. J2 L2
LAIRD & LEE'S
The Historic Sights of the Old Dominion Graphically and
Realistically Portrayed with Authentic Descriptions of
the Important Events and Associations that Have
Made Famous Jamestown, Williamsburg, York-
town, Smithfield, Norfolk, Hampton, Newport
News, Old Point Comfort, Fortress Monroe,
Portsmouth, Virginia Beach, Cape Henry,
Petersburg, Richmond and the Noted Bat-
tlefields of the Civil War. Full Statistics
and Itinerary. Also Concise Directions
for Visiting These Many Famous
Places with the Greatest Possible
Saving of Time and Expense.
NUMEROUS HALFTONES, MAPS and DIAGRAMS
Copyright, iqo~] , by Wm. If. Let
CHICAGO, U. S. A.
LAIRD & LEE, Publishers
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QUICK REFERENCE INDEX
List of Illustrations, .
The Dawn of American History,
PART I. — Historic Virginia.
I. The Birth of the Nation,
II. Hampton Roads, the Gateway to America,
III. Norfolk, the Key to the New South,
IV. Portsmouth, the Government's Workshop,
V. Newport Nsws, the World's Greatest Shipyard,
VI. Hampton, the Oldest Continuous Settlement in
the United States, ....
VII. Old Point Comfort, and Fortress Monroe — Ameri
ca's Gibraltar, .....
VIII. Jamestown, the Cradle of the Republic,
IX. Williamsburg, the Historic City of Celebrities,
X. Yorktown, England's "Waterloo,"
XL Smithfield, the Home of the Peanut,
XII. Petersburg, the City of the Crater,
XIII. Richmond, the City of Chivalry,
XIV. Battlefields, near Richmond,
XV. Alexandria, the Home of Washington and Lee,
XVI. Early Colonial Churches, ....
PART II. — The Jamestown Centennial
The Exposition in Brief,
General Itinerary, .
— General Itinerary.
I 34-i39- I 4Q
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
Rescue of Capt. John Smith,
Map of Exposition Grounds,
Official Pennant of the Exposition,
Map Historic Places in Virginia,
Old Type of Monitor,
Cape Henry Tablet, .
Capt. John Smith,
The Essex, an Old-time Warship
Bird's Eye View,
Norfolk Mace, ,
St. Paul's, Norfolk, .
Trinity Church, Portsmouth,
Dry Dock, Newport News,
Soldiers' Home, Hampton,
St. John's Church, Hampton,
Hampton Industrial School, #
Moat, Fortress Monroe,
Church Tower Ruins, Jamestown,
Parson Blair's Tomb, Jamestown,
Ruins, Governor's Residence, Jamestow
Plat of Williamsburg,
Bruton Church, Williamsburg,
Bruton Church, interior plan,
House of Burgesses Site,
Court House, Williamsburg,
Wythe House, Williamsburg,
Yorktown as it is To day,
York town Battlefield Monument,
Nelson House, ....
St. Luke's Church, Smithfield,
St. Luke's Church, Smithfield, interior
Blanford Church, Petersburg,
Battlefield of the Crater, Petersburg,
Peace Monument, Petersburg,
St. John's Church, Richmond,
St. John's Church, interior,
Speaker's Chair, House of Burgesses
Stove, House of Burgesses,
Map of Battlefields, .
Christ Church, Alexandria,
Map, Automobile Route, .
MAP OF VIRGINIA
— N O R T M
SHOWING PRINCIPAL CITIES AND HISTORICAL
PLACES OF INTEREST
THE DAWN OF AMERICAN HISTORY.
Few people realize that the Cradle of the Republic
was not the rock-bound coasts of New England, but
the rich valleys of Virginia. Upon her fertile fields,
the armies of three wars bivouacked, and as early
as 1765 the fires of patriotism were kindled in the
House of Burgesses at Williamsburg. Since the days
of Patrick Henry, the state has given birth to many
illustrious men; patriots whose fame has shaken the
thrones of the Old World and revolutionized the cus-
toms and usages of the New Republic.
Many who visit Tidewater Virginia for the first
time express the utmost astonishment on learning
that nothing remains of historic Jamestown but a few
crumbling ruins on an uninhabited island, nearly
forty miles up the James River from Norfolk and
the site of the Jamestown Exposition.
In the blood stained soil of the Old Dominion lie
buried the ancestry and chivalry of our Nation, and
no patriotic American should neglect to visit the
sacred shrines that have become interwoven with the
very warp a»d woof of our national history. Any
one making the itinerary laid out in these chapters,
cannot fail to become imbued with admiration for
the sturdy colonists who made the wilderness to blos-
som as. the rose; out of primeval forests erecting the
sturdy foundations of our glorious Ship of State.
After each hallowed spot has been seen, the tour-
ist will appreciate the real spirit that has made pos-
— 9 —
Bible the commemoration of the three hundredth an-
niversary of the first settlement in America of Eng-
lish speaking people.
From the sturdy little band of pilgrims who landed
at Jamestown three hundred years ago have come
the spirit and the courage, the zeal and the energy
which have conquered the powers of Europe, chained
the lightning's flash and harnessed the mighty tor-
rents of Niagara.
Here began our history; from out of this deserted
island, a mighty nation came into existence and, in
the ivy-clad churchyards of Virginia, quietly sleep
the statesmen, warriors and presidents, who with
others, were directly responsible for American Inde-
pendence. In the midst of these historic associations,
every citizen should be proud to uncover, and rever-
ently say, "Thank God, I am an American."
TYPE OF MONITOR USED IN THE CIVIL WAR.
THE BIRTH OF THE NATION.
Three hundred years ago, the thirteenth of May,
1607, the foundation of the American Republic was
laid by a sturdy band of English explorers at James-
town, now desolate and deserted.
Prior to 1607, Spain had gained a successful foot-
hold in the New World. The defeat of the Spanish
Armada awakened England's desire to push her con-
quests westward. A charter for the colonization of
Virginia was granted to Sir Walter Raleigh in 1584,
and Amadas and Barlowe were sent to explore the
coast and chart the rivers. Upon their return, Ral-
eigh sent out a party of colonists under Sir Ralph
Lane. For a year they remained in America, where
many died from fever, while others were killed by
Indians. In 1586, the remainder were brought back
to England by Sir Francis Drake. Two other expe-
ditions were sent out but failed. In 1602, Gosnold
surveyed the coast, of New England and called it
North Virginia. No settlement, however, was made.
December 20, 1606, :;n expedition started for the
New World under command of Capt. Christopher New-
port. Among the passengers was one John Smith,
destined to play an important part in the colony to be
founded. Three boats constituted the entire outfit:
The "Susan Constance," the "Discovery," under
John Ratcliffe, and the "Godspeed," under Bartholo-
mew Gosnold. Their destination was the island of
Roanoke, but after four months of sailing, on April
— 11 —
26, 1607, they were driven by a fierce gale into the
Chesapeake. The southern cape they named Henry
and the northern Charles, in honor of the sons of King
James. At Cape Henry, the savages drove them back
to their ships and the little band proceeded to Hamp-
ton Roads, anchoring at a sheltered place which they
named Point Comfort.
A few days later they
sailed up the James Eiver,
then called Powhatan, an-
choring May 13, off a pen-
insula, thirty-five miles from
the mouth of the James.
Having landed, the first
thing they did was to erect
a tent in which to hold re-
Iligious services, and here,
under Rev. Robert Hunt,
began the first English
Church in America.
Newport soon returned
to England for more pro-
visions and new colonists,
having one hundred and
five settlers alone in the
wilderness. Capt. John
Smith had been appointed one of the magistrates by
the London Company, but during the voyage jealousy
arose and he was accused of designing to usurp the
provincial government and make himself king of Vir-
ginia. He Avas arrested and confined during the voy-
age, bul liberated on their arrival when he demanded
a trial. He was finally acquitted and took his place
in the council.
TABLET ON CAPE
Eavaged by fever and sickness, attacked by sav-
ages and torn by internal dissention, the colony was
only held together by the indomitable spirit of Smith.
As many as four or five died every day, among them
the intrepid explorer, Gosnold. Upon Newport's re-
turn from England only thirty-eight of the original
one hundred and five settlers remained.
In an attempt to explore the head waters of the
Chickahominy, Smith was attacked and captured by
Indians. By showing
them his compass he
managed to divert their
attention until he was
led in triumph before
Powhatan, their chief.
The Council finally con-
demned him to death,
but as the savages
circled around him in
silence with Powhatan
ready to strike the
fatal blow, Pocahontas
pushed herself to the
side of the prisoner and
dramatically threw her-
self between him and his captors. Through her in-
tercession, the life of Smith was saved and the next
morning he was conducted back to Jamestown, seven
weeks after his capture. This exciting incident is de-
scribed by Capt. Smith himself in the following Ian-
"A long consultation was held, the conclusion of
which was that two great stones were brought before
Powhatan. As many as could laid hands on him,
CAPT. JOHN SMITH
— 14 —
dragged him to thorn, and thereon laid his head; and
being ready with their clubs to beat out his brains,
Pocahontas, the King's dearest daughter, when no
entreaty could prevail, got his head on her arms, laid
her own upon his to save him from death; whenal
the Emperor was content he should live to make
him hatchets, beads and copper."
^^^^^^ In 1609, Powhatan
plotted to destroy
Jamestown, but through
Pocahontas, his daugh-
ter, the colonists were
warned in time to pro-
tect themselves. Subsr
quently Pocahontas was
baptized by the name
of Rebecca. She mar-
ried Rolfe, with whom
she visited ■ England,
where she died, leav-
ing- one son. It has
POCAHONTAS , to . , .
been said she was in
love with Capt. Smith, who was many years her
senior and whom she after met in England.
When Smith left for England, the Colony numbered
five hundred, but famine and pestilence besieged the
hardy pioneers and in May, 1610, only sixty dis
heartened, haggard settlers remained. June 7, 1610,
with the drums rolling a dirge, the few dejected
colonists set sail for England, arriving at Hampton
Roads in time to meet the ships of Lord Delaware,
the new governor, Avho had jnst arrived with a sup
ply of provisions and one hundred and eighty new
adventurers who put new hope into their hearts.
— 15 —
From this time the Colony prospered. In 1619, in
the wooden church at Jamestown, Gov. Yeardly con-
vened the first legislative assembly in Virginia, the
upper house being called the Council and the lower
one the House of Burgesses.
March 22, 1622, three hundred and forty-seven of
the colony were butchered by the Indians. In 1624,
the Crown took over the government of the colony,
dissolving the charter of the London Company. Up
to this time nine thousand colonists had been sent
to Virginia, but only two thousand had survived.
Grants conveyed by the London Company were taken
away and settlers deprived of their lawful holdings;
agents sent to England to remedy the wrong, re-
turned unsuccessful and after years of abuse at the
hands of the king, discontent culminated in open insur-
rection under the leadership of Nathaniel Bacon.
Governor Berkeley refused to dispatch forces against
the Susquehannah Indians, who were on the war path;
but in 1676 Bacon for this purpose raised six hum lied
volunteers, who were denounced by the Governor as
Civil war now ensued and Jamestown was burned
by Bacon 's men. The death of Bacon became the
end of the rebellion and Berkeley eventually returned
to England, where he died.
After Bacon's death, Berkeley hung all of those
who had opposed him upon whom he could lay hands.
The wife of Major Chessman begged the old governor
upon her knees to spare her husband, but without
avail. Even his old-time friend, William Drummond,
Was sacrificed to his wrath.
''Mr. Drummond," he said in a sneering voice, "you
are very welcome! 1 :uu mote glad to see you than any
— 16 —
man in Virginia! j\Ir. Drummond, you shall be hanged
in half an hour! "
As soon as King Charles II heard of this he restored
In Mrs. Drummond her husband's property which the
governor had confiscated.
"That old fool," said Charles II, "has hanged more
men in that naked country than I did for the murder
of my father! "
Owing to the fever, which seemed prevalent so much
of the time, it was decided to abandon the site at
Jamestown and remove the seat of government to Wil-
liamsburg, which was done in 1699, the year after the
burning of the State-House.
The waters of the James River have long since con-
verted the peninsula into an island. Fire and sword,
pestilence and famine have done their work, and only
ruins remain to mark the site of historic old James-
town, but the struggles and sufferings of the early
colonists were not unavailing, for after Jamestown
came Williamsburg, which first fanned the flames of
the Revolution leading to the glorious victory at York-
town and the subsequent birth of the American Re-
HAMPTON ROADS, THE GATEWAY OF AMERICA.
BATTLESHIPS ON HAMPTON ROADS
Certainly, the most historic body of water in the
United States, Hampton Roads, is also, perhaps, the
most beautiful harbor on the Atlantic coast. In shape,
it is an isosceles triangle, eleven miles long on one
side and nine miles in length on the other two sides,
forming an area of about fifty square miles, sheltered
by the Virginia coasts, connecting Chesapeake Bay
with the Atlantic Ocean. Into this vast body of water
flow the Elizabeth, Nansemond and James Rivers,
the latter being four miles vide at its mouth.
A glance at the bird's-eye view on page 20 will
show the exact location of these streams, with the
cities bordering the shores of the Roads. The waters
are deep enough for the largest war vessels built and
extensive enough to manoeuvre the largest fleet afloat.
Sheltered by Cape Henry and Cape Charles, Willoughby
Spit and Old Point; provided with one of the largest
ship building plants and dry docks in the world and
supplied by one of the most important government
— 17 —
— 18 —
Navy Yards, Hampton Roads has long been considered
the strategic naval center of the Atlantic coast.
Tn the days of the early discoveries, it became the
objective point of the storm-driven eblonists. Almost
the first guns discharged by the British navy at the
commencement of the Revolutionary War were fired
by Lord Dunmore upon Norfolk and the cities of
Hampton Roads. In 1779 the British again invaded
Hampton Roads, capturing Portsmouth and the navy
yard, and the French admirals, D'Estaing and De
Grasse, later sailed to Washington's aid at Yorktown
through these historic waters.
When after the battle of Waterloo, the portentous
events of the period prevented Napoleon from remain-
ing in Paris, it was planned that he should escape to
Hampton Roads. However, an attorney at Bordeaux
persuaded him against this course and he put to sea
from Rochefort and was soon captured by the British
frigate Bellerophon. His brother, though, refused to
follow the attorney's advice and reached America in
safety. Prince Louis Bonaparte, Napoleon's nephew
and later Emperor of France, sixteen years after,
sailed into Hampton Roads with the French frigates
L'Andromede and La Sirene on a visit to Norfolk.
In the War of 1812, naval activities again centered
around Hampton Roads. June 22, 1813, preparatory
to entering Norfolk, the British attacked Craney
Island, at the mouth of the Elizabeth River. As they
passed Nansemond Point, they were discovered and
attacked by a battery on the shore manned by mar-
ines from the Constellation. 'Three barges were sunk
and most of the men drowned, the few survivors re-
treating to their vessels. Those who had previously
landed were repulsed by the Virginia militia.
— 19 —
During the Civil War, Hampton Roads became an
important strategic point, as it was the gateway to
Washington. Here, almost opposite the site of the
Jamestown Exposition, the Monitor and the Merrimae
fought their epoch-making battle, and over its waters
thundered the guns of Fortress Monroe and the battle-
ships of both navies.
THE ESSEX, AN OLD-TIME WARSHIP.
What Yorktown or Gettysburg have been to our
land forces, Hampton Roads has been our navy. Pro-
tected by Fortress Monroe and the Rip Raps, it is
the gateway to our shores; the harbor for every storm-
beaten mariner and the defender against every invad-
ing foreign foe.
NORFOLK, THE KEY TO THE NEW SOUTH.
Norfolk is the headquarters of nearly all visitors
to tidewater Virginia. The city has many good hotels,
the principal ones being the Monticello, on Granby
Street, Monticello and City Hall Avenues; the Lorraine,
Granby and Tazewell Streets; the Atlantic and the
Having secured a location, the tourist should study
the relative position of Norfolk and other tidewater
cities of Virginia. The bird's-eye view given on page
20 conveys an accurate idea of the contiguous terri-
tory. As seen from this map, Norfolk is situated on
the north side of the Elizabeth River at the mouth
of its eastern branch, opposite Berkley and Ports-
mouth. This river and its branches are arms of
Chesapeake Bay, forming a harbor of about 1,000
acres, thirty feet deep, connecting with Hampton
Roads, an outer harbor of forty or fifty square miles.
On this body of water is located the site of the
Jamestown Exposition, opposite Fortress Monroe, Old
Point, Hampton and Newport News, and into Hamp-
ton Roads flow the waters of the James River. As
a matter of reference a few statistics regarding Nor-
folk may not be out of place.
In 1905, the city had 136 miles of electric roads,
11 hospitals and asylums, 14 newspapers, 12 hotels,
9 places of amusement, 7 railroad lines, 22 steamship
lines, 11 banks, 92 benevolent orders, 18 schools, 76
— 21 —
churches, 125 miles of paved, curbed and graded
streets, 50 miles of sewers, 5 city buildings, 3 libraries
and 6 public parks.
In addition to being a great railway and steam-
boat terminus, Norfolk is an important manufactur-
ing center. In 1900 nearly seven hundred manufac-
turing establishments were reported, with an aggre-
gate capital of nearly eighteen million dollars. Lum-
ber, cotton, peanuts, wines, oysters, fish and fertilizers
are the principal products handled. Truck farming
and ship building are also important industries.
The principal business streets of Norfolk are Main,
(ii.inby and Church Streets. Having strolled through
the business sections, the tourist can spend a short time
in visiting the more important places of interest, but
before doing this, a short synopsis of the city's his-
tory may be read with profit.
Prior to the settlement of the English in the state,
Eastern Virginia was occupied by forty different In-
dian" tribes, thirty of them belonging to Powhatan's
"Alas, for them! their <\;\y is o'er;
Their fires are out, from shore to shore;
No more for them the wild deer bounds,
The plough is on their hunting grounds."
In 1662, two hundred acres of land now occupied by
the city was owned by Lewis Vandermull, who sold it
to a shipwright named Nicholas Wise, Sen. In L680,
fifty acres of this land was purchased for a townsite
for "Tenn thousand pounds of tobacco and Caske."
Sept. 15, 1736, the town was incorporated as a Royal
Borough and Sam '1 Boush became the first mayor.
The name Norfolk, pronounced Norfolke, was given
— 23 —
to the county by Colonel
Thorogood in memory
of his native county in
England. Many of the
streets were named in
honor of early settlers,
Colonial governors and
officials, as Dunmore,
Botetourt and Washing-
The accompanying il-
lustration shows the
original Norfolk mace
presented to the cor-
poration by Robert Din-
widdle, Lieut. Governor
of Virginia, 1753. It
is 40% inches long and
is surmounted by an
arched crown with orb
and cross, with the
Royal Arms engraved
beneath the crown. It
was hidden in a bank
vault during the Civil
War and thus kept in-
tact from designing
Up to 1776 Norfolk
continued to grow and
prosper, but with the
commencement of the
Revolutionary War her
troubles began. The
NORFOLK CITY MACE
— 24 —
mosl interesting evidence of these troublous limes is
the old church, with its cannon-bail,
Old St. Paul's Church (Church Street) .—Elizabeth
River Parish was established 1637 and the first church
erected at "Sewejl's Point." The first Norfolk church
was built 1641, but no trace of it can be found. The
present edifice was erected in 1739 and became known
;■■, the " Boroucrh Church.™
OLD ST. PAUL'S CHURCH, NORFOLK
The site was presented to the Parish by S;mi ']
Polish, the first mayor of Norfolk, and his initials can
still be seen on a brick in the south wing. He is
buried in the old churchyard. Rev. John Wilson was
the first rector. Cn 1761 the parish was divided into
Elizabeth River, Portsmouth and St. Pride's parishes.
After Lord Dunmorete defeat Pec. 2, 177.". at Greal
Bridge, ten miles from Norfolk, he retired to his [Jeel
in Norfolk harbor, dan. 1, 1776, he began bombard-
ing Norfojk. destroying a goodly portion of the town.
— za —
A 5% inch cannon-ball si ruck the south wall of Old
St. Paul's under the eaves near the Church street cor-
ner. The ball fell to the ground and in 1848 it was
found and dug up by Capt. Seabury and cemented into
the cavity it made in the church wall.
In 190] the Great Bridge Chapter, Daughters of the
American Revolution, erected a tablet on the wall,
which reads, '-Fired by Lord Doinmore, Jan. 1, 1770.
The church was disestablished as a result of tin- Revo-
lutionary War and its glebe lands were confiscated by
In 1832 it was repaired and consecrated as St.
Paul's. During the Civil War, it was occupied by
Federal troops from 1862 to 1865. For damage done
the church during the war, the government has since
awarded $3,600. It was repaired and the interior re-
stored in 1892 and the tower erected 1901.
Churchyard (Nearly Two Acres in Extent). — Over
265 tombs are recorded in the records of St. Paul's.
The inscriptions have been copied and indexed in
a book. The oldest date is Jan. 18, 167r>, on the stone
marking the grave of "Dorothy Farrell." Another
stone, not marking any grave, was brought from
King's Creek and bears an inscription to the memory
of Elizabeth, wife of Honorable Nathaniel Bacon.
Dr. Okeson, who was responsible for the restoration of
the church after the Civil War, was buried in the
churchyard by special permission from the city.
One of the queer epitaphs reads:
"Behold my grave, how low I lie !
As you are now, so once was I.
As I am now. so you must be.
Then be prepared to follow — me."
It is said that during the Civil War a soldier was
responsible for scratching on the tomb, with his saber,
the additional lines:
"To follow you I am not bent
Until I know which way you went."
John Hancock's Chair. — Tn the vestry-room of St.
Paul's is a mahogany arm chair, upholstered in leather
hearing a silver plate with the following inscription:
"This chair was occupied by John Hancock when
he signed the Declaration of Independence. It
was bought by Colonel Thomas M. Bayley, of
Accomac County, Virginia. At bis death it became
the property of his daughter Ann, who subs.'
qnently intermarried with the Rev. Benjamin M.
Miller, once rector of St! Paul's Church, Norfolk.
Va., who presented it to the parish."
Norfolk Academy (Bank and Charlotte Street). —
Incorporated Jan. 15, 1804. Present building erected
1840; a gem of architectural beauty, modeled after
the Temple of Theseus at Athens. Prior to the Revo-
lution the site belonged to St. Paul''s Church. This
building was the edifice in which Poe, the famous
American poet, delivered his last lecture.
Thomas Moore's House (End of East Main Street).
A deserted dormer-windowed house, where the Irish
poet is said to have lived. While in Norfolk, it is
claimed that Moore wrote the first part of "Lalla
Rookh " and the poem associated with Lake Drum-
mond in the middle of the Dismal Swamp.
It is said a young man who had lost his mind upon
the death of his sweetheart had suddenly disappear <1
and was never heard of afterwards. In his ravings
he declared firmly that the girl was not dead but had
gone to the Dismal Swamp. Upon this supposition, it
was believed that the young man had wandered into
this wilderness and had starved to death among the
morasses of the Swamp. Upon this story, Moore based
his poem, given as follows:
— 27 —
The Lake of the Dismal Swamp.
"They made her a grave too cold and damp
For a soul so warm and true ;
And she's gone to the lake of the Dismal Swamp,
Where all night long, by a fire-fly lamp,
She paddles her white canoe.
"And her fire-fly lamp I soon shall see,
And her paddle I soon shall hear ;
Long and loving our life shall be,
And I'll hide the maid in a cypress tree,
When the footstep of death is near !"
Away to the Dismal Swamp he speeds ;
His path was rugged and sore ;
Through tangled juniper, beds of reeds,
Through many a fen, where the serpent feeds,
And man never trod before.
And when on the earth he sank to sleep,
If slumber his eyelids knew,
He lay where the deadly vine doth weep
Its venomous tear and nightly steep,
The flesh with blistering dew !
And near him the she-wolf stirred the brake,
And the coppersnake breathed in his ear,
Till he starting cried, from his dream awake,
"Oh ! when shall I see the dusty lake,
And the white canoe of my dear !"
He saw the lake and the meteor bright
Quick over its surface played —
"Welcome !" he said ; "my dear one's light !'
And the dim shore echoed for many a night,
The name of the death-cold maid.
Till he hollowed a boat of the birchen bark,
Which carried him off from shore ;
Far he followed the meteor spark ;
The wind was high and the clouds were dark,
And the boat returned no more.
But oft from the Indian hunter's camp,
This lover and maid so true,
Are seen at the hour of midnight damp,
To cross the lake by a fire-fly lamp,
And paddle their white canoe.
The Dismal Swamp covers an area of 800 or 1,000
square miles. Before the war attempts were made to
reclaim it, and within the last few years much has
been accomplished in this direction. Many farms have
been established here, one containing 4,000 acres and
another L,000 acres. The soil is the richest and most
productive in the world.
A canal traverses the eastern part of it, connecting
Qhesapeake Hay with the sounds of North Carolina.
Near the center, three miles west of the canal, is
Lake Drumraond, 18 miles from Norfolk. It is esti-
mated that the entire swamp could be reclaimed at ;in
expense of $1,(10(1,000, in which case an animal revenue
Could be obtained from the timber amounting to $100,-
000 and at least $1', ooo, 000 from agricultural products.
A splendid place for hunting and fishing.
Edgar Allan Poe spent the greater part of his life
in Virginia and frequently visited Norfolk. He was a
student at the University of Virginia in 1826. Sept.
IS, 1849, he wrote from Richmond to his mother-in-
law, ;is follows:
"I lectured at Norfolk on Monday and cleared enough to
settle my bill here ;it the Madison House, with $2 over.
1 had ;i highly fashionable audience, but Norfolk is a small
place and there were two exhibitions the same night."
Sepl. 1."., 1 S ( 1), the Norfolk Argus published his now
well known poem, "Lenore, " appended herewith:
Ah, broken is the golden bow'i I the spirit flown forever!
Lei the bell toll! — a saintly soul floats on the Stygian river;
And, Guy I >e Vere, hast thou no tear! — weep now or never
See : on yon drear and rigid bier low lies thy love, Lenore !
Come! let the burial rite be read — the funeral song be
sung ! —
An anthem for the queenliest dead that ever died so young —
A dirge for her the doubly dead in that she died so young.
"Wretches! ye loved her for her wealth and hated her for
"And when she fell in feeble health, ye blessed her — that
she died !
"How shall the ritual', then, be read'! the requiem how be
"By you by yours, the evil eye by yours, the slanderous
— 29 —
"That di<l to death the innocence that died, and died so
Reccavimus! but rave not thus! and let a Sabbath song
(Jo up to <iod so solemnly that dead may feel no wrong!
The sweet Lenore hath "gone before" with Hope, that flew
Leaving thee wild for the dear child that should have been
thy bride —
For her, the fair and debonair, that now so lowly lies.
The life upon her yellow hair but not* within her eyes —
The life still there, upon her hair — the death upon her eyes.
"Avaunt ! tonight my heart is light. No dirge will I up-
•'Rut waft the angel on her flight with a Paean of old days !
"Let no bell toll ! — lest her sweet soul, mid its hallowed
"Should catch the note, as it doth float up from the damned
"To friends above, from friends below, the indignant ghost
is riven —
"From Hell unto a high estate far up within the Heaven
"From grief and groan, to a golden throne, beside the King
Another famous visitor to Norfolk was General
Lafayette, who with George Washington, received a
public ovation here in 1824. In 1837 Louis Napoleon
Bonaparte, subsequently Emperor of France, was en-
tertained at French's Hotel, Main and Church streets,
and in 1841 Henry Clay visited the city.
In 1855 yellow fever fright fully devastated Norfolk,
St. Paul's Church alone furnishing seventy-six vic-
tims. St. Mary's Church was converted into a tem-
porary hospital. This edifice still stands, one of the
most beautiful churches in the south, a monument to
the faithful priest, who during this awful scourge
ministered to the sick and dying,
The Civil War proved still another factor that inter-
fered with the growth of the city.
Confederate Monument. — At the intersection of Main
Street and Commercial Place. This statue commemo-
rates the memory of the Confederate Soldiers who died
for the "lost cause."
— 30 —
The points of interest at surrounding towns are
fully described in separate chapters, and directions for
reaching these places will be found in the "Itiner-
ary/' Part III. There are many historical places of
interest within an hour's ride of Norfolk, which every
tourist should visit. The cars going to the various
suburbs of Norfolk are given as follows:
Ghent. — The w*est end residence district. To see this
part of the city, take City Park and Atlantic City
cars, or the City Park, Ghent and Lambert's Point
Brambleton. — East end residence district. Take
east-bound Brambleton, Norfolk and Western, and Nor-
folk and Southern cars.
Edgewater. — Take west-bound Lambert's Point cars
which leave City Parks.
Berkley. — Take cars on City Hall Avenue, near
Gfranby Street, or Ferry at foot of Commercial Place.
Portsmouth. — Take Perry, foot of Commercial Place.
Norfolk Navy Yard and Marine Hospital. — Take
Ferry to Portsmouth and electric car to the yards.
Exposition Grounds. — Take electric cars at barn.
PORTSMOUTH, THE GOVERNMENT'S WORKSHOP.
Portsmouth is only a few minutes' ride across the
Elizabeth River. The principal attractions to be seen
are the Norfolk Navy Yards, Trinity Church and the
Confederate Monument. The business of the city is
largely dependent upon the industries represented by
the Navy Yard. Many residents are also employed in
Norfolk and surrounding places.
History records the fact that Ralph Lane landed
near the town of Chesapeake, near Portsmouth, in 1586.
During the Revolution both Benedict Arnold and
Cornwallis were in Portsmouth.
Norfolk Navy Yard (Open to Visitors During Exposi-
tion from 9 a. m. to 5 p. m. Except Sunday).
Both cities lay claim to this important government
industry. Electric cars stop in front of the Ports-
mouth Ferry, . and connect with the Yards. At the
entrance, the visitor is instructed to repair to the
office, where a pass will be issued to enter the grounds.
Nearly 3,000 men are employed here, and the annual
pay roll amounts to $2,500,000. The Yards have
cost the government more than $20,000,000, and the
annual repairs and improvements amount to $3,000,000.
A dry-dock is under course of construction and with
the marine barracks when completed, will make this
station the greatest on the Atlantic coast. Here are
located mammoth machine-shops and woodworking es-
tablishments where the interior fittings of ships are
— 31 —
— 32 —
constructed; Men-of-war are sent to these yards for
overhauling and general repairs.
On the opposite side of tlic Elizabeth River is the
Training Station, which, with the exception of the one
at Newport, R. I., is the largest in the United States.
Here apprentice seamen receive their training, four
months being the limit for recruits. The old men-of-
war, Franklin and Richmond, have been fitted up as
receiving-ships and three converted yachts, the Siren,
Hornet and Restler, and a sailing yacht, the Eagle,
are used for giving the recruits actual experience in
handling a ship and in loading and manning guns.
An artificer's school is also attached to this branch
of the service, where recruits receive a thorough me-
chanical training. On the Franklin, a bandsmen's
school is held where enlisted musicians are trained. A
Reserve flotilla station is maintained south of the
Training Station. The torpedo-boat crews are quar-
tered aboard the U. S. ship Atlanta.
Tourists are sometimes allowed to visit men-of-war,
at certain hours on special days allotted for that pur-
Here at these yards seven ships have been built for
the navy, the battleship Texas ami the cruiser Raleigh
being the two latest ones. The staunch old Constella-
tion was built and launched here; also the Alliance,
the Richmond and the Jamestown.
More than thirty large buildings are included in the
yards. There are three dry-docks and one wet-dock
large enough for several ships. The oldest one is built
of stone and was begun Dec. 1, 1S:!7. An interesting
sight is an enormous pile of am hors dating back to the
beginning of the navy. The yard contains 359 1-10
acres in Portsmouth and ( .»1 acres in Norfolk. It was
— 33 —
given the name "Norfolk Navy Yard" to distinguish
it from the one at Portsmouth, N. H.
Trophy Park. — The first object that attracts the
visitor upon entering the yards is the Park, which
separates the offices from the workshops and wharves.
Here may be seen naval guns of many nations, types
and ages. Spanish guns from men-of-war belonging
to Admiral Cervera's fleet; relics and trophies from
the Revolutionary "War, the War of 1812, and from the
Mexican, Civil and Spanish-American Wars, including
guns captured at Tien-Tsin during the Boxer troubles,
Specimens of armor from the Confederate ram Texas
and the Albemarle are grouped about the flag-staff in
the center of the Park. The torpedo tubes with two
torpedoes captured with the Reina Mercedes can be
seen at one end of the Park, while nearby are two
guns from the famous U. S. ship Huron, wrecked off
the North Carolina coast.
The large cannon-ball made entirely of stone,
brought from Constantinople, is also most interesting.
It represents the first cannon-balls ever used and it
would fill the muzzle of the largest gun now in exist-
ence. Four carronades bearing the words, ' ' Republica
de Yucatan" were captured in the war with Mexico.
Four larger ones were taken on the lakes from the
British during the War of 1812.
In 1861 the Federal troops evacuated the yards and
the XT'. S. battleship Pennsylvania was burned to the
Naval Hospital. — About one mile from the Navy
Yard. The grounds surrounding the hospital cover
seventy-five acres. Admiral Cervera was held here on
parole as a prisoner of war. A monument on the
— 34 —
grounds marks the site of old Fort Nelson of Revolu-
The gr.uiit • hospital building was erected 1835-6.
The grounds were acquired by the Navy Department
in 1827. The building has been used for hospital pur-
poses during every American war that has occurred
since its erection. A cemetery is attached to the
TRINITY CHURCH, PORTSMOUTH
grounds where a number of prominent men are buried.
Nearly sixty Confederate soldiers and sailors are also
interred in these grounds. A monument erected to
the memory of soldiers and sailors buried here was un-
veiled by President Roosevelt, Memorial Day, May
Trinity Church (High and Court Street). — This beau-
tiful edifice was erected 1762; rebuilt 1829 and remod-
— 35 —
eled in 1893. During the Civil War the building was
occupied by Federal troops as a hospital and during
the War of 1812 it was converted into barracks.
The original roof still remains, blackened with age.
In the old churchyard are many tombs with quaint
inscriptions reminding one of the vicissitudes of time
and war. Here lies buried Commodore Barron, who
during the War of 1812 was suspended from the service
and later restored, subsequently (1820) killing Commo-
dore Decatur in a duel.
Confederate Monument (at the intersection of High
and Court Streets, opposite Trinity Church). — At the
base of the shaft on each corner is a life size figure of
a Confederate soldier, each one representing a different
division of the service. A tablet upon the monument
' ; In memory of Maj. F. W. Jett,.C. Sa., to whose
labor and devotion the erection of this monument .
is principally due."
Quaint old Portsmouth, with its historic associations,
is still an important factor in the life of the government
and its work shops, its navy yard, hospital, training
schools and its old historic church possess a charm that
will attract visitors for years to come.
NEWPORT NEWS, THE WORLD'S GREATEST SHIPYARD.
Newport News has a population of some 30,000 peo-
ple. It was early known as "New Pork Neuces. "
Locally, Newport is pronounced "New'put."
It was near this point that the despondent James-
town settlers first caught sight of Lord Delaware 's
DRY DOCKS, NEWPORT NEWS
ships of relief in 1610. The arrival of this timely aid
gave the colonists new courage and they turned back
to their abandoned homes, thus saving the colony and
insuring its future ; a future so pregnant with signifi-
The Chesapeake and Ohio "Railway has its terminus
here and seventeen steamship lines connect with this
— 36 —
— 37 —
city. Newport News is on Hampton Roads, where
hundreds of ships coal. As much as 350,000 tons of
coal arrive here in a month. Electric lines connect
with Hampton, Old Point and Fortress Monroe and
boats reach Norfolk in fifty minutes, Exposition
grounds in twenty minutes, Jamestown Island and
Yorktown in a few hours. Among other important in-
dustries located here are iron and brass foundries,
shirt and shoe factories, planing mills, breweries and
Ship Yards. — The chief point of interest, however,
is the greatest ship building yards in America and
the greatest dry-dock in the world. The plant cost
over $15,000,000, and although a private concern, some
of the largest American battleships have been built
here; in fact, almost any day of the year ships in all
stages of construction can be seen. Cruisers, battle-
ships, submarines and torpedo boats are constantly
being turned out. Seven thousand five hundred men
are employed, and the weekly pay roll amounts to
$60,000. The largest derrick in the world is also lo-
cated here. It easily handles 300,000 pounds at one
Half a day can be devoted to Newport News if time
is pressing, and electric car can be taken from this
point for Hampton.
HAMPTON, THE OLDEST CONTINUOUS SETTLEMENT IN THE
When the English first visited Virginia, Hampton
was an Indian village, called Kecoughtan. The city
is on the waters of Hampton Roads, nearly opposite
the Exposition site, it is claimed to be the oldest
continuous English settlement in America.
Driven by a gale into the Chesapeake, the original
expedition with Capt. John Smith landed at Cape
SOLDIERS* HOME, HAMPTON
Henry, but being attacked by the savages, they sailed
up Hampton Roads and anchored off Old Point, May
10, 1607, remaining in the vicinity of Hampton for
several days before proceeding up the James. Settle-
ment was effected by Lord De La Warr, July, 1610.
He was re-enforced in May, 1611, by Sir Thomas Dale.
In 1616, John Rolfe wrote that the town had twenty
inhabitants. In 1619, tile House of Burgesses were
petitioned to change the heathen name of Kecough-
tan to one more befitting a community of Christians,
so Elizabeth City was substituted, but no act of legis-
— 38 —
— 39 —
latiou can entirely obliterate the imprint of these
early savages from our boundaries.
"Their name is on your waters,
Ye may not wash it out.
Their memory lieth on your hills,
Their baptism on your shore.
Your everlasting rivers speak
Their dialect of yore."
In 1623, there lived within the parish John Layden
and his wife, Anna, the first English couple married in
Virginia. One of their three daughters, Virginia, was
the first English child born in America, after Virginia
Dare, of Roanoke -Colony. The present town of Hamj>
ton was founded in 1680 by an act of the Legislature.
The tourist visiting Virginia for the first time is
early impressed with the number of historic churches,
nearly all of them surrounded by the sacred God 's
Acre. As little by little the dauntless colonists pene-
trated the wilderness, the first permanent public build-
ing to be erected was always a church. In fact, every
ten miles a place of worship was established. Many
"of these edifices have long since been destroyed and
forgotten, but a number of them have remained
through the centuries of war and famine, standing to-
day, in beauty of architecture, the equal of their
English prototypes. One of the most interesting and
perhaps the most picturesque of these early colonial
churches is the one at Hampton.
St. John's Church (Queen's Street). — This parish
was named after Princess Elizabeth, daughter of King
James I, 1620. The first rector was the Rev. William
Mease. Not a trace of the first church remains, except
a few trees on the land now belonging to the Tabb
family, north of the road leading to Old Point, which
was once part of the glebe lands of the church. In
1716 one writer says the town had about one hundred
inhabitants, hut no church; services being held in the
What is known as the second church existed at that
time at Pembroke Farm, a mile west of Hampton. It
was built about 1667. The site with adjoining land,
consisting of nine acres, still belongs to the parish.
Here are the tombs of some of the oldest inhabitants,
many of the stones being of black marble. Among
them is one erected in 1697 to the memory of Admiral
Neville. It is the intention to use the old graveyard
as a cemetery for the parish, after St. John's Church-
yard becomes no longer available.
The present church building is the third one built
in the parish. Erected 1728 and built of bricks made
by Henry Gary. It seems to have remained undamaged
during the Revolutionary War, but June 24-27, 1813,
the town and church was sacked by the British under
Admiral Cockburn, the church being turned into bar-
racks. It was subsequently repaired and renamed St.
John's Church, 1827, and consecrated by Bishop R. C.
Moore, Friday, Jan. 8, 1830.
Many of the churches in this vicinity were occu-
pied by troops during the Civil War or suffered
through fire or depredations and St. John's Church
proved no exception. On the night of Aug. 7, 1861,
Hampton and its venerable old church were destroyed
by fire. In proof of their loyalty, the inhabitants un-
der Gen. Magruder set fire to their own homes to [in-
vent them from falling into the hands, of the Federal
troops, and in the general conflagration that followed
old St. John's took fire also. The original walls stood,
however, and the structure was again restored, 1868 70.
A tablet upon the church gives a short history of the
edifice, followed by this quotation from Psalms:
— 41 —
"O, give thanks unto the Lord, for he is good; for his
mercy endureth forever." Rev. C. Braxton Bryan, Rector,
In 1903 the Association for the Preservation of Vir-
ginia Antiquities, presented to the church a beautiful
memorial stained glass window in honor of the Colo-
ST. JOHN'S CHURCH, HAMPTON
nial clergy of Elizabeth City parish. One of these
early (1610-1620) ministers, Rev. Wm. Mease, is said
to have served the original Jamestown Church after
the death of "Good Maister Hunt."
Communion Service. — The church has in its posses-
sion a communion service made in London in 1618 and
presented by Mary Robinson to a church at South
Hampton Hundred. When this edifice was destroyed
in 1622, Gov. Yeardly took the service to Jamestown
— 42 —
and it was later given to Elizabeth City Parish, where
it h;ts since been in constant use.
Churchyard. — The graveyard of St. John's is excep-
tionally beautiful and the inscriptions on the tombs
attraci the attention of all visitors to this picturesque
little city. At one side of the church is a neat, digni-
fied statue in memory of the Confederate dead.
Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute for
negroes was established 1868 and is one of the most
CLASS IN DAIRYING.
important colleges for the colored race in America.
Rev. Hollis B. Frissell, D. D., LL. D., is the principal.
The object of the school is to prepare academic, me-
chanical and agricultural teachers for the Negro and
[ndian races. Over one hundred and twenty officer^
and teachers are employed and the attendance exceeds
1,200; 1,310 graduates have been sent out from the
school ami over 5,000 under-graduates.
The first cargo of negro slaves was landed not far
from Hampton in 1619, a significant fact, when it is
considered that this is the first institution founded
— 43 —
for the industrial training of their emancipated de-
scendants. Over 35 per cent of the graduates are
either farmers or mechanics, and the Institute points
Avith pride to the fact that Booker T. Washington's
name is among the list of her alumni.
In 1878, Indians were also admitted, 120 of whom
CLASS IN WEAVING.
are now in attendance. The U. S. Government an-
nually pays $167 for the board and clothing of each
of these Indian pupils. The state contributes $10,-
000 annually to the support of the school for agricul-
tural and military training and $1,500,000 has already
been secured as an endowment fund. There are 60
buildings, including shops, where eighteen trades are
taught. The farm consists of 800 acres.
Symms-Eaton Free School. — The oldest free school
in America being founded in 1634 in memory of Benj.
Symms and Thos. Eaton, who endowed it. This school,
located at Hampton, is now a part of the regular pub-
lic school system.
OLD POINT COMFORT, AND FORTRESS MONROE, AMERICA'S
Having been driven from Cape Henry by the sav-
ages in 1007, the original explorers who later settled
at Jamestown, weighed anchor in the shelter of this
harbor, which, in thankfulness for protection from
the storm at sea, they named "Point Comfort."
Palatial steamers touch at the Point on their way
from Cape Charles to Norfolk and from northern ports,
for Old Point is a resort whose fame is world wide.
Thousands of tourists are entertained annually at the
Hotel Chamberlain, which has been the scene of many
a noted diplomatic and social function. Located di-
rectly on the waters of Hampton Eoads, the glimmer-
ing lights of the Exposition are discernible directly
Fortress Monroe. — History records that as early as
101 1 there was a fort at Point Comfort called "Fort
Algernon." It was garrisoned by forty men, and con-
tained seven iron cannons. In 1630, according to one
historian, a larger and more pretentious fort was built.
These fortifications were augmented from time to time,
and in 1813 the garrison numbered 450 men, who made
a gallant defense against the invasion of the British
under Admiral Cockburn. Outnumbered, however, the
Americans were forced to retreat.
The present fortifications, commenced in 1817 and
completed in 1875, embrace a parapet wall a mile and
a quarter long, enclosing eighty-six acres, and costing
$2,258,453.05. The fortress is partially washed by the
— 45 —
waters of Hampton Roads, and separated from the
mainland by a wide and deep moat. All the latest dis-
appearing guns, and modern machinery of war are here
in evidence. During the Civil War the garrison aided
the Federal men-of-war, the battery at the Rip Raps
responding, in the famous battle of the Monitor and
The fortress, one of the best equipped in America,
is the chief artillery station of the United States gov-
ernment, and is in reality a practical school for the
Copyright, 1906. by Cheyne Studio
MOAT, FORTRESS MONROE
army and navy. It has the longest line of fortifica-
tions in the world, and is ranked next to Gibraltar in
Oct. 31, 1828, Edgar Allan Poe, who had enlisted in
the army as Edgar A. Perry, was transferred from
Battery H. of the First Artillery at Fort Moultrie,
South Carolina, to Fortress Monroe. He was made
— 46 —
company clerk and assistant in the commissariat de-
partment, and later promoted to the rank of sergeant
major. April 15, 1829, lie was honorably discharged
with the highest encomiums from the officers under
whom he had served.
On the spacious parade grounds may be seen the
morning and evening drills of the soldiers, and in the
park, and along the walks are many interesting guns,
cannon-balls and other relics from the wars of the
past, it was here that Jefferson Davis, the President
of the Confederacy, was confined at the close of the
Civil War, and it was this fortress the Spaniards
planned to attack during the Spanish-American War.
Its grim old walls have witnessed history in the mak-
ing, and the waters surrounding it have rocked the
very "Cradle of the Eepublic. "
Rip Raps. — (Fort Wool, before the Civil War called
Ft. Calhoun.) This is a fine granite fort, with earth-
works within and without, situated between Fortress
Monroe and the Exposition grounds. It is built upon
an artificial island, and cost the government $16,000,-
000. It commands the entrance to Chesapeake Ba> ,
and is equipped with immense disappearing guns and
the latest machinery for defense in time of war. With
Fortress Monroe and the Eip Raps, tidewater Virginia
is amply protected from the assault of any possible
enemy by water.
JAMESTOWN, THE CRADLE OF THE REPUBLIC.
The Far East has its Mecca, Palestine its Jerusalem,
France its Lourdes and Italy its Loretto, but Amer-
ica's only shrines are her altars of patriotism — the first
and the most potent being Jamestown; Jamestown,
the sire of Virginia, and Virginia the mother of this
The site of old ''James Towne" was originally a
peninsula jutting into the James River, some forty
miles from its mouth. Time, however, has cut the
narrow neck of land connecting it with the mainland,
leaving it stranded and isolated, the prey of the winds
and the waves, which have slowly been obliterating
its shores. An early colonial secretary records that
the site was originally about two and three-quarters
miles in length, and about one and one-quarter miles
in width, and in some places only 300 yards wide.
The peninsula crossed what is now known as Sandy
The place where the brave explorers landed, now
over four hundred and fifty feet from the shore, lies
buried under the waters of the James River. It is
estimated to be about 1,500 feet west of the present
The government has just completed a permanent
sea-wall around the entire island to protect it from the
ravages of the river. It has been estimated that about
twenty acres have been washed away. Twenty-three
acres, where most of the original town was built, has
— 47 —
— 48 —
been deeded to the Association for the Preservation
of Virginia Antiquities by its former owners, Mr. and
Mrs. Edw. E. Barney. The Association has endeavored
to protect the old ruins, and the historic ivy-mantled
tower from further devastation, and many excavations
have been made under its auspices.
A concise description and history of the settlement
at Jamestown has been given in one of the preliminary
chapters. As the Exposition was inaugurated as the
CHURCH TOWER RUINS. JAMESTOWN
third centennial of that event, this history has been
introduced at the beginning of this narrative, but be-
fore visiting the Island, the tourist should again read
it ever carefully.
The Jamestown Church. — History records that the
first church, "a homely thing, like a barn, set upon
crotchets, covered with rafts, sedge and earth," was
— 49 —
burned, with the settlement, about eight months after
A second church, within the entrenchments still in
evidence, was built in time for the arrival of Lord
Delaware in 1610. The communion table was of black
walnut, the chancel, pulpit and pews of cedar and the
" front hewn hollow like a canoe."
The day of Delaware 's arrival, attended by a red-
coated guard, he repaired to this church, delivered an
address at the close of the sermon by Eev. Richard
Buck. The third .church was completed 1619 on the
site of the present tower ruins. This edifice was evi-
dently of frame construction. Its foundations have
recently been unearthed within the boundaries of the
The Rev. Richard Buck also preached in the third
children, and it was here that Gov. Yeardly called to-
gether the first Legislative Assembly in the New
The fourth church, represented by the present tower
ruins, was completed between 1639 and 1644. It was
built of blue and red glazed bricks, by some claimed
to have been manufactured in the colony, and by
others said to have been imported from England. The
tower is believed to have been erected as much for
defense against the Indians as for church purposes.
The original communion service, consisting of three
pieces, presented in 1661 by the acting Governor, is
now in possession of the Bruton Church at Wil-
liamsburg. Each piece bears the inscription:
"Mixe not holy things with profane. Ex dono
francisci Morrison, Armiger, Anno Domi, 1061."
In 1676, during the turbulent days of Bacon's Re-
bellion, the church belonging to the present tower was
destroyed with the town by fire. After the rebellion, \
— 50 —
the church was again rebuilt, but about the end of the
seventeenth century it was deserted. It is the inten-.
tion of the Colonial Dames of America to erect r
memorial church over the site of the old walls, which
recently have been unearthed. The Colonial Bell Asso-
ciation intends to hang a bell in the old tower, and
the Episcopal Church of America will place a tablet
within the church in honor of the first minister to
Jamestown, the Rev. Robert Hunt.
PARSON BLAIR'S TOMP., JAMESTOWN
The Graveyard. — Immediately surrounding the old
church is the graveyard, which undoubtedly was the
original burying ground of the colonists. The wall
marking its boundaries was built early in the eight-
eenth century. Beneath the nave and chancel of the
church, many important colonists were laid to rest.
— 51 —
An ironstone tablet bearing- an impression of a coat-
of-arms can still be seen, as well as the tombstone of
Rev. John ('lough, incumbent during Bacon's Rebel-
lion, who died January, 1683. Among other inscrip-
tions upon the gravestones in the churchyard we read:
"Here lies William Sherwood, that was born in
the Parish of White Chappell, near London, a
great sinner waiting for a Joyfull Resurrection."'
One of the most interesting tombs is that of Parson
Blair, minister at Jamestown, founder and first presi-
dent of William and Mary College, and rector of Bru-
ton Church at Williamsburg. He was also a member
of the Council and Commissary to the Bishop of Lon-
don. A long Latin inscription records the good doc-
tor's accomplishments. An old sycamore tree has
grown up between his grave and that of his wife,
Sarah, shattering both tombstones.
Lady Frances Berkeley, wife of the colonial gover-
nor of that name, and Mrs. Edward Ambler, who as
Mary Cary was courted by George Washington, are
also buried here, in the northeast corner of the yard.
State House Ruins. — The third and fourth state
houses, built on the same site, evidently faced the
south, with a square porch in front. It was before the
state house built in 1606 (the third one) that Na-
thaniel Bacon brought his determined followers to de-
mand of Governor Berkeley a commission to raise
troops to protect the settlers from Indian massacres.
Thinking Bacon had merely come to revenge himself
for the repeated insults heaped upon him, the choleric
governor rushed out to meet him, and baring his breast,
dramatically cried: "Here, shoot me, 'fore God, fair
mark, shoot! "
"Sir," replied Bacon, "my sword shall rust in its
scabbard before even a hair of your head is touched.
The following year, the building was burned by
Bacon's men and until the fourth State House was
built, in 1686, the Council were compelled to meet in
the taverns of t lie town. The last House was also de-
stroyed by fire in L698, and the next year the capital
was removed to Williamsburg. The foundations of
these two buildings still remain, mate witnesses to the
struggles of our early legislators in the arena of colo-
Ambler Ruin. — East of the tower are the ruins of
the Jacqueline Ambler Mansion. It was burned during
Hi'' Civil War, rebuilt ami again destroyed by fire in
L896. This was the home of Washington's sweetheart,
indwell Houses. — Three ruins next to the State
House mark' the site of houses owned by Philip Lud-
well, Governor of North Carolina, and third husband
of Governor Berkeley's widow. In the cellar of the
one at the end of the row, the "Country House," were
found a pipe, scissors, copper candlestick, two bomb-
shells and other curious articles, which have been safe-
guarded under the Tower by the Association for the
Preservation of Virginia Antiquities.
Other Landmarks. — East of the tower was located
the later acquisitions to Jamestown, called " New
Towne," supposed to have been built during the ad-
ministration of Governor George Yardley, who entered
upon his duties in 1010.
Traces of a foundation have been found less than
two hundred feet from the wharf, which may have
been that of the first State House, built 1630. Oilier
foundations can be seen along the river bank. The
site of the second fort, known as Turf Fort, has been
located, but no trace of its foundations remains. Em-
bankments and fortifications of the Confederate s are
clearly in evidence. At the east end of the island is
the Travis private burial ground only two of the
stones remaining legible.
From Jamestown one can proceed overland to the
most famous village in the United States — Williams-
burg, seven miles distant. A macadam road has been
built between the island and Williamsburg, and the
RUINS COLONIAL GOVERNOR'S MANSION
trip can be made by automobile or by stage, with
much pleasure and profit.
It is with a deep feeling of reverence that one turns
his back upon these sacred ruins, gaunt and bare, de-
nuded by three centuries of cankering storms, all that
is left to mark the feverish lives of the Nation 's
founders, many of whom sleep in long forgotten
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WILLIAMSBURG, THE HISTORIC CITY OF CELEBRITIES.
Although the birth of the Nation took place at
Jamestown, it was at Williamsburg that the infant
government was prepared to assume her position as a
full fledged Republic.
The annals of this little village, unbroken for over
two centuries, are pregnant with momentous records of
past achievements. More historic associations cluster
around this quiet hamlet than any other existing
American town or city. Here more significant events
have taken place than are recorded in the chronicles
of any other borough. Its streets are fairly haunted
by the personalities of the great; echoing and re-
echoing with the names of titled governors, eloquent
orators, brilliant statesmen, astute theologians and
brave warriors of world-wide reputation.
Here, in stately magnificence, ruled the representa-
tives of the British Crown: Spotswood, Drysdale,
Gooch, Dinwiddie, Fauquier, Botetourt and Dun-
more. Before the Colonial House of Burgesses ap-
peared Washington, Patrick Henry and other emi-
nent men. Here lived Sir John Randolph, Edmund
and Peyton Randolph and John Blair and from his-
toric old William and Mary Oollege graduated a host
of famous men, whose names have been recorded
upon the scrolls of the nation, among them Jeffer-
son, Monroe, Tyler and Chief Justice Marshall.
Suddenly transported from the bustling streets of
a twentieth century city to the historic avenues of
— 55 —
— 56 —
old Williamsburg, the visitor actually feels that time
has turned back the calendar at least two centuries.
Here arc many of the original structures, standing in-
tact as they did when occupied by our Colonial fore-
fathers. The same old brass knockers which echoed
nihil r the impetus of many a famous hand still re-
main upon the same old doors that opened in hos-
pitable welcome to bygone dignitaries, warriors and
heroes. Even the furnishings of many of the present
homes consist of heirlooms handed down from one
generation to another; original Chippendale tables
and chairs, silver candle-sticks, brass andirons and
countless other treasures that remind us of the grand-
eur of Colonial days. Even many of the citizens aro
direct descendants of the early pioneers, occupying
the same houses, using the same furniture and dis-
playing in their lives the same hospitable traits that
characterized their ancestors.
Williamsburg, by all means, should be placed in the
hands of the United States Government as a Na-
tional Reservation. So far as possible, the old his-
toric buildings that have been razed should be re-
built. The Governor's Palace and the original House
of Burgesses should be reconstructed. The Speaker's
old chair and the stove, now at the Kichmond
Capitol, should be returned to Williamsburg. Histori-
cal documents, relics and Colonial furniture should
be gathered and used in making these buildings
replicas of those existing during the infancy of the
nation. Public subscription would do much toward
this end and Williamsburg would become the true
Mecca for every patriotic American.
Teachers and pupils should be sent to visit these
historic associations. Washington, Jefferson, Patrick
— 57 —
Henry are now merely names we conjure with, but
no one can visit Old Bruton Church or stand upon
the foundations of the Old House of Burgesses, with-
out feeling the actual personality of these men as
stamped upon the historic walls of Williamsburg.
They would no longer remain mere names, but would
become the embodiment of real characters who lived
and fought and died for their country.
Williamsburg, originally known as Middle Planta-
tion, was laid out by Gov. Sir John Harvey in 1632.
In 1648 "Harrop Parish," in James City, was united
with Middle Plantation and called Middletown Parish
and in 1674 Marston Parish, York County, was added
and the name changed to Bruton Parish. The town
was named in honor of the English sovereigns, Wil-
liam and Mary, and boasts of a royal charter. In
1690, after the desertion of Jamestown, the Capital
was removed to Williamsburg and Bruton Church be-
came the direct successor of the Court Church of
The original plan provided for laying the town out
ia the form of a W and M, in honor of William
and Mary, but it was abandoned as impracticable.
The streets were platted by Gov. Francis Nicholson,
in 1698, and named in honor of British associations:
England, Scotland, Ireland, Duke of Gloucester,
Prince, Duke, Queen, George, Henry, York and similar
With the idea of keeping church and state apart,
the House of Burgesses was located at one end of
the Duke of Gloucester street, and at the other ex-
tremity, nearly a mile distant, William and Mary Col-
lege. Shaded by trees on both sides, with lamp-posts
extending down the center, the Duke of Gloucester
Street, ninety feet wide, forms one of the most at-
tract ivc village streets in America. This was the
Colonial Boulevard and down this avenue in coach,
berlin or chaise were often seen the titled gentry and
aristocrats of Colonial Virginia, on their way to
I'.rnton Church. This street was named in honor of
William, Duke of Gloucester, eldest son of Queen
Many a novelist of national reputation has made
historic old Williamsburg the scene of plot and story
and visitors will renew many a familiar memory as
they gaze upon these evidences of a past grandeur.
Bruton Church (Duke of Gloucester Street). — The
Court Church of Colonial Virginia and the mother of
the Episcopal Church in America. In all the broad
domain of the United States, there is no one build-
ing surrounded by more historic associations than
this venerable old church. Here worshipped George
Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Madison, Monroe and
Tyler; here sat the Colonial Governors and the mem-
bers of the House of Burgesses; the Harrisons, Pen-
dletons, Patrick Henry, the Randolphs, the Lees and
ma n v other illustrious dignitaries, and from this church
emanated the religious, social and political life that
characterized the Old Dominion.
Bruton Church, evidently named from Bruton,
Somerset, England, the home of Gov. Berkeley, was
founded in 1632. Prior to 1665 there was a small
frame church of which little is known, but the sec-
ond church, built of brick, was erected on land do-
nated by Col. John Page, 1683. The present struc-
ture, designed by Gov. Alexander Spotswood, was
built of blue and red glazed brick, in 1710.
Here worshipped the Colonial Governors and mem-
— 59 —
bers of the House of Burgesses. A large square pew
was provided for the governor and a beautiful silk
drapery hung from brass supports, secluding him
from the rest of the congregation when desired. The
pews for the members of the House were placed to-
gether across the transepts. This part of the church
BRUTON CHURCH, WILLIAMSBURG
was built by and for the members of the House of
The old Register, badly mutilated, found a few
years ago, contains records from 1662 to 1797. The
first entry in the vestry book is dated April 18, 1674.
November 29, 1683, the volume records: "The Parish
Church is at length completed." The fees of the
Parish clerk were "three pounds of tobacco for
registering every christening and burial in ye Par-
ish." The "Sexton to have ten of tobacco for every
— 60 —
grave that he diggs. " June 5, 1682, it was agreed that
the rector be paid "ye sum of sixteen thousand, six
hundred and sixty-six pounds of tobacco and caske."
In 1699, the Jamestown Church was abandoned
with the town, and Bruton Church became its recog-
nized successor. The font, which tradition says is
the one from which Pocahontas was baptized, to-
gether with the Communion Service, was given into
the keeping of Bruton Church, where they still may
be seen. The Jamestown service consists of a chalice,
paten and alms basin, the two former presented by
Two other services are in the possession of the
Church: The Bruton Parish Church Service, known
as the "Queen Anne Set," consisting of Cup and
Cover, dated 1686, and Paten, dated 1737; also the
King George Service, consisting of Flagon, dated
L766, chalice, 1764, and alms basin, all bearing the
The bell in the tower wars presented to the Parish
in 17(51, by .lames Tarpley. Toward the close of the
seventeenth century the 'old church seemed to be in
need of constant repair and in 1706 twenty thousand
pounds of tobacco were levied toward a new struc-
ture — the present one, which was completed in 1715,
during the ministry of Rev. Mr. Blair.
The churchyard wall was completed in 1751 by
Samuel Spurr, for £320. The site for the church and
graveyard was the gift of John Page, Nov. 14, 107s,
the yard fronting on Duke of Gloucester Street, for
three hundred feet.
The Rev. W. A. TJ. Goodwin, A. M., present rector
of the church, has given a graphic description of the
service in Colonial Days in his "Historical Sketches
— 61 —
of Bruton Church. ' ' which we take the liberty of
quoting, in part:
' ' The old bell breaks the stillness of the Sabbath
morn. Old fashioned coaches drive up to the gate,
and as the door is opened by a liveried footman, the
occupants come forth clothed after the last year's
fashion of the Court of George the Third. Around
the door the Colonial gentry are assembled. From
Kaleigh Tavern there comes a group of men who are
representatives of the people in the House of Bur-
gesses. The Governor 's carriage sweeps down the
Palace Green and draws up before the door.
"We pass into the church. In spite of all the care
we take, our footsteps resound through the building
as we walk down the flagstone aisle. Passing into
a large square pew, we close the door and wait. It
is difficult to see those in front of us. We notice that
the men sit on the north side of the church, and the
women on the south. Mr. Peter Pelham enters and
ascending the ' Organ loft ' begins to play the new
organ, recently purchased in England for the church
by order of the House of Burgesses. The students
from the College of William and Mary enter, at-
tended by one of the Masters, and file into the gallery
assigned to them in the south wing of the church.
When the students have all entered the gallery door is
locked, and the key given to the sexton. There is no
chance now for them to escape.
"By an outside stairway, leading up to the gallery in
the north wing, we see the servants of the parish-
ioners enter. The door at the west, leading from
the tower, opens and the minister, who has vested
there, enters and, passing down the aisle, enters the
chance] at the east end of the church. The clerk
— 62 —
takes his place at the desk below the pulpit, which
stands down in the body of the building at the south- l
east corner of the church.
"And now, even over the high back pews, we can ,
see that something is attracting general attention.
The tower door opens, and the Court Procession en-
ters, His Excellency, the Governor, passes down the
aisle to his pew. It is in the chancel end of the
church, on the north side of the aisle; it is elevated
from the floor. A silk canopy hangs over it, and
around it in large letters of gold is the Governor's
name. The Counsel of state, and the members of the
House of Burgesses, and the Surveyor-General take
pews officially assigned. The service begins. The
beadle keeps his eye upon the college youth in par-
ticular. We hear what sounds like an imprecation
from a nearby pew when the prayer is said for
George the Third, and the Royal Family, but it is
"The service ended, the minister ascends the high <
steps leading up into the southeast corner pulpit,
takes his text and begins his sermon. Those who 4 -
have brought braziers with which to warm their feet
listen with comfort, if not always with patience. The ]
benediction said, groups gather in the church and ex-
change greetings, collect the news, discuss the sermon
and exchange opinions, and go to their homes. "*
The so-called ' ' modern improvements ' ' added to
the church, commenced April 18, 1829, when it was
resolved to cut down the pews. In 1839 the interior
of the church was remodeled by building a partition
across the interior, changing the shape from a cross
to a T. The chancel was moved and built out from
♦Bruton Parish Church, Restored, by Rev. W. A. R.
— 63 —
this partition, the old pulpit removed with the flag-
stone aisle and the tower converted into a coal-bin.
During the Civil War no service was held in the
edifice, because the authorities required that the
prayer for the President of the United States be said,
so it was used as a Confederate hospital.
In 1886, another innovation in the interior was in-
stalled, the gallery in the north end removed and
other changes made. In 1903, at the suggestion of
Eev. W. A. B. Goodwin, the rector, it was decided
to restore the church to its original Colonial form.
The architects, Messrs. Barney and Chapman, of New
York, who donated their services, estimated the cost
of restoration to be $27,000, $14,000 for structural re-
pairs and $13,000 for restoration of the interior, and
May 14, 1905, the work began.
In excavating, twenty-eight graves were found
under the chancel and aisles, some of which were
identified and marked by memorial slabs. These
graves are indicated by numbers on the diagram
shown on page 64.
Memorials are to be erected to "some of the dis-
tinguished statesmen and Parish Vestrymen of the
Colonial and Revolutionary period, who worshipped in
the building, or resided there while representing the
people of Virginia in the House of Burgesses, or the
Sovereign Authority of England, as Governors or as
Members of the Council." His Majesty, King Ed-
ward, has contributed a memorial Bible and His Ex-
cellency, Theodore Eoosevelt, has given a lectern to
hold it. Among other memorials will be a silver
alms basin to Eev. Eobert Hunt, the first minister at
Eestoration of the clock formerly in the old
— 64 —
^ cq O
— 65 —
Williamsburg Capitol is to be made in honor of the
House of Burgesses. Tablets to the Colonial Govern-
ors and Members of the Council, Secretaries of State,
Eeceivers General, Auditors General, to the Colonial
Clergy, to the later Eectors and to the Eev. Com-
missary, James Blair, D.D., are to be erected. The
entrance gate to the churchyard is to be a memorial
to General George Washington, who was a regular at-
tendent at old Brnton. The pews have also been made
memorials to other dignitaries as follows:
MEMORIAL TEWS IN BRITON CHURCH.
Pew No. 1 (Nave) — Hon. Thomas Eeale (1662 and 1684),
and Col. Thomas Ballard (1670), Members of the Council
Pew No. 2 — Colonial Church Wardens of the Parish
Pew No. 3 — Capt. Thos. Thorp (1693), Thomas Pettus
Pew No. 4 — Hon. Edward Earradall, Kt. (1735), Vestry-
man ; Attorney General, 1737-1743.
Pew No. 5 — Wm. Hansford (1704), Henry Cary (1721),
Pew No. 6 — Michael Archer (1721) and James Archer,
Pew No. 7 — James Bray, Vestryman (1674), and member
of Council (1670), David Bray (1684), Thomas Bray and
David Bray, Jr.
Pew No. 8 — James Whaley (1701). Thomas Whaley
( 1 709 ) , Vestrymen.
Pew No. 9 — William Tarks, Vestryman and Editor of
First Virginia Gazette (1736).
Pew No. 10 — William Robertson, Clerk of the Council,
(1705), Vestryman prior to 1768; Thomas Everard, Vestry-
Pew No. 11 — Samuel Timson, William Timson, Sr., Ves-
trymen (1702), William Timson. Jr.
Pew No. 12 — John Prentis, Vestryman (1769) : William
Prentis, Vestryman ; Joseph Prentis, M. H. B., 1775.
Pew No. 13 — Capt. Hugh Norvell (1694), George Norvell
and William Norvell, Vestrymen and M. H. B. (1775).
Pew No. 14 — Hon. Thomas Ludwell, M. H. B., Vestry-
Pew No. 15 — Gideon Macon. M. H. B., 1696 ; Vestrvman,
Pew No. 16 — Hon. Edmund Jenings, M. II. B., Secretary
of State. Vestryman, 1694.
Pew No. 17 — Philip Ludwell, M. H. B., Auditor General
(Vestryman 1684), 1688.
— GG —
Pew No. 18 — Benjamin Waller, M. II. B. (Vestryman),
1744, Judge of Court of Admiralty, 1744.
Few No. 19 (Nave)— Memory of the Vestry of 1074-16S3,
who erected the first brick church upon this foundation.
IVw No. 20 — Memory of the Vestry of 1710-1715, who
erected the present church building, the Cooperating Com-
mittee of the House of Burgesses and the Contractor, James
Pew No. 21 — Lewis Burwell, Nathaniel Burwell and
Armistead Burwell (Vestrymen).
Pew No. 22 (Nave) — Attorneys General of Virginia, 1697
Pew No. 23 (Nave) — John Custis, Member of Council,
Surveyor-General, Vestryman (1721), Daniel Parke Custis,
Mrs. Martha Custis.
Pew No. 24 (Nave) — Edmund Randolph, Delegate to Con-
gress, 1770-82 ; Governor of Virginia, 1786-8 ; Delegate Con-
stitutional Convention, 1787 ; Attorney General, 1780-04 ;
Secretary State, 1704-5.
Pew No. 25 (Nave)— Chief Justice John Marshall.
Pew No. 26 (Nave) — Sir John Randolph, Speaker H. B.,
1736; Vestryman, 1729.
Pew No. 27 (Nave) — James Monroe, President United
Pew No. 28 (Nave) — John Tyler, 1837, President United
Pew No. 29 (Transept) — George Washington, President
United States, Signer of Declaration of Independence.
Pew No. 30 (Transept) — Patrick Henry, M. H. B.
Pew No. 31 (Transept) — Peyton Randolph, Vestryman,
1747 ; Attorney General, 1747-66 ; Speaker H. B., 1766-
1775 ; President First Continental Congress. 1774, and Del-
egate to Congress, 1775.
Pew No. 32 (Transept) — George Mason, drafted Virginia
Bill of Rights and Constitution, 1776.
Pew No. 33 (Transept) — Richard Bland.
Pew No. 34 (Transept)- — Archibald Cary and Dabney
Pew No. 35 (Transept) — Robert Carter Nicholas, Vestry-
man, and Faul Carrington.
Pew No. 36 (Transept)— Edmund Pendleton, M. II. B.,
member Continental Congress, author resolutions submitted
Virginia delegates asking for Declaration of Independence.
Pew No. 37 (Transept) — Memorial to the Speakers of the
House of Burgesses, 1700 to 1775.
Pew No. 38 (Transept) — Dudley Digges and Andrew
Pew No. 39 (Transept) — -Thomas Jefferson, President
United States, Signer of Declaration of Independence.
Pew No. 40 (Transept)- — William Cabell and Joseph Ca-
Pew No. 41 (Transept) — George Wythe, Vestryman and
Signer of Declaration of Independence.
Pew No. 42 (Transept) — Memorial to the Colonial Gov-
ernors and Members of the Council, 1698 to 1775.
Pew No. 4.". (Transept) — Thomas Nelson, Secretary of
State and Signer of Declaration of Independence.
— 67 —
Pew No. 44 (Choir) — Rev. Commissary James Blair, D. D.,
1656-1743; Hector, 1710-1748: Dr. Archibald Blair; John
Blair, Auditor General (1), 1689-1771; Vestryman, 1744;
John Blair, Judge United States Supreme Court (2).
Pew No. 45 (Transept) — Carter Braxton and Benjamin
Harrison, Signers of Declaration of Independence.
Pew No. 46 (Choir) — Presidents of the College of Wil-
liam and Mary, 1693 to L854.
Pew No. 47 (Transept) — Richard Henry Lee and Francis
Lightfoot Lee, Signers of Declaration of Independence.
Few No. 4!) (Choir) — Surveyors General who occupied
this pew, 1692 to 1728.
Pew No. 50 (Choir)— Col. John Page, Esq., 1627-1691-2;
The restoration of Old Bruton is largely clue to the
indefatigable efforts of Dr. Goodwin, the present rec-
tor, and his faithful corps of assistants, who have
interested patriotic Americans from all parts of the
United States in this noble work, which has prac-
tically been completed. A fireproof vault and steel
safe have been provided for the preservation of the
Communion Services and Vestry Eecords.
The old gallery where the students from the Col-
lege were locked in has been retained, and upon the
hacked railing can still be deciphered the names of
Patrick Henry and other notable men, who, as boys,
amused themselves during service by carving their
names upon this railing with their jack-knives. The
high backed pews, the Colonial Governor 's and Sur-
veyor General 's pews, as well as those of the House
of Burgesses, have been replaced together with the
ancient old pupil and its sounding board.
As the rector has beautifully written: "Old
Bruton Church has w r ell withstood the devastating
touch of time. The storms of many winters have
gone over it, the fierce battles of two great wars have
raged near it, and in it have lain the sick and
wounded of two armies, and yet it stands today, just
as it stood well nigh two hundred years ago."
— G8 —
"The trump of many ;i busy foot
Whirli soughl thy aisles is (►'it,
And many a weary bearl around
Is still'd forever more."
The Bruton Churchyard. — "The ivy clings to the
mouldering wall and with each gust the dead leaves
As stated, the brick wall around the graveyard was
built in 1754. Among the honeysuckle and magnolias,
sleep many a forgotten hero, and the descendants of
many a noted personage.
Near the north door of the ediurch are buried the
Curtis children, George Washington's step-children.
Here are the tombs of Eichard Kempe, Secretary of
the Colony and member of the Council at Jamestown
in 1642; also officiating Governor during Berkeley's
absence. It was he who ordered "that the eighteenth
day of April be yearly celebrated by thanksgivings
for our deliverance from the hands of the Savages,"
the first Thanksgiving Day in the Colony.
A queer epitaph is that upon the tombstone of Rev.
Servant Join s:
'Like the lost of imperfect humanity, he was
not exempt from some of its frailties, bvt a kinder
sold seld< m existed. lie possessed in his nature a
Bank of Benevolence, which secretly dispensed its
varied blessings to the needy."
"Time was when bis cheek with life's crimson was flushed,
When cheerful his voice was, health sat on his brow;
That cheek is now palsied, that voice is now hushed.
He sleeps with the dust of his first partner now."
Tie it was who said the following grace at a dinner
given by one of his parishioners:
'•Good Lord of love look down from above,
And bless the owl who ate this fowl
And left these bones for Scervant Jones."
TTe was a man of quaint ways and strange speech.
He composed a touching tribute to his first wife, and
ordered it engraved upon a tombstone. It is said that
— 69 —
he brought the stone to Williamsburg upon the top
of the coach in which he returned from his bridal
trip with his second wife.
The epitaph reads:
"If woman ever yet did well,
If woman ever did exeell,
If woman husband ere adored,
If woman ever loved the Lord.
If ever faith and hope and love
In human flesh did live and move,
If all the graces ere did meet
In het, in her they were complete.
My Ann, niy all, my angel wife.
My dearest one^, my love, my life,
I cannot sigh or say farewell.
But where thou dwellcst I will dwell."
William and Mary College. — Situated at the ex-
treme end of Duke of Gloucester Street, nearly a mile
opposite from site of the House of Burgesses. The
College was founded in 1(193 through the efforts of its
first President, Eev. James Blair, D.D., who was also
rector of the Jamestown Church ana later of Old
Bruton. His tomb can still be seen at Jamestown,
separated from that of his wife by a large sycamore.
The college designed by the famous architect, Sir
Christopher Wren, also designer of St. Paul 's Cathe-
dral, London, was named in honor of the reigning
sovereigns and with the exception of King's College
(Columbia), is the only one in the United States that
can boast of a royal charter. It is far from being
a handsome structure and Jefferson called it "a rude,
misshapen pile." The college colors are orange and
white, in honor of the House of Orange. The orig-
inal endowment was 1,985 pounds, 11 shillings
and 10 pence and a penny per pound on all tobacco
exported from Virginia. A queer condition of the
charter reads that the authorities pay to ' ' us and to
— 70 —
<mr successors, two copies of Latin verse yearly on the
fifth day of November, at the House of the Governor
or Lieutenant-Governor for the time being."
For four years following the removal of the Capital
from Jamestown, the House of Burgesses met here.
George Washington is numbered among the chancel-
lors, also President Tyler, likewise a student. Other
notable students were Thomas Jefferson, James Mon-
roe, Edmund and Peyton Eandolph, Gen, Winfield
Scott and many others. The building was used as a
hospital during two wars and was burned in 1705,
1 859 and again in 1863, but re-erected on the same
The first Greek letter society in the United States
was established here in 1776. The literary and art
treasures in the custody of the college are of in-
estimable value, many of them being gifts from
Colonial Governors and Presidents of the United
States. Under the Chapel are buried Lord Botetourt,
Governor from 1768-1770, Sir John Eandolph, John
and Peyton Eandolph and other notables.
Brafferton. — The first permanent Indian school in
the United States, established from funds derived
from the estate of Hon. Eobert Boyle in 1691, was
built in 1723. It stands across from the President's
house, to the left of the main building, and is now
used for dormitories.
President's House. — Opposite Brafferton. Built in
1732 and accidentally burned by the French, who
were on their way to Yorktown. It was rebuilt at
the expense of Louis XVI. Prior to the siege of
Yorktown, Corhwallis used it for his headquarters.
Statue Lord Botetourt. — Before the College Building
on the campus, stands a monument to the best loved
— 71 —
of all the Colonial Governors, "The Right Honorable
Norborne Berkeley, Baron de Botetourt." It was
erected by the House of Burgesses in 1774. It was
removed from its old location in the portico of the
College in 1797.
The inscription on the right side of the monument
reads as follows:
"Deeply impressed with the warmest sense of grati-
tude for his Excellency's, the Eight Honorable Lord
Botetourt 's prudent and wise administration, and that
the remembrance of those many public and social vir-
tues, which so eminently adorned his illustrious char-
acter might be transmitted to posterity, the General
Assembly of Virignia on the XX day of July, Ann.
Dom MDCCLXXI, resolved with one united voice to
erect this statue to his Lordship 's memory. Let wis-
dom and justice preside in any country, the people
must and will be happy." On the opposite side, the
"America, behold your friend, who, leaving his
native country, declined those additional honors, which
were there in store for him, that he might heal your
wounds and restore tranquility and happiness to this
extensive continent. With what zeal and anxiety he
pursued these glorious objects, Virginia thus bears her
grateful testimony. ' '
House of Burgesses Site. — Directly opposite Wil-
liam and Mary College, at the extreme end of Duke
of Gloucester Street, stood the stately House of Bur-
gesses, the Capitol of the Old Dominion.
Nothing but the foundation walls remain to indi-
cate the spot hallowed by so many historical as-
sociations, except a stone monument erected May 26,
1904, by the Association for the Preservation of Vir-
ginia Antiquities, in memory of the members of the
House of Burgesses. It was built in 1705, at the
expense of Queen Anne, but was burned in 1746 and
again in 1832. The original speaker's chair and the
stove used here are to be seen in the State Capitol
It was here that Washington appeared to deliver
his historic message from St. Pierre to the House of
Burgesses, prior to the French and Indian War. It
was here that the Committee of Correspondence was
born under the guardianship of Dabney Carr. Here
the Committee of Safety was organized and here was
passed the celebrated Virginia Bill of Bights, which
more than any other action of the Colonists led di-
rectly to the Declaration of Independence.
On arrival of the odious Stamp Act, the House was
in session. One of the Burgesses, a young lawyer,
who as yet was noted only for his eloquence, offered
the first opposition to the Act in the Colonies, but
when that speech was finished, the name of Patrick
Henry electrified the Colonies, from Massachusetts to
Virginia, with startling fear aud doubt. For the first
time in the history of the new world, the King was
The King, said Patrick Henry, in assenting to the
taxing of the colonies, had acted the part of a
tyrant. Alluding to the fate of other tyrants, amid
the breathless suspense of his auditors, he continued:
" Caesar had his Brutus, Charles I his Cromwell, and
G eorge III ' '
A cry interrupted the speaker and broke the
nervous strain of the House. "Treason!" The word
echoed through the room, with the suddenness of a
thunderbolt, and then after a significant pause, the
— 73 —
white drawn, tense face of the young orator stood
out like a silhouette in the dimly lighted chamber, and
with uplifted arm, he leaned forward and defiantly
cried: "And George III may profit by their example.
If this be treason, make the most of it!"
In 17S0 the Capital was removed from Williams-
burg to Richmond, and in 1832 fire again destroyed
this historic old pile which witnessed so many thrill-
ing scenes in the early history of the nation. What
SITE OF THE HOUSE OF BURGESSES.
could be more fitting than the restoration of this first
Capitol of the infant Republic as a permanent museum
museum for Colonial relics.
The Palace Green and Governor's Palace. — Between
Bruton Church and the old Court House, is a long
strip of lawn known as the Palace Green. Originally,
each side of the Green consisted of a walk leading to
— 74 —
the Palace, shaded by beautiful lindens brought from
Scotland. The grounds, including the Green, consisted
of three hundred and seventy acres.
The Palace itself was situated at the end of the
Green. Fifteen thousand dollars was appropriated by
the Assembly for its erection. It is described by an
early writer as "a magnificent structure, finished and
beautified with gates, fine gardens, offices, Walks, a
fine canal, orchards, etc.
A peculiar feature of Colonial life were the
' ' offices. ' ' In those days business men had separate
buildings erected, generally at the side of their resi-
dences, which were used exclusively for office pur-
poses. A number of these queer buildings are still
standing in Williamsburg.
Lord Dunmore was the last Colonial Governor to
occupy the Palace, and eight years after, following
the siege of Yorktown, it was accidentally burned
by some of the French troops. Nothing now remains
of it, but the site.
Dunmore 's Cave. — From the Palace cellars, aL
underground passage connected with a cave, now
marked by an enclosed mound of earth about 500 feet
back of the Palace Green. It is said that the Gov-
ernor, who was in much disrepute among the Col-
onists, prepared it as a means of escape from their
The Powder Horn. — In the order of historical im-
portance, perhaps the next Colonial landmark to be
considered is the antique Powder Horn, an octagonal-
shaped building, across from the Court House. In
1714, by special act of the House of Burgesses, Gov-
ernor Spotswood drew the plans for a powder maga-
izrie, its walls to be 22 inches thick and the entire
— 75 —
building to be surrounded by brick walls 10 to 12
feet high, parallel with its sides, distant 21 feet.
Shortly before the Eevolutionary War, Governor
Dunmore made himself very obnoxious to the Col-
onists, the crowning feature of his perfidy being the
midnight theft of some twenty barrels of powder from
this magazine. This ammunition he conveyed to his
ship, the "Magdalen," in the James Eiver, four
miles distant. Confronted by a demand for an ex-
planation, presented by order of the Council, Alder-
men and Mayor, he replied, that ' ' Hearing of an in-
surrection in a neighboring county, I have removed
the powder from the magazine.
This action of the Governor almost precipitated
hostilities, and only through Washington 's and Pendle-
ton 's influence were a company of minutemen pre-
vented from marching from Fredericksburg to Wil-
liamsburg. Dunmore finally paid the Colony three
hundred and thirty pounds sterling for the powder,
but when the citizens came to examine the magazine,
several barrels of powder were found hidden under
the floor, together with a spring gun, which injured
one of the investigators. This last act aroused such
a storm that he fled to his man-of-war, "Fowey, "
anchored at Yorktown.
For several years the Powder Horn was used as a
Baptist Church, with Eev. Servant Jones in charge.
Later it was converted into a dancing school. During
the Civil War, the Confederates used it as an arsenal,
after which the town sold it and it became a com-
mon stable, but was eventually purchased by the As-
sociation for the Preservation of Virginia Antiquities,
who have fitted it up for a museum. The wall around
the Magazine was torn down and the bricks used.
in 1856, for the foundation of the Baptist Church.
Court House (Duke of Gloucester Street). — Built
1769. Its cokimnless porch and high belfry arc espe-
cially noticeable features. This bid building was the
scene of many an important prerevolutionary debate.
Its interior remains practically unchanged.
The center room is for the Court and in the rear of
it is a raised platform for the judge. Immediately
in front sat the jury in a semi-circle with their backs
COURT HOUSE, WILLIAMSBURG.
to the judge, so that neither judge nor jury could
be influenced by each other's changing expressions.
In an opposite semi-circle, facing the judge and jury,
sat the lawyers, thus completing the circle. Behind
the lawyers are three pew-like seats, one for the
prisoner in the center, one for the sheriff on one side,
and one for the witnesses on* the other side.
Wythe House.- — In the rear of Brut on Church, on
Palace Street, facing the Green, is one of Hie most
interesting Colonial houses in the village. This was
the homo of the man who devised the seal of Vir-
ginia — a member of the Virginia Convention for the
ratification of the Constitution and a student and
chancellor of William and Mary College — George
Wythe, the patriot.
The house was used by Washington as head-
quarters prior to the siege of Yorktown, and it is
said that on moonlight nights the ghost of the
WYTHE HOUSE, WASHINGTON'S HEADQUARTERS.
"Father of his Country" appears in the hall with
clanking sword at his side. The bedroom of Judge
Wythe is also said to be haunted, a cold white hand
appearing and pressing the brow of anyone who occu-
pies it. The ghost of Lady Skipwith, daughter of
the master of Westover, is said to be seen, slowly
descending the Colonial stairway, with slow and dig-
The flooring in this old house consists of boards
that run the full length o the rooms without piece
or patch, and the deep walls and window recesses
show how well our forefathers built— better, perhaps,
than they know.
In the "Voice of the People," Ellen Glasgow has
made it the home of one of her principal characters,
"Judge Bassett. It is now occupied by a sweet-
faced, grey-haired maiden lady, who finds her chief
delight in showing the old mansion to the many
patriotic pilgrims, who clamor for a glimpse of this
famous haunted house.
Audrey's House. — Diagonally opposite from the
Wythe House, on Dunmore Street, stands a modest
little residence, called the "Audrey House," said to
have been the home of Miss Mary Johnston's
"Audrey," described in her novel of that name. The
real romance connected with the house is the inscrip-
tion, evidently scratched with a diamond ring, on one
of the tiny window panes.
What a volume of romance lies hidden in that "O,
fatal day." The house is now occupied by Miss
Estelle Smith, who has made a study of the historic
associations which cluster around Williamsburg and
Jamestown. She has carefully searched all records
for any important happening on Nov. 23, 17i><>, but
without avail, so it is reasonable to presume that the
— 79 —
tragedy must have been one of the heart — a personal
incident and not one of public significance.
Debtor's Prison. — One of the dark spots ori the pages
of our Colonial history is the sad record of imprison-
ment for debt, and here in Williamsburg is a build-
ing said to have been used for the detention of
debtors. It is situated near the new bank on the
south side of the Duke of Gloucester street. Miss
Mary L. Foster, in her " Colonial Capitols," dis-
credits its prison associations, as she writes: ''In a
description of Williamsburg during Spotswood 's time
(1710-23), it was said that near the Capitol is a
strong, sweet prison for criminals and on the other
side of an open court another for debtors."' This,
she continues, "would place the debtor's prison at
the other end of town. ' '
Bassett Hall. — Formerly the home of Judge Bassett.
George Washington was a frequent and welcome visit-
or here and the Judge was famous throughout the
Old Dominion for his hospitality. It was also the
home of President John Tyler, in 1841. Thomas
i^Moore, the poet, is said to have composed his poem,
~''To the Firefly," while sitting on the porch at twi-
TO THE FIREFLY.
At morning, when the earth and sky
Are glowing with the light of spring,
We see thee not, thou humble fly !
Nor think upon thy gleaming wing.
But when the skies have lost their hue,
And sunny lights no longer play,
Oli, then we see and bless thee, too,
For sparkling o'er the dreary way.
Thus let me hope, when lost to me
The lights thai now my life illume.
Some milder joys may come, like thee,
To cheer, if not to warm, the gloom.
— 80 —
The Blair Houss (South Side of Duke of Gloucester
Street). — This was the home of Hon. John Blair, Judgd
of the United States Supreme Court. Judge Blair w;is
appointed to this office by George Washington. He
was Auditor General of Virginia from 1782 to 1 77 •
and vestryman of Bruton Church 1744.
Peyton Randolph House (Francis Street). — This
house, built in 1775, still stands intact. A tablet has
been placed upon it which reads:
"Home of Peyton Randolph, Attorney General of
Virginia. Speaker of the House of Burgesses, First
President of the Continental Congress. Born 1722,
He was Speaker of the House when Patrick Henry
made his celebrated speech, "If this be treason"—
This patriot lies buried under the Chapel of William
and Mary College.
Tazewell Hall (England Street). — The home of Sir'
John Randolph and Edmund, his nephew. Sir John
was Speaker of the House in 1736 and Vestryman of
Bruton Church, 1729.
Edmund Randolph was Attorney General 1789-94,
Governor of Virginia, 1786-8; Secretary of Stat^J
1794-5. Also Delegate to Congress 1779-82 and Dele
gate to the Constitutional Convention in 1787.
The First Theater in the United States. — The site
of this playhouse is on the southeast corner of Blair
Avenue, near the Capitol monument. It was built in
1716, and Miss Johnson describes some of the dramatic
scenes enacted in this quaint little theater in her
story of ' ' Audrey.
The first company that played in America first ap-
peared here in 1752, under the management of Eewis
Ilallam, Sr. The orchestra was under the leadership
of Mr. Peter Pelham, organist at Bruton Church.
— 81 —
Washington was a frequent attendant at this play-
Masonic Temple (Francis Street). — The first grand
lodge of Virginia was organized in this house, now
dilapidated and in ruins. The present Masonic Lodge
has in its possession a carved mahogany chair pre-
sented to the lodge by Lord Botetourt, the Colonial
Governor. It was used by Washington at his inaugura-
Six Chimney Lot. — On the eastern portion of the
Hospital Park formerly stood a mansion occupied by
Washington and his wife during their early married
life. There is still standing here a brick building
said to have been Martha Washington's kitchen, and
an elm tree planted by her own hands.
Site of Raleigh Tavern. — This famous inn stood on
the site now occupied by Lane's Store. On a portico
over the door stood a metal bust of Sir Walter
Raleigh, which is now preserved, with other relics, in
the Powder Horn.
Here many a social banquet was held, and here
Thomas Jefferson was rejected by Rebecca Burwell.
Here in 1769, in the famous Apollo Room, George
Washington presented the Burgesses with the ' ' Non-
Importation Agreement,'' drawn up by George
Mason. After the House was dissolved by Dunmore
in 1774, the Burgesses met here and prepared the way
for a general Congress. The building was destroyed
by fire in 1859.
Fort Magruder. — About a mile and a half from the
town, on the road to Yorktown, can be seen the Con-
federate entrenchments where the famous battle of
Williamsburg was fought, May 5, 1SG2.
Confederates under Longstreet awaited the Federals
— 82 —
at Fort Magruder, Hooker being the first to be at-
tacked. Kearny arrived just in time to support
Hooker. Hancock succeeded in capturing some
redoubts, but no one seemed in supreme command of
the Federal forces and at night the Confederates re-
tired with a loss of about 1,560, Federal loss 2,200.
A tablet in the Bruton Church reads:
"In memory of
who fell in the
Battle of Williamsburg,
May the 5th, 1862.
And of those who died of
the wounds received
in the same.
They died for us."
In concluding the description of Williamsburg it is
no more than just to mention the Colonial Inn.
Here, in the spacious parlor and dining room, can be
seen the most complete collection of antiquities and
Colonial furniture in the state, and what makes them
more valuable to their possessor, is the fact that they
were in actual use by his own forbears. The pro-
prietor, Mr. J. B. C. Spencer, is the gentleman who
first conceived the idea of the Jamestown Ter-Cen-
Icnnial and organized the first committee in its in-
Carter's Grove. — This beautiful Colonial residence is
seven miles from Williamsburg on the James River.
The grove was originally owned by Col. Robert Car-
ter, known as King Carter, and the mansion was
erected by his grandson in 1722, and was the home
of Rebecca Burwell, whom Jefferson wooed and lost.
During the Revolution, Tarleton's troopers raided the
place and their saber cuts can still be seen on the
banisters of the staircase.
YORKTOWN, ENGLAND'S WATERLOO.
There have been far greater battles fought than
those at Yorktown, but no other campaign on Ameri-
can soil was fraught with so many significant results
as was the siege of Yorktown — results as far reaching
as the events which followed the Battle of Waterloo.
"Yorke Toune " was laid out in 1619, but not
YORKTOWN, AS IT IS TODAY.
legally established until 1705. At the opening of the
Revolution, it was quite an important little town,
having an extensive sea trade. Today the inhabitants
number less than two hundred.
Sept. 27, 1781, the British commenced to cannonade
the opposing forces, the American, army being a mile
distant and the French a mile to the left of the
Americans. The siege lasted until October 19, the
— 83 —
— So —
firing commencing in earnest on the ninth of October,
and continuing with awful intensity until the six-
teenth, over three hundred pieces of artillery being
incessantly engaged. It is said that the carcasses of
six or seven hundred horses could be seen floating
down the river every day.
On the sixteenth, the British attempted to escape
by crossing the river at Gloucester Point, but a severe
storm prevented all the detachments from starting
and the attempt was abandoned. The next day, Corn-
wallis sent out a flag of truce, which resulted in his
surrender, October 19.
The Battleground. — The British entrenchments are
still very much in evidence, overgrown with broom-
straw, the seed of which was brought to this country
by the British soldiers in the hay for their horses. In
a field near the river, stands a beautiful stone monu-
ment bearing the following inscriptions: On the
"At York, on October 19, 1781, after a siege of 19 days
by 5,500 American and 7.000 French troops of the line,
3.500 Virginia militia, under command of General Thomas
Nelson, and 36 French ships of war. Earl Cornwallis, com-
mander of the British forces at York and Gloucester, sur-
rendered his army. 7,251 officers and men. 840 seamen, 244
cannon and 24 standards, to His Excellency George Wash
ington. commander-in-chief of the combined forces of Amer
ica and France ; to His Excellency the Cointe de Rochambeau,
commanding the auxiliary troops of his most Christian
majesty in America ; and to His Excellency the Comte de
Grasse, commanding in chief the naval reserves of France
On the north side of the monument:
"The provisional articles of peace concluded November
30, 1782, and the definite treaty of Peace concluded Sep-
tember 3. 1783, between the United States of America and
George III, king of Great Britain and Ireland, declare:
His Britannic Majesty acknowledges the said United States,
viz., New Hampshire, Massachusetts Bay, Rhode Island and
Providence Plantations, Connecticut. New York. New Jer-
sey, Pennsylvania, Delaware. Maryland, Virginia, North
Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia, to be free sovereign
and independent states."
— 86 —
Place of Surrender. — Oct. L9, 1781, Cornwallis agreed
to surrender and at two o'clock in the afternoon, the
British army advanced to a field adjoining the town,
about half a mile to the east, on the south side of
the Hampton road. Cornwallis, unable to bear the
ordeal, commissioned Gen. O 'Hara to act as his substi-
tute. With colors cased, and drums beating, the
British laid down their arms, after a siege of nineteen
days, thus closing the long drawn out contest of the
brave Colonists for an independent government. A
monument has been erected here by Capt. Shaw, of
Yorktown, at his own expense.
House Where Articles of Capitulation Were Signed.
Nearly a mile from Yorktown is a quaint frame resi-
dence, known as the "Moore House," situated on
"Temple Farm."' In the parlor of this house, the
terms of surrender of the British army were drawn up
The house was built in 1713 and is said to have been
Gov. Alexander Spotswood 's summer home. The place
received its name "Temple Farm" because of traces
of a round edifice surrounded by a wall which is sup-
posed to have been used as a place of worship and
burial ground. Only one legible stone remains, bear-
ing the following inscription:
"Mayor William (iooeh.
Dyed October 29th, it;.',:,.
Within this tomb there doth interred lie,
No shape, but substance, true nobility;
Itself though young in years, but twenty-nine,
Vet graced with nature's Moral! and divine.
The church from him did good participate,
In counsil rare, fit to adorn a state."
In a field near the house is another old graveyard
and in 1834 "Dr. W. Shields, who owned the farm,
claimed to have discovered pieces of a gravestone
which bore the name of Spotswood, and many are in-
clined to believe that the governor was buried here.
The Nelson House. — Built 1740. A splendid ex-
ample of a Colonial residence with spacious halls and
rooms. The house is surrounded by an old fashioned
garden with a boxwood border. It fronts the river
on the main street. It was occupied by Gen. La-
fayette on his visit to Yorktown and during the
siege by Cornwallis as his headquarters. The gable
was struck by three cannon balls and another was
NELSON HOUSE, YORKTOWN.
embedded in the brick wall, while still another en-
tered the dining room, shattering the marble mantel.
In this room is a secret panel, connecting two secret
rooms with the garret. During the Civil war the
house was occupied by the Confederates under Gen-
The Nelson house at the edge of the town, during
the Revolution, -was occupied by British soldiers. The
American militia under General Nelson disliked to
fire upon the house of their commander, but the gal-
lant General at once offered a reward of five guineas
to the soldier who fired the first shot. It was not
long before the house was in ruins and hardly a trace
of it now remains.
General Nelson w T as a member of the House of
Burgesses, one of the signers of the Declaration of
Independence and Governor of Virginia. During the
siege of Yorktown, he fed his command at his own
expense and later gave his personal security to be
added to that of the state when a $2,000,000 credit
was to be raised.
Cornwallis' Cave. — About fifty yards from the Nel-
son House, on a hillside, is a cave excavated by order
of Lord Cornwallis. It was used by him as a Council
Chamber and probably for protection from the
enemy's shells. The cave on the river bank is not the
original Cornwallis Cave, although called such.
Swan Tavern. — Originally built in 1722. Located
on Main Street. Said to be the oldest one in the state.
It w r as burned during the Civil War. The present
building stands upon the original walls.
Custom House. — The oldest and first Custom House
in the United States is located here. Built in 1715.
Werowocomoco. — Near Yorktown on the north side
of York River, was the home of Powhatan, where Capt
John Smith was brought after his capture by that chief .
Here occurred the famous Pocahontas incident. Smith
wrote that it was "some 14 myles from James
Towne. ' '
SMITHFIELD, THE HOME OF THE PEANUT.
A short distance up the James River on the left
bank is a quiet little village called Smithfield — the
home of the American goober or peanut,, a staple crop
Here are large factories and warehouses where the
peanuts are purchased from the farmers, cleaned,
sorted, polished and prepared for market. The
American consumption of peanuts amounts to over
6,000,000 bushels and is valued at over $14,000,000.
The average yield is over twenty bushels per acre.
The seeds are planted 8 to 20 inches apart, about two
bushels in the pod, being used per acre. They are
harvested by plowing, men with pitchforks following
the plow and shaking the loosened vines from the
earth and piling them in windrows. After lying in
the sunshine they are stacked in small shocks and
capped with hay. In two or three weeks the peanuts
are picked by nomadic gangs of negroes.
The Virginia crop amounts to about 4,000,000
bushels annually, estimated at $2,226,000 value.
St. Luke's Church. — About five miles from Smith-
field is the Old Brick Church built in 1632, the oldest
building of English construction in America.
The old tower church at Jamestown is of later date
and while Bruton at Williamsburg (1683) as an organ-
ization is the oldest in America, its present edifice is
antedated by St. Luke's, near Smithfield. This edifice
was built under the supervision of Joseph Bridges,
— 89 —
— 90 —
father of Gen. Jos. Bridges, ' ' Councellor of State. 7 '
The church was partially destroyed by a storm in
1884, and its restoration was undertaken by the Eev.
A most beautiful stained glass window commemor-
ST. LUKES CHURCH, SMITHFIELD
ates the landing at Jamestown and the subsequent de-
velopment of the Old Dominion. It is divided into
twelve sections with windows in honor of Washing-
ton, Robert E. Lee, James Madison, Sir Walter
Raleigh, John Smith, John Rolfe and other well
— 91 —
In 1891, during excavations for the burial of Gen.
Joseph Bridges, the feet and legs of a lady were
found in front of the pulpit. They are believed to be
those of Miss Norsworthy, who was buried in the
aisle in 1666, over two hundred years ago.
INTERIOR ST. LUKES CHURCH, SMITHFIELD
The old pulpit with its sounding board, the old
pews and other features of the early church, have
been faithfully copied and the interior restored as
near like the original as possible. A trip to Smith-
field and this historic Church will well repay every
visitor to the Jamestown Exposition.
PETERSBURG, THE CITY OF THE CRATER.
This thriving little city is in Dinwiddie County on
the Appomattox River, twenty-three miles south of
Richmond. It is the third city in the state in size
and importance and was incorporated in 1748. Popula-
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BLANFORD CHURCH, PETERSBURG
During the early settlement of Virginia, God-fear-
ing pioneers erected a line of churches from Norfolk
to Petersburg, each ten miles apart. One of the best
known of these churches is the one at Petersburg.
Blanford Church. — Bristol Parish was established by
— 92 —
— 93 —
act of the House of Burgesses in 1643. The first
parish church known as the ' ' Chappie, ' ' was located
near the Appomattox Eiver in Prince George County,
about two miles below Petersburg. The present
church on "Wells Hill was completed in 1737. Its
original form was a rectangle, but in 1752 it was
changed to the form of a T. Services were discon-
tinued in 1781, and for a century, the "old pile" lay
crumbling under the devastating storms of time.
In 1882 the work of restoration commenced under
the auspices of the various patriotic and memorial
associations. During the period (about 1841), when
its walls were slowly crumbling to dust, some unknown
person, evidently under the spell of its associations,
wrote the following poem upon its walls:
Thou art crumbling to the dust, old pile,
Thou art hastening to thy fall,
And 'round thee in thy loneliness
Clings the ivy to the wall.
The worshippers are scattered now
Who knelt before thy shrine,
And silence reigns where anthems rose,
in days of "Auld Lang Syne."
And sadly sighs the wandering wind
Where oft, in years gone by,
Fravers rose from many hearts to Him
The Highest of the High ;
The tramp of many a busy foot
That sought thy aisles is o'er,
And many a weary heart around
Is still forever more.
How doth ambition's hope take wing,
How droops the spirit now !
We hear the distant city's din.
The dead are mute below.
The sun that shone upon their paths
Now gilds their lonely graves ;
The zephyrs which once fanned their brows,
The grass above them waves.
Oh ! could we call the many back
Who've gathered here in vain —
Who've careless roved where we do now.
Who'll never meet again :
— 94 —
How would our weary souls be stirred,
To meet the earnest gaze
Of the lovely and the beautiful,
The lights of other days.
This poem has been copied, and a tablet containing
its verses now hangs upon the wall of the church.
The edifice is now used as a Confederate Memorial
Chapel. The church is surrounded by an ancient
graveyard, marked by an old brick wall, now a part
of the modern cemetery. June the 9th, Confederate
Memorial Day services are held at this chapel, which
-is situated near the battlefield of the Crater. Each
of the thirteen Confederate States is to place a me-
morial window in this edifice, in memory of the
soldiers who fell on the Petersburg battlefields. A 7 ir-
giriia, Missouri and Louisiana have already installed
their memorial. The inscription on the Louisiana win-
"To the glorious memory of those brave men of the
Washington Artillery, of New Orleans, La., who gave their
lives for. the Confederate Cause."
The Daughters of the Confederacy have erected n
tablet which reads as follows:
In Loving Memory
The Citizen Soldiers of Petersburg, the
(J ray-Haired Sires and Beardless
Youths, who on
June 9. 1864,
Laid l)o\vn Their Lives Near this Ven-
erable Church in Successful Defense
of our Altars and Firesides.
Another tablet is inscribed:
"To the Glory of Cod and in memory of Virginia Patriots
and Heroes of the Confederate Army. "Eternal right,
though all fail, can never be made wrong."
Another inscription is:
"In memory of the Patriots who planned, upheld and
achieved the Independence of the United States of America,
The oldest date on the tombstones in the adjoining
cemetery is 1702, but it seems to have been a not
— 95 —
uncommon custom for the Colonists to have their
dead disinterred in England and brought to Virginia
for burial, so that many early dates are found on Vir-
ginia gravestones that are not accurate indications
of the real age of a burial ground.
During the battles of Petersburg, shot and shell
shrieked through this city of the dead, striking both
the church and many of the tombstones. In the more
modern part of the graveyard can still be seen the
marks of cannon-balls and shells. Many slabs were
splintered into a thousand fragments, while monu-
ments and fences still bear the sacrilegious imprint
of death dealing projectiles.
"The Crater." — Some of the most important mili-
tary operations of the Civil War centered around
Petersburg, for Petersburg was the key to Richmond,
and Richmond was the capital of the Confederacy.
The Federals under Gen. Grant commenced operations
here in 1864, and after several unsuccessful attempts
to seize the city, siege was begun June 19, 1861. The
Confederate position was defended by Gen. Malione.
Gen. Lee had been surprised by Grant 's movement
upon Petersburg, and many precious hours were lost
before he could be convinced that the Federal troops
were concentrating upon Petersburg.
The Federals decided to mine the entrenchments
and fortifications of the Confederates, and with this
end in view, the most elaborate preparations were
made. Not the smallest detail was neglected, and the
tunnel was completed several hundred feet before the
Confederates had their suspicions aroused by the con-
centration of Federal troops at certain points and
their withdrawal from other positions. Even then
they were led to believe it could not be possible, as
— 96 —
Grant 's army was over five hundred feet from their
lines at the nearest point and the longest mine ever
constructed was not much over four hundred feet long.
It would not be possible, the Confederates argued, to
ventilate a tunnel of 500 feet, but by a simple system
of box flues and a bonfire to create a draught, the
Federals easily overcame that difficulty. Their sus-
UATTLEFIELD OF THE CRATER, PETERSBURG.
picions growing, the Confederates commenced to
countermine, but three hundred and seventy-five feet
of tunnel were constructed and no Federal mines were
The best modern machinery of warfare in possession
of the Union army was concentrated upon the point
where the explosion was to take place. Orders were
issued and every detail provided for, so that the
troops would charge with the greatest celerity.
— 97 —
July 30, 1864, the main fuse connected with two
subsidiary fusts was ignited, but after burning to the
main fuse, , it went out. Another attempt was made to
ignite, this time successfully. Suddenly, without
warning, a detachment of Confederate soldiers, num-
bering 272, were precipitated into the air with terrific
violence, destroying a battery and tearing open the
earth for 135 feet long, 90 feet wide and 30 feet deep.
When the smoke partially cleared away, a vast (diasm
yawned at the very feet of the Confederate army,
while buried in the pit lay nearly three hundred of
PEACE MONUMENT, PETERSBURG.
Like clock work the Federal guns boomed forth,
and shot and shell fell like hail, but hindered by the
unwieldiness of their brigades, the Union forces failed
to charge with the alacrity planned and with wonder-
— 98 —
1 ii 1 bravery the Confederates were able to rally and
meet the charge when it did come with decisive suc-
cess, and here in this awful pit perished scores and
hundreds of the gallant boys in blue.
At the Westmoreland Club in Richmond may be
seen an oil painting of the Battle of Petersburg, pur-
chased by the Norfolk and Western Railroad Company
for $13,000 and presented to Gen. Mahone, the officer
in charge of the Confederate troops.
Final operations were commenced against Peters-
burg, March 25, 1865, and after the battle of Five
Forks, March 31 and April 1, it was evacuated April
2 and 3 and surrendered April 3, 1S65, completing
one of the bloodiest and fiercest campaigns of the
Peace Monument. — On the Hare farm, a short dis-
tance from Petersburg, 650 of the Maine First Artil-
lery fell in a brave charge upon the Confederate
ranks, and this monument has been erected in memory
of both the Union and Confederate soldiers who fell
The total loss in the battles of Petersburg were as
follows: June 15-19, 1864, 11,386; June 20 to 30, 769;
July 1 to 31, 1,081; August 1 to 31, 1,077; total 14,313.
RICHMOND — THE CITY OF CHIVALRY.
All the romance and chivalry of the Old South cen-
tered around Richmond, the capital and the key to the
Confederacy, the home of Robert E. Lee and of Jef-
ferson Davis. Its. historic associations are still dear
to every southern heart.
The Peninsula, the Wilderness, Petersburg, Cold
Harbor, Fair Oaks, Gains Mill, Seven Pines and many
other battlefields were each deadly milestones on the
road to Richmond. "On! on! to Richmond!" became
the Federal battle cry, and the city soon became sur-
rounded by walls of fire and fields of carnage — the
graveyards of friends and foes, and while death and
destruction reigned without, gaunt famine prevailed
within, the city finally surrendering to Fate, April 3,
Today, nearly half a century since these awful
scenes were enacted, the bonds of brotherhood and
peace have been reunited, but the scars and marks of
conflict still remain, sacred shrines for every Ameri-
can, regardless of distinction as to "blue" or "gray,"
Federal or Confederate.
St. John's Church. — The most important Colonial
landmark in Richmond undoubtedly is St. John's
Church, where Patrick Henry uttered those memorable
words that have echoed down the years with signifi-
cant intensity: "Give me liberty or give me death!"
There were two early churches in this parish, but
their history is somewhat uncertain. The vestry in
— 99 —
— 100 —
1740 decided to erect a church in 174!) on an acre of
land donated by William Boyd. The church was sur-
rounded by a graveyard, which for many years was
the only one in Richmond. The oldest inscription mi
the tombstones is 1751, on that of the rector of Albe-
marle parish, the Rev. Rob 't Rose.
The pnlpit was in the east end of the church and,
ST. JOHN'S CHURCH, RICHMOND
near the northern wall, between the first row of seats
and the chancel, stood Patrick Henry that eventful
20th day of March, 1775.
Concluding his stirring appeal to arms, he said:
' '■ Gentlemen may cry, peace, peace — but there is no
peace. The war is actually begun! The next gale
that sweeps from the north will bring to our ears the
clash of resounding arms! Our brethren are already
in the field! Why stand we here idle.' What is it
thai gentlemen wish.' What would they have? Is
life so dear, or peace so sweet, as to be purchased at
— 101 —
the price of chains and slavery.' Forbid it, Almighty
God! I know not what course others may take, but as
for me," he cried, "Give me liberty or give me
"No murmur of applause was heard," says Wirt,
his biographer. "The effect was too deep. After a
trance of a moment, several members started from
their seats. The cry 'to arms,' seemed to quiver on
INTERIOR, ST. JOHNS CHURCH, RICHMOND.
every lip, and gleam from every eye. That super-
natural voice still sounded in their cars, and shivered
along their arteries. ' ' And here the visitor still feels
the sacred presence of that time-honored patriot.
During the Revolutionary period, regular services
were not held in the church, and in 1818 dissension
in the parish was caused by the proposal to either
remove the church, add to it, or build a new one. A
new church was finally decided upon and the corner
stone laid by the Masonic Lodge, but the work was
eventually abandoned. In 1830 an addition was made
to the old church and the interior remodeled.
The Capitol of the Confederacy. — Located on Capitol
Square. This venerable structure has been entirely
remodeled and massive
wings have been added
to it on both sides.
Stately stone steps lead
up to its portals, pre-
senting one of the finest
State Houses in the
Many interesting relics
are preserved here,
among them the Speak-
er's Chair of the House
of Burgesses at Wil-
liamsburg, used when
Patrick Henry made his
celebrated speech, ' ' If
this be treason — George
the Third can make the
most of it."
Another Colonial relic is the old stove presented to
the House of Burgesses by Lord Botetourt, Governor
of Virginia. It was made in London in 1770 by
Buzaglo, a celebrated stovemaker of that period, and
was called by him a " warming machine." Before it
was completed the Governor died, but his heirs and
executor, the Duke of Beaufort, carried out his pur-
pose and forwarded it to the Colony.
Capitol Square. — At one corner of the square stands
an old-fashioned building surmounted by a cupola,
SPEAKER'S CHAIR, HOUSE
called the "Bell Tower." From this tower, the Con-
federates surveyed the surrounding country on the
lookout for the approach of Federal troops. Opposite
the State House is an
exquisite life size eques-
trian statue of Gen.
George Washington, who
was born in Virginia in
1732 and died at Mt.
Vernon, Va., Dec. 14,
1799. In the center court
of the State House is
another beautiful mar-
ble statue of Washing-
ton done by the noted,
sculptor, Houdon, said
to be the only one made
of this famous soldier,
patriot and statesman
from life. So lifelike is
it that the tourist stands
entranced, waiting al-
most for the marble fig-
ure to move. It is said
that France has offered
the City of Richmond
$100,000 for this almost
The Home of Gen.
Robert E. Lee. — Now oc-
HOUSE OF BURGESSES
cupied by the Virginia Historical Society and used as a
museum of Confederate relies. Records, books, maps,
portraits and war relies here abound and the tourist
or student of history cannot afford to neglect visiting
the home of this celebrated general.
— 104 —
Libby Prison. — The site where this Confederate
prison was located is now occupied by the Crystal
[ce Company, the original building having been re-
moved to the World's Fair at Chicago. Belle Isle,
the Confederate prison for Confederate soldiers, is an
island in the James River, accessible from Richmond
by (dec trie ears.
Hollywood. — The Confederate Cemetery. Here lie
entombed the remains of Mr. Jefferson Davis, the
President of the Confederacy, and by his side sleeps
his wife, who died in October, 1906. On Gettysburg
Hill is a monument to Gen'l Geo. E. Pickett.
Other Historic Landmarks. — The Soldiers' Home
for Confederate Soldiers is located in the western part
or' the city. A confectionery store on Broad and
Ninth Streets marks the building where the Confeder-
acy printed its money. The Woman's College, Male
Orphan Asylum, City Alms House, Seabrook 's Ware
House and Chimborazo Hospitals, were each used as
asylums for the sick and wounded soldiers during the
war. The Confederate Treasury and office of Jefferson
Davis were located in the post-office building. The
Tredegar Iron Works, where the material for the Con-
federate Army was manufactured, is still running.
BATTLEFIELDS NEAR RICHMOND.
"On Fame's eternal Camping Ground
Their silent tents are spread,
While glory guards with solemn round
The bivouac of the dead."'
Cold Harbor. — Nine miles northeast of Richmond
in Hanover Co., near the Chickahominy River. June
27, 1862, a battle took place here between McClellan
and Lee's forces and again on June 2 to 4, 1864, be-
tween Gen. Grant and Gen. Lee, ending the 30-day
campaign of the Wilderness. Grant with 80,000 men
threw himself upon Lee's entrenchments, but was
repulsed in less than an hour with a loss of 6,000 men.
The Confederate loss was less than 2,000. This bat-
tlefield has been converted into a cemetery where
thousands of men are buried in trenches.
Chester. — Between Richmond and Petersburg. May
6-7, 1864. Total loss 100. Fifteen miles south of the city.
Chaffin's Bluff.— Sept. 28, 1864. Total loss, 3,330.
Entrenchments can still be seen. Boat can be taken
on James River or it can be reached by carriage.
Dutch Gap. — In order to make an attack on the Con-
federates, Gen'l Butler cut a canal across the country
for eight miles connecting the river at the bend. See
map, page 106.
Darbytown. — Oct. 7, 1864, Gen 'Is Sherman and John-
son in command. Total loss 458; 5 m. from Richmond.
Drewry's Bluff.— May 12, 1864. Total loss, 2,506.
Eight miles south of the city.
Ellerson's Mill.— Part of the "Seven Days" fight.
Seven miles from Richmond.
Ft. Harrison. — Visited by President Lincoln July
— 105 —
— 106 —
A PPOMA.7TO)C piVER-
— 107 —
8, 1862. Eighty-five thousand Federal troops were
stationed here at that time. A National Cemetery is
Fair Oaks. — (A mile and a half from Seven Pines.)
May 3, 1862, the tattle of Seven Pines originated here.
Gaines Mill. — (Eight miles northeast of Richmond.)
June 27, 1862. This battle was a continuation of that
at Mechanicsville, McClellan 's forces being attacked
by those of Gen. Lee, the former's loss being nearly
7,000 and the Confederates ' about seven hundred more.
Mechanicsville. — (Seven miles northeast of Rich-
mond.) June 26, 1862. Part of the " Seven Days'
Battle." See Gaines Mill. A part of McClellan 's
army under Fitz John Porter was attacked here by
Longstreet and Hill.
Savage Station. — (Ten miles east of Richmond.)
June 29, 1862. Part of the Seven Days' Battle be-
tween Gen. McClellan and Gen. Lee 's forces. Aban-
doned by Union forces with its hospital containing
2,500 sick and wounded. Total loss nearly 1,600.
Seven Pines. — -(Seven miles east of Richmond.)
May 31 and June 1, 1862, Federal and Confederate
forces engaged. Each numbered about 45,000. Union
loss 5,031; Confederate, 6,134. Gen. J. E. Johnson in
charge of Confederate forces, was wounded and re-
placed by G. W. Smith. McClellan was in charge of
the Federal troops. This battle was commenced at
Fair Oaks, and was one of the Seven Days' fight
around Richmond and the first great conflict between
the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia and the
Federal Army of the Potomac.
A National Cemetery is located here and out of
1,380 graves only 162 are identified.
"Yellow Tavern."— May 11, 1864. Total loss, 259.
ALEXANDRIA, THE HOME OF WASHINGTON AND LEE.
Christ Church. — Started 17(37, completed 1773, for
six hundred pounds sterling. A tax of 31,185 pounds
of tobacco was levied upon the parish for this pur-
pose. The exterior is typically Colonial and the edifice
was designed by James Wren. Pew number five was
CHRIST CHURCH, ALEXANDRIA.
purchased by George Washington. Rev. Townsend
Dale was the first rector. One peculiar custom of the
early church was the employment of women for ushers
— 108 —
— 109 —
Here in this building, one morning after service,
George Washington publicly advisee! withdrawing
allegiance from King George. The high backed pews
have all been cut down with the exception of Wash
ington 's, which still remains as it was in Colonial
days. It is marked by a silver plate, as is the one
formerly occupied by Gen. Eobt. E. Lee. During the
war the church was seized by the Federal authorities,
but restored after peace had been declared. On each
side of the chancel are mural tablets, one in honor
of Washington and the other in memory of Robt. E.
Foreign Sovereigns During the
1578. ..Philip II. Henry III.
1589. . .Philip II. Henry IV.
1602.. .Philip III. Henry IV.
1603. . .Philip III. Henry IV.
1621. . .Philip IV. Louis XIII
1627. . .Philip IV. Louis XIII.
1643. . .Philip IV. Louis XIV,
1651. . .Philip IV. Louis XIV.
1662. . .Philip IV. Louis XrV
1665... Charles II. Louis XIV.
1686.. .Charles II. Louis XIV.
1689 . . . Charles II. Louis XIV.
1699.. .Charles II. Louis XIV.
1701.. .Philip V. Louis XIV.
1715,. . .Philip V. Louis XV.
1729. . .Philip V. Louis XV.
1748. . .Ferdinand VI. Louis XV.
1760. . .Charles III. Louis XV.
1774. . .Charles III. Louis XVI.
1776... Charles III. Louis XVI.
William & Mary
EARLY COLONIAL CHURCHES.
The history of the early church in America is
closely woven into the political fabric of the nation.
The first white child born in America was baptized
on Roanoke Island in 15S7 by a chaplain of Raleigh 's
Colony. The first church service was celebrated by
"Good Maister Hunt" at Jamestown in 1607. The
first legislative Assembly, the House of Burgesses,
was organized by Churchmen and met in the church
at Jamestown. Robt. Livingston, who led the oppo-
sition to the Stamp Act, was a Churchman. Patrick
Henry, the patriotic orator; Peyton Randolph, Presi-
dent of the first Continental Congress; Geo. Wash-
ington, Commander-in-Chief of the army; Richard
Henry "Lee, who introduced the resolution of Inde-
pendence in the second Continental Congress; Thomas'
Jefferson, who drafted the Declaration, and thirty-five
of the men who signed it, were all Churchmen. Frank-
lin, Hamilton and Madison, with a host of other pa-
triots and leaders, were identified with the church
and during Colonial days, we find the vestrymen exer-
cising semi-political powers. Aside from the more im-
portant Colonial churches that have already been de-
scribed, the following edifices will well repay any
one who cares to visit these sacred shrines:
Old Falls Church. — (Fairfax County. Truro Parish.)
Built about 1734. Rebuilt 1769. Truro Parish. Cost
$3,000. Washington was a member of the vestry in
1763, and also George Mason, author of the "Bill of
— 110 —
— Ill —
Rights.'' The churchyard is said to have boon the
Camping ground of Bradclock's Army and the building
was occupied by soldiers during the Revolution, and
by the Federal troops during the Civil War. A long
list of distinguished names are recorded as ministers
and communicants at this sacred shrine. Efforts are
now being made to complete its entire restoration.
PtJhick; — (Mount Vernon. Truro Parish.) The
parsh church of George Washington and George
Mason. The first record in the vestry book is dated
1732. The first minister was Rev. Lawrence de Butts.
Washington 's father was vestryman in 1735. George
Mason became warden in 1749. On October 25, 1762,
George Washington was elected vestryman. It is said
Washington drew the plan of the present church in
1769. Like other Virginia churches, the edifice suf-
fered much during the Civil War. In 1874 it was
repaired and renovated and consecrated in October,
1875. The entire restoration is now in progress.
Aquia Church. — (Stafford Co.) Founded about
1664. Rev. John Waugh, probably the first rector.
A communion service of three pieces of beaten silver
donated to the church by Rev. Mr. Alexander Scott,
A. M., 1739, is still in use by the church, and during
the wars of the Revolution, the War of 1812 and the
Civil War, they were buried for safe keeping.
The present church was erected 1757 on the site
of one built in 1751, which was destroyed by fire.
Over the east door is the following inscription in white
"Built A. D. 1751. Destroyed by fire 1751, and re-
built A. D. 1757 by Mourning Richards, Undertaker,
Wm. Copeirs, Mason." In 1837 the building was in
ruins, but was restored before the war. During the
Civil War it was used by soldiers and again almosl
destroyed, but once more restored.
St. Peter's Church. — (New Kent Co.) Probably
founded about 1056. Rev. John Ball was the rector
in 16S6. The present church was built about 170:!.
The Rev. David Mossom was minister for forty years,
and was considered a quaint old character, especially
noted for his temper. He married Geo. Washington
and Martha Custis at the White House on the Pa-
munkey River, a few miles from the church. He died
1767. The church is located near Turnstall 's Station,
20 miles east of Richmond.
Hungar's Church. — (Northampton Co.) Seven miles
north of Eastville. Bnilt about 1690 and in actual use
for more than 200 years. First minister Rev. William
Cotton (1635). The Communion Set used by the
low r er Hangar Church was presented by John Custis
of Williamsburg, and is now in use by Christ Church,
Christ Church. — (Eastville, Northampton Co.) Built
about 1826. The Communion Set used by this church
bears the inscription:
"Ex dono Francis Nicholson,"
Lieut. Governor of Virginia, 1690-2.
Christ Church. — (Lancaster Co.) Built 1732. The
parish was organized prior to 1654, as Rev. Thos. Sax
was the recorded minister at that date. The first
church on the present site was built 1670. The famous
CoL Robert Carter, known as King Carter, paid for
the erection of the new building in 1732, the entire
north cross of the building being reserved for his
family. He was buried in the churchyard, where his
tomb can still be seen. The walls of the church are
three feet thick. There are twenty-five pews, three
— 113 —
of which, designed for the Carter family, will con-
tain twenty persons each.
Vauter's Church. — (Essex Co.) St. Anne's Parish.
Built about 1714. Earliest recorded minister was
Eev. John Bagge, 1724. A cruciform brick building.
Its windows are guarded by solid wooden shutters.
The church stands in a grove of walnut and oak and
is a venerable landmark in this part of the country.
Among other historic churches are the following:
Abingdon Church. — (Gloucester Co.) About 15
miles from Jamestown. A Eegister bearing date 1677 is
still in existence. In this territory occurred the Poca-
hontas incident, so tradition claims. In the first church
located here worshipped Mildred Warner, grandmother
of George Washington. The present building is sup-
posed to have been built in 1755.
St. Paul's Church. — (King George Co.) Erected
The Fork Church. — (Hanover Co.) Built 1735. Here
Patrick Henry was baptised when an infant and here
his cousin Dorothea, later Dolly Madison, worshipped.
The complete history of Virginia's Colonial churches
would fill a large volume.
THE EXPOSITION IN BRIEF.
Opened April 20, 1907. Closes November 30, 1907.
Gates open 8 a. m. Close^, 11 p. m, Government
buildings, 9 a. m. to 6 p. m.
Admission. — Adults, 50 cents; children, 2."> cents.
Powhatan Guards. — Constitutes the police force of
Grounds. — Cover 400 acres, located on Hampton
Roads, five miles from Norfolk City limits, four from
Ob! Point Comfort and five from Newport News. The
grounds have three miles of water front.
Lee's Parade. — A beautiful plaza comprising many
acres, partially surrounded by the Exposition Palaces,
nearly half a mile wide and a mile long. Here mili-
tary evolutions will take place, forming a gorgeous
spectacle seldom ever witnessed.
Plan. — Stretching along the historic waters of Hamp-
ton Roads for three miles, the Exposition presents an
unusual spectacle of beauty and splendor. The style
of architecture is Colonial, the buildings low in height,
but covering an immense area of space. White, yellow
and red are the prevailing colors. The key to the
Exposition plan lies within the confines of Common-
wealth avenue. The Administration Building forms
the center of the mammoth palaces. It faces the
Lagoons and Raleigh Square, giving a fine view of the
Grand Basin and the Government Piers. Along the
— 115 —
water front are the State Buildings and entering the
main gate, directly to the left, is the War Path.
The principal palaces are as follows:
Administration Building. — 160x236 feet. Located on
Pocahontas street, opposite the Lagoons.' A Colonial
structure of red brick and concrete designed for per-
manent use. The principal Exposition building. The
center building is the Auditorium and is connected
by cofonnades with the History Building on the east
and the Educational- and Social Economy Building on
the west, each of which covers 124x129 feet.
Food Products Building. — 250x300 feet. On Poca-
hontas street and Commonwealth avenue, and Gilbert
street. Here elaborate displays of food stuffs will be
on exhibition. Machinery used in the preparation of
food stuffs will be shown in actual operation.
Mines and Metallurgy. — 100x250 feet. A beautiful
Colonial structure of permanent construction on Poca-
hontas street and Commonwealth avenue, opposite
the Machinery and Transportation Building. Here
may be found specimens of coal, gold, silver, copper,
iron, marble, onyx, building stone and other minerals
from the crude ore to the finished products.
Machinery and Transportation Building. — 280x550
feet. Situated on Pocahontas street and Common-
wealth avenue. Separated from the Liberal Arts
Building by the Lagoon. In this structure may be
seen the carriage presented to Lafayette by the United •
States government; also the state coach used by Presi-
dent Lincoln the night of his assassination. Steel
Pullman coaches, railroad trains, machinery and me-
chanical devices of all descriptions are exhibited in this
States' Exhibit Palace.— 300x500 feet. The type of
architecture of this structure, like all the other pal-
— 116 —
aces, is Colonial. It faces Lee's Parade on Common-
wealth avenue. Along the facade appear the names
of the states having special exhibits within this build-
ing." Fruits, vegetables, grains, woods, minerals and
a host of other products are displayed in profusion.
Manufactures and Liberal Arts Building. — 280x550
feet. Pocahontas street, Commonwealth avenue and
Powhatan street. A permanent structure of Colonial
style. Here may be seen a varied display of manu-
factures, books and publications. Laird & Lee's booth,
section 28, contains an exhibit of the firm's many
books, including the famous series of Webster's New
Standard Dictionaries, adopted for use in the schools
of many leading cities and awarded Gold Medal at
the St. Louis and Portland Expositions.
Arts and Crafts Village. — Iron Shop, 48x50 feet.
Copper, Silver and Wood Shop. — 44x137 feet.
Textile Building.— 53x88 feet.
Mothers' and Children's Building.— 60x100 feet.
Willoughby boulevard and Bacon street.
Model School.— 35x45 feet.
Pottery Building. — 48x50 feet.
Pocahontas Hospital. — 50x85 feet.
Hall of Congress.— 236x160 feet.
Army and Navy Building. — Powhatan street and
Negro Building. — 250x150 feet. Maryland avenue.
Palaces of Commerce. — Entrance to War Path.
Marine Appliances. — Opposite Mines and Metallurgy
Power and Alcohol Building. — Near Lee's Parade.
Grand Piers. — 2,400 feet long, 800 feet wide, con-
nected by cross piers, 1,200 feet long, at a distance
of 2,400 feet from shore, forming a water basin in the
— 117 —
center of 40 acres. Cost $400,000. Built by the gov-
Government Buildings. — Facing the Grand Basin.
Separated from each other by Ealeigh Square. Two
center buildings represent the Fisheries Building and
Smithsonian Building. The Navy, Army, Postoffice,
Agricultural, State, Treasury and other departments
are well represented in these structures.
STATE BUILDINGS AND EXHIBITS.
The State Buildings are located along the shore line,
on "Willoughby boulevard, and the Main Exposition
Palaces in the center of the grounds in front of Lee's
Parade. The government structures face the piers,
and the Arts and Crafts Buildings are east of the
The following states have made appropriations or
have provided funds by special subscription and many
of the buildings provided for have been completed.
Alabama, $25,000; Arkansas, $15,000; Connecticut,
$70,000; Delaware, $10,000; Georgia, $50,000; Illinois,
$25,000; Kentucky, $40,000; Louisiana, $15,000; Mary-
land, $65,000; Michigan, $20,000; Missouri, $40,000;
Massachusetts, $50,000; New Jersey, $75,000; North
Dakota, $15,000; New York, $150,000; North Carolina,
$55,000; Ohio, $75,000; Pennsylvania, $100,000; Ehode
Island, $50,000; South Carolina, exhibit, $20,000; Vir-
ginia, $450,000; Vermont, $10,000; New Hampshire,
$10,000; West Virginia, $55,000.
Arkansas will be represented in the States' Exhibit
Alabama appropriated $25,000 for an exhibit. Cot-
ton and iron are exploited, while timber and other
— 118 —
products come in for their share in the display. A
part of the exhibit is the mammoth iron statue of
Vulcan, from Birmingham.
Los Angeles has an exhibit of pictures, samples of
every kind of fruits and vegetables raised in Southern
California, exhibits of the different industries and
Connecticut has reproduced the famous Benjamin
Talmage home, located at Litchfield, which was
the first Colonial mansion erected in Connecticut. The
owner was intrusted with the execution of Major
Andre, the British spy, and in this house were planned
many of the successful campaigns of the Revolution.
The great entrance has its walls finished in soft old
Venetian red and furnished in pieces of the seven-
teenth century. In the drawing room is a choice col-
lection of furniture of the eighteenth century, includ-
ing very fine mirrors of Washington design. Queen
Anne and Chippendale sofa, covered in an ancient
flowered pattern, will be noticeable. The tea room
is "Empire," the treatment being yellow with a rare
set of First Empire furniture.
Delaware, the "Diamond State," has a building of
Colonial hip-roofed design with a parquet gallery run-
ning around both interior and exterior, the Delaware
coat-of-arms over the doorway and the word "Dela-
ware" impressed upon the side wall. With Colonial
porches, old-time cornices and immense brick chimneys
at each end of the building, it is an exceedingly at-
tractive and creditable building.
— 119 —
Florida will have an exhibit of fruit and flowers
and also an historical collection. Wide attention is
being attracted in Agricultural circles and from sci-
entists making a special study of Aower-breeding, to
the pollen collection, invented by Prof. E. Moulie of
Jacksonville. Professor Moulie will exhibit his vari-
ous perfumes, surrounded by the Aowers from which
they are made, and with each step in the process illus-
The Georgia Building is a representation of ''Bul-
loch Hall," at Bosewell, Georgia. "Bulloch Hall"
was the home of Mattie Bulloch, mother of President
Boosevelt, and here she was married to the President's
father. The reproduction of this building typiAes sev-
eral periods in the history of the Empire State of
the South. The builder of the house was second Gov-
ernor of Georgia; Archibald Bulloch, the President's
uncle, was a captain in the Confederate navy, and
his brother, James, was an ofAcer in Lee's army. The
twelve rooms of this building will be furnished by
the leading cities of the state, including Atlanta, Sa-
vannah, Columbia, Macon, Valdosta, Waycross, States-
boro, Albany and Cordele. The state appropriated the
sum of $50,000 for an exhibit at the Jamestown Ex-
position and the funds for the erection of the building
have been raised by popular subscription. The State
Building fronts on Willoughby boulevard and the
waters of Hampton Roads .and is a handsome structure
of Colonial architecture.
Illinois has a beautiful Colonial building of pressed
brick veneer, with stall trimmings, with wide porches
and verandas. The main reception hall is a feature
— 120 —
of the attractiveness of the Illinois Building, with
its immense fireplace, broad stairs and spacious win-
dow scats, giving the entire building an air of hos-
pitality. The walls of the reception room are dec-
orated with the Lincoln Exhibit, now in the hands of
the Historical Society, at Springfield. Illinois will
make quite an exhibit in her state building, but space
in the other structures has also been filled with ex-
hibits illustrative of the industries of the state.
Indiana is endeavoring to secure funds by popular
subscription for an exhibit in historical and educa-
tional lines. Some of the large manufacturing indus-
tries of the state have exhibits.
Kentucky has rebuilt Daniel Boone's fort in a grove
of stalwart pines in the northwestern corner of the
Exposition grounds, the logs for the construction of
the same being shipped from various sections of the
"Blue Grass State," some of them from the site of
the original fort at Boonesboro. There are two main
buildings, each twenty feet square, and connected by
a roof twenty feet wide. The building has a twenty
foot veranda running the full length of each side.
Four cabins, each twenty feet square, are erected in
addition. These will be used as offices and probably
for exhibit purposes.
Louisiana State Building is 46 by 59 feet in size,
two stories in height and of Colonial architecture.
It has a 15-foot gallery in front, with eight columns
and :i similar gallery on the side. The front of the
building is almost entirely of glass. Special effort
will be made to make a very striking exhibit of the
rice, sugar and cotton industry and of the forestry,
— 121 —
mineral" and oyster resources of Louisiana. The sugar
exhibit will consist of samples of sugar canes, a wax
model of a cane field, with miniature laborers in the
act of cutting the stalks, and miniature cane field im-
plements. A lifelike wax model of the cotton plant,
showing the leaves, flowers, pods and open bolls, in
addition to stalks of the genuine cotton plants of the
most promising varieties grown in the state, with seed
cottons, lint cottons, cotton seed products, such as
hulls, meals, cake and fertilizers; cotton oils, crude
and refined; lard substitutes, cotton goods, cotton
stalk paper, together with a model cotton gin and
photos of cotton fields are on exhibition.
The New Jersey State Building fronts on Matoaka
place and the Boulevard. It is a stately structure of
pure Colonial architecture. The building is two sto-
ries in height, and is said to be a replica of General
Washington's headquarters at Morristown. The cost
The site of the North Dakota Building is in the
midst of those selected by Virginia, Maryland, Ohio
and Pennsylvania, and commands a beautiful view of
the Hampton Roads. The lot is 50 by 165 feet and
the attractive building is located with a view of
being easy of access to all parts of the grounds, as
well as having a clear outlook upon the great body of
water beyond. The building is completely furnished
and has a delightful reception room, 20 by 40 feet,
with all modern conveniences.
The "Old North State" has produced a fine Co-
lonial residence, with large columns and ample porches
in front. The interior is of North Carolina yellow
— 122 —
pine furniture linisli and the furnishings throughout
are from North Carolina furniture and textile fac-
tories. The appropriation of this state was $55,000
for building and exhibit, besides $5,000 for an exhibit
by the colored race of the state.
New York has a large Colonial mansion at the
water's very edge. It is modeled from "Arlington,"
the Lee homestead across the Potomac from the city
of Washington, and is surmounted by a dome resem-
bling that which adorns the Congressional Library
at Washington. The building is to cost $31,500, and
is located in one of the most advantageous positions
on the grounds. The Colonial Dames of the Empire
State have brought together a wonderful collection of
antiques and relics. Slippers worn by a .Colonial belle
at her wedding; queer school books, out of which the
children learned their lessons; state papers over which
the makers of the Eepublic bent their powdered heads;
silver dishes, silhouettes and pictures, historical docu-
ments, newspapers, etc.
This building is a reproduction of the one erected
by Governor Langdon in 1784 and occupied by him.
until his death, in 1819. Langdon was one of the
great New Hampshire men and ranks high among the-
heroes of the Eevolution. He was one of the first sena-
tors and also had the distinction of being the first
president pro tern of the United States senate. The
New Hampshire Colonial Dames of America have con-
tributed an exhibit to the Jamestown Exposition,
among which are pottery, valuable pieces of old fur-
niture, a traveling case of solid mahogany filled with
cut gbiss, bottles and glasses, these having been the
property of Colonel Cilley before the Revolution; also
— 123 —
a miniature of Brig. Gen. Enocfc Poor, old fans, laces,
old prints, manuscripts and costumes. Among the
latter is a piece of the wedding dress of the wife of
Governor Tristan Cossyn, who was one of the early
governors of that period.
Missouri has provided a fine Colonial structure. The
building is of red brick, with its stately porticos and
verandas. This stately mansion presents a singular
aspect of dignity and repose combined. In appearance
it is not unlike the Virginia Building. Colonial in
design, it lacks the boldness of execution involved in
that type, its severity being tempered with an elab-
orate profuseness of ornamentation quite fascinating
to the artistic contemplation.
Michigan has an appropriation of $20,000, and will
have a building on Bennett Circle. The state will have
an extensive agricultural, horticultural and forestry
exhibit. (See map on page 2.)
Maryland reproduced as her building at the James-
town Exposition the home of Charles Carroll of Car-
rollton. Carroll was one of the signers of the Declara-
tion of Independence and survived all the others by
half a dozen years. One room of the building is a
replica of the old senate chamber at Annapolis, where
Washington resigned his commission as Commander-in-
Chief of the army. The building has a length of 240
feet. The main building is 70 by 64 feet, the repro-
duction of the senate chamber 40 by 36 feet, and the
entrance hall 2o by 38 feet. A dozen rooms are pro-
vided for the convenience of the visitors.
— 124 —
Massachusetts has attempted a reproduction of the
old State House, as it stands at the head of State
street, Boston. The structure is one of the most
interesting and quaint in the group of State Buildings.
The first story is given over to the entrance and ex-
hibit halls, the circular staircase hall, the old stairway
being reproduced faithfully; the commission's offices,
curator's room, lavatories, etc. The main feature of
the second story is an exact reproduction of the fa-
mous old council chamber where James Otis warred
against Writs of Assistance, and the Bepresentatives'
hall, the scene of so many stirring events. There is
the historic balcony, the exterior as it was in Colonial
days, the whole surmounted by the lion and the uni-
corn. The historical collection from Massachusetts
is valued at more than $100,000. The articles compris-
ing this collection were all in Use in Massachusetts
families prior to the time of the Eevolution, and the
exhibit is, therefore, distinctively Colonial.
Ohio has reproduced in cement block a model of
" Adena, ' ' the first stone house erected west of the
Alleghany mountains, and for several years the home
of Governor Worthington, when the capital of the
state was at Chillicothe. The furnishings of the house
are faithful to the times when the house was built. A
fire-proof section contains the $25,000 archaeological
exhibit of Ohio.
This new addition to the Union of States will be
well represented at the Exposition with exhibits from
her fertile farms, abundant orchards and flourishing
gardens. Funds are being subscribed for a building
also, and notwithstanding the fact that its first legis-
— 125 —
lature has not been elected a site at the Exposition
has been engaged. The site selected is in the western
portion of the grounds.
Forty pretty young women from Oregon will come
to the Exposition dressed in Indian garb. The scheme
is one of the most novel yet suggested for the Expo-
sition. Jt is proposed to select forty of the most
comely women in the state of Oregon and send them
on a tour of the United States. They will be dressed
in Indian costume, and will advertise the state of
Oregon. Their trip will include a three weeks' stay
at the Exposition, The party will be at the Exposi-
tion either in July or August.
Pennsylvania has constructed a replica of old Inde-
pendence Hall of Philadelphia. A mammoth four-face
electric illumination clock ornaments the tower and
all the lines of the tower will be illuminated by rows
of electric lights. Original buildings of the Univer-
sity of Pennsylvania will be shown in miniature by a
The Ehode Island Building is a replica of the first
capitol of that state. Ehode Island State day will
be on the anniversary of the battle of Lake Erie,
Tuesday, September 10.
South Carolina will expend her entire appropriation
on an exhibit. The exhibit will be arranged under
the heads of agriculture, forestry, Clemson College,
cotton manufactures, undeveloped water powers, min-
eral waters, historical, general manufactures and min-
erals. The tea exhibit from this state will be very
complete, the United States Department of Agrieul-
ture having agreed to turn over its exhibit to the
South Carolina exhibit, and this exhibit will be sup-
plemented by photographs, bottled goods in all shapes,
plants, etc., and, taken as a whole, the tea exhibit will
be very complete. South Carolina has been given a
space in the States' Exhibit Building, 214 by 18 feet,
and has been placed on the artistic installation of the
exhibits to make them attractive and spectacular. A
large relief map of Charleston harbor is a part of the
exhibit. "South Carolina Day" is June 28.
Virginia presents a beautiful type of Colonial archi-
tecture. The building has a frontage of 116 feet,
including the side porches. It is of brick, with stone
and marble ornamentation. The front elevation pre-
sents the harmonious effects of Ionic elegance com-
bined with Doric simplicity. Lofty Corinthian col-
umns surmounted with Acanthus leaf capitals support
the roof projection above an imposing entrance. The
building is designed for reception and entertaining
Vermont is constructing a model summer home, a
feature for which the "Green Mountain State" is
becoming noted. It will be about 24 by 34 feet in
dimensions and a story and a half high. The lewe**
floor will be one room, set apart to receive visitors,
and will be finished in hard pine and furnished appro-
priately. A broad piazza will face Hampton Roads.
A writing room and toilet rooms will occupy the upper
floor. Vermont will have exhibits in marble, slate,
granite building stone, maple sugar and syrups, pure
foods, dairy products, fruits, fish and game.
The West Virginia Building has a fine location on
the Boulevard. It has a brick foundation, frame su-
perstructures, built on the old Colonial plan, with
porches and columns in front and on the sides and
terraces connecting the porches. Near the building
will be an obelisk of West Virginia coal, 40 by 40 feet
at the base and 160 feet high. It will be laid in
obelisk form, a strata for each county of the state,
and illuminated by electric lights, forming an exhibit
visible far out to sea. A large space in the States'
Exhibit Palace has been secured for a display of the
products of the "Little Mountain State." In the
Historic Relic Building will be placed that part of the
collection which pertains to the Burr-Blennerhassett
conspiracy, James Rumsey's steamboat and John
Brown's insurrection, with such other material as is
illustrative of that part of the state's history which
is of national world-wide importance. Among the
articles exhibited is the pack saddle used a hundred
years ago in carrying salt from Winchester to Clarks-
burg, the large spinning wheel, the reel, winding blade.
reeds, the little flax spinning wheel, the flax brake,
scutching knife and scutching block implements used
in making the jeans, linsey linen and tow linen, which
clothed the West Virginia pioneers in the infant days
of the Republic.
THE WAR PATH.
What the Midway r:as to Chicago, the Pike to the
Louisiana Purchase Exposition and the Trail to the
Lewis and Clark Exposition, the War Path is to the
A few of the more important concessions are as fol-
Freil Lift.— What the Eiffel Tower was to Paris,
and the Ferris Wheel to Chicago, the Freil Lift will be
to Jamestown. It looks much like a windmill,
with airships attached to the arms, and while the arms
are going around the upright on which they turn is
also going around.
Fair Japan. — A typical street scene, such as would
be found in Tokio. The street is lined with little
shops and natives are selling their wares. A native
theater and restaurant will show the Japs in their
histrionic and gastronomic life. A Tea Garden will
be sure to entice the passerby. There is a pagoda
here and various other things Japanese in architecture,
gueh as bridges and bazaars.
Old Williamsburg. — Colonial Virginia will be pre-
sented in a building which will be a copy t)f the old
House of Burgesses in Williamsburg. A moving pic-
ture drama in which the old worthies will appear in
characteristic costume. Leading and dramatic inci-
dents will be incorporated and the production, it is
said, will be of genuine historic and artistic interest.
Old Mill. — The Old Virginia Corn Cracker has been
transferred from up in the mountains of West Vir-
ginia. It has the overshot wdieel and will be seen in
operation in picturesque surroundings. Meal will be
ground out while you wait and "Mammies" will serve
hoe cake, batter bread and corn bread with syrup
and you can eat country sausages and the real Smith-
Beautiful Orient will take vou through the Land of
Egypt. You can ride the camel and buy of the natives.
You will see the quaint river craft of the Nile and
hear the weird music of the Lotus Land.
Old Jamestown reproduced will appeal particularly
to Virginians, and there one may rest and also eat
modern cooking on a roof garden overlooking the an-
"101 Ranch," a great wild west show. The Miller
Brothers, of Oklahoma, are bringing their full outfit and
life on the plains will be seen as it is today and as it
was when the Indians were rough. The Indians who
will come with the ranch, and the cowboys and cow-
girls and the Mexicans will number five hundred and
there will be a big herd of buffalo and wild Texan
steers, with bronchos and rough riders and many spe-
cial features that one will long remember.
Bostock's Animals. — Bostock will have his American
show, which has wintered in Richmond, and his Paris
show, just brought over from the Hippodrome, com-
bined, and the wonderful performances of his trained
wild animals will be seen at Fine Beach not far from
the entrance to the grounds.
The Philippine Reservation will show life as it is
among the civilized and Christianized Filipinos and
also the rude life in huts of the less civilized natives
at work fashioning implements of war or domestic life.
Representatives of the War Department have been at
work in the islands getting the material and people
for this part of the Exposition and the promise is
made that it will offer better opportunity for studying
the Filipinos than did the exhibit at St. Louis.
OTHER ATTRACTIONS ARE
Temple of Mirth.
Hale 's Tours.
Paul Revere 's Ride.
Trixie, the Educated Horse.
Destruction of San Francisco.
Shooting the Chutes.
Merrimac and Monitor Battle.
Battle of Manassas.
Haunted < astle.
Empire of India.
Lee and his Generals.
Never in the history of the world has there been
such an array of battleships as can be seen on the
THE BATTLESHIP VIRGINIA.
historic waters of Hampton Roads. For several miles
these mighty monsters are stretched out in a straight
line, extending from Old Point to Newport News. Each
ship lies 300 yards apart and no one can look upon
these beautiful cruisers and battleships without a feel-
ing of pride. Painted a clear white with yellow tur-
rets and funnels they form a picture that cannot be
described. In a line of honor before the American
fleet under Admiral Evans ride the grim war dogs of
the foreign powers, while protecting the entire fleet
an outer fringe of torpedo boat destroyers may be seen.
Admiral Harrington, of Norfolk, is in charge of the
evolutions. Some fifty war vessels are anchored in
Hampton Roads; their names and classes are given as
LIST OF SHIPS ATTENDING EXPOSITION.
Admiral Evans' flagship is the Connecticut.
Connecticut 24 Illinois 18
Louisiana 24 Kearsarge 22
Missouri 20 Kentucky 22
Virginia 24 Ohio 20
Georgia 24 Indiana 16
New Jersey 24 Iowa 18
Rhode Island 24 Minnesota 24
Alabama 18 Maine 20
Texas, 8 guns.
St. Louis, 14 guns. First-class protected cruiser.
Tennessee, 20 guns. Armored.
Washington, 20 guns. Armored.
Cleveland, 10 guns. Third-class protected.
Denver, 10 guns. Third-class protected.
Brooklyn, 20 guns. First-elacs armored.
Miantonomah, 9 guns.
Canonicus. Old type.
Hopkins, Hull, MacDonough, Truxton, Whipple, Wor-
den, Blakeley, DeLong, Stockton, Strighani, Wilkes.
Good Hope, 8 guns. Armored cruiser. Flagship of
Rear Admiral Sir George Neville.
Argyl, 10 guns. Armored cruiser.
Hampshire, 10 guns. Armored cruiser.
Roxburgh, 10 guns. Armored cruiser.
Roon, 14 guns. Armored cruiser. Flagrliip of Rear
Bremen, 10 guns. Protected cruiser.
Victor Hugo, 20 guns. Armored cruiser. Flagship
of Rear Admiral Thierey.
Kleber, 12 guns. Armored cruiser.
Tsukuba, 16 guns. Armored cruiser. Flagship of
Chitose, 12 guns. Protected cruiser.
Varese, 17 guns. Armored cruiser. Flagship of
Rear Admiral Duke D'Abruzzi.
Etruria, 10 guns. Protected cruiser.
Riachuel. 10 guns. Third-class battleship. Flagship
of Rear Admiral Duarte Huet de Bareellar.
Tamoyo, 2 guns. Cruiser.
Don Carlos, 12 guns. Protected cruiser.
Sant George, 11 guns. Armored cruiser.
Aspern, 8 guns. Protected cruiser.
Fylgia, 8 guns. Cruiser. Flagship of His Highness
Presidente Sarmiento, 4 guns. Training ship.
Zonteno, 8 guns. Cruiser.
The battleships carry from six to eight hundred
men each, the foreign boats usually having a larger
crew than those of the American navy.
This magnificent spectacle is a sight that will live
long in the memory of all who are fortunate enough
to visit the Jamestown Exposition. It forms an im-
pressive picture of fighting strength that will long
be remembered in naval circles as the greatest
gathering of warships in the history of the American
nation and probably of the world.
The first important point to remember is that the
Exposition site is on the shore of Hampton Roads,
thirty minutes' ride by electric car from the city of
Norfolk, and that Jamestown is merely an unin-
habited island in the James River, forty mileS from
For convenience, every visitor should also remem-
ber that Norfolk is the most accessible point to the
Exposition and that many of the more historic places
of interest can be reached from this city in from one
to three hours. If possible, tourists should endeavor
to return home by a different route, and a few sugges-
tions are offered with this end in view.
New York to Norfolk. — By Rail: Via Philadelphia
to Cape Charles. Boat from this point to Norfolk.
By Boat: Distance 325 miles. Leaving New York by
Old Dominion Line, at 3 p. m., boat reaches Norfolk
at ten thirty the next morning. The itinerary for the
return trip may of course be reversed. Return may
be made by boat to Baltimore or Washington and
from there to New York by rail.
Boston to Norfolk.— By Boat: Direct to Norfolk,
or boat or rail to New York, and from there by rail
via Philadelphia as given above.
Pittsburg and Western Points. — From Pittsburg by
the B. & O. or from Harrisburg by the Pennsylvania,
the tourist can proceed to Norfolk via Washington,
Richmond and Petersburg. A stop-over should be
made at each of these cities. The return trip may
be made by boat to Cape Charles and by rail via
Philadelphia and west via Harrisburg; or from
Philadelphia to New York and west over one
of the northern roads. Boat can also be taken from
Norfolk direct to Richmond or Washington. Boat
leaves Norfolk 6 p. m., arrives at Washington early
the next morning.
Southern Points. — Steamer connections between Nor-
folk and all important Atlantic ports. Rail connec-
tions via Raleigh, Chattanooga or Louisville.
Automobile Route. — The Annual Tour of the Ameri-
can Automobile Association will be to the Jamestown
Exposition. Route via Washington through the Shen-
andoah Valley, via Richmond and Fredericksburg to
Norfolk. Distance 250 miles. Maeadam road almost
the entire distance. Antietam, Harper's Ferry and
Fredericksburg battlefields are included on the trip.
Washington to Hagerstown.
(■'Hotels located here.)
Dupont Circle 1.5 Braddock's Springs 49.0
Montrose 12.6 Braddock 's
Rockville 15.4 Heights* 49.9
Gaithersville 20.06 Middletown* (Bat-
Clarksburg 29.00 tlefields) 52.8
Hyattstown 32.9 Boonsborough 60.3
Frederick* (Old Na- Funkstown 68.2
tional Highway.. 44.5 Hagerstown* 71.
Mappans 8.4 Sharpsburg 16.1
Dilghenington .... 10.4 Antietam Station.. 17.8
Battlefield of An- Shepard's Town... 20.4
tietam 13.7 .Hall Town 29.0
tional Cemetery). 57.1
Winchester to Staunton.
Stephen 's City . . .
miles to Fisher
Tom 's Brook
Hawkins Town . . .
Mt. Jackson (Con-
cave 14 miles east)
Mt. Crawford* . . .
Staunton to Richmond.
Basic City* (sum-
mer resort) 12.0
Spring (C. & O tun-
Afton* (summer re-
Woods Station 34.8
University of Vir-
Charlottesville* ... 38.4
Hunters' Hall 42.5
Sha dwell 42.9
Boyd 's Tavern . . . 48.6
Moccassin Gap .... 67.7
Shannon Hill 70.1
East Leak 78.0
Gum Springs 82.0
Sandy Hook 84.0
State Farm 93.3
Richmond to Norfolk.
Estes ' 29.7
Providence Church. 90.1
Kings Fork 90.7
Morris Fork 105.4
Sholder Hill 109.1
Hodges Ferry 112.8
Norfolk to Virginia Beach.
Oceana* 18.0 Virginia Beach* .. 21.2
Virginia Beach to Norfolk.
Oceana* 3.3 Norfolk 21.5
Norfolk to Richmond.
Portsmouth 0.4 Waverly* 70.3
Richmond to Washington.
(Lee's Hill bat-
tleground) 62. 1
Fairfax C. II.* 119.!)
Ey Autoboat, New York to Norfolk, by inland
waterways. Distance 352 miles. Provisions for twen-
ty-four hours. Necessities can be purchased along the
route. For boats drawing about five feet of water.
Eoute: From Upper Bay, New York Harbor, follow-
ing North Coast, Staten Island, through Kill von Kull
and Arthur Kull, Great Beds Lighthouse to Raritan
River, through the Delaware River and down Chesa-
peake Bay to Norfolk.
Norfolk. — As this city will probably be headquar-
ters for thousands of tourists, the following informa-
tion regarding Norfolk will undoubtedly prove of
assistance to many.
The temperature at Norfolk from May to Decem-
ber, 1904, was as follows:
Max. Min. Average.
May 94 46 67
June 92 56 75
July 100 65 81
August 100 66 82
September 98 57 7C
October 88 43 66
November 78 33 55
December 7i> 24 43
The rainfall is greatest in July. As a rule, hot
periods are short, followed by cooler weather and
refreshing showers. The cost of living has materially
increased since the commencement of work on the
Exposition and tourists should if possible make ar-
rangements for board and lodging before leaving
home. By reading this little book carefully the pros-
pective visitor will not only be able to visit the more
important points of interest, but will be saved much
needless work and considerable time and money. For
detailed information and views of the Exposition the
tourist should secure a copy of " Glimpses of the
Jamestown Exposition and Picturesque Virginia,"
published by Laird & Lee.
Short Side Trips from Norfolk. — Full descriptions
with points of interest to be visited are given under
separate chapters. The Water Belt Line run boats
to Eichmond, Washington, Baltimore, Jamestown
Island, Yorktown and other interesting places. See
also chapter on Norfolk, giving local points and
The principal transportation lines from Norfolk are
Soul hern Railway. — To points in Virginia, Tennes-
see, North and South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Ala-
bama and Mississippi.
Chesapeake & Ohio. — Virginia, West Virginia, Ken-
tucky, Ohio, Indiana and Illinois.
Norfolk & Southern. — North Carolina.
New York, Philadelphia & Norfolk. — Eastern Vir-
ginia, Pennsylvania, New Jersey and New York.
Old Dominion Steamship Co. — New York, Eichmond
and James Eiver points.
Merchants' and Miners' Transportation Co. — Boston
Baltimore Steam Packet Co. — Baltimore.
Clyde Steamship Co. — Philadelphia.
Chesapeake Steamship Co. — Baltimore.
Norfolk & Washington Steamboat Co. — Washington
Virginia Navigation Co. — James Eiver points, in-
Weems Steamboat Line. — Eappahannock Eiver
Foreign Steamships. — To Liverpool, London, Glas-
gow, Belfast, Hamburg, Rotterdam, Amsterdam, Cuba,
Mexico and the West Indies.
LOCAL ITINERARY FROM NORFOLK.
Annapolis. — Distance 154 miles. Take Chesapeake
Steamship Co. boat at Norfolk or Newport News.
Alexandria. — Across Potomac River from Washing-
ton, from which points it is most accessible. Distance
about 200 miles.
Berkeley. — Street car from Norfolk, on City Hall
avenue, or take ferry.
Baltimore. — 187 miles from Norfolk by Chesapeake
Steamship Co. 's boat. Fare $3. Round trip $5.
Leave Baltimore daily except Sunday, 6:30 p. m. Ar-
rive at Norfolk, 7:15 a. m.
Cape Henry. — Round trip 25 cents. Norfolk & South-
ern Railroad, Electric Division. Cars leave opposite
Cape Charles. — Boat leaves Norfolk, touching at Old
Point Comfort. About three hours' ride.
Dismal Swamp. — By canal boat or motor boat
through Albemarle and Dismal Swamp Canal from
Portsmouth. Round trip, one day by motor boat.
Exposition. — Norfolk & Atlantic Terminal Electric
cars, opposite Monticello Hotel, or Norfolk & Ports-
mouth Traction Co. cars foot of Granby and Main
street, via Ocean View, or boat foot of Commerce
Fortress Monroe. — See Old Point Comfort.
Fredericksburg. — This sity can be reached on the
road to Washington.
Hampton. — Take Norfolk & Portsmouth Ti action
Co. electric car to Pine Beach, and from there to
Hampton by boat, or take boat from Norfolk to New-
port News and electric car or railroad to Hampton.
LIBRARY OF CONGRESS
014 444 822 4
Jamestown Island. — Take
Co. 's boats at Norfolk or Nev FU .v +^„». .m^ La^o
Newport News. — Take boat at Norfolk, or electric
car to Pine Beach and boat from there.
Ocean View. — Take electric car, foot of Main street.
Old Point Comfort. — Take boat from Norfolk, foot
of Commerce street, or electric cor or railroad from
Newport News or Hampton, or electric car to Wil-
loughby Spit and boat from there. Boat fare 15 cents.
Portsmouth. — Take ferry foot of Commercial place,
Petersburg. — Take Norfolk & Western Eailroad
from Norfolk (a ride of an hour and forty-five min-
utes), or take electric car from Eichmond.
Richmond. — Take Norfolk & Western Eailroad, a
ride of 2^ hours from Norfolk, or boat to Newport
News and C. & O. train from there, or take electric
car from Petersburg. By water: Take Old Dominion
Line from Norfolk, Newport News or Old Point. Fare
$2.50; round trip $4.50, including stateroom. Day trip
fare $1.50; round trip $2.50. Leave Norfolk 7 a. m.
Arrive Eichmond 5 p. m.
Virginia Beach. — Take Norfolk & Southern electric
car, opposite Monticello Hotel. Bound trip 25 cents.
Washington. — Take Norfolk & Western Eailroad
from Norfolk, via Petersburg, Eichmond and Fred-
ericksburg, or Norfolk & Washington Steamboat Co. 's
boat from Norfolk. It takes about six hours to cover
the trip by rail. Boat leaves Norfolk G p. m. Arrives
early next morning. Distance by water 200 miles.
Williamsburg. — Take boat from Norfolk to Newport
News and C. & O. Eailroad from there.
Yorktown. — Take boat from Norfolk or Newport
News, or overland f v om Williamsburg by stage.
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