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Full text of "The Ladies' Memorial Association of Montgomery, Alabama; its origin and organization, 1860-1870"


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Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2011 with funding from 

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hil 



http://www.archive.org/details/ladiesmemorialasOOcory 




The Co:xfederate Monument, iMoNTGOMEKY, Ala. 



K//ie 

l^adies ^^Cemorlal ^dissociation 

of >^7Lontq ornery >^la6afna 



tj/ts Origin and O pganixatton 
7860^7870 

Qompiled by 

-^€apielou >^rmstr>ong Qopy 

•mAlo/ifgoment/, ^lia. 



MONTGOMERY 
ALABAMA PRINTING COMPANY 



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re/ace 

^'Sonor thy father and thy mother that thy days may be 
long in the land which the Lord thy God giveth theey 

At a meetiug of the ' 'Ladies' Memorial Association of 
Montgomery, Ala.," some ten or twelve years since, 
there was quite a discussion as to what members would 
be entitled to wear an Association badge. The Presi- 
dent thought ''only those 'up' with their dues," and 
an unhappy incident occurred, offending a good, enthu- 
siastic, earnest member, by the Secretary telling her she 
was not entitled to "a vote," as her dues were not paid. 
Mrs. Mary Phelan Watt, my sister, felt this very keenly, 
and with probably more emphasis than parliamentary 
decorum, said: "Madam, hearts and hands are more 
worth in a memorial association than fifty cents. I 
have a right to speak, as I am a charter member of this 
organization, and my mother one of the originators and 
founders of it." To this latter statement Mrs. M, D. 
Bibb, the President, from the chair made violent pro- 
test, saying "her mother, Mrs. B. S. Bibb, was the sole 
originator and founder of the Association." 

Our family were grieved and astounded at such a 
claim, but as it was only a statement that perished with 
the breath that uttered it, decided to let it pass, feeling 
that we could trust to its contradiction in the record of 
the times. But, when upon a more recent occasion a 
history was prepared under Mrs. M. D. Bibb's direction 
for the "World's Fair, at Chicago ; later still, one pre- 



5S7GS4 



pared under the same direction, entitled, ''The Monu- 
ment on Capitol Hill," and claiming to be authorized by 
the Ladies' Memorial Association, making practically 
these same claims, I felt that the truth of history should 
be gathered and put in form. 

Eeaders of the last named pamphlet will notice the 
error in time in the effort to reconcile the General 
Swayne incident, making the 16th of April, 1866, coin- 
cide with three weeks after the surrender. I know little 
of General Swayne, but I am glad I have lived long 
enough to feel that there were brave and chivalrous 
gentlemen among the officers and privates of the Federal 
army, and he may have been one of them, but he was 
at that time still a partisan with no patience with any 
movement to revere the memory or build monuments to 
Confederate soldiers, and it is preposterous to give him 
credit for the foundation of the noble shaft which stands 
on Capitol Hill. 

They will, too, note the unjust impeachment of the 
good, great, and patriotic Mrs. B. S. Bibb in the state- 
ment that "during the war she often talked of her plans, 
when the war was ended, for the formation of an asso- 
ciation for the careful burial of Alabama Confederate 
soldiers," etc., etc. Those familiar with those times 
know, as I do, that no patriot, such as she, expected the 
Confederate soldiers' remains to be cared for by private 
associations, but felt that they would have the strong 
and loving arms of a free Government thrown around 
them. Mrs. Bibb needs no such claim to forever enshrine 
her memory in the hearts of all men and women who 
live, and will live to love and honor the memory of the 
Confederate soldier. Selected as the President of the 
Memorial Association because of maturer years and tried 
executive ability, blessed with a long life — much longer 



Pamphlata 
[c Collectioa 



3 

than any of the women of its early days — she did as 
much, probably more, than any man or woman who 
lived to accomplish the success it achieved. 

Thomas, Watkins, John and Ellis Phelan, when the 
Confederacy needed soldiers, were found on the firing 
line, or leading it in command. "Was it strange that, 
when an association was to be formed to gather their 
bones from the battlefields, their mother should likewise 
be at the head of the column? I leave the recital of the 
facts of those times to answer. 

Sidney Harris Phelan. 



Kjore-ivopci 



In compiling the History of the Origin and Organiza- 
tion of the Ladies' Memorial Association, I have not 
been unmindful of the great responsibility of the engag- 
ing task which I assumed. That all writing of history 
should be undertaken as a sacred trust is a truth whose 
seriousness has been with me through the many hours 
and days of search for the facts as they are, facts which 
no one would question, and at whose presentation no 
one would cavil. 

No important fact has been chronicled without going 
to the prime sources for the first and best proof, and no 
pains has been spared to verify the memory of those who 
are living by a resort to written or printed records. 
Where no record was made, and memory was the only 



resource, statements based on any single recollection 
have been omitted, only those being given a place where 
several trustworthy individuals concurred in vouching 
for the same fact. That some miuor mistakes will be 
found is to be expected; I can only hope they may not 
be so serious as to mar the work as a whole. 

It was the earnest wish of the compiler to make men- 
tion in condensed form of all who took a prominent part 
in the formation of the Association. In some instances 
this could not be done to the satisfaction of the writer, 
because promised data, through the carelessness or for- 
getfulness of friends did not come in time. 

Ko attempt has been made to give the history of the 
Association through all its eventful and useful years, 
the scope of the work embracing only its origin, organ- 
ization and early achievemeuts. To mention all who 
have taken part gloriously in the Association's noble 
work since those first heroic years, would extend the 
volume far beyond the limit that was set. 

The study of these old annals has been to me a melan- 
choly pleasure. It has brought me face to face and 
heart to heart with many noble men and women whose 
unselfish and untiring patriotism, fortitude and courage 
throughout those gloomy times has not been excelled in 
all the history of the world. 

Maeielou Armstrong Cory. 

Montgomery, April, 1902. 



rj/ie l^adles >^CemorlaL ^Association 

of ymM^ontgomertj •Alabama 



•^ 3^u.ll ^^iccounf of its Origin and Organixafion 



In no period of time has the patriotic sentiment of the 
people been so enlisted in the preservation of their his- 
toric annals. Alabama has been slower in awakening 
to this beautiful labor of state love than many of her 
sisters, but her progress now bids fair to grow into the 
old-time Confederate Quick-step. 

Few states of the South are richer in their early his- 
tory than Alabama, From the Alabama Historical 
Society,* formed in Tuskaloosa, in 1850, has at last 
been evolved this new impetus to the State's historical 
niovement, and tlie future historian of Alabama will 
find the State Department of Archives and Hi8tory,f 

*The General Assembly of 1851-52 passed an act incorporat- 
ing the Ahibama Historical Society. This was approved Feb- 
ruary 5, 1852. 

tThe General Assembly of Alabama, by act approved Decem- 
ber 10th, 1898, provided for the appointment of an Alabama 
History Commission of five members. Its creation grew out of 
an enlightened public sentiment, and also a conviction on the 
part of the law makers that there should be some legislative 
action towards fostering historic interest and the preservation 
of the records, archives and history of the State. Under the 
authority conferred by the Act, the undersigned have been 
appointed as members by his Excellency, Gov. Joseph F. John- 
ston, President of the Alabama Historical Society. (Report of 



6 

formed by the Legislature of 1898-99, of inestimable 
value in shortening his labors of research and supplying 
the materials ready gathered and stored away. 

The most reliable sources of information on all his- 
torical subjects where the official records of State are 
wanting are the files of the daily papers. For this 
present summary of past events the writer has had 
recourse to all these precious records now accessible, 
though sometimes necessarily accepting the recollection 
of persons taking part in the events of those wonderful 
years. The newspai)er files have been given the prefer- 
ence over personal recollections and personal letters, 
which differ more widely and are by all historians 
deemed the less trustworthy testimony. The old files 
of the Montgomery Advertiser and the Daily Mail of 
1865-66 have been systematically studied and copied. 
Many volumes of the Advertiser prior to July, 1865, 
are missing, owing to the loss by fire of some of these 
most historic and valuable treasures during the vandal- 
ism of Federal soldiers in April and May, 1865,* 

All numbers since July, 1865, are well preserved. At 

Alabama History Commission 1900, edited by Thios. M. Owen.) 
Ttie uudersis^ned were Thos. M. Owen, Chairman; W. S. 
Wyman, S. W. John, Peter J. Hamilton, Chas. C. Thach. 

*It was thought by some that the missing files of the Adver- 
tiser were taken, with other Alabama archives, to Augnsta, 
Ga., and there lost or confiscated. It will be remembered that 
on the approach of General James H. Wilson, with Federal 
troops, there was some alarm felt for Montgomery archives and 
the State officials sent some of them away to Eufaula, Ala., 
and Augusta, Ga., for preservation. Major W. W. Screws, 
however, prefers to believe the statement of Mr. S. G. Reid, 
then proprietor of The Advertiser, who affirmed that the lost 
files were burned in the streets of Montgomery by Federal sol- 
diers. This act of depredation was not by any command of 
Federal officers, but through Federal vandalism. Official 
notice, however, that The Advertiser should cease publication 
was at that time posted on its doors. 



that time Major W. W. Screws, with the honors of bat- 
tle fresh upon him, laid down his sword and took up his 
pen — assuming command of letters in lieu of men.* 
Sufficient numbers of The Advertiser have been obtained 
and studied to corroborate all statements taken from the 
Daily Mail, the files of which, through the courtesy of 
its then able proprietor. Major J. Carr Gibson,f have 
been at the disposal of the writer. These papers — the 
Montgomery Advertiser and Daily Mail — teem with rich 
material for the history of those momentous times and 
should be carefully guarded and preserved. 

Whatsoever the movement, whether political or social, 
whether of State or Church, or patriotic sentiment, each 
must take shape from antecedent as well as present 
environment. Public opinion is a great moulder, some- 
times of character, yet oftener of great movements and 
historic epochs. For the exact origin of this historic 
association, then, it becomes necessary to look at Mont- 
gomery before the existence or the need of her Memorial 
Association and to study briefly the emotions and cir- 
cumstance leading up to its sad necessity. 

In 1860 no city in the world gave back a sunnier 
smile in answer to the greetings of prosperity than 
Montgomery. All went Mell. Her peoplp were rich 
and growing richer. In the main, they looked back to 

*The Advertiser at this time, July, 1865, was published and 
edited by Mr. S. G. Reid and Major W. W. Screws. In 1868 
Major Screws bought the interest of Mr. Reid and became sole 
proprietor and editor. 

flu 1865 Major J. Carr Gibson and Capt. John F. Whitfield 
were publishers and editors of The Mail. In January of 1866 
it came out under the management of J. Carr Gibson & Co., the 
company being Captain John F. Whitfield and Colonel Joseph 
Hodgson. 



8 

a proud ancestry in the older States, and they were 
building here in Alabama another centre where the 
graces of social life, the culture of mind and the stan- 
dards of character were perpetuating the best traditions 
of the old South. They were ambitious and they were 
successful. They furnished to the drawing rooms of 
two continents women whose beauty and intellect won 
recognition everywhere. They supplied the noblest 
minds and the loftiest purposes to the brilliant galaxy 
of men who then guided the State and country. They 
could boast of men who were equally at home in politics 
and society and business, for among them were great 
developers, builders of factories and railroads and com- 
merce, as well as the subduers of the forests. The spirit 
of help, of charity was everywhere. Want was un- 
known, for to suspect its approach was to relieve it in 
advance. Happiest of all were the slaves, whose 
laughter-loving lives and easy days and devotion to the 
whites are a Paradise Lost to many of their luckless de- 
scendants. 

Five years go by, five long revolutions of the earth, 
the first amid high hopes and brave resolves, the echoes 
of victory and the pride of triumph. Then specks ap- 
pear on the sun, deepening to a shadow that grows into 
chaos and black night. 

The broad streets are still here, the mansions stand 
stately as of old, the trees still house the birds and the 
flowers fling their same sweet perfumes on the air. 
Only the people are changed and many have not re- 
turned. How silent is many a hall, how numerous the 
vacant chairs! Where laughter had once its home, now 
sighs and anxious communings and tuneless songs have 
entered as unbidden guests. To wounded hearts was 
added wounded pride, and the insult of insolence gave 



9 



a deeper sting to untried poverty. Mirth and music 
had become as a story that is told. 

This could not last. Manhood and womanhood were 
the same. Chastened to a deeper seriousness and a 
stouter purpose, one turned to the work of rescue, the 
other to that of comfort and unselfish helpfulness. Side 
by side and heart to heart the old chivalry and char- 
acter and the old beauty and tenderness wrought a new 
life out of sorrow and made a brighter day to follow the 
darker night. But ever in sunshine and in shadow, in 
rest and work, in failure and in triumph, memory was 
busy in her treasure house. And the dearest jewel of 
them all was and is, the brave deeds of those who died 
and did not die in vain. 






CHAPTER H. 



During the war there were many societies among the 
ladies of Montgomery for the alleviation of suffering, 
among them being Ladies' Aid Societies, where the 
good women met and plied their needles for love's sweet 
sake. The President of one of the most prominent of 
these was Mrs. Eliza Clitherall Moore,* who with her 
able co-laborers worked night and day over the cutting 
tables, with sewing needles and knitting needles, making 
every needful thing for the soldiers in distant camps 
and battle fields. Under her supervision were even the 
bright faced school girls, who fled from books to this 
blessed work as a pastime more glorious than play. 

Prominent among these was the ^'Ladies' Hebrew 
Sewing and Benevolent Society," with Mrs. J. C. 
Hausmanf as President. 

*Mrs. Eliza Inglis Moore was born in Charleston, S. C, June 
2, 1803. Her father was Hon. George Campbell Clitherall, and 
her mother Caroline Elizabeth (Burgwyn) Clitherall, connected 
with the Pollocks and Devereauxs, distinguished families of 
South Carolina. She was the sister of Judge A. B. Clitherall, 
who, in 186J, was temporary Private Secretary to President 
Davis, and Assistant Secretary of the Congress. Mrs. Thos. 
Goode Jones, wife of Judge Thomas G. Jones, is the grand- 
daughter of Mrs. Moore, and a daughter, Mrs. C. S. Bird, to- 
gether with many other worthy descendants, still reside iu 
Montgomery. Mrs. Eliza Clitherall Moore died on July 9, 
1886. A more devoted Confederate never ministered to the 
wounded and dying. Never did she waver until 

" The warrior's banner Manged its flight 
To greet the warrior's soul." 

tCaroline J, Hausman was born in Saverne, France, on the 
18th of August, 1832. Her parents, Alexander and Pauline 
Kulman (nee Wile) moved from Saverne to Paris when their 
children were still very young, iu order to give them the benefit 



11 

Still another Aid Society was presided over by such 
spirits as Mrs. John A. Elmore, Mrs. William Yancey, 
Mrs. G. W. Petrie, Mrs. William Eay, Mrs. Eambo, 
Mrs. Bugbee, and others. While sewing for the absent 
soldiers was the principal occupation of these societies, 
other aid was constantly extended, as the following clip- 
ping gives evidence : 

''Patriotic Women. 

"Happening, yesterday afternoon, to be at the office of our 
kind friend. Major Harris, we found collected there a large 
number of paroled prisoners -who were returning home from 
Northern prisons. The bare fact of seeing these war-scarred 
veterans returning home to freshen their spirits and bodies and 

of a thorough education. As a very young girl slie became in- 
terested in acts of benevolence and charit.y, which so naarkedly 
characterized her latter years. Her father, as president of a 
large congregation, and her mother associated with noble 
women for the alleviation of the unfortunate poor, were the 
models on which she planned her work. Her parents dreaded 
conscription for their only son, Emile, so the brave young girl, 
only 17, came with the boy to New York on a visit to her uncle. 
While there she met Mr. Zacques Hausman, of Montgomery, 
Ala. The following year they were married in Boston, Mass., 
at the home of relatives, where the young girl was visiting. 
They returned to Montgomery and until her death, July 12, 
1901, this city was her home. Two years of this time was 
spent in France with relatives, to which country Mr. Hausman 
was sent as commissiimer to the Paris Exposition. In 1861 
she organized the Hebrew Ladies' Benevolent Society, and was 
its first president, and co-operated with the W<nxian's Hos- 
pital. She was a charter member and in subsequent years one 
of the vice-presidents of the Memorial Association, and iden- 
tified with all the charitable organizations of the city. The 
Woman's Home, of which she was president for fifteen years, 
was especially dear to her heart and her last visit was to that 
institution, where she always carried help and encouragement 
to the inmates. 



12 

to gird up anew their loins for another conflict with the enemy 
until our independence shall be fully achieved, would have 
given us the greatent pleasure, but this was increased and in- 
tensified beyond measure when we saw the generous cheer 
which had been furnished and served to them by our patriotic 
women. We give below the names of such as were moat act- 
ively engaged in this most acceptable, appropriate and praise- 
worthy hospitality, in order that when the history of this war 
shall be written, they may be inscribed on the roll of fame : 

"Mesdames W. B. Bell, Pickett, Banks, H. Bell, Col. Powell, 
Marks, Mathews, Holt, Browder, Woods, Freeman, McClure, 
and the Misses Hastings, May, Barney, Stringfellow, Lizzie 
Rutherford,* Sallie Rutherford and Bettie Bell, of the "Ladies' 
Aid Society." 

Pending this time came the need for a j)lace to tend 
the sick and wounded soldiers, who were now falling all 
too fast. For this purpose Mrs. Carnot Bellinger, wife 
of Dr. Carnot Bellinger, gave two cottages on what is 
now known as Bellinger Heights. The Cloverdale car 
runs hard by this cottage, now enlarged and still stand- 
ing on the crest of the hill. By a singular coincidence, 
and all unknown to the ladies who selected it, this house 
was chosen by the Alabama Division U. D. C. as a Sol- 
diers' Home, when in 1898 they had almost comiileted 
their plans for a refnge for needy old Confederates. f 

*It is rather an interesting coincidence that this Miss Lizzie 
Rutherford is the same lovely woman who later, in Colum- 
bus, Ga., suggested the idea of Memorial Day, so beautifully 
embodied by her friend. Mrs. Williams, in that famous letter 
which resulted in the adoption throughout the South of our 
sacred 26th of April. A more extended notice of all these cir- 
cumstances will be fouud later, in which Mississippi's claims 
to the origin of this custom also will be given. 

tThis plan for a Confederate Home was reluctantly aban- 
doned by the Daughters of the Confederacy of Alabama on 
recommendation of prominent veterans, who deemed it inex- 
pedient, thinking it best to send money direct to the needy vet- 
erans through the State Division. 



13 

The following account of the origin of the first Sol- 
diers' Home is contributed, on request, by one of the 
good women who lent their young energies to this noble 
work. It has been corroborated by others who took 
part in that work, and is given in her own words: 

''As requested, I send you some facts concerning the 
Soldiers' Home on Bellinger Heights, which was really 
the first in the Confederacy, and all others took their 
names from this one, which a wounded soldier gave it 
in writing to his mother. He said, 'Don't be anxious 
about me; I am not in a hospital, but at a Soldiers' iZbme.' 
This so pleased the ladies, who had been in a quandary 
about what name was good enough for it, that one of 
them seized a pen and opening a large Bible, wrote in 

it, 'Donated to the Soldiers' Home by ' (I forget). 

'iSTow,' she said, 'it is registered in the Bible and can't 
be changed.' Now, for its origin. Soon after war was 
declared the ladies of JMontgomery, as did others through- 
out the Confederacy, formed themselves into a sewing 
society to make clothes, sand-bags, haversacks, cover 
canteens, knit socks of every hue, size and shape, as 
well as some very shapeless ones. Many an encouraging 
word was written and attached to these articles as they 
were folded and boxed for the dear boys in grey, and 
sometimes when defeat instead of victory perched upon 
our banner, did these sacred garments and mottoes fall 
into the hands of the 'boys in blue.' Many carpets were 
cut up, washed clean, as well as damask curtains, and 
fitted up as blankets and sent to our boys then sleeping 
on the cold, bare ground. This work of love continued 
for several months before a needy soldier was brought 
face to face with these true-hearted women. Dr. Samuel 
IS'orton, a kind-hearted physician of Montgomery, and 
at that time a minister of a Protestant Methodist Church 



14 

in this city, called on the ladies of the Sewing Society 
and asked what would they do with a wounded soldier? 
After a volley of who's and whens and whys, they 
became silent, not from want of hospitality but from 
want of a hospital. Many cried out, 'I will take care 
of him.' The Dr. replied, 'He is already taken care of, 
but we must begin in time to provide for the balance 
who will surely come. Now,' he said, 'I leave it with 
you, and I know on whom I depend.' It w^as the sub- 
ject of discussion, earnest and heartfelt, and when they 
separated at noon, no conclusion had been reached. Dr. 
Bellinger asked his wife, as he met her on her return 
home : 'What has happened T Why are you so silent 1' 
She told him of the quandary the ladies were in con- 
cerning a house or rooms for any sick or wounded 
soldiers, and that one case had been brought before 
them. Dr. Bellinger then offered a house and servants 
and provisions on the Hill, in a quiet, retired locality, 
in the midst of a large fruit orchard. This was unan- 
imously and instantly accepted by the ladies that after- 
noon, though I cannot now recall the exact date. Now 
these ladies, as was most natural, unanimously elected 
Mrs. Bellinger* as their first President, on account of the 

*Mrs. Sarah Bozier Bellinger, daughter of Robert Hails, and 
Sarah (Bozier) Hails, was born June 10th, 1808, iu Columbia, 
S. C. Her father, Capt. Robert Hails, fought in the Revolu- 
tionary War, under Light Horse Harry Lee. She was married 
in 1832 to Dr. Caruot Bellinger, who, on account of French 
ancestry and inherited love of old France, was given the name 
of Carnot, in honor of the ancestor of the late President Carnot 
of France. In the good old ante-bellum days, when South Car- 
olinians, for summer recreation, drove through the country in 
theirstately 'coaches-and-four," Mrs.Bellinger — then MissHails 
— while enjoying an outing with friends, stopped the night with 
strangers, whose doors were thus ever open to such travelers. A 



15 

Home having been supplied by her husband. It was but a 
short while before rooms were comfortably fitted up in a 
home-like manner and ready for use, with as lovely a 
Christian character as one ever meets as a matron, Mrs. 
Walton, a Scotch woman, small and delicate, apparently 
unfitted for so arduous a position, but brave, true- 
hearted and untiring. In addition to her numerous 
duties as matron she was always assuming that of kind- 
hearted, sympathetic nurse. Thus, overtaxing herself, 
she succumbed to typhoid fever and died. Her place 
could never be filled though many efi'orts were made, 
and the ladies had to form themselves into committees 
to do Mrs. Walton's work, with what they could furnish 
or hire, for in those days we knew not the name of 
trained nurse in the South . The names of the ladies who 
worked at this Home were many. Mrs. J. C. Hausman, 
a Hebrew lady, who only died a few months ago, was 
most prominent in good deeds and charities to the sol- 
diers. Mrs. William Bell, who died long after the war, 
was very prominent in the good works. Mrs. James 
Ware, now living, was another, and was the second 
Manager of the Home. Mrs. John Elmore* was enthu- 

courtly old gentleman, that uight a guest at this same home, 
asked Miss Haila her father's name. "Capt. Robert Hails," 
she proudly replied. "Yes," said the old cavalier, "and I could 
have courtmartialed that same Captain." Then he told the 
daughter the story of how the impetuous youug Captain, on 
first meeting the Tories, wanted the Colonel to claarge immedi- 
ately, and being refused each time, the youug Captain replied : 
"Then, by the Lord, I shall charge myself." But never a sol- 
dier followed. The courtly old gentleman then introduced 
himself— (he chanced to be uo less a personage than Light 
Horse Harry Lee himself) — and said that he would interpret 
the blush on the young daughter's face to be one of pride, for 
such it should be. 

*Mrs. John A. Elmore was the daughter of Hon. William D. 
Martin, the famous Suuth Carolina jurist, sou of John Martin 
and Elizabeth (Terry) Martin. Her mother was Henrietta 



16 

siastic and constant, so also Mrs. William Knox, Mrs. 
William Pollard, Mrs. S. B. Bibb, Mrs. E. C. Hannon 
and Mrs. Mays, Mrs. William H. Smith, Mrs. Mont- 
gomery, the Taylors, and Mastins and Phillips, Mrs. 
William Yancey, Mrs. Eliza Moore, Mrs. John D. Phe- 
lan, and so many others." 

When the cottage proved inadequate to the ever- 
increasing demand, the building on the corner of Bibb 
and Commerce streets was fitted up for the Woman's 
Hospital and the ladies of the Home took charge there. 
Here Mrs. B. S. Bibb, who afterwards won and wore 
the beloved name of ''Aunt Sophie," was elected Presi- 
dent of the Woman's Hospital Association, and many 
ladies who, on account of distance from the city, were 
deprived of going often to the Home, did faithful ser- 
vice at the hospital in the city. After moving into the 
city the Woman's Hospital came under the direct super- 
vision of the Confederate Army Hospital Department. 

Under the Confederate Army Hospital supervision 
were three hospitals in the heart of the city. The La- 
dies' Hospital was at the corner of Commerce and Bibb, 
now (1902) occupied by Clancey's Hotel and McDonald's 
Theatre, where Dr. Duncan was the surgeon in charge. 



Williamson, daughter of Dr. Peter W. and Eliza (White) Wil- 
liamson, of Randolph County, North Carolina. Her maternal 
grandfather, Dr. Peter W. Williamson, was a surgeon 
in the Revolutionary War, and her paternal grand- 
father, one of the seven Martin brothers of the Revolu- 
tion. Miss Laura Martin married Capt. John A. Elmore, son 
of General John A. Elmore, who was a soldier in the Colonial 
struggle of 1776; while the Captain saw service during the 
Creek troubles of 1836. A long list of distinguished descendants 
of these still honor and grace the State of Alabama. The name 
of Mrs. Laura Elmore was synonymous with all deeds of char- 
ity, but especially did she serve this Home with untiring devo- 
tion, Mrs. Elmore was the third First Vice-President of the 
Ladies' Memorial Association. 



17 

Mrs. B. S. Bibb, President of the Association, and Mrs. 
William Bell, General Manager. 

Among the daily faithful here was Mrs. Herron,*who 
knelt in prayer by the bedside of the wounded and 
dying, spoke the tender love of the pitying Christ, 
taught the poor quivering lips to say "Thy will be done," 
and heard in the place of "mother" that last sad time 
the soldier's ";N"ow, I lay me down to sleep." 

Here, indeed, worked faithfully and long as lovely a 
set of women as ever ministered to the victims of the 
cruel god of battle. Many of their names have already 
been mentioned, and though many may now escape the 
memories of men, yet are they recorded upon hearts 
that bled, and better still, in the Life Book of the God 
of Love. 

Just across the way from Commerce to Coosa street, 
where are now the Merchants' Hotel, Standard Club, 
etc., was the general hospital, afterwards called St. 
Mary's, in honor of some devout Sisters of Charity who 
gave their time and gentle work to the soldiers there. 

Here the surgeon in charge was Dr. Green, and one of 
the most prominent and zealous workers, Mrs. William 
Knox.f 

*Mr8. Sarah Herron was the daughter of Robert Parker and 
Catherine (Thoriugton) Parker. Her mother was a sister of 
Capt. Jack Thorington, the able lawyer aud associate of Judge 
William P. Chilton. She married Mr. Johu Herrou, of Ala- 
bama, and has left the impress of a long, useful aud beautiful 
life. 

fMrs. William Knox, Sr., was born in Nashville, Tenn., Jan- 
uary 9, 1809. Her father was Col. Joseph Joel Lewis, aud her 
mother was Miss Mariam Eastham. Her mother was a niece 
of Lord Fairfax, aud her father an officer in the Revolutionary 
War. She married Mr. William Knox, in Winchester, Tenn., 
and later moved to Montgomery, Ala. Here they made their 



18 

It is interesting at this point to note that Mr. George 
F. McDonald, the genial manager of McDonald's The- 
atre, still adheres to the same spot where, in that stirr- 
ing era, he worked in a different calling. He was th«n 
druggist of this hospital, while another brave Confed- 
erate soldier, Mr. W. W. Norris, was business manager 
— stewards they M^ere called in those days. 

Again, where is now Nachman & Meertief's store, 
once the famous Concert and Estelle Halls, on the corner 
of Perry street and Dexter avenue, was still another hos- 
pital, the surgeon being Dr. William Holt. Here also 
the ladies worked valiantly under the direct leadership 
of Mrs. Eliza Clitherall Moore. Thus, irrespective of 
sect or creed, of age or station, "sewing while they wept" 
and weeping while they softened the sorrows of others, 
these noble women of Montgomery wrought better than 
they knew and made names more enduring than marble 
— names that must not perish while there is history 
to tell. 

Some of the letters received by the dear women from 
grateful soldiers whom they had nursed back to health 

home in what is now the old Confederate White House, where 
many of their children were boru. Among the notable women 
of Alabama Mrs. Kuox has left a record unsurpassed for char- 
ity and deeds of mercy to all in distress or waut, without regard 
to race, nationality or creed. During a term of thirty years 
Mrs. Kuox taught a class in Sunday School for negroes, while 
she was a member of Court Street Methodist Church, this city. 
In her elegant home on Perry street, she entertained President 
Davis, Mr. Alexander Stevens, General Lee, Admiral Semmes 
and all the noted officers of the Confederate Army and Navy. 
Mra. Knox gave two brave sons, William and Robert, to the 
Confederate Army. At the age of 82 years she died on the 14th 
of June, 1890, in the city of Montgomery. The first dollar 
that was ever put in the treasury of the Confederate States was 
the naoney to buy food and blankets for the soldiers. This 
money was borrowed from Mr. Knox, president of the Central 
Bank of Alabama, by H. D. Capers, and paid Mr. Capers in 
gold on the 26th of February, 1861. (Vide books of the bank). 



19 

and strength, are not only touching but valuable histori- 
cally. Only a few have survived the vicissitudes of the 
years and are already yellowing with time stains. Ex- 
tracts from these are given, as follows : 

Atlanta, Ga., Julv 1, 1866. 
Mks. W. B. Bell : 

My Dear Mrs. Bell* — It would be impossible for me to ex- 
press in adequate terms my sense of the debt of gratitude which 
I owe you for the care aud attention with which you watched 
over me, aud ministered to my sufferings whilst I was wounded, 
in your beautiful city. If I am never able to repay you for 
your unwearied devotion to me except by my thanks, I feel 
that you are more than repaid already by the consciousness of 
having done so much for the cause of our down-trodden and 
oppressed country, and also for the cause of suffering 
humanity. 

I feel that I owe my life and what service I was afterwards 
enabled to render my country to the kind care aud atter.tion of 
yourself and the other noble ladies of Montgomery. So long as 
I may be permitted to live I will never forget you. Our cause 
is lost, our country is prostrate, but we can at least cherish the 

*Mary Jarrett (Thweatt) Bell was born in Sparta, Ga., Novem- 
ber 30, 1831. She was the daughter of Peterson Thweatt and 
Elizabeth Williamson Thweatt, whose sister, iNIary Jarrett Wil- 
liamson, was the mother of the illustrious John A. Campbell. 
Mrs. Bell's forebears, both paternal aud maternal, are a herit- 
age of which the most exacting dames, Colonial or Revolu- 
tionary, would be proud. Micajah Williamson, her grandfather, 
was a colonel in the Revolutionary War, and had a son four- 
teen years old shot down before his eyes by the enemy. In a 
stout leather-backed prayer book, yellowed with the usage of 
108 years, and bearing the date mdccxciv (1794) in English 
script, were found the names of many noted ancestors. Mrs. 
Thweatt died when little Mary Jarrett was only four years old. 
Her aunt, Mrs. Charles Tait, wife of Judge Charles Tait, 
brought her to Claiborne, Ala. Here she lived until she mar- 
ried William Brown Bell, of Falmouth, Va., who, a few years 
before, had removed to Montgomery, Ala. The famed hospi- 



20 

memory of those who nobly fell iu her defense, and honor 
those, whether male or female, who did their whole duty in 
the struggle. I was wounded a second time, but only slightly; 
was with Forest when he captured Murfreesboro, and in his 
subsequent operations in Tennessee and Kentucky. After 
Bragg's Kentucky campaign I was promoted to the command 
of a select company of Texans and placed immediately under 
the command of the lamented Gen'l. Polk for "secret and spe- 
cial service." My business was to operate in the rear and on 
the flanks of the Yankee army. Whilst in this service I had 
many thrilling adventures and hair-breadth escapes, and flatter 
myself that I did my country' some service. After Gen'l. Polk 
was killed I served a part of the time on the stafT, part in my 
old regiment of Texas Rangers. I was with my regiment in 
the battle of Benton ville, N. C, and the last one fought by the 
Western army. There was never a truer, braver or more patri- 
otic body of men than the regiment which was brought out 
from Texas by the brave, the chivalric and martyred hero — 
Terry. Only a few of them lived to get back to Texas. Their 
bones lie bleaching on every battlefield from North Carolina to 
the Mississippi. I am proud of Texas, that noble state. 

My youngest brother, who belonged to Hood's old regiment, 
the 4th Texas, was killed in the seven days fight around Rich- 
mond. 

Please pardon me for the length of this letter. I had intended 

tality of the Bells' spacious home and their acts of benevolence 
and charity began long before the war. In 1853, '54 and '55, 
during the dreadful scourge of yellow fever, they sent their 
children to the country and were angels of mercy to the stricken 
of Montgomery, nursing and alleviating suffering wherever 
found. During the war Mrs. Bell's sweet face and tender 
mother-hands brought comfort to many a dying and wounded 
soldier, for her willing feet walked ever beside the soldier's cot. 
Her oldest son, William Peterson Bell, was a brave Confeder- 
ate soldier. Mrs. Bell not only gave of her time and her store 
to the hospital, but furnished it with one of her own servants. 
And when the dear cause was lost and the sick and wounded 
boys in gray were thrown into the hands of the Government, 
she continued to watch even closer than ever by their bed- 
sides. 



21 

only to write you a few lines to show to you that your kind- 
ness to me when in distress is still cherished and remembered. 
Please give my love to those kind ladies who manifested so 
deep an interest in my welfare whilst I was wounded. 
With deepest gratitude, 

Yours truly, 

Marcus L. G. 

Another letter, written twenty years later, is inter- 
esting not so much for historic value as for the delicate 
sentiment and sad story of love which it tells. 

November 22, 1884. 
Mrs. M. J. Bei.l: 

My Dear Madam — I have never forgotten your kindness to 
nae while sick at your house,* twenty years ago, and while the 
world has gone well with me, I, like yourself, have had many 
and sore trials. Still there is much for us to be thankful for, 
especially at this time, in a political way, and to the end that 
you may bear me in mind on Thursday next I send a mite. 
You will receive it in the same spirit in which it is sent, for was 
I not "one of your boys?" and surely there can be no impro- 
priety in accepting from one's own. I send this through my 
friend. Col. Pollard, to insure its safe delivery, fearing I may 
not have the proper address. 

I never see anything about my old nurse "Nancy. "f Is she 

*It was the custom to take the convalescent soldiers from the 
hospitals to the homes of the first families of Montgomery, 
where they were tenderly cared for until able to return to battle 
or home to their loved ones. No remuneration for these beau- 
tiful services would have been tolerated by these generous 
Southern aristocrats, and the doors of almost every home in 
the city and surrounding country were wide open to the con- 
valescent soldier. 

fNancy, the nurse, and Mammy Judy, the cook, both deserve 
notice for their service to the soldiers. They were faithful 
slaves in the Bell home. Mammy Judy never saw a Confed- 
erate soldier that she didn't make him come in and "take a 
bite." "I'm gwine feed 'em all, honey, case ever time I feeds 
one, somebody else gwine feed Buddie." Buddie was the be- 
loved son and young master, Wm. Peterson Bell, then in the 



22 

again with you ? I am all alone in a large house, having no 
wife, no children. I was so unfortunate as to lose my wife two 
years ago — a j ure, sweet and beautiful woman. Two years ago 
to-morrow we laid her away in our beautiful cemetery, there 
to await the resurrection morn. A beautiful statue marks the 
place. Besides her name and date are the following lines on 
the tablet: 

"There's not an hour of daj' or dreaming night, 

But I am with thee; 
There's not a flower that sleeps beneath the moon 

But tells some tale of thee." 

The past week has been one of mournful memories softened 
by time and I remember how true and kind she was, and then 
a troop of others flitted by, those from whom I had in the long 
past received so many acts of kindness, among them your dear 
remembered face, and having heard that you Mere not now 
situated so fortunately as in the days gone by, it occurred to me 
that you would like to hear from me, and that the assurance 
that your kindness had never been forgotten would be gratify- 
ing; hence this letter. Remember me kindly to the Holts, 
your co-workers. 

Hoping you are well, and that a kind providence will always 
watch, guard and protect you, I remain, my dear Mrs. Bell, 
Sincerely yours, 

W. E. McC. 

Alas, how the old letters bring us face to face with 
the sorrows of those dead days! How they tell us, with 
a simple eloquence more touching than any flights of 
fancy, all the good our glorious Southern women 

army. Other faithful slaves whose names will ever be remem- 
bered by grateful soldiers were Jupiter, head cook, whose ser- 
vices were given by Mrs. Carnot Bellinger; Horace Edwards, a 
likely youth, services given the hospital by Mrs. W.B.Bell; 
Mary Ann, one of the faithful nurses, by Mrs. Charles T. Pol- 
lard; and Ellen, services given by Mrs. James A. Ware. The 
last named nurses were invaluable and their strong black arms 
lifted with faithful tenderness many a suflering soldier, giving 
sweet visions of the loving mammy watching by the firesides 
of home and mother far away. 



23 

wrought, and what a breath of tender chivalry they 
breathe of the soldiers the South gave to her dear cause! 
It is matter of regret that more letters could not have 
been procured from others of those great-souled women 
who toiled within these hospital wards. Hoping that 
Mrs. Martha D. Bibb might possess some letters written 
by soldiers to her mother, Mrs. B, S. Bibb, every effort 
was made to obtain them for these pages. The forms of 
the printer were even held back with the hope that in 
the end they might be procured. The illness of Mrs. M. D. 
Bibb at this time (1902) prevented the search among 
her historic treasures for these letters. Although dili- 
gent quest through files of the ''Veteran" for such let- 
ters was also unsuccessful, the following very interest- 
ing note from the pen of the able editor of that journal, 
Mr. S. A. Cunningham, was found, bearing loving tes- 
timony of one already mentioned, Mrs. Herron, whose 
name is linked with golden deeds to that busy time of 
the hospitals : 

"The Veteran's tribute to the work of Montgomery women 
would be so incomplete without reference to the late Sarah 
Herrou, that brief editorial meution is supplemented. 

"It seems improbable that but for her the writer would have 
survived an illness during which he was carried from a railway 
train into the ladies' hospital utterly unconscious from raging 
fever. The presence of that gentle, intelligent Christian woman 
after several days reminded him of home and mother. There 
began that day the most beautiful friendly devotion the writer 
has ever experienced. Mrs. Heiron's letters were such a 
treat that they were common property in the army, and at sight 
of the familiar handwriting, Company B, Forty-lirst Tennessee 
Regiment would assemble to hear the reading as soon as 
opened. Her letters were mellow with Christian counsel and 
rich with wit and humor. That "mother number two " was 
faithful until called home to heaven March 10, 1899. Her mind 
was ever clear toward mankind, and her relation to Omniscience 
was most intimate. It was well to have known her." 



24 

But when the war was ended and there was no more 
need for such service — ^when their own came home to ten- 
derer hands or were left in unmarked graves — with their 
fortunes gone, their homes devastated, their noble hus- 
bands and sons no more — these women who during the 
time of need, knew neither fatigue nor hunger nor heart- 
break, now that the need was gone, they fell themselves 
by the wayside: weary, stunned! For not one but had 
believed the loved banner of the South would flaunt its 
bars and stars victorious forever from the old dome on 
Capitol Hill. 

Thus it is with woman ever! I^o matter how dark 
the hour, if she see the need of her, there is no power 
under heaven to daunt. But take away that necessity, 
and the frail arms fall, the soft, white hands lie clasped 
and still. Call but one blast through the trumpet of 
need, and like the fine war horse of the cavalrj^ story, 
she will rise though wounded, goiug swift to the battle. 
And thus it was, as we soon shall see, with the women 
of Montgomery. 




CHAPTER III. 



^ovr when the ashes of war had scarcely cooled, the 
men of our State, already bending under the burdens 
placed upon them, arose to the necessity of a new asso- 
ciation. A few months after the war, on November 23, 
1865, a number of gentlemen met informally at the State 
Capitol and agreed to form ''The Historical and Monu- 
mental Association of Alabama.* At this conference 
organization was agreed upon and a committee appoint- 
ed. Public notice of the meeting for permanent organ- 
ization on November 24, was duly given. The Mont- 
gomery Advertiser of November 24 contains the fol- 
lowing : 

"Historical Society. 

"A meeting was held at the Capitol on yesterday at 12 o'clock 
M., to take steps towards organizing a society to collect the facts 
relating to the part Alabama played in the late war and to erect 

*The "Historical and Monumental Association" is confound- 
ed by many with the "Alabama Historical Society." As has 
been before showu, the Alabama Historical Society was 
formed in Tuskaloosa on July 8, 1850. To quote Mr. Thomas 
M. Owen: "It's constitution was prepared by Dr. Basil Manly, 
the chief promoter in the formation of the Society. It's first 
officials were: President, Alexander Bowie; First Vice Presi- 
dent, A. J. Pickett; Second Vice President, E. D. King; Treas- 
urer, Washington Moody; Secretary, Dr. Joshua Hill Foster ; 
Executive Committee, J. J. Ormond, Dr. Basil Mauly, Michael 
Tuomey, L. C. Garland and Bishop N. H. Cobbs." The His- 
torical and Monumental Association was fouuded in Novem- 
ber, 1865, in the city of Montgomery, and was brought about 
solely through the undreamed-of disastrous results of the war. 



26 

a monument to her heroic dead. Colonel Thomas B. Cooper 
was called to the chair, and Colonel J. Hodgson appointed Sec- 
retary. Judge B. F. Porter stated the object of the meeting in 
a few brief and touching remarks. A committee was to report 
permanent officers and a meeting called for at the Capitol at 7 
o'clock this evening. Speeches were made by Judge Clitherall, 
Mr. McCaa of Marengo, and Mr. Cox of Lowndes. A card 
fromi Colonel H., secretary of meeting, will be found elsewhere. 
This society appeals to the heart of every Alabamiau, and we 
hope its labors will be entirely successful." 

The paper of the same date contains the following : 

"Notice. — At a preliminary meeting of citizens held yester- 
day at the Capitol, [ was instructed to inform the public that 
to-night at 7 o'clock a meeting of all interested in the subject 
will take place in the Representative hall of the Capitol for the 
purpose of organizing an association to preserve the historical 
facts in relation to the late war and to build a monument to 
the dead of Alabama. All who take interest in the objects of 
the meeting, ladies and gentlemen, are invited to be present. 
The sacred duty of preserving the memory of our gallant dead 
is one which will command the devotion of all who lament 
misfortune and applaud virtue. Let the meeting to-night 
be so attended as to prove that the people of Alabama are will- 
ing to leave their deeds to the vindication of history and their 
memory to posterity. J. H., 

"Secretary." 

Montgomery Advertiser, Nov. 24, 1865. 



On that date also, in the House of Eepresentatives, 
the following resolution offered by F. L. Goodwin, Esq., 
of Franklin county, was adopted : 

"Resolved, That the use of the hall of the House of Repre- 
sentatives be tendered for this evening to the citizens of Ala- 
bama, who desire to form an Historical Association to perpet- 
uate the memory of Alabamians who have died in the service 
of the country." — (House Journal, 1865-66, p. 41). 



27 

The Montgomery Advertiser of [Kovember 26 contains 
this notice of that memorable meeting :* 

Pursuant to notice, the Historical Association of Alabama 
met at 7 p. M., November 24, I860, in the Representative Hall 
of the Capitol, Colonel Thomas B. Cooper in the chair. The 
meeting being called to order, the committee upon organiza- 
tion made the following report through its chairman, B. F. 
Porter,t of Butler: 

REPORT. 

The committee to which was referred a resolution directing a 
nomination of permanent officers of the Historical Association 
of Alabama have discharged their duty and respectfully 
report — 

The committee deem it necessary to say that the proposition 

*In searching for data of the formation of the Historical and 
Monumental Association, only the preceding notices and all 
subsequent ones could be found, the organization proceedings 
being the important missing links. In atallv with Mr. Thomas 
M. Owen on the .'subject, he spoke of having copied from the 
Selma Messenger this missing link and kindly turned it over 
to the writer, together with the resolutions passed by the House 
of Representatives above quoted. Subsequently the files of 
the Montgomery Advertiser of November, 1865, were found 
containing the original proceedings from which the Selma 
paper had copied them. 

tBenjamin F. Porter, of Alabama, was born on Sullivan's 
Island, a summer resort for (Charleston, S. C, in 1808. Losing 
his father when a mere lad, he was forced to begin the battle 
of life with limited education which he improved by self-cul- 
ture to one of great breadth and scope. A checkered career was 
his fate through a romantic and useful life. Besides his duties 
as statesman he was indefatigable with his pen and was both 
author and poet. Judge Porter's achievements for his State are 
too numerous for this short sketch and are of untold value. At 
the first signs of war between the States he opposed secession, 
believing in mutual concessions instead of armed conflict. Yet, 
when Alabama seceded, there was no more faithful confeder- 
ate and he gave his first born to his State. He died in 1868, 



28 

to organize the Association cannot too strongly appeal to the 
sympathies of the people of the State. 

The mere call strikes a string whose key is the human heart. 
Next to the return of our dead sous to the hearthstones are the 
memories of their lives and deaths; and from many a home, 
amidst renewed tears and lamentations, Rachels mourning for 
their children, will be heard the cry of "Let us hasten to per- 
petuate their memory." 

The committee finds it unnecessary, too, to mix with the 
griefs and duties of the occasion the slightest allusion to the 
origin of the struggle in which so many have found graves. 
We wish to preserve the recollection of our heroic dead, un- 
mixed with bitterness. 

We desire a pall dropped upon the past except so far as their 
patriotic devotion is to be recorded. The grave of a hero is 
sacred everywhere — the impulses which prompt to its venera- 
tion are indifferent to neither friend nor foe. The Englishman, 
full of the thrills which accompany the memory of Waterloo, 
bows in reverence to the tomb in which reposes the ashes of 
Napoleon. The child reads on the monument which marks 
the resting place of WolfT and Montgomery lessons which 
inspire to public virtue and self-sacrifice in the cause of his 
country. 

In this sense we desire to record the memory of our sons, and 
erect a cenotaph which shall at once be sacred to their names 
and battlefields. Nor will it be said by the invidious critic 
that this pious task is aflected by unfaithfulness to our now 
common country. The Union and Constitution of that coun- 
try owe their origin to no principle at variance with the love of 
our birth places which, beginning in the family circle, is the 
germ of love of country, and which gradually expanding takes 
in all naankind in its generous grasp of bevolence and patri- 
otism. We say, therefore, let there come up from every moun- 
tain and valley a fervent response to this movement. Let us 
all unite in erecting a pillar for the dead of Alabama in the 

while Judge of the twelfth judicial circuit. He married early 
in life Miss Eliza Taylor Kidd, whose deeds of love to the 
wounded and dying soldiers, at their home in Greenville, were 
similar to those of Montgomery's illustrious women. 



29 

solemnity and manliness of a yet free people. Let it record 
only of her sons what the traveler reads of the gallant Spartans 
who fell at Thermopylae : "We lie here in obedience to the 
laws of our country." Benj. F. Porter, 

Chairman. 

ORGANIZATION. 

The committee to which was referred a resolution authorizing 
the nomination of permanent offlcers of the Association have 
considered the subject and have instructed me to report the 
following names for offlcers and recommend their selection : 

For President, Hon. Thos. H. Watts; for Vice Presidents, 
first circuit, Dr. J. T. Reese; second circuit, Hon. Thomas M. 
"Williams; third circuit, Alberto Martin, Esq.; fourth circuit, 
Hon. A. M. Gibson; sixth circuit, Col. S. J. Murphy; seventh 
circuit, L. C. Lanier; eighth circuit. Dr. A. N. Worthy; ninth 
circuit, Col. Richard Powell; tenth circuit. Gen. W. H. Forney; 
eleventh circuit, R. R. Dawson, Esq.; Secretary, Col. Joseph 
Hodgson; Assistant Secretary, Col. W. H. Fowler. 

B. F. Porter, Chairman. 

The report being adopted, on motion the Chairman 
api)ointed a committee of three, consisting of Hon. B. F. 
Porter, Judge A. B. Clitherall and Col. K. H. Powell, 
to wait upon Governor Watts and inform him of his 
election. 

Upon taking the chair Governor Watts* returned his 
thanks in a few appropriate remarks. 

On motion of Mr. McCaa, of Marengo, it was 

Resolved, That an executive committee consisting of three 
shall be appointed by the Chair. 

^'Governor Thomas H. Watts was born in Butler County Jan- 
uary, 1819, near Butler Springs. His mother was a daughter of 
Thomas Hill, one of the first legislators from Conecuh County 
(how Butler); his father was for many years a well known plan- 
ter of west Butler. His career was one succession of brilliant 
achievements to 1862. When, at Corinth, as Colonel of the 
17th Alabama Infantry, March, 1862, he was appointed to the 
cabinet of Jefferson Davis as Attorney-General of the Confed- 
erate States. This he resigned in 1863 to accept the position of 
Governor, to which he had been elected. His able administra- 



30 



Messrs. McCaa of Marengo, and Goodwin of Franklin, made 
earnest and eloquent appeals in behalf of the objects of the 
Association. 

On motion. Resolved, That Hon. ]J. F. Porter, of Butler, be 
appointed Corresponding Secretary of this Societj*. 

On motion, the following resolutions, offered by Mr. 
Thompkins, of Mobile, were referred to the Executive 
Committee : 

Ist. Resolved, That the Legislature of the State be memori- 
alized by a standing committee of three persons to be appoint- 
ed by the President of this meeting, to approj^riate the sum of 
five thousand dollars (5:5,000) out of any moneys in the State 
treasury not otherwise appropriated, as a basis of capital upon 
which to begin the erection of a monument on the Capitol 
grounds, with the inscription : "Alabama honors her sons 
who died in her service." 

2nd. Resolved, That the outside of said monument shall 
be built of solid marble, and under the supervision and after 
the plan hereafter to be agreed upon, by said standing commit- 
tee referred to in the first of these resolutions. 

3rd. Resolved, That a committee be appointed by the 
President of this meeting to consist of not less than one nor 
n\ore than four persons from each county within the State of 
Alabama, each committee to embrace as its chairman the Pro- 
bate Judge of the respective counties; said committee to solicit 

tion as Governor during this trying period (1863 to 1865), when 
the State was under control of Federal armies, gave him the 
honored title of "War Governor," Among the priceless relics 
of the State Capitol is now the handsome book case used by 
him in those days. It is the property of the Cradle of the 
Confederacy Chapter, U. D. C, having been presented to them 
by members of the Governor's family. A noted soldier, in 
speaking of him, recently said with emphasis and enthusiasm : 
"He was a great man; he had few peers and no superior." His 
large fortune was confiscated by the Federal soldiers. Un- 
murmuring he took up his profession of law until his death. 
His son, Hon. Thomas H. Watts, is one of the foremost law- 
yers of Alabama, and was a conspicuous and valued member 
of the recent Constitutional Convention. Another son, John 
W. Watts, Esq., and two daughters, Mrs. Alexander Troy and 
Mrs. Robert Collins, still reside in Montgomery. 



31 

subscriptions to promote the object of these resokitions, aud to 
report monthly on the sanae until such time as the standing 
committee to be appointed under resolution the first shall dis- 
charge them and declare the work completed. 

4th. Resolved, That the committees appointed under the 
third of these resolutions be instructed to gather data and a 
correct list of those who have died in battle or otherwise, while 
a member of any military company, raised within the State of 
Alabama between the first day of January 1861, and the first 
day of May, 1865. Said data, memoranda or list as aforesaid, 
shall be forwarded to the standing committee provided for in 
the first of these resolutions, and ten thousand copies of the 
same shall be printed for general distribution, one hundred of 
which shall be filed in the archives of the State. 

On motion of General James H. Clanton, Resolved, That a 
committee of five be appointed by the President to draft and 
report a Constitution and By-Laws for the government of this 
Society, and that said committee be requested to report at our 
next meeting. 

The President appointed as this committee General Clantou, 
Captain Goodwin, Captain Richardson, Judge Phelan aud Mr. 
Tompkins. 

On motion of Judge Porter, Resolved, That a committee of 
five be appointed by the President, whose duty it shall be to 
prepare an address to the people of Alabama in reference to 
the object of this Association and solicit their earnest co-opera- 
tion. 

Resolved, That every man, woman and child of the State 
who authorize the Secretary to record their names shall be 
considered a member of this Association. 

On motion of Mr. McCaa, that the Executive Committee be 
instructed to apply to the Legislature for an act for the incor- 
poration of the Association. 

In support of the object of the meeting eloquent remarks 
were made by Judge A. B. Clitherall, Col. John W. A. Sanford 
and Gen. James H. Clanton, in response to calls from the 
Association.* 

^General John W. A. Sanford is the only one of this brilliant 
trio now living. A mutual friend tells the following amusing 
incident of the occasion of those speeches : At that time Judge 



3S 

Colonels Joseph Hodgson and V. S. Murphy excused them- 
selves OD account of the lateness of the hour, and on motion 
the Association adjourned to meet at the Representative hall 
of Capitol at 7 p, m.. on Wednesday, November 2. 

Joseph Hodgson, Secretary. 

The next mention of the Alabama Historical and Mon- 
umental Society was found in The Daily Mail, of Mont- 
gomery, December 9, 1865, as follows: 

"Ex-Governor Watts, President of Alabama Historical and 
Monumental Association, has appointed Hon. B. F. Porter, 
Col. V. S. Murphy, Dr. William J. Holt, Colonel Boiling Hall, 
Jr., and Captain Elmore J. Fitzpatrick a committee to memori- 
alize the Legislature in behalf of the objects of the Associa- 
tion." 

In December, 1865, we find in The Mail the next 
mention : 

"Historical Society. — The com^mittee of Alabama Monu- 
mental and Historical Society, of which Hon. B. F. Porter, of 
Greenville, is chairman, was appointed to prepare an address 
to the people of this State in behalf of the objects of the Asso- 
ciation and not to the Legislature, as was at first published." 

A most rigid search of all files of the papers of the 
city or of State documents fails to find anything else on 
this subject until March, 1866. Colonel Porter, the 
Corresponding Secretary, however, to quote another, 
''made earnest appeals in behalf of its objects in the 
press and by circulars. He did not meet with the suc- 
cess commensurate with his efforts. No record of his 
work has been preserved." 

Clitherall and Colonel Sanford were opposing each other for 
Attorney-General. General Sanford had not been present at 
the initial meeting of that morning. Friends meeting the 
General twitted hina on his absence and told him that Judge 
Clitherall had made a most eloquent speech and was getting 
ahead of him. It is needless to say that the General was on 
hand that night and covered himself with glory. General San- 
ford's reply is that it was this speech which helped to gain for 
him the victory. 



CHAPTER IV. 



The next mention of any association is found in The 
Mail of January 4, 1866, which speaks favorably of the 
''Ladies' Southern Aid Association, formed by Missis- 
sippi, a branch of which is established in each of the late 
Confederate States. The principal object is to raise 
funds that will place the wife and children of Jefferson 
Davis above possibility of want or dependence upon 
charity of friends." The following reply of Mrs. Davis, 
which was published a few days later, is so tenderly 
beautiful, so noble, yet so pathetic, that it is worthy a 
place in the hearts of all true Southerners, as well as in 
the history of our States. The Daily Mail heads it "A 
Message of Love From Prison Gates." 

Mill View, Ga., December 4, 1865. 
T. B. Clark, Esq., Sect'y and Agent L. S. A. Association : 

My Dear Sir— I am in receipt of your very kind letter in 
the name of the Ladies' Southern Aid Association, having for 
its object the purpose of placing me and family in circumstances 
somewhat commensurate with their estimates of me and mine, 
and begging that I will at my earliest convenience designate 
a place to which the means so collected may be conveyed, so 
that they may safely and satisfactorily reach me. 

From our desolated and impoverished friends I scarcely 
expected such an expression of material sympathy, though my 
powers of gratitude have been almost daily taxed to thank 
those who have with so much heart-eloquence plead with the 
President for him who, though unsuccessful, has given you all 
he could — his best energies — and whose only hope of future 
happiness lies in the sweet trust, often expressed, that he has 
not lost your confidence and love. Ignorant of all which his 
own people have done for him in his painful captivity, his de- 



34 

votion is unabated. "The unfortunate have always been 
deserted and betrayed, but did ever one have less to complain 
of when he had lost the power to serve ? The multitude are silent 
— why should they speak save to Him who hears best the words 
most secretly uttered ? My own heart tells me the sympathy 
exists; that the prayers from the lamily hearth are not hushed. 
Be loving and confiding still to those from whom I have re- 
ceived so much more than I deserve — far more ofiieial honors 
than I ever desired. Those for whose cause I suflfer are not 
unworthy of the devotion of all which I had to give." This is 
the message of love which is sent through prison gates to our 
own people. I say our own people because both of us have 
been brought up with you. One was born in Mississippi, the 
other came to it in infancy.* These are my own people, and it 
is a privilege of which no change can deprive me. To the 
accepted prayers of tmr widows and orphans, our sutfering but 
heroic women, our brave and true men, our innocent little 
children, I look for the restoration to my little children of their 
agonized but Christian father. If a merciful Providence so 
ordain it we hope to live and die among you, mutually consol- 
ing and bearing each others burdens. I pray God we may not 
be driven from the home of our childhood, "for how can we 
sing our own song in a strange land?" We would not have 
our dear friends betrayed by their sympathy into offering for 
our use too much from their own "basket and store." landmine 
have so far been miraculously cared for and shielded from want. 
We seem ever environed by the love which is reflected upon us 
from that which lighted my husband in his dungeon, softened 

*Only a few days since Mrs. Davis visited her beloved Missis- 
sippi. Parts of the Capitol of that State were to ba remod- 
eled, and the Legislature wished to greet once more the beloved 
wife of our martyred hero within the historic old hall made 
sacred by his one-time presence. One of the saddest trials of 
Mrs. Davis' life has been that the state of her health and the 
necessities of life compelled her to leave hor people. He it said 
to the eternal glory of the South that one of her sorrowful re- 
grets shall ever be that a cruel fate compelled such renunciation 
on the part of both the beloved widow and our sainted Winnie. 

The meeting in the old hall for that last time, Mrs. Davis' 
tender reception by the General Assembly of Mississippi, and 
her loving, heartbroken response are a pathetic picture which 
will live in the Southern heart forever. 



35 

his priHon walls with sunny pictures of loviug eyes and out- 
stretched arms. 

Grief and gratitude seem to impose upon me silence. I would 
but can not say more. I will enclose within this note the 
names and directions of gentlemen to whom the contributions 
of which you speak may be enclosed. And instead of the elo- 
quent voice which so often has poured forth his love to his 
dear people, now mute, I offer a wife's and mother's and a 
countrj'woman's gratitude to you and those you represent. I 
have the honor to be very gratefully and sincerely yours, 

Vabina Davis. 

On January 19 we find notice that the ladies of )Selma, 
Ala., are raising funds to erect a monument to Eev. A. 
M. Small, who fell in defense of that city. On March 
3, 1860, there came this call to the women of Alabama, 
through an editorial in The Mail, as follows: 

"an appeal for the dead." 

"We have received a letter from Colonel T. B. Roy, late chief 
of stafJ to General Hardee, inclosing a circular from ladies of 
Winchester, Va., asking for contributions to aid in collecting 
the remains of our brave soldiers who lie buried around that 
place. It is proposed by the noble Virginia ladies to prepare a 
cemetery at Winchester for the reception of those remains 
which are not removed by friends. The plough-share is now 
passing over their graves and soon the places which once knew 
of their gallant devotion on the banks of the Shenandoah will 
know them no more forever, unless the hand of pious affection 
collects their ashes and marks their resting place in some conse- 
crated ground. Very many of the thousands of hillocks which 
furrow the banks of the Shenandoah cover the remains of gallant 
Alabamians. Let the daughters of Alabama assist their sis- 
ters of Virginia in this pious undertaking. A small amount of 
money from each community will be sufficient. Our friends 
who desire to assist in this matter are respectfully informed 
that Colonel Roy, of Selma, will act as agent for the State. 
Several ladies have kindly consented to receive and forward 
subscriptions from Montgomery. Any contributions left with 
the editors of The Mail will be handed to the lady agents." 



36 

The Mail of same date also chronicles the following : 

"The ball given on Thursday night at Leman's Hall by the 
Hebrew Ladies' Sewing and Benevolent Society was largely 
attended, and we are pleased to learn that a handsome amount 
was realized to assist in charitable purposes. Dancing was 
kept up and at 12 o'clock a magnificent supper was served." 

In the March 9th issue of the Mail we read : 

Col. T. B. Roy, of Selma, has been requested by the ladies of 
Virginia to act as agent for the State of Alabama Col. Roy 
has addressed us a note in which he says: "Impressed with 
the belief that ladies are more successful in such enterprises, 
and with the importance of selecting suitable persons to act as 
agents, I beg that you will fix upon some ladies in Montgomery 
of public spirit and extended acquaintance to act as agents for 
that place and do whatever else you may have it in your 
power, editorially or otherwise, in aid of this good work." 
Mrs. A. G. McGehee* and Miss Goldthwaite,t of Montgomery, 

*Mr8. Albert Gallatin McGehee, nee Agnes Catherine Ven- 
able, was born November, 1817, at Lougwood, the family home 
near Farmville, Va. She was the daughter of Nathaniel E. 
and Mary E. Venable, of Prince Edward County, Va. Mrs. 
McGehee was one of the most patriotic and broad-minded 
women of the South, and as soon as Virginia, her beloved 
native state, seceded, she embraced the Southern cause with 
all the zeal of her great heart and served her country faithfully 
through all the trying years of the civil war. When the end. 
came she accepted the inevitable with the same greatness of 
soul that was ever her characteristic strength, and energetically 
answered the first call made to the women of Alabama for the 
proper burial of Alabama dead on the battlefields. 

fMrs, Annie Goldthwaite Seibles, who, as Miss Goldthwaite, 
answered with Mrs. McGehee the first appeal to procure means 
for the proper burial of Alabama soldiers, is a native Mont- 
gomerian. Her father was Judge Geo. Goldthwaite, whose 
long career on the bench "established his reputation as a pro- 
found jurist with no eccentricities or vagaries to alloy the wis- 
dom and dignity of his official deportment." Her mother was 
Miss Waliach, a sister of the one time Mayor Wallach of 
Washington, D. C. She is also the niece of Judge Jno. A. 
Campbell. Capt. R. W. Goldthwaite, who so long commanded 
Semple's battery, is a brother of Mrs. Seibles, while Mrs. Eliza 
Arrington, the distinguished wife of Judge Thomas N. Arring- 



have kindly consented to receive and forward contributions in 
aid of ttie ladies of Winchester. We are pleased to know that 
a considerable sum has already been raised by their exertions 
to assist in collecting w ithin consecrated grounds the remains 
of sons of Alabama, who sleep their long sleep on the banks of 
the Shenandoah. Let not a tomb be wanting to their ashes 
nor memory to their virtues. 

On March 10th, '66, there is a notice of a pamphlet 
entitled ''Honor to the Dead — A Ti'ibute of Eespect to 
the Memory of Her Fallen Heroes by St. John's M. E. 
Sunday School, of Augusta, Ga." — which contained 
eulogies pronounced by Messrs. M. N. Calvin and H. W. 
Hilliard. The next issue, March 11th, gave the oration 
of Hon. H. W. Hilliard. What wonder, then, that 
after such appeals and at such a time the Monumental 
and Historical Association should take on new life and 
vigor through its Executive Committee, of which Judge 
John D. Phelan was (chairman ? The notice as published 
on March 14th, was : 

"Ex-Governor Watts, President Alabama Historical and 
Monumental Society, has appointed the following gentlemen 
an Executive Committee, whose duty, under the Constitution 
of the Society, will be to carry out the objects had in view: 
Hon. J. D. Phelan, Gen. J. H. Clanton, Dr. J. B. Gaston, Col. 
David F. Blatey, Kev. Dr. I. T. Tichenor. It is to be hoped 
that a meeting of the Executive Committee will take place as 
soon as possible for the purpose of making a movement towards 
the consummation so ardently desired by every citizen of the 
State. A society of this kind, if managed with proper spirit, 
should be productive of incalculable good. The collection of a 
Historical Library for the preservation and perpetuation of 
military and civil records is hardly of less beneiit to the State 
than the erection of monuments by which the virtues of the 

ton, is her sister. Both of these ladies still reside in Mont- 
gomery, honored members of the Memorial Association, whose 
first work Mrs. Seibles anticipated some weeks before its form- 
ation. 



3S 

fathers may be kept before the eyes of the children for genera- 
tions to come. In time, when the means of the Society increases, 
the field of labor might also increase. It might take under its 
fostering care the guardianship of the orphans of soldiers and 
of maimed destitute. The establishment of a single Soldiers' 
Home or a single orphans' school would be the planting of a 
single grain from which a bountiful harvest might be reaped 
in time." 

On the same date in the Mail touching the subject is 
a fling at the tardiness and lack of interest in the Legis- 
lature of Alabama, headed : ''The Legislatiu-e Forgot !" 
Continuing, it says: 

"A gentleman vested with authority from the Georgia Legis- 
lature has gone to Virginia with the intention of disinterring 
and removing to the former state the remains of the Georgians 
who fell in Virginia in the late war. Did the Legislature of 
Alabama forget to provide proper burial for the gallant dead of 
our State? We hear of no commission or agent being sent to 
the battlefields to remove the remains of our beloved sons from 
the desecration of the ploughshare. Other states are rendering 
to their dead the pious rites which their remains should receive, 
but Alabama is permitting the graves of those who laid down 
their lives for her to be lost forever under the ploughed soil." 

The next day came this call from Judge Phelan for a 
meeting of the Executive Committee : 

"historical society. 

The Executive Committee of Alabama Historical and Monu- 
mental Society will meet at the editorial office of the Mail on 
Saturday evening, 17th inst., at 8 o'clock, to attend to import- 
ant business. Joseph Hodoson, 

(Mail, March 15.) Cor. Sec." 

In another place, same date, under the heading, 
''A Noble Task," is another appeal to the ladies: 

"We see from the papers that ladies of several Southern 
cities are engaged in the sad but sacred duty of ornamenting 
and improving that portion of the city burial ground in which 



39 

repose the remains of our noble Confederate dead. A visit to 
our cemetery will at once reveal to the visitor a sorro\f ful sight. 
Many of the graves of the Southern soldiers are in a wretched 
condition, without head or foot boards or railiug to mark 
where lie those gallaut fellows; they are neglected and no notice 
whatever seems to be taken of the spot. Nearly every Southern 
State is represented by its dead in our cemetery. We trust this 
sacred matter will receive that prompt attention which it 
deserves and we invite the ladies to take it under consideration. 
A lady correspondent of the Columbus (Ga.) Sun very truth- 
fully remarks that 'we cannot raise monumental shaft and 
inscribe thereon their many deeds of heroism, but we can keep 
alive the memory of the debt we owe them by at least dedicat- 
ing one day in each year to embellishing their humble graves 
with flowers.' " 

Two days after this the Executive Committee which 
had been previously called by Judge Phelan, met with 
the following result : 

"ALABAMA HISTORICAL SOCIETY COMMITTEE MEETING. 

The Executive Committee of the Alabama Historical and 
Monumental Society met at the Mail office Saturday evening, 
March 17th, Judge Phelan presiding. The following resolution 
was offered by Gen. James H. Clanton* and adopted: 

Whereas, the Legislature of Georgia, at the recent session, 
appointed a commissioner to Proceed to the battlefields of Vir- 

*Gen'l. James H. Clanton was born in Cohimbia county, Ga., 
January 8th, 1827, coming with his father to Alabama at the 
age of nine years. Hia father was Nathaniel H. Clanton, then 
an opulent planter of Macon county, Ala. Gen. Clanton was 
first a soldier in the Mexican war under Capt. Rush Elmore, 
leaving the University of Alabama to enlist. As a Confederate 
soldier he rose each year of the war, being in 1864 Major- 
General, and at the battle of Shiloh, Chief of Cavalry. During 
the reconstruction days his hopeful presence and fearless 
determination were a tower of strength to his city and state. 
His tragic death occurred on September 27, 1871, in Knoxvilie, 
Teun., where, as agent of Alabama, Gen. Clanton was atteud- 
iug the United States Court in the case of the Alabama-Chatta- 
noocra R. R. In a dispute over a trivial matter with Col. Davis 
M. Nelson, an officer of the Federal army, the latter shot down 
with buckshot one of the most courageous Coeur de Lions of the 



40 

ginia and other States to collect and protect from desecration 
the remains of her gallant dead; therefore, be it 

Resolved, That this committee recommend the appoint- 
ment of a Commissioner by the President of the Society to act 
in concert with said Commissioner, whose expenses shall be 
advanced by the Society until the mieeting of the next General 
Assembly of this State. 

On motion of Dr. J, B. Gaston,* it was resolved that the 
Chairman of the Executive Committee, with the President of 
the Society, appoint without delay Vice-Presidents in each 
county of the State in accordance with the Constitutional pro- 
visions. In offering this resolution he explained the urgent 
necessity of raising funds in order to carry into effect the reso- 
lution of General Clanton. If Vice-Presidents were appointed 
for each county immediately, under their auspices the ladies of 
the State would prepare Bazaars or Fairs upon the first day of 
May and raise money enough to give the remains of our dead 
decent burial. Even our own cemetery in Montgomery, which 

South. The Legislature of Alabama being in session, Hon. 
Wm. M. Lowe, Chairman of a special committee suggested by 
Governor Lindsaj', presented resolutions which called forth 
many brilliant and heartfelt eulogies of the deceased soldier 
from that distinguished body. Gen'l. Clanton was one of the 
most enthusiastic members of the Executive Committee of the 
Historical and Monumental Association. 

*Dr. John Brown Gaston was born in Chester county, S. C, 
on January 4, 1884. His father was John Brown Gaston, Sr., 
of distinguished Huguenot ancestry, who married Mary Buford 
McFadden, a native of South Carolina of Scotch descent. Dr. 
J. B. Gaston's grandfather was Joseph Gaston, youngest son 
of John Gaston, whose nine sous were actively engaged in the 
Revolutionary war, three of whom were killed in the battle of 
Hanging Rock, while one, a Lieutenant, died of smallpox dur- 
ing Sumter's retreat from Wright's Bluff. Joseph Gaston, 
then a lad of sixteen, was wounded at Hanging Rock. Dr. 
John B. Gaston is one of five brothers in the Confederate army, 
three of whom died in the service. He was a distinguished 
surgeon throughout the war, participating in all the hard 
fought battles. After the surrender he returned to Montgomery 
and resumed the practice of mediciue, which profession is 
indebted to him for many services both to state and science. 
In 1857 Dr. Gaston was married to Miss Sallie J. Torrence, of 
North Carolina. They still reside in Montgomery, an honor to 
their State and county. 



41 

contains the remains of hundreds of soldiers, is sadly neglected. 
We should take this matter in hand without delay. 

On motion of General Clanton, the following resolution was 
adopted : 

Resolved, That the Corresponding Secretary' of the Society 
be instructed to devise a plan for the establishment at the city 
of Montgomery of a Public Historical Library for the collection 
of historical records and to further carry out the object of the 
Society in the preservation of the records of the late war, and 
that he be instructed to report such plan to the next meetmg of 
the committee for its consideration. 

On motion, adjourned until Saturday, 24th, 3:30 p. m. 

Joseph HoDasox, 

(Mail, March 18th, 1866.) Cor. Sec." 

The following was still another appeal to the ladies 
of Montgomery to carry out the plan proposed by the 
Executive Committee to have fairs, etc., to assist iu 
this great work: "It is proposed that on the first day 
of May the ladies of every city, town and village through- 
out the State, by means of fairs or concerts, contribute 
their quota towards defraying the expenses necessary 
for the prosecution of this purpose. There can be no 
doubt that the necessarj'^ amount will be collected with- 
out imposing a tax upon anyone. The late appeal of 
the ladies of Winchester for assistance to a similar labor 
of love has been answered throughout the State without 
delay. Montgomery has furnished $200.00. Kot only 
are the ladies of Winchester in need of funds, but 
appeals have come to us from Franklin, Perryvilie and 
other places where great battles were fought. It may 
be impossible to answer every call made upon us, but 
it would be disgraceful not to answer some of them. 
Will not the ladies of Montgomery have a fair upon the 
first day of May for the benefit of this pious duty! We 
know that the question is only to be asked to receive 
an affirmative answer, for the ladies of Montgomery 



42 

have never been weary of labors imposed by benevolence 
since the unhappy commencement of our troubles." 

(Daily Mail, March 20th, '66.) 

No further notice of the subject under discussion 
appears in print until April 3, '66; but from all over the 
South such pleas as well as appeals for the destitute and 
suffering were going up for similar holy causes. Witness 
the files from the 20th of March on: 

From LaGrange, Ga.: 

A concert was given hy young ladies of LaGrange on Wednes- 
day night for the purpose of raising funds with which to 
enclose and beautify the soldiers' grave-yard at that place. — 
(March 25, '66). 

(March 28, '66, Daily Mail): 

The Selma Messenger of the 25tb acknowledges the following 
receipts to Winchester Cemetery Fund for the week: 

From Miss Belle Woodruff, agent at Tuscaloosa $192 50 

From Miss , Marengo County 25 00 

From Mrs. N. H. R. Dawson, Selma (second remit- 
tance) 60 00 

From Mrs. McGehee, Montgomery (second remit- 
tance) 31 00 

Another note of interest, under date April 3, '66, 
says: 
Miss Augusta J. Evans* has consented to take the lead in the 

*Augusta Evans Wilson is so familiar a household name in 
her beloved Southland that almost any sketch would fceem 
supererogation. A few local notes not heretofore generally 
kuown will, however, be of interest. Mrs. Augusta Evans Wil- 
son was a native Georgian, her mother being a Miss Howard, 
of Columbus. Her girlhood was spent in Texas, where, as 
Augusta Evans, she wrote her first novel, "Inez." Before pub- 
lishing it her family moved to Mobile, Ala. A friend of her 
father, believing in her future and fearing that her father 
might not be able to get out the book at once, himself bad it 
published. In one of her subsequent works, Miss Evans shows 
her appreciation of this act of kindness by naming one of her 



43 

good work of colleetiug luuda to repair and protect the graves 
of the soldiers of Mobile, and then consult with her sisters of 
the State on the time and manner of commemorating our 
worthy dead. 

A much later notice, May 19, says: 

We are happy to be able to state that Colonel Ingersol, the 
President of the committee, having informed Miss Evans that 
she could proceed to purchase or contract for a monumeut to 
our dead, this gifted young lady purchased yesterday a fine 
marble mausoleum, which had been imported in Mobile from 
the North before the war. The monumeut is of white marble 
and of exquisite proportions, and application will be made to 
the City Board for leave to raise it on the mound in the centre 
of Bienville square, and the request will no doubt be granted, 
— (Mobile Register). 

Then there appeared in The Mail the notable letter of 
"Augustus," who is supposed to have been Colonel Gus 
Baldwin, for twenty-two years Attorney-General of the 
State of Alabama.* 

noblest characters fi)r this gentleman. Montgomerians will be 
glad to know that this Mas the late Hon.Wm.Phiun Hammond, 
whose family now reside in this city. In later years, it is said of 
Mrs. Wilson that she prefers to date her books from "Beulah," 
instead of her girlhood novel, "Inez." This brilliant and good 
woman, since the death of her husband, has left the beautiful 
suburban home on Spring Hill Road, and now reddes in the 
city, on Government Street, Mobile. At this time (1866) two 
continents were thrilled and enthusiastic over this new star, 
but she found time amid her pleasurable literary work to serve 
her country in this noble philanthropy. Under her leadership 
the ladies of Mobile responded gladly to the call of Virginia 
ladies, through Colonel Roy, Alabama State Agent, and with 
the assistance of the Mobile Register and the loyal citizens, over 
$1,500 went out from Mobile to this one appeal alone. 

*Since the above was written it has been ascertained that 
Colonel Gus Baldwin died in August, 1865, therefore making 
it impossible for him to have been the author of the letter. His 
often-expressed interest in the Confederate dead lead many to 
believe it to have been written by him. Some thought it 
might have sprung from Colonel John W. A. Sanford, but the 
Colonel is very positive that he is not the author. Others suggest- 



44 

Editors Mail: Sunday 1 paid a visit to our city cemetery 
aud blushed to see the graves of some of my brave comrades so 
much neglected. I have lately seen two or three articles in 
your paper calling upon the ladies to raise money to defray the 
expenses of the removal of the remains of Confederate soldiers 
from battlefields in Virginia and elsewhere. While I heartily 
approve of this, I would respectfully ask that some attention 
be paid to the graves of Confederate soldiers in our own city 
cemetery. If more care is not taken of them, in a few months 
it will be impossible to designate the grave of one soldier from 
another. Every State of the late Confederacy is represented 
here and it is a duty we owe to our sister States as well as to 
the brave men who perished in the performance of what they 
believed to be their duty, to keep their graves in order. I have 
visited the cemetery three or four times recently and while I 
see crowds of ladies and gentlemen in it, I seldom see a single 
person near the graves of dead Confederates, and this, too, in a 
city that has professed so much love for them. A few dollars 
placed at the disposal of some responsible persons, or a few 
hours' work, will place these graves in a respectable condition. 
Will not the ladies of Montgomery attend to this? If they will 
not, I, as one of their comrades in arms, will call upon those 
soldiers who were fortunate enough to have their lives spared, 
to furnish the means which it will require to do the work. The 
ladies of our neighboriug city, Columbus, intend to dedicate 
the 9th of April (anniversary of General Lee's surrender) to the 
repairing of soldiers' graves in their eemeterj' or ornamenting 
them with flowers. Let our ladies do likewise and they can 
be assured that Heaven will smile upon them with prosperity. 

Augustus. 

April 3, 1866. 

On April 5 we find copied in The Mail from the Sel- 
ma Messenger somewhat of touching historic interest: 

ed that the article emanated from the pen of Colonel Alexander 
Troy, The present Hon. Alexander Troy, when approached, 
protested, smiling, and declared that as he was passing for 
only forty summers or thereabouts, he could not father the let- 
ter. Possibly it may have come from his uncle, the brave Col, 
I). S. Troy, of the 60th Alabama. From whomever it came, it 
was noble aud timely aud did much to arouse interest in the 
movements then being formulated. 



45 



ANNIVEKSARY OF SELMA'S STRUGGLE TO BE COMMEMORATED. 

As to the number who fell in the action, we have so many 
different estimates that we are left in uncertainty. The Federal 
dead have all been removed from the field, we believe, and are 
properly interred in the city cemetery, with their graves properly 
marked. This is as it should be, aud it only remains to disin- 
ter the Confederate killed who were left on the field and in the 
possession of the victors (and of course buried there), aud to 
give them the rites of Christian sepulture. To-morrow (April 2) 
has been selected as the day appropriate for this work — being 
the anniversary of the battle. 

April 6, 1866 : 

The funeral services of the soldiers who fell in defense of Sel- 
ma on the 2ud of April last, were largely attended by our citi- 
zens. The stores were closed at 4 o'clock by order of the Mayor, 
aud all the bells of the churches tolled. The remains of the 
deceased were deposited in neatly made coffius and laid in four 
squares around a beautiful oak just patting out its new foliage. 
The burial service was read by Rev. Mr. Tichenor, according to 
the impressive forms of the Church of England. Most of the 
bodies were in a good state of preservation and some of thena 
almost perfect. A deep and solenm feeling pervaded tbe audi- 
ence and their minds were irresistibly carried back to the days 
when these patriots fell. Nevertheless, when the petition was 
offered, "Forgive us our trespasses as we forgive thof-e M'ho 
trespass against us," there was not one heart that did not re- 
spond to the prayer. — (Selma Messenger). 

Then, on April 11th, came that beautiful and memor- 
able appeal to the ladies of Montgomery from Chairman 
Phelan of the Executive Committee of the Historical 
aud Monumental Society. The call was as follows: 

"to the ladies of MONTGOMERY. 

The harp that once thro' Tara's halls 

The soul of music shed, 
Now hangs as mute on Tara's walls 

As though that soul were fled. 

It was your pious duty in the day of battle to nurse the sick. 



46 

feed the hungry, prepare bandages for the wounded, cheer the 
living to victory, weep over the dead, applaud the brave and 
rebuke the laggard. This duty you performed constantly and 
nobly. You were actuated by the impulse of a heart which 
beat only for the cause in which your emotional natures were 
enlisted. That heart was appealed to from the battlelield, the 
camp and the hospital, and it answered every appeal with the 
devotion which in former days induced the matrons and maid- 
ens of a beleaguered city to cut off their tresses for bow-strings. 

The people of Alabama have not forgotten the ministering 
angels who bore half the brunt of battle, whose smiles garlanded 
the brows of victory, and whose words of encouragement 
healed the wounds of defeat. The people of Alabama will 
never forget the debt of gratitude they owe you, and when their 
children grow to years of accountability they will say to them 
"Honor the Creed of your Mother." 

The battle is over, but the dead are unburied. They are lying 
where they fell in the valleys of Virginia and Tennessee. Their 
bones are bleaching beneath the sun and the storm beside those 
of the beasts of burden. The ploughshare is striking them from 
the soil which their blood sanctified. It is true that a single 
hand here and there is extended to gather their ashes into con- 
secrated ground, where the pious pilgrim may read in a single 
line the melancholy history of their glory. But a single hand 
is unequal to the task. To you, daughters of Alabama, comes 
once more an appeal to help us bury our dead! The Executive 
Committee, presided over by Judge Phelau, asks you to devote 
the first evenings of the coming month of May to a fair or festi- 
val by which money can be made for this pious purpose. They 
ask you to set an example to be followed throughout the State. 
That which will be a labor of love for you will prove the bright- 
est jewel which glitters from your crown of immortality. With 
your aid, daughters of Montgomery, the mecca of Alabama 
will be the cemeteries of her soldiers. To collect their remains 
within church-yards which look out upon the fields of battle, 
and to decorate them with the simple emblems of purity and 
holiness, will adorn the abyss of ruin with a splendor as endur- 
ing as that of the eternal rainbow which spans the precipice of 
Niagara. Then in coming years when the world witnesses our 
pious devotion to the memory of those who laid down their 



47 

lives for us, it will be said that the lost star of the Pleiades was 
the most glorious of the constellation." 
(Daily Mail, April 11th, 1866.) 

With such words as these ringing in their ears and 
the direct and pathetic cry — "To you, daughters of 
Alabama, comes once more an appeal to help us bury 
our dead" — it is no wonder that the women of Mont- 
gomery, in answer to this call, filled the sacred halls of 
the old Court Street Methodist Church on that beautiful 
Monday morning on the sixteenth day of April, eighteen 
hundred and sixty-six ! 

"With your aid, daughters of Montgomery, the mecca 
of Alabama will be the cemeteries of her soldiers." 
How exquisitely true these prophetic words of this noble 
Executive Committee have proven, the ever historic 
Ladies' Memorial Association of Montgomery, Ala,, is 
beautiful evidence! For in answer to this last appeal 
came the familiar — 

"NOTICE TO THE LADIES. 

A general attendance of the ladies of Montgomery is expected 
at the Methodist Episcopal Church ou Monday morning at 
10 o'clock to ]jrepare for a festival in aid of the Alabama Monu- 
mental and Historical Society, which Society i« desirous of 
taking immediate steps to bury the Alabama soldiers in a 
decent and becomiug manner. All are invited to be present. 
The article which we publish on the first page of the Mail with 
reference to the remains of our dead heroes at Shiloh and 
Corinth, should arouse to exertion in this matter." 
—(Mail, April 14th.) 

And 80, at last, the hearts of the crushed and sorrow- 
ing women of Montgomery were touched to action ; the 
blast had sounded through the trumpet of need! 

But while all these appeals were being made to the 
ladies of Montgomery, it must not be thought that they 



48 

were mere idle listeners. Back of all this were the 
women themselves. The call of Judge Phelan, Chair- 
man of the Executive Committee, was due largely to his 
devoted wife's interest in these affairs, which naturally 
lay nearest her heart and his, since grief for two of her 
noble boys, then sleeping the last sleep out on the battle- 
fields far away, was ever tugging at her mother-heart. 
It was at this time that the following incident occurred 
at the home of the gentleman whom the illustrious War 
Governor had made Chairman of the Executive Com- 
mittee of the Historical and Monumental Society : 

Mrs. Phelan, whose boys were still on the far off bat- 
tlefields, devoured everything pertaining to the subject 
in the papers and elsewhere. She found one day the 
letter of Mrs. Mary Aune Williams, of Columbus, Ga., 
and did not rest until plans were on foot to form an 
association. The original letter, which is as follows, is 
in the possession of Mrs. J. D. Beale, youngest daughter 
of Mrs. Phelan,* and has been kept sacredly by the 
family among other valuable historic records : 



*Mrs. J. D. Beale has inherited her mother's energetic patri- 
otism, aud her love of couutry and state pride have already 
been marked by some noble mile-stones. She is now Chairman 
of the White House Committee, Alabama Division U. D. C, 
baviug been thus appointed by Miss Sallie Joues, of Camden, 
the first President of the Division aud Honorary Life President 
of the same. Through Mrs. Beale's unflagging interest the 
most valuable relics now in the State of Alabama have been 
procured from Beauvoir — the bed-room furniture and personal 
effects of Jefferson Davis, entrusted into the perpetual keeping 
of Mrs. Beale, her committee, aud the State of Alabama by 
Mrs. Varina Anne Davis. Mrs. Beale is also Regent of the 
White House Association, Daughters of the Confederacy, formed 
later to assist the committee in the laudable work of preserving 
the First White House of the Confederacy, which, when 
accomplished, shall be to Montgomery as Mt. Vernon to Wash- 
ington, a legacy of tangible history — an object lesson worth 
many books of written history. Since her return to this the 



49 

Columbus, Ga., March 12, 1866. 
Messrs. Editors : The ladies are now, and have been for 
several days, engaged in the sad but pleasant duty of orna- 
menting and improving that portion of the cemetery eacred to 
the memory of our gallant Confederate dead, but we feel it is 
an unfinished work unless a day be set apart annually for its 
especial attention. We can keep alive the memory of the debt 
we owe by dedicating at least one day in the year to embellish- 
ing their humble graves with flowers. Therefore, we beg the 
assistance of the press and the ladies throughout the South to 
aid us in the eflbrt to set apart a certain day to be observed 
from the Potomac to the Rio Grande, and be handed down 
through time as a religious custom of the South to wreathe the 
graves of our martyred dead with flowers, and we propose the 
26th of April as the day. Let every city, town and village join 
in the pleasant duty. Let all alike be remembered, from the 
heroes of Manassas to those who expired amid the death-throes 
of our hallowed cause. We'll crown alike the honored resting 
places of the immortal Jackson in Virginia, Johnston at Shi- 
loh, Cleburne in Tennessee, and the host of gallant privates 
who adorned our ranks. All did their duty, and to all we owe 
our gratitude. Let the soldiers' graves, at least for that day, be 
the Southern mecca to whose shrine her sorrowing women, like 
pilgrims, may annually bring their grateful hearts and floral 
offerings. And when we remember the thousands who were 
buried 'with their martial cloaks around them' without Chris- 
tian ceremony of interment, we would invoke the aid of the 
most thrilling eloquence throughout the land to inaugurate 
this custom, by delivering on the appointed day this year, a 
eulogy on the unburied dead of our glorious Southern army. 
They died for their country ! Whether their country had or 
had not the right to demand the sacrifice is no longer a ques- 
tion of discussion. We leave that for nations to decide in 
future. That it was demanded — that they fought nobly and 

state of her birth, Mrs. Beale has been a prominent member of 
the Memorial Association of Montgomery. 

(The writer feels impelled here to state that the foregoing 
mention has been given with(jut the consent or knowledge of 
Mrs. Beale or her brother, Mr. Phelan. They are important 
facts of history and a noble record which should be preserved.) 



50 

fell holy sacrifices upon their country's altar, aud are entitled 
to their country's gratitude, none will deny. 

The proud banner under which they rallied in defense of the 
holiest and noblest cause for which heroes fought or trusting 
women prayed, has been furled forever. The country for which 
they suffered and died has now no name or place among the 
nations of the earth. Legislative enactment may not be made 
to do honor to their memories, but the veriest radical that ever 
traced his genealogy back to the deck of the Mayflower, could 
not refuse us the simple privilege of paying honor to those who 
died defending the life, honor and happiness of the Southern 
women. 

Mrs. Phelan read the letter aloud to her family, and 
there about the hearthstone, with the shadows of her 
dead trembling about her heart, the mother urged her 
husband to take some steps toward immediate action in 
his Executive Committee. Her daughter, Mrs. Priscilla 
P. Williamson, now of Tennessee, in speakiug of that 
time, says : 

''The facts in connection with that patriotic and sad, 
though glorious time, are as fresh in my mind as though 
it happened yesterday. I remember how impatient my 
dear mother was for the morrow. She went at once (I 
was with her) to see her loved friend, Mrs. Dr. Baldwin, 
whose heart was heavy with the loss of her own soldier 
son, Willie, and told her of the letter and the plans. 
Mrs. Baldwin co-operated with her body and soul — 
they together went to see Mrs. Judge Bibb — dear 'Aunt 
Sophie' — whom they knew to be the heart of every 
good deed, and she, too, was enthusiastic." 

This statement has been verified by several members 
of the family, then present at the home circle, who were 
old enough to remember, namely, Mrs. Priscilla Wil- 
liamson, Mrs. Mary P. Watt, Mrs. Anna King Derby 
and Mr. Sidney Harris Phelan. The last named says : 



51 

"Eemember it? While life lasts I can not forget. 
I can see my brave, heartbroken mother now as 
plainly as I see to-day the faces around me. I remem- 
ber her very words as she argued the plans there at 
home. For days and nights, even before this incident, 
these topics so near to our hearts were the subject of 
earnest discussions. Since that time they have been a 
constant theme in our families. I was supposed to be a 
boy then — perhaps so in years — but we had no boys in 
the South — our boys were men before their time." 

Doubtless many a bereaved mother, sister and sweet- 
heart were also discussing the same subject, of which all 
the papers were full, and with a oneness of heart had 
determined then and there to take the beautiful sugges- 
tion from Georgia and respond at once to the call so 
feelingly and earnestly made by the gentlemen of Ala- 
bama, who had already formed themselves into the Mon- 
umental and Historical Association, and whose Executive 
Committee was now formulating plans for recovering 
the scattered bones and unburied bodies of our noble 
heroes. Mrs. M. D. Bibb, wearing worthily the mantle 
of her sainted mother, tells in glowing words how her 
mother, too, talked daily of this need of the hour, while 
many others testify that the same was true about their 
own hearth-stones. As one of the ladies said, with the 
light of other days in her eyes : ''It was as though a 
mighty cloud of determination broke into a simultaneous 
Btorm !" 

It was immediately after the touching incident in 
Judge Phelan's home that he gave the call for the Ex- 
ecutive Committee meeting of the 17th of March, and 
reference to the report as has already been given shows 
that the matter was there discussed. Following close 
on these came the Executive Committee's direcc appeal 



52 

to the ladies, and on April 14th the official notice to the 
ladies, all of which has been herein given. Thus it will 
be seen that the Memorial Association is the outcome of 
the Historical and IMonumental Association, and not of 
the Ladies' Hospital Association, as has often been 
thought. The fact that so many of the ladies who were 
actively engaged in the hospital work were also charter 
members of the Memorial Association, probably gave 
rise to this idea. 

Promptly at ten on the morning of April 16, in answer 
to the call of the lith, the streets were bright with a 
crowd of the loveliest ladies and the most chivalric gen- 
tlemen the world has ever known, wending their way to 
the sacred old building known as the Court Street Meth- 
odist Church. The old church stands to-day, rich with 
every sacred memory of peace and war, of plighted 
troth and sacred vow, of joy and sorrow, hope and 
heart-ache.* That morning the old doors opened to an 

*Court Street Methodist Church is one of the historic land- 
marks of Montgomery. The simple frame structure which 
gave way for the present building was the first church ever 
built in Montgomery, and stood side by side in historic value 
with the old court house, theu occupying the space a block 
below, where now gleams the fountain. Court street and 
Church street took their uames from these two buildings, 
though the old court house antedated the church by some years. 
This court house has been erroneously supposed by some to 
have been at one time the Capitol — that it answered almost 
every known purpose is matter of history. Before the old 
church was built every denomination in the city held services 
in the court house. It is somewhat of pleasing local interest to 
know that Rev. James King, the grandfather of Revs. James 
K., William H. and Thomas Armstrong, D. D., was the first 
licensed preacher whose voice ever echoed through the hearts 
of Montgomerians. In the early days of 1819, just before New 
Philadelphia and Alabama Town became Montgomery, 
"Grandfather King," as he was lovingly called in later years, 
came to Montgomery County from Wilmington, N. C, where, 
in 1806, he was ordained by Bishop McKendree — the first ordi- 
nation ever performed in that city. Rev. James King was one 



53 

earnest throng — hopeful but not buoyant, for the mem- 
ory of happier days, and the heavy burdens of recent 
dark hours were too nearly blended to briug aught save 
hope to such brave hearts as even these. 

The following report of this historic meeting is taken 
from the Mail of April 17th, 1866 : 

"the ladies' meeting. 

The assemblage of ladies at the Methodist Episcopal (church 
MoMday morning was large and great interest and determina- 
tion was manifested in the laudable objects which called them 
together. The meeting was harmonious in the extreme and 
the Society was permanently organized, oflflcers elected and 
appropriate committees appointed. We submit the following 
proceedings below which fully set forth the objects and aims of 
this noble Society, kindly furnished us by Mrs. Jennie Hilliard* 
for publication: 

At a meeting of the ladies of Montgomery held pursuant to 
notice at the Methodist Episcopal Church on Monday, the 16th 
day of April, 1866, to devise ways and means for raising funds 
to have the remains of Alabama soldiers, now lying scattered 
over the various battlefields of the war, collected and deposited 
in public burial grounds, or elsewhere, where they may be 

of the remarkable men of his day. His unusual gifts of ora- 
tory have been a rich legacy fully inherited through three 
generations. 

*Mrs. Jennie Hilliard is the daughter of Hon. John Whiting, 
the noted financier, who was President of the South *fe North 
Railroad and Commissioner and Trustee of the Banks — follow- 
ing with credit Hon. Francis S. Lyon, the great Secretary and 
President of the Senate who subsequently made famous this 
important office of Sole Commissioner and Trustee of Banks. 
Mrs. Hilliard's motlier was Elizabeth Bell, sister of Mr. W. B. 
Bell. As Miss Jennie Whiting she married Wm. Preston 
Hilliard, son of Hon. Henry W. Hilliard, the orator, writer and 
statesman. She resides now in Knoxville, Tenn. Her services 
to the Memorial Association began with its first meeting. She 
furnished notices to the press of its inaugural meetings and her 
pen was constantly wielded for the cause, as will be found 
among the files of those days as well as more recent numbers. 
She was the second Secretary of the Memorial Association, 
which position she ably filled until her departure to Tennessee. 



54 

saved from ueglect, Mrs. Judge Bibb was requested to preside 
over the meetiug and Mrs. Dr. Baldwin requested to act as 
Secretary. 

The object of the meeting was explained by the Chair, and 
on motion of Mrs. Dr. Baldwin, a committee of five was 
appointed by the Chair to consider and report some plan that 
might best promote the objects of the meeting, and to recom- 
mend the names of suitable persons as permanent officers of 
this Society. The Chair appointed on this committee Mrs. Dr. 
Baldwin, Chairman; Mrs. Wm. Johnston,* Mrs. Judge Rice, 
Mrs. Dr. Holt and Mrs. Dr. James Ware, who retired, and after 
consultation suggested the following names as permanent offi- 
cers, and on motion of Mrs, Wm. Pollard, f they were unani- 

*Mrfl. Wm. Johnston, the only surviving member of this 
committee, was Mary Anne Holt, daughter of Wm. White 
Holt and Mary Ariuton Ware, of Augusta, Ga. She was born 
in Augusta in 1826. Her father was an otlicer in the war of 1812, 
and Judge for nineteen years of the Middle District of Georgia. 
Her Grandfather was Dr. Wm. Holt, of Virginia, a brave revo- 
lutionary soldier. She was married in 1853 to Wm. JoLnstou, 
who was the son of Archibald Simpson Johnston, Kort, Glas- 
gow, Scotland, and Agues Bolton Ewiug, of Charleston, S. C. 
In 1858 they moved to Alabama and lived on their fine planta- 
tion, ten miles from Montgomery, near McGehee's Switch. 
Immediately after the war they moved to Montgomery and 
resided in the house which was then next to the Jeilersou Davis 
Home, to-day known as the First White House of the Confed- 
eracy. She now resides in Montgomery at Highland Park in 
her picturesque, artistic home, "The Pines." Mrs. Johnston 
is a sister of Mrs. W. W. Screws, of this city. 

Mrs. Judge Rice was Miss Amanda Pearson, of South Caro- 
lina, a brilliant as well as philanthropic woman. She was the 
wife of Judge Samuel Rice, the famous wit and jurist. 

Mrs. Dr. Holt was Miss Laura Hall, sister of Hou. Boiling 
Hall, the noted statesman who gave many brave sous lo the 
Confederate army. Mrs. Laura Pickett, of this city, is her 
daughter. Her husband, Dr. S, Holt, was the first mayor of 
Montgomery. 

Mrs. James Ware was a Miss Ware, of Columbus, Ga., sister 
of Mrs. Jaue Martin, a noted Confederate worker in the Aid 
Societies of Georgia. Mrs. Ware's husband. Dr. James Ware, 
was for a long time an honored druggist of Montgomery. 

tMrs. Wm. Pollard was a Miss Webb, of Virginia, a noted 
social favorite who gave much of her time and talents to the 
hospitals and the Memorial Association of Montgomery. Her 
husbaud was a brother of Mr. Chas. T. Pollard, President of 
the first ralJroad in Alabama. 



55 

mously elected: Mrs. Judge Bibb, President; Mrs. Judge 
Phelau, Vice-President; Mrs. Dr. Baldwin, Secretary; Mrs. 
E. V. Hannon, Treasurer. 

Tliis committee, after suggesting permanent officers, reported 
ttie following resolutions, which were unanimously adopted : 

1. Resolved, That it is the sacred duty of the people of the 
South to preserve from desecration and neglect the mortal 
remains of the brave men who fell in her cause, to cherish a 
grateful recollection of their heroic sacrifices and to perpetuate 
their memories. 

2. Resolved, That we earnestly request our countrywomen 
to unite with us in our eflTorts to contribute all necessary means 
to provide a suitable resting place and burial for our noble and 
heroic dead; that we will not rest our labors until this sacred 
duty is performed. 

3. Resolved, That in order to raise funds to carry out the 
objects expressed in the foregoing resolutions, we constitute 
ourselves a Society to be styled "The Ladies' Society for the 
Burial of Deceased Alabama Soldiers," and that we solicit vol- 
untary contributions for the same ; and that we will hold in 
this city on Tuesday, the first day of May next, and annually 
on the first day of May thereafter, and oftener if deemed expe- 
dient, exhibitions consisting of concerts, tableaux, juvenile 
recitations, songs, suppers, etc., to be regulated and determined 
by committees to be appointed for that purpose. 

4. Resolved, That to carry out these plans an Executive 
Committee shall be appointed, which shall have authority to 
appoint sub-committees and agents at their discretion. 

5. Resolved, That the President of this Society, together 
with the present resident ministers in charge of the difTerent 
churches of this city and their successors in office, shall consti- 
tute a committee for the purpose of keeping and making proper 
application of the funds raised by this Society. 

6. Resolved, That any lady can become a meaiber of this 
Society by registering her name and by paying into the treas- 
ury an annual assessment of one dollar. 

7. Resolved, That all clergymen or ministers of the gospel 
shall be considered honorarj-^ members of this Society. 

On motion of Mrs. Dr. Baldwin, the Chair was authorized to 
appoint an Executive Committee consisting of ten, whereupon 
the Chair appointed the following ladies: Mrt;. Dr. Rambo, 



56 

Chairman; Mrs. Jno. Elmore, Mrs. Wm. Pollard, Mrs. Dr 
Wilsou, Mrs. W. J. Bibb, Mrs. Hausman, Mrs. Mount, Mrs. 
Bugbee, Mrs. W. B. Bell, Mrs. Fort Hargrove and Mrs. James 
Ware.* 

On motion, the Society adjourned to meet whenever requested 
by the President. 

Thus was formed the Ladies' Society for the Burial 
of deceased Alabama Soldiers — the direct outcome of 
the Alabama Historical and Monumental Association — 
through its active Executive Committee, as has been 
clearly and systematically shown from authentic records 
of the time. 

The foregoing Constitution and Resolutions as repro- 
duced in The Mail, will also be found in the record 
books of the Memorial Association, which have been 
kept by its Secretaries since its beginning. 

The following report of the Treasurer, Mrs. E. C. Han- 
non being the first given immediately after the forma- 
tion of the ''Ladies' Society for the burial of deceased 

*It was the earnest desire that a more extended sketch of 
each member of the nominating and executive committees 
should be given. The data promised by friends has not arrived 
at the hour of going to press, and the sketches are reluctantly 
omitted. 

Mrs. James A. Ware is the only one of the original Executive 
Committee now living in Montgomery. She was the daughter 
of Judge Wm. S. Stokes, of Georgia. Her mother was Miss 
Eliza Smith, of Virginia. Her father was originally from Vir- 
ginia and her ancestors on both sides fought in the Revolu- 
tionary war. She was born September 11th, 1822. Miss Stokes 
married Col. James A. Ware, of Montgoraer.v, and resided on 
property three miles from the city. This land has been in 
possession of the family for almost one hundred .years, the 
deeds to the property being written on parchment. Col. J. A. 
Ware's mother was Miss Judith Anthony, daughter of Mark 
Anthony, and saw the battle of Gilford's Courthouse. Dur- 
ing the war the home of Mrs. Ware was constantly filled with 
convalescent soldiers and she was a daily visitor to the hospital. 
She is now almost eighty years old, though one who is privi- 
leged to hold delightful converse with this charming white- 
haired grandmother would never believe it. 



57 

Alabama Soldiers, " is of deep interest, since it shows 
that the first money paid into the Association was that 
received from its charter members. It is as follows : 

"The Treasurer, on April 23, reported $164.50 received from 
members. Amount of donations, ?138.00." 

Another interesting item of information concerning 
the first money ever tnrned into this treasury is taken 
also from the Secretary's book of date April 26, only 
three days later : 

"The Society met with the President, Mrs. Bibb, and a dona- 
tion of $167.50 was handed in by Mrs. Taber, from the Hebrew 
Society." 

These are the only official records of the first money 
paid into the treasury and show that the nucleus of the 
Memorial Association's funds was that paid into this 
sacred treasury by the loving, loyal hands of its char- 
ter members. 

Another proof that the first money of the Memorial 
Association was that of its charter members, lies in the 
fact that many who were that day present testify that 
their initiation fees had been previously decided upon 
and were taken with them and paid at the initial meet- 
ing, April 16, 1866. 

Of the lovely women who composed the nominating 
committee, only one is now living, Mrs. William John- 
ston, of whom a short sketch has already been given. 
The hand of time has touched lightly the beautiful face 
of this mother of the Confederacy. One would not 
think, to look into the bright eyes and see the tender 
smile and hear the sweet voice, that seventy-six summers 
were hers to remember. She talks most interestingly 
of those days and particularly of the first meeting at the 
church and of the women whom they that day noniinat- 



58 

ed. "I think," she said, '-'we chose our oflQcers wisely. 
Mrs. B. S. Bibb was an ideal woman for the President, 
having natural executive ability, augmented by recent 
experience in the Hospital Association; she was gentle, 
M'ise and just; was possessed of wealth and influence 
and proved herself worthy of so honored a trust. 

''Thatwe should have chosen Mrs. Phelau for First Vice 
President was most natural. IS'o woman worked 
harder for the formation of the Memorial Association. 
It seemed that her whole mind, heart and soul were 
centered in this undertaking. Mrs. Phelan was a 
remarkable woman — her energy and patriotism and her 
strength of purpose knew no impediment, and then, too, 
you must remember, she was the only one of us with 
two boys still sleeping out on the battlefields. 

"Mrs. Baldwin? — Ah, yes, Mrs. Baldwin Avas indeed 
lovelj^, both in i)erson and character. She was talented 
and broad-minded and worked zealously for the forma- 
tion of the Association. She, too, had lost a loved son 
in battle, and though his remains had been removed 
from the battlefield to our cemetery, it had not stayed 
the heartache, and, so remembering, she worked for 
others. 

"Then our Treasurer, Mrs. Hannon, was another of 
God's loveliest. She also had suffered anguish during 
the battles, for, though she lost none then, yet she 
had three sons in the war, and for very thankfulness 
she worked, weeping with the less fortunate whose sous 
and husbands came not back. 

"They were four noble women we chose for our officers 
that day, and in looking back over those mournful 
years I can see that the 'Ladies' Society for the Burial 
of Deceased Alabama Soldiers' made no mistake in the 
choosing. 



59 

''I hare not enjoyed anything so much in a long, long 
time as this little trip back to that eventful year ; the 
figures flit before me clear and distinct, and almost I 
feel I have been in the sweet presence of the loved of 
'auld langsyne.' " 

These words of Mrs. Johnston are almost a repetition 
of words used by Mrs. J. C. Hausman before her death, 
and. practically the same things have been said by 
others who were that day present, among them being 
Mrs. James A. Ware of the Executive Committee, and 
Miss Bettie Bell and Mrs. William Ware. 

The name of the Society was soon changed from "The 
Ladies' Society for the Burial of Deceased Alabama Sol- 
diers," to one more expressive of its purposes, and cer- 
tainly more in sympathy with the rules of Euphony — 
"The Ladies' Memorial Association." 

The exact date at which the name of the Association 
was changed is not given. Unfortunately, some of the 
records of the Society have been lost. That the books 
of the Secretaries have been as systematically kept and 
preserved as they are is cause for wonder. In those 
days little attention was given to minute details, and 
the methodical club woman, with her jjarliamentary 
methods, was undreamed of, and our blessed mothers of 
the Confederacy, mindful of weightier things, knew not 
the glorious history they were making. 

The first use of the wordn "Memorial Association," 
which attracted the attention of chis Society, came 
through the press of the city in a letter from General 
Lee to the Virginia "Ladies' Memorial Association for 
Confederate Dead," as follows : 

STONEWALL JACKSON. 

On the 10th inst. the third anniversary of the death of Vir- 
ginia's illustrious son, Stonewall Jucksou, was observed by the 



GO 

people of Richmond, in commemoration of the dead warriors 
of the noble Army of Northern Virginia. In honor of the occa- 
sion, there was a very general suspension of business, and the 
streets wore a Sabbath aspect. Troops of ladies and children 
and men might have been seen during the early morning 
having wreaths and baskets of flowers, wending their way on 
foot to the cemeteries, and all the available vehicles were bus- 
ily engaged carrying heavy crowds of citizens to the same des- 
tination. General R. E. Lee, having been invited to attend 
and participate in the ceremonies of the day, not being able to 
be present, the following simple but beautiful letter from the 
great Captain of the Confederate hosts, was read by Rev. Mr. 
Price : 

Lexington, May 5, 1866. 
Mrs. Wm. Coulling : 

Dear Madam — I am very much obliged to the ladies of the 
"Menaorial Association for Confederate Dead" for the invita- 
tion to attend the inaugural celebration of their Society, on the 
10th iust. It would be most grateful to my feelings to unite in 
the Society formed for so noble an object, but it will be impos- 
sible for me to do so. The graves of Confederate dead will 
always be green in my recollection. With great respect, 

Your obedient sen^ant, 

Robert E. Lee. 

The words were next brought to the Society's notice 
through a letter of Mrs. Meem, of Virginia, in regard 
to Alabama's dead in Virginia, which was presented to 
the ''Committee for Proper Application of Funds," on 
June 8th. 

The first use of the name "Memorial Association" in 
connection with Montgomery's Society was found Decem- 
ber 22nd, '66. This came through The Mail from Dr. 
Samuel K. Cox, in an article headed ''Ladies' Memo- 
rial Association" (of Montgomery), which gave an 
account of how certain funds had been expended. 
However, no change of the name is recorded in the 
books of the Secretary until 1874. 



61 

All things point to its having been changed about 
December 22nd, 1866, the time of Dr. Cox's report from 
the Society's "Committee for proper application of 
funds," of which he was corresponding Secretary. 

The daj^ after the formation of this Society, April 17th, 
there appeared another important notice in the papers : 

The 26th of April has been mentioned by many of the news- 
papers as a day to be set apart as the sad anniversary for our 
Confederate dead. It is suggested by some of the ladies of 
Montgomery that it be observed with appropriate ceremonies 
here ; that the ladies upon that day decorate with evergreens 
and flowers the last resting places of the Confederates who 
sleep in our city cemetery, and celebrate it as the all souls' day 
of the South. This will accord with a general movement — 
principally of the ladies — throughout the Southern States, and 
will meet with the cordial approval and hearty co-operation of 
all patriotic hearts of Montgomery. Who will suggest a defin- 
ite plan of proceedings? Act at once, that our observance of 
the day may be worthy of the occasion and inaugurate an anni- 
versary that will live through coming ages. Let us prove to 
the world that those who so nobly gave up their lives for us, 
did not die all in vain ; that their names and deeds are ever 
dear, their memories ever sacred. 

— Montgomery Advertiser, April 17, '66. 

The Mail, on April 21st, gives also a very important 
notice to the ladies : 

"the ladies at the cemetery, 

"The ladies of the city, in concert with the ladies of many of 
the Southern cities, will meet at our cemetery on the 26th iust. 
for the purpose of decorating the graves and perpetuating the 
memory of our fallen braves who are there interred. 

"The ladies are requested to assemble at the city cemetery 
this morning and to have with them utensils for improving 
and repairing the graves of the Confederate soldiers. We learn 
that it is estimated that we have buried in our cemetery about 
1,000 (one thousand) soldiers, and that every Southern State is 
there represented." 



62 

The Advertiser gave a similar notice for the ladies, in 
which the word ''utensils" was also used. Miss Bettie 
Bell, whose mother, Mrs. W. B. Bell, was appointed on 
the Executive Committee when the Society was formed, 
gives a most amusing account of the consternation of 
the ladies when they saw, "and have with them uten- 
sils for improving and repairing the graves." Somehow 
these ladies of the old regime seemed to think that the 
noble editors should have been more fastidious in the 
selection of words for the insertion of their sacred 
notice. 

So busy were the ladies with preparations for the 
May Day celebration that very few answered this call 
— the only ones "bringing their utensils with them" 
being Ellis Phelan, Miss Bettie Bell* and Misses Mary 
and Priscilla Phelan. The next meeting at the ceme- 
tery was more fruitful of "utensils" and results. 



*Auy history of the first years of the Memorial Association 
would be incomplete without especial mention of Miss Bettie 
Bell. Miss Bell is descended from a long liue of illustrious 
ancestors, some of whom have been mentioned in the preced- 
ing sketch of her mother, Mrs. W. B. Bell. Although a school 
girl during the war, Miss Bettie was one of the most enthusi- 
astic workers at the sewing circles, the hospital, and later the 
Memorial Association. She is the only living member of her 
immediate family, though many close relatives still reside in 
Montgomery. She lives still in the home of her childhood. 
The home is smaller now, for part of it has been removed and 
sold, with some of the grounds ; but to JNliss Bettie, as she aits 
there alone and dreams of the beautiful sad past, when the 
chivalry and beauty of this Southern city flitted through its 
portals, when the wounded soldiers passed in and out to love 
and to bless the names of those within, the old house is still 
the same. Interesting and thrilling are Miss Bettie's remin- 
iscences of those days, and most remarkable is the correctness 
of her memory. In verifying dates, initials and statements of 
friends whose memory has been consulted, her exactness has 
been marvelous. Miss Bell was the third Secretary of the Mem- 
orial Association, having taken the place of Mrs. Hilliard, who 
left for another State. 



63 

Meanwhile the preparations for May Day Festival 
grew in interest and enthusiasm. On April 18th the 
President of the Society, Mrs. Judge Bibb, through the 
Society's able Secretary, Mrs. Dr. Baldwin,* published 
a circular letter. The Mail's copy is as follows : 

MoNTGMERY, Ala., April 16, 1866. 

Dear Madam : As President of the Ladies' Society for the 
burial of Alabama Soldiers, I write to request your aid aud 
assistance in a May-day ofleriug for deceased Alabama soldiers, 
who are now lying on the various battlefields of the war. We 
wish to raise funds with which to give suitable Christian burial 
to our brave, noble aud lamented martyrs, and to effect Ibis we 
propose to have an "offering" on the lirst day of May next 
from the children, young ladies and matrons consisting of reci- 
tations, songs, music, etc., suitable to the occasion, and at 
night a concert and supper, which you are respectfully 
requested to attend, and to which you are earnestly invited to 
contribute. We believe that every woman in Alabama will 
feel it not only her duty but her privilege to lend a helping 
hand to the success of this sacred cause, the removal from dese- 
cration and neglect of the mortal remains of those who so 
heroically fought and died for them. Articles such as hams, 
fresh meat, fowls, cream, butter, eggs, vegetables, fruit, etc., 
will be thankfully received and faithfully appropriated. Such 
articles as may be sent by the Montgomery & West Point 
K. R. may be addressed to the care of W. H. Pollard, Esq.; 
those sent by the Alabama & Florida R. R. may be addressed 
to the care of S. G. Jones, Esq.; and those sent to the city in 
wagons may be delivered at the dry goods store of Ware & 



*Apologies are here made to the school of critics who 
protest against such liberties with the Queen's English as 
"Mrs. Judge", "Mrn. Dr.," etc. This form of designation 
for distinguished ladies of that date seems to have been uni- 
versal — in all the pa])ers was it used to such an extent that 
Mrs. Judge Bibb, Mrs. Dr. Baldwin and Mrs. Judge Phelan 
would scarcely have been known by their initials. It is Obe 
of tbe peculiarities of the epoch, as interesting as the use of the 
word "pious," so prevalent among all writers of that period. 



64 

Gowan, on Market street, and at the grocery store of Price, 
Francis & Co., Commerce street. 

Mrs. S. Bibb, 
Mrs. Dr. Baldwin, President. 

Secretary. 

That every body was busy aud enthusiastic, witness 
the following interesting notices from newspaper files: 

"THE DEAD OFFERING. 

"The ladies of the city hold daily meetings and are systemat- 
ically perfecting their arrangements, etc., for the grand May 
day 'offering' to the Alabama dead. Preparations on a 
gigantic scale are being made in each department, and we 
have no doubt of the complete success of the ladies in their 
sacred endeavors."— (Mail, April 21, 1866.) 

"The ladies of Montgomery who have in preparation the 
May Day Festival and Concert for the proper burial of Alabama 
soldiers desire to return thanks to Messrs. Diaz and Gillett for 
their ofTer of theatre for the concert and tableaux, to Mr. 
George Sayre for his offer of halls for use of children's festival, 
to Mr. Cram for oflTer of lights, to Mr. Giovanni and Mr. Bene- 
dict for confectioneries. The spirit of those gentlemen will 
doubtless be emulated by others whose hearts are enlisted in 
the benevolent project, etc."— (Mail, April 21, 1866.) 

"COMMENDABLE. 

"We notice ihat many of our exchanges from this and adjoin- 
ing states are urging upon the people of their respective coun- 
ties to follow the example of the ladies of our city in their noble 
efforts to provide a more appropriate burial for our fallen 
heroes. We doubt not the approaching May day 'offering' of 
the ladies of Montgomery will live for years, not only in the 
history of the times, but in the hearts of all lovers of the heroic 
and humane."— (Mail, April 22, 1866.) 

"the ladies' may day OFFERING. 

"Every lady who is willing to contribute to the 'May Day 
OdPering' for the burial of the Alabama dead is respectfully 
and earnestly requested to register at once her contributions to 
either one oT the fi^llowing ladies who constitute the special 



65 

committee for dinner and supper. It is impossible to call on 
every family in the city, and as time is so short it is very 
important that the amount of supplies should be known : 
Mesdames Smythe, Gerald, Yancy, McGehee, Dr. Hill, Wm. 
Ray, Murphy, Watt, Peter Mastin, Garrisou, Myree, Weil, 
Watts, Dr. Tom Taylor, Purifoy, Whiting, James Terry, W. C. 
Eibb, Kiuuy, Hopper, Mieou, Ponder, Troy, Arriugton, 
Petrie, Harrell, Henry Lee, J. D. Campbell. 

"The Executive Committee and ladies of the Society for the 
burial of Alabama dead return thanks through Misses Jones 
and Fraser to the young men of the 'Literary Club' for the 
kind tender of their services. The ladies will be very glad to 
have their assistance at the halls on Monday and Tuesday. 
Mrs. Dr. Semple,* Chairman of Decorating Committee, will 
be very much obliged for all help rendered her by the young 
gentlemen of the city not connected with the Club. The 
Decorating Committee meet at Estelle and Concert Halls every 
morniug at 9 o'clock, commencing Monday morning, the 23d. 
The ladies of the Society return thanks to Mr. T. J. Shaw 
and accept with pleasure his services for the sale of tickets 
and management of the front part of theatre." — (Mail, Ai)rii 
22, 1866.) 

"OFFERING. 

"The ladies are busily engaged in their various departments 
making extensive and complete arrangements for their grand 
May daj' offering to the Alabama dead. The halls are being 

^'Mrs. Dr. Semple was the daughter of Joel White and Sarah 
Hopkins. Her maternal grandparents were Steven Hopkins 
and Bettie Mayhew, of Nova Scotia, Halifax. Her father, 
Hon. Joel White, was born in Rutland, Vermont, January 11, 
1808. At the age of nineteen he went to New York city and 
there met Miss Sarah Hopkins, of Nova Scotia, Halifax, whom 
he subsequently married. In 1881 they came South to Tuska- 
loosa, where Mrs. Semple (Irene White) was born. In 1847 
Mr. White brought his family to Montgomery, where he con- 
tinued his famous book store. Miss Irene Wliite here married 
Dr. Edward A. Semple, who was the honored Surgeon of Third 
Alabama during the war. T)r. Semple died in 1875, Mrs. Sem- 
ple surviving until only a few months since. She was one of 
the most prominent and energetic workers of the May Day 
Festival and the Memorial Association. 



66 

beautifully decorated aud the amateurs are rehearsing for the 
concert and tableaux." — (Mall, April 24.) 

"notice to the ladies' hebeew congregation kahl 
montgomery. 

"The ladies of the above named congregation are requested to 
meet this (Tuesday) afternoon at 5 p. m. at Synagogue for the 
purpose of taking measures to render their aid in behalf of the 
approaching May offering. Full attendance is requested." 
—(Mail, April 24, 1866.) 

It is pleasing here to see that the living poor were not 
forgotten. An editorial in The Mail of the 26th says, 
in part : 

"Nor are we unmindful of the duties we owe to the living. 
The cries of suffering humanity have aroused in our breasts the 
deepest sympathy. Our citizens have already answered the 
fearful cry for bread by giving daily to the poor. Not many 
days since a fund of $5,000 was raised at Montgomery for the 
poor of DeKalb and Marshall. JJesides this sum our merchants 
have responded to the individual appeal of the needy. The 
Freedmen's Bureau, ably assisted by Colonel Cruikshank, has 
extended aid in all cases where the county officers have made 
proper return. In addition to this, the Legislature has author- 
ized the issue of bonds the proceeds of sales of which are in- 
tended for distribution among poor of each county in propor- 
tion to their necessities. We have assurance that these bonds 
will be taken up by citizens and by men of means of Mont- 
gomery. The cities of the North-west are also responding most 
liberally to the appeals of Judge Wyeth. As much as f>20,000 
have been collected by the exertions of that gentleman alone. 
The Baltimore F'air has just closed aud deposited in bank 
$150,000 to be distributed among the poor of the Southern 
States. Thus we find exerted for the relief of the living, pri- 
vate contributions, merchants and other public appeals from 
benevolent gentlemen, which have been met by princely 
answers, beyond the State, Baltimore Fair, State bonds and 
Government aid. All of these sources, if properly directed, 
will accomplish much good. Still, we must not remit our 
labors until the harvest is over. In addition to what is done 



67 

for the living, we are now endeavoring, by means of tlae ladies' 
May Day offering to respond in a becoming manner to the ap- 
peals of Colonel McGavock of Franklin, of Mrs. Dr. Boyd and 
and the ladies of Winchester, and of others to come up and 
bury our dead. The strong arm of the Federal Government 
has been extended to prevent the plough-share from destro^'ing 
the graves of the Federal soldiers, but there is no arm except 
that of afi'eetiou to prevent the places which once knew the 
Confederate hero from knowing him no more forever." 

The following pathetic incideut of the Baltimore Fair 
mentioned in the above as having contributed $150,000 
to the destitute of the South, shows with what zeal the 
fair women of that city worked, many of whom, de- 
prived of other means to help, took their diamonds and 
other precious jewels and laid them on the altar of love: 

'•The brightest page in the history of the Monumental City 
has been written, and the curtain has fallen on the grandest 
and noblest charity of the age; but in many a hamlet, town 
and city of the South and in the holiest depths of the Southern 
heart the fair women of Baltimore are blessed and enshrined. 
Their noble endeavors will ever be linked with their flowing 
gratitude and cherished recollections of our people. Unprece- 
dented and grand as was the great Fair and its results, it is 
sad to know that it has given more precious oflerings still to 
the cause of the suffering and distressed. Two of the fairest 
and loveliest of her daughters. Misses Hoffman and Myers, for- 
getting that there are limits to the indulgence of the highest 
of human impulses, have died from the effects of exposure and 
incessant exertion. On the morning after the Fair one was 
found dead in bed. Their sad but glorious death furnishes a 
silent but eloquent rebuke to those who, engrossed with more 
selfish cares, heed not the appeals of the hungry and distressed. 
They have done their maker's work and have gone to receive 
from His hands Heaven's recompense to the 'cheerful giver.' " 

On April 27 the precise object of the May Day offer- 
ing is explained in these words : 

"We find that a misapprehension exists in some quarters as 



68 

to the precise object of the May Day ofTeriug. It is thought by 
some that the intention is to bring home all the Alabama dead 
and bury them in Alabama and raise a monument over them. 
This is not the object. Such an undertaking would be impracti- 
cable and is not contemplated. The precise object is this : To 
raise the necessary funds to have the remains of our dead sol- 
diers (Alabama's dead) collected together either in public burial 
grounds contiguous to the several great battlefields where they 
now lie scattered and neglected and where all traces of them 
will soon be lost ; to provide by donation and otherwise a 
small plot of ground and make a specific burial place for Ala- 
bama's dead on or near the battlefields and there bury them." 

—Mail, April 27, 1866. 

Then came notices of our first Memorial Day, thirty - 
five years ago : 

"tribute to our dead. 

"Yesterday the ladies of our city met at the cemetery to 
strew flowers over the graves of our Confederate dead. The 
day was set apart in many of our sister cities for this purpose 
and the occasion was certainly a most sacred and interesting 
one. Here in Montgomery those sepulchres number by the 
hundreds. The Augusta Constitutionalist truly remarks that 
side by side they are ranged in rows like a line of battle, for 
just as these men stood in action do they now repose in death. 
From the East and from tlie West, by the stroke of battle and 
by the ravage of disease, they have been gathered one by one 
to the last array they shall ever present— that long, that grim, 
that terrible outstretching line of mounds, that in sunshine or 
in shade — whether the snows come or the spring dews twinkle 
— is never to be broken till the roll-call of the Resurrection 
brings all humanity in review before the God of Battles." 

—Mail, 27th April, '66. 

"LADIES AND THE 26TH OF APRIL. 

"It becomes our pleasing duty to-day to record the touching 
act of the devotion of the ladies of Montgomery to the lamented 
dead who lie asleep within the limits of our city cemetery. On 
yesterday they gathered in numbers, according to previous ap- 
pointment, at the cemetery, re-touched and re-decorated the 



69 

grave of every soldier therein iDterred, planted and strewed 
them with flowers and performed such other offices as their 
fancies suggested, or as seemed necessary. This was in accord 
with a suggestion coming first, we believe, from the sister 
State of Georgia, and quickly and heartily seconded by the 
ladies not only of Montgomery, but of the South generally."* 
Montgomery Advertiser, April 27, '66. 

"not forgotten. 

"While the large number of ladies were engaged on the 26th 
inst. in strewing the honored graves of the Confederate dead 
with flowers in our cemetery, the unpretending slab which 
covers the immortal remains of William L. Yanceyf was not 

*Here naore than half a column in the files of the Advertiser 
has been cut out. The culprit who so ruthlessly destroyed so 
important a record should himself have the misfortune to some 
day try his hand at history and find valuable data destroyed. 
Being told that files of The Advertiser of 1866 could be found at 
the court house, search was made for this missing part there, 
but that date was not on file. Another attempt was made to 
get the papers of that date from private persons, but alas! the 
very date most needed was not there. Perhaps some one read- 
ing these pages may have among old papers the date — April 
27, I860. If so, he would do his country's history a kindness 
by taking it to The Advertiser office. 

fA beautiful granite cenotaph now marks this last resting 
place of the South's most illustrious orator; yet more beautiful 
are the words and sentiment chiseled into the stone, as indeed 
they were chiseled into his life. 
The inscription reads : 

Sacred 

To the Memory 

of 

Wm. Lowndes Yancey, 

Born at Shoals of Ogeechee, Warren Co., Ga., 

August 10th, 1814, 
Died Near Montgomery, Ala., July 27th, 1863. 

On one side is what might be termed his political creed : 

"Called to public life 
In the most critical hour of his country's fortune, 
He was a man whose love of truth. 
Devotion to right, simple integrity 
And reverence for manly honor, 
Made him a leader among men. 



70 

forgotten by our fair friends, and his tablet was beautifully 
decorated with sweet bouquets, wreaths, chaplets, etc. Gener- 
ations to come will recall with emotions of pride the noble and 
pleasing task performed by the ladies of Montgomery, on the 
26th of April, 1866. Verily, actions speak louder when words 
are silent."— (Mail, April 28, '66.) 

The thrilling efiitorial on '^The 26th of April," by 
Major W. W. Screws,"^ in the Advertiser of the 25th 

Virtue gave him strength. 

Courage upheld his convictions, 

Heroism inspired him with fearlessness. 

His sense of responsibility 

Never consulted popularity, 

Nor did his high position claim homage 

Save on the ground of worth. 

Justified in all his deeds. 

For his country's sake 

He loved the South; 

For the sake of the South 

He loved his countiy." 

On the other side is his religious creed : 

Believing in God, 

He trusted in Christ; 

And the fervent prayer 

Of his life 

Growing to its fuller yearg 

Ever was, 

That Faith, Hope and Charity, 

Humanly three, 

Divinely One, 

Might have his heart 

As their 

Hallowed Home. 

*The name of Major William Wallace Screws has been iden- 
tified with all that is noble, great and good in the city of Mont- 
gomery since that day in his young manhood when he cast 
his fortunes with this people. He has never failed to lend to 
every good cause his earnest help and many a noble undertak- 
ing owes to him its success. His father, Benjamin Screws, was 
born in North Carolina on November 8th, 1811. His mother 
was a Miss Drake, who was also born in North Carolina, the 
date of her birth being December 1st, 1818. Genealogy shows 
that among her ancestors was Sir Francis Drake. Her father, 
James Drake, was killed in the Texan war of independence, 
fighting gallantly under Sam Houston. Though now in her 



71 

of April, is so replete with historic facts that it is given 
in full : 

"Tomorrow one year ago the formal surrender of the last organ- 
ized army of the Confederate States took place. With hearts 
full of gloomy forebodings for the future the veterans of the grand 
old Army of Northern Virginia bade adieu to their beloved chief- 
tain on the 9th of the same month and turned their faces home- 
ward after a career of glory (unsuccessful though it was) that 
will be recorded in glowing terms by the impartial historian of 
the future. That the scarcely less glorious army of General 
Johnston would have to follow its example was rendered 
certain inasmuch as the combined forces of Grant and Sherman 
were marching against it. With that surrender went out all 
hope of a successful termination of the war on the part of the 
South, and all desire for further resistance to the authority of the 
United States disappeared. The Southern soldier, with honor 
unstained, took his parole and it has been faithfully observed 
from that time until the present moment. Tlie 26th of April may 
justly be considered the grave of the Southern Confederacy, 
and without attachiug to it any political significance, the 
women of the South have formed the beautiful idea of making 
it the 'all souls' day,' and decking with flowers the graves of 
those who fell in our long and bloody struggle. The idea is 
worth J' of those whose pure hearts and unflagging devotion 
prompted it. That heart must be dead to all the feelings of 
humanity that would object to the ladies of the South showing 
by this simple and touching act that they venerate the mem- 
ory of their fathers, husbands, brothers and friends, who gave 
up their lives in a cause we all believe just. It is one of the 
striking passages in the history of the Saviour, that Mary and 

eighty-fifth year, Mrs. Benjamin Screws, Sr., is still hale and 
hearty, the life and light of her family. She lives in Clayton, 
Ala., with her daughter, Mrs. Jere N. Williams. Major 
Screws was himself a gallant oflicer in the war between the 
States, participating in the great struggles of the Army of 
Northern Virginia. Captain Beujamin H. Screws, of Mont- 
gomery, is a younger brother of Major Screws. He was a 
brave officer in the war and now modestly wears the palm of 
oratory as the most eloquent of all Alabamians left to celebrate 
the courage and sacriflce of their comrades. 



72 

Martha were the last at the cross and the first at the sepulchre 
— and this unconquered sympathy for misfortune and devotion 
in adversity is still a marked characteristic of female character. 
It will be exhibited to-morrow when the fair ones of the land 
will repair to the different burial grounds where lie the Confed- 
erate dead and pay this beautiful tribute to their memory. 
There are many voids in the households of the South ; many a 
gallant youth is buried far from home and kindred, and how 
pleasing the thought to absent friends that 

'When the flowers bloom in gladness, 
And spring birds rejoice,' 

fair stranger hands with fresh garlands will pay them a last 
sad tribute of afTection. Every State in the South is probably 
represented in the cemetery of this city, and it is but meet and 
proper to devote one day in the year to the memory of those 
who gave up all for the defense of a principle dear to every 
Southern heart. On ever3' field of strife have fallen the Con- 
federate braves, and those near to us should be treated with a 
maternal tenderness. The proposition to observe the 26th day 
of this month is a sublimely beautiful and touching thought 
and in keeping with that which has won the women of the 
South so bright a page in tlie annals of history. No matter 
what may have been the differences of opinion produced by the 
late conflict, no one can doubt the purity of the motives by 
which the Confederate soldier was actuated, nor the unpar- 
alleled heroism with which he contended so long as there 
was a ray of hope. They failed, 'tis true; but as 'night wrapped 
her sable mantle around them, fate pinned it with a bright 
star;' and it was written of ancient Rome, 'thy fall was 
worthy of thy greatness.' In paying honor to the dead there 
can be no disloyalty, and w^e are glad that the ladies are about 
to inaugurate a custom so appropriate. Visit their graves in 
the beautiful spring time, shed tears of remembrance and strew 
their graves with evergreens and flowers — else will 

'A thousand glorious actions that might claim 
Triumphant laurels and immortal fame, 
Confused in clouds of glorious actions lie. 
And troops of heroes undistinguished die.' " 

No further mention of April 26th, or of the proceed- 



73 

ings in Montgomery of this day, are given in the press, 
but the frequent mention in the papers that no ^^disloy- 
alty should be attached to this idea," that it was a 
movement ^'principally by the ladies of the South," and 
''that heart must be dead to all the feelings of humanity 
which would object to the ladies of the South showing 
by this simple act that they venerate the memory of 
their fathers, brothers and friends,'' shows that some 
trepidation did exist in the minds of the thoughtful. 
In fact, the press chronicled later several insults to the 
ladies of Southern cities on those first memorial days. 
One at our very door in our sister State, Georgia, 
created some trouble and no end of unfavorable com- 
ment both ]N"orth and South. As the South was misrep- 
resented in many northern papers regarding this inci- 
dent, the following from one of the leading dailies relat- 
ing the facts is of real value : 

"When the negroes of Richmond at the enggestiou, doubt- 
less, of the agents of the Freedman's Bureau, stole the flowers 
that the loving hands of the Confederate womeu had strewed 
upon the graves of their honored dead and transferred them to 
the graves of the Northern soldiers, many Republican journals 
published the fact, not only without censure, but with an 
implication of praise, as though it were upon the whole a 
rather clever performance. And when the attempt of a parcel 
of Northern school-mistresses at Augusta, Ga., who inspired a 
motley crowd of negroes and mulattos to travesty the oblation 
to the Confederate dead in the cemetery of that city, was put 
down by the civil authorities, Republican journals raised a 
howl of pious and patriotic indignation over Southern insults 
to the graves of Union soldiers. Even the Tribune swells the 
canting chorus of these pseudo-humanitarians and denounces 
Generals Brannau and Tillsou because these ofiticera of the 
Federal army refused to over-ride the civil authorities and pub- 
lic decency in behalf of the vagaries of the school mistresses 
and their black pets. Did it not occur to the Tribune that if 
officers so high in position as Generals Brannon and Tillson 



74 

discountenanced the enterprise of these Northern women, there 
must have been something objectionable in it? And is there 
not abundant material in the letter of the Tribune's corres- 
pondent to sustain the officers? The facts as published by the 
Tribune itself are simply these: A set of Northern women, 
who have gone down to Augusta to teach the negroes there, 
and to insult the vanquished, got up a procession, avowedly 
to do honor to the graves of the Federal soldiers who are buried 
in that city, but really to mock the Southern women, who had 
been decorating the graves of their own kindred and heroic 
defenders two days before. This procession was composed of 
these Northern women, the negroes and the agents and hangers- 
on of the Freedmau's Bureau. Tbe people of Augusta knowing 
the object of the movement, and keenly feeling the insult and 
wrong that was being put upon them, appealed to the civil 
authorities to prevent these people as far as the law would 
permit from desecrating the graves of the Confederate soldiers. 
The means for doing this were furnished by a rule of the ceme- 
tery which forbids colored persons from entering its precincts 
except as servants. The Mayor, with the sanction of Generals 
Braunan and Tiilson, mildly enforced this rule by declaring to 
the procession that every white person was at liberty to enter 
and to do honor to the graves of the Uiiited States soldiers, but 
that no negro should enter except as a servant bearing flowers 
with which to decorate graves. Learning that this was the 
determination of the Mayor, and that he was supported by the 
United States military authorities, the whites in the procession, 
rather than submit to the exclusion of any one of their colored 
friends, marched away with these from the cemetery, and so 
the affair was ended. There was neither rioting nor bloodshed 
nor violence; no dishonor to a Federal soldier nor any disrespect 
to the flag of the Union. And yet the Tribune makes this 
affair the subject of violent denunciation and the Commercial 
Advertiser, of coarse and unfeeling jesting. Now, it is all very 
well to talk about paying tributes of respect to the memory of 
the Federal dead and all that; but no one knows better than 
the Tribune that reverence for the soldiers whose graves they 
proposed to decorate was not in the hearts of the organizers of 
the movement. Their object was to ridicule the women and 
insult the entire white population of Augusta. One word in 



75 

conclusiDn. The women of the South were under no obliga- 
tion whatever to decorate the graves of the Federal soldiers. 
These men were not their kindred nor of their blood; they were 
not friends, but enemies; they had gone to their graves reeking 
with the blood of Southern men, slain in defence of their lib- 
erty aud their honor, their wives and firesides. But for all 
that, the Southern women did decorate the graves of the Fed- 
eral dead. Unlike the Radicals, their animosity did not seek 
to pass beyond the grave. In the awful presence of death they 
recognized the claims of a common humanity, and they strewed 
with flowers the graves of the men who had come among them 
only to desolate and destroy. It was an act of magnanimity 
too lofty to be appreciated by the small-souled detractors of the 
women of the South, but it will be another leaf in the crown of 
that noble army of martyrs." 

It is a matter of history, too, that in North Carolina 
some of the Memorial Associations had to use much 
prudence and diplomacy in order to carry out their 
plans for decorating the graves of Confederate soldiers. 

"In Raleigh, N. C, when the ladies first sought to decorate 
the soldiers' graves, they were warned not to go in a body else 
they would be fired upon. Hence, singly and flower-laden 
they went to the cemetery, and at the end of the day set aside 
for the work a floral tribute rested on the grave of each fallen 
hero." 

An amusing incident which occurred at our own 
cemetery here in Montgomery those first days of the 
26th of April illustrates how very careful the South 
needs must be at that crucial time. The incident is 
given on request by Mrs. Mary P. Watt, who from her 
girlhood was one of the most enthusiastic workers at 
the Sewing Societies and the Ladies' Memorial Associa- 
tion. The short narration is given as contributed in 
her own words : 

''In that spring Montgomery was yet a United States 
garrison, with camps of Yankee soldiers, infantry and 



76 

cavalry in every direction, and seen at every turn in 
control of our dear town. On the 26th of April of that 
year the skies were sun -kissed and the flowers made to 
blossom with unusual splendor and beauty. At our 
home they seemed never to have been so perfect or 
lovely nor in such endless variety. In my youthful 
ardor for the day's decoration I selected from them the 
pure white rose — Lamarque — and the red, red rose — the 
Giant of Battle — the straggling violets here and there, 
and the star-shaped blossoms of the White Spirea, and 
made them into a flower— Confederate — flag about twelve 
inches long and eight inches wide, with staff of green, 
making the bars of the red and white roses, the field of 
the blue violets and stars ot White Spirea. It was a 
perfect representation in spring's sweet flowers of our 
'furled banner.' Not dreaming I was doing anything 
amiss or imprudent or disloyal in making a boquet that 
would fade before the morrow, I placed it upon the 
grass mound — a thing of beauty. But lo and behold! 
several Yankees in uniform on gaily caparisoned horses 
dashed up and with lowering looks of threatening trou- 
ble at so lawless an act as displaying the hated flag of a 
fallen foe, sent terror and dismay to the older people 
there. 

''Judge Bibb, Mr. E. C. Hannon and others went to 
my father and said, 'Your daughter has been reckless 
enough to display a Confederate flag.' He and my 
dear mother came to me in deep concern and distress. 
'Oh, my child, why did you do it?' I said in my 
wrath and indignation, 'It is absurd to be accused of 
treason for making a boquet of flowers that will perish 
and fade before to-morrow's sun.' My reason could 
not accept such an over-strained sense of prudence. 
But alas ! the last I saw of my dear flag of flowers, it 



77 

was shrouded in Judge Bibb's white handkerchief and 
laid away in a close carriage. I was indignant. 

^'We have much to be thankful for in our re-united 
country, when men's minds are free from passion and 
prejudice, that at the present time we can display any 
or all of the three different Confederate flags on any 
public occasion without treason and the fear of arrest." 

These incidents are given not to break afresh the 
healing wound, but to show a most interesting phase of 
our country's history. Sad chronicles of facts they are, 
but we should, and do, at this hour bear in mind that 
only a few of the nobler element of our enemy were with 
us then; nor surely did even they dream the truth, nor 
did they understand. 

As a great sun-burst from behind the clouds, as some 
spiced balm of healing, come to us now the words of 
President Wm. McKinley, when in Atlanta he urged 
that the graves of Confederate as well as Northern sol- 
diers be the care of our re-united government. 

So, "forgetting those things which are behind and 
reaching forth unto those things which are before," we 
go back with lighter hearts to the beautiful story of 
eighteen hundred and sixty-six. For meanwhile the 
May Day Festival hour grew near and expectation ran 
high. 



CHAPTER V. 



Several days beforehand the full program of the Fes- 
tival was published. The following is the exact copy: 

THEATRE. 
The Ladies' Offering to Buby the Alabama Dead. 



Two May Day Festivals on the 
1st and 2nd Days of May. 



Programme. 

Matinee, Tuesday, May 1st, 11 o'clock a. m.— "Children's 
Offering," consisting of Concert and Tableaux. 



Tuesday Night at 8 o'clock, Ladies' Grand Tableaux. 



GRAND concert. 

Wednesday night, Ladies' Grand Concert, assisted by Mad. 
Balini and Prof. Gnospelius. 



AT CONCERT AND ESTELLE HALLS. 

Lunch will be set at ('oncert Hall on Tuesday from 11 a. m. 

to 3 p. m. 

Tickets, ?^1.00. Strawberries, Ices and Coffee Extra. 

The Performance each evening to commence at 8 o'clock. 



Sale of secured seats for Concert and Tableaux combined will 
commence on Friday, April 29th, at 9 o'clock a. m., at Shaw's 
Soulheru Photograph Gallery (Market Street). Secured seats 
for the single Festival can only be secured on the day of the 
performance. Tickets purchased from auy member of the com- 
mittee will be received for secured seats as cash. 



79 

Price of admission to all parts of the house, $1.00. Reserved 
seats, fifty cents extra. Children admitted to each exhibition 
for fifty cents each. Each concert ticket sold will be received 
at the door for either matinee or concert. 

G. T. Shaw, Manager. 

The following gentlemen are requested to act as managers to 
assist the ladies in their May Day OfTering on the 1st and 2nd 
prox. Badges will be found at Concert Hall on Tuesday, May 
1st, at 9 o'clock: Judge Geo. Goldthwaite, Judge B. S. Bibb, 
Dr. Wm. O. Baldwin, Dr. J. G. W. Steedman; J. Hausman, 
Esq.; J. Faber, Esq.; Col. Joseph Hodgson, Col. Jack Thoring- 
ton; G. L. Mount, Esq.; Dr. Jas. L. Ware; General J. H. Clan- 
ton; General J. T. Holtzclaw; Dr. E. A. Sample; Wm. H. Pol- 
lard, Esq.; Ex-Governor T. H. Watts; H. Strassburger, Esq.; 
H. West, Esq.; D. T. Troy, Esq. 

Found also in this date was the following entertaining 
and deserved compliment to our Hebrew citizens: 

It is with unfeigned pleasure and admiration that M'e hear 
of the generous enthusiasm with which this large class of use- 
ful citizens are co-operating with our ladies in their highly 
praiseworthy efforts to raise funds for the purpose as set forth 
in the approaching May Day Festival. The ladies w^ere 
cordially invited to join the organization, to which they 
promptly responded and have gone to work with a vim which is 
an earnest of their high appreciation of the noble objects in 
contemplation. We learn that the ladies have been divided 
into committees, and each are moving in the discharge of their 
respective duties with such energy, industry and zeal that com- 
mands our highest admiration. Money, provisions and delica- 
cies of every variety are being accumulated in such profusion 
as to prove them an indispensable auxiliary in the patriotic 
work in which all our ladies are so intensely engaged in its 
successful accomplishment. 

It might be deemed invidious to mention any names more 
prominent than others, but we can not forego the pleasure of 

giving to the public the names of two, Mesdames F and 

R , who, upon receiving their commissions to operate in 

the "greenback" dejDartment, sallied forth with the nitention 
of making a "raid" upon the strong boxes of their liegelords 



80 

and male friends generally, and such was the vigor of their 
assault that all were forced to capitulate and disgorge upon 
such terms as the ladies prescribed, which we learn was to fork 
over the lion's share of the "cash on hand," the defeated 
begging as a condition of the surrender that their visits might 
in future more closely assimilate to those of angels — few and 
far between. 

May the future of these worthy ladies be prosperous and 
happy, and to the male portion of our Jewish friends the thanks 
of all the friends of the cause are due. This highly respectable 
class of our community is ever ready to bestow liberally on all ; 

worthy objects."— (Mail, April 28th, 1866.) | 

On the morning of May Ist these papers gave the 
ladies conducting the Festival a last glowing advertise- 
ment, the Mail ending as follows : 

"This memiorial oflering is for a practical purpose, not for 
something visionary. It is for Alabama to do for her sons 
what other states are doing for theirs. The following from the 
Nashville Union will show what is being done upon one battle- 
field, and what may be done upon other fields : 

"We had the satisfaction a few days since of visiting the 
beautiful grounds near our neighboring town of Franklin so 
generously donated by Col. McGavock as a cemetery for the 
Confederate dead who fell in the sanguinary and ever memorable 
battle near that place on the 29th day of November, 1864. The 
beauty of the conception as shown in the arrangement and 
design is only equalled by the elevated sentiment and gener- 
osity of spirit which prompted Col. McGavock to the work in 
which, with the co-operation of others, he was so zealously 
engaged. Distanced about one mile from the village of Frank- 
lin, this cemetery, when completed, will afford a pleasant 
drive or walk from that place to the numberless persons who, 
through years to come, will seek as pilgrim shrines these graves 
of departed heroes, kindred friends, who, in defense of what 
they and we regard as the cause of liberty, died as nobly as 
ever naen died and whose names have ever been perpetuated in 
history and cherished in song. Passing from the town in a 
southeasterly direction the road leads through a large and 
beautiful grove of stately trees, fit sentiuels for the approach of 



81 

this sacred place. The cemetery of Coufederate dead adjoins 
the private burial grounds of the resideut family and is within 
short distance of the large and handsome mansion of the pro- 
prietor of the place. Instead of separate graves they are mar- 
shalled in the order somewhat of platoons, fifteen in each row, 
with their respective head and foot boards nicely finished and 
lettered. These rows extend for some distance on either hand 
with an avenue between of sufficient width to afford convenient 
walk or drive. The interments have been so arranged as to 
bring the respective dead of each state together, thereby height- 
ening interest of general plan as well as adding to the conven- 
ience of those who may come in search of the precise spot 
where repose the remains of some special object of aflection. 
Between the ground of the dead of different states, squares have 
been reserved for monumental or such other purposes as kindred 
and friends at some future time may consider appropriate in 
commemorating their virtues and in attesting the respect that 
is due their memory. The whole is to be handsomely orna- 
mented with evergreens and flowers and placed under a suitable 
enclosure. The work of re-interment, though far advanced, is 
not completed. Upwards of 700 have been removed. Of this 
number 71 were from Arkansas, 92 from Texas, 129 from Mis- 
souri, 166 from Tennessee, and 240 from Mississippi." 

"It will be observed that not one is from Alabama. The 
reason is, that Alabama has heretofore done nothing to assist 
Col. McGavock in his work of love. The ladies of Montgomery 
hope to-day to remedy the neglect." — (Mail.) 

It was about this time that the following, in this con- 
nection, appeared in the Advertiser: 

"Through the kindness of that noble gentleman. Col. Jno. 
McGavock, of Franklin, who without waiting to be prompted 
but anticipating all that under such trying circumstances a 
parent would naturally desire to have performed, the remains 
of Lieut. Jno. Porter, eldest son of Judge B. F. Porter, who 
fell leading Company N, 29th Mississippi Volunteers over the 
entrenchments at Franklin, were identified, exhumed and for- 
warded to Greenville, Ala., where they were buried on Sunday, 
April 1st. The funeral was attended by a large concourse of 
citizens, and a most eloquent and impressive sermon preached 



82 

by the pastor of the Baptist church, the Rev. Mr. Hawthorn. 
It is due Col. McGavock to say that the parents and friends of 
the noble and patriotic young men who died at Franklin owe 
him a lasting debt of gratitude for his generous action in collect- 
ing and giving a burial place in his cemetery to the bone? of 
of the victims of that battlefield which have not been removed 
to their homes. With the recollection of their fate will be 
associated the liberal and magnanimous conduct of this gener- 
ous Tennessean." 




CHAPTER VI. 



At last the long-Iooked-for hour arrived, the great 
May Day Festival began . Such an outpouring of enthusi- 
astic and patriotic love surely had never before been 
witnessed at any time or in any clime. The refined and 
cultured, the chivalric and brave, the once rich, the now 
poor; wives and mothers, yesterday proud in the great 
lore of noble husbands and gallant sons, to-day widowed 
and alone; once strong and brilliant men, now maimed 
and helpless; innocent little children, their young hearts 
sorrow-laden; fair young maidens whose gay lips belied 
the unconfessed heart-break— yet see them! From 
devastated plantations and farms, from suburbs and 
from city homes they came bringing their all and laying 
it on the altar of Southern bravery. What nation under 
Heaven ever gave so grand a picture to lure the magic 
brush of art or charm the living eyes of love? But the 
story of that gift of sacrificial love is best told by the 
patriotic pens of the day: 

"The Ladies' Offering— First Day. 

The Living Remember the Dead. Scenes, Incidents, etc. 
"The ladies of ftFontgonaery yesterday, iu their offering to 
Alabama's dead soldiers, added one really Ijright page to the 
history of the times, and by their heartfelt devotion and inde- 
fatigable endeavors in their "labor of love" they have encircled 
their fair brows with an undying wreath of memory and good- 
ness. In years to come, when they who so nobly labored iu 
this offering shall be no more, it will be a pleasure to those 
little raisses and masters who so admirably performed their 
parts in the tableaux, to revert to the 1st aud 2ud days of May, 
1866, and to continue to perpetuate aad cherish the doings on 
these eventful and never-to-be-forgotten days. We feel that it 



84 

is utterly impossible to describe tlie scenes of yesterday, for a 
similar offering and silent, sincere token of esteem to one's 
country's dead heroes seldom, if ever, falls to the lot of man to 
witness. The object appears too sacred to be discussed, much 
less described. 

At an early hour in the morning the doors of Concert and 
Estelle Halls and the Theatre were thrown open. The day 
was propitious, bright, genial and balmy, as if Heaven was 
smiling on the sacred and noble work of our women. Every- 
thing was admirably arranged and the halls were gaily decked 
with garlands and mottoes. Edibles of every description, con- 
sisting of substantials, delicacies and luxuries, were in great 
abundance, and the atmosphere was redolent with perfumes of 
sweet flowers and the scene waa enlivened by the bright smiles 
of our self-sacrificing women. During the entire day the halls 
were thronged with visitors and the utmost harmony and happi- 
ness prevailed. About 11 o'clock A. M. the Theatre began to 
fill with a beautiful and orderly though very large assemblage to 
witness the recitations, songs and tableaux of the children. All 
acquitted themselves handsomely and the large assemblage, 
notwithstanding the warm weather, evinced the deepest inter- 
est and evident satisfaction in all things. This performance 
was arranged and managed by Mrs. G. Montgomery,* a lady 

*Mrs. James Montgomery was born in that portion of this 
city now known as a suburb — Oakley, being the eighteenth 
child of her parents. Her grandfather, Samuel Goode, of 
Whitby, England, located at a farm near Kichmond, Va., now 
known as Whitby. Her father, Samuel Watkins Goode, lived 
in Washington county, Georgia, and moved to Montgomery 
in 1830, to Oakley. Her mother was a, Miss Douglass, from 
Middlebury, Vermont, descended from the famous Presbyte- 
rian ministers and professors of Edinburg, Scotland. An 
uncle, Orson Douglass, was fouuder of the Mariners' Church 
and Home, in Philadelphia. Mrs. Montgomery is one of the 
most interesting and talented of women, being by nature both 
an artist and a musician. Her talents have been fully given to 
the cause of her loved Southland. The first concert ever given 
in Dixie for the benefit of the boys in gray was presented in 
this city by Mrs. Montgomery, assisted by Mrs. Warren Brown, 
Miss Estelle Williams, Mrs. Whitfield,"^ Mr. Glacmyer, Wm. 
Harrington, Prof. Baum. Her daughter, Mrs. Ella Montgom- 
ery Smith, residing in this city with her mother, was the 
'•Little Ella" so often spoken of in the papers of '66 as the 
bright and wonderful little sprite who charmed with her songs 
and recitations the critics of that day. 



85 

of genius and great managerial talent, assisted by several of her 
friends. We have not the space to give the program, and can 
only give the eloquent opening address, delivered most feelingly, 
of Master Thomas Martin, as it fully set forth the object and 
aims of the offering. The following was the opening address : 

Ladies and Gentlemen :* We have met here to-day to pay 
a tribute to the memory of our gallant dead — those noble heroes 
who, when the conflict of council was over, stood forward in 
that of arms. The war is over and peace has spread her broad 
wings over our conquered country. Although 'tis not the kind 
of peace we all ardently desired and for which our heroes died 
— a peace with an independent nationality — yet still the fact is 
upon us in all its reality, and we must acknowledge it and 
submit to the inexorable decrees of fate. The ultima ratio has 
been tried. With what suffering and agonies of despair my 
hearers all know too well. New duties are upon us, and 'tis 
our only course to submit to the results of the war, still inscrib- 
ing on our banner that good old motto, "Onward ! Forever 
onward in the path of duty." Let us still show to the world 
that as we fought to the last, in a contest in which our honor 
was at stake, now though defeated, our honor will still demand 
that we all be true again to the government which has subdued 
us and to which we have rendered our allegiance. While these 
are the facts before us, and no one can now have any doubt as 
to the course our policy and duty would dictate, still it cannot 
be expected that we can ever forget the past— the glorious past 
of the last four bloody years of suffering and sorrow of sublim- 
ity and woe, of agonj- and subjugation. Tell us, ye who would 
have us forget, where can we find that fabled lethe's stream to 

*In a letter from Hon. J. Thomas Martin on this subject, he 
states that Col, Jack Phehm, who was then teaching in Mont- 
gomery, wrote this address and took deepest interest in teach- 
ing him to deliver it. At that time Master J. Thomas Martin 
was one of the brightest pupils in Capt. Jack Phelan's school. 
Hon. J. Thomas Martin is now one of the leading lawyers of 
Calhoun county, living in Jacksonville, Alabama. At the late 
Constitutic<nal Convention he was an honored and influential 
member. He is the nephew of Judge A. J. Walker, who was 
Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Alabama. Mr. Martin 
was boarding here with his uncle when he delivered, with 
such ability, the address of this grand occasion. 



86 



blot out with its waters of forgetfulness, all remembrauce of 
the past. Bid Greece forget her Aristides aud Leonidas; Rome 
her Cinciniiatiis and her Scipios, and all the hemes aud patri- 
ots whose praises have been the theme of the poets and histo- 
rians. Bid them bury their glorious deeds in oblivion, as soon 
as tell us to forget the heroes of Manassas, Shiloh, Richmond 
and Chickamauga. These glorious names can never be for- 
gotten. Their glories have reached the shores of the old world 
and have extorted from even her proud races the confession 
that they are bright and noble indeed. No! We can never for- 
get our distinguished and noble heroes who freely died — 

Their country to save! 
No, we can never, no never forget 

How gushed the life-blood of our brave 
Upon the soil they died to save! 



Forget them! Palsied be the tongue that would dare to utter 
a sneer over their honored graves! No I Scattered, as they 
are, all over our land, on our hilltops and in our green valleys, 
let us, in token of love and appreciation of their virtues, strive 
with an unceasing toil, regardless of trouble and expense, to 
collect their bleached bones and bring them all, yes, all, to 
their own beloved Alabama and here let them rest forever! 
Let us bury here in Montgomery all the dead sons of our 
mothers and build up a gratid monument to their memor.y, 
that its towering height shall kiss with its lofty top our own 
azure skies; let the radiant beams of the morning sun greet it 
with its glory, and the last rays of evening waft back a smile 
on its summit. Let us have a sacred spot in which to lay our 
dead, to be called, for ages to come, the Macphelah of our South- 
land. Let us decorate it with flowers and shady trees, and let 
the vine and the laurel entwine it; and the free song of our 
own uncaged birds, which speak of liberty and freedom, at 
last float over them; and let us annually, as time rolls on, 
meet to celebrate scenes like these of to-day! 

Let old men and mothers, young men and maidens, and 
gladsome children, in all time to come, meet, all over our State, 
on the first of May and let it be sacred to the memory of our 
gallant dead. Would ye men of the South avert the scorn aud 
indignation of the world; would ye deserve the respect and 



S7 

love of yoiir maimed sons who remain; would ye show to the 
world that ye fought for principle, that honor and virtue are 
not gone from our land? Go and preserve as a noble treasure, 
more glorious than all else besides, the sacred and honored 
dusts of your fallen braves. Go gather the wild flowers, the 
white rose and the evergreen, and spread them over their hal- 
lowed dust! For these are truly emblematical of them. The 
wild flowers speak of freedom for which they fought and died, 
the white rose of their pure and noble spirits, and the laurels, 
the cedar and the ivy green, of their undying fame. 

Daughters of Alabama, weep, 

On this our celebration day; 
Your fathers, husbands, brothers sleep 

On the distant fields away. 

Oh! gently close the eye 

That loved to look on you; 
Oh! seal the lip whose earliest sign, 

Whose latest breath was true. 

With knots of sweetest flowers, 

Their winding sheets perfume; 
And wash their wounds with true love showers. 

And dress them for the tomb. 

For beautiful in death 

The warrior's corse appears; 
Embalmed by fond affection's breath, 

And bathed in woman's tears. 

Give me the death of those 

Who tor their country die; 
And oh! be mine like their repose, 

W^heu cold and low they lie. 

Their loveliest mother earth 

Enshrines the fallen brave; 
In her sweet lap who gave them birth 

They find their tranquil grave. 

The day's exercises were closed with the Ladies' Grand Tab- 
leaux at the Theatre last night, which was witnessed by a tre- 
mendous crowd. The scenes and siietches were truh' beautiful 
and were received with great applause. To-night the grand 
concert of the season will close the ladies' ofTering to Alabama's 
dead soldiers. During to day the halls will be opened for vis- 



88 

itors and all are invited to come aud partake of all that is good 
to eat and driuk, renaembering that the proceeds are to be 
appropriated to a noble purpose." — (Mail, May 2nd, 1866). 

"Second Day— Ladies' Offering. 

"The May-Day Offering closed last evening with the concert 
and supper. Estelle Hall and Concert Hall were the scenes of 
an attraction yesterday similar to that of the day before. Dur- 
ing the day the dining and refreshment rooms were crowded, 
not only with citizens of Montgomery, but also with many 
from the surrounding country. The concert, like the tableaux 
of the night before, was a brilliant success, reflecting great 
credit upon the industry, good taste and accomplisbment of 
the young ladies and gentlemen who consented to appear upon 
the stage in behalf of the enterprise, and upon the large audi- 
ence which was present, as much to enjoy the entertainment 
as to aid the cause. Seldom, if ever in the history of Mont- 
gomery, have ladies and gentlemen exhibited such devotion to 
a purpose. The result has been commensurate with their 
labors, the amount of money realized being probably larger 
than has ever been realized heretofore for any single charitable 
or pious purpose. It would be difficult to mention the namea 
of those who have been the most prominent in this good work 
where all have been exerting themselves to the best of their 
abilities. Indeed, we hardly think that special thanks should 
be awarded to any, since those who did less than others did so 
from want of opportunity, not of inclination. Durijig the con- 
cert, recitations and tableaux, many allusions called back to 
us the melancholy past. 'In Memoriam,' which hung above 
the stage; the sleeping soldier dreaming of peace; the children 
throwing flowers upon a tomb (one of the most touching scenes) 
all stirred the deep fountain of memory in every breath. 

"These things are pitiful to recall, but not without a benefit. 
The benefit consists in educating the children of the South to 
consecrate the first day of May to the memory of their fathers, 
to redeem their monuments from the hands of time and oblo- 
quy, and to say to the world that though others may peek to 
blast their fame to all time, yet will they endeavor to make 
the remotest ages ring with the truth of Southern hearts, as 
they will ring with the glories of Southern arms. 



89 

"Having endeavored to the best of our poor ability to set this 
naovement on foot,* we thank the ladies of Montgomery for 
having done so much more than we thought it possible to be 
done; and we know that we will be expressing the voice of the 
living soldiers when we thank them for their holy sympathy 
for the remains of those who died by our side." 

Thus ended the grand May Day Festival suggested 
first by the Executive Committee of the Monumental 
and Historical Association, and successfully carried 
through by the ^'Ladies' Memorial Association," nobly 
assisted by the press of the city and the gallant sons of 
this glorious commonwealth. Certainly the most mar- 
velous record of loving tribute to the dead heroes of a 
lost cause ever chronicled! 

It is pleasant to see that visitors from other States 
were no less delighted than our own journalists. The 
following bright bit from "Ariel," the correspondent 
of the New Orleans Picayune, lends additional color to 
the scene: 

"It is impossible to describe the zeal manifested by the ladies 
on the occasion. The arrangements were in excellent taste; 
the walls were adorned with wreaths and appropriate mottoes; 
the atmosphere was redolent with the perfume of innumerable 
bouquets, and the bright smiles of the ladies at the tables would 



*This is truly spoken. Colonel Hodgson, one of the editors 
of the "Mail," was the Secretary of the Monumental and His- 
torical Society' at its formation, and later both Recording and 
Correspouding Secretary. He UBed his pen in advancing this 
movement as fearlessly as he bad used his sword in defense 
of his country. Captain Whitfield, the other editor and soldier, 
was also deeply interested, especially in the May-Day Festival. 
Captain Whitfield is now dead; his widow still resides in Mont- 
gomery an enthusiastic member of the Memorial Association. 
Major Gibson, the proprietor and publisher, now residing at 
his picturesque home in Verbena, the life and wit of the town, 
was also enthusiastic for this cause. 



90 

have been sufficieut to extract the loose change from the gen- 
tlemeu's pockets." 

Another interesting pleasantry from the Press to the 
ladies was the following when calling on the gentlemen 
of Montgomery to complete the Central Eailroad link, 
which serves a double purpose, by showing also the 
financial success of the Festival : 

"If the men cannot be aroused to this work, we will have to 
call upon the ladies to start it. If $6,000 can be realized by the 
ladies from a May Day Oflering, cannot $250,000 be raised for 
public State improvement, which will double the population 
and wealth of the city in ten \ears?" — May 11th, '66. 

And here, while the women of Montgomery are rest- 
ing on their laurels, we pause to take a glimpse of four 
of these heroines who, as the officers of the Memorial 
Association, worked unremittingly for this success. 

MRS. B. S. BIBB, PRESIDENT. 

Mrs. Sophia Bibb was descended from a long line of 
illustrious and wealthy ancestors. She was born in 
Oglethorpe county, Georgia, March 10th, 1801, and was 
the daughter of Thomas M. Gilmer and Elizabeth 
(Lewis) Gilmer. The Lewises, her mother's ancestors, 
were originally from France, leaving France for Ireland 
on account of religious persecutions. Here John Lewis, 
having difficulties in Ireland with the Lords under 
whom he held his freehold lease, came over from Ire- 
land to America — this famed land of the free and home 
of the brave. Here he settled in Virginia, in Augusta 
county, being the first white settler of that county. The 
Gilmers were descended from the Scotch physician. Dr. 
George Gilmer, who was born near Edinburgh, Scot- 
land, for many years practicing medicine in that old 
city. Coming to America, he settled in Williamsburg, 



9i 

Virginia, the capital of the colony. Thomas M. Gilmer, 
the father of Mrs. Bibb, subsequently brought his 
family to Georgia, and settled on the west side of Broad 
river, in Wilkes county, then known as Oglethorpe. 
The ancestor of the Bibb family came from France to 
America in the seventeenth century. He located in 
Hanover county, Virginia, and there died, leaving three 
sons — William, James and Thomas. William Bibb, in 
1789, removed to Elbert county, Georgia, and died in 
1796. Xot long after the removal of the Gilmers from 
Virginia, Capt. William Bibb came with his young fam- 
ily from Virginia and settled on the east side of the 
river in Elbert county. Here their son, Benajah S. 
Bibb, wooed and won the daughter of his neighbor, 
Thomas M. Gilmer. So in 1819 Sophia Gilmer was mar- 
ried to Benajah Smith Bibb, sixth son of Capt. William 
Bibb. They removed to Alabama in 1822, when he 
located in Montgomery county on a rich estate, becom- 
ing a wealthy planter and wielding a large influence. 
For twelve years he was County Judge, and in 1864 
Judge of the Criminal Court for Montgomery City 
and County. Too old to enter the army. Judge Bibb 
gave the Confederate cause his pecuniary aid and his 
great moral influence and support. Mrs. Bibb was a 
faithful, loyal servant of her State. Her works during 
the war are too well known for repetition. As Presi- 
dent of the Hospital Association, she proved herself a 
skilled leader and manager, and was greatly beloved and 
respected. Possessed of wealth and all the accessories 
it brings in its wake, her spacious home was ever open 
to brilliant officers and needy soldiers. When the war 
was over and she became President of the Memorial 
Association, she labored with the same earnestness and 
zeal which had characterized her other works of benev- 



w 



^- 

olence. Mrs. Bibb was the mother of five children, only 
two of whom now survive lier — Mrs. S. E. Hutcheson 
anfl Mrs. M. D. Bibb, whose husband, Col. Joseph B. 
Bibb, the gallant officer of the 23rd Eegiment of Ala- 
bama, survived the war only a few years. Mrs. Sophia 
Bibb's eventful married life covered a period of sixty- 
five years, Judge Bibb dying in 1884. She was a lead- 
ing member of the Protestant Methodist church, which 
she served with the Christian zeal of her forefathers. 
The years of her widowhood were spent in works of 
love and charity and benevolence. Up to the hour of 
her last illness she was a dear, familiar figure, having 
been blessed with wonderful heall"h, and strength, and 
activity. At the old home on Moulton street she passed 
quietly and peacefully away January 9th, 1887. She 
was buried with every honor in Oakwood Cemetery, the 
historic God's Acre of Montgomery, side by side with 
the boys in gray and those other wonderful women who 
fought with her the ''bra vest battle ever fought." 

MRS. J. D. PHELAN, FIRST VICE PRESIDENT. 

Mrs. Mary Anne Phelan was born in Winchester, 
Tenn., on the 26th day of April, 1816. She w^as the 
daughter of General Thomas Kent Harris, who at the 
time of her birth was candidate for re-election as Con- 
gressman from White county, Tenn. He was a man 
determined in all principles, both political and moral. 
To maintain these rights and principles in that day of 
recklessness in our country's historj^, he became neces- 
sarily involved in a duel. In consequence of that duel 
he was shot and died from the wounds when this daugh- 
ter was only two weeks old, leaving two other children, 
Caroline Harris (Mrs. Wm. Hayes) and Dr. Algernon 
Sidney Harris, who gave his only son to the Confederate 



93 

Army. General Harris was descended from a distin- 
guished and powerful family who came to Virginia from 
Wales in the seventeenth century, with a land grant 
from the Crown of England, to what is now known as 
Eichmond, Va. They were a people who feared nothing 
but wrong in themselves, always battling for the right. 
After a course at the University of Virginia, General 
Harris came to Tennessee. Mrs. Phelan's mother was 
a Miss Mary Anne Moore, of Virginia, daughter of one 
of the first divines of that State, a man revered and hon- 
ored until his death at the venerable age of ninety-two 
years. Mary Anne Harris married in 1836, near Hunts- 
ville, Ala., Jno. D. Phelan, a young lawyer who in sub- 
sequent years was Speaker of the House of Representa- 
tives, Judge of the Circuit Court for fifteen years, twice 
Judge of the Supreme Court, and at all times a cultured 
Christian gentleman. 'No man in all the South gave 
more of heart and brain to the Confederate cause, nor 
braver soldiers at the time of need. 

Mrs. Phelan was the mother of twelve children, and 
gave four sons to her country. Her life was always one 
of helpful activity, public spirit and patriotism. In 
church, charity or state she was among the first, realiz- 
ing that one's duties were essential at home, but not to 
end there. During the war it was a daily labor with her 
to help the sick in hospitals and manage to get such 
things as her large family at home and her sons in the 
army needed. At the news of every battle in Tennes- 
see or Virginia her heart beat with anxiety lest one of 
these boys was wounded or dying. This fear was often 
realized — at the battle of Gaines' Mills, when Captain 
Thomas Phelan was instantly killed; at the battle of 
Fredericksburg, when Captain Watkins Phelan was 
dangerously wounded; at the battles of Eesacca and At- 



94 

lanta, when Captains John and Ellis Phelan were again 
both severely wounded, and at last at the battle of 
Petersburg, when Captain Watkins Phelan was mortally 
wounded, dying April 5th, four days before our brave 
though overpowered army surrendered at Appomattox. 
On May 22, 1870, at her home in Montgomery, Mrs. 
Phelan's tired heart gave its last drum-beat in the battle 
of life, and sweetly and silently rested. A beautiful coin- 
cidence of her life is that the birth-day of our ''Memo- 
rial Day," which she and others labored so faithfully to 
establish in Montgomery, is the very same on which her 
own eyes first opened to the light of dawn — the 26th of 
April. So the same flowers of April which commemor- 
ate her birth and annually make beautiful the bier of 
sons which Southern mothers bore and gave to their 
country — mark the birth of a custom which shall live 
so long as sons and daughters are given to this glorious 
land of sun-kissed flowers and war-scarred heroes. 

Hon. "William Garrett, in his "Eeminiscences of Pub- 
lic Men" and his eulogy of Judge John D. Phelan, goes 
out of his way to mention Mrs. Phelan, a compliment 
he seldom pays the worthy wives of the distinguished 
men he portrays. "I make mention of this lady," he 
says, ''because I knew her well, and in all that consti- 
tutes true womanhood she was one of the foremost 
women of Alabama. She was extensively known for 
her genial and unselfish spirit and for her gentle yet 
thoroughly energetic Christian character." 

MRS. WM. O. BALDWIN, SECRETARY. 

Mrs. Wm. O. Baldwin was born in Shelbyville, Tenn. 
She was the daughter of Col. Abram Martin and spent 
much of her life in South Carolina. Col. Abram Martin 
was descended from one of the great families of Eevolu- 



95 

tionary fame, which moved to Montgomery before the 
war, and was himself a jurist of renown. Her mother 
was Miss Jane Patton, of Scotch descent, whose mother, 
Jean Shaw, on coming to America, married Mr. Patton, 
a cultured gentleman of the old school in South Caro- 
lina. Miss Mary Jane Martin was married early in life 
in 1843, to Dr. Wm. O. Baldwin, of Montgomery, who, 
at the time of his death, had few peers and no superiors 
in the medical profession. Dr. Baldwin's ancestors, 
when they came to this country, settled in Virginia and 
furnished to that commonwealth distinguished for bril- 
liant men some of its ablest sons. His mother was the 
sister of Benjamin Fitzpatrick, who for so many years 
faithfully served Alabama as Governor and United 
States Senator. Dr. Baldwin was a scholar as well as 
physician. ''As a writer his style was chaste and 
luminous and in the splendor of its flow has been com- 
pared not inaptly to that of Macauley." There was 
never a woman of more genuine ability of mind and 
heart or sweetness of character than Mrs. Wm. O. Bald- 
win. She was clear-headed and gentle, broad-minded 
and sympathetic. She cared not for the applause and 
praise of the world, and shunned all ostentation and 
show. Duty and love were her watchwords. Yet, though 
so modest and shrinking, she felt a deep interest in all 
that pertained to the public welfare. Mrs. Baldwin 
gave to the South her first born, Wm. O. Baldwin, Jr., 
who was a mere youth when he left the University of 
Alabama and joined the Confederate Army. He was 
the youngest captain in his regiment, the 22nd Alabama, 
being only nineteen years old. He took part in every 
battle in which his regiment was engaged, and fell 
finally at the last entrenchment, at the battle of Frank- 



lin, Tenn.* Mrs. Baldwin aever entirely recovered 
the shock of his death and the work nearest her heart, 
coming next to her beautilul Christian faith, was the 
proper burial of Alabama soldiers and the memorial 
services of April 26th, which she, with others, was 
instrumental in making a loving, never-to-be-forgotten 
custom. She was the first Secretary of the Memorial 
Association, and on the death of Mrs. Phelau became 
first Vice-President. Mrs. Baldwin died in 1878, leav- 
ing heart-broken her great husband who had encir- 
cled her with the youthful romance of first love ; 
always to him she was the emblem of perfection in 
womanhood. 

MRS. E. C. HANNON, TREASUEER. 

Mrs. Hannon was born in 1814 in Milledgeville, then 
the capital of Georgia. Her father, Thos. B. Stubbs, 

*The following is the first letter announcing the death of 
Wm. O. Baldwin, Jr.: 

Franklin, Tenn., Dec. 1, 1864. 
Hon. Barclay Martin: 

Dear Sir — I have the honor to announce to you the sad 
intelligence of the death of the sou (your relative) of one of my 
best friends, Capt. Wm. O. Baldwin. He was wounded about 
nine o'clock last night and died at five o'clock this morning. 
I will write to his father, Dr. W. O. Baldwin, of Montgomery, 
Ala. The Surgeon of his regiment will communicate with and 
let you know where his remains are buried. Willie was shot 
with the colors of his regiment in his hands leading it against 
the strong position of his enemy, and fell within a short 
distance of the enemy's breast-works. There was great diffi- 
culty in getting plank to make a cotfin, and I having to leave 
before he was buried, do not know what kind of a one was 
made. I write in great haste. 

Very respectfully and truly, 

A. J. Foard, 
Medical Director. 

(Capt. Wm. O. Baldwin's remains were Boon after brought 
to Montgomery and placed in the family plot at Oakwood 
Cemetery.) 



97 

was a large cotton planter, and also engaged in mercan- 
tile pursuits. Her antecedents were distinguished, her 
social position was of the highest, while her educational 
advantages were the best that the schools and semi- 
naries of the day afforded. Upon her marriage to the 
late E. C. Hannon (well known in business circles of the 
first capital of the Confederacy thirty years ago) she 
came to Montgomery and there lired until the King's 
voice bade her "come up higher." Mrs. Hannon was of 
a sweet, gentle disposition and beautiful character. 
She was one of God's "hidden ones." Few, if any, of 
that generation of noble Montgomery women were more 
loved than she. A Southron of the Southerners — from 
first to last her heart was in "the cause." The inmates 
of her household in the early stages of the war were 
familiar with the hum of two sewing machines as with 
her faithful colored domestics she sewed sand bags for 
the batteries of the gulf coast and blankets for the sol- 
diers. One near to her says: "When the First Alabama 
Cavalry was organized at Montgomery, I recall going- 
home one day and finding a soldier boy stretched on a 
pallet in the sitting room sick. It was this soldier 
boy's custom always after in passing through the city 
to call and see his foster mother. Years afterwards 
this soldier boy, then a doctor from Paris, sent her from 
the train a greeting which we may be suie her mother 
heart lovingly returned." This boy was but the head 
of a column who at times camped as invalids in her 
home. Three of her sous, the late Capt. Thomas E. 
Hannon and two younger brothers, followed General 
Wheeler. Capt. Hannon enjoyed the confidence and 
esteem of his commander, and a call from General 
Wheeler cheered his faithful subaltern when fighting 
his last battle with death. Mrs. Hannon used to say 



98 



that the battle of Shiloh turned her head gray. By a 
coincidence her son and a brother (the late Lieutenant- 
Colonel M, W. Hannon, of the First Alabama Cavalry) 
were in the battle, and Pittsburg landing was the prop- 
erty of her father, She never surrendered and only 
negatively accepted the '^situation." The evening 
of her life was divided between her children in Mont- 
gomery and her sons in Virginia, Baltimore and Cali- 
fornia. In 1898 she ''fell on sleep," and her body lies 
in the old cemetery in Montgomery hard by the honored 
dust of the boys who wore ''the gray." 




CHAPTER VII. 



The next information of interest from the Memorial 
Association came in the form of an open letter from its 
able Secretary, Mrs. Baldwin, to the ladies of Alabama. 

"The following commuuication, which is intended for every 
lady of the State, explains itself, and we would respectfully 
request our exchanges of the State to re-publish with such 
remarks as they think proper in furtherance of the purpose: 

Montgomery, Ala., May 10, 1866. 

Dear Madam— The ladies of this place have recently organ- 
ized themselves into a society for the purpose of raising funds 
for the burial and preservation from neglect and desecration of 
the mortal remains of our heroic dead, under the name of 
"The Ladies' Society for the Burial of Deceased Alabama 
Soldiers." As Secretary of this Society, I am instructed to ask 
your co-operation in this noble work which you will find in 
the following resolution adopted in our meeting to-day : 

Resolved, That the Secretary of this Society correspond 
with influential ladies in different parts of the State and urge 
them to organize societies similar to ours, formed with a view 
to united exertion in accomplishing the purpose of this Society. 

Our Society has been organized only a few weeks, and we 
have already raised the sum of $5,000. Similar eflorts in other 
cities of the State will enable the ladies by concert of action to 
do much good. We propose to have an offering on the first 
day of May annually commemorating the past with tributes 
for our fallen brave. If you desire it, we will send you a copy 
of our constitution, resolutions, etc. This Society entered into 
a correspondence to-day with Col. Juo. W. McGavock, of 
Franklin, Teun., in view of responding to his genennis and 
noble offers made last winter in behalf of the dead of Alabama 
who fell on the ever memorable field of Franklin. 

Very respectfully, 
—The Mail. Mary J. Baldwin, Sec'y." 



100 

In addition to the above, Mrs. Baldwin was also in 
correspondence with Col. McGavock and others from 
different battlefields. In reply to Mrs. Baldwin's let- 
ter to Col. McGavock, she received the following: 

Mrs. Mary J. Baldwin : 

Madam— Your letter as Secretary of the Ladies' Society for 
Re-interment of Deceased Alabama Soldiers who fell in the 
battles fought on the soil of this State was received to-day. It 
gives me pleasure to contribute what I can in aid of this work. 
In order that you may know and through you, the ladies of 
Montgomery, what has been done in the work of re-interring 
the Confederate dead at this place, I will give here a transcript 
from the record book with reference to the Alabama dead. To 
this date there has been 1,300 interments; of this number there 
are 132 from Alabama. Perhaps there are fifteen or twenty 
more from Alabama yet to be removed. The money sub- 
scribed for this work falls short of the amount due the under- 
taker who was persuaded to undertake the removal of all the 
dead at this place in advance of subscriptions. This was done 
in order'to have removed from fields exposed to the plowshare 
the remains of all those who were there buried. This part 
of the work is now finished at a cost of ?6,500. $3,500 has been 
obtained and paid to the contractor, who was a Confederate 
soldier from Texas, G. W. Cuppett, Terry's Regiment of Texas 
Rangers who came forward and ofl'ered to do the whole work 
in advance of the subscription and at a less cost than any one 
else, and I am sure at a price as low as it can be done — $5.00 for 
each remains. Each coffin is neatly and compactly made of 
oak. The order of interment is by platoon, fifteen in each, and 
each state (as far as identification would admit) to itself; also 
by regiments and companies. There are two lines, separated 
by an avenue of fourteen feet in width, and in the centre of 
each state a monumental space of thirty-five feet square. The 
design is considered appropriate. The spot is a beautiful one, 
and if the means can be had it is the intention of the company 
to enclose and adorn and beautify it in a permanent manner 
due the gallant dust reposing in it. I write these details on the 
eve of starting for Nashville, where I will be absent some days. 
In two or three weeks this work will be finished, at which time 



101 

the dust of all the Confederate soldiers who fell in those battles 
fought here wUl be congregrated together. I have been 
informed by those who have visited the other battlefields of 
this State — Shiloh and INIurfreesboro— iu search of their kindred , 
that all identifications have been torn away by rude hands 
(with a few exceptions) and have otherwise disappeared. 
Therefore I would suggest whether an effort should be made 
in search for the dead by any one state separately, or whether 
a joint eflTort should not be made to remove all the Confederate 
dead to some spot selected for that purpose. 

Any means sent by your Society will be appropriated in the 
way you desire. I would be pleased to have more leisure and 
write more carefully of this sad work. 

With very high regard, etc., 

Jno. McGavock, 
—(Mail, May 23, 1866.) 

iN'ow came the first note of discontent. There seems 
to have crept out an opinion from some quarters that a 
part of the money obtained for the dead should have 
been given to the living- poor. This was exaggerated and 
sent out to the Northern press. The following caustic 
editorial ably defends the position of the Ladies' 
Memorial Association, and explains the situation : 

"the living and dead. 

"The Journals of the South which may have noticed the 
anonymous letter of the correspondent of 'Forney's Chronicle' 
respecting the successful efTorts of the ladies of Montgomery to 
raise a fund for the burial of our dead, will do us justice by 
publishing the following statement : 

"Reports had reached us that the bones of our children and 
fathers who fell in the late unhappy war were being ploughed 
up on the battlefields, or were exposed to view by being improp- 
erly buried. So soon as we received satisfactory information 
that these reports were true, the ladies of Montgomery set on 
foot a kind of Fair in order to raise a small sum to contribute 
to the work of interring the dead. They expected to realize a 



102 

thousand dollars. They realized, however, about five thousand 
dollars. After the movement had been set on foot, the news- 
papers commenced publishing accounts of great destitution 
among the poor of the State. The ladies who were engaged in 
raising the fund for the dead did not think proper to change 
the direction of that fund, for they were informed by gentle- 
men of high position that the Government intended to furnish 
adequate assistance to the poor. They also knew that the city of 
Montgomery alone had given over $10,000 to the poor while the 
'offering for the dead' was in progress. It is not true that our 
people have neglected or are neglecting the wants of the living 
in order to indulge in sentiment for the dead. They have been 
ready and are still ready to do justice to both. They can bury 
the dead but once; they are feeding the poor daily. The assist- 
ance which they extended to the destitute is not blazoned to 
the world, and hence has not attracted the attention which 
this offering to the dead has attracted. Exactly as the ladies 
were informed, the President has ordered the Commissary 
Department to relieve every case of destitution. Hence there 
has been no necessity to appropriate the ladies' fund for another 
object than that for which it was raised. The secret of this 
carping is not because the fund was not applied to the relief 
of the poor, but because it was applied to preserving the 
memory of our dead. It is the object of the Radical Forney 
and his fellow traitors to retain power by harping upon the 
rebellion and by distorting and endeavoring to render odious 
the most sacred aflections of the South. It is the purpose of 
these men to render odious the memory of those who died in 
the Confederate cause. On the contrary, it is our purpose to 
cherish their memory as heroes whose devotion and gallantry 
would have ennobled any cause. Their memory shall live for 
history and not die for a party."— Mail, May 20, 1866. 

On May 22nd there was an important call from Mrs. 
Sophia Bibb, the President: 

"The'members of the Society for the Burial of Deceased Ala- 
bama Soldiers and all ladies of the city are requested to meet 
at the Methodist church at five o'clock p. m. The committee 
for the application of funds raised by the Society composed of 
the resident ministers of the city and the President of the 



103 

Monumental and Historical Society are alf^o requested to meet 
at the same time and place. 

Mrs. Bibb, President. 
Mrs. Baldwin, Secretary." 
—(Mail, May 22, 1866.) 

No report of this meeting was given out through the 
press, nor could anj- record of the meeting be found in 
the Secretaries' books of the Memorial Association 
proper, or of the committee tor jDroper application of 
funds. 

Another meeting of the Committee for Proper Appli- 
cation of Funds, taken from the Secretary's books, 
under date June 8th, '66, is of interest : 

"On motion it was Resolved to appropriate ?800 for burial of 
Alabama dead at Franklin, the funds to be forwarded to Colonel 
McGavock of that place for the purpose. 

"Letter from Miss L. R. Meem read with respect to the re- 
mains of Alabama soldiers buried near Mt. Jackson, Shenan- 
doah County, Va. On motion of Rev. Bishop McTyeire it was 
Resolved, That the Secretary of this Society open correspond- 
ence with Miss Meem to ascertain whether the Alabama sol- 
diers above referred to were buried at the expense of the Gov- 
ernment or of individuals ; if at private expense, at what cost, 
and also whether there are other Alabama dead remaining 
imburied or imperfectly buried, and what would be the proba- 
ble expense of their decent interment ? On motion }!l,000 were 
appropriated for the burial of the remains of Alabama soldiers 
who fell on the field of Corinth, if it should be possible to iden- 
tify them ; if not, it was resolved that the remains generally 
be collected together and buried at the expense of the Society, 
provided such expense does not exceed $1,000. It was further 
Resolved, on motion of Bishop McTyeire, That a letter be 
addressed to Mr. John F. Green, of Resaca, to ascertain the 
condition of Alabama dead that fell at that point, and also 
that similar inquiries be made concerning the dead of our State 
at Jonesboro. The motion was then extended to apply to those 
who fell at Chickamauga and Missionary Ridge. 



104 

"On motion, Dr. 8. K. Cox^ was appointed assistant Secre- 
tary to Mrs. Baldwin." 
June 8, 1866. 

Thus it will be seen that Dr. Cox was assistant Secre- 
tary of the Committee for the Proper Application of 
Funds, and not of the Memorial Association, as has 
been supposed. This committee was composed of the 
President of the Historical and Monumental Association, 
President and Secretary of the Memorial Association and 
the resident ministers of the city, as has been before 
shown. In some instances Dr. Cox is signed ''Assistant 
Secretary," in others "Corresponding Secretary" of the 
committee. 

At a previous meeting of this committee, May 10th, 
1866, Dr. Cox moved that ''The Society appoint a suit- 
able agent to visit different battlefields and ascertain 
the condition and report to this Society." It was de- 
cided that the Memorial Association send such agent, 
paying all expenses. Dr. Cox was chosen as this agent 
and faithfully discharged these duties. 

The following is a much later report from this com- 
mittee, which Dr. Cox very wisely calls Appropriation 
Committee : 

Ladies' Memorial Association:— A Statement of Disburse- 
ments made by the Appropriation Committee of the Ladies' 
Memorial Association, of Montgomery, Ala. 

Amount forwarded to Col. McGavock, of Tennessee, for the 
collection and interment of remains of Alabama soldiers that 

*Dr. Cox was a'Protestant Methodisf minister of this city for 
sometime. Subsequently he was President of a Female Col- 
lege here, being associated with Mrs. Pollock, who subse- 
quently made famous Pollock aud Stevens Institute of Bir- 
mingham, Ala. Leaving here, Dr. Cox went to Christians- 
burg, Va., to the college there, and died some years since in 
Baltimore. Dr. Cox was deeply interested in the memorial 
work, and his services were much appreciated by the ladies. 



105 

fell at the battle of Franklin, |800. Amount seut to Mies Leila 
R. Meem, of Fort Jackson, Shenandoah (Jo., Va., for the re-in- 
terment of the Alabama dead at that poiut, ^100. Amount 
sent to Resaca, Ga., for a similar purjDOse, $100. Amount seut 
to the Memorial Association of Richmond, Va., for purpose of 
marking graves and giving decent interment to remains of 
Alabama soldiers that fell in various battles uear that city, 
1400. Amount forwarded to the Association at Fredericksburg 
for a similar purpose, $600. Total amount actually expended, 
12,000, In addition to the sums above enumerated, other 
appropriations have been made amouutiug to about §)1,400, but 
awaiting more definite information before being distributed. 
Enquiries, too, have been instituted concerning our de'id at 
various points, provision for whose remains will about consume 
the balance in hand. The committee have exercised the utmost 
caution in discharging the duty assigned them, that no portion 
of the funds might be injudiciously appropriated or committed 
to unsafe hands. Their attention has been especially directed 
to remains lying in exposed situations where they were con- 
stantly liable to desecration or neglect. Many of them have 
been gathered from the roadsides, open fields and unfrequented 
places, and removed to some safe and reliable repository of the 
dead. The graves of others have been plainly but permanently 
marked or so classified as to admit of easy identification. We 
are satisfied that in every instance the money has been appro- 
priated in strict accordance with the sacred purpose for which 
it was given. 

SAM'ii K. Cox, Cor. Sec'y. 
—Mail, Dec. 22nd, 1866. 

Now that their hearts were at rest over the appalling 
unburied condition of the loved on far off fields, these 
indefatigable women turned with zeal to beautifying 
and improving their own cemetery. For the accom- 
plishment of this more funds were necessary. So it was 
decided to have a Christmas offering, on Wednesday 
night, December 24th, in Concert and Estelle halls. 
The papers, in speaking of this appeal, said in part : 

"Though the ladies worked nobly in May last and raised a 



106 

large sum of money which has done and is doing a great 
amount of good in burying the dead of Alabama, it was not for 
the benefit of those lying in their own midst, and their success 
on that occasion but encourages them to another eflort." 

The entertainment decided on was both unique and 
beautiful. Three Christmas trees were arranged in the 
historic old Concert and Estelle halls. It is said to have 
been a most brilliant, touching and inspiring sight. 
The whole town as one united family gathered here and 
enjoyed together a sacred, hallowed Christmas eve. 
One tree contained presents from parent to child, child 
to parent and friend to friend ; another contained beau- 
tiful and useful articles made by the fair fingers of the 
ladies, ornaments and toys which were bought by many 
and distributed to friends, or to the poor and needy. 
Light refreshments were served. Little children played 
the happy games of childhood, older people held sweet 
converse of bygone, brighter days, handsome youths 
and fair maidens told each to other the old-new story of 
loving, while sweetest music swept the chords of those 
human heart-strings to songs of dear remembrance. 
Truly was this a holy night, "with peace on earth, good 
will towards man," — that night of which the poets sing 
— a night emblematic of the Christ-child, whose birth 
it keeps for ever more. 

The money on hand and that received from this enter- 
tainment, as well as subsequent accumulations, went 
towards marking the graves in our own cemetery and 
building there the monument and chapel. 

The Secretary's book of March 31st, 1868, says, in 
part : 

"Dr. Cox submitted the plan for erection at Soldiers' Ceme- 
tery in honor of Confederate dead buried there, the marble 
work of which should not exceed |700 in cost. Plan adopted 



107 

and immediate erection of the monument was authorized. Dr. 
Cox was also authorized to have erected on the cemetery 
grounds an ornamental structure to contain the chart and the 
register of the cemetery and to serve also as a pleasant place of 
resort for visitors. Some preliminary steps were taken with 
respect to the annual offering on the first day of May, after 
which the Committee adjourned." 

—Cox, Cor. Sec'y, March 31st, 1868. 

The amount finally spent, however, on the headstones, 
monument and chapel has been estimated at $5,600 for 
headstones and $3,000 for monument and chapel. 

The next important item from the Secretary's records 
is one full of sad interest, chronicling a tender respect 
to the beloved First Vice-President, Mrs. John D. Phe- 
lan. A few brief words tell all the pathetic story: 

"The Committee met at the residence of Mrs. Judge Bibb. 
A resolution was adopted to appropriate $100 to the removal 
and reinterment of the remains of a son of Mrs. John Phelan." 

—April 13th, 1870. 

The son referred to here was Capt. Thomas Phelan, 
who was killed in an engagement around Eichmond. 
His body was removed to Petersburg and placed with 
another brother in the cemetery there. Some years 
later Mr. Sidney Phelan, of Atlanta, had the remains 
of his brothers brought to Oakwood Cemetery and laid 
in one grave by the side of their mother. The fol- 
lowing clipping is from the Advertiser of that date: 

"Soldiers Rest! Thy Warfare O'er! 

"The Independent Eifles, Blues and (^reys, together with a 
large number of veteran Confederates and citizens generally, 
were at the Union Depot yesterday morning to meet the 
remains of Captains Thomas and Watkins Phelan, which 
were brought from the battlefields of Virginia. There was no 
demonstration at the station, and the funeral cortege immedi- 
ately took up its march for the cemetery', the military compa- 



108 

nies acting as escorts. At the cemetery Rev. Dr. Stringfellow* 
conducted religious services and tiie military fired three vol- 
leys over the siugle grave, which contained the remains of two 
as gallant soldier brothers as ever wore the gray. The volleys 
were fired with veteran precision and constituted a worthy 
tribute to the dead heroes. 

"Soldier, rest! Thy warfare o'er! 

Sleep the sleep that knows no waking; 
Dream of battlefields no more, 

Days of danger, nights of waking. 

"Among the distinguished gentlemen present was Governor 
O'Neal, who knew and loved the sleeping braves when they 
led their troops in battle." 

*Dr. Stringfellow was in Virginia and officiated at the cere- 
monies, when, in 1864, young Watkins Phelan was buried in 
the little churchj'ard at Petersburg. Many years later he 
became the beloved rector of St. John's Episcopal Church, this 
city, and performed again the same service for the now loving 
and loved pariahoners that he had sadly performed years before 
unknowing and unknown. 



CHAPTER VIII. 



In 1870 there appears one vacancy in the list of officers. 
It spoke in pathetic silence of the Memorial Aesociation's 
first loss — Mrs. J. D. Phelan, the First Vice-President, 
was dead. She lived only a short while after the tender 
compliment paid her by her beloved organization in hav- 
ing the remains of her precious son moved to the side of 
his brother in Virginia. This beautiful acknowledgment 
of the services and worth of the First Vice-President of 
the Memorial Association sank deep in the heart of this 
patriotic mother, and before her own summons came to 
join her soldier boys it gave her many an hour of peace 
and comfort, for over and over she was heard to sigh: 
''Dead, both my boys, but now they are sleeping side 
by side." 

Mrs. Phelan lived long enough, though, to see her 
most cherished wishes realized; for during the first four 
years this Association accomplished a work unparalleled 
in history. The dead upon all the fields of battle were 
properly interred; a monument and chapel in the ceme- 
tery were completed; eight hundred graves were marked 
with head-boards, and the beautiful Memorial Day 
custom was firmly established. For the completing of 
all objects many thousand dollars had been expended. 
It was a glorious, marvelous record, a fit emblem of our 
Southern womanhood. 

Mrs. B. S. Bibb lived many useful, beautiful years 
thereafter, leaving vacant through death the office of 
President in 1887. For twenty-one years this lovely 
woman was spared to the Association, accomplishing by 



110 

shining deeds undying fame on the roll ol time. She 
lived long enough to know that in addition to all the 
other work accomplished, the hands of Jefferson Davis, 
once manacled for love of our dear cause, had placed 
the corner-stone of our Confederate Monument on his- 
toric ground. At this time the Monument on Capitol 
Hill, the corner-stone of which President Davis came to 
lay, at the urgent invitation of Mayor Eeese and the 
Memorial Association, was near the hearts of the ladies. 
Mrs. Bibb was deeply interested and had made the 
first donation towards the movement. Though ill 
at the time and unable to attend the ceremonies in 
person, her ear was attuned to every sound, and 
the booming of the cannon and the quickening of 
her own heart told her that all was well on Capitol 
Hill. So also a few months later did her sorrowing 
friends know that all was well with her beautiful soul. 
Her daughter, Mrs. Martha D. Bibb, was made Presi - 
dent in her stead January 14th, 1S87, at a meeting held 
at the home of Judge and Mrs. Clopton, and with unre- 
mitting labors and patriotic devotion she has worn the 
mantle of her sainted mother. 

During Mrs. Bibb's term of mourning, Mrs. Clifford A. 
Lanier* was chosen by the Association as acting Presi- 

*Mrs. Wilhelmiua Clopton Lauier, who served as President 
pro teui. immediately after the death of Mrs. Sophia Bibb, 
while Mrs. M, D. Bibb was iu deep sorrow, is a native of 
Tuskegee, Ala., and is the daughter of Hon. David and Martha 
(Ligon) Clopton, sister of the late Governor R. F. Ligou, of this 
city. Her father was most honorably identified with the history 
of this State. He had been elected to the United States Con- 
gress, iu a memorable canvags, just preceding the war. He 
retired from tliat body, with his fellows, on the secession of 
the States, and became a soldier. He afterwards was in the 
Confederate (-oiigress. After the war he removed to Montgom- 
ery and was an able jurist on the bench of the State Supreme 
Court. Mrs. Lauier has served the beloved cause of the Ala- 



Ill 

dent and served with that ability and grace for which 
she is so justly famed. Under her administration a 
brilliant Bazaar was held, netting to the Association 
$2,027.70, with an additional $125 sent throngh Mrs. 
E. A. McClellan, from the patriotic women of Lime- 
stone county. 

This was the first entertainment given by the ladies 
for the benefit of the monument after the laying of the 
corner stone, and realized more than any since the first 
May Day Festival. Much of the success of this Bazaar 
was due to the skillful management and magnetic influ- 
ence of Mrs. Tennent Lomax,* who was made chairman 
of the Bazaar. 



bama Division, U. D. C. as President of the Cradle of Confed- 
eracy Chapter, and has always been prominent in the move- 
ment to preserve to Southern history the First Wliite House of 
tlie Confederacy. iShe is the wife of Mr. Cliflbrd A. Lanier, a 
talented writer and poet, of this city, and a brave Confederate 
soldier, who fought side by side with liis brother — tlie Booth's 
famous poet, soldier and musician — the beloved, lamented Sid- 
ney Lanier. 

*Mrs. Carrie A. Lomax was bom in Clinton, Jones county, 
Georgia, on March 17, 1825, being the daughter of James Bil- 
lingslea and Elizabeth (Slatter) Millingslea. On her mother's 
side she is a descendant of a soldier of the war of the Revolu- 
tion. In 1848 she w^as married to Reuben C. Shorter, Esq., of 
Eufaula, Ala., Mr. Shorter being a brother of Governor John 
Gill Shorter and of Messrs. Eli S. and Plenry R. Shorter, all 
distinguished in the history of Alabama. Mr. Shorter came to 
Montgomery with his bride and entered upon the practice of 
law. He lived but five years after his marriage and left his 
young wife a widow with tw'o sons. In 1857 she became the 
wife of the then Captain (afterwards Brigadier-General) Teu- 
nent Lomax, at the time owner and editor of the Columbus, 
Ga., Times and Sentinel and before that time a Captain in the 
Mexican War. Shortly after their marriage they removed to 
Montgomery. At the outbreak of the war between tlie States be 
entered the amiy and in 1862 he was killed in battle at the head 
of the famous Third Alabama, of which he was Colonel, with 
his commission as a Brigadier-General in his pocket. Since 
his death Mrs. Lomax has continued to reside in her tine old- 
time mansion — her home for more than fifty years — one of the 



112 

It was the desire of the ladies to have Mr. Davis 
again present to open this brilliant Bazaar, but his 
already recent visit coupled with other obstacles pre- 
vented. The following letter from Mrs. Clifford Lanier, 
the President pro tern, of the Memorial Association, will 
show how earnestly the State hoped for another oppor- 
tunity of welcoming their hero chieftain and his noble 
family. 

Montgomery, Ala., Feb. 2, 1887. 
Hon. Jefferson Davis : 

Dear Sir — The Ladies' Memorial Associatiou of Montgomery 
endeavor to again charm you from your dignified retreat. On 
Monday, February 7th, we propose to open a Bazaar, the laud- 
able purpose of which is to increase the funds for the Monu- 
ment to our Dead. The Women of the South can never sepa- 
rate their eflbrts in this direction from the noble figure about 
whom all our recollections cling. So we earnestly hope that 
your time aud health may lend you to us for this second week 
of February. I am authorized to say that Mr. Cecil Gabbett, 
our railway Superintendent, will put a special car at your dis- 
posal, aud that the hospitality of the home of our Mayor, Col. 
Warren Reese, is cordially offered to Mrs. Davis, Miss Winnie 
and yourself. 

Mrs. M. D. Bibb, who has been selected President of our 
Associatiou, as successor to her lamented mother, joins us in 
renewed assurances of our earnest wish for j'our acceptance of 
our invitation. Very respectfully, 

Mrs. Clifford Lanier, 

Pres. Pro Tem. 



proud landmarks of the city. Here, beloved for her gentle 
nature, deeds of lovmg kindness, aud her broad and catholic 
views, gently guarded by her devoted and brilliant sou, Hon. 
Tenneut Lomax, she still lives, as modestly unconscious of her 
distinguished position in Alabama's capital as if she were the 
humblest being within its gates. Until her feeble health re- 
strained her, Mrs. Lomax was one of tbe controlling working 
spirits of the Court Street M. E. Church, of which she is a loyal 
member. She is also a charter member of the Memorial Asso- 
ciation and a faithful "Daughter of the Confederacy." 



113 



Many brilliant amateur j)erformauces, concertos, etc., 
have been given for the Memorial Association, but a list 
of these and of those taking part in all memorial work 
since 1870 would of itself make a book. Besides, the 
work of the Association since that time is all too fresh 
in the minds of the public to need the light of historic 
comment. 

Through many loug years of labor and love by the 
brave women of the Association, anil under the able 
administration of Mrs. M. D. Bibb, the monument on 
Capitol Hill was completed. This monument was begun 
by the Alabama Soldiers' Monument Association of 
1885, the incorporators being Governor E. A. O'l^^eal, 
"VV. S. Eeese, W. L. Bragg, Josiah Morris, William B. 
Jones, W. W. Screws, W. W. Allen, Jacob Greil, John 
W. A. Sanford, H. A. Herbert, J. B. Gaston, Thomas 
G. Jones, H. C. Tompkins, J. H. Higgius, D. S. Rice, 
T. J. Eutledge; Chairman, W. S. Eeese; Secretary of the 
Board of Incorporators, T. J. Eutledge. In 1886, soon 
after the laying of the corner stone by Mr. Davis, the 
Monument Association turned over its effects to the 
Memorial Association and it was by the ladies com- 
pleted and unveiled on December 7th, 1898. 

Those who were on the programme as active partici- 
pants in the historic scene when the monument was 
unveiled, were as follows : 

Col. Wm. J. Samford, afterward Governor of the 
State, was Chairman of the proceedings. Eev. Geo. 
B. Eager, D. D., was Chaplain. Judge Thos. G. Jones 
delivered the oration of the day. Four special tributes 
were paid to the four arms of the service; to the Infantry 
by Gen. Jno. W. A. Sanford; to the Artillery by Capt. 
B. H. Screws; to the K^avy by Col. H. A. Herbert, 
Ex-Secretary of the Navy of the United States; to the 



114 

Cavalry by Col. Jefferson M. Falkner. After each of 
these tributes a young lady unveiled the statue erected 
to that particular branch of the service and recited the 
inscription on the monument under the figure. These 
young ladies were: for the Infantry, Miss C. T. Eaoul; 
for the Artillery, Miss Lena Hausman; for the Marines, 
Miss Janie Eddins Watts; for the Cavalry, Miss Laura 
Elmore. 

At the close of these ceremonies Col. A. A. Wiley, 
acting for Mayor Clisby of Montgomery, and on behalf 
of the Ladies' Memorial Association, presented the 
monument to the State. It was accepted bj^ Mr. Chap- 
pell Cory, Private Secretary to the Governor, and acting 
for Governor Johnston. 

Miss Sadie Robinson, unfolding a beautiful Confed- 
erate flag, recited the "Conquered Banner," and a 
tableaux was enacted by thirteen young ladies, each 
representing one of the thirteen Southern States, as fol- 
lows: South Carolina, Miss Jean Craik; Mississippi, 
Miss Maggie Crommelin; Florida, Miss Joscelyn Fisher 
Ockenden; Alabama, Miss Rebecca Pollard; Georgia, 
Miss Katie Burch; Louisiana, Miss Sarah H. Jones; 
Texas, Miss Mattie Thorington; Virginia, Miss Caroline 
Hannon; Arkansas, Miss Mamie Holt; North Carolina, 
Miss Eliza Aldington; Tennessee, Miss Mattie Gilmer 
Bibb; Missouri, Miss Alabama Brown; Kentucky, Miss 
Martha E. Bibb. 

Miss Annie Gorman rendered the songs of the occasion, 
"Dixie" and "Bonnie Blue Flag." Several airs were 
rendered by the Powell Quartette, and Courtney's 2nd 
Regiment Band furnished the music. 

Side by side with the work of the Association still 
goes on the beautiful custom of decking annually the 
soldiers' graves. 



115 

Year after year the flowers are brought to the hospit- 
able home of Mrs. J. C. Lee,* as they have been alwaj^s 
since the death of Mrs. Baldwin — whose home was first 
the resting place of those April blossoms. Here, with 
Mrs. Lee, the undaunted still meet and twine the 
wreaths of to-day as they twined the wreaths of thirty- 
six years ago. The flowers are as lovely as the flowers 

*One of the most zealous and unselfish members of the Ladies' 
Memorial Association of Montgomery is Mrs. John C. Lee. 
She united with the organization in the spring of 1868, imme- 
diately on her arrival in the city, and for thirty-five years she 
has been devoted to its noble work. Mrs. Lee is a native of 
Abbeville District, S. C. Her father was Dr. Graves, a cultured 
gentleman of worth and a grandson of Samuel (Heady Money) 
Scott, who gave his time and means to the Revolutionary 
cause. Her mother, Harriet Lomax, was descended from the 
Lomax, Tennent and Middleton families, each of whom con- 
tributed to the success of the causae of the (Joloni.sts in the War 
of the Revolution. At the outbreak of the war, Mrs. Lee and 
her husband resided in Louisville, LaFayette Co., Ark. This 
county lay along the Red River and was considered the Nile of 
the West. The country was filled with many wealthy planters 
and the sentiment was* largely on the side of the ISorth. In 
the town there were only five men who stood up for Southern 
principles and secession. When Lincoln's proclamation, with 
its famous phrase, "Rebels to your homes," was received there, 
the leaders of the Union party prepared a large national flag, 
which they floated to the breeze. On seeing this, the small 
but determined body of Southern sympathizers appealed to 
their wives to assist them in preparing a Southern flag. Mrs. 
Lee at once took the lead in the matter and calling to her aid 
Mrs, M. B. Welborn, now of Montgomery, and Mrs. Marshall, 
now of Camden, Ark., they soon, with their own hands, made 
a beautiful flag, on one side of which was rei)reseuted the coat- 
of-arms of Arkansas, and on the other the words, "States' 
Rights Forever." In making this flag the ladies were com- 
pelled to cut up fine and expensive silk dresses. Mrs. Lee 
continued here during the entire struggle and when war's loud 
alarums were heard on the borders of LaFayette county, she 
threw open her home to the soldiers. She and her husband 
nobly devoted themselves to the alleviation of suflering and no 
service was too hard for them. War over, all she had swept 
away, life to begin anew, they came to Montgomery. Mrs. Lee 
is noted for her charities, her greatness of heart, and her good 
offices to the needy and helpless. Her husband. Dr. J. C. Lee, 
was a relative of the great Captain, Robert E. Lee. 



116 

of old, the wreaths of laurel are the same sheen of 
brouze and green, the beautiful aentinaent is ever as 
fresh as then — only the hands which wrought are chang- 
ing — for many, so many have been folded in rest. But 
neither time nor change shall ever dim the ardor of the 
daughters and grand -daughters of those mothers of 
eighteen hundred and sixty-six. 

The officers who have in honoring so noble and his- 
toric an association honored themselves and their chil- 
dren's children for generations yet unborn, are as fol- 
lows: Presidents — Mrs. Sophia Bibb, Mrs. M. D. Bibb; 
President pro tern, Mrs. Clifford Lanier; Vice-Presi- 
dents — Mrs. John D. Phelan, Mrs. Wm. O. Baldwin, 
Mrs. John A. Elmore, Mrs. J. C. Hausman; Vice-Presi- 
dent pro tem, Mrs. Wm, Ware;* Secretaries — Mrs. 
Wm. O. Baldwin, Mrs. Virginia Hilliard, Miss Bettie 
Bell, Miss Mamie Graham, Mrs. Eosa Gardner, Miss 
Jennie Cromme]in,f Mrs. I. M. P. Ockenden; Secretary 

*From the minutes of 1879, of April 1st, we read : "Mrs. Wm. 
Piekett was nominated for Vice-President." From the minutes 
of Tuesday, 8th, 1879: "Mrs. Pickett declined. Mrs, Hausmau 
was put in nomination and elected, but declined for this year ; 
and Mrs. Wm. Ware w;).s nominated for Vice-President pro 
tem. and kindly consented to act in conjunction with her duties 
as Treasurer." Mrs, Wm, Ware was one of the most zealous 
and faithful workers of the Association in those dark days, 
never murmuring, though often times performing the office of 
two. She was al'^o a faithful attendant at the sewing circles 
and hospitals. The sympathies of a large circle of friends go 
out to her now in the recent loss of her husband, Col, Wm. 
Ware, who was a gallant soldier of the Confederate army. 

tMisB Jennie Crommelin is the third Secretary who has 
passed over the river to "rest under the shade of the trees," 
and deserves honorable mention in connection with the naonu- 
jiient on Capitol Hill, None was truer or more faithful to a 
cause which she loved, not only for the cause's sake, but for the 
sake of her noble brothers and kindred who fought to uphold 
its principles. The day was never so dark nor the rain so heavy 
as to keep her from her post of duty when, with anxious hearts, 
the ladies of the Memorial Association were pleading Avith the 



117 

of Committee for Proper Application of Fimdw — Dr. 
S. K. Cox; Treasurers — Mrs. Haunon, Mrs. Wm. "Ware, 
Mrs. Geo. Holmes, Miss Jennie R. Crommelin, Mrs. 
I. M. P. Ockenden.* All of the original officers have 
been dead for many years. Of the original Executive 
Committee there are now living only two: Mrs. Mount, 
who resides in Baltimore, and. Mrs. James A. Ware, of 
Montgomery. Of the Nominating Committee of April 
16, 1866, only one now survives, Mrs. Wm. Johnston, of 
this city. All members of these committees, which have 
been before given, were earnest workers in the sewing- 
circles and the hospitals. Although Mrs. Wm. John- 
ston during the war was ten miles in the country, at 
her plantation near McGehee's Switch, her spacious 
home was the happy refuge of convalescent soldiers, and 
her household was ever busy with needles and knitting 
needles. 

No officer of the Memorial Association has ever been 
changed except through resignation or death. The 
present officers who were elected last month, March, 
1902, are : President, Mrs. M. D. Bibb; First Vice- 
President, Mrs. J. C. Lee; Secretary, Mrs. I. M. P, 
Ockenden; Assistant Secretary, Miss Joscelyn Ock en- 
den; Treasurer, Mrs. G. R. Doran. The Executive 
Committee for this term has not yet been formed. 

So far as can be ascertained, the following is the list 
of charter members, most of whom were present at the 

Legislature for funds to complete the monument on Capitol 
Hill. That she did not live to see the unveiling was a deep 
sorrow to her loving co-workers — though doubtless from the 
blue above she smiled upon that scene below. 

*The office of Secretary and Treasurer was for many years 
combined. At the last election, however, March, 1902, the 
office of Treasurer was again taken, and that of Assissant Sec- 
retary added. 



118 

memorable initial meeting at Court Street Methodist 
Church April 16th, 1866: Mesdames B. S. Bibb, J. D. 
Phelau, W. O. Baldwin, E. C. Hanuon, Samuel Eambo, 
John Elmore, Wm. Pollard, Dr. Wilson, W. J. Bibb, 
G. L. Mount, C. J. Hausman, F. Bugbee, W. B. Bell, 
Fort Hargrove, James Ware, Beuj. Fitzpatrick, T. H. 
Walts, W. W. Allen, J. Clanton, Holtzclaw, John Gin- 
drat. Jack Thorington, J. B. Bibb, Warren 8. Eeese, 
T. Lomax, Virgil Murphy, W. C. Bibb, Geo. Gold- 
thwaite, Samuel Eice, T. J. Judge, F. M. Gilmer, Sam'l 
Jones, Carnot Bellinger, W. C. Jackson, S. Holt, G. W. 
Petrie, E. A. Semple, J. W. Keyes, Hill, Thos. Taylor, 
Eliza Moore, Eliza Ponder, Leon Wyman, Wm. John- 
ston, Jno. Whiting, Benj. Micou, Amanda Snodgrass, 
Eliza Brown, J. Cox, Dan Cram, S. E. Hutchison, 
J. DuBose Bibb, A. Gerald, Sam'l Eeid, Lou McCants, 
Jas. Terry, Henry Weil, Sarah Herron, Henry Lee, Gal- 
latin McGehee, Sam Marks, Virginia Hilliard, Wm. L. 
Yancey, Geo. E. Dorau, S. P. Hardaway, Jas. Stewart, 
P. H. Gayle, Eichard Goldthwaite, Tucker Sayre, Wm. 
Eay, A. Strassburger, John Cobbs, Wm. Ware, M. A. 
Baldwin, Misses Mary Phelan, Louisa Bibb, Priscilla 
Phelan, Bettie Bell, Ida E. Eice, Sallie Baldwin, Annie 
Goldthwaite. 



CHAPTER IX. 



As seems to be the case in all similar organizations, 
there has been for many years much discussion as to 
who first originated the idea of Memorial Day. This is 
still a mooted question. For many years friends claimed 
the honor for Mrs. Mary Anne Williams, who wrote the 
beautiful letter from Columbus, Ga., March 12th, 1866, 
quoted in full on a preceding page. 

Later it was held by some that Mrs. Lizzie Euther- 
ford Ellis, also of Columbus, Ga., originated the idea. 
Finally the friends of both thoroughly investigated the 
subject; aflEidavits by ladies who were co-laborers with 
these two patriotic women were sworn out, and the 
results published, giving the credit to Mrs. Lizzie Euth- 
erford Ellis for the origin of the suggestion, but acknowl- 
edging the great services of Mrs. Williams, the author 
of the letter. 

In 1898, on the 26th of April, there was a grand cel- 
ebration of the origin of Memorial Day in Columbus, 
Ga. During that time the Memorial Association of that 
city took occasion to settle authoritatively the question. 
The whole occasion was made one of unusual interest. 
Mr. Henry E. Goetchius was orator of the day, and all 
the military participated with great pomj) and ceremony, 
while part of the program consisted of the reading of 
the history of Memorial Day. The following on the 
subject is taken from the Columbus Enquirer-Sun of 
April 27th, 1898 : 



120 

"A History of the Origin of Memorial Day. 

(Preseuted to the Lizzie Rutherford Chapter of the Daughters 
of the Confederacy by the Ladies' Memorial AsBociation 
of Columbus, Ga.) 

"Resolved by the Ladies of the Memorial Association of Co- 
lumbus, Ga., That the following statement, together with the 
affidavits of Mrs. William G. Woolfolk, Mrs. Clara M. Dexter 
and Mrs, Jane E. Martin, is a true account of the origin of 
Memorial Day as first originated in this city. 

Resolved further. That this resolution and said statement 
and affidavits be recorded upon the minutes of this Association 
as a record thereof. 

Adopted. A. L. Garrard, 

Jane E. Martin, Secretary. President. 

April 2oth, 1898. 

"Inasmuch as the Columbus Chapter of Daughters of the 
Confederacy have chosen this day for the naming of their 
Chapter, 'Lizzie Rutherford,' we, the Memorial Association of 
Columbus, wish not only to keep alive the memory of one of 
our purest, most unselfish, devoted Confederate women, but to 
make this Memorial Day for all time among us a double Memo- 
rial Day. We pause in tearful tenderness to read the simple 
inscription of her headstone, in Howard lot, at Linuwood cem- 
etery in this city : 

'The Soldier's Friend 

Lizzie Rutherford Ellis. 

She hath done what she could. — Mark xiv. 8. 

A loving tribute to our co-worker, 

Mrs. Lizzie Rutherford Ellis. 

In her patriotic heart sprang the thought of our 

Memorial Day.' 

"In ihe same lot, only a few feet away, on the head-stone of 
Mrs. Chas. J, Williams, we pause again to read : 

'Mrs. Charles J. Williams. 

In loving recognition of her memorial work, 

by her co-workers.' 

"The history of Memorial Day has become a prominent feature 
of the history of the South, and before all shall have passed away 
of the little baud who organized it, we have endeavored to get 
the facts before they become tradition. The affidavits of Mrs. 



121 

Wm. G. Woolfolk, Mrs. C. M. Dexter aud Mrs. JaneE. Ware- 
Martin have beeu obtained and are hereto attached, and from 
them aud a copy of the original letter of Mrs. Mary Anne Wil- 
liams, and a letter from Mrs, Mary R. Jones, we learn that in 
January, 1866, Mrs. Jane Martin was visiting Columbus, One 
afternoon Miss Liizzie Rutherford called and asked her to 
accompany her to the cemetery— now Linnwood Cemetery— to 
join some other ladies in looking after the graves of the soldiers 
who had died in Columbus hospitals, and been buried under 
the direction of the Aid Society ; that they went and assisted 
the ladies, and returning to Columbus alone, were discussing 
the work they had been doing. Miss Lizzie Rutherford re- 
marked she had been reading the "Initials" and thought the 
idea of setting apart a special day for decorating the graves such 
a beautiful one, that it occurred to her it would be a good idea 
for the Aid Society to organize as a society for the purpose of 
adopting a custom of this kind, and set apart a particular day 
for decorating and caring for the soldiers' graves. Meeting 
Mrs. John A. Jones, Mrs. Martin suggested to Miss Rutherford 
to speak to her about it. as she was a member of the Aid Soci- 
ety, which she did. Mrs. Jones concurred with her, and sug- 
gested that she speak to Mrs. Robert Carter, President of the 
Aid Society. Miss Rutherford stated that as Secretary of the 
Aid Society she had to call a meeting of the Society for the 
purpose of disposing of certain personal property belonging to 
the Society, and thought that it would be the best time to 
bring the matter up. The meeting was subsequently called 
and met at Mrs. John Tyler's (now corner Fourth avenue and 
Fourteenth street, in this city). The ladies present Mrs. Robt. 
Carter, Mrs. R. A. Ware, Mrs. William Woolfolk, Mrs. Clara 
M. Dexter, Mrs. J. M. McAlister and Mrs. Charles J.Williams. 
Miss Lizzie Rutherford was not present at the meeting, as she 
was suddenly called to Montgomery to the bedside of a dying 
relative. Her resolution was oflered by one of her friends and 
unanimously adopted, aud the Ladies' Memorial Association 
was organized. The officers elected were Mrs. Robert Carter, 
President; Mrs. Robert A. Ware, Vice President; Mrs. J. M. 
McAlister, Second Vice President; Mrs. M. A. Patterson, Treas- 
urer; Mrs, Charles J. WUJiams, Secretary. No day was deter- 
mined on at the meeting, but after Miss Lizzie Rutherford 



122 

returned to Columbus, when she and other members were 
working at the cemetery and discussing the best day, she sug- 
gested April 26th, which was adopted; and Mrs. Williams, 
as Secretary, was requested to write to the different Societies 
throughout the South, asking them to unite in making it a 
universal custom. Her beautiful letter speaks for itself. How 
well the work was done has been attested each year. We hope 
that every Southern woman will teach the young of the South 
not only to reverence the memory of the soldiers who have 
died for us, but we especially beg the women of Columbus to 
instill into the hearts of their children reverence for the soldier 
and reverence for the women of the Memorial Association who 
inaugurated this beautiful custom. 

The Aid Society, sometimes called the Soldiers' Friend Soci- 
ety, referred to in this statement, was an organization com- 
posed of the ladies of Columbus, and it was organized in 1861, 
for the purpose of caring for the sick and wounded soldiers 
during the war. Its first President was Mrs. Absalom H. Chap- 
pell,* and she having resigned, Mrs. Robert Carter was selected 

*The Columbus Enquirer-Sun heads this article with a pic- 
ture of Mrs. Absalom Harris Chappell, the first President of 
the first Soldiers' Aid Society in Columbus, which became the 
celebrated Memorial Day Association of the South. INIrs. Absa- 
lom H. Chappell was a sister of General Mirabeau B. Lamar, 
President of the Republic of Texas, and aunt of L. Q,. C. Lamar 
of Mississippi. In 1842 she married Absalom Harris Chappell, 
who, to quote history, was "an eminent statesman and lawj-er of 
Georgia, a ripe scholar, polished writer and matchless orator." 
Hon. Absalom H. Chappell was the great uncle of Mr. Chappell 
Cory, of this city. At the present moment, when Mary John- 
ston's novel, "Audrey," is so absorbing the public, it is inter- 
esting locally to note that Thomas Chappell, the ancestor of 
this family in America, owned large tracts of laud as early as 
1634 on the James River, directly opposite the historic West- 
over, where, in 1737, Colonel William Byrd built the present 
Westover mansion, the home of the beautiful sad-fated Evelyn 
Byrd. At the famous Merchants' Hope Church, which still 
stands to-day on CJhappell's Creek as it stood a century and a 
half ago, rich yet with the gifts of good Queen Anne, the 
descendants of Thomas Chappell worshiped for seventy-one 
years before the Byrds built Westover. The fact that Mrs. 
Frank P. Glass of this city is a descendant of Colonel W. Byrd 
is of further local interest. Though that which brings us nearer 
yet to this historic spot is that Capt. Wm. M. Selden, ofthe 
State Agricultural Department, was born in Westover Man- 



123 

President. At the close of the war betweeu the States the 
Aid Society, having no further duties to perform (Mrs. Carter 
still being President and Miss Yjizzie Rutherford Secretary), 
was merged into the Memorial Association of Columbus, and 
this took place at the meeting called at the residence of Mrs. 
Tyler, in 1866, as referred to in the foregoing statement. The 
ladies present at the meeting were members of the Aid Society, 
and they, with the other members of the Aid Society, consti- 
tuted the first memorial Association of Columbus." 

Attached to this were the affidavits of Mrs. Jaue E. 
Ware-Martin, Mrs. William G. Woolfolk and Mrs. Clara 
M. Dexter, stating substantiallj'^ what was contained in 
the above statement. The two ladies so closely 
connected with the orgin of this day lie almost side 
by side. They died within two years of each other, 
Mrs. Ellis preceding Mrs. Williams to that beautiful 
land where honors matter not, save the stars in the 
crowns of the righteous. Since the chronicling of the 
above from the Columbus Enquirer-Sun, the Lizzie 
Rutherford Chapter has placed a beautiful marble slab 
and urn to the memory of Mrs. Ellis. The unveiling of 
this memorial was a most impressive and important 
event, taking place during the annual session of the 
United Daughters of the Confederacy of Georgia, in 
October, 1901. 

Three years ago the Memorial Associations of the South 

sion, his father having owned the place for fifty years, as well 
as large tracts of land on the south side of the James River, 
along Chappell's Creek. At this time, too, when the demon of 
doubt would argue us out of our belief in the greatest dramatist 
of the world, the knowledge that Richard Quine.y, who owned 
the land on which Merchants' Hope Church now stands, was 
a brother of Thomas Quiney of London, who iu 161G married 
Judith, youngest daughter of William Shakespeare, dispels 
somewhat the mists and makes the great poet seem very real 
and very near. After all, the world is not so old, nor yet so 
wide! — [Vide History of Chappell and Dickie families, by Phil 
E. Chappell.] 



124 

confederated and meet now annually at the Confederate 
Eeunions. Two years ago, at the Memphis Reunion, 
Bishop Gailor, in his Memorial Address to the Associa- 
tions there assembled, claimed the honor of the origin 
of Memorial Day for Miss Sue Adams, of Jackson, Miss. 
He said, in part : 

"The Cou federate Southern Memorial Association is the old- 
est and the most sacred society of women that has been organ- 
ized since the Civil War. To it we owe the institution of Mem- 
orial Day, which is now recognized throughout this country. 
It was a Southern woman, Miss Sue Adams, who, in the city 
of Jackson, Miss., on April 26, 18G5, almost immediately after 
the surrender of General Lee, first decorated the graves of the 
fallen soldiers, and to her eternal honor, be it said, she placed 
the wreaths upon the graves of friend and foe alike, and this 
was the first time that Federal graves in a Southern State 
received a floral offering and ihat offering of tender sympathy 
came from a Southern woman. Three years after that, JNIay 
30, 1868, General Logan's order made the day perpetual, but 
the earlier and more beautiful incident should never be for- 
gotten." 

At the same reunion, Samuel E, Lewis, not knowing of 
Bishop Gailor's reference to Miss Sue Adams, of Missis- 
sippi, wrote the following letter on the subject to the 
Memphis Commercial- Appeal : 

There have been so many statements of late by prominent 
persons regarding the origin of Memorial Day, or Decoration 
Day, that fail somewhat in historic accuracy, that I am prompt- 
ed in friendly spirit to make mention of what is said to have 
been the origiD of that day in the South; but before so doing, 
beg leave to refer to the following : 

At the unveiling ceremonies of the Logan statue, April 9, 
1901, Senator Depew said in his address : "Long after the lead- 
ers of the civil strife on either side are forgotten, Logan's mem- 
ory will remain green because of the beautiful memorial service 
which he originated, and which now in every part of our 
reunited land sets aside one day in the year as a national hoi- 



125 

iday in order that the graves of the gallant dead, both on the 
Federal and Confederate side may be decorated with flowers. 
It is no longer confined to the soldiers of the Civil War, but 
continued to those of our latest struggle. The ceremony will 
exist and be actively participated in while posterity remains 
proud of heroic ancestors and of their achievements, and our 
country venerates the patriotism and the courage of those who 
died for its preservation or its honor." 

And in the recent order of Commander Israel W. Stone of 
the Department of the Potomac, G. A. R,, he says : "Thirty- 
three years ago the beautiful ceremony of strewing flowers and 
holding solemn services over the graves of our departed cona- 
rades was first ordered by that peerless General, John A. Logan, 
then Commander-in-chief of the Grand Army of the Republic." 

And in the Evening Star of the 18th inst., appears the fol- 
lowing quotation from Commander Stone's order of the 17th : 
"Memorial Day is an institution of the Grand Army of the 
Republic. The consecration of the 30th of May as a national 
day, dedicated to the oflfering of loving tribute to the memory 
of the devoted men who gave their lives to their country, was 
obtained by and accorded to the Grand Army of the Republic, 
I feel that other military organizations should not, by separate 
services, detract from the magnitude and impressiveness of 
the ceremonies of the Grand Army of the Republic on this 
day." 

The above are fair examples of the statements to which I 
have referred. 

In behalf of the ladies of the South, and especially of the 
Lizzie Rutherford Chapter, Columbus, Ga., I beg leave to sub- 
mit the following statement from page 17 of a volume entitled 
"Memorial Day," being a hiistory of the origin of "Memorial 
Day," printed in Columbus, Ga., 1898, and which is to be 
found in the Library of Congress. 

It contains the affidavits of Mrs. Wm. G. Woolfolk, Mrs. 
C. M. Dexter and Mrs. Jane E. Ware Martin, which are con- 
firmatory of the following extract from said page 17: 

"In January, 1866, Mrs. Jane Martin was visiting Columbus, 
Ga. One afternoon Miss Lizzie Rutherford called and asked 
her to accompany her to the cemetery, now Linn wood cemetery, 
to join some other ladies in looking after the graves of the sol- 
diers who had died in Columbus hospitals and been buried 



126 

under the direction of the (Soldiers') Aid Society; that they 
went and assisted the ladies, and returning to Columbus alone, 
were discussing the work they had been doing, Miss Lizzie 
Rutherford remarked, she had been reading the 'Initials,' 
(By the Baroness Tautphoeus — chapter describing custom of 
Roman Catholics (Germany) in decorating the graves of the 
dead on All Saints' Day), and thought the idea of setting apart 
a special day for decorating the graves such a beautiful one, 
that it occurred to her it would be a good idea for the Aid 
Society to organize as a society for the purpose of adopting a 
custom of this kind and set apart a particular day for decorat- 
ing and caring for the soldiers' graves. Meeting Mrs. John A. 
Jones, Mrs. Martin suggested to Miss Rutherford to speak to 
her about it, as she was a member of the Aid Society, which' 
she did, and from this the Aid Society converted into the 
'Ladies' Memorial Association,' and the anniversary of the 
surrender of Gen. Joseph E. Johnston, April 26, was chosen as 
the day for holding the memorial services annually, and the 
other societies in the South were requested to unite in making 
it a universal custom." 

In the orations and after-dinner speeches of Chauncey M. 
Depew; Cassell Publishing Company, New York (Copyrighted, 
1890); Chapter VIII: "Oration at the Academy of Music, New 
York, on Decoration Day, Maj- 30, 1879," see page 137, I find 
the following : 

"When the war was over in the South, where, under warmer 
skies and with more poetic temperaments, symbols and 
emblems are better understood than in the practical North, the 
widows, mothers, and children of the Confederate dead went 
out and strewed their graves with flowers; at many places the 
women scattered them impartially also over the unknown and 
unmarked resting places of the Union soldiers. As the news of 
this touching tribute flashed over the North, it roused, as noth- 
ing else could have done, national amity and love, and allayed 
sectional animosity and passion." 

The foregoing references as to the Gen. Logan claims, and 
the Lizzie Rutherford claims, are submitted in friendly way as 
historical data, in no wise intended to detract from the credit 
due Gen. Logan in inaugurating the day in the Grand Army 
of the Republic in 1868; but giving proper credit to Miss Lizzie 



127 

Rutherford for the conception of the idea in January, 1866, 
prompted by the reading of the German story referred to. 

It is hoped that this communication will be accepted in the 
friendly spirit in which it is written, and that it may bring out 
other historical data regarding the care of soldiers dead, the 
world over. 

Samuel E. Lewis, 
Commander Camp No. 1191 U. C. V., 
District of Columbia. 

Thus it will be seen that after the public had fully 
satisfied itself that Miss Lizzie Eutherford was the 
originator of the beautiful memorial idea, in January, 
1866, Bishop Gailor forever shatters our idols by show- 
ing that Miss Sue Adams, of Jackson, Miss., inaugu- 
rated the custom by placing on the graves of friend and 
foe the wreaths and flowers of spring on April 26th, 
1865. From all the data in hand it would seem that 
the sublime act of Miss Adams in Mississippi was what 
first attracted the attention of the North and suggested 
their Decoration Day. Further South the custom seems 
to have spruDg from the All Souls' Day idea suggested 
by ''Initials" to Miss Lizzie Eutherford. It all tends 
to prove a great truth which is sometimes unwittingly 
passed over or forgotten: that the same beautiful thought 
may oftentimes lie deep in many a crystal well-spring. 

Be this as it may, the facts so far as Montgomery's 
Memorial Association is concerned, are : 

First. There was formed in Montgomery a Monu- 
mental and Historical Association as early as ITovem- 
ber, 1865, for the purpose of j>erpetuating the memory 
of the Confederate Dead. 

Second. That the letter of the ladies of Winchester, 
Virginia, was the first to arouse Montgomery women's 
interest in the proper burial of Alabama soldiers, the 
first ladies taking upon themselves the burden of col- 



128 

lecting money for the purpose being Mrs. McGeliee and 
Miss Goldthwaite (Mrs. Seibles), through whose instru- 
mentality several hundred dollars vrere sent to Col. Roy, 
State Agent, at Selma, more than a month before the 
Memorial Association was formed. That the letter from 
Virginia also awakened new interest in the Monumental 
and Historical Association and caused to be formed its 
active Executive Committee, which soon took stex>s 
towards the proper burial of Alabama Dead and the 
proper care of graves in our own cemetery. 

Third. That the letter of Mrs. Mary Anne Williams, 
embodying the memorial idea of Mrs. Lizzie Eutherford 
Ellis, written on the 12th of March, 1866, was the first 
to arouse the active energies of the suffering and patri- 
otic women of Montgomeiy, who, on April 16th, 1866, 
answered the appeal of Judge Phelan, Chairman of the 
Executive Committee of the Monumental and Historical 
Association, and formed the Memorial Association of 
Montgomery, Ala. 

Yet, when all is summed up and ''honor to whom 
honor is due" shall be given to all those directly instru- 
mental in forming this historic Association in Montgom- 
ery, there is one name which should receive especial 
and particular mention. He was the first Recording 
Secretary of the Monumental and Historical Association, 
taking soon after the double duty of Corresponding Sec- 
retary, as well. He it was who wrote, daily, strong 
editorials, news notes and appeals, calling on Alabama 
to do her full duty. From November, 1865, until the 
monument and headboards were completed, his clarion 
notes resounded appealing to the ladies and battling for 
them in brave and manly fashion. The name of this 
brave soldier is Col. Joseph Hodgson, who, as the Sec- 
retary and Corresponding Secretary of the Monumental 



J 29 

and Historical Society and Secretary of its Executive 
Committee, vras naturally personally interested and 
actively alert to every passing chance for promoting its 
objects. In 1868, at the exercises on the 26th of April 
— the third Memorial Day of the South and the first 
since the completion of the cemetery monument and the 
marking of the soldiers' graves with headboards — Col. 
Hodgson was called on and made some prophetic and 
beautiful remarks to the Memorial Association and cit- 
izens there assembled. 

The following is the notice of the proceedings in part, 
taken from the Mail of April 27th, 1868: 

"Memorial Day. 

"Pursuant to notice to that effect, a large number of our citi- 
zens of both sexes met at the Capitol grounds yesterday at 4 
p. m. and proceeded thence to the cemetery reserved for the 
Confederate dead. A large number of others had already col- 
lected at the sanae point. Under the superintendence of Rev. 
Dr. Cox, the Ladies' Memorial Association had put the grounds 
in thorough order. The walks and graves were relieved of all 
vestige of weeds. Neat headboards had been erected through- 
out the cemetery, and a handsome little room in the center in 
which to preserve a list of the names of the dead. A handsome 
monument had also been erected, which measured twenty feet 
from the base of the mound upon which it rested to the top of 
the urn which surmounts it. It was one of the neatest and 
most appropriate monuments we ever saw, reflecting much 
credit upon the Association. 

"Before decorating the graves with choicest flowers of spring, 
a band of girls stood near the monument and sang a most 
appropriate hymn. The scene was most beautiful and affect- 
ing, worthy the memory of the heroes who slept in death 
around them. Before the hymn was sung. Col. J. Hodgson, 
by request, made a few remarks pertinent to the occasion. He 
thanked the ladies, on behalf of the survivors of the war, for 
the pious memorials ofTered in remembrance of their departed 
brothers. He recalled the scenes through which they had 



130 

passed, etc. He extolled their valor. He hoped that the day 
would yet dawn when a monument more imposing than this 
may be erected to the patriots of the war for the Constitution 
and look down upon a grateful and happy people from Capitol 
Hill. That time he believed would as surely come as the day 
when the victors will see that these graves cover the remains 
of the victims who died for justice and freedom." 

But before closing these pages there is one point in 
connection with this Association worthy of more than 
passing notice. The Ladies' Memorial Association of 
Montgomery differed in one respect from all other asso- 
ciations of its kind. In addition to the ceremonies of 
the 26th at the cemetery, it held each year, on the first 
day of May, the May Day Offering at the theatre. 

The Secretary's report of 1876 chronicles this inter- 
esting fact in connection with this custom: 

"On motion pf the President, it was decided to do away with 
the May Day Otr?ring heretofore given the first of May at the 
theatre to raise funds for the Association." 

Thus it will be seen that for ten long years, through 
that most trying reconstruction period of poverty and 
humiliation, this origiu?.l custom was preserved. Unique 
and alone, this of itself is one of the most marvelous of 
all records of that unflagging industry and devotion so 
many a time written on the spotless page of Southern 
womanhood. 

Yet all the shining deeds of this historic Association, 
from its formation ou that brilliant April morning in 
the dark past down to the bright* to-day, make a lumin- 
ous pathVvay by the river of Death. May coming gen- 
erations, in treading the ''path their mothers trod," find 
it ever and always a primrose way by the river of Life. 

THE END. 



/ 



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