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Historic Virginia 


Jamestown Centennial 

The Historic Sights of the Old Dominion Graphically and 
Realistically Portrayed with Authentic Descriptions of 
the Important Events and Associations that Have 
Made Famous Jamestown, Williamsburg, York- 
town, Smithfield, Norfolk, Hampton, Newport 
News, Old Point Comfort, Fortress Monroe, 
Portsmouth, Virginia Beach, Cape Henry, 
Petersburg, Richmond and the Noted Bat- 
tlefields of the Civil War. Full Statistics 
and Itinerary. Also Concise Directions 
for Visiting These Many Famous 
Places with the Greatest Possible 
Saving of Time and Expense. 




Copyright, iqo~] , by Wm. If. Let 

LAIRD & LEE, Publishers 

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List of Illustrations, . 

The Dawn of American History, 


PART I. — Historic Virginia. 

I. The Birth of the Nation, 
II. Hampton Roads, the Gateway to America, 

III. Norfolk, the Key to the New South, 

IV. Portsmouth, the Government's Workshop, 
V. Newport Nsws, the World's Greatest Shipyard, 

VI. Hampton, the Oldest Continuous Settlement in 
the United States, .... 

VII. Old Point Comfort, and Fortress Monroe — Ameri 
ca's Gibraltar, ..... 
VIII. Jamestown, the Cradle of the Republic, 
IX. Williamsburg, the Historic City of Celebrities, 
X. Yorktown, England's "Waterloo," 
XL Smithfield, the Home of the Peanut, 
XII. Petersburg, the City of the Crater, 

XIII. Richmond, the City of Chivalry, 

XIV. Battlefields, near Richmond, 
XV. Alexandria, the Home of Washington and Lee, 

XVI. Early Colonial Churches, .... 

PART II. — The Jamestown Centennial 
The Exposition in Brief, 
Exposition Palaces, 
Government Buildings, 
State Buildings, 
The Warpath, 
Naval Display, 











General Itinerary, . 
Automobile Routes, 
Autoboat Routes, 
Transportation Lines, 
Local Itinerary, 

— General Itinerary. 

I 34-i39- I 4Q 

• 135 



. 141 




Rescue of Capt. John Smith, 

Map of Exposition Grounds, 

Official Pennant of the Exposition, 

Map Historic Places in Virginia, 

Old Type of Monitor, 

Cape Henry Tablet, . 

Capt. John Smith, 


Hampton Roads, 

The Essex, an Old-time Warship 

Bird's Eye View, 

Norfolk Mace, , 

St. Paul's, Norfolk, . 

Trinity Church, Portsmouth, 

Dry Dock, Newport News, 

Soldiers' Home, Hampton, 

St. John's Church, Hampton, 

Hampton Industrial School, # 

Moat, Fortress Monroe, 

Church Tower Ruins, Jamestown, 

Parson Blair's Tomb, Jamestown, 

Ruins, Governor's Residence, Jamestow 

Plat of Williamsburg, 

Bruton Church, Williamsburg, 

Bruton Church, interior plan, 

House of Burgesses Site, 

Court House, Williamsburg, 

Wythe House, Williamsburg, 

Yorktown as it is To day, 

York town Battlefield Monument, 

Nelson House, .... 

St. Luke's Church, Smithfield, 

St. Luke's Church, Smithfield, interior 

Blanford Church, Petersburg, 

Battlefield of the Crater, Petersburg, 

Peace Monument, Petersburg, 

St. John's Church, Richmond, 

St. John's Church, interior, 

Speaker's Chair, House of Burgesses 

Stove, House of Burgesses, 

Map of Battlefields, . 

Christ Church, Alexandria, 

Battleship, Virginia, 

Map, Automobile Route, . 


— N O R T M 



Few people realize that the Cradle of the Republic 
was not the rock-bound coasts of New England, but 
the rich valleys of Virginia. Upon her fertile fields, 
the armies of three wars bivouacked, and as early 
as 1765 the fires of patriotism were kindled in the 
House of Burgesses at Williamsburg. Since the days 
of Patrick Henry, the state has given birth to many 
illustrious men; patriots whose fame has shaken the 
thrones of the Old World and revolutionized the cus- 
toms and usages of the New Republic. 

Many who visit Tidewater Virginia for the first 
time express the utmost astonishment on learning 
that nothing remains of historic Jamestown but a few 
crumbling ruins on an uninhabited island, nearly 
forty miles up the James River from Norfolk and 
the site of the Jamestown Exposition. 

In the blood stained soil of the Old Dominion lie 
buried the ancestry and chivalry of our Nation, and 
no patriotic American should neglect to visit the 
sacred shrines that have become interwoven with the 
very warp a»d woof of our national history. Any 
one making the itinerary laid out in these chapters, 
cannot fail to become imbued with admiration for 
the sturdy colonists who made the wilderness to blos- 
som as. the rose; out of primeval forests erecting the 
sturdy foundations of our glorious Ship of State. 

After each hallowed spot has been seen, the tour- 
ist will appreciate the real spirit that has made pos- 

— 9 — 


Bible the commemoration of the three hundredth an- 
niversary of the first settlement in America of Eng- 
lish speaking people. 

From the sturdy little band of pilgrims who landed 
at Jamestown three hundred years ago have come 
the spirit and the courage, the zeal and the energy 
which have conquered the powers of Europe, chained 
the lightning's flash and harnessed the mighty tor- 
rents of Niagara. 

Here began our history; from out of this deserted 
island, a mighty nation came into existence and, in 
the ivy-clad churchyards of Virginia, quietly sleep 
the statesmen, warriors and presidents, who with 
others, were directly responsible for American Inde- 
pendence. In the midst of these historic associations, 
every citizen should be proud to uncover, and rever- 
ently say, "Thank God, I am an American." 




Three hundred years ago, the thirteenth of May, 
1607, the foundation of the American Republic was 
laid by a sturdy band of English explorers at James- 
town, now desolate and deserted. 

Prior to 1607, Spain had gained a successful foot- 
hold in the New World. The defeat of the Spanish 
Armada awakened England's desire to push her con- 
quests westward. A charter for the colonization of 
Virginia was granted to Sir Walter Raleigh in 1584, 
and Amadas and Barlowe were sent to explore the 
coast and chart the rivers. Upon their return, Ral- 
eigh sent out a party of colonists under Sir Ralph 
Lane. For a year they remained in America, where 
many died from fever, while others were killed by 
Indians. In 1586, the remainder were brought back 
to England by Sir Francis Drake. Two other expe- 
ditions were sent out but failed. In 1602, Gosnold 
surveyed the coast, of New England and called it 
North Virginia. No settlement, however, was made. 

December 20, 1606, :;n expedition started for the 
New World under command of Capt. Christopher New- 
port. Among the passengers was one John Smith, 
destined to play an important part in the colony to be 
founded. Three boats constituted the entire outfit: 
The "Susan Constance," the "Discovery," under 
John Ratcliffe, and the "Godspeed," under Bartholo- 
mew Gosnold. Their destination was the island of 
Roanoke, but after four months of sailing, on April 

— 11 — 

— 12 

26, 1607, they were driven by a fierce gale into the 
Chesapeake. The southern cape they named Henry 
and the northern Charles, in honor of the sons of King 
James. At Cape Henry, the savages drove them back 
to their ships and the little band proceeded to Hamp- 
ton Roads, anchoring at a sheltered place which they 
named Point Comfort. 

A few days later they 
sailed up the James Eiver, 
then called Powhatan, an- 
choring May 13, off a pen- 
insula, thirty-five miles from 
the mouth of the James. 
Having landed, the first 
thing they did was to erect 
a tent in which to hold re- 

Iligious services, and here, 
under Rev. Robert Hunt, 
began the first English 
Church in America. 
Newport soon returned 
to England for more pro- 
visions and new colonists, 
having one hundred and 
five settlers alone in the 
wilderness. Capt. John 
Smith had been appointed one of the magistrates by 
the London Company, but during the voyage jealousy 
arose and he was accused of designing to usurp the 
provincial government and make himself king of Vir- 
ginia. He Avas arrested and confined during the voy- 
age, bul liberated on their arrival when he demanded 
a trial. He was finally acquitted and took his place 
in the council. 


— 13 

Eavaged by fever and sickness, attacked by sav- 
ages and torn by internal dissention, the colony was 
only held together by the indomitable spirit of Smith. 
As many as four or five died every day, among them 
the intrepid explorer, Gosnold. Upon Newport's re- 
turn from England only thirty-eight of the original 
one hundred and five settlers remained. 

In an attempt to explore the head waters of the 
Chickahominy, Smith was attacked and captured by 
Indians. By showing 
them his compass he 
managed to divert their 
attention until he was 
led in triumph before 
Powhatan, their chief. 
The Council finally con- 
demned him to death, 
but as the savages 
circled around him in 
silence with Powhatan 
ready to strike the 
fatal blow, Pocahontas 
pushed herself to the 
side of the prisoner and 
dramatically threw her- 
self between him and his captors. Through her in- 
tercession, the life of Smith was saved and the next 
morning he was conducted back to Jamestown, seven 
weeks after his capture. This exciting incident is de- 
scribed by Capt. Smith himself in the following Ian- 
guage : 

"A long consultation was held, the conclusion of 
which was that two great stones were brought before 
Powhatan. As many as could laid hands on him, 


— 14 — 

dragged him to thorn, and thereon laid his head; and 
being ready with their clubs to beat out his brains, 
Pocahontas, the King's dearest daughter, when no 
entreaty could prevail, got his head on her arms, laid 
her own upon his to save him from death; whenal 
the Emperor was content he should live to make 
him hatchets, beads and copper." 

^^^^^^ In 1609, Powhatan 

plotted to destroy 
Jamestown, but through 
Pocahontas, his daugh- 
ter, the colonists were 
warned in time to pro- 
tect themselves. Subsr 
quently Pocahontas was 
baptized by the name 
of Rebecca. She mar- 
ried Rolfe, with whom 
she visited ■ England, 
where she died, leav- 
ing- one son. It has 
POCAHONTAS , to . , . 

been said she was in 

love with Capt. Smith, who was many years her 
senior and whom she after met in England. 

When Smith left for England, the Colony numbered 
five hundred, but famine and pestilence besieged the 
hardy pioneers and in May, 1610, only sixty dis 
heartened, haggard settlers remained. June 7, 1610, 
with the drums rolling a dirge, the few dejected 
colonists set sail for England, arriving at Hampton 
Roads in time to meet the ships of Lord Delaware, 
the new governor, Avho had jnst arrived with a sup 
ply of provisions and one hundred and eighty new 
adventurers who put new hope into their hearts. 

— 15 — 

From this time the Colony prospered. In 1619, in 
the wooden church at Jamestown, Gov. Yeardly con- 
vened the first legislative assembly in Virginia, the 
upper house being called the Council and the lower 
one the House of Burgesses. 

March 22, 1622, three hundred and forty-seven of 
the colony were butchered by the Indians. In 1624, 
the Crown took over the government of the colony, 
dissolving the charter of the London Company. Up 
to this time nine thousand colonists had been sent 
to Virginia, but only two thousand had survived. 
Grants conveyed by the London Company were taken 
away and settlers deprived of their lawful holdings; 
agents sent to England to remedy the wrong, re- 
turned unsuccessful and after years of abuse at the 
hands of the king, discontent culminated in open insur- 
rection under the leadership of Nathaniel Bacon. 

Governor Berkeley refused to dispatch forces against 
the Susquehannah Indians, who were on the war path; 
but in 1676 Bacon for this purpose raised six hum lied 
volunteers, who were denounced by the Governor as 

Civil war now ensued and Jamestown was burned 
by Bacon 's men. The death of Bacon became the 
end of the rebellion and Berkeley eventually returned 
to England, where he died. 

After Bacon's death, Berkeley hung all of those 
who had opposed him upon whom he could lay hands. 
The wife of Major Chessman begged the old governor 
upon her knees to spare her husband, but without 
avail. Even his old-time friend, William Drummond, 
Was sacrificed to his wrath. 

''Mr. Drummond," he said in a sneering voice, "you 
are very welcome! 1 :uu mote glad to see you than any 

— 16 — 

man in Virginia! j\Ir. Drummond, you shall be hanged 
in half an hour! " 

As soon as King Charles II heard of this he restored 
In Mrs. Drummond her husband's property which the 
governor had confiscated. 

"That old fool," said Charles II, "has hanged more 
men in that naked country than I did for the murder 
of my father! " 

Owing to the fever, which seemed prevalent so much 
of the time, it was decided to abandon the site at 
Jamestown and remove the seat of government to Wil- 
liamsburg, which was done in 1699, the year after the 
burning of the State-House. 

The waters of the James River have long since con- 
verted the peninsula into an island. Fire and sword, 
pestilence and famine have done their work, and only 
ruins remain to mark the site of historic old James- 
town, but the struggles and sufferings of the early 
colonists were not unavailing, for after Jamestown 
came Williamsburg, which first fanned the flames of 
the Revolution leading to the glorious victory at York- 
town and the subsequent birth of the American Re- 




Certainly, the most historic body of water in the 
United States, Hampton Roads, is also, perhaps, the 
most beautiful harbor on the Atlantic coast. In shape, 
it is an isosceles triangle, eleven miles long on one 
side and nine miles in length on the other two sides, 
forming an area of about fifty square miles, sheltered 
by the Virginia coasts, connecting Chesapeake Bay 
with the Atlantic Ocean. Into this vast body of water 
flow the Elizabeth, Nansemond and James Rivers, 
the latter being four miles vide at its mouth. 

A glance at the bird's-eye view on page 20 will 
show the exact location of these streams, with the 
cities bordering the shores of the Roads. The waters 
are deep enough for the largest war vessels built and 
extensive enough to manoeuvre the largest fleet afloat. 
Sheltered by Cape Henry and Cape Charles, Willoughby 
Spit and Old Point; provided with one of the largest 
ship building plants and dry docks in the world and 
supplied by one of the most important government 

— 17 — 

— 18 — 

Navy Yards, Hampton Roads has long been considered 
the strategic naval center of the Atlantic coast. 

Tn the days of the early discoveries, it became the 
objective point of the storm-driven eblonists. Almost 
the first guns discharged by the British navy at the 
commencement of the Revolutionary War were fired 
by Lord Dunmore upon Norfolk and the cities of 
Hampton Roads. In 1779 the British again invaded 
Hampton Roads, capturing Portsmouth and the navy 
yard, and the French admirals, D'Estaing and De 
Grasse, later sailed to Washington's aid at Yorktown 
through these historic waters. 

When after the battle of Waterloo, the portentous 
events of the period prevented Napoleon from remain- 
ing in Paris, it was planned that he should escape to 
Hampton Roads. However, an attorney at Bordeaux 
persuaded him against this course and he put to sea 
from Rochefort and was soon captured by the British 
frigate Bellerophon. His brother, though, refused to 
follow the attorney's advice and reached America in 
safety. Prince Louis Bonaparte, Napoleon's nephew 
and later Emperor of France, sixteen years after, 
sailed into Hampton Roads with the French frigates 
L'Andromede and La Sirene on a visit to Norfolk. 

In the War of 1812, naval activities again centered 
around Hampton Roads. June 22, 1813, preparatory 
to entering Norfolk, the British attacked Craney 
Island, at the mouth of the Elizabeth River. As they 
passed Nansemond Point, they were discovered and 
attacked by a battery on the shore manned by mar- 
ines from the Constellation. 'Three barges were sunk 
and most of the men drowned, the few survivors re- 
treating to their vessels. Those who had previously 
landed were repulsed by the Virginia militia. 

— 19 — 

During the Civil War, Hampton Roads became an 
important strategic point, as it was the gateway to 
Washington. Here, almost opposite the site of the 
Jamestown Exposition, the Monitor and the Merrimae 
fought their epoch-making battle, and over its waters 
thundered the guns of Fortress Monroe and the battle- 
ships of both navies. 


What Yorktown or Gettysburg have been to our 
land forces, Hampton Roads has been our navy. Pro- 
tected by Fortress Monroe and the Rip Raps, it is 
the gateway to our shores; the harbor for every storm- 
beaten mariner and the defender against every invad- 
ing foreign foe. 




Norfolk is the headquarters of nearly all visitors 
to tidewater Virginia. The city has many good hotels, 
the principal ones being the Monticello, on Granby 
Street, Monticello and City Hall Avenues; the Lorraine, 
Granby and Tazewell Streets; the Atlantic and the 

Having secured a location, the tourist should study 
the relative position of Norfolk and other tidewater 
cities of Virginia. The bird's-eye view given on page 
20 conveys an accurate idea of the contiguous terri- 
tory. As seen from this map, Norfolk is situated on 
the north side of the Elizabeth River at the mouth 
of its eastern branch, opposite Berkley and Ports- 
mouth. This river and its branches are arms of 
Chesapeake Bay, forming a harbor of about 1,000 
acres, thirty feet deep, connecting with Hampton 
Roads, an outer harbor of forty or fifty square miles. 

On this body of water is located the site of the 
Jamestown Exposition, opposite Fortress Monroe, Old 
Point, Hampton and Newport News, and into Hamp- 
ton Roads flow the waters of the James River. As 
a matter of reference a few statistics regarding Nor- 
folk may not be out of place. 

In 1905, the city had 136 miles of electric roads, 
11 hospitals and asylums, 14 newspapers, 12 hotels, 
9 places of amusement, 7 railroad lines, 22 steamship 
lines, 11 banks, 92 benevolent orders, 18 schools, 76 

— 21 — 


churches, 125 miles of paved, curbed and graded 
streets, 50 miles of sewers, 5 city buildings, 3 libraries 
and 6 public parks. 

In addition to being a great railway and steam- 
boat terminus, Norfolk is an important manufactur- 
ing center. In 1900 nearly seven hundred manufac- 
turing establishments were reported, with an aggre- 
gate capital of nearly eighteen million dollars. Lum- 
ber, cotton, peanuts, wines, oysters, fish and fertilizers 
are the principal products handled. Truck farming 
and ship building are also important industries. 

The principal business streets of Norfolk are Main, 
(ii.inby and Church Streets. Having strolled through 
the business sections, the tourist can spend a short time 
in visiting the more important places of interest, but 
before doing this, a short synopsis of the city's his- 
tory may be read with profit. 

Prior to the settlement of the English in the state, 
Eastern Virginia was occupied by forty different In- 
dian" tribes, thirty of them belonging to Powhatan's 

"Alas, for them! their <\;\y is o'er; 

Their fires are out, from shore to shore; 
No more for them the wild deer bounds, 
The plough is on their hunting grounds." 

In 1662, two hundred acres of land now occupied by 
the city was owned by Lewis Vandermull, who sold it 
to a shipwright named Nicholas Wise, Sen. In L680, 
fifty acres of this land was purchased for a townsite 
for "Tenn thousand pounds of tobacco and Caske." 
Sept. 15, 1736, the town was incorporated as a Royal 
Borough and Sam '1 Boush became the first mayor. 

The name Norfolk, pronounced Norfolke, was given 

— 23 — 

to the county by Colonel 
Thorogood in memory 
of his native county in 
England. Many of the 
streets were named in 
honor of early settlers, 
Colonial governors and 
officials, as Dunmore, 
Botetourt and Washing- 

The accompanying il- 
lustration shows the 
original Norfolk mace 
presented to the cor- 
poration by Robert Din- 
widdle, Lieut. Governor 
of Virginia, 1753. It 
is 40% inches long and 
is surmounted by an 
arched crown with orb 
and cross, with the 
Royal Arms engraved 
beneath the crown. It 
was hidden in a bank 
vault during the Civil 
War and thus kept in- 
tact from designing 

Up to 1776 Norfolk 
continued to grow and 
prosper, but with the 
commencement of the 
Revolutionary War her 
troubles began. The 


— 24 — 

mosl interesting evidence of these troublous limes is 
the old church, with its cannon-bail, 

Old St. Paul's Church (Church Street) .—Elizabeth 
River Parish was established 1637 and the first church 
erected at "Sewejl's Point." The first Norfolk church 
was built 1641, but no trace of it can be found. The 
present edifice was erected in 1739 and became known 
;■■, the " Boroucrh Church.™ 


The site was presented to the Parish by S;mi '] 
Polish, the first mayor of Norfolk, and his initials can 
still be seen on a brick in the south wing. He is 
buried in the old churchyard. Rev. John Wilson was 
the first rector. Cn 1761 the parish was divided into 
Elizabeth River, Portsmouth and St. Pride's parishes. 

After Lord Dunmorete defeat Pec. 2, 177.". at Greal 
Bridge, ten miles from Norfolk, he retired to his [Jeel 
in Norfolk harbor, dan. 1, 1776, he began bombard- 
ing Norfojk. destroying a goodly portion of the town. 

— za — 

A 5% inch cannon-ball si ruck the south wall of Old 
St. Paul's under the eaves near the Church street cor- 
ner. The ball fell to the ground and in 1848 it was 
found and dug up by Capt. Seabury and cemented into 
the cavity it made in the church wall. 

In 190] the Great Bridge Chapter, Daughters of the 
American Revolution, erected a tablet on the wall, 
which reads, '-Fired by Lord Doinmore, Jan. 1, 1770. 
The church was disestablished as a result of tin- Revo- 
lutionary War and its glebe lands were confiscated by 
the state. 

In 1832 it was repaired and consecrated as St. 
Paul's. During the Civil War, it was occupied by 
Federal troops from 1862 to 1865. For damage done 
the church during the war, the government has since 
awarded $3,600. It was repaired and the interior re- 
stored in 1892 and the tower erected 1901. 

Churchyard (Nearly Two Acres in Extent). — Over 
265 tombs are recorded in the records of St. Paul's. 
The inscriptions have been copied and indexed in 
a book. The oldest date is Jan. 18, 167r>, on the stone 
marking the grave of "Dorothy Farrell." Another 
stone, not marking any grave, was brought from 
King's Creek and bears an inscription to the memory 
of Elizabeth, wife of Honorable Nathaniel Bacon. 
Dr. Okeson, who was responsible for the restoration of 
the church after the Civil War, was buried in the 
churchyard by special permission from the city. 

One of the queer epitaphs reads: 

"Behold my grave, how low I lie ! 
As you are now, so once was I. 
As I am now. so you must be. 
Then be prepared to follow — me." 

It is said that during the Civil War a soldier was 
responsible for scratching on the tomb, with his saber, 
the additional lines: 

"To follow you I am not bent 
Until I know which way you went." 

John Hancock's Chair. — Tn the vestry-room of St. 
Paul's is a mahogany arm chair, upholstered in leather 
hearing a silver plate with the following inscription: 

"This chair was occupied by John Hancock when 
he signed the Declaration of Independence. It 
was bought by Colonel Thomas M. Bayley, of 
Accomac County, Virginia. At bis death it became 
the property of his daughter Ann, who subs.' 
qnently intermarried with the Rev. Benjamin M. 
Miller, once rector of St! Paul's Church, Norfolk. 
Va., who presented it to the parish." 

Norfolk Academy (Bank and Charlotte Street). — 
Incorporated Jan. 15, 1804. Present building erected 
1840; a gem of architectural beauty, modeled after 
the Temple of Theseus at Athens. Prior to the Revo- 
lution the site belonged to St. Paul''s Church. This 
building was the edifice in which Poe, the famous 
American poet, delivered his last lecture. 

Thomas Moore's House (End of East Main Street). 

A deserted dormer-windowed house, where the Irish 
poet is said to have lived. While in Norfolk, it is 
claimed that Moore wrote the first part of "Lalla 
Rookh " and the poem associated with Lake Drum- 
mond in the middle of the Dismal Swamp. 

It is said a young man who had lost his mind upon 
the death of his sweetheart had suddenly disappear <1 
and was never heard of afterwards. In his ravings 
he declared firmly that the girl was not dead but had 
gone to the Dismal Swamp. Upon this supposition, it 
was believed that the young man had wandered into 
this wilderness and had starved to death among the 
morasses of the Swamp. Upon this story, Moore based 
his poem, given as follows: 

— 27 — 

The Lake of the Dismal Swamp. 

"They made her a grave too cold and damp 

For a soul so warm and true ; 
And she's gone to the lake of the Dismal Swamp, 
Where all night long, by a fire-fly lamp, 

She paddles her white canoe. 

"And her fire-fly lamp I soon shall see, 

And her paddle I soon shall hear ; 
Long and loving our life shall be, 
And I'll hide the maid in a cypress tree, 

When the footstep of death is near !" 

Away to the Dismal Swamp he speeds ; 

His path was rugged and sore ; 
Through tangled juniper, beds of reeds, 
Through many a fen, where the serpent feeds, 

And man never trod before. 

And when on the earth he sank to sleep, 

If slumber his eyelids knew, 
He lay where the deadly vine doth weep 
Its venomous tear and nightly steep, 

The flesh with blistering dew ! 

And near him the she-wolf stirred the brake, 
And the coppersnake breathed in his ear, 

Till he starting cried, from his dream awake, 

"Oh ! when shall I see the dusty lake, 
And the white canoe of my dear !" 

He saw the lake and the meteor bright 

Quick over its surface played — 
"Welcome !" he said ; "my dear one's light !' 
And the dim shore echoed for many a night, 

The name of the death-cold maid. 

Till he hollowed a boat of the birchen bark, 

Which carried him off from shore ; 
Far he followed the meteor spark ; 
The wind was high and the clouds were dark, 

And the boat returned no more. 

But oft from the Indian hunter's camp, 

This lover and maid so true, 
Are seen at the hour of midnight damp, 
To cross the lake by a fire-fly lamp, 

And paddle their white canoe. 

The Dismal Swamp covers an area of 800 or 1,000 
square miles. Before the war attempts were made to 
reclaim it, and within the last few years much has 
been accomplished in this direction. Many farms have 

been established here, one containing 4,000 acres and 
another L,000 acres. The soil is the richest and most 
productive in the world. 

A canal traverses the eastern part of it, connecting 
Qhesapeake Hay with the sounds of North Carolina. 
Near the center, three miles west of the canal, is 
Lake Drumraond, 18 miles from Norfolk. It is esti- 
mated that the entire swamp could be reclaimed at ;in 
expense of $1,(10(1,000, in which case an animal revenue 
Could be obtained from the timber amounting to $100,- 

000 and at least $1', ooo, 000 from agricultural products. 
A splendid place for hunting and fishing. 

Edgar Allan Poe spent the greater part of his life 
in Virginia and frequently visited Norfolk. He was a 
student at the University of Virginia in 1826. Sept. 
IS, 1849, he wrote from Richmond to his mother-in- 
law, ;is follows: 

"I lectured at Norfolk on Monday and cleared enough to 
settle my bill here ;it the Madison House, with $2 over. 

1 had ;i highly fashionable audience, but Norfolk is a small 
place and there were two exhibitions the same night." 

Sepl. 1."., 1 S ( 1), the Norfolk Argus published his now 
well known poem, "Lenore, " appended herewith: 


Ah, broken is the golden bow'i I the spirit flown forever! 
Lei the bell toll! — a saintly soul floats on the Stygian river; 
And, Guy I >e Vere, hast thou no tear! — weep now or never 

more ! 
See : on yon drear and rigid bier low lies thy love, Lenore ! 
Come! let the burial rite be read — the funeral song be 

sung ! — 
An anthem for the queenliest dead that ever died so young — 
A dirge for her the doubly dead in that she died so young. 

"Wretches! ye loved her for her wealth and hated her for 

her pride. 
"And when she fell in feeble health, ye blessed her — that 

she died ! 
"How shall the ritual', then, be read'! the requiem how be 

"By you by yours, the evil eye by yours, the slanderous 


— 29 — 

"That di<l to death the innocence that died, and died so 
yoting !" 

Reccavimus! but rave not thus! and let a Sabbath song 
(Jo up to <iod so solemnly that dead may feel no wrong! 
The sweet Lenore hath "gone before" with Hope, that flew 

Leaving thee wild for the dear child that should have been 

thy bride — 
For her, the fair and debonair, that now so lowly lies. 
The life upon her yellow hair but not* within her eyes — 
The life still there, upon her hair — the death upon her eyes. 

"Avaunt ! tonight my heart is light. No dirge will I up- 

•'Rut waft the angel on her flight with a Paean of old days ! 

"Let no bell toll ! — lest her sweet soul, mid its hallowed 

"Should catch the note, as it doth float up from the damned 

"To friends above, from friends below, the indignant ghost 
is riven — 

"From Hell unto a high estate far up within the Heaven 

"From grief and groan, to a golden throne, beside the King 
of Heaven." 

Another famous visitor to Norfolk was General 
Lafayette, who with George Washington, received a 
public ovation here in 1824. In 1837 Louis Napoleon 
Bonaparte, subsequently Emperor of France, was en- 
tertained at French's Hotel, Main and Church streets, 
and in 1841 Henry Clay visited the city. 

In 1855 yellow fever fright fully devastated Norfolk, 
St. Paul's Church alone furnishing seventy-six vic- 
tims. St. Mary's Church was converted into a tem- 
porary hospital. This edifice still stands, one of the 
most beautiful churches in the south, a monument to 
the faithful priest, who during this awful scourge 
ministered to the sick and dying, 

The Civil War proved still another factor that inter- 
fered with the growth of the city. 

Confederate Monument. — At the intersection of Main 
Street and Commercial Place. This statue commemo- 
rates the memory of the Confederate Soldiers who died 
for the "lost cause." 

— 30 — 

The points of interest at surrounding towns are 
fully described in separate chapters, and directions for 
reaching these places will be found in the "Itiner- 
ary/' Part III. There are many historical places of 
interest within an hour's ride of Norfolk, which every 
tourist should visit. The cars going to the various 
suburbs of Norfolk are given as follows: 

Ghent. — The w*est end residence district. To see this 
part of the city, take City Park and Atlantic City 
cars, or the City Park, Ghent and Lambert's Point 

Brambleton. — East end residence district. Take 
east-bound Brambleton, Norfolk and Western, and Nor- 
folk and Southern cars. 

Edgewater. — Take west-bound Lambert's Point cars 
which leave City Parks. 

Berkley. — Take cars on City Hall Avenue, near 
Gfranby Street, or Ferry at foot of Commercial Place. 

Portsmouth. — Take Perry, foot of Commercial Place. 

Norfolk Navy Yard and Marine Hospital. — Take 
Ferry to Portsmouth and electric car to the yards. 

Exposition Grounds. — Take electric cars at barn. 



Portsmouth is only a few minutes' ride across the 
Elizabeth River. The principal attractions to be seen 
are the Norfolk Navy Yards, Trinity Church and the 
Confederate Monument. The business of the city is 
largely dependent upon the industries represented by 
the Navy Yard. Many residents are also employed in 
Norfolk and surrounding places. 

History records the fact that Ralph Lane landed 
near the town of Chesapeake, near Portsmouth, in 1586. 
During the Revolution both Benedict Arnold and 
Cornwallis were in Portsmouth. 

Norfolk Navy Yard (Open to Visitors During Exposi- 
tion from 9 a. m. to 5 p. m. Except Sunday). 

Both cities lay claim to this important government 
industry. Electric cars stop in front of the Ports- 
mouth Ferry, . and connect with the Yards. At the 
entrance, the visitor is instructed to repair to the 
office, where a pass will be issued to enter the grounds. 
Nearly 3,000 men are employed here, and the annual 
pay roll amounts to $2,500,000. The Yards have 
cost the government more than $20,000,000, and the 
annual repairs and improvements amount to $3,000,000. 
A dry-dock is under course of construction and with 
the marine barracks when completed, will make this 
station the greatest on the Atlantic coast. Here are 
located mammoth machine-shops and woodworking es- 
tablishments where the interior fittings of ships are 

— 31 — 

— 32 — 

constructed; Men-of-war are sent to these yards for 
overhauling and general repairs. 

On the opposite side of tlic Elizabeth River is the 
Training Station, which, with the exception of the one 
at Newport, R. I., is the largest in the United States. 
Here apprentice seamen receive their training, four 
months being the limit for recruits. The old men-of- 
war, Franklin and Richmond, have been fitted up as 
receiving-ships and three converted yachts, the Siren, 
Hornet and Restler, and a sailing yacht, the Eagle, 
are used for giving the recruits actual experience in 
handling a ship and in loading and manning guns. 

An artificer's school is also attached to this branch 
of the service, where recruits receive a thorough me- 
chanical training. On the Franklin, a bandsmen's 
school is held where enlisted musicians are trained. A 
Reserve flotilla station is maintained south of the 
Training Station. The torpedo-boat crews are quar- 
tered aboard the U. S. ship Atlanta. 

Tourists are sometimes allowed to visit men-of-war, 
at certain hours on special days allotted for that pur- 

Here at these yards seven ships have been built for 
the navy, the battleship Texas ami the cruiser Raleigh 
being the two latest ones. The staunch old Constella- 
tion was built and launched here; also the Alliance, 
the Richmond and the Jamestown. 

More than thirty large buildings are included in the 
yards. There are three dry-docks and one wet-dock 
large enough for several ships. The oldest one is built 
of stone and was begun Dec. 1, 1S:!7. An interesting 
sight is an enormous pile of am hors dating back to the 
beginning of the navy. The yard contains 359 1-10 
acres in Portsmouth and ( .»1 acres in Norfolk. It was 

— 33 — 

given the name "Norfolk Navy Yard" to distinguish 
it from the one at Portsmouth, N. H. 

Trophy Park. — The first object that attracts the 
visitor upon entering the yards is the Park, which 
separates the offices from the workshops and wharves. 

Here may be seen naval guns of many nations, types 
and ages. Spanish guns from men-of-war belonging 
to Admiral Cervera's fleet; relics and trophies from 
the Revolutionary "War, the War of 1812, and from the 
Mexican, Civil and Spanish-American Wars, including 
guns captured at Tien-Tsin during the Boxer troubles, 
in 1900. 

Specimens of armor from the Confederate ram Texas 
and the Albemarle are grouped about the flag-staff in 
the center of the Park. The torpedo tubes with two 
torpedoes captured with the Reina Mercedes can be 
seen at one end of the Park, while nearby are two 
guns from the famous U. S. ship Huron, wrecked off 
the North Carolina coast. 

The large cannon-ball made entirely of stone, 
brought from Constantinople, is also most interesting. 
It represents the first cannon-balls ever used and it 
would fill the muzzle of the largest gun now in exist- 
ence. Four carronades bearing the words, ' ' Republica 
de Yucatan" were captured in the war with Mexico. 
Four larger ones were taken on the lakes from the 
British during the War of 1812. 

In 1861 the Federal troops evacuated the yards and 
the XT'. S. battleship Pennsylvania was burned to the 
water's edge. 

Naval Hospital. — About one mile from the Navy 
Yard. The grounds surrounding the hospital cover 
seventy-five acres. Admiral Cervera was held here on 
parole as a prisoner of war. A monument on the 

— 34 — 

grounds marks the site of old Fort Nelson of Revolu- 
tionary fame. 

The gr.uiit • hospital building was erected 1835-6. 
The grounds were acquired by the Navy Department 
in 1827. The building has been used for hospital pur- 
poses during every American war that has occurred 
since its erection. A cemetery is attached to the 


grounds where a number of prominent men are buried. 
Nearly sixty Confederate soldiers and sailors are also 
interred in these grounds. A monument erected to 
the memory of soldiers and sailors buried here was un- 
veiled by President Roosevelt, Memorial Day, May 
30, 1906. 

Trinity Church (High and Court Street). — This beau- 
tiful edifice was erected 1762; rebuilt 1829 and remod- 

— 35 — 

eled in 1893. During the Civil War the building was 
occupied by Federal troops as a hospital and during 
the War of 1812 it was converted into barracks. 

The original roof still remains, blackened with age. 
In the old churchyard are many tombs with quaint 
inscriptions reminding one of the vicissitudes of time 
and war. Here lies buried Commodore Barron, who 
during the War of 1812 was suspended from the service 
and later restored, subsequently (1820) killing Commo- 
dore Decatur in a duel. 

Confederate Monument (at the intersection of High 
and Court Streets, opposite Trinity Church). — At the 
base of the shaft on each corner is a life size figure of 
a Confederate soldier, each one representing a different 
division of the service. A tablet upon the monument 

' ; In memory of Maj. F. W. Jett,.C. Sa., to whose 
labor and devotion the erection of this monument . 
is principally due." 

Quaint old Portsmouth, with its historic associations, 
is still an important factor in the life of the government 
and its work shops, its navy yard, hospital, training 
schools and its old historic church possess a charm that 
will attract visitors for years to come. 



Newport News has a population of some 30,000 peo- 
ple. It was early known as "New Pork Neuces. " 
Locally, Newport is pronounced "New'put." 

It was near this point that the despondent James- 
town settlers first caught sight of Lord Delaware 's 


ships of relief in 1610. The arrival of this timely aid 
gave the colonists new courage and they turned back 
to their abandoned homes, thus saving the colony and 
insuring its future ; a future so pregnant with signifi- 
cant events. 

The Chesapeake and Ohio "Railway has its terminus 
here and seventeen steamship lines connect with this 

— 36 — 

— 37 — 

city. Newport News is on Hampton Roads, where 
hundreds of ships coal. As much as 350,000 tons of 
coal arrive here in a month. Electric lines connect 
with Hampton, Old Point and Fortress Monroe and 
boats reach Norfolk in fifty minutes, Exposition 
grounds in twenty minutes, Jamestown Island and 
Yorktown in a few hours. Among other important in- 
dustries located here are iron and brass foundries, 
shirt and shoe factories, planing mills, breweries and 
ice plants. 

Ship Yards. — The chief point of interest, however, 
is the greatest ship building yards in America and 
the greatest dry-dock in the world. The plant cost 
over $15,000,000, and although a private concern, some 
of the largest American battleships have been built 
here; in fact, almost any day of the year ships in all 
stages of construction can be seen. Cruisers, battle- 
ships, submarines and torpedo boats are constantly 
being turned out. Seven thousand five hundred men 
are employed, and the weekly pay roll amounts to 
$60,000. The largest derrick in the world is also lo- 
cated here. It easily handles 300,000 pounds at one 

Half a day can be devoted to Newport News if time 
is pressing, and electric car can be taken from this 
point for Hampton. 



When the English first visited Virginia, Hampton 

was an Indian village, called Kecoughtan. The city 

is on the waters of Hampton Roads, nearly opposite 

the Exposition site, it is claimed to be the oldest 
continuous English settlement in America. 

Driven by a gale into the Chesapeake, the original 

expedition with Capt. John Smith landed at Cape 

Henry, but being attacked by the savages, they sailed 
up Hampton Roads and anchored off Old Point, May 
10, 1607, remaining in the vicinity of Hampton for 
several days before proceeding up the James. Settle- 
ment was effected by Lord De La Warr, July, 1610. 
He was re-enforced in May, 1611, by Sir Thomas Dale. 
In 1616, John Rolfe wrote that the town had twenty 
inhabitants. In 1619, tile House of Burgesses were 
petitioned to change the heathen name of Kecough- 
tan to one more befitting a community of Christians, 
so Elizabeth City was substituted, but no act of legis- 

— 38 — 

— 39 — 

latiou can entirely obliterate the imprint of these 
early savages from our boundaries. 

"Their name is on your waters, 

Ye may not wash it out. 
Their memory lieth on your hills, 

Their baptism on your shore. 
Your everlasting rivers speak 

Their dialect of yore." 

In 1623, there lived within the parish John Layden 
and his wife, Anna, the first English couple married in 
Virginia. One of their three daughters, Virginia, was 
the first English child born in America, after Virginia 
Dare, of Roanoke -Colony. The present town of Hamj> 
ton was founded in 1680 by an act of the Legislature. 

The tourist visiting Virginia for the first time is 
early impressed with the number of historic churches, 
nearly all of them surrounded by the sacred God 's 
Acre. As little by little the dauntless colonists pene- 
trated the wilderness, the first permanent public build- 
ing to be erected was always a church. In fact, every 
ten miles a place of worship was established. Many 
"of these edifices have long since been destroyed and 
forgotten, but a number of them have remained 
through the centuries of war and famine, standing to- 
day, in beauty of architecture, the equal of their 
English prototypes. One of the most interesting and 
perhaps the most picturesque of these early colonial 
churches is the one at Hampton. 

St. John's Church (Queen's Street). — This parish 
was named after Princess Elizabeth, daughter of King 
James I, 1620. The first rector was the Rev. William 
Mease. Not a trace of the first church remains, except 
a few trees on the land now belonging to the Tabb 
family, north of the road leading to Old Point, which 
was once part of the glebe lands of the church. In 
1716 one writer says the town had about one hundred 

-40 — 

inhabitants, hut no church; services being held in the 
Court House. 

What is known as the second church existed at that 
time at Pembroke Farm, a mile west of Hampton. It 
was built about 1667. The site with adjoining land, 
consisting of nine acres, still belongs to the parish. 
Here are the tombs of some of the oldest inhabitants, 
many of the stones being of black marble. Among 
them is one erected in 1697 to the memory of Admiral 
Neville. It is the intention to use the old graveyard 
as a cemetery for the parish, after St. John's Church- 
yard becomes no longer available. 

The present church building is the third one built 
in the parish. Erected 1728 and built of bricks made 
by Henry Gary. It seems to have remained undamaged 
during the Revolutionary War, but June 24-27, 1813, 
the town and church was sacked by the British under 
Admiral Cockburn, the church being turned into bar- 
racks. It was subsequently repaired and renamed St. 
John's Church, 1827, and consecrated by Bishop R. C. 
Moore, Friday, Jan. 8, 1830. 

Many of the churches in this vicinity were occu- 
pied by troops during the Civil War or suffered 
through fire or depredations and St. John's Church 
proved no exception. On the night of Aug. 7, 1861, 
Hampton and its venerable old church were destroyed 
by fire. In proof of their loyalty, the inhabitants un- 
der Gen. Magruder set fire to their own homes to [in- 
vent them from falling into the hands, of the Federal 
troops, and in the general conflagration that followed 
old St. John's took fire also. The original walls stood, 
however, and the structure was again restored, 1868 70. 
A tablet upon the church gives a short history of the 
edifice, followed by this quotation from Psalms: 

— 41 — 

"O, give thanks unto the Lord, for he is good; for his 
mercy endureth forever." Rev. C. Braxton Bryan, Rector, 
January, 1904." 

In 1903 the Association for the Preservation of Vir- 
ginia Antiquities, presented to the church a beautiful 
memorial stained glass window in honor of the Colo- 


nial clergy of Elizabeth City parish. One of these 
early (1610-1620) ministers, Rev. Wm. Mease, is said 
to have served the original Jamestown Church after 
the death of "Good Maister Hunt." 

Communion Service. — The church has in its posses- 
sion a communion service made in London in 1618 and 
presented by Mary Robinson to a church at South 
Hampton Hundred. When this edifice was destroyed 
in 1622, Gov. Yeardly took the service to Jamestown 

— 42 — 

and it was later given to Elizabeth City Parish, where 
it h;ts since been in constant use. 

Churchyard. — The graveyard of St. John's is excep- 
tionally beautiful and the inscriptions on the tombs 
attraci the attention of all visitors to this picturesque 
little city. At one side of the church is a neat, digni- 
fied statue in memory of the Confederate dead. 

Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute for 
negroes was established 1868 and is one of the most 



important colleges for the colored race in America. 
Rev. Hollis B. Frissell, D. D., LL. D., is the principal. 
The object of the school is to prepare academic, me- 
chanical and agricultural teachers for the Negro and 
[ndian races. Over one hundred and twenty officer^ 
and teachers are employed and the attendance exceeds 
1,200; 1,310 graduates have been sent out from the 
school ami over 5,000 under-graduates. 

The first cargo of negro slaves was landed not far 
from Hampton in 1619, a significant fact, when it is 
considered that this is the first institution founded 

— 43 — 

for the industrial training of their emancipated de- 
scendants. Over 35 per cent of the graduates are 
either farmers or mechanics, and the Institute points 
Avith pride to the fact that Booker T. Washington's 
name is among the list of her alumni. 

In 1878, Indians were also admitted, 120 of whom 


are now in attendance. The U. S. Government an- 
nually pays $167 for the board and clothing of each 
of these Indian pupils. The state contributes $10,- 
000 annually to the support of the school for agricul- 
tural and military training and $1,500,000 has already 
been secured as an endowment fund. There are 60 
buildings, including shops, where eighteen trades are 
taught. The farm consists of 800 acres. 

Symms-Eaton Free School. — The oldest free school 
in America being founded in 1634 in memory of Benj. 
Symms and Thos. Eaton, who endowed it. This school, 
located at Hampton, is now a part of the regular pub- 
lic school system. 




Having been driven from Cape Henry by the sav- 
ages in 1007, the original explorers who later settled 
at Jamestown, weighed anchor in the shelter of this 
harbor, which, in thankfulness for protection from 
the storm at sea, they named "Point Comfort." 

Palatial steamers touch at the Point on their way 
from Cape Charles to Norfolk and from northern ports, 
for Old Point is a resort whose fame is world wide. 
Thousands of tourists are entertained annually at the 
Hotel Chamberlain, which has been the scene of many 
a noted diplomatic and social function. Located di- 
rectly on the waters of Hampton Eoads, the glimmer- 
ing lights of the Exposition are discernible directly 

Fortress Monroe. — History records that as early as 
101 1 there was a fort at Point Comfort called "Fort 
Algernon." It was garrisoned by forty men, and con- 
tained seven iron cannons. In 1630, according to one 
historian, a larger and more pretentious fort was built. 
These fortifications were augmented from time to time, 
and in 1813 the garrison numbered 450 men, who made 
a gallant defense against the invasion of the British 
under Admiral Cockburn. Outnumbered, however, the 
Americans were forced to retreat. 

The present fortifications, commenced in 1817 and 
completed in 1875, embrace a parapet wall a mile and 
a quarter long, enclosing eighty-six acres, and costing 
$2,258,453.05. The fortress is partially washed by the 

^-44 — 

— 45 — 

waters of Hampton Roads, and separated from the 
mainland by a wide and deep moat. All the latest dis- 
appearing guns, and modern machinery of war are here 
in evidence. During the Civil War the garrison aided 
the Federal men-of-war, the battery at the Rip Raps 
responding, in the famous battle of the Monitor and 

The fortress, one of the best equipped in America, 
is the chief artillery station of the United States gov- 
ernment, and is in reality a practical school for the 

Copyright, 1906. by Cheyne Studio 

army and navy. It has the longest line of fortifica- 
tions in the world, and is ranked next to Gibraltar in 

Oct. 31, 1828, Edgar Allan Poe, who had enlisted in 
the army as Edgar A. Perry, was transferred from 
Battery H. of the First Artillery at Fort Moultrie, 
South Carolina, to Fortress Monroe. He was made 

— 46 — 

company clerk and assistant in the commissariat de- 
partment, and later promoted to the rank of sergeant 
major. April 15, 1829, lie was honorably discharged 
with the highest encomiums from the officers under 
whom he had served. 

On the spacious parade grounds may be seen the 
morning and evening drills of the soldiers, and in the 
park, and along the walks are many interesting guns, 
cannon-balls and other relics from the wars of the 
past, it was here that Jefferson Davis, the President 
of the Confederacy, was confined at the close of the 
Civil War, and it was this fortress the Spaniards 
planned to attack during the Spanish-American War. 
Its grim old walls have witnessed history in the mak- 
ing, and the waters surrounding it have rocked the 
very "Cradle of the Eepublic. " 

Rip Raps. — (Fort Wool, before the Civil War called 
Ft. Calhoun.) This is a fine granite fort, with earth- 
works within and without, situated between Fortress 
Monroe and the Exposition grounds. It is built upon 
an artificial island, and cost the government $16,000,- 
000. It commands the entrance to Chesapeake Ba> , 
and is equipped with immense disappearing guns and 
the latest machinery for defense in time of war. With 
Fortress Monroe and the Eip Raps, tidewater Virginia 
is amply protected from the assault of any possible 
enemy by water. 



The Far East has its Mecca, Palestine its Jerusalem, 
France its Lourdes and Italy its Loretto, but Amer- 
ica's only shrines are her altars of patriotism — the first 
and the most potent being Jamestown; Jamestown, 
the sire of Virginia, and Virginia the mother of this 
great Republic. 

The site of old ''James Towne" was originally a 
peninsula jutting into the James River, some forty 
miles from its mouth. Time, however, has cut the 
narrow neck of land connecting it with the mainland, 
leaving it stranded and isolated, the prey of the winds 
and the waves, which have slowly been obliterating 
its shores. An early colonial secretary records that 
the site was originally about two and three-quarters 
miles in length, and about one and one-quarter miles 
in width, and in some places only 300 yards wide. 
The peninsula crossed what is now known as Sandy 

The place where the brave explorers landed, now 
over four hundred and fifty feet from the shore, lies 
buried under the waters of the James River. It is 
estimated to be about 1,500 feet west of the present 

The government has just completed a permanent 
sea-wall around the entire island to protect it from the 
ravages of the river. It has been estimated that about 
twenty acres have been washed away. Twenty-three 
acres, where most of the original town was built, has 

— 47 — 

— 48 — 

been deeded to the Association for the Preservation 
of Virginia Antiquities by its former owners, Mr. and 
Mrs. Edw. E. Barney. The Association has endeavored 
to protect the old ruins, and the historic ivy-mantled 
tower from further devastation, and many excavations 
have been made under its auspices. 

A concise description and history of the settlement 
at Jamestown has been given in one of the preliminary 
chapters. As the Exposition was inaugurated as the 


third centennial of that event, this history has been 
introduced at the beginning of this narrative, but be- 
fore visiting the Island, the tourist should again read 
it ever carefully. 

The Jamestown Church. — History records that the 
first church, "a homely thing, like a barn, set upon 
crotchets, covered with rafts, sedge and earth," was 

— 49 — 

burned, with the settlement, about eight months after 
its erection. 

A second church, within the entrenchments still in 
evidence, was built in time for the arrival of Lord 
Delaware in 1610. The communion table was of black 
walnut, the chancel, pulpit and pews of cedar and the 
" front hewn hollow like a canoe." 

The day of Delaware 's arrival, attended by a red- 
coated guard, he repaired to this church, delivered an 
address at the close of the sermon by Eev. Richard 
Buck. The third .church was completed 1619 on the 
site of the present tower ruins. This edifice was evi- 
dently of frame construction. Its foundations have 
recently been unearthed within the boundaries of the 
brick church. 

The Rev. Richard Buck also preached in the third 
children, and it was here that Gov. Yeardly called to- 
gether the first Legislative Assembly in the New 

The fourth church, represented by the present tower 
ruins, was completed between 1639 and 1644. It was 
built of blue and red glazed bricks, by some claimed 
to have been manufactured in the colony, and by 
others said to have been imported from England. The 
tower is believed to have been erected as much for 
defense against the Indians as for church purposes. 

The original communion service, consisting of three 
pieces, presented in 1661 by the acting Governor, is 
now in possession of the Bruton Church at Wil- 
liamsburg. Each piece bears the inscription: 

"Mixe not holy things with profane. Ex dono 
francisci Morrison, Armiger, Anno Domi, 1061." 

In 1676, during the turbulent days of Bacon's Re- 
bellion, the church belonging to the present tower was 
destroyed with the town by fire. After the rebellion, \ 

— 50 — 

the church was again rebuilt, but about the end of the 
seventeenth century it was deserted. It is the inten-. 
tion of the Colonial Dames of America to erect r 
memorial church over the site of the old walls, which 
recently have been unearthed. The Colonial Bell Asso- 
ciation intends to hang a bell in the old tower, and 
the Episcopal Church of America will place a tablet 
within the church in honor of the first minister to 
Jamestown, the Rev. Robert Hunt. 


The Graveyard. — Immediately surrounding the old 
church is the graveyard, which undoubtedly was the 
original burying ground of the colonists. The wall 
marking its boundaries was built early in the eight- 
eenth century. Beneath the nave and chancel of the 
church, many important colonists were laid to rest. 

— 51 — 

An ironstone tablet bearing- an impression of a coat- 
of-arms can still be seen, as well as the tombstone of 
Rev. John ('lough, incumbent during Bacon's Rebel- 
lion, who died January, 1683. Among other inscrip- 
tions upon the gravestones in the churchyard we read: 

"Here lies William Sherwood, that was born in 
the Parish of White Chappell, near London, a 
great sinner waiting for a Joyfull Resurrection."' 

One of the most interesting tombs is that of Parson 
Blair, minister at Jamestown, founder and first presi- 
dent of William and Mary College, and rector of Bru- 
ton Church at Williamsburg. He was also a member 
of the Council and Commissary to the Bishop of Lon- 
don. A long Latin inscription records the good doc- 
tor's accomplishments. An old sycamore tree has 
grown up between his grave and that of his wife, 
Sarah, shattering both tombstones. 

Lady Frances Berkeley, wife of the colonial gover- 
nor of that name, and Mrs. Edward Ambler, who as 
Mary Cary was courted by George Washington, are 
also buried here, in the northeast corner of the yard. 

State House Ruins. — The third and fourth state 
houses, built on the same site, evidently faced the 
south, with a square porch in front. It was before the 
state house built in 1606 (the third one) that Na- 
thaniel Bacon brought his determined followers to de- 
mand of Governor Berkeley a commission to raise 
troops to protect the settlers from Indian massacres. 
Thinking Bacon had merely come to revenge himself 
for the repeated insults heaped upon him, the choleric 
governor rushed out to meet him, and baring his breast, 
dramatically cried: "Here, shoot me, 'fore God, fair 
mark, shoot! " 

"Sir," replied Bacon, "my sword shall rust in its 
scabbard before even a hair of your head is touched. 


The following year, the building was burned by 
Bacon's men and until the fourth State House was 
built, in 1686, the Council were compelled to meet in 
the taverns of t lie town. The last House was also de- 
stroyed by fire in L698, and the next year the capital 
was removed to Williamsburg. The foundations of 
these two buildings still remain, mate witnesses to the 
struggles of our early legislators in the arena of colo- 
nial politics. 

Ambler Ruin. — East of the tower are the ruins of 
the Jacqueline Ambler Mansion. It was burned during 
Hi'' Civil War, rebuilt ami again destroyed by fire in 
L896. This was the home of Washington's sweetheart, 
Mary Cary. 

indwell Houses. — Three ruins next to the State 
House mark' the site of houses owned by Philip Lud- 
well, Governor of North Carolina, and third husband 
of Governor Berkeley's widow. In the cellar of the 
one at the end of the row, the "Country House," were 
found a pipe, scissors, copper candlestick, two bomb- 
shells and other curious articles, which have been safe- 
guarded under the Tower by the Association for the 
Preservation of Virginia Antiquities. 

Other Landmarks. — East of the tower was located 
the later acquisitions to Jamestown, called " New 
Towne," supposed to have been built during the ad- 
ministration of Governor George Yardley, who entered 
upon his duties in 1010. 

Traces of a foundation have been found less than 
two hundred feet from the wharf, which may have 
been that of the first State House, built 1630. Oilier 
foundations can be seen along the river bank. The 
site of the second fort, known as Turf Fort, has been 
located, but no trace of its foundations remains. Em- 

bankments and fortifications of the Confederate s are 
clearly in evidence. At the east end of the island is 
the Travis private burial ground only two of the 
stones remaining legible. 

From Jamestown one can proceed overland to the 
most famous village in the United States — Williams- 
burg, seven miles distant. A macadam road has been 
built between the island and Williamsburg, and the 


trip can be made by automobile or by stage, with 
much pleasure and profit. 

It is with a deep feeling of reverence that one turns 
his back upon these sacred ruins, gaunt and bare, de- 
nuded by three centuries of cankering storms, all that 
is left to mark the feverish lives of the Nation 's 
founders, many of whom sleep in long forgotten 


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Although the birth of the Nation took place at 
Jamestown, it was at Williamsburg that the infant 
government was prepared to assume her position as a 
full fledged Republic. 

The annals of this little village, unbroken for over 
two centuries, are pregnant with momentous records of 
past achievements. More historic associations cluster 
around this quiet hamlet than any other existing 
American town or city. Here more significant events 
have taken place than are recorded in the chronicles 
of any other borough. Its streets are fairly haunted 
by the personalities of the great; echoing and re- 
echoing with the names of titled governors, eloquent 
orators, brilliant statesmen, astute theologians and 
brave warriors of world-wide reputation. 

Here, in stately magnificence, ruled the representa- 
tives of the British Crown: Spotswood, Drysdale, 
Gooch, Dinwiddie, Fauquier, Botetourt and Dun- 
more. Before the Colonial House of Burgesses ap- 
peared Washington, Patrick Henry and other emi- 
nent men. Here lived Sir John Randolph, Edmund 
and Peyton Randolph and John Blair and from his- 
toric old William and Mary Oollege graduated a host 
of famous men, whose names have been recorded 
upon the scrolls of the nation, among them Jeffer- 
son, Monroe, Tyler and Chief Justice Marshall. 

Suddenly transported from the bustling streets of 
a twentieth century city to the historic avenues of 

— 55 — 

— 56 — 

old Williamsburg, the visitor actually feels that time 
has turned back the calendar at least two centuries. 
Here arc many of the original structures, standing in- 
tact as they did when occupied by our Colonial fore- 
fathers. The same old brass knockers which echoed 
nihil r the impetus of many a famous hand still re- 
main upon the same old doors that opened in hos- 
pitable welcome to bygone dignitaries, warriors and 
heroes. Even the furnishings of many of the present 
homes consist of heirlooms handed down from one 
generation to another; original Chippendale tables 
and chairs, silver candle-sticks, brass andirons and 
countless other treasures that remind us of the grand- 
eur of Colonial days. Even many of the citizens aro 
direct descendants of the early pioneers, occupying 
the same houses, using the same furniture and dis- 
playing in their lives the same hospitable traits that 
characterized their ancestors. 

Williamsburg, by all means, should be placed in the 
hands of the United States Government as a Na- 
tional Reservation. So far as possible, the old his- 
toric buildings that have been razed should be re- 
built. The Governor's Palace and the original House 
of Burgesses should be reconstructed. The Speaker's 
old chair and the stove, now at the Kichmond 
Capitol, should be returned to Williamsburg. Histori- 
cal documents, relics and Colonial furniture should 
be gathered and used in making these buildings 
replicas of those existing during the infancy of the 
nation. Public subscription would do much toward 
this end and Williamsburg would become the true 
Mecca for every patriotic American. 

Teachers and pupils should be sent to visit these 
historic associations. Washington, Jefferson, Patrick 

— 57 — 

Henry are now merely names we conjure with, but 
no one can visit Old Bruton Church or stand upon 
the foundations of the Old House of Burgesses, with- 
out feeling the actual personality of these men as 
stamped upon the historic walls of Williamsburg. 
They would no longer remain mere names, but would 
become the embodiment of real characters who lived 
and fought and died for their country. 

Williamsburg, originally known as Middle Planta- 
tion, was laid out by Gov. Sir John Harvey in 1632. 
In 1648 "Harrop Parish," in James City, was united 
with Middle Plantation and called Middletown Parish 
and in 1674 Marston Parish, York County, was added 
and the name changed to Bruton Parish. The town 
was named in honor of the English sovereigns, Wil- 
liam and Mary, and boasts of a royal charter. In 
1690, after the desertion of Jamestown, the Capital 
was removed to Williamsburg and Bruton Church be- 
came the direct successor of the Court Church of 

The original plan provided for laying the town out 
ia the form of a W and M, in honor of William 
and Mary, but it was abandoned as impracticable. 
The streets were platted by Gov. Francis Nicholson, 
in 1698, and named in honor of British associations: 
England, Scotland, Ireland, Duke of Gloucester, 
Prince, Duke, Queen, George, Henry, York and similar 

With the idea of keeping church and state apart, 
the House of Burgesses was located at one end of 
the Duke of Gloucester street, and at the other ex- 
tremity, nearly a mile distant, William and Mary Col- 
lege. Shaded by trees on both sides, with lamp-posts 
extending down the center, the Duke of Gloucester 

58 — 

Street, ninety feet wide, forms one of the most at- 
tract ivc village streets in America. This was the 
Colonial Boulevard and down this avenue in coach, 
berlin or chaise were often seen the titled gentry and 
aristocrats of Colonial Virginia, on their way to 
I'.rnton Church. This street was named in honor of 
William, Duke of Gloucester, eldest son of Queen 
A nne. 

Many a novelist of national reputation has made 
historic old Williamsburg the scene of plot and story 
and visitors will renew many a familiar memory as 
they gaze upon these evidences of a past grandeur. 

Bruton Church (Duke of Gloucester Street). — The 
Court Church of Colonial Virginia and the mother of 
the Episcopal Church in America. In all the broad 
domain of the United States, there is no one build- 
ing surrounded by more historic associations than 
this venerable old church. Here worshipped George 
Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Madison, Monroe and 
Tyler; here sat the Colonial Governors and the mem- 
bers of the House of Burgesses; the Harrisons, Pen- 
dletons, Patrick Henry, the Randolphs, the Lees and 
ma n v other illustrious dignitaries, and from this church 
emanated the religious, social and political life that 
characterized the Old Dominion. 

Bruton Church, evidently named from Bruton, 
Somerset, England, the home of Gov. Berkeley, was 
founded in 1632. Prior to 1665 there was a small 
frame church of which little is known, but the sec- 
ond church, built of brick, was erected on land do- 
nated by Col. John Page, 1683. The present struc- 
ture, designed by Gov. Alexander Spotswood, was 
built of blue and red glazed brick, in 1710. 

Here worshipped the Colonial Governors and mem- 

— 59 — 

bers of the House of Burgesses. A large square pew 
was provided for the governor and a beautiful silk 
drapery hung from brass supports, secluding him 
from the rest of the congregation when desired. The 
pews for the members of the House were placed to- 
gether across the transepts. This part of the church 


was built by and for the members of the House of 

The old Register, badly mutilated, found a few 
years ago, contains records from 1662 to 1797. The 
first entry in the vestry book is dated April 18, 1674. 
November 29, 1683, the volume records: "The Parish 
Church is at length completed." The fees of the 
Parish clerk were "three pounds of tobacco for 
registering every christening and burial in ye Par- 
ish." The "Sexton to have ten of tobacco for every 

— 60 — 

grave that he diggs. " June 5, 1682, it was agreed that 
the rector be paid "ye sum of sixteen thousand, six 
hundred and sixty-six pounds of tobacco and caske." 

In 1699, the Jamestown Church was abandoned 
with the town, and Bruton Church became its recog- 
nized successor. The font, which tradition says is 
the one from which Pocahontas was baptized, to- 
gether with the Communion Service, was given into 
the keeping of Bruton Church, where they still may 
be seen. The Jamestown service consists of a chalice, 
paten and alms basin, the two former presented by 
Francis Morrison. 

Two other services are in the possession of the 
Church: The Bruton Parish Church Service, known 
as the "Queen Anne Set," consisting of Cup and 
Cover, dated 1686, and Paten, dated 1737; also the 
King George Service, consisting of Flagon, dated 
L766, chalice, 1764, and alms basin, all bearing the 
Royal Arms. 

The bell in the tower wars presented to the Parish 
in 17(51, by .lames Tarpley. Toward the close of the 
seventeenth century the 'old church seemed to be in 
need of constant repair and in 1706 twenty thousand 
pounds of tobacco were levied toward a new struc- 
ture — the present one, which was completed in 1715, 
during the ministry of Rev. Mr. Blair. 

The churchyard wall was completed in 1751 by 
Samuel Spurr, for £320. The site for the church and 
graveyard was the gift of John Page, Nov. 14, 107s, 
the yard fronting on Duke of Gloucester Street, for 
three hundred feet. 

The Rev. W. A. TJ. Goodwin, A. M., present rector 
of the church, has given a graphic description of the 
service in Colonial Days in his "Historical Sketches 

— 61 — 

of Bruton Church. ' ' which we take the liberty of 
quoting, in part: 

' ' The old bell breaks the stillness of the Sabbath 
morn. Old fashioned coaches drive up to the gate, 
and as the door is opened by a liveried footman, the 
occupants come forth clothed after the last year's 
fashion of the Court of George the Third. Around 
the door the Colonial gentry are assembled. From 
Kaleigh Tavern there comes a group of men who are 
representatives of the people in the House of Bur- 
gesses. The Governor 's carriage sweeps down the 
Palace Green and draws up before the door. 

"We pass into the church. In spite of all the care 
we take, our footsteps resound through the building 
as we walk down the flagstone aisle. Passing into 
a large square pew, we close the door and wait. It 
is difficult to see those in front of us. We notice that 
the men sit on the north side of the church, and the 
women on the south. Mr. Peter Pelham enters and 
ascending the ' Organ loft ' begins to play the new 
organ, recently purchased in England for the church 
by order of the House of Burgesses. The students 
from the College of William and Mary enter, at- 
tended by one of the Masters, and file into the gallery 
assigned to them in the south wing of the church. 
When the students have all entered the gallery door is 
locked, and the key given to the sexton. There is no 
chance now for them to escape. 

"By an outside stairway, leading up to the gallery in 
the north wing, we see the servants of the parish- 
ioners enter. The door at the west, leading from 
the tower, opens and the minister, who has vested 
there, enters and, passing down the aisle, enters the 
chance] at the east end of the church. The clerk 

— 62 — 

takes his place at the desk below the pulpit, which 
stands down in the body of the building at the south- l 
east corner of the church. 

"And now, even over the high back pews, we can , 
see that something is attracting general attention. 
The tower door opens, and the Court Procession en- 
ters, His Excellency, the Governor, passes down the 
aisle to his pew. It is in the chancel end of the 
church, on the north side of the aisle; it is elevated 
from the floor. A silk canopy hangs over it, and 
around it in large letters of gold is the Governor's 
name. The Counsel of state, and the members of the 
House of Burgesses, and the Surveyor-General take 
pews officially assigned. The service begins. The 
beadle keeps his eye upon the college youth in par- 
ticular. We hear what sounds like an imprecation 
from a nearby pew when the prayer is said for 
George the Third, and the Royal Family, but it is 
discreetly suppressed. 

"The service ended, the minister ascends the high < 
steps leading up into the southeast corner pulpit, 
takes his text and begins his sermon. Those who 4 - 
have brought braziers with which to warm their feet 
listen with comfort, if not always with patience. The ] 
benediction said, groups gather in the church and ex- 
change greetings, collect the news, discuss the sermon 
and exchange opinions, and go to their homes. "* 

The so-called ' ' modern improvements ' ' added to 
the church, commenced April 18, 1829, when it was 
resolved to cut down the pews. In 1839 the interior 
of the church was remodeled by building a partition 
across the interior, changing the shape from a cross 
to a T. The chancel was moved and built out from 

♦Bruton Parish Church, Restored, by Rev. W. A. R. 


— 63 — 

this partition, the old pulpit removed with the flag- 
stone aisle and the tower converted into a coal-bin. 

During the Civil War no service was held in the 
edifice, because the authorities required that the 
prayer for the President of the United States be said, 
so it was used as a Confederate hospital. 

In 1886, another innovation in the interior was in- 
stalled, the gallery in the north end removed and 
other changes made. In 1903, at the suggestion of 
Eev. W. A. B. Goodwin, the rector, it was decided 
to restore the church to its original Colonial form. 
The architects, Messrs. Barney and Chapman, of New 
York, who donated their services, estimated the cost 
of restoration to be $27,000, $14,000 for structural re- 
pairs and $13,000 for restoration of the interior, and 
May 14, 1905, the work began. 

In excavating, twenty-eight graves were found 
under the chancel and aisles, some of which were 
identified and marked by memorial slabs. These 
graves are indicated by numbers on the diagram 
shown on page 64. 

Memorials are to be erected to "some of the dis- 
tinguished statesmen and Parish Vestrymen of the 
Colonial and Revolutionary period, who worshipped in 
the building, or resided there while representing the 
people of Virginia in the House of Burgesses, or the 
Sovereign Authority of England, as Governors or as 
Members of the Council." His Majesty, King Ed- 
ward, has contributed a memorial Bible and His Ex- 
cellency, Theodore Eoosevelt, has given a lectern to 
hold it. Among other memorials will be a silver 
alms basin to Eev. Eobert Hunt, the first minister at 

Eestoration of the clock formerly in the old 

— 64 — 


^ cq O 


— 65 — 

Williamsburg Capitol is to be made in honor of the 
House of Burgesses. Tablets to the Colonial Govern- 
ors and Members of the Council, Secretaries of State, 
Eeceivers General, Auditors General, to the Colonial 
Clergy, to the later Eectors and to the Eev. Com- 
missary, James Blair, D.D., are to be erected. The 
entrance gate to the churchyard is to be a memorial 
to General George Washington, who was a regular at- 
tendent at old Brnton. The pews have also been made 
memorials to other dignitaries as follows: 


Pew No. 1 (Nave) — Hon. Thomas Eeale (1662 and 1684), 
and Col. Thomas Ballard (1670), Members of the Council 
and Vestrymen. 

Pew No. 2 — Colonial Church Wardens of the Parish 

Pew No. 3 — Capt. Thos. Thorp (1693), Thomas Pettus 
(1698), Vestrymen. 

Pew No. 4 — Hon. Edward Earradall, Kt. (1735), Vestry- 
man ; Attorney General, 1737-1743. 

Pew No. 5 — Wm. Hansford (1704), Henry Cary (1721), 

Pew No. 6 — Michael Archer (1721) and James Archer, 

Pew No. 7 — James Bray, Vestryman (1674), and member 
of Council (1670), David Bray (1684), Thomas Bray and 
David Bray, Jr. 

Pew No. 8 — James Whaley (1701). Thomas Whaley 
( 1 709 ) , Vestrymen. 

Pew No. 9 — William Tarks, Vestryman and Editor of 
First Virginia Gazette (1736). 

Pew No. 10 — William Robertson, Clerk of the Council, 
(1705), Vestryman prior to 1768; Thomas Everard, Vestry- 
man, 1769. 

Pew No. 11 — Samuel Timson, William Timson, Sr., Ves- 
trymen (1702), William Timson. Jr. 

Pew No. 12 — John Prentis, Vestryman (1769) : William 
Prentis, Vestryman ; Joseph Prentis, M. H. B., 1775. 

Pew No. 13 — Capt. Hugh Norvell (1694), George Norvell 
and William Norvell, Vestrymen and M. H. B. (1775). 

Pew No. 14 — Hon. Thomas Ludwell, M. H. B., Vestry- 
man, 1685. 

Pew No. 15 — Gideon Macon. M. H. B., 1696 ; Vestrvman, 

Pew No. 16 — Hon. Edmund Jenings, M. II. B., Secretary 
of State. Vestryman, 1694. 

Pew No. 17 — Philip Ludwell, M. H. B., Auditor General 
(Vestryman 1684), 1688. 

— GG — 

Pew No. 18 — Benjamin Waller, M. II. B. (Vestryman), 
1744, Judge of Court of Admiralty, 1744. 

Few No. 19 (Nave)— Memory of the Vestry of 1074-16S3, 
who erected the first brick church upon this foundation. 

IVw No. 20 — Memory of the Vestry of 1710-1715, who 
erected the present church building, the Cooperating Com- 
mittee of the House of Burgesses and the Contractor, James 

Pew No. 21 — Lewis Burwell, Nathaniel Burwell and 
Armistead Burwell (Vestrymen). 

Pew No. 22 (Nave) — Attorneys General of Virginia, 1697 
to 1776. 

Pew No. 23 (Nave) — John Custis, Member of Council, 
Surveyor-General, Vestryman (1721), Daniel Parke Custis, 
Mrs. Martha Custis. 

Pew No. 24 (Nave) — Edmund Randolph, Delegate to Con- 
gress, 1770-82 ; Governor of Virginia, 1786-8 ; Delegate Con- 
stitutional Convention, 1787 ; Attorney General, 1780-04 ; 
Secretary State, 1704-5. 

Pew No. 25 (Nave)— Chief Justice John Marshall. 

Pew No. 26 (Nave) — Sir John Randolph, Speaker H. B., 
1736; Vestryman, 1729. 

Pew No. 27 (Nave) — James Monroe, President United 

Pew No. 28 (Nave) — John Tyler, 1837, President United 

Pew No. 29 (Transept) — George Washington, President 
United States, Signer of Declaration of Independence. 

Pew No. 30 (Transept) — Patrick Henry, M. H. B. 

Pew No. 31 (Transept) — Peyton Randolph, Vestryman, 
1747 ; Attorney General, 1747-66 ; Speaker H. B., 1766- 
1775 ; President First Continental Congress. 1774, and Del- 
egate to Congress, 1775. 

Pew No. 32 (Transept) — George Mason, drafted Virginia 
Bill of Rights and Constitution, 1776. 

Pew No. 33 (Transept) — Richard Bland. 

Pew No. 34 (Transept)- — Archibald Cary and Dabney 

Pew No. 35 (Transept) — Robert Carter Nicholas, Vestry- 
man, and Faul Carrington. 

Pew No. 36 (Transept)— Edmund Pendleton, M. II. B., 
member Continental Congress, author resolutions submitted 
Virginia delegates asking for Declaration of Independence. 

Pew No. 37 (Transept) — Memorial to the Speakers of the 
House of Burgesses, 1700 to 1775. 

Pew No. 38 (Transept) — Dudley Digges and Andrew 

Pew No. 39 (Transept) — -Thomas Jefferson, President 
United States, Signer of Declaration of Independence. 

Pew No. 40 (Transept)- — William Cabell and Joseph Ca- 

Pew No. 41 (Transept) — George Wythe, Vestryman and 
Signer of Declaration of Independence. 

Pew No. 42 (Transept) — Memorial to the Colonial Gov- 
ernors and Members of the Council, 1698 to 1775. 

Pew No. 4.". (Transept) — Thomas Nelson, Secretary of 
State and Signer of Declaration of Independence. 

— 67 — 

Pew No. 44 (Choir) — Rev. Commissary James Blair, D. D., 
1656-1743; Hector, 1710-1748: Dr. Archibald Blair; John 
Blair, Auditor General (1), 1689-1771; Vestryman, 1744; 
John Blair, Judge United States Supreme Court (2). 

Pew No. 45 (Transept) — Carter Braxton and Benjamin 
Harrison, Signers of Declaration of Independence. 

Pew No. 46 (Choir) — Presidents of the College of Wil- 
liam and Mary, 1693 to L854. 

Pew No. 47 (Transept) — Richard Henry Lee and Francis 
Lightfoot Lee, Signers of Declaration of Independence. 

Few No. 4!) (Choir) — Surveyors General who occupied 
this pew, 1692 to 1728. 

Pew No. 50 (Choir)— Col. John Page, Esq., 1627-1691-2; 
Vestryman, 1674. 

The restoration of Old Bruton is largely clue to the 
indefatigable efforts of Dr. Goodwin, the present rec- 
tor, and his faithful corps of assistants, who have 
interested patriotic Americans from all parts of the 
United States in this noble work, which has prac- 
tically been completed. A fireproof vault and steel 
safe have been provided for the preservation of the 
Communion Services and Vestry Eecords. 

The old gallery where the students from the Col- 
lege were locked in has been retained, and upon the 
hacked railing can still be deciphered the names of 
Patrick Henry and other notable men, who, as boys, 
amused themselves during service by carving their 
names upon this railing with their jack-knives. The 
high backed pews, the Colonial Governor 's and Sur- 
veyor General 's pews, as well as those of the House 
of Burgesses, have been replaced together with the 
ancient old pupil and its sounding board. 

As the rector has beautifully written: "Old 
Bruton Church has w r ell withstood the devastating 
touch of time. The storms of many winters have 
gone over it, the fierce battles of two great wars have 
raged near it, and in it have lain the sick and 
wounded of two armies, and yet it stands today, just 
as it stood well nigh two hundred years ago." 

— G8 — 

"The trump of many ;i busy foot 
Whirli soughl thy aisles is (►'it, 
And many a weary bearl around 
Is still'd forever more." 
The Bruton Churchyard. — "The ivy clings to the 
mouldering wall and with each gust the dead leaves 


As stated, the brick wall around the graveyard was 
built in 1754. Among the honeysuckle and magnolias, 
sleep many a forgotten hero, and the descendants of 
many a noted personage. 

Near the north door of the ediurch are buried the 
Curtis children, George Washington's step-children. 
Here are the tombs of Eichard Kempe, Secretary of 
the Colony and member of the Council at Jamestown 
in 1642; also officiating Governor during Berkeley's 
absence. It was he who ordered "that the eighteenth 
day of April be yearly celebrated by thanksgivings 
for our deliverance from the hands of the Savages," 
the first Thanksgiving Day in the Colony. 

A queer epitaph is that upon the tombstone of Rev. 
Servant Join s: 

'Like the lost of imperfect humanity, he was 
not exempt from some of its frailties, bvt a kinder 
sold seld< m existed. lie possessed in his nature a 
Bank of Benevolence, which secretly dispensed its 
varied blessings to the needy." 

"Time was when bis cheek with life's crimson was flushed, 
When cheerful his voice was, health sat on his brow; 

That cheek is now palsied, that voice is now hushed. 
He sleeps with the dust of his first partner now." 

Tie it was who said the following grace at a dinner 

given by one of his parishioners: 

'•Good Lord of love look down from above, 
And bless the owl who ate this fowl 
And left these bones for Scervant Jones." 

TTe was a man of quaint ways and strange speech. 
He composed a touching tribute to his first wife, and 
ordered it engraved upon a tombstone. It is said that 

— 69 — 

he brought the stone to Williamsburg upon the top 
of the coach in which he returned from his bridal 
trip with his second wife. 
The epitaph reads: 

"If woman ever yet did well, 

If woman ever did exeell, 

If woman husband ere adored, 

If woman ever loved the Lord. 

If ever faith and hope and love 
In human flesh did live and move, 
If all the graces ere did meet 
In het, in her they were complete. 

My Ann, niy all, my angel wife. 
My dearest one^, my love, my life, 
I cannot sigh or say farewell. 
But where thou dwellcst I will dwell." 

William and Mary College. — Situated at the ex- 
treme end of Duke of Gloucester Street, nearly a mile 
opposite from site of the House of Burgesses. The 
College was founded in 1(193 through the efforts of its 
first President, Eev. James Blair, D.D., who was also 
rector of the Jamestown Church ana later of Old 
Bruton. His tomb can still be seen at Jamestown, 
separated from that of his wife by a large sycamore. 

The college designed by the famous architect, Sir 
Christopher Wren, also designer of St. Paul 's Cathe- 
dral, London, was named in honor of the reigning 
sovereigns and with the exception of King's College 
(Columbia), is the only one in the United States that 
can boast of a royal charter. It is far from being 
a handsome structure and Jefferson called it "a rude, 
misshapen pile." The college colors are orange and 
white, in honor of the House of Orange. The orig- 
inal endowment was 1,985 pounds, 11 shillings 
and 10 pence and a penny per pound on all tobacco 
exported from Virginia. A queer condition of the 
charter reads that the authorities pay to ' ' us and to 

— 70 — 

<mr successors, two copies of Latin verse yearly on the 
fifth day of November, at the House of the Governor 
or Lieutenant-Governor for the time being." 

For four years following the removal of the Capital 
from Jamestown, the House of Burgesses met here. 
George Washington is numbered among the chancel- 
lors, also President Tyler, likewise a student. Other 
notable students were Thomas Jefferson, James Mon- 
roe, Edmund and Peyton Eandolph, Gen, Winfield 
Scott and many others. The building was used as a 
hospital during two wars and was burned in 1705, 
1 859 and again in 1863, but re-erected on the same 

The first Greek letter society in the United States 
was established here in 1776. The literary and art 
treasures in the custody of the college are of in- 
estimable value, many of them being gifts from 
Colonial Governors and Presidents of the United 
States. Under the Chapel are buried Lord Botetourt, 
Governor from 1768-1770, Sir John Eandolph, John 
and Peyton Eandolph and other notables. 

Brafferton. — The first permanent Indian school in 
the United States, established from funds derived 
from the estate of Hon. Eobert Boyle in 1691, was 
built in 1723. It stands across from the President's 
house, to the left of the main building, and is now 
used for dormitories. 

President's House. — Opposite Brafferton. Built in 
1732 and accidentally burned by the French, who 
were on their way to Yorktown. It was rebuilt at 
the expense of Louis XVI. Prior to the siege of 
Yorktown, Corhwallis used it for his headquarters. 

Statue Lord Botetourt. — Before the College Building 
on the campus, stands a monument to the best loved 

— 71 — 

of all the Colonial Governors, "The Right Honorable 
Norborne Berkeley, Baron de Botetourt." It was 
erected by the House of Burgesses in 1774. It was 
removed from its old location in the portico of the 
College in 1797. 

The inscription on the right side of the monument 
reads as follows: 

"Deeply impressed with the warmest sense of grati- 
tude for his Excellency's, the Eight Honorable Lord 
Botetourt 's prudent and wise administration, and that 
the remembrance of those many public and social vir- 
tues, which so eminently adorned his illustrious char- 
acter might be transmitted to posterity, the General 
Assembly of Virignia on the XX day of July, Ann. 
Dom MDCCLXXI, resolved with one united voice to 
erect this statue to his Lordship 's memory. Let wis- 
dom and justice preside in any country, the people 
must and will be happy." On the opposite side, the 
inscription reads: 

"America, behold your friend, who, leaving his 
native country, declined those additional honors, which 
were there in store for him, that he might heal your 
wounds and restore tranquility and happiness to this 
extensive continent. With what zeal and anxiety he 
pursued these glorious objects, Virginia thus bears her 
grateful testimony. ' ' 

House of Burgesses Site. — Directly opposite Wil- 
liam and Mary College, at the extreme end of Duke 
of Gloucester Street, stood the stately House of Bur- 
gesses, the Capitol of the Old Dominion. 

Nothing but the foundation walls remain to indi- 
cate the spot hallowed by so many historical as- 
sociations, except a stone monument erected May 26, 
1904, by the Association for the Preservation of Vir- 

ginia Antiquities, in memory of the members of the 
House of Burgesses. It was built in 1705, at the 
expense of Queen Anne, but was burned in 1746 and 
again in 1832. The original speaker's chair and the 
stove used here are to be seen in the State Capitol 
at Eichmond. 

It was here that Washington appeared to deliver 
his historic message from St. Pierre to the House of 
Burgesses, prior to the French and Indian War. It 
was here that the Committee of Correspondence was 
born under the guardianship of Dabney Carr. Here 
the Committee of Safety was organized and here was 
passed the celebrated Virginia Bill of Bights, which 
more than any other action of the Colonists led di- 
rectly to the Declaration of Independence. 

On arrival of the odious Stamp Act, the House was 
in session. One of the Burgesses, a young lawyer, 
who as yet was noted only for his eloquence, offered 
the first opposition to the Act in the Colonies, but 
when that speech was finished, the name of Patrick 
Henry electrified the Colonies, from Massachusetts to 
Virginia, with startling fear aud doubt. For the first 
time in the history of the new world, the King was 
publicly arraigned. 

The King, said Patrick Henry, in assenting to the 
taxing of the colonies, had acted the part of a 
tyrant. Alluding to the fate of other tyrants, amid 
the breathless suspense of his auditors, he continued: 
" Caesar had his Brutus, Charles I his Cromwell, and 
G eorge III ' ' 

A cry interrupted the speaker and broke the 
nervous strain of the House. "Treason!" The word 
echoed through the room, with the suddenness of a 
thunderbolt, and then after a significant pause, the 

— 73 — 

white drawn, tense face of the young orator stood 
out like a silhouette in the dimly lighted chamber, and 
with uplifted arm, he leaned forward and defiantly 
cried: "And George III may profit by their example. 
If this be treason, make the most of it!" 

In 17S0 the Capital was removed from Williams- 
burg to Richmond, and in 1832 fire again destroyed 
this historic old pile which witnessed so many thrill- 
ing scenes in the early history of the nation. What 


could be more fitting than the restoration of this first 
Capitol of the infant Republic as a permanent museum 
museum for Colonial relics. 

The Palace Green and Governor's Palace. — Between 
Bruton Church and the old Court House, is a long 
strip of lawn known as the Palace Green. Originally, 
each side of the Green consisted of a walk leading to 

— 74 — 

the Palace, shaded by beautiful lindens brought from 
Scotland. The grounds, including the Green, consisted 
of three hundred and seventy acres. 

The Palace itself was situated at the end of the 
Green. Fifteen thousand dollars was appropriated by 
the Assembly for its erection. It is described by an 
early writer as "a magnificent structure, finished and 
beautified with gates, fine gardens, offices, Walks, a 
fine canal, orchards, etc. 

A peculiar feature of Colonial life were the 
' ' offices. ' ' In those days business men had separate 
buildings erected, generally at the side of their resi- 
dences, which were used exclusively for office pur- 
poses. A number of these queer buildings are still 
standing in Williamsburg. 

Lord Dunmore was the last Colonial Governor to 
occupy the Palace, and eight years after, following 
the siege of Yorktown, it was accidentally burned 
by some of the French troops. Nothing now remains 
of it, but the site. 

Dunmore 's Cave. — From the Palace cellars, aL 
underground passage connected with a cave, now 
marked by an enclosed mound of earth about 500 feet 
back of the Palace Green. It is said that the Gov- 
ernor, who was in much disrepute among the Col- 
onists, prepared it as a means of escape from their 
possible wrath. 

The Powder Horn. — In the order of historical im- 
portance, perhaps the next Colonial landmark to be 
considered is the antique Powder Horn, an octagonal- 
shaped building, across from the Court House. In 
1714, by special act of the House of Burgesses, Gov- 
ernor Spotswood drew the plans for a powder maga- 
izrie, its walls to be 22 inches thick and the entire 

— 75 — 

building to be surrounded by brick walls 10 to 12 
feet high, parallel with its sides, distant 21 feet. 
Shortly before the Eevolutionary War, Governor 

Dunmore made himself very obnoxious to the Col- 
onists, the crowning feature of his perfidy being the 
midnight theft of some twenty barrels of powder from 
this magazine. This ammunition he conveyed to his 
ship, the "Magdalen," in the James Eiver, four 
miles distant. Confronted by a demand for an ex- 
planation, presented by order of the Council, Alder- 
men and Mayor, he replied, that ' ' Hearing of an in- 
surrection in a neighboring county, I have removed 
the powder from the magazine. 

This action of the Governor almost precipitated 
hostilities, and only through Washington 's and Pendle- 
ton 's influence were a company of minutemen pre- 
vented from marching from Fredericksburg to Wil- 
liamsburg. Dunmore finally paid the Colony three 
hundred and thirty pounds sterling for the powder, 
but when the citizens came to examine the magazine, 
several barrels of powder were found hidden under 
the floor, together with a spring gun, which injured 
one of the investigators. This last act aroused such 
a storm that he fled to his man-of-war, "Fowey, " 
anchored at Yorktown. 

For several years the Powder Horn was used as a 
Baptist Church, with Eev. Servant Jones in charge. 
Later it was converted into a dancing school. During 
the Civil War, the Confederates used it as an arsenal, 
after which the town sold it and it became a com- 
mon stable, but was eventually purchased by the As- 
sociation for the Preservation of Virginia Antiquities, 
who have fitted it up for a museum. The wall around 
the Magazine was torn down and the bricks used. 

— 76 

in 1856, for the foundation of the Baptist Church. 

Court House (Duke of Gloucester Street). — Built 
1769. Its cokimnless porch and high belfry arc espe- 
cially noticeable features. This bid building was the 
scene of many an important prerevolutionary debate. 
Its interior remains practically unchanged. 

The center room is for the Court and in the rear of 
it is a raised platform for the judge. Immediately 
in front sat the jury in a semi-circle with their backs 


to the judge, so that neither judge nor jury could 
be influenced by each other's changing expressions. 
In an opposite semi-circle, facing the judge and jury, 
sat the lawyers, thus completing the circle. Behind 
the lawyers are three pew-like seats, one for the 
prisoner in the center, one for the sheriff on one side, 
and one for the witnesses on* the other side. 

Wythe House.- — In the rear of Brut on Church, on 
Palace Street, facing the Green, is one of Hie most 
interesting Colonial houses in the village. This was 


the homo of the man who devised the seal of Vir- 
ginia — a member of the Virginia Convention for the 
ratification of the Constitution and a student and 
chancellor of William and Mary College — George 
Wythe, the patriot. 

The house was used by Washington as head- 
quarters prior to the siege of Yorktown, and it is 
said that on moonlight nights the ghost of the 


"Father of his Country" appears in the hall with 
clanking sword at his side. The bedroom of Judge 
Wythe is also said to be haunted, a cold white hand 
appearing and pressing the brow of anyone who occu- 
pies it. The ghost of Lady Skipwith, daughter of 
the master of Westover, is said to be seen, slowly 
descending the Colonial stairway, with slow and dig- 
nified step. 

The flooring in this old house consists of boards 
that run the full length o the rooms without piece 
or patch, and the deep walls and window recesses 
show how well our forefathers built— better, perhaps, 
than they know. 

In the "Voice of the People," Ellen Glasgow has 
made it the home of one of her principal characters, 
"Judge Bassett. It is now occupied by a sweet- 
faced, grey-haired maiden lady, who finds her chief 
delight in showing the old mansion to the many 
patriotic pilgrims, who clamor for a glimpse of this 
famous haunted house. 

Audrey's House. — Diagonally opposite from the 
Wythe House, on Dunmore Street, stands a modest 
little residence, called the "Audrey House," said to 
have been the home of Miss Mary Johnston's 
"Audrey," described in her novel of that name. The 
real romance connected with the house is the inscrip- 
tion, evidently scratched with a diamond ring, on one 
of the tiny window panes. 


What a volume of romance lies hidden in that "O, 
fatal day." The house is now occupied by Miss 
Estelle Smith, who has made a study of the historic 
associations which cluster around Williamsburg and 
Jamestown. She has carefully searched all records 
for any important happening on Nov. 23, 17i><>, but 
without avail, so it is reasonable to presume that the 

— 79 — 

tragedy must have been one of the heart — a personal 
incident and not one of public significance. 

Debtor's Prison. — One of the dark spots ori the pages 
of our Colonial history is the sad record of imprison- 
ment for debt, and here in Williamsburg is a build- 
ing said to have been used for the detention of 
debtors. It is situated near the new bank on the 
south side of the Duke of Gloucester street. Miss 
Mary L. Foster, in her " Colonial Capitols," dis- 
credits its prison associations, as she writes: ''In a 
description of Williamsburg during Spotswood 's time 
(1710-23), it was said that near the Capitol is a 
strong, sweet prison for criminals and on the other 
side of an open court another for debtors."' This, 
she continues, "would place the debtor's prison at 
the other end of town. ' ' 

Bassett Hall. — Formerly the home of Judge Bassett. 
George Washington was a frequent and welcome visit- 
or here and the Judge was famous throughout the 
Old Dominion for his hospitality. It was also the 
home of President John Tyler, in 1841. Thomas 
i^Moore, the poet, is said to have composed his poem, 
~''To the Firefly," while sitting on the porch at twi- 


At morning, when the earth and sky 
Are glowing with the light of spring, 

We see thee not, thou humble fly ! 
Nor think upon thy gleaming wing. 

But when the skies have lost their hue, 

And sunny lights no longer play, 
Oli, then we see and bless thee, too, 

For sparkling o'er the dreary way. 

Thus let me hope, when lost to me 
The lights thai now my life illume. 

Some milder joys may come, like thee, 
To cheer, if not to warm, the gloom. 

— 80 — 

The Blair Houss (South Side of Duke of Gloucester 
Street). — This was the home of Hon. John Blair, Judgd 
of the United States Supreme Court. Judge Blair w;is 
appointed to this office by George Washington. He 
was Auditor General of Virginia from 1782 to 1 77 • 
and vestryman of Bruton Church 1744. 

Peyton Randolph House (Francis Street). — This 
house, built in 1775, still stands intact. A tablet has 
been placed upon it which reads: 

"Home of Peyton Randolph, Attorney General of 
Virginia. Speaker of the House of Burgesses, First 
President of the Continental Congress. Born 1722, 
Died 1775.*' 

He was Speaker of the House when Patrick Henry 
made his celebrated speech, "If this be treason"— 
This patriot lies buried under the Chapel of William 
and Mary College. 

Tazewell Hall (England Street). — The home of Sir' 
John Randolph and Edmund, his nephew. Sir John 
was Speaker of the House in 1736 and Vestryman of 
Bruton Church, 1729. 

Edmund Randolph was Attorney General 1789-94, 
Governor of Virginia, 1786-8; Secretary of Stat^J 
1794-5. Also Delegate to Congress 1779-82 and Dele 
gate to the Constitutional Convention in 1787. 

The First Theater in the United States. — The site 
of this playhouse is on the southeast corner of Blair 
Avenue, near the Capitol monument. It was built in 
1716, and Miss Johnson describes some of the dramatic 
scenes enacted in this quaint little theater in her 
story of ' ' Audrey. 

The first company that played in America first ap- 
peared here in 1752, under the management of Eewis 
Ilallam, Sr. The orchestra was under the leadership 
of Mr. Peter Pelham, organist at Bruton Church. 

— 81 — 

Washington was a frequent attendant at this play- 

Masonic Temple (Francis Street). — The first grand 
lodge of Virginia was organized in this house, now 
dilapidated and in ruins. The present Masonic Lodge 
has in its possession a carved mahogany chair pre- 
sented to the lodge by Lord Botetourt, the Colonial 
Governor. It was used by Washington at his inaugura- 

Six Chimney Lot. — On the eastern portion of the 
Hospital Park formerly stood a mansion occupied by 
Washington and his wife during their early married 
life. There is still standing here a brick building 
said to have been Martha Washington's kitchen, and 
an elm tree planted by her own hands. 

Site of Raleigh Tavern. — This famous inn stood on 
the site now occupied by Lane's Store. On a portico 
over the door stood a metal bust of Sir Walter 
Raleigh, which is now preserved, with other relics, in 
the Powder Horn. 

Here many a social banquet was held, and here 
Thomas Jefferson was rejected by Rebecca Burwell. 
Here in 1769, in the famous Apollo Room, George 
Washington presented the Burgesses with the ' ' Non- 
Importation Agreement,'' drawn up by George 
Mason. After the House was dissolved by Dunmore 
in 1774, the Burgesses met here and prepared the way 
for a general Congress. The building was destroyed 
by fire in 1859. 

Fort Magruder. — About a mile and a half from the 
town, on the road to Yorktown, can be seen the Con- 
federate entrenchments where the famous battle of 
Williamsburg was fought, May 5, 1SG2. 

Confederates under Longstreet awaited the Federals 

— 82 — 

at Fort Magruder, Hooker being the first to be at- 
tacked. Kearny arrived just in time to support 
Hooker. Hancock succeeded in capturing some 
redoubts, but no one seemed in supreme command of 
the Federal forces and at night the Confederates re- 
tired with a loss of about 1,560, Federal loss 2,200. 
A tablet in the Bruton Church reads: 

"In memory of 




who fell in the 

Battle of Williamsburg, 

May the 5th, 1862. 

And of those who died of 

the wounds received 

in the same. 
They died for us." 

In concluding the description of Williamsburg it is 
no more than just to mention the Colonial Inn. 
Here, in the spacious parlor and dining room, can be 
seen the most complete collection of antiquities and 
Colonial furniture in the state, and what makes them 
more valuable to their possessor, is the fact that they 
were in actual use by his own forbears. The pro- 
prietor, Mr. J. B. C. Spencer, is the gentleman who 
first conceived the idea of the Jamestown Ter-Cen- 
Icnnial and organized the first committee in its in- 

Carter's Grove. — This beautiful Colonial residence is 
seven miles from Williamsburg on the James River. 
The grove was originally owned by Col. Robert Car- 
ter, known as King Carter, and the mansion was 
erected by his grandson in 1722, and was the home 
of Rebecca Burwell, whom Jefferson wooed and lost. 
During the Revolution, Tarleton's troopers raided the 
place and their saber cuts can still be seen on the 
banisters of the staircase. 



There have been far greater battles fought than 
those at Yorktown, but no other campaign on Ameri- 
can soil was fraught with so many significant results 
as was the siege of Yorktown — results as far reaching 
as the events which followed the Battle of Waterloo. 

"Yorke Toune " was laid out in 1619, but not 


legally established until 1705. At the opening of the 
Revolution, it was quite an important little town, 
having an extensive sea trade. Today the inhabitants 
number less than two hundred. 

Sept. 27, 1781, the British commenced to cannonade 
the opposing forces, the American, army being a mile 
distant and the French a mile to the left of the 
Americans. The siege lasted until October 19, the 

— 83 — 



— So — 

firing commencing in earnest on the ninth of October, 
and continuing with awful intensity until the six- 
teenth, over three hundred pieces of artillery being 
incessantly engaged. It is said that the carcasses of 
six or seven hundred horses could be seen floating 
down the river every day. 

On the sixteenth, the British attempted to escape 
by crossing the river at Gloucester Point, but a severe 
storm prevented all the detachments from starting 
and the attempt was abandoned. The next day, Corn- 
wallis sent out a flag of truce, which resulted in his 
surrender, October 19. 

The Battleground. — The British entrenchments are 
still very much in evidence, overgrown with broom- 
straw, the seed of which was brought to this country 
by the British soldiers in the hay for their horses. In 
a field near the river, stands a beautiful stone monu- 
ment bearing the following inscriptions: On the 
south side: 

"At York, on October 19, 1781, after a siege of 19 days 
by 5,500 American and 7.000 French troops of the line, 
3.500 Virginia militia, under command of General Thomas 
Nelson, and 36 French ships of war. Earl Cornwallis, com- 
mander of the British forces at York and Gloucester, sur- 
rendered his army. 7,251 officers and men. 840 seamen, 244 
cannon and 24 standards, to His Excellency George Wash 
ington. commander-in-chief of the combined forces of Amer 
ica and France ; to His Excellency the Cointe de Rochambeau, 
commanding the auxiliary troops of his most Christian 
majesty in America ; and to His Excellency the Comte de 
Grasse, commanding in chief the naval reserves of France 
in Chesapeake.'' 

On the north side of the monument: 

"The provisional articles of peace concluded November 
30, 1782, and the definite treaty of Peace concluded Sep- 
tember 3. 1783, between the United States of America and 
George III, king of Great Britain and Ireland, declare: 
His Britannic Majesty acknowledges the said United States, 
viz., New Hampshire, Massachusetts Bay, Rhode Island and 
Providence Plantations, Connecticut. New York. New Jer- 
sey, Pennsylvania, Delaware. Maryland, Virginia, North 
Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia, to be free sovereign 
and independent states." 

— 86 — 

Place of Surrender. — Oct. L9, 1781, Cornwallis agreed 
to surrender and at two o'clock in the afternoon, the 
British army advanced to a field adjoining the town, 
about half a mile to the east, on the south side of 
the Hampton road. Cornwallis, unable to bear the 
ordeal, commissioned Gen. O 'Hara to act as his substi- 
tute. With colors cased, and drums beating, the 
British laid down their arms, after a siege of nineteen 
days, thus closing the long drawn out contest of the 
brave Colonists for an independent government. A 
monument has been erected here by Capt. Shaw, of 
Yorktown, at his own expense. 

House Where Articles of Capitulation Were Signed. 
Nearly a mile from Yorktown is a quaint frame resi- 
dence, known as the "Moore House," situated on 
"Temple Farm."' In the parlor of this house, the 
terms of surrender of the British army were drawn up 
and signed. 

The house was built in 1713 and is said to have been 
Gov. Alexander Spotswood 's summer home. The place 
received its name "Temple Farm" because of traces 
of a round edifice surrounded by a wall which is sup- 
posed to have been used as a place of worship and 
burial ground. Only one legible stone remains, bear- 
ing the following inscription: 

"Mayor William (iooeh. 

Dyed October 29th, it;.',:,. 

Within this tomb there doth interred lie, 

No shape, but substance, true nobility; 

Itself though young in years, but twenty-nine, 

Vet graced with nature's Moral! and divine. 

The church from him did good participate, 

In counsil rare, fit to adorn a state." 

In a field near the house is another old graveyard 
and in 1834 "Dr. W. Shields, who owned the farm, 
claimed to have discovered pieces of a gravestone 

i7 — 

which bore the name of Spotswood, and many are in- 
clined to believe that the governor was buried here. 

The Nelson House. — Built 1740. A splendid ex- 
ample of a Colonial residence with spacious halls and 
rooms. The house is surrounded by an old fashioned 
garden with a boxwood border. It fronts the river 
on the main street. It was occupied by Gen. La- 
fayette on his visit to Yorktown and during the 
siege by Cornwallis as his headquarters. The gable 
was struck by three cannon balls and another was 


embedded in the brick wall, while still another en- 
tered the dining room, shattering the marble mantel. 
In this room is a secret panel, connecting two secret 
rooms with the garret. During the Civil war the 

house was occupied by the Confederates under Gen- 
eral Magruder. 

The Nelson house at the edge of the town, during 
the Revolution, -was occupied by British soldiers. The 
American militia under General Nelson disliked to 
fire upon the house of their commander, but the gal- 
lant General at once offered a reward of five guineas 
to the soldier who fired the first shot. It was not 
long before the house was in ruins and hardly a trace 
of it now remains. 

General Nelson w T as a member of the House of 
Burgesses, one of the signers of the Declaration of 
Independence and Governor of Virginia. During the 
siege of Yorktown, he fed his command at his own 
expense and later gave his personal security to be 
added to that of the state when a $2,000,000 credit 
was to be raised. 

Cornwallis' Cave. — About fifty yards from the Nel- 
son House, on a hillside, is a cave excavated by order 
of Lord Cornwallis. It was used by him as a Council 
Chamber and probably for protection from the 
enemy's shells. The cave on the river bank is not the 
original Cornwallis Cave, although called such. 

Swan Tavern. — Originally built in 1722. Located 
on Main Street. Said to be the oldest one in the state. 
It w r as burned during the Civil War. The present 
building stands upon the original walls. 

Custom House. — The oldest and first Custom House 
in the United States is located here. Built in 1715. 

Werowocomoco. — Near Yorktown on the north side 
of York River, was the home of Powhatan, where Capt 
John Smith was brought after his capture by that chief . 
Here occurred the famous Pocahontas incident. Smith 
wrote that it was "some 14 myles from James 
Towne. ' ' 



A short distance up the James River on the left 
bank is a quiet little village called Smithfield — the 
home of the American goober or peanut,, a staple crop 
in Virginia. 

Here are large factories and warehouses where the 
peanuts are purchased from the farmers, cleaned, 
sorted, polished and prepared for market. The 
American consumption of peanuts amounts to over 
6,000,000 bushels and is valued at over $14,000,000. 

The average yield is over twenty bushels per acre. 
The seeds are planted 8 to 20 inches apart, about two 
bushels in the pod, being used per acre. They are 
harvested by plowing, men with pitchforks following 
the plow and shaking the loosened vines from the 
earth and piling them in windrows. After lying in 
the sunshine they are stacked in small shocks and 
capped with hay. In two or three weeks the peanuts 
are picked by nomadic gangs of negroes. 

The Virginia crop amounts to about 4,000,000 
bushels annually, estimated at $2,226,000 value. 

St. Luke's Church. — About five miles from Smith- 
field is the Old Brick Church built in 1632, the oldest 
building of English construction in America. 

The old tower church at Jamestown is of later date 
and while Bruton at Williamsburg (1683) as an organ- 
ization is the oldest in America, its present edifice is 
antedated by St. Luke's, near Smithfield. This edifice 
was built under the supervision of Joseph Bridges, 

— 89 — 

— 90 — 

father of Gen. Jos. Bridges, ' ' Councellor of State. 7 ' 
The church was partially destroyed by a storm in 
1884, and its restoration was undertaken by the Eev. 
David Barr. 

A most beautiful stained glass window commemor- 


ates the landing at Jamestown and the subsequent de- 
velopment of the Old Dominion. It is divided into 
twelve sections with windows in honor of Washing- 
ton, Robert E. Lee, James Madison, Sir Walter 
Raleigh, John Smith, John Rolfe and other well 
known Colonists. 

— 91 — 

In 1891, during excavations for the burial of Gen. 
Joseph Bridges, the feet and legs of a lady were 
found in front of the pulpit. They are believed to be 
those of Miss Norsworthy, who was buried in the 
aisle in 1666, over two hundred years ago. 


The old pulpit with its sounding board, the old 
pews and other features of the early church, have 
been faithfully copied and the interior restored as 
near like the original as possible. A trip to Smith- 
field and this historic Church will well repay every 
visitor to the Jamestown Exposition. 



This thriving little city is in Dinwiddie County on 
the Appomattox River, twenty-three miles south of 
Richmond. It is the third city in the state in size 
and importance and was incorporated in 1748. Popula- 
tion, 24,000. 

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During the early settlement of Virginia, God-fear- 
ing pioneers erected a line of churches from Norfolk 
to Petersburg, each ten miles apart. One of the best 
known of these churches is the one at Petersburg. 

Blanford Church. — Bristol Parish was established by 
— 92 — 

— 93 — 

act of the House of Burgesses in 1643. The first 
parish church known as the ' ' Chappie, ' ' was located 
near the Appomattox Eiver in Prince George County, 
about two miles below Petersburg. The present 
church on "Wells Hill was completed in 1737. Its 
original form was a rectangle, but in 1752 it was 
changed to the form of a T. Services were discon- 
tinued in 1781, and for a century, the "old pile" lay 
crumbling under the devastating storms of time. 

In 1882 the work of restoration commenced under 
the auspices of the various patriotic and memorial 
associations. During the period (about 1841), when 
its walls were slowly crumbling to dust, some unknown 
person, evidently under the spell of its associations, 
wrote the following poem upon its walls: 

Thou art crumbling to the dust, old pile, 

Thou art hastening to thy fall, 
And 'round thee in thy loneliness 

Clings the ivy to the wall. 
The worshippers are scattered now 

Who knelt before thy shrine, 
And silence reigns where anthems rose, 

in days of "Auld Lang Syne." 

And sadly sighs the wandering wind 

Where oft, in years gone by, 
Fravers rose from many hearts to Him 

The Highest of the High ; 
The tramp of many a busy foot 

That sought thy aisles is o'er, 
And many a weary heart around 

Is still forever more. 

How doth ambition's hope take wing, 

How droops the spirit now ! 
We hear the distant city's din. 

The dead are mute below. 
The sun that shone upon their paths 

Now gilds their lonely graves ; 
The zephyrs which once fanned their brows, 

The grass above them waves. 

Oh ! could we call the many back 

Who've gathered here in vain — 
Who've careless roved where we do now. 

Who'll never meet again : 

— 94 — 

How would our weary souls be stirred, 

To meet the earnest gaze 
Of the lovely and the beautiful, 

The lights of other days. 

This poem has been copied, and a tablet containing 
its verses now hangs upon the wall of the church. 

The edifice is now used as a Confederate Memorial 
Chapel. The church is surrounded by an ancient 
graveyard, marked by an old brick wall, now a part 
of the modern cemetery. June the 9th, Confederate 
Memorial Day services are held at this chapel, which 
-is situated near the battlefield of the Crater. Each 
of the thirteen Confederate States is to place a me- 
morial window in this edifice, in memory of the 
soldiers who fell on the Petersburg battlefields. A 7 ir- 
giriia, Missouri and Louisiana have already installed 
their memorial. The inscription on the Louisiana win- 
dow reads: 

"To the glorious memory of those brave men of the 
Washington Artillery, of New Orleans, La., who gave their 
lives for. the Confederate Cause." 

The Daughters of the Confederacy have erected n 

tablet which reads as follows: 

In Loving Memory 
The Citizen Soldiers of Petersburg, the 
(J ray-Haired Sires and Beardless 
Youths, who on 
June 9. 1864, 
Laid l)o\vn Their Lives Near this Ven- 
erable Church in Successful Defense 
of our Altars and Firesides. 

Another tablet is inscribed: 

"To the Glory of Cod and in memory of Virginia Patriots 
and Heroes of the Confederate Army. "Eternal right, 
though all fail, can never be made wrong." 

Another inscription is: 

"In memory of the Patriots who planned, upheld and 
achieved the Independence of the United States of America, 

The oldest date on the tombstones in the adjoining 
cemetery is 1702, but it seems to have been a not 

— 95 — 

uncommon custom for the Colonists to have their 
dead disinterred in England and brought to Virginia 
for burial, so that many early dates are found on Vir- 
ginia gravestones that are not accurate indications 
of the real age of a burial ground. 

During the battles of Petersburg, shot and shell 
shrieked through this city of the dead, striking both 
the church and many of the tombstones. In the more 
modern part of the graveyard can still be seen the 
marks of cannon-balls and shells. Many slabs were 
splintered into a thousand fragments, while monu- 
ments and fences still bear the sacrilegious imprint 
of death dealing projectiles. 

"The Crater." — Some of the most important mili- 
tary operations of the Civil War centered around 
Petersburg, for Petersburg was the key to Richmond, 
and Richmond was the capital of the Confederacy. 
The Federals under Gen. Grant commenced operations 
here in 1864, and after several unsuccessful attempts 
to seize the city, siege was begun June 19, 1861. The 
Confederate position was defended by Gen. Malione. 
Gen. Lee had been surprised by Grant 's movement 
upon Petersburg, and many precious hours were lost 
before he could be convinced that the Federal troops 
were concentrating upon Petersburg. 

The Federals decided to mine the entrenchments 
and fortifications of the Confederates, and with this 
end in view, the most elaborate preparations were 
made. Not the smallest detail was neglected, and the 
tunnel was completed several hundred feet before the 
Confederates had their suspicions aroused by the con- 
centration of Federal troops at certain points and 
their withdrawal from other positions. Even then 
they were led to believe it could not be possible, as 

— 96 — 

Grant 's army was over five hundred feet from their 
lines at the nearest point and the longest mine ever 
constructed was not much over four hundred feet long. 
It would not be possible, the Confederates argued, to 
ventilate a tunnel of 500 feet, but by a simple system 
of box flues and a bonfire to create a draught, the 
Federals easily overcame that difficulty. Their sus- 


picions growing, the Confederates commenced to 
countermine, but three hundred and seventy-five feet 
of tunnel were constructed and no Federal mines were 

The best modern machinery of warfare in possession 
of the Union army was concentrated upon the point 
where the explosion was to take place. Orders were 
issued and every detail provided for, so that the 
troops would charge with the greatest celerity. 

— 97 — 

July 30, 1864, the main fuse connected with two 
subsidiary fusts was ignited, but after burning to the 
main fuse, , it went out. Another attempt was made to 
ignite, this time successfully. Suddenly, without 
warning, a detachment of Confederate soldiers, num- 
bering 272, were precipitated into the air with terrific 
violence, destroying a battery and tearing open the 
earth for 135 feet long, 90 feet wide and 30 feet deep. 
When the smoke partially cleared away, a vast (diasm 
yawned at the very feet of the Confederate army, 
while buried in the pit lay nearly three hundred of 
their comrades. 


Like clock work the Federal guns boomed forth, 
and shot and shell fell like hail, but hindered by the 
unwieldiness of their brigades, the Union forces failed 
to charge with the alacrity planned and with wonder- 

— 98 — 

1 ii 1 bravery the Confederates were able to rally and 
meet the charge when it did come with decisive suc- 
cess, and here in this awful pit perished scores and 
hundreds of the gallant boys in blue. 

At the Westmoreland Club in Richmond may be 
seen an oil painting of the Battle of Petersburg, pur- 
chased by the Norfolk and Western Railroad Company 
for $13,000 and presented to Gen. Mahone, the officer 
in charge of the Confederate troops. 

Final operations were commenced against Peters- 
burg, March 25, 1865, and after the battle of Five 
Forks, March 31 and April 1, it was evacuated April 

2 and 3 and surrendered April 3, 1S65, completing 
one of the bloodiest and fiercest campaigns of the 

Peace Monument. — On the Hare farm, a short dis- 
tance from Petersburg, 650 of the Maine First Artil- 
lery fell in a brave charge upon the Confederate 
ranks, and this monument has been erected in memory 
of both the Union and Confederate soldiers who fell 

The total loss in the battles of Petersburg were as 
follows: June 15-19, 1864, 11,386; June 20 to 30, 769; 
July 1 to 31, 1,081; August 1 to 31, 1,077; total 14,313. 



All the romance and chivalry of the Old South cen- 
tered around Richmond, the capital and the key to the 
Confederacy, the home of Robert E. Lee and of Jef- 
ferson Davis. Its. historic associations are still dear 
to every southern heart. 

The Peninsula, the Wilderness, Petersburg, Cold 
Harbor, Fair Oaks, Gains Mill, Seven Pines and many 
other battlefields were each deadly milestones on the 
road to Richmond. "On! on! to Richmond!" became 
the Federal battle cry, and the city soon became sur- 
rounded by walls of fire and fields of carnage — the 
graveyards of friends and foes, and while death and 
destruction reigned without, gaunt famine prevailed 
within, the city finally surrendering to Fate, April 3, 

Today, nearly half a century since these awful 
scenes were enacted, the bonds of brotherhood and 
peace have been reunited, but the scars and marks of 
conflict still remain, sacred shrines for every Ameri- 
can, regardless of distinction as to "blue" or "gray," 
Federal or Confederate. 

St. John's Church. — The most important Colonial 
landmark in Richmond undoubtedly is St. John's 
Church, where Patrick Henry uttered those memorable 
words that have echoed down the years with signifi- 
cant intensity: "Give me liberty or give me death!" 

There were two early churches in this parish, but 
their history is somewhat uncertain. The vestry in 

— 99 — 

— 100 — 

1740 decided to erect a church in 174!) on an acre of 
land donated by William Boyd. The church was sur- 
rounded by a graveyard, which for many years was 
the only one in Richmond. The oldest inscription mi 
the tombstones is 1751, on that of the rector of Albe- 
marle parish, the Rev. Rob 't Rose. 

The pnlpit was in the east end of the church and, 


near the northern wall, between the first row of seats 
and the chancel, stood Patrick Henry that eventful 
20th day of March, 1775. 

Concluding his stirring appeal to arms, he said: 
' '■ Gentlemen may cry, peace, peace — but there is no 
peace. The war is actually begun! The next gale 
that sweeps from the north will bring to our ears the 
clash of resounding arms! Our brethren are already 
in the field! Why stand we here idle.' What is it 
thai gentlemen wish.' What would they have? Is 
life so dear, or peace so sweet, as to be purchased at 

— 101 — 

the price of chains and slavery.' Forbid it, Almighty 
God! I know not what course others may take, but as 
for me," he cried, "Give me liberty or give me 

"No murmur of applause was heard," says Wirt, 
his biographer. "The effect was too deep. After a 
trance of a moment, several members started from 
their seats. The cry 'to arms,' seemed to quiver on 


every lip, and gleam from every eye. That super- 
natural voice still sounded in their cars, and shivered 
along their arteries. ' ' And here the visitor still feels 
the sacred presence of that time-honored patriot. 

During the Revolutionary period, regular services 
were not held in the church, and in 1818 dissension 
in the parish was caused by the proposal to either 
remove the church, add to it, or build a new one. A 
new church was finally decided upon and the corner 

102 — 

stone laid by the Masonic Lodge, but the work was 
eventually abandoned. In 1830 an addition was made 
to the old church and the interior remodeled. 

The Capitol of the Confederacy. — Located on Capitol 
Square. This venerable structure has been entirely 

remodeled and massive 
wings have been added 
to it on both sides. 
Stately stone steps lead 
up to its portals, pre- 
senting one of the finest 
State Houses in the 

Many interesting relics 
are preserved here, 
among them the Speak- 
er's Chair of the House 
of Burgesses at Wil- 
liamsburg, used when 
Patrick Henry made his 
celebrated speech, ' ' If 
this be treason — George 
the Third can make the 
most of it." 
Another Colonial relic is the old stove presented to 
the House of Burgesses by Lord Botetourt, Governor 
of Virginia. It was made in London in 1770 by 
Buzaglo, a celebrated stovemaker of that period, and 
was called by him a " warming machine." Before it 
was completed the Governor died, but his heirs and 
executor, the Duke of Beaufort, carried out his pur- 
pose and forwarded it to the Colony. 

Capitol Square. — At one corner of the square stands 
an old-fashioned building surmounted by a cupola, 



called the "Bell Tower." From this tower, the Con- 
federates surveyed the surrounding country on the 
lookout for the approach of Federal troops. Opposite 
the State House is an 
exquisite life size eques- 
trian statue of Gen. 
George Washington, who 
was born in Virginia in 
1732 and died at Mt. 
Vernon, Va., Dec. 14, 
1799. In the center court 
of the State House is 
another beautiful mar- 
ble statue of Washing- 
ton done by the noted, 
sculptor, Houdon, said 
to be the only one made 
of this famous soldier, 
patriot and statesman 
from life. So lifelike is 
it that the tourist stands 
entranced, waiting al- 
most for the marble fig- 
ure to move. It is said 
that France has offered 
the City of Richmond 
$100,000 for this almost 
priceless work. 

The Home of Gen. 
Robert E. Lee. — Now oc- 


cupied by the Virginia Historical Society and used as a 
museum of Confederate relies. Records, books, maps, 
portraits and war relies here abound and the tourist 
or student of history cannot afford to neglect visiting 
the home of this celebrated general. 

— 104 — 

Libby Prison. — The site where this Confederate 
prison was located is now occupied by the Crystal 
[ce Company, the original building having been re- 
moved to the World's Fair at Chicago. Belle Isle, 
the Confederate prison for Confederate soldiers, is an 
island in the James River, accessible from Richmond 
by (dec trie ears. 

Hollywood. — The Confederate Cemetery. Here lie 
entombed the remains of Mr. Jefferson Davis, the 
President of the Confederacy, and by his side sleeps 
his wife, who died in October, 1906. On Gettysburg 
Hill is a monument to Gen'l Geo. E. Pickett. 

Other Historic Landmarks. — The Soldiers' Home 
for Confederate Soldiers is located in the western part 
or' the city. A confectionery store on Broad and 
Ninth Streets marks the building where the Confeder- 
acy printed its money. The Woman's College, Male 
Orphan Asylum, City Alms House, Seabrook 's Ware 
House and Chimborazo Hospitals, were each used as 
asylums for the sick and wounded soldiers during the 
war. The Confederate Treasury and office of Jefferson 
Davis were located in the post-office building. The 
Tredegar Iron Works, where the material for the Con- 
federate Army was manufactured, is still running. 



"On Fame's eternal Camping Ground 

Their silent tents are spread, 
While glory guards with solemn round 

The bivouac of the dead."' 

Cold Harbor. — Nine miles northeast of Richmond 
in Hanover Co., near the Chickahominy River. June 
27, 1862, a battle took place here between McClellan 
and Lee's forces and again on June 2 to 4, 1864, be- 
tween Gen. Grant and Gen. Lee, ending the 30-day 
campaign of the Wilderness. Grant with 80,000 men 
threw himself upon Lee's entrenchments, but was 
repulsed in less than an hour with a loss of 6,000 men. 
The Confederate loss was less than 2,000. This bat- 
tlefield has been converted into a cemetery where 
thousands of men are buried in trenches. 

Chester. — Between Richmond and Petersburg. May 
6-7, 1864. Total loss 100. Fifteen miles south of the city. 

Chaffin's Bluff.— Sept. 28, 1864. Total loss, 3,330. 
Entrenchments can still be seen. Boat can be taken 
on James River or it can be reached by carriage. 

Dutch Gap. — In order to make an attack on the Con- 
federates, Gen'l Butler cut a canal across the country 
for eight miles connecting the river at the bend. See 
map, page 106. 

Darbytown. — Oct. 7, 1864, Gen 'Is Sherman and John- 
son in command. Total loss 458; 5 m. from Richmond. 

Drewry's Bluff.— May 12, 1864. Total loss, 2,506. 
Eight miles south of the city. 

Ellerson's Mill.— Part of the "Seven Days" fight. 
Seven miles from Richmond. 

Ft. Harrison. — Visited by President Lincoln July 
— 105 — 

— 106 — 






— 107 — 

8, 1862. Eighty-five thousand Federal troops were 
stationed here at that time. A National Cemetery is 
located here. 

Fair Oaks. — (A mile and a half from Seven Pines.) 
May 3, 1862, the tattle of Seven Pines originated here. 

Gaines Mill. — (Eight miles northeast of Richmond.) 
June 27, 1862. This battle was a continuation of that 
at Mechanicsville, McClellan 's forces being attacked 
by those of Gen. Lee, the former's loss being nearly 
7,000 and the Confederates ' about seven hundred more. 

Mechanicsville. — (Seven miles northeast of Rich- 
mond.) June 26, 1862. Part of the " Seven Days' 
Battle." See Gaines Mill. A part of McClellan 's 
army under Fitz John Porter was attacked here by 
Longstreet and Hill. 

Savage Station. — (Ten miles east of Richmond.) 
June 29, 1862. Part of the Seven Days' Battle be- 
tween Gen. McClellan and Gen. Lee 's forces. Aban- 
doned by Union forces with its hospital containing 
2,500 sick and wounded. Total loss nearly 1,600. 

Seven Pines. — -(Seven miles east of Richmond.) 
May 31 and June 1, 1862, Federal and Confederate 
forces engaged. Each numbered about 45,000. Union 
loss 5,031; Confederate, 6,134. Gen. J. E. Johnson in 
charge of Confederate forces, was wounded and re- 
placed by G. W. Smith. McClellan was in charge of 
the Federal troops. This battle was commenced at 
Fair Oaks, and was one of the Seven Days' fight 
around Richmond and the first great conflict between 
the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia and the 
Federal Army of the Potomac. 

A National Cemetery is located here and out of 
1,380 graves only 162 are identified. 

"Yellow Tavern."— May 11, 1864. Total loss, 259. 



Christ Church. — Started 17(37, completed 1773, for 
six hundred pounds sterling. A tax of 31,185 pounds 
of tobacco was levied upon the parish for this pur- 
pose. The exterior is typically Colonial and the edifice 
was designed by James Wren. Pew number five was 


purchased by George Washington. Rev. Townsend 
Dale was the first rector. One peculiar custom of the 
early church was the employment of women for ushers 
and sextons. 

— 108 — 

— 109 — 

Here in this building, one morning after service, 
George Washington publicly advisee! withdrawing 
allegiance from King George. The high backed pews 
have all been cut down with the exception of Wash 
ington 's, which still remains as it was in Colonial 
days. It is marked by a silver plate, as is the one 
formerly occupied by Gen. Eobt. E. Lee. During the 
war the church was seized by the Federal authorities, 
but restored after peace had been declared. On each 
side of the chancel are mural tablets, one in honor 
of Washington and the other in memory of Robt. E. 

Foreign Sovereigns During the 
Spain. France. 

1578. ..Philip II. Henry III. 

1589. . .Philip II. Henry IV. 

1602.. .Philip III. Henry IV. 

1603. . .Philip III. Henry IV. 

1621. . .Philip IV. Louis XIII 

1627. . .Philip IV. Louis XIII. 

1643. . .Philip IV. Louis XIV, 

1651. . .Philip IV. Louis XIV. 

1662. . .Philip IV. Louis XrV 

1665... Charles II. Louis XIV. 

1686.. .Charles II. Louis XIV. 

1689 . . . Charles II. Louis XIV. 

1699.. .Charles II. Louis XIV. 

1701.. .Philip V. Louis XIV. 

1715,. . .Philip V. Louis XV. 

1729. . .Philip V. Louis XV. 

1748. . .Ferdinand VI. Louis XV. 

1760. . .Charles III. Louis XV. 

1774. . .Charles III. Louis XVI. 

1776... Charles III. Louis XVI. 

Colonial Period. 
James I. 
James I. 
Charles I. 
Charles I. 
Charles II. 
Charles II. 
lames II. 
William & Mary 
George I. 
George II. 
George II. 
George III. 
George III. 
George III. 



The history of the early church in America is 
closely woven into the political fabric of the nation. 

The first white child born in America was baptized 
on Roanoke Island in 15S7 by a chaplain of Raleigh 's 
Colony. The first church service was celebrated by 
"Good Maister Hunt" at Jamestown in 1607. The 
first legislative Assembly, the House of Burgesses, 
was organized by Churchmen and met in the church 
at Jamestown. Robt. Livingston, who led the oppo- 
sition to the Stamp Act, was a Churchman. Patrick 
Henry, the patriotic orator; Peyton Randolph, Presi- 
dent of the first Continental Congress; Geo. Wash- 
ington, Commander-in-Chief of the army; Richard 
Henry "Lee, who introduced the resolution of Inde- 
pendence in the second Continental Congress; Thomas' 
Jefferson, who drafted the Declaration, and thirty-five 
of the men who signed it, were all Churchmen. Frank- 
lin, Hamilton and Madison, with a host of other pa- 
triots and leaders, were identified with the church 
and during Colonial days, we find the vestrymen exer- 
cising semi-political powers. Aside from the more im- 
portant Colonial churches that have already been de- 
scribed, the following edifices will well repay any 
one who cares to visit these sacred shrines: 

Old Falls Church. — (Fairfax County. Truro Parish.) 
Built about 1734. Rebuilt 1769. Truro Parish. Cost 
$3,000. Washington was a member of the vestry in 
1763, and also George Mason, author of the "Bill of 

— 110 — 

— Ill — 

Rights.'' The churchyard is said to have boon the 
Camping ground of Bradclock's Army and the building 
was occupied by soldiers during the Revolution, and 
by the Federal troops during the Civil War. A long 
list of distinguished names are recorded as ministers 
and communicants at this sacred shrine. Efforts are 
now being made to complete its entire restoration. 

PtJhick; — (Mount Vernon. Truro Parish.) The 
parsh church of George Washington and George 
Mason. The first record in the vestry book is dated 
1732. The first minister was Rev. Lawrence de Butts. 
Washington 's father was vestryman in 1735. George 
Mason became warden in 1749. On October 25, 1762, 
George Washington was elected vestryman. It is said 
Washington drew the plan of the present church in 
1769. Like other Virginia churches, the edifice suf- 
fered much during the Civil War. In 1874 it was 
repaired and renovated and consecrated in October, 
1875. The entire restoration is now in progress. 

Aquia Church. — (Stafford Co.) Founded about 
1664. Rev. John Waugh, probably the first rector. 
A communion service of three pieces of beaten silver 
donated to the church by Rev. Mr. Alexander Scott, 
A. M., 1739, is still in use by the church, and during 
the wars of the Revolution, the War of 1812 and the 
Civil War, they were buried for safe keeping. 

The present church was erected 1757 on the site 
of one built in 1751, which was destroyed by fire. 
Over the east door is the following inscription in white 

"Built A. D. 1751. Destroyed by fire 1751, and re- 
built A. D. 1757 by Mourning Richards, Undertaker, 
Wm. Copeirs, Mason." In 1837 the building was in 
ruins, but was restored before the war. During the 

— nO- 
Civil War it was used by soldiers and again almosl 
destroyed, but once more restored. 

St. Peter's Church. — (New Kent Co.) Probably 
founded about 1056. Rev. John Ball was the rector 
in 16S6. The present church was built about 170:!. 
The Rev. David Mossom was minister for forty years, 
and was considered a quaint old character, especially 
noted for his temper. He married Geo. Washington 
and Martha Custis at the White House on the Pa- 
munkey River, a few miles from the church. He died 
1767. The church is located near Turnstall 's Station, 
20 miles east of Richmond. 

Hungar's Church. — (Northampton Co.) Seven miles 
north of Eastville. Bnilt about 1690 and in actual use 
for more than 200 years. First minister Rev. William 
Cotton (1635). The Communion Set used by the 
low r er Hangar Church was presented by John Custis 
of Williamsburg, and is now in use by Christ Church, 

Christ Church. — (Eastville, Northampton Co.) Built 
about 1826. The Communion Set used by this church 
bears the inscription: 

"Ex dono Francis Nicholson," 
Lieut. Governor of Virginia, 1690-2. 
Christ Church. — (Lancaster Co.) Built 1732. The 
parish was organized prior to 1654, as Rev. Thos. Sax 
was the recorded minister at that date. The first 
church on the present site was built 1670. The famous 
CoL Robert Carter, known as King Carter, paid for 
the erection of the new building in 1732, the entire 
north cross of the building being reserved for his 
family. He was buried in the churchyard, where his 
tomb can still be seen. The walls of the church are 
three feet thick. There are twenty-five pews, three 

— 113 — 

of which, designed for the Carter family, will con- 
tain twenty persons each. 

Vauter's Church. — (Essex Co.) St. Anne's Parish. 
Built about 1714. Earliest recorded minister was 
Eev. John Bagge, 1724. A cruciform brick building. 
Its windows are guarded by solid wooden shutters. 
The church stands in a grove of walnut and oak and 
is a venerable landmark in this part of the country. 

Among other historic churches are the following: 

Abingdon Church. — (Gloucester Co.) About 15 
miles from Jamestown. A Eegister bearing date 1677 is 
still in existence. In this territory occurred the Poca- 
hontas incident, so tradition claims. In the first church 
located here worshipped Mildred Warner, grandmother 
of George Washington. The present building is sup- 
posed to have been built in 1755. 

St. Paul's Church. — (King George Co.) Erected 
about 1750. 

The Fork Church. — (Hanover Co.) Built 1735. Here 
Patrick Henry was baptised when an infant and here 
his cousin Dorothea, later Dolly Madison, worshipped. 

The complete history of Virginia's Colonial churches 
would fill a large volume. 



Opened April 20, 1907. Closes November 30, 1907. 
Gates open 8 a. m. Close^, 11 p. m, Government 
buildings, 9 a. m. to 6 p. m. 

Admission. — Adults, 50 cents; children, 2."> cents. 

Powhatan Guards. — Constitutes the police force of 
100 men. 

Grounds. — Cover 400 acres, located on Hampton 
Roads, five miles from Norfolk City limits, four from 
Ob! Point Comfort and five from Newport News. The 
grounds have three miles of water front. 

Lee's Parade. — A beautiful plaza comprising many 
acres, partially surrounded by the Exposition Palaces, 
nearly half a mile wide and a mile long. Here mili- 
tary evolutions will take place, forming a gorgeous 
spectacle seldom ever witnessed. 

Plan. — Stretching along the historic waters of Hamp- 
ton Roads for three miles, the Exposition presents an 
unusual spectacle of beauty and splendor. The style 
of architecture is Colonial, the buildings low in height, 
but covering an immense area of space. White, yellow 
and red are the prevailing colors. The key to the 
Exposition plan lies within the confines of Common- 
wealth avenue. The Administration Building forms 
the center of the mammoth palaces. It faces the 
Lagoons and Raleigh Square, giving a fine view of the 
Grand Basin and the Government Piers. Along the 

— 114—' 

— 115 — 

water front are the State Buildings and entering the 
main gate, directly to the left, is the War Path. 

The principal palaces are as follows: 

Administration Building. — 160x236 feet. Located on 
Pocahontas street, opposite the Lagoons.' A Colonial 
structure of red brick and concrete designed for per- 
manent use. The principal Exposition building. The 
center building is the Auditorium and is connected 
by cofonnades with the History Building on the east 
and the Educational- and Social Economy Building on 
the west, each of which covers 124x129 feet. 

Food Products Building. — 250x300 feet. On Poca- 
hontas street and Commonwealth avenue, and Gilbert 
street. Here elaborate displays of food stuffs will be 
on exhibition. Machinery used in the preparation of 
food stuffs will be shown in actual operation. 

Mines and Metallurgy. — 100x250 feet. A beautiful 
Colonial structure of permanent construction on Poca- 
hontas street and Commonwealth avenue, opposite 
the Machinery and Transportation Building. Here 
may be found specimens of coal, gold, silver, copper, 
iron, marble, onyx, building stone and other minerals 
from the crude ore to the finished products. 

Machinery and Transportation Building. — 280x550 
feet. Situated on Pocahontas street and Common- 
wealth avenue. Separated from the Liberal Arts 
Building by the Lagoon. In this structure may be 
seen the carriage presented to Lafayette by the United • 
States government; also the state coach used by Presi- 
dent Lincoln the night of his assassination. Steel 
Pullman coaches, railroad trains, machinery and me- 
chanical devices of all descriptions are exhibited in this 
handsome palace. 

States' Exhibit Palace.— 300x500 feet. The type of 
architecture of this structure, like all the other pal- 

— 116 — 

aces, is Colonial. It faces Lee's Parade on Common- 
wealth avenue. Along the facade appear the names 
of the states having special exhibits within this build- 
ing." Fruits, vegetables, grains, woods, minerals and 
a host of other products are displayed in profusion. 

Manufactures and Liberal Arts Building. — 280x550 
feet. Pocahontas street, Commonwealth avenue and 
Powhatan street. A permanent structure of Colonial 
style. Here may be seen a varied display of manu- 
factures, books and publications. Laird & Lee's booth, 
section 28, contains an exhibit of the firm's many 
books, including the famous series of Webster's New 
Standard Dictionaries, adopted for use in the schools 
of many leading cities and awarded Gold Medal at 
the St. Louis and Portland Expositions. 

Arts and Crafts Village. — Iron Shop, 48x50 feet. 

Copper, Silver and Wood Shop. — 44x137 feet. 

Textile Building.— 53x88 feet. 

Mothers' and Children's Building.— 60x100 feet. 
Willoughby boulevard and Bacon street. 

Model School.— 35x45 feet. 

Pottery Building. — 48x50 feet. 

Pocahontas Hospital. — 50x85 feet. 

Hall of Congress.— 236x160 feet. 

Army and Navy Building. — Powhatan street and 
Commonwealth avenue. 

Negro Building. — 250x150 feet. Maryland avenue. 

Palaces of Commerce. — Entrance to War Path. 

Marine Appliances. — Opposite Mines and Metallurgy 

Power and Alcohol Building. — Near Lee's Parade. 

Grand Piers. — 2,400 feet long, 800 feet wide, con- 
nected by cross piers, 1,200 feet long, at a distance 
of 2,400 feet from shore, forming a water basin in the 

— 117 — 

center of 40 acres. Cost $400,000. Built by the gov- 

Government Buildings. — Facing the Grand Basin. 
Separated from each other by Ealeigh Square. Two 
center buildings represent the Fisheries Building and 
Smithsonian Building. The Navy, Army, Postoffice, 
Agricultural, State, Treasury and other departments 
are well represented in these structures. 


The State Buildings are located along the shore line, 
on "Willoughby boulevard, and the Main Exposition 
Palaces in the center of the grounds in front of Lee's 
Parade. The government structures face the piers, 
and the Arts and Crafts Buildings are east of the 
Parade Grounds. 

The following states have made appropriations or 
have provided funds by special subscription and many 
of the buildings provided for have been completed. 

Alabama, $25,000; Arkansas, $15,000; Connecticut, 
$70,000; Delaware, $10,000; Georgia, $50,000; Illinois, 
$25,000; Kentucky, $40,000; Louisiana, $15,000; Mary- 
land, $65,000; Michigan, $20,000; Missouri, $40,000; 
Massachusetts, $50,000; New Jersey, $75,000; North 
Dakota, $15,000; New York, $150,000; North Carolina, 
$55,000; Ohio, $75,000; Pennsylvania, $100,000; Ehode 
Island, $50,000; South Carolina, exhibit, $20,000; Vir- 
ginia, $450,000; Vermont, $10,000; New Hampshire, 
$10,000; West Virginia, $55,000. 


Arkansas will be represented in the States' Exhibit 


Alabama appropriated $25,000 for an exhibit. Cot- 
ton and iron are exploited, while timber and other 

— 118 — 

products come in for their share in the display. A 
part of the exhibit is the mammoth iron statue of 
Vulcan, from Birmingham. 

Los Angeles has an exhibit of pictures, samples of 
every kind of fruits and vegetables raised in Southern 
California, exhibits of the different industries and 


Connecticut has reproduced the famous Benjamin 
Talmage home, located at Litchfield, which was 
the first Colonial mansion erected in Connecticut. The 
owner was intrusted with the execution of Major 
Andre, the British spy, and in this house were planned 
many of the successful campaigns of the Revolution. 
The great entrance has its walls finished in soft old 
Venetian red and furnished in pieces of the seven- 
teenth century. In the drawing room is a choice col- 
lection of furniture of the eighteenth century, includ- 
ing very fine mirrors of Washington design. Queen 
Anne and Chippendale sofa, covered in an ancient 
flowered pattern, will be noticeable. The tea room 
is "Empire," the treatment being yellow with a rare 
set of First Empire furniture. 

Delaware, the "Diamond State," has a building of 
Colonial hip-roofed design with a parquet gallery run- 
ning around both interior and exterior, the Delaware 
coat-of-arms over the doorway and the word "Dela- 
ware" impressed upon the side wall. With Colonial 
porches, old-time cornices and immense brick chimneys 
at each end of the building, it is an exceedingly at- 
tractive and creditable building. 

— 119 — 


Florida will have an exhibit of fruit and flowers 
and also an historical collection. Wide attention is 
being attracted in Agricultural circles and from sci- 
entists making a special study of Aower-breeding, to 
the pollen collection, invented by Prof. E. Moulie of 
Jacksonville. Professor Moulie will exhibit his vari- 
ous perfumes, surrounded by the Aowers from which 
they are made, and with each step in the process illus- 


The Georgia Building is a representation of ''Bul- 
loch Hall," at Bosewell, Georgia. "Bulloch Hall" 
was the home of Mattie Bulloch, mother of President 
Boosevelt, and here she was married to the President's 
father. The reproduction of this building typiAes sev- 
eral periods in the history of the Empire State of 
the South. The builder of the house was second Gov- 
ernor of Georgia; Archibald Bulloch, the President's 
uncle, was a captain in the Confederate navy, and 
his brother, James, was an ofAcer in Lee's army. The 
twelve rooms of this building will be furnished by 
the leading cities of the state, including Atlanta, Sa- 
vannah, Columbia, Macon, Valdosta, Waycross, States- 
boro, Albany and Cordele. The state appropriated the 
sum of $50,000 for an exhibit at the Jamestown Ex- 
position and the funds for the erection of the building 
have been raised by popular subscription. The State 
Building fronts on Willoughby boulevard and the 
waters of Hampton Roads .and is a handsome structure 
of Colonial architecture. 


Illinois has a beautiful Colonial building of pressed 
brick veneer, with stall trimmings, with wide porches 
and verandas. The main reception hall is a feature 

— 120 — 

of the attractiveness of the Illinois Building, with 
its immense fireplace, broad stairs and spacious win- 
dow scats, giving the entire building an air of hos- 
pitality. The walls of the reception room are dec- 
orated with the Lincoln Exhibit, now in the hands of 
the Historical Society, at Springfield. Illinois will 
make quite an exhibit in her state building, but space 
in the other structures has also been filled with ex- 
hibits illustrative of the industries of the state. 


Indiana is endeavoring to secure funds by popular 
subscription for an exhibit in historical and educa- 
tional lines. Some of the large manufacturing indus- 
tries of the state have exhibits. 


Kentucky has rebuilt Daniel Boone's fort in a grove 
of stalwart pines in the northwestern corner of the 
Exposition grounds, the logs for the construction of 
the same being shipped from various sections of the 
"Blue Grass State," some of them from the site of 
the original fort at Boonesboro. There are two main 
buildings, each twenty feet square, and connected by 
a roof twenty feet wide. The building has a twenty 
foot veranda running the full length of each side. 
Four cabins, each twenty feet square, are erected in 
addition. These will be used as offices and probably 
for exhibit purposes. 

Louisiana State Building is 46 by 59 feet in size, 
two stories in height and of Colonial architecture. 
It has a 15-foot gallery in front, with eight columns 
and :i similar gallery on the side. The front of the 
building is almost entirely of glass. Special effort 
will be made to make a very striking exhibit of the 
rice, sugar and cotton industry and of the forestry, 

— 121 — 

mineral" and oyster resources of Louisiana. The sugar 
exhibit will consist of samples of sugar canes, a wax 
model of a cane field, with miniature laborers in the 
act of cutting the stalks, and miniature cane field im- 
plements. A lifelike wax model of the cotton plant, 
showing the leaves, flowers, pods and open bolls, in 
addition to stalks of the genuine cotton plants of the 
most promising varieties grown in the state, with seed 
cottons, lint cottons, cotton seed products, such as 
hulls, meals, cake and fertilizers; cotton oils, crude 
and refined; lard substitutes, cotton goods, cotton 
stalk paper, together with a model cotton gin and 
photos of cotton fields are on exhibition. 
New Jersey. 

The New Jersey State Building fronts on Matoaka 
place and the Boulevard. It is a stately structure of 
pure Colonial architecture. The building is two sto- 
ries in height, and is said to be a replica of General 
Washington's headquarters at Morristown. The cost 
was $26,000. 

North Dakota. 

The site of the North Dakota Building is in the 
midst of those selected by Virginia, Maryland, Ohio 
and Pennsylvania, and commands a beautiful view of 
the Hampton Roads. The lot is 50 by 165 feet and 
the attractive building is located with a view of 
being easy of access to all parts of the grounds, as 
well as having a clear outlook upon the great body of 
water beyond. The building is completely furnished 
and has a delightful reception room, 20 by 40 feet, 
with all modern conveniences. 

North Carolina. 

The "Old North State" has produced a fine Co- 
lonial residence, with large columns and ample porches 
in front. The interior is of North Carolina yellow 


— 122 — 

pine furniture linisli and the furnishings throughout 
are from North Carolina furniture and textile fac- 
tories. The appropriation of this state was $55,000 
for building and exhibit, besides $5,000 for an exhibit 
by the colored race of the state. 

New York. 

New York has a large Colonial mansion at the 
water's very edge. It is modeled from "Arlington," 
the Lee homestead across the Potomac from the city 
of Washington, and is surmounted by a dome resem- 
bling that which adorns the Congressional Library 
at Washington. The building is to cost $31,500, and 
is located in one of the most advantageous positions 
on the grounds. The Colonial Dames of the Empire 
State have brought together a wonderful collection of 
antiques and relics. Slippers worn by a .Colonial belle 
at her wedding; queer school books, out of which the 
children learned their lessons; state papers over which 
the makers of the Eepublic bent their powdered heads; 
silver dishes, silhouettes and pictures, historical docu- 
ments, newspapers, etc. 

New Hampshire. 

This building is a reproduction of the one erected 
by Governor Langdon in 1784 and occupied by him. 
until his death, in 1819. Langdon was one of the 
great New Hampshire men and ranks high among the- 
heroes of the Eevolution. He was one of the first sena- 
tors and also had the distinction of being the first 
president pro tern of the United States senate. The 
New Hampshire Colonial Dames of America have con- 
tributed an exhibit to the Jamestown Exposition, 
among which are pottery, valuable pieces of old fur- 
niture, a traveling case of solid mahogany filled with 
cut gbiss, bottles and glasses, these having been the 
property of Colonel Cilley before the Revolution; also 

— 123 — 

a miniature of Brig. Gen. Enocfc Poor, old fans, laces, 
old prints, manuscripts and costumes. Among the 
latter is a piece of the wedding dress of the wife of 
Governor Tristan Cossyn, who was one of the early 
governors of that period. 

Missouri has provided a fine Colonial structure. The 
building is of red brick, with its stately porticos and 
verandas. This stately mansion presents a singular 
aspect of dignity and repose combined. In appearance 
it is not unlike the Virginia Building. Colonial in 
design, it lacks the boldness of execution involved in 
that type, its severity being tempered with an elab- 
orate profuseness of ornamentation quite fascinating 
to the artistic contemplation. 

Michigan has an appropriation of $20,000, and will 
have a building on Bennett Circle. The state will have 
an extensive agricultural, horticultural and forestry 
exhibit. (See map on page 2.) 


Maryland reproduced as her building at the James- 
town Exposition the home of Charles Carroll of Car- 
rollton. Carroll was one of the signers of the Declara- 
tion of Independence and survived all the others by 
half a dozen years. One room of the building is a 
replica of the old senate chamber at Annapolis, where 
Washington resigned his commission as Commander-in- 
Chief of the army. The building has a length of 240 
feet. The main building is 70 by 64 feet, the repro- 
duction of the senate chamber 40 by 36 feet, and the 
entrance hall 2o by 38 feet. A dozen rooms are pro- 
vided for the convenience of the visitors. 

— 124 — 


Massachusetts has attempted a reproduction of the 
old State House, as it stands at the head of State 
street, Boston. The structure is one of the most 
interesting and quaint in the group of State Buildings. 
The first story is given over to the entrance and ex- 
hibit halls, the circular staircase hall, the old stairway 
being reproduced faithfully; the commission's offices, 
curator's room, lavatories, etc. The main feature of 
the second story is an exact reproduction of the fa- 
mous old council chamber where James Otis warred 
against Writs of Assistance, and the Bepresentatives' 
hall, the scene of so many stirring events. There is 
the historic balcony, the exterior as it was in Colonial 
days, the whole surmounted by the lion and the uni- 
corn. The historical collection from Massachusetts 
is valued at more than $100,000. The articles compris- 
ing this collection were all in Use in Massachusetts 
families prior to the time of the Eevolution, and the 
exhibit is, therefore, distinctively Colonial. 


Ohio has reproduced in cement block a model of 
" Adena, ' ' the first stone house erected west of the 
Alleghany mountains, and for several years the home 
of Governor Worthington, when the capital of the 
state was at Chillicothe. The furnishings of the house 
are faithful to the times when the house was built. A 
fire-proof section contains the $25,000 archaeological 
exhibit of Ohio. 


This new addition to the Union of States will be 
well represented at the Exposition with exhibits from 
her fertile farms, abundant orchards and flourishing 
gardens. Funds are being subscribed for a building 
also, and notwithstanding the fact that its first legis- 

— 125 — 

lature has not been elected a site at the Exposition 
has been engaged. The site selected is in the western 
portion of the grounds. 

Forty pretty young women from Oregon will come 
to the Exposition dressed in Indian garb. The scheme 
is one of the most novel yet suggested for the Expo- 
sition. Jt is proposed to select forty of the most 
comely women in the state of Oregon and send them 
on a tour of the United States. They will be dressed 
in Indian costume, and will advertise the state of 
Oregon. Their trip will include a three weeks' stay 
at the Exposition, The party will be at the Exposi- 
tion either in July or August. 

Pennsylvania has constructed a replica of old Inde- 
pendence Hall of Philadelphia. A mammoth four-face 
electric illumination clock ornaments the tower and 
all the lines of the tower will be illuminated by rows 
of electric lights. Original buildings of the Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania will be shown in miniature by a 
unique model. 

Rhode Island. 
The Ehode Island Building is a replica of the first 
capitol of that state. Ehode Island State day will 
be on the anniversary of the battle of Lake Erie, 
Tuesday, September 10. 

South Carolina. 
South Carolina will expend her entire appropriation 
on an exhibit. The exhibit will be arranged under 
the heads of agriculture, forestry, Clemson College, 
cotton manufactures, undeveloped water powers, min- 
eral waters, historical, general manufactures and min- 
erals. The tea exhibit from this state will be very 
complete, the United States Department of Agrieul- 


ture having agreed to turn over its exhibit to the 
South Carolina exhibit, and this exhibit will be sup- 
plemented by photographs, bottled goods in all shapes, 
plants, etc., and, taken as a whole, the tea exhibit will 
be very complete. South Carolina has been given a 
space in the States' Exhibit Building, 214 by 18 feet, 
and has been placed on the artistic installation of the 
exhibits to make them attractive and spectacular. A 
large relief map of Charleston harbor is a part of the 
exhibit. "South Carolina Day" is June 28. 


Virginia presents a beautiful type of Colonial archi- 
tecture. The building has a frontage of 116 feet, 
including the side porches. It is of brick, with stone 
and marble ornamentation. The front elevation pre- 
sents the harmonious effects of Ionic elegance com- 
bined with Doric simplicity. Lofty Corinthian col- 
umns surmounted with Acanthus leaf capitals support 
the roof projection above an imposing entrance. The 
building is designed for reception and entertaining 


Vermont is constructing a model summer home, a 
feature for which the "Green Mountain State" is 
becoming noted. It will be about 24 by 34 feet in 
dimensions and a story and a half high. The lewe** 
floor will be one room, set apart to receive visitors, 
and will be finished in hard pine and furnished appro- 
priately. A broad piazza will face Hampton Roads. 
A writing room and toilet rooms will occupy the upper 
floor. Vermont will have exhibits in marble, slate, 
granite building stone, maple sugar and syrups, pure 
foods, dairy products, fruits, fish and game. 

West Virginia. 
The West Virginia Building has a fine location on 
the Boulevard. It has a brick foundation, frame su- 
perstructures, built on the old Colonial plan, with 
porches and columns in front and on the sides and 
terraces connecting the porches. Near the building 
will be an obelisk of West Virginia coal, 40 by 40 feet 
at the base and 160 feet high. It will be laid in 
obelisk form, a strata for each county of the state, 
and illuminated by electric lights, forming an exhibit 
visible far out to sea. A large space in the States' 
Exhibit Palace has been secured for a display of the 
products of the "Little Mountain State." In the 
Historic Relic Building will be placed that part of the 
collection which pertains to the Burr-Blennerhassett 
conspiracy, James Rumsey's steamboat and John 
Brown's insurrection, with such other material as is 
illustrative of that part of the state's history which 
is of national world-wide importance. Among the 
articles exhibited is the pack saddle used a hundred 
years ago in carrying salt from Winchester to Clarks- 
burg, the large spinning wheel, the reel, winding blade. 
reeds, the little flax spinning wheel, the flax brake, 
scutching knife and scutching block implements used 
in making the jeans, linsey linen and tow linen, which 
clothed the West Virginia pioneers in the infant days 
of the Republic. 


What the Midway r:as to Chicago, the Pike to the 
Louisiana Purchase Exposition and the Trail to the 
Lewis and Clark Exposition, the War Path is to the 
Jamestown Exposition. 

A few of the more important concessions are as fol- 


Freil Lift.— What the Eiffel Tower was to Paris, 
and the Ferris Wheel to Chicago, the Freil Lift will be 
to Jamestown. It looks much like a windmill, 
with airships attached to the arms, and while the arms 
are going around the upright on which they turn is 
also going around. 

Fair Japan. — A typical street scene, such as would 
be found in Tokio. The street is lined with little 
shops and natives are selling their wares. A native 
theater and restaurant will show the Japs in their 
histrionic and gastronomic life. A Tea Garden will 
be sure to entice the passerby. There is a pagoda 
here and various other things Japanese in architecture, 
gueh as bridges and bazaars. 

Old Williamsburg. — Colonial Virginia will be pre- 
sented in a building which will be a copy t)f the old 
House of Burgesses in Williamsburg. A moving pic- 
ture drama in which the old worthies will appear in 
characteristic costume. Leading and dramatic inci- 
dents will be incorporated and the production, it is 
said, will be of genuine historic and artistic interest. 

Old Mill. — The Old Virginia Corn Cracker has been 
transferred from up in the mountains of West Vir- 
ginia. It has the overshot wdieel and will be seen in 
operation in picturesque surroundings. Meal will be 
ground out while you wait and "Mammies" will serve 
hoe cake, batter bread and corn bread with syrup 
and you can eat country sausages and the real Smith- 
field ham. 

Beautiful Orient will take vou through the Land of 
Egypt. You can ride the camel and buy of the natives. 
You will see the quaint river craft of the Nile and 
hear the weird music of the Lotus Land. 

Old Jamestown reproduced will appeal particularly 
to Virginians, and there one may rest and also eat 


modern cooking on a roof garden overlooking the an- 
cient settlement. 

"101 Ranch," a great wild west show. The Miller 
Brothers, of Oklahoma, are bringing their full outfit and 
life on the plains will be seen as it is today and as it 
was when the Indians were rough. The Indians who 
will come with the ranch, and the cowboys and cow- 
girls and the Mexicans will number five hundred and 
there will be a big herd of buffalo and wild Texan 
steers, with bronchos and rough riders and many spe- 
cial features that one will long remember. 

Bostock's Animals. — Bostock will have his American 
show, which has wintered in Richmond, and his Paris 
show, just brought over from the Hippodrome, com- 
bined, and the wonderful performances of his trained 
wild animals will be seen at Fine Beach not far from 
the entrance to the grounds. 

The Philippine Reservation will show life as it is 
among the civilized and Christianized Filipinos and 
also the rude life in huts of the less civilized natives 
at work fashioning implements of war or domestic life. 
Representatives of the War Department have been at 
work in the islands getting the material and people 
for this part of the Exposition and the promise is 
made that it will offer better opportunity for studying 
the Filipinos than did the exhibit at St. Louis. 

Temple of Mirth. 

Fairy Land. 

Baby Incubator. 

Hale 's Tours. 

Paul Revere 's Ride. 

Trixie, the Educated Horse. 

Destruction of San Francisco. 

Shooting the Chutes. 


Merrimac and Monitor Battle. 
Battle of Manassas. 
Unknown Regions. 
Revolving Parachute. 
Esquimaux Village. 
Haunted < astle. 
Empire of India. 
Lee and his Generals. 

Never in the history of the world has there been 
such an array of battleships as can be seen on the 


historic waters of Hampton Roads. For several miles 
these mighty monsters are stretched out in a straight 
line, extending from Old Point to Newport News. Each 
ship lies 300 yards apart and no one can look upon 
these beautiful cruisers and battleships without a feel- 
ing of pride. Painted a clear white with yellow tur- 


rets and funnels they form a picture that cannot be 
described. In a line of honor before the American 
fleet under Admiral Evans ride the grim war dogs of 
the foreign powers, while protecting the entire fleet 
an outer fringe of torpedo boat destroyers may be seen. 
Admiral Harrington, of Norfolk, is in charge of the 
evolutions. Some fifty war vessels are anchored in 
Hampton Roads; their names and classes are given as 



Admiral Evans' flagship is the Connecticut. 

Guns. Guns. 

Connecticut 24 Illinois 18 

Louisiana 24 Kearsarge 22 

Missouri 20 Kentucky 22 

Virginia 24 Ohio 20 

Georgia 24 Indiana 16 

New Jersey 24 Iowa 18 

Rhode Island 24 Minnesota 24 

Alabama 18 Maine 20 


Texas, 8 guns. 


St. Louis, 14 guns. First-class protected cruiser. 
Tennessee, 20 guns. Armored. 
Washington, 20 guns. Armored. 
Cleveland, 10 guns. Third-class protected. 
Denver, 10 guns. Third-class protected. 
Brooklyn, 20 guns. First-elacs armored. 


Miantonomah, 9 guns. 
Canonicus. Old type. 

Hopkins, Hull, MacDonough, Truxton, Whipple, Wor- 
den, Blakeley, DeLong, Stockton, Strighani, Wilkes. 

Foreign Ships. 

Good Hope, 8 guns. Armored cruiser. Flagship of 
Rear Admiral Sir George Neville. 
Argyl, 10 guns. Armored cruiser. 
Hampshire, 10 guns. Armored cruiser. 
Roxburgh, 10 guns. Armored cruiser. 

Roon, 14 guns. Armored cruiser. Flagrliip of Rear 
Admiral Zimmerman. 

Bremen, 10 guns. Protected cruiser. 

Victor Hugo, 20 guns. Armored cruiser. Flagship 
of Rear Admiral Thierey. 

Kleber, 12 guns. Armored cruiser. 


Tsukuba, 16 guns. Armored cruiser. Flagship of 
Vice-Admiral Ijuin. 
Chitose, 12 guns. Protected cruiser. 


Varese, 17 guns. Armored cruiser. Flagship of 
Rear Admiral Duke D'Abruzzi. 

Etruria, 10 guns. Protected cruiser. 



Riachuel. 10 guns. Third-class battleship. Flagship 
of Rear Admiral Duarte Huet de Bareellar. 

Tamoyo, 2 guns. Cruiser. 

Don Carlos, 12 guns. Protected cruiser. 

Sant George, 11 guns. Armored cruiser. 
Aspern, 8 guns. Protected cruiser. 


Fylgia, 8 guns. Cruiser. Flagship of His Highness 
Prince Wilhehn. 

Presidente Sarmiento, 4 guns. Training ship. 
Zonteno, 8 guns. Cruiser. 

The battleships carry from six to eight hundred 
men each, the foreign boats usually having a larger 
crew than those of the American navy. 

This magnificent spectacle is a sight that will live 
long in the memory of all who are fortunate enough 
to visit the Jamestown Exposition. It forms an im- 
pressive picture of fighting strength that will long 
be remembered in naval circles as the greatest 
gathering of warships in the history of the American 
nation and probably of the world. 

PART Til. 

The first important point to remember is that the 
Exposition site is on the shore of Hampton Roads, 
thirty minutes' ride by electric car from the city of 
Norfolk, and that Jamestown is merely an unin- 
habited island in the James River, forty mileS from 

For convenience, every visitor should also remem- 
ber that Norfolk is the most accessible point to the 
Exposition and that many of the more historic places 
of interest can be reached from this city in from one 
to three hours. If possible, tourists should endeavor 
to return home by a different route, and a few sugges- 
tions are offered with this end in view. 

New York to Norfolk. — By Rail: Via Philadelphia 
to Cape Charles. Boat from this point to Norfolk. 
By Boat: Distance 325 miles. Leaving New York by 
Old Dominion Line, at 3 p. m., boat reaches Norfolk 
at ten thirty the next morning. The itinerary for the 
return trip may of course be reversed. Return may 
be made by boat to Baltimore or Washington and 
from there to New York by rail. 

Boston to Norfolk.— By Boat: Direct to Norfolk, 
or boat or rail to New York, and from there by rail 
via Philadelphia as given above. 

Pittsburg and Western Points. — From Pittsburg by 
the B. & O. or from Harrisburg by the Pennsylvania, 
the tourist can proceed to Norfolk via Washington, 
Richmond and Petersburg. A stop-over should be 
made at each of these cities. The return trip may 



be made by boat to Cape Charles and by rail via 
Philadelphia and west via Harrisburg; or from 
Philadelphia to New York and west over one 
of the northern roads. Boat can also be taken from 
Norfolk direct to Richmond or Washington. Boat 
leaves Norfolk 6 p. m., arrives at Washington early 
the next morning. 

Southern Points. — Steamer connections between Nor- 
folk and all important Atlantic ports. Rail connec- 
tions via Raleigh, Chattanooga or Louisville. 

Automobile Route. — The Annual Tour of the Ameri- 
can Automobile Association will be to the Jamestown 
Exposition. Route via Washington through the Shen- 
andoah Valley, via Richmond and Fredericksburg to 
Norfolk. Distance 250 miles. Maeadam road almost 
the entire distance. Antietam, Harper's Ferry and 
Fredericksburg battlefields are included on the trip. 


Washington to Hagerstown. 

(■'Hotels located here.) 

Dupont Circle 1.5 Braddock's Springs 49.0 

Montrose 12.6 Braddock 's 

Rockville 15.4 Heights* 49.9 

Gaithersville 20.06 Middletown* (Bat- 
Clarksburg 29.00 tlefields) 52.8 

Hyattstown 32.9 Boonsborough 60.3 

Frederick* (Old Na- Funkstown 68.2 

tional Highway.. 44.5 Hagerstown* 71. 


Mappans 8.4 Sharpsburg 16.1 

Dilghenington .... 10.4 Antietam Station.. 17.8 

Battlefield of An- Shepard's Town... 20.4 

tietam 13.7 .Hall Town 29.0 


Charlestown* (John 
Brown hanged 
here) 33.0 

Gaylord (State 

line) 41.7 

Berryville* 46.0 

Winchester* (Na- 
tional Cemetery). 57.1 

Winchester to Staunton. 



Stephen 's City . . . 


Strasburg* (2.1 
miles to Fisher 
Hill battlefield). 

Tom 's Brook 




Taylor Town 


Hawkins Town . . . 






Mt. Jackson (Con- 
federate monu- 

Newmarket* (Luray 
cave 14 miles east) 



Harrisonburg* .... 

Mt. Crawford* . . . 

Burke Town 

Mt. Sidney 


Staunton* (Nat'l 




Staunton to Richmond. 

Brand 3.0 

Fishersville 6.5 

Waynesboro 11.4 

Basic City* (sum- 
mer resort) 12.0 

Spring (C. & O tun- 
nel) 15.5 

Afton* (summer re- 
sort) 16.4 

Hillsbury 23.9 

Brownsville 25.4 

Mechum 28.2 

Ivy 31.3 

Woods Station 34.8 

University of Vir- 
ginia 37.4 

Charlottesville* ... 38.4 

Hunters' Hall 42.5 

Sha dwell 42.9 

Boyd 's Tavern . . . 48.6 

Zion 54.6 

Trices 58.9 


Driggsville 59.5 

Moccassin Gap .... 67.7 

Shannon Hill 70.1 

East Leak 78.0 

Gum Springs 82.0 

Sandy Hook 84.0 

Goochland Court 

House 89.6 

State Farm 93.3 

Issequena 96.5 

Sabot 100.0 

Manakin 102.9 

Richmond* 118.6 

Richmond to Norfolk. 

Manchester 1.0 

Petersburg* 21.6 

Estes ' 29.7 

Disputanta 36.8 

Waverly* 48.5 

Wakefield* 57.9 

Ivor 66.7 

Zuni 75.5 

Providence Church. 90.1 

Kings Fork 90.7 

Suffolk* 97.1 

Stevers 100.5 

Morris Fork 105.4 

Drivers 107.2 

Sholder Hill 109.1 

Hodges Ferry 112.8 

Norfolk* 119.6 

Windsor 83.3 

Norfolk to Virginia Beach. 
Oceana* 18.0 Virginia Beach* .. 21.2 

Virginia Beach to Norfolk. 

Oceana* 3.3 Norfolk 21.5 

Rosemont 8.6 

Norfolk to Richmond. 
Portsmouth 0.4 Waverly* 70.3 

Suffolk* 21.6 

Windsor 36.3 

Zuni 44.1 

Wakefield* 60.7 

Disputanta 81.8 

Petersburg* 95.7 

Manchester 117.8 

Richmond* 119.1 

Richmond to Washington. 

(Lee's Hill bat- 
tleground) 62. 1 

Falmouth 63.5 

Aden 95.1 

Bristow 100.4 

Manassas (battle- 
field) 105.7 

Fairfax C. II.* 119.!) 

Washington* 137.0 


Ey Autoboat, New York to Norfolk, by inland 
waterways. Distance 352 miles. Provisions for twen- 
ty-four hours. Necessities can be purchased along the 
route. For boats drawing about five feet of water. 
Eoute: From Upper Bay, New York Harbor, follow- 
ing North Coast, Staten Island, through Kill von Kull 
and Arthur Kull, Great Beds Lighthouse to Raritan 
River, through the Delaware River and down Chesa- 
peake Bay to Norfolk. 

Norfolk. — As this city will probably be headquar- 
ters for thousands of tourists, the following informa- 
tion regarding Norfolk will undoubtedly prove of 
assistance to many. 

The temperature at Norfolk from May to Decem- 
ber, 1904, was as follows: 

Max. Min. Average. 

May 94 46 67 

June 92 56 75 

July 100 65 81 

August 100 66 82 

September 98 57 7C 

October 88 43 66 

November 78 33 55 

December 7i> 24 43 

The rainfall is greatest in July. As a rule, hot 
periods are short, followed by cooler weather and 
refreshing showers. The cost of living has materially 
increased since the commencement of work on the 
Exposition and tourists should if possible make ar- 
rangements for board and lodging before leaving 
home. By reading this little book carefully the pros- 
pective visitor will not only be able to visit the more 
important points of interest, but will be saved much 
needless work and considerable time and money. For 
detailed information and views of the Exposition the 


tourist should secure a copy of " Glimpses of the 
Jamestown Exposition and Picturesque Virginia," 
published by Laird & Lee. 

Short Side Trips from Norfolk. — Full descriptions 
with points of interest to be visited are given under 
separate chapters. The Water Belt Line run boats 
to Eichmond, Washington, Baltimore, Jamestown 
Island, Yorktown and other interesting places. See 
also chapter on Norfolk, giving local points and 

The principal transportation lines from Norfolk are 
the following: 

Soul hern Railway. — To points in Virginia, Tennes- 
see, North and South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Ala- 
bama and Mississippi. 

Chesapeake & Ohio. — Virginia, West Virginia, Ken- 
tucky, Ohio, Indiana and Illinois. 

Norfolk & Southern. — North Carolina. 

New York, Philadelphia & Norfolk. — Eastern Vir- 
ginia, Pennsylvania, New Jersey and New York. 

Old Dominion Steamship Co. — New York, Eichmond 
and James Eiver points. 

Merchants' and Miners' Transportation Co. — Boston 
and Providence. 

Baltimore Steam Packet Co. — Baltimore. 

Clyde Steamship Co. — Philadelphia. 

Chesapeake Steamship Co. — Baltimore. 

Norfolk & Washington Steamboat Co. — Washington 
and Alexandria. 

Virginia Navigation Co. — James Eiver points, in- 
cluding Eichmond. 

Weems Steamboat Line. — Eappahannock Eiver 


Foreign Steamships. — To Liverpool, London, Glas- 
gow, Belfast, Hamburg, Rotterdam, Amsterdam, Cuba, 
Mexico and the West Indies. 

Annapolis. — Distance 154 miles. Take Chesapeake 
Steamship Co. boat at Norfolk or Newport News. 

Alexandria. — Across Potomac River from Washing- 
ton, from which points it is most accessible. Distance 
about 200 miles. 

Berkeley. — Street car from Norfolk, on City Hall 
avenue, or take ferry. 

Baltimore. — 187 miles from Norfolk by Chesapeake 
Steamship Co. 's boat. Fare $3. Round trip $5. 
Leave Baltimore daily except Sunday, 6:30 p. m. Ar- 
rive at Norfolk, 7:15 a. m. 

Cape Henry. — Round trip 25 cents. Norfolk & South- 
ern Railroad, Electric Division. Cars leave opposite 
Monticello Hotel. 

Cape Charles. — Boat leaves Norfolk, touching at Old 
Point Comfort. About three hours' ride. 

Dismal Swamp. — By canal boat or motor boat 
through Albemarle and Dismal Swamp Canal from 
Portsmouth. Round trip, one day by motor boat. 

Exposition. — Norfolk & Atlantic Terminal Electric 
cars, opposite Monticello Hotel, or Norfolk & Ports- 
mouth Traction Co. cars foot of Granby and Main 
street, via Ocean View, or boat foot of Commerce 

Fortress Monroe. — See Old Point Comfort. 
Fredericksburg. — This sity can be reached on the 
road to Washington. 

Hampton. — Take Norfolk & Portsmouth Ti action 
Co. electric car to Pine Beach, and from there to 
Hampton by boat, or take boat from Norfolk to New- 
port News and electric car or railroad to Hampton. 



014 444 822 4 

Jamestown Island. — Take 
Co. 's boats at Norfolk or Nev FU .v +^„». .m^ La^o 
eight hours. 

Newport News. — Take boat at Norfolk, or electric 
car to Pine Beach and boat from there. 

Ocean View. — Take electric car, foot of Main street. 

Old Point Comfort. — Take boat from Norfolk, foot 
of Commerce street, or electric cor or railroad from 
Newport News or Hampton, or electric car to Wil- 
loughby Spit and boat from there. Boat fare 15 cents. 

Portsmouth. — Take ferry foot of Commercial place, 

Petersburg. — Take Norfolk & Western Eailroad 
from Norfolk (a ride of an hour and forty-five min- 
utes), or take electric car from Eichmond. 

Richmond. — Take Norfolk & Western Eailroad, a 
ride of 2^ hours from Norfolk, or boat to Newport 
News and C. & O. train from there, or take electric 
car from Petersburg. By water: Take Old Dominion 
Line from Norfolk, Newport News or Old Point. Fare 
$2.50; round trip $4.50, including stateroom. Day trip 
fare $1.50; round trip $2.50. Leave Norfolk 7 a. m. 
Arrive Eichmond 5 p. m. 

Virginia Beach. — Take Norfolk & Southern electric 
car, opposite Monticello Hotel. Bound trip 25 cents. 

Washington. — Take Norfolk & Western Eailroad 
from Norfolk, via Petersburg, Eichmond and Fred- 
ericksburg, or Norfolk & Washington Steamboat Co. 's 
boat from Norfolk. It takes about six hours to cover 
the trip by rail. Boat leaves Norfolk G p. m. Arrives 
early next morning. Distance by water 200 miles. 

Williamsburg. — Take boat from Norfolk to Newport 
News and C. & O. Eailroad from there. 

Yorktown. — Take boat from Norfolk or Newport 
News, or overland f v om Williamsburg by stage. 


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