The greatest pressure was at 2h. 30m. p.m., when the 
wind exerted a force of 6*25 lbs. per square foot. This is 
a single example of what I observed daily. The day- 
breeze or southerly wind always began to blow before 
mid-day, and continued rising and veering towards the 
Avest with frequent strong gusts until three or four 
o'clock in the afternoon, when it reached its greatest 
force, and remained steady for some time. Towards 
sunset it changed to the west-north-west, and gradually 
lessened, until at 9 p.m. it was only a gentle breeze from 
the north-west. At midnight there was always a light 
northerly wind, which became fainter towards the 
morning, when it often freshened into a north-easterly 
breeze. 

The following extracts in support of my opinion arc 
taken from my brother's journal. 

1842. 
Jau. 3 from noon to 4 I'.M. .i strong soufherli/ wind. 

5 southerly wind after 2 I'.M. 

10 afternoon, wind southerly, blowing in violent gusts. 

11 after 9 a.m. wind southerly in strong gusts. 
IS after 5 p.m. light snow with north wind. 

19 night, a light northerly wind. 

20 morning, a light northerly luind. 
afternoon, south wind blowing in gxists. 

21 ') 

r afternoon, strong south wind chiefly in gusts. 

23 strong wind from south and south-west. 

24 a light northerly wind tcntil noon. 

25 wind in gusts from south after 10 a.m. 
30 northerly wind until 10 a.m. 

Feb. 4 early morning, wind northerly, afterwards, gusts from south. 

6 until 10 A.M. northerly tvind. 

_ [ ditto ditto. 

25 afternoon, wind southerly. 
March 22 afternoon, wind in gusts from soutli. 
29 ditto ditto. 







WTND.'«. 177 


1842. 




April 


8 


puffs of wind from south . 




12—18 


ditto ditto. 

A very cloudy month. 


May 


14 


mid-day, strong south wind. 




17) 


noon to evening, light south wind. 




18 1 
19. 


after 9 a.m. strong southerly wind. 




21 


after 10 a.m. strong southerly wind chiefly in gusts. 




24 


after 11 a.m. light southerly wind chiefly in prolonged 
pufis. 




26 to 31 


afternoon, moderate south wind. 


June 


1 to 4 


afternoon, ditto. 




5 


from 9 A.M. high southerly wind to 7 p.m. 




6 to 9 


ditto ditto until dusk. 




10—12 


after 10 a.m. strong south wind. 




14 


after 2 p.m. light south wind. 




15 


after 11 a.m. south wind. 

The same for the rest of the month. 


July 


1 to 31 


south wind for 28 days. 


August 1 to 31 


south wind every day. 


Sept. 


1 to 30 


south wind ditto. 


October 


no observations. 


Noven 


iber 


strong south wind. 



In these o1)servations it Avill be observed that when- 
ever the morning wind is recorded it is always northerly, 
and that the southerly wind never rises imtU 9 a.m., and 
usually later. The constancy of the southerly wind 
here recorded is simply accounted for by the fact, that 
the valleys of the Le and Para rivers, where my brother's 
observations were made, run almost due north and south. 
The course of the wind was therefore influenced by the 
direction of the valleys. This is proved by the change 
of the wind at Sumra, on the Spiti river, where the 
direction of the valley being from east to west, my 
brother found the afternoon wind blowing from the 
east. I found the same in the Spiti valley during 



178 LADAK. 

August and September, when the wind was always up 
the valley or easterly during the heat of the day. On 
the Parang river, on the contrary, the wind was south- 
westerly during the afternoon, but north-easterly before 
mid-day, both the up and down currents taking the direc- 
tion of the valley. At the foot of the Lanak Pass the 
wind was north-easterly and unsettled until noon, after 
which it blew steadily from the south-west up the valley. 
I have already stated that the cause of the southerly 
or day breeze is the intense solar heat and greatly 
increased radiation, wliich are due to the vast elevation 
of the mass of the table-land of Ladak and the neigh- 
bouring districts. The air, rarefied by the heat radiated 
from the soU, streams towards the north pole in a 
southerly current. As it advances, it is gradually 
deflected to the south-west and west by the greater 
rotatory velocity which it possesses ; and as the evening 
approaches, it unites with the north wind, and becomes 
a north-westerly breeze. This northern or night breeze 
is due to the intense cold generated by the great noc- 
turnal radiation, and which begins in the loftier snowy 
regions at 3 p.m. The condensed air finds an outlet to 
the south towards the low plains of India, and becomes 
a northerly current of air. At first it is deflected into a 
north-westerly current by its meeting with the westerly 
breeze of the afternoon, but as the evening grows colder, 
the nocturnal breeze prevails, and streams gently south- 
ward towards the plains. As it advances towards the 
equator, its inferior rotatory velocity causes it to be 
deflected gradually towards the north-east and east 
until the sun has again raised the southern wind, and 
then the gentle breeze of night becomes fainter and 
fainter, and dies gradually away. 



RAIN AND SNOW. 179 

This explanation seems to me sufficient to accovmt for 
the constancy of the day and night breezes of the table- 
land of Ladak ; but the violent gusts which my brother 
mentions, and which I have myself experienced, are due 
to another cause. The Kghter gusts in a single valley 
are most probably caused by the small eddies of wind 
meeting the onward current at every turn ; but the 
violent gusts which I have felt at the Thung-Lung Pass, 
can only be attributed to the meeting of two strong 
currents of the same southerly breeze, which have been 
deflected during their courses into almost opposite 
winds. Thus, the day wind, which blows up the plain 
of Kyang towards the Thung-Limg Pass, is a south- 
westerly current, while that which blows up the Puga 
rivulet and over the plain of Tsho-kar towards the same 
point, is an easterly current. The meeting of these two 
strong cvirrents blowing from opposite directions, would 
produce small whirlwinds and most violent gusts. 

III.— EAIN AjN^D snow. 

The quantity of rain and snow that falls in Ladak is 
exceecUngly small. In the more elevated districts of 
Rukchu, Nubra, Zanskar, and Ladak Proper, it rains, 
or rather drizzles, for an ho\ir or two about three times 
a year.* Snow falls much oftener, but not in any 
quantity, and in Ladak and Rudok it is never more 
than six inches deep. In Rukchu, as a Lama of the 
Korzo Gonpa on the Tshomo-Riri Lake told me, the 
whiter snow is never more than knee-deep, and the 
people reside at the monastery during the whole year. 

* During Moorcroft's residence in Ladak, it rained only ten times iu 
two years, and then only in very small quantities. — I. 269. 

N 2 



ISO LADAK. 

Liglit falls of snow occur at night, even in the middle 
of simimer, as the nocturnal temperature is generally 
below freezing. In the end of September, 1846, I was 
encamped on the bank of Tshomo-Riii Lake, in a snow- 
storm which lasted for twenty-two hours, but the snow 
was not more than six inches deep, and it disappeared 
during the following day. In Dras the fall of snow is 
so great, that by the end of November the Seoji-la Pass 
into Kashmir is always closed, from which the district 
takes its Tibetan name of Hem-babs, or " snow-fed." 
In Ldhul and Spiti, the snow falls to a very great depth, 
and in many places is doubled by accumulations of drift. 
The suspension-bridge at Koksar, in Lahul, is annually 
carried away by a mass of drift-snow, which buries it 
during the winter. In both these districts whole 
villages are occasionally snowed up for three weeks at a 
time ; but so long as the houses stand, the people suffer 
but little inconvenience. In 1838, however, the village 
of Tunda, near Treloknath, was overwhelmed by a mass 
of snow, when several houses were thrown down, and 
sixteen people perished. The temple of Treloknath was 
half-buried, and the bed of the river was filled with 
snow. 

Heavy showers of rain fall along the Chandra river in 
Lahul during July and August ; but after the end of 
September the snow begins to fall, at first in small quan- 
tities which soon disappear ; but the fall gradually in- 
creases until November, when the snow ceases to melt, 
and the passes are finally closed. 

In Spiti the fall of snow is much less than in Lahul, 
its greatest depth, where not drifted, being only two feet 
and a half. During my brother's residence* in Spiti 

* Journal Asiatic Society Bengal, XIII. p. 238. 



TEMPERATURE. 181 

the snow " commenced regularly on the 27tli November, 
and from that date until the end of February, 1812, it 
snowed more or less heavUy, and nearly all day and night, 
for thirty-nine days. It was cloudy or hazy and snow- 
ing on the heights for thirty-four days, leaving twenty- 
one fine clear days out of ninety-four." During July 
and August, light showers of rain were frequent, but 
only one heavy fall occurred during the whole year. 

1V._TEMPEEATUEE. 

The climate of Ladak is characterized by great 
extremes of heat and cold, and by excessive dryness. If 
the earth did not possess an atmosphere, the extremes 
of burning heat by day and of freezing cold by night 
would be unbearable. It follows, therefore, that the 
rarer the atmosphere becomes as one ascends above the 
general surface-level of the earth, so much greater will 
be the extremes of temperature between the day and the 
night. This is a general rule when the atmospheric 
changes are not otherwise aflPected by peculiar circum- 
stances. It is thus in Ladak, and more particularly in 
Rukchu, where the dry and highly evaporative day 
breeze exhausts the little moisture held in the atmo- 
sphere, and the clear dry air becomes intensely cold by 
the great terrestrial radiation under a cloudless sky. 
In the elevated district of Rukchu it freezes almost 
every night during summer ; but the highly rarefied 
atmosphere offers so slight a check to the transmission 
of the sun's rays, that the noon-day sun is sometimes 
25° hotter than it is in any part of India. In the less 
lofty districts in Spiti, both the cold and the heat 
decrease ; but in S]>iti tlie noon-day sun is still 15° 



182 



LADAK. 



hotter than in India, while in Ladak it is about the 
same. The extremes of cold are equally great, and in 
the more elevated districts the wiaters are particularly 
severe. In Rukchu the thermometer falls as low as 
+9° of Fahrenheit, even in September, and the minimum 
temperature of the month is only 23-5°, while the mean 
temperature is 42° 93'. In Spiti, during the same 
month, the minimum temperature is only 37° 2', and I 
have seen the thermometer as low as 22°, the mean 
temperature being 55° 5'. Most of the travellers who 
have visited Rukchu have been there in September. 
Trebeck, it is true, traversed it alone in June, yet both 
Moorcroft and Dr. Gerard passed through it in Sep- 
tember, and I have twice visited it in that month. We 
have, therefore, good observations for the temperature 
of September, while that of the rest of the year is almost 
unknown. But as the climate of Spiti approaches 
nearest to that of Riikchu, both in its extremes of 
temperature and in its excessive dryness, we may obtain 
a tolerably accurate approximation to the annual mean 
temperature of the latter district by a comparison with 
that of the other. The following table gives the result 
of all my brother's observations for one whole year iu 
Spiti, Avith the addition of my own for the months of 
August and September. 

TEMPERATURE OF SPITI. 



January 
February 
March 
April 


Temperature. 


Extremes. 


Moisture. 


Sun. 


- 


+ 


Max. 


- 


+ 


Bulb. 


Wet. 


Diff. 


11-7 
7-3 
10-8 
31 -5 


31-0 
35-0 
40-0 
50 


19-18 
18-68 
24-46 
40-80 


-11 

- 6 

- 4 
+ 26 


35 
40 
45 
65 








60 
56 
71 
84 



TEMPERATURE. 



183 





Temperature. 


Extremes. 


Moisture. 


Sum. 


















May.. 


- 


+ 


Max. 


- 


+ 


Dry 
Bulb. 


Wet. 


Diff. 




38 '0 


60-0 


49-00 


34 


75 








95 


June.. 


45-0 


74-0 


69-50 


44 


85 








120 


July . . 


48-0 


80-0 


63-60 


46 


90-0 








148 


August 


43-0 


74-3 


58-60 


41 


83-5 


78-25 


53-25 


25 


98 


September . . 


37-2 


75-3 


55-50 


22 


84-5 


70 


45 


25 


97-6 


October 


28-0 


56-0 


40-12 


20 


65 








80 


November . . 


17-0 


35-0 


22-85 


+ 16 


50 








60-5 


December . . 


2-5 


35-7 


14-35 


-13 


42 








50-7 


Mean aunu 


al temperature 38 '89 











By this table it will be seen that the mean annual 
temperature in Spiti is just one-third less than the mean 
temperature of September. On applying the same rule 
to the September mean temperature of Hukchu, 43"08°, 
we obtain 28-72° for the mean annual temperature. 
The extreme of cold is probably between twenty and 
tliirty degrees below zero,* and the mean temperature 
of the winter months cannot be more than a few degrees 
above zero. 

For Ladak Proper, I possess observations for the 
months of September and October, which, when com- 
pared with the Spiti observations, would give a mean 
annual temperature of 39° for the vaUey of the Indus. 
The following are the observations. 





Min. 


Max. 


Mean. 


Extremes. 


- 


+ 


September 
October 


44-93 
22-22 


70-00 
60-87 


57-01 
38-95 


24-0 



82-0 
66-5 



* Dr. Gerard, Asiat. Bes. Bengal, vol. xv-iii. p. 252, supposes —20° 
to —25°. He observed —2° in November, but this must have been in 
Spiti. 



184 



By deducting one-third from the September mean, we 
get 38-01° for the annual mean temperature, and by 
deducting one-twentieth from the October mean, we get 
37'00°. The mean of these two gives 37*5° as the mean 
annual temperature of the vaUey of the Indus in Ladak. 

The climate of Zanskar is like that of Spiti, and that 
of Nubra like that of the valley of the Indus. The 
climate of Lahul is similar to that of Kanawar, but 
somewhat colder, as Lahul is more elevated. The mean 
height of Lahul is 10,535 feet, while that of Kanam, in 
Kanawar, is only 9,296 feet. The following results are 
calculated from the observations made for two successive 
years by the celebrated Tibetan scholar Csoma de Koros, 
while he was studying with a Lama in the monastery of 
Kanam.* 

TEMPERATURE OF KANAWAR. 





Min. 


Max. 


Mean. 


Extr 


;mes. | 


January 


24-87 


40-00 


34-00 


14 




February 


28-82 


46 00 


36-00 


21 




March 


30-04 


52-37 


40-49 


18 




April 


4 -23 


59-23 


49-88 


26 


68 


May ... 


50-30 


68-80 


59-77 


40 


78 


June ... 


57-60 


74-94 


66-28 


48 


82 


July 


61 -26 


77-59 


69-22 


56 


80 


August 


59-91 


75-40 


67-65 


56 


79 


September 


54-78 


73-71 


63 -90 


49 


78 


October 


47-27 


67-82 


56-16 


40 


74 


November 


36-46 


65-43 


43-68 


32 


67 


December 


30-71 


49 05 


37-25 


26 




Mean Annu 


al temperatu 


pe 52 02 









* In Manuscript, taken ;it Dr. Gerard's request; these observation^ 
are now in my possession. 



TEMPERATURE. 



185 



Lahul is subject to gi-eater extremes both of heat and 
cold than Kanawar. The greatest temperature observed 
by Csoma de Koros was only 82°, whereas I have seen 
the thermometer at 84° on the 2nd September in Lahul. 
The lowest temperature of Kanawar in August was only 
56°, but in Lahul the minimum temperature is always 
under 50°, and the lowest that I observed was 42°. The 
temperature of Lahul for several days in August was 



Min. 


Max. 


Mean. 


Extremes. 


- 


+ 


46 00 


78-2 


62 1 


42 


84 



From the similarity of climate and of geographical 
position, the mean annual temperature of Lahul may be 
deduced from its September temperature by taking the 
same proportion as we find in the Kanawar observations. 
This proportion will give a mean annual temperature of 
47° 30' for the inhabited parts of Lahul. The uninhabited 
portions of the district on the upper courses of the Chandi-a 
and Bhaga rivers partake more of the climate of Spiti. 

The mean annual temperature for the whole of Ladak 
may be obtained approximately from the details before 
given. See also the detailed Meteorological Observa- 
tions, Chapter XVII. 

TABLE OF ANNUAL MEAN TEMPERATURE. 



Districts. 


Height. 


Annual 
Temperature. 


Eukchu 
Garo . 

Eudok 

Zanskar 

Spiti 


15,634 
15,500 
14,500 
13,154 
12,986 


28°72 
28-62 
30 00 
39 00 
38 -89 



186 



LADAK. 



Diatricts. 


Height. 


Annual 
Temperature. 


Nubra 

Ngari 

Ladak 

Purik 

Lahul ... 

Mean ... 


12,763 
12,500 
11,500 
11,196 
10,535 


39°00 

38-00 
37-00 
42-00 
47-30 


13,026 


36-85 



The following table shows the mean daily range of the 
thermometer; by which it will be seen that the differ- 
ence between the temperature of day and night increases 
with the elevation. 

DAILY RANGE OF TEMPERATURE. 



Districts. 


Height. 


Daily Range. 


Extreme 
Range. 


Eukchu 

Spiti 

Ladak 

Purik 

Lahul 


15,634 
12,986 
11,500 
11,196 
10,535 


40°2S 

36-00 
33-00 
32-50 
31 14 


57°-00 
43-50 
39-75 
39-50 
34-00 



v.— MOISTIJEE. 

The excessive dryness of the climate of Ladak is due 
chiefly to elevation, by which the air is so rarefied as to 
be incapable of holding much moisture va suspension. 
It is also partly due to the great radiation of heat from 
the bare soil, by which any moisture is rapidly evapo- 
rated. The dryness of the climate increases with the 
height, and the temperature of the dew-point is so very 
low, that the deposition of dew is quite unknown in the 
more elevated districts. The depression of the wet-bulb 



MOISTURE. 



187 



thermometer in different districts of Ladak is shown in 
the following table, to which I have added for compa- 
rison the mean of one week's observations at Gwalior 
dui-iag the hot winds in the end of May 1850, and the 
mean of another week in the end of March and begin- 
ning of AprU, which is the more correct time for com- 
parison. 

TABLE OF MOISTURE. 









Moisture. 






Month. 


Districts. 


Height. 




Dew 


Greatest 








Point. 


Dep°. 








Dry. 


Wet. 


Dep". 












^ 


g 








J, 


September 


Eukchu 


15,634 


67-5 


40-5 


27-0 


18-9 


31 


September 


Spiti 


12,986 


70 


45 


25-0 


25-0 


30-0 


September 


Ladak 


11,500 


65 7 


42-9 


22-8 


24-6 


23-5 


October 


Purik 


11,196 


55-8 


37-2 


18-6 


20-5 


19-7 


August 


Lahul 


10,535 


74-3 


52-9 


21-4 


38-0 


28-0 


May — June 


Gwalior 




110 12 


33-80 


33-80 


35-32 


38-5 


Mar. — Apr. 


Ditto 




91-75 


25-83 


25-83 


42-68 


28-75 



The hottest time ia India is the end of May and the 
beginning of June, and the hottest month in Ladak is 
July. The fairest comparison therefore that can be 
made between the dryness of the two climates is that of 
September in Ladak, and of the end of March and the 
beginning of April in India. By this comparison it will 
be seen, that the plains of India are less arid than the 
lofty table-land of Eukchu, and that their dryness is 
about equal to that of the Spiti vaUey. The most con- 
^'incing proof which I can give of the excessive dryness 
of the climate of Eukchu is the fact, that the stock of my 
gim, which had been exposed to fourteen hot seasons ia 
India, shrank at least one-eighth of an inch during a 
single month's residence in Eukchu. 



188 



LADAK. 



VI.— EADIATION. 

I have already observed that the noon-day radiation 
of heat from the elevated table-lands of Ladak is one of 
the principal causes of the great dryness of the climate. 
The following table exhibits the maximum radiation of 
solar heat at about 1 p.m. iu different districts of Ladak 
during the months of September and October, and in the 
plains of India in May and June, and in March and 
April. The observations were taken with a black-bulb 
thermometer, by Newman, the instrument being invari- 
ably placed at a height of three inches above the ground, 
and fully exposed to the sun. 

TABLE or SOLAR RADLATION. 



Month. 


District. 


Height. 


Air. 


Black 
Bulb. 


n;ff Greatest 
^^*^- 1 Diff. 


September 


Euichu 


15,634 


65°- 75 


86°-75 


23°-00 23°-5 


September 


Spiti 


12,986 


70 00 


91-31 


21-31 28-5 


October 


Ladak 


11,500 


58-54 


85-33 


26-79 39-5 


October 


Purik 


11,196 


55-83 


73-16 


17-33 25-5 


May — Juue 


Gwalior 




109 -87 


129 -66 


19 -46 23 -75 


Mar. — April 


Ditto 




88 -37 


111 -40 


23 -37 26 -25 



As the climate of India dm-itig March and April is 
just two months removed from the hottest season of the 
year, a fair comparison can be made between it and the 
climate of Ladak during the month of September. The 
comparison shows that the mean noon-day radiation of 
solar heat throughout Ladak is about the same as it is 
in the plains of India. 

My observations for the terrestrial radiation of Ladak 
were all taken during the day, as I was afraid to leave 
the instrument exposed on a dark night amongst loose 



RADIATION. 



189 



cattle. The instrument was one of Newman's register 
spirit thermometers, with the bulb fixed in the focus of 
a parabolic metallic mirror exposed to the clear northern 
sky. Compared with the observations taken on the 
plains of India for March and April, the terrestrial radi- 
ation of Ladak is extremely great. The lowest tempera- 
ture observed at Gwalior was 10° below the external air, 
and the mean of the minima was only 6° below it. The 
minimum generally occurred about sunrise. 

TABLE OF TERRESTRIAL RADIATION. 



Puga 


Hours. 


VII. 


VIII. 


IX. 


X. 


XI. 


Noon. 


'• 


II. 


III. 


IV. 


V. 


Mean 
daily 
dep. 


Air 
Ead. Th. 


18 
9 


25 
18 


38-5 
27-5 


45-7 
35-0 


54 
43 


56 

45 


58 
49 


61-75 

55 


59-75 
52-5 


56 

48 


50-5 

44 




Diff. 


9 


7 


11 


10-7 


11 


11 


9 


6-75 


7-25 


8 


6-5 


8-84 


Gya 


Air 
Ead. 






39 


40 
31 


40-75 
32 


45-5 
36 


45-75 
36-5 


45 
36-5 


47 
38 








Diff. 








9 


8-75 


9-5 


9-25 


8-5 


9 




9-00 


U 


Air 
Rad. 




38 
33 


46 48-5 
37 42 


55 
48 


56-5 
49 


58-5 
49 




60-5 
55 


57 
51 


58 
47 




Diff. 




5 


9 1 6-5 


7 


7-5 


9-5 




5-5 


6 


11 


6-80 


U 


Air 

Rad. 




36 
31 


39 '41-5 
32 I36 


45-5 
40 


53 

47 


52-25 
47-5 











5-80 


Diff. 




5 


7 


5-5 


5-5 


6 


4-75 








Gwalior 


Air 
Ead. 






78-5 
77-0 






86-25 

87-00 






87-75 
87-00 








Diff. 


1 


1-5 













-75 









In the lofty table-land of Ladak, the greatest de- 
pression, which usually took place at 9 a.m., was 11° 
lower than the temperature of the external au'. This 
was in Ftukchu ; but even in Ladak Proper the depres- 
sion was no less than 9°. The mean hourly depression 
throughout the day was 8° 92' in Rukchu, but only 
6° 30' in Ladak. 



190 



VII.— SUPPOSED MILDNESS OF FOEMER CLIMATE. 

Various circumstances induce me to believe that the 
climate of Ladak was formerly much milder and much 
less dry than it is at present. The occurrence of vast 
quantities of ios^ii fresh-water shells va. the sandy allu- 
vium above the level of the present salt-xoater lakes of 
Lad^, proves that these lakes must once have been 
very extensive sheets of fresh water. In the case of the 
Tsho-kar or " White Lake," this is proved beyond all 
doubt, by the occurrence of fossil shells on the plain of 
Kyang, and in the deep gorge through which the waters 
of the lake once had exit into this place. As the plain 
itself had a gradual slope from the foot of the Thung- 
Lung Pass to the Sumgal River, the whole extent of 
this double lake can be seen by a glance at the accom- 
panying sketch-map,* which illustrates the ancient lake 
system of Ladak in those parts of the country which I 
have visited. 

1. The Kyang-Tsho formerly extended from the foot 
of the Thung-Lung Pass to near the source of the Sum- 
gal River, a length of thirty -five miles. It is difficult 
to ascertain the mean breadth, but it must have been 
about five miles. This would give an area of 175 square 
miles. 

2. The Tsho-har formerly flowed into the Kyang-Tsho, 
and was about twenty-five miles in length by five miles 
in breadth. The old beach-marks are distinctly visible 
on the mountain-sides, both to the north and south of 
the lake. I traversed along the southern end of the 
Tsho-kar in two different du-ections in 1846, and in 1847 
along the northern end, and through the gorge which 

* See Plate VI. 



SUPPOSEB MILDNESS OF FORMER CLIMATE. 191 

formed its old exit into the Kyang-Tsho. Its principal 
feeder is a small fresla-Avater lake to the south, which 
once formed part of the old lake. The greatest extent 
of the Tsho-kar must have been about twenty -five miles 
by five miles, or 125 square miles. The two lakes 
together covered about 300 square miles. 

3. The Tshomo-Rlri formerly included a small salt- 
water lake, now lying about eight miles to the north- 
ward of it. The greatest extent was about twenty-five 
miles by five miles, or 125 square miles. It seems 
highly probable that it once had an exit from its south- 
ern end into the Para River, or perhaps into the Sum- 
gal River. 

4. The Hanle Lake is stiU of considerable size ; but 
the clay deposits, which are found adhering in horizontal 
strata to the small isolated hiUs in the middle of the 
valley, and in sheltered positions at the sides, show that 
this lake must once have been one of the largest sheets 
of water in Ladak. Its greatest extent must have been 
about twenty-five miles by twelve miles, or 300 square 
miles, with a mean depth of at least 100 feet. 

5. Lam-TsJio is now only a small piece of fresh water, 
but it was most probably once a fine sheet of water 
about fifteen miles long by three miles broad, or forty- 
five square miles in extent. 

6. The bed of the Indus, like that of all the other 
rivers, has once been crowded ^"ith a series of lakes. 
Two of these which came under my observation are 
shown in Plate VI. The smaller one must have filled 
the valley, opposite Nyimo and Mud, for a length of 
twenty-five miles by three miles, or for about seventy- 
five square miles. 

7. Above Le, the vast plain of Chachot must once have 



192 LADAK. 

been covered with water for some miles above Marcha- 
lang down to Le and Pitak. At Pitak, the lacustrine 
deposits of fine clay are still adhering to the rocks in 
horizontal strata, to a height of 750 feet above the level 
of the river. The whole extent must have been about 
thirty-five miles by six miles, or 210 square miles. 
Below Pitak, the former channel of the Indus can be 
traced for many mUes, by Phyang and Tharu, to 
Nyimo. 

It is impossible to say what may have been the whole 
extent of the former lakes of Ladak, but as the ancient 
lakes of Rukchu, which I have described, must have 
covered a space of 840 square mUes, or nearly one-sixth 
of the whole extent of the district, a vague idea may be 
formed of the general extent of the lake system, which 
must once have prevailed over Ladak. The vast lake of 
Pang-kong was probably not less than twenty miles in 
breadth by 100 miles in length, and must have covered 
an area of 2,000 square miles. This lake, with the 
others which I have described, would have occupied 
about one-tenth of the whole extent of the country. 

The former existence of these vast sheets of fresh 
water rests neither upon general appearances nor upon 
the vague assertions of tradition, but upon the distinct 
evidences of vast beds of fine clay, which are foimd 
adhering to the rocks in horizontal strata, and which 
could only have been deposited in comparatively still 
water. Their existence is further proved by the 
abundance of fossU fresh-icater shells that arc found in 
the sandy clay deposits around the present salt-water 
lakes, and on the dry plain of Kyang. These shells are 
of two kinds, — LijmrxEa anricularia of all sizes, and 



SUPPOSED MILDNESS OF FORMEK CLIMATE. 193 

Cyclas rivicola, which is only found of very small size 
preserved in the interior of the larger shells.* As these 
moUusca do not now exist in Ladak at a greater eleva- 
tion than between eleven and twelve thousand feet, it 
seems a probable conclusion that the country must at 
some former period have enjoyed a very much milder 
climate than that of the present day. This conclusion 
might indeed have been deduced from the former ex- 
istence of the vast lakes which have been described. 
For the waters vapovirized by the sun must have been 
condensed by the cold of night, and the plains would 
then have been fertilized by raiu, and the mountains 
covered by snow. Numerous streams would have flowed 
down the hill-sides in all directions, and the overflowing 
lakes would have formed mighty rivers. 

Throughout Ladak there are numbers of vast raAones, 
many of them 500 feet deep, and as many yards broad, 
which could not possibly have been formed by the scanty 
brooks that are now nearly lost in their meanderings 
from side to side of these enormous channels. In one 
of these vast river-beds the scanty rill of the Sum-gal 
now purls along at the southern end of the plain of 
Kyang. The sides of this channel are masses of alluvial 
boulders and gravel, wliich once formed the bed of the 
Kyang-Tsho. The rocky barrier, below the junction of 
the Sum-gal rivers, was probably worn away, gradually 
at first, until the plain of Kyang became almost dry : 
after which, on the occurrence of any sudden disruj)tion, 
the -paters of the Sum-gal would have rushed violently 
onward, cutting for themselves a deep channel in the 
soft bed of the lake. The Kyang-Tsho must have been 

* See Plate IX. for these sliells. 
O 



194 LADAK. 

gradually drained ; but I have a suspicion that the 
Tshomo-Riri Lake once had an exit into the Sum-gal, 
and that its accumulated waters were suddenly drained 
off by the disruption of the Sum-gal barrier. That the 
subsidence of the waters of the Kyang-Tsho must have 
been very gradual is proved by the abimdance of shells 
now lying on the upper part of the plain, all of which 
would have been swept away by even a moderate 
current. Is it possible that the whole mass of the 
country can have been gradually elevated ? 



t'U'ir YI 



The KYANG, or Wild. Horse . Ec^uus Kyang. 




A Cunntn^hi^i,, ouii 



TxiliSmjMh'ftoneL 



195 



YIIL-PRODUCTIONS. 



I.— A N I M A L. 

The animal productions of Ladak are particularly 
interesting, as they comprise the wild horse, the yak, or 
long-haired hull, whose tail furnishes the Indian chaori, 
the shawl-wool goat, whose fine under-fleece is woven 
into the heautiful Kashmiriau shawls, and the piirik 
sheep, of which some twenty specimens have been ex- 
hibited in the Zoological Gardens of London. 

WILB ANIMALS. 

The wUd animals of Ladak are both numerous and 
interesting. " The high hUls are a refuge for the wild 
goats, and the rocks for the conies."* The elevated 
plains of the Indus and the lofty table-lands of Rukchu 
abound with the wild horse, the marmot, and the hare : 
while the snowy mountains and rugged glens teem mth 
many varieties of the wild goat, sheep, and deer, some 
of wliicli are most probably stUl unknown. 

The Kyang,-\ which has been called a horse by some, 
and an ass by others, is the Equus hemiomts of Pallas, 
and the Equus Kyang of Moorcroft. The animal when 

* Psalm civ. 18. 

t The male is called simply rKyang, and the female Mo-rKyang. 
See Plate VI. for four vieivs of the Kyang's skull. 

o 2 



196 LADAK. 

full grown is about fourteen hands high : the facial line 
is highly arched, like that of the zebra and quagga, and 
the ears (like theirs) are longer than those of a horse, 
but much shorter than those of an ass. A liae of black 
hair extends along the whole of the back, but there are 
no cross stripes across the mthers as ia the ass. The 
tail has a long tuft of hair at the end like the zebra. 
The general colour is reddish-bro^ii on the back and 
sides, and_ white on the stomach. Moorcroft* remarks, 
that it is certainly not the gorkhar, or wUd ass of 
Siudh, and I can vouch that it is quite different from 
the gorkhar of the Bikanar and Bahawalpur desert. 
Trebeck,t who saw herds of them on his trip to Chibra, 
to the south-east of Le, states his opinion of the 
Kyang's shape as follows. " The form, from the fore to 
the hind leg and feet, to a level with the back, is more 
square than that of an ass, his back is less straight, and 
there is a dip behind the withers and rounding of the 
crupper, which is more like the shape of the horse. His 
neck is also more erect and arched than that of the 
ass." The following are the dimensions of a skull in 
my possession. 

Ft. In. 

Greatest length ... ... ... ... 1 9-|- 

depth 10 

„ breadth ... 

Weight of upper jaw 

„ lower jaw 

Weight of skull 

Lastly, the Kyang neighs like a horse, which in my 
judgment is conclusive that he does not belong to the 
* Travels, I. p. 311. f In Moorcroft's Travels, I. p. 443. 






8i 


lb. 


oz. 


5 


04 


3 


15i 


9 






ANIMAL PRODUCTIONS. 197 

genus As inns, but is very nearly allied to the Equus 
caballm. If the Kyang is a different genus from the 
Eqims hemioims of Pallas, he should be called Equus 
Tibetamts. A living specimen of the animal has been 
sent to England by the Hon. Mr. Thomason, the Gover- 
nor of Agra, but as the naturalists of Europe have not, 
I believe, yet had an opportunity of examining the 
skeleton, I have given several careful tkawings of the 
skull of a Kyang, which I shot in 1846, at an elevation 
of 17,000 feet, on the summit of the Nakpo Gonding 
Pass, to the north of the Chomorh^i Lake. This skull 
has forty teeth ; and there is now no trace of any pre- 
molar teeth in the vipper jaw, such as have been found 
in other specimens, and which led Mr. Hodgson to give 
the Kyang the new name of Equus polyodon* or rather 
Asiniis polyodon. 

The wild yak, called Erowj or Dong,-\ is said to 
inhabit the grassy plains on the upper courses of the 
Sutluj and Sangjio. The people generally believe in 
their existence, but I could neither procure any of their 
horns, nor find any person who had actually seen the 
living animal. VigneJ was informed that the wild yak 
was to be found " on the northern slopes of the Hima- 
laya that descend upon the plains of Yarkand." Mr- 
Blyth§ quotes Wood to the same effect. My brother || 
also mentions that wild yaks are to be found " to the 
north and east of Garo," that is, in the district of Gnari. 
As the tame yak has been domesticated from time 

* Journal As. Soc. Bengal, XVI. p. 354. Note by Bljth. 
t hBroncf. The female is called hBroiuj-liBri, which is commonly 
pronounced Dong-di. 

X Yigiie's Travels in Kashmir, Ladak, II. p. 277. 
§ Journal As. Soc. Bengal, XI. p. 282, note. 
II Ditto ditto, XII. p. 222. 



198 XADAK. 

immemorial, the existence of wild herds in the same 
comitry may perhaps be doubted ; but the general 
prevalence of the belief is worthy of being recorded. 

The largest of the wdld sheep is the Nyan or Ovis 
Ammon of naturalists. It is found only in the most 
inaccessible places, near the snow-Umit. Specimens of 
the horns may generally be seen along with those of the 
ibex and sha {Ovis montana) on the religious pUes of 
stones called Mane, where they are placed by the 
shepherds as votive offerings. The Nyan of the Tibe- 
tans is closely allied to the Kachkar of Badakshan and 
Chitral. Mr. Blyth has, however, distinguished them 
by separate names, calling the latter Ovis Polii, after 
Marco Polo, who gave the first description of the 
animal. 

Another species of wild sheep is the Nd. Vigne* 
calls it Sad, and describes it as of " the size of an 
ordinary sheep ; of a dull brownish-gray colour, with 
curved, smooth, and four-sided horns." Csomo de 
Koros calls it a " large sheep-like deer." It is appa- 
rently the same as the Ndhur of Nepal, and the Ovis 
Ndhur of Hodgson and Blyth. f 

A third species of wild sheep is the Shd,X which I 
have seen browsing in large flocks on the mountains, on 
the left bank of the Indus below Le. The animal is as 
large as a stag, with strong wiry hair of a reddish-brown 
colour on the back, gradually changing to white on the 
stomach. The chest is covered with a long fringe of 

* Travels, II. p. 280. The name is written rNa, in Tibetan. See 
also Csomo de Koros, Diet, in voce. 

t Journal As. Soc. Bengal, XVI. p. 360. 

X Slid-ha, and the female Shd-mo. Csomo de Koros calls the Slid, a 
stag (Diet, in voce) ; but the real stag is called Shu. The horns of the 
Slid are shown in Plate VIII. 



HORNS. 
TJie SHA of LaclaLk., aWilci f/icep . 





The RAPHO-CHHE (Marl?;]iOT ) or Large Wild Goa 
1 e'i 




-t-Cunncngham.. Ael/ 



J>ai/iiSenyLtffirfu>J%»^>ueerL 



ANIMAJL PRODUCTIONS. 199 

dirty black hair. The massive horns, which touch at 
theii" bases, are curved backward and downward, the 
tips being tui'ned forward, upward, and inward. Each 
horn thus forms about three-quarters of a circle. The 
Slid is the Ovis montana of naturalists. The horns of a 
specimen, which I obtained on the banks of the Indus, 
below Le, have the following measurements. 

Ft. In. 
Length of horn . . ... ... ... 2 4^ 

Base of horn, greatest depth ... ... 3f 

„ „ breadth 3 

Extreme interval ... ... ... ... 1 8 

Interval between tips ... ... . . 1 0\ 

Greatest circumference ... ... . . lOi 

Weight ... 12 lbs. 
The age of this specimen was nearly seven years, the 
rugce of the third year being the boldest and most deeply 
marked. 

The wild goat called Hapho-clilie,* or the " great 
goat," is the Mdr-khor, or " snake-eater" of the Musal- 
mans. It is common in Balti, and in Badakshan and 
Chitr^ ; but I was ujiable to procure any specimen of its 
horns in Ladak. A pair obtained by Colonel Bates in 
Balti is represented in Plate VII . These horns meet at the 
base, rise straight upward, then turn backward and again 
upward. The following are the measurements : — 

Ft. In. 
Length of horn ... ... . . ... 3 9 

Circumference of base 
Breadth of widest face 
Perpendicular rise 



Extreme width 
"Width from tip to tip 



11 
4 
2 3.^ 



* Hd-pho-chhe. or simply Bd-chhe; the female Bd-mo-chlie. Mr. 
Vigne says that Bawa means a horn, and chcegho, great ; but rdrdcho is 
simply a " horn," and not a " great horn." See Plato VII. for a pair 
of horns. 



200 LADAK. 

No specimen of this magnificent goat has, I believe, 
yet been obtained by any naturalist, nor have I heard of 
any traveller who has seen the animal. I would suggest 
that it might be called Capra megaceros. 

Another species of wild goat is the Tibetan ibex, or 
Skyin.* Mr. Vigne procured a pair of horns that were 
four feet three inches in length. In his opinion the 
Skyin " is larger than the European ibex, and the horns 
are longer, more cm'ved, and more tapering." The Skyin 
frequents the most inaccessible rocks, and the animal, 
when shot, is frequently much mutilated by its headlong 
plunge down some precipitous cliff. Vigne states that 
between one and two hundred of them are killed in Balti 
during the winter, when they are forced to descend into 
the valleys.! In Ladak they are also snared at night, 
and shot in the grey dawn of the morning, when they 
venture down to the streams to drink. They are killed 
for the sake of the soft under-fleece, which, in Kashmir, 
is called Asali Tiis.X This is an exceedingly fine and 
soft wool of a light brown colour, which is exported to 
Kashmir, where it is used as a lining for shawls, woollen 
stockings, and gloves. It is also woven into a very fine 
cloth, called Tusi, of a soft and delicate texture, which 
is much prized for its warmth. The high price of the 
Tus is caused by the difficulty of procuring the animal, 
and by the uselessness of the hair. The person who 
separates the hair from the wool of the domestic shawl- 

* Skyin; the female is called Dan-mo. In Kullu and Spiti, the 
Skyin is called Kyiu ; and Spiti is called Piti, but the spelling in Tibe- 
tan always preserves the initial s. 

t Vigne's Travels, II. p. 279. 

% ^/-y XA means simply " genuine Tus" or the wool of tlic wild 
goat; Tus incaus " nature." 



ANIMAL PKODUCTIONS. 201 

goat is paid by the hair itself, which is manui'aetured 
into coarse blanketing for tents, and twisted into ropes. 
But the hail' of the wild goat is short,, wiry, and coarse, 
and the cost for picking is charged to the price of the 
Tus, or fine wool. Moorcroft says that neither the do- 
mesticated shawd-goat, nor theVigog-na,* furnishes a wool 
so full and rich to the feel, nor has so fine a material 
ever yet graced a British loom. 

The frequent occurrence of ibex-horns on the temples 
of Kanawar, Lahul, and Chamba has often suggested to 
me the idea that a similar religious feeling amongst the 
Greeks may have prompted the dedication of real ox- 
skulls, perhaps of animals that were slain in sacrifice, in 
the ancient Hellenic temples. In process of time, when 
the rude posts became Doric pillars, and the rough ends 
of the sloping beams were carved into triglyphs, the real 
ox-skulls were supplanted by their sculptured repre- 
sentations, which afterwards adorned the metopes of the 
Doric frieze. At least it seems difficult to account for 
their frequent representation on any other supposition. 

The Shu or Tibetan stag has been described by Mr. 
Hodgsont from a specimen obtained near Phari, in Tsang, 
the central province of Tibet. A second specimen was 
procured from the district of Chumbi, to the south of 
Phari, where the country is more wooded and less arid 
than most other districts of Tibet. In 1839 I procured 
a most magnificent pair of stag's horns from the upper 
glens of the Lidar valley, in Kashmir ; and in 1847 I 
obtained a second but smaller pair from the same valley. % 
The former pair had six snags on each horn, and was 

* Transactions Eoy. As. Soc. I. p. 53. 

t Journal As. Soe. Bengal, XIX. p. 460; and XIX. p. 518. 

X See Plate VIII. 



202 LADAK. 

therefore a genuine Barah-singha (twelve-horned). The 
latter specimen agrees in aU respects, save that of size, 
with those described by Mr. Hodgson. One of his spe- 
cimens was procured from the most southern part of 
Tibet, where the climate is less rigorous and the country 
more wooded. My specimens were obtained in the 
upper course of the Lidar river, in the eastern end of 
Kashmir towards Ladak, where the climate may be 
called haK-Tibetan from its dryness. The horns of my 
Kashmirian specimen are represented in Plate VII. 
Their dimensions are the following, which I have placed 
beside those of Mr. Hodgson's Tibetan specimen. 



Length of horn 
Girth above burr 
Chord of arc, or bend of horn 
Basal interval between horns 
Interval between extreme snags 
„ „ „ tips 

The Musk deer, called La,* is found both in Tibet 
and in Kashmir, but I had no opportunity of procuring 
any specimens. Vigne mentions the Kashmirian La, 
and states that Dr. Falconer thought it was a new 
species. 

Other wild animals of Tibet are the leopard, the bear, 
the wolf, the fox, and the dog. The leopard, wolf, and 
fox, are described by Mr. Hodgson, and noticed by 
Vigne. t Moorcroft % adds the ounce and the lynx. The 

* gLMia, or simply gLd ; and the female gLd-mo. 

t Journal As. Soc. Bengal, XI. p. 275, and Vigne's Travels, II. 
p. 281. The leopard is called Zig {-gZig) ; the bear. Bom; the dog, 
Khyi ; and the fox, Mikpa (clMig-pa) ; from dMig, a hole ; it is also 
called d£gi. 

X Travels, I. p. 312. 

• 



Cash 


mirian. 


Tibetan. 


Ft. 


In. 


Ft. In. 


3 


41 .. 


. 3 lOi 





7i . 


7A 





10 


1 Oi 





H ■ 


. 4i 


3 


5 


3 9 


2 





2 Gi 



ANIMAL PRODUCTIONS. 203 

(log is mentioned by Mr. Hodgson only, wlio describes 
it as a rare animal of a pale wolf- like colour, 

Tbe hare, called Ri-hong, is abundant amongst the 
rocks on the grassy plains of Rukchu. It is called 
lli-bong, or the " hUl-ass," on account of the length of 
its ears.* The Botis do not eat hares, as they consider 
the animal as a species of donkey. In 1846 I shot five 
in half an hour in one of the glens to the eastward of 
the plain of Kyimg. They sit behind the rocks, with 
their long ears pricked, and half their heads just raised 
above the stone. When roused they run from rock to 
rock, reminding one of the words of the Psalmist, " The 
rocks are a refuge for the conies." The Ri-bong is as 
large as an English hare, has longer ears, and is of a 
bluish-grey or slate-colour. It is the Lepus jyalUpes or 
" white-foot " of Mr. Hodgson, who gives the following 
dimensions of his specimen, f 

Ft. In. 

Length from head to tail ... ... 11 

„ oftail 4 

„ ofhead 4J 

„ of ear ... ... ... .. 4J 

Mr. Hodgson describes a second species of Tibetan 
hare under the name of Lepus mostolus, and he refers 
to Moorcroft as his principal authority for this variety. J 
But on a reference to Moorcroft (I. 225), I find that the 
hares shot by Trebeck and himself on the plain of 
Bvikchu, were of a " bluish-white colour, and not much 
larger than English rabbits." Both in 1846 and in 1847 
I shot these bluish-coloured hares on the plains of 

* Ei-bong, and also Pliyi-pa. Mi-honrj means the " hOl-ass." The 
Hmdus also liken the ass to a hare, by naming the wild ass Ghor-Tchai; 
or the " horse-hare." 

t Joiu-nal As. Soc. Bengal, XI. p. 288. 

: Ditto ditto, XI. p. 288. 



204 labak. 

Rukchu, and I feel satisfied tliat they are the same as 
the Lepus pallipes of Mr. Hodgson ; and the more so, as 
several that I shot were fully as large as any English 
hare. Moorcroft evidently saw only one species, as he 
refers to the Rukchu hares a second time.* 

The smaller species of hare, or Lagonijs, is extremely 
common aU over Tibet. It is the Lepus alpinus of 
PaUas. I have shot them near the summit of the Lanak 
Pass, 18,750 feet above the sea, and on the very crest of 
the Pu- Panjal Pass at 12,000 feet. The table-lands of 
Pukchu, and the plains along the Yunam River, are 
literally honey-combed with then burrows. The Tibetan 
Lagonys is named Shippi, or the " whisperer," and is 
thus closely allied to the " calling hare " of America. 

The marmot of Tibet, according to Mr. Hodgson, f 
is of two distinct species, the large and the small, 
which he has distinguished by the names of Arctomys 
Tibetensis, and Arctomys hemachalanus. The former 
obtains a length of two feet, with a tail of six inches. 
The latter does not reach more than thirteen inches 
in length. I have seen only the larger animal, which 
is common on the sandy plains of Rukchu. Moor- 
croft J mentions that he obtained the skiu of the 
squirrel in Ladak ; by which I believe that he meant 
the Arctomys. 

Of the Mustelidce, or weasel tribe, I am acquainted 
with only one species, — the llustela, or true weasel. I 
saw one specimen of it in 1846 near the Polokonka Pass, 
at an elevation of 16,000 feet ; and in 1847 I shot one 
close to the crest of the Lanalc Pass, 18,700 feet. The 

* Travels, I. p. 312. 

t Journal As. Soc. Bengal, XII. p. 409. 

X Travels, I. p. 312. 



ANIMAL PRODUCTIONS. 205 

skin and skull were preserved by Dr. Thomson, in Avliose 
collection they have been carried to England. The 
length of body was about seven or eight inches, the legs 
short, and the nose long, and the whole of a Light sandy 
coloiu'. 

Mr. Hodgson* has described a second species of Mus- 
telklcB, in the Tibetan polecat, and he refers to a third 
in the Tibetan badger. 

BIRDS. 

The lai-ger birds of Ladak are not many, and few of 
them, I believe, are peculiar to the country. The gi- 
gantic Chakor, or snow-pheasant, is found in Lahul and 
Spiti, and also in Kanawar, but only near the snow. 
The common Chakor, ]lehpa,-\ is abundant throughout 
the cultivated part of the country. Moorcroft invariably 
identifies the Chakor with the FrancoHn, or Greek par- 
tridge. According to GriflB[th,J Perdrix FrancoUnus is 
the black partridge of India, and Swainson§ calls it the 
Francolin Chcetoptis, and associates it with the grey 
partridge of India (Chset. Pondicerianus). 

The eagle {Cha-nak,\\ or the " black bird") and the 
kite {Chakor, or the " white bu'd ") are common enough, 
and so is the large raven. Smaller birds also are niune- 
rou.s, but I had no opportunity of procuring specimens. 
On the western side of the Lanak Pass, about 16,500 
feet, I saw a hoopoe. 



* Journal As. Soc. Bengal, XVIII. p. 448. 
t sReg-pa, pronounced Rehpa. 

X MS. note by Griffith in his copy of Swainson's Birds. 
§ Swainson's Birds, II. p. 344. 

II -Sy^i generally pronounced Cha, is simply a bird. Bya-nag, is the 
" black bird ;" and Bya-clKar, means the " white bii'd." 



206 LADAK. 

The water-fowl, Chlm-cha,* swarm on the lakes and 
on the still waters of the Upper Indus. I have shot the 
wild goose, Nang-gyod, on the Thogji Chenmo and 
Chomoriri lakes, at 15,000 feet, and Colonel Bates and 
I shot three teal on the Suraj Dal, or small lake at the 
head of the Bhaga Biver, at an elevation of upwards of 
16,000 feet. I have shot hoth ducks and teal on the 
banks of the Indus below Hanle, and in the swamps of 
Chachot just above Le. 

REPTILES. 

The only reptile that I saw in Ladak was a single 
species of lizard, from four to seven inches in length. I 
noticed them on the lofty table-land between Gurkhyam 
and Hanle, at an elevation of 15,000 feet. I captured 
one lizard as a specimen, but it managed to make its 
escape before I reached Hanl^. 

FISH. 

" Fishf abound in all the streams ; but the chariness 
of life which is taught by the religion of Buddha, pre- 
vents their being caught." We procured fish from 
fourteen to fifteen inches in length in the stream at 
Hanl4 at an elevation of 15,000 feet, and agaia in the 
Puga rivulet at the same height. They were a kind of 
trout. Opposite the villages of Mud and Nyimo I ob- 
served fish jumping in the Indus. Vigne| mentions that 
the fish in the Indus at Skardo were all of one species of 
Himalayan trout, the largest weigliing between two and 
three pounds. 

* Clilm-bya, the " water-bird." 

t Moorcroft's Travels, I. p. 313. Fish are called Nya. 

X Travels, II. p. 282. 



ANIMAL PRODUCTIONS. 207 

MOLLUSCA. 

The only existing moUusk I observed in Ladak was 
tlie Lynmcea anricularia. In Plate IX. I have given 
three specimens, from Pitak and Nubra in Ladak, and 
from Skardo in Balti. Beside them I have placed for 
comparison a specimen of the same moUusk from Kash- 
mir; and above them two extinct specimens from the 
old lacustrine formations on the banks of the Tliogji 
Chenmo and Fangong salt lakes. The superior size of 
the Kashmir specimen is perhaps no more than might be 
expected from the greater mildness of the climate ; but 
that of the extinct species is most remarkable. The 
largest existing specimen from Pitak measxires only six- 
eighths of an inch in length, and rather less than five- 
eighths in breadth ; whereas the extinct specimens are 
upwards of an inch in length, and more than three- 
quarters of an inch in breadth. 

These fresh-water fossil shells are found in a fine 
yellow sandy clay, many feet above the present level of the 
salt-water lakes. Wlien they existed, the lake of Thogji 
Chenmo must have been a noble sheet of fresh water, 
upwards of forty miles in length by about twenty miles 
in extreme breadth, covering the whole plain of Kyung, 
from the foot of the Thung-Lung Pass to the rocky glen 
of the Sumgyel (triple junction) River. These fossil 
shells are now lying in myriads in the narrow pass 
between the old bed of the Thogji Lake and the plain of 
Kyung, and they are equally numerous in the upper 
part of the plain of Kyimg. 

At what period these vast plains were covered with 
water will be an interesting subject of inquiry for the 
geologist ; but the mind gets bewildered in trying 



208 LADAK. 

to pierce the infinite obsciu-ity of bygone ages. One 
point alone seems clear; that when all these lakes 
existed, more moisture must have been evaporated, and 
more snow must have fallen as well as more rain ; and 
the humid atmosphere would have produced a milder 
climate more favourable to animal and vegetable life. 
The hUls would, perhaps, have been clothed with trees, 
and the still waters of the magnificent lakes would have 
teemed with myriads of LyniiKsa, of which only the 
shells now remain. But the gradual wearing down of 
the water-com'ses, and the continual biu'sting of the 
lakes, have nearly dried up aU the primeval waters of 
Laddk ; and the consequent loss of moistiire has occa- 
sioned the present general scarcity of rain and snow, 
and that extreme dryness of atmosphere which has 
caused the total dearth of trees. The only sheets of 
water that now exist are landlocked and salt. 

A second extinct species of shell is a bivalve ( Cyclas) ; 
but as all the specimens that have been found were 
preserved inside the Lymncea, they are necessarily 
small ; it is now perhaps impossible to determine exactly 
whether they are river or lake shells. 

Fossil shells are also found in the fine clay deposits 
near Skardo, of which I have given a specimen in Fig. 4, 
Plate IX., which contains a Flanorbis and a Luccinea (or 
perhaps a small Lymncea). One specimen of the existing 
Planorbis of Skardo is given in Fig. 9. 

DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 

The domestic animals of Ladak are ponies, asses, 
oxen, sheep, goats, and dogs. The Argons, or mixed 
race of half-Kashmiris half-Botis, resident at Le, now 
keep a number of common fowls, but they have only 



ANIMAL PRODUCTIONS. 209 

within the last few years heen introduced from Kash- 
mir. 

Ponies. — The ponies, according to Moorcroft,* who 
was a good judge, are " small, active, and hardy, but 
uot numerous nor much used." At least one-half of 
the ponies used in Ladak are brought from Yarkand ; 
but they are all geldings. The asses are small, and only 
equal to half-pony loads, f 

Oxen. — The oxen are the Yak, or Chaori-tailed bull, 
and the yak cow, BHmo or Dimo, and their hybrid 
produce with the common cattle. 

The Yak J is short, but broadly and strongly built, 
with a small head, short horns, and a wild-looking eye. 
His long black hair reaches close to the ground before it 
is cut, and he has usually a shaggy and savage appear- 
ance. The Yak is used chiefly for carrying loads, as he 
is generally too intractable for the plough. The cow is 
kept only for milk. 

The most valuable hybrids are the Dso bull and the 
Dso-mo cow, which are the produce of the male yak and 
the common cow. The Dso is used, throughout Ladak, 
for the plough as well as for carrying loads, as he is 
much more tractable than the yak and quite as strong. 
The Dso-mo yields much more milk than the yak cow, 
and of a much richer quality. The milk is used chiefly 
for bvitter, of which almost every Ladaki consumes a 
certain quantity daily in his tea, in the same way as 
milk is used in England. Tlie Dso is a very handsome 

* Travels, I. p. .S09. 

t Poniea of all sizes are called Td (in Tibetan rTa). Asses are called 
Banff. 

X The Yak (in Tibetan 9 Tay) is the Bos grunniens, or gi-unting ox. 
The buU is called Pho-qTaq, or Pho-yak ; and the oow hBri-mo. See 
Plate XLII. 



210 LADAK. 

animal, with long shaggy hair, mostly black and white, 
but frequently reddish-brown and white, and sometimes 
altogether white. The hair is cut annually like that of 
the yak, and is used for the same purposes. The price 
of a good Dso varies from sixteen to twenty rupees. 

The other hybrids are little valued. The Brepo or 
Drelpo is the male produce between the common bull 
and the Dso-mo ; but it is inferior in strength, and the 
Dremo, or female, does not yield more milk than 
a common cow. The cross between the yak and the 
Dsotno is still less valued. Other crosses are few and 
accidental ; as the produce of all these hybrids quickly 
degenerates.* 

The number of neat cattle I had no accurate means 
of ascertaining ; but as amongst the encampments I 
generally found that there was about one yak for every 
ten sheep, the present number may be estimated at 
about 25,000. Their total value, at the average rate of 
sixteen rupees each, will be Rs. 3,40,000, or £34,000. 

Sheep. — The Ladaki sheep are of two distinct kinds, 
the tall black-faced Simiya, which is used chiefly for 
carrying burdens, and the pretty diminutive sheep of 
Furik, which is used only for food. All sheep are 
called by the general name of LuJc ; a flock is called 
luk-khyu ; the shepherd, luk-pa or luk-dsi ; and the 
sheepfold, luk-ra.f 

The common sheep is the Huniya, which, with the 
exception of the pretty little Purik breed, is almost the 
only kind of sheep to be found throughou.t Tibet. This 
fine sheep is much larger than any of the Indian breeds, 

* Moorcroft, I. p. 309, and my brotber, Capt. J. D. Cunningham, 
in Journal As. Soc. Bengal, XIII. p. 221, both say the same thing, 
t Lug, pronoimced Luk, Lug-kh/u, Lug-pa, Lng-rDsi, Ltig-ra. 



ANIMAL PRODTJCTIONS. 211 

the height averaging from twenty-seven to thirty inches. 
It might, tlieretbre, witli advantage he crossed with the 
common small sheep of our hill provinces. Nearly the 
whole of the traffic of Ladak is transported on these 
sheep. They are food, clothing, and carriage, and form 
the principal wealth of the people of Ladak. I have 
seen a single flock of six hundred sheep, entirely laden 
with wool ; and in one day I have counted as many as 
from five to six thousand sheep laden with shawl wool 
and common wool, borax and sulphm', and quantities of 
dried apricots, aU making their way to the hill provinces 
on the south-west. The Huniya* is, therefore, much 
prized ; and a man's wealth is generally estimated by 
the number of his sheep. The average price is two 
rupees and a half (or five shillings), but fine strong rams 
are worth from three to four rupees. 

The whole trade of Ladak does not exceed 30,000 
small maimds of sixteen seers each, equivalent to the 
same number of sheep-loads. But the large importation 
of grain, which took place yearly before the population 
had been thinned by disease, emigration, and war, must 
have employed some 400,000 sheep. Of these, probably 
about one-half belonged to the Ladakis, and the other 
half to the hill people of Kashtwar, Chamba, Lahul, 
Kullu, and Kanawar. After making a due allowance 
for lambs, I should estimate the former number of sheep 
at upwards of 300,000, or rather more than twelve 
sheep per house. At present the number is not so 
great, probably not more than 250,000. At the rate of 
2 seers (4 lb.)t per sheep, the annual produce of wool 

* Huniya is the Indian term, of which the Tibetans have made Hii- 
nhi-yi. The sheep is called Huniyi-luk. 

t The English sheep yield an average of 4 lb. each, and even the 
little Purik sheep of Ladak yield 3 lb. See Moorcroft, I. p. 310. 

p 2 



212 LADAK. 

would be about 400,000 seers, or 25,000 small maunds, 
of which about 5,000 maunds are exported. The re- 
mainder is consumed in the country; which gives an 
allowance of one maund per house, or of 2^ seers (5 lb.) 
annually, for each individual for clothing and other 
purposes. This is probably correct, as each person 
possesses at least the following amount of woollen 
garments. 

One blanket 7x5 feet, weighing 4 lb. 

One whole fleece, for a cloak ... ... ... 4 „ 

Two fleeces for bedding and stuffing of pillows ... 8 „ 

A woollen choga, or coat ... ... ... ... 5 „ 

Cap, waistband, stockings, boots . . . ... ... 3 „ 

Seers 12=24 „ 

Allowing a change of clothing about every five years, 
the annual consu.mption of wool wUl be two seers and 
two-fifths for each person, or 300,000 for the whole 
population. To this must be added the number of 
blankets used by the rich and consumed in the manu- 
facture of bags for the conveyance of grain and other 
produce. Atta (coarse floiir) is always carried in skin 
bags : but I would estimate the number of blanket bags 
at about one-half of the whole. The number of sheep 
employed in carriage being 200,000, the quantity of 
blanketing will be 100,000 yards, weighing 17,500 seers. 
The total produce and consumption may therefore be 
thus stated. 

Maunds. Value. 

Wool, exported 5,000 . . . Rs. 10,000 

„ for home consumption 20,000 ... 40,000 

Total produce 25,000 Ea. 50,000 

or 800,0001b. .. £5,000 

The value of the sheep at an average price of two 

rupees and a half each, will be Rs. 6,25,000, or £62,500. 

The Purik sheep attracted the particular attention of 



ANIMAL PRODUCTIONS. 213 

Moorcroft,* whose account of them has been published 
in the lloyal Asiatic Society's Transactions. He was so 
impressed with the value of this breed, that he collected 
a small flock for transmission to England : but unfor- 
tmiately jvist as he was lea\dng Ladak the whole flock of 
sixty-seven was carried off by the chief of Hasora.t It 
was Moorcroft's opinion that the British cottager might 
keep three of these sheep with more ease than he now 
supports a cm--dog ; and that every small farmer might 
maintain fifteen or twenty of them without any extra 
expense : as they would be entirely supported on that 
kind of produce which now runs whoUy to waste or is 
thrown out on the dunghill. The Purik sheep will eat 
crumbs and parings of all kinds. Apricot-skins, turnip- 
peelings, pea-shells, and tea-leaves are eagerly picked up 
by this domestic animal ; which, as Moorcroft has also 
noticed, will not disdain to nibble a bone. It will also 
eat grass, straw, chaff, and leaves. I brought a small 
flock of twenty from the Purik district to Simla, from 
whence they were despatched to England by the Go- 
vernor-General. The Court of Directors presented them 
to Prince Albert, by whom they were first exhibited in 
the Zoological Gardens, and afterwards distributed to 
different persons interested in the breeding of sheep. 

This pretty little sheep when full growTi is not larger 
than a South-down lamb of five or sis months : but " in 
the fineness and weight of its fleece, and in the flavour 
of its mutton it is equal," says Moorcroft, " to any race 
hitherto discovered." It gives two lambs within twelve 
months. It is tmce shorn during the year, and the 
total clip yields fully three pounds of wool, of which 

* Transactions Eoyd As. Soc. I. p. 49 ; and Travels, I. p. 310. The 
name is written Pu-rig and Bii-rig, but always pronounced Pui-ik. 
t Travels, II. p. 92. 



214 



LADAK. 



the first cKp in Moorcroft's estimation was "fine enough 
for tolerably good shawls." The Purik sheep is much 
prized for the flavour and delicacy of its mutton ; and 
in the western districts of Ladak, scarcely any other 
meat is eaten. In Le, the average price of a fine 
Purik sheep is about two rupees, but in their native 
district they can be procm'ed at one rupee each, and at 
this price I purchased the little flock that was sent to 
England. The accompanying sketch of these animals 
was published in the Illustrated News.* The total 
number of this particular breed cannot be more than 
one-tenth of the whole, or about 25,000. The flocks may 
be thus distributed throuc^hout the different districts. 



25,000 





Huniya. 


In Dras 


... 25,000 


Suru 


.. 25,000 


Purik 


... 25,000 


Kanji, Wanla 


... 25,000 


Ladak proper 


... 75,000 


Nubra 


... 25,000 


Zanskar 


... 20,000 


Eukchu 


... 5,000 



225,000 



25,000 



Total 



250,000 



Goats. — The common domestic goatt of Ladak is the 
Avell-known shawl-goat, which thrives only in the most 
elevated districts. It is bred in Nubra, Zanskar, and 
Rukchu ; but the finest wool is brought from Ruthog 
and Ngari, which formerly belonged to Ladak, and 
from Chang Thang, or the southern and mountainous 
districts of Kotan. The fleece of the shawl-kid is soft, 
curly, and beautifully glossy. It is used as a lining for 
cloaks by the m.ore wealthy, and is exceedingly warm 
and comfortable. The shawl-goat is only shorn once a 

* Platf IX. t All goats are called Ba-ba, or simply Ed. 



ANIMAL PRODUCTIONS. 215 

year, and the wool is at once separated from the coarser 
hair. The hau* is manufactured into blanketing for 
tents, coarse sacking, and ropes for home consumption. 
The wool is exported to Kashmir, and to Niirpur, 
Amritsar, Lahor, Ludiana, Ambala, E-ampur on the 
Sutluj, and Nepal. To Rampur and Nepal the wool is 
exported dh'ect from Ruthog and Ngari, but Le is the 
entrepot between the other shawl-marts and the wool- 
producing countries. In Le the wool is roughly 
cleaned, by which process it loses two-fifths of its 
weight. The picker receives the hair as the price of his 
labour.* 

Between JA and Kashmir only one tixed duty, of half 
a rupee per maiind of sixteen seers, is now charged ; but 
in former days, before Gulab Sing's acquisition of Kash- 
mir, the duties, or rather exactions, were numerous and 
vexatious. The packages were made up in pony -loads of 
from sixty to seventy seers each, on which the charges 
were as follows : — 



the Ladak government 
Duty levied at Dras 

„ Gagangir ... 

„ Gonda Sarsuig 


Rs. 
.. 5 
.. 
.. 1 
.. 


a. 


3 


8 


P- 






„ Kandarbal ... 


.. 


5 


6 


„ Maliriana ... 


.. 


8 





Total 


... 7 


8 


6 Kasb. Es. 



or ■! 11 Comp.'s Ks. 

The present duty is only , . . Es. 2 

showing a difference of 2 11 0, or of 
5s. on every load. 



* The fine shawl-wool is called Ze-na ; the common wool, Bal ; and 
the hair, sPit. The Tibetans are not ignorant of cotton, which they 
caU shing-hal, or " tree-wool," for the same reason that the Greeks 
called it IvXivnt; or " tree-flax." The Tibetan names of Lena and Bal, 
are the same as the Latin lana, and the English wool. 



216 LADAK. 

In Kashmir the wool is sold by the trader to the 
regular wool-merchants at an average price of Kash- 
miri Rs. 4. 8 a., or of Company's Rs. 2. 10 a. per seer. 
It is then made over to the cleaners, to be cleared from 
the dirt and grease wliich still remain in it. This is 
effected by steeping it in a mash of rice for several days, 
disposed in alternate layers of wool and mash. The rice 
is first soaked for three or four days in water until it 
begins to smell ; the water is then poured off, and the 
rice is bruised into a mash. After the wool has been 
soaked for a short time, it is pulled lightly but briskly 
into pieces, and rubbed between the hands. The mash 
is squeezed out, and the wool is left perfectly clean. The 
cleaning costs one and a quarter Kashmiri rupee per 
seer, or three-quarters of a Company's rupee. 

The hair is next separated from the fine wool by the 
tedious process of picking by hand. Even after the wool 
is woven into cloth, many people are employed to pick 
out the dark-coloured hairs by hand ; and the wool itself 
is separated into two kinds, the white and the brown, 
which are spun into thread. This work is all done by 
the poorer classes. One seer of uncleaned wool yields 

Of White wool ... 20i- Es. weight, or ith. 

Brown wool ... 5^ „ iV*^- 

Comniou wool . . . 54i „ -Hths. 

The common wool is manvifactured into the soft stuffs 
called pattu. 

The thread is purchased from the wool-merchants by 
the thread-merchants, who pay according to fineness, 
and afterwards sell it to the shawl-merchants, by whom 
it is made over to the dt/ers. The prices of the undyed 
threads are — 



ANIMAL PRODUCTIONS. 217 

Weight. 

Of very fine white single thread IJ Eupee for 1 Eupee. 

„ „ double „ IJ „ „ 

„ light brown (phiri) 5^ „ „ 

Fine white silky (reshami) 3^ „ „ 

Very fine brown {khudrang) 3 „ „ 

Fine ditto ditto 4^ „ „ 

The thread-merchants are contented with the usual 
custom {dasturi of India) of half an anna in each rupee, 
or about six per cent. 

I have now traced the gradual additions in price of the 
shawl-wool from the time that it leaves the hands of the 
producer, at one rupee per seer, until it is spun into 
thread and sold to the shawl-merchant at ten times the 
original price. About one-third of this increased price 
might be avoided by cleaning the wool more thoroughly 
in Ladak, and by the direct purchase by the shawl-mer- 
chant from the producer. 

The intervention of three different traders, the Ladaki, 
and Kashmiri wool-merchant and the Kashmir thread- 
merchant, between the producer and the manufacturer, 
enhances the price by at least six per cent, each, or 
about twenty per cent, altogether. 

The average quantity of shawl-wool exported to Kasli- 
mir is the same as in Moorcroft's time, about 800 loads, 
or 3,200 small maunds of sixteen seers each ; and about 
the same quantity is exported to all other places. The 
average price in Ladak is about two rupees per seer, or 
Rs. 2,04,000 (£20,400). Of the 6,400 maunds exported, 
about 4,000 maunds are imported from Chang-thang, 
Ruthog, and Ngari ; and the remaining 2,400 maunds 
are the home produce of the highlands of Nubra, Ladak, 
Zanskar, and Rukchu. As the usual yield of fine wool 
for shawls and pattus is half a seer, the total number of 



218 LADAK. 

goats in Ladak must be about 80,000. The average 
price of a shawl-wool goat is four rupees, and the total 
value of the flocks of Ladak Es. 3,20,000, or £32,000. 

Bog. — The domestic dog* of Ladak is the weU-known 
shepherd's dog, or Tibetan mastiff. They have shaggy- 
coats, generally quite black, or black and tan ; but I 
have seen some of a light-brown colour. They are 
usually ill-tempered to strangers ; but I have never 
found one that would face a stick, although they can fight 
well when attacked. The only peculiarity that I have 
noticed about them is that the tail is nearly always 
curled upward on to the back, where the hair is dis- 
placed by the constant rubbing of the tail. 

II.— VEGETABLE PEODUCTIONS. 
I.-TEEES. 

The vegetable productions of Ladak are few and unim- 
portant. The trees consist of willow, two varieties of 
poplar,! a kind of tamarisk, the pencU-cedar, and the 
Blcsagwm Moorcroftu.% The tamarisk and the pencU- 

* The Tibetan name for a dog is Khyi. 

t gShol-po and dByar-pa. 

X Capt. Madden, in the Horticultural Society's Journal, has quoted 
a passage from Moorcroft, to the effect that " a few wiUows and poplars 
are the only trees in Ladak," and he then produces the authority of 
Capt. H. Strachey to show that Moorcroft was wrong. But the fact is, 
that Moorcroft is right in ivJiat he does say, for either Capt. Madden or 
Capt. Strachey has misquoted him. In his Travels, I. p. 267, Moor- 
croft distinctly states that willows and poplars are the only timber-trees 
in Ladak ; and in I. p. 306, he repeats the same thing. But in both 
places he says timber-trees ; and he is right ; for the Shukpa (Skiiy-pa) 
is too small a tree to yield timber, although, if not held sacred, it might 
yield wood for hoses. Capt. Madden should have recollected that the 
Ser-shing had been iirst described by Moorcroft, and was therefore named 
Elaagnus Moorcroftii. 



VEGETABLE PRODUCTIONS. 219 

cedar {Shukpa) are indigenous ; the others are all regu- 
larly planted. The plane-tree has been introduced iuto 
Skardo, where its size and beauty have obtained for it 
the name of Shing-Gyal, "the prince of trees." The 
poplar is the most valuable wood in the country, as its 
long straight bole is particularly adapted for bridges, 
and for the rafters and beams of houses. It is generally 
planted in straight rows. The wiUow abounds in all the 
water-courses, but generally in the state of a pollard, as 
its supple twigs and branches are extensively used for 
baskets of all kinds and hurdles. These two trees were 
first met with at Gya, at a height of 13,500 feet. They 
furnish the only fire- wood procurable in Ladak; but 
wood is too valuable m. this barren country to be thus 
wasted, and the principal fuel used by the people is 
short Tibetan furze, called Ddma, and dried dung of all 
kinds. The Elseagnus is an ornamental tree with a 
yeUow flower, from which it derives its name of Ser-shing, 
or yellow tree. It is the Persian Savjit. The tamarisk 
is abundant in the narrow glen of the Rulang-chu, or 
Puga rivulet, below the hot springs, where they attain 
fifteen and sixteen feet in height, the warmth of the 
water, 66°, being favourable to their growth. 

The fruit-trees are the apple, the apricot, the walnut, 
the mulberry, and the vine.* The apricot is the only 
one found as high as Gya, 13,500 feet. The vine and 
apple make their first appearance at Bazgo and Saspul, 
the walnut at Saspul, and the mulberry at the monastery 
of Tamisgong. The apples, which are plentiful along 
the Indus, are of large size and good flavour. The apri- 
cots are large, but not so well flavoured as those of Balti. 
The grapes are much inferior to the splendid fruit of 

* The vine is CcolleJ Oun, rGun. 



220 LADAK. 

Kashmir, but they had a peculiarity which was new to 
me ; the same bunch would yield large grapes an inch 
and a half in. length, and small round seedless grapes 
like black currants. The latter are dried in the sun, and 
find their* way to the Zimla bazaar, where they are kept 
by the merchants in large earthenware jars, duly labelled 
as " fine Zante currants," and sold at the rate of two 
rupees a pound, the proper price being about one quar- 
ter of a rupee per pound. The cherry is found tu the 
warm districts. 

II.— GEAINS. 

The crops consist of bearded and beardless barley, 
common wheat and buck-wheat, peas, turnips, and mus- 
tard. In the southern pro\dnce of Spiti, wheat* grows 
at a height of 13,000 feet (at Lara and Lidang above 
Dangkhar). In the valley of the Indus it first appears 
at Ugsh6 and Chimra, between 11,000 and 12,000 feet. 
Buck-wheat t generally affects the same elevations as 
common wheat. Both kinds of barley J are grown at an 
elevation of 15,000 feet ; at Hanl^, at the Korzo Gonpa, 
on the bank of the Tshomorirl lake, and above Gyihbar 
in Spiti. 

Peas§ are cultivated at Gyihbar and Loxar, the loftiest 
villages in Spiti, between 14,000 and 15,000 feet, and 
at Miru, in the Gya valley, from 12,500 and 13,500 feet. 
Mustard also is found at the same elevation ; at Gyihbar 
in Spiti, and at Gya and at Miru in Ladak proper. 
Turnips are grown at 16,000 feet at the Korzo Gonpa, on 

* Wheat is called G-ro, which in some districts is pronounced To. 
t £ro, by many pronounced Do. 

X iVaw is the name for all kinds of barley. Nas-karmo is white bar- 
ley, and Nak Nas is black barley. 
§ Hoiiina, which is spelt Sronma. 



VEGETABLE PRODUCTIONS. 221 

the banks of the Chomoriri lake, but they are small and 
hard. The turnips at L6 and at Tamisgong are good 
and palatable. 

III.— CULTIVATION. 

All cultivable land is called Zhing,* and this term is 
also generally used for a field of any kind. Good rich 
land is called Zhlng-zang ; stony land is called Iti-zhing, 
that is literally, " hilly land ;" and meadow land is called 
Tliang-zhing, that is, " plain land." AU the cultivable 
land in Ladak lies along the courses of the small streams, 
and in patches on the banks of the great rivers. In the 
bed of the Indus especially there are large tracts of 
grass-land which are never brought under cultivation, 
but are kept solely for the grazing of cattle. 

Landlords are called Zhing-pa and Zhing-dag. The 
poor cultivate the lands themselves, but the wealthy 
employ regular labourers. The Glapa,\ or labouring 
man, holds the plough [thong or sholX), while the Glapa- 
mo, or labouring woman, breaks the clods or digs the 
upturned earth. The Avomen also irrigate the fields, and 
cut the crops. The ploughman. Thong-pa or Moba, and 
the diggers, Ko-pdpo and Kopdmo,^ are usually paid by 
the month {cla-phok |1 ) . Yaks are employed in drawing the 
plough, which is of wood, the share being only tipped 
with iron ; but many of the fields are dug by the hand 
with a pecidiarly-shaped mattock, ko-hyed,^ of which 

* Zhing, arable land ; Zhing-bZang, rich land ; Si-Zhing, hilly land ; 
Thang-Zing, plain land. 

t Gla-pa, a labouring woman is called Ola-pa-mo. 

X Thong or Shol, or sometimes Thong-shol. 

§ Thong-pa or rMo-ba, a ploughman. The diggers are rKo-pa-po 
and rKo-pa-mo. 

II Zla-Phogs, pronounced Da-Pholc, " monthly pay." 

% rEo-hyed, called also Tog-tse. 



222 LADAK. 

the handle forms a very acute angle with the blade. 
After ploughing, the fields are prepared with manure, 
lud,* which consists either of Ydk-lud, yak's dung, or 
of Jjuk-lud, sheep's dung. Occasionally they use cow- 
dung, Ydk-chi or Ba-cJti. But in a country where fire- 
wood is so scarce as not to be obtainable by any but the 
richest classes, all kinds of dung are in daily use as 
fael, and but little can be spared for emdching the land. 

In a dry country like Ladak, where it seldom snows 
and scarcely ever rains, the harvest is entirely dependent 
upon artificial irrigation. The waters of the smaller 
streams are arrested by dams (chhu-lon), and conducted 
with considerable skill and care from terrace to terrace, 
and from field to field. I was particularly struck with 
the laborious irrigation bestowed upon the rich lands of 
Saspul, and with the bold ingenrnty displayed in the 
aqueducts of Kambo and Hardas. The former is a 
small village on the left bank of the Purik river (the 
Waka-chu). The latter is on the left bank of the Dras 
river. The Kambo aqueduct is only about one mile in 
length, but the Hardas aqueduct is nearly three miles 
long. These canals, which are conducted several hun- 
dred feet above the villages, are mostly built vip with a 
retaining wall, and puddled with clay to hold the water. 
In a few places the rock itself was excavated to form a 
passage for the water, but in other places, where the 
hill was too precipitous, or the rock was too hard, the 
water was passed along hoUow poplar and willow trunks, 
which were supported by uprights standing on ledges of 
the rock, or on huge pegs driven into its crevices. 

The land in Ladak is all measured by the Khdl, or 

* iarf, dung. Cow-dung is called yloy-ZCTJ or -B«-ZCAi. 



VEGETABLE PRODUCTIONS. 223 

Bhdra-khdl-kyi* wliich is a field that requires one khdl 
of seed. The produce is likewise reckoned in khdls. 
This word klial means simply a load or burden of any 
kind, and is apparently the same as the Indian khdra, 
or khdri, which is a measiu'C of twenty bharas ; while 
the kharika is that sized field which requires a khdri of 
seed. In the Hindu Himalayas, a bharao (bharavat) is 
that sized field which requires a blidra of seed. Thus, 
in each country the estimate is made according to the 
most usual means of transport. In Tibet and in the 
Botiyan Himalayas, where sheep are almost the only 
means of transport, aU estimates are made in the khal, 
or luk-khdl, that is, a sheep's load of from 12 to 16 seers 
each (24 to 32 lb.). In the Hindu Himalayas, where 
men or women cany everything, all measures are 
reckoned in the bharao, or man's load (bhdra) of 32 seers 
(64 lb.). In the plains of India, where gdris, or 
carts, are used, the reckoning is made by the khdri, 
which is a load of 20 bhdras, equal to 12 or 15 cwt. 

"Vnien the term khdl is used alone, a sheep's load is 
always intended, for aU other loads are distinguished by 
a prefix, as Ydk-khdl, an "ox-load;" Ta-khdl, a "horse- 
load." The common khal, or sheep's load, is equal to 
5 battis of 2^ seers or 5 lb. each, or 8 battis of 2 seers 
or 4 lb. each, or just about half a bushel ; and as in 
England the usual quantity of seed per acre is about 
two bushels, or one cwt., the size of a khal of land wUl 
be equal to a quarter of an acre, or one rood. But as 
the seed is much more broadly sown in Ladak than in 

* Klidl or £hdra-khdl-ki/i. The occurrence of bh shows that Bhdra 
is a word of Indian origin. Khdl-hBo is a " khal measure." 
t Bhdrava, from Bhdra, a load. 



224 LABAK. 

England, I should estimate the khdl of land at about 
one-third of an English acre, or even more. 

The seed is sown in May, and the crops are cut in 
September, before the first fall of snow. On the 16th of 
September, 1846, on the bank of the Tshomoriri lake, 
at an elevation of 15,000 feet, I found the Lamas of the 
Korzo Gonpa (monastery) cutting a field of unripe 
barley. The sky was very cloudy and threatening, 
especially to the southward, and the poor Lamas 
expected snow, which, if it fell upon the standing crop, 
would, they said, destroy it. The crop was all cut by 
the evening, and removed, and the next day it snowed 
vathout intermission for twenty-four hours. The crops 
are either pulled up by the roots or cut close to the 
roots, with a zorpa, or sickle, to get as much straw as 
possible for the winter fodder of the cattle. When cut, 
it is generally spread out on the ground to ripen and 
dry, but occasionally it is loosely bound in sheaves.* 
The return varies according to the quality of the soil 
and the quantity of manure. In Dras, Moorcroft heard 
that it was " about twenty for one ;" but according to 
my informants, the best lands in Ladak Proper, at Sabu, 
near Le, and at Sakte, in the Chimra valley, do not 
yield more than ten-fold ; whUe the poorer lands give a 
return of only five or six-fold, or on an average eight- 
fold. But the richer lands, in the Suru valley, and on 
the Waka and Dras rivers, which enjoy a mUder climate 
and a moister atmosphere, generally yield from ten to 
fifteen-fold. The average return for the whole of Ladak 
may therefore be estimated at about ten-fold, or perhaps 
less. 

Two ears of bearded barley from Le gave a return of 

* A sheaf is called Chhun-po. 



VEGETABLE PKODUCTIONS. 225 

fifty grains each, and the same number of ears of 
beardless barley, from the banks of the Tshomoriri lake, 
gave a return of forty-five grains each. Moorcroft, 
however, mentions that the Hasora wheat gro^vn in 
Laddk yields from forty to seventy grains in each ear.* 
From these statements it is clear that not more than 
one-fourth of the seed can germinate. Much of it is, no 
doubt, eaten by the vast flocks of pigeons and chakors, 
which abound in Ladak ; but the greater proportion, 
perhaps, rots. Many of the young plants must be 
destroyed by the night frost ; for in most of the districts 
of Ladak it freezes almost every night, even during the 
month of June. 

The total produce of Ladak may be ascertained 
approximately in the following manner. In 1847 I 
obtained the census and other statistical details of 142 
villages in the different districts of Ladak, containing 
1,890 houses, with 20,815 hhdls of cultivable land, or 
just 11 khdls per house. As the total number of landed 
or paying houses! in Ladak is 18,000, the whole amount 
of cultivable land throughout the country may be 
reckoned at 198,000 khals, or about 66,000 acres. Each 
khal requires 16 seers of seed, and yields about ten-fold. 
The total available produce for food is therefore only 
nine-fold, or about 28,512,000 seers, equal to 1,000,000 
bushels, which, with the former population of 165,000, 
would not give more than 7 chittaks (14 oz.) of food to 
each person daily, while the average consumption is at 
least 8 chittaks (1 lb.). The deficiency is about 24 seers 
for each person ; which, at the rate of 16 seers per 

* Travels, I. p. 275. 

t In Ladak no houses are taxed except those which liave lands 
attached to them. 



226 LADAK. 

rupee,* would entail an annual outlay of Rs. 1. 8 a. 
(about 3s.), or a total importation of Rs. 2,47,500 worth 
of grain. This sum, divided over the whole adult male 
population of about 40,000, shows an annual expenditure 
of six rupees per man ; or, if divided amongst the whole 
niunber of 24,000 houses, about ten rupees per house. 
This sum was defrayed entirely by the profits of the 
carrying trade, of which the Ladakis have an entire 
monopoly between Yarkand and Kashmir. 

With the present population of 125,000 people, the 
land would yield fully enough for home consumption, or 
9 chittaks (1 lb. 2 oz.) daily for each person ; but scarcely 
more than three-fourths of the lands are now under 
cultivation. The present annual produce is, therefore, 
not more than twenty-two millions of seers, or some- 
what less than 800,000 bushels, which will yield only 
7f chittaks (15y oz.) of food for each person daily. The 
deficiency is half an ounce daily for each individual, or 
about 5^ seers annually, equal to 5^ annas (about 9d.). 
The whole annual importation is, therefore, only 687,500 
seers, in value about Rs. 43,000. This sum divided over 
the whole adult male population of 30,000 persons, 
shows an annual expenditui-e of Rs. 1. 6 a., or if divided 
over the 18,000 houses, about Rs. 2. 6 a. 2 p. per house. 

There is a curious custom in Ladak, which has a 
counterpart in the arwmi of India and the neck of 
England. At every harvest the farmer selects a small 
bundle of the finest ears of barley, which he fastens round 

* This was the rate in Lahul in 1846, and at Le in 1847 ; but in the 
grain-growing districts I was informed that wheat was sold at thirty- 
two seers, and even at thirty-six seers per rupee. The individual 
expense of each family or house was therefore perhaps not more than 
half of the sum stated above. 



VEGETABLE PRODUCTIONS. 227 

the neck of a pillar in the largest room of his house. At 
Gya, I was told that the first cuttings were thus dedicated 
on the occasion of every harvest. Moorcroft* was infoi'med 
that it was the custom " to consecrate the two or three 
first handfuls of each year's crop to a spirit who presides 
over agricvdture." The necks of pillars would appear 
to have been the usual in-door place for the deposit of 
votive offerings of every kind ; for Captain Turner,! 
when leaving Tashi-Llmnpo, bound a white scarf round 
the capitals of each of the four columns of the apartment 
which he occupied. He did this " in conformity with 
the custom of those regions." At L6, Moorcroft saw 
ears of wheat : at Gya, Bazgo, and Saspul, I noticed 
only ears of barley. Perhaps different places may have 
different customs, as wheat is used in England and 
barley in India for the same purpose ; but as no wheat 
is grown at Gya, the use of barley was there a matter of 
necessity. In India, the fu'st cuttings of barley (arioan) 
are brought home to be eaten by the family, and pre- 
sented to the houshold gods and Brahmins. The grain 
is mixed with milk and sugar, and tasted seven times by 
each member of the family. The festivity of the season 
is proverbial, t 

Phula, phula, Icyunphire? Gliar Arwan dya. 
Jhuka, jhuka, kyunphire? Piydda dya. 
Why so very, very glad ? 

Because it's harvest-home. 
Why so very, very sad ? 
The collector 's come. 



* Travels, I. p. 318. t Tamer's Tibet, p. 329. 

J Sir H. M. Elliot's Glossarj'. Every page of this valuable work 
teems with most interesting information regarding the history of India, 
and the manners and customs of its people. 
Q 2 



228 LADAK. 

In Devonshire, the " neck " consists of the finest ears 
of wheat, wliich are selected and tied np in a small sheaf 
by some old man, who stands in the midst of the reapers 
holding the " neck " with both hands. It is possible 
that the name may be derived from the sheaf having 
once been carried home and fastened round the neck of 
a pillar or wooden post, as in Ladak. 

In Scotland, the farmers have a custom similar to one 
wliich prevails amongst the Botis of Spiti, Hangorang, 
and Kanawar. The Scotch farmer weaves the first-cut 
corn into a threefold plait, which he places over his 
chimney-piece until the next harvest. The Boti peasant 
fixes three or more ears of barley outside his own door, 
and makes a votive offering of three or five, or some odd 
number of ears to his native divinity in the \allage 
Thdkurdwdra. * 

AU these various customs would seem to have a 
common origin in the celebration of the harvest season, 
which in every country has been a time of rejoicing. 
The adwan and juri of the Hindus and the harvest-home 
of the English are similar to the private ambarvalia 
of the Eomans. So also the votive offerings of the 
Tibetans were consecrated for the same object as the 
lustraUo of the Romans. The former offered his first 
cuttings of corn with a prayer for a plentiful harvest, 
the latter performed their lustrations (ambarvalia) 
immediately before the sickle was put to the corn, to 
obtain the blessing of the gods on the fields which were 
thus lustrated. 

* Gerard's Kanawar, p. 98, and Capt, J. D. Cunningham's Notes on 
Moorcroft and Gerard, in the Journal of the Bengal Asiatic Society, 
vol. xiii. p. 246. 



MINERAL PRODUCTIONS. 229 

III.— MINERAIi PRODUCTIONS. 

The mineral productions of Ladiik are more interesting 
to the geologist than important to the economist. The 
most striking geological features, and the principal 
localities of some of the prevailing rocks, have already 
been noticed in my description of the mountains : but 
the more useful minerals still remain to be mentioned. 

Slcite. — " The use of slates,"* says McCulloch, " is 
entu-ely Eurojiean. From the Hellespont to China 
there is not a single slated house." This statement is 
correct, as far as my observation goes in the i^lains of 
India, where slates cannot be procured, but in the hills 
the use of slates is very common. The best slates that 
I have seen are those of the clay-slate formation, in the 
Bhaola-Bhar range, between Kangra and Chamba. 
There are quarries on both sides of the range. The roof 
of the great temple at Ilahila, on the Ravi, is roofed 
with large slates, which are nailed to the planking in 
the usual manner. On the south sides of the range, 
the use of slates is universal. All the houses in the 
large toTvns of Kangra, Tira, and Jwala-Mukhi, are 
roofed with slates of a very fine description. AU the 
temples, and many of the houses in the districts around 
Simla, are also roofed with slates, but of an inferior 
kind. In Mandi and Kullu, however, the mica-slate 
formation yields very large thin slates of an excellent 
description. In Lahul and Ladak the clay and mica 
schists could be split into slates of a smaller size ; but 
the extreme scarcity of timber prevents the construction 
of large rooms, and for small ones the people find that 
flat roofs are the simplest and the most commodious. 

* M'Culloch's Commercial Dictionary, art. Slate. 



230 LADAK. 

Lime. — The most prevalent rock in Ladak is lime- 
stone. In Spiti, the whole formation is of this rock, 
excepting near Losar, where it changes into clay slate. 
It forms the range that divides Rukchu from Zanskar, 
and again changes into clay slate near the junction of 
the Sum-gyel rivers. 

It pervades Zanskar, and is found on both banks of 
the Indus ; in the Photo La and Hanu passes. It 
occurs at both ends of the Pangkong lake, and extends 
from Sassar to the crest of the Karakoram range. Not- 
withstanding this general prevalence of the rock, the 
scarcity of wood is so great that none but the wealthy 
can afford to use lime mortar in theu' houses. 

Marble. — Por ornamental pm-poses none of the Ladaki 
limestones that I have seen would be considered of any 
value ;* but the fossiliferous limestone of Kashmir takes 
a very high polish, and the splendid pillars of the 
Shalimar are the only beautiful things now remaining 
in that once celebrated garden. 

Gypsum. — This useful mineral is found at the sul- 
phur-mines, on the banks of the Puga rivulet, either in 
pure white flakes regularly disposed, or in a compact 
rock, with crystals of sulphur attached to it, and thin 
veins of nearly pure sulphur desseminated through it. 
It occurs also on the right bank of the Spiti river, below 
Losar, at the celebrated cave of Amaranath, in Kashmir, 
and on the banks of the Shigar river, in Balti.t No use 
whatever is made of it by the people. 

Clay. — Extensive deposits of the finest clays of all 

* Mir Izzet Ullah, however, mentions a striped marble-like Siilimani 
stone as occurring in the bed of the Shayok river, between Chong- 
XJlang and Dong-Bailak. — Quart. Orient. Magazine, 1825, p. 113. 

t See Vigne's map for Gypsum. 



EXTINCT and EXISTING SHELLS, 
from LacL5Lk.,BaltL, and Easiimir. 










fossils \;-^^r5*' 
TSHO-KAR [Lai:.e)anl PLAIN of KVANG 






ISLAMABAD 



A Cumiin^/utmy d£l 



l!x</tSm,.T,idi,'^aiIhs Q^teen 



MINERAL PRODUCTIONS. 231 

colours are found throughout Ladilk. They are all 
lacustrine formations, and are seen adhering to the sides 
of ravines, and attached to steep cUifs that have once 
been washed by the great rivers. In the gap between 
the monastery of Pitak and the end of the granite range, 
to the west of Le, there is an immense mass of indurated 
clay, disposed ia horizontal layers of different shades, 
but chiefly of a pale yellow and light lavender colom-. 
Beyond Pitak the same clay strata occm" again in a 
recess of the liills on the right bank of the Indus. But 
the most remarkable deposits of clay are immediately 
below Lama-Yiirru, where a pale straw-coloured clay is 
seen ia aU places in the bed of the stream, in small patches 
on the summits of detached rocks, and ia large masses 
overlying the slate to a height of at least one thousand 
feet above the present bed of the stream.* A similar 
coloured clay occm-s ia a ravine of the Yunam river, 
just above the Yuuam lake. At different places in the 
Nubra valley. Dr. Thomson observed similar deposits of 
bluish-coloured clay ; and near Skardo he found one con- 
taiaing fossil remaias of Planorbis and Succiaea. Near 
Ramu-Serai, ia Kashmir, I found beds of highly ia- 
durated clay, mixed with boulders, which rose to a height 
of 150 feet above the plain. This lacustrine formation 
would alone prove the existence of a vast lake, that 
once covered the whole valley of Kashmir to a depth of 
about 200 feet. 

Steatite was found by Vigne on the banks of the Dras 

* The Lamas of tliis place have a tradition that a lake formerly existed 
on the spot, that the rock was cut through by jS^aropa, a Lama from 
Brigiing, near Lhasa, and that the present monastery of Tung Dung 
Gonpa was built by him. Lama Tiirru is the Kashmirian name of the 
place. AU clays are called rDsa-nia. 



232 LADAK. 

river, near the Taskyum bridge,* and on the left branch 
of the Shigar river, in Balti. 

Gold is found by washing the sands of the Indus and 
of the Shayok river ; but the washings are entirely 
carried on by Mussulmans from Balti, as the Buddhists 
of Ladak have long been prohibited from the search. 
The prohibition is said to have originated in the fears of 
the Gyalpo lest tlie people should neglect their fields in 
the tempting pursuit of gold. The crowds that have 
flocked to the recent " diggings " in California and 
Australia have fully justified the fears of the Gyalpo, 
Gold is also found in Chang-thang, but its collection is 
prevented by a superstitious belief that the lumps of 
native gold " belong to the genii of the spot, who would 
severely punish the human appropriation of their trea- 
sures."! The sands of the Indus have long been 
celebrated for the production of gold. Pliny J says, 
" Fertilissimi sunt auri Dardce;" and this is the case 
even at the present day ; for the sands of the Indus, in 
the Dardu country, are said to be more prolific than 
those of any other part of the river. But the gold of 
the Indus was known at a still earlier date ; for Megas- 
thenes relates that the Indian ants dug gold out of the 
earth, not for the sake of metal, but in making burrows 
for themselves. § These Indian ants are no doubt the 

* Travels, II. p. 392, and map. t Moorcroft, I. p. 314. 

X Lib. VI. c. 19. The conclusion of the passage is curious and sugges- 
tive, Setee vera argenti, that is, " the country of the Darda; produced 
most gold, but that of the Setce the most sUver." As we know that silver 
is not found in India, the SetcB can be no other than the Seths, or " bank- 
ers," in whose hands the wealth of India has been for ages. It seems 
probable that many of the Indian nations, enumerated by ancient 
authors, may have been only different trades and professions. 

§ Arrian, Indica, XV. 



MINERAL PRODUCTIONS. 233 

marmots [Arctomys) and rat-hares {Lagomjs) of Tibet, 
wliicli in making biirrows " throw up the earth wherein 
the ore is contained, from which the Indians extract 
gold." On the plains along the banks of the Indus and 
Shayok, the marmots stUl throw up the earth mixed 
with gold-dust, from which the Indians of Balti occa- 
sionally extract a few grains of gold. Megasthenes 
confesses that he had not seen the animals themselves, 
but only their skins, which had been brought by the 
Macedonian soldiers into Alexander's camp. The skin 
of the marmot is the commonest of all the furs now 
brought to India.* Its Tibetan name is T^liyi-pa or 
Clupa (or Chiqyn), which was probably confounded by 
iUexander's soldiers \vith the Indian CJnhttd, the name 
of the large ant ; or Fhyi-pa may have been confounded 
by the Indians themselves with Plppilaha, the Sanscrit 
and Bengali name of the large ant.t 

The same story of the ants as big as foxes is told by 
Herodotus ; and Professor H. H. WUsonJ has aptly 
illustrated it by a passage from the Mahabharata, which 
relates that " the people who dweU under the pleasant 
shade of the Kichaka-venus (a kind of willow) and along 
the Sailoda river, between the Meru and Mandara 
moimtains, the Khasas, Pradaras, Paradas, Ekasanas, 
Arkas, Kulindas, Tanganas, and Paratanganas, brought 
to Yudhishthira lumps of gold, a drona (64 lb.) in 
weight, of the sort called paippilika, " or ant gold," 
which was so called because it was exfodiated by the 

* The same holds good to the eastward, for ]VIr. Hodgson says, " In 
the extensive peltry trade carried on between Nepal and Tibet, no skin 
is more commonly met with than that of the marmot." — Journal As. Soc. 
Bengal, X. p. 777. 

t Phyi-pa, commonly pronounced Chi^pa. 

X Journal Roy. As. Soc. VII. p. 143. 



234 LADAK. 

pippilaka, or common large ant." This belief, however 
erroneous, as the learned professor observes, was neither 
extravagant nor irrational. A yet earlier mention of the 
gold of Alpine India is that of Ctesias ; but he distinctly 
states that it was not obtained by washing, as in the river 
Pactolus.* Gold is called Ser, gold-dust Ser-dul, and 
the gold-washer Ser-pa. This name I believe to have 
been the origin of the classical Seres. In Tibetan 
SerM-yul means the " gold country ;" and as the affix 
yul can be omitted at pleasure, the names of Serki and 
Serika are almost identical, t 

Copper. — According to Moorcroft, " some copper- 
miues are said to have been discovered towards Kash- 
mir." J This statement is probably correct, as Jacque- 
mont found copper ore in the Lidar valley, on the south- 
west side of the range which divides Kashmir from the 
Ladaki district of Suru. If any trust can be put in a 
name, I should suppose that copper {zangs) had been 
found in Zangskar, but I could not learn that it had been 
discovered there. 

Lead and Irori are, according to Moorcroft, found in 
pits in the mountaia districts remote from Le. 

Plumbago is found in Balti ; bu.t the specimens which 
I procured are of an inferior description. They are 
gritty, and will not mark paper without scratching ; but 
as they were most probably taken from the long-exposed 
surface, good black lead may stUl perhaps be found in 
the same place. 

Sulphur, called Muzi, is obtained only at Puga, in 

* Fragments of Ctesias by Lion. Indica, XII. "Eori ci ical xp^"'": 

iv rij It'CiKi) X'^P'ih ""'• ''' '''"'t TTorojuoii; i'vf)iai;6f.iivoc, kui TrXvyvfitroc, UKTwej) 

il' TU UaKTwXo) TTOTa/XW. 

t gSer, gold; gSer-rBul, gold dust. % Travels, 1. p. :313. 



MINERAL PRODUCTIONS. 235 

Ladak ; but the sulphur of Chang-thang is so easily 
obtainable, that the Puga mine is almost neglected. 
The bed of the small rivu.let Rulang-chu, which 
traverses the glen of Puga, is full of hot springs, varying 
in temperature from 80° to 148°. The hottest springs 
are strongly impregnated with sulphuretted hydrogen. 
The sulphur itself is found on the left bank of the 
rivulet, where a small hole has gradually been excavated 
by the shepherds. It occurs in pure transparent crystals 
attached to the gypsum, or ia thin opaque laminEe dis- 
seminated through the rock. The quantity exported is 
very small, but I was informed by the shepherds that 
as much as 100 small maunds (of 16 seers each) are some- 
times mined. In 1847 I saw twelve sheep-loads (or twelve 
maunds) of sulphur that had been taken from this mine ; 
but I feel satisfied that the average quantity of sulphur 
annually mined cannot be more than fifty maimds, and 
is probably much less. No duty is taken at the mine ; 
and the export duty, which is only a quarter of a rupee 
per maund, can often be evaded. 

Borax, in Til^etan Tsliale, is thrown up in the form 
of boracic acid by the hot springs of lowest temperature 
in the valley of Puga. The banks of the rivulet, for 
about two miles in length, are quite white Avith the 
saline matters that are continually being precipitated. 
These salts are chloride of soda and borate of soda. 
They are carefully scraped from the surface, as the 
under-coating is only the refuse of former years. Those 
of a faint pinkish hue, inclining occasionally to green, 
are preferred ; but these colom*s entu'ely disappear as 
the salts become dry. Tliis impure mixture is the 
tiucal of commerce, from which the borax (borate of 



236 LADAK. 

soda) is obtained in India in the shape of crystals, by 
solution and evaporation. 

Soda. — The banks of the Thogji Chanmo lake, in 
Riikchu, are incrusted with masses of saline matter ; and 
in passing round its southern end, the crisp, hardened 
surface of salt yields and crackles beneath the feet of 
the traveller. The lake is commonly called Tsho-kar, 
or the White Lake, by the Botis, and Khaori Talao, or 
Salt Lake, by the Hindus of Bisahar, Chamba, and KuUu. 
The salt is natron, or sub-carbonate of soda. No use is 
made of it. 

Magnesia. — The salts deposited on the banks of the 
great Tshomoriri lake are common salt and muriate 
(hydrochlorate) of magnesia. These salts do not occur 
in any great heaps, like those on the Tsho-kar ; but as 
the Tshomoriri lake is sixteen miles in length, a con- 
siderable quantity might no doubt be obtained annually 
along its forty miles of shore. 

Salt, in Tibetan Tshd, is found on the banks of the 
Tshomoriri lake, in combination with the magnesia. 
I was informed that no use whatever was made of it, 
as rock salt (from Labor) was procurable without 
difficulty. 

Garnets of an inferior description, and of a dark 
brown colour, were found at Puga by Dr. Thomson in a 
coarse grit stone rock. The natives were not aware of 
their existence. 

Moniiai, a mineral substance of a dirty brownish- 
black colour, is found in Balti. It has a strong un- 
pleasant smell, and it burns with a thick black smoke, 
leaviug a considerable quantity of dark-coloured ashes. 
It is probably petroleum, the quantity of ash perhaps 



MINBKiU, PRODUCTIONS. 237 

arising from the admixture of some foreign substance, 
employed either to collect or to solidify the native liquid. 
The common momiai of Indian medicine is of course a 
manufactm'ed article ; although not made, as generally 
asserted, of the melted fat of Abyssinian boys, who have 
been roasted for the purpose. The momiai of Balti is 
said to be a natm'al product. The original momiai was 
only mummy,* which, at one time, was held in much 
repute, even in Europe. 

* The name of Momiai ^L<ej.« is derived from Momia \^^, or 
Mummy. 



238 



IX.-COMMERCE. 



I.— HOME TEADE. 

The artificial productions of Ladak are confined to 
the manufacture of blankets and coarse woollens, chiefly 
for home consumption, and of black mohair tents, made 
from the hair of the yak or grunting ox, which form the 
only habitations of the nomadic population. Both 
blanketing and sacking can be purchased in L6, the 
former only in small quantities, the latter in almost any 
quantity, as there is a constant demand for it for bags 
for the conveyance of goods. The blanketing is manu- 
factured in pieces one foot wide and eleven to fifteen 
yards in length. The price varies from two to three 
rupees each, according to fineness. The quantity of 
blanketing and of sacking annually expended in Ladak 
on the carrying trade amounts to about 120,000 yards, 
in the manufacture of which 20,000 small maunds 
(or 640,000 lb.) of wool are consumed. The total value 
of the manufacture is only Rs. 7,500 or £750. 

II.— FOEEIGN TEADE. 

The foreign trade of the country, in home produce, is 
confined to four natural productions, — wool, borax, 



FOREIGN TRADK. 239 

sulphur, and dried fruits, of which only the first is of 
any consequence, and even that is not of sufficient 
importance to deserve more than a slight notice. 

Wool, in Tibetan Bed, is the chief product of Ladak. 
It is of two kinds : goat-wool, or Le-na, wliich is used 
for shawls, and sheep-Avool, or Bed, which is used for 
blanketing and coarse clothing, and for stuffing pillows 
and bedding. 

The quantity of home-produced shawl-wool annually 
exported from Ladak averages 2,400 small maunds, 
or 76,800 lb. The value in Ladak is the same amount 
in rupees (Rs. 76,800), at the rate of two rupees per seer. 
The shawl-wool is exported to Kashmir, Nurpm% Amrit- 
sar, and Rampur. 

The commoner sheep-wool is produced in much 
greater quantities, and the general amount of export 
(5,000 maunds) more than doubles that of the finer 
wool. The value at eight seers per rupee is only 
2,000 rupees. 

Borax. — The borax and sulphur-mines are found 
together at an uninhabited spot named Puga, on the 
Rulang-chu, a small stream which is full of hot springs, 
and which joins the Indus on its left bank, miles 
above Le. Puga stands in N. latitude 33° 12', and 
E. longitude 78° 16', at an elevation of 15,264 feet above 
the sea. The borax is ejected in the bed of the stream 
by the numerous hot springs at various temperatures, 
from 80° upwards. The salt (borate of soda) is found 
along both banks of the rivulet for about two miles, in 
conjunction with chloride of soda. It is in a damp 
state, owing to the vapours emitted by the hot springs. 
In collecting the borax, the surface of the salt, which is 
generally of a light pink creamy hue (sometimes in- 



240 LADAK. 

clining to green), is carefully scraped and collected in 
bags. When dry, it is of a didl white colour. In this 
state it is collected by the shepherds, who pasture their 
flocks on the rich summer grass of the plaius of Rukchu, 
The quantity of this borax annually exported is stated 
at 500 maunds, or 16,000 lb. ; the value, at the rate of 
sixteen seers per rupee, being only Rs. 500. 

Sulj^htir. — The Puga sulphur-mine is situated at a 
short distance from the stream, at the foot of a gypsum 
cliff. The miaeral occurs chiefly in the form of thin 
laminDe dissemiuated throughout the rock ; but in all 
the fissures there are numerous detached crystals, quite 
transparent and of all sizes, from that of a grain of sand 
to one-eighth of an inch. In detaching the sulphur, 
the crystals are mostly reduced to powder and partially 
mixed with the gypsum rock ; and in this state it is 
carried to the markets of Nurpur, Kangra, and Rampur. 
The vague statements of the shepherds make the annual 
supply about 500 maunds, or 3,200 lb., but I should 
think that it rarely amounted even to one-half of that 
quantity. 

Dried Fruits. — These consist of apricots and small 
seedless raisins (commonly called currants). I have no 
means of making even a guess at the amount of this 
export, but the quantity must be considerable. I 
never found a single trader or shepherd without nume- 
rous bags of them ; and I have procured them in aU the 
bazaars in the hill states from Kashmir to Kangra and 
Simla. In the Simla bazaar they are sold at from two to 
two and a half seers per rupee. 

The whole value of the foreign trade of Ladak, in 
home produce, does not exceed Rs. 80,000 or £8,000. 



FOREIGN TRADE. 24)1 

III.— FOREIGN TRADE IN FOREIGN PRODUCE. 

The chief source of wealth in Ladak is the carrying- 
trade, or transport of foreign produce from one country 
to another through its own territories. This trade it 
owes entirely to its centrical situation between Kashmir 
and India on the south, and the Chinese proviaces of 
Yarkand, Kotan, and Kashgtir on the north. It is the 
entrep6t between Kashmii*, where the shawls are manu- 
factured, and the Chinese provinces of Ruthog and 
Chang-Thang, where the shawl-wool is produced. It 
supplies north-western India with tea, shawls, wool, and 
borax ; and the Musalman provinces of China with 
opium, saffron, brocades, and shawls. These are the 
staples of the trade through Ladak, but the number of 
smaller articles that are interchanged is very great, and 
as the detail may be interesting, I subjoin a list which I 
prepared at Le from the accounts of the Yarkandi and 
Kashmiri merchants. Many of them are quack medi- 
cines of very doubtful properties ; but the most curious 
items are undoubtedly the export of sugar to Yarkand, 
and its after-import in the shape of sugar-candy. The 
G^lr, or coarse sugar, of Kashmir is carried a long 
journey of two months and a half to Yarkand, where it 
is refined and crystallized : and the sugar-candy is again 
carried over the same long journey back to Ladak and 
Kashmir. The Yarkandi sugar-candy is certainly very 
white ; but it is surpassed in colourless transparency by 
that of Bikaner. 

List of Chinese articles brought to India. 

Shaicl-wool from Chang-Thang and Kuthog. 
Ckaras or Bang, an intoxicating extract of hemp. 
R 



242 LADAK. 

Silver in bars or ingots, called Kurio and Tdmhu.* 

Felts of various kinds. 

SukliH, a kind of camlet made of camel's hair. 

Tea, both green and black. 

Sugnr-candy. 

liussia LeatJier, called Biilgar. 

Sahle-shins, called Kunduz. 

Odma, or black leather. 

Kimsan, or golden-coloured leather, about eight inches wide. 

Sdffri, or greeu leather. 

Laka, a peculiar cloth made of hemp-bark. 

Velvets, both coarse and fine. 

Mashru, or coarse silk cloths of three kinds — 

1. Badshahi. 

2. Alchinbar, made at Alchi or Ilitsi. 

3. Kotani, made at Kotan. 

suing, a soft and fine sUky woollen of two kinds — 

1. Shiriin, and 2. Groriin. 
Parcha Samsun, coarse cotton cloths. 
Parcha ZukJi, ditto ditto. 

Silk, both raw and manufactured. 
Gold. 

Gold thread, called Zirri, both genuine and false. 
Silver. 

Silver thread. 

Turquoises, from Persia, tlirough Bokhara. 
Carpets, from Kotan. 
Rewand-Chini, or rhubarb.f 
Ghoh-Chini, or China-root. 
Gol-i-Ddl-Chini. 
Zedaary, Nirbisi from Nepal. 
Coral, Miinga. 
Musk, Mushkamiia. 
Tohacco. 



Pistachio Nuts, Pista. 
Soap. 



* Kuru is the Turki name ; the Tibetans call them Yam-bu. 

t Dr. O'Brien informs me that China-root is much used as an excel- 
lent substitute for sarsaparOla. Dr. O'Shaughnessy states that it is 
largely imported into Calcutta from the eastward. — See the Bengal 
Dispensatory, p. 645. 



FOREIGN TRADE. 243 

Bddidn-khitai, Chinese aniseed, which is bruised and put into tea. 

Mamira, a j-ellow root said to be a cure for bad eyes. 

OaJer-paUltar (neck-stone), good for swollen necks. 

MuUiafti, liquorice-root, used for coughs. 

Dari/dhi. 

Ponies. 

Salt, from the lakes of Chang-Thang. 

List of Indian articles carried to Yarkand. 

Ldki, goat-skins dyed red, from Nurpur. 
Cottons, flowered (chicken). 
Ditto, coarse (ghara). 
Ditto, thin (gaji). 
Chintzes of all kinds. 
Silk, lungi of Multan. 
Shawls, mostly coarse. 

Jdmiwdr, or shawl-cloth figured iu breadths. 
Brocades, mostly coarse. 
Turhan^. 
Opium. 
Indigo. 

Heron-plumes, Kalgi, generally made of the feathers of the jungul 
fowl. 

Shoes, from Nurpiu*. 

Pearls of aU sizes up to one hundred rupees each. 

Otter-skins. 

Turmeric. 

Cnrdamums. 

Ginger. 



Black Pepper. 
Honey. 

Tamarinds, dry. 
Sherhet, lemon. 
Coarse Sugar, Giir. 

Narcachor, the root of a reed, used both as a scent and as a medi- 
ne. It is the common Narkat or Nalkand (Curcuma Zerumbet).* 



* In Hindustani KS^ijt, 1^7, Narkat ; in Sanskrit «|«qi|>)$ or 
1^5R"r^. Nala kdnda, or river-reed. It is plentiful in the Sindh at 
R 2 



244 LADAK. 

Turlad, Convolvulus Turpethum, or Turbitli, ii purgative root. 

Hdhilistan. 

Khurma or CJihuhdra, dates. 

Salt. 

CHINESE IMPORTS FOR INDIA. 

Shmcl-ivool. — The principal article of Ladaki trade 
between the Chinese provinces and India is shawl-wool, 
of which about 3,200 maunds are annually sold to the 
Kashmiris, and an equal quantity to the traders of 
Nurpur, Rampur, Amritsar, and Ludiana. Of this, 
some 2,400 maunds are the produce of the country, 
and the remainder, amounting to 4,000 maunds, or 
128,000 lb., is obtained from Chang-Thang and Euthog. 
As the average value of shawl-wool in Ladak is 2 rupees 
per seer, or 1 rupee per lb., the total value of the annual 
import of shawl-wool is Rs. 1,28,000, or £12,800. The 
whole is again exported. 

Sheep's wool is imported only in small quantities, as 
the country itself supplies more wool than it consumes. 
About 1,000 maunds are said to be brought annually 
from Ruthog, of which the value in Ladak, at the rate 
of 8 seers per rupee, is only Rs. 500. It is all exported 
again. 

Charas, or Bang, is brought from Yarkand. About 
500 maunds are imported annually, at the average price 
of three rupees per seer. The whole value of this article 
is therefore Rs. 24,000, or £2,400. About 300 maunds 
of charas are consumed in Ladak, and the remaining 
200 maunds are exported to the neighbouring countries. 

Tobacco is imported largely from Yarkand, the annual 
supply being stated at 4,000 maunds, or 128,000 lb., of 

Narwar or Nalwar ; aud it is possible that the name may have been 
derived from this itlebrated fort. 



FOREIGN TRADE. 245 

which the whole is consumed in the country. This 
amount allows one pound for each individual, which is 
somewhat more than the quantity annually consumed in 
England : * which in 1842 was twenty-two millions of 
pounds, amongst twenty-eight millions of population, or 
three-quarters of a pound each. This difference arises 
no doubt from the difference of habits, as the use of 
tobacco is only partial in England, while in Ladak it is 
universal. The average price of tobacco at L6 is one 
rupee per seer, and the value of the whole import is 
Rs. 64,000, or £6,400. Small quantities of tobacco are 
also imported from Bisahar and Kashmir, but I could 
not ascertain the amount. 

Borax is imported from Chang-Thang, to the amoimt 
of 2,500 maunds, or 80,000 lb., annually. Its price in 
Chang-Thang is one rupee for four maunds, or sixty-four 
seers. In Ladak it averages about thirty-two seers per 
rupee, and in the lower hill bazaars it is sold at sixteen 
seers per rupee, in its original impure state. The total 
value of the import is Rs. 1,500, or £150. 

Sulphur is also imported from Chang-Thang ; but 
the quantity is small, not exceeding 400 maunds, or 
12,800 lb. Its price is usually one anna per seer, and 
the whole value of the import only Us. 400, or £40. 

Ojiium is the chief article of trade between India and 
China, through Ladak, as it is between India and China 
generally. The annual supply was stated at 500 maimds, 
or 16,000 lb., which, at the average rate of fifteen rupees 
per seer, amounts to Rs. 1,20,000, or £12,000 worth. 
The stated quantity is most probably less than the truth, 
as the total amount of opium that was destroyed at 
Yarkand in 1840, after the imperial edict of 1839, is 

* M'CiiUocli's Commereial Dictioiiarv. 



246 LADAK. 

said to have been worth one lac of kurus, equal to 
Rs. 166,00,000, or £1,660,000 ! This vastly exaggerated 
amount, which was repeated by several people, was most 
probably the round sum total of all the confiscated opium 
throughout the Chinese empu-e,* although liiv simple 
informants fully believed that this enormous quantity 
had been destroyed at Yarkand alone. The imperial 
edict is now as little respected on the western frontiers 
as it is on the eastern sea-coasts ; from which politicians 
may learn how vain and useless is the attempt to thwart 
the wishes of a whole people. The drug produced ia 
our hill states is of a superior quality, and as it is much 
prized by the Chinese, the land trade in opium is yearly 
on the increase. 

Shawls of inferior descriptions are taken to Yarkand 
in considerable numbers. The finest shawls, such as we 
see in India and in England, are only manufactured to 
order ; but the commoner shawls of coarser material and 
large patterns are preferred in the Yarkand market, on 
account of their cheapness. Their prices range from 
Rs. 50 to Rs. 300 per pair : the average being about 
Rs. 100. The nimaber of shawls annually exported 
amounts probably to 500 pairs : but this number is only 
an average of the widely different statements of the 
merchants — some of whom said 200 pairs, and others 



* The value of the Opium destroyed may be thus stated — 
Indian Opium, 20,000 chests, at Es. 625 each = £1,250,000 
Turkish Opium, 1,000 chests, at Es. 800 each = 80,000 

£1,330,000 



This sum is equal to more than 80,000 kurus, aud might, wdth the 
additional value of the Ladaki opium, be commonly stated in round 
numbers at one lac (100,000) of kurus. 



FOREIGN TRADE. 247 

1,000. The value of 500 pairs of shawls is about 
Rs. 50,000, or £5,000. 

Brocades arc another article regarding which I found 
great difficulty in obtaining any definite information. The 
commoner kinds, ranging from Rs. 50 to E-s. 300 each, 
are preferred for the Yarkand market. Perhaps about 
400 may be exported annually, which at an average 
price of Rs. 100 each, are worth Rs. 20,000, or £2,000. 

Ldki, or skins of red leather. — These are goat-skins 
tanned and coloured at Niu'pur. There is a great 
demand for them all over the hills, but more par- 
ticularly in Ladak and Yarkand, where bright-coloured 
leathers are generally employed in the manufacture of 
boots, and of bridles and trappings of horses. About 
200 maunds, or sheep-loads (6,400 lb. weight) of these 
skins are said to be annually unported into Ladak ; 
which at the mean rate of one pound per skin, and of 
one rupee each, are worth Rs. 6,400, or £640. Half of 
this quantity (100 mavmds), or 3,200 skins, worth 
Rs. 3,200, or £320, are exported to Yarkand. 

Spices to the value of about Rs. 1,000, or £100, are 
said to be annually imported into Ladak, of which the 
greater part, or Rs. 800 worth, are carried to Yarkand. 

Saffron is supplied entirely by Kashmir. The 
quantity varies ; but the usual supply is said to be 
twenty maunds, or 640 lb. ; which, at the rate of forty 
rupees per seer, is worth Rs. 12,800, or £1,280. The 
whole is exported to Yarkand. 

Cloths of all the coarser sorts, and a considerable 
number of flowered cottons and bright-coloured chintzes, 
form an important article of Ladaki trade. The annual 
amount is about 100 maunds, or 3,200 lb., in value 
Rs. 10,000, or £1,000. A small quantity is used in 



248 LADAK. 

Ladak for the bordering of skull-caps, but the remainder 
is exported to Yarkand. 

Tea is more or less drunk by everybody in Ladak, and 
a considerable quantity is therefore imported both for 
home consumption and for the supply of Kashmir and 
the Punjab. The gross annual import is said to be 
1,000 maunds, or 32,000 lb. ; which, at the rate of 
three rupees per seer, is worth Rs. 9,600. About 200 
maunds (6,400 lb.) is exported, leaving only 800 
maimds, or 25,600 lb., for the use of the people of 
Ladak. This will not give more than three ounces to 
each person ; but there is good reason for believing that 
a considerable quantity of Cliinese tea is smuggled into 
Ladak ; and we know that the black tea of Bisahar is 
now largely imported to be mixed with the Chinese tea. 
The average supply for each individual cannot therefore 
be less than half a pound. In England it reaches a 
pound and a quarter for each person.* 

DUTIES.— IMPORTS AND EXPORTS. 



YARKAND. 



On Imports. 

Rs. a. p. 

On Charas, per maund 2 4 

„ Wool 2 4 

„ Tea 8 

„ Cloths 8 



On Expobts. 

Rs. a. p. 

Ou Cloths, Laki, &c. 

per maund . . 4 

„ Opium 4 

No other duties are now taken on 
exports to Tarkand. 



On Cloths, per maund 10 
„ Saffron „ ...300 
„ Brocades, per piece 8 
„ Shawls, per pair 8 

„ Tobacco 4 

„ Ghi 4 



KASHMIR. 



On Wool, per maund 8 

„ Tea, per dauia . . 1 
„ Langa and Siling, 

per piece ... 2 



* M'Culloch's Commereial Dictionary. 



FOREIGN TRADE. 



249 



On Impoets. 






On Exports. 


Rs. 


a. p. 






On Sugar-caudy ... 1 


4 






„ Spices ... ... 1 


4 






„ Opium 2 


8 






„ Otter-skina ... 2 


8 








BISAHAR. 





On Opiiim, per maund 14 

„ Spices 10 

„ Cloths 10 

,, Iron 10 



On Charas, per maund 10 
„ Gold and Silver, 

peryambu ... 8 







NURPUR. 






1 On every pony-load 






ZANSKAR. 


On Laki, per maund 


2 


2 6 




„ Ghi 





4 




„ Honey . . 





2 




„ Opium ... 


2 


8 




„ Otter-skins 


2 


8 





3 



The following tables show the annual amount and 
value of all the imports and exports of the trade of 
Ladak, with the total amount of duty levied on each 
article. 

IMPORTS FROM THE CHINESE TERRITORIES. 



Articles. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Duty. 


Maunds. 


lb. 


Rate 
per Seer. 


Rupees. 


^. 


Rate 
per Maund. 


Rupees. 


dS. 


Shawl-wool 
Wool .... 

Tea 

Charas .... 
Tobacco . . 
Borax .... 
Sulphur 

Total . . 


4,000 
1,000 
1,000 

500 
4,000 
2,500 

400 


128,000 
32,000 
32,000 
16,000 

128,000 
80,000 
12,800 


2 

2 

3 
3 

1 0. 
6 
1 


1,28,000 
2,000 
48,000 
24,000 
64,000 
1,250 
400 


12,800 

200 

4,800 

2,400 

6,400 

125 

40 


8 
8 
2 
2 4 
4 
4 
4 


2,000 

500 

2,000 

1,125 

1,000 

625 

100 


200 
50 

200 

1124 

100 
62| 
10 


13,400 


428,000 




2,67,650 


26,765 




7,350 


735 



250 



LADAK. 



IMPORTS FROM THE INDIAN TERRITORIES. 







Quantity. 


Value. 


Duty. 




Maimds. 


lb. 


Rate 
per Ser. 


Rupees. 


£. 


Rate 
per Maunii. 


Rupees. 


£. 


Opium 

Shawls, pail 
Brocades, pc 
LiSki 


s 

3. 


500 
500 
400 
200 

20 
100 


16,000 

6,400 

640 
3,200 


15 
100 
50 
32 

40 


1,20,000 
60,000 
20,000 
6,400 
1,000 
12,800 
10,000 


12,000 
5,000 
2,000 
640 
100 
1,280 
1,000 


2 8 
8 
8 

2 2 6 
15 

3 
10 


1,250 
250 
200 
431 
100 
60 
100 


125 
25 
20 
43 
10 
6 
10 


Saif ron 
Cloths 




Total . 


• 


820 


26,240 




2,20,200 


22,020 




2,391 


239 



EXPORTS TO THE INDIAN TERRITORIES. 



Articles. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Duty. 


Maunds. 


lb. 


Rate 
per Ser. 


Rupees. 


£. 


Rate 
per Maund. 


Rupees. 


£. 


Shawl-wool* 

Ditto t . . . . 

Total . . 

WoolJ .... 
Ditto § 

Total . . 

Tea 

Charas .... 
Borax .... 
Sulphur .... 

Total . . 


3,200 
3,200 


102,400 
102,400 


2 
2 


1,02,400 
1,02,400 


10,240 
10,240 


8 
12 


1,600 
2,400 


160 
240 


6,400 


204,800 




2,04,800 


20,480 




4,000 


400 


5,000 
1,000 

6,000 


160,000 
32,000 


2 
2 


10,000 
2,000 


1,000 
200 


2 
2 


625 
125 


62i 
124 


192,000 




12,000 


1,200 




700 


70 


200 

200 

3,000 

500 


32,000 
32,000 
96,000 
16,000 


3 
3 
6 
10 


9,600 

9,600 

1,500 

500 


960 
900 
150 
50 


4 
10 
4 
4 


800 
125 
750 
125 


80 
12i 
75 
124 


16,300 


521,600 




2,38,000 


23,800 




6,550 


655 



* Exported to Kashmir. 
X Home produce. 



t Exported to other places. 
§ Imported from Chang Thang 



FOREIGN TRADE. 



251 



EXPORTS TO THE CHINESE TERRITORIES. 



Articles. 


QuEuitit>'. 


Value. 


Duty. 


Maun (Is. 


lb. 


Rate 
per Ser. 


Rupees. 


*. 


Rate 
per Maund. 


Rupees. 


£. 


Opium 

Shawls, paira 
Brocades, pes. 

Laki 

Spices 

Saffron 

Cloths 

ToUl . . 


500 
500 
400 
100 

20 
100 


16,000 

3,200 

640 
3,200 


15 
100 
50 
32 

40 


1,20,000 
50,000 
20,000 
3,200 
800 
12,800 
10,000 


12,000 
5,000 
2,000 
320 
80 
1,280 
1,000 


4 

4 


125 

25 


124 
2i 


720 


23,040 




2,16,000 


21,600 




150 


15 



TOTALS OF IMPORTS AND EXPORTS. 



Impoets. 

From the Chinese Territories . . . 
„ Indian „ 

Total Imports 

EXPOETS. 

To the Indian Territories 
„ Chinese „ 

Total Exports 


Value. 


Duty. 


Rupees. 


£. 


Rupees. 


£. 


2,67,650 
2,20,200 


26,705 
22,020 


7,350 
2,391 


735 
239 


4,87,850 


48,785 


9,741 


974 


2,38,000 
2,16,000 


23,800 
21,600 


6,550 
150 


655 
15 


4,54,000 


45,400 


6,700 


670 



The total amount of duties thus collected is E,s. 16,441. 
This, with the addition of other small duties on Chinese 
sUks, salt, iron, and copper vessels, will amount to 
about Rs. 18,000, which was the acknowledged amoimt 



252 LADAK. 

of the duties collected in Ladak both before and after 
Gulab Sing's conquest. I have therefore some reason 
to believe in the general accuracy of the statements 
vfhich I received from the merchants, although perhaps 
not one of them may be strictly correct. Statistical 
questions are particularly puzzling to ignorant men, 
who are unaccustomed to deal with large numbers, and 
when they get beyond hundi'eds begin to talk of lacs. 
I found too, that the statements of the Kashmiris were 
generally false, and I believe wilfully so ; at least the 
returns which they gave me of the numbers of people 
and khdls of land in the different villages of Dras, were 
undoubtedly manufactured for the occasion. Thus 
every house had exactly one man, one woman, and one 
boy, and every village possessed exactly three kluils of 
land. But the mis-statements of the Botis arose, I 
believe, generally from ignorance, as I never could find 
any obviously manufactured statistics, like those of the 
Kashmiris. I have already noticed the close agreement 
between the sum of my detailed accounts of the import 
and export duties, and the gross amount of Rs. 18,000, 
which was universally said to be the total amount of all 
the duties collected in Ladak. I will now add another 
fact that will most probably tend to increase the reliance 
which the first would induce us to place in the genei*al 
accuracy of these details. A considerable quantity of 
silver in ingots, or bars, is annually brought into Ladak 
by the Tarkaudis, thus proving that the value of the 
merchandise which they import is less than that which 
they export. Now these details exhibit precisely the 
same fact, as I will now show. 



FOREIGN TRADE. 253 



IMPORTS FROM TARKAND. 

Shawl-wool Es. 28,000 

Tea 48,000 

Charas 24,000 

Tobacco 64,000 



164,000 
Add ponies, sugar-candy, drugs, skins, turquoises 16,000 

180,000 
Exports to Tarkaud 216,000 

Excess of Exports Es. 36,000 



This sum is equal to upwards of 216 silver ingots, 
called yamhu and huru, each of which is worth Rs. 166. 
The fact that Yarkandi bullion is constantly being 
brought into the Ladak market is further proved by the 
duty of half a rupee, which is levied on each ingot when 
it is exported to Bisahar. 

All merchandise is called Tshong, and the merchants 
or dealers Tshong -pa ; as. Bed- Tshong, a wool-merchant ; 
Chhang-Tshong, a spirit-dealer. Merchants are also 
called Don-thun, or " Ware-gatherers ; " but the usual 
term is Tshoug-pa. The chief, or head merchant, is 
Tshong-poii. i\jiy regular gathering of merchants, such 
as annual meeting at Garo, is called Tshoug-dus, a fair ; 
and the friendly glass, which is partaken together after 
the completion of a bargain, is named Tshong-chhang, 
" the mercantile glass." 

COIXS, WEIGHTS, AND MEASURES. 

In Ladak one meets with the coinage, as well as with 
the merchandise, of all the surrounding countries. The 
golden tilds of Bokhara and Kokand (or Kokan), the 
sycee silver and pierced copper coins of China, the thin 



254 LADAK. 

silver pieces of Nepal, the copper clumps of Bisahar, the 
almost pure rupees of the Moguls of Delhi, the Nanak- 
sahi and Govind-sahi rupees of Ranjit Sing, and the 
hroad rupees of British India, bearing the head of the 
Queen of England. The only native coin is the sUver 
Jiid, or Jao, which is worth one quarter of a rupee. 

The Tiki is the common gold coin of the Mahomedan 
countries, and is worth six rupees in Le. 

The Chinese sUver ingot, called Kiiru by the Yar- 
kandis, and Yamibii by the Tibetans, is a plain bar of 
pure metal, weighing Us. 156^. In 1847 it was valued 
at Rs. 166. These limips of bullion are often bent in 
the middle into the shape of a horse-shoe. They are 
then called Td-M/kma, or horses' hoofs. 

The Nepal coins are of silver, each being worth half a 
rupee, or two Jaos of Ladak. The coins of several of 
the Nepal Rajas are still current in Ladak. They 
consist principally of the currency of the Gorkha chiefs ; 
but a few specimens of the Newar sovereigns are stUl to be 
found. One which I obtained belongs to Jai/a Banajita 
Malla Deva of Bhatgaon, and is dated in the year 842 
of the Newar era, eqmvalent to a.d. 1711. 

The Mogul rupees have very nearly been superseded 
by the Ndnalc-sdhi and Company's rupee. In Moorcroft's 
time they would appear to have been plentiful, and more 
particularly the coinage of Muhammad Shah.* Even 
in 1839 I found the Mogul coinage prevalent in Kullu, 
Lahul, and Chamba ; where I obtained two rare spe- 
cimens of the pageant kings Mafi-ud-Darjdt and Raji- 
iid-Dcmlat. 

The Jao or Jud of Ladak is coined at Kashmir. It 

* See his Travels, I. p. 353, where he mentions the price of Bisahar 
tea at fifteen Muhammad Shahi rupees per Pakka maund. 



FOREIGN TRADE. 255 

is a thin irregular-shaped piece of silver, about the size 
of a shilling, with a Persian inscription on each side. 
On the centre of the obverse is the name of Mahmud 
Shah, suiTounded by a circle of large dots. The in- 
scription on the reverse is difficult to read, but the 
upper line is certainly Butdn, which is the Kashmiri 
name of Ladak. The second, or middle line, is perhaps 
Zarb ; and the two together form Zarb-i-Butan, " struck 
in Batan." Below is the word scmh, or sanat, and a 
figured date, which looks like 878, but of what era it is 
impossible to say.* As the coins bear the title of 
Mahmud Shah, they cannot date earlier than a.d. 1687, 
when the Gyalpo of Ladak was nominally converted to 
Muliammedanism, after the expulsion of the Sokp'os by 
the troops of Ibrahim Khan, the governor of Kashmir 
vmder Aurangzeb. The coins which I possess all bear 
the same date ; and, as they are but little worn on the 
smface, they cannot have been minted for any great 
length of time. The date, which I should have expected 
to find on these coins, is the BUjra year 1099, equivalent 
to A.D. 1687, which was the year of the Gyalpo's 
conversion. 

The gold coins in use are called Ser-jao, or " golden 
jao," or simply Ser-ki-doug, or " golden coins." All 
coins are called Dong, or Dong-tse. The silver coins are 
named Nul-ki-dong, or simply Nuk-dong, and the copper 
coins Zangi-dong, or Zang-dong.-\ Ready money, or 
cash, is called Marba, or Marltyang. 

The weights of Ladak are the Batti and the Man, or 
Maund. The Batti is equal to two Indian seers or 

* See Plate XIV. for a sketcli of one of these coins, 
t (jSer-l-iji-Dong, golden coin ; dUful-kyi-Jong, silver coin ; and Zangs- 
kgi-dong, copper coin. 



256 LADAK. 

thirty-two chitaks. The name is no doubt derived from 
the Hindi word Battis, " thu'ty-two."* Indeed the 
measure itself, as well as the name, is Indian, and the 
Ladakis most probably derived it from the neighbouring 
hill states. The man or maund is equal to eight battis, 
or sixteen seers, and is therefore the same as the small 
maund of India. 

The only other Ladaki measure with which I am 
acquainted is the Klidl. This term has ah'eady been 
explained with reference to the measurement of land, in 
my accoimt of the vegetable productions. The Khdl, 
which is the universal measure for all kinds of heavy 
produce, but more especially for grain, is of two kinds : 
the Dek-khdl, or the " weight khal," and the Shor-khdl, 
or " measm'e khal."t The common Khdl, whether by 
weight or measm'e, is the well-known quantity of a 
sheep's load, Liik-khdl, which is equal to eight battis, or 
one maund of sixteen Indian seers, or thirty -two pounds 
English.! This is usually named simply khdl, but when 
the larger measures are mentioned, the prefix is always 
used, as Td-khdl, the " horse khal," which is equal to 
four maunds, or 128 lb. ; and the Yak-khal, which is 
the same. 



* In Hindi Wlft^. 

t liDegs-Tchal and gShor-hhal or Pre-bu. 

X Trebeck's valuation is the same. See Moorcroft's Travels, II. p. 70. 



257 



X.-GOVERNMENT. 



I.— NATUEE OF GOVERNMENT.— VAEIOUS OFFICERS. 

The government of Ladak was formerly a mild 
despotism under a ruler who bore the title of Gyalpo.* 
The conduct of affaii-s was generally intrusted to the 
prime minister, or Kahlon ; and the king was well 
satisfied both with his minister and with his subjects, if 
the former gave him suflB.cient meansf for the enjoyment 
of his royal pleasure, and if the latter never disturbed 
his quiet ease with their complaints. The king literally 
did nothing, except when roused to exertion by some 
unusual occm-rence. His subjects could behold his 
royal presence only by the presentation of an offering 
in money, according to their circumstances. But this 
was a costly pleasure ; and the mental abstraction of 
the Buddhist prince was rarely distiirbed by the curiosity, 
or loyal zeal, of his people. Occasionally an ambitious 
prince would arise, who (like Singhe Namgyal) retained 

* The ruler was usually called rGyaZ-/)o, or the emperor; and the 
queen was called rOyal-mo, or the empress. In writing more formality 
was used, and the ruler was either entitled rGyal-po-chen-po, " the great 
emperor," or he was designated by his own name Singge-rNam-rOyal, 
" King Singge." 

t The prime minister was always the Gyalpo's treasurer, or keeper 
of the privy purse. 



258 liADAK. 

the Avhole power in his own liands. The apparent power 
of the prime minister was ahsolute, but his real power 
was much curbed by the wide-spread authority of the 
monastic estal^lishments, and by the partial indepen- 
dence of the petty Gyalpos and district Kahlons. 

In Great Tibet the Kahlons of the four chief provinces 
of Ngari, U, Tsciiig, and Khdm, were elected by the 
civil power in subordination to the Grand Lama, while 
the inferior Kahlons, and all other petty officers of state, 
were elected by the four chief Kahlons. But in Laddk 
the prime minister's office was almost hereditary ; that 
is, it was restricted to a member of one of the families 
of the principal Kahlons, or governors of districts. The 
choice was determined, as in other countries, either by 
royal favoiu' and successful intrigue, or by greater 
popularity and superior abilities. Possession, however, 
gave so firm a grasp of power, that the office was usually 
retained in one family for several generations. The 
Kahlon of Moorcroft's time was the Kahlon or petty 
Gyalpo of the Chimra valley ; and the power remained 
in the hands of his family until the final settlement of 
Zorawar Sing, at Le. 

Many of the principal nobility of Ladak were petty 
chiefs of valleys, which had once been independent. 
Thus there was a Gyalpo in Nubra ; another in Gya ; 
a third in Spiti ; a fourth in Zanskar ; a fifth in Pask- 
yum ; a sixth in Soth ; a seventh in Suru ; and an 
eighth in Hembabs, or Dras. The chiefs of Paskyum 
and of Soth distinguished themselves by their protracted 
resistance on the first invasion of Ladak by Zorawar 
Sing. 

The prime minister was simply styled Kahlon, or 
" the minister," or Bangki-Kahlon, " the chief minis- 



NATURE OF GOVERNMENT. — ^VARIOUS OFFICERS. 259 

ter,"* while his deputy was usually known by the 
addition of his own name, as Kahlon-Rigsen, " minister 
Higsen,'" or by prefixing the term Nono, as Nono Kali- 
lon, " the younger, or deputy minister."t The other 
Kahlons were distinguished by the names of the districts 
over which they ruled, as Kahlon-Bazgo, " the governor 
of Bazgo." 

The next great officers were the Lonpos, % or governors 
of towns, and the Kharpons,^ or commanders of forts. 
The former were distinguished by the names of their 
respective towTis ; as Le-pon, "the governor of Le ;" 
Gar-pon, " governor of Garo.'" In L6, also, there were 
the 3£ak-p)on,^ or "commander-in-chief," and the Chag- 
sot*^ or " lord liigh treasurer ; " the Shogam-Chagsot** 
or " head collector of taxes ;" as well as the Shakspon,'\-\ 
or " chief justice ;" and the Khrimpons,XX or " magis- 
trates." Lastly there was the Kdkd-Tddsi,%^ or " head 
master of the horse ;" and the CJiagsi-Goba, or Kotwal, 
an office equivalent to that of mayor. 

* This is the " Banka khalun " of Moorcroft (I. pp. 238—249). The 
true title was dBang-k-yi-hKali-hLon or Bangki-hahlon, that is, " the 
powerful minister." 

t No-no is the usual term of respect which is used in addressing any 
young man of the higher ranks, and when prefixed to Kahlon it means 
the younger or deputy minister. Moorcroft (I. pp. 334, 335) gives the 
term, without the title, as the usual designation of the deputy minister, 
just as we should say " the deputy " instead of the deputy chairman. 
Nono is also applied to all under-ofEcers, as Nono-Chagsot , the " under- 
treasurer;" Nono-Shakspon, the " deputy justiciar)'. " 

J hLon-po, " the manager, arranger, or governor." Moorcroft 
(I. p. 25-5) calls him Lompa. 

§ mKhar-dPon, the " fort-chief." || dMag-dPon, the " war-chief." 

^ Phyag-mDsod, pronounced Chag-sot. 

** Shogam. " a duty, a tax." ff gShags-dPon, "justice-chief" 

X+ Khrims-dPon, " law-chief." 

§§ Gd-gd-rTd-rDsi, " head master of the horse." 

s 2 



260 LADAK. 

The inferior officers were the Mipons,* or Gobasf 
(that is, literally, the " head men " of the villages), and 
the Sliogamiia, or provincial collectors of taxes and 
customs. 

The Gobas (who were also called Grongiwns,X or 
" village chiefs ") were directly responsihle to the Kali- 
lons, or Gyalpos, of their respective districts, in all 
criminal matters, and in most accounts of revenue ; 
although the Mipons, or head men, of some of the 
principal towns, rendered their accounts direct to the 
Clwfjsot, or lord high treasurer of Le. But these 
exceptions were, I helieve, orJy made in the cases of 
such villages as were set apart for the particular main- 
tenance of the queen, or of some members of the royal 
family. The Chagsot, or lord high treasm'er, rendered 
his accounts to the Kahlon, or prime minister, who kept 
the privy purse of the king and his family. 

The titles of the different functionaries varied in 
different districts ; hut the most common were those 
which I have just given. The petty Gyalpos and 
provincial KaJdons were frequently called Depons,^ or 
" district chiefs," a name which recalls the Sanscrit 
Des-pati, and the Greek Aso-ttottj?. Among the Maho- 
medans of Ladak (both the pure Kashmiris and the 
hybrid Argons), the petty chiefs are invariably called 
Chho ; as Gya-pa-chho,\\ "the Gi/alpo of Gya." 

* Mi-dPon, " man-chief or head man." 

t hGo-ba, emphatically the head man, from h6o, "the head, the 
top of anything." 

J Grong-dPon. In Great Tibet, and in some parts of Ladak, this 
word is pronounced Tongpon. The Lamas more especially adhere to 
the pronunciation of Lhasa. 

§ sDe-dPon, " district-chief" || mChhog, " the head, the chief" 



261 



II.— EELATIONS WITH SURROUNDING STATES. 

The few questions of foreign polity that the govern- 
ment of Ladak had to deal with ^verc simple and easy. 
They were chiefly confined to political relations with 
Balti and Rudok ; to commercial ties with Yarkand 
and Kashmir ; and to the religious connection with 
Lhasa. The last was a national bond of union between 
two people speaking the same language, and holding the 
same faith ; and the presents which were annually sent 
to Lhasa, by the Gyalpo of Ladak, were an humble 
offering to the Dalai Lama, as the head of the Buddhist 
religion, and not an extorted tribute to the emperor of 
China as lord paramount. 

The difficulties of the passage of the Karakoram moun- 
tains prevented the Chinese governors of Yarkand and 
Kotan from attempting the conquest of Ladak ; and the 
poverty of the country offered no temptation to the Ma- 
homedan rulers of Kashmir. The Ladaki i-elations vdth 
these states were therefore friendly. With Rudok on the 
east there has been a long peace. The boundary is well 
defined by piles of stones, which were set up after the 
last expulsion of the Sokj)o, or Mongol hordes, in a.d. 
1687, when the Ladakis received considerable assistance 
from Kashmir. With Balti on the Avest, however, there 
existed a continual state of border-plundering, accom- 
panied with fire and sword, which occasioned frequent 
references, and which created and kept up unfriendly 
feelings between the two states. The difference of 
religion greatly added to the natural antipathy of neigh- 
bourhood ; and two centuries ago these two causes 
combined to lure Ali Sher and the Mahomedans of Balti 
to the invasion and partial conquest of Ladak. 



262 LADAK. 

III.— ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE. 

The administration of justice in Ladak was truly 
patriarchal. When any one was injured or aggrieved, 
he proceeded straight to the Qyalpo or Kulilon of his 
district, or to the Goha of his village, and represented 
his case. An assembly of five, or of seven elders* of 
the community was then called to hear and to decide 
upon the case. In the capital the proceedings were 
conducted with the observance of more form. The 
complaiaant made his case known to the Lonpo, or 
mayor, who reported it to the KaJilon, or prime minis- 
ter. The Shakspon, or chief justice, was then directed 
to assemble a regular court, composed either of five or 
of seven members, according to the importance of the 
case. The members were selected, as in the provinces, 
from amongst the Oatpas, or " elders ;" but to them 
were joined two or more Khrimpons, or " sitting magis- 
trates," whose duty it was to expound the Yul-khrim,\ 
that is, the " law of the land," or civil law. The Shaks- 
khang,X or "court of justice," was opened and closed 
by the sounding of the Khrim-dung,% or "trumpet of 
justice," and the sentence of the court (excepting in 
capital cases) was carried into execution without delay. 

* rOad-pa, prouounced Oatpa, an " old man," an " elder." The 
number of members points to a common origin witb the universal and 
stiU prevailing Panchayet, or " assembly of five," throughout India. 
Five must have been the ancient number, as even a single arbitrator or 
umpire is now called " Fanch." 

t Yul-kJirims, "land-law." In Ladak this word is pronounced Yid- 
khrim, but in Great Tibet it is corrupted to Yid-thim. 

X Sliags-hhang, "justice-hall." 

§ KJirims-dunff, " justice-trumpet ;" there was also a Khrims-rNga, 
"justice-drum." 



ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE. 263 

The punishments were few in kind, being only stripes, 
fines, and imprisonment, and in extreme cases, banish- 
ment or death ; but they were numerous in degree, 
apportioned to the amount of guilt. The punishment 
of death was seldom awarded, and still more rarely 
executed. In cases of sacrilege, such as spoliation of 
temples, or in horrible cases of murder, the criminals 
were either crucified, or thrown into the Indus, bound 
hand and foot and weighted with stones. But the more 
usual punishment for murder was banishment, or rather 
ignominious expulsion from society, preceded by stripes 
and branding, and accompanied by every indignity that 
could be imagined by the ingenious malice of men, or 
that could be perpetrated by the elaborate mischief of 
boys. The brand was made of iron, and was about one 
inch in length. It bore a dog's head, with the inscrip- 
tion, " dog-marked — expelled." Thus after being weU 
flogged and branded, the unfortunate criminal was 
drummed out of society, followed by hooting crowds,* 
who pelted him with stones and dirt. 

Por the mm'der of a child, a woman was sentenced to 
the loss of one hand, and to expulsion with the same 
indignities as above. 

In cases of killing in a scufile, the custom of Great 
Tibet was to bind the homicide to the corpse, and at 
the end of twenty-four hours to cast the living and dead 
together into the river. I did not hear of this custom 
in Ladak ; but as commutation of punishment is almost 

* The expression used by my informant was ho-ho, that is, the man 
was Jio-ho-ed, or hooted. The brand of a dog was also used iu Kashmir 
as a mark of disgrace at least nine hundred years ago. In the Haja 
Taringini it is related that Eeja Saugrame, in A.D. 948, punished the 
Brahman Chakramela by marking his forehead with the " paw of a dog" 
{Swapddena) . 



264 LADAK. 

always procvirable for money, it is probable that the 
sentence of the law may have been death, although in 
practice the culprit was permitted to compromise by 
stripes, imprisonment, and fine. Such a course was in 
strict keeping with the precepts of their religion, which 
is averse to the taking of any animal life. 

The two modes of capital punishment were clroioning 
and crucifixion. In the former the culprit was bound 
hand and foot, and thrown into the Indus with a stone 
fastened to his neck.* In the latter mode the criminal 
was conducted to the Songsa, or " place of execution," 
by the Shetma, or " executioner." The Sal-sh'mg,-\ or 
" crucifix," was a St. Andrew's cross fixed to an upright 
stake. The culprit was stripped naked ; his hands and 
feet were bound to the extremities of the cross, while his 
head was secured to the vipright stake by his own hair. 
In this position he was either quickly tortured to death 
by boiling oil, or was slowly allowed to expire under all 
the agonies of thirst and physical suffering. It is worthy 
of notice that in both of these modes of capital punish- 
ment, the shedding of blood was studiously shunned ; for 
the sentence of crucifixion was carried out by hlnding, 
instead of nailing, the criminal to the cross. I presume, 
therefore, that there must have been some religious re- 
pugnance to putting a culprit to death by any mode that 
involved the shedding of blood. Mutilation of one or of 
both hands was, however, occasionally employed. 



* Fea Oeazio, p. 291. The same punishment was carried into effect 
in the same manner in Great Tibet. The culprit was " getta al flume 
con un gran sasso al collo." 

t gSal-sliing, " clear wood." For what reason such a name was given 
to the stake, it would perhaps be difficult to discover. Perhaps it was 
intended for the tree tliat cleanses from guilt. 



ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE. 266 

For Tlieft and other crimes, the punishment (chkad- 
jm) was threefold : 1st. Li'is-chhad, that is, " corporal 
pmiishment," or stripes ; 2nd. Nor-chhad, " property- 
punishment," or fine, which was nearly always taken in 
goods at a ruinous valuation ; 3rd. Tson-chhad, " prison- 
punishment," or imprisonment. 

The corporal punishment was the same for man and 
woman. The culprit was placed full-length on the 
ground, and received the awarded numher of stripes on 
the bare posteriors. This punishment, however, could 
always be avoided by the payment of a commensurate 
fine. The punishment by fine was always enforced, 
except in cases of poverty and absolute inability ; but 
the culprits were made to pay in person by a double 
amount of stripes for what they were unable to pay in 
money or in goods. 

In cases of imprisonment the culprits were confined 
in the Tson-khang, or jail, secured with fetters {skrog), 
and superintended by the Tson-dsi, or jaUer. Theo- 
retically food was allowed during the term of imprison- 
ment ; but practically, both in the provinces and in the 
capital, the prisoners' friends were obliged to supply 
food to save them from starvation. 

In cases of conmaon theft, the stolen property, if 
recovered, was restored to its owner, and a fine, equal in 
value to the amount of the stolen goods, was levied on 
the thief for the benefit of the state. If the property 
was not recovered, a double fine was levied, one half 
being given to the robbed party, and the other half to 
the government. This was the punishment for a first 
offence. For a second ofi'ence the sentence was loss of 
the left hand ; for a third offence, loss of the right hand ; 



266 LADAK. 

and for a fourth offence, death by drowning. These at 
least were the allotted punishments, and, with the ex- 
ception of the last, they were generally carried into effect 
in all cases of robbery of public property or of church 
goods. But in cases of private robbery the usual influ- 
ences had their weight. Near relationship might sway 
the judges to a milder sentence ; or a fair bribe, judi- 
ciously bestowed, might induce the chief Lama of the 
monastery of Hemis to interfere, by an appeal to the 
king's mercy, which it was unusual to refuse. A direct 
appeal could also be made to the king by the prisoner's 
relatives, on the presentation of an offering of four or 
five rupees, if the criminal was a poor man, or of fifty to 
a hundred rupees, if he was a rich man. 

For Adultery, where the woman was the guilty party, 
the paramour, as in Europe, was fined according to his 
means, or received an equivalent corporal punishment, 
while the husband had the option of taking back the 
woman, if he chose to do so. Or if he did not wish to 
keep her, he could retain her dowry. Wlien the hus- 
band was the guUty party, the wife could demand back 
her dowry. 

Common disputes, involving blows and abuse, were 
settled at once by fines and stripes. 

In doubtful cases, where the evidence was unsatisfac- 
tory, a decision was obtained either by casting lots, or 
by ordeal. In the latter case, the accused had either to 
draw a red-hot iron through his hand, or to take a stone 
out of a pot of boiling oil without injury. In Great 
Tibet both of these ordeals are practised ; but the latter 
is rendered much more complicated and difficult by the 
immersion of two stones, one black and the other white, 



ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE. 267 

in the boiling- oil.* The extraction of the wMte stone, 
with an uninjm-ed hand, is held as a complete proof 
of innocence; while the extraction of the black stone, 
with uninjm-ed hand, is equivalent to the Scotch verdict 
of " not proven," of which the accused receives the 
benefit. 

The foregoing is a concise account of the practical 
laws of Ladak under its native rvilers. Amongst a 
people who were averse to the taking of any animal life, 
the . sentence of death was but seldom enforced ; the 
last case of capital punishment, wliich was executed in 
184-5, being the only one during thirty years ; and I 
suspect that even this sentence would not have been 
carried into effect but for the stern and unbending firm- 
ness of Magna, the dogra thanadar of Le. The culprit 
was a blacksmith of Chachot, who had been repeatedly 
punished by imprisonment, fines, and stripes, for pilfer- 
ing the gilt leaves of books from the monasteries and the 
gilded pinnacles of the Chodtens, or mausolea. His last 
exploit was the entire removal of the copper-gilt pinna- 
cles from the Chodtens attached to the large monastery 
of Hemis. The thanadar was proof against aU appeals 
for mercy, chiefly, I believe, with a view to conciliate 
the religious brotherhood of Hemis, and partly as a 
stroke of policy in a newly-conquered country, to exhibit 
a marked example of unflinching firmness in the execu- 
tion of the law. As a Hindu, Magna Thanadar was 
quite indifferent in the matter of life or death. The 
unfortunate thief was therefore bound hand and foot, 

* Fea Oeazio, del Eegno del Thibet, p. 290. The Capuchin father 
declares that the Tibetans can save their hands from injury by the use 
of some secret art (si servono d'un certo secreto, o per arte magica). 



268 LADAK. 

and, with a stone fastened to his neck, was cast head- 
long into the Indus from the Chachot bridge. 

The laws of Ladak still contiuue in force under the 
rule of Maharaja Gulab Sing, with the single exception 
of death for the slaughter of kine. This punishment 
was early carried into effect in some eight or ten cases 
in the different districts of Ladak. In 1841 and 1842 
at Nuhra, Chachot, Le, and Nyimo, single individuals 
were put to death, and their bodies exposed on gibbets, 
by Jhandu, the thanadar of Le, for killing and eating 
kine. All these were Musulmans from Balti. In Dras, 
where all the population are Mahomedans, several were 
put to death by Gusami Thanadar for the same cause. 
The skeleton of the man gibbeted at Le, in 1841, was 
stiU nearly perfect in October 1847, when I saw it. 

IV.— EEVENUE. 

The chief sources of revenue in Ladak were a tax on 
property and a duty on merchandise. The tax, called 
Kliral, Thang, or Slid,* was levied on the dwellings and 
not on the lands ; for as the lands did not produce suffi- 
cient food for the sustenance of the people, the establish, 
ment of a land-tax would have been absurd. The mass 
of the people obtained their living l)y the transport of 
wool and other goods through their own country, to and 
from Yarkand and Kashmir. The duties, called Shogam, 
Avere imposed on merchandise, both imports and ex- 
ports, and the whole revenue thus obtained was called 
Thob-thang. 

The tax on houses was collected partly in kind, BriU 

* Khral, pronounced Thai in some districts, Thang, and dFya, the last 
being pronounced Sha or Cha. 



REVENUE. 269 

khral, and partly in money, Nnl-khral* The collectors, 
called Skai/ffHcljiftpOji transmitted their various quotas, 
at stated periods, to the Chag-dsot, or lord high trea- 
surer, at Le, where they were all deposited in the Ter- 
dsot,X or treasury. The poorer classes, who were unahle 
to pay either ia money or in kind, were obliged to pay 
by bodUy service as labourers. They were appropriately 
named Kanggro, or " foot-goers," that is, porters or 
labourers on foot, in contradistinction to the others, who 
were called Lagdon, or " hand-doers," that is, payers by 
hand. 

The duties were collected at the custom-houses (57w- 
gamgyina) by the Shogampas, or customs-officers ; and 
the tolls on the high-roads were taken by the Ldchanpas, 
or toU-gatherers. These duties were taken partly in kind 
and partly in money, and generally in equal portions. 
The gross annual collections usually averaged Rs. 18,000. 

The tax on houses was regulated according to their 
size. Eor a large or "full-sized" house {Khang-chhen) 
there was a charge of seven rupees ; for a middle-sized or 
" half-house," three and a half rupees ; and for a small 
or " quarter-house," one and three-quarter rupee. § 
Under the Gyalpo's rule there were reckoned 18,000 
paying houses, of which 

400 of large size paid Es. 7 each = Es. 2,800 

1,600 middle „ .3^ „ = 6,600 

16,000 smaU „ 1^ „ = 28,000 



18,000 houses paying Es. 36,400 



* hBru-khral, " corn-tax," and dNgul-kJiral, " money-tax." 

t dPya-sNgud-pa-po, pronounced as in the text, Shangudpapo. 

X gTer-mDsod, cakXeA ?t\s.o gTer-mTsong <m.(i rTsis-hhang. 

§ Khang-chhen, " house-large ;" the middle size were called Khang- 
phyed, " half-house," and the smallest size were named Phyedi-phyed, 
" half of half," or quarter. 



270 LADAK. 

Each house, therefore, paid a mean rate of two rupees 
per annum ; but, partly from various remissions of taxes, 
and partly from the inability of the poorer classes to 
pay, excepting by bodily service, the total amount of 
house-tax rarely exceeded Rs. 30,000. 

But besides the 18,000 paying houses, there were 
about 4,000 houses alienated for the support of the 
numerous monasteries, and about 1,000 for the main- 
tenance of the queen and the various members of the 
royal family. The Gyalpo also had his own villages, 
wliich contained about 1,000 houses more. The whole 
number of dweUings in Ladak was therefore about 
24,000. 

Under the Dogra rule, although the number of inha- 
bited dwellings has diminished, yet the number of paying 
houses is still about the same, as all the crown villages 
have been appropriated by the government. The assess- 
ment is, however, different, as a much greater number 
of houses have been taxed at the higher rates. I could 
not obtain any precise information as to the number of 
houses included under each rate ; but as the gross 
amount of collections was generally estimated at nearly 
Rs. 50,000, the following scale must be a close approxi- 
mation to the truth. The mean rate is two and a half 
rupees per house. 

1,000 houses of large size at Es. 7 each = Es. 7,000 

5,000 „ middle „ 3i „ = 17,500 

12,000 „ small „ 1% „ = 21,000 

18,000 houses paying Es. 45,500 

There were besides two other soui"ces of income wluch 
contributed to swell the revenue of the state ; namely, a 
tax on the brokers who transacted all commercial affairs 
between the different merchants both home and foreign; 



REVENUK. 271 

and the aunual amount of presents received from the 
various Kahlons, Lonpa^, Kliarpons, and other officers of 
government. The former generally amounted to nearly 
thirty-five kiiriis of silver, which, at Rs. 166 per kiiril, 
are equal to Rs. 5,700.* The value of the presents was 
usually about Rs. 5,000. 

The gross revenue of Ladak, collected from all sources 
under its native rulers, was as follows : 

House-tax Es. .30,000 

Customs 18,000 

Tax on brokers 5,700 

Presents or fees ... ... ... ... 5,000 



Es. 58,700 

to wliich must be added, — first, the amount alienated 
for the support of monasteries, or about P^s. 8,000, 
valuing each of the 4,000 houses at the average rate of 
two rupees each : secondly, the amount derived from the 
crown villages of about 2,000 houses, equal to Rs. 4,000 
more, or in all to Rs. 12,000. The total revenue was, 
therefore, Rs. 71,700, or about £7,000 sterling. 

Out of the gross collections made for government, one- 
half of the customs, and one-half of the tax on brokers, 
were the perquisites, or salary, of the Kahlon, or prime 
minister. The net amount received by the Gyaljjo was 
therefore just so much less than the above Rs. 58,700, 
or only R.s. 46,850 ; this, with the produce of the crown 
lands, amounted to nearly Rs. 49,000. But his actual 
income was nearly double this amount, for he was the 
chief trader in his own dominions ; and as all liis traflfic 
passed duty free through Ladak, he always realized 
between forty and fifty thousand rupees a year. His 

* Kuru is the Tarkandi name for the " ingot" of silver, which the 
Tibetans call Yam-bu. 



272 LADAK. 

average income from all sources thus amounted to about 
one lac of rupees, or nearly £10,000 per annum. In 
addition to his regular income, both public and private, 
the Gyalpo enjoyed the royal prerogative of drawing his 
food from those districts, which, possessing no chiefs of 
their own, were immediately dependent on the supreme 
government. He was supplied with corn and butter, 
wood and grass, for four months in the year, by Nubra ; 
for two months by Eukchu ; and for four months by 
Tangtse. Certain villages also supplied the royal table 
with apricots, apples, and grapes. 

The various charges defrayed by the state were few 
in number, and small in amount, as all the principal 
public officers had the privilege of trading duty free, 
while the inferior servants of government enjoyed vari- 
ous perquisites which were equivalent to salaries. The 
paid officers of the state were the Lonpo, or governor ; 
the Shakspon, or lord chief justice ; and the different 
Khrimj)ons, or magistrates of Le; besides the Kdkd 
Tddsi, or master of the horse, and the Chagdsot, or lord 
high treasurer. I could not ascertain the amount of 
their mdividual salaries, but the gross amount of civil 
charges was estimated at Rs. 20,000, or £2,000 per 
annum, and which I believe to be near the truth. The 
military charges were nothing, as each family or house 
was obliged to furnish one soldier whenever called upon 
to do so, and to feed him during his term of service. 

Under the present rule of Maharaja Gulab Sing, the 
revenue of Ladak may be estimated as foUows : 

Tax on houses . . ... ... . . Es. 45,500 



Customs . . . 
Tax on brokers 
Presents or fees 
Monastei'ips 



18,000 
5,700 
5,000 
6,300 

Es. 80.500 



REVENT'E. 273 

or about £8,000 sterling. The last item is the gross 
amount derived from a heavy tax which has been im- 
posed on all the ffonjnis, or monasteries, throughout the 
country. The sums paid by the different religious esta- 
blishments were thus stated to me — 



Jronastery 


of Hemis (with Hani 


e) . 


Es. noo 




Cliimra 




900 


„ 


Thigse 




.500 


„ 


Pitak 




.500 


„ 


Gawau 




900 


„ 


Lama Turru 




900 


Twenty-five smaller monasteries 


at Es. 60 each 


= 1,500 



Es. 6,300 
The charge incurred in the maharaja's government of 
Ladak, I found it impossible to ascertain with any 
degree of precision, as it was a delicate su.bject to make 
inquiries about. Prom various sources I could only 
learn that the country is divided into districts, over each 
of which is appointed a tlianadar on a small salary, 
varying fi'om Rs. 200 to Rs. 500 a month. There are 
five of these thanadars in Ladak, each independent of 
the others, and accountable only to the maliaraja him- 
self. The principal of them is Basti Ram, the tlianadar 
of Le, a shrewd and intelligent man, and a tried soldier. 
He is a native of Kashtwar, and was a petty officer 
under Zorawar Sing on the first invasion of Ladak. He 
was present at the surrender of Skardo, the capital of 
Balti ; and he was one of the few survivors of Zorawar 
Sing's unfortunate expedition into Great Tibet in the 
winter of 1841, A.D. His quickness and experience, 
combined with a frank and easy manner, seciu'ed him 
the confidence of the maharaja ; and after successfully 
ruling the district of Zanskar during a very turbulent 
period, he has now obtained one of the highest posts in 

T 



274 LADAK. 

the maharaja's service, in the governorship of Ladak 
Proper, of which the capital is Le. His personal salary 
is only Rs. 500 a month, hut he is permitted to trade on 
his own account to a limited extent; and his profits, 
together with the presents which he receives from mer- 
chants and others, amount to a very handsome income, 
which was estimated vaguely at Rs. 20,000 a year. But 
the maharaja liimself is the chief trader in his own 
dominions, more particularly in the two staple ai'ticles, 
the export of saffron, and the import of wool. I have 
therefore strong doubts whether Basti Ram can realize 
more than ten or twelve thousand rupees yearly. But 
even this sum, when added to his personal salary, vriU 
yield him a respectable income of Rs. 18,000, or nearly 
£1,800 a year. 

There are five thanadars, who are placed in the fol- 
lowing districts, over which they exercise military com- 
mand as well as civil authority. 1. Ladak ; 2. Zanskar ; 
3. Kargyil; 4. Dras; 5. Nubra. The salaries of these 
ofl&cers, at the average rate of about Rs. 300 a month, 
amount to Rs. 18,000 per annum. 

The number of troops garrisoned in Ladak was vari- 
ously stated to me by different individuals at from 600 
to 800 men ; of whom about 200 are stationed at L6, 
and in different parts of the district of Ladak Proper. 
The others are di\dded among the remaining disti'icts. 
At Le also there are thirty artillerymen with a battery 
of four guns. 

The military expenses were estimated at between 
thirty and forty thousand rupees a year ; and as the pay 
of the soldier is nominally five rupees a month, this sum 
(Rs. 30,000) would support a force of 600 men. But 
the men do not receive more than two or three rupees in 



MILITARY RESOURCES. 275 

cash, the remainder being made up to them by " billets " 
for food wherever they may be quartered. The cost of 
each soldier to the state was therefore generally esti- 
mated by the people at only four rupees a month. At 
tliis rate a body of 700 men could be supported for 
Rs. 33,600, which would be increased to Rs. 35,000 or 
Rs. 36,000 by the pay of the petty officers. 

The whole expenses of the government, both civil and 
military, therefore, amounted to between Rs. 50,000 and 
Rs. 60,000 ; thus leaving a surplus of about Rs. 25,000 
for transmission to the maharaja. This surplus was not 
however remitted in cash, but in goods, which consisted 
chiefly of wool from Chang-thang, and of cloths and tea 
fi'om Yarkand. 

v.— MILITAEY EESOURCES. 

In Ladak there Avas no regular army ; but every family 
or house throughout the country was obliged to furnish 
one ready-armed soldier at the call of the government. 
The Kahlons, Loiipos, and Gobas, also furnished quotas 
of from ten to four men each. At the last general 
mustering in 1834, the number of armed peasants, col- 
lected to oppose Zorawar Sing, amounted to 22,000. 
The same number is said to have been collected when 
the G-yalpo was at war Avith Ahmed Shah of Balti. 
Indeed it is scarcely possible that a greater number of 
" armed" men could have been collected, as each house 
throughout Ladak possessed only one weapon, and the 
number of houses was not more than 24,000. I have 
every reason to believe in the correctness of these 
numbers, as my information Avas derived from various 
sources ; from Jemadar Basti Ram, and other officers of 
T 2 



270 LADAK. 

the niaharaja, as well as from Lamas, Gobas, and Ma- 
liomedans of Ladak. The difference between the number 
of houses and that of the armed men actually collected 
together is only 2,000, a number so small that it may 
include all absentees from sickness and other causes, as 
well as all the guards required at Le and in the pro- 
vinces for the personal service of the Gyalpo, and for 
the security of the state treasure. 

On a call to arms, the soldiers (Makmi*) were told off 
for the cavah-y and infantry branches by the very simple 
process of selecting all those who had horses (or rather 
ponies) for the cavalry (TdliijJKngi), and leaving the re- 
mainder for the footmen, or infanti'y {Kangthaiiyipung) . 
Their arms were swords, matchlocks, and bows and 
arrows. Many had shields [Got), and some few had 
helmets (llog^). They were assembled by beat of drum 
(Thal-ngaW). 

The army {Fung, or Ilakpiiug^) was placed under the 
control of a Malqwn,** or commander-in-chief, who 
was either a member of the royal family, or one of the 
principal Kahlons. 

Other titles were conferred upon the different Kalilons 

* dMag-mi, pronounced Makmi, a " war-man," or " soldier," from 
dMag, battle. Compare the G-reek fiaxi] with the latter, and ^mxifiar 
with the former. 

t rTa-hi-dPung, from rTa, a " horse." 

X Go, a " shield," or any defensive armour. 

§ rMoff, a " head-piece," a " helmet." 

II liThab-rN'ga, a " war-drum." 

% dPung, or dMag-dPung ; the latter is also commonly contracted 
to dMung. 

** dMag-dPon, " battle-chief," or dMag-JiGo, "war-chief" Makpon 
is the family title of the Hasora chief. He must therefore be of Tibetan 
origin. It is curious that Go-Mag-go, which so much resembles Gog- 
Magos;, should mean " civil and militarv chiefs." 



MILITARY EESOUUCES. 277 

and Gohas, according to the numerical strength of the 
quotas furnished by their respective districts and villages. 
Thus the Kahlon Avho brought a few hundreds was dig- 
nified with the title oi Sto)i(j-pon,* " chief of a thousand," 
or colonel ; a wealthy Goba who could muster from 50 
to 100 men, was styled Gtjapon,^ " chief of a hundred," 
or captain ; while an inferior Goba who was attended by 
only four or five men, was called Clm-pon,X " chief of 
ten," or serjeant. 

The camp {Maggar^), which was pitched without any 
regularity, consisted almost entirely of black tents made 
of yak's hair. The Kahlons and some others had white 
blanket tents, but these were so few in number as not 
to affect the general sombre appearance of the camp. 
Wlien, however, the cooking commenced, and volumes 
of smoke began to issue from the open roofs of the tents, 
now ascending in fantastic curls, and now wliirling 
rapidly roimd and spreading a milky canopy over the 
black tents, the Boti camp wore a very picturesque 
appearance. Dm'ing the day little was heard but the 
busy hum of men preparing their food or cleaning their 
arms, but towards evening the whole air frequently rang 
with noisy brawls and angry squabbles, which gave but 
too comdncing a proof of the powerful influence of their 
favourite chang. 

All disputes in camp were settled at once by stripes 
or fine, according to the sentence of an assembly of 
officers, Avhose decisions were final. These assemblies 



* Stong-dPon, commander of one thousand, 
t h,rGi/a-ilPon, commander of one hundred. 
:|: hChu-dPon, commander of ten. 

§ dMar/sGar, a " military cauip," to distinguish it from the common 
encampment of the Nomads, sGar. 



278 LADAK. 

were exactly the same as our drum-head courts-martial ; 
and their sentences were accordingly termed Makkhr'mi/' 
or martial law. 

The soldiers were obliged to find their own food. 
Each man was therefore generally attended by another 
male member of his house or family, who carried the 
joint provisions on his back during the daily marches, 
while the soldier carried his arms. Occasionally they 
relieved one another. In case of a casualty also the 
state had a substitute at hand, while the family pre- 
served the arms and clothes, and (if he had one) the 
horse of the defunct, all of which Avould otherwise have 
been lost. 

Although these bodies of undisciplined militia were 
not deserving of the name of an army, yet they were 
generally strong enough to repel all attacks of their im- 
mediate neighbours of Balti, Kudok, and Chumurti, who 
were as poor and as unsoldierly as themselves ; while 
the great poverty of the country, and the extreme rigour 
of the climate, were sufficient to deter the eflfeminate 
Kashmiris from even thinking of such a project without 
a shudder. In fact, there is no record of any invasion 
of Ladak by the Kashmiris ; on the contrary, the Raja 
Taringini relates the entire conquest and occupation of 
Kashmir by the Boti Rinchana, or, as he is more com- 
monly called in Kashmir to this day, Ilataujo,f about 
the middle of the fourteenth century. Rinchana was 
the son of Bakhtdn Bhot ; that is, he was probably of 
the Yasan family, which still bears the title of Bakhto. 
Being driven from his native country, he naturally fled 

* dMag-khrims, " war-law." 

t Jo or Clio is the Tibetan mChliog, the common title of a chief 
iiinoncst the Boti Mahonicdans. 



MILITARY KESOUECES. 279 

to the Botis of the east, which will account for his 
entering Kashmir by Gagangir on the Dras road, as 
related in the Raja Taringini. 

The forts of Eastern Ladak were nearly all castellated 
monasteries, the defence of which was iatrusted to the 
unwarlike monks, assisted by a few of the armed pea- 
santry, who performed the duty by turns, under the 
command of one who was dignified with the title of 
Kharjjon, or governor.* In Western Ladak there were 
several castles belonging to petty chiefs, such as Paskyum 
and Soth, which were better calculated for defence. The 
monastic castles were mostly perched on high rocks 
quite destitute of water, and it was a part of the daily 
duty of the garrison to fetch water for the monks. Had 
any of these castles possessed a proper supply of water, 
their generally inaccessible positions would have rendered 
them safe against all common attacks. I have seen the 
monasteries of Hanle, Hemis, Thigse, She, Le, Pitak, 
Phyang, Bazgo, Lama Yiirru, Hesku, Kharbu, Thakshe, 
and Mull)il, as well as the ruined forts of Balukhar and 
Paskyum. The monasteries are all built on steep cliffs, 
more or less high, with stone walls coloured white and 
red, and surmounted with an endless number of small 
flags. They are generally difficult of access, and always 
picturesque. Perhaps the most remarkable is that of 
Thakshe, on the right bank of the Kanji river. It is 
perched on a lofty isolated cliff, bluff and overhanging 
on the north side, and with a precipitous slope of about 
65° on the south side. The only ascent is by a very steep 
pathway. 

* niKhar-dPon, " f'ort-cliief." A fort is also called rDsong, aud tlie 
governor rDsong-dPon. Every commandant of a castle, or military post, 
even if his garrison does not amount to more than four men, is digni- 
fied with the title of KJmrpon. 



280 LADAK. 

The fort of Paskyum, on the left bank of the Waka- 
chu, commanded the passage of the river, which is there 
unfordable. It stood about 100 feet high, on an alluvial 
flat, overhanging the river ; but it was easily taken by 
Zorawar Sing, and afterwards destroyed. The fort of 
Sod was held out by the Gyalpo in person for ten days ; 
but it was at last, after some loss, taken by assault, 
when it shared the same fate as Paskyum. 

The best " means of defence " possessed by Ladak 
consisted in the general inaccessibility of the country 
during one half of the year, when the passes were closed 
by snow ; and to the power of breaking down the 
bridges over the Indus, and other unfordable streams, 
during the summer. The latter was not, however, 
resorted to on Zorawar Sing's invasion, excepting in 
the solitary case of the bridge at Paskyum ; the de- 
struction of which, by the Banka Kahlon, delayed the 
advance of the invaders for one day. The reason 
assigned for not breaking down the Khallach bridge, 
over the Indus, was, because its destruction would have 
stopped the traffic with Kashmir during one entire 
season. But the traffic was vii'tually stopped by the 
war ; while the destruction of the bridge would have 
saved all the rich villages on the right bank of the 
Indus, as well as the capital itself, for a whole year. 
But the energetic Zorawar was marching rapidly on, 
while the listless Botis Avere debating ; and the bridge 
was passed, and the enemy had reached Bazgo, within 
twenty mUes of the capital, before the helpless Gyalpo 
had decided upon what to do. Decision was then too late, 
as there was no alternative bvit flight or submission. The 
first, although a virtual relinquishment of the country, 
would have been manly and honourable ; but the Gyalpo 



MILITARY RESOIIRCKS. 281 

chose the more humiliating alternative of actual sur- 
render. Such was the fate of a country which might 
have been saved by a hundred resolute soldiers at the 
bridge of Khallach. But the indolent votaries of an 
almost worn-out faith were no match for the more 
active and energetic worshippers of Mahadco and Par- 
bati. 

Under the government of Maharaja Gulab Sing, the 
country is held by a few garrisons of tolerably well- 
appointed infantry, who are quartered in the different 
forts erected by Zorawar Sing and his successors. The 
forts that I have seen are those of Le, Kargyil, and 
Dras, besides the bridge-head at Khallach. They are 
all built on the same kind of plan, and in similar 
situations on the banks of streams, that they might 
insure an unfailing supply of water, without which the 
strongest fort would be untenable. 

The new fort at L6 is built upon the open plain, and 
on the edge of the Le rivulet, at somewhat more than a 
mile to the south-west of the city. I saw it to great 
advantage on my visit, as the thanadar Basti Ram 
had kindly deputed his son to attend me. Everything, 
therefore, was prepared. The interior was trim and 
orderly ; the guns were clean and bright ; and the men 
were aH dressed in respectable uniforms, which appeared 
too new to have been much worn. The walls are built 
of huge sun-dried bricks, and are nearly thirty feet in 
height. In the interior the barracks, as well as the 
store-rooms, are built against the walls all round, and 
their flat roofs form the terre-plein of the ramparts. 
Each room is furnished with a door. The grms are four 
brass tlirec-pouuders, aU in good order, and well set up 
on substantial carriages. They arc manned by thirty 



282 LADAK. 

well-dressed artillerymen. Altogether I was as much 
pleased with the orderly appearance, as with the 
judicious situation, of this fort. 

The new fort of Kargy'd is situated on the left bank 
of the Suru river, immediately above the junction of the 
Wakd-chu. It is a square of about sixty yards, with 
round towers at the angles, and a square tower with a 
small outwork in the middle of the river-front. This 
work forms a difficult entrance, and at the same time 
insures a supply of water. The waUs are loopholed 
throughout, and the garrison can sweep the bridge over 
the Suru river with deadly effect. The position was 
admirably chosen, as it completely commands the high- 
road to and from Kashmir. 

The new fort of Dras is similar to those of Le and 
Kargyil. It is situated on the left bank of the Dras 
river, and commands the passage of the valley. 

The bridge-head of Klhallach is on the right bank of 
the Indus. It consists of a square loopholed tower, 
built of large sun-dried bricks, with an inclosure sur- 
rounded by a high loopholed waU. The garrison of 
twelve men is furnished from L6, and is relieved every 
three months. This work completely commands all 
approach to the bridge on each bank of the river. 

In my opinion, the measures which the maharaja has 
taken for the maintenance of his power in Ladak are 
judicious and effective. Many people grumble ; but 
the dissatisfaction is principally confined to the upper 
classes, who have lost all their power ; and to the 
Kashmiri Mahomedans, a despicable race, who are ever 
wishing for change, and who, if they were under the 
British to-morrow, would long for the Chinese on the 
next dav. To the lower classes the change of govern- 



POSTAL ESTABLISHMENT. 283 

ment has in some respects been a very decided benefit ; 
for although they may now pay directly a larger amount 
than formerly to the state, yet indirectly they pay a 
less sum, as there is now only one duty throughout the 
country, in place of the numerous charges which were 
formerly exacted by all the district Kahlons and petty 
Gyalj)os. They have also the advantage of excellent 
roads, which is a benefit duly appreciated by a people 
whose priucipal means of livelihood are derived from 
the transport of merchandise. For these good roads, as 
weU as for the almost complete extinction of theft, the 
Ladakis are indebted to the active zeal of Zorawar Sing 
and his successors. Such are some of the advantages 
which have resulted from the conquest of the country 
by an energetic people. 

VI.— POSTAL ESTABLISHMENT. 

The postal arrangements thi-oughout Ladak are 
simple and effective ; but the transmission is generally 
slow. The Goba of each village is bound to fm-nish a 
courier to carry the post from his own to the next 
village on the road. Along the high-roads the couriers 
are aU horsemen, Tdzampa* and the post is carried at 
the rate of from twenty to thu*ty-five miles a day. The 
former is the usual rate ; the latter is the express rate 
when any government business is urgent. Thus letters 
sent from Kashmir usually reach Le, a distance of 
220 mUes, in ten days ; but when the despatch is vu"gent, 
it generally reaches in six days. 

iUl ofiicers of government make use of the village 
couriers for the conveyance of orders or intelligence; 

* rTd-zam-pa, " horse-bridge." 



284 LADAK. 

but merchants always send special couriers of their own. 
The poorer classes have no correspondence ; and the 
limited intercommunications of the upper classes, 
amongst whom each family has generally one member 
in government employ, are all conveyed by the Ta- 
zampas. 



285 



XI.-P E P L E. 



I.— POPULATION. 

In A.D. 1822 Moorcroft* estimated the population of 
Ladak at about 165,000 persons, of whom he thought 
that not less than two-thirds were females. But Csoma 
de Kor6s,t who resided for some time in Zanskar, shortly 
after Moorcroft' s visit, says the people of Ladak con- 
sisted of 20,000 families. Now, by an accurate census 
of the two Botian districts of Lahul and of Spiti, it 
appears that the average number of persons in one 
family is 6 •?. As the different cUmates of these two 
districts exhibit the extremes of the Ladaki climate, the 
mean of the two may be taken as fairly representing the 
true number of persons in each house or family through- 
out Ladak. At this rate the 20,000 families of Csoma 
de Koros would amount to no more than 134,000 per- 
sons ; to whom must be added about 12,000 lamas and 
nuns, who dwell apart in the monasteries and convents ; 
thus making the whole population of Ladak (betAveen 
1820 and 1830) not more than 146,000 persons. But 
this estimate is certainly too low. 

The information which I obtained in 1847 was derived 
from various independent sources, all of which agreed 

* Travels, I. p. 320. 

t Journal As. Soc. Bengal, I. p. 121. Geographical notice of Tibet. 



286 LADAK. 

in stating that the total number of houses was formerly 
24,000, of which only 18,000 paid the house-tax. At 
the rate of 6" 7 persons per house, the lay population 
would have been 160,800, and the whole population 
172,800. But as the result of Moorcroft's inqviiries 
gave a rate of little more than six persons per house, 
a mean rate of about six persons and a half per house 
may be taken as the nearest approximation to the true 
rate. This rate wiU give a lay population of 156,000, 
and a total population of 168,000 persons. As this 
number agrees so nearly with Moorcroft's estimate, it 
may be assumed to be tolerably correct. 

In stating the number of professed religionists at 
12,000, I have been guided only by the vague state- 
ments of the people. Some asserted that the number 
of lamas and nuns formerly amounted to 20,000 ; but 
the more general reckoning was only ten or twelve 
thousand. The total amount of population (between 
1820 and 1830) was therefore most probably about 
165,000 persons, as estimated by Moorcroft. 

The correctness of this estimate seems to be borne 
out by the following statement. In 1834, when the 
Gyalpo called upon all the people to join in repelling the 
invasion of Zorawar Sing, he is said to have collected a 
body of 22,000 men. As the number of houses was 
24,000, and as each house was bound to furnish one 
soldier, the number of fighting men should have been 
24,000. But the difference is fuUy accounted for by the 
ascertained loss of 14,000 persons by smaU-pox just 
before the invasion; for as one-fourth of these must 
have been grown-up males, the number of soldiers 
collected ought not to have exceeded 21,500 ; and 
making allowances for illness and other causes, was 



POPULATION. 287 

probably not more than 20,000 men. The extra 
number would have been made up by the quotas of 
the different kahlons, lonpas, and gobas, who were 
obhg-cd to furnish from ten to foui* men each. 

Since Moorcroft's time, however, the population has 
veiy much decreased, partly owing to the ravages of 
disease, but chiefly to the destructive effects of war. In 
the summer of 1834 the small-pox broke out in Ladak 
with such fatal virulence that 14,000 persons,* or more 
than one-twelfth of the whole population, were carried 
off. Amongst a filthy people, who never wash, and who 
only change their garments when the cloth has rotted 
piecemeal off their persons, the mortal effect of such a 
contagious disease as small-pox cannot be Avondered at. 

But the ravages of disease were almost forgotten in 
the more deadly destructiveness of war and its attendant 
miseries. They who survived the small-pox had only 
to lament the sudden loss of near and dear relatives ; 
but they who escaped death in the war had also to 
bewail the pillage of theu' property and the destruction 
of their houses. By the wholesale plunder of the metal 
images belonging to the monasteries, the invaders gave 
a rude shock to the pious minds of the whole people, 
while they secured the bitter enmity of the lamas by an 
extensive resumption of monastic lands. 

Such was the effect of these severe and impolitic 
measures, that no less than three-fourths of the lamas, 

* About 10,000 died before the conquest. Dr. Henderson, who 
was then in Laddk, gave both physic and advice, but nothing availed 
to check the disease. Zorawar Sing is said to have vaccinated gi-eat 
numbers by force, of whom no less than 4,000 died. My informant 
was a Musalman who hated the present maharaja, and I doubt the truth 
of liis statement about the compulsory vaccination. 



288 LABAK. 

or about 9,000 persons, are said to have left their native 
land, and to have found refuge in the numerous monas- 
teries of Great Tibet. 

During the wars from 1834 to the close of 1841, it is 
said that about 15,000 Ladakis perished, and that about 
1,000 (who were chiefly Musalmans) emigrated to Balti 
and the neighbouring districts. Of the 4,000 Ladakis 
who accompanied Zorawar Sing on his inroad into the 
Lhasan territory, it is well known that nearly the whole 
perished in the snow. A few made their way back to 
Ladak ; and some four or five hundred, who were made 
prisoners, are said to be most strictly confined at Lhasa. 

In 1847 I found, by a census of 1,890 houses, that the 
average number of persons per house was 4-147 ; but as 
a very considerable nvmiber of people were absent from 
their homes, the true rate per house could not have been 
less than five persons, or about the same as that of the 
district of Spiti, wliich I ascertained to be 5 -3 persons 
per house. The number of inhabited houses is said to 
be 23,000, which at this rate, and allowing the present 
number of lamas and nuns to be only 3,000, will make 
the total amount of the population 124,900, or in round 
numbers, 125,000 persons. The decrease in the popula- 
tion, since Moorcroft's time, is, therefore, not less than 
40,000 persons. The causes of this decrease are the 
following : — 

Persons. 

Carried off by small-pox in 1834 14,000 

Lamas emigrated ... ... ... ... ... 9,000 

Perished during the wars ... .. ... ... 15,000 

Emigrated (chiefly Musalmans) . . ... . . 1,000 



Total decrease 40,000 

Moorcroft's census ... ... ... 165,000 



Present census ... ... ... ... 125,000 



POPULATION. 



289 



Including Spiti and Lahul, the present population is 
therefore not more than 4'333 persons per square mile. 

The census of the two districts of Spiti and Ldhul is 
as follows : — 



Spiti .. 
Lahul . . 

Total .. 


VU- 


Honses. 


Males. 


Females. 


Total 
Persons 


Persons 

per 
House. 


Houses 
per 

ViUage. 






Men. 


Boys. Total. 


Women 


Girls. Total. 


38 
43 

81 


262 
594 


460 
1,033 


226 
1,470 


686 
2,503 


503 
1,389 


218 
945 


721 
2,334 


1,407 
4,837 


5-3 

8-1 


6-9 
13-8 


856 






3,189 






3,055 


6,244 


6-7 


10-8 



Neither of these districts is so well peopled as Ladak, 
the numher of persons per square mUe being 2"58 in 
Lahul and only "608 in the barren and rocky Spiti. 

In 1847 I made a census of most of the villages along 
my route through Ladak, which embraced about one- 
twelfth part of the whole country. 

The following table shows the relative numbers of 
males and females in the Buddhist country of Ladak, 
compared with the same in the various Musahnan 
districts on the Indus. 



Ladik . . 
Balti, &c. 


Vil- 
lages 


Houses. 


Males. 


Females. 


Total 
Persons 


Persons 

per 
House. 


Houses 

per 
Village. 


Men. 


Boys. 


Total. 


Women 


Girls. 


Total. 


142 
158 


1,890 
6,406 






3,646 
13,662 






4,192 
13,387 


7,838 
23,394 


4-147 
4-235 


13-3 
34-4 








17,308 






17,579 




4-181 


23-85 



In the Buddhist coimtry it wiU be observed that the 
females outnumber the males, while the reverse is the 
case in the Musalman districts along the Indus. This 
is just what might have been expected from the different 
habits of the people. The Musabnani girl is married at 
ten or twelve years of age, and becomes a mother before 
she has acquired either the strength or statm-e of a 
u 



290 LADAK. 

woman ; while the Ladaki girl is rarely married before 
she is about seventeen or eighteen years of age. The 
advantage of this practice is best appreciated by a 
reference to the tables of longevity, which show that for 
every Balti woman who reaches the patriarchal age of 
threescore years and ten, there are no less than three 
Ladaki septagenarian ladies. That this diflPerence is not 
due to the climate, or to particular customs which 
might affect both sexes, is further shown by the same 
tables ; from which we learn that for every Balti man 
who reaches seventy years of age there are only two 
Ladakis. The difference must therefore be due to some 
cause which affects the women only ; and this cause I 
presume to be the very early marriages of the Musal- 
mani females. 

II.— OEIGIN. 

The BotiSj or Bhotiyas,* are usually considered as a 
distinct race of people, chiefly I believe on account of 
their peculiar language. But this peculiarity must have 
been partly produced by their isolated position, and 
partly by the few wants of a poor people ; as both of 
these causes must have operated against the introduction 
and naturalization of foreign words. Regarding their 
origin, therefore, nothing but a conjecture can be 
hazarded. Judging from their language and features, 
which have much in common with those of the Chinese, 
the Botis must be pronounced to be an offshoot of the 
great Mongolian race ; and aU differences, both physical 

* THiotiya is the HiBdu name. Tlie Tibetans call themselves Botpa, 
Sod-pa. The name is most probably derived from their profession of 
Buddhism, Buuddha being the designation of a Buddhist. 



PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION. 291 

and moral, may be easily accounted for by the severe 
cold and extreme dryness of the Tibetan climate, and by 
the former intimate connection of the people mth the 
Caucasian Hindus of India for many centuries dimng 
the fioimshing period of Buddhism. 

The great mass of the people of Ladak are all of one 
race or caste. They intermarry and eat together, and 
are all eligible as members of the national priesthood. 
But in the northern provinces of Ladak there is a 
numerous class called Bern,* or " low," which includes 
aU the dancing-women and their attendant musicians, 
all smiths and carpenters, and in fact handicraftsmen of 
every kind. In Le itself, and in Chachot, there are 
small colonies of Kashmiris, whose connection with the 
native Botis has produced a mixed race called Ai'gon.f 
These same hybrids between the Kashmiris and the 
native races are also found in Kashgar, Yarkand, Aksu, 
and Kotan. 

III.— PHYSICAL DESCEIPTION. 

Of the physical characteristics of the Botis, little has 
been made known beyond the facts that they have " a 
strongly-marked Tartarian or Mongolian countenance, 
and that they are superior both in vigour of body and in 
stature to the other Mongolian races of Kalmaks and 
Tungiisis."! Their peculiarly Tartarian physiognomy 
must be considered as a presumptive proof of their 

* The men are called hBems-pa ; the womeu liBems-mo, or Bem-mo. 

t This is probably the Turki word Arghun, ^J^j\, "fair;" the mixed 
race of half Kashmiris being much fairer than the people of the 
country. 

X Prichard, Natural History of Man, p. 217 

TJ 2 



292 LADAK. 

Mongolian origin. Their superiority in bodily strength 
is perhaps owing partly to the bracing climate of their 
elevated country, and partly to the former infusion of 
Hindu blood. I have had practical proof of this 
superiority amongst the Botis of Lahul, Kanawar, and 
Spiti. In 1846 the short Lahuli women carried with the 
greatest ease, day after day, the roof of my tent, which the 
taller and finer-looking men of Kullu and Simla refused 
on account of its weight. Again iu 1847 the Kanawari 
and Spiti women carried loads at which the pampered 
Simla coolis had grumbled. I have repeatedly seen a box 
weighing sixty pounds carried by girls of sixteen and 
eighteen years of age over the high passes of Kanawar. 

Regarding their alleged superiority of stature I am 
rather sceptical. But as no detailed accounts of the 
average heights of the different Mongolian races are 
accessible to me, I can only quote the statement of 
Pallas, that the Kalmaks are " generally of a moderate 
height," and " rather small than large." The following 
table shows the stature of the Boti race in different 
parts of Ladak and Balti, according to the average 
measurements of from five to seven persons of each sex 
in many different villages, always including the tallest 
and shortest men and women that could be found. 



TABLE OF STATURE. 



Districts. 


Men. 


Women. 


Landlords. 


TaUest. 


Shortest. 


Average TaUest. 


Sliortest. 


Average. 


TaUest. 


Shortest. 


Av 


. , Eukchu 

.2 1 Spiti 

:§ '' Nubra 

W iLadak 

Average 


ft. in. 
5 1-5 
5 6-5 
5 7-0 
5 5-0 


ft. in. 

5 0-0 
5 0-0 
5 4-0 
4 10-0 


ft. in. 
5 0-9 
5 2-4 
5 2-7 
5 1-4 


ft. in. 
5 0-0 

5 2-5 

4 7-0 

5 4-0 


ft. in. 

4 1-0 
4 1-0 
4 0-0 
4 1-0 


ft. in. 

4 8-2 
4 8-9 
4 9-8 
4 10-1 


ft. in. 
5 3-0 

5 7-5 

5 9-0 


ft. in. 
5 1-0 
5 4-0 

5 2-0 


ft 
5 
5 

5 






5 1-8 






4 9-2 






5 



PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION. 



293 





Districts. 


Men. 


Women. 


Landlords. 


TaUest. 


Shortest. 


Average 


TaUest. 


Shortest. 


Average. 


TaUest. 


Shortest. 


Average 


■ 


Chhorbad 

Khapolor 

Keris 

Parguta 

Skardo 

Shigar 

I Rongdo 


ft. in. 
5 8-0 
5 7-0 
5 5-0 
5 9-0 
5 11-0 
5 5-0 
5 7-0 


ft. in. 
i 8-0 

4 6-0 

5 0-0 
4 10-0 
4 9-0 
4 4-0 
4 9-0 


ft. in. 
5 0-9 
5 0-7 
5 2-9 
5 3-5 
5 2-3 
5 0-4 
5 2-1 


ft. in. 
5 0-0 
5 2-0 

4 11-0 

5 4-0 
5 0-0 

4 11-0 

5 0-0 


ft. in. 
4 4-0 
4 2-0 
4 8-0 
4 4-0 
4 6-0 
4 8-0 

4 7-0 


ft. in. 
4 9-3 
4 9-1 
4 10 '6 
4 8 -5 
4 9-7 
4 9-4 
4 9-7 


ft. in. 


ft. in. 


ft. in. 


Average 






5 1-8 






4 9-5 






Average of Botis 






5 1-8 






4 9-35 








( Upper Kanawar 

■g < Middle Kanawar 

( Lower Kanawar 


5 6-0 
5 6-0 
5 9-2 


4 11 '0 
4 9-0 
4 11-0 


5 1-9 
5 2-0 

5 4-1 


5 1-5 
5 5-0 

5 6-0 


4 4-5 
4 9-0 
4 10-0 


4 9-0 

4 11-1 

5 1-2 


5 8-0 
5 8-0 
5 7-0 


5 4-0 
5 0-0 
5 7-0 


5 5-9 
5 5-3 
5 7-0 




Average 






5 2-0 




|4 9-7 




5 6-1 



In this table the effect of the admixture of Hindu 
blood wiU be seen at once in the superior stature of the 
people of Lower Kanawar.* Those of Middle Kanawar 
also occasionally intermarry with the Hindus ; for I 
found a woman, named Charanu, a native of Sarahan, 
near Hampur, who was wedded to two husbands in the 
village of Kala, opposite Labrang, in Middle Kanawar. 
In fact the people of Kanawar generally are called 
Kanets, a name which is said to designate a people of 
mixed race. The proper name of the country is therefore 
most probably Karandwara, the country of Karanas, or 
people of mixed race, a name usually applied to the 
offspring of a degraded Khsatriya and a Khsatriya 

* The Botis are shorter than the Kirghiz of Wakhan and Pamer 
who were measured by Wood. — Oxus, pp. 338 — 372. 

TaUest. Shortest. Average. 

Men 5 5 5 .. 5 2 . 5 3 2 

Do 5 7-2 ... 5 1-7 .. 5 4 5 



Mean 



5 3-85 



294 LADAK. 

female. The same name is applied by Marco Polo to 
another mixture of the same races — Tartars and Indians. 
There are indeed Kanets in other parts of the Hima- 
layas, but only in those districts which border upon 
Ladak ; as in Bisahar, Kullu, Chamba, and Kashtwar. 

The average stature of the Botis of Ladak appears to 
me to be very short indeed when compared with that of 
then* Hindu and Chinese neighbours ; but that this is 
chiefly, if not wholly, the effect of poor food and of 
privation of all kinds, is proved by the average stature of 
the landlords, or head men, of the different villages. 
These never carry burdens on theu' backs, are better fed, 
and better clothed ; and (when they travel) usually ride 
from one place to another, instead of toUing up and 
down the steep and rugged passes of their native moun- 
tains. This shows the beneficial effect of wholesome 
food and of comparative comfort even in the most 
rigorous climate. 

The stature of the women seems to be particularly 
low. This is not, however, shown in the averages, which 
exhibit a difference of only four inches between the men 
and the women. But the number of very short women 
is much greater than that of very short men. In Ladak 
I saw only six men that were under five feet in height ; 
of whom two were fovir feet eleven inches ; three were 
four feet ten inches ; and one was only four feet nine 
inches. Amongst the women of Ladak, however, I saw 
no less than ten that were under four feet five in height. 
Of these, one was four feet four and a half ; two w ere 
four feet four ; one was four feet three ; two were four 
feet two ; one of forty years of age was four feet one and 
a half ; and three were only four feet one inch in height. 
I am unable to say positively what may be the cause of 



PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION. 296 

the great number of very short women ; but I am 
inclined to attribute it partly to the system of polyandry 
which prevails among them. This system is, I believe, 
almost universal amongst the mixed race of Kanetis 
throughout Kanawar and the other Kaneti districts, but 
as far as I could learn it is not so prevalent amongst the 
pure Botis of Ladak. The custom has therefore most 
probably been borrowed from the polyandrous Hindu 
race of Himalayan Kshatriyas, amongst whom it has 
been preserved for at least twenty-five centuries, since 
the Pandavan brothers jointly espoused the princess 
Draupadi. 

The great differences observable in the stature of the 
Musalman races of Shigar on the north and of Skardo 
on the south, must no doubt be attributed to the mix- 
ture of other races ; of the diminutive Kirghiz of Pamer 
with the first, and of the tall Kashmiri with the second. 
The people of Shigar were once, I believe, pure Kirghiz. 

In general the Botis have short, squat, stout figures, 
■ndth broad, flat, ugly faces ; but occasionally amongst 
the better classes I have seen both men and women who 
were well made and well featm-ed, and mth a fine rosy 
colour in their cheeks. Indeed, I have even seen a few 
of the women that were really handsome, with good 
regular features and fine figm'es. But in general they 
are all, both men and women, not only ugly but 
hideous, and more especially the old women. Dr. 
Gerard's amusiug description of these people is too 
graphic to be omitted.* " In figure they are stout, 
waddling, and dumpy ; * * * in face they are not 
beautiful, even when young ; when past their climacteric, 
very unseemly ; and when old, a picture of horrid ugli- 

* Asiatic Researches, XVIII. p. 249. 



296 LADAK. 

ness. Not regardless of the aid of artificial charms, 
their hair, glistening with rancid oil, hangs loosely 
round their sunburnt necks» Sometimes it is woven 
into tresses which braid the contour of the face ; but it 
is commonly unregarded, and blows out La the wind, 
giving them a shaggy appearance like wild beasts." 
Gerard's travels were confined to the southern districts 
of Lahul, Spiti, and Rukchu ; in which the climate is 
much more rigorous than in the districts along the 
Indus, where apples, grapes, and walnuts are cultivated 
with success ; and where alone I saw the fine-looking 
women mentioned above. 

The face of the Boti is broad, flat, and square, with 
high cheek-bones, large mouth, and narrow forehead. 
The nose is broad and flat, and generally much turned 
uj), with wide nostrils, and with little or no bridge. The 
eyes are small and narrow, and the upper eyelids ixsuaUy 
have a peculiar and angular form that is especially ugly^ 
The eyes are nearly always black ; but brown, and even 
blue eyes, are seen occasionally. The inner corners are 
drawn downwards, by the tension of the skin over the 
large cheek-bones ; the eyelids are therefore not in one 
straight line, parallel to the mouth, as is the case with 
Europeans, but their lines meet in a highly obtuse 
angle pointing downwards. This gives an appearance of 
obliquity to the eyes themselves that is very disagreeable. 
The ears are prominent, very large, and very thick. 
They have also particularly long lobes, and are altogether 
about one-haK larger than those of Europeans. The 
mouth is large, with full and somewhat prominent lips. 
The hair is black, coarse, and tliick, and usually straight 
and crisp. Bushy heads of hair are sometimes seen, but 
I believe that the frizzly appearance is not due even in 



flat 



)f LA DAK , Hanle 




Fac Ang. 80 



ifizn^hx^n.. del 



J'ati'tSanXtA.''^nie Queen, 



Settled BOT I of LADAK>,Le 




Fac. Ang. 6 



lar: Cap.72"7 c*^!^ 



A.Cu^fuc^/tjim del 



DaytSon,Zilf'^toriie(( 



PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION. 297 

part to any natural tendency to curl, but solely to the 
tangled and thickly agglomerated matting of the hair, 
consequent upon its never having been combed or 
washed from first to second childhood. 

In the accompanying plates* I have exhibited four 
different views of two Botian skulls which I procured at 
Hanle and at Le. The first is a specimen of the 
nomadic dwellers in tents, the second of the settled 
inhabitants of houses. There is a considerable difference 
in the shapes of these two skulls, but I believe that 
the Le specimen is a departure from the usual type ; 
its elongated form being most probably due to some 
malformation at the time of birth. This is I think 
fully proved by the continuation of the longitudinal 
suture from the top of the cranium down to the nose. 
As a second skull from Le, which I have in my posses- 
sion, resembles very closely that of the nomadic Boti of 
Hanle, this cranium may be taken as a very good 
specimen of the Ladaki type of Boti. 

The characteristics of this type are almost the same 
as those of the Mongolian. The more strikiiig are a 
round and globular shape of cranium, and a great 
lateral extension of the zygomatic arches, coupled with 
a narrow forehead, which gives what Prichard has 
called a pyramidal form to the front view of the skull ; 
that is, if lines be drawn from the outside of the cheek- 
bones touching the temples, they wUl meet in a point at 
a short distance above the head. This form is quite 
different from that of the European skull, in which the 
width of the forehead is often greater (but I believe 
never less) than that of the cheek-bones. In other 
respects these Boti skuUs appear to resemble very closely 

* Plates X. and XI. 



298 



LADAK. 



those of the civilized Chinese. Indeed, if the statements 
of their own historians* are to be credited,'^that the 
Chinese originally came from the Shensi forests of the 
frontiers of Tibet, we can scarcely come to any other 
conclusion than that they were originally of the same 
stock as the people of Tibet, or in other words, that they 
were actually Botis. The Mongolian origin of the Chinese 
and of the Botis is, I believe, universally admitted ; and 
I would attribute the differences between them and the 
present nomadic Mongols partly to the early civilization 
of the Botian race, and partly to the admixture of 
Hindu blood. The form of the skulls in my possession, 
and more particularly of the frontal bone, also shows a 
considerable affinity to the Hindu race. In corrobora- 
tion of this view, I am happy to quote the opinion of 
M. D'Halley,t who says, " Peut-etre que les Bhots 
sont des Hindus modifies par leur melange avec des 
Mongols." 

The following table exhibits the facial angle, the 
cranial capacity, and the present weight of the four 
Botian skulls, three of which are in my possession. 



Skulls. 


Facial angle. 


Cranial capacity. 


Weight. 






Cubic in. 


lb. oz. 


No. 1 from Hanle 


80° 


74-5 


1 4-44 


2 „ Le 


GS" 


72-7 


1 6-44 


3 „ Le 


73" 


70-0 


1 7-46 


4 „ Balti 


75° 


72 


1 2-40 


74° 


72-3 


1 5-18 



The facial angle in these specimens ranges from 68° 

* Pricliard, N.atural History of Man, p. 227. 
t Des Eaces Humainea, p. 128, note. 



PHYSICAL BESCRIPTION. 299 

to 80°; but as there is good reason for supposing that 
the skull which yields the lower number has been a 
malformation, I would deduce the mean facial angle 
from the other three skulls, wliich agree with each 
other in general appearance. This would fix the facial 
angle of the Botis at 70°, which is somewhat less than 
the Em?opean average of 80°, but at the same time it is 
a considerable improvement upon the Mongolian and 
Kalmuk average of 70°. That some individuals may 
occasionally approach the Caucasian standard, we have 
an example in the cranium of the nomadic Boti of Hanle, 
which has a facial angle of 80°. 

The amount of the cranial capacity is another dis- 
tiaguishing characteristic of different races. In this 
respect the Botis arc i*emarkably deficient, but perhaps 
not more so than might be expected from the small svze 
of the race generally. Taking the average height of 
Europeans at five feet and a half, and the average capa- 
city of their skulls at eighty-eight cubic inches, then the 
cranial capacity of a Boti five feet in height should be 
ten-elevenths of the other, or eighty cubic inches. But 
the average of the three Botian skulls in my possession 
falls much below tliis number ; that of the most 
capacious being only seventy-four cubic inches and a 
half. 

The three Botian skulls now described agree very 
closely, in their respective weights, with that of a 
Chinese, recorded by Prichard, which weighed 1 lb. 7^ oz. 
Had the teeth been perfect, the agreement would have 
been still more close : for No. 1 has but half a tooth ; 
No. 2 has only three teeth, while No. 3 has twelve teeth. 

The true average would therefore most probably range 



300 LADAK. 

from 1 lb. 7 oz. to 1 lb. 8 oz. These skuUs are aU thin 
and smooth, and of compact texture, excepting only the 
jaws, which aj)pear to me to be rather massive for the 
size of the head. 

Of the configuration of the Boti skeleton, I can give 
but little positive information. The shoulders are 
square and broad, and the trunk is rather long in 
proportion to the statiu'e. I obtaiued the pelvis* 
belonging to No. 1 cranium, which has a longitudinal 
axis of 3*75 inches, and a transverse axis of 3"6 inches, 
with a form inclining to the square. According to 
Professor Weber, as quoted by Prichard, this shape 
prevails generally amongst people who resemble the 
Mongolians. 

The Botian tribe would, therefore, seem to possess the 
same physical characteristics, both in outward form and 
in their bony structure, as those which distingidsh the 
Mongolian race generally, with only some slight modifi- 
cations, which are most probably due to their con- 
nection and occasional mixture with the Caucasian race 
of India. 

For the sake of comparison I have given sketches of 
two Kashmirian skulls, f one male and one female, 
which I procured in the city of Kashmir. The dif- 
ferences are very striking ; but more particularly the 
oval shape of the skull, the flattened form of the 
zygomatic arches, and the narrowness of the jaws ; aU of 
which peculiarities are characteristic of the Caucasian 
race. The measurements of my Kashmii'i skulls are as 
foUows : — 

* See Plate XII. f Plates XIII. and XIV. 



PliUeXn 



Pelvis from Hanle 





Tke J AO of Ladak ' G^ 




Cunn.i'u/fLa'K del 



Y ^SorvJ^u^^'' t^ThaQueen 



naCcXUJ 



Male KASAofKASHMIR City 




Fac:Ang73 5 



J^a.yi.SonlttVI'wThe Oae^n. 



Temaie K ASA of KASH M IR Citv 




Cxaii: Cap: c"? i n . 



A CiiTtTtz^hamy. ^Let- 



-Day I Sm-JneC^to The(^iieen. 



PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION. 



301 



Male 


Facial angle. 


Cranial capacity. 


Weight. 


73-5° 


97 


lb. oz. 

1 14 -4* 


1st Female 

2nd Female 

Average Female 


8.5° 
84° 


Cubic in. 
68 
67-5 


1 5-2 


84-5° 


67-75 





liONGEVITT. 

One of the most interesting subjects of inquiry wliicTi 
I pursued daUy in Ladak was the extreme ages attained 
by the oldest people in all the villages in my route. To 
test the value of the information thus collected, I have 
added to the following table the number of persons per 
cent, of each sex who reach the respective ages of 
seventy, eighty, and ninety years throughout the whole 
of Great Britain. The table requires little explanation. 
The fii'st and second columns give the actual number of 
males and females in the several villages where the ages 
of the people were ascertained. It is necessary that 
this should be stated, as it will at once account for the 
great per-centage of females in Kixkchu who had passed 
the patriarchal age of seventy. The number is 2'45 per 
cent., or three out of 122. But the general average is 
stiU much below that of Britain ; and I feel satisfied that 
the whole table gives a very fair approximation to the 
truth. I have added a column showing the duration of 
life in Balti and the small Musalman states on the 



* This very large skull vrants the lower jaw, and has only three teeth 
in the upper jaw ; but the bone of the skull averages about one quarter 
of an inch in thickness. The whole weight, if complete, would bo 
nearly 2i lb. 



302 LADAK. 

Indus. The differences between this and the average of 
the Ladakis can only be accounted for by the general 
dissoluteness of all Musalmans, and the consequent 
spread of loathsome and fatal diseases. 

TABLE OF LONGEVITY PEE, CENT. 



Rukchu 


Numbers. 


70 to 80. 


80 to 90. 


90 to 100. 


Males. 


Females. 


Males. 


Females. 


Males. 


Females. 


Males. 


Females. 


113 


122 


-880 


2-459 


0-880 


0-820 


— 


— 


Spiti 


686 


751 


1-157 


1-164 


0-291 


0-693 


— 


— 


Ladak 


1,342 


1,492 


0-745 


0-670 


0-447 


0-268 


0-074 


— 


Purik 


867 


883 


1-268 


0-905 


0-807 


0-792 


0-115 


0-113 


Nubra 

Average .... 

Balti, &c 

Great Britain 


788 


1,030 


1-269 


2-336 


0-507 


0-777 


0-127 


0-194 


3,796 


4,278 


1-064 


1-507 


0-586 


0-670 


0-063 


0-061 


13,662 


13,387 


0-537| 0-527 


0-184 


0-175 


0-070 


0-022 


1 


2 -2181 2-401 


0-700 


0-756 


0-059 


0-074 



I heard of only one person who was more than 100 
years of age. She was an old nun of Sakte, in the 
Chimra valley, whose sons were seventy and eighty 
years old. She was said to be 110 years of age. I had 
no means of ascertaining the rate of mortality ; but diffe- 
rent people stated the annual number of deaths at Le at 
from twenty-five to fifty, or about forty persons. As 
the population of the capital is nearly 4,000 persons, the 
annual mortality will be rather more than one per cent. 
The population of the country, except in times of war 
or disease, remains nearly stationary ; but this is not 
owing to any unhealthiness of climate, but to the system 
of polyandry, which most effectually checks any increase. 
In 1822 the number of houses in Spiti was 267,* and in 
1847 the number was 262. 



* Trebeck in Moorcroft, II. p. 71. 









""X ^«'A^ 1 






1%: ^^'^ i 




^ I 




i 



"^g -=>• Cliang-jok. 

Men ;f PIN in S P I T I . 



303 



IV.— DEESS. 



The men of Laclak wear a cloak* of woollen, thick 
and warm. It is usually white, or rather it has once 
been white ; for as the people only wash themselves 
once a year, and never wash their clothes, their cloaks 
are always of a dirty hue. Round their legs, from knee 
to ankle, they have coarse woollen leggingsf (of felt), 
fitting tightly, or else wrapped close round the leg and 
secured by a garter, J which is wound spkally round the 
leg from the ankle upwards. The garter is generally 
black, but sometimes red. On their heads they wear 
either quilted skull-caps, as filthy as their cloaks, or 
caps of sheep-skin with the wool inside, and with a large 
flap behind, which covers the back of the neck as well as 
the ears. Those in better circumstances have fur caps of 
the same shape. Their boots are of felt, with soles of 
sheep or goat-skin, which are turned up all round and 
sewn to the felt. The upper part of the felt boot is 
open to the front, and is allowed to faU over, something 
in the manner of the boots worn in England in 
Charles II. 's tune. The lamas have red boots, and the 
others mostly have theirs ornamented with small bits of 
coloured cloth in the front. § 

The Ladaki women wear a black woollen jacket with 
a large striped woollen petticoat of many colours, gene- 
rally green, blue, red, and yellow, reaching below the 
mid-leg. Over aU they wear a sheep skin "ndtli the wool 
inside, secured, or rather skewered, in front by a large 

* The cloak is called La-pasha. 

t The legging is called rKang-Phying. 

% The gai'ter is called rKang-gDuh. 

§ See Plates XVII. and XXIII. for the men's dress. 



304 LADAK. 

iron or brass needle. The poorer classes have the out- 
side of the skin plain, but those in better circumstances 
cover it with coarse woollen baize, either red, blue, green, 
or yeUow, with a broad border always of a different 
colour. The upper classes cover this sheep-skin cloak 
either with brocade or with sUk. Their heads are 
always bare, the hair being arranged in a border of 
narrow plaits, which hang round the head like a long 
Mage. Prom the forehead, over the division of the 
hair, they all wear a long narrow band of cloth studded 
with coarse many-flawed turquoises, which hangs do\vn 
behind as low as the waist, and is usually finished off 
with a tassel of wool or a bunch of cowrees. The ears 
are covered by semicircular woollen lappets, fastened to 
the hair and edged with brown or black fur, generally 
of the otter-skin, called Kimduz. These ear-flaps are 
always red, the inside being wooUen, and the outside 
brocade. These are made coarse or fine according to 
circumstances ; for the Lad^ki women seem to pride 
themselves upon the style and material of these lappets 
just as much as European ladies do upon the fashion of 
their bonnets.* 

The dancing-women wear similar dresses, but they 
sometimes also have long gowns, of different colours, 
instead of the jacket and petticoat. Their heads are 
always covered, either with a coloured and quilted skuU- 
cap, or with a cu'cular, flat-topped, stiff woollen hat, 
something like a short shako without a peak. These are 
ornamented mth cornelians and turquoises, t AH 

* See Plates XV. XVI. XVIII. XIX. and XXII. for the women's 
dress of Kanawar, Spiti, and Ladak. 

t Plate XXII. Moorcroft, I. p. 328, remarks that " a Ladaki 
female in full costume would create no small sensation amongst the 
fashionable dames of a European capital." 



I 



KANAWAK 





vr A C^mJ tc^i'Tr'-'thf- (htt^^/i. 







Height 4f* 9 

DANCKHAR 

S FM r i 



Height 4f' '.'.I 

SHt 

:- I /KDAK 




NURLA -r. LADAK, 



FOOD. 305 

classes of women wear, besides, a profusion of necklaces, 
made of cornelian, turquoises, or amber, and they have 
also massive ornaments of silver and brass, studded with 
turquoises. Both men and women wear in their waist- 
cloths or girdles a C/iakmak (or leather case ornamented 
with brass, containing flint, steel, and tinder), and the 
men, besides, usually carry a knife or dagger in their 
girdles. The women likewise carry a brass spoon, a 
convex brass mirroi*, and a case of coarse needles 
attached to their gu'dles ; to these may be added a small 
metal or wooden cup or quaigh, a single or double 
flageolet, a metal spoon, and plate, all of which are 
stuffed into the slackened breast of the dress, nest the 
skin, along with a ball of wool, a coil of rope, and a few 
unleavened wheaten or barley cakes. 

v.— FOOD. 

The food of the common people usually consists of 
thick barley cakes, or of barley-meal moistened with 
water, with a broth of turnips, either fresh or dried, 
according to the season, to which are added a few peas, 
and a seasoning of salt and pepper. Meat is seldom 
tasted by the poorer classes excepting upon occasions of 
rejoicing, at a birth or marriage. Tea is now, I believe, 
coming into common use, although I never myself saw 
any of the labourers drinking it. Amongst the upper 
classes tea is drunk two or three times a day. It is 
made in a strong decoction with soda, then seasoned 
with salt and churned with butter, until it acquires the 
colour and consistency of thick rich cocoa or chocolate. 
Wheaten cakes are eaten with it in the morning, either 
plain or with butter and sugar. The same meal is 

X 



306 LADAK. 

repeated in the middle of the day, with any fruits that 
may be in season, — apples, grapes, and apricots, or with 
the last dried. In the evening they usually have rice, 
and a broth of turnips, or of sheep or goat mutton, for 
since the occupation of the country by the Hindu 
Dogras, Yak's flesh is no longer to be had in Northern 
Ladak. Even in the British district of Spiti, the Yak is 
now a sacred animal, as our Government have made 
over the district to the Hindu raja of Bisahar. 

All classes are exceedingly fond of spuituous liquors, 
although they have nothing better than their o^vn 
indigenous Chang. This is made from fermented barley 
and wheat flour, and has a most disagreeable sour smell, 
Like that of bad beer, and a thick appearance like dirty 
gruel. This is the usual beverage ; but it is sometimes 
distilled, by which process a clear spirit is obtained, 
something like whiskey, but of a most villanous flavour. 

VI.— SOCIAL CUSTOMS. 

The most remarkable social institution of the Botis is 
the system of polyandry, which is strictly confined to 
brothers. Each family of brothers has only one wife in 
common. The most usual number of husbands is two, 
but three and even four husbands are not uncommon. 
This system prevails of course only among the poorer 
classes, for the rich, as in all eastern countries, generally 
have two or three wives, according to theu^ circum- 
stances. Polyandry is the principal check to the 
increase of population, and however revolting it may be 
to our feelings, it was a most politic measure for a poor 
country which does not produce sufldcient food for its 
inhabitants. 



SOCIAL CUSTOMS. 307 

The Botis are very social people in their habits, and 
every event is made the pretext for a feast, which 
usually ends in great uproariousnoss, and frequently in 
general drunkenness. Huge bowls of Chang form the 
chief attraction of an entertainment, and the song * and 
the laugh abound, until the liquor is finished. On these 
occasions they prefer merry or drinking songs. The singer 
is often accompanied by a fiddler, and sometimes by a 
drum. Exhibitions of female dancers frequently form a 
principal part of an entertainment ; but the performers 
are more remarkable for their costume than for theu* 
graceful movements. The principal occasions on which 
these entertainments are held, are births, marriages, and 
deaths. The ceremonies are the following : 

The bii'th-feast, Tsas- Ton, is held one week after the 
mother's confinement, when all the relatives assemble at 
her house to celebrate the child's birth. All the guests 
make presents to the mother, according to their means, 
of pieces of cloth and food, and occasionally of money. 
The party then dines, and the entertainment ends with 
a bowl of chang. The mother remains at home for one 
month. 

The naming-feast, Ming-Ton, which answers to om* 
christening, is held just one year after the birth. The 
child is then taken before some great lama, to whom an 
offering is made of a rupee or a quantity of wheat or 
barley, according to the means of the parties. The 
lama pronounces a name, and the relatives retu'e to the 
usual entertainment of dinner and chang. 

The marriage-feast, Bag-Ton, is a much more formal 
business. When betrothed, the bridegroom proceeds to 

* A drinking-song is appropriately called Chang-gLu, a " Liquor- 
song." 

X 2 



o08 LADAK. 

the bride's house with a bowl of chang, and the relatives 
discuss the wedding-day and the spirits together. After 
the bridal day has been fixed, the bridegroom is obliged 
to send a portion of food and chang daily to his elect. 
After the end of fifteen or twenty days all the relatives 
of both parties assemble together to ask the bridegroom 
what present he wdll make to the mother of the bride. 
The bridegroom makes an oflPer, generally of a few 
rupees (one to ten), according to his means and the 
ardour of his love. A poor man will give a pot of chang 
and a silver jao (sixpence) to his bride's mother, while 
the thriving man will give a present of ten rupees. 
About ten or fifteen days after the '•' asking," the 
relatives of both parties assemble at the bride's house, 
and conduct the lady in state to the bridegroom's house, 
where prayers are read by a party of lamas, and the 
couple are declared man and wife. The whole party 
then sits down to dinner and chang, of which the supply 
on these occasions is always ample. The entertainment 
lasts for several days, according to the means of the 
bridegroom, and the assembled lamas read prayers every 
morning to tlie half-sober guests. 

The funeral- feast, Shid-Ton, varies according to the 
rank and circumstances of the deceased. For a rich 
man, a large party of lamas assemble, and read prayers 
daily until the body is burned, which does not usually 
take place for fifteen or twenty days. Eor a poor man, 
only a few lamas meet together and read prayers for 
four or five days (never beyond a week), while the body 
remains in the house. During this time a piece of cloth 
is fixed over the doorway as a sign of mourning. The 
lamas are regaled with food and tea daily ; and, when 



SOCIAL CUSTOMS. 309 

the body has beon burned, they are presented with the 
clothes and cooking-vessels of the deceased. 

Wlicn a great man dies, such as the Gyalpo or any of 
the Kalilons, his corpse is kept in the house for fifteen 
or twenty days, while the assembled lamas read prayers 
daily. The number of the lamas depends on the 
means or pride of the relatives. The body is then 
carried to the Pur-Jchang, or place of cremation, and 
after being burned in a metal vessel, the ashes {Pur- 
thal) are carefully collected and made into an image of 
the deceased. A Chliorten, or pyramid, is erected on 
the spot for the reception of an urn or funeral vessel 
(Pur-Gom), in which the following articles are deposited 
with the figure: — 

1. Wheat, barley, rice, and peas. 

2. Pearls, coral beads, turquoises. 

3. Gold, silver, copper, iron (either in money or vessels). 

4. EoUs of prayers and holy writings. 

5. Pieces of the holy Shukpa, or pencil-cedar, and of sandal-wood, 

both white and red. 

The body of the great lama is interred in a coffin 
{Pur-Gam), dressed in the usual clothes, with the knees 
brought up to the chin, and corded together in as small 
a compass as possible, and in a sitting posture. Beside 
the body are placed the deceased's plate and cup, his 
rolls of prayers, his praying-cylinder, and all his religious 
instruments, together with the grains, minerals, and 
metals, usually deposited with royalty. To these are 
added images of Shakya Thubba, Jamya, and Chanrazik, 
and a figure of the lama himself. The coffin is deposited 
in a Chliorten, before which, for some time, food and 
water are offered daily, and a light is kept burning every 
uio-ht. 



310 LADAK. 

These details may appear trifling, but they are really 
of great value for the illustration of Indian Buddhism. 
In some of the topes or Chaityas, near Bhilsa, lieut. 
Maisey and myself found both precious stones and pre- 
cious metals deposited with the relics of Sariputra and 
Maha Mogalana, the right and left hand disciples of 
Buddha. On some of the relic-boxes we found inscrip- 
tions giving the names and patronymics, and occasionally 
the titles, of the holy men whose relics were enshrined. 
These short epitaphs are still used in Ladak, where they 
are called Dur-chang, or tomb-inscriptions. 

In the lofty districts of Rukchu and Chang-thang, 
where no wood is procurable, and where burning with 
the Tibetan furze would be a tedious operation, the 
bodies of the dead are always exposed on hills to be 
eaten by vultuxes and wild dogs. Trebeck* states that 
the faces of the dead are covered when thus exposed ; 
but my informants, both at Rukchu in 1846, and at 
Hanle in 1847, were silent on this point. The Hanle 
hill was literally covered with bones, from amongst 
which I obtained the skull and pelvis of the most 
perfect skeleton. 

In Great Tibet the bodies of the dead are cut into 
small pieces by professional corjDse-butchers, or pinliers 
{decoujieurs de mort), and given to the dogs. Tliis is 
called the " terrestrial funeral." The bones after being 
bruised in a mortar with parched corn are made into 
balls and thrown to the dogs and vultures. This is the 
" celestial funeral ;" and these two are considered the 
most fortunate modes of disposing of the dead.f 

* Moorcrot't's Travels, II. p. 49. 

t Nouv. Jour. Asiatique, toni. iv. 1829, pp. 254, 255, Fatliur Hya- 
cinthe's translation from the Cliinese. 



SOCIAL CUSTOMS. 311 

The favoiu'ite amusement of the Botis, both of Laddk 
and of Balti, is Polo, in which all parties from the 
highest to the lowest can take a part. I saw the game 
played at MulbU, in a field 400 yards long and eighty 
yards Ijroad, Avhich was Availed round for the pui'pose 
with a stone dyke. There were twenty players on each 
side, all mounted on ponies and armed with sticks about 
four feet long, and bent at the lower end. One player 
took the ball and advanced alone into the middle of the 
field, where he threw up the ball and as it fell struck it 
towards one of the goals. The goals were formed of two 
upright stones placed about twenty-five or thirty feet 
apart. "When the ball was ckiven through a goal, one 
of the successful party was obliged to dismount and 
pick it up, for if the opposite party should have driven 
it back before it was picked up, the goal did not count. 
The game consisted in winning a certain number of 
goals, either five, seven, or nine. Numerous musicians 
were in attendance, who made a most lively din when- 
ever a goal was won ; and the noise was increased by the 
cheers of the successful party. 

The game is a very spu-ited one, and well calculated 
for the display of bold and active horsemanship.* Ac- 
cidental blows occur frequently, but the poor ponies are 
the principal sufi'erers. The game was once common in 
India imder the name of Chaogan, but it is now com- 
j)letely forgotten. The old chaogan-grounds still exist 
in every large town in the Panjab hills ; in BUaspur, 
Nadon, Shujanpiu', Kangra, Haripur, and Chamba, 
where the goal-stones are still standing. The game is 

* It is well and tersely described by Yigue as " liockey ou horse- 
back." Mr. Thornton calls it " criclcet on horseback ;" but it has 
nothing whatever in common with cricket. 



312 LADAK. 

repeatedly mentioned by B&ber ; but after his time it 
gradually became obsolete. It was introduced by tlie 
Musalman conquerors, and the very first king, Kutb-ud- 
din Aibak, was killed by a fall from his horse when 
playing at chaogan in A.D. 1210.* The Pathan kings 
of India still continued to join in the game down to the 
time of Sikander Lodi, in A.D. 1498, when " one day, 
while the king and his court were playing at chaogan, 
the bat of Haibat Khan Shirwani by accident came in 
contact with the head of Suliman, the son of Darya 
Khan Lodi, who received a severe blow. This was 
resented on the spot by Khizr Khan, the brother of 
Suliman, who, galloping up to Haibat Khan, struck 
him violently over the skull. In a few minutes both 
sides joined in the quarrel, and the field was in uproar 
and confusion. Mahmud Khan Lodi and Khan Khanan 
Lodi interposing, endeavou.red to pacify Haibat Khan, 
and succeeded in persuading him to go home quietly 
with them. The king, apprehensive of conspiracy, 
retired immediately to the palace ; but nothing more 
transpiring, he made another party at the same game a 
few days after, "f 

VII.— HOUSES— PUBLIC AND PEIVATE. 

The finest buildings in Ladak are the monasteries, 
which are always placed on heights more or less lofty, 
and which generally have a very picturesque and im- 
posing appearance. Many of them would be places of 
some strength if they possessed water ; but I am not 
aware of a single monastery that has even one day's 
supply. The outer walls of the monastery are formed by 

* Briggs's Ferishta, I. p. 199. f Idem, p. 574. 



HOUSES — PUBLIC AND PRIVATE. 313 

the dwellings of the monks, and the interior, if large, is 
divided by other buildings into several open courts. 
One room, more spacious and much more lofty than the 
rest, is set apart as a temple for the performance of 
daily service. The outer walls are generally white- 
washed ; and the battlements are ornamented with 
broad bands of red, and surmounted with numerous 
small flags that flutter in the breeze and give a lively 
appearance to the whole place. Outworks are some- 
times added for the purpose of defence. These are 
generally plain curtain-walls connected by square towers 
croAvned by machicoulis.* 

The generality of the houses throughout Ladak are so 
much aKke that a description of one will serve for all. 
The houses usually consist of two or three stories and 
sometimes of four. The foundations and lower parts of 
the walls are built of stone, the upper walls of large sun- 
dried bricks, 20x10x6 inches. In the better houses 
some of the rooms are of considerable size, twenty-five 
feet long and eighteen broad ; but they are always very 
low, the highest not exceeding seven and a half or eight 
feet. The roofs of these large rooms are always sup- 
ported by plain wooden pillars. The roof is formed of 
poplar spars five or sis inches in diameter, peeled white, 
and laid only one to one and a half feet apart. The 
beams are covered in with small straight pieces of 
poplar branches about one inch in diameter, peeled 
white, and placed toucliing each other. Generally they 
are laid straight across the beams ; but sometimes at 
different angles, in the alternate intervals, so as to form 
a pattern Uke herring-bone. The whole is then covered 
with a layer of leaves and a thick coat of well-beaten 
* See Plate XX. for a view of the monaaterv of Hanle. 



314 LADAK. 

clay. The floors are generally of earth, but the better 
sort are paved with small slit pebbles, about the size of 
turkeys' eggs, set in clay with the flat surfaces upwards. 
They form a clean, hard, smooth, and lasting floor. 

The principal room generally has a balcony towards 
either the south or the west, from ten to twenty feet in 
length, and usually about two feet and a half in width, 
where the family sit to enjoy the sun in the winter 
season. The doors are mere rough planks of wood, 
joiaed together by wooden tenons, and sometimes 
strengthened by cross bars fastened with wooden pins. 
Purdahs or wadded curtains are also used as an 
additional means of excluding the cold wind ; but when 
the doors are shut, there is only a dim light admitted 
into these apartments through one or two loopholes, 
which are closed with small shutters at night. If 
supplied with glass windows and fu'eplaces, many of 
these houses would form very comfortable residences; 
but at present they must be wretched habitations for 
the mnter. 

The houses of the poorer classes are generally of two 
stories : the lower story being appropriated to their 
cattle. The roofs are much more coarsely made, and 
the rooms are small and very low, being sometimes 
under six feet in height. In Ladak, the upper story is 
usually reached by a flight of earthen steps ; but in 
Lahul, by the sloping trunk of a tree notched into steps. 

The royal palace at Le is a large fine-looking building, 
that towers in lofty pre-eminence over the whole city. 
It is 250 feet in length and seven stories in height. The 
outer walls have a considerable slope, as their thickness 
diminishes rapidly with their increase of height. The 



ii!^-*>''i-*V^'J^;i5f^V^P'';,,^-:; 




HOUSES — PUBLIC ANU PRIVATE. 315 

upper stories are furnished with long open balconies to 
the south, and the waUs are pierced with a considerable 
number of windows. The beams of the roof are sup- 
ported on carved wooden pUlars, and covered with 
planks painted in various patterns on the outside. The 
building is substantial and plain ; but its size and 
height give it a very imposing appearance.* 

* See Plate XXI. for a view of the palace at Le. 



316 



XII.-III STORY 



I.— UNDEE NATIVE EULEES. 

" The earlier history of Laclak is that of Tibet in 
general, as it originally formed one of the provinces of 
that kingdom, governed as to temporal matters by an 
independent prince, and in spiritual affairs by the Guru 
Lama, or chief pontiff of Lhasa." Such was Moorcroft's 
opinion ; * and such also is that of the present in- 
habitants : and there can be no reasonable doubt that 
such was the usual position of Ladak, although its 
political dependence was more nominal than real. 
Under vigorous rulers, such as Palgyi-Gon in the tenth 
century, and Singg6 Namgyal in the seventeenth 
century, its entire independence was asserted and 
upheld. But the original dependence at some distant 
period is, I tliink, clearly proved by the acknowledged 
descent of the Ladaki princes from Khri-T?aupo, the 
first recorded king of Great Tibet. 

The earliest historical notice of Ladak is that of the 
Chinese pilgrim Fa-Hian, in A.D. 400. t At that time 

* Travels, I. p. 33G. 

t Fo-kwe-lci. French translation by Eemusat, &c., p. 26. Fo-kice- 
ki. English translation by J. W. Laidlay, p. 27, note 1. This trans- 
lation is enriched by many valuable notes, both geographical and 
religious. It should be in the possession of every one who takes any 
interest in the ancient history of India. 



UNUEK NATIVE IIULERS. 317 

the country had a king, and a numerous clergy, all of 
whom were strongly attached to the popular Buddhistical 
doctrine of the " Lesser-advancement" which consisted 
of outward observances, both moral and religious. The 
ceremonial of the quinquennial assembly, which was 
originally established by Asoka, about B.C. 250, was 
duly performed with much rude magnificence, and with 
becoming gravity. Buddhism was then the prevailing 
religion of Ladak ; and there seems good reason to 
believe that it had been firmly rooted there for upwards 
of 400 years, since the first century before the Christian 
era, when the Buddhistical doctrines were first widely 
spread throughout Tibet by the preacliing of 500 
Kashmirian missionaries.* 

In the tenth century, when the empbe of Great Tibet 
was finally broken up, several of the outlying districts 
were separated by ambitious chiefs, and erected into 
independent kingdoms. Thus Purang was occupied by 
Tashi-Degon, and Ladak by Palgyi-Gon.t From that 
time down to the end of the sixteenth century, no 
historical records now exist in Ladak itself, although it 
is possible that a copy of the royal genealogy may yet 
be found at Lhasa. Csoma de Koros was certainly 
misinformed regarding the existence of a book at Le 
containing the " names of the kings that successively 
reigned in that principality." f For, during the in- 
vasion of Ladak in the beginning of the seventeenth 
century, by Ali Mir, the Musulman chief of Skardo, all 

• Klaproth's Chinese Chronology, in Prinsep's useful Tables, p. 128. 
It was however &st introduced about B.C. 240. 

t Csoma de Koros, Kings of Tibet. Prinsep's useful Tables, p. 131. 
See also Deguigne's Hist, des Huns, &e. torn. i. p. 165. 

X Note appended to his list of Tibetan kings. Prinsep's useful 
Tables, p. 132. 



318 LADAK. 

the temples and monasteries of the country are said to 
have been destroyed, and their libraries throwTi into the 
Indus. To this cause the Lamas attribute the entire 
want of all historical documents prior to that time ; and 
their only record accordingly begins with the conquest 
of the country by Chovang-Namgyal,* a descendant of 
Khri-Tsampo,^ the first king of Tibet. No date is 
given : but as his brother's son was a contemporary of 
the emperor Jehangir, this conquest could not have 
taken place much earlier than A.D. 1600, or perhaps 
about 1580. 

During my stay in Ladak I had a copy of the existing 
history of the country transcribed for me in the original 
Tibetan. The historical portion of this work is brief, as 
the greater part of the volume consists of the Lamaic 
ideas of the cosmogony and theogony. When in Ladak 
I had the principal historical parts read and explained 
to me, of which I made notes at the time ; and I had 
also an abstract prepared by a Munshi in Urdu. From 
these I have now arranged the only interesting parts of 
the history, extending over a century and a haK, during 
which period Ladak was conquered three different times. 

Chovang-Namgyal, a descendant of the ancient kings 
of Tibet, being expelled from Lhasa, took refuge in 
Ladak, where he established himself about A.D. 1580. 
He afterwards extended his conquests into the neigh- 
bouring districts of Chcmgmarangi, Lodang, Piirang, 
Gug4, Lhojiimlang, I/imgti, Shigar, and Khabkar. % He 

* Chlw-dVanrj-rNain-rOyal, that is, king Chovang. 

t Khri-rTsam-po, prouourced Tid-Tsanpo in Great Tibet. 

X The names of these places are thus written in Tibetan : Byang- 
dMa-rarujis, bLo-dang, Bu-rang, or sPu-rangs, Lko-JiJum-lang, Lung-ti, 
SU-dKar, Khah-dKar. Purang lies to the S.E. of Ladak, and Shigar 



UNDER NATIVE UULERS. 319 

then returned to the capital to make preparations for 
the invasion of Yarkand by the Nubra road. On 
licaring of his intentions, the chief men of Nubra at 
(mcc waited upon Chovang at Le, to tender their sub- 
mission, and a trustworthy officer was despatched 
to receive charge of the district. After this, Chovang 
imposed a yearly tribute of one hundred golden tillas* 
upon the landlords of Kukiwdla, and upon those of 
Bitdok a yearly tribute of 207 golden tillas, besides 
one horse and ten unicorns. t He also levied a con- 
siderable svim from the neighbouring districts. 

Having acquired a large sum of money by these 
conquests, Chovang Namgyal resolved upon erecting an 
image of Buddha, under the name of Sankya-Bldung, 
or the " replete with extreme holiness." When the 
image was finished, all the people assembled to make 
theii" offerings, and a great feast was celebrated upon 
the occasion. Some time afterwards, about A.D. 1600, 
when he was meditating the erection of other images, 
he was prevented by death, and having no children, he 
was succeeded by his brother. 

The new king, named Jdmya Nmngyal,X upon his 

to the N.W. of it. The ambitious Chovang therefore would seem to 
have aspired to the conquest of Ngari, and of Haiti, as well as to that 
of Ladak. But the historian has most probably dignified some success- 
fill plundering expeditions with the name of conquests. 

* A tilla is worth about six rupees. The proper name for the gold 
coin is sir-jao, or a golden _yao. 

t In the original, bSe-ru, an animal with one horn. Csoma de Koros 
calls it a kind of deer (see Diet, in voce). Klaproth has a long note 
upon this animal (see Xouv. Journ. Asiat. tom. vi. pp. 229, 230, 231). 
He states that Mr. B. H. Hodgson's Chiru of southern Tibet is the 
same as the Sej-it ; of which I think there can be no doubt. Mr. Hodgson 
himself assigns the animal to the " open plains of N.E. Tibet," but he 
has published no description. See Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, IV. p. 522. 

X hJam-dVyangs, " sweet harmony." 



320 LADAK. 

accession, received the usual oflPerings of suljmission 
from all the Ladakis, excepting only a petty chief of 
Purik who was in the interest of Ali Mir, the Gyalpo of 
Balti. Chovang Malig, the head chief of Purik and the 
elder brother of the rebel, applied to Jamya for a small 
force to coerce the refractory cliief. The king assented 
and accompanied his troops to the Purik district, where 
they were suddenly overtaken by a violent snowstorm. 
The royal troops were dispersed ; and the king and 
many of his principal followers were taken prisoners by 
the rebel and sent to Skardo,* where they were confined. 
The remainder of the troops were permitted to return 
to Ladak. 

Ali Mu', the ruler of Skardo, taking advantage of the 
helpless state of the country, immediately marched upon 
Le with a large force, and took possession of the whole 
of Ladak. t The temples and monasteries were burned ; J 
the images of Buddha and of his various personified 
emanations were destroyed by the bigoted Mahomedans ; 
and all the religious and historical books were thrown 
into the Indus. The conquest was complete ; and 
arrangements having been made for the future govern- 
ment of Ladak, Ali Mir marched back to Skardo. 

Shortly after his return, the conqueror released Jamya, 
the imprisoned Gyalpo of Ladak, and gave him one 
of his daughters in marriage. No reason is assigned for 

* Skar-mDo, pronounced Skardo, " the starry place," or " starry fort." 

t This conquest is also recoi'ded in Vigne's brief historical notice of 

Balti (Kashmir, II. p. 253) ; but the chief of Skardo is there called Ali 

Shcr, and not Ali Mir. Ali Sher is the true name, as all the petty 

chiefs of the Balti district claim their descent from him. 

X The buildings in Ladak are readily burned down, as all the walls 
are bonded together with timber, which in so dry a climate is readily 
igiiitod. 



UNBEll NATIVE RULEllS. 321 

a proceeding so foreign to the usual tyrannical bigotry 
of a Musalman. It is probable that Ali Mir, iinding it 
difficult to retain Ladak as a permanent province of Iiis 
kingdom, thought it more politic to secure by a display 
of apparent generosity, even the lukewarm friendship of 
the king of Ladak, than to encounter the active hostility 
of a whole people. 

Jamya's return was hailed with joy by his people, 
who all hastened to present their offerings of submission 
and congratulation, and to beg that he would restore 
the temples and images of Buddha, and procure new 
copies of their sacred books from Lhasa. All this he 
was able to effect by his prudent management, as well 
as to extend the boundary of his dominions to TaiicJd. 

By the Baltian princess, Jamya had two sous, named 
Singge Namgyal and Norbu Namgyal. The former 
was married to the daughter of Chovang Gi/almo* who 
bore him two sons, named Navaiig Namgyal and Tan j in 
Namgyal. On this occasion the king sent a costly 
present of money, gold, silver, pearls, and coral to the 
temple of Johorlnche, at Brak2npiilka,\ near Lhasa. 
He also ordered to be copied in letters of gold, silver, 
and copper, the two books called Gyatok'isangsmn, % after 
which he is said to have died of grief or chagrin upon 
learning that two temples of Buddha still remained 

* rQyal-mo, a " queen." She must have been one of the petty prin- 
cesses of the country. 

t TiBrag-p,lii-s}>rul-ku, pronounced Bralcpipidka. The neighbour- 
hood of Lhasa is literally a vast suburb of temples. The names of many 
are given by Father Hyaciuthe in his translation from the Chinese, but 
I can find no mention of Johorinclie. See Nouv. Journ. Asiat. tom. iv. 
pp. 294-5-6. 

J rGya-tog-gSen()-gSum, the " three secrets of Gyatok.'" The lamas 
read " tico " to me ; but as gSum means " three" there are probably 
three books of this name. .' 



322 LADAK. 

unfinished. His reign probably extended from A.D. 1600 
to 1620. 

Jomiya was succeeded by his eldest son Singge 
Namgyal, who, feeling emulous of the military fame 
of his uncle Chovang, began his reign by conducting an 
expedition into the districts of Guge, Kiprok, and 
Tipichangyap, from which he carried off many cattle 
and other property of the zamindars. Dm'ing his reign 
a monk, named Staktshang-Rasj)a, who had travelled 
through Gtyagarnag, TJrgyan, and Khdche,* arrived at 
the viUage of Tamosgang,\ iu Ladak, where he made 
and consecrated an image of Charaba.J To this image 
he attached five monks for the performance of daily 
service, and having seen the complete establishment of 
the worship, he gave away in alms all that he possessed 
and departed. 

After this Ahmed Khan, the chief of Balti, with the 
assistance of Jehangir Shah, invaded Ladak with a very 
large force ; but Singge Namgyal having collected his 
own troops to oppose them,§ the invaders were defeated 



* rGya-gar-nag, literally the " white and black plains," that is, India 
and China. U-rgyan, the country of mixed races, perhaps the ludo- 
Persian district of Udydna, and the valley of the Kabul river. Khd- 
chhe, Kashmir. 

t gTany-mo-sgang, on the right bank of the Indus below Le. It is 
now the most populous village in Ladak. 

J Byams-pa, pronounced Chamba, the " Clement." This saint is now 
very popular in Ladak. He is the future Buddha, Maitreta. 

§ Jehangir reigned from A.D. 1605 to 1628. The defeat of the Baltis 
may therefore be placed about A.D. 1625. This defeat is confirmed by 
the chronicles of Skardo, which (according to Vigne, Kashmir, II. 
p. 253) refer the loss of Ladak to the reign of Ahmed Khan, the son 
of Ali Sher. The subsequent invasion of the Lhasan territory probably 
took place in 1630. It is at least certain that these events could not 
have occurred later than 1630-1635, because in 1640 the celebrated and 



UNDER NATIVE RULERS. 323 

with great slaughter at Kharbu* After this victory the 
king returned to his capital, and then proceeded at 
once against the people of Gtufe, Chaprang, and Lomo- 
stang, who had taken advantage of the j\Iuhammadan 
invasion to rebel against the authority of Ladak. They 
were quickly reduced by the active Singge, and at the 
same time he took the opportunity of adding the neigh- 
boui'ing district of Ptudok to his kingdom. Flushed 
with success, Siugg^ Namgyal next determined to attack 
Lhasa itself; but when he had advanced as far as Si^ 
Kirkir,i he was met by a deputation from the people of 
the country, headed by Deba-Changpa, with several 
mule-loads of gold, sUver, tea, and other articles as a 
peace-offering. On receipt of this present, Singge 
Namgyal consented to evacuate the Lhasan territory. 
Accordingly he fell back to Lomostang, % and afterwards 
took possession of the districts of Furang, Chige, Zanskar, 
Spiti, Purlk, Mangyumla, Seclakh, and Shaky amclio.^ 

ambitious Grand Lama Navang-Lozang had conquered the whole of 
Tibet. 

* Khar-hu. There are two places of this name in Ladak, the larger 

of which is situated on the left hank of the Kanji river. The other 

stands on the right bank of the Dras river. The battle must have been 

fought at the former place, because it is on the high road iroui Balti to 

I Le, whereas the Kharbu of Dras is out of the way. 

t Shi-ri-Kyir-lcyir. This means a " winding or whirUng stream," and 
is probably the river Sekor of our maps, which joins the Isangpo about 
half-way between Le and Lhasa. Kyir-hyir, " circular," is evidently 
the same word as the Latin circulus, and the Greek kvkXo^. 

X This is probably the Stang of our maps on the right bank of the 
Sutluj, and on the high road between Spiti and Garo. 

§ Purang, a district of Ngiiri to the west and south of the Manasa- 
rovar lake, and the Pruang of Capt. H. Strachey's map. Gu-ge is also 
a district of Ngdri to the west of Purang : its chief places are Chaprang 
land Toling. The districts of Zanskar and Spiti are well known. Pu-rig 

3 upon the Kanji and Waka rivers, to the eastward of Suru ; its chief 
I places are Kharbu and Paskii-um. Mang-yum-la is certainly the district 
T 2 



324 LADAK. 

Singg^ Namgyal had three sons, named Deldan 
Nomgi/al, Indra Namgyal, and Tenchhog Namgyal, 
amongst whom, by the advice of the lama Tlmnsliak,* 
he divided his dominions. To Deklan he gave Laddk, 
Pnrile, Rudok, and Mmigyum, as far as Dali, on the 
Indus ; to Indra he gave the district of Guge ; and to 
Tenchhog he gave Spitl and Zanskar. By this division 
of his territories the province of Ngari was finally 
alienated from Ladak, and was soon after lost by the 
family of Indra Namgyal to the Lhasan authorities.f 
Singge Namgyal reigned from about A.D. 1620 to 1670. 

Singge Namgyal was succeeded by his son Deldan 
Namgyal in the government of Ladak, Rudok, and the 

of Katakshe or Manrj-hliar, on tlie Indus, which still includes the large 
village of Dah. Katakshe iisuaUy belonged to Balti. Sed-hha and 
Sliag-hyar-rGyam-cliho are unknown to me. 

* Thun-shags ; in Sanskrit Amsglta Siddha. 

t It is to this petty state that Moorcroft alludes when he says that 
" Chanthan was formerly subject to independent princes, but their autho- 
rity gradually merged into the supremacy of the chief pontift" at Lhasa." 
(Travels, I. p. 364.) According to the information obtained by my 
brother, Capt. J. D. Cunningham (see Journal As. Soc. Bengal, 5III 
p. 231), it would appear that the Gyalpo of Guge was killed in a war 
with the Ladakis. The invaders were however expelled b}' a force from 
Lhasa, which the last chief had asked for, and the Lhasan authorities 
afterwards retained the province in their own hands. A treaty was 
then formed with the ruler of Ladak, who married the daughter of the 
Lhasan commander, and received the district of Spiti as the bride's 
dowry. This is stated to have taken place about the beginning of the 
last century, or about A.D. 1720, that is, some fifty or sixty years after 
the division of his territories by Singge Namgyal, and the foundation 
of the principality of Guge by his son ludra Namgyal. As the district 
of Spiti is said to have belonged to Guge, the family of Then-chhog 
Namgyal must have been dispossessed by that of Indra Namgyal some 
time beforehand. According to the above account also, the Spiti 
district must have been alienated from the kingdom of Ladak from 
about A.D. 1660 to 1720, when it was reconquered by the Ladiiki ruler 
Delek Namgyal. 



UNDER NATIVE IIULEHS. 325 

western districts of Purik, Suru, and Ilombabs. lie 
began bis reign with a display of great zeal in the cause 
of religion by constructing a large image of gold and 
silver in the village of She.* He also built a lofty 
tomb with a pinnacle of gold and silver, to the memory 
of his father, and constructed a wall around the mo- 
nument of his mother. He erected temples at Zanskar, 
Pushbuz, and Tumnuz, each at a cost of Rs. 10,000. 
In the fort of Le, also, he set up an image of 
Chandra, t and appointed several priests for the per- 
formance of daily worship. In the same place too 
he consecrated a silver image of Chanrazik, the god 
of the dead. I 

The appointment of Shaky a-gya-cho to the post of 
chief minister having produced a revolt in the disti-ict 
of Purik, the minister with a large force marched in 
person to Kharbu, where, having seized the principal 
officers, he returned to Le and imprisoned them in the 
fort of Hemis. About a year afterwards the people of 
Cliigtan, Shako, and S6d,§ rebelled against the govern- 
ment. The minister was again despatched to queU 
the disturbance, wliich he effected vidthout any difficulty ; 
and Tliai Sultan, the author of the rebellion, being 

* This image, which still exists iit She, has now lost all its gildiug. 
It is a colossal copper figui-e of ShaJeya Thubba, or Shakya in a sqiiatliny 
posture. She is on the right bank of the Indus, a few miles above Le. 

t ICham-hdrc. Moorcroft calls this image by the name of Chamha 
{Byams-pa, the " Clement "), but his description of it differs somewhat 
from the paintings of Chamba which I possess. (See Moorcroft's 
Travels, I. p. 343.) 

X Spyan-ras-rigs, pronounced Ghan-razih. It is equivalent to the 
Sanscrit Avalokita or AvaloTciteswara, the " seen." This image is also 
described by Moorcroft, and most accurately (I. p. 31'2). 

§ Clugfan, Sha-rJcar or Shako, in the Suru valley. Sod, near 
Paskyum in Purik. 



326 LADAK. 

seized at the village of Karcliu,* was sent as a prisoner 
to Le. 

After this the minister with a large army invaded 
the district of Khapalor, one of the dependencies of 
Balti. On his way he took possession of the district of 
Chhorbat ; and at Thorchekhar, near Khapolor, he 
received the submission of Hatim Khan, Sultan Khan, 
and ALi Khan, the chiefs of the district.! But the 
chiefs of Karchu and Balti having obtained aid from the 
Mahomedan governor of Kashmir, advanced against the 
invaders, whom they encountered at Sariru.J The 
Ladakis, under their leader Farak Namgyal, gained a 
signal victory ; the Kashmiris having lost many of their 
officers as weU as their colours and drums. In 
consequence of this victory, the chiefs of Karchu and 
Balti tendered their submission, and became tributary 
to Ladak. 

But this success was shortly followed by an alarm- 
ing invasion of Sokpos.§ Under their leaders, named 
Galdan Cliobar Jongar and Lohzang Sherab,\ these 
marauders routed the Ladaki troops at Dalang- 

* This place is the chief toft-n of the Suru disti-ict. It is the same as 
Moorcroft's Lang-kartse. 

t Kha-po-lor and hChhor-hBad are botli upon the Shayak river, and 
were both dependencies of Balti until the Dogra conquest in 1840. 
TJio-rche-mKhar is perhaps the Hajaclia of Vigne's map, which lies 
immediately to the eastward of Khapolor. Hatim Khan was the chief 
of Pargutu, and Ali Khan of Keris. 

X Sa^ri-ru, position unknown. 

§ Sog-])o, the people of the Sog tribe. They are the Sakas of the 
Hindus, the ZuKai and "ZayapavKcu of the Greeks, and the Moguls of 
the present day, who, under the celebrated Janghez Khan, only a few 
centuries ago, spread terror throughout Europe. Their country is 
called Sog-yul, and also Li-yid, or Brass-land. 

II (IGali-ldan-Ohho-dBar, with the affix of liJong-hGar. The name 
of the other leader was hLo-hxang-She-rah. 



UNDER NATIVE RULERS. 327 

Khavmar, and pursued them as far as Lung-JOmng ; 
l)ut being' afterwards worsted by the Ladakis, they 
retired to their own country. In the following year, 
however, they again invaded Ladak, and having again 
defeated the Gyalpo's troops, at Balasl-ija, they took 
possession of the village of Chang-la* Here they were 
joined by the people of Guge, and having advanced as 
far as Sakti, near the pass of Chang-la, they halted 
Avhile the Ladaki troops retreated upon L6. This took 
place in the year of Chhnmo-phag-lo, or the "water- 
hog," the sixtieth year of the Tibetan cycle, equivalent 
to A.D. 1685-86. 

After this the Sokpos took possession of the whole 
country as far as Nyimo,t excepting only the forts of 
Tashigang, Baku, and Chimra.t Having failed in an 
attempt upon the fort of Tumnuz, they encamped at 
Bazgo,§ where they halted for six months. During 
that time repeated skirmishes took place between the 
two armies ; and the Sokpo chief, Galdan Jongar, tried 
in. vain to destroy a bridge by throwing stones upon it. 
These events occurred in the year of Shingpho-btjl-lo,^ 

* Byang-la, pronounced Cliang-la. From this and the following 
mention of the village of Sakti, it appears that the Sokpos invaded 
Ladak from the side of Euthog (or Eudok) by the Chang-la pass. The 
Sakti fort was in fact dismantled by the Sokpos. (See Mooreroft, 
I. p. 427.) 

t Nyi-mo, on the right bank of the Indus, about twenty miles 
below Le. 

X Chimra is most probably the village of Chum-ri, at the junction of 
the Chang-la rividet with the Indus. 

§ Baz-go, a large village on the right bank of the Indus, about 
twenty-four mOes below Le. 

II In the original this date is written Shing-pliQ-hhyi-Jo, or the " wood- 
dog-year," which is the eleventh of the Tibetan cycle, and equivalent 
to either A.D. 1637 or 1697, neither of which is admissible. I have 



328 LADAK. 

or the " wood-mouse," the first year of the Tibetan 
cycle, which is equivalent to A.D. 1686-87. 

The Ladakis now implored the aid of the Mu- 
hammadan governor of Kashmir, who, with the per- 
mission of Aurang Shah (the emperor Aurangzeb), 
despatched a force of 600,000 men (most probably 
about 6,000) under Nawab Fateh Khan, Murid Khan, 
Lashkar Khan, Kahgan Sultan Khan, Yahia Khan, and 
Jahangir Khan, to the assistance of the Gyalpo. They 
crossed the Indus at Khallach* by two wooden bridges ; 
and at Thanskya-tanag they encountered and com- 
pletely defeated the Sokpos. The Musulmans pursued 
them as far as Pitak,-\ and having taken that fort, they 
put the garrison to death, whUst the main body of the 
Sokpos took refuge in the fort of Le. After tliis the 
invaders having agreed to quit Ladak, retired to 
Kashiin, on which the Mahomedans returned to 
Kashmir, accompanied by Jig-hal Namggal, the younger 
son of the Gyalpo. This happened in the year of 
Shingmo-kmg-lo, or " the wood-ox," which is the second 
of the Tibetan cycle, and equivalent to A.D. 1687-88. 

In the following year, however, the Sokpos again 
invaded Ladak, and destroyed the fort of L6. But, 
afterwards, through the mediation of a lama, named 
Brug-pa-I'ham-Bang2W, the Sokpos agreed to retire on 
receiving possession of the district of Rudok. A large 
stone was then set up as a permanent boundary between 



therefore made a slight correction by changing Mtyi to lyi, whicli is fully 
justified by its tallying with the other recorded dates. 

* Klml-lach. The principal bridge across the Indus, on the high 
road from Kashmir to Le, is still at this place. 

t Pi-tag, a small rock-fort on the right bank of the Indus, only four 
miles from Le. 



UNDER NATIVE RULERS. 329 

the two countries, the line of demarcation being drawn 
from the village of Dechhocj to the hiU of Karbonas. 

This invasion of Ladiik by the Sokpos is thus re- 
lated by Moorcroft.* " About a century and a half 
ago the Kalmak Tartars invaded Ladak and occupied 
L6, and the Raja flew to Kashmir and implored the aid 
of I])rahim Khan, the governor of that province in 
the reign of Aurangzeb. With the permission of the 
emperor, and on the condition that the Raja became a 
Musalman, Ibrahim Khan led a body of troops into 
Ladak, expelled the Tartars, and replaced the Raja on 
the throne by the title of Akabal Mahmud, conformably 
to his new faith. A mosque was erected in Le, which 
is still kept up. The son and successor of the Raja 
reverted to the national creed, and the apostasy was 
overlooked at Delhi in consideration of the encourage- 
ment given to Mahomedanism in the country, and a 
small annual tribute or present paid to the governor of 
Kashmir, as the representative of the emperor." A similar 
account is given by Mir Izzet Ullah,t who says, how- 
ever, that the title given to the Raja was Akabet Mah- 
mud Khan, and that " the Hakims at Kashmir still 
address the raja of Tibet liy that designation." Izzet 
UUah farther states that the Raja " coins the Ji'idX in 
the name of Mahmud Shah." This last fact seems to 
be conclusive of the Gyalpo's apostasy ; and I may add 
that the Dogra soldiers always called the last Gyalpo by 
the name of Akabet Mahmud Khan. The people, how- 
ever, both lamas and laymen, whom I interrogated 
upon this subject, stoutly denied that the Gyalpo had 

* Travels, I. pp. 336, 337. 

t Quarterly Oriental Magazine, No. Y. p. 109. 

I " Yovs juds make one rupee." — Izzet UUah. 



330 LADAK. 

ever become a Musalman, although they acknowledge 
that from that time Ladak had continued to pay tribute 
to the governors of Kashmir. The real truth no doubt 
is, that the chief made an open profession of the Muham- 
madan faith in the presence of the Musalman troops at 
L6 ; but after their retirement to Kashmir he naturally 
reverted to his own creed. It is probable that the 
Gyalpo's younger son, Jigbal, who accompanied the 
Musalman troops on their return to Kashmir, may have 
become a Musalman ; and that the governor may have 
been satisfied with the real conversion of the son, and 
the permanent establishment of a masjid at Le.* 

Deldan Namgyal had several sons, one of whom, 
Jigbcd, accompanied the Muhammadan army to Kash- 
mir. Another, named Banchak, proceeded to Lhasa with 
the Sokpos, at the request of their leader. Of a third, 
called Thuptan, nothing is related. A fourth, named 
Delek, succeeded his father, who abdicated in his favour, 
and afterwards resided in the fort of Stuklakte. The 
reign of Deldan Namgyal probably extended from 
A.D. 1670 to 1705. 

Delek Namgyal married the princess, or Gyalmo, 
of Lomostang, by whom he had five sons : 1st, Nyima ; 
2nd, Navang ; 3rd, Dechok; 4th, ChoUan-grub ; and 5th, 
Chortan.i Delek Gyalpo probably reigned from A.D, 
1705 to 1740. It was during his reign that the district 
of Spiti was re-annexed to the kingdom ; and it was 

* Vigne (II. p. 253) saya that " the name of the first Ali Sher Khan, 
or Shah Murad, is stiU to be seen upon a mosque at Le." Moorcroft, 
however (I. p. 337), refers the building of the masjid to the period of 
the Gyalpo's conversion, and so does Izzet Ullah. 

t These names are written thus : 1st, Ni/i-ma ; 2nd, Kga-dVang ; 
3rd, hBe-sh/ong ; 4th, Chho-dVal-ton-gruh ; 5th, Chlio-rtan. 



UNDER NATIVE RULERS. 331 

perhaps towards the end of his reign, or more probably 
in the beginning of his successor's reign, that Laddk 
was invaded and conquered by Murad, the chief of 
Balti,* who reigned from about A.D. 1720 to 1750. 

From that time down to A.D. 1834, when the 
country was conquered by the Dogras under Zordwar 
Sing, the general of Raja Gulab Sing of Jammu, the 
history, as related to me, was uninteresting. I find, 
however, that Vignef mentions an invasion of Balti by 
an army of Ladakis, during the reign of AH Sher, the 
father of Alimed Shah, the last chief of Balti. The 
invaders were defeated and obliged to siu'render. As 
this must have happened not more than twenty or 
twenty-five years prior to Moorcroft's visit to Ladak, it 
is strange that he makes no mention of it. Vigne's 
account is farther confii'med by the existence of a tree, 
which was pointed out to him on the Ladaki frontier 
near Khallach on the Indus, which was said to have 
grown from a stick planted there by Ali Sher Khan on 
his return from a victory in Ladak. J 

When Moorcroft visited Ladak in 1822, the Gyalpo 
paid an annual tribute to the governor of Kashmir, 
with which Banjit Sing was probably contented. 
But the recent conquest of Kashmir, and the threats of 
the Sikh governor, had even then alarmed the Gyalpo, 
who made a tender of his allegiance § to the British 
Government, which, unfortunately for the prosperity of 

* Vigne's Kashmir, II. p. 253. t Kashmir, II. p. 254. 

J Kashmir, II. p. 254. It is possible, however, that this may refer 
to the conquest of Ladak by the first Ali Sher Khan. 

§ Moorcroft's Travels, I. p. 420. I agree with Professor Wilson, » 
Preface, p. xxiii, that " a friendly footing in Ladak would be highly 
favourable for establishing a beneficial trade with Tartary and Tur- 
kistan." 



332 LADAK.. 

Ladak and the commerce of British India, was refused. 
From that time the Gyalpo lived in continual apprehen- 
sion of an invasion of his territory hy the Sikhs from 
Kashmir ; hut the governors of that district were too 
frequently changed, and too closely watched hy the 
emissaries of the Jammu brothers, to he able to carry 
out such a design, even if they had formed it. Eor Raja 
Dhyan Sing, who was omnipotent in the Sikh durbar, 
was resolved that no one but his elder brother E-aja 
Gulab Sing should obtain possession of Ladak and 
Balti. The invasion of these countries was therefore 
postponed until Gulab Sing had consolidated his power 
in his newly-acquired territory of Kashtwar,* which he 
had lately wrested from its hereditary chief, f Accord- 
ingly, in 1834, when the power of the Jammu brothers had 
been extended over all the hill states lying between the 
Jehlam and the Ravi, excepting only Kashmir, a large 
body of Dogra troops under the Vazir Zorawar Sing 
invaded Ladak from the Kashtwar valley. The foUoAving 
account of this invasion was kindly dictated, at my 
request, by Mehta Basti Ram,i now governor of Le, 
who was one of the jirincipal officers of the expedition. 
As an authentic record of an interesting event, of which 
no other account exists to my knowledge, I should have 



* Kdslitavara, abounding in wood. 

t The representative of this family is now a Christian residing at 
Simla. He formerly lived at Ludiana, where he was converted by the 
American missionaries. 

X Mehta Basti Eam is a Hindu rajput of Kashtwar. He was the 
governor of Takla-khar, or Takla-kot, near the source of the Sarju or 
Ghagra river, at the time of Zorawar Sing's defeat and death, when he 
made his escape to the British provinces of Almora. He speaks in high 
terms of the kindness shown to him by the British resident, Mr. 
Lushington. 



CONQUEST OF LADAK BY THE DOGRAS. 333 

preferred giving the narrative almost literally, but I 
found that in this shape it would entail the insertion of 
too many foot-notes, which would have completely dis- 
tracted the attention of the reader. I have therefore re- 
written the account entu'ely, and have given the Tibetan 
names, which my knoA\iedge of the localities enabled me 
to do without much difficulty. The narrative was of coui-se 
dictated in the first person, for which I have throughout 
substituted the name of " Dogra " and " the Dogra 
troops." 

II.— CONQUEST OF LADAK BY THE DOGRAS. 

1. The chief officers engaged in this expedition imder 
the Vazir Zorawar Sing, were, 1st, Mia E,ai Sing ; 
2nd, Mehta Basti Ram ; 3rd, Mirza Rasul Beg ; 4th, 
Rana Zalim Sing ; 5th, Singhe Mankotiah ; 6th, Mian 
Tuta ; 7th, Sirdar Uttam Sing ; and 8th, Vazir Khojah 
Bhunjah. 

2. The Dogra troops marched from Kashtwar, and 
entered the Ladak territory by the pass at the head of 
the Suru valley,* where, on the 16th of August, 1834, 
they were opposed by the Boti leader Mangal, at the 
head of 5,000 men. The Dogras advanced to the attack 
up a hill, which was obstinately defended for a whole 
day, and at last succeeded in dislodging the Ladakis with 
a loss of only six or seven killed, and five or six wounded; 
whilst the enemy lost thirty killed, and as many wounded. 
They encamped on the north side of the hill for the night, 
and on the next morning marched to Suru, where they 
halted for eight days. Dui-ing that time the Vazir 

* This pass was described to me as being estremcly easy on the 
uorthem side, but very steep and difficult on the south. 



334 LADAK. 

prohibited his troops from cutting the corn, which was 
then ripe, and his politic conduct was rewarded by the 
immediate submission of the zamindars, who came over 
to him in a body, and placed themselves under liis pro- 
tection. The Vazu- then built a small fort,* which he 
occupied for a month. He next advanced to Shakhar,j- 
where there was a fort belonging to Thai Sultan, and 
having reinstated the zamindars of Janguri and Shak- 
har in their villages, he made a summary settlement of 
the district by imposing a tax of four rupees upon each 
house. 

8. Leaving thirty-five men in the fort and ten men 
over the bridge, the Dogras advanced by Langkarchu % 
and Manji to the bridge of Paskyum, where they were 
again opposed by the Ladakis. The struggle was desul- 
tory and protracted, the Dogras losing only seven killed, 
while the Botis had fifty or sixty killed, and a greater 
number wounded. By a skilful manoeuvre the Laddkis 
effected their retreat across the bridge, § which they then 
broke down. On the following day, however, the Dogras 
managed to cross the river on inflated skins without 
opposition ; on which the chief of the place abandoned 
Paskyum, and fled to the fort of Sod, |1 where, with the 
zamindars of the district, he determined to hold out. 

* This is the fort in Vigne's map called " KOali Siiru Kurri," be- 
longing to Giilab Sing. 

t 8hd-mKhar, the fort of Sha. 

X The Lang-kartse of Moorcroft. The true name I believe is " Lung- 
Jcarj-chii" or the " valley of the Karj river." The bridge here men- 
tioned is that which was crossed by Moorcroft on his journey to Dras. 

§ The Waka-chu is not fordable at Paskyum, and the bridge is 
within musket-range of the fort, and of numbers of houses on the 
northern bank of the stream. 

II Sud, the Soth of Moorcroft, who mentions an interview that he 
had with the Eaja at Paskyum. 



CONQUEST OF LADAK BY THE DOGRAS. 335 

4i. The Dogras aclvancocl towards the place and raised 
a battery against it ; but after ten days' firing nothing 
had been effected, although they had lost forty men in 
killed and wounded. The Vazir, who had remained 
beliind at Paskyum, then ordered Mehta Basti Ram, 
with a party of 500 men, to make a vigorous assault 
upon the place. Accordingly, early the next morning, 
wliilst it was still dark, the attack was begun by a 
discharge from the battery, under cover of which the 
Dogras advanced rapidly to the assault. By daybreak 
they had gained possession of the place, and had 
captured the Gyalpo. Altogether the number of 
prisoners taken at Paskyum and at Sod amounted to 
6,000 men. A whole month was then wasted in fruit- 
less negotiations with the zamindars of the district, who 
would not agree to the terms of settlement proposed by 
the Vazir. 

5. In the mean time Akabat Mahmud Khan, the 
Gyalpo of Ladak, -udth the Banka Kahlan * and four 
chiefs, named Gapaju, Dorje Namgyal, Chang or 
Chovang Nabdan,t the Kahlon of Bazgo, and Rahim 
Khan, of Chachot, accompanied by a force of about 
22,000 men, arrived at Mulbil. From thence they 
despatched envoys to the camp, who at first talked boldly, 
and tried to frighten the Dogras, but they afterwards 

* bKah-bZon, the prime minister ; but the term is also applied to the 
chief men of all the districts. At this time the Kalilon of Chimra was 
the prime minister. 

t This man accompanied the unfortunate expedition of Zorawar Sing 
into the Lhasan territory. After the Tazir's death he was made prisoner 
and carried to Lhasa, where he is said to be now kept in rigorous confine- 
ment. His wife, a busom-looking dame, who manages the estate of 
Bazgo, informed me that she had sent several persons to Lhasa, not 
one of whom had been able to communicate with her husband. 



336 LADAK. 

declared their readiness to agree to honourable terms, and 
proposed that some respectable and confidential agents 
should be sent back with them to treat with their chiefs 
regarding the terms of accommodation. To this the 
Vazir consented, and after having feasted the envoys and 
placed turbans on their heads, he deputed Mehta Basti 
Ram, with some other Dogra officers and a guard of 
500 matchlock-men, to accompany them. When the 
men were ready to start, the Vazir was requested not to 
send so large a party, as their number would be more 
likely to alarm than to pacify the minds of their 
countrymen. Accordingly only five men, with two 
respectable zamindars, named Gola and Nanda, were 
sent with the envoys. On their arrival in the Ladaki 
camp, these men were treacherously seized by the chiefs, 
and despatched under a guard of 500 men to the bridge 
of Darkech. One of the men, however, a Suwar, named 
Eatan Sing, managed to escape, and returned to the 
Dogra camp. In the mean time Banka Kahlon, by a 
circuitous route, attacked the Dogras in their rear, and 
made many prisoners, who were thrown bound into the 
river in sight of their comrades. On this the Vazu", 
seeing the danger of his situation, ordered a retreat, 
which with some difficulty was eflPected to Lang-Karchu, 
in the Siiru valley, to the fort of Tliai Sultan. There 
the Dogras remained immolested for four months, 
procuring a precarious subsistence by plunder alone. 

6. At the end of that time Banka Kahlon with his 
22,000 men advanced towards Langkarchu ; but the 
Vazir, having received intelligence of their movements, 
despatched a party of 100 men to oppose them, when 
they were within one kos (one mile and a half) of the 
place. Now the straggling manner in which the Dogras 



CONQUEST OF LADAK BY THE DOGKAS. 337 

were obliged to wade through the snow, and the un- 
soldier-like way in which their tents were scattered over 
the oyien country completely deceived the Ladakis as to 
the real number of their enemies. They were, besides, 
quite exhavisted with their long and fatiguing march 
through the snow ; and therefore, instead of attacking 
the Dogras at once, they halted for a considtation, which 
ended in the whole body sitting doAvn to prepare theu* 
evening meal of tea and wheaten flour. On seeing this 
the Dogras attacked them with theii" swords, and after 
five or six were kiUed on each side, and several were 
wounded, Banka Kahlon and the other Ladaki leaders 
became alarmed, and fled with numbers of their men. 
The remainder of the Dogras, who had hitherto held 
aloof, now rushed to the attack, and completed the rout 
of the Botis ; 400 Ladakis, in attempting to escape 
along the bank of tlie river, were overwhelmed by the 
fall of a snow-bed, and 1,200, who had been concealed 
behind a hUl, were made prisoners, along with Moru 
Tadsi,* the Kahlon of Bazgo, and his son Gyurmed.f 
The Dogras lost three of their leaders, namely, TJttam 
Vazir, Hazru Vazir of Una, and Surtu Rana, with 
twenty men, and between fifty and sixty wounded. 

7. ^yter this victory the Dogras were again enabled 
to advance to Paskyum by making use of their prisoners 
for the carriage of their baggage. Prom thence they 
marched by Shergol to Mul])il, where they halted for 
fifteen days, and then proceeded by Kharbu to Lama- 

* Mo-ru-rTii-rDsi, or Mont, master of the horae. Yigue (Kashmir, 
II. p. 352) calls him Marut Tanzin. He was the Kahlou of Chimra, a 
district to the S.E. of Le, on the Eudok road. See Moorcroft's Travels, 
I. p. 425. 

t liGi/ur-med, pronounced Yiirmeil m Great Tibet. 
Z 



338 LADAK. 

Yurru, where they were met by an envoy with a letter 
from Sultan Akabat Mahmud Khan,* suing for peace. 
Eight months,! he said, had now elapsed in the vain 
struggle for independence, and that, if the Vazir would 
promise faithfully that he should not be seized, he would 
himseK come to treat about the terms of peace. To this 
the Vazir at once assented, adding that the king need 
not be under any alarm, as the Dogras wanted nothing 
more than the payment of a regular tribute to their 
master, Maharaja Gulab Sing. On this the Gyalpo 
advanced to Bazgo, and intimated his -wish to have an 
interview, provided the Vazir would not bring a large 
body of men with him. Accordingly the Vazir, Zorawar 
Sing, with Mehta Basti Ram and 100 men, waited upon 
the Gyalpo, whom they found encamped upon the plain 
of Bazgo, J with a party of 2,000 men. The Gyalpo 
received the Vazir kindly, and begged that he w^ould 
move his camp to Bazgo, which was soon afterwards 
done. 

8. When ten days had elapsed, the King wished the 
Vazir to accompany him to Le, but with only a small 
party, lest the inhabitants should become alarmed. 
Zorawar Sing assented, and started for Le with only 100 
men. Soon after their arrival the Vazir waited upon 
the Gyalpo, and was preparing to make his usual offering 

* This is the name by whicli the Dogras always knew this chief. 
They had received it from the Muhammadans of Kashtwar, who of 
course used no other name for the descendant of one who was said to 
have been converted. The Gyalpo's real name was Tonduk Namgyal. 

t As the advance was made in the middle of August, 1834, the defeat 
of the Ladakis must therefore have taken place in the middle of April, 
1835. Vigne (II. p. 353) says the spring of 1835. 

I Bazgo is a very picturesque place situate on the right bank of the 
Indus, twenty miles below Le. 



CONQUEST OF LADAK BY THE DOGRAS. 339 

of a Sadka of Rs. 100* to the Gyalpo's son, named 
Chanp^-raplitan, then only seventeen years of aij^e, when 
the prince, mistaking the action either for an insult or 
for treachery, ch-ew his sword. His followers did the 
same, and the Dogras also drew their swords. On this 
the Gyalpo fell upon his knees and clasped the Vazir's 
hands, while the prince and his followers retired into the 
fort of Le. Some horsemen carried the intelligence to 
the Dogra camp at Bazgo, when 5,000 men started at 
once for Le, which they reached the next morning. 

9. For foiu' months t the Vazir remained at Le, when 
it was finally arranged that the Gyalpo should pay 
Rs. 50,000 for the expenses of the war, and a yearly 
tribute of Rs. 20,000. Of the first, a sum of Rs. 37,000 
was paid at once, partly in cash and partly in jewels. 
The balance the Gyalpo promised to pay in two instal- 
ments, the first of Rs. 6,000 at the end of one month, 
and the second of Rs. 7,000 at the end of four months. 
The Vazir then fell back to Lama Yurru. 

10. At this place he heard that the chief of Sod had 
recaptm'ed his fort, and had put to death the Dogra 
garrison of fifty-five men. By forced marches the 
Dogras reached Sod ; but the enemy having dispersed, 
they halted there for thirteen days. Thence they 
marched thirty-seven and a half miles % in. two days to 
Suru, where they sm'prised the Botis by a night attack. 
Thirteen of the enemy were taken prisoners and hanged 

* A bag of money waved around the bead by the person who 
presents it. 

t As the march from Suru to Le, with ten days' halt at Bazgo, must 
have occupied nearly a whole month, the Vazir could not have left Le 
until the middle of October, 1835. 

X Twenty-five /I'o.s, each kos being as nearly as possible one mile and 
a half. 

z 2 



340 LADAK. 

upon trees ; while by a promise of fifty rupees for every 
head the Dogras obtained 200 prisoners, who were at 
once beheaded. After this the zamindars of the district 
tendered their submission. 

11. Here it was discovered that this rebellion had 
been excited by Mihan Sing, the Sikh governor of 
Kashmir, who had even sent a servant of his own, 
named Jala Sing Gopi, with fifty men, to the assistance 
of the chiefs of Suru and Sod. 

12. Leaving Suru the Vazir marched in ten days to 
Jasku * or Zanskar, the chief of which, together with 
all the zamindars, waited upon him, and agreed to pay 
a tax of three rupees and a half for every house. 

13. Intelligence now arrived that an insurrection had 
broken out in Le ; that the Gyalpo, at the instigation 
of Mihan Sing, the Sikh governor of Kashmir, had 
closed the roads to the merchants ;t that he had 
confiscated the property of Moru Tadsi and the Banka 
Kahlon, and that he had imprisoned and tortured his 
Munshi Daya E,am, on suspicion of his being a partisan 
of the Dogras. This news distressed the Vazir very 
much ; and his anxiety was further increased by the 
difficulty of finding a guide, who would conduct him by 
the direct route to Le, upon which he had determined 
to march at once. Every one professed entire ignorance 
of any du'ect route, untU at length a man named 

* Zanc/s-mKar, which the Dogras invariably call Jasku, and which is 
the Zanskar of our maps. 

t llihan Sing's intention was undoubtedly to force the whole trade 
through Kashmir, which otherwise, owing to the occupation of Ladak 
by the Dogras, would have been turned into other channels leading 
through Kashtwar, and the Dogra territories dependent upon Jamu to 
India. The amount of duties upon merchandise in transit through 
Kashmir had alreadv fallen oil" from this cause. 



CONQUEST OF LAUAK liV THE DOGllAS. 311 

Midplii Sata offered his services, to whom the Vazir 
gave a present of a pair of goldou bracelets, worth 
E.S. 500, besides two rupees a day, and the promise of 
tlie district of Zanskar in perpetuity. 

14. With twelve seers of wheaten flour, and a bag of 
barley upon each horse, the party, under the direction 
of their guide, marcliing from forty-iive to sixty miles * 
a day, in ten days reached the village of Tsumur,t 
where they most unexpectedly heard that the wife and 
son of the Gyalpo were then residing. A party of 500 
horsemen was sent forward to capture them ; but they 
received early intelligence of the movement, and fled to 
L6. On this the Gyalpo waited upon the Vazir at 
Chachot,J and expressed his sorrow and contrition for 
what had occurred. The Vazir demanded why he had 
so shamefully broken his promises, and added, "iUthough 

* From thirty to forty kos a day ; but this is impossible in such a 
country. The probable length of each clay's march cannot be estimated 
at more than thirty uiOes, which would give a total distance of 300 
miles in ten days. The exaggeration, however, is natural to men in 
such circumstances. This march must have taken place in the end of 
November, 1835, at a season of the year when the winter's snow baa 
already set in tliroughout Ladak, and when all the higher passes are 
finally closed. Their route was therefore most probably up the Zanskar 
river, and over the Lunga Lach and Thung-Luug passes to the Indus 
below Gya. By this route they would have travelled about 300 miles. 
I know of no other route that would be passable in November. The 
direct route to Gya from Zanskar is open but for a few months, and 
that which lies down the coui'se of the Zanskar river, and over the 
Singe La to Lama Turru, is closed in October. Besides which, the 
distance by either of these routes would not have been even 150 miles. 

t This is no doubt the large village of Chumri or Ghimra, on the 
right bank of the Lidus, opposite to Marchalang, and on the high road 
leading to Eudok. This position must have been chosen by the raja's 
family for the convenience of escape into the Chinese district of lludok. 

X Chachot is on the left bank of the Indus, between Chumri and Le. 
It is tlie Chushut of Moorcroft. 



342 LABAK. 

we conquered your country with 10,000 men, we did not 
place a single man of our own over any of your districts, 
but left you in sole charge of the whole kingdom." 
The Gyalpo was much ashamed, and promised to be 
faithful for the future. 

15. On the next day the Dogra troops, accompanied 
by the Gyalpo, proceeded to Le, where the Vazir 
demanded the balance of the tribute, amounting to 
Rs. 13,000, besides the additional expenses of the army. 
To pay the first, the Vazir was obliged to take the 
property of the royal ladies ; and in Heu of the second, 
the Kahlon, Achu Ganpu, oflPered tea and wool, gold 
and silver utensils, and other goods, which were 
accepted. The government of the country was then 
bestowed upon Moru-pa Tadsi, the Kahlon of Banka, 
while the Gyalpo was allowed a jaghir.* A fort was 
erected outside the city of L6, and Dalel Sing was ap- 
pointed thanadar of the place with a body of 300 men. 
After this Zorawar Sing proceeded to Jammu, taking with 
him the son of Moru Tadsi, and some other respectable 
men, as hostages for the good behaviour of the new king.f 

16. Before leaving Le, the Vazir had ordered Lakpat 
RaiJ and Basti Ram to proceed against Balde.§ Ac- 

* This was the large viUage of Tok, on the left bank of the Indus, 
opposite to Le. It is stUl held by the Gyalpo's grandson, although three- 
fourths of tlie perquisites formerly attached to it have been resumed. 

t This must have taken place in the spring of 1836, according to the 
narrative, soon after which Vigne appears to have visited Le, where he 
found that the new king, called " Marut Tanziu," was installed, while 
the old king " was living at Tok, over the river, opposite to Le." — 
Vigne's Kashmir, II. p. 354. 

J Lakpat Eai was the governor of Kashmu' in lSi6, and was killed 
in the early part of the rebellion of Shekh Imam-ud-din. 

§ Balde or Palder, the Phaldam of Moorcroft, is the chief place in 
Zanskar. 



CONQUEST OF LADAK BY THE DOGRAS. 343 

coi'dingly they marched with fifteen hundred foot-sol- 
diers by the Zanskar road to Baldc, where they were 
opposed by Budlii Sing Mithania, the chief of the 
district. Victory declared for the Dogras, with a loss 
of eighteen or twenty men killed on their side, and 
about twenty or twenty-five on that of the enemy. 
After a halt of seventeen days, they proceeded towards 
Jammu, leaving a garrison of twenty men in the fort 
of Chatrgarh.* 

17. Maharaja Gulab Sing and the Miaf were both 
very much displeased with the Vazir Zorawar Sing for 
having made over the country to Moru Tadsi, who had 
no claim to it. The Vazir replied that Moru TMsi 
belonged to the royal family of Ladak ; but that since 
his elevation was displeasing to the Maharaja, he would 
depose him on his return to Le. One year after this, 
news was brought that the new king had revolted, that 
he had kUled the thanadar of Balde and his twenty 
men, that twenty others had been made prisoners ; and 
that the Dogra troops throughout the country were 
beleaguered in their different forts. 

18. On hearing this, the Vazir started at once with a 
body of three thousand infantry, and in two months 
reached the district of Balde ; but owing to the swollen 
state of the river he was unable to accomplish anything 
for two months more. J At the end of that time, when 
the river had become passable, the Dogras attacked the 

* Chatrgarh is on the right bank of the Chanab river, 
t Uttam Sing, the eldest son of Gulab Sing, a fine soldier-like young 
man, was kUled at Labor, along with No Nihal Sing, by the faUing of a 



J The swollen state of the river points to the months of July and 
August. The capture was, therefore, most probably made in Sep- 
tember. 



344) LADAK. 

fort of Chatrgarh, which they carried hy storm with a 
loss of fifteen men on their own side, and of twenty on 
that of the enemy. Some twenty or thirty prisoners 
that were taken, had their ears and noses cut off, which 
frightened the people so much that they immediately 
tendered their suhmission. 

19. Leaving a garrison in the fort of Chatrgarh, the 
Vazir again marched into Zanskar over the hills.* On 
this march twenty-five men died from the severe cold, 
and ten men lost their feet and hands in the snow.f On 
reaching Zanskar the Dogras found that the people had 
fled ; but during a halt of two months everything was 
arranged satisfactorily. After that, Rai Sing and Mia 
Tota, with about 1,000 men, advanced towards Le, 
on which Moru Tadsi, the new Gyalpo, who was 
formerly Kahlon of Banka, fled with precipitation from 
the capital. Being closely pursued, he was nearly over- 
taken, when, by the resistance of some of the more 
trustworthy of his followers, he was enabled to continue 
his flight. He was at length captured at the village 
of Tabo,| in Spiti, after a loss of six or seven men on 

* Their route lay over the high pass which leads from Chatrgarh to 
the Balde district of Zanskar. This pass was crossed by Dr. Thomson, 
in June, 1848, who found the boiling point to be 180'3°, at a tempera- 
ture considerably below freezing. The height of the pass must there- 
fore approach very nearly to 19,000 feet. On the Zanskar side there 
was a glacier extending down to 14,500 feet. The loss of so many men 
by the frost is therefore quite credible. 

t As the fort of Chatrgarh did not fall until September, the crossing 
of this pass could not have taken place until October, when, from its 
extreme height, it would of course have been covered with fresh snow. 

X Tabo is on the left bank of the Spiti river, and within five miles 
(by the road) of the British frontier of Upper Kaniiwar. The Banka 
Kahlon's intention was, no doubt, to cross the Spiti river by the Pog 
Jhula, which is only five miles from Tabo. In another hour, therefore, 
he would have been safe. 



CONQUEST OF LABAK BY THE DOGRAS. 3i5 

each side ; on which he was taken back to L6 and 
imprisoned. 

The old Gyalpo, Akabat Mahmud, and the new one, 
Moru Tadsi, were both brought before the Vazir, who 
deposed the latter, and reinstated the former, upon the 
old terms of Rs. 23,000 yearly tribute, but with the 
stipulation that the expenses of the troops which oc- 
cupied the country should also be defrayed by him. 

The Vazir then again proceeded to Jammu, where he 
remained for a whole year,* after which he returned to 
Ladak with 5,000 men, for the purpose of seizing Moru 
Tadsi, the Kahlon of Banka, and Chang Nabdan, the 
Kahlon of Bazgo, both of whom had been plotting 
against the Gyalpo Mahmud Khan.f 

They had been in correspondence with Ahnied Shah 
of Balti, whom they wished to engage in a general rise 
against the Dogra authority. The Balti chief impru- 
dently lent too -oalling an ear to their overtures, and by 
a subsequent act fui'nished the long-looked-for pretext 
for invasion, which Zorawar Sing was but too glad to 
seize upon. Early in 1835 Ahmed Shah being dissatis- 
fied with his eldest son Muhammed Shah, had formally 
disinherited him by the inaugvu'ation of his yovmger 
brother Muhammed Ali. On that occasion Muhammed 
Shah fled to the camp of Zorawar Sing in Suru, and 
claimed his protection. This the wily Vazir readily 
granted ; but not wishing to embroil himself with the 
chief of Balti while the campaign in Ladak was stUl 
before him, he contented himself with giving promises 

* From different statements in the narrative, Zorawar Sing's resi- 
dence at Jammu must have been during the latter half of 1838 and the 
beginning of 1839. 

t Basti Barn's narrative ends here. The remainder of this history 
lias been compiled from other information. 



346 LADAK. 

of future assistance to the Balti prince. After a time 
tlie prince returned to his father ; hut the reconciliation 
could not have been very cordial, for early in 1840 the 
prince fled to Le, and sought refuge with the Gyalpo, 
whom he believed to be a puppet of the Dogra chief. 
The real authority was not, however, in the Gyalpo's 
hands, but in those of his two ministers, the Kahlon of 
Banka and the Kahlon of Bazgo ; and as they were 
anxious to have Ahmed Shah on their side during their 
intended outbreak against the Dogra authority, they 
suggested to him the propriety of sending a party to 
seize his son, to which no resistance would be offered. 
Ahmed Shah at once agreed to this proposal, and a 
small party of fifty men was allowed to carry off the 
Balti prince to Le. 

III.— CONQUEST OF BALTI. 

When Zorawar Sing arrived in Zanskar and heard of 
the flight of Muhammed Shah, he sent strict orders that 
the prince should be treated with kindness and respect, 
intending, perhaps, to use him as a tool for the further- 
ance of his master's view upon Balti. But shortly after, 
when he heard of the prince's seizure by a party of Balti 
troops, he determined at once upon the conquest and 
annexation of that principality. A letter was, however, 
first addressed to Ahmed Shah, informing him that his 
son, who had sought the Maharaja's protection, had 
been forcibly carried off by a party who had invaded the 
Ladak territory, and that, unless the prince was sent 
back again, the Dogra troops would enter Balti and 
force his release. To this letter Ahmed Shah deigned 
no reply. 



CONQUEST OF BALTI. 317 

Accordingly, in the end of the year 1810, the Vazir 
assembled an army of 15,000 men, and a large body of 
Ladakis, for the conquest of Balti. Ahmed Shah also 
prepared himself for the struggle, and was joined by a 
large party of discontented Ladakis, who, after crossing 
the Indus, destroyed the bridge, to delay the advance of 
the Dogras. Zorawar Sing was obliged, therefore, to 
march down the right bank of the river, which he 
followed steadily for twenty-five days, receiving the sub- 
mission of the chiefs of Khatakchau and Khapolor, but 
without finding any place where the army could be 
crossed. He then detached Mia Nidhan Sing, with a 
body of 5,000 men, by way of Shigar, to look for a road, 
and to collect provisions, which had now become very 
scarce in the Dogra camp. But the Baltis kept a good 
look-out, and had early intelligence of this movement. 
Mia Nidhfin Sing was allowed to advance unmolested 
for about fifteen miles, when his party were surrounded 
and attacked by thousands, and he himself was cut off 
with nearly the whole of liis detachment. 

About 400 men only managed to find their way back 
to the Dogra camp with the tale of their defeat. At the 
same time the winter set in with a heavy fall of snow,* 
and as provisions were extremely scarce, the Dogra 
troops became so much dispirited, that their discipline 
was seriously affected. With an impassable river in 
their front, and certain starvation both from cold and 
hunger, whether they retreated or remained in then* 
present position, the majority of the troops paid no 
attention to orders, and of the few who still obeyed, 
none did so with alacrity. 

* Vigne, II. p. 266, states that there are occasional winters of great 
severity. 



348 LADAK. 

The Dogra army had halted in this position for fifteen 
days, exposed to frost hy night and to hunger by day. 
Many had sought shelter from the snow amongst the 
overhanging rocks, and there they sat listless and vacant, 
and utterly indifferent whether they should be cut off by 
the sword of the enemy, or be frozen to death by the cold. 
The Vazir saw the desperate state in which he was placed, 
and roused himself to discover a passage across the river, 
but after several hours' vain search he returned in the 
evening wearied and desponding. Upon this Mehta 
Basti Ram and some others, to the niunber of about 
forty, determined to make a last effort to extricate them- 
selves from their difficulties. At midnight, with only 
one companion, Basti Bam examined the bank of the 
river for several miles, while his party kept up a smart 
fire upon the Botis on the opposite banlv, to distract their 
attention. At length they discovered a place where the 
river was frozen over sufficiently thick to bear a man's 
weight, save about twenty feet in the middle, where the 
ice was thin. Then, sending for assistance, they cut 
down trees and placed them over the weaker parts of the 
ice, and by five o'clock in the morning the Indus was 
passable. 

Intelligence was sent at once to the Vazu", by whose 
order this small party of forty men was the first to cross 
the Indus ; but they had been so benumbed by their 
night's work, and by then* previous exposure, that ten 
of them sank down exhausted, and afterwards lost their 
hands and feet, and eighteen others were unable to get 
through the snow. Basti Bam was then left with only 
twelve men, which the Botis percei\dng, they moved to 
attack him ; but, in the mean time, Zorawar Sing, 
having roused a number of his men, pointed out to them 



CONQUEST OF BALTI. 349 

that the river was passable, and that it had ah-eady been 
crossed by some of their more adventurous fellow-soldiers. 
Upon this a nimiber of Dogras advanced gladly to the 
attack. The Indus was rapidly passed, and the small 
party of daring men, after a smart fight, was safe. The 
Botis retreated, leaving 200 men dead on the field, and 
100 men wounded. The Dogras lost only 25 killed, and 15 
or 16 wounded in the action ; but they had about 500 
men more or less disabled by the loss of hand or foot 
during the exposure to the snow of the last few days. 

The retreating Botis were pursued, and slaughtered 
for nine miles, as far as Marwan, where the ^dctorious 
Dogras pitched their camp. The Vazir halted there for 
a few days to re-organize his troops, and to reward those 
who had distinguished themselves in the last action. 
To Mehta Basti Ram he gave Rs. 500 and a pau' of gold 
bangles, and to thirty-two others of his party he gave 
similar presents of less value, to some Bs. 100, to some 
Bs. 50, and to others Bs. 40, according to their deserts. 

Zorawar Sing then advanced to Skardo, and after 
some desultory fii'ing, the fort was sm-rendered by 
Ahmed Shah for want of water.* He Avas shortly after- 
wards deposed by Zorawar Sing, who installed his eldest 
son Muhammed Shah in his room, on the promised 
payment of an annual tribute of Bs. 7,000. But the 
astute commander, who had profited by his experience 
in Ladak, would not leave this new conquest to the 
doubtful faith of a son of Ahmed Shah. A small 
garrison of trustworthy soldiers was placed in a new" 
fort on the bank of the river, to confirm the faithfulness 
of the new king, and Ahmed Shah and his favourite son 

* Ahmed Shah retired to the fort before Zorawar's arrival, having 
first set fire to his own palace. 



350 LADAK. 

were carried off as prisoners to Ladak. In tliis campaign 
the invaders lost about 200 men, and tlie Botis about 
300 men. 

Previous to the conquest of Skardo, the old king of 
Ladak, Tonduk Namgyal (or Akabat Mahmud), had 
been accused of having intrigued vrith Ahmed Shah 
for a simultaneous and organized rising of the Tibetans 
of Ladak and Balti. He may, perhaps, have been 
wrongfully accused ; but as his feelings must naturally 
have inclined him to think favourably of any enemy of 
the Dogras, it would have been impolitic to have left 
him behind, as the absence of the conquering troops 
might have tempted him to rebel. Zorawar Sing there- 
fore carried Tonduk Namgyal with him on his expedition 
against Skardo. The old man had outlived the downfall 
of his country ; he had survived close personal restraint 
and bitter indignity ; but when his last hope was cut off 
with the fall of Skardo, he gave way to despondency, 
and being attacked with small-pox, he died within a 
month after the anjiexation of Balti to the Jammu vice- 
royalty of the Sikh dominions. On the death of Akabat 
Mahmud, his grandson Jigmet Singge Namgyal, a 
mere boy, was acknowledged as Gyalpo by Zorawar 
Sing. The father of this lad. Prince Chovang (or 
Chang) Raphtan Namgyal, fled first to Hundar in 
Nubra, and afterwards to Spiti, on the deposal of 
Akabat Mahmud. In October, 1837, he reached Sara- 
han, in Bisahar ; and in April, 1838, he came to 
Kotgurh, where he resided until his death in 1839. 
He was then about twenty-one years of age. His vdfe, 
a daughter of the Kahlon Chovang Tandup, remained 
in Ladak with her young son Jigmet Singge. 



351 



IV.— INVASION OF TIBET. 

Elated with his success, Zorawar Sing now threatened 
the neighbouring states, and even talked of invading 
Yiirkand. But the Lhasan provinces of Rudok and 
Ngari were more accessible ; and the unscrupulous 
conqueror revived the old claims of Ladak to those 
districts which had been alienated siuce the time of 
Singge Namgyal. It was enough for him that the 
monasteries were known to possess vessels and in- 
struments of gold and silver for the service of religion ; 
and that the country produced the finest shawl-wool. 
The plunder of the first would enrich himself and his 
soldiers, and the acquisition of the latter would be highly 
pleasing to his master, as it would throw the whole 
trade in shawl- wool into the hands of the Jammu Raja. 

In the month of May, 1811, vdih an army of 5,000 
men, he advanced up the valley of the Indus, and 
plimdered the monasteries of Hanle and Tashigong. 
His troops penetrated to Rudok and Garo, both of 
which submitted without striking a blow. The con- 
queror then passed the sources of the Indus, and 
established his head-quarters on the Sutluj at Tirtha- 
puri, in Guge, the priucipal place in the holy district of 
Lake Manasarovara. The whole cotmtry was now 
occupied by parties of Dogra and Ladaki soldiers. 
Basti Ram was stationed at Takla-Khar, on the Karnali 
or Gogra river, close to the frontiers of Kumaon and 
Nepal. Rahim Khan, a half-blood Musalman of 
Chachot, was placed over Spiti, while Ghulam Khan, 
his son-in-law, was employed in the congenial occupation 
of pkmdering the monasteries and temples. This work 
he executed with iconoclastic fury. The gold and the 



352 LADAK. 

silver were reserved for his master; but the plastic 
images of clay, the books and the pictures, excited the 
religious bigotry of the Musalman, and were indiscrimi- 
nately destroyed. 

The news of this invasion was speedily carried to 
Lhasa ; and about the 7th of November, Zorawar Sing 
first heard of the approach of a Chinese force. He at 
once detached a small party of 300 men, under Nono- 
Sungnam,* to oppose the advance of the Chinese ; but 
the detachment was surroimded at Kar-dam-Khar, to 
the south of the Rawan-Hrad lake, and almost cut to 
pieces. The Nono himself escaped, and was again 
detached on the 19th of November, with a larger force 
of 600 men, under the joint command of himself and 
Ghulam Khan ; but this party was also surrounded 
and cut to pieces, and the leaders were both made 
prisoners. 

Zorawar Sing, still treating the Chinese with contempt, 
although they numbered about 10,000 men, or three 
times the strength of his own force, at once advanced from 
his position at Tirthapuri with the whole of his available 
troops. The two armies first met on the 10th December, 
and began a desultory fire at each other, which continued 
for three days. On the 12th Zoraw^ar Sing w^as struck 
in the shoulder by a ball, and as he fell from his horse 
the Chinese made a rush, and he was surrounded and 
slain. His troops -n^ere soon thrown into disorder, and 
fled on all sides, and his reserve of 600 men gave them- 
selves up as prisoners. All the principal oflficers were 
captured, and out of the whole army, amounting with 

* No-no is the title given to a younger brother. Nono Sungnam (or 
Sodnam) was the younger brother of Chang Eaphtan, the Kahlon of 
Bazgo. 



INVASION OF TIBET. 353 

its camp-followers to G,000 men, not more than 1,000 
escaped alive, and of these some 700 were prisoners of 
war. 

The Indian soldiers of Zorawar Sing fought under 
very great disadvantages. The battle-field w'as upwards 
of 15,000 feet above the sea, and the time mid-winter, 
when even the day temperature never rises above the 
freezing-point, and the intense cold of night can only be 
borne by people well covered with sheepskins and sur- 
rounded by fires. For several nights the Indian troops 
had been exposed to all the bitterness of the climate. 
Many had lost the use of their fingers and toes ; and all 
were more or less frost-bitten. The only fuel procurable 
was the Tibetan furze, which yields much more smoke 
than fire ; and the more reckless soldiers had actually 
bui'ned the stocks of their muskets to obtain a little 
temporary warmth. On the last fatal day not one-half 
of the men could handle their arms ; and when a few 
fled, the rush became general. But death was waiting 
for them all ; and the Chinese gave up the pursuit to 
secm'c theu" prisoners and plunder the dead, well know- 
ing that the unrelenting frost would spare no one. A 
few men made theu" way to their brethren at Takla- 
Khar ; but that garrison was so dismayed by the defeat, 
that they fled precipitately, even over the snowy moun- 
tain-range, near the head of the Kali river, into the 
British pro\4nce of Kumaon. But even in this un- 
opposed flight one-half of the men were killed by frost, 
and many of the remainder lost their fingers and toes. 
These few, and the prisoners, form the whole number 
that escaped with their lives.* 

* In this very month, and in tho same year, 1841, the British army, 
of about ttie same strength, \vas destroyed at Kabul. 
2 A 



354 LADAK. 

Amongst the prisoners were Ahmed Shah, the ex- 
ruler of Skardo, and his favourite son Ali Muliammed, 
whom Zorawar Sing was afraid to leave hehind. The 
old man was treated with kindness, and even with dis- 
tinction ; but his heart was broken, and he pined and 
died in a few months. Other prisoners of distinction 
were, 1st, Rai Sing, Zorawar's second in command, for 
whose liberation Maharaja Gulab Sing -washed the Gover- 
nor-General to intercede with the Lhasan authorities, 

2nd. Chang-NaMan, the Kahlon of Bazgo, whose 
wife, a buxom rosy-cheeked dame, came crying to me in 
1847 at Nyimo, to do something for her husband's 
release. She had written every year to him by different 
persons, but had never got any reply, as no communi- 
cations were allowed with the prisoners. 

3rd. Nono-Sungnam, the brother of the last. These 
two brothers were considered particular friends of the 
invaders, and were therefore treated more harshly than 
the multitude. 

4th. Ghuldm Khmi, the active plunderer and dese- 
crator of the Buddhist temples, was tortured mth hot 
irons. His flesh was picked off in small pieces with 
pincers ; and, mangled and bleeding, he was left to learn 
how slow is the approach of death to a wretch lingering 
in agony. 

During the A;\'inter the Cliinese re-occupied the whole 
of the Garo territory, and early in the spring of 1842 a 
body of about 3,000 men advanced into Ladak, and laid 
siege to the new fort at Le.* They were joined by the 
boy-king Jigmet Namgyal, and the unwarlike Tibetans 

* The people of Balti also rose ; but they were soon reduced by a 
small force under Vazir Lakpat, who destroyed the fort and palace, to 
prevent the chance of another insurrection. 



INVASION OF TIBET. 355 

once more began to dream of independence. But after 
a short reign of six weeks, Dewdn Hari Chand and 
Vazir Ratanu advanced with, fresh troops, and the Tibe- 
tans were rudely awakened from their di-eam of liberty 
by the musketry of their old enemies, and the 3,000 
would-be heroes who had talked of invading Kashmir, 
fled ignominiously towards Rudok. There they recovered 
themselves, and taking up a strong position, they deter- 
mined to await the approach of winter, and then join in 
a general rising against the Indian invaders. But the 
simple Tibetan was no match for the wily Indian, and 
the Lhasan commander was soon made a prisoner by 
stratagem. The strong position of the Tibetans was 
shortly afterwards turned ; and the Lhasan Vazir was 
glad to be permitted to retire on the single condition 
that the old boundary between Ladak and China should 
be re-established. 

In the autumn of 1846, during the rebellion of Shekh 
Imamuddin in Kashmir, there Avas a slight disturbance 
in Zanskar, which was promptly repressed by the Vazir 
Basti Ram, who is now one of the confidential servants 
of Maharaja Gulab Sing. Since then the whole country 
has been quiet ; and the passive Tibetans have yielded 
to a power which they find it unsafe to resist. The 
neighbouring districts of Gilgit and Chalas have been 
added to the Maharaja's kingdom ; and the same prince, 
whose dominions only twenty years ago were limited to 
the petty state of Jammu, now rules undisputed master 
of Kashmir and Western Tibet, from the sources of the 
Shay ok to the head of the Gilgit river. 



2 A 2 



356 



XIIL-EELIGION. 



I.— EAELT EELIGION OF TIBET. 

The religion of Tibet is a modified form of Indian 
Buddhism. This faith was first introduced into Ladak 
dvu'ing the reign of Asoka, upwards of 2,000 years ago, 
when that great follower of Buddha was propagatiag his 
new religion with all the zealous ardour of a proselyte. 
In 241 B.C., at the close of the third synod, numerous 
missionary teachers were despatched to all the sur- 
rounding countries to spread the peaceful doctrines of 
Sakya Mvmi. The Thcro-IIajjhanUko (Sanskr. Sthavira 
Madhyamika) was deputed to Kashmir and Gandhara ;* 
and, upwards of six centuries afterwards, the people on 
the Indus still attributed the spread of Buddhism 
" beyond the river " to some Sramanas (or ascetics) 
who came with sacred hooks, 300 years after the 
Nirvana of Buddha,t or in B.C. 243. The agreement of 
these dates gives to the two events the relation of cause 
and eff'ect, the conversion of the people having been the 
result of the mission. 

The spread of Buddhism in Ladak was followed by its 
introduction into China, about the beginning of the 

* Mahawanso, p. 71. t Fo-kwe-ki, c. VII. 



EARLY RELIGION OF TIBET. 357 

Christian era, and into Great Tibet in the middle of the 
seventh centauy. 

Previous to the occupation of Tibet by Khri-Tsampo, 
in about 250 B.C., there is nothing kno-mi of its history, 
oxccpting the fact that the people were of the Bon or 
Pon religion, which, like that of the Indian Tirthakaras, 
was an epicui-ean atheism. According to the Mogul 
author Sanang Setzen, Klm-Tsampo was an Indian 
prince of the Litsabyi (or Lichhavi) race, who, being 
conquered in war, had sought refuge in Tibet, where he 
was hospitably received, and afterwards proclaimed king 
by the people, who are called the Dehchin Bonbo of 
heaven, and the Yang Bonbo of earth.* Csoma de 
Koros repeats a similar story, with the addition that 
Nya-Khri-Tsampo, "being defeated in battle," fled to 
Tibet, where he was acknowledged as king by the Tons. 
The date of 250 B.C., assigned to this event by Csoma, 
makes the Lichha\'i prince a contemporary of the great 
Buddhist king Asoka, by whom he was most probably 
expelled from India ; for the Lichhavi family had been 
the leading people in the community of Vaisali for 
many centuries, during which time they distinguished 
themselves by their fierce opposition to the Buddhists. 
They opposed Sakya himself in argument, and were 
silenced, but not convinced by him. The Lichhavis of 
VaisaH professed entire belief in Swasti, from wliich 
they derived their name of Swastikas, or followers of 

* M. Sclimidt supposes that these terms indicate the people of the 
mountains and valleys. They may, however, denote only different sects ; 
the one aftecting heavenly aspirations, the other leaning to earthly 
objects. DehcJun is most probably Tibetan,- — the "blissful," — which 
is used by the Tibetans as an equivalent of the Sanskrit Sittjata, the " well- 
gone," or blessed, an epithet of former Buddhas. Yany may be the 
Tibetan Yangs, great, vast. 



358 LADAK. 

the "mystic cross," which was a monogrammatic 
sign, formed of the letters su and ti. The combination 
stiti is the Pali form of the Sanskrit sicastl, wliich is 
compoxmded of su, well, and asii, it is. Wilson gives 
the meaning of "so-be-it;" but both versions equally 
imply complete resignation under all ckcumstances, 
which was the chief dogma of the fatalist Swastikas. 
These followers of the mystic cross held the doctrine of 
eternal anniliilation after death ; from which they 
derived theu- Tibetan name of Mu-stegs-pa, or "Finiti- 
mists."* According to the Tibetans, they were in- 
decent in their dress, and grossly atheistical in their 
principles. They called themselves Tlrthakara, or 
"pure doers;" and the synonymous name of Puny a, 
"the pure," was carried with them into Tibet, where 
it became celebrated for ages, and where it stUl sur- 
vives as Pon amongst the Finitimists of the eastern 
province of Kham 

According to the Chinese, the founder of the doctrine 
of the Tao-sse, or Rationalists, was Laotze, who Hved 
from about B.C. 604 to 523. He was therefore a con- 
temporary of Sakya Muni, by whom he is said to have 
been worsted in argument. By the Tibetan Buddhists 
he is called Sen-rabs ;t but this perhaps signifies nothing 
more than that he was of the race or family of Sena. 
His faith continued paramount in Great Tibet for nine 
centuries, until Buddhism was generally introduced by 
Srong-Stan in the middle of the seventh century. But 
the followers of the Yimg-drung-pa, or " mystic cross," 
were still powerful ; and in A.D. 899 Buddhism was 
formally abolished by Lang Tarma, and was not again 

* Csoma de Koros, Grammar, p. 192. 
t Id. ibid. p. ISl. 



EARLY RELIGION OF TIBET. 359 

introduced for more than seventy years, until, in A.D. 
971, it was finally restored, and lias since continued to 
be the dominant religion of Tibet. 

The great spread of the Pon-gyi-chho, or Pon religion, 
can be best appreciated by the traces of its former 
existence in the widely distant regions of Arakan and 
Ladak. The people of Arakan give a long line of fifty- 
live Piin-na princes * as theu' earliest sovereigns, a 
djTiasty which must have reigned for at least 600 years. 
In Ladak the great monastery of Lama Yttrru is still 
called Yung-druny-Gonpa, or the "monastery of the 
mystic cross." The establishment of this monastery is 
attributed to Naropa, a Lama from Brigung, near 
Lhasa ; but it seems more probable that the name of 
Lama Yurru was derived from the Lama, because he had 
suppressed the faith of the mystic cross (i/unff-dnii/g), 
and had established the Lamaic doctrine of Buddhism. 

But Buddhism was the prevailing religion of Ladak 
from the conversion of the people by Asoka's mission- 
aries down to A.D. 400, when Fa Hian visited India. At 
that time he found Buddhism flourisliing in the little 
state of Kia-chhe, or Ladak, as well as in Kotan and 
other small states to the northward of the Tsung Ling, 
or Karakoram. The king of Kie-chha (Kha-chan, or 
" Snow-land)" still celebrated the great qumquennial 
assembly t of the Sramanas which had been established 
by Asoka. The ceremony, which lasted for one month, 
was conducted A\ith becoming gravity, and closed by the 



* Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, XIII. p. 31, — Captain Latter. 

t In the Gryalpo's tune, the Lamas assembled annually at Le, in the 
month of Tang-po (March), and were dismissed with presents. They 
now assemble at Hemis, in June. In this monastery there are still 
160 Lamas. 



360 LADAK. 

distribution of presents amongst tlie Sramanas. As Fa 
Hian noticed nothing unusual in these proceedings, ayb 
may conclude that the Buddhism of Ladak was the 
same as that of India. The number of Sramanas was 
more than 1,000, all of whom were satisfied with the 
study of the " Lesser Advancement," as laid down in 
the Vinaya, or " Precepts of Discipline," which com- 
prised only the lowest class of Sakyas precepts. But 
though the Buddhism of the people of Ladak was 
perfectly orthodox in A.D. 400, yet Fa Hian noticed a 
peculiarity in their practice, which was unkno^Ti to the 
Indian Buddhists. " The Sramanas," he says, " make 
use of revolving cylinders, the efl&cacy of which is not to 
be described."* These were no doubt the prayer- 
cylinders which are seen in. the hands of the Indo- 
Scythian princes on their coins, and which may still be 
found in every Lama's hand throughout Ladak. 



II.— TIBETAN SYSTEM OE BUDDHISM. 

The religion of the Tibetan Buddhists is contained in 
a voluminous work called the Kah- G-yur, or " Transla- 
tion of Precepts," because it is a version of the precepts 
of Sakya, made from the Indian language. It is also 
frequently called De-not-sum, which is a mere transla- 
tion of the Sanscrit Tripitaka, or the " Three Reposi- 
tories," because it contains the three great divisions of 
the Buddhist doctrines : the Vinaya, the Sutra, and 
the Abhidharma. But the Tibetan version is more 
generally divided into seven distinct classes, of which 
the last treats of the mystical doctrines of the Tantrikas. 
These seven divisions are the following : — 

* Fo-kwe-ki, e. V., note, — " objet circulaire et toiirnant." 



TIBETAN SYSTEM OF BUDDHISM. 



361 



- 


Tibetan. 


Sanskrit. 


English. 


1 


Dul-va 


Vinaya 


Discipline. 


2 


Sber-cbin ... 


Prajnaparamita . . . 


Transcendental 
Wisdom. 


3 


Phal-cbhen 


BuddbavataSangba 


Baudha Community. 


4 


Kon-tsck ... 


Eatnakuta 


Pile of Gems. 


5 


Do 


Sutranta 


Aphorisms. 


6 


Nyang-Das 


jN'irvaua 


Final release from 

Existence. 


7 


Gjut 


Tantra 


Mystical Doctrines. 



The three divisions are as follows : — 



- 


Tibetan. 


Sanscrit. 


English. 


1 

2 
3 


Dul-va 

Do 

Cbhos-non-pa 


Vinaya 
Sutranta ... 
Abhidbarma 


Discipline. 
Aphorisms. 
Supreme Law. 



In this division the Do comprises all hut the first two 
of the seven classes. The doctrines contained in these 
works are of course the same as those of the Indian 
Buddhists, but the names have been translated instead 
of being transcribed. 

Sakya Muni, the founder of the Buddhist faith, is 
usually called Chom-dan-das, or "he who has been 
\dctorious," by the Lamas, but ShaJcya Tlmbba, or the 
" mighty Sakya," by the people. The Buddhist Triad, 
called in Sanscrit Batna Trayaya, or the Three Gems, is 
styled Kon-chhok-tun, or the " Three Supremacies," 
by the Tibetans, who give the following names to the 
different members of the Trinity. 

1. Buddha is Sanyya-Kouchok, or the " Supreme " 
Intelligence. 



362 LADAK. 

2. Dharma is Chhos-Kotichok, or the " Supreme " 
Law. 

3. Sangha is Gedun-Konchok, or the " Supreme " 
Congregation.* 

A Buddha, or one who has obtained Buddhahood, 
is styled Sangya ; a Buddhist, Sangya-pa ; and the 
Buddhist religion, So7igya-kyi-chlios. The whole Buddha 
community, in Sanscrit Sangha, is called Gedim, and is 
divided into the same number of classes as in India. 

1. The Bodhisatwa, or True Intelligence, is called 
Chang-chlmb, the perfect or accomplished, and Chaiig- 
chhuh-Sempah, " Perfect Strength of Mind;" because he 
is supposed to have accomplished the grand object of a 
Buddhist's life, by the perfect suppression of all bodily 
desu-es, and by complete abstraction of mind. As the 
Bodhisatwa was often styled Arhanta, or Arhata, the 
" venerable," so the Chang-chhub is frequently called 
'Pa-chom-pa, or " he who has subdued his enemy." 

The Fratyeka, or " Individual Intelligence," is called 
Rang-sangya, or " Self-intelligence ;" and his other name 
of Anaydmi is translated by Phyir-nii-Uong-ha, or " he 
who turneth not out of the way." 

The Srdwaka, or " Auditor," is called Nyau-thos, or 
the " Listener," and his Sanskrit title of Srota-panna 
is rendered by Gyun-dii-zJmg-pa, or " one who has en- 
tered the stream " that leads to happiness. 

In the earliest periods of Buddhism the worship of the 
people was confined to the holy triad of Bnddah, 
Dharma, and Sa/ngha. Much pious reverence was 
shown to the relics of former Buddhas, as well as to 

* The Tibetan names of the Triad are thus spelt: — 1. Sangs-rOijas- 
dKon-mChog. 2. Chlios-dKon-mChog. 3. dGe-mBun-clKoii-mChof/. 



TIBETAN SYSTEM OF BUDDUISJI. 363 

those of Sakya himself, and his priacipal disciples. 
Even so late as A.D. 400, we find Fa Hian recording the 
devotions paid to the relics of Ananda, Sariputra, and 
Mogalana. But previous to this time I know of no 
mention of the great Dhyani Bodliisatwa, Fadma Pcmi, 
who is the regent or present lord of tliis world, nor 
of the equally celebrated Bodhisatwas Ifanjii Sri and 
Avalokltcsioara. These two are first noticed by Ea 
Hian ;* but he is quite sUent regarding Fadma Fdni, 
and the whole of the elaborate system of Dhyani Budhas 
and Bodhisatwas, which are, I presume, the invention 
of a much later date. 

In Ladak at the present day, though the people still 
reverence Shakya Thubba, or the great Buddha (Sangya 
Konchhog), yet their worship is equally given to Fadma 
Fdni, Jdmya, and Clianrazik (or Padma Pani, Manju 
Sri, and Avalokiteswara), and though they still confirm 
an oath by appealing to the Kon-chhog-Simi, or " Three 
Supremacies," of the Buddhist triad, yet, when they 
undertake any enterprise, or begin a journey, their 
prayers for success are almost invariably addressed to 
Padma Pani. 

The system of Dhyani Buddhas and Bodhisatwas, 
which has long been known throughout Tibet, was first 
made known to the European world by Mr. Hodgson. t 
The self-existent Adi Buddha, by five spontaneous acts 
of divine wisdom {jnydn), and by five exertions of 
mental reflection (dhydn), created the Pancha-Dhyani 
Buddha, or " Eive Celestial Buddhas," whose names are 
as follows : — 

* Fo-kwe-ki, c. VII. t Hodgson's BuddliiBtri, p. 40. 



364 



- 


Sanscrit. 


Tibetan. 


1 

2 
3 
4 
5 


Vairocliana ... 

Akshobya 

Eatna Sambhava 

Amitabha 

Amogha Siddha 


Nam-par-snang-dsat. 

Hod-pag-med. 
Tung-shak. 



Each of these Buddhas again, by the mere exertion 
of his inherent jnydn and dhydn, is said to have created 
a Bodhisatwa. The invention of the Fancha Dhydni 
Buddha Sdktis, or female energies, which are known 
both in Nepal and in Tibet, must therefore belong to a 
later period. 

The Buddha Saktis are the following : — 



- 


Sanscrit. 


Tibetan. 


1 

2 
3 
4 
5 


Vajra Dateswari 
Lochana 

Mamiikhi 

Pandara 

Tara 


Nang-Sahna. 

Kos-kar-chen. 
G-rolma. 



The five Dhyani Bodhisatwas are the following : — 



- 


Sanscrit. 


Tibetan. 


English. 


1 

2 
3 
4 
5 


Samanta Bhadra... 
Vajra-Pani 
Eatna- Paui 
Padma-Pani 
Viswa-Pani 


Kuntu-Zang-po .. 
Lag-nivDorje 

Chakna-Padma* ... 


Supreme Happiness. 

Scepti-e-bearer. 

Jewel-bearer. 

Lotul-bearer. 

World-bearer. 



The Lokestoaras (Jigien-Bangchukf) arc also acknow- 



* Fhyag-na-Dorje, prououuccd CJiakna-Dorje. 

t liJig-rTen-dBang-Pliyug, " the Lord of the World." 



TIBETAN SYSTEM OF BUDDHISM. 305 

ledged in Tibetan Buddhism. All these are celestial 
beings, the spontaneous emanations from the Divinity, 
who have never been subject to the pains of transmigra- 
tion. Inferior to them are the created or mortal beings, 
who are divided into six classes, named Droba-Bikdruk, 
the " six advancers or progressors," because then- souls 
progress by transmigration from one state to a better 
state, until they finally attain absorption into the divine 
essence ; after which they are no longer subject to trans- 
migration. These six classes are — 

1. LM, " Gods," equivalent to the Hindu Sura and Beta. 

2. Lhi-ma-yin, or Llia-min, " Demi-gods or Titans," equivalent to the 

Hindu Asura and Daitya. 

3. Mi, " Man ;" the Sanskrit Manusluja. 

4. Dudro, " Brutes ;" in Sanscrit Tiryyaka, " crookedly," because 

they walk a little out of the right path. 

5. YiJok, " Goblins;" in Sanscrit preto. 

6. Myalba, " the damned ;" in Sanscrit JVdraka.* 

It is one of the most essential dogmas of the doctrine 
of transmigration that the disembodied soul is incapable 
of receiving either reward or punishment. Hence the 
behef in other grades of mortal beings, both superior 
and inferior to man. The good man, after death, is 
supposed to be raised to the dignity of a Lhamayin, or 
demi-god, while the bad man is degraded to the state of 
a Dudro, or brute. These different orders of beings were 
not the invention of the Buddhists, for they existed long- 
before the rise of Buddhism, and were the offspring of 
man's yearning for a future and hetter state. Like as in 
India, where the Brahmans have declared all the ancient 

* The hells are divided into eight cold and sixteen hot hells, -nhich 
are favourite subjects of representation with the Chinese and Tibetan 
painters. The punishments are not everlasting ; finite sin is expiated by 
finite punishment ; and when the expiation is completed, the person is 
bom again. See also Fra Orazio, Nouv. Jour. As. torn. XIV. p. 410. 



1. 

2. 


miii-Llid 
Chhuhi-Lha ... 


3. 

4. 
5. 
6. 


Shinggi-Lha ... 
Zhi-Lha* ... 
Zhing-Lha . . . 
Khyim-Lha . . . 



366 LADAK. 

village Thakiirs and Debis to be only so many different 
forms of Mahadeo and Parbati, so in Tibet the Lamas 
have craftily grafted into tbeir system all the ancient 
gods and spirits of the former inhabitants. Hence, 
though Buddhism is the prevailing religion of the 
country, yet the poorer people still make their offerings 
to their old divinities, the gods of the hills, the woods, 
and the dales. Some of these divinities are the fol- 
lowing : — 

Mountain Gods, or Oreades. 
Eiver Gods, or Naiades. 
Tree Gods, or Dryades. 
Family Gods, or Lares. 
Field Gods, or Leimoniades. 
. . House Gods, or Penates. 

In after-times the mystical system of the Tantrists 
was engrafted on the Buddhism of Nepal and Tibet ; and 
the pictures of the prevailing red and yellow sects are 
filled with representations of the three-eyed destroying 
VargcJmJc (Iswara), and of his blood-drinking spouse 
Chang-Simima (the three-eyed goddess Trilochana). 
These doctrines were named Ncoig-pa, the esoteric or 
orthodox, in contradistinction to the Phyipa, exoteric or 
heterodox. With them, I believe, originated the filthy 
system of Buddha Saktis, or female energies of the 
Pancha Dhyani Buddhas, in which the yoni, or female 
symbol, plays a prominent part. 

* gZhis-LTid. Lha is the generic name of God ; hence, Buddha is 
called LM-yi-LJid, the " God of Gods." The similarity of this name to 
the Eoman Lar, and to the old Arabic Hah, God, is very striking. I 
may notice here, that the usual translation of the Musalman Kalimeh, 
iw ill iW D La Hall ila Allah, " there is no God but God," is a manifest 
truism. The true translation is, " there is no God but Allah.'" 



367 



III.— DIFFERENT SECTS— LAMAS. 

DurinEj the palmy days of Indian Buddhism, the faith 
of the Tibetans most probably partook of all the different 
fluctuations of belief that prevailed in India. The most 
ancient religious sect that is noAV known is the Nyimapa, 
all of whom wear red dresses. Most of the Lamas in 
Ladak and Ngari are of this sect. In the middle of the 
eighth century TJrgyan Rhipoche (the gem of Urgyan, or 
Padma Sambhava) was invited into Tibet by Khrisrong 
De-tsan. He is said to have been an incarnation of the 
Dhyani Buddha Amitabha [Hod-pag-med). He was the 
founder of a new sect, who differ from the Nyimapas 
chiefly in their worship of this incarnation. In the 
eleventh century Tibet was visited by Chovo-Atisha, a 
Bengali Pundit, who infused new vigour amongst the 
votaries of Buddhism. His pupU Bromsioii founded the 
Rareng monastery, and originated the Kdhdampa* sect, 
or those who are content with the observance of the 
" precepts" {kah), without caring for the acquirement 
of the higher branches of transcendental wisdom. The 
followers of these three sects all wear red dresses. 
Another sect, the Sdkyapas, also wear red ; but I know 
nothing of their peculiar tenets. 

In the middle of the fourteenth century appeared the 
great Lama Tsong kliapa. Some say that he was an 
incarnation of Amitabha (llod-pag-med), and others of 
Manju Sri {Jdmyu). He was born in 1355, and died in 
1419. He built the temple of Gdhlddn, and was the 
first great abbot {klidnpo), who occupied the Gahldan 

* hKah-rjDamK-pa, " followers of the precepts." — Csoma, Grammar, 
p. 197. 



368 LADAK. 

chair, wliich has been filled by a succession of abbots 
down to the present day. 

The earlier abbots or patriarchs were the following :* — 



Tsong-klia-pa 

Darma Einclilieu 
Gelek Paldan 
Zhalu Lekpa 
Logros Chhos 
Baso Chhosgyan 
Logros Tanpa 
Mon Lampal 



born 1355 A.D. 

founded Gralildan 1407 
born 1417 
1429 
1436 
1448 
1461 
1471 
1478 



Previous to the establishment of the Gdhl-ddn chair 
by Tsongkhapa, there would appear to have been no 
great patriarchs, or head abbots, of the Lama'ic priest- 
hood; but the principle being once established, the 
attainment of this rank became an object of ambition, 
and the great abbots of Gdlildan were soon eclipsed by 
the supei'ior piety, greater leai'ning, and more active zeal 
of the abbots of TasM-Lhunioo.i But the fame of Tsong- 
khapa was confirmed. He had established the annual 
feast of " intense supplication," which is still observed, 
and had originated the great sect of Geliikpa (the vir- 
tuous), which are distinguished from the older sects 
by a yellow dress. This sect is now the most numerous 
in Tibet, and both the Dalai Lama of Lhasa and the 
Tashi Lama of Tashi-Lhunpo belong to it. Tsongkhapa's 
memory is still venerated throughout Tibet. Pictures 
of him are hung vip in all the temples, and the holy 
impressions of his hands and feet are said to be preserved 



* Csoma's Chronologj'. Grammar, p. 181. 

t hKrorshis-Lhun-po, the " mass of glory." It is pronounced Taslii, 
and is a very common man's name. Lhun-po is the English word 
" lump;" and the Greek O-Xvfi-Ko-i. 



DIFFERENT SECTS — LAMAS. 369 

in butter* iu the western chamber of the Potala mo- 
nastery. 

Gedtoi Tuh-i)a (" the perfect Lama "), the founder of 
Tashi-Lhimpo, was born in A.D. 1339. He built the 
temple in 1445, and died in 1474. Before his death he 
had supplanted the abbots of Gdhlddii in the estimation 
of the people, and his successors have enjoyed the repu- 
tation which he established : for previous to his time 
the great abbots of Gahldan had been elected by the 
choice of the Lamas ; but the bold and original mind of 
Gedun Tub-pa devised the present system of a perpetual 
incarnation. He himself was said to be an incarnation 
of the celestial Bodhisatwa Padma Pani; and at his 
death he relinquished the attainment of Buddhahood, 
that he might be born again and again, for the benefit 
of mankind. He died in 1473, and in 1474 his successor 
Gedun Gya-tsho (the Ocean of Lamas) was discovered as 
an infant by the possession of certain divine marks. 
The fifth in succession, Navang Lozang Gyatsho, founded 
the hierarchy of Dalai Lamas at Lhasa, iu 1640, and 
made himself master of the whole of Tibet. la 1643 
he rebuilt the Potala monastery, and in 1650, after 
repeated solicitations, he paid a \^sit to the Emperor of 
China. The inscription of the Emperor lOiang-hi, en- 
graved on stone, calls the grand Lama of Lhasa, who 
had been reigning in 1642 (that is, Navang-Lozang), the 
fifth Dalai Lama. But he was in fact the first Dalai 
Lama, although he was the fifth Tashi Lama who had 

* Nouv. Journ. As. 1S30, p. 169. Father Hyacinthe. The prints of 
the Grand Lama's hands -nere eagerly souglit for by the people. — Turner, 
459. Several of my pictures have these prints on the back. I have 
also a sanad, or grant, by the Emperor Akbar, which bore on the back 
the print of his royal hand. 

2b 



370 



ladak. 



occupied the cliair of Tashi Lhunpo. Since his time 
there have been two great Lamas, the one called the 
Dalai Lama, occupying the chair at Lhasa, and the 
other called the Tashi Lama, filling the chair at Tashi 
Lhunpo, Precedence is given to the Dalai Lama, both 
in writing and in conversation; but their influence is 
pretty equally divided. Both chairs are filled by a suc- 
cession of supposed incarnations, and generally the elder 
of the two is the most influential. The succession from 
Gedun Tiibpa down to the present day is the following : 



- 


Written Names. 


Spoken Names. 


Date. 
A.D. 


Remarks. 


1 


(IGe-hDun-G rub-pa . . 


Gedun-Tubba . . 


1389 


Born. Founded Tasi 
Lhunpo 1445. 


2 


dGe-hDun-rGya-mTsho 


Gedun-Gyatsho 


1474 




3 


bSod-nams-rGyamTsho 


Sonam-Gyatsho 


1541 


Visited Altun Khan. 


4 


YoD-tan-rGya-mTsho 


Yontan-Gyatslio 


15S7 




5 


Nag-dVang-bLo-bZang 


Navang Lozang 


1615 


Established himself a 
r>alai Lama ; 164 
conqueredTibet ; an 
visited the Empero 
of China 1650. 


6 


Rin-chhen-Tsliangs-dByanga 


Einchhen Tshang Chang 


1690 


? 


7 


bLo-bZang-skal-lDan 


Lozang-Kaldan . . 


1725 


? 


8 


bLo-bZang-hJam-dPal 


Lozang- Jampal 


1760 


A minor in 1774. 


9 


Lung-rTogs-rGya-mTsho 


Luntok Gyatsho 


1790 


? 


10 


Tshul-khrims-rGya-mTslio . . 


Tshul-thim Gyatsho . . 


1817 


? 


11 


dGe-dMu-reGya-mTsho 


Gemure Gyatsho 


1835 


Nine years in 1844. 



But besides these two great Lamas of the yellow sect of 
Gelukpa, there is a third great Lama in Bhutan, called 
the Dhartna Raja, who is the head of the Dukjm sect, 
all of whom wear red dresses. Dharma Raja is his usual 
title amongst the people of Bhutan, but amongst the 
Tibetans he is generally called Jigten Gonpo* (Lord of 
the World). The Dalai Lama is called Crtjalba Bwpochhe, 
* See Plate XXII. 



na/e IXIl 




J ICTEN-GONPO , 
The Dharina-Raja of Bliutan 



na5riSaiiJ,ith??toThe Qui 



DIFFERENT SECTS — LAMAS. 371 

the " Gem of Majesty," and the Tashi Lama is called 
Fanchcii Jxhipoclilie, the " Gem of Learning." 

All who have taken the vows of celibacy are called by 
the collective name of Gedun, the clergy. A monk is 
styled Lama, and a nun Ani. But the followers of the 
Gclukpa sect are di^dded into several classes. The lowest 
grade is the Getshul, or neophyte, and the Getslmlma,* 
or novice. The professed monk is called Gelong, and 
the professed nvm Gelongma. 

The principal sects in Tibet have already been men- 
tioned, but there are some others deserving of notice. 
Of these the principal is i\ieKarmapa,\ or "believers in 
the efficacy of Avorks." They are the same as the Kdrm- 
mikas of Nepal. The Kahgy^idpas are " believers in the 
succession of precepts." They are satisfied with the 
observance of the Do (sutras or aphorisms), and care not 
for the attainment of the esoteric doctrines of the Sher- 
chiii (Prajmiparamita), or " transcendental wisdom." 
The Briklmngpa sect derives its name from the district 
of Brikhung. I know nothing of their tenets. All the 
above sects were offshoots of the Gelukhpa, and accord- 
ingly they wear yellow dresses. The Dukpa sect wear 
a red dress. They are numerous in Bhutan, and are 
found all over Tibet. I know nothing of their peculiar 
tenets; but from the name of the sect, Dad-Diikpa, 
which means " faith in the thunderer," I should suppose 
that they pay especial reverence to the holy Dorje 
{Vcijra, or thunderbolt) which descended through the 
air, and fell at Sera in Tibet. A picture which I possess 
of the great Lama Skyobha Jigten Gonpo, of the red 
sect, represents him with the Dorje in his right hand. 

* See Plate XXIV. t Karma-pa, naturalized from Sanscrit. 

2 B 2 



372 LADAK. 

It seems probaljle, therefore, that the name of the sect 
was derived as I have supposed. 

IV.— DEESS— EITUALIC INSTEUMENTS. 

Most of the Lamas in Ladak wear a red coat with 
sleeves and long skirts secured by a red girdle. All 
wear red hoots. Most of them are bareheaded, but the 
higher Lamas wear semicircular red caps. One great 
Lama, the abbot of Lama Yurrvi, wears a peculiar hat, 
formed of bands that diminish in width by steps towards 
the top.* Most Lamas have their heads shaved, or the 
hair cropped short ; but the abbot's hair was uncut. The 
pictiu'es of the grand Lamas, both yellow and red, repre- 
sent them without hair. This agrees with the practice 
of the Indian Buddhists, who were obliged to shave 
their heads. The Dharma Eaja, or great Lama of the 
red sect, wears a semicircular red cap similar to those of 
the Ladaki Lamas. f His right arm is bare, but the rest 
of his person is clothed in ample red garments, suitable 
to a cold climate. The Sanghati, or kilt, and the uttara- 
sanghati, or cloak, of the Indian Buddhists, are formed 
into a coat with sleeves and skirt, and over this is worn 
a robe or blanket. In aU the pictm'es the antara-vasaka, 
or " inner vest," is represented beneath the other dress. 
This is no doubt shown pm'posely, to prove that the great 
Lamas, according to the command of Sakya, never lay 
aside theu- inner vests. 

The Dalai and Tashi Lamas wear the same description 
of dress, but of a yellow colour. But all of them have 
transgressed the holy precept not to wear any ornamented 

* See Plates XXIII. and XXIV. 
t See Plates XXII. and XXIII. 




■■;SO-- *•=' silCiiSiSHJSiWSiKC''.. 



L ^^ylA YURRU 



nieDElL-BU, or Bdl. 







^ h '^ '-j^ ^ 



,MtfW) (/) r/) <b 0) n) ,i)(l) anh < )xi) (I JKyio'fi a) ) n (lu ) ( ) ! >c i -i > -> 4 



i J Mr 



^ 



Myl'SoTLUMt^toAcl^ts,. 



DRESS — IIITUALIC INSTRUMENTS. 373 

clothes, for they have yellow and red brocades, spangled 
with flowers of gold. The Dalai and Tashi Lamas wear 
peculiar conical caps with long lappets. 

The ritualic instruments are three : the bell, the scep- 
tre (or thunderbolt), and the prayer-cylinder. 

The bell, (Irllbit* is used during the performance of 
daily service, but for what purpose I could not ascertain. 
It is represented in the left hand of the great Lama 
Skyobba Jigten, of the red sect, and it is placed on the 
throne at the feet of the great Dalai Lama Navang 
Lozang. The bell represented in the accompanying 
plate is formed of a very white brittle-looking metal. 
On the upper part are the syllables tan, man, Ian, ban, 
man, tstin,2i(in, bDrin; which may, perhaps, be intended 
to represent eight notes of the bell. Inside, in three 
places, are the monosyllabic interjections aiwi ! ah ! 
Hun I The outside is chiefly ornamented with represen- 
tations of the dorje, or sceptre. 

The scc^itre, dorje, is the vajra of the Indians. This 
holy instrument is said to have flown away from India, 
and to have alighted at Sera, in Tibet. That it was 
looked upon in India, from a very early time, as an 
object of reverence, or as an emblem of power, is proved 
by its being placed in the right hand of a raja in the 
Sanchi bas-reliefs, t which date as high as the beginning 
of the Christian era. It is also sculptured on the rock 
at Udegui, where it is represented iu one of the hands 
of Durga, who is slaying the Bhainsasur. This sculptm-e 
is as old as the seventh or eighth century. 

In Tibetan it is called sera-jmn-dze, and the annual 
festival which has been established in its honour is one 

* Bril-hi, a " little bell." See Plate XXV. 
t Eastern gateway, right pillar. 



374 LADAK. 

of the principal religious ceremonies. The Lamas carry 
the sceptre in procession from Sera to Potdla, where they 
present it before the Dalai Lama, who makes a saluta- 
tion to it. They next take it to the Chinese officials, 
and then to the Kahlons, or ministers, aU of whom 
make suitable presents of money; after which it is 
carried back to Sera with the same solemnity. 

The accompanying plate * represents one of these 
instruments, in my own possession, of full size, together 
with sketches of the old Indian vajras, from the sculp- 
tm'es at Sanchi and TJdigiri. 

The prayer-cylinder, or maui-chhos-hhor (the precious 
religious wheel), is a very ingenious instrument, and does 
great credit to the genius of the Tibetans. The body of 
the instrument is a metal cylinder, about three inches in 
height, and from two to two and a half inches in diame- 
ter. The axis is prolonged below to form a handle. The 
cylinder is filled with roUs of printed prayers and charms, 
which revolve as the instrument is turned round. Every 
Lama carries a chhos-khor, which he keeps perpetually 
turning by a gentle motion of the hand, assisted by a 
cubical piece of iron fastened by a chain to the outside. As 
every revolution of a prayer is equivalent to its recita- 
tion, the chhos-khor is a very ingenious instrument for 
multiplying the number of a man's prayers. 

In the accompanying platef I have represented two of 
these instruments, of half-size. One of them has the 
sacred sentence, the holy sadakshara mantra, or " six- 
syUabled charm," Aum ! Mani-padme, him ! engraved 
once on the outside; the other has the same sentence 
twice repeated, in raised letters of silver. 

* Sec Plate XXVI. The name is written rJDo-rJe. 
t See Plate XXVII. 



I"ia.ti,JZ2r. 



TTieDOIlGiE, Scqptre car Thmderbolt. 



Ircir.. 
5ANCH I. 
3asRdief. 





^a.y I ^m. Wi ?» tkcQates 



TlatiJXm. 



The MANI-CHHOlS-KOE. , or Prayer- Cylmder. 




-A.OiTmuiohaTru BeL, 



J)a:jlSm WA%^(^fi, 



DKESS — RITUALIC INSTRUMENTS. 375 

The earliest mention of tlic prayer-cylinder is by the 
Chinese pilgrim Ta llian,* in A.D. 400, who saw it in 
the hands of the Srdmanas of Kie-chha (Ladak). Ivla- 
proth states that this instrument is not mentioned in 
any Indian books ; and I can vouch that I have never 
seen it represented on any piece of Indian sculpture. It 
was, however, in very early use in North-western India, 
where it was introduced by the Indo-Scytliian princes 
about the beginning of the Christian era. On the gold 
coins of noiirki, or Ilushka, the Indo-Scythian prince is 
generally represented holding the prayer-cylinder in his 
right hand.t The same object is no doubt represented 
on the large medallion in the accompanying plate ; but 
the figure holding it is most probably the chief patriarch 
of the Buddliist religion. 

These instruments are found of all sizes and in all 
positions. Cylinders, about one foot in height, are placed 
m rows around the temples, and arc tm-ued by the vota- 
I'ies before entering. Larger cylinders are found near 
villages, turned by water, which keeps them perpetually 
revolving day and night. The device is so ingenious as 
to induce a hope that it may be adopted in Roman 
Catholic countries, where the time now spent in telling 
beads and reciting pater-nosters and ave-marias might 
be more profitably employed in worldly matters, while 
the beads were told, and the prayers were repeated by 
machinery. An ingenious mechanist might form small 
prayer-boxes, which could be wound up to produce a 
certain number of revolutions of an inclosed pater-noster 
or ave-maria ; and thus any number might be got through 
diu^ing the night. Indeed, I am not sure that Roman. 

* Fo-kwe-ki, c. V. t Sec Plate XXYII. 



376 LADAK. 

Catholic watches might not be invented for the perpetual 
revolution of pater-nosters. 



v.— EELIGIOUS BUILDINGS— IMAGES. 

The principal religious edifices are the following : — 

1. Oonpa, or " monastery." This word signifies a 
solitary place ; because monasteries were originally built, 
according to the directions of Sakya Muni, far fcom the 
bustle and disturbing influences of cities. The monas- 
teries have already been described. Convents are only 
separate monasteries walled off from the rest of the 
buildings. Both are called chhos-ne ; but the common 
term is gonpa. 

2. Lhdkhmig, " God's house or temple." AU the 
temples that I have seen consist of single rooms, square 
and unadorned outside, and filled with images and 
pictures inside. The images are generally about half 
life-size, made of unburnt clay and painted. In the 
larger temples the images are of metal and of colossal 
size. A temple is also called Tsang-khang, or " holy 
house." 

3. Ldbrcmg, a "lama's house." Where no monasteries 
exist, the lamas live in separate houses. I mention this 
because Alexander Gerard supposed that the Lhd-khang 
(God's house) was the same as the hLa-brang (lama's 
residence). 

4. Chhod-Ten,^ in Sanscrit Cludtya, an " offering- 
receptacle." This is properly a dedicatory building or 
pyramid erected in honour of Shakya Thubba, or of 
some one of the holy Buddhas or Bodhisatwas. It is 

* inClthod-rTen, sometimes pronounced CMorien. 



Ihe CHHODTEN, ot Mausoleum. 




Carved Stane^ 
LAHUL. 



^^' 



y. r. 1 , V, s . 



FrotTh a lYoodeTL ModeL . 



A,ClvuU7uj'tjAm,. d(i 



JlaflSnn UAJtstlalSiiii 



EELIGIOUS BUILDINGS — IMAGES. 377 

sometimes called Chhos-ten, or the " holy receptacle," 
but the proper name is Chhod-rtoi, the " offering- 
repository," because offerings are made to the shrine. 
The figure in the accompanying plate* is taken from a 
wooden model in my own possession. The basement, 
which is square, is surmounted by fom" steps, on which 
stands the dome or principal part of the edifice. Origi- 
nally this was a plain hemisphere, but the form was gra- 
dually altered until it assumed its present shape of an 
inverted and truncated cone. The dome is surmoimted 
by a lofty pinnacle, crowned by the holy emblem of 
Chlios-Konchok (or Dharma). This symbol is a mono- 
gram formed of the four radical letters (in old PaK) 
which represent the four elements ; and the whole is 
typical both of the material frame of man, and of the 
material universe.! The radical letters are ya, air ; ra, 
fire ; va, water ; la, earth ; to which is added the letter 
s for Mount Sumeru. The pair of eyes delineated on 
the basement show that this Chhod-Ten was dedicated 
to the supreme Buddha, Sangya-Koncholc, the " eye of 
the universe." 

5. Dung-Ten, a "bone-holder," or relic-repository. 
This is the genuine Stupa, or tope of India, prepared for 
the reception of a relic. It is a fimeral buUding or 
pyramid, erected either over the corpse of a lama, or 
over the ashes of a king or person of consequence. It 
is similar in shape to the Chhod-Ten. The deposits 
usually placed in these mausolea have already been 
described. 

* See Plate XXYIII. 

t According to the Chinese, as quoted by Eemusat (Fo-kwe-ki, 
c. XIII. note 6), the whole pyramid represented the " five elements ;" 
tut they are wrong, for it is only the pinnacle which is an emblem of 
Bhurma, or the material elements. See my work on the Bhilsa Topes. 



378 LADAK. 

Mani* a dyke or pile of stones. The Mani is a stone 
dyke from four to five feet in height, and from six to 
twelve feet in breadth. The length varies from ten and 
twenty feet to nearly half a mile. A mani which I 
measured near Bazgo was 823 paces, or nearly half a 
mile, in length. A second mani near L6 was somewhat 
longer, or 880 paces, or 2,200 feet. Moorcroft states its 
length at 1,000 paces, but these were most probably the 
paces of a native, of little more than two feet each. 
The surface of the mani is always covered with inscribed 
slabs. The most usual inscription is the holy six- 
syllabled mantra, Aum 1 mcmi-padme, Imn ! But other 
formula? also occur ; such as Auni ! Yajra Fdni, hun ! 
Aum ! Vagmcari, hi'ui ! &c. These are generally in- 
scribed in Tibetan characters, but sometimes also in 
mediaeval Devanagari letters, called Lantslia. These 
slabs are votive offerings from all classes of people for 
the attainment of some particular objects. Does a 
childless man wish for a son, or a merchant about to 
travel hope for a safe retm^n ; does a husbandman look 
for a good harvest, or a shepherd for the safety of his 
flocks during the severity of winter, each goes to a 
lama and purchases slate, which he deposits carcfuUy on 
the village mani, and returns to his home in full confi- 
dence that his prayer will be heard. 

Tshd-khang, an " image-room." Tshd is the little 
medallion figure of a lama, which is made of a portion 
of his ashes mixed with clay. In every LMkhang, or 
temple, there is a small room or cupboard set apart for 
the reception of these medallions. In a temple at Nako 
I saw about one hundred cubic feet of them. A very 
perfect specimen in my possession is one inch and three- 
* Ma-ni, a word naturalized from Sanscrit. 



IIELIGIOUS BUILDINGS — IMAGES. 379 

eighths in diameter. The lama is represented seated on 
the ground, with his left hand in his lap and his right 
hand raised in the attitude of teaching. The figiu-e is 
gilt. On the back of the medallion is stamped the 
word Tshd, " medallion." The grand lamas are repre- 
sented by more precious images of life-size. Two statues 
of the Tashi Lama, which Tm-ner saw, were respectively 
of gold and of solid silver gilt. 

The following is a general description of the images 
and paintings of the principal Buddhas and Bodhisatwas 
who are worshipped by the Tibetan Buddhists. 

Shaki/a-Thubha, or Buddha, is always represented 
seated. His right hand usually rests on his right knee, 
and his left hand in his lap, holding his alms-dish. In 
one pictm-e, hoAvever, he is represented holding his alms- 
dish in both hands. His body is always colom-ed yellow, 
usually gilt, and his hair is short, curly, and blue. At 
the large village of She, near Le, there is a colossal 
copper-gilt statue of Shakya Thubba of the following 
dimensions. 



Height of image, seated 


Feet. 

37 


Inches 

1 


Breadth across tlie shoulders . . . 


7 


4 


Breadth from knee to knee 


12 





Length of ear 

Diameter of alms-disli ... 


4 
2 


3 

3 


Circumference of throne •. . . 


81 






This image was erected by the Gyalpo Deldan Nam- 
gyal, about A.D. 1G80. 

Chhos-Konchok, or Dharma, is represented seated. 
She has four arms, two raised in the attitude of prayer, 
the third holding a necklace or garland, and the fourth 
a lotus. Her colour is white. 

Gedun-Konchok, or Sangha, is represented seated; 



380 LADAK. 

the right hand resting on the right knee, and the left 
hand hokling a lotus. 

Chamba, the future Buddha Maitreya, is represented 
seated with hoth hands raised, the fingers forming the 
Fad-kor, or lotus-shape. His body is yellow, and his 
hair short, curly, and blue. 

Jamya, or Manju-Sri, is also represented seated, with 
his right hand raised and holding a flaming sword, and 
his left hand carrying a lotus. His body is of a yellow 
colour. 

Chanrazek, or Avalokiteswara, is represented standing. 
His right hand rests by his side, and his left holds a 
lotus. His body is white. 

Lagua-JDorje, or Vajrapani, is represented standing ; 
his left hand empty, and his right hand carrying a lotus. 
His body is yellow. 

Thunshak, or Amogha Siddha, is represented seated, 
with his left hand in liis lap, and his right hand raised 
in the attitude of teaching. His body is green. 

Grolma, or Tara, the Sakti or female energy of 
Amogha Siddha, is also green. She is represented 
seated, her right hand resting on her knee, and her left 
hand holding a lotus. 

The Tantrika, Vargclmk, or Iswara, is a favourite 
subject with the Tibetan painters and sculptors. He is 
always represented as Chan-sum-pa (or Trelochana, the 
"three-eyed"). His body is usually blue, but some- 
times red. His loins are covered with a leopard's skin, 
and a snake is generally wound round his waist. He 
carries either a Dorje (vajra, or " thunderbolt "), or a 
sharp-cutting sword in his right hand, and is generally 
exhibited trampling human beings beneath his feet. He 
is also represented frantic with anger, his eyes staring, 



TlaUu 



Eastexn Pillar, called CHOMO, at Dras . 




A ChuvunoiiaTTtAil 



.%yj:r:aS7<!'ji«j^ 



RELIGIOUS BUILDINGS — IMAGES. 381 

his nostrils dilated, and his mouth wido open, while his 
whole hody is surroimdod by flames. Such is the male 
di\-inity of the Tantrists. 

The Tiintrika, To(Me-T?hag-mo (or Kali), is repre- 
sented of a blood-red colour, with a garland of skulls 
round her neck. Her right hand holds the Vajra, or 
thimderbolt, and with her left hand she carries a cup of 
blood to her mouth. She is also represented as Chan- 
sum-md (or Trelochana, the "three-eyed"), and is sur- 
rounded by a circle of flames. She carries a long 
sceptre surmounted by skulls and the holy Dorje. 

The Tibetan Lamas are unrivalled amongst Orientals 
as modellers in clay and workers in metal. A small 
medallion, about two inches square, which I possess, 
contains five figures surrounded by leaves and flowers of 
exquisitely delicate workmanship. It is formed of baked 
clay, but the edges are as sharp as if the work had been 
done by an European artist in plaster of Paris. Equally 
good is a figure of Shakya Thubba. 

On the side of the road, between the hamlet of Styalbo 
and the village of Dras, there are two pillars of granitic 
mica-slate, which the people call Chomo, or " The 
Women," but which, I believe, have no connection 
whatever with Tibetan Buddhism, as the nearly obli- 
terated inscriptions are in Kashmiri Tdkri, and not in 
Tibetan characters. 

The Eastern Pillar has one principal figure, a four- 
armed female, and two attendant females, one on each 
side, and each with one leg bent. They all wear neck- 
laces, earrings, armlets, and anklets. On the pedestal 
are several small kneeling figures with their hands 
raised and joined together in attitudes of prayer. This 



382 LADAK. 

pillar is six feet nine inches high, one foot six inches 
broad, and one foot thick.* 

The Western Pillar has the same principal figure, also 
a four-armed female, with two attendant females on each 
side. This pillar is six feet high, two feet nine inches 
broad, and one foot thick, f 

From the style of these figures, as well as from the 
nature of the alphabetical characters, I have no hesita- 
tion in stating my opinion that they are Brahminical 
statues erected by some Kashmirian Hindus. This 
opinion is strengthened by the fact that there is a third 
undoubted Hindu pillar standing close to them, wliich I 
believe to be a Sati pillar. On one side is sculptured a 
horseman, which is the usual emblem, placed on the 
pillar of a Rajputni Sati, to denote that her husband 
was a soldier. On the back of the pUlar there is an 
inscription of eight lines in Kashmirian Tdkri, which I 
am vmable to translate satisfactorily. The words are 
the following: J 

Fra 

Lokesivaram cha Maitre- 
-yam pratishtdptantasram A- 
-tabhavatumanya mativanvapra 
Adathdrdbha U (la) maiyatre (md) 

{nd/ra ?) 
Aswdclmptakaye 
gadrd 
dram Aid. 



* See Plate XXIX. t See Plate XXX. % See Plate XXX. 




ACunjungkam^JH 



Da^lSd^ UATle lhc0i£cn. 



383 



TI.— EITES AND CEREMONIES. 

The religious service of the Lamas is performetl at 
three fixed periods of the day; at sunrise, noon, and 
sunset. The service consists of the recitation or chant- 
ing of portions of the Do (Sutras, or " Precepts") or of 
the Dulva (Vinaya, or " Rules of Discipline"), accom- 
panied by the solemn sound of several musical instru- 
ments. These are : — 1st, large sHding trumpets, five 
and six feet in length, called Chkos-Dung, or " holy 
trumpets;" 2nd, large di'ums, Chhos Nd; and 3rd, large 
brazen cymbals, Bul-chhal. Sometimes also a conch, 
Dung-kar, is used. The musical sounds are slow and 
prolonged, and the effect is exceedingly solemn and even 
melancholy. During the performance of the service 
incense is kept regularly burning, and offerings of fruit 
and grain, and even of meat, are made to the figures of 
Shakya Tlmbba (or Buddha), Chanrazik (or Avalokites- 
wara), and Jdmya (or Manju Sri). 

Moorcroft, who frequently witnessed the daily service 
of the Lamas, thus describes it.* " The religious service 
of the Lama, which is performed daily at the Gon-'pas, 
or temples attached to monasteries, consists chiefly of 
prayers and chanting, in which the formula ' Anm 1 
mani-padme, hun .'' is frequently repeated ; and the 
whole is accompanied with the music of wind instru- 
ments, chiefly harmonizing ^\\i\x tabrets and drums. 
Amongst the former is a sliding trumpet of large size, 
which is upheld by one man whilst blown by another, 
and has a very deep and majestic intonation ; a hautboy, 
the reed of wliich is surrounded by a circular plate 
covering the mouth, and the conch shell, with a copper 
* Travels, I. p. 344. 



384 LADAK. 

moutli-piece ; metallic cymbals, much more mellow and 
sonorous than others, complete the band." 

But the religious service of the Lamas is not confined 
to the recitation of the Dulva and the Do, or to the 
frequent repetition of the six-syllabled mantra, " Aum ! 
Mani-padme, hun !" They occasionally proclaim aloud 
the numerous titles of the supreme Buddlia ; and recite, 
with endless repetition, the different mystical sentences 
peculiar to the various Bodhisatwas, and to the Tantrika 
Saktis, or female energies of the Dhyani Buddhas. They 
also recite mystical sentences from the Tantras, to depre- 
cate the wrath of the furious Kali ( Chcmdd, the angry 
goddess). 

The following are specimens of these mantras, or 
mystic sentences. They are all in the Sanskrit lan- 
guage :— 

1. The Mantra of SJialja Thuhha (Buddh'a). 

Namak Sdmanta Buddlidnam ! Sarva-kleslia nishuddhana ; 
Sarvva dharma vahiprapta ; gagana savia sama, sivdhd ! 
" Glory to the chief Buddhas ! Reliever of all suffering ! 
Master of all virtue ! Equal, equal to the Heavens ! adoration ! " 

2. The Mantra o^ Kuntu-Zangpo (Samanta-bhadra). 
Namah Sdmanta JBuddhdnam ! Sdmantanugati, varaja, 
Dliarmanirgati, malid, mahd, swdha .' 
" Glory to the chief Buddhas ! acquirer of distinction, best-born, 
Who goeth forth with virtue ; great, great adoration ! " 

3. The Mantra of Champa (the future Buddha). 
Namah Sdmanta Buddhdnam ! ajltanajaya, 
Sarvva Saticayashdyamigata, Swdhd! 

" Glory to the chief Buddhas ! conqueror of the invincible, 
Possessor of the fame of all purity, adoration !" 

4. The Mantra of Uliahna-Dorje (Vajra-Paui). 
Namah Sdmanta Vajrdndm ! Clianda ]ifaha-roshana,-hun ! 

" Glory to the chief Vajraa ; fierce and greatly-angry, hun .'" 



RITES AND CEREMONIES. 385 

5. The Mautra oi Jdmya (Manju-Sri). 
Namali Sdmanta BuddMtiam ! he, he, he! Kumdraka, Fimukti, 
Saihirthafi, smara, smara, pratihana, sivdhd ! 
" Glory to the chief Buddhas ! he, he, he ! Young Prince, Emancipation, 
Communion, Memory, Memory, Great Prowess, Adoration!" 

6. Mantra oi Chanrazlk (Avalokiteswara). 
Ifamah Sdmanta Suddhdnam ! Sarvva Tathdgata, Avalokita, 
Karand, Mdi/d ; Sd-rd-rd ! Hun ! Jdh ! Swdhd ! 
" Glory to the chief Buddhas ! Universal Tathagata, Avalokita, 
The Merciful, the Compassionate: Ea-ra-ra! Hun! Jah ! adoration!" 

7. Mantra of Grol-ma (Tara). 
Namah Sdmanta Buddhdnam ! Karnodhhavc! 
Tdri, tardni, Sivdhd ! 
" Glory to the chief Buddhas ! offspring of mercy ! 
By whom existence is traversed, adoration ! " 

The above are the mystic prayers offered up to the 
supreme Buddha by the different Bodhisatwas and 
others, whose names they bear. But there are nume- 
rous other ma/ntras addressed to the Bodhisatwas them- 
selves, as in the following specimen, which is taken from 
an actual Tibetan stereotype wooden block in my own 
possession : — 

8. Auin ! Vagiswari Mun ! Aum ! Mani-padne, hun ! Aum Vajrapdni, 
hun ! 
(the same repeated). 
Aum ! amardni-Jivantii/e, swdhd .' 

Aum! Vajra-hrodlia, hdyo.griha, hu-lu, hu-lu, hun, phat. 
" In the name of the Triad ! O, divine lord, Mun ! 
In the name of the Triad ! O, Lotus-bearer, Hun ! 
In the name of the Triad! O, Sceptre-bearer, Hun!" 
(the same repeated). 
" In the name of the Triad ! O, immortal Being, adoration ! 
In the name of the Triad ! O, wrathful Vajra, flame-necked, 
hu-hc ! — hu-lu .' — hun ! — phat ! " 

This is adckessed to the supreme Buddha (Bhages- 
wara), to the celestial Bodhisatwas, PadiiuqnUii and 
2 c 



38G LADAK. 

Vajrapdni (the lotus and sceptre bearers), and to the 
Tiintrika divinity Iswara. Other mantras are : — 

9. Aiim.' Sarvva Vidya, Swdhd! awn! Sarma vidi/a! Swdhd! 

Aum ! dh .' Chtru sumati-jnydn SiddJi, htm-liun ! 
" In the name of the Triad! Universal Wisdom, adoration!" 
(the same repeated) . 
" In the name of the Triad ! ah ! Teacher of Supreme Intelligence, 
Holy-one, Hun-hun!" 

10. Aum ! Mune, Mune, MaJid-Mune, SaJcya-Munnye, SwdM ! 

Aum ! Mani-padme, hun! Aum! Glianda Mahd-roshana, Inmjflmt! 
Aum ! Tare, tuttdre, ture, SivdJid ! 
Awn ! MoM, mold, mahd-molii, Swdhd ! 
Aum ! Mati, mati, Smriti, Swdhd .' 

Aum ! Maitri, Maitri, Mahd-Maifri, Arya-Maitri, Swdhd ! 
Aum ! Vagiswari, Mun ! Aum ! Mani-padme, hun ! Aum ! Vajra- 
pdni, hun ! 
" Aum ! O, Muni, Muni, Great Muni, S.vkta-Muni, adoration ! 
O, Lotus-bearer, hun ! — 0, fierce and greatly-angry, hun-phat ! 
O, Taea, ***** adoration ! 
O, Pleasure, Pleasure, Mighty Pleasure, adoration ! 
O, Intellect, Intellect, Understanding, adoration ! 
O, Maiteeta, Maitreya, Great Maitreya, venerated Maitroya, 

adoration ! 
O, Divine Lord, Mun! 0, Lotus-bearer, hun! 0, Sceptre-bearer, hun !" 

These are, however, sensible productions compared to 
the gibberish of others, of which the following is an 
vintranslateable specimen : — 

IL Bhyoh, rahmo-hhyo ! rahmo-Jihyo-hhyh ! 
Rahmo thim-bhyo ! khala raJcchhenmo ! 
Hal-mo, ahya-tahya, thim-bhyo ! 
Rii-hi, rii-lu, hun, hhyo, hun ! 

This potent chai-m I found repeated twenty-seven 
times on a roll of paper, inside an image of Shakya- 
Thubba. How deplorably low must be the rebgious 
belief of those who hope to weary Heaven into com- 
pliance with their wishes by the importunate reiteration 
of such gibberish ! 



387 



XIV-LANGUAGE. 



I.— ALPHABET— PEONUNCIATION. 

The alphabetical character of the Tibetans is the 
Devanagari that was current in India in the seventh 
centmy. It was introduced into Tibet from Kashmir by 
Tbumi Sambhota.* The alphabet is called Ku-ga (or 
ABC), because k and g are the first letters. There are 
thirty consonants, arranged in eight classes, as follows : — 



1. 


ka 


Icha 


ga 


nga 


2. 


clia 


chha 


ja 


nya 


3. 


ta 


tha 


da 


na 


4. 


pa 


pha 


ba 


ma 


5. 


tsa 


tslia 


dsa 


wa 


6. 


zha 


za 


ha 


ya 


7. 


ra 


la 


slia 


sa 



8. 'ha ... a 

The 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 7tli, correspond -n-ith the 
arrangement of the Nagari alphabet, excepting only in 
the omission of the second set of aspirates, gh, jh, dh, 
and hh. The hissing palatals of the 5th and 6th classes 
are almost pecuhar to the Tibetan language. The tsa 
and dsa are, however, in constant use by the Kashmiris. 

The vowels are five, a, i, u, e, o, which are pronounced 
as in Italian. The vowel a is inherent in every conso- 
nant, excepting the few silent prefixes. The other vowels 

* Csonia's Grammar, p. 17S. 

2 c 2 



388 LADAK. 

arc formed by mai'ks placed cither above or below the 
consonants. 

The Tibetan language is written syllabically, the 
different syllables being separated by a small wedge- 
like point, called Tsheg, thus V. The sentences also are 
divided by signs or marks of punctuation, called Shad. 
Thus, one mark, | , is equivalent to a comma ; a double 
mark, [j, to a colon ; and four marks [j |] to a full stop. 
The semicolon is formed by joining the inter syllabic 
poiat Tsheg to the single punctuation mark Shad, from 
which it receives its name of Tsheg-Shad. It is formed 
thusY, and is almost the same as our own semicolon.* 

Of the Tibetan language I am not confident to speak ; 
but, as far as my knowledge of it enables me to offer an 
opinion, I should say that it has no afiinity with any of 
the surrounding dialects. A few words are of course the 
same as in Sanscrit; such as khar, a fort (Sanscrit, 
garh). But for every word similar to Sanscrit I think 
that I could point out one similar to English; thus, 
hning means to bring; kyan is a " can;" thwore is " to- 
morrow;" shjur is " sour;" dal means " dull;" ink is 
" thick ;" hal is " wool;" Ihunpo is a " lump ;" tsem is 
a " seam;" dir is " here;" and der is " there;" tar is 
" tired;" rog is a " rogue " (the crow being called cha- 
rog, or the "bird-rogue"); yahba is a " yawn ;" and 
ikhug is a " hiccough." The last two are, however, 
imitative sounds. But there is another resemblance 
between English and Tibetan, which is of a totally 
different kind. This is the difficulty of ascertaining how 
to pronounce a Avord from its spelling. A foreigner is 

* The marks of punctuation are called rKyang-shad, tbe comma ; 
ffZJds-sJind, the colon ; hZhi-sliad, the full stop ; and Tslieg-shad, tlic 
semicolon. 



ALPUAlMiT — PRONUNCIATION. 389 

puzzled with oui" plouyh, doughy and slough or enough, 
and with our rite, lorite, right, and wright. But the 
Tibetans are equally eapricious in theii- pronunciation. 
iSjJi/dii they pronounce shan and chun, j^liyag they pro- 
nounce chhag, and hyang * they pronounce chang. Then 
again, they pronounce do (tw'o), bDo (abundance), inDo 
(a short treatise or district), hBo (an answer), rDo (a 
stone), and sDo (danger), all in the same manner. And 
these, again, are confounded with the several words that 
are spelt with t and th.\ It is in fact equally difficult to 
know how to spell a word from its pronunciation as to 
pronounce one from its spelling. In correct speaking, 
the silent initial letters shoiold be rapidly soimded ; and 
they are so by the more learned Lamas, but by them 
only. It is true that Vigne Avrites Erganak for rQya- 
nak (the " black plain," the Tibetan name of China) ; 
but Moorcroft wrote Guinnak. Again, the pronuncia- 
tion varies in different districts : thus, the compounds in 
kh, as khy, and khr, are pronounced thy and Ihr in Lhasa. 
Kliyi, a dog, is called thyi ; and khrimpon, a judge, is 
called Thimpon ; but in Ladak they are pronounced as 
they are spelt. In Lhasa the final s in Shags is silent, 
as sliak, justice. In Ladak it is pronounced Shaks. 
One of the most violent mispronunciations is Tashi for 
bKra-shis, as in Tashi-Lhunpo. Another is F, for dBus, 
the name of a district in Central Tibet. In the tune of 
Ptolemy, however, this word must have been pronounced 
according to its spelliug ; for there can be no reasonable 
doubt that the people, whom he calls Dubasce, are the 
inhabitants of Dabus, now dBus. 

* lu Kauawar, however, the word is nronoimccd Hijanij, as in Hyaniji, 
■wool, from which comes Chang Thaiig. 

t So also ilMigs, ohjcct; ilMig, a hole; il//y, au eye; rMi'j, a hoof; 
rMigs, a worm ; arc all pronounced Mik. 



390 LABAK. 



II.— rOEMEE LIMITS OF THE TIBETAN LANGUAGE. 

The Tibetan language is now confined to the mountain 
valleys of the Tsangpo and Indus, and to the upper 
courses of the Sutluj, the Sarju, and the Chenab. But 
in ancient days it probably extended over the greater 
part of the Cis-Himalayas,* as I can trace by the Tibetan 
names of the smaller streams. AU the larger rivers have 
been re-named by the Brahmans ; but the smaller streams 
still retain their old names. Thus I find, within a few 
miles of Simla, the Andre-ti, or water of the Andar 
village ; the Gliail-ti, or water of the GhaU valley ; the 
Khanyao-ti, or water of the Khanethu district ; and the 
Gumo-ti, or water of the Gumo valley. Other names are 
the Chahi-ti, the Manyao-ti, the Chigcmn-ti, and the 
Wal-ti, aU of which preserve the Tibetan word ti, 
" water." It is, perhaps, idle to speculate at what 
period the Tibetans could have possessed the present 
districts of Bisahar, Kyonthal, and Sarmar ; but it must 
have been many centuries ago, before the Khasasf were 
driven into the hills by the conquering Hindus. 

In Kanawar, where the Indian and Tibetan languages 
meet, there are two dialects, which partake more or less 
of the one or of the other. The Ililchang, or common 
language of Lower Kanawar, is so called by the people of 

* Pliny, VI. c. 17, Scythffiipoi Caucasum montem (appellavere) 
Graucasum, hoc est nive candidum ; and Isidor (according to Wilford) 
states that KroaJcasis means " white " in the eastern tongue. Now, 
the only eastern language which approaches these words is the Tihetan, 
in which Kar-kJid-chan, pronounced Kar-khd-tsan, means " white-snow- 
fuU-of," which is exactly Pliny's " nive candidum." 

t The Kanets of the hills are aU Khasas ; and in Chamba, Kullu, 
and Kanawar, they interpose between the Hindus and Tibetans. 



FORMER LIMITS OF TUE TIBETAN LANGUAGE. 391 

Bisahar ; tlie Kauuwaris themselves call it Milc/iananff. 
This name is most probably only the Tibetan word 
MingcJiavg (pronounced Milchmig), " notorious or very 
common, vulgar." This dialect prevails over Lower 
Kaniiwar, and along the left Ijank oi' tlie Sutluj in 
Upper Kanawar. The Tlbar-skad, or " Tibar lan- 
guage," is a dialect peculiar to Sungnam, Kanam, Lipe, 
and other places in Upper Kanawar. It differs from the 
Mllchang chiefly in shades of pronunciation, and iu the 
changes of some initial consonants. 



English. 


Milchang. 


Tibarskad. 


Tibetan. 


Three 


Slim 


hum 


sum. 


A horse . . . 


rang 


shang 


ta. 


A star 


skara 


karma 


skarma. 


Snow 


pang 


ang 


kha. 


A house . . . 


khim 


khyim 


khj-iui. 


White 


thog 


thungni 


kar. 


Name 


nainang 


ming 


mmg. 


Greeu 


rag 


zaugu 


jangu. 



In these examples there is, as might be expected, a 
greater admixture of Tibetan words in the dialect of 
Upper Kanawar, which lies next to Tibet. In that of 
Lower Kanawar there is one Hindu word, namang, a 
name. 

In the following chapter I have given a copious 
vocabulary of the Tibetan language, compared with all 
the surrounding languages : with the Arnii/d, Sliind, 
and Khajunah of the Dards; with the Pushtu of the 
Afghans, and with the Kashmiri of the Kasas ; with the 
Hindi dialects of the people of Chamba, Kullu, Handm', 
and Garhwal, as well as with the Indo-Tibetan Mil- 



392 LADAK. 

chang and Tihar-shad of Kanawar. This comparison 
will give a much better idea of the language than any- 
thing that I can say. 

III.— PKINTING. 

Printing has long been known and practised in Tibet, 
but only by engraved stereotype wooden blocks, and not 
by moveable types. The printing of a new work is 
therefore a most expensive and laborious process. The 
accompanying specimen of a Tibetan horn-book, or 
primer, is printed from one of these engraved planks.* 
The letters are most beautifully cut, but the block has 
been so much used, that the original sharpness is now 
quite gone. 
The first or middle cu'cle is blank. 
The second circle contains a mystic formula, which I 

cannot decipher. 
The third circle contains the ejaculation Mh, eight 

times repeated. 
The fourth circle contains the ejaculation hun, ten 

times repeated. 
The fifth circle contains the Tibetan alphabet, arranged 
according to the Sanscrit order, with aU the cere- 
brals and aspirates complete. These last letters are 
not used in Tibetan words, but only in the trans- 
cription of Sanscrit names ; as for instance, the n 
in Fadmapani. It is remarkable that the ch, chli, 
and j have all got the mark placed over them, which 
alters their pronunciation to is, tsh, and ds. This 
is, I think, a direct proof that the Tibetans obtained 
their knowledge of Sanscrit, as well as their alpha- 

* See Plate XLIY. 



392 LADAK. 

chang and Tihar-skad of Kanawar. Tliis comparison 
will give a mucli better idea of the language than any 
thing that I can say. 

III.— PRINTING. 

Printing has long been known and practised in Tibet, 
but only by engraved stereotype wooden blocks, and not 
by moveable types. The printing of a new work is 
therefore a most expensive and laborious process. The 
accompanying specimen of a Tibetan horn-book, or 
primer, is printed from one of these engraved planks.* 
The letters are most beautifully cut, but the block has 
been so much used, that the original sharpness is now 
quite gone. 

The first or middle circle is blank. 

The second circle contains a mystic formula, which I 

cannot decipher. 
The third ckcle contains the ejaculation Mh, eight 

times repeated. 
The fourth circle contains the ejaculation hun, ten 

times repeated. 
The fifth circle contains the Tibetan alphabet, arranged 
according to the Sanscrit order, with all the cere- 
brals and aspirates complete. These last letters are 
not used in Tibetan words, but only in the trans- 
cription of Sanscrit names ; as for instance, the n 
in Paclmapani. It is remarkable that the cli, clih, 
and j have all got the mark placed over them, which 
alters their pronunciation to ts, tsh, and ds. This 
is, I think, a direct proof that the Tibetans obtained 
their knowledge of Sanscrit, as well as their alpha- 
* See Plate XLIV. 



E TIBETAN HORN-BOOK 



riiilTi'l' nrrMWl-^ 







PRINTING. 393 

bet, from the Kashmiris, who still pronounce these 
letters in the above manner, as Paudsdl for Panj;il. 

The sixth circle I cannot decipher, but I can trace 
the repeated ejaculations of hun-hun ! hun-hun! 
hun-hun ! hun ! 

The seventh circle is one of the most interesting, as 
it contains the famous Indian enunciation of the 
Buddhist faith, which I found inscribed on a stone 
which I extracted from the great tope of Sdrndth, 
near Benares. This is the only instance in which I 
have seen it used in Tibet, 

Aum ! Muni, Muni, MaM-Munaye, swdhd ! 
Ye dhanna lietu prahliavd hetun feshiii Tathdgato 
liyavadat teshdn cha yd niroiha cvam vadi Mahasramanas. 
" In the name of the Triad ! O, Muni, Muni, great Muni, adoration ! 
Of all things springing from cause, that cause hath the Tathagata 
explained ; the cause of their extinction also hath the great As-cetic 
declared." 

New works are rarely undertaken, but the printing of 
their standard religious works is stUl carried on by the 
Tibetans with the same old blocks that were in use up- 
wards of 100 years ago. The great mass of printing, 
however, is chiefly confined to the production of the 
innumerable quantity of prayers and mystical formulae 
that are required by the people. I have seen many rolls 
containing many hundred repetitions of the same sen- 
tences. They are printed on sheets of a thin brownish 
paper called Grega (or Teg a), but the books are printed 
on a much smoother paper called Far-shog, or " printer's 
paper." The ink is called Far-snag, or "printer's ink." 
The printer himself is named Far-fci, and where several 
are employed the head printer is called Fav-pon. The 
printing board, or table, is Far-shing, and " copy " is 
called Far-h)'i-pa. The engraved block is named Zhi, 



394 



ladak. 



and the engraver Par-ko-jm. The printing-house is 
called Par-khang, and the book, when completed, is 
named Par-ma, a " printed work." 

A book consists of numerous loose leaves, from one to 
two feet long, and from three to four inches in width. 
These are numbered, and secured between two planks. 
The title and number of the volume are sewn upon a 
piece of sUk and inserted at one end.* 



IV.— BECKONING OF TISIE. 

The Ladakis make use of two modes of reckoning time, 
the cycle of twelve years for common computations, such 
as a man's age, or the date of any recent event; but 
both in writing and in accounts they always use the 
cycle of sixty years, which they borrowed from India, t 

In the cycle of twelve years, each year is named after 
a particular animal, as follows : — 

the Mouse year. 
tlie Ox year, 
the Tiger year, 
the Hare year, 
the Dragon year, 
the Serpent year, 
the Horse year, 
the Sheep year, 
the Ape year, 
the Bird year. 
tlie Dog year, 
the Hog year. 

My first acquaintance with this cycle was rather 
startling. I asked a jolly-looking dame, named Thajang, 



1. 


Byi-lo 


2. 


gLang-lo 


3. 


Stag-lo 


4. 


Tos-lo 


5. 


hBrug-lo 


G. 


sBrul-lo 


7. 


rTa-lo 


8. 


Lug-lo 


9. 


Spre-lo 


10. 


Bya-lo 


11. 


Khyi-lo 


12. 


Phog-lo 



* A volume in my possession is entitled ChJios-rGi/an — D — tliat is, 
" The Ornament of" Beligion," 11th vol. 
t Csoma's Grammar, pp. 147, 148. 



RECKONING OF TIME. 



395 



who had three husbands living, and several children,* 
what her age was. To my great astonishment she replied 
" twelve." At first I thought that she did not wish 
to tell her age, but I soon found that she only reckoned 
by cycles, and that she was not yet two cycles old. I 
then turned to Csoma de Koros's grammar, and after a 
little more questioning I discovered that she was twenty 
years of age. Afterwards, in collecting my tables of 
longevity, I took some pains to guard against this mode 
of wholesale reckoning by cycles, and with two excep- 
tions, I was personally successful. But where I was 
obliged to trust to a munshi for my information, I found 
that numbers of the old people were sixty, seventy-two, 
and eighty -four years of age. 

The cycle of sixty years is a much more elaborate 
reckoning. The first cycle is counted from A.D. 1026. 
The Hindus have a distinct name for each year of 
the cycle, but the Tibetans have adopted the Chinese 
nomenclatm'e, which is formed by coupling the names 
of the twelve animals of the other cycle with the names 
of the five elements, considered as both male and female 
alternately. The first element, male and female, is 
coupled with the first two animals, next with the eleventh 
and twelfth animals, and so on ; by which the change of 
names is preserved throughout the whole series. The 
names in Enc-lish are — 



. Wood. Mouse 


11. Wood-Dog 


21. Wood-Ape 


31. Wood-Horse 


41. Wood-Dragon 


51. Wood-Tiger 


■ „ Ox 


12. „ Hog 


22. „ Bird 


32. „ Sheep 


42. „ Serpent 


52. „ Hare 


. Fire-Tiger 


13. Fire-Mouse 


23. Fire-Dog 


33. Fire-Ape 


43. Fire-Horse 


53. Fire-Dragon 


. „ Hare 


14. „ Ox 


24. „ Hog 


34. „ Bird 


44. „ Sheep 


54. „ Serpent 


. Earth-Dragon 


15. Earth-Tiger 


25. Earth-Mouse 


35. Earth-Dog 


45. Earth-Ape 


55. Earth-Horse 


„ Serpent 


16. „ Hare 


26. „ Ok 


36. „ Hog 


46. „ Bird 


56. „ Sheep 


. Iron-Horse 


17. Iron-Dragon 


2/. Iron-Tiger 


37. Iron-Mouse 


47. Iron Dog 


57- Iron-Ape 


. „ Sheep 


18. „ Serpent 


28. „ Hare 


38. „ Ox 


48. „ Hog 


58. „ Bird 


. Water-Ape 


19. Water Horse 


29. Water-Dragon 


39. Water-Tiger 


49. Water-Mouse 


59- Water-Dog 


. „ Bird 


20. „ Sheep 


30. „ Serpent 


40. „ Hare 


50. „ 0.\ 


60. „ Hog 



* See her Portrait, Plate XVIII. 



396 



LADAK. 



The different cycles began in the following years — 



1st began 1026 A.D. 
2nd „ 108G „ 
3rd „ 1146 „ 
4tli „ 1206 „ 
5th „ 1266 „ 



6tlibeganl326A.D. 
7th „ 1386 „ 
8th „ 1446 „ 
9th „ 1506 „ 
10th „ 1566 „ 



11th began 1626 A.D. 
12th „ 1686 „ 
13th „ 1746 „ 
14th „ 1806 „ 



The present year, 1851, is therefore the forty-fifth 
year of the fourteenth cycle. 

The months are also named after the twelve animals ; 
but the first month is liBmg-zLa, or the '* di'agon- 
month," which corresponds with the Hindu Ildyh, and 
mth our January and February. 



XV. 

COMPARISON 

OF THE 

VAEIOUS ALPINE DIALECTS, 

FROM 

THE INDUS TO THE GHAGRA. 





The Ariiiya dialect is spoken in Tasan and Cbitral. 


PARDU 
DIALECTS. 


„ Sbina 


" 


Gilgit, Chalas, Daret, 
Kohli, and Palas. 


AFGHAN. 


„ Khajunah 
„ Pusbtu 


" 


Hunza and Nager. 
Afglianistau and Eastern 
Hazara. 


KASA. 


„ Kashmiri 


„ 


Kashmir. 




„ Panjabi 
„ Gadi 


" 


The Panjiib. 
Chamba, Northern 


INDIAN 
DIALECTS. 


„ KulUilii 
„ Ilanduri 


» 


Kangra. 
KuUu. 
Handur, Kahhir, and 

Kyonthal. 




„ Garhwali 


„ 


Garliwal and Sarmor. 


TIBETAN 
DIALECTS. 


„ Milchang 
„ Tibarskad 
. „ Tibetan 


" 


Lower Kanawar. 
Upper Kanawar. 
Tibet, Ladak, and Balti. 



398 



COMPARISON OF ' 





DABDU DIALECTS. 


AFGHAN. 


KASA. 


INI 


PWRT T«iTT 














XiJX VCliLOO^ 


Amiya. 


Sliina. 


Khajunah. 


Pushtu. 


Kashmiri. 


Sanscrit. 


Air 


T. hawa 


ushe 


tishe 


bad, wah, wu 


hawe, waho 


atma (oTft))) 
vayu 


Ant 


- 


- 


- 


- 


re 


pipilaka 


Arrow 


wishu 


kon 


Iiunz 


ghasho 


tir, kan 


Ur, vAn 


Bird 


— 


bring 


balas 


marghai 


lipliaUn tsiri 


pakshin 


Blood 


le ( ? loh^i 


lohel 


multan 


lina (.a'lia) 


rath 


rakta 


Boat 


- 


nao 


nao 


berai 
(/3apoc) 


nao 


nau 


Bone 


- 


- 


— 


— 


adij 


asthi 


Brass 


_ 


rel 


rel 


ziyar, zyad 


sartal 


kansiya 


Brick 


- 


dastak 


dan 


khikta 


sir 


ishtaka 


Brother 


- 


ja 


achu 


nir.aror 


bhoyi, bai 


bhrata 
(^parwp) 


Buffalo 


_ 


S. mahes 


S. hes mahes 


mekha 


mahesh 


mabesa 


Camel 


S. unth 


S, unth 


S. unth 


ukh, ugh 


imth 


ushtra 


Cat 


P. pusha 


P. puslii 


P. pushi 


pishau, pishi 


breor, bryar, 
byaiir 


viral 


Cloud 


_ 


ajao 


harald 


waras 


abr 


nabhas (j'E^o 


Copper 


- 


Tib. zSns 
zangutz 


Tib. zans 


tambamio 


tram 


tanu-a 


Cotton 


_ 


S. kayas 


S. kupas 


kupa pamba 


kapas 


karpasa 


Cow 


leshu, lesun 


socha-gao 


G. buah 
C/Bovc) 


ghuai 


gao 


gau 


Crow 


_ 


_ 


_ 


kao 


kak 


Daughter 


S. kameru 
gumod 


dhi 


ai 


liir 


kur 


putri, kanya 


Day 


chhol 


des 


gun (Tiu-ki) 
guns 


roz 


doh, dah 


din 


Dog 


rain 


shiing 


hQk 


spai 


hiin, phu 
(kvujv) 


kukkur 


Ear 


S. kar, kid 


S. kimd 


iltumal 


wagh ghwaj 


kan 


kama 


Earth 


S. bhum 


birdi, saor 


birdi 


azmuka 


bhutrat, mets 


bhu, go (y»/) 


Egg 


_ 


_ 


— 


hagge 


th\d 


anda 


Elephant 


_ 


S. hasto 


S. hasto 


hathi 


hftst, hast 


hastj 


Eye 


S. ach ; 
T. ghach 


S. achhi 


S.ilchin 


istargi stirgha 


ach, achu 


chakshus 


Father 


— 


malo 


ao 


palar 


mol, bah 


janak, pitta 


Fire 


S. ag, ingar 


phii, agar 


phu 


aor, or 


nar, agan 


agni 


Fish 


_ 


chimu 


chimu 


mahi 


ghad 


matsya 


Flower 


_ 


S. pusho 


askhor 


gul 


posh 


pushpa 


Foot 


S. pang 


S. pa 


go ting 


akhpe 


kor, kiJT 


pad 


Forf 


- 


S. kot 


kan 


garhai 


kalai 


garh, (lurga 


Fruit 


- 


S. phalamiil 


S. phamul 


bar 


mOwa 


phal 


Goat 


pai 


mupar, ai 


lialdin 


biza 


Fsawtd 


Aja(Ai^)cbh 


Gold 


- 


S. son 


ghenish 


sira-zar 


son, swan 


suvama swai 





ARIOUS ALPINE DIALECTS. 






399 




DIALECTS. 


TIBETAN. 




i. 


Gidi. 


KuUuhi. 


Handuri. 


GarhwaU. 


Milchang. 


Tibarskad. 


Tibetan. 






bat 


ba^ir 


ba^ar 


pon, l)at<is 


lang 


lang 


rl.ungma 






makori 


chint 


chit, maknri 


kinnila 


^ 


- 


Grogma 






khar 


kancni 


kaiieni 


tir 


■no 


shim 


mDah 






chiri 


chclu 


panchi 


cbara 


liya 


bya 


Bya (eha) 






ragat 


lohu 


loliu 


lohu, ragat 


puLich 


Shui 


Khrag (thak) 






beri 


beri 


beri 


na<> 


- 


- 


Gru 






lia.1 


had 


tiad, h.-ul 


bar 


hiirang 


harang 


Rus {oariov, 

OS) 






pital 


pital 


pital 


pital 


pital 


pital 


raghan 






1th 


ith 


ith 


ith 


— 


- 


pag 




> 


bhaya 


dad 


bhai 


daji, bhula 


acho, bya 


acho, bya 


spun 






mafac 


mahe 


mahes 


bhains 


_ 


_ 


Mahi 






unth 


unth 


unth 


unth 


— 


_ 


— 






biUi 


bareri 


breiri 


billa 


pishi 


pishi 


Byila, pushi 






badr 


badal 


badaU 


badal 


7.U, thing 


zd, ding 


tin 






tramba 


tamba 


tamba 


tambu 


tramang 


tramang 


zangs 






kopa 


paka 


kapa 


mi 


kapa 


kapa 


shing-bal 






goru 


gao 


gai 


gai 


lang 


balang 


Ba, Ba-lang 






ka 


kao 


kao, kawa 


kag 


k.ik 


ka 


Khata 






(leyu 


betl 


dhi, beti 


laoni 


chime 


Sri-Chang 


bumo, srasmo 






dyara 


dyara 


dyara 


din 


diar, lai 


diar, zangma 


Nyin-mo 






kuttr 


kukar 


kntta 


kuttn 


khui 


khui 


Khyi 






kan 


kan 


kan 


kan 


kanang 


rapang 


Sa, Amcho 
rXa-ba 






prithvi 


jimi, mata 


prithi 


mata 


matang, sho 


matang 


rNa 






bat 


peni 


andi 


anda, phul 


11, Uch 


ttim 


sGonga 






hathi 


hathi 


hathi 


hathi, ganes 






gLangchen 






akr 


akh 


akh, hakh 


ankha 


mik 


mi 


Mig, spyan 






chacha 


bab 


bapu 


bhuva 


baba 


apa 


Phi, yab 






as 


Sg 


ag 


ag 


me 


me 


Me 






macbhi 


manchi 


machhli 


macha 


machas 


machas 


Nya 




U 


phOl 


pbul 


phul 


phiil 


u 


men to 


Metog 






par 


rahar 


pair, lat 


pair, kuta 


bang 


bangkhat 


rKang-pa 
zhabs 




d 


garhi 


garh 


garh 


kilah, garh 


Korang 


gorang 


mKhar 
rDsong 






phal 


phal 


phal 


phal 


sho 


usho 


hBrasbu 
dalbu 




wla 


bakra 


bakra 


bakra 


bakra 


^j, bakar 


la 


Ra 






siaii 








zang 


lang 


mScr 



400 



COMPARISON OF T: 





DAEDU DIALECTS. 


AFGHAN. 


KASA. 


INDX 


EKGLISH. 














Amiya. 


Shina. 


Khajunah. 


Pushtu. 


Kashmiri. 


Sanscrit. 


Grass 


_ 


kats 


shikah 


wakho purod 


ghaso 


ghas, khar 


Hair 


chhani 


balo 


gogeyang 


vekhto 


mast, wal 


kesar 


Hand 


S. hast, husht 


S. hath 


gureng ghar 
(Mog.) 


las 


atho, atha 


hasta, kai 
(X*'.») 


Head 


S. sur 


shis 


yetis 


sar 


kalah 


sir 


Honey 


— 


macchhe 


macche 


gabinoh 


manch 


madhu 


Horse 


as tor 


P. ashp 


haghor 


as 


ghor, ghur 


aswa 


House 


- 


got, gosh 


hah 


kor 


gharo, ghaoro 


nivas, has 


Husband 


- 


bareyo 


er (Turki) 


mero 


mahraz 


pati, swami 


Iron 


— 


chimr, kinir 


T. temir 
c'.iimr 


uspano 
ospana 


shistar 
((Ti^ljpoe) 


loha 


King 


— 


Rashra 


Tham 


padshah 


padshah 


raja, despati 
(cifO-TTODjc) 


Lead 


nong 


nang, nong 


nang 


sika surp 


nag 


sisak, sisa 


Leaf 


- 


S. patta 


thapong 


pane 


pan 


patra 


Light 


- 


sang 


sang-manimi 


rokhaneh 


gash 


prabha, tej 


Lightning 


_ 


bechiis 


_ 


charak 


uzmal 


saudamini 


Man 


rag;S.moaslu 


S. musha 


hir er (Turki.) 


sare, meda 


manu, manyu 


manushya nara 


Milk 


S. chir ; 
B. shid 


dudh 


mama 


pai, shaodo 
sliide 


dod, dwod 


dughdam 


Monltey 


- 


- 


- 


bizo 


punz 


kapi, vanar 


Moon 


- 


y<in 


halans 


spog-mai 
spaj-me 


ziin, tsandar 


Chandra 


Mother 


— 


ma 


uma 


mor 


moj.maj, mai. 


mata 


Mountain 


an, zum 


chesh 


chesh 


ghar 


panzal, bal, 
sangiir, 
tong,parbat 


parvata, guri 


Mouth 


diran 


anzi, asi 


gokhat 


khalo 


(pTO\ia) 


mukh 


Musquito 


— 


— 


— 


— 


mih 


masa 


Name 


— 


S. noma 

(o,.o^n) 
S. rat 


goyak 


nfim 


nao 


nama 


Night 


paniy4 


tipa 


ashpa 


rat 


ratri 


Nose 


naskar 


noto 


gomoposh 


pozeh, paza 


nast 


nasika 


OU 


— 


S. teU 


dhel 


tel 


til 


tel 


Plantain 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


kela 


kadala 


Rain 


— 


azwahi 


hariltachU 


baran 


n'ld 


vrishti, varsha 


River 


S. sin 


S. sin 


sindha 


sin 


k(U, wit 


sindhu, ganga 


Road 


P. rah 


pen 


gand 


hir 


wat {oioQ) 


vat, marga 


Salt 


— 


lona 


beyo 


malga 


nun 


lavana 


Sheep 


ashpai 


karelo 


bashkar 


gadiira, maj, 
mej 


kat, gob 


bherha, nicsh 


Shoe 


kosh (Tih.) 


paiziir 


paiziir 


pana, kough 


kosh (Tib.) 


piduka 



lRIOus alpine dialects. 



401 



DIALECTS. 


TIBETAN. 


Gidi. 


KuUuhi. 


Handuri. 


Garhwili. 


MUchang. 


Tibarskad, 


Tibetan. 


6h4 


gha 


ghas, khar 


ghas 


chi 


Chi 


Si 


khrir 


sharaT 


kes 


bal 


kra 


kra 


sKra, sPd 


hath 


hath 


hath 


hith 


got, gad 


la 


Lag-pa Phyag 


mtind 


mdnd 


sir, mund 


kapal 


bal 


pisha 


mGo 


makhlr 


makhir 


makhir 


meh, gar 


was 


pranchi 


sBrang-rTsi 


ghora 


ghora 


ghora 


ghora 


rang 


shang 


rTa 


ghar 


ghar 


ghar 


ghar.jhompra 


kliim, kyum 


kyVing, ky<im 


Khyim, 
Khang 


mard 


lila 


lara* 


dhula 


dach 


chogra 


Khyodang 


loha 


loha 


loha 


loha 


rang, pron 


chak 


IChags 


rtja 


raja 


raya 


raja 


- 


- 


rGyal-po 


eisa 


sik 


sik 


sisa 


Sik 


Sik 


shani, rilti 


patte 


pach 


pat, pach 


pat 


patlang', 
patrang 


patlang 


Loma 


tOyila 


presha 


priasa 


ujyala 


~ 


~ 


Hod 
sNang-pa 


i bijU 


bijU 
nianush 


bijU 
mard, tin 


bijU 


bijil, bizung 
mi 


hyzixiig 


Mi 


du.lli 


dudh 


diidh 


dudh 


k hi rang, 
bL^rang 


pel 


ho, homa 


"■""'"• 


baiidar 


bandar 


bandar, 
langur 


gonas, 
bandras 


gonas, 
bantlras 


sPrebu 


cliaiular 


jot 


chanda, jun 


Chan drama 


galsang 


galsaiig 


rLava 


i iji 


iji 


ma, amma 


bhai" 


ama 


ama 


Ama, Ma, 
yiim 


Ik joth 


dahak 


dhar, tibba 


dhank, tiba 


rang, ranga 


yui 


Ri, la 


mil 


jyat 


mmih 


mukh 


khagang 


a 


Kha, zhal 


i 

1 machchar 


chach 


machchar 


machchar 


chachi 


koyang 


Stinbu 


;mL 


nam 


nam 


nam 


namang 


ming 


Ming 


rat 


nihara 


rat 


rat 


rating 


m\mdo,m6nia 


mTshanmo 


n.ik 


naka 


nak 


nak 


stigOs 


nyiun 


sNa, shangs 


tal, tcl 


tel 


tel 


tel 


telang 


mithi 


hBrumar 
marku 


ki'lr 


kera 


kelu 


kelu 


— 


— 


— 


liarsara 


bishkal 


barshkal 


hiyimd 


rodang, 
doyang 


— 


rodang, 
miikpa 


nai 


khad 


nai, khad 


nadi 


samudrang 


tsangpA 


gTsang-po 


bat 


bit 


bat 


batu 


cm 


ora, im 


Lam 


Ion 


Ion 


lun 


Kin 


tsha 


tsha 


Tsha (aXf) 


idi bhera 


bhed 


bher, kadu, 
ruba 


bhera 


khas 


sum 


Wg 


pasla 


poU-a 


jora, paoni 


jutu 


kushera 


phoni 


kushiri, Iham 



* In Kashmiri— /flci, 
Compare Punjabi— g^Af/ 



n house ; hence, tdrd, a husband ; Idri, a wife. 

„ „ ghnru-nta, ,, gharwalU 



2 D 



402 



COMPARISON OF TI 





DABDTJ DIALECTS. 


AFGHAN. 


KASA. 


INDL/ 


ENGLISH. 














Amiya. 


Shina. 


Khajunah. 


Pushtu. 


Kashmiri. 


Sanscrit. 


SUver 


_ 


S. nip 


bfili 


spin-zar 


rop 


raj ata i 


Sister 


— 


S. sas 


ayas 


khor 


binye, bhenji 


bhagini 1 


Skin 


— 


— 


— 


— 


tsam 


charmma ' 


Sky 


asman 


agalii 


ayesh 


asman 


nab 


nabas, swarga 


Snake 


— 


jand 


— 


mar 


saruf, sarf 


sarpa 


Snow 


S. him 


S. hin 


eyi 


vaorah 


shin 


hima 


Son 


"iik (rfKi/oi') 


pucha [waie) 


G. aya (ujog) 


zoyah 


necho 


putra, sut 


Star 


satar (aarijp) 


S. taro 


asi 


storah 


taro, tarak 


tara 


Stone 


— 


bat 


dhaa 


karnali 


kain 


prasthara, sila 


Sun 


- 


S. suri 


sa 


nawar, Imar 


aftab, ayit, 
suraj 


surya(Vfiptoe) 


Thunder 


~ 


angaigut 


~ 


gharido 


gagarai 


meghgarjjan, 
vajranishpesh 


Tiger 


— 


dlii 


thah 


hamzerali 


suh, sih 


vyaghra 


Tooth 


S. dond 


S. dhuni 


gume 


ghakhuna, 
ghagh 


dan, dajid 


danta 


Town 


~ 


kuji 


bush^ 


khar, ghar 


shahar 


nagara, pura | 


Tree 


kan 


turn 


- 


wuna, wanai 


kal, kulu 


daru, vriksha 


Tribe 


- 


r^ima 


rom 


khel, zai 


zat 


kula, gotra 


VUlage 


— 


thenush-kui 


_ 


kUeh> kalai 


gam 


grama 


Water 


augr, ugh 


wahi 


clul 


ubo, oba 


ab, pani 


apa, uda 


Wife 


— 


hilal 


sambal 


kliiza, gbaza 


mahrin 


stri 


Woman 


S. kamri, 
kumedi 


grin 


gus 


khiza, ghaza 


zananah 


stri, nari 


Wood 


jin 


katho 


gasliil 


largai, laigi 


z6n (Mov) 


kashtha, vana 


Wool 


postam 


pash 


(Tib.) bal 


warai, wadai 

(tO(OJ') 


yer ((ipog) 


uma ^ 


East 




ja/abahi 


jfVmanas 


narkhato 


_ 


purooa, para P 


West 


— 


burah&hi 


fiwrmanas 


kibleh 


— 


pakshina, apara* 


North 


— 


— 


— 


kulb 


dachin 


uttara, vama ^ 


South 


— 


— 


— 


shamal 


kawar 


dakshina a 


Right 


— 


dachin 


doluno 


khi 


dachin 


dakshina a 


Left 


— 


thaU 


yaham 


khin-gis 


kawar 


vama » 


1 


I 


ek 


hill 


yo 


ak 


eka k 


2 


ju 


do 


altas 


dwa 


zih 


dwa 


3 


trui 


che 


usko 


dre 


trah 


tri i" 


4 


chod 


chhar 


walto 


salor 


tsor 


chatur i*^ 


5 


punj 


push 


sundo 


pinzo 


panz 


panchan ^ 


6 


chui 


shah 


mishando 


ashpag 


shah 


shash h 


7 


sftt 


sat 


talo 


awo 


sat 


saptan ^ 


8 


ansht 


asht 


altambo 


ata 


ath 


ashtan * 


9 


neuhan 


no 


huncho 


nah 


noh 


navan '* 


10 


jash 


dahi 


tormo 
10+1 


las 

1 + 10 


dah 


das la 


11 


— 


akahi 


turmohan 
10 + 2 


yaolas 


kah 


ekadas S^ 


12 


— 


bahi 


turmaltas 


dolas 


bah 


dwadas '^ 


20 


jishi 


hi 


altar 

20+10 


shil 


wuh 


vinsati " 


30 


~ 


chehi 


altartormo 


derish 


trah 


trinsat ^ 



\\.RIOUS ALPINE DIALECTS. 






403 


DIAIiECTS. 


TIBETAN. 


1 Ciidi. 


KuUuhi. 


Handuri. 


GarhwMi. 


Milchang. 


Tibarskad. 


Tibetan. 


Ill nipa 


rupa 


rupa 


rupa 


mil, mul 


mul 


mUl 


j bahiii 


bahin 


bahin 


dhili, bhuU 


Apu, Byach 


Sliiiig, Butil- 


aciihe 


\ kalri 


kabri 


kalri 


chamra 


sha 


pakpa 


Pags.pa 


amr 


sarg 


sarg, ambar 


akas 


sargang 


nam 


gNam, Khah 


kira 


sap 


sap 


sarp 


sabas 


brul 


sBrul (dul) 


liyun (xtwr) 


hio 


hjnin 


hyun 


pam, pang 


ang 


gangs-khapa 


» imtr 


beta 


put, beta 


nonal 


chaug 


phasli Chang 


bu, sras 


t.ira 


tara 


tara 


t;ira 


skara 


karma 


skar-ma 


nar 


patthar 


patthar 


patthar, 
dhvmgar 


rag, rak 


ra 


rDo 


ik-ra 


suraj 


suraj, dyara 


suraj 


yune, yunek 


nyi 


Nyima 


i;urkta 


giilkho 


gxikona, 
ambar gririya 


aijaji 


gurguri 


gurguri 


thog, hBrug 


lin.gh 


baragh 


si, sihi 


sher 


tar 


tar 


sTag 


claiid 


dand 


dand 


daiit 


gar, bang 


soa 


So, Tshems 


1 gri 


sahar 


piir, graon 


ghar 


- 


- 


grong-lthyer, 
Gror 


t nikh 


bhiit 


dar 


darkhat 


botang 


botang 


Uonshing, 
Shing 


1 jat 


jat 


kul 


jit 


— 


— 


— 


( gri 


graon 


graon 


ghar 


deshang 


deshang 


Yui-thso, 
grong 


pani 


pdiii 


pani, jal 


pani 


ti 


chh^ 


chhu 


zandnah 


lari 


lari 


dhulin 


nar, yas 


yolat 


chhimg-ma 


betari 


chyori 


jawanas 


janana, istri 


chismi 


shri 


cho-mo 


chili 
una 


cbiri 


lakri 


lakri 


shing 
Cham 


shmg 
Cham 


Shing 
Bal 


pnrab 


purab 


purab 


purah 


nes 


duru, shar 


shar 


pachin 


pachan 


pacham 


pachiin 


nlng 


duzur, n(ik 


nub 


dOr 


uttar 


uttar 


uttar 


thoad, ring 


zang 


Chang (byang) 


dakhin 


dakhin 


dakban 


dakhsin 


shilng 


zam puling 


Iho 


dabina 




dahina 


dahina 


zagang 


dOre 


gYas 


bawan 




bawa 


bayan 


derang 


bai 


gVon 


ak 


ek 


ek 


ek 


it 


ti 


gChig 


do 


do 


do 


do 


nish 


nishi 


gNyis 


tr^ 


tin 


thi 


tin 


sCim 


si^m 


gS<un 


cbbar 


chhar 


chhar 


chhar 


pu, puk 


pi 


bZhi 


paiy 


panch 


panj 


panch 


nga, ma 


ngai 


INga 


f cheh 


chah 


cheh 


chah 


tak, tilg 


taki 


drag 


'sat 


sat 


sat 


sat 


stish 


nashi 


bDun 


' ath 


ath 


ath 


ath 


sgcrt 


gyai 
gul 


brGyad 

doa 


■ das 


das 


das 


das 


sai 


chttS 


bCha 


igarah 


igarah 


igirah 


igarah 


sihad 


chati 


bChu-gchig 


biirah 


barah 


barah 


barah 


sonish 


chCini 


bChu-gnyis 


bi 


bi 


bi 


kori 


niza 


nisa, niza 


nyi-shu 


tri 


dera-bi 


tis 


tis 


deo-niza 


deo-niza 


gSOm-bChii 



2 D 2 



404 



COMPARISON OP T] 





DAEDTJ DIALECTS. 


AFGHAN. 


KASA. 


INDU 


ENGLISH. 
















Amiya. 


Shini. 


Khajunah. 


Pushtu. 


Kashmiri. 


Sanscrit. 










twice 20 










40 


— 


dobyo 


altowaltar 
twice 20+10 


sarvekht 


zatheji 


chatwarinsat 




50 


— 


bobekadalu 


alto waltar 
tonno 


panzoa 


panzab 


panchasat 




100 


do shura 


shal 


tha 


sil 


hat 


sat 




1,000 


— 


S. sas 


S. sas 


zir 


sas 


sahasra 




100,000 


— 


— 


— 


lakh 


lach 


laksha 




1st 


~ 


rauchono 


yamoma 


ahwala, 
yawaw 


godanyuk 


prathama 




2nd 


~ 


dogono 


makchfim 


duyamah, 


duyum 


dwitiya 




3rd 


~ 


chagono 


yilchiiin 


dremah, 
drey am 


teyum 


tritiya 




4th 


~ 


charyono 


waltiim 


saloramah, 
saloram 


Chorum 


chaturtha 




10th 


— 


dahigono 


torfim 


lasumah.lasam 


dohara 


dasama 




Red 


— 


lolo 


bardftm 


sara, sura 


wazul 


lohita, rakta 




YeUow 


— 


haliru 


shikark 


zera, zyad 


ledur 


pinjar, pita 




Blue 


— 


nila 


shikam 


nila, abi 


nyul 


nila 




Green 


— 


cherung 


thokrang 


shm 


sabza 


harita 




Black 


— 


kino 


matimg 


tor 


krihun 


syama, kala 




White 


— 


sho 


brtim 


spin 


chot 


sweta, aijuna 




To-day 


_ 


_ 


_ 


man, roz 


az 


_ 




To-morrow 


— 


-- 


— 


sabha roz 


pagah, ruts 


kalli, swas 




Yesterday 


— 


— 


_ 


pEtrtin 


yao 


gata-kal 




Week 


— 




— 


— 


— 


sapti-din 




Month 


— 


— 


— 


— 


ret 


mas 




Year 


— 


— 


_ 


kal 


wari 


varsha 




Above 


yang 




_ 


porta, boad 


- 


Orddhwa, adhi 




Beneath 


past 


kari 


yara 


akhata 


tal 


tala, adha 




Between 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


antar 




Before 


- 


muclio 


yar 


mukh-iimukh 
dodande 


bont 


para, agra 




Behmd 


— 


pato 


ilji 


n'lsto, dorusto 


pat 


pakshima 




Broad 


— 


bistino 


daldalam 


palana 


pana 


— 




Long 


— 


jigo 


thanung 


ugda 


z4t 


lamba 




Crooked 


— 


kingru 


gandtr 


kaga, koj 


hul, haj 


vakra 




Straight 


_ 


suntho 


san 


samah, rast 


sy(id 


_ 




Dry 


— 


sukho 


bum 


uch, wach 


hok 


sushka 




Wet 


— 


azo 


hagUm 


laondah, 
numbd 


adiir (j/fup) 


irdra 


, 


Far 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


d(ir 




Near 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


nish, nakha 


nikat 


Good 


jam 


mishto 


daltas 


kha 


jwan 


su 


Bad 


dish 


phana 


wiran 


nakhara 


yach 


dur, manda 





VVETOUS ALPINE DIALECTS. 



405 



DIALECTS. 


TIBETAN. 


1 GaiU. 


KuUuhi. 


Handuri. 


Garhwali. 


Milchanff. 


Tibarskad. 


Tibetan. 


Oll.lli 


chali 


chiU 


chalis 


nish.iiiza 


nish-niza 


bZhi-bChU 


ranji 


paucha 


panja 


pachas 


dai-niza 


dai-niza 


INga-b-Chii 


kan 


sao 


sao 


sao 


ra 


gj-a 


brGya 


li L/iir 


hajar 


das-sao 


hazar 


hazar 


chu-gya 


stong 


;,ikh 


lakh 


lakh 


lakh 


lakh 


lakh 


hBam 


ai-.-acra 


eyu kadeb 


age 


pahla 


- 


dunchi 


dang-po 


.l.i-ilcra 


deju kadeh 


duija 


dusra 


- 


- 


gNyis-pa 


tre-dera 


treyu kadeh 


tiija 


tisra 


- 


- 


gSum-pa 


'ar-dera 


cha5n 


chautha 


chautha 


- 


- 


hzhi-pa 


dera 


dason 


das-wa 


daswa 


_ 


_ 


bChu-pa 




— 


sua 


lal 


shwig 


mangni 


dMar-po 


■,i 


— 


piora 


piolo 


pik, pikla 


Lene 


mSer-po 


1 


— 


uila 


nilu 


rak, rok 


tingni 


sNgo 


[■a 


— 


hara 


hara 


rag 


zango 


Uang 


1 ,.ila 


— 


kala 


kalu 


reg, rok 


kani 


nag-po 


hai'hi 


~ 


safed, Chita 


safed 


thog 


thaiigni, 
changni 


dKar-po 


_ 


— 


Aj 


aj 


tore, trole, 


diriug 


de-ring 


_ 


— 


kal 


bholo 


uasam 


airo. yi'u- 


sang, thore 


_ 


— 


kal 


bhoU 


me 


yaugto 


mDang 


_ 


— 


— 


_ 


— 


— 


bDun-phrag 


_ 


— 


mah 


raahina 


gol 


la 


zla 


_ 


— 


baras 


baras 


barsang 


barsang 


lo 


uttara 




upar 


upannati 


thoa, thuk 


tharang, 
chokcho 


stangna, 
gongna, 
mTho, stod 


Imiui 


- 


tol, nita 


numdi 


yua, yug 


yogun 


hogna,mar-pa 
dMan, smad 


biclikdr 


- 


maiijh 


hichh 


manzong, 
Tuazang 


kUo 


mang, bar 


1 age 


- 


age 


age 


urns 


donclii 


mDtindli 


i iiit 


_ 


pach(5, piche 


piche 


nyums 


gyab-chi 


rGyabtu 


* chaora 


_ 


chaora 


chaora 


charas, kdnk 


Zheng- Chan 


Zheng Chan 


* bara 


_ 


Iambi 


lamba 


— 


— 


ring.pa 


' pheta 


- 


bhcnga 


tircha 


khungsbim, 
kuta 


gilrgur 


kugpa 


' sidha 


_ 


sidha 


sidha 


padras 


thunia 


kyang 


! hukha 


_ 


siikha 


sukhu 


charcb, chars 


phorka 


sKam 


) sijji 


- 


sina. hara 


suka 


tisre, sping 


chiko 


gSher-pa, 
rLan-pa 


i _ 


- 


dur 


dur 


warik, dtir 


war, warko 


thag-ring, 
ngan-pa 


1 _ 


_ 


neri 


nagich 


neraug 


nyemo 


nyii-pa 


' Cher 


- 


achha, sobta 


acchhu 


dam 


epo, ebuta 


gShinpa, 
bZang 


' mara 


_ 


kwaina> bura 


khrab 


mar, kochang 


ko changta 


ngan 


[ 















406 



COMPARISON OF T. 





DARDU DIALECTS. 


AFGHAN 


KASA. 


IWDI 


ENGLISH 
















Amiya. 


Shiiia, 


Khajunah. 


Pushtu. 


Kaslmiiri. 


Sanscrit. 


Hard 


1 


koro 


dang 


sakhta, kak 


dor 


kathar, kathin 


Soft 


_ 


hazal 


hasa 


narma 


narm 


masrin, komal 


Heavy 


— 


angard 


Chung 


darana.dar^c 


gob 


bhari 


Light 


— 


loko 


humalkum 


spuka 


lot 


lagha 


Hot 


— 


tatto 


garomo 


garma 


tut 


tapta, uslma 


Cold 


— 


chon 


chagarum 


yekhnai, sod 


tartin 


amishna 


Hungry 


— 


— 


— 


ghwajai 


— 


kshudita 


Thirsty 


— 


— 


_ 


tajai 


— 


pipasat 


Large 


lat 


baro 


shokum 


loyah 


bod 


vrihat 


Small 


tsyuk 


chuna 


jot 


warah 


lok 


kshutora 


New 


— 


nao 


tash 


nave (novus) 


no, nivi 


navya 


Old 


-" 


prono 


men 


zarah 


pron, pranu 


purana 
jirna(yfpm^) 


Quick 


— 


halt 


slirdni 


zir.jir 


jald 


satwar 


Slow 


— 


chot 


talamine 


ro-ro 


lot-lot 


manda 


Raw 


- 


omo 


audevanam 


kacha, uma, 


kham 


apakwa 


Ripe 


_ 


pakko 


degonami 


pakka 


pop 


pakwa 


Rough 


— 


chacharo 


chachanim 


— 


— 


asamau 


Smooth 


— 


pichilo 


sliirishum 


— 


— 


masrin 


Round 


ult 


duduro 


bidirim 


~ 


dalom 


gola, 
chakrakai 


Square 


■~ 


charkuta 


walte shutun 
gus 


salor kunjah 


chokunjah 


chaturkona 


Sweet 


— 


moro 


moro 


khwaza, khaj 


madhur 


mishta 


Sour 


— 


— 


_ 


tarwa 


tsuk 


amla 


Thick 


— 


tijlo 


daganus 


ghat 


mot 


sthula 


Thm 


bizwa 


taluno 


beyenus 


mahina 


tonu, nyik 


saru, kshin 


Within 


— 


— 


_ 


danana 


— 


— 


Without 


— 


_ 


_ 


dabandi 


— 


_ 


Here 


ir 


— 


_ 


dilta 


— 


atra 


There 


— 


— 


_ 


halta 


— 


tatra ' 


Where 


— 


— 


_ 


cherta 


— 


jatra 1 


Now 


— 


anu-khen 


kutu-khen 


OS 


tmikhen 


tatkshan, idanis i 


Then 


— 


akhen 


atikhenu 


aga wakt 


tamiwakt, adi 


tadanis 1 


When 


~ 


koi-khen 


amid-khen 


kum wakt, 
kala 


kan wakt 


— ■ 


Who 


_ 


_ 


_ 


sok 


_ 


— 1 


What 


_ 


_ 


_ 


sah, as 


_ 


_ 1 


Which 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ : 


This 


_ 


_ 


_ 


dah 


— 


_ 


That 


— 


_ 


_ 


agha 


_ 


} 


Why 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— ' 


How 


- 


- 


- 


saranga 


— 


— 


Yes 


_ 


_ 




ho 


_ 


_ 


No 


_ 


_ 


_ 


na 


_ 


_ 


Not 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


zal 


_ 


And 


_ 


_ 


_ 


wo 


ta 


_ 


If 


_ 


_ 


_ 


ka 


_ 


I 1 


But 


- 


- 


- 


wale 


lekin, ania 


Or 


~ 


~ 


- 


ya 


ya 


~ 



' RIOUS ALPINE DIALECTS. 






407 


DIALECTS. 


TIBETAN. 


i Gidi. 


KuUuhi. 


Haiiduri. 


GarUwaii. 


Milchang. 


Tibarskad. 


Tibetan. 


kirlKi 


- 


katha, karha 


kathu 


talk 


gyongbo 


gyong, 
mKhrang 


kuT-hi 


_ 


narm 


narm 


kolas 


bulbo 


hJam-pa,sNyi 


l.h,.r,i, sirka 


— 


garka 


garko 


lihig 


liko 




li!>lk;i 


— 


halka 


haiku 


Ian grits 


lanko 


sLa 


tatt.i 


— 


tatti 


garm 


zing, zabang 


kosra 


dro-dron,tsha 


thamla, shera 


_ 


than da 


thandu 


Usk 


khatkeo 


grang 


_ 


_ 


bhuka 


bhuku 


_ 


_ 


sDrabs-pa 


— 


_ 


tihai 


piasu, tirka 


_ 


— 


skom 


bnni 


_ 


bada, bara 


bara 


tek, teg 


shangni 


chhen, chhe 


i-hlioti 


— 


nikka, matta 


chhotu 


gato, zaich 


tsigi, keta 


bu, chhung 


luni 


— 


no\ya 


itaya 


uyimg 


nymigni 


soma 


limuil 


- 


pur ana 


piiranu 


I'lshk, ruza 


nying.pa 


gNah,nying-pa 


tanr.i 


_ 


jaldi 


jaldi 


hal, hasil 


gyuk-pa 


— 


malt-i 


— 


suli 


aste 


mesang 


mesang 


gule 


kacli.i 


— 


kacha 


kacha 


mashos 


masho, 
kachang 


~ 


! pakkii 


_ 


pakka 


pakku 


shoyo, lungyo 


sho, shobang 


snimno 


miirha 


_ 


sowa 


khurkhura 


— 


— 


rTsing-pa 


lanii 


_ 


kasra 


saf 


— 


— 


hJam-pa 


,-U 


- 


gol 


gala 


burbur 


burbur 


kyir-kyir 


cliarkoni 


- 


charkona 


chaokunta 


puzrak, puzir 


piziir 


gru-bzhi 


mitlia 


_ 


mitha 


mithu 


thik, — im 


nyamko 


mNgar-pa 


_ 


_ 


khatta 


khatta 


surk 


surko 


skynr-pa 


tula 


- 


mota 


motu 


~ 


— 


rGyags pa, 
sTug-sKa 


jiattala 


_ 


pattala 


pattalu 


— 


— 


srab 


_ 


_ 


bihtar 


muda 


kumo 


nangdu 


nangna 


_ 


_ 


bahar 


bahar 


barang 


phitila 


phyi-rol-na 


iti 


_ 


iti.ure 


urhi 


zua, tua 


oya 


hDir, hDin 


B^uia 


_ 


pure, pare 


woka, piini 


noa, doa 


doa, ona 


der, den 




_ 


keti, kehi 


kaka, kahau 


ham 


gna, go 


gar, gan 


aln- 


_ 


ibhu 


abi 


hun 


hsungo 


reng 


tal.L- 


_ 


tab 


tab 


— 


— 


re-zhig 


jalK- 


- 


kab 


jab 


tcrang 


eno 


nam 


koii 


_ 


kun 


ko 


hatto, hai 


khainde, go 


su 


_ 


_ 


ka, kya 


kya 


the, ham 


gi 


chi 


— 


_ 


kun 


ko 


— 




gang 


_ 


_ 


yih 


yih 


yo, za 


oya, ai, yui 


hDi 


_ 


_ 


yih 


wuh 


no, nu 


oza, aru, ado 


de 


_ 


_ 


kyun 


kile 


chara, phu 


khairo 


— 


- 


- 


kisitarah 


kaisi, kannu 


tera, te 


eue, enekta 


chi-tsug, 
chi-ltar 


- 


- 


hah 


hah 


m'-^'mani 


u, ung, o 


- 


_ 


_ 


n^» nahjn 


mat 


' _ 


— 


- 


— 


— 


aur 


aur 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


agar 


— 


— 


— 


jiste 


— 


_ 


lekin 


_ 


— 


— 


honte, galtc 


— 


_ 


ya 


ya 


ki 


la 


yang-na 


Li 















408 



COMPARISON OF THJ 





DAKDU DIALECTS. 


AFGHAN. 


KASA. 


INDIAI 


ENGLISH. 














Arniya. 


Shini. 


Khajunah. 


Pushtu. 


Kashmiri. 


Sanscrit. 




As 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


jai, 


So, thus 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


wa 


Also 


— 


— 


— 


ham 


— 


— 


bhi 


Always 


— 


— 


— 


mudam 


— 


— 


ha) 


Although 


~ 


— 


~ 


— 


yadante, 
agarche 


— 




UutU 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


jal 


Agaiu 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


ph 


Unless 


— 


— 


— 


— 


nai 


— 




Except 


— 


— 


— 


— 


magar, yatu 


— 




Therefore 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 




Since 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 




Much 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 




I 


mo 


jeba 


— 


zo 


— 


aham asmad 


nu 


Of me 


anumyo 


jya 


— 


zamuga 


— 


mama 


mi 


Tome 


mote 


jya dila 


— 


mala 


— 


mahyam 


mi 


Byrne 


_ 


— 


— 


malura 


— 


maya 


mi 


From me 


_ 


- 


- 


malura 


— 


mat 


mi 


We 


_ 


_ 


— 


mimga 


— 


asmi- vayam 


ha 


Of us 


_ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


asmiikam 


ha 


To us 


_ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


asniabliyam 


ha 


By us 


_ 


— 


— 


zamungna 


— 


asniabhis 


ha 


From us 


_ 


— 


— 


zamungna 


— 


asniat 


ha|i 


Thou 


_ 


— 


— 


Tah 


— 


twam yushmad 


tu' 


Of thee 


_ 


— 


— 


istali, stall 


— 


tava 


t*,| 


To thee 




— 


— 


tall la 


— 


tubhyam 


tul 


By thee 


_ 


— 


— 


talra 


— 


twaya 


tu.p 


Prom thee 


_ 


— 


— 


talra 


— 


twat 


tUB 


Ye 


_ 


— 


— 


Tahse 


— 


yushmc 


tn. 


Of you 


_ 


_ 


— 


istahse 


— 


yushmakam 


tul 


To you 


_ 


— 


— 


istahla 


— 


yuslimabhyam 


tu* 


By you 


_ 


— 


— 


tasona 


— 


jTishmabis 


tuja 


From you 


- 


- 


- 


tasona 


— 


yustuuat 


tuJ! 


He 


_ 


_ 


_ 


agha 


— 


sa 


Wi 


Of him 


_ 


— 


— 


dagha 


— 


tasya 


a.4 


To him 


— 


— 


— 


agha ta 


— 


tasmai 


Uft> 


By him 


_ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


tena 


yt'l 


From him 


_ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


tasm^t 


us: 


They 


_ 


— 


— 


aghi 


— 


te 


w 


Of them 


_ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


tesham 


ma 


To them 


_ 


_ 


_ 


— 


— 


tebhyas 


UJO 


By them 


_ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


tais 


uie 


From them 


_ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


tebhyas 


uie 


To ask 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


yachitun 


p,Ji 


To buy 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


— 


mil 


To blow 


_ 


_ 


_ 


pukawal 


dolmut 


— 


pit 


To call 


_ 


_ 


_ 


jagh kawal 


— 


— 


be 01 


Tn cook 


_ 


— 


— 


pakh;iwal 


ranun 


— 


pnd 


To count 


- 


- 


- 


- 


gonzuruu 


~ 


gia 


To cut 


- 


- 


- 


parka.wal 


giuriiii 


- 


k;a 



AllIOUS ALPINE DIALECTS. 



40a 





DIALECTS 






TIBETAN. 


ni • 


G.uli. 


Kulluhi. 


Handuri. 


Garhwali. 


Milchang. 


Tibarskad. 


Tibetan. 




_ 


_ 


_ 


jaisi 






_ 


. 


_ 


_ 


— 


waisi 


_ 


_ 


cheliam 




— 


— 


bhi 


bhi 


_ 


_ 


kyang, yang 




— 


— 


hamesh 


hamesh 


— 


— 


— 




- 


- 




- 


- 


- 


modkyang 


. 


_ 


_ 


tahaute 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 




- 


- 


phir 


phir 


- 


- 


- 




- 


- 


- 


bohat 


- 


- 


mang 


- 


— 


— 


Haon 


main 


gyit iiinga ang 


gi, gyo 


nga 




— 


— 


— 


main ka 


ang-o 


— 


ngahi, ngayi 


- 


— 


— 


— 


main ko 


ang olo 


— 


ng'a-la 




— 


— 


— 


main se 


— 


— 


ngas, ngayis 




" 


~~ 


~ 


main sO 


— 


~ 


nga-nae, Dga- 
las 




— 


— 


asse 


ham 


— 


— 


nga-chag 




— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


nga-chag-gi 


- 


— 


— 


— 


_ 


— 


— 


ngachag la 




— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


nga-chag g:is 




— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


nga-chag naa 




— 


— 


tu 


tu 


ki, kas 


huni, gnan 


khyod 




— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


khyod kyi 




— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


khyod la 




— 


— 


— 


— 


_ 


— 


khyod kyis 




— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


khyod nas 




— 


— 


tun 


tum 


ki, kis Itina 


giianishi 


khyod-chag 




— 


— 


— 


_ 


_ 


— 


khyod- chaggi 




— 


— 


— 


_ 


— 


— 


khyod-chag la 




— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


khyod- chaggia 




— 


~ 


- 


- 


- 


- 


khyod-chag 




- 


- 


yih 


wiih 


no, nos, za 


wa, plia, arc 


kho 




— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


kho hi 




— 


— 


_ 


_ 


— 


— 


kho la 




— 


— 


_ 


_ 


_ 


— 


kho yis, khos 




— 


— 


_ 


_ 


— 


— 


kho nas 




— 


— 


yUi 


wiih 


no, zohugo 


artislii 


kho-chag 




— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


kho-chag gi 


_ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


kho-chag la 




— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


kho-chag gia 




— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


kho-chag uas 


■' 






puchhna 


puchhnu 


xuiming 


thabang, 
shaopaug 


gSherpar 


> 


— 


— 


mol-lena 


mol-Ienu 


zongmig 


chongbang 


nyobar 


> 


— 


— 


phukna 


phunknVi 


phuyamig 


— 


hBudpar 


» 


— 


— 


hak-deiia 


bolanti 


kunig 


hotpang 


hBodpar 


1 


— 


— 


pakkana 


pakkami 


lanig 


lenmang 


gYospar 


t 


- 


~ 


guraa, gaima 


ginnu 


narmig 


shumang 


rTsibar 
bGraiigbar 


f 


— 


' 


katna 


kitnu 


malmig 


rabang 


gChodpar 
gZhogpar 



410 








1 

COMPARISON OF THI 




DAKDU DIALECTS. 


AFGHAN. 


KASA. 


htdiah-I 


ENGLISH. 












1 


Araiya. 


Shina. 


Khajuuah. 


Pushtu. 


Easbmiri. 


Sanscrit. 


H 


To die 


_ 


mireono 


_ 


mudal 


_ 


— 


mam 


To do 


— 


— 


— 


— 


karun 


— 


kania 


TofaU 


— 


— 


— 


purewatal 


pyun 


— 


girna' 


TokUI 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


mam 


To laugh 


— 


— 


— 


khandU 


_ 


— 


hasm 


To open 


— 


— 


— 


khalaswal 


— 


— 


kholi 


To raise 


— 


— 


— 


porta kawil 


_ 


— 


utan 


To read 


— 


— 


— 


lawastan 


parun 


— 


panu. 


To run 


— 


— 


— 


zaghastal 


dawun, doruii 


— 


dorm' 


ToseU 


— 


— 


— 


— 


_ 


— 


beciii: 


To sew 


- 


- 


- 


gandal 


suwim 


— 


sini 


To be silent 


_ 


- 


— 


_ 


_ 


- 


chnp I 


To sleep 


— 


— 


— 


— 


shimgmi 


— 


sona 


To strike 


- 


- 


- 


- 


layim 


- 


pitni] 


To take 


_ 


- 


— 


akhistan 


hy(in 


- 


lena 


To take away 


— 


— 


— 


— 


_ 


— 


lejan. 


To tear 


— 


— 


— 


sirekawal 


_ 


— 


toma 


To tell 


- 


— 


- 


- 


- 


- 


boluE 


To wake 


_ 


- 


_ 


_ 




- 


jagiii 


To weep 


— 


— 


— 


jadU 


wodun 


— 


rona 


To weigh 


— 


— 


— 


tolal 


_ 


— 


tolna 


To write 


— 


— 


— 


— 


likhun 


— 


likhn 


To under- 


— 


— 


— 


— 


zanun 


— 


saiDJll 


stand 
















To be 


- 


bUo 


manimi 


khedil 


- 


- 


bona 


Be thou 


- 


be 


h(ir4t 


tahsa 


- 


as 


ho 


Being 


_ 


bii 


_ 


kheda 


_ 


— 


hoka' 


Been 


— 


boye 


ni 


sawai wu 


— 


— 


ho-g( 


1 am 


— 


mo Hos 


jaBa 


zaYam 


— 


asmi 


maio^ 


Thou art 


— 


tu hao 


umba 


tahye 


— 


asi 


tuhi 


He is 


— 


ah hao 


aiba 


azba dai 


— 


asti 


wuh 


We are 


- 


be has 


hurtu bau 


mungay^ 


— 


— 


ham 


Ye are 


- 


tso hath 


mabau 


tase yast 


- 


- 


turn 


They are 


- 


&h ha 


menig biu 


aghi di 


- 


santi 


we hi 


I was 


_ 


mo Asfthis 




za Wum 


_ 


_ 


main 


Thou wast 


- 


tu asulu 


- 


tab we 


- 


— 


tutb| 


He was 


_ 


ah asulu 




aghawd 


_ 


_ 


w«t! 


We were 


- 


beasilis 


- 


munga wu 


- 


- 


hamll 


Ye were 


- 


tso asiUt 


— 


tase wast 


- 


- 


turn! 


They were 


- 


ze asili 


- 


aghiwu 


- 


- 


weti 


I wiU be 


- 


mo Ghyem 


ja tsujcm 


za Khei^am 


- 


- 


nuui 



AiaOUS ALPINE DIALECTS. 






411 


DIALECTS. 


TIBETAN. 




Gacli. 


Kulluhi. 


Handuh. 


Garbwali. 


MUchanf. 


Tibarskad. 


Tibetan. 




_ 


_ 


mama 


marau 


shiraig 


sbicbbang 


gShegspar 




— 


— 


kania 


kamu 


langmif 


lenmang 


byedpar 




— 


— 


ffinia, dalna 


gimu 


goraiig 


kesbhangr 


iiyilbEir 




— 


— 


mama 


mama 


saiunig 


satpang 


gSod-par 




— 


— 


basna 


basnu 


wannig 


wotpaiig 


dCrtidpar 




— 


— 


kholna 


kholna 


tonginig 


pbebang 


dByC'bar 




— 


— 


chakna 


utanu 


thumig 


tekpang 


gTe^-bar 




— 


— 


pama 


pama 


parasmig 


silbang 


kLagT)ar 




— 


— 


doma 


dauniu 


dbyamlg 


galbang 


brGyagpar 




— 


— 


bhikhna 


— 


renig 


raiigniang 


bTsong-bar 




— 


~ 


seona 


sinu 


poamig, 
cberaig 


pOnmaiig 


bTsempar 




— 


— 


chup-rabiia 


cbup rahnu 


tamtosbmig 


— 


kha-rog.par 




~ 


"~ 


sona, suti- 
jana 


sUtnli 


yangmig 


gucbbang 


mNalbar 




~ 


~ 


pitna, tilkana 


pitnu 


~ 


~ 


gZhubar 
brDegTiar 


- 


— 


— 


leiia 


lenu 


yamig 


thabang 


bLangbar 


- 


— 


— 


lejana 


lejanu 


tomnig 


hamiiang 


— 


- 


— 


— 


cbima 


phamu 


cheraiig 


chirabang 


dagspar 


' 


"~ 


~ 


bolna 


bolnu 


rmgmig 


ringbang 


bSnyadpar 
zerbar 


- 


— 


— 


jagna 


utjanu 


toshimig 


tekpang 


_ 


- 


— 


— 


rona 


roau 


kramig 


tobang 


ngubar 


- 


— 


— 


tolna 


tolnu 


tolamig 


tolabang 


dPopgar 


- 


— 


— 


likhna 


likhnu 


chemig 


chebang 


hBribar 


~ 


— 


~ 


samjhna 


samjbnu 


- 


- 


shespar 


- 


- 


- 


bona 


bona 


- 


- 


hDiig par 
yiu-par 


" 


~ 


~ 


— 


— 


- 


— 


kyod-gyur- 
chig 


- 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


yin-pa 


- 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


yod-pa 


- 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


nga-yin 


- 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


khyod-yin 


- 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


kho-yin 




— 


~ 


- 


— 


- 


- 


nga-rNams 
yia 




— 


~ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


khyod-rNams 
yin 


" 


— 


~ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


kho-rNams 
yin 


- 


— 


— 


_ 


— 


_ 


_ 


nga-hDug-pa 


"■ 


— 


~ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


khyod hDug. 
pa 


- 


— 


— 


_ 


— 


_ 


— 


kho hDug-pa 


" 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


nga-chag- 
hDug-pa 


", 


- 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


khyod chag- 
hDug-pa 




- 


~ 


— 


~ 


— 


— 


kho chag- 
h Dug- pa 


1 














nga-hGyur-ro 



412 








COMPARISON OP THI 




DAEDXr DIALECTS. 


AFGHAN. 


KASA. 


INDIAN 


ENGLISH. 
















Amiya. 


Shink. 


Khajunah. 


Pushtu. 


Kashiuiri. 


Sanscrit. 


H 


Thou wilt be 


- 


tu ghye 


- 


tah kheaja 


- 


- 


tuho 


He will be 


_ 


ju ghye 


_ 


agha kheaji 


_ 


_ 


wuh 


We will be 


— 


bu thi 


— 


munga 
kheajam 


— 


— 


bam 


Ye will be 


- 


tso gayah 


— 


tdse khiiijal 


- 


- 


turn! 


They will be 


_ 


able 


_ 


aghi kheaji 


_ 


_ 


weh 


To bring 


- 


areono 


tsuh 


ravdal, rodal 


ny(in 


- 


Una 


Bring thou 


_ 


arao 


— 


raraoda 


— 


- 


lao 


Bringing 


— 


areta 


— 


raoda 


— 


— 


lata 


Brought 


— 


aro 


— 


raod 


— 


— 


laya 


1 bring 


— 


mosaram 


— 


za raodam 


— 


— 


maint 


I brought 


— 


mosaras 


— 


ma raodal 


— 


— 


main) 


I will bring 


— 


nios iphem 


— 


— 


— 


— 


maiifl 


To give 


— 


deono 


~ 


~" 


dawun 


~ 


Una' 


Give thou 


_ 


de 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


M 


Giving 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


deka 


Given 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


dega 


I give 


— 


mosu das 


— 


— 


— 


— 


maiiil 


Thou givest 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


tudi 


He gives 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


wulit 


We give 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


hamt 


Ye give 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


turn t 


They give 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


we(! 


I gave 


— 


mosu dim 


— 


— 


— 


— 


maiii; 


Thoa gavest 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


tud. 


He gave 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


wiibij 


We gave 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


ham)i 


Ye gave 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


tumf 


They gave 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


we I! 


I will give 


— 


mosu dksiis 


— 


— 


— 


— 


maiiei 


Thou wilt 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


tudi 


give 
















He win give 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


will ;| 


We will give 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


hair in 


Ye will give 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


turn :II 


They will 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


weiij 


give 
















To come 


hai 


ono 


dohmau 


ratalal 


~ 


~ 


ana 


Come thou 


_ 


eta 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


ao 


Coming 


— 


along 


— 


— 


— 


— 


aka 


Come 


— 


e 


— 


— 


— 


— 


iga 


I come 


— 


mo alas 


ji dayem 


— 


_ 


— 


dta 


1 came 


_ 


mo em 


ai dayem 


— 


— 


— 


iya 


I will come 


— 


mo ghephtim 


ji ghadayah 


— 


— 


— 


iwi 


To see 


poshik 


chakyono 


- 


lidal 


dupluui 


- 


dcka 


See thou 


- 


chakye 


- 


- 


- 


- 


dek 



ARIOUS ALPINE DIALECTS. 



413 



DIALECTS. 


TIBETAN. 




Qidi. 


Kulluhi. 


Handuri. 


Garhwali. 


Milchang. 


Tibarskad. 


Tibetan. 




- 


- 


- 




- 


- 


khyod hGyur- 




- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


klio hGyur-ro 




~ 




" 


~ 


" 


~ 


nga-chag- 
liGyur-ro 




— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


khyod hGyur- 




_ 


_ 


_ 


— 


— 


_ 


kho hGyur-ro 




— 


— 


lana 


lana 


lyamigkermig 


repang 


hBraugbar 
honpar 




— 


— 


— 


— 


kera, ker 


re— repai 


— 




— 


— 


— 


— 


kerya, kera 


rega 


— 




— 


— 


— 


— 


kerkyo 


reke 


_ 




— 


— 


— 


— 


ketuk 


reti 


_ 




— 


— 


— 


— 


kerok 


regri 


_ 




— 


_ 


_ 


— 


kertok 


reti 


_ 








tlena 




kemig^ 


dabang 


dBog-par, 
gTong-bar, 
bSter-bar 




— 


— 


de, do 


— 


kern 


dai 


_ 




— 


— 


— 


— 


keraa 


diga 


_ 




— 


— 


— 


— 


kemkyo 


ddke 


— 




— 


— 


— 


— 


ke-tuk 


Dani 


_ 




— 


— 


_ 


— 


kL'-tTon 


daniUa 


_ 




— 


— 


_ 


— 


kt-.ta 


dani, nila 


_ 




— 


— 


_ 


_ 


ki^-te 


daiu 


_ 




— 


— 


— 


— 


ke-ten 


dano, nu, mui 


_ 




— 


— 


— 


— 


ke-te 


daiil 


_ 




— 


— 


_ 


_ 


Kerauk 


Dagi 


_ 




— 


— 


_ 


— 


kemun 


datka 


_ 




— 


— 


— 


— 


kemo 


dat 


_ 




— 


— 


— 


— 


kerae 


dacho 


— 




— 


— 


_ 


_ 


kemen 


dacho 


_ 




— 


— 


_ 


_ 


kerne 


dacho 


— 




— 


— 


— 


— 


Kemtok 


_ 


— 




- 


— 


- 


- 


kemtou 


- 


- 




_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


kemtu 


_ 


_ 




_ 


— 


_ 


_ 


kemte, tosh 


— 


_ 




_ 


— 


_ 


_ 


kemten, tish 


_ 


_ 




- 


- 


- 


- 


kerate, tosb 


- 


- 




- 


— 


ana 


- 


bun nig 


nutpang 


sByon-par 
pheb-par 
hong-bar 




— 


— 


ao 


— 


bCin 


niit 


— 


1 


— 


— 


akar 


— 


bimya 


natga 


— 


1 


— 


— 


— 


— 


bCmkyo 


natke 


— 


- 


— 


— 


— 


— 


biitiik 


nu-U 


— 


- 


— 


— 


— 


— 


bunuk, biik 


nutgi 


— 


- 


— 


— 


— 


— 


bimtok 


nupH 


— 




~ 


— 


— 


— 


khyamig, 
tangroig 


kanmang, 
tangmang 


mThong-bar 


I 


" 


— 


— 


— 


taiig 


kan 


— 



I 



414 



COMPAEISON OF THE 



DAKDU DIALECTS, 



Shini. Khaju 



Seeing 
Seen 
I see 

Thou seest 
He sees 
We see 
Ye see 
They see 
I saw 

Thou sawest 
He saw 
We saw 
Ye saw 
They saw 
I wiU see 
Thou wilt 



mos chakyam 
tus chakye 
jus chakye 



> chakaltis 
tus chakalli 
s chak^u 
bis chakalis 
tso chakalit 
asigh chakali 
mos pusha: 
tus push 



He will see 
We will see 
Ye will see 
They will see 
To drink 
Drink thou 
Drinking 
Drunk 
I drink 
I drank 
I will drink 



jus pushe 



piye 

piy4s 



To speak 
Speak thou 
Speaking 
Spoken 
I speak 
Thou speak - 

est 
He speaks 
We speak 
Ye speak 
They speak 
I spoke 
Thou 

spokest 
He spoke 
We spoke 
Ye spoke 
They spoke 
I will speak 

Thou wilt 

speak 
He will speak 

We WiU 
speak 



i rasam 
ti'is ras 
jus rase 
bis rasilis 



liyil 
ta wawaya 
waiya 

za-waiyam 
tah waiye 



munga waiyii 
tase waiyast 
aghi wai 

i waiyal 
tah waiyal 

agha waiyal 
munga waiyal 
tase waiyal 
aghi waiyal 
. Bawo 



waiye 
agha bawo wai 



munga bawo 
waiy(i 



F 



tl 



TARIOUS ALPINE DIALECTS. 



415 



DIALECTS. 


TIBETAN. 


1. 


G4di. 


KuUuhi. 


Handuri. 


Garhw&li. 


Milcban^. 


Tibarskad. 


Tibetan. 




_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


tanga 


kaiii 


_ 




_ 


— 


— 


_ 


tarifjkyo 


kanga 


— 




_ 


— 


— 


— 


ta-tuk 


kadi 


— 




_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


ta-tun 


kadula 


— 




_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


ta.U 


kadi, kendela 


— 




_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


ta-tc 


kadi 


— 




_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


ta-ten 


ka-do, du, dun 


— 




_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


ta-tC- 


ke-di 


— 




_ 


— 


— 


— 


Tanguk 


Kangi 


— 




_ 


— 


— 


— 


tangun 


kanga 


— 




— 


— 


— 


— 


tango 


kanga 


— 




_ 


— 


— 


— 


taiig6 


kanzo, cbo 


— 




_ 


— 


— 


— 


tangcn 


kanzo, cho 


— 




— 


_ 


— 


— 


tange 


kanzo, cho 


— 




_ 


_ 


— 


— 


Tangtok 


Kandi 


— 




- 


- 


- 


- ' 


tangton 


kandula 


~ 




_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


tangtu 


kandi 


- 




— 


— 


_ 


— 


tangte, tosh 


kandi 


— 




— 


— 


— 


— 


taiigten, tish 


kando 


— 




— 


— 


— 


— 


tangte, tosh 


kandi 


— 


- 


— 


— 


— 


— 


timgmig 


tungmang 


hThmig-bar 


- 


— 


— 


— 


— 


tuiig 


tung 


— 


- 


— 


— 


— 


— 


tiiilga 


tunga 


— 


- 


— 


— 


— 


— 


tungkyo 


timgk^ 


— 




— 


_ 


— 


_ 


tu-tuk 


tu-ti 


_ 


- 


— 


— 


— 


_ 


tungCik 


tOngi 


— 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


tungtok 


tung-ti 


- 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


loninig 


lopang 


gDon par 


- 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Ion 


lo 


— 


- 


_ 


_ 


— 


— 


lona 


loga 


_ 


- 


_ 


_ 


— 


— 


lonkyo 


loke 


_ 


- 


— 


_ 


— 


— 


latuk, londuk 


loni 


— 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


latun, londun 


lonula 


- 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


lata, londu 


loni, nila 


_ 


- 


_ 


— 


— 


_ 


late, londe 


loni 


— 


- 


_ 


— 


— 


— 


laten, londen 


lono, nun 


— 


- 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


late, londe 


lono 


— 


- 


_ 


_ 


_ 


— 


lorok, lok 


Logi 


— 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


loron, lora 


loga 


- 


_ 






_ 


_ 


loro, lok 


loga 


_ 


- 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


lore, loresh 


locho 


— 


- 


_ 


_ 


_ 


— 


loren, loresh 


locho 


— 


- 


_ 




_ 


— 


lore, loresh 


locho 


— 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


lontok 


Loni 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


lonton 


lonula 


- 


n 


- 


- 


- 


- 


lontu 


loni 


- 


-i 








_ 


lont^, tosh 


loni 


_ 


11 

















416 








COMPARISON OV THE 




DABDU DIALECTS. 


AFGHAN. 


KASA. 


INDIAN 


ENGLISH. 


















Aniiya. 


Shiua. 


Khajunah. 


Pushtu. 


Kashmiri. 


Sanscrit. 


Hi. 


Ye will speak 


- 


tso gasilis 


- 


tase bawo 
waiyiist 


- 


- 


tumbn 


They will 


— 


asigh rasil 


— 


aghi bawowa 


— 


— 


webof 


speak 
















Togo 


barai 


bajono 


nih 


talal 


- 


— 


jina 


Go thou 


— 


bobo 


nih 


_ 


_ 


_ 


jao 


Going 


— 


srye 


niman 


— 


— 


— 


]a-kai 


Gone 


— 


gyao 


niman 


— 


— 


— 


gaya 


I go 


— 


mo biyam 


ji nicham 


— 


— 


— 


main i 


I went 


— 


mo gas 


awiniyara 


— 


— 


— 


main ,; 


I wiUgo 


" 


mo kare biyam 


jekat 
hurushan 


"~ 


"~ 


"~ 


mam :( 


To sit 


— 


beono 


— 


kshenastan 


bihun 


— 


bMthj 


Sit thou 


— 


betha 


_ 


_ 


bih 


_ 


baithjv 


Sitting 


— 


bethus 


_ 


— 


— 


— 


baiflil 


Seated 




behos 


— 


— 


— 


— 


baitlii 
baig. 


I sit 


— 


me bethas 


— 


— 


— 


— 


mam it 


I sat 


*~ 


mu behos 


- 


— 


— 


— 


main it 
Sa) 


I win sit 


— 


mo behem 


— 


— 


biha 


— 


main.t 


To stand 


— 


— 


— 


— 


wathun 


— 


khanjl 


Stand thou 


— 


_ 


— 


— 


_ 


— 


khano 


Standing 


— 


— 


— 


_ 


_ 


— 


khanol 


Stood 


— 


— 


— 


— 


_ 


— 


kharioi 


I stand 


— 


_ 


— 


_ 


_ 


_ 


khar.o 


I stood 


— 


— 


— 


— 


_ 


— 


khara; 


I will stand 


— 


— 


— 


— 


_ 


— 


kharo 


To hear 


fraraparai 


- 


- 


- 


bazim 


- 


sunn 


Hear thou 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 




_ 


sum 


Hearing 


— 


— 


— 


— 


_ 


— 


son- 


Heard 


~ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


stum 

SUIJ 


I hear 


— 


— 


— 


— 


_ 


— 


mail IT 


1 heard 


— 


_ 


— 


_ 


_ 


— 


mairui 


I wUl hear 


— 


— 


— 


— 


_ 


— 


mairu 


To eat 


juwak 


- 


- 


khudal 


khyun 


- 


"1j 
kha(' 


Eat thou 


— 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


Eating 


— 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


kh^.'r 


Eaten 


~ 


— 


— 


- 


- 


— 


khaj 
kl!8 


I eat 


— 


— 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


mail la 


late 


— 


— 


— 


_ 


_ 


_ 


mwil 


I will eat 


— 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


maiiu 


A king 


— 


— 


— 


- 


_ 


rajah 


riua 


By or with a 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


rajen 


rdja 


king 
















Of a king 


— 


— 


_ 


— 


_ 


rajasya 


rija 


To a king 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


rajaya 


rija 


A king 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


rajam 


rija 


From a king 


~ 


— 


— 


— 


- 


rijat 


r«a 



RIOUS ALPINE DIALECTS. 



417 



DIALECTS. 


TIBETAN. 


G.ldi. 


KulluhL 


Hantluri. 


GarhwUi. 


Milchanp:. 


Tibarskad. 


Tibetan. 


- 


- 


- 


- 


lonten, tish 


lono 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


lontd 


loni 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


himie 


(Ichang: 


hDahbar 
phyinpar 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


bai 


tie 


— 


_ 


_ 


— 


_ 


baya 


tlega 


— 


— 


_ 


— 


— 


baikyo 


deke 


— 


_ 


_ 


— 


_ 


baituk 


deni 


— 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


bairuk 


degl 


— 


! 


- 


- 


- 


baitok 


deni 


— 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


toshmie 


popans 


gZhes-par 


— 


_ 


— 


_ 


tosh 


po 


— 


_ 


_ 


— 


_ 


tosha 


poga 


— 


- 


- 


- 


- 


toshkyo 


poke 


— 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


to-tuk 


poni 




- 


- 


- 


- 


toshak.toshek 


pogi 


~ 


_ 




_ 




toshetuk 


poiii 


— 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


— 


shotpang 


hGreng-ba 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


— 


shot 


— 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


— 


shotga 


— 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


— 


shotke 


— 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


— 


shoti 


— 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


— 


shotgi 


— 


_ 


_ 


— 


_ 


— 


shot-tl 


— 


- 


- 


- 


- 


thasmie 


ningpaiig 


mNyanpar 
T.Shorbar 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


thas 


nine 


— 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


thasa 


runga 


— 


- 


- 


- 


- 


thaskyn 


n'lngke 


— 


_ 




_ 


_ 


tha-tok 


rtni 


- 


_ 


_ 


— 


_ 


thasuk 


rtingi 


— 


J _ 


_ 


— 


_ 


thasttik 


runga 


— 


- 


_ 


— 


_ 


zamig 


zabang 


gZanpar 


1 












zabar 


1 I 




I 


I 


zaga 


zaga 


- 


j 


- 


- 


- 


zagkyo 


zagke 


— 


1 - 




_ 


_ 


zatuk 


zani 


- 




_ 


_ 


_ 


zakflk 


zagi 


— 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


zaknk 


zant 


— 


_ 




_ 


_ 


_ 


— 


rGyal-po 


1 - 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


rGyal-pos 










_ 


_ 


rGyal-pohi 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


— 


rGyal-po-la 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


— 


— 


rGyal-po 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


— 


rGyal-po-nas 



2 E 



418 



COMPARISON OF T 





DAHDU DIALECTS. 


AFGHAN. 


KASA. 


INDI 


ENGLISH. 












Amiya. 


ShinS. 


Khajimah. 


Pushtu. 


Kashmiri. 


Sanscrit. 


Kings 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


rSjah 


By, with 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 




rajaih 


kings 














Of kings 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


rajanan 


To kings 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


rajcbhya 


In kings 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


raj an 


From kings 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


rajebhya 


Gold 


_ 


_ 


- 


_ 


_ 


_ 


By.with.gold 


— 


— 


— 


_ 


— 


— 


Of gold 


_ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


To gold 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Gold 


— 


— 


— 


_ 


— 


— 


From gold 


— 


— 


— 


— 


_ 


_ 


Gold (pi.) 


— 


— 


— 


_ 


_ 


— 


A hand 


— 


_ 


— 


_ 


_ 


_ 


By, with a 


_ 


_ 


— 


_ 


— 


_ 


hand 














Of a hand 


— 


_ 


— 


_ 


— 


_ 


To a hand 


— 


— 


— 


_ 


_ 


_ 


A hand 


— 


— 


— 


_ 


_ 


— 


From a hanc 


— 


— 


— 


_ 


_ 


— 


Hands 


~ 


— 


"" 


— 


— 


— 



nous ALPINE DIALECTS. 



419 



DIALECTS. 


TIBETAN. 


GMi. 


Kulluhl. 


Handuri. 


Garhwali. 


Milchang. 


Tibarskad. 


Tibetan. 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


rGyal-po- 

rNams 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


— 


rGyal-po- 
rNams-kyis 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


— 


rGyal-po- 
rNaras-kyi 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


rGyal-po- 
rNams-la 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


rOyal-po- 
rNams 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


— 


rGyal-po- 
rNams-nas 


_ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


eSer 


_ 


— 


_ 


— 


_ 


— 


gSer-gyis 


_ 


_ 


_ 


— 


_ 


_ 


gSer-gyi 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


gSer-la 

gSer 

gSer-nas 












I 


_ 


_ 


— 


_ 


_ 


— 


gSer-rNams 


_ 


_ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


lag 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


lag-gis 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


lag-gi 


_ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


lag-la 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


lag 


_ 


_ 


— 


_ 


— 


— 


lag-nas 


- 


- 


— 


— 


— 


~ 


lag-rNams 



2 E 2 



XVI. 

MAGNETICAL OBSERVATIONS. 



1.— DECLINOMETER. 
2.— DIP CIECLE. 
3.— INTENSITY. 



422 



DECLINOMETER. 



OBSERVATIONS at LE in Ladak, on Monday, 4th October, 1847. 

Heiglit, 11,712 feet. N. Lat. 34° 09' 07 -32." E. Long. 77° 59' 03" 

Mean Time, civil reckoning at station. 







Change per hour. 




A.M. 


Scale 
Reading. 




Kemarka. 


Scale. 


ArcValue 


1 








At 85 A.M. finally adjusted. 


2 








Zero of Collimator Magnet ... 7 -800 


3 








„ Weak Brass „ .. 4-900 


4 








Declination, 2" 46' 52 -02" East. 


O 

6 










7 










8 










9 


7 


850 


+ 050 


l'l750 




10 


7 


900 


+ -050 


1 1750 




11 


7 


825 


- 075 


1 -7625 




1 








Noon 
1 
2 


7 
7 
7 


650 
600 
600 


- -175 

- 050 
± -000 


4 1125 
1 1750 
-0000 


f U P.M. 

Extremes ... ■! 

l^ 10 A.M. 


Scale. 


ArcValue 


7-600 
7-900 




3 


7 


750 


+ 150 


3 -5350 


Described Arc ... = 


•300 


7'-0500 


4 


7 


800 


+ -050 


1 1750 




5 


7 


800 


± 000 


-0000 




6 


7 


750 


- 050 


1 1750 




7 


7 


700 


- 050 


1 -1750 




8 


7 


650 


- 050 


1 1750 




9 










10 










11 










12 










Sums 


92 -875 






Means 


7 -739 













DECLINOMETER. 



423 



OBSEEVATIONS at LE, in Laduk, ou Tuesday, 5tli October, 1847. 

Height, 11,712 feet. N. Lat. 3i° 00' 07-32". E. Long. 77° 59' 03". 

Mean Time, civil reckoning at station. 







Ch.ange per hour. 




A.M. 


Scale 
Reading. 




Remarks. 


Scale. 


ArcValue 


1 








Mean Scale Eeadiug on 4tli ... 7 739 


2 
3 

4 
5 
6 




+ -050 
+ 012 
+ -038 


1-1750 
-2937 
-8813 


5th ... 

Sum of Means 


7-752 


7 
7 

7 

7 


650 
700 
712 
750 


15 -491 


Mean of Means 


7 -7455 




7 


7 


775 


+ -025 


-5875 




8 


7 


800 


+ -005 


1175 




9 


7 


920 


+ -120 


2 -8200 




10 


7 


900 


- -020 


-4700 




11 

Noon 
1 
2 


^ 


800 
725 
650 
700 


-100 
--075 
--075 
- -050 


2 -3500 
1 -7625 
1 -7625 
1 -1750 




7 
7 
7 


f 3 A.M. 1 P.M. 

Extremes^ 

[ 9 A.M. 


Scale. 


ArcValue 


7-650 
7-920 




3 


7 


700 


±-000 


-0000 


Described Arc = 


-270 


6-3450 


4 


7-750 


+ -050 


1 -1750 


1 


5 
6 














Scale. 


Change. 


7 
8 
9 








Reading at 4 P.M. 
Torsion Circle moved 90° 


7-750 
8-000 


Scale. 


Arc. 


+ -250 


5 -8750 








90° 


8-200 


+ -200 


4 -7000 


10 








90° 


8-400 


+ -200 


4-7000 


11 








90° 


8-600 


+ -200 


4-7000 


12 








90° 


8-850 


+ -250 


5-8750 




1 


Sums 


108 -532 








Means 


7-752 



















424 



DECLINOMETER. 



OBSEEVATIONS at MTJLBIL, iu Ladak, ou AVednesday, 20th October, 1847. 

Height, 10,480 feet. N. Lat. ° ' ". E. Long. ° ' ". 

Mean Time, civil reckoning at station. 







Change jjer hour. 




A.M. 


Scale 
Reading. 




Remarks. 


Scale. 


ArcValue 


1 








At 5 P.M. on 19th finally adjusted. 


2 








Zero of Collimator Magnet ... 7-800 


3 








„ Weak Brass „ ... 4-900 


4 


7-780 






Declination, 2° 44' 29 -10" East. 


5 


7-825 


+ 


025 


0'-5812 




6 


7-850 


+ 


025 


-5812 




7 


7-900 


+ 


050 


1 -1625 




8 

9 
10 
11 

Noon 
1 
2 


8 050 
8-050 
8-050 
7-900 
7-800 
7 -775 
7-750 


+ 
+ 


100 
050 
000 
150 
100 
025 
025 


2 -3250 

1 -1625 
-0000 

3 -4875 

2 -3250 
-5812 
-5812 




1 


r 4 r-^- 

Extremes ... < 

L 9i A.M. 

Described Arc — 


Scale. 


ArcValue 


7-675 

8-050 
•375 


8-7187 






3 


7-700 


— 


055 


1 -2787 




4 
5 


7-675 


- 


025 


-5812 




6 

7 








At 4 P.M. the wind was too high to allow 


8 








of any readings being taken by movements 


9 








of the torsion circle, as the magnet could 


10 








not rest. 


11 










12 










Sums 


125 -525 






Means 


7-845 













DECLINOMETER. 



425 



OBSEEVATIONS at KASHMTIi City, on Thursday, 4th November, 18-17. 

Height, 5,350 feet. N. Lat. 34° 05' 28 -09". E. Long. 74^^ 58' 00". 

Mean Time, civil reckoning at station. 



A.M. 


Scale 
Reading. 


Change per hour. 








Scale. 


Arc Value 


Keniarks. 


1 








At 5 P.M. on 3rd finally adjusted. 


2 








Zero of Collimator Magnet (C. 13) 7 -SOO 


3 








„ Weak Brass „ 4 900 


4 








Declination, 2° 43' 54 -90" East. 


5 










6 


7-700 








7 


7-750 


+ 050 






8 


7 -775 








9 


7-800 








10 
11 

Noon 
1 
2 
3 
4 


7 -750 
7-725 
7 -700 
7-750 
7 -825 
7-925 
7-925 












Scale. 


ArcValue 






r G A.M. 
Extremes ... ■' , 

L4p.m. 

Described Arc = 


7-700 

7-925 

•225 


5'-2500 






O 

6 










7 


7-900 








S 










9 










10 










11 










12 










Sums 


93 -525 






Means 


7-794 










1 



426 



DECLINOMETER. 



OBSEEVATIOXS at KASHIMLR City, on Friday, 5tb November, 1847. 

Height, 5,350 feet. N. Lat. 34° 05' 28 -09". E. Long. 74° 58' 00". 

Mean Time, civil reckoning at station. 







Change per honr. 






A.M. 


Scale 
Reading. 






Remarks. 


Scale. 


ArcValue 


1 












2 












3 












4 












5 












6 












7 


7-900 










8 


7-925 


+ -025 








9 


7 -925 


±-000 








10 
11 


7 -925 
7-900 


±-000 
--025 












Scale. ArcValue 


^oon 


7-875 


— -025 










1 

2 


7-860 
7-840 


--015 
-■020 




Extremes 


J 2 p.m. 

[4 P.M. 


7-840 
7-940 




3 

4 


7-900 
7-940 


+ -060 
+ -040 




Described Arc 


= 


-100 


2'-3333 






5 


7-900 


-•040 








6 












7 












8 












9 












10 












11 


7-900 










12 












Sums 


94 -790 






Means 


7-899 













DECLINOMETEll. 



427 



OBSEEVATIONS at KASHMIR City, on Saturday, GtU November, 1847. 

Height, 5,350 feet. N. Lat. 34° 05' 28 09". E. Long. 74° 58' 00". 

Mean Time, civil reckoning at station. 







Change per hour. 










A.M. 


Scale 
Reading. 






Remarks. 






Scale. 


ArcValue 


1 
















2 
















3 
















4 
















5 
















6 


7-760 














7 


7 -780 


+ -020 


0'-46GG 










8 


7-925 


+ -145 


3 -3833 










9 


8 000 


+ -075 


1 -7500 










10 
















11 

Noon 
1 


7 -975 
7 -850 


— -025 

— -075 


-5833 

1 -7.500 


Extremes 


[ 6 A.M. 
[ 9 A.M. 


Scale. 


ArcValne 


7-760 
8-000 




3 
4 


7-875 


+ -025 


-5833 


Described Arc 


= 


-240 


5'-5998 






5 


7 -SCO 


- -015 


-3500 










6 


7-900 


+ -040 


-9333 










7 


7-880 


- -020 


-4666 










8 
















9 
















10 
















11 
















12 
















Slims 


78 -805 






]\Ieans 


7-880 







428 



DECLINOMETER. 



OBSEEVATIONS at KASHMIE City, on Sunday, 7tli Novumber, 18^7 

Height, 5,350 feet. N. Lat. 34° 05' 28 -09". E. Long. 74° 58' 00". 

Mean Time, civil reckoning at station. 







Change 


aer hour. 




A.M. 


.Scale 
Reading. 








Scale. 


ArcValue 


Remarks. 


1 








Nov. 4 Mean Scale Heading 7 794 


2 








„ 5 „ „ 7-899 


3 








„ 6 „ „ 7-880 


4 
5 








„ 7 

Sum 


7-895 


31 -468 


6 

7 


7-900 






Mean 




7-867 


8 










9 










10 
11 

Noon 
1 
2 
3 
4 


7-850 










r 2 P.M. 
Extremes ... ■{ 

I 5 P.M. 

Described Arc = 


Scale. 


ArcValue 


7-850 

7-950 

-100 


2'-3333 






5 


7-950 








6 










7 










8 










9 


7-880 








10 










11 










12 










Sums 


31 -580 








Means 


7-895 













DECLINOMETEU. 



429 



HBSEEVATIONS at KASHMIll City, oii Suturduy, 20tli November, 1847. 

Height, 5,350 feet. JST. Lat. 31." 05' 28 -00". E. Loug. 71° 58' 00". 

Mean Time, civil reckoning at station. 



A.M. 


Scale 
Reading. 


Change per hour. 


Remarks. 


Scale. 


Arc Value 


1 








At 11 A.M. finally adjusted. Scale. 


2 








Zero of Collimator Magnet (C.13) 7 -800 


3 








Weak Brass „ .. 4 900 


4 










5 










G 










7 










S 










9 










10 










11 


7 -800 








jVoon 


7 -7.50 


+ 050 


l'- 14.58 




1 


7 -850 


- 010 


-2291 




3 


7-820 


- 030 


-G873 




4 










5 


7 -800 


+ -040 


-91C7 




6 


8-000 


+ -140 


8 -2083 




7 


7-825 


-175 


4 -0103 




S 


7-SOO 


-025 


-5729 




9 










10 










11 










12 










Sums 


62 -705 






Cleans 


7 -838 







430 



DECLINOMETEE. 



OBSEEVATIONS at KASHMIE City, on Sunday, 21st November, 1847. 

Height, 5,350 feet. N. Lat. 34° 05' 28 -09". E. Long. 74° 58' 00". 

Mean Time, civil reckoning at station. 



A.M. 


Scale 
Reading. 


Change per hour. 








Scale. 


ArcValue 




1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

Noon 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 


7-950 
7^900 
7^900 

7-875 
7-800 
7-800 
7-800 
7^820 
7-840 
7-820 
7-810 
7-860 
7-850 
7-850 
7-840 
7-825 
7-850 
7-825 


- -050 
±-000 

- 025 

- -075 
±-000 
±-000 
+ -020 
+ -020 

- 020 

- 010 
+ -0.30 

- -010 
±000 

- -010 

- -015 
+ -025 

- 025 


1-1458 
-0000 

-5729 

1 -7187 
-0000 
-0000 
-4583 
-4583 
-4583 

-2291 

1 -1458 
0-2291 
-0000 
-2291 
-3437 
-5729 
-5729 


Nov. 20 Mean Scale Eeadi 
„ 21 

Sum .. 

Mean 

Former operations — Mean 

Differe 

+ or easterly = 3 

Former declination— 2° 43' 

+ 


ng 7 -838 
7-845 


15 -683 


7 -8415 


7 -8670 


nee -0255 
5 06" of Aic 

54 -90" East 

35 -06 


Declination =2 44 29-96 East 






Reading at 7 A.M. 22nd 
Torsion Circle moved !)0° 

90° 

90° 

„ SO" 


Scale. 


Change. 


8-050 
7-850 
7-650 
7-450 
7-250 
7-075 


Scale. 1 Arc. 


■200 
•200 
•200 
•200 
-175 


4 -5832 
4 -5832 
4 •5832 
4 -5832 
4-0103 






Sums 


141 -215 








Means 


7-845 















DECLINOMETEU. 



431 



EElNtARKS upon OBSERVATIONS taken in KASHMIR during 
November, 1847. 



1847. 
Montli. 



Day. 



Described Arc. 



Nov. 



4tli 

5tli 

Gth 

7th 

20tli 

21st 



5 -2500 
5 -5998 
5 -7292 



2 -3333 

2 -3333 

3 -4374 



Sums 



IG -5790 



8 -1040 



IMoans 



5 -5263 



•7013 



By an examination of these arcs of daily 
vibration, it will be seen that the increase 
and decrease takes place on alternate days ; 
and farther, that the mean smaller arc is, 
as nearly as possible, one-half of the larger 
arc, the difference being only '06', equal 
to 3 6". This coincidence may, however, 
be accidental. 



During these six days' observations, 
from 9 A.M. to 6 p.m., the magnet was 
in constant oscUlation, or in tremulous 
vibration, through an arc of from "4 to '8, 
equal to from 10' 25" to 20' 50", the air 
being perfectly still, excepting at sunrise, 
when there were occasional light puffs. 
At night the magnet was at rest. 

This phenomenon was remarked only 
in Kashmir. 



432 



DECLINOMETER. 



OBSEEVATIONS at SHAMSABAD, in Panjab, on "Wednesday, 22 Dee. 1847. 

Height, 1,000 feet. N. Lat. 33° 52' 00 -88". E. Long. 72° 30' 00". 

Mean Time, civil reckoning at station. 







Change per hour. 




A.M. 


Scale 
Eeading. 




Remarks. 


Scale. 


ArcValue 


1 








At 11 A.M. on 22nd finally adjusted. 


2 








Zero of Collimator Magnet (C. 13) 7 ^800 


3 








„ Weak Brass „ 4 -900 


4 










5 










6 










7 










8 










9 










10 
11 

Noon 
1 
2 










7 -800 
7-772 
7-770 
7-761 


-•028 
-•002 
- -009 


o'-6440 
-0400 
^2070 


[2 P.M. 

Extremes ... •< 

L 3 P.M. 


Scale. 


ArcValue 


7-761 
7-840 




3 
4 


7-840 
7-775 


+ -079 
- 065 


1 ^8170 
1 4950 


Described Arc = 


-079 


l'-8170 






.5 


7-825 


+ -050 


1 1500 




6 










7 










8 


7-830 


+ -005 


1150 




n 


7-800 


- -030 


•G900 




10 










11 










12 










Sums 


70 173 






Means 


7-797 













DECLINOMETER. 433 

OBSERVATIONS at SHAMsIbAD, iu Panjab, on Thursday, Dec. 23, 1847. 

Height, 1,000 feet. N. Lat. 3:i° 52' 00-88". E. Long. 72° 30' 00". 

Mean Time, civil reckoning at station. 



Scale 
Reading. 



Change per hour. 



Scale. Arc Value 



9 
10 
11 

Noon 
1 
•> 

;i 

i 



8 

9 

10 

11 

12 



7 010 
7-840 
7-775 

7-780 
7 -860 
7-890 



47 -055 



7-842 



Dec. 22 Mean Scale Readino 
>, 23 



7-797 
7 -842 



Sum 15-639 

Mean of Means ... 7-8195 



-070 
-065 
■005 
■080 
■030 



1 -6100 
-8950 

-1150 

1 -8400 
0-690 



Extremes 



Described Arc 



Reading at 10 A.M. 
Torsion Circle moved ! 



fS 



7-910 

7 -775 

-135 



3 -1050 



7-690 
7-480 
7-370 
7-175 



Scale. 



•200 
•210 
•110 
•195 



Arc. 



4^6000 
4 •8300 
2 •5300 
4 -SSSS 



2 F 



434 



DIP CIECLE. 



OBSEKVATIONS taken at LE, iu Ladak, ou Wednesday, 
Gth October, 1S47. 

Time, 3 p.m. Temperature, 60°. 



Needle A. — i.t.b. 


Needle B. — i.t.b. 






Poles. 








Poles. 






sc 










to 








. 










6 


^ 








































^ 


' 


E. Limb. 


W. 


f^ 


M 


E. Limb. 


W. 




„ 








o 


„ 








45 50 


4(5 


20 




f4 


47 15 


4S 


05 






















q 


n^ 








a 


CL, 










S 


46 35 


45 


25 


^ 


^ 


46 00 


46 


36 


^ 


^ 


46 00 


46 


15 


/a 


u 


47 35 


47 


55 


."S 


ts 










is 








Is 


^ 


46 40 


45 


20 






46 00 


46 


40 






46 80 


46 


57 30 






48 30 


46 


00 






















g 


CI. 

3 


47 10 


47 


45 00 


3 


3" 


44 25 


47 


40 




L< 


46 40 


47 


00 




u 


48 30 


46 


05 


g 


lU 


















o 


■s 








O 


ts 








^ 




47 22 30 


47 


45 


4i 




44 40 


47 


30 


Sums 


372 47 30 


372 


47 30 


Sums 


372 55 00 


376 


31 00 


Means 


46 35 56 


46 


35 56 


Means 


46 36 52 


47 


03 52 


Sum of Means A. 


03 


11 52 


Sum of Means B. ... 


93 


40 44 


Mean of Means A. ... 


46 


35 56 


Mean of Means B. ... 


46 


50 22 


A + B = 


93 


26 18 


i (A + B) := Dip = 


46 


43 09 



DIP CIRCLE. 



435 



OBSERVATIONS taken at MULBIL, in Ladak, on Wednesday, 
20th October, 1847. 

Time, H p.jr. Temperature, 49°. 



Needle A. — i.t.b. 


Needle B 


— I.T.U. 










Poles. 








. 




Pole.s. 








(a 




































o 












■^ 










o 


t3 










& 


M 


E. Limb. 




W. 


^ 


M 


E. 


Limb. 




W. 






















„ 








u 


46 20 


47 


20 






t, 


46 25 




48 


(to 




^ 






















































3 


47 00 


47 


10 






& 


47 50 




46 


25 




^ 


u 


46 2.5 


47 


20 




-a 


fc, 


46 35 




47 


55 




•g 


S 


47 05 


47 


05 




"S 


o 


48 00 




46 


25 




^ 


u 


46 50 


47 


05 




^ 


0) 


47 10 




46 


45 






& 
























-^ 


p 


46 05 


46 


40 




^ 





46 05 




47 


35 




a 


E.< 


47 00 


47 


00 






0) 


47 10 




46 


45 




o 


&' 










o 


is 














O 


46 10 


46 


40 








46 15 




47 


30 




Srnns 


372 55 00 


37G 


20 


00 


Sums 


375 30 


00 


377 


20 


00 


]\Ieans 


46 36 52 


47 


02 


30 


Means 


46 56 


15 


47 


10 


00 


Sum of Means A. 


93 


39 


22 


Sum of Means B. ... 


94 


06 


15 


Mean of Means A. . . . 


46 


49 


41 


Mean of Means B. ... 


47 


03 


07 


A + B = 


93 


52 


4S 


i (A + B) = Dip 


i::! 


46 


50 


24 


1 



















2 F 2 



436 



DIP CIRCLE. 



OBSEEA^ATIONS taken iu KASHIMIE City, on Saturday, 
6tli November, 1847. 

Time, 4 p.m. Temperature, 50°. 



Needle A 


— I.T.B. 






Needle B 


I.T.B. 












Poles. 












Poles. 








a 












c 


































































« 


E. 


Limb. 




vv. 


fe 


Ph 


E. 


Limb. 




w. 
















o , 




„ 








^< 


40 10 




4(? 


4.'-. 






^ 


46 00 




45 


05 
































_a 




40 OS 




46 


50 




.a 


CI. 

1=1 


48 02 




40 


20 






u 


40 10 




40 


50 






u 


40 12 




45 


00 




.-s 


'^ 












.-s 


is 












fS 




40 10 




40 


45 




[; 


_o 


47 55 




40 


20 






b 


47 10 




40 


30 






^ 


47 30 




40 


40 




S 


& 


40 22 




40 


35 




_S 


■3 


40 42 




47 


50 




^ 




47 OS 




40 


35 






u 


47 38 




40 


45 




o 


\> 












o 


b 












iS 




40 30 




40 


32 




■v. 


" 


40 45 




47 


15 




Sums 


371 48 


00 


373 


22 


00 


Sums 


370 44 


00 


371 


15 


00 


Means 


40 28 


30 


40 


40 


15 


Means 


47 05 


30 


40 


24 


22 


Sura of Means A. ... 


93 


OS 


45 


Sum of Means B. ... 


93 


29 


52 


Mean of Means A. ... 


46 


34 


22 


Mean of Means B. ... 


40 


44 


50 


A + B : 


= 


93 


19 


18 


i (A + B) = Dip 


= 


40 


39 


39 



DIP CIRCLE. 



437 



0BSE1{\'ATI0NS taken in KASHMIE City, on Sunday, 

21st November, 1847. 

Time, li p.m. Tuuiperature, 53°. 



Needle A. — i.t.b. 


Needle B. — i.t.b. 


Ph 


(2 


Poles. 


(5 


1 


Poles. 


E. Limb. W. 


E. Limb. VV. 


^ 


u 

o 

is 


43° 30' 

45 50 

4G 40 

46 05 


46 50' 

47 05 

46 48 

47 02 


j3 

g 

is 


s 

a 
P 

o 


45° 20' 
46 30 

45 30 

46 30 


48° 40' 
45 10 

48 35 
45 10 


-5 
5 


o 

&. 
o 


47 20 

45 55 

47 25 

46 05 


45 40 

46 20 

45 45 

46 15 


o 


o 


47 20 
44 45 

47 20 
44 55 


45 30 
47 05 

45 30 

46 55 


Sums 


.373 50 00 


371 45 00 


Sums 


370 10 00 


372 35 00 


Means 


46 43 45 


46 28 07 


Means 


46 16 15 


46 34 22 


Sum oi" Means A. 


93 11 52 


Sum of Means B. ... 


92 50 37 


Mean of Means A. ... 


46 35 56 


Mean of Means B. ... 


46 25 18 


A + B = 


93 01 14 


^3 (A + B) = Dip = 


46 30 37 



438 



DIP CIRCLE. 



OBSEEVATIONS takeu at SHAMSABAD, in Chach, ou Wednesday, 
22nd December, 1847. 

Time, 3 p.m. Temperature, 64^°. 



Needle A. — i.t.b. 


Needle B. — i.t.b. 






Poles. 










Poles. 








-5 






























































fe 


M 


E. Limb. 




vv. 


& 


« 


E. Limb. 




W. 




























■^ 


46 30 


46 


05 






t- 


42 05 


45 


(15 




























.a 














Ci< 










W 


44 45 


44 


05 




^ 




45 15 


47 


20 






.^ 


46 25 


46 


05 






u 


42 00 


45 


05 




.4J 


fc 










."S 


& 














44 20 


44 


10 




^ 


o^ 


45 30 


47 


10 




.a 


s 


46 20 


47 


15 




.rj 


% 


44 15 


42 


50 




y 


& 


46 50 


46 


15 




S 


3 


46 50 


46 


15 






h 


46 30 


47 


12 




C 


u 


44 25 


42 


40 




p 


is: 










o 


^ 










* 




46 45 


46 


15 




''^ 




47 00 


46 


15 




Sums 


368 25 GO 


367 


22 


00 


Sums 


357 20 00 


362 


40 


00 


Means 


46 03 07 


45 


55 


15 


Means 


44 40 00 


45 


20 


00 


Siun of Means A. ... 


91 


58 


22 


Sum of Means B. 


90 


00 


00 


Mean of Means A. ... 


45 


59 


11 


Mean of Means B. ... 


45 


00 


00 


A + B = 


90 


59 


11 


* (A + B) = Dip = 


45 


29 


35 



DIP CIRCLE. 



439 



GENERAL SUMMARY of OBSERVATIONS. 



Date. 


Time. 


Temp. 


riaces. 


N. Latitude. 


Dip. 


Sept. 3 


11a.m. 


G5° 


Lara, in Spiti 


32° 09' 45" 


43° 


36 52" 


„ 15 


lOi A.M. 


03 


IL'inle, in Rukelui . . . 


32 44 20 


44 


23 22 


„ 20 


3 p.m. 


6U 


Raldang, in Rukcliu 


33 13 50 


44 


52 00 


Sept. 21 


3 P.M. 


GO 


Puga, in Rukcbu 


33 12 30 


45 


03 30 


„ — 


6 p.m. 


45 


Ditto ditto 


- 


45 


05 30 


oo 


7i A.M. 


21 


Ditto ditto 




45 


21 30 


„ — 


lOJ A.M. 


49 


Ditto ditto 


- 


45 


21 15 


" 


3 P.M. 


59f 


Ditto ditto 

Puga IMean . . . 


- 


45 


00 15 


33 12 30 


45 


10 24 


Oct. 6 
„ 20 


3 P.M. 
4i P.M. 


GO 
49 




34 09 07 
34 21 09 


4G 
46 


43 09 
5G 24 


Mulbil, in Ladak 


Nov. 6 


4 P.M. 


56 


Kaslimir City 


34 05 28 


46 


39 39 


„ 21 


li P.M. 


53 


Ditto ditto 

Kashmir Mean 


34 05 28 


46 


30 37 


34 05 28 


46 


35 08 


Dee. 22 


3 P.M. 


G4i 


Sbamsabad, in Cbaeb 


33 62 00 


45 


29 35 



440 



INTENSITY. 



OBSERVATIONS of MAGNETIC INTENSITY taken at LE, 

On Wednesday, 6th October, 1847, by Major A. Cunningham. 

No. 1 Magnet. 



Mean Time 
by Watch. 


Diffe- 
rences. 


No. of 
Vibra- 
tions. 


Time of 

One 
Vibration 


Temp. 

of 
Magnet. 


Arc de- 
scribed. 


Remarks. 


H. M. s. 

1 17 1 

1 19 24i 
1 21 42 
1 23 56J 
1 26 9 

1 28 2U 
1 30 82 


143"-5 
138-5 
134-5 
133-5 
132-5 
131-5 


30 
30 
30 
30 
30 
30 


4 -783 
4-617 
4-483 
4-450 
4 -417 
4-383 


92° 


146° 
106 

82 
58 
42 
28 
20 






814-0 


180 


4-522 







OBSERVATIONS of MAGNETIC INTENSITY taken at KASHMIR, 

On Wednesday, 22nd November, 1847, by Major A. Cunningham. 

No. 1 Magnet. 



Mean Time 
by Watch. 


Diffe- 
rences. 


No. of 
Vibra- 
tions. 


Time of 

One 

Vibration 


Temp, 
of 

Magnet. 


Arc de- 
scribed. 


Remarks. 


H. M. S. 

2 17 
2 2 30 
2 4 40 
2 6 47 
2 9 4 
2 11 19 
2 13 34 


133" 

130 
127 
127 
125 
125 


30 
30 
30 
30 
30 
30 


4-433 
4 -333 
4-233 
4 -233 
4-166 
4-166 


52° 


131 
117 

91 
79 
69 
59 
49 


Compared with the 
observations taken at 
other places, the 
magnetic intensity is 
much less iu the vol- 
canic country of 
Kashmie. 




770 


ISO 


4-261 







INTENSITY. 



441 



OBSEEVATIONS of MAGNETIC INTENSITY at SHAMSABAD, 

On Thursday, 23rd December, 1847, taken by Major A. Ounuiugha ui 

No. 1 Magnet. 



Mean Time 
by Watch. 


Diffe- 
rences. 


No. of 
Vibra- 
tions. 


Time of 

One 

Vibration 


Temp. 

of 
Magnet. 


Arc de- 
scribed. 


Remarks. 


11. M. S. 

2 12 25 
2 15 
2 17 20 
2 19 35 
2 21 49 
2 24 1 
2 26 13 


155 
140 
135 
134 
132 
132 


30 
30 
30 
30 
30 
30 


5"-160 
4-666 
4-500 
4-466 
4-400 
4-400 


80° 


167° 
121 
87 
69 
57 
43 
31 






828 


180 


4-600 







OBSEEVATIONS of MAGNETIC INTENSITY at SIMLA, 

On Saturday, 9tb June, 1849, taken by Major A. Cunningham. 

No. 1 Magnet. 



Mean Time 
by Watch. 


Diffe- 
rences. 


No. of 
Vibra- 
tions. 


Time of Temp. 

One of 
Vibration Magnet. 


Arc de- 
scribed. 


Remarks. 


H. M. s. 

8 58 22 

9 45 
9 3 
9 5 15 
9 7 28 
9 9 40 
9 11 50 


143 
135 
135 
133 
132 
130 


30 
30 
30 
30 
30 
30 


4"-766 
4-500 
4-500 
4-433 
4-400 
4-333 


76° 


149° 
117 

97 
81 
67i 
57^ 

47i 






80S 


180 


4-489 







442 



XVII.-METEOEOLOGICAL OBSEIIVATIONS. 



ACTINOMETER. 



OBSERVATIONS at LAEA, in Spiti, on Friday, 3rd September, 1847. 

Height, 13,118 feet. N. Lat. 32° 09' 45". E. Long. 78° 03' 35". 

Mean Time, civU reckoning at station. 





Time. 


Sun 

or 

Shade. 


Readings. 


Change 

per 
Minute. 


Radia- 
tion in 
parts of 

Scale. 


Remarks. 


Initial. 


Terminal. 


Initial. 


Tei-mi. 


.-;0 - 
a c-j 


H. M. s. 

2 48 00 

49 00 

50 00 

51 00 

52 00 


H. M. S. 

2 49 00 

50 00 

51 00 

52 00 

53 00 


O 
X 

O 

X 

O 


A 
3 

34 
22 
54 
39 


B 

34 
22 
54 
39 

71 


+ 31 
-12 

+ 32 
-15 

+ 32 







ACTINOMETER. 



4.13 



OBSEEVATIONS at EAJSTGRIG, in Spiti, on Saturday, 4th September, 1847. 

Height, 12,954 feet. N. Lat. 32° 15' 00". E. Long. 77° 57' 25". 

Mean Time, civil reckoning at station. 





Time. 


Sun 

or 

Sliade 


Readings. 


Change 
per 

Minute. 


Radia- 
tion in 
parts of 

Scale. 


Remarks. 




Initial. 


Terminal. 


Initial. 


Ternii. 




H. M. S. 


H. M. S. 
















' 12 55 00 


12 56 00 


O 


G 


47 


+ 41 




Yeiy light 
wiud 




56 30 


57 30 


X 


50 


43 


— 7 




H. M. 


















12 58 - 


58 00 


59 00 


O 


40 


85 


+ 45 




- 




59 30 


1 00 30 


X 


82 


78 


- 4 




Sky, clear 




1 01 00 


1 02 00 


O 


7 


54 


+ 47 




^ 




- 1 50 00 


1 51 00 


o 


9 


49-5 


+ 40-5 




^ 




51 30 


52 30 


X 


52 


46 


- 6 






1 53 - 


53 00 


54 00 


o 


7 


51 


+ 44 




-Do. do. 




54 30 


55 30 


X 


47 


42 


- 5 






s 


56 00 


57 00 


O 


3 


52 


+ 49 




, 


c 


2 50 00 


2 51 00 


O 


14 


56-5 


+ 42-5 




^ 




51 30 


52 30 


X 


57 


45 


-12 






2 53 - 


53 00 


54 00 


O 


6 


40 


+ 34 




1 Wiud, gusty 
Sky, clear 


■ 


54 30 


55 30 


X 


36-5 


22 


-14-5 




I 


56 00 


57 00 


O 


4 


40 


+ 36 




1 


1 r 


3 50 


3 51 00 


o 


9 


59 


+ 50 




1 




51 30 


52 30 


X 


65 


70 


+ 5 






3 53 - 


53 00 


54 00 


O 


3 


51 


+ 48 




1 Wind, steady 


54 30 


55 30 


X 


55 


58i 


+ H 




Sky, clear 


^ 


50 00 


57 00 


O 


3* 


49i 


+ 16 


' 





Mi 



ACTINOMETER. 



OBSEEVATIONS at GTIHBAIt, inSpiti, on Sunday, 5th September, 1817 

Height, 14,513 feet. N. Lat. 32° 19' 05". E. Long. 77° 58' 00". 

Mean Time, civil reckoning at station. 





Time. 


Sun 

or 

Shade. 


Readings. 


Change 

per 
Minute. 


Radia- 
tion in 
]iart.s of 

Scale. 


Remarka. 


Initial. 


Tenninal. 


Initial. 


Tenui. 




H. M. s. 


H. M. s. 
















- 12 55 00 


12 56 00 


o 


11 


42 


+ 31 




A 




56 30 


57 30 


X 


40-5 


32-5 


- 8 






. 


58 00 


59 00 


o 


26-5 


56-5 


+ 30 




Wind, lig] 




59 30 


1 00 30 


X 


56 


47 


- 9 




Sky, clear 




- 1 01 00 


02 00 


O 


43 


72-5 


+ 29-5 




^ 


1 


' 1 52 00 


1 53 00 


o 


25-5 


57 5 


+ 32 




^ 




53 30 


54 30 


X 


59-5 


53 


- 6 






- 


55 00 


56 00 


O 


49 


81-5 


+ 32-5 




>Do. do. 




56 30 


57 30 


X 


80-5 


64-5 


-16 








58 00 


59 00 


O 


5 '5 


38-5 


+ 33 






( 


" 2 55 00 


2 56 00 


o 


29 


66 


+ 37 








56 30 


57 30 


X 


631 


49-5 


-14 






, 


58 00 


59 00 


O 


10-5 


47-5 


+ 37 




>Do. do. 




59 30 


3 00 30 


X 


45-5 


36-5 


- 9 








3 01 00 


3 02 00 


O 


31 


62-5 


+ 31-5 








' 3 55 00 


3 56 00 


O 


10 


55-5 


+ 45-5 








56 30 


57 30 


X 


57 '5 


56-5 


- 1 






- 


58 00 


59 00 


O 


10 


55-5 


+ 45-5 




I Do. do. 

1 




59 30 


4 00 30 


X 


57-5 


54 


-3-5 






I 


4 01 00 


4 02 00 


O 


14-5 


61 


+ 46-5 




) 



445 



METEOEOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS in KASHMIR. 
May and Juno by Colonel Bates. November by Major Cunningbam. 



Time. 


Place. 


Height. 


Radiation. 


Moisture. 


Temperature. 


Sol. 


Terr. 


Dry. 


Wet. 


Dep. 


Min. 


Max. 


Mean. 


(i 

7 
8 
9 
10 
11 


Basant Biigh . . 
Kashmir City . . 


6,300 












64 
54 
56 
57 
48 
53 
50 


70 
64 
63 
60 
61 
62 
70 












1 






53-14 


64-3 


57-4 


June 3 
4 
5 
6 

7 
8 

_ 

9 

10 

12 
13 

14 
15 


Gulmarg 

Pathan 

Baraliraula ... 

Mudig:lm 

Handivv&n .... 

Nichihlima .... 
Jagapur 

Lolar 

" 


8,225 
5,300 












52 
54 
54 
68 

64 

58 

59 

64 
64 

63 
60 


63 

78 

82 

80 

74 

74 
79 

72 
77 




















60 


75-44 


65-9 


Nuv. 4 

19 

20 
21 


Dilawar Biigh 

Kashmir 
City 

M4rttand 


5,300 
6.000 


78-5 
83-0 
82-0 
82-0 
84 -0 
86 -0 


28 
33 

38 

28 


52 
53 
49 
55 

56-5 
60-75 


45-75 

46 

43-25 

47-5 

46 

48-25 


6-26 
7 

5-76 
7-5 

10-5 
12-6 


39 

36-5 

36 

35 

36-26 

31 


52-6 

53 

49 

55 

56-5 

60-75 






Means .... 




82-6 


31-75 


54-37 


46-12 


8-2 


35-46 


54-46 


42-69 



The observations of terrestrial radiation are to be compared with the minima temperatures. 



Note. — If we compare the climate of Kashmir with that of Kandwar, we may obtain the 
mean annual temperature, approximately, in the following manner ; — 

Me.an temperature of May 
Mean temperature of June 
Mean temperature of November 

Mean annual temperature 



57-4 


_ 


i = 50-225 


65-9 


- 


i = 52-720 


42-69 


+ 


^ = 51-230 



446 

METEOEOLOGICAL OBSEEYATIONS in ASTOR and RONGDO, 

Taken by Colonel Bates. 



Time. 


ASTOR. 


Height. 


Radiation. 


Moisture. 


Temperature. 


Sol. 


Terr. 


Dry. 


Wet. 


Dep. 


Mill. 


Max. 


Mean 


Aug. 9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
17 
IS 
19 
20 
21 
23 
24 


Near Gures .... 
Gurea 

Zian 


11,437 
6,950 
6,950 
7,468 
7,468 
7,468 
8,667 
12,068 
12,068 
9,715 
9,715 

9,220 
9,811 












58 
49 
66 
56 

50 
41 
40 

38 

61 
56 
39 


68 
57 
72 

55 
71 
76 
60 
76 
76 
77 
64 
72 
65 












Mapanon 

SuUSyu 

Kurim 

Pukhora 

Tink 




Near Tink ^ . . 






Means .... 


9,154 












50-8 


68-4 


50-6 


Aug. 26 
27 

28 
29 
30 


EONGDO. 

Torche 

Harpo 

Eongdo 

Zingphu 

Bashu 


11,386 
9,879 
5,978 
8,703 
6,468 












37 
56 
70 
68 
64 


74 
88 
82 
69 
81 






Means . . . . 


8,483 












59 


78-8 


68-9 



Note. — The mean annual temperature of Astor may be found by comparing the mean temp 
rature of August with tliat of Kan;lwar — from which :^ths are to be deducted, thus — 

59 -6 — ^o = 46-19° mean annual temperature. 
Tlie mean annual temperature of Eongdo may be found in the same manner, thus — 

68 '9 — ^\j = 53 'lO' mean annual temper.ature. 



447 



IMETEOROLOGICAL OBSEEVATIONS in BALTI, KHAPOLOR, and 
CIIHOEBAD, taken by Colonel Bates. 



Sept. 1 



Katsora 
Skardo . . 



Kunes . . . 
Dugni . . . 
Khapolor . 



Lanka . . . 
Kubas . . . 
Chhorbad . 
Dora. . . . 
Hanu . . . 



Me.ans 



7,000 
7,157 
7,157 
7,157 
7,400 
7,400 
7,700 
7,700 
7,654 

8,143 
8,143 
8,143 
8,143 
8,200 
8,300 
8,400 
12,587 
9,860 



,124 



Dry. Wet. Dep, 



Min. Ma.x. Mean. 



* These two days' observations are taken from Vigne's Travels in Kashmir, Ladak, &c., 
Vol. II. p. 266— probably in A.D. 1838. 



Note. — If we compare the climate of Balti with that of Kan.^war, we may obtain the mean 
annual temperature by deducting one-fifth from the mean temperature of September, thus — 
69 '9 — A = 55 '92° mean annual temperature. 



448 

METEOEOLOGICAL OBSEEVATIONS in LAHTJL and SPITI, 
Taken by Major A. Cunningham. 



1846. 


LAHUL. 


Height. 


Radiation. 


Moisture. 


Temperature. 


Sol. 


Terr. 


Dry. 


Wet. 


Dep. 


Min. 


Max. 


Mean 


Aug. 24 
30 
31 

Sept. 2 
4 
29 


Koksar 

Gundla 

Kirdang 

Daroha 

Kitpobrang .... 
Patseo 


10,675 
10,387 
10,813 
11,400 
13,397 
12,451 






74 
79 
SO 
84 
63 
66 


54 

55-5 

57 

56 

50 

44 


20 

23-5 

23 

28 

13 


43 
46 
48 
50 
40 
32 


74 

79 
80 
84 
63 
66 






Means ... 


11,520 






74-28 


52 -93 


21-35 


43-16 


74-33 


58-47 


1847. 
Aug. 31 
Sept. 1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 


SPITI. 

Lari 

Pog 

Dangkhar .... 

Lara . . , 

Rangrig 

Gyihbar 

Jukta 

Bongrochan ... 


11,894 
12,095 
13,598 
13,118 
12,954 
14,513 
15,058 
17,435 


98 
102 
101 

89 
100-5 

87 

84 

69 


78 

76 

64-5 

65-5 

62-0 

49-5 

49 

38-5 


78-25 

84-5 

73 

71-5 

72 

61-5 

64-5 

55 


53-25 

54-5 

48 

45-5 

46 

38-5 

39-5 

35-75 


25 
30 
25 
26 
26 
23 
25 
19-25 


43 

42 

41-5 

44 

36-5 

22 

26 

18-5 


79-5 

84-5 

72-5 

72 

72 

65-5 

64-5 

55 






Means .... 


13,833 


91-31 


60-37 


70 


45 


25 


34 -25 70 -25 


51-86 



The observations of terrestrial radiation are to be compared with the maxima temperatures. 



Note. — The mean annual temperature of Lahul may be found by a comparison with that o 
Kan&war, which gives 

47-30° for the mean annual temperature. 

The mean annual temperature of Spiti has been determined by a whole year's observations, 
t.ikeii chiefly by my brother. It is 3S -89". 



419 



METEOEOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS in RUKCllU, 
Taken by Major A. Cunningham. 



1S46, 




Height. 


Radiation. 


Moisture. 


Temperature. 






Sol. 


Terr. 


Dry. 


Wet. 


Dep. 


Min. 


Max. 


Mean. 


Sept. 7 


Cherpa River . . 


14,268 






75 


44 


31 


18 


75 




12 


More Tiho . . . 


15,864 






69 


39 


30 


19 


73 




14 


Rukchin 


16,058 






60 


39 


21 


20 


61 




15 


Tsho-kar 


15,762 






— 


— 


— 


9 


62-5 




16 


Polokonka .... 


16,200 






66 


40 


26 


11 


66 




17 


Nakpo Gonding 


16,800 












23 


54 




19 


Tsbomo Riri . . 


15,000 












32 


62 






Means .... 


15,707 






67-5 


40-5 I 27 


18-86 


64-8 


40-98 


18-17. 






















Sept. 8 


Trdtang . . _ . . 


16,916 


74-5 




56-5 


36 


20-5 


20-5 


56-5 




9 


Plialang 


16,333 


87 




62-75 


40 


22-75 


29 


62-75 




10 


Norbu 


15,946 


80 




69 


45-75 


23-25 


32 


69 




11 


Dunyar 


15,617 


94 




64-25 


43 


21-25 


32 


67-5 




12 


Dongan 


16,016 


93-5 




70 


46-5 


23-5 


36 


70 




15 


Hdnle 


15,117 


9i 




72 


47 


25 


35-5 


71-6 




17 


Mangkang .... 


15,020 


93 




69-75 


45-75 


24 


42 


70 




19 


Ranak 


14,586 


— 










31 


67 




22 


Puga 


15,264 


78 


9 


61-75 


39-25 


22-5 


13 


61-75 




23 


Angkhang .... 


16,100 












20 


56 




24 


Tsho-kar 


15.762 












26 


53 




25 


Larsa 


16,349 












20 


50 






Means .... 


15,756 




65-75 


42-90 


22-85 


28-08 


62-75 


45-18 


Mean of 1S46 and 1847 .^ 


15,731 




06-62 


41-7 


24-92 


23-47 


63-77 


43-08 



By comparing the climate of Rukchu witli that of Spiti we obtain 
28-72° for the mean annual temperature. 

2 G 



450 



METEOEOLOGICAL OBSERVATIOXS in LADAK Proper, 
Taken by Colouel Bates and Major A. Cunninglnam. 



Sept. 11 
12 
13 

14 
15 

le 

17 
18 
19 
20 
21 



Skerpechan . 

Nurla 

Saspol 

Bazgo 

Nyimo 

1,6 



Chachot . . 
Marchalang 
Ukshi .... 
Gya 



1.5-5 
19-5 



11,594 



11,712 


86-5 


11,712 




11,712 




11,712 




11,712 




11,712 




11,712 


92-5 


10,145 


85-5 


10,024 


92 



65-75 



39-5 
40-5 
43-5 



13-5 
25-5 
22-25 



59 
53 
66 -5 
65-75 



11,350 



60-87 



Note. — By comparing the climate of Ladak with that of Spiti, both for September 
October, we obtain 

37 -00° as the mean annual temperature. 



461 



ABSTEACT of the HrETEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS in 
KASHMIR, BALTI, and LADAK. 



Jlontbg. 




Temperature. 


Extremes. 


Proba- 
bleMean 




Min. 


Max. 


Mean. 


Min. 


Max. 


Annual 
T«mp. 


INIay 


IvASlIMIE ... 


53 14 


64-3 


57-4 


48 


70 




June... 


Ditto 


60 


75-4 


65-9 


52 


82 


51 -39 


November . . . 


Ditto 


35 -46 


54-46 


42-69 


31 


60-75 




August 


AsTOE 


50-8 


68-4 


59-6 


38 


77 


46 19 


Ditto 


EONGDO 


59 


78-8 


68-9 


37 


88 


53-40 


September . . . 


Balti 


59-2 


81-4 


69-9 


42 


91 


55-92 


August, Sept. 


LAntiL 


43-16 


74-33 


58-47 


32 


84 


47 -30 


September . . . 


Spiti 


34 -25 


70-25 


51-86 


18-5 


81 -5 


38-89 


Ditto 


RUKCUU 


23 -47 


63-77 


43 -08 


9 


75 


28-72 


Ditto 


Ladak 


44 -93 


70-0 


57-01 


24 


82 


37 00 


October 


Ditto 


22 '20 


60 -87 


38-95 


17 


66-5 





2 G 2 



452 



METEOEOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS at LAEI, in SpitI, 
On Tuesday, 31st August, 1847. 

Height, 11,894 feet. N. Lat. 32° 04' 00". E. Long. 78° 22' 40". 

Mean time, civil reckoning at station. 



A.M. 


Barom. 


Therm. 


Bulb. 


S 


Registers. 


Radiation. 


WiiKl. 
























Weather 






Att. 


Det. 


Dry. 


Wet. 


1 


+ 
Max. 


Min. 


Solar. 


Terr. 


Direction. 


Press 




1 




























2 




























3 




























4 




























5 
















43 












6 




























7 




























8 




























9 




























10 




























11 




























Noon 




























1 








77? 


534 


24i 






98 


784 


} 






2 


20-083 


79 


7H 


794 


55 


244 


79-5 




98 


78 


! cloudy 






3 


20-068 


851 


78i 


78i 


53i 


25 






96 


79 


) 






4 




























5 




























6 




























7 




























8 




























9 




























10 




























11 




























12 




























Totals 








2S5i 


1613 


73| 


2484 


237 


292 


2354 




Means 








7S.i 


53| 


244 


82 


79 


97h 


784 





453 



METEOEOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS at POG, in Spiti, 
On Wednesday, 1st September, 1847. 

Height, 12,095 feet. N. Lat. 32^ 02' 00". E. Long. 78° 16' 05". 

Mean time, civil reckoning at station. 







Therm. 


Bulb. 


fl 


Registers. 


Radiation. 


Wind. 






Barom. 






1 








Weather. 


A.M. 


























Att. 


Det. 


Dry. 


Wet. 


Q 


+ 
Max. 


Miu. 


Solar. 


Terr. 


Direction. 


Press 




1 




























2 




























3 




























i 




























5 
















42 












6 




























7 




























8 




























9 




























10 




























11 




























Noon 




























1 


19-857 


80 


814 


81 .i 


554 


26 






102 


76 








2 


19 •832 


86 


84i 


844 


544 


30 


84-5 




994 


814 






cloudy. 


3 


19-822 


87 


84 


84 


55 


29 






95 


784 






do. 


4 




























5 




























6 




























7 




























8 




























9 




























10 




























11 




























12 




























Totals 






















ileans 



















































454 



METEOEOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS at DANGKHAH, 

On Thursday, 2ud September, 1847. 

Height, 13,598 feet. N. Lat. 32° 04' 40". E. Long. 78" 09' 00" 
Mean time, civil reckonins; at station. 



Noon 
1 
2 
3 
4 
5 



101 
95 
S74 



64i 
67 



455 



METEOEOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS at LAEA, in Spiti, 
On Friday, 3rd September, 1817. 

Height, 13,118 feet. N. Lat. 32° 09' 45". E. Long. 78° 03' 35". 

Mean time, civil reckouiug at station. 







Therm. 


Bulb. 


g 


Registers. 


Radiation. 


Wind. 






Barom. 






1 
2 








Weatlier. 


A.M. 
























Att. 


Det. 


Dry. 


Wet. 


1 


+ 
Ma.\. 


Min. 


Solar. 


Terr. 


Direction. Press 




1 




























2 




























3 




























4 




























5 
















44 












6 




























t 




























fi 




























10 




























11 




























Noon 




























1 


19 -392 


81i 


714 


714 


454 


26 






88 


654 








2 


19-380 


Sli 


72 


72 


47 


25 


72 




89 


67 








3 


19-301 


SOi 


71 


71 


4S4 


224 






85 


U64 








i 




























5 




























fi 




























8 




























9 




























10 




























11 




























; 12 

1, 




























Totals 




























Means 





























456 



METEOEOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS at EANGEIG, in Spiti, 
On Saturday, 4th September, 1847. 

Height, 12,954 feet. N. Lat. 32° 15' 00". E. Long. 77° 57' 25". 

Mean time, civil reclioninff at station. 



A.M. 


Barom. 


Therm. 


Bull). 


1 


Registers. 


Radiation. 


Wind. 


Weather. 


























Att. 


Det. 


Dry. 


Wet. 


s 


+ 
Max. 


Min. 


Solar. 


Terr. 


Direction. 


Press 




1 




























2 




























3 




























4 




























5 
















36i 












6 




























7 




























8 




























9 




























10 




























11 




























Noon 




























1 


19-292 


771- 


72 


72 


46,1 


25-1 






1001 


634 








2 


19-277 


75 


72 


72 


46 


26 


72 




994 


67 








3 


19-264 


73i 


70 


70 


454 


24i 






92 


66 








4 


19-264 


6SJ 


69.* 


69.^ 


46.1 


23 






84| 


62 








5 




























6 




























7 




























8 




























9 




























10 




























11 




























12 




























Totals 




























Means 





















d.57 



arETEOEOLOGICAL OBSEKVATIOXS at GTIHBAE, in Spiti, 
Ou Suuday, 5th September, 18J:7. 

Height, 14,513 feet. jN". Lat. 32° 19' 05". E. Long. 77" 5G' 35". 

Mean time, civil reckoning at station. 





Barom. 


Therm. 


Bulb. 


1 


Registers. 


Radiation. 


Wind. 


Weather. 


A.M. 


























Att. 


Det. 


Dry. 


Wet. 


& 

Q 


+ 
Max. 


Mill. 


Solar. 


Terr. 


Direction. 


Prcs.s 




1 




























2 




























3 




























4 




























5 
















22 












6 




























7 




























8 




























9 




























10 




























11 




























Noon 




























1 


18-190 


70 


643 


643 


434 


21 1 






87 


544 








2 


18-166 


67 


654 


65J 


423 


22f 


654 




87 


57 








3 


18-160 


6-24 


614 


6U 


384 


23 






7 '2 


55 








4 


18-158 


60 


59i 


59i 


38i 


21 






694 


504 








5 








574 


374 


20 






67 


49i 








6 




























7 




























8 




























9 




























10 




























11 




























1-2 




























Totals 






















Means 























458 



METEOEOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS at JUKTA, in Spiti, 
On Moncla}-, 6tb September, 1847. 

Height, 15,058 feet. N. Lat. 32° 22' 00". E. Long. 77° 58' 00". 

Mean time, civil reckoning at station. 







Tlicrm. 


Bulb. 


1 


Registers. 


Radiation. 


Wind. 




A.M. 


Barom. 










O 














Weather. 






Att. 


Det. 


Dry. 


Wet. 


Q 


+ 
Max. 


Min. 


Solar. 


Terr. 


Direction. 


Press 




1 




























2 




























3 




























4 




























5 
















26° 












6 




























7 




























8 




























9 




























10 




























11 




























Noon 




























1 


17-674 


66 


04i 


64 J 


42i 


22 






78 


55i 








2 


17-652 


65 


64J 


64i 


39J 


25 


64-5 




84 


67i 








3 


17-636 


55 


56J- 


56} 


36 


20i 






* 1 49 








4 




























5 




























6 




























7 




























8 




























9 




























10 




























11 




























12 




























Totals 




























Means 





























* Sun-set behind hill. 



159 



METEOEOLOGICAL OBSERVATIOXS at BONGROCIIAN, iu Spiti, 
On Tuesday, 7th September, 18i7. 

Height, 17,435 feet. N. Lat. 32° 23' 00". E. Long. 77° 58' 00'. 

Mean time, civil reckoning at station. 



A.M. 


Bamm. 


Therm. 


Bulb. 


1 


Re^sters. 


Radiation. 


Wind. 


Weather. 
























Att. 


Det. 


Dry 


Wet. 


1 


+ 
Max. 


Min. 


Solar. 


Terr. 


Direction. 


Press 




1 




























2 




























3 




























4 




























5 
















18i 












6 




























7 




























S 

























































10 




























11 


16-240 


50 


4-3 


47J 


34i 


13i 






69 


36J- 








Noon 




























1 


16-238 


57 


52i 


52i 


35i 


17 






6Si 


38. i 











16-230 


56 


55 


55 


35| 


19^ 


55 




67 


44 








3 


16 •2-22 


55 


54 


54 


35 


19 






64 i 


46 








4 




























5 




























6 




























7 




























8 




























9 




























10 




























11 




























12 




























Totals 
















1 










Means 



























460 



IVEETEOEOLOGICAL OBSEEVATIOlSrS at TEATANG, in Eukclni, 
On Wednesday, 8tli September, 1847. 

Height, 1G,916 feet. N. Lat. 32° 31' 40". E. Long. 78° 04' 10". 

Mean time, civil reckoning at station. 



A.M. 


Barom. 


Therm. 


Bulb. 


1 


Registers. 


Radiation. 


Wind. 


Weather. 


























Att. 


Det. 


Dry. 


Wet. 


1 


+ 
Max. 


Min. 


Solar. 


TeiT, 


Direction. 


Press 




1 




























2 




























3 




























4 




























5 
















204 












6 




























7 




























8 




























9 




























10 




























11 




























Noon 




























1 
3 


16-548 
16 -.532 


60 

57 


56^ 
531 


56J 
534 


36 

354 


204 
18 


664 




744 
69 


m 

47 


.OccasionaUy 
1 in strong 
' gu.st3 down 
the Pi'irang 




Fine and 
clear. 


4 






















I river. 






5 




























6 




























7 




























8 




























9 




























10 




























11 

12 




























Totals 




























Means 





























461 



METEOEOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS at PHALANG, in liukcbii, 
Ou Thursday, 9th September, 1847. 

Height, 1G,3S3 feet. N. Lat. 32° 34.' 15". E. Long. 78° 11' 20". 

Mean time, civil reckoning at station. 



A.M. 


Barom. 


Therm. 


Bulb. 


1 


Registers. 


Radiation. 


WilKl. 


Weather. 


























Att. 


Det. 


Dry. 


Wet. 


o 


+ 
Max. 


Min. 


Solar. 


Terr. 


Direction. 


Press 




1 




























2 




























3 




























4 




























5 
















29 












6 




























7 




























S 




























9 




























10 




























11 




























Noon 






















Occasionally 
in strong 
gusts down 
the Parang 
L river. 






1 

3 

4 


17-054 
17-046 
17-028 


65 
70 
68A 


62f 
62| 
602 


623 
622 
602 


40 
40i 
40 


222 
224 
20f 


674 

62:; 

64i 


62J 

63 

601 


S4 
S7 
73 


56 
58 










6 




























s 




























9 




























10 




























11 




























12 




























Totals 




























Means 





























462 



METEOEOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS at NOEBU, iu Eukchu, 
On Friday, 10th September, 1847. 

Height, 15,946 feet. N Lat. 32° 39' 50". E. Long. 78° 19' 00". 

Mean time, civil reckoning at station. 







Therm. 


Bulb. 


g 


Registers. 


Radiation. 


Wind. 




A.M. 


Barom. 






a 








Weather. 


Att. 


Det. 


Dry. 


Wet. 


+ 
Max. 


Min. 


Solar. 


Terr. 


Direction. 


Press 


1 




























2 




























3 




























4 




























5 
















32 












6 




























7 




























S 




























9 




























10 




























11 




























Noon 




























1 


17-334 


71 


69 


69 


46 


■23 


73 


66i 


80 


57 








3 


17-306 


69J- 


69 


69 


i''i 


•231- 


69 


m 


SI 


58 


Down the 
Parang river. 






4 


17-274 


6S-\ 


6r,x 


65^ 


43 


•22; 


69i- 


64 


75 


55 








S 




























6 




























7 




























8 




























9 




























10 




























11 




























12 




























Totals 




























Means 





























463 



IMETEOEOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS at DUNYAE, iu Eukchu, 
On Saturday, llth September, 1847. 

Height, 15,G17 feet. N. Lat. 32° 39' 20". E. Long. 7S° 24' 30". 

Mean time, civil reckoning at station. 





Barom. 


Therm. 


Bulb. 


j 


Registers. 


Radiation. 


Wind. 


Weather. 


\.M. 


























Att. 


Det. 


Drj-. 


Wet. 


Q 


+ 
Max. 


Min. 


Solar. 


Terr. 


Direction. 


Press 




1 
3 




























4 




























5 
















.32 












6 




























7 


























S 




























9 




























10 




























U 




























OOIJ 




























1 


17-502 


Sll 


67i 


67i 


47 


20i 


675 


68 


94 


55 








2 


17-477 


65 


64i 


64i 


43 


21 1 


68 


64.1 


O.iJ 


60 








3 


17-446 


66 


6ii 


641 


45 


101 


68i 


644 


71' 


60 








4 






5 




























6 




























7 




























8 




























9 


























10 


























11 


























12 


















I 








otals 


















1 
1 








leans 


















1 









4G4. 



METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS at DONGAN, iu Rukclui, 
Ou Sunday, 12th September, 1847. ■ 

Height, 1G,016 feet. N. Lat. 32° 43' 45". E. Long. 78° 30' 30". 

Mean time, civil reckoning at station. 



A.M. 


Barom. 


Tlierm. 


Bulb. 


1 


Registers. 


Radiation. 


Wind. 
























Weather. 






Att. 


Dct. 


Dry. 


Wet 


P 


+ 
Max. 


Min. 


Solar. 


Terr. 


Direction. 


Press 




1 




























2 




























3 




























4 




























5 
















36 










Cloudy. 


6 




























7 




























8 




























9 




























10 




























11 




























Noon 




























1 








70 


46i 


23.i 


70 


68 


93J 


60 


Blowing up 
Howards the 
J Lanak pass. 




Cloudy. 


2 








68J 


45i 


23 


73i 


70 


73 


634 




do. 


3 

4 








69 


46i 


--'■ 


74 


70 


SI 


63 




do. 








5 




























6 




























7 




























8 




























9 




























10 




























11 




























12 




























Totals 






















Means 





























465 



METEOEOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS at IIANLE, in Kukclm, 
On "Wednesday, 15th September, 1847. 

Height, 15,117 feet. K". Lat. 32° 44' 20". E. Long. 78° 53' 00". 

Mean time, civil reckoning at station. 





Barom. 


Therm. 


Bulb. 


o 


Registers. 


Radiation. 


Wind. 


Weather. 


.M. 


Att. 


Det. 


Dry. 


Wet. 


+ 
Max. 


Min. 


Solar. 


Terr. 


Direction. 


Press 


1 

2 




























3 




























4 




























5 
















37 









































8 




























9 








63 


45| 


17i 






75 


524 








10 


67 


654 


11 








63 


45| 


17J 


67 


62| 


694 


54 








OOD 

1 








68 
72 


46| 
47 


25 


734 

72 


70 
73 


94 
89 


624 

68 






■ Cloudy. 


2 








68i 


45i 


23 


73 


694 


89 


624 


1 






3 








664 


44i 


21S 


71 


67 


76 


61 


|.South. 






4 








66 


444 


214 


70 


66 


72 


60 


J 






5 




























6 




























7 




























8 




























9 




























10 




























11 




























12 




























otals 






















eans 






























2 H 



166 



METEOEOLOGICAL OBSEEVATIONS at MANGKANG, in Eukclm, 
On Friday, 17th September, 1847. 

Height, 15,020 feet. N. Lat. 32° 53' 30". E. Long. 78° 47' 40". 

Mean time, civil reckoning at station. 







Tlierm. 


BiUb. 


b" 
1 


Registers. 


Radiation. 


Wind. 




A.M. 


Barom. 










S 














Weather. 






Att. 


Det. 


Dry. 


Wet. 


1 


Max. 


Min. 


Solar. 


Terr. 


Direction. 


Press 




1 




























2 




























3 




























4 




























5 
















42 










very cloud 


6 




























7 




























8 




























9 




























10 




























11 




























Noon 




























1 








70 


48 


22 


70 


70 


92 


64.1 -j 






2 








69| 


45J 


24 


68i 


64| 


93 


59 


^ South. 




cloudy. 


3 

4 








65 


45i 


19| 


68 


64 


93,i 


60.^ 












5 




























6 




























7 




























8 




























9 




























10 




























11 




























12 




























Totals 




























Means 

























467 



METEOEOLOGICiVL OBSEEVATIONS at PUGA, in Ilukchu, 

On Wednesday, 22nd September, 1847. 

Height, 15,264 feet. N. Lat. 30° 12' 30". E. Long. 78° 18' 20". 

Mean time, civil reckoning at station. 







Therm. 


Bulb. 


1 


Registers. 


Radiation. 


Wind. 




M. 


Barom. 






















Weather. 






Att. 


Det. 


Dry. 


Wet. 


1 


+ 
Ma.\. 


Min. 


Solar. 


Terr. 


Direction. 


Press 




1 




























2 




























3 




























4 




























5 








13 








13 












6 








151 






m 


154 












7 








18 






20J- 


18 




9 








S 








ir, 






27^ 


25 


48 


18 


still 






9 








38i 






45 


36 


59 


274 






cle.-xr. 











m 


33 


12| 


491 


44J 


65 


35 








LI 








54 


zn 


16i 


59 


544 


68 


43 


faint, 






oon 








56 


371 


IS.! 


594 


554 


704 


45 








1 








58 


3S-J 


m 


62 


58 


74 


49 








2 








615 


39| 


22. V 


66J 


62 


78 


55 






1 


3 

4 








59? 
56 


37J 
35 


22 
21 


63i 
60 


59 
56 


73 

664 


524 

48 


steady. 




1 

- cloudy. 


5 








50i 


33 


175 


65 


504 


56 


44 








6 




























7 




























8 




























9 




























10 




























11 




























12 




























otala 






















eanf 





























2 H 2 



468 



METEOEOLOGICxlL OBSEEVATIONS at GITA, in Ladiik, 
On Monday, 27tli September, 1847. 

Heiglit, 13,587 feet. N. Lat. 33° 38' 55". E. Long. 77° 43' 00". 

Mean time, civil reckoning at station. 



A.M. 


Barom. 


Therm. 


Bulb. 


1 


Registers. 


Radiation. 


Wind. 
























Weather. 






Att. 


Det. 


Dry. 


Wet. 


a 


+ 
Max. 


Miu. 


Solar. 


Terr. 


Direction. 


Press 




1 




























2 




























3 




























4 




























5 




























G 
















24 












7 




























S 




























9 








39 


29 


10 


43i- 


39 


71 


— 








10 
11 








40 
401 


29 
28 


11 
12| 


44^ 
454 




75 
75 


31 
32 


blowing down 
the Giya 
rivulet. 




clear. 


Noon 








45J 


34 


114 


m 


454 


76 


36 






do. 


1 








453 


31 


14f 


45J 


46 


76 


364 


gusty. 






2 








45 


323 


12* 


49i 


iSi 


76 


361 






do. 


3 








47 


311 


15i 


51 


47 


64; 


38 






cloudy. 


■ 4 




























5 




























6 




























7 




























8 




























9 




























10 




























11 




























12 




























Totals 
























Meaus 

























469 



JIETEOEOLOGICAL OBSERYATIOXS at UGSHI, in Ladak, 
On Wednesday, 29th September, 1847. 

Height, 11,654 feet. N. Lat. 33' 48' 25". E. Long. ' ' ". 

Mean time, civil reckoning at station. 





Barom. 


Therm. 


Bulb. 


d 
1 


Registers. 


Radiation. 


Wind. 


Weather. 


.M. 
























Att. 


Det. 


Dry. 


Wet. 


a 


+ 
Max. 


Mill. 


Solar. Terr. 


Direction. 


i^ess 




1 




























3 




























4 




























5 








30 




















6 




























7 




























S 




























9 




























10 




























11 




























oon 








56 


40 


16 


59 


544 


82 


49 








1 








584 


404 


IS 


624 


584 


7!).( 


504 








2 








59 


404 


19.J 


62i 


.584 


78 


54 








3 








58 


40 


18 


624 


58 


69 


51 








4 




























5 




























6 




























7 
8 




























9 




























10 




























11 




























12 




























■"otaU 






















dean 



























470 



METEOEOLOGICAL OBSEEVATIONS at LE, in Ladak, 
On Sunday, 3rd October, 18i7. 

Height, 11,712 feet. N. Lat. 34° 09' 07" -32. E. Long. ° ' 

Mean time, civil reckoning at station. 



A.M. 


Barom. 


Therm. 


Bulb. 


1 


Registers. 


Radiation. 


Wind. 


Weather. 


























Att. 


Det. 


Diy. 


Wet. 


a 


+ 
Max. 


Mill. 


Solar. 


Terr. 


Direction. 


Press 




1 




























2 




























3 




























4 




























5 








28 


— 






2S 












6 

7 








32 

37 


— 










31 








41 


37 


8 








38 


— 




43 


38 


60 


33 








9 








46 


33J 


12 i 


51 


46 


70 


37 








10 








48,^ 


35 


13i 


54 


50 


75 


42 








11 








55 


36 


19 


604 


564 


S2 


48 








Noon 








56i 


38 


184 


60i 


56i 


84 


49 








1 
2 








58.1 


38 


2(H 


63 


69 


84 


49 












3 








601 


38i 


22 


604 


61i 


864 


55 








4 








57 


37i 


193 


61 


57 


85 


51 








5 
6 








63 


35 


18 


57 


63 


66 


47 












7 




























8 




























9 




























10 




























11 




























12 




























Totals 






















Means 























471 



JMETEOKOLOGICAL OBSEEYATIONS at LE, in Ladak, 
Ou Saturday, 9th October, 1S47. 

Height, 11,712 feet. N. Lat. 34° 09' 07" -32. E. Long. ° ' 

Mean time, civil reckoning at station. 





Barom. 


Tlierm. 


Bulb. 


■i 
1 


Kegisters. 


Radiation. 


Wind. 


Weather. 


.M. 


Att. 


Det. 


Dry. 


Wet. 


+ 
Max. 


Min. 


Solar. 


Terr. 


Direction. 


Press 


1 




























3 




























4 




























5 








17 








17 












6 








2-2 




















7 








27 




















S 








36 






404 


35i 


40J 


31 








9 








39 






43 


83 


484 


32 








10 








m 


Sil 


7 


46 


36 


60 


36 








11 








45J 


35^ 


10]- 


49i 


40 


79i 


40 








oon 








53 


39i 


134 


574 


48 


924 


47 








1 








52i 


384 


13i 


55i 


45i 


71 


474 








2 








m 


344 


13 


5H 


42 


514 


404 






\ 


3 








484 


34i 


14] 


53 


434 


693 


44 






1 Solar 
( eclipse. 


4 








47 


34 i 


124 


51 


41 


534 


40 






' 


5 






6 




























7 




























8 




























9 




























10 




























11 




























12 




























"otals 






















[eans 























472 



METEOEOLOGICAL OBSEEVATIONS at HEMIS, in Ladak, 
On Wednesday, 13th October, 1847. 

Height, 10,145 feet. N. Lat. 34° 16' 14" -02. E. Long. ° ' ". 

Mean time, civil reckoning at station. 



A.M. 


Barom. 


Therm. 


Bulb. 


1 


Registers. 


Radiation, 


Wind. 


Weather. 


























Att. 


Det. 


Dry. 


Wet. 


a 


+ 
Max. 


Min. 


Solar. 


Terr. 


Direction. 


Press 




1 




























2 




























3 




























4 




























5 
















2S 












6 




























7 




























8 




























9 




























10 




























11 
Noon 








63| 


40i 


23 1 






82i 


58 








68 


59 


1 








644 


40i 


241 


68i 


59J 


84 


594 








2 








66 


404 


25i 


694 


61 


85 


60 








3 
4 








66i 


40i 


251 


70 


61 


854 


61 












5 




























6 




























7 




























8 




























9 




























10 




























11 
12 




























Totals 




























Means 























473 



HIETEOEOLOGICAL OBSEEVATIONS at KHALLACH, in Ladak, 
On Friday, 15tb October, 1817. 

Height, 10,024 feet. N. Lat. 34° 20' 15" -97. E. Long. ° ' ". 

Mean time, civil reckoniag at station. 







Therm. 


Bulb. 


1 


Registers. 


Radiation. 


Wind. 




A.M. 


Barom. 










I 














Weather. 






Att. 


Det. 


Dry. 


Wet. 


a 


+ 
Max. 


Min. 


Solar. 


Terr. 


Direction. 


Press 




1 




























2 




























3 




























4 




























5 
















26^ 












6 




























7 




























8 




























9 




























10 




























11 




























^oon 




























1 








65 


43 


22 






88 


54 








2 








65' 


434 


22i 


65f 




92 


55J 








3 








621 


m 


22J 






70 


58 








4 




























5 




























6 




























7 




























8 




























9 




























10 




























11 




























12 




























■■otala 






















[eans 





























474 



METEOEOLOGICAL OBSEEVATIONS at HESKU, iu Purig, 
On Sunday, 17tli October, 1847. 

Height, 12,270 feet. N. Lat. 34° 18' 13" -22. E. Long. ° ' ". 

Mean time, civil reckoning at station. 



A.M. 


Barom. 


Therm. 


Bulb. 


d 


Registers. 


Radiation. 


Wind. 


Weather. 


























Att. 


Det. 


Dry. 


Wet. 


1 


+ 
Max. 


Min. 


Solar. 


Terr. 


Direction. 


Press 




1 




























2 




























3 




























4 




























5 
















20 












6 




























7 




























8 




























9 




























10 




























11 




























Noon 








57i 


40 


17^ 


611 


51i 


71 


40 








1 








584 


39J 


19 


62 


52i 


73 


m 








2 








59| 


39i 


191 


591 


54 


73 


48 








3 

4 








5Si 


39 


194 


m 


53 


69 


471 












5 




























6 




























7 




























8 




























9 




























10 




























11 




























12 




























Totals 




























Means 



























475 



METEOEOLOGICAL OBSEEVATIONS at MULBIL, in Purlg, 
On Wednesday, 20th October, 1847. 

Height, 10,480 feet. N, Lat. 34° 21' 09" -53. E. Long. ° ' ". 

Mean time, civU reckoning at station. 







Therm. 


Bulb. 


■s 


Registers. 


Radiation. 


Wind. 




A.M. 


Barom. 


Att. 


Det. 


Dry. 


Wet. 


1 

Q 


+ 
Max. 


Min. 


Solar. 


Terr. 


Direction. 


Press 


Weather. 


1 




























2 




























3 




























4 




























5 








29 








29 












6 








30 




















7 








32 
363 










47 


30 








8 


41 


37 


9 








40' 






44-4 


41 


44 


36 








10 








441 






48 


44 


474 


40 








11 








45i 


36 


Sh 


50 


46 


50J 


42 








Naon 








m 


36 


114 


52 


m 


65 


44 






• hazy. 


1 








494 


364 


13 


53i 


60 


554 


46 








2 








52 


33| 


181 


52 


52 


56^ 


48 








3 








61i 


374 


13? 


55 


62 


544 


464 








4 








50 


364 


134 


54 


51 


52 


46 








5 




























6 




























7 




























8 




























9 




























10 




























11 




























12 




























Totals 






















Means 























476 



METEOEOLOGICAL OBSEEVATIONS at DBAS, 
On Monday, 25tli October, 1847. 

Height, 10,253 feet. N. Lat. 34° 23' 49"-31. E. Long. 34° 23' 49"-31. 

Mean time, civil reckoning at station. 







Therm. 


Bulb. 


g 


Registers. 


Radiation. 


Wind. 




A.M. 


Barom. 






1 








Weather. 


























Att. 


Det. 


Dry. 


Wet. 


1 


+ 
Max. 


Min. 


Solar. 


Terr. 


Direction. 


Press 




1 




























2 




























3 




























4 




























5 
















25 












6 




























7 




























8 




























9 




























10 




























11 
Noon 








524 


40 


m 


56 




81.1 


40 






f Sun com- 
pletely 
Lclouded. 


54 


1 
2 








46| 
56 


344 

in 


m 

14| 


51 

56 


48 
56| 


53 
83 


37 






3 








56 


38 


18 


60 


57 


75,1 


49 








4 




























5 




























6 




























7 




























8 




























9 




























10 




























11 




























12 




























Totals 






















Means 























477 



METEOROLOGICAL OBSEEVATIONS at KASHMIE, City, 
On Thursday, 4th November, 1847. 

Height, 5,350 feet. ]\'. Lat. 34° 05' 28" -69. E. Long. 74° 58' 00". 

Mean time, civil reckoning at station. 







Therm. 


Bulb. 


1 


Registers. 


Radiation. 


Wind. 




A.M. 


Barom. 


1 






£ 














Weather. 






Att. 


Det. 


Dry. 


Wet. 


1 


+ 
Max. 


Min. 


Solar. 


Terr. 


Direction. 


Press 




1 




























2 




























3 




























4 




























5 








39 








39 












7 








39 




















8 








42 


39J 


2.i 


46 


424 


594 


28 








9 








m 


40. J 


3 


48i 


44 


m 


31 








10 








47i 


43| 


4 


52 


48 


72 


334 








n 








50 


45 


5 


53J 


50 


73 


40 








Noon 








50i 


45i 


5j 


54i 


51 


734 


44 








1 








50J 


45V 


5] 


55 


51i 


784 


464 








2 








52 


45a 


6^- 


56 


52 


79 


m 








3 








52i 


46i 


6 


52i 


53 


76 


49 








4 








521 


46 


6i 


554 


53 


724 


48 








5 




























6 




























7 




























S 




























9 




























10 




























11 




























12 




























Totals 






















Means 























478 



METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS at KASHMIR, City, 
On Friday, 5th November, 1847. 

Height, 5,350 feet. N. Lat. 34° 05' 28" -69. E. Long. 74° 58' 00". 

Mean time, civil reckoning at station. 



A.M. 


Barom. 


Therm. 


Bulb. 


1 


Registers. 


Radiation. 


Wind. 


Weather. 


























Att. 


Det. 


Dry. 


Wet. 


S 


+ 
Ma.x. 


Min. 


Solar. 


Terr. 


Direction. 


Press 




1 




























2 




























3 




























4 




























5 








38 


34 


4 


41 


38 












6 








39J 


341 


3 


42 


39 












7 








36 i 


341 





40J 


36^ 












S 








40 


371 


21 


44 


40 












9 








451 


421 


31 


50 


46 


67 


33 








10 








4S.I 


44 


44 


53 


49 


69 


36 








11 








49| 


45 


43 


534 


50 


70i 


37 








Noon 








60.^ 


45 


5a- 


544 


51 


78 


39 








1 








5ia 


45i 


6i 


S5i 


62 


83 


48 








2 








52.i 


45f 


6i 




53 


77i 


514 








3 








53 


46 


7 


53 


63 


m 


514 








4 








53 


46i 


65 


57 


53 


69 


51 








5 
6 








63 


46i 


6J 


56-1 


53 


53 


50 J- 












7 




























8 




























9 




























10 




























11 




























12 




























Totals 






















Meaus 























479 



IiIETEOEOLOGICAL OBSEEVATIONS at MAHTTAND, in Kashmir, 

On Friday, 13th November, 1847. 

Height, 6,000? feet. N. Lat. 33° 4i' 28" -76. E.Long. ° ' ". 

Mean time, civil reckoning at station. 







Therm. 


Balb. 


1 


Registers. 


Radiation. 


Wind. 




A.M. 


Baxom. 










1 














Weather. 






Att. 


Det. 


Dry. 


Wet. 


Q 


+ 
Ma.\. 


Min. 


Solar. 


Terr. 


Direction. 


Press 




1 




























2 




























3 




























4 




























5 








31 








31 












6 








31 




















7 








32 
36 










40 


28 








8 


40 


36 


9 








48i 


43 




53 


49 


57 


36 








10 








51 


44 


7 


56i 


52J 


62J 


38 








11 








54 


45i 


8| 


60 


56i 


79 


41 








Noon 








59i 


iSi 


11 


65 


6H 


S4i 


465 








1 








60J 


4Si 


12 


66 


62 


86 


48 








2 








60| 


m 


12i 


60| 


61 


764 


60 








3 








60 


m 


12^ 


62i 


59i 


58i 


m 








4 




























5 




























6 




























7 




























8 




























9 




























10 




























11 




























12 




























Totals 






















Means 























480 



METBOEOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS at KASHMIE, City, 
On Friday, 19th November, 1847. 

Height, 5,350 feet. N. Lat. 34° 05' 28" -69. E. Long. 74° 58' 00". 

Mean time, civil reckoning at station. 



A.M. 


Barom. 


Therm. 


BlUb. 


1 


Registers. 


Radiation. 


Wind. 


Weather. 










1 














Att. 


Det. 


Dry. 


Wet. 


a 


+ 
Max. 


Min. 


Solar. 


Terr. 


Direction. 


Press 




1 




























2 




























3 




























4 




























5 




























6 
















35 












7 




























8 




























9 
10 








45 




















49 


45 


11 








46 






60 


46 












Noon 








48 


m 


ii 


52 


m 


80 


45 








1 








49 


43i 


5f 




m 


82 


47 








2 




























3 




























4 




























5 




























6 




























7 




























s 




























9 




























10 




























11 




























12 




























Totals 




























Means 























481 



METBOEOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS at KASIIMIE, City, 
On Saturday, 20th Xovember, 1847. 

Height, 5,350 feet. N. Lat. 34° 05' 28" -69. E. Loug. 74° 58' 00". 

Mean time, civil reckouins at station. 







Therm. 


Bulb. 


1 


Registers. 


Radiation. 


Wind. 




A.M. 


Barom. 










£t 














Weather. 






Att. 


Det. 


Dry. 


Wet. 


& 

Q 


+ 
Max. 


Min. 


Solar. 


Terr. 


Direction. 


Press 




1 




























2 




























3 




























4 




























5 




























6 




























7 








37^ 


35 i 


2 


42 


37i 












8 








40 


37| 


2i 


m 


40J 












9 








43i 


40f 


'2h 


m 


4Si 












10 








m 


43J 


H 


51i 


m 


70J 


38 








11 








49 


44J 


4} 


53 


49| 


67 


43 








Noon 








50i 


45J 


5 


541 


51* 


75 


m 








1 








511 


46i 


5i 


56 


52^ 


82 


52 








2 






3 








53i 


47i 


5h 


574 


54i 


7Si 


56 








4 






5 








55 


47i 


7i 


59 


55J 


51 


52 








6 








53 


47 


6 


58J 


54J 












7 






8 




























S 




























10 




























11 




























12 




























Totals 






















Means 





















2 I 



482 



METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIO]N'S at KASHMIR, City, 
Ou Sunday, 21st November, 1847. 

Height, 5,350 feet. N. Lat. 34" 05' 28" -69. E. Long. 74° 58' 00". 

Mean time, civil reckoning at station. 



A.M 


Baroni. 


Therm. 


Bulb. 


1 

1 


Registers. 


Radiation. 


Wind. 






Att. 


Det. 


Dry. 


Wet. 


+ 
Max. 


Min. 


Solar. 


Terr. 


Direction. 


Press 


Vveatner. 


1 




























2 




























3 








S8i 


m 


i 










very faint air. 




fleecy clouds 


4 








37 


34 J 


2} 










do. 








5 








37J 


344 


3 










light puffs. 








6 








36} 


34 


oi 




36} 














7 








371 


35 


2J 


















8 








37i 


34} 


3 


















9 








46 


m 


H 


















10 








49 


43} 


51 






71 


40 










11 








51 


44 


7 






73 


45 


• still. 








Noon 
1 








62} 
52} 


45 

46 


7} 
7} 






80 
84 


48 
514 










2 








53J 


45} 


8} 






77i 


53 










3 








54i 


45J 


9 






82 


54 i 










4 








56i 


46 


m 


565- 




75 


514 










5 








66 


45i 


lOi 








45 










6 




























7 




























8 




























9 




























10 




























11 




























12 




























Totals 






















Means 



























483 



METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS -A MOZAFARABAD, 

On Thursday, 9th December, 1847. 

Height, 2,1GG feet. X. Lat. 34° 21' 45" 51. E. Long. ° ' ". 
Mean time, civil reckoning at station. 





Barom. 


Therm. 


Bulb. 


■i 


Registers. 


Radiation. 


Wind. 


Weather. 


A.M. 












1 












Att. 


Det. 


Dry. 


Wet. 


1 


+ 
Majt. 


~ Solar. 
Min. 1 

1 


Terr. 


Direction. 


Press 




1 




























3 




























i 




























5 




























6 




























7 




























8 








53 


i5k 


7} 
















9 


57J 


54 


10 








541 


46i 


84 


59 


56 


65 


49 








n 








563 


48 


8| 


61 


571 


76J 


53 








Noon 








57i 


47$ 


9i 


57i 


58 


64^ 


54J 








1 




























2 




























3 




























4 




























5 




























6 




























7 




























8 




























9 




























10 




























11 




























12 




























Totals 
















~ 












Means 





























484 



METEOKOLOGICAL OBSEEVATIONS at SHAMSABAD, 
On Tuesday, 21st December, 1847. 

Height, 1,000 feet. N. Lat. ° ' ". E. Long. ° ' ". 

Mean time, civil reckoning at station. 



A.M. 


Barom. 


Therm. 


Bulb. 


i 


Registers. 


Radiation. 


Wind. 




Weather. 




















1 














Att. 


Det. 


Dry. 


Wet, 


a 


+ 1 — 
Ma-x. Min 


Solar. 


Terr. 


Direction. 


Press 




1 




























2 




























3 




























4 




























5 




























6 




























7 




























8 




























9 
10 








57 


54 


3 






75 


40 








58 


58 


11 








56 i 


52i 


i\ 


62 


62 


76i 


47 








Noon 








00 J- 


52 


7h 


60.1 


65 


72 


53 








1 




























2 




























3 




























4 




























5 




























6 




























7 




























8 




























9 




























10 




























11 




























12 




























Totals 




























Means 





























485 



JIETEOEOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS at SIIAMSiBAD, 

Ou Wednesday, 22nd December, 1847. 

Height, 1,000 feet. K". Lat. ° ' ". E. Long. ° ' ". 
Mean time, civil reckoning at station. 



A.M. 


Barom. 


Thenn. 


Bulb. 


1 


Registers. 


Radiation. 


Wind. 


Weather. 


























Art. 


Det. 


Diy. 


Wet. 


a 


+ 
Max. 


Min. 


Solar. 


Terr. 


Direction. 


Press 




1 
2 




























3 




























4 




























5 




























6 




























7 
8 




























9 




























10 




























11 








56J 


483 


n 


594 


594 


79 


51 








Noon 








60i 


48 


124 


64 


64 


78 


57 








1 








62| 


49} 


134 


664 


664 


75 


60 








2 








633 


49| 


14 


674 


674 


74 


60 








3 








641 


50 


14i 


m 


684 


70 


61 








4 








634 


51 


124 


67i 


674 


67 


58 








5 








574 


484 


9 


62 


62 












6 






7 




























8 




























9 




























10 




























11 




























12 




























Totals 






















Means 























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