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A. C. MADAN, M.A. 









The Lala and Lamba dialects are so nearly identical, and 
both so closely allied to the Wisa, that knowledge of either is 
a sufficient introduction to the others. A Wisa Handbook has 
already been published (Clarendon Press, 1906). But in view 
of the size of the Lala country, and its position on the direct 
route from the Victoria Falls to Lake Tanganyika, making it 
more accessible than the Wisa, a short supplementary account of 
Lala, showing its relation both of likeness and unlikeness to 
Wisa, may be of value for practical purposes of teaching and 
administration^ as well as to students of Bantu. 

Accordingly the following pages include (i) an outline of 
Lala Grammar, with notes chiefly on points in which it differs 
from Wisa ; (2) a collection of phrases and of Lala and Wisa 
stories, with translations and notes, supplying what is perhaps 
the most valuable sort of material for a further and more exact 
study of both dialects ; (3) a Lala-English Vocabulary, which 
may also be used to supplement the English-Wisa Vocabulary 
in the * Wisa Handbook '. 

A 2 



The Lala dialect here means the dialect spoken with but 
small variations over a district of about 20,000 square miles 
(three times the size of Wales), lying in Northern Rhodesia and 
the intrusive strip of Congo Free State territory south of Lake 
Bangweolo. The district is roughly rectangular, and bounded 
by a line drawn from the Luapula at its first westward bend, 
along the river Lulimala, just north of Livingstone's African 
grave, and thence north of Moir's Lake to the nearest point on 
the river Luangwa, down the Luangwa to its junction with the 
Lukushashi, along the southern and western boundary of the 
basin of the Lunsenfwa tributary (of the Lukushashi) to its 
source, thence to the upper Kafuwe river, and so to the Luapula 
near its first bend to the north. This district contains (i) the 
Lala tribe, with its local divisions known to each other as 
the Wa Mitunta (or Masaninga) on the north-east, the Maswaka 
on the south-west, and the Walala Ukanda on and within the 
Congo Free State border ; (2) the Lamba, on both sides of the 
border from the upper waters of the Lunsenfwa and Kafuwe 
rivers to the Luapula ; and (3) the Wambo Senga, along the 
west bank of the Luangwa, distinct in dialect (whatever their 
origin) from the Senga of the eastern bank. 

There is now no clear line between the Lala and their Wisa 
neighbours on the north-east, either as to lands or language, 
though certain recognized landmarks still remain. But there 
is evidence that the Lalas arrived first from the north, and were 
pushed south and west by the Wisas (themselves under pressure 
from the advance of the warlike Wemba (Bemba) tribe), till 
confronted by the Batonga and kindred tribes on the Zambesi 


and lower Kafuwe. But the Lalas, even more than the Wisas, 
give the impression of being a broken and defenceless people, 
at any rate since the terrible Zulu invasion swept the country 
in the last century. And though already showing recovery 
under British protection and good government, they appear to 
be even behind their neighbours in tribal cohesion and modes 
of life. Year after year villages have been totally deserted for 
months at a time, the inhabitants living in the forest, harvesting 
and preparing new gardens. Even when they return (if they do 
so) to their old huts, their food is constantly stored away in 
distant hiding-places known only to themselves, and only visited 
as need requires. Iron-work seems to be their one profitable 
industry, besides making mats, bark cloth, and earthen pots ; 
but their skill in smelting, tempering, and forging attracts 
customers for axes, hoes, and weapons, even from surrounding 
tribes. It has been already stated that the Lala and Wisa 
dialects are practically one. But to ascertain the fact and the 
limits within which it was true, entailed a quite disproportionate 
amount of time and attention, simply from the difficulty of 
finding a Lala acquainted with any but his own language. It 
would have been more difficult still if it had not been for the 
kind and efficient help given me by Mr. J. E. Stephenson, 
a district official of the British South Africa Company, whose 
careful notes and collections furnished most useful help in 
arriving at conclusions both as to grammar and vocabulary. 
My fullest acknowledgements are due to him, and also to Messrs. 
H. Croad and J. Moffat Thomson, both British South Africa 
Company officials, for much kind help and encouragement. 
But the general result, after verification in both divisions of the 
Lala country, being as given above, it only remains to make 
clear the object of even a small separate account of Lala. 

In brief, the peculiarities of Lala, though relatively small, are 
sufficiently important to call for a supplement to the *Wisa 
Handbook \ At the same time, the comparative prominence 


of the Lala dialect, as that which most Europeans would first 
come in contact with, suggests the addition of an outline of 
the grammar, as well as a vocabulary and some Lala stories. 
Thus the Lala and Wisa Handbooks may be regarded as 
mutually supplementary. 

The total number of people speaking Lala-Lamba-Wisa can 
only be guessed, but is probably not less than 100,000. The 
Lala people are called Walala, their language Chilala, and their 
country Wilala {wi representing the u of many other dialects). 

Mkushi, N. W. R., 
/ufy, 1907. 

In Part I, Grammar, paragraphs are numbered consecutively 
for convenience of reference. 

References to Lala may be taken as equivalent to Lala- 
Lamba throughout, and the differences pointed out between 
Lala and Wisa are of course more marked among the Lala of 
the west (VV. Lala, or Maswaka) than on the borderlafid of the 




I. Lala, as spoken and written ♦ . . . 9 

11. Nouns ii 

List of common Nouns (§ 27). 

III, Adjectives 15 

List of Adjectives and Numerals (§31). 

IV. Pronouns and Pronominal Adjectives . . 17 

Table of Demonstratives (§ 39). 

V. Verbs 20 

(1) Verbs in general (§§ 44-55)- 

Conspectus of Forms (§§ 46-49). 
The modified Stem (§§ 52-55). 

(2) Person — or Concord— Prefixes (§§ 56-60). 

(3) Tenses (Indicative Mood) (§§61-90). 

A. Tense-System, Affirmative (§§ 63-68). 

B. Negative Conjugation (§§ 69-71). 

C. Notes on the Tenses (§§ 72-89). 

D. Comparison of Lala and Wisa Tense- 

Systems (§ 90). 

(4) Imperative Mood (§§ 91-97). 

(5) Subjunctive Mood (§§ 98-100), 

(6) Infinitive Mood (§§ 101-102). 

(7) Voices (§§ 103-104). 

(8) Verb Stems (§§ 105-114). 

(9) Auxiliary and other Verbs (§§ 1 15-120). 
(10) List of Common Verbs (§121). 



VI. Adverbs, Prepositions, Conjunctions, and 

OTHER Particles 38 

(i) Dependent Sentences (§§ 125-131). 
(2) List of Adverbs, &c, (§ 133). 


Stories, &c., illustrating Lala, Lamba, and Wisa, 

WITH Notes 42 

I. Short sentences and phrases .... 42 

II. Translation (tentative) of the Lord's Prayer 

and Ten Commandments . ' . . . 45 

III. Twelve Stories 45 

Lala (Lamba)-English Vocabulary . . . . 75 


(Reference may be allowed once for all to the * Wisa Handbook ', as 
containing a somewhat fuller account of the Grammar common for the 
most part to the Wisa and Lala dialects. Here an outline only is given, 
sufficient for a beginner in either dialect, and showing the chief points of 
difference between them.) 



1. Lala, like Wisa, is a Bantu dialect of the ordinary type. The 
pronunciation of its words can be (with few exceptions) sufficiently 
indicated by the English alphabet, and the features of its grammar 
described by the usual English names. The nouns fall into classes, 
distinguished by the first syllable, and this or a similar syllable is 
prefixed to every adjective and verb qualifying a noun, forming 
the Concord characteristic of Bantu. 

2. The following is a typical sentence in Lala : Fintufya infumu 
fyonse fyashila^ i. e. {fintu) the things (fyd) of {infumu) the chief 

(fyonse) all {fyashild) are finished. The prefix y?, marking the 
plural of one class of nouns, is repeated with the preposition (fy-a), 
the adjective (fy-onse), and the verb {fy-ashila), 

3. Lala words are here written as simply as possible by using 
the English alphabet, and are pronounced as written, subject to 
the following rules. 

I. Vowels. 

a2J& a \Ti father, ox pat, 
e aiS a in fate, or e in pet, 
i as e mfset, or / in pit, 
o as or in sort, or o in pot, 
u as 00 in root, or u in put. 
When vowels occur together, each is to be pronounced sepa- 


4. 2. Consonants as in English, except that 

g is not used for yi as in gin, 
s is not used for sf, as in rise, 
ng* is used for the sound ng followed by a check, separating 

it in pronunciation from the other letters of the syllable, 

something like ng in sing-er, 

5. 3. Special Sounds. 

One sound, common in Lala, Wisa, and other dialects, is 
not English, and requires a special sign. It is here called 
Modified «/, and written lif (in the * Wisa Handbook ' w). 
It is a sound approaching dw or vw, variously pronounced 
by natives, and sometimes heard as plain d, v, or w. 

6. It must also be remembered that 

ch is used to represent the sound variously pronounced by 

natives as ch, ty^ ky^k\ k and ky being common among 

the Maswaka* 
r and / are interchangeable in most words. Either sound 

may be clearly heard. 
5 and sh are often heard before a vowel as sy^ shy. 
m^ um, muy mw may be heard, especially at the beginning 

of words, without difference of meaning, and similarly », 

i«, ny. 

7. The following contractions of vowels occurring together in 
the same word or in different words are common: — 

a coalesces with an a following, forms e with an e or i 
following, and o with an ^ or 2/ following. (When different 
words are united by a contraction, the vowel is written 
between hyphens, e.g. anay^e-nshima^ apam^o-mwanay 
for anaya inshifna^ apama umwana,) 

i and u, before vowels, become y and w. And a y sound is 
often heard before a^ e, or iy and a w sound before o and Uy 
when a root begins with those vowels. 

8. The n sound in combination with others involves several 
important changes. It is represented by nd^ nj^ ngj before vowels, 
and changes to m before w, /, ^, z/, and (sometimes)/. Nl becomes 
ndi and nw becomes mb, (See further § 58.) 


9. The accent in Lala and Wisa is usually on the syllable before 
the last, but a stress is also very commonly laid on the last syllable 
but two. 

10. Characteristic differences of Lala and Wisa pronunciation 
arc as follows : — 

In Lala/corresponds to v in Wisa. 
sA „ s „ 

Sy sn ,,2' fy 
ky, ki is preferred to ch^ chi in Wisa, 
g^ gy „ j in Wisa 



11. Nouns in Lala, as in Wisa, may be arranged in ten classes, 
distinguished by the pairs of prefixes which mark the singular and 

12. The singular-prefixes are, in their full forms, umuy ichi, aka, 
ifty uluy uitfu, (/)/', and in the plural, a'dfa^ imt, t/i, utu^ {sh)iny 
ama. To these may be added uku^ umUj apa, used mostly in 
forming expressions equivalent to nouns, both singular and plural. 

13. Commonly the first vowel of the two-syllable prefixes is not 
distinctly heard, and the classes may be conveniently described as 
follows. (Further examples and fuller descriptions may be readily 
found by reference to the vocabulary under each sin^u/ar-prtfix 
and to the ^ Wisa Handbook '.) 

14. Class i. Sing. M(/ (also umu, mw, m), 

Plur. WA (also atjba^ ib^ ba^ a), 
Ex. Sing, muntu, a person. Plur. ibantu, 

mwana^ a child. ' „ ibana, 

mkashiy a woman. „ ibakashi. 

15. Class 2. Sing. MU (also umu^ nvw^ m), 

Plur. MI (also imi, my), 

Ex. Sing. muHy a tree. Plur. //////. 

mushiy a village. „ mishi. 

mwiliy a body. ,) miilu 


16. Class 3. Sing. CHI {also cky fy, ky^ k), 

Ex. Sing, ckintu^ a thing. VXwr.fintu. 

chuni^ a bird. „ fyunu 

17. These prefixes are used before nouns of other classes with 
an augmentative meaning, i. e. to express size, number, quantity, 
and then sometimes in the forms chaffy a, 

Ex. Sing. chimuntUy a big man. Y\yxr,fiiJbantu, 

chamunkuluy a big log. „ fyaminkulu, 

18. Class 4. Sing. KA (often contracting with vowel following). 

Plur. TU \tw). 
Ex. Sing. katemOy an axe. Plur. tutemo, 

19. These prefixes are used with a diminutive meaning (cf. those 
of Class 3). 

Ex. Sing. koni{ka-unt)y a small bird. Plur. tuni. 
kana (ka-ana), a child. „ twana, 

20. Class 5. p. ^*f /iV(«, and plur. sometimes skin or ma), 

Ex. Sing, nanda, a house. Plur. nanda^ mananda. 

Sing, and plur. nshiku, day, days. 
(For variations of the n sound, cf. §§ 8, 58.) 

21. Class 6. Sing. LU {lit/, u/u\ 

Plur. lA' («). 

Ex. Sing, /uskimu, sl bee. Plur. nshintu, 

lushipa^ a blood-vessel. „ nshipa, 

luwafuy a side. „ mbafu, 

luitjbu, a small bell. „ ndiibu, 

22. Class 7. Sing. LU {Iw, ulu). 

Plur. MA (contracting with a vowel following, and 
in some words prefixed to sing. /«). 
Ex. Sing, lukwa, bark cloth. Plur. makwa, 

lupey basket. „ malupe, 

lupiy palm of hand. „ mapu 

lupiliy hill. „ mapiliy mcUupilu 


23. Class 8. Sing. iP^U (also u^tt/u, uu, «, lif, bu). 

Plur. MA (as in Class 7, sometimes in). 
Ex. Sing. z&«/a, bow. Plur. mata, mauta. 

uufiy a lie, evil. 



ushikuy night. 



«j^/, smoke. 



24. Class 9. Sing. / (also It, Hi, di). 

Plur. MA (as in Classes 6 


Ex. Sing, w^, hoe. 



liso {linso), eye. 


mesoy menso, 

/«^ (dino)y tooth. 



ishina, name. 



25. Class 10. ^, ^' -^«, muypa. 

Plur. J ' 

These are the prefixes of (i) a few nouns, with plur. ma ; (2) the 
infinitive form of the verb, used regularly as a noun; (3) many 
expressions equivalent to nouns, in which ku refers to circum- 
stances generally, mu to interior position, /a to position in space 

or time. 

Ex. kulu, leg (plur. molUy i. e. maulu). 

kuibokOy arm (plur. maibokd), 

kuonay seeing, sight (Infin. of onay v.). 

munanday inside of a house. 

kwalbOy (their) home, country. 

26. Each of the above class-prefixes has a corresponding con- 
cord-prefix, used before the preposition -/i, and every adjective and 

These are shown in the following table : — 

Class. Concord. 

muy with adjectives proper {% 28). 

ti ox yy with pronominal adjectives {%% 35, 36). 

u or a, with verbs (§ 57). 

iba, e. g. ibantu itakulu ihalipo, 

u mushi ukulu ulipo, 

i mishi ikulu ilipo, 

chintu chikulu chilipo. 
fi fintufikulufilipo. 

Class i. 





Class 2. 



Class 3. 





Class 4. Sing. 

Class 5. Sing. 

Class 6. Sing. 

Class 7. Sing. 

Class 8. Sing. 

Class 9. Sing. 

Class 10. Sing. 














ki7, e. g. kanwa kakulu kalipo. 

tu iumva tukulu tulipo. 

i inanda ikttln ilipo. 

shi inanda shiknlu shiiipo» 

lu lushima lukulu Ittlipo, 

shi inshimu shikulu shilipo, 

lu lupe lukulu lulipo. 

a malupe akulu tdipo, 

u ibuia ukulu ulipo. 

a mala akulu alipo. 

It ise likulu lilipo, 

a mase akulu alipo, 

ku — kukulu kulipo, 

mu — mukulu mulipo, 

pa — pakulu palipo. 

27. A short list of common nouns is here given, 
see English-Wisa Vocabulary in ' Wisa Handbook '. 
indicated in brackets.) 

Affair, business, trial, dispute, rcasoff, 

mulandu {tni-L). 
Anger, inkansa, ukali. 
Animal, game, inama ( — ). 
Arm, ukuiboko {ma-it,). 
Axe, katemo {tu-t,). 
Bade (of body), musana {mis.). 
Basket (one sort), chiselg {/is.). 
Bee, lushimu (nshimu). 

(For others. 
Plurals are 

Bird, chuni {fyuni), 

Blooid, mulopa {mi-L). 

Body, muili {mi-i.). 

Bone, i/upa {ma-/,). 

Bowels, mala (pl.)< 

Breast, chi/ua {/i-/ua). 

Bridge, ulaJo {ma- 1,). 

Canoe, uUbalo {ma-^,). 

Cattle, n^omhe { — ). 

Cattle-pen, chipata {Ji-p^* 

Chief, in/umu ( — ). 

Child, mwana {^and). 

Cloth (calico), insalu { — ). 

Cloud, ikumbi {ma-k.). 

Cold, impepo ( — ). 

Cord (bark), lushishi {nshisht). 

Country, chalo {/yalo). 

Day, inshiku { — ;, kasua {tusua). 

Dew, mume {mime). 

Drum, ng*oma (— ), 

Egg, isana {mas.). 
Elephant, insofu { — ). 
Evening, chingulo. 
Eye, linso {menso). 
Father, lata {iba-(.\ wiski {iba-w.). 
Fear, imwenso { — ), 
Finger, munwe {minwe). 
Fire, mulilo {mi-l.). 
Firewood, inkuni (pi.). 
Fish, isawi {mas.). 
Food, chakulya i/ya-k.). 
Foot, lukasa {ma-k.). 
Forest, impangu { — ). 
Fowl, insumbi { — ). 
Friend, ckiibuza {/i-ib^. 
Garden, munda {minda). 
Goat, imbushi { — ). 
God, Lesa. 

Grass, ichani {maniffyani). 
Gun, infuti { — ). 

Hand, ukuiboko{ma-tb,) ^inwe (pi.) . 
Head, mutwi {mitwi). 
Heat, chiwe. 
Heart, mutima {mi-t.). 
Hill, lupili {ma-p.^ nmlup.). 
Hoe, ise {mase). 
Honey, wuchi. 

House, ng'anda, nanda {nanda^ 



Hyena, insuntzvef chimboio. 

Journey, uhvendo (jna-i,). 

Knife, luweshi {ma-i.). 

Leg, ukulu {niolu). 

Life, moyo {mioyo). 

Lion, nkalamu (-— ). 

Load (basket), chife {Jipe). 

Maize, matawa (pi.)* 

Man (person), muntu (Ubantu). 

(male), mwanalume {iifan.). 
Mat, mupasa {mip,). 
Meal, unga. 

Meat, inama, chinane {fi-n»). 
Milk, mukaka {tni-k,). 
Millet, amawo (pl.)> 
Money, indalama ( — ). 
Moon, mweski (mi-c). 
Morning, /ucMo, kucha. 
Mortar (wooden), i^usu (ma-f^^ 

twende {ma-w). 
Mother, mama (^a-m.), 
nyitta {iba-n.). 
Mouth, kanwa \tunwa). 
Mud, matipa (pi.)* 
Name, iskina {mash.)* 
Neck, mukosi (mi-k»). 
Night, ushiku {ina-u.'). 
Path, nshila (— ). 

Pole, chiti (Jlit). 

Pond, pool, chishiwa {Ji-sh.), 

Pot (cooking), inongo { — ). 

Rain, tmvula ( — ). 

River, m^a {ma-n.). 

Salt, muchele. 

Skin, impapa ( — ), chisewa {fi-s,). 

Sleep, tulo (pi.)* 

Smoice, usht {moshi). 

Snake, insoka ( — ). 

Sore, chilonda (Jil.). 

Spear, ifumo (jna-f.). 

Stick, insako ( — ), kati (Jutt). 

(knobbed), inkoli ( — ). 
Stone, iite, ibwe {matte). 
Stump, chishinga (Ji-sk.). 
Sun, kasua (tusua). 
Thief, pompwg {iba-p,). 
Thorn, munga (minga). 
Tobacco, JivaJ^. 
Tree, mu^i (miff), uhiti (Jtii). 
Village, mushi (misht). 
Water, amenda (pi.)* 
Wind, impepo ( — ). 
Woman, mwanakashi (iban.). 
Work, inchito ( — ). 
Yard (measure), iupande {ma-L). 

(court), luansa (mansa). 



28. Adjectives proper, i. e. words which are adjectives only, are 
few in Lala, as in Wisa and other Bantu dialects. They follow 
the noun, and have the concord-prefix required by it, e.g. muntu 
mukulu, a great man ; nanda ikulu, a large house ; and so with 
other forms, ibakulUy fikuluy shikulu^ lukuluy pakuluy all from 
-kuluy great (§ 26). 

29. The place of adjectives is readily supplied by (i) the pre- 
position -a with a concord-prefix (i. e. wa^ ya^ cha^ fya, ka, twa, 
shya, iwuy lya, kwa, mwa^ pa^ &c.), followed by a noun (e. g. nanda 
ya chant, a house of grass, a grass house), or the infinitive mood, as 
verbal noun (§ Tf), 



30. (2) a verb. Any suitable tense of the indicative mood may 
be used without change as a relative or adjectively (cf. §§ 125-7) ; 
but the most usual in Lala is the modified verb-stem (see §§ 73~7) 
with a concord-prefix. Thus, using -wetney the modified stem of 
the simple -ivama (be good), muntu uweme^ a good man (sometimes 
also muweme). 

But other forms are available, e.g. muntu uwamay muntu 
wawamay and also (see above) muntu wa kuwama, and (its con- 
tracted form) muntu wowama (for wa^ku^wama) ; and similarly 
the negative verb-forms corresponding, muntu takwete amano^ an 
ignorant man (§§ 60, 73). 

31. List of Common Adjectives, and Numerals. 

(The root is given, and if a verb, v. is added.) 

All, -onse (sometimes ^ense). 

Alone, -enka (or -eka)* 

Bad, -wi, 'fi^ ibipile^ v. 

Big, -kulu. 

Both, 'cwilo. 

Clean, -/««/?, v. 

Clever, -chenjeley v. 

Cold, 'tontweley v. 

Dirty, -soli. 

Eight, sano ne -tatu. 

Empty, -a lokoso. 

False, wi ibufi» 

Female, -kashiy 'yanakoihi. 

Few, 'che^ -a kuchepa, v. 

Fierce, -kali. 

First, 'tanjile, -a kutangay v. 

Five, -sano. 

Foolish, 'punemey v. 

Four, -nne* 

Fresh, -a lomba, -wisu 

Good, 'ine, -ne, -weme^ v. 

Great, -kuiu. 

Heavy, ^lenunej v., -a kufina, v. 

High, 'tali. 

His, her, -akwe. 

Hot (water), -kawiUy v. 

Last 'peleUy v., -a kushila^ v. 

Light (weight), -puile^ v. 

(colour), -sweUUf -tuile, v. 

Long, -tcUi, 

Mad, 'shilu, 

Male, 'iumef -yanaJume, 

Many, much, -»^', -«;i. 

My, mine, -anjiy -angi. 

New, •a lomba. 

Nice, 'WemCj v. 

Nine, -sano ne -ntu. 

Old, 'petnba. 

One, 'tno. 

Other (different) -mH, (similar) 

Poor, 'k<rfu. 
Pretty, -f#«*, -wetne. 
Rich, 'Sambashi, 
Ripe, 'pile, v. (/^a). 
Self, 'ine. 

Seven, -sano ne •tvili. 
Short, -ipi. 
Sick, 'Iwele, 'Iwashi* 
Six, 'Sano ne -fno. 
Small, 'inini, -che. 
Strong, -kosele, v. 
Ten, iiumi. 
Their, -a'^o* 
Thick, 'tikeme, v. 
Thin, 'che. 
Three, -tatu. 
True, -ine. 

Twenty, tftakumi awilL 
Two, 'Wili. 
Unripe, 'WisL 
Wealc, -chet 'ttakile^ v. 
Well (health), -kosele, v. 


Whole, -a musuma. 
Wicked, -wi^ -fi^ -a ilbufi. 
Wise, 'chenjele^ -a amatto. 
Your, -owe^ 



32. I. Personal Pronouns, 

Sing. X. nelbo^ I. Plur. \, fwdho^ we. 

2. weiho^ you. 2. tnwelJbo^ you. 

"N 3« (K^f ^^> he, she. 3. ibatboy they. 

38. He, she, is also often expressed by a demonstrative, f/^^^, 
«y^ (see below). The concord-prefixes used with pronouns are 
those of Class i. 

34. A shorter form is used in close connexion with a noun or 
adjective (preceding or following), and after na (with, and), ni (it 
is), te (not), and sometimes a verb. 

Sing. I. ne^ I. Plur. i. fwe^ we. 

2. we, you. 2. mwey you. 

3. ye, he, she. 3. z^a, z&<?, they. 
Thus nenfumuy I the chief; nemwiney I myself; wantumwey you 
people ; ^a^^^, and he, with him ; niwe^ it is you ; telboy not they ; 
nine^ nineiboy it is I, here I am. 

The plural forms are commonly used of single persons for 

35. 2. Possessives {Pronominal Adjectives). 

Sing. I. 'anjiy my. Plur. i. ^esuy our. 

2. "owey your. 2. -^/fi/, your. 

3. -akwey his, hers. 3. -az^^, their. 
These are used with the concord-prefixes already given in 

Chap. II (§ 26). 

L.'L. H. ^ 


36. 3. Demonstratives {Pronominal Adjectives). 

These fall into three groups, all formed on the concord-prefixes, 
and each group with a simple form and an emphatic made by pre- 
fixing n. The three groups denote in general : — 

(i) ' this/ implying nearness (in fact or thought), 

(2) 'this, that,' of relative nearness or middle distance, or of 

(3) ' that,' of distance or distinction. 

37. The demonstratives are common and important, and their 
forms are best shown in a Table (§ 39), the last column showing 
a form of demonstrative, which pronounced with stress on the first 
syllable expresses an emphatic negative, ' not this (that), no.' 

38. The same forms are used in Wisa, but with the difference, 
that in Wisa the emphatic {n) forms are the most commonly used, 
and those in the last column are used without stress as a weak 
demonstrative. All (except the last) are commonly used before, as 
well as after, the noun. 

39> For Table of Demonstratives, see opposite. 

40. The concord-prefixes themselves are also used as weak 
demonstratives (this, these), either at the beginning or end of a 
noun, and either as given in the first column of the Table or com- 
bined with vowel ^, e. g. umuntu^ muntuuy omuntu^ muntuo, &c. 
And -no is also used as a demonstrative affix, e.g. muntuno, 

E' is prefixed, as a particle of emphasis, to demonstratives, as 
well as to other words. 

41. 4. Interrogatives {Pronominal Nouns and Adjectives). 

naniy (it is) who ? wani^ who ? 
shaniy shyani^ how ? what ? what kind ? 
-a skaniy of what sort (kind, tribe, quality, &c.) ? 
kwa naniy -a kwaniy whose ? 
'isa, which? what? 
kwisa, kulipiy kUy where ? 
Iwisa, lisay when ? 

^nduy -ndoy what ? Used as an affix of nouns and verbs, c* g. 
amanondOy what design ? wafway-e-ndOy what do you want ? 















ill ^^|5 1^3^^ 


a §5 §"«« 

a "Si 




« y Q 9 NJ ,^ 

« 8 


8 « 


^1 ^-^t "i^-S I •^'^ ^ -^ -I ^1 5^^ ^1 




8 r 

5 J 

-- 1§ i § ^1 s § § '^l §1 8 ^ s 

-^ §S § S'^tS Si a S"^ a*^ a 8 § 


« « 
« <: 


;: a 





R 8 




.•« ^ 

1^ I £*§^^-§ S^'S-^-s 
a S a -S^-Ji ^^ a -c^-S a -S 



6 1 




M «k *M 

^ a § a -Sv^ .^ Q "^ -S^^ *^ -S 

4 a 
a « a « 

>: « a a ^ 










a"^ a 


«^ « 

^ is, 


^ a a § § a S -^-S. ^ § « "S 

6^ 8 8*S«.4^.S>:^^.5^ 8^ i-S 84 si, 
ili*i^^4^.S.S^.S^ ill.. 14 !«, 




m « 


10 SO 





ninduy nindoj (it is) what, why ? Mso/indu^Jindo, ba mfindo^ 

but why ? ngafindo^ why, what for ? 
'ttga^ how many ? 

(of the above, -a shani, 4sa^ ^ndu, -;/^a take the usual 
concord-prefixes of adjectives.) 
nga is often used to introduce a question, e. g. nga waya 

kwisuy where are you going ? 
tey is it not (the case that) . . . ? 
kuy niUy pay are also used for, where ? 

42. In Wisa, 'ttzi often takes the place of -ndUy and -ila-i regu- 
larly the place of 4say kwi that of ku, 

5. Reflexive Pronoun, 
48. The reflexive pronoun is / or //, placed inomediately before 
the root of a verb, e. g. litemay cut oneself. 
For relative sentences, see §§ 125-7, 30. 


(i) Verbs in General. 

44. Verb-forms in Lala, as in Bantu generally, consist of a 
root with various prefixes and afHxes, i.e. distinctive sounds or 
syllables at the beginning and end of the word. Those at the end 
indicate mostly different modes or aspects of the root-meaning, 
commonly classed as stems, voices, and moods, those at the 
beginning its relation to time and subject, i.e. tenses, numbers, 
persons, classes, and also (afHrmative or negative) conjugation. 

45. To find the root of a verb-form, it is only necessary to 
recognize and remove the prefixes, or to know the imperative form, 
which has no prefix. 

Taking first the affixes, and using common grammatical terms, 
further explained hereafter, the following Tables will serve as a 
key to verb-forms. 


46. I. Root, e.g. TEM'y cut, KAK-^ bind. 

47. 2. Stems (i) Simple e.g. /^;//-^ (cut). 

Modified -^/2^. 

(2) Applied /^w-^«« (cut for, with, &c.). 
Modified ^ene, 

(3) Causal, Intensive tem-eshya (make cut, cut 

Modified -eshye, 

(4) Reciprocal tern-ana (cut each other). 
Modified 'cne. 

(5) Reversive kak-ula (unbind). 
Modified -uile. 

The above stems occur with most roots of suitable meaning. 
Less general stems may be called: — 

(6) Stative pot-ama (be crooked). 
Modified -erne. 

(7) Extensive tem-aula (cut in all direc- 

Modified "auile. 

And to these may be conveniently added : — 

(8) Reduplicated tetna-tema (cut again and 


(9) Reflexive (with prefix) li-tema (cut oneself). 

48. 3. Voices (of the simple stem). 

(1) Active e.g. tem-a (cut). 

(2) Passive tent^wa (be cut). 

(3) Neuter tem^eka (be cut). 

49. 4. Moods (of the simple stem). 

(i) Indicative e.g. -/^w-«, with prefixes. 

(2) Imperative tem-a^ without prefixes. 

(3) Subjunctive -tem-e^ with prefixes. 

(4) Infinitive ku-tema (invariable prefix). 

5. Coivlugations (i) affirmative, (2) negative (see Tenses, 

60. 6« Tenses. Each of the above stems may be preceded by one 
of the following tense-signs (see § 68) : «, /«, {a)lif {a)cAi, ko^ ka, nga. 


61. 7. Fersonit. All verb-forms (in the indicative and sub- 
junctive moods) begin with a syllable, single or double, which 
indicates the person, number, and class of the subject of the verb, 
and also conjugation (affirmative or negative) (§§ 56-60). 

62. The modified stem (as it is here called) is only used in the 
indicative mood and with certain tense-signs (§ 68). So far as it 
is distinguished in meaning from an unmodified stem it appears to 
particularize the root-meaning, referring it to a particular subject 
or circumstances, and in Lala commonly supplies a verbal adjective. 
(See *Wisa Handbook*.) 

53. Its characteristic is the use of the sound e^ as a rule in the 
two final syllables of the verb-form, but always in the last—as 
follows ; — 

54. (i) 'cle^ as affix of a root with vowel ^, or (and sometimes 
i) ; e. g. let-eky wol-ele ; -/7^, after a^ /, u^ e. g. kat-iley skit-iiej 
pul'ile^ but -ene (for -^/^), --ine (for -He) if the preceding consonant 
is m or «, herein differing from Wisa ; e. g. fum-ine^ pon-enCy 
tem^ene^ won^ene, 

Reversive stems (and many verbs ending in "Ola^ -ula) dropi. -la 
in the modified form, e.g. aluile (from alula) y tontwele (tonfoele, 
from iontola)y and Causal stems (in -shyd) change final a only to 
e\ e.g. temeskye (from temeshya), 

65. (2) When the non-modified stem ends with -ana, -ama, 
-aya, -ala, -ala, bothvowels are changed to e in the modified form, 
even when a root vowel is involved ; e. g. tkala forms ikele, icheUy 
kana, kene^ katala, katelCy punamay puneme, Weney from wonay 
seems exceptional. 

(2) Person- (or Concord-) Prefixes. 

66. These prefixes form the first syllable of almost all verb- 
forms of the indicative and subjunctive moods. They show the 
person (first, second, third), number (singular, plural), and dass 
(i-io) of the noun (subject) which the verb qualifies, and effect 
concord between noun and verb. Inserted before the verb-root, 
the same prefixes similarly indicate the noun (object) which the 


verb governs (except in Class i). Combined with a negative prefix 
they distinguish the negative from the affirmative conjugation, 
and with a demonstrative the relative or adjectival Use of verbs 

(§§ 125-7). 

57. Hence the importance of familiarity with the following 
Table of Person-Prefixes. 

Class i. Affirmative. . Negative. 

Sing. I. (I) n, (I not) skiy nshty tanshi. 

2. (you) «, (of object) ku. . (you not) tau (to). 

3. (he, she) //, «, (of object) (he not, she not) tau (to), 

mu (him, her). taa {ta). 

Plur. I. (we, us) tu, (we not) tatu. 

2. (you) mu. (you not) tamu, 

3. (they, them) tba, (they not) iwiba. 

Occasionally -«^, for neijboy I, is used as an affix to the first 
person sing., and -ni or -eni to the second person plur. (as in the 
imperative mood, §§ 91-7). 

E' may be prefixed, as a particle of emphasis to person-prefixes, 
as well as other verb-forms (§ 132), 

68. The changes (briefly noted in § 8) connected with the n 
sound are of special importance in the prefix of the first person 
sing, (subject or object), and in the subjunctive mood, in which the 
person-prefix is attached to the verb-root. 
The changes (with some exceptions, § 71) are as follows; — 
(i) Before the tense-signs It and nga^ n is represented by ndi 
(n-Ii), before /« by ndu (negative shu, nshu) ; e. g. ndili'temene, 

(2) n (with vowels) becomes nj before /, e. g. nj-ikate^ ng before 
«, ^, Oy u, e. g. ng-amine^ ng-eskye^ ng-oche^ ng-upe. 

But if a, ^, Uy are followed by ndy mby ng^ then ng is softened to «, 
or ny^ e. g. n^ende. 

It must be remembered also that some verbs beginning with e 
and u are also pronounced with y or w^ i. e. ye^ wu. 

(3) n (with consonants) becomes m beforey^ /«, /, e. g. mpame ; 
ny^ ni (as well as n) before «, e.g. ninine ; ndy combined with / or 
r, e. g. ndase {n-lasi) ; mbf combined with w, e. g. w^^«tf {n-wone). 


60. Moreover, in person-prefixes, u is often w before vowels, 
a often coalesces with an a following, becomes e by contraction 
with e or i, but is not changed by ^ or » following (cf. § 7). 

60. The affirmative concord-prefixes of Classes 2-10 have been 
already given (§ 26), viz. : — 

Sing. », chi, ka^ t, iu, «, // \ 

In the negative forms ta is prefixed : — 

Sing. taUy tachi^ taka, tat, talu^ tali I y r y / ^t 

Plur. taiy tafi^ tatu^ tashi, taa ] ' > a • 

(3) Tenses. 

61. The tense-system is the grammatical feature in which Bantu 
dialects appear to differ most characteristically. Lala and Wisa 
tenses are much alike, but the Lala tenses are here somewhat 
differently, and perhaps better, arranged than the Wisa (in ^ Wisa 
Handbook'), and a comparison of them is made below (§ 90). 

62. As a rule, the tense-sign immediately follows the person- 
prefix. But in one tense (T. i) there is no tense-sign, and in two 
others the tense-sign comes first (T. 10, 14). 

Lala Tense Systetn^ 

A. Indicative, AfHrmative. 

63. It appears that the meaning of a tense depends on three 
elements : — 

(i) The tense-sign, i. e. a distinctive syllable or letter, immediately 
foUowmg the person-prefix. 

(2) The form of the verb itself, 1. e. whether 

(a) the stem only, e. g. 'tetna ; 

(b) the stem modified, e. g. 'temene ; 
{c) the infinitive mood, e. g. kutetna ; 

(3) the meaning of the verb, whether implying 
{a) act, or process, e. g. kutema^ to cut ; 

\b) state, condition, or quality, e.g. kutua^ to be white. 


64. I. The tense-signs are : — 

(a)/a, ko^ 

(f)li^ with euphonic variants {u) lu, lo, aloy ka, 
ally nga. 

To these may be added kay nga^ when preceding (not following) 
the person-prefix, and the infinitive mood used as an impersonal 
tense, not defining person or time. 

66. Some of these tense-signs do not of themselves define time 
(past, present, future), this being gathered from the context, or 
general meaning of the sentence. Hence tenses may be classed as 
Aorists (or time-less tenses), Presents^ Pasts, FutureSy with some 

66. 2. With some important exceptions, each of the tense-signs 
is capable of being used with the verb in either of the three forms 
given above, the difference of meaning being that the idea conveyed 
by the verb is expressed 

(«) bytheverb-stem, as^(?«^r^/; 

(b) by the modified stem, as particular y i. e. regarded in relation 
to circumstances, whether of place, time, object, or other ; 

(c) by the infinitive mood, as continuing — a sphere of action, or 
occupation, or condition, e. g. 

twali'temay we cut. 

twcUi'temeney we cut (something, here, there, then, now, &c.). 

twali-kutemay we were (engaged in) cutting. 

67. A Table and short description of tenses are here given, and as 
a single descriptive title to each tense is difficult to assign, numbers 
are attached for convenience of reference. Examples are given in 
first person pluraly as not involving the confusing euphonic changes 
of the n in first person singular. Forms not often heard are 




I. Aorists. 

3. Presents. 

3. Pasts, 

4. Futures. 

Table of Tenses. 

Indicative (Affirmative). 
Tense-sign. Example. 

(person-prefix only) 






(cf. T. 12) 




ka (prefixed to T. i 
or 2 or to the root 
without person-prefix) 


5. Additional* 
(i) Conditional. 


\A^a- (prefixed to 
one of the forego- 
>g tenses, e.g.) , 

I. (a) tu-tema, 
(b) 'temene. 

ic) 'kutema, 
fS twa-tema, 
(b; 'temene. 
(For twa-kutemay see T. 13.) 

3. (a) tula-tema, 


4. (a) tuli-tema» 

(b) 'temene. 

(c) 'kutema, 

5. /tf/<^- ) 

/f/A?- ■ kutema. 


6. (a) tuko'tema. 

(b) -temene. 

(c) -kutema. 

twacht' \ 

(b) -temene. 

(c) -kutema, 

8. (a) twali-tema. 
(b) -temene, 

Sc) -kutema, 

a) tunga-tema. 
(b) 'temene. 

Cc) -kutema, 

10. (a) ^a/«- ' 

katwa- • tema. 

(b) -temene. 

(c) -kutema, 

II. (a) tuka-tema, 
(b) 'temene, 
(c). -kutema, 

12. (a) tuko-tema, 

Sb) -temene, 
c) -kutema, 

13. twaku-tema, 

14. (a^ nga-twatema. 
(b) 'twalitema. 


Tense-sigQ. £xample. 

IKU' (prefixed tol 15. ku- \ 

the verb - stem I uku- 

with various ad- j muku^ 

ditions). / eku- \ tenia, 


69. B. The negative conjugation in general merely substitutes 
the negative person-prefixes (shi-, nshi-, tanshi^y in the first person 
sing., ta- in other persons) for the affirmative in each tense. An 
emphatic direct negative tense is supplied by using teti followed 
by the subjunctive, e. g. teti tuteme, we certainly do not (will not) 
cut. In the imperative only, i is the sign of negation. 

70. While acquiring familiarity with the tense-forms, it is useful 
to remember that those most commonly heard are 

T. 2, as a general descriptive tense, in conversation and 

nstrrative, and also as a perfect definite, e. g. natemay I cut, 

I have cut. 
T. 5, as a present indefinite or imperfect, e.g. ndulukutemay 

I am cutting. 
T. 8, as a past definite, and also perfect, esp. 8 by e. g. nali- 

temene, I cut, I have cut ; and T. 10, as a common narrative 

tense, e. g. katemay (and) he cut. 
T. II and 12, as common futures, e.g. tukatemay tukotemuy we 

will cut. 

71. The forms of the prefix of first person singular are various 
(cf. §§ 56-60), and important. Thus — 

in T. 4, ndi'temay or ndi-li'tema for «-//'-, n-li-li ; 

in T. 5, ndu'kutemay or ndu-lu-kutemay for «-/«, n-lu^lu ; 

in T. 8, ndinga-temay for n-nga. 
And in the Negative Conjugation — 

in T. 5, shulu-kutemUy or nshulu ; 

in T. 2 and others, shuy nskay for shi-ay nshi-a, 
A common general negative is supplied by using tapali and the 
infinitive mood, e. g, tapali kutema (but cf. § 90). 

72. C. Notes on the Meaning and Use of the Tenses, 

Only a short general description is here attempted. While the 
leading idea in each tense is comparatively clear, it cannot often 


be conveyed by a single descriptive name, and only experience can 
lead to its correct use, and most fitting translation. 

I. Aorists. 

78. The way of conceiving the verb-idea common to these tenses 
is perhaps best shown by the fact that they each supply verb-forms 
commonly used as adjectives. They assert something about 
another without reference to time, though the context may refer 
it to past, present, or future. The assertion, however, has a different 
colour in each tense, asserting in 

T. I, a standing characteristic ^ whether quality or action; 

T. 2, a simple yi?^/ ; 

T. 3, a hcLbit (usual, repeated act or state). 

74. T. I. (a) tU'tema, (b) tu-tetnene^ (c) tu^kutema. 
The idea is a normal actual function, activity, attribute, &c., 
according to the meaning of the verb, and (b) is the form most 
commonly used as an adjective (§ 30). Thus (a) we are cutters 
(cutting, we cut) ; (b) we are cutters (here, now, of wood, &c.) ; 
(c) we are cutters (cutting, engaged in cutting, as occupation). 

76. T. 2. (a) twa-tema, (b) twa'temene^ ((c) twa-kutema^ T. 13). 

Here the idea is represented as fact, and the tense has three 
uses, viz. — 

(i) as the common tense of description and narrative, without 
defining time ; 

(2) as perfect definite, of actual accomplished completed fact 
or established state. In this case a stress is often laid on the 
tense-sign, a, 

(3) as an adjective (§ 30). 

Thus muntu wafwa may mean (i) the man died, is dead, his 
death has occurred ; (2) the man is dead and done for, the matter 
is over ; or (3) a dead man. 

76. But (a) and (b) are also used in contrast as a near and 
distant past, e. g. afwa, a/wile, may be heard together, he is dead 
now (to-day), he died lately (yesterday), and afwililile may be 
added to denote a more remote past (§ 114), he died long ago. 

77. As to (c), it is noticeable that while being used regularly as 
a future, T. 13, the same form is used adjectivally, i. e. is treated 


as consisting of the variable preposition 'a, and the infinitive used 
as a verbal noun (see below on T. 13) ; e.g. uluweshi wa kutema, 
the knife will cut, a cutting knife. 

78. T. 3 (a), (b), (c). 

This is the tense of what is habitual, regular, repeated, or con- 
tinuing, and, like T. i and 2, is used adjectivally ; e. g. tulatema 
(or 'temene), we are in the habit of cutting; muntu uHsht, a 
knowing, clever person. 

2. Presents. 

79. These do not require much description. T. 4 (a), (b), form 
a simple present, e.g. nditemoy nditemene^ I cut, while T. 4 (c) 
and T. 5 supply forms of the present imperfect or continuative ; 
e.g. ndulukutema^ I am (engaged in) cutting. 

80. T. 6 is common (present and future) in Wisa, but in Lala is 
mostly used as a future, and T. 7 appears to differ but little from 
T.4(cf. §117). 

3. Pasts. 

81. T. 8 (b) is the most definite expression of the past, and may 
often be translated as perfect as well as past ; e. g. naliternenej I 
(did) cut, 1 have cut. T. 8 (c) represents the past imperfect; 
e.g. nalikutemay I was (engaged in) cutting. 

82. T. 9 does not appear to be used often or with distinctive 
meaning, but the negative form is important as supplying what is 
sometimes called the deferred (or not-yet) tense, in contrast with 
Wisa, which uses T. 3 in this sense. Thus tatungatema^ we have 
not yet cut ; tangaibela^ he has not yet returned. 

T. 10 is very common, ka being connective, but especially in 
narrative, i. e. with reference to past time, and is sometimes even 
prefixed to a verb-root without person-prefixes. 

4. Futures. 

88. T. II, 12, 13 are all used of the future, but while T. 12 {fuko- 
tema) regards the future as a continuation of the present, i. e. as 
immediately following and beginning at once, T. 1 1 (tukatefna) is 
more distant and general in reference, L e. ' I am going to cut at 
some time hereafter.' 


84. T. 13 (twaktiteffid) may be regarded as properly adjectival 
(see § 77), and called a future of moral certainty, i. e. ' we are 
cutters, of the cutting class, (and so) may be expected to cut, will 
cut.' (See §§ 74, 30.) 

86. These futures are further supplemented by (i) the use of the 
subjunctive mood in its proper subjective sense, i.e. tutemey we 
intend (propose, hope, wish) to cut, let us cut, we will cut ; and 

86. (2) by the verb isa^ come, followed by the infinitive, 
i.e. tukoisa kutemay or tukaisa kutema^ implying a very certain 
future, 'we will certainly cut, we will go at once to cut' 

5. Additional. 

87. I. nga is a particle used in several ways (see Part III, 
Vocabulary), but prefixed to an indicative tense-form regularly gives 
it a conditional meaning, translatable by * may ', * would,* ' should,' 
* could,* ' might,* &c. ; e. g. ngatwatotay we should be pleased. 

88. In conditional sentences it is often used with the verbs of 
both clauses; e.g. ngawalasa inamay ngawatupelay were you to 
(if you were to) kill game, you would give us some (§ 130). 

89. 2. The infinitive form of the verb is very commonly used, 
with some variations of the prefix, in carrying on conversation or 
narrative, when it is sufficient to express the idea without definition 
of person or tense (time). The regular kuy uku^ prefix is often 
combined with the emphatic initial ^, equivalent to 'so', 'then,' 
and 'then' ;*or the preposition mUy expressing purpose or occupa- 
tion, e.g. emukutetnay so he (they, &c.) engaged in cutting (or, 
started to cut). Ekulu- (ekulo-) also occurs in the infinitive of 

Supplementary tenses are supplied by forms of // (be), used as 
an auxiliary (§ 117); e.g. ibali ibapintay they had gone (and cf. 

lu (ulu\ Oy as verb-prefixes, occur (it will be noticed) not only 
in the present, but sometimes as part of a past tense, and also in 
both imperative and infinitive moods. 

00. D. The differences of the Lala and Wisa tense-systems are 
important, though not numerous. 


I. Aorists. 

T. I (b). Modified stem with person-prefixes is the common 
adjectival form of the verb in Lala. In Wisa it is T. 2 (a), the 
simple stem with tense-sign -^. 

e. g. Lala, nsalu shi-fitile^ black cloths. 
Wisa, nsalu za-fita^ „ ,, 
T. 2 (a) is the common tense of narrative in Wisa, but in Lala 
also T. iO| which is not found in Wisa. 

e. g. Lala, kaya^ he went. 
Wisa, wayoy „ 
T. 3 (a) in the negative form is used in Wisa as the deferred 
(not-yet) tense, but in Lala T. 9, negative. 

e. g. Lala, shingatema, I have not yet cut. 
Wisa, silatemay „ „ 

2. Presents. 

T. 5 {ulu) is not found in Wisa. T. 6 (ko)y seldom used as 
present in Lala, is the commonest in Wisa. 

e. g. Lala, ndulukutema^ I am cutting. 
Wisa, nkotema, „ 

T. 7 {chi) is not found in Wisa, and in Lala is not common, though 
in other dialects it is a marked feature. 

3. Pasts. 
T. 9 {nga) as a past tense is not found in Wisa. 

4. Futures. 

T. II (ka) is not found in Wisa, T. 12 {ko) being the common 
tense of the future. Moreover in Wisa, the common auxiliary verb 
of the future isya (go), but in Lala isa (come). 

5. Conditional. 

The use of nga is practically the same in Wisa and Lala, though 
in the 'Wisa Handbook' it has not been classed as a tense-sign. 

6. Negative Coqjugation. 

The emphatic negative tense used in Wisa, of the form (e. g.) 
nsi-a'Chitey I will certainly not do, is not used in Lafa. The 


common negative adverb in Lala is yoo^ in Wis3Lyai, but tapali, . . 
yoo is by no means so common, as a general negative in Lala, as 
iapali. , ,yai in Wisa, 

(4) Imperative Mood. 

01. The verb-stem without prefix supplies the simple direct 
imperative second person sing., and with -ni added, second person 
plur. If a monosyllable, i is prefixed in the sing. 

e. g. Sing, tema^ cut. Plur. temani, 

ifwUf die. fwani, 

92. The verb-stem with person-prefixes and ka-, forms an impera- 
tive of all persons ; e. g. kantema, let me cut ; koya {ka-uya), go. 

98. The subjunctive mood is also often used as a mild or 
courteous imperative, or expression of request, wish, purpose 
(§ 99) > e. g. nkupele^ let me give you. 

94. And in this case also ka- is often used, before or after, or 
before and after the person-prefix, 
e. g. kanteme, let me cut. 

nje nkateme^ let me go and cut. 
kankateme^ „ „ 

96. -«/', added to these (subjunctive) forms, adds force to the 
command or appeal, in all persons ; e. g. mboneni^ let me 3ee. 

96. Two verbs often used, or combined, with an imperative are 
'ibula (take), and taya (for tanga, be first, do first),— ^«/a having 
a kind of expletive force, 

e. g. mbule-njye or ibulenjye^ let me take and eat, of course I must 
(will) eat. 
taye-ndale, let me sleep first. 

97. The negative imperative is formed by inserting 1 or ilo 
between the prefix and the stem, for all persons. The infinitive 
form is also used in place of the stem. 

e. g. wi'tema^ wikutemay dp not cut. 
wilo'temay wilokutetna^ „ „ 
wi'ttbay wiloiUba^ wilokwiibay do not steal. 

(5) Subjunctive Mood. 

98. The subjunctive mood consists of a verb-stem with person* 
prefixes and final e for a. 

Verbs 33 

' 00» Besides its use as a mild imperative (§ 93), it has the usual 
subjunctive meanings, i. e. expresses uncertainty, intention, proba- 
bility, wish (may, might, could, would, should, &c.)» and when 
dependent on another verb, chiefly expresses purpose (' in order to ', 
♦ that ')• 

100. ka and nga are sometimes inserted between the person- 
prefix and stem, — ka expressive of energy or action, nga of uncertainty ; 
e. %• nkateme, I would go and cut. 

ungawele^ you would (probably) return, 

(6) Infinitive Mood. 

101* The characteristic prefix of the infinitive mood is ku^ uku. 
It is often used as a noun (§25}, and also in narrative (§ 89), and 
in place of a present participle ; e. g. kutemUy to cut, cutting. 

102. A negative infinitive is supplied by the use of ibula (be 
\vithout), te or /tf, viz., 

kuibula kutema^ not to cut, 
te kutema, „ 

kutatema (to not cut). 

(7) Voices. 

103. The characteristic of the passive voice is w before the final 
vowel of a stem, in all moods and tenses, and of the neuter, -eka^ if 
the preceding vowel is e or <?, -ikay if a, 1, //,— as the stem-ending. 
Some verbs ending in -wa and -ka have an active meaning ; e. g. 
temway (i) be cut, (2) like, love. 

104. The neuter does not, like the passive, imply reference to 
an agent. It is often used to express what is possible and practic- 
able ; e. g. chatemeka^ it can be cut, it is cut. 

(8) Verb-stems. 

106. An example of these has been given (§ 47). Their charac- 
teristic form and meaning may be briefly described as follows. 
Each consists of a root and affix. 

106. Stem i. Simple, affix -a (with few exceptions), e. g. tema, 

L.-L. R. r 


107. Stem' 2. Apptiedi affix -^/fi, after e oc a. in thie root, -Uay after 
a (with some exceptions), iy u, but -ena^ -ina, if the preceding 
consonant is m or #1, e. g. temena. This stem conveys any of the 
meanings usually expressed in English by placing a preposition 
after the verb, context mainly deciding which meaning is intended ; 
e. g. temenay cut for (with, atj upon, from, &c.). 

108. Stem 3. Causal, Intensive, affix -ishya (or -eshyuy after e, a, 
and in some verbs a, preceding), sometimes -ya. The affix implies 
force, either as producing (causal) or characterizing (intensive) an 
act or state. As intensive, it may be generally translated by an 
adverb, e. g. very, much, greatly, severely, strongly, &c. As causal, 
it may include any mode of effecting a result, including; suasion, 
permission, collusion, as well as compulsion. 

100« Stem 4. Reciprocal, affix -ana. This also is comprehensive 
in meaning, including mutual, combined action, as well as inter- 
action, reaction, alternation, &c., often translatable. by words like 
* each other *, ' other,' ' mutually,* * to and fro,' * togethec' 

110. Stem 5. Reversive, affix -ula. Besides actual reversal of 
an act or state (e. g. kakula, unbind), the affix may be used of acts 
or states implying change. The stem is sometimes the same in 
meaning as the Simple (cf. English ' loose ', ' unloose '), but in many 
words its characteristic meaning is not discernible. 

lU. Stem 6. Stative, affix -ama, implying more or less clearly 
a fixed state, position, or character. 

112. Stem 7. Extensive, affix -aula^ -ola^ with the idea of what 
is widespread, sweeping, wholesale, thorough, on a large scale, 
promiscuous, but the idea is not always apparent. 

113. Other common stem-affixes, whose distinctive meanings 
seem mostly lost, are -dt/a, -o/a, -nga, -uluka, -muka, 

114. Compound-stems are common, combining the affixes and 
meanings of two or more of the above stems, e. %»fwa,fzuila,fwililay 
tema, temana^ temanishya. 

VERBS > 35 

(9). Auxiliary and other Verbs. 

116. *Ta be* is' represented by the foUoiying verbs — wa, be, 
become ; ikala, continue, be constantly, be. These have the usu^ 
forms of other verbs. 

116. liy be, or with Class i lUy used in a'few indicative tenses only. 
Pres. Sing. I. ndulu^ ndiliy ndi, I am. Plur. i. /«/«, tulu 

2. uluy uli, ' 2. muiu, mulu 

3. ulUy uli, cUi, 3* ^«/'. 
With Classes 2-10, the -// form is used. 

Another form of present is: — 

Sing. I. nchiliy I am. Plur. i. tuchili, 

2. uchilu 2. muchilu 

3. uchilu 3. ibctchili. 
Past Sing. i. tudiy I was. Plun i. twcUi, 

2. wall, 2. ntwali, 

3. wali, 3. ibcUi. 
Other tense-signs used are nga^ ka^ ko, 

117. niy is, are, — an invariable form, used with all person^ 
numbers, and classes. 

118. ' To have ' is expressed by one of the above forms followed 
by niy ne^ or sometimes nay or by kwatay v. own, possess (§ 127). 

110, The verb ti is seldom used, except in the forms : — 
Sing. I. nti, Plur. i. tuti, 

2. uti. 2. muti, 

3. ati, 3. 'dfati, 

and other forms used as conjunctions (§ 131), e. g. atiy kutiy ekutiy 
pakuti (§§ 124, 133). 

120. In Wisa (i) ndiliy uli, &c., is used, not nduluy ulu ; na is 
the preposition regularly used to denote * having, possessing *, and 
// is freely used as a regular verb, with moods, tenses, &c. 

The verb isay come, is used as an auxiliary to form a future tense 
(§ 86). 




121. (lo) List of Common Verbs, 

(For further explanation of verbs, see Part III| Vocabulary.) 

Abuse, tuka. 

Accnse,/iWa,ftf»^Ax,(falsely) ^epa. 
Agree, sumina, (be alike) palana^ 

Allow (permit), Uka, 
be Angry, kalipa. 
Annoy, kutashya. 
Answer, {^y)asuka^apuka<. 
Arrange, longa, 
Ask, (inquire) ipushya^ (beg) loniha^ 

be Bad, ibtpa^ (rotten) woia. 
Be, wa, ikcUa, It, 
Bear, (carry) pinta^ minta, (produce 

Jojmg)/yala, (fruit) twala. 
Beat, pama. 

Beg, lombay senga, papcUa, 
Begin, faftJ^a, {y^amba^ (be first) 

Boil, wila^ wilishya, 
be Bom,^a/wa. 
Break, towa^ putula. 
Bring, leta^ ibuhy twala. 
Build, imaka, {y)aka. 
Bum, ocha, (as fire) {y)akaf pya^ 
Bury, shika. 
Buy, j^f/a. 
Call, ita. 

Care for, take care oiySunga^pembela, 
C&rry t piftfay minta. 
Catch, ikata. 

Change, alula, aluka, sangula. 
Cheat, chenjeshyaf tumpaika. 
Choose, sola. 

be Clean, tua^ (make clean) tuishya. 
Collect together, longana, longani- 

Come, isa^fika. 
Consent, sumina. 
Consider, langaluka, lasa. 
Convey, twala, feUka, 
Cook, pika. 

be Cool, cold,/tf/a, tontola. 
Count, pgnda. 

Cross over, atbuJka, sa:dntka. 

Cut, tema, cheka, sesa. 

Desire, fwaya, kumbwa^ tashya. 

Destroy, onaula, 

be Difficult, afya, kanga. 

Dig, imba, (cultivate) lima^ 

Divide, awa, azvaftya. 

Do, chtla^ 

Draw, (drag) htla, (water) tapa, 

DresB, fttfola. 

Drink, mva. 

be Easy, nakilila. 

Eat, lia. 

Exceed, excel, chila* 

Fail, skyama. 

YdXLfpona, wa. 

Fear, lina. 

Feel (perceive), umfwa. 

Fetch, ibula, twala, leta. 

Fill, /ultshya. 

Find, sanga, (by search) /xvo^dr. 

Finish, shila, mana. 

Follow, konka, londa. 

Forbid, kana, kansa, lekeshya. 

Forget, luwa. 

Forgive, lekela. 

Get, ibula, twala, 

be Glad, sangala, seka. 

Go, ya, {y)enda, ima. Go after, 
konka. Go bejfore, tangila. Go 
down , ika, seluka^ tentemuka. Go 
in, ingila. Go ovX, fuma. Go 
up, nina, kwela, 

be Good, wama. 

Grow, kula, (as plant) mena. 

Guard, pemba, sunga. 

Guide, nongola, 

be Happy, JAT^a/tf, seka, tola, temwa. 

Hate, fata. 

Have, (^«)/« «a, {kti)wa na, kwata. 

Hear, umfwa. 

Help, d^a. 

Hinder, kanga, pinga^ 

Hoe, /{'ma. 

Hold, t^<z/a. 

Honour, chindika^ 



Hurt, (be painfal) somena^ kalipa, 

(injare) lasa. 
Increase, kula^ sandikay (act.) kushya, 
■ Infonn, ibula^ 
Injare, lasa. 

Keep, sunga^ (cattle, &c.) wembela. 
Kill, ipaya. 
Know, ishiy ishiwa. 
Laugh, seka. 
Learn, samHla, 
Leave, shia^ leka. 
Lessen, chepeshya. 
Let (allow), leka. 
Lie, lala, (tell lies) ibepa. 
Lift, inuna, nyamunay imya, twika, 
lAktffivayaf temway konda. 
Listen, umfwilay urnftvishya. 
Live (reside), ikala^ 
Look, wona, lola. 
Loose, kakula. Be loose, naka. 
Lose, lufya^ taya. 
Love, temwa. 
Make, chita, lenga^ umda. 
Marry, Ufa, iingula, kwala* 
Meet, kumana. 
Mend, wamishya. 

Miss, (not hit)/KJ<z, (long for) tashyd. 
Move, (^y)endaf tela, sela, (act.) 

Open, isula^imunaykakula^ shinkula. 
Order, ibushya. 
Overcome, kanga. 
Pass, pinta, pita. 
Pay, tipayfutay (wages) lambula. 
Play, (sport)y»^»a, (music) lishya. 
Please, temweshya, kondeshyay tote" 

shya, Bt pleased, temwa J k<mdwa, 

Point, sonta. 
Possess, kwata. 
Pour, tulula, (away) itila. 
Prepare, teya, 

Vreyent, piftga, kanga, Ushya, 
Pull, kula, (tight) tintika. 
Put, ibika. Put down load, tula. 

Put on clothes, fwala. Put off 

(clothes), y^cw/a ; (defer) lalika, 
heQmx^iWanguJyanya^hita wangu, 

Quiet, teka ; be quiet, tekanya. 
Raise, inuna, nyamuna, imya. 

Refuse, iana. 
Remain, sAyala, ikala. 
Remember, languluka^ kumtmkila 

Repeat, weUshya, 
Resist, kanga, Iwa, kana. 
Rest, tushya, lala. 
Return, jvela. 
Rise, tnuka, ima, (as sun, river) tula, 

(from sleep) 'dbuka. 
be (go) Round, shingtilukcty (enfold) 

pombat (bend round) peta. 
Run, ibutuka, enda lii(bilo,fyuka. 
be Satisfied, tota, kuta. 
Say, laibilay etbat sosa, ti, 
See, wona, 
Seize, ikata. 
Sell, sAita, 

Send, tuma, i/tskya,layisAya,peleka, 
Set, (place) wika, (as sun) wa. 
Shoot, (fire gun) liskya in/uti, (hit, 

kill) lasa. 
Shout, It'la, ama. 
Show, langa, woneshya* 
Shut, isalay shinka, 
be Sick, Iwala, tenda. 
Sit, ikala. 
Sleep, lala tulo, 
be Sorry, sorrowful, tumana, sauka^ 

Speak, lawilay eiita, shimbula, sosa. 
Stand, imat imakana. 
Stay, stop, ikala, skyala, iminina, 

Struggle, Iwa, 
Succeed, (prosper) skyuka, (take 

place of) tela, plana. 
Take, tbula, twala, poka. 
Talk, lawtla, sAimika, sosa. 
Taste, sonda. 
Teach, sambishya. 
Tell, ibushya, shimika. 
Think, languluka, lasa. 
Throw, posa, panya, (away) taya. 
Tie, kaka, 

be Tired, naka, letna. 
Turn, aJula, aluka. Turn round 

(act.), shingulushya. Turn back^ 

V)elay weleshya. 



IJncoytr t/unutta. 
Understand, umjwa, ishiwa. 
Untie, kakula. 
Wait, shyala^ ikaia. 
Wake, ^buka, 

yfw[it,/wqyaf kumbwa, (lack) ^bula. 
Be wanting, chepa. 

Wash, samba. 

Waste, lufya^ taya. 

Watch, pemba, 

be Well, kosa. Get well, ^la, 

is well, chiweme. 
Wound, lasa. 
be Wrong, €fipa. 





122. The Lala-English Vocabulary (Part III) contains the prin- 
cipal adverbs and other particles, and the lists and notes given in 
the ' Wisa Handbook ' are applicable to Lala with few exceptions. 
Among these some may be noted, as characteristic of Lala. 


lomba, now, next, then, but (Wisa, namba), 

Pakutif kutt, for, because (rarely chifukwa, as in Wisa). 

lokoso^ for nothing, gratis, idly, uselessly, merely (in Wisa, waka\ 

kwesUf kwenUy kTvatbo^ (at) my (your, his) home (Wisa, kumyesu^ 
&c.). . . 

masoshi, day before yesterday, day after to-morrow (rarely maso, 
• Wisa, maso), 

inya, zna, yes (Wisa, tnde,yoo). 

$yoo,yoo, no (Wisa,^^/). 

J^am'y kanshiy kaya^ lino^ somba^ chipale^ perhaps, possibly, appar- 
ently (Wisa, kanoy kansi). 

kani, either ... or (Wisa, yangula), 

ne, niy as well as na^ used as prep, and conj. (where Wisa 
uses nc^, 

kumfiva, and, then, so, as a common connective conjunction in 

bay as a particle of emphasis, commonly interrogative at the begin- 
ning of a clause (not in Wisa). 

^^//, in negative ckuise,- (not) -^vex]^ (ill Wisja,jir<i^^»)«. . 


hwiulu (mwinlUf peulu)^ above, lip (not as in Wisa generally, 

kumuiuy mumulu^ pamulu), 
kwisondey outside (as well as kunse ; "Wisa, kunze). 

Adverbs are formed from adjective-roots by using the prefixes^- 
(chiefly of manner, degree, kind), >h^-, mu-yPa-- (of circumstances, 
time, place), ka-^ It- (with numerals). 

^*%*fine^fiwemey well, rightly, truly; kamOylimOy once. 

123. Prepositions, 

The simple prepositions are as in Wisa :— 
-«, of, with concord-prefixes. 

na^ with ; also commonly ne^ niy which are not so used in Wisa. 
ku^ mu, pa^ and (of persons) kuli^ kwa, (See Vocabulary.) 
Other prepositions are formed by using adverbs followed by -a ; 
e.g. kwiuluya^ upon. 
pansipa^ under. 
Pakutbula (followed by noun), without. 

124. Conjunctions, 

Common connectives are : — 
ne^ and, both of words and clauses ; also na (as in Wisa), /^, and 

not, but not. 
lombuy epOy ekutiy kumfwa, kawiliy now, then, presently, next, but, 

so, — according to context. 

125. (i) Dependent Sentences may be briefly described as 
follows : — 

(a) Relative (who, which). 

This, when the subject of the verb is concerned, is represented 

by the verb-form (i) unchanged, or (2) for greater distinctness, 

with the vowel of the concord- syllable prefixed, (3) with one of the 

demonstratives meaning * this ', * that * before it ] 

e. g. wawene^ he saw, also, (he) who saw. 

uwawene, awawene^ ,. . . 

. I \ (he) who saw. 

uyu \uyo) wawene J ^ ' 

126. When the object of the verb is concerned, the proper con- 
cord-syllable of the object is prefixed to that of the subject. 

e. g. waviweney he saw them (the things). 
viwawency those (things) which he saw. 


127. In the case of wa na. It na, ikala na, meaning ' have \ the 
object-concord syllable with its vowel changed to o is also affixed to 
na, e. %,fintufiali nafyo^ the things which he has. . 

128. {p) Temporal, local (when, where). 

hu {uku)y mu (umu), or pa {apa) is prefixed to the verb, often pre- 
ceded by nkUf mmuy mpa (or nko^ mmo^ mpoy mpa)^ 
e. g. nku ukwaile, where he went. 

120. * When' is also commonly expressed by (i) ati followed by 
the subjunctive or infinitive; (2) //, i7/, cht^ with the indicative; 
(3) a prefixed to the verb ; 

e. g. ati afikiy ati ukufika^ when he arrives. 
ill afika^ when he arrives. 
aafikay when (if, in case) he arrives* 

130. (^r) Conditional (if). 

(i) The future tense with -ka-- ; e. g. ukcUya^ if you eat 

(2) a prefixed to a verb-form ; e. g. aibaya^ if they go. 

(3) kuti^ ntif followed by a verb ; e. g. kuti shili patno^ if they 
are together. 

(4) nga^ followed by or prefixed to a verb, and sometimes re- 
peated with the principal verb ; e. g. nga watupakOy nga twaliapo^ 
if you give us some, we would eat it. 

131. (d) As to other dependent sentences. 

kuti is used for ' in order that ' (also the subjunctive mood), ' so 
that ', ' so as to,' * because * (also pakuti), * that ' (of reported 

ifi (c/^> ify^i ^fyo)i *s, like as, in the way that. 

132. Interjections. 

These, as well as descriptive adverbial syllables similarly used, 
are at once one of the most common, characteristic, and interesting 
features of Lala and other Bantu dialects, and also the least neces- 
sary to examine in an elementary grammar. Some examples will 
be found in the Vocabulary. 

E' is common as an interjection, or particle of emphasis, prefixed 
to words of all kinds. 



133. (2) List of Common Adverbs and other Particles. 

(The preposition -a following an adverb indicates its nse as a ptepositionj 
and not as adverb. Adverbs l^ginning with ku- may also be nsed with the 
prefixes /VM- and /a*. See first word in the List.) 

Above, kwhilu {ya, hva), fnwitUu 

{ya, mwa), peulu (^ya, pa). 
Alike, chimoypamo. 
Already, kale. 
Among, pa kati (ka, pa). 
And, nay ne, (In narrative) tomba, 

kumfway tpOy ekuti. 
Anyhow, (at random, carelessly) 

As, nga, ait niy ififi-. 
At, kuy muy pa. 
At onci&y penkapo, lombaypano. 
Back, kununuL, 
Because, paktUi, 
Behind, kunuma {ya). 
Beneath, kunshi {ya). 
Between, pakati \kay pa), 
Bnt, hmbay epOy kawiii. 
By, kUy na, 
Down, kunshi. 
Elsewhere, kumbi. 
Everywhere, ponse^ konse, 
Except, kuntu. 
First, iangUy kamo. 
Formerly, kale. 

Forward, patUanjihy pantanje. 
From, kUy kufuma (>&). 
in Front {pt)ypa menso (a). 
Gradually, pache pachey pamni. 
Here, kunOy panoy nkuy mpay apa. 
If, nga, kutiy {-ko' in verbs). 
In, Inside, Into, mUy mu kati (ka, 

JiaaiylokosOykuntUyfyenke/yOy ndololo. 
Lately, lomba, ibukumo. 
Long ago, ktUe, 
More than, kuchila. 
Much, kwakutiy kwinji, 
NesUfPepi, apepi {na). 

Next, kawiii. 

No, iyoOy yo6y taUy koko, (See 

Not, te. 

Now, letnhay panOy penkapo. 
Often, kawiii kawiii. 
On (upon), kwiulu {ya). See Above, 

Once, kamoy litnd, 

OnXyy fyenkaypenkay pa yekay lokoso. 
Or, kani. 
Otherwise, kumbi. 
Out, Outside, kwisonde (lya)y kunze 

Perhaps, Possibly, Probably, kaniy 
kayaykanshiySombOy sombi.chipale, 

Presently, lomba. 

Purposely, umumbo. 

Quickly, wangu. 

Seldom, ka^nc kamo. 

Slowly, bwino bwinOy pache pache. 

So, ifiy efiy efyo. 

Sometimes, kawiii. 

That, kuti. 

Then, iliy eliy elyoy kulya. 

There, kulya^ palya. 

To, kUy mu, pa. 

To-day, lelo, 

TogeAeXy pamo. 

To-morrow, mailo. Day after to- 
morrow, masoshi. 

Twice, kawiii. 

Under, kunshi (ya). 

Up, Upon, kwiulu (ya). See Above. 

Very, kwakutiy kivine. 

Well, bwinOtfiweme, 

With, nay niy neyPamo na. 

Without, pakuibula. 

Yes, inyay ina. 

Yesterday, mailo. 




This part contains : — 

I. Miscellaneous sentences and phrases, English-Lala and Lala- 

II. A (tentative) Translation of the Lord's Prayer, and the Ten 

III. Stories in Lala, Lamba, and Wisa, with notes and transla- 


Common salutes, usually for courtesy in the plural form, are : — 

(i) On meeting : (Address) mwaoneka f (lit. Are you to be seen ?) 
Are you there ? Do I see you ? Is it you ? (Reply) Twaoneka^ 
you see me, I am here, it is I. Or (Address) mukala shyanif 
How are 'you? (in the morning) mwalala shyanif How did you 
sleep ? (Reply) twakala paweme^ we are well, twalala mutendey 
we slept in peace. Or (Address) mutendef Are you well ? (Reply) 
mutende^ I am well. 

(2) On parting : (going) shyalani^ shyaHlenipo^ kcUushyale^ stop 
where you are, do not move, I am going ; (remaining) kcdwendeke^ 
nga lukafikBy kawiyeni mutendey pass on, arrive at your journey's 
end, a safe journey to you. 

Terms of address: (respectful) infumUy ashikulu\ (familiar) 
wemwamey muvyanji ; (on entering) kalupinfe^ may I come in ? 

Come her^, isa (isani) kuno. 

Tell me, mbulila. 

Who are you ? unani weibo f 

What is your name ? unani shina lyowe f 

Where do you come from ? wafuma kwisa ? 


What do you want ? wafwayendo f 

What are you saying ? walaihilendof uti shanif 

How do you sell (it) ? washita shanif 

Give me food, mpela chakulya. 

Bring me water, ndetela amenda. 

Cut me some firewood, kantemene nkunu 

I do not know, nshishiy shishipo. 

Go away, koya^ kawiya ; (pass on) pintani^ yendani ; (get out) 

What time. At what time ? kasua kali skani f 

How far (is it far) to — ? Nga kutali kufika — / 

Where does he (you, they) live? mu wekalaf waiokuichele 

When will they come back? wakuwela lisaf 

Do not do that, mwickite-fyo, 

I will come presently, nkesa lomba. 

Tell them to stop, ibaibushya kuti mwiminine. 

Wait till I cova^y pembelani {shyalani), nakuisa. 

Come and sit down here, kawisa kale-mpa. 

Pronounce distinctly, shimbula pache-pache. 

Thank you, natota (I am pleased) ; .natemwa (I like it) ; nakuta 
(I have enough). 

Akese, nkoisa kumleta^ if he comes, I will bring him. 

MbuHlani cheibo chonse^ tell me all about it. 

Katuima kaiupitako kepeye kafunda kawawa katemba kafika 
kumushi amashikUy we started and went there and killed (game) 
and skinned (it) and divided (it) and carried it (on poles) and got 
to the village at night. 

Eye wamfyele^ that is my (real) father (mother), 

Tukepaye inatna^ let us kill game (go hunting). 

Teti ndyepOy I will not eat it. 

Utali mupaJu^ he is not a hunter. 

Uli munanda ? is he indoors ? 

lyoo^ waya, no, he has gone away. 

Mult wani mwelbo f who are you ? 

Fweibo tuli l^alala ihine nene^ we are true Lalas. 

Watto Ibali ibana iba ibene^ they are strangers, they belong to 


Ukoisa nanit ni neibOf who is that coming? It is I. 

Muntu okoimoko {uo ukaima uko), the man who is standing 

li^antu ibanaona panuma^ the men I saw behind. 

Chiti chenkecho chapoft'O-ko^ that very tree fell (or, which fell) 

Twakiitala kuichele^ we are tired of waiting* 

Wamposela mu ntenda^ he threw me into the water, 

Mwesheshyafintufyanjiy give me back my things. 

Wantamfya shani ? why do you drive me away ? 

Unkonkelendo f why are you following me ? 

Windeka {^i-n-lekd)^ do not leave me. 

Kujwata koibe kundaleshya neibo^ your idle talking sends me to 

Wangumfwa ? do you understand me ? 

IVomfwa f do you hear ? (understand). 

Panonga {pano nga) napona^ I almost fell. 

Panonga twqfika kwesu, we have nearly reached home. 

Mwilukulaihila^ do not be talking. 

Mukapulushyafintu^ you will scare things away. 

Ulya wonaka, ndingaibutuka ne^o^ that man is weak, I can run. 

Nduli ni nanda shiwili^ I have two houses. 

Taishile kuno ni (or, neli) katnOy he never once came here. 

Uli mutali pamo (or, aii) ni neibo^ he is as tall as I am. 

Uli mutali ni (or, kuchild) ndbo^ he is taller than I. 

Munama mkaya lisaf when will you go after game (go 
hunting) ? 

Tuipushyepo lokoso^ we are only asking. 

MwcUokulaibila ati tukoya mailo^ you were saying to us that 
'we will go to-morrow'. 

Nchito yanji ni kusambiia cMldla^ my business is to learn Lala. 

Tamulukumfwapo fitulukulaibiloy you do not understand what 
we are saying. 

Kuibepa lokosOy a downright lie. 

Kwine nene^ quite true. 


The Lord's Prayer (tentative translation), 
A^atata ^esu, muli kwiulu, 
I shin a lyenu lituike, 
Ufumu wenu wise, 
Amano yenu achitike 

pansi nga peulu, 
Mutupele lelo chakulya chesu icha lelo, 
Mutulekele iitu^ifya fwe^o, 

nga nafwe tuwalekela awatu^ifya^ 
Mwitutwale apakuyeshya, 
Mutupokeshye apa^ipa. 

The Ten Commandments (shortened), 

1. Ne^o ndi Shikulu Lesa wo^e, wiwa na Lesa umbi, neVvro 

2. Wilichitila chintu chonse cha kupapatila, cha kulambila, 

3. Wila^ila ishina lyakwe Shikula Lesa wo^e pa lokoso. 

4. Kumbukila nshiku ya kasano na kawili> iwika pa yeka. 

5. Chindikishya ^awiso ne ^anoko. 

6. Wiipaya. 

7« Wiichita uchende, 

8. Wii^a. 

9. Wi^epeshya muvyowe pa mulandu, 

ID, Wikumbwa fintu fyonse ifyali nafyo muvyowe. 



These stories were taken down from dictation, and the meaning 
obtained for the most part without an interpreter. Perfect accuracy 
In transliteration or translation cannot therefore be expected. 
Story-tellers are not all equally qualified, and (what appear to be) 
confusions, repetitions, and inaccuracies occur. But they are fair 
average samples of dialect and style, and may be used not only for 
obtaining familiarity with grammatical forms and vocabulary, but 
also, if read over to natives, for getting a right pronunciation of 
sounds, and detecting local and dialectic differences. 


One piece (No. 6, Walala), due to Mr. J. E. Stevenson, appears 
to be a graphic reminiscence of a bit of traditional history, most 
carefully taken down ^nd certainly intelligible to natives, but its 
full translation has to be left largely to a future student. 

The first stories are rather more fully annotated than the 
remainder. Lala (i-6), Lamba (7-8), and Wisa (9-12) are repre- 
sented. Two fully-parsed Wisa stories will be found in the 'Wisa 

In the notes references are given to the paragraphs, numbered 
consecutively, of the Grammar. 

I. (Lala.) Kalulu ne nkalamu. 

(i) Kalulu ekuimaka nanda pa mpanga. (2) AATankalamu ne 
^akashi ekulokwiya, ^asanga ni nanda yakwe kalulu*. (3) Mwine 
waya mu mpanga kalulu. (4) Akasua ichihgulo ati a^ele, asanga 
mull nkalamu mu nanda yakwe.. (5) 'Shikulu, wafiima kwis&?' 
(6) 'Twafuma mwenka mu chalo chesu.' (7) Ka^afuma luchelo 
^ankalamu emiikuipay-e-namal (8) Ati a^ele ichingulo ne finane 
ne kuipika chinongo chikulu, t^akalulu chinongo chinini. (9) Chi- 
nongo chikulu adiilunga ku mwichele, ^akululu fyantonto, fyaku^ula 
mwichele. . , 

(10) Uluchelo kalulu ati, * Twendeni kampele ichipa.* (i i) Waya 
mu mpanga ^owilo, ^ankalamu na ^akalulu. Wafika mu lupili. 
(12) Ati, 'Shikulu, ichipa chanji, kamwiya peulu pa lupili, ukunku- 
lushye chibwe chise chipule.* (13) Ati kifuma ku lupili, kilesa ne 
mafingwa, kalulu chenama. (14) Lomba chilokwisa chibwe, kalulu 
kashyeta mavula, kapala mavula ku ibwe. (15) Hi nkalamu afumine 
ku lupili, ati, * Isani kuno.* Kawesa. (16) Ati, ' Kamwichenama, 
chipule mmala.' (17) Efyangapalako fyankamfi, i^ankalamu ati, 
'Mmala chapula mwa kalulu.' (18) Na nkalamu chenama. 
(19) Ati nkalamu chenama, ichibwe chifuma ku lupili, chilesa na 
mafingwa nkulu-nkulu, ekupama apa pa meno a nkalamu, ameno 
ne kukulauka. (20) * Um-m-m ! nafwa, kalulu. Kanshi wantuni- 
paika.* (21) Ati, * Tamwichenamishye.* (22) Ameno onseashila. 
(23) * Katuyeni kumushi, kamukande pa menda.' (24) Na kumushi, 
ne finane fya mchele. (25) Ati, *Tuliepo.* Kafilukuwawa. Ati, 
* Pele fyaku^ula mwichele.' (26) Kalulu ne kumupa fya muchele. 
(27) Penkapo muluchelo i^ankalamu nekufwa. (28) Kawinda. 


- ' The Rabbit ASt> the Lion. 

(i) The rabbit built {imaka, v. infinitive of narrative, § 89) a 
house in the forest. 

(2) The lion {nkalamu is here used in the plural, of courtesy, of 
Class I, the lion being regarded in the story as a person. Other* 
wise nkalamu is a noun of Class 5, which does not change in the 
plural) and (his) wife were passing {ya, iya, v. go, the infinitive 
kuya^ kwiya, with prefixes used in narrative ekulo^kwiya^ §§ 68, 89), 
and came upon (sanga, v.) the rabbit's house (lit. they found, it is 
his house the rabbit). . 

(3) The owner was away in the forest, i. e. the rabbit. 

(4) In the evening (lit. sun (being) evening) when he came back, 
he found there was {muli is idiomatic for Hi mu) a lion in his 

(5) * Sir (said the rabbit), where do you come from ? ' 

(6) ' We come just from our country ' (was the reply). 

(7) The lions went out in the morning to kill game (tpaya, v. kill. 
Emuku' indicates occupation or object. Ipaya inama is pronounced 

(8) When they came back in the evening with meat they cooked 
( fiika, V. cook), (the lion) a large pot, the rabbit a small pot 

(9) (The lion) seasoned (his) large pot with salt, the rabbit (had) 
plain food without (ttfula, v. be without, /ya, of, agreeing with 
fyantonto^ kwdfula^ infinitive mood) salt (mwichele is also pro- 
nounced muchele^ umchele), 

(10) In the morning the rabbit said, ' Come along (enday v. go^ 
tu-ende-niy lit. let us go, you, i. e. suppose we go) and let me show 
you (lit. give,//?, V. kampele^ for ka-n-pehy -pele being the applied 
stem of /a, give to, subjunctive mood) a trick. 

(11) They went into the forest together (lit. the two of them), the 
lion and the rabbit (the plural here of one individual). They came 
to a hill. 

(12) Said (the rabbit), * Sir, my trick (is this), go up the hill, (and) 
roll down a big stone, (so that) it may come (and) pass into (my 
mouth).' (Isa, v. come, pula, v. pass in.) 

(13) (The lion did so and) when the stone starts, it comes on and 
on with stones— and earth— and rubbish (kilesa, for ki-la-isay of 


regular continuous movement Mafingwcty of any worthless 
material), (while) the rabbit (stood) with his mouth open (ckenama^ 
l^£»^pe) a descriptive adverb used as verb). 

(14) Now the stone is coming. (Meanwhile) the rabbit chewed 
[shyeta^ v. chew) some leaves, and spat out the leaves on the stone 
(when it stopped) (chibwe^ ibwe^ may also be written ckilbey iibey 
but the b sound is usually distinguishable). 

(15) When the lion came {fumine, modified stem from /uma, v.) 
from the hill, (the rabbit) said, * Come here.' He came (kcewesa for 

(16) Said (the rabbit), ' Now you stand with your mouth wide 
open, so that (the stone) may pass into your stomach.* 

(17) (Seeing) the chewed stuff which (the rabbit) had spat there 
{efyangapalako^ includes efi^ the very (things) which, angapala^ 
past tense oipala^ v. spit out, ko^ adverbial affix of place) the lion 
thought, ' (The stone certainly) went' into the rabbit's stomach.' 
(Mmalay or mufnala^ for mu tnala^ is treated as itself a noun, and 
the preposition following is therefore mwa^ not a.) 

(18) So the lion stood with mouth open. 

(19) As the lion stood open-mouthed, the big stone starts from 
the hill, comes rubbish and all with a rush, and struck full on the 
teeth of the lion, and the teeth were shattered* 

(20) * Um-m-m (mumbled the lion), I am dead, rabbit. I see you 
have made a fool of me.' {fCanshi includes various degrees of 
certainty, I know, I see, I think, I dare say, I £ancy, &c.) 

(21) Said (the rabbit), 'You did not open your mouth wide 
enough' {'ishyey the intensive stem oi chenama^ open very wide), 

(22) All the (lion's) teeth were gone. 

(23) * Let us go to the village and you can bathe them with water' 
(kanda^ v., knead, foment). 

(24) So they went (the verb of motion is often thus omitted) to 
the village (taking) with (them) the dish of meat which had salt. 

(25) Said (the rabbit), * Let us have a meal.' (The meat) makes 
(the lion's gums) smart. Said (the lion), * Give me some without 

(26) And he gave the rabbit the salted meat, 

(27) And as soon as it was morning the lion died {penkapo, 
i. e. paenka po^ just there, on the spot, at the very time). 


1(28) That is the end. (Kawinda means the child bom last, and 
no other afterwards. Hence, the end.) 

2. (Lala.). A^akombolwe na AATakansuswa. 

(i) Wakombolweekukatana ichi^uzana^akansuswa. (2) Kom- 
bolwe ekuchelela kwa ^akansuswa, kafika. * Muvyanji uli kwisa ? ' 
(3) Mukashi wa ^akansuswa ati, * Mulume wanji lyalile kushyana 
ngoma ya chinkalamutwi. (4) Kanshi ^akansuswa \^ainjila mmin-' 
konka ya mukashi. (5) Wachipushi ati ^apye, ukuifununa pali 
^achipushi, kaima ku minkonka. (6) Ati, ' Wona ! nali mmutondo 
wa Wachipushi, neli kupya apo. Tauwene chipa, kombolwe, chipa 
chanji ? Shipilepo Wachipushi Walya.* 

(7) Uluchelo ati, * Naya.' Wakombolwe kaWaya kwaWo. 
(8) Wakansuswa ati, 'Nane nekansuswa nakuchelela. Kamun- 
teya.* Kawaya kawalala. (9) Uluchelo nekuchelela. Mkakom- 
bolwe mkuswa Wachipushi. (10) Ati walete, nekutangishya 
Wakombolwe kunshi na Wachipushi peulu. (11) Na Wakansuswa 
kaWafika. * Kombolwe ulile kwisa ? ' Kumfwa mkakombolwe ati, 
' Ulile kushyana ngoma ya chinkalamutwi.' (12) Lomba filokupya. 
Ati fipye, nekufununapo. Wakofuma Wakombolwe, kanshi Wapya ? 

(13) Lomba kawepula fichipushi, ati, *Pano twaipula.' Kafishila. 

(14) Wasanga Wakombolwe Wapya. Mkashi mkakombolwe ati, 
* Walitumpaikile mulume.' Ati, *0-o! walile kunshi. Kanshi 
ulitumpile.' (15) KaWelela Wakansuswa. Penkapo Wakombolwe 

The Cock and the (Night-bird). 

(i) A cock made friends with a night-bird {katanay recipr. stem 
of kata^ V. seize, hold). 

(2) The cock went to call upon (chelela^ applied stem of cha^ 
ckelay V. rise in the morning, pay a morning visit) the night-bird. 
He arrived (and said), * Where is my friend ? * 

(3) The night-bird's wife replied, * My husband has gone away 
to a dance* {ngoma y a chinh^ name of a well-known dance). 

(4) Really the night-bird had slipped into his wife's armlet. 

(5) When the pumpkins (which she was cooking) were ready, 
and she uncovered (the pot, in which were) the pumpkins, it had 
got into her armlet. 


(6) (Then the night-bird appeared and) said, 'Look ! I was in the 
pot of pumpkins, but not a bit burnt there (nelt^ not in the least). 
Do not you see the trick, Mr. Cock, my clever trick? (tauweniy 
negative form of modified stem of wona, v. see). I was not burnt 
among those pumpkins {shipile^ negat. oi^yoy v. be cooked, burnt, 
modified stem). 

(7) In the morning (the cock) said, ' I am going.* And the cock 
went home. 

(8) The night-bird said, ' And I the night-bird will make a call. 
So prepare for me ' (teyuy v. prepare for). They went and slept. 

(9) In the morning he made his call. The cock's wife was busy 
gathering pumpkins {mkuswa^ for mu kuswa^ infinitive of swa^ v. 
break off, gather). 

(10) When she had brought them (walete for awalete\ she first 
put the cock (in the pot) at the bottom and (then) the pumpkins at 
the top. 

(11) And the night-bird arrived. 'Where is Mr. Cock?' The 
cock's wife replied {kumfwa, used as connective only, here), ' He 
has gone (ulile^ past tense oi ya, v. go) to a dance.' 

(12) Now (the pumpkins) were cooking (/i is used as class-prefix 
of a quantity of things, even when referring to a noun of another 
class, as here ttfochipushi, Qt fichipushi, below). W-hen they 
were cooked, she uncovered them. Will the cock come out, or is 
he burnt ? 

(13) Now she dished up (kawepula^ for ka-wa-ipula) the pump- 
kins, saying, 'Now we have dished them up.' They were all 
dished {shila, v. finish). 

(14) She found the cock burnt. The cock's wife said, * You made 
a fool of my husband.' Said the night-bird, ' Oh ! Oh ! he went 
(himself) to the bottom (of the pot). Of course he was a fool' 
{waltle, past tense oiya, v. go ; ulitumpile from tumpa, v.). 

(15) And the night-bird went home again. The cock died on 
the spot (/way v. die). 

3. (Lala.) Shikiwangwe ne nkense. 

(i) >^ashikiwangwe ekwiya kuli kalulu, ati, 'Wemwame, nkense 

nshiishipo, umtwale nkaishiwe.' Kalulu ati, ' Ndiishi. Twende 

nkaku^ule.' (2) Ekufika ku nika ikulu, kasanga ikiti kilile pa 

menda. Ati, ' Nina uku kwiulu. Naya.' (3) Kakaya kalulu kuli 


nkense. Ati, ' Ne^o, shikulu, nawonapo inama,' Wahkense atf^ 
' Ishina nindo ? ' Kalulu ati, ' Ki^awala ' (imbi ati ni shikiwangw^). 
Kawaya. (4) Kalulu ati, 'Woneni.' Ichinshingwa chaya pa 
menda, umwine uli kwiulu ku chiti chikontamine pa men4a. 
Kalulu ati/Tamuwene?' — ukusonta ichinshingwa cha shikiwangwe^ 
chili pa menda. Wankense kawe^ila. (5) Kalulu ati, ^ Towene, 
shikiwangwe, nkense iwipushya ? ' Shikiwangwe ati, * Shimwishi.' 
(6) Wankense kawatumpuka. ' Wamtumpaika, kalulu.' Kalulu 
ati, 'Ngilya nama epoile mwaishyapo pa menda.' Wankense 
kawe^ila. (7) Kalulu ati| *Tomuwene, shikiwangwe, ngu uli pa 
menda?' Wankense kawatumpuka, ati, 'Taipo.' Kalulu ati, 
'Epoile, mwaishyapo. Tuchewepo, Wankense/ (8) Wasai^fa 
epoile kanshi chinshingwa, inama ili kwiulu. Kawalema, ^ake&se 
ati, ' Yakanga« Na^elela. Nga lukafike, kalulu.' Kawaya kwai^o 

(9) Kalulu ati, ^ Seluka, shikiwangwe^ ngilya nkense. Toiwene 
ngilya yaya ? Twende, nawe waishiwa.' Na kumushi. Shikiwangwe 
ati, ' Naishiwa lelo nkense ituikata.' Penkapo chapela. 

The Bushbuck and the Leopard^ 

(i) The bushbuck went to the rabbit, and said, ' My friend, I do 
not know the leopard (by sight). Bring him that I may know 
(him).' The rabbit said, 'I know him, come along and let me 
show you.' (IsAtf ishiwa^ v. know ; ibula^ convey information, tell.) 

(2) They arrived at a large river, and found a tree^ which spread 
over the water. Said (the rabbit), * Climb up there. I'm off.* 
{Sanga, v. come upon, find. Ka is used as a connective in narrative 
without person-prefixes, la, v. go, past tense, 'Hie for li-ytle.) 

(3) The rabbit went to the leopard, and said, 'I, sir, have seen 
game.' The leopard said, ' What is its name ? ' The rabbit said, 
' Ki^awala ' (another name for bushbuck). They went off. 

(4) The rabbit said, * Look.' The reflection of the bushbuck fell 
on the water, he himself was up in the tree which bent over the 
water, {Ichinshingwa^ shadow, picture, here reflected image, 
Kontamoy v. crouch over.) The rabbit said, * Don't you see him ? ' — 
pointing to the reflection of the bushbuck in the water. The 
leopard dived in. {Sonia, v. point, infinitive used as present 
participle; i'd/ila^ v, dive, ka-wa-itbild,) 



(5) The rabbit said, ' Don't you see him, Bushbuck, the leopard 
you asked about?' {Towene^ for ia-u-wene, from wene, wana, 
V. see, Iwipushya^ i-u-ipushya^ which you asked about.) The 
bushbuck said, * I don't know (him).* 

(6) The leopard came to the surface. 'You have made a fool of 
me, Rabbit.* The rabbit said, * That 's the animal, there 's where he 
went, you have left him there in the water.* {Epoile, for epOj it is 
there ; iyile, he went, from j^dr, v. go. Shya^ for shia^ leave.) The 
leopard dived (again). 

(7) The rabbit said, * Don't you see' him, Bushbuck ? that 's him 
in the water.* The leopard canie up again, saying, *He is not 
there.' The rabbit said, * That 's where he went, you have left him 
there. Let us look carefully. Leopard.' 

(8) They found where he went was really a reflection, the animal 
was up above. The leopard was tired and said, ' It is too much 
(for me). I am going back. Good-bye, Rabbit.' And the leopard 
went off home. {Kanga, v. baffle, overcome. Nga lukaftke^ a 
common form of leave-taking. *I hope your journey (ulwendo. 
understood) may end well.* Jika, v. arrive). 

(9) The rabbit said, * Come down, Bushbuck. That 's the 
leopard. Don't you see it ? That *s it, going away. Come along, 
and (now) you know (it).' So they came to the village, and the. 
bushbuck said, * I know now (leloy to-day) the leopard which 
catches us.' 

That is the end. 

4. (Lala.) Wanguni na ^ankwashi. 

(i) Wanguni ekuikalana ichi^uza na \^ankwashi. Kasosa 
ekwiya kuli ^ankwashi, ati, ' Wanguni ^^alukumtukeni, ati, Mush- 
ipwa nkwashi. Neli kundetelapo isawi, woyu ! ' Ati, * Efyalukun- 
tuka, ati fyenkefyo.' Kaima kasosa, kaya kuli Wanguni, kafika. 
Ati ' Mwe^o ^alukumtuka wankwashi, ati, Mushipwa nguni, neli 
kundetelapo ^uchi, woyu ! ' 

(2) Wanguni kawapinta mitondo ingi itatu ya ^uchi, ka^atwala 
kwa wankwashi, ka^apika. *Wawoneka, Wanguni.' Na^o ati, 
* Twawoneka.' Ka^ekala, nesawi ka^ateweta, i^akalya. Nguni 
ati, * Mwemwame Wankwashi, nindo mwalukuntukila ? ' Ati, * Mbo 
walawile.* Sdsa ati, *Nane, ni sosa, shambulile.' Ati, *Wufi. 
New'o shyakutukilepo.' Wanguni ka^elela nesawi kwa^i'O. 


' ^ (3) Kakafika kasosa kwa^^anguni, ati, *Wailgunij m\ydna wa 
^ankwashi wafwa ku luwola Iwa lushithu. Wankwashi i^alokwisa 
mkukwipaya/ Kakafutnako kasosa^ kakafika kwa \^ankwasl;ii, ati, 
'Wankwashi.* Ati, 'U wo*. Ati, 'Wanguni, mwana wao w^fwa 
ku munga w-e-sawi, Walokwisa ukumwipayeni wankwashi.* Wank- 
washi kawema na \^antu wa^o, a^engi kwakuti, wanguni kawema,, 
a^engi kwakuti. (4) Kasosa kakaya mu nshila^ kaiocha kisompe 
ne mulilo, kakafika kuli Wanguni, ati, 'Tamuweneko mulilo?* 
Ekulanga i^angiini. Ati, * Ni wankwashi, e^vaocha. Walukwisa 
a^engi ^ene nene kukuipaya Wanguni.* Kakaya kuli ^ankwashij 
mu nshila kakocha kisompe, ku^alukutuliJa Wanguni. Kakaya 
kakafika panshila kakakumana na Wankwashi. Ati, 'Tamweneko 
mulilo ? Waocha wanguni, ivalokwisa ukumwipaya, tvankwashi*' 

(5) Kafikumana, na Wanguni na \^ankwashi, ^alukulasana, i^alu- 
kuipayana, ^alukuipayana. Umuntu wa kwa Wanguni kafwa, 
muntu wa Wankwashi kafwa. Ne Iwine uluwo ku ishililo, ka^a- 
chileka ukulwa ne kutula amata pansi. 

(6) Wankwashi ati, * We chi^uza wanji, wenguni, nindo yatalefi ?* 
Wanguni ati, * Chambula ni kasosa, e^ambulane.* Ati^ * Nane ne- 
nkwashi, sosa waisa kwanji, ati, Mwana ^a nguni ulifwile, wafwa ku 
munga w-e-sawi.' Ati, * Nane ewambula ni sosa, ati, Mwana wa 
nkwashi wafwa ku luwola Iwa lushimu. Walokwisa Wankwashi 
^w'amwipayeni mwe^anguni.* Ati, * Nane nenkwashi nane efyambula. 
Ati, Walokwisa kuipaya.' 

(7) Ka^amwikata kasosa, ka^amwipaya. Ati, ' Ewa wa^epa.' 

The Honey-bird and the Stork. 
(i) The honey-bird and the stork were great friends. The tell»- 
tale {kasosa, a small bird) went to the stork and said, *The honey- 
bird keeps on abusing you. He says, " The stork is a brute ! Not 
to bring me a single fish! The wretch!'* (says he). That's the 
way. he abuses you, just like that.* Off goes the tell-tale, and went 
to the honey-bird, and arrived and said, * You, the stork keeps on 
abusing you. He says, " The honey-bird is a brute ! Not to bring 
me a scrap of honey, the wretch ! " ' {Tuka, v. abuse, with affix -eni, 
of second person plur. as well as m, mu, of the object of the verb, 
Kundetetapo, for ku-n-leiela-pd, ixova lefa^ bring. Woyu, an 
expletive form of demonstrative.) 
< (2) The honey-bird took a number of pots (three) of honey, and 


carried them to the stork, and arrived. * Is that you, Honey-bird ? * 
He answered, *Yes, here I am.' They sat down, and he made 
him a present of fish, and they had a meal. The honey-bird said, 
*My friend Stork, why do you keep abusing me?' Said he, 

* That 's the fellow who told (you).' The tell-tale said, * What, me ! 
I'm Tell-tale, I did not tell him/ Said the stork, * It's a lie. I 
never abused you.' So the honey-bird went back home with the 

(3) The tell-tale came to the honey-bird's house, and said, 

* Honey-bird, the stork's child has died by the sting of a bee. The 
stork is coming to kill you.' Then the tell-tale went off and came 
to the stork's house, and said, * Stork.' *This is he' (said the 
stork). * The honey-bird, his child has died by the prickle of a 
fish. He is coming to kill you, Stork.' The stork started off and 
his people, a great many. And the honey-bird started off (with) 
a great many people. {Kaibefna^ for kaiba-ima^ 

(4) The tell-tale went along the road, and burnt some grass with 
fire. And he came to the honey-bird and said, ' Don't you see the 
fire there ! ' And he showed the honey-bird, and said, ' It is the 
stork, he burnt (the grass). They are coming, a great lot of them, 
to kill the honey-birds.' And he went to the stork, and on the 
road he set fire to the grass (near) where the honey-birds were 
camping. And he went and arrived, and on the road met the 
storks, and said, *Do you not see fire there? The honey-birds 
lighted (the grass). They are coming to kill you storks.' (Kuiha" 
lukutulila^ from tulay v. lay down a load, rest, camp— present tense 
of the applied stem, with ku as relative prefix.) 

(5) They met, the honey-birds and the storks, and set to 
wounding each other, and fighting and fighting. A man on the 
honey-birds' side was killed, and a man of the storks was killed. 
And (it was) a real hard struggle to the end, and at last they left 
off struggling and laid down their bows and arrows. {Kqfikumanay 
kumana^ v. meet together, Fi- is used of things large or numerous, 
referring to nouns of any class. Leka^ v. leave off. Wuta^ n. bow, 
plur. ntauta^ or mctta,) 

(6) The stork said, * My friend Honey-bird, what is the cause of 
all this ? ' The honey-bird said, * He who told me is the tell-tale, 
it was he who told me.' Said (the other), * And I too, I the stork, 


the tell-tale came to my house and said, ** The honey-bird*s child 
is dead, he died by the prickle of a fish." ' Said the honey-bird, 
^ And I too, he who told me was the tell-tale, he said, " The stork's 
child has died by the sting of a bee. The storks are coming to kill 
you honey-birds." * Said the stork, * And I the stork, I too, that *s 
what he said to me. He said, " They are coming to kill you." ' 
(Yatcdefiy iox ya-tcUa-ifiy tala, v. make, cause. Ifiy these things. 
Ewambulaney from iJbulay v. inform, with ^-, prefix of emphasis, 
and "He (if rightly written) for riewo^ I. Thus e-wa-n-tbula-ne^ 
"He repeating and emphasizing the »-, person-prefix of object.) 
(7) And they seized the tell-tale andi killed him. They said, 

* You are a liar.' {fiwa^ perhaps e- of emphasis; wa^ v. be ; i. e. you 
are indeed. Watbepa, he lies, he who lies, a liar.) 

5. (Lala.) Infumu na kalulu. 

(i) Infumu ekukumb-o-walwa. Kakalulu kakali kwakwe. Infumu 
ati, 'Keteni ^kalulu ^ese ^anwe uwalwa.' Ka^esa kakalulu 
ka^afika kunfumu. Ati ^afike, infumu ati, ' Muli ^anga ? ' Kalulu 
ati, 'Tuli ^asano/ Infumu ati, 'Ni wani muli na^o?' Kalulu 
ati, ^ Na \^anne, ne ^achilulu ishilu.^ Infumu ati, ^ Kalulu, kamwiya 
ku muko wanji, mkampokele ng'ombe.* Kawanany-e-nshima, ati, 

* Mpinte ne finane.' 

(2) Na ^achilulu ishilu na kakalulu kachenjele ka^afika ku nika 
ikulu. Kalulu ati, ^Mwe^me, na tuposepo inshima pa menda.' 
Kakalulu kawa^la ichifwasa kakaposa pa menda. Wachilulu 
ishilu ka^ula inshima kakaposa pa menda, ne kinane kaposapo. 
Ka^alokwiya, ka^asanga inkomfwa (fisepo) mn chulu, fyankomfwa 
fimbi filipile. Kakalulu ati, ^ Mwe^ame, koswa fiswetele, ifi fifitile 
te fiweme.' Kamtumpaika kakalokuswa fifitile, Wachilulu ishilu 
ka^alokuswa fiswetele. Ka^apinta, kakekala kalulu, ati, ^ Kuifu- 
kuta lya mukulu, tako^ula kamba nkokoto.' \^achilulu ishilu ati, 
' Watumpaika, naposapo pa menda ne chilulu ishilu, napos-e- 
nshima pa menda.' Kalulu ati, ' Ulitumpile.' Kawapako kanini 
kakalulu kachenjele ku chilulu chishilu. 

(3) Ka^apinta, kalulu ati, ' Nga tuikale, tutushyepo, tangendyepo 
inkomfwa shyanji.' Kaka^ula ishifitile ishipile, Wachilulu fiswetele 
fiwisi. Chilulu ishilu ati ^ Watumpaika '. ' Kanshi ulitumpile.' 

Ka^apinta kasanga ichani. Kalulu ati, ' Mwe^ame, kani watu- 


tewete muninga, wise upokeko ichani tiiwawishye muninga tulie.' 
Wakapinta. Kanshi ko kakalulu kapintapo ichani kawika kuifu^ 
kuta. Ka^asanga inchoncho (impampa). Kaka^ulako kakalula 
ati, ' Chikulu ishilu, wise upokeko, kani watutewete inyangu, twise 
tulieko. Towene inchoncho (impampa) ^une ? ' 

(4) Ka^afika kumushi ku chilukwa cha muninga. Kalulu ati, * Ka- 
poke chani chilya chitwaona.* Wachilulu ishilu ka^aya mukupoka. 
Kakashyala kalulu, kakawawa ichani icho chali kuifukuta. Kalulu 
atij 'Palya tupapwa, palya tupapwa, palya, kukumanya yonse 
ng'anda.' Ka^afika Wachilulu ishilu. Kalulu ati, ' Mwe^ame, a^ene 
wa muninga ^alya. Towene mulya monse ? tolamo toto tuninga, 
tu^ashyamo a^ene/ Wekala, tvawona kinongo cha nyangu. 
Kalulu ati, 'Mwe^ame, kapoke mpampa kulya kutwaona, in- 
choncho shyesu.* Ka^aya Wachilulu ishilu, wakashyala kakalulu. 
Kakalia, palya tunini, palya kakaponyeshapo ^ yonse ng'anda. 
Ukufika wachilulu ishilu. Kalulu ati, * Mwe^n^ame, towene ? ^alya 
a^ene washiko nyangu. Shyashila nyangu.' (5) Ati ^ekaleko, 
ka^achipuma chishima ne finane. Kaka^la lusanso, kalulu ati, 
* Katape amenda, twise tusambe.' Kachiya chikulu ishilu, kaka- 
shyala kakalulu kakalia inshima. Palya akakusu,palya napo akakusu 
yonse ng'anda, kakakumanya. Kachifika chilulu ishilu, ati, * Ntape 
amenda (ku lusanso).* Kaituluka. Kachi^ela chilulu ishilu, ati, 
'Mwe^ame, wantana inshima penkapo.' Kalulu ati, 'Walia 

(6) Kawila ne mushiku, ne mbushi kawepaya kenka kakalulu. 
Chilulu ishilu alilele, kakalula amala a mbushi kakawika mumukoshi 
mwa chilulu ishilu. Ka^ucha ushiku, ne finane kalia kakalulu fya 
mbushi, kakafundumuka ulu^ilo. Kalulu ati, ' Walia mbushi ya 
ku ^ukoy taluwa, uli ne mala pa mukoshi i^achilulu ishilu.' Ati 
wafume ne mala, ka^ekatana awamushi. Kakalulu kakainjila 
umo mwajile mbushi. Wachilulu ishilu ka^angila pa wina, 
ka^a^atula ka^a^epaya. 

(7) I^akalulu kakaya ku nfumu iyakumbile uwalwa, ati, * Chilulu 
ishilu walii^ile mbushi ya ^ene, ^alimwipeye. Ka^andasa ifumo 
awai^ile mbushi ya^o.' Infumu kawakapa fituntulu ^anne, ati, 


The Chief and the Rabbit. 

(i) The chief was brewing beer. The rabbit was at his house. 
The chief said, ' Call the rabbit to come and drink beer.* The 
rabbit came and arrived at the chiefs place. When he arrived, the 
chief said, * How many are you ? ' The rabbit said, * We are five.* 
The chief said, * Who are these with you ? ' (lit. you are with them). 
The rabbit said, * There are four and the March hare.* The chief 
said, * Rabbit, go to my son-in-law, and get me an ox.' He cooked 
porridge and said, * Take this and meat (to eat with it).' ( Wachilulu 
ishiluy lit. the mad Big-rabbit. Mkampokele, i. e. mu-ka-n-pok-eley 
from poka, v. take, get.) 

(2) The March hare and the crafty rabbit arrived at a large 
river. The rabbit said, * My friend, suppose we throw our porridgife 
into the water.' And the rabbit took a lump of earth and threw it 
into the water. And the March hare took his porridge and threw 
it into the water, and the meat he threw in too. They were going 
,on, when they came upon a fruit growing on an ant-hill, and some 
of it was fit for eating {filipiley from pya^ v. be ripe). The rabbit 
said, * My friend, gather the light-coloured ones, these dark ones 
are not good.' He made a fool of him (March hare) and was 
gathering the dark ones, while the March hare gathered the light 
ones. They passed on, when the rabbit stopped and said,* In a 
great man's bag, he does not fail to have a scrap of something to 
eat.' {Kamba nkokoto, remnants of an evening meal.) Said the 
March hare, * You have made a fool of me. I threw it into the 
water, I did, I threw my rice into the water.* Said the rabbit, 
*You are a fool.' And the crafty rabbit gave a little bit to the 
March hare. (Inkomfway a, kind of edible forest fruit (Msepo),) 

(3) They went on, and the rabbit said, * Suppose we stop and 
rest here, and let me eat my fruit (before going on).* {Tangendyey 
for ntange fi'lie, let me first eat.) And he took the dark ones, 
which were ripe, and the March hare the light unripe ones. The 
March hare said, * You have made a fool of me.' * It seems you 
are a fool' (was the reply). 

They went on and found some grass. The rabbit said, 'My 
friend, if the people make us a present of nuts, you come and get 
this grass,, so that we may cook the nuts ^kod eat them.' They 


passed on. Really that rabbit carried off some grass and put it in 
his bag. Then they came upon some (sticks used as) spoons. The 
rabbit took some, saying, ^ March Hare, you come and get some, 
if the people give us beans, and come and eat them. Don't you 
see the beautiful spoons?' {Muninga and inyangu are common 
articles of food, here called nuts and beans. Tuwawishye, intensive 
stem from wawa, v.) 

(4) They arrived at a village and (received) a basket {chilukwa^ 
properly a piece of bark, used to carry things on) of nuts. The 
rabbit said, ' Go and get that grass which we saw.' The March 
hare went to get it* The rabbit remained behind, and kindled the 
grass which was in his bag. And the rabbit said, ^ There some 
scraps, there some more, and there, all about the house.' The 
March hare arrived, and the rabbit said, ' My friend, the owners 
of the nuts have eaten them. Don't you see yonder everywhere? 
Pick up the little scraps, which the owners left there.' They waited 
and (presently) saw a pot of beans (presented to them). The 
rabbit said, * My friend, go and get the sticks where we saw them, 
our spoons.' Off went the March hare, and the rabbit was left 
behind. And he ate, and threw here a little, and there, all about 
the house. When the March hare arrived the rabbit said, * My 
friend, don't you see ? the owners of the beans have eaten (them). 
The beans are finished." (Both aibene, plur. of mwtne, and 
ibashikOy appear to mean * owners*.) 

(5) While they were sitting there they cooked some porridge and 
meat. And the rabbit took a strainer and said, 'Go and draw 
water, and we will wash' (lit. that we may come that we may 
wash). Away went the March hare, and the rabbit remained 
behind, and ate up the rice. Here he put a mouthful, and there 
he put a mouthful, all about the house, and it was everywhere. 
The March hare arrived (at the well), saying, * Let me draw the 
water (in the strainer) '. And it ran out. So the March hare came 
back, and said, *My friend, you have just kept all the rice for 
yourself.' The rabbit said, *The people have eaten it.' 

(6) It grew dark and night came on them (lit. mu ushtktt^ 
i. e. (they were) in the night), and the rabbit killed a goat all by 
himself. The March hare was asleep, and (the rabbit) took the 
goat's entrails and put them on the neck of the March hare. The 


night came to an end {kaibucha^ from cha^ v. become dawn), and 
the rabbit ate up the goat's flesh, and rushed off at full speed shouting, 
* He has eaten the goat of the (chiefs) brother-in-law, (but) he 
has not escaped (lit. is not lost, luway v.), he has the entrails on 
his neck, the March hare.' When he came out, there were the 
entrails (round his neck), and the people of the village all joined 
together, and the rabbit ran into the house where he had eaten the 
goat {mwalile^ for mu-cUile^ from lia^ v. eat), and the March hare 
ran into a hole, and they dug him out and killed him. 

(7) The rabbit went off to the chief, who had brewed the beer, 
and said, ' The March hare stole some one's goat, and they killed 
him. And the people whose goat he stole wounded me with a 
spear.' The chief made (the rabbit) a present of four slave-women, 
and said, ' Go away.' 

6. (Lala.) Walala, 
(i) Luchele ewalengele awantu, ukuwashya pano pesonde. 
Elomba ekusandika, lomba ekukumana chalo. Lombwa kafwa, 
katelapo Nkankomba. Lomba fyalo na fyalo kai^akomana 
Ukankomba. Na wafwa, l^ashyala. Kawili a^a na^o kat^ate- 
lapo. Lomba tushi na tushi. Ati ^awe tushi na tushi, lomba 
ne ng^onkwa katelapo. Lomba ne ng'onkwa yati telapo, lomba 

(2) Kumfwa ^ati, 'pa mipando ya ku lesa.' Kumfwa ^ati, 
'pano nfumu shyakomana.' Kumfwa, /Fwayeni mpemba shya 
ku Kankomba.' Kumfwa ^ati, 'Wakalama ^a ku Kankomba.' 
Kumfwa ^ambi ^ati, * Wachishwila ^a ku Kankomba, na mute- 
mela na ^achishika mulilo, na ^achishiswa ^a ku Kankomba.' 

(3) Wati, ' Pano tufwaye wamwene masala, ' Kamwiya mukan- 
kaulepo. Konkeni ^avyenu, mukasanse mukaposeko,' 

' Ba muliweneshye ? Ningati kuli uku^ela.' 

* lyoo, kuweme.' 

* Ningati takulalwa ? ' 
^ lyoo, kulekalikwa.' 

' Mwemwame, ningati ni mpanga ifi ?' 

* lyoo, ingele-ngele.' 

' Pakulala tulo ? ' *Alaa!' 

* N ingat i yatuchenjeleka ? ' * Um-m-m ! ' 

' Ningati ilitufisamile ? ' ' A-a, ni kwambuya.' 


' Ningati ni ku ^ana mu^ela ? Ningati takulimwa ? ' 

' Lekeni ukusala.' 
. >Mwi<^ushya mpanga. A-a, ^alukwenda ifiwi, mwi^ushya 
mpanga, kuti kamulikwenda a^atekanishye. Ni pekotelo. Twali- 
famine polokoso. Tapali nangu nkankoweshya. Kukana uko 
twile, twashililapo. Tuliwoleleko ne t^ana mumala. Kulya kupu- 
puntika. Kulya ni kwikulwe. Tapawoneka ne kutomboka. 

Um-m-m. Wilukulasa. (Kumfwa kawili ati) Wilukulanguluka, 
we mwaniche. Yatusesela, shyatunukula nsuka. Um-m-m. Bo 
mwaniche, ifwe ^antu kawili ukulunduluka. Mapindo kokwete, 
kawili ^apoka. Mbawe ^atupaula. A^a, kamulilishya ukufwa 
kwa kale. Wachishile ^akulu, ne ^akufyalwa mailo. Waku- 
chisanga, tachili cha lelo, chishawa mpeeka.' 

'Pano apo twaishile^ tapali bwino, pawipile. Ifwe ^antu kulya 

na ngufwa. Echikulu pano, esonde. Pantu pali ukwe^a ifiwi. 

A ! kalya kanwa takafya ku ^antu. Tamukufyambaika. Waku- 

fifushyapo lokoso. Fisalaulwa. Ni nkuni mwakufushya ku chipiko. 

Tapali iiweme. Te pa luansa ? Be ku ^ana mubwelela. Ameso 

akokola pa mutwe. Be ili yawa ne uluwo. li kanshi mama 

nga walinshikile. Tulipelelwe pano, tukopauka lokoso. Wakulu 

shyakulawila, mwafushya. Mwakupompapo ne kwapa. Mushi- 

mene ^ando ? Mukokung'owila. Bo ku mulandu ? U-u, namuka 

mulandu omfwe. Mwakulema ni mponwa. Mwakupona lukoso, 



A Lala Chronicle. 

This curious example of Lala has already been noticed (p. 46). It 
appears to contain a traditional summary of tribal history, remin- 
iscences of a great chief, Kankomba, and of a critical moment of 
advance into new territory, perhaps when the tribe was pushed 
southward by the Wisas, and occupied the Maswaka forests. It 
begins with narrative and changes into dialogue, this last ending 
with a kind of duel, in which it is difficult to distinguish the com- 
batants, and easier to see the literal meaning of the figurative 
expressions used, than their actual point. No complete or con- 
nected translation is here offered^ bat notes and suggestions. on 
some words and sentences may be of use to any who. may care 


hereafter to study the text further. It was carefully taken down 
from dictation by Mr. Stevenson, but may of course contain errors 
in writing and division of clauses. 

In (i) chronological stages are marked by the connective lomba^ 
* then, next, after this.' In (2) various speakers are distinguished 
by kumfwa, * then, upon this,* kumfwa waii, * then people said,' 
kumfwa wambi watt, * then others said.' But in (3) the divisions 
have to be guessed. 

^i) Luche/e seems to mean the First Cause, vaguely conceived 
as (i) the Dawn (cf. c/ta, y. dawn, luchelo^ morning) ; (2) first chief, 
so named ; (3) the Supreme Being, Creator. 

EwalengelCy &c., created people (mankind), and scattered thenv 
about here in the (outside) world (pesondsy pa isondey outside a 

Ekusandika, &c. Then they multiplied and filled the earth 
(country, district). 

Kafway &c He died, and Kankomba succeeded him. 

FyalOy &c., (people filled) country after country and together 
formed Kankomba's kingdom. 

Wafway &c., on his death (others) remained alive, and in time 
these too succeeded. 

Tushiy lit. * small villages ' {kashiy dim. of musht)y perhaps used 
of a shrinking of population. 

Ati ijuawey &c. At the period of small villages, an infant was 
Successor, and when this happened a (next) heir (was chief). 

(2) This seems to contain a proposal to set up a paramount chief 
again with all the state and power of the great Kankomba. 

Pa mipandOy &c. (?) * Let us return to (restore) the throne of 
God * (or a paramount chief. Lesa is used of thunder, lightning. 
Providence, a great chief). 
Pano nfumUy &c. * Now (here) chiefs are everywhere.' 
Fwayeniy &c. * Seek out' (all the attendants and various officials 
of Kankomba's court, including) mpembay councillors, head men, 
ibakalamay bodyguard, attendants, ihachiswila (?) door-openers, 
porter, mutemelay wood-cutter, ibachishika mulilOy fire-lighters, 
tjbachishtswa (?). 

(3) The rest of the piece seems to describe graphically the 
despatch of a pioneer party to find and report on ground for new 


settlements, and the discussion on its return, ending with an 
exchange of lively (and no doubt forcible, but not very intelligible) 

Pano tufwaye^ ' now let us search for • • / {masaiay ? mashyala^ 
deserted plantations). 

Kamwiya^ &c« ' Go and make a clearing.* 

Konkeniy &c. ' Follow your friends, and lop trees, and make an 
offering there.* 

(Then follows a cross-questioning of the pioneer party on its 

Ba muliweneshye^ &c., 'But did you look at it. carefully? Perhaps 
it is (only a matter of seeing and) coming back,* 

Lyoo kuweme, ^ No, it is a good country.' 

Ningati takulcUwa^ 'Perhaps it is not a place to sleep (in),' 
{Lalway lit. be slept (in).) 

lyooy kulekalikwa^ * No, it is regularly inhabited ' {ku'la^ikal-ik^ 
way from ikala^ dwell). 

Mwemwamey &c., ' My friend, perhaps it is just jungle.' 

lyooy ni ngele-ngeUy * No, it is quite healthy.' 

Pakulala tulOy ' a place to sleep in (comfortably).' 

* Ala / ' * Of course ! ' — expressing surprise. 

Ningati yatuchenjelekay * Perhaps it is deluding.' 

Um-m-m / * Oh, no ! ' 

Ningati ililufisamiWi 'Perhaps it is hid from us' (? difficult to 

Aa / ni kwambuycy * No, it is excellent.* 

Ningati ni ku ibana^ &c., ' Perhaps it is for your children you 
come back (i. e. why did you come back, then ?). Perhaps it is not 
(fit to be) cultivated.' 

Lekeni ukusala^ ' Stop your insulting questions.' 

The rest may be left to a future translator. Many of the words 
will be found in the Lala-£nglish Vocabulary, but it is often 
difficult to gather the metaphorical from the literal meaning.) 

7. (Lamba.) 

(i) Akantu kakaya ne muvyakwe mumpanga, ne kuli-o-uchi 
^owilo. Ati ^a^ele, nekusanga twenda mwifwasa, Ati kumfwa 


muvyakwe, ' Mwemwame, nwapo amenda.* Ati kumfwa muvyakwe, 
' Kani nwepo, ndukushila amenda.* Uyo muvyakwe nekunwapo. 
Ati anwepo, ichiso kalishyala pa menda. (2) Ne kumushi nekuiika. 
A^akumushi kat^ema ^onse, 'Tukalipile ichiso, tuliikate.' Ati 
i^aye, ^asanga chishiwa ne chiso pakati. Eli ^anga^elako. 
Ati, ^Weleko enka.' Asanga twat^ela mwifwasa utwenda. Eli 
angayapo, nakuinamapo, ne kut^ela mumutwi chiso. 


(i) A man {akantuy dimin. for muntu) went with a companion 
into the forest, and they ate honey together. As they came back, 
they came upon a tiny pool of water formed on a small ant-hill. 
And his companion said, ' My friend, take a drink of water * ; said 
the other, ' If I drink, I finish the water.' And the man drank it. 
When he had drunk, one of his eyes remained in the water. 

(2) They went on to the village, and got there. All the people 
of the village started off (saying), * Let us pay for his eye, and get 
it.' When they had gone they found a lake of water and the eye 
in the middle of it. Then they went back again, and said, ' Go 
back by yourself.' He found the water had shrunk up (into a tiny 
pool) on the ant-hill. Then he went up to it, and bent down, and 
his eye went back into his head. 

That is the end. 

(Ichiso, so here written, represents a pronunciation of the word 
for * eye \ also heard as liso, linsoy iliso, diso, dyiso^ jiso, idyiso,) 

8. (Lamba.) 

(i) Ikanga kalifyala masana. Ati alifyele, ne lusato. Kumfwa 
ikanga ati, ' Tamwenda ^antu muno.' Kuli ^ansofu ka^esa, ati, 
' Nindo kulila?' Ati, 'Wana ^anji ndukulila. Sombanki ichi 
chapoka ^ana.' Kumfwa ^ansofu ^aloleshye ati, ' K&nshi ekiki.' 
Pakufulumuka ulu^ilo. Eli wanges-e-nkalamu, ati, ' Nindo kulila, 
muntu we^o ? ' * Ndukulila ^ana.' * Wemuntu, nindo ? ' * Som- 
banki ikilipo.' Epakufulumuka ulu'^ilo. 

(2) Ekushyala kuli ^ampashi, * Nindo kulila?* Ati, *A^ana 
^anji.* * Nindo ikakatishye ? ' * Sombanki ikilipo chalusato.' 
Mpashi pali walusato na minwe, ekuikata. Ukufungauka, ekufu- 


mapo pa masana. Na ikanga kalisotwa pa masana, aliko. Ati, 
' Towene finachita, na kulwila ^ana ^owe ?' 


(i) A guinea-fowl laid eggs. When she had laid them, there 
was a python I Then the guinea-fowl thought, ^ People do not 
pass this way/ (Tamwenda^ this seems a case of idiomatic change 
of suhject-prefix to object, i. e. tamuenda munOy for ta-wa-enda-mo 
fnuno.) An elephant came up, and said, *What are you crying 
for ? ' She said, * My children I am crying for. I think this thing 
here gets my children.' Then the elephant looked hard and said, 

* Sure enough, that *s it.* And he went off at full speed. Then 
a lion came and said, * What are you crying for, woman ? ' * I am- 
crying for my children.' * Woman, what is it ! * * I think it is this 
thing here.* Away he went at full speed. 

(2) There remained the ant. He said, 'What are you crying 
for ? ' Said she, ' My children.' ' What will get hold of them ? ' 
I think that big python there ' (cAa-f prefix of size). The ant 
went at the python with his haods and grabbed it. It uncoiled 
itself, and went away from the eggs. And the guinea-fowl flew 
down to where the eggs were. Said the ant, * Don't you see what 
I did, and how I fought for your children ? ' 

That is the end. 


(i) Muntu waupile mizi iwili. Nomba wantu tawalikwenda ; 
walikuikala mwilinga. Mbu usiku Nsia^ufi ati, ' Nkoya nje kuwona 
mukashi wanji.' Ngo Nsiai^ufi waima. Pa kati pa nzila waku- 
mana na njove nkalamu, aiti, ' We^o, nga wafumakwi ? ' Ati, * Ni 
kumuzi nafuma.' ' Tautina ne^o ? ' ' Ndatina.' Nkalamu ati, 

* Isa nkuno, nkulye.' Muntu ati, * Yai, linda. Awalinda, nje ku- 
wona mukashi wanji, ana^ela, elyo ukoiza kundya.' Nkalamu ati. 
' Yai, wachenjela, wemunanji. Tawai^ele.' Muntu ati, * Yai. Ne^o 
ine Nsia^ufi. Ukoisa kundya.' Nkalamu ati, * Chawama. Kaiye 
iye kuwona mukashi wowe. Nga nkoikalila kwi ? ' Muntu ati, 
'Wikale mwisamba lya ichiti muli amenzi ayatalala, emu nku- 


(2) Ngo muntu na kumuzi. * Njizuileniko.* A^ati, * Nga wapi- 
takwi ? ' Ati, ^ Naizave mu nzila/ Wamwizuila, na ku mukashi, 
ati/ Nsikofwaya kulala« Njipikileni insima, mpinte. Nawizya nka- 
lamu, aiti, Njize nkulye. £po nakana nati, Ukoiza ukundya, 
ana^ela. Naiwizya n-e-zina, nati, Ine Nsia^ufi.' Ngo mkazi wakwe 
waipaya nkoko ziwili, wanaya n-e-nsima, nokup-o-mulume, ati, 
^ Mwe ^alume \^anji, ukoya kufwaya ukufwa. Laleni, mwakwiza 
mailo.' Mulume ati, *Yal Ine Nsia^ufi, nsikofwaya ukuwepa 

(3) Njo nsima nokupita na mu nzila. Ati, ' wenkalamu we, 
ninawo, naiza. Iza undye. Ine Nsia^ufi.' Nkalamii yaiza, ati, 
* hide, niwe Nsia^ufi, naiziwizya.' Ngo muntu na mwisamba lya 
ichiti, momuli amenzi, waikala pansi. Nkalamu aiti, 'Nomba 
kankulye/ Muntu aiti, *Yai. Leka nane mbale-ndye insima, 
nane nga undye.' Nkalamu ati, ' Inde, lia insima yowe/ Umuntu 
pa nsima walya, wapwa, wanwelapo na menzi, ati, ' Nomba iza 
undye.' Nkalamu yaula ngu muntu, yalya. 

(4) Nomba nayo aiti, ' Kanwelepo amenzi pali ngu muntu ngulya 
Nsia^ufi.' Moyanwa amenzi ati, * Njimilile.* Yamvwa pun ! 
Muntu waikala pansi, Nsia^ufi, ati, TWela undye. Nine Nsia- 
^ufi.' Nkalamu ati, 'Ndolesye.* Yasanga Nsia^ufi na kambi 
ngove muntu nunove. Yalya, ati, * Mbwele, • nwelapo amenzi.' 
Yanwa pa menzi, ati, * Njokwiya.* Na kambi yanya. (Umuntu) ati, 
'Wela undye, nine Nsia^ufi, na kambi ^ela undye.* Nkalamu 
ati ilolesye, mwenzo waiza ku nkalamu, aiti, 'Nsilawona i^antu 
^onse nasila ukulya. Lelo we^o waneng-o-mwenzo. Nomba 
nakulya liwili, nomba nsikofwaya kukulya. Nkowomba njokwiya.' 
Muntu ati, ' Yai. Ine Nsia^ufi, mbula na kambi undye.' Nkalamu 
ati iwone aiti, ' Ngo muntu akonjipaya, Nsia^ufi.' Nkalamu na pa 
lu^ilo. Nomuntu ngove Nsia^ufi na panuma ya nkalamu, ati, 
' Ninda undye, ine Nsia^ufi.* £po njo nkalamu waiwutuzya 
amazua asano na limo, akopenda masano na awili, nkalamu aiti, 
'Napapata, nsia^elele ku mizi ya kumwenu, nsia^eleleko yai. 
Nomba naya ukutalL' 

(5) Ngo muntu wat^elele ku muzi kqmwa^o. Wati, ' We^o, nga 
vindo wondele ? Wa way a ku muzi wa ^antu ? ' Ati, * Yai. Nali- 
kutamfya nkalamu.' A^antu ^ati, * Wufi, wa^epa. Ngapo itaku- 
lile ? ' Ati, * Chawama* Amkoti nko^epa, akufumileni kunze y-e- 

L.-L. H. E 


linga.' A^antu nsiku ikumi ^akoyenda kunze y-e-linga. Infumu 
ati, * Muntu wa bwino Nsia^ufi.' Nokuula nzovu ziwili, ati, * Nsia- 
^uR, uli muntu wa bwino. Watamfya nkalamu. A^antumba ng^ 
ii^apwa kulinjo nkalamu. Nomba wachita bwino. Wakoyenda 


(i) A man married into two villages. At that time the people 
did not go outside the village, they stayed within the stockade. 
One night NsiaiJbufi (meaning * Truthful *) thought, * I will go and 
see my (other) wife.' So Truthful started. On the road he met 
the very lion (the terror of the village), (and the lion) said, * Hullo 1 
where do you come from ? ' Said the man, ' It *s the village I come 
from.' * Aren't you afraid of me ? ' * Yes, I am afraid.' The lion 
said, ' Come here and let me eat you.' The man said, * No ! wait. 
If you wait, while I go to see my wife, when I come back, then you 
shall eat me.' The lion said, ' No ! you are playing a trick, my 
friend. You will not come back.* Said the man, * No ! I am 
Truthful, I am. You shall eat me.* * Very well,* said the lion, * go 
along and go and see your wife. Where- shall I wait for you ? ' 
The man said, * Wait at the foot of the tree by the pool of cold 
water. There let me find you.' 

(2) So the man went on to the village (and said), * Let me in.' 
They said, * Which way did you pass by ? ' * How did you get by ? ' 
He said, * I have just come along the road.* They let him in and 
he went to his wife, and said, * I don't want to sleep (here). Cook 
me some porridge to take with me. I have promised the lion. It 
said, " ril come and eat yoii," so I remonstrated and said, " You 
shall eat me when I come back." And I told him my name, too ; I 
said, " I am Truthful." ' His wife killed two fowls and made porridge 
too, and gave them to her husband, and said, * O, my husband, you 
will be sure to meet your death. Stop here to-night. You shall go 
to-morrow.' * No,' said her husband, * I am Truthful. I refuse to 
deceive the lion.' 

(3) So he took the porridge and went along the road. * Lion,' 
said he, * here I am, I have come. Come and eat me, I'm Truthful.* 
The lion came and said, * Sure enough, it is you, Truthful. I recog- 


nize you.' So the man came to the foot of the tree by the water 
and sat down. The lion said, * Now let me eat you.' ' No/ said 
the man, ' let me first eat my porridge, and then, you can eat me.' 
Said the lion, * Very good. Eat your porridge.' So the man took 
his porridge and ate it and finished and drank some water after it. 
Then he said, ' Now come and eat me.* So the lion took the man 
and ate him. 

(4) After that he said, * Let me wash down that fellow Truthful 
with a little water.* When he had drunk the water, he said, ' Let 
me wait a minute.' He heard a bang ! There sat the man 
Truthful on the ground, saying, * Come back and eat me. It is I, 
Truthful.* Said the lion, * Let me have a look,' and he found it 
was Truthful, the very same man over again just where he was. He 
ate him (again), and said, * I'll just go back and take a drink of 
water.' He drank some water, and said, * Now I am going.' And 
again a bang ! (There was the man) saying, * Come back and eat 
me, it is I, Truthful,* and again, * Come back and eat me.' When 
the lion had looked, fear came over the lion, and he said, * Never 
yet have I seen (one of) all the people I have finished and eaten. 
But to-day you make me afraid; I have eaten you twice, and 
I don't want to eat you any more. I will run and go away.' Said 
the man, * No, I'm Truthful, take and eat me again.' But when 
the lion saw him, he said, * This fellow will kill me.' And the lion 
set off running. And that man Truthful set off after the lion, 
crying, * Stop and eat me. I'm Truthful.' Then that lion ran as 
hard as he could six whole days, and he was counting the seventh, 
when the lion said, * Please forgive me, I will never go back to the 
villages in your country. No, I will never go back there any more. 
I am going a long way off.' 

(5) The man went back to his village. The people said, * Why, 
what are you so thin for.'* Have you been to other villages?' 
' No,' said he, * I was driving away the lion.' The people said, 
*It's false. You are lying. Why did it not eat you?' 'Very 
well,' said he, * if you catch me lying, go along outside the stockade.' 
For ten nights people went outside the stockade. Then the chief 
said, * A good man is Truthful.* And he took two tusks of ivory, 
and said, * Truthful, you are a good man. You have driven away 
the lion. These people here would all have come to an end by 

£ 2 


that lion. You have done a good deed. Now they can walk about 
as they please.' 
That is the end. 

lo. (WiSA.) Zyambakale. 

(i) Umuntu n-o-mkazi wakwe na ^anyina-vyala ^^atatu ^afumile 
mu muzi mu ^ana^o nokuya kuimaka ng'anda pa chonde. Mpo- 
^aikala, ngove mwezi ^anyina-vyala nokufwa. Ngo muntu ati, 
* Yenda, tukafwaye umunda.' Mkazi ati, * Endeni.' Nokupita 
u^ule muchisele, nokuya ku munda wai^o. Wati i^afike ku munda, 
nokukawila ui^ule mu munda ^a^elela ku muzi, nokuya kulala. 

(2) Mailo mukazi wasyala ku muzi, umwanalume waya enka, 
wasanga ku munda u^ule wapya isiku limo mbo u^ule. Nokupu- 
tula nokukaka mmutolo. Paku^ela ku munda pa nzila nokukumana 
na a^ena msumba. Ai^ena msumba a^ati, * We^^o wafuma kwi- 
lakwi lelo ? ' Ngo muntu ati, * Nafuma ku munda wanji, mwe 
\^ananji. Ne^o nalimile mmunda mailo imbuto zyonse, lelo njeko 
nasanga imbuto zyapya, ne^o epo nakaka mmutolo.' A^ena 
msumba ati, * Uko^epave.' Ati, * Yai, chine kantu.' A^ena 
msumba ati, ' Kakula tuone.' Nkukakula ivikungo n-e-nsalu. 
A^^ena msumba ati, * Wai^a ivintu vya mukazi wa nfumu.' Ngo 
muntu ati, ' Yai, nine Zyambakale, nalimile imbuto, akazua kamo 
nokupya zyonse. Mwe^o tamulaona mvi yai.* Ati, * Ku^epa.' 

(3) Nokumkata n-o-mutolo, Capita ^akoti kumuzi, awati, * Twa- 
kaka muntu waii^ile ivintu.* Infumu aiti, * Mko^epave. Kaleteni 
mutolo tuone.' Waliletele mutoto, wasanga u^ule n-e-mbuto 
zyonse. Infumu aiti, * Oneni nomba mulandu woyo umwaleta.' 
Infumu nokukaka mbo ^antu wamwikete ngo muntu, infumu 
nokuula ai^antu ^awili, umwanalume n-o-mwanakayi, n-o-mtumba 
umo nokumfuta ngo muntu u^aikete, ichifukwa i^amwikete utaiwa. 

Nomba waimaka umuzi ukulu Zyambakale woyo. Chapwa. 


(i) A man and his wife and his mother-in-law, three (altogether), 
left the village of their people and went to build a house in the 
forest. There they stayed, and the same month the mother-in-law 
died. Then the man said, 'Come, let us make our way to our 
field.' His wife consented, and they took some millet in a basket 


and went to their field. When they arrived at the field, they sowed 
the millet in the field, and went back to the village and went to 

(2) Next day the woman stayed in the village. Her husband 
went by himself, and found the millet in his field ripe in one day, 
that millet (he had sown). He gathered some clusters and tied 
them up in a bundle. As he was returning from his field along the 
road he fell in with some of the chiefs men. The men said, * Say, 
where do you come from to-day ? ' Said the man, * I have come 
from my field, my friends. I planted my field yesterday with all 
the seed I had ; to-day when I came I found the seed had ripened, 
and so I fastened some up in my bundle.' The men said, * That's 
just a lie.' * No,' said he, * it is quite true.' The men said, * Undo 
your bundle and let us see.' He undid the string and cloth. The 
chiefs men said, * You have stolen the property of the chief's wife.' 
' No,' said the man, * 1 am Zyambakale, I planted my seed, and in 
one day it was all ripe. You never yet saw anything like it.' They 
said, * Lies ! * 

(3) So they seized him and his bundle, and went and got to the 
village, and said, * We have caught this man, he has stolen things.* 
The chief said, * You are just telling lies. Bring the bundle and let 
us see.' They brought the bundle, and found the millet was all 
seed. The chief, * Look now, that 's the business you have brought.* 
And the chief tied up the men who had seized the man, and the 
chief took two (slaves), a man and a woman, and a bale of calico, 
and gave them in payment to the man they had seized, because 
they had. seized a man who was not a thief. 

Afterwards this Zyaipbakale built a large village (of his own). 
That is the end. 


(i) Inzala yaponele pa chalo chonse. Nomba umuntu ati, * Naya 
ukuwamba muchonde.* Nko uku waya wasanga insima nomunane, 
zili zinji zine, zili mulongo, zikoenda munzila ummozipita. Ali 
no^uta wakwe nemimvwi. Wawula ^uta, wafisa. Ati, *Napa- 
pata, ndi nenzala, nkofwaya mumvwe vinkososa.' Umuntu waya 
kuchelelapansi ati, * Napapata, imilileni.' Insima ekulu ati, 'Mwe^o 


mwensima zinanji, imilileni. Umuntu ali nenzala.' Zyafumapo zinne, 
insima nendilo zya munane zinne, zyaya palingo muntu. Ngo 
muntu wawula insima akolia. Nzi zyasyalako, wasia zitatu. Ati, 
Nkopita ntwale a^ana nomkazi wanji ^aye kuliako. Wakaka 
nokupita kumuzi. 

(2) Ku mbali ya muzi wakumana nomunakwe umwanalume. 

* Wewo, ngezi insima wafumyakwi ? * * Kunzila ukuwaila.' * Zikochita 
siani?' 'Zikoyenda.* Ngo uli nensima walifikile kumuzi. 'Wemwana 
wanji na wemkazi wanji, lieniko insima.' 

(3) Ngo awakumene na munakwe ati, * Newo eko nkoya nkulya 
uku waile.' Tawizizye munakwe. Wapita no^uta wakwe, wazi- 
sanga insima zikopita munzila ummozipita. Ali nomvwi no^uta 
wakwe ati, * Ndase insima.* Insima zyavulumuka uluwilo. Umumvwi 
walasa pansi. Mimvwi yali iinji ine. Wakotamfya uluwilo insima. 
Mimvwi yapwa yonse. Ati, * Nga nchite siani ? * Insima zyawela 
pepi, aziti, *Nomba tapali mimvwi, yasile mimvwi.' Mpa pepi 
zyawela, ati, 'Mwule ^uta, mpume insima.' Uwuta wavunika, 
wasyalave mvino. Insima zyaya pepi, ati, * Njikate.* Insima zyato- 
woka uluwilo. Ngo muntu usiku waila, walala. Insima zyaiza 
pepi. Awikile minwe pa nsima. Muwawuka, insima yawutuka. 
Ngo muntu tapali ku^uka akazua. 

(4) Ngo wawene nzo nsima, mwine waziwene, uwaziwene nzo 
nsima ati, ^ Kanje nje kuwamba nkulya nko nawene insima.' Wasanga 
ngo munakwe ulilele. * Nga wachitile siani ? ' * Nalikufwaya ukui- 
lasa insima. Insima zyalikene nkuzilasa.' Ngo munakwe ati, 
' Walipusile, nga walitekenye. Ukulia insima kunakilila.' 

(5) Munakwe ngo mwine wa insima waziwene wafisa u^uta 
nemimvwi yakwe. Ati, * Napapata, mwenfumu zyanji, ndi nenzala.' 
Insima zyawela izinji zine namenzi pamo. Wawula menzi wasamba. 
Munakwe ati, * Wuka, wechipua cha muntu, alanzi insima izyo ziwa- 
liwutuzya nazyo.' Munakwe wawuka. Insima waya kanya, ati, 

* Wula, nane nzino zyanji, nawe insima zyowe. Ukulia insima kuna- 
kilila.' Mbo wantu waliako insima, ngo muntu na munakwe. 
Mutima waikala, wawula menzi wanwelapo. Munakwe ati,. * Yenda 
kumuzi. Nomba tapali kuwelezyapo.' Waya kumuzi. Awati 
ukufika, nenzala yaya. Munakwe ati, * Wona I nga walifwilc' 



(i) A famine fell upon the whole country. A man said, *I am 
off to hunt in the forest.* He went and there (lit. there where he 
went) he came upon porridge (in pots) and seasoning (side dishes), 
in great quantities, quite a mass, passing along the path which 
was their regular track. (Porridge is often in stiff lumps for hand- 
ling and carrying. Here * pots * is used in translation.) He had 
his bow and arrows, but he took his bow and hid it, and said, ' I beg 
pardon, I am hungry, I want you to listen to what I say.' The 
man went down humbly on his knees and said, * I beg you kindly 
to stop.' The chief porridge-pot said, ' Fellow porridge-pots there, 
stop. The man is hungry.* Four porridge-pots came forward, and 
four dishes of seasoning, and went to the man. And the man took 
porridge and ate it. Of those that remained, he left three. And 
he said, ' 1 will carry off (these) and take them (to) my children and 
wife, that they may eat them.* He tied them up and carried 
(them) to the village. 

(2) Outside the village he met a man he knew. This man said, 

* I say, where did you get that porridge from ? ' * On the road ' 
(that he went along). * What are they doing there ? ' * They are 
walking along.' The man with the porridge came to the village 
and said, ^ Children and wife, come and eat porridge.' 

(3) The friend who had met him thought, ' I will go to the place 
he went to yonder.' He did not tell the other man. He took his 
bow, and found the porridge-pots going along their usual track. He 
had his arrow and bow and thought, * Let me shoot a porridge-pot.' 
The porridge-pots rushed off at full speed. The arrow hit the 
ground. There were a great many arrows. He kept running 
after the porridge-pots, (till) all the arrows were finished. Then 
he thought, * What am I to do ? * The porridge came back close 
to him, saying, * Now there are no arrows, the arrows are all gone.* 
When they came back close, he thought, * Let me take my bow, 
and strike a porridge-pot.' The bow broke in two, and there he 
(or, it) was left. The porridge-pots came near again, and he thought, 

* Let me seize one.' Away hopped the porridge-pots at full speed. 
Night came and the man lay down. The porridge-pots came near. 


He laid his hand on one, but as he woke up, the pot ran away. The 
man did not wake a (whole) day. 

(4) The man who found the porridge-pots, the one who found 
them himself, who actually found the porridge-pots, thought, ' Let 
me go and hunt yonder where I found the porridge.' And he 
found his friend asleep. ' Well, what did you do to them ? ' 'I tried 
to shoot. a porridge-pot. But they refused to be hit.' Said the 
other, ^ You were a fool. You should have been gentle. To get 
porridge to eat is quite easy.' 

(5) His friend, that is the man who got the porridge-pots, who 
found them, hid away his bow and arrows, and said, ' I beg your 
pardon, my masters, I am hungry.' The porridge-pots came back, 
great numbers of them, and water too. The man took the water 
and washed. Then the first one said, ' Wake up, you fool of a 
fellow, here they are, these are the very porridge-pots you chased 
away.' The other woke up. His friend went and divided the 
pots, saying, ^Take them, I take these as mine, and you (take) 
your pots. To get porridge to eat is quite easy.' So the men ate 
their porridge, the man and his friend. Their appetites were 
satisfied, and they took water and drank it. Then his friend said, 
* Come to the village. Now we need not come back here again.' 
They went to the village. When they arrived, the famine came to 
an end. Said his friend, ' See ! you would have died.' 

That is the end. 

12. (Wis A.) Kalonga Kalulu. 

(i) Kalulu nenama zyonse amenzi aliavizye, inama tapali kunywa 
menzi yai. Nomba nkalamu yaikele pa menzi pa mumana. Nomba 
nkalamu inama zyalikutina pamenzi. Nomba kalulu ati, ' Mwe^o 
mwenama, nindo pakuti tapali kunywa menzi ? ' Nomba inama 
aziti, ' Kalonga kalulu, fwe^o tatunwa menzi yai, chifukwa nkalamu 
yaikala pa menzi.' Nomba kalulu ati, ' Lelo ^onse mwenama kawi- 
yeni mwiye munwe amenzi.' Nomba inama aziti, ' Kalonga kalulu, 
tukotina ukunwa amenzi.' 

(2) Nomba kalulu ati, ' Kawiyeni kumumana. Amwafika kumu- 
mana, mwiyokuti, Katunwepo amenzi, infumu italaiza.' Inama 
zyonse nokwiya kumumana, zyaliisangile nkalamu mpove pa mu- 


mana. Nomba inama aziti, ' Katunwepo nomba amenzi, infumu 

(3) Nomba nkalamu aiti, ' Ndindo inama zyonse pakuti aziti, tu- 
nwepo amenzi, infumu italaiza ? Newo tapali kuikata inama, kuntu 
njo nfumu ayaiza, njize njikate njove nfumu/ Inama zyonse zyapwa 
ukunwa menzi. I nkalamu yaonda nenzala, tapali kuikata inama 
yai. Nomba panuma kalulu waiza ati, ^ Kanwepo amenzi, nenfumu 
ne'^o.' Nomba nkalamu aiti, 'Kalulu, niwe infumu wa kuchila pali 
ne^o ? Nomba pamenzi mpano syalapo wewo, kalulu. Ne^o nsi- 
kofwaya ukuikala mpano yai, chifukwa we^o, kalulu, auti, ndi 
nfumu ne^o, nenkalamu nsili nfumu. Nomba ne^o tapali kuikala 
mpano yai. Kalulu, awaiza kuikala kumbi uku nku nkoya, awai- 
zako, nkoiza kukuipaya, chifukwa uli nechipwata. Nomba newo 
naya kumbi.' 

(4) Inkalamu yalile, yafumapo pamenzi. Nbmba inama zikonwa 
amenzi zyonse. Tapali kutina. Kalulu watamfya nkalamu. 


Lord Rabbit. 

The rabbit and all the animals could get no water. The animals 
had nothing to drink. There was a lion living by the water where 
the animals were. And the animals were afraid of the lion by the , 
water. (At last) the rabbit said, * You animals, why is it you do 
not drink water?' Said the animals, 'Lord Rabbit, we do not 
drink water, because of the lion living by the water.* The rabbit 
said, ' To-day all you animals just go along and go and drink 
water.' But the animsds said, ' Lord Rabbit, we are afraid to drink 

(2) Said the rabbit, ' Go along to the stream. When you get to 
the stream, keep on saying, " Let us drink water, the chief is not 
yet come." ' All the animals went off to the stream, and found the 
lion just there by the stream. So the animals said, ' Now let us 
drink water, the chief has not yet come.' 

(3) So the lion thought, * What do all the animals mean by say- 
ing, " Let us drink water, the chief has not yet come ? " I won't 
catch an animal till that chief comes along, and then I'll just catch 
that chief.' All the animals finished drinking. The lion was thin 
and hungry. Not an animal did he catclu After a time the rabbit 


comes along and says, ' Have your drinks there. I am the chief.* 
Then the lion said, ' Rabbit, are you a bigger chief than I ? Now 
this water here, you just stop by it yourself. Rabbit. I refuse 
altogether to stop here, because you, Rabbit, say, '' It is I who am 
king," and I, the lion, am not king. Stop here I will not, there ! 
Rabbit, if you come and live at another place where I am going, if 
you come there (I tell you), I shall kill you, because you have 
insulted me. Now I am going away.' 

(4) Away went the lion, and left the place where the water was. 
Now all the animals have water to drink, and are not afraid. The 
rabbit drove the lion away. 

That is the end. 



The general arrangement of words in this Vocabulary is as 
follows : — 

Nouns are given in alphabetical order under the singular prefix 
of the class to which they belong, and the prefix in the shorter 
(monosyllabic) form, viz. Mu (mw), Chi (Ch)y Ka (K), /«, /w, 
Lu {lw)y U (w), /, JCu {kw). The plural forms are indicated in 

Adjectives and Verbs (simple stem) are given under the first 
letter of the root. Derived stems are occasionally given, but in 
general can be readily supplied by the rules given in the Grammar 

If a word is not found under any given letter, reference should 
be made to the note on the letter itself. 

With few exceptions (perhaps lo per cent.) the Lala and Wisa 
tribes use the same or very similar words, the differences naturally 
being greater in the districts most distant from each other, e. g. 
the Wisas east of the Luangwa and the Lalas (Maswaka) on the 
Lunsenfwa,in North-Western Rhodesia, from whose information this 
Vocabulary was mostly compiled. Some words which seem speci- 
ally to belong to this district are marked (W. L.), i. e. West Lala. 
Thus this Vocabulary may be usefully regarded as supplementing 
and supplemented by the lists of words given in the * Wisa Hand- 
book' (Oxford, Clarendon Press, Frowde, 1906). But it should be 
remembered that in Wisa — 

(i) Z, Zhy Zhya very commonly represent 5", Sh^ Shya in Lala, 
and i^the F sound in Lala. 

(2) The longer (dissyllabic) forms of the noun-prefixes are still 
more commonly heard, i. e. Umu^ Awa, Ichi, Ivi, A ma, &c. 



(3) The adjectival form of the verb is supplied by the simple, 
rather than the modified, stem ; e. g. Wisa -fita^ black, Lala -fitile. 

(4) The applied stem always ends in -Z^, and the modified in 
-/f, even when in Lala -nay -«^. 

(5) Some important common words are difTerent ; e. g. — 



Forest Mpanga 


River Inika 


Water Amenda 


Fowl Insumbi 


Egg Isana 


Millet Amawe 

- Uule. 

Maize Matawa 


Thiret Chilaka 


Door Chiwi 


Relish Wuchisa 


For nothing, gratis Lokoso 


Where ? Kwisa ? 

Kwani t 

Yes Inya 


No lyoo 


My friend, fellow Muvyanji 


An old man Mupemba 


Follow Londa 


Be white, clean Tuwa 


Consent Sumina 




■1 noun. 

conj. » 



» adjective. 

s. = 



-■ verb. 

pi. = 



ss pronoun. 

pfx. = 



, » adverb. 


compare, refer to. 


. as preposition. 

foUg. = 

the words following. 


*= interjection. 

Various Verb-stems 

( are indicated by — 

S.- » Simple. 
Md. = Modified. 


■■ Applied. 


Bs Causative. 

Ps. w Passive. 


•* Intensive. 

Act. = Active. 


^ Reciprocal. 

Nt, « Neuter. 


■■ Reversive. 

E.L. s= East Lala, near the Wisa Country. 

W.L, - West Lala, the Maswaka Country. 

Swa. ■» Swahili. 

For. s= Foreign, not Bantu. 

Note,—Ki\<ti many words a reference is given in brackets to other words, 
illustrating or connected with them in form or meaning. 



-a, prp. Of, — alwa3rs with a 
concord-preBx| and so in one of the 
forms wuy yUy cha, fya^ ka, twa, 
shoy a (for a-a), lwa\ /ya, kwa, mway 

A-a, int. Expresses assent, ' Yes/ 
' It is so.' (Cf. inya.^ 

AIwA, Afytk, V. See Avwa, 

Aka-. The longer form of the 
class-prefix /Ca-, used frequently 
before some nouns. 

Aka, 7aka, v. (i) build (house, 
hut), Md. -akile. (Cf. imaka.) 
(a) be kindled, blaze, bum. Cs. 
ashya. (Cf. koshya.) 

-akwe, a. His, her, its. 

A-laa, int.' Of surprise, dis- 
pleasure, disgust 

Aluka, v. See Alula. 

Alula, V. Change, alter, make 
different, put differently, turn aside 
(round, back), overturn, correct, 
convert, translate. Md. -aluile^ 
Nt. alukat change, be changed, 
change into, become (something 
else). Ap. tiluktla, Cs. alushya, 
Rv. alulula, (i) turn over, upset, 
(a) let off, pardon, with "St^a/ulu^a, 
be pardoned, acquitted, Ap. alulu- 
kila, Alulula mulandu^ hear (judge, 
settle) a case. (Cf. sangula^ 

Ama, Y. Cry out, shout, Md. 
'ine, Ap. -ina, Amina fyuniy 
shout at (scare away) birds. 

Ama-. The longer form of the 
pi. class-prefix Ma-^ used frequently 
with some words. 

Amano, Mano, n. PI. (no 
s.) (i) Sensci intellect, ability, 
wisdom ; (a) plan, system^ method, 


design; (3) purpose, resolve, will, 
orders, directions ; (4) advice, warn- 
ing, counsel. Muntu wa mano 
{ukwat-a-niano, uli ne amano) y a 
sensible, capable man.^ Takwete 
amano f he is a fool. Wula amano ^ 
advise, warn, Chita amano, form 
a plan, give directions. Sunga 
amanOf attend to orders. (Cf. 
mulangwe, kalango,) 

Amawo, Mawo, n. (S. Iwo) 
Millet (plant and grain). Wiala 
{minsa) amawo, plant millet. Chesa 
amawo, cut (the ripe) ears of millet. 

Amba, Yamba, v. Begin, make 
a beginning of. Md. -He, Ap. -«7a. 
(Not W.L. Cf. tendeka, iatika, 
tangila, tanga, wala, tula.) 

Ambakana, v. Be (come) in 
contact, form contact, stick to, 
adhere, be joined, clasp. Also 
Ambakanya. Md. -ene, -enye. 
(Cf. following verbs and kuma, 

Ambala, v. Come close to, 
associate with. (Cf. ambaula,) 

Ambana, v. Come into collision, 
quarrel, contend together, fight. 
(Cf. kumana, Iwana,) 

Ambaula, v. Associate with, 
visit, converse with, talk together. 
Cs. Int. ambawiskya, have a long 

Ambika, v. Be in contact with, 
touch, graze. 

Ambukishya, v. Infect (of 
disease), be contagious. 

Amenda, Amenshi, also Menda, 
Menslii,n. (no S.) Water. Tapa 
menda, draw water. 

Ana, V. Ana ibuia^ string a 




bow. j4fta nganat make a (grass) 
pad. Md. -inef Ap. -ma, Cs. 

-anakashi, a. Female. (Cf. kasht, 
nnvana-kashif -lyakashi.) 

-analume, a. Male. (Cf. -lufm, 
mwana-Zume, 'lyalunte.) 

Andamuka,v. Get up and start 
off, start up, wake up. Also 

Andika, v. Be (come) near, 
draw close to, sit by. Md. -He. Cs. 
'ishya, Andika na, andikana^ show 
sympathy (pity, fellow-feeling) for. 

Anga, y. Shine, glitter, gleam. 
(Cf. wa/a.) 

Angala, also Anga, v. Be 
happy (playful, cheerful, in good 
spirits), play games. Md. -angeie. 
(Cf. sangala, sangalalay seka^ 

Angama, "Wangama, v. Be hot 
(of water). Md. -angenUy Cs. anga- 
mishya, {Ci, wila, kawa, selaka.) 

Anguf^a, "Wangufya, v. Make 
haste, hasten, do quickly, be in a 
hurry. Cs. Int. -fishyuy make great 
haste. Also Angufyanya, (Cf. 
wangUf endeshya, kuiumishya.) 

Anguka, v. Be light (in weight, 
substance, worth), be of poor ouality 
(worthless, trifling, mean, despic- 
able). (Cf. following and pua,) 

Angula, y. Treat lightly, dis- 
parage, despise, be disrespectful to, 
abase, scorn. 

Anika, Tanika, v. Put out in 
the air or sun, expose, dry, air 
(clothes, &c.). Ry. anuna, Nt. 
anuka, (See below, and cf. tanika,) 

-anji, -angi, a. My, mine. 

Ansa, y. Lay out, put evenly, 
spread flat, lay down (e.g. grain- 
stalks, grass, thatch). (Cf. follg. 
and sanama,) 

Anaama, v. Be flat, extended, 
lie eyen. Md. -ansemey and as a. 
broad, flat, outspread, extensive 
(e. g. plain, river). 

Anshika, v. Spread out, lay out . 
flat, extend (e. g. mat). (Cf. ansa, 

Anshula, v. Fold up (e« g. mat). 
(Cf. ansa,) 

Anta, V. Anta ntafu, play at 
ball (throwing and catching). 

Anuka, v. (i) Mention, speak 
about; (2) be excited, show strong 
feeling (word or act); (3) be ex- 
posed, Sfet dry, be aired. (Cf. anika, 
and follg.) 

Anuna, v. Get dry (by sun or 
air). (Cf. antka, anuka.) 

Apa, Apo, adv. Here, now, 
this (time, place), there, then, that. 
Penkapay now, at once, on the spot. 
(Cf. mpa, eko») 

Apuka, V. Answer, reply. Md. 
'ile, (Cf. asuka, ipushya,) 

Apula, V. (i) Get on credit, get 
an advance (of goods in trading), 
borrow, Md. -apwile^ Cs. apwishya, 
advance (goods, money), give on 
credit, lend. (Cf. ashima^ kongola.) 
(2) Draw out of danger, rescue, save. 

Aahima, v. Borrow, lend, 
(of something to be itself returned. 
Swa., and cf. apula,) 

Ashya, v. Cause to bum, light 
(fire), kindle. (Cf. kdshya, oka.) 

Aanka, Taaiika, v. Answer, 
reply. Md. -ile, 

Atata, watata, n. Father. (See 

Ati, a subordinate conjunction 
of very general meaning, (saying, 
thinking) that, as (that), as if, like, 
so (that, as), when. Ati ni, as if 
(it were), like, as though. (Cf. /i, 
kutiy kuwatif pakuti.) 

Atimiina, v. Sneeze. Md. 
'Otimwine, (Cf. luaii,) 

Aula, v. Yawn. (Cf. mwau,) 

Avwa, Afwa, v. Help, assist, 
aid, succour. Ngavweni^ Muka- 
ngavwe^ help me. 

Avya, Afya, v. Be hard (difH- 
cult, puzzling, a problem, a fix), be 
hard to get (settle, find, do), be lost, 
be scarce, be dear. Md. -aviU, Cs. 
Int. avishya, (Cf. unia^ kanga.) 

Awa, (w)awa> v. Allot, dis- 
tribute, divide. Nt. awika^ Ap. 




awila^ Rp. awafta, awanya, (Cf. 
kawUy kanya,) 

A^ika, v. Soak, souse in water, 

^^P- A. 

Awiflhi, Wawishi, n. Father. 
(See Wishi, and cf. atata,) 

-ai^o, a. Their, theirs. (Cf. 

A^hika, also Baihika, v. Pass 
across (river), cross over, get across. 
Cs. a-dbushya^ take across, put across. 
(Cf. foUg.) 

Aihila, V. Save from drowning. 
(Cf. pokeshya^ pulumushya.) 

Note* Words not found under B 
may be looked for under "W. (Cf. 
Part I, § 5.) 

Ba, a particle of emphasis, 
commonly introducing a question, 
translatable by ' How about, but as 
to'. Often combined with word 
following, a being dropped before 
a vowel or contracted with it, e. g. 
bokulUa for ba ukultla, becho for 
ba ichoy bifi for ba ifi^ bukumfwa or 
bakumfwa, (Cf. foUg.) 

Bakmntiy JBukumn, adv. At 
once, soon, quickly. 

Bupamo, adv. Together. 

Bwato, Bwela, Bwino. See 
under W. 

Ch-, Chi-, is here used for the 
sound of the class-prefix of nouns 
which (without involving difference 
of meaning) is also heard in some 
nouns regularly as ichi^ and also as 
tchy tyy and as iky^ kyy and kiy 
especially in "W.L. 

Oha-, used as augmentative prefix 
(s.) of size, quantity ; pi. fya ; e. g. 
chalijala, chamnkulu, 

Oha, V. Dawn, rise (of the sun), 
bring morning. Md. 'Ckelty Ap. 
chelay chelelay Cs. cheskya. (See 
Chela and Chelwa, Luohelo, 

Cha, prp. Of. (See -a.) 

Chaka, n. (Jyaka), Year. (Cf. 

Chakata, Chaikata» n. {fya-k,) 
Fruit. (Cf. ikatay chatwala,) 

Chakiilya,n.(j3^a->&.) (Lit. a thing 
of eating, i. e.) anything eaten, food 
(in general). (Cf. lia, lya.) 

Chala, n. (Jyala). Nail (of 
finger or toe), claw. (Cf. iaiay 

Chalo, n. ifyalo). District, 
region, land, country, the earth, 
world. (Cf. mutala, mulundu.) 

Ohalyala, n. {fyamala). Large 
claw (e. g. of beasts of prey), talon. 
(Cf. -chalOy cha-.) 

Chambo, n. {fy-a.) Bait. 

Chambwa, n. {Jy-a,) Cake (of 

Chamunda, n. Colic. (Cf. lu- 

Chandwe, n. {fy-a.) (i) fish- 
dam, weir; (3) a kind of parrot. 
(Cf. chansa.) 

Chani, iohaxii,n. {fyant). Grass 
(in general). (Cf. chisompCy chipiyay 
malenjiy mapelele,) 

Chankamfl, n. {fya-n,) Any- 
thing chewed and spat out. 

Chansa, n. {fy-a.) Fish-dam, 
weir. (Cf. chandwe.) 

Chantonto, n. (Jya-n,) Food 
eaten plain, without seasoning or 

Chapewa, n. (European) hat. 
(For. *Cf. chisotiy chombo.) 

Chatwala, n. {fya-t.) Fruit (in 
general), produce of tree. (Cf. 
twalay chahata.) 

Cha'^n, n. {Jyaibu). Landing- 
place (of canoe), place of crossing 
a river ; (hence, place of) ford, ferry, 

-che, a. Little, small, weak, 
feeble, thin, few, insufficient. (Cf. 
chepa, uchty kache^ chichCy mwanike, 

Cheohi, Cheoho, Int. Used 
interrogatively, asking leave to enter 
or approach, May I come in ? The 
answer is, Ingilay come in. (Not 

Cheka, v. Cut up, chop up. 




Also Chekaula, (Cf. tema for 

Chela, n. {Jyela). Piece of iron, 

Chela, V. Ap. from cka^ v., dawn 
(cf. cha^ chelwa). Also, Chelela, 
(i) Rise early, be in good time 
(quick, too soon). Chelela kcUe, 
get up very early, (a) Pay a 
morning visit, make a call. Chelela 
pansij salute humbly (prostrate). 
(Cf. ckeshya,) 

Chelwa, v. Be late (too late, 
slow, behindhand), not arrive in 
time. (Cf. ckaj kokola,) 

Chembela, n. (Jy-e.) Herdsman, 
keeper of cattle, goats, &c. (Cf. 
embela^ mwembeshu) 

Chena, v. File the teeth. 

Chena, n. (Jyena), Place of 
abode. • 

Chenams, v. Gape, grin, stand 
with mouth wide open, show the 
teeth. Md. 'cheneme, Ap, chena- 
mtna, Cs. -ishya. Also used as 
adv., open-mouthed, agape. (Cf. 

Chenawila, v. Gasp for breath 
(as in drowning). (Cf. chenama,) 

Chenohemesi, n. Sexual sin, 
adultery. (Cf. ukunushif uchende.) 

Chenchenta, v. Peep about, look 
here and there, glance around, be 
inquisitive (curious, prying). (Cf. 
chewUy loleshya, lengelela, lengaula,) 

Chenda, Chinda, v. Commit 
adultery, rape. (Cf. kununa,pom- 

Chende>exide, n. Going as you 
please, acting as you like, freedom. 
(Cf. enda,) 

Chenjdla, v. (i) Be (speak, act 
as) clever, shrewd, sensible, wise ; 
(2) be cunning (crafty, deceitful, 
unscrupulous), cheat, delude ; (3) be 
happy, pleased, contented). Nt 
chenjeleka, Cs. chenjeshya (as above, 
also), punish, correct. 

•chenjele, a. Clever, deceitful, 
&c. (See above.) 

Chenya, v. Make a large plan- 

tation, hoe much ' gromid. Cs. 

Chepa, V. Be few (little, scanty, 
short, small), be insufficient, be 
wanting, fail, run short, be less. 
Cs. chefya. Also Cs. and Int. 
ckepeshya^ e.g. (i) be very de- 
ficient; (a) lessen, diminish, make 
smaller. (Cf. pungula^ atfya, 

Chesa, v. Cut off (ears of 
sorghum), clip, reap. (Cf. tetna,) 

Cheahya, v. Pay a visit to, call 
upon, appeal to. (Cf. cha^ chelela,) 

Cheshyo, n. {fy-e,) (Act or 
means of) trying, testing, measuring, 
measure, gauge. (Cf. eshya.) 

Cheso, n. {Jy-e,) Gourd divided 
lengthways, used as a ladle or spoon. 
(Cf. Ituhoncho,) 

Chewa, v. Fix eyes on, look 
carefully at, look for, search after. 
(Cf. loleshya^ chenchentayfwaya,) 

Ohe'^o, n. (Jyeibo), (i) Ex- 
pression, saying, word; (a) subject 
of talk, affair, matter, business; 
(3) cause, reason, argument. (Cf. 
mtilandu, etifa.) 

Chewula, v. Beckon, make 
signs, call (recall^ by gestures. 
Also Chemaula, ana Cs. chewushya. 
(Cf lowola, lemba,) 

Ohibwe, n. See Ohi'^e. 

Chiche, n. (JUhe). A little 
thing, a small piece, a bit (Cf. 
kache, 'che, chepa.) 

Chiohila, v. (i) Stop, obstruct, 
block the way, make obstacles; 
(a) stop a blow, ward off, guard 
oneself. (Cf. chilika^ tamula, 
shinka, ley a,) 

Chienge, Kienge, n. {fi'€,) 
Lighted stick, firebrand, torch. 

Chifiso, n. {Ji'f.) (i) Place or 
means of concealing, case, cover ; 
(a) secret, mystery. (Cf. mzvihOj 

Chifti, Ichifa, n. (i) Stomach ; 
(a) lump of earth (cf. hq/Uf chif- 
wascL) ; (3) (kind of) falling trap. 

Chiftia^ n. {Ji-f^ Chest, breast. 




chest ailment (pneumoni&, phthisis). 
(Cf, katiwi.) 

Chifako, n. {fi-f,) Cap. 

014fakulo, n. (//.) Thing to 
dig with. {Ctfukuia.) 

Chiliikwa, n. Cause, reason, 
argument; also couj. because of. 
(Not W,L Cf. mulandu, cheihOj 

Chifulo, n. (/-/.) (I) Village 
community under one chief; (2) circle 
of relations, and friends ; (3) smithes 
anvil. {Ctfula.) 
. Chifunda, n. Bundle, package, 
parcel, load of things tied together. 
(Cf. follg.) 

Ohifandu, n, (/-/.) (i) A knot ; 

(2) a strong feeling, e. g. {a) grudge, 

scruple, spite, anger, resentment, 

{b) pity, compassion, shame. (Cf. 

fundikila^ insonu) 

Chifungo, n. {fi-f^ Fastening, 
e.g. button, lock, buckle. (Cf. 

Chifuniko, n. ( /f-/.) Lid, cover, 
covering. (Cf. Junika, funukila^ 

CMfuntu, n. (Ji"/*) Comer, 
angle, sharp turn, -a fifuntUy zig- 
zag. (Cf. funta,) 

Ohifushi, n. {fi-f,) Shoulder. 
(Cf. chipikiii, chipiko^ kaweya.) 

Chifutenuxna, adv. (Walking, 
moving) backwards. (Cf. numa,) 

Chifato, n. {fi-f.) Peculiarity 
of speech or manner, odd, idiomatic 
characteristic phrase, or way of 

Chifw-asa, n. {fi-f.) Small hard 
heap of earth, thrown up by ants in 
grassy open patches. (Cf. chulu.) 

Chikaka, n. (fi-k.) Angry word 
or act, anger. (Cf. chikanif nkansa^ 
chipili, chipwata.) 

Chikalango, n. {firk.) Earthen 
cooking vessel. (For others, see 

Chikalo, n. {fi-k.) Mode of 
living, condition, state. (Cf. ikala.) 

Ohikani, n. {fi-k,) Word or 
act of refusal, contradiction, angry 

rebuke, perverseness, obstinacy. (Cf. 

Chikasa, n. {fi-k.) (i) Large 
foot, footmark (mostly of animals. 
Cf. lukasd) ; (2) mucuna (stinging) 
bean ; (3) animal in good condition 
(fat, sleek). 

Chikata, n. {fi-k,) Anklet, 
bracelet. (Cf. chikungu^ utale,) 

Chiko, n, {fiko). A thing, article, 
object. Mwine wa chiko, a great 
owner, wa chiko adding the idea of 
importance. (Cf. chintu.) 

Chikoka, n. (fi-k,) Brushwood, 
bush, underwood, thicket (trees or 

Chikokolwa, n. (fi-k.) Pro- 
tuberance of tree stem, where a 
branch has been cut off. (Cf. 

Chikoleka, n. {fi-k,) Load 
carried on stick over the shoulder. 
(Cf. temba.) 

Chikoxne, n. {fi-k,) (i) Lower 
part of the back (cf. ukome)\ (2) blow, 
knock, rap (cf. komay, 

Chikondo, n. {fi-k,) Bark 
canoe. (Cf. ilbato.) 

Chikonko, n. {fi-k,) Anus, vent. 
(Cf. muni,) 

Chikonkote, n. {fi-k.) A grass 
yielding salt. 

Chikope, n. {fi-k,) Eyelid. (Cf. 

Chikoshya, n. {fi-k,) Phlegm 
coughed up. (Cf. kola.) 

Chikulimba, n. {fi-k,) Pigeon- 
house. (Cf. inkulimba.) 

Ohikumbi, n. Ch, cha mwera^ 
cold drizzle and light rain in July 
(cold season). 

Chikumbula, n. {fi-k,) (Kind 
of) bird of prey (? kite). 

Cliikumo, n. {fi-k.) Thumb, 
big toe. (Cf. kakumo,) 

Ohikungo, n. {fi-k.) Cord, string, 
thong (of twisted bark). (Cf. /«- 

Chikungu, n. {fi-k,) Ornament, 
usually of brass, for arms or anklets. 
(Cf. chikaiay munkonka, uiale*) 

4tf«*4tf* H* 





Chikunku, n. {fi-k,) Mist. (Cf. 
fufuta.fuwey kamfwa,) 

Ohikupa-kupa, n. {fi-k.) Tick 

Ohikwelelo, n, (^fi-k.) Ladder. 
(Cf. kwela.) 

Chila, V. Be above (over, higher, 
longer, more), overtop, project, ex- 
ceed, excel, surpass, overcome. Ps. 

Ohila, n. (^fild). Dance. (Cf. 

Ohilaka, n. Thirst. (Cf. nmlakay 

Ohilala, n. {fi-L) (i) Deserted 
plantation (cf. lalaS\ (a) the Lala 
language (cf. mulala), 

Ghilalo, n. (^-/.) Case, cover, 
sheath. (Cf. lala^ chifiso, chitwdbu.) 

Ghilambu, n. (fi-L) Wages, pay, 
hire. (Cf. hmbula.) 

OWlela, n. {fi-L) (i) Reeling, 
staggering, unsteady gait ; (2) cluster 
of bees (swarm). (Cf, Ida.) 

OhilQlu, OMlelwl. n. {fi-l.) 
Shade, shadow, (Cf. ^nto, chinshi- 

Chilema, n. {fi^l.) A lame 
person, cripple. 

Chilila, V. Block the way, ob- 
struct, oppose, hinder. Nt. chiiika, 
Cs. chilikishya* (Cf. chichilat shi- 

Ohililo, n. {fl-L) Fire, blaze, 
light (candle, lamp). (Cf. mulilo, 

Chilindi, n. (y?-/.) Deep place, 
hole, pit, chasm, ditch. 

Chilindo, n. (>?-/.) Watchman's 
shelter (poles ahd thatch). 

Chilola, n. {fi-L) Looking-glass, 
glass article, glass. (Cf. lola.) 

OhUolo, n. (>/.) Skilled work- 
man, mechanic. (Cf. mashiri, chi- 
patikOy ckulumanoJ) 

Ohilonda, n, {Ji-L) Sore, ulcer, 

Gliiluka> Chuluka, v. Jump 
(over), leap, spring. 

Ohilukwa, n. (/-/.) (Kind of) 
basket, (Cf. chi^^ lukway mwikwa,) 

Ohiln^i; n. (>/.) Blockhead, 
simpleton, dunce, fool. (Cf. luHfa.^ 

Ohimanto, n. {fi-mS) (Smith*s) 
pincers, tongs. 

Ohimasimasi, n. (fi-fn-) Spider's 

Chimbala, n. (fi-m,) Food put 
away after a meal. (C£ mulaia, 

Ghimbolo, -n. {fi-m.) Hyena. 
(Cf. insuntwe.) 

Ohimbwete, n. {cukum,) Zebra. 
(Cfl imbishu) 

Ghime, n. {fime). Dew. (Cf. 

Ohimeko, n. (fi-m.) Showing- 
ofT, conceit, vanity, boastlulness, 
arrogance. (Cf. meka.) 

Ghimttnda,Ghlmen8]ii,n. {fi^m.^ 
fya-m») Water in abundance, water 
added, e. g. flood, food boiled with 
water. (Cf. menda^ enda.^ 

Chimfim8hi,n.(>i-^.) Knuckles, 
clenched fist. /Vifna r^., strike with 

Ohimina, n. {fi-m,) Mucus of 
nostrils. (Cf. fninaf mona,) 

Chime, adv. Alike, same. (Cf. 
'tnOypamOt palana.) 

Ohimpeleshya, n. {fi^tn^ Deep 
hole, recess. . 

Cbimpalwe, n, Cooked (dish 
of) beans, eaten as seasoning with 
other food. 

• GhimuTitu, n. {fiibantu), A big 
man. (Cf. muntu.) 

Ohimuti, n. (Jfimiii)^ A big 
tree. (Cf. muti.) 

Chlmwala, n. {fimyald). Large 
rock, big stone. (Cf. kamwala, chiibe.) 

Ohinanda, n. {fi-n.) Ornament 
wom on upper lip. (Cf. utundu,) 

Chinane, n. {fi-n.) Relish eaten 
with other food, (especially) meat. 
(Cf. ibuchisa^ chitorjutlo.) 

Chlnanswa, n. (yS-/{.) Rubbish, 
sweepings, anything useless or 
thrown away. (C£ chishyala, 

Chindika, v. Honour, show 
respect (for), be civil (courteous, 




respectful) , com pliment , praise. Int. 
•ishya. (Cf. muchinshi^uUmeJemya^ 

Chindo, Chindu, interrog. 
What? why? (Cf. -ndu, -ndo.) 

Chine, n. {fine). Truth, fact, 
reality. (Cf. -ne,) 

Chinga, v. Stop the way, bar, 
hinder. Cs. chinshya, (Cf. chichila^ 

Ohinga, n. {fingwa). Broken 
piece of pottery, sherd. 

Chingulo, n. Evening. 

Chingwali, n. Smallpox. (Cf. 
inkanga^ intomba.) 

Chingwe, n. Ifingwe). Cord, 
string. (Cf. inshishi, mwando, 

Chinka, n. (ftnka). Goat-house, 
or pen. (Cf. chipata.) 

Chinkawala, n. (fl-n.) Edible 
(kind of) caterpillar. Pepa finka- 
wala^ gather caterpillars. 

Chinkoli, n. {fi-n^ Heavy 
knobbed stick, club. (Cf. inkoli, 
kakolif kati, lusako.) 

Cbinknli, n. (fi-n.) Gourd or 
calabash used for drinking, water* 
bottle. (Cf. chipanda^ 

Ghinkunda, n. {fi-n.) Pigeon- 
house. (Cf. inkunda,) 

Chinona, n. {fi-n,) Whetstone, 
grindstone. (Cf. nona, mtipelo.) 

Cbinsa, Ikyinsa, n. {fi-n,) 

Chinsala, n. {Ji- n.) A (kind of) 
trap. (Cf. chifu, chit em bo.) 

Chinsengwe, n. {fi-n.) Present 
given to dancers. 

Chin8hingwa,n.(^ ».) (i) Shade, 
shadow J (2) likeness (picture), 
image, statue ; (3) ghost, spirit 
(goblin, fairy) ; (4) dizziness, giddi- 
ness, daze. (Cf. shtngwa, mushimu, 
mupashif chiwanda. ckinto, chilelu.) 

Oliinshoto, n. {fi-n.) Pinch (with 
fingers, nails). (Cf. shot a,) 

Chinso, Ichinso, and Shiso, n, 
{finso). Face. (Cf. chisOj linso.) 

Chintantu, Ohintantwe, n. 
{fi-n.) Step of ladder. (Cf. ckitan* 
tilot ckikweleh.) 

Chinto, n. {finto\ Shadow, 
shade. (Cf. kanio, chinshingwa.) 

Chintu, n. {finiu). Thing, ar- 
ticle, object. (Cf, chiko, muntu.) 

Chinwa, n. {finwa). Jibe, sneer, 
insult. (Cf. kanwaf chipwcUa^ inseUf 

Cbipa, n. {fipa\ Clever plan, 
trick, dodge, device, novelty, marvel, 

Ohipala, n. {fi-p.) Bare rock or 
patch. (Cf. ipaia.) 

Cbipale, adv. Perhaps, possibly, 
it may be, or else, or. ((5f, kaniy 
kanshif sambt,) 

Chipanda, n. {fip,) (i) Gourd 
or calabash used for drinking (bowl, 
cup) ; (a) fish-weir. (Cf. chinkuli, 

Cbipande, n. (>?•/.) (i) Piece 
(split or cut off), part, fragment, bit 
{ci. panda y ckichejkache) ; (2) oblong 
piece of bark used for carrying (cf, 

Chipango-, n. {fi-p^ Fence, of 
enclosure, (Cf. iushito, chishipa^ 

Ohipanta, n, (AA) P&im, of 
hand. (Cf. chisasattlo,) 

Chipapa, Chipapwa, n. {fi-p^ 
Outer integument, iskin, shell, rind, 
bark. (Cf. impapa.) 

Chipapo, n. {fip.) Skin or 
cloth used for slinging a child on 
the back. (Cf. papa,^ 

Ohipapulwa, n. {fi-p^ Part of 
the head shaved bare. (Cf. chiweyo^ 

Chipapwa, Chipapa, n. {fi-) 
Skin, bark, rind, shell. 

Chipata, n. {fi-p») Cattle-pen. 
(Cf. chinka.) 

Chipatano, n. ifi-p.) Mutual 
hatred, feud. {(Zi. pata^ chipaio^ 

Chipatiko, n. {fi-p.) Skilled 
workman, mechanic. (Cf. chiloioy 

Chipato,n..Cy5-/0 Hatred. (Cf. 
pata, chipatano!) 

Chipe, n. {fipe). (i) A (kind of) 
basket. Others are known as ulupe 

F 2 




{chiiupe^ kahtpe), chtwia {kawid), 
chitundu {katundu), chilukwa '{ka^ 
lukwd)i kakwiy museU {chisele^ ka- 
seie), luangOt msansOy insako^ kasa- 
nkawalaf musantu, &c. Also (a) 
used generally of a load carried in 
basket or otherwise. 

Chipela, n. {fi-p.) Charm hung 
on a house, to keep off wild animals, 
rain, &c. (Cf. chiputa^ chipupo.) 

Ohipembela, n. {fi-p.) One who 
watches, guards, pries about, keeps 
an eye on; watchman, guard, spy. 
(Cf. pemba,) 

Chipexnbele, n. {wachip,) Rhi- 
noceros. (Cf. ukoii.) 

Chipembwe, n. {Ji-p*) Village 
in which chiefs or ancestors died. 
(Cf. kawtmgo^ 

Chipsxnpe, n. Desire for indul- 
gence (e. g. beer, tobacco), lust. 

Cbipeni, n. (fi-p.) Eyebrow. 

Chipepe, n. (AA) ^^°* 

Chipasi, n. {fi'p^ Light hole, 
window, fissure, crack. (Cf. mbelo, 
chtpunda, pesula.) 

Chipssu, n. (>?-/.) Reed-mat. 
See Mupasa. 

Ohipeswa, n. {fi-p.) Bit broken 
off, scrap, chip, fragment. (Cf. 
pasuka, chtpanae,) 

Chipeto, n. {fi-p.) Fold, crease, 
wrinkle. (Cf. peta.) 

Ghipiano, n. (Ji-p.) Heir, suc- 
cessor, inheritor. {Ci.piana.) 

Ohipikiti, n. {fi-p,) Shoulder. 
(Cf. chifushi.) 

Chipiko,n, (y?-/.) (i) Cooking- 
vessel (cf. pika, inongd) ; (2) left- 
hand direction, e.g. ku chipikoy to 
the left (cf. lulyo). 

Ohipili, n. {fi-p.) Angry word 
or act, anger, irritation, resentment. 
(Cf. chikaka^ chikani^ 

Ghipini, n. {fi-p.) Nose-ring or 

Chipiniko, n. {fi-p.) Tusk of 
boar. (Cf. ingili.) 

Chipishya-xnenda, n. (1) Water- 
boiler, i.e. maid-of -all-work ; (2) 
chiefs youngest wife. 

Chipokolo, n. {fi-p.) Pouch (on 

Chipolo, Chipolopolo, n. (>?-/.) 
Bullet. (Cf. imbaia.) 

Chipolyongo, n. {fi-p.) Hole, 
pit. (Cf. chilindi.) 

Ghipomo, n. {iba-ch,) Clip- 
springer (buck). 

Ohiponge, Chiponje, n. {fi-p.) 
Loop, noose. (Cf. muponje.) 

Ghipu, n. (Jipu). Bug. (Cf. 

CMpukuta, n. {fi-p.) Core of 

Ghipumbu, n. {fi-p.) Cluster 
forming the ear of millet or sor- 

Ghipuna, n. {fi-p.) Stool, seat 
(chair). (Cf. kandela.) 

Ghipunda, n. {fi-p^ Hole (in 
general), aperture (window), fissure, 
rent, tear. (Cf. chipesi, imbelcy 
uliangOy chilindi.) 

Chipupa, n. {fi-p^ Angry out- 
burst (word or deed), retort, rebuke. 
(Cf. chikaka^ chikani, chipili.) 

Ghipupo, n. {fi-p.) Ceremonial 
offering (commonly meal or grain, 
for rain, &c.). {Ci, pupa.) 

Cliipupu, n. {fi-p.) (i) Ghost, 
spirit, rush (or sound) of wind 
passing; (2) cluster (e.g. flowers), 
bunch. (Cf. pula, pulula.) 

Ghipusbi, n. {a-ch^ A (kind of) 
gourd, calabash. (Cf. mungu.) 

Chiputa, n. {fi-p.) Bit of horn, 
worn as charm (tied to head or arm) 
against sickness,, enemies, &c (Cf. 
chipeloy kaputa.) 

Chiputi, n. {fi-p.) Plantation 
of ground-nuts {inshawa), nut- 

Chipwata, n. {fi-p.) Violent 
(insulting) word or act, injury, 
oppression, insult. (Cf. chikakay 
chipili y chinwa.) 

Ghipyango, n. {fi-p.) Broom, 
brush. (Cf. pyanga^ 

Chipyapya, n. Cfi-p.) A new 
thing, novelty. (Cf. -pya^ 

Chirambwe, n. {fi-r^ Swamp. 




Chisa, n. Kindness, liberality, 
sympathy. (Cf. ufyele^ insoni.) 

Chisakulo, n. {fi-s,) Comb. 
(Cf. sakula.) 

Chisalo, n. {fi-s,) Hot season. 

Chisangala, n. {fi-s.) Open 
wicker basket, or cage, for fowls. 
(Cf chipe,) 

Ghisankunta, n. {fi-s.) Cluster 
or ear of sorghum {masaka),' (Cf. 
chipumbUf muson/e.) 

Chisansa, n. (^-s.) A cloth (of 
any kind). (Cf. tn£uo, insalu.) 

Chisapa, n. (fi-s.) River, pool. 

Chisasa, n. Cfi-s.) A thing old, 
worn out, useless, decayed (e. g. 
cloth, basket, mat). 

Chlsasatilo, n. (fi-s.) Palm of 
hand. (Cf. chipanta,) 

Chiaawi, n. {fi-s^ Large fish. 
(Cf. isawi.) 

Chisawo, n. (fi-s.) Edible wild 
vegetable, or fruit, used in famine. 
(Cf. chisepo^ sepa.) 

Chisele, n. (fi-s.) Large basket. 
(See Ohipe.) 

Chisengu, n. (fi-s.) Pit, chasm, 
ravine. (Cf. chilindi.) 

CMsensa, n. {Ji-s.) Source of 
stream. (Cf. chtsomboUf chisewelela^ 
lusensa, iniulo.) 

Chisepo, n. (Ji-s.) Edible wild 
herb, fruit. (Cf. chisaiho^ sepa.) 

Chiseso, n. (fi-s.) Cutting or 
sawing instrument. (Cf. sesa^ 

Ohisewa, n. (fi-s.) Skin, hide. 
(Cf. chipapa, impapa,) 

Chisewa-sewa, n. (fi-s.) Bare 
open space in forest. 

Ohisewelela, n. (fi-s.) Source 
of stream. (Cf. chisensa.) 

Chishika, n. (fi-s.) Ck. tnuHlo, 
lighter of fires, i.e. house servant 
(cf. foUg. and shika^. Ck, maiwi, 
a deaf person (cf. chishinga), 

Chishiko, n. {fi-s.) Stick used 
for making fire by friction, fire- 
stick. (Cf. shika.) 

Cliishima, n. (fi-s^ Well, water- 
hole. (Cf. mukalOy mushima.) 

Chishimiko, Chishimikishyo, 

n. (fi-s.) Story, narrative, account, 
report. (Cf. shimika.) 

Chishimpwilo, n. ifi-s^ A (kind 
of) cooking-pot. (Qi.inongo,shtm' 

Ohishimu, n. (fi-s.) Rainbow. 
(Cf. kongolo.) 

Chishina, n. (fi-s^ Root (of tree). 
(Cf. mushy a.) 

Chishinga, n. (fi-s.) (i) Stump 
of tree ; (2) stump of leg, arm, &c. ; 
(3) stick alight, firebrand. (Cf. 

Chishipa, n. (fi-s^ Fence, for 
catching game. (Cf. lushito, chi- 

Chishiwa, n. {fi-s^ Pool, pond, 
lake. (Cf. chisapa^ chirambwe.) 

Chishiwilo, n. (fi-s.) Mark, 
sign, token, proof, indication, in- 
formation. (Cf. ishiwa.) 

Chishya, n. {fishy a). Flame, 
blaze, blazing fire. (Cf. mulilo.) 

Chishyala, n. (fi-s^ Something 
left, remnant, remainder. (Cf. shy- 
ala, ishyala^ chimbaia.) 

Chiso, Ichiso, n. (fiso). Limb, 
member, (esp.) upper part of leg. 
FisOj physical strength, force, power. 
(Cf. inkosa.) 

Chisokoso, n. (fi-s.) Noise, up- 
roar, shouting. (Cf. chiwawa, saia.) 

Chisola, n. (fi-s.) Game played 
with holes and counters. 

Chisombole, n. (fi-s.) Source 
of stream. (Cf. chisensa^ chisewelela.) 

Chisompe, n. (Jfi-s.) Long 
standing-grass. (Cf. chant.) 

Chisongo, n. {fi-s^ Gun, rifle. 
(For the usual word see infuti,) 

Chisongola, n. (fi-s.) Bare 
patch on head, hair cut short (not 
shaved). (Cf. chipapuhva.) 

Chisongwelo, n. ifis.) Sharp 
stake for digging holes. (Cf. im- 

Ohisoti, n. {fi-s>) Head-covering, 
cap. (Cf. chapewa.) 

CJhisuila, n. (fi-s.) House- 
servant (of chief), door-opener, 
porter. (Cf. isula.) 




Ohisumi, n. (Ji-s,) Bug. (Cf. 
suma^ chipa.) 

Chisungu, n. {fi-s.) Grown-up 
girl, adult. (Cf. mumoye, kamwali ; 
and for younger girl, musimbi, mu- 
lindUi imbuii.) 

Chita, V. (i) Do, make ; (a) (of 
feelings) show in act, exhibit, dis- 
play \ (3) cause pain, hurt. Ch, 
mufwi, aim an arrow. Md. •chitiie, 
Ap. 'ila, Nt. 'ika, Ps. -iVwa, Cs. 
and int. ^ishya, {CLpanga^ l^nga, 

Ohita. n. (fita). War. (Cf. 
inkondOf and Swa. viia.) 

Chitala, n. {fi-t.) Insult, de- 
rision, mockery, importunity, annoy- 
ance. (Cf. chikaka^ chipwata, 

Chitalo, n. {fi-t.) A (kind oi) 
cooking-pot. (Cf. inongo.) 

Ohitantilo, n. {fi-t.) Step of a 
ladder, rung. (Cf. chitantwe^ chi- 

Ohitembo, n. (/-/.) A (kind oO 
noose trap, snare, gin. 

Ohitendwe, n. {fi-t.) (i) Soli- 
tary, deserted condition, loneliness ; 
(2) idleness, doing nothing. 

Chitenge, Chitenje, n. {fi-t,) 
Open shelter, roof on poles only. 
(Cf. muienj'e.) 

Chitewa, n. {fi-t.) Raised plat- 
form for watching crops, stage, 
scaffold. (Cf. lupingwe,) 

Ohiti, Ichitl, n. (JUi), Tree, 
wood (substance), beam, pole, post, 
p'.ank. (Cf. muiii kati.) 

Chitimbo, n. (^-/.) Burial- 
place of chiefs or ancestors. (Cf. 
milyashiy kaibungo^ 

Chitowelo, n. {Ji-t^ Seasoning, 
relish for food. (Cf. chinatUi 

Ohitufl, n. {fi-i.) Dung, ordure, 
excrement. (Cf. iiufi.) 

Chitumbl, n. {fi-i.) Dead 
creature. (Cf. tnfwa.) 

Ohitundu, n. {fi-t^ Large 
basket. (Cf. katundu^ chipe,) 

Chitupo, n. (>/.) Place for 

keeping fowls, pigeons, &c. (Cf. 
chinkunday chinkulimba.) 

Ohitusu, n. {fi-t,) Airs, affec- 
tation, conceit (Cf. ckinuko.) 

Chitu'^, Chitufyu, n. Sheath, 
case, cover. (^Cf. ckifiso, chilalo, 

Ohitwi, Ichitwi, n. (fitwt). 
Angle, comer, projection, peak, tip. 
(Cf. mutwe, cht/unta.) 
' Chiwa, Ichiwa, n. {wachiwa) 

Chiwalwa, n. (Ji'W,) Big drink 
of beer. (Cf. uxvalwa.) 

Chiwambt, Chuambi, n. (fi-w,) 
Patch, to repair a rent or tear. (Cf. 

Chiwanda, n. (fi-w.) Ghost, 
goblin, demon. (Cf. chinsingwa, 
mtishimti^ mupashi,) 

Cbiwawa, n. {fi-w,) Uproar, 
noise, brawl, shouting. (Cf. ckisO" 

Ohi'^awala, n. {fi-ib.) Bush- 
buck. (Also imbawala^ shikiwang- 
we, cAiwosa.) 

Gbiwe, Ichiwe, n. (fiwe). 
(I) Sweat (cf. matukuia); (2) 
warmth, heat (of fire or sun'^. 

Ohi^e, lohibwe, n. {fiite). 
Large stone, rock, boulder. (Cf. 
titfgf kcpdbe^ 

Chiwelfi^ n. (fi-w.) Garden- 
plot, patch. (Cf. c/iiputi.) 

Chiwele, n. {fi-w,) (i) Loud 
shouting, cry (cf. kaweh) ; (2) large 
udder (cf. iwele), 

, Chiwelo, n. {fi-w,) Upper part 
of leg, thigh. (Cf. chiso,) 

Chiwexne, v. It is well, very 
well (Cf. pawemCt fiweme\ and 
see "Wama.) 

Chiwenga, n. {fi-w.) Sore place, 
ulcer, wound. (Cf. chilonda.) 

Chiweshi, n. ifi-w,) Large 
knife. (Cf. luweshi, kaweshi^ 

Ghiweyo, n. {fi-w,) Bare 
(shaved) patch on the head. (Cf. 
weya^ chipala, chisongola, chipa- 

Ohiwi, Ichiwi, n. {fiwi)* (i) 




Door (cf. tnuliango) ; (2) a crime, 
evil deed (cf. -wi,, 

Chiwia, n. See Chi^a. 

Chiwila, n. (Ji-w.) Coney. 

Chiwinda, n. {fi-w,^ Hanter. 
(Cf. inkombalumey mupalu.) 

Chiwomba, n. ifi-w,) Inner 
bark of tree, used for cord. (Cf. 

Chiwowo, n, (Ji-w,) Insult, 
rudeness, discourtesy. (Cf. . cki- 

Chi'vhi, n. {fid}u). Liver. 

Chi^ulu. n. (/-«&.) A deaf 
person. (Cf. ckishika,) 

Chiihilu- wulu, Chiwulungena , 
n. {fi-'tS),) Anything rounded oflF, 
round lump, knob, protuberance. 

Chi^umba, n. {fi-ih.) (i) Mud 
wall of hut; (2) high river-bank. 
(Cf. wdfumba, ibumba.) 

Chi^hiaa, n. {fi-ib.) ( i ) Friend, 
companion, comrade; (a) friendship, 

Chi^a, Ikiv^, n. (A«^-) 
(i) Basket; (2) load. (Cf. chipe:) 

Chocho, n. {fy-o,) Spike at butt 
end of spear. 

Chokolo, n. {fi-k,) Belongings 
of person deceased (wife, goods, 
&c., passing to the heir). (Cf. 

Chombwe, n, ify-o-) Forest, 
jungle, wilderness. (Cf. impangay 
mayamba, Chonde is also used by 

Chono, n. (fy-o.) Large (kind 
of) fish-trap. (Cf. mwano.) 

Choshi, n. {fy-o.) Dream. (Cf. 
lota^ chilota,) 

Chulo, n. (fy-u.) See Ulo. 

Chulu, n. {fy-U') Ant-heap. 

Chulumano, n. {fy-uL) Skilled 
workman, mechanic (i.e. chiibulor 
mano), {Cf. chiloio.) 

Chuma, n. Personal property, 
wealth. (Cf. malt, wdbuitanu) 

Chumbwe, n. ify-u.) Grave. 

Chungwa, n. (jy-u.) Simpleton, 
blockhead, dunce, fool, (Cf. mum- 
pulUf chiluH/i.) 

Chunl, n. {Jy-u.) Bird. (Cf. 
koniy tftguni.) 

Chiifihi, n. (fy-u,) Steam, 
smoke, vapour. (Cf. us At.) 

Chusu, n. {tita-^k,) Waterbuck. 

CJhu^o, n. C^-«.) Case, sheath. 
(Cf. chituibo.) 

D is sometimes used for Ii, 
especially at the beginning of nouns 
of the Li {Hi) class, e. g. dango^ for 

E-. Often prefixed as a particle of' 
emphasis to verbs and other words. 

Sfyefyo, iEfyo, adv. Just so, 
thus, exactly, that is the way. (Cf. 

-eka, -enka, a. (i) Alone, only, 
by itself, unique, singular, this and 
nothing else; (2) bare, plain, simple, 
unadorned. Often with ndololo or 
lokoso following, emphasizing the 
idea ; or -mo preceding, e, g. imo 
yetika, just one, only one. 

Sko, Eku, adv. There, then. 
Emphatic . form of ukoy uku. (Cf. 
emu, emo, epo, elyo^ ekuii.) 

iEkuti, conj. (common connective 
in narrative). And so, so, then, 
thereupon, and then. (Cf. epo, lomba, 
kawilty kumfwa, na.) 

Sla, V. Separate husks from 
grain, winnow. Ap. eleia, 

Slela, V. Float, on water. (Cf. 

EluBhya, v. Expla'n, make 
clear, settle a dispute, decide a law- 
suit imulandu). (Cf. pinduia, alu- 
lula, which are more used in W.L.) 

Elyo, adv. emphat. Then, it 
was then. (Cf. eko, i/i, iiyo, ulo, 

Smba^ V. Watch, keep an ^e 
on. A p. embela, esp. tend cattle, 
net as herdman, goatherd, &c. Cs. 
Int. embeshya. (Cf. mwembeshi, 
and E.L. JVeta.) 

Enda, Yenda, v. Go, move, 
pass, depart, walk. Ap. endtla, 
e.g. pay court to, visit, woo. Nt, 




endeka^ e. g. be fit for walking on, 
be passable, be a good road. Cs. 
Int. endeshya,enshyaf e.g. (i) hasten, 
move; (2) go fast, hurry. Kwenda 
mutende {uivifto), live in peace 
(happiness). (Cf. mulwendo, luendo, 
yUf ima,jnnta.) 

Endela, v. Taste, take a taste 
of. (Cf. sonda, iaibula, tepela.) 

Enga, y. Make smooth on sur- 
face, rub smooth. (Cf. follg.) 

Engula, y. Skim a liquid (beer, 
&c.), make smooth. 

•enka, a. See -eka. 

•enu, a. Your (pi.), yours. 

Epepi, ady. (for epa-ipi). Just 
here, close by, quite near. (Cf. 

Epo, ady. emphat. Here, there, 
now, then. Often as connectiye, 
and so, and then. (Cf. apa^ eko^ 

Eshya, Yeshya, v. (i) Try, 
endeavour, attempt, make an effort ; 
(2) test, proye, examine; (3) 
measure, weigh, estimate. (Cf. 
pima, penday mweshyo.) 

-esu, a. Our, ours. 

E'^a, y. Speak, say, talk. Ap. 
edbela, (Cf. cheibOy kedfo, lawila, 
sosot ti.) 

-fi, a. Bad, false, counterfeit. 
Usually of moral badness, i.e. of 
persons, and then commonly -a 
iJbufi^ seldom of things. (Cf. ibufii 
ntbifiy -wi, wipa, wifi.) 

Fika, y. (i) Arriye, reach, get 
to (a place). Cs. fikishya^ fishya ; 
(2) place (a thing) across (another, 
crosswise), put right, adjust. 

Filwa, y. Be overcome (de- 
feated, baffled, beaten, exhausted). 
(Cf. kangay and per. chila, chilwa.) 

Fimba, v. Put thatch on (hut), 
thatch; (2) swell, swell up. (Cf. 


Fimbula, y. Ry. oifimha^ take 
thatch off (hut). 

Fiua, V. See Finya. 

Findo, Findu, intern^. What? 
why? how? (Cf. -ndu and 

Fine, ady. and n. (sing, chine)* 
In truth, really, truth, fact, reality. 
Fim nerUy quite true, the real thing, 
absolutely right. (Cf. -fw, -ine^ 
kwifUf utUf chine.) 

Finga, y. Check, threaten, re- 
buke. (Cf. pinga) 

Fingula, y. Cut up (esp. of 
firewood). See Tema, Tewa. 

Finya, Fina, y. (i) Pinch, 
squeeze, press hard; (2) be narrow 
(tight, heavy, oppressive) ; (3) cause 
pain, hurt, be painful, ache. Md. 

Finyangwila, v. Squeeze out, 
rub out, e.g. of something in the 
eye. Also Filangula. 

Fipaika, y. Beat, give a beating 
to. (Cf. pamaS) 

Fisa, y. Hide, conceal, cover. 
(Cf. chifiso and follg.) 

Flsama, v. Be in hiding, hide 
oneself, lie in ambush. K^.Jisamina, 
hide from, lie in wait for. 

•fishi, a. Of dark colour, black, 
handsome. (Cf. JUa^ imfinshiy 
ufishit ila,) 

Fishya, v. (i) Accuse, bring 

charge against; (2) make proposal 

(to parents) of marriage, i. e. fishy- 

e-lashi {fishya ilyast), (Cf. fika^ 

fikishycU) • 

Fisunga, n. pi. (i) A thin 
kind of porridge, gruel ; (2) a light 
sweet kind of beer. (Cf. uwalwa.) 

Fita, n. (sing, chita). War, 
fighting, battle. (Cf. Swa. vita^ 

Fita, v. Be (become) black 
(dark, dirty, soiled). Cs. fitishya, 
Md. -iU, (Cf. follg.) 

-fltile, a. Black, dark, dirty. 
(From fitUy cf. fishi. ^ 

Fiweme, adv. Well, rightl3r. 
(Cf. wamOj -weme, paweme,) 

Fiwi, adv. Badly, wrongly. 
(Cf. -wi, -fi, ifiwi.) 

Fotola, v. Rub skin off, chafe. 




. Fufata, n. Fog, haze, mist. 
(Cf. ckikunku, fuwe.) 

Faka, v. (i) Smell badly, stink ; 
(2) dig up, dig out. (Cf. fukula^ 

Fukama,. v. Bend the knee, 
kneel, squat on heels. Ap. -ina^ 
e. g. sit on eggs. {Ci.fukawila and 


Fukamulca, v. Unbend » straight- 
en, stretch out. {CLfukama, tanda- 
muka, tambalala^ 

Fakana, v. Play, play games 
(as children). {Qi, angala,pukuta,) 

Fukawila, v. Bend the knee, 
kneel, squat. {Ci, fukama,) 

Fukila, V. Dig at (into, for, 
up). {Ci, fuka and follg.) 

Fukula, V. (i) Dig out, dig up 
{cLfuka, fukila); (2) talk against, 
slander. (Cf. ibepa,^ 

Fukuta, V. (i) Stow away, put 
away, e. g. in bag, pocket {ci.futika, 
ifukuteC) ; (2) blow (smith*s bellows). 
(Cf. muuwa.) 

Fula, V. (i) Abound, be in plenty 
(numerous, copious, full, flooded, 
overflowing), be enough, be too 
much, overflow (cf. isuld) ; (2) ham- 
mer (metal), do smith's work (cf. 
mufushi), Md. -fuliU, l^X,fulika, 
Ps. fulilwa, be hammered, be beaten. 
Cs. fuHshya, fushyay e. g. fill up, 
pile up, do more and more, increase, 
add to. 

Fulukila, v. Fall into (a hole). 
(Cf. kulukila,) 

Fulumuka, Fonduxnuka, v. 
Rush away, rush off, make a dash, 
escape hastily. 

Fulungana, v. Roll over and 

Fulwa, V. Loathe, hate, be dis- 
gusted with. (Cf. fulat i.e. be 
filled up, have too much of. Also 

Fulwe, n. (jha-f,) Tortoise. 

Fuina, V. Go (come) out, go 
(start, depart) from, go away; 
(2) (of feelings) l)e roused (excited, 
stirred). Md. 'ine, Cs. -ya^ -ishya, 

take (put, send) out (off, away, 

Fumba, v. Ask question, inquire, 
ask. (Not W.L. Cf. ijnishya.) 

Fumbata, v. Close the fist (on), 

Fumbika, v. Cover with hot 
ashes or embers, put in a hot 

Fumpa, V. Be short (low, shal- 
low). Md. 'fwimpiky Cs. fwitn- 
pishya. (Cf. -ipi,) 

Fumpumuka, v. Fall by chance, 
be let drop, slip from hand. 

Funa, V. F, ihutay draw a 
bow. Md. -ine, 

Funaika, v. Be feeble (weakj 
relaxed, exhausted). (Cf. naka,) 

Funama, v. Lie on the face 
(face downwards). (Cf. tuwama.) 

Funda, v. Strip off (e. g. skin, 
bark). (Cf. fundula.) 

Fundi, n. {-dba-f, ) Metal-worker, 
smith, mechanic. (Swa. Cf. chiloloy 
mashirit ckiwulumano.) 

Fiindika, v. Tie in a knot, 
fasten. Ap. -ila, (Cf. chifundu,) 

Funduift, V. Strip off (e. g. hide, 
bark). {Ci, funda.) 

Funga, V. (i) Curl (fold, bend, 
coil) up, e. g. Itfungay curl up arms 
and legs; (2) fasten, tie, bind, make 
fast (otherwise than the common 
way, i.e. bark cord) (cf. Swa. 
funga); (3) miss, regret, feel loss 
of, long for (cf. taskya). Rp. fun- 
gama, Ap. -amina, be in the coils, 
be curled up, e.g. as snake. (Cf. 
follg. and tfungu,) 

Fiingula, Fungulula, v. Rv. 
of funga, uncurl, uncoil, unfold. 
Also Nt. fungumay be uncurled, 
uncurl itself. 

Funika, Ifonika, v. Cover, 
cover over, put lid on. (Cf. funu' 
kuia, ckifunikoy fununa,) 

Funta, V. Be mad (crazy, an 
idiot). (Cfl 'Shilu, ushiluy chu 

Fununa, Funukula, v. Un- 
cover, take lid off. (^Cf, funika.) 




Fununiina, y. (Of liquid in 
motion) bubble up, pour forth, 
ripple along. Ps. jununwina. 

Fapa, V. Make an offering or 
present. See Pupa. 

Fapula, V. Jerk (a fish out of 
the water). 

Fusa, V. Eject from mouth, spit 
out. (Cf./fl/a.) 

Fuahya, v. See Fula, Fulishya. 

Futa, V. Pay a fine, give com- 
pensation, settle a claim, e. g. futa 
fnulandu\ (2) ! for fula^ be 

Fuwe, n. Drizzle, light rain. 
(Cf. imfulay mulochu) 

Pwa, V. (i) Die, be finished, 
be disused (worn out, useless). Md. 
•fwile, Qs.fvuishyaf\i\\\\ (2) strain, 
filter, Cs. fwisAya, (Cf. Swa, 

Fwaka, n. {iifa-f,) Tobacco. 
(Cf. kanshai^ tongwe^ intekwCj 

Fwala, V. Put on clothes, wear, 
dress (oneself). Md. -fwite, -fwalile^ 
be dressed up (smart, in fine clothes). 
Aip.fwalila, dress up. ^\.,fwalikay 
also Act. dress (a person). (Cf. 
fwika, fwuia.) 

Fwandula, v. Seize with claws 
{fw. niala)^ scratch, tear. (Cf. tinay 

Fwata, V. Babble, chatter, talk 

Fwaya, Fwaa, v. (i) Want, 
like, desire, wish for, intend; (2) 
seek, search for, look for; (3) find 
(after search), get. Md. -//?, Cs. 
Int. 'ishya, 

Pwe-, -fwe, pr. We, -used as 
prefix and affix. (Cf. fweiSfO.) 

Fwempa, v. (Used of a springy, 
up and down, bending movement, 
as of hammock-pole, dancing, &c.) 
Bend, rebound, be springy. Rv. 
fwempula, Md. 'fwempwile^ bend, 
make bend (something springy, 
elastic). (Cf. foUg.) 

Fwemunuka, v. Be elastic, 

Fwena^ v. Scratch (for relief). 
Also Fwenya. (Cf. fwandula.) 

Fwenfwentela, v. (i) Sweep 
up, clear up, make tidy ; (a) stalk 

Fwenkula, v. Fw» itufa, draw 
a bow. 

Fwe^o, pr. We. (Ct/u/t-j-esu.) 

Fwika, Fwalika, y. Put clothes 
on, dress (another). {Ci,/u/aia.) 

Fwimpa, y. Be short (low, 
shallow). (Cf. 'ipiyfumpa^ talimpa,) 

Fwiila, V. Undress (oneself), 
take off clothes. Md. -futU, (Cf. 

Tysk: Used as a plural prefix 

to express quantity, numbers, size, 

e. g. fyanika^ a number of rivers; 

fyamapeUf many creases (folds, 

wrinkles). (Cf. cha-») 

Fyala, v. Produce (offspring), 
bear (fruit), beget. Ps. fyalwa^ 
^\.,fyalika, Md. -Jyeie, K^.fyalila, 
e. g. be a native of, be born at. 
(Cf. iwala, katat setna.) 

Fyenkefyo, adv. Just so, ex- 
actly thus (i. e. fyenka ifyo)* {Cf. 
•eka.), v. Suck, suck up, lick 
up. (Cf. onka.) 

Fyona, v. Blow the nose. (Cf. 

Fyuka, v. Run off, run away, 
fly, escape. (Cf. itfutuka, Iw&ilo.) 

Gwapi, int. of incredulity or 
contempt. Nonsense! rubbish! 

Words not found under I may be 
looked for under 119' or N or ILI. 

I-, Iii-, 111-, class-prefix (sing.) 
of nouns with plur. prefix Ma, See 

lala, Ijiala, n. {mala). Claw, 
talon. (Cf. chaloy chalyala.) 

lamba, Iiiaxnba, n. {triamba). 
Scale (of fish). 

loheche, n. {ma-cA,) Fence (of 
enclosure). (Cf. chipango,) 

Ifl, adv. Thus, so. (Cf. ifyo^ 




Ifina, n. Usu. in pi. i. e. mafina^ 
matter, pus. (Cf. chifina, finya.) 

Ifingwa, Iliflngwa, Mafingwa 
(plur.), n. Anything thrown, rolling, 
falling, e.g. stones, sticks, earth, 

Iflwi, n. (plur.) Crime, evil- 
doing. (Cf. chiwiy -wi,) 

Ifukuta, n. (/;/a-/.) Bag, pocket. 
(Cf. tiumba, fukuta.) 

Ifumbi, Ivumbi, n. {ma-f.) 
Size, dimensions, length, thickness, 
girth, height. (Cf. mutambo,) 

Ifumo, Ivumo, n. {ma-f.) (i) 
Womb, belly, pregnancy. (Cf. 

Ifumu, n. (ma-f.) Spear. (Cf. 
infumUf ufumu.) 

JfaneOfldfinigo,n.(ma-f.) Bag, 
bundle. {Cf. fun^a, ifukuta,) 

Ifungu, Ivungu, n. {ma-f.) (i) 
Empty space under bed, stool, &c. ; 
(2) coil, roll, fold (e.g. of snake). 

Ifupa, Pupa, n. {ma-f.) Bone. 

Ifusu, n. {morf) Wooden mortar 
for ponnding grain, &c . (Cf. mtmshi, 
itt/a, iwende.) 

Ifwasa, Ifwaza,n. {ma-f) Stone 
tised for fire-place, three supporting 
a cooking-pot. (Cf. ishiko, chif- 

ItyOf Ityifyo, adv. Thus, just so, 
exactly, truly, indeed. (Cf. tji, efyo.) 

Ika, V. Come (get, go) down, 
descend (e. g. from hill, tree). . (Cf. 
tantamuka^ seluka.) 

Ikala, Kala, v. Be, continue, 
remain, dwell, stop, sit. Ik. mii- 
landUy hear a dispute, decide a case. 
Md. -icheUi Ap. kalila, Nt. kalika, 
e.g. be inhabited, be inhabitable; 
alsoCs. makesit down. Int. kalishya^ 
sit quite on ground. 

Ikanga, Kanga, n. {ma-k,) 

Ikani, n. {ma-k.) Usually in the 
plur. makani, talk, news, gossip, 
conversation, argument. (Cf. iliasAi.) 

Ikata, Kata, v. (i) Hold, seize, 
catch hold of, grasp; (2) bear 

(fruit), produce. (Cf. twala^fyah.) 
Md. 'ikete, Cs. ikatishya^ ikashyay 
Rv. katana, e.g. katana ckiiJbuzay 
form friendship. 

Ikoko, n. {ma-k.) Stalk (of 

Ikombo, n. {ma-k.) Navel. 
(Cf. viukmva.) 

Ikonde, n. {ma-k.) (i) Marks 
tatooed on side of face (cf. nettibo) ; 
(2) banana (plant and fruit.) 

Ikonko, n. {ma-k.) Fruit (edi- 
ble) of the mukonko (tree). 

Ikosa, Ikoza, n. {ma-k.) Ivory 
ring, worn as bracelet. 

Ikoslii, Ikosi, n. {ma-k.) Nape 
of neck. {CL mttkoshi.) 

Ikowa, n. {ma-k.) Oar. (Cf. 

Ikowelo, n. {ma-k.) Usually in 
plur., stockade (of village), palisad- 
ing, fence. (Cf, iltnga.) 

Ikiifi, Iiikufi, n. {ma-k.) Knee. 

Ikumbi, n. {ma-k.) Cloud. 

Ikumi, n. {ma-k.) Ten. 

Ikundwe, n. A preparation of 
bark used in dressing the hair. 

Ila, Iiila, n. {mala). Usually in 
plur., contents of abdomen, bowels, 
entrails. (Cf. ifumOt ipofu^ chi- 

Ila, V. Get dark, dusky, gloomy 
(of twilight). (Cf. mailo, lelo.) 

Ilala, Wilala, n. The Lala 
country, i. e. of the Lala people. 
(Cf. mulaia, chilala, wilala.) 

Ilamba, n. {ma-l,) (i) Usually 
in plur., iron ore, for smelting (cf. 
luibe) ; (2) belt (but W.L. com- 
monly use mukwandala) ; (3) the 
Lamba country, also Wilamba, 

Ilangaluko, n. {ma-l.) Thought, 
remembrance, care, anxiety. (Cf. 

Ilango, (also) Dango, n. {ma-l.) 
(i) Direction, advice, order; (2) 
plan, scheme. (Cf. langa, kalangOy 

Ili, Iji, conj. When. (Cf. lisa, 
lino^ ilyo.) Also class-prefix sing. 
(Cf. /-, //-.) 




Iliashi, n. {ma-L) Talk, con- 
versation, gossip, rumour, news. 
(Cf. makani.) 

Ilili, n. See MaliU. 

Ililila, V. Go on business (errand , 
engagement), be sent away, be gone 
away (for something). (Cf. ilishya^ 
and perh. ya^ v. go. Ap. {y)ilila, 
{y)tlilika. Also tlishyaf ililwa, 

Ililo, n. {ma-l.) ^i) Usually in 
plur., mourning for dead, lamenta- 
tion (cf. lild) ; (2) something burn- 
ing, candle, lamp (cf. mulild), 

Ililwa, v. Be employed, be on 
service, be engaged. (Cf. ililiiaS) 

Ilima, n. {ma-L) File, rasp. 

Ilinga, n. {ma- 1.) Stockade, 
village fence. (Cf. ikowelo.) 

Ilino, Iiino, Dino, n. (nieno). 

Ilinso, Iiiso, Diso, n. {mensOy 
meso). Eye. (Cf. chinso.) 

Ilipi, n. {maliH). See Malili. 

Ilishya, v. Send, employ, cause 
to go (on errand, business), (Cf. 
ilililay and follg.) 

Ilombe, n. {ina-l^ Child (male 
or female). (Cf. mwana.) 

Ilowa, liilowa, n. Soil, earth. 

Una, n. {ma-l.) Flower, blossom. 

Ilundo, n. (ma-/,) Joint, join- 
ing, knot (in tree or reed). (Cf. 

Ilungu, n. (ma-L) Treeless, 
grassy depression in forest with a 
stream through it. (Cf. /usensa.) 

Ilyo, adv. Then. (Cf. ///, e/yo, 
u/o, ndulo.) 

Im-. Words not found under IM 
may be looked for under M. 

Ima, V. (i) Rise up, get up, stand, 
be erect (upright, steep) ; (2) make 
a start, go off, go away, depart ; (^) 
stand still, stop. Md. -iminey also 
as a. upright, steep. Ap. imina, 
tminina, Nt. (and Cs.) iminikay 
e.g. set up, fix upright, Cs. imiyay 
imyay e.g. raise up, lift, take up, 
also imishya, make upright, make 
go away, send off. (Cf. imaka, 

Imaka, v. Build (a hut, house). 
(Cf. oka:) 

Imakana,' v. Stand still, stop. 
(Cf. ima.) 

Iinba, V, (i) Dig (cf. chimbd) ; 
(2) sing. (cf. luimbo), 

Imbako, n. ( — ) Snuff-box. 
(Cf. intekwe.) 

iTxxbBXt^yU.. (tna-m,) Bullet. (Cf. 

Imbalale, n. ( — ) Leopard. 
(Cf. inkensey shiluwe,) 

Imbaliwali, n. ( — ) Jigger. 
Also I^^ndu. 

Imbaso, n. ( — ) Adze. (Cf. 
. Imbata, n. {nia-m.) Duck. 

Imbawala, n. ( — ) Bnsbbuck. 
Also Chiwawala, Sbikiwanfirwe. 

Imbelele, n. ( — ) Sheep. 

Imbelo, n. ( — ) Light-hole, 
window. (Cf. chipesiy chipunda.) 

Imbeshi, n. ( — ) Herdsman (of 
cattle, goats, &c.). (Cf. embela, 

Imbewa, n. (-— ) Field-rat. 

Imbia, n. ( — ) Earthen cooking- 
vessel. (Cf. inongo.) 

Imbifi, n. ( — ) A bad man, 
rascal, rogue. (Cf. -fi.) 

Imbill, n. ( — ) Rumour, news, 
fame, renown. 

Imbilo, n. (sing. Iwdfilo), Used 
as adv., running, with speed, quickly, 
hastily. (Cf. iwdfilo,) 

Iiubislii, n. ( — ) Zebra. Also 

Imbokoma, n. ( — ) Tobacco- 
pipe. (Cf. kawokomay intuntu.) 
. Imboiii, n . ( — ) ( i ) Pupil of eye ; 
(2) eyewitness, evidence, proof. 
(Cf. wonay ? (2) not W.L.) 

Iznbono, n. ( — ^ Castor-oil. 
(Cf. mbonOy muwono^ 

Imbote, n, ( — ) A sweet beer, 
fermented honey. (Cf. uwalwa,) 

Inibuli, n. ( — ) young girl (not 
adult). (Cf. chisungu,) 

Imbusa, n. ( — ) Infant, baby. 
Also mwana, mbusa. (C£ ng^o- 




Imbushi, n. ( — ) Goat. 

Imbuwu, n. ( — ) Buffalo. (Also 
MbowOy Inyati^ 

Imbuya, Mbuya, n. (wa-m.) 
Grandmother. (Also Mukuku.) 

Ixnbwa> n. ( — ) Domestic dog. 

Imcbelwa, n. ( — ) Fireplace of 
smelting-fumace. (Cf. tnyumbu) 

Imflnslii, n. ( — ) Darkness, 
blackness, gloom. {Ctfita, -fishi.) 
: Imfula, n. ( — ) Rain. (Cf. 
niainshay mulochi^ loka,) 

Imfumu, n. ( — ) See Infumu, 

Imfangauslii, Mfungoshi, n. 
Cluster of bees. (Cf, chileia.) 

Imfuti, n. ( — ) See Infuti, gun. 

Ixnfwi, n. See Iiumfwi, grey 

Imia, o. Obstinacy, stubborn- 
ness, self-will, (Cf. ima,) 

Iminda, n. {ma-m.) Rising 
ground between streams, water- 

Iminina, Iminika. See Ima. 

Imita, V. Be heavy (with child, 
pregnant), (Cf. ifumo, ipafu,) 

Imkopa,n. ( — ) Wallet (of skin), 
satchel, pouch. (Cf. inkomzve,) 

Impafwa, n. ( — ) Lung. 

Impaka, n. ( — ) A (kind of) 
wild cat. 

Impampa, n. ( — ) Stick, used 
as ladle or spoon, for stirring. (Cf. 

Impande, n. ( — ) Shell used as 

Impanga, n. ( — ) Forest, jungle, 
bush. (Cf. iyamba, mayamba.) 

Impapa, Impapwa, n. ( — ) 
Skin, hide. (Cf. chipapa^ chisewa!) 

Impashi, n. ( — ) A (kind of) 
ant. (Cf. muswa,) 

Impele, n. ( — ) Sores, skin 

Impelembe, n. ( — ) Sable 

Impelo, n. ( — ) Grinding-stone 
(for grain). (Cf./^/a, and cAtnone.) 

Impepe, n. ( — ) A small (kind 
of) bat. (Cf. muiimo.) 

Impepo, n. (— ., and Pia-p.) (i) 
Air (in motion), wind, cold, draught ; 
(2) spirit (disembodied). (Cf. ww- 
sAtmu, mupas/ity and pepa.) 

Impete, n. ( — ) Ring. {Cf.peia,) 

Impiano, n. ( — ) Inheritance, 
estate of deceased person. (Cf. 

Impindi, n. (sing, lupindi). 
Period of time, occasion. Shino 
mpindiy now, on this occasion. 

Impinga, n. ( — ) A (magic) 
charm, worn for security, defence. 
(Cf. inshita, piiigcty chipela.) 

Impini, n. ( — ) Adder. 

Impoyo, n. ( — ) Reed-buck. 

Impuku, n. ( — ) Sharp stake 
for digging holes. (Cf, chisong- 

Impulu, n. {ma-m.) Silly 
mistake, blunder, folly. {Ctpusa, 
pua, and follg.) 

Impumfya, n. ( — ) Foolish 
pride, conceit, impudence, rudeness, 
insult. (Cf. impulu.) 

Impumi, n. ( — ) Forehead. 

Impundu, n. {ma-m,) Twins of 
the same sex. Also Mupundu, 
(Cf. mapasa.) 

Impunga, n. ( — ) Rice (grain 
and plant). 

Impwishi, n. ( — ) Cow. (Cf. 

Xmsitu, n. ( — ) Thicket, under- 
wood, bush. 

ImsuDguza, n. ( — ) Contents 
of egg (esp. yolk). (Cf. isana.) 

Imtoto, n. ( — ) Colouring- 
matter (earth, plaster, paint), colour, 

Imtulesua, n. Ku miulesua^ (to) 
sun-rising, east, eastward. (Cf. 
tula^ kasua.) 

Imtungu, n. ( — ) Cattle-disease. 

Imuka, y. Come out« be drawn 
out (of hole). (Cf. imuna») 

Imumba, n. ( — ) Steep, river 
bank (of clay, earth). (Cf. chi' 

Imuna, v. Open (a hole, aper- 
ture, gap), unstop, take out plug. 
(Cf. shinkulUy imuka,) 




Imoniko, n. SeeMuniko. 

IN-. Words not found under In 
may be looked for under ISS or I. 

Ina, Inya, adv. Yes, very well, 
it is so. 

Ina, y. Be (get) fat, be sleek. 
Md. 'inine^ used as a., fat, plump, 
in good condition. 

Inama, v. Bend down, stoop, 
slope down, bow down. (Cf. inuka, 
Md. 'ingme, Cs. inamishya,) 

Inama, n, ( — ) (i) Animal, 
brute, beast; (2) game, buck; (3) 
flesh, meat. (Cf. ntunefuy chinang.) 

Inanda, Ing'anda, Nanda, n. 
( — , and md'ft.) Native hut, cottage, 

Inchense, n. ( — ) Licopard. 
(Cf, inkense,) 

Inchisa, n. Kindness, liberality, 
pity ; also other strong feelings, e.g. 
anger. (Cf. chifundot chisa,) 

Inohiwa, n. (— ) Dove. Also 
Chiwa, ' 

Inohonoho, n* plur. oHuchoncho, 

Inda, n. ( — ) Louse. 

Indala, n. ( — ) Eye-glass, field- 
glass. (Cf. waia^ ?lit. something 

Indslama, n. ( — ) Coin, cash, 

Indalawa, n. ( — ) Rust. 

Xndalila, n, ( — ) Brass anklet, 
bracelet. (Cf. ^Hitaie,) 

Indewelewe, n, ( — ) Ear orna- 

Indoshi, n. ( — ) Wizard, witch. 
(Cf. lowat muloskiy tnjwiti.) 

Indowo, n. ( — ) Fish-hook. 
(Cf, insanta, Iowa,) 

Indiune, n. {iba-n.) Brother, 
son (in relation to sister or mother). 
(Cf. inkashi^ 

Induwnlula, n, ( — ) Bird-call 
made with a piece of horn {musembe), 
{Ci» iusangTva,) 

Indu'^ulwa, n. ( — ) Rescuer, 
preserver, ransomer. (Cf, luiSmla!) 

-ine, -ne, a. Good (in any sense) : 
(i) pleasing, nice, pretty, fine, 

sweet; (a) right, true, honest, kind, 
just; (3) real, genuine, actual; also 
(4) self, the very one, the particular 
one, by oneself (itself). (Cf. mwitu, 
ttune, ibunino,) 
InftiU, n. (— ) Gun. (Cf. chi- 


Infwa, n. ( — ) A dead thing, 
(Cf./wa, chiiumbi*) 

Infwi, n. plur. See IiiunfWi. 

Infwiti, n. (— ) Wizard, witch, 
(Cf. ufwitiy indoshi.) 

Ingala, n. {ma-n.) Feather. 

Ingami, n. ( — ) Innocent party 
(in a case of witchcraft). 

Ingana, n. ( — ) Fad (of grass 
for carrying load on head or 
shoulder). (Cf. inkata,) 

Ing'anda, n. ( — , and ma-n.) 
House. See Inanda. 

Ing'anga, n. ( — ) Doctor, 
medicine - man, (Cf. mung^anga^ 

Ing'ansa, n, ( — ) Piece of bark 
cloth. Also Insansa, (Cf. lukwa,) 

Ingawa, n. {ma-n^ Debt. 

Ingawo, n. (—) Shield. 

Inge, n. ( — ) Scorpion, 

Ingele-ngele, n. ( — ) Health, 
healthy condition, a good climate, 
a healthy spot. 

-ingi, -inji, a. Many, much, 
enough, plenty, too many, too 

Ingila, Injila, v. Come (go) 
in, enter, pass into. Md. 'ingiU, 
Ap. ingililay Cs. Int, -ishya, e. g. put 
(take, place, force) in, admit ; (a) in- 
terfere, intrude. 

Ingolwa, n. ( — ) Horn used as 
wind-instrument. (Cf. lusengo.) 

Ing*oma, n. ( — ) Drum. 

Ing*ombe, n. ( — ) Ox, cow, 
cattle. (Cf. impwiskit muckende,) 

Ing'ondo, n, ( — ) Bark cloth, 
(Cf. lukwa.) 

Ing'onkws, n. ( — ) See In-* 

Inguluwe, n. ( — ) Bush pig. 

Ingumba,. n, ( — ) Barren 




Inguni, n. (— ) Honey-bird. 
(Cf. chuni,) 

Insuo, Nguo, n. ( — ) Any 
material for clothing, bark cloth, 
cloth, calico. (Cf. insaiu.') 

Ingwena, n. (— ) Crocodile. 

Inika, Niks, n. (ma-n., fya-n^ 
River, stream. 

-inji, a. See «ingi. 

Injili, Ingili, n, (— ) Wart- 

Inkakashl, n. Acidity, sourness, 
bitter taste. 

Inkalamba, n. ( — ) Messenger, 
one sent with a summons or invita- 
tion. (Cf. ishingoshi,) 

Inkalamu, n. ( — ) Lion. Also 
Shumbwe, (Cf. skumfwa.) 

Inkana, n. ( — ) Share, portion, 
part. (Cf. kanya,) 

Inkanda, n. ( — ) Skin, hide, 
leather, strap, bark. (Cf. impapa, 

Inkanga, n. ( — ) Small-pox. 
Also Chingwali, 

Inkansa, n. (sing, lukansd). 
Anger, fury, cruelty, passionate acts 
or words. (Cf. ukaltf ululu.) 

Inkasalo, n. ( — ) Sweat. Also 
ChiwCy MatHkuia. 

Inkashi, n. (jva'tt,) Sister, 
daughter (in relation to brother, 
father). (Cf. indume,) 

Inkashya, n. ( — ) Unseasoned 
(tasteless, insipid) food, lack of 
relish (flavour), (Cf. chanionto,) 

Inkasu, n. ( — ) Niggardliness, 
greed, meanness, selfishness. (Cf. 

Inkata, n. (-»-) Gr^s pad (for 
carrying load on head or shoulder). 
(Cf. ingdna,) 

Inkenae, Inohense, n. Leopard. 
(Cf. imbalale^ shiluwe,) 

Inkoka, n. .( — ) (i) Bunch, 
knot, protuberance (cf. chikckolwa)) 
(2) cluster of bees (cf. chiUla), 

Inkole, n. ( — ) Captive in war, 

Inkoli, n. ( — ) Knobbed stick, 
club. Also Chinkoli, Kankoii, 

Inkombalume, n. {i&a-n.) 
Hunter of elephant. (Cf. chiwinday 

Inkombo, n. ( — ) Dry shell of 
gourd, calabash. (Cf. chipanda, 

Inkomwe, n. ( — ) Wallet, 
bag, satchel, pocket. (Cf. mukopa.) 

Inkonde, n. ( — ) Cry, note, 
voice (of man, animal, bird. £.L. 

Inkondo, n. ( — ) War, fighting, 
battle. (Cf. chita.fita:) 

Inkone, n. ( — ) Fist, knuckle. 
(Cf. ckimfunshi.) 

Inkonkwa, Ing'onkwa, n. 
Sucking cMld. (Cf. konka^ onka.) 

Inkonshi, n. ( — ) Hartebeest. 

Inkontwe, n. ( — ) A (kind of) 

Inkope, n. ( — ) (i) Eyelash. 
In plur. (i) appearance, look; 
(2) modesty, shame, discomposure. 
(Cf. insoni.) 

Inkosa, n. (-«-) Physical strength, 
force, vigour, health, power. (Cf. 
ifisOt kosa») 

Inkiilimba^ n. ( — ) A (kind of) 
pigeon. (Cf. tnkunda*) 

Inkulunkulu, adv. Violently, 
hastily, with a rush. 

Inkumba, n. ( — ) Pomestic pig. 
(Cf. inguluwe.) 

Inkumbu, n. (^ (i) Consider* 
ation, attention, care, compassion ; 
(a) pity, sympathy. (Cf. kumbuka, 

Inkunda, n. (^ Pigeon. 

Inkunde, n. (— ) A (kind of) 

Xnkniii, n. Firewood. See 
Iiukuni (sing.). 

Inkunka, n. (— ) Hut, hovel 
(poles resting on the ground and 
meeting overhead). 

Inkunkila, n. ( — ) A (kind of) 

Inkwashi, n. ( — ) A (kind of) 

Inondo, n. (— ) Anvil, piece of 
iron set upright. (Cf. chifuh.) 




Inongo, n. ( — ) Earthen vessel, 
for water and cooking, &c. (For 
other vessels, cf. chipikOy chitalo, 
chisimpwilOy chikarango^ imbia, cki^ 
pi kilo y lulilo, munkombe, muiondoy 

Insaka, n. ( — ) Open shed 
(circular roof, no walls), used as 
common resort for talking, hearing 
cases, &c. (Cf. chitenjc.) 

Insako, n. ( — ) A (kind of) 
basket i^Cf. chipe.) 

Insala, n. ( — ) Hunger, famine, 
scarcity of food. 

Insalu, n. ( — ) Any woven 
material, calico, cloth, clothes. (Cf. 
inguOf chisansa.) 

Insamba, n. ( — ) Otter. (Cf. 

Insambo, n. ( — ) Brass wire. 

Insamu, n. ( — ) Old (torn, worn 
out) clothes, rags, tatters. 

Insanguni, n. ( — ) A water- 

Insansa, n. ( — ) Bark cloth. 
(Cf. chisansaj lukwa^ 

Insanta, n. ( — ) Fish-hook. 
(Cf. indowo.) 

Insase, n. ( — ) Rays of light, 
dazzling light, glitter, radiance. 

Insawi, laawi, n. ( — ) Fish (of 
any kind). 

Inseko, n. ( — ) Laughter, smile, 
joy, mirth, happiness. (Cf. seka, 

Insela, n. (— ) Tassel (of cap). 

Insele, n. ( — ) Used of any 
forcible, pointed, telling utterance, 
or expression, e.g. argument, re- 
proof, retort, remonstrance, sarcasm, 
&c. Also Isele, 

Inaelelo, n. Ku nseleloy down 
stream. (Cf. ku nyanshi.) 

I]iaembe,n. ( — ) Husk (of grain). 

Insengwe, Insengu, n. Open 
space, outside a house. Pa nsingwCy 
out of doors, outside, in the open, 
(Cf. isondcy lusensa.) 

Insenselo, n. ( — ) Bell, worn 
on leg, or for huntmg-dogs. Cf. 

Inseuls, n. ( — ) Pookoo (buck). 

Inshawa, Nshyawa, n. ( — ) 
Ground-nut. (Cf. chipuii,) 

Inahenahi, n. ( — ) Cane-rat. 

Inshiku, la'siku, n. (— ) Day, 
period of twenty-four hours, be- 
ginning at sunset. Inshiku shyonsey 
every day, always. Nshiku shino, 
these days, nowadays. Nshiku 
shya katcy old times, long ago. (Cf. 
ushiku, kasuay lusua.) 

Inshila, n. ( — ) Path, roid, way. 
(Cf. museuy mukwakwa.) 

Inahima, n. ( — ) Porridge. 
(Cf. chishima, a large plate of 

Inshimba, n. (— ) A (kind of) 
wild cat 

Inshimu, n. Bees (sing, lushimu), 

Inahinko, n.* ( — ) Stopper 
(cork, bung), anything to fill a nole. 
(Cf. shinki/a, shinkula.) 

Inshiso, Inohiso, n. SeeOhinso. 

InBhita, n. (-^) A (magic) 
charm, worn for security. (Cf. 

Inshye, n. ( — ) Locnst Also 

InBofii, n. ( — ) Elephant, ivory, 
tusk (as article of trade). Elephants 
are also called, michila kawilt, 
mafimbwa nguo, (big males) inkun- 
guluy imgohy (young male) chiluwa 
wapaluy (female) nina njovuy (tusk- 
less) mungwa. 

^osoka, n. ( — ) A snake (of any 

Insoki, Insochi, n. ( — ) Prickles 
(from grass, &c.). 

Insombe, n. ( — ) Locust. Also 

Insongo, n. ( — ) Eland. 

Insoni, n. ( — ) Sh3mess, modesty, 
shame; (2) depression, wretched- 
ness; (3) compassion, pity. (Cf. 
ink(^e^ chifundo.) 

Insonta, n. ( — ) Poles used as 
rafters. See Iiusonta, sing. 

Insuka, n. ( — ) Tail (of bird). 
(Cf. muchila.) 

Znaumbi, n. ( — ) Fowl. 




Instunbu, n. ( — , and via-s^ 

Insuntwe, n. ( — ) Hyena. (Cf. 

Insnnunu, n. ( — ) A (kind of) 
bamboo. (Cf. intele,) 

Inswindi, n. ( — ) A man who 
has no children (impotent). (Cf. 

Intafa, n. ( — ) Ball of india- 
rubber. Anta ntafu, play at ball 
(throwing and catching). (Cf. 

Intalangrwa, n. Game with 
arrows and pnmpkins. 

Intanda, n. ( — ) Star. (Cf. 
kawangawangaj katandala.) 

Intandwe, n. Girdle, waistband. 
(Cf. mukwandala.) 

Intekwe, n. (— ) Snnff. (Cf. 
fwakay imbako,) 

Intele, n. ( — ) A (kind of) 
bamboo. (Cf. tnsununu,) 

Intenda. n. ( — ) Sickness, 
disease. (Cf. igfufa, uhvele,) 

Intenguliuliya) n. Kanwe in^ 
tengulushyaj the little finger. (Cf. 

Intinina, n. ( — ) Bead necklace. 

Intiwi, n. ( — ) Breast, chest. 
Also Katiwi, (Cf. chifua,) 

Intoxnba, n. ( — ) Small-pox. 
(Cf. inkangu, chtngwali.) 

Intulo, n. ( — ) First appearing, 
origin, sonrce, rise, beginnii^. (Cf. 

Xntundn, n. ( — ) Line, row, of 
women only. (Cf. mulongo.) 

Intnntn, n. ( — ) Bowl of pipe, 
(Cf. tmbokoma.) 

Inuks, y. Rise np (from bending, 
stooping), straighten oneself. (Cf. 
inamay inuna.) 

Inuma, Numa, n. ( — ) Back of 
body (cf. musana) ; (2) back part, 
rear, backward direction. Also adv., 
back, behind. Kufui-e'numay to walk 
backwards. Londa numa^ follow 
behind. (Cf. kunuma, panuma,) 

Inana, v. Lift up, raise up. 
Md. •inuile. (Cf. inukaynyamuna.) 

Inungi, Inyunji, n. ( — ) Por- 

Inya, adv. Yes, it is so, very well. 
Also Ina. 

Inyambwe, n. ( — ) A mode of 
swimming, hand over hand. 

Inyanga, n. (rna-n,) Tusk of 
elephant. Also Munyanga. 

Inyangu, n. See Lwinyangu. 

Inyati, n. ( — ) Buffalo. Also 
ImbowOy Imbtiwu. 

Inyenda, n. ( — ) Native needle. 
(Cf. kanyenehy shingano.) 

Inyisa, n. (— ^ Ferule of spear. 

Inyumbi, n. (— ) Iron-smelter*s 

Inyuxnbu, n. ^ — ) Gnu. 

Ipa, v. See wipa. 

Ipafii, n. {ma-p.) Belly, womb, 
pregnancy. N-t-pafUy pregnant. 
(Cf. ifumOy intitay kapafu, lupafu.) 

Ipala, n. (ma-p,) Baldness, bald 

Ipanga, n. {ma-p.) House of 
chief. Also Mwipanga (i.e. mu 

Ipapiko, ipapatiko, Ipapami- 
ko, n. {ma,) Wing. (Cf. ipdkoy 

Ipaya, v. Put to death, kill, 
murder. Md. -ipeyCy Rp. ipayana, 
fight, Nt. ipayika, Ps. ipayiwa. 
Lipayay commit suicide. 

Ipewa, n. ( — ) Roan (buck). 

-ipi, a. Short, low, shallow. 
Pepi {pa ipt)y near, close, nearly* 
(Cf. Jwimpay muwipiy and foUg.) 

Ipifya, V. Make short, shorten. 
(Cf. -ipi.) 

Ipula, V. Take out (of cooking- 
pot). (Md. -ipwile^ 

Ipunde, n. (tna-p,) Curse, oath. 
(Cf. lapa,) 

Ipushya, v. Question, inquire 
of, ask. Cs. tod Int. ipushishya, 
question closely. {CL fumba.) 

Isa, V. Come, approach, arrive. 
Md. 'ishile, -a kuisa, coming next, 
following, future. 

-isa, a. Which? (Cf. lisa, 

L.-L. H. 




Isako, n. {mas,) Feather, fur 
(animal), hair, wool. (Cf. mushishiy 

Isala, V. Shot, close (entrance, 
door). Md. 'iseU, (Cf. isula.) 

Isamba, n. {mas,) Lower part, 
foot, bottom (of tree, hill. W.L.). 

Isamiko, n. {mas,) Ornament, 
decoration, fittings, furniture. (Cf. 

Isaxnpi, n. {mas,) Branch (of 
tree), bough. 

Isana, Iiisana, n. ( {mas,) Egg. 

Xsanshi, n. {mas.) Child's toy- 

Isawi, n. {mas.) A large fish. 
(Cf. tnsawi.) 

Isati, n. {mas,) Stalk (of maize, 
millet, sorghum). (Cf. ikoka,) 

Isaiiko, n. {mas,) Haraship, 
suffering, misery. (Cf. sauka.) 

Ise, n, {mase). Hoe. (Cf. luse,) 

Iseko, n. {mas,) Laughter, 
joke. (Cf. seka,) 

Isele, n. {mas.) See Insele. 

Isembe, n. (Large) axe. (Cf. 

Ishi, T. (i) Know, be acquainted 
with, have in mind; (2) know how, 
understand, be able. Md. sshile, 
Cs. and Int. ishishya^ ishya^ e.g. 
remind, remember, know well. (Cf. 
ishiwa, ishiwilay uisAi, ultsAt.) 
JVisAiy Ulishi, one (who) knows, 
a clever (expert, well-informed) 

Ishiko, n. {mas,) Cooking- 
place, kitchen. Peshiko {pa ishik^y 
cooking-place. (Cf. shika,) 

Ishililo, n. {mas,) Ending, end. 
(Cf. shila, mushilo.) 

Ishilu, n. {mas,) A madman. 
(Cf. shiiuy ushilUy funta^ 

Ishilya, n. {mas,) Side (of 
river, i. e. one of two sides, and 
usually) farther side, other side, 
i.e. psshilya. Lino ishilya, this 
side. (Cf. iuwaliy itala.) 

Ishimba, n. {mas,) Foot of 
elephant, hippopotamus, or rhino- 

Ishina, n. {mas,) (i) Name; 
(2) root (of tree, above ground). 
(Cf. muskyu,) 

Ishingoshi, Ishingaoahi, n. 
{mas.) Messenger, one sent about 
on errands. (Cf. shinga, inka- 

lahiwa, n. {mas,) Pool in river, 
broad sheet of water. (Cf. chishiwa,) 

Ishiwa, V. (i) Know, know 
of, be acquainted with, understand ; 
(2S know how, be able (to). Ap. 
-wfl5, Cs. 'ishya, (Cf. ishi and foUg.) 

Ishiwi, n. Sound, utterance, 
voice, cry (of any kind). (Not 
W.L. Cf. ishi>^ 

lahiwila, v. Be accustomed to, 
familiar with, used to, tamed, 
domesticated. (Cf. ishivfa,) 

. Ishiwilo, Ishiwishyo, n. {mas.) 
Sign, mark, token, indication, in* 
formation, advice, hint, warning, 
direction, order. (Cf. ishi, ishiwa,) 

Ishyala, n. {mas^ Rubbish 
heap. Usually in plur., leavings, 
remains, scraps, rubbish. (Cf. 
shyala, shia,) 

Ishyamo, n. {mas,) Disaster, 
failure, ill-luck, misfortune, accident, 
loss in trade. (Cf. shyama and 


Ishyuko, n. {ma^s.) Advantage, 
success, good luck, gain, prosperity. 
(Cf. skyuka.) 

Jsonde, n. Outside. JCwisondc, 
pesonde, outside, inside out, upside 
down. (Cf. insengwtt panse,) 

Isonga, n. {^as,) Sharp point, 
tip (of tool, weapon, &c.). (Cf. 

Isono, Isunu, n, {mas,) A 
helping of food, mouthful, bite, 
morsel taken in the fingers. (Cf, 
suna, tantOy ktisa, mukusu,) 

Isula (sometimes iula), v. (i) Be 
full, be filled up (of a river), be in 
flood; (a) open (door, box, &c.), 
Md. 'isutUf Cs. isushya, isulishya, 
Ap, isuila. (Cf. (i) jfida, kula^ 
(a) isala^ 

Isunu, n. See Isono. 




Its, V. Call, snmmoD, invite. 
(Cf. iiawa,) 

Itako, n. {ma-t.) Bnttock, haunch, 

Itala, n. {?fia-t.) Side, (of po- 
sition) far side, other side. Adv., 
kwitala, petala. (Cf. ishilya, 

Itawa, n. {ma~t,) Indian com, 

Itawa, V. Answer a call, re- 
spond, rej)ly. (Cf. ita.) 

Itenga, n. {ma-i.) Riyer-pool. 
(Cf. chishiwa.) 

Itete, n. {ma-t,) A (kind of) 
reed. (Cf. itowo,) 

Itila, V. Pour out, pour away. 
(Cf. tulitla.) 

Itipa, n. Usually in plur. matipa^ 

Itongwe, n. {iba-t^ Tobacco 
(plant and leaf). (Cf. fwahiy 

Itowo, n. {ma-i.) (i) Cheek (cf. 
lutawo ; (a) a (kind of) reed (cf. 

Itoyi, n. {ma-t,) Ash (of fire), 
ashes. (Cf. mulaio.) 
. Itufl, n. {ma-t.) Dung, ex- 
crement. (Cf. chitufi,) 

Ituka, n. {ma-t!) Abuse, bad 
languaj^e, insult. Usually in plur. 
(Cf. matushiy tuka.) 

Itumba, n. {ma-t,) Bag, bale, 
bundle, sack. (Cf. ifukuta, lu- 

Itosbi, n. {ma-t,) Abusive ex- 
pression, insult. (Cf. tuhi, ituka,) 

IulU| n. Upper part (region, 
portion, side, top). (Usually with 
prep, kiviulu, peuiuy mwiuiu, Cf. 

Ivuxnbi, n. See Ifiiinbi. 

Iviuno, n. See Ifluno. 

I^a, V. Steal. Md, -iHfite. (Cf. 
pompwe^ mungo,) 

Iwala, n. {ma-w,) (i) Spot, 
band {pi colour), stripe ; -a mawala, 
striped, speckled, spotted. (Cf. 

Iwalla, n. {ma-w,) Plantation, 


cultivated field, garden. (Cf. 

Iwanga, n. {ma-w.) Spot, 
streak (of colour), band, stripe. 
(Cf. iwala,) 

I^e, Ibwe, n. {maibe^ mabwe). 
A stone. (Cf. chiibe, kaibe, luibe.) 

Iwele, Iiiwele, Iliwele, n. 
{ma-w,) Breast (of a female), 

Iwende, n. {ma-w,) Wooden 
mortar for pounding grain, &c. 
(Cf. ifusu:) 

Iwilo, n. Usually in plur., Ma- 
wilOf meeting-place of rivers, paths, 


I^o, pron. person. They, them. 

Iwo, n. Usually in plur., Mawo, 
amawoy millet. 

Iwondo, n. {m^i-w,) Foot (ol 
animals), hoof. (Cf. lukasa, 

I^iiohishya, I^nkishya, v. 
Remind. (Cf. ibushishya^ Cs. of 
•dbulay ibushya, li-ibushishya,) 

I'^la, n. {ma-). Leaf. 

I^iilu, n. {ma-ib.) House of 
chiefs first wife. Also Mwiibulu 
(i.e. mu-iibulu,) 

I'^xunba, n. {ma-ib.) (i) Clay, 
used for pottery, plaster; (a) group, 
crowd, throng, company, herd, flock. 
(Cf. chiibumbay imumSa.) 

lihindu, n. {ma-ib,) Jigger. 
Also Mbaliwali, 

lyamba, n. Usually in plur., 
mayamba, forest, jungle, bush. (Cf. 

lye, Ye, pron. person. He, she. 

lyoo, adv. No, not so, by no 
means. (Other negatives are: cka, 
mya^ pya^ tau^ ka-ka^ ko-ko^ mo-mo, 
pa-pa, wa-wa,) 

Class-prefix of nouns, often 
also Aka-, and often used with a 
diminutive sense before other class- 

Kaobe, n. {tuche), A very small 
thing, a little bit, morsel, atom, 
(Cf. -che,) 




Eaoheohe, n. {tu-ch,) Little 
child. (Cf. kana, tmbusa.) 

Kaohekulu, n. (tu-ch.) A very 
old man or woman. 

Kaohete, n. {tu-ch.) (i) Boy 
slave of chief (cf. muchete) ; (a) a 
(kind of) monkey. 

Kaohiti, n. {tufiti) (i) A small 
tree, shrub, bash ; (2) small pole, 
stick, switch. (Cf. kati, chitif mutt, 

Eafi, n. {itfa-k.) Cobra. 

Kafu, n. {tufu). A grain of soil, 
atom. (Cf. ckifu,) 

-kafti, a. Poor, destitute. (Cf. 
kawa, sauka,) 

Kafungo, n. {tu-f.) Bad smell, 
stink. {Ci.fuka,) 

Eaiohe, Eaike, n. {twaiche). 
See Eaniohe. 

Eaka, v. Tie, fasten, bind. .Ap. 
kakikty e. g. tied up, kakiltiay tie all 
round; Cs. and Int. kdkishya^kashya^ 
tie tight, make fast; Rp. kahana^ 
e.g. be in a tangle; Rv. kakula^ 

Ka-ka, int of denial, contempt, 
or rejection. No, not a bit, rubbish ! 
(Cf. iyoo^ 

Eakokolwa, n. {iu-k.) Shoot, 
bud, sprout. (Cf. musonga,) 

Kakoli, n. {iu-k,) Rafter-pole, 
one of those first placed and secured 
in position to carry roof. (Cf. 
lusontUj mupanda.) 

Eakula, n. Rv. of kaka (which 
see), untie, unloose. 

Kakumo, n. (tu-k.) Toe. (Cf. 

Kala, V. See Ikala. 

Ealama, n. (ijba-k,) Attendant, 
page. (Cf. lama.) 

Kalango, n. (Ju-l,) (i) Plan, 
system, direction, order; (a) sense, 
intelligence. (Cf. ilango^ mulangwe, 
langa, amano.) 

Kale, n. and adv. Past time, 
(i) long ago, old times; (a) lately, 
already, some time ago. -a kale^ 
old, ancient, past, (Cf. -a mwq- 

Kalefola, Esnefiila, n. {tu4,) 

Ealenda, n. (/»-/.) A (kind of) 
pig. (Cf. inguluwe,) 

Kalende^ula, n. {tu-L) A 
large (kind of) axe. (Cf. isembe, 

-kali, a. Unkind, cruel, severe, 
strict, ill-tempered, cross, savage. 
(Cf. ukali, lukansa^ ululu, kulipa^ 

Kalimba, n. (/»-/.) Musical in- 
strument (metal tongues mounted oti 

Kalipa, v. (i) Be unkind (in 
word or act), angry, threatening, 
fierce, severe ; (2) be painful, ache, 
hurt. Ap. May e. g. scold, reprove ; 
Cs. and Int. -ishya, offend, provoke, 
exasperate, be very angry. (Cf. 
lula, inkansa.) 

Ealola, n. {tu-L) Looking-glass, 
glass. (Ci lola,) 

Kalombe-lombe, n. {tu-L) A 
dandy, one who makes a display of 
finery or appearance. (Cf. ulombe- 

Ealomo, n. {4u-L) Sharp end, 
point, edge. (Cf. mulomo, isonga.) 

Kidulu, n. {^a-k. or /»-/.) 

Ealume, n. {iJba-k,) Male slave. 
(Cf. mushy a.) 

Kaluwula, n. {tu-l^ Blood, 
gore, bloodstain. (Cf. mulopa.) 

Kama, n. Press, squeeze, wring, 
milk (a cow). Ap. kaminay Cs. 

Kamba, Eambaa, n. Kamba 
nkokotOy kambala (/«-/«.), dry, hard 
remainder of food, put away over- 
night. (Cf. ckimbdla.) 

Kambatana, v. Embrace, clasp 
each other, stick (hold) together. 
(Cf. kumbcLtay ambakana,) 

Kambeleka, n. {tu-m,) Light- 
hole, window. (Cf. mbelo,) 

Eambi, adv. Another time, 
again, besides, also, and farther. 
(Cf. -mbL) 

Kambila, Iiambila, v. See 




Kambula, v. Stir about (in 
cooking porridge). (Cf. nay a, 
wanya, kumbula,) 

Kaxnbwiriy n. (Ju-m.) Hoe 
(with short blade). (Cf. ise^ 

Kamfwa,, n. Mist, haze. (Cf. 
fuwcy fufutay chikunku.) 

Kamimba, n. {tu-m.) Spirit- 
house (like a small hut). 

Kamini, n. (Ju-m.) A biting 
insect (also kapilili). 

Kamo, adv. One time, once. 
Following a negative, not once, 
never. KamokamOf occasionally, 
not often, seldom, sometimes, -a 
kaniOy single, not repeated. (Cf. 


Kamo, n. {tumo). Razor. (Cf. 

Kamona, n. (Ju-m.) Nostril. 
(Cf. tnona.) 

Kampelelwa, n. A swinging 

Kampesiy n. (Ju-m.) Lightning. 
(Cf. lesa,) 

Kamxina, v. Take up (out) with 
fingers, take up. 

Kamusenga, n. {tu-tnis,) A 
particle of sand (single grain). (Cf. 
musenga, ) 

Kamushiki, n. Diving (in play), 
ducking under water. (Cf. tift/a.) 

Kamwali, n. {tuibali). Grown 
up (adult girl). (Cf. chisungu.) 

Kamwana, Kana, n. {tuilfafm, 
twana). Small child. JC, nanda^ 
domestic cat. (Cf. fnwana, kana.) 

Kana, n. {twancC), Small child. 
See Mwana. 

Kana, v. Deny, contradict, 
refuse, say no. Md. -kene, Cs. Int. 
kanya^ kanishya, kanshya^ kansha. 
See Kansha, Kanya. 

Kanda, v. Knead with fingers 
or knuckles, shampoo. (Cf. follg.) 

Kandaula, Kandola, v. Knead. 
,Cf. kandulula.) 

Kandela, n. ' tu-n.) Native 
stool, seat, chair. (Cf. chipuna,) 

Kandolo, n. {"iba-k.) Sweet 

Kandulula, v. . Break up by 
kneading. (Cf. kandaula,) 

Kane, adv. See Kani. 

Kanga, v. (i) Cause a shock, 
amaze, surprise, puzzle, perturb, 
confound ; (2) thwart, oppose, baffle, 
defeat, be too much for. Md. 
-kangilCy Ps. kangwa^ Ap. kangila^ 
'ililat Cs. -shya^ Ps. -ishwa, Rp. 
kangana, e.g. form a difficulty, be 
hard to deal with. 

Kani, Kane, adv. (i) Perhaps, 
possibly, probably, I daresay, I 
don't know; (a) if; (3) or again, 
or else, or perhaps, or. Kani . . , 
kaniy either ... or. (Cf. kaya^ kan- 
shif linOy sombi^ chipale.) 

Kanika, v. Be in doubt (per- 
plexed, anxious), waver, hesitate, be 
at a loss. 

Kanika, n. (iu-n.) Stream, 
brook. (Cf. inika.) 

Kanike, n. {iw-an.) Small 
child. (Cf. mwanicke, kana.) 

Kankaka, n. Furious storm, 
hurricane, whirlwind. 

Kankamala, v. Frown, look 
surly (as if baffled, disappointed, 

Kankamuka, v. Show surprise 
(fear, anger), be excited, tremble. 

Kankata, v. Cut down, chop 
down. (Cf. follg.) 

Kankaula, Kankamaula, v. 
Cut down on all sides, make a 
clearing in forest. (Cf. tetnaula,) 

Kanongola, n. {iba-k.) Leader, 

Kansha, v. Cs. of kana. Also 
Kanishya, Kanya, scold, rebuke, 
threaten. (Cf. kana.) 

Kanshai, n. {iba-k.) Tobacco. 
(Cf. /waka.) 

Kanshi, ndv. Perhaps, probably, 
no doubt. (Cf. kayaf kani,) 

K.vnto,n.{iunlo). Shade, shadow. 
'^Cf. chimingzva, chiUlu, chinto.) 

Kantu, n. {tuntu). (i) A small 
thing (object, article) ; (2) for 
kamufttUy a little man. (Cf. chintu, 




Kantu, adv. Especially, par- 
ticularly, very. (Cf. kuntu,) 

Eanwa, n. (Junwa) . ( i ) Mouth 
(or anything similar), orifice ; (2) 
quarrelsomeness, abusive language, 
bragging. (Cf. nwa.) 

Kanwe, n. (Junwe), Little finger. 
(Cf. munwe, intengulushya,) 

Eanya, v. (i) Cs. of kana, 
oppose, contradict, refuse; (2) divide 
in portions, allot, distribute, share. 
(Ct. inkana^ awa.) 

Kanyambi, n. {tu-ft.) ? Special 
drinking-vessel of chief. (Cf. mun" 

Eanyense, n. {wa-k,) A (kind 
of) bean. 

Eanyenyeni, n. (/m-».) A (kind 
of) ant. 

Kapafu, n. (tu-p,) Belly, womb, 
pregnancy. (Cf. ipq/Uj lupafu^ 

Eapapulwa, n. {lu-p.) Hurri- 
cane. (Cf. kankunku,) 

Eapapwa, n. {tu-p.) Outer bark, 
shell, envelope. (Cf impapa.) 

Kapili, n. {tu-p.) Small hill, 
mound, heap. (Ci. lupili.) 

Eapingo, n. (Ju-p») Cross- 
piece, cross-pole (strut, thwart, rung 
of ladder). (Cf. pinga, impinga,) 

Kapingwee, n. (Ju-p,) Hut or 
shelter raised on a platform for 
watching crops. Also Iiupingwe. 
(Cf. chitewdf chiltftdo.) 

Kapishya, v. Wink (as a sign), 
give a wink (to). 

Eapokolo, n. {tu-p^ Pouch, 

Eapokoso, n. (Ju-p,) Ankle, 

Kapondo, n. {tu-p.) Murderer, 
outlaw, brigand. 

Kaput a, n. (wa-k,) See Ohi- 

Eaputi, n. {tu-k^ Double length 
of cloth (calico), four yards. (Cf. 

Easako, n. {tu-s.) Small stick. 
(Cf. musako, iusako.) 

Easango, n. {tu-s,) (i) A grass 

yielding salt; (2) a reed holder for 
smoking tobacco. 

Kasawa, n. {tu-s,) Chiefs spare 
house, not lived in, used for sitting 
and talking in. (Cf. tpanga.) 

Kasa'^e, n. {tu-s.) A fishing net. 
(Cf. kombe») 

Kasele, n. {tu-s,) A small (kind 
of) basket. (Cf. chipe.) 

Kasemba, n. {tu-s.) Spot, speck, 
mark. (Cf. iwanga, iwala.) 

Kasembe, n. {tu-s,) (i) Tsetse 
fly; (2) small axe. (Ci. isembe^ 

EaBengo, n. (tu-s.) Small horn. 
(Cf. lusengo,) 

Kashawa, n. (tu-s,) A small 
yellow bean or pea. (Cf. i«- 

Eaahi, n. (Juski). Small village, 
)iamlet. (Cf. mushi,) 

-kashi, a. Female. Also Ana- 

Kashika^ v. Be of a red colour. 
Md. 'kashikile, 

Kashinga, n. {tu-s.) (i) Stump 
of tree; (2) a broken-ofF part, e.g. 
stump of arm or leg, a disablement, 
infirmity ; (3) a niggardly, close- 
fisted, selfish person. (Cf. chiskinga,) 

Eashinge, Kashinje, n. {tu-s!) 
Small (kind oO ant-hill. (Cf. chi- 
fwasa^ chulu.) 

KaBhishilo, n. {tu-s.) Heel. 

Easokoso, n. {tu-s.) Noise, 
hubbub, uproar. (Cf. chiwawa,) 

Easua, n . {tusua) . Sun, sunlight , 
day, daytime, daylight, time of day. 
Kasua kali shaniy what time is it ? 
Kasua kesa^ which day ? (Cf. lusua 

Eata, V. See Ikata. 

Eatala, v. Be tired (weary, 
exhausted, bored). Md. 'katth, 
Cs. katashya, kateskya, kashya^ 
tire, annoy, harass, bore, worry. 
Also Int. katashishya. 

Eatandala, n. {tu-t,) Star. (Cf. 

Eatemo, n. Uu-t.) Axe. (Cf. 
isembe^ tema.) 




Katende, n. (^u-t,) A bit of dry 
grass, a dry stalk. 

Eatete, n. A strong, bitter 
(kind of) beer. (Cf. uwaiwa, 

Kati, n. (i) Middle, centre , 
inside. Usually with prep, kukati ka, 
mukati ka, inside, among, between ; 
(2) small tree. (Cf. mutt.) 

Katiwi, n. {tu-t.) Breast, chest. 
(Cf. cktfua, intiwi,) 

Eatalo, n. {ku-t.) Short sleep, 
nap. (Cf. tulo, shipula,) 

Eawa, n. (i) Be hot, boil (of 
water). (Cf. wila.) Md. 'kawile, 
Ap. kawila, Cs. kawilishya ; (2) be 
poor, destitute, miserable, sad. (Cf. 

Kawalwa, n. (tu-w.) Small 
drink (draught, allowance) of beer. 
(Cf. uwalwa^ chiwalwa,) 

Eawanga-wanga, n. (/u-w.) 
Star. (Cf. intandwa,) 

Kawaula^ Kawula, v. Lap witli 
the tongue, drink with the hand, 

Ka^a^i, n. (Ju-ib,) Mosquito. 

Ea'^e, Eabwe, n. {/uiife, tubwe). 
Small stone. (Cf. vdfe, muwala.) 

Eawea, adv. Sideways. 

Eawele, n. {tu-w,) C17, shout, 
noise, uproar. (Cf. kapokoso, chU 

Kawenga,n. (/2/-W.) Small sore, 
ulcer. (Cf. chiwenga.) 

Kawengele, n. {tu-w.) Small 
heap. (Cf. intunta, kapili.) 

Eaweshi, n. {tu-w.) Small 
knife. (Cf. luweshi.) 

Eaweshya, n. {tu-w,) Wind, 
breeze. (Cf. impepo.) 

Eawili, adv. Twice, a second 
time, again, besides, next, further. 
Kawili kawilif again and again, 
repeatedly, often. (Cf. -wilL) 

Kawilishya, Eawishya, v. 
Heat, make hot, boil. Cs. of kawa. 

Kawinda, n. (tu-w,) (i) Last- 
bom child ; (2) the last, the end. 
(Cf. muwe/e.) 

Ka^o^oto, n. {tu-Hb,) Ankle- 
joint, projecting bone of ankle. 

Ka^^ngo, n. Place in which 
chief or notable ancestor died and 
was buried, a grave. (Cf. cAi- 

Ke^o, n. {t^fftbo). Word, ex- 
pression. (Cf. w^a, cktd;o,) 

Eingika, v. Partly close (door, 
passage, &c.). Also Chinjika* 

Eoka, V. Pull, drag, haul. 

Eoko, Eoku, adv. negnt. No, 
not so. (Cf. iyoo, ) 

-ko. After a verb, often repre- 
sents its object, e. g. it, some of it, 
them, thus. Ntmpako, give me 
some of it. 

Kokola,. v. (i) Loiter, linger, 
delay, be behind time, be late ; (2) 
last a long time, be durable, wear 
well. Md. 'kokwele» 

Kokola, V. Lop, chop. See 

Kola, V. (i) Keep off (rain, &c.) 
by charms (cf. impingc^\ (2) in- 
toxicate, make drunk; (3) also 
koola^ cough (cf. kosokCf iukoia), 
Ps. kolwa, Md. 'koiele^ Cs. koleshya^ 
make drunk, be very drunk. 

Koleka, v. Set fire to grass, 
stubble, &c. 

Kolomay v. Snore. (Cf. mun- 

Kolwa, V. Be drunk, intoxicated. 
See Kola. 

Kolwe, n. (iba-k.) Baboon. 

Koma, V. Knock, hit, hammer, 
strike in fighting. Md. Hiominey 
Rp. komana, fight. 

Komiba, v. Scrape out, clean 
out, e. g. contents of a vessel. 

Kombe, n. (iba-k.) Fishing-net ; 
also small net, spider's web, &c., 
and then. plur. tombe, (Cf. kascribe.) 

Kombolwe, n. \4}a-k.) Cock. 
(Cf. tambaia,) 

Komeka, v. Threaten, menace, 

Komekela, v. Fasten together, 
join, sew. 

Komena, v. Sow, plant (in 
separate holes) . (C f. wiala, tninsa. j 

Komonona, v. Break off (maize 




cobs), gather, glean. (Cf. Monona, 
Monoa, and foUg.) 

Konaika, v. Be broken off, 
snapped off, gathered. (Cf. koncna.) 

Eonda, v. Please, satisfy, con- 
tent, suit. Md. 'kondeie, Ap. kondela^ 
Cs. kondeshya, Ps. kondwa^ be 
pleased (with), be fond (of), like, 
be satisfied. Md. -kondelwe; and 
as a., beloved, dear. (Cf. temwa.) 

Eondoloka, v. Look about, 
look here and there, peer about. 
(Cf. chenchenta,) 

Eonekelwa, v. Be bereaved, 
deserted, without parents. (Cf. 

Kongola, v. (i) Borrow, get 
an advance; (a) give security for. 
(Cf. apuia,) 

Eongolo, n. Rainbow. Also 

Eoni, n. {tunt), (Any) small 
bird. (Cf. chunu) 

Eonka, v. (i) Follow, go be- 
hind, keep the direction of, accom- 
pany, be guided by. Md. -konkele^ 
Ap. konkana (cf. londa) ; (a) suck 
(the breast). Also Onka* 

Eonkola, v. Lop away, chop 
off. (Cf. kunkula^ kankaula,) 

Eonkoleka, v. Walk with a 
stick (as an old man). 

Eonoa, Eonona, v. Break off, 
snap off, gather (maize cobs), (Cf. 
komonona^ koitaika,) 

Eonta, V. Sit by fire, bask in 
the sun, warm oneself. Ap. kontela 
{muHlOi kasua), (Cf. onia,) 

Eontaxua, v. Bend down, bend 
over. Ap. kontamina. (Cf. konia, 

Eopola, V. Cut across, cut 
through (by drawing knife, &c., 
across). (Cf. sesa,) 

EoBa, V. (i) Be well (strong in 
health, vigorous) ; (a) have strength 
(for), be able (to) ; (3) be firm 
(brave, determined, capable). (Cf. 
inkosa^ ifiso^ 

Eosaula, Eosola, v. Break in 
two, snap off. (Cf. kotola^putula,) 

Eoshya, v. Cause to bum, 
kindle (fire). 

Eosoka, V. ( i) Cough (cf. kolc^ ; 
(a) break off, break in two. 

Eosola, V. See Eosaula, 

EoBwe, n. (z^a-^.) House-rat. 

Eota, V. Become (get) old. 
Ap. kotela, (Cf. mupemba,) 

Eotola, V. Break off, snap off. 
(Cf. kosolUf putula,) 

Eowa, V, Propel (a canoe). 
(Cf. ikowa,) 

Eo'^eka, v. Hang, hang up (on 
wall, round the neck, on arm). (Ci, 

Eo'^ela, V. Unhang, take down 
(off, of something hanging). (Cf. 

Eowolola, V. Unravel, dis- 
entangle, undo. 

Eu, prep, of comprehensive 
meaning, defining place, time or 
circumstances generally, e.g. at, to, 
from, in, with, by. Used with 
nouns to form many adverbial ex- 
pressions. (Cf. mu, pa, kuli,) 

Eu, interrog. Where? (Cf. 
kwisay kulipu) 

Eucha, Ukucha, n. Dawn. 
(Infin. of cha.) 

Euchlpiko, adv. To the left 
(left hand), on the left hand. (Cf. 
kuluiyo, kulwine*) 

Euka, V. Move house, migrate, 
change place of abode. Md. -kukile, 
(Cf. sela.) 

Eu>ku, adv. of negation. No, 
not so. (Cf. iyooy ko-koy ka-kcu) 

Eukula, V. Give a kick (cuff, 
blow) to. 

Eula, V. (i) Grow, increase, 
get big (bigger, more), become 
adult, grow old. Md. -kuliie, Cs. 
kushyUy make more, add to, increase ; 
(a) draw, drag, pull (cf. kokd) ; (3) 
cultivate, dig, hoe (cf. lima). 

Eulauka, v. Be broken, knocked 
about, smashed. 

Euli, used as (i) prep, like ku^ 
esp. of persons, to, from, with; (2) 




conj. of comparison, than ; (3) a 
demonstrative, e.g. kuli kalulu, 
the rabbit, indicating the subject of 
the verb. (Cf. li, pali, muU,) 

Kulika, V. (i) Kill by hanging ; 
(2) lead by the hand (as a blind man). 

Kulinje, idiomatic phrase of 
address to an audience : All here 
present. (Literally, kuli^ there is ; 
ndye, an emphatic form of pers. 
pronoun plur., i. e. you there.) 

KuUpi, interrog. Where? (Cf. 

Kulu, ukulu, n. (mo/Uj i.e. Pta- 
u/u). Leg. (Cf. mwendo,) 

-kulu, a. (i) Big, large, great; 

(2) important, powerful, famous, 
influential ; (3) grown-up, adult ; 
(4) old, elder (relation), aged. (Cf. 

Eiilaine, adv. Same as kululyo. 
(Cf. 'inCy -ne,) 

Eulukila, v. Fall into a hole. 
(Cf. fulukila,) 

Kululuka, v. Be wretched, 
miserable, destitute. (Cf. sauka, 
kawa, tufftana.^ 

Kululyo, adv. In (on, to) the 
right hand (direction), on the right. 
(Cf. lya^ iuine, kuchipiko^ 

Kulumishya, v. Cause to hurry, 
hasten, act as overseer (to), get 
work done promptly. 

Eulya, adv. There, th en. (C£ -lya^ 

Euma, V. (1) Come near, 
approach, nearly touch, almost 
amount to, be almost; (2) kuma 
ntafu, collect (make balls of) 
india-rubber. Rp. kumana (which 

Eumaoha, n. Dawn, at dawn. 
(Cf. cha, luchelo.) 

Kumana, Rp. of kuma, (i) 
Come together, meet, assemble, 
collect, form a meeting; (2) form 
a whole, constitute, form, make up ; 

(3) be equal, correspond, match, be 
similar, resemble, be like; (4) 
amount to, be enough, go round, 
fill up. Cs. kumanya^ distribute to 
all, give all round, share equally. 

Kumba, v. Brew (native beer). 
(Cf. uwalwa.) 

Kumbata, v. Embrace, clasp, 
cling to, stick to. Likumbaia^ curl 
oneself up. (Cf. ambakana^ lam- 

Kumbi, adv. Elsewhere, in an- 
other direction (way). (Cf. -mbt.) 

Kumboshi, adv. To the west, 
westwards. (Cf. Momboshi^ name 
of a stream lying west of the Lala 

Kumbuka, v. Think of, have 
in mind, consider, call in mind, 
remember, take note of, acknow- 
ledge. Cs. kumbushya, e.g. remind. 
(Cf. inkumbu, languluka,) 

Kumbula, v. Shake up, stir up, 
splash about 

Kumbwa, v. Desire, long for, 
covet. Ap. kumbtlwa, 

Kumbwani, n. East coast, to 
the coast. East. (Not W.L.) 

Kumfwa, adv. So, then, next 
(in narrative). (Cf. umfwa^ ekuti^ 
lomba, kawili.) 

Kumtulesua, adv. To the East. 
(Cf. imtulesua,) 

Kumulu, adv. Up-stream, up 
(a river). (Cf. muluy kwiulu, 
kunselelo, kunyanski,) 

Kundumuna, V. Overturn, upset, 
throw down. 

Kuni, n. See - Iiukuni, In- 

Kunka, v. (i) Cause to burn, 
light (a fire), kindle (cf. koshya^ 
ashya)\ (2) bubble up; (3) hammer 
(metal). (Cf./ula.) 

Kunkula, v. (i) Act as in stalk- 
ing game, stoop down, avoid being 
seen; (2) knock, hammer. {CT, 

Kunkulushya, v. Set in violent 
motion, set rolling. (Cf. inkulu- 

Kunkunta, v. Knock, strike, 
beat, thump, hammer (wood). (Cf. 
kunta, kufikulaJ) 

Kuno, adv. Here, now, there, 
then, presently. (Cf. -;w, pano.) 




Kunse, adv. Outside. (Cf. 
more common kwisonde,) 

Kanselelo, adv. Down-stream. 
(Cf. kumulu, kanyanshu) 

Eunshi, adv. Down. SeePanshi. 

Kunta, v. (i) Shake out, shake 
about; (2) tap, rap, knock gently. 
\Cf. kunkunta.) 

Kuntanje, Kimtasjile, Eiin- 
tanshi, adv. Forward, on, in front, 
before. (Cf. tangila,) 

Euntu, adv. Only, just, just so, 

Kunumft, adv. After, l)ehind, 
back. (Cf. inuma, poHuma,) 

Eununa, v. Commit adultery. 
(Cf. chenda, pombola^ 

Eunyanshi, adv. Downwards, 
down-stream. (Cf. kuuselelo,) 

Eiua, V. (1) Munch, chew (cf. 
mtikusu) ; (a) rub smooth, file, 

Euahya, v. Cs. of kula^ make 
more, add to, increase. 

Eusula, V. Pound (sorghum). 
(Cf. twa, lupula,) 

Euta, V. Have enough, be 
satisfied, be content. Cs. and Int. 

Eutala, Eutaola, v. (i) Eat 
food plain (without relish or season- 
ing, cf. inkashya) ; (a) rub, smear, 
anoint (one's body, oneself) (cf. sua, 

Eutali,ady. Far, far off, distant. 
As n., distance, a long way. (Cf. tali.) 

Eutanjile, Eutanje, adv. Be- 
fore, in front, forward. (Cf. tanga, 

Euti, conj. That, so that, in 
order that. (Cf. /{, o/t.) 

Eutika, V. Be silent, keep quiet, 
be on the alert, listen. 

Eutwi, n. {maiwt). Ear (of 
body). (Cf. mutwi, chitwi,) 

Euwa, V. Scream, cry, bawl. 
^Cf. liiay ama,) 

Eawati, conj. As, as if, as 
though. (Cf. -/«, >&«/«.) 

Eu^oko, Uku^oko, n. (ma- 
^0^0), Arm (of body). 

Eu^nla, V. Ford a river. (Cf. 

Ewa, prep. To, from, at (of 
persons). (Cf. ku^ -a, ku/i.) 

Ewakuti, adv. Much, very. 
(Cf. kwine.) 

Ewata, v. (i) Have, possess, 
own. Md. 'kwetSj -kwatiU) (2) 
marry. (Cf. «/«, lingula,) 

Ewapa, ukwapa, n. {mapa^ 
maktuapa). Armpit. 

Ewa^o (i.e. ht adbo). At their 
home (village, country). Also used 
as a noun. (Cf. kwesu, kwenu,) 

Ewela, V. Go up, ascend, 
climb. (Cf. Htfia,) 

Ewika, V. Fix tight (as hoe in 
handle, spearhead on shaft). 

Ewine, adv. Well, truly, really, 
rightly, much, very. Kwine tune, 
very well, quite right. (Cf. -ine,) 

Ewinji, adv. Much, very. (Cf. 
'inji, -ingi.) 

Ewiaa, interrog. Where ? (Cf. 
kulipi, ku.) 

Ewisonde, adv. Outside. (Cf. 
kunse, pesonde,) 

Ewitala, adv. At (to/ from) 
the side (far side, other side). (Cl 
itaiat ishifya,) 

Ewiulu, adv. Above, on the 
top, up. ' Kw, lya^ prep, on, upon, 
&c. (Cf. iulu,) 

L and B being mostly con- 
vertible sounds, L is chiefly used 
in this vocabulary. 

Iiaisha, v. See Laya, Layisha. 

Iiala, v. (t) Lie, lie down, sleep, 
rest Lala tulo, go to sleep. Md. 
-leUt Ap. lalila, Nt. lalika ; (Act.) 
e.g. put aside, put off, adjourn, let 
rest ; Cs. Int. laliskyay laleshya (cf. 
ulalOy mulala^ mulale) ; (a) be 
abundant, plentiful. Also 'leU^ Ulwa, 

Lama, v. Take care of, keep 
watchr, guard, tend. Md. -laming. 
(Cf. malama,pembaf embtla^ sunga.) 

Lamba, v. Approach humbly, 
grovel before, (i) beg, appeal; (a) 




flatter, praise. Usually in Ap. 
lambila^ lambtlila. (Cf. kambila, 
lambula^ lumbal 

Iiambatila, v. Stick to^ be 
sticky. (Cf. kumbatila,) 

Iiambula, v. Pay wages. (C£ 
MlambUf lamba,) 

Iiamuka, v. Open the eyes, 
wake ap. (Cf. itukay shiibuka,) 

Iiamuna, v. Take in the hand, 

Landamika, v. Set in line, put 
in row. (Cf. lon^, mulongo,) 

Langa, v. (i) Show, point out: 
(2) arrange, direct, manage, com- 
mand, instruct; (3) punish, correct. 
Ap. 'ila^ Cs. 'ishya, (Cf. ilango^ 
kalango, tnulangwe,) 

Iiangaluka, v. (i) Think, be 
thoughtful, have in mind, remember, 
expect, wish, believe (cf. lasa^ kum^ 
btika)\ (2) look thoughtful, be sad 
(melancholy, anxious^ perplexed). 
(Cf. tumana.) 

Langaula, v. Look about, peer 
about. (Cf. chenckenia.) 

Iiapa, V. Swear, take an oath. 
Cs. lapishya^ e. g. cause to swear, 
put on oath; Ap. lapila. (Cf. 
ipundcy ptalape,) 

Lapuka, v. Burst out (with 
cries, abuse, anger), cackle, scold, 
storm. Ap. 'lapwiU. 

Lasa, v. \i) Wound, damage, 
hurt ; (2) give pain, be painful, ache, 
hurt ; (3) think, reflect, be perplexed 
(anxious, thoughtful) ; (4) go in the 
direction of, lead towards ; (5) place 
on the Are, cook. Ap. lasila^ Rp. 
lamna, e. g. fieht. Lasanya, be 
thoughtful, puzzled, at a loss. (Cf. 

Laukila, v. Find (a thing lost, 
unexpectedly), light upon after 
search, {d, fwaya, sanga.) 

Iiawila, V. Speak, talk, say. 
Md. 'lawile, Ap. lawilila, e.g. 
muianduy (i) bring to trial, charge, 
accuse ; (2) decide (settle, judge) a 
case. (Cf. eita^ and E.L. sosa,) 

Iia^uka, V. Forget. (Cf. luwa.) 

Iiawula, V. (i) Untie, release, 
take out of a trap; (2) taste (food). 

Laya, v. Bid good-bye to, send 
off, let go, part with, let depart. 
Cs. layisha^ send away, dispatch 
(cf. iumd), Rp. layana, bid good- 
bye to each other, take leave. 

Leka, V. (i) Let, allow, permit, 
give leave; (2) let -alone, leave, 
leave off, stop (doing), abandon, 
desert, part from. Ap. iekelat leke- 
Ula, e.g. let off, acquit, pardon, 
remit. Cs. Int. lekeshya^ leshya^ 
cause to leave off, e. g. forbid, pre- 
vent, stop. Lileshya, refrain from, 
abstain. Rp* iekana, e.g. part 
company, diverge, be different, go 
different ways, be contrary (contra- 
dictory). Cs. lekanya, put apart, 
part, separate. 

Lela, V. (i) Nurse (a child), 
rear, bring up; (2) form a cluster 
or swarm (as bees). (Cf. chilela.) 

Lelo, n. and adv. This day, to* 
day, the present time, now. (Cf. 
iiay mailo.) 

Lema, v. Be heavy, feel heavy, 
be weary (tired, exhausted). Ap. 
Umela, Cs. letneshya^ (Cf, Jina, 
katalaf waka.) 

Lemba, v. Make marks (signs, 
figures): (i) carve, cut, tattoo; 
(2) draw, write, sketch; (3) make 
a sign (with head, hand, eye), beckon, 
give a hint. (Cf. nembo^ 

Lemyay v. Honour, show re- 
spect (to), be civil (courteous, 
polite). (Cf. chindika, uUfne.) 

Lenga, v. Make, produce, manu- 
facture, cause, create. Also of 
feelings, e. g. lenga m7venso, feel fear. 
(Cf. cAttay panga^ umbay waia.) 

Lengelela, v. Peep, peer about, 
pry, spy. (Cf. chenckenta,) 

Lengulula, v. Slander, accuse 
falsely, use angry (abusive, violent) 
language to. (Cf. ibepa,) 

Lesa, n. {iSba-L) God, thunder, 
providence, chance, accident. Lesa 
infumUy paramount chief, absolute 




Leshya, v. Cs. of leka (which see). 

Leta, V. Bring, fetch. (Ap. 

Leya, v. Avoid a blow, get out 
of the way. (Cf. chtchila.) 

Li-, also i'j Hi; di; Class- 
prefix of notms (sing.) here given 
under I, with plural Ma-. Also 
(i) reflexive particle, self, selves, 
with verbs, e. g. lipama, strike one- 
self; (2) of time, times, e.g. HfnOt 
one time; likumi^ ten times; lisa, 
which time? when? 

Li, V. (defective) Be. (Cf. wa, 
ikalGf ni.) 

Lia, Lya, v. Eat, consume, use 
up. Md. -itie, Ap. /t/a, e.g. eat 
with (as relish); /t/t/a, eat up, eat 
all. Cs. Int. /tskya, eat greedily, 
cause to eat, feed. LuiS}oko wa 
ktdila, right hand (cf. lulyo^ cha- 
kulyd), Nt. Hkay Ps. likwa, be 
eaten, fit to eat; Ap. likila^ Ps. 
likilwa^ be eaten up, devoured bodily 
(as by lion). 

Liala, Ilyala, Liamba, n. See 
lala, lamba. 

Lila, V. (i) Sound, give a sound, 
make a noise ; (a) cry, sbout, scream, 
exclaim ; (3) cry, shed tears, mourn, 
lament. Cs. lishyaf e.g. play on 
an instrument, beat a drum. Lishya 
ulupi (jnapi), clap the hands. Lishya 
injmi, fire a gun. Lishya tnunshu^ 
whistle. (Cf. ililo.) 

Lila, n. Usually in plur. ///a/a, 
bowels, entrails, intestines. 

Lima, v. Cultivate, dig, hoe. 
(Cf. muliffw, fnuliffiiy kula.) 

Liznba, v. (i ) Be strong (firm, 
energetic, hard-working, brave), 
make an effort, apply strength ; 
(3) plant (seed). (Cf. kosa.) 

Limbi, adv. At another time, 
on a different occasion. (Cf. -mbi.) 

Limeka, v. Show pride, show 
off, swagger, brag. See Meka, and 
Li- reflexive. 

Linga, adv. How many times, 
how often. (Cf. -nga.) 

Linga, v. (i) Be like, be equal. 

match, suit, fit; (a) do like, copy, 
imitate. Rp. lingana, be alike ; 
Cs. iinganya, match, compare. (Cf. 
mulingOt palana,) 

Lingula, v. Marry. (Cf. upa, 

Lino, ilino, n. {tnenOy te. ma' 
ino). Tooth. 

Lino, adv. Perhaps, possibly, it 
may be so. (Cf. -noj kani.) 

Linso, Liso, Uiso, Disc, n. 
{mensOj i. e. ma-inso^ nieso). Eye. 
(Cf. chinsOf ishiso.) 

Lipa, V. Pay. Ap. lipila^ Cs. 
lipishya, (Cf. futa.) 

Lisa, Lwisa, interr. When? 
(Cf. 'isa, kwisa,) 

Lishya, v. Cs. of (i) iila, 
(2) lia^ lya. 

Liwili, n. A second time, again. 
(Cf. 'Wiliy kawili.) 

Li^hikishya, Li-ihichishya, v. 
Remind oneself, recall to mind, re- 
member, recollect. (Cf. ivbuchi- 

Loka, V. (i) Rain, fall as rain ; 
(2) leak, drip, let rain through. Ps. 
iokwa, be rained on; Md. -lokelwe, 
(Cf. mulochif nya.) 

Lokoso, adv. (i) Merely, only, 
just ; (2) for nothing, gratis, in vain, 
idly, uselessly; (3) anyhow, unin- 
tentionally, by chance (accident); 
(4) without use (reason, occupation). 
Often with -a forming an adj. as 
above, e.g. -a lokoso, idle, useless, 
empty, &c. (Cf. ndololo,) 

Lola, V. Look, gaze, fix eyes on. 
Cs. Int. loleshya, e. g. look carefully, 
observe, examine. (Cf. wona.) 

Lomba, v. Beg, ask (for), pray. 
Ap. lombela^ Cs. lombeshya. (Cf. 

Lomba, adv. (i) Now, at once, 
soon, in these days, as it is ; (2) but, 
still, nevertheless ; (3) as connective, 
so, then, next, although ; lomba pano, 
at once, on the spot. 

-lombe, a. Good-looking, hand- 
some, pretty, well dressed. (Cf. 
ulombe^ kalombelombe^ 




Londa, v. Follow, keep follow- 
ing, track, go after; (2) set the 
heart on, be set on, long for, try to 
get; (3) drop (of liquid), fall in 
drops. (Cf. foUg.) 

Londola, Iiondolola, v« Follow 
up, keep following on, improtune, 
prosecute, press a charge against. 
(Cf. londa.) 

Iionga, V. Put in order, arrange, 
pack, stow, put together, collect, 
muster. Ap. longela^ pack in, stuff 
into, fill up with, lay in order (rows, 
heaps, &C.); Rp.' langana^ come 
together, gather in rows, collect, 
assemble, meet together; Cs. Ion- 
ganya. (Cf. foUg. and mulongo,) 

Longolola, v. Unpack and stow 
away, arrange differently, rearrange, 
put in order. (Cf. longa.) 

Iiota, V. Dream. (Cf. chiloto^ 

Iiowa, V. (i) Fish with a line, 
angle (cf. indawo) ; (2) bewitch, 
apply magic (spell, poison) to (cf. 
indoshif muloshi^ uloshiy lowolola), 

Iiowola, V. Make iigns to, 
beckon. (Cf. chewula, leniba,) 

Iiowolola, V. Remove spell 
(from). (Cf. Iowa (2).) 

I1U-. Class-prefix of nouns. Also 
often Ulu: 

Iiuaka, n. {ma-L, and ngaka). 
Crack, fissure, crevice. 

Iiuango, n. {mango), (i) Cross- 
switch, lath, carrying thatch on 
rafters (cf. imbalo) ; (a; a flat (kind 
of) basket (cf. chipe). 

Ijuansa, n. (jnansa). Open space 
before house, court, court-yard. 

Iiuati, n. {ma-L) Sneeze, sneez- 
ing. (Cf. atimuna.) 

Iiuoheohe, n. {n-ch,) Little child. 
(Cf. kanay mwaniche,) 

Luchelo, n. Morning, dawn. 
Luchelo-chelo, early morning. (Cf. 
cha, kumacha.) ' 

Iiuchonoho, n. (m^A.) Stick 
used as stirrer, spoon. (Cf. im- 

Luendo^ Ulwendo, n. {rna-L) 

Travelling, journey, expedition. (Cf. 
ihulendoy mulwmdo^ mwendoy enda.) 

Iiufd, TJlufa, n. Death. (Cf. 
fwa^ tnfwa.) 

Luftmga, n. {ma-f.) Packet 
parcel, bundle. (Cf. /unga.) 

IiuAino, Iiufiinwa, n. Naked 
state, nudity. Also as adj., naked. 
(Cf. /ununa, usakula,) 

Iiuftinyembe, n. (wa-lu,) Cha- 

Iiufya, V. Cs. of luwa (which 
see). (Cf. follg.) 

Lilly anya, v. Mix, confuse, 
jumble together, make a mess of. 
(Cf. pikankanya^ luwa.) 

Jjifjitjo,JJlvityOtn.{nfyo),'Ki&[xey. • 

Iitdlo, n. See Iiumlo. 

Iiuimbo, n. (nifndo, inimbo.) 
Song, singing. (Cf. imba.) 

Ltiine,n. Right hand (direction), 
right. (Cf. 'inet kuluine, lulyo.) 

Iiuitawila, n. Echo. (Cf. ita, 

Iiui-ihi, n. {ndiibu). Bell, worn 
on leg by dancers, and for hunting- 
dogs. (Cf. insenselo,) 

Iiuka, V. (i) Plait, e.g. hair, 
mat; (2) vomit. 

Iiukaka, n. Bird-lime, a vege- 
table gum. 

Lukansa, n. (inkansa). Anger, 
fury, passion (word or act). (Cf. 
tikali, ululu,) 

Iiukasa, n. {makasa)» Foot, foot- 
step, spoor, tracks. Lukasa Iwa 
tnakaii, sole of foot. (Cf. chikasa, 
iskimba, iwondo, mushyele.) 

Iiukola, n. (ma-k.) Cough. (Cf. 

Lukoshi, n. {nkoskt). Bird of 
prey, kite. (Cf. tnkwashu) 

Iiukunsrwe, n. (ita-l.) ? Cobra. 
(Cf. kqfi.) 

Iiiiktiiii, n. {inkuni). Piece of 

Iiulnxta, V. Fall as leaves. (Cf. 
wa^ pona.) 

Iiulcwa, n. (makwa). Piece of 
bark-cloth. (Cf. insansa, mwikwa, 
musambot in^ondo,) 




LukwawilO) n. {in-k,) Sandal 

Iii6cwelelo, n. {ma-k.) Ladder 
(steps, stairs). (Cf. kitfela.) 

Iiukwiso, n. {in-k,) Mole (animal). 

Lola, v. Be angry. (Cf. kaiipaj 
iufu, lukansa.) 

Xjttlembo, n. {ndembo, netnbo), 
Marks cut or drawn, carving, writ- 
ing, drawing, tattoo marks. (Cf. 

Jjulilo, n. {ndilo). Small earthen 
dish or bowl. (Cf. inotigo.) 

Lulu, Ululu, n. Anger (word, 
act or feeling). (Cf. lula.) 

-lulu, a. Angry, fierce, bmtal. 
(Cf. /«/«.) 

Lulyo, n. Right hand (direction), 
the right (Cf. lia (Jya), iuine.) 

Luma, V. Bite, sting, hart. Md. 
•lumine. (Cf. suma and follg.) 

Jjumana, Lumanya, v. Grip 
each other, grapple, fight. Also 
Xjumanya, Cs. make hold together, 
prop, support. (Cf. luma and 


Lumata, v. Bite hard, grip, be 
sharp (e.g. a tool). (Cf. lumay 

Lumba, v. (i) praise, flatter 
(cf. lamba) ; (2) divide np, distribnte 
(cf. awa^ kaf^a), 

Lumbula, v. Speak o^ mention, 
allude to. (Cf. shimbula,) 

«luxne, a. Male. (Cf. mulume, 
'Onalume, 'lyalume.) 

Lumfwi, n. {mfwt). Grey hair. 

Iiumfwila, n. (no plur.) Keen 
hearing, sharp ear. (Cf. umfwa^ 

Lumika, v. Bleed (surgically, 
by cupping), let blood. (Cf. sumika, 

Jjumini, n. {iminiy mmini for 
n'fnint). Tongue. (Cf. mulaka,) 

Jjumpundu, n. {impundtC), 
Trilled cry or scream (of joy or 

Lunda, v. Join, make a joining, 
fasten together. Rp. lundana^ Cs. 
-anyd. (Cf. iiundo.) 

liundulula, v. Pass word along. 

Lunga, V. Season, add relish 
to (food), e. g. chinarUy chitoibelo^ 

Lungama, v. Be even, straight, 
flat, smooth, level. Cs. 'ika, make 
even, &c (Cf. follg.) 

Iiungiks, V. Make even, level. 
L. infutiy level (aim) a gun. (Cf. 

liunshi, Ulunshi, n. (t&a-/.) 
Common fly. 

Iiuola, n. (ffiaola). Sting, e.g. 
of bee. 

Lupafti, n. {mpafu). Bag (of 
bark - cloth, for carrying grain). 
(Cf. ipafuykapafuy itutnhay tfukuta,) 

Lupako, n. {mpako). Cavity, 
hollow, hole, -a lupako, hollow. 

Iiupanda, n. {tnpanda and ma-p,) 
Fork of tree or post. (Cf. panda^ 
mapandwa, mupanda,) 

Lupandje, n. {ma-lupJ) One 
yard of calico. (Cf. panda^ chipandey 
nmkwambai kaputu ) 

Lupango, n. {mpango\ Ransom, 
redemption, payment, bail. (Cf. 

Iiupapatala, n. {tna^p^ Flat 
(side) of knife, board, &c. 

Lupe, XJlupe, n. {ma-lupe\ A 
(kind of) basket. (Cf. chife). 

Iiupi, Ulupi, n. {mapty atnapi). 
Palm, whole inner side of hand. 
Lishya mapi, clap the hands. 

Lupili, n. {npa-p. and ma-lup.) 
Hill, mountain. (Cf. mupili^ kapili.) 

Iiupingwe, n. (m-p,^ Watchman's 
stage, platform with shelter hut. 
(Cf. chttewttj chtHndo,) 

Iiupopo, n. imp. and ma-p,) 
Wooden peg, nail. (Cf. popa^ 

Iiupoto, n. itnp.) Crest, tuft, 

Lupula, V. (i) Pound (sorghum), 
(cf. tway kusula) ; (a) wash clothes 
(by beating) ; (3) make a great 
catch of fish. 

Iiupumpu, n. {mp.) Upright 
pole, carrying roof. (Cf. lus&nta.) 

Luputi, n. (fnp,) (i) Mound, 
hillock, raised bed (for seed in 




garden), grave-mound ; (2) swelling, 

Jjusafii, n. (ns.) Calf (of leg). 

Ijosako, n. (mas.) Stick. (Cf. 
Ma^if insako, inkoli.) 

Iiusale, n. {ns.) A long, thin, 
cord-like snake. 

Lusambo, n. {ns.) Brass-anklet, 
bracelet. (Cf. insambo.) 

Lusansrw'a, n. Seed-shell or 
husk used to make a bird-call. 
(Cf. musembe, induibHlula.) 

Liuanso, n. {tts.) Strainer, 
filter, colander. (Cf. swajfwa,) 

Lusatu, n. {ns.) Python. 

Lose, n. {tnase,) Hoe. (Not 
W.L. Ct ise.) 

Iiusengo, n. {ma-s.) Horn. 

Iiusensa, n. {ns.) Grassy, tree* 
less depression in forest, with a 
stream. (Cf. chisensa, Hungup 

Iiushlmu, n. {nsh^ Bee. 

Iiushinga, n. {nsh,) (1) Blood- 
vessel, vein; (2) string of bow ; (3) 
trigger of gnn. (Cf. kaskingai and 

Iioshipa, n. {n^h^ Blood»vessel, 

Lushishi, n. (nshisht). Bark 
in strips used for rope, cord, 
string. (Cf. mwando^ impapa^ chi- 
wombwat chikungo.) 

Lushito, n. {nsh.) Fence, for 
catching game. 

Iiusonta, n. {ns.) Leaning roof 
poles, rafters. (Cf. mpumpu, mu- 

Lu8ota» n. {ns,) Nipple of 

Lusua, n. Sunshine, sun*s light 
(heat, power). (Cf. kastm,) 

Lutengo, n. {nt.) Bit of dry 
grass. (Cf. kaiende,) 

Iiutowa, n. {Ji't.) Hollow 
(middle) of cheek. (Cf. it&wo.) 

Luwu, V. (i) Be at a loss, stray, 
wander, be lost; (2) forget. Ap. 
iuwiia, e.g. nshila, lose the road ; 
Md. -luwUey Cs. lujya^ lose, waste, 
throw away (c£ pma, tavd)\ Cs. 
lufyishya, -ishishya^ Rp. fufyanya. 

e.g. mix up, confuse, make a jumble 

Iiuwafd, n. {mbafu). Rib. 

Luwaka, n. {ngaka)» See Iiiiaka. 

Iiuwala, n. ( iluwala)* A kind 
of (human) tick. 

Luwali, n. {mbali). Side, side 
part, side portion. MbcUi shyonsCj 
on all sides, all round. 

Iiuwali«wali, n. {mbali-wali). 
Flea. (Cf. luwala.) 

Iiuwalo, n. {mbalo). Cross-piece, 
lath carrying thatch on rafters. 

Luwamba, n. Film over the eye, 
dim light, stupidity. (Cf. wamba^ 

liuwanga, n. {ijba-w,) A (kind 
of) fish-trap, (Cf. muofto.) 

Iiuwangala, n. Indian hemp, 

Iiuwao, n. {fnbaoJ) Fence for 
catching game. (Cf. lushito.) 

Iiu^e, Iiubwe, n. Ironstone, 
(Cf. ii&t,) 

Luwemba, n. Brass. (Cf. 
insambo f muiuwa.) 

Luwengwa, n. (tna-w.) Powder- 

Luweshi, n. {ma-L) Kniie. 
(Cf. chiweshiy weya,) 

Xju^Io, n. Act of running, 
speed, quick motion. As adv., 
quickly, speedily, in haste. (Cf. 
imdilOy ibutukoy wangu.) 

Iiuwo, uluwo, n. Quarrel, 
struggle, debate. (Cf. /war, mu- 
lomoy mulandu.) 

Luwola, n. See Luola. 

Iiuwomba-nongo, n. Giraffe. 

liU'^iiko, n, {ma-'df.) Doctor's 
art, detection and treatment of ill- 
ness. (Cf. ibuka.) 

liU'J&iiku, n. {ma-l. and mbuku)^ 
High river-bank. 

Lu^Anla, V. Ransom, redeem, 
buy back. (Cf, lupango.) 

Lu'^hinda, n. {muttda, malwA,) 
Hip, loin. 

Iiwa, V, Wrestle, struggle, 
quarrel, fight. (Cf. Iwana, lutvo.) 

Lwala, V. Be (become) ill, be 




sick, be ailine. Md. -Iweie. (Cf. 
t^nda, and foTlg.) 

-Iwele, -Iweshi, -Iwashi, a. 
Sick, ill. (Cf. Iwala, ulwele,) 

Iiwinyangu, n. (Jnyangu), A 
(kind of) bean. 

Iiya, V. See Lia. 

-lya, a. demonstr. That, that 
yonder. (Cf. -w>.) 

-lyakashi, a. Female. (Cf. 
-nkashif -anakaski,) 

-lyalume, a. Male. (Cf. -lume, 

Ma-. Class-prefix plur. of many 
nonns with I, lu, a, as prefix in 
sing. Under this are given a number 
of words used only or mainly in 

ICaflna, n. Matter, pus. (Cf. 

ICaflngwa, n. Things thrown 
down, rolling, falling, &c., e.g. rub- 
bish, stones, earth on hillside. . 

Mafuta, n. Fat, oil, grease, 

Mailo, n. To-morrow, yesterday. 
(Cf. i/a, lelo.) 

MainBha, n. Rainy season 
(November to March). 

Makupa, n. (Human) milk. 
(Cf. mukaka.) 

Makwe^o, n. Goods for sale, 
merchandise. (S. lukwewo,) 

Mala, n. Bowels, entrails. 

Malamba, n. Iron ore for smelt- 
ing. (Cf. mutapOf lutbe.) 

Malape, n. Oath (of assevera- 
tion). (Cf. lapa^ mapunde.) 

Malekano, n. Parting, division, 
going different ways, difference, 
contradiction. (Cf. leka^ ma- 

Malenganya, n. ( — ) Lizard. 
Also Eamalenganya. 

Malenji, n. Long, high grass. 
(Cf. chant,) 

Mali, amali, n. Personal pro- 
perty, wealth. (Swa. Cf. ckuma,) 

Mflkliri, n. Bed-frame, bedstead. 
Also Iliri, 

Malo, n. Place. Fa tnalo -a, 
in place of, instead of. (Cf. ilfu/o.) 

Maluko, n. Vomit. (Cf. iu^a,) 

Maluku, n. Malicious slanderer, 
backbiter, deceiver, liar. 

Mama, v. Cry out, exclaim (at, 
against. Sec). Ap. mamilOf Cs. 
mamishya. (Cf. ama.) 

Mama, n. {ita-m^ Mother. M. 
mukulu, mother's elder sister. M. 
mwaikey mother's younger sister. 
M.fyala, mother-in-lkw. M. wa mu- 
iSbukulUj step-mother. (Cf. nyina.) 

Mambirima, n. Falls (of a 
river). (Cf. mapota.) 

Mampanda, n. Fork of road. 
(Cf. panda^ and follg.) 

Mampandwa, n. Fork of tree. 
{Cf. panda f lupanda.) 

Mana, v. Come to an end, be 
finished, completed. Also Act., i.e. 
bring to an end, finish, complete. 
Md. •ine, (Cf. pela, shila.) 

Manata, n. Leprosy, leper. 

Manika, Manicha, Miinka, v. 
Grip, hold tight, seize with fingers. 
Rp. tnan{t)kanaj Cs. mankanya 
(used of fourth day's beer-brewing. 
Cf. kumba), 

Mankolwe, n. Fence or screen 
of veranda {tnulokolo), 

Mapanda, n. See Mampanda. 

Mapasa, n. {dfamapasa). Twins 
of different sex. (Cf. mupundu.) 

Mapota, n. Rapids (of river). 
(Cf. mambirima,) 

Masa, Mata, v. Apply mud- 
plaster (of first rough coat), plaster 
(a hut). Nt. matika^ be plastered, 
covered with mud. (CC shinga,) 

Masaka, n. Sorghum, Kaffir 

Masala, Mashyala, n. Land 
gone out of cultivation, abandoned 
plantation. (Cf. mxUonga^ ishyala.) 

Mashiri, MisliUi, n. (ita-m,) 
Skilled workman, mechanic, usually 
smith. (Cf. chilolo, mufushi,) 

Mashyala, n. See Masala. 

Maso, n. Hair of pudenda. (Cf. 




Masoslii, (rarely Maso), n. Day 
before yesterday, day after to- 
morrow. (Cf. lelo, math,) 

Mata, n. (sing, ibu/a). Bow and 
arrows, weapons. 

Matawa, n. Maize, Indian com. 
See Itawa. 

Mate, n. Spittle, saliva. (Cf. 
/a/a, shipa.) 

Matipa, n. Mud, muddy place, 

Matongo, n. Site of deserted 
village or plantation. (Cf mashy- 

Matuka, n. Bad language, 
abuse, insults. (Cf. iuka, matmki.) 

Matukuta, n. Sweat. (Cf. in- 
kasalo, chiwe.) 

Matushi, n. Abuse. (Cf. ma- 

Mayanga, n. Forest, bush, 
jungle. (Cf. tmpanga.) 

Mba, pr. These (people). Mba- 
mwe, (it is) you there, you people. 
(Nasalized form of {a)'ifa.) 

Mbala, v. Annoy, tease, abuse, 
harass. (Cf. kaiashya, iendekelay 
saushyay tumanishya,) 

-mbi, a. Other, another, of 
another sort, different, additional. 

Mbono, n. Castor -oiU See 

Meka, v. Be conceited, swagger, 
show off. Also Limeka, (Cf. limeka^ 

Mena, v. Grow (of vegetation}. 
(Cf. mununai kula,) 

Menda, Amenda, n. Water. 
(£.L. also menshi, amenshi.) 

Mikoshi, n. Urine. (Cf. sundd, 

Biiloohi, Miloki, n. Rain. (Cf. 

ICilyaahi, n. Burial-place of 
chief. (Cf. chitimbo^ 

ICimena, n. Yeast, barm. (Cf. 
mumefuzy mena.) 

Mlna, v. Swallow. (Cf /««• 
minOf and follg.) 

Mhiaula, v. M. amate, make the 
mouth water. 

L.*L. H. H 

Minsa, v. Sow (seed) broad- 
cast. (Cf. wiala^ 

Minsola (sing, mu-n.), n. Ob- 
stinacy, naughtiness, impudence. 
Also v., show contempt, reject with 
disdain, treat disrespectfully. 

Minta, v. Carry (a load). (Cf. 

Mifihike, n. See Mushike. 

-mo, a. One, single, unique. 

-mo, after a verb, often repre- 
sents the object, with the mean- 
ing, in it, into it, out of it, some 
of it. 

Mochelo, n. {my-o.) Furnace, 
kiln. (Cf. nyumbif ocha,) 

Mo-mo, negat. No, not so. 
(Cf. iyoOf ko-ko,) 

Mona, n. {miona). Nose. (Cf. 

Mondo, n. (mi-o.) Native bodng 
tool. (Cf. musumbo,) 

Mongololo, n. (mi-o.) Lower 
part of back, back of loins* (Cf. 
ukome^ chihome^ musana.) 

Moyo, XJmoyo, n. (mtcyo). Life, 
vitality, energy, courage. (Cf. 

Mpa, adv. (It is) here. Mpanoy 
(it is) here, there, now. Mpalya, 
(it is) there, then. 

Mu-. Class-prefix of nouns, 
often umu'f urn-, and before a 
vowel mw-y umw-, 

Mu, prep. In, into, inside, 
within, out of. Also interr., where ? 
(Cf. ku.) 

Muango, n. (mt-a.) Trunk of 
elephant. (Cf mumpa.) 

Mubolo, XJmbolo, n. (mi-b.) 

Muchele, Mwichele, XJmohele, 
n. Salt. 

Muchenchemeai, n. {7&acA.) 
Adulterer. (Cf. uchende.) 

Muchende, n. {ilba-ch.) (i) 
Adulterer; (2; bull. iCf chenda.) 

Muchendwa, n. {mich^ Lower 

Muchete, n. {iba-ch^ A (kind 
of) monkey ; (2) subject of a chief. 




member of a village, free man. 
(Cf. kackete.) 

Muohila, n. {mi-ch.) Tail (of 
animal). (Cf. imuka.) 

Muohinda, n. {micA.) Stem of 
pipe. (Cf. intuntUy imbokoma.) 

Huohinzi, n. {mi-ch,) Honour, 
respect, compliment, present, civility, 
attention. (Cf. chindika,) 

Muohombo, n. {mu<k.) White 
calico worked (Swahili) cap. {CL 
chisotit chapewa,) 

Muemfu, n. See Mwemfu. 

Muenshi, n. {tni-e.) A (kind of) 
ant. (Cf. muswa.) 

Muflla, n. {iba-f,) An idler, one 
who neglects to hoe his garden. 
;Cf. ufUa.) 

Muflto, n. (fftt-f.) Soot, grime 
^on cooking-pot, roof, &c.). (Cf. 
tnushito, mulale.) 

Mufulwa, n. {tni-f.) Furrow, 
groove, trench. 

Muflmdwa, n. (mi-/.) A sweet, 
rather light beer. (Cf. uwaiwa, 

Mufongo, n. nii-f,) Ceremonial 
offering. (Cf. chipupo, pupa.) 

Mufuahi, n. {iba-f,) Worker in 
metal, smith. {Ctfula.) 

Mufwi, n, {mi-f.) Arrow. 

Hafyala, n. (^jba-f.) Cousin. 
(Cf. fyah.) 

Mufyashi, n. {iba-f.) Parent. 

Muili, n. {miilt), (i) Body; 
(2) substance, bulk, bigness. 

Muilima, n. (mt-z.) A (kind of) 
bat. (Cf. tmpepe.) 

Muipi, n. See Muwipi. 

Muka, umka, n. (ibaka). Wife. 
Mka wa wency another. man's wife. 
Mka mU'fUwa^ mka kushyala^ a 
widow. (Cf. mukashu) 

Mukaka, n. {mi-k,) Milk (of 
animals). (Cf. makupa.) 

Hukalo, n. {mi-k.) Water-hole, 
well. (Cf. mushima,) 

Mukamata, n. (^a-m,) Person 
(wife or slave) inherited. (Cf. 
chokoloj impiano.) 

Mukanga, Hukansa, n. {mi-k,) 
Wrinkle (on face). 

Mukashi, n. {iba-k.) Wife, wo- 
man. (Cf. mwanakashi.) 

Mukatamwene, n. (iva-k,) Per- 
sonal servant in chiefs household. 

Mukati, adv. Meanwhile, inside, 
in the middle. (C£ katiy pakaii,) 

Muko, Umuko, n. {ibako^ 
aitako). Son-in-law. Also Mwiko, 

Mukofti, n. (mi-k,) Scar. 

Mukoka, n. Feti^ (distinguish- 
ing a family or clan in a tribe), 
family, clan. (Cf. mukowa.) 

Mukolo, n. (iba-k,) (i) First 
(head) wife of a chief; (a) {tni-k,) 
deep water-channel, gully, ravine. 
Also Mukolwa, (Cf. mukonkola.) 

Mukoma, n. {mi-k,) Hammer 
for smith's work. (Cf. konia,) 

Mokondo, n. {mi-k.) (1) Track 
of game, spoor, trail ; (2) war spear 
(cf. inkondo), 

Mukonka, Munkoiika,n. (mt-k.) 
Bracelet, anklet, of brass wire. (Cf. 
lusambo, wutaU,) 

Mukonko, n. {mi-k.) Tree with 
edible fruit {ikonko^ pi. nia-k,). 

Mukonkola, n. {mi-k.) Water- 
channel, drain, ditch. (Cf. fnu^ 

Mukonkote, n. {mi-k.) Old 
man's staff, walking*stick. 

Mukonono, n. {mi-k.) Snore, 
snoring. (Cf. koioma.) 

Mukopa, n. {mi-k.) Wallet, 
satchel. (Cf. inkomwe,) 

Mukoshi, n. {mi-k,) Neck, 
throat (external). (Cf. ikoshi,) 

Hukowa, n. {mi-k, ) ( i ) Navel ; 
(a) family, clan. (Cf. mukoka.) 

Mukuku, n. {mi-k.) (i) Current 
(of water), draft (of air) ; (a) {iba-k.), 
grandmother (cf. imhuya), 

Mukula, n. {mi-k.) Track ot 
something dragged on the ground. 
(Cf. kula, mukondo,) 

Mukulama, n. {^a-k,) Guard, 
attendant. (Cf. lama,) 

Mukulu, n. {iba-k.) (i) A great 
person (cf. -kulu) ; (2) elder brother, 




e. g. mukulu antu (in general) ; 
mukulu wanjit my elder brother. 

Mukunoshi, n. (iba-k,) Adul- 
terer. (Cf. kununa, muchende.) 

Mokupa, n. Native beer {uwalwa) 
in the second stage of making. (Cf. 

Mukushita, n. (^a-k.) Trader, 
one who buys or sells, customer, 
seller. (Cf. shita,) 

Mukusu, n. {mi-k,) Helping, 
bite, mouthful, morsel of food taken 
in the fingers. (Cf. sunUf isono, 

Mukuwa, n. Copper. 

Mukwa, Mwikwa, n. {tnikwa). 
Piece of bark used for carrying. 
(Cf. lukwa.) 

Mukwakwa, n. {mi-k,) Path, 
road. (Cf. inshilaf museu.) 

Mukwala, n. {mi-k.) Tragk, 
footstep (of man or animal). (Cf. 
mukondo, lukasa.) 

Mukwaxnba, n. {mi-k,) One 
fathom of cloth. (Cf. lupande,) 

Mukwandala, n. {mi-k,) Belt, 
girdle. (Cf. iniandwe.) 

Mukwa^o, n. {iba-k.) One of 
their village, neighbour. So muk- 
wasu {mukwanu), my (your) neigh- 
bour. (Cf. -esUt -enu, -attfo.) 

Mulaka, n. {mi-/.) (i) Tongue 
(cf. lumini, ulaka); {2) language, 

Hulala, n. {iba-l.) (i) A person 
of the Lala tribe (cf. chikUaf wilaia) ; 

(2) {mi'/.) remainder of food, food 
put away, reserve (cf. cAimdala); 

(3) crack, fissure, crevice. 
Mulale, n. {mi-/.) Soot (from 

smoke, on roof), ashes (of burned 
grass). (Cf. itoyi.) 

Mulamu, n. {'d/a-/.) Brother- or 

Mulanda^ n. {iha-/.) Dependant 
of a chief, one of a village. (Cf. 

Mulando, n. {mi-/,) IDead, 
fallen tree. 

Mulandu, n. {mi-/,) (i) Affair, 
case, matter, subject of debate, 

business; (2) difficulty, question, 
quarrel, discussion, argument, 

reason, cause. 

Molangwe, n. {mi-/.) (i) Sense, 
intellect, understanding; (2) clever 
word or act, device, trick, argument, 
jibe ; (3) advice, warning, instruc- 
tion. (Cf. /anga^ i/ango^ ka/ango.) 

Mulanshi, n. {mi-/,) Barrel of 
gun. (Cf. mu/u/i,) 

Mulaye, n. {'^a-/.) Doctor, me* 
dicine-man. (Cf. inganga,) 

MulembO) n. {it)a-/.) Trunk of 
elephant. (Cf. muangOf mumpa.) 

Muliango. See Mulyango. 

Mulilo, n. {mi-/.) Fire, blaze, 
heat. (Cf. ckiwe, kawa.) 

Mulimi, n. {-dfa-/.) One who 
cultivates the soil, peasant. (Cf. 
/ima and foUg.) 

Mulimo, n. {mi-/.) (i) Hoeing, 
digging, cultivation; (2) labour, 
work, occupation. (Cf. /ima, in- 

Mulimwa, n. {mi-/.) A (kind 
of) bean. (Cf. inkuftde^ /winy- 

Mulindu, n. {ita-/.) Young 
girl, not adult. (Cf. chisungu.) 

Mulingo, n. {mi-/.) Pattern, 
measure, copy. (Cf. /inga.) 

Muli'^o, n. {mi-/,) Shoot, 
sucker, tendril of creeping plant. 

Mulochi, n. {mi-/.) Falling 
rain, shower. (Cf. imvu/a, /oka.) 

Molokashi, n. {iba-/.) Daughter- 
in-law. (Cf. muko,) 

Mulokolo, n. {mi-/,) Space 
under projecting eaves of house, 
often supported by poles, and 
enclosed with screen, verandah. 

Mulombe, n. {iba-/,) A fine* 
looking, handsome, well-dressed 
person. (Cf. u/omhe^ ka/ombe.) 

Mulombeshi, n. {tBa-/.) A 
beggar, suppliant. (Cf. /omba.) 

Mulomo, n. {tni-/.) (i) Lip, 
beak ; (2) projection, edge, brim ; 
(3) insult, provocation, quarrel. 
(Cf. ka/omo.) 

Mulonda, n. {mi-/.) Follow- 

H 2 




ing, tracking, search for game. (Cf. 

Mulonga, n. (i) (/»/-/.) Current, 
rush of water (cf. mukuku) ; (a) 
{iba-k,) chiefs overseer (cf. longct). 

Mulongo, n. (mi-L) A row or 
line of things, and so a number or 
quantity, crowd, group, herd, flock, 
gang (cf. hnga) ; (a) (iba-L) one of 
the same village, neighbour (cf. 

Mulopa, n. Blood. (Cf. kalu- 

Muloshi, n. (i) (iba-l.) Witch- 
doctor (cf. indoshi, infwitU lowd) ; 
(a) {mi-l.) whistling, whistle (cf. 
munsUy mushu), 

Mulu, n. Upper part of river or 
stream. So kumulu, up-stream. 
(Cf. inseleh, iulu.) 

Muluko, n. Vomiting. (Cf. 
luka^ maluko.) 

Mululi, n. {mi'/.) Barrel of gun. 
Also Mulanshi, 

Mulombwana, n. (tba-l,) Youth, 
lad, attendant. 

Mulume, n. {ilba-L^ Male, man, 
husband. (Cf. -lufm.) 

Mulumu, n. {mi-l.) Cupping 
instrument, usually horn. (Cf. lu- 
mika^ musuku.) 

Mulunda, n. (mi-l.) Heap, pile. 
(Cf. muvumba.) 

Mulundu, n. (mi-l.) Land, 
country, dry land. (Cf. chalo.) 

Mulungani, n. {^a-l.) A pro- 
fligate, adulterer. (Cf. muchende, 

Malwashi, Mulwele, n. (ita-l.) 
Sick person, invalid. (Cf. Iwala.) 

Malwendo, n. (iba-l,) Traveller, 
passer-by, stranger, guest. (Cf. 
enda, Iwendo.) 

Mulyango, n. (mi-l.) Hole, 
aperture, doorway, entrance. (Cf. 
mupaiay chipunda,) 

Miimbo, n. Purpose, intention. 
As adv. on purpose, intentionally. 
Te mumbo, accidentally. 

Mumbu, n. (mi-u.) Potato-like 

Humbwe, n. (^a^m) A (kind 
of) wild dog, fox. (Cf. imbwa.) 

Muxne, n. (mime). Dew. Also 

Mumena, n. (mi-m.) Plant, herb. 
(Cf. mena.) 

Mumino, n. (mi-m.) Throat 
(internal). (Cf mina, mukoshi.) 

Mumoye, n. (tba-m.) Young 
girl, adult (Cf. ckisungu.) 

Mumpa, n. (mimpa). Trunk of 
elephant. (Cf. mulembe.) 

Mampundi, n. Lala m., be 
gorged, glutted with food. 

Mumpulu, n. (tba-m,) ' Fool, 
idiot, simpleton. (Cf. pusa^ chung- 

Munasara, n. (tba-n.) A Swahlli 
man, Mahommedan. 

Munda, n. (minda,) Cultivated 
land, plantation, garden. (Cf. 

Mundonda, n. (mi-n,) A drop 
(of liquid). (Cf. londa,) 

Munefti, n. (mi-n,) Fleshy part 
of meat, flesh (not bone). (Cf. 
inama, chinane,) 

Manga, n. (mingd). Thorn, 

Munganga, n. (iba-n.) See In- 

Mung'o, n. (aibango). Thief. 
(Cf. pompwe^ 

Mungu, Muungu, n. (mi-ungu). 
Pumpkin. (Cf. cAipusAi.) 

Mungwe, n. (ibongwe). A single, 
unmarried person. (Cf. mushike.) 

Muni, n. (mint). Anus, vent. 

Munika, v. Give light, light up, 
show by light. (Cf. mushya, and 

Muniko, n. ( — ) Something 
that gives (artificial) light, torch, 
fire, candle. Sec, Also Chimuniko, 
(Cf. munika,) 

Muninga, n. mi-n.) Ground- 
nut. Also Inshawa, 

Munkombe, n. (mi-n.) Earthen 
vessel, for water or cooking. (Cf. 

Munkonka, n. See Mukonka. 




Munkiilu, n. (mi-n.) (i) Log; 
(2) rat-trap. 

Miinshi) n. {minsht), Ponnding 
pole, pestle. (Cf. ifusu,) 

Munsho, n. (Uba-m.) Uncle. 

Miuislia, Munsu, n. {mi-unsu). 
Whistling sound, whistle. Also 

Munsnla, n. See Minsula. 

Muntu, n. (ilbantu), A person, 
individual, man. (Cf. chimuntUy 
kamuntUj chintu, kantu,) 

Munwe, n. {minwe). Finger. 
(Cf. kanwe.) 

Munyambi, n. {tta-n.) Second 
(or other following) wives of a chief. 
^Cf. mukolOf kctnyambi.) 

Munyanga, n. (nii-n,) Tusk of 
elephant. (Cf. insqfi*,) 

Munyenga, n. {mi-n,) A (kind 
of) ant. 

Muono, Mono, n. {mtono). A 
(kind of) fish- trap. 

Mupaka, n. {tni-p,) Boundary, 
border, limit. 

Mupalu, n. i^a-p^ A hunter. 
(Cf. chiwinda,) 

Mupamfi, n. (^a-p.) A big- 
bodied, stout, fat person, 

Mupanda, n. (mi-p,) Forked 
post or pole. {Cf, uiupanda,pan€hj 
and follg.) 

Mupande, n. (tni-p,) Hole, fis- 
sure. (Cf. panda,) 

Mupandi, n. {tni-p.) Shin, lower 

Mupapaya, n. {tni-p,) Papaw- 
tree. Ipapaya {ma-p,)y the fruit. 
Also Mupapapa. 

Mupasa, n. {mi-p.) Mat of split 
reeds threaded together. Also 

Mupashi, n. {tni-p.) Spirit (of 
an individual, disembodied). (Cf. 
tnushimu, chinshitigwa, chiwanda, 

Mupata, n. '>/z-/.) (i) Passage, 
entrance, way in or out; (a) pass 
between hills, gorge, gap. (Cf. 

Mui>elo, n. {tni-p,) Point, place. 

or part where a thing ends, mode of 
ending, end, edge. (Cf. pela, shilay 

Mupemba, n. (i) {tifa-p.) An 
old man, aged person (cf. ko^a) ; 
(a) {iba-tn,) chief *s principal adviser, 
councillor, judge (cf. petnba), 

Mupembwe, n. {tni-p,) Bank, 
embankment, mound, earthwork. 

Mupesu, n. {tni-p.) Mat. Also 
Mupasa (which see). (Cf. chipesu, 

Mupeto, n. {tni-p,) Game-trap 
(noose and spring). (Cf. peta.), 

Mupiano, n. {iba-p,) Heir. (Cf. 

Mupila, n. {iba-p.) Open space 
for playing ball, playground. (Cf, 

Mupili, n. {tni-p,) Heap, pile. 
(Cf. lupili,) 

Mupindo, n. (tni-p.) Wooden 
bar (for securing door inside). (Cf. 

Mupindushi, n. {tba-p,) One 
who settles a dispute, judge, arbi- 
trator. (Cf. pittda, pittdula.) 

Mupini, n. {ttii'P.) Handle (as 
of hoe, axe). 

Mupofu, n. {iba-p.) A blind 
person. (Cf. pofoikaT) 

Mupoko, n. {tni-p,) Hollow 
between ridges, valley between lines 
of hills. 

Mupombo, n. {iba-p^ Adulterer. 
(Cf. tnuchettdej potnbola.) 

Mupondo, n. (mi-p,) Mortar 
for pounding grain. (Cf. i/usu, 
twa, pottda,) 

MupoQJe, n. {tni-p,) String of 
bark-fibre. (Cf. chiponje^ tttwattdo, 

Mupua, n. Breath. 

Mupulnshi, n. {'iba-p.) Rescuer, 
saviour, preserver. (Cf. /w/a, indu- 

Mupundu, n. {iba-p,) One of 
twins of same sex. Also Itnputidu, 
(Cf. tttapasa,) 

Mupuo, n. (i) {tni-p.) Silliness, 
silly display, showy dressing, cox- 




combry; (2) (Uba-p.) a silly, vain, 
overdressed person. (Cf. ffusa, 

Muputu, n. {nii'p.) Name of a 

Musafa, n. {mis.) Sharp, bitter 
speech, taunt, rebuke. (Cf. isele.) 

Musako, n. (mt-s.) Wooden 
shaft of spear {i/umo). (Cf. /«- 

Muaale, n. {mis.) Sugar-cane. 

Musambo, n. (mis,) A tree 
from which bark-cloth is made. (Cf. 

Musampala, n. (mis.) Relish, 
seasoning for food. (Cf. Htfuckisaj 
chitoihelo^ lunga,) 

Musampi, n. (mis.) Bough, 
branch (of tree). 

Musana, n. (mis.) Back (of 
body). (Cf. inuma.) 

Musankwa, n. (ibas.) Young 
boy. (Cf. mwaniche,) 

Musantu, n. (mis,) Grass used 
as a wrapper or cover for carrying 
nuts, &c. 

Musasa, n. (mis.) Shed, shelter 
(of boughs, grass, &c.). (Cf. mu- 
tanda't not W.L.) 

Muaawo, n. (mis) Wooden 
rest for head, pillow. Also Muta- 

Muse, n. (mise). Sweet taste. 
(Cf. tepela^ sasa,) 

Musexnbe, n. (mis,) Piece of 
horn used as a bird-call. (Cf. 

Musenga, n. (mis.) Sand. 

Musepo, n. (mis.) Edible forest 
fruit or herb. (Cf. sepa.) 

Museshya, n. (mis,) River- 

Mushangalala, n. (mis,) Char- 
coal. (Cf. mushimbilili.) 

Mushi, n. (mishi). Village. (Cf. 

Mushike, n. (ibas.) Unmarried 

Mushili, n. Ground, earth, 

Mushilo, n. (mis.) Ending, 
end. (Cf. shilttf mupelo, ishililo.) 

Mushilu, n. (i^a-j.) Madman. 
(Cf. shilu, -ushilu.^ 

Mushima, n. (mis.) Well, 
water-hole. (Cf. mukalo.) 

Muahimbi, Musimbi, n. (iifas.) 
Growing girl, not adult. (Cf. cki- 

Mushimbilili, n. (mis.) Char- 
coal. Also Mushangalala. 

Mushlmpulo, n. Beer in the 
first stage of maJcing. (Cf. kumba, 
uwaiwdy shimpula.) 

MusMinu, n. (mis,) Dis- 
embodied spirit, soul, ghost. (Cf. 
mupashij ckiwanda, chinshingwa) 

Mushinku, n. (mis,) (i) Size, 
stature, bulk, volume; (2) kind, sort. 
(Cf. mutundu,) 

Mushinso, n. (mis,) Long 
journey, long way, great distance. 

Muflhiiitililo, n. (mis,) Blood- 
vessel, ^vein, artery. (Cf. lushinga^ 

Mushishi, Musisi, n. (mis.) 
Hair of head (human). (Cf. mwefu, 

Mushito, n. (mis,) Soot, grime. 
(Cf. mufito,) 

Mushiwa, n. (ilbas.) A person 
bereaved, orphan, widow. (Cf. 
skia, shyala^ mushyala,) 

Mushya, n. (ibas.) Slave (male 
or female). (Cf. kalume) 

Mushya, v. Give light, make 
light, light up. (Cf. munika,) 

Mushyala, n. (ibas.) One de- 
serted, derelict, widow, orphan, cast- 
away. (Cf. mushiwa, skya/a,) 

Mushyele, n. (mis.) Foot. 
(Cf. iukasa.) 

Mushyu, n. (mis.) Root (of 
tree, &c., underground). (Cf. 

Musi, n. See Munshi, Mushi. 

Musokolwe, n. (mis,) New 
place of abode, new settlement. 

Musomo, n. (mis.) Skewer, 

Musonga, n. (mis,) (i) Sharp 
end, tip, point (of stake), tooth (of 
comb, &c.) (cf. songoia, isonga) ; 




(a) bud, shoot, sprout (cf. kako- 

Musonte, n. {mi-s.) Ear (of 
grain). (Cf. chisankunta.) 

Musopelo, n. {mis.) Ramrod. 
(Cf. sopela.) 

Musoshi, Mushoshi, n. {mis,) 
Tear (of the eye). 

Musowa, n. {mis,) Wailing, 
lamentation. (Cf. liia,) 

Musuka, n. {mis.) Iron shaft 
of spearhead, spike-end (of axe-head, 
of hoe-blade). (Cf. chocho, insuka.) 

Mamiku,n. {mis.) (i)Hom used 
as cupping instrument (cf. mnlumu, 
lumifca) ; (2) tree with a sweet 
edible fruit {masuku). 

Musuina, n. Wholeness, sound- 
ness, entirety, completeness, -a 
musuma, and musttma, whole, un- 
broken, perfect. 

Musuxnbo, n. {mis.) Native 
boring tool, awl. (Cf. mondo.) 

Musumbu, n. (mis.) A fish- 
spear. (Cf. sumba.) 

Musundo, n. {mis.) Punting- 

MusungUo, n. {mis.) Not 
doing as asked, contrariness, ill- 

MusungU) D* {^a-s,) European, 
white man. 

Mususu, n. {mis,) Mode of 
wearing hair (woman's). (Cf. 

Muswa, n. {miswa). White ant. 
• Mutala,n. (/ni-/.) District under 
one chief. 

Mutambo, n. {mi-t.) Large size, 
bulk, stature, fine physique. (Cf. 

Mutaxnino, n. {mi-t.) Wooden 
head-rest, pillow. (Cf. musaiSbOy 

Mutanda, n. {mi-t.) Shed, 
shelter of boughs, grass, and leaves. 
(Cf. musasa.) 

Mutande, n. {mi-t.) Line, row 
(of things side by side). (Cf. 
mulongo, row in file.) 

Mutanffiko, n. {mi-t.) Begin- 

ning, leading off, guiding. (Cf. 


MutaDjilishi, n. {iba-t.) One 
who goes in front, leader, guide. 
(Cf. tangilay kanongola.) 

Mutano, n. {mi-t.) Large limb 
of tree, main fork or branch. (Cf. 
musampiy a smaller bough.) 

Mutanti, n. {mi-t.) Cross-pole 
(resting on forked poles) ; cross- 
piece, e. g. of bed-frame. 

Matapo, n. {mi-t.) Iron ore for 
smelting. (Cf. Iwdfet viaiamba.) 

Mutatiko, n. {mi-t,) Beginning. 
(Cf. tatiko, yambay mutangtko.) 

Mutatjuishi, n. (t^a-/.) Leader 
in singing, conductor. 

Mute&, n. {mi't,) Hoop (e.g. 
round top of a basket. (Cf. chisele.) 

Mutexnbo, n. {mi-t.) Pole for 
carrying a load between two men. 
(Cf. temba,) 

Mutemela, n. {tt^a-t.) Wood- 
cutter, in chiefs household. (Cf. 

Mutende, n. {mi-t.) Peace, 
quiet settled state or condition, used 
as common salute. 

Mutenffa, n. {ita-t,) Messenger, 

Muteiije,Muteiige,n.(mi:-/.) (i) 
Roof of native hut (round, conical) ; 
(2) open shed (roof on poles without 
walls). (Cf. chitenje.) 

Muti, umuti, n. {miti^ imiti). 

( 1 ) Tree (cf . ch iti^ kati) ; ( 2 ) medicine 
(cf. muyanda), 

Mutika, n. Thickness, stoutness, 
firm texture, strength, substance. 
(Cf. tika,) 

Mutima, n. {mi-t.) (i) Heart ; 

(2) feeling, desire, appetite; (3) 
disposition, character. 

Muto, n. {mito). Gravy, soup, 

Mutole, n. {mi-t.) Bird-call, 
made of horn. (Cf. musembe, 

Mutondo, n. {mi-t,) Earthen 
(cooking or water) pot. (Cf. 




Mutulo, n. (mt't.) Cnstomary 
present to chief, tribute. (Cf. 

Mutamba, n. (mi-t,) Bale of 
calico. (Cf. itumba,) 

Mutomwa, n. {itfa-t,) Messenger. 
(Cf. tuma,) 

Mutundu, n. {mi-t.) Size, kind, 
sort, quality (cf. mushinku), M, 
•umo^ alike. M. umbi, dififerent. 

Mutunta, n. {mi-i.) Hill, undula- 
tion, rising ground, 

Mutwi, n. {mitwi). Head, top, 
peak. (Cf. chitwit kuiwi.) 

Muungu, n. See Mungu. 

Muuwa, n. {miuwa). Smith's 
bellows, with handles {ulupUy plur. 
fnpa)t day stand Uhiiupi), pipe to 
nozi\t(kawambaia), nozzle {inchelo\ 
clay nreplace into which nozzle 
passes {mochelo), (Ct/ukuta,) 

Muvi, n. (ibavt). Friend, ac- 
quaintance, fellow, neighbour— only 
used in combination with a posses- 
sive adj., e.g. muvyanjiy ibavyenu^ 
&c. (Cf. 'viy chi^uzttf mukwa^o, 
mwame, and £.L. munanji,) 

Muvumba, n. (mt-v.) Heap, 
pile, full measure. (Cf. ufumbi?) 

Muwele, n. (iba-w,) First-born 
child. (Cf. kawinda, twele,) 

Muwera, n. Cold season (SE. 
winds, June to Sept.), dry teason. 
(Cf. mainsAa.) 

Muwi, n. See Muvi. 

Muwipi, n. Width, breadth. 
(Cf. -i>J.) 

Muwono, n. (mi-w,) Castor-oil 
plant. (Cf. imbono,) 

Mu'^ufi, n. A liar, scoundrel. 
(Cf. iifufi, -/.) 

MnitnandOiU. (mi-it.) Beginning 
of rainy season, first rain. (Cf. 

Muihingo, n. (mi-it.) India- 
rubber tree. (Cf. tntafu,) 

Mu^nyu, n. (mi-A.) Baobab 
tree; iibuyu {ma-ib.), its fruit. 

Muyambo, n. {mi-y.) Beginning, 
commencement, start. (Cf. yamba^ 
tcUika, tanga. Not W. Lala.) 

Muyanda, n. (mi-y.) Drug, 
medicine, poison. 

Mnyendo, n, (ita-y.) Traveller, 
stranger, guest. (Cf. eftda, mul- 

Mwacheso, n. Past time, old 
time, long ago : -a mwacheso^ old, 
antiquated ; mwezi (mwaka) wa m. 
last month (year). (Cf. kale^ 

Mwafi, n. Poison, used as 

Mwafiill, n. (mi-a.) Umbrella. 

Mwaiohe, Mwaike, n. (ybaiche). 
Child, young boy or girl. Also 
Mwaniclie. (Cf. mwana, -che.) 

Mwaka, n. (miaka). Year. 
Mivak-o-no (mwaka utu>), this year ; 
mwaka wa nuuhcsoy last year. (Cf. 

Mwala, n. (miala), (i) Rock, 
boulder, stone, cliff; (2; way of 
wearing hair (woman's), band from 
front to back. (Cf. mususu.) 

Mwamba, n. (mi^a.) Cross- 
pole, ridge-pole of roof. (Cf. 

Mwame, n. (ibame). Friend, 
companion. (Cf. mwoiy chiihuza,) 

Mwana, n. (ibana). (i) Child, 
son, daughter; (a) person. Mwana 
wa kusanga, step-ctiild. (Cf. mwa^ 
nalume kamwana, kana, mwa- 

MwanaTga8hi,n. (7^<2-».) Woman, 
female. (Cf. -kashi,) 

Mwanaluxne, n. (^a-n,) Man, 
male. (Cf. -lume.) 

Mwandi, interj. All right, that 's 
enough, I see, I understand, thank 
you. Often, ee mwandi, 

Mwando, n. (mi-a,) String (of 
twisted fibre). (Cf. lushishi*) 

Mwangalo, n. (mi-a.) Happi- 
ness, joy, merriment, sport, fun, 
play. (Cf. angaia,) 

Mwanike, Mwaniohe, n. See 

Mwapo, n. (mt-apo). Something 
borrowed, advanced, got or given on 
credit. (Cf. apula,) 




Mwashya, v. Scatter about, 
throw here and there. 

Mwau, n. (miau). Yawn. (Cf. 

Mwe-, -mwe, pron. You (plur.), 
usually attached to a noun, e. g. 
mweibame^ you my friends; iban' 
tumwe, you people. 

Mwembe, n* (mi-e.) Beard. 
(Cf. mwemfu.) 

Mwembeshi, n. {tjb-em,) Herds- 
man. (Cf. embela,) 

Mwemfu, Muyemfu, Muemfu, 
n. {nti-emfu). Hair of face, beard. 
M, wa maiowOi whiskers. M* wa 
kwiulUy moustache. (Cf. mwembe,) 

Mwemuna, v. Strip off, tear 
off, tear up. 

Mwendo, n. {mi-e.) Leg. (Cf. 

Mwene xnasala; n. One of a 
chiefs household. 

Mwenje, n. (mi-e,) Brand, 

Mwenso, n. {mi-e,) Fear, terror, 
awe, reverence. (Cf. Una, opa,) 

Mwensu, n. {aibensu^ qfenso). 
Traveller, stranger, guest. (Cf. 
muyendOf mulwendoy enda.) 

Mweshi, n. (mi-e,) Moon, 
month. (Cf. eshjta.) 

Mweahyo, n. {mi-e,) Measuring, 
a measure. (Cf. eshya, mulingo.) 

'NLwe'^o, pron. You Tplur.). 

Mwiohelnila, n. (mch,) A 
feeble, aged person. (Cf. kachekulUy 
•ku/Uf -che.) 

Mwiko, n. {miiko, mHko), (i) 
Mvstery, strange occurrence, omen ; 
(a) thing forbidden to an individual, 
e.g. particular food. 

Mwikwa, n. See Mukwa. 

MwiU, n. See Muili. 

ICwililila, n. {nti-L) Bird-call. 
(Cf. /tVa, ndinbulula.) 

Mwina, n. {aibena, ibena), (i) 
Also mwitt'C-pangay i.e. mwina 
ipangay chiefs retainer, messenger, 
attendant; (2) member of a &mily 
or clan distinguished by a fetish, 
fellow clansman (cf. mukoka, mu- 

kowa), Uli mwin-e-endo? {Mwina 
indo f) what is your clan ? (3) plur., 
(of respect) used by wife of her 
husband, tt^ena (or, dena) kwanji 
(or kwesu), my husband. 

Mwine, n. {ibene, aibene), (i) 
Owner, possessor, householder. 
Muntu lua ibene, a slave, one 
belonging elsewhere, stranger. 
Chintu cha ibene, some one else*s 
property, something borrowed or 
stolen ; (a) corpse (of a dead man) ; 
(3) self, e.g. mwine wanji {wowe), 
my (your) self; ibene wenu, your- 
selves. (Cf. 'itie^ 

Mwinjila, n. {mi-inj,) Coat, 
gown, shirt. (Cf. inguoy insalu, 

Mwinjililo, n,{mi-inj.) Entrance, 
way in, access. (Cf. inj'i/a,) 

Mwipanga, for Mu ipanga. See 

Mwipika, n. {mi-ip.) Earthen 
vessel for cooking, water, &c. (Cf. 

Mwipwa, n. {ibepwa). Nephew, 

Mwishikiilu, n. {ibesh^) Grand- 
child. (Cf. shikulu.) 

Mwiulu, adv. Above, on top. 
{Ct iuiUf mu,) 

Mwi^rdu, for Mu iibulu. See 

Mwokolo, n. {^okoh). Person 
inherited, widow. (Cf. chokolo, 

Mwono, n. See Muwono, 

Mwiiinfi, n. {iba-u,) Potter. 
(Cf. umba^ ibumba,) 

My a, adv. No, not so. {Ctiyoo.) 

Words not found under N may 
be looked for under IN. 

Na, conj. prep, (i) And, also, 
too ; (a) with, by. (Cf. ne^ ni,) 

Naka, v. (i) Be slack, loose, 
yielding, pliant, soft, easy; (a) be 
weak, exhausted, broken down, 
feeble, go slowly, do slowly, be 




lazy^ be behindhand ; (3) be gentle, 
easy, affable, kind. Nakal Kanaka t 
be quiet ! gently ! take it easy ! 
Ap. -ila^ 'tlila\ Cs. Int. nakishya^ 
nashyay e.g. relax, loosen, weary, 
tire out, soften. 

Nangu, adv. Not even, not at 
all, by no means. (Cf. nelu) 

Nani, interrog. Who? Ndaniy 
who is it ? -a nani.^a kwani, whose ? 

Nanika, v. Apply (as oil, &c.), 
nib on. (Cf. sua^ 

TSfay&f Nanya, v. Stir about 
(porridge, while cooking). 

Ndolo, Ndolo-ndolo, Ndololo, 
adv. (Often after -enka, i.e.) quite, just, 
entirely, nothing but. (Cf. /oAoso.) 

-ndu, -ndo, a. What? (Cf. 
-isa, shanif chindu, /indu.) 

Ndulo, adv. (It is) then, when. 
(Cf. «/<?, ilyo, Hy Hi, hmba,) 

Ndume, n. See Indume. 

Nduno, adv. (It is) now, at 
once, on the spot (Cf. -no.) 

BTe, prep. conj. And, with. 
(Cf. na,) 

-ne, a. See -ine, -^^iine. 

Ne-, -ne, pron., I. Nane, and I, 
with me. Nemwine, I myself. 
(Cf. ne&o.) 

Neli, adv. (before noun, adj. or 
infin. mood). Not even, by no 
means, not a bit. (Cf. nangu.) 

Nembo, Ndembo, n. (S. ItHembo), 
Tattoo-markings, carving, writing, 
• sketches. (Cf. lemba,) 

Ne-ne, adv. Very, truly, really, 
only after -ine {-ne), (Cf. kwakuti.) 

Ne'^Oj nebo, nefo, pron., I, 
me. (Cf. ne-.) 

Nffa. Has various uses, (i) like, 
as, in comparisons, e.g. mtikulu nga 
neiho, as big as me ; (2) introducing 
a question, e.g. nga nchindo ? what 
is it ? (3) in conditional clauses, if, 
would, nga afika, if he comes, (or) 
he would come ; pano-nga, almost, 
e.g.pano-nga napona, I almost fell. 

-nga, a. interrog. How many ? 

Ngu, a. demonst. (It is) he, 
she, this person. 

Nguo, n. Cloth, clothing. See 

Ni, v. Is, are (copula). Some- 
times prep, by, with— after a passive 

Nina, v. Go up, mount up, 
climb, ascend. Ind. -ninine. (Cf. 

Nina, n. See Nyina. 

Nindo, interrog. What (is it)? 
why, what for? (Cf. -ndu,) 

Ningati, Ni ngatl, adv. It may 
be, perhaps, possibly, I dare say. 
(Cf. kani, Hno.) 

-nini, a. Little, small, few. 
Panini, a little, in a small degree. 
(Cf. -che,) 

Nku, Nkiino, adv. (It is) here, 
now. (Cf. mmo, mpa, pano,) 

-nne, a. Four. 

-no, a. demonst. This, that. 
(Cf. nguy -lya.) 

Nona, V. (i) Be (get) fat, stout, 
plump, sleek (cf. ina, -nono) ; (2) 
sharpen (metal on stone), whet, 
grind. (Cf. songolOy pela^ chi- 

Nongola, v. Lead the way, 
show the road, act as guide. (Cf. 
tangila, kanongola.) 

Nonka, v. Make gain, profit, 
earn hy trading. 

-nono, a. ;Fat, sleek, plump. 
(Cf. nona, ina.) 

Nti, conj. Like, as, if. (Cf. /?, 
kuti, ngati,) 

Nukula, V. Pluck, pull up (out, 
C'g* grass, post, feathers). Md. 
-nukwiU. (Cf. tupula,) 

Nunka, v. Smell, (Nt.) have a 
smell, esp. of a bad smell {p.i,fuka), 
Cs. nunshya. 

Nwa, V. Drink, absorb, drink 
up. Md. -nwenCf Nt. nweka, be 
drinkable, fit to drink ; Cs. nweshya. 
(Cf. kanwa^ chinwa, nya.) 

Nya, V. Pass excreta (dung, 
urine). (Cf. sunda,) 

Nyamuna, v. Raise, lift. (Cf. 
inuna, irnia.) 

Nyanshi, Kunyanshi, n. Down 




(a river), down-stream. (Cf. kun- 
selelo, kumuluj panshi.) 

Nyanta, v. Tread, trample, 
stamp. (Cf. nyantila,) 

Nyemuna, v. Let out, unloose, 
release, take out (of hole, bag, re- 
ceptacle). (Cf. imuna.) 

Xyina, Nina, n. {iba-n^ Usually 
in plur. (of respect), mother, my 
mother. Nyina fyala, mother-in- 
law. (Cf. mamay and the follg. ; 
unoko, your mother ; unina^ his 
mother; anyinefwty our mother.) 

Sryong*ona, v. Twist. (Cf. 

STyukishya, Nyuchishya, v. 
Dress a skin (by rubbing), rub soft, 

Ocha, V. Apply fire to, bum, 
roast, bake. (Cf. mochelo.) 

Ola, "Wola, V. Decay, go bad, 
be rotten, putrid, decomposed. Md. 

Oloka, V. Be straight, even, 
level. (Cf. lungama^ and foUg.) 

Olola, V. Make straight, even, 
level, stretch out. 

Omba, V. Cause to sound, e. g. 
0. ngoma, beat a drum. 0, ulupi, 
clap the hands. Cs. and Int. om- 

Ombola, v. Redeem, ransom, 
buy back. (Cf. Ittibula,) 

Ona, V. See "Wona. 

-onane, a. Four together, four 
at once. (Cf. -nne^ -owilo, -otatu,) 

Onaula, v. Destroy, spoil, ruin, 
ravage, devastate. Md. -onawile, 

Onda, V. Be (get) thin, emaci- 
ated, lean, starved. Cs. onshya. 

Oneka, v. See 'Wona. 

Onka, konka, v. Suck, as child. 
Cs. onshya, {Qi. fyompa^ konkaJ) 

-onse (sometimes -ense), a. All, 
the whole. 

Onta, Konta, Ota, v. Sit by 
fire, bask in sun. (Cf. konta,) 

Opa, V. Fear, be afraid. Cs. 
ofya^ Rp. opana, Cs. opanya^ 

frighten, terrify. (Cf. tina^ 

-owe, a. (i.e. -a uwe). Your 
(sing.), yours. (Cf. weiboj -enu,) 

-otatu (-owilo), a. Three to- 
gether, (two together), (Cf. 

Oyu, oyo, a. demonst. (emphatic). 
He, she. (Cf. ngUj uyo, iye.) 

Pa, V. Give, present, offer, e. g. 
nimpakoy give me some. Pa mensoy 
cause fear, frighten. Ap. pela, Cs. 
Int. peshya, peleshya^ e.g. give 
freely, be liberal. 

Pa, prep. At, tp, from, in (of 
place or time), as to, concerning, 
about (cf. kuy mu). Also adverbial 
prefix as in follg. 

Pa penka, adv. In a unique 
way or degree, most, very much, 
extraordinarily. (Cf. -enka.) 

Paohe, adv. In a small way or 
degree, a little, slightly. Pache 
packe, little by little, by slow 
degrees, gradually. (Cf. -che.) 

Fafwe, n. See Impafwa. 

Fakati, adv. In the midst, be- 
tween, among, through the middle. 
(Cf. kati,) 

Pakila, v. Place food on platter 
ready for eating, dish up. 

Fakulu, adv. On a large scale, 
greatly, much. (Cf. -kulu,) 

Pakuti, conj. Because, in that, 
for that, seeing that. (Cf. pa^ kuti.) 

Faku'^la, used as prep. With- 
out, not having, in lack of. (Cf. 
ibulay kuiifula,) 

Fala, V. (t) Scrape, grate, 
scratch up (earth), scrape clean 
(e. g. scales off a fish), scrape to a 
point, sharpen ; (2) spit out ; iS)pala 
mpafwey inflate the lungs, draw in 
breath. (Cf. palaya, palankanya.) 

Falala, v. Fly (with wings, as 
bird). (Cf. ipapiko,) 

Falama, v. Be (come) close to, 
sit by, be in attendance on. Ap. 




Palana, v. Be alike (equal, 
similar), match, correspond, re- 
semble, agree. Md. -pahne, (Cf. 
Hngay pelana.) 

Falanffanya, v. (i) Spread 
about everywhere, set down here 
and there ; (2) throw about, mix 
up, make a jumble of. (Cf. pikan- 
kanya^ pula^ palaya,) 

Falaula, v. Hoe the second 
time (between growing plants). (Cf. 
paJa^ fimpula,) 

Palaya, v. (i) Scrape hard, 
scrape everywhere, scratcn about; 
(2) spread about. {Ci, paiay palan- 

Fama, v. Beat, strike, knock. 
Md, 'pamitUy Ap. paminay pami- 
tiinay Cs. Int. pamishya, (Cf 
follg. and pamuna. Other words 
for striking are : tononayfulaypumay 

Pamankanya, v. Beat up to- 
gether, unite by force, stick together. 
{Ctpanuiy and follg.) 

Famaula, v. Beat about every- 
where, lay about one, give a general 
beating. (Cf. patna^ pumanla.) 

Pambana, v. Pass by each 
other, miss each other, fail to find. 

Fambi, adv. (i) Elsewhere, to, 
(from, at) another place (or time); 
(2) otherwise, or. (Cf. -mbi, kit- 

Pambuka, v. Be separate (separ- 
ated) from, be parted, be apart, 
branch off, come off (as plaster). 
(Not W.L. in this sense. Cf. pan- 
dukay pcttuka,) 

-pamfi, a. Fat, stout, plump. 
(Cf. ina.) 

Pamo, adv. (i) At one (same) 
place or time; (2) together, alike, 
equal (cf. pelana patnOy be of the 
same length, size, &c.) ; (3) in addi- 
tion, as well, too. (Cf. -mo,) 

Fampa, v. Cut (rip, slice) meat 
off bones. (Cf. sesa, waila.) 

Fampala, n. (ma-p,) Track (of 
an animal), footmarks, spoor, (Cf. 

Pampanta, v. Grope (as a blind 
man), feel about. 

Pamuna, v. Strike off, knock 
off, part (sunder) by a blow, beat 
into pieces. (Rv. oi pama*) 

Panda, v. Split, crack, part 
asunder, cleave. Rv. pandulay split 
up. (Cf, follg. and tnupandey lupanda, 
chipandey mampandway mupasa.) 

Pandauka, v. Split (divide, 
chop up) in pieces (all to pieces). 
(Cf. panda and follg.) 

Fanduka, v. Be split off, parted, 
branch off, separate from. (Cf. 
paftday pambuka,) 

Panga, v. Construct, make, 
carry into effect, use. (Not W.L. 
Cf. chiitty lengtty wala,) 

Pangala, v. Be happy, joyful. 
Also Angola^ Sangala (which see), 
and Pangama. 

Pano, adv. Here, now, there, 
then. (Cf. -no^ ktmo.) 

Panonse, adv. {pano ponse). All 
about, everywhere. 

Panse, adv. Outside. (Usually 
pesonde in W.L. Cf. kunse.) 

Panshi, adv. Down, below, be- 
neath, at the bottom, on the ground, 
under. Also as n. bottom, and a. 
deep, e. g. muskima uli panskiy the 
well is deep. (Cf. kunshiy peulu.) 

Faniika, v. Make room, spread 
out, scatter about. 

Pannina, adv. (i) Back, back- 
wards, at the back, behind, at the 
rear ; (2) after, afterwards ; (3) later, 
presently, soon, hereafter. (Cf. 
iftuma, kunuma.) 

Pa-pa, adv. negat. No, not so. 
(Cf. iyoo, ko-ko.) 

Papa, V. Carry child on the 
back (in a sling, cloth, or skin). 
(Cf. chipapo.) 

Papata, v. Salute with gentle 
hand-clapping, i.e. beg pardon, 
appeal humbly, apologize, make 
request (Cf. lamba,) 

Papauka, v. Be excited, eager, 
ravenous, expectant, ambitious, in a 
panic, horror-struck, &c. (Cf. follg.) 




Papuka, V. Be excited, receive 
shock, start, shudder. {<Zi, papauka^ 
and follg.) 

Papula, papaiila, v. Act (speak) 
excitedly, esp. eat greedily (with 
both hands). (Cf. papuka!) 

Papu-papu, adv. Eagerly, 
greedily, excitedly. (Cf. follg.) 

Fasa, V. Bore a hole. (Cf. 
musumbo, tula.) 

Fashila, v. Sew (cf. ibila) ; do 
bead- work. 

Fashya, v. (i) Add to, increase, 
make more (bigger, fuller) (cf. 
kushyay fushya)\ (2) P. menda^ 
bale out water (cf. pild). 

Fatskv. (i) Hate. Q^, pattshyay 
e. g. offend ; Rp. patana, hate each 
other (cf. chipatd) ; (2) stick in the 
throat, choke; (3) thunder, i.e. a 
clap or crack of thunder (cf. lesa^ 

Patamuka, v. Wake up (neut.). 
(Cf. 'ii>uka,) 

Fatankanya, v. Mix up, jumble 
up, confuse together. (Cf. palatt" 
kanya^ pikankanya,) 

Fatika, v. (i) Act (speak) 
forcibly (urgently, energetically), 
insist, urge, compel. Ap. patikila^ 
Cs. Int. patikishya ; (2) place aside 
(in a safe place on a peg, shelf, 
&c.), hang up, put away safely, put 
up, put by. 

Fatuka, v. Go aside, be parted 
off (separated, broken off), make 
way, leave the road, stray from 
companions, &c. (Cf. follg.) 

Fatula, V. Separate off, * part 
(break) off, put aside, set apart. 
So Rv. patulula, put right away, 
separate wholly ; Rp. patulana^ e. g. 
be dispersed, scattered, separated, 
spread about. (Cf. patuka.) 

Paula, V. Lipaula^ fan oneself. 

Pawauka, v. Be excited 
(alarmed, in pain, with jay, &c.). 
(Cf. papauka^ 

Faweme, adv. Well, rightly, 
nicely, &c. (Cf. wamUy 'Wtnie, 

Fawila, v. Miss the road, stray, 
be lost. (Cf. luwa, patukaJ) 

Pela, V. (i) End, come to an 
end, cease, stop, finish, reach a 
limit. Md. 'pelele^ and as a., e.g. 
last. Undermost, final. Ap. pelela^ 
end at (with, by, &c.) ; Ps. pelelwa, 
be ended ; pelewela^ come to a stop, 
be checked (broken off, stopped 
abruptly, thwarted), fail (to reach, 
get, do), be short (in stature, 
dwarfed, stunted, deficient); Rp. 
pelana^ e.g. pelana pamo, pelelwa 
pamo, be equal (alike, matched), 
correspond (cf. shikti mupelo) ; (2) 
rub hard, grind by rubbing, ma!ke 
grain into meal (cf. impelo)^ dress 
a hide (by rubbing and softening). 
(Cf. follg.) 

Felanya, v. Rub smooth, soften 
by rubbing, dress a hide. (Cf. 

Peleka, v. Send, dispatch, con- 
duct, convey. Cs. pelekeshya^ e. g. 
accompany a departing guest. (Cf. 

Fema, v. Draw breath quickly, 
pant, gasp. 

Femba, v. Wait on, attend, to, 
keep an eye on, tend, watch, guard. 
Ap. pefftbela, penibelela^ Cs. and Int. 
pembeshya, (Cf. impemba,) 

-pemba, a. Old (of persons or 

Pexnpula, v. Visit, pay visit, 
treat as friend. Ap. pempulancy be 
on friendly terms. Also Petnpu- 

Fenda, v. Reckon up, count, 
weigh, calculate, examine, (read). 

Fenffa, v. Be sad, miserable, 
wretched. (Cf. tuntana, sauka, 

Penka, adv. Especially, exactly, 
uniquely. P, pano, penkapOy just 
now, exactly here. (Cf. pa^ -eka,) 

Fepa, V. (i) Summon, call to- 
gether, collect, muster (cf. iia, lon- 
ganishya)\ (2) blow (cf. impepd), 
Pepa mupuyaj breathe. Cs. pepe- 
shya, blow hard. Pepa {fwaka), 



smoke (tobacco) ; (3) collect (cater- 
pillars) for food (cf chinko' 

Fepe, n. {ttfa-p.) He-goat. (Cf. 

Fepeka, v. Sniff, smell about, 
get scent (in hunting). 

Fepeta, v. Sift (by tossing), 

Fepl, adv. {pa ipi). Near, close, 
soon (cf. 'iph kutali), Pano pepi, 
soon, almost. 

Feaa, v. Part, divide asunder, 
cut in two. Ps. peswa^ Md. -peswiU, 
"St.pesu^a, Ry»pesula. (Cf. mupesu^ 
mupesa, patula, patuka,) 

Peahya, v. Cs. olpela, 

Fesonde, adv. Outside. i,Cf. 
panse, isonde, kwisoncU.) 

Feta, V. Bend round (Act.), 
bend, fold, make curved or round. 
Md. -peiele, Nt. -eka^ Rp. -ana, Cs. 
-eskya, {fZi. foUg. and impete^ 

Fetaxna, v. Be curved, bent, 
rounded, circular. Md. and a. 
'peteme. (Cf. peta^ and potama^ 

Fetauka, v. Be curved (crooked, 
winding). Md. and a. •petwile^ 
coiled, &c. (Cf. peta^ and follg.) 

Fetelula, v. Unfold, unroll, 
straighten, flatten. (Cf. peta^ 

Feulu, adv. {pa-iulu). Above, 
on, up, at the top. (Cf. iulu, kwiulu, 

Fiana, v. Be heir, inherit, suc- 
ceed to, claim inheritance, call at 
dead man's house, visit scene of 
death. Nt. pianika^ be heir; Cs. 
pianishyay make heir. (Cf. impiano^ 

Fika, v. Cook, make hot, boil 
(water). Cs. pishya. 

Fikankanya, v. Mix up, mix 
together, make a jumble of, confuse. 
(Cf. lujyanya.) 

Fikila, v. Stick in the waist- 
band (belt, girdle). Rv. pikulula, 
take out, pull out. 

Fikishya, v. Taunt, reproach, 

Fikuka, Fikuluka, v. Return 
to old home. 

Fila, V. Bale out (water). 

-pile, a. Ripe. Md. oipya, 

Fima, v. Measure, weigh, esti- 
mate, calculate. Md. -iru. (Cf. 

Fimpa, Fempa, v. Offend 
people's feelings, disgust, shock, 
e.g. by indecency. (Cf. foUg.) 

Fimpuka, Fempuka, v. Be 
offended, scandalized, disappointed, 
disgusted. Ap. -ila^ e. g. turn away 
in disgust, give up (a search). 

Finda, v. (i) Claim as a right, 
demand ; (2) accuse, bring a charge 
against; (3) decide a case, adjudi- 
cate ; (4) close 'and fasten, bar (a 

Findi, n. See Ixnpindi. 

Findo, n. (tua-p.) Wing (of 
bird, insect, &c.). (Cf. ipapiko,) 

Findulula, v. Turn about, turn 
round and round. (Cf. pinda.) 

Finga, v. (i) Oppose, obstruct, 
hinder, put in the way; (2) argue, 
debate, contradict. P, makani, 
argue, talk, discuss. Pinga mulandu, 
settle a dispute, adjudicate. (Cf. 

Finika, v. Cut. Ap. pinikila, 
take by surprise, lie in wait for. 
(Cf. tetna.) 

Finta, v. (i) Also minta^ carry 
(as a load, on head or shoulder); 
(a) also pita, pass (cf. pitd)» 

Fipa, V. Wipe dean (after 
stool). Ap. pipila. 

Firiwula, v. Overturn, turn 
on one side, upset. (Cf. pindu- 

Fita, Finta, v. Pass, pass on 
(by, along, off), go, flow (as water), 
blow (as wind), pass away (as 

-pofu, a. Blind. (Cf. follg.) 

Fofula, V. Blind, make blind. 
Nt. pofukay be blind, blinded. (Cf. 
sokowola, tiibuka.) 

Foka, V. (i) Take, receive, 
accept; (a) take by force or fraud, 




steal, rob, plunder; (3) rescue, save. 
Cs. pokeshya^ rescue; Ap. pokela, 

Fola, V. Be (get, become) cool, 
get well (after illness). Cs. poshya^ 
make well, cure. (Cf. tcdala^ ton- 

Folongwela, v. Fall into a 
hole. (Cf. kulukila,) 

Pomba, V. (i) Put round, en- 
circlei gird; (2) fold round, wrap 
round, roll up, encircle, coil round. 
Rp. pombana, 

Fombola, v. Have sexual inter- 
course. (Cf. iomba,) 

Pompwe, n. {iba-p,') Thief. 
(Cf. mun^o,) 

Pona, V. (i) Fall, fall down, 
drop (down) ; (2) happen, come to 
pass, fall out, occur, take place. 
Ap. ponela, Cs. posa^ posha^poseshya^ 
e.g. let fall, thrown down, throw. 
(Cf. posa:) 

. Ponda, V. Crush, pound, break 
in pieces. (Cf. mupondo, iwa.) 

Popa, V. Knock, hammer (wood), 
drive (a stake, peg). (Cf. foUg., 
and lupcpo.) 

Popola, v. Give a knocking 
(hammering, chopping), knock at, 
knock to bits. (Cf. plopa,) 

Posa, v. (i) Cs* of pona (which 
see), throw, cast, hurl, throw down, 
throw away, throw aside, get rid of, 
send away. P. mufwiy shoot an arrow. 
P» unga^ make a meal-offering. P, 
chitiy fell a tree. P, mulilOf set 
fire to (grass, &c., cf. koleka), P, 
menday urinate. P, mwanakashiy 
send away, divorce a woman, (a) 
also potUy roll, twist, plait, e.g. 
string, by rolling on leg. 

Fota, V. (i) Twist, twirl, roll 
round, e. g. fibre in making string ; 
(a) twirl (neut.), writhe, e.g. m 
travail. (Cf. posa and follg.) 

Fota, n. See Mapota. 

Fotama, v. Be (become) twisted, 
crooked, warped, awry. Md. & a. 
-poteme, (Ch pota,) 

Fua, v. (i) Be light (in weight). 

easy, trifling ; (a) be poor (in quality 
or condition), diin, flimsy, unsub- 
stantial, worthless; (3) despicable, 
destitute, badly off, in a wretched 
(miserable, mean) state. Md. 'pwile, 
Qs, InX. pusha^ pushyuy pufya» (Cf. 
angukay pusay and follg.) 

-pua, -pwile, a. (i) Light; 
(2) poor, mean. (Cf. ptta.) 

Fufira, V. Make light of, treat 
lightly, despise ; (a) do in a careless 
offhand way, be quick, hasty, in a 
hurry. So pufycmyay pufiska, (Cf, 

Fuka, V. Shake to and fro. P. 
muiwiy shake the head. 

Pukumuna, v. Shake to bits, 
crumble. (Cf. puka,) 

Fokuta, V. (i) Clean a house, 
dust, sweep ; (a) play (as children). 

Fula, V. (i) Pass, make a pas- 
sage (hole), make a way (into, 
through, out of, by), escape, dis- 
appear, pass by, slip away, appear. 
Kasua kapuloy the sun came out. 
Md.'puU/g, Ap,pu/i/ay Cs.puliskya, 
pusAya, e.g. cause to disappear, 
remove, destroy. Chiwanda chiku' 
pulishyel the devil fly away with 
you! Pushya misongOy put out 
shoots; (a) beg, ask (for); (3) 
snort (Cf. follg.) 

Puluka, V. Go out, emerge, get 
out, escape. Cs. pulushyay take 
out, save, scare away, drive away. 
(Cf. pula and follg.) 

Fulomuka, v. Burst out, dis- 
charge, with violence, pour out, 
rush (dart, dash) off. Cs. pulu- 
mushyay e. g. of pouring out abuse, 
of emptying the bowels, of an ava- 
lanche of stones, &c., of a premature 
birth ; (also) effect a rescue, save 
from danger. 

Puma, v. (i) Beat, strike, (01 
heart) throb fcf. pamd) ; (a) cook 
(porridge, inskima), (Cf. naya.) 

Fumaula, v. Give a thorough 
beating (to), lay about on all sides. 




Pumba, V. Go and get food 
elsewhere in time of famine, by 
bargain, working, &c. 

Fuinuna, v. Rest, stop on a 
journey, encamp. (Not W.L. Cf. 

Funama, Fonama, v. Be a 
fool, stupid, silly. Md. and a. 
'Puneme, (Cf. pua^ pusa.) 

Funga, V. Sift, by shaking 
round in basket. (Cf. pepeta,) 

Fungama, v. Be out of place, 
on one side, awry, slanting, crooked, 
&c. (Cf. foUg.) 

Funguka. Set sideways, tip up, 
make slant. 

Fungula, v. Get less, diminish, 
decrease, lessen. {Qi. chepa,) 

Fnpa, V. (i) Make a (ceremonial) 
offering, sacrifice. Ap. pupila^ 
pupilila (cf. chipupo) ; (2) blow in 
puffs (gusts, of wind) (cf. foUg.). 

Fupula, V. Shake off (as dew 
from grass). 

Fusha, Fusa, v. (1) Be foolish, 
silly, frivolous, trifling, mischievous ; 
(2) fail) miss (a ^ot), make a 
blunder. Rp. pusana, e.g. miss 
each other, pass and not meet. 
(Cf. puay punama,) 

Foshya, v. Cs. of /«/tf, put out, 
e. g. put out buds, sprout. 

Fuaula, v. ' Clean grain (of 

Pusumiika, v. Slip away, es- 
cape. (Cf. pulumuka!) 

-putu, a. Thick, stout. (Cf 

Futula, v. Break off, snap off, 
cut (pull) in two, bring to an end* 
(Cf. iofuma, Unta,) 

Fwa, v. (i) Dry up, evaporate, 
be drunk up, absorbed; (2) cease, 
fail, come to an end» (£.L. Cf. 
shiiaf peia,) 

Fya, adv. negat. No, not so. 
(Cf. iyooy mya,) 

Fya, V. Be ripe, cooked (boiled, 
heated, dressed, aone), be ready, fit 
for use (cf. follg.). Md. and a. 
'pile, ripe. 

*P7a, a. New, fiesh, recent, 

Fyanga, Fianga, v. Sweep 
(house, floor, &c). (Cf. chipyatigo») 

Pyata, v. Twist, spin, roll up, 
make by rolling, e. g. string {mwan- 
do), (jbtposa,potay and follg.) 

Fyataula, v. Shake off, rub off. 

Fyatuwila, v. Untwist, unravel. 

B. For words beginning with B 
see under L. 

Sakama, v. (i) Crouch down, 
conceal oneself, move stealthily (cf. 
fukafna)\ (a) tremble, shake (with 
cold, fear, &c.). 

Sakula, v. Comb, comb out. 
Ap. sakuila. (Cf. chisakuh.) 

Sala, V. (i) Make a noise, 
shout; (2) disturb, insult, tease, 
'^i^^^y* (3') choose, select, prefer; 
(4) tap, beat (e. g. bark in making 
cloth) ; (5) see Isala. 

-BflJi, a. Unclean, dirty, foul, 
filthy. (Cf. usali,) 

Baliila, V. Cook in £eit, fry. 

Sama, v. (i) Adorn, decorate, 
furnish, eauip. Nt. samika, e. g. 
wear fine clothes, also Act. {cLfwa- 
it/a) ; (a) cut in strips, small pieces 
(cf. ianta). 

Samba, v. Wash (body, clothes, 
vessels), bathe, swim. Cs. samfyay 
sambishya, e.g. (1) cause to wash 
(bathe, swim) ; (a) teach, show how, 
instruct, direct. 

Sambala, v. Be rich. (Cf. 

-sambashi, a. Rich, wealthy. 
(Cf. usambashu) 

Sampa, v. Have several wives, 
practise polygamy. 

Sandika, v. Spread about, in- 
crease, multiply. {Ci. fula, kuia.) 

Sanga, v. Find, come upon, 
fall in with, meet. Rp. sangana 
(cf. kumana), Mwana (atafa) wa 
kusanga, stepchild (father). 

Sangala, Sangalala, v» Be 




happy, joyfiil, pleased, contented, 
flourishing, amused, &c. Cs. sanga- 
liskyay entertain, amuse, cheer. (Cf. 
angola, musangalo.) 

Sangnka, Sanffola, v. Alter, 
change, become different, make 
different. (Cf. alula, aluka,) 

Sanlka, v. Make light, light 
up. (Not W.L. Cf. munika,) 

Sanjya, Sangnra, v. Cut and lay 
down stalks of grain, the first 
harvesting operation. (Cf. teibula, 
sesa, longela,) 

Sankana, v. Be mixed together. 
Cs. sankanya, sankanishya,sanshya, 

Sanknla, y. Be poor, wretched, 
destitute, helpless. Also Sankuka. 
Cs. sankushishya, (Cf. sauka.) 

Sanaa, v. (i) Yield milk, be 
full of milk ; (2) strain beer (uwalwa) 
in course of brewing (kumba), (Cf. 

Sansanta, v. Hold with the 
teeth, grip. (Cf. sutnaula, lu- 
mat a.) 

Sanshika, v. Lay (something) 
across (another). (Cf. fika.) 

Sanshya, v. Mix up, mix to- 
gether (as ingredients in cooking). 

Sansuka, v. Slope upwards, 

Sansula, v. Cause abortion. 

Santa, v. (i) Smash up, break 
with blows ; (2) tattoo, make beauty 
marks, apply medicine, i.e. as a 
charm, on the arm &c., by marks 
and cuts. 

-sanu, a. Five. 

Sapuka, v. Shoot, bud. (Cf. 
pushya misongo,) 

Saaa, v. Be (become, taste) sour 
(bitter, acid), ferment. Ap. sasa- 
mina. Also Seuama, be sour. 
(Cf. muse, sweet taste, and follg.) 

Sasuka, v. (i) Turn sour; (3) 
be sour (in temper), ill-tempered, 
cross, easily provoked. Md, -sa- 

Sasnla, v. (i) Eat relish 
(seasoning) alone, without porridge ; 

(2) be bright, shine (as moon). (Cf. 

Sauka, v. (i) Be wretched, sad, 
miserable, distre^ed, afflicted, desti- 
tute; (2) fall from a height. Also 
Saula. Cs. saushya, e.g. distress, 
harass, persecute, tease, oppress, 
&c. (Cf. kululuka, kawa, tumana, 
isauko, and follg.) 

•saushi, a. Wretched, destitute. 
(Cf. sauka.) 

Sawa, V. Pluck, gather, dig up 
(e.g. roots, melons, &c., on the 

Sa^hika, v. Also Aituka (which 

Sawnlula, v. Unravel, dis- 
entangle, undo. (Cf. pyatuwila.) 

Seka, V. (i) Laugh, smile, grin ; 

(2) be happy, joyful, merry, pleased; 

(3) laugh at, mock, deiide, despise. 
Ap. sekela, Cs. Int. sekeshya, e.g. 
amuse, entertain, comfort. Rp. 
sekana, e.g. enjoy themselves, play 
together. (Cf. angala, sangala,) 

Sola, v., also Tela, (i) Move 
(neut.), remove, move aside, get out 
of place, make way, go to a place, 
migrate; (a) succeed to (a person, 
office ; cf. pianct) ; (3) be dislocated ; 

(4) float (in water; cf. clela)\ (5) 
pass mid-day, begin to decline (of 
sun ; cf. sendama). Ap. selela, Cs. 
seshya, seleshya. 

Selaka, v. Be boiling hot, boil. 
(Cf. wila, kawa,) 

Seluka, sheluka, v. Come 
down, descend, go down, get down. 
(Cf. ika.) 

Sema, v. (i) Give a cry, shout, 
call out (cf. ama) ; (3) produce 
(offspring) , bear ( fruit). Ap. semena. 

Sembela, v. Thank, be thankful 
(for gift), be grateful. 

Sembeleshya, v. Cut smooth, 
round off, make neat, trim, smooth, 
polish. Also semba, 

Sendama, v. Slant, slope, lean, 
incline (to one side, down), sink, 
e. g. as sun after noon, bend. 

Sendula, v. Come upon some- 




thing dead, find a dead thing. Also 

Senga, v. (i) Rub, rub hard, 
rub soft (e.g. of a hide), file Tcf. 
tula) ; (a) beg, importune (cf. 

Sexikeli, n. (t^o-x.) A deaf 

Sensa, v. Speak against, tell 
lies of, slander (cf. ibepa^ sewa, 
songela). Ap. sensela, (i) Trip 
along, take small steps, go little by 
little ; (2) scatter about (Cf. 
tnwashya, palaya.) 

Sepa, V. (i) Make raised beds 
ijuputi) for potatoes, pumpkins, &c. ; 
(2) gather (cut ofif) ears of millet 
lamawo) ; (3) eat (live on) forest 
roots and fruits (as in famine). 

Sepula, y. Graze (skin), rub 
the skin off. 

Sesa, V. Cut (by drawing a sharp 
edge across, and so) slit, slice, saw. 
Hence of cutting grass (cham), 
hair {mishishi), bark (Juskishi, 
lukwa), the throat {mumino). Also 
of ambush; Ap. sesela^ cut off, lie 
in wait for (cf. piniktia), Cs. 

Sesaula, y. Cut up in pieces 
(all about, everywhere). (Cf. sesa,) 

Sesema, v. Tremble, shake, 
quiver, shiver, throb. Also Tetexna. 
(Cf. tutuma,) 

Sewa, V. (i) Cut grass with 
axe; (2) separate husks, sift, win- 
now; (3) slander, disparage. (Cf. 

Sewanya, v. S. ibuta, aim an 

Sewauka, v. Walk about, 
gossip, pass time away. (Cf. tan- 
dd/a, ambaula.) 

Sh. Words not found under Sh 
may be looked for under Shy, or 8. 

Shala, Shama, v. See Shyala, 

Shambololo, n. Koodoo (buck). 

Sham.bula, v. Walk up in a 
defiant way, provoke, attack, show 
defiance. (Cf. weshya,) 

Shana, Shyana, v. Dance. 

(Cf. ckila.) 

Shanga, v. Sow (seed). (Cf. 
wiala, ibika.) 

Shani, Shyani, interr. How? 
how much? what sort ? -a skani, 
of what kind, what sort of ? of what 
tribe ? for what use ? Washita 
shyaniy how do yon sell? what is 
the price? 

Sheta, Shyeta, ▼. Crash with 
teeth, chew, masticate. 

Shi-. ( I ) A plur. (concord) prefix 
of adjectives and verbs ; (2) the 
common negative prefix of verb 
forms in first person sing. (Cf. /a-.) 

Shia, y. Leave, abandon, desert, 
leave behind. Ap. shila^ leave to 
(for, at, &c.). Cs, shishya^ shilishya, 
Ps. shiwa, e.g. be bereaved (as 
orphan, widow). See also Shila, 
Shyala. (Cf. /eka,) 

Shika, v. (i) Sweep, clean (by 
sweeping), clear of dirt (rubbish; 
cf.pyan^a) ; (2) make fire by friction 
(two firesticks) ; (3) bury, cover up, 
e.g. in grave, in hot ashes. 

Shikishila, v. Rub away, rub 
out, e.g. something in the eye, 

Shikiwangwe, n. Bush-buck. 
Also Imbawala, 

Shiku, n. Day. See Inshiku. 

Shikulii, n. Usually in plur. (of 
respect). Ashiktdu, grandfather. 
Also used in addressing a chief or 
any superior. 

Shila, V. (i) End, come to an 
end, cease, stop, leave off, be finished 
(completed, done) ; (2) end, bring 
to an end, finish, put an end to. 
Sh, mulandu, settle, decide, adjudi- 
cate a case. Sh. wantu, kill people. 
JVashil ' ' mushya, i.e. naskila 
{ku)m'Ushya^ I have already told 
him. Ap. shilila^ Cs. shilishya, 
shililishya, (Cf. shia, shyala, pela, 

Shilika, v. Shilika! be quiet! 
silence I no noise ! 

-shila, a. Mad, not in right 
mind, indecent (Cf. ushilu.) 




Shiluwe, n. Leopard. Also 

Shima, v. Extinguish, put out 
(fire, light). Also Shimauila. 
Ap. shimina, Nt. shimika^ be 

Shixnbula» v. Mention, refer to, 
speak of, use an expression, pro- 

Shimfya, v. Amaze, surprise, 
astonish, confound. Ps. shimpway 
Cs. Int. shimfishya, 

Shixnika, v. Give an account, 
narrate, relate, report, make a state- 
ment, tell a story, give an answer. 
(Cf. ckishimikishyo,) 

Shimina, v. Make a (mud) 
floor (of hut). 

Shixnpiila, v. Used of part of 
process of brewing {kumbd) native 
beer {uwalwa), 

Shimya, v. Kill, massacre, 
slaughter. (Cf. ipaya.) 

Shina, v. Be blunt (not sharp). 
Md. and A. -shimney blunt ; Cs. 
shinaushya, utterly blunt, ruin the 
edge of. (Cf. skinola.) 

Shinaika, v. Be broken (smashed, 
pounded) to pieces. 

Shindaika, Shindaishya, Shin- 
daila, Shindlka, v. Apply pressure 
to, press, push, ram, force down. 

Shindikishya, v. Accompany on 
the road, go a short way with (in 
respectful leave-taking. (Cf. peleka.) 

Shinffanga, n. See Inganga. 

Shingano, n. Needle (foreign). 
(Cf. kanyenda.) 

Shingula, v. Apply (the final 
coat of) plaster (mud, clay, paint, 
to a but), finish off. (Cf. masa, 

Shinguluka, v. (i) Be round, 
rounded, circular; (2) be around, 
surround, encircle, go round ; (3) 
go round, revolve, turn round. 
Md. and a. -shingulukile^ Cs. shiti'^ 
guluskya, put round, encircle (gird, 
surromid) with, make go round. 
Also Shingauka, (Cf. peta^ 
Bhingwa, v. Be pei'plexed, con- 

fused, dazed, depressed, troubled. 
(Cf. kanikuj tumana.) 

Shinka, v. Block, close, shut, 
stop up (hole, passage, path), cork, 
e.g. S. nshila, close a path by a 
line or stick across it. .S". kanwa, 
keep silence, S. matwi, be deaf. 
Ap. shinkila^ Rv. shinkuiay unstop, 
open, clear the way, uncork, open, 
(Cf. imuna, imuka.) 

Shinola, v. Make blunt, i.e. 
shinaula, (Cf. shina,) 

Shinsa, v. Dandle a child in 
arms, fondle, nurse, caress. 

Shinshila, v. Be sleepy, doze. 
(Cf. shipuluy tulo.) 

Shintula, v. Exchange, give (or 
take) in exchange. (Cf. shita.) 

Shipa,v. Spit, expectorate. (Cf. 
mate, pala,) 

Shipula, Sipula, v. Doze, have 
a nap. (Cf. shiwata, skinsula, tulo.) 
Shishimuka, v. Wake up sud- 
denly, revive, recover consciousness, 
come to life again. 

Shita, Sita, v. Buy, sell, barter, 
exchange, engage in trade (business, 
commerce). Rp. sh^tana. (Cf. 
mukushita, shintuia,) 

Shitila, V. Make a game fence. 
(Cf. lushito, hifS)aibo») 

Shiwa, V. See Bhia. a. -skiwa, 
bereaved, deserted, orphan, widow. 
Shiwata, v. Close the eyes, 
doze, go to sleep. (Cf. shinshilay 
shUbuka, tulo,) 

Bhi^^Tika, v. Open the eyes, 
wake up. (Cf. ibuka, lamuka^ 
shishimuka, shiwata,) 

Shi^wTila, V. Rub the eye. Rv. 
shiiSmlula, rub smooth mud-wall, 
floor, &c 

Sholaloka, v. Move to one side, 
draw aside. Cs. sholaushya, shift, 
(put, push) aside. 

Sholola, v. Stir up (food in 
cooking). (Cf. naya,) 

^ Shota, V. Nip (with nails), 
pinch. (Cf. chinshotOyJinya,) 

Shula, V. Cut away, cut all 
round, e.g. root of a tree. 

I 2 




Shuluks, v. Be drawn ont, 
lifted out (as post in hole). 

Shumbwe, n. {iba-s,) Lion. 
(Cf. inkalamUf also shumfwa.) 

Shungnluka, v. Be melted, 
melt. Also Shungulika, Sun- 

-Bhweshif a. Light-coloured, 
bright (in hue), fair-complexioned. 

Shweta, Sweta, y. (i) Be 
(become) bright, light (in hue); 
(a) be lighted up, light, full of 
Jjglit ; (3) l>c open, clear, bare, 
exposed to view, empty. Md. nnd 
a. 'Swete^ -sweUle^ Cs. sweteshya, 

Shy ala, v. Be left, remain behind , 
stop at a place, stay, wait. Ap. 
shyalila, e.g. stop for, wait at. In 
taking leave, shyaliienipo, i. e. 
remain where you are, I am going, 
good-bye. Also Kalushyale. Cs. 
shyaliskya, (Cf. shia^ skila.) 

Shysma, v. Fail, be unlucky, 
have a disaster, not succeed, have 
losses. (Cf. shyuka, ishyamo.) 

Shyeta, v. Chew. See Shots. 

Shyuka, v. Succeed, be lucky, 
gain, prosper, get, profit. (Cf. 
shyama, ishyuko,) 

Soka, v. Sprout, put out shoot 
(bud, blossom, &c.). (Cf. iuta^ 

Sokowola, Shongowola, v. 
Bore out the eye, make blind. (Cf. 

Sombi, Somba, adv. Perhaps, 
possibly, it may be, (Cf. kaniy 

Somena, v. Ache, hurt, be 
painful. (Cf. finya, kalipa^ also 

Sompa, V. Fix post in hole. 
Also SumpcL 

Sompola, V. Snatch, catch at, 
seize hastily. 

Sonda, v. Taste, take a taste of. 

Sondela, v. Glance at, peer at, 
cast eye on. 

. Songa, V. Attack (hurt, gore) 
with horn, c.g. an ox. 

Bonganya, v. Fight, argue, 

Songela, v. Tell stories about, 
accuse, slander. Cs. songeshya, 

Songola, y. Cut to a point, 
point, sharpen. (Cfl isonga,) 

Sonka, v. Bring tribute (con- 
tribution, tax). Cs. sonkeshya^ Rp. 
sonkana^ gather together, collect, 
assemble. (Not L. Ci, tula,) 

Sonkela, v. Make up fire, add 
fuel. (Cf. koshycu) 

Sonkwela, y. Dig hole (for 

Sonta, Tonta, v. Point with 
finger, point out, show, indicate. 
(Cf. tanuka.) 

Sontama, y. Squat on heels. 

Scpela, v. Ram charge in (gun), 
load. (Cf. musopelo,) 

Sopoka, v. Escape, get away, 
get out of trouble. (Cf. pulumuka.) 

Sosa, Shcaha, v. Speak, say, 
talk, argue, reply. Ap. sosela, Cs. 
sosyUj soseshyay Rp. sosana. {Laibiia 
is commonly used in W.L.) 

Sua, V. Anoint, rub with oil. 
Cs. Int. sufya, 

Suknla, v. Tug at, pull off 
(e.g. bark from tree). Cs. suku- 
lishyOf pull hard at, e. g« launch (a 

Sula, y. (1) Show disdain (dis- 
like, resentment), reject, refuse ; 
(a) pound (sorghum). 

Smna, v. Bite, grip, nip, sting, 
hurt. (Cf. luma,) 

Smnaula, v. Grip tight (with 
teeth, vice, &c.). 

Sumba, v. Spear (fish), (Cf. 

Sumbula, v. Lift up, raise, 
hoist. (Cf. nyamunay imya^ 

Suinika, v. Let blood, bleed, 
cup. See Iiumika. 

Sumina, v. (1) Agree, assent, 
acquiesce, allow, grant ; (2) ac- 
knowledge, confess, believe ; (3) 
promise, undertake, come to terms, 




make a contract. Rp. sumtnina, 
Cs. suminishya. 

Sumuna, V. (i) Wean (a child) ; 
(3) wipe, clean off dust 

Smia, V. Help oneself (to food), 
take a helping (a morsel of food in 
fingers). (Cf. kusa^ tanta, isono.) 

8unga» V. (1) Tie, fasten, bind. 
Lisunga mukosi^ hang oneself (cf. 
kakcC)\ (2) keep, guard, take care 
of, attend to (cf. pembd) ; (3) heed, 
obey (orders). A p. sungtla^ -ilila, 
e. g. moor (a canoe). 

Sungunuka, v. Be melted, 
melt. (Cf. shungulika,) 

Sonka, v. Show strong feeling, 
be excited (angry). 

Snnsa, v. Hitch up (clothes), 
shrug (shoulders). Kv. sunsula, 
let down. 

Sunta, V. Limp, hobble, go 

Suntuka, v. S, ibato, drag a 
canoe. (Cf. sukuHshya.) 

Suuka, V. ( 1 ) Soak (cf. aibika) ; 
(2) also SutSbuka, appear suddenly. 

Swa, V. (i) Break, snap, break 
off, pluck (ofif) (cf. iowa, putula) ; 
(2) drip, drop, leak away, filter 
through. Md. -swile, Nt. sweka, 
e.g. be broken, die (cf. iowa), 

Ta-. The common negative pre- 
fix of verb-forms, except in first 
person sing. (Cf. shi-.) 

Taamina, Tamina, y. Rest 
(lean) head upon (hand, pillow). 
(Cf. mutamino.) 

Tako, V. He is not there. (Cf. 
tapOy tamoy utaliko.) 

Tala, V. (1) Mark out, lay plan 
of, design (esp. df a house, draw 
circular furrow showing position and 
size) ; (3) fabricate, manufacture, 
make, e. g. T, iJbufiy tell a lie. 7*. 
ise^ make a hoe (cf. chita^ lengd), 

Talala, v. Be cold. (Not W.L. 
Cf. tanta^ totUola.) 

Talashya, v. Wave about, shake, 
brandish (weapon). (Cf. tenkanya^ 

-tali, a. Long, tall, high, deep, 
distant, -a kutali, distant, far off. 
(Cf. tUali^ and follg.) 

Talimf^a, v. Make long, 
lengthen. Cs. of talimpa^ be long, 
high, &c. (Cf. -tali.) 

Tama, v. Seize, grasp, hold. 
(Cf. ikata.) 

Tambala, n. (iba-t.) Cock. (Cf. 

Tambalala, v. Stretch out, ex- 
tend, put forward, straighten out. 
Also tambalikoy stretch out, &c. 

Tamfya, v. Cs. and Int. Run 
away fast, cause to run away, drive 
away. (Cf. wutuka, fyuka^ 

Tamina, v. See Taamina. 

Tamula, v. Ward off, parry, 
avoid (a blow). (Cf. chickiia, 

Tana, v. (i) Be selfish, nig- 
gardly, ungenerous (cf. uiani)\ 
(2) fight (cf. Iwanay ipayana), 

Tanda, v. Dismiss, send away 
(cf. fumya^ tamfya), Nt. iandika^ 
stretch out, spread out (e.g. mat), 

Tandala, v. Stroll, lounge, pass 
the time away, idle about, go a 

Tandamuka, v. Stretch out, 
straighten out. (Cf. tafida^ tamba- 
likay also iandazvtila.) 

Tanga, v. Be first, be before 
(beforehand), do first, begin, antici- 
pate, go in front, lead. Md. -tangile^ 
-tanjtle^ -tanj'e, and a. first, fore- 
most, earliest, leading. Ap. tangiia, 
e.g. T, nskila, lead the way, act as 
guide. Cs. tangilishya^ tangishya, 
e. g. sent on (in front, before). 
li^atanga iha chisungu, children 
below adult age (cf. mutangikoj 
mutanjilishty kutanjile), Tange- 
ndye, let me eat first. Also as adv. 
tanga, tange^ taye, followed by verb 
in subjunct. mood, 

Tanika, v. Stretch out, expose 
in air. (Cf. anika.) 

Tansha, v. Wave about, brandish 
(e. g, weapon). (Cf. talashya.)^ ., 




Tanta, v. (i) Dip (food) in 
gravy or relish (cf. toweld) ; (a) cut 
flesh in pieces (off bone of a dead 
animal) (cf. waila) ; (3) be painful, 
be chilly, cold (cf. tontold). 

Tantamuka, Tentemuka, v. 
Descend a hill, go down. (Cf. ika^ 

Tantika, v. (i) Weave, plait 
(cf. luka)\ (2) unwrap, unroll, 
spread out. {^f, fungululay tanda,) 

Tanuka, v. (r) Point out, show 
(cf. sonia) ; (2) climb, about (e. g. 
on rafters in building roof). 

Tao, Tail, negat. No, not so. 
(Cf. iyoo,) 

Tapa, v. Take a piece, take 
part, take in parts or portions, lay 
hold of, take, seize. T. menda, 
draw water (by dipping up). So 
also tapula menda, (Cf. Iwala, 
poka, ikata^ 

Tapali, v. There is not (no one, 
none, nothing), no. (Cf. takuli^ 

Tapula, V. Dip up, dip out, 
take little by little. (Cf. tapa,) 

Tasliya, v. Set heart on, (i) 
desire, admire, praise, long for; 
(2) feel loss of, regret, miss. T* 
kwenUt be homesick; litashya^ be 
proud (boastful), think too much of 

Tata, n. Usually in pi. of re- 
spect, atata^ ihatata^ ibata^ father. 
A, wa kunsanga, step-father; A, 
fyalay father-in-law ; A, nkashi, 
father's sister, aunt. (Cf. awishi,) 

Tatika, v. Begin, make a begin- 
ning, start. (Cf. fa»iga, yamda, 

•tatu, a. Three. 

Tatuia, V. Lead off (in singing). 
(Cf. mutatuishu) 

Taula, V. Scrub (a person clean), 
rub, wash. (Cf. samba,) 

Tawa, V. Creep (of a plant). 
Tawa-tawa, pound grain (cf. twa), 

Taya, v. Part with, give away, 
put (throw) away, lose, sacrifice. 
Ap. tayilay e. g. make an offering 

(to, for) {id, pupa) \ Nt. tayika, Cs. 

To, negat Not (in connexion 
with a word following, but not prefix, 
as Ta-), Te , , * ni , , , «/, it is 
neither . . . nor .... Tefyo^ not 

Teka, v. (i) Calm, pacify, make 
quiet, comfort; (2) domesticate, 
tame ; (3) plunder, carry off (goods, 
and persons by violence), take cap- 
tive; (4) aim (a gun, arrow); (5) 
put down, put by the fire. (Cf. 

Tekanya, v. Be quiet, calm, 
composed, pacified, contented, mild. 
Cs. tekanishya, (Cf. teka^ 

Tela, V. Also Sola, which see. 

Telela, v. Slip, slide, glide. 
Cs. teleshyaj teshya, (Cf. teshi- 

Tema, v. Cut, cut down, cut 
off. (For various kinds of cutting 
cf. teway tedfula^ cheka^ pinika, 
putula, sesa, sewa, ieia^ panda, tanta^ 
waila, fingula, timbulat temala, 

Temala, Temaula, v. Cut on 
all sides, make a large clearing. 

Temba, v. Carry on a pole 
(between two men). (Cf. mutembo,) 

Temwa, v. Like, be pleased 
with, fond of, love, be contented, 
satisfied. Md. -temenwe, Rp. te- 
mwana, Cs. Int. temweshya, (Cf. 
konda, tola.) 

Tenda, v. Groan, be ill. (Cf. 
Iwala, intenda.) 

Tendeka, v. Be aggressive, 
start upon, provoke, annoy, meddle 
with. Ap. tendekela, 

Tenenka, v. Be sore Tpainful), 
hurt. (Cf. sonuna, kalipai) 

Tonga, V. Decline, refuse. (Cf. 

Tenkana, v. Shake to and fro, 
tremble, wave about. Cs. tenkanya, 
shake about (e. g. vessel, so as to 
spill contents). 

Tentemuka, v. See Tanta- 




Tentula, v. Knock, hammer. 
(Cf. fula^ pama.) 

Tepela, v. Taste nice, be sweet 
(savoury, taste). (Cf. muse.) 

Tesa, V. Throb, quiver, palpi- 
tate. (Cf. Mema.) 

Teshimuka, v. Slip, slide. 
Also Teshima. (Cf. teUla.) 

Teta, V. Cut, cut down. 7>- 
taula, cut on all sides (widely, 
generally). (Cf. tema, sesa^ se- 

Tetela, v. Cackle. (Cf. lapuka,) 

Tenia, v. Take (a pot) off (the 
fire). (Cf. tpula.) 

Tewa, V. Cut up, cut firewood. 
(Cf. tema,) 

Teweta, v. Make a present of 

Te-^nla, y. Cut (stalks of grain). 
(Cf. sanj'ya,) 

Teya, v. (i) Get ready before- 
hand, prepare, provide, put ready, 
supply; (2) set trap, trap. 

Tl, V. Say, thii^, do. Used 
chiefly in conj. kuti^ ati^ ngati, &c. 

Tikama, v. Be thick, firm, 
stout, substantial, of good quality. 
Md. and a. 'tikeme* (Cf. tnuiika^ 

Timbula, v. (i) Slice flesh off 
bones (cf. tania,waild)\ (2) hoe a 
second time (between plants (cf. 
palauld)\ (3) help to food. 

Tina, v. (i) Be afraid, fear 
(cf. opa^ mwenso)\ (2) seize with 
claws (or nails) scratch, nip. Cs. 
ttnya. (Cf. shoia.) 

Tinanga, v* Feel with fingers, 

Tinta, v. Draw tight, pull, 
stretch. Nt. tiniikaj Md. 'iintile^ 
Cs. Int. tintishya, 

Tinla* Tynla, Tnla, v. Bore a 
hole, pierce; (2) strip flesh off dead 
animal. Also Tiibula, (Cf. follg. 
and tula,) 

Tiwanka, y. Have cracked 
(sore, chafed) feet. 

Ti'^nka, v. Blind, make blind, 
be blmded. (Cf. pofuka. Hula, 

Tola, v. (1) Pick up, take tip, 
in the fingers, find by accident, get, 
acquire; (2) fiEisten, tie (cf. kaka, 
funga, sanga), 

Tolala, Tolanla, y. Pick up 
all about, find everywhere, get 
quickly (easily). (Cf. tola.) 

Toloka, Toleka, v. Run away, 
play truant, desert, leave a master. 
Ap, tolekeloy Cs. toleshya. 

Tomba, v. Have sexual inter» 

Tofnpwe, n. {iba-t^ Brain (sub- 
stance), contents of skull. 

Tongola, v. Remove the grain 
from a cob of maize. 

Tonona, v. Beat, strike. (Cf. 

Tonta, v. See Sonta. 

Tontola, v. Be cold. Md. 
•tontwele. (Cf pola^ tanta.) 

Toshya, v. Argue, quarrel. 
(Cf. sosa, soshya.) 

Tota, V. Be contented (pleased, 
happy, satisfied, grateful), be glad. 
Cs. toieshya. (Cf. konda, temwa, 

Towa, y. (i) Break (in general). 
Md. 'toweUy Nt. towekay Ap. towela, 
Cs. toweshya (cf. swa, funaikaj and 
follg.); (2) T. maluwa, flower, 
blossom. Md. -towele. 

Towaika, v. Break, be broken, 
e. g. have a splitting headache, be 
in violent pain. 

Towala, v. Break all to pieces, 
smash up. (Cf. towa.) 

Towela, v. Dip (morsel, mouth- 
ful) of food in relish (gravy, season- 
ing, dish). (Cf. tozva, chitoweloj 

Towoka, Towanka, y. Hop 
(as frog), jump. 

Tna, Tnwa, v. (i) Be (become) 
white, light coloured, clean, pure, 
innocent; (2) pound (grainy see 
Twa). Md. -twiley -tuwile, Cs. 
Int. tuwishya, Nt. tuika. (Cf. 

-tnlshl, -twifllii, a. White, clean, 
pure. (Cf. tiM.) 




Toka, V. Use abusive langnage, 
abuse. Md. 'tukile, Cs. tushya, 
tukishyay Rp. tukana* (Cf. ituka, 

Tukuts, V. Perspire, sweat. 
(Cf. iiukutaj chiwe.) 

Tiilai V. (i) Begin, have its 
source or origin, rise (of river, sun), 
appear; (2) pay tribute (usual 
present, tax to chief); (3) put down 
load, rest; (4) also tiula, bore a 
hole, pierce; (5) also tuula, rub, 
polish, file. Nt. iulika, be well 
known, famous. 

Tulo, n. PI. sleep. Lala tulo, 
go to sleep, sleep. (Cf. shinshila, 
shipula^ shiwata, ulo,) 

Tulula, V. Pour (into a vessel), 
pour out. (Cf. itila,) 

Tama, v. Send, dispatch, em- 
ploy (as messenger). Nt. tumika, 
Cs. iumishya, tumikishya, (Cf. 
layishyay ilishya^ 

Tumana, v. Be sad, sorrowful, 
depressed, silent, melancholy. Md. 
-tumene, Cs. -ishya, harass, brow- 
beat, persecute, oppress, treat badly. 
(Cf. kataskya, sausnya, saukafianga- 

Tumbula, v. Cut open, rip up. 

Tumpa, V. Be a fool, stupid, 
silly. Md. 'He. (Cf. pusha, pu- 
namay and follg.) 

Tmnpaika, Tumpaila, v. Make 
a fool of, deceive, cheat. (Cf. 
tumpay chenjela.) 

Tmnpuka, v. Flounder, gasp 
(as in drowning). 

Tunda, v. Also Sunda, urinate. 
(Cf. nyay mikoshi,) 

Tunga, V. Insert, pass (string, 
thread, needle, skewer) through, 
e.g. thread needle, string beads. 

Tongulula, n. ( — ) Long narrow 
mat of split reeds. (Cf. mu- 

Tungumishya, v. Bewail, 
mourn, lament. (Cf. /i7a, tusuka.) 

Tunka, v. Prick, stab. Ap. 
tunkela. Also Tunkula, 

Tuntika, v. Make heaps, piles, 

pile up, heap. (Cf. muiuntay and 

Tuntnka, v. Ascend, go up, 
slope upwards. (Cf. mutunta.) 

Tupula, V. Pluck (e. g. feathers 
from fowl). (Cf. mukuicu) 

Tupiuhsra, v. Dismiss, send 
away, drive away. (Cf. pulushya, 

Tashya, v. Cs. of tula^ e. g. 
encamp, rest. 

Tusuka, v. (i) Bewail, mourn, 
lament (cf. Itla); (2) (of birds) rise 
and fly away. 

Tuta, V. Sprout, put out leaves, 
buds. (Cf. soka.) 

Tute, n. (ii>a-t.) Cassava (plant 
and root). 

Tntula, V. Stumble, trip. Md. 
-tutwiUy Cs. ttUwishya, trip up, 
make stumble. 

Tutuma, v. Tremble, shiver, 
palpitate, throb. (Cf. tetema.) 

Tuwa. See Tua and Twa. 

Tuwama, v. Lie on the face, 
face downwards. (Ci. funama.) 

Twa, Tua, v. (i) Pound (as 
grain with pestle; cf. ifusu)\ (2) 
be sharp (edged, pointed; cf. /w- 
mata). Cs. twishya, sharpen. 

Twala, V. Take, bring, convey, 
conduct ; (2) bear fruit, — with 
irreg. Md. -twiie, in past tense only. 
(Cf. chaiwaiay fyala.) 

Twika, V. Pat load on shoulder, 
lift up. (Cf. tula.) 

XJ. Words not found under IT 
may be looked for under W, Wu, 

Uanga, n. See Uwanga. 

Uche, n. Smallness, thinness, 
feebleness. (Cf. -che.) 

Uchende, n. Adultery. (Cf. 
chenchemesiy ukunushi, chenda.) 

Uchenjeshi, n. Deceit, cheating, 
fraud. (Cf. chenjela.) 

ITcliinga, n. (f/id-ck.) Pitfall 
(for game). 

Uohiaa, wuchiaa, n. (Any) 
seasoning, relish, eaten with porridge 




or plain food. {CtchinanifChisaibOy 
chitowelo ) 

Ufi, "^ufl, n. Badness, moral 
evil, (especially) lying, -a iSfufi, 
lying, false, wrong, untruthful, 
slanderous. (Cf.. -fi, -wu) 

Ufila, n. Neglect of necessary 
work (hoeing, &c.), idleness, lazi- 
ness, sloth. 

XTflshi, n. Blackness, darkness, 
dark (handsome) complexion (skin). 
(Cf.yx/a, imfinshu) 

Uftunbi, n. Size, height, bulk, 
width. (Cf. mushinku, mutunduy 

Ufamu, n. (i) Chieftainship 
(office, power, district) ; (2) status 
of freedom, independence. (Cf. 
kalumCy infumu.) 

Ufwiti, n. Witchcraft, magic, 
sorcery. (Cf. inJwitL) 

Ufyele, n. Generosity, free giving, 
hospitality, liberality. {CLpaypela.) 

Uganga, n. Art of healing, 
doctor's treatment. (Cf. munganga, 

Uifoneme, adv. On the face, 
prone (position). (Cf. funama, 

Uingi, n. See Wingi. 

IJishi, UliBlxi, v. Lit. he knows. 
Used as n. and a. one who knows, 
expert, educated, clever, intelligent, 
well informed. (Cf. ishi,) 

ITkala, "^ukala, n. Penis. Also 

Ukalmne, n. Slavery. (Cf. 
kalume, wuskya,) 

Ukanda, n. Aibena Ukanda, a 
section of Lala tribe living in the 
Congo Free State and on the border. 

Ukoli, Unkoli, n. i^a-nkolt). 
Rhinoceros. Also Chipembele. 

Ukome, n. Lower part of back. 
(Cf. chikomey musana.) 

Ukondi, v. (Cf. uio/i, ukotult^ 
&c.) Used to intensify verbs of 
feeling, chiefly, e. g. Natemwa 
ukondi y I love where I am, i.e. in 
my heart, in myself, truly, deeply. 
(ITrom -A*, v.) 

Uku. Words not found under 
Uku- may be looked for under 

Uku, Uko, adv. Here there, 

nkuoha, Kuoha, n. Dawn. 
(Cf. chay iuchelo.) 

Ukulu, n. (i) Greatness, power, 
size, age; (see -kulu); (a) leg 
(see Kulu). 

Ukulwe, n. Great mortality, 
many deaths. (Cf. Iwa,) 

UkunuBlii, n. Adultery, pro- 
fligacy. (Cf. uchende.) 

Ukutwi, n. {flnuUwi), Ear. 
Also Kutwi, 

Ukumo, Wukumo, Bukumo, 
adv. Just now, lately, recently. 

ITku^oko, Ku^oko, n. {ma- 
^okd). Arm (of body). 
. Ukwaps, n. See Kwspa. 

Ukwe^o, n. {ma-k.) Usually in 
plur., articles for sale, merchandise, 

Ula, V. See Wula. 

Ulaka, wulaka, n. (ma-/,) (i) 
Spear-head, blade (cf. tfumo, mu- 
sukoy chochd) ; (2) larynx (external), 
(cf. mulaka), 

ITlala, n. See Wilala. 

nialo, n. {ma-L) Bridge, tree 
laid across stream. (Cf. iaia.) 

inembe, n. Poison (for arrows). 
(Cf. mwafi,) 

nieme, n. Honour, respect, 
civility, compliment. (Cf. chiniiikay 
muchineiy Umya.) 

Uliango, n. {ma-l.) Hole, pit. 
(Cf. muliango,) 

TTlishi, n. See Uiahi. 

TTlo, "^ulo, n. {malo). Place 
(occupied by lying, sitting, stand- 
ing), station, position. Also Chulo, 

TJio, adv. Then, when, since. 
(Cf, nduloy ilyOy Hi,) 

Ulombe, n. (ma-/.) Beauty, 
handsome appearance, fine dress. 
(Cf. -/omh,) 

nioshi, n. Witchcraft, magic, 
sorcery. (Cf. indoshiy muloshiy 
lowdy ufwili.) 




TTluln, n. Anger. (Cf. lulay 

TTlmna, y. Rumblei growl, roar 
(as thunder, lion). 

Uliunbwana, n. Youthfal age, 
youth. (Cf. mulumbwana,) 

Ulume, n. Manhood, courage. 
(Cf. -lunu.) 

ITlunda, n. Friendship. (Cf* 
ckiitfuza, ) 

niungu, wulungu, n. Bead, 
beads, necklace of beads. 

Ulwashi, XTlwele, n. (ma-I.) 
Sickness, ill-health. (Cf. Iwala.) 

Uma, V. (i) Be (become) dry, 
hard, tough ; (2) dry up, decay, 
wither, die ; (3) be a hard bargain, 
expensive, dear. 

Umba, wumba, v. Work in 
clay, do pottery work, form, fashion, 
mould. (Ci. uitumda, ckiibumba^ 

Uznfwa, V. (i) Perceive, be 
sensible of (by any organ or faculty, 
but especially by the ear), hear ; (2) 
listen, attend, heed; (3) understand. 
Nt. umfwikay be heard, be audible, 
intelligible ; Md. 'Umfwilej Ap. 
umfwila, Cs. Int. umfivishya^ and 
umfwishiskya^ e.g. listen attentively, 
Rp. umfwanay e.g. feel for, pity, 

Uxnoyo, M070, n. Life, vitality, 
health, consciousness, vigour. 

TTxn-um, negat. No, not so. 
(Cf. ku-kut mu-mUf iyoo,) 

Undamuka, v. Rise (from lying 
down), g et u p. (Cf. «>/a, Ubuka.) 

XTne, Wune, n. Goodness (in 
general, but specially of appearance, 
i.e. beauty. See -ine, -ne. Used 
also as a. without prefixes, beautiful, 

Unga, V. Gather, collect, put in 
groups (heaps). Rp. ungana, form 
a group, gather together, assemble; 
Cs. nngan ishya, (C f . longa^ ihumba. ) 

Unga, "Wunga, n. Flour, meal, 
powder. U. wa nfuti^ gunpowder. 

Unina, n. His (her) mother; 
unokoy your mother. (Cf. nyina, 

TTpa, V. Marry (of the man). 
Md. "Upile^ Ps. 'Upilway be married 
(of the womaii). Md. -upilwe, Cs. 
ufya^ give in marriage, arrange 
marriage. (Cf. kwata^ lingula.) 

TTsaJnila, n. Nudity, nakedness. 
(Cf. lufunwa,) 

Usali, n. Dirt, filth, unclean^ 
ness. (Cf. -saii.) 

TTsalu, n. Thread. (Cf. i«- 

UBambashi, n. Riches, wealth, 
luxuries. (Cf. -sambashi,) 

Usaneme, adv. On the back, 
supine (position). Lala »., lie on 
the back. (Cf. uifunemet utuweme^ 

TTshi, n. Smoke, steam, vapour. 
(Cf. cAusAi.) 

Ushiku, n. {ma-ush. and mash.) 
Night, night-time. Adv. at night. 
(Cf. inshiku,) 

TTshilUtn. Madness. {CL-shilUy 

XXBOohi, Usosi, n. Talking, 
conversation. (Cf. sosa^iliashL) 

nta, n. Bow. See wuta. 

Utali, n. Distance, length, 
height. (Cf. -talL) 

Utalla, n. {ma-t,) Storehouse, 
granary. • 

Utani, n. Meanness, selfishness, 
niggardliness. (Cf. tana,) 

Uteshi, n. Slipperiness. (Cf. 

Utufi, n. (matufi). Dung, excre- 
ment. (Cf. nya, mikoski.) 

Utuka, n. See w utuka. 

Utundu, n. (ma-t) Lip orna- 
ment, lip-ring. (Cf. chinanda.) 

Utuwexne, adv. On the face, 
prone (position). (Cf. usaneme, 

Uuohi, wuohi, n. Honey. 

Uuohisa, n. See wuoliisa. 

Uufi, n. See ITfl. 

Uwalla, n. (ma-w.) Cultivated 
plot, plantation, garden. (Cf. 

Uwalwa, "Walwa, ITwala, n. 
Native beer. See "Walwa. 




TTwanga, Wangs, n. (manga). 
Poison (for man, given in food or 
drink). Lowa wanga, poison by 
DiagiCi witchcraft. (Cf. ulembe^ 
mwafi^ uibuiba^ 

TTwina, Ulna, n. {mawina, 
mena). Hole, pit. (Cf. muliango,) 

U^ino, n. Goodness, excellence. 
(Cf. itinOj InvinOf tbunino^ une.) 

U^o^oni, n. Property, goods, 
wealth. (Cf. usambashi.) 

TT^uinba» n. Group, company, 
crowd, mass, collection. (Cf. mu' 

TJ-ihr^Sk, n. Poison (for fish). 
(Cf. uwanga,) 

U^^xiya, n. Good (fine, artistic) 
work, finish, art. 

Uyu, Uyo, a. This (person). 
(Cf. unOf ulya,) 

V. Words not found under V 
may be looked for under F. 

Vi-, plur. pref. of nouns having 
Chi- as prefix in sing. (JFi- in W, L.) 

'Vysiwe, -vya^o, a. Other 
(of same sort), i. e. ils fellow, their 
fellow. (Cf. 'fnh) muvi, muvyahve, 
friend, companion.) 

Vyata, Fyata, v. Flash, dazzle 
(as lightning). 

W. Words not found under "W 
may be looked for under U, Uw. 

Wa-, A^a-. Plur. prefix of one 
class of nouns, having Mu' as prefix 
in sing. 

^a, Wa, prp. Of. (See -a.) 

Wa, v. (i) Be, exist, become, 
take place, occur. Md. '7vi/€ ; (2) 
be let be, remain, be let alone (put 
aside, put off, deferred) (cf. ia/Of 
ikald) ; (3) go down, fall, sink 
down, set (of sun). Insoni shyawa, 
shame was felt. Uwalwa kauwey 
let the beer alone, let it wait. 
Kasua kawa^ sunset. Cs. wishya^ 
canse to fall, fell, cut down. 

Waila, V. Cut (rip) flesh (off 
bones of dead animal). (Cf. tanta^ 

Wakama, v. Shine, be bright 
(e.g. of bright polished surface). 
( Cf. w ala, wemba.) 
. Wakambwa-Senga, n. Lala- 
speaking tribe on West side of the 
Luangwa river. Also Wa-ambo, 

Wala, V. (i) Make, produce, 
do, cause, bring about, e.g. war, 
theft, quarrel, (not so often of mate- 
rial objects ; cf. chita^ lenga^ tala) ; 
(3) be beforehand, be first, be in 
time (not W. L. Cf. tangcC) ; (3) 
be bright, shine (as sun, moon) 
(cf. wakama), 

Walwa, n. Native beer, taking 
five days to prepare. (Cf. kumba, 
and for various kinds and stages, 
fisunga^ kateie, imbote, mu/undwa, 
mulalay mushimpuloy mukupa, mu~ 
kumbay also ckiwalwa, kawalwa.) 

Wama, v. Be good (in general, 
i.e. nice, suitable, pleasing, excellent, 
fine, right, wholesome, profitable, 
&c.), Md. and a. 'Weme^ Ap. 
wamitMy e.g. be good for (to), fit, 
suit, please, Ps. -tnwaf Cs. and 
Int. wamtsAya, wamya, wamishi- 
shyay e.g. set right, improve, correct, 
adjust, arrange, instruct, edncate,&c., 
e.g. pawamishishya, it is very good 
indeed. (Cf. -weme, pawemtyji' 
weme^ -ine,) 

Wamba, v. Stretch (spread) 
tight (covering) over (some thing), 
e.g. ^. ngoma, cover a drum with 
hide. W, chilindi, cover a pitfall 
with sticks, earth, &c. Rv. wambula^ 
uncover, slacken, loosen. (Cf. chi- 
wambtf luwamba.) 

Wambo, n. Also Wambo Senga, 
See "^^akambwa- Senga. 

Wandafawe, also Tandafuwe^ 
n. A (kind of) spider. 

Wanga, n. (i) See Uwanga; 
(3) a (kind of) fish- trap. 

Wanga, v. Fasten crosswise, 
e.g. W, mbalOf fix cross-laths on 

Wangama, v. Be hot (of 
I liquids). Md. -ivangeme^ Nt. iva- 




ngamikay make hot, be hot. Cs. 
'iskya, (Cf. kawila^ wila,) 

"Wangu, adv. Quickly, hastily, 
fast, speedily. (Cf. luibilo^ and 

"Wsngnla, v. Extract (e.g. 
thorn, jigger). 

Wsngulaka, Wangufyanya, v. 
Make haste, do (act) quickly, hurry, 
be quick. (Cf. pufya, wangu,) 

Wanya, v. Stir about (food in 
cooking). (Ct naya,) 

wanyina, n. Mother, mothers. 
See Nyina. 

Wasa, v. Use an adze (on), trim, 
cut smooth. (Cf. imbaso.) 

^ata, watata, n. Father, 
fathers. See Tata. 

'^^auahi, Bauahi, n. A tribe 
living north of the Lala district, 
south of Bangweolo. Ku Baushiy 

Wa-wa, negat. No, none, not 
at all. (Cf. iyoo,) 

Wava, V. (i) Set fire (to grass, 
&c.), partly bum, char; (2) hurt, be 
painful. (Cf. koUkoyJinya,) 

Wawauka, y. Brush off, sweep 

wa^o, pron. They. Also used 
as interj. of contempt. 

"Wela, V. (i) Go back, come 
back, return, be repeated, come 
again. Md. 'Welele, Ap. weleloy 
Cs. Int. weleshyay e.g. retum, give 
back, pay back, restore, bring back, 
do (say) over again, repeat, renew, 
alsb weleskeshya ; {2 ) bewail, lament, 
mourn. (Cf. lila^ 

"Welania, v. Lie in wait for, lie 
in ambush. {Ctfisama,) 

"Wemba, v. (i) Shine, be light 
(polished) (cf. wakama) ; (2) look 
for, reconnoitre, spy about, watch. 
Ap. wembelay e.g. act as herdsman, 
tend cattle (cf. embelay mwembe- 

-weme, a. Good, nice, pleasing, 
&c. (Cf. watta, -htCy paweme,) 

Weneahya, v. See "Wona. 

wepa, v. (i) Slander, tell lies, 

accuse falsely ; (2) pretend, act 
hypocritically, disguise (truth, one- 
self, &c.). Often ibepa uufiy lie. 
Ap. itepela, Cs* Int. ibepeshycu 

Weaama, v. Crouch down, 
move stealthily, look out, lie in 
wait. (Cf. weiamay Jisama,) 

Weshya, v. Be contented, 
pleased, satisfied, comforted. IV, 
mtitnay feel pleased (cf. nakd) ; (2) 
attack (cf. shambula). 

'^^eta, y. Act as herdsman, 
tend caitle, &c. (Not W.L. Cf. 

"We^o, pron. You (sing.). 

"Weya, v. Cut hair close, shave. 
(Cf. katnoy sesa.) 

-wi, a. Bad, wrong, unpleasant, 
disastrous. (C£ -w^, 'd>ipay -fi, 

Wiala, v. Plant (seed). (Cf. 
minsa, komena, pelelay shanga.) 

-wifl, a. Beid, wicked. (Cf. 
ibipay itnbifi.) 

"^ity&y v. Cs. Int. of lifipa 
(which see), do wrong (wrongly, 
badly), treat badly, damage, hurt, 
make a mistake, blunder. 

Wika, V. Put, place, set, lay, 
put down (aside, by, away). Ap. 
wikila, e.g. add to. W, masana, 
lay eggs, Cs. Int. wikiskya, 

Wila, V. Be hot, Cs. wilishya^ 
Md. -wilile (cf. kawa^ pya, wa- 
ngama-) ; (2) meet together, join, 
unite (as streams), paths ; cf. ma- 
wilo) ; (3) destroy, ravage, plunder 
(cf. onaulay ieka), 

"Wila, I^ila, v. (i) Plunge 
into water, dive, sink, be drowned. 
Cs. ibishya\ (2) sew {cL pashila). 

WUala, Uilala^ Ulala, n. Dis- 
trict of the Lala tribe. (Cf. mulalay 

-wili, a. Two. (Cf. kcmnH, 
liwilit -owih.) 

"Wilikisbya, v. Call to some 
one at a distance, shout to. 

Wina, n. (ntena). Hole. See 

Winda, v. Wear loin-cloth 




tight on the loms. Rv. windula^ 
loosen loin-cloth, take off. 

"Wingi, Uingi, "Winji, n. 
Abundance, plenty, a large quantity, 
lots (of). W, wune, great abun- 
dance. (Cf. -ingiy ibula, fula,) 

■^ino, U^no, n. Goodness, 
excellence (see U'i^ino). Also adv. 
'dfinOy bwinOf well, excellently, care- 
fully slowly. 

wipa, V. Be bad (wrong, dis- 
astrous, a mistake), do badly, 
blunder, make mistake, do wrong, 
commit crime, be wicked, cause 
damage, not suit, not fit. Md. 
'ibipile^ Ap. 'vbipila^ Cs. and Int. 
ihifya (which see), €>ipishya, Ps. 
ibipilwa, (Cf. i^^, itifya, 'Ji, 

Wishi, n. Usually in. pi. of 
respect, awishif 'diawishi, father. 
Awishi ihanjiy my father; wiso^ 
awiso, your father. Awiskifwe, our 
father ; wishi nkashiy father's sister, 
aunt ; awishi iba kusanga, step- 
father; awishi fya lay father-in-law. 
(Cf. iata, also wishi for uishi, one 
who knows. See Ishi.) 

-wishi, -wisi, a. Fresh (of vege- 
tables), green, uncooked, unripe, 

"Wols, Ola, V. Rot, putrefy. 
Md. 'Wolele, 

Womba, v. (i) Beg, ask for 
(cf. papata^ lomba^ lamba, senga) ; 
A p. wombela\ (2) run, run away. 
(Not W.L.) 

"Wombwe, n. {iba-w^ Frog. 

"Womfya, "Wofya, v. (i) Make 
soft (by beating), soften (cf. nakcC) ; 
(2) be soft, yielding (e.g. marshy 
ground); (3) annoy, harass, tease 
(cf. kaiala), 

Wona, Ona, v. See, observe, 
attend, look at, notice, witness. 
Md. -wene^ Nt. woneka^ be seen, be 
visible. Often in salutes ; Waoneka^ 
here you are, how are you? Cs. 
Int. weneshya^ Rp. wonana. (Cf. 
lola, imboni.) 

Wowa, v. Bewail, lament. 

mourn. (Cf. /i7a, tusuka, tungu- 
mishyOi wela.) 

"Wowa, n. Mushroom. 

"Woyo, interj. of contempt, ap- 
plied to a person. (Cf. ibaibOy pi.) 

Wuchi, Uuclii, n. Honey. 

Wuohisa, ITuchisa, n. Relish, 
seasoning (of any kind, eaten with 
plain food). (Cf. chinane^ chito- 
welo^ chisaibo.) 

"^ufl, Uufl, n. Evil, falsehood. 

Wuka, V. (i) Wake up, wake 
from sleep; Cs, ibukishya ; (2) treat 
(by native doctoring), detect cause 
of sickness or misfortune, apply 
remedy (medicine), treat effectively, 
cure. Ap. ibukila, Cs. ibukishya. 
(Cf. Iwtvukoy poshya,) 

Wukishya, v. Consider, think 
about, apply the mind to. (Cf. 
iwukishya^ /asa, langaluka.) 

'^ukwa, n. Jealousy. Sunga 
w.y be jealous, watch jealously. 

"^ula, V. (i) Tell, report, relate. 
Ap. ibuiila, tell to, inform. JV. 
amanOy give advice, warn, instruct ; 
(2) get, obtain, take, fetch, bring, 
apply, use — in this sense often used 
before or combined with another 
verb of what is a matter of course, 
e. g. ibule mboney of course I see ; 
Ibuhnje {wule ndye), of course I 
eat ; (3) be without, lack, have 
none of, not to do (be, get, have). 
As ^rp. pakuibulat without. In this 
sense, also used to give a negative 
force to a verb, e. g. ibula-pelay not 
to give, be sordid, mean, miserly; 
ibula-temway not to love. Ap. 
ibulilay e.g. mbulile cheibo chonsCy 
tell me the whole story, Cs. ibushyay 

"^umba, V. Gather together 
(neut.), collect, form a group or 
mass. Rp. ibumbana (cf. wdbumbd) ; 
(2)see Umba. 

wune, ITiie, n. Goodness, 
beauty (see Une, -ine, -ne). Also 
used as a, e.g. nchoncho ibune^ 
beautiful spoons.