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Full text of "Lamb's biographical dictionary of the United States;"

TUnivermtp fi&ttton. 

Limited to T<wo Thousand Copies. 
No.... 



LAMB S ,-.V :Ki - ;v - 

BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 



OF THE 



UNITED STATES 




Search for the truth ia the noblest occupation of man ; its publication a iluty." 

Madame de titael. 



You* ME Y. 

LEAMING NEWTON 




I 



mwim 



BOSTON, MASS. 

FEDJCIIAL BOOK COMPANY OF BOSTON 

372 TJOYLSTOX STKKET 

1903 



y a 



Copyright, 1902 
BY FEDERAL BOOK COMPANY, OF BOSTON 



^FNERAL 



FULL PAGE PORTRAITS. 



ABRAHAM LINCOLX 

ROHERT E i) \VARD LEE 

HENRY WADSWORTII LONGFELLOW Poet 

WILLIAM McKiXLEY 

JAMES MAIHSON 

JOHN MAKSIIALL 

NELSON AITLETOX MILES 

JAMES ^[OXROE 

SAMUEL FIXLEY BREESE MORSE 





PAGE 


President 


Frontispiece 


Soldier 


Facing 21 


Poet 


115 


President 


272 


President 


319 


Statesman 


370 


Soldier 


474 


P resilient 


518 


Inventor 


685 



ry 




LAMB S 

BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 



OF THE 



UNITED STATES. 



L. 



LEAMINQ, Thomas, patriot, was born in 
Philadelphia. Pa., Aug. 20, 1748. He studied law 
with John Dickinson and practised in Pennsyl 
vania and in New Jersey until 1776. He was a 
member of the convention that met June 10, 1776, 
to declare the independence of the colony of New 
Jersey, and draw up a constitution, as framed 
July 2, 1776. After finishing the work he re 
turned to Philadelphia, joined the Continental 
army, and organized a battalion in New Jersey, 
which he drilled, officered and equipped. Upon 
his return to Philadelphia he joined the 1st city 
troop of light horse which acted as body-guard to 
General Washington, 1776-77, and he participated 
in the battle of Germantown, Oct. 4, 1777. He 
entered the mercantile house of A. Bunner & Co. 
as the moneyed partner in 1777. and the firm con 
tinued to import large quantities of ammunition 
and accoutrements, which they supplied to the 
army at a time when the government had neither 
funds nor credit. The firm subscribed for the 
relief of the Continental army 6000 of the 
260.000 obtained from the merchants of Phila 
delphia. He died in Philadelphia, Pa., in 1797. 

LEAR, Tobias, diplomatist, was born in Ports 
mouth. N.H., Sept. 19. 176-2 : son of Capt, Tobias 
and Mary (Stilson) Lear, and grandson of Capt. 
Tobias and Elizabeth (Hall) Lear. He was grad 
uated from Harvard. A.B., 1783; engaged in 
teaching, 1784-86; was private secretary to 
Washington and tutor to his adopted children at 
Mount Vernon, 1786-98 ; visited Great Britain, 
1798-94, and was military secretary to General 
Washington, with the rank of colonel, 1798-99. 
He was present at Washington s death-bed, and 
by his will was given the free rent of the farm 
which he then occupied on the Potomac, near 
Mount Vernon, for the remainder of his life. He 
was consul-general at Santo Domingo in 1801, 
and at Algiers. 1804-12. In 1805 he served as a 
commissioner with Commodore Barron to con 



clude a treaty of peace with Tripoli, which was 
effected by agreeing to pay $60,000 for the release 
of two hundred prisoners. His action was ap 
proved by the government at Washington, but 
censured by U.S. Naval Agent Eaton, by Com 
modore Isaac Hull, U.S.N., by Hamet Caramelli, 
the deposed bey, and by the war party in the 
United States. In. 1812 he was appointed by 
President Madison accountant to the war depart 
ment at Washington, D.C., where he served until 
his death. He was thrice married : first, April 
18, 1790. to Mary, daughter of Col. Pierse Long, 
of Portsmouth, N.H., who died in 1793 ; secondly, 
Aug. 22, 1795, to Frances (Bassett) Washington, 
daughter of Col. Bur well Bassett, of New Kent 
county, Va., and widow of Col. George Augustine 
Washington ; and thirdly, to Frances Dandridge 
Henley, a niece of Mrs. Washington. He is the 
author of : The Last Words of Washington. He 
died in Washington, D.C., Oct. 11, 1816. 

LEARNED, Atnasa, representative, was born 
at Killingly, Conn., Nov. 15, 1750; a descendant 
from William Learned, the emigrant in 1630. 
He was graduated from Yale in 1772, studied 
theology, and \vas licensed to preach. He was a 
representative from Connecticut in the 2d and 3d 
congresses, 1791-95 ; was a member of the con 
vention which ratified the constitution of the 
United States ; a delegate to the state constitu 
tional convention in 1818, and for several years a 
representative in the state legislature. He mar 
ried Grace Hallam. He received the degree of 
A.M. from Yale in 1783. He died in New Lon 
don, Conn., May 4, 1825. 

LEARNED, William Law, jurist, was born in 
New London, Conn., July 24. 1821 ; son of Eben- 
ezer and Lydia (Coit) Learned ; grandson of 
Amasa (q.v.)and Grace (Hallam) Learned and of 
Joshua (q.v.) and Ann B. (Hallam) Coit, and a de 
scendant of William Learned, who emigrated 
from England and settled in Charlestown, Mass., 



[1] 



LEARY 



LEAVEXWORTH 



about 1630, and of John Coit, who came from Gla 
morganshire, Wales, and settled in Salem, Mass., 
before 1638. He was prepared for college at 
Union school, in New London, and was graduated 
from Yale, A. B., in 1841. He was admitted to 
the bar in 1844, and practised at Albany, N.Y. 
He was appointed a justice of the supreme court 
of New York by Governor Hoffman in 1870, to 
fill the vacancy caused by the elevation of Rufus 
W. Peckham to the court of appeals, and the 
same year he was elected by the Democratic 
party to the office for a term of fourteen years, 
being the first judge elected for so long a term. 
He was connected with the Albany Law school 
as professor and lecturer and as president of the 
institution. He was appointed presiding justice 
of the third division by Governor Tilden in 1875, 
in place of Theodore Miller, elevated to the court 
of appeals. In 1884 he was re-elected a justice of 
the supreme court, and he was continued as pre 
siding justice for the third division by Governor 
Cleveland. He was retired by reason of age, 
Dec. 31, 1891, and returned to the practice of law 
in Albany. He was twice married : first, May 
29, 1855, to Phebe Rowland, daughter of Alexan 
der Marvin, of Albany, who died in 1864 ; and 
secondly, Jan. 15, 1868, to Katherine, daughter 
of Clinton De Witt. He was president and a 
trustee of the Albany Female academy for many 
years ; a school commissioner of Albany and 
president of the board from 1893, and held many 
other important local positions. He received 
from Yale the degree of A.M. in 1847, and that of 
LL.D. in 1878. He edited and published : Ma 
dame Knight s Journal (1866); Earle s Microcos- 
mography (1867), and compiled the Learned 
Genealogy (1882, 2d ed., 1898). 

LEARY, Richard Phillips, naval officer, was 
born in Baltimore, Md., Nov. 3, 1842 ; grandson 
of Richard Phillips 
and of Peter Leary. 
He was appointed to 
the U.S. Naval acade 
my from Maryland in 
1860 ; ordered into 
active service in 1863, 
and was promoted 
acting ensign, Oct. 
1, 1863. He was at 
tached to blockading 
squadrons off Charles 
ton, S.C., 1863-65 ; 
was promoted master, 
May 10, 1866 : lieu 
tenant. Feb. 21, 18- 
67 ; lieutenant-com 
mander. March 12. 1868. and commander, June 
2. 1HS2. He commanded the Adams on the 
Pacific station in Apia harbor, Samoa, during the 




[2] 



revolution in 1888, and his timely action, on Nov. 
14, 1888, in informing the captain of the German 
warship Adler that he would protect American 
property, prevented a threatened attack on the 
fort of the loyalist leader Mataafa. He received a 
gold medal and the thanks of the legislature of 
Maryland for his services in this affair. He was 
promoted captain, April 6, 1897, commanded the 
San Francisco, 1897-98, and convoyed the New 
Orleans, bought from Brazil, to the United States. 
He was appointed inspecting officer of the con 
struction of the torpedo boats at Weymoutli and 
South Boston, with headquarters at the Boston 
navy yard, in November, 1898, and served until 
appointed naval governor of Guam, P. I., in 
January, 1899. He was retired for physical dis 
ability and promoted rear-admiral, Dec. 26, 1902. 
He died in hospital, Chelsea, Mass., Dec. 27, 1902. 

LEAVELL, Richard flarion, educator, was 
born in Newberry district, S.C.,Aug. 1. 1838; son 
of James and Emily A. (Worthington) Leavell. 
His father removed to Cherry Creek, Miss., about 
1840. Richard was graduated from the Univer 
sity of Mississippi in 1859, and engaged in teach 
ing. He was married, March 4, 1863, to Martha 
Louisa Berry. He served in the Army of North 
ern Virginia as lieutenant and captain in the 2d 
Mississippi regiment, and at the battle of Gettys 
burg, July 2, 1863, with a large part of his regi 
ment, was captui ed and imprisoned at Fort 
Delaware, from whence he was removed to 
Johnson s Island, Ohio. He was interested in the 
scheme proposed by Captain Cole, to effect the 
felease of the officers confined on Johnson s Island, 
and during his imprisonment was a member of a 
law class taught by Gen. J. Z. George. He was 
released in 1865 and was instructor at the Verona 
Male academy, 1865-71. He was a representative 
in the state legislature, 1871-82 ; a trustee of the 
Confederate Orphans Home at Lauderdale, Miss. ; 
professor of English language and literature at 
Mississippi college, 1882-1890 ; professor of Eng 
lish and belles-lettres at the University of Missis 
sippi, 1890-92, and was elected professor of phil 
osophy and political economy in 1892. He was 
elected a member of the Modern Language asso 
ciation of America in 1885 and of the National 
Educational association of the United States in 
1896. 

LEAVENWORTH, Elias Warner, represent 
ative, was born in Canaan, N.Y., Dec. 20, 1803; 
son of David and Lucinda (Mather) Leavenworth; 
grandson of Asa and Submit (Scott) Leaven- 
worth and of Zachariah and Lucy (Gaylord) 
Mather, and a descendant of Thomas and Grace 
Leaven worth, of England, who settled at Wood- 
bury, Conn., where Thomas died, Aug. 3, 1683. 
His parents removed to Great Barrington, Mass., 
in 1806, and lie was graduated from Yale, A.B^ 



LEAVENWORTH 



LEAVITT 



1824, A.M., 1827. He studied law at the Litch- 
field Law school, 1825-27 ; settled in practice at 
Syracuse, N.Y., in November, 1827; and retired 
from the profession in 1850. He was married, 
June 21, 1833, to Mary Elizabeth, daughter of 
Joshua and Margaret P. (Alexander) Forman, of 
Onondaga, N.Y. He was commander of the 7th 
brigade of artillery, N.Y.S.M., and resigned the 
commission in 1841. He was a member of the 
state assembly in 1850 and 1857 ; secretary of the 
state of New York, 1854-55; a member of the 
quarantine commission in 1860, and a commis 
sioner for the United States, under the conven 
tion with New Grenada, at Washington, B.C., 
1861-62. He was a member of the Republican 
state convention, 1860; of the state constitutional 
convention of 1872 ; a Republican representative 
from the twenty-fifth New York district in the 
44th congress, 1875-77, and a commissioner with 
Henry R. Pierson and Cbauncey M. Depew to 
establish and define the boundaries between New 
York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania, 1879-87. 
He was a regent of the University of the State 
of New York, 1861-87, and a trustee of the state 
asylum for idiots, 1865-87. He is the author of : 
Genealogy of tlte Leavenworth Family (1873). 
He died in Syracuse, N.Y., Nov. 25. 1887. 

LEAVENWORTH, Henry, soldier, was born 
in New Haven, Conn., Dec. 10. 1783 ; son of Col. 
Jesse and Eunice (Sperry) Leavenworth ; grand 
son of Mark and Sarah (Hull) Leavenworth ; 
great-grandson of Dr. Thomas and Mary (Jenkins) 
Leavenworth, and great-grandson of Thomas 
and Grace Leavenworth, the immigrants. In 
early childhood he removed to Danville, Vt., 
with his father, and later studied law with Gen. 
Erastus Root, in Delhi, N.Y., and practised with 
his preceptor, 1804-12. He was commissioned 
captain, 25th U.S. infantry, April 25, 1812, and 
major, 9th U.S. infantry, Aug. 15, 1812. He com 
manded his regiment at the battle of Chippewa, 
July 5, 1814, being brevetted lieutenant-colonel 
in August. 1814, and at Niagara where he was 
wounded, July 25, 1814, and was brevetted col- 
lonel in November, 1814. He was a member of 
the New York state assembly, 1816, and became 
Indian agent for the northwestern territory with 
headquarters at Prairie du Chien in 1817. His 
wife and daughter were said to be the first white 
women to travel through the wilderness to this 
remote station. He was promoted lieutenant- 
colonel in the 5th U.S. infantry, Feb. 10, 1818, 
and for a time had charge of the school for 
infantry practice at Jefferson barracks, and built 
several military posts, including Cantonment 
Leavenworth on the Missouri river. He was 
brevetted brigadier general, July 25, 1824, for ten 
years faithful service, was promoted colonel of 
the 3d infantry, Dec. 16, 1825, and brigadier- 



general, U.S.A., in 1833. He was stationed at 
Fort Jessup, and died while on an expedition 
against the Pawnee and Camanche Indians. His 
regiment erected a monument to his memory. 
He died at Cross Timbers, Ind. Ty., July 21, 1834. 
LEAVITT, Humphrey Howe, jurist, was born 
in Suffield, Conn. , June 18, 1796 ; son of Capt. John 
and (Fitch) Leavitt, and a descendant of 
John Leavitt, who was born in Hingham, Eng 
land, 1608, came to Boston, 1628, settled in Hing 
ham, Mass., 1635, and died there, 1691. Capt. John 
Leavitt removed from Connecticut to the North 
west Territory in 1800, and settled in what be 
came Trumbull county, Ohio. Humphrey Howe 
Leavitt received a classical education from a 
Dartmouth graduate, and was admitted to the 
bar in 1817. He was married Dec. 25, 1821, to 
Maria Antoinette, daughter of Dr. John McDowell 
of Steubenville, Ohio. He practised law, first in 
Cadiz, removing in a short time to Steubenville. 
He was a Democratic representative in the state 
legislature, 1825-26, state senator, 1827-29, and a 
representative from the eleventh district of Ohio 
in the 21st, 22d, and 23d congresses, 1829-34, re 
signing July 10, 1834, to accept the office of judge 
of the U.S. district court from President Jack 
son, which office he held until March 31, 1871, 
when he resigned. He presided over the Vallan- 
digham trial in 1863. He was a delegate to the 
Presbyterian general assembly during eleven 
sessions. He wrote all the opinions in " Bond s 
Reports " and many ii, " McLean s Reports." He 
died in Springfield, Ohio, March 15, 1873. 

LEAVITT, John flcDowell, educator and au 
thor, was born in Steubenville, Ohio, May 10, 
1824 ; son of Judge Humphrey Howe and Maria 
Antoinette (McDowell) Leavitt ; grandson of Dr. 
John McDowell, a 
physician, and great 
grandson of the Rev. 
Alexander McDow 
ell, a Scotch Pres 
byterian clergyman. 
He was graduated 
at Jefferson college, 
Pa., A. B., 1841, A.M., 
1844. He studied 
law with his father 
and with Judge 
Swayne, and prac 
tised in Cincinnati, 
Ohio, 1845-48, but 
deciding to enter the 
ministry of the 

Methodist Episcopal church, he served as a 
preacher and professor from 1848 to 1S61. He was 
married in 1848 to Bithia, daughter of Moses 
Brooks. He was professor of mathematics in 
Ohio university, 1854-55 ; professor of languages, 




LEAVITT 



LEAVITT 



1855-57 ; a graduate in theology, Bexley Hall, Ken- 
yon college, Gambler, Ohio, and was made a dea 
con and presbyter in the Protestant Episcopal 
church. He was professor in Keiiyon ; rector of 
St. James s church, Zanesville, Ohio ; became edi 
tor of the American Quarterly Church Review 
in 1867 ; founded and edited the International 
Review ; was president of Lehigh university, 
1875-80 ; of St. John s college, Annapolis, Md., 
1880-84 , and became professor of ecclesiastical 
polity, history and Christian evidences in the 
Theological Seminary of the Reformed Episcopal 
Church, Philadelphia, Pa., in 1884. He received 
the honorary degree of D.I), from Ohio university 
in 1874. and that of LL.D. from St. John s col 
lege in 1889. He is the author of : Psychology in 
Itself and its Relations to Belief ; Hymns to Our 
King (1873) ; Visions of Solyma and Other Poems 
(1895); The Christian Democracy, a History of 
its Suppression and Revival (1896); Reasons for 
Faith in Christianity, ii ith Answers to Hyper- 
criticism (1900); My Creed and My Confession, 
the Legacy of an Octogenarian (1901). 

LEAVITT, Joshua, reformer, was born in 
Heath, Mass. , Sept. 8, 1794 : son of Roger and Chloe 
(Maxwell) Leavitt, and grandson of the Rev. 
Jonathan Leavitt of Charlemont, Mass., a gradu 
ate of Yale, 1758, died 1802. Joshua Leavitt was 
graduated at Yale, A.B., 1814, A.M., 1817; was 
admitted to the bar in Northampton, Mass., in 
1819. and practised law at Putney, Vt., 1819-23. 
He was graduated at Yale Divinity school in 
1825, and was ordained to the Congregational 
ministry Feb. 23, 1825. He was pastor at Strat 
ford, Conn.. 1825-28, and served as agent of the 
American Temperance society for four months. 
He removed to New York city in 1828, as secre 
tary of the American Seamen s Friend society ; 
edited the Sailor s Magazine, 1828-31 ; owned and 
edited the Evangelist in New York city, 1831-37, 
making it a liberal temperance and anti-slavery 
organ. He edited the Emancipator in New York 
and Boston, 1837-47 ; the Chronicle, the first daily 
anti-slavery paper, in 1848 ; was office editor of 
the Independent in New York city, 1848-64, and 
a member of its staff until his death. He formed 
societies and established chapels in various for 
eign and domestic ports in connection with the 
Seamen s Friend society, and was the first secre 
tary of the American Temperance society. He 
was a delegate to the convention at Albany. N.Y., 
that gave birth to the Liberal party in 1840, and 
in that year established The Ballot Box, in which 
he supported James G. Birney for President of 
the United States. He founded the Cheap Post 
age society in Boston, Mass., in 1847, and resided 
in Washington, D.C., 1848-49, where he labored 
for the adoption of the two-cent postage rate. It 
is claimed that he had an influence, through his 



correspondence with Richard Cobden setting 
fortli the capacity of the United States for rais 
ing wheat, in securing the repeal of the English 
corn laws, and in 1869 lie received a gold medal 
from the Cobden club of England for his article 
advocating free trade. He was a member of the 
Colonization society ; founded the New York 
Anti-slavery society in 1833 ; was a member of 
its executive committee in 1835, and continued 
a member of the National Anti-slavery society, 
into which the former was merged. He was 
married to Sarah, daughter of the Rev. Solomon 
Williams of Northampton, Mass. He received 
the degree of D.D. from Wabash college in 
1854. He is the author of : Easy Lessons in Read 
ing (1823); The Cltristian Lyre (1831), and a 
series of readers (1847). He died in Brooklyn, 
N. Y. Jan. 16, 1873. 

LEAVITT, Julius Adalbert, educator, was 
born inGouverneur. N.Y., March 4, 1852; son of 
Halsey Carroll and Romanda (Leach) Leavitt, and 
grandson of Benjamin and Cynthia (Ashley) Leav 
itt. He was graduated from Brown university in 
1875, and studied at Newton Theological institu 
tion, 1875-76 ; was ordained to the Baptist min 
istry at Graf ton, Vt.. June 24, 1876 ; was pastor 
of churches at Grafton, Vt., 1876-77; Essex, 
Conn., 1877-80 ; Beloit, Kan., 1880-82, and Leav- 
envvorth, Kan., 1882-84 ; was state Sunday- 
school missionary for Illinois, 1885-90, and was 
elected president of Ewing college in 1890. He 
was married, May 30, 1876, to Isabelle I. Brown, 
of Providence, R.I., and secondly, on Dec. 29, 
1881, to Lillie H. Lemen. of Collingsville. III. 
The honorary degree of D.D. was conferred on 
him by La Grange college, Mo., in 1896. He was 
editor of the Baptist Scintillations, and became 
associate editor of the Baptist News in 1896. 

LEAVITT, flary Clement, temperance mis 
sionary, was born in Hopkinton, N.H., Sept. 22, 
1830 ; daughter of the Rev. Joshua and Eliza 
(Harvey) Clement, and a descendant of that 
Robert Clement, of Warwickshire, England, who 
was one of the founders of Haverhill, Mass., 
1640. She was graduated at the State Normal 
school, West Newton, Mass ; taught school in 
Boston, and opened a school for young children. 
She assisted the evangelist, Dwight L. Moody, at 
the noon meetings during his first visit to Boston, 
and took an active part in the work of the 
Woman s Christian Temperance Union, of which 
she was an early member. She was president of 
the Boston union, a member of the Massachusetts 
state executive committee and a student of the 
various phases of intemperance. She became a 
national lecturer for the W.C.T.U. in 1880, super 
intended work on the Pacific coast, 1883-84, and 
made a tour around the world, 1884-91, in which 
her expenses were met by voluntary contribu- 



[4] 



LE BLOND 



LE COMPTE 




tions made while on her mission. She organized 
eighty-six unions, twenty-three branches of the 
White Cross league, and in Japan, India and 
Madasgascar twenty-four men s temperance so 
cieties. She visited nearly every country of the 

Old World, and her 
addresses were in 
terpreted into forty- 
seven different lan 
guages. She return 
ed to the United 
States in 1891, and 
made a similar tour 
in Mexico and South 
America, the Baha 
mas and Jamaica. 
She is the author of 
The Liquor Traffic in 
Western Africa, and 
other tracts, and an 
extended series of 
letters in the Union 
Signal. In 1891 she was made honorary life presi 
dent of the World s W.C.T.U. by the first con 
vention of that body, held in Boston. She was 
still active as a lecturer and preacher in 1901. 

LE BLOND, Francis Celestian, representative, 
was born at Fredericktown, Ohio. Feb. 14, 1821 ; 
son of Everah Celestian and Elizabeth (Holder- 
man) Le Blond, grandson of Everah C. Le Blond, 
of Paris, France, and of Christopher Holderman, 
of Ohio. His father, a native of Paris, France, 
came to America at the age of sixteen. Francis 
C. Le Blond was educated at the Norwalk, Ohio, 
seminary, and was admitted to the Ohio bar in 
1844. He settled in practice in St. Mary. Ohio, 
in 1844, and in Celina, 1848 ; was prosecuting at 
torney of the county, 1848-51 ; a member of the 
state house of representatives, 1831 -55, and speaker 
of that body, 1858-55. He was married in 1858 
to Louisa E. McGinley. and of their three chil 
dren. Charles M. was a representative in the Ohio 
legislature. 1886-90, and afterward practised law 
at Hilo, Hawaii. Francis C. Le Blond was a 
Democratic representative from the fifth Ohio 
district in the 88th and 89th congresses, 1863-67. 
After the expiration of his term he returned to 
his law business at Celina, where he was still in 
active practice in 1901. 

LE CLEAR, Thomas, portrait painter, was 
born in Oswego. N.Y., March 11,1818; son of 
Louis and Catherine Le Clear. He displayed a 
talent for art as a child. In 1882 he went to 
London, Canada, where he painted the portrait 
of Sir John Wilson, a former member of parlia 
ment, who became his devoted friend. He re 
sided for awhile in Elniira and Rochester. N.Y., 
and settled in New York city in 1889, removing 
in 1846 to Buffalo, N. Y., and returning to New 



York city in 1860, where the remainder of his 
professional life was spent. He was elected a 
member of the Century association in 1862, and 
of the National Academy of Design in 1868. and 
exhibited there and occasionally at the Royal 
academy in London. His earlier works include : 
The Reprimand; High, Low, Jack and the Game 
(1860); Marble Players; TJie Itinerant (1862); 
and Young America (1852). His portraits include 
Edwin Booth, William Cullen Bryant and George 
Bancroft in the Century Association gallery ; 
William Page in the Corcoran gallery, Washing 
ton, D.C. ; Parke Godwin, exhibited at the 
National academy in 1877 and at the Paris Expo 
sition in 1878 ; Sanford R. Gifford and Jervis 
McEntee. the artists ; and many of the prom 
inent public men of his day, including Presidents 
Fillmore and Garfield. He died in Rutherford 
Park. N.J., Nov. 26, 1882. 

LE COMPTE, Samuel Dexter, jurist, was 
born in Cambridge, Md., Dec. 13, 1814; son of 
Samuel D. and Araminta (Frazier) Le Compte. 
He was graduated at Jefferson college, Pa., in 
1834 ; was admitted to the bar, and practised in 
Westminster, Md., 1837-44 ; was a representative 
in the Maryland legislature, 1841-42 ; and prac 
ticed law in Cambridge and Baltimore, 1844-54. 
He was married in 1841 to Camilla Anderson. 
He was appointed by President Pierce chief 
justice of Kansas Territory on its organization, 
May 30. 1854, and took his place on the bench, 
Oct. 3, 1854. He recognized the constitutional 
right of the people of the territory to determine 
for themselves whether they should have slavery 
or not. In charging the grand jury of Douglas 
county in May, 1856, lie instructed them that 
treason could be committed against the Federal 
government by levying war upon a territorial 
government. In November, 1856, he released on 
bail Charles Hay, indicted for murder, and Gov 
ernor Geary pronounced the act a judicial out 
rage. President Pierce on the representation of 
the governor appointed Judge Harrison to the 
position, but Judge Le Compte defended his 
judicial course before the U.S. senate, and the 
nomination of Judge Harrison was not confirmed. I 
Judge Le Compte continued to hold his office 
and direct the courts of the territory until its 
admission as a state, Jan. 29, 1861. He presided 
over tlie convention of Sept. 5, 1857, which 
framed the Le Compte constitution and the 
capital was named Lecompton in his honor. He 
was a representative in the Kansas state legisla 
ture, 1867-68, and was appointed probate judge 
of Leavenworth, Kan., in 1876. He is the author 
of Tale of Kansas History, and The Other Side 
both published in book form ; and various pamph 
lets relating to the Kansas difficulty. He died in 
Kansas City. Mo., April 24, 1888. 



LE CONTE 



LE CONTE 




LE CONTE, John, physicist, was born at 
" Woodmanston," Liberty county, Ga., Dec. 4, 
1818; son of Louis and Ann (Quarterman) Le 
Conte, and grandson of Jolm Eatton and Jane 
(Sloan) Le Conte. Among his early teachers was 

Alexander H. Ste 
phens, who prepared 
him for college. He 
was graduated from 
the University of 
Georgia, A.B., 1838, 
and from the Col 
lege of Physicians 
and Surgeons in New 
York city, M.D., 1841. 
He practised medi 
cine in Savannah, 
Ga., 1842-46 : was pro 
fessor of natural phil- 
osophv and chemis- 
tiy at the Univer 
sity of Georgia, 1846- 

55 : lecturer on chemistry at tho College of 
Physicians and Surgeons, New York city, 1855- 
56, and professor of natural and mechanical phil 
osophy in the South Carolina college, 185(5-61. 
When the college was closed on the outbreak of 
the civil war, he was for some time in charge of 
the niter works of the niter and mining bureau 
of the Confederate States, and after the reorgan 
ization of the University of South Carolina in 
1866 lie was again professor of natural and me 
chanical philosophy, 1866-69. He was professor 
of physics, industrial mechanics and physiology 
at the University of California, 1869-75, and 
acting president, 1869-70. He succeeded Daniel 
C. Gilman, serving as acting president, 1875-76, 
and was elected president in 1S76, holding both 
the professorship and presidency until 1881, when 
lie resigned the presidency but continued to 
fill the chair of physics until his death. He was 
a member of the National Academy of Sciences ; 
the American Association for the Advancement 
of Science of which he was elected general sec 
retary in 1857 ; the American Philosophical so 
ciety ; the Philadelphia Academy of Natural 
Science ; the New York Academy of Science, and 
the California Academy of Science. He was 
married in July, 1841, to Eleanor Josephine Gra 
ham of New York. His son. Julian Le Conte, 
was appointed engineer of Oakland harbor, Cal., 
in 1875. Professor Le Conte received the honor 
ary degree of LL.D. from the University of 
Georgia in 1879. He delivered a course of lec 
tures on the " Physics of Meteorology at the 
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., in 
1857 ; and a course of four lectures on the " Stel 
lar Universe " at the Peabody Institute, Balti 
more, Md., in 1867. He published over one hun 



dred original papers in scientific journals, and 
nearly completed a treatise on general physics the 
MS. of which was destroyed in the burning of 
Columbia, S.C., in 1865. He died in Berkeley, 
Cal., April 29, 1891. 

LE CONTE, John Eatton, naturalist, was born 
near Shrewsbury. N.J., Feb. 22, 1784; son of 
John Eatton and Jane (Sloan) Le Conto. He 
studied botany with his brother Lewis in New 
York city, entered Columbia college, but was 
obliged to leave before his course was completed 
on account of a severe illness from which he 
never fully recovered. He entered the army as 
assistant topographical engineer with the rank 
of captain, and during the war of 1812 he placed 
the city of Savannah under defence from the 
ingress of the enemy ; and was subsequently 
charged with the survey of the Savannah river, 
and of the harbors of the cities of New York and 
Portsmouth, N.H. He was brevetted major for 
faithful service, April 18, 1828, and resigned from 
the army, Aug. 20, 1831. He was married. July 
22, 1821 , to Mary Anne Hampton Lawrence. He 
was a fellow of the Linnaean society of London, 
and of several other learned societies in England 
and France ; and vice-president of the Lyceum 
of Natural History of New York and of the Aca 
demy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. He 
made an extensive collection of American insects 
and plants illustrating many of them in water 
color. He is the author of several papers on 
mammals, reptiles, batrachians, and Crustacea. 
He died in Philadelphia, Pa.. Nov. 21, 1860. 

LE CONTE, John Lawrence, naturalist, was 
born in New York city, May 13, 1825: son of 
John Eatton and Mary Anne Hampton (Law 
rence) Le Conte. He was graduated from Mount 
St. Mary s college, 
Emmitsburg, Md.,in 
1842, and from the 
College of Physi 
cians and Surgeons, 
New York city, in 
1846. During the in 
tervals of his courses 
in medicine and sub 
sequently until 1*51 
he journeyed ( x- 
tensively throughout 
the country, visiting 
the regions of Lake 
Superior, the upper 
Mississippi, the Rocky 
Mountains and the 
Pacific slope, to increase his knowledge of 
American fauna. He removed to Philadelphia in 
1852 and made other expeditions at various times, 
to Honduras, Panama, Europe. Egypt and Al 
giers, collecting valuable material on the fauna 




v,. 



[0] 



LE CONTE 



LE CONTE 



of the world. He was appointed brigade sur 
geon of U.S. volunteers in June, 18(52 : had 
charge of the general hospital in Pennsylvania, 
1862-0:} ; was acting medical inspector at St. 
Louis, Mo., from February to August, 1863 ; ap 
pointed lieutenant-colonel and medical inspector, 
August, 1863 ; was connected with the depart 
ment of the Missouri from August to October, 
1863 : the department of the Susquehanna from 
October, 1863 ; to April, 186. 5 ; with the Army of 
the Potomac from April, to October, 1865. and was 
honorably mustered out in 1865. He was chief 
clerk in the U.S. mint at Philadelphia, 1878-83 ; 
vice-president of the American Philosophical 
society, 1880-83 ; a founder and member of the 
American Entomological society ; a charter 
member of the National Academy of Sciences ; 
and was elected president of the American Asso 
ciation for the Advancement of Science in 1873. 
He was married, Jan. 10, 1861, to Helen, daughter 
of the Hon. Robert C. and Isabella (Rose) Grier 
of Philadelphia. He is the author of : Classifica 
tion of the Coleoptcra of North America (Part I., 
1852, Part II., 1873); List of Coleoptera of North 
American (Part I., 1866); New Species of North 
American Coleoptera (1866, 1873). He died in 
Philadelphia, Pa., Nov. 15, 1883. 

LE CONTE, Joseph, geologist, was born at 
Woodmanston," an estate in Liberty county, 
Ga., Feb. 26, 1823: son of Lewis and Ann 
(Quarterman ) Le Conte. He was graduated f r< >m 
the University of Georgia, A. B., 1841, A. M., 

1845 : and from the 
College of Physi 
cians and Surgeons, 
New York city, M.D., 
1845. He was mar 
ried, Jan. 14, 1847, 
to Caroline Elizabeth 
Nisbet, whose mater 
nal ancestor, Jasper 
Griffing, immigrated 
to America from 
Wales in 1670. He 
practised medicine in 
Macon, Ga., 1848-50; 
entered the Lawrence 
Scientific school of 
Harvard university, 
and was graduated Sc.B., 1851. He accom 
panied Louis Agassiz on an exploring expe 
dition to Florida in 1851 ; was professor of nat 
ural science at Oglethorpe university. Ga,, in 
1852 : professor of geology and natural history at 
the University of Georgia, 1853-56 ; professor of 
chemistry and geology in South Carolina college, 
1857-69 ; was chemist in the Confederate States 
laboratory for the manufacture of medicines, 
1862-63, and chemist to the C.S. nitre and mining 




bureau. 1864-65. He was appointed professor of 
geology and natural history in the University of 
California in 1869. He was one of the ninety- 
seven judges who served as a board of electors in 
October, 1900, in determining the names entitled 
to a place in the Hall of Fame for Great A mei - 
icans, New York university. The honorary de 
gree of LL.D. was conferred on him by the Uni 
versity of Georgia in 1879 and by Princeton uni 
versity in 1896. He was elected a member of the 
American Philosophical society, the National 
Academy of Sciences ; a fellow of the American 
Academy of Arts and Sciences ; honorary member 
of the California Academy of Sciences ; president 
of the American Association for the Advance 
ment of Science in 1891 and president of the Geo 
logical Society of America in 1895. He is the 
author of : Religion and Science (1873); Elements 
of Geology (1878); SigJit : an Exposition to the 
Principles of Monocular and Binocular Vision 
(1880); Compend of Geology (1884); Evolution: 
its Nature, its Evidences and its Relation to Reli 
gious Thought (1887), and The Comparative Phy 
siology and Morphology of Animals (1900), and 
also contributed more than one hundred and fifty 
papers to scientific, literary and philosophical 
journals, published both in the United States 
and Europe, including the results of his original 
investigations in geology and physiological optics. 
LE CONTE, Lewis, naturalist, was born near 
Shrewsbury, N.J.. Aug. 4, 1782; son of John 
Eatton and Jane (Sloan) Le Conte, and grandson 
of Pierre and Valeria (Eatton) Le Conte. The 
first ancestor in America, Guillaume Le Conte, a 
French Huguenot, emigrated in 1698 and settled 
first in New Rochelle and afterward in New York 
city. In New Rochelle he was married, Feb. 16, 
1701, to Marguerite, daughter of Pierre Joyeulx 
de Valleau of Martinique. Lewis Le Conte was 
graduated from Columbia college, A.B., 1799, 
and studied medicine with Dr. David Hosack. 
He removed to Georgia and took charge of the 
family estate " Woodmanston," Liberty county. 
He established a botanical garden and a chemical 
laboratory on his plantation and devoted his 
spare time to scientific pursuits. Mr. Le Conte 
published nothing, but gave the product of his 
researches to the contemporary botanists of 
South Carolina. He also interested himself in 
mathematics, devoting much attention to magic 
squares. He was married, Jan. 30, 1812, to Ann 
Quarterman. a descendant from the English 
Puritan colony that settled in Midway, afterward 
named Liberty county, Georgia, because it was 
the first settlement in Georgia to raise the flag of 
independence in the Revolutionary war. While 
dressing a wound for a member of his family, 
poison was taken into his system from which he 
died, at "Woodmanston, Ga., Jan. 9, 1838. 



LE COXTE 



LEDYARD 



LE CONTE, William, lawyer, was born March 
20, 1738 ; son of Pierre and Valeria (Eatton) Le 
Conte ; grandson of Guillaume Le Conte, the 
first ancestor in America. He was a lawyer hy 
profession, but removed with his brother, John 
Eatton Le Conte, to Georgia, where they carried 
on a profitable lumber business with the West 
Indies. He settled at " Sans Souci," on the 
Ogeechee river, about sixteen miles south of Sa 
vannah, Ga., and took an active part in the Rev 
olutionary war. He was appointed a member of 
the first Council of Safety for the province of 
Georgia, June 22, 1775, and a member of the 
Provincial congress which met at Savannah, 
July 4, 1775, where he represented the parish of 
St. Philip or Great Ogeechee. As a member of 
the council of safety, on Aug. 8, 1775, he signed 
a letter addressed to Governor Sir James Wright, 
and his name appears on the " black list," which 
was sent to England by the royal governor of 
Georgia, with the annexed title of rebel coun 
cilor." He died without issue in Savannah, 
Ga., Nov. 4, 1788. 

LE DUG, William Gates, agriculturist, was 
born in Wilkesville, Ohio, March 29, 1823 ; second 
son of Henry Savary and Polly (Stowell) Le 
Due ; grandson of Henri and Lucy (Sumner) Due ; 
great-grandson of Capt. John and Elizabeth 

(Reynolds) Simmer ; 
great 2 -grandson of 
William and Hannah 
(Clark) Sumner ; 
great 8 -grandson of 
Hezekiah and Abigail 
(Bidwell) Sumner; 
great*-grandson of 
William Sumner, 
freeman, 1678 ;great 5 - 
grandson of William 
and Elizabeth (Clem 
ent) Sumner ; great 6 - 
grandson of William 
and Mary (West) 
Sumner. who came 
to New England from 

Bicester, England, in 1G36, and settled in Dor 
chester, Mass. Henri Due was a native of 
Lyons, France. William Gates Le Due was 
graduated from Kenyon college, A.B., 1848, 
A.M., 1851 ; was admitted to the bar in 1850, and 
practised at St. Paul, Minn. He was a pioneer 
promoter of immigration to Minnesota Terri 
tory, obtained the first charter for a railroad 
there, and organized the Wabash Bridge com 
pany which built the first bridge over the Mis 
sissippi river. He removed to Hastings, Minn.. 
in 1856. and engaged in milling spring wheat and 
in shipping the flour, an industry that developed 
into the leading business of the territory and 




state. In 1862 he entered the army as assistant 
quartermaster of volunteers, with rank of cap 
tain, and was promoted lieutenant-colonel and 
assistant quartermaster, serving with the Army 
of the Potomac till after the Gettysburg cam 
paign, when he went with General Hooker s 
command to the relief of Rosecrans in Tennessee. 
Being placed in charge of Bridgeport, he organ 
ized a base of supplies, built a steamboat and 
navigated with barges loaded with rations to 
Kelly s ferry, within reach of the starving troops 
at Chattanooga. He also supplied General Hook 
er s command, which had gone forward to clear 
the way and protect the transportation ; went 
with General Sherman s army to Atlanta, and 
was chief quartermaster of General Thomas in 
repelling Hood s campaign. He was bre vetted 
brigadier-general of U.S. volunteers in 1865. 
He returned to his farm at Hastings, Minn., and 
took an active interest in building railroads in 
that section. He was U.S. commissioner of ag 
riculture. 1877-81, and organized what became 
the bureau of animal industry and the division 
of forestry in the department of agriculture. 
As commissioner of agriculture he also estab 
lished a tea farm at Summerville. S.C.. and 
encouraged the manufacture of sugar from sor 
ghum cane and beets. On retiring from this 
office in 1881 he returned to his home at Hast 
ings. He was married, March 25. 1851, to Mary 
Elizabeth, only daughter of Prof. G. P. Bronson, 
of Mount Vernon, Ohio. He was elected a mem 
ber of the National Agricultural society of 
France, Dec. 7, 1881, the only other Americans 
at that time so honored being George Washing- 
ton, Thomas Jefferson and Benjamin Thompson 
(Count de Rumford). He is the author of : The 
Little Steamboat that Opened the Cracker Line in 
" Battles and Leaders of the Civil War," Vol. 
III., p. 676, and of ^1 Model State, a brief compi 
lation of the constitution and laws of Minnesota. 
LEDYARD, William, soldier, was born in 
Grot on, Conn., in 1750. He was in command of 
the state troops defending Fort Griswold and 
Fort Trumbull in 1781 against the advance of 
Arnold, and lie had hastily gathered 157 of his 
militia in Fort Griswold when it was surrounded 
by nearly 800 trained British soldiers under Lieu 
tenant-Colonel Eyre. In the assault Colonel 
Eyre was mortally wounded, Major Montgomery, 
second in command, killed, and Major Brown- 
field, third in command, who effected the en 
trance to the fort, partially disabled, forty-eight 
of his men having been killed by the fire of Col 
onel Ledyard s militia. To save the lives of his 
neighbors and friends, who formed his little 
force, after twelve of their number had been 
killed or wounded. Colonel Ledyard ordered them 
to lay down their arms and he handed his sword 



[8] 



LEE 



LEE 



to his wounded captor. On taking the sword (as 
tradition hands down the story), Major Brown- 
field turned its point on the breast of his un 
armed captive and plunged it through his body. 
His waistcoat pierced by the sword is preserved 
by the Connecticut Historical society. Not con. 
tent with a single victim, the British soldiers 
turned upon their unarmed captives and killed 
eighty-five and wounded sixty. Many of the 
wounded, who were cared for by the women of 
Groton, including Fanny, niece of Colonel Led- 
yard, died from their wounds. His nephew, John 
Ledyard (1750-1789) was a navigator, explorer, 
witness of the death of Captain Cook and author 
of Narrative of the Third and Last Expedition 
of Capt. James Cook (1798). Col. William Led 
yard died in Fort Griswold, Conn., Sept. 7, 1781. 

LEE, Albert, editor and author, was born in 
New Orleans, La., May 11, 18G8 : son of Gen. 
Albert Lindley Lee, grandson of Moses Lindley 
Lee, and a descendant of William Lee, who set 
tled on Long Island in 1681. He prepared for 
college at Phillips Exeter academy, was gradu 
ated from Yale, A. B., 1891 ; was connected with 
the editorial staff of the New York Sun. 1891-94 ; 
editor of Haider s Round Table. 1894-99, and in 
the latter year became managing editor of Har 
pers Weekly. He was married, May 22, 1895. to 
Blanche, daughter of Augustus B. Coit of New 
York. His published works include : Tommy 
Toadies (1895); Track Athletics in Detail (1896); 
The Knave of Hearts (1897); Four for a Fortune 
(1898); He. Site and They (1899). 

LEE, Albert Lindley, soldier, was born in 
Fulton, N.Y., Jan. 16, 1834 ; son of Moses Lindley 
and Ann (Case) Lee and a descendant of William 
Lee, who settled on Long Island in 1681. He 
was graduated at Union college in 1853 ; studied 
law, and removed to Kansas, where he was elected 
a justice of the supreme court of the state in 
1861. He resigned his seat on the bench the same 
year to serve as major of the 7th Kansas cavalry, 
and became its colonel in the following year. In 
May, 1862, he was ordered with his regiment to 
Mississippi and commanded the 2d cavalry brigade 
at the battle of Corinth. Oct. 3, and afterward in 
Grant s central Mississippi campaign. He was 
appointed brigadier-general in January, 1863, his 
commission dating from Nov. 29, 1862 ; was 
assigned to the 13th army corps, Gen. John A. 
McClernand commanding, and acted as his chief 
of staff in the operations about Vicksburg, and at 
the battles of Champion Hill and Big Black 
River, May 16 and 17, 1863. On May 19 he com 
manded the 1st brigade, 9th division, 13th army 
corps, in the assault on Vioksburg, and was se 
verely wounded by a gunshot through face and 
head. He rejoined his brigade for dxity July 26, 
1863. and was assigned to the command of the 



12th division, 13th army corps, which was ordered 
to New Orleans. He was appointed chief of 
cavahy, department of the Gulf, on the staff of 
Gen. N. P. Banks, and saw service in western 
Louisiana. In the Red River expedition of 1864, 
he commanded the cavalry division. In July, 

1864, he commanded an infantry brigade in the 
expedition up the White river, Arkansas ; in 
August, he was assigned to the command of the 
cavalry division, headquarters at Baton Rouge, 
La., and in January, 1865, he was ordered to New 
Orleans, and was on duty there till May, 1865, 
when lie resigned his commission and was mus 
tered out of service. General Lee subsequently 
engaged in business in New York city where he 
was still residing in 1901. 

LEE, Alfred, first bishop of Delaware and 38th 
in succession in the American episcopate, was 
born in Cambridge, Mass., Sept. 9, 1807 ; son of 
Capt. Benjamin and Elizabeth (Leighton) Lee; 
and grandson of Thomas and Mary (Pitt) Lee and 
of John and Eliza 
beth (Gorham) Leigh- 
ton. He was gradu 
ated witli honors 
from Harvard in 
1827, and was admit 
ted to the bar in New 
London, Conn., in 18- 
30, where he practis 
ed for two years. He 
was married, April 23, 
1832, to Julia, daugh 
ter of Elihu and Sarah 
(Trumbull) White of 
Hartford, Conn., and 
a descendant of John 
White, Boston, 1632. 

He abandoned law in 1833, and was graduated 
from the General Theological seminary in 1837. 
He was ordered deacon in Christ (now Trinity) 
church, Norwich, Conn., May 21, 1837, and ordain 
ed priest in Christ church, Hartford, Conn., June 
12, 1838, by Bishop Brownell. He officiated at St. 
James s church, Poquetanuck, Conn., 1838; was 
rector of Calvary church, Rockdale, Pa., 1838-41, 
and was consecrated the first bishop of Delaware 
in St. Paul s chapel. New York city, Oct. 12, 1841, 
by Bishops Griswold, Moore, Chase, Brownell, H. 
U. Onderdonk, Meade and Mcllvaine. He also 
assumed the rectorship of St. Andrew s church, 
Wilmington, Del., in 1843. On the death of 
Bishop Benjamin Bosworth Smith of Kentucky. 
May 31, 1884, he became the eighth presiding 
bishop of the American episcopate. In January, 

1865, Bishop Lee was one of a delegation from 
the Christian commission to visit Federal pri 
soners in the South. In October, 1863, he was 
assigned to exercise episcopal duties over a 




LEE 



LEE 



congregation organized in the Island of Haiti, 
where he spent several weeks ; and in January, 
1815, at the request of the Mexican commission 
of the Protestant Episcopal church of which he 
was afterward president, lie visited the city of 
Mexico, and took part in the establishment of the 
infant "Church of Jesus." In 1878 he attended 
the Lambeth Conference of the Church of Eng 
land. He received the degree of D.D. from 
Hobart and Trinity in 1841, and from Harvard 
in 1860, and that of LL.D. from Delaware college 
in 1877. He was a member of the American 
Company of the Revisers of the New Testament in 
1881. He is the author of: Life of tlie Apostle 
Peter (1852); Vindication of the Court of Bishops 
at Camden, N.J. (1854); Life of tlie Apostle Jolm 
(1854); Treatise on Baptism (1854): Life of 
Susan Allibotte (1854); Harbingerof Christ (1857); 
Eventful Nights in Bible History (1886) . He died 
in Wilmington. Del.. April 12, 1887. 

LEE, Alfred Emory, consul-general, was born 
in Barnsville. Ohio, Feb. 17, 1838 ; son of Isaac 
and Esther (Zinn) Lee. He was graduated at 
the Ohio Wesleyan University, A.B., 1859, A.M., 
1862, and from the Ohio State and Union Law 
school, LL.B., 1861. He was captain and assist 
ant adjutant-general in the 82d Ohio volunteer 
infantry, 1861-64, being severely wounded at the 
battle of Gettysburg ; was a representative in the 
Ohio legislature, 1868-69. securing the passage of 
the bill establishing the Ohio geological survey ; 
was collector of U.S. internal revenue, 1870-75 ; 
private secretary of Governor Hayes, 1875-77 ; 
consul-general at Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1877- 
81. where he was the first to propose sample 
depots of American products abroad ; and was 
editor of the Ohio State Journal, 1882-83, be 
coming financial manager of that paper in 1894. 
He was made secretary of the Gettysburg me 
morial commission of Ohio. He is the author of : 
Tlie Battle of Gettysburg (1888) ; European Days 
and Ways (1890) ; History of the City of Colum 
bus (1893) ; Silver and Gold : A Historical Mon 
ograph (1893). 

LEE, Andrew Ericson, governor of South 
Dakota, was born near Bergen, Norway, March 
18, 1847 ; son of Erie and Augusta (Anderson) 
Lee. He emigrated from Norway with his 
parents in 1851, and settled in Dane county, Wis. 
He was educated in the public schools of Cam 
bridge and Whitewater, Wis. ; was clerk in a 
store at McGregor, Iowa, 1863-67, and at Madison, 
Wis., 1867-69, and in 1869 removed toVermillion, 
Dak. He was married, Dec. 21, 1872, to Annie 
M., daughter of Henry N. Chappell, of Rhode 
Island. He was elected mayor of Vermillion by 
the Populist party in 1892 and was governor of 
South Dakota, 1897-1901. In November, 1900, 
he was defeated for representative in congress. 



LEE, Ann, founder of a sect, was born in Toad 
Lane, Manchester, England, Feb. 29, 1736 ; 
daughter of John Lee, a blacksmith. She was 
employed in a cotton factory and as a cook in the 
Manchester infirmary, and while a mere girl 
married Abraham Stanley, a blacksmith. In 1758 
she left her husband and joined the Camisards or 
Shaking Quakers, founded in 1747. In 1770, being 
arrested and imprisoned with others of the sect, 
she claimed that Jesus Christ had appeared to 
her, revealing divine manifestation of truth, and 
she proclaimed herself the second appearing of 
Christ or Ann the Word." The society ac 
knowledged her as the first visible leader of the 
Church of God upon the earth and called her 
" Mother Ann Lee." She claimed the gift of 
languages, the gift of healing, ability to discern 
secrets of the heart, to be actuated solely by the 
power of God, and to have attained a state of sin 
less perfection. She was repeatedly cast into 
prison and confined in a madhouse, and was 
never safe from the attacks of the mob. In May, 
1774, she left Liverpool with a company of nearly 
thirty believers and arrived in New York in 
August. Her marriage to Abraham Stanley was 
dissolved and she settled in Albany and later at 
Watervliet, N.Y., where she established " The 
Church of Christ s Second Appearance." In 1780 
after a revival at Lebanon, N.Y., where a strong 
settlement was founded, they were joined at 
Watervliet by a large number of converts. The 
commissioners of Albany thereupon charged the 
members with being unfriendly to tlie patriot 
cause as they were unwilling to bear arms. 
Several elders were imprisoned and " Mother 
Ann " was conveyed down the river with the in 
tention of banishing her to England, but she was 
lodged in the jail at Poughkeepsie from which 
she was released in December, 1780. by Governor 
George Clinton. In May, 1781, with some elders 
she went on a missionary journey to the New 
England states, and returned to Watervliet in 
1783, having made many converts. Charges 
made against her moral character were never 
substantiated. She claimed that she would not 
be subject to death. She died, however, in 
Watervliet, N.Y., Sept. 8, 1784. 

LEE, Arthur, diplomatist, was born at <; Strat 
ford," Westmoreland county, Va., Dec. 21. 1740 ; 
the sixth and youngest son of Gov. Thomas and 
Hannah (Ludwell) Lee ; grandson of Col. Rich 
ard and Leetitia (Corbin) Lee and of Col. Philip 
Ludwell of Green Spring, Va. ; and great grand 
son of Richard and Ann Lee and of Philip Lud 
well, governor of North Carolina, 1689-91. 
Richard Lee of Shropshire, England, was in the 
privy council of Charles I., was seci etaiy of Sir 
William Berkeley, with whom lie immigrated to 
Virginia in 1641 and became the founder of the 



LEE 



LEE 




Lee family of Virginia. Arthur Lee was edu 
cated at Eton and the University of Edinburgh, 
where he received a prize, a diploma, and the 
degree of M.D. After making a journey 
through Holland and Germany he returned to 

Virginia and prac 
tised medicine in 
Williamsburg. The 
effort to enforce the 
stamp act which call 
ed forth the West 
moreland declaration 
determined him to 
study law in order 
more effectively to 
assist the colonies 
in obtaining redress 
from the heavy tax 
ation laid upon them. 
He studied law in 
the Temple, London, 
1766-70, and practised 

in London, 1770-76, meantime studying the 
Colonial questions and discussing the Towns- 
hend acts and other aggressive measures pro 
posed by Parliament. At this time he won 
considerable fame as a writer, signing himself 
"Monitor" and " Junius Americanus." He was 
also the author of " An Appeal to the English 
Nation." He was a leading member of the 
" Supporters of the Bill of Rights," organized for 
the discussion of the measures of the British 
ministry and the restoration to the American 
colonies of the right to regulate taxes through 
their own representatives. In supporting the 
resolutions adopted by the society, of which Lee 
was the author, he sustained an able discussion 
with the unknown author of the " Letters of 
Junius." He gained the friendship of Burke, 
Priestly, Dunning, Baire and Sir William Jones, 
and was admitted to a fellowship in the Royal 
society. He was appointed by the general court 
of Massachusetts in 1770 as representative for 
that colony in London as associate with Benjamin 
Franklin, and in 1775, when Richard Penn 
reached London with the last petition from the 
Continental congress and the appeal to the 
English people, of which his brother, Richard 
Henry Lee, was the author, he undertook to have 
the petition reach the king, but in vain. He 
was appointed by congress, with Franklin, Jay 
and Dickinson, to open correspondence with 
friends of America in Europe and was made the 
secret agent of the committee in London, and 
he opened negotiations with the French govern 
ment which led to his residence in Paris during 
the spring and summer of 1776. In 1776 congress 
appointed him a joint commissioner with Benja 
min Franklin and Silas Deane to secure a treaty of 



alliance with France, and in 1777 he was intrusted 
with special missions to the governments of 
Spain and Prussia, and in October. 1778. was 
continued as sole commissioner to Spain, also 
acting in the same capacity to the court of 
Prussia but residing in Paris. His frequent 
quarrels with Franklin and Deane led to his re 
call in the autumn of 1779. He was a represen 
tative in the general assembly of Virginia, 1781 ; 
a delegate to the Continental congress, 1781-84 ; 
Indian commissioner in western Ne\v York and 
Pennsylvania, 1784, and a member of the board 
of treasury, 1784-89. He was opposed to the 
adoption of the Federal constitution, and his op 
position appears to have been due to excessive 
distrust in the motives that actuated his fellow 
patriots and his concern for the rights of the 
colonists. He retired to his estate at Urbana, 
Middlesex county, Va.. in 1789. where he de 
voted himself to his books and correspondence. 
He was a member of the American Philosophical 
society ; fellow of the American Academy of 
Arts and Sciences, and received the honorary de 
gree of LL.D. from Harvard college in 1781. 
See " Life of Arthur Lee, with his Political and 
Literary Correspondence " by R. H. Lee (2 vols., 
1829) ; Sparks s " Diplomatic Correspondence " ; 
and many political and diplomatic papers pre 
served in the library of Harvard college. He 
died unmarried in Urbana, Va., Dec. 12, 1792. 

LEE, Benjamin, physician, was born in Nor 
wich, Conn., Sept. 26, 1833 ; son of the Rt. Rev. 
Alfred and Julia (White) Lee. He was grad 
uated from the University of Pennsylvania, 
A.B., 1852, A.M., 1859 ; and from the New York 
Medical college, M.D. in 1856; continued his 
medical studies in Europe and then practised in 
New York city. He edited the American Med 
ical Monthly in 1862 and was surgeon to the 22d 
regiment, N.G.S.N.Y., 1862 and 1863. He re 
moved to Philadelphia, Pa., in 1865, where he 
made a specialty of orthopedic surgery and the 
treatment of nervous diseases, and invented the 
method of self-suspension for the treatment of 
spinal diseases. He was elected a member or 
officer of the more important state and national 
medical societies, and an honorary member of 
the societies of hygiene of Brussels and Paris. 
He was health officer of the city and port of Phil 
adelphia, 1898-99. He received the degree of 
Ph.D. from the University of Pennsylvania in 
1872. He is the author of : TJie Correct Principles 
of Treatment of Angular Curvature of tJte Spine 
(1867); Tracts on Massage (1885); Annual Reports 
of the State Board of Health of Pennsylvania 
(1885-99). 

LEE, Benjamin Franklin, A.M.E. bishop, was 
born in Bridgeton, N.J., Sept. 18, 1841 ; son of 
Abel and Sarah (Gould) Lee ; and of African de- 



LEE 



LEE 



scent. He was taught by his mother, a school 
teacher, and also attended the Gouldtown district 
school. He was licensed to preach in the African 
Methodist Episcopal church in 1808. at Xenia, 
Ohio, was ordained a deacon in 1870 and an elder 
in 1872. and was also graduated from Wilber- 
force university in the latter year. He was mar 
ried, Dec. 30. 1872, to Mary E. Ashe of Mobile, 
Ala. He preached in Kentucky. Ohio and Penn 
sylvania ; was professor of ecclesiastical history, 
homiletics and pastoral theology at Wilberforce 
university, 187:5-75, and president of that institu 
tion, and professor of intellectual and moral 
philosophy and systematic theology, 1876-84. 
He was a trustee of the university and a director 
of the Payne Theological seminary. He was a 
delegate to the general conference of the A.M.E. 
church, 1876 ; a member of the committee to 
arrange for the first Ecumenical conference of 
Methodism, and a delegate to the Ecumenical 
conference in London, 1881, and to the Methodist 
Centennial in Baltimore, Md. , in 1884. At the gen 
eral conference of the A.M.E. church, in Philadel 
phia, 1892, lie was elected and consecrated bishop. 
He received the degree of D.D. from Wilberforce 
university in 1883. He edited the Christian Re 
corder, Philadelphia, Pa., 1884, and is the author 
of : Wesley the Worker (1880); TJie Causes of the 
Success of Methodism. 

LEE, Blewett, lawyer, was born near Colum 
bus, Miss., March 1, 1867 ; son of Stephen Dill Lee 
(q.v. ) and Regina (Harrison) Lee. He was 
graduated from the Agricultural and Mechanical 
College of Mississippi, B.S. in 1883 ; studied at 
the University of Virginia, 1883-85 : was gradu 
ated from Harvard university, A.M. and LL.B. in 
1888, and studied at Leipzig and Freiburg, Ger 
man} . He was private secretary to Justice Hor 
ace Gray in 1890 ; and practised law in Atlanta, 
Ga. , 1890-93. He was a professor in the Atlanta 
Law school in its first faculty ; and was elected 
professor of law in the Northwestern university, 
Chicago, 111., in 1893, in which city he also prac 
tised his profession. He was married, Feb. 9. 
1898, to Frances, daughter of John J. and Frances 
(Macbeth) Glessner of Chicago. 111. He was 
elected a member of the American Bar association 
in 1894. He is the author of various articles in 
legal journals. 

LEE, Charles, soldier of fortune, was born in 
Dernhall. Cheshire, England, in 1731 ; the young 
est son of John and Isabella (Bun bury) Lee. He 
received a classical education and then devoted 
himself to a study of the art of war. His father 
died in 1751, and in the same year he was com 
missioned lieutenant in the 44th regiment, of 
which his father had been colonel. Ordered to 
America in 1754, the regiment was attached to 
Braddock s army in Virginia, and after the dis 




astrous defeat of July 9, 1755, marched with the 
remnant of the army to Albany and Sehenec- 
tady, where Lee met Sir "William Johnson and 
was adopted by the Mohawk Indians. He pur 
chased a captain s commission for 900, June ll r 
1756 ; was severely 
wounded in Aber- 
crombie s assault up 
on Ticonderoga, July 
1, 1758; was present 
at the capture of Fort 
Niagara, and his 
small party then 
marched to Fort Du- 
quesne and thence to 
Crown Point, N.Y., 
where he joined Gen 
eral Amherst, and 
in 1760 took part in 
the capture of Mon- 
treal. He returned to 
England and was pro 
moted major in the 103d regiment, Aug. 10, 1761. 
After service in Burgoyne s division in Portugal 
in 1762, he organized a project for establishing 
new colonies in America, to be recruited from 
Germany, Switzerland and New England. The 
British ministry refused to approve the plan, and 
he went to Poland in 1764, where he was up- 
pointed on the staff of the king, and accompanied 
the Polish embassy to Turkey in 1766. He re 
turned to England in 1766, and for two j r ears un 
successfully urged his claims to promotion in the 
army. He accepted a commission as major-gen 
eral in the Polish army in 1769, and made a cam 
paign against the Turks, after which he publicly 
derided his superior officers and left the army. 
He visited Italy in 1770, returned to England by 
way of Gibraltar ; was in France and Switzer 
land, 1771-72, and on May 25, 1772. he was pro 
moted lieutenant-colonel in the British army and 
placed on half-pay. Disappointed, he arrived in 
America, Nov. 10, 1773, made the acquaintance 
of the Revolutionary leaders, was in Philadel 
phia during the first session of the Continental 
congress, and his expressed knowledge of mili 
tary science attracted the attention of the dele 
gates then anxious to select a competent leader 
for the Revolutionary army. To establish his 
citizenship and to inspire confidence, he purchased 
for 5,000 Virginia currency, an estate in Berke 
ley county, Va.. near the estate of Horatio Gates, 
whose friendship he had gained. The purchase 
was closed in May, 1775, after the 2d congress had 
assembled and had given evidence of favoring his 
claims to a high commission. The purchase 
money he obtained by borrowing 3000 sterling 
from Robert Morris, of Philadelphia, pledging 
the property as security and a draft on his agent 



LEE 



LEE 



in England for the whole amount. He was com 
missioned second major-general in the Continen 
tal army in June, 1775, Artemas Ward then in 
command of 16,000 New England men about Bos 
ton, being made first major-general. That he 
did not obtain the chief place was largely due to 
the demands of John Adams. The friends of 
Lee, notably Thomas Mifflin, earnestly urged his 
claims, and when forced to second place, General 
Lee mercilessly ridiculed the military skill of 
General Ward. He was informed of his appoint 
ment, July 19, 1875, but refused to accept until 
promised indemnity for any pecuniary loss he 
might suffer by accepting a commission in the 
Revolutionary army, and congress at once as 
sented. On July 22 he resigned his commission 
and half-pay in the British army and joined 
Washington in his journey to Cambridge, Mass., 
where he was placed in command of the left wing 
of the Continental army, with headquarters at 
Winter Hill. While there he opened a corre 
spondence with Burgoyne looking to a conference 
with a view to a settlement of the difficulties be 
tween the British ministry and the colonies, but 
the Provisional congress of Massachusetts, whose 
troops at the time constituted the entire army, 
put a stop to the project. When Sir Henry Clin 
ton left Boston on his southern expedition, Gen 
eral Lee was sent to Newport, R.I., and in Jan 
uary, 1776, proceeded to New York, where he 
directed the fortifying of the harbor. When the 
news of the death of Montgomery at Quebec 
readied Philadelphia General Lee was made com 
mander of the army in Canada, but when Clin 
ton s destination was found to be the Southern 
states, Lee was transferred to the command of 
the Department of the South, and in March, 1776, 
went from New York to Virginia, where he or 
ganized the cavalry and advocated a speedy Dec 
laration of Independence. He reached Charles 
ton, S.C., with his army, June 4, 1776, the same 
day the British fleet entered the harbor with the 
troops of Clinton and Cornwallis. General Moul- 
trie had constructed a fort of palmetto wood on 
Sullivan s island which Lee proposed to abandon 
as indefensible, but through the efforts of Presi 
dent Rutledge the fort was garrisoned, and in the 
battle of June 28, 1776, Moultrie prevented the 
British fleet from making a landing, and Lee was 
given the credit of the victory and became pop 
ularly known as the " Hero of Charleston." He 
then proposed to invade Florida, but congress or 
dered him to report to Philadelphia, where he re 
ceived $30,000 indemnity for losses by the seques 
tration of his property in England and the protest 
of his drafts on his English agent given to Robert 
Morris. Lee arrived in New York. Oct. 14, 1776, 
and assumed command of the right wing of the 
army then stationed on Harlem Heights. The ac 



ceptance of the resignation of General Ward in 
May. 1776, made Lee senior major-general. Ou 
Nov. 16, 1776, the British captured Fort Washing 
ton, and forced Washington to defend Philadel 
phia. Washington had left Lee with 7000 men in 
Westchester county with instructions to move as 
directed, and when ordered to cross the Hudson 
and join Washington s army in New Jersey. Lee 
failed to obey. Washington was therefore forced 
to fall back to Princeton with 3000 men, which 
place he reached, Dec. 2, 1776, and the same day 
Lee moved across the river and encamped at Mor- 
ristown with 4000 men. General Schuyler had 
sent Gates from Ticonderoga with seven regi 
ments to reinforce Washington, but Lee diverted 
the march and detained three of the regiments 
at Morristovvn. Washington was consequently 
forced back across the Delaware river into Penn 
sylvania. This situation gaA*e Lee the opportunity 
he desired and he industriously circulated reports 
of Washington s military incapacity. Holding a 
strong position at Morristown, he planned to fall 
upon the flank of Howe s army and if possible 
secure a victory that would give him the com 
mand of the American army. On Dec. 13, 1775, 
a party of British dragoons surprised him at his 
headquarters at Baskingridge, four miles from 
his camp at Morristovvn, and made Lee with his 
staff, prisoners, carrying them to New York city. 
General Sullivan, second in command, promptly 
broke camp at Morristown and reached Washing 
ton s army in time to take part in the successful 
movements upon Trenton and Princeton. General 
Lee was refused the privileges of a prisoner of 
war, and was ordered to be sent to England for 
trial as a deserter. Washington, to prevent this, 
wrote to General Howe that he held five Hessian 
field-officers as hostages for General Lee s per 
sonal safety, and on Dec. 12, 1777, Lee was de 
clared a prisoner of war subject to exchange. It 
is now known that during his imprisonment in 
New York he planned a campaign against the 
American army, which he claimed would result 
in the easy subjugation of the colonies, the iden 
tical plan, dated March 29, 1777, being discovered 
among the private papers of the Howes in 1857. 
These papers were obtained in Nova Scotia and 
secured at a sale in New York. He was ex 
changed in May, 1778, and joined Washington at 
Valley Forge. In June, when it was found that 
Sir Henry Clinton planned to retreat from Phila 
delphia across New Jersey to New York, AVash- 
ington determined to oppose his march. General 
Lee advised against risking a battle, and his op 
position was so determined that Washington ap 
pointed Lafayette to the command of Lee s divi 
sion. Upon finding Washington so determined, 
Lee solicited restoration to the command and 
Lafayette yielded, when Washington repeated his 



[13] 



LEE 



LEE 



orders to Lee and made them peremptory. When 
Lee overtook the British near Monmouth Court 
House, June 28, 1778, his conduct aroused the 
suspicion of Lafayette, who despatched an aide to 
Washington, who was bringing up the other divi 
sion, asking him to hasten to the front, and when 
he reached Freehold church he saw Leo s division 
in retreat, closely pursued by the British. The 
commander-in-chief charged Lee with disobeying 
his orders, and, assuming command, he rallied the 
Americans and defeated the British, after which 
lie ordered Lee to the rear. The next day he rein- 
instated Leeinhisold command, in spite of which 
Lee addressed an exasperating letter to General 
Washington, to which Washington made a severe 
reply, closing in these words: "You are guilty 
of a breach of orders and of misbehavior before 
the enemy in not attacking them as directed and 
in making an unnecessary, disorderly and shame 
ful retreat." This brought from Lee the demand 
for a court-martial to determine as to his conduct 
in the following words : " You cannot afford me 
greater pleasure, sir, than in giving me an oppor 
tunity of showing to America the efficiency of 
her respective servants. I trust that the tem 
porary power of office and the tinsel dignity at 
tending it will not be able, by all the mists they 
can raise, to effusate the bright rays of truth. In 
the meantime your excellency can have no ob 
jection, to my retiring from the army." On the 
receipt of this letter Washington ordered Lee 
placed under arrest, and in August, 1778, he was 
tried under three charges : first, for disobeying 
orders, in not attacking the enemy ; second, for 
making an unnecessary and disorderly retreat ; 
and, third, for disrespect to the commander-in- 
chief in two letters. He was found guilty on all 
three charges, Aug. 12, 1778, and he was sus 
pended from the army for twelve months. Heat 
once re-opened his charges against Washington 
and was challenged by Col. John Laurens, Wash 
ington s aide-de-camp, which resulted in Lee s 
being severely wounded in the arm. He subse 
quently addressed a letter to congress which 
caused him to be dismissed from the army and 
he retired to his Virginia home until the close of 
the war. While on a visit to Philadelphia he 
was stricken with fever and died alone and 
friendless at the tavern at which he was stopping. 
He was buried in the cemetery of Christ church, 
and John Ilansen, president of the Continental 
congress, and other eminent citizens of Philadel 
phia attended his funeral. He was the author of 
" Strictures on a friendly address to all Reason 
able Americans, in reply to Dr. Myles Cooper " 
(1774); " Mr. Lee s Plan" (1777). He claimed to 
know the secret of the authorship of the " Junius" 
letters and afterward acknowledged himself as 
the author, which statement called out a number 



of articles and books in refutation of his claim, 
and his protracted absence from England at the 
time when " Junius " was issuing his letters 
seems effectually to dispose of the matter. His 
essays and miscellaneous papers were edited by 
Edward Langworthy and published as : Memoirs 
of tlie late Charles Lee, Esq. (London, 1792). See 
The Treason of Charles Lee, by Dr. G. H. Moore 
(1858) . He died in Philadelphia, Pa. , Oct. 2, 1782, 

LEE, Charles, cabinet officer, was born at 
Leesylvania, Ya.. in 1758 ; son of Henry and Lucy 
(Grymes) Lee and brother of Henry Lee. He 
was graduated at the College of New Jersey, 
A. B., 1775, A.M., 1778, and studied law in Phila 
delphia in the office of Jared Ingersoll. He prac 
tised law in Westmoreland county and was a rep 
resentative in the general assembly of Virginia. 
After the death of Attorney-General William 
Bradford, Aug. 23, 1795, President Washington, on 
Dec. 10, 1795, appointed him attorney-general in 
his cabinet and he continued in office up to the 
last month of President Adams s administration, 
when he resigned and was succeeded by The- 
ophilus Parsons. In 1801 President Jefferson 
offered him the chief justiceship of the U.S. 
circuit court for the fourth circuit, which he 
declined. He died in Fauquier county, Va., 
June 24, 1815. 

LEE, Chauncey, mathematician, was born in 
Coventry, Conn., July 10,1718; son of the Rev. 
Jonathan Lee, first minister of Salisbury, Conn. 
He was graduated at Yale, A.B., 1784, A.M., 1787 ; 
practised law, studied theology and was pastor of 
Congregational churches at Sunderland and 
Rutland, Vt., Colebrook, N.Y., and Marlborough, 
Conn., 1790-1885. He published in Lansingburg, 
N. Y. : A Compendium of Federal Arithmetic, 
designed for the Use of Schools, and Especially 
Calculated for the Meridian of the United States 
(1797). In this book he set forth a system of 
" characteristics " by which one vertical stroke 
designated the mill ; two the cent ; these two 
parallel lines crossed by one S-shaped the dime, 
and two parallel lines crossed by two S s the 
dollar. He soon after substituted the decimal 
point to designate mills, cents and dimes, but 
throughout his book the dollar mark was main 
tained. This was eight years before Adams s 
arithmetic was published, and according to cai e- 
ful research made by Dr. Marcus Baker, Wash 
ington, D.C., in 1899, there appears to be no book 
or MS. antedating this arithmetic, in which the 
dollar sign is used or its evolution explained. 
He received the honorary degree of D.D. from 
Columbia college in 1823. He is also the author 
of : Poetical Version of the Book of Job (1807) ; 
Sermons for Revivals (1824) ; Letters from Aris 
ta rdi us to Pliilcmon. (18153). He died at Hart- 
wick, N.Y., Nov. 5, 1842. 



[141 



LEE 



LEE 




LEE, Fitzhugh, soldier, was born in Clermont, 
Fairfax county, Va., Nov. 19, 1835 ; son of Capt. 
Sydney Smith Lee (q.v.)and Anne Maria (Mason) 
Lee : grandson of Gen. Henry and Anne Hill 
(Carter) Lee and of Gen. John and Anne Maria 
(Murray) Mason ;and 
great-grandson of 
George Mason, the 
statesman. He was 
graduated from the 
U.S. Military acade 
my in 1856, and was 
assigned to Carlisle 
barracks, Pa., where 
he taught horseman 
ship to raw recruits. 
As 2d lieutenant, 2d 
U.S. cavalry, he was 
stationed on the Texas 
frontier and took 
p art iu the siibjuga- 
tion of the Com- 
anche Indians. On May 13, 1854, he was shot 
through the lungs by an Indian arrow. He 
also had repeated hand-to-hand engagements 
with mounted Indians, notably on Jan. 15. 1880. 
He was recalled from the frontier in May, 
1800, and was instructor in cavalry tactics at 
the U.S. Military academy. 18(50-61. When 
the people of Virginia confirmed the act of se 
cession in 1861 Lieutenant Lee resigned his com 
mission in the U.S. army and returned to his 
native state where he was commissioned assistant 
adjutant-general with rank of captain, in the 
Confederate army. He served on the staff of 
General Ewell in the first battle of Manassas, 
July 21, 1861, and was made lieutenant-colonel of 
the 1st Virginia cavalry. Col. J. E. B. Stuart 
commanding, 1861-62. He succeeded Stuart in 
the command of the 1st Virginia cavalry in 
April, 1862, and took part in General Stuart s raid 
around McClellan s army, June 13. 1862. He was 
promoted brigadier-general, July 25, 1862, and in 
tlie second battle of Manassas, Aug. 29-30, 1862, 
he commanded a brigade of cavalry in Stuart s 
division, made up of the 1st, 3d, 4th, 5th and 9th 
Virginia cavalry, made the raid around Pope s 
army at Catlett s Station, captured his head 
quarters and nearly succeeded in taking the 
commanding general prisoner. He took part in 
the battles of South Mountain, Crompton s Gap 
and Sharpsburg, Sept. 14-17, Fredericksburg, 
Dec. 11-15, 1862, Chancellorsville, May 1-5, and 
Gettysburg, July 1-3, 1863. He was promoted 
major-general, Sept. 3, 1863 ; engaged in a cav 
alry fight with Custer and Kilpatrick at Gaines 
ville, Va., Oct. 19, 1863, and commanded a divi 
sion of cavalry in Stuart s corps in opposing Sher 
idan s raid, May 3-4, 1864, in the battles of tho 



Wilderness, May 5-7 ; Spottsylvania, May 8-12 ; 
North Anna River, May 23-27 ; Hawes s Shop, 
May 28 ; Cold Harbor, May 31 ; Trevillian Sta 
tion, June 11-12 ; and Cedarville, August 16. 
At Winchester, Sept. 19, 1864. he had three horses 
shot under him and was so severely wounded as 
to be kept out of active service for several months. 
At Five Forks, April 1, 1865, where he com 
manded the cavalry corps he maintained his posi 
tion during the night at Hatcher s Run, but was 
driven back the next day, and at Sailor s Creek 
and Farmville, April 6-8, 1865, made determined 
stands against the Federal army which opened 
the way for the retreat of the main army toward 
Appomattox Court House, and advancing on the 
Lynchburg road he was cut off from the main 
army. After his surrender to General Meade at 
Farmville he returned to his desolated farm in 
Stafford county. He accompanied the Norfolk 
Blues to Boston, Mass., in 1874, and made a not 
able patriotic speech at Bunker Hill. In 1884 he 
was appointed a visitor to West Point. He was 
governor of Virginia, 1886-90, collector of internal 
revenue for the Lynchburg district by appoint 
ment of President Cleveland, 1893-96, and was 
U.S. consul-general at Havana, Cuba, 1896-98. 
On the outbreak of the war with Spain in 1898 
he was commissioned one of the six major-gen 
erals of volunteers appointed by President McKin- 
ley May 4, 1898, and given command of the 7th 
army corps and was selected by the President 
to lead the assault on Havana, Cuba, should it 
become necessary to attack that city. His corps 
was not ordered to Cuba until Dec. 12, 1898, and 
on Jan. 1, 1899, he was made governor of the 
provinces of La Habana and Pinar del Rio. In 
March, 1900, when the provinces of La Habana, 
Pinar del Rio, Matanzas and Santa Clara were 
consolidated as the department of Havana, he 
became governor-general of the new department. 
He was married at Alexandria, Va., in 1871, to 
Ellen Bernard Fowle. and they had three 
daughters, Ellen, Nannie and Virginia, and two 
sons, Fitzhugh and George Mason. His son Fitz 
hugh was commissioned a lieutenant in the U.S. 
volunteer army and appointed an aide-de-camp 
on his father s staff, and on Nov. 3, 1898, was ap 
pointed by President McKinley second lieutenant 
of infantry in the regular service. Afterward, 
being a fine horseman, he was transferred to 1st 
cavalry, U.S.A. and ordered to the Philippines. 
George Mason, General Lee s second son, was 
educated at the U.S. military academy but left 
before graduating to accept a commission in the 
U.S. volunteer army as first lieutenant in the 
39th regiment volunteer infantry, Oct. 28, 1899, 
for service in the Philippine Islands. General 
Lee was commissioned brigadier-general in the 
regular army, Feb. 13. 1 JOl. 



LEE 




LEE, Francis Lightfoot, signer, was born at 
" Stratford," Westmoreland county, Va.,Oct. 14, 
1734 ; fourth son of Gov. Thomas and Hannah 
(Ludwell) Lee. He was educated at Stratford 
by the Rev. Mr. Craig, a Scotch clergyman. He 
became a member of 
the house of burgess 
es for Loudoun coun 
ty, and signed the 
Westmoreland de 
claration against the 
stamp act with his 
three brothers in 17- 
65. Upon his mar 
riage to Rebecca, 
daughter of Col. John 
Taylor, of Richmond 
county, Va., in 1772, 
he made that county 
his home and was at 
once elected to rep 
resent it in the house 
of burgesses. He succeeded Col. Richard Bland 
as delegate to the Continental congress, Aug. 
15, 1775, serving 1775-79. He signed the Dec 
laration of Independence, assisted in prepar 
ing the Articles of Confederation and defended 
the rights of the States to the Newfoundland 
fisheries and to the free navigation of the 
Mississippi river. He retired from congress in 
the spring of 1779 and resumed his duties as 
master of his extensive estates and justice of the 
peace of Richmond county. He represented the 
county in the state legislature for one or two 
terms. See Sanderson s " Lives of the Signers." 
He died in Richmond county, Va., April 3, 1797. 
LEE, Frederic Schiller, physiologist, was born 
in Canton, N.Y., June 16, 1859 ; son of John Steb 
bins and Elmina (Bennett) Lee ; grandson of Eli 
and Rebekah (Stebbins) Lee ; and of Moses and 
Nancy (Wheeler; Bennett, and a descendant of 
Samuel Lee, Watertown, Mass., 1670; and of 
Rowland Stebbins of Ipswich, England, who set 
tled in Boston, Mass., in 1634. He was graduated 
from St. Lawrence university. A.B., 1878, A.M., 
1881 ; from Johns Hopkins university, Ph.D., 
1885, and studied under Carl Ludwig, at Leipsic 
university, 1885-86. He served as instructor in 
biology at St. Lawrence university, 1886-87; as 
instructor in physiology and histology at Bryn 
Mawr college, Pa., 1887-88, and associate, 1888- 
91 ; as demonstrator of physiology at Columbia 
university, 1891-95, and was appointed adjunct 
professor of physiology in Columbia in 1895. He 
was elected a member and fellow of several im 
portant scientific societies, including the Ameri 
can Association for the Advancement of Science, 
1900. He became one of the editors of the Amer 
ican Journal of Physiology; joint author of : In 



Sickness and in Health (1896) and An American 
Text-book of Physiology (1896); translator and 
editor of a General Physiology : An Outline uftlie 
Science of Life, by Max Verworn (1899); reviser 
and editor of Huxley s Lessons in Elementary 
Physiology (1900); and the author of numerous 
articles, chiefly upon physiological subjects, in 
the scientific journals in America, England and 
Germany. 

LEE, George Washington Custis, soldier, was 
born in Fort Monroe. Va., Sept. 16, 1832 ; son of 
Robert Edward and Mary Anne Randolph (Custis) 
Lee. He was graduated at the U.S. Military 
academy at the head of the class of 1854 : was 
commissioned 2d lieu 
tenant in the Corps 
of Engineers, U.S. 
army ; was promoted 
1st lieutenant Octo 
ber, 1859. and served 
in the engineer bu 
reau, Washington, 
D.C., 1859-61. In 
May, 1861, after the 
secession of Virginia, 
he resigned his com- 
mission in the U.S. 
army, and was com 
missioned major of 
engineers in the pro 
visional army of Vir 
ginia, and with that army was transferred to the 
Confederate States army, June 8, 1861. On July 
1, 1861, he was assigned to the engineer corps 
with the rank of captain, and was engaged in th 
fortifications around Richmond. On Aug. 31, 
1861, President Davis made him an aide-de-camp 
on his staff with the rank of colonel of cavalry. 
He visited Bragg s army at Murfreesboro, Tenn., 
in December, 1862, with President Davis, and on 
June 25, 1863, was commissioned brigadier-gen 
eral and organized a brigade which lie com 
manded in the defence of Richmond. He was 
promoted major-general in October, 1864, and 
commanded a division of the corps of General 
Ewell in the defence of Richmond. In the retreat 
from Richmond, he crossed with his division on 
the pontoon above Drewry s Bluff, April 2, 1865, 
and at Sailor s Creek, April 6, he was made pris 
oner with Generals Ewell, Kersluuv, Barton, Du 
Bose, Hunton, Corse and other officers and con 
veyed to City Point, Va., where he was paroled 
and sent to Richmond, Va. He was professor of 
civil and military engineering and applied me 
chanics in the Virginia Military Institute, Lexing 
ton. Va., 1865-71 ; and on Feb. 1, 1871, succeeded 
his father as president of Washington college, 
having been elected to the office, Oct. 28, 1870. 
The name of the institution was ill honor of 




LEE 



LEE 



his father s memory changed to Washington 
and Lee university and in 1873 he assumed 
charge of the chair of applied mathematics which 
was made the Thomas A. Scott professorship of 
applied mathematics in June. 1881. In Decem 
ber, 189(5, he resigned the presidency of Washing 
ton and Lee university on account of ill health, 
and it was accepted to take effect. July 1, 1897, 
when he was made president emeritus for life. 
He was never married, and on leaving Lexington 
went to Ravensworth, near Burke s Station, Va., 
the home of the widow of his brother, W. H. F. 
Lee. He received the honorary degree of LL.D. 
from Tulane university in 1887. 

LEE, Guy Carleton, educator and author, was 
born at sea, off the coast of North Carolina, Sept. 
15, 1867 ; son of Guy Carleton and Caroline 
(Leightner) Lee. In his advanced academic train 
ing he devoted particular attention to jurispru 
dence, history and literature. He was gradu 
ated from the University of North Carolina, 
LL.B., 1894 ; from Dickinson college, A.B., 189.", ; 
LL.M., 1896; A.M.. 1897; and from Johns Hop 
kins university, Ph.D., 1898 ; was professor of 
English common law and English history at 
Dickinson School of Law, 1894-95. He was ad 
mitted to the bar in North Carolina, 1894, Penn 
sylvania, 1895, and Baltimore, 1898. At Johns 
Hopkins he was prizeman in literature, 1895, and 
scholar in history, 1895-96, fellow in history and 
student-assistant, 1898, and became instructor in 
history in 1898. He was made lecturer on com 
parative politics at the Columbian university, 
Washington, D.C., in 1900. In 1901 he ac 
cepted the literary editorship of the Baltimore 
Sun, and also continued to fill his various profes 
sorial appointments. He was elected a member 
of the American Historical association, and na 
tional executive chairman of the National Society 
of the Spanish-American War in 1898. He was 
editor-in-chief of the " World s Orators Series" 
(lOvols., 1897-98), and he is the author of: 
Hincmar (1898); Public Speaking (1899); His 
torical Jurisprudence (1900); Source Book of 
English History (1900): A History of England 
(1901), and many important monographs and 
contributions to periodicals. 

LEE, Henry, soldier, was born at Leesylvania, 
Westmoreland county, Va., Jan. 29, 1756 ; son of 
Henry and Lucy (Grymes) Lee ; grandson of 
Henry and Mary (Bland) Lee; great-grandson 
of John and Lettice Lee ; great-grandson of 
Richard and Lastitia (Corbin) Lee, and great 3 - 
grandson of Col. Richard and Anne Lee. Col. 
Richard Lee, a man of wealth and distinction, 
sold his estate, Stratford, Langton, England, and 
came to America about 1640, as secretary of the 
colony and a member of the king s privy council. 
He was president of the council of state, 1641 ; 



represented York county as burgess in 1647 ; 
Northumberland county in 1657, and was a mem 
ber of the Tobacco commission in 1668. He mar 
ried Anne (surname unknown), and they had 
eight children. Henry Lee (born 1756) was 
graduated at the College of New Jersey, A.B., 
1773. A.M., 1776. Prevented from visiting Europe 
by the preparations for active revolution, he re- 




turned to Virginia, recruited a company of 
" light horse" in 1775, was appointed captain in 
Col. Theodoric Eland s legion of Virginia cavalry, 
and in 1777 joined Washington s army in Penn 
sylvania. He was promoted major for gallant 
conduct in battle in January, 1778, and was given 
command of two troops of horse, to which he 
added a third troop and a company of infantry, 
and " Lee s legion " became an independent par 
tisan corps and its leader received the cognomen 
" Lighthorse Harry." This corps constantly 
living on the flank of the British army and an 
noyed both their march and camp. On July 19, 
1779, Lee surprised the British troops in garrison 
at Paulus Hook, New York harbor, and with the 
loss of five of his riders carried off 160 prisoners, 
for which service congress gave him a gold 
medal. He was promoted lieutenant-colonel and 
marched his legion to South Carolina, where he 
covered the rear of General Greene s army, giv 
ing occasional opportunity for Tarleton s dragoons 
to measure swords with the Virginians. After 
Greene had crossed into Virginia Lee remained 
in the mountains of North Carolina to encourage 
the W T higs and harass Tarletou and the loyalists. 
His efforts to surprise the British dragoons were 
unsuccessful, but he gave battle to and defeated 
400 loyalists under Colonel Pyle. At the battle 
of Guilford Court House, March 15, 1781, his 
legion proved more than a match for Tarleton s 
dragoons, and when General Greene marched 
against Camden he sent Lee and Marion to cut off 
Rawdon s communications with the seacoast, and 
they captured Fort Watson, which forced Raw- 
don to abandon and burn Camden, May 10, 1781. 
Colonel Lee then proceeded south, capturing 
Forts Mdtt and Granby, and on May 25 reached 
Augusta, Ga., which city also fell into his hands, 
June 5, 1781. He rejoined Greene s army, and 
took part in the siege of Fort Ninety-six, which 



LEE 



LEE 



after twenty-eight days was raised on the ap 
proach of Rawdon with 2000 men. The British 
general, fearing that lie would again be cut off 
from the seacoast by Lee, evacuated the fort, 
June 29, 1781, and retired upon Charleston, fol 
lowed by Greene s army. Then followed the bat 
tle of Eutaw Springs, Sept. 8, 1781, in which Lee s 
legion rendered distinguished service, and when 
night came on, and the British retreated to 
Charleston, Lee followed so closely as to capture 
a large number of Rawdon s rear-guard. He wit 
nessed the surrender of Cornwallisat Yorktown, 
Oct. 19, 1781, and soon after resigned his commis 
sion and became proprietor of Stratford House 
by his marriage to his second cousin, Matilda, 
daughter of Philip Ludwell Lee. He was a dele 
gate to the Continental congress from Virginia, 
1785-88, and a member of the convention called 
to ratify the Federal constitution in 1788, and in 
that body, with Madison and Marshall, he opposed 
the efforts of Patrick Henry, Richard Henry Lee, 
George Mason, James Monroe, Benjamin Harri 
son, and John Tyler to defeat the ratification. 
He was a representative in the general assembly 
of the state, 1789-91, and governor, 1792-95. 
President Washington in 1794 commissioned him 
major-general in command of the U.S troops 
sent to western Pennsylvania to suppress the 
insurrection caused by the enforcement of the 
Federal excise law, and on his appearance with 
15,000 men the insurrectionists were overawed 
and peace was restored without bloodshed. He 
was a representative in the 6th congress, 1799- 
1801, and at the close of that congress retired 
to private life. He married as his second wife, 
in 1798, Ann Hill, daughter of Charles and 
Anne Butler (Moore) Carter, of Shirley, Va. He 
was oppressed by debt the last years of his life, 
and for a time was confined within the bounds 
of Spottsylvania county. On July 27, 1812, while 
he was in Baltimore on a personal business 
visit to William Hanson, editor of the Federal 
Republican, the printing office was attacked by 
a mob, and in the conflict that followed he was 
left for dead upon the street, where he was found 
insensible. He was disqualified from military 
service from the effects of the encounter. He 
visited the West Indies in 1817 for the benefit of 
his health and on his way home he stopped at 
the homestead-of General Greene, near St. Mary s, 
Ga., where lie was entertained by Mrs. Shaw, 
daughter of his old commander, and under whose 
roof he died. He is the author of : Funeral Ora 
tion upon President Washington (1799), delivered 
before both houses of congress, in which occur the 
words, "The man, first in war, first in peace, and 
first in the hearts of his fellow-citizens ; " and of 
War i>i the Southern, United States (2 vols.. 1812). 
revised with additions by his son Henry (1827), 



and by his son Robert Edward, with memoir 
(1809). He died on Cumberland Island, Ga., 
March 25, 1818. 

LEE, Henry, political economist, was born in 
Beverly, Mass., Feb. 4, 1782 ; son of Joseph and 
Elizabeth (Cabot) Lee, grandson of Thomas and 
Lois (Orne) Lee, and of Joseph and Elizabeth 
(Higginson) Cabot, and great --grandson of 
Thomas and Deborah (Flint) Lee. He engaged 
in foreign and domestic trade, and devoted him 
self to the study of political economy and to the 
collection of commercial and financial statistics. 
He was the friend and correspondent of the Eng 
lish economists McCulloch, Tooke, Villiers and 
Cobden, by whom he was regarded as an author 
ity. He received the eleven electoral votes of 
South Carolina for Vice-President on the Inde 
pendent ticket, with John Floyd for President, 
in 1833. He contributed to the Free Trade Ad 
vocate, Philadelphia, and was associated with 
Albert Gallatin in preparing the memorial and 
statistical expositions of the effects of the tariff, 
at the free trade convention in Philadelphia in 
September, 1831. He married Mary, daughter 
of Jonathan Jackson, of Boston, and their son, 
Francis L., born Dec. 11, 1823; Harvard. A.B., 
1843, was colonel of the 44th Massachusetts 
volunteers in the civil war, and died Sept. 2, 
1886. Henry Lee is the author of Boston Reports 
(1827), which passed through four editions. He 
died in Boston, Mass.. Feb. 6, 1867. 

LEE, Henry, author, was born in Westmore 
land county, Va., in 1787; son of Gen. Henry 
and Matilda (Lee) Lee. He was a student at 
Washington college, Lexington, Va, , 1806-07, 
and was major of the 12th U.S. infantry regi 
ment in the war of 1812, serving in the Canada 
campaign on the staffs of Generals Wilkinson 
and Izard. At the close of the war lie retired to 
his plantation. On the appearance of William 
Johnson s " Life and Correspondence of General 
Greene" (1822), assailing the conduct of his 
father and of his command, Major Lee prepared 
a defence, entitled, " The Campaign of 1781 in 
the Carolinas" (1824). He went to Palermo in 
1829, having been appointed by President Jack 
son U.S. consul there, but his appointment was 
rejected by the senate oil political grounds, and 
he returned in 1830. He served as President 
Jackson s private secretary, and also as secretary 
of legation to Paris under U.S. Minister Lewis 
Cass, 1836-37. While in Italy lie made the ac 
quaintance of the mother of Napoleon I., which 
led to his undertaking to write a life of that 
soldier. He is the author of : Essays in Support 
of Andrew Jackson (1828) ; Evidence in Support 
of Anti-Tariff Memorial to Congress (183%) ; Ob- 
serrations on tJie Writ ings of Thorn an Jefferson 
(1832); Life of Xapoleon (vol. I., 1835), subse- 



LEE 



LEE 



quently enlarged and published in Paris and Lon 
don as The Life of Napoleon Bonaparte dou-n to 
the Peace of Tolentino. He revised and enlarged 
his father s War in the Southern United States 
(1827). He died in Paris, France, Jan. 30, 1837. 

LEE, Henry, banker, was bom in Boston, 
Mass., Sept. 2, 1817 ; son of Henry (q. v.) and 
Mary (Jackson) Lee. He was graduated from 
Harvard in 1836, and engaged in business with 
his father. About 1840 he became a member of 
the firm of Bullard & Lee, East India merchants. 
Boston and Calcutta. The firm continued until 
1853, when, with George Higginson and John C. 
Lee, he established the banking house of Lee, 
Higginson & Co., from which he retired in De 
cember, 1897. He was manager of the Union 
Safe Deposit vaults in Boston, 1868-98 ; was aide- 
de-camp with the rank of colonel on the staff of 
Governor Andrew, 1881-65 ; was a representative 
in the state legislature, 1876-77 ; an overseer of 
Harvard, 1867-79, and 1880-98 ; a member of the 
Massachusetts Historical society, and a founder, 
and for several years president, of the Union 
club of Boston. He was also a stockholder of 
the Boston Athenaeum, a trustee of the Museum 
of Fine Arts, and a member of the New England 
Historic Genealogical society. He was married, 
Oct. 20, 1845, to Elizabeth, daughter of Samuel 
and Elizabeth (Perkins) Cabot. He was a fre 
quent contributor to the press, and is the author 
of: The Militia of the United States: What it 
Has Been and What it Should Be. He died in 
Brookline, Mass., Nov. 24, 1898. 

LEE, Henry Washington, first bishop of Iowa 
and 61st in succession in the American epis 
copate, was born in Hamden, Conn., July 29, 1815. 
He was a student at the Episcopal academy, 

Cheshire, Conn., and 
at Trinity college, 
but was not gradu 
ated. He then pur 
sued a course in 
theology, and was ad 
mitted to the diacon- 
ate in Grace church, 
New Bedford, Mass., 
May 27, 1838, and or 
dained a priest in St. 
Anne s church, Low 
ell, Mass, Oct. 9. 18- 
39. He was assistant 
at Grace church, New 
Bedford, 1838-39 ; rec 
tor of Christ church, 

Springfield, Mass., 1839-42 ; of St. Luke s church, 
Rochester, N.Y. S 1843-54, and was consecrat 
ed the first bishop of Iowa, Oct. 18, 1854, 
in Rochester, by Bishops Hopkins, McCoskry, 
De Lancey, Eastburn, Burgess and White- 




<7 



[19J 



house. He erected the cathedral and bish 
op s house at Davenport ; founded Griswold col 
lege, opened in 1859, and raised an endowment 
fund of $50,000 for the diocese. He received the 
honorary degree of A.M. from Trinity college in 
1841, from Hobart in 1850; that of S.T.D. from 
the University of Rochester in 1851, and that of 
LL.D. from Cambridge, England, in 1857, during 
his attendance at the first Lambeth conference. 
He was a corresponding member of the New 
England Historic Genealogical society, 1865-74. 
He is the author of A Manual of Trinity Prayers 
and several published sermons and addresses. 
He died in Davenport, Iowa, Sept. 26, 1874. 

LEE, Jesse, pioneer Methodist, was born in 
Prince George county, Va., March 12, 1758; son 
of Nathaniel and Elizabeth Lee. His father was 
one of the pioneer Methodists, and at the meet 
ings held at his house Jesse was accustomed to 
speak and exhort while a mere boy. In 1777 he 
removed to North Carolina, where he engaged in 
farming and was appointed a class-leader in the 
Roanoke circuit. He preached his first regular 
sermon Nov. 17, 1779, and in 1780 he was 
drafted in the state militia. His religious con 
victions would not allow him to carry a gun and 
he was placed under arrest but the next day was- 
detailed as driver of a baggage- wagon. He 
subsequently served as sergeant in charge of 
prisoners and lie received his honorable discharge, 
Oct. 29, 1780. He was a circuit preacher, 1780-83 ; 
attended the Virginia conference of 1782 and on 
May 6, 1783, was admitted to the conference on 
trial. He served in the Caswell and Salisbury 
circuits; journeyed to Charleston, S. C., with 
Bishop Asbury in 1785; travelled Kent county, 
Md., circuit, 1786, the Baltimore circuit, 1787, 
and the Flanders circuit, New Jersey and New 
York, 1788. He helped to introduce Methodism 
in New England in 1789, and reached Boston 
in 1790, where he found no meeting-house open 
to him and preached under the "Elm Tree" on 
the Common. He attended the New York con 
ference in 1790, being ordained deacon privately 
October 4, and elder publicly, Oct. 5, 1790. He- 
laid the corner stone of the first Methodist church 
in Boston, Aug. 8, 1794; visited the Southern 
States as a substitute for Bishop Asbury, in 1798, 
and attended conferences and visited circuits both 
North and South. In 1800 he obtained a tie 
vote with Richard Whatcoat for bishop, and on 
the next vote was defeated by Whatcoat by 
two votes. He was presiding elder of the Norfolk,. 
Va., district, 1801-03; of the Williamsburg, Va., 
circuit, 1804-07, and of the Cumberland, Md., cir 
cuit, 1807-16. He was chaplain of the U.S. 
house of representatives in the 10th and 12th con 
gresses, 1807-09 and 1811-13. and of the U. 4. 
senate in the 13th and 14th congresses, 1813 16 



LEE 



LEE 



He is the author of History of Methodism in 
America (1809). His nephew, the Rev. Leroy 
Madison Lee (1808-1882). a prominent Methodist in 
Virginia, published Life and Times of Jesse Lee 
(1848). He died in Hillsboro, Mel., Sept. 12, 1816. 

LEE, John Clarence, educator, was burn in 
Woodstock, Vt., Oct. 15. 185(5; son of John 
Stebbins and Elinina (Bennett) Lee. He was 
graduated from St. Lawrence university, A.B.. 
1876, A.M., 1871): from Harvard. A.B.. 187s. and 
from the Canton Theological school connected 
with St. Lawrence university, B.D., in 1880. He 
was ordained to the Universalist ministry at 
Perry, N.Y., in 1881, and held pastorates at 
Perry, 1880-83, and at St. Albans, Vt., 1883- 
84. He was married, Nov. 25, 1889, to Helena 
Crumett of Hyde Park, Mass. He was pro 
fessor of English literature and rhetoric at 
Lombard university, Galesburg, 111., 1884-96 ; 
professor of homiletics and church history in 
Ryder Divinity school of Lombard university, 
1884-96 ; vice-president of the university, 1892- 
96, and president of St. Lawrence university, 
1896-1900. In June, 1900, he accepted a call to 
the Church of the Restoration, Philadelphia, 
Pa., and began his pastorate, Sept. 1, 1900. 
He received the degree of Ph.D. from St. 
Lawrence university in 1895, and that of S.T.D. 
from Tufts college, in 1896. 

LEE, John Stebbins, educator, was born at 
Vernon, Vt., Sept. 23, 1820; son of Eli and 
Rebekah (Stebbins) Lee : grandson of Jesse and 
Eunice (Morgan) Lee, and a descendant of Samuel 
Lee, born in Waltham, Mass., in 1670, and of 
Rowland Stebbins who came to America in 1634, 
and died in Northampton, Mass., Dec. 14, 1671. 
He was graduated from Amherst college in 1845, 
was principal of Mount Csesar seminary, Swanzey, 
N.H., 1845-47; was ordained to the Universalist 
ministry at West Brattleboro, Vt., June 23, 1847, 
.and was principal of Melrose seminary, 1847-49. 
He was married, Feb. 22, 1848, to Elinina, 
daughter of Moses and Nancy (Wheeler) Bennett, 
of West Moreland. N. H. He held pastorates in 
West Brattleboro, Vt., Lebanon, N. H.. andMont- 
pelier, Vt., 1849-52; conducted the Green Moun 
tain institute at South Woodstock, Vt., 1852-57 ; 
was pastor at South Woodstock, Bridgewater, 
and Woodstock, Vt., 1852-59; president of St. 
Lawrence university, Canton, N.Y., 1859-68 ; 
travelled in Europe and the Holy Land, 1868-69 ; 
and became professor of ecclesiastical history 
and biblical archaeology at St. Lawrence univer 
sity, in April, 1869. He was assistant editor of 
the Christian Repository, Montpelier, Vt., 1850-52. 
He received the degree of D.D. from Buchtel 
college. Akron, Ohio, in 1875. He is the author 
of : Nature and Art in tJte Old World (1871) ; 
Sacred Cities (1877). 



rani 



LEE, Richard Bland, representative, was born 
at Leesylvania, Va., Jan. 20, 1761 ; son of Henry 
and Lucy (Grymes) Lee. He served in the Vir 
ginia Assembly as early as 1784, and for several 
succeeding years. He was married June 19. 1794, 
to Elizabeth, daughter of Stephen and Mary 
(Parish) Collins, of Philadelphia, Pa. He was a 
representative from Virginia in the 1st, 3d and 
3d congresses, 1780-95. He delivered the message 
addressed to (Jen. Lafayette by the committee of 
Maryland, on the occasion of his visit to Balti 
more, Oct. 8, 1824. He died at Leesylvania 
Va,, March 12, 1827. 

LEE, Richard Henry, signer, was born at 
Stratford, Westmoreland county, Va., Jan. 20, 
1732 ; fifth son of Thomas and Hannah (Lud- 
well) Lee. After a course of private tuition, he 
was sent to Wakefield academy, Yorkshire, Eng 
land, and returned 
to Virginia in 1751. 
In 1753 he raised a 
company to join Gen 
eral Braddock in his 
expedition against 
the Indians and the 
French, but their aid 
was declined by the 
haughty Englishman. 
In 1757 he was ap 
pointed a justice of 
the peace for West 
moreland county and 
about this time was 
chosen a member of 
the house of bur 
gesses. He continued a member of that body, 
when not a representative in congress, until 
1792, when he finally retired from active public 
life. In his first speech in the house of burgesses 
he proposed " to lay so heavy a tax upon the im 
portation of slaves as effectually to put an end to 
that iniquitous and disgraceful traffic within the 
colony." He brought before the assembly the 
act of Parliament, claiming their right to tax 
America, and he served on the special committee 
appointed to draft an address to the king, a 
memorial to the house of lords, and a remon 
strance to the commons, and was selected to pre 
pare the first and last of these papers. In Feb 
ruary, 1766, he organized the " Westmoreland 
Association " of patriots and wrote their resolu 
tions. The articles expressed a determination to 
" exert every faculty to prevent the execution of 
the " Stamp Act in any instance whatsoever 
within this colony." On July 25, 1768, he wrote 
to John Dickinson, of Pennsylvania, suggesting 
not only that select committees should be ap 
pointed to correspond and communicate with their 
sister colonies in America, respecting the acts 





E, LEE. 





and resolutions of the British Parliament, " but 
that private correspondence should be conducted 
between lovers of liberty in every province." In 
Ii73 the Virginia assembly (Massachusetts took 
similar action about the same date) appointed a, 
Committee of Correspondence " of which Mr. 
Lee was a member, and in that capacity opened a 
correspondence with Samuel Adams, which re 
sulted in their lasting friendship, Mr. Lee was 
elected a delegate to the h rst Continental con 
gress which met in Carpenters Hall, Philadel 
phia, Pa., Sept. 4, 1774. He prepared the memo 
rial of congress to the people of British America, 
urging them to join in the struggle for freedom, 
and iu the next congress lie wrote their address 
to the people of Great Britain. As chairman of 
the committee lie drew up the instructions of 
congress to General Washington upon his 
assuming command of the army. On June 7, 
1770, in accordance with the instructions of the 
Virginia convention, and at the request of his 
colleagues, he proposed the resolution for the in 
dependence of the colonies : " Resolved, that these 
United Colonies are, and of right ought to be, free 
and independent States, that they are absolved 
from all allegiance to the British Crown, and 
that all political connection between them and 
the State of Great Britain is, and ought to be, 
totally dissolved." and the motion was seconded 
by John Adams of Massachusetts and the discus 
sion upon its adoption continued until June 10. 
He received word of the serious illness of his 
wife, and left Philadelphia the same day to visit 
her. Owing to his absence Mr. Jefferson was 
appointed the same day chairman of the com 
mittee and the task of defending the motion fell 
upon Mr. Adams, Mr. Jefferson not being a ready 
speaker. Lee did not return until the Declara 
tion had been passed and signed and he then 
added his signature to the instrument. He served 
in the Continental congress, 1774-80 and 1784-87, 
and was one of the signers of the Articles of Con 
federation in 1778. During the sessions of 1784 
lie was president of congress, being, it is said, the 
unanimous choice of the delegates present. He 
is said to have served upon nearly one hundred 
committees during the sessions of 1770-77. Mr. 
Lee opposed the adoption of the constitution of 
3 ?87 ; in this opposition lie was in agreement 
with George Mason, Patrick Henry, Benjamin 
Harrison, Thomas Jefferson and others in Vir 
ginia and many of the ablest patriots of the time 
in other states. After the ratification of the con- 
.stitution Jie consented to serve as one of the 
senators from Virginia, mainly for the purpose 
of urging some amendments which he believed 
to be needed and many of these he was instru 
mental in securing. After serving as U.S. sen 
ator in the 1st and 2d congresses, 1789-92, he re 



signed in 1792 and was succeeded by John Taylor. 
During the first and second sessions of the 2d 
congress he was president pro tempore of the 
senate, April to November, 1782. Both branches 
of the Virginia assembly gave him a vote of 
thanks for his patriotic services. He was twice 
married, first to Anne Aylett by whom he had 
two sons and two daughters, and secondly to 
Mrs. Anne (Gaskins) Pinckard, by whom he had 
two sons and three daughters. In the selection 
of names for a place in the Hall of Fame for 
Great Americans, New York university, made in 
October, 1900, his was one of the thirty-seven 
names in " Class M, Rulers and Statesmen," and 
received three votes, his votes in the class ex 
ceeding those for Van Buren, Charles Carroll, 
John J. Crittenden and Henry Wilson, and equal 
ling those for Robert R. Livingston and Stephen 
A. Douglass. He is the author of numerous 
political pamphlets and his correspondence, with 
memoirs by his grandson. Richard Henry Lee, 
was published in 1825. He died at Chantilly, 
Westmoreland county, Va., June 19, 1794. 

LEE, Richard Henry, educator, was born in 
Westmoreland county, Va.. June 23, 1794 ; eldest 
son of Ludwell and Flora (Lee) Lee ; and grand 
son of Richard Henry and Anne (Aylett) Lee, 
and of Philip Ludwell and Elizabeth (Steptoe) 
Lee. He was graduated with the honors of his 
class at Dickinson college. Pa., in 1812, studied 
law and practised in Leesburg, Va. He was 
twice married, first to Mary Duncan Mahon, and 
secondly to Anna Eden Jordan of St. Mary s, 
Md. He was professor of languages in Washing 
ton college, Pa., 1833-37 ; and of belles-lettres, 
1837-54, resigning April 25, 1854. In 1858 he 
took orders in the Protestant Episcopal church 
and was rector of Trinity church, Washington, 
Pa., 1858-05. He is the author of: Memoirs of 
the Life of Richard Henry Lee (2 vols., 1825) ; Life 
of Arthur Lee (2 vols., 1829); Life of Harriet Preble 
(1850). Hedied in Washington, Pa., Jan. 3, 1805. 

LEE, Robert Edward, soldier, was born at 
Stratford, Westmoreland county, Va. , Jan. 19, 
1807; son of Gen. Henry (q. v.) and Anne 
Hill (Carter) Lee ; grandson of Henry and Lucy 
(Grymes) Lee, and of Charles and Anne Butler 
(Moore) Carter. In 1811 Gen. Henry Lee re 
moved his family from Stratford to Alexandria, 
Va. , and in that town Robert received his pre 
paratory education, first at the academy under 
W. B. Leary, and subsequently at the high school 
of which Benjamin Hallowell, a Quaker, was 
head-master. He was graduated from the U.S. 
Military academy, West Point, second in his 
class in 1829, was commissioned 2d lieutenant of 
engineers and was assigned to duty in the engi 
neer bureau, Washington, which enabled him 
frequently to visit his mother in Alexandria. On 



[21] 



LEE 



LEE 




June 30, 1831, lie was married at Arlington 
House, Va., by the Rev. Mr. Keith, to Mary Ann 
Randolph, only daughter of George Washington 
Parke and Mary Lee (Fitzhugh) Custis. and a de 
scendant of John Custis, who 
came to Virginia from Eng 
land in the seventeenth cent 
ury, and during Bacon s re 
bellion, 1675-70, was commis 
sioned a major-general of col 
onial troops ; and was ap 
pointed collector of customs 
for the eastern shore of Vir 
ginia in 1687. This alliance 
subsequently made Lee master 
of Arlington estate and of the 
White House estate on the Pa- 
munky river. In September, 1831, he was ordered 
to duty on the defences at Hampton Roads, 
where he remained, 1831-35. He was promoted 
1st lieutenant in 1835 and became assistant to 
the chief engineer of the army at Washington. 
He was commissioned captain of engineers in 1836 
and made astronomer of a joint commission cre 
ated by the legislatures of Ohio and Michigan to 
determine the boundary line between those states. 
In 1837-40 he was employed on the upper Missis 
sippi in constructing levees above St. Louis, Mo., 
to reclaim submerged plantations and define the 
course of the river. He was on topographical 
duty in Washington, 1840-41, and on fortifications 
in New York harbor, 1841-45. In January, 1846, 
he was ordered to report to Gen. Zachary Taylor 
on the Rio Grande opposite Matamoras, Mexico, 
and he was made chief engineer on the staff of 
General Wool and took part in the engagement 
at Palo Alto, May 8, at Reseca de la Palma, May 
9, and in the capture of Matamoras, May 18. On 
the change of base from the Rio Grande to Vera 
Cruz, Captain Lee was made chief engineer on 
the staff of General Winfield Scott and the com 
bined U.S. army was landed in 75 surf-boats, 100 
men in each boat, under the cover of the fleet of 
Commodore Conner, at Sacrificios, ten miles be 
low Vera Cruz, March 9, 1847. On March 13, 
Captain Lee, supported by the Palmetto regiment 
of South Carolina and the 1st New York volun 
teers, m ide a reconnoissance of the Mexican 
lines, designated the position of the assaulting 
batteries to be constructed of sand-bags within 
1000 yards of the rock masonry walls of the city, 
and on March 22 he bore under a flag of truce a 
demand for the surrender of the castle and city. 
This being denied two days were given to remove 
the women and children, when, on March 25, the 
army and navy opened fire, and on March 29 the 
Mexican forces capitulated and the U.S. army oc 
cupied the place. They were without means of 
transportation, the paroled Mexican army having 



cleared the country of horses and mules. The- 
situation was desperate as yellow fever threat 
ened the place. In this emergency Captain Lee 
became responsible for the honesty of a Texan 
soldier. Col. Tom Kinney, and the commanding 
general on his recommendation paid over to 
Kinney $50,000 in gold for 6000 mules to be de 
livered within three days. The contract was car 
ried out by bribing the paroled Mexicans, and 
the army moved toward the city of Mexico. On 
reaching Cerro Gordo Pass, April 14, 1847, the 
engineering skill of Lee surmounted the advan 
tage of position and the Mexican army under 
Santa Anna was defeated, as it was at every 
stand through the valley to the city of Mexico. 
Contreras, Churubusco, Molina del Rey,Chapul- 
tepec, where he was slightly wounded, were a 
succession of victories due largely to his engi 
neering skill, and on Sept. 13, 1847, at the head of 
the storming party, he planted the Palmetto flag of 
South Carolina on the wall of Mexico city, and in 
the triumphal entry into the ancient capital the 
next day Captain Lee rode at the right of General 
Scott at the head of his army of 10,000 men. In 
1858 referring to this campaign General Scott 
said: "My success in the Mexican war was 
largely due to the skill and valor of Robert E. 
Lee. He is the greatest military genius in Amer 
ica ; the best soldier I ever saw in the field ; and 
if opportunity offers he will show himself the 
foremost captain of his time." He was brevetted 




ARLIAJ<,TOAI HOUSE 



major, lieutenant-colonel and colonel of engi 
neers for his services in this campaign and re 
turned to his home in Arlington. Va. In the 
autumn of 1848 he was ordered to Baltimore 
where he engaged in constructing a system 
of defensive works ; and he was superintendent 
of the U.S. Military academy, 1852-55. He was 
promoted lieutenant-colonel in February, is.l.l, 
and assigned to the 2d U.S. cavalry. Col. Albert 
Sidney Johnston. The regiment was stationed 
at Jefferson Barracks, Mo. , and in October was. 
ordered to Fort Mason, Texas, but Lee was de 
tained on court-martial duty until April. lS5fi, 
when he rejoined his regiment in Texas and was. 
engaged in repressing Indian outbreaks until 
October, 1859. He then visited Arlington to 



LEE 



LEE 




settle the estate of his father-in-law, who had 
died in 1857, leaving him first executor of his 
will. On Oct. 17, 1859, he received orders to 
report to the adjutant-general at Washington 
without delay and he was ordered to Harper s 
Ferry in command of three companies of U.S. 
marines to suppress a threatened attack on the 
U.S. arsenal. He found the arsenal in the posses 
sion of a revolutionary party led by John Brown, 
and his followers numbering about forty-five 
men. Colonel Lee called upon him through Lieut. 

J. E. B. Stuart, 
under a flag of 
, truce, to sur 
render, which 
J row 11 refused 
to do unless 
! guaranteed safe 
j|j conduct with 
*his prisoners 
and men across 
the river into 
Maryland and not to be pursued until his party 
had gained a point half a mile from the ar 
senal. This Lee refused to consider and at once 
opened an assault on the engine house on the 
arsenal grounds, in which the survivors of the 
defending band, seventeen whites and three 
negroes, were taken prisoners at the point of the 
bayonet. Colonel Lee then entered the building 
and had Brown and his wounded followers cared 
for in the arsenal by a surgeon of the marine 
corps and afterward delivered them over to Judge 
Robert J. Ould, the U.S. district attorney. The 
prisoners were given over to the charge of the 
state courts, and tried and convicted on a charge 
of treason, murder and inciting insurrection 
among slaves, and the state militia supplanted 
the U.S. troops as guard and Colonel Lee and the 
U.S. troops had no part in the execution of John 
Brown. He left Harper s Ferry, Dec. 3, 1859, 
.and soon after Christmas of that year rejoined 
his regiment at San Antonio, Texas, where lie 
remained in the service till ordered to Washing 
ton, where he arrived, March 1, 1861, and re 
ported to Lieutenant-General Scott, commanding 
the U.S. army. Seven states had at, this time 
passed the ordinance of secession and on Feb. 4, 
1861, had formed a union as "The Confederate 
States of America." Abraham Lincoln would be 
inaugurated President, March 4, 1861, and Win- 
field Scott, the general-in-chief of the U.S. army, 
desired the advice of the officers of the U.S. 
army. Colonel Lee assured General Scott that if 
Virginia seceded from the Union and the gov 
ernment decided to coerce the states by military 
force, his sense of duty would oblige him to go 
with his state. On March 10, 1861, Colonel Lee 
was assigned to duty as a member of the board to 



revise the " Regulations for the government of 
the United States army " and he filed the report 
of the board, April 18, 1861. On April 15 Presi 
dent Lincoln called upon the loyal states for 75,000 
volunteers and Virginia was called upon for her 
quota. This demand caused the meeting of the 
citizens in convention, April 17, and the conven 
tion passed the ordinance of secession by a unan 
imous vote. President Lincoln, hoping that 
the overt act of the seceding states had caused 
Lee s spirit of loyalty to the Union to overbalance 
his sense of loyalty to his native state, at once 
offered him the command of the U.S. army, which 
General Scott wished to transfer to a younger 
man and had repeatedly named Robert E. Lee as 
his successor. This offer was made at army 
headquarters in the chain building, through 
Francis Preston Blair, Sr., April 18,1861. Col 
onel Lee replied that he was opposed to secession 
and deprecated war, but that he could take no 
part in the invasion of the Southern states, con 
sidering such an act a breach of his oath to 
" support and defend the constitution of the 
United States " as interpreted by Attorney-Gen 
eral Black. He then went to General Scott and 
reported his decision and on April 20, 1861, he 
tendered the resignation of his commission in the 
U.S. army to Simon Cameron, the Secretary of 
War, at the same time addressing a letter to 
General Scott, asking him to recommend its ac 
ceptance. On April 23, upon the invitation of a 
committee of the Virginia convention, he visited 
Richmond where he accepted the commission of 
commander-in-chief of the military and naval 
forces of Virginia with the rank of major-gen 
eral. On April 24, 1861, in his address before the 
convention assembled in Richmond, accepting 
the trust, he closed with these words: "Trust 
ing in Almighty God, an approving conscience 
and the aid of my fellow-citizens, I devote my 
self to the service of my native state in whose 
behalf alone will I ever again draw my sword." 
On May 20, 1861, the people of Virginia by a vote 
of 150,000 to 20,000 ratified the ordinance of 
secession, and the same day the U.S. navy yard at 
Norfolk was evacuated by the U.S. authorities 
and taken possession of by the Virginia state 
troops. On May 22 the state entered the Confed 
eracy and on May 24, 10,000 Federal soldiers 
crossed the Potomac and took possession of Alex 
andria, Va. On May 29, President Davis with 
his cabinet arrived in Richmond, which became 
the capital of the Confederate States of America. 
On June 8, 1861, Virginia transferred her military 
forces to the new government and General Lee 
remained the ranking officer of the Virginia 
military forces, and as such became military ad 
visor to Governor Letcher. commander-in-chief. 
In selecting the defensive lines for the state, he 



LEE 



LEE 



designated Manassas Junction, where, on July 21. 
1861, the first great battle was fought and won 
by the Confederacy. After the death of Gen. 
Robert S. Garnett, Lee was ordered to assume 
command of the troops in western Virginia com 
prising about 0500 men commanded by Generals 
Johnson, Loring, Wise and Floyd. He had be 
fore been commissioned a general in the Confed 
erate army but was out-ranked by both Generals 
Cooper and Albert Sidney Johnston. He found 
the Federal forces commanded by Gen. W. S. 
Rosecrans, who like Lee was a skilful engineer, 
but now in command of an army double the 
number under Lee, and both commanders acted 
on the defensive, chiefly on account of incessant 
rains and the state of the roads. After the season 
for active operations in the mountains was 
over, Lee was put in charge of the defences 
of South Carolina and Georgia. In the spring 
of 1862 he was made military adviser of Pres 
ident Davis. On June 1, 1862. after Gen. 
Joseph E. Johnston had been severely wounded 
and the command of the Confederate army 
had devolved on (Jen. Gustavus W. Smith, who 
renewed the battle of Seven Pines with but 
partial success, President Davis appointed Gen. 
Robert E. Lee to the command of the Army of 
Northern Virginia and he drove the army of Mc- 
Clellan to the protection of the Federal gunboats 
at Harrison s Landing on the James river. Lee 
had inflicted on his adversary a loss of 1 50 ord 
nance and commissary wagons and 12,000 stands 
of arms, burned to prevent change of ownership, 
and 15,900 killed and wounded, 10,800 prisoners, 
54 pieces of artillery, and 36.000 stands of arms 
captured by the Confederate army. On July 13 
he detached General Jackson with 10,000 men to 
operate against Pope who had succeeded to the 
command of the Federal army and was advancing 
on Richmond by way of Manassas Junction, and 
in August he advanced with the main body of 
his army, about 35,000 strong, to give battle to 
the new commander. The issue was joined at 
Manassas, Aug. 29-30, and Pope s army made a 
hasty retreat to Washington. Lee then moved 
into Maryland, crossing the Potomac, Sept. 8, 1862, 
at Leesburg ford. He issued a proclamation to 
the citizens of Maryland to rally to the flag of the 
Confederacy, closing his appeal with these words : 
" While the people of the Confederate States will 
rejoice to welcome you to your natural position 
among them, they will only welcome you when 
you come of your own free will." Meanwhile 
Pope had been relieved of the command of the 
Army of Virginia and General McClellan was 
appointed his successor and had under his com 
mand 87,164 men. General Lee had an army of 
35.255 men and had taken position near Sharps- 
burg, Md., between the Potomac river and An- 



tietam creek. On September 17, McClellan opened 
the battle along his entire line and the conflict 
continued during the day. and under the cover of 
the next night Lee withdrew his army to the 
Virginia side of the Potomac without disorder, 
completing the retreat Sept. 19, 1862. On October 
8. Lee ordered Stuart with 5,000 horsemen to re- 
cross into Maryland and harass McClellan s army, 
and he accomplished his purpose and entered the 
state of Pennsylvania almost unopposed. On 
Oct. 26, 1862, McClellan crossed the Potomac and 
encamped in Loudonn county, Va., and on Nov. 
2, 1862, he was succeeded by General Burnside. 
Then followed the battle of Fredericksburg, where 
Burnside mustered 116.6N3 men and was opposed 
by Lee with 78,513 men. The battle was fought 
and won by General Lee. Dec. 13. 1862. In 1*62 
General Lee executed a paper emancipating all 
the slaves held by his estate. 196 in number, in 
accordance with the will of his father-in-law, 
G. W. P. Custis, by which, live years after Mr. 
Custis s death, which occurred Oct. 10, 1857. all 
his slaves were to be freed. This was Lee s 
second act as an emancipator, he having freed 
the slaves owned by himself in 1854, while an 
officer in the U. S. army. On May 2-5, 1863. the 
Army of the Potomac, under Hooker, recruited 
to the strength of 138.378 men, opposed General 
Lee s army of 53.000 men, 170 pieces of artillery 
and 2700 cavalry at Chancellorsville, and the 
force of Hooker was first placed on the defensive 
and finally forced to intrench on the Rappahan- 
nock. On June 2. 1863, Lee moved his army 
northward toward (he Potomac;, and on June 13 
Hooker followed. The Army of Northern Vir 
ginia invaded Pennsylvania late in June to re 
lieve Virginia of the burden of war. Lee readied 
Gettysburg July 1, 1863, by way of Carlisle and 
Chambersburg, where he found the Army of the 
Potomac under General Meade, who had suc 
ceeded General Hooker. Meade brought into 
action an army of 89,000 men with over 15.- 
01)0 in reserve and Lee faced him with 62.500 
men and no reserve. Each army lost over 20.000 
men and the battle was won by the Federal army 
after three days incessant lighting. The Army 
of Northern Virginia retreated up the valley and 
General Lee acted on the defensive for nearly a 
year. On Aug. 8, 1863. General Lee tendered 
his resignation to President Davis by reason of 
physical disability. President Davis, in declining 
to receive his resignation, under date of Rich 
mond, Va., Aug. 11, 1S63, says: "To ask me to 
substitute you by some one in my judgment 
more lit to command, or who would possess more 
of the confidence of the army or of the reflecting 
men of the country, is to demand an impossibil 
ity." General Lee confronted General Grant at 
the Wilderness, May 5, 1864, and the battles that 



LEE 



LEE 



followed up to June 3, 1864, ended with the san 
guinary battle of Cold Harbor in which Grant s 
army lost 16,000 men killed and wounded in a suc 
cession of assaults on the entrenched army of Gen 
eral Lee. In forcing Lee s army of 63,000 men 
seventy-five miles, General Grant with 149,000 
men lost 61,000. Then followed the investment 
of the Army of Northern Virginia within the lines 
of Richmond and Petersburg, where the armies 
of the Potomac and James slowly crushed out 
its life after a ten months siege, ending with the 
evacuation of Richmond, April 2, and the sur 
render of its remnant of an army comprising 10,- 

000 officers and men at Appomattox, April 12, 
1865. General Lee s last words to his army were : 
"Men, we have fought together for four years. 

1 have tried to do the best I could for you." On 
Aug. 24, 1865, General Lee accepted the presi 
dency of Washington college at Lexington, Va., 
at a salary of $1500 per annum, declining at the 
same time several offers with much larger sala 
ries. He was formally inaugurated Sept. 18, 1895, 
and under his administration the college greatly 
prospered. He received the honorary degree of 
LL.D.from Mercer university, Ga.. in 1866. In 1871 
the general assembly of Virginia changed the 
name of the institution to Washington and Lee uni 
versity, and as a further memorial a recumbent 
statue of General Lee by Valentine was presented 




CHAPEL AT WASHINqTO/N ANP LEE UNIVERSITY. 

to the university by the Lee Memorial association 
and his remains placed in a vault under the statue. 
This statue was unveiled by the association with 
appropriate ceremony in June, 1873. An eques 
trian statue by Mercie surmounting a massive 
pedestal erected in Capitol Square, Richmond, 
Va.. was unveiled and dedicated May 29, 1890. 
On June 19, 1901, bronze busts of Washington 
and Lee were unveiled at the university ; the 
former being the gift of Oscar Straus of New York, 
and the latter of Frank T. Howard, class of 1874, 
of New Orleans. The busts were placed on either 
side of the archway leading to the rotunda. 
In the selection of names for a place in the Hall 
of Fame for great Americans, New York univers 
ity, made in October, 1900, his was one of the 
twenty names in " Class N, Soldiers and Sail 



ors/ and secured a place, receiving sixty-nine 
votes, Grant with ninety-two and Farragut witn 
seventy-nine alone in the class securing more 
votes. In 1869 Gen. G. W. C. Lee prepared a new 
edition of and added a memoir to his father s 
work, " War in the Southern Department of the 
United States" (2 vols.. 1812). See also ; biogra 
phies by John Esten Cooke (1871), Edward A. 
Pollard (1871-), John W. Jones (1874), and E. Lee 
Childe (London, 1875) ; " Four Years with General 
Lee," by Walter H. Taylor (1877) ; " Memoirs," by 
Gen. A. L. Long (1886), and " Robert E. Lee and 
the Southern Confederacy," by Henry A. White 
(1899). He died at Lexington. Va., Oct. 12, 1870. 
LEE, Samuel Phillips, naval officer, was born 
at Sully, Fairfax county, Va.. Feb. 13, 1812 ; son 
of Francis Lightfoot and Jane (Fitzgerald) Lee, 
and grandson of Richard Henry and Anne (Gas- 
kins) Pinckard Lee and of Col. John and Jane 
(Digger) Fitzgerald. He was appointed midship 
man from Virginia, Nov. 22, 1825 ; was promoted 
passed midshipman, June 4, 1831, and lieutenant, 
Feb. 9, 1837. He was married, April 27, 1843. to 
Elizabeth, daughter of Francis Preston and Eliza 
Violet (Gist) Blair, of Silver Springs, near Wash 
ington, D.C. He was given command of the 
coast schooner Vanderbilt, Aug. 4, 1844, was in 
command of the coast survey schooner Nautilus, 
and of the coast survey brig WasJiington, and 
was present at the capture of Tobasco, Mexico. 
He was promoted commander, Sept. 14, 1855, and 
was a member of the board of examiners, 1858- 
60. He was given command of the sloop-of-war 
Vandalia, with orders to sail to the East Indies, 
Nov. 1, 1860, but upon learning of the outbreak 
of the civil war he brought his ship backand was 
assigned to blockade duty off Charleston, S.C. 
He was ordered to command the sloop-of-war 
Oneida, Jan. 20, 1862. 
In the expedition 
against New Orleans 
he commanded the 
advance division in 
the attack on Forts 
Jackson and St. Phil 
ip and by driving off 
two rams succeeded 
in relieving the Var- 
una and capturing 
Lieutenant Kennon, 
commander of the^ 
Con federate steamer 
Governor Moore. He 
commanded the advance division below Vieks- 
burg and participated in both passages of 
the Vicksburg batteries, the Oneida being sec 
ond in line on both occasions. He was pro 
moted captain. July 16, 1862 ; appointed acting 
rear-admiral, Sept. 2, 1862, and ordered to com- 




[251 



LEE 



LEE 



mand the North Atlantic blockading squadron. 
He originated a system of blockading cruisers by 
which the Confederacy was completely isolated 
and fifty-four blockade running steamers were 
captured. He was detached, Oct. 21, 1864, and 
ordered to coin mand the Mississippi squadron, 
co-operating witli the army of Thomas in its oper 
ations against Hood on the Cumberland and 
Tennessee rivers. For his service in this cam 
paign, Lee received a vote of thanks from con 
gress. He was detached from the Mississippi 
squadron, Aug. 14, 1805, and promoted commo 
dore. July 2-5, 18CC. He was president of the 
board to examine volunteer officers for admission 
into the regular navy, 1868-C9 ; president of the 
court martial held in New York city, May 29, 
1868 ; a member of the board of examiners of the 
Atlantic navy yards, and was put in charge of 
the signal service at Washington, D.C., Oct. 13, 
1869. He was promoted rear-admiral, April 22, 
1870 ; was ordered on special duty at the navy 
department at Washington, D.C., June 27, 1870, 
and commander of the North Atlantic squadron 
from Aug. 9, 1870, to Aug. 15, 1862, when he was 
detached. He was retired, Feb. 13. 1873. He is 
the author of : The Cruise of the Dolphin, pub 
lished in the " Reports " of the U.S. navy de 
partment (1854) and a report on the condition of 
the Atlantic navy yards (1869). He died at Silver 
Springs, near Washington, D.C., June 5, 1897. 

LEE, Silas, representative, was born in Con 
cord, Mass., Jvdy 3, 1760; son of Dr. Joseph and 
Lucy (Jones) Lee and great 2 -grandson of John and 
Mary (Hungerford) Leigh, who settled in Ips 
wich, Mass., about 1634. He was graduated from 
Harvard college in 1784 ; was a practising at 
torney inBiddeford, Maine, in 1788, and at Pown- 
alborough, 1789-1814. He was a representative 
in the Massachusetts legislature, 1793-98 ; and in 
the 6th and 7th U.S. congresses, 1799-1802. He 
resigned in 1802, having been appointed district 
attorney for the Maine district by President Jef 
ferson in 1801, although opposed to him politic 
ally, and he held this office until his death. He 
was justice of the peace and quorum in 1803 ; 
judge of the probate court, 1804-14, and chief 
justice of the court of common pleas, 1810. He 
died in Wiscasset, Maine, March 1, 1814. 

LEE, Stephen Dill, soldier and educator, was 
born in Charleston, S.C., Sept. 22, 1833; son of 
Thomas and Caroline (Alison) Lee, grandson of 
Judge Thomas and Kezia (Miles) Lee, and great- 
grandson of William Lee, a leading citizen of 
Charleston, who w T as confined in the prison ship, 
and transferred to St. Augustine, Fla., by the 
the British during the American Revolution. 
Stephen Dill Lee was graduated at the U.S. 
Military academy in 1854. and promoted 2d 
lieutenant, 4th U.S. artillery ; was promoted 1st 




lieutenant, Oct. 31, 1856; served in the Seminole 
war, 1850-57 ; was appointed assistant adjutant- 
general of the Department of Florida, August, 
1857; served as quartermaster of the 4th artil 
lery, 1857-61, and was on frontier duty, 1857-01. 
He resigned his com 
mission, Feb. 20, 18- 
61, and was appoint 
ed a captain in the 
South Carolina army. 
He was aide-de-camp 
to General Beau re 
gard, and prior to the 
bombardment of Fort 
Sumter, in company 
with Col. James Chest 
nut, he carried the 
formal demand to 
Major Anderson for 
the sin-render of the 
fort. He served as 
quartermaster, com 
missary, engineer officer, and distributing of 
ficer for the army in Charleston ; was com 
missioned captain in the Confederate States 
army, and was given command of the light bat 
tery of Hampton s South Carolina legion. He 
was promoted successive!} major, lieutenant- 
colonel and colonel of artillery, and participated 
in the Peninsula campaign, in the battles of Seven 
Pines, Savage s Station and Malvern Hill. He 
commanded a battalion of artillery in Lee s army 
during the campaign against Pope, a battalion 
at the second battle of Manassas, and at Sharps- 
burg. He was commissioned brigadier-general 
for gallantry at the battle of Sharpsburg, Nov. 6, 
1863 ; commanded the garrison and batteries at 
Vicksburg, Miss., 1862-63; was in command of 
the provisional division at Chickasaw Bluffs, and 
repelled the attack made by General Sherman s 
army, with one brigade of the Vicksburg garri 
son, Dec. 28-29, 1862. He had command of the 
entire line from Vicksburg to Snyder s Mill. At 
the battle of Champion Hills, May 16, 1863, bis 
brigade in Stephensoii s division bore the brunt 
of the battle, and nearly half of his men were 
killed, wounded or prisoners. In the siege of 
Vicksburg a part of his brigade was driven from 
their intrenchments in the assault by Grant, May 
22, 1863, but recovered the position before the 
close of the day, and after the fall of Vicksburg 
he was exchanged and promoted major-general, 
Aug. 3, 1863. He was in command of the cavalry 
forces in Mississippi, West Tennessee, Alabama 
and East Louisiana. While in command of cav 
alry he organized several regiments. He was 
in command at the battle of Tupelo, Miss., July 
14, 1861, where with about 6000 cavalry and dis 
mounted men he fought a drawn battle with a 



36] 



LEE 



LEE 



superior force, compelling Gen. A. J. Smith to 
retreat to Memphis, Tenn. He was promoted 
lieutenant-general, June 23, 18(54 ; commanded a 
corps in the battles around Atlanta, and lead the 
assault at Ezra Church, July 28. 1864. During 
the invasion of Tennessee he was in command of 
a corps in Hood s army, was severely wounded 
at Nashville, and was succeeded in command by 
Gen. C. L. Stevenson, who conducted the retreat 
across the Tennessee. General Lee resumed com 
mand of his corps iu North Carolina, and sur- 
r ndered with Gen. Joseph E. Johnston s army 
at High Point. N.C. He then removed to Miss 
issippi, and was married, Feb. 9, 186."}, to Regina, 
daughter of James Thomas and Regina (Blewett) 
Harrison, of Columbus, Miss. He was elected 
state senator in 1870, and was the first president 
of the Mississippi Agricultural and Mechanical 
college, 1880-99. He was a member of the con 
stitutional convention which framed the new 
constitution of Mississippi in 1890. chairman 
of the historical committee, Association of United 
Confederate Veterans, and on Nov. 5, 1894, lieu 
tenant-general commanding the Army of Ten 
nessee, Department of the United Confederate 
Veterans. The degree of LL.D. was conferred on 
him by Tulane university in 1896. On March 1, 
1899, he was appointed by Secretary of War 
Alger a member of the commission for organiz 
ing the Vicksburg national military park. 

LEE, Sydney Smith, naval officer, was born 
at "Stratford," Va., Sept. 2, 1802; son of Gen. 
Henry and Anne Hill (Carter) Lee. He entered 
the U.S. navy as midshipman, Dec. 30, 1820 ; was 
promoted lieutenant. May 17, 1828, and com 
mander, June 4, 1850. He accompanied Com 
modore Perry to Japan as commander of his 
flagship. He was subsequently commandant of 
the U.S. Naval academy, and of the naval yard 
at Philadelphia. He was dismissed from the 
navy, April 22, 1861, having accepted service in 
the Confederate States navy, assumed command 
of the Gosport navy yard, Norfolk, Va., May 27, 
1862; commanded Drewry s Bluff, 1862-63, and 
was chief of the bureau of orders and detail, 
1864-65. He attained the rank of captain. He 
was married to Anne Marie Mason, of Fairfax 
county, Va. He died at Richland, Stafford 
county. Va., July 22. 1869. 

LEE, Thomas, colonial governor, was born at 
" Stratford," Va., about 1702 ; fifth son of Richard 
and Laetitia (Corbin) Lee, and grandson of Rich 
ard Lee, of the privy council of Charles I. and 
founder of the Lees of Virginia. He was for 
many years a member and president of the king s 
council and commander-in-chief of the colony of 
Virginia. In 1744 Governor Sir William Gooch 
appointed him, with William Beverly, as commis 
sioner to treat with the Iroquois Indians. They 



[27] 



journeyed to Philadelphia in a yacht and met the 
Iroquois at Lancaster. Pa., where they secured 
the right of settling the lands west of the moun 
tains as far as the Ohio river. Lee originated a 
plan for the exploration and settlement of these 
lands, which, however, he failed to carry out. 
He built the second manor-house with nearly one 
hundred rooms, the original house built by 
Richard Lee having been destroyed by fire 
about 1735, during his proprietorship of the 
estate. The money to rebuild the mansion was 
furnished by private subscriptions, headed by the 
governor. He was married to Hannah, daughter 
of Col. Philip Ludwell of Green Spring, near 
Wil liana sburg, Va. , by his second wife (his first 
wife having been Lady Berkeley) and grand 
daughter of Philip Ludwell. governor of North 
Carolina, 1689-91. He had six sons, Philip Lud 
well, Thomas Ludwell, Richard Henry, Francis 
Lightfoot, William and Arthur, and two daugh 
ters. He was for some time acting governor of 
the colony and was appointed governor in 1750, 
the first and only native-born Virginian to hold 
that office by appointment of the crown. He died 
soon after receiving his commission, at Stafford 
House, Va., in 1750. 

LEE, Thomas, jurist, was born in Charleston, 
S. C.,Dec. 1, 1769; son of William Lee and a de 
scendant of Thomas Lee, born in Bridgeton, Isle 
of Barbadoes, in 1710, settled in Charleston, S.C., 
and married Mary Giles. Thomas was admitted 
to the bar in 1790 ; was clerk of the lower house 
of the state legislature, 1798-1804 ; associate 
judge, 1804, and comptroller general of the state, 
1804-16. He represented his district in the state 
legislature ; was president of the South Carolina 
bank, 1817-39 ; and U. S. district judge. 1823-39. 
He died in Charleston, S. C., Oct. 24, 1839. 

LEE, Thomas Ludwell, statesman, was born 
in Stafford, Va. , Dec. 13, 1730 ; the second son of 
Thomas and Hannah (Ludwell) Lee. He was 
educated as a lawyer and practised in Westmore 
land county. He was member of the Virginia 
house of burgesses, and in 1765 signed the West 
moreland declaration against the stamp act with 
his brothers Richard Henry, Francis Lightfoot 
and Arthur. He was a delegate to the conven 
tions of July and December, 1775 ; a member of 
the committee of safety ; a delegate to the con 
vention of May, 1776 ; and a member of the com 
mittee appointed to draw up a bill of rights and 
a plan for an independent government. He was 
one of the five " revisers" appointed by the state 
government on its organization : and judge of the 
state supreme court. He died April 13, 1777. 

LEE, Thomas Sim, governor of Maryland, 
was born in Prince George s county, Md., Oct. 
29, 1745; son of Thomas and Christian (Sim) Lee; 
grandson of Philip and Sarah (Brooke) Lee, and 



LEE 



LEE 



OLp STATE 

AT AAIAJAPOL 5. 

1 783 - 1 784. 




of Dr. Patrick and Mary (Brooke) Sim, and a 
descendant of Col. Richard and Anne Lee. He 
was married Oct. 27. 1771, to Mary, daughter of 
Ignatius and Eliza (Parkman) Digges, of Prince 
George s county, Md. In 1777 he entered pub 
lic life as a 
member of 
the provin 
cial council 
of Mary 
land. He 
was gover 
nor of Mary 
land, 1779-82 
and 1792-94, 
and iu 1798 
declined a 
third elec 
tion. He was 
a delegate to 
the Conti 
nental congress, 1783-84 ; was elected a delegate 
to the constitutional convention of 1787, but 
refused to attend ; and was a delegate to the 
state convention that met to ratify the Federal 
constitution. He was also elected to the senate 
in 1794. but refused to serve. He died at Need- 
wood, Md.. Oct. 9, 1819. 

LEE, William, diplomatist, was born at 
" Stratford," Va., in 1737; fifth son of Thomas 
and Hannah (Ludwell) Lee. He was educated at 
Eton and engaged in commercial business in 
London, acting for a time as agent for Virginia. 
He resided in Middlesex and was sheriff of the 
county, and in 1775 became an alderman of Lon 
don. He gave up a lucrative business and went 
to France with his brother Arthur in 177G and 
was appointed by the Continental congress, com 
mercial agent at Nantes. He was U.S. commis 
sioner to the Hague and to Berlin and Vienna, 
but was not allowed to take up his residence in 
either of these cities. Holland, Prussia and Aus 
tria not having recognized the United States 
government, desired to maintain a neutral posi 
tion and not offend England, and his negotiations 
were therefore conducted from Paris. In 1778. 
by permission of the Holland government, he met 
Jan de Neufville, an Amsterdam merchant, at 
Aix-la-Chapelle, to complete the negotiations of a 
loan for the American colonies. The two com 
missioners drew up a commercial treaty to be 
adopted by their respective governments and it 
was signed by Neufville and Van Berckel, burgo 
master of Amsterdam, and entrusted to Henry 
Laurens to be carried to America for the ap 
proval of the Continental congress. By the cap 
ture of Laurens, when on his way from America 
to the Hague to obtain the loan, the paper fell 
into the hands of the British ministry and was 



made the pretext for declaring war against Hol 
land. In the difficulties between Arthur Lee and 
the tw r o other American commissioners to Paris. 
William Lee took part in the quarrel and in 1779 1 
with his brother was ordered by congress to re 
port in America, but no action was taken after 
their arrival. He married his cousin, Hannah 
Philippa Ludwell, who brought him the Green 
Spring Manor-house, near Williamsburg, where 
he died, June 27, 1795. 

LEE, William, publisher, was born in Boston, 
Mass., April 17,1826; son of John and Laura 
William (Jones) Lee, of Manchester, Eng., grand 
son of Owen and Elizabeth (Lambert) Jones of 
Boston, Mass., and a descendant on the maternal 
lines of colonial families. He attended the pub 
lic schools in Boston until 1837, and was in the 
employ of Samuel G. Drake, a bookseller, 1837^40. 
He attended school at Sturbridge, Mass., 1840-42, 
and then returned to the book trade with O. L. 
Perkins, 1842-45. He was a clerk in the employ 
of Phillips, Sanipson & Co., in Boston, 1845-50,. 
and held an interest in the business, 1850-57 ; and 
travelled in Europe, 1857-59. He was a member 
of the firm of Crosby, Nichols. Lee & Co. of Bos 
ton, 1860-G1 : and on Feb. 1, 1801, established 
with Charles A. B. Shepard, tho publishing firm 
of Lee& Shepard. Mr. Shepard died in 1889 and 
Mr. Lee remained at the head of the business until 
1898, when he retired. He was twice married : 
first, Oct. 29, 1861. to Anna M., daughter of 
Thomas Leavett of Hampton, N.H. : she died 
Sept. 19, 1883 ; and secondly, Nov. 26, 1888, to 
Mrs. Sara White Saunders, daughter of James 
Wells and Catherine Reed (Garner) White of 
New York city. 

LEE, William Henry Fitzhugh, soldier, was 
born at Arlington House. Va., May 31. 1837 : son 
of Robert Edward and Mary Randolph (Custis) 
Lee. He entered 
Harvard college, but 
left in 1857 to accept 
a second lieutenancy 
in the 6th U.S. infan 
try. He served in 
the Utah campaign 
under Gen. Albert 
Sidney Johnston and 
while stationed in 
California in 1859. he 
resigned from the 
army in order to de 
vote his time to the 
care of the White 
House estate in Vir 
ginia, inherited by 

his mother. He raised a cavalry company 
early in 1861 for the service of his native state 
and as captain and major in the 9th Virginia 




[28] 



LEE 



LE FEY ME 



cavalry he served in western Virginia under 
Gen. W. W. Loring. Wlien the Virginia troops 
were transferred to the Confederate States army 
by proclamation of Governor Letcher, June 8, 
1881, he was promoted lieutenant-colonel and 
ordered to Fredericksburg. He was promoted 
colonel early in 180:3 ami was assigned to the 
cavalry brigade of Gen. J. E. B. Stuart and with 
Gen. T. J. Jackson s army was ordered to the 
relief of the army of Gen. Joseph E. Johnston, 
confronted by the army of Gen. George B. Mc- 
Clellan before Richmond. On June 1, 1862, Gen. 
Robert E. Lee was placed in command of the 
Army of Northern Virginia and Col. W. H. F. 
Lee took part in the daring ride of Stuart around 
McClellan s army, June 12, 1862. He was pro 
moted brigadier-general, Oct. 8, 1862, and com 
manded a brigade in Stuart s cavalry division, 
and at the head of 2000 cavalrymen he took part 
in opposing Stonemaii s cavalry raid. He opposed 
tiie force of General Averill at Ctilpeper, April 
30, 1863, and was forced to retreat through the 
place, being thus cut off from communication with 
General Lee s army. At Brandy Station, Va., 
June 9, 1863, lie was severely wounded and Gen 
eral Chambliss succeeded to the command of his 
brigade. Lee was subsequently captured by a 
raiding party of Federal cavalry and imprisoned 
in Fort Monroe and in Fort Lafayette, New York 
harbor. He was exchanged in 1864 and on April 
23 lie was promoted major-general of cavalry 
and commanded a division in the army of North 
ern Virginia, taking part in opposing the Treva- 
lian raid of Sheridan in June, 1864, from Malvern 
Hill. He failed to check Gen. J. H. Wilson s 
raiding party which lie encountered on the South- 
side railroad near Petersburg, June 22, 1864, but 
delayed Gen. J. B. Mclntosh who commanded 
Wilson s own division and caused the loss of 
seventy-five of his men. In August. 1864, lie was 
defending the Weldon railroad and on the 19th 
at Vaughn road junction met Gen. G. K. Warren 
when he operated on the flank of the Federal 
army. He had nearly succeeded in turning it 
when General Spear supported by General Griffin 
forced his division back to within a mile of 
Reams s Station. On Aug. 21 he joined Gen. A. 
P. Hill s corps and re-enforced by a part of Hoke s 
division of E well s corps undertook to dislodge 
Warren, then intrenched at Reams s Station. 
He took part in the battle of Five Forks, April 1, 
1865, where he commanded two brigades of 
cavalry under his cousin, Gen. Fitzhugh Lee, and 
on the Amelia Springs road, April 8, 1865, his 
cavalry checked the advance of the Federal army 
in the last struggle previous to the surrender. 
He was paroled with the Army of Northern Vir 
ginia and he returned to White House, where he 
rebuilt the residence and farm buildings destroyed 



by the Federal army and engaged in cultivating 
the plantation, 1865-74. He then removed to 
Burke Station, Va. He was president of the 
Virginia Agricultural society ; a state senator in 
1875, and served as a representative from the 
eighth district of Virginia in the 50th and 51st 
congresses, 1887-91, and was elected to the 52d 
congress in 1890. He died at Ravensworth, Va., 
Oct. 15. 1891. 

LEEDY, John Whitnah, governor of Kansas, 
was born in Richland county, Ohio, March 8, 
1849 ; son of Samuel K. and Margaret (Whitnah) 
Leedy, grandson of John Leedy, a pioneer of 
Richland, Ohio, and a descendant of Abram 
Leedy, a native of Berne, Switzerland, who 
settled in Fredericksburg, Md., about 1720. In 
1863 he tried to enlist in the Union army and 
was rejected on account of his youth, but re 
mained with the company until the close of the 
war. He was a clerk at Pierceton, Ind., 1865- 
68 ; and worked on a farm at Carlinsville, 111., 
1868-75. In 1875 he was married to Sarah I. 
Boyd of Frederickton, Ohio, where he lived until 
1881, and then purchased a farm near Leroy, 
Kan. He was originally a Republican, but from 
1N72 voted the Democratic ticket until the Pop 
ulist party was organized in which he became a 
leader. He was state senator in the Kansas leg 
islature, 1892-96; and governor of Kansas, 1897- 
99. He was defeated for re-election in 1898 by 
W. E. Stanley, Republican. In the spring of 1901 
he settled in Valdes, Alaska. 

LEFEVER, Jacob, representative, was born at 
New Paltz. N.Y., April 20, 1830; son of Garrett 
and Catharine (Dubois) Lefever, grandson of 
Jonathan and Catharine (Freer) Lefever and a 
descendant of Simon Lefever " The Patentee. 
He \\as educated at New Paltz academy, and 
Amenia seminary ; and became a prominent 
banker. He was supervisor of the town of New 
Paltz, 1861-62; a member of the state assembly, 
1863-67; a delegate to successive Republican 
state conventions and to the Republican national 
convention of 1888 ; and a Republican represent 
ative from the eighteenth district of New York 
in the 53d and 54th congresses, 1893-97. 

LE FEVRE, Benjamin F., representative, was 
born in Maplewood, Shelby county, Ohio, Oct. 
8, 1838. He attended Miami university, 1858-59 ; 
and studied law at Sidney, Ohio, but subsequently 
engaged in farming. He served in the Union 
army as a private, 1861-65; was nominated for 
secretary of state by the Democratic party in 
1865 : represented Shelby county in the Ohio 
legislature, 1866-68, was U.S. consul at Nurem 
berg, Germany, by appointment of President 
Johnson, 1868-69, and was a Democratic repre 
sentative from the fifth Ohio district, in the 
46th, 47th, 48th and 49th congresses, 1879-87. 



[29] 



LK FFYRF 



LFFFFPTS 



LE FEVRE, James, clergyman, was born at 
New P^lte;, N.Y., Jan. 1!). 1828: son of Xatiianael 
and Mifcgttalen (Hoornbeck) 1-e Fevre, and grand 
son of Johannes and Fli/.abeth (DuBois) Le Fevre 
and of Cornelius and .Mary ((iraliaiu) Hoornbeck. 
His first ancestor in America, Simon Le Fevre, 
emigrated from France, and was one of the 
twelve men who in Kid.!, purchased 1-N square 
miles from the Indians on the banks of the 
"VVaalkill river, in Ulster comity. X.Y., and es 
tablished a " palatinate " which they called 
New Paltz " and over which they and their 
successors ruled for over a hundred years. His 
ancestor, the Rev. James Le Fevre, was a fore- 
light of the reformation in France, whose philo 
sophical writings and translation of the New 
Testament gained for him the title " Light of his 
Age." James attended the district schools of 
New Paltz, attended academies in Ponghkeepsie 
and Xewburg, N.Y., and was graduated from 
Rutgers college in 1854, and from the Theologi 
cal seminary at New Brunswick. N.J., in 18.17. 
He was married, June 18. 1857. to Cornelia Has- 
brouck. He was ordained to the ministry in 
1837, and was pastor of the Reformed Dutch 
church at Raritan, 1857-75 : and became pastor 
at Middlebush, N.J.. in 1875. He was elected a 
member of the Huguenot Society of America in 
1892. The honorary degree of D.D. was con 
ferred on him by Rutgers college in 1893. He is 
the author of : History of the Reformed Church of 
Middli bitsli. A".</. (1884): and The Huguenot Pa 
tentees of Netr rltz (I HOG). 

LEFEVRE, Peter Paul, R. C. bishop, was born 
at Roulers, Belgium, April 30, 1804. After he 
had finished his studies in Paris, he removed 
to the United States in 1828 ; was ordained to 
the priesthood in St. 
Louis. Mo., by Bish 
op Rosati, in 1831, 
and was assigned to 
the Church of the 
Immaculate Concep 
tion, New Madrid, 
Mo., but in a few 
months was given 
charge of a mission 
embracing northern 
Missouri, western Illi 
nois, and southern 
Iowa, subsequently 
divided into four dio- 
ceses, Peoria, Alton, 
Davenport and part 
of the archdiocese of St. Louis. In 1841 he went 
to France to regain his health, greatly enfeebled 
by his ministration of so large a mission field 
with few means of travel save on foot or horse 
back, and while in Europe he was nominated 




Bishop of Zela in partibus, and coadjutor and 
administrator of Detroit. lie was consecrated 
by Bishop F. P. Kenrick. assisted by Bishops 
England and Hughes in St. John s church. Phila 
delphia. Nov. 21. 1841. When lie assumed charge 
of the diocese there were only two Roman Cath 
olic churches in Detroit and twenty-live in all 
the diocese in which parts of the stales of Wis 
consin and Michigan were included. He secured 
the tenure of church property in the bishop of 
the diocese ; built the Cathedral of SS. Peter and 
Paid, and secured church sites and oilier church 
property in newly settled localities where the 
missions formed the nucleus of cities, and from 
which was realized in time a revenue sufficient 
to meet all the charitable work in the city. lie 
established Indian missions in remote fields con 
venient to the tribes and founded the Redemp- 
torist convent in Detroit and the American col 
lege of Lotivain, Belgium. i:i which to train 
priests for this work. He also introduced into 
his diocese the various religious orders for the 
purpose of maintaining and conducting Roman 
Catholic schools, orphan asylums and insane re 
treats. During his administration the churche. 1 - 
in Detroit increased from two to eleven, and 
those in the lower peninsula toone hundred sixty, 
and from eighteen priests to eighty -eight. He 
attended the provincial councils of Baltimore 
and Cincinnati, and took a prominent part in the 
national council of 1852. He died in Detroit, 
Mich.. March 4. 1869. 

LEFFERTS, Marshall, inventor, was born in 
Bedford, Brooklyn, N.Y.. Jan. 15. 1821 : son of 
Leffert and Amelia Ann -(Cozine) Letferts ; 
grandson of John L. and Sarah (Cowenhoven) 
Lefferts ; great grandson of Rein and Ida Coweii- 
hoven, and a descend 
ant of Leffert Pieter- 
son van Hanghwout 
of Holland, who set 
tled in Flatbush. L.I., 
N.Y., be fore 1688. He 
received his educa 
tion in the Brooklyn 
public schools ; and 
became a civil en 
gineer and subse 
quently an importer 
and manufacturer of 
galvanized iron ware. 
He was married, June 
4, 1845, to Mary, 
daughter of Gilbert 
and Ann (Raymond) Allen. He joined the 7th 
regiment N.G.S.N.Y. in 1851 and in 1852 was 
made its lieutenant-colonel succeeding Abram 
Duryee as colonel in 1859. In the call for troops 
to defend the national capital in 1861 the 7th 




130] 



LEFFINGWELL 



LEFT YYICH 



regiment was the first Xe\v York regiment to 
march to the front, and Colonel Lelferts trans 
ported his regiment by boat to Annapolis, Md., 
and marched thence across the state to Washing 
ton, the inarch being attended with considerable 
hazard. After thirty days service the regiment 
returned home, and in 1862 and again in 1803 he 
led the regiment in emergency service at critical 
periods of the civil war. While in Frederic, Md., 
in 18(5:5, Colonel Lefferts was made military 
governor of the city. The regiment was recalled 
to New York in July, 18(5:5, to protect the city 
from rioters who had held the citizens and their 
property at their mere} for two or three days and 
the presence of the 7th regiment and their steady 
and determined march through streets mostly in 
control of the rioters soon restored order. He 
resigned the colonelcy of the 7th regiment in 
186."), declined the position of brigadier-general 
of militia and accepted the command of the 
veteran corps of the 7th regiment. He early 
recognized the commercial possibilities of the 
telegraph as invented by Morse, and was a direc 
tor and president of the com panics first organized 
in Xe\v York and New England, 1849-00. He 
furnished the first zinc plated wire which came 
into general use as rustproof. He perfected and 
patented a system of automatic; transmission, 
and his invention was purchased by the Amer 
ican Telegraph company who employed him as 
electrical engineer and consulting engineer, lie 
devised the instrument to measure the distance 
to defects in wires used in the transmission of 
messages, and made it possible to raise and repair 
broken submarine cables. The American Tele 
graph company consolidated with the Western 
Union Telegraph company in 18GG and in 1807 he 
resigned his position as electrical engineer of the 
Western Union and organized the Commercial 
News Department of that company. In 1809 he 
was made president of the Gold and Stock Tele 
graph company, which company in 1871 pur 
chased the Commercial News department of the 
Western Union and he became president and 
manager of the combined interests. While ac 
companying his corps to Philadelphia, Pa., to 
attend a Fourth of July parade in connection 
with the Centennial exhibition, he died suddenly 
on tlije cars near Newark, N.J.. July 3, 1870. 

LEFFINGWELL, Charles Wesley, educator, 
was born in Ellington, Conn., Dec. 5, 1840 : son 
of Lynian and Sarah Chapman (Brown) Lefrlng- 
weli, and grandson of Joseph and Sarah (Brand- 
ford-Ford) Leffingwell. His paternal ancestors 
were among the founders of Norwich, Conn., 1037. 
After teaching school he entered Union college 
in the class of 1800, and left in his junior year. 
He was principal of an academy in Galveston, 
Texas, 1859-00 ; and was graduated from Kuox 



college, Galesburg, 111., in 1862. He was vice- 
principal of Warring s Military institute, Pough- 
keepsie, N.Y., 1802-05, was graduated in theology 
at Nashotah House, Wis., in 1807, and remained 
there as a teacher. He was ordained deacon in 
1807 and priest in 1808, and was assistant pastor 
at St. James s church, Chicago. 111.. 1807. In 1808 
he founded and became rector of St. Marys 
church and school, Knoxville, 111. He founded 
St. Alban s Academy for boys in Knoxville, in 
1890. He edited The Livintj Clntrcli, 1879-1900 
and was made president of the standing commit 
tee and an examining chaplain of the diocese 
of Quincy. lie received the degree of D.D. from 
Knox college in 1875. He is the compiler of a 
Reading Book of English Classics for Young 
People"; "Lyrics of the Living Church, and 
the author of a volume of poems. 

LEFTWICH, Jabez, representative, was born 
in Caroline county, Va., in 1700 ; son of Augustine 
Leftwich, a native of Cheshire. England, who 
settled in Caroline county, Ya.. in 17-39 and re 
moved to Bedford county about 1770. Jabez was 
inspector-general with the rank of colonel on the 
staff of his brother. Gen. Joel Leftwich (q.v.). 
Returning to Virginia he represented Bedford 
county in the state legislature, 1812-21, nnd the 
Bedford district in the 17th and 18th congresses, 
1821-25, and was defeated for the 19th congress. 
At the close of his term he removed with his 
family to Madison county, Ala., and was a rep 
resentative in the state legislature. He died near 
Huntsville, Ala., June 22, 1855. 

LEFTWICH, Joel, soldier, was born in Caro 
line county, Va., in 1759 ; son of Augustine Left 
wich. He was a soldier in the Revolutionary 
war and took part in the battles of Germantown, 
Camden and Guilford. He returned io his 
father s estate in Bedford county, V*., a*Hl was 
an officer in the state militia. In the war of 
1812 he was commissioned brigadier-general and 
served under General Harrison, commanding a 
brigade. He was subsequently major-general of 
state militia and for many years justice of the 
peace of Bedford county. He died in Liberty, 
Bedford county, Va., April 20. 1840. 

LEFTWICH, John William, representative, 
was born in Liberty, Bedford count} , Va., Sept. 
7, 1820 : son of Joel and Mary (Thorpe) Left 
wich ; grandson of John and Susannah (Smith} 
Leftwich and great-grandson of Augustine Left 
wich, a native of Cheshire, England, who came 
to Caroline county, Va., in 17:59, and to Bedford 
county about 1770. John William Leftwich was 
graduated at Jefferson medical college in 1850, 
and subsequently settled in Memphis. Tenn., 
where he became an extensive cotton merchant. 
He was a- representative from Tennessee in the 
39th congress under the reconstruction act. and 
31] 



USUAitE 



LEGGETT 



he served from July, 1806, to March 3, 1867. He 
was mayor of Memphis and resigned his office in 
1871 to take his seat in the 42d congress, to 
which lie had been elected in 1870. On his way 
to Washington in February, 1871, lie was taken 
ill at Lynchburgli. Va.. and died March 6, 1871. 

LEGARE, Hugh Swinton, cabinet officer, was 
born in Charleston. S.C., Jan. 2, 1797; son of 
Solomon and Mary (Swinton) Legare: grandson 
of Thomas Legare, and a descendant of Solomon 
Legare, a Huguenot, who settled in Charleston, 
S.C., about 169(5. He was graduated from the col 
lege of South Carolina in 1814, studied law. 1814- 
16, and traveled abroad. 1810-18. He returned to 
Charleston and engaged in cotton planting on 
Johns Island. He was a representative in the state 
legislature, 1820-22 ; practised law in Charles 
ton, 1822-24 ; was a representative in the state 
legislature, 1824-30. and was attorney-general of 
the state, 1830-32. With Stephen Elliott he 
published the Southern- Review, and upon the 
death of Elliott he became sole editor. He was 
charge d affaires at Brussels, 1832-36 ; and a 
Union Democratic representative in the 25th 
congress, 1837-39. His opposition to the sub- 
treasury project prevented his re-election arid he 
returned to his law practice in Charleston, in 
which he became famous. He was appointed by 
President Tyler attorney-general in his cabinet 
in 1841, and upon the withdrawal of Daniel 
Webster from the state department in 1843, he 
filled t le office of secretary of state until his 
death, while visiting Boston to attend the dedica 
tion of Bunker Hill Monument. His sister, Mary 
Swinton (Legare) Bullen. endowed Legare col 
lege for women at West Point, Lee county, Iowa. 
He died at the residence of his friend, George 
Ticknor, in Boston, Mass.. June 16, 1843. 

LE GENDRE, Charles William, diplomatist, 
was born in Paris, France, probably in 1829. He 
was educated at the University of Paris, and on 
reaching his majority immigrated to the United 
States. He joined the volunteer army in 1861, 
and was assigned to the command of the post at 
Willett s Point. N.Y. He helped to recruit the 
5lst N.Y. volunteers and was commissioned 
major and advanced to the colonelcy of the re 
giment with which he served throughout the 
civil war, reaching the rank of brigadier-general 
of volunteers. In 1865 President Johnson ap 
pointed him U.S. consul to Amoy, China, his 
jurisdiction extending to Formosa. In 1870 he 
was on his return voyage to the United States to 
accept the post of U.S. minister to the Argen 
tine Republic, and on reaching Yokohama he 
was urged to remain in Japan by U.S. Minister 
Charles E. De Long, who sent a request to the 
governmeTit at Washington to change LeGendre s 
appointment to that of chief of the department of 



foreign affairs of Japan. With the consent of 
Presidents Grant and Hayes he held the position 
during the formative period of that empire, 1870- 
80. He went to Korea in 1880, as advisor to the 
King, was instrumental in securing the treaty of 
1882 with the United States, continuing in his 
position after that ruler was made emperor, and 
to him the government of Korea largely owes the 
great gains made in civilization, 1880-99. He 
died in Saoul. Korea. Sept. 2. 1899. 

LEQQETT, Mortimer Dormer, soldier, was 
born in Danby, Tompkins county. N.Y., April 19, 
1821 : son of Isaac and Mary (Strong) Leggett, 
members of the society of Friends : and grand 
son of Charles and Phebe (William) Leggett, 
and of James and 
Eleanor (Denton) 
Strong. The ances 
tors of the Leggett 
family. Abraham and 
Isaac Leggett (broth 
ers), came from Eng 
land to America about 
175."). Mortimer Leg 
gett removed to Ohio 
in 1836. where he 
worked on his fath 
er s farm until 1839. 
He then attended a 
normal school at Kirt- 
land, Ohio, and on 
leaving there took a 
course at Western Reserve college. He taught 
school, studied law, and took a course in the, 
Willoughby Medical school to qualify him 
self for the practice of medical jurisprudence. 
He was admitted to the bar in Warren, Ohio, in 
1844. In 1845 he established the first system of 
graded schools west of the Alleghenies. In 1857 
he removed to Zanesville, Ohio, where he was 
superintendent of the public schools. When the 
civil war broke out he was a volunteer member 
of General McClellan s staff, and accompanied 
him to western Virginia. In 1861 he raised and 
organized the 78th Ohio volunteers, and was com 
missioned its colonel. He commanded the regi 
ment at the battles of Fort Donelson, Shiloh and 
Corinth. At Bolivar, Tenn. , August, 1862, he met 
and for seven hours fought a brigade of cavalry 
under command of General Armstrong, his force 
being less than nine hundred men. He was 
wounded at Shiloh, and later at Champion Hills 
and Vicksburg. He commanded the 1st brigade, 
3d division, 17th army corps at Vicksburg 
during the siege, and his brigade was assigned 
to the construction of the extensive mine that 
compelled the evacuation of that stronghold. 
In the Atlanta campaign he commanded the 3d 
division, 17th army corps, and on July 21, 1864, 




[82] 



LEIIY 



LE1DY 



captured Bald Hill, and subsequently held the 
same against repeated attacks of the Confederate 
army, the position being the key to the posses 
sion of Atlanta. He marched with Sherman to 
the sea and through the Carolinas to Washing 
ton, and was commissioned major-general of 
volunteers, Aug. 21, 1865. In 1865 he returned 
to Zanesville, where for several years he was 
superintendent of a portable engine works. He 
was U.S. commissioner of patents, 1871-75, and 
then engaged in the practice of patent law in 
Cleveland, Ohio. He was an organizer of the 
Brush Electric company and became its presi 
dent in 1884. He was twice married : first, July 
ii, 1844, to Marilhi, daughter of Absalom and 
Marilla Wells of Montville, Ohio, and secondly 
to Weltha, daughter of H. C. and Sylvia Post of 
Sandusky, Ohio. He is the author of : .1 Dream 
of a Modest Prophet, and many pamphlets. He 
died in Cleveland, Ohio, Jan. 6. 1*96. 

LEHY, John F., educator, was born in Royal - 
s ton, Mass., Nov. 7. 1850: son of Geoffrey ami 
Elizabeth (Kelly) Leliy. He attended tiie public 
schools of Royalston and Holy Cross college at 
Worcester, Mass. He entered the Society of 
Jesus, Sept. 16, 1874 ; made his novitiate at 
Frederick, Md., 1874-76; studied philosophy at 
Woodstock college 1876-79, and theology, 1884- 
87, and was ordained priest in 1887. He was 
professor of mathematics at Holy Cross college, 
1879-84 and 1887-88 ; and at Georgetown univer 
sity, 1888-89 ; was vice-president of Gonzaga 
college, 1889-90 ; professor at Woodstock semi 
nary, 1892-93 ; vice-president of Holy Cross col 
lege, 18915-95 ; and president of that college, 
1895-1901. 

LEIB, Michael, senator, was born in Philadel 
phia, Pa., in 1759. He practised medicine in 
Philadelphia. He was a representative in the 
state legislature for several years ; a Democratic 
representative in the 6th, 7th, 8th and 9th con 
gresses, 1799-1807 ; and presidential elector on the 
Madison and Clinton ticket in 1809. He was elec 
ted U.S. senator to fill the unexpired term of 
Samuel Maclay, who resigned in 1808, and was 
elected for a full term as his successor, but re 
signed in 1814 and was succeeded by Jonathan 
Roberts. He was appointed postmaster of Phila 
delphia by President Monroe, serving, 1817-22. 
He died in Phladelphia, Pa., Dec. 22, 1822. 

LEIDY, Joseph, scientist, was born in Phila 
delphia, Pa., Sept. 9, 1823 ; son of Philip Leidy, 
and of German ancestry. He left school at the 
age of sixteen to become a draughtsman, but en 
gaged as a clerk in a drug store, giving his leisure 
to the study of botany, mineralogy and compara 
tive anatomy. He was graduated from the 
University of Pennsylvania, M.D., in 1844, be 
came an assistant in the chemical laboratory of 




the college and practised his profession for a 
short time. He was prosector to the chair of 
anatomy in the University of Pennsylvania, 1845, 
and was demonstrator of anatomy in Franklin 
Medical college, 1846. In 1847-48 he visited 
European hospitals 
with Dr. Charles Hor- 
ner and in 1849 he 
lectured upon micro 
scopic anatomy at 
the Medical Insti 
tute. He served in 
the chair made va 
cant by Dr. Homer s 
illness. 1852, and up 
on the hitter s death 
was elected his suc 
cessor. He again vis 
ited Europe in 1850 
with Dr. George B. 
Wood, collecting ma 
terial which was af 
terward placed in the museum of the University 
of Pennsylvania; and made the notable dissections 
and drawings for Dr. Amos Binney s work upon 
the terrestrial air-breathing mollusks. For a 
short time during the civil war he served as a 
surgeon at the Slatterlee hospital, Philadelphia. 
In 1871 he accepted the chair of natural history at 
Swarthmore college. In 1880 his " Description of 
Vertebrate Remains, Chiefly from the Phosphate 
Beds of South Carolina " won the Walker prize 
of $1000 from the Boston Society of Natural 
History. He was also awarded the Lyall medal 
with the sum of 25 by the Geological Society of 
London for scientific work. Dr. Leidy first ad 
vanced the theory that the trichinae bacilli, dis 
covered by Sir Richard Owen, infested pork and 
were thus transferred to the human organism. 
He founded the department of biology in the 
University of Pennsylvania in 1886. He enjoyed 
the friendship of foreign scientists, and Huxley s 
one visit while in the United States was to the 
quaint Spruce Street house of Professor Leidy in 
Philadelphia. He was a fellow or member of the 
prominent scientific societies of the United States 
and Europe, being at the time of his death 
president of the Academy of Natural Sciences 
and vice-president of the Anthopometric society. 
He received the honorary degree of LL.D. from 
Harvard in 1886. He published nearly one 
thousand books and pamphlets on his specialty. 
His brother Philip Leidy, Jr., University of Penn 
sylvania, M.D., 1859, died within thirty-six hours 
of Joseph Leidy s death and their bodies were 
cremated simultaneously at Gerrnantown, Pa. 
The brains of both were left by their wills to the 
Anthopometric society and by the examination it 
was found that they were below the normal 



[33] 



LEIGH 



LEISLER 



weight, confirming Leidy s theory that the tex 
ture of the brain and not the size is the measure 
of intellectual power. He died in Philadelphia, 
Pa., April 30. 1891. 

LEIGH, Benjamin Watkins, senator, was born 
in Chesterfield county, Va., June 18. 1781. He 
was graduated from William and Mary college in 
1802 ; was admitted to the bar and practised in 
Petersburg, Va., 1802-13. He was a representa 
tive in the state legislature from Petersburg, and 
presented resolutions, asserting the right of the 
legislature to instruct the U.S. senators from 
Virginia. He removed to Richmond, Va., where 
he continued his law practice ; was one of the 
commissioners to revise the statutes of Virginia ; 
was sent to Kentucky as a commissioner to 
consult with" Henry Clay, representing that state, 
concerning the "occupying claimants law, 
which resulted in an agreement that threatened 
to annul the title held by Virginia to lands in 
Kentucky. He was a member of the state con 
stitutional convention of 1829-30, was a reporter 
of the court of appeals of the state, 1829-41 and 
in 1833 was appointed to the LT.S. senate to fill 
the vacancy caused by the resignation of William 
C. Rives. He was elected in 1835 for a full sena 
torial term, but resigned in July, 183(5. The 
degree of LL.D. was conferred on him by the 
College of William and Mary in 1835. He pub 
lished Reports of C ases in the Court of Appeals 
and in the General Court of Virginia (1830-44). 
He died in Richmond, Va., Feb. 2, 1849. 

LEIGH, Hezekiah Gilbert, clergyman, was 
born in Perquimans county, N.C. , Nov. 23. 1795, 
He was a cousin of Senator Benjamin W. Leigh 
(q.v.). He attended school at Murfreesboro. N.C., 
and was a teacher for two 
years. He settled in Boyd 
ton, Ya., where he conduct 
ed a farm. He joined the 
Virginia conference of the 
Methodist Episcopal church 
in 1818, and was a prominent 
clergyman in Virginia and 

North Carolina, 1818-53. With Gabriel P. Dis- 
osway he planned and founded Randolph-Ma- 
con college in Boydton, Va., named for John 
Randolph of Virginia and Nathaniel Macon of 
North Carolina, who lived on opposite banks of 
the Roanoke and were prominent in their re 
spective states. He was a member of the se 
lect committee which framed the constitution 
for the college ; was an original trustee, was 
the first agent and a member of tiie building 
committee. He was an organizer of the Metho 
dist Episcopal church, south, in 1849. The hon 
orary degree of LL.D. was conferred on him 
by Randolph-Macon college in 1858. He died in 
Boydton, Ya., Sept, 18, 1858. 

[i 




LEIGHTON, Nicholas Winfield Scott, painter, 
was born in Auburn, Maine. He attended the 
public schools of Gray. Maine, and while at school 
devoted much of his time to drawing pictures of 
animals. He earned $2000 in three years by 
horse trading, and removed to Portland, Maine, 
when se\ enteen years old and established a studio 
as an animal painter. The patronage in Portland 
did not support him and lie removed to Provi 
dence, R.I., where he engaged in the artistic 
furniture trade for a short time, and then return 
ed to painting, visiting different cities. He finally 
settled in Boston, Mass., where he studied art 
and soon became widely known as an animal 
painter and as the " Landseer of America." He 
was admitted to membership in the Boston Art 
club, the Paint and Clay club and other organi 
zations. Among his more important paintings 
are: Here they Come; In the Stable; On the 
Road; Waiting; The Fearnanglit Stallion ; Three 
Veterans; Dogs ; Smuggler; The Pets; Ready 
for Work ; Saddled and Bridled; At the Trough ; 
Stable Scene; Sketch from Mature ; A Dry Feed; 
By the Spring ; Salting Horses ; Sheepford : At the 
Castle Gate ; Towser ; Study of a Bidl ; Study at 
Claremont, N.H.; A Winter Morning ; Study of a 
Pig ; Waiting in the Cold; Sleighing Scene ; The 
Auction ; Sliut In . A large number of his paint 
ings were exhibited and sold in Boston. Mass., 
after his death. He died at the McLean hospital, 
Waverly, Mass.. Jan. 17, 1898. 

LEIGHTON, William, author, was born in 
Cambridge, Mass., June 22, 1833 : son of William 
and Mary (Needham) Leighton ; grandson of 
Thomas and Anne Leighton. born at Newcastle, 
England, and came to Cambridge, Mass., in 1825 ; 
and of Jasper and Mary Needham. His maternal 
ancestor came from England to Danvers. Mass., 
in 1(530. He removed with his parents to Con 
cord, Mass., in 1838, and was graduated at Har 
vard, S.B. , 1855. He engaged in the manufacture 
of glass, first in Massachusetts and after 18(58 at 
Wheeling, W.Va., where he conducted the busi 
ness for twenty years. He is the author of nu 
merous lyric and dramatic poems and prose essays 
including : Konnak, an Icelandic Romance of the 
Tenth Century (18(50); Sons of Godirin (1870) ; 
At the Court of King Edtrin (1877) ; Change: The 
Whisper of the Sphin.r (1879); Shakespeare s 
Dream and other Poems ( I881-) ; The Price of the 
Present Paid by the Past (1XS3) ; a poem read at 
the unveiling of the Soldiers Monument at 
Wheeling, W. Va. : A Sketch of Shakespeare, 
prose (1874): The Subjugation of Hamlet, prose 
(1884), and Poems written 1841-90. 

LEISLER, Jacob, provisional lieutenant-gov 
ernor of New York, was born probably at Frank- 
fort-on-Main. Germany. He came to New Am 
sterdam as a soldier in the service of the Dutch 
M] 



LEISLER 



LELAND 



West India Company in 1660, and was married, 
April 11, 1663, to Elsje Tymens, widow of Peter 
Van der Veen, whose extensive business lie con 
tinued and thus acquired considerable wealth. 
Their children were : Susanna, Catharina. Jacob, 
Mary (who married, first Jacob Mil bourn and 




NEW YORK i N 1650 

secondly Abraham Gouverneur). Johannes, Hes 
ter, Francina and probably Margaret. On his re 
turn voyage to Europe he was in 1678 captured by 
the Turks and had to pay a ransom of 2050 pieces 
of eight. On Sept. 10, 1684, he was commissioned 
a captain of militia in New York. News of the 
accession of William and Mary reached New 
York from Virginia in February. 1689, but was 
kept from the people by Lieutenant-Governor 
Nicholson. When, however, the news reached 
New York that Boston had revolted. New York 
city also rose in revolt. Leisler headed the demo 
cratic citizens against the aristocratic adherents 
of James II., and was appointed lieutenant-gover 
nor by the Committee of Safety. He accordingly 
issued writs for the election of a General Assem 
bly, which assembly held two sessions, one in 
April, the other in October. 1690. The Roman 
Catholics formed common cause with the Jaco 
bites, while the Dutch, the Huguenots, and the 
majority of the English sided with Leisler. He 
was made captain of the fort, with powers of a 
chief magistrate. He immediately seized Fort 
James and all the funds therein. He declared re 
ligious toleration for all except the Papists. Col 
onel Bayard and his followers fled to Albany and 
there set up an independent government. The 
municipal authorities of the city of New York ac 
knowledged the rule of William and Mary but de 
clined to acknowledge the authority of Leisler 
till compelled to do so in 1690. Governor Nichol 
son sailed for England and Captain Ingoldsby was 
ordered to hold the government till the arrival of 
Colonel Henry Sloughter, who had been appointed 
by the Crown the new governor. Leisler refused 
to surrender the fort to Ingoldsby. but on the 
arrival of Sloughter. March, 1691. he peaceably 
gave up possession. Leisler and other leaders 
were arrested for treason, their estates were con 
fiscated, and Leisler and Milbonrn \vere con 
demned and executed May 16, 10U1. 



LEITER, Benjamin Franklin, representative, 
was born in Leitersburg, Md., Oct. 18, 1813 : son 
of Samuel and Catharine (Myers) Leiter, and a 
descendant of Jacob Leiter, who was born in 
Holland and immigrated to Maryland. He was 
educated chiefly by his father ; and taught school 
in Maryland, l30-34, and in Ohio, 1834-42. He 
settled in Canton, Ohio, and was justice of the 
peace ; mayor of Canton for ten years ; was ad 
mitted to the bar in 1842, was a representa 
tive in the state legislature, 1848-50, and speaker, 
1849-50. He was a representative from the 
eighteenth district of Ohio in the 34th and 35th 
congresses, 1855-59, and served on the committee 
on Indian affairs. He continued the practice of 
law up to the time of his death, which occurred 
in Canton. Ohio. June 17. 1866. 

LELAND, Charles Godfrey, author, was born in 
Philadelphia, Pa., Aug. 15, 1824; son of Charles 
and Charlotte Frost (Godfrey) Leland ; grandson 
of Oliver and Abigail (Perry) Leland. and a de 
scendant of Hopestill Leland (born 1580 in York 
shire, England), who 
settled inWeymouth, 
Mass., in 1623 : and 
of Gen. Edward God 
frey, the first gover 
nor of Maine. 1628; 
both Episcopalian 
royalists. Charles 
Godfrey Leland con 
tributed verses to 
periodicals as early 
as 1838. He attend 
ed private schools 
in Philadelphia and 
Boston, Mass., and 
was graduated at the 
College of New Jersey 

in 1845. He pursued a post-graduate course in 
the universities of Heidelberg and Munich, and 
attended lectures at the Sorbonneand the College 
Louis-le-Grand, Paris, 1847-48. He took an active 
part as captain of barricades in 1848 ; was among 
the first to enter the Tuileries when taken, and 
was one of the Americans in Paris selected to 
congratulate the Provisional government of 
France, established by the Revolutionists in Feb 
ruary, 1848. He studied law in the office of John 
Cadwalader in Philadelphia : was admitted to the 
bar in 1851. and practised law in that city, 1851- 
53. He was editor of the Illustrated Xeics. New 
York city, 1853-55; assistant editor of the Even- 
in ij Bulletin. Philadelphia, 1855-58. and editor of 
Van it i/ Fair. 1!S5S-(>I. In 1801 he contributed as 
editor articles to the Knickerbocker Magazine of 
New York, supporting the Union policy. He also 
established the Continental Magozine at Boston, 
Mass., and served as its editor while co-proprietor, 




[35] 



LELAND 



LE MOYNE 



1861-62, for the sole purpose of advancing the 
emancipation of the slaves. The degree of A.M. 
conferred on him by Harvard university in 1867 
was specified to be " for political services ren 
dered to his country during the civil war." In 
1865 he travelled through Kentucky, Tennessee 
and western Virginia in the interest of coal and 
petroleum speculations. He was managing editor 
of the Philadelphia Press, 1866-69, and engaged 
in literary work in London, England, 1869-80. 
He established with Mrs. R. Jebb in 1880 the sub 
sequently widely extended British Home Arts 
and Industries association. He was one of the 
original founders of the Folk-Lore congress at 
Paris in 1889, and discovered the "Shelta" lan 
guage, spoken by Celtic tinkers and others of that 
class, which was afterward verified by Kuno 
Meyer from a manuscript 1000 years old as the 
famous lost artificial language of the Irish bards. 
He was elected a fellow of the American Associa 
tion for the Advancement of Science and an hon 
orary fellow of the Royal Society of Literature 
in London. He was married, Jan. 17, 1856, to 
Elizabeth, daughter of Rodney Fisher, of Phila 
delphia. He was editorially employed on Apple- 
ton s and Johnson s cyclopaedias and contributed 
to them about 300 articles. His system of the 
minor arts as a ..branch of school education intro 
duced first in Philadelphia, 1880, by him person 
ally, and subsequently through the English Home 
Arts association, passed to hundreds of "institu 
tions, schools and classes in Great Britain and was 
also adopted in Austria and especially in fifty of 
the chief Hungarian government schools. Dur 
ing his residence in Europe he travelled in Rus 
sia, Egypt, Sweden and Norway, lived fifteen 
years in Italy and became a member of many 
oriental, folk-lore, social science and other con 
gresses, at all of which he read papers in the local 
language. He was officially recognized as sug- 
gester or founder of the Hungarian and Italian 
folk-lore societies, and he was elected president of 
the Gypsy Lore society of Buda-Pest, formerly of 
England. He is the author of : T/ie Poetry and- 
My&tery of Dreams (1850); Mister Karl s Sketch- 
Book (1855); Pictures of Travel, translated from 
Heinrich Heine (1856), subsequently followed by 
a translation of nearly all the works of Heine is 
sued in London by Heinemann (1890); Suns/line 
in Thought (1862); The Book of Copperheads 
(1863); Mother Pitcher s Poems (1863); Legends 
of Birds (1864); To Kansas and Back (1866); 
Union versus States Rights (1863); The Music 
Lesson of Confucius and Other Poems (1870); 
Gaudeamus (1871); The Ballads of Hans Breit- 
man(\871); France, Alsace and Lorraine (1872); 
Egyptian Sketch Book (1873) ; English Gypsies 
and their Language (1873); Fu Sang, or the Dis 
covery of America by Chinese Buddhist Priests in 



the Fifth Century (1875) ; English Gypsy Songs, in 
collaboration with Janet Tuckey and Prof. Ed 
ward H. Palmer (1875); Johannykin and the Gob 
lins (1876); Pidgin-English Sing-Song (1876); Life 
of Abraham Lincoln (1*79); The Minor Arts 
(1880); The Gypsies (1882) ; Industrial Education 
(1883); TJie Algonquin Legends of New England 
(1884); Practical Education. (1888); Manual of 
Wood Carving (1891); Gypsy Sorcery (1891); 
Leather Work, Metal Work and Manual of De 
sign (1892); Etruscan-Roman Remains (1892); 
Legends of Florence (1895); Memoirs (1895); Un- 
published Lessons of Virgil (1899) : Songs of the Sea 
and Lays of the Land (1899) ; Have You a Strong 
Will ? (1899); One Hundred Profitable Arts (1900) ; 
Arodis, or Gospel of the Witches (1900); and in 
1901 had in preparation Lessons in Nature ; Essays. 
and Songs of Sorcery and. Ballads of Witchcraft. 

LELAND, Henry Perry, author, was born in 
Philadelphia, Pa,, Oct. 28. 1828; son of Charles 
and Charlotte Frost (Godfrey) Leland. He en 
tered the University of Pennsylvania in 1844, left 
in 1846, and engaged as a clerk. He studied art 
in Rome, Italy, 1846-47, and spent several years 
in travel in America and Europe. He served as 
1st lieutenant in the 118th Pennsylvania regi 
ment of volunteers in 1861, and as private and 
sergeant in Landis s Pennsylvania battery, 1862- 
63. He received a contusion of the spine from a 
fragment of shell at Carlisle, Pa., in July, 1863, 
from the effects of which lie subsequently died. 
He devoted much of his time to literature, con 
tributing poems and sketches to magazines and 
newspapers, and was one of the first to perceive 
the genius of Walt Whitman, predicting his fu 
ture success. Whitman declared that during 
one year of his life, when he was almost in de 
spair at his ill-success, a letter from Mr. Leland 
had revived his spirits and encouraged him to 
renewed exertion. Mr. Leland spoke Spanish, 
Italian and French. He collaborated with his 
brother, Charles G. Leland, in much literary 
work, and was half-author and illustrator of 
" The Book of Copperheads," so much prized and 
praised by Abraham Lincoln that a copy of it, 
much thumbed, and one other work of humor, 
were the only books found in the President s 
private desk when deceased. Mr. Leland is the 
author of : The Gray Bay Mare and other Humor 
ous American Sketches ( 1856) ; The Jumping Frog, 
afterward rewritten by Mark Twain, and Amer 
icans in Rome. (1863). He died in Philadelphia. 
Pa., Sept. 22. 18(58. 

LE riOYNE, Francis Julius, educationist, 
was born in Washington, Pa., Sept. 4, 1798; son 
of Dr. John Julius de Villiers and Nancy (Mc- 
Cully) Le Moyne. He was graduated from 
Washington college. 1815, and from Jefferson 
Medical college, 1822, and was a physician in 



LE MOYNE 



LENIHAN 



Washington, Pa., 1N22-79. He was married in 
May, 1823, to Madeleine Roniaine Bureau. He 
helped to organize an anti-slavery society in 
1835 and was the abolition candidate for vice- 
president in 1840 and for governor of Pennsylva 
nia. 1841, 1844 and 1847. He was a trustee of 
Washington college, 18-50-52 ; of Washington 
Female seminary, 1836-65 ; endowed the Le 
Moyne chair of agriculture and correlative 
branches, and the Le Moyne chair of applied 
mechanics in Washington and Jefferson college ; 
gave $25.000 to found the Le Moyne normal insti 
tute for the education of the colored race at 
Memphis. Tenn., and in 1876 built the first cre 
matory in the United States, and was the third 
person whose remains were cremated there. 
He died in Washington. Pa.. Oct. 14, 1879. 

LE MOYNE, Jean Baptiste, Sieur de Bien 
ville, first governor of Louisiana, was born at 
Ville Marie. Canada, Feb. 23. 1080 ; son of Charles 
.and Catherine (Tierry) Primot Le Moyne, and 
grandson of Pierre and Judith (Duchesne) Le 
Moyne. He was left an orphan in 1690, and 
made his home with his brother Charles, Sieur, 
later Baron of Longueiiil, on whose death in 
1691 he succeeded to the title, being known as 
De Bienville. He followed the sea, and record is 
found of him as a midshipman in 1697, serving 
with his brother Iberville in the expedition 
against the English settlers at Hudson Bay. He 
accompanied Iberville to France, where the lat 
ter received the commission from Maurepas to 
discover and take possession of the mouth of the 
Mississippi river. Bienville sailed with the expe 
dition from Brest, Oct. 24, 1698, and in February, 
1(599, they established a camp at Biloxi, and in 
the same month discovered the mouth of the 
Mississippi river. Bienville was commissioned 
lieutenant of the king, and in 1700, after explor 
ing the country and visiting the Indian tribes, 
he established and became commander of a fort 
on the Mississippi forty-four miles above the 
mouth of the river. On Aug. 22, 1701, he took 
command of the camp at Biloxi, and in Decem 
ber, 1701, he was ordered to Mobile with men and 
material enough to make a settlement. In 1703- 
04 immigrants arrived from France with a plen 
tiful supply of money and provisions, and in 1706 
fifty Canadians settled in the colony. Bienville 
was ordered to France as a prisoner in February, 
1708, but succeeded in reinstating himself in 
royal favor, and he remained with the colony. 
He proposed in 1708 that Negroes be sent from 
the Antilles to Louisiana to cultivate the soil and 
to be exchanged for native Indians at the rate of 
two Negroes for three Indians. In June. 1713, 
Cadillac became governor of the colony and Bien 
ville was commissioned lieutenant-governor. 
Bienville and the new governor quarrelled, and 



early in 1716 Bienville was sent among the 
Natchez Indians with a few men to make a set 
tlement. He established a fort, which provoked 
a war, but in August a treaty of peace was con 
cluded. He returned to Mobile in October, and 
commanded the colony imtil the arrival of De 
1 Epinay, the new governor, in March, 1717, when 
Bienville was decorated with the cross of St. 
Louis. De 1 Epinay was recalled in 1718 and Bien 
ville was made commandant-general or gov 
ernor. He founded the city of New Orleans in 
1718, and it was made the seat of government in 
1723. On Feb. 16, 1724, Bienville was summoned 
to France to answer charges made against him, 
and in January, 1738, he was returned to Louis 
iana as governor with the rank of lieutenant- 
colonel. He made unsuccessful expeditions 
against the Chickasavv Indians in 1736, 1739 and 
1740. In 1743 he returned to France, seeking to 
restore his health, and died in Paris in 1768. 

LE MOYNE, John Valcoulon, representative, 
was born in Washington, Pa., Nov. 11, 1828 ; son 
of Dr. Francis Julius and Madeleine Romaine 
(Bureau) Le Moyne, and grandson of John Peter 
Romaine and Madeleine Francoise Charlotte 
(Marret) Bureau. Both his grandfathers came 
from France in 1790, and were of the French colony 
which founded the town of Gallipolis, Ohio. He 
was graduated from Washington college, Pa., 
A.B., in 1847 ; studied law in Pittsbnrg, Pa., and 
was admitted to the bar there in 1852. He re 
moved immediately to Chicago, 111. He was 
married, March 28, 1853, to Julia M. Murray, of 
Pittsburg. He was the unsuccessful candidate 
of the Liberal party for representative in the 43d 
congress in 1872, and was elected to the 44th 
congress as a Democrat, from the third Illinois 
district, defeating Representative Farwell, who 
claimed the seat. He took his seat in 1876, and 
served until the close of the 44th congress, March 
3, 1877. He traveled in Europe in 1887, and 011 
his return retired from business and removed to 
Melvale, near Baltimore, Md. 

LENIHAN, Thomas Matthias, R.C. bishop, was 
born in Mallow, county Cork, Ireland, Aug. 
12, 1845 ; son of Edward and Mary (Donovan) Len- 
ihan. He came to America with his parents in 
1850, settled in Dubuque, Iowa, and was con 
firmed by the Rt. Rev. Pierre Jean Matthias Loras, 
first bishop of Dubuque, in whose honor he then 
assumed the name of Matthias. He was educated 
at St. Thomas s seminary. Bardstown, Ky., 
1857-60, in the Theological seminary at Cape Gir- 
rardeau, Mo., and in St. Francis seminary at Mil 
waukee, Wis. He was ordained priest in St. Ra 
phael s cathedral, Dubuque, Iowa, Nov. 19, 1867, 
the first priest ordained by Bishop Hennessy, and 
was pastor of St. Benedict s church, Decorah, 
Wis., 1808-70. In 1870 he was appointed pastor of 



[37] 



LENNOX 



LENOX 




Corpus Christ! church and of the adjoining mis 
sions at Fort Dodge, Iowa, where he labored until 
his consecration as bishop. He was made irre 
movable rector and 
dean of this territory, 
and held, these ofh ces 
until 1897. He was 
proclaimed iu the 
consistory at Rome in 
November, 1890, Bish 
op of Cheyenne, as 
successor to Hie Rt. 
Rev. Maurice F. 
Burke, and was con 
secrated in St. Ra 
phael s cathedral at 
Dubuque, Feb. 24, 18- 
97. by Archbishop 
Hennessy, assisted 
by Bishops Cosgrove 

and Bonacum. being the first bishop conse 
crated by the metropolitan of Dubnque. 

LENNOX, Charlotte Ramsey, author, was born 
in New York city in 1720 ; daughter of Colonel 
Ramsey, lieutenant-governor of the colony. She 
was sent to England in 1735 to complete her educa 
tion, which was interrupted by the death of her 
parents, who left no property. She was patron 
ized in England by Lady Buckingham and by the 
Duchess of Newcastle. She appeared in public, 
first as an actress and subsequently as an author. 
She married Mr. Lennox, a London printer, and 
after his death was wholly dependent on her 
writings. She became an intimate friend of 
Samuel Richardson and of Samuel Johnson. 
Johnson wrote the introduction to " The Female 
Quixote," and to "Shakespeare Illustrated." 
During the latter pnrt of her life she was sup 
ported by the London literary fund. She is the 
author of : Poems on Several Occasions (1747) ; 
Memoirs of Harriet or Harriot Stuart (1751 ) ; 
The Female Quixote (1752) ; Shakespeare 111 it s- 
trated (3 vols. 175:5-54) ; Henrietta (1758) ; Phi 
lander, a Dramatic Pastoral (1758) ; The Duke 
of Sally s Memoirs, translated (1761): Faiher 
Burmoi/ s Greek Theatre (17(51) : Kopln a (17(>:5) ; 
The Sisters (17(51)) ; Oh I Cifi/ Manners (177J5) : 
Etipltemia (1790) ; Memoirs of Henri/ Lennox 
(1804), and several translations. She died in Lon 
don, England, Jan. 4. 1804, and was buried in 
Deans Yard, Westminster. 

LENOIR, William, soldier, was born in Bruns 
wick county, Va.. May 20. 1751. His parents, 
of French-Huguenot descent, removed in 1759 
to Edgecombe county, N.C., where he received a 
limited education and was married in 1770 to Ann 
Ballard of Halifax county, N.C. He removed to 
near Wilkesboro, then in Surry county, in 1775 : 
became a member of the council of safety for that 



county, and served as lieutenant under Capt. Ben 
jamin Cleveland in the expeditions of General 
Rutherford against the Cherokee Indians. He en 
gaged in suppressing the Tories ; and served as cap 
tain of the North Carolina Rangers under Colonel 
Cleveland in the battle of King s Mountain, Oct. 7, 
1780, where he was wounded. He took part in the 
engagement that resulted in the defeat of Colonel 
Pyle near the Haw river, where his horse was 
shot under him, and later he raised a company 
and marched toward the Dan river, witli the ex 
pectation of joining General Greene s army, but 
did not succeed. He passed through the various 
grades in the state militia, serving as major-gen 
eral, 1821-. 39. He was register, surveyor, com 
missioner of affidavits, chairman of the county 
court, and clerk of the superior court of AVilkes 
county. He was a justice of the peace : a mem 
ber of the house of commons of the North Caro 
lina, legislature for several years, state senator, 
1781-95, and president of the senate for live 
years ; a member of the council of state and pres 
ident of its board, and a member of both the ctate 
conventions which met for the purpose of con 
sidering the constitution of the United States,, 
where he insisted on the adoption of the pro. 
posed amendments. He was a trustee of the 
University of North Carolina. 1789-1804. and pres 
ident of the board, 1790-92. Lenoir and Lenoir 
county, N.C.. were named for him. He died at 
Fort Defiance. Wilkes county. N.C.. May (>. 18:59. 
LENOX, James, philanthropist, was born in 
New York city. Aug. 19. ISO!); son of Robert 
and - - (Cariner) Lenox. His father, a 
wealthy merchant and a native of Philadelphia, 
Pa., removed to New York at the close of the 
American Revolu 
tion, and at his death 
left to his only son 
and seven daughters 
property valued at 
several million dol 
lars, earned largely 
through investment 
in New York city 
real estate covering 
thirty acres known as 
Lenox Farm. James 
was graduated at 
Columbia college. A. 
B.. 1818. A.M., 1821. 
He became a dis 
criminating collec 
tor of books and works of art in America and 
Europe, lie was a member of the Presbyterian 
church, and a generous tlioutrli unostentatious 
benefactor to the charities of that church. He 
founded, furnished the land, and contributed the 
sum of ;i>735.000.to build Lenox library, and when 




[381 



LENTZ 



LEONARD 



completed furnished it with books, pictures and 
sculpture valued at over one million dollars. He 
also gave the land and one million of dollars in 
money to found the Presbyterian hospital, and 
gave liberally to the American Bible society of 
which he was president for many years. To the 
Presbyterian church on 73d street, New York, he 
gave the land on which it was built, valued at 
$100.000, and he also donated the land lor the 
Presbyterian home for aged men. worth 64.000. 
He was a liberal patron of the College of New Jer 
sey, and of Princeton Theological seminary, and 
was a trustee of the former, 1833-57, and of the 
latter. 1835-47. He received from the College of 
New Jersey the honorary degree of A.M. in 1821, 
and that of LL.I). in 1867, and from Columbia 
college that of LL.I). in 1875. He was a member 
of the New York chamber of commerce, 1830- 
80. Mr. Lenox never married. He died in New 
York city, Feb. 18, 1880. 

LENTZ, John Jacob, representative, was born 
near St. Clairsville, Ohio, Jan. 27. 1856 ; son of 
Simon and Anna (Meyer) Lentz, and grandson of 
John Lentz. of Bavaria, Germany, and of Jacob 
Meyer, of Monroe county, Ohio. He attend 
ed the district schools and the St. Clairsville high 
school ; was a teacher for four years, and was 
graduated from the National Normal university 
at Lebanon, Ohio, in 1877. He studied at the 
University of AVooster, 1877-78, and was gradu 
ated from the University of Michigan, A.B.. 1882, 
and from Columbia college, N. Y. city, LL.B., 
1883. He was admitted to the bar in October, 
1883, and practised at Columbus, Ohio. He was 
teachers examiner for five years of the city of 
Columbus; a trustee of Ohio university; was 
elected national president of the American Insur 
ance union, September, 181)0, and repeatedly re- 
elected ; and was a Democratic representative 
from the twelfth district of Ohio in the 55th and 
56th congresses, 1897-1901. 

LEONARD, Abiel, jurist, was born in Wind 
sor, Vt., May 16, 1797 ; son of Capt. Nathaniel 
Leonard, of Woodstock, Conn., who served in the 
war of 1812, and commanded Fort Niagara at the 
time of the capture by the British in 1813 ; and 
grandson of the Rev. Dr. Abiel Leonard (Har 
vard, 1759), a chaplain in Washington s army. 
His mother was a granddaughter of Gen. Natha- 
nael Greene. Abiel attended Dartmouth college, 
1813-16, leaving on account of failure of eyesight. 
He studied law with Gould & Sill in AYhites- 
boro, N.Y., and was licensed to practise in 1818. 
He made the journey of 1200 miles to Franklin. 
Mo. Ty., in 1818, where he established a school and 
at the end of six months a law office. In 1823 
he became circuit attorney. In 1824 he fought a 
duel with Maj. Taylor Berry whom he mortally 
wounded. He was married in October. 1830, to 



Jeanette, daughter of Col. B. H. Reeves, of 
Kentucky ; returned to Fayette, Mo., and was a 
representative in the Missouri legislature in 1835, 
where he carried through the liberal public school 
system of the state. He was one of the three 
justices of the supreme court of the state, 1855- 
57. tilling out the unexpired term of Hamilton R. 
Gamble, who resigned to become governor of the 
state : and practised law in Fayette and St. Lou-is. 
1857-61, when he retired owing to ill health. He 
died in Fayette. Mo.. March 28. 1863. 

LEONARD, Abiel, missionary bishop of Salt 
Lake and 145th in succession in the American 
episcopate, was born in Fayette. Mo.. June 26, 
1848 : son of Abiel and Jeanette (Reeves) Leonard. 
He was graduated from Dartmouth college, 
A.B.. 1870. A.M.. 18- 
73, and from the Gen 
eral Theological sem 
inary in 1873. He 
was ordered deacon 
in the Church of the 
Transfiguration. New 
York city, by Bishop 
Robertson, June 29, 
1873. and was ad 
vanced to the priest 
hood at St. Mary s 
church, Fayette, Mo., 
Nov. 4, 1874. He 
was rector of Calvary 
church, Sedalia, Mo., 
1873. Trinity church, 

Hannibal, Mo., 1877-81, Trinity church, At- 
chison. Kan., 1881-88 and held various official 
positions in the dioceses where his work was 
located. He was married, Oct. 21, 1875, to 
Flora T., daughter of A. H. Thompson of Sedalia, 
Mo. He was chosen missionary bishop of Nevada 
and Utah in 1887 and was consecrated in Christ 
church. St. Louis, Mo., Jan. 25. 1888, by Bishops 
Vail. Quintard, Tuttle, Perry, Burgess, Seymour, 
Walker, Thomas and Tnlbot. The diocese of 
Western Colorado was added to his jurisdiction 
in 1895, which changed his title to missionary 
bishop of Nevada, Utah and Western Colorado, 
and in 1899 to missionary bishop of Salt Lake. 
He received the degree of D.D. from Griswold 
college, Davenport, Iowa, from Bethany college, 
Topeka. Kan., in 1887, and from the General 
Theological seminary in New York in 1894. 
He published sermons and addresses. 

LEONARD, George, jurist, was born in Taun- 
ton, Mass., March 4, 1698; son of Maj. George 
and Anna (Tisdale) Leonard ; grandson of 
Thomas and Maiy (Watson) Leonard ; and great 
grandson of James and Margaret Leonard who 
emigrated from Wales with Henry Leonard, 
brother of James, in 1652, and settled in Taunton, 




[39] 



LEONARD 



LERAY 



Mass., in 1653, where they engaged in the manu 
facture of iron. George Leonard was admitted 
to the bar about 1720. He was married in 1721 to 
Rachel Clap of Scituate. He was justice of the 
peace, 1723-37 ; judge of the court of common 
pleas, 1725-30, 1733-40, and 1740-74 ; and judge of 
the probate court, 1747-78. He died in Norton, 
Mass., Dec. 4, 1778. 

LEONARD, George, representative, was born 
in Norton, Mass., July 4, 1729; son of Judge 
George and Rachel (Clap) Leonard. He was 
graduated at Harvard, A.B. 1748, A.M. 1751; 
was register of the probate court, 1749-83; and 
was admitted to the bar in 1750. He was married 
Nov. 27, 1759, to Experience, daughter of the Hon. 
Samuel White, of Taunton. He was a represen 
tative in the provincial legislature, 1704-66 ; coun 
cillor, 1770-75 ; judge of the probate court. 1784- 
90 : judge of the court of common pleas, 1785-98, 
and chief justice, 1798-1804. He represented 
Massachusetts in the 1st, 3d and 4th congresses, 
1789-91 and 1793-97 ; was a state senator, 1792-93, 
and a state representative. 1801-02. He received 
the honorary degree of A.M. from Yale in 1753 
and that of LL.D. from Brown in 1804. He 
died in Raynham. Mass.. July 26, 1819. 

LEONARD, Stephen Banks, representative, 
was born in New York city. April 15, 1793: son 
of Silas and Joanna (Gregory) Leonard, of Bridge 
port. Conn., grandson of Joshua Leonard of New 
Jersey, and a descendant of James and Henry 
Leonard of Taunton, Mass., 1653. He removed 
with his parents to Owego, N.Y., and learned the 
printer s trade. He was married, Feb. 22. 1818, to 
Esther H. Sperry, daughter of Jared Sperry of 
New Preston, Conn. He purchased the American 
Farmer in 1814, and changed the name to Oweyo 
Gazette which he continued to publish until 1835. 
He carried the tirst mail through Tioga county in 
1814 on horseback and established the first stage 
route from Owego to Bath in 1816. He was post 
master of Owego, 1816-20 and 1844-49 ; super 
visor of the town in 1854 and 1856 ; a Democratic 
representative in the 24th and 26th congresses, 
1835-37 and 1839-41. and deputy U.S. marshal 
during the administration of President Buchanan, 
1857-61. He died in Owego. N. Y.. May 8, 1876. 

LEONARD, William Andrew, fourth bishop 
of Ohio and 151st in succession in the American 
episcopate, was born in Southport, Conn.. July 
15,1848; son of William Boardman and Louisa 
(Buckley) Leonard, grandson of Stephen Banks 
Leonard (q. v.) ; great grandson of Silas Leonard, 
and a descendant of Henry Leonard, Taunton, 
Mass., 1653. He was a student at Phillips An- 
dover academy, and at St. Stephen s college. An- 
nandale, N.Y.. and was graduated at Berkeley 
Divinity school, Middletown, Conn., in 1871. He 
was made deacon May, 31, 1871, and ordained 



He was 
D.D..at 




priest, July 22, 1872. He was married, April 17. 

1873, to Sarah Louisa, daughter of Thomas 

and Phebe Sullivan of Brooklyn, N.Y. 

assistant to the Rev. Charles H. Hall, 

Holy Trinity church, Brooklyn, N.Y., 1871-72, 

and was rector of the 

Church of the Re 

deemer, Brooklyn. N. 

Y.. 1872-80, and of St. 

John s church, Wash 

ington, D.C., 1880- 

89. He was chosen 

missionary bishop of 

Washington Terri 

tory in 1880, but de 

clined the appoint 

ment. He was elect 

ed bishop of Ohio in 

1889 and was conse 

crated in St. Thomas. s 

churc-h. New York, 

Oct. 12. 1889. by Bish 

ops Williams. Doane. Whitehead. Pa ret. Whip- 

pie. Vincent, and Courtney of Nova Scotia. He 

received the degree of D.I), from St. Stephen s 

college in 1SS1 and from Washington and Lee 

university in 1883. He is the author of Via 

Sacra, or Footprints of Christ (1879); Brief 

History of the Christian Church (1883); A Faith 

ful Life (1887) ; Church. Club Lectures (1893) 

Bedell Lectures (181)4). 

LERAY, Francis Xavier, R.C. archbishop, was 
born at Chateaugiron. Rennes. France, April 20, 
1825. He studied for the priesthood, and in 1843 
emigrated to the United States. He was a teacher 
in Spring Hill college, Mobile. Ala.; a seminarian 
at the Sulpitian college of Baltimore, and on 
graduating became prefect of St. Mary s college. 
He subsequently travelled as a missionary through 
the southwest, and on March 19, 1852. was or 
dained priest by Bishop Chanche at Natchez, 
Miss. Tie was at Jackson. Miss., through the yel 
low fever epidemics of 1853 and 1855 ; established 
a parish at Yicksburg, Miss., in 1857. and the 
Sisters of Mercy in i860, bringing the first mem 
bers of the order from Baltimore. He joined the 
Confederate army in 1861 as chaplain, and placed 
the army hospitals of the diocese in charge of the 
Sisters of Mercy. At the close of hostilities he 
returned to Yicksburg and re-established the 
various Catholic institutions interrupted by the 
war, and when the cholera visited the city in 
1867 he placed trained nurses from the orders of 
women in charge of the temporary hospitals. Ho 
was elected bishop of Natchitoches, La., in 1877, 
as successor to Bishop A. M. Martin, who died, 
Sept. 29, 1875, and he went to France to receive 
consecration in his native city. April 22. 1877, at 
the hands of Cardinal St. Marc, archbishop of 



[40] 



LKKOY 



LESLEY 




JJ.S.S. OSSlPEE. 



Rennes, assisted by Bishop Hailandiere, bishop of 
Vincennes, Ind., 1839-47, and Mgr. Nouvel, bishop 
of Quimper, France. He was named Bishop of 
Janopolis, coadjutor of New Orleans and admin 
istrator of Natchitoches, Oct. 23. 1879, and was 
promoted to the see of New Orleans as arch 
bishop, Dec. 27, 1883, receiving the pallium from 
Cardinal Gibbons in January, 1884. He died at 
Chateaugiron, France, Sept. 23, 1887. 

LEROY, William Edgar, naval officer, was 
born in New York city, March 24, 1818. He en 
tered the U.S. navy as a midshipman, Jan. 11, 
1832 ; was promoted passed midshipman in June, 
1838, and lieutenant, July 13. 1843. He served on 

the OJiio, Com 
modore Hull s 
flags!) ip, and at 
the outbreak of 
the Mexican war 
"was attached to 
the Princeton, 
and in 1847 par 
ticipated in the 
engagement with the Mexican soldiers at Rio 
Aribiqua. He commanded the Mystic off the Afri 
can coast in 18(51 ; was promoted commander, July 
1, 1861, and assigned to the command of the Key 
stone State of the Soutli Atlantic squadron. He 
aided in the capture of Fernandina. Fla., 1862, and 
participated in an engagement with Confederate 
iron-clads in January. 1863. in Charleston harbor, 
S.C.. where the C/i/coro, Capt. J. R. Tucker, 
rammed the Keystone State and caused him to 
lower his flag, but the Confederate vessel not 
taking advantage of the situation, Captain Leroy 
again hoisted the flag ar.d retained possession of 
his vessel. He was transferred to the West Gulf 
squadron in 1864, and commanded the steam 
sloop Oneidd and the Ossipee. While in com 
mand of the Onsipee at the battle of Mobile Bay, 
Aug. 5, 1864, the ram Tennessee, Commander 
James T. Johnston, surrendered to him ; and he 
was a member of the board of survey appointed 
by Admiral Farragut to report on the condition 
of that vessel after the battle. He was promoted 
captain, July 25. 1H66, and was fleet captain of 
the European squadron under Farragut, 1867-68. 
He was promoted commodore. July 3, 1870 ; rear- 
admiral. April 5, 1874, and commanded the Soutli 
Atlantic squadron, 1876-79. He was retired, 
March 20, 1880, on reaching the age of sixty- 
two years. He died in New York, Dec. 10, 1888. 
LESLEY, Peter, geologist, was born in Phila 
delphia, Pa., Sept. 17, 1819; son of Peter and 
Elizabeth Oswald (Allen) Lesley, and grandson 
of Peter Lesley, who emigrated from Aberdeen- 
shire, Scotland. He was graduated at the Uni 
versity of Pennsylvania. A.B., 1838. A.M.. 1841. 
He assisted Henry D. Rogers in the survey of 




Pennsylvania, 1839-41, and had charge of the 
maps and illustrations for the first report issued 
in 1842. In 1841 lie changed his name to J. P. 
Lesley for business reasons. He was a student at 
the Princeton Theological seminary, N.J., 1841- 
43, and was licensed 
to preach by the pres 
bytery of Philadel 
phia, April 4, 1844. 
In that year lie trav 
elled in Europe, and 
attended lectures at 
the University at 
Halle. In 1845 he 
was a colporteur in 
northern and middle 
Pennsylvania, em 
ployed by the Ameri 
can Tract society. 
His license was with 
drawn, May o, 1848, 
and lie engaged in 
geological work in Boston, Mass., and was pastor 
of the Congregational church in Milton, 1848-51. 
Thereafter he devoted himself exclusively to 
geology, making his home in Philadelphia. He 
was secretary of the American Iron association, 
1855-59, and secretary and librarian of the Amer 
ican Philosophical S3ciety, 1858-73, meantime 
surveying the Cape Breton coal fields, 1H62-63. 
and making exploring tours in the United States 
and Canada. In 1863 he was sent to Europe by 
the Pennsylvania railroad company to examine 
the methods of manufacturing steel from iron, 
and report upon the success of Bessemer s con 
verter. He travelled through England, Belgium 
and the south of France wherever the flasks had 
been erected. He was chosen a corporate mem 
ber of the National Academy of Sciences, and in 
1867 was a commissioner to the World s Fair in 
Paris. He was professor of geology and mining 
and dean of the scientific faculty. University of 
Pennsylvania, 1872-80, and was then made pro 
fessor emeritus. In 1874 lie was chief geologist 
in the second survey of Pennsylvania and pub 
lished over seventy reports in connection with this 
work. He was elected president of the American 
Association for the Advancement of Science in 
1884. He lectured before the Lowell Institute in 
Boston ; was made a life member of numerous 
important scientific societies in America and Eu 
rope ; and received the degree of LL.D. in 1878 
from Trinity college, Dublin. He was married 
in 1849 to Susan Inches, daughter of Judge Joseph 
Lyman, of Northampton, Mass. She wrote " Re 
collections of My Mother." a memoir of Mrs. 
Anne J. Lyman (1876. 2d ed., 1886). After a 
severe illness in 1866, Dr. Lesley spent a portion 
of each alternate year in Europe. He is the au- 



[41] 



LESLIE 



LESLIE 



thorof: Coal and its Topography (1856); Guide 
to the Iron Works of the United States ; The Iron 
Manufacturer s Guide (1859); Man s Origin and 
Destiny from the Platform of Sciences, Lowell In 
stitute lectures, 1863-66 (1868); Catalogue of 
American Philosophical Society Library. ^csv;j-?,v , 
Paul Dreifnss His Holiday Abroad (1884): Dic 
tionary of the Fossils of Pennsylvania (1892); A 
Summary of Final Reports, Second Geological 
Survey of Pennsylvania (1892). 

LESLIE, Charles Robert, painter, was born 
in London, England. Oct. 19, 1794: son of Robert 
and Lydia (Barker) Leslie, natives of Philadel 
phia, Pa., and a descendant of Robert Lesley of 
Bull s Mountain. Cecil county, Mel., who emi 
grated from England about 1645. He was a 
student at the University of Pennsylvania, 1807- 
10 : an apprentice in the bookstore of Samuel 
Bradford, where he displayed his talent in art ; 
and was sent by the merchants of Philadelphia 
to England, to study under Benjamin West and 
Washington Allston. In London he was pa 
tronized by the leaders in art and letters ; won 
silver medals at the Royal Academy, and painted 
" The Murder Scene from Macbeth " ; Sir Roger 
de Coveiiey Going to Church " and " May Day in 
the Reign of Queen Elizabeth." He was made an 
associate of the Royal Academy in 1821, and a 
royal academician in 1825. He exhibited " Au- 
tolycus and Perdita " (1836); " Lady Jane Grey 
Prevailed on to Accept the Crown " and " Sir 
Roger de Coverley and the Gypsies " (1829); 
"Anne Page and Master Slender " and " Uncle 
Toby and the Widow " (1831). He was professor 
of drawing in the U.S. Military academy, 1831- 
32; and returned to England in 1834, to execute 
a companion picture to " Sancho Panza and the 
Duchess." He also painted, "The Introduction 
of Gulliver to the Queen of Brobdingnag" ; " Lady 
Carlisle Carrying the Pardon to her Father in the 
Tower"; " The Chaplain s Protest in Don Quix 
ote " ; " Columbus ; " Don Quixote in the Sierra 
Morena " ; " Sancho Panza" ; " The Coronation of 
Queen Victoria" and "The Christening of the 
Princess Royal." He taught classes in the Royal 
Academy, 1848-51, and his last picture, " Hotspur 
and Lady Percy," was exhibited in 1859. Numer 
ous of his creations were multiplied and popu 
larized by eminent steel-plate engravers, and he 
was among the first artists to urge that steel- 
plate engravers be admitted to membership in 
the Royal Academy. He was elected a member 
of the American Philosophical society in 1837. 
His brother, Thomas Jefferson Leslie (born in 
London, Nov. 2, 1796 ; died in New York city, 
Nov. 25, 1874), was graduated from the U.S. 
military academy, in 1815; was bre vetted lieu 
tenant-colonel, colonel, and brigadier-general for 
fifty years service in the pay department, in 



1865, and was retired in 1869. His sister, Eliza 
(born Nov. 16, 1787 ; died Jan. 2, 1858), was the 
author of many popular books on domestic eco 
nomy, diaries Robert Leslie is the author of : 
Memoir of Joint Constable (1848); Hand Booh for 
Young Painters (1855): Autobiographical Recol 
lections (I860): Life and Times of Sir Josh ua 
Key n olds (1865). He died in London, England, 
May 5. IS,")!). 

LESLIE, Frank, publisher, was born in Ips 
wich, England, March 29, 1821 ; son of Joseph 
Carter, a glove manufacturer, and was named 
Henry Carter. He was educated in Ipswich, 
England, and was in the employ of his uncle, 
a dry-goods merchant in London, 1838-41. Dur 
ing this engagement he contributed pen draw 
ings to Tlie Illustrated London Neirs. signing 
them " Frank Leslie." This led to his securing 
tlie position of superintendent of the art depart 
ment of this periodical, which he held until 1848. 
Meanwhile he made a study of the publishing 
business as conducted in London, at the same 
time gaining a reputation as an expert wood en 
graver. He came to the United States in 1848, 
where he made Frank Leslie his lawful cogno 
men. He was employed on Gleason s Pictorial, 
Boston, Mass., 1848-49 ; was superintendent of the 
engraving department of the Illustrated Neu-s, 
published by P. T. Barnum. 1850-54, and in 1854 
established The Gazette of Fashion and The, New 
York Journal. The first number of Frank Leslie s 
Illustrated Neu spaper appeared Dec. 14, 1855, 
and was profusely illustrated with pictures of 
current events. He was the first to introduce 
into his illustrating department the system of 
separating the block on which the illustration 
was drawn and assigning each piece to an en 
graver, thus insuring the speedy completion of 
large illustrations. He established The Chimney 
Corner (1865) ; The Boys and Girls Weekly (1866); 
The Chatterbox (1868); The Jolly Joker (1869); 
The Lady s Journal, a weekly (1870); The Budget 
of Fun, a monthly (1872): The New World, a 
weekly (1873); Pleasant Hours (1873): The Pop 
ular Monthly (1876); The Sunday Magazine 
(1878); The Illustrated Almanac and Tlie Comic 
Almanac. He failed in business in 1877 and from 
that time until his death directed the business in 
the interest of his creditors. He received the 
medal of the American Institute for Wood-En 
graving in 1848 : was sent as a U.S. commissioner 
of fine arts to the Paris exposition of 1867, and 
while in Paris was personally decorated with a 
medal by Napoleon III. for his services as jury 
man. He was also president of the New York 
state commission to the Centennial exhibition at 
Philadelphia, in 1876. He was twice married and 
by his first wife had sons : Henry. Alfred and 
Scipio. He died in New York city, Jan. 10, 1880. 



[42] 



LESLIE 



LESQUEREUX 



LESLIE, Miriam Florence, (Frank Leslie), 
publisher, was born in New Orleans, La., and was 
descended from a French-Creole family. She 
received a broad education including all the ac 
complishments with many solid and useful attain 
ments, and at an early age was married to the 
Hon. E. G. Sijiiier, and accompanied him imme 
diately after marriage to Peru, where lie was 
U.S. commissioner, 18G3-0.~>. She early evinced 
literary ability and while her husband was editor 
of Frank Leslie s Illustrated Newspaper, she be 
came editor of Frank Leslie s Lady s Magazine and 
Lady s Journal. She was married, July 13, 1871, 
to Frank Leslie, and during his lifetime learned 
all the details of the publishing business in which 
she assisted him. After the death of Mr. Leslie, 
she continue:! the editorial management under 
the assignee, till that office was dissolved. She 
adopted the name of Frank Leslie by legal pro 
cess, in June. 1881, and afterward personally 
managed the entire business, discharging debts 
amounting to 8300,000, and placing the concern 
on a paying basis. The business was incorporated 
as the Frank Leslie Publishing House in 1808, 
and she was president and chief owner and man 
ager. She travelled in Europe extensively during 
the summer of each year until 1899, when she 
again took up the editorship of Frank Leslie s 
Popular Mon Ililij and discontinued it in 1901. re 
turning to France. She contributed to maga 
zines and is the author of From Gotliatti to the 
(1 olden (fate; Itza ; Are We all Deceivers? A 
Social Mirage; Rents in otir Robes; and other 
books. 

LESLIE, Preston Hopkins, governor of Ken 
tucky, was born in Clinton county. Ky.. March 2, 
1819; son of Vachael H. and Sallie (Hopkins) 
Leslie, and grandson of Vachael Leslie, and of 

Dennis Hopkins, sol 
diers in the American 
Revolution. He was 
educated in the old- 
field schools and the 
academy at Colum 
bia, Ky.. and worked 
as a common laborer 
until 1835 when he 
became a clerk iirst 
in a store and then in 
the county clerk s of 
fice. He studied law 
under Rice Maxey 
and practised in 
Monroe county. Ky., 
1810-4-3, and in Jack 
son county, 1842-53. He was a representative 
in the state legislature, 1814-40 ; state senator, 
1851-:"), and from Barren conn .v. INCiT-Tl. serving 
as speaker of the senate, 18M-71. On the resigna- 




< 

Jo- 



tion of Governor Stevenson, Feb. 13, 1871, to take 
his seat in the U.S. senate, Speaker Leslie 
became ex offlcio governor of Kentucky and 
was inaugurated for the balance of Senator 
Stevenson s term. He was elected governor as 
his own successor Aug. 7, 1871. his term expiring 
September, 1875. He practised law in Glasgow. 
Barren county, 1875-81 ; was judge of the circuit 
court, 1881-87; governor of Montana Territory, 
1887-89, and U.S. attorney for the district of 
Montana, 1894-98. In 1898 he resumed the 
practice of law in Helena, Mont. 

LESQUEREUX, Leo, paleontologist, was born 
in Fleurier, Switzerland. Nov. 18, 1806 ; of Hugue 
not parents. While a student at the Academy of 
Neuchatel, he formed a friendship with Arnold 
Gnyot, with whom he studied natural science, 
and in 1827 he went 
to Eisenach to study 
German. He mar 
ried in 1829 the 
daughter of General 
Von Wolff skel. He 
was principal of a col 
lege at La Chaux de 
Fonds, 1829-34. when 
deafness compelled 
him to take up watch- 
engraving and watch- 
spring making to sup 
port his family. Dur 
ing his leisure mo 
ments he collected 
mosses and speci 
mens of fossil plants. His memoirs on these 
specimens were published and favorably no 
ticed by Louis Agassiz, who was then professor 
of natural sciences at the Academy of Neuchatel. 
In 1844 Lesquereux won a gold medal from the 
canton of Neuchatel for an essay on the prepara 
tion and use of peat for fuel which was accepted 
by scientists and still continues an authority on 
the subject. He was made director of operations 
to utilize the peat-bogs of that canton, and after 
ward went through northern Europe on similar 
work under the patronage of the King of Prussia. 
The revolutionary council of Geneva deprived 
him of government employment, and with his 
wife and five children he immigrated to America 
in 1848, where he was welcomed to the home of 
Louis Agassiz, who gave him employment in 
arranging the botanical portion of his collections 
from Lake Superior. He removed to Columbus, 
Ohio, in December, 1848 and studied in the 
laboratory of William S. Sullivant. In 1849 at 
Mr. Sullivant s suggestion he travelled through 
the southern mountains and collected botanical 
specimens, which resulted in the work Miisei, 
Boreali Americani, quorum speeiniina Exsiccati 




i 13 



LESTER 



LESUEUlt 



ediderunt W. S. SuUivant et L. Lesquereux (1856 ; 
2d ed. , 1865) . He also assisted Mr. Sulli vant in the 
preparation of the latter s works on the mosses of 
the Wilkes South Pacific exploring expedition, 
Whipple s Pacific Railroad exploration, and the 
Icones Mitseorum. In 1850 be began his practical 
researches in the coal formations of the United 
States, examining the coal strata of Ohio, Ken 
tucky, Illinois, Arkansas and Pennsylvania, and 
adding memoirs to the state geological surveys. 
His work in this field is said to have been 
his most important contribution to science. He 
became a member or officer in the principal 
scientific societies in the United States and 
Europe, and in 1864 was elected the first member 
of the National Academy of Sciences. He was a 
close friend and correspondent of all the leading 
paleontologists of Europe and America. The 
degree of LL.D. was given him by Marietta 
college in 1875. His published works include : 
Catalogue of the Mosses of Switzerland, and 
Memoirs (1840) ; Letters Written on Germany 
(1856) ; Letters Written on America (1847-55) ; 
Icones Muscornm (1864); Catalogue of the Fossil 
Plants which have been Named or Described from 
the Coal-Measures of North America (1858) ; On 
Land Plants in the Lower Silurian ( 1874) ; The 
Tertiary Flora (1877) ; The Coal Flora (3 vols. 
with atlas, 1880-84) ; Manual of the Mosses of 
North America, with Thomas P. James (1884) ; 
Remarks on some Fossil Remains Considered as 
Marine Plants (1890): The Flora of the Dakota 
Group (edited by F. H. Knowlton (1891), and 
many memoirs, his works approximating fifty 
publications. He died at Columbus, Ohio, Oct. 
25, 1889. 

LESTER, Charles Edwards, author, was born 
in Griswold, Conn., July 15, 1815. He was ma 
ternally a descendant of Jonathan Edwards. 
After receiving a thorough classical education lie 
travelled in the south and west, studied law for 
one year in Mississippi, but abandoned law for the 
ministry, and was a student at Auburn Theological 
seminary, 1835-36. He was pastor of a Congre 
gational church at Liverpool, N.Y., in 1837, but 
on account of weak lungs gave up the ministry 
and went abroad in search of health. He visited 
Great Britain in 1840, as one of the Ameri 
can delegates to the Exeter Hall Anti-slavery con 
vention ; was U.S. Consul at Genoa, Italy, 1842-47, 
and then returned to New York city and engaged 
in literary work until a short time before his 
death. He edited various journals and magazines, 
and is the author of : The Mountain Wild Flower 
(1838); The Glory and Shame of England (2 vols., 
1841); Condition and Fate of England (2 vols., 
1843) ; The Artist, Merchant and Statesman (1 845) ; 
Life and Voyages of Americus Vespucius (1846); 
Artists in America (1846) ; My Consulship^ vols.. 

[441 



1851); The Napoleon Dynasty (1852); Life and 
Public Services of Charles Sumner (1874); Our 
First Hundred Years (1874); America s Advance 
ment (1878); The Mexican Republic (1878); His 
tory of the United States (2 vols., 1883); Life and 
Achievements of Sam Houston (1883). His trans 
lations include: Alfieri s Autobiography (1845); 
Massimo d Azeglio s Challenge of Barletta (1845); 
Machiavelli s Florentine Histories (1845); Ausaldo- 
Ceba s Citizens of a Republic (1845). He died in 
Detroit, Mich.. Jan. 29, 1890. 

LESTER, Posey Green, representative, was 
born in Floyd county, Va., March 12, 1850. He 
remained on his father s farm until 1870, attend 
ing the district school in winter, and completed 
his education in the public school after 1870. He 
taught for a time in a literary and vocal school, 
and became an Old-School Baptist preacher in 
1876. He travelled and preached in eighteen 
states. He was a Democratic representative from 
the fifth Virginia district in the 51st and 52d 
congresses, 1889-93. He became in 1883 an asso 
ciate editor of Zions Landmark, an Old-School 
Baptist monthly established by D. P. Gold, Wil 
son, N.C., and also assisted in the publication of 
a hymn and tune book for use in the Old-School 
Baptist church. 

LESTER, Rufus Ezekiel, representative, was 
born in Burke county, Ga., Dec. 12, 1837 ; son of 
Ezekiel and Mary (Lewis) Lester, and grandson 
of Ezekiel and Elizabeth (Stringer) Lester and of 
John and Mary (Warnock) Lewis. He was grad 
uated from Mercer university, A.B., 1857, A.M., 
1860 ; was admitted to the bar in 1859 and prac 
tised law in Savannah. In 1861 lie entered the 
service of the Confederate States, remaining in 
the army until the surrender of Appomatox, when 
he resumed his practice at Savannah. He was 
state senator from the first district of Georgia, 
1870-79 ; president of the Georgia senate, 1876- 
79 ; mayor of Savannah, 1883-89, and a Democratic 
representative from the first district of Georgia in 
the 51st, 52d, 53d, 54th, 55th, 56th and 57th con 
gresses, 1889-1903. 

LESUEUR, Charles Alexander, ichthyologist, 
was born at Havre-de-Grace. France, Jan. 1, 1778 ; 
son of Jean Baptiste Denis Lesueur, an officer of 
the admiralty. He was educated in the schools 
of France, and developed marked artistic ability. 
He accompanied the French government expedi 
tion of scientific discovery to the southern part of 
the eastern hemisphere, 1800-04, and illustrated 
the private journal of Nicholas Baudin, com 
mander of the expedition. Lesueur and Dr. 
Peron, the zoologist, were the only members of the 
expedition who returned, and their reports showed 
that the results of the expedition had been the 
discovery of nearly 2500 new species of fishes. 
Lesueur came to the United States in 1816, and 



LETCHER 



LEUTZE 



settled in Philadelphia, Pa., where he engaged in 
teaching drawing and painting, 1810-27, and in 
1827 he joined the socialistic colony, established 
by Robert Owen at New Harmony, Ind. In 1834 
he removed to New Orleans, La., and in 1837 
sailed from there to France, where lie spent the 
remainder of his life as a teacher of painting. 
His most important scientific work was done in 
America, he being the first to study the ichthy 
ology of the Great American lakes. He was a 
member of the American Philosophical society, 
and of the Academy of Natural Sciences, and 
was appointed curator of the newly established 
Museum of Natural History at Havre, France, in 
1845. He is the author of numerous important 
scientific papers and of many contributions to 
scientific journals in France and the United States. 
He died in Havre, France, Dec. 13, 1846. 

LETCHER, John, governor of Virginia, was 
born in Lexington, Va., March 28, 1813. He was 
of Welsh and Scotch ancestry. He learned the 
trade of a tailor, attended Washington college, 
1832-33. and became a lawyer in Lexington. He 
was a presidential elector in 
1848; a member of the state 
constitutional convention of 
1850 ; a Democratic repre 
sentative from the ninth 
Virginia district inthe 32d, 
33d, 34th and 35th congress 
es, 1851-59; and governor of 
Virginia, 1860-64. After the state decided to join 
its fortune with tlie Southern Confederacy, he 
used his influence in vigorously prosecuting the 
war. He was a prisoner in the hands of the 
Federal government for several months, 1864-65, 
and upon his release he resumed tlie practice 
of law in Lexington. He was a representative in 
the Virginia legislature, 1875-77, and while in at 
tendance at the state capital he was stricken 
with paralysis and remained an invalid up to 
the time of his death, which occurred at Lex 
ington. Va., Jan. 26, 1884. 

LETCHER, Robert Perkins, governor of Ken 
tucky, was born in Goochland county, Va., Feb. 
10, 1788. He became a lawyer in Lancaster 
county, Ky. ; was several times a representative 
in the state legislature and served as speaker of 
the house. He was a Democratic representative 
in the 18th-23d congresses, 1823-35 ; was a pres 
idential elector on the Harrison and Johnson 
ticket in 1836 ; was governor of Kentucky, 1840- 
44, and was U.S. minister to Mexico, 1849-52. He 
died in Frankfort, Ky., Jan. 24, 1861. 

LEUTZE, Emanuel, painter, was born in 
Gmund.Wurtemburg, Germany, May 24, 1816. He 
immigrated to the United States with his parents 
about 1820 and they first settled in Philadelphia, 
Pa., and later removed to Fredericksburg. Va. 





He received a classical education and early dis 
played artistic talents which led him to adopt 
painting as a profession. Through the sale of 
his painted portraits and various drawings, he 
was enabled to visit Europe in 1841, where he 
studied under Less- 
ing at the academy 
in Diisseldorf. He 
made a study of his 
torical painting of 
American subjects, 
and his first canvas 
"Columbus before 
the Council of Sala 
manca * was purchas 
ed by the Diisseldorf 
Art Union, and an 
other, "Columbus in 
Chains," for which 
he received a gold 
medal at the Brussels 
Art Exhibition, was 

purchased by the Art Union, New York. He 
studied the school of Cornelius and Kaulbach in 
Munich in 1843, studied Titian and Michael 
Angelo in Venice and Rome, and -made a tour of 
Italy in 1844, and then returned to Diisseldorf, 
where he married Julia, daughter of Col. Henry 
Lottner, of the Prussian army, in Noveniber, 
1845. He made several trips to the United States, 
and filially opened a studio in New York city, in 
1859. He was admitted to a membership in the 
National Academy of Design in 1860, and was 
commissioned by the government the same year 
to paint the large mural picture in fresco at the 
head of the stairway leading to the Representa 
tive gallery in the capitol at Washington, D.C., 
entitled " Westward the course of Empire takes 
its Way." He frequently visited the- art centers 
of Europe and painted French, German, Spanish, 
as well as American historical subjects. During 
his residence in German} he painted : News from 
Lexington; Mrs. Sehnyler Firing the Wheat 
Fields; Columbus Before the Queen; Landing of 
tlie Norsemen in America ; Cromwell and his 
Daughter ; Tlie Court of Queen Elizabeth ; Henry 
VIII. and Anne Boleyn ; The Iconoclast ; John 
Knox and Mary Stuart; Washington Crossing 
the Delaware ; Washington at the Battle of Mon- 
niouth ; Sergeant Jasper ; Washington at Prince 
ton ; The Storming of T< j oelli, Mexico ; Lafayette 
in Prison at Olmutz, Visited by his Relatives ; 
Elaine, exhibited at National Academy ; Mary 
Stuart hearing the First Mass at Holy-rood after 
her Return from France (Paris Exposition, 1867); 
Tlie Mothers Visit; Settlement of Maryland by 
Lord Baltimore ; Christmas Mummeries, and 
numerous portraits owned by private individuals 
and exhibited at the National Academy after his 



[45] 



LE VAN 




death. He also left incomplete several subjects 
ordered by the government. He died of a sun 
stroke in Washington. D.C.. July IS. 1808. 

LEUTZE, Eugene Henry Cozzens, naval offi 
cer, was born in Diisseldorf. Prussia, Nov. 16, 
1847 ; son of Kmamiel and Julia (Lottner) Leutze. 
While midshipman, on leave from the U.S. 
Naval academy during the summer of 18(54, he 
volunteered for ac 
tive service and was 
ordered to the North 
Atlantic blockading 
squadron on board 
the U.S.S. Monticello, 
Lieut. William B. 
Gushing, command 
ing. He was gradu 
ated from the U.S. 
Naval academy in 
1867 ; was promoted 
ensign, Dec. 18, 18- 
68; served on the 
Severn and Worcester 
of the North Atlan 
tic fleet. 186S-72; was 
favorably mentioned in an official report of Cap 
tain Lowry of the Severn for coolness and effi 
ciency in an emergency caused by the ironclad 
Terror running into the Severn ; was promoted 
master March 21, 1870, and lieutenant March 21, 
1871 ; served on Nicaragua!) surveying expedi 
tions. 1872 and 1873. and was executive officer of 
the Panama surveying expedition, 1874-75 ; was 
attached to the Tuscarora of the Pacific fleet in 
1875-76, and was on special duty on board that 
vessel, having charge of the deep-sea sounding 
fora cable from Honolulu to Brisbane, Australia. 
He served on the Toast survey on the Pacific 
coast, 1876-80, commandingthe surveying steamer 
Me Arthur; was bn leave in Mexico, 1881, being 
employed by the Tehuantepec railroad company ; 
and was executive officer of the monitor Nan- 
tucket during the summer of 1882. He was 
navigator of the U.S.S. Jnniata, 1882-85, and 
with this vessel visited the Mediterranean, Per 
sian Oulf, India, Burniah. Java, the Asiatic 
station, the east coast of Africa, and Madagascar, 
returning home via the Cape of Oood Hope. He 
was stationed at the U.S. Naval academy, 1886- 
90, as head of the department of modern lan 
guages : and during the summer of 1887 was 
executive officer of the practice-ship CcwsfeWfth on. 
He was promoted lieutenant-commander March 
26,1889: was executive officer of the U.S.S. 
Philadelphia, 1890-92 ; attached to the navy yard, 
Washington, D.C., as snior assistant to the 
superintendent of the gnu factory and head of 
department of yards and docks, 1892-96 ; com 
manded the U.S.S. Michigan, 1898-97 ; was pro 



moted commander Jan. 3, 1897 ; and was inspector 
of the lighthouse district on Lake Michigan in 
the summer of 1897. He commanded the U.S.S. 
Alert from Jan. 7, 1898, to May 18. 1898. the vessel 
being employed with interoceanic canal commis 
sion at the Pacific terminal of the proposed 
canal, and protecting American interests on the 
coast of Nicaragua during the war between 
that state and Costa Rica, the treat}* of peace 
being finally made on board his vessel. The 
Spanish war having broken out. the Alert was 
ordered to San Francisco, Cal., and Commander 
Leutze was ordered to command the U.S. monitor 
Monterey. He sailed for Manila on June 7, 1898, 
arriving at Manila. P. I., August 4th. On August 
13 he led the column of vessels, which in conjunc 
tion with the army forced the capitulation of 
that city. On Oct. 1, 1898, he was ordered to 
command the captured naval station at Cavite, 
P. I., in addition to his other duties, and he per 
formed both duties until December, 1899. During 
February, 1899, the Monterey visited Hong Kong 
and during the summer and fall of 1899 she took 
part in the actions of Zapote bridge and Subig 
Bay. From Oct. 1, 1899, to Dec. 18, 1899, Com 
mander Leutze had charge of the defence of the 
peninsula of Cavite, and on March 31.1900. as 
sumed the duty of superintendent of the naval 
gun factory at Washington. 

LE VAN, William Barnet, engineer, was born 
in Easton, Pa., June 3. 1829; son of Isaac and 
Harriet (Hawk) Le Van ; grandson of Abraham 
Le Van, and a descendant of Abraham Le Van, a 
French Huguenot, who came to America about 
1776 and settled in South Carolina. He attended 
school in his native town, and removed to New 
York city in 1847, where he was an apprentice in 
the machine and draughting departments of the 
Novelty, iron works. He became connected as 
engineer with the steamship firm of Howland 
& Aspinwall and with the Collins steamship line. 
He was consulting engineer in New York city, 
1854-57. and in Philadelphia, Pa., after 1857, 
where he was for many years agent for the Cor 
liss Steam Engine company of Providence, R.I. 
Among his inventions arc : the Le Van grate bar ; 
a steam engine governor ; a self-recording steam 
engine indicator; a glass water gage; an im 
proved stationary engine : a telescopic hydraulic 
lift, and an improved boiler set in brick work. 
In 1857 lie became a life member of the Franklin 
Institute; was one of t ie board of managers for 
thirteen years; curator for two years, and served 
on the committee of science and art for thirty 
years. He was a charter member and one of the 
originators of the American Society of Mechan 
ical Engineers, organized in 1880. lie is the 
author of : Useful Information for Flut/incers, 
Roller Makers and Firemen, with Facts an<l 



LEVERETT 



LE VERT 




Figures (1876); The Steam Engine Indicator and 
tin Use (1890); Tlie Steam Engine and the Indi 
cator, Their Origin and Progressive Development 
(1890): Safety Valves (1892); The Practical Man 
agement of Engines and Boilers (189?) ; a book for 
engineers and firemen, in the form of questions 
and answers (in MS., 1901), and numerous scien 
tific papers read before the Franklin Institute, 
1873-88. 

LEVERETT, John, educator, was born in 
Boston, Mass., Aug. 2."}, 1062; son of Hudson 
and Sarah (Peyton) Leverett ; grandson of Gov. 
Sir John and Hannah (Hudson) Leverett and of 
Capt. Bezaleel and Mary (Greenough) Peyton, 
and a descendant of Thomas 
Leverett, of Lincolnshire, 
England, who settled in Bos- 

Iton, Mass., in 1633. John Lev- 

ij 

ferett was prepared for college 
at the Boston Latin school and 
was graduated at Harvard, A. 
B. 1680, A.M. 1683, S.T.B. 16- 
92. He was a tutor in Harvard, 1685-97, and a fel 
low of Harvard, 1685-1700. He preached occasion 
ally for several years, but abandoned the ministry 
for law, and practised in Boston, Mass. He repre 
sented Cambridge in the Massachusetts legisla 
ture, 1698-1701 ; was speaker of the house of rep 
resentatives in 1700 ; a member of the governor s 
council, 1701 : judge of the superior court in 
September, 1702, and judge of the probate court 
by appointment from Governor Dudley, 1702-07. 
He was one of the commissioners from Massa 
chusetts to visit and strengthen the alliance with 
the Five Nations Indians, 1704, and a commis 
sioner to superintend and direct the army returned 
from an unsuccessful expedition against Port Roy 
al, N.S., 1707. He served as president of Harvard 
college from Jan. 14, 1708, until his death in 1724. 
He was elected a member of the Royal Society of 
London, March 11, 1713. He was married, Nov. 
25, 1697, to Margaret, daughter of President John 
and Elizabeth (Denison) Rogers, and the widow 
of Capt. Thomas Berry, of Boston and Ipswich ; 
and secondly in 1772 to Sarah, daughter of Rich 
ard Crisp and widow of William Harris. He 
left two manuscript volumes relating to the col 
lege. He died iiv Cambridge, Mass., May 3, 1724. 
LEVERING, Joshua, presidential candidate, 
was born in Baltimore, Md., Sept. 12, 1845; son 
son of Eugene and Ann (Walker) Levering ; 
grandson of Peter and Hannah (Wilson) Lever 
ing and of Joshua and Mary E. Walker, and a 
descendant of Wigard and Magdaline (Boker) 
Levering, who came from Germany to Rox- 
borough, Philadelphia county, Pa., in 1685. He 
entered his father s importing house, and in 1866, 
with his brothers William T. and Eugene, Jr., 
was admitted to the firm, as was his brother 



Leonidas in 1870, on the death of the father. He 
served as president of the board of trustees 
of the Southern Baptist Theological seminary, 
Louisville, Ky. ; vice-president of the American 
Baptist Publication society ; a member of the 
international committee of the Y.M.C.A., and 
president of the Baltimore branch, 1884-1900. 
He left the Democratic party in 1884, became 
a Prohibitionist, and was candidate for state 
comptroller, 1891, and for President of the United 
States in 1896, receiving his nomination, with 
Hale Johnson of Illinois for vice-president, at 
Pittsburg, Pa., May 27, 1896, the ticket receiving 
132.007 popular votes. 

LEVERMORE, Charles Herbert, educator, 
was born in Mansfield, Conn., Oct. 15, 1856; son 
of the Rev. Aaron Russell and Mary Gay -(Skin 
ner) Livermore ; grandson of Daniel and Katha 
rine (Hoyt) Livermore, and of the Rev. Dr. 
Newton and Ursula (Wolcott) Skinner, and a 
descendant of John Livermore, who came to 
America in 1634 and settled in Watertown, Mass. 
He was graduated from Yale, A. B., 1879 ; was 
principal of Guilford institute, Conn., 1879-83; a 
graduate student of Johns Hopkins university, 
1883-86; university fellow in history, 1884-85; 
instructor in history and German at Hopkins 
grammar school, New Haven, Conn., 1885-86; 
instructor in history at the University of Cali 
fornia, 1886-88; professor of history at the Massa- 
clmsetts Institute of Technology, Boston, Mass., 
1888-93 : principal of Adelphi academy, Brook 
lyn, N.Y.. 1893-96, and was elected president of 
Adelphi college in 1896. He was one of the 
original members of the American Historical 
association. The degree of Ph.D. was conferred 
on him by Johns Hopkins university in 1886. 
He is the author of : The Republic of New Haven, 
a History of Municipal Evolution (published by 
the Johns Hopkins university, 1886, for which 
he received the John Marshall prize of the uni 
versity) ; Syllables of Lectures upon Political His 
tory Since 1815, (in collaboration with D. R. 
Dewey, 1893); The Academy Song Book (1895); 
Tlie Abridged Academy Song Book (1898). 

LE VERT, Octavia (Walton), author, was born 
at Bellevue, near Augusta, Ga., in 1810 ; daughter 
of George and Sally Minge (Waiker) Walton and 
granddaughter of George Walton, the signer 
(<j.v.). Her father removed to Pensacola in 1821 ; 
was secretary to John H. Eaton, territorial gov 
ernor, and when Eaton became U.S. minister to 
Spain in 1827, acted for a short time as governor 
of the territory. Octavia was educated under a 
Scotch tutor and became a proficient linguist. 
She was allowed to give a name to the capital of 
Florida and she selected Tallahassee. She was a 
noted belle and was presented to Lafayette when 
he visited Mobile in 1825. She travelled exten- 



LEVIN 



LEWIS 



sively in the United States in 1833-34, and spent 
a part of her time in Washington, D.C., where 
she made .personal friends of Clay, Calhoun and 
Webster, whose congressional debates she often 
reported, and so accurately that she was fre 
quently called to read them. She was married in 
1836 to Dr. Henry S., sou of Dr. Claude Le Vert, 
fleet surgeon under Eoohambeau, and resided in 
Mobile, Ala. She visited Europe in 1853 and again 
in 1855, and was presented at court. About this 
time she commenced her literary work. After 
the death of her husband in 1860 she remained in 
Mobile, where she nursed the soldiers in the hos 
pital throughout the war. She used her influence 
iu securing a pardon for General Beauregard, and 
visited the national capital in his interests. She 
appeared as a public reader in the principal cities 
of the United States in 1874-75. She translated 
Dumas s Musketeers and The Pope and the Con 
gress, and is the author of Souvenirs of Travel 
(1858); Souvenirs of Distinguished People (MS.), 
and Souvenirs of the War (MS.). She died in 
Augusta, Ga., March 13, 1877. 

LEVIN, Lewis C., representative, was born in 
Charleston, S.C., Nov. 10, 1808. He was grad 
uated from South Carolina college, Columbia, 
S.C. ; was admitted to the bar and practised in 
Maryland, Louisiana, Tennessee, and finally in 
Philadelphia, Pa. To him is generally credited 
the organization of the Native American party in 
1843. He was a Native American representative 
from Philadelphia in the 29th, 30th and 31st con 
gresses, 1845-51, and served in congress as a mem 
ber of the committee on naval affairs. He died 
in Philadelphia, Pa.. March 14, 18GO. 

LEVY, David. See Yulee, David Levy. 
LEWELLINQ, Lorenzo D, governor of Kansas, 
was born at Salem, Iowa, Dec. 21, 1846; son of 
William and Cyrena (Wilson) Lewelling. His 
ancestors were among 
the pioneer settlers 
of Virginia and his 
father was a Quak 
er preacher. Loren 
zo was left an orphan 
at an early age, and 
worked on a farm, 
attending a district 
school in the winter. 
He was employed as 
a laborer on the Bur 
lington and Missouri 
railroad ; as a cattle 
herder in the quart- 
crmaster s depart 
ment, St. Louis, Mo., 

1861-63, and as a member of the bridge build 
ing corps at Chattanooga, Tonn., 1863-65. 
At the close of the war he attended Knox 




[48] 



college. Galesburg, 111., and subsequently East 
man s business college at Poughkeepsie, N.Y. 
He returned to Salem, Iowa, in 1866 ; was em 
ployed in bridge building near Otturnwa, and was 
graduated from Whittier college. He was a 
teacher in the preparatory department of Whit- 
tier college ; was connected with the state reform 
school as teacher and assistant superintendent 
for many years, and was president of the board 
of trustees of the state normal school. He 
founded the Register at Salem, Iowa, a weekly 
Republican journal, and in 1880 the Capital 
at Des Moines, Iowa, which he edited until 
December, 1882. He was a candidate for the Re 
publican nomination for secretary of state, but 
was defeated by Frank D. Jackson. He removed 
to Wichita, Kan., in 1887, and in 1892 waselected 
by the Populist party governor of Kansas. He 
was renominated in 1894, but a woman suffrage 
plank in the platform defeated the party, the 
Democrats refusing to give it their support. In 
1896 he was elected state senator, and in 1897 was 
appointed a state railway commissioner. He 
died in Arkansas City, Kan., Sept. 3. 1900. 

LEWIS, Abram Herbert, clergyman and au 
thor, was born in Scott, N.Y., Nov. 17, 1836; son 
of Datus Ensign and Tacy (Maxson) Lewis ; grand 
son of Abel and Abigail (Greene) Lewis and of 
Caleb and Mary (Bliss) Maxson. and a direct de 
scendant of John Lewis, who settled in Westerly, 
R.I., in 1661. He was a student at Ripon college, 
and was graduated from Milton college, A.B. , 
1860, and from Alfred university, A.B., 1863, 
A.M., 1866. He was married in 1855 to Augusta 
M., daughter of Thomas Olney and Ann (Tanner) 
Johnson, of Natick, R.I. He was pastor of 
Seventh-day Baptist churches in Westerly, R.I., 
1864-67, and New York city, 1867-68 ; professor 
of church history and homiletics, Alfred univer 
sity, 1868-94 ; general agent of the American 
Sabbath Tract society, 1869-72 ; pastor of Seventh- 
day Baptist church, Plainfield, N.J., 1880-98, and 
in 1896 became corresponding secretary of the 
American Sabbat li Tract society. He took a post 
graduate course in church history at Union Theo 
logical seminary, New York, 1870-71 , and received 
the honorary degree of D.D. from Alfred univer 
sity in 1881. He edited the Outlook (tin! Sabbatli 
Quarterly, 1882-96, when he took charge of the 
Sabbath Recorder. He is the author of : Sabbath 
and Sunday Argument and History (1870); Bib 
lical Teachings concerning the Sabbath and the 
Sunday (1884); Critical History of the Sabbath 
and the Sunday in the CJiristian Ch n rcJi ( 1886); 
Critical History of Sunday Legislation from 3 ?1 
to 7<V,S ,S> A.D. (1888); Paganism. Surviving in Chris 
tianity (1892) ; The Catholicization of Protestant 
ism on the Sabbath Question (1894); Sin ft Deca 
dence, of Sunday: What Next? (1899, 2d ed., 



LEWIS 



LEWIS 



1900); Letters to Young Preachers and Their 
Hearers (1900), and a large number of tracts upon 
various phases of the Sabbath question. 

LEWIS, Andrew, soldier, was bora in Don 
egal, Ireland, in 1720 ; son of John and Mar 
garet (Lynn) Lewis. The Lewises were Welsh 
and the Lynns Scotch. John Lewis came to 
America with his wife and three sons, Andrew, 
Thomas, and William, in 17:32, and they were 
among the first white settlers of Bellefonte, 
Augusta county, Va. Andrew was married in 
1749 to Elizabeth Givens of Augusta county. 
He volunteered in the military expedition, 
planned to take possession of the Ohio region in 
1754, and was with Washington at the surrender 
of Fort Necessity. He commanded the Sandy 
Creek expedition in 1756, was taken prisoner at 
Fort Duquesne in 1758 and carried to Montreal. 
On his return he vindicated the conduct of the 
Virginia troops against the charges of Major 
Grant. He was a commissioner at Fort Stanwix, 
New York, in 1768, to effect a treaty with the 
Six Nations ; commanded the forces at Point 
Pleasant, Va., Oct. 10. 1774, having been made a 
brigadier-general, and served as a delegate in the 
Virginia house of burgesses for several years. He 
was a delegate from Botetourt to the Virginia 
conventions of May and June, 1775, and was 
commissioned brigadier-general in the Conti 
nental army by congress in 1776, notwithstand 
ing the recommendation of Washington that he 
be made a major-general. He drove Lord Dun- 
more from Gwynn s Island, July 9, 1776, and re 
signed from the army in 1777 to engage in the 
civil service of Virginia. He was a founder and 
early pastor of Augusta academy and an original 
trustee of Washington college, Lexington, 1776- 
81. His statue occupies one of the pedestals 011 
the Washington monument, Richmond, Va. He 
died in Bedford county. Va., Sept. 26, 1781. 

LEWIS, Burwell Boykin, educator, was born 
in Montgomery, Ala., July 7, 1838. His father, a 
distinguished physician, died when lie was a 
child, and his mother, a 
daughter of the Hon. Eli 
Shortridge, judge of the cir 
cuit court of Alabama, re- 
moved to Montevallo, Shell)}- 
county. He was graduated at 
the University of Alabama 
in 1857, studied law in the 
office of his uncle, George D. Shortridge, and was 
admitted to the bar in 1859. He served in the 
Confederate army, 1861-65, rising to the rank 
of captain in the 2d Alabama cavalry. He re 
sumed the practice of law in Montevallo; was a 
representative in the general assembly, 1870-72 ; 
removed to Tuscaloosa and was a representative 
in the 44th congress, 1875-77. He received the 




honorary degree of LL.D. from the University of 
Alabama in 1879. He was elected to the 46th con 
gress in 1878, serving 1879-80. He resigned in 1880 
to accept the presidency and professorship of con 
stitutional and international law in the University 
of Alabama as successor to Gen, Josiah Gorgas, re 
signed, and he served from July, 1880, up to the 
time of his death, at Tuscaloosa, Ala., Oct. 11, 1885. 

LEWIS, Charles Bertrand, journalist, was 
born in Liverpool, Ohio, Feb. 15, 1842 ; son of 
George and Clarissa Lewis. He was a student at 
the Michigan State Agricultural college : an ap 
prentice to a country printer, and a soldier in the 
civil war. While on his way to Kentucky to 
take a position on a weekly newspaper, he was 
severely injured in a steamboat accident, and 
after his recovery he set up without copy an 
article entitled " How it Feels to be Blown Up," 
which he signed " M. Quad." He afterward re 
ported the legislature for one session for the 
Detroit Free Press, and at its close went to 
Detroit and became a member of its staff. He 
was given the humorous column, but his work 
extended to editorials, market reports, and politi 
cal sketches. Among the successes which es 
tablished his reputation as a humorist may be 
mentioned, Police Court Scenes, begun in 1876 ; 
Tlie Lime Kiln Club, and Short Talks with Boys, 
begun in 1885. When he joined the staff of the 
Free Press the paper had a circulation of about 
5000 copies weekly, which increased during his 
connection with the journal to upwards of a 
quarter of a million. He left the Free Press in 
1891, at the instance of a newspaper syndicate, 
and made his residence in Brooklyn, N.Y. 

LEWIS, Charles Willard, educator, was born in 
New Trenton, Ind., Aug. 13, 1860 ; son of Nathan 
and Nancy (Rafferty) Lewis. He attended the 
National Normal university at Lebanon, Ohio, 
and De Pauw university, and was graduated 
from Moores Hill college, Ind., B.S., 1890, M.S., 
1893. He was married March 25, 1887, to Bertha 
Cruikshank. He was a district and village school 
teacher for eight years ; principal of the high 
school at Brook ville, Ind., 1886-89 ; professor in 
Moores Hill college, 1890-99, during which time 
he was vice-president for three years, and acting- 
president, 1897-98, and in 1898 was elected presi 
dent. He was a member of the examining board 
of the Indiana conference ; speaker of the Inter 
national Epworth League convention held at 
Indianapolis in 1898, and a delegate to the general 
conference of the Methodist Episcopal church 
held in Chicago in 1900. He received the hon 
orary degree of D.D. from De Pauw university in 
1899. 

LEWIS, Charlton Thomas, reformer, was 
born in West Chester, Pa., Feb. 25. 1834; son of 
Joseph I. and Mary S. (Miner) Lewis, and grand- 



[49] 



LEWIS 



LEWIS 



son of Enoch and Alice (Jackson) Lewis and of 
Charles and Letitia (Wright) Miner. He was 
graduated from Yale, A.B., 1853. A.M., 1859, and 
was professor of mathematics at the State Nor 
mal university, Illinois. 1856-57, and of mathe 
matics and Greek at Troy university, 1858-61. 
He was U.S. deputy commissioner of internal 
revenue at Washington , D.C . , 1 8(53-64. He was ad 
mitted to the New York bar in 1864 and practised 
law in New York city. He was managing editor 
of the New York Evening Post, 1870-71, and 
secretary of the Chamber of Life Insurance, 1871- 
74. In 1881 he was made chairman of the execu 
tive committee of the Prison association of New 
York ; in 1890 president of that association ; in 
1895 president of the State Charities Aid associa 
tion of New Jersey, and in 1897 vice-president 
of the National Prison association. He was also 
elected chairman of the commission to revise the 
penal laws of New Jersey in 1895. He was a 
delegate from the United States to the Paris 
congress of prisons in 1895, and was a delegate 
to the Democratic national convention of 1896. 
He lectured at Harvard and at Columbia colleges 
on life insurance in 1899, and at Cornell university 
on the principles of insurance in 1898. He re 
ceived the degree of Ph.D. from the University 
of the City of New York in 1877. He translated 
and edited with the Rev. Marvin R. Vincent, 
D.D., Bengel s Gnomon of tlte New Testament 
(1860), and is the author of: ^4 History of the 
German People (1870); Harper s Latin Dic 
tionary, with Professor Charles Short (1881); 
A School Latin Dictionary (1888); Elementary 
Latin Dictionary (1890); and numerous essays 
and addresses. 

LEWIS, Clark, representative, was born in 
Huntsville, Ala., Nov. 8, 1840 ; son of Hickman 
and Virginia (Lindsay) Lewis ; grandson of Col. 
Joel and Miriam (Eastham) Lewis and of Col. 
"William Lindsay, a native of Virginia ; and a 
descendant of John Lewis, who emigrated from 
Wales with his brother Robert about 1650, set 
tled in Virginia, and died in Hanover county, Va., 
in 1726. Clark removed to Noxubee county, 
Miss., with his mother in 1844, shortly after the 
death of his father. He worked on a farm ; at 
tended the district school ; took a partial course 
in the Somevville Institute and engaged in teach 
ing school. He was a private in the Confederate 
army, 1861-65, serving in the infantry, cavalry 
and artillery, and was a prisoner of war at El- 
mira, N.Y., during the last six months of the 
war. He resumed school teaching in 1865 ; en 
gaged as a clerk in a store, 1866-67 ; conducted a 
store and farm, 1867-79, and after 1879 devoted 
himself exclusively to planting. He was married 
Feb. 4, 1868, to Hattie, daughter of Tyre Spaim of 
Noxubee county, Miss. He was a representative 




in the Mississippi legislature in 1877 and a Demo 
cratic representative from the fourth Mississippi 
district in the 51st and 52d congresses, 1889-93. 
He died near Macon, Miss.. March 13, 1896. 

LEWIS, David Peter, governor of Alabama, 
was born in Charlotte county, Va., about 1820; 
son of Peter C. and Mary Smith (Buster) Lewis. 
His father was of Welch and his mother of Eng 
lish ancestry. He removed to Madison county, 
Ala., with his parents in 
childhood. He was well edu 
cated ; studied law in Hunts 
ville, Ala., and afterward 
practised in Lawrence county. 
He represented Lawrence 
county in the state constitu 
tional convention of 1861. and 
voted against secession, but eventually signed the 
ordinance as passed. He was elected to the Con 
federate provincial congress at Montgomery by 
the convention, but resigned his seat. He was 
appointed judge of the circuit court of Alabama 
by Governor Shorter in 1863, and after holding 
that position several months, he passed through 
the army lines and reached Nashville. Tenn., 
where he remained until the close of the war. 
He returned to Alabama in 1*65, settled at 
Huntsville in the practice of his profession and 
was elected governor of Alabama by the Repub 
lican party, serving, 1872-74. He never married. 
He died at Huntsville, Ala., July :<. 18S4. 

LEWIS, Dio, reformer and ant hor, was born in 
Auburn, N.Y., March 3. ISO:!: son of Maj. John 
C. and Delecta (Barbour) Lewis. He received a 
limited education ; worked in a factory, 1835-38 ; 
taught school, 1838-41, and studied medicine in 
Auburn, N.Y., 1841-44, and in the medical de 
partment of Harvard, 1845. While in Boston, 
Mass., he assisted in editing Tlie Genius of 
CJiristianity. He settled in the practice of 
medicine at Port Byron, N.Y.. where he mar 
ried, July 11, 1849, Helen Cecelia, daughter of Dr. 
Peter Clark. He removed to Buffalo, N.Y. : 
adopted homeopathy and published The Honie- 
opatliist there, 1848-53. He lectured on hygiene 
and physiology in New York, Virginia and Ken 
tucky, 1853-55, and settled in Boston, Mass., in 
June, 1860, where he founded the Boston normal 
physical training school in 1S(51- and established 
a sanitarium which was transferred to Lexington. 
Mass., in 1864, where he also established a school. 
He built Hotel Belle vue on Beacon street. Boston, 
in 1868, and leased it as a temperance hotel, 
and he also opened the first Turkish baths in 
Boston. He published Toilay at Philadelphia, 
Pa., 1871-72. He was in California, 1875-78, 
and in 1879 established a sanitarium at Arlington 
Heights. Mass., which he conducted, 1879-81. In 
1881 lie removed to New York city and later to 



LEWIS 



LEWIS 



Yonkers, N.Y. lie travelled extensively lectur 
ing on hygiene and temperance, and lie originated 
the women s temperance crusade in Ohio. In 
1883 he established Dio Lewis s Monthly, and also 
Dio Lewis s Treasury in 1886. He received the 
honorary degree of A.M. from Amherst college iu 
1864. He is the author of : New Gymnastics 
(1865); Weak Lungs and How to Make Them 
Strong (1863); Our Digestion (1865); Talks about 
People s Stomachs (1870); Our Girls (1871) ; Chas 
tity (1872); Young Women (187-1): Prohibition a 
Failure (1875); Gypsies (1881); In a Nutshell 
(188:5). He died in Yonkers, N.Y.. May 21. 1886. 

LEWIS, Dixon Hall, senator, was horn in 
Dunwiddie county, Va., Aug. 10. 1802. Here- 
moved to Hancock county, Ga., with his parents 
in childhood, prepared for college at Mount Zion, 
Ga., and was graduated from South Carolina 
college. He was admitted to the bar in 1823 and 
settled in the practice of law in Montgomery, Ala. 
He was a representative in the Alabama legisla 
ture, 1825-27. and during this time advocated the 
removal of the remaining Indian tribe from the 
state. He was a representative from Alabama in 
the 21st-28th .congresses 1829-44, resigning his 
seat in 1844 to accept the appointment by Gov 
ernor Fitzpati ick as U.S. senator, in place of W. R. 
King, appointed U.S. minister to France. He 
served the remainder of the term expiring March 
3, 1847, and was re-elected for the term expiring 
March 3, 1853, defeating W. R. King and Arthur 
F. Hopkins, and was chairman of the committee 
on finance. He married a daughter of Gen. John 
Elmore of Augusta county, Ala. He was a 
trustee of the University of Alabama, 1828-31, 
during the formative period of the institution. 
He died in New York city, Oct. 25, 1848. 

LEWIS, Edmonia, sculptor, was born near, 
Albany, N.Y., July 4, 1845; daughter of a Negro 
father and Chippewa Indian mother, both of whom 
died when she was three years old and she lived 
for several years with the Indians. Her brother 
sent her to primary school, and she early dis 
played a talent for modeling in clay and was en 
couraged by friends in Boston to study the art. 
Among her first examples was a portrait bust of 
Col. Robert G. Shaw, exhibited in Boston, Mass., 
in 1865. She was sent to study in Rome in 1867 
where she made a permanent home, making 
friends with Harriet Hosmer, Charlotte Cushman 
and other Americans of influence. Her works 
include : The Freedwoman, executed in Boston 
(1867) ; The Death of Cleopatra, sent to the 
Centennial Exhibition, Philadelphia (1876) ; The 
Old Arrow-Maker and his Daughter; Ha gar ; 
Rebecca at the Well; Asleep; and portrait 
busts of Henry W. Longfellow, John Brown and 
Charles Simmer. There are two examples of her 
work in the United States : Tlte Marriage of 

[i 



Hiawatha, owned by Mrs. Laura Curtis Bullard of 
New York, and a portrait bust of Abraham Lin 
coln in the library at San Jose, Cal. 

LEWIS, Edmund Darch, painter, was born in 
Philadelphia, Pa., Oct. 17, 1837 ; sou of David and 
Camilla (Phillips) Lewis ; grandson of David and 
Anna Clifford (Smith) Lewis and of William and 
Mary (Dai ch) Phillips, and a descendant of Thomas 
Darch, who was reader to the King of England 
at the time of William and Mary. He attended a 
private school in Philadelphia until 1852, when 
he became a pupil of Paul Weber, with whom he 
studied until 1857, and then opened a studio in 
Philadelphia. He devoted himself to landscape 
painting until 1876, and to marine subjects from 
that date. He made a notable collection of 
paintings, antique furniture and bric-a-brac. 
His works include : Autumn on the Susquehanna 
(1860); Queen of the Antilles (1863) ; Valley of the 
Umri (1864) ; Midday on Lake George (1873); 
Fairmount Park (1878); Bass Rocks after a 
Storm (1880); Indian Rock of an Afternoon (1887); 
The Casino at Narrcigansett Pier (1892) , 

LEWIS, Edward Parke Custis, diplomat, 
was born in Audley, Clarke county, Va., Feb. 7, 
1837; son of Lorenzo and Esther Maria (Coxe) 
Lewis ; grandson of Lawrence and Eleanor Parke 
(Custis) Lewis and of Dr. John Redman Coxe (q.v.) ; 
great-grandson of Gen. Fielding and Elizabeth 
(Washington) Lewis and of John Parke and 
Eleanor (Cal vert) Custis, and great-grandson 
of Major John and Frances (Fielding) Lewis and 
of Daniel Parke and Martha (Dandridge) Custis. 
He was graduated from the University of Virginia 
in 1859, was admitted to the bar, and engaged in 
planting in Virginia. He opposed the secession 
of Virginia, but remained loyal to his state and 
served in the Confederate army throughout the 
civil war, attaining the rank of colonel. He was 
an aide on Gen. J. E. B. Stuart s staff, was 
wounded several times, and was a prisoner of war 
at Camp Chase, Ohio, and at Fort Delaware for 
fifteen months. He was twice married, his 
second wife being the widow of Robert M. T. 
Garnett, and a daughter of Edwin A. Stevens of 
Castle Point, Hoboken, N.J. He removed to 
Hoboken in 1875, where he resided until his 
death. He was a representative in the state 
legislature in 1877 ; a delegate to the Democratic 
national convention at Cincinnati, Ohio, June 22, 
1880, and was appointed U.S. minister to Portu 
gal by President Cleveland in 1885. retiring in. 
1889. He died in Hoboken, N.J..Sept, 3. 1892. 

LEWIS, Elijah Banks, representative, was 
born in Dooly county, Ga., March 27, 1854. He 
attended the common school and removed to 
Montezuma, Ga. . in 1871, and subsequently be 
came a partner in his father s banking and mer 
cantile house. He was state senator, 1 894-95, and 



51] 



LEWIS 



LEWIS 



a Democratic representative from the third dis 
trict of Georgia in the 50th, 56th and 57th con 
gresses, 1897-1908. 

LEWIS, Fielding, patriot, was born in Spotts- 
sylvania county, Va., July 7, 1725; son of Maj. 
John and Frances (Fielding) Lewis ; grandson of 
Col. John and Elizabeth (Warner) Lewis ; great- 
grandson of John and Isabella (Warner) Lewis and 
great a -grandson of Robert Lewis, the immigrant 
who came from London, England, and settled in 
Ware parish, Gloucester county, Va., about 1635. 
He received a liberal education, removed to Fred- 
ericksburg, Va., and was mayor of the town, 
justice of the peace, and a member of the house 
of burgesses in the Virginia legislature. He was 
a general in the Virginia militia at the outbreak 
of the Revolution, but was too old to take the 
field and was appointed superintendent of an 
arsenal in Fredericksburg, Va. He gave liberally 
to the cause of the patriots during the revolution. 
He was married in 1746 to Catherine, daughter of 
John and sister of Warner Washington, and after 
her death in February, 1750, he married Elizabeth 
(" Bettie "), daughter of Augustine Washington, 
sister of Gen. George Washington and cousin of 
his first wife. He built " Ken more House" a 
palatial residence on the border of Fredericksburg, 
and on the farm connected with this house Mary 
Ball Washington, the mother of General Washing 
ton, died, and was buried in 1789. Fielding Lewis 
died at " Kenmore House," Va., Jan. 7, 1781. 

LEWIS, Francis, signer, was born in Llandaff, 
AVales, in March, 1713 ; grandson of the Rev. Dr. 
Pettingal, a clergyman of the established church, 
settled at Caernarvon, Wales. Left an orphan, 
he \vas committed to the care of his uncle, the 

Dean of St. Paul s, 
and was sent to West 
minster school. He 
entered the counting 
house of a London 
merchant, and in 17- 
34 he invested his 
fortune in merchan 
dise, and sold one 
half in Ne\v York, 
and the rest in Phil 
adelphia, with the 
proceeds establishing 
mercantile houses in 
both places. He was 
married to Elizabeth 
Anne.sley. the sister 

of his partner, Edward Annesley, also a Welsh 
man. Lewis made many successful business 
voyages to Europe; visited St. Petersburg; the 
Orkney and Shetland Islands : and as far north as 
Archangel. In 1752, the French and Indian war 
interfering with his .shipping business, he obtained 




a contract to clothe the British army in America 
and was in Oswego, N.Y., whenMontcalm with a 
body of French Canadians and Indians advanced 
upon the place. Lewis served as aide to Gen. 
Hugh Mercer, and when Mercer was killed and 
the garrison of sixteen hundred men was obliged 
to surrender Lewis was taken to France and ex 
changed. On his return to America the colo 
nial government presented him with five thou 
sand acres of land in acknowledgment of his 
military services. He was a delegate to the 
Stamp Act congress that met in New York city 
in 1765, arid one of the first to join the Sons of 
Liberty. In 1765 he retired from business and 
removed to Whitestone, L.I. , N.Y., and devoted 
himself to public affairs. In 1771 he removed to 
New York city to establish his eldest son, Francis 
Lewis, Jr.. in business, and accompanied him to 
England for the purpose of establishing commer 
cial relations with that country. He soon after 
retired from business. He was unanimously 
chosen a delegate to the Continental congress 
and served 1774-79, and was appointed to examine 
claims, to make treaties with the Indians, to pur 
chase arms and clothing for the soldiers, and to 
furnish the government with war vessels. He 
was a signer of the Declaration of Independence, 
and witli Elbridge Gerry and Roger Sherman 
was appointed to inquire into the state of the 
army in New York, and to devise the best means 
for its maintenance. His residence in White- 
stone was burned by the British soon after they 
occupied New York, and Mrs. Lewis w y as held a 
prisoner several months, and was not released 
until General Washington ordered Mrs. Barren, 
the wife of the British paymaster-general, and 
Mrs. Kemp, wife of the British attorney-general, 
to be put under arrest in their own houses in 
Philadelphia as hostages for her release. In 1779 
Lewis accepted the appointment of commissioner 
of the board of admiralty. He was a member 
and vestryman of Trinity church, New York. 
He died in New York city, Dec. 30, 1802. 

LEWIS, Qraceanna, naturalist, was born in 
West Vincent. Pa., Aug. 3, 1821 ; daughter of John 
and Esther (Fussell) Lewis ; granddaughter of 
John and Grace (Meredith) Lewis, and of Barthol 
omew and Rebecca (Bond) Fussell ; and a descend 
ant of Henry Lewis, a native of Narbeth in Pem 
brokeshire, South Wales, who came with William 
Penn to Pennsylvania, in 1682, with his family 
which included his father, Evan Lewis. Grace- 
anna attended the girls boarding school at Kim- 
berton, Pa., and later devoted herself to the study 
of natural history and to painting. She inherited 
anti-slavery views, her father s house being a 
station for fugitive slaves en route north by the 
" underground railroad." She was also an advo 
cate of woman suffrage, and an opponent of war, 



[52] 



LEWIS 



LEWIS 




in accordance with the principles of the Society 
of Friends of which her family on both sides had 
long been members. She was made a member of 
the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia ; 
the Philosophical society of Westchester, Pa., 
the New Century club 

AJJ**J-V of Philadelphia : the 

Natural History so 
cieties of Lancaster, 
Pa., and Rochester, 
N.Y., the Woman s 
Anthropological so 
ciety of America ; the 
National Science club 
for women ; an hon 
orary member of the 
Woman s club of Phil 
adelphia, and of the 
Woman s club of Me 
dia, Pa., and a life 
member of the Dela 
ware County Institute 

of Science. She was also elected secretary of the 
Woman s Christian Temperance Union of Media, 
the Media Woman Suffrage association, and the 
Delaware County Forestry association ; chief of 
the cultural department of the Media Flower mis 
sion, and superintendent of scientific temperance 
instruction for the Delaware County W.C.T.U. 
She exhibited a model in wax to accompany her 
" Chart of the Animal Kingdom " at the Centen 
nial Exposition in 1876 and was commissioned to 
paint fifty representations of the leaves of forest 
trees for the World s Columbian Exposition in 
1893. She published in 1869 a pamphlet intended 
to show Tlie Position of Birds in the Animal 
Kingdom, and in 1877 Maria Mitchell, then 
of Vassar college, published, as president of the 
fourth Congress of Women held in Philadelphia, 
a second pamphlet on The Development of the 
Animal Kingdom, being a paper prepared by Miss 
Lewis for the congress. Her Chart of the Ani 
mal Kingdom was prepared previous to 1876, 
that of the Vegetable Kingdom was completed in 
1855, and both were soon supplemented by a 
Chart of Geology ivith Special Reference to Pal- 
(eontology. In addition Miss Lewis devoted many 
years in part to Microscopic Studies, includi7ig 
Frost Crystals, Symmetric Forms, Lower Life 
Forms, and the Plumage of Birds ; and in the 
preparation of a large number of illustrations for 
lectures on natural history in its varied depart 
ments. She also added to her other charts one 
On the Class of Birds, and another On the Race of 
Mankind. She illustrated her botanical studies 
by numerous water-color paintings of wild- 
flowers and branchlets of different species of 
trees, and in 1901 was publishing a series of fif 
teen Leaf Charts of the most important nut, 




timber and shade trees, whether native or foreign. 
Her charts were all improved from time to time 
with the progress of knowledge. 

LEWIS, Henry Carvill, geologist, was born in 
Philadelphia, Pa., Nov. 16, 1853 ; son of Frederick 
Mortimer and Emma Hnlme (Carvill) Lewis; 
grandson of John Frederick Lewis, and a descend 
ant of John Andrew Philip Lewis (Ludwig). He 
was graduated from 
the University of 
Pennsylvania, A.B., 
1873, A.M., 1876. He 
was a volunteer mem 
ber of the geological 
survey of Pennsyl 
vania, 1879-84 ; pro 
fessor of mineralogy 
at the Academy of 
Natural Sciences, 
Philadelphia, Pa., 18- 
80-88 ; of geology at 
Haverford college, 
1883-88, and a stu 
dent of geology and 
of microscopic pe 
trology at the University of Heidelberg, Germany, 
1886-87. He devoted himself to the investigation 
of the origin of the diamond, 1887-88, for which 
purpose he again visited Europe. He was elected 
a member or fellow of several important scienti 
fic societies of America and Europe. He was 
married in May, 1882, to Julia Catharine, daugh 
ter of William Parker Foulke, of Philadelphia, 
Pa. He contributed twenty-nine communications 
to the mineralogical and geological section of the 
Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia (1877- 
79), and papers to scientific journals in the United 
States and Europe. He completed a map of the 
separate ancient glaciers and ice-sheets of Eng 
land, Wales and Ireland, edited the mineralogical 
department of the American Naturalist, and is 
the author of many scientific works, including : 
The Antiquity of Man in Eastern America, Geo 
logically Considered (1880); Notes on the Zodiacal 
Light (1880); The Antiquity and Origin of the 
Trenton Gravel (1881); The Great Ice Age in 
Pennsylvania (1883); Tlie Geology of Philadelphia 
(1883); Supposed Glaciation in Pennsylvania, 
South of the Terminal Moraine (1884); A Great 
Trap Dike Across Southeastern Pennsylvania 
(1885); Comparative Studies -upon the Glaciation 
of North America (1886); Diamonds in Meteorites ; 
Genesis of the Diamond (1886); Tlie Terminal 
Moraines of the Great Glaciers of England (1887). 
He died in Manchester, England, July 21, 1888. 

LEWIS, Henry Llewellyn Daingerfield, agri 
culturist, was born at "Audley," Berryville, 
Clarke county, Ya., April 25, 1843; son of Lo 
renzo and Esther Maria (Coxe) Lewis, and grand- 



LEWIS 



LEWIS 



son of Lawrence and Eleanor Parke (Custis) 
Lewis and of Dr. John Redman Coxe (q.v.). He 
was a student at the Episcopal High school, Alex 
andria. Va. , and was graduated at the Virginia 
Military institute at Lexington, Va., Dec. 6,1861, 
ai which time with his class he entered the 
Confederate army and served throughout the 
war, rising to the rank of captain on the staff of 
Gen. J. E. B. Stuart. At the close of the war he 
returned to " Audley. his family seat. He was 
married in 1871 to Carter Penn, daughter of John 
Freeland. of Richmond, Va., and had twelve chil 
dren. He was a representative in the Virginia 
legislature for two terms ; president of the Shen- 
andoah Agricultural fair for ten years ; president 
of the board of visitors of the Virginia Military 
institute for many years, and major on the staff 
of Gov. Fitzhugh Lee, tf Virginia. He died at 
" Audley." Berrx ville. Va.. Dec. 18. 1X93. 

LEWIS, James Taylor, governor of Wiscon 
sin, was born in Clarendon. N.Y., Oct. 30. 1819; 
eon of Shubael and Eleanor (Robertson) Lewis, 
and grandson of Samuel Lewis, a resident of 
Brimtield, Mass. He removed to Wisconsin Ter 
ritory, where he was 
admitted to the bar 
of the United States 
district court in 1845, 
and settled in prac 
tice at Columbus, 
Columbia county. He 
was married in 1846 
toOrlanda M.. daugh 
ter of David Sturges, 
of Clarendon, N.Y. 
He was district at 
torney, county judge. 
a member of the sec 
ond constitutional 
convention of 1847- 
48, and on the or 
ganization of the state government in 1848, he 
was admitted to practice in the supreme court 
of the state. He was a member of the state as 
sembly. 1852; a state senator, 1x53; a member 
of the court of impeachment, 1853 ; lieutenant- 
governor of Wisconsin from Jan. 2. 1854, to Jan. 
7, 1856 ; secretary of state, 1862-64, and governor 
from Jan. 4, 1864, to Jan. 1, 1866. As a war gov 
ernor he aided in recruiting troops and was ac 
tively engaged in caring for the sick and wounded 
soldiers. He obtained a special order from the 
surgeon-general of the United States for the 
transfer of all the sick and wounded soldiers from 
Wisconsin to hospitals within the state, which he 
established. He also founded a soldiers home 
and provided for soldiers families. He refused a 
renornination as governor in 1865. a diplomatic 
office tendered by President Lincoln, the office 




[54] 



of commissioner of internal revenue in 1866, the 
Republican nomination for representative in con 
gress in 1866, the positions of railroad commis 
sioner and regent of the University of Wisconsin 
from the governor of Wisconsin, and other public 
offices. He devoted a portion of his annual in 
come to the building and support of educational 
institutions, and also to public charities. He re 
ceived the degree of LL.D. from. Lawrence uni 
versity, Wisconsin, in 1864. He visited Europe 
during the Franco-Prussian war and subsequently 
made a journey around the world, visiting nearly 
every country of the globe. 

LEWIS, John Francis, senator, was born 
near Port Republic, Rockingham county. Va., 
March 1, 1818; son of Gen. Samuel II. and Ann 
(Lewis) Lewis ; grandson of Charles and - 
(Hance) Lewis : great-grandson of Thomas and 
Jane (Strother)Lewis, and of Col. Charles Lewis, 
who was killed while lighting the Indians 
at Point Pleasant, Va.. under his brother. 
Gen. Andrew Lewis, 1774 ; and great-grandson of 
John and Margaret (Lynn) Lewis. John Leu is 
was an early settler in the Valley of Vir 
ginia, three of whose four sons were Indian 
lighters before the Revolution, and one of whom. 
Gen. Andrew Lewis, is represented in a statue 
on the Washington monument, Richmond, Va. 
John Francis Lewis married a daughter of the 
Hon. Daniel Shelfey (q.v.). lie was a member of 
the state convention of 18(51, and was the only 
member of that body who refused to sign the or 
dinance of secession. He was the Union candi 
date for representative in congress from the sixth 
Virginia district in 1865. but was defeated by A. 
H. H. Stuart. He was elected lieutenant-gov 
ernor on the ticket with Gilbert C. Walker for 
governor in 1869, leading his ticket by several 
thousand votes. The legislature in 1X69 elected 
him U.S. senator, and he served from Jan. 24. 
1870, to March 3, 1875. In the senate he was 
chairman of the committee on the District of 
Columbia. In 1877 he was appointed by Presi 
dent Hayes U.S. marshal for the western district 
of Virginia, and subsequently resigned, that his 
son, Daniel Sheffey Lewis, might accept the posi 
tion of U.S. district attorney. He was elected 
lieutenant-governor on the Readjuster ticket 
with William E. Cameron for governor in 1SX1. 
He died at Harrisonburg, Va.. Sept. 3, 1895. 

LEWIS, John Lawson, soldier, was born in 
Lexington, Ky., March 26, 1800; son of Joshua 
Lewis and grandson of one of the four brothers, 
Andrew, Thomas, William and Charles Lewis, 
sons of John and Margaret (Lynn) Lewis, who 
came from Ireland to Augusta county, Va., in 
1734. Joshua Lewis, born in Augusta county, 
removed to Kentucky and was a friend and polit 
ical adviser of Henry Clay ; one of the three 



LEWIS 



LEWIS 



U. S. commissioners appointed by President Jef 
ferson to take possession of Louisiana Territory 
on its purchase, in 1803, and subsequently judge 
of the supreme court of the territory. John 
Lawson Lewis was educated in New Orleans and 
at Litchfield, Conn. In 1814 he was a volunteer 
aide to General Jackson, serving as a courier in 
the battle of New Orleans. He was admitted to 
the bar in 1821, and rose to high rank at the 
New Orleans bar. He also became prominent in 
the state militia, gaining the rank of major-gen 
eral of the first division in 1842, and was elected 
sherilf of New Orleans in 1850, and mayor of the 
city in 1S55. In the civil war he preserved the 
organization of the state militia, which he com 
manded in the defence of the city and in the Red 
River campaign, and he was severely wounded 
at Mansfield, La., April 8, 1864. He died in New 
Orleans. La., May 15, 1886. 

LEWIS, Joseph Horace, soldier, was born in 
Barren county, Ky., Oct. 29, 1824. He was 
graduated at Centre college, Ky., in 1843, was 
admitted to the bar in 1845 and settled in practice 
in Glasgow. He represented his county in the 
state legislature, 1850-53. He commanded the 
6th Kentucky regiment in the Confederate army 
at Stone s River, Dec. 3!, 1862-Jan. 3, 1863, in 
Hanson s brigade, Breckinridge s division, Har- 
dee s corps ; and at Chickamauga, Sept. 19-20, 
1H63. in Helm s brigade, Breckinridge s division, 
Hill s corps, and when Gen. B. H. Helm was 
killed he succeeded to the command of the 
brigade. He commanded the 2d brigade in 
Bate s division, Breckinridge s corps at Chat 
tanooga, Nov. 23-27, 1863, and in the Atlanta 
campaign, May to September, 1864, he com 
manded the 1st brigade of Bate s division, Har- 
dee s corps. On Sept. 4, 1S64, his brigade was as 
signed to Jackson s cavalry division in the inva 
sion of Tennessee and protected the flank move 
ment of the Confederate army at Franklin and 
Nashville. He returned to Glasgow at the close 
of the war ; was again a representative in the 
state legislature, 1869-70, and was a Democratic 
representative from the third Kentucky district 
in the 41st congress in place of J. S. Golladay. 
who resigned April, 1870, and in the 42d congress, 
JS71-73. He was twice married, first, Nov. 29, 
]845. to Sarah H. Rogers of Glasgow, Ky., and 
secondly, March 29, 1883, to Mrs. Cassadra John 
son of Frankfort, Ky. 

LEWIS, Josiah, educator, was born at Ray- 
town, Ga., May 4, 1839 ; son of Josiah and Eliza 
beth (Moore) Lewis; and grandson of Walker 
and Polly (Graham) Lewis and of John and Eliz 
abeth (Davis) Moore. He was graduated from 
Emory college with first honors, A.B., 1859, 
A.M., 1862 ; server! in the Confederate army four 
years : was professor of Greek in Emory college, 



1866-77; professor in Southern university, Greens 
boro, Ala., 1877-79 ; chancellor of the latter, 
1879-81, and in 1881 re-entered the Methodist 
itinerancy. He was twice married, first, May 3, 
1866, to Mary Rosina Hubert, and secondly, to 
Sallie Williamson Lamar. He received the hon 
orary degree of D.D. from Trinity college, N.C., 
in 1878. He died in Sparta, Ga., Feb. 13, 1885. 

LEWIS, Lawrence, soldier, was born in Fred- 
ericksburg, Va., April 4, 1767 ; son of Col. Field 
ing and Elizabeth (Washington) Lewis and 
grandson of Augustine and Mary (Ball) Wash 
ington. He resided at Woodlawn, near Mt. Ver- 
non, and served as aid to General Morgan in his 
expedition to quell an insurrection, in Pennsyl 
vania in 1794. He was General Washington s 
favorite nephew and after Washington s retire 
ment from public life, resided with him at Mt. 
Vernon. He was married, Feb. 22, 1799, to 
Eleanor Parke, daughter of John Parke Custis 
and a granddaughter of Martha (Custis) Wash 
ington ; she was adopted with her brother, 
George Washington Parke Custis, by General 
Washington on the death of their father in 1783. 
Eleanor Parke (Custis) Lewis (born March 21, 
1779, died at Audley, Clarke county, Va., July 
15, 1852), was the mother of one son, Lorenzo, 
and of throe daughters, one died in youth, an 
other became Mrs. Conrad of New Orleans, arid 
another Mrs; Butler. Lawrence Lewis was the 
last living executor of the will of General Wash 
ington and continued to reside at Mt. Vernon 
until the death of Martha Washington, May 22, 
1802. He died at Arlington, Va., Nov. 30, 1839. 

LEWIS, fieri wether, governor of Louisiana, 
was born near Charlottesville, Va., Aug. 18, 1774 ; 
the youngest son of Capt. William and Lucy 
(Meriwether) Lewis ; grandson of Col. Robert and 
Jane (Meriwether) Lewis, and of Thomas Meri 
wether ; great grand 
son of William Meri- 
Avether ; great 2 -grand- 
son of Nicholas Meri 
wether of Wales ; and 
grand nephew of John 
Lewis, a member of 
the King s council 
before the Revolu 
tion, and of Fielding- 
Lewis (q. v.), and 
nephew of Col. Nicho 
las Lewis, who com 
manded a regiment 
of Virginia militia 
in the successful ex 
pedition against the 
Cherokee Indians in 1776, and who on the death 
of Meri wether s father became his guardian. 
Meriwether attended a Latin school, 1787-92; 




LEWIS 



LEWIS 



conducted his mother s farm, 1792-94: enlisted 
in the state militia called out by President 
Washington in 1794 to suppress the opposi 
tion to the excise taxes in western Pennsyl 
vania, and then joined the regular service as 
lieutenant in the line. He was promoted captain 
in 1797, and became pay m ister of the 1st U.S. in 
fantry. In 1797 the American Philosophical 
society, through the suggestion of Thomas Jeffer 
son, undertook to secure some competent person 
to ascend the Missouri river, cross the Stony 
mountains, and descend the nearest river to the 
Pacific. Captain Lewis, being then, stationed at 
Charlottesville on recruiting duty, solicited Mr. 
Jefferson to be allowed to make the journey, but 
Andre Michaux, the botanist, was appointed and 
proceeded as far as Kentucky, when he was re 
called by the French minister, then in Philadel 
phia, and the attempt was abandoned. Captain 
Lewis served as private secretary to President 
Jefferson, 1801-03, and when congress voted the 
money to carry out the President s project of 
crossing the continent to the Pacific, he was 
entrusted witli the command of the enterprise 
with Capt. William Clark, as second in com 
mand. He pursued a course in the natural sci 
ences and astronomical observations at Philadel 
phia and at Lancaster, Pa., preparatory to the 
undertaking. The instructions, signed by Presi 
dent Jefferson, Jan. 20, 1803, detailed the scien 
tific, geographical, commercial and diplomatic 
purposes of the expedition and provided for all 
contingencies likely to arise. The treaty of 
Paris, April 13, 1803, had meantime transferred 
the Territory of Louisiana to the United States, 
and the information reached Washington about 
the first day of July. On July 5, 1803, Captain 
Lewis left Washington for Pittsburg, where he 
was to select his stores, outfit and men. Delays 
in preparation retarded the journey down the 
Ohio and the expedition could not enter the 
Missouri until the ice had broken up in the 
spring of 1804. They ascended the Missouri to 
its sources, crossed to Rocky Mountains, struck 
the headwaters of the Columbia river, floated 
down that river to its mouth and explored much 
of the Oregon country. Their explorations cov 
ered nearly all the section south of the 49th par 
allel. They started for the east, March 23, 1800, 
and reached Washington, Feb. 14, 1807. Con 
gress granted to the two chiefs and their fol 
lowers the donation of lands which had been 
promised as a reward for tlreir toil and dangers. 
Captain Lewis was soon after appointed governor 
of Louisiana and Captain Clark commissioned a 
general in the militia and made agent of the 
United States for Indian affairs in the territory 
of Louisiana. On reaching St. Louis, the capital 
of the territory, Governor Lewis found much 



confusion in public affairs, and in September,. 
1809, set out to Washington to carry valuable 
vouchers of accounts and his journal of the ex 
pedition to and from the Pacific. His party was 
joined at Chickasaw Bluffs by Mr. Neiley, U.S. 
agent to the Chickasaw Indians, and his party 
and they proceeded together. While at the home 
of a Mr. Grinder in Kentucky, in a fit of hypo 
chondria. Governor Lewis killed himself. In the 
selection of names for the Hall of Fame for Great 
Americans, New York university, in October, 
1900, his was one of the twenty-one names in 
" Class E, Missionaries and Explorers " and re 
ceived thirteen votes, standing eighth in the- 
class. He died Oct. 8. 1809. 

LEWIS, florgan, statesman, was born in New 
York city, Oct. 16, 1754: son of Francis aiid 
Elizabeth (Annesley) Lewis. He attended the 
public school at Elizabeth town, N.J., and was 
graduated from the College of New Jersey, A.B., 
1773, A.M., 1770. His 
intention was to de 
vote himself to the 
ministry, but yield 
ing to his father s 
wishes he studied law. 
In 1774 he joined the 
Continental army as 
a volunteer ; was sub 
sequently chosen cap 
tain of a regiment 
of New York mili 
tia ; but upon the 
organization of the 
2d New York militia 
regiment he was com 
missioned major. He 

was appointed chief-of-staff to Gen. Horatio 
Gates, with the rank of colonel, and accom 
panied him into Canada, and soon after con 
gress appointed him quartermaster-general of 
the Northern army. He was prominent through 
out the campaign that ended with the sur 
render of Burgoyne at Saratoga, and in 177.1 
he planned and executed the night attack on 
Stone Arabia, and was in command at the battle 
of Crown Point, where he was accompanied by 
Governor Clinton. At the close of the war Colo 
nel Lewis returned to New York, where he was 
admitted to the bar and practised in New York 
city. He married Gertrude, daughter of Robert 
R. Livingston. He was elected a member of the 
assembty ; became one of the judges of the court 
of common pleas ; was appointed attorney-gen 
eral of the state in 1791 ; judge of the supreme 
court in 1792; chief justice in 1793; and was 
governor of the state. 1804-07. In 1806 he was 
defeated for re-election by Daniel I). Tompkins 
and retired to his estate at Staatsburg. Duchess- 




LEWIS 



LEWIS 



county, N.Y.. where he devoted much of his time 
to agriculture. Having given up the practice of 
law, Lewis established a cloth factory and for 
several years devoted himself to manufacturing. 
The failure of a mercantile house to which his 
goods were assigned caused him to discontinue 
the business. In 1810 he was elected to the state 
senate, and he declined the position of secretary 
of war in President Madison s cabinet in 1812, 
but accepted the appointment of quartermaster- 
general of the armies of the United States. He" 
was promoted major-general in March, 1813, and 
in April repaired to the Niagara frontier. He 
commanded at the capture of Fort George, and 
also at Sacket Harbor and French Creek. In the 
summer of 1814 he was in command at New York. 
He procured the release of the American prisoners 
in Canada, advancing from his private fortune the 
money for its accomplishment, and also rewarding 
his own tenants who had served in or sent sons 
to the war, by allowing them free rent for the 
time they served in the army. He was a Free 
mason and was elected grand master in 1831. He 
was president of the New York Historical society, 
vice-president-general of the Society of the Cin 
cinnati, 1829-39, and president-general, 1839-44; 
president of the council of the University of the 
City of New York, 1831-34, and a trustee of Co 
lumbia college, 1784-1804. He died iu New York 
city, April 7. 1844. 

LEWIS, Tayler, educator, was born in North 
umberland, N.Y., March 27, 1802 ; son of Samuel 
and Sarah (Van Valkenburg) Lewis. His father 
was an officer in the Revolutionary army and his 
mother was a niece of John Tayler, lieutenant- 
governor of New York, and a descendant of 
Johannas Van Valkenberg, a native of Holland 
and an early settler of Albany. Tayler Lewis 
was graduated from Union college in 1820, 
studied law in Albany, N.Y., and practised at 
Fort Miller, N. Y. , 1823-33. He devoted his leisure 
to the study of Biblical literature and to the 
Greek and Latin languages. He conducted a 
classical school at Waterford, N.Y., 1833-35, and 
one at Ogdensburg, N.Y., 1835-38. In 1838 he 
delivered the Phi Beta Kappa address at Union, 
taking as his subject " Faith, the Life of Science." 
This address, which was published, attracted 
wide attention. He was professor of Greek and 
Latin languages at the University of the City of 
New York, 1838-40, and of Greek language and 
literature, 1840-44. He was professor of ancient 
Oriental languages and literature at Union col 
lege, 1849-63, and of ancient languages, 1863-77. 
He received the honorary degree of LL.D. from 
Union college in 1844. In the selection of names 
for a place in the Hall of Fame for Great Amer 
icans, New York university, made in October, 
1900, his was one of the fifteen names submitted 



in " Class C, Educators " and received two votes. 
His published writings include : Believing ^irit 
(1841); State, Family and Church (1843); Plato 
contra Atheos (1844); Penalty of Death, in George 
B. Cheever s " Defence of Capital Punishment" 
(1846); Six Days of Creation (1855); The Bible 
and Science, or the World Problem (1856); The 
Divine Human in the Scripture (1860); The Heroic 
Periods in a Nat ion s History (1866); The Light 
l)ij ivhich we see Light, Vedder Lectures (1875); 
Memoirs of Eliphalet Nott, with Van Santvoord 
and Lewis (1875); Bible Psalmody, the Impreca 
tory Psalms (1880); Wine Drinking and the Scrip- 
tnres (1881); and contributions to Lange s Commen 
tary, and to Harper s Magazine and other periodi 
cals. He died in Schenectady, N.Y., May 11, 1877. 

LEWIS, Thomas, patriot, was born in Done 
gal, Ireland, April 27, 1718; son of John, "the- 
pioneer,"and Margaret (Lynn) Lewis, and grand 
son of Andrew and Mary (Calhoun) Lewis. He 
came to Augusta county, Va., with his parents 
in 1732 and was one of the best mathematicians 
of his day in Virginia. During the colonial 
and the Revolutionary periods he rendered im 
portant services to his country, but owing to 
defective vision he took no active part in the 
Indian and Revolutionary wars. He was married 
Jan. 29, 1746, to Jane, daughter of William 
Strother of Stafford county, Va. In 1746 he was 
appointed colonial surveyor of Augusta county, 
and he was associated with George Washington 
in the surveys of Virginia lands, which enabled 
both to acquire desirable tracts. He represented 
Augusta county in the house of burgesses almost 
uninterruptedly, 1745-67, and voted in 1765 for 
Patrick Henry s resolutions, declaring that "this 
general assembly has the only exclusive right 
and power to lay taxes and impositions on the 
inhabitants of this county." He was a delegate 
to the colonial congress in 1775 ; a member of 
the convention of 1776 ; a commissioner to treat 
with the Indian tribes in 1778, and a member 
of the Virginia convention of June 26, 1788, 
that ratified the Federal constitution. He died in 
Augusta county, Va., Jan. 31, 1790. 

LEWIS, Thomas Hamilton, educator, was 
born Dec. 11, 1852. He was graduated from 
Western Maryland college in 1875, and entered 
the itinerancy of the Methodist Protestant church 
as a member of the Maryland Annual conference. 
In 1882 he was appointed principal to " enter at 
once upon his duties in such preparatory work as 
shall enable him to organize and commence the 
course of instruction in the School of Theology " 
afterward the Westminster Theological semi 
nary of the Methodist Protestant church, and lie- 
continued in the work as president and professor 
of Hebrew language and literature till 1886. He 
married the daughter of the Rev. Dr. James 



[57] 



LEWIS 



LEYBl RX 



Thomas Ward, founder of Western Maryland col 
lege. In July, 1886, upon the retirement of Dr. 
Ward from the presidency of Western Maryland 
college, Westminster, Mel., to assume the presi 
dency of Westminster Theological seminary, Dr. 
Lewis became his successor and under his admin 
istration Western Maryland college became one of 
the leading educational institutions of the state. 
He also became a popular lecturer before annual 
institutes for teachers in the various centres of 
the state. He made a tour of the world in five 
months, 1890-9:3. He received the honorary de 
gree of D.D. from Adrian college, Mich., in 1885. 

LEWIS, William, soldier, was born in Done 
gal, Ireland, in 1704 : son of John and Margaret 
(Lynn) Lewis. He was educated in the school 
conducted by the blind preacher, the Rev. Dr. 
James Waddell, in eastern Virginia, and in 
medicine in Philadelphia, Pa. He returned to 
Virginia, intending to settle in the practice of 
medicine, but in IT.");! volunteered for service in 
the French and Indian war and was severely 
wounded in Braddock s defeat. He then returned 
to his practice in Augusta county, Va., where 
he took an active interest in the erection of 
schools and churches, and was an elder in the 
Presbyterian church. He was commissioned, 
colonel in the continental army in 1776, and 
served until 1781, when he resigned and returned 
to his family. In 1790 he removed to Sweet 
Spring. Monroe county. He was married to Ann 
Montgomery of Delaware. He died at Sweet 
Spring, Va., in 1811. 

LEWIS, William, soldier, was born in Augusta 
county, Va., in 1764; son of .Gen. Andrew and 
Elizabeth (Givens) Lewis, and grandson of John 
mid Margaret (Lynn) Lewis, the immigrants, 1782. 
He was a captain in General St. Clair s army on 
the Miami in 1791 ; and was transferred to the 
3d infantry, March 16, 1790, and to the 3d sub- 
legion in December, 1790. He resigned in July, 
1797. On Aug. 14, 1810, he rejoined the army as 
lieutenant-colonel, commanding the Kentucky 
volunteers; served at Frenchtown. Jan. 18, 1813, 
and under Winchester in his defeat on the River 
Raisin. Jan. 00, 1813, where he was captured, sent 
to Quebec, and imprisoned for two years. He 
died near Little Rock, Ark., Jan. 17. 1805. 

LEWIS, William Qaston, soldier, was born in 
Rocky Mount, N.C., Sept. 3, 1835 ; son of John 
Wesley and Catharine (Battle) Lewis, and grand 
son of Exum and Ann (Harrison) Lewis and of 
Joel and Mary (Johnston) Battle. He descended 
from Revolutionary stock. Ho was graduated 
from the University of North Carolina in 1855; 
taught at Chapel Hill and in Jackson county. Fla. ; 
was a government surveyor, 1X57-5X, and assist 
ant engineer on the Tarboro branch of the Wil 
mington and Weldon railroad, 1858-61. He was 
married March 15, 1X64. to Martha E. Tender. 
As a member of the Edgecombe guards, which 



formed a part of the 1st N.C. regiment, he was 
made ensign and lieutenant in 18(51. For his 
action in the battle of Big Bethel, he was pro 
moted major of the 33d N.C . regiment; and for 
the battle of New Berne he was promoted lieu 
tenant-colonel of the 43d N.C. regiment, Jan. 17, 
1860. He engaged in the battles of Malvern Hill : 
Gettysburg, where he succeeded to the colonelcy ; 
Bristow Station ; Mine Run ; Plymouth, and 
Dre wry s Bluff, and in the latter battle constructed 
all the outer line of works. He was promoted 
brigadier-general and assigned to Hoke s N.C. 
brigade, and was with General Early in the cam 
paign in the valley of Virginia and at Peters 
burg. At Farmville lie was severely wounded. 
He was state engineer and agent of the state 
board of education for swamp lands and was 
chief of engineers. North Carolina state guards, 
at the time of his death, which occurred at 
Goldsboro, N.C.. Jan. 7, 1901. 

LEYBURN, John, clergyman, was born in 
Lexington, Va.. April 05, 1814 ; son of John and 
Jane (McDowell) Ley burn ; grandson of George 
and Abigail Leyburn. and a descendant of an 
English family who settled in Ireland in the 
sixteenth century, and were connected with 
Deny in its early history, and members of which 
immigrated to America in the eighteenth cen 
tury. He was a brother of Dr. Alfred Leyburn 
and of the Rev. George W T . Leyburn. He was 
graduated from Washington college, Lexington, 
Va., in 1831, and from the College of New Jersey. 
A.B., 1833. A.M., 1836. He studied theology at 
the Union Theological seminary in Virginia and 
at Columbia, S.C., and entered the Presbyterian 
ministry. He organize;! a church at Gainesville, 
Ala., in 1836, and during his two years pastorate 
built a church for the congregation. He was 
pastor of the Tabb Street Presbyterian church at 
Petersburg, Va., 1838-44. and during his pastorate 
built a large church edifice. On being appointed 
secretary of the Presbyterian board of publica 
tion, he removed to Philadelphia. Pa., 1844, 
where he remained until 1X60. He was married 
at Fredericksburg. Va., in 1845 to Mary Louisa 
Stuart, daughter of Col. Hugh Mercer. lie be 
came part owner and chief editor of the Phila 
delphia Presbyterian in 1847. but at the out 
break of the civil war resigned his position 
and returned to Virginia, his sympathies being 
with the Southern cause. He served as secre 
tary of the domestic missions and publication 
of the Presbyterian church, south, 1N61-65 ; 
was pastor of an Independent Presbyterian 
church in Baltimore. Mil., 1X65-X7. and pas 
tor emeritus, 1887-91. He was a trustee of 
the College of New Jersey, 1875-X6. He re 
ceived the degree of D.D. from Hampden-Sidney 
college, Virginia, in 1X49. He traveled in Eu 
rope and the Holy Land, and contribut."d many 
articles on his travels to the Presbyterian and the 



LEYDT 



Xe\v York Observer. He is the author of : Tlie 
Soldier of the Cross (1851); Hints to Young Men 
from the Parable of the Prodigal Son (1880); Lec 
tures on the Journeyings of the Children of Israel 
from the Land of Bondage to the Land of Prom 
ise (1885). He died at The Manse, Waynesboro, 
Ya., the home of his niece, Mrs. A. R. Cocke, in 
August, 1894. 

LEYDT, Johannes, clergyman, was born in 
Holland in 1718, and immigrated with an elder 
brother to America at an early age, settling near 
Fishkill-on-the-Hudson, N.Y. He prepared him 
self for the ministry, and was licensed by the 
Coatus of the Dutch Reformed church in 1748, 
and was immediately installed as pastor at New 
Brunswick and Six Mile Run, N.J., holding both 
charges until 1783. He was a staunch ally of the 
Ctetus party in their conflict with the Conferentie 
party, maintaining that ministers should he edu 
cated in America and that the church should be 
independent of the mother church in Holland. 
He was a firm patriot during the Revolution. He 
was active in founding Queen s, now Rutger s 
college, in New Jersey, and was one of the first 
trustees in 1770. He was elected president of the 
general synod of the Dutch Reformed church in 
1778. He is the author of several pamphlets on 
the Coetus-Conferentie conflict : True Liberty the 
Way to Peace (1760): and A Defence of True 
Liberty the Way to Peace (1762). He died in New 
Brunswick, N.J., in 1783. 

L HOririEDIEU, Ezra, delegate, was born in 
Southold, L.I., N.Y., Aug. 30, 1734; son of Benja 
min and Martha (Bourne) L Hommedieu, and a 
grandson of Benjamin and Patience (Sylvester) 
L Hommedieu and of Judge Ezra and Martha 
(Prince) Bourne, of Sandwich, Mass. Benjamin 

L Homme- 
dieu, the 
immigrant, 
his grand 
father was 
born in La 
Rochelle, 
France, and 
was one of 
the persecu 
ted Hugue 
not refugees who fled to Holland, thence to 
America, in 1686, settling in Southold, L.I., in 1690. 
Ezra was graduated from Yale in 1754, practised 
law in New York city and was early called 
into the public councils. He was a delegate 
to the New York provincial congresses in May, 

1775, December, 1775, May, 1776, and July, 

1776, and was active in founding the first 
state constitution in July, 1776. He was a 
member of the New York assembly, 1777-83 ; 
a delegate to the Continental congress, 1779-83, 




1785-1788. 
\5/\jT HOUSE, - 



and 1787-88 ; state senator, 1784-92 and 1794-1809, 
and a regent of the University of the State of 
New York, 1787-1811. He was a member of the 
Society for the Promotion of Agricultural Arts 
and Manufactures, and was its vice-president 
from its organization in 1791 until his death. He 
was married, Dec. 24, 1756, to Charity, daughter 
of Nicholl and Tabitha (Smith) Floyd, of Brook- 
haven, L.I. She died July 31. 1785, and he was 
married secondly, June 15, 1803, to Mary Cath 
arine, daughter of Nicoll and Sarah (Fosdick) 
Havens, of Shelter Island, L.I., N.Y. He died in 
Southold. L.I., N.Y., Sept. 27. 1811. 

LIBBEY, William, educator, was born in Jer 
sey City, N.J., March 27, 1855; son of William 
and Elizabeth (Marsh) Libbey and grandson of 
William Seavey and Sarah (Farringtoii) Libbey. 
His first ancestor in America was an early settler 
of Portsmouth, N.H., 1630. He attended the 
Polytechnic institute, Brooklyn, N.Y., and was 
graduated from the College of New Jersej r , A.B., 
1877, A.M. and Sc.D., 1879. He was married, 
Dec. 7, 1880, to Mary Elizabeth, eldest daughter 
of Prof. William Henry Green, of Princeton Theo 
logical seminary. He was associate professor of 
natural science at Princeton, 1880-83 ; professor 
of physical geography and director of the E.M. 
Geological museum, 1883-85, and professor of his 
tology, 1885-98. He was elected a fellow of the 
Royal Geographical society and of the Royal 
Geological society of London in 1880, the geo 
graphical and geological societies of France in 
1879, and became foreign secretary of the Amer 
ican Geographical society. He edited Guyofs 
Pliysical and Meteorological Tables (1884), and 
Guyot s Physical Geography (1884). 

LICK, James, philanthropist, was borninFred- 
ericksburg, Pa., Aug. 25, 1796; son of John and 
Sarah (Long) Lick ; grandson of William Luk, an 
emigrant from the 
Palatinate, Germany, 
who settled in Mont 
gomery county, Pa. 
His mother died in 
1812, and his father, 
who fought at Val 
ley Forge, died in 18- 
31 at the age of 104 
years. He learned 
the trade of an or 
gan and piano ma 
ker, and in 1821 en 
gaged in the busi 
ness in New York 
city, where he failed 
for lack of capital. 
He then visited Rio de Janeiro, Valparaiso and 
other cities in South America, where lie en 
gaged in the manufacture and sale of musical 




[59] 



LICK 



LIEBER 



instruments and made a small fortune. He 
settled in San Francisco, Cal., in 1S47, and in 
vested $30,000 in real estate and other enterprises. 
He built one of the finest hotels on the Pacific 
coast and named it the Lick House. This hotel 
was sold by the trustees to the estate of James G. 
Fair for ,$1,250,000. In 1874 he gave all his prop 
erty, valued at that time at about $ 2,000,000, to 
certain public and charitable purposes. Twice 
before his death he desired to make changes in 
his schedule of gifts, and each time on the trus 
tees expressing some doubts as to their legal right 
to give assent, he requested them to resign and 
selected new trustees. After providing for a 
number of minor legacies, ranging from 2000 to 
825,000 cash, to relatives, friends and charities, 
and providing for four monuments, to cost $5000 
each, to his father, mother, grandfather and sis 
ter in Pennsylvania, he left, for the erection of a 
bronze monument in Golden Gate park to Francis 
Scott Key, $60,000 ; for a group of bronze stat 
uary representing the history of California, to be 
erected in front of the City Hall, San Francisco, 
$100,000; for the founding of the Old Ladies 
Home at San Francisco, $100,000 ; for the erection 
and maintenance of free public baths in that city, 
$150,000 ; to found and endow an institution to be 
called the California School of Mechanical Arts, 
$540,000 ; to his son, John Henry Lick, $150,000, 
which amount the trustees afterward increased 
to $535,000, as final compromise settlement after 
a prolonged contest in the courts ; and to construct 
an observatory and place therein a telescope 
which should be more powerful than any that 
had been made, and to constitute the observatory 
a department of the University of California, 
$700,000. The site was selected during Mr. Lick s 
lifetime on the summit of Mt. Hamilton, 4209 
feet above the sea. fifty miles southeast of San 
Francisco, and twenty-six miles by stage line 
east from San Jose. It includes a reservation of 
about 2GOO acres, extending roughly in a circle 
one mile below the site of the observatory. The 
telescope has an object glass of thirty-six inches 
clear aperture, the dome of the observatory is 
turned by hydraulic power, and the floor is raised 
and lowered by the same means. He also pro 
vided that after all the bequests had been paid 
the residue of the estate should be divided 
equally between the California Academy of 
Sciences and the Society of California Pioneers, 
of which lie was president. The trustees in the 
management of the estate not only completed all 
the stated bequests, but divided a surplus of 
$1,200,000 between the two societies named as 
residuary legatees. His board of trustees directed 
that his remains be placed in a vault under the 
pier sustaining the telescope of Lick observatory, 
and they were so disposed in 1887. He died in 
San Francisco. Cal., Oct. 1, 1870. 



[60] 



LIDDELL, Hark Harvey, educator, was born 
in Cleariield, Pa., April 1, I860; son of Thomas 
and Sophronia (Swan) Liddell. His father came 
to America from Berwickshire, Scotland. He 
was graduated B.A. from the College of New Jer 
sey in 1887, returning thither as university fel 
low in English in 1888-89. He was Latin master 
at Germaiitown academy, Philadelphia, 1889-91, 
and at Lawrenceville school, N.J., 1891-93. He 
continued the special study of English at Oxford, 
1893-94 ; at Berlin, 1894-95, and again at Oxford, 
1895-96. He was elected associate professor of 
English literature at the University of Texas, 
1897-98, and was made professor of English there 
in 1898, resigning in 1900 to devote his time to 
the preparation of an edition of Shakspere. He 
was married, Dec. 30, 1890, to Mary Stanley, 
daughter of Samuel and Mary Gray (Patterson) 
Field, of Philadelphia. He was part editor of 
the Globe Chaucer (1M9G); editor of The Middle 
Translation of Palladia* d<> Re rustiea (1895): 
Chaucer s Prologue, Rnightes Tale and Xoimex 
Preestes Tale({ ( ,W\), and Shakspere s Works in 
Elizabethan English, with a new critical text (40 
vols.. 1901. et seq.) 

LIEBER, Francis, publicist, was born in Ber 
lin, Germany, March 18. 1NOO ; son of Frederic 
William Lieber, an ironmonger who resided in 
Breite Strasse. In 1*15 he served in the Prus 
sian army, participating in the battles oi Ligny, 
Waterloo and Namur, 
at which last he was 
severely wounded. 
He acquired his edu 
cation at the Pepi- 
niere in Berlin, the 
gymnasium at Has- 
enhaide, at the Uni- 
A ersity of Jena where 
lie was graduated in 
1820, at Halle, and at 
Dresden. He took 
part in the revolution 
in Greece in 1821. 
He was repeatedly 
persecuted by the 
Prussian authorities 

on account of his liberal political views, and 
was twice imprisoned. Finally, on May 17, 
1826, he fled to England where he supported 
himself by giving private instruction and by 
contributing to German papers. He applied 
for the chair of German in the London university. 
but while waiting fora settlement lie received an 
appointment as gymnasium instructor in Boston, 
Mass., which he accepted and in June, 1827, took 
charge of the gymnasium, succeeding Dr. Charles 
Follen. He was married, Sept. 21, 1829, to Ma 
tilda Oppenheimer, of London, England, and re 
sided in Philadelphia, 1833-35. He was commis- 




LIEBER 



LIGHTBURN 



sioned to draw up the constitution of Girard major and judge advocate, Nov. 13, 1802; was 



college in 1834. He was professor of history, 
philosophy and public economy in South Carolina 
college at Columbia, 1835-50 ; professor of his 
tory and political science at Columbia college, 
New York, 1857-05. and of constitutional history 
and public law, 1800-72. He was appointed super 
intendent of a bureau in Washington to collect, 
arrange and preserve the records of the Confed 
erate government, and was chosen by the United 
States and Mexico as final arbitrator in the dis 
putes between the two countries in 1870. He 
received the honorary degree of LL.D. from 
Harvard in 1850. He was a member of many 
learned societies, a fellow of the American Acad 
emy of Arts and Sciences, and corresponding 
member of the Massachusetts Historical society 
and of the Institut de France. He is the author 
nt translations including : Feuerbach s Life of 
( (ixjutr Ha user ( 18:50) : Beaumont and De Tocque- 
ville s Penitent tin !/ System in the United States 
(1833) and Dictionary of Latin Synonyms (1839); 
edited the Encyclopcedia Americana (13 vols., 
1S29-33); published several poems, including 
\\~ein and Wonne Lieder (1824) and The West and 
other Poems (1848). He also wrote The German 
Anacharsix (1823); Instructions for the Govern- 
iin iit of the Annies of the United States in the 
Field (1803); Letters to a (fenUeman in Germany 
(1S34), afterward published under the title A 
Stranger in America (2 vols., 1835): Reminiscences 
of XiebnJir (1835): Man mil of Political Ethics 
(2 vols.. 1838); Legal and Political Henneneiitics 
(1S35); Essay on 1 roperty and Labor (1842); 
(. i-t <tt Events Described by Great Historians (1847); 
Civil Liberty and Self Government (2 vols.. 1852); 
Essays on the Subject of Penal Laii and the Peni 
tentiary System (published by the Philadelphia 
Prison Discipline society); Abuse of Penitentiary 
Poire r (published by the legislature of New 
York); Remarks on Mrs. Fry s Views of Solitary 
Confinement and a Letter on the Pardoning Sys 
tem (published by the legislature of South Caro 
lina), besides many pamphlets and articles on 
legislative, judicial, scientific and general topics. 
He died in New York city, Oct. 2, 1872. 

LIEBER, Quido Norman, soldier, was born in 
Columbia, S.C., May 21, 1837 ; son of Francis and 
Matilda (Oppenheimer) Lieber. He was gradu 
ated from the South Carolina college in 1850 and 
from the Harvard Law school in 1858. He was 
admitted to the bar in 1800 and practised in New 
York city. In 1801 he was commissioned 1st 
lieutenant in the llth infantry. U.S.A. : was ap 
pointed regimental adjutant and served under 
McClellan throughout the peninsular campaign. 
He was brevetted captain, June 27. 1862, for gal 
lantry in action at Gaines s Mill, Va. : served at 
Second Bull Run, Aug. 27, 1862 ; was appointed 



brevetted major, May 28, 1864. for services in the 
Red River campaign, and lieutenant-colonel, 
March 13, 1865, for faithful and meritorious serv 
ices during the war. He was married, June 14, 
1800, to Bettie, daughter of Gen. Edmund 
Brooke and Amelia (Hoffman) Alexander. He 
served as assistant to his father in the bureau of 
Confederate archives and was judge advocate of 
various military departments and divisions. He 
was one of the founders of the Military Service 
Institution in New York ; professor of law in the 
U.S. Military academy, 1878-82; and was as 
signed to duty in the bureau of military justice 
in 1882. He was appointed assistant judge- 
advocate-general with the rank of colonel July 8, 
1884, and judge-advocate-general with the rank 
of brigadier-general, Jan. 3, 1895. He is the 
author of : Remarks on the Army Regulations 
(1898); The Use of the Army in Aid of the Civil 
Power (1898). 

LIEBER, Oscar Montgomery, geologist, wns 
born in Boston, Mass., Sept. 8, 1830 ; son of 
Francis and Matilda (Oppenheimer) Lieber. He 
was educated in the colleges at Berlin, Gottin- 
gen. and Freiburg, and was state geologist of 
Mississippi, 1850-51. He made a geological 
survey of Alabama, 1854-55, and was mineral- 
ogical, geological and agricultural surveyor of 
South Carolina, 1850-60. He accompanied the 
American astronomical expedition to Labrador 
as geologist in 1860, and in 1861 he joined the 
Confederate army. In the battle of Williams- 
burg he was mortally wounded. Besides the 
four annual reports of the survey of South Caro 
lina (1857-60), he is the author of : The Assayers* 
Guide (1862) ; The Analytical Chemists Assistant 
translated from the German (1852), and various 
contributions to the New York Mining Magazine. 
He died in Richmond, Va.. June 27, 1802. 

LIGHTBURN, Joseph Andrew Jackson, sol 
dier, was born in Westmoreland county, Pa., 
Sept. 21, 1824 ; son of Benjamin and Rebeckah 
(Fell) Lightburn, and grandson of Benjamin 
and Elizabeth (Hayden) Lightburn. He was a 
delegate from Lewis county. Va., to the conven 
tion to reorganize the state government in 1801, 
and recruited the 4th Virginia Volunteer infantry 
regiment for service in the Federal army, and 
was made its colonel, Aug. 14, 1861. He was 
in command of the district of the Kanawha. 
and conducted the retreat from the Kanawha 
valley in September, 1862 ; was promoted brig 
adier-general, U.S. volunteers, March 16, 1803. 
and participated in the Vicksburg campaign and 
in the battle of Chattanooga, Nov. 23-25, 1803. 
He was with Sherman s army in the march lo 
Atlanta, and commanded the 2d brigade, 2d divi 
sion, 15th army corps. Army of the Tennessee, 



[01] 



LIGON 



LINCECUM 



and supported Generals Smith and Wood at the 
capture of the heights of Reseca, May 14, 1864. 
When Logan succeeded McPherson in the com 
mand of the Army of the Tennessee, Lightburn 
assumed command of the 2d division, and upon 
Hood s attack upon the 15th corps, July 22, 1864, 
the line having been weakened by a previous 
attack, the Confederates succeeded by a flank 
movement in driving back a portion of Light- 
burn s troops, and causing the whole division to 
break in confusion. Lightburn reformed the divi 
sion, and with the assistance of Wood s division 
and one brigade of the 16th corps, recaptured the 
guns. During the Atlanta campaign he was 
severely wounded in the head, and after his re 
covery he led a brigade in the Shenandoah valley. 
He resigned his commission in the army. June 
22, 1865, and was a representative in the West 
Virginia state legislature, 1866-07. In 1 869 he was 
ordained to the Baptist ministry, and became 
pastor at Mt. Lebanon Baptist church, Harrison 
county, W. Va. He engaged in the active work 
of the ministry until January, 1901. 

LIQON, Thomas Watkins, governor of Mary 
land, was born in Prince Edward county, Va., in 
1812 ; son of Thomas D. Ligon and grandson of 
Col. Thomas Watkins, a hero of the battle of 
Guilford, March 15, 1781. He attended Hampden- 
Sidney college, the University of Virginia, and 
Yale Law school. He practised law in Baltimore, 
Md., 1835-5;}, residing near Ellicott City. He 
was a representative in the 29th and 30th con 
gresses, 1845-19, and governor of Maryland, 1854- 
58. lie was president of Patapsco Female Insti 
tute, and an officer in several charitable institu 
tions in Baltimore and vicinity. He died near 
Ellicott City, Md., Jan. 12. 1881. 

LILL1E, John, biblical scholar, was born in 
Kelso. Scotland, Dec. 16, 1812 ; son of Thomas 
Lillie, merchant. He was graduated with first 
honors from the University of Edinburgh in 1831, 
studied theology in the divinity hall and taught 
school in Edinburgh until 1834, when he immi 
grated to the United States. He completed his 
course in theology at the New Brunswick sem 
inary, New Jersey. He was licensed to preach by 
the classis of New York, July 21, 1835, and was 
ordained and installed minister in the Reformed 
Dutch church, Feb. 1, 1836. He was pastor of the 
Reformed Dutch church, Kingston, N.Y., 1836- 
41 ; president of the grammar school of the Uni 
versity of the City of New York, 1841-43 ; pastor of 
the Broadway, afterward Staunton Street Re 
formed Dutch church, in New York city, 1843-52, 
and edited the Jewish Chronicle, published for 
distribution in the missions among the Jews, 
1844-48. He was recognized as one of the best 
biblical scholars in the United States, and was 
engaged upon the Revised Version prepared bv 



the American Bible Union, 1851-57. He was 
pastor of the Presbyterian church at Kingston, 
N.Y.. 1857-67. He received the degree of D.D. 
from the University of Edinburgh in 1855. He 
translated with additions Auberlen and Riggen- 
bach upon Thessalonians. in the Lange series 
(1868), and is the author of Perpetuity of tlte 
Earth (1842); Lectures on the Enisles to tlte 
Thessalonians (1860). His Lectures on the First 
and Second Epistles of Peter, irith a Biographical 
Sketch by Dr. Schaff and James Inylis, were 
published posthumously (1869.) He died at 
Kingston, N.Y., Feb. 23, 1867. 

LILLINQTON, John Alexander, soldier, was 
born in Barbadoes, W. I., about 1725 ; son of Col. 
George Lillington of the British army, and a 
member of the royal council of Barbadoes in 1698, 
and grandson of Alexander Lillington who was 
governor of Carolina under the lords proprietors, 
1691-94. John came to North Carolina with his 
father in 1734, after the government had passed 
to the crown ; resided in the Albemarle district 
and became identified with the movement de 
manding representation in the affairs of govern 
ment. In August, 1775, he received the appoint 
ment of colonel of militia for the Wilmington 
district from the provincial congress of North 
Carolina. He commanded in the battle of 
Moores Creek Bridge, Feb. 27, 1776, until the 
arrival of Col. Richard Case well, when he became 
second in command, and they succeeded in cap 
turing 1000 Scotch loyalists. This was the first 
victory won by the American troops in the 
Revolution. He was promoted colonel of the 6th 
North Carolina regiment, Continental army, April 
4, 1776, and became brigadier-general under Gen 
eral Gates in 1780. He died probably at "Lil 
lington Hall," Bladen county, N.C., in 1786. 

LINCECUM, Gideon, naturalist, was born in 
Hancock county, Ga., April 22, 1793. He acquir 
ed an education through home study, served in 
the Georgia militia in the war of 1812 and became 
a practising physician in Lowndes county. Miss., 
in 1815. In 1856 he removed to Texas and spent 
1868-72 in Tuxpan, Mexico. He became the 
friend and correspondent of Darwin, Humboldt, 
Agassiz and other eminent naturalists. He pub 
lished papers through the Smithsonian Institu 
tion, the Franklin Institute and the Essex Insti 
tute, among them being a monograph on the red 
ant, the result of fourteen years study. The 
Jardin des Plantes in Paris contains his collection 
of Texan flora and the Essex Institute, at Salem, 
Mass., his collection of forty-eight families of 
ants and butterflies. He is the author of several 
unpublished works, including an autobiography ; 
The Medical History of the Southern Un ited States 
and The Traditions of Ihe C liochrii Indians. He 
died in Brenham, Texas, Nov. 28, 1874. 



[02] 



LINCOLN 



LINCOLN 



LINCOLN, Abraham, sixteenth president of 
the United States, was born in a log cabin on the 
Big South Fork of Nolin Creek, three miles from 
Hodgensville, LaRue county, Ky., Feb. 12, 1809; 
eldest son and second child of Thomas and Nancy 
(Hanks) Lincoln ; grandson of Abraham and Mary 



IAI WHKH 
ABRAHAM UIM<OLA| 
BOKAI 




(Shipley) Lincoln ; great-grandson of John Lin 
coln, who emigrated from New Jersey to Penn 
sylvania and thence to the wilds of western Vir 
ginia about 17.~>8; great 2 -grandson of Mordecai 
and Hannah Bowne (Slater) Lincoln, this Mordecai 
removing from Scituate, Mass., in 1714 to Mon- 
mouth county. N.J., and thence to Pennsylvania ; 
great -grandson of Mordecai and Sarah (Jones) 
Lincoln, this Mordecai removing from Hingham 
to Scituate, Mass., about 1704, where lie set tip a 
furnace for smelting iron ore ; and great-grand 
son of Samuel Lincoln, born in Norfolk county, 
England, in 1620. who immigrated to Salem, 
Mass., in 1637 and in 1640 joined his brother 
Thomas, who had settled in Hingham, Mass. 
The Lincolns were evidently men of considerable 
wealth and of good social position. Thomas Lin 
coln, father of the President, inherited some 
property but was an improvident man, by trade 
a carpenter and accustomed to seek work from 
place to place. In the autumn of 1816 he removed 
to Indiana where his wife died Oct. 5, 1816, and he 
returned to Kentucky and was married secondly 
to Sarah (Bush) Johnston, an intelligent and 
industrious widow. Abraham s attendance at 
school occupied hardly one year, but he improved 
every opportunity for acquiring knowledge. His 
only books were the Bible, " ^Esop ? s Fables." 
"Robinson Crusoe", "The Pilgrim s Progress," 
"Weems s " Life of Washington " and a history of 
the United States. During his boyhood and youth 
he acquired a local reputation as a wit. He was 
also a successful backwoods orator, speaking 
whenever opportunity offered on temperance, 
national politics and other topics. The Lincoln 
family removed to Sangamon county, Illinois, 
where Abraham assisted his father in building a 
cabin in the forest. He obtained employment as 
a farm hand, and in the spring of 1832 on the out 
break of the Black Hawk war he was elected cap 



tain of a company of volunteers. On the expira 
tion of his term of service he re-enlisted as a 
private and served until mustered out in June, 
1832. In March, 1832, lie had announced himself 
a candidate for representative in the state legis 
lature and on his return from the war he began 
his electioneering. He was not elected, standing 
third on a list of eight contestants, but out of 
the 208 votes cast in Sangamon county he re 
ceived 205. He then engaged in the grocery 
business at New Salem as junior partner of the 
firm of Berry & Lincoln, but this venture ended 
disastrously within a year, and he was responsible 
for the indebtedness of the firm which he dis 
charged after many years. He was postmaster 
at New Salem in 1833 ; was elected deputy sur 
veyor of Sangamon county in January, 1834 : was 
;, Whig representative in the state legislature, 
1834-42, and was instrumental in removing the 
state capital from Vandalia to Springfield. He 
studied law, and in March, 1837, was admitted 
to the bar. He settled in Springfield and formed 
a partnership with John S. Stuart. He was a 
candidate on the Whig electoral ticket in 1 S40 and 
stumped the state for Harrison and Tyler. He 
was married Nov. 4, 1842, to Mary Todd. a native 
of Lexington, Ky., who was residing in Spring 
field with her sister, Mrs. Ninian W. Edwards. 
His partnership with Mr. Stuart was dissolved in 
1841, and a new partnership was formed with 
Stephen T. Logan, which continued until 1843, 
when a connection with William H. Herndon 
was formed. This rirm, of which Mr. Lincoln was 
senior partner, was dissolved by Mr. Lincoln s 
death. He was 
a candidate on 
the Whig presi 
dential electoral 
ticket in 1844 and 
spoke through 
out Illinois and 
a part of Indiana 
for Clay and Fre- 
linghuysen. He 
as a representa 
tive in the 30th congress, 1847-49. having been 
elected in 1846 over Peter Cartwright, the Demo 
cratic candidate. He canvassed the state for Tay 
lor and Fillmore during the spring of 1848, and 
after the adjournment of congress. Aug. 14, 1848, 
he spoke in New England. While in congress he 
oppo*ed the extension of slavery, voting for the 
Wilmot proviso. He also drew up a bill prohibiting 
the bringing of slaves into the District of Colum 
bia, the bill containing other restrictions, the meas 
ure to be decided by popular vote in the district: 
and his bill received some support. After leaving 
congress he tried unsuccessfully to obtain the ap 
pointment of commissioner of the general land 




JS SPRIAJSDELP 



LINCOLN 



LINCOLN 



office and declined the appointment of governor 
of the newly organized Territory of Oregon. He 
was a representative in the state legislature in 
the winter of 1854, but resigned in order to be 
come a candidate before the legislature for the 
U.S. senate. In the Whig caucus in February, 
IS.").-), he received 4.1 votes on the first ballot 
against 41 for James Shields, the next candidate, 
but on the tenth ballot Lyiiian Trumbull was 
nominated. On the organization of the Repub 
lican party in 1854 Lincoln became prominently 
identified with it and during the Republican na 
tional convention at Philadelphia, June 17, 1856, 
which nominated Fremont and Dayton, he re 
ceived 110 votes as candidate for Vice-President. 
During the campaign lie made over fifty speeches 
and became prominent as a leader of the new 
party. In 1858 he was the Republican nominee 
for U.S. senator to succeed Stephen A. Douglas, 
ami on July 24 he challenge Douglas to a series 
of joint debates. The occasion of these encoun 
ters became historical. The election resulted in 
a victory for Douglas. Lincoln afterward spoke at 
Columbus and at Cincinnati. Ohio, and on Feb. 
21. 1860, he spoke in New York city, being intro 
duced by William Cullen Bryant as "an eminent 
citizen from the west, hitherto known to you only 
l>y reputation." He then delivered speeches in 
Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire 
and Connecticut. His entire argument was 
based on the question, li ls slavery right or 
wrong?" After the debates with Douglas in 
1858 Lincoln was urged to seek the nomination 
for President, but lie repeatedly discouraged the 
suggestion. He reconsidered the matter, how 
ever, in 1859-60. and consented to baa candidate, 
and the Republican state convention of Illinois 
instructed their delegates to vote for him. 
On May 16, 1860. the Republican national con 
vention met at Chicago, where the chief candi 
dates were William H. Seward, Abraham Lin 
coln. Salmon P. Chase. Simon Cameron, Edward 
Bates and William L. Dayton. Seward led in the 
first two ballots, Lincoln standing second. On 
the third ballot Lincoln had 23H votes to Sew- 
ard s 180, 235 votes being necessary for nomina- 
ton, and before the count was announced four 
votes were transferred to Lincoln by a delegate 
from Ohio. Other delegates followed his exam 
ple and Lincoln received 354 votes out of a possi 
ble 4f>5, the nomination being made unanimous 
on the motion of William M. Evarts. Hanni 
bal Hamlin of Maine was nominated for Vice- 
President. Stephen A. Douglas was nominated 
by a wing of the Democratic party with Ilerschel 
V. Johnson for Vice-President, at Baltimore, 
June 18, I860. After a spirited campaign Lincoln 
was elected. Nov. (i. 1.%(). the popular vote stand 
ing 1,866,352 for Lincoln and Hamlin, 1.375,157 



for Douglas and Johnson, 847.063 for Breckin- 
ridge and Lane, 589,581 for Bell and Everett, and 
the electoral vote was 180 for Lincoln, 12 for 
Douglas, 12 for Breckinridge and 39 for Bell. A 
constitution for the provisional government of 
the Confederate States of America was adopted 
at Montgomery, Ala., Feb. 8, 1861, by deputies 
from Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Lousiana, 
Mississippi and South Carolina. On Feb. 9, 1861, 
Jefferson Davis was elected President, and 
Alexander II. Stevens Vice-President, and all 
U.S. property within the limits of the Confeder 
acy was declared confiscate. Major Anderson, 
with his small force in Fort Moultrie, on the west 
end of Sullivan s Island at the entrance of 
Charleston harbor, finding the determination of 
the South Carolina government to possess them 
selves of the U.S. government property, evacuated 
the fort on Dec. 26. 1860, and raised the flag over 
Fort Sumter, constructed on a made island mid 
way between Forts Moultrie and Johnson, and 
there awaited reinforcements from the national 
government. The South Carolina insurgents 
took possession of all the other forts in the harbor 
and manned them, at the same time building a 
large floating ironclad battery. After a journey to 
Washington, attended with considerable per 
sonal danger, Mr. Lincoln was inaugurated March 




THE WHITE HOUSE , 184-9 -1866. 

4. 1861, and in his inaugural address he declared 
the union of the states to be perpetual, secession 
to be illegal, and his purpose " to hold, occupy and 
possess the property and places belonging to the 
government and to collect the duties and im 
posts." He also declared that the position of the 
Republican party regarding slavery was to 
prevent its extension, but not to interfere with 
the institution in states where it already lawfully 
existed. On April 12, 1861, the Confederates 
opened fire on Fort Sumter and continued the 
bombardment until the fort was rendered un 
tenable, and as the reinforcements and provisions 
sent by the Slur of t/ie HV.s-f, which reached 
the harbor Jan. 9, 1861, failed to reach the fort, 
Major Anderson had no choice but to surrender, 
which he did April 13, 1861, and he evacuated the 
fort April 14. This action on the part of the 
South aroused great consternation in the North and 
political differences were largely forgotten in the 
desire to preserve the Union. On April 15. 1861. the 



LINCOLN 



LINCOLN 



President called for 75,000 three-months volunteers 
and summoned congress to assemble in extra ses 
sion on July 4, 1861. On April 17, 1861, President 
Davis also called for 32.000 volunteers and offered 
" letters of marque and reprisal to owners of 
private armed vessels" to depredate upon U.S. 
commerce ; on the same day Virginia seceded. 
and on April 19 President Lincoln proclaimed a 
blockade of the Confederate ports, which then 
included South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, 
Alabama, Mississippi and Louisana, and to which 
was added North Carolina and Virginia April 
19, and the same day the Massachusetts troops 
were attacked by a mob in the streets of Balti 
more and one soldier was killed. On May 3. 1S61, 
President Lincoln called for volunteers for three 
years ; ordered the regular army increased, and 
directed the enlistment of additional seamen. On 
March 5, 18(51, the President had sent in his 
nominations for his cabinet, all of which had 
been confirmed. William H. Sewardof New York 
was named as secretary of state : Salmon P. 
Cliase of Ohio secretary of the treasury ; Si 
mon Cameron of Pennsylvania secretary of 
war; Cidron Welles of Connecticut secretary 
of the navy ; Caleb B. Smith of Indiana secre 
tary of the interior ; Edward Bates of Missouri 
attorney -general ; Montgomery Blair of New 
York postmaster-general. The following changes 
were made in the cabinet : Secretary Cameron 
resigned his portfolio to accept the position of U. 
S. minister to Russia, Jan. 11, 1862, and the port 
folio of war was accepted by Edwin M. Stanton 
of Pennsylvania, Jan. 15, 1862 ; W. P. Fessendenof 
Maine was appointed secretary of the treasury, 
July 1, 1864. to succeed Salmon P. Chase, made 
-chief justice of the U.S. supreme court, and he 
resigned to take a seat in the U.S. senate, and 
was succeeded March 7, 1865, by Hugh McCulloch 
of Indiana ; John P. Usher of Indiana was ap 
pointed secretary of the interior. Jan. 8, 1863, to 
succeed Caleb B. Smith, appointed U.S. circuit 
judge of Indiana ; James Speed of Kentucky 
was appointed attorney-general Dec. 2, 1864, to 
succeed Edward Bates, resigned : and William 
Dennison of Ohio was appointed postmaster- 
general to succeed Montgomery Blair, who 
resigned at the request of the President. During 
Lincoln s administrations he made the following 
diplomatic appointments : minister to Great 
Britain, Charles Francis Adams of Massachu 
setts ; minister to France, William II. Dayton of 
New Jersey, who was succeeded at his death in 
1864 by John Bigelow of New York ; minister to 
Austria, Anson Burlingame of Massachusetts, 
who was not received by that government on 
account of his political opinions, and was suc 
ceeded by John Lothrop Motley of Massachusetts ; 
minister to Russia, Cassius M. Clay of Kentucky, 




[<*] 



who was succeeded by Simon Cameron of Penn 
sylvania in 1862 ; minister to Italy, George P. 
Marsh of Vermont ; and minister to Spain, Carl 
Schurzof Wisconsin, 1861-62. who was succeeded 
by Gustavus Werner of Illinois, 1862-64, and H. J. 
Perry of New Hamp 
shire, who served as 
charge d affaires un 
til the appointment 
of John P. Hale of 
New Hampshire in 
1865. The President s 
message delivered be- 
fore both houses of 
congress July 4 1861, 
went far toward re 
assuring the people, 
a large number of 
whom were not with 
out uneasiness as to 
the ability of the 
President to meet the 
crisis. He briefly stated the condition of af 
fairs, announced his intention of standing by 
the statements made in his inaugural address, 
and asked that congress would place at the 
control of the government at least 400,000 
men and $400,000.000. To his request congress 
promptly complied and voted 500,000 men and 
$500.000,000. The early operations of the Confed 
erate and Federal armies were confined to Vir 
ginia and Missouri. The first issue at arms 
between the two forces was at Philippi, Va., June 
3, 1861, in which the Confederates were defeated 
by the Federal army under Gen. G. B. McClellan. 
This was followed by the Confederate victory at 
Big Bethel, Va.. June 10, 1861, and by the Federal 
victories at Romney, Va., June 11, 1861, and at 
Boonville, Mo., June 17, 1861 ; the Confederate 
victory at Carthage, Mo., July 5, 1861, and 
their defeat at Rich Mountain, Va., July 11, 
1861. On July 20 the President summoned Gen. 
George B. McClellan from western Virginia to 
Washington, and on his arrival in August, 1861, 
assigned him to the command of the Army of the 
Potomac. On July 3, 1861, the President created 
the department of the west, placing it under 
command of Gen. John C. Fremont. On Aug. 
31, 1861, Fremont issued a proclamation announc 
ing that he would emancipate all slaves of those 
in arms against the United States. The Presi 
dent considered this premature and asked Fre 
mont to withdraw the proclamation, which he 
declined to do, and the President annulled it in a 
public, order, and on Nov. 21, 1861, Fremont was 
relieved of his command just as he had overtaken 
the Confederate forces at Springfield, Mo. The 
battle of Bull Run, Va., July 21, 1861, resulted in 
a Federal defeat ; the battle of Dug Spring. Mo., 



LINCOLN 



LINCOLN 



Aug. 2, 1801, in a Federal victory; Wilson s 
Creek, Mo., Aug. 10, 1801, in a Federal defeat; 
Hattaras Inlet, N.C., Aug. 28-29, in a Federal 
victory, and Ball s Bluff, Oct. 21, in a Federal de 
feat. On the retirement of Gen. Wintield Scott, 
Oct. 31. 1801. General McClellan succeeded him 
asgeneral-in-chief of all the armies of the United 
States. The year closed with the capture of Port 
Royal, S.C.. Nov. 7, 1801. and on the same date 
the indecisive battle of Belmont, Mo., between 
Generals Grant and Polk. On Nov. 8, 1801, 
Captain Wilkes, in command of the U.S. steamer 
Sun Jacinto took from the English mail steamer 
Trent the Confederate commissioners James M. 
Mason and John Slidell, and the President, by 
the advice of Secretary Seward and other mem 
bers of his cabinet, but against the earnest re- 
monstration of the people as voiced in the Repub 
lican newspapers, apologized to the English gov 
ernment for the act, and the commissioners were 
surrendered to Great Britain to prevent diplo 
matic difficulties with that nation. The President 
issued his "General War Order No. 1, Jan. 27, 
1802. in which lie directed " that the 22d day of 
February, 1802, be the day for a general move 
ment of the land and naval forces of the United 
States against the insurgent forces." and while it 
was not found practicable to carry his order 
through, it quieted the tumult in the north, 
where there was an. almost universal demand that 
the Federal army should proceed at once to cap 
ture the Confederate capital, making the battle 
cry " On to Richmond. " The campaign of 1802 
opened with the victory at Mill Springs, Ky., 
by the Federal forces under Gen. George H. 
Thomas, Jan. 19 and 20, and on Feb. 0. 1802, 
Fort Henry, Tenu.. surrendered to Flag-Officer 
Foote. General Burnside, who had been placed 
in command of the department of North Carolina 
Jan. 7. 1X02. won a Federal victory at Roanoke 
Island, N.C., Feb. 8, 1862, and Fort Donelson, 
Tenn., surrendered to General Grant Feb. 10, 
1802. These Union victories were repeated in the 
battles of Pea Ridge, Ark., by Gen. Samuel R. 
Curtis, March 0-8, 1802. and the battle of New- 
Madrid, Mo., by Gen. John Pope, March 14. 1802. 
On March 8, 1802. the Confederate ram Virginia 
(late Merrimac) wrought havoc with the Federal 
fleet at Hampton Roads, Va., and was herself de 
feated by the U.S. iron-clad Monitor, March 9, 
1802. The Confederate victory at Newbern, N.C., 
March 14, 1802. was followed by the Federal vic 
tories near Winchester, Va., March 23, by Gen. 
James Shields ; at Shiloh, Tenn., by Grant, April 
0-7, 1802 ; the capture of Island No. 10 with 0000 
men by Flag-Officer Foote and General Pope, 
April 7. 1.S02, and the capture of Fort Pulaski, 
Ga... by (Jen. Quincy A. Gillmore, April 10-12, 
1802. On April 24, 1802, the Federal fleet under 



Flag-Officer Farragut passed Forts Jackson and 
St. Philip, and on April 25 New Orleans was 
captured. On May 5, 1802, General McClellan 
forced the Confederates to evacuate Williams- 
burg, Va. ; Gen. John E. Wool captured Norfolk, 
Va.. May 10 ; Hanover court-house. Va., was cap 
tured by Gen. Fitz-John Porter, May 27. and on 
the same day General Beaureguard evacuated 
Corinth, Miss. In a series of battles fought on 
May 27, May 31 and June 1, which included Seven 
Pines and Fair Oaks, McClellan was forced to 
change his base to the James river, as Gen. T. J. 
Jackson had inarched down the valley and 
threatened Washington, which prevented the 
President from carrying out his intention of 
sending McDowell with his 40.000 men to his 
support. On June 3. 1802, Gen. Robert E. Lee 
was appointed to the chief command of the Con 
federate army, and on June 20 he engaged Mc 
Clellan at Mechanicsville, Va. The ensuing seven 
days battles, ending July 1, resulted in McClellan 
being ordered to evacuate the Peninsula and join 
Pope s Army of Virginia. The Confederates were 
again victorious at Cedar Mountain. Aug. 0. 1802, 
in the battles between Manassas and Washington, 
D.C., under Pope. Aug. 20 to Sept. 1. 1802. and in 
the battle of Richmond. Ky., under Kirby Smith, 
Aug. 30, 1802. In September, 1X03. Lee began 
his invasion of Maryland and crossed the Potomac 
near Point of Rocks. The President asked Mc 
Clellan to resume the command of the Army 
of the Potomac. On Sept. 15. 1802. Harper s 
Ferry with 12,000 men was surrendered to Gen. 
Thomas J Jackson, and after the battle of An- 
tietam. Md.. Sept. 10-17. 1802, Lee retreated to 
ward Richmond. The Federal army under Rose- 
crans were victorious at luka. Miss., Sept. 19 
and at Corinth, Miss., Oct. 3-4. 1802. and the Con 
federates under Bragg made an unsuccessful at 
tack at Perry ville. Ky., Oct. 8. 18(52. On Nov. 5, 
1SI52. (!en. G. B. McClellan was removed from 
command of the Army of the Potomac and Gen 
eral Burnside was appointed in his place. The 
disasters which befell the army did not end. how 
ever, witli McClellan s removal, as unexpected 
defeats were suffered by General Burnside at Fred- 
ericksburg. Va., witli a loss of 12.000 men. Dec. 
11-15, 1X02, and by Gen. Joseph Hooker at Chan- 
cellorville, Va.. May 1-5, 1X03, and no positive 
gains were made in the west. Meantime the sub 
ject of the emancipation of the slaves had en 
gaged the President. On March 0. 1802, he sent 
to congress a special message recommending the 
adoption of a joint resolution : " That the United 
States ought to co-operate with and aid pecun 
iarily any state adopting gradual abolishment of 
slavery." This proposition was not cordially re 
ceived by the border states and made evident the 
fact that emancipation was not desired. The 



[66] 



LINCOLN 



LINCOLN 



bill was passed, however, and on March 10 the 
President gathered together some of the border 
state members and tried to win them over to his 
views. After two days consideration the project 
was given up. On April 2, 1862, congress passed, 
an act emancipating the slaves in the District of 
Columbia ; on May 9, 1862, General Hunter pro 
claimed martial law in Georgia, Florida ai.d 
South Carolina, declaring the slaves free, which 
order the President at once revoked as unauthor 
ized ; on June 19, 1862, a bill passed congress pro 
hibiting slavery wherever congress had authority, 
and on July 17, 1862, a measure " for the confis 
cation of the property of rebels, and giving free 
dom to the persons they hold in slavery," after 
being amended, was passed. In July, 1862, 
amendments were made to a bill concerning the 
calling forth of the militia, permitting the enlist 
ment of negroes in the Union army, and making 
thereafter free each person so enlisted. This bill 
aroused much criticism and was finally modified 
so as to relate only to slaves of rebel owners. 
On Sept. 22, 1862, the President issued a prelim 
inary proclamation that unless the inhabitants of 
the revolted states returned to their allegiance by 
Jan. 1 , 18613, the slaves would be declared free ; but 
this proclamation had no effect. On Jan. 1 , 1863, 
the President issued his emancipation proclama 
tion in which he stated that all persons held as 
slaves in certain states and parts of states being 
then in rebellion should be free and that the gov 
ernment would " recognize and maintain the free 
dom of said persons. General Lee invaded Maiy- 
land and Pennsylvania, in June, 186;]. and on 
July 13 the battle of Gettysburg, Pa., was fought 
in which the Federal army under Gen. George G. 
Meade defeated the Confederates under Lee ; on 
July 4. 1863, Vicksburg surrendered to General 
Grant, and on July 8 Port Hudson, La., surren 
dered to the Federals under General Banks. 
Recruits now being needed in numbers far above 
the enlistments, on May 3, 1863, congress passed 
a bill Calling every able-bodied citizen of military 
age into the Federal service, a commutation of 
S300 for exemption being permitted, and on 
the failure of the citizens to present themselves 
for enrolment, the President ordered a draft. 
This led on July 13 to the draft riots in New 
York city, and soon after the bounty system 
was substituted. On July 16 Jackson, Miss., was 
destroyed by General Sherman, and in Sep 
tember Chattanooga, Tenn., was occupied by 
the Confederates under Gen. George B. Crit- 
tenden. The battle of Chickamauga, Ga., Sept. 
19-20, 1863, resulted in a victory for the Con 
federate General Bragg, and a Federal loss of 
16.000 men. Bragg was defeated, however, at 
the battles of Chattanooga and Lookout Moun 
tain, Nov. 33-20, and the siege of Knoxville was 



raised by Longstreet, Dec. 4, 1863. In December, 

1863, the 13th amendment, providing that slavery 
should not exist within the United States, was 
introduced into the house, and in January, 1864, 
in the senate. On June 15, 1864, the vote was 
taken but the result being a deficiency of 27 votes 
the question was laid over till the next session. On 
Jan. 28, 1865, the vote was retaken and resulted 
in 119 ayes and 56 nays, and the 13th amendment 
was adopted. A motion to adjourn in honor of 
the event was made and carried, and a great 
popular demonstration followed. On Feb. 1, 1864, 
the President and Secretary Seward met on the 
River Queen a commission sent by President 
Davis to inquire into the possible adjustment of 
affairs between the North and South, but the con 
ference broke up without finding any basis for an 
agreement. The campaign of 1864 opened with 
General Sherman s raid from Vicksburg, Feb. 14, 

1864. On April 13, Fort Pillow was captured 
by the Confederates and the Negro troops were 
massacred. On May 5-7, the battles of the 
Wilderness occur red bet ween Grant and Lee, and 
Lee was driven back. On March 7 Sherman 
began his march to Atlanta and the sea with 
110,000 men, and on March 10 Grant attacked 
Lee at Spotsylvania court house and defeated him. 
On June 8, 1864, Lincoln was unanimously renom- 
inated for President, with Andrew Johnson as 
Vice-President, and he was elected Nov. 8. 1864, 
receiving 2.216,067 popular votes against 1,808,725 
for McClellan, the Democratic nominee. The 
electoral vote was 212 for Lincoln and 21 for 
McClellan. At the battle of Cold Harbor, June 
1-3, 1864, and at Petersburg, Va., June .16-18, 
1864, General Grant was repulsed by Lee, but he 
began a siege of Petersburg, June 18. Sher 
man meanwhile won the battle of Resaca, Ga., 
May 13-15, 1864. and the battle of Dallas. Ga,, 
May 25-28, but at Keuesaw Mountain lie was 
repulsed June 27, 1864. On July 22-28 the bat 
tles of Atlanta took place, in which Sherman was 
victorious. On July 30 occurred the explosion 
of the Petersburg crater and the subsequent re 
pulse of the Federal charge. The principal naval 
operations of 1864 were the sinking of the C.S. 
steamer Alabama by the U.S. steamer Kearsarge, 
off Cherbourg, France, and the battle of Mobile 
Bay, in which the Federal fleet under Farragnt 
was victorious. Sherman captured Atlanta, Ga., 
Sept. 2. 1864, Savannah, Ga., Dec. 22, 1864, Colum 
bia, S.C., Feb. 17, 1865, and Bentonville, N.C., 
March 19, 1865. General Sheridan won the bat 
tle of Winchester, Va,, Sept. 19, and the battle 
of Fisher s Hill, Va., Sept. 22, 1864. President 
Lincoln was inaugurated for a second term 
March 4, 1865. amid popular rejoicing. On April 
2 Grant carried the outer lines of the Con 
federate works at Petersburg, and on April 3 

[671 



LINCOLN 



LINCOLN 



\ 




FORP S THEATRt 



Petersburg and Richmond were evacuated by 
General Lee, who surrendered his army to Gen 
eral Grant at Appomattox court house. Va.. 
April 9, 1863. The President visited General 
Grant at his headquarters at City Point and en 
tered Richmond shortly after the evacuation. 

On April 11. 18- 
65. Washington 
was illuminated 
in honor of the 
surrender of Lee, 
and on the even 
ing of April 14, 
1865, the Presi 
dent, Mrs. Lin 
coln, Miss Clara 
Harris and Ma 
jor Rathbone oc 
cupied a box at 
Ford s Theatre. 
Washington, to 
witness the play 
Our Ameri 
can Cousin." At 
10.80 in the 
evening John 
Wilkes Booth, an actor, entered the box from the 
rear of the stage and holding a pistol to the Presi 
dent s head, fired. The President fell forward 
unconscious, and in the confusion which fol 
lowed Booth escaped by leaping on the stage but 
broke his leg in the lea p. his spur being entangled 
in the American nag that draped the box. The 
President was carried to a house opposite the 
theatre where, on the morning of April 15. 186."). 
he died. On April 19. 1*65. the funeral took place 
at the White House. The body was laid in state 
at the "White House, and was there viewed by a 
great number of people. It was guarded by a 
company of high officers of the army and navy. 
The assassin of the President was found in 
a barn by a squadron of troops April 27, 1865, 
and was shot by a soldier before the officer 
could demand his surrender. The remains 
(T the President lay in state in Baltimore, 
Harrisburg. Philadelphia, New York, Albany, 
Buffalo, Cleveland and Chicago ; and at each 
place immense funeral processions marched 
through the streets and the whole country was in 
mourning. The funeral car reached Springfield, 
111., having travelled a distance of nearly 2000 
miles, and the body was buried in Oak Ridge 
cemetery. May 4, 1865. A monument of white 
marble marks the spot. Numerous statues of 
Lincoln adorn the public places of most of the 
larger cities of the United States. Henry Kirke 
Brown executed the one in Union Square, New 
York city, and that in Brooklyn ; Thomas Ball s 
Emancipation group appears in Lincoln Park, 




Washington. D.C.. and in Park Square, Boston; 
a statue by Mrs. Vinnie Ream Hoxie is in Statuary 
Hall in the national capitol. one by Augustus 
St. Gaudens in Chicago, and one by Randolph 
Rogers in Fairmount Park. Philadelphia. The 
honorary de 
gree of LL.D. 
was conferred 
on Mr. Lincoln 
by Columbia in 
Mil. and by 
the College of 
New Jersey in 
1864. Portraits 
in oil were 
painted from 
life by Frank 
B. Carpenter, 
Matthew Wil 
son. Thomas 
Hicks and Wil 
liam E. Mar 
shall. Mr. Car 
penter also 
painted "The ou WHKH LJNCOU* oi. 

Reading of the Emancipation Proclamation "and 
wrote : " Six Months in the White House." 
After his death, Healy, Page and many other 
painters produced excellent portraits after his 
numerous photographs. A large collection of 
his photographs was reproduced in McClure s 
j\Tncjaziin> with an illustrated " Life " and 
"Early Life of Abraham Lincoln," by Ida M. 
Tarbell (1895-96): and Volk and Mills took life 
masks from which they executed busts. Mr. 
Lincoln s "Speech at Cooper Union, Feb. 27, 
1860." was issued in pamphlet form and widely 
circulated, and selections from his speeches and 
messages were published in 1865. Joseph H. 
Barrett, J. G. Holland. W. M. Tharer, B. F. 
Morris, Henry J. Raymond, Ward H. Lamon, W. 
O. Stoddard, Isaac N. Arnold, Harriet Beecher 
Stowe, D. W. Bartlett, Charles G. Leland, J. C. 
Power, Nicolay and Hay, John T. Morse, Carl 
Schurz, William D. Howells, Ida M. Tarbell are 
the more prominent of his numerous biographers. 
In the selection of names for a place in the Hall 
of Fame for Great Americans, New York uni 
versity, made in 1900, his was one of the thirty- 
seven names in " Class M. Rulers and States 
men, and received a place, securing ninety-six 
votes, equalling the votes given Daniel Webster 
and exceeded only by the ninety-seven votes 
given George Washington. President Lincoln 
died in Washington. D.C., April 15, 1865. 

LINCOLN, Benjamin, soldier, was born in 
Hingham, Mass., Jan. 24, 1733, son of Col. 
Benjamin Lincoln, and a descendant of Thomas 
Lincoln, one of the iirst settlers of Hingham, 



[68] 



LINCOLN 



LINCOLN 



1636. Benjamin received u limited education, 
and worked on his lather s farm until two years 
after his father s death, which occurred in 1771. 
In 1755 lie was appointed adjutant of his father s 
regiment, the 3d Suffolk, and saw service in the 
French and Indian war. He held the offices of 
magistrate, of representative in the provincial leg 
islature and of colonel of militia. He also served 
as a member of the committee of correspondence 
and as secretary of the several provincial con 
gresses. He engaged in raising and drilling troops, 
1775-76 ; was appointed major-general of state 
militia in 1776 and was a member of the commit 
tee to prepare instructions for the representatives 
in the general court. In June, 1776, he com 
manded the expedition that forced the British 
Tessels to leave the harbor, and he reinforced 
Washington s army at Harlem, X.Y. , with a body 
of Massachusetts militia. He took part in the bat 
tle of White Plains, N.Y.. and the attack on Fort 
Independence, and early in 1777 he reinforced 
Washington at Morristown, X.J. On Feb. 19, 
1777, he was commissioned major-general in 
tlie Continental army. At Bound Brook, N.J., 
April 13, 1777, lie was surprised by a large force 
under General Cornwallis but rallied his demor 
alized forces and retreated with them to the 
mountains with comparatively small loss. In 
July, 1777, he reinforced General Schuyler in Al 
bany and he destroyed the posts at Lake George 
established by Burgoyne and opposed his advance. 
He commanded the right wing of Gates s army 
nt Stilhvater and the American works at Bemis s 
Heights. On Oct. 8 with a small force lie recon 
noitred in the rear of Burgoyne s army, and was 
fired upon and severely wounded in the leg. 
This wound disabled him for a year and lamed 
him for life. In August, 1778. he rejoined the 
army, and on Sept. 25. 1778, he was appointed by 
congress commander-in-chief of the South 
ern Department. 
He engaged in 
he defence of 
Charleston, S.C. 
against the Brit- 
i under Gen 
ial Prevost in 
December, 1777, 
and upon the ar- 
^ rival of Count 
d Estaing he ar- 
** ranged a co-op 
erative attack on 
Savannah which 
his French allies refused o continue and he re 
turned to Charleston, where in February, 1780, he 
was besieged by Sir Henry Cli nton and was obliged 
to capitulate in May, 17SO. He was paroled and 
retired to Massachusetts in November, 1780. Upon 




:HAFM_ESTC 



his exchange in the spring of 1781 he joined Wash 
ington, accompanied him to Yorktown and was 
appointed by his chief to receive the sword of 
Cornwallis upon the surrender of the British 
army. Lincoln was appointed by congress secre 
tary of war, serving 1781-84. He retired to his 
farm in 1784 after receiving a vote of thanks from 
congress for his services. On the outbreak of 
Shays s rebellion in 1786 he commanded the state 
militia sent to suppress the insurrection. He was 
elected lieutenant-governor of Massachusetts in 
1787. He was appointed collector of the port of 
Boston by President Washington, which office he 
held till 1808. He was one of the commissioners 
to treat with the Creek Indians in 1789, and with 
the Indians north of the Ohio at Sandusky in 
1793. He was a member of the state convention 
that ratified the U.S. constitution ; was president 
of the Massachusetts Society of the Cincinnati 
from its organization ; was a member of the 
American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and of 
the Massachusetts Historical society. The hon 
orary degree of A.M. was conferred on him by 
Harvard in 1780. He contributed to the Annals 
of the Massachusetts Historical Society papers on : 
Indian Tribes : the Cause of their Decrease, their 
Claims, etc.; Observations on the Climate, Soil 
and Value of the Eastern Counties in the District 
of Maine, and On the Religious Slate of the 
Eastern Comities of Maine. He died in Hing- 
ham, Mass., May 9, 1810. 

LINCOLN, David Francis, physician, was born 
in Boston, Mass., Jan. 4, 1841 ; son of William 
and Mary Moore (Francis) Lincoln ; grandson of 
the Rev. Henry and Susannah (Crocker) Lincoln 
and of David and Mary (Moore) Francis, and a 
descendant of Thomas Lincoln, who settled in 
Hinghain, Mass., in 1635. He was graduated 
from Harvard, A.B., 1861, A.M. and M.D., 1864. 
In 1862 with other students of the Harvard 
Medical school he entered the U.S. navy as an 
assistant surgeon, serving eighteen months. He 
was a house-surgeon in the Boston city hospi 
tal, 1864-65. He studied in the universities and 
hospitals of Berlin and Vienna, 1865-67, and then 
engaged in practice in Boston. In 1872 he began 
to devote special attention to nervous diseases. 
He was elected a member and officer in the prin 
cipal medical societies and became a frequent 
contributor to the medical and educational 
journals. He is the author of : Electro-Therapeu 
tics (1874); School and Industrial Hygiene (1888); 
Hygienic Physiology, for schools (1883); Sanity of 
Mind (1900) ; abridged translation of Trousseau 
and Pidonx Therapeutics (1880), and many 
reports and articles on hygiene. 

LINCOLN, Enoch, governor of Maine, was 
born in Worcester, Mass., Dec. 28, 1788; son of 
Levi and Martha (Waldo) Lincoln. He entered 



[GO] 



LINCOLN 



LINCOLN 




Harvard college with the class of 1810, but with 
drew before graduation to study law. He prac 
tised law iu Salem, Mass., 1811-19; and Paris, 
Maine, 1819-29. He was appointed assistant U.S. 
district attorney in 1815 and was a representative 
from Massachusetts in the 
15th and IGth congresses, 18- 
17-21. and from Maine in the 
l?th. 18th and 19th congresses, 
1821-20, when he resigned to 
become the Democratic nomi 
nee for governor of Maine, to 
which office he was elected, 
and reelected in 1827 and 1828, but declined re- 
nomination in 1829. He defended the right of the 
state to the ceded territory on the New Brunswick 
boundary, advocated making Augusta the capital 
city, and supported public improvements and ad 
vanced educational methods. He made his last 
public address at the laying of the corner stone of 
the capitol at Augusta, in July, 1829. Bowdoin col 
lege gave him the honorary degree of M.A. in 
1821. He read an original poem at the centennial 
celebration of the fight at Lovewell s Pond ; and 
is also the author of The Village, a poem (1810); 
papers on the Indian language and the French 
missions in Maine in the " Maine Historical 
Collections" and an unfinished book: Maine s 
History and Resources. He never married. He 
died in Augusta. Maine, Oct. 8, 1829. 

LINCOLN, Heman, clergyman and educator, 
was born in Boston, Mass.. April 14, 1821 ; son of 
Ensign and Sophia (Larkin) Lincoln ; grandson 
of David and Elizabeth (Fearing) Lincoln and of 
Oliver Larkin of Charlestown, Mass.; and great 
grandson of Israel and Martha (Gibbs) Fearing. 
The Lincolns and Fearings were among the 
earliest settlers of Hingham, Mass. His father, 
(born Jan. 8, 1779. died Dec. 2, 1832) was the se 
nior partner of the publishing house of Lincoln 
& Edmunds. Boston. Heman Lincoln was grad 
uated at Brown university, A.B., 1840. A.M., 
1843 ; was principal of the academy at Derby, Vt. , 
1840-42 : was graduated from the Newton Theo 
logical institution in 1845, and was ordained in 
Boston, Mass., Sept. 21, 1845. He was pastor of 
the Baptist church at New Britain. Pa., 1845-50; 
the Franklin Square Baptist church, Philadel 
phia, Pa. ,1850-63; the Baptist church, Jamaica 
Plain, Mass., 185-5-59, and the Central church, 
Providence, R.I., 1NGO-OS. He was married in 
1851 to Jane Elizabeth Tascombe ("Kate Camp 
bell 1 ), a well known contributor to various period 
icals. He was professor of ecclesiastical history 
at the Newton Theological institution. 1SOS-73, 
and 1878-87. and professor of homiletics. pastoral 
duties and church polity. 1N73-7N ; member of the 
board of curators of Bucknell university. 1848-51, 
and chancellor of the board, 1850-54 : trustee of 



Brown university, 1802-79 ; fellow, 1879-87, and 
a member of the Pennsylvania Historical society. 
He was an associate editor of the Christian 
Chronicle, 1844-48, editor, 1848-53; editor of the 
Watchman and Reflector, 1854-07 ; and corre 
spondent of the Exam hier. New York city, and the 
Journal and Morning Star, Boston. Mass. Koch- 
ester university conferred upon him the degree 
of D.D. in 1805. He is the author of: Outline 
Lectures in Church Histon/ (1884): Outline Lect 
ures -in History of Doctrine (1885); The Quiet 
Hour, and contributions to religious papers. He 
died at Newton Centre. Mass., Oct. 18, 18*7. 

LINCOLN, Jeanie Gould, author, was born in 
Troy, N.Y.. May 28, 1858; daughter of Judge 
George and Sarah McConn (Vail) Gould: grand 
daughter of Judge James and Sally McCurdy 
(Tracy) Gould and of George and Jane (Thomas) 
Vail ; great granddaughter of Gen. Uriah Tracy 
and of Gen. David Thomas ; and a descendant of 
Dr. William Gould, born at The Croft, North 
Sawton, Devonshire, England, Feb. 21, 1092. who 
came to Bran ford, Conn., in 1720, where he died 
Jan. 14, 1757. Her father was chief justice of 
the court of appeals of the state of New York. 
She was educated under tutors and governesses, 
and devoted herself to literary work. She was 
married, Jan. 10, 1877, to Nathan Smith Lincoln, 
M.D., LL.D. She was elected a member of the 
Society of American Authors in 1899. Her 
published volumes include : .1 Cltaplet of 
Leaves (1869); Marjories Quest (1872): Her Wash 
ington Season (1884); ^1 Genuine Girl (1890); 
An Unit-ill ing Maid (1897); and .1 Pretty Tory 
(1899). 

LINCOLN, John Larkin, educator, was born 
in Boston, Mass., Feb. 23. 1817 ; son of Ensign 
and Sophia (Larkin) Lincoln ; grandson of David 
and Eliza (Fearing) Lincoln, and a descendant of 
Stephen Lincoln, who came from Wyniondham, 
England, to Hingham. Mass., in 1038. He was 
prepared for college in the Boston Latin school, 
and was graduated from Brown university, A. B., 
1838, A.M., 18:59. He was tutor in Columbia 
college, Washington. D.C.. 1830-37 ; a student 
at Newton Theological institution, 1837-39, and 
tutor in Greek at Brown university, 1839-41. 
With Professor Horatio B. Hackett he spent the 
academic year 184112 in Halle, studying theology 
with Tholuck and Julius Mi ilier. and philosophy 
with Gesenius in Hebrew, and with Bernhardv in 
the classics. He studied in Berlin, 1842-43. and in 
Geneva and Rome, 1813-44 : was assistant pro 
fessor of the Latin language and literature in 
Brown university, 1814-45, and full professor, 
1845-91. He received the honorary degree of 
LL. D. from Brown in 1X59. He contributed 
articles to periodicals, and edited : " Selections 
from Liry" (1847); " The Works of Horace (1851- 



[70] 



LINCOLN 



LINCOLN 



1882); Ovid, with Notes and Vocabulary (1883); 
Cicero s De Senectute (1887). His son, William E. 
Lincoln, published a collection of his miscella 
neous papers as : In Memoriam Jolin Larkin 
Lincoln, 1817-1891 (1894). He died in Prov 
idence. R.I., Oct. 17. 1891. 

LINCOLN, Levi, statesman, was born in Hing- 
ham, Mass., May 15, 1749 ; son of Enoch and 
Rachel (Fearing) Lincoln, and a descendant of 
Samuel Lincoln of Hinghain, Mass., 10:55. He 
was indentured as an apprentice to a trade, 
employed his leisure hours in study, and was 
graduated from Harvard. A.B., 1772, A. M., 1776. 
He began the study of law at Northampton, 
Mass., but at the outbreak of the Revolution 
joined the minute-men at Cambridge. He 
removed to Worcester and was clerk of the court 
and judge of probate for Worcester county, 
1775-81. He was government commissioner for 
the confiscated estates of loyalists and to enforce 
the payment of the continental tax ; and a 
delegate to the convention, at Cambridge, which 
drew up the state constitution. He was elected 
to the Continental congress in 1781, but did not 
serve ; was a state representative, 179G, a state 
senator in 1797-98, and a representative in the 
Gth congress in 1800 in place of Dwight Foster, 
who had been appointed to the U.S. senate as 
successor to Samuel Dexter, resigned. He was at 
torney-general in the cabinet of President Jeffer 
son, 1801-05, and was provisional secretary of the 
state until the acceptance of the office by James 
Madison. He was a member of Governor Strong s 
council, 1800 ; lieutenant-governor, 1807-08. and 
on the deatli of Governor Sullivan, Dec. 10, 1808, 
became governor, serving until the close of the 
term, May, 1809. He was subsequently appointed 
by President Madison as associate justice of the 
U.S. supreme court, but could not serve on 
account of threatened total blindness. Later his 
sight was partially restored and he was able to 
cultivate his farm during the latter part of his 
life. He was an original member and fellow 
of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences ; 
a member of other learned societies, and the 
author of Fanner s Letters which appeared 
during the political discussions incident to 
Adams s administration. He was married to 
Martha, daughter of Daniel Waldo. He died in 
Worcester, Mass., April 14, 1820. 

LINCOLN, Levi, governor of Massachusetts, 
was born in Worcester, Mass., Oct. 25. 1782 ; son 
of Levi and Martha (Waldo) Lincoln. He was 
graduated at Harvard, A.B., 1802. A.M., 1*05; 
studied law in his father s office, and was ad 
mitted to the bar in 1805. lie was a Democratic 
representative in the state legislature irregularly, 
1812-22, and speaker in 1822. In 1S14 he drew up 
the protest signed by seventy -five Massachusetts 




representatives against the Hartford conven 
tion. He was a member of the Constitutional 
convention of 1820 ; was lieutenant-governor of 
Massachusetts in 1823 ; justice of the supreme 
court in 1824 ; and governor of the state, 1825-34. 
He was the first gov 
ernor under the state 
constitution to exer 
cise the veto power. 
He was a Whig rep 
resentative from 
Massachusetts in the 
23d-26th congresses, 
1833-41 ; collector of 
the port of Boston, 
1841-45, state senator, 
1844-45. president of 
the senate, 1845 ; 
presidential elector, 
1848. serving as chair 
man of the electoral 
college ; and was the 
first mayor of Worcester, 1848. He was an 
overseer of Harvard college, 1825-52, and a mem 
ber of the American Antiquarian society, the 
Massachusetts Historical society, the American 
Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the Massa 
chusetts Agricultural society. He received the 
degree of LL.D. from Williams college in 1824, 
and from Harvard in 1820. He died in Worcester, 
Mass., May 29. 1808. 

LINCOLN, flary Todd, wife of President Lin 
coln, was born in Lexington, Ky., Dec. 13, 
1818 : daughter of Robert S. Todd and grand 
daughter of Levi and Eliza Ann (Porter) Todd. 
She was educated at the celebrated private school 
of Madame Mantelli, 
where she became 
proficient in the 
French language, and 
at the Wood acad 
emy, Lexington. She 
resided with her sis 
ter Elizabeth, wife of 
Ninian W. Edwards, 
at Springfield. 111., 18- 
39-42, and here she be 
came acquainted with 
Stephen A. Douglas, 
James Shields, Abra 
ham Lincoln and oth 
er less noted young 
men, and showed her 
decided preference for the company of Mr. Lin 
coln. This choice was discouraged by her sis 
ter and brother-in-law, who considered it be 
low her social position. Some time in 1840 
they were engaged, and the engagement was 
reported to have been broken by Mr. Lincoln, 




[71] 



LINCOLN 



LINDERMAN 



Jan. 1. 1841. His decision is said to have fol 
lowed an overwhelming period of mental depres 
sion, but exaggerated accounts of this have been 
denied. That they were estranged for a time 
is undoubtedly true, also that she was the cause 
of the challenge to fight a duel received by Mr. 
Lincoln from James Shields. Mr. Lincoln pre 
pared the preliminaries for the duel which was 
to take place on a sand-bar on the Missouri side 
of the river opposite Alton, 111., where he re 
paired Sept. 22, 1842, and where friends arranged 
a peaceful solution of the difficulties. The en 
gagement was soon afterward renewed, and they 
were married Nov. 4, 1842. at the home of Mrs. 
Edwards. They made their home in Springfield, 
where their three children, Robert Todd, William 
Wallace and Thomas were born. After Mr. 
Lincoln left congress he refused the governor 
ship of Oregon, as the acceptance would disturb 
the harmony of their home. As mistress of the. 
White House Mrs. Lincoln was the subject of 
some criticism on account of her apparent fond 
ness for social festivities during a period of 
national anxiety and sorrow, but her friends 
found ample excuse in her desire in this way to 
lighten the gloom that attended the < fficial life 
of her husband. Her family was divided by the 
war and her closest blood relations were officers 
in the Confederate service, but there has never 
been a question as to her loyalty which was at 
tested by her personal visits to the camps and 
hospitals, where sh^ carried comfort and cheer 
to the suffering. The tragic death of her sons 
William Wallace in 1862, and Thomas in 1868, 
caused her mind to become unbalanced, and her 
last days were spent with her sister Mrs. Ed 
wards, in travel in Europe, and at the home of her 
son Robert. She died of paralysis at the home of 
Mrs. Edwards, Springfield, 111., July 16. 1882. 

LINCOLN, Robert Todd, cabinet officer, was 
born in Springfield, 111., Aug. 1, 184o ; son of 
Abraham and Mary (Todd) Lincoln. He at 
tended a local academy, 1850-.");}; the Illinois 
State university, 1858-59, and Phillips Exeter 
academy, and was graduated from Harvard in 
1864. He studied for a short time at the Harvard 
Law school ; applied for admission in tlie mili 
tary service and was commissioned captain, serv 
ing on the staff of General Grant throughout the 
final campaign of the civil war. He resumed his 
law studies at Chicago, 111. ; was admitted to the 
bar Feb. 16, 1867, and practised in Chicago. lie 
was appointed supervisor in south Chicago in 
1876 ; was a delegate to the Republican state con 
vention held at Springfield in 1880, and was the 
same year chosen a presidential elector. He was 
appointed secretary of war in President Garfield s 
cabinet in 1881, and upon the assassination of tin* 
President and, the accession of Vice-President 

[72 



Arthur to the presidency, lie was the only mem 
ber of the cabinet that was retained. In 1SS4 he 
was prominently mentioned us nominee for Pres 
ident, but declined to oppose the nomination of 
President Arthur. On the expiration of Arthur s 
administration he returned to Chicago and con 
tinued the practice of law. He was U.S. minister 
to Great Britain by appointment of President 
Harrison, 1889-;):;. Upon the death of George M. 
Pullman in 1847 lie became acting president of 
the Pullman Palace Car company. The honorary 
degree of LL.D. was conferred on him by Har 
vard in 189;?. 

LIND, John, governor of Minnesota, was born 
at Kanna, Smaland. Sweden, March 25, 1854; 
son of Gustave and Catherine (Jonason) Lind. 
He came with his parents to the United States in 
1868. and settled at Goodhue. Minn. He taught 
school in Sibley county. Minn.. 1872-73, and in 
the latter year removed to Xew Uhn, Brown 
county. He was a student at the State Univer 
sity of Minnesota. is?.")-7ii, and in the law office 
of J. Newhart. and in 1*76 was admitted to the 
bar. settling in practice at Xew Ulm. He was 
married. Sept. 1. 1*79, to Alice A., daughter of 
Richard and Roweiia (St ration) Shepard. He 
was receiver in the land office at Tracy, Lyon 
county. 1881-85 ; and a Republican representa 
tive from the second Minnesota, district in the 
50th, 51st and 52d congresses, 1XX7-93. Being an 
advocate of the free coinage of silver he left the 
Republican party, and in 1896 was nominated by 
the Democrats for governor of the state. In 
1898, on the outbreak of the war with Spain, lie 
was appointed regimental-quartermaster of the 
12th Minnesota volunteers, with the rank of 1st 
lieutenant. He was elected governor of the state 
on the Fusion ticket in 1N9S, serving. 1S99-1901, 
and was defeated for reelection in 1900 by 
S. R. Van Sandt. by a narrow majority. 

LINDERflAN, Henry Richard, director of the 
U.S. mints, was born in Lehman township. 
Pike county. Pa., Dec. 25, 1*25 ; son of Dr. John 
Jordan and Rachel (Brodhead) Linderman ; 
and grandson of Henry Linderman of Orange 
county, N.Y.. and of Richard Hrodhead of Pike 
county, Pa. His first ancestors in America were 
Jacob von Linderman, who settled near Kings 
ton, Ulster county, N.V., in 1710, and Capt. 
Daniel Brodhead of the King s Grenadiers, who 
commanded a company in Colonel Nichols ex 
pedition to New Amsterdam in 1664, and settled 
at Esopus, N.Y. He was a great-grandnephew of 
Brev. Brig.-Gen. Daniel Hrodhead, colonel of the 
8th Pennsylvania, and of Capt. Luke Brodhead 
of the 6th Pennsylvania, and a great-grandson of 
Moses Shaw of the 5th New York regiment, all 
of the Continental line; a great-grandson of 
Garrett Brodhead of the New Jersey state troops 



LINDERMAN 



LINDSAY 




and of Capt. Samuel Drake of the Pennsylvania 
militia, in active service during the Revolution. 
He was also a nephew of U.S. Senator Richard 
Brodhead, who was his mother s brother, lie 
studied medicine with his father, was graduated 

at the University of 
the City of New York. 
31. D., in 1846, and 
practised in Pike and 
Carbon counties, Pa. 
Ho was chief clerk 
of the U.S. mint at 
Philadelphia, 18r>r>-(i4, 
and director of the 
U.S. mint at Phila- 
delphiaand in charge 
* HH the branch 
mints and assay of 
fices in the United 
States, 1866-69. In 
July, 1869, he was 
appointed treasury 

commissioner to examine the western mints 
and adjust some intricate bullion questions. 
In 1870 he was sent to Europe by President 
Grant to visit the mints at London, Paris, 
Brussels and Berne to report on their coinage 
methods and on the relative values of gold and 
silver as currency metals, and his report on his 
return in 1871 favored a single gold standard. 
In 1873 he was appointed a commissioner with 
Prof. Robert E. Rogers of the University of 
Pennsylvania, to examine the subject of wastage 
in operating 011 gold and silver bullion, and was 
also the government commissioner for fitting up 
the new mint and assay office at San Francisco. 
In 1873 he made an elaborate report on the con 
dition of the market for silver, and predicted the 
decline in its relative value to gold which after 
ward took place. With a view of obtaining an 
advantageous market for the large and increas 
ing production of that metal in the United States 
lie projected the coinage of the trade dollar 
which was subsequently authorized by law and 
successfully introduced into Oriental markets 
with marked advantage to American commerce. 
In the same report he called attention to the dis 
advantages arising from the computation and 
quotation of exchange with Great Britain on the 
old and complicated colonial basis and from the 
under-valuation of foreign coins in computing 
the value of invoices and in levying and collecting 
duties on foreign merchandise at the U.S. custom 
houses. He was the author of the act of March 
3, 1873, which corrected these defects. Dr. Lind- 
erman was the first to recommend the adoption 
of a system of redemption for the inferior coins 
used as change money for the purpose of keeping 
their purchasing power on an equality with the 



money of unlimited legal tender. He was the 
author of the coinage act of 1873. In 1869 he 
had assisted John Jay Knox, then deputy comp 
troller of the currency, in framing the first act 
for the codification of the mint legislation, which 
was not acted upon. Upon his return from Eu 
rope, in 1871-73, Dr. Linderman entirely rewrote 
this act, adding and including the provisions 
demonetizing silver and putting the country on 
a gold standard, making the director of the mint 
an officer reporting to the secretary of the treas 
ury instead of the President, and authorizing the 
coinage of the trade dollar for Oriental com 
merce. He secured its passage after two years 
work before congress in 1873, and was the 
first director of the U.S. mints under the 
new law, 1873-79. He declined to serve the 
Japanese government at a very large salary in 
organizing a new mint system for the empire. 
With Henry Dodge and Frederic F. Low of San 
Francisco, named by him as colleagues, as the 
U.S. treasury commission, he investigated the 
San Francisco mint, custom house and other 
Federal departments on the Pacific coast in 1877, 
without additional compensation, and the over 
work brought on the illness which resulted in 
his death. Besides his reports to the President 
and treasury department, he is author of: Ar 
gument for the Gold Standard (1877); Money and 
Leyal Tender (1877). See Pennsylvania Cyclo 
paedia of Biography " (1874). He died in Wash 
ington. D.C., Jan. 28, 1879. 

LINDSAY, John Summerfield, clergyman, 
was born in Williamsburg, Va. . March 19, 1843 ; 
son of Thomas and Caroline (Martin) Lindsay, 
and of Scotch ancestry. He entered the College 
of William and Mary in 1859. and spent one or two 
sessions at the University of Virginia after the 
civil war. He became a clergyman in the Meth 
odist Episcopal church, south, and after preach 
ing a short time was received in the communion 
of the Protestant Episcopal church and was made 
a deacon in 1869 and ordained a priest in 1870. 
He was assistant at Trinity, Portsmouth, Va., 
1869-71 ; rector of St. James s. Warren ton, Va., 
1871-79; of St. John s, Georgetown, D.C., 1879- 
87; chaplain of the U.S. house of representatives, 
1883-85 ; rector of St. John s, Bridgeport. Conn.. 
1887-89, and of St. Paul s. Boston, Mass., from 
1889. He declined the bishopric of Easton, Md.. 
in 1887, and upon the elevation of the Rev. Dr. 
Phillips Brooks to the episcopate lie was selected 
to fill his place on the standing committee of the 
diocese of Massachusetts and later was elected 
president of the committee. He also served the 
diocese as a member of the House of Deputies in 
the General Conventions of 1892, 1895, 1898 and 
1901, and was a member of several important 
committees in that body. He declined the office 



[78] 



LINDSAY 



LINDSAY 




of bishop coadjutor of Alabama in 1890. He 
was archdeacon of Boston, 1898-99, and a member 
of the board of managers of the Domestic and 
Foreign Missionary Society of the Protestant 
Episcopal church in the United States for several 
years, declining the position of the general 
secretary of the society in 1899. The College of 
William and Mary conferred on him the honor 
ary degree of D.D. in 1881. the University of 
the South a similar degree in 1895, and Washing 
ton and Lee university the degree of LL.D. in 
1899. He is tlve author of: Hamilton Parish, 
Virginia (1873); St. Joint s Church, Georgetown 
(1886); The True American Citizen (1887); many 
published sermons and addresses and a number of 
review articles. 

LINDSAY, John Wesley, educator, was born 
in Barre. Vt., Aug. 20, 1820 ; son of the Rev. 
John and Lucy (Nourse) Lindsay ; grandson of 
Daniel Lindsay and of James Nourse. and a des 
cendant of Christopher Lindsay, who came to 
Lynn, Mass.. in 1629. He was 
graduated at Wesleyan uni 
versity, Middletown, Conn., 
A.B., 1840, A.M., 1843 ; at 
Union Theological seminary, 
New York city, 1842, and 
joined the New York con 
ference of the Methodist Epis 
copal church in 1843. He was stationed at New 
Paltzand Plattekill, N.Y., 1843-44, at Troy. N.Y., 
in 1845 and at Lenox, Mass. , 1 845-46 ; was tutor in 
Wesleyan university, 1847-48 ; professor of Latin 
and Hebrew there, 1848-60 ; pastor, New York city, 
1860-65 ; president of Genesee college, Lima, N.Y., 
1863-68 : professor of exegetical theology in Boston 
Theological seminary, 1868-71, and in the school of 
theology, Boston university, 1871-83 ; dean of the 
faculty of liberal arts, Boston university, 1873-82, 
a trustee of the university, 1869-82, professor of 
New Testament Greek and exegesis there, 1883-84, 
and was made emeritus professor in 1884. He 
was married June 16, 1852, to Emily Bond of 
Baltimore. Md. He traveled in Europe in 1874; 
was presiding elder of the Boston district of the 
New England conference, 1884-88, and of the 
North Boston district. 1888-94. He was a mem 
ber of the board of education of the M.E. church 
from 1868 ; a delegate to the general conference 
of the Methodist Episcopal church in 1864, 1868 
and 1872, and fraternal delegate to the Canadian 
Wesleyan conference, 1870. He was a trustee of 
Wesleyan university, 1862-75, and was again 
elected to that office in 1887, and he received 
from Wesleyan the degree of D.D. in 1863. He 
contributed to the Methodist Quarterly Review 
and to the other denominational papers, and is 
the author of : Commentary on Deuteronomy 
(1874). 




LINDSAY, Robert Burns, governor of Ala 
bama, was born in Lochmaben, Dumfriesshire, 
Scotland, July 4, 1824 ; son of John and Elizabeth 
(McKnight) Lindsay. He was educated at St. 
Andrew s university, immigrated to the United 
States in 1844 and 
settled in North Car 
olina, where he stud 
ied law and taught 
school. In 1849 he 
removed to Tuscum 
bia, Ala., was ad 
mitted to the bar. 
and engaged success 
fully in practice. He 
was a representative 
in the Alabama leg 
islature in 1853. He 
was married, Oct. 14, 
1854, to Sarah Mill 
er, daughter of 
William Winston, a 
wealthy planter of North Alabama, and grand 
daughter of Antony Winston, a Revolutionary 
soldier. He was state senator, 1857-58, a presi 
dential elector on the Douglas and Johnson 
ticket in 1860 ; and was again state senator 
in 1865-66. He served in Roddy s cavalry, or 
ganized at Tuscumbia, Ala., in December, 18G2. 
He was nominated for governor of Alabama at 
the Democratic Conservative state convention in 
September, 1870, and was elected, defeating Gov 
ernor William H. Smith, serving one term. He 
died at Tuscumbia, Ala., Feb. 13. 1902. 

LINDSAY, William, senator, was born in 
Rockbridge county, Va., Sept. 4. 1S35 ; son of 
Andrew Lindsay ; grandson of James Lindsay, 
and a descendant of 
William Lindsay of 
Scotland. He settled 
in Clinton, Ky., in 
1854, where he taught 
school, studied law 
and was admitted to 
the bar in 1858. He 
entered the Confed 
erate arm}" in July, 
1861, as lieutenant, 
was made captain in 
the 2d Tennessee in 
fantry, and was with 
the 2d Kentucky brig 
ade until captured 
and paroled at Co 
lumbus, Miss., May 16, 1865. He resumed the 
practice of law at Clinton and was elected state 
senator from the Hick man district in 1867. He 
was a judge of the Kentucky court of appeals, 
1870-76, and chief justice, 1876-78. He declined a 




174] 



LIXDSLEY 



LINDSLEY 



renomination in 1878 ; practised at Frankfort, and 
was state senator, 1890-92. He was appointed by 
President Harrison and confirmed by the senate as 
a member of the interstate commerce commission 
in January, 1893, but declined the appointment. 
He was a member of the AYorld s Columbian 
commission for the country at large from its or 
ganization to Feb. 20, 1893 ; was a candidate for 
U.S. senator in 1S90 to fill the um-xpired term of 
James B. Beck, deceased, but was defeated by 
John G. Carlisle, and on Carlisle s resignation, to 
take effect March 4, 1893, to accept the treasury 
portfolio, he was elected his successor, Feb. 14, 
1893, serving through the 53d congress. He was 
re-elected in January, 1894, for the term expiring 
March 4, 1901. He was chairman of the commit 
tee on Revolutionary claims. 

LINDSLEY, Charles Augustus, physician, 
was born in Orange, N.J., Aug. 19, 1826 ; son of 
John and Eliza L. (Condit) Lindsley ; grand 
son of Daniel and Hannah (Williams) Linds 
ley, and of Stephen and Mary E. (Ogden) 
Condit, and a descendant of John Linle (or 
Lindsley), Bran ford, Conn.. 1(540, and of his son, 
Francis Lindsley, Newark. N.J.. May, 1666. He 
attended the Rev. Anthony Ten Broeck s classical 
school and was graduated from Trinity college. 
Hartford. Conn., A.B., 1849, A.M., *1852. He 
was a student at the College of Physicians and 
Surgeons in New York city, 1850-51, and was 
graduated from Yale university, M.D., 1852. He 
was married April 13, 1852, to Lydia Louise Harri 
son of Orange, N.J. He was professor of materia 
medica and therapeutics at Yale, 1860-83 ; pro 
fessor of theory and practice of medicine, 1883-96 ; 
was elected professor emeritus in 1896 and lec 
turer on sanitary science, 1897. He was one of 
the organizers of the Connecticut state board of 
health, established in 1878, and was elected its 
secretary and executive officer in 1884, and ed 
ited the annual reports of the board from that 
time. He was elected president of the Con 
necticut Medical society in 1892: of the Ameri 
can Public, Health association in 1898 ; and of the 
conference of the state and provincial boards of 
health of North America, 1894-95; and an hon 
orary member of the New Jersey Medical society. 

LINDSLEY, John Berrien, educator, was born 
in Princeton, N.J., Oct. 24, 1822 ; son of the 
Rev. Philip and Margaret Elizabeth (Lawrence) 
Lindsley. He was graduated from the Uni 
versity of Nashville, A.B.. 1839. A.M.. 1S41 ; was 
a private pupil of Dr. Gerard Troost, the scientist, 
studied medicine in the University of Louisville 
(Ky.), 1841-42. and w;is graduated from the 
University of Pennsylvania. M.D.. 1S43, when he 
became a member of the Medical Society of the 
State of Tennessee. He studied natunil science 
under Troost, Lea and Jay, 1845-50. He was or 




dained by the presbytery of Nashville in 1846 ; 
served as stated supply at Smyrna and Hermit 
age, Tenn., and for a year preached to the slaves 
in and about Nashville. He conducted a geolog 
ical survey through the eastern and northern 
states in 1847. He 
was professor of 
chemistry at the Uni 
versity of Nashville, 
1850-70 ; projector 
and dean of the medi 
cal faculty, 1850-73; 
became a member of 
the American Medi 
cal association in 
1851 ; spent his vaca 
tions in 1852 and 1859 
in the medical schools 
of France and Ger 
many ; was chancel- 
lor of the University 
of Nashville, 1855- 
70, and had charge of the Confederate hos 
pitals of Nashville, 1861-62. He was married 
in 1857 to Sarah McGavock, granddaughter of 
Felix Grundy of Tennessee. In 1867 lie sug 
gested the plan of embracing within the uni 
versity the Peabody Education fund in the crea 
tion of a state normal school and lie was influ 
ential in erecting the principal college building 
and gave a sum exceeding $10.000 for its 
construction. He organized the Montgomery 
Bell academy in 1867, and served as its principal 
until 1870, when he resigned to aid in founding 
the Tennessee College of Pharmacy, in which he 
was professor of materia medica, 1876-97. He 
was professor of chemistry and state medicine in 
the University of Tennessee, 1880-97. He was a 
member of the Nashville board of education, 
1H56-60: superintendent of city schools in 1866 
and secretary of the state board of education, 
1875-87. He served as health officer for Nashville, 
1876-80 ; and was secretary and executive officer 
of the state board of health, 1877-79. and 1884-97. 
He was treasurer of the American Public Health 
association, 1879-97 ; a member of many learned 
societies in America and of the Royal Historical 
Society of London ; a director of the National 
Prison association and a corresponding member 
of the National Prison association of France ; a 
member of the American Tract society and the 
American Bible society. He gave his salary for 
twenty-three years to his assistants in the 
university and to the support of the NadiriUe 
Journal of Medicine and Surgery which he 
edited. He received the degree of D.D. from 
the College of New Jersey in 1858. Tie con 
tributed to the Presbyterian Quarterly (1*75-80), 
articles on " Cumberland Presbyterian History," 



L1NDSLEY 



LINK 



and papers on prison reform and African coloni 
zation. He edited the second and third Reports 
of the Nashville Board of Health (1877-79), and 
The Second Quadrennial Report of the Tennes 
see State Board of Health (1880-84) ; and nine 
volumes of the State Board of Health Bulletin 
(1883-94). He also edited and published: The 
Military Annals of Tennessee, Confederate; Ency- 
cJupii dia of Tennessee History, and pamphlets 
which reached a circulation of several thousand 
copies each, including : Memorial of Prof. R. M. 
Porter, D.D. (18.16) : Prison Discipline and Penal 
Legislation (1874) : Medical Colleges (1858) ; Our 
Ruin ; its Cause and Cure (1868) ; Reconstruc 
tion (1868) ; American Colonization and Chris 
tian Missions (1873), and History of the Law 
School of Cumberland University (1876). He 
died in Nashville. Tenn., Dec. 7, 1897. 

LINDSLEY, Philip, educator, was born near 
Morristown, N.J., Dec. 21, 1786 ; son of Isaac and 
Pho3be(Condit), grandson of Philip, great-grand- 
sen of John, great 2 -grandson of John, great 8 - 
grandson of Francis, and great*-grandson of John 
Lindsley (or Linle), who came from England 
and settled in Branford. Conn., about 1640, his son 
Francis removing to Newark, N.J., in 1666. 
Philip Lindsley was prepared for college by the 
Rev. Robert Finley, of Basking Ridge, N.J., and 
was graduated from the College of New Jersey, 
A. B., 1804, A.M., 1807. He taught at Morristown 
and Basking Ridge, N.J., 1804-07 ; and studied 
theology under Dr. Samuel Stanhope Smith (q.v.), 
and was tutor in Latin and Greek at the College 
of New Jersey, 1807-09. He was licensed to 
preach by the presbytery of New Brunswick, 
April 24, 1810, and preached in Long Island, Vir 
ginia and New England, 1810-12. He was senior 
tutor at the College of New Jersey, 1812-13 ; pro 
fessor of languages, 1813-24, and librarian, in 
spector and secretary of the board of trustees, 
1812-24. He was ordained by the presbytery of 
New Brunswick in 1817, and was elected vice- 
president of the College of New Jersey in the 
same year. In 1822, after the resignation of 
President Ashbel Green, he served as acting pres 
ident for one year, and was elected president in 
1 823, but declined to serve. He three times refused 
the presidency of Transylvania university, Ky., 
between 1817 and 1839 ; the presidency of Wash 
ington college, Lexington, Va. , in 1829 ; Dickinson 
college in 1829 ; the University of Alabama twice 
in 1830, and South Alabama college, Marion, Ala., 
1837. In 1822 and 1823 he refused the presidency 
of Cumberland college, Nashville, Tenn.. but ac 
cepted in 1824. He was inaugurated Jan. 12, 
1825, and on Nov. 27, 1826. the name was changed 
to the University of Nashville. He added to the 
library of 100 volumes. 1500 volumes, which he 
brought from New Jersey, and $6000 worth of 



apparatus for the laboratory obtained in Europe. 
He taught the classes in belles-lettres, political, 
moral and mental philosophy, and with his as 
sistant, George W. McGeehe, and two tutors, 
conducted the university for several years, the 
faculty being afterward increased to four profes 
sors and three tutors. During his entire admin 
istration, he gave diplomas to only 410 graduates. 
He resigned in May, 1850, and was professor of 
ecclesiastical polity and biblical archaeology in 
the New Albany Theological seminary, Ind., 1850- 
53, when lie resigned. He was moderator of the 
Presbyterian general assembly held in Philadel 
phia in 1834, and a commissioner to that held in 
Nashville, Tenn., in May, 1855. He received the 
degree of D.D. from Dickinson college in 1823. He 
was married, Oct. 14, 1813, to Margaret Elizabeth, 
daughter of the Hon. Nathaniel Lawrence, at 
torney-general of the state of New York ; of 
their sons, John Berrien (q.v.) was chancellor of 
the University of Nashville, and Nathaniel Law 
rence (born 1816, died 1868) was professor in 
Cumberland university, Tenn., 1844-50, and re 
ceived the degree of LL.D. from there in 1859. 
His first wife died in 1845, and he was married 
secondly in 1849 to Mary Ann (Silliman) Avers, 
widow of Elias Ayers, who founded the New 
Albany Theological seminary, and daughter of 
Major William Silliman, of Fail-field, Conn. He 
was elected a member of the Northern Society of 
Antiquarians, Copenhagen, Denmark in 1837. He 
is the author of baccalaureate addresses and ser 
mons, which were collected by Dr. Leroy J. 
Halsey and published in Dr. Lindsley s Comjtlete 
Works and a Biography (3 vols., 1868). He died 
in Nashville, Tenn., May 23, 1855. 

LINK, Samuel Albert, educator, was born 
near Lebanon, Term., July 10, 1848 ; son of Wil 
liam B. and Amanda (Randolph) Link, and 
grandson of Jonas A. and Katharine (Newman) 
Link and of Peyton Washington and Maigery 
(Tucker) Randolph. He attended the Oak Plain 
academy, Montgomery county, Tenn.. and was 
graduated from Ewing college, A.B., 1874, A.M., 
1877. He was married in August, 1875, to Sallie 
A. Deboe, of Kentucky, who died in 1892. He 
was professor of Latin and English at Ewing col 
lege, 1874-75 ; was given charge of the training 
school near Clarksville, Tenn., in 1886 ; was super 
intendent of the Tennessee School for the Blind, 
Nashville, 1886-93 ; president of the Tennessee 
Female college at Franklin, Tenn., 1893-95, and 
was appointed teacher of Latin in the Nashville 
High school in 1895. He was elected a member 
of the Tennessee Historical society in 1889, and 
subsequently a member of the Modern Language 
association. He is the author of Pioneers of 
Southern Literature (2 vols., 1899-1900). and con 
tributions to periodicals. 



LINN 



LINN 



LINN, James, representative, was bom in 
Somerset county, N. J., in 1750; son of Judge 
Alexander Linn. He was graduated at the Col 
lege of New Jersey, A. B.. 1769, A. M., 1772. lie 
studied law ; was appointed 1st major in Colonel 
Sterling s 1st regiment of Somerset militia, Feb. 
3. 1770 ; was deputy from Somerset county to the 
slate legislature in 1776, and resigned his commis 
sion as lieutenant-colonel in the ir.ilitia, June 28, 
1781. He practised law in Trenton, N.J. : was a 
member of the state legislature, 1793-97 : a Dem 
ocratic representative from New Jersey in the 
6th congress, 1799-1801, and gave the casting 
vote of the New Jersey delegation for Thomas 
Jefferson for President in 1801. He was super 
visor of revenue by appointment of Jefferson, 
1801-05, and secretary of state for New Jersey, 
1805-20. He diet , in Trenton, N.J., Dec. 29, 1820. 

LINN, John, representative, was born in Hard- 
wick township, Warren county, N.J., Dec. 3. 
1763 ; son of Joseph and Martha (Kilpatrick) 
Linn. Hiy father removed to Sussex county and 
established a farm which he called "Harmony 
Vale." He was married May 19, 1791, to Martha 
Hunt, and had fourteen children. He was a judge 
of the court of common pleas, 1805-21, and a rep 
resentative from Sussex county, N.J., in the 15th 
and 16th congresses, 1817-21. He died in Wash 
ington, D.C.. Jan. 5, 1821. 

LINN, John Blair, clergyman, was born in 
Shippensburg, Pa. , March 14,1777; son of the 
Rev. William and Rebecca (Blair) Linn. He 
was graduated from Columbia college, A.B., 
1795, A.M., 1797, and received the honorary degree 
of A.M. from Union college in 1797. He studied 
law in the office of Alexander Hamilton, and 
while in New York city wrote an unsuccessful 
drama " Bourville Castle, or the Gallic Orphan." 
(1796). He studied theology with the Rev. Dr. 
Theodoric Romeyn (q.v.) of the Dutch Reformed 
church in Schenectady, N.Y., where he had his 
first charge, being licensed to preach in 1797. He 
became an associate pastor in the First Presbyte 
rian church, Philadelphia, in 1799. He was mar 
ried in 1799 to Esther Bailey, daughter of Col. 
John Bailey of Poughkeepsie, N.Y. The Uni 
versity of Pennsylvania gave him the honorary 
degree of D.D. in 1803. Besides two volumes of 
miscellanies (1798), he is the author of poems: 
The. Death of Waslruiytoii (1800); The. Power of 
Genius (1801); Sermon on the Death of Dr. Eiuing ; 
H< ]>li/ to Dr. Priestley s Comparison between Soc 
rates and Christ (1803): and Valerian, an in 
complete poem published posthumously by his 
brother-in-law. Charles Brockden Brown (1805). 
lie dVd in Philadelphia, Pa,, Aug. 30, 1804. 

LINN, John Blair, editor, was born at Lewis- 
burg, Pa.. Oct. 15. 1831 ; son of John F. aiid 
Margaret Irvine (Wilson) Linn ; grandson of John 



Blair Linn of Plattsburg. N.Y., and grand-nephew 
of the Rev. William Linn. He was graduated at 
Marshall college, Pa., A.B., 1848, A.M.. 1853, and 
was admitted to the bar in 1851. He was district 
attorney of Sullivan county. 1852-53, and prac 
tised law in Lewisburg, 1854-62. He served as 1st 
lieutenant. 51st Pennsylvania regiment, Col. John 
F. Hartranft, 1862-63, practised law in Lewis- 
burg, 1863-71, and in Bel lefonte, Centre county, 
1871-73. He was deputy secretary of the com 
monwealth, 1873-78, and secretary of the com 
monwealth, 1878-79. He was married Oct. 22, 
1857, to Julia J., daughter of F. W. Pollock of 
Milton, Pa., and secondly Nov. 21, 1867, to Mary E. 
D., daughter of Hunter Wilson, of Centre county. 
He is the author of : Annals of Buffalo Vtilley 
(1877); and History of Centre and Clinton Coun 
ties ( \ 883) . He edited Duke of York s Lau-s HJ72- 
$2 and Lau s of the Province 1<>82-1700 (1879) ; with 
Dr. W. H. Egle, Pennsylvania, Archives, 2d series, 
vols. I. to XII., of which vols. X. and XI. con 
tain History of the Pennsylvania Line (1874-80). 
He died in Bellefonte, Pa., Jan. 1, 1899. 

LINN, Lewis Fields, senator, was born in 
Kentucky, near Louisville, Nov. 5, 1795; son of 
- and Anne Nancy (Hunter) Dodge Linn, 
and half-brother of Henry Dodge (q.v.), by whom 
he was educated, his parents both dying in 1806. 
He studied medicine in Louisville and in 1816 
removed to Ste. Genevieve, Mo. Ter., where he 
practised his profession. He was elected to the 
state senate in 1827 : served in the Black Hawk 
war under Gen. Henry Dodge, 1831-32, and was a 
member of the commission to decide the disputed 
Missouri land titles, and he voted to confirm the 
French and Spanish grants in .1833. He was ap 
pointed by Governor Dunklin, U.S: senator in 
1833 to till the vacancy caused by the death of 
Senator Alexander Buckner, and was twice 
elected to the office, serving 1833-43. In the sen 
ate he favored the acquisition and colonization of 
new territory and was the author of the Oregon 
bill which was the party measure of the Demo 
cratic campaign of 1844. He also championed 
the long deferred act of refunding the fine im 
posed by Judge Hall on General Jackson in 1815. 
He died in Ste. Genevieve. Mo., Oct. 3, 1843. 

LINN, William, educator, was born in Ship 
pensburg, Pa., Feb. 27. 1752 ; son of William and 
Susanna (Trimble) Linn, and grandson of Wil 
liam Linn, who with his son William came from 
the North of Ireland in 1732, and settled in the 
township of Lurgan, Cumberland county. Pa. 
William 3d was graduated at the College of New 
Jersey. A.B., 1772, A.M., 1775; studied theology 
with the Rev. Dr. Robert Cooper, and was chap 
lain of the 5th and 6th battalions, Continental 
army. He was pastor of the Presbyterian church, 
Big Spring (Newville). Pa., 1777-84: at Eliza- 



[77] 



LINN 



LINSLY 



bethtown, N.J., 1784-85; of the Collegiate Dutch 
Reformed church, New York city, 1787-1805 ; 
president pro tempore of Rutgers college, 1791-94 , 
and trustee, 1787-1808 ; regent of the University 
of the State of New York, 1787-1808 ; chaplain of 




the house of representatives, 1st congress, 1789- 
91, and was elected president of Union college, 
Schenectady, N.Y., in 1804, but not inaugurated. 
He received the degree of D.D. from the College 
of New Jersey, in 1789. He was married first to 
Rebecca, daughter of the Rev. John Blair, vice- 
president of the College of New Jersey ; secondly 
to Mrs. Catherine Moore, widow of Dr. Moore, of 
New York city, and thirdly to Helen Hanson. 
He is the author of : Sermons (1791) ; Signs of the 
Times (1794); Funeral Eulogy on Washington 
(1800) ; and Sermon on Death of Alexander Hamil 
ton (1804). He died in Albany, N.Y., Jan. 8, 1808. 

LINN, William, author, was born in New 
York city, Aug. 31, 1790; son of the Rev. Wil 
liam (1752-1803) and Rebecca (Blair) Linn. He 
was a student at Union college in the class of 
1808, and became a lawyer at Ithaca, N.Y. He 
was married to Mary A. Biers. He is the au 
thor of : Life of Thomas Jefferson (1834); Roor- 
bach Papers (1844); Legal and Commercial Com 
monplace Book (1850). He died in Ithaca, N.Y., 
Jan. 14, 1867. 

LINNEY, Romulus Z., representative, was 
born in Rutherford county, N.C., Dec. 26, 1841. 
He attended York s Collegiate Institute and Dr. 
Milieu s school at Taylorsville, N.C. He served 
as a private in the Confederate States army, 
1861-63, and Avas severely wounded in the battle 
of Chancellorsville. He returned to Taylorsville 
and continued his studies under Dr. Milieu, 
studied law with Judge Armfield, was admitted 
to the bar in 1868 and practised in Taylorsville. 
He was elected state senator in 1870, 1873 and 
in 1882, and was a Republican representative 
from the eighth district of North Carolina in the 
54th, 55th and 56th congresses, 1805-1901. 

LINSLEY, James Harvey, naturalist, was 
born in North Branford, Conn., May 5, 1787; 
son of James and Sarah (Maltby) Lin.sley, and a 



descendant of John Lindsley, orLinle, Branford, 
Conn., 1640. He went south in 1809 as a teacher, 
and subsequently taught in Cheshire. He was 
graduated at Yale, A.B., 1817, A.M., 1820, and 
was principal of an academy at Canaan, 1817-20. 
He was married in 1821 to Sophia B., daughter 
of Col. William Lyon, of New Haven. Conn. He 
conducted a private school in Stratford, 1821-31 ; 
was ordained to the Baptist ministry in 1831 ; 
was an evangelist at Meridan ; pastor at Milford, 
Bridgeport and Stratford, 1832-36 ; delegate to 
the triennial convention at Richmond, Va., and 
travelled in Florida for his health and devoted 
himself to the study of natural history. He dis 
covered species of mammalia never before found 
in New England, numerous birds unknown to 
Wilson, amphibia and reptiles theretofore un 
known, and many new species of shells. He 
was elected a member of the Yale Natural His 
tory society, of the Connecticut Academy of Arts 
and Sciences, of the Hartford Natural History 
society, and of the Boston Society of Natural His 
tory. He is the author of : Catalogues of the 
Mammalia of Connecticut, and Catalogue of the 
Birds, Fishes and Reptiles of Connecticut, icith 
Notes. He died in Stratford, Conn.. Dec. 26, 1843. 

LINSLEY, Joel Harvey, educator, was born 
in Cornwall, Vt., July 16, 1790 ; son of Judge Joel 
Linsley, a native of Woodbury, Conn., who re 
moved to Vermont in 1775. He was graduated 
at Middlebury college, A.B., 1811, A.M., 1814; 
taught school in Winsor, Vt., 
1811-12 ; tutored at Middle- 
bury, 1813-15 ; was adinitted 
to the bar in 1815 and prac 
tised in Middlebury, Vt., 18- 
15-21. He was a resident 
licentiate at Andover Theo 
logical seminary, 1821-22; a 
missionary in South Carolina, 1823-24 ; was or 
dained to the Congregational ministry, Feb. 25, 
1824 ; pastor of the South church, Hartford, 18- 
24-32 ; the Park Street church, Boston, 1832-35; 
the first president of Marietta college, Ohio ; 
trustee and president of the board, and professor 
of moral and intellectual philosophy, 1835-46, 
and pastor of the Second church, Greenwich, 
Conn., 1846-68. He raised a large endowment 
for Marietta, and served as agent of the Society 
for the Aid of Western colleges. He was a cor 
porate member of the A.B.C.F.M., 1843-68, and a 
fellow of Yale. 1864-68. He received the honora 
ry degree of D.D. from Middlebnry in 1837. He 
is the author of Lectures to the Middle Aged. 
He died at Greenwich. Conn., March 22, 1868. 

LINSLY, Jared, physician, was born at North 
Branford, Conn., Oct. 30, 1803; son of Josiah 
L. and Eunice (Hall) Linsly and a descendant of 
John Linle. Branford, Conn., 1640. He was 




[78] 



JJXTXER 



graduated at Yale, A.B., 1826, A.M., 1829, and at 
the College of Physicians and Surgeons, New 
York city, M.D., 1829. He was intern in the 
New York hospital, 1829-31 ; physician to a 
cholera hospital, 1832, and practised in partner 
ship with Dr. William Minor, 1S32-34, Dr. Wil 
liam Baldwin. 18:34-41, and alone, 1841-86. He 
was married in 1834 to Catharine Fisher Bald 
win, of New York city. He retired to his home 
stead at Northford, Conn., in 1836. In 1853, 
with his wife, he was a guest of Commodore 
Vanderbilt on the steam yacht North Star, visit 
ing England, Russia and the Mediterranean 
ports. He established the Noah and Jared Linsly 
Fund for supplying books to Yale college library, 
in memory of his uncle, Noah Linsly (Yale, A.B., 
1791. A.M., 1794, and Williams, 1795; who is said 
to have founded the first free school in a slave 
state, and who died in 1814). Dr. Jared Linsly 
was a trustee of the College of Physicians and 
Surgeons, one of the managers of the Ophthalmic 
and Aural institute, and held other offices. He 
was also a member of prominent medical socie 
ties. He died in Northford, Conn.. July 12, 1887. 
I.INTNER, Joseph Albert, entomologist, was 
born in Schoharie, N.Y.. Feb. 8. 1822 ; son of the 
Rev. George Ames and Maria (Waggoner) Lint- 
uer ; and grandson of George Lintner, who came 
from Bavaria, Germany, and settled in Minden, 
N.Y., in 1766. He was graduated from the Scho 
harie academy in 1837 : engaged in mercantile 
pursuits in New York city, 1837-48, and in Scho 
harie, N.Y., 1848-60; and as a manufacturer of 
woollen goods in Utica, N.Y., 1860-67. In 1848 
he began to study entomology, and to collect 
insects. He was married, Oct. 2. 1856, to Frances 
C., daughter of Holmes Hutchinson of Utica, 
N.Y. He was assistant zoologist in the New 
York state museum at Albany. 1867-79 ; presi 
dent of the department of natural science in the 
Albany Institute, 1879-98 ; was appointed state 
entomologist in 1880, and was re-appointed in 
1881 under an act of the legislature establishing 
the office permanently. He became a member 
of the scientific statf of the New York state 
museum of natural history in 1883, and went to 
Europe in the latter part of 1897. He was a 
member or president of the principal scientific 
societies of America and Europe. The discovery 
of the clover midget and the clover beetle in New 
York state is credited to him. He received the 
degree of Ph.D. from the regents of the Univer 
sity of the State of New York in 1884. He is 
the author of over 400 papers, published in Amer 
ican and European scientific journals ; and offi 
cially published thirteen annual reports on the 
Injurious and Other Insects of the State of New 
York (1883-85) ; Report of the State Entomologist 
(1883). He died in Rome, Italy, May 5, 1898. 



LINTON, Edwin, naturalist, was born in East 
Bethlehem, Pa., March 14, 1855; son of Joseph 
and Naomi (Harry) Linton ; grandson of Mahlon 
and Anne (Hilles) Linton and of Lewis and 
Maria (Griffith) Harry and a descendant of John 
Linton, a Quaker, who emigrated from England 
in or about 1682. He was graduated at Wash 
ington and Jefferson college in 1879 ; was tutor 
of mathematics there 1879-81 ; post-graduate 
student at Yale, 1881-82, and in 1882 became 
professor of geology and biology in "Washington 
and Jefferson college. He was married, July 5, 
1885, to Margaret McKnight, daughter of Dr. 
James Irwin and Eleanor (Acheson) Brownson. 
He was elected to membership in the Academy 
of Science and Art, Pittsburg, Pa., in 1890 and 
in the American Society of Naturalists in 1892. 
He received the degree of Ph.D. from Yale in 
1890. He wrote numerous papers mainly on 
entozoa, published in the Reports and Bulletins 
of the U.S. Fish commission and in the Proceed 
ings of the U.S. National museum. He was 
awarded a diploma and a silver medal at the 
International Exposition, Paris, 1900. 

LINTON, William James, engraver, was born 
in London, England. Dec. 7, 1812. He learned to 
draw and engrave on wood, ami he established 
himself in that profession in London, and in 1842 
was employed on the London Illustrated News. 
lie was a zealous 
Chartist and inti 
mately acquainted 
with the chief politi 
cal refugees. In 18- 
48 he was deputed 
witli J. D. Collett 
and Mazzini to carry 
to the provisional 
government at Paris 
the congratulatory 
address from English 
workmen. He was 
one of the founders 
of the London Lead 
er in 18-19, and soon 
after undertook the 

most important journalistic work of his 
the editing and publication of the English Repub 
lic, which he continued, 1850-52. He managed and 
edited Pen and Pencil in 1855, and was for several 
years a regular poetical contributor to the Nation. 
He was married in 1888 to Eliza Lynn, daughter 
of an English clergyman, and the author of many 
novels. He was legally separated from his wife 
in 1867. He came to New York city in 1867, and 
subsequently settled in New Haven, Conn., where 
he established a large engraving business known 
as the Appledore Press. He was a member of 
the American Societv of Painters in Water 




life, 



[79] 



LIN TON 



LIPPINCOTT 



Colors, an associate of the National Academy of 
Design, and a member of the Grolier club and 
the Century association. He received the honor 
ary degree of A.M. from Yale in 1891. lie illus 
trated : "The History of Wood Engraving," Illus 
trated London News (1840-47); %t Works of the De 
ceased British Painters," London Art Union (1800); 
J. G. Holland s " Katrina" (1809), and Bryant s 
" Flood of Years " and " Thanatopsis "(1878). He 
is the author of : Clai-ilx-l and Other Poems (1805); 
Tlie Flower and Star, \vliicli he illustrated and 
engraved (1878) ; Soim Practical Hints on Wood 
Engraving (1879); History of Wood Engraving in, 
America (1882) ; A Manual of Wood Engraving 
(1884, 3d ed., 1887): The Masters of Wood En- 
y raring (1889); Poem* and Translations (1889); 
Life of Wluttier (1893); Reminiscences (1895). 
He also edited Rare Poems of the Sixteenth and 
Seventeenth Centuries (1882), and English Verse, 
with Richard II. Stoddard (5 vols., 1883). He 
died in New Haven, Conn., Dec. 29, 1897. 

LINTON, William Seelye, representative, was 
born at St. Clair. Mich.. Feb. 4, 1850; son of 
Aaron and Sarah (McDonald) Lintori ; grandson 
of Joseph Winder and Rebecca (Seelye) Linton, 
and a descendant of John Linton, of Bucks 
county, Pa., who landed in Philadelphia about 
1092. His parents removed to Saginaw, Mich., 
in 1800, where he received a public school educa 
tion. He was employed as a clerk in a general 
store at Farwell. Mich., in 1871, and subse 
quently became manager of his father s saw-mill 
and lumber yard at Farwell. He engaged in the 
lumber business at Jonesville, Mich., and after 
ward as a bookkeeper to lumber dealers in Sagi 
naw, and was lumber inspector in the saw mills 
along the Saginaw river. In 1877 he became 
superintendent of a lumbering industry at Wells, 
Delta county, Mich. He was a member of the 
board of supervisors of Bay county for two terms ; 
engaged in the salt and lumber business at Sagi 
naw in 1879 : was a member of the East Saginaw 
common council, 1883-87 : a representative in 
the state legislature, 1887-88 ; candidate for lieu- 
tenant-governor on the Republican ticket in 1890 : 
mayor of Saginaw, 1892-94, and a Republican 
representative from the eighth district of Michi 
gan in the 53d and 54th congresses. 1893-97. In 
congress lie successfully opposed the appropria 
tions of public moneys tor sectarian purposes. 
He was appointed postmaster of Saginaw in 
1897; elected president of the Michigan Associa 
tion of Postmasters the same year, and president 
of the Michigan State League of Building and 
Loan associations in 1891 . 

LIPPINCOTT, James Starr, agriculturist, was 
born in Philadelphia. Pa., April 12, 1819: son of 
John and Sarah West (Starr) Lippincott. He 
attended Haverford college, Pa., 1834-35, and 



then devoted himself to teaching. He was a dele 
gate to the World s Peace Conference, Frankfort, 
Germany, 1850. He devoted himself to scientific 
farming in Haddonlield, N.J., 1850-08, and pa 
tented a " vapor index for measuring the degree 
of moisture in the air, which was adopted by the 
Smithsonian Institution. He was married in 1857 
to Susan Haworth Ecroyd, anil secondly in 1881 
to Anne E. Sheppard. He compiled : The, Lippin- 
cotts of England and America, published after his 
death ; a Catalogue of the Books belonging to the 
Library of tlie Four Monthly Meetings of Friends 
of Philadelphia (1853); edited the revised edition 
of Chambers s Encyclopaedia (1870-71): ami is the 
author of six articles in the reports of the U.S. 
Department of Agriculture, Washington (1802- 
07), and of contributions to the Gardeners 
Monthly and other agricultural periodicals. He 
died in Greenwich, N.J., March 17, 1885. 

LIPPINCOTT, Joshua Allan, educator, was 
born in Burlington county, N.J., Jan. 31, 1835; 
son of Crispin and Elizabeth Ann (Garwood) 
Lippincott ; grandson of Joshua and Ann (Cris 
pin) Lippincott, and of Samuel and Ann (Crock- 
ford) Garwood, and a descendant of Richard and 
Abigail Lippincott, who came from Devonshire, 
England, to Boston, Massachusetts Bay colony, 
in 1039, but being Quakers, returned and resided 
at Plymouth, England, until 1003, when they 
came back to America, making their home in 
Rhode Island until 1009, and after that time 
in Shrewsbury, N.J. Joshua Allan Lippincott 
was graduated at Dickinson college, Carlisle, 
Pa., in 1858. He was an instructor in mathe 
matics in Pennington seminary, N.J., 1858-02 ; 
principal of the high school, Scranton, Pa., and 
superintendent of the Scranton public; schools, 
1802-05. He was married, Dec. 24, 1802, to Harriet, 
daughter of the Rev. Joseph Barlow of Scranton, 
Pa. He was professor of mathematics in Dick 
inson college, 1874-83 ; chancellor of the Univer 
sity of Kansas, 1883-89 ; pastor of the First 
Methodist Episcopal church in Topeka, Kan., 
1889-92, and of the Arch Street church. Phila 
delphia, Pa., 1892-90, and in isiHi became cor 
responding secretary of the M.E. hospital in 
Philadelphia. He received the degree of D.D. 
from Franklin and Marshall college in 1882, and 
that of LL.D. from the University of Michigan 
in 1887. 

LIPPINCOTT, Joshua Ballinger, publisher, 
was born in Julinstown, N.J., March 18,1813; 
son of Jacob and Sarah (Ballinger) Lippincott; 
grandson of Levi Lippincott: great-grandson of 
Jonathan Lippincott, great--grandson of James 
Lippincott, greats-grandson of Restore and Han 
nah (Shattuck) Lippincott and great-grandson 
of Richard and Abigail Lippincott. In 1N24 lie 
went to Philadelphia, Pa., where he was a clerk 



[80] 



LIPP1NCOTT 



LIPPINCOTT 



in Clark s bookstore, 1837-31, and was manager 
of tlie business, 1881-30. In 1836 lie founded the 
publishing house of J. B. Lippincott & Co. lie 
was married, Oct. 16, 184"), to Josephine, daughter 
of St th Craigie of Philadelphia. In 1849 he 
bought the stock of Grigg, Elliot & Co., then the 
largest book jobbing house in the United States, 
and in 1850 he formed the partnership firm of 
Lippincott, Gram bo & Co., and on June 80, 1855, 
that of J. B. Lippincott & Co. In 1855 they 
published Lippincott s Pronouncing Gazetteer of 
tJie World ; in 18G8 Lippincott s Magazine was 
established and soon after the Medical Times, and 
subsequently The Biographical Dictionary, Alli- 
bone s Dictionary of Authors, the American edi 
tion of Cliambers s Encyclopaedia, and other im 
portant works. Mr. Lippincott was a director 
of the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, and 
a trustee of the University of Pennsylvania, 187(5- 
85. He died in Philadelphia, Pa., Jan. 5, 1886. 

LIPPINCOTT, Sara Jane, author, was born in 
Pompey, N.Y., Sept. 28, 1828; daughter of Dr. 
Thaddeus and Deborah (Baker) Clarke of Leb 
anon, and Brooklyn, Conn., and of English and 
Huguenot ancestry. She was educated in the 

High school of Roch 
ester, N.Y., and in 

1843 removed with 
her parents to New 
Brighton, Pa. She 
wrote at an early age 
poems which appear 
ed in newspapers and 
magazines under her 
own name, and in 

1844 she became a 
regular contributor 
to the Neil York Mir 
ror under the pen 
name of Grace 
Greenwood." She 
was afterward a fre 
quent contributor to the Home Journal, the Na 
tional Era, Godey s Ladies Book and Graham s 
Magazine, and to the Saturday Evening Post. As 
the correspondent of the National Era and. Satur 
day Evening Post she resided in Europe, 1852-53. 
On her return she was married to Leander K. 
Lippincott of Philadelphia, and with him estab 
lished The Little J ilgrim, which she edited for 
twelve years. During the civil war she engaged 
as a public; lecturer and reader to raise money 
for the disabled soldiers and their families, also 
visiting and reading to the soldiers in camp and 
hospital. She served as a special Washington 
correspondent for the New York Tribune during 
the Grant administrations, and for several years 
later filled a similar position on the New York 
Times writing from Washington, Chicago, Col 




orado, Utah and many points on the Pacific 
coast. She then sent two series of letters from 
Europe. She contributed to several English jour 
nals and periodicals, including the Household 
Words and All the Year Round of Charles Dick 
ens, who was her personal friend. Mrs. Lippincott 
resided in New York city, 1888-92. and in Wash 
ington, D.C., 1892-1900. She is the author of: 
Greemcood Leaves (1850); History of my Pets 
(1850); Poems (1851); Recollections of my Child 
hood (1851 ) ; Haps and Mislia2is of a Tour in Eu 
rope (1854) ; Merrie England (1855); Forest Trag 
edy and OtJter Tales (1856); Stories and Legends 
of Travel (1858); History for Children (1858); 
Stories from Famous Ballads (1860) ; Stories of 
Many Lands (1867) ; Stories and Sightsin France 
and Italy (1868); Records of Five Years (1868); 
New Life in New Lands ( 1873) ; Heads and Tails 
(1874); Victoria, Queen of England (1884); Stories 
for Home Folks (1885); and Stories and Sketches 
(1893). Her Washington political correspond 
ence, and letters from European capitals, which 
she pronounced her best literary work, were not 
republished, and her popular lectures never 
appeared in print. 

LIPPINCOTT, William Henry, artist, was 
born in Philadelphia, Pa., Dec. 6, 1849; son of 
Isaac and Emily (Hoover) Lippincott ; grandson of 
Isaac and Sarah (Widdifield) Lippincott, and a 
descendant of Richard and Abigail Lippincott, 
the Quaker immi 
grants. He was edu 
cated in the Friends 
private school in Phil 
adelphia, Pa., and 
studied at the Penn- 
sylvania Academy of 
Fine Arts. He es 
tablished himself as 
a designer of illus 
trations in 1866, and 
was a scenic painter 
in Philadelphia thea 
tres, 1870-74. He 
studied in Paris un 
der Leon Bonnat, 18- 
74-82, devoting him 
self to portraits and child life, and exhibiting reg 
ularly at the Paris Salon. Returning to the 
United States in 1882, he established a studio in 
New York city, where he painted portraits, figure 
compositions and landscapes, and continued his 
scenic work principally in connection with the 
Metropolitan opera house. He became a member 
of the American Water Color society, the Society 
of American Etchers, the Salmagundi club; an 
associate member of the National Academy of 
Design in 1884. and an academician in 1897. He 
was married, June 20, 1893, to Amalia (Wilson) 




[SI] 



LI I PITT 



LIPPITT 



Chester, daughter of Henry and Helen Wilson 
and the widow of Stephen Chester. He contri 
buted to American Art exhibitions, to the Cen 
tennial exhibition of 1876, and the Paris Salon of 
1878. Among his important paintings are : The 
Diick x nreakfaxt, Centennial exhibition (1876); 
Lolette. Paris Salon (1878); Tin- Little Prince. (1878) ; 
UnJonr tie Conge (187!)); I Ink of Ohl Fashion 
(1882); Helena (18S;5); Infantry in Arms (1887); 
Lores Aiiib txli (18!)0); Pleasant AV//<r//o.s-(1897) ; 
and numerous portraits. 

LIPPITT, Charles Warren, governor of Rhode 
Island, was born in Providence. R.I., Oct. 8, 1846 ; 
eldest son of Governor Henry (q.v.) and Mary 
Ann (Balcli) Lippitt. He was graduated from 
Brown, Ph.D., 1865, and pursued a post-graduate 
course with private 
tutors in Cambridge, 
Mass., and Provi 
dence. After trav 
elling in Europe he 
joined his father in 
1869 in cotton manu 
facturing. He was 
president of the 
Franklin Lyceum, 
1875-7(5 ; was chief of 
Governor Lippitt s 
staff with the rank of 
colonel, 1875-77; a 
member of the Provi 
dence board of trade, 
being its vice-presid 
ent, 1878-80 n7id president, 1881-82 ; was elected 
vice-president of the national board of trade in 
1880 ;and held various other positions of trust and 
responsibility. He was married, in February. 1886, 
to Margaret Barbara, daughter of Alexander and 
Charlotte Barbara (Ormsbee) Farnum. He was 
chairman of the Republican state convention, 
1894; and governor of the state, 1895-96. In the 
Republican national convention of 1896 he re 
ceived the unanimous support of the delega 
tion from his state for the Vice-Presidential 
nomination. He was elected a member of the 
Society of the Cincinnati, and president of the 
Brown University Alumni association. He deliv 
ered notable addresses throughout the country, 
including one upon the tariff before the Repub 
lican club of New York, 1896, used as a campaign 
document ; and one at the centennial celebration 
of the settlement of Cleveland, Ohio, 1896. 

LIPPITT, Christopher, soldier and pioneer 
manufacturer, was born in Cranston, R.I., in 1744 ; 
son of Christopher and Catharine (Holden) Lip 
pitt ; grandson of Moses and Ann Phillis(Whipple) 
Lippitt and of Anthony and Phebe (Rhodes) Hoi- 
den ; great-grandson of Moses and Mary (Knowles) 
Lippitt, and great 2 -grandson of John Lippitt, who 




came from England to America and settled on 
the Providence Plantations in 1638. He attended 
the country school ; represented his town in the 
general assembly, 1765-75 ; and was captain in 
the militia and justice of the peace, 1766-75. In 
1775 he was appointed lieutenant-colonel in com 
mand of the minute-men, who when Commodore 
Wallace of the British squadron landed his mari 
nes on the island of Prudence and burned the 
houses, removed the inhabitants and portable 
property and abandoned the island. He was 
commissioned lieutenant-colonel, Jan. 18, 1776, 
and shortly after, colonel of a volunteer regiment 
of infantry, enlisted by the general assembly for 
defending the state, lie was stationed at New 
port till Sept. 15, 1776, when with his regiment he 
joined Washington s army at Harlem Heights, 
N.Y. He served at White Plains, Trenton and 
Princeton, and went into winter quarters at Mor- 
ristown. He was brevetted brigadier-general by 
Washington, and in January, 177i, returned with 
his regiment to Rhode Island, where, as brigadier- 
general of the militia of the county of Provi 
dence, he led the state force in the battle of Rhode 
Island, Aug. 29, 1778. He was again a represent 
ative in the general assembly, 1778-1783 ; declined 
to serve as judge of the superior court and as 
delegate to congress, and favored the adoption of 
the Federal constitution. He was married, March 
23, 1777, to Waite, daughter of William and 
Patience (Clarke) Harris; she died, Sept. 8, 1836. 
They had twelve children. General Lippitt was 
an early member of the Providence Peace Society. 
In 1807 he supervised the building of the Lippitt 
Mill in Warwick, R.T., the third cotton mill 
erected in the state, and served as its first agent. 
See Autobiographical XL-etch prepared at the 
request of the R.I. Historical society (1822). He 
died in Cranston, R.I., June 17, 1824. 

LIPPITT, Henry, governor of Rhode Island. 
was born in Providence. R.I., Oct. 9, 1818 ; son of 
Warren and Eliza (Seamans) Lippitt; grandson 
of Charles and Penelope (Low) Lippitt and of 
Young and Mary (Larcher) 
Seamans, and great-grandson J^; 
of Christopher and Catharine ^VS^ 
(Holden) Lippitt. He was ^ . /.- 
graduated from the Kings- v^: . j ^ y 4^5. 
ton, R.I., academy, and en- V^- , ._ J/^/\ 
tered mercantile business in *~iJ. \- -^r 
Providence in 1831. He was ^vCv</^ 

married, Dec. 16, 1845, to Mary Ann. eldest daugh 
ter of Dr. Joseph and Mary Ann (Bailey) Balchof 
Providence. In 1848 he identified himself with cot 
ton manufacturing, having large interests in mills 
in Connecticut and Rhode Island, and was also 
prominently connected with several financial and 
industrial concerns. In 1840 lie reorganized the 
Providence Marine Corps of Artillery, served in 



TV. 



LIP PM ANN 



LIPSCOMB 



tliis body, and commanded during the " Dorr war Georgetown. He entered the Methodist ministry 



in 1842, being elected lieutenant-colonel of the 
corps in 1842 for his services. In 1862 he was 
commissioner for enrolling and drafting the 
state s quota for the civil war. He was governor 
of Rhode Island, 1875-77. He died in Providence, 
R.I.. June 5. 1891. 

LIPPMANN, Julie flathilde, author, was born 
in Brooklyn. N.Y.. June 27, 1864 ; daughter of 
Adolpli and Marie Sophie (Polk) Lippmann, 
natives of Aix la Chapelle, Prussia. She was 
educated at a private school in Brooklyn and 
when fourteen began to write for the Golden 
Aye, Philadelphia, in both prose and verse. .She 
also wrote for the Youth s Companion, Century, 
Harper s, Atlantic and in fact most of the lead 
ing magazines and first class periodicals. She is 
the author of : Jock O Dream a (1891) ; Miss H7/f/- 
Jire (1897): Dorothy Day (1898), and comediettas : 
A Fool and His Money (1897) ; Cousin Faithful 
(1897) : The Facts in the Case (1897) ; Through 
Sluinbertoirn and Wakeland. 

LIPSCOMB, Abner Smith, jurist, was born in 
Abbeville, S.C., Feb. 10, 1789; son of Joel and 
Elizabeth (Childs) Lipscomb. His father was a 
Revolutionary officer, and both parents were 
natives of Culpeper county, Va. He studied law 
with John C. Calhoun and George Bowie at Abbe 
ville. S.C.. and settled in the practice of law in 1811 
at St. Stephens (Ala.), at that time in Mississippi 
Territory. He served as captain of volunteers in 
the expedition against the Indians in the war 
of 1812. He was a member of the Alabama ter 
ritorial legislature, 1817-19 ; judge of the supreme 
court of the state of Alabama, 1820-24. and chief 
justice, 1824-35. He was a representative from 
the Mobile district in the Alabama legislature. 
1838. and in 1839 lie removed to Texas. He was 
secretary of the republic under President Lamar. 
1S39-41, and a member of the convention of 1845 
that accepted the terms of annexation proposed 
by the United States and framed the constitution 
of the state. He was an associate justice of the 
supreme court of the state, 1846-57. Lipscomb 
county, Texas, was named in his honor. He 
received the honorary degree LL.D. from theUni- 
versity of Alabama in 1834. His opinions are pub 
lished in Minor s, Stewart s, and Stewart and 
Porter s reports, and in Texas Law Reports " 
Vols. I. to XVII. and his decisions are quoted by 
the supreme courts of Iowa, Massachusetts and 
other states and by the United States supreme 
court. He died near Austin. Texas, Dec. 3, 1857. 

LIPSCOMB, Andrew Adgate, educator, was 
born in Georgetown. D.C., Sept. 6, 1816; son of 
the Rev. William Oorrie and Phoebe (Adgate) 
Lipscomb. and grandson of John and Elizabeth 
(Degge) Lipscomb. He was a student at the Mil 
itary academy and at a classical school at 



in 1834 ; was pastor in Baltimore, Md., Alex 
andria, Va., and in Washington, D.C.. 1834-42, 
and then removed to Montgomery. Ala., where 
he was elected president of the Alabama con 
ference. He was married twice, first to Blanche 
Henrietta Richardson, daughter of the Rev. Ben 
jamin Richardson of Baltimore ; and secondly to 
Susan Dowdell of Alabama. Francis Adgate, 
his only son by the first marriage, was adjunct 
professor of ancient languages, 1869-72, and pro 
fessor of belles-lettres and rhetoric in the Uni 
versity of Georgia, 1872-73. and died in 1875. 
Owing to ill health Dr. Lipscomb established 
and conducted the Metropolitan Institute for 
Young Ladies in Montgomery, Ala., which was 
soon after destroyed by fire. He was president 
of the Female College at Tuskegee, Ala., 1857-59, 
and chancellor of the university of Georgia, 
1860-63 and 1866-74, the intervening years being 
years of war during which the university was 
closed. He then went to Vanderbilt university, 
Nashville, Tenn., where he was professor and 
professor emeritus of philosophy and criticism, 
1875-80, 1880-90. He contributed editorials to 
Haider s Magazine, and articles regularly for 
more than forty years to the Independent. Metho 
dist Recorder, and Christian Advocate. He re 
ceived the honorary degree of D.D. from the Uni 
versity of Alabama in 1851 and that of LL.D. from 
Emory college in 1853. He was a superior Shaks- 
pearian scholar and critic. He is the author of : 
Our Country, The Social Spirit of Christianity, 
Christian Heroism, Lessons iu the Life of Saint 
Peter, Studies in the Forty Days. He died in 
At liens, Ga.. Nov. 23. 1890. 

LIPSCOMB, flary Ann (Rutherford), educator, 
was born in Athens, Ga.. Dec. 23, 1848 ; daughter 
of Williams and Laura Battaille (Cobb) Ruther 
ford, and granddaughter of Williams and Eliza 
(Boykin) Rutherford, and of John Addison and 




[83] 



Sarah Reed (Rootes) fobb. She entered the 
Lucy Cobb Institute in 1858, and completed the 
course: studied under professors of the Univer 
sity of Georgia : received special instruction in 
higher mathematics under her father who was 



LISCUM 



LISPENARD 



professor of mathematics in tlie University 
of Georgia. 1S56-8U. and emeritus professor, 
1886-94: and special instruction in Shakespeare 
under Chancellor Andrew Adgate Lipscomb 
(q.v.). She was married Jan. 14, 1869, to Fran 
cis Adgate Lipscomb, professor of belles letters 
and rhetoric in the University of Georgia, 
who died in 1875. She was a teacher in 
the Waverly seminary, Washington, D.C., 
1876-79, and in 1879 declined the office of 
principal of the Lucy Cobb Institute, which 
office was accepted by her younger sister Mildred. 
She returned to Georgia in 1880 and assisted her 
sister as teacher of Shakespeare, pyschology and 
oratory in the Lucy Cobb Institute, assuming the 
duties of principal during two years when her 
sister was disabled. She was elected principal 
in 1894. She was elected a member or officer of 
various patriotic, religious, and other organi 
zations. 

LISCUM, Emerson Hamilton, soldier, was 
born in Huntington, Vt., July 16, 1841; son of 
John and Pliebe (H:> mi Ron) Liscmn ; grandson of 
Peletiah and Sally (Campbell) Liscum, and a 
descendant of Captain John and Rachel (Day) 
Liscum of Glouces 
ter, Mass. Captain 
John Liscum was born 
at Gloucester, April 
16, 1720 ; son of 
Peletiah and Ann 
(Bradley) Liscum. 
The family removed 
to Burlington, where 
he attended school 
and became a cor 
poral in the " How 
ard Guards." On 
May 2, 1861, he was 
mustered for three 
months service in 
the 1st Vermont in 
fantry, and was discharged Aug. 15, 1861. 
He enlisted soon after in the 12th U.S. infan 
try and was promoted 2d lieutenant, Feb. 19, 
1863; 1st lieiitenant, May 4,1863; captain 25th 
infantry, July 28th, 1866 ; major 22d infantry, 
May 4. 1892 ; lieutenant-colonel 24th infantry, 
May 23, 1896, and colonel of the 9th infantry, 
April 25, 1899. His battles in the civil war in 
cluded Big Bethel, Va., Juiie 10, 1861; Cedar 
Mountain, Va., Aug. 9, 1862, where he was 
wounded; Gettysburg, Pa., July 1-3, 1863, where 
he was severely wounded ; Bethesda church, Va., 
May 30, 1864, and the campaign before Richmond 
for which he was brevetted captain. Aug. 1. 1864. 
He married May daughter of Gen. A. S. Diven, 
(q.v.) and Amanda (Beers) Diven of Elmira, X.Y. 
He was made a companion of the Military Order 




I* 6/i/Vvw- 



of the Loyal Legion of the United States in 
1891. In the war with Spain he was commis 
sioned brigadier-general of volunteers, July 12, 
1898, and was honorably discharged, Dec. 13, 
1898, after service in Cuba in the 3d brigade, 1st 
division, 5th corps, his services including the 
battle of San Juan Hill, July 1, 1898, where he 
commanded the brigade, led a bayonet charge 
and was wounded and sent home, but returned 
to duty in nine months for service in the Philip 
pines in command of the 9th infantry. On July 
12, 1899, he was appointed brigadier-general of 
U.S. volunteers and was assigned to the com 
mand of the 1st brigade, 2d division, 8th corps, 
at Luzon from July 15, 1899, relieving General 
Funston, and again from Jan. 15, 1900, relieving 
General Wheeler. When the troops were ordered 
to China in June, 1900, Colonel Liscum s regi 
ment, 1350 strong, was selected, left Manila June 
27, 1900, and reached Taku July 9, and the next 
day was placed for Tientsin, reaching the walls 
of the city on July 13. Colonel Liscuni had just 
seized the colors as they dropped from the hands 
of a wounded color sergeant, when he was shot. 
His last words were : " Keep up a hot fire into 
the loop-holed buildings Do not retreat." He 
died at Tientsin, China, July 13, 1900. 

LISPENARD, Leonard, merchant, was born 
in New York city in 1716 ; grandson of Anthony 
Lispenard, a Huguenot refugee, who came to New 
York about 1650. He was a leading New York 
merchant, an assistant alderman, 1750-55 ; an 
alderman, 1756-62, and a delegate to the first 
provincial congress which met in New York 
Oct. 7, 1765. He was a member of the New York 
assembly, 1765-67 ; a colonel of the New York 
militia by a commission from the crown ; a 
treasurer of King s college, and also a governor, 
1775-84. He was one of the city committee in 
1775, a member of the provincial convention, and 
took an active part in all the patriotic proceed 
ings just before the Revolutionary war. When 
the patriots left New York, however, he took the 
oath of allegiance and was re-instated in his 
office of governor and treasurer of King s college. 
When the provincial articles of peace were 
signed he publicly declared himself a friend to 
the new government, and even took part in the 
cruelties inflicted upon the loyalists after the 
evacuation of the city of New York. He was 
one of the original members of the Society of the 
New York Hospital and one of its governors, 
1770-77. He was married in 1741, to Alice, 
daughter of Anthony Rutgers, who inherited from 
her father a third of the extensive grant made 
to him by George HI. Mr. Lispenard purchased 
adjacent property from the other heirs and 
the whole tract became the Lispenard Meadows. 
He died in New York city, Feb. 15, 1790. 



[84] 



LITCHFIELD 



LITTLE 



LITCHFIELD, Elisha, representative, was 

born in Canterbury, Conn., in 1795. He attended 
tlie public school, and learned the trade of a 
carpenter and joiner. He removed to Pompey. 
N.Y., in 1812 ; was a member of the New York 
assembly from Onondaga county in 1819 ; justice 
of the peace, and postmaster for several years. 
He abandoned his trade, kept a country store and 
-a hotel ; was major in the state militia and a 
representative in the 17th and 18th congresses, 
1821-25. He was a member of the state assembly 
1832-34, 1844 and 1848, and speaker in 1848. He 
removed to Cazenovia, N.Y., in 1838, where he 
died Aug. 4, 1859. 

LITTAUER, Lucius Nathan, representative, 
was born in Gloversville, N.Y., Jan. 20, 1859 ; son 
of Nathan and Harriet 8. Littauer. He removed 
to New York city in 18(55, where lie attended 
Chartier institute, and lie was graduated from 
Harvard in 1878. He engaged in glove-manu 
facturing with his father at Gloversville, to 
which business he succeeded in 1882. He became 
an officer and director in many commercial and 
financial institutions. He was a Republican re 
presentative from the twenty-second district of 
New York in the 55th, 56th and 57th congresses, 
1897-1903. 

LITTELL, Eliakim, editor, was born in Bur 
lington, N.J., Jan. 2, 1797 ; son of Stephen and 
- (Gardner) Littell, and grandson of 
Eliakim and Hannah (Jewell) Littell. His pa 
ternal grandfather was a captain in the Revolu 
tionary army and with his company aided in the 
defence of Springfield, N.J., June 4, 1870. Elia 
kim settled in Philadelphia in 1819 and founded 
the Rational Recorder, a weekly literary paper, 
changing the name to the Saturday Magazine in 
1821 and to the Museum of Foreign Literature and 
Science hi 1822. His brother, Dr. Squier Littell, 
assisted him in editing the journal. In 1841 the 
business was removed to Boston and in April, 
1844, he published the first number of LittelVx 
Living Age, which was continued weekly. In 
1855, he also established Panorama of Life and 
Literature, a monthly magazine. The compro 
mise tariff, which became a law during the 
administration of President Jackson, is said to 
have been formulated by Mr. Littell. lie mar 
ried Mary Frazer, daughter of John and Mary 
Anne (Frazer) Smith, sister of Gen. Persifor 
Smith, and granddaughter of Col. Persifor Frazer. 
and their son Robert (born in Philadelphia, 
May 5, 1831, died in Brookline, Mass.. April 7, 
1896), succeeded his father as editor and manager 
of the Living Age. Mr. Littell died in Brook- 
line, Mass., May 17, 1870. 

LITTLE, Charles Coffin, publisher, was born 
in Kennebunk, Maine, July 25, 1799 : son of David 
and Sarah (Chase) Little ; grandson of the Rev. 



Daniel and Sarah (Coffin) Little ; great-grandson 
of Daniel and Abiah (Clement) Little, and of 
Col. Joseph and Margaret (Morse) Coffin ; great 2 - 
grandson of Joseph and Mary (Coffin) Little, and 
of John and Elizabeth (Ayer) Clement; great- 
grandson of George and Alice (Poor) Little and 
of Tristram and Judith (Greenleaf) Somerby 
Coffin. George Little, a native of London, Eng 
land, settled in Newbury, Mass., in 1640. Charles 
C. Little went to Boston, Mass., from Kennebunk 
early in life and entered a shipping house and 
later a bookstore kept by Carter, Hilliard & Co., 
which became Hilliard, Gray, Little & Wilkins. 
He continued as a member of this firm until 
1837, when he formed a partnership with James 
Brown (q. v.), under the firm name of Charles 
C. Little & Co., which was subsequently changed 
to Little, Brown and Co. He was married, Jan. 1, 
1829, to Sarah, daughter of William Hilliard of 
Cambridge, Mass. Mrs. Little died Sept. 29, 
1848, and he was married, secondly, Jan. 18, 
1854, to Abby, daughter of Henry Wheaton, LL.D., 
of Providence, R.I. Mr. Little died in Cam 
bridge, Mass., Aug. 11, 1869. 

LITTLE, Charles Joseph, educator, was born 
in Philadelphia, Pa., Sept. 21, 1840; son of 
Thomas Rowell and Ann (Zimmermann) Little ; 
grandson of William and Mary (Chase) Little, and 
a descendant of George and Alice (Poor) Little, 
Newbury. Mass., 1640. Charles was graduated 
at the University of Pennsylvania, A.B., 1861, 
A.M., 1864, served on the Cochranville, Pa., cir 
cuit, 1861-62, and joined the Philadelphia con 
ference of the M.E. church in 1862. He was 
pastor ou the Newark, Del., circuit, 186S-63 ; of 
St. James s church, Philadelphia, Pa., 1863-64 ; of 
the Spring Garden Street church, Philadelphia, 
1864-65; at Springfield, Pa., 1865-66, and at 
Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia, 1866-67. He was a 
teacher of mathematics at Dickinson seminary, 
Williamsport, Pa., 1867-69, travelled and studied 
in Germany, 1870-72 ; and was pastor of Christ 
church at Philadelphia, 1872-74. He was mar 
ried, Dec. 3, 1872, to Anna Marina Schultze, 
daughter of Dr. Karl and Sophie (Schaarschmidt) 
Balm of Prussia. He was professor of English 
literature and philosophy at Dickinson college, Pa., 
1874-83, and of metaphysics and political economy 
1883-85, meantime serving as librarian of the 
state library, 1882-85. He was professor of his 
tory and logic in Syracuse university, 1885-91 ; 
a member of the university senate, 1887-91 ; pro 
fessor of historical theology in the Garrett Bib 
lical Institute, Evanston, 111., 1891-99, and presi 
dent of the Institute from 1899. He received the 
degree of Ph.D. from De Pauw university, Ind., 
in 1882 and LL.D. from Dickinson college. Pa., 
in 1885, and was Fernley lecturer to the Meth 
odist conference in England in 1900. 



[85] 



LITTLE 



LITTLE 



U.S SHIP 

" BOSTOM! 




LITTLE, George, naval officer, was born in 
Marshlield, Mass.. April 10. 1754. In 1793 he 
served as 1st lieutenant under Capt. John Foster 
Williams on the Protector, taking part in the 
engagement with an English letter-ot -marque of 
thirtv guns, June 9, 17X0. in which the enemy s 
ship was blown up. On another cruise the Pro 
tector was overpowered by two English cruisers, 
taken into New York, and Captain Williams and 

Lieutenant Little 
were carried to Eng 
land where Little 
bribed a sentry and 
thus escaped to 
France. He return 
ed to America and 
was given command 
of the sloop-of-war 
Wiiitlirop. He was 
commissioned cap- 
^\ tain in the newly 
established navy 
March 4. 1799. and in 
April was given command of the Boston, a fri 
gate of twenty-eight guns, then on the stocks 
at Boston. The Boston was launched at Hart s 
yard May 20. and on July 25 sailed from Boston 
on a cruise. Captain Little captured several arm 
ed French privateers, including the Bercean 
after a severe engagement. On the establishment 
of peace with France he was discharged from 
active service. Oct. 2, 1801, and passed the re 
mainder of his life on his farm at Weymouth, 
Mass. He is the author of : The American Cruiser, 
and Life on. tJie Ocean, or Tirenty Years at Sea 
(1844-45.) He died at Weymouth, Mass., July 
22. 1X09. 

LITTLE, George Thomas, librarian, was born 
in Auburn. Maine, May 14. 1807; son of Edward 
Toppan and Lucy Jane (Bliss) Little: grandson 
of Edward and Hannah (Brown) Little and of 
Zeba and Lepha (Peck) Bliss, and eighth in des 
cent from George Little, who emigrated to New- 
bury, Mass., in 1040, and fourth from Col. Moses 
Little, a Revolutionary soldier. George prepared 
for college at the Edward Little high school, 
Auburn. Maine, and was graduated from Bow 
doin college. A.B.. 1877, A.M., 1880. He trav 
elled and studied abroad, 1877-78 ; was teacher of 
Latin at Thayer academy, Braintree. Mass., 
1877-82 ; professor of Latin at Bowdoin, 1882-80, 
and was appointed librarian of Bowdoin college 
in 1883. He was married Dec. 18, 1884. to Lilly 
Thayer Wright, daughter of George II. and 
Sarah (Weeks) Lane of Braintree, Mass. He was 
elected a member of the Maine Historical society 
in 1879, and of the Minnesota Historical society 
in 1890. The honorary degree of Litt.D. was 
conferred on him by Bowdoin in 1894. He is the 



author of : Descendants of George Little of Xeir- 
btiry. H>4 (1877, enl. ed.. 1882): Memorial <,f 
Alplieus Spring Packard (1885); Historical 
Sketch of Boirdoin College (1X94.) 

LITTLE, James Lawrence, surgeon, was born 
in Brooklyn, N. Y., Feb. 19. 1S:;0 ; son of George 
W. and Eliza (Cleland) Little, and grandson of 
George and Mary (Wakeman) Little. He was 
married in 1858 to Elsie A., daughter of John 
Charlotte of Newbern, N.C. He was graduated 
from the College of Physicians and Surgeons, 
New York city, 1800 : was connected with the New 
York hospital, 1800-02. and in 1802 became snrgeon- 
in-charge of the Park Barracks. He introduced 
into the United States the plaster of Paris splint 
treatment of fractures in 1X01. He served in the 
civil war in the temporary hospital erected at 
Washington, D.C., and in h eld service at White 
House on the Pamunkey river in 1802-0:5. He 
was influential in establishing the New York 
state board of health in 1804. In 1808 he was 
appointed clinical assistant to Prof. Willard 
Parker in the College of Physicians and Sur 
geons; delivered a course of lectures on fractures 
and their treatment . 1804 -OX. and lectured in the 
summer school of that institution, lXOs-78. He 
was non-resident professor of surgery in the Uni 
versity of Vermont, 1X75-X5. and consulting 
surgeon to the Northwestern dispensary and at 
tending surgeon to St. Luke s and St. Vincent s 
hospitals. He was professor of clinical surgery 
in the University of the City of New York in 
1880, and professor of surgery in the New York 
Post Graduate Medical School. 1XX2-X5. of which 
he was one of the founders. He was a member 
of numerous medical associations. He died in 
New York city, April 4. 1XS5. 

LITTLE, John, representative, was horn in 
Ross township. Greene county. Ohio. April 25. 
1837; son of Robert and Elizabeth (Hiatt > Little, 
and grandson of .John and Elizabeth (Ritenonr) 
Little and of Jeremiah and Lucinda (Kidwell) 
Hiatt, all natives of Virginia. He was graduated 
at Antioch college in 1X02 : taught school, and 
was admitted to the bar in 1805. He was mar 
ried Oct. 19. 1805. to Barbara J. Sheets of Troy, 
Ohio. He was prosecuting attornev of Greene 
county, 1807-09; representative in the stale leg 
islature, 1870-74; attorney-general of Ohio. 1874- 
78, and in 1877 visited Florida, where he wrote 
the argument that gave to Hayes the vote of the 
state as decided by the returning board, lie was 
Republican representative in the 49th con 
gress, 1885-87, and president of the U.S. com 
mission on Venezuela claims, appointed by Presi 
dent Harrison, and of the Ohio state board of 
arbitration, appointed by Governor McKinlev. 
He was a trustee of Antioch college, 1880-1900. 
He died in Xenia, Ohio, Oct. 18, 1900. 



[80] 



LITTLE 



LITTLEFIELD 



LITTLE, John S., representative, was born at 
Jenny Lind. Ark., March 15, 1853; son of Jesse 
and Mary Elizabeth (To! man) Little ; grandson 
of William Little of Greenville, N.C.. and of 
Eaton Tolinan. He attended the common schools 
and Cone Hill college, Arkansas, and was ad 
mitted to the bar in 1874. He was elected dis 
trict attorney for the twelfth circuit of Arkansas 
in 1877 and re-elected for four successive terms : 
was a representative in the state legislature in 
1884 ; circuit judge. 1880-90 : chairman of the 
state judicial convention; and was elected a repre 
sentative in the 53d congress to fill a vacancy 
caused by the resignation of C. R. Breckinridge, 
ard re-elected to the 54th, 55th, 56th and 57th 
ccngresses, serving, 1893-1903. 

LITTLE, Lewis Henry, soldier, was born in 
Baltimore, Md., in 1818; son of Col. Peter Little 
(<[.v.). He entered the U.S. army as 3d lieu 
tenant, 5th infantry. July 1, 1839 ; was trans 
ferred to the 7th infantry in May, 1843, and was 
promoted 1st lieutenant, April 18. 1845. He 
served during the Mexican war ; was brevetted 
captain for gallant and meritorious conduct in 
the battle of Monterey. Sept. 23. 1840. and be 
came regimental quartermaster in March, 1847. 
He also distinguished himself in the battle of 
Cerro Gordo, April 18. 1847. and was promoted 
captain, Aug. 20, 1847. He resigned from the 
U.S. army. May 7. 1N(>1, to join the Confederate 
forces. He was colonel in the 1st brigade. Mis 
souri state guard, commanded by Gen. Sterling 
Price, and was assigned to Van Dorn s army. 
Trans-Mississippi department. He was promoted 
brigadier-general for bravery at the battle of Pea 
Ridge, March 7-8, 1802 : commanded the 1st di 
vision in the Army of the West, east of the 
Mississippi, commanded by General Price, and 
was killed at the battle of luka, Sept, 19. 1802. 

LITTLE, Moses, soldier, was born in New- 
bury. Mass.. May 8, 1724 ; son of Moses and Sarah 
(J.icques) Little: grandson of Moses and Lydia 
(Coffin) Little, and of Sergt. Stephen and De 
borah (Plumer) Jacques and great-grandson of 
George and Alice (Poor) Little, and of Henry 
and Anna (Knight) Jacques. He was for several 
years a surveyor and obtained grants of unoc 
cupied crown lands lying within the present 
limits of Vermont. New Hampshire, and Maine. 
He was married in 1743 to Abigail, daughter of 
Joshua and Sarah (Coffin) Bailey of Newbury, 
Mass. He commanded the Xewbury militia in 
the expedition against Louisburg in 1758, and 
iipon the first tidings from Lexington in April. 
1775. inarched with his company to Cambridge 
find was placed in command of the regiment 
raised from the northern part of Essex county. 
At the battle of Bunker Hill lie led three of his 
companies across Charlestown Neck under a 



severe fire from the British batteries and ships of 
war, reached the scene of action before the first 
charge of the enemy, and remained throughout 
the engagement. After the evacuation of Bos 
ton he was present with Washington s army on 
Long Island, where he commanded Fort Greene, 
and was stationed at Flatbush Pass during the 
battle, Aug. 27, 1770. He also took part in the 
battle at Harlem Heights, but did not accompany 
his men in the retreat through New Jersey, being 
during the winter in command of an encamp 
ment at Peekskill. N.Y., but in the spring of 
1777 lie was forced to return home on account of 
ill health. In 1779 he declined the commission 
of brigadier-general and the command of an ex 
pedition raised by the Commonwealth of Massa 
chusetts to dislodge the British on the Penobscot. 
He served in the general court of Massachusetts 
before and after the Revolution. He died in 
Newbury, Mass., May 27, 1798. 

LITTLE, Peter, representative, was born in 
Petersburg, Pa., in 1775. He attended the public 
schools of his native place and was apprenticed 
to a trade. In early manhood he settled at 
Freedom, Baltimore county, Md. He was Demo 
cratic representative in the 12th congress. 1811- 
13, defeating Nicholas R. Moore, Federalist. He 
was commissioned colonel of the 38th Maryland 
infantry by President Madison and served as 
such from May 19, 1813, till June 15, 1815. He 
was a representative in the 14th congress as 
successor to William Pinkney, resigned, serving 
from Dec. 2, 1810, to Marcli 3, 1817 ; and was re- 
elected to the 15th, IGtli, 17th, 18th, 19th and 
20th congresses, 1817-29. He died in Freedom, 
Md., Feb. 5, 1830. 

LITTLE, Robbing, lawyer, was born in New 
port, R.I., Feb. 15, 1832; son of William and 
Sophia Louisa (Robbins) Little ; grandson of 
William and Frances (Boyd) Little of Boston, 
and of Senator Asher and Mary (Ellery) Robbins 
of Rhode Island, and a descendant of Thomas 
Little, who came to Plymouth about 1632, and 
married Anne, daughter of Richard Warren. 
He was graduated from Yale, A.B., 1851, A.M., 
1854, and was tutor in Greek there in 1854. He 
was instructor in international law at the U.S. 
naval academy, 1865-09 ; was graduated from 
Harvard, LL.B. , 1870, and practised law in New 
York city, 1870-73. He was examiner of claims 
in the U.S. war department at Washington, 
D.C., 1873-78, and superintendent and a trustee 
of the Astor library, New York city, 1878-96, 
when it was merged in the New York Public 
library. 

LITTLEFIELD, Alfred Henry, governor of 
Rhode Island, was born in Scituate, R.I., April 2, 
1829; son of John and Deborah (Himes) Little- 
field, and a descendant of Caleb and Nathaniel 



[8TJ 



LITTLEFIELD 



LITTLE JOHN 




Littlefield who settled in New Shoreham in 1721. 
His parents removed to Warwick, R.I., in 1831, 
and he attended the public schools. At an early 
age he entered the Sprague mill. He served as 
clerk for his brother. George L. Littletield at 
Central Falls. 1845-51, and in 
is.-)l he entered into part 
nership with him. He was 
married Feb. 9, 1853. to Re 
becca Jane, daughter of Eb- 
enezer and Jane (Padwell) 
Northupof Central Falls. He 
was division inspector of the 
state militia with the rank of colonel, 1864-69. He 
was a Whig in politics in his youth and later was 
identified with the Republican party. The town 
ship of Lincoln was set apart in 1871, and he was 
a member of the town council. 1873-77 ; was a 
representative in the general assembly, 1876-77 ; 
a state senator, 1878-79 ; and was the Republican 
candidate for governor of Rhode Island in 1880. 
In the election he received only a plurality of 
votes cast, and the election going to the legisla 
ture he was chosen by a majority of sixty on 
joint ballot. He was re-elected by a large ma 
jority in 1881, and served as governor, 1881-83. 
He died in Lincoln, R.I., Dec. 21, 1893. 

LITTLEFIELD, Charles Edgar, representa 
tive, was born in Lebanon, Maine. June 21, 1851 ; 
son of the Rev. William H. and May (Stevens) 
Littlefield, both descendants of early Piscataqua 
settlers. His father was an expert millwright 
and the son learned 
the carpenter s trade 
after attending the 
public schools and 
Foxcroft academy. 
He was admitted to 
the Knox county bar 
in 1876, and formed 
a partnership witli 
Jonathan P. Cilley, 
ami later with his 
brother. Arthur S. 
Littlefield. In 1878 
he married Clara H., 
daughter of Gen. 
William Aver of 
Montville. lie was a 
Republican representative in the state legislature, 
1885-87, and speaker of the house in 1887 ; attor 
ney-general of the state, 1889-93. and chairman 
of the Maine delegation at the Republican national 
convention of 1892 and at the St. Louis convention, 
1896. He was elected a representative in the 56th 
congress, June 19, 1899, to fill the vacancy caused 
by the death of Nelson Dingley. and was re-elected 
to the 57th congress. 1901-03. He was made a 
member of the judiciary committee and of the 




special co mm it tee of nine appointed by the house 
to investigate the matter of seating Brigham 
Henry Roberts, elected a representative to the 
56th congress from Utah. With Representative 
de Armond of Missouri, he made a minority re 
port, recommending the seating of Roberts as the 
constitution provided, and that he be expelled 
immediately afterward on the ground that he was 
a polygamist. He also made a notable speech 
against the Porto Rico tariff bill. 

LITTLEFIELD, Milton Smith, soldier, was 
born in Jefferson county, N.Y.. in March, 
1832. He studied and practised law in the office 
of Abraham Lincoln in Springfield, 111. On the 
breaking out of the civil war lie was commis 
sioned captain in the 14th Illinois regiment, com 
manded by Col. John M. Palmer. He served in 
the campaign of 1862 on the staff of (Ken. W. 
T. Sherman, as provost marshal at Memphis, 
Tenn. He was transferred to the Department of 
the South and made colonel of the 4th South 
Carolina colored regiment ; served in the siege of 
Charleston, S.C., and after the assault on Fort 
Wagner, was temporarily assigned to the com 
mand of the 54th Massachusetts colored regi 
ment, the colonel. Robert G. Shaw, having been 
killed in that engagement. On August :!1 the 
regiment, which was in the 4th brigade com 
manded by Col. James Montgomery, was de 
tailed by General Terry, in charge of the division 
operating on Morris Island, for special duty in the 
trenches. On Sept. 1. 18(53. Colonel Littlefield 
assumed command of the Jlst l*.S. colored troops, 
and after the battle of Olnstee. Fla., of the 54th 
and 55th colored regiments. He served on the 
staff of General Gillmore, was inspector-general 
of colored troops, and after the war engaged in 
railroad enterprises in New York city. He died 
in New York city. March 7. 1899. 

LITTLEFIELD, Nathaniel Swett, representa 
tive, was born in Wells, Maine. Sept. 20, 1804 ; 
son of Ebenezer Littlefield. and grandson of 
Eliab Littlefield. His ancestors were among the 
earliest settlers of Wells. He was admitted to 
the bar, practising first at Alfred and later at 
Hridgton. Cumberland county. He was a mem 
ber of the state senate, 1837-39, serving as presi 
dent of the senate in 1838. and was the author of 
the report of the special committee on the north 
eastern boundary question accepted by the legis 
lature. He was a representative in the 27th and 
31st congresses, 1841-43 and 1849-51 ; a repre 
sentative in the state legislature in 1854, and a 
delegate to the Union convention at Philadelphia 
in 1S(i(i. He died in Hridgton. Maine. Aug. 15, 1882. 

LITTLEJOHN, Abram Newkirk, first bishop 
of Long Island and 91st in succession in the 
American Episcopate, was born at Florida. 
Montgomery county. N.V., Dec. 13, 1824 ; son of 



L1TTLEFIELD 



LIVERMORE 




60. 



John and Eleanor (Newkirk) Littlejohn ; grand 
son of Silas Littlejohn and a descendant of Hugh 
Littlejohn of Perthshire, Scotland. He was gradu 
ated from Union college in 1845, was made a dea 
con in the Protestant Episcopal church by 
Bishop de Lancey, 
March 19, 1848, and 
ordained a priest by 
Bishop Brownell in 
Hartford, Conn., 

June 12, 1849. He 
was in charge of St. 
Ann s church, Ams 
terdam. N.Y., 1848- 
4!) ; of St. Andrew s 
church, Meriden, 
Conn., 1849 ; was rec 
tor of Christ church, 
Springfield, Mass., 18- 
49-51, and of St. 
Paul s church, New 
Haven. Conn., 1851- 

He was married in 1848 to Jane Matilda, 
daughter of the Hon. Samuel T. Armstrong of 
Boston, Mass. She died in Garden City, L.I., 
N. Y., March, 9 1898. Dr. Littlejohn was lecturer on 
pastoral theology in the Berkeley Divinity school. 
Middletown, Conn., 1855-59 ; was elected presi 
dent of Hobart college in 1858, but declined the 
office, and in 1860 accepted the rectorship of the 
Church of the Holy Trinity, Brooklyn, N.Y. He 
was elected bishop of the newly formed diocese 
of Central New York in November, 1868, but be 
fore he had received official notice of his election 
was also elected bishop of Long Island by the 
primary convention of the newly created diocese, 
which latter he accepted. He was consecrated 
in the Church of the Holy Trinity, Brooklyn, 
N.Y., Jan. 27. 1869. During his administration 
and with his active co-operation the Cathedral of 
the Incarnation at Garden City. L.I. , N.Y., was 
was built, and St. Paul s school for boys and St. 
Mary s for girls established through the munifi 
cence of Mrs. Alexander T. Stewart. In addition 
to the work of his diocese, he acted as bishop in 
charge of the American Episcopal churches upon 
the continent of Europe. 1874-86, during which 
time most of the churches were organized and 
their edifices built or begun. Trinity college, 
Conn., conferred upon him the honorary degree 
of A.M. in 1852 ; the University of Pennsylvania 
that of D.D. in 1856 ; the University of Cam 
bridge, England, that of LL.D. in 1880 ; and the 
University of the South that of D.C.L. in 1897. 
He delivered a course of sermons on " Individual 
ism "at the University of Cambridge, England, 
in 1880, which gained from that institution his 
degree. He also gave a course of lectures on 
"The Christian Ministry at the Close of the 

[80] 



Nineteenth Century " before the students of the 
General Theological seminary in New York city 
in 1884. He is the author of : The Philosophy of 
Religion (1856); Metaphysics of Cousin (1856) ; 
Life and Writings of Coleridge (1857); Poetry of 
George Herbert (1858); The Bible and Common 
Sense (1858) ; Outwardness of Popular Religion 
(1858) ; The Alt-Catholic Movement (1858); Con- 
clones ad Clerem (1880) ; Individualism (1880); 
The Christian Ministry at the Close of tie Nine 
teenth Century (1884). Bishop Littlejohn died 
suddenly in Williamstown, Mass., Aug. 3, 1901. 

LITTLEJOHN, De Witt Clinton, legislator, 
was born in Bridgewater, N.Y., Feb. 7, 1818. He 
was prepared for college, but engaged in busi 
ness as a forwarder of produce on the lakes and 
canals and a manufacturer of flour in Oswego, 
N.Y. He was elected president of the village of 
Oswego in 1847, and when it was incorporated a 
city was elected on its first board of aldermen 
and was its mayor for two terms. He was a 
member of the state assembly,- 1853-55, 1857 and 
1859-61 and a speaker of that body, 1855, 1857 
and 1859-61. He served in the Federal army a.s 
colonel of the 1 10th New York volunteers, which 
regiment he recruited and accompanied on the 
Red River expedition. In 1862 he was elected 
Republican representative in the 38th congress, 
and lie resigned from the army to take his seat 
Dec. 7, 1863, but his health failing by reason of 
camp exposure, he resigned in April, 1864. He 
declined the appointment of U.S. consul to 
Liverpool in 1864 and was returned to the state 
assembly in 186G, 1867, 1870, 1871 and 1884. In 
1872 he supported Horace Greeley for President, 
and in 1874 was a candidate before the Demo 
cratic state convention for lieutenant-governor 
on the ticket with Samuel J. Tilden for governor, 
but he afterward returned to the Republican 
party. He died in Oswego, N. Y., Oct. 27, 1892. 

LIVERflORE, Abiel Abbot, clergyman and 
author, was born in Wilton, N.H., Oct. 30, 1811 ; 
son of Jonathan and Abigail (Abbot) Livermore ;. 
grandson of Jonathan and Elizabeth (Kidder) 
Livermore and of Maj. Abiel Abbot ; and a de 
scendant of John Livermore, of Little Hurloe, 
Suffolk, England, a potter by trade, who sailed 
from Ipswich, England, to America in 1634 and 
settled in Watertown, Mass., in 1642. He 
prepared for college at Phillips Exeter acad 
emy, N.H. ; was graduated from Harvard, 
A. B., 1833, B.D., 1836, and was ordained to the 
Unitarian ministry, Nov. 2, 1836. He was pas 
tor at Keenc, N.H. , 1836-50, and at Cincinnati, 
Ohio. 1850-57. He removed to Yonkers, N.Y., in 
1857, where he was editor of the Christian En 
quirer published in New York city and pastor 
of Hope church, 1857-63. lie was president of 
the Mcadville Theological school, 1863-90. He 



LI VERM ORE 



LIVER ."\; ORE 




was twk-e married; first, May IT. 1X38. to Eliza 
beth D. Abbot, of Windham, who died Sept. 13, 
18T9; and secondly, June 18, 188:3, to Mrs. Mary 
A. (Keating) Moore. He received from Har 
vard the degree of 
A.M. in 1872 and 
that of S.T.D. in 18- 
88. He edited Priest 
ley s Corruptions of 
Christianity (1838); 
and with others, 
Christian Hymns (18- 
45); and is the author 
of: A Commentary 
on the New Testa 
ment (6 vols. 18- 
42-81 .): Lecture* to 
Young Men (1846); 
The Marriage Offer 
ing, prose and poetry 
(1848); The \Vr icith 

Mexico Rei ieired, a prize essay (1850): Discourses 
(1852): Anti-Tobacco (1X33); The History of TH7- 
ton (1888), and contributions to periodicals. He 
died in \Vil.on. N.H.. Nov. 28. 1802. 

LIVERflORE, Arthur, jurist, was born in Lon 
donderry. N.H.. July 2!>. 17(56; son of Samuel 
(q. v.) and Jane (Browne) Li vermore. Ho worked 
on his father s farm in Holderness. N.H., 1774- 
85. receiving a classical education under the 
tuition of his parents. He studied law with his 
brother, Edward S. Livennore : was admitted to 
the bar: settled in practice at Chester, N.H.; 
was a representative in the general court of 
New Hampshire, 1794 and 1T95, and solicitor for 
Rockingham county. 1796-98. He returned to 
Holderness in 1798 and was associate justice of 
the superior court, 1799-1809 ; chief justice. 1809- 
13 : associate justice of the supreme court, 1813- 
16- a Democratic representative in the 15th, 16th 
and 18th congresses, 1817-21 and 1823-25 ; judge of 
the probate for the county of Grafton, 1822-23, and 
chief justice of the court of common pleas, 1825- 
32. He was a presidential elector on the John 
Adams ticket in 1800. He was married to Louise 
Bliss of Haverhill, Mass. He died at his farm in 
Campton, N.H.. July 1. 1X53. 

LIVERHORE Edward St. Joe, representa 
tive, was born in Portsmouth, N.H., April 5, 
1762; son of the Hon. Samuel (q. v.) and Jane 
(Browne) Livennore. He studied law in New- 
buryport in the office of TheophilusParsons, and 
settled in practice, first at Concord in 1783 and 
then at Portsmouth. He was U.S. district at 
torney for the district of New Hampshire, 1789- 
97 : a member of the state constitutional conven 
tion, 1791 ; state s attorney for Rockingham 
county. 1791-93: justice of the supreme court, 
1797-99, and naval officer at Portsmouth, 1799- 



[90] 



1802. He removed to Newburyport, Mass.. in 1805 
and was a representative from Essex county in 
the 10th and llth congresses. 1807-11. He re 
moved to Boston. Mass., in 1811 and in 1815 to 
Zanesville. Ohio, but returned to Boston and 
finally settled in Tewksbury, Mass. He was 
married in 1783 to Mehitable, daughter of Robert 
Harris and secondly, in 1799. to Sarah Crease, 
daughter of William Stackpole of Boston. Mass. 
He died in Tewksbury. Mass.. Sept. 15. 1X32. 

LIVERMORE, George, antiquarian, was horn 
in Cambridge. Mass., July 10.1809; a descend 
ant of John Livennore of Ipswich, England, who 
settled in Watertown, Mass., in 1634. He attend 
ed the academy at Deerfield, Mass.. 1827-28; was 
employed as a clerk in Cambridgeport and other 
towns near Boston. 1828-3X, and in 1838, in com 
pany with an older brother, engaged in the wool 
business in Boston. He was married Oct. 1, 
1839, to Elizabeth Cunningham Odiorne of Cam 
bridgeport. He made a collection of scarce 
articles of historic value ; large paper edi 
tions of rare books, and one of the finest collec 
tions of Bibles in the United States, including a 
copy of Eliot s Indian Bible. He was a trustee 
of the state library of Massachusetts. 1849-65. He 
was elected to membership in the American Acad 
emy of Arts and Sciences in 1855 and other learned 
societies. He received the honorary degree of 
A.M. from Harvard in 1X50. He was an assistant 
editor of Graham s " History of the United 
States " (1846). and the author of numerous biblio 
graphical and historical articles, including "New 
England Primer " in the Cambridge Chronicle 
(1849), and " Public Libraries," in the Xorth 
American Review (1850). lie died in Cambridge, 
Mass., Aug. 30, 1865. 

LIVERflORE, Harriet, preacher and author, 
was born in Concord. N.1L, April 14, 1788; 
daughter of Edward St. Loe (q. v.) and Mehit 
able (Harris) Livermore. She became a teacher 
at East Haverhill. Mass., in 1811. She was erra 
tic in her religious belief, being an Episcopalian, 
1802-18; a Congregational st, 1818-25; a Baptist, 
1825 ; a Second Adventist, and was prevented from 
joining the Society of Friends through a sudden 
burst of temper while at a Friend s house in 
Amesbury. In January, 1827. she addressed the 
two houses of congress in the Hall of Representa 
tives, Washington, D.C.. on religion. President 
Adams and Secretary Clay being present, the 
first time a woman had addressed a congressional 
assembly in their hall. She subsequently spoke 
before three other administrations. She made a 
journey of 6000 miles through the wilderness of 
the far West to teach the Indians. She also 
spent some time among the Dunkards in Penn 
sylvania, where her sermons were well received. 
She made several visits to Jerusalem, the last in 



LIVERMORE 



LI\ 7 ERMORE 



1862, and traveled extensively through Europe. 
In 1838 Whittier secured for her audiences in 
Philadelphia and elsewhere, and the proceeds of 
her lectures and the assistance of friends kept 
her from actual want. She finally died in an 
almshouse in Philadelphia, and her friend, Mrs. 
Margaret F. Worrell, conveyed her remains to her 
own home in Germantown and they were placed 
in the Dunkards burying ground. She is the 
author of : ^4 Narrative of Religious Experiences, 
In Tirt lue Letters (1826); A Wreath, from Jessa 
mine Laicn, a religious novel : Millennial Tidings 
(1831); .4 Testimony for the Times (1843); and a 
score of other books, mostly religious, and poems, 
hymns and sermons used by the Dunkards. She 
died in Philadelphia. Pa,. March 30, 1868. 

LIVERMORE, Mary Ashton (Rice), reformer, 
lecturer and author, was born in Boston, Mass., 
Dec. 19, 1820; daughter of Timothy and Zebiah 
Vose (Ashton) Rice ; granddaughter of Silas and 
Abigail (Hagar) Rice and of Capt. Nathaniel 

and Rachel (Glover) 
Ashton of London, 
England, and a de 
scendant of Edmund 
Rice, who came from 
England, and settled 
in Sudbury. Mass., in 
1639. She attended 
the Hancock school, 
Boston, Mass., and 
was graduated from 
the Female Seminary 
at Charlestown, Mass., 
in 1838, having earn 
ed her tuition by 
teaching in the jun 
ior department of the 
seminary throughout her course. She was in 
structor in Latin, French and Italian there, 
1838-41 ; a governess in Virginia, 1841-43, and 
principal of a school in Duxbury, Mass., 18- 
42-45. She was married, May 6, 184."), to the 
Rev. Daniel Parker Livermore of Leicester, 
Mass., a Universalist minister. They settled in 
Fall River, Mass., where he had a pastorate and 
from there she accompanied him to Connecticut, 
New York and Illinois. Mr. Livermore was an 
earnest believer in woman suffrage, and she soon 
became a strong supporter of the movement. 
She was active in anti-slavery work and in the 
Washingtonian temperance movement, and for 
years wrote, organized and labored for that re 
form. She removed to Chicago. 111., in 1857, 
where her husband became proprietor %nd editor 
and she associate editor of the New Covenant, a 
Universalist paper. In 1862 she was appointed 
agent of the U.S. Sanitary Commission, with 
headquarters at Chicago, and with others di- 




[91] 



rected and carried on the hospital relief work of 
the Northwest, organizing soldiers aid societies, 
collecting sanitary supplies, and detailing nurses 
to the hospitals. She served as a member of the 
special relief corps in 1863, which visited hos 
pitals and camps on the Mississippi river, and 
worked their way among the suffering soldiers 
besieging Vicksburg. Sher made her first public 
speech in Dubuque, Iowa, where she presented to 
the people the sanitary needs of the soldiers at 
the front and in the hospitals. In that same year, 
with Mrs. Hoge, she organized the Northwestern 
fair which netted $100,000 for the commission. 
Woman suffrage engrossed her active energies, 
and in 1869 she started The Agitator to aid the 
reform, and in 1870 she returned to Boston, 
where she edited the Woman s Journal, into 
which her own paper was merged until 1872. 
She resigned her position to enter the lecture 
field, her lecture topics including biographical, 
historical, political, religious and reformatory 
subjects, and as a lecturer she traveled over 
25,000 miles annually, visiting every state in the 
Union, and also Scotland and England. She or 
ganized and was the first president of the Illinois 
Woman Suffrage association, 1869 ; president of 
the American Woman Suffrage association, 1880, 
and was sent to the Massachusetts Republican 
convention, charged with the presentation of 
temperance and woman suffrage resolutions. 
She was the first president of the Woman s Con 
gress, 1872-73; first president of the Massachu 
setts Woman s Christian Temperance Union, 
1874-84, and of the Beneficent society of the New 
England conservatory of Music, 1884-1900. She 
became a member of the Massachusetts Ladies 
Aid Society, of the Massachusetts Soldiers 
Home, of the Massachusetts Woman s Indian 
association, of the Massachusetts Prison associa 
tion and of the American Psychical society. She 
edited A Woman of the Century with Frances E. 
Willard (1893); and is the author of : The Chil 
dren s Army (1848); ^4 Mental Transformation 
(1850); Pen Pictures (1865); Thirty Years Too 
Late (1878); What Shall We Do with Our 
Daughters? (1883); My Story of the War (1888); 
Autobiography (1897) ; and many contributions to 
periodical literature. 

LIVERflORE, Samuel, statesman, was born 
in Waltham, Mass., May 14,1733 (O.S.); son of 
Samuel and (Brown) Livermore; and a 
descendant in the fourth generation from John 
Livermore, of Exeter, England, who settled in 
Watertown, Mass., in 1635. He entered the Col 
lege of New Jersey in 1751, and was graduated 
A.B., 1752, A.M., 1755. He was admitted to the 
bar in 1756, and practised for a short time in 
Waltham and then in Portsmouth, N.H. He was 
married, Sept. 23, 1759, to Jane, daughter of the 



LIVINGSTON 



LIVINGSTON 



Rev. Arthur Browne of Portsmouth, In 17G4 he 
removed to Lomlonelerry, and represented the 
town in the provincial assembly, 1708-70, mean 
while, in 1709, returning to Portsmouth, having 
been appointed advocate in the court of admi 
ralty and king s attorney -general in New Hamp 
shire, which offices he held until 1774. He re 
turned to Londonderry in 1774, and removed to 
New Holderness in 1775, having become by pur 
chase the principal proprietor of the town. He 
was elected attorney-general by the people in 
1770. and in November, 1771), was sent by the 
general court as agent to the Continental con 
gress, to support the claim of the state to the 
New Hampshire grants. In 1780 he was made a 
delegate to the Continental congress and served 
until 1782, when he was appointed chief justice 
of the superior court. He was again a delegate 
to congress, 1785-86 ; was a delegate to the state 
convention which met in February, 1788, to 
ratify the Federal constitution, and resigned his 
position as chief justice, in 1790. He was a re 
presentative in the 1st congress, 1789-91, and was 
re-elected to the -M congress, but was transferred 
in 1791 to the U.S. senate, in which body he 
served by re-election until June 12, 1801, when he 
resigned on account of ill health. He was presi 
dent of the state constitutional convention of 
1791. Dartmouth college conferred upon him 
the honorary degree of LL.D. in 1792. He died 
in Holderness, N.H., May 18, 1808. 

LIVINGSTON, Edward, statesman, was born 
in Clermont, N.Y., May 20.1764; son of Robert 
R. and Margaret (Beekman) Livingston, and 
grandson of Col. Henry and Janet (Livingston) 
Beekman. He was graduated at the College of 
New Jersey, A.B. 17- 
81, A.M., 1784; stud 
ied law with John 
Lansing in Albany, 
N.Y., and with his 
brother, Robert R. 
Livingston, in New 
York city, and was 
admitted to the bar 
in 178."). He was a 
representative from 
New York in the 4th, 
5th and (5th con 
gresses, 1795-1801, 
when he opposed the 
administration of 
President Washing 
ton, and instigated the investigation and proposed 
the resolution calling upon the President for a 
copy of the instructions given to John Jay in ref- 
ence to the treaty with Great Britain. The reso 
lution was adopted in the House by a vote of 02 to 
37, but the copy of the instructions was with 




held by the President on the advice of his cabinet. 
In the fourth presidential election when the tie 
vote between Jefferson and Burr threw the elec 
tion in the House, he voted for Jefferson, and 
when his term expired as representative in con 
gress, March 3. 1801, he was selected by President 
Jefferson as U.S. attorney for the district of New 
York, and Governor Clinton in August, 1801, 
made him mayor of New York city. In 180. } he 
laid the corner stone of the city hall and during 
the same year he rendered conspicuous service in 
the yellow fever epidemic. In his visits to the 
sufferers he contracted the disease, and after his 
recovery found that his affairs had been so badly 
conducted by his business agent as to cause a, de 
ficit of $43,600.21, for which he was respon 
sible to the government. He resigned both his 
offices, confessed judgment to the amount of 
$100,000 and gave up his property to cover the 
loss. He left New York for New Orleans in De 
cember, 1803, reaching that city in February, 
1804, where he opened a law office and also en 
gaged in land speculation, his fees being mostly 
paid in land. He prepared a new code of pro 
cedure that was adopted by the legislature in 
1805 and remained in force till 1825, when his re 
vised code was adopted. He gained the ill-will of 
President Madison by favoring the scheme of Burr 
and of Gen. James Wilkinson for the conquest 
of Mexico and by defending its projectors in the 
courts. He became the legal adviser of the 
Lafittes, said to be connected with smugglers, 
and when they gave timely notice of the designs 
of the British against New Orleans, he was the 
first to give credence to their report and his faith 
in their truthfulness was shown by his entrusting 
his wife and child to the care of Pierre Lafitte 
during the battle of New Orleans. He was the 
president of the committee of public defence, 
drew up the resolutions, and aroused the people 
of the state to a sense of their danger. He was the 
right hand of General Jackson in his prepara 
tions for the attack by General Pakenham ; 
served on General Jackson s staff before and dur 
ing the battle and drew up the address to the 
army. He was elected a representative in the 
Louisiana state legislature in 1820, and was a 
representative from the New Orleans district in 
the 18th. 19th and 20th congresses, 1823-29; and 
a U.S. senator from Louisiana from Dec. 7, 1829, 
till the close of the 21st congress, March 3, 1831, 
when he resigned to accept the portfolio of state 
in the cabinet of President Jackson, made vacant 
by the resignation of Martin Van Buren. The 
state papers of Jackson s administration and the 
nullification proclamation of Dec. 10, 1832, were 
credited to his pen. He resigned from the cabi 
net in 1833 to accept the mission to France, and 
while there he accomplished the settlement of the 



[92] 



LIVINGSTON 



LIVINGSTON 



French spoliation claims. In 1835 lie returned to 
the United States, leaving his son-in-law, T. P. 
Barton, as charge d affaires. In 1830 he appeared 
before the U.S. supreme court at Washington, 
where he argued the claims of the city of New 
Orleans against the U.S. government. lie was 
bequeathed by his sister Janet, widow of Gen. 
Richard Montgomery, the " Montgomery Place." 
above Barry town on the Hudson river, N.Y., and 
on his return from France he made his home 
there. He was married first, April 10, 1788, to 
Mary, oldest daughter of Charles McEvers, a New 
York merchant ; she died, March 13, 1801, and in 
180.") he married Madame Louisa (D Avezac) Mo- 
reau, sister of Major D Avezac, aide-de-camp to 
General Jackson. At the time of this second 
marriage she was only nineteen years of age, and 
unable to speak English. They had one daugh 
ter. Cora, who became the wife of Thomas P. 
Barton, of Philadelphia, who accompanied his 
father-in-law to Paris as secretary of legation. 
Edward Livingston received the honorary degree 
of LL.I). from Columbia in 1823, from Transyl 
vania university in 1824 and from Harvard in 
1834. He was a corresponding member of the In- 
stitut de France ; a member of the American 
Philosophical society, and a trustee of Columbia 
college, 1793-1806. His name was one of the 
eleven in "Class J, Judges and Lawyers, sub 
mitted, October, 1900, for a place in the Hall of 
Fame for Great Americans, New York university, 
and received seventeen votes, the class standing 
in order of preferment : Marshall, Kent, Story, 
Choato and Livingston. He is the author of: 
Judicial Opinions, Mayor s Court, City of AVw 
Yurie. lrtJ.2 (1803); Report of the Plan, of tJie 
Penal ( ode of Louisiana (1822); System of Penal 
Lair for the State of Louisiana (1826); System 
of Penal Lair for the raited States (1828). These 
were published as Complete Works on Criminal 
Jurisprudence (1873). See Life by Charles H. 
Hunt (1864), and Recollections by Augusta 
D Avezac in the Democratic Review (1840). He 
died at Montgomery Place, Barry town, Duchess 
county, N.Y., May 23, 1836. 

LIVINGSTON, Henry Beekman, soldier, was 
born at Livingston Manor, Clermont, N.Y., Nov. 
9,1750; son of Robert R. and Margaret (Beek 
man) Livingston. At the outbreak of the Revo 
lution he raised a company of infantry and in 
August, 1775, he accompanied his brother-in-law, 
Gen. Richard Montgomery, on his expedition to 
Canada. He participated in the capture of 
Chambly, and in December, 1775, congress voted 
him a sword for gallantry displayed at the capture. 
He was made aide-de-camp to Gen. Philip Schuy- 
ler in February, 1776, and later in the year was 
appointed colonel of the 4th battalion, New York 
volunteers, which office he resigned in 1779. He 



was a personal friend of Lafayette, having served 
with him in New Jersey and Rhode Island. He 
was commissioned a brigadier-general at the close 
of the war and retired to the Beekman estate at 
Rhinebeck, N.Y., which he had inherited. He 
was one of the original members of the New York 
Society of the Cincinnati. He was married to 
Ann Horn Shippen of Philadelphia, Pa. He died 
at Rhinebeck, N. Y., Nov. 5, 1831. 

LIVINGSTON, Henry Brockholst, jurist, was 
born in New York city, Nov. 26, 1757, son of Will 
iam and Susannah (French) Livingston. He was 
graduated from the College of New Jersey, A.H. 
1774, A.M. 1777, and at the outbreak of the Revo 
lutionary war he was commissioned a captain in 
the Continental army and served as aide-de-camp 
to Gen. Philip Schuyler, being attached to the 
northern department and ranking as a major. 
He was aide to Gen. Arthur St. Clair ; partici 
pated in the siege of Fort Ticonderoga, and was 
present at the surrender of General Burgoyne s 
army at Saratoga, Oct. 17, 1777. He returned to 
General Schuyler s army and was promoted lieu 
tenant-colonel. In 1779 he went to Spain as pri 
vate secretary to his brother-in-law, John Jay, and 
during his voyage home in 1782 was captured by 
the British and taken to New York, where he 
was imprisoned until the arrival of Sir Guy 
Carleton, as Commander-in-chief of the British 
forces. He removed to Albany, studied law un 
der Peter Yates ; was admitted to the bar in 
1783 and practised in New York city. He was 
judge of the rupreme court of New York, 1802-07 ; 
and succeeded William Patterson as associate 
justice of the U.S. supreme court in 1807. He 
was an original trustee of the New York Society 
library in 1788 ; and the 2d vice president of the 
New York Historical society in 1805. The honor 
ary degree of LL. D. was conferred on him by 
Harvard in 1818. He was three times married*: 
iirst to Catharine Kettletas ; secondly to Aim N., 
daughter of Gabriel Henry Ludlow, and thirdly 
to Catharine Kortright, daughter of Edmund 
Seamen and widow of John Kortright. lie died 
in Washington, D.C., March 19, 1823. 

LIVINGSTON, Henry Walter, representative, 
was born at Livingston Manor, Columbia countj , 
N.Y., in 1768; son of Walter and Cornelia (Sehuy- 
ler) Livingston. He was graduated from Yale, 
A.B., 1788, A.M., 1789, studied law, and practised 
in New York city. He was private secretary to 
Gouverneur Morris during the latter s service as 
U.S. minister plenipotentiary to France, 1792-94 ; 
was elected judge of the court of common pleas 
of Columbia county, and was a representative in 
the 8th and 9th congresses, 1803-07. He was 
married to Mary Penn, granddaughter of Will 
iam Allen, chief justice of Pennsylvania, 1750-54. 
He died at Livingston Manor, Dec. 22, 1810. 



[93] 



LIVINGSTON 

LIVINGSTON, James, soldier, \vas born in 
lower Canada, March 27, 1747 ; son ol John and 
Catharine (Ten Broeck) Livingston and grandson 
of Robert Livingston and of (Jen. Abraham Ten 
Broeck. James inherited from his father a large 
landed estate in Canada. lie attended Kings 
(Columbia) college, Ne\v York city, and was col 
onel of the regiment of Canadian refugees who 
originally went from the Uniled States to Canada 
but returned upon the outbreak of the Revolu 
tion. They were organized into a regiment at 
the time of the invasion of Canada by General 
Montgomery, and his brothers Abraham and 
Richard served respectively as captain and lieu 
tenant-colonel. He participated in the battle of 
Quebec ; in the capture of Fort Clmmbly, St. 
John s and Montreal. The night before the at 
tack on Quebec, Dec;. 30, 1775. General Mont 
gomery spent at Colonel Livingston s house 
near by. and at fche time of Montgomery s death, 
Colonel Livingston was so near him that the 
blood from the general s wound fell on his arm. 
He subsequently participated in the battle of 
Still water, Sept. 1!), 1777 and at the surrender of 
Burgoyne, Oct. 17. 1777. He was stationed on 
the Hudson to defend the passes, protect King s 
Ferry and strengthen West Point, and on Aug. 3, 
1780, was ordered by General Washington to 
garrison the redoubts at Stony Point and Ver- 
plank s Point, thus leaving Arnold alone at West 
Point. On Sept. 21, 1780, Colonel Livingston, by 
obtaining from John Lamb a four pounder and 
ammunition, and with his first shot cutting the 
anchor rope of the Vulture causing her to drop 
down stream to Tarry town, prevented the meet 
ing between Arnold and Andre, his action result 
ing in Andre s capture. When Washington re 
turned from bis visit to Count Rochambeau at 
Hartford, he sent for Colonel Livingston, Sept. 
25, 1780, and first beard from him the details of 
Arnold s treason and escape on the Vulture. 
Colonel Livingston was retired on half pay at the 
close of the war, and as his property in Canada 
bad been confiscated by the British government 
he removed to Johnstown, N.Y., where be en 
gaged in farming and subsequently kept a store. 
He was a member of the state assembly, from 
Sehuylerville, N.Y., 178491. Colonel Livingston 
was married to Elizabeth Simpson of Montreal. 
He died at Sehuylerville, N.Y., Nov. 29, 1832. 

LIVINGSTON, John Henry, educator, was 
born in Poughkeepsie, N.Y., May 30, 174G ; son 
of Henry and Susan (Conklin) Livingston ; 
grandson of Gilbert and Cornelia (Beekman) 
Livingston and of John Conklin, and great-grand 
son of Robert Livingston, the immigrant. He 
was graduated from Yale, A.B., 17(52, A.M., 1705, 
and commenced the study of law, which he aban 
doned for the ministry. He was graduated from 



LIVINGS 

the University of Utrecht, Holland, in 1767, and 
with the degree of D.D. in 1 770 : was invited to take 
charge of one of the Reformed Dutch churches 
in New York, and was ordained by the classis of 




Amsterdam June 5, 17(10. Upon his return to New 
York city in September, 1769. he was made pastor 
of the Fulton Street Reformed Dutch church, and 
was instrumental in settling the dispute in the 
church between the Cuetus and Conferentic par 
ties. He was chaplain of the provincial congress 
held in New York in 1775 and upon the occu 
pancy of New York by the British army in Sept 
ember, 1776, he removed to Livingston Manor, 
N.Y., serving as pastor at Kingston, in 1776 ; 
Albany, 1776-79; Lithgow. 1779-81. and Pough 
keepsie, 1781-83, resuming his pastorate in New 
York city in 1783. He was at that time theonly 
active Dutch Reformed clergyman in New York 
citv, the three other collegiate churches boing 
without pastors. In 1784 he was appointed pro 
fessor of theology for the church by the general 
synod upon the recommendation of the theological 
faculty of Utrecht, Holland, and upon the open 
ing of a theological seminary at Flatbush, L.I., in 
1795, he assumed charge, but closed the doors in 
1797 for want of support. He was president of 
Queen s college, New Brunswick. N.J., and pro 
fessor of theology, 1807-25. He was vice-president 
of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel 
among the American Indians and was a regent 
of the University of the State of New York, 
1784-87. He was married to Sarah, daughter of 
Philip and Christiana (Ten Broeck) Livingston. 
He is the author of : Funeral Serviee : or Medita 
tions Adapted to Funeral Addresses (1812); and 
A Dissertation on the Marriage of a Man irilh 
his Sister-in- Lair (1816). He was chairman of a 
committee appointed in 1787 to compile "Selec 
tion of Psalms for Use in Public Worship." He 
died in New Brunswick. N.J., Jan. 20, 1825. 

LIVINGSTON, John William, naval officer, 
was born in New York city. May 22, 1804 : son of 
William and Eliza (Livingston) Turk, and grand 
son of John and Ann (Saunders) Livingston, lie 
obtained permission in 1843 by act of legislature 
[94] 



LIVINGSTON 



LIVINGSTON 



to assume his mother s surname. He was ap 
pointed a midshipman in the U.S. navy and 
served in the Mediterranean squadron during the 
war with the Tripolitan pirates ; was commis 
sioned lieutenant in June, 1832 ; was assigned to 
the frigate Congress, and was connected with the 
Pacific squadron during the war with Mexico, 
18io-47. He was attached to the East India 
squadron, 1848-49; was made commander in 1855 ; 
was in charge of the St. Louis and cruised off the 
coast of Africa, 185(5-58 ; commanded the Penguin 
and was attached to the blockading squadron, 
1861-62; was promoted captain in 1861; commo 
dore in July, 1862, and after the evacuation of the 
Norfolk navy yard by the Confederates he was 
put in charge, remaining there until 1864. He 
was at the naval station g at Mound City, 111., 1865- 
66: ordered on special service, and in May, 1868, 
was commissioned rear-admiral. He was retired 
from service in 1814 and resided in New York 
city, where he died, Sept. 10, 1885. 

LIVINGSTON, Leonidas Felix, representative, 
was born in Newton county, Ga.. April 3, 1882; 
son of Alfred and Harriett M. Livingston, and 
grandson of Adam Livingston of Scotch ancestry 
who immigrated from the north of Ireland and 
served under General Washington during the 
Revolutionary war. He was educated in the 
public schools of his native county and at an early 
age assisted on his father s farm. He served as a 
private in the Confederate army in Cobb s legion 
in 1861 ; under Bragg in the West in 1862, and 
remained in the army until the close of the war 
in 1865, and thereafter engaged in farming in 
Kings, Ga. He was a representative in the 
Georgia legislature, 1876-77 and 1879-81. and a 
member of the state senate in 1882 a,nd 1888, and 
was chairman of the committee on agriculture in 
both the house and senate. He was a Democratic 
representative from the fifth Georgia district in 
the 52d, 58d, 54th, 55th, 56th and 57th congresses, 
1891-1908. He was a member of the executive com 
mittee of the State Agricultural societ3 r , 1869-71, 
vice-president of the society, 1871-84, and presi- 
dent.l 884-88 ; and was president of the State Alli 
ance of Georgia, 1888-90. He of ten served as dele 
gate to the general assembly of the Presbyterian 
church and made a national reputation in his 
debate with the Rev. S. K. Smoot in St. Louis, 
Mo., in 1887. 

LIVINGSTON, Peter Van Brugh, merchant, 
was born in Albany, N.Y., in October, 1710; 
second son of Philip and Catharine (Van Brugh) 
Livingston. He was graduated from Yale, A.B., 
1781. A.M., 1784. On Nov. 3, 1789, he was married 
to Mary, daughter of James Alexander and sister 
of William Alexander, Lord Stirling. He engaged 
in business as a merchant in partnership with his 
brother-in-law for a number of years, they fur 



nishing the supplies for Governor Shirley s expe 
dition to Acadia in 1755. He was a member of 
the governor s council ; a member of the com 
mittee of one hundred ; a delegate to the 1st and 
2d provincial congresses of New York, 1775-76 ; 
president of the 1st congress and state treasurer, 
1775-77, participating in the measures that led to 
the Revolution. He was an original trustee of 
the College 01 New Jersey, 1748-61. He died at 
Liberty Hall, Elizabethtown, N.J., Dec. 28, 1792. 

LIVJNGSTON, Philip, second lord of the 
manor, was born in Albany, N.Y., July 9, 1686 ; 
son of Robert and Alida (Schuyler) Van Rensse- 
laer Livingston. His mother was the daughter of 
Philip Schuyler and widow of Nicholas Van 
Rensselaer. He served as deputy secretary of 
Indian affairs under his father, and in 1722 suc 
ceeded him as secretary. He was a member of 
the provincial assembly from Albany in 1709; 
took part in the battle of Port Royal in 1710 and 
subsequently was appointed a colonel in the pro 
vincial army. He was appointed county clerk in 
1721 and was a member of the provincial conrcil, 
1725-49. Upon his father s death in 1725 he be 
came the second lord of the manor. He was 
married to Catharine, daughter of Peter Van 
Brugh, for many years mayor of the city of 
Albany. He had palatial residences in New York 
city, Albany and on the manor. His eldest son 
Robert became third and last lord of the manor, 
and his daughter Sarah was married to William 
Alexander (Lord Stirling) (q. v.) Philip Living 
ston died in New York city, Feb. 4, 1749. 

LIVINGSTON, Philip, signer, was born in 
Albany, N.Y.. Jan. 15, 1716, son of Philip and 
Catharine (Van Brugh) Livingston. He was grad 
uated from Yale. A.B., 1737, A.M., 1740, and en 
gaged in business in 
New York city as a 
merchant. He was 
one of the seven 
aldermen of the city, 
1754-68 : a member 
of the provincial as 
sembly. 1763-69 and 
speaker in 1768 ; a 
member of the com 
mittee of correspond 
ence ; a delegate to 
the stamp-act con 
gress in October, 17- 
65: a delegate to the 
Continental congress, 
1774-78, and at the 
first convention of that body he was one of the 
committee appointed to prepare an address to the 
People of Great Britain. He was one of the four 
delegates from New York who signed the Decla 
ration of Independence. It was at his residence 




[05] 



LIVINGSTON 



LIVINGSTON 



on Brooklyn Heights, N.V., that Washington 
held the council of war that decided on the re 
treat from Long Island in 1770. lie \\.is a mem 
ber of the state assembly and in May 1777. was 
chosen state senator. He was one of the founders 
of the New York Society library in 1754: of the 
chamber of commerce in 1770 ; and one of the 
governors of the New York hospital in 1771. He 
was prominent in the establishment of King s 
college, and in 1746 he aided in founding the Liv 
ingston professorship of divinity at Yale. He was 
married to Christina, daughter of Kichard Ten 
Broeck, recorder of Albany. He died while in 
attendance at the 6th session of the Continental 
congress, at York, Pa., June 12, 1778. 

LIVINGSTON, Robert, first lord of the manor. 
was born at Ancnim, Roxburghshire, Scotland, 
Dec. 13, 1654 ; son of Dr. John Livingston (1603- 
1072), a Presbyterian minister, who was banished 
from Scotland in 1663, on account of his non 
conformist views, and went to Holland soon after 
the restoration of Charles II. Robert accompanied 
his father in his flight to Rotterdam, and immi 
grated to America in 1673, and after spending 
part of a year in Charlestown, Massachusetts Bay 
colony, removed to Albany, N.Y., where he was 
secretary of the commissaries who superintended 
the affairs of Albany. Schenectady, and the parts 
adjacent, 1675-86. He was married in 1683 to 
Alida, daughter of Philip Pietersen Schuyler, and 
widow of Nicholas Van Rensselaer. In 1686 he 
received from Governor Thomas Dougan a grant 
of land comprising large parts of what was sub 
sequently set off as Dutchess county, and the 
grant was confirmed by royal charter from George 
L. who erected the manor and lordship of Living 
ston. Robert Livingston was appointed to pro 
ceed to New York with his brother-in-law, Peter 
Schuyler, to obtain a charter for the manor from 
Governor Dougan, under which charter he was 
town clerk, 1686-1 72 1. In 1680 he attached him 
self to the anti-Leisler faction. He was secretary 
of the convention held at Albany, Oct. 25, 1689, 
which, while it acknowledged the sovereignty of 
William and Mary, opposed Leisler s proceedings. 
AYhen Richard Petty, sheriff of Albany, reported 
to Leisler that Livingston favored the Prince of 
Orange, Leisler ordered Livingston s arrest, and 
the latter retired to one of the neighboring pro 
vinces until the arrival of Sloughter, in March, 
1691. In 1694 lie made a voyage to England, was 
shipwrecked on the coast of Portugal, and obliged 
to travel through Spain and France by land. He 
returned to New York in 1696, accompanied by 
his nephew, Robert Livingston. "While in Eng 
land lie was appointed by royal commission, 
dated Jan. 27. 169/5-96, commissioner of excise, 
receiver of quit rent*, town clerk, clerk of the 
peace, clerk of the common pleas for the city and 



county of Albany, and secretary for the govern 
ment of the Indians in New York. He ob 
tained for Robert Kidd a commission to rid the 
American seas of buccaneers ; but Kidd himself 
turned pirate and the expedition failed. In Sep 
tember, 1696, the charge of alienation was pre 
ferred against him by the council, but through the 
influence of Lord Bellomont, who arrived in April, 
1698. to take charge of the government, he was 
appointed one of the council. September, 1698, and 
in the autumn of 1700, was reinstated in all his 
offices. He was accused by the Leisleriaii com 
mission of appropriating the public money for 
his own use, and of employing improper influ 
ences to induce the Indians to favor his going to 
England on behalf of their interests at the court. 
He refused to exonerate himself of the charge by 
oath and on April 27. 1701, his estates were con 
fiscated and he was suspended from the council 
board. Through the intercession of Lord Corn- 
bury he was vindicated. On Feb. 2, 170;?. he re 
gained his estates, and in September, 170."), he was 
reinstated in his former offices. He was elected 
a member of the assembly from Albany in 1711, 
and from his manor, 1710-25. serving as speaker, 
1718-25, when he retired on account of ill-health. 
He died in Albany, N. Y., April 20. 1725. 

LIVINGSTON, Robert R, jurist, was born in 
New York city, in August, 1718; son of Robert and 
Margaret (Howerden) Livingston, and grandson 
of Robert and Alida (Schuyler) A r an Rensselaer 
Livingston. He received a superior education 
and practised law in New York city. He was 
judge of the admiralty court. 1700-63 ; justice of 
the colonial supreme court, 1763 ; member of the 
provincial assembly, 1759-08 ; a delegate to the 
stamp act congress of 1705 ; commissioner to de 
cide upon the boundary line between New York 
and Massachusetts. KOT. and again in 1773. and a 
member of the committee. 1 of one hundred in 1775. 
He married Margaret, daughter of Col. Henry 
and Janet (Livingston) Beekman. He died at 
his country seat, Clermont, N.Y., Dec. 9, 1775. 

LIVINGSTON, Robert R, statesman, was born 
in New York city, Nov. 27, 174-6 : son and second 
child of Robert R and Margaret, (Beekman) Liv 
ingston. He was graduated from King s college. 
A.B., 1705. A.M., 1768; studied law under Will 
iam Smith and William Livingston ; was admit 
ted to the bar in 1773. and formed a partnership 
with John Jay. with whom lie practised in New 
York city. He was recorder of the city of New 
York by appointment of Governor Tryon, 1773- 
75, being obliged to relinquish the position on 
account of his outspoken espousal of the patriot 
cause in 1775. He was a member of the provin 
cial assembly in 1775 ; was a delegate to the Con 
tinental congress. 1775-77 and 1779-81. and was 
a member of the committee of five, comprised 



LIVINGSTON 



LIVINGSTON 




of Adams, Jefferson. Franklin, Livingston and 
Sherman, appointed to draw up the Declaration 
of Independence, but was obliged to return to his 
duties in the provincial assembly without signing 
the instrument. He was a member of the com 
mittee that drafted 
the state constitution 
adopted at the King 
ston convention in 
1777. He was chan 
cellor of the state un 
der the new consti 
tution, 1785-1801, and 
in that capacity he 
administered the oath 
of office to President 
Washington, April 
30, 1789. He was 
secretary of foreign 
affairs for the Unit 
ed States, 1781-83, 
and was chairman 

of the state convention at Poughkeepsie in 
1788, to consider the adoption of the U.S. con 
stitution. He declined the office of U.S. minister 
to France preferred by President Washington in 
1794, and in 1801 the portfolio of the navy from 
President Jefferson/ who also offered him the 
mission to France, which latter he accepted, re 
signing his chancellorship. AVhile in France he 
formed a strong friendship with Napoleon Bona 
parte ; and he made the initial movement that 
resulted in the purchase of Louisiana from the 
French in 180:3. He travelled through Europe 
after resigning his office as U.S. minister in 1803, 
and while in Paris he became interested in the 
invention of the steamboat of Robert Fulton, 
whom he assisted in his enterprise with his coun 
sel and money, eventually becoming his partner. 
The first steamboat, owned by Livingston and 
Fulton, was built in France and was launched 
upon the Seine but was a failure, and on return 
ing to America they had another steamboat, the 
Clei mont, built and launched on the Hudson in 
1807, which was a success. This boat was named 
after the Livingston home in Columbia county, 
N.Y. He retired from public life and resided at 
Clermont, where he engaged in agriculture and 
stock raising ; was the first to introduce pow 
dered gypsum in agriculture, and also introduced 
merino sheep west of the Hudson river. The 
honorary degree of LL.D. was conferred on him 
by the regents of the University of the State of 
New York in 1792. He was a founder of the 
American Academy of Fine Arts in New York 
in 1801, and was its first president : was president 
of the New York Society for the Promotion of 
Useful Arts, and upon the reorganization of the 
New York Society library in 1788, he was ap 



pointed a trustee. He published many essays 
and addresses on fine arts and agriculture. His 
statue, with that of George Clinton, forming the 
group of the two most eminent citizens of New 
York, was placed in the capitol in Washington 
by act of congress. In the selection of names 
for a place in the Hall of Fame for Great Ameri 
cans, New York university, made in October, 
1900, his was one of the thirty-seven names in 
" Class M, Rulers and Statesmen," and received 
only three votes his votes in the class equalling 
those for Richard Henry Lee and Stephen A. 
Douglas, and exceeding those for Martin Van 
Buren, Charles Carroll of Carrollton, John J. 
Crittenden and Henry Wilson. He was married 
to Mary, daughter of John Stevens, of New Jer 
sey, and they had two children, Elizabeth S.. 
who married Edward P. Livingston, and Margaret 
M., who married Robert L. Livingston. He died 
suddenly at Clermont, N.Y., Feb. 26, 1813. 

LIVINGSTON, Walter, delegate, was born 
in 1710; son of Robert and Mary (Long) Living 
ston, and grandson of Philip Livingston, the 
signer. lie was a delegate to the provincial 
congress held in New York in April, and May, 
1775 ; and was appointed one of the judges of 
Albany county by the convention held at Kings 
ton, N.Y., in 1777. He was a delegate to the 
Continental congress, 1784-85 ; and in 1785 he 
was appointed commissioner of the U.S. treasury. 
Tie was married to Cornelia, daughter of Peter 
Schuyler. He died in New York city, May 14, 1797. 

LIVINGSTON, William, governor of New Jer 
sey, was boriiin Albany, N.Y., Nov. 30, 1723 ; son 
of Philip and Catharine (Van Brngh) Livingston. 
He was graduated from Yale college, A.B. , 1741, 
A.M., 1714; studied 
law in the office of 
James Alexander, 
1711-46, and was ad 
mitted to the bar, 
Oct. 14, 1718. He 
was married in 1715 
to Susannah, daugh 
ter of Philip French, 
of New Brunswick, 
and granddaughter 
of Maj. Anthony 
Brockhalls, formerly 
governor of New 
York. He establish 
ed the Independent 
Reflector in New 

York in 1752. He was a commissioner in 1754 to 
adjust the boundary line between New York and 
Massachusetts, and subsequently between New 
York and New Jersey. With the assistance of 
his brother, Philip Livingston, his brother-in-law, 
William Alexander, and a few others, lie estab- 




LIVINGSTON 



LLOYD 



lished the New York Society library in 1754. lie 
was a member of the provincial assembly from 
Livingston manor, 1750-61. He published articles 
in the Weekly Post Boy denouncing the stamp 
act. In 17(50 lie purchased a farm at Elizabeth- 
to\vn, N.J., to which he removed in 1772. On 
June 11. 1774, he ivas appointed to represent Essex 
county in a committee of correspondence to select 
delegates for election to the first Continental 
congress, July 23, 1774. lie was a delegate from 
New Jersey to the Continental congress, 1774-76, 
and served on man}- important committees. He 
was appointed commander-in-chief of the New 
Jersey militia with the rank of brigadier-general 
in June, 1776 ; was governor of New Jersey, 1776- 
90, and was nominated in January, 1785, one of 
the commissioners to superintend the construc 
tion of the Federal buildings, but declined the 
honor as he did that of U.S. minister plenipoten 
tiary to the Hague, June 23, 1785, owing to his 
advanced age. It was largely through his efforts 
that the legislature of New Jersey passed the act 
forbidding the importation of slaves, March 2, 
1786. In 1787 he was a delegate to the Philadel 
phia convention that framed the U.S. constitu 
tion, and he signed the instrument Sept. 17, 1787. 
He was a member of the American Philosophical 
society, and of the American Academy of Arts 
and Sciences. The honorary degree of LL.D. 
was conferred on him by Yale college in 1788. 
He published, in conjunction with William Smith, 
Jr., ^4 Digest of the Laics of New York, 1691-179,3 
(2 vols., 1752-62. ) He is the author of : Philosophic 
Solitude, or the Choice of a Rural Life (1747); A 
Review of the Military Operations in North 
America (1757) ; Observations on Government 
(1787). He died at "Liberty Hall." Elizabeth- 
town, N.J.. July 25, 1790. 

LIVINGSTON, William, educator, was born in 
Unity, N. II., Oct. 12, 1815; son of James and 
Hannah (Clifford) Livingston. His early life was 
spent on a farm and he was graduated from 
Norwich university in 1839 and taught school in 
Cavendish and Unity Center. He received the 
fellowship of the Green Mountain association 
of Universalists in June, 1843; was ordained in 
Hartford. Vt., Jan. 8, 1846, and preached in 
various places in New Hampshire and Vermont. 
In 1855 he became professor of natural science at 
Lombard university, Galesburg, 111. ; was chosen 
provisional president in 1872 and financial secre 
tary of the university in 1875. He was twice 
married, first in 1842 to Eliza A. Pierce, who died 
in 1855 and secondly in 1858 to Lucinda A. Still- 
man of Chillicothe, 111., who died in 1887. Mr. 
Livingston died at Galesburg, 111.. Dec. 29. 1879. 

LLOYD, Arthur Selden, clergyman, was born 
at Mount Ida, Alexandria, county. Va., May 3, 
1857 ; son of John Janney and Eliza Armistead 



(Selden) Lloyd, and grandson of John and Rebecca 
(Janney) Lloyd and of Wilson Cary and Mary 
(Armistead) Selden. He attended the Potomac 
academy at Alexandria, Va. ; studied at the Uni 
versity of Virginia, 1874-77, and was graduated 
from the Theological Seminary of Virginia in 
1880. He was married June 30, 1880, to Lizzie 
Robertson, daughter of William Willis and Mary 
(Robertson) Blackford. He was ordered deacon 
in 1800 ; ordained priest in 1881. and served as a 
missionary in the diocese of Virginia, 1880-85. 
He was rector of St. Luke s, Norfolk, Va., 1885- 
99, and was elected general secretary of the 
Domestic and Foreign Missionary Society of the 
Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States 
of America in October, 1899. The honorary degree 
of D.D. was conferred on him by Roaiioke college 
in 1898. 

LLOYD, Edward, governor of Maryland, was 
born in " Wye House," Talbot county, Md., July 
22, 1779 ; son of Edward and Elizabeth (Taylor) 
Lloyd. His father inherited and acquired an es- 
tateapproxi- Oup 
mating 12,- /\T 
000 acres of 
land. The 
5th Edward 
was a dele 
gate to the 
state legis 
lature, 1880- 
05 ; and was 
elected re 
presentative 
in the 9th 
U. S. con 
gress, to fill 
the unexpir- 

ed term of Joseph H. Nicholson, resigned, and 
re-elected to the 10th congress, serving from 
Dec. 1, 1806 to March 3, 1809. He was governor of 
Maryland, LSOiM 1 ; state senator, 1811 ; presiden 
tial elector, 1813, voting for James Madison ; 
U.S. senator, 1819-26, having been re-elected 
in 1824 and resigned his seat in February, 1826. 
when he was succeeded by E. F. Chambers. He 
was a state senator, and president of the body 
1826-31. He was married Nov. 30, 1797, to Sally 
Scott, daughter of Dr. James and Sarah (Mayna- 
dier) Murray and their son Edward was state sen 
ator and president of the senate, 1851-54. Gover 
nor Lloyd died in Annapolis. Md., June 2, 1834. 

LLOYD, Henry, governor of Maryland, was 
born in Hambrooke. Dorchester county, Md.. 
Feb. 21,1852; son of Daniel and Kitty (Henry) 
Lloyd ; grandson of Edward and Sally Scott 
(Murray) Lloyd and of Campbell Henry, and great 
grandson of John Henry (q.v.), governor of Mary 
land. He spent his childhood at Cambridge, Md., 




LLOYD 



LLOYD 



where lie attended school and was admitted to 
the bar. lie was a state senator, 1881-85, and 
president of the senate during his last term. 
He was married in 188(> to Mary Elizabeth, daugh 
ter of William T. and Virginia A. Stapleforts, of 
Dorchester county, Md. "When Governor McLean 
resigned to accept the mission to France in March, 
18G5, he became governor of Maryland, e.r-qffieio, 
serving till January 1886, when he was elected 
governor by the legislature to fill the unexpired 
term ending with 1887, and he resumed the prac 
tice of law at Cambridge, Md. 

LLOYD, Henry Demarest, author, was born in 
New York city, N.Y., May 1. 1847; son of the 
Rev. Aaron and Maria Christie (Demarest) Lloyd 
and grandson of John C. and (Ball) 

Lloyd and of David and Madeleine (Christie) 
Demarest. He attended the public schools of 
New York city ; was graduated from Columbia 
college. A.B., 1867, A.M., 1870; studied law, and 
was admitted to the bar. He was married. Dec. 
25, 1873, to Jessie, daughter of William and Mary 
Jane (Jansen) Bross. He devoted himself to 
journalistic work and was connected with the 
Free Trade League and the New York Evening 
Post. 1868-71, and with the Chicago Tribune, 1871- 
85. He is the author of : Strike of Millionaires 
against Miners (1887); Wealth against Common 
wealth (1894); Country ivithout Strikes (1900); 
Neii-cst England (1900). 

LLOYD, James, senator, was born in Boston, 
Mass., in 1769 ; son of Dr. James and Sarah (Cur- 
win) Lloyd and a descendant of James Lloyd who 
married Gricelda Sylvester and became owner of 
land in Lloyds Neck, L.I., N.Y., 1668, and of the 
entire tract in 1679. Dr. James Lloyd was born 
there, March 28, 1728; practised in Boston, Mass., 
1752-1810. received the honorary degree of M.D. 
from Harvard in 1790, and was a member of the 
American Philosophical society. James, the sena 
tor, was graduated at Harvard, A.B., 1787, A.M., 
1790 ; was a merchant s clerk, and as such visited 
Russia, 1792 : was a representative in the state 
legislature, 1800-01; state senator, 1804; U.S. sena 
tor, 1808-13, completing the term of John Quincy 
Adams, 1808-09, and resigning, 1813. before the 
close of his full term, which was completed by 
Christopher Gore. He served again, 1822-26, 
completing the term of Harrison Gra} r Otis, 
March 3, 1821, and was elected for a full term, lint 
again resigned in 1826, when he was succeeded 
by Nathaniel Silsbee. In the senate he served 
as chairman of the committees on commerce 
and naval affairs. In 1825, when Lafayette laid 
the corner stone of Bunker Hill monument, Sena 
tor Lloyd entertained the distinguished guest at 
his home on Somerset street, Boston. He was a 
fellow of the American Academy of Arts and 
Sciences and received the honorary degree of 



LL.D. from Harvard in 1826. He was married 
to Hannah, daughter of Samuel Breck of Philadel 
phia, Pa., and after 1826 resided in that city. 
He died in New York city, April 5, 1831. 

LLOYD, James Tilghman, representative, was 
born in Canton, Mo., Aug. 28. 1857 ; son of Jere 
miah and Frances (Jones) Lloyd ; grandson of 
Zachariah Lloyd and a descendant of Colonel 
Thomas Lloyd, who came to America with W T il- 
liam Penn. He was graduated from Christian 
university in 1878. taught school, 1875-81, was 
admitted to the bar in 1882 and practised in Lewis 
county. Mo., 1883-85. He removed to Shelby- 
ville, Mo., in 1885 ; was prosecuting attorney 
of Shelby county, 1889-93, and was a Democratic 
representative from the first district of Missouri 
in the 55th. 56th and 57th congresses, 1897-1903. 

LLOYD, John Uri, author, was born in West 
Bloomfield, N.Y., April 19, 1849; son of Nelson 
Marvin and Sophia (Webster) Lloyd : grandson of 
John Lloyd and of Uri Webster ; and a descend 
ant of Governor John Webster, an original settler 
of Hartford (1590-16- 
61); of Gov. Will 
iam Leete, president 
of the United Colo 
nies of New England 
(1613-1683); of Capt. 
Josiah Gates of Con 
necticut (1725-1807); 
of Samuel Ashley 
of New Hampshire 
(1720-1792); and of 
James Coe of Massa 
chusetts (1740-1794). 
John Uri Lloyd re 
moved with his par 
ents to Kentucky and 
was educated in pri 
vate schools. He became a practical pharmacist 
and chemist and was made manager of the labo 
ratory of H. M. Merrell & Co., Cincinnati, Ohio, 
in 1871, and was received into the firm in 1877. 
In 1878 he was made professor of chemistry in the 
Eclectic Medical Institute in that city. He also 
served as professor of pharmacy in the Cincinnati 
Institute of Pharmacy. 1882-87 ; was elected pres 
ident of the board of trustees of the Eclectic 
Medical Institute, and in 1887 of the American 
Pharmaceutical association. His name with four 
other Americans received place in " Reber s 
Biography of Eminent Pharmacists of the 
World" (Geneva). He received the degree of 
Ph.M. from the Philadelphia College of Phar 
macy, and that of Ph.D. from Ohio university, 
in 1897. He is the author of : Chemistry of Med 
icines (1881 ) ; Drngs and Medicine in Xorth Amer 
ica (1884-85); A Ktiidy in. Pharmacy ( 1894). and 
collaborated with Dr. John King in the prepara- 




LOAN 



LOCKE 



tion of King s American Dis2icns(iri/ (1880). His 
works of fiction include: Etidorhpa.or the End 
of the Earth (1896); The Right Side of the Car 
(1897); Striiigtoii-n on the Pike (1900): Wann ck 
of the Knobs (1901). the last two first appearing 
in serial form in the Bookman. 

LOAN, Benjamin Franklin, representative, 
was born in Harkinsburg. Ky., Oct. 4, 1819. He 
studied law in Kentucky and in 1838 removed to 
St. Joseph, Mo., where in 1*40 he was admitted to 
the bar and began practice. He was married 
Dec. 5, 1848, to Emeline Eleanor, daughter of 
William Fowler. In 1861 he espoused the Union 
cause and was commissioned brigadier-general of 
the state volunteers. In 1862 he was elected a 
Republican representative to the 38th congress, 
and his seat was contested by Mr. Bruce. The 
committee on elections reported against Loan s 
claim, but the house did not sustain the report 
and he retained his seat and was twice re-elected, 
.serving in the 38th. 39th and 40th congresses, 
1863-69. In the 40th congress he was chairman of 
the committee on Revolutionary pensions. He 
was appointed by President Grant a visitor to the 
U.S. Military academy in 1869. He died in St. 
Joseph. Mo., March 30, 1881. 

LOCHRANE, Osborne Augustus, jurist, was 
born in Middletown, Armagh, Ireland, Aug. 22, 
1829, son of a physician. He received a classical 
education and came to New York city in De 
cember, 1846. He settled in Athens, Ga., in 1847, 
where he was employed as a drug clerk, and 
studied law. He practised first at Savannah, 
1850, and in October of that year removed to Ma- 
con. Ga. He was judge of the Macon circuit 
1861-65; removed to Atlanta, Ga., in 1868; was 
judge of the Atlanta circuit in 1870 and chief 
justice of the supreme court of Georgia. 1871, and 
was defeated for representative in congress. He 
enforced the writ of habeas corpus and declared 
conscription to be unconstitutional. He was at 
torney for the Pullman Palace Car company 
1872-87. He was married first to Victoria Lamar 
and secondly to Josephine Freeman, both of 
Georgia. He died in Atlanta, Ga., June 17, 1887. 

LOCHREN, William, jurist, was born in 
county Tyrone, Ireland, April 3, 1832. His father 
died in 1833, and in 18)54 his mother immigrated 
with her family to America and settled in Frank 
lin county, Vt., where lie was brought np and 
educated in the public school, finding employment 
as a farm laborer and in saw-mills. He was ad 
mitted to the bar in 1856. niid practised law in 
St. Anthony, Minn. In 1861 he enlisted in the 
1st Minnesota volunteers, attached to the Army 
of the Potomac. He was commissioned 2d lieu 
tenant, Sept. 22. 1862. first lieutenant. July 3, 
1863. and was acting adjutant of the regiment in 
1863. He resigned and was honorably discharged 



on surgeon s certificate, Dec. 30, 1863, and after 
recovering his health again took up the practice 
of law in Minneapolis. He was a state senator. 
1869-70 ; Democratic candidate for U.S. senator 
in the extended contest of 1875 ; city attorney of 
Minneapolis, 1877-78 : judge of the 4th judicial 
district court by appointment of Governor Pills- 
bury from Nov. 21, 1881, and was elected to the 
same office in 1882 and again in 1888 without op 
position, serving 1881-93 ; and U.S. commissioner 
of pension by appointment of President Cleveland 
from April, 1893, to May 20, 1896, when he re 
signed to accept the position of judge of the U.S. 
district court of Minnesota to which he was then 
appointed by President Cleveland. He was mar 
ried Sept. 26, 1871, to Martha A. Demmon, who 
died in February, 1879, and secondly, April 19, 
1882, to Mary E. Abbott. 

LOCKE, Clinton, clergyman and author, was 
born in New York city, July 24, 1829 ; son of 
James and Mary (Wright) Locke. He was a 
student at Mount Pleasant academy, Sing Sing, 
N.Y., 1839-47 ; was graduated from Union col 
lege, A.B. 1849 ; attended the General Theolo 
gical seminary, New York city, 1851-52 ; and 
travelled in Europe, 1853-54. He was admitted to 
thediaconate in 1855 and ordained priest in 1856 ; 
was curate of Zion church, Irvington, N.Y., 1855- 
56 ; rector of Christ church, Joliet, 111., 1856-59 ; 
and of Grace Episcopal church, Chicago, 111., 1859- 
95, when he resigned on account of ill health. He 
was married, Jan. 27, 1859, to Adelle Douthitt of 
St. Louis, Mo. He was dean of the Chicago 
deanery for twenty-five years and held at various 
times every post of honor in the diocese of Chi 
cago. He was elected a member of the Literary 
club of Chicago in 1884 and was its president 
1891-92. He founded St. Lnke s hospital at Chi 
cago, and was its president for many years. The 
honorary degree of D.D. was conferred on him 
by Racine college in 1864. He is the author of : 
The Great Western Schism (1896); Five Minnie 
Talks (1896), and contributions to the church 
press. 

LOCKE, David Ross, editor and publisher, was 
born in Vestal, Broome county, N.Y., Sept. 20, 
1833. He attended the public schools until 1843, 
when he entered the office of the Democrat at 
Cortland, N.Y. He was employed as a reporter 
and printer in the West. 1850-52 ; published and 
edited the Advertiser, with James G. Robinson, 
at Plymouth, Ohio, 1852-56, and in 1856 established 
the Journal at Bucyrus, Ohio, which was fol 
lowed by the Herald at Mansfield and the /</- 
fersonian at Findlay. In 1861 he commenced 
the series of letters in the Jeffersonian. He wrote 
over the pen name "The Rev. Petroleum Vesu 
vius Nasbv." Upon his taking editorial charge of 
the Toledo Blade, these letters were continued 



[100] 



LOCKE 



LOCKE 



throughout the war and brought him a national 
reputation as a satirist. President Lincoln and 
President Grant both offered him lucrative posi 
tions in the public service, which lie declined. 
He became managing editor of the Evening Mail, 
New York city in 1ST1, at the same time retain 
ing his connection with the Toledo Blade, and in 
1*73 became a member of the newspaper adver 
tising firm of Bates & Locke in New York city. 
He was a popular lecturer and is the author of : 
Divers Views, Opinions ami Prophecies of Yours 
Truly (186.")); Sfvinyin Round the ( irkle ( 1 86(5 ) ; 
E ikoesfrom Kentucky (1807); Tlie Moral History 
of America s Life Strn.yyle (1872); Tlie Htrnyyles 
of T. V. Nasby (1*73): Tlie Morals of Abou Ben 
A lliein, or Eastern Fruit in Western 7>/.s7/e,s(1875) ; 
.-1 Paper City (1878); Hannah Jane (1882); Xasby 
in Kxile (1882), besides numerous pamphlets, 
li died in Toledo, Ohio, Feb. 15, 1888. 

LOCKE, Francis, jurist, was born in Rowan 
county, N.C., Oct. 31, 1766; son of the Hon. 
Matthew Locke (q. \.). He practised law in 
North Carolina ; was judge of the superior court, 
lsOo-14; served as a presidential elector in 1809 
and was elected to the senate in 1814, but resigned 
liis right to a seat before the assemblingof the 14th 
congress, and Nathaniel Moore was elected in his 
place. His brother, Lieut. George Locke, served 
under Colonel Davie in the Revolution and was 
killed at the third charge on the British lines at 
Charlotte, N.C., Sept. 26. 1780. Judge Locke 
died in Rowan county, N.C., Jan. 8, 1823. 

LOCKE, Jane Ermina, author, was born at 
Worthington, Mass., April 25. 1805; daughter of 
Deacon Charles and Deborah (Brown) Stark 
weather ; granddaughter of Robert and Sarah 
Eveleth Starkweather of Ipswich, Mass., and a de 
scendant of Robert Starkweather, who settled at 
Ruxbury, Mass., in 1610, and afterward removed 
to Ipswich, Mass. She was well educated, and in 
early womanhood began contributing, both in 
prose and poetry, to the literature of the day. 
She was married at Worthington, Mass., Oct. 25, 
1829, to John Goodwin, son of John and Hannah 
(Goodwin) Locke, author of " Book of the 
Lockes " (1858.) They made their home in Lo 
well. Mass., 1833-19, and in Boston. Mass., 1850-59. 
Her first published writings were poems published 
in the Toadies American. Magazine (1830). She is 
the author of : Poems (1842); Rachel, or the Little 
Mourner (1844); Boston, a poem (1846); The 
Recalled, or Voices of tlie Past (1855); Enloyy on. 
the Death of Webster, in rhyme (1855). She died 
in Ashhurnhan, Mass.. March 8, 1859. 

LOCKE, John, representative, was born at 
Hopkinton, Mass., Feb. 14, 1764; son of Jonathan 
and Mary (Haven) Nicholas Locke, and a descen 
dant of Deacon William Locke, who was born in 
London, England, in 1078 ; came to America in 



1634, and in 1650 settled in Woburn, Mass., where 
he married Mary Clarke. He worked on his 
father s farm until 1786, when he was prepared 
for college by Ebenezer Pembroke, preceptor 
at Andover academy. He was a student at Dart 
mouth college for nine months in 1789, and then 
transferred to Harvard, where he was graduated 
A.B., 1792, A.M., 1795. He studied law with the 
Hon. Timothy Bigelow of Groton, 1793-96, and 
settled in practice at Ashby, Mass. He was mar 
ried May 25, 1799, to Hannah, daughter of Na 
thaniel and Molly (Jackson) Goodwin of Plym 
outh, Mass. He represented Ashby in the Massa 
chusetts legislature in 1804, 1805, 1813 and 1823; 
was a member of the Massachusetts constitu 
tional convention in 1820 ; a representative in the 
18th, 191 hand 20th congresses, 1823-29; senator 
from Middlesex county, 1830 ; a member of the 
executive council, 1831, and practised law at 
Ashby, 1832-37. He removed to Lowell in 1837 
and to Boston, Mass., in 1849. He died in Boston, 
Mass., March 29, 1855. 

LOCKE, John, physicist, was born at Lempster, 
N.H., Feb. 19, 1792; son of Samuel Barron and 
Hannah (Russell) Locke ; grandson of Lieut. 
James and Hannah (Farnsworth) Locke and of 
William and Lucy (Goldsmith) Russell, and 
great 3 -grandson of Deacon William Locke. He 
Avas graduated from Yale, M.D., 1819, and was ge 
ologist on the U.S. survey of the mineral lands of 
the Northwest territory and on the survey of 
Ohio for several years. He was married in Cincin 
nati. Ohio, Oct. 25,1825, to Mary Morris of Newark, 
N.J. He was professor of chemistry and phar 
macy in the Ohio Medical college at Cincinnati, 
1836-56. He made new discoveries in terrestrial 
magnetism ; invented several instruments for 
use in optics, physics, electricity and magnetism, 
including the gravity escapement for clocks, an 
electro-chronograph clock, for which congress 
paid 10,000 in 1849, for theU.S. Naval observatory, 
and a spirit-level. He contributed to Silliman s 
Journal, the American Journal of Science, tlie 
Philosophical Magazine of London, the Proceed 
ings of various scientific societies and other peri 
odicals. He is the author of: Tlie Outlines of 
Botany (1829); a sub-report on The Survey of the 
Mineral Lauds ofloica, Illinois and Wisconsin, 
published by congress (1840); sub-report on The 
Geology of Ohio, published by the state (1838), 
and text books on botany and English grammar. 
He died in Cincinnati, Ohio, July 10, 1856. 

LOCKE, Matthew, representative, was born 
near Salisbury, N.C., in 1730. He was chosen a 
treasury commissioner of the colony of North 
Carolina in 1771; was a member of the house of 
commons of North Carolina, 1775-93 ; a delegate 
to the convention at Halifax that framed the 
constitution of North Carolina in 1776 ; voted for 



LOCKE 




the ratification of the constitution of the United 
States in 1787. He served during the Revolution 
as brigadier-general, and was a representative in 
the 3d, 4th and 5th congresses, 1793-99. He died 
in Rowan county, N.G., Sept. 7, 1801. 

LOCKE, Samuel, educator, was born in Wo- 
burn, Mass., Nov. 23, 1731 ; son of Samuel and 
Rebecca (Richardson) Locke ; grandson of Lieut. 
Ebenezer and Hannah (Meads) Locke, and of 
Capt. James ami Elizabeth (Arnull or Arnold) 
Richardson, and great-grand 
son of Deacon William and 
Mary (Clarke) Locke, Wo- 
Iburn, 1650. He was gradu- 
fated from Harvard, A.B., 
1755. A.M., 1758 ; studied the 
ology with the Rev. Timothy 
Harrington, who had prepared 
him forcollegeand was ordained over the church 
and society at Sherburne, Mass., as successor to 
the Rev. Samuel Porter, deceased, Nov. 7, 1759. 
He was married, Jan. 2, 1760, to Mary, daughter 
of the Rev. Samuel and Mary (Cooleclge) Porter. 
In December, 1709, he was unanimously elected 
by the corporation, president of Harvard college 
as successor to Edward Holyoke,and he resigned 
his pastoral relation at Sherburne, in February, 
1770, and was inaugurated president, March 21, 
1770. During his administration the prosperity 
of the college was retarded owing to the political 
excitement throughout the country. He resigned 
the presidency, Dec. 1, 1773. He received the 
degree S.T.D. from Harvard in 1773. He died in 
Sherburne, Mass., Jan. 15, 1778. 

LOCKHART, Clinton, educator, was born in 
Lovington, 111., Feb. 21, 1858 ; son of George W. 
and Harriet J. (Hostetler) Lockhart ; grandson 
of John and Patsy (Riley) Lockhart, and of 
Christian Hostetler, a minister of the Christian 
church ; and a descendant of Thomas Lockhart, 
who came from Ireland and settled in Virginia. 
Thomas s grandson Richard, a Revolutionary sol 
dier, was present at Yorktown at the surrender of 
Cornwallis. Clinton Lockhart entered Kentucky 
university in 1878, graduating in the ministerial 
course, 1885 ; A.B., 1886, A.M., 1888. He was mar 
ried, June 23, 1885, to Mollie, daughter of Dr. 
Reuben Smith of Monterey, Ky. He took post 
graduate courses at Yale, 1887--88 and 1889-91. He 
held the Bible chair at Ann Arbor. Mich., ls)3-94 ; 
was president of Christian college, Columbia, Ky., 
1894-95; president of Christian university. Canton, 
Mo., 1895-1900, and resigned to accept the profes 
sorship in Semitic languages in Drake university, 
Des Moines, Iowa. The degree of Ph. I), was 
conferred on him by Yale in 1894. He is the 
author of : Laws of Interpretation (1894); Com 
mentary on the BookofNahum (1900); Principles 
of Scientific Interpretation (1900). 




LOCKWOOD 

LOCK WOOD, Belva Ann Bennett, lawyer, 
was born in Royalton, N.Y., Oct. 24, 1830 ; 
daughter of Lewis J. and Hannah (Green) Ben 
nett, and granddaughter of Ezekiel and Mary 
(High) Bennett, and of William and Sindona 
(Priest) Green. She attended the district school 
and at the age of fif 
teen taught school 
during the summer 
months to pay her 
tuition at the Roy 
alton academy. She 
was married Nov. 
8, 1848. to Uriah H. 
McNall, a farmer 
of Royalton. who died 
in 1853. She enter 
ed Genesee college 
(Syracuse universi 
ty) in 1854, and was 
graduated A.B., 18- 
57, A.M., 1870. She 
was preceptress of 

the Lockport Union school, 1857-61 ; principal of 
Gainesville seminaiy, 1861-62 ; principal of the 
Hornellsville seminary, 1862-63 ; preceptress and 
proprietor of the McNall seminary at Owego, 
N.Y., 1863-66, and a teacher in Washington, 
D.C., 1866-68. She was married, secondly, March 
11, 1868, to Dr. Ezekiel. son of Ezekiel and Sarah 
(Bockraw) Lock wood, a dentist of Washington, 
D.C., who died in 1877. She was graduated 
D.C.L., from the National university in 1873, was 
admitted to the bar of the District of Columbia, 
and engaged in active practice in Washington, 
D.C. She secured the passage of a bill admitting 
women to the U.S. supreme court in 1879, and 
was admitted under the act in February, 1879, 
and also to to the U.S. court of claims. She was 
admitted to the Federal courts of Baltimore, Md., 
in 1880, and to those of Boston, Mass., in 1882. 
She was nominated as a candidate for President 
of the United States by the Equal Rights party 
of the Pacific slope in 1884, and by the same 
party in Iowa, in 1888. In 1889 she was a dele 
gate to the Universal Peace union of the Inter 
national Peace congress held in Paris, and to that 
in London, in 1890, and also took a course of 
lectures in the University extension at Oxford, 
England, in that year. Site was the first woman 
granted a license to practice law in Virginia, ob 
taining the license in 1894. She was commis 
sioned by the state department to represent the 
United States at the congress of charities and 
corrections in Geneva, Switzerland, in 1896. She 
was elected secretary of the American branch of 
the International Peace bureau in 1893. and a 
member for the United States of the Interna 
tional bureau at Berne, Switzerland. Slit -served 



LOCKWOOD 



LOCKWOOD 



as corresponding secretary of the Woman s Na 
tional Press association, 1899, and as general dele 
gate, 1891-95 ; and was chairman of the Associa 
tion for the International Federation of Women s 
Press clubs, in November, 1891. She lectured on 
temperance and woman .suffrage, and petitioned 
congress on woman suffrage, collecting 3500 
names in December, 1870. She became assistant 
editor of the Peace Maker in 1888, and in 1896 at 
the request of the attorney-general of the United 
States, prepared a paper on The Political and 
Legal Status of the Women of the United States, 
published in the Swiss Year Book, 1897. She con 
tributed to newspapers and magazines after 1854. 

LOCKWOOD, Daniel Newton, representative, 
was born in Hamburg, N.Y., June 1, 1844 ; son 
of Harrison and Martha (Philips) Lockwood, and 
grandson of Ebenezer and Betsey (Seyrnore) Lock- 
wood. He was graduated from Union college, 
A.B., 1865, A.M., 1868, was admitted to the 
supreme court bar in May, 1866, and practised in 
Buffalo, N.Y. He was district attorney for Erie 
county, 1874-77 ; a Democratic representative 
in the 45th congress, 1877-79 ; a delegate to the 
Democratic national conventions of 1880, 1884 
and 1896 ; U.S. attorney for the northern district 
of New York, 1886-89, and a Democratic repre 
sentative from the thirty-second N.Y. district 
in the 52d and 53d congresses, 1891-95. He was 
appointed by Governor Roosevelt, April 12, 1899, 
president of the board of general managers for 
New York at the Pan- American exposition, 1901. 

LOCKWOOD, Henry Hayes, naval instructor, 
was born in Kent county, Del., Aug. 17, 1814; 
son of William Kirkley and Mary (Hayes) Lock- 
wood ; grandson of John and Ann (Kirkley) Lock- 
wood, and of Manloar and Zephora (Laws) Hayes, 
and great 5 -grandson of Robert Lockwood, who 
came from England to Watertown, Mass., 1630. 
He was graduated from the U.S. Military acad 
emy in 1836, and was assigned to the 2d artillery. 
He served in Florida, 1836-37 ; resigned his com 
mission, Sept. 12, 1837, and accepted the appoint 
ment of professor of mathematics in the U.S. 
navy in 1841. He was married Oct. 2, 1845, to 
Anna R., daughter of James and Hannah (Rogers) 
Booth, of Newcastle, Del. He was on the frigate 
United States of the Pacific squadron during the 
seige and capture of Monterey, Cal., in 1846. He 
served at the Naval asylum at Philadelphia and 
at the U.S. Naval academy, Annapolis, Md., as 
professor of natural philosophy and astronomy, 
1847-51, and as professor of field artillery and in 
fantry tactics and also of astronomy and gunnery, 
1851-61. He was appointed colonel of the 1st 
Delaware volunteer regiment in 1861, was com 
missioned brigadier-general of volunteers, Aug. 
8, 1861, and served in the defence of the lower 
Potomac. He commanded the 2d brigade, 1st 



division, 12th army corps at Gettysburg, July 1-3, 

1863, and later commanded the middle depart 
ment with headquarters at Baltimore, Md., until 

1864, the provisional troops against General 
Early in July, 1864, and a brigade in Baltimore 
until he was mustered out, Aug. 25, 1865. He 
was professor of natural philosophy at the U.S. 
Naval academy, 1865-71, and served at the U.S. 
national observatory, 1871-76. He was retired 
on Aug. 4, 1876. He is the author of : Manual 
for Naval Batteries and Exercises in Small Arms 
and Field Artillery Arranged for Naval Services 
(1852). He died in Washington, D.C., Dec. 7, 1899, 

LOCKWOOD, Henry Roswell, clergyman, was 
born in Honeoye Falls, N.Y., April 8, 1843; son 
of Henry and Cathalina Lansing (Dox) Lock- 
wood, and grandson of Roswell and Thalia 
(Oviatt) Lockwood and of Jacob and Mary Ann 
(Rees) Dox. The Lockwood family came from 
Connecticut and the Rees and Dox families from 
New York. Henry attended private tutors and 
schools in Rochester, N.Y., and was graduated 
from Hobart college, A.B., 1864, A.M., 1867. He 
was a tutor in mathematics at Hobart college, 
1864-67 ; was admitted to the diaconate in 1867, 
and advanced to the priesthood in 1869 by Bishop 
Coxe. He was rector of Christ church, Clayton, 
N.Y., 1867-73, and in 1873 became rector of St. 
Paul s church, Syracuse, N.Y. He was married 
Nov. 7, 1872, to Ellen Maria, daughter of Samuel 
Heath and Caroline (Hall) Rich, of Boston, Mass. 
He was appointed a trustee of Hobart college in 
1876 ; was deputy to the general convention of 
the Protestant Episcopal church in 1877 and 1880, 
and in 1885 became a member of the standing 
committee of the diocese of Central New York. 
Ho received the honorary degree of S.T.D. from 
Hobart in 1886. 

LOCKWOOD, James Booth, explorer, was 
born at the U.S. Naval academy, Annapolis, Md., 
Oct. 9. 1852 ; son of Henry Hayes (q.v.) and Anna 
R, (Booth) Lockwood. He attended school at 
Bethlehem, Pa., and was a student at St. John s 
college, Annapolis, Md.; and became a farmer 
and surveyor. He was appointed 2d lieutenant 
in the 23d U.S. infantry, Oct. 1, 1873, and in ad 
dition to the usual duties as an officer was a sur 
veyor, phonographer and telegrapher, serving in 
the west, 1873-80. In 1881 he volunteered for 
service with the Lady Franklin Bay expedition, 
being second in command under Lieut. A. W. 
Greely, and he landed with a party of twenty-six 
at Discovery Harbor, Aug. 12, 1881. He was en 
trusted with the principal field work and assisted 
in taking the magnetic observations. In March, 
1882, lie made a few days trip across Robesoii 
channel to Newman bay with a dog-sledge, and 
oVi April 3, 1882, started on his most important 
journey. He reached Cape Bryant on the North 



[103] 



LOCKWOOD 



LODGE 




Greenland coast on May 1, 1882. At this point 
he sent back all his party with the exception of 
Sergt. D. L. Brainard, and an Eskimo by the name 
of Christiansen, and from there proceeded north, 
reaching Cape Britannia after a live days trump. 
From there lie travelled over an unknown coun 
try and discovered 
Look wood Island and 
Cape Washington on 
May 13, 1882, which - 
was 350 miles from 
the north pole and 
at that time the most 
northerly point readi 
ed by man. He re 
turned to the party, 
arriving at Fort Con 
ger, Discovery Har 
bor, June 17, 1882. 
having accomplished 
in sixty days a jour- 
ney of over 1000 miles 
over the ice. the 

thermometer marking 49 below zero much of 
the time. A second attempt in 1883 to reach 
a point still further north failed through the 
breaking up of the ice-pack over which they 
were journeying, and late in 1883 Lockwood and 
Brainard crossed Grinnell Land on a dog-sledge 
to a point fifty miles beyond that reached by 
Lieutenant Greely on foot. The party spent the 
winter of 1883-84 at Camp Clay, Cape Sabine, 
which point they reached the last of September, 
1883, and where they found that the relief ship 
Proteus had been crushed in July. The party 
had only six weeks food supply, and the men 
perished slowly of starvation, only six being 
alive when Com. W.S. Schley came to their rescue 
with the Thetis and Bear, June 22, 1884, Lieu 
tenant Lockwood having died, April 9, 1884. 

LOCKWOOD, Robert Wilton, painter, was 
born in Wilton, Conn., Sept. 11, 1861 ; son of 
John Lewis and Emily (Middlebrook) Lockwood, 
and grandson of George W. Lockwood and of Col. 
James Middlebrook. In 1880 he became a pupil 
of John La Farge in New York city. He studied in 
Paris, 1885-95, and devoted his attention exclu 
sively to portrait painting. He was elected a 
member of the Society of American Artists in 1898. 
He exhibited at Champs de Mars, 1894-95-96, and 
received the silver medal at the International Ex 
position, Paris, 1900. Among his more important 
works are : Portrait of Otto Roth, the violinist, 
which won the third prize at the Carnegie In 
stitute, Pittsburg, and the Temple gold medal at 
the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts at Phila 
delphia in 1898 ; French Sailor (1895) ; Master of 
the Fox Hounds (1896) ; portrait of Gen. Francis 
A. Walker (1899). 



LOCKWOOD, Samuel, naval officer, was born 
at Norwalk, Conn., Jan. 24. 1803 ; son of Thomas 
St. John and Hannah (Whitlock) Lockwood ; 
grandson of Samuel and Sarah (Betts) Lock wood, 
and of Daniel and Ruth (Scribner) Whitlock, 
and great*-grandson of Robert Lockwood. the 
immigrant. His parents removed to New burgh, 
N.Y., where he attended school. He was ap 
pointed a midshipman in the U.S. navy, June 12, 
1820, and visited the West Indies and the Med 
iterranean on the Hornet. CoiHjrexs, Constellation 
and Constitution. He was promoted lieutenant. 
May 17, 1828, served in the Mediterranean squad 
ron in 1828; on the Bra/il station. 1831-32: on 
the Pacific station. 1*34-36 ; on the receiving 
ship Hudson in New York. 1836-37: on the frig 
ate Macedonia. 1837-3N ; on Commodore Jones s 
exploring expedition to the Mediterranean as 1st 
lieutenant of the sloop Ci/ane, 1838-39; and on 
the Ohio under Commodore Hull, 1839-41. He 
was married Aug. 31, 1842, to Maria, daughter of 
Joseph and Sarah P. Dunbar of New Bedford, 
Mass. He served on shore duty, 1843-46, as 1st 
lieutenant on the frigate Potomac of the home 
squadron, 1H46-47 ; in command of the steamer 
Petrita and Scourge, in the capture of VeraCruz, 
Tuspan and Tobasco, and on blockade dutv, 
1847-48. He was promoted commander, Oct. 8, 
1850 ; commanded the sloop Ci/ane on the Pacific 
station, 1858-60. and the steamer Dayliyht of the 
North Atlantic squadron. 1861-62. At the battle 
of Hatteras Inlet, 1861, and while blockading the 
approach of Cape Henry, Va., he engaged with a 
shore battery at Lynnhaven Bay, Oct. 10, 1861, 
silenced it and rescued a Baltimore ship. He 
then blockaded Wilmington and Beaufort, N.C., 
and assisted a portion of the army in the 
capture of Fort Macon, April 26, 1862, being 
senior commander of the blockading division. 
He was retired, Oct. 1, 1864. and was promoted 
commodore on the retired list, April 4, 1867. He 
died at Flushing. L.I., N.Y., July 5, 1893. 

LODGE, Henry Cabot, statesman and author, 
was born in Boston, Mass., May 12, 1850 ; son of 
John Ellerton and Anna (Cabot) Lodge ; grand 
son of Giles (born in England came to America, 
1772) and Mary (Langdon) Lodge, and of Henry 
and Anna Sophia (Blake) Cabot ; and a descend 
ant of John Cabot, who emigrated from Jersey 
and settled in Salem, Mass., about 1675. He was 
prepared for college at the schools of Thomas 
Russell Sullivan and Epps Sargent Dixwell in 
Boston and was graduated at Harvard, A.B., 
1871, LL.B., 1874, Ph.D. (history) 1876. He was 
admitted to the Suffolk bar in 1876 and devoted 
himself to literature and to the public service as 
a legislator. He was a commissioner from Mas 
sachusetts and vice-president of the commission 
to superintend the celebration of the framing of 



LODGE 



LOGAN 




the constitution of the United States in 1887. 
He was a representative in the Massachusetts 
legislature, 1880 and 1881 ; a representative 
from the sixth Massachusetts district in the 
50th, 51st and 52d congresses, 1887-93, and re 
signed his seat in 
1893 upon his election 
to the U.S. senate 
as successor to Henry 
L. Dawes, whose term 
expired March 3, 
1893. He was re- 
elected in 1899 with 
out a dissenting voice 
from the 150 Repub 
lican legislators, his 
second term expir 
ing March 3, 1905. 
In the senate lie was 
chairman of the com 
mittee on the Phil 
ippines and a mem 
ber of the committees on civil service and re 
trenchments, foreign relations, immigration, 
railroads and the select committee on indus 
trial exposition. He was a delegate to the Re 
publican national convention of 1884, 1888, 
1892, 1896 and 1900. He placed Thomas B. Reed 
in nomination for President in 1896, and was 
permanent chairman of the convention at Phila 
delphia, June 19-22, 1900. He was married 
June 29, 1871, to Anna Cabot Mills, daughter of 
Rear- Admiral Charles H. Davis, U.S.N., a resi 
dent of Cambridge, Mass., and their son George 
Cabot was appointed an acting ensign in the U.S. 
navy, April 23, 1898, and assigned to the cruiser 
Dixie commanded by his uncle, Capt. Charles 
H. Davis. Senator Lodge was elected a mem 
ber of the Massachusetts and Virginia Historical 
societies, the American Academy of Arts and 
Sciences ; the New England Historic Genealog 
ical society ; the American Antiquarian society ; 
a trustee of the Boston Atheneum ; and a regent 
of the Smithsonian Institution. He delivered a 
course of lectures before the Lowell Institute, 
Boston, on the English Colonies in America 
(1880). His thesis at Harvard when he received 
his Ph.D. degree was " Land Laws of the Anglo- 
Saxons." He was university lecturer on American 
history at Harvard, 1876-79, and was editor of 
Uie North American Review, 1873-76, and of 
the International Review, 1879-81. He re 
ceived the honorary degree of LL.D. from 
Williams in 1893. He is the author of : Life 
and Letters of George Cabot (1877) ; Short His 
tory of the English Colonies in America (1881) ; 
Life of Alexander Hamilton (1882) ; Life of Dan 
iel Webster (1883) ; Studies in History (1886) ; 
Life of Washington (2 vols., 1889) ; History of 



Boston in "Historic Towns Series (1891) ; His 
torical and Political Essays (1892) ; Speeches 
(1895) ; Hero Tales from American History, with 
Theodore Roosevelt (1895) ; Certain Accepted 
Heroes, and Other Essays in Literature and Poli 
tics (1897) ; Story of the Revolution (2 vols., 
1898) ; Story of the Spanish War (1899). He 
edited Ballads and Lyrics (1881) ; Complete 
Works of Alexander Hamilton (9 vols., 1885). 

LOEB, Louis, artist, was born in Cleveland, 
Ohio, Nov. 7, 1866 ; son of Alexander and Sara 
(Ehrman) Loeb. He received his first instruc 
tion in art at the Art Students league, New- 
York city ; and studied in France, 1890-92, at the 
Academie Julian under Jules Lefebvre and Ben 
jamin-Constant, and then at the Ecole des Beaux 
Arts under Gerome. He exhibited at the Paris 
Salon in 1891 and subsequently, and received 
the first prize of the atelier at the Ecole des 
Beaux Arts, 1892. He returned to New York in 
1892 ; was again in Paris, 1894-98, receiving at 
the Salon honorable mention in 1894 and the 
third-class medal in 1896, and in 1898 resumed 
his work in New York. He won especial recogni 
tion as an illustrator, much of his work appear 
ing in Haider s and the Century magazines. He 
was made vice-president of the Art Students 
league, 1889, and was elected a member of the 
Society of American Artists in 1900. 

LOGAN, Benjamin, pioneer, was born in Au 
gusta county, Va., in 1743; son of David Logan, 
an Irishman, who came to Pennsylvania and mar 
ried there and later settled in Augusta county, 
Va., where he died in 1757. His estate fell to 
Benjamin, the eldest son, who on reaching his 
majority in 1764 divided it with his mother, Jane 
Logan, and his sisters and brothers, and removed 
to the Holston river, where he purchased lands 
and married Ann, daughter of William Mont 
gomery. He served in the wars against the In 
dians, 1764 ; with Patrick Henry against Gov 
ernor Dunniore, 1774 ; joined Boone s party of 
settlers en route to Kentucky in 1775 and left the 
party and settled in what is now Lincoln county, 
Ky., where with the help of his brother John 
(who was a companion in most of his exploits 
and afterward a representative in the state legis 
lature and secretary of the state of Kentucky), 
he built Fort Logan, and removed his family 
thither in 1776, but settled them for a time at 
Harrod s Fort, where they would be less exposed 
to Indian attacks. In 1777 his family joined him 
at Logan s Fort, he having been re-inforced by a 
number of white men. On May 20, 1777, the fort 
was besieged by a hundred Indians, the siege 
lasting for weeks until the garrison had about ex 
hausted their ammunition and provisions, when 
Logan attended by two companions left the fort 
under cover of the night, and made a rapid jour- 



[105] 



LOGAN 



LOGAN 



ney of 150 miles to the Holston settlement, where 
he procured powder and lead and hastily returned, 
leaving his companions to follow with a relief 
party under Col. John Bowman, who dispersed 
the savages. In July, 1779, he was second in 
command of an army of over three hundred men 
under Colonel Bowman in an expedition against 
the Indian settlement of Chillicothe, and Logan 
with one half the army fell upon the village ex 
pecting to be supported by Bowman, who did not 
arrive. After most of his men had fled in. dismay, 
Logan and his aides dashed into the bushes on 
horseback, forcing the Indians from their coverts 
and completely dispersing the enemy. In the 
summer of 1788 he again conducted an expedition 
against the North western tribes. He was a dele 
gate to the convention of 1792 that framed the 
first constitution of Kentucky, and to the second 
constitutional convention of 1799 in which his 
son William was also a delegate. He was also a 
representative in tlie Kentucky legislature for 
several years. Logan county, Ky., formed in 
1792, was named in his honor. He died in Shelby 
county. Ky., Dec. 11, 1802. 

LOGAN, Celia, author, was born in Philadel 
phia, Pa., Dec. 17, 1837 ; daughter of Cornelius 
Ambrosius and Eliza (Acheley) Logan. She re 
moved with her parents to Cincinnati, Ohio, 
where she spent her early childhood and was 
graduated from the High school of that city. 
She went on the stage at an early age with her 
sister Eliza, completed her education in London, 
and filled a position in a publishing house there 
as a critical reader of submitted manuscript. 
She was married, in 1859, to Miner K. Kellogg, 
an American painter. She had then left the 
stage, and in 1860 began a literary career in Lon 
don, under the tutelage of Charles Reade. She 
became a correspondent of American journals, 
including the Boston Saturday Evening Gazette, 
and the Golden Era of San Francisco, and con 
tributed to magazines. During the civil war 
she resided in Milan, Italy, translating war news 
for the Italian press. She returned to the United 
States in 1806, and settled in Washington, D.C., 
in 1868, and was associate editor of The Capitol, 
with Don Piatt as chief. She was married 
secondly, in 1872, to James H. Connolly, author 
and journalist, and settled in New York city 
in 1874. She is the author of the following 
plays: Rose (1878), produced in San Francisco; 
The Odd Trick (1813); The Homestead (1873); An 
American Marriage (1884). She later adapted 
and translated from the French, Gaxton Cadol, or 
A Son of the Soil; The Sphinx; Miss Mult on ; 
Froment Jeune by Daudet, and A Marriage in 
High Life. She wrote the novels : Her Strange 
Fate, anil Sarz, a Story of the Stage ; also How to 
Reduce Your Weight or to Increase it. 



LOGAN, Cornelius Ambrose, diplomatist, was 
born in Deerlield, Mass., Aug. 24, 1832; son of 
Cornelius Ambrosius and Eliza (Acheley) Logan. 
He was a student at Auburn academy and was 
graduated from the Miami Medical college, Ohio, 
in 1853 ; and from the Ohio Medical college in 
1853. He was resident physician to St. John s 
hospital, Cincinnati, Ohio ; assistant in chemistry 
im Miami Medical college, 1 85 1-53. and a lecturer 
on chemistry in the summer school of that college, 
1853. lie removed to Leavenworth, Kan., in 1858, 
where he established with Dr. T. Sinks The Lca- 
venwroth Medical Herald the first medical journal 
published in Kansas, and was its editor, 1861-73. 
He was also botanist on the first geological sur 
vey of Kansas and president of the state board of 
medical examiners, 1861-65. He was U.S. minis 
ter to Chile, 1873-77 ; practised medicine in Chi 
cago, 111., 1877-79 ; was U.S. minister to the five 
Central American states with a residence at 
Guatemala, 1879-81; and again U.S. minister to 
Chile, 1882-86. He studied in the hospitals of 
London, Paris and Berlin, 1886-87, and then 
resumed his practice in Chicago. During his 
service in Chile, he succeeded in obtaining recog 
nition for all the leading medical schools in the 
United States, as only applicants holding a 
diploma from Harvard were at that time recog 
nized by the board of medical examiners of Chile, 
as eligible to practice in that country. In 1890 
he was sent to Europe as the first commissioner 
to the World s Columbian exposition to be held 
in Chicago, 111., in 1893. He received the hono 
rary degree of A.M. from Yale in 1868, that of 
M.D. from the Bellevue Hospital Medical college 
in 1868, and that of LL.D. from the National uni 
versity of Chicago in 188,1. He contributed to 
American and European scientific journals ; edi 
ted The Works of John A. Lo<j<iu (1886), and is 
the author of Reports on the Sanitary Relations 
of the State of Kansas (1866) ; On the Climatology 
of the Missouri Valley (1878) ; and Plri/sicsof Infec 
tious Diseases (ISIS). He died in Los Angeles, 
Cal., Jan. 30, 1899. 

LOGAN, Cornelius Ambrossus, dramatist, was 
born in Baltimore, Md., May 4, 1806. He was 
educated for the priesthood at St. Mary s college 
near Baltimore, Md. He entered a shipping house 
in Baltimore after leaving college and visited 
Europe several times in its interest. He was 
assistant editor of the Baltimore Morning Chron 
icle ; was dramatic critic of the Daily Chronicle, 
Philadelphia, Pa., and adopted the stage as a 
profession in 1835, first appearing in tragedy at 
the Bowery theatre, New York. 1838, and acting 
thereafter also in Canada. In 1840 lie removed 
to Cincinnati, Ohio, where he opened the National 
theatre, and continued as a theatrical manager in 
that city, and in Pittsburg and Louisville for 



[106] 



LOGAN 



LOGAN 



several years, after which he travelled as a star 
with his daughter Eliza, and became widely and 
favorably known as a comedian. Macready was 
so impressed with his grave-digger in " Hamlet " 
that l>e earnestly requested him to go to England 
mid appear with him there in that play. He was 
married in Philadelphia Sept. 1, 1825, to Eliza 
Acheley, and their children were : Thomas A. a 
prominent lawyer in Cincinnati; Celia (q.v.) ; 
Olive (q.v.); Alice; Mrs. Grace Logan Spencer, 
of Boston and Dr. Cornelius A. Logan (q.v.). 
Mr. Logan was one of the first successful Ameri 
can dramatists, being the author of the following 
acted plays: Yankee Land (1834): Tlie Wag of 
Me i lie (18;}.")); The Wool Dealer (183(5) ; Removing 
the Deposits; Astarte, an adaptation from Shelley s 
"Cenci "; A Hundred Years Hence, and Chloroform, 
which last was one of the first plays to have a 
long run in New York. His Ode. to the Missis 
sippi was copied extensively and received unqual 
ified praise in Black-wood s Magazine. He was 
an accomplished classical scholar, and he ably 
defended the stage against pulpit attacks by 
eminent Boston clergymen. lie died while 
travelling upon the Ohio River, Feb. 22, 1853. 

LOGAN, Eliza, actress, was born in Philadel 
phia, Pa., Aug. 7. 182? ; daughter of Cornelius 
Ambrosius and Eliza (Acheley) Logan. Her 
mother ( born in Philadelphia, Nov. 11, 1806, 
died there, May 11, 1875) was the daughter of 
Mary Acheley , who was born at East Egg Har 
bor. N.J., in 1784, and married Captain Acheley, 
who died at sea. Eliza Logan was educated in 
the Young Lady s seminary at Lancaster, Pa. 
She made her first appearance on the stage in 1840, 

as " Young 
Norval " at the 
old Walnut 
Street theatre 
in Philadel 
phia, and af 
terward ap 
peared at Bur 
ton s theatre, 
New York city, 
as Pauline in " The Lady of Lyons." The family 
then removed to Cincinnati, Ohio, and Eliza soon 
assumed all the leading roles under her father s 
management. Atone time she played a long en 
gagement in New York in successful rivalry with 
Rachel, the French actress, an event of unusual 
interest in the history of the American stage. As 
Lady Macbeth, Ion, Juliet, and Julia in " The 
Hunchback " she achieved a wide reputation on 
the American stage. The elder Booth pronounced 
her Ion to be equal to that of Miss Ellen Tree. On 
her marriage in 1859 to George Wood, a theatri 
cal manager, she retired from the stage. She 
died in New York city, Jan. 15, 1872. 




[10 



LOGAN, George, senator, was born at Stenton, 
Pa., Sept. 9, 1753 ; son of William Logan, and 
grandson of James Logan the immigrant, 1699. 
His father was a prominent lawyer in Philadel 
phia, city councillor, 1743-76, librarian of the 
Loganian library, founded by James Logan, 1751- 
76, and bequeathed to the library a collection of 
about 13UO volumes. George was graduated at 
Edinburgh, M.D.. 1779, and devoted himself to 
agriculture. He was a member of the Society of 
Friends ; a representative in the state legislature, 
and in June, 1798. he went to France on his own 
responsibility and endeavored to avert war be 
tween the United States and that country. He 
was successful in so modifying the embargo on 
American shipping as to pave the way for a peace 
negotiation. He was denounced by the Federalist 
party and an act was passed by congress forbid 
ding any unofficial participation by a citizen in 
settling a controversy between the United States 
and a foreign power. He was chosen U.S. senator 
to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of 
Peter Muhlenberg, and served 1801-07. He went 
to England in 1810 to attempt a reconciliation 
between Great Britain and the United States. 
He was a member of the American Philosophical 
society and of the Pennsylvania board of agri 
culture. He is the author of Experiments on Gyp 
sum, and Rotation of Crops (1797). He died at 
Stenton, near Philadelphia, Pa., April 9. 1821. 

LOGAN, Henry, representative, was born on 
Logaiiia Plantation, near Dillsburg, York county, 
Pa., April 14, 1784; son of Henry and Susannah 
(Blair) Logan and grandson of John and Ann 
Logan, natives of Coot Hill, county Monaghan, 
Ireland, who settled in York county, Pa., 1749, 
where Logania Plantation was marked out and 
cultivated. Henry received his school training at 
the backwoods school and in 1814 volunteered for 
the defence of Baltimore ; was captain in the 19th 
regiment, 2d brigade, 5th division Pennsylvania 
militia, and was promoted lieutenant-colonel, 
Aug. 1, 1814. He was a representative from York 
county in the state legislature, 1818-19 : state 
senator, 1828-31; representative in the 24th and 
25th congresses, 1835-39, and county commis 
sioner, 1840. He was an intimate friend of Presi 
dent Jackson and frequently a guest at the White 
House. He was a member of the American Colo 
nization Society. He was married Feb. 22, 1825, 
to Martha O hail a descendant of Hugh O hail an 
officer in the American Revolution ; and of their 
children seven survived them, three being sons : 
James Jackson Logan, the Rev. William Henry 
Logan, a Presbyterian minister in Princess Anne, 
Md., and John N. Logan, a member of the York 
county bar. Colonel Logan passed the last 
twenty years of his life in retirement and died at 
his home near Dill.sburg, Pa., Dec. 26. 1866. 
>J 



LOGAN 



LOGAN 




LOGAN, James, jurist and educationist, was 
born in Lingua, county Armagh, Ireland, Oct. 20, 
1674; a descendant of Logan of Restalrig, whose 
estates were confiscated for his connection with 
theGoNvrie conspiracy against James VI. of Scot 
land. After the battle 
of Boyne, July 1, 
1600. he accompan 
ied his father, who 
was obliged to leave 
the country for his 
Catholic sentiments, 
first to Edinburgh, 
and later to Bris 
tol, England, where 
he completed his 
studies. He accom 
panied William Penn 
to America as his sec 
retary in 1699. He was 
made secretary of 
the province in 1701 
and subsequently served as clerk of the council, 
commissioner of property, chief justice and as a 
member of the provincial council, 1702-07. He 
gained the respect of the Indians at Conestoga, 
who named their chief, Logan, after him. He 
was impeached by the provincial assembly, Feb. 
26, 1707, on various charges, to which he replied, 
personally abusing members of the assembly. 
The assembly ordered his arrest and confinement 
in the county jail, but he escaped and went to 
England Nov. 25, 1707. He returned in 1712 ; 
was justice of the court of common pleas, 1715-23, 
and was presiding judge in 1723. He was chosen 
mayor of Philadelphia the same year and at/ the 
close of his term he went abroad to attend to 
the affairs of William Penn. He was chief jus 
tice of the supreme court of the province, 1731- 
39, and after the death of Governor Gordon in 
1736 was president of the council and acting 
governor, 1736-38. He removed to his country 
seat "Stenton" where he devoted himself to 
scientific pursuits and literature. He was a 
founder, Nov. 13, 1749, of the Public academy 
in the city of Philadelphia, afterward the Univer 
sity of Pennsylvania, and was a member of the 
first board of trustees of the college, 1749-51 . He 
was a member of the Society of Friends and 
bequeathed to the city of Philadelphia his exten 
sive library, which became the Loganian library. 
He was the author of Experimcnta de Plantarum 
Generatione, (1739); translation of Cicero s De 
Senectute (1744), and of other works in Latin and 
in English prose and verse. He died at" Stenton," 
near Germantown, Pa., Oct. 31, 1751. 

LOQAN, James Venable, educator, was born 
in Scott county. Ky., July 11. 1835 ; son of James 
Hervey and Mary (Venable) Logan ; grandson of 



Alexander and Jane (McCampbell) Logan and of 
James and Elizabeth (Cowan) Venable, and a 
descendant of James Logan of Ireland, who 
settled first in Pennsylvania and about 1700 in 
what is now Rockbridge county, Va. He was 
graduated from Centre college, Danville, Ky.. 
A.B., 1854, and from the Danville Theological 
seminary, in 1860. He was licensed by the pres 
bytery of Louisville in 1859, and was ordained by 
the presbytery of Transylvania in 1860. He was 
pastor of the Presbyterian church at Harrods- 
burg, Ky., 1860-68, edited the Free Christian 
Commonwealth, 1868-69, and was professor of 
ethics and evidences at Central university, Rich 
mond, Ky., 1873-79, and of philosophy. 1889. He 
was active in founding the College of Philosophy 
and Science of Central university, gave the sum 
of $10,000 toward its construction and was elected 
president of the college in 1880. He received the 
degree of D.D. in LSSO. and that of LL.D. in 
1890, from Ilampdeii-Sidney college. Va. He 
was married in December, 1863, to Mattie E. S., 
daughter of San ford Me Braver of Harrodsburg, 
Ky. Their son, San ford McBrayer Logan became 
a Presbyterian minister. 

LOQAN, John Alexander, statesman and sol 
dier, was born in Murphysboro, Jackson count} , 
111., Feb. 9, 1826; eldest son of Dr. John and 
Elizabeth (Jenkins) Logan. His father immi 
grated to the United States from Ireland in 1823, 
and settled in Cape 
Girardeau, Mo., re 
moving later to Jack 
son county, 111. , where 
he conducted a farm, 
practised his profes 
sion, was a represen 
tative in the state 
legislature and held 
several county offices. 
John A. Logan ac 
quired his prepara 
tory education chief 
ly under the instruc 
tion of his father 
and his tutor, and 
he attended Shiloh 

college in 1840. Upon the outbreak of the war 
with Mexico in 1846, he enlisted in the vol 
unteer army and was appointed 2d lieutenant, 
1st Illinois volunteers, and served as adjutant 
and quartermaster of the regiment in New 
Mexico. He returned to Illinois at the close of 
the war, studied law with his uncle, Alexander 
M. Jenkins, and in 1849 was elected clerk of 
Jackson county. He was graduated from the 
law department of Louisville university in 1851 ; 
was admitted to the bar in 1852 ; was a represent 
ative in the state legislature, 1852-53, 1856-57 ; 




[108] 



LOGAN 



LOGAN 



prosecuting attorney of the third judicial district 
of Illinois, 1853-59 ; presidential elector on the 
Buchanan and Breckinridge ticket in 185(5, and 
a Democratic representative in the 30th and 37th 
congresses, 1859-61. In July, 1801, during the 
extra session of the 37th congress he resigned his 
seat and joined the Federal army at Bull Run, 
righting as a private in Colonel Richardson s regi 
ment. He returned to Marion, 111., where he 
organized and \vas made colonel of the 31st Illi 
nois infantry. He commanded his regiment in 
McClernand s brigade in the battle of Belmont. 
where he led a bayonet charge and had a horse 
shot under him ; nlso in the attack on Fort 
Henry, and at Fort Donelson, where he was se 
verely wounded in the left shoulder. He joined 
General Grant at Pittsburg Landing, March 5. 
1862, and was appointed brigadier-general of 
volunteers. He commanded a brigade at Jack 
son, Tenn., where he guarded the railroad lines 
with six regiments. In 1802 he declined the 
nomination for representative in the 38th con 
gress. He commanded the 3d division, 17th 
army corps, under General McPherson in Grant s 
northern Mississippi campaign ; was promoted 
major-general, Nov. 20. 1800, and fought at Port 
Gibson, Raymond, Jackson, Champion Hill and 
at the siege of Vicksburg, \vhere he was in com 
mand of McPherson s centre, his command en 
tering Vicksburg immediately after the explosion 
of the mine. He was made the first military 
governor of Vicksburg, and for his gallantry 
during the siege lie received from congress a 
medal of honor which bore the inscription 
"Vicksburg, July 4. 1803." He succeeded Gen 
eral Sherman in November, 1803, as thecomman- 
der of the 15th army corps. He led the advance 
of the Army of the Tennessee at Resaca ; and 
repulsed Hardee at Dallas, where he was shot 
through the left arm. He temporarily succeeded 
General McPherson in command of the Army of 
the Tennessee upon the latter s death, July 22, 
1864, and led his corps in the battle of Kenesaw 
Mountain and in the attack on Atlanta. After 
taking part in the presidential campaign of 1864, 
he rejoined Sherman at Savannah and continued 
in command of his corps until the surrender of 
Gen. Joseph E. Johnston, April 26, 1865, when 
he succeeded General Howard as commander of 
the Army of the Tennessee. He resigned his 
commission in the army and returned to his home 
at Marion, 111., in August. 1865. He was a Re 
publican representative in the 40th and 41st con 
gresses, 1807-71, and was one of the managers of 
the impeachment trial of President Johnson. He 
was U.S. senator from Illinois, 1871-77. and 1879- 
80. He was a candidate for nomination for the 
Presidency June 3, 1884, and upon the nomina 
tion of James G. Blaine was chosen Republican 

[109] 



candidate for Vice-President by acclamation. He 
was commander-in-chief of the Grand Army of 
the Republic and it was on his proposal that May 
30th was designated as Decoration Day and made 
a national holiday. He was married Nov. 27, 
185."). to Mary Simmerson, daughter of Capt. 
John M. Cunningham, register of the land office 
at Shawneetown, 111., who survived him. They 
had three children : the eldest, a son, died in 
infancy : the second, a daughter, married Maj. W. 
F. Tucker, U.S.A.; and the youngest, John A. 
Logan, Jr., was a major in the U.S. volunteer 
service in the war with Spain, served in Cuba as 
an adjutant-general on Gen. J. C. Bates s staff ; 
was appointed major of the 33d U.S. volunteers 
August, 1899, and was killed while leading a 
charge at San Jacinto, Luzon, Philippine Islands, 
Nov. 11, 1899. General Logan is the author of: 
TIic (ireat Conspiracy (1880;; TJie Volunteer 
Soldier of America (1887). An equestrian statue 
in bronze, on a bronze pedestal with bas relief 
portraits of the general officers serving with him, 
and scenes in the senate when he took the oath 
of office, and on battlefields in which lie engaged, 
was unveiled in Washington, D.C.. April 10, 1901. 
He died in Washington, D.C., Dec. 20, 1880. 

LOGAN, Olive, author, was born in Elmira, 
N. Y., April 22, 1839 : daughter of Cornelius Am- 
brosius and Eliza (Acheley) Logan. She was 
educated partly at the Methodist Female semin 
ary, and partly at the Academy of the Sacred 
Heart, at Cincinnati, 
Ohio. She made her 
debut on the stage 
in Philadelphia, Pa., 
in 1854, and went to 
England in 1857, 
where she completed 
her education. She 
married Henry A. 
Delille in April, 1857, 
and in 1804 appeared 
at Wallack s theatre 
in New York city in 
" Eveleen, a play of 
which she was the 
author. She had a 
successful stage ca 
reer, and retired in 1868. She became a lec 
turer, principally on woman s rights and on 
other social topics. She obtained a divorce from 
her first husband in December, 1865, and was 
married secondly Dec. 19, 1871, to William Wirt 
Sikes. U.S. consul at Cardiff, Wales, 1876-83. 
She contributed to American journals and mag 
azines while a resident of Wales. Consul Sikes 
died in 1883 and in 1892 she was married thirdly 
to James O Neill Logan. She was elected a mem 
ber of the London Society of Authors in 1886. 




LTU^J^ 



LOGAN 



LOMAX 



On her return to the United States in 1895, she 
resumed her journalistic career and returned to 
the lecture platform, her successful lecture sub 
jects including: "The Life of Queen Victoria" 
and " The Newspaper Office as a place for Girls." 
She is the author of : Photographs of Paris Life 
(1861); Chateau Frissac (186.1); Women and The 
atres (1869); Before the Footlights and Behind 
the Scenes : a Book about the Show Business (1870); 
The Mimic World (1871); Get Thee Behind Me, 
Satan (187*2); They Met by Chance (1873); and a 
dramatization of Wilkie Collins s "Armadale" 
(1869); the comedy Surf, or Life at Long Branch 
produced by Daly (1870): and a metrical transla 
tion of Francois Coppee s * Le Passant )% , produced 
at the Princess theatre, London (1887). 

LOGAN, Stephen Trigg, jurist, was born in 
Frankfort, Ky., Feb. 24, 1800 ; son of David and 
Mary (Trigg) Logan ; grandson of Col. John and 
Jane (McClure) Logan, and of Col. Stephen 
and (Christian) Trigg and a descendant 
of David Logan, an Irishman who settled in 
Pennsylvania and subsequently removed to Au 
gusta county, Va. He attended school in Frank 
fort, Ky., studied law under Judge Christopher 
Tompkius at Glasgow, Ky., in 1817 and was ad 
mitted to the bar. He was married in 1823 to 
America J., daughter of William Bush of Glas 
gow. Ky., and secondly to a sister of Justice John 
McKinley of the U.S. supreme court. He served 
as attorney for tlie commonwealth and practised 
in Barren county, 1821-31. He lost his property, 
accumulated by his practice, through security 
debts, and in 1832 engaged in law practice at 
Springfield, 111. lie was judge of the Sangamon 
circuit district, 1835-37 ; was elected a second 
time but declined to serve ; practised law with 
E. D. Baker, 1837-41, and with Abraham Lincoln, 
1841-44, and later with his son-in-law Milton 
Hay. He was a representative in the Illinois 
legislature, 1842-48 and 1854-56 and was a delegate 
to the state constitutional convention of 1847. 
He was a defeated candidate for representative 
in congress in 1848, owing to his opposition to 
the war with Mexico. He was a delegate for the 
state at large to the Republican national conven 
tion in 1880, and a commissioner to the national 
peace convention of 1861, at Washington, where 
he urged an honorable compromise. A memorial 
of his life and character was issued from the 
Springfield press in 1880. He died in Springfield, 
III.. July 17, 1SSO. 

LOGAN, William, jurist, was born in the fort 
at Harrod s Fort. Ky., Dec. 8, 1776; son of Benja 
min and Ann (Montgomery) Logan. William 
was said to be the first male child born in Ken 
tucky. He passed his early childhood in the fort 
at St. Asaphs, removed to Shelby county with his 
parents about 1800 and became a l.-iwvor. He 
represented Lincoln county in the second consti 



tutional convention at Frankfort, Aug. 17, 1799, 
and settled in the practice of law in Shelby 
county. He represented both Lincoln and Shelby 
counties in the Kentucky legislature, and served 
as speaker of the house, 1803-06, and 1808-09. He 
was appointed by Governor Scott judge of the 
Kentucky court of appeals, serving 1808-12 ; was 
a presidential elector in 1809, 1813, and in 1817 ; 
and was elected U.S. senator from Kentucky in 
1819. He resigned in 1820 to become a candidate 
for governor but was defeated in the election by 
John Adair, and again represented Shelby county 
in the state legislature in 1821. He married a 
daughter of Caleb Wallace of Woodford county. 
He died in Shelby county, Ky., Aug. 8. 1822. 

LOMAX, John Tayloe, jurist, was born in Port 
Tobago, Caroline county, Va.. Jan. 19, 1781 ; son 
of Maj. Thomas and Ann Corbin (Tayloe) Lomax; 
grandson of Lunsford and Judith (Micou) Lomax; 
great-grandson of John and Elizabeth (Wormley) 
Lomax of Port Tobago, Caroline county, and 
great 2 -grandson of the Rev. John Lomax, born 
1637, died at North Shields, England, 1694. and 
Catherine (Gray) Lomax, his wife. He was grad 
uated from St. John s college, Annapolis, Md., 
in 1797, studied law in Annai>olis, 1797-1801; 
was admitted to the bar in 1801. and settled 
in practice in Port Royal county. He was mar 
ried July 25. 1805. to Charlotte B. Thornton of 
Mansfield, Va. He removed to Fredericksburg, 
Va.,in 1805 ; settled in Menokin. Richmond coun 
ty, in 1810; and returned to Fredericksburg in 
1813. He was professor of law in the University 
of Virginia, Charlottesville, 1826-30, and associate 
justice of the general court of Virginia, 1830-38 
and 1851-57, when he retired to private life. HJ 
received the degree of LL.D. from Harvard in 
1847. He is the author of : .-1 Digest of the Laws 
respecting Real Property Generally Adopted and 
in Use in the United States (1839), and A Treatise 
on the Law of Executors and Administrators Gen 
erally in Use in the United States (1841). He 
died in Fredericksburg, Va.,Oct, 1. 1862. 

LOMAX, Lunsford Lindsay, soldier, was born 
in Newport, R. I., Nov. 4, 1835 ; son of Maj. Mann 
Page and Elizabeth (Lindsay) Lomax ; grandson 
ofCa.pt. William Lindsay of Lee s legion in the 
American Revolution, and a descendant of Sir 
Thomas Lunsford. He graduated from the U.S. 
Military academy in 1856 and wasassigned to the 
2d cavalry, and transferred to the 1st cavalry, 
serving in the west. He resigned from the U.S. 
army in isiil. and was appointed captain in the 
Virginia state forces. He entered the Confede 
rate army as captain and assistant adjutant-gen 
eral to (Jen. Joseph E. Johnston. April 29, 1861. 
He was promoted major, and assigned to duty with 
Gen. Ben McCulloch, and as lieutenant-colonel 
and inspector-general to Gen. Earl Van Dorn, in 
July, 1862. He was appointed colonel of the llth 



LOMAX 



LONG 



Virginia cavalry in February, 1863 ; brigadier- 
general, July 23, 1803; and major-general, Aug. 
10, 1861. In July, 1863, he was assigned to the 
command of a brigade in Gen. Fitzhugh Lee s 
division, cavalry corps, Army of Northern Vir 
ginia. In August, 1864, he was assigned to the 
command of a division of cavalry under General 
Early, relieving Geii. Robert Ransom. In 
March, 1863, he was ordered by Gen. Robert 
E. Lee to the command of the valley district. 
After the evacuation of Richmond, he moved to 
Lynchburg to intercept Stoneman, and surren 
dered his division at Greensboro, with Gen. 
Joseph E. Johnston s army. He engaged in 
farming near Warrenton, Fauquier county, Va., 
1865-8(3 : was president of the Virginia Agricul 
tural and Mechanical college, Blacksbnrg. Va., 
1886- .)! ; and in the latter year assumed a position 
in the war records office, Washington, D.C. 

LOMAX, Tennent, soldier, was born in Abbe 
ville district, S.C., Sept. 20, 1820 ; son of William 
and Eliza (Tennent) Lomax ; grandson of W. P. 
and Martha (Middleton) Tennent, great-grandson 
of Maj. Hugh Middleton of Edgefield, B.C.. and 
of the Rev. William Tennent (1740-1777) and a 
descendant of the Rev. William Tennent, the 
founder of Log college, from which sprang 
Princeton Theological seminary. Tennent Lomax 
was graduated at Randolph-Macon college. A.B., 
1840, A.M.. 18.11. He resided in Eufanla, Ala., 
where he engaged in the practice of law and in 
planting. Upon the outbreak of the war with 
Mexico he recruited a company which was at 
tached to the 3th Alabama battalion and while in 
Mexico was made military governor of Orizaba. 
He moved to Columbus, Ga., and was owner and 
editor of the Times and Sentinel, and state printer 
for Georgia, 1848-37. He removed to Mont 
gomery,- Ala., in 1837, where he engaged in plant 
ing. He became captain of the Montgomery 
True Blues, and in 1861 was attached to the 2d 
Alabama regiment and took part in the capture 
of the forts and navy yard at Pensacola. Fla., and 
asked the withdrawal of his command when re 
fused permission to assault Fort Pickens, which 
was soon afterward reinforced and never fell 
into the hands of the Confederacy. He became 
colonel of the 3d Alabama regiment and was pro 
moted to the rank of brigadier-general. His reg 
iment was attached to Mahone ? s brigade. Huger s 
division, Longstreet s corps. Army of Northern 
Virginia, and he was killed while leading his 
men. He was married first to Sophie Shorter of 
Eufaula, Ala., and after her death to Mrs. Carrie 
Billingslea Shorter of Montgomery, Ala. He 
left surviving him one son, Tennent Lomax, a 
child of the second marriage, who became a prac 
tising lawyer at Montgomery. Colonel Lomax 
died at Seven Pines, Va., June 1, 1862. 



LONG, Armistead Lindsay, soldier, was born 
in Campbell county, Va. , Sept. 3, 1827. He was 
graduated from the U.S. Military academy, 
bre vetted 2d lieutenant and assigned to the 2d 
artillery July 1, 1850. He served in garrison at 
Fort Moultrie, S.C., 1850-51, was promoted 2d 
lieutenant June 30, 1851, and was on frontier 
duty at Fort Defiance, New Mexico, 1852-53, and 
at Albuquerque, New Mexico, 1853-54. He was 
promoted 1st lieutenant, July 1, 1854, was in gar 
rison at Fort Henry, Md., in 1854, and at Bar 
rancas Barracks, Fla., 1854-55. He served on the 
frontier at Fort Washita, Indian Ty., 1855-56 ; at 
Fort Immoe, Va., 1856-57 ; on frontier duty at 
Fort Leavenworth. Kan., in 1857 and helped to 
quell the Kansas disturbances, 1 857-58. He was at 
Foit Kearny, Neb., in 1858 ; at Fort Leavenworth 
Kan., 1858-60 and at Augusta arsenal, Ga., 1860- 
61 and surrendered with the garrison to the state 
authorities in 1861 and was sent north. He en 
gaged in the defence of Washington, D.C., from 
Feb. 7 to June 10, 1861, and as aide-de-camp to 
Gen. Edwin V. Sumner, his father-in-law, from 
May 20 to June 10, 1861, when he resigned from 
the U.S. army. He was appointed major in the 
Confederate army in July, 1861 ; was promoted 
colonel in April, 1862, and served at the battle of 
Gettysburg, July 1-3, 1863, as a member of the 
staff and military secretary of Gen. Robert E. 
Lee. He was promoted brigadier-general in 
September, 1863, and was chief of artillery to 
General Ewell in the campaign of the Wilderness 
and Richmond, 1864, and Appomattox, 1865, 
where he surrendered. He engaged as a civil 
engineer. 1866-69, and subsequently devoted his 
time to farming. He is the author of : Memoirs 
of Robert E. Lee (1886). He died in Charlottes- 
ville, Va., April 29, 1891. 

LONG, Chester Isaiah, representative, was 
born in Perry county, Pa., Oct. 12, 1860; son of 
Abraham G. and Mary (Caufr man) Long. He 
removed with his parents to Davies county, Mo., 
in 1865, and settled in Paola, Kan., in 1879. He 
was admitted to the bar March 4, 1885, and re 
moved to Medicine Lodge, Kan., where he en 
gaged in the practice of the law. He was elected 
to the state senate in 1889 ; and was a Repub 
lican representative from the seventh district of 
Kansas in the 54th, 56th and 57th congresses, 
1895-9," and 1899-1903. 

LONG, Clement, educator, was born in Hop- 
kinton. N.H., Dec. 1, 1806. He was graduated 
from Dartmouth, A.B., 1828, A.M.. 1831 ; studied 
theology at the Andover Theological seminary, 
1833-34, and was ordained by the presbyter} 7 of 
Portage at Franklin, Ohio, April 6, 1836. He 
was professor of philosophy in Western Reserve 
college. Ohio, 1834-44, and professor of theology 
there, 1844-52 ; lecturer on intellectual philosophy 



LONG 



LONG 




and political economy at Dartmouth, 1851-52 ; 
professor of Christian theology in the Auburn 
Theological seminary, 1852-54 ; professor of intel 
lectual philosophy and political economy at Dart 
mouth, 1854-61, and lecturer on moral and mental 
philosophy at Western Reserve college, 1860-61. 
He received the degree of D.D. from Dartmouth 
in 1849, and that of LL.D. from Western Reserve 
in 1860. He contributed to Bibliotheca Sacra. 
He died at Hanover. N.H., Oct. 14, 1861. 

LONG, Crawford Williamson, physician, was 
born in Danielsville, Ga., Nov. 1, 1815; son of 
James and Elizabeth (Ware) Long, and grandson 
of Capt. Samuel Long, an officer in the Ameri 
can army in the Revolution, who served under 
Lafayette at York- 
town. Captain Sam 
uel, with his family 
and a colony of other 
Peunsylvanians, set 
tled in middle Georgia 
about 1785. James 
Long married Eliza 
beth Ware, of Am- 
herst, Va. ; was elect 
ed to the state sen 
ate, and was a per 
sonal and political 
friend of the Hon. 
William H. Craw 
ford. His son, Craw 
ford W T ., was a room 
mate of Alexander H. Stephens at the Uni 
versity of Georgia, and was graduated, A.B., 
1835, and from the University of Pennsylvania, 
M.D., 1839. He spent one year in hospital prac 
tice in New York city, and in 1841 settled in 
practice in Jefferson, Ga. About this time itin 
erant lecturers on chemistry were accustomed to 
conclude their evening entertainments with an 
exhibition of the effects of " laughing gas." Dr. 
Long suggested that sulphuric ether would pro 
duce the same effect, and its use for sport be 
came common at social gatherings in the 
community, which often ended with so-called 
"ether frolics." His professional services in 
connection with the frolics in which cuts and 
bruises unattended with pain were discovered 
after the effects of the ether had passed off, led 
him to the discovery of the use of ether as an 
anaesthetic. This was in January, 1842, and his 
first surgical operation with the aid of ether was 
performed successfully in Jackson county, March 
30, 1842, two and a half years before Dr. Horace 
Wells, of Hartford, discovered the anaesthetic 
powers of nitrous oxide under similar circum 
stances, and four and a half years before W. T. 
G. Morton administered it. at the request of Dr. 
John C. Warren, in the Massachusetts General 



Hospital in Boston. Dr. Long s discovery was 
known at once not only in Jackson county, but 
throughout the state of Georgia. His prac 
tice called for repeated trials of the vise of 
ether as an anaesthetic, notably on July 3, 1842 ; 
Sept. 9, 1843, and Jan. 8, 1845 ; but it was not 
until 1846 that he published a detailed account of 
his discovery in the- Southern Medical and Sur 
gical Journal. Dr. Long was married in 1842 to 
Caroline Swain, niece of Gov. David Swain, of 
North Carolina, and a cousin of Gen. Joseph 
Lane, of Oregon. He removed to Athens, Ga., 
in 1851. In 1854 he first took part in the famous 
ether controversy as carried on by Morton, 
Jackson, and the friends of Horace Wells, by 
writing Senator Dawson. of Georgia, who in 
duced Dr. Jackson to visit Dr. Long at his home 
in Georgia, which he did, on March 8, 1854. 
Dr. Jackson claimed that in February, 1842, he 
breathed chlorine gas, and to relieve the pain and 
effects he inhaled ether and discovered that he 
was insensible to pain. On hearing Long s account 
of his discovery, Dr. Jackson wrote from Athens 
to Senator Dawson in Washington, acknowledg 
ing the justice of Dr. Long s claims. The senator 
read the letter in the senate, April 15, 1854, when 
the bill to determine the discoverer of anaesthe 
sia in order to award the proper person an appro 
priation of $100,000, was before the senate for its 
final reading, and at the instance of Senator 
Dawson, Dr. Long s name was inserted in the 
bill. Here the matter appears to have ended so 
far as any action of congress affected the ques 
tion of the discoverer. In 1879 Henri L. Stuart 
of New York city, caused a portrait of Dr. C. W. 
Long to be painted by Frank B. Carpenter, and 
he presented it to the University of Georgia to 
be placed in the state capitol. After witnessing 
the ceremony of presentation, Mr. Stuart pro 
ceeded to Dr. Long s late home at Athens, Ga. , 
intending to visit his grave, Dr. Long having 
died in Athens the year before. Arriving late at 
night, he was stricken with paralysis before 
morning, and after a brief illness died. His re 
mains were deposited in a grave next that of 
the benefactor he had sought to honor. See 
"Long, the Discoverer of Anaesthesia," in The 
Johns Hopkins Hospital Bulletin, August-Sep 
tember. 1H97, by Hugh H. Young, A.M., M.D. 
Dr. Long died in Athens, Ga., June 10, 1878. 

LONG, Daniel Albright, educator, was born 
near Graham, N.C., May 22, 1844; son of Jacob 
and Jane (Stockard) Long, and great-grandson 
of James and Ellen Stockard and of Conrad and 
Catherine Long. lie was prepared for college 
by his brother, the Rev. Dr. William Samuel 
Long, and by the Rev. Dr. Alexander Wilson ; 
attended the University of North Carolina. 180(5- 
68, and received the degree of A.M. in 1*71, Ho 



[112] 



LONG 



LONG 



taught school, 1808-73 ; was president of Graham 
college, N.C., 1873-82 ; president and professor 
of mental and moral science at Antioch college, 
Ohio, 1883-99, and in 1899 retired to his farm 
near Graham, N.C. He was a member of the 
Ohio College association ; of the National Educa 
tional association ; of the International Congress 
of Education ; of the American Institute of Chris 
tian Philosophy ; of the Council of the American 
Congresses of Churches ; was president of the 
American Christian convention and of the Chris 
tian Publishing association for eight years, and 
a fellow of Columbia university, N.Y., 1894-95. 
He received the honorary degree of D.D. from 
the University of North Carolina, and that of 
LL.D. from Union Christian college in 1886. He 
is the author of : Legal History of Antioch Col 
lege (1890); History of Coinage (1896), and con 
tributions to the press. 

LONG, Eli, soldier, was born in Woodford 
county, Kentucky, June 16, 1837 ; son of Eli 
and Margaret Long. He was graduated from 
the military school, Frankfort, Ky., in 1855 ; was 
appointed from civil life, 2d lieutenant, 1st U.S. 
cavalry, June 27, 1856, and served in the Indian 
campaigns of 1857-61. He was promoted 1st 
lieutenant, March 1, and captain, May 24, 1861, 
and was assigned to the 4th U.S. cavalry. He 
served in the army of the west and participated 
in the operations leading to and including the 
battle of Stone s River, Tenn., Dec. 31, 1862, to 
Jan. 3, 1863. He was commissioned colonel of 
the 4th Ohio cavalry, Feb. 23, 1863, and took part 
in the Tullahoma campaign, June 24 to July 3, 
1863. He commanded the 2d division, 2d brigade 
of cavalry at the battle of Chickamauga, Sept. 
19 and 20, 1863; was in the Chattanooga cam 
paign, Nov. 23-27, 1863, and in northern Alabama 
iintil June 6, 1864, when he served in the Atlanta 
campaign until its close, Sept. 18, 1864. He was 
promoted brigadier-general, Aug. 18, 1864. Ho 
commanded the 2d division of the cavalry corps 
in Wilson s raid through Alabama and Georgia 
from March 22 to April 20, 1865, and commanded 
the military district of New Jersey, 1865-66. He 
was brevetted major for gallantry in the bat 
tle of Farmington, Tenn., Oct. 7, 1862; lieu 
tenant-colonel for the defense of Knoxville, 
Tenn., Dec. 3, 1863 ; colonel for the battle of 
Love joys Station, Ga., Aug. 21, 1864, brigadier- 
general, March 13, 1865, for the battle of Selma, 
Ala. ; major-general, March 13, 1865, for gallant 
and meritorious services in the field during the 
war, and major-general of volunteers, March 13, 
1865, for gallant and meritorious services in 
action. He was wounded four times during the 
war, receiving a severe injury to his head at the 
battle of Selma, Ala. He was mustered out of 
the volunteer service, Jan. 15, 1866, and was re 



tired with the rank of major-general, Aug. 16, 
1867, by reason of wounds in line of duty, but 
was reduced to the rank of brigadier-general 
through the operation of the act of March 3, 
1875, when he was again retired with the rank of 
brigadier-general. He was married Sept. 5. 
1865, to Jane I. Lane at Louisville, Ky., and 
after his retirement resided in Plainfield, N. J. 

LONG, Eugene Rufus, educator, was born in 
Sumter county, S.C., Dec. 10, 1862; son of 
Isaac Jasper and Callie (Kennedy) Long ; grand 
son of Isaac and Lettie (Hamilton) Long and of 
John Leland and Jane (Chamblin) Kennedy, and 
of Scotch-Irish ancestry. He was graduated from 
Arkansas college, A.B., 1878, and was a student 
at Southwestern Presbyterian university, 1882- 
83. He was professor in Arkansas college, 1883- 
95 ; president of the college, 1891-95 ; professor 
of English in Southwestern Presbyterian univer 
sity, 1895-97, and in 1897 returned to Arkansas 
college as president and professor of biblical 
literature and political science. He was married 
Dec. 26, 1900, to Sallie, daughter of J. R. S. 
Meek of Warren, Ark. 

LONG, Isaac Jasper, educator, was born in 
Anderson district, S.C., Feb. 23, 1831 ; son of 
Isaac and Lettie (Hamilton) Long ; grandson of 
Joseph Long, who migrated from Virginia to East 
Tennessee, and a descendant of Luke Hamilton, 
who emigrated from the north of Ireland and 
settled in South Carolina. He was graduated at 
Centre college, Ky., 1858; studied at Danville 
Theological seminary, 1858-59, and at Columbia 
Theological seminary, S.C., 1859-60. He was 
principal of the preparatory department, Centre 
college, Ky., 1859-60; was licensed, April 12, 
1860, and was supply at Itonia, S.C., 1860-61. 
He was married Aug. 30, 1859, to Callie P. Ken 
nedy. He was ordained by the presbytery of 
Harmony, Oct. 31, 1861 ; was pastor of Concord 
church, Sumter district, S.C., and chaplain, C.S. 
A., 1861-67. In 1867 he became pastor at Bates- 
ville, Ark., where he founded an academy which 
became Arkansas college in 1872, and of which 
he was president and professor of ancient lan 
guages and biblical literature, 1872-91. He re 
ceived the honorary degree of D.D. from Arkan 
sas college in 1876. He is the author of : Outlines 
of Ecclesiastical History (1888). He died at 
Batesville, Ark., Dec. 10, 1891. 

LONG, John Collins, naval officer, was born in 
Portsmouth, N.H., Sept. 6, 1795; son of Capt. 
George and Martha (Hart) Long, and grandson 
of Gen. Pierse Long (q. v.) He attended the 
academy in Portsmouth, N.H.. and was war 
ranted a midshipman in the U.S. navy, July 12, 
1812. On Aug. 29, 1812, was ordered to the Con 
stitution as aide to Commodore Bainbridge. and 
took part in the engagement between the Consti- 

[113] 



LONG 



LONG 




/v\ERF<l/v\AC. 



tution and Java, Dec. 29. 1812. He was trans 
ferred to the Washington; Commodore Hull, 
Sept. 14, 1814, and subsequently to the Boxer, 
Commodore John Porter. In 1818 he was granted 
a furlough and made voyages to the East Indies 
and various European and South American ports 

as first officer of 
a merchant ship. 
In November, 
1S1!), he was as 
signed to the In- 
dependence,Com- 
modore Shaw; 
in February, 18- 
-23, to the sloop 
Hornet in the 
Vv est Indies ; in 
November, 1823, to the sloop Peacock and went to 
the Pacific ocean ; and in 1824 to the government 
frigate United States, Commodore Hull, serving 
1824-27. He was married June 1, 1829, to Mary 
I)., daughter of Nathaniel and Dorothy (Folsom) 
Gilman of Exeter, Vt. He was at the Portsmouth 
navy yard, N.H., 1827-31 ; accompanied Commo 
dore Downes on his cruise to the Pacific in the 
Potomac, 1832-34 ; resided at Portsmouth, N. H., 
1834-37 ; commanded a rendezvous in Boston, 
Mass., 1837-89, and commanded the sloop Boston, 
1840-43. He was promoted post-captain. March 
2, 1849, and commanded the Mississippi when 
that vessel brought the Hungarian patriot Kos- 
suth to the United States in 1852, and was instru 
mental in preventing Kossuth from compromis 
ing the United States government by making 
revolutionary speeches at Marseilles. He com 
manded the Saranac, 1852-55, and diiring these 
years conducted the Brazilian minister, DeSodre, 
to his home, and the U.S. minister, Carroll 
Spence, to Constantinople. He commanded the 
Pacific squadron, U.S.S. Mfrrimac, flagship, 
1807-59. He was retired in 1861, was promoted 
commodore on the retired list, July 16, 1862, and 
settled in Exeter, N. H. He died in North Con- 
way, N.H., Sept. 2, 1865. 

LONG, John Davis, statesman, was born in 
Buckfield, Oxford county, Maine. Oct. 27, 1838 ; 
son of Zadoc and Julia Temple (Davis) Long); 
grandson of Thomas and Bathsheba (Churchill) 
Long, and of Simon and Persis (Temple) Davis ; 
and a descendant on the paternal side of Richard 
Warren of the Mayflower, and of Thomas Clark, 
one of the company of the Ann, which came to 
Plymouth in 1623 ; and on the maternal side of 
Dolor Davis, who came from Kent, England, to 
Massachusetts Bay colony, in 1634. Zadoc Long 
was the Whig candidate for representative in the 
26th congress in 1838, but was defeated by Virgil 
D. Parris. John Davis Long was named for 
Governor John Davis (q. v.), a cousin of his ma- 




1114] 



ternal grandfather. He was prepared for college 
at Hebron academy, and was graduated at Har 
vard, fourth in the class of 1857, and was class 
odist. He was principal of Westford academy, 
Mass., 1857-59; was a student at Harvard Law 
school in 18C1, and 
was admitted to the 
bar at Boston, Mass.. 
the same year. He 
practised in Buck- 
field, Maine. 1861 -(52, 
and in 1862 went to 
Boston. He made 
his home in Hing- 
ham, Mass., in 1869, 
and became associat 
ed that year with 
Stillmati B. Allen in 
the law. He was a 
Republican represen 
tative in the Massa 
chusetts legislature, 
1875-78, serving as speaker of the house. 187(5. 1877 
and 1878; lieutenant-governor of Massachusetts. 
1879 ; governor of Massachusetts, 18SO-82 ; a dele 
gate to the Republican national convention of 
1884, where he nominated George F. Edmunds 
for President, and a representative from the 
second district of Massachusetts in the 48th, 49th 
and 50th congresses, 1883-89, declining renomina- 
tion in 1888. He was a candidate before the 
state legislature in 1878 for U.S. senator. At 
the close of his congressional term he returned to 
the practice of law in Boston, the firm being 
Allen, Long & Hemenway. On March 4, 1897, 
President McKinley made him secretary of the 
navy in his cabinet, and reappointed him March 5, 
1901. He was twice married : first, in 1N70. to Mary 
Woodward, daughter of George S. and Helen M. 
(Paul) Glover of Hingham. Mass. ; and secondly, 
May 22, 1886, to Agnes, daughter of 1 the Rev. 
Joseph D. Peirce of North Attleboro, Mass., and 
their son Peirce was born at North Attleboro, 
Mass., Dec. 29, 1887. He was president of tl.o 
Massachusetts Total Abstinence society, a fellow 
of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 
and received LL.I). from Harvard in 1880. He 
gave to the town of Buckfield in 1901 the Zadoc 
Long Free Library. He published a translation of 
the ^Eneid and a volume of after-dinner speeches. 
LONG, Pierse. delegate, was born in Ports 
mouth. N.H., in 1739; son of Pierse Long, who 
came from Limerick, Ireland, to Portsmouth and 
engaged in the shipping business. He entered 
partnership with his father and became interested 
in public affairs. He was a delegate to the pro 
vincial congress of New Hampshire, 1775, and 
colonel of the 1st New Hampshire regiment, com 
manding the regiment at Ticonderoga, July 1, 




AA/. o/ 



O 



LONG 



LONGFELLOW 



1777. As commander of a regiment of invalids 
and convalescents in the retreat, July 5, 1777, he 
engaged the 9th regiment of British regulars, 
Colonel Hill, and had nearly vanquished them 
when his ammunition became exhausted and he 
was obliged to retreat to Fort. Edward. He 
served there and at Lake George and Lake Cham- 
plain and was present when Burgoyne surren 
dered at Saratoga. For his services he was 
brevetted brigadier-general. He was a delegate 
from New Hampshire to the Continenal congress, 
1784-86 ; a member of the executive council, 
1786-89 ; and a delegate to the state constitu 
tional convention of 1788. President Washington 
appointed him U.S. collector at the port of Ports 
mouth in 1789. His daughter Polly married Col. 
Tobias Lear, secretary to President Washington, 
April 17. 1790. Before taking charge of the 
office as collector General Long died at Ports 
mouth, N.H., April 8, 1789. 

LONG, Stephen Harriman, engineer, was born 
in Hopkinton, N.H., Dec. 80, 1784; son of Moses 
and Lucy (Harriman) Long. He was graduated 
from Dartmouth college, A.B., 1809, A.M., 1812, 
and taught school, 1809-14. He entered the U.S. 
army as 2d lieutenant of engineers, Dec. 12, 1814, 
and was professor of mathematics at the U.S. Mili 
tary academy. 1815-18. He was brevetted major 
of topographical engineers, -April 29, 1816, and had 
charge of governmental explorations of the terri 
tory between the Mississippi river and the Rocky 
Mountains, 1818-23, and discovered the peak in 
Colorado which bears his name. He was married 
March 3, 1819, to Martha Hodgkins of Philadel 
phia, Pa. He explored the sources of the Missis 
sippi river, 1828-24 ; was brevetted lieutenant- 
colonel, Apcjl 29. 1826. and was engaged in 
surveying the line of the Baltimore and Ohio 
railroad, 1827-80. He was engineer-in-chief of 
the Atlantic and Great Western railroad in 
Georgia, 1837-40, where he introduced a system 
of curves in the location of the road and a new 
truss bridge called by his name. At about this 
time he was connected with the proposed 
national road from Portland, Maine, to Canada. 
He was promoted major in the topographical 
engineer corps, July 7, 1838, on the organization 
of that corps. In 1860-61 he was on duty at the 
mouth of the Mississippi river, and was called to 
Washington and advanced to the rank of colonel, 
Sept. 9, 1861 ; served in the war department there, 
and on June 1. 1868, was retired on surgeon s 
certificate, but continued to perform important 
official duties until his death. For his work as an 
explorer he received recognition in American 
literature in Edwin James s " Account of the 
First Expedition to the Rocky Mountains, 
1819-20. from notes by Major Long and others" 
(1823) ; and William H. Keating s two volume 



work, " Long s Expedition to the Source of St. 
Peter s River, Lake of the Woods" (1824). il e 
was a member of the American Philosophical 
society and the author of: Railroad Manual 
(1829), the first work of this title published in the 
United States. He died in Alton, 111., Sept. 4, 1864. 

LONGFELLOW, Ernest Wadsworth, painter, 
was born in Cambridge, Mass., Nov. 23. 1845; 
second son of Henry Wadsworth and Frances 
(Appleton) Longfellow. His preparatory educa 
tion was acquired in private schools in Cam 
bridge and Boston, and he was graduated from 
Lawrence Scientific school. Harvard, S.B., 1865. 
He studied art in Paris under Hebert, and after 
visiting Italy and German}- lie returned to Amer 
ica in 1866. He was married in 1868 to Harriet 
E., daughter of Israel Monson Spelman, and again 
went, abroad, studying under Bonnat in Paris, 
1868-69. On his return in 1869 lie opened a 
studio in Boston. He exhibited " The Old Mill " 
at the Centennial exhibition, Philadelphia, 1876; 
studied under Couture near Paris, 1876-77, re 
turning to America in 1879. He was vice-presi 
dent of the Boston Art club, 1880-82, and was 
later elected a member of the Century As 
sociation. His earlier works include : Italian 
PJn ferari (1877); Choice of Youth (1878) ; Even 
ing on the Xile (1880); Morning on tJie ^Egean 
(1881), and three portraits of Henry W. Long 
fellow : 1. at Craigie House (1876) ; 2, at Bowdoin 
college (1881) ; 3, finished after the poet s death. 
His later works consist chiefly of small land 
scapes and ideal nude subjects. 

LONGFELLOW, Henry Wadsworth, poet, 
was born in Portland, Maine, Feb. 27. 1807 ; son 
of the Hon. Stephen and Zilpah (Wadsworth) 
Longfellow. He was named for his maternal 
uncle, a lieutenant in the American navy, who 
when nineteen years of age perished gallantly at 
Tripoli in the fire-ship Intrepid. He spent his 
boyhood on Congress street, Portland, his mother s 
ancestral home, and began his school life at the age 
of three, attending a school kept by Mrs. Fellows. 
He entered a public school in Love Lane, Port 
land, in 1812, where he remained for a week, 
when he was removed by his parents to a private 
school kept by Mr. Wright and later by Mr. N. H. 
Carter. After attending Portland academy, 
1813-21, he entered Bowdoin college and during 
his course there contributed occasional poems to 
periodicals, his first printed verses, "The Battle 
of Lovell s Pond," appearing in the Portland Ga 
zette of Nov. 17, 1820. At the senior examina 
tion he made a translation from Horace which 
was warmly approved by one of the college 
trustees. Mr. Benjamin Orr, who recommended 
young Longfellow for a proposed chair of modern 
languages. The trustees provisionally approved 
the proposal, stipulating that Longfellow fit 



[115] 



LONGFELLOW 



LONGFELLOW 



himself for the position in Europe. Accordingly 
after spending the winter of 1825-26 in rest at his 
Portland home, reading a little in his father s 
law office, on May 13, 1826, he sailed for Havre-de- 
Grace. He studied and traveled in France, Spain, 
Germany, Italy and England, and returned home 
in July, 1829, on receiving the news of the death 
of his sister Elizabeth. On the opening of the 
term at Bowdoin college in 1829. instead of the 
expected professorship lie was offered the posi 
tion of instructor, which he rejected. At a 
meeting of the board of trustees on Sept. 1, 1829, 
it was voted to create the chair and elect him 
professor with a salary of $800, which was after 
ward raised to $1000, a full professor s salary. 
He was also appointed librarian for one year 
with a salary of $100. He held both of these posi 
tions until 1835, taught four modern languages 
and prepared his own text-books in French, 
Spanish and Italian. He began to contribute to 
the North American Review in April, 1831, arti 
cles on the origin and progress of the French, 
Spanish and Italian languages and literature and 
also original translations. On the establishment 
of the New England Magazine by Joseph T. Buck 
ingham in 1831, he sent to the opening number 
the first of a series called "The Schoolmaster" 
which were scenes from his travels in France. 
They were the first sketches of his " Outre Mer." 
He was married Sept. 14, 1831, to Mary Storer, 
daughter of Judge Barrett and Anne (Storer) 
Potter of Portland, Maine. She is commemo 
rated in Longfellow "Footsteps of Angels "as 

" the Being Beauteous 
Who unto my youth was given 
More than all things else to love me, 
And is now a saint in heaven." 

They began housekeeping on Federal street, 
Brunswick, Maine, where Professor Longfellow 
attended his classes and continued his literary 
work. In 1833 he published his first book " Coplas 
<le Don Jorge Manrique," a translation from the 
Spanish, with an original essay. His second 
book, " Outre-Mer," was written somewhat after 
the style of Irving s " Sketch-Book " which 
had been Longfellow s favorite book when a 
boy. In December, 1834, he received a letter 
from President Josiah Quincy, offering him the 
professorhip of modern languages at Harvard col 
lege, Professor Ticknor, who was about to resign 
his chair, having recommended him as his 
successor. When Longfellow accepted, it was 
suggested that he visit Europe for the purpose of 
perfecting himself in the German and Scandina 
vian tongues and he resigned from Bowdoin and 
in April, 1835, set sail with his wife for England, 
:md thence, a few weeks later, went to Norway 
and Sweden. Late in the autumn he settled in 
Rotterdam, Holland, where his wife and child 
died Nov. 29, 1835. He passed the winter of 



1835-36 in Heidelberg, Germany, where he met 
Bryant and his family. The spring and summer 
of 1836 were spent chiefly in Switzerland and 
the Tyrol, and at Interlachen he met Frances 
Appleton, who afterward became his wife. He 
reached home in November, 1836, and in Decem 
ber was established as Smith professor of French 
and Spanish languages and literatures and belles 
lettres at Harvard. He continued his contribu 
tions to the periodicals, and in 1839 published 
" Hyperion : a Romance " which was inspired by 
Miss Appleton, who is pictured therein as " Mary 










LOAICFE.LLOW 3 HOME.,<A/AB Rl PCE.. 

Ashburton." In March, 1837, Nathaniel Haw 
thorne, a classmate of Longfellow s at Bowdoin, 
sent to Longfellow his " Twice-told Tides " which 
he noticed in the North American Review of July, 
1837, and was thus among the first to recognize 
Hawthorne s genius. In this year he also formed 
a strong and lasting friendship with Cornelius C. 
Felton, George S. Hilliard, Henry R. Cleveland 
and Charles Sumner. They called themselves 
the "Five of Clubs "and earned for themselves 
the sobriquet of the " Mutual Admiration So 
ciety." "The Psalm of Life" appeared anony 
mously in The Knickerbocker Magazine, in 1838, 
and was republished in Longfellow s first volume 
of poems, " The Voices of the Night," in 1839. 
He became a contributor to Graham s Magazine 
in 1841. In the spring of 1842 he obtained a six 
months leave of absence and made a third visit 
to Europe. He was entertained in London for 
two weeks by Charles Dickens, and at Marien- 
berg-on-the-Rhine, where he spent the summer, 
he made the acquaintance of the German poet 
Freiligrath, which ripened into friendship and 
lasted until the latter s death. He was married, 
July 13, 1843, to Frances Elizabeth, daughter of 
Nathan and Maria Theresa (Gold) Appleton, and 
as a wedding gift Mr. Appleton presented to 
them Craigie House and estate, where the poet 
had lived since 1837. The subject of " Evange- 
line, a Tale of Acadia " (1847), was a, gift from 
Hawthorne to Longfellow. This is considered 
Longfellow s representative poem and was his 



[11G] 



LONGFELLOW 



LONGFELLOW 



favorite among his own writings. Holmes likened 
it to some " exquisite symphony." He resigned 
his chair at Harvard in 1854, and at his suggestion 
James Russell Lowell was elected to fill the va 
cancy. "Hiawatha; an Indian Edda," which 
appeared in 1850, is said to be his most genuine 
addition to American literature, and lias been 
translated into nearly all of the modern languages 
and into Latin. The poem won immediate rec 
ognition in Europe, and within four weeks of its 
publication ten thousand copies had been sold. 
When the Atlantic Monthly was established in 
1857 Longfellow became a contributor. A sad 
accident befell Mrs. Longfellow on the afternoon 
of Tuesday, July 9, 1861. A bit of burning wax 
from which she was making seals for her children, 
fell on her dress and she was immediately envel 
oped in flames and died on the following day. 
Her husband in trying to smother the flames re 
ceived serious injuries himself. The shock of her 
death sadly affected the poet, who once remarked 
to a friend "I was too happy. I might fancy 
the gods envied me, if I could fancy heathen 
gods." Mrs. Longfellow left five children : 
Charles Appleton, a lieutenant in the 1st Massa 
chusetts cavalry during the civil war ; Ernest 
Wadsworth, the artist (q.v.), and three daughters, 
Alice, Edith and Annie, who were the " blye-eyed 
banditti " of his " Children s Hour." The poet 
had commenced a translation of Dante s " The 
Divine Comedy " during the early years of his 
Harvard professorship, and after his wife s deatli 
found solace in the completion of the work. 
This was regarded by many critics as the best 
translation in the English language. He visited 
Europe for the fourth time in 1868, and while in 
England had an interview with Queen Victoria 
at Windsor Castle on July 4, 1868, and was en 
tertained by Tennyson at the Isle of Wight. He 
spent the winter and spring of 1868-69 in Italy, 
again made a brief stay in England, and returned to 
his home in Cambridge in August, 1859. For " The 
Hanging of the Crane", which firstappeared in 
the New York Ledger in 1874, Longfellow received 
$4000. In 1875, with the assistance of John Owen, 
Mr. Longfellow began to edit a collection of 
poems, to which was given the title " Poems of 
Places" (1876-79), and after Senator Simmer s 
deatli he assisted in editing the remaining six 
volumes of the fifteen containing " The Works of 
Charles Snmner." On Feb. 27, 1879, the occasion 
of the poet s seventy-second birthday, the chil 
dren of Cambridge presented him with an arm 
chair constructed from the wood of the old 
chestnut tree, made famous by his poem "The 
Village Blacksmith." He responded to this gift 
in that tender and touching poem, entitled 
" From My Arm-chair." His seventy-fifth birth 
day was generally celebrated all over the United 



States, especially by the school children. Charles 
Kingsley said of Longfellow : " His face was the 
mirror of his harmonious and lovely mind I do 
not think I ever saw a finer human face." He 
has been called the " American poet laureate." 
He was an honorary member of the Historical and 
Geographical society of Brazil, a corresponding 
member of the Imperial Academy of Sciences, 
St. Petersburg, and of the Royal Academy of 
Spain; a fellow of the American Academy of 
Arts and Sciences and a member of the Massa 
chusetts Historical society. A bust to his mem 
ory was placed in the poets corner at Westminster 
Abbey in March, 1884, he being the first and up to 
1901 the only American author to be so honored. 
Longfellow Park was given to Cambridge by 
his children, and a monument to his memory 
was erected in Portland, Maine. His name was 
one of the twenty-three in " Class A, Authors 
and Editors" submitted in October, 1900, fora 
place in the Hall of Fame for Great Americans, 
New York university, and received eighty-five 
out of ninety-seven possible votes, Emerson alone 
in the class exceeding with eighty-seven votes, 
Irving and Hawthorne receiving eighty-three 
and seventy-three votes respectively, and the four 
names were selected. He received the degree of 
LL.D. from Harvard in 1859. from Cambridge, 
England, in 1868, and from Bowdoin in 1874; 
and that of D.C.L. from Oxford, England, 
in 1869. The following is a list of the prin 
cipal works of Longfellow : Capias de Don Jorge 
Manrique (1833); Outre-Mer (1835); Hyperion 
(1839); Voices of the Night (1839); Ballads and 
Other Poems (1841); Poems on Slavery (1842); 
Spanish Student (1843); Poets and Poetry of 
Europe (1845); Belfry of Bruges (1846); Evange- 
line (1847): Kavanagh (1849); Seaside and the 
Fireside (1850); Golden Legend (1851); Hiawatha 
(1855) ; Miles Standish (1858) ; Tales of a Wayside 
/>m(1863); Floiver-de-Luce (1867); Divine Comedy 
of Dante Alighieri (1867-70); New England Tra 
gedies (1868); Divine Tragedy (1871); Three 
Books of Song (1872); Christus (1872): Aftermath 
(1873); Hanging of the Crane (1874); Masque of 
Pandora (1875); Keramos (1878); Ultima Thnle 
(1880); In the Harbor (part II. of Ultima Thule 
1883); Michael Angela (1884). Biographies of 
Longfellow have been written by Thomas David 
son (1882); Francis H. Underwood (1882); W. 
Sloane Kennedy (1882); George Lowell Austin 
(1883); Samuel Longfellow (1885); Eric S. Rob 
ertson (London, 1887), and others. Longfellow 
died at his Cambridge home of peritonitis, and 
at the funeral services were read the verses from 
" Hiawatha" beginning : " He is dead, the sweet 
musician." Fields. Holmes, Emerson and Whit- 
tier were among the mourners. The date of his 
death iy March 24, 1882. 



U17] 



LONGFELLOW 



LONGSTREET 




LONGFELLOW, Samuel, clergyman and 
poet, was born at Portland, Maine. June 18, 1819 ; 
son of the Hon. Stephen and Zilpah (Wadsworth) 
Longfellow. IIt> was graduated from Harvard, 
A.B., 1839, and from the Harvard Divinity school 
in 184(5. He travel 
ed two years, was 
pastor of the Uni 
tarian church in Fall 
River, Mass., 1848- 
53, and of the Second 
Unitarian church, 
Brooklyn. N.Y.. 1853- 
GO, where he was a 
regular contributor 
to the Christian In 
quirer. He traveled 
in Europe for rest 
and study : made his 
home in Cambridge, 
Mass.. 1S61-7S. and 
was pastor of the 

Unitarian Society of Germantown. Pa.. 1S7S-82. 
He spent the rest of his life at the Craigie house, 
Cambridge. Mass. His rare gift of song was de 
voted almost exclusively to hymn writing. He 
was a member of the American Philosophical 
society. He is the author of : essays contributed 
to the Radical ; sermons published in pamphlet 
form : .4 Bonk of Hymns (with Samuel Johnson, 
184(5); Thalatta, a Bonk for the Seaside (with 
Thomas W. Higginson. 1853); Hi/mutt and Times 
for Congregational Use (1859); a small volume 
for the vesper service which lie introduced into 
the Unitarian denomination ; Hi/mns of the 
Spirit (with Samuel Johnson, 18(54); Lectures, 
Esxai/s and Sermons of SamneJ Johnson, with 
a Memoir (edited, 188:5); Life of Henri/ Wads- 
irortli Loitf/fclloir ( 2 vols.. 1SS6): ^4 Few Verses 
of Many Years (1887); Final Memorials of Henri/ 
W. Long/felloir (1887). A complete collection of 
his hymns and other poems was published in 
1894. He died in Portland, Maine, Oct. 3, 1892. 

LONGFELLOW, Stephen, lawyer, was born 
in Gorharn, Maine, March 2-3, 177G ; son of 
Stephen and Patience (Young) Longfellow ; 
grandson of Stephen and Tabitha (Brougham) 
Longfellow, and a descendant of William Long 
fellow, of Hosforth, England, who settled in 
Newbury, Mass., about 1G75, where he was mar 
ried, Nov. 10, 1678, to Annie, daughter of Henry 
and Jane (Dummer) Sewall. Stephen Longfellow 
spent his early youth on his father s farm, and 
was graduated from Harvard in 1798. He stud 
ied law with Salmon Chase of Portland, Maine ; 
was admitted to the bar in 1801, and settled in 
Portland, Maine, where he soon gained a good 
practice. He was married, Jan. 1, 1804, to Zil 
pah, daughter of General Peleg and Elizabeth 



(Bartlett) Wadswortli of Portland. He was a 
representative to the general court of Massachu 
setts, 1814-15, and a delegate to the Hartford 
convention, Dec. 15, 1814 Jan. 5, 1815. He was 
a presidential elector in is 115, and cast his vote 
for Rufus King. He was a member of the state 
constitutional convention in 1819; a Federalist 
representative in the 18th congress, 1823-25, and 
represented his district in the Maine legislature 
in 182G. He was an overseer of Bowdoin college, 
1811-17. was a trustee. 181 7-3(5. and received the 
degree of LL.D. fro -;i that college in 1828. H e 
was recording secretary of the Maine Historical 
society, 1825-30. and its president in 1834. He 
compiled sixteen volumes of Massachusetts and 
twelve of Maine Reports. He died in Portland, 
Maine. Aug. 3, 1849. 

LONGNECKER, Henry Clay, representative, 
was born near Mechanicsburg, Cumberland 
county, Pa., April 17. 1820; son of Henry and 
Elizabeth (Kendig) Longnecker. He was a stu 
dent at Wilbraham academy, Mass., 183(5-39, and 
at the Norwich Military institute, 1839-41. and 
in 1841 matriculated at Lafayette college, Easton, 
Pa., but was not graduated. He was admitted 
to the bar in 1843, and in 1S44 settled in practice 
in Lehigh county. He served in the Mexican 
war as a 1st lieutenant, captain and adjutant, 
participating in all the principal engagements 
under General Scott, and was wounded at the 
battle of Chapultepec, Sept. 13, 1847. He was 
district attorney of Lehigh county. 1849-50, and 
a delegate to the Democratic state conventions 
of 1851 and 1854. In I Soli he left the Democratic 
party on account of his opposition to slavery ex 
tension. He was a Republican representative in 
the 36th congress, 1859-(51. and while in congress 
served on the committee <^n military affairs, lie 
took an active part in organizing the Pennsylva 
nia troops, and was made colonel of the 9th 
Pennsylvania volunteers : commanded a brigade 
in western Virginia, and in 1SG5 he resumed his 
practice at A Hen town, Pa. He was married, June 
27, 18(56. to Mary J. Lewis. He was elected asso 
ciate judge of Lehigh county in 18(57. He was a 
member of the Union League club of Philadel 
phia and of the Loyal Legion. He received the 
honorary degree of A.M. from Lafayette in 1S51. 
He died at Allentown. Pa.. Sept. 16. 1871. 

LONGSTREET, Augustus Baldwin, educator, 
was born in Augusta. Ga. . Sept. 22, 1790 ; son of 
William Longstreet the inventor. He was grad 
uated from Yale in the class of 1813, studied 
law in Litchfield, Conn., and was admitted to 
the Georgia bar in 1H15. He practised in Greens 
boro, Ga., 1815-22 ; was a representative in the 
Georgia legislature from Greene county in 1821, 
and circuit judge of the Ocmulgee judicial district 
for several years. lie removed to Augusta, Ga., 



[118] 



LONGSTREET 



LONGSTREET 



where he resumed his law practice and established 
a weekly newspaper, the Sentinel, which was 
united with the Chronicle as the Chronicle and 
Sentinel in 1838. He became a minister of the 
Methodist Episcopal church in 1838, and preached 
in Augusta and ministered to the sufferers from 
the epidemic of yellow fever that visited the city 
that year. He was president of Emory college, 
Oxford, Ga., 1839-48: of Centenary college, 
Jackson. La., 1848-49, and of the University of 
Mississippi. Oxford, Miss., 1849-50. He engaged in 
agricultural pursuits, 1850-57, and was president 
of South Carolina college, 1857-01, and again pres 
ident of the University of Mississippi as successor 
to Frederick A. P. Barnard for a short time in 
1801. His library with valuable unpublished MS. 
was destroyed by fire during the civil war. He 
took part in the debate in the general conference 
of 1844 in New York city which resulted in 
the separation of the Methodist church north and 
south. He received the honorary degrees : A.M. 
from the University of Georgia in 1823, LL.D. 
from Yale in 1841 and D.D. from the University 
of Mississippi in 1850. The Methodist Quarterly, 
The Southern Literary Messenger, The Southern 
Field and Fireside, The Magnolia and J7ie Orion 
published his Letters to Clergymen of the North 
ern Methodist Church, Letters from Georgia to 
Massachusetts, and A Revieir in the Decision of 
the United States Supreme Court in the Case of 
McCulloch vs. the State of Maryland: and he is 
also the author of : Georgia Scenes (1840). and 
Master William Mitten (1804). humorous pro 
ductions. He died in Oxford. Miss., Sept. 9, 1870. 
LONQSTREET, James, soldier, was born in 
EdgehYld District, S.C.. Jan. 8. 1821 : son of 
James and Mary Ann (Dent) Longstreet ; grand 
son of William and Hannah (Randolph) Long- 
street, and a descend 
ant of the Long- 
streets and Randolphs 
of New Jersey and 
of the Dents and 
Marshalls of Mary 
land and Virginia. 
Richard Longstreet, 
the progenitor of the 
name in America, 
settled in Monmouth 
county, New Jersey. 
James Longstreet re 
moved with his par 
ents to Alabama in 
1831 and was gradu 
ated from the U.S. 

Military academy in 1842. He was promoted 
in the army as brevet 2d lieutenant of the 4th 
infantry. July 1. 1X42, ami served in garrison at 
Jefferson Barracks, Mo., 1842-44 ; on frontier duty 




at Natchitoches, La., 1844-45 ; was promoted 2d 
lieutenant of the 8th infantry, March 4, 1845 ; 
was in military occupation of Texas, 1845-46, and 
served in the war with Mexico. 1840-47. He 
participated in the battle of Palo Alto, May 8, 
1840 ; the battle of Resaca de la Pal ma, May 9, 
1846; and the battle of Monterey, Sept. 21-23, 
1840 ; was promoted first lieutenant, 8th infan 
try, Feb. 23, 1847, and participated in the siege of 
Vera Cruz, March 9-29, 1847 ; the battle of Cerro 
Gordo, April 17-18, 1847 ; the capture of San An 
tonio, and the battle of Churubusco, Aug. 20, 1847 ; 
the battle of Molino del Rey, Sept. 8, 1847 ; and 
the storming of Chapultepec, Sept. 13, 1847, where 
he was severely wounded in the assault on the 
fortified convent. He was brevetted captain, 
Aug. 20. 1847, for gallant and meritorious con 
duct in the battles of Churubusco and Contreras " 
and major, Sept. 8, 1847, " for gallant and meri 
torious conduct at the battle of Molino del Rey." 
He served as adjutant of the 8th infantry, 1847- 
49 ; was in garrison at Jefferson Barracks, 1848- 
49, and served on frontier duty in Texas in 1849. 
He was chief of commissariat of the Department 
of Texas, 1849-51, and served on scouting duty in 
Texas, Kansas and New Mexico, 1851-61. He was 
promoted captain Dec. 7, 1852, and major of staff 
and paymaster July 19, 1858. He resigned his 
commission in 1861 and was appointed briga 
dier-general in the Confederate army, and com 
manded a brigade at Blackburn s Ford, Va., from 
July 18 to and including July 21, 1861. He was 
promoted major-general and commanded the 
rear guard of Joseph E. Johnston s army during 
the retreat from Yorktown, Va. He commanded 
the Confederate forces in the field composed of 
his own and part of D. H. Hill s divisions and 
Stuart s cavalry brigade at the battle of Williams- 
burg, May 5, 1802, commanded the right wing of 
Johnston s army at Seven Pines, May 81 -June 1, 
1802 ; his own and A. P. Hill s divisions in the 
seven days battles before Richmond, and com 
manded the right wing of Lee s Army of Northern 
Virginia in the second battle of Bull Run, Aug. 
29-30, 1802; and in the Maryland campaign, Sep 
tember, 1862, the first corps (Confederate left) at 
the battle of Fredericksburg, Dec. 13, 1862. He 
was on duty south of the James river in April, 
1X03, and was ordered to rejoin General Lee at 
Chancellorsville, Va., but Lee, without awaiting 
his return, made precipitate battle May 2-4, 1863. 
He commanded the right wing of the Army of 
Northern Virginia at the battle of Gettysburg 
July 1-3. 1803. He served under General Bragg 
in the Army of the Tennessee and commanded the 
left wing of that army composed of Hindman s 
division, Polk s corps, Buckner s corps, and two 
divisions and artillery of Longstreet s corps, at the 
battle of Chickamauga, Sept. 19-20, 1803. He 



LONGSTREET 



LOOMIS 



was sent with part of bis corps and Wheeler s 
cavalry against Burnside s army in East Tennes 
see, in November, with orders to recover posses 
sion of that part of the state. He drove Burnside 
back into his works around Knoxville and held 
him there under siege from Nov. IT to Dec. 4, 
1863, when Sherman approached with twenty 
thousand of Grant s army, near Chattanooga, for 
relief of the besieged army. Bragg ordered pre 
cipitate attack of the fortifications but they 
proved too strong to be carried by assault. Just 
then orders came from President Davis for Long- 
street to return to Bragg s army in distress at 
Chattanooga. Longstreet held his army in pos 
session of East Tennessee, keeping the Federal 
forces close about their works, until January, 1864, 
when he was ordered to withdraw toward General 
Lee s army in Virginia, and he participated in the 
battle of the Wilderness, May 5-6, 1864, where he 
commanded the two divisions of the first corps 
forming the right of Lee s army and was severely 
wounded. After convalescing he participated in 
all the engagements of the Army of Northern 
Virginia in 1864, and surrendered at Appomattox 
Court House, Va., April 9, 1865. He removed to 
New Orleans and engaged in commerce. He was 
surveyor of customs of the port of New Orleans, 
1869 ; supervisor of internal revenue, 1878 ; post 
master of Gainesville, Ga., 1879, and was ap 
pointed by President Hayes U.S. minister to Tur 
key, serving 1880. He was U.S. marshal for the 
district of Georgia, 1881, and was appointed U.S. 
commissioner of railroads in October, 1897, by 
President McKinley. He was married March 8, 
1848, to Maria Louise Garland of Lynchburg, Va. 
She died Dec. 29, 1889 and he was married 
secondly Sept. 8, 1897, to Helen Dortch of Atlanta, 
Ga. He is the author of : The Seven Days, In 
cluding Frayser s Farm ; Our March Against Pope ; 
The Invasion of Maryland; The Battle of Fred- 
ricksburg ; Lee s Invasion of Pennsylvania ; Lee s 
Right Wing at Gettysburg in Battles and Lead 
ers of the Civil War " (1887-88). 

LONGSTREET, William, inventor, was born 
in New Jersey, Oct. 6, 1759. He removed to 
Augusta, Ga., in early life, devoted himself to 
invention, and about 1788 had planned the ma 
chinery for moving paddle-wheels to propel boats 
by steam power. On Sept. 26,1790, being con 
vinced of the practicability of his invention he 
sent to Governor Edward Telfair an appeal for 
assistance and patronage. The government of 
Georgia took no action in the matter, and he was 
compelled to work without money among people 
who ridiculed his plans. It was not until 1807 
that he succeeded in perfecting a steamboat, and 
putting it in practical operation. It was launched 
a few days after Fulton had shown the Clermont 
on the Hudson river, and Longstreet s boat moved 



against the swift current of the Savannah river 
at the rate of five miles an hour, and carried 
about twenty-five persons. He also invented and 
patented the horse power breast-roller cotton 
gin, and subsequently built two steams gins in 
Augusta, Ga., which about 1801 were destroyed 
by fire. He then erected steam gins at St. Mary s, 
Ga., which were destroyed by the British in 1812. 
He died in Augusta, Ga., Sept. 1, 1814. 

LONQYEAR, John Wesley, representative, 
was born in Shandaken, N.Y., Oct. 22, 1820 ; son 
of Peter and Jerusha (Stevens) Longyear ; grand 
son of John and Annatje (Winne) Longyear, and 
a descendant of Jacob and Maria (Cox) Langjahr. 
He attended the academy in Lima. N.Y., taught 
school for several years, and settled in Mason, 
Ingham county, Mich., in 1844, where he taught 
school. He was admitted to the bar in 1846 ; re 
moved to- Lansing in 1847 and engaged in the 
practice of law. In 1852 he formed a partnership 
with his brother, Ephraim Longyear. He was 
married in 1849 to Harriet Monroe of Eagle, 
Mich. He was a Republican representative in 
the 38th and 39th congresses, 1863-67. He was 
chairman of the committee on expenditures on 
the public buildings, and a member of the com 
mittee on commerce. lie was a delegate to the 
Loyalist convention in Philadelphia in 18G6, to- 
the Michigan constitutional convention of 1867 
and judge of the U.S. district court for the east 
ern district of Michigan, 1870-75. He died in 
Detroit, Mich., March 11, 1875. 

LOOMIS, Alfred Lebbeus, physician, was born 
in Bennington, Vt. , Oct. 16, 1831 ; son of Daniel 
and Eliza (Beach) Loomis ; grandson of Russell 
and Lydia (Huntington) Loomis ; great grand 
son of Daniel and Alice (Chamberlain) Loomis. 
and a descendant of Joseph Loomis of Bristol, 
England, who sailed for America on the ship- 
Susan and Ellen, in July, 1638, landed at Nantas- 
ket, Mass., the same year, and in 1839 settled in 
Windsor, Conn. His father was an extensive 
cotton manufacturer and merchant of Benning 
ton, Vt. Alfred was graduated from Union col 
lege, A.B., 1850, A.M., 1856. He studied medi 
cine with Dr. Willard Parker of New York and 
was graduated from the College of Physicians- 
and Surgeons, M.D., in 1852. After giving two 
years to hospital work, he engaged as a practis 
ing physician in New York city and made a 
specialty of the diseases of the heart, lungs and 
kidneys. He was appointed visiting physician, 
to Bellevue hospital in 1859 ; was consulting 
physician to the Charity hospital on Blackwell s- 
Island, 1860-75, and visiting physician to the 
Mount Sinai hospital, 1874-80. He was a lecturer 
on physical diagnosis in the College of Physicians 
and Surgeons, 1862-65; an adjutant professor of 
the theory and practice of medicine in the Uni- 



[120] 



LOOM1S 



LOOMIS 



versity of the City of New York, 1866-68, and 
professor of pathology and the practice of med 
icine there, 1868- .). ). He was among those of the 
medical faculty to re-organize the course of study 
in 1893. In 1866 the sum of $100.000 was given by 
some unknown person to the university through 
Dr. Loomis to build and equip the Loomis labora 
tory. Dr. Loomis was married in 1858 to Sarah 
J., daughter of Henry Patterson of Hoosick Falls, 
and secondly in 1887 to Anne M., daughter of 
Thomas II. Morris of Baltimore. Md.. and widow 
of John D. Prince. He was a member and presi 
dent of various medical societies in America and 
Europe. He received the degree of LL.D. from 
the University of the City of New York in 1883. 
Dr. Loomis bequeathed $ 25,000 to the Loomis 
laboratory and $10.000 to the New York Academy 
of Medicine. His " Lectures on Fever "appeared 
in the New York Mediad Record, and his lecture 
on "Peritonitis" in American Clinical Lectures 
in 1876. He is the author of : Physical Diagnosis 
(1868) ; Diseases of tlte Respiratory Organs. Heart 
and Kidneys (1876); Lectures on Fever (1882); 
Diseases of Old Age (18*2): A Te.rt-Book of 
Practical Medicine (1884). lie died in New York 
city, Jan. 23. 1895. 

LOOniS, Arphaxad, representative, was born 
in Winchester, Conn., April 9, 1798 : son of Thad- 
deus and Lois (Griswold) Loomis ; grandson of 
Ichabod and Mindwell (Lewis) Loomis, and of 
Phineas and Lois (Hurlburt) Griswold, and a de 
scendant of Joseph Loomis the immigrant. His 
parents removed to Salisbury, N.Y.. in 1802, where 
his father was for many years a justice of the 
peace, and assistant justice of the Herkimer 
county court. Arphaxad was employed on his 
fathers farm, attended the district school and 
taught shool in the winters of 1812-25, attending 
Fairfield Academy during the summers of 1812-18. 
He was admitted to the bar in 1825, practising at 
Sacket Harbor, 1825-27 and at Little Falls, 1827- 
85. He was married in 1832 to Ann, daughter of 
Dr. Stephen Todd of Salisbury, N.Y. He was 
surrogate of Herkimer county, 1828-37 ; a mem 
ber of a commission to investigate the policy, labor 
and discipline in state prisons, in 1834 ; a Demo 
cratic representative in the 25th congress, 1837- 
39. A member of the assembly from Herkimer 
county, 1841-43. a member of the state constitu 
tional convention of 184*5, and a commissioner to 
revise the code of practice in 1847. His defective 
hearing alone prevented his appointment to high 
judicial stations. He is the author of : Historical 
Sketch of the New York System of Laid Reform 
(1879). He died in Little Falls, N. Y., Sept, 15, 1885. 

LOOfllS, Dwight, representative, was born in 
Columbia, Conn., July 27, 1821; son of Elam 
and Mary (Pinneo) Loomis ; grandson of Benoni 
and Grace (Parsons) Loomis ; great grandson of 



[121] 



Benoni and Hannah (Woodward) Loomis and a 
descendant of Joseph Loomis the immigrant. 
He was a student at Amherst college and at Yale 
Law school, was admitted to the bar in 1847, and 
practised at Rockville, Conn., 1847-51. He was 
married Nov. 26, 1848, to Mary E. Bill of Leba 
non. Conn. She died June 1, 1864, and he was 
married secondly, May 28, 1866, to Jennie E. 
Kendell of Beloit, Wis., who died March 6, 1876. 
He was a representative in the Connecticut leg 
islature, 1852 : a delegate to the People s national 
convention, Philadelphia, June 17, 1856, and a 
state senator in 1858. He was a Republican re 
presentative from the first Connecticut district 
in the 36th and 37th congresses, 1859-63 ; judge 
of the superior court of Connecticut, 1864-75, and 
of the supreme court, 1875-91. He was appointed 
in 1891, by the state legislature, a state referee 
for the trial of causes referred to him ; was an 
instructor in law at the Yale Law school, 1891-93, 
and was appointed presiding judge of the state 
board of arbitration in 1895, which office he re 
signed in 1896. Yale conferred upon him the 
honorary degree of LL.D. in 1897. 

LOOniS, EHas, physicist, was born in Wil- 
lington, Conn., Aug. 7, 1811 ; son of the Rev. 
Hubbel and Jerusha (Burt) Loomis ; grandson of 
John and Rachel (Harris) Loomis, and of David 
Burt of Longmeadow, Mass., and a descendant of 
Joseph Loomis, the 
immigrant. He was 
graduated from Yale, 
A.B., 1830, A.M., 18- 
33, and wos a tutor 
at Yale, 1833-36. In 
1834 he began mak 
ing observations with 
Albert C. Twining of 
West Point, N.Y., 
for determining the 
altitude of shooting 
stars, and in the same 
year made hourly ob 
servations of the de 
clination of the mag 
netic needle. He dis 
covered Haley s comet in 1835, and computed 
the elements of its orbit. He attended t he- 
lectures of Arago, Biot. and others in Paris, 
in 1836. He was married in Tallmadge, Ohio, 
May 14, 1840, to Julia E. Upson. He was pro 
fessor of mathematics, natural philosophy and 
astronomy in Western Reserve college, Ohio, 
1837-44 ; professor of natural philosophy in t he- 
University of the City of New York, 1844-48, and 
1849-60 ; at the College of New Jersey, 1848-49 ; 
and Munson professor of natural philosophy and 
astronomy at Yale. 1860-89. He purchased the 
philosophical and meteorological instruments for 




LOOMIS 



LOOMIS 



Western Reserve college in Europe and with 
them observed 260 moon culminations for lon 
gitude : .sixty-nine culminations of polaris for 
latitude : sixteen occultations of stars, and de 
termined the orbits of five comets. He also ob 
served the dip of the magnetic needle at over 
seventy stations located in thirteen states. He 
was employed in telegraphic comparisons with 
Sears < . Walker in determining the difference in 
longitude, 1846-49, determining that between 
New York and Washington in 1847 ; between 
New York and Cambridge, Mass.. in 1848, and 
between Philadelphia and the observatory in 
Hudson, Ohio. While professor in the University 
of the City of New York, he prepared a series of 
mathematical text books. The first observations 
by which the velocity of the electric fluid on 
telegraphic wires was determined, were made by 
him between Washington, Philadelphia, New 
York and Cambridge under the direction of Sears 
C. Walker, he having charge of the observations 
in New York Jan. 25), 18-19. He devoted a large 
part of his time after 1860 to original research 
and published " Contributions to Meteorology " in 
the American Journal of Science. He was elected 
a member of the National Academy of Sciences, 
the Royal Irish academy, the Royal Meteorolog 
ical society, London, the Royal Meteorological 
society of Italy, and the leading scientific socie 
ties in the United States. He bequeathed the 
income of 300,000 to the astronomical observa 
tory connected with Yale university. In the 
selection of names for a place in the Hall of Fame 
for Great Americans, New York university, 
made in October, 1900. his was one of the fifteen 
names in " Class C, Educators "and received two 
votes. He received the degree of LL.D. from 
the University of the City of New York in 1854. 
He is the author of : Elements of Geometry and 
Conic Sections (1847); of Plain and Spherical 
Trigonometry (1848): Progress of Astronomy 
(1830 and 1856); Elements of Analytical Geome 
try ( 1851); Elements of Calculus (1851); An In 
troduction to Practical Astronomy (1855): Ele 
ments of Xatnral PliilosopJty (1858); Elements of 
Algebra (1858); Elements of Plain and Spherical 
Trigonometry (1858); Elements of Arithmetic 
(1868); Treatise on Astronomy (1865); Treatise 
on Algebra (1868) ; Treatise on Meteorology (1868) ; 
Elements of Astronomy (1869); The Descendants 
of Joseph Loom is (1870): Elements of Differential 
and Integral Calculus (1874). He died in New 
Haven. Conn., Aug. 15. 1889. 

OOniS, Francis Butler, diplomatist, was 
born in Marietta, Ohio. July 27. 1861 : son of Judge 
William Butler and Frances (Wheeler) Loomis ; 
grandson of Christopher C. Loomis, of New Lon 
don, Ct.. and a descendant from Joseph Loomis, 
1638. He was graduated at Marietta college, 



Ph.D., 1883, and engaged in journalism in Ma 
rietta, 1883-84, and in New York city and Phila 
delphia, 1884-85. He was state librarian, Colum 
bus, Ohio, 1886-87 ; a journalist in Washington, 
D.C., 1887-90 ; U.S. consul at St. Etienne, France. 
185)0-93 ; and editor-in-chief of the Cincinnati 
Daily Tribune, 1893-97. He was married April 29, 
1897, to Elizabeth M. Mast of Springfield, Ohio. He 
was appointed by President McKinley, U.S. minis 
ter to Venezuela, S.A., June 30. 1897, where In- 
protected American interests through several re 
volutions, commenced negotiations for an ex 
tradition treaty, urged a reciprocity convention, 
and arranged for parcel-post communication. He 
was promoted to Lisbon, Portugal, June 17, 1901, 
in recognition of his work. 

LOOMIS, George, educator, was born in At 
tica, N.Y., June 30, 1817; son of Timothy and 
Sophronia (Collier) Loomis and a descendant 
of Joseph Loomis, the immigrant. He was 
graduated at Wesleyan university, A.B., 1842, 
A.M., 1845; was teacher of natural sciences and 
principal of Genesee Wesleyan seminary, Lima, 
N.Y., 1842-48, and missionary at Seaman s 
chapel, Canton, China, 1845-52. He was married 
Oct. 29. 1851, to Eveline P. Smith. He was 
president of the Wesleyan Female college, Wil 
mington, Del. ,1852-60, and president of Allegheny 
college, Meadville, Pa. ,1860-74, during which time 
he built in 1864 Culver Hall furnishing dormi 
tories to one hundred students, and admitted girls 
as students in 1870. He joined the Pittsburgh 
conference of the M.E. church, 1861 : was trans 
ferred to the Central New York conference, 1875, 
and was stationed at Clifton Springs, N.Y., 
1875-81. He founded and became principal of 
Foster school, Clifton Springs, in 1881. He re 
ceived the degree of U.I), from Genessee college 
in 1860 and was a trustee of Wesleyan universitv, 
1881-86. He died at Clifton Springs, Feb. 26, 1886. 

LOOniS, Justin Rolph, educator, was born in 
Bennington, N.Y., Aug. 21, 1810; son of Justin 
and Mary (Rolph) Loomis and a descendant of 
Joseph Loomis, the immigrant. He was prepared 
for college at the Hamilton Literary and Theo 
logical institution (Colgate nniversit} ); com 
pleted his course at Brown university with the 
class of 1835, and received his A.B. degree there* 
in 1836. He taught school at Pawtuxet, R.I., 
1835-36 ; was tutor in chemistry and natural 
history at Waterville (Colby) college, Maine, 
1886-38, and professor of the same subjects there, 
1888-52. He was ordained to the Baptist ministry 
Jan. 8, 1S45. While at \Yattrvil1e college he at 
tended medical lectures in Philadelphia, Pa., and 
in the trial of Dr. Coolidge charged with causing 
the death of Mr.Mathews by administering prussic 
acid, his expert evidence as a chemist convicted 
Dr. Coolidge. lie spent nearly a year in scientitic 



LOOMIS 



LOOMLS 




explorations through Bolivia, Peru, and Chile in 
1853 ; was professor of natural science in the 
University at Lewisburg (Bucknell university), 
1854-58, and president of the university, with the 
professorship of philosophy and ethics, 1858-79. 

In 1864-65 he raised 
$100,000 for addition 
al endowment of that 
university, and in 
1878 accomplished at 
his own expense the 
grading of the col 
lege campus. He 
joined the 28th Penn 
sylvania volunteer 
militia as a private 
and served as chap 
lain of the regiment 
during the emergency 
of Lee s invasion of 
1862. The next year 
he served as nurse 
and surgeon on the Gettysburg battlefield. In 
April, 1870, he was a delegate to the National 
Baptist Educational convention in Brooklyn, 
N.Y. Before this body he read a paper on an 
assigned topic, which paper was published in 
full in the Pi-oceediiigs of that year. Besides 
drawing the working plans of the Baptist church 
edifice at Lewisburg, Pa. (dedicated in June, 
1870), and superintending, free of all charge, the 
erection of the same, he was the largest single 
contributor to its building fund. He was ap 
pointed by President Grant in 1870 a member of 
the board of examiners to the U.S. Military aca 
demy for 1871, but absence in Europe and Asia, 
1871-72, prevented him from serving. In 1879 he 
made an extended stay in Paris, and in 1889 
again traveled in England and on the continent. 
He received the honorary degree of A.M. from 
Waterville college in 1838 : that of Ph.D. from 
Lewisburg university in 1854, and that of LL.D. 
from Rochester university in 1858. He was mar 
ried Jan. 16, 1838, to Sarah Anne, daughter of 
Moses Freeman. She died March 3, 1852. He was 
married secondty, Jan. 17, 1854, to Mary, daughter 
of Deacon Edward Gilbert. She died July 16, 
1872. He was married thirdly, Aug. 20, 1873, to 
Augusta, daughter of the Rev. Charles Tucker. 
His eldest son, Freeman, A.B., 1866, A.M., 1868, 
D.B., 1868, Ph.D., 1889, became a professor of 
modern languages and literature in Lewisburg 
university in 1871. President Loomis was the 
author of various essays, lectures, pamphlets, ser 
mons and scientific articles on current political, 
literary, and educational topics published in 
newspapers ; and of Elements of Geology (1852) 
and Elements of Anatomy and Physiology (1853). 
He died at Lesvisburg, Pa., June 22, 1898. 



LOOMIS, Lafayette Charles, educator, was 
born in Coventry, Conn., July 7, 1824 ; son of 
Silas and Esther (Case) Loomis, and a descendant 
of Israel Loomis, three of whose sons served in 
the Continental army, 1776-84 ; of Sergeant Ben 
jamin Case, minute-man and neighbor of Capt. 
Nathan Hale, and of Joseph Loomis. the immi 
grant. He was graduated from Wesleyan uni 
versity, A.B., 1844, A.M., 1847, and was the co- 
founder and associate principal with his brother 
Silas L. Loomis of the Adelphian academy at Broc- 
ton, Mass., 1844-50, one of the first academies in 
New England to be conducted independent of ec 
clesiastical supervision and control. He was a 
teacher in Mount Hollis seminary, Holliston, 
Mass., in 1851 ; vice-principal of the Irving insti 
tute at Tarry town, N.Y., in 1852, and principal 
in 1853. He was professor of natural science and 
belles-lettres in Wesleyan Female college, Wil 
mington, Del., 1854-57 ; president of the college, 
1857-58. and principal of Lafayette institute, 
Washington, D.C., 1859-63. He was graduated 
from Georgetown college, D.C., M.D., 1863 ; and 
was acting assistant surgeon of the Army of the 
Potomac in 1864. He was president of Wheeling 
Female college, West Virginia, 1865-68 ; and pro 
fessor of physiology at Howard university, Wash 
ington, D.C., in 1868. He studied and traveled in 
Europe, 1875-95, and occasionally lectured on art. 
He was married Oct. 1, 1847, to Esther Lucretia, 
daughter of Calvin Lincoln of Holliston, Mass., 
and secondly Oct. 20, 1870, to Mary, daughter of 
Dr. Thomas Williams of Canandaigua, N.Y. He 
is the author of : Mizpah, Prayer and Friendship) 
(1858); Mental and Social Culture (1867), which 
was subsequently printed for the blind; Index 
Guide to Travel and Art in Europe (1882); My 
self: the Great Teacliers of Mankind on the Na 
ture of Mind and the Laws of Life ; The Foimders, 
Defenders and Benefactors of the Great Republic 
(MS. 1901), and contributions to magazines. 

LOOfllS, Mahlon, inventor, was born in Op- 
penheim. N.Y., July 21, 1826; son of Nathan and 
Waitie J. (Barber) Loomis ; grandson of the Rev. 
Josiah and Susannah (Howes) Loomis, and a des 
cendant through Dyer and Nathaniel from Jona 
than Loomis. He was graduated from the Penn 
Medical Institute, Philadelphia, Pa., M.D. and 
D.D.S. after studying under Dr. Joseph Pan- 
coast (q. v.). He invented a combination of 
teeth and plate in one solid piece and all of the 
same material, which he patented in the United 
States and Europe. He practised dentistry 
first in western New York and then in Proc 
tor county, Va. In 1865 lie perfected plans for 
telegraphing without wires between distant 
points, and called his discovery or invention the 
Aerial Telegraph. In 1868 he successfully de 
monstrated the practicability of wireless tele- 



[123J 



LOOMIS 



LOOP 



graphy by establishing communication between 
the peaks of two prominent mountains in the 
Blue Ridge. Va., eighteen miles apart. He then 
made efforts to raise a sum of money sufficient to 
demonstrate his plan in the Rocky Mountains 
between Mount Hood and Mount Shasta, one hun 
dred miles apart, but in this he was not success 
ful. He lectured on his discovery in Washington 
and other cities and with the means thus pro 
cured visited Chicago where he was promised the 
necessary capital when the fire of 1871 impover 
ished his patrons. He returned to Washington 
and experimented on telegraphing between ves 
sels in the Chesapeake bay, t\vo miles apart by 
connecting the telegraphic instruments with the 
water by wire submerged to different depths so as 
to secure a circuit through strata of relative de 
grees of temperature. He also succeeded in tele 
graphing between moving trains of cars. He ap 
plied to congress for an appropriation of $50.000, 
but the bill which was introduced by Senator 
Simmer in January. 1869. reposed in the com 
mittee 0:1 patents and was indefinitely postponed. 
He obtained letters patent for his invention. July 
30, 1872, and a bill was passed by both houses to 
incorporate the Loomis Aerial Telegraph com 
pany in 1873. From this time until his death Dr. 
Loomis struggled in vain and single-handed to 
win recognition for his invention. He died at 
Terra Alta, Preston county, W.Va., in 1884. 

LOOfllS, Silas Lawrence, educator, was born 
in Coventry, Conn., May 22, 1822; son of 
Silas and Esther (Case) Loomis ; grandson of 
Daniel and Mary (Hibbard) Loomis ; great grand 
son of Daniel and Mary (Sprague) Loomis. and a 
descendant of Joseph 
Loomis, the immi 
grant. He prepared 
for college, was in 
structor in mat he 
matics and natural 
science at Ho! listen 
academy, Mass., and 
entered Wesleyan 
university, where he 
was graduated in 
1844. He was as 
sociate principal of 
Adelphian academy 
at Brockton, Mass., 
1 845-52 ; teacher of 
mathematics at Dun- 
barton academy, D.C., in 1854, and principal 
of Western academy, Washington, D.C., 1855-59. 
He was married Jan. 22, 1847, to Betsy Ann, 
daughter of Daniel Tidd, who died in 1850, and 
secondly, May 28, 1851 .to Abigail C., daughter of 
Isaac Paine. He was graduated from George 
town college, D.C., M.D., 1856; was astronomer 




to the lake coast survey, 1857, and professor of 
physiology in the medical department of George 
town college, 1859-60. He was special instructor 
in mathematics to the U.S. naval cadets while on 
a cruise in 1860 ; and was professor of chemistry 
and toxicology at Georgetown college, 1861-67, 
serving meantime as surgeon on the staff of 
General McClella.ii in 1862. and as acting assist 
ant surgeon in hospitals in Washington. 1863- 
65. He was a professor of the practice of medicine 
in the medical department of Howard university, 
Washington. D.C.. in 1867; dean of Howard uni 
versity, 1867-69. and professor of chemistry and 
toxicology there. 1S68-72. He was president of 
the department of physics and chemistry in the 
American Union Academy of Literature. Science 
and Art at Washington, JM69-73, and presi 
dent of the institution in 1872. He practised 
medicine in Washington. 1873-77 ; was president 
of the Swede Iron and Coal company. 1877-81, 
and while so engaged discovered a process by 
which the ores of chronium. theretofore value 
less, were utilized, and he organized and was 
the first president of the Massiquoit Chrome 
company, 1879-81. He discovered a process and 
invented machinery for producing a textile fab 
ric from palmetto, and organized and was presi 
dent of the Palm Fibre company at Washington, 
D.C., 1878-81. In 1880 he invented improve 
ments in areometers. He was president of the 
Washington Scientific association in 1862 ; mem 
ber of the American Medical association. 1862- 
72 ; a delegate to the convention of American 
medical colleges in 1807; chairman of a special 
committee to examine the mathematical and 
chemical instruments to lie used in the revenue 
service, and a delegate to the decennial convention 
for the revision of the United States pharmacopeia 
in 1870. He is the author of : Xonim! Aritiinie- 
f/c(1859); Antt1i/ticnl Arithmetic (1S60); Key to 
the Xonnul Course of A ritli met ic ( 1 867) . He died 
in Fernandina, Fla., June 22, 1896. 

LOOP, Henry Augustus, artist, was born at 
Hillsdale, Columbia county, X.Y., Sept. 9. 1831 ; 
son of George H. and Angelica Malcolm (Down 
ing) Loop, and a descendant of Gerlach Lenpp 
(Holland), who came to New Amsterdam the latter 
part of the seventeenth century. He attended 
school at Great Barrington, Mass., and studied 
art in 1850 with Henry Peters Gray in New York 
city; in 1856 with Thomas Couture in Paris, 
France, and in 1857 in Rome, Venice and 
Florence. He opened a studio in New York 
city, where his professional life was spent. He 
made a second visit to Europe in 1867-68, and 
visited all the Continental art centres. He be 
came an associate of the National Academy of 
Design in 1859 ; an Academician in 1861 ; a mem 
ber of the Century association in 1860, and was. 



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LOOTENS 



also a member of the Artists Fund society. He 
was married to Jeiinette Shepherd, daughter of 
James Harrison of New Haven, Conn. He 
exhibited The It<tH<i)i Minstrel in the Paris 
Salon of 1868, and Aphrodite in the Centennial 
exhibition of 1870. Among his more noteworthy 
works, besides portraits of Gregory Thurston 
Bedell, Bishop of Ohio, the Hon. William G. 
Choate of New York, and Mrs. Timothy Porter of 
Stamford, Conn., are : Undine (186:5); Cli/tfe 
(18(5")); Tlie Improvisa.tr ice (1869); Lake Maggiore 
(INTO); The White Rose (1871); Idle Fancise 
(1874); Venice (1875); JEnone, (1877); At the 
Spring (1879); It It/1 of the Lake (1881); Hennia 
(1878); Love s Croini (1882); Marina (1878): Sum 
mer Moon (1884); The Dreamer (1885). He died 
at Lake George, N.Y., Oct. 20, 1895. 

LOOP, Jennette Shepherd (Harrison,) paint 
er, was born in New Haven, Conn., March 5, 
1840 ; daughter of James and Charlotte Nicoll 
(Lynde) Harrison ; granddaughter of Philemon 
and Sarah (Wolcott) Harrison, and of John Hart 
and Elizabeth Deall (Nicoll) Lynde, and a de 
scendant of the Rev. John Davenport of Plymouth, 
16-50 ; of Governors Roger and Oliver Wolcott, and 
of Nathaniel Lynde, Saybrook, Conn., 1680. She 
studied art with Louis Bail in New Haven and 
with Henry Augustus Loop in Rome, Paris and 
Venice. She married Henry Augustus Loop in 
1865. and was elected an associate of the National 
Academy of Design in 1875, being in 1901 one of 
the three women on the list of associate national 
academicians. She became well known as a 
painter of portraits and a regular exhibitor at the 
academy. Her portraits of Professors Hadley 
and Learned of Yale college, Misses Alexander and 
Harriman, Mrs. Joseph Low, Mrs. Anson Phelps 
Stokes, De Witt Clinton Blair, Baroness Hal kett 
of England, Judge Lynde Harrison and Mrs. Will 
iam G. Choate, and ideal figures : Baby Belle, 
Little Runaway, Bouquet for Mamma, are named 
as especially noteworthy. 

LOOS, Charles Louis, educator, was born in 
Woerth-sur-Saner, Lower Alsace. France, Dec. 
22-, 1823 ; son of Jacques G. and Katharine (Kull) 
Loos. He immigrated to the United States with 
his parents, who were Protestants, in 1834 and 
settled in New Franklin, Stark county. Ohio, 
where his father died soon after. In 1839 he 
commenced to teach school. He was graduated 
from Bethany college Va., in 1846; was an in 
structor there, 1846-49, and was ordained to the 
ministry of the Christian church in 1849. He 
was married, July 6, 1848, to Rosetta E., daughter 
of Rev. John Kerr of Newry, Ireland. She died 
Jan. 31, 1893. He was pastor at AVellsburg, 
Va., 1849-50; at Somerset. Va., 1850-56; and 
at Cincinnati, Ohio, 1856-57 ; was president of 
Eureka college, Eureka, 111., 1857-58; professor 

[12: 



of ancient languages at Bethany college, Va., 
1858-80; president of Kentucky university, 
Lexington, Ky., 1880-97, and professor of Greek 
therefrom 1897. He was pi esident of the Foreign 
Christian Missionary society, 1888-1900. He re 
ceived the degree of LL.D. from Butler univer 
sity, Ind., in 1888. He edited the Disciple, 1853- 
54 ; was associate editor of the Sower, 1855, and 
of the Christian Age, at Cincinnati, 1856. He 
was also co-editor of the Millennial Harbinger 
with Prof. W. K. Pendleton, 1864-70, and con 
tributing editor of the Christian Standard, Cin 
cinnati, 1868-88. 

LOOS, Isaac Althaus, educator, was born in 
Upper Bern, Berks county, Pa., Dec. 6, 1856; 
son of John and Sarah (Althaus) Loos, and grand 
son of George Loos, and of Daniel Althaus and a 
descendant of German ancestors who settled in 
Eastern Pennsylvania as early as 1750. He was 
graduated from Otterbein university, AVester- 
ville, Ohio, B.A., 1876, M.A., 1879; and from 
Yale university, B.D., 1881, where lie was special 
fellow in theology and philosophy, 1881-82. He 
was a student in the college of France, Paris, 
1882-83 ; and in the University of Leipzig, 1883- 
84. He was professor of history and political 
science in AVestern college, Toledo, Iowa, 1884-89, 
and in 1859 was made professor of political science 
in the State University of Iowa, becoming in 
1900 professor of sociology and political philosophy 
including municipal government and interna 
tional law, and director of the school of political 
and social science. He was elected a member of 
the council of the American Economic association 
in 1889 ; a member of the American Academy of 
Political and Social science in 1891, and a member 
of the council of the Academy in 1901 . He became 
associate editor of the World Review, Chicago, 
111., in 1901. Penn college, Iowa, gave him the 
degree of D.C.L. in 1898. He is the author of : 
Outlines of the Industrial Revolution (1892); 
Studies in, the Politics of Aristotle and the Repub 
lic of Plato (1900), and contributions to current 
periodicals on political and social science ques 
tions. 

LOOTENS, Louis, R.C. bishop, was born in 
Bruges, Belgium, March 17, 1827. He was or 
dained to the priesthood at Paris, France, by 
Bishop Demers, June 14, 1851, and was sent to 
California on a mission about 1858, and was at 
Sonora, Petaluma and San Rafael. At the latter 
place he erected St. Rafael s church and enlarged 
the school of the Sisters of St. Dominic. He was 
elected vicar apostolic of Idaho and was conse 
crated titular bishop of Castabala, by Archbishop 
Alemany at San Francisco, Aug. 9, 1868. He 
was the first vicar-apostolic of Idaho and served 
until July 16, 1896, when he resigned, but re 
tained the titular see. He died Jan. 13, 1898. 
1 



LOR AS 



LORD 




LORAS, Pierre Jean Mathias, R.C. bishop, 
was born at Lyons, France, Aug. 30, 1792. His 
father died on the scaffold during the reign of 
terror. He was ordained a priest Nov. 13, 1815, 
in the chapel of the " Grand Seminaire de Gre 
noble," at Lyons, by 
Mgr. Claude Simon, 
bishop of Grenoble. 
He filled the office 
of superior of the ec- 
clesiastieal seminary 
of Largentiere until 
1830, when lie came 
to the United States 
with Bishop Portier 
of Mobile, Ala. He 
was appointed vicar- 
general on his arrival 
and also president of 
the newly organized 
college at Spring 
Hill, Ala. When the 
diocese of Dubuque was established, July 28, 
1837. lie was elected its first bishop and was 
consecrated at Mobile. Ala., Dec. 10, 1837. He 
visited Europe to obtain missionaries and. on 
his return was installed April 21, 1839. He made 
his first visitation in June. 1839, and founded 
missions at Fort Snelling and Prairie du Chien. 
He consecrated St. Raphael s cathedral, Dubuque, 
Aug. 15, 1839, and subsequently built a church 
at Davenport, which became in 1881 the see city 
of the diocese of Iowa. He established missions 
among the Sioux, Fox and Winnebago Indians. 
He spent a large amount of money in building 
churches and schools, in employing teachers, and 
in educating poor children and also established a 
seminary. He introduced the Sisters of Charity 
into his diocese, founded St. Joseph s convent of 
Mount Carmel, Dubuque, and the convent of the 
Nuns of Visitation of the B.V.M.. and New Mel- 
laray Abbey for the Trappist Father s, and he 
also encouraged the emigration of Roman Catho 
lic settlers to Iowa. In 1850 the diocese of St. 
Paul was set off from his see and on May 3, 1857, 
the Rev, Clement Smyth was consecrated coad 
jutor bishop with right of succession. He died 
at Dubuque, Iowa., Feb. 20, 1858. 

LORD, Chester Sanders, editor, was born in 
Romulus, N.Y., March 18, 1850; son of the Rev. 
Edward and Mary Jane (Sanders) Lord ; grand 
son of Chester Webster and Betsey (Kingsbury) 
Lord : and of Anthony and of Celinda (Brown) 
Sanders, of Williamstown, Mass., and a descend 
ant of William Bradford, and of Noah Webster. 
His tirst ancestor in America was Thomas Lord, 
who came from England in 1635. and was a first 
settler of Hartford. He entered Hamilton college 
in the class of 1873 but did not graduate. He 



was associate editor of the Oswego Advertiser, 
1870-71 and in 1872 joined the editorial staff of 
the New York Sun, anJ was its managing editor, 
1880-1901. He was elected a regent of the Uni 
versity o,. the State of New York in 1897. He 
was made a member of the Lotos club and was 
its secretary, 1894-1901. He received the honor 
ary degree of A.M. from Hamilton college in 
1894 and that of LL.D. from St. Lawrence uni 
versity in 1898. 

LORD, David Nevins, editor and author, was 
born in Franklin. Conn., March 4, 1792 ; a brother 
to Eleazar Lord. He was graduated from 
Yale, A.B.. 18.17. A.M.. 1820, andstudied theology, 
but ill health prevented him from entering the 
ministry. He engaged as an importer of dry 
goods in New York city in 1823, and became in 
terested with his brother in the management of 
the New York and Erie railway on its formation. 
He edited the Theological and Literary Joiimal, 
a quarterly founded by his brother, 1848-61. and 
contributed regularly to its columns. lie is the 
author of: Exposition of the A]>oca]i/}>se (1847); 
Characteristics of Figurative Languages (1854); 
Louis Napoleon is he to be the Imperial Chief of 
the Ten Kingdoms ? (18C6); Visions of J\tradise, an 
epic (1867). He died in New York, July 14, 1880. 

LORD, Eleazar, financier and author, was 
born in Franklin, Conn., Sept. 9, 1788. He was 
educated in the district schools of Franklin and 
was a resident licentiate at Andover Theological 
seminary in the class of 1815. but was not or 
dained, owing to the failure of his eyesight. 
He founded the American Sunday School Union 
in 1815, and was its secretary, 1818-26, and its 
president 1826-36. He became a merchant and 
banker in New York city ; founded and was pres 
ident of the Manhattan Insurance company of 
New York city, 1821-33, and was the founder and 
first president of the New York and Erie railway ; 
advocated the banking system adopted by the 
state of New York in 1S38 ; founded the National 
Institution for the Promotion of Industry in 1820 
and served as its secretary, president, and editor of 
its paper, the Patron of Industry. He also aided 
in establishing the Home and Foreign Missionary 
society, the Auburn Theological seminary in 
1820; the Hartford Theological seminary in 
1834, which was first located at East Windsor, 
Conn.; and the University of the City of New 
York in 1S31, of which he was a member of the 
council 1831-34, and from which he received the 
honorary degree of LL.D. in 1866. He was a 
director of Princeton Theological seminary 1823- 
26. He established and edited the Theological 
and Literary Journal. He published an edition 
of Tempriere s " Biographical Dictionary," to 
which he contributed 800 original articles (1^25); 
and is the author of : Credit Currency and Bank- 



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LORD 



LORD 



ing (1828): Life of Rcr. J. S. Christmas (1831); 
Epoch of Creation (1838): Geological and Scrip 
tural Cosmogony (1843); The Mediatorial Works 
of Christ (1844); The Messiah in Moses and the 
Prophets (1852): Symbolic Prop]iecy.(\$~>4); Hints 
to Orthodox Millenarians (1854); History of Erie 
Railroad (1855); Plenary Inspiration of Scrip 
ture (1855); A Layman s Letters to the Pastoral 
Union of Connecticut (1856); Prophetic Office of 
Christ (1858): Inspiration, not Guidance nor In 
tuition (1858); Reviews of Authors on Inspiration 
(1859); Tlte Psalter Readjusted in its Relation to 
the Temple Serrices ( 18(30) ; Analysis of the Book 
of Isaiah (1861): Letter on the Currency (1861); 
Six Letters on the Necessity and Practicality of a 
National Currency (1862). He died in Piermont, 
N.Y., June 3. 1871. 

LORD, John, author and lecturer, was born at 
Portsmouth. X. H.. Dec. 27, 1810; son of John 
Perkins and Sophia (Ladd) Lord; grandson of 
John and Melii table (Perkins) Lord, and great- 
grandson of Xathan and Esther (Perkins) Lord. 
He was graduated from Dartmouth college. A.B., 
1833, A.M., 1836. and from Andover Theological 
seminary in 1837, and was agent for the Ameri 
can Peace society, 1837-39. He was pastor at 
New Marlborough, Mass., 1839-40, at Stock- 
bridge, Mass., in 1840, and at Utica, X.Y., for a 
short time, when he withdrew from pastoral 
work and devoted himself to lecturing and au 
thorship. He resided in England, 1843-46, and 
lectured on the " Middle Ages" in all the large 
cities there. He returned to the United States 
in 1846, and lectured in the Xew England and 
Middle slates continuously for over forty years, 
during which time he was lecturer on history in 
Dartmouth college, 1869-76. He received the 
degree of LL.D. from the University of the City 
of Xew York in 1864. He is the author of: 
Modern History for Schools (1850); A Xew His 
tory of the United States for Schools (1850): The 
Old Roman World (1867): Ancient States and 
Empires (1869); Ancient History (1876); Points 
of History (1881); Life of Emma Willard (1883): 
Beacon Lights of History (1883-94). He died in 
Stamford, Conn., Dec. 15, 1894. 

LORD, Nathan, educator and theologian, was 
born in Berwick, Maine, Xov. 28, 1792; son of 
John and Meliitable (Perkins) Lord. He was grad 
uated from Bowdoin college, A.B., 1809. A.M., 
1812 : was assistant instructor at Phillips Exeter 
academy, X.H., under Benjamin Abbott, 1810- 
1 1 : was graduated from Andover Theological 
seminary in 1815; was ordained May 22, 1816, 
and was pastor at Amherst, X.H., 1816-28. He 
was called to the presidency of Dartmouth col 
lege on the resignation of the Rev. Dr. Bennett 
Tyler in 1828, and filled this position until 1863, 
when lie resigned and was succeeded by the Rev. 




Dr. Asa Dodge Smith. During his presidency 
the chairs of Greek literature and language, of 
astronomy and meteorology, of modern lan 
guages, of intellectual philosophy, and of natural 
history were established : three halls, a chapel 
and an observatory were 
built, and the Chandler scien 
tific department was found 
ed. He was a staunch sup- . 
porter of the institution of 
slavery as it existed in the 
south, and at the same time 
instructed colored youths in 

the college, and was the only college president 
who admitted them to equal privileges with the 
white students. He was married to Elizabeth 
King Leland. He received the honorary degree 
of A.M. from Dartmouth in 1821, that of D.D. 
from Bowdoin in 1828, and that of LL.D. from 
Dartmouth in 1864. He edited the selected ser 
mons of his son. the Rev. John King Lord, in 
1850. and is the author of : Letters to Rev. Daniel 
Dana. D.D., on Parks Theology of New England 
(1852); An Essay on Millennium (1854); Two 
Letters to the Ministers of All Denominations 
on Slavery (1854-55), and many contributions to 
theological reviews. He died in Hanover. X.H., 
Sept. 9. 1870. 

LORD, Scott, representative, was born in 
Nelson, X.Y., Dec. 11, 1820; son of John Way 
and Sarah (Chase) Lord ; grandson of John and 
(Way) Lord, of Lyme, Connecticut, and 
a descendant of Richard Lord, of Hartford, 
Conn., who came from England in 1636. He was 
a brother of the Rev. John Chase, Judge Charles 
Bachusand the Rev. William Wilberforce Lord. 
He was a student at Morrisville and Geneseo 
academies, was admitted to the bar, and in 1842 
settled in practice at Geneseo, X.Y. He Avas 
judge of Livingston county from July 11, 1847, 
to Jan. 1,1854. He formed a law partnership 
with Roscoe Colliding and Alfred C. Cox in 
Utica, X.Y., in 1872, and also held the office of 
surrogate of Oneida county. He was a Demo 
cratic representative from the twenty-third New 
York district in the 44th congress, 1 875-77, a nd was 
chairman of the Belknap impeachment commit 
tee. He was defeated for re-election in 1876, and 
1878 removed to New York city, where lie con 
tinued the practice of law. He was senior coun 
sel for Cornelius Vanderbilt in the contest over 
the will of his grandfather, Cornelius Vanderbilt. 
He died at Morris Plains, N.J., Sept. 10, 1885. 

LORD, William Paine, diplomatist, was born 
in Dover. Del., in 18:59 ; son of Edward and Eliz 
abeth (Paine) Lord. His ancestors came to 
America from England with Lord Baltimore. 
He was graduated at Fail-field college in 1860, 
and was engaged in the study of law when the 

[127] 




LORD 



LORIMER 




civil war broke out, and he raised a battalion of 
cavalry and was commissioned captain in the 
U.S. volunteer service. He was promoted major 
and became judge advocate on the staff of Gen. 
Lew Wallace. He was mustered out at the close 
of the war ; was 
graduated at the Al 
bany Law school in 
1800. and was admitt 
ed to the bar, but in 
stead of entering the 
practice of law ac 
cepted a commission 
as lieutenant in the 
2d U.S. cavalry. He 
served in the west 
and in Alaska, and 
resigned in 1808 to 
practise law in Salem, 
Ore. He served as 
state senator, 1878- 
80 ; justice of the 

supreme court of Oregon, 1880-94, and governor 
of Oregon, 1895-99. He was married in 1880 to 
Juliette Montague, of Baltimore, Md. On April 
18, 1899, President McKinley appointed him U.S. 
minister to Persia as successor to Arthur S. 
Hardy, but he declined the appointment. On 
Oct. 23, 1899, he accepted the appointment of 
U.S. minister to the Argentine Republic as suc 
cessor to William T. Buchanan, resigned. 

LORD, Willis, educator, was born in Bridge 
port, Conn., Sept. 15, 1809; son of Daniel and 
Anna (Choate) Lord, and great-grandson of the 
Rev. Benjamin Lord. He was graduated from 
Williams college in 1833. studied theologj at 
Princeton Theological seminary, 1838, and was 
ordained Oct. 15, 1834. He was pastor at New 
Hartford, Conn., 1 8:54-88 ; at Providence, R.I., 
1838-40 ; at Philadelphia, Pa., 1840-50 ; at Cincin 
nati, Ohio, 1850-54, and at Brooklyn, N.Y. , 1855- 
59. He was chosen by the general assembly of 
the Presbyterian church, professor of biblical lit 
erature and pastoral theology at Lane Theologi 
cal seminary, and served 1850-54 ; and professor 
of biblical and ecclesiastical history and McCor- 
mick professor of didactics and problematical 
theology at the Northwestern Theological semi 
nary at Chicago, III., and served 1859-70. He 
was president and Mercer professor of biblical 
instruction in the University of Wooster, 1870- 
73; pastor at Denver. Col., 1875-70; at Colum 
bus, Ohio, 1877-79 : resided at Colorado Springs, 
Col., 1879-83, and was president of the Presbyte 
rian College of the Southwest. Del Norte, Cal., 
1883-84. He was a trustee of Lafayette college, 
1839-49, and of the University of Wooster, 1877- 
79. The honorary degree of D.D. was conferred 
on him by Lafayette college in 1847, and that of 



LL.D. by the University of Wooster in 1878. He 
is the author of : Christian Theology for the Peo 
ple (1874); The Blessed Hope, or tin (llorioim Coin 
ing of Our Lord (1877). He died at (Juilford, 
Conn., Oct. 28. 1888. 

LORE, Charles Brown, representative, was 
born in Odessa. Del., March Hi. 1881 : son of Eldad 
and Priscilla (Henderson) Lore. He was prepared 
for college in Middletown academy, Del., and 
was graduated at Dickinson in 1852. He studied 
law under Judge John K. Findlay of Philadelphia 
and Chancellor D. M. Bates of Wilmington. Del., 
was admitted to the bar in 1801. and settled in 
practice in Wilmington, Del. He was clerk of 
the Delaware house of representatives in 1857 ; 
commissioner of the draft for New Castle county 
for filling the quota of soldiers under the Presi 
dent s call in 1S(>2. and attorney-general of tl it- 
state, 1809-74. He was married. July 7, 18(52. to 
Rebecca A., daughter of Josiah Bates of Mt. Holly, 
N.J. lie was a Democratic presidential elector 
in 1881 and again in 1893, and a representative 
from the state at large in the 48th and 49th con 
gresses. 1883-87. He was appointed chief justice 
of the state of Delaware in 1893, and re-appointed 
in 1897, for the term ending in 1909. He received 
the degree of LL.D. from Dickinson college in 
1894 and from Delaware college in 1890. 

LORIMER, George Claude, clergyman, was 
born in Edinburgh, Scotland, June 0, 1838. He 
came to the United States in 185(i and settled 
in Louisville, Ky., where he joined the Baptist 
church. He was a student at Georgetown college, 
1857-59, and was a 
trustee of that insti- 
tution, 18(5(3-08. He 
was ordained pastor 
of the Baptist church, 
Harrodsburg, Ky.. in 
1859 and after several 
years went to the 
church at Paducah, 
and from there to 
Louisville, where he 
remained three years. 
In July, 1807, he was 
one of a committee 
of five appointed by 
the Kentucky gen 
eral association of 
Baptists to protest against the action of the leg 
islature in giving up the Agricultural and Me 
chanical college to the control of the Campbel- 
lites thereby benefiting one sect and tending to the 
union of church and state. Leaving Kentucky 
he preached at the Baptist church, Albany^ N.Y., 
1809 ; theShawmut Avenue church, Boston, Mass., 
1870-78; Tremont Temple, 1873-79: Immanuel 
church and First church, Chicago, 111., 1879-91, 




[138] 



LORIMER 



LORING 



Tremont Temple, 1891-1901, and in 1901 became 
pastor of Madison Avenue church, N. Y. city. He 
received the honorary degree of D.D. from Bethel 
college, Ky., in 1870, and that of LL.D. from 
Georgetown college, Ky., in 1885. He was 
elected a member of the Victoria institute, Lon 
don, England, in 1899. He was married in 1859 
to Belle, daughter of Elijah Burford of Harrods- 
burg, Ky., and their son, George Horace Lorimer 
(q. v.) became a \vell-kno\vn journalist. Dr. Lor 
imer served as editor of Tin \\~atelnnan, 1876-77. 
and of the People s Bible History, 1895. He is 
the author of: Under Tlie Evergreen (1872); The 
Great Conflict (1876) ; l*nis Old and New (1882) ; 
Jesus the World s Saviour (1884) ; Studies in 
Social Life (1886) ; Argument for Christianity 
(1894) ; Messages of To-day to Men of To-morrow 
(1896) ; Christianity and the Social State (1898); 
Christianity in the Nineteenth Century, Lowell 
Institute Lectures. 1900 (1901). 

LORIMER, George Horace, editor, was born 
in Louisville, Ky., Oct. 6, 1868; son of the Rev. 
George Claude and Belle (Burford) Lorinier and 
grandson of Elijah Burford. He was educated at 
the Mosely high school, Chicago, 111., and at Colby 
and Yale universities. He lectured on literary 
subjects, contributed to current magazines and 
was employed on the Boston Post as a reporter. 
He became literary editor of The Saturday Even 
ing Post in Philadelphia, Pa., in 1898, and editor- 
iii-chief of that weekly in 1899. He was married 
.June 6, 1893, to Alma Viola, daughter of Judge 
Alfred Ennis of Chicago, 111. 

LORING, Ellis Gray, abolitionist, was born in 
Boston, Mass., in 1803. He was prepared for 
college at the Boston Latin school and entered 
Harvard with the class of 1819, but was not grad 
uated. He was admitted to the .Suffolk bar in 
1827, and practised in Boston, Mass. He early 
enrolled himself as a Garrison abolitionist and 
was one of the " immortal twelve that formed 
the first anti-slavery society in Boston in 1831. 
He aided in the support of the Liberator, founded 
by Garrison in 1831, and distinguished himself in 
the defence of the slave child " Med " in the 
Massachusetts supreme court, where lie secured 
the decision that every slave brought on Massa 
chusetts soil by the owner is free. In his argu 
ment he succeeded in convincing not only the 
court and jury but the opposing counsel, Benjamin 
R. Curtis. He was elected counsellor of the anti- 
slavery society in 1833, and was a member of the 
committee of the Lovejoy indignation meeting 
at Faneuil Hall in 1H37. He defended Abner 
Kneeland (q.v.) who was charged with blasphemy 
and tried in Boston in 1836, and his argument, 
which was a plea for freedom of speech, was pub 
lished as: Petition on Behalf of Abner Kneeland. 
He died in Boston, Mass., May 24, 1858. 



LORING, George Bailey, representative, was 
born in North Andover, Mass.. Nov. 8, 1817, son 
of the Rev. Bailey Loring. He attended Franklin 
academy ; was graduated from Harvard, A. B., 
1838 ; studied medicine with Dr. Oliver Wendell 
Holmes, and at Harvard Medical school, and was 
graduated M.D., 1842. He was appointed surgeon 
of the U.S. marine hospital at Chelsea, Mass., in 
1843 and commissioner to revise the U.S. marine 
hospital system in 1849. He removed to Salem, 
Mass., in 1851 ; was postmaster, 1853-57 and de 
voted himself to scientific agriculture and to the 
publication of agricultural literature. He found 
ed the New England Agricultural society in 
1864 and was its president, 1864-91. He was a 
representative in the state legislature, 1866-67 ; a 
delegate to the Republican national convention 
May 20, 1868, June 5, 1872, and June 14, 1876; 
Massachusetts centennial commissioner in 1872 ; 
chairman of the state Republican committee, 
1869-76 ; a representative in the 45th and 46th 
congresses, 1875-79 ; U.S. commissioner of agricul 
ture, 1881-85 ; and U.S. minister to Portugal, 
1889-90 ; and during his term of office the trouble 
between England and Portugal over the disputed 
African possessions took place. He was twice 
married : first, in 1851, to Mary F. Pickman who 
died in 1878. and secondly, in 1880, to Nina S. Hil- 
dreth. He is the author of addresses on TJie 
Relation of Agriculture, to the State in Time of 
irr(1863); Classical Culture (1866): Eulogy on 
Louis Agassiz (1873); The Cobden Club and the 
American Farmer (1880); and an Address to the 
Atlanta Cotton Convention (1881) ; and in book 
form A Year in Portugal (1891). He died in 
Salem. Mass., Sept. 13, 1891. 

LORING, William Wing, soldier, was born in 
Wilmington, N.C., Dec., 4, 1818. His parents 
removed to Florida while he was a child, and in 
1831 he enlisted in a company of volunteers 
against the Seminole Indians. He was promoted 
3d lieutenant June 16, 1837. He was sent to 
school at Alexandria, Va., and was graduated 
from Georgetown university, D.C., LL.B. in 1842. 
He practised law in Florida and was a represen 
tative in the state legislature for three years. At 
the outbreak of the war with Mexico he was made 
senior captain in a regiment of mounted rifles and 
was promoted major in 1847. He commanded 
this regiment in the assault on the Mexican 
intrench ments at Contreras and was the first to 
reach the main works, and he led in the pursuit 
of the enemy as far as San Angel when counter 
orders were received. He also led the fighting 
at Chapultepec on the causeway from the capital 
to the Belen gate where he was wounded and 
underwent an amputation of his left arm. He 
was brevet ted lieutenant-colonel for "gallant 
and meritorious conduct at Contreras and Cheru- 



[1291 



LORING 



LOSSING 




busco," and colonel for " gallant and meritorious 
conduct at Cliapultepec and Belen Gate," and 
was promoted lieutenant-colonel March 5, 1848. 
He was also presented with a sword by the citi 
zens of Appalachicola, Fla. He escorted a party 
of gold seekers across 
the continent to Cali 
fornia in 1849, and 
was assigned to the 
11 th military depart 
ment and stationed in 
Oregon, 1849-51 ; in 
Texas, 1851-56 ; pro 
moted colonel, Dec. 
30, 1856 ; was engag 
ed against the hos 
tile Indians in New 
Mexico, 1856-58 ; took 
part in the Mormon 
War in Utah under 
Gen. Albert Sidney 
Johnston, 1858-59, 
travelled in Europe. Egypt and the Holy land, 
1859-60, and commanded the department of New 
Mexico, 1860-61. He resigned his commission 
as colonel of U.S. mounted rifles in 1861 and 
joined the Confederate army. He was commis 
sioned brigadier-general and served in Western 
Virginia with considerable success. He com 
manded a body of 6000 troops in the Slienandoah 
valley under Gen. T. J. Jackson, and when that 
officer ordered him to take up his quarters at 
Romey, Va., he with his officers petitioned Secre 
tary of War Benjamin to remain with the main 
army at Winchester. This caused a serious 
estrangement between the two generals. He was 
made major-general in February, 1862 ; was trans 
ferred to the Southwest, and commanded three 
brigades in Pemberton s army, taking part in 
opposing Grant s army at Grenada, Miss., and in 
the battle of Champion Hills, May 16, 1863, when 
his brigade was divided, most of it joining John 
ston at Jackson, Miss. He commanded the 1st 
division of Folk s corps in the Army of the Missis 
sippi and upon the death of General Polk, May 14, 
1864, he succeeded to the command of the corps 
until Gen. A. P. Stewart assumed command, when 
he returned to the command of his division. He 
surrendered with General Johnston at Durham 
Station, N.C.,inl865, and engaged in the banking 
business in New York city, but in 1869 he accepted 
a commission of brigade-general in the army 
of the Khedive of Egypt, was assigned to the 
command of Alexandria and participated in the 
expedition against Abyssinia and in the battle of 
Kaya-Khor. He was promoted in the Egyptian 
army to general of a. division and received the 
imperial order of the Osmariah. He returned to 
the United States in 1879 and resided in Florida 



and subsequently in New York city. He was a 
candidate for U.S. senator from Florida in 1881 
but was defeated by Charles W. Jones. He is the 
author of : A Confederate Soldier in Egypt (1883). 
He died in New York city, Dec. 30, Ib86. 

LOSK1EL, George Henry, Moravian bishop, 
was born in Angermiinde, Russia, Nov. 7, 1740. 
He was a Moravian clergyman, and when John 
Ettwein resigned his bishopric of the northern 
district of the American province in 1801, lie 
was appointed his successor and was consecrated 
in 1803. He was assisted by John Gebhard 
Cunow, who had come to America in 1796 as ad 
ministrator of the Unity s properties. During 
his bishopric a theological seminary w:is estab 
lished at Nazareth, Pa., in 1807. He retired from 
the Provincial Helpers conference in 1811 on 
account of failing health, and was obliged for 
the same reason to decline a position on the chief 
executive board of his church at Berthelsdorf, 
Saxony. He is the author of: History of the 
Moravian Mission Among the North American 
Indians (1788), translated into English by Chris 
tian Ignatius Latrobe (1794), and Etu-as furs 
Herz (1800) meditations for every day in the 
year, which passed through eight editions. He 
died in Bethlehem, Pa., April 9. 1814. 

LOSSINQ, Benson John, historian, was born 
in Beekman, N.Y., Feb. 12, 1813; a descendant 
of early Dutch settlers in the lower Hudson val 
ley. His father died in 1814, and he was brought 
up by his mother in the Society of Friends. He 
attended school for 
a short time ; en 
gaged in business as 
a watchmaker in 
Poughkeepsie, N.Y., 
and in 1835 became 
an owner and editor 
of the Poughkeepsie 
Telegraph, beginning 
the publication of the 
Casket, a literary 
journal, in 1836, con 
tinuing his interest 
in both publications 
until 1841. In 1838, 
after studying wood 
engraving in New 

York city, he became editor and illustrator 
of The Family Magazine, the pioneer illustrated 
periodical in America. In partnership with 
William Barritt lie conducted the largest wood- 
engraving business in New York city, 1843-6H. 
He conceived and executed (1845-50) "The Pic 
torial Field Book of the Revolution," published 
by Harper & Brothers (30 parts, 1850-52), visit 
ing the historic localities, writing the text for 
the work, making the drawings on the wood, 




[ISO] 



LOTHROP 



LOTHROP 



and doing mucli of the engraving. In 1868 lie 
retired to a farm near Dover Plains, N.Y., and 
devoted himself to historical research. He was 
made an honorary life member of the Metropoli 
tan Museum of Art, New York city, in 1844. He 
received the honorary degree of A.M. from Ham 
ilton college in 18.1(5 and from Columbia in 18(59, 
and that of LL.D. from the University of Mich 
igan in 1872. Besides numerous illustrated con 
tributions to American and foreign periodicals, 
chiefly on the history and legends of the Hudson 
river, he compiled, with Edwin Williams, " The 
Statesman s Manual " (4 vols., 1868); edited and an 
notated the "The Diaries of Washington" (1859), 
and " Recollections and Private Memoirs of Wash 
ington "by G. W. P. Custis (1860), and is the 
author of a large number of books, among the 
more important of which are : History of the 
Fine Arts (1840); Lives of the Presidents (1847); 
Seventeen Hundred and Seventy-Six (1847); lives 
of Zashary Taylor and Winfield Scott (1847); 
The New World (1847): Biographies of the Sign 
ers of the Declaration of Independence (1848); 
History of the United States (1854) ; Our Coun 
tryman. (1833); Mount Vsrnon (1859); Life of 
Philip Schuyler (2 vols., 1860); History of the 
Civil irar(3 vols., 1866-69); Home of Washing 
ton (1867); Fas.s-ar College and Its Founder (1867); 
The Hudson River (1867); Pictorial Field-Book of 
the \Var of 181? (18(58) ; Mary and Martha Wash 
ington (1868) ; Tiro Spies : Nathan Hale and John 
^>tdre (1886) ; The Empire State (1887). He died 
at Dover Plains, N.Y., June 3. 1891. 

LOTHROP, Daniel, publisher, was born in 
Rochester, N.H., Aug. 11. 1831 ; son of Daniel and 
Sophia (Home) Lothrop ; grandson of Solomon 
and Mehitable (White) Lothrop, and of Deacon 
Jeremiah Home, of Rochester, Vt., and a de 
scendant of Mark Lothrop. a native of England, 
who immigrated to America, settling in Salem, 
Mass., in 1643 and in Bridgew.uter, Mass., in 
1656. He was prepared for college, but in 1845 
engaged in the drug business in Newmarket, 
N.H., and in 1848 established two drug stores, 
one in Newmarket and one in Laconia. He also 
bought a book-store in Dover, N.IL.in 1850. and 
developed in his three stores a large retail book 
trade, adding to it a jobbing trade and a small 
publishing business. He opened a drug store in 
St. Peter, Minn., shortly afterward, and estab 
lished a banking house there, but returned east 
in 1857. He entered business in Boston, Mass., 
as a publisher in 1868, making a specialty of 
literature for children and youth by American 
authors. He also elevated the standard of 
Sunday-school literature. In the fire of 1872 he 
lost heavily. Wide Awake, Babi/land. The 
Pansy, Our Little Men and Women. Chautauqna 
Young Folks Journal, and Best Tilings, were his 




contributions to periodical literature for youth. 
He was influential in organizing the American 
Institute of Civics. He was married July 25, 
1860, to Ellen J., daughter of Joseph and Nancy 
Morrill. of Dover, N.H., and secondly Oct. 4, 
1881, to Harriet Mulford. daughter of Sidney M. 
and Harriet (Mulford) Stone, of New Haven, 
Conn. He died in Boston, Mass.. March 18, 1892. 

LOTHROP, George Van Ness, diplomatist, 
\vas born in Easton, Mass., Aug. 8. 1817 ; son of 
Howard and Sally (Williams) Lothrop, and 
a descendant of Mark Lothrop, who came from 
England to Salem, Mass., then to Duxbury, and 
then to Bridgewa- 
ter, previous to 1660. 
He passed his fresh 
man year at Amherst, 
and was graduated 
from Brown, A.B., 
in 1828. He studied 
at the Harvard Law 
school for nearly a 
year, and in 1839, 
owing to ill health, 
joined his brother, 
the Hon. Edwin H. 
Lothrop. on his farm 
at Prairie Ronde, 
Kalamazoo. Mich. In 
1843 he resumed the 

study of law, and was admitted to the Detroit 
bar in 1844. He practised in Detroit, Mich., 
1844-56 ; was attorney-general of Michigan, 
1848-51 ; recorder of Detroit, 1851 ; led the 
Michigan delegation at the Democratic national 
convention at Charleston, April 23, 1860, and was 
a member of the state constitutional convention 
in 1867. He was the unsuccessful Democratic 
candidate for U.S. senator three times, and for 
representative in congress twice. He was ap 
pointed U.S. minister to Russia by President 
Cleveland in 1885, and resigned on account of 
ill health in 1888. He was married May 13, 1847, 
to Almira, daughter of Gen. Oliver and Anna 
(Chapin) Strong, of Rochester, N.Y.. and of their 
two daughters, Anne married Baron Bartholdi 
Hoyningen-Huene, of St. Petersburg. Russia, an 
officer of the Chevalier Guards, and Helen married 
the Rev. Dr. William Prall. of Detroit, Mich. Mr. 
Lothrop received the degree of LL.D. from Brown 
in 1873. He died at Detroit. Mich., July 12, 1897. 

LOTHROP, Harriet Mulford, author, was 
born in New Haven, Conn., June 22. 1844 ; daugh 
ter of Sidney M. and Harriet (Mulford) Stone, 
and a descendant in the eighth generation from 
the Rev. Thomas Hooker, founder of Connecticut. 
She began to contribute to juvenile periodicals 
in 1877. She adopted the pen name " Margaret 
Sidney " and directed her literary work to the 

[131] 



LOTIIROP 



LOUD 



instruction and amusement of children. She was 
married Oct. 4, 1881, to Daniel Lothrop (q. v.), 
and made her summer home at " Tiie Wayside," 
Concord. Mass. She was the founder and first 
president of the National Society of the Children 
of the American Revolution. She is the author 
of : So as by Fire (1881) ; Fire Little Peppers and 
How theij Grew (1882) : Half Year at Bronckton, 
(1882): The Pettibone Xame (1883) ; What the, 
Seven Di<l (1883) : \Vh told it to Me (1884) ; 
Ballad of the Lost Hare (18S4): The Golden 
West (1885); How Then Went to Europe (1885) ; 
Hester, and other New Eiitjland Stories (1886) ; 
The Minute-Man (18S(i) : Tiro Modern Little 
Prince* (1887) ; Dilli/ and the Captain (1887) ; 
An. Adirondack Cabin ; \Vhittier with the Chil 
dren ; Old Concord. Her Hiuliwai/s and. Byways : 
A Little Maitl of Coneonl Town ; A Historical 
Romance of the American, Revolution ; and many 
poems. 

LOTHROP, Samuel Kirkland, clergyman,* was 
born in Whitesboro, X.Y.. Oct. 13, 1804 ; son of 
John Hosmer and Jerusha (Kirkland) Lothrop ; 
grandson of the Rev. Samuel Kirkland, mission 
ary to the Oneida Indians, who married Jerusha 
Bingham ; great-grandson of the Rev. David and 
Hannah (Perkins) Kirkland, and a descendant of 
the Rev. John Lothrop, who came from England 
in 1634 and settled first in Scituate and afterward 
in Barnstable, Mass. He was virtually adopted 
by his uncle, the Rev. Dr. John T. Kirkland 
(q.v.), who assumed the charge of his education, 
and he was graduated from Harvard, A.B., 1825, 
and B.D., 1828. He preached in Washington, 
D.C., 1828 ; in Beverly. Mass.; and was pastor of 
the new Unitarian society at Dover. N.H., 1829- 
34. He was married, June 3, 1829, to Mary Lyman 
Buckminster. In June, 1834, he was inducted 
as pastor of the Brattle Square church, Boston, 
Mass., as successor to the Rev. Dr. Palfrey, and 
served until 1876, when he resigned. Mrs. Lothrop 
died Jan. 20, 1859, and he married secondly, 
Nov. 22, 1869, Alice Lindsay, daughter of the Rev. 
Abner and Catherine (Sedgwick) Webb. He 
was a delegate to the Massachusetts constitu 
tional convention in 1852, a member of the Boston 
school committee for twenty years, and chair 
man of the charitable society for the relief of 
the widows and children of Congregational 
ministers in Massachusetts and Maine. He was 
an overseer of Harvard, 1847-54; a lecturer in 
the Harvard divinity school, 1871-72 ; was elected 
a member of the Massachusetts Historical society 
in 1854 ; and served as corresponding secretary 
and as president of the Massachusetts Humane 
society and as a member of the Society of the Cin 
cinnati and of the most important societies con 
nected with the Unitarian church. He received 
the degree of D.D. from Harvard in 1852, and 



that of LL.D. from Hamilton in 1885. He is the 
author of: Life of Samuel Kirkland, Missionary 
to the Indians, in Sparks s "American Biogra 
phy," and The History of the Church in Brattle 
Square. He died in Boston, Mass., June 12, 1886. 

LOTT, John Abraham, jurist, was born in 
Flatbush, L.I., N.Y.. Feb. 11, 1806 ; son of Abra 
ham and Maria (Lott) Lott : grandson of Jo 
hannes E. and Catharine (Vamlerbilt) Lott : great 
grandson of Englebert and Maritie (Ditmas) Lott, 
and a descendant of Peter Lott, \vho came from 
Europe in 1652, settled in Flatbush, and was one 
of the patentees named in the patent granted by 
Lieutenant-Governor Thomas Dongan in 1685. 
He was prepared for college at Erasmus Hall 
academy. Plat bush, and graduated from Union 
college in 1823. He was married to his cousin. 
Catharine, daughter of Jeremiah and Lydia 
(Lloyd) Lott. After practising law in New York 
city a short time lie formed a partnership with 
Henry C. Murphy, transferred his office to Brook 
lyn and Judge John Vanderbilt was afterward 
admitted to the firm. He was county judge of 
Kings county, 1838-42 : a member of the state as 
sembly, 1841 ; state senator, 1843-47 ; judge of the 
supreme court of the state to fill the unexpired 
term of Judge Rockwell, 1857-61, and by re-elec 
tion without opposition, 1861-69. In 1869 lie was 
elected a judge of the court of appeals, and not 
long after, when a commission of appeals had 
been authorized to clear away the accumulation 
of cases in this court he was made the chief com 
missioner, an office which he held until 1875, 
when the commission expired by limitation. He 
was appointed in 1875 a member of a committee 
to draft a uniform law for the government of 
cities in the state of New York. He received the 
degree of LL.D. from Union college in 1859. He 
was a member of the leading learned societies of 
Brooklyn and an officer of various corporations. 
He died in Flatbush, L. I., N.Y., July 20. 1878. 

LOUD, Eugene Francis, representative, was 
born in Abington. Mass., March 12, 1847. He 
went to sea in 1860, and was in California in 1862, 
where he enlisted in a cavalry batallion, which 
was joined to the 2d Massachusetts cavalry, and 
served in the Army of the Potomac and with 
Sheridan in the Shenandoah valley. At the close 
of the war he returned to California ; studied 
law ; was in the customs service ; and engaged 
in mercantile business. He was a representative 
in the state legislature in 1884 ; cashier of the city 
and county of San Francisco and a Republican 
representative from the fifth district of California 
in the 52d-57th congresses. 1891-1903. 

LOUD, Frank Herbert, educator, was born in 

Weymouth, Mass., Jan. 26, 1852; son of Francis 

Elliot and Mary Tolman (Capen) Loud, and 

grandson of Joseph and Thankful (Bates) Loud 

2] 



LOUDENSLAGER 



LOUNSBURY 



and of Abraham and Mary (Tolnian) Capen. His 
father had four ancestors in the Mayflower com 
pany, including Elder William Brewster and John 
Aldeu, and Ins mother was a descendant of Roger 
Clap of Dorchester. He attended the public schools 
of Weymouth, Mass., was graduated from Amherst 
college. A.B., 1873, and studied one year each at 
Clark university, at Harvard, and at Haverford 
college, Pemisylvania. He was Walker in 
structor in mathematics at Amherst, 1873-76, and 
was elected professor of mathematics at Colorado 
college in 1877. He was married, July 13, 1882, 
to Mabel, daughter of Dr. Martin and Emma 
(Danforth) Wiley of Colorado Springs, Col. He 
was elected a fellow of the American Association 
for the Advancement of Science, and became 
a member of the American Mathematical society 
in 1891. He received the degree of A.M. from 
Harvard university in 1899 and that of Ph.D. 
from Haverford college in 1900. He published : 
An Introduction to Geometry on the Analytical 
Plan (1880) and contributed to various mathe 
matical journals. 

LOUDENSLAGER, Henry Clay, representa 
tive, was born in Mauricetown, Cumberland 
county, N.J.. May 22, 1<S5 ,> ; son of Samuel Paul 
and Sarah (Haley) Loudenslager, and grandson 
of Jacob and Elizabeth Loudenslager. He re 
moved with his parents to Paulsboro, N.J., in 
1856, and received a common school education. 
He worked on his father s farm until 1872, and 
engaged in the produce commission business in 
Philadelphia, 1872-82, He was elected clerk of 
Gloucester county in 1882 ami re-elected in 1887. 
and was a Republican representative from the 
first district of New Jersey in the 53d-57th con 
gresses, 1893-1903. 

LOUQHLIN, John, R.O. bishop, was born in 
Drumboneff. county Down, Ireland. Dec. 20, 
1817: son of a tenant fanner who came to the 
United States with his family in 1823, and settled 
in Albany, N.Y. John attended the public 
schools ; a boarding school at Chambly, Canada ; 
Mount St. Mary s college, Emmitsburg, Md. : 
taught at Mount St. Mary s for several years, 
and was ordained priest in St. Patrick s cathedral, 
New York city, by Bishop Hughes, Oct. 18, 1840. 
He was assistant in St. John s parish, Utica,N.Y., 
1840-42 ; assistant priest at St. Patrick s cathe 
dral, 1842-44; and rector there, 1844-53. He 
was appointed vicar-general of the diocese of 
New York in 1849, and in 1853 accompanied 
Archbishop Hughes to the first plenary council 
of Baltimore as his theologian. He was conse 
crated bishop of the newly established diocese 
of Brooklyn, in St. Patrick s cathedral. New 
York, city, Oct. 30, 1853, by Archbishop Cajetan 
Bedini. assisted by Bishops Rappe and Fit/pat- 
rick, and was formally installed in St. James s 




church, Jay street, Brooklyn. He built one 
hundred and nine churches on Long Island, 
and established hospitals, homes, orphanages, 
convents, and academies. He purchased a city 
block of land on which to erect a new cathedral 
in 18^0. and laid the 
corner stone June 21, 

1868. He attended 
the council of the 
Vatican at Rome in 

1869, and became 
domestic prelate to 
the pope. He made 
a second visit to 
Rome in 1880, ob 
tained a special au 
dience with the pope, 
and presented him 
with 33,000 francs as 
Peter s pence from 
the diocese of -Brook 
lyn. He was invited 

to attend the pope s golden jubilee, but sent 
one of the priests of his diocese in his stead 
with the gift of an album containing photo 
graphs of all the churches and institutions of his 
diocese, with data of the progress of the church 
on Long Island. His own golden jubilee occurred 
in October, 1890, and was celebrated four days. 
He was presented with a purse of $37,000 with 
which he endowed St. John s Theological semi 
nary. He died in Brooklyn. N.Y., Dec. 29, 1891. 
LOUQHRIDQE, William, representative, was 
born in Youngstown, Ohio, July 11, 1827. He at 
tended the public school, studied law, and was ad 
mitted to the bar in 1849. He practised in Mans 
field, Ohio, 1849-52 ; and in Oskaloosa, Iowa, 
1852-61. He was a member of the Iowa senate, 
1857-60 ; was judge of the 6th judicial district of 
Iowa, 1861-67, and a Republican representative 
from the sixtli Iowa district in the 40th, 41st 
and 43d congresses. 1867-71 and 1873-75. He 
died near Reading. Pa., Sept. 26, 1889. 

LOUNSBURY, George Edward, governor of 
Connecticut, was born in Poundridge, West- 
chester county, N.Y., May 7, 1838 ; son of Nathan 
and Delia (Scofield) Louns- 
bury, grandson of Enos 
Lounsbury, and a descendant 
in the sixth generation of 
Richard Lounsbury, of Louns- 
bourgh, England, who settled 
at Stamford, Conn., about 
1651. He removed with his 
parents to Ridgefield, Conn., when he was an 
infant. He prepared himself for college, was 
graduated from Yale with high honors in 1863, 
from the Berkeley Divinity school. Middle- 
town, in 1866 ; and in 1867. with his brother 
[133] 




LOUNSBURY 



LOVE 



Phineas C. Lounsbury (q. v.), engaged in the 
shoe manufacturing business in South Nor- 
walk, Conn. In 1895 he was elected as a 
Republican a state senator, and was re-elected in 
1897 serving as chairman of the committees on 
finance and humane institutions. In 1898 he was 
elected governor of Connecticut, and served for 
two years, untilJanuary, 1901, when he was suc 
ceeded by George P. McLean. He received the 
honorary degree of LL.D. from Wesleyan uni 
versity in 1900. He became an acknowledged 
authority on the history and legislation of the 
state. 

LOUNSBURY, Phineas Chapman, governor of 
Connecticut, was born in Ridgefield, Conn.. Jan. 
10, 1841 ; son of Nathan and Delia (Scofield) 
Lounsbury. His father was a farmer. He was 
educated in the public schools of Ridgefield, and 

enlisted as a private 
in the 17th Connec 
ticut volunteer in 
fantry in 1861. He 
was obliged to retire 
from the army on ac 
count of serious ill 
ness, and with his 
brother, George E. 
Lounsbury, he en 
gaged in the shoe 
manufacturing busi 
ness in New Haven 
and South Norwalk, 
Conn. He was mar 
ried in 1867 to Jennie, 
daughter of Neziah 
Wright. In 1885 he became president of the 
Merchants Exchange National bank of New 
York city, of which lie had been a director for 
some years. He was elected a Republican repre 
sentative in the Connecticut legislature in 1874, 
and served as speaker. In 1886 he was the can 
didate of the Republican party for governor of 
Connecticut, and in the election, Nov. 2, 1886. he 
received 56,920 votes to 58,818 for Edward 8. 
Cleveland, Democrat ; 4699 for S. B. Forbes, Pro 
hibitionist, and 2792 for H. C. Baker, labor can 
didate. There being 110 choice by the people, a 
majority being necessary, the legislature elected 
the Republican state ticket, and Mr. Lounsbury 
served as governor, 1887-89. He was elected a 
trustee of Wesleyan university in 1880, and re 
ceived the degree of LL.D. from there in 1887. 

LOUNSBURY, Thomas Raynesford, teacher, 
was born in Ovid. N.Y., Jan. 1. 1838: son of the 
Rev. Thomas Lourisburv, D.D. (1789-1867). a 
graduate of Union. 1817. and Princeton Theolog 
ical seminary, 1818; pastor at Ovid. N.Y., 1823- 
49, and later agent for the American Bible so 
ciety. Thomas R. Lounsbury was graduated from 




Yale in 1859, and was engaged editorially on Ap- 
pleton s " American Cyclopaedia, 1859-62. He 
was a volunteer officer in the civil war, 1862-65 ; 
an instructor in English at Yale, 1870-71 ; profes 
sor of English there from 1871, and librarian of 
the Sheffield Scientific school from 1873. He re 
ceived the degree of A.M. from Yale in 1877 ; that 
of LL.D. from Yale in 1892 and from Harvard in 
1893 ; that of L.H.D. from Lafayette in 1895. and 
that of Litt.D. from Princeton in 1896. He edited 
Chaucer s " Parliament of Foules" (1877), and is the 
author of : History of the English Language (1879); 
Biography of James Feinmore Cooper (1883); 
Studies in Chaucer (3 vols., 1891). 

LOVE, George Maltby, soldier, was born in 
Buffalo, N.Y., Jan. 1, 1831. He served three 
months in the 21st N.Y. militia, May-August, 
1861 ; one year in the 44th N.Y. volunteers as 
lieutenant, participating in the battles from 
Hanover Court House to Malvern Hill ; and as 
major and colonel of the 116th N.Y. volunteers 
from Sept. 5, 1862, to the close of the war. He 
commanded the regiment in the Department of 
the Gulf, at the battle of Plain s Store, La. , May 
21, 1863. and at the assault on Port Hudson, La., 
May 27, 1863, where he was severely wounded. He 
was promoted to the rank of colonel, July 16, 
1863, and engaged in the Red River campaign, 
his regiment being assigned to the 1st brigade, 
1st division, 19th army corps, Gen. W. B. Frank 
lin, taking part in the battles of Sabine Cross- 
Roads, April 8, 1864, Pleasant Hill, April 9, and 
Cane River, April 23. 1864. The 19th corps, Gen. 
W. H. Emory, was then ordered to join the Army 
of the Potomac, and arrived in Washington in 
time to take part in repelling the invasion of 
Early. He took part in the battles of Winches 
ter, Sept. 19, Fisher s Hill, Sept, 22, and Cedar 
Creek, Oct. 19, 1864. He was bre vetted briga 
dier-general of volunteers, March 7, 1865. for gal 
lant and meritorious services at the battle of 
Cedar Creek, Va., and also received a bronze 
medal of honor from the secretary of war. He 
was mustered out of the volunteer service, June 
8, 1865, and entered the regular service, March 
7, 1867, as 3d lieutenant in the llth infantry. He 
was brevetted 1st lieutenant. March 7, 1867, for 
Plain s Store ; captain for Port Hudson ; major 
for Cedar Creek, and lieutenant-colonel for gal 
lant and meritorious services during the war. 
He was transferred to the 16th infantry, April 
14. 1869: promoted 1st lieutenant, March 1. 1875; 
and was ret mid. March 15. 1883, for disability in 
curred in the lino of duty. He died in Buffalo, 
N.Y. .March 19, 1887. 

LOVE, James Madison, jurist, was born at 

Fairfax Court House, Va.. March 4, 1820: son of 

John T. and Mary (Vermillion) Love. His father 

died while he was a mere lad and his mother re- 

1184] 



LOVEJOY 



LOVEJOY 



moved to Zanesville, Ohio, in 1832, where he at 
tended tiie academy three years and then en 
gaged in civil engineering with Samuel Ryan 
Curtis (q.v.) in charge of government -works on 
the Muskinguiu river, 1837-89. He studied law 
with his older brother, Thomas R. Love, at Fair 
fax, Va., one year, and after completing his 
course with Judge Stillwell at Zanesville he be 
gan practice. He raised a company for service 
in the war with Mexico, and served as its captain, 
1846-47. He removed to Keokuk, Iowa, in 1850, 
and served in the state senate as chairman of the 
judiciary committee, 18.12-54. He was appointed 
judge of the U.S. district court of Iowa by Pres 
ident Pierce, and served, 1855-91. In his thirty- 
five years on the bench but two of his decisions 
were reversed by the U.S. supreme court. He 
was married, first to M. P. Thomasson, of Louis 
ville, Ky., and secondly in January, 1864, to Mary 
Millmrn. of St. Louis, Mo., who survived him. 
He was professor of commercial law and the law 
of persons and personal rights in the State Uni 
versity of Io\va, 1878-91, and was chancellor of 
the law department for three years. He con 
tributed to the magazines, and his lectures, ,4 Re 
view from a Laicyer s Standpoint of the Case, of 
Sh ylock against Antonio and Portia o.s a Lawyer, 
were published in the American Law Review. 
He died in Keokuk. Iowa, July 2, 1891. 

LOVEJOY, Elijah Parish, abolitionist, was 
born in Albion, Maine, Nov. 9, 1802: son of the 
Rev. Daniel and Elizabeth (Pattee) Lovejoy, and 
grandson of Francis Lovejoy, of Amherst, N.H., 
who settled in Albion, Maine, in 1790, and of Ebe- 
nezer and Mary (Stimson) Pattee, of Georgetown, 
Maine. He was prepared for college at the acad 
emies at Monmouth and China, Maine, and was 
graduated from "Waterville college in 1820. He 
was principal of China academy, 182G-27, and in 
1827 removed to St. Louis, Mo., where he en 
gaged in teaching. He was editor and publisher 
of the Times, a Whig newspaper, in St. Louis. 
1828-32; attended Princeton Theological sem 
inary, 1832-33, and was licensed to preach by the 
second presbytery of Philadelphia, April 18, 1833. 
He established, edited and published the St. Louis 
Obserrer, a religious paper, the first number 
of which appeared Nov. 22, 1833, and he also 
conducted religious services. He was married 
March 4, 1835, to Helen Ann French, of St. 
Charles, Mo. In 1834 he had formally announced 
himself an advocate of anti-slavery, and in 1835 
began to use his paper as an anti-slavery organ. 
His editorials created much excitement in the 
city and throughout the state, and in October, 
1835, he was requested by his subscribers to ab 
stain from discussing the question in his paper. 
He replied " that the free communication of 
thoughts and opinions is one of the invaluable 



rights of man, and that every person may freely 
speak, write and print on any subject being re 
sponsible for the abuse of that liberty," which 
sentiment became a clause in the constitution of 
the state of Missouri. The opposition in Missouri 
became greater, and he was requested to resign 
his editorship, which he did. He removed to 
Alton, 111., where he was elected moderator of 
the Alton presbytery. The office in St. Louis 
was entered before the outfit could be removed 
and much of the material destroyed. The print 
ing-office press was not damaged, and was at 
once sent to Alton, 111., where it was destroyed 
by a mob and thrown into the river. The citi 
zens of Alton, regretting this act, furnished 
money to purchase a new press, and the Observer, 
with Mr. Lovejoy as editor, reappeared in the 
summer of 1836. The utterances of the paper 




@ 



LOVEJOYS FRIAITlAl<$ OFFICE. -ALTO M, If.Ul/MOlS 

against slavery being continued, on Aug. 21, 1837, 
a mob broke into the office and completely de 
stroyed his press. Another was bought, and on 
September 21 of that year followed its predeces 
sor to the bottom of the Mississippi. Mr. Lovejoy 
ordered a fourth press and resolved to fight the 
opposition to the end. A public meeting was 
called and he was urged to leave Alton. This he 
refused to do, and on Nov. 6, 1837, a new press 
arrived and was placed in the warehouse of God 
frey, Gilman & Co., and a force of nineteen men, 
including Mr. Lovejoy, remained in the ware 
house to protect the press. On the night of Nov. 
7, 1837, a mob attacked the warehouse, and after 
the riot had apparently subsided Mr. Lovejoy 
opened the door and received five bullet wounds, 
from which he died almost instantly. A monu 
ment to his memory was dedicated in Alton 
Nov. 8, 1897. He died in Alton. Nov. 7, 1837. 

LOVEJOY, Owen, representative, was born in 
Albion, Maine, Jan. 6, 181 1 ; son of the Rev. Dan 
iel and Elizabeth (Pattee) Lovejoy. He worked 
on his father s farm, where he earned sufficient 
money to pay his way through college, and en 
tered Bowdoin with the class of 1834. He left be 
fore graduating to study for orders in the Protes 
tant Episcopal church, but on being required to 
refrain from taking sides on the question of slav- 



[135] 



LOVELL 



LOVELL 




ery, he removed to Alton, 111., in 1836, and was 
present when his brother Elijah was killed by the 
mob Nov. 7, 1837. He joined the Congregational 
church, studied for that ministry, and was pastor 
of tlie church at Princeton, 111.. 1S3IS-54. He de- 
lied the laws of the 
state by holding anti- 
slavery meetings in 
all parts of Illinois, 
making his home in 
Princeton one of the 
principal stations of 
the " underground 
railroad." His course 
led to his arrest many 
times and to his 
paying innumerable 
lines. He was elected 
a representative in 
the state legislature 
in 1854, and suc 
ceeded in obtaining a 

repeal of the obnoxious law. He was a delegate 
to the national liberty convention at Buffalo in 
November, 1847, and in the state legislature sup 
ported the nomination of Abraham Lincoln for 
U.S. senator. He was a representative from the 
third district of Illinois in the 35th, 36th, 37th 
and 38th congresses, 1857-64, and died in office. 
While in congress he was chairman of the com 
mittee on agriculture and the District of Colum 
bia. He took part in all the great debates on the 
slavery question in congress, and was a speaker 
in the political campaigns which followed the 
organization of the Republican party. He pre 
pared with his brother, Joseph Cammet, A Memoir 
of the Life of Elijah. Parish Lowjoy (1838). He 
died in Brooklyn, N.Y., March 25, 1864. 

LOVELL, Charles Swain, soldier, was born in 
Hull, Mass., Feb. 13. 1811. He enlisted as a pri 
vate in the 2d U.S. artillery in 1831. He was 
promoted 3d lieutenant in the 6th U.S. infan 
try, October, 1837 ; 1st lieutenant, July, 1838 ; and 
captain, June, 1846. He participated in the 
battles of Churubuseo, Molino del Rev, Chapul- 
tepec and the city of Mexico ; served in the west, 
1847-61 ; was promoted major in May, 1861, and 
assigned to the 10th U.S. infantry. He com 
manded, the battalion of the 10th U.S. infantry 
during the Peninsula campaign in 1862 ; and the 
2d brigade, 2d division, 5th corps at the battles of 
Malvern Hill and Gaines s Mill, the 2d U.S. infan 
try at Second Bull Run and the 3d brigade at An- 
tietam and Fredericksburg, Va. He was detailed 
on provost-marshal duty in Wisconsin, 1863-65 ; 
was promoted lieutenant-colonel and assigned to 
the 8th U.S. infantry, January, 1863 : and colonel 
of the 14th U.S. infantry, February, 1865. He 
was brevetted lieutenant-colonel U.S. army for 

[136] 



HAJ.U 

PHILAPELPHIA , PA 
(7/4- i 




Gaines sMill, Va. ; colonel for Malvern Hill. Va. ; 
and brigadier-general for Antietam, Md. At the 
close of the civil war he was ordered to Fort 
Yuma, where he remained until Dec. 15. 1870, 
when he was retired from active service. He 
died in Louisville. Ky.. Jan. 3, 18T1. 

LOVELL, James, delegate, was born in Boston, 
Mass., Oct. 31, 1737 : sou of John Lovell (q.v.). 
He was graduated from Harvard, A.B., 1756, 
A.M., 1759, and was for many years associated 
with his father in the Boston Latin school, as 
usher and as master of the North grammar school. 
He delivered, on April 2. 1771. the first anniver 
sary oration on the Boston massacre. He was 
taken prisoner by the British commander after 
the battle of Bunker Hill : was carried to Halifax 
as a spy and kept in close confinement until ex 
changed in 1776. He was a delegate to the Conti 
nental con 
gress, 1776- 
82, and was 
a member of 
the commit 
tee of foreign H 
correspond- 
e n c e . He 
was a friend 
and confi 
dant of Gen. Horatio Gates, and tried to de 
pose General Washington, threatening him in 
a letter dated Oct. 11, 1777. He was collector of 
customs for the city of Boston, 1784-88 ; collector 
of the port, 1788-90, and naval officer for Boston 
and Charlestown, 1790-1814. He published: 
Oratio in Funert H. Flyntii (1760). He died in 
Wyndham, Maine, July 14. 1814. 

LOVELL, James, soldier, was born in Boston. 
Mass., July 9, 1758 ; son of James Lovell, the del 
egate, lie was graduated from Harvard, A.B., 
1776, A.M., 1779. He joined the patriot army in 
1776 ; served as adjutant of Col. Henry Jackson s 
regiment, 1777-79 ; in Henry Lee s legion, with 
the rank of major, 1779-82. and was wounded. 
He died at St. Matthews. S.C., July 10. 1850. 

LOVELL, John, educator, was born in Boston, 
Mass., June 16, 1710. He was graduated from 
Harvard, A.B., 1728, A.M., 1731; succeeded Natha 
niel Williams as assistant-master of the Boston 
Latin school, 1728-34, and was head-master, 173J- 
75. He delivered a eulogy on Peter Fanenil 
shortly after the completion of Fanenil Hall at 
the first annual town meeting held within its 
walls, March 14, 1743. He supported the British 
cause, and when the British army left Boston 
he removed to Halifax. N.S. He is the author 
of: An, En.Jof/i/ on Peter F<nievil (1713), besides 
several political and theological papers, and con 
tributions to the Boston Weekly Rehearsal. He 
died in Halifax, N.S., in 1778. 



LOVELL 



LOVE RING 



LOVELL, John Prince, manufacturer, was 
born in East Brain tree. Mass., July 25, 1820 ; son 
of John Prince and Esther (Derby) Lovell. His 
ancestors, John and J;uie (Hatch) Lovell, were 
residents of Weymouth, Mass., previous to 1678, 
in which year they removed to Barnstable, Mass. 
His father died in 1821, and he was obliged to 
leave school and work in a cotton factory. He 
removed to Boston with his mother in 1832 and 
attended the Hawkins grammar school one year. 
He was employed by Aaron B. Fairbanks in his 
gunsmith shop for three months, and was subse 
quently an apprentice to Mr. Fairbanks, gun 
smith, until his majoritj . In 1839 he was made 
foreman of the shop, and in 18-10 was offered a 
partnership in the business. Mr. Fairbanks agree 
ing to give him half-interest and to furnish the 
amount of capital required. Upon Mr. Fair- 
banks s death, Aug. 27, 1841, with Leonard Grover, 
a fellow-workman in the shop, Mr. Lovell ac 
quired the entire plant, and the firm became 
Lovell & Grover. In 1844 Lovell bought out his 
partner s interest, and with his sons built up the 
John P. Lovell Arms Co., of which he was presi 
dent and which became one of the most impor 
tant business enterprises in Boston. He was the 
first president of the East Weymouth Savings 
bank for ten years and a director of the Wey 
mouth National bank for twenty years. He was 
a representative in the state legislature in 1864, 
and refused the nomination for state senator. 
He was married, Aug. 17, 1841, to Lydia D. 
Whiton. of Weymouth. Mass. To this union was 
born five sons John Whiton, Benjamin S. (1845- 
1900); Thomas P.. Warren D.. and George A. 
Lovell. His second marriage was to Lucinda W. 
Rice, who had one son, Henry L. Lovell. Mr. 
Lovell died at Cottage City, Mass., July 29, 1897. 

LOVELL, Mansfield, soldier, was born in 
Washington, D.C., Oct. 20, 1822; son of Dr. Jo 
seph Lovell. He was graduated from the U.S. 
Military academy in 1842 and was commissioned 
2d lieutenant in the 4th artillery. He served in 
garrison until the beginning of the war with 
Mexico ; was promoted first lieutenant Feb. 16, 
1847, and served on the staff of Gen. John A. 
Qnitman as assistant adjutant-general of his 
division. He participated in the principal battles 
of the war, was severely wounded at the Belen 
Gate, Sept. 14. 1847. and was brevetted captain 
for gallant and meritorious conduct at Chapulte- 
pec, Sept. K5, 1847. He was on garrison duty in 
various places. 1849-54. He was married to 
Kiuily M.. daughter of Col. Joseph Plympton, 
U.S.A. ; resigned his commission in the arm} in 
1854, and engaged in mercantile business in New 
York city, 1854-58. He was elected superintend 
ent of street improvements in New York in 1858, 
and was deputy street commissioner, 1858-61. 




He was appointed major-general in the Confed 
erate army in 1861, and was in command at New 
Orleans, La. On June 15, 1862, he impressed 
fourteen river steamboats for the public service 
and converted them into a flotilla of rams for the 
defence of the Mis 
sissippi. Lovell af 
terward designated 
them : " too much 
steamboat and too 
little man-of-war to 
be effective." After 
the evacuation of 
New Orleans he mov 
ed his troops to Vicks- 
burg, where he com 
manded the district 
of the Mississippi 
until superseded by 
General Van Dorii 
in July, 1862. He 
was second in com 
mand at the battle of Corinth, Oct. 3-4. 1862. Ids 
division holding the right of the line of battle, 
and he commanded the rearguard in the retreat. 
He was then relieved from duty in the field, and 
to justify his action in the capitulation of New 
Orleans he applied for a court of inquiry, and 
was acquitted. He afterward served as a volun 
teer staff officer to Gen. J. E. Johnston, in com 
mand before Atlanta. Ga.. and at the close of the 
war he retired to New York city, where he en 
gaged as a civil engineer and surveyor until his 
death. He died in New York city. June 1, 1884. 

LOVERINQ, Henry Bacon, representative, 
was born in Portsmouth, N.H., April 8, 18-11 ; son. 
of John G. and Mary A. (Martin) Lovering ; 
grandson of John and Abigail Bromfield (Gil- 
man) Lovering, of Exeter, N.H., and a descend 
ant of John Rogers, burned at the stake, 1555. 
His mother dying in 1844, his father removed to- 
Lynn, Mass., and he was educated in the public; 
schools there, and in 1855 learned the trade of 
shoemaking. He was color-corporal in Company 
D. 8th Massachusetts volunteers, 1862-63, and a 
private and company clerk in Company C, 3:1 
Massachusetts cavalry, 1864-65, losing a leg at 
Winchester, Va., Sept. 19, 1864. He was married, 
Dec. 25, 1865, to Abby J.. daughter of Harrison 
and Eliza J. (Brown) Clifford, of Lynn, Mass. 
He engaged in manufacturing shoes in Lynn ; 
represented Essex county in the Massachusetts 
legislature in 1872 and 1874 ; was a member of the 
board of assessors of Lynn, 1879-80, and mayor of 
Lynn, 1881-82. He was a representative from the 
6th Massachusetts district in the 48th and 49th 
congresses, 1883-87 ; was chairman of the Demo 
cratic state convention in 1886, and the Demo 
cratic nominee for governor of Massachusetts in 

[137] 



LOVERING 



LOW 




1887. He was U.S. marshal for the district of 
Massachusetts, 1888-91 ; president of the 3d Mas 
sachusetts Cavalry association, 1888-89 ; warden 
of the Massachusetts state prison, 1891-93, and 
U.S. pension agent at Boston, Mass., 1894-98. 
He became a member of the corporation of the 
College of Physicians and Surgeons of Boston. 

LOVERING, Joseph, educator, was born in 
Boston, Mass., Dec. 25, 1813 ; son of Robert and 
Elizabeth Simonds (Young) Lovering. He was 
graduated with honors from Harvard, A.B., 1833, 
A.M., 1836 ; was a teacher in Cliarlestown, Mass., 

1833-35 ; studied at 
Harvard divinity 
school, 1835-37 ; was 
instructor of mathe 
matics at Harvard, 
1835-38 ; tutor and 
lecturer on mathema 
tics and natural his 
tory, 1836-38; and 
succeeded Professor 
Farrar as Hollis pro 
fessor of mathematics 
and natural philoso 
phy, serving, 1838- 
88. when he resigned 
and was made pro 
fessor emeritus. He 

was regent pro tempore of the college, 1853-54 ; 
succeeded Professor Cornelius Con way Felton 
as regent, serving. 1857-70 ; and was director of 
the Jefferson physical laboratory, 1884-88. He was 
connected with the U.S. coast survey, 1867-76, 
having charge of the computations for determin 
ing transatlantic longitude from telegraphic 
observations on cable lines. He was a member of 
the American Philosophical society, and of the 
National Academy of Science ; was elected sec 
retary of the American Association for the Ad 
vancement of Science in 1854, and president in 
1873 ; corresponding secretary of the American 
Academy of Arts and Sciences, 1869-73, vice- 
president, 1873-80, and president, 1880-87 ; and 
was also a member of the Peabody Museum of 
Archaeology and Ethnology. The degree of LL.D. 
was conferred on him by Harvard in 1879. 
He delivered 108 lectures on astronomy and 
physics before the Lowell Institute in Boston, 
and shorter series in Baltimore, Washington, and 
various New England towns. He prepared a new 
edition of Farrar s " Electricity and Magnetism" 
(1842) ; fifteen volumes of the Proceedings of the 
American Association for the Advancement of 
Science ; was associated with Benjamin Pierce 
in the publication of the Cambridge Miscellany of 
Mathematics and Pltysics, and is the author of 
Aurora Borealis (1873). He died in Cambridge, 
Mass., Jan. 18, 1892. 



LOVERING, William C., representative, was 
born in Woonsocket, R.I., where his parents 
were temporarily residing, in 1835 ; son of 
Willard (1801-67) and Susan (Longhead) Lovering 
of Taunton, Mass., and grandson of William and 
Mehitable (Clafflin) Lovering of Holliston, Mass, 
He was educated at Taunton, the Cambridge high 
school and the Hopkins classical school, and en 
gaged in the manufacture of cotton goods with 
his father and brothers Charles L. and Henry 
M. in Taunton, Mass. On the retirement of his 
father in 1864 he became president and manager 
of the Whittenton Mills which in 1880, was incor 
porated as the Whittenton Manufacturing Co. of 
Taunton. He was also interested in several other 
manufacturing industries. He was a volunteer 
in the U.S. engineer corps at Fort Monroe dur 
ing the civil war, but left the service on ac 
count of ill health. He was state senator, 
1874-75 ; a delegate to the Republican national 
convention in Chicago. June 2, 1880; and was 
a Republican representative from the twelfth 
district of Massachusetts in the 55th, 56th and 
57th congresses, 1897-1903. 

LOVETT, John, representative, was born in 
Newent Society, Norwich (now Lisbon), Conn., 
about 1760 ; a descendant of an English family 
that settled as early as 1640 on the Quinnebaug 
river, Connecticut. He was prepared for college 
at Lebanon academy, and was graduated at Yale 
in 1782. He studied law in Albany, N.Y., and 
was a lawyer at Fort Miller, N.Y. He was mar 
ried about 1786 to Nancy, daughter of Gen. Samuel 
McClellan, of Woodstock, Conn. He removed 
to Lansingburg, N.Y., and thence to Argyle, 
Washington county, where he practised law, 
1789-1807. He was a member of the state assem 
bly for Rensselaer county before 1789, and in 1807 
removed to Albany, N.Y., where he continued 
the practice of law, and was clerk of the common 
council of the city. In 1812 he became aide and 
military secretary to Gen .Stephen Van Rensselaer, 
serving in the Northwest. He was a represen 
tative in the 13th and 14th congresses, 1813-17. 
He then removed to Fort Meigs, Ohio, where, in 
connection with Dr. JosephusB. Stewart he built 
the first steamboat that navigated Lake Erie. 
He purchased the site and commenced the settle 
ment of Perrysburg, near Fort Meigs, Ohio, 
where he died Aug. 12, 1818. 

LOW, Abiel Abbot, merchant, was born in 
Salem, Mass., Feb. 7, 1811 ; son of Seth and Mary 
(Porter) Low. He attended the public schools 
of Salem, and was employed in the mercantile 
house of Joseph Howard & Co. In 1829 he re 
moved to Brooklyn, N.Y., where his father had 
already settled, and became associated with him 
in the importing business. In 1833 he went to 
China, became a clerk in the firm of Russell & 



[138] 



LOW 



LOW 



Co., the leading tea merchants of Canton, and 
in 1837 became a member of the firm. He re 
turned to New York in 1840, established himself 
in the China trade, subsequently taking his 
brother, Josiah O. Low, into partnership, and 
later his brother-in-law, Edward H. R. Lyman. 
The firm of A. A. Low & Bros, was regarded as 
the leading mercantile house in the United 
States engaged in the China trade. He was 
elected a member of the New York chamber of 
commerce in 1846, and was its president in 1863 
and 1866. He was treasurer of the Union defence 
committee of New York ; a member of the war 
fund committee of Brooklyn, and president of 
the committee appointed to aid the sanitary ser 
vice, 1861-65. He was president of the board of 
trustees of the Packer institute ; a liberal con 
tributor to the library and scientific apparatus of 
the institute ; and a supporter of many charitable, 
religious and educational institutions in Brooklyn 
arid New York city. He was married in 1841 to 
Ellen Almira, daughter of Josiah and Maria 
(Phippen) Dow, who died in 1850 ; and secondly, 
in 1851, to Ann Davison (Bedell) Low, widow 
of his brother. Willis Henry Low. His sons, 
Abbot, Augustus and Seth, succeeded him in 
business. Upon the death of his daughter 
Harriette in 1885, he erected the St. Phoebe Mis 
sion in Brooklyn to her memory. Although his 
sons were Episcopalian. Mr. Low was himself a 
Unitarian, and the funeral services were held at 
the church of the First Unitarian society in 
Brooklyn, by the Rev. Dr. Putnam, of Concord, 
N.H.. former pastor of the church. He died at 
Ids home in Brooklyn, N.Y., Jan. 7, 1893. 

LOW, Frederick Ferdinand, governor of Cali 
fornia, was born in Frankfort, Maine, June 30, 
1828. He attended school at Frankfort and 
Hampton academy, and entered mercantile busi 
ness in Boston, Mass., in 1840. He went to 
California in 1849 and engaged in mining ; in 
the shipping business in San Francisco, with 
Henry Lambert and later with his two brothers, 
and removed to Marysville. Cal., in 1855 and en 
gaged in banking. He was a Republican repre 
sentative from California in the 37th congress, 
1861-63 ; was appointed collector of the port of 
San Francisco in 1863, and during the same year 
was elected governor of California, serving 1864- 
67. He was U.S. minister to China, 1867-74, and 
at the time of the sacking of the missions and 
massacre of missionaries at Tien Tsin. he se 
verely criticised the emperor of China and forced 
him to recognize the power of foreign ministers 
to protect their citizens engaged as missionaries, 
and was one of the first foreigners to be admitted 
into the presence of the emperor. In February, 
1871, lie was empowered to negotiate with the 
empire of Corea for the protection of shipwrecked 



CARPENTER S HALX 




E) 



seamen, and for a treaty of commerce and navi 
gation. For his services iii behalf of Catholic 
missions Mr. Low was publicly thanked by the 
pope. Upon his resignation as U.S. minister, he 
became chief manager of the Anglo-Californian 
bank. He was one of the incorporators and a 
director of the California!! Steam Navigation 
company in 1854. and was interested in the cul 
tivation of sugar in the Hawaiian Islands. He 
died in San Francisco, Cal.. July 21. 1894. 

LOW, Isaac, merchant, was born in his father s 
mansion on the Raritan river, near New Bruns 
wick, N.J., April 13, 1731 ; son of Cornelius, Jr., 
and Johanna (Gouverneur) Low ; grandson of 
Cornelius and Margaretha (Van Borsom) Lowe, 

and of Isaac and 
Sarah (Staats) 
Gouverneur ; a 
descendant of 
Peter Cornel- 
lessen Lowe of 
Holstein. Ger 
many, who ap 
peared in Eso- 
ipus, N.Y., in 
1659 and mar 
ried Elizabeth 
Blanchaii ; of 
Egbert Van Borsom, a native of Amsterdam, 
Holland, who was in New Amsterdam (New 
York), in 1644, married Annekin Hendricks, 
and operated the ferry between New York and 
Brooklyn, 1655-63 ; and of Nicholas Gouverneur, 
a French refugee to Holland and thence to New 
Amsterdam before 1663, who married Machtelt 
De Reimer, daughter of Isaac and Lisbeth Gre- 
venraet and granddaughter of Metje Grevenraet, 
widow, who came from Amsterdam before 1632. 
Isaac Low was a partner with Abraham Lot in 
the importing dry goods and fur business and he 
built up an immense fur trade through the influ 
ence of the Schuylers, and owned large tracts of 
land in Montgomery county, N.Y. He married 
Margrieta, daughter of Cornelius and Catharine 
(Schuyler) Cuyler of Albany, July 17, 1760, and 
built "an elegant mansion" on Dock Street, 
New York city. He was a delegate to the Stamp 
Act congress of 1765 ; made speeches against 
taxation without representation ; was chairman 
of the first and second committees of fifty to 
correspond with the colonies ; a delegate to the 
general congress of all the colonies. Philadel 
phia, Sept. 5, 1774, and was elected to the 
Continental congress to assemble May 10, 1775. 
On April 29, 1775, he urged the people to form a 
compact body to prevent mobs, to support the 
civil authority and to defend the rights and lib 
erties of the people against the unjust claims of 
the British ministry, closing his address by say- 



LOW 



LOW 



ing that although a member of the Church of 
England " lie damned the King, cursed the 
ministry and insisted that all who refused to 
sign the articles of agreement should be pub 
lished as the enemies of America and the rights 
of mankind." He was colonial treasurer and 
president of the chamber of commerce. To the 
surprise of the patriots, in the spring of 1776, just 
after the battle of Lexington, he suddenly an 
nounced his opposition to any efforts to obtain 
independence and his belief that " we ought not 
to deny the just rights of our mother country." 
He used his official positions to assist the mi 
litary authorities and he welcomed the British 
armies when they took possession of the city. 
On Oct. 22, 1779, he was attainted of treason by 
the legislature of New York, his property was 
confiscated and his person banished from the 
state. He fled to England, and his only son 
Isaac became commissary-general in the Royal 
army. His brother Nicholas, father of Henrietta 
Lowe, wife of Dr. Charles King (q.v.), president 
of Columbia college, was also a prominent mer 
chant in New York, and remained true to the 
patriot cause, being a member of the state legisla 
ture and a delegate to the state convention at 
Pouglikeepsie, June 17, 1788, that deliberated on 
adopting the Federal constitution. Isaac Low 
died at Covves, Isle of Wight, England, in 1791. 

LOW, Philip Burrill, representative, was born 
in Chelsea, Mass., May 6, 1836; son of Francis 
and Reliance (Cobb) Low ; grandson of Jennison 
and Dinah (Haynes) Low, and of Philip and 
Reliance (Burrill) Cobb, and a descendant of 
Francis Low of Cape Ann, whose ancestor fought 
in the Colonial and Indian wars, and, through the 
Cobbs, of Stephen Hopkins, the pilgrim. His 
father was a shipmaster. He was graduated 
from the high school, and adopted the profession 
of his father. In 1862 he volunteered in the U.S. 
navy and was appointed ensign, serving in the 
North Atlantic squadron, 1862-63. He engaged 
in mercantile business in Boston, 1863-65, and in 
the latter year removed to New York city, where 
he became identified with shipping and maritime 
interests. He organized and was the first com 
mander of the New York state naval militia. He 
was a Republican representative from the fif 
teenth New York district in the 54th and 55th 
congresses, 1895-99. 

LOW, Seth, educator, was born in Brooklyn, 
"X.Y., Jan. 18, 1850 ; son of Abiel Abbot and 
Ellen Almira (Dow) Low, and grandson of 
Seth and Mary (Porter) Low. He attended 
the Brooklyn Polytechnic institute until 1866, 
and was graduated from Columbia college in 
1870. He entered his father s mercantile house 
as a clerk, and was admitted to a partnership in 
the firm in 1875. Upon the retirement of the 




senior members he succeeded to the business 
with other junior partners, in 1879 ; the business 
was finally liquidated in 1888. He was elected a 
member of the New York chamber of commerce, 
before which body he made several important 
addresses. He en 
listed as a volunteer 
visitor to the poor in 
1876, in a movement 
which reformed and 
subsequently abolish 
ed the system of out 
door relief in Kings 
county, and in 1878 
he organized and was 
first president of the 
Bureau of Charities. 
He was married Dec. 
9, 1880, to Annie, 
daughter of Benjamin 
R. Curtis, of Boston. 
He was president 

of a Republican campaign club organized in 
Brooklyn in 1880 to promote the election of 
Garfield and Arthur, and the conspicuous success 
of the organization in swelling the party vote 
brought its president into public view. He was. 
elected mayor of Brooklyn in 1881 as a reform 
candidate, and re-elected in 1883, serving until 
1886. He was the first mayor to introduce the 
system of competitive examination for appoint 
ment to municipal offices. Upon the expiration 
of his term of office he visited Europe. He 
was elected a trustee of Columbia college in 1881, 
and president of the college, Oct. 7, 1889. During 
his administration the college became a univer 
sity, the College of Physicians and Surgeons was 
incorporated with the university and the School 
of Mines was broadened into the Schools of 
Applied Science. An entire new set of buildings 
was erected Cor the university on a new site on 
Morningside Heights at a cost of about $7,500.000. 
In 1894 he gave for the endowment of the Henry 

< O U U /-\ B I A UAMVERSITY 




Drisler classical fund,, in memory of his old 
professor, $10.000. In 1895 he gave $1,100.000 for 
the erection of a new tmiversity library : and in 
honor of his munificence the trustees established 
twelve scholarships in the college for Brooklyn 
[140] 



LOW 



boys, and twelve in Barnard college for Brooklyn 
girls, and agreed to establish eight annual uni 
versity scholarships. In 1896 lie gave $10,000 to 
Barnard college and $5000 to the New York Kin 
dergarten association. In 1893, during the threat 
ened cholera epidemic, he was chairman of a 
committee appointed by the New York chamber 
of commerce to aid the authorities in precau 
tionary measures, and Camp Low. named after 
him, was established at Sandy Hook by the 
national government. He became a student of 
social science and a frequent arbitrator of labor 
disputes. With his brother, Abbot Augustus Low, 
he built in 1894, and presented to the mission 
station of the Protestant Episcopal church in 
Wu Chang, China, a completely equipped hos 
pital for the use of the mission, erected to per 
petuate the memory of his father. He succeeded 
Charles P. Daly, deceased, as president of the 
American Geographical society in 1900, and also 
served as president of the Archaeological Institu 
tion of America, and as vice-president of the 
New York Academy of Science. The honorary 
degree of LL.D. was conferred on him by Amherst 
college in 1889, by Harvard university, the 
University of the State of New York, the Univer 
sity of Pennsylvania, and Trinity college, Con 
necticut, in 1890, by Princeton in 1896 and by Yale 
in 1901. He resigned the presidency of Columbia 
university in 1901, upon his election as mayor of 
the city of New York, and was succeeded by Dr. 
Nicholas Murray Butler (q.v.), who was inaugu 
rated in May. 190 3. 

LOW, Will Hicok, artist, was born in Albany, 
N.Y., May 31, 1853 ; son of Addison and Elvira 
(Steele) Low, and grandson of Samuel Steele. 
His father was a constructing engineer and an 
inventor. The son attended school very little, on 
account of delicate health, and spent most of his 
time in drawing. In 1870 he sold a sketcli to the 
New York Independent for $50, and soon after 
settled in New York, where he drew for Apple- 
ton s Journal, the Hearth, and Home, and other 
periodicals, 1870-72. In 1872 lie exhibited a 
small oil painting at the National Academy 
of Design. In 1873 he went to Paris, where he 
studied first \inder Gerome and later under 
Carolus Duran. In 1874 he met Robert Louis 
Stevenson, who became his closest friend. He 
was married in 1875 to Bertha Eugene Marie 
Julienne, of Paris. In 1870 he first exhibited at 
the Salon, his subject being " Reverie, and the 
following year he sent a large painting of Albani 
as Lucia de Lammermoor, painted from life, 
and also " Le Jour des Morts." He returned to 
America in 1877 and opened a studio in New 
York city, where he occasionally made illustra 
tions for books and magazines. He was a teacher 
in the antique and life classes of the Woman s 




Art school. Cooper Union, 1883-85, and in the 
schools of the National Academy of Design, 
1889-92. He was one of the founders of the 
Society of American Artists, 1877, and was made 
a National Academician in 1890. His more im 
portant illustrations 
are the drawings for 
Keats s " Lamia and 
"Odes and Sonnets" 
(1885) ,and a selection 
of the drawings from 
these works received 
award of a silver 
medal at the Paris 
Exposition in 1889. 
His first mural paint 
ing was done in 1881, 
when he assisted John 
La Farge in decorat 
ing the Vanderbilt 
houses ; and his sub 
sequent works in 

this line include : a ceiling for the reception- 
room of the Waldorf hotel, New York city, 
1892 ; four panels in the music-room of C. T. 
Yerkes s residence, New York, 1896, and twenty 
panels for the concert hall and ball-room of 
the Waldorf-Astoria hotel, 1897. He designed 
a series of ten stained-glass windows for St. 
Paul s Methodist Episcopal church, Newark, 
N.J. ; the diploma of awards for the Columbian 
exposition, 1893 ; several silver certificates for 
the U.S. government, and many stained-glass 
windows for large churches throughout the coun 
try. Besides the works already mentioned, his 
more noteworthy achievements include : Calling 
Home the Cou-s (1880); Skipper Ireson s Ride 
(1881) ; Arcades (1882); Telling the Bees (1884); 
Dolce Far Niente ; In a Paris Garden ; Tlie 
Beautiful Book; My Lady; Aurora (1895). 
He is the author of numerous articles, chiefly on 
art subjects, contributed to periodicals. 

LOWE, Enoch Louis, governor of Maryland, 
was born in Frederick county, Md., Aug. 10. 
1820 ; son of Lieut. Bradley S.A., and Adelaide 
Bellumeau (de la Vineendiere) Lowe ; grandson 
of Lloyd M. and Rebecca (Maccubbin) Lowe, and 
great-grandson of Michael and Ann (Magruder) 
Lowe. His ancestors settled in Maryland about 
1675. He attended St. John s school in Fred 
erick, Md., the Roman Catholic college near 
Dublin, Ireland, and a school at Stonyhurst, 
Lancashire, England, until 1839. He was ad 
mitted to the Maryland bar in 1842, and was a 
Democratic delegate to the Maryland legislature 
in 1845. He was married June 1, 1845, to Esther 
Winder, daughter of Col. James and Anne Maria 
(Stuart) Polk, of Maryland. He was governor of 
Maryland, 1851-53, and during his tenure of office 



[1411 



LOWE 



LOWE 



introduced many changes in the election laws 
and other reforms. lie was appointed U.S. 
minister to China in 1857 by President Buchanan, 
but declined the office. He was a presidential 
elector in 1861, voting for Breckinridge and 
Lane. He removed to Brooklyn, N.Y., in 1866, 
and practised law in that city until his death, 
which occurred in Brooklyn. N.Y., Aug. 23, 1892. 

LOWE, flartha Perry, author, was born in 
Keene, N.H.. Nov. 21, 1829; daughter of Gen. 
Justus and Hannah (Wood) Perry ; granddaugh 
ter of Dr. Justus Perry and of Stephen Wood of 
Concord, Mass., and a descendant of Judge 
Ephraim Wood of Concord, Mass. She attended 
the Keene academy and was graduated from Mrs. 
Elizabeth Sedgewick s school at Lennox, Mass., 
in 1845. She studied music in Boston, Mass., 
1848, and passed the winter of 1849 in the West 
Indies and the next year in Spain, where her 
brother, Horatio J. Perry, who married Caroline 
Coronado, poet laureate of Spain, was secretary 
of the American legation at Madrid. She was 
married in 1857 to the Rev. Charles Lowe of 
Exeter, N.H., pastor of the North church at 
Salem, Mass. She went with him to Somerville, 
Mass., in 1859, where he took charge of the First 
Congregational (Unitarian) society. She was in 
Europe with her husband, 1871-73, and after his 
death, June 20, 1874, she resided in Somerville. 
With Mrs. Maria Teresa Hollander she founded 
the Woman s Educational Union in Somerville, 
and served as its president during its existence. 
She was a member of the Woman s Christian 
Temperance Union, and honorary president of the 
Suffrage league in Somerville. She is the author 
of: The Olive and the Pine (1859); Love in Spain 
and other Poems (1867); The Story of Chief Joseph 
(1881): Bessie Gray; Memoir of Charles Loire 
(1883); The Immortals (Kaster Poems). She 
died in Somervillt;, Mass., .May >. 1902. 

LOWE, Peter Perlee, pioneer lawyer, was born 
near Lebanon, Ohio, June 11, 1801 ; son of Jacob 
D. and Martha (Perlee) Lowe. . Jacob D. Lowe 
was born near Somerville, N.J.. in 1767, removed 
to Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1791, and at his house in 
1794 the first Masonic lodge in Ohio was organized. 
In 1800 he located near Lebanon in Warren 
county. Peter Perlee Lowe studied classics under 
the Rev. James Kemper, a pioneer preacher, and 
law under Thomas Corwin ; was admitted to the 
bar in 1825, and practised in Dayton, Ohio, 1825- 
86. In 1832 he was admitted to practise in the 
U.S. courts of Washington, D.C. He was prose 
cuting attorney for Montgomery county, 1832, 
and took rank as the leader of the criminal 
bar in Ohio, and was also a noted civil lawyer. 
He was a Democratic representative in the Ohio 
legislature, 1838-39: rind chairman of the judi 
ciary committee. lie declined the nomination 



for governor in 1850 in favor of his friend Reuben 
Wood, who was elected. He was a Whig until 
1836, when he left the party on account of the 
Tyler exposure of the dealings of the U.S. bank 
with members of congress. He was a delegate to 
the Democratic state and national conventions, 
1836-56, and in 1856 he joined the newly formed 
Republican party in national issues, but continued 
for some time to work with the Democrats in state 
politics. He was a delegate to the Republican 
national convention at Chicago, May 16, 1860. 
He was a promoter of the use of electricity as 
early as 1845, when he advanced a large sum of 
money to an inventor in Cincinnati by the name 
of Starr to visit Europe with his patent and 
obtain the opinion of scientists. When the in 
vention was declared successful, Starr died sud 
denly and his patents in Europe and the United 
States were unknown to Mr. Lowe until the time 
to complete the same had expired. Mr. Lowe 
was a trustee of Miami university, 1839-57. He 
died at Dumbarton Farm, Baltimore county, Md., 
Aug. 7, 1886. 

LOWE, Ralph Phillips, governor of Iowa, 
was born in Warren county, Ohio, Nov. 27, 1805 ; 
son of Jacob D. and Martha (Perlee) Lowe ; grand 
son of Derick and Rebecca (Emmons) Low ; 
great-grandson of Cornelius and Judith (Middagh) 
Low ; and a descendant of the Middaghs, Bergens, 
Rapaeljes, Hansens, Tricos and Van Nests, early 
Dutch settlers of New Amsterdam, 1607-1664. 
He was graduated from Miami university, A.B. , 
1829, A.M., 1832; studied law, and was admit 
ted to the bar at Ashville, Ala. He removed to 
Dayton, Ohio, in 1834, and to Muscatiiie, Iowa, in 
1840. He was appointed prosecuting attorney for 
the second judicial district of the territory of 
Io%va in 1841 ; was appointed general of the 2d 
division of Iowa militia by Governor Chambers 
in 1842 ; was district judge of the first judicial 
district of Iowa, 1852-57 : governor of the state, 
1858-60; judge of the supreme court, 1860-68; 
U.S. district attorney, 1868-71. and was appointed 
agent for the state to press claim against the 
United States for SO(),00() for which purpose he 
removed to Washington, D.C., in 1874. He died 
in Washington. D.C., Dec. 22, 1883. 

LOWE, Thaddeus S. C., scientist and inven 
tor, was born at Jefferson, N.H., Aug. 20, 1832; 
son of Clovis and Alpha (Green) Lowe, and 
grandson of Thomas and Lydia Green of Berlin 
Falls, N.H. In early life he studied chemistry, 
with particular reference to its relation to gas 
and metallurgy. In 1855 he was married in New 
York city to Leontine A. Gachon of Paris, 
France. In 1856 he began the study of air cur 
rents, and as an aid to his investigations he 
constructed balloons of various sizes. In 1S58- 
59 he secured instruments from the government, 



LOWE 



LOWE 




City, N.J. 
the ocean, 



and invented other instruments for investigating 
upper air currents, among these being an alti 
meter, for quickly measuring latitude and longi 
tude without a horizon. In 1859-60 he built an 
aerostat 150 feet in perpendicular diameter, with 

a transverse diameter 
of 104 feet, lifting 
more than 16 tons, in 
cluding instruments, 
a car for carrying 
crew, and a Francis 
metallic life boat, 30 
feet long, 7-foot 
beam, and schooner- 
rigged. The trial trip 
of this monster ma 
chine was made in 
the summer of 1860, 
when a burden of 8 
tons was carried from 
Point Breeze, Phila 
delphia, to Atlantic 
Preparatory to making a trip across 
a long-distance land trip was made 
on April 20, 1861, under the auspices of the 
Franklin Institute of Philadelphia and the 
Smithsonian Institution of Washington, when 
the distance of more than 800 miles from Cincin 
nati, Ohio, to near the coast of South Carolina 
was covered in nine hours. Immediately after 
this, lie entered the government service as chief 
of the aeronautic corps, which he organized, 
rendering valuable service by his observations in 
nearly all the battles of the Army of the Potomac, 
18(>1-(>:>. During the siege of Yorktown, the day 
before the evacuation, the enemy trained all its 
guns in the fort upon the balloon which was in 
the air from early morning until nightfall. 
Mr. Lowe, by continuing his observations during 
the night, discovered that the enemy were appa 
rently evacuating the forts, and this information, 
confirmed by General Heintzelman, who made an 
observation from the balloon, enabled McClellnii 
to overtake the enemy at Williamsburg. His 
observations before Richmond, and especially 
previous to and during the battle of Fair Oaks, 
furnished continual reports of the movements of 
the enemy. While on the Peninsula in 1862, he 
invented the system of signals from a high alti 
tude to the commander of the field batteries, thus 
enabling the gunners to locate objects beyond 
their vision. This system was also extensively 
used in clearing the blockades at Island No. 10 on 
the Mississippi river. After the close of the war he 
used his balloons in instructing commissions sent 
from various countries, and finally sold the entire 
equipment to the Brazilian government, who 
used it effectively in their war with Paraguay. 
In 1865 he invented the compression ice machine, 



and was the first to make artificial ice an article 
of commerce. He established the first cold 
storage for the preservation of meats, fruits and 
other food supplies, and was the first to equip a 
steamship with cold storage rooms which sys 
tem made possible the great packing houses that 
followed his introduction of cold storage. He 
engaged in building regenerative metallurgical 
furnances for the use of gas and petroleum as 
fuel, 1869-72. He invented and built in 1873-75 
the first water-gas machinery, which revolution 
ized the gas industry of the world. He was 
awarded by the Franklin Institute a diploma and 
three medals for the manufacture and utilization 
of water-gas and appliances connected therewith, 
in 1885, one of these medals being the highest 
that had ever been awarded by the Institute. 
In 1888 lie removed to California and built in Los 
Angeles the first heavy crude oil water-gas ap 
paratus, afterward extensively used wherever 
heavy oils abound. In 1891-94 he built the 
Mount Lowe aerial railway, projected a continua 
tion of the road from the mountain top to the 
next peak by a suspended cable, and established 
the Lowe observatory in the Sierra Madre. He in 
vented and put into operation, 1897-1901, the new 
Lowe coke oven system, for simultaneously pro 
ducing gas and metallurgical coke. 

LOWE, William flanning, representative, 
was born in Huntsville, Ala., Jan. 16, 1842 ; son 
of Gen. Bartley M. and Sarah Sophia (Manning) 
Lowe, and grandson of Dr. James and Sophia 
(Thompson) Manning. He attended school at 
Florence, Ala. ; was graduated at the law depart 
ment of the University of Virginia in 1860, and 
was attending the law department of the Uni 
versity of Virginia in 1861 when he entered the 
Confederate army as a private in the 4th Ala 
bama infantry. He was seriously wounded at 
the first battle of Mantissas ; was appointed on 
the staff of Governor John G. Shorter with 
the rank of colonel, and engaged in organizing 
companies for the field. He was appointed cap 
tain on Gen. Jonas M. Withers s stalf, serving 
through the Kentucky campaign and being 
wounded before Murfreesboro, Tenn. He was 
afterward transferred to Gen. J. H. Clanton s 
staff and served with him in Georgia, Alabama 
and Tennessee until captured at the battle of 
Franklin. He was imprisoned at Camp Chase 
and at Fort Delaware until after the close of 
the war, and then returned to Huntsville, Ala. 
He was solicitor of the 5th judicial circuit of 
Alabama, 1865-68 ; represented Madison county 
in the Alabama legislature in 1870 ; and was a 
delegate to the state constitutional convention in 
1875. He was a representative from the eighth 
Alabama district in the 46th congress, 1879-81. 
He died in Huntsville. Ala., Oct. 12, 1881. 

[148] 



LOWE 



LOWELL 



LOWE, William Warren, soldier, was born in 
Indiana, Oct. 12, 1831. He was graduated at the 
U.S. Military academy and brevetted 3d lieuten 
ant of dragoons, July 1, 1853. He was promoted 
2d lieutenant, Oct. 22, 1854 ; was transferred to 
the 2d cavalry, March 3, 1855, and was on frontier 
duty and on scouting expeditions in Texas, 1855- 
60. He was promoted 1st lieutenant, Dec. 1, 
1856; and served as adjutant from May 31, 1858 
to May 9, 1861. He served in the civil war in 
the defences of Washington. D.C., 1861; was pro 
moted captain in the 2d cavalry. May 9, 1861, and 
was transferred to the 5th cavalry, Aug. 3, 1861. 
He participated in the Manassas campaign of 
July, 1861 ; was commissioned colonel of the 5th 
Iowa volunteer cavalry. Jan. 1, 1862 ; participated 
in the Tennessee campaign, being engaged at 
Fort Donelson, Feb. 13-15, 1862. and in command 
of Forts Henry, Donelson and Heiman, February, 
1862, to March, 1863 ; and engaged in cavalry 
operations in middle Tennessee, northern Ala 
bama and Georgia, commanding a brigade or 
division from March. 1863, to July, 1864. He was 
brevetted major, Oct. 9, 1863, and lieutenant- 
colonel, Dec. 15, 1863, for gallant and meritorious 
services in the cavalry engagement near Chicka- 
niauga, Ga., and in the cavalry action near 
Huntsville, Ala., and was mustered out of the 
volunteer service, Jan. 24, 1865. He was brevetted 
colonel in the U.S. army and brigadier-general of 
volunteers, and also brigadier-general in the U.S. 
army, March 13, 1865. He was promoted major 
of the 6th cavalry, July 31, 1866, and on June 23, 
1869, resigned from the army. He established 
smelting and refining works in Omaha, Neb., en 
gaged in mining in Utah, and built the first 
smelting works in Idaho. He also constructed a 
railroad and discovered a well of lubricating oil 
on the Little Popogie river, Wyoming Territory. 
He died at Omaha, Neb., May 18. 1898. 

LOWELL, Anna Cabot (Jackson), educator, 
was born in Boston, Mass., Sept. 29, 1811 ; daugh 
ter of Patrick Tracy and Lydia (Cabot) Jackson, 
and granddaughter of the Hon. Jonathan (q.v.) 
and Hannah (Tracy) Jackson. Siie was married, 
April 18, 1832, to Charles Russell Lowell, son of 
the Rev. Charles (q.v.) and Harriet Bracket 
(Spence) Lowell, who graduated at Harvard, 
1826, and died in 1870. She was the mother of 
two daughters and two sons. The latter. Charles 
Russell and James, were both killed in the civil 
war. She established and carried on in Boston a 
large girls school, 1840-53. She is the author of : 
The Theory of Teaching (1841); Edward s First 
Lessons in Grammar (1843); Edward s First Les 
sons in Geometry (1844); Olympic Games (1845) : 
Outlines of Astronomy, or the World as it Appears 
(1850); introduction to Madame Pulksy s " Black, 
Red and White " (1852); Thoughts on the Educa- 

[144] 



tion of Girls (1853) ; Seed Grain for Thought and 
Discussion (1856); Posies for Children (1^0). She 
died in Cambridge, Mass., Jan. 7, 1874. 

LOWELL, Charles, clergyman, was born in 
Boston, Mass., Aug. 15. 1782 ; son of Judge John 
(born 1743) and Rebecca (Russell) Tyng Lowell, 
and grandson of the Rev. John and Sarah 
(Champney) Lowell and of Judge James and 
Katharine (Graves) Russell. He was graduated 
from Harvard, A.B., 1800, A.M., 1803: studied 
theology in Edinburgh, Scotland, 1802-04; trav 
elled in Europe in 1805 ; was installed as pastor of 
the West Congregational church, Boston, Mass., 
Jan. 1, 1806, and remained as such fifty-five years. 
On the failure of his health in 1837, Dr. Cyrus A. 
Bartol became his colleague, and Dr. Lowell 
travelled in Europe and the Holy Land, 1837-40. 
He was married, Oct. 2, 1806, to Harriet Bracket, 
daughter of Keith and Mary (Traill) Spence, of 
Portsmouth, N.H., and sister of Capt. Robert 
Traill Spence, U.S.N. (q.v.), and their son, Charles 
Russell Lowell, married Anna Cabot Jackson 
(q.v.). He was secretary of the Massachusetts 
Historical society ; a corresponding member of 
the Archaeological Society of Athens, and one of 
the founders and a member of the Society of 
Northern Antiquarians of Copenhagen. He was 
a fellow of Harvard in 1818 and received the 
degree of S.T.D. from there in 1823. He is the 
author of : Occasional Sermons (1855); Practiced 
Sermons (1855); Meditations for the Afflicted, Sick 
and Dying; Devotional Exercises for Communi 
cants. He died in Cambridge, Mass., Jan. 20, 1861. 

LOWELL, Charles Russell, soldier, was born 
in Boston, Mass., Jan. 2, 1835 ; son of Charles 
Russell and Anna Cabot (Jackson) Lowell, and 
grandson of the Rev. Charles (q.v.) and Hannah 
Bracket (Spence) 



Lowell. He was grad 
uated at Harvard, 
A.B., 1854, first in his 
class. When the civil 
war broke out he 
was manager of the 
Mount Savage iron 
works, Maryland, and 
he made his way at 
once to Baltimore and 
on foot to Wash 
ington from the 
Relay House, railway 
communication hav 
ing been suspended 
from that point. He 

was commissioned captain in the 6th U.S. 
cavalry, April 20, 1861, and was the officer 
who recruited General Chaffee as private in 
that regiment. He was in command of a squad 
ron of the 6th U.S. cavalry in the Army 




LOWELL 



LOWELL 



of the Potomac all through the Peninsula 
campaign, at the close of which he was bre- 
vetted major for gallantry and assigned to the 
personal staff, of General McClellan. At Antie- 
tam he conveyed the orders of the command 
ing general under severe fire, rallied broken 
regiments and displayed a degree of courage that 
was rewarded by his being selected to carry the 
captured standards to Washington. In the au 
tumn of 1862 he organized the 2d Massachusetts 
cavalry, and in May, 1863, was commissioned 
colonel of the regiment. He was in command of 
the advanced defences of Washington during the 
winter of 1863-64, and was engaged against the 
.attack of Early in July, 1864. Later he com 
manded the provisional cavalry brigade under 
Sheridan in the Shenandoah valley, and finally 
lie was given command of the reserve brigade, 
made up of three regiments of U.S. cavalry, his 
own regiment and a battery of artillery, which 
distinguished itself at the battle of Opequon 
Creek (Winchester), Sept. 19, 1864, and on Octo 
ber 9 took a leading part in the overthrow of 
General Rosser s cavalry. At Cedar Creek, Oct. 
19, 1864, he held the enemy in check until the 
arrival of Sheridan, who formed his new line 
close behind Lowell s men. Though wounded 
early in the day, lie was lifted on his horse and 
led his brigade in the final successful charge, 
where he received his mortal wound. His com 
mission as brigadier-general, issued at the request 
of General Sheridan, was signed at Washington 
on the day of this battle. He was married in 
October, 1863, to Josephine (q.v.), daughter of 
Francis and Sarah Blake (Sturgis) Shaw. He 
died at Middletown, Va., Oct. 20, 1864. 

LOWELL, Edward Jackson, author, was 
born in Boston, Mass., Oct. 18, 1845 ; son of Fran 
cis Cabot and Mary Lowell (Gardner) Lowell, 
and grandson of Francis Cabot and Hannah 
(Jackson) Gardner. He was graduated from Har 
vard, A.B., 1867, A.M., 1870, was admitted to the 
Suffolk bar in June, 1872, and practised law in 
Boston, Mass., when he retired from the bar and 
devoted himself to literary work. He was a mem 
ber of the Massachusetts Historical society, the 
New York Historical society, the American His 
torical association, the Military Historical society 
of Massachusetts, and a fellow of the American 
Academy of Arts and Sciences. He was married, 
Jan. 1, 1868, to Mary Wolcott, daughter of Samuel 
Griswold and Mary (Boot) Goodrich ; she died, 
April 5, 1874. He was married secondly, June 19, 
1777, to Elizabeth Gilbert, daughter of George 
(q.v.) and Sarah M. (Gilbert) Jones of New York 
city. He contributed a chapter on The Diplo 
macy and Finance, of the Revolution to Winsor s 
"Narrative and Critical History of America" 
(1884), and is the author of : The Hessians and 



the. oilier German Auxiliaries of Great Britain in 
the Revolutionary War (1884); Tlie Eve of the 
French Revolution (1892), and the following 
essays : Tlie Bayeux Tapestry ; Life of Benvenuto 
Cellini; Clothes Historically Considered; A 
Liberal Education, and A Memoir of Tennyson. 
He died in Cotuit, Mass., May 11, 1894. 

LOWELL, Francis Cabot, manufacturer, was 
born in Newburyport, Mass., April 7, 1775 ; son 
of Judge John and Susan (Cabot) Lowell, and 
grandson of the Rev. John and Sarah (Champney) 
Lowell, and of Francis and Mary (Fitch) Cabot. 
He was graduated from Harvard, A.B., 1793, 
A.M., 1796. He was married, Oct. 31, 1798, to 
Hannah, daughter of the Hon. Jonathan and 
Hannah (Tracy) Jackson, of Newburyport, Mass.; 
she died May 10, 1815. He travelled extensively 
through England and Scotland, 1810-11. In 1812, 
with Patrick Tracy Jackson, his brother-in-law, 
he undertook the manufacture of cotton under 
many difficulties, as the war of 1812 prevented 
the importation of machinery from England. 
After numerous experiments they succeeded in 
the autumn of 1812 in producing a loom with the 
assistance of Mr. Paul Moody, a mechanic, of 
Newburyport, and they obtained a charter under 
the name of the Boston Manufacturing company 
with a capital of $100,000. They established their 
mill in Waltham, Mass., which was probably the 
first mill in the United States that combined all 
the operations necessary for converting the raw 
cotton into finished cloth. Mr. Lowell was 
mainly instrumental in procuring from congress 
in 1816 the establishment of the minimum duty 
on cotton cloth, an idea which originated with 
him. After Mr. Lowell s death, Mr. Jackson pur 
chased a section of Chelmsford and located mills 
there and the town was incorporated under the 
name of Lowell in 1826. He died in Boston, 
Mass., Aug. 10, 1817. 

LOWELL, Francis Cabot, judge, was born in 
Boston, Mass., Jan, 7, 1855 ; son of George Gard 
ner and Mary Ellen (Parker) Lowell ; grandson of 
Francis Cabot and Mary Lowell (Gardner) 
Lowell, and of James and Annie (Tucker) Parker, 
and great-grandson of Francis Cabot (born 1775) 
and Hannah (Jackson) Lowell. He was gradu 
ated from Harvard, A.B., 1879, and became a 
member of the firm of Lowell, Stimson & Lowell. 
He was married in New York city, Nov. 27, 1882, 
to Cornelia Prime, daughter of Edmund Lin 
coln and Nathalie (Ray) Baylies. He was a 
member of the Boston common council, 1889-92, 
and a representative in the Massachusetts leg- 
isature, 1895-98. He was appointed judge of 
the U.S. district court of Massachusetts by 
President McKinley, Jan. 10. 1898. He was an 
overseer of Harvard. 1SS6-9I. and again from 
1894 ; was made a fellow of that corporation, 1895, 



[145] 



LOWELL 



LOWELL 



and succeeded Roger Wolcott as president of the 
Unitarian club of Boston in 1897. He delivered a 
course of lectures before the Lowell Institute, 
Boston, in 1895-96. He is author of : Joan of 



LOWELL, James Russell, poet, was born in 
Cambridge, Mass., Feb. 22, 1819 ; son of the Rev. 
Charles and Harriet (Spence) Lowell. He at 
tended the boarding school of William Wells at 
Cambridge and was graduated from Harvard, 

A.B., 1838, LL.B., 

1840, 




A.M. 1841. 
While in college he 
edited the Harvar- 
diana, 1837-38, and 
after his graduation 
he opened a law 
office in Boston, but 
did not practise, de 
voting himself in 
stead entirely to lit 
erature. In 1841 his 
first book of poems 
appeared, some of 
which had been previ 
ously published in 
magazines, and in 

1842 he started the Pioneer, a monthly magazine 
which had but a short existence. He was mar 
ried in 1844 to Maria White of Watertown, Mass., 
who was herself the author of several published 
poems, and was also a pronounced abolitionist. 
Botli Mr. Lowell and his wife were regular contrib 
utors to the Liberty Bell and Lowell subsequently 
became corresponding editor of the Anti-Slavery 
Standard. His " Biglow Papers, "satirical poems 
in Yankee dialect, the first of which appeared 
in the columns of the Boston Courier in June, 
1846, wielded a powerful influence on the politics 
of the day, and gained a permanent place among 
the classics. He was a frequent contributor to 
the Dial, the Democratic Reriew and the Massa 
chusetts Quarterly, his articles being generally 
political. In 1851 lie went to Europe where he 
remained more than a year, hoping to benefit 
Mrs. Lowell s health, but in 1853 she died. He 
spent 1854-55 in study in Europe, and in the 
latter year succeeded Henry W. Longfellow as 
Smith professor of the French and Spanish lan 
guages and literature and belles leftres at Harvard, 
and served, 1855-86. He was university lecturer, 
1863-64. In 1857 he was married to Francis Dun- 
lap, a niece of Governor Robert P. Dunlap of 
Portland, Maine. In addition to his college 
duties he was editor of the Atlantic Monthly 
1857-62, and a joint editor, with Charles Eliot 
Norton, of the North American Review, 1863-72. 
In 1856 he became an active member of the Re 
publican part} , and although he never sought 

[146] 



office, in 1876 he was elected presidential elector 
and in 1877 was appointed by President Hayes 
U.S. minister to Spain. In 1880 he was trans 
ferred to the court of St. James, London, Eng 
land, where he was U.S. minister until 1885. 
During his residence in England he was elected 
lord rector of the University of St. Andrew s, 
Scotland, Jan. 2, 1884, and received other notable 
recognition for his literary acquirements. He 
delivered many public addresses and was the 
orator on the occasion of the unveiling of the 
bust of Coleridge in Westminster Abbey in May, 
1885. In 1887 he delivered before the Lowell In 
stitute, Boston, a course of lectures on the Eng 
lish dramatists. He returned to his country seat 
at " Elmwood" on the Charles river, Cambridge, 
Mass., where he devoted himself to study and liter 
ature, and continued his lectures at Harvard. The 
honorary degree of D.C.L. was conferred on him 
by Oxford university in 1873, and that of LL.D. by 
the University of Cambridge in 1874, St. An 
drew s, Edinburgh, and Harvard in 1884, and 
Bologna in 1888. He was an overseer of Harvard, 
1887-91; a fellow of the American Academy of 
Arts and Sciences ; a member of the Massachu 
setts Historical society, the American Philosoph 
ical society, and the Royal Academy of Spain ; 
and a fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 
and the Royal Society of Literature in London. 
He edited the poetical works of Marvell, Donne, 
Keats, Wordsworth and Shelley for the collection 
of British poets edited by Prof. Francis J. Child 
of Harvard. His published writings include : 
Class Poem (1838) ; A Year s Life (1841) ; A Le 
gend of Brittany and Other Miscellaneous Poems 
and Sonnets (1884) ; The Vision of Sir Launfal 
(1845) ; Conversations on Some of the Old Poets 
(1845); Poems (1848); The Biglow Papers (1848, 
2d ser., 1867) ; .4 Fable for Critics (1848) ; Poems 
(2 vols., 1849) ; Poems (2 vols., 1854) ; Poetical 
Works (2 vols., 1858) ; Mason and Slidell, a Yan 
kee Idyl (1862); Fireside Travels (1864); The 
President s Policy (1864) ; Under the Willows and 
Other Poems (1869); Among My Books (1870); 
My Study Windoics (1871); The Court in (1874) ; 
Three Memorial Poems (1876) : Democracy and 
Other Addresses (1887). American Ideas for Eng 
lish Readers, Latest Literary Essays and Ad 
dresses, and Old English Dramatists were pub 
lished posthumously (1 892) . He was engaged on a 
Life of Hawthorne at the time of his death. His 
last published poem, entitled My Book, appeared 
in the New York Ledger of December, 1890. In 
1898 part of his estate, " Elmwood," was pur 
chased by the Lowell Memorial Park Fund, nearly 
40,000 having been obtained by popular subscrip 
tion. Horace E. Scudder prepared a definitive life : 
James Russell Lowell : A Biography (2 vols., 1901). 
He died in Cambridge, Mass., Aug. 12, 1891. 



LOWELL 



LOWELL 




LOWELL, John, jurist, was born in Newbury- 
port, Mass., June 17, 1743 ; son of the Rev. John 
and Sarah (Clmmpney) Lowell ; grandson of Eb- 
enezer and Elizabeth (Shailer) Lowell and of 
Noah and Sarah (Tuniiell) Champney ; great- 

grand.son of John and 
Hannah (Proctor) 
Lowell ; great 2 -grand- 
son of John and Mary 
Lowell, and a de 
scendant of Percival 
Lowell, who came 
from Bristol, Eng 
land, in 1639 and 
settled in Newbury. 
He was graduated 
from Harvard, A.B.. 
1760, A.M., 170:]; 
studied law in the 
office of Oxenbridge 
Thacher, and settled 
in practice in New- 

buryport in 1762. He was a representative 
in the general court from Nevvburyport, Mass., 
in 1777 and from Boston in 1779. He was one 
of the delegates to the state convention that 
framed the constitution of Massachusetts in 1780, 
and caused the clause, " All men are born free 
and equal, and have certain natural, essential and 
inalienable rights, among which may be reckoned 
the right of enjoying and defending their lives 
and liberties," to be inserted in the preamble 
of the constitution of the Commonwealth. He 
w r as a delegate to the Continental congress, 1782- 
83, and was appointed by that body one of three 
judges of the court of appeals, for the trial of all 
appeals from the courts of admiralty of the sev 
eral states. In 1789 lie was appointed by Presi 
dent Washington judge of the U.S. district court 
of Massachusetts, and in 1801 President Adams 
appointed him chief justice of the U.S. circuit 
court for the first circuit, which included Maine, 
New Hampshire, Massachusetts and Rhode Is 
land. He originated the subscription for a pro 
fessorship of natural history at Harvard ; was a 
fellow of Harvard. 1784-1802, and received the 
degree of LL.D. there in 1792. He was one 
of the founders of the American Academy of 
Arts and Sciences in 1780, and served as one of 
its counselors. He was married, Jan. 3. 1767, to 
Sarah, daughter of Stephen H. and Elizabeth 
(Cabot) Higginson ; she died May 5, 1772. He 
was married secondly, May 31. 1774, to Susanna, 
daughter of Francis and Mary (Fitch) Cabot, of 
Salem, Mass. ; she died March 30, 1777. He was 
married thirdly, Dec. 25, 1778, to Rebecca, widow 
of James Tyng, and a daughter of Judge James 
and Katherine (Graves) Russell, of Charlestown, 
Mass. He died at Roxbury, Mass., May 6, 1802. 



LOWELL, John, publicist, was born in New- 
buryport, Mass.. Oct. 6, 1769; son of Judge 
John and Sarah (Higginson) Lowell, and grand 
son of the Rev. John and Sarah (Champney) 
Lowell and of Stephen H. and Elizabeth (Cabot) 
Higginson. He was graduated fronii Harvard, 
A.B., 1786, A.M., 1789; studied law with his 
father, and was admitted to the bar in 1789. He 
was married, June 8, 1773, to Rebecca, daughter 
of John and Katharine (Greene) Amory, of Bos 
ton. His health began to fail, and in 1803 
he retired from practice. He travelled in Eu 
rope, 1803-06, and on his return devoted himself 
to literature, writing on politics, agriculture and 
theology under the signatures, " Citizen of Mas 
sachusetts." " Massachusetts Lawyer," " Lay 
man " and " Norfolk Farmer." During the war 
of 1812 he wrote constantly in support of the 
Federal policy, and when the Unitarian contro 
versy broke out he published " An Inquiry into 
the Right to Change the Ecclesiastical Constitu 
tion of the Congregational Churches of Massa 
chusetts," which in all probability stopped the 
proposed plan for an arbitiary consociation of 
churches. He was the first man in the United 
States to establish a greenhouse on an ampie scale 
and on scientific principles. His private charities 
were so extended that for many years he em 
ployed an almoner, with whom he placed a sum 
annually to be expended in fuel for the poor. 
He was a prominent promoter of the establish 
ment of the Massachusetts General Hospital and 
of the Provident Institution for Savings : presi 
dent of the board of trustees and a member of 
the Massachusetts Agricultural society, and a 
patron of the Boston Athenpeum. He was a fel 
low of Harvard, 1810-22, and an overseer, 1823- 
27. He received the degree of LL.D. from Har 
vard in 1814. He was a fellow of the American 
Academy of Arts and Sciences and a member of 
the Massachusetts Historical society. His polit 
ical pamphlets were published in two volumes, and 
in 1901 were still extant. Among the pamphlets 
are : Peace without Dis]ionor, War without 
Hope , an Inquiry into the Subject of the Chesa 
peake (1807): Candid Comparison of the Wash 
ington and Jefferson Administrations (1810); Di 
plomatic Policy of Mr. Madison Unveiled (1810); 
and Mr. Madison s War : a Dispassionate In 
quiry into the Reasons alleged by Madison for de 
claring an Offensive and Ruinous War against 
Great Britain (1812). His theological writings in 
clude Are You a Christian ora Calcinist ? (1815). 
He died in Roxbury, Mass., March 12, 1840. 

LOWELL, John, founder of the Lowell Insti 
tute, was born in Boston, Mass., May 11. 1799; 
son of Francis Cabot and Hannah (Jackson) 
Lowell. After attending the schools of Boston, 
he went with his father to Europe and entered 



LOWELL 



LOWELL 




the high school at Edinburgh, Scotland. He 
was a student at Harvard, 1813-15, but was ob 
liged to leave on account of ill-health, and in 
1816 and again in 1817 went to India. He be 
came a successful merchant in Boston, devoting 

all his leisure to study 
and collecting one of 
the largest and most 
valuable private li 
braries in the city. 
He was repeatedly 
elected to the com 
mon council of Boston 
and to the state leg 
islature. He was 
married in Boston, 
April 6,1825, to Geor- 
gina Margaret, daugh 
ter of Jonathan and 
Lydia (Fellows) Am- 
ory. In the winter 
of 1830-31 his wife 

and two daughters died, and after that time 
Mr. Lowell devoted much of his time to travel. 
In 1835, while travelling in Egypt, he was taken 
and during convalescence wrote his last codi 
cil in which he completed the plan he had 
partially formulated in his will several years 
before. This will provided that one-half of his 
property should be used for the establishment 
and maintenance of the Lowell Institute, to con 
sist of regular courses of free public lectures 
upon philosophy, natural history, and the arts 
and sciences, to be annually delivered in the 
city of Boston. This sum, amounting to nearly 
$250,000, was at that time, with the exception of 
Stephen Girard s bequest, the largest ever given 
in America by a private individual for the 
endowment of a literary institution. Besides the 
popular lectures the will provided for others 
"more abstruse, erudite and particular," for stu 
dents. The funds were placed in the hands of 
the founder s cousin, John Amory Lowell (q.v.), 
constituted by the will sole trustee, and the will 
stated that " each trustee shall appoint his suc 
cessor," and that " in selecting a successor the 
trustee shall always choose in preference to all 
others some male descendant of my Grandfather 
John Lowell, provided there be one who is com 
petent to hold the office of trustee, and of the name 
of Lowell." The trustee was permitted to " estab 
lish from time to time lectures on any subject 
that in his opinion the wants and taste of the age 
may demand. " See " History of the Lowell Insti 
tute," by Harriette Knight Smith (1898), and also 
".Memoir of John Lowell. Jr.," by Edward Ever 
ett, delivered in Boston. DPC. 31 , 1839. as the intro 
ductory lecture on Mr. Lowell s foundation. Mr. 
Lowell died in Bombay, India, March 4. 1836. 



LOWELL, John, jurist, was born in Boston, 
Mass., Oct. 18, 1824; son of John Amory and 
Susan Cabot (Lowell) Lowell, and grandson of 
John (born 1769) and Rebecca (Amory) Lowell 
and of Francis Cabot and Hannah (Jackson) 
Lowell. He was graduated from Harvard, A. B., 
1843, LL.B., 1845, A.M., 1846. He was admitted 
to the bar in 1846, and practised in Boston, 1846- 
65. He was appointed judge of the U.S. district 
court of Massachusetts, March 11, 1865, by Presi 
dent Lincoln ; judge of the U.S. circuit court by 
President Hayes, Dec. 18, 1878, and resigned, May 
1, 1884, to resume general practice. He was a 
fellow of the American Academy of Arts and 
Sciences ; a member of the Massachusetts Agri 
cultural and Historical societies ; a trustee of the 
Massachusetts General hospital, and an overseer 
of Harvard, 1875-86. He received the degree 
LL.D. from Williams college in 1870 and from 
Harvard in 1871. He was elected president of 
the board of trustees of the Peabody Education 
Fund in 1896. He was married in Boston, Mass., 
May 18, 1853, to Lucy Buckminster, daughter 
of George Barrell and Olivia (Buckminster) 
Emerson. His decisions were published in two 
volumes (1872-77). He died at Chestnut Hill, 
Brookline, Mass., May 14, 1897. 

LOWELL, John Amory, merchant, was born 
in Boston, Mass., Nov. 11, 1798; son of John 
(b. 1769) and Rebecca (Amory) Lowell. He was 
graduated from Harvard, A.B., 1815, A.M., 1818, 
and became a manufacturer on the Merrimack 
river. He was a member of the convention that re 
vised the state constitution in 1853 and was prom 
inently connected with many public, literary ;uul 
benevolent enterprises. By the will of his cousin, 
John Lowell, Jr., he was made sole trustee of the 
Lowell Institute, and as such he interpreted the 
will, put it into operation and for forty years 
managed the fund and engaged the lecturers. 
At the time of his death more than 3000 lec 
tures had been given in the regular courses. 
In 1850 lie established in connection with tbe 
Lowell Institute a free drawing school which 
was continued until 1879, and in 1866 he en 
tered into an engagement with the Massachu 
setts Institute of Technology, Boston, whereby 
courses of free lectures are provided for advanced 
students. These lectures, known as the Lowell 
Free Courses of Instruction under the supervi 
sion of the Institute, comprise nearly 150 an 
nual lectures on science, language, history, archi 
tecture and engineering. Mr. Lowell also inaug 
urated in connection with the bequest many 
unique educational plans, including courses of 
instruction in science for the teachers of Boston, 
instruction by lectures to workingmen. and the 
Lowell School of Practical Design, established in 
1872. Fora further account of Mr. Lowell s woik 
[148] 



LOWELL 



LOWELL 



as trustee see " History of the Lowell Institute" 
(1898), by Harriette Knight Smith. Mr. Lowell 
was twice married : first in Boston, Feb. 14, 1822, 
to Susan Cabot, daughter of Francis Cabot and 
Hannah (Jackson) Lowell, who died Aug. 15, 
1827 ; and secondly at Salem, Mass., April 2, 
1829, to Elizabeth Cabot, daughter of Judge 
Samuel and Sarah (Gooll) Putnam, and their son, 
Augustus Lowell, born Jan. lit, 1830, succeeded 
as trustee of the Lowell Institute. He was a 
fellow of Harvard, 1837-7? ; a member of the 
Linnean society, London, of the Massachusetts 
Historical society, and a fellow of the American 
Academy of Arts and Sciences. He received 
from Harvard the honorary degree of LL.D. in 
1851. He died in Boston, Mass., Oct. 31, 1881. 

LOWELL, Josephine Shaw, humanitarian, 
was born in West Roxbury, Mass., Dec. 16, 1343; 
-daughter of Francis George and Sarah Blake 
(Sturgis) Shaw, and a sister of Col. Robert Gould 
Shaw (q.v.). In 1851 she went abroad with her 
parents, returning in 1855, when they made 
Staten Island their home. She attended schools 
iu New York and Boston. She was married, Oct. 
31, 1863, to Col. Charles Russell Lowell (q.v.). 
.She took an active interest in the sanitary com 
mission during the civil war, and after her hus 
band s deatli devoted herself to work for the 
freeclmeii and to philanthropy and reform. She 
was appointed a member of the New York state 
board of charities by Governor Tilden in 1876, 
and served until 1889, having been reappointed 
by Governors Robinson and Cornell. She was 
one of the founders of the Charity Organization 
society of New York city in 1881. She advocated 
the rights of labor and of labor organizations, and 
became interested in civil service reform and in 
prison reform. In 1899 she was appointed by 
Governor Roosevelt a member of the board of 
managers of the New York State Reformatory 
for Women. She is the author of : Public Relief 
and Private Charity (1884); Industrial Arbitra 
tion and Conciliation (1893), and contributions to 
periodicals. 

LOWELL, Joshua A., representative, was 
born in Thomaston, Maine, March 20, 1801; son of 
Rossamus and Deborah (Keen) Lowell ; grandson 
of Reuben and Priscilla (Bartlett) Lowell ; great- 
grandson of Stephen and Miriam (Collins) Lowell ; 
great 2 -grandson of Captain Gideon and Miriam 
(Swett) Lowell ; great 3 -grandson of Richard and 
Margaret Lowell, and a descendant in the eighth 
generation of Percival and Rebecca Lowle. 1639. 
His mother was of Scottish ancestry. He acquired 
his education without help from his father from 
whom he purchased his time in 1819. He was 
admitted to the bar in East Machias, Maine, in 
September. 1826; to the L T .S. circuit court in 
1836, and- to the U.S. supreme court at Wash- 

[1491 



ington, D.C., in 1840. He was married in 1827 to 
Miranda Turner of East Machias. He was a 
Democratic representative in the Maine legisla 
ture in 1831, 1832, 1835 and 1837 ; a representative 
from Maine in the 26th and 27th congresses, 
1839-43, and a presidential elector on the Polk 
and Dallas ticket in 1845. He devoted his leisure 
time to scientific farming. He died in East 
Machias, Maine, March 13, 1873. 

LOWELL, Percival, astronomer, was born 
in Boston, Mass., March 13, 1855 ; son of Augus 
tus and Katlierine Bigelow (Lawrence) Lowell. 
He was graduated from Harvard with the degree 
A.B. in 1876. For several years he resided in 
Japan and while there in 1883 was appointed 
secretary and counsellor to the Corean special 
commission to the United States, the first em 
bassy sent from there to any Occidental power. 
In 1894 he established the Lowell observatory, 
Flagstaff, Ariz. In 1896 this observatory was for 
a time removed to the city of Mexico. He deliv 
ered before the Lowell Institute six lectures on 
" Japanese Occultism " in 1893-94, and four 
lectures on "The Planet Mars " in 1894-95. He 
was elected a fellow of the American Academy 
of Arts and Sciences ; a member of the Royal 
Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, 
of the American Philosophical society of Phila 
delphia and of the American Oriental society. 
He is the author of : Choson : the Land of the 
Morning Calm (1885) ; The Soul of the Far East 
(1888) ; Noto : an Unexplored Corner of Japan 
(1891) ; Occult Japan, or the Way of the Gods 
(1895) ; Mars (1895) ; and scientific papers. 

LOWELL, Robert Traill Spence, clergyman, 
was born in Boston, Mass., Oct. 8, 1816 ; son of 
the Rev. Charles and Harriet Bracket (Spence) 
Lowell. He was pre 
pared for college at 
Round Hill school, 
Northampton, Mass., 
under Joseph G. 
Cogswell and George 
Bancroft, 1823-28.and 
was graduated from 
Harvard, A.B., 1833, 
A.M., 1836. He stu 
died medicine at 
Harvard for a time, 
and was employed 
by his brother Charles 
Russell Lowell, a lead 
ing merchant, in Bos 
ton, Mass. He com 
menced the study of theology in 1839, and on 
the invitation of Bishop Spencer of Newfound 
land, went to Hamilton, Bermuda, where he 
was ordered deacon in 1842, ordained priest in 
1843, and served as domestic chaplain to the 




LOWNDES 



LO \VXDES 



bishop and as inspector of schools. He was 
rector at Bay Roberts, Newfoundland, 1843-47. 
During the famine there in 184fi, his medical 
training enabled him to serve as chairman of the 
relief committee of the district and for his ser 
vices he received the thanks of the government 
and of the people. lie was married Oct. 28, 
1845, to Mary Ann, daughter of James and Har 
riet (Constable) Duane of Duane. N.Y. He 
returned to the United States in 184T, on account 
of failing health, and did mission work among 
the poor in Newark. N. J. He organized Christ 
church, and in 184 ( J-50 built a stone edifice, 
serving as rector, 1850-59. He was rector of 
Christ church, Duanesburg, N.Y. , 1839-69; head 
master of St. Mark s school at Southboro. Mass., 
1869-73, and professor of Latin language and 
literature at Union college, Schenectady, N.Y., 
1873-79. He received the degree of U.D. from 
Union in 1864. He is the author of : The Xeic 
Priest in Conception Bay (2 vols., 1858) ; Fresh 
Hearts that Failed Three Thousand Years Ago, 
and other Tit ings (1860); Poems (1864) ; Antony 
Brade (1874) ; Bnrgoyne s March (the poem at the 
Saratoga Centennial celebration at Bemis Heights, 
1877) ; A Story or Two from a Dutch Town (1878). 
He died in Schenectady. N.Y., Sept. 12, 1891. 

LOWNDES, Arthur, clergyman and author, 
was born in London, England, June 13, 1858. 
He was educated at St. Germain-en-Laye, France, 
King s College school, and King s college, Lon 
don. He came to America in 1880 and entered 
the ministry of the Anglican church, 1884. being- 
ordained deacon and 
priest in the cathe 
dral church, Frederic- 
ton, N.B.. by the 
Most Rev. the Metro 
politan, Dr. John 
Medley. He was 
rector of Prince Wil 
liam. 1884-89: in 
charge of Doane 
Memorial chapel, 
South Amboy, N.J., 
1889-91 ; rector of 
St. Mark s, Phihnont, 
N.Y., 1891-94: chap 
lain of St. Gabriel s 
school, Peekskill, 

N.Y., 1894-98. and became rector of the Church 
of the Transfiguration, Freeport. N.Y., in 1898. 
He contributed to the American Church Review 
and the Church Eclectic, of which latter magazine 
he became editor in 1900. He received the degrees 
D.D. from Hobart and LL.D. from Rutherford 
in 1896. He is the author of : Vindication of 
Anglican Orders (2 vols. 1897) . This work was sent 
out to all the bishops in Christendom not owing 




[150] 



allegiance to the see of Koine with an encyclical 
printed in English and modern Greek dated 
June 24, 1899. This encyclical was the first 
issued in America and the first since the Reform 
ation, by any Anglican bishops, and was signed 
by the bishops of Long Island. Springfield and 
Delaware. 

LOWNDES, Charles, naval officer, was born 
in Kent county, Md., in 1798 ; son of Charles and 
Elizabeth (Lloyd) Lowndes. He entered the 
U.S. navy as a midshipman, March 18. 1815 ; 
was promoted lieutenant. Jan. 13. 1825 ; com 
mander, Sept. 8, 1X41 ; and captain, Sept. 14. 
1855. He commanded the steam sloop Hartford, 
1860-61, and was placed on the retired list. Dec. 
21, 1861. He was promoted commodore on the 
retired list July 16, 1862. and served as a prize 
commissioner, 1854-65. He was married. May 
24, 1824. to_ Sally Scott, daughter of Gov. Edward 
and Sally Scott (Murray) Lloyd. Commodore 
Lowndes died in Easton. Md.. Dec. 14. 1885. 

LOWNDES, Lloyd, governor of Maryland, was 
born in Clarksburg, Ya.. Feb. 21. 1845: son of 
Lloyd and Maria Elizabeth (Moore) Lowndes: 
grandson of Charles and Elizabeth (Lloyd) Lown 
des ; and great-grandson of Gov. Edward Lloyd 
and of Christopher Lowndes, who emigrated from 
England, settling in Bladensburg, D.C., before the 
national capital was located at Washington, and 
married Elizabeth, daughter of Gov. Benjamin 
Tasker. Lloyd attended Clarksburg academy, 
studied at Washington college, Pa.. 1861-63, and 
was graduated from Allegheny college. Pa., 
with honors in 1865, and from the University of 
Tennessee, LL.B., 18(57. He was married in 
December, 1869, to Elizabeth Tasker Lowndes 
and settled in Cumberland, Md., where his father 
had started in business, lie was a Republican 
representative in the 43d congress. 1873-75. but 
was defeated for re-election in 1874 by William 
Walsh. He was elected president of the Second 
National bank of Cumberland. Md.. in 1873. He 
was governor of Maryland. 1895-119. and was de 
feated in 1899 with the entire Republican ticket. 

LOWNDES, Rawlins, president of South Car 
olina, was born at St. Kitts, British West Indies, 
January. 1721 ; son of Charles and Ruth (Rawlins) 
Lowndes. and grandson of Charles and Sarah 
Lowndes, and of Henry Rawlins. His father 
settled in Charleston, S.C.. in 1730. On his 
mother s return to St. Kitts in 1735. he was placed 
in the family of Provost -Marshal Robert Hall, 
where he studied law. On Mr. Hall s death in 
1740, the office of provost-marshal was temporarily 
filled until 1742, when Mr. Lowndes became of 
age and he was appointed to the office and held 
it until 1752. He commenced the practice of law 
in Charleston in 1752. was a member of the South 
Carolina legislature and subsequently speaker of 



LOWNDES 



LOWNDES 



the liouse and justice of the quorum. He received 
the appointment of associate judge from the 
crown in 1700, and delivered the first judicial 
opinion in America upon the Stamp Act, May 13, 
1760, declaring it, to l>e against common rights. 
He also refused to enforce the use of the stamped 
paper in his court. He was removed from the 
bench by the governor of the province in 177.1", 
but was soon after reinstated and made chief 
justice of South Carolina by the crown. He was 
.a member of the Provincial congress of .South 
Carolina, and of the committee of safety appointed 
in 1775. and also of the committee of eleven who 
drafted a constitution for the province in 1776. 
South Carolina declared her independence of the 
British crown in March, 1770, John Rutledge was 
elected president of the state and Mr. Lowndes 
became a member of the legislative council. He 
also served as president of South Carolina, 1778- 
79, and participated in the defence of Charleston. 
He subsequently served as a member of the state 
senate from St. Bartholomew s parish, and upon 
the declaration of peace in 1783, was elected a 
representative from Charleston in the state legis 
lature, serving until the removal of the seat of 
government to Columbia in 171)0. In January, 
1788, when the constitution of the United States 
was submitted to the states for adoption he 
istrenuously opposed it, objecting principally to 
the restrictions on slavery. He was married, 
Aug. 15, 1748, to Amarinthia, daughter of Thomas 
Elliott of Rantoules, Stono River; she died Jan. 
14, 1750. He was married secondly, Dec. 23, 
1751, to Mary Cartwriglit of Charleston, S.C., and 
thirdly about 1780, to Sarah Jones of Georgia. 
He died in Charleston, S.C., Aug. 24, 1800. 

LOWNDES, Thomas, representative, was born 
in Charleston, S.C., Jan. 22, 1700 ; son of Rawlins 
and Mary (Cartwriglit) Lowndes. He was edu 
cated for the law and settled in practice in his 
native city. He was a representative in the 
state legislature for several terms and in the 
7th and 8th congresses, 1801-05. He was chair 
man of the committee on commerce and manu 
factures. He was married, March 8. 1798, to 
Sarah Bond, daughter of Richard Ion. He retired 
to his plantation near Charleston, S.C., in 1.S05, 
where he resided up to the time of his death, 
in Charleston, July. S. 1S43. 

LOWNDES, William, statesman, was born 
in Colleton district, S.C., Feb. 11. 1782; son of 
Governor Rawlins and Sarah (Jones) Lowndes. 
He attended a school in London. England. 1789-92, 
where he contracted rheumatic fever that forced 
his return to South Carolina and affected his 
health throughout his life, causing his premature 
death. He continued his studies in South Caro 
lina at private schools : entered the office of 
J)e Saussure & Ford, and was admitted to the 



1.1 



bar in 1804. He was married in 1802 to Elizabeth 
Brewton, daughter of Gen. Thomas Pinckney, of 
South Carolina. He gave up the practice of law 
after six months, and retired to his plantation 
near Charleston. He wrote a series of papers de 
fending the proposition that free ships made free 
goods, and his A iews led to his election as a 
representative in the state legislature, where he 
served. 1800-11. In 1809 on the formation of the 
"Washington light infantry of Charleston, S.C., 
he was elected captain of the organization. He 
was elected a representative from the Beaufort 
and Carleton districts to the 12th-17th congresses, 
1811-23, but resigned in 1822, on account of con 
tinued ill-health. He was chairman of the com 
mittees on ways and means, 1815-18, coins and 
weights, 1818-19, and foreign affairs, 1819, and 
was a conspicuous advocate of the measures that 
led to the war of 1812. He was chairman of the 
naval committee, 1814, and moved the vote of 
thanks to Commodore Perry and other naval 
heroes and subsequently obtained a pension for 
the widow of Commodore Perry. He opposed 
privateering, devised the sinking fund, favored 
the Missouri compromise and was chairman of 
the committee to report on that measure. In 
the contest over the act of General Jackson in 
executing Arbuthnot and Ambrister, Represen 
tative Lowndes pursued a conciliatory course and 
gained the title "mediator of the house." His 
retirement caused the regret of the entire con 
gress, irrespective of political affiliation. At his 
death Mr. Clay pronounced him the wisest man 
he had ever met ; Speaker John W. Taylor, of 
New York, said that had Mr. Lowndes lived he 
would have been President of the United States 
and this belief was largely held both in and out 
of congress ; and in after years Mr. Buchanan 
spoke of him in highest praise. He declined im 
portant cabinet positions and foreign missions 
from Presidents Madison and Monroe, on the 
ground that he was " of more use to the country " 
in the house of representatives. In 1821 the 
legislature of South Carolina nominated him for 
President by a very large vote, notwithstanding 
that Mr. Calhoun had accepted the nomination 
presented by the legislature of Pennnsylvania, 
and it was on this occasion that Mr. Lowndes 
made his celebrated remark: "The Presidency 
is not an office either to be solicited or declined. 
lie urged his friends to cast the vote of South 
Carolina for Calhoun if the vote of the state 
would nominate him. He visited Europe in 1819 
and on Oct. 21, 1822, sailed from Philadelphia for 
England on the ship Moss, with his wife and 
daughter, hoping to regain his health, but died 
at sea six days later. On learning of his death, 
congress, notwithstanding he was not a member 
at the time, voted that both houses honor his 
51] 



LOWREY 



LOWKIE 



memory by wearing mourning for thirty days. 
See " Life and Times of William Lowndes, of 
South Carolina. 1782-1822 "(1900), by his grand 
daughter, Mrs. St. Julien Ravenel. He died at 
sea, Oct. 27, 1822. 

LOWREY, B. Q. (no Christian name), educa 
tor, was born in Kossuth, Miss., May 25, 1862; 
son of Gen. Mark Perrin and Sara (Holmes) 
Lowrey, and grandson of Adam and Marguerite 
(Doss) Lowrey. He was prepared for college by 
Capt. T. B. Winston at Blue Mountain academy, 
and was graduated at Mississippi college, B.S., 
1887, A.M., 1890. He also took a special course in 
English at Tulane university, New Orleans, 1888- 
89. He was married July 25, 1889. to Mary lee 
Booth. He was professor of English at Blue 
Mountain college, 1890-98, and on the resignation 
of his brother, the Rev. Dr. W. T. Lowrey, in 
1898, he became president of Blue Mountain col 
lege, Tippah county, Miss. 

LOWREY, Mark Perrin, soldier, was born in 
McNairy county, Tenn.. Dec. 6, 1828 ; son of 
Adam and Marguerite (Doss) Lowrey. Adam 
Lowrey was of Scotch descent and came from the 
north of Ireland to East Tennessee, early in the 
nineteenth century 
settling at Lowrey 
Ferry in East Tennes 
see. Mark was a sol 
dier in the war with 
Mexico. 1847 ; became 
a Baptist minister, 
and served churches 
in Farmington, Cor 
inth, Rienzi, Ripley, 
and other north Mis 
sissippi points, 1852- 
61. He married Sarah 
Holme and resided 
at Meadow Creek, 
Miss. In 1861 he was 
captain in and then 

colonel of the 3d Mississippi regiment, enlisted 
for sixty days, his regiment going direct to 
Bowling Green, Ky., where they were dis 
banded. He then raised the 32d Mississippi 
regiment for the war and was commissioned its 
colonel. He took part in Bragg s invasion of 
Kentucky and was severely wounded at Perry- 
ville, Oct. 8, 1862, where he led his regiment in 
Wood s brigade. Buckner s division. At Chick- 
amauga, Sept. 19-20, 1863. he commanded Gen. 
S. A. M. Wood s brigade, Cleburne s division, 
Hill s corps, as senior colonel in command of the 
32ct and 45th Mississippi ; and after the battle, 
when General Wood resigned, he was given com 
mand of the brigade in recognition of his 
gallantly. He covered the retreat of the Con 
federate army into Georgia notably at Ringgold 




Gap, Nov. 27, 1863, and when Cleburne succeeded 
to the command of Hardee s corps he became 
commander of Cleburne s division. At the battle 
of Franklin, Nov. 30.1864, when General Cleburne 
was killed, General Lowrey succeeded to the 
command of the division, and soon after, when 
Gen. John C. Brown was severely wounded, he was 
transferred to the command of Cheatham s divi 
sion, which he led in the battle of Nashville, Dec. 
15-16, 1864. after the battle covering the retreat 
of the Confederate army. During his service in 
the army, General Lowrey preached regularly to 
the soldiers, and on one occasion baptized up 
wards of forty soldiers, going into the water in 
his major-general s uniform. At the close of the 
war he resumed his missionary duties, and re 
organized the Baptist churches throughout the 
state. He edited the Mississippi department in 
the Baptist, Memphis, and contributed to the 
Christian Index. He founded the Blue Mountain 
Female college in 1873, and was its president, 
1873-85, when he was succeeded by his son, 
William Tyndale Lowrey (q. v. ). He refused 
political office when urged to stand as candidate 
for U.S. senator, for representative in congress 
and for governor of the state. While president of 
the college, he was active pastor of the churches at 
Blue Mountain and at Ripley ; for ten years was 
president of the Mississippi Baptist state conven 
tion, and was a trustee of the University of 
Mississippi, 1872-76. He received the honorary 
degree of D.D. from Mississippi college. He 
died suddenly, surrounded by a company of his 
pupils, in the waiting-room of the railroad depot, 
Middleton. Tenn., Feb. 27, 1885. 

LOWREY, William Tyndale, educator, was 
born at Meadow Creek, Miss., March 3, 1858 ; son 
of Gen. Mark Perrin and Sara (Holmes) Lowrey, 
and grandson of Adam and Marguerite (Doss) Low 
rey. He prepared for college at the Blue Mountain 
academy; was graduated from Mississippi college, 
A.B., 1881, A.M., 1884 ; attended the Southern 
Baptist Theological seminary, 1881-85, and was 
president of the Female college, Blue Mountain, 
Miss., 1885-98. He was married, Sept. 1, 1886, to 
Theodosia, daughter of the Rev. James Bryant 
Searcy, D.D., of Biloxi. Miss. In July, 1898, lie 
accepted the presidency of Mississippi college, 
Clinton, Miss. 

LOWRIE, John Cameron, clergyman, was 
born in Butler, Pa., Dec. 16. 1808 ; son of Senator 
Walter and Amelia (McPherrin) Lowrie, and 
grandson of John and Catherine (Cameron) 
Lowrie, who were born and married in Scotland, 
and came to America with their son, Walter, in 
1792. John C. Lowrie was graduated from Jeffer 
son college. Canonsburg, Pa., in 1829 ; studied at 
the Western Theological seminary, Allegheny, 
Pa., 1829-32 ; was licensed to preach by the pres- 
[152] 



LOWKIE 



LOWRIE 



bytery of Ohio, June 21, 1832 ; studied at Prince- 
toil Theological seminary, 1832-33, and was or 
dained by the presbytery of New Castle, May 23, 
1833. He was sent out by the Western Foreign 
Missionary society as a missionary to Northern 
India in 1833, and returned in 1836 on account of 
failing health. He was married in 1833 to Louisa, 
daughter of Thomas Wilson, of Morgantown, Va., 
who died in India, and secondly in 1838 to Eliza 
beth, daughter of Samuel Boyd, of New York 
city. He was assistant secretary of the Presby 
terian Board of Foreign Missions, 1838-50, corre 
sponding secretary, 1830-91, and secretary em 
eritus, 1891-1900. He was pastor of the 42d Street 
Presbyterian church, New York city, 1845-50, and 
moderator of the general assembly of the Presby 
terian church in 18(55. He received the degree of 
D.D. from Miami university, Ohio, in 1853. He 
edited the Foreign Missionary Chronicle (1838- 
49); the Foreign Record (1850-53, and 1861-86), 
and the Foreign Missionary (1842-65). He con 
tributed articles and sermons to the Princeton 
Review, and is the author of : Travels in North 
India (1841), reissued as Tiro Years in, Upper 
India (1850); A Manual of the Foreign Missions 
of the Presbyterian Church in the United States 
of America (1855); Missionary -Papers (1882); 
Presbyterian Missions (1893); and Memoirs of 
Hon. Walter Lowrie (1896). He died at East 
Orange, N. J., May 31, 1900. 

LOWRIE, John Marshall, clergyman, was 
born in Pittsburg, Pa., July 16, 1817 ; son of Mat 
thew and Sarah (Anderson) Lowrie, and nephew 
of Senator Walter Lowrie (q.v.). He was gradu 
ated from Lafayette college in 1840, and from 
Princeton Theological seminary in 1843. He was 
licensed to preach by the Newton presbytery, 
April 27, 1842, and was ordained at Blairstown, 
N.J., Oct. 18, 1843. He was pastor at Blairs- 
town and Knowlton. N.J., 1843-45; at Wellsville, 
Ohio, 1846-50 : at Lancaster, Ohio, 1850-56. and 
at Fort Wayne, 1856-67. He received the degree 
of D.D. from Miami university in 1858. lie is 
the author of: Adam and His Times (1862): 
Esther and Her Times (1862); The Hebrew Lair 
Giver (1866); .1 Week with Jesus (1866): The 
Translated Prophet (1868); Tlie Prophet Elijah 
(1869); TJie, Life of David (I860); and a tract en 
titled : The Christian iu the Church (1879). He 
died at Fort Wayne. Ltd., Sept. 26. 1867. 

LOWRIE, Jonathan Roberts, lawyer and 
botanist, was born in Butler, Pa.. March 16, 
1823; son of Walter and Amelia (McPherrin) 
Lowrie. He was graduated from Jefferson col 
lege in 1842, and studied law with his cousin, 
Walter Hoge Lowrie (q.v.). He practised at 
Holidaysburg, Pa., 1846-54, and at Warrior s 
Mark. Pa., in 1854-85. He devoted much time to 
the study of botany and to the cultivation of an 



arboretum on his estate. He made a large collec 
tion of rare plants and discovered one new species, 
Prunus Alleghaniensis, and others new to the 
state of Pennsylvania. He was married, Feb. 15 
1848, to Mary, daughter of John Lyon, and after 
her death to Matilda, daughter of the Rev. Dr. 
Nassau. He served as a ruling elder in the Pres 
byterian church for several years. He died at 
Warriorsmark, Pa., Dec. 10, 1885. 

LOWRIE, Randolph Washington, clergyman, 
was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, Jan. 26, 1839 ; son 
of William Frederick and Margaret Elizabeth 
(Sheriff) Lowrie, and grandson of Levi and 
Matilda (Wilson) Sheriff. His father, a native 
of Nottinghamshire, England, emigrated to Amer 
ica in 1828. He attended Bladensburg academy, 
Md., and studied law, but abandoned it for the 
ministry in 1861. He was admitted to the diaco- 
nate in 1863, and w r as ordained priest in 1865, at 
Baltimore, Md. ; was curate in St. A 1 ban s and 
the Ascension parishes, Washington, D.C., 1863- 
65 ; rector of the Church of Incarnation, Wash 
ington, 1865-71 ; of St. Paul s, Winona, Minn., 
1873-78 ; curate of a parish in Prince George s 
county, diocese of Washington, 1885-91, co- 
editor for some years of the Church Press, New 
York city, and literary editor on several other 
corps. He received the honorary degree of M.A. 
from Trinity college, Hartford, in 1885. and that 
of D.D. from St. John s college, Annapolis, in 
1898. He is the author of : History of the English 
Church (1874-80); How to Behave in the Parish 
(1881); The English Church for American Chil 
dren (1883); Openly before the Church (1884), 
and many poems, among them, TJie Rock of 
Israel (1875), and Ship of My Soul. He fur 
nished articles for Johnson s Universal Cyclo 
pedia ; also contributed to various American 
periodicals, and wrote many carols, poems, songs 
and hymns. 

LOWRIE, Reuben Post, teacher and mission 
ary, was born in Butler, Pa., Nov. 24, 1827; 
son of Walter and Amelia (McPherrin) Lowrie. 
He was graduated from the University of the 
City of New York in 1846, and from Princeton 
Theological seminary in 1849. He was princi 
pal of an academy at Wyoming, Pa., 1849-51 ; 
assistant professor of the Greek and Latin lan 
guages and literature in the University of the 
City of New York, 1851-52, and during the vaca 
tions of 1851-52, a teacher in the Spencer academy 
of the Choctaw Indian mission. He was or 
dained an evangelist by the presbytery of 
Luzerne. Pa., March 22, 1854. He was married, 
March 29, 1854, to Amelia Palmer, daughter of 
James N. Tuttle, and she accompanied him to 
Shanghai, China, on his missionary duties in 
1854. He spent the remainder of his life there, 
and devoted himself to the study of the Chinese 

1531 



LOWRIE 



LOWRIE 



language. He translated the shorter catechism, 
a catechism of the Old Testament history, and a 
commentary on St. Matthew s gospel, into the 
Shanghai colloquial dialect. He also devoted 
himself to the completion of a Dictionary of the 
Four Books which had been begun by his brother, 
the Rev. Walter Macon Lowrie (q. v.). He died 
in Shanghai, China. April 26, I860. 

LOWRIE, Samuel Thompson, clergyman, 
was born in Pittsburg, Pa., Feb. 8, 1835 ; son of 
Walter H. and Rachel A. (Thompson) Lowrie ; 
grandson of Mathew B. and Sarah (Anderson) 
Lowrie, and of Samuel and Mary (Parke) Thomp 
son, and a descendant of John and Catherine 
(Cameron) Lowrie. John Lowrie (born in Scot 
land, Sept. 20, 1751) came with his family to the 
United States in 1792. and settled in Butler 
county. Pa. Mathew B. Lowrie was born May 
12. 1778, in Scotland, came to the United States 
with his father, spent most of his life in Pitts- 
burg, Pa., and was an older brother of Walter 
Lowrie (q. v.). Samuel T. Lowrie was graduated 
from Miami university, A.B., 1852. A.M., 1854 ; 
from the Western Theological seminary in 1856. 
and was licensed the same year by the presbytery 
of Ohio ; studied at the University of Heidel 
berg, 1856-57, and at the University of Berlin in 
1863. He was ordained by the presbytery of 
Huntingdon in 1858, and was pastor of Presbyte 
rian churches at Alexandria, Pa., 1858-63 ; Phila 
delphia, Pa., 1865-69 ; Abington, Pa., 1869-74 ; 
Ewing, N.J., 1879-85, and co-pastor of Wylie 
Memorial church at Philadelphia, Pa., 1891-96. 
He was professor of New Testament literature 
and exegesis at the Western Theological seminary, 
Allegheny, Pa., 1874-78, and was chaplain of the 
Presbyterian hospital at Philadelphia, 1886-89. 
In 1893 he became corresponding secretary of the 
Presbyterian Historical society, and in 1893 was 
elected a director of the Princeton Theological 
seminary. He was married Sept. 6, 1860, to 
Sarah A. Hague, who died March 6. 1862, and 
secondly March 5, 1867, to Elizabeth A., daughter 
of the Rev. H. S. Dickson. of West Chester, Pa. 
The honorary degree of D.D. was conferred upon 
him by Washington and Jefferson college in 
1875. He was the principal translator of the 
commentary on Isaiah and Numbers in the 
Lange-Schaff Bible work, and is author of : An 
Explanation of the Epistle to the He.bre.irs (1884) ; 
TJte Lord s Supper (1888); and translator of 
Beyond the Sea (1885). 

LOWRIE, Walter, senator, was born in Edin 
burgh, Scotland, Dec. 10, 1784 ; son of John and 
Catherine (Cameron) Lowrie. He came to the 
United States with his parents in 1792. They 
settled first on a farm in Huntingdon county, 
Pa., and later removed to Butler county. He 
was prepared for the ministry by the Rev. John 



MePherrin, the first Presbyterian minister in 
Butler county, but took up the study of law and 
entered political life. He was married in 1808 to 
Amelia, daughter of the Rev. John MePherrin. 
She died in 1832, and he married, secondly, in 
1833, Mary K.. daughter of Joshua Childs, of 
Springfield. Mass. He was a state senator from 
Butler county, 1811-18, and U.S. senator, 1819-25. 
During his senatorial term he was regarded as an 
authority on questions of political history and 
constitutional law. He was secretary of the 
U.S. senate. 1825-36 ; corresponding secretary of 
the Western Foreign Missionary society, 1836-37, 
and of the Presbyterian board of foreign missions, 
1837-68. He was one of the founders of the Con 
gressional prayer-meeting and the Congressional 
temperance society, and was for many years a 
member of the executive committee of the 
American Colonization society. He died in New 
York city, Dec. 14. 1868. 

LOWRIE, Walter Hoge, jurist, was born in 
Armstrong county, Pa.. March 31, 1807 ; son of 
Matthew and Sarah (Anderson) Lowrie. He was 
graduated from the Western University of Penn 
sylvania in 1826, and was admitted to the bar, 
Aug. 4, 1829. He established himself in practice 
in Pittsburg. Pa., and was judge of the district 
court of Allegheny county, 1846-51 ; justice of 
the supreme court of Pennsylvania, 1851-57, and 
chief justice, 1857-63. He resumed practice in 
Pittsburg, Pa., in 1863. and later became presi 
dent judge of the court of common pleas of 
Crawford county, which position he retained 
until his death. He was ruling elder in the 
Second Presbyterian church. Pittsburg, Pa., for 
many years ; was a trustee of the Western Uni 
versity of Pennsylvania, 1851-55, and received the 
degree of LL.D. from Washington college, Pa., in 
1852. He contributed to the Princeton Repertory 
and other periodicals, and his published communi 
cations to the American Philosophical society 
include Origin of Tides, and Cosmical Motion. 
Many of his judicial opinions were also printed. 
He died in Meadville. Pa.. Nov. 14, 1876. 

LOWRIE, Walter Macon, missionary, was 
born in Butler, Pa., Feb. 18, 1819; son of Wal 
ter and Amelia (MePherrin) Lowrie. He was 
graduated from Jefferson college in 1837, and 
from Princeton Theological seminary in 18-10; 
and was ordained evangelist by the second 
Presbytery of New York, Nov. 9, 1841. He was 
sent as a foreign missionary to Macao, China, by 
the second presbytery of New York in January, 
1842, and after three years of labor at this sta 
tion, lie removed in 1S45 to Ningpo. He made a 
journey to the city of Shanghai in the summer of 
1847 to attend a conference of missionaries, and 
on his return voyage his vessel was attacked by 
pirates and he was thrown overboard. He was 



D54] 



LOWRY 



LOWRY 



unmarried. He is the author of : TJie Land of 
Sinai, or an Exposition of Isuiult XLIX. 1;J 
(1850); Sermons Preached in. China (1851 ). His 
Memoir was edited by his father and published 
in 1849. He died in the China sea, Aug. 1<J, 1847. 
LOWRY, Joseph Edmond, educator, was born 
in Monroe county, Tenn.. May 11, 1868; son of 
Hugh Kelso and Isabella (Cook) Lowry, and 
grandson of William and Nancy (Kelso) Lowry 
and of Jacob and Mary (Shields) Cook. He at 
tended the High school in London, Tenn., and was 
graduated from Hiwassee college, A.B., 1886, 
A.M., 1889. He was admitted to the Holston con 
ference of the Methodist Episcopal church south, 
Oct. 3, 1888, and served charges in Maynardville, 
Knoxville. Louisville, Madisonville, and Philadel 
phia, Tenn. He was married July 19, 1892, to 
Mary Cordelia Ault of Knoxville, Term. On May 

20, 1898, he was elected president of Hiwassee 
college and was re-elected to that position May 

21, 1900. 

LOWRY, Robert, representative, was born in 
Ireland in 1822. His parents immigrated to the 
United States and located in Rochester, N.Y., 
where he attended the public schools. He was 
librarian of the Rochester Athenaeum and Young 
Men s Christian Association ; studied law, and in 
1843 removed to Fort Wayne, Ind. He was city 
recorder of Fort Wayne in 1844, and was admitted 
to the bar in 1845. and settled in practice in Go- 
shen, Ind., in 1846. He was appointed judge of 
the 10th circuit in 1852 to fill out an unexpired 
term ; was the defeated candidate on the Demo 
cratic ticket for representative in the 35th con 
gress in 1856 ; was president of the Democratic 
state convention that year, and one of the four 
delegates-at-large to the Democratic national 
convention at Charleston, April 23 and Balti 
more, June 18, 1860. He practised law in 
Chicago, 111., 1861-62 ; was judge of the 10th 
Indiana circuit. 1864-75 ; was the defeated candi 
date for representative in the 40th congress in 
1866 and again in 1868, and settled in practice 
in Fort Wayne in 1867. He resigned, and 
was a delegate-at-large to the Democratic 
national convention at Baltimore, July 9, 1872 ; 
and in 1875 resigned his circuit judgeship 
and became a member of the law firm of 
Lowry, Robertson & O Rourke. He was judge 
of the newly established superior court of Allen 
county, 1877-82 ; was first president of the State 
Bar association in 1879, and was a represent 
ative from the 12th Indiana district in the 
48th and 49th congresses, 1883-87. where lie was 
chairman of the house commission to investigate 
and report concerning the reorganization of the 
several scientific bureaus of the government, and 
of the committee on expenditures in the treasury 
department. 



LOWRY, Robert, clergyman and song writer, 
was born in Philadelphia, Pa., March 12,1826; 
son of Crozier Lowry. His parents \vere mem 
bers of the Associate Presbyterian church. He 
joined the Baptist church April 23, 1843, and began 
Sunday-school work. He was graduated at Buck- 
nell university with valedictory honors, A.B. , 
1854, A.M., 1857 ; was pastor of the First Baptist 
church, Westchester, Pa., 1854-58 ; the Bloom- 
ingdale Baptist church, New York city, 1858- 
61 ; the Hanson Place Baptist church, Brooklyn, 
N.Y., 1861-69 ; was Crozer professor of rhetoric, 
Bucknell university, and pastor of the Lewisburg 
Baptist church, 1869-75 ; curator of Bucknell 
university, 1875-82, and chancellor of the board, 
1876-82. He removed to Plainfield, N.J., in 1875, 
and was the first pastor of the Park Avenue Bap 
tist church, 1876-85. He made the tour of 
Europe twice, and in 1880 was a speaker at the 
Robert Raikes centennial in London, England. 
He was twice elected moderator of the East New 
Jersey Baptist association ; was for several years 
president of the New Jersey Baptist Sunday, 
school convention, and a member of the New Jer- 
sey.Baptist Education society. He received the 
honorary degree of D.D. from Bucknell in 1875. 
He edited eighteen collections of hymns for 
church choirs and Sunday schools, and his com 
positions are in all the popular hymnals. He is 
the author of numerous well known gospel hymns, 
including : Shall We Gather at the River ; I Need 
Thee Every Hour ; Where is My Wandering Boy ; 
all immediately popular in America and Eng 
land. He died in Plainfield, N.J., Nov. 25, 1899. 

LOWRY, Robert, governor of Mississippi, was 
born in Chesterfield district, S.C., March 10, 
1829 ; son of Robert and Jemima (Rushing) Lowry, 
and grandson of 
John and Temperance 
(Rushing) Lowry. He 
received a country 
school education, be 
came a lawyer and 
practised in Brandon, 
Rankin county, Miss., 
where he volunteered 
in 1861 as a private 
in Co. B. 6th Missis 
sippi infantry, for 
service in the Con 
federate army. When 
the regiment was 
organized lie was 
elected major, and 
the regiment was stationed at Bowling Green, 
Ky., and formed part of Gen. A. S. Johnston s 
army of the Mississippi. At the battle of 
Shiloh (Pittsburg Landing), April 6-7. 1869, 
the 6th regiment, which was part of Gen. P. 

[155] 




LOY 



LOZIER 



R. Cleburne s brigade. Gen. "W. J. Hardee s 
corps, lost more in killed and wounded accord 
ing to numbers than any other regiment on 
either side. In the first day s fight Major Lowry 
was wounded. On the reorganization of the 
regiment he was elected colonel, and lie com 
manded the regiment at the battle of Corinth, 
Dec. 3-4, 1862 ; in the Vicksburg campaign, in 
cluding Port Gibson. April 30-May 1 , 1863 ; at 
Jackson, May 14, 1863, and Baker s Creek or 
Champion Hills, May 16, 1S63 ; throughout the 
Georgia campaign in Adams s brigade, Loring s 
division, Johnston s army, being for a time in 
command of Featherstone s brigade ; at Frank 
lin, Tenn., Nov. 30, 1864, where he succeeded to 
the command of Adams s brigade when that 
officer was killed, and he soon thereafter was ap 
pointed brigadier-general ; at Nashville, Dec. 15- 
16, 1864, where he led the brigade ; and in the 
Carolina campaign, where he surrendered with 
Johnston s army, April 26, 1865. He then re 
sumed the practice of law at Brandon ; served in 
both branches of the state legislature, and was ap 
pointed witli Col. Giles M. Hillyer a commissioner 
to visit President Johnson in 1866 in behalf of 
Jefferson Davis, and he visited Davis during his 
confinement in Fort Monroe. He was governor 
of Mississippi, 1882-90, and president of the 
boards of trustees of the University of Missis 
sippi, the Agricultural and Mechanical college at 
Starkville, and the Industrial Institute and Col 
lege for the Education of White Girls, Columbus. 
LOY, riatthias, educator, was born in Cumber 
land county, Pa.. March 17, 182S ; son of Matthias 
andChristina (Reaves) Loy. His father came from 
Germany in 1817. He was graduated from the 
Lutheran Theological seminary, Columbus, Ohio, 
in 1849, and received the degree of A.M. in 1852. 
He was married Dec. 25, 1853, to May, daughter 
of Henry Willey of Delaware, Ohio. He was 
pastor of the Lutheran church of Delaware. Ohio, 
1849-65. In 1865 he became professor in the 
Theological seminary and in Capital university, 
Columbus, Ohio, and in 1881 he was elected 
president of Capital university and subse 
quently of the Theological seminary. In 1860 
he was elected president of the Evangelical 
Lutheran Synod of Ohio and other states and con 
tinued in that office by repeated re-election until 
1892. He received the degree of D.D. from 
Muhlenberg college in 1887. He edited the 
Lutheran Standard* 1864-90, was editor-in-chief of 
the Columbus TlieoJotjical Magazine, 1881-87, and 
edited a translation of Luther s " House Postil" 
(3 vols., 1874-84) . He is author of : The Doctrine 
of Justification (1862) ; Life of Luther, transla 
tion (1869) : Essay on the Ministerial Office 
(1870) ; Sermons on the Gospels (1887) ; Christian 
Prayer (1890) ; The Church (1897). 




LOYAL, George, representative, was born in 
Norfolk. Va., May 29. 1789 ; son of George and 
Sarah (Willoughby) Loyall, and grandson of Paul 
Loyall, whose wife \vas Frances Newton, daugh 
ter of George and Alphea (Wilson) Newton. 
He was graduated from the College of William 
and Mary in 1808. He was a representative in 
the Virginia legislature, 1817-27; a delegate to 
the state constitutional convention in 1829, and a 
representative from Virginia in the 21st congress, 
as successful contestant for the seat of Thomas 
Newton. He served in the 21st congress from 
March 9, 1830, and in the 23d and 24th congresses, 
1833-37. He was navy agent at Norfolk, Va., 
almost continuously, 1837-61. He died in Nor 
folk, Va., Feb. 24, l"868. 

LOYZANCE, Joseph flarie Rene, educator, 
was born in the parish of St. Ouen des Alleux, 
Rennes, France, March 12, 1820. He studied the 
classics and theology at Rennes, and was or 
dained a secular priest. On Dec. 3, 1S49, he was 
received into the Society of 
Jesus at Vannes, and in 1S52 
was sent to New York city 
and assigned to the College; 
of St. Francis Xa\ ier, of 
which he was made president 
in 1863, and held the position 
until 1870 when he went to 
Canada as treasurer of St. Mary s college. Mon 
treal. He was afterward superior of Manresa 
institute, a house of retreat, Keyser Island, 
South Norwalk, Conn. He died at Holy Cross 
college, Worcester, Mass., Feb. 23. 1897. 

LOZIER, Clemence Sophia, physician, was 
born in Plainfield, N.J., Dec. 11, 1812; daughter 
of David Harned. She was married in 1829 to 
Abraham W. Lozier of New York, and their son, 
Dr. Abraham W. Lozier, married Charlotte Irene 
Denman, who became a well-known physician. 
She conducted a school in the city of New York, 
1837-48> during her husband s protracted illness. 
She became a member of the Moral Reform 
society, and after her husband s death attended 
lectures at the Rochester Eclectic Medical college ; 
and was graduated M.D. from the Syracuse Medi 
cal college in 1853. She engaged in the practice 
of medicine in New York city and rose to promi 
nence as a surgeon for women. She gave a series 
of lectures on medical subjects in her parlors in 
1860, which resulted in organizing and establish 
ing in 1863 the New York Medical college and 
hospital for women of which she was the dean of 
the faculty and clinical professor of the diseases 
of women and children. She was also president 
of the New York City Woman Suffrage society 
and of the National Woman Suffrage societv, and 
a member of philanthropic and reform societies. 
She died in New York city, April 26, 1888. 



[150] 



LUBBOCK 



LUCAS 




LUBBOCK, Francis Richard, governor of 
Texas, was born in Beaufort, S.C., Oct. 16, 1815 ; 
son of Dr. Henry Thomas Willis and Susan 
(Saltus) Lubbock and grandson of Captain Rich 
ard and Diana Sophie (Sandwich) Lubbock and 
of Captain Francis 
Saltus of Port Royal, 
S.C. Both grand 
fathers were English. 
He was employed as 
a clerk at Charleston, 
1829-32, and at Hani- 
burg, S.C., 1832-84; 
and engaged in the 
drug business in New 
Orleans, La., in 18:54. 
He was married Feb. 
5, 1835, to Adele 
Baron, a French Cre- 
ole. In January, 1887, 
he settled iu Houston , 

Texas, and was one 

of the first to build a home there. He was 
clerk of the congress of the Republic of Texas, 
1837-38 ; comptroller, 1838 ; and adjutant in 
the Texan army in the protection of the fron 
tier, 1839. He removed to Austin, the new seat 
of government, where he was comptroller in 
1841, and district clerk of Harris county, 1841-56. 
He was secretary of the first Democratic state con 
vention, 1845, and a Democratic presidential elec 
tor in 1856. He was lieutenant-governor of Texas, 
1857-59 ; was a delegate to the Charleston and Bal 
timore Democratic national conventions in 1860 
and governor of Texas, 1861-63. During his term 
he aided the Confederate States in its struggle for 
independence. He refused re-nomination in 1863, 
and entered the Confederate army as lieutenant- 
colonel and assistant adjutant-general in the 
Trans-Mississippi department, commanded by 
Gen. E. Kirby Smith. He served with Gen. John 
A. Wharton, commanding the entire cavalry in 
the Red river campaign until its close, when he 
was appointed to the staff of President Davis with 
the rank of colonel of cavalry in July, 1864. He 
went to Richmond. Va., with President Davis, and 
was captured with his chief and imprisoned in 
Fort Monroe, and was removed to Fort Delaware, 
where he remained in solitary confinement nearly 
eight months. He returned to Houston, Texas, 
in December, 1865. engaged in business in 1867 at 
Gal veston, and established a beef-packing house at 
Anahuac. He was tax-collector at Galveston, 
3873-76; president of the New York and Texas Beef 
Preserving company, 1874-75 ; was treasurer of 
Texas, 1878-90, and during his office improved 
the financial standing of the state. He was a 
member of the board of pardon advisers and of 
the Confederate home. His first wife died in 



1882 and in 1883 he was married to Mrs. Sarah 
Elizabeth (Black) Porter, daughter of the Hon. 
James Augustus and Elizabeth Sarah (Logan) 
Black, and widow of the Rev. Dr. A. A. Porter, a 
Presbyterian clergy man. See>SV.i Decades in Texas, 
or Memoirs of Francis Richard Lubbock (1990). 

LUCAS, Daniel Bedinger, jurist, was born in 
Charleslown. Va., March 16. 1836 ; 8on of William 
and Virginia (Bedinger) Lucas, and descended 
from Robert Lucas, General Assembly of 
Pennsylvania, 1683. He graduated from the 
University of Virginia in 1856, and from 
the law department of Washington college, 
Lexington, in 1858. He practised in Charles- 
town. 1858-60, and in Richmond, 1860-61. In 
1861 he was nppointed on the staff of Gen. Henry 
A. Wise, and at the close of the war returned to 
Charlestown and resumed the practice of law. 
He was married, Oct. 7, 1869, to Lena T., daugh 
ter of Henry L. Brooke, of Richmond, Va. He 
was a presidential elector on the Grant ticket in 
1872, on the Tilden ticket in 1876, on the Cleve 
land ticket in 1884, and on the Bryan ticket in 
1896, and was a representative in the West Vir 
ginia legislature, 1884-86. In March, 1887, on 
the failure of the legislature to elect a U.S. sena 
tor as successor to J. M. Camden, Gov. E. W T illis 
Wilson appointed Mr. Lucas to the vacancy, and 
in 1888, when the legislature elected Charles J. 
Faulkner to complete the term, Governor Wilson 
appointed him president of the supreme court of 
appeals of West Virginia, and he held the office 
until 1893, when he returned to his practice. He 
received the degree of LL.D.from the University 
of West Virginia in 1883. He is the author of: 
Memoir of John Yates Bell (1865) ; The Wreath of 
Eglantine and other Poems (1869); The Maid of 
Northumberland (1879); Ballads and Madrigals 
(1884); Nicaragua and the Filibusters (1895). 

LUCAS, John Baptiste Charles, representa 
tive, was born in Normandy, France, in 1762. He 
was graduated from the University of Caen, 
D.C.L., in 1782, and practised law in France. In 
1784 he settled on a farm near Pittsburg, Pa. 
He was a representative in the state legislature, 
1792-98 ; judge of the court of common pleas, 
1794-1802, and a representative in the 8th con 
gress, 1803-05. He was re-elected to the 9th con 
gress in 1804, but resigned in 1805 before taking 
his seat in order to accept the appointment of 
judge of the U.S. district court for the Territory 
of Louisiana from President Jefferson. He re 
moved to St. Louis, the capital, and the name of 
the territory was changed to Missouri in 1812 on 
the admission of Louisiana as a state. He also 
served as a member of the commission for the 
adjustment of land titles. 1805-12, and continued 
on the bench of the U.S. district court until 1820. 
He died in St. Louis, Mo., Sept. 8, 1842 
[157] 



LUCAS 



LUCAS 





LUCAS, Robert, governor of Iowa Territory, 
was born at Shepherdstovvn, Va., April 1, 1781 ; 
son of Capt. "William (of the Revolutionary 
army) and Susannah Lucas, and a descendant of 
"William Penn. lie was taught mathematics and 
surveying, and re 
moved with his pa 
rents in 1800 to Ports 
mouth, Scioto county, 
Ohio. lie was ap 
pointed county sur 
veyor in 1803 and 
justice of the peace 
for the town of Union 
in 1805. He was com 
missioned lieutenant 
in the state militia 
by Governor Tiffin in 
l S03, and was pro 
moted through the 
successive grades to 
that of major-gen 
eral in 1818. He was appointed captain in 
the regular army, March 14, 1812, and was as 
signed to the 19th infantry, July 6, 1812. He 
served on the frontier against the Indians and in 
Canada against the British, escaping capture at 
the surrender of General Hull to the British on 
Aug. 16, 1812. He returned to Ohio, resigned his 
commission as captain in the regular army, Jan. 
2, 1813, and was offered the commission of lieuten 
ant-colonel, Feb. 20, 1813, and that of colonel, 
subsequently, but declined both commissions. 
He was married, April 3, 1810, to Elizabeth 
Brown, who died Oct. 18, 1812, and secondly, on 
March 7, 181G, to Friendly A. Sumner, a native 
of Vermont. He served as state representative, 
1808-09 and 1831-32, and as state senator for four 
teen terms, 1814-30 ; and was speaker of the senate, 
1829-30. He presided over the first Democratic 
national convention at Baltimore, May 21, 1832. 
He resided in Piketon, Pike county, 181C-38 ; was 
a presidential elector-at-large on the Jackson and 
Calhoun ticket in 1828, and governor of Ohio, 1832- 
36. He removed to Iowa Territory in 1838, having 
been appointed territorial governor by President 
Van Buren. During his term he succeeded in 
settling the boundary line controversy between 
Missouri and Iowa, organized the public-school 
system, and enforced the law against the sale of 
intoxicating liquors. He settled on his farm near 
Iowa City in 1841 and was a member of the first 
state constitutional convention in 184G. He died 
in Iowa City, Iowa. Feb. 7. 1853. 

LUCAS, Thomas John, soldier, was born in 
Lawrenceburg, Tnd., Sept. 9, 1820; son of 
Frederick and Letitia (Netherby) Lucas. His 
father, a native of Rennes, France, was edu 
cated for the priesthood, but became a soldier 




under Napoleon and immigrated to the United 
States in 1816, where he learned the trade of 
watch-making and worked at his trade in Balti 
more, Md., Marietta and Cincinnati. Ohio, and 
at Lawrenceburg, Ind., where he married and 
established his home. 
Thomas learned the 
trade of watch-mak 
er, and in 1847 he 
enlisted in the 4th 
Indiana volunteers as 
drummer boy, and 
the next day was 
made 2d lieutenant 
of the company, and 
while in service in 
Mexico was promot 
ed 1st lieutenant and 
adjutant. He re 
sumed his trade in 
1848. In 1861 he 
raised a company 

of volunteers, was chosen captain, joined the 
16th Indiana regiment, was promoted lieutenant- 
colonel, and distinguished himself at Ball s Bluff, 
Va., where he covered the retreat of the defeated 
federal army. On Aug. 19, 1862, he was chosen 
colonel of the regiment, which re-enlisted for 
three years or during the war. He engaged in 
the battle of Richmond, Ky., Aug. 28, 1862, and 
his regiment, after a loss of 200 men, was com 
pletely routed, escaped to Lexington, Ky.. and 
was sent to Indianapolis, Ind., and furlonghed. 
The regiment was reorganized, embarked for 
Memphis, Tenn., Nov. 23, 1862, at which time 
the officers presented Colonel Lucas with a sword, 
and in December joined Grant s army at Vicks- 
burg. being assigned to the 1st brigade, 10th di 
vision, 13th army corps. He served at Weisburg, 
where his regiment covered the retreat from 
Chickasaw swamp, and at Arkansas Post, where 
his command made a charge and was the first to 
gain entrance to the fortifications. He was 
slightly wounded three times, on account of 
which he went home on furlough, June 10. 1863. 
On his return in August, 1863. he was assigned 
to the command of the post of Vennillionville 
La., and was placed at the head of a cavalry 
brigade, including his own regiment, mounted. 
Oct. 24, 1863. lie served in the Red River expe 
dition, commanding the 1st brigade of Gen. A. 
L. Lee s cavalry division, first in the advance and 
next in covering the retreat of Banks s army at 
Alexandria, and led the advance to the Missis 
sippi in 1864. He was promoted brigadier-gen 
eral of volunteers, Nov. 10, 1864, and commanded 
his brigade of cavalry in the operations around 
Mobile, defeated the Confederates at Claiborne. 
and led raids into western Florida, southern 



F1581 



LUCE 



Georgia and Alabama. He was bre vetted major- 
general of volunteers, March 26, 1865, and after 
his brigade had been mustered out \vas ordered 
to New Orleans by General Sherman, where he 
served until the affairs of the French in Mexico 
were settled, and he returned to Lawrenceburg, 
I ml., in January, 1866. He was employed in the 
U.S. revenue service, 1875-81 ; was postmaster of 
Lawrenceburg, 1881-83, and was an unsuccessful 
candidate for representative in congress on the 
Republican ticket in 1886. 

LUCE, Alice Hanson, educator, was born in 
Winthrop, Maine, June 24, 1861 ; daughter of 
George Gorman and Hannah Jane (Carr) Luce, 
and granddaughter of Gorham and Sabrina (Joy) 
Luce and of Daniel and Patience (Noyes) Carr. 
She attended the Edward Little high school at 
Auburn, Maine, and was graduated from Welles- 
ley college, B.A., 188:5. She was a teacher at 
the Putnam, Conn., high school, 1883-84 ; the 
Wellesley high school, 1884-85 ; the Girls Latin 
school, Boston, Mass., 1885-93 ; studied in Leipzig 
university, 1893-95, and was regularly matricu 
lated at Heidelburg university, in 1895. She was 
the first American woman to receive the doctor s 
degree from the philosophical faculty of Hei 
delberg university, it being conferred on her in 
1896. She was teacher in the English depart 
ment of Smith college, 1896-97 ; in the depart 
ment of English literature at Wellesley college, 
1897-1900, and was appointed dean of women and 
full professor of English literature at Oberlin 
college, April 14, 1900. She is the author of : 
Tke Countess of Pembroke s Antonio " (1897). her 
inaugural dissertation presented to the philoso 
phical faculty at Heidelberg, for the degree of 
Ph.D. 

LUCE, Cyrus Gray, governor of Michigan, 
was born in Windsor, Ohio, July 2, 1824 ; son of 
Walter and Mary (Gray) Luce ; grandson of 
Cvrus Gray, whose ancestors came from England 
and settled near Winchester, Va., about 1750. and 
of Joshua Luce who settled in Tolland, Conn., 
early in 1700, his ancestors being early settlers in 
Martha s Vineyard. Mass., about 1650. His 
father, a native of Tolland, Conn., was a soldier 
in the war of 1812 and at its close went to Ashta- 
bula county, Ohio, where he married Mary Gray, 
a Virginian. They removed to Steuben county, 
Ind., in 1836 with their six boys, and cultivated a 
farm amid the hardships of frontier life. Cyrus 
attended the log schoolhouse ; the Northeastern 
Indiana Collegiate institute for one year; was 
employed in a wool-carding and cloth- dressing 
establishment, 1842-48 ; purchased land in Gilead, 
Mich , in 1848, and after 1849 engaged in farming. 
He was supervisor of the town of Gilead for 
twelve years; representative in the state legisla 
ture. 1854-56 ; treasurer of Branch county, 1858- 




62 ; state senator, 1865-69 ; state oil inspector, 
1877-83 ; and governor of Michigan, 1887-91. He 
was married, Aug. 29, 1849, to Julia A. Dickin 
son, a native of Amherst, Mass., who removed to 
Gilead, Ind., in 1836, and died Aug. 13, 1882. and 
secondly Nov. 8, 1883, to Mrs. Mary E. Thomp 
son, of Bronson, Mich. 

LUCE, Stephen Bleecker, naval officer, was 
born in Albany, N.Y., March 25, 1827 ; son of 
Vinaland Charlotte (Bleecker) Luce ; grandson of 
Cornelius and Olive (Foster) Luce, and a descend 
ant of Jan Jansszen Bleecker, Albany, 1658. He 
was appointed a mid 
shipman in the U.S. 
navy. Oct. 19, 1841 ; 
was promoted passed 
midshipman, April 1, 
1848 ; circumnavi 
gated the globe in the 
Colninbiis, 74, Com 
modore James Bid- 
die. 1845-48, visiting 
Japan ; served on the 
coast of California 
during the Mexican 
war, 1846-47 ; was 
attached to the as 
tronomical party un 
der Lieut. James M. 

Gilliss in December, 1852, and to the U.S. coast 
survey. 1854-57. lie was married Dec. 7, 1854, to 
Eliza, daughter of Commodore John Dandridge 
Henley, U.S N. He was promoted lieutenant, 
Sept. 16, 1855 ; was assistant instructor at the 
U.S. Naval academy. 1860-61 ; third lieutenant 
of the Wabash, flagship, attached to the block 
ading squadron off the coast of South Carolina, 
1861, and participated in the battle of Port Royal, 
Nov. 13, 1861. He was ordered to the naval 
academy at Newport, R.I., Jan. 10. 1862, was 
commissioned lieutenant-commander. July 16, 
1862 ; took command of the practice ship Mace 
donian on a European cruise, June 1, 1863 ; 
commanded the Nantitcket, Sonoma, Canandaigua 
and Pontiac of the North Atlantic blockading 
squadron, 1863-65, and during this time engaged 
with the Confederate forts Sumter, Moultrie 
and Battery Marshall, lie reported to General 
Sherman at Savannah, Ga., for duty in connec 
tion with the army, December, 1864, and with 
the Pontiac he guarded the pontoon bridge at 
Sister s Ferry on the Savannah, while General 
Slocum s division crossed into South Carolina. 
He was ordered to the naval academy at Anna 
polis. Md., in September. 1865; relieved Com 
modore Fairfax as commandant of midshipmen 
in October, 1865 ; was commissioned as com 
mander. July 25, 1866 ; commanded the practice 
squadrons of the naval academv, the Moliongo, 



LUCKEY 



LUDLOW 



of the Pacific squadron, and the Juniata of the 
Mediterranean squadron, 1800-72 ; was equip 
ment officer at the Boston navy yard, 1872-75 ; 
was commissioned captain, Dec. 28, 1872 ; com 
manded the Hartford, flagship of the North 
Atlantic squadron, in November, 1875 ; was in 
spector of training ships. 1877-78 ; commanded 
the U.S. training-ship Minnesota, 1878-81 ; and 
the U.S. naval training squadron, 1881-84 ; was 
commissioned commodore, Nov. 25, 1881. and 
served as president of the commission on the sale 
of navy yards in 1882. He was ordered to the 
command of the North Atlantic squadron as act 
ing rear-admiral, July 20, 1881, and was made 
president of the U.S. Naval War college, Coaster s 
Harbor Island. K.I., Sept. 20. 1884. lie was pro 
moted rear-admiral, Oct. 5, 1885. commanded the 
naval forces of the North Atlanticstation, 1880-89, 
and was placed on the retired list, March 25, 1889. 
He was appointed commissioner-general to the 
Columbian Historical exposition at Madrid in 
181)7. On March 1, 189:5, the Queen Regent of 
Spain conferred on him the Grand Cross of Naval 
Merit witli the whire distinctive mark, for serv 
ices as delegate to the exposition. On June 1, 
1901, he was appointed a member of the board of 
visitors to the U.S. Naval academy. He was an 
associate editor of Johnson s Universal Cyclopae 
dia ; naval editor of the Standard Dictionary, and 
is the author of Se.ain.finsJiij> (180. }), used as a 
text-book at U.S. Naval academy, and editor of 
Ximil Songs (1N8IJ). 

LUCKEV, Samuel, educator, was born in Rens- 
selaerville, N.V., April 4, 1791. He became a 
Methodist itinerant preacher in Ottawa, Canada, 
isll. and served the Oneida conference, N.Y., 
1812-21. lie was president of the Genesee Wes- 
leyan seminary, 1822-20: was stationed at New 
K:t ven, Brooklyn and Albany, and served as 
presiding elder of the New Haven district, New 
York East conference. 1820-3(5 ; was editor of the 
publications of the Methodist publishing society, 
New York city, 1830-40; presiding elder of the 
Rochester, N.Y., circuit. 18(2-09, during which 
time he was chaplain of the Monroe county peni 
tentiary nine years and regent of the University 
of the State of New York, 1847-09. He received 
the honorary degree of A.M. from Union in 
1^24. He is the author of : Treat it s on tlicSacra- 
t: nf (1S59); JfyiiiHS and Lessons for Children, and 
sermons. He died in Rochester, N.Y., Oct. 11, 1809. 

LUDDEN, Patrick Anthony, Roman Catholic 
bishop, was born near Castlebar, county Mayo, 
Ireland. Feb. 4, 1830. He was educated at St. 
Jarlath s college, Tuam, Ireland, and in 1854 
came to the United States. He completed his 
education in the Grand seminary at Montreal, 
Canada, where he was ordained priest. May 21, 
1804, by Mgr. Ignatius Bourget. He was rector 



of the Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception, 
Albany, N.Y., and secretary and chancellor to 
Bishop Conroy ; pastor of St. Joseph s church, 
Malone, N.Y., and vicar-general of the diocese of 
Albany, 1877-80; pastor of St. Peter s church, 
Troy, N.Y., 1880-87, and was consecrated the 
first bishop of the newly formed diocese of Syra 
cuse, N.Y., May 1, 1887, by Archbishop Corrigan, 
assisted by Bishops Loughlin and McNierny. He 
held his first diocesan synod, Oct. 4, 1887. He 
was present at the (ecumenical council at Rome 
in 1809, and was the theologian to the Bishop of 
Alban} at the plenary council of Baltimore. He 
is the author of : Clmrclt, Projierft/ (1882). 

LUDINGTON, Harrison, governor of Wiscon 
sin, was born in Kent, Putnam county. N.Y., July 
31, 1812: son of Frederick and Susannah (Grif- 
feth) Ludington ; grandson of Col. Henry and 
Abigail (Ludington) Ludington, and of Joshua 
and Charity (Scotield) Griffeth : and a descendant 
of William Ludington, who settled at Charles- 
town, Mass., 1032. and died at the East Haven 
IronWorks, Conn., 1002-3. He received a com 
mon-school education, and in 1838 removed to 
Milwaukee. Wis., where he engaged in general 
merchandising, and from 1841 in the lumber busi 
ness. He was elected an alderman of the city of 
Milwaukee for two terms: was mayor, 1872-74 
and 1875-70, and governor of Wisconsin. 1870-7.S. 
He died in Milwaukee. Wis., June 17, 1891. 

LUDLOW, Benjamin Chambers, soldier, was 
born at Ludlow Station, Hamilton county, Ohio, 
in 1 .> }!. He was a student at Carey s academy, 
College Hill, Ohio, and at Ivenyon college, and 
was graduated from the University of Pennsyl 
vania, M.D., in 1851. He practised in New York 
city in 1854, in California in 1855. in Mexico, 
1850-59, and in Cincinnati. Ohio, 1859-01. lie 
raised a troop of cavalry in INOI. and offered his 
mounted men to the government, but both Sec 
retary Cameron and General Scott considered the 
four regular cavalry regiments all the mounted 
troops required and he went to St. Louis. Mo., 
and offered his services to General Fremont. lie 
was commissioned 1st lieutenant and afterward 
captain of the "Fremont Hussars. They 
marched to southwestern Missouri under General 
Curtis in February. 1S02. and the hussars were 
consolidated with the 5th Missouri cavalry in (lie 
autumn of 1802. and Ludlow was made major of 
the new organization. He was ordered to the 
army of the Potomac as aide-de-camp to Major- 
General Hooker in December, 1N02, and was on 
his staff until Hooker was relieved by General 
Meade, when he became inspector of artillerv on 
Meade s staff and served in the campaign of the 
Army of the Potomac from June, 18(53, to Feb 
ruary, 1804. He was appointed chief of cavalry 
of the Department of Virginia and North Caro- 
160] 



LUDLOW 



LUDLOW 



lina under Gen. B. F. Butler in February, 1864, 
and in 1864 commanded the troops and the work 
ing party employed in cutting the Dutch Gap 
canal on the James river. He was brevetted 
brigadier-general for gallant and meritorious 
services at Dutch Gap and at Spring Hill, Va.. 
Oct. 28, 1864, and commanded the James and 
York river defences, with headquarters at Fort 
Magruder until the surrender of Lee, after 
which he commanded the Eastern district of Vir 
ginia, with headquarters at Williamsburg until he 
resigned from the army in the autumn of 1865. 
He then resumed the practice of medicine in Cin 
cinnati, Ohio, and removed to California in 1885. 
His sister, Sara Bella Dun lap Ludlow, married 
Chief-Justice Salmon P. Chase. He died in Los 
Angelos, Cal., Jan. 10, 1898. 

LUDLOW, Fitz Hugh, author, was born in 
New York city, Sept. 11, 18:56; son of the Rev. 
Henry G. Ludlcnv. He was prepared for col 
lege at Poughkeepsie, N.Y., and was graduated at 
Union college in 1856. He studied law in the 
office of AVilliam Curtis Noyes, New York city, 
1858-60, and supported himself by editing Vanity 
Fair. He was admitted to the bar in 1859 but- 
after 1860 devoted himself entirely to literature. 
He was employed on the editorial staffs of the 
World and Commercial Adrertixer, 1860-61 ; 
was dramatic and musical critic of the Ercnimj 
Post and of the Home Journal. 1861-62, and 
yisited California and Oregon in 1863, making his 
journey over the course subsequently adopted by 
the Pacific railroad. He dramatized "Cinder 
ella" and coached a troop of children to act it for 
the benefit of the U.S. Sanitary Fair in 1864 and 
visited Europe for his health in 1870. He is the 
author of : Apocalypse of Hasheesh (1856) : TJie 
ITasheesh Eater (1857) ; Due South (1*61), being 
a scries of letters from Florida published in the 
Commercial Advertiser; Biographical Sketch, of 
John Xelson Pattison (1863); Through Ticket to 
San-Francisco : A J roplieey (1864) : Little Brother 
and other (ienre lectures (1867); What shall they 
do to be Saved P (1867), published as The Opium 
Habit (186S); The Heart of the. Continent (1870), 
and a number of poems and stories. He died in 
Geneva, Switzerland, Sept. 12, 1870. 

LUDLOW, George Craig, governor of New 
Jersey, was born in Mil ford. Hunterdon county, 
N.J., April 6, 1830: son of Cornelius and Julia 
Ann (Disborough) Ludlow, and grandson of Gen. 
Benjamin Ludlow of Long Hill, Morris count} , 
X.J. His father removed to New Brunswick, 
N.J., in 1835, and he was graduated from Rutgers 
college, A.B., 1850, A.M., 1853. He was admitted 
to the bar in 1853, and practised in New Bruns 
wick, N.J., serving as counsel for that city and 
for several large corporations. He married, 
Sept. 28, 1858, Mary Elizabeth, daughter of Robert 




Morris Goodwin of Savannah, Ga. He at one time 
served on the board of chosen freeholders of 
Middlesex county, and was president of the New 
Brunswick board of education. He was senator 
from Middlesex county in 
the state legislature, 1876-79, 
and was president of the 
senate in 1879. He was elected 
governor of New Jersey by 
the Democratic party, serving 
1881-84, was a delegate to the 
constitutional convention of 
1894, and was appointed a justice of the supreme 
court of New Jersey, June 13, 1895, succeeding 
Alfred Reed, his term to expire in 1902. He re 
ceived the honorary degree of LL.D. from Rut 
gers college, New Brunswick, in 1895. He died 
in NewBurnswick, N.J., Dec. 18, 1900. 

LUDLOW, James Meeker, clergyman, was 
born in Elizabeth, N.J., March 15, 1841 ; son of 
Ezra and Mary (Crane) Ludlow ; grandson of Jo 
seph Ludlow, and a descendant of William Lud 
low of Connecticut and Southampton colony, who 
came from Shropshire, England, in 1640. He 
was graduated from the College of New Jersey, 
A.B., 1861, A.M., 1864, from the Princeton Theo 
logical seminary in 1864, and was ordained by 
the presbytery of Albany, Jan. 19, 1865. He 
was married, July 5, 1865, to Emma, daughter 
of David Orr. He was pastor of the First Pres 
byterian church, Albany, N.Y., 1864-68, and 
of the Collegiate Reformed church of New York 
city, 1868-77, and during his pastorate there, 
a new church edifice was built on Fifth ave 
nue at a cost of nearly $600,000. He was pastor 
of Westminster church, Brooklyn, N.Y., 1877- 
85, and of the First Presbyterian church. East 
Orange, N.J., from 1886. In 1885 he declined 
the presidency of Marietta college, Ohio. He 
received the degree of D.D. from Williams 
college in 1872 and that of L.H.D. from the 
College of New Jersey in 1890. He is the 
author of: A Man for a 1 That (1883) ; Concentric 
Chart of History (1885); Captain of the Jani 
zaries (1886); A King of Tyre (1891); That 
Angelic Woman, (1892); Tlie Baritone s Parish 
(1896); The Age of the Crusades (1897), and con 
tributions to periodicals. 

LUDLOW, James Ryley, jurist, was born in 
Albany, N.Y., May 3, 1825 ; son of the Rev. Dr. 
John and Catlyntje Van Slyck (Ryley) Ludlow 7 . 
He was graduated at the University of Pennsyl 
vania, A.B., 1843, A.M., 1846. He was admitted 
to the Philadelphia bar in 1846 ; was judge of 
the court of common pleas, 1857-75, and pre 
siding judge, 1875-86. He was a trustee of Jeffer 
son Medical college ; a member of the American 
Philosophical society, 1884. and the Historical 
society of Pennsylvania. He received the hon- 



LUDLOW 



LUDLOW 



oraiy degree of LL.D. from Rutgers college and 
from the University of Pennsylvania in 1870. 
He married Henrietta Francis, daughter of Jabez 
Lovett of New York. He was joint editor of 
Adams on Equity (1852). Richard Vaux pre 
pared a memorial of his life. He died in Phila 
delphia. Pa., Sept. 20. 1886. 

LUDLOW, John, educator, was born in Ac- 
quackanonek, N.J., Dec. 13, 1793; grandson of 
Richard Ludlow. a major in the American army 
during the Revolution, and grand nephew of 
Judge George Duncan and Col. Gabriel G. Lud 
low, sons of Gabriel Ludlow who came from 
Holland to America in 1099 and settled on Long 
Island opposite New Amsterdam. John Ludlow 
was graduated at Union college, N.Y., in 1814 
and from the New Brunswick Theological sem 
inary, N.J., 1817. He was tutor at Union college, 
1815-16 ; minister of the Dutch Reformed Church, 
New Brunswick, N.J., 1817-23. He was married 
about 1817 to Catlyntje Van Slyck Ryley of New 
Brunswick. He was professor of Biblical litera 
ture and ecclesiastical history in the Theological 
seminary, 1819-23 ; minister of the Dutch Re 
formed church, Albany, N.Y., 1823-34; provost 
of the University of Pennsylvania, 1835-53, and 
professor of ecclesiastical history and church 
government, New Brunswick Theological semi 
nary, 1854-57. He received the honorary degree 
of D.D. from Union in 1827 and that of LL.D. 
elsewhere. His sons, James Ryley (q.v.), John 
Livingston and Richard, were graduated of the 
University of Philadelphia. He died at the home 
of his son, Dr. John Livingston Ludlow, in Phila 
delphia, Pa., Sept. 8, 1857. 

LUDLOW, Nicoll, naval officer, was born at 
"Riverside," Islip, Long Island, N.Y., Sept. 11, 
1842 ; son of William Handy and Frances Louisa 
(Nicoll) Ludlow, grandson of Ezra and Rachel 
(Saguine) Ludlow and of William Nicoll of 
Nicoll s Patent, Long Island, and his wife Sarah 
Greenly, and a descendant of Roger Ludlow, born 
1590, in Wiltshire, England, who landed at Nan- 
tasket, Mass., 1630, and was lieutenant-governor 
of Massachusetts under Endicott, and of Rhode 
Island under Roger Williams. Nicoll Ludlow 
entered the U.S. Naval academy, Oct. 28, 1859, 
and was ordered into active service and pro. 
inoted ensign, Oct. 1, 1863 ; was attached to the 
steam-sloop Wacliusett, of the Brazil squadron, 
1863-65 ; to the Monadnock on her passage from 
New York to San Francisco in 1866, and was pro 
moted master, Nov. 10, 1866. He served on the 
Iroquois of the Asiatic squadron, 1866-70, was 
promoted lieutenant, Feb. 21, 1867, and lieuten 
ant-commander, March 12, 1868, and was an in 
structor in gunnery at the U.S. Naval academy, 
1870-73. He served on the Monongahela and the 
Brooklyn of the South Atlantic station, 1873-76 : 




on torpedo duty, 1876-77 ; on the Trenton, flag 
ship of the European station, 1877-80. and re 
turned to the United States on the Constellation. 
He was ordnance inspector at the West Point 
foundry and South Boston iron works, 1881-82 ; 
was promoted com 
mander, Oct. 1, 1881, 
and served on duty at 
the Mid vale Steel 
svorks, Philadelphia, 
Pa., 1882-83. He com 
manded the Quin- 
nebaitg on the Euro 
pean station, 1883-86 ; 
was light-house in 
spector, 12th district, 
1887-90 : inspector of 
ordnance at Mare 
Island navy yard, 
California, 1890-91 ; , 

light-house inspector, 7tt&frC& O&Utfufatfc 
9th district, 1891-92, 

and in command of the Mohican of the Pacific 
squadron, January to November, 1893, serv 
ing as senior officer in command of the Ber 
ing sea squadron during that time. In 1894 
he was on leave of absence. He was promoted 
captain, May 21, 1895 ; served on duty at the war 
college in 1895, and commanded the Monterey, 
1896 ; was ordered to the Terror of the North At 
lantic squadron, July 8, 1897, and commanded 
that monitor in the war with Spain up to Sept. 
22, 1898, when he was transferred to the com 
mand of the Massachusetts, which he held until 
June, 1899. He was promoted rear-admiral, Nov. 
1,1899, and retired on his own application after 
forty years service. He was married, May 12, 
1870, to Frances Mary, daughter of Dr. Daniel 
Thomas, of Bloomfield, N.J., and secondly, Feb. 
15, 1897, to Mrs. Mary (McLean) Bugher, daugh 
ter of Washington McLean, of Cincinnati, Ohio. 
LUDLOW, William, soldier, was born at 
" Riverside ", Islip, Long Island, N.Y., Nov. 27, 
1843 ; son of William Handy and Frances Louisa 
(Nicoll) Ludlow. He was graduated at the U.S. 
Military academy and promoted 1st lieutenant in 
the corps of engineers, June 13, 1864. He served 
as chief engineer of the 20th army corps in the 
Georgia campaign, July to September, 186-4. He 
had charge of the construction of defences at 
Rome, Ga. , October and November, 1864. and was 
chief engineer of the army in Georgia from No 
vember, 1864, to March, 1865. He was brevetted 
captain, July 20. 1864. and major, Dec. 21. 1864, 
for meritorious sen-ices in the defence of Alla- 
toona Pass. Ga.. and in the campaign through 
Georgia. He was assistant engineer on the staff 
of General Sherman in the "March to the Sea" 
and through the Carolinas, and was en<:;a<red in. 



LUDLOW 



LUERS 




the battles of Averysboro and Bentonville, in the 
occupation of Goldsboro, and in the capture 
of Raleigh, N.C. Ue was brevetted lieutenant- 
colonel, U.S.A., March 13, 1865, for meritorious 
conduct in the campaign in the Carolinas ; raised 

and commanded a 
company of engineers 
at Jefferson barrack", 
Mo.. 18(55-06; com 
manded the depot and 
company at Jefferson 
barracks, 1866-67: 
was promoted cap 
tain, March 7, 1867 ; 
served as assistant 
engineer under Major 
Gillmore, 1867-72 ; as 
chief engineer of the 
department of Da- 
kota, 1872-76 ; as as- 
sistant engineer to 
Lieutenant - Colonel 

Kurtz, 1876-77 ; assistant engineer under Colo 
nel Macomb, 1877-81 ; in charge of Delaware 
river and harbor improvements and works of de 
fence. 1881-82, and was promoted major, June 30, 
1882. He was engineer secretary of the light 
house board, 1882-83 ; chief engineer of the Phila 
delphia water department by authority of con 
gress, 1883-86; engineer commissioner of the 
District of Columbia, 1886-88; engineer of the 
4th light-house district, March to December, 1888 ; 
in charge of river and harbor work in western 
Michigan and engineer of the 9th and llth light 
house districts, 1888-93 ; military attache of 
the U.S. embassy at London, England, 1893-96, 
and president of U.S. Nicaragua canal commis 
sion in 1895. He was promoted lieutenant-colo 
nel of the corps of engineers, Aug. 13, 1805, as 
signed to the command of the lighthouse depot 
and had charge of the river and harbor work of 
New York harbor. He was commissioned briga 
dier-general of volunteers, May 4, 1898. and as 
signed to the staff of the commanding general as 
engineer-in-chief of the armies in the field, and 
on June 29, 1898, was assigned to the command 
of the 1st brigade, 2d division, 5th army corps, 
under General Shafter, and served in the Santiago 
campaign, where he was promoted major-general 
of volunteers, Sept. 7, 1898. He was made presi 
dent of the board to establish the military trans 
port service ; then assigned to the command of a 
division with head-quarters at Columbus, Ga. He 
was appointed military governor of the city of 
Havana, Dec. 13, 1898. and on April 13. 1899. he 
was honorably discharged from the volunteer 
service, and the same day was commissioned 
brigadier-general, U.S. volunteers. He was pro 
moted brigadier-general in the U.S. army, January 

[163] 



21, and vacated his commission as lieutenant- 
colonel, corps of engineers, Jan. 29, 1900. He 
left Havana in February to become president 
of the board of officers appointed to consider the 
establishment of a war college for the army, and 
lie visited France and Germany in the interests 
of this project. In April, 1901, he was ordered to 
the Philippines to command the department of 
the Visayas but was compelled to return immedi 
ately on sick-leave. He was married in 1866 
to Genevieve A. Sprigg. of St. Louis, Mo. He 
was elected to membership in many scientific 
societies in America and abroad. He is the author 
of : Easplorations of the Black Hills and Yellow 
stone Country; Report of tJte U.S. Nicaragua 
Canal Commission, and several annual and special 
reports. He died at Convent, N. J. , Aug. 30, 1901. 
LUERS, John Henry, R.C. bishop, was born at 
Leutten, Grand Duchy of Oldenburg, German}-, 
Sept. 29, 1819. He came to the United States 
with his parents in January, 1833, and settled on 
a farm in Piqua, Ohio. He was a clerk in a store, 
and in 1835 the bish 
op of Cincinnati per 
suaded him to study 
for the priesthood, 
and he was ordained 
by Bishop Purcell 
at Cincinnati, Ohio, 
Nov. 11, 1846. He 
was pastor of St. 
Joseph s church, Cin 
cinnati, Ohio, 1846- 
57, and completed 
the church building, 
cleared the parish 
from debt and built 
several schools. The 
diocese of Fort 

Wayne. Ind., was established Sept. 22, 1857. and on 
Jan. 10, 1858, he was consecrated bishop of Fort 
Wayne by Archbishop Purcell, assisted by Bishops 
St. Palais and Carrell. He built the cathedral and 
many churches, and held a synod in 1863 at the 
University of Notre Dame, where statutes \vere 
enacted that resulted in the abolition of the sys 
tem of lay trustees. He visited Rome in 1864, 
and was authorized to make a distinct and sep 
arate society of the " Sisters of the Holy Cross" 
in the United States, and he founded St. Ignatius 
academy at Lafayette, Ind.. and also established 
the "Sisters of the Most Precious Blood" and 
placed them in charge of St. Mary s Home, Dick, 
Jay county, Ind. He erected an asylum for sol 
diers orphans at Rensselaer, Ind., in 1868, and 
also built a hospital within his diocese. He or 
ganized the Catholic Clerical Benevolent associa 
tion for pensioning aged priests, and attended all 
the provincial councils of Cincinnati and the 




LULL 



LUMPKIN 




plenary council of Baltimore, Md., in 1866. He 
died of apoplexy, having just finished conferring 
holy orders, at Cleveland. Ohio, June 29, 1871. 

LULL, Edward Phelps, naval officer, was born 
in Windsor, Vt., Feb. 20. 1836. His father died, 
and his mother, with a large family of children, 
removed to Wisconsin when he was a child and 
obtained for him in 1831 an appointment to the 
U.S. Naval academy. He was graduated, June 9, 
1855 ; was attached to the Congress, Mediterra 
nean squadron, 1856-58, and was assistant fenc 
ing master and professor of ethics at the Naval 
academy, 1859-60. He was promoted passed mid 
shipman, April 15, 1858 ; master, Nov. 4, 1858, and 
lieutenant, Oct. 30. 1860. He was attached to the 
Roanoke of the home squadron, 1861, taking part 
in the engagement with the forts at Hatteras In 
let, July 10, 1861. 
He received pro 
motion to lieu 
tenant comman 
der, July 16, 1862, 
and was com 
mandant of mid 
shipmen and ex- 
Jecutive officer of 
tithe U.S. Naval 

U S.S ROAAIOKE. , , T 

academy, New 
port, R.I., 1862-63 ; and was attached to 
the Brooklyn, Capt. James Alden, West Gulf 
blockading squadron. 1864. He participated 
in the passage of the forts in Mobile Bay 
and the engagement with the Confederate 
gunboats, August 5, the bombardment of Fort 
Morgan, August 14, and commanded the cap 
tured iron-clad Tennessee at the second bom 
bardment of Fort Morgan, Aug. 22, 1864. He 
subsequently commanded the Seminole in the 
blockade at Galveston. Texas ; the iron-clad La 
fayette in the Red River blockade, 1865, and the 
steamer Swatara on the West India station in 
1866, and was at the Naval academy at Annapolis, 
1867-69. He was promoted commander, June 10, 
1870 ; commanded the store-ship Guard, 1871 ; 
served in the bureau of Yards and Docks in 1872, 
and on the Nicaragua survey expedition, 1872-73. 
Ke served at Torpedo station, and was a member 
of the interoceanic ship-canal commission, 1873- 
74. and had charge of a special survey of the 
Panama canal route, 1874-75. He was hydro- 
graphic inspector of coast survey, 1875-80; was 
promoted captain in 1881, and was in command 
of the Pcnsacola navy yard at the time of his 
death. He received the honorary degree of A.M. 
from the College of New Jersey in 1868. He died 
at the navy yard, Pensacola, Fla., March 5, 1887. 
LUMMIS, Charles Fletcher, author and 
Americanist, was born in Lynn. Mass., March 1, 
1859 ; son of the Rev. Dr. Henry and Harriet 




~7~fl<t 



(Fowler) Lummis ; and grandson of William 
Lummis and of Oscar F. Fowler. He was edu 
cated at home, and at Harvard in the class of 
1881, leaving college with brain fever three days 
before the completion of his course. In 1882 he 
removed to Cliilli- 
cothe, Ohio, where 
he edited the Scioto 
Gazette. In 1884 he 
walked from Cincin 
nati to Los Angeles, 
Cal.. by a roundabout 
route, for adventure 
and observation, cov 
ering 3507 miles in 
143 days. He was 
city editor of the Los 
Angeles Daily Times 
three years, and its 
correspondent in the 
Apache war of 1886. 
being the only news 
paper man in the Held, lie was selected by 
General Lawton as chief of scouts for the cam 
paign which captured Geronimo, but was re 
called by the reorganization of (lie Tunes, of 
which lie became one of the owners. Stricken by 
paralysis in 1888, he recovered his health in New 
Mexico, living five years in the Indian pueblo of 
Isleta, studying intimately the Indian customs 
and languages of the territories and travelling 011 
horseback and on foot over the whole of the 
southwest. He thus explored practically the 
whole continent from Canada to Chile, and be 
came a recognized authority on Spanish-American 
history and ethnology. He edited and conducted 
after 1893 the Land of Sunshine, " a magazine of 
the west," issued monthly at Los Angeles, and 
largely devoted to the publication of old historical 
documents. His books, mostly on Spanish-Amer 
ican themes, include : ^1 Neic Me.rico David 
(1891); A Tramjt aero. the Continent (1892); 
Some Strange. Corn em of Onr Country (1892); 
The Land of Poco Tien/no (181)3); The Spanish 
J ioneers (1894); The Man Who Married the. 
Moon, and other J ncblo Indian Folk-Stories 
(1894); The Gold-Fish of Gran Chimu (1896); 
The Enchanted Burro (1897); The King of the 
Broncos (1897); The Awakening of a Nation, 
Mexico of To-day (1898). He is also the author 
of contributions to the leading periodicals and in 
1901 had in preparation critical editions of Bena- 
vides s "Memorial of New Mexico in 1630," and 
Villagran s " Conquest of New Mexico in 1598," 
and an economic and historical study of Cali 
fornia. 

LUMPKIN, John Henry, jurist, was born in 
Oglothorpe county, Ga., June 13, 1812: son of 
George and Sarah (Pope) Lumpkin ; grandson of 



[104] 



LUMPK1X 



LUMPKIN 



John and Lucy (Hopson) Lumpkin. and of Henry 
Pope of Oglethorpe county, Ga. He was reared 
on his father s farm, and assisted John Lan- 
dnuu. clerk of court of Oglethorpe county for 
one year, lie attended Franklin college, Uni 
versity of Georgia, 1820-30. Yale college, 1830-32, 
when an epidemic of yellow fever broke up the 
class and he returned to Georgia. He served as 
secretary on the staff of his uncle, Gov. Wilson 
Lumpkin, 1832-33, and studied la\v with his 
uncle, Joseph Henry Lumpkin. 1833-34. He was 
admitted to the bar in March, 1834, and settled 
in practice at Rome. Floyd county, Ga. He was 
a representative in the state legislature in 1835, 
where he secured an appropriation of $10,000 to 
build academies in the Cherokee country. He 
was solicitor-general of the Cherokee circuit, 
1839-42 ; Democratic representative in the 28th, 
2 .)rli and 30th congresses, 1843-4!). and in the 34th 
congress, IS.").")-;}? : and judge of the Cherokee 
circuit court, 1849-52. lie was the Democratic 
candidate for governor in 1X57, but was defeated 
by Joseph E. Bro\vn. lie was appointed a dele 
gate to the Southern Commercial convention at 
Montgomery, Ala., in 185S, by Governor Brown, 
and was a delegate at large to the Democratic 
national convention held at, Charleston, S. C., 
April 23, and at Richmond. June 21, I860, and to 
the state Democratic convention in June, 18GO. 
Me was married in February, 1830, to Martha 
Antoinette, daughter of Robert M Combs, of Mil- 
ledgeville, Ga. She died in September, 1838, leav 
ing one son. He married secondly in May, 1840, 
Mary Jane, daughter of Thomas Crutchfield. of 
Athens. Ga. He died at Rome, Ga., June 0. 1800. 
LUMPKIN, Joseph Henry, jurist, was born 
in Oglethorpe county, Ga., Dec. 23, 1799 ; son of 
John and Lucy (Hopson) Lumpkin, natives of 
Virginia, who settled in Oglethorpe when the 
country was a wilderness ; and a descendant of 
English settlers in Virginia. He entered the 
junior class at Nassau Hall, College of New Jer 
sey, in 1817, and was graduated in 1819. He 
studied law at Athens. Ga.., under Judge Cobb, 
was admitted to the bar in October, 1820, and 
practised at Lexington, Ga., for nearly twenty- 
four years. He represented Oglethorpe county 
in the Georgia legislature in 1824 and 1825. He 
visited Europe, 1844-45, and in 1845, during his 
absence, he was elected chief justice of the newly 
organized supreme court for the correction of 
errors, which office lie held until his death. . He 
organized the Phi Kappa society at the University 
of Georgia about 1819-20, declined the professor 
ship of rhetoric and oratory there in 184(5. and by 
his exertions and those of Gen. T. R. R. Cobb, 
and \V. H. Hull, established the Lumpkin law 
school as the law department of the University 
of Georgia in 1859. the school being named in his 




honor. He was the first to occupy the chair of 
law at the University of Georgia, 1859-61. The 
civil war closed the school, 1861-65, and he re 
sumed the chair in 1365. He declined a seat on 
the bench of the U.S. court of claims offered him 
by President Pierce 
in 1855. and the chan 
cellorship of the Uni 
versity of Georgia in 
I860. He was an ad 
vocate of temperance 
and worked zealously 
for the reform. He 
received the honorary 
degree of A.M. from 
the University of 
Georgia in 1823, and 
that of LL.D. from 
the College of New 
Jersey in 1851, and 
was a trustee of the 
University of Geor 
gia, 1854-67. He was one of the compilers of 
the penal code of Georgia in 1833. He mar 
ried Calender Grieve, a Scotch lady, who 
survived him with the following children : Wil- 
loughby W.. James, Frank, Joseph Henry, Lucy, 
who married Dr. Gerdine, Marion McHenry, who 
married Gen. Thomas R. R. Cobb (q.v.); Calender, 
who married the Hon. Porter King, of Alabama, 
and became the mother of the Hon. Porter King, 
a prominent citizen of Atlanta, Ga. Judge 
Lumpkin died in Athens, Ga., June 4, 1867. 

LUflPKIN, Samuel, jurist, was born near 
Lexington, Oglethorpe county, Ga., Dec. 12, 
1848 ; son of Joseph Henry (Junior) and Sarah 
(Johnson) Lumpkin ; grandson of Samuel and 
Lucy (Deupree) Lumpkin, and great-grandson 
of John and Lucy (Hopson) Lumpkin. Samuel 
Lumpkin, the grandfather, was a brother of 
Wilson Lumpkin, governor of Georgia and U.S. 
senator, and of Joseph Henry Lumpkin, Senior, 
chief justice of Georgia. He was graduated at 
the University of Georgia, A.B., 1866, A.M., 
1869: was admitted to the bar in 1868; was 
solicitor-general of the northern judicial circuit 
of Georgia, 1872-76 ; state senator, 1878-80 ; 
judge of the superior court, northern judicial 
circuit, 1885-90 ; and on Jan. 1, 1891, became 
associate justice of the supreme court of Georgia, 
having been elected to that office in October, 
1890. On Jan. 4, 1897, was appointed presiding 
justice of the 2d division of that court. He was 
married on Oct. 17, 1878. to Kate, daughter of 
Col. Walker Richardson of Alabama, and grand 
daughter of Col. Adolphus M. Sanford of that 
state. He received the honorary degree of LL.D. 
from Southwestern Baptist university, Jackson, 
Tenn.. in June, 1891. 



LTMPKIN 



LUNT 




LUflPKlN, Wilson, governor of Georgia, was 
born in Pittsylvania county, Va., Jan. 14, 1783; 
son of John and Lucy (Hopson) Lumpkin, both 
natives of Virginia, \vhohad eight sons and one 
daughter, all citizens of Georgia. His ancestors 

were English. Wil 
son settled with his 
parents in the Wil 
derness, which after 
ward formed Ogle 
thorpe county, Ga., 
in 1784, and received 
a very limited educa 
tion as there were no 
established schools. 
At the age of four 
teen he was em 
ployed as a copyist 
in the superior court 
of Oglethorpe coun 
ty, of which his 
father was clerk. He 

was admitted to the bar and settled in prac 
tice at Athens. Ga. He represented Oglethorpe 
county in the state legislature and was state 
senator at various times between 1804 and 1815. 
He was a representative from Georgia in the 14th 
congress, 1815-17, and in the 20th and 21st con 
gresses, 1827-31 ; and was governor of Georgia for 
two terms, 1831-35. During his administration 
the Cherokee Indians were removed beyond 
the Chattahoochee river and the territory they 
had occupied was made into thirteen counties, 
and the town and county of Lumpkin was named 
for him. He was elected U.S. senator, serving 
from Dec. 13, 1837, to March 3, 1841, filling the 
vacancy caused by the resignation of John P. 
King. He was commissioned by President 
Monroe to ascertain and mark the boundary line 
between Georgia and Florida in 1823, and was 
appointed one of the first commissioners under 
the Cherokee treaty by President Jackson in 
1835. He served as a member of the first board 
of public works of Georgia, and as state sur 
veyor laid out nearly all the early lines of rail 
way in Georgia. He was a delegate to the south 
ern commercial convention in Montgomery. Ala., 
in 1858. He died in Athens, Ga., Dec. 28, 1870. 

LLJNDY, Benjamin, abolitionist, was born at 
Hardwick, N.J.,Jan. 4. 1789 ; son of Joseph and 
Elizabeth (Shotwell) Lundy ; grandson of Thomas 
and Joanna (Doan) Lundy and of Benjamin and 
Anne (Hallett) Shotwell. and a descendant of 
Richard Lundy, a Quaker, who came from Devon 
shire, England, and settled in Bucks county, Pa., 
in 1685. He was a saddler at Wheeling, Va., 
1808-12; removed to St. riairsville. Ohio, in 1812. 
and in 1815, he organized the first anti-slavery 
association in the United {States, called the Union 



Humane society. He contributed articles on 
slavery to the Philanthropist, and joined Charles 
Osborne at Mt. Pleasant, Ohio, in the publication 
of that paper. At that time he decided to sell 
his property, dispose of his trade and devote 
his energies to the cause of anti-slavery. He 
went to St. Louis, Mo., in 1819, and while there agi 
tated the slave question in the Missouri and Illi 
nois papers. On his return to Mt. Pleasant in 1821, 
he established The Genius of Universal Emanci 
pation, and in 1822 removed the journal to- 
Jonesboro, Tenn., travelling the five hundred 
miles on foot. There he issued a weekly news 
paper and an agricultural monthly besides his 
own paper, and he transferred the journal to 
Baltimore, Md., in 1824. He had agents in the 
slave states and between 1820-30 visited nineteen 
states of the Union, and held more than two- 
hundred public anti-slavery meetings. lie 
visited Hayti in 182C and 1829, Canada in 1830, 
and Texas in 1830 and 1833, for the purpose of 
forming settlements for emancipated and fugi 
tive slaves, but the events preceding the annex 
ation of Texas interfered with his plans for the 
establishment of colonies under the anti-slavery 
laws of Mexico. In September, 1829, he invited 
William Lloyd Garrison to Baltimore, where to 
gether they printed The Genius of Emancipation 
until March, 1830, when the partnership was dis 
solved. During Garrison s imprisonment Lundy 
was fined repeatedly and heavily, and was also 
imprisoned. Being obliged to leave Maryland by 
order of the court at Baltimore, he removed his 
paper to Washington in October, 1830, and he 
printed it there until 1834, when he removed it 
to Philadelphia, and changed its name to the 
National Inquirer. It was subsequently merged 
into the Pennsylvania Freeman, and his office was 
destroyed in the burning of Pennsylvania Hall, 
which was fired by the mob in May, 1838. He then 
removed to Lowell. La Salle county. 111., and 
printed his paper under its old name, The Genius 
of Emancipation, fora few months. lie married 
a Miss Lewis, and had five children. He died at 
Lowell, 111., Oct. 22, 1839. 

LUNT, George, author, was born in Newbury- 
port, Mass., Dec. 31, 1803 ; son of Abel and 
Phoebe (Tilton) Lunt. He was graduated from 
Harvard in 1824, was admitted to the bar in 
1831, and practised in Newburyport, 1831-4*. lie 
was a Whig representative in the general court 
of Massachusetts and a state senator from Essex 
county. He was a delegate to the Whig national 
convention at Philadelphia. June 7, 184S. and 
was appointed U.S. district attorney for Massa 
chusetts by President Taylor in 1849. He was 
retained by President Fillmore, serving 1849-58. 
He removed to Boston. Mass., in 1818. where he 
practised law and later in life devoted himself to 
[166J 



LUNT 



LURTON 



securing appropriations for the construction of 
harbors of refuge for storm-distressed vessels 
on the coast of Massachusetts. He supported the 
Democratic party after 1856 and was one of the 
editors of the Boston Courier, 1856-65. He mar 
ried Sarah Miles Greenwood. He is the author 
of: Leisure Hoars (1826); The Grave of Byron, 
with other Poems (1826) ; Poems (1889) ; The 
Age of Gold (1843) ; The Dove and the Eagle 
(1851) ; Lyric Poems (1854) ; Julia (1855) ; 
East ford, or Household Sketches (1855) ; Three 
Eras of New England (1857) ; Radicalism in Re 
ligion, Philosophy and Social Life (1858) ; The 
Union, a Poem (1860) ; The Origin, of the Late 
War (1866) ; Old New England Traits (1873) ; Mis 
cellanies, Poems, etc. (1884), and orations and ad 
dresses. He died in Boston, Mass., May 17, 1885. 

LUNT, Orrington, philanthropist, was born 
at Bowdoinham, Maine, Dec. 24, 1815 ; son of 
William and Matilda Lunt. He was an a .sistant 
in his father s store, becoming a partner in 1836 
and sole proprietor on the retirement of his father 
shortly afterward. He was married Jan. 16, 1842, 
to Cornelia A. Gray of Bowdoinhani, and in 
the same year he disposed of his business and re 
moved to Chicago, 111., where he became an 
operator in grain in 1844. During the civil war 
he raised and equipped the first regiment to start 
for Cairo, 111., and also provided the army with 
supplies in large amounts throughout the war. 
He left the United States in 1865, being in ill 
health, and travelled in Europe, Egypt and the 
Holy Land for several years. Shortly after his 
return to Chicago the great fire occurred, in 
which he suffered severe losses, which his extraor 
dinary energy soon retrieved. He was associated 
with John Evans and others in founding the city 
of Evanston, 111., and in establishing the corpora 
tion known as Trustees of the Northwestern 
University in 1851, chartered Feb. 23, 1867, as 
Northwestern University and also its theological 
department, the Garrett Biblical institute. He 
was an original trustee, a member of the executive 
committee, 1851-97, and vice-president and pres 
ident of its board of trustees, 1875-97. He also 
served as secretary and treasurer of the Garrett 
Biblical institute for over thirty years. He gave 
the university about $200,000 during his lifetime, 
which included nearly 100,000 for the Orrington 
Lunt library building in 1894. He was water 
commissioner of the southern division of 
Chicago, 1855-62 ; treasurer and president of the 
board of public works of Chicago, and auditor of 
the board of directors of the Galena and Chicago 
Union railroad, and its vice-president for t\vo 
years. He died in Evanston. 111., April 5, 1897. 

LUPTON, Nathaniel Thomas, educator, was 
born near Winchester. Va.. Dec. 19. 1830. He 
was graduated from Dickenson college A.B., 




1849, A.M., 1852, and at the University of Heidel 
berg, Germany, where he studied chemistry un 
der Robert Wilhelm Bunsen, 1855-56. He was 
professor of chemistry and geology at Randolph- 
Macon college, 1857-58, and at the Southern 
University, Greensboro, Ala., 
from its organization, Oct. 3, 
1859, to July, 1871, when he 
resigned. He was president 
and professor of chemistry 
at the University of Alabama. 
1871-74 ; attended the con 
gress of Orientalists in Lon 
don, England, in 1874 ; was professor of chemistry 
and dean of the faculty of pharmacy at Vanderbilt 
university, Term., 1874-85 ; chemist for the state 
of Alabama, 1885-93, and professor of chemistry 
in the Agricultural college of Alabama, 1885-93. 
He was chairman of the chemical section of the 
American Association for the Advancement of 
Science in 1877, vice-president of the association 
in 1880, and vice-president of the American 
Chemical society in 1889. He received the hon 
orary degree of M.D. from Vanderbilt university 
and that of LL.D. from the University of Ala 
bama in 1875. He is the author of : TJie Element 
ary Principles of Scientific Agriculture (1880). 
He died in Auburn, Ala,, June 12, 1893. 

LUQUIENS, Jules, educator, was born in 
Lausanne, Switzerland, Jan. 24, 1845. He was 
graduated from the University of Geneva ; im 
migrated to America in 1868 ; was a teacher in 
Charlier s institute for boys in New York city, 
in the Wesleyan college for women, Cincinnati, 
Ohio, and took a post-graduate course at Tale 
university under Prof. W. D. Whitney, 1868-73, 
receiving the degree of Ph.D. in 1873. He was 
instructor in the University of Cincinnati, 1873- 
74 ; a teacher in the Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology, 1874-92, and professor of romance 
languages at Yale, 1892-99. He was married, 
Jan. 27, 1875, to Emma, daughter of William 
Henry and Mary (Boileau) Clark, and their son, 
Frederick Bliss Luquiens, became an instructor 
in French language in Yale university. He was 
a member of the American Oriental society and 
of the Modern Language society. He is the 
author of: French Prose of Popular Science and 
Descriptive Literature (1885) ; A Second Year s 
Course in French Grammar (2 parts, 1887) ; 
Places and Peoples (1895), and numerous articles 
for philosophical and scientific magazines. He 
died in Salem, Ohio, Aug. 23, 1899. 

LURTON, Horace Harmon, jurist, was born in 
Newport, Ky. , Feb. 26, 1844; son of Lycurgus 
Leonidas and Sarah (Harmon) Lurton and grand 
son of William Lurton of Scott county, Ky. He 
was graduated from Cumberland university, 
Lebanon, Tenn., in 1867, was admitted to the 
[167] 



LUTHER 



bar in the same year; and settled in practice at isolated from the privileges of that church and 



Clarksville, Tenn. He was married, in Septem 
ber. 1867, to Francis, daughter of Dr. B. H. Owen, 
of Lebanon, Tenn. He was chancellor of the 6th 
chancery division of Tennessee, 1875-77 ; a justice 
of the supreme court of Tennessee, 1886-93 ; chief 
justice in 1893, and on March 29, 1893, was ap 
pointed U.S. circuit judge of the sixth judicial 
circuit. 

LUTHER, John Hill, educator, was born in 
Warren, R.I., June 31. 1824. His mother was of 
Huguenot descent and the Luthers were Welsh 
emigrants who came to Rhode Island and founded 
one of the earliest Baptist churches in America, 
the Rev. Samuel Luther being second pastor of 
Swansea Baptist church. John Hill Luther was 
graduated at Brown, A.B., 1847, AM., 1850, and 
from the Newton Theological institution in 1850. 
He taught school in Georgia, 1850-53 ; was ordained 
to the Baptist ministry in 1853, at Cuthbert, Ga., 
and was pastor at Robertsville, S.C., 1853-57. He 
was president of a seminary in Kansas City. Mo., 
1858-61 ; pastor at Miami and Palmyra. Mo.. 1864- 
65 ; edited the Baptist Journal, 1866-68. and the 
Central Baptist. 1868-78 ; was president of the 
Baylor Female college, Belton, Texas, 1878-91 ; 
pastor at Temple, Texas, 1891-92 ; professor of 
homilitics, Baylor university, Waco, Texas. 1892- 
94 ; and a missionary in Brazil, 1896-97. He re 
sided in Dallas, Texas, 1894-96, and in 1897 made 
his home in Temple, Texas. He received the hon 
orary degree of D.D. from William Jewell college 
in 1871. He is the author of Souvenir Poems. 

LYBRAND, Archibald, representative, was 
born in Tarlton, Ohio, May 23. 1840. He removed 
in 1857 to Delaware, Ohio, where he studied at 
the Ohio Wesleyan university. He enlisted as a 
private in the 4th Ohio volunteer infantry in 
1861 ; was transferred to the 73d Ohio volunteers, 
promoted first lieutenant, and captain, and was 
present at Rich Mountain, Cross Keys, Second 
Bull Run, Cedar Mountain, Fredericksburg, Chan- 
cellorsville and Gettysburg. He was aide-de-camp 
to Generals Steinwehr and Sigel and took part in 
the battles of Lookout Mountain, Chattanooga, 
and the Atlanta campaign. He was wounded at 
the battle of Peach Tree Creek and again at Dal 
las, Ga., and returned to Delaware, Ohio, at the 
close of the war. He was elected mayor in 1869 ; 
was admitted to the bar in 1871 and became in 
terested in the the Delaware Chair company 
in 1873. He was postmaster of Delaware. 1881-85, 
and was a Republican representative from the 
eighth district of Ohio in the 55th and 56th con 
gresses, 1897-1901. 

LYELL, Thomas, clergyman, was born in 
Richmond county, Va., May 13. 1775; the fifth 
son of John and Sarah Lyell. His parents, mem 
bers of the Protestant Episcopal church, were 



he became a Methodist. In 1790 he began to 
exhort and in 1792 to preach in Virginia and sub 
sequently in Providence, R.I. He was chaplain 
of the U.S. house of representatives, 1797-1804 ; 
was admitted to the diaconate in the Protestant 
Episcopal church by Bishop Claggettin 1804, and 
advanced to the priesthood by Bishop Moore in 
1805. He was rector of Christ church. New York 
city, 1805-48 ; secretary of the diocesan conven 
tions. 1811-16 ; member of the standing commit 
tee, 1813-48 ; deputy to the general convention, 
1818-44 ; trustee of the General Theological semi 
nary, 1822-48; and senior member of the board 
of trustees of the Protestant Episcopal society for 
promoting learning and religion in the state of 
New York at the time of his death. He was 
married three times, his first wife being a daugh 
ter of the Rev. Dr. Abraham Beach, rector of 
Trinity parish. He received the honorary degree 
of A.M. from Brown in 1S03. and that of D.D. 
from Columbia in 1822. He died in New Y ork 
city. March 4. 1848. 

LYLE, Aaron, representative, was born in 
Northampton county. Pa., Nov. 17, 1759 ; son of 
Robert and Mary (Gilleland) Lyle, and grandson 
of John Lyle of Scotland, afterward of county 
Antrim, Ireland, who settled with a. brother in 
eastern Pennsylvania. He attended the neigh 
boring school, and served in the Revolutionary 
war. He was appointed by the legislature a 
trustee of Jefferson college under the charter of 
Jan. 15, 1802. and he resigned in April, 1822. He 
was a representative in the Pennsylvania legisla 
ture, 1797-1801 : a state senator, 1802-04, to till 
a vacancy ; and a representative from Pennsylva 
nia in the 11th. 12th. 13th. 14th congresses, 1809- 
17. He died at Cross Creek. Pa.. Sept. 24, 1825. 

LYMAN, Benjamin Smith, geologist, was 
born in Northampton. Mass., Dec. 11. 1835; son 
of Judge Samuel Fowler and Ahnira (Smith) 
Lyman. and grandson c* Judge Joseph Lyman 
and of Benjamin Smith of I bitfield. Mass. His 
great-grandfather, Capt. Joseph Lyman, was a 
soldier in the Revolutionary war, and of his first 
ancestors in America. Richard Lyman emigrated 
from England in 1631. and settled in Northamp 
ton, and Lieut. Samuel Smith came from England 
in 1634, and settled in Hatfield. Mass. Benjamin 
attended the common schools of Northampton 
and Phillips academy at Exeter, N.IL, and was 
graduated from Harvard in IHoS. He was prin 
cipal of Deerlield academy. Mass., in 1856. and 
aided J. P. Lesley (q.v.) in a geological and topo 
graphical survey of Broad Top Mountain. Pa. 
He was assistant in Short s classical school for 
boys in Philadelphia. Pa., in 1856-57. Through 
the greater part of 1X57, he travelled in Massa 
chusetts Connecticut, New York, Pennsylvania, 



[108] 



LYMAN 



LYMAN 




Maryland, Delaware. Virginia, Tennessee, North 
Carolina, Georgia and Alabama to collect statis 
tics of the iron manufacture for the American 
Iron association. He was assistant to Professor 
James Hall on the state geological survey of 

Iowa in 1858, and as 
sisted Mr. Lesley in 
private geological 
work in 1859. He 
studied at the Paris 
Mining school, 1859- 
61, and at the Frei 
berg Mining acade 
my, 1861-62. He was 
occupied in geolog 
ical work at Cape 
Breton,N.S., 1863-65, 
and in Pennsylvania, 
California (going by 
way of Panama and 
returning by over 
land stage in 1864), 
Virginia. Alabama, Illinois and on the Labrador 
Coast, 1862-69. He was employed by the British 
government to make surveys of oil fields in India, 
1869-71. He received a patent on an application 
of the solar compass to the surveying transit in 
1871. He resided in Philadelphia. Pa., 1871-72; 
making surveys in West Virginia and elsewhere ; 
made a geological survey of the island of Yesso 
for the Colonization board of the Japanese gov 
ernment, 1873-75. and a geological survey of the 
oil fields of Japan for the home department and 
later the public works department, 1878-79. He 
returned to America at the end of 1880. resided 
in Northampton, Mass.. and was engaged in geo 
logical surveys in Pennsylvania, Ohio, Nova Sco 
tia, Colorado and New Mexico. He made a 
survey of Bucks and Montgomery counties for 
the Pennsylvania state geological survey ; and 
in 1887 he removed to Philadelphia. He was 
elected a member of many learned societies in 
cluding the Geological Society of France, the 
American Association for the Advancement of 
Science ; the American Philosophical society ; 
the Asiatic Society of Bengal, the German Geo 
logical society ; the American Institute of Min 
ing Engineers : the American Oriental society ; 
the Asiatic Society of Japan ; the German East 
Asiatic society ; the American Folk-Lore so 
ciety ; the Engineers Club of Philadelphia and 
the National Geographic society. He is the au 
thor of : Telescopic- Measurement in Surveying 
(1868); General Report on the Punjab Oil Lands 
(1870); Topography of the Punjab Oil Region 
(1871); General Report on the Geologi/ of Yesso 
(1877): Character of the Japanese (1885); Report 
on the New Boston and Morea Coal Lands (1889) ; 
An Old Japanese Foot Measure (1890); Japanese 



[1011] 



Swords (1892). He also contributed to scientific 
magazines and the transactions of learned socie 
ties and published reports and articles which in 
1901 had formed a bibliography of upwards of 100 
separate titles covering his progress in geological 
research. 

LYMAN, Chester Smith, physicist, was born 
in Manchester, Conn., Jan. 13, 1814. He was a 
student of astronomy while a boy, constructing 
apparatus, computing almanacs and making 
tables of eclipses without a teacher, 1830-31. He 
graduated from Yale in 1837. taught school in 
Ellington, Conn., 1838-39 ; and studied theology at 
the Union Theological seminary. New York, 1839- 
40 and at Yale Theological seminary, 1840-42. 
He was ordained to the Congregational ministry, 
Feb. 15, 1843, and was pastor at New Britain, 
Conn., 1843-45. He visited the Sandwich Islands 
in 1846. had charge of the Royal school at Hono 
lulu for four months and made explorations to 
the volcano Kilauea, and established new theories 
as to the cause of volcanic eruptions. He en 
gaged in surveying in California, 1847-50, during 
which time he furnished early authentic reports- 
of the discovery of gold. He removed to New 
Haven, Conn., in 1850, where he had charge of 
the scientific terms in the revision of " Webster s 
Dictionary, 1850-58. He was professor of indus 
trial mechanics and physics and instructor in 
theoretical and practical astronomy in the Shef 
field scientific school of Yale college, 1859-71 ; 
professor of astronomy and physics, 1871-84 ; 
professor of astronomy, 1884-89, and emeritus 
professor, 1889-90. He invented a combined 
zenith telescope and transit for latitude, longitude 
and time in 1852 ; an apparatus for illustrating 
the dynamics of ocean waves in 1867 and an ap 
paratus for describing acoustic curves in 1871. 
He was the first to observe the planet Venus as a 
delicate luminous ring when seen in close prox 
imity to the sun near inferior conjunction. He 
was president of the Connecticut Academy of 
Arts and Sciences, 1857-77, and an honorary 
member of the British Association for the Ad 
vancement of Science. The honorary degree of 
M.A. was conferred on him by Beloit college, 
Wis., in 1864. He is the author of numerous- 
papers for the leading scientific magazines. He 
died in New Haven, Conn., Jan. 29, 1890. 

LYHAN, Daniel, jurist, was born in Durham, 
Conn., Jan. 27, 1756 ; son of Thomas and Anne (Mer- 
win) Lyman, grandson of Thomas and Elizabeth 
( ) Lyman, and a descendant of Richard Ly 
man, a native of Essex county, England, who emi 
grated to America with his family in 1631, and 
settled first in Cliarlestown, Mass., and in 1635 in 
Hartford, Conn. Daniel was graduated at Yale, 
A.B., 1776, A.M., 1779, and in 1775 served a* 
captain in the expedition against Ticonderoga, 



LYMAN 



LYMAN 



Crown Point and St. John. He returned to the 
army after his graduation, was appointed brigade- 
major, and had his horse shot under him at the 
battle of White Plains. N.Y. He was promoted 
captain under Col. W. R. Lee, in 1777; became 
aide to General Heath in May, 1 778, and adjutant- 
general of the eastern department in 1779, and 
was stationed on the" Hudson River until the end of 
the war. He was married, Jan. 10, 1782, to 
Mary, daughter of John Wanton of Newport, 
R.I. He practised law in Newport, R.I., 1782- 
1808 ; and was chief justice of the supreme court 
of Rhode Island, 1802-16. He built the Lyman 
cotton mill in Providence, toward the close of 
his life. He was a member of the Hartford con 
vention that met Dec. 15, 1814 ; and was presi 
dent of the state Society of the Cincinnati. He 
died in North Providence, R.I., Oct. 16, 1880. 

LYMAN, David Belden, missionary, was born 
in New Hartford, Conn., July 28, 1803; son of 
David and Rhoda (Belden) Lyman ; grandson of 
David and Mary (Brown) Lyman, and a descend 
ant of Richard Lyman, 1631. He was graduated 
from Williams college in 1828 and from the An- 
dover Theological seminary in 1831 ; and was 
ordained as a missionary of the A.B.C.F.M. at 
Hanover, N.H., Oct. 12, 1831. He was married 
Nov. 3, 1831, to Sarah Joiner of Royalton, Vt., 
and on November 26 they sailed from New Bed 
ford, Mass., with a large reinforcement for the 
Sandwich Islands. The company arrived at 
Honolulu, May 17, 1832, after a passage of 172 
clays. Mr. Lyman and his wife were subse 
quently assigned to the station at Hilo, one 
of the remotest of the group. He was placed in 
charge of the church at Hilo and its outlying 
missions where he labored with success for sev 
eral years. Upon the arrival of Titus and Fidelia 
Coan in 1836, he turned over his mission to Mr. 
Coan, and witli the assistance of his wife, estab 
lished an academy for young men, the pupils 
cultivating a farm and thus supplying the school 
with food. In 1873 Mr. Lyman retired from 
active work in the school. He died in Hilo, 
Hawaii, Oct. 4, 1884, and his wife Dec. 6, 1885. 

LYMAN, Henry Munson, physician, was born 
in Hilo, Hawaiian Islands, Nov. 26, 1835 ; son of 
David Belden and Sarah (Joiner) Lyman. He 
was graduated from Williams college, A.B., 
1858, A.M., 1861, and from the College of Physi 
cians and Surgeons in New York city in 1861. 
He was house surgeon at Bellevue hospital, New 
York city, 1861-62, enlisted in the Union army 
as acting assistant surgeon of volunteers, and 
served in military hospitals at Nashville, Tenn., 
until 1863, when he resigned and established him 
self in practice at Chicago, 111. He was professor 
of chemistry in Rush Medical college, Chicago, 
1870-75 ; professor of physiology and nervous 

[I 1 



diseases, 1875-90, and professor of the principles 
and practice of medicine, 1890-97, and senior 
dean of the faculty, 1897. He also filled the chair 
of the theory and practice of medicine in the 
Chicago Woman s Medical college. He is the 
author of: Artificial Anesthesia and Anaesthet 
ics (1881); Insomnia (1885); A Text-Book of the 
Practice of Medicine (1892). 

LYflAN, Joseph, representative, was born in 
Lyons, Mich., Sept. 13, 1840. He entered Iowa 
college, but upon the outbreak of the civil war 
he enlisted as regimental clerk in the 4th Iowa 
cavalry. He was transferred to the 29th Iowa 
infantry and served as adjutant, 1862-65; was 
aide-de-camp and inspector-general on the staff 
of Gen. Samuel A. Rice in 1864; was promoted 
major of the 29th Iowa infantry, Feb. 21 , 1865, and 
served till Aug. 10, 1865, and was aide-de-camp 
and acting assistant adjutant-general on the staff 
of Maj-Gen. Frederick Steele from Feb. 1, 1865, 
until he was mustered out of service. He was 
graduated from the law department of the State 
University of Iowa in 1866 and practised law at 
Council Bluffs, Iowa. He was deputy collector 
of internal revenue, 1867-70 ; circuit jud^e of the 
13th judicial district from Jan. 1 till Dec. 31, 
1884, and was a Republican representative in the 
49th and 50th congresses, 1885-89. He died at 
Council Bluffs, Iowa, July 9, 1890. 

LYMAN, Joseph, artist, was born in Ravenna, 
Ohio, July 26, 1843 : son of Joseph and Mary 
(Clark) Lyman. He attended the high school at 
Cleveland, Ohio, and studied art in New York 
under John H. Dolph and Samuel Column. He 
traveled in Europe, 1866-70 and in 1883. He first 
exhibited at the National Academy .of Design in 
1886, and was elected an associate of the academy 
the same year. His paintings include : Summer 
Night; Evening (1880); Perce Rock, Gulf of Ht. 
Lawrence (1881); Moonlight at Sttnxet on the 
Maine Coast (1882); Waiting for the Tide (1883); 
Street in St. Augustine, Florida (1884): Under 
her own Fig-Tree (1885). 

LYHAN, Joseph Bardwell, agricultural editor, 
was born in Chester, Mass., Oct. 6, 1829 ; son of 
Timothy and Experience (Bardwell) Lyman and 
grandson of Timothy and Dorothy (Kinney) Ly 
man. He was graduated from Yale in 1850 ; 
taught school in the south, 1850-53 ; was gradu 
ated from the law department of the University 
of Louisiana, LL.B., 1856, and settled in practice 
in New Orleans. In .March. 1863, he served as 
commissary in the Confederate army to avoid 
conscription, and in September of that year he 
joined his family in Boston, removing to New 
York in 1864 and thence in 1865 to Stamford, 
Conn., where he devoted himself to horticulture 
and literary work. He removed to New York 
city and became agricultural editor of the World. 
0] 



LYMAN 



LYMAN 



in 1867. He was managing editor of the Hearth 
and Home in 1868 and was a member of the edi 
torial staff of the New York Tribune, 1868-72. 
He was a member of the Farmers club; the Rural 
club ; an honorary member of many horticultural 
associations and a manager of the American in 
stitute. He was married July 14, 1858, to Laura 
Elizabeth Baker who was born in Kent s Hill, 
Maine, April 2, 1831, and was graduated from 
Wesleyan academy, Mass.. in 1849. She published 
a series of articles in the Hearth and Home 
under the pen name " Kate Hunnibee," and was 
elected president of the Woman s Physiological 
society of Brooklyn, N.Y., in 1875, and edited the 
" Home Interest department in the New York 
Tribune, 1869-87, and the Din ing Room Magazine, 
1876-77. In conjunction with his wife. Mr. Ly- 
man wrote The Philosopliy of Housekeeping 
(1867). He is the author of : Resources of the Pa- 
cijic States (1865); Women of the War (1866), and 
Cotton C tlttire (1867). He died in Richmond 
Hill. Long Island, N.Y., Jan. 28, 1872. 

LYMAN, Phineas, soldier, was born in Dur 
ham, Conn., in 1716 ; son of Noah and Elizabeth 
Lyman and grandson of Thomas and Ruth (Hoi- 
ton) Baker Lyman of Northampton, Mass. He 
learned the trade of a weaver and was graduated 
from Yale, Dean s scholar. A.B., 1738, A.M., 1741 ; 
was a tutor there, 1738-41, and was admitted to 
the bar and settled in Suffield, Mass. In 1749 he 
procured the admission of the town. of Suffield as 
part of Connecticut, and he was senior represent 
ative from Suffield in the Connecticut assembly, 
1750-52. and a member of the upper house of 
assistants, 1752-59. He was appointed major-gen 
eral, and commander-in-cliief of the forces sent 
against Crown Point in March, 1755. and in the 
summer of 1756 he built Fort Lyman. afterward 
Fort Edward. He commanded in the battle of 
Lake George, Sept. 8, 1755, after Sir William 
Johnson was wounded, but Johnson s official 
report gave him no credit for the victory. In 
February, 1757, he commanded a regiment of 1400 
men raised for service under the Earl of Loudoun, 
and during part of the subsequent campaign he 
commanded at Fort Edward. In March, 1758, 
with a force of 5000 men, he took part in the en 
gagements that led to the repulse of General Aber- 
orombie at Ticonderoga and in the defeat of Lord 
Howe. He commanded the Connecticut troops 
under General Amherst in the capture of Crown 
Point and Ticonderoga ; in the reduction of Fort 
Louis at Oswego and the capture of Montreal. 
In March, 1762, he was placed in command of the 
entire provincial force engaged in the unsuccess 
ful expedition against Havana, Cuba. He was in 
England, 1763-72, in the interest of the survivors 
of the French and Indian war, and obtained a 
grant of land 20 miles square, east of the Missis 



sippi and south of the Yazoo river, and in 1772 he 
went with a few companions to make prepara 
tion for the removal of the survivors and their 
families. He was married Oct. 7, 1742, to Elea 
nor, daughter of Col. Timothy Dvvight of North 
ampton. Mass. She removed to the settlement 
near Natchez, Miss., in 1776. where she died in 
April, 1777, and where General Lyman had died 
Sept. 10, 1774. 

LYMAN, Samuel, representative, was born in 
Goshen, Conn., Jan. 25, 1749 ; son of Deacon 
Moses and Sarah (Hayden) Lyman. and grandson 
of Capt. Moses and Mindwell (Sheldon) Lyman. 
He was graduated from Yale, A.B., 1770. A.M., 
1773 : studied theology in conformity with the 
wish of his father, and then took up the study of 
law at Litchh eld, Conn. He was admitted to 
the bar and opened a law office in Hartford, Conn. 
He was married to Mary Pynchon of Springfield, 
Mass.; removed to that place, and served as judge 
of the circuit court. He was a representative from 
Springfield in the general court of Massachusetts, 
1786-88 ; a state senator, 1790-93 ; and a represent 
ative in the 4th, 5th and 6th congresses, 1795- 
1800. He resigned in 1800 on account of failing 
health, and devoted himself to his farm. He 
died in Springfield. Mass.. June 6. 1802. 

LYMAN, Theodore, philanthropist, was born 
in Boston, Mass., Feb. 20, 1792; son of Theodore 
and Lydia (Williams) Lyman; grandson of the 
Rev. Isaac and Sarah (Plummer) Lyman ; great- 
grandson of Capt. Moses and Mindwell (Sheldon) 
Lyman, and a descendant of Richard and Sarah 
(Osborne) Lyman. Richard Lyman was a native 
of High Ougar, Essex county, England, and came 
to America in the ship Lion in 1631, settling first 
at Charlestown, Mass., and in 1635 at Hartford, 
Conn. Theodore Lyman. Sr., was an eminent 
merchant, engaged in the northwest fur trade 
and in the coast and China trade. Theodore 
Lyman, Jr., was prepared for college at Phillips 
Exeter academy and was graduated from Har 
vard, A.B., 1810, A.M., 1815. He studied litera 
ture in the University of Edinburgh, 1812-14, 
travelled on the continent for a short time in 1814, 
and was in France during the first restoration. 
He returned to the United States in the autumn 
of 1814, and revisited Europe in June, 1817. He 
travelled in Germany with Edward Everett, vis 
ited Greece, Egypt and Palestine, and returned 
to Boston, Mass., in 1819. He was married, May 
15. 1821, to Mary Elizabeth Henderson of New 
York and resided at Waltham, Mass., 1821-44. 
He commanded the Boston brigade, state militia, 
1823-27; was a representative in the Massachu 
setts legislature, 1821-24, state senator, 1824, 
state representative, 1825. and mayor of Boston, 
1834-35. On Oct. 21,1835, he rescued William 
Lloyd Garrison from the mob that attacked the 

[171] 



LYMAN 



LYMAN 




meeting of the Female Anti-Slavery society while 
he was in attendance. After his wife s death in 
1835, he devoted himself to assisting the poor and 
criminal classes. He removed to Brookline in 
1844. He was president of the Boston Farm 
school, 1840-4(5 ; and in 1840. and subsequently 
during his lifetime, gave $33.500 to the state 
reform school at Westboro. Mass. He left in his 
will the sum of $50,000 to the state reform school ; 
$10,000 to the farm school of Boston, and $10,000 
the Massachusetts Horticultural society of which 
he was a life member. He is the author of: 
Three Weeks in Paris (;814) ; The Political State 
of It alij (1830) : The Hartford Convention (1833) ; 
The Diplomacy of the United States (3 vols., 1838). 
He died in Brookline, Mass., July 18, 1849. 

LYMAN, Theodore, naturalist, was born in 
Waltham, Mass., Aug. 33, 1833 ; son of Theodore 
and Mary E. (Henderson) Lyman. He was gradu 
ated from Harvard college, A.B., 1855, S.B., 
1858, and was married, Nov. 38, 1856, to Eliza 
beth, daughter of 
George R. and Sarah 
(Shaw) Russell. He 
was assistant in zool 
ogy at the Museum 
of Comparative Zool 
ogy, 1800-01. and pur 
sued his studies in 
Europe, 1801-03. He 
was volunteer aide 
with rank of lieu 
tenant-colonel on the 
staff of Ma j. -Gen. 
George G. Meade, 
commanding the 

Army of the Poto 
mac, 1803-05, partici 
pating in the movements on Mine Run and Cen- 
treville in 1803, the battles of the Wilderness, 
Spottsylvania and Cold Harbor ; through the in 
vestment of Petersburg ; in the rout and pursuit 
of Lee s army, and its capture at Appomattox 
Court House. He was mustered out of the vol 
unteer service, April 30, 1805, and returned to his 
home in Brookline, Mass. He was fish commis 
sioner for Massachusetts, 1805-83 ; and made the 
first scientific experiments undertaken for the 
cultivation and preservation of food fishes by any 
state in the Union. He also prepared " Reports 
of the Commissioners on Inland Fisheries of Mas 
sachusetts (1805-83). He was a representative 
from the ninth Massachusetts district in the 48th 
congress, 1883-85 ; an overseer of Harvard, 
1S08-80 and 18SI-88 ; fellow of the American 
Academy of Arts and Sciences ; member of the 
Massachusetts Historical society ; honorary mem 
ber of the New York Academy of Sciences and of 
the National Academy of Sciences, 1873-97. He 



[1T2J 



was president of the Boston farm school, and a 
trustee of the Peabody education fund, the Pea- 
body Museum of Archaeology, and the state re 
form school. He received the degree LL.D. 
from Harvard in 1891, contributed to the build 
ing of Memorial hall and served on the building 
committee. He left $1 0,000 to Harvard and his 
collection of scientific books to the Museum of 
Comparative Zoology. He contributed articles 
to scientific journals and published : Illustrated 
Catalogue of the Ophiuridce and Astrophytidce in 
the Museum of Comparative Zoology (1805) ; lie- 
port on Ophiuridce and Astroplujtida*. Dredged by 
Louis F. de Pom-talcs (18(59) ; Old and Neiv 
Ophiuridce and Astrophytidce of the Hassle r Ex~ 
pedition (1875) ; Dredging Operations of the U.S. 
Steamer Blake ; Ophittrans (1875) ; Padrome of 
the Ophiuridce and Astrophytidce of the Challen- 
der Expedition (Part I., 1878 ; Part II.. 1879); 
Report on the Ophiuridce Dredged {>// 11. M. S. 
Challenger During the Years AS ;;?-7v; (1H83) ; 
Papers Relating to the Garrison Mob (1870). He 
died at Nahant, Mass., Sept. 9, 1897. 

LYHAN, Theodore Benedict, fourth bishop of 
North Carolina and 103d in succession in the 
American episcopate, was born in Brighton, 
Mass., Nov. 37, 1815 ; son of the Rev. Asa and 
Mary (Benedict) Lyman; grandson of William 
and Mary (Parker) 
Lyman, and of Aaron 
Benedict of Middle- 
bury, Conn., and a 
descendant of Rich 
ard and Sarah (Os- 
borne) Lyman. He 
was graduated at 
Hamilton college, 
N.Y\, in 1837, and 
at the General Theo 
logical seminary, 
New York city, in 
1840. He was ordered 
deacon in Christ 
church, Baltimore, 
Md., Sept. 30, 1840, 
and ordained priest in St. John s, Ilagers- 
town, Md., Dec. 19. 1841, where he was rector, 
1841-51. He was rector of Trinity church, Pitts- 
burg, Pa., 1851-150: and during his residence in 
Europe, 1800-70. he declined the deanship of the 
General Theological seminary, New York city. He 
established and was rector of the American church 
at Florence, being also the founder of St. Paul s 
Within the Walls, the American chapel at 
Rome. Italy. He was rector of Trinity church, 
San Fnmcisco, Cal.. 1870-73. and in the latter 
year was elected assistant bishop of North Caro 
lina, and was consecrated in Christ church, 
Raleigh, N.C., Dec. 11, 1873, by Bishops Whit- 




LYMAN 



LYNCH 



tingham, Atkinson and Lay, and on the death of 
Bishop Atkinson, Jan. 4, 1881, he succeeded to 
the bishopric as fourth bishop of North Carolina. 
Bishop Lyman was appointed to take charge of 
the .American Episcopal churches in Europe, as 
successor to the bishop of Long Island in 1886, 
but the increasing cares of his own diocese com 
pelled him to relinquish his charge in 1887. The 
fiftieth anniversary of the bishop s ordination to 
the priesthood was celebrated in Raleigh, on Dec. 
10 and 20. 1801. and the ceremonies were partici 
pated in. not only by the clergy and the laity of 
the church in North Carolina, but by the citizens 
generally without reference to creed. He was 
married in June. 184."). to Anna M., daughter of 
Jacob Albert of Baltimore, Md. ; and secondly, 
Feb. 0. 180:5. to Susan B. Robertson of Charleston. 
S.C. He received the honorary degree of D.D. 
from St. James college. Md., in 1806, LL.l). from 
the University of North Carolina in 1887, and that 
of D.C.L. from Hamilton in 1802. He died at 
Raleigh, N.C.. Dec. 13, 180-3. 

LYflAN, William, representative, was born 
in Northampton, Mass., Dec. 7, 175") ; son of Capt. 
William and Jemima (Sheldon) Lyman ; grandson 
of Lieut. Benjamin and Thankful (Pomeroy) 
Lyman ; great-grandson of John and Dorcas 
(Plumb) Lyman, and a descendant of Richard, 
1631. He was graduated from Yale in 1776, and 
then entered the American army, serving until 
its close as brigadier-general of militia. He was 
a representative in the general court of Massa 
chusetts, state senator in 1780, and a representa 
tive in the yd and 4th congresses, 1703-07. He 
and Gen. Andrew Jackson were the only two 
representatives in the 4th congress who voted 
against the commendatory resolutions on the 
retirement of General Washington from the 
presidency. He was U.S. consul at London by 
appointment of President Jefferson. 1805-11. He 
died in London. England, Sept. 2, 1811. 

LYNCH, Charles, soldier, was born in Vir 
ginia ; son of Charles Lynch who emigrated from 
Ireland when a boy and settled on a large body 
of land on the James river, near the Peaks of 
Otter. Charles served in the Revolutionary war 
as colonel of a regiment of riflemen, and was 
conspicuous for gallantry at Guilford, N.C. He 
is said to have originated and enacted the cele 
brated code called " Lynch Law " during the 
Revolution, in order to punish a band of lawless 
tories and desperadoes about Lynchburg. which 
place was founded by his brother John. Colonel 
Lynch, who was a staunch Whig, organized and 
led a strong party of patriots suid scoured the 
country for the desperadoes, and when taken 
gave them a summary trial at which he sat as 
judge, empaneled a jury and executed punish 
ment. He died near Staunton, Va. , about 1785. 



1173] 



LYNCH, Charles, governor of Mississippi, was 
born in Virginia ; son of Col. Charles Lynch (q.v.). 
He removed to Monticello, Lawrence county, 
Miss., where he established a successful mercan 
tile business. He was elected governor of Missis 
sippi in 1836, being the eighth governor chosen 
by the people and the second under the constitu 
tion of 1832, and he served, 1836-38. He died in 
Monticello, Miss., Feb. 0, 1853. 

LYNCH, James Daniel, author, was born near 
Old Lombardy Grove, Mecklenburg county, Va., 
Jan. 6, 1836 ; son of James Daniel and Frances 
Gregory (Baird) Lynch, and grandson of Charles 
William and Frances (Gregory) Baird. His 
father was a member of the family which founded 
the city of Lynchburg, and his mother a descend 
ant of the famous Dr. John Gregory of Scotland, 
and of the Claibornes of Virginia. Having lost 
his father in his infancy he was adopted and 
reared by his maternal grandfather. He was 
matriculated at the University of North Carolina, 
with the class of 1850, but withdrew at the close 
of his junior year on account of ill health, and re 
turned to his grandfather s home in Virginia. He 
was assistant teacher in the Franklin academy, 
Columbus, Miss., in i860. He was married in Feb 
ruary, 1861, to Hettie Martin Cochranof Lowndes 
county. Soon afterward he joined the Confeder 
ate army, and served as a private until after the 
Shiloh campaign, when he was forced to retire on 
account of ill health. Later lie organized a com 
pany of cavalry, and served under Genual 
Wheeler, being seriously wounded at Lafayette, 
Ga., and was subsequently taken prisoner while 
making a cavalry charge near Rome, Ga., but es 
caped at Resaca while en route to Johnson s 
Island. He was afterward transferred to the 
Nitre and Mining bureau at Selma, Ala., of which 
he was in charge at Gainesville at the close of 1 lie 
war. After the war he practised law at West 
Point, Miss., until obliged to retire from the bar 
on account of defective hearing. He then de 
voted himself to literary work. He is the author 
of numerous poems, including Robert E. Lee, or 
the Heroes of the South (187(5) ; The Ku-Klitx Tri 
bunal (1878) ; The Clock of Destiny (1878) ; The 
Siege of the Alamo (1884) ; The North Carolina 
University Centennial Ode (1805) ; and Columbia 
Saint/in/ the Nations, the last named being 
adopted by the World s Columbian Commission, 
in 1803, as the welcome of the United States to 
the nations of the world. TheSieye of the Alamo 
was printed on parchment, framed, and hung on 
the walls of the fortress by order of the governor 
of Tetfas. His prose works include: Keniper 
County Vindicated, or a Peep at h ccoiistriietion 
in Mississippi (1878) ; Beneh and Ihtr of Missis 
sippi (1880) ; Hei/eli and Bar of Te.ras (1885) ; A 
History of the Five Civilized Nations (1001). 



LYNCH 



LYNCH, John Roy, representative, was born 
in Concord ia Parish, La.. Sept. 10. 1847 ; son of 
Patrick and Catherine Lynch. He \vas a mulatto, 
and after his father s death lie was carried with 
his mother to Natchez. Miss., where they were 
held as slaves. After emancipation he engaged 
in photography and obtained a fair education by 
attending evening school. In 1869 he was ap 
pointed justice of the peace by General Ames, 
military governor of Mississippi. He was a rep 
resentative in the state legislature. 1869-73, and 
speaker of the house. 1872-73; was a represen 
tative from the sixth district of Mississippi in 
the 43d and 44th congresses, 1878-77 ; claimed to 
have been counted out by the Democrats in 1876 
for the 45th congress. General Chalmers being 
seated, and in 1880 lie defeated Chalmers and 
served in the 47th congress, 1881-83. He was a 
delegate to the Republican national conventions 
at Philadelphia. June 5, 1872. Chicago. June 
3. 1884. and June 19, 1888, and Minneapolis, 
June 7. 1892. He was elected temporary chair 
man of the Chicago convention of 1884 ; made a 
speech seconding the nomination of Chester A. 
Arthur for President, and was a member of the 
committee appointed to notify James G. Blaine 
of his nomination. In 1884 Mr. Lynch retired to 
his plantation in Adams count} . Miss. He was 
chairman of Republican state executive com 
mittee, 1881-89 ; and was appointed by President 
Harrison fourth auditor of the U.S. treasury, to 
succeed C. M. Shelly of Alabama. He was mar 
ried Dec. 18, 1884, to Ella W.. daughter of James 
A. and Mary E. Somerville, of Mobile, Ala. In 
the war with Spain in 1898. lie was appointed by 
President McKinley a paymaster in the U.S. 
volunteer service. 

LYNCH, Patrick Neeson, R.C. bishop, was 
boru in Clones, Ireland, March 10. 1817. His 
parents immigrated to the United States in 1819 
and settled at Cheraw, S.C. Patrick attended 
Bishop England s Seminary of St. John the Bap 
tist at Charleston, S.C., and in 1834 was sent by 
Bishop England to the Propaganda college, Rome. 
He was ordained priest, April 5. 1840. by the 
Cardinal Prefect, and returned to Charleston, 
where he was assistant at the cathedral, 1*40-44 ; 
pastor of St. Mary s, Charleston, 1844-55, serving 
also as vicar-general of the diocese. In 1855 he 
became administrator to Bishop Reynolds, de 
ceased, and governed the see until 1858, when he 
was elected his successor and was consecrated 
bishop of Charleston, March 14, 1858, by Arch 
bishop F. P. Kenrick, assisted by Bishops Portier 
and Barry. He took personal charge of a yellow- 
fever hospital during the epidemic of 1848. and 
his own life was saved by the nursing of faithful 
sisters. Bishop Lynch was a firm supporter of 
the South in the civil war. In 1861 a fire broke 




out in Charleston, destroying the cathedral and 
the bishop s house, and during the subsequent 
siege his people were greatly scattered. He was 
sent by the Confederate authorities on a special 
mission to France, intended to counteract the 
effect of Bishop 
Hughes s mission in 
behalf of the North. 
At the close of the 
war the rebuilding of 
such churches and 
institutions as were 
absolutely necessary 
cost $150.000. and in 
addition he owed the 
sum of $100.000 to 
poor people who had 
intrusted him with 
their money. The 
latter part of his life 
was spent in col 
lecting this money, 

which was all paid except $17.000 at the time of 
his death. He edited Deharbe s " Series of Cate 
chisms, and is the author of an account of the 
Vatican council and 71 ic Blood of St. JirinuiriHs, 
published in the Catliolic World and in hook 
form. He died in Charleston, S.C.. Feb. 26, 1882. 
LYNCH, Thomas, delegate, was born on the 
North Santee river, S.C., about 1720 ; son of 
Thomas Lynch, a pioneer cultivator of rice on 
the alluvial bottoms on tide water of South Car 
olina ; and of Austrian descent. He was edu 
cated in Europe, where he 
was a resident for several 
years. He was a wealthy 
planter 011 the North Santee 
river, in South Carolina, and 
a patriot in the Revolutionary 
struggle as early as 1765, when 
he was a delegate to the colo 
nial congress and took an active part in the debate 
against the usurpation of parliament. He was a 
delegate from South Carolina to the Continental 
congress, 1774-76. He resigned his seat in con 
gress in the spring of the latter year and returned 
to his home in South Carolina, where he died 
shortly after his arrival in 1776. 

LYNCH, Thomas, signer, was born in the 
parish of Prince George, on the North Santee 
river, S.C., Aug. 5, 1749 ; son of Thomas Lynch, 
delegate. He was educated in England, studying 
at Eton and taking his degree at Cambridge uni 
versity, and pursued a course of law in the Tem 
ple, returning to America in 1772. He was mar 
ried to a Miss Shubrick. On the outbreak of the 
Revolution he was commissioned captain in the 
1st South Carolina provincials. Col. Christopher 
Gadsden. serving, 1775-76, and on the death of his 
[174] 




LYNCH 



LYNDE 



father in 1776, he was elected hy the Provincial as 
sembly a delegate to the Continental congress as 
his successor and he arrived in Philadelphia in 
time to become one of the signers of the Declara 
tion of Independence. His health, which had 
been broken by his services in the army, failed 
soon after, and he returned to his plantation in 
South Carolina in 1777. By advice of his physi 
cian he undertook the sea voyage to the Island of 
St. Eustatius, W.I., in 1779, intending to take 
passage from there for the south of France. The 
vessel in which he sailed from Charleston was 
never heard from after being sighted when four 
days out of port in 1779. 

LYNCH, Thomas, representative, was born in 
Milwaukee county. Wis., Nov. 21, 1844 ; son of 
Patrick and Mary Lynch, and grandson of John 
Lynch. He was brought up on a farm, and 
acquired his education chiefly in the local schools. 
In 18(3:5 he removed to Chilton. Calumet county, 
Wis., where he taught school until 1871. He 
was a representative in the Wisconsin legislature, 
187!} and 1883 ; was graduated from the Wiscon 
sin university, LL.B., 1875 ; was district attorney 
of Calumet county, 1878-82, and in the latter 
year removed to Antigo, Langlade count} 7 . He 
was mayor of Antigo, 188.1 and 1888, and a Dem 
ocratic representative from the ninth Wisconsin 
district in the 52d and 53d congresses. 1891-95. 
He died at Pelican Lake, AVis., May 4. 1898. 

LYNCH, William Francis, naval officer, was 
born in Norfolk. Va.. April. 1801. He entered 
the U.S. navy as midshipman in 1819, and was 
promoted lieutenant in 1828. He proposed the 
expedition to explore the river Jordan and the 
Dead Sea in 1847. and receiving from the govern 
ment a favorable reply to his proposition, 
he sailed on the U.S. store-ship Supply to 
Smyrna, made an overland journey to Constan 
tinople, and after obtaining the necessary author 
ity and protection from the Turkish government, 
he landed at the Bay of Acre, in March, 1848, 
and in metallic life-boats navigated and explored 
the Jordan from Lake Tiberius to the Dead Sea. 
On his return to the United States he planned an 
expedition to explore Western Africa, which the 
government failed to sanction. He was pro 
moted commander in 1849, and captain in 185(5. 
In 1861 he resigned his commission in the U.S. 
navy and enlisted in the Confederate navy. He 
was commissioned flag officer, and assigned to 
the command of the coast defence of North Caro 
lina ; captured the Federal supply ship Fanny ; 
commanded the mosquito fleet, composed of the 
Confederate vessels Appomattox, Sealrird, Ellis, 
Tllack Warrior, Curlew and Fanny, in the de 
fence of Roanoke Island ; unsuccessfully re 
sisted the attack of Flag-Officer Louis M. Golds- 
borough ; fired one of his own steamers, the 



Curlew, to prevent her capture ; blew jip Fort 
Forrest, and retreated up the Pasquotank river, 
where he concentrated his vessels behind a four- 
gun land battery, below Elizabeth City, On 
Feb. 10, 1862. he engaged the Union fleet, under 
Commander Rowan, with a loss of five of the six 
vessels comprising his fleet, and he escaped to 
Norfolk in the Beaiifort. He subsequently com 
manded the defences of Smithville. N.C., during 
the attack on Fort Fisher, December, 1864-Janu- 
ary, 1865, and after the surrender lie dismantled 
the defences and returned with his marines to 
Wilmington, N.C. He is the author of : Narrative 
of tlie United States Expedition iip the River Jor 
dan and the Dead Sea (1849); Naval Life, or Ob 
servations Afloat and Ashore (1851). He died in 
Baltimore, Md., Oct. 17, 1865. 

LYNDE, Benjamin, jurist, was born in Salem, 
Mass., Sept. 22. 1666 ; son of Simon and Hannah 
(Newgate) Lynde, and grandson of Enoch and 
Elizabeth (Digbie) Lynde, of London, England, 
and of John Newgate, of Boston, Mass. He was 
graduated from Harvard, A.B., 1686, A.M., 1689, 
and studied law in the Middle Temple, England, 
1692-97. He returned to America in 1697 with a 
commission as advocate-general of the court of 
admiralty of Massachusetts, Connecticut and 
Rhode Island. He removed from Boston to 
Salem, Mass., in 1698, and engaged in practice, 
although he did not take the oath of office till 
1701. He was representative from Salem in the 
general court of Massachusetts in 1703, 1706, 
1711 and 1712. and a member of the council, 
1713-37. He was judge of the superior court of 
Massachusetts in 1712-28, and upon Judge Sewall s 
resignation in 1728, became chief justice, which 
office he held until his death. He was married 
April 27, 1699. to Mary, daughter of Judge 
William and Hannah (Curwin) Browne, of 
Salem. He died at Salem, Mass., Jan. 28, 1745. 

LYNDE, Benjamin, jurist, was born in Salem, 
Mass., Oct. 5. 1700, son of Judge Ben jamin and 
Mary (Browne) Lynde, and grandson of Judge 
William and Hannah (Curwin) Browne. He 
graduated at Harvard in 1718, and studied 
law with his uncle, Samuel Browne. He was 
naval officer for the port of Salem, 1721-29 ; a 
special judge of the court of common pleas for 
Suffolk county, 1734 ; agent of the province to 
settle the boundary between Massachusetts and 
New Hampshire, 1737 ; judge of the court of 
common pleas for Essex county, 1737-46 ; judge 
of the supreme court of Massachusetts, 1746-71, 
and chief justice, 1771-72. During his judicial 
term, in the absence of Chief-Justice Hutchin- 
son, he tried the soldiers who fired on the mob 
in State street, and was accused of packing the 
jury. He resigned in 1772. and was appointed 
judge of the probate for the county of Essex. 
r5] 



LYNDE 



LYON 



He was.an active member of the society formed 
for the employment of poor people in the manu 
facture of linen in 1754 ; a signer of one of the 
Salem addresses to Gen. Thomas Gage in 1774 ; 
and councillor for Massachusetts for twenty- 
eight years. He was married Nov. 1, 1781, to 
Mary, daughter of Maj. John Bowles-, of Rox- 
bury, Mass. He died in Salem, Mass., Oct. 3, 1781. 

LYNDE, Francis, author, was born in Lewis- 
ton, N.Y., Nov. 12, 1856; son of William Tilly 
and Elizabeth (Need) Lynde ; grandson of Haw 
kins and Maria (Carruthers) Lynde and of 
Thomas and Julia (Sanderson) Need ; and a de 
scendant of Thomas Lynde, who came from Eng 
land in 1634 and settled in Charlestown, Massa 
chusetts Bay colon}-. He attended the grammar 
school of Kansas City ; pursued home study in New 
England, and studied under private and aca 
demic teachers. He was married in 1873 to Mari 
etta Williams, and in 1888 to Mary Antoinette 
Stickle. He was in the railway service in the 
motive power, accounting and passenger depart 
ments, 1872-93. He retired from the railway 
service in 1893 and devoted his time to writing 
stories. He is the author of : A Romance in Transit 
(1897); The Helpers (1899); A Private Chivalry 
(1900), and numerous contributions to periodi 
cals. 

LYNDE, William Pitt, representative, was 
born in Sherburne, N.Y., Dec. 10. 1817; son of 
Tilly and Elizabeth (Warner) Lynde, both natives 
of Massachusetts, who settled in Sherburne in 
1800. Tilly Lynde was a member of the assembly 
seven years and a state senator six years. Will 
iam P. Lynde was a student at Hamilton college, 
1S34-3G, and was graduated from Yale, valedic 
torian. A.B., 1838; A.M., 1841. Heattended the law 
department of the University of the City of New 
York, 1838-39, and Harvard Law school, 1839- 
41 ; was admitted to the bar in New York city in 
1841, and practised in Milwaukee, Wisconsin Ter 
ritory. He was married in 1841 to Mary E., 
daughter of Dr. Azariah Blanchanl of Truxton, 
N.Y. He was attorney -general of Wisconsin 
Territory, 1844-45; U.S. district attorney for the 
district of Wisconsin, 1845-47, and upon the 
admission of the state into the Union in 1847, he 
was its Democratic representative in the 30th 
congress, 1847-49. He was an unsuccessful can 
didate for the supreme court bench in 1840 ; 
may@r of Milwaukee. 1860-62; state representa 
tive. 1806-68; state senator, 18(58-09, and a repre 
sentative in the 44th and 45th congresses. 1875-79. 
He died in Milwaukee, Wis., Dec. IS, 1885. 

LYNDON, Josias, governor of Rhode Island, 
was born in Newport, R.I.. March 10, 1704 ; of a 
wealthy and influential family. He was clerk 
of the lower house of the general assembly, 
and of the superior court of the county of New- 
Li 



port, 1730-78. with the exception of the one year 
he was governor of the colon} , 1768-69. His elec 
tion as governor was brought about by the respec 
tive friends of Samuel Wood and Stephen Hop 
kins, who both withdrew from the canvass in his 
favor. Governor Lyndon s administration was 
crowded with the exciting events that preceded 
the Revolution. He was a firm patriot, and 
wrote several letters as from the "Governor of 
Rhode Island to the King and to the Earl of 
Hillsborough reciting the grievances of the 
colony chartered by Charles II., and protesting 
against taxation without representation, as re 
corded in Bartlett s " Records of the Colony of 
Rhode Island." When the British took posses 
sion of Newport, Lyndon, feeling that one who 
had been so conspicuous as a rebel would be un 
safe in the town, removed to Warren, R.I., where 
he died March 30, 1778. 

LYON, Asa, representative, was born in Pom- 
fret, Conn.. Dec. 31, 1703. He was graduated 
from Dartmouth college in 1790 ; and studied 
theology with the Rev. Charles Backus. He was 
pastor of the Congregational church at Sunder- 
land, Mass., 1792-93 ; organized and was first min 
ister of the Congregational church at Grand Isle, 
Vt., serving for over forty years, though he was 
never installed as pastor. lie secured a tract of 
valuable land in North Hero, Vt.. and built a house 
of cedar logs in which lie lived with his family 
most of his life. He was a representative from 
South Hero in the general assembly, 1799-1 803, 
1804-08. and from Grand Isle, 1812-15. ] IP was 
chief justice of the county court, 1805, 1800. 1808 
and 1813, and a representative in the 14th congress, 
1815-17. He died in Grand Isle, Yt., April 4. 1841. 
LYON, Caleb, representative, was born in 
Lyonsdale, N.Y., Dec. 7, 1822; son of Caleb and 
Mary (Dupont) Lyon, and grandson of Lieut. 
Caleb Lyon, wounded at Bunker Hill. His an 
cestor, Caleb Lyon, was a Scotchman who immi 
grated from Hertfordshire, England, and settled 
in New England. His father was the founder of 
Lyonsdale, and built a bridge and a grist mill 
there, 1829-31. Caleb was graduated from Nor 
wich university, Vt., in 1839, and at an early age 
became known as a lecturer. He was appointed 
by President Polk U.S. consul to Shanghai, 
China. Feb. 15, 1847, but soon after reaching his 
post intrusted the office to a deputy and returned 
to the United States by way of South America 
and Panama. On reaching California lie became 
interested in the organization of a state govern 
ment, and was one of the secretaries of the state 
constitutional convention, and upon the ques 
tion of selecting a state seal, the design offered 
by Mr. Lyon was accepted, Sept. 2, 1849, for 
which he was paid the sum of $1000. In 1850 he 
returned to Lyonsdale, N.Y., and was elected to 
re] 



LYOX 



LYON 




the state assembly, resigning April 26, 1851. He 
was chosen a state senator in November, 1851, 
and soon after the expiration of his term of 
office, he visited Europe and travelled extensively 
in Turkey, Egypt and Pales 
tine. While at Constantinople 
he addressed a letter to Com. 
Duncan A. Ingraham of the 
U.S. corvette St. Louis, highly 
approving of the measure 
taken in the rescue of Martin 
Koszta from an Austrian brig. 
On returning to the United States he was elected a 
representative in the 33d congress, serving 1858-55. 
He was governor of Idaho, 1864-66. The degree 
of LL.D. was conferred on him by Norwich uni 
versity in 1851. A number of his poems were 
published in current magazines. His home in 
Lyonsdale was burned in 1866 and lie removed to 
"Ross Castle," Staten Island, N.Y., where he 
died Sept. 8, 1875. 

LYON, Chittenden, representative, was born 
in Fair Haven, Vt., in 1786; son of the Hon. 
Matthew and Beulah (Chittenden) Galusha Lyon, 
and grandson of Gov. Thomas and Elizabeth 
(Meigs) Chittenden. In 1801 he removed with 
his father to Eddyville, Ky. He was a rep 
resentative in the Kentucky legislature ; a state 
senator ; a Jacksonian Democratic representative 
in the 20th, 21st, 22d and 23d congresses, 1827-35, 
and an unsuccessful candidate for presidential 
elector on the Van Buren and Johnson ticket in 
1836. His wife died Feb. 4, 1828, leaving five 
children, and their daughter, Margaret A., became 
the wife of Willis B. Machen(q.v.). Lyon county. 
Ky., of which Eddyville is the capital, was named 
in his honor. He died in Caldwell county, Ky., 
Nov. 23, 1S42. 

LYON, David Gordon, orientalist, was born at 
Benton, Ala., May 24, 1852; son of Isaac and 
Sarah Caroline (Arnold) Lyon. He was a student 
at William Jewell college, Mo., 1869-72 ; at How 
ard college, Ala., 1872-75, receiving his A.B. de 
gree from Howard college in 1875. While an 
undergraduate he had charge of the business 
interests of the Alabama Baptist, a religious 
weekly, and held this office one year after grad 
uation. He was a student at the Southern Bap 
tist Theological seminary, 1876-79. He then 
pursued special courses in Semitic philology at 
the University of Leipzig, 1879 to 1882, receiving 
the degree of Ph.D. in the latter year. In 1882 
he accepted the Hollis professorship of divinity 
in Harvard university, and was also made curator 
of the newly established Semitic Museum in 1891. 
He was elected a member of the American Orien 
tal society in 1882 and its recording secretary in 
1886, serving in this capacity for nine years. lie 
was corresponding secretary of the Society of 



Biblical Literature and Exegesis, 1894-99. He 
received the honorary degree of D.D. from Har 
vard in 1901. His works include : Keilschrifttexte 
Sargons Kdnigs von Assyrien (Leipzig, 1883) ; An 
Assyrian Manual for the Use of Beginners in the 
Study of the Assyrian Language (1886 ; new ed., 
1892). 

LYON, Francis Strother, representative, was 
born in Stokes county, N.C., Feb. 25, 1800 ; son of 
James and Beluthalon (Gaines) Lyon ; grandson 
of Jamesaiid B :ttie (Strother) Gaines and a des 
cendant of Francis Strother of Culpeper county, 
Va. He removed to St. Stephens, Washington 
county, Miss. Ty., with his brother, James G. Lyon, 
in 1818, and was employed in the office of the clerk 
of the court. He studied law under Abner S. 
Lipscomb. W. H. Crawford and Henry Hitchock : 
was admitted to the bar in 1821, and practised at 
Demopolis, Ala. He was secretary of the Alabama 
senate, 1820-30 ; state senator, 1833-34, and presi 
dent of the senate in 1834. He was a representa 
tive in the 24th and 25th congresses, 1835-39, and 
in 1845 when the state bank and its branches 
were placed in liquidation he was selected with 
William Cooper and Clement C. Clay as a com 
missioner to adjust all claims, and after their re 
port in 1847 he continued as sole commissioner 
until the final settlement in 1853. He was a rep 
resentative in the Alabama legislature in 1861 ; 
declined to serve as a representative in the pro 
visional Confederate congress, but was a member 
of the 1st congress under the Confederate consti 
tution, 1862-64. He was re-elected to the 2d 
Confederate congress in 1864, and served until 
the close of the war. He was a delegate to the 
state constitutional convention of 1875 and made 
the draft of the constitution adopted by the con 
vention, and was a state senator in 1876. He was 
married, March 4, 1824, to Sarah Serena, daughter 
of Allen Glover of Marengo county, Ala. He 
died in Demopolis, Ala., Dec. 31, 1882. 

LYON, Lucius, senator, was born in Shelburne, 
Vt., Feb. 26, 1800. In 1822 he removed to Bron- 
son, Michigan Territory, where he engaged as 
surveyor-general of the Northwest Territory. He 
was territorial delegate to congress, 1833-35 ; a 
delegate from the eleventh district to the state 
constitutional convention of 1835 ; U.S. senator 
from Michigan for the short term. 1835-39 : re 
moved to Grand Rapids, and was a Democratic 
representative from the 5th congressional district 
in the 28th congress, 1843-45. He was a regent 
of the University of Michigan by appointment, 
1837-39, and by re-appointment, Feb. 27, 1839, 
for a term of four years, but resigned in 1839. He 
died in Grand Rapids, Mich., Sept. 24, 1851. 

LYON, Mary, educator, was born at Buckland, 
Mass., Feb. 28. 1797; daughter of Aaron and 
Jemima (Shepard) Lyon ; granddaughter of Isaac 
7] 



LYON 



LYON 



and Jemima (Smith) Shepard, and a descendant of 
Lieut. Samuel Smith who came from England in 
the Elizabeth, 1634. She taught a district school 
in 1814 and in the winters of 1817 and 1818 ; was 
a student at Sanderson academy, Ashfield, 1817- 
21 ; at Joseph Emerson s school, Byfiekl, 1821-22, 
and in 1823 attended Professor Eaton s lectures 
on chemistry at Amherst. She was assistant- 
principal in the Ashfield academy, 1822-23, and 
assisted Miss Grant in an academy for girls at 
Deny, N.H., 1824-27, also teaching in the winters 
in Ashfield and a school of her own in Buckland. 
She taught in Miss Grant s school at Ipswich, 
Mass., 1828-34. In 1834 she laid before a dele 
gation of gentlemen from Ipswich plans for the 
endowment of a seminary for young women. 
This committee appointed the Rev. Roswell 
Hawks to solicit funds. Miss Lyon s views were 
pronounced impracticable and visionary by lead 
ing educators, but notwithstanding public ridi 
cule she accompanied Mr. Hawks from town to 
town and within two months had collected from 
the women of Ipswich and vicinity the sum of 
1000. He obtained additional aid, and on Feb. 
11, 1836, Governor Everett, signed the charter 
incorporating Mount Holyoke seminary at South 




MT. HOLYOKE. COLl_E.CE 

Hartley, Mass. On Oct. 3, 1830, the corner-stone 
was laid, and on Nov. 8, 1837, the seminary was 
opened. The feature of Miss Lyon s plan most 
ridiculed was that every student should give an 
hour a day to domestic labor, thus providing 
for all the household work of the institution 
without infringing on school duties. This plan 
not only reduced the outlay, but created a home 
atmosphere and developed a spirit of self-help. 
Miss Lyon continued as principal of this semi 
nary until her death. Nearly two hundred pupils 
were refused admittance the first year and four 
hundred the second for want of room, and in the 
fourth year, although the capacity of the build 
ing has been doubled, the applicants greatly ex 
ceeded the increased accommodations. She pub 
lished pamphlets on Tendencies of the Princi 
ples Etbraced and the System adopted in the 
Mount Holyoke Seminary (1840). and the Mission 
ary Offering (1843). Edward Hitchcock wrote: 
" Power of Christian Benevolence Illustrated in 



[178] 



the Life and Labors of Mary Lyon " (1851), and Fi 
delia Fiske, " Recollections of Mary Lyon " (1866). 
A sentence from one of her last talks with the 
school forms the epitaph over the grave, " There is 
nothing in the universe that I fear but that I shall 
not know all my duty or shall fail to do it. 1 In 
the selection of names for a place in the Hall of 
Fame for Great Americans, New York university, 
made in October, 1900, Mary Lyon was one of 
the fifteen names in "Class C, Educators," and 
received twenty-one votes, Horace Mann receiv 
ing sixt} -seven and alone securing a place. She 
died in South Hadley, Mass., March 5,1849. 

LYON, flatthew, representative, was born in 
county Wicklow, Ireland. July 14. 1750. He was 
sent to school in Dublin, and instructed in Eng 
lish, Latin and Greek. His father engaged with 
the " White Boys " in a conspiracy against the 
British crown for 
which he was put to 
death while Matthew 
was at school. In 
1763 the property of 
his father having 
been confiscated, Mat 
thew entered a print 
ing and bookbinding 
office in Dublin, 
where he learned the 
trade. His mother 
married a second 
time and the cruelty 
of his stepfather is 
said to have induced 
him to immigrate , 

to New York in 1765, where he was landed 
as a redemptionist, forced to that extremity by 
the bad faith of the captain of the vessel. He 
was bound to Jabez Bacon of Wood bury, Conn., 
the wealthiest merchant in Connecticut, and he 
resided in that state until 1774. Here he contin 
ued the studies so well begun in Dublin and be 
fore reaching his majority had acquired a supe 
rior education. He became a freeman in 1768 
and was married in 1771 to Miss Hosford, a niece 
of Ethan Allen. With Thomas Chittenden and 
other pioneers he removed to Vermont, known 
then as the New Hampshire Grants, in 1774. and 
settled in Wallingford while Chittenden went 
to Williston. Immediately on reaching Vermont 
he called together the younger men of the neigh 
borhood and they formed an armed association, 
hired an old man to teach them discipline, each 
took command of the company in turn and when 
the news of the battle at Lexington reached the 
settlement Lyon took part of the command and 
joined Ethan Allen in the capture of Fort Ticon- 
deroga with its immense military stores. He 
served as adjutant of Colonel Warner s regiment 




LYON 



LYON 



under General Montgomery in Canada in the fall 
of 177."). Warner was commissioned lieutenant- 
colonel in command of the Green Mountain Boys 
in July, 1776, and Lyou a second lieutenant in 
the regiment. . He was cashiered by General 
(rates, Oct. 16, 1776, because his company, ordered 
to remain at Jericho, deserted their post and forced 
the officers, two captains and one lieutenant be 
sides Lyon, to accompany them. General St. 
Clair who presided at the court-martial recom 
mended Lyon to General Schuyler and obtained 
for him a commission as paymaster with the rank 
of captain in the Continental regiment com 
manded by Seth Warner. He led a detachment 
in the fight at Hubbardton, July 7. 1777. and 
acted as guide to General St. Clair in his masterly 
march to join General Schuyler at Fort Edward, 
July 12, 1777. He served in the battles of Ben- 
ningtoii and Saratoga and resigned from the 
army in the spring of 1778. He served the state as 
a member of the council of safety, captain in the 
militia, paymaster-general, deputy secretary to 
Governor Chittenden and his council, assistant 
to the treasurer, and colonel of militia. He rep 
resented Arlington (to which place he had re 
moved from Wallingford in 1777 and where his 
wife died in 1782). in the state legislature, 1779- 
83, and Fair Haven for ten years between 1783 
and 1707. He was the founder of Fairhaven in 
1783, where he built saw and grist mills, estab 
lished an iron foundry, manufactured paper 
from basswood pulp, established a printing 
office in 1793 and published TJie Farmer s Library, 
a newspaper which became the Fairhaven Gazette, 
and in 1793, while a candidate for representative 
in congress, commenced the publication of The 
Scourge of Aristocracy, a semi-monthly magazine. 
In October, 1798, he was indicted for writing a 
letter criticising the President for his part in pro 
curing the passage of the alien and sedition acts, 
which letter was printed in the Windsor, Vt., 
Journal. He was imprisoned in Vergennes, Vt., 
for four months and paid a fine of $1001) and while 
in prison his constituents re-elected him to con 
gress. He was married secondly in 1783 to Beu- 
lah, daughter of Gov. Thomas Chittenden and 
widow of George Galusha, and of their nine chil 
dren, four were sons ; Chittenden, Matthew, 
Noah C., and Giles. He was the unsuccessful 
anti-Federalist candidate for representative in 
the 2d, 3d, 4th and 5th congresses, 1791-99, and 
was elected by his party in 1798 and 1800, serving 
in the 6th and 7th congresses, 1799-1 SOI. His first 
speech in congress was in support of his motion 
i: that such members as do not choose to attend 
upon the President, to present the answer to his 
speech shall be excused." His words served to 
excite the Federalists and strengthen the deter 
mination of the Auti-FederaJists who were op 



posed to aristocratic usage. On Jan. 30. 1798, an 
altercation on the floor of the house led to the 
following resolution offered by Representative 
Samuel Sewall of Massachusetts: "Resolved, 
that Matthew Lyon, a member of the House, for 
a violent attack, and gross indecency committed 
upon the person of Roger Griswold, another 
member, in the presence of this House, whilst 
sitting, be, for this disorderly behavior, expelled 
therefrom." The matter was caricatured and 
made ridiculous by the public press, but caused a 
clash of factions and the leaders on both sides 
have left record of their views in their published 
papers. He was not expelled as forty-four repre 
sentatives voted against the resolution. When 
he cast the vote of Vermont in the 6th congress 
which elected Jefferson to the Presidency in 1801 
he considered himself avenged. He removed 
from Vermont to Kentucky the same year, largely 
through the advice of Andrew Jackson, and he 
there founded the town of Eddy ville. He declined 
the position of commissary -general of the western 
army offered him by President Jefferson ; was a 
representative in the Kentucky legislature from 
Livingston count}-, 1802. and a representative in 
the 8th, 9th, 10th and llth congresses, 1803-11. 
He made a notable speech in reply to John Ran 
dolph of Roanoke, who had attacked Gideon 
Granger, postmaster-general, which is given in 
the annals of the 8th congress. He warned Jack 
son against the secret operations of Burr and 
Wilkinson in the southwest. He opposed the 
second war with England and this cost him his 
seat in the 12th congress, but he engaged in 
building gunboats for the navy at his ship-yards 
in Eddyville. He became bankrupt about this 
time through the embargo act, and the loss of a 
valuable vessel, and in 1818 applied to his polit 
ical friends in Washington for office. He was 
appointed U.S. factor to the Cherokee nation in 
Arkansas Territory by President Monroe in 1820, 
and settled at Spadra Bluff. He was elected the 
second delegate to congress from Arkansas, but 
did not live to take his seat. See " Matthew Lyon, 
the Hampden of Congress, a Biography," by J. 
Fairfax McLaughlin, LL.D. (1900). He died at 
Spadra Bluff, Ark.. Aug. 1, 1822. 

LYON, Nathaniel, soldier, was born in Ash- 
ford, Conn., July 14, 1818 ; son of Amasa and 
Kezia (Knowlton) Lyon, and grandson of Ephraim 
Lyon, a farmer and lawyer of Ashford, and of 
Lieut. Daniel Knowlton, an officer in the French 
and Indian and Revolutionary wars. Nathaniel 
was graduated from the U.S. Military academy 
in 1841 and was 3d lieutenant of the 2d in 
fantry. He served in the Seminole war, 1841-42 ; 
Avas in garrison at Sacket Harbor, N.Y., 1842-46, 
and at Fort Columbus. N.Y., in 1846. He was 
promoted first lieutenant, Feb. 16, 1847, and took 



[170] 



LYONS 



LYONS 




t/, 



part in the siege of Yera Cruz, March 9, 1847, 
the battle of Cerro Gordo, wliere his company 
alone reached the crest of the hill in time to 
hasten the enemy s retreat ; at Oka Lake, Au 
gust 16, at Coiitreras, August 19, and at 

Churubusco, Aug. 20, 
1847. He was bre- 
vetted captain, Aug 
ust 20, for Contreras 
and Churubusco. He 
also engaged at Mo- 
lino del Key, Septem 
ber 8, and in the 
assault and capture 
of the City of Mex 
ico, Sept. 13-14, 1847, 
where he was wound 
ed while fighting in 
the streets near the 
Belen Gate. He was 
in garrison at Fort 
Hamilton, N.Y., in 
1848 ; on frontier duty, and on quartermaster duty 
at San Diego, 1850-51 ; was promoted cap 
tain, June 11, 1851, and was in Kansas. Da 
kota, Minnesota and Nebraska, 1853-61. He 
was commissioned brigadier-general of U.S. 
volunteers, May 17, 1861, and succeeded Major 
Hagner in the command of the St. Louis 
arsenal. On May 6. 1861, the demand was made 
by the governor of Missouri that the troops should 
be removed from all stations outside the U.S. 
arsenal which contained 60,000 stand of arms, but 
the demand was refused by Captain Lyon and the 
governor organized Camp Jackson as a rendez 
vous for state troops. On May 10, 1861, Captain 
Lyon with about 5000 troops surrounded this 
camp and caused its surrender. Later in the 
day an encounter between the U.S. soldiers and 
the citizens resulted in the death of several un 
armed citizens and the incident caused great 
excitement in St. Louis. On May 11, General 
Harney arrived at St. Louis and assumed com 
mand, but was recalled May 21, 1861, and Lyon 
led in the pursuit of Jackson s state troops and 
overtook and scattered them at Booneville, June 
13, 1861. He left Booneville July 3 for Spring 
field, Mo., arriving there July 15. Then followed 
the action at Dug Spring August 2, and on A ugust 7 
he led the attack on the state forces at Wilson s 
Creek, where lie was mortally wounded while 
leading a charge. He bequeathed his entire 
property, nearly $30,000, to the U.S. government. 
He is the author of : Political Writings (published 
posthumously, 1862). He died near Wilson s 
Creek, Mo., Aug. 10. 1861. 

LYONS, Albert Brown, chemist, was born in 
Waimea, Hawaii, April, 1, 1841 ; son of the Rev. 
Lorenzo and Lucia Garratt (Smith) Lyons and a 



descendant of William Lyon. of Middlesex county, 
England, who came to Roxbury, Mass., in 1635. 
His parents were missionaries on a station remote 
from any town and he received his primary 
education at home. He attended Oahu college, 
1857-63, and was graduated at Williams college, 
Massachusetts, A.B., 1865, A.M., 1868; Univer- 
sity of Michigan, M.D., 1868. He was professor 
of chemistry, Detroit Medical college, 1868-80; 
consulting chemist for Parke, Davis & Co., De 
troit, 1881-86 ; and edited the Pharmaceutical Era, 
1887. He returned in 1888 to the Hawaiian 
Islands wliere he was employed by the govern 
ment as expert chemist and by the trustees of 
Oahu college as professor of chemistry. In 1897 
he returned to the United States to accept the 
position of consulting chemist and secretary of 
the firm of Nelson, Baker & Co., Detroit, manu 
facturing pharmacists. He was made a member 
of the committee of revision of U.S. Pharmaccepia 
in 1900. He is the author of: Manual of Phar 
maceutical Assaying (1887); Practical Assaying 
of Drugs and Galenicals (1899); Plant Names, 
Scientific and Popular (1900). 

LYONS, Judson Whitlock, treasury official, 
was born in Burke county, Ga., Aug. 15, 1858 ; son 
of slave parents. He attended a night school in 
Augusta, Ga., 1871-73, and the Augusta institute 
conducted by the Rev. Dr. Joseph T. Robert, 
1872-78. He taught summer schools, 1874-80 ; 
was a delegate to the Republican national con 
vention at Chicago, June 2, 1880 ; internal-re 
venue ganger, 1880-82 ; and deputy collector, 1882. 
In 1883 he studied law with Gibson & Brandt, 
Augusta, Ga., and he was graduated from How 
ard university LL.B. in 1884. He was admitted to 
practice in all the courts of Georgia in November, 
1884; and was a lawyer in Augusta. 1884-98, 
being the first colored man to practice in the 
state. He was a delegate to the Republican 
national convention at Minneapolis, June 7, 1892 ; 
head of the Republican national electoral ticket 
in Georgia in 1892 and was instrumental in 1896 
in increasing the number of judges of the supreme 
court of Georgia through an amendment to the 
state constitution. He was a delegate to the 
Republican national convention at St. Louis, 
June 16, 1896, where he was elected a member 
of the Republican national committee to repre 
sent Georgia. He was the candidate of the 
colored Republicans of Augusta for postmaster of 
the city, 1897-98; and in March, 1898, he was 
appointed by President McKinley register of the 
U.S. treasury and took office early in April, lie 
was elected trustee and president of the board of 
trustees of Haines college, Augusta, Ga.. and in 
1900 received the honorary degree of A.M. from 
the Baptist college, Atlanta, Ga., and that of 
D.C.L. from Shaw university, Raleigh, N.C. 



[180] 



LYONS 



LYTLE 



LYONS, Samuel Ross, educator, was born in 
Whmsboro, S.C., April 28, 1849 ; son of George 
and Priscilla (Gibson) Lyons, grandson of James 

and (Elliott) Lyons. He served in the 154th 

Illinois volunteers in 1865 ; subsequently entered 
Mon mouth college, 111., and was graduated from 
there A.B. in 1877. He studied theology at 
Xenia, Ohio ; was ordained to the United Presby 
terian ministry in 1880 ; was pastor at Marissa, 
111., 1880-85 ; and at Bloomington, Ind., 1885-98. 
In 1892 he was elected a trustee of Indiana 
university and in 1898 became president of Mon- 
mouth % college. He was married in 1891 to Ale- 
tliia, daughter of Andrew S. Cooper ; she died in 
Monmouth, 111.. April 10, 1901. Erskine and 
Westminster colleges conferred upon him the 
honorary degree of D.D. in 1898. 

LYTE, Eliphalet Oram, educator, was born at 
Bird-in-Hand, Pa., June 29, 1842; son of Louis 
Clarkson and Rebecca (Martin) Lyte ; grandson 
of Martin Lyte and of Robert Martin, and a de 
scendant of Joshua Peeling, a prominent Revolu 
tionary soldier. He served in the civil war, 1861- 
65, being wounded at Chancellorsville, May 1, 
1863. He taught school, 1867, was graduated 
from the State Normal school, Millersville, Pa., 
in 1868, and remained there as professor of lan 
guage and pedagogy until 1887, when he was ad 
vanced to the principalship. He became prom 
inent in educational matters throughout the 
state. He was president of the Pennsylvania 
State Teachers Association in 1891, and of the 
National Educational Association, of which lie 
was a life-director, in 1899. Franklin and Mar 
shall college conferred upon him the degree of 
A.M. in 1878, and that of Ph.D. in 1887. His 
published works include : Forms of Pat-sing and 
Analysis (1879); Practical Bookkeeping (1880); 
The School Song-Book (1883); Grammar and 
Composition (1886); The School Bell (1892); Ele 
mentary English (1898); Elements of Grammar 
and Composition (1898); Advanced Grammar and 
Composition (1899). 

LYTLE, Robert Todd, representative, was 
born in Williamsburg, Ohio, in 1804 ; .son of 
William and Eliza No well (Stahl) Lytle ; grand 
son of William and Mary (Steel) Lytle, and a 
descendant of Christopher and Mary Lytle. Mis 
father (born at Carlisle, Pa., 1772; died, 1831) 
was major-general of state militia for the south 
ern district of Ohio ; served in the Indian wars, 
was also surveyor-general of Ohio, Indiana and 
Michigan ; arid founded Williamsburg, Clermont 
county, Ohio. His grandfather, William Lytle, 
was a commissioned officer in the French and 
Indian war, 1754-63, who removed to Kentucky 
from Pennsylvania in 1779. Robert T. Lytla was 
a representative in the Ohio legislature, 1828-29; 
a major-general in the Ohio militia ; a represent- 



ative from the first district of Ohio in the 23d 
congress, 1833-35, and U.S. surveyor-general of 
public lands in Ohio, 1835-38. He married Eliz 
abeth Haines of Cincinnati, Ohio. He died in 
New Orleans, La., Dec. 21, 1839. 

LYTLE, William Haines, soldier, was born in 
Cincinnati, Ohio, Nov. 2, 1826 ; son of Gen. 
Robert Todd and Elizabeth (Haines) Lytle. He 
was graduated from Cincinnati college, studied 
law with his uncle, E. S. Haines, and in 1846 
became lieutenant in the 2d Ohio infantry, and 
captain, Dec. 21, 1847. After the Mexican war 
he practised law in Cincinnati ; was a Dem 
ocratic representative in the state legislature, 
1852-54, and in 1857 was the Democratic can 
didate for lieutenant-governor of Ohio on the 
ticket with H. B. Payne for governor. At the 
outbreak of the civil war he was major-general, 
commanding the 1st division, Ohio militia, and 
mustered the 5th, 6th, 9th and 10th regiments 
for three months service. He also proposed to 
furnish an artillery regiment, but his offer was 
declined by the secretary of war. He was com 
missioned colonel of the 10th Ohio infantry, and 
commanded a brigade in the engagement at Car- 
nifex Ferry, Sept. 10, 1861, where he was se 
verely wounded. On his recovery he commanded 
the camp of rendezvous and instruction at Bards- 
town, Ky. ; was assigned to the command of the 
17th brigade, 3d division, 1st army corps, Army 
of the Ohio, and serv 
ed in the Alabama 
campaign and dur 
ing General Buell s 
march into Ken 
tucky, where he cov 
ered the rear of the 
army. He was con 
spicuous for his bra 
very at the battle of ; .. 
Perryville, Oct. 8, 
1862, where he led 
a charge in person, 
and in carrying out a 
flank movement a 
fragment of shell 
struck him and he was 

left on the field for dead. He was taken prisoner, 
and was exchanged, Feb. 4, 1863. He was promoted 
brigadier-general, Nov. 29, 1862, during his im 
prisonment ; commanded the 1st brigade, 3d 
division. 2d army corps, Army of the Cumberland, 
in the Chickamauga campaign, and at Chicka 
mauga, Sept. 20. 1863, during a charge which he 
led in person, he was pierced by several bullets 
and survived but a few moments. He is the 
author of the poem beginning: "I am dying, 
Egypt, dying ! " first published, July 29, 1858. 
lie died near Chickamauga, Ga., Sept. 20. 1863. 




MABIE 



MACALISTER 



n. 




HABIE, Hamilton Wright, editor and author, 
was born at Cold Spring, N.Y., Dec. 13, 1846. 
He was graduated from Williams college in 1867 
and from Columbia, LL.B., in 1869. He prac 
tised law in New York city, 1869-79; became 
connected with the 
Christian Union in 
1879 and formally an 
editor in 1884, con 
tinuing as such after 
that paper became 
The Outlook, in June, 
1893. He became 
well known as a lec 
turer on literary and 
educational topics, 
and as a contributor 
of essays to the lead 
ing periodicals. He 
was elected a trustee 
and secretary of the 
board of trustees of 

Barnard college, a trustee of Williams col 
lege, and president of the New York Kin 
dergarten association. He received the de 
grees of A.M. and L.H.D. from Williams, and 
LL.D. from Union in 1899. His published books 
include: Norse Stories (1884); Mi/ Study Fire 
(1st ser., 1890; 2d ser., 1894; 3d ser., 1899); 
Under the Trees and Elsewhere (1891 ) ; Short Stud 
ies in Literature (1891): Essays on Literary In 
terpretation (1892); Nature and Culture (1897); 
Books and Culture (1897); Work and Culture 
(1898); Lithe Forest of Arden (1898); The Life 
of the Spirit (1899); Shakespeare: Poet, Drama- 
list and Man (1900). He also selected and ar 
ranged Old English Ballads and Love Songs 
(2 vols., 1896-97). 

McADOO, William, representative, was born 
in Ireland, Oct. 25. 1853. He was brought to 
America at an early age by his parents, who 
settled in Jersey City, N.J. After attending the 
public schools he studied law, and in 1874 he was 
admitted to the bar. He was a member of the 
state assembly and a Democratic representative 
from the seventh district of New Jersey in the 
48th, 49th, 50th and 51st congresses, 1883-91. 
He was assistant secretary of the navy during 
President Cleveland s second administration, 
1893-97, and at the close of his term resumed the 
practice of law in Jersey City. 

flcAFEE, Robert Breckinridge, lawyer, was 
born in Mercer county, Ky., in February, 1784 ; 
son of Robert and Anna (McCoun) McAfee, and 
grandson of James McCoun, who came from 
Ireland in 1742 and married Margaret Walker in 



1744. Robert McAfee was one of three brothers 
who went to Kentucky from Botetourt county, 
Va. , in 1773, and were the lirst pioneers after 
Boone. He attended Transylvania university and 
conducted a farm and practised law in Mercer 
county, Ky., 1805-12. He was successively pri 
vate, sergeant, ensign, and captain in the north 
western army, 1812-14 : served in Col. Richard M. 
Johnson s regiment, lirst as quartermaster in the 
relief of Fort Wayne, and as captain at the battle 
of the Thames, Oct. 5, 1813. He was a represent 
ative in the Kentucky legislature, 1810-15 and 
1819; a senator, 1821-24. and lieutenant-governor 
of Kentucky, 1824-28. He was again a represen 
tative in the state legislature, 1831-32, and was a 
delegate to the Democratic national convention 
at Baltimore, Md., May 21, 1832. He was charge 
d affaires at Bogota, Colombia, South America. 
1833-37, and senator in the Kentucky legislature, 
1841-45. He was married to Mary, daughter of 
James Cardwell. He was a member of the Royal 
Antiquarian society of Denmark, and an honor 
ary member of the Kentucky Historical society. 
His private journal contained data of the early 
history of Kentucky and he is the author of a 
History of the War of 1X1. (1816). He died in 
Mercer county. Ky., March 12, 1849. 

ricALEER, William, representative, was born 
in county Tyrone, Ireland, Jan. 6, 1838. He im 
migrated with his parents to the United States 
in 1851 and settled in Philadelphia, where he 
later engaged with his father and brothers in the 
flour and grain business. He was a member of 
the city council, 1871-73 ; was elected a member 
of the Board of Guardians of the Poor in 1873, 
was vice-president and president of the board, 
and was connected with other charitable and 
benevolent associations. lie was state senator, 
1886-90, and was nominated president pro teinpore 
by the Democratic members in 1889. He was a 
Democratic representative from the third district 
of Pennsylvania in the 52d. 53d, 55th and 56th 
congresses, 1891-95 and 1897-1901. 

flacALISTER, James, educator, was born in 
Glasgow, Scotland, April 26, 1840. lie Mas a 
student at Glasgow university and at Brown uni 
versity in the class of 1856, and was graduated 
from the Albany Law school, LL.B., 1864. He 
was superintendent of public schools in Milwau 
kee, Wis., 1873-83; regent of the Wisconsin 
Normal schools, 1878-83 ; and was the first super 
intendent of public schools in Philadelphia, Pa., 
1883-91. In 1891 he was elected president of the 
Drexel Institute, Philadelphia, Pa., and lie was 
lecturer on pedagogy in Johns Hopkins university 
in 1893, and at the University of the City of New 



[182] 



MCALLISTER 



MCALLISTER 



York in 1894. He was elected a member of the 
American Philosophical society in 188(5 ; an ojjicier 
d Academic Paris in 1889. and served as trustee of 
the University of Pennsylvania. 1885-97. In 1890 
he received from Brown university the degree of 
A.M., by special vote, and the honorary degree 
of LL.D. He is the author of: Manual of Pri 
mary Instruction (1834); Manual of Instruction in 
United States History and Civil Government 
(1887): Catalogue of Pedagogical Library with 
Biographical Notes (1887): llannal Training in 
the Public Schools of Philadelphia (1890); Art 
Education in Public Scliools (1893); besides ad 
dresses, reports and contributions to periodicals. 
MCALLISTER, Matthew Hall, jurist, was 
born in Savannah, Ga. . Nov. 26. 1800; son of 
Matthew and Hannah (Gibbons) McAllister; 
grandson of Col. Richard and Mary (Dill) McAl 
lister : grand-nephew of William Gibbons, dele 
gate (q. v.), and great grandson of Archibald 
McAllister. His father, born May 4, 1758. was a 
graduate of the College of New Jersey. 1779; 
U.S. district attorney for Georgia during Wash 
ington s administration, judge of the superior 
court, mayor of the city of Savannah during the 
war of 1812, and died. May 9. 182;}. Matthew 
Hall McAllister matriculated at the College of 
New Jersey, but was not graduated. He was 
admitted to the Georgia bar in 1821, and prac 
tised in Savannah, Ga. In 1827 he was appointed 
U.S. district attorney for Georgia by President 
J. y. Adams. He opposed nullification in 1832 ; 
was a representative in the Georgia legislature 
in 18:55. and subsequently state senator for seven 
teen years and president of the senate most of 
the time of his service. He established the court 
of errors of Georgia and declined the U.S. sena- 
torship. He was defeated for governor of 
Georgia on the Democratic ticket in 1845, and 
was a delegate to the Democratic national con 
vention at Baltimore. Md., May 22, 1848. He re 
moved to San Francisco. Cal.. with his family in 
1850 ; was L T .S. circuit judge for California, 1855- 
62 ; and rendered valuable services by adjusting 
disputed land titles and by maintaining the 
rights of the government to administer the law, 
when that prerogative was usurped by the vigil 
ance committee. In 18(52, being in ill health, he 
resigned. He received the degree of LL.D. from 
Columbia college in 1S(50. His Opinions were 
edited by his son. Matthew Hall McAllister. He 
married Louisa Charlotte, daughter of Benjamin 
Clark and Sarah Charlotte (Mitchell) Cutler and 
had sons: Julian, colonel, U.S.A.: Hall, lawyer : 
Ward, lawyer, and author of : Society as I Have 
Found It; Cutler, lawyer : and Francis Marion, 
clergyman. Dr. McAllister is the author of a 
Eulogy on President Jackson. He died in San 
Francisco, Cal., Dec. 19, 1805. 




MCALLISTER, Robert, soldier, was born in 
Lost Creek Valley, Juniata county, Pa., June 1, 
1813 ; son of William, grandson of Hugh, and 
great-grandson of Archibald McAllister. Archi 
bald McAllister came from Scotland in 1732, and 
settled in Cumberland county, Pa. William, 
McAllister was a 
farmer, who held 
various public offices, 
and Robert was 
brought up on the 
farm and attended 
the neighborhood 
school. He was a 
member of the state 
militia, and reached 
the rank of brigadier- 
general. In 1861 he 
recruited a company 
of volunteers at Ox 
ford, N.J.. where he 
was engaged in build 
ing a railroad, and re 
ported with the company at Trenton, where he 
was commissioned lieutenant-colonel of the 1st 
New Jersey regiment by Governor Olden. He 
served in General Runyon s 4th (reserve) divi 
sion at Bull Run, Va.. July 21, 1861, the division 
being stationed about six miles in the rear, guard 
ing the road to Alexandria. His regiment re 
turned to New Jersey at the end of three months 
service and he recruited the llth New Jersey 
volunteers for the war and was elected colonel. 
He served in Carr s (1st) brigade, Sickles s (2d) 
division, Stonernan s (3d) corps at Fredericks- 
burg, Dec. 13,, 1862 ; in Carr s brigade, Berry s 
division, Sickles s corps at Chancellorsville, May 
2-3, 1863 and in Carr s brigade, Humphrey s 
division, Sickles s corps at Gettysburg, July 1-4, 

1863, where he was wounded and invalided 
home. He returned to the army after three 
months absence and was assigned to the com 
mand of the 1st brigade, 4th division of Han 
cock s 2d corps and at Spottsylvania, May 12, 

1864, he led the brigade at the " bloody angle " 
forming the second line of battle in the assault at 
the salient. On May 13, 1864, on the consolida 
tion of the corps, the 4th division was absorbed 
and Colonel McAllister resumed command of the 
llth New Jersey in the 3d brigade as recon 
structed, taking part in the battle of Cold Harbor, 
June 1, 1864, and in the further campaign of 
Grant against Petersburg and Richmond, gaining 
for his conduct at the battle of Boydton plank 
road. Hatcher s Run, Va., Oct. 27, 1864. the 
brevet of brigadier-general. In the Appomattox 
campaign he commanded the 3d brigade, 3d divi 
sion. 2d army corps, and on March 13, 1865. was 
brevetted major-general of volunteers for gallant 



[183] 



MrALPINE 



MACARTHUR 



and meritorious conduct throughout the war. 
He engaged in railroad business and in mining 
and smelting iron ore in the Lehigh valley, resid 
ing at Allentown, Pa., 1865-8 ,?, and in 1883 he re 
moved to Belvidere, N.J. He was married, Nov. 
9, 1841, to Ellen Jane Wilson of Mercersburg. Pa. 
He is the author of : McAllister s Brit/ade at the 
Blood// Aitt/le in " Battles and Lenders of the 
Civil War," Vol. IV. p. 176. Gen. J. Watts de 
Peyster wrote a sketch of his life. He died at 
Belvidere, N.J., Feb. 23. 1891. 

McALPINE, William Jarvis, civil engineer, 
was born in New York city. April 30, 1812 ; son 
of John and Elizabeth (Jarvis) McAlpine ; grand 
son of Capt. Donald and Elizabeth (Storer) 
McAlpine. and a descendant of Bishop Jarvis, of 
Connecticut, and of the Scottish Kings of Clan 
Alpine. He attended school at Newburgh, N.Y., 
and at Rome. X.Y., and studied civil engineering 
with John B. Jarvis on the C arbondale railway 
in Pennsylvania, 1827-30. He was assistant to 
Mr. Jarvis on the Mohawk and Hudson River 
railroad and on the Schenectady and Saratoga 
railroad, 1830-31 : resident engineer on the Che- 
nango canal, 1832-34 ; in charge of surveys for 
the enlargement of the Erie canal from Little 
Falls to Albany, 1835-36 : and chief engineer of 
the eastern division, 1836-44. In June, 1845. he left 
the employ of the state to accept the position of 
chief engineer in the construction of a dry dock 
at the U.S. navy yard, Brooklyn, N.Y. , a work of 
great magnitude and extraordinary difficulty 
which he successfully accomplished. He de 
signed and superintended the construction of 
the original water works at Albany, N.Y., and at 
Chicago, 111., 1850-54. lie was state engineer 
and surveyor. 1852-54 ; state railroad commis 
sioner, 1855-57 : acting president and chief engi 
neer of the Erie railway. 185(5-57, and chief en 
gineer and vice-president of the Galena and Chi 
cago railroad, 1857. He was chief engineer of 
tiie Third Avenue bridge across the Harlem river, 
1860-61 ; general superintendent of the eastern 
division, Ohio and Mississippi railroad. 1801-64 ; 
and chief engineer of the Pacific railway, 1864- 
65. He visited Europe, 18(56-67; was consulting 
engineer for the Clifton suspension bridge, Nia 
gara Falls. 1868, and of the water works of vari 
ous cities, including New Bedford, Mass.. 18(58-75. 
He superintended the construction of the eapitol 
at Albany, 1873, and constructed its founda 
tion. The Danube Navigation company adopted 
his plans for the improvement of the rapids of 
the Danube river, Austria:, at and about the 
" Iron (late." He was engineer of the depart 
ment of parks. New York city. 1879-80; chief 
and consulting engineer of the. Washington 
Bridge. New York. 1885-88 : and prominently 
connected with the water supply and rapid tran 



sit improvements in New York city, 18*8-90. 
He was elected a member of the American So 
ciety of Civil Engineers, Feb. 3, 1853, being the 
seventeenth on its list of membership ; was its 
president, 1868-69, and an honorary member, 1888- 




90. He was the first American citizen to receive 
honorary membership in the Institution of Civil 
Engineers (London) in 1867, and lie received 
from that institution the Telford medal in 1868. 
He was a member of the Australian Society of 
Engineers and Architects, and of the prominent 
scientific societies of the United States : and of 
the New York chamber of commerce. Among 
his forty-three printed papers are reports of his 
various works as mentioned above, and of: 
Galveston Harbor, The Foundations of ]\ anJn ii(/- 
tou Monument, and The Piirijieation of tin Basin 
of the Harbor of Baltimore. His last book was a 
treatise on Modern Engineering. He died at New 
Brighton, Staten Island, N.Y.. Feb. 16, 1890. 

flacARTHUR, Arthur, jurist, was born in 
Glasgow, Scotland, Jan. 26, 1815. He came to 
America with his parents, who settled in Spring 
field, Mass. He was prepared for college at Ux- 
bridge and Amherst academies, matriculated at 
Wesleyan university in the class of 1840, but left 
during his freshman year. He studied law in 
New York city, 1837 11. and practised in Spring 
field, Mass., 184113, where he was public admin 
istrator for Hampden county and judge advocate 
for the western division of the state militia. He 
practised law in New York city. 184519. and in 
Milwaukee, Wis., 1850-67. He was corporation 
counsel, 1851-52 : lieutenant-governor of the state, 
1856-58 : and upon the resignation of Gov. W. A. 
Barstow, March 21, 1856, he served as governor 
until the inauguration of Coles Bash ford. March 
25, 1856. He was judge of the 2d judicial cir 
cuit, 1856-69 ; was U.S. commissioner to the I aris 
exposition of 1867, and was associate justice of 
the supreme court of the district of Columbia, 
1870-87. He was president of the Washington 
Humane society ; president of the Associated 
Charities for the District of Columbia, and presi 
dent of the board of regents of the National uni 
versity. He delivered lectures on historical and 
literary subjects and published three volumes 
of reports containing the important decisions 



MAC-ARTHUR 



MACARTHUR 



of the supreme court of the District of Columbia 
(1875, 187? and 1881). He was twice married, 
his second wife being the widow of Benjamin 
F. Hawkins, representative in congress from 
Wisconsin. He is the author of : Education in 
its Relation to Manual Industry (1884), and 
Biography of the English Language (1889). He, 
died in Atlantic City, N.J., Aug. 24, 1896. 

MacARTHUR, Arthur, soldier, was born in 
Springfield, Mass., June 1. 1845; son of Judge 
Arthur MacArthur (q.v.). In 1849 he went with 
his father to Milwaukee, Wis., and there attended 
school until Aug. 4, 1803, when lie was appointed 
by Governor Salomon 1st lieutenant and adjutant 
of the 24th Wisconsin 
volunteers. His first 
battle was Perryville, 
Ky., Oct. 8, 1862. in 
the 37th brigade, llth 
division, yd army 
corps. At Stone s 
river, Tenn., Dec. 30- 
31, 18(52, his regiment 
was part of the 1st 
brigade, Sheridan s 
3d division. McCook s 
right wing, Army of 
the Cumberland. He 
was second in com 
mand during the en 
gagement, the regi 
ment being commanded by Major Hibbard, and 
he was commended for bravery in the official re 
port of the commander of the brigade. At Cliicka- 
mauga he was again second in command, and at 
Chattanooga he gained a medal of honor for con 
spicuous bravery in action Nov. 25, 1863, while 
serving as 1st lieutenant and adjutant of the 24th 
Wisconsin infantry- He was promoted major 
Jan. 25, 1864, and commanded the regiment at 
Kenesaw Mountain, June 27, 1864. At the bat 
tle of Franklin, Tenn., Nov. 30, 1864. he com 
manded his regiment in Opdyke s brigade, Stan 
ley s division, and General Stanley gave the 24th 
Wisconsin, credit for doing " a large part " in 
saving the day. He was severely wounded and 
could not take part in the battle of Nashville. 
He was promoted lieutenant-colonel May 18. 1865, 
and was mustered out June 10, 1865. He was 
brevelted lieutenant-colonel of volunteers for 
Perryville, Stone s river, Missionary Ridge and 
Dandridge, Tenn., and colonel of volunteers for 
services at the battle of Franklin, Tenn., and in 
the Atlanta campaign, March 13, 1865. On Feb. 
23, 1866, he was commissioned 2d lieutenant in the 
17th infantry and the same day was promoted 1st 
lieutenant. He accepted the commission April 30, 
1866, was promoted captain of the 36th infantry 
July 28, 1866 ; major and assistant adjutant-gen- 




era,! July 1,1889; lieutenant-colonel May 26, 
1896 ; brigadier-general Jan. 2, 1900, and major- 
general Feb. 5, 1901. He re-entered the volunteer 
army as brigadier-general May 27, 1898, and was 
promoted major-general of volunteers Aug. 13, 
1898. He succeeded Gen. El well S. Otis in com 
mand of the Division of the Philippines, Feb. 5. 
1901, and on June 15, 1901, issued a proclamation 
of amnesty to the natives. He assumed com 
mand of the Department of the Lakes, March 
25, 1902. 

MacARTHUR, Charles Lafayette, journal 
ist, was born in Claremont, N.H., Jan. 7, 1824 ; 
son of Charles G. and Philena (Stearns) MacAr 
thur and a descendant of Daniel MacArthur. He 
was graduated from the Black River institute, 
Watertown, N.Y.; learned the printer s trade, and 
removed to Carthage, N.Y., in 1840, where he 
established the Carthaginian. He was a reporter 
on the Detroit Free Press, 1841 ; went to Milwau 
kee, Wis., in 1842, and accompanied an expedition 
to the head- waters of the Platte river to treat 
with the Sioux Indians, and the same year be 
came senior editor of the Sentinel, the first daily 
newspaper published in Wisconsin. He was city 
editor of the New York Sun, 1846-47, and editor 
and proprietor of the Troy Daily Budget, 1847- 
59, and of the Troy Daily Arena, 1859-61. He 
was 1st lieutenant and quartermaster, 2d N.Y. 
volunteers, 1861-62, being present at the battle of 
Great Bethel, and in the capture of Norfolk, Va. 
He was transferred to the regular army as assist 
ant quartermaster with the rank of captain in 
1862 ; served as brigade and division quarter 
master, and participated in all the battles from 
Fair Oaks, May 11-15, 1862, to Malvern Hill. July 
1, 1862, and in the battle of Fredericksburg. Dec. 
11-15, 1862. He was twice brevetted by Governor 
Fenton for gallant and meritorious services. 
When the slavery issue divided the Democratic 
party he affiliated with the Free Soil wing until 
the formation of the Republican party which he 
assisted in organizing. He founded and edited 
the Troy News, the pioneer Sunday newspaper in 
the state outside of New York city, in 1864. and 
sold it in 1866 to become an editor and proprietor 
of the Troy Daily Whig. The Troy Northern 
Budget, an extreme Democratic paper, was sus 
pended in 1863. and Mr. MacArthur republished 
it as a Sunday paper in 1867, making it a Repub- 
licti.ii organ and a leader of the political senti 
ment of the party in that section of the state. 
Mr. MacArthur was a member of the Democratic 
state central committee ; a delegate to the Dem 
ocratic national convention of 1856: city alder 
man, 1852-56 ; collector of the port of Troy for a 
number of years under Republican administra 
tion : was a Republican state senator, 1882-83. 
and as a member of the committees on commerce 



1185 



McARTHUR 



McARTHUR 



and navigation and canals introduced measures 
that resulted in the enlargement of the Erie 
canal and looked to the building of a ship water 
way to complete the navigation of the great lakes 
in connection with the Erie canal. During his 
travels abroad he gave to the Budget a, succession 
of letters. He was a prominent member of the 
Grand Army of the Republic ; served as president 
of the Rensselaer County Soldiers and Sailors 
Monument association, and principally through 
his efforts the $50, 000 for the Troy monument was 
procured. He died in Troy, N.Y., Oct. 13, 1898. 

McARTHUR, Duncan, soldier, was born in 
Dutchess county, N.Y., June 14. 1772. His pa 
rents removed to the Pennsylvania!! frontier 
in 1780. and in 1790 Duncan enlisted as a volun 
teer in Gen. Josiah Harmar s expedition against 
the Miami Indians. He was engaged in Indian 

warfare in Kentucky 
and Ohio, 1790-94, 
and subsequently set- 
tied near Chillicothe, 
Ohio, and engaged as 
a surveyor. He pur 
chased a large tract 
of land near Chilli- 
cotlie ; was a repre 
sentative iu the state 
legislature, 1804-05, 
1815-10, 1817-18 and 
1826-27, and speaker, 
1817-18. He was 
elected major-gen 
eral of the state 
militia in 1808, and 

was commissioned colonel of the 1st Ohio volun 
teer regiment, May 7, 1812. He was second in 
command at the time General Hull surrendered 
Detroit, and led the foraging party that obtained 
provisions from the British settlements on the 
Thames river. Although absent at the time of 
Hull s surrender, he was included in the terms 
and was released by exchange and commissioned 
brigadier-general, March 12, 181-?. Upon the res 
ignation of General Harrison, May 31, 1814, Mc- 
Arthur succeeded to the command of the North 
western army. He formulated a plan for the 
conquest of Canada, and on Oct. 20. 1814. crossed 
the St. Glair river with 750 men and five field 
pieces, drove the militia from Oxford, Nov. 4, 
1814, and reached Brantford. where he was con 
fronted by a large force of British regulars and 
Indians. He turned southward, and upon reach 
ing Dover learned that Gen. George Tzard. whom 
he had counted upon for support, had withdrawn 
his troops from Canada, and lie retreated to De 
troit by way of St. Thomas, discharged his troops 
at Sandwich, Nov. 17. 1814, and was mustered 
out, June 15, 1815. He was a Democratic repre 




sentative in the 13th and 18th congresses, 1813-15 
and 1823-25 ; governor of Ohio, 1830-32, and a 
candidate for representative in congress in 1832. 
He died near Chillicothe, Ohio, April 28, 1839. 

McARTHUR, John, architect, was born in 
Bladenoch, Wigtownshire, Scotland, May 13, 1823. 
His parents immigrated to the United States in 
1833, and settled in Philadelphia, Pa., where he 
studied architectural drawing. He served as 
foreman under his uncle in the construction of- 
the Pennsylvania hospital ; as architect and 
superintendent of the House of Refuge, Phila 
delphia, Pa., in 1848. and as architect in charge 
of hospitals and government buildings in Phila 
delphia, 1861-65. He secured the contract to 
design and construct the city hall in Philadelphia 
in 1869, and was architect of the post-office build 
ing erected in Philadelphia in 1871. He declined 
the supervision of the architecture of the U.S. 
treasury building, Washington, D.C., 1874; ex 
amined and reported on the construction of the 
custom-house building at Chicago. III., in 1875, 
and selected the plan for the new court-house at 
Boston, Mass., in 1885. Buildings of his design 
and supervision not enumerated, include the 
naval hospitals at Philadelphia, Pa.. Annapolis, 
Md., and Mare Island, Cal. ; the state hospitals for 
the insane at Danville and Warren, Pa. ; Lafav- 
ette college at Easton, Pa. ; the Continental, Gir- 
ard and Lafayette hotels, and the Public Ledger 
building, Philadelphia, Pa., and the town and 
country residences of George W. Childs. He 
died in Philadelphia. Pa., Jan. 8, 1890. 

McARTHUR, John, soldier, was born in Er- 
skine. Scotland. Nov. 17. 1826; son of John and 
Isabella (Neilson) Me Arthur. He attended the 
public schools and worked in his father s black 
smith shop until 1849. He was married in 1848 
to Christina Cuth- 
bertson, of Erskine, 
Scotland ; immigrat 
ed to the United 
States in 1849 and 
obtained employment 
in Chicago, 111., in 
1849 as a boiler-maker 
and subsequently es 
tablished a business 
of his own. He was 
captain of the " High 
land Guards " at 
tached to the state 
militia, and in 1861 
they volunteered and 
reported at Spring 
field, where he was elected and commissioned 
colonel of the 12th Illinois volunteers. He com 
manded the 1st brigade. 2d division of the army 
under Gen. U. S. Grant, at the assault on Fort 




1*^ M^W\AA 



[180] 



MACARTHUR 



Donelson, Feb. 14, 1862, and he was promoted brig 
adier-general, March 21, 1862. He commanded 
the 2d brigade, 2d division, Army of the Ten 
nessee at the battle of Shiloh, April 6-7, 1862, 
where he was wounded. He commanded the 1st 
brigade, 6th division. Army of the Tennessee, at 
Corinth, Oct. 3-4, 1862, and the 6th division, 17th 
corps, Army of the Tennessee, during the Vicks- 
burg campaign, May 1 to July 4. 1863. He was 
in command of the 1st division of A. J. Smith s 
detachment of the Army of the Tennessee in the 
battle of Nashville, Dec. 15-16, 1864, and on Dec. 
16, impatient at the delay in the attack, Me Arthur 
received Smith s silent approval to charge the 
hill in front of General Couch s command, which 
that commander had been refused the privilege 
of charging, and withdrawing McMillen s brigade 
from the trenches, lie inarched it by flank in 
front of Couch s position and charged the hill 
with fixed bayonets. The hill was capped by a 
redoubt manned by Bate s division and mounted 
with Whitworth s guns, and in the face of a tre 
mendous fire McArthur, without firing a shot, 
gained the summit and planted the flag. His 
gallantry won for him the brevet of major-gen 
eral. He was president of the board of commis 
sioners of public works of Chicago during the fire 
of 1871 ; postmaster of the city, 1873-77, and in 
in 1901 he was a retired manufacturer. 

flacARTHUR, Robert Stuart, clergyman, was 
born in Dales ville, Quebec, Canada, July 31, 
1841, of Highland Scotch parents. He attended 
the Canadian Literary Institute, Woodstock, 
Ont. : and was graduated from the University of 
Rochester in 1867, and from the Rochester Theo 
logical seminary in 1870. He was chosen pastor 
of the Calvary Baptist church at New York city 
in 1870. Under his pastorate the church grew 
rapidly and in 1882-83 a new and spacious edifice 
was erected on Fifty-Seventh street. The honor 
ary degree of D.D. was conferred on him by the 
University of Roche ster in 1880 ; and that of 
LL.D. by Columbian university in 1896. He was 
for a number of years the New York correspond 
ent of the Chicago Standard, and editor of the 
Christian Inquirer, arid of the Baptist Quarterly 
Review, and contributed largely to magazines 
and other publications. His popular lectures, 
Tlie Land of the Midnight Sun, The Story of flic 
Huguenot, Glimpses of Sunny Spain, The Empire 
of the Czarthe Great Bear of the Kort h, and 
Elements of Success in Life, were repeated in the 
principal cities of the United States. He suc 
ceeded the Rev. Charles Haddon Spurgeon in 
furnishing sermons for the Christian Herald. 
He is the author of volumes of sermons, essays, 
and travels in many lands, published annually, 
and he compiled the Cavalry Selection, the In 
Excelsis and other popular Baptist hymn books. 

[18 



McAULEY, Thomas, educator, was born in 
Ireland in 1780. His parents immigrated to 
America and settled in Salem, N.Y., where he 
prepared for college. He was graduated at 
Union college, N.Y., A.B., 1804, and remained 
there as a tutor, 1805-06 ; lecturer on mathematics 
and natural philosophy, 1811-14, and professor of 
mathematics and natural philosophy, 1814-22. 
He was ordained to the Presbyterian ministry 
in 1822, and was pastor of the Rutgers Street 
church, New York city, 1822-27, of the Tenth 
church, Philadelphia, Pa., 1827-33, president of 
the Philadelphia board of education, 1830; and 
pastor of the Murray Street church, New York 
city, 1833-40. He was a founder of Union Theo 
logical seminary, New York city, in 1836 ; a 




UNION THEOLOGICAL SEMI/VARY, /M.Y. 

member of its original board of directors, 1836- 
40 ; and president of the seminary and professor 
of pastoral theology, 1836-40. As a prominent 
member of the general assembly of the Presby 
terian church in 1837, which resulted in the divi 
sion of the church into the new and old schools, 
he advocated reconciliation. He retired from 
active educational work in 1840. He received the 
honorary degree of D.D. from Union college in 
1822 and that of LL.D. elsewhere. He died in 
New York city, May 11, 1842. 

McBRIDE, George Wickliffe, senator, was born 
in Yamhill county, Oregon, March 13, 1854 ; son 
of James and Mahala McBride and grandson of 
Thomas McBride. He attended public schools, 
was a student at Christian college, Monmouth, 
Ore., for two years, studied law and was admitted 
to the bar, but did not practice. He engaged in the 
mercantile business at Saint Helen, Ore., 1872-82, 
and in June, 1882, was elected Republican 
representative in the state legislature and 
speaker, 1882 ; secretary of state, 1886-95 ; U.S. 
senator and chairman of the committee on coast 
defences, 1895-1901, and U.S. commissioner to 
the Louisiana Purchase exposition at St. Louis, 
1904. 

MACBRIDE, Thomas Huston, educator, was 

born in Rogersville. Tenn.. July 31, 1848; son of 

James Bovard and Sarah (Huston) Macbride. He 

was graduated from Monmouth college, 111., A.B., 

3 



McBRYDE 



McCABE 



1869, A.M., 1872. He was appointed professor of 
botany at the State university of Iowa in 1884 and 
spent a part of the year 1891 in study in Germany. 
He was married, Dec. 31, 1874, to Harriet Dif- 
fenderfer of Hopkinton, Iowa. The honorary 
degree of Ph.D. was conferred on him by Mon- 
mouth college. He was elected a fellow of the 
American Association for the Advancement of 
Science and of the American Society of Geolo 
gists. He made a special study of fungi and con 
tributed botanical articles to various scientific 
magazines. He is the author of text books on 
Botany and The North American Slime Moulds, 
and became editor of the Iowa Bulletin of the 
Laboratories of Natural History. 

flcBRYDE, John McLaren, educator and sci 
entist, was born in Abbeville, S.C., Jan. 1, 1841 ; 
son of John and Susan (McLaren) McBryde ; 
grandson of John and Margaret (Donnan) Mc 
Bryde and of Adam and Agnes (McKillop) Mc 
Laren, and a descendant of the distinguished 
Presbyterian divines John and Robert McBryde 
of Belfast, Ireland. His parents came to Amer 
ica from Scotland between 1850 and 1830, and 
settled in South Carolina. He was educated at 
the South Carolina college, and the University of 
Virginia. He obtained a commission in the Con 
federate army, serving, 1861-03, when his health 
obliged him to retire. He was married, Nov. 18. 
1863, to Cora, daughter of Dr. James and Anna 
Maria (Harrison) Bolton of Richmond, Va. He 
was employed by the Confederate States treasury 
department, 1863-65. and at the close of the war 
he removed to Buckingham, Va. , and engaged in 
farming. He removed to Albemarle county in 
1867, where he pursued scientific studies. He 
was president of the Belmont Farmers club, and 
was active in the organization of other farmers 
societies. He was professor of agriculture and 
botany at the University of Tennessee, 1879-82 ; 
was elected professor of agriculture and botany 
at the South Carolina college in 1882, and upon 
the resignation of President William P. Miles in 
1882, he served as president, 1882-83. He was 
regularly elected to the office in May, 1883, and 
served in that capacity until 1888. He was 
elected president of the University of Tennessee 
in 1887, but declined the honor. In 1888 he be 
came president of the University of South 
Carolina and director of the experiment stations 
of South Carolina. In 1891 he accepted the 
presidency of the Virginia Polytechnic institute 
and the directorship of its experiment station. 
He declined the position of U.S. assistant secre 
tary of agriculture in 1893. He was a member of 
the Miller board of trustees of the University of 
Virginia ; corresponding member of the Elisha 
Mitchell Scientific society of North Carolina ; 
fellow of the American Geographical society and 




of the American Statistical association and a 
member of several other scientific societies. He 
received the degree of LL.D. from Southwestern 
Presbyterian university in 1884 and that of Ph.D. 
from the University of Tennessee in 1887. 

McCABE, Charles Cardwell, M.E. bishop, was 
born in Athens, Ohio, Oct. 1 1 , 1836 ; son of Robert 
and Sarah Cardwell (Robinson) McCabe and 
grandson of Robert McCabe, who emigrated from 
Ireland and settled in Tyrone county, Pa., and of 
Richard and A. (Cardwell) Robinson of England. 
He attended the pub 
lic schools of Athens, 
and the Ohio Wes- 
leyari university, Del 
aware, Ohio, but left 
before completing 
the course on account 
of ill health. He 
was married, July 5, 
1860. to Rebecca 
Peters of Ironton, 
Ohio. He was a 
teacher of the High 
school at Ironton, 
1860-61 ; pastor of 
the Methodist Epis 
copal church at Put 
nam, Ohio, 1861-62; chaplain of the 122d Ohio 
volunteers, 1862-63 ; pastor at Portsmouth, Ohio, 
1865-68; secretary of the Church Extension so 
ciety of the M.E. church, 1868-84; secretary of 
the missionary society of the M.E. church, 1884- 
96, and was chosen a bishop in the Methodist 
Episcopal church in 1896. 

McCABE, James Dabney, author, was born 
in Richmond, Va., July 30, 1842 : son of the Rev. 
James Dabney McCabe (born 1808, died 1875), who 
was a Methodist clergyman, received orders in 
the Protestant Episcopal church in 1856. was as 
sociate rector of St. Paul s. Baltimore, Md.. and 
rector of various other churches in Maryland, 
twice declining election as bishop. James at 
tended the Virginia Military institute and joined 
the Confederate army in 1861. He was a con 
tributor to and in 1863-64, editor of the Magnolia 
Weekly. He is the author of: Fanaticism and 
its Results (1860); The Aide-de-Camp (1863); The 
Bohemian (1863) ; Life of Gen. Thomas J. Jackson 
(1863); Memoir of Gen. Albert S. Johnston (1866); 
Life and Campaigns of Gen. Robert E. Lee 
(1867); The Grey Jackets (1867); Planting the 
Wilderness (1869): History of the late War be 
tween Germany and France (1871); Lights and 
Shadouis of New York Life (1872); The Great 
Republic (1872): A History of the Grange Move 
ment (1874); Paris by Sunlight and Gaslight 
(1875); Centennial History of the United States 
(1875); Pathways of the Holy Land (1877); His- 



[1881 



Mc CABE 



McCALEB 



tort/ of tlie Tarko-Russian War (1879); Our 
Young Folks Abroad (1881 ); Oar Young Folks in 
Africa (1883). He also wrote Sword of Harry 
Lee, and other war poems ; and three war plays, 
produced at the Richmond theatre, 1 862-03. He 
died in German town. Pa., Jan. 27, 1883. 

HcCABE, John Collins, clergyman, was born 
in Richmond, Va., Nov. 12, 1810. Ho left school 
to take a position in a Richmond bank. lie was 
prepared for the priesthood by Bishop Meade ; 
was ordained in 184.1, and was rector of Christ 
church. Smithfield, Va..., 1845-50; and of St. 
Johns, parish of Elizabeth City, Hampton, Va., 
1850-55. He made abstracts from the parish 
registers for an " Early History of the Church 
in Virginia " and transferred his manuscript to 
Bishop Meade for use in compiling his " Churches, 
Ministers and Families of Virginia " (1857). Dr. 
McCabe was chairman of the state yellow fever 
committee in 1855. He removed to Maryland in 
1856, was rector in Baltimore, 1856-59: and in 
Anne Arundel county, 1859-61. He was chaplain 
of a Virginia regiment in the Confederate army, 
1861-63, and chaplain of Libby prison, Richmond, 
Va., 1862-65. He returned to Maryland at the 
close of the war; was pastor of St. Matthew s, 
Bladensburg, 1865-67; of St. Anne s, Middle- 
town, Del., 1867-72 and of Trinity, Chambers- 
burg, Pa., 1872-75. The degree of D.D. was 
conferred on him by the College of William and 
Mary in 1855. He is the author of several poems, 
collected under the title of Scraps (1835): and 
contributed papers on colonial history to period 
icals. He died in Chambersburg, Pa., Feb. 26, 1^75. 

McCABE, Lorenzo Dow, educator, was born 
in Marietta, Ohio, Jan. 7, 1817 ; son of Robert 
and Mary (McCracken) McCabe, and grandson of 
Alexander McCracken. He was graduated from 
Ohio university, A.B., 184:!, A.M., 1846. He 
joined the Ohio conference of the Methodist Epis 
copal church in 1843; preached, 1843-44; was 
professor of mathematics and mechanical philo 
sophy in Ohio university, 184445 ; professor of 
mathematics and mechanical philosophy in Ohio 
Wesleyan university, 1845-60; professor of bibli 
cal literature and moral philosophy. 1860-64; 
professor of philosophy, 1864-71 ; vice-president 
of the university, 1871-73 ; acting president, 
1873-76, and again 1888-89. and emeritus profes 
sor of philosophy and vice-president, 1889-97. 
The honorary degree of D.D. was conferred on 
him by Allegheny college in 1855 and that of 
LL.D. by Syracuse university in 1875. He is the 
author of: Philosophy of Holiness (1875); Fore 
knowledge, of God and Cognate Themes (1879); 
Divine Nescience of Future Contingencies a Ne 
cessity (1882); Light on the Pathway of Holiness 
(1892): St. Peter the Rock; and magazine arti 
cles. He died in Delaware. Ohio, June 18, 1897. 



McCABE, William Gordon, educator, was 
born near Richmond, Va., Aug. 4. 1841 ; son of 
the Rev. John Collins and Sophie Gordon (Taylor) 
McCabe ; grandson of Col. James Taylor, of Vir 
ginia, and great 2 grandson of George Taylor, the 
signer. He attended the preparatory academy at 
Hampton, Va., and was graduated from the Uni 
versity of Virginia in 1861. He enlisted in the 
Confederate army and served as a private, 1861- 
62, and as captain of artillery, 3d army corps, 
Army of Northern Virginia, 1862-65. Shortly after 
the close of the war he established at Petersburg, 
Va., the University School, of which he was 
elected head master, and subsequently removed it 
to Richmond, Va. He was married, April 9, 1867, 
to Jenny Pleasants Harrison Osborne, of Rich 
mond, Va. The honorary degree of A.M. was 
conferred on him by the College of William and 
Mary in 1868 and by Williams college, Mass., in 
1889, and that of Litt.D. by Yale in 1897. He 
translated Wilhelm Brambach s Latin Ortliog- 
rapliy (1872); compiled and edited a volume of 
verses under the title of Ballads of Battle and 
Bravery (1873), and is the author of: The De 
fense of Petersburg, Campaign of 1864-lJo (1876); 
Latin Grammar (1883); Latin Reader (1886); Vir 
ginia Scliools (1900) ; and edited a volume of 
CVp.sw s Gallic War (1886) and Horace s Works. 

flcCAFFREY, John, educator, was born in 
Emmitsburg, Md., Sept. 6, 180(5. He attended 
the Theological Seminary of St. Snlpice and St. 
Mary s university in Baltimore, Md.. and was or 
dained priest in 1838. He was elected president 
of Mount St. Mary s college in 1838 and began 
the erection of a church there, besides intro 
ducing many improvements to the college build 
ings and grounds. He was twice offered a 
bishopric, but declined. He delivered a course 
of literary and philosophical lectures before the 
Philomathean society of the college and subse 
quently before the Catholic association of Balti 
more, which attracted much attention and were 
published. He prepared a series of catechisms. 
He died in Emmitsburg, Md., Sept. 25, 1882. 

flcCALEB, Theodore Howard, educator, was 
born in Pendleton District, S.C., Feb. 10, 1810; 
son of David and Matilda (Farrar) McCaleb ; 
grandson of Capt. William (1747-1813) and Anne 
(McKey) McCaleb and of Col. Thomas and Mar 
garet (Prince) Farrar, of South Carolina ; and 
great-grandson of William McCaleb, who fought 
at Culloden in 1746 ; in 1747 immigrated with his 
family to Pendleton District, S.C., where his son 
William was born the same year, and served in the 
American Revolution as captain of horse in the 
battles of Charleston, Ninety-six, Gnilford C.II., 
and in the siege of Savannah, where he was 
wounded. He was afterward a delegate to the 
South Carolina convention which ratified the 



[180] 



MCCALEB 



McCALL 




constitution of the United States, representing 
the south side of Saluda river district and voting 
for the ratification. Col. Thomas Farrar served 
under General Pickens, and at the close of the 
war was in command of Fort Ninety-six. Theo 
dore Howard McCaleb was prepared for college 
at Exeter academy 
and was matriculated 
at Yale, but left be 
fore graduation to 
take up the study of 
la\v in New Orleans, 
where he succeeded 
his brother Thomas 
Farrar McCaleb 

(q.v.), 1832-41. He 
was appointed in 1841 
by President Tyler 
U.S. district judge 
for Louisiana. but con 
gress in 1846 passed 
an act making his 
court the U.S. district 
court for the eastern district of Louisiana, and 
he was reappointed by President Polk in 1846 and 
held tiie office until the secession of the state in 
1861. In addition to his judicial duties he served 
as president of the University of Louisiana, 1850- 
54, and dean and professor of admiralty and in 
ternational law in its law department. He de 
livered orations at the dedication of Lyceum 
hall ; at the obsequies of Henry Clay, and at the 
unveiling of the Clay statue on Canal street, New 
Orleans, and a eulogy on Sargeant S. Prentiss. 
He entertained notable visitors at New Or 
leans, including Thackeray, Macready, Cha 
teaubriand and De Tocqueville. He received the 
honorary degree of LL.D. from Centenary college, 
Louisiana. He died at his plantation" Hermit 
age," Claiborne county, Miss., in 1864. 

McCALEB, Thomas Farrar, lawyer, was born 
at Pendleton C.H., S.C.. Nov. 29. 1795 ; eldest son 
of Capt. David and Matilda (Farrar) McCaleb. 
He was graduated at the College of New Jersey, 
Princeton, in 1818, and established himself in the 
practice of law in New Orleans, La., where he 
was counsel in nearly every important case before 
the supreme court of the state and was attorney 
for Donaldson, founder of Donaldsonville, La., 
and for John MoDonough, the eccentric philan 
thropist. In 1830 he came within one vote of 
being elected U.S. senator, being defeated by 
Robert Carter Nicholas. He was elected secre 
tary of state of Louisiana in 1831. He died of 
cholera in New Orleans. La., Nov. 5, 1832. 

McCALL, Edward R., naval officer, was born 
in Charleston, S.C., Aug. 5. 1790. He was war 
ranted midshipman in the U.S. navy, Jan. 1, 1808, 
and served on the brig Enterprise, commanded 



Philadelphia be- 



by Lieut. Johnston Blakely, and subsequently by 
Lieut. William Burrows. He was second in com 
mand in the engagement with the Boxer, Sept. 4, 
1813, having been promoted lieutenant, March 11, 
1813. When Lieutenant Burrows was mortally 
wounded early in that engagement the command 
fell on Lieutenant McCall, who received the sur 
render of the British brig and was awarded a 
gold medal by congress. He was promoted mas 
ter commandant March 3, 1825, and captain, 
March 3, 1835. He died in Bordentown, N.J., 
July 31, 1853. 

McCALL, George Archibald, soldier, was born 
in Philadelphia, Pa,. March 16. 1802; son of 
Archibald and Elizabeth (Cadwalader) McCall ; 
grandson of Archibald and Judith (Kemble) 
McCall, and great-grandson of George and Ann 
(Yeates) McCall, who came t( 
fore 1700. He was 
graduated from the 
U.S. Military acad 
emy in 1822 ; was 
promoted 1st lieu 
tenant, Jan. 25, 1829, 
and was aide de-camp 
to Gen. E. P. Gaines 
in the Seminole war, 
1831-36. He was pro 
moted captain, Sept. 
21, 1836 ; was in com 
mand of the 4th in 
fantry on its march 
from Tampa, Fla., 
to Fort Gibson, Ind. 
Ty., 1838-39, and 
served at Fort Gibson, 1839-41. He partici 
pated in the second war with the Seminole In 
dians, 1841-42 ; was in garrison at Jefferson Bar 
racks, Mo., 1842-43, and at Fort Scott, Kan.. 1843- 
45. He served in the military occupation of Texas, 
1845-46, and participated in the battles of Palo 
Alto, Mexico, May 8, and Resaca de la Palma, 
May 9, 1846, receiving the brevet of major and 
lieutenant-colonel for gallant conduct. He served 
as chief of staff and assistant adjutant-general to 
General Patterson, 1846-47, participating in the 
siege of Vera Cruz, March 9-29. 1847. He was 
promoted major and assigned to the 3d infantry, 
Dec. 26, 1847 ; was made inspector-general with 
the rank of colonel. June 10, 1850 : was on duty 
at Washington, D.C., 1850-51, and on a tour of 
inspection in California and Oregon in 1852. He 
resigned from the regular army, April 29, 1853, 
and engaged in farming at Belair, West Chester, 
Pa. He was commissioned major-general of 
Pennsylvania volunteers, May 15, 1861. and com 
manded the Pennsylvania reserve corps, and his 
division formed the extreme right of the Federal 
line of defence before Washington, D.C. He was 




McCALL 



MeCALLA 



commissioned brigadier-general U.S. volunteers, 
May 17, 1801, and participated in the action at 
Dranesville, Va., Dec. 20, 1861. He commanded 
the 3d division of Fitz John Porter s 5th corps in 
the Seven Days battles, June 25-30. 1802, and at 
the battle of Median icsville, June 26, 1862, he 
commanded the entire force engaged. He led 
his brigade in the battle of Gaines s Mill, June 
27, 1862, and at the battle of New Market Cross 
Roads, June 30, 1862. where he was taken pris 
oner. He wus confined in Libby prison. Rich 
mond, Va.. June 27 to Aug. IS, 1802, and was on 
sick leave of absence from Aug. 18. 1N02. to 
March 31, 1863, when lie resigned his commission 
and retired to his farm at Belair, Pa. In August, 
1862, the citizens of Chester county presented 
him with a sword and in the autumn of 1804 he 
was the Democratic candidate for representative 
from his district in the 39th congress. He is the 
author of: Letters from the Frontier (published 
posthumously. 180S). lie died in Belair, Pa., Feb. 
26. 18158. 

McCALL, Peter, law instructor, was bom in 
Trenton, N.J., .Vug. 31, 1809; son of Peter and 
Sarah (Gibson) McCall. and grandson of Archi 
bald and Judith (Kemble) McCall. He was grad 
uated from the College of New Jersey, A.B., 1820, 
A.M., 1829. He studied law under J. R, Ingersoll ; 
and practised in Philadelphia, 1831-80. He was a 
member of the city council for several years and 
mayor of the city. 1844-45. He was a vice-pro 
vost of the Law Academy of Philadelphia for 
thirty years ; professor of pleading and practice 
in the law department of the University of Penn 
sylvania and a trustee of the university, 1801-80. 
He delivered many addresses, including I y rogress 
(ind Influence of the Society of Friends in Phila 
delphia (1832); Rise and Progress of Civil Society 
(1830); History of Pennsylvania Lain and Equity 
(1838). He died in Philadelphia. Oct. 30, 1880. 

McCALL, Samuel Walker, representative, 
was born in East Providence, Pa., Feb. 28. 1851 ; 
son of Henry and Mary Ann (Elliott) McCall, 
and grandson of William McCall. He passed 
his early life in Illinois ; prepared for college 
at New Hampton, N.H., academy : was grad 
uated from Dartmouth college in 1874 ; was 
admitted to the bar in 1876, and began prac 
tice in Boston. He was editor of the Boston 
Daily Advertiser ; was a representative in the 
state legislature, 188S. 1889 and 1892; was presi 
dent of the Republican state convention of Massa 
chusetts in 1896 ; was a delegate to the Republi 
can national conventions that met in Chicago, 
June 19. 1888, and in Philadelphia. 1900. and a 
representative from the eight district of Massa 
chusetts in the 53d-57th congresses. 1893-1903. 
He is the author of Thaddeus Stevens (1899) in the 
" American Statesman Series. 




McCALLA, Bowman Hendry, naval officer, 
was born in Camden, N.J., June 19, 1844 ; son of 
Auley and Mary Duftield (Hendry) McCalla ; 
grandson of Auley and Hannah (Gibbon) Mc 
Calla and of Dr. Bowman and Elizabeth (Duf 
tield) Hendry ; great-grandson of Thomas and 

(Bowman) Hen- 
dry, and a descend 
ant of John and Jane 
McCalla, who came 
from Scotland in 
1750 with a grant of 
land in Pennsylvania 
and settled in Mont 
gomery county, af 
terward removing to 
Roadstown, N.J. He 
was graduated at the 
U.S. Naval academy 
in November, 1864; 
and was promoted 
master, Dec. 1, 1806. 
He served on the 
training ship Sabine on the Atlantic station, 
1867-68 ; was promoted lieutenant, March 12, 
1868; served on the Tuscarora of the South 
Pacific and North Atlantic squadrons, 1868-71, 
and was promoted lieutenant-commander, March 
26, 1869. He was attached to the irabaxli, flag 
ship of the European squadron, 1871-72 ; to the 
\\aehnsett of the European fleet in 1873. and was 
on duty at the U.S. Naval academy, 1874-78. He 
was married, March 3. 1875, to Elizabeth Hazard, 
daughter of Gen. Horace Binney Sargent, of Bos 
ton, Mass. He served on the Poirhatan of the 
North Atlantic station, 1878-81 ; was assistant to 
the bureau of navigation, 1881-87 ; was promoted 
commander, November, 1884, and commanded 
the naval force on the Isthmusof Panama in 1885. 
He commanded the Enterprise on the European 
station, 1887-90, and in the latter year while 
holding this command he was convicted by court- 
martial of striking a mutinous sailor with the 
back of his sword and was sentenced to be sus 
pended from rank and duty for three years. In 
1891 Secretary Tracy remitted the tin ex pi red por 
tion of his sentence. He was granted a full and 
unconditional pardon by President McKinley, 
March 13. 1900. He was on duly at the Mare Island 
navy yard, 1893-97: was instructor at the war 
college. 1897: commanded the protected cruiser 
Marltleliead. 1897-98. and sei/.ed the British steam 
ship Adnla in Cuban waters, June. 1898, on the 
claim that the vessel was violating the blockade, 
and served in the North Atlantic squadron dur 
ing the war with Spain. Tie was promoted cap 
tain and advanced seven numbers. Aug. 10. 1898, 
for heroic and distinguished services during the 
Spanish -American war, and this restored him to 



McCANDLESS 



McCARTEE 



the number and rank lie had held in the navy July 4, 1862, he captured the Confederate gun- 



prior to the court-martial. He was transferred 
from the Marblekead to the Norfolk navy yard 
in October, 1898, served as captain of the yard 
and ma:le the unsuccessful effort to bring into 
that yard the Spanish cruiser Maria Teresa, 
which had been abandoned off Cat Island by the 
wrecking company in November, 1898. While 
in command of the Newark he received the sur 
render of the provinces of Cagayan and Isabella, 
with the Batan Isles at Aparri, P. I., Dec. 11, 
1899, from General Tirona, in command of the 
insurgent troops, and appointed the captured 
general civil governor of the province, subject to 
the approval of General Otis. He was ordered to 
China in 1900 and commanded the American sea 
men and marines in Admiral Seymour s unsuc 
cessful expedition for the relief of Pekin, and 
Admiral Seymour in writing to Admiral Kempff 
after the expedition spoke in high commendation 
of his gallant conduct. 

McCANDLESS, Wilson, jurist, was born in 
Pittsburg, Pa., June 19, 1810 ; of Scotch-Irish de 
scent. He was graduated at the Western Univer 
sity of Pennsylvania in 1826 ; practised law in 
Pittsburg, 1831-59 ; and was United States judge 
for the Western District of Pennsylvania, 1859-76. 
He received the honorary degree of LL.D. from 
Union college, Schenectady, N.Y., in 1862. 
He was a presidential elector from the state at 
large on the Democratic ticket in 1844, 1853 and 
1856, and served twice as president of the elec 
toral college of the state. He was also chairman 
of the Pennsylvania delegation to the Democratic 
national convention at Baltimore. Md., May 22, 
1848. He delivered the address of welcome to 
John Quincy Adams on his visit to Pittsburg in 
1883, and the oration on General Jackson s death, 
1848. He died in Pittsburg, Pa., June 30, 1882. 

McCANN, William Penn, naval officer, was 
born in Paris, Ky., May 4, 1830. He was ap 
pointed a midshipman in the U.S. navy in 1848 ; 
was promoted passed midshipman, June 15. 1854 ; 
lieutenant, Sept. 16, 1855 ; and was lieutenant and 
navigator of the Sabine, flagship of the Brazil 
squadron on the Paraguay expedition, 1858-59, 
and also on a cruise in the West Indies and Gulf 
of Mexico, 1859-61. He was stationed at Vera 
Cruz at the outbreak of the civil war, and in. 
April, 1861, re-enforced Fort Pickens with Bailors 
and marines. He remained off the fort for one 
hundred and twenty-seven days, and in June, 
1861, assisted in landing reinforcements under 
Col. Harvey Brown. He remained with the Sa 
bine on blockading duty on the South Carolina 
coast, 1861-62; commanded the gunboat Mara- 
tanza at the siege of Yorktown in April. 1862, 
and was relieved by Commander Stevens in 1862. 
but remained on board as executive officer. On 



boat Teazer, with plans of the batteries, torpe 
does and defences of Richmond. He was pro 
moted lieutenant-commander, July 16, 1862, and 
commanded the Hunchback and a fleet of five 
gunboats in the sounds of North Carolina, 1862- 
63. He commanded the Kennebec of the West 
Gulf blockading squadron in the Mobile blockade, 
1863-64, and the Taltonut in 1865, when she was 
disabled by a gale and returned to Boston. He 
commanded the Tallupoosa, West Gulf squadron, 
1866-67; naval rendezvous and yard at Philadel 
phia, 1867-70. and commanded the Nipxic of the 
North Atlantic squadron, 1871-72. He was pro 
moted commander, July 2, 1872, to rank from 
July 25, 1866, and was advanced sixteen numbers. 
He was stationed at the navy yard, Norfolk, Va., 
in 1873 ; was lighthouse inspector, 1873-76 ; pro 
moted captain, Sept. 21, 1876 ; commanded the 
Lackawanna on the Pacific station, 1877-78 ; the 
receiving ship Independence in California, 1879- 
81 ; and the flagship Pensacohi, Pacific station, 
1881-82 ; was assigned to court-martial duty in 
1883, and served on the lighthouse board, 1883-87. 
He was president of the naval advisory board, 
1885-87 ; was promoted commodore, Jan. 26, 1887 ; 
commanded the Boston naval station, 1887-90, 
and was president of the navy yard site commis 
sion and president of the board on the policy for 
the increase of the navy. He commanded the 
South Pacific station, 1890-91, and in June, 1S91, 
having five U.S. cruisers under his command, he 
enforced the surrender of the steamer Itata, laden 
with arms and ammunition smuggled out of the 
port of San Diego, Cal., and transferred to the 
Itata. He sent the captured vessel back to San 
Diego, and for this act received the thanks and 
commendation of the navy department. He was 
president of the retiring board, 1891-92, and was 
retired in May, 1892, with the rank of commo 
dore. He served during the war with Spain, 
1898, as president of the board of inquiry and 
court-martial and as prize commissioner of the 
southern district of New York. 

McCARTEE, Divie Bethune, pioneer mis 
sionary, educator, sinologue, and diplomatist, 
was born in Philadelphia, Pa., Jan. 13, 1820: son 
of the Rev. Robert (q.v.) and Jessit- Graham 
(Bethune) McCartee. and grandson of Peter and 
Mary (McDowell) McCartee, and of Divie and 
Joanna (Graham) Bethune. He read both law 
and theology in his father s library ; attended 
lectures on chemistry and physics given by Pro 
fessor Steele. was a student at Columbia college 
three years, leaving for the purpose of studying 
medicine, and was graduated at the University 
of Pennsylvania, M.D., with distinction in 1840, 
meantime practising at Port Carbon, Pa., with 
Dr. Z. Prall, who was also his medical preceptor, 



[192] 



McCAKTEE 



McCAKTEE 




work he was 
Ningpo and Chefoo. 



1837-41. He visited Detroit, Mich., 1841-42, did 
a year s post graduate work at Blockley hospital, 
1H42-43, and in October, 1843, was sent by the 
Presbyterian board as medical missionary to 
Ningpo, Cliina, which place he reached June 20, 
1844. He was the first Protestant missionary to 

make a prolonged 
residence in that 
city, 1844-72, (includ 
ing short periods in 
Chefoo, Shanghai and 
the United States) 
and in that time ac 
quired a thorough 
knowledge of the life, 
language and litera 
ture of China. He 
was married at Ning 
po. in 1853, to Juana 
M. Knight, who sur 
vived him. While 
engaged in his evan 
gelical and medical 
also acting U.S. consul at both 
In 18(51 during the T aiping 
rebellion lie accompanied Flag-Officer Stribling, 
U.S.N., with his small squadron to Nanking; 
and obtaining personal access to the " Heavenly 
King "or rebel chieftain, secured his guarantee 
of protection from the rebels for all Americans 
in China, and for all Chinese in their employ or 
care. He also received from him a sealed docu 
ment which when shown to the rebel force enter 
ing Ningpo, released many native Christians, and 
prevented much threatened massacre. In 1865 
he effected the settlement of a difficult diplo 
matic dispute reported in U.S. Foreign Relations 
for 1XMJ. He resigned his connection with the 
Ningpo mission in 1872 to take charge of the 
Presbyterian mission press at Shanghai ; but 
soon became interpreter and U.S. assessor in the 
mixed court at Shanghai. At that time the 
Jlarid Luz, a Peruvian vessel en route from 
Macao to Peru with 300 Chinese coolies, was 
driven into the harbor of Yokohama by a ty 
phoon, and the coolies appealed successfully to 
the Japanese government for rescue. But that 
they might not remain a charge to the Japanese, 
the Toatai of Shanghai, at Dr. McCartee s sug 
gestion, memoralized the Viceroy, who appointed 
the Chinese judge of the mixed court with Dr. 
McCartee as advisor to proceed to Japan and re 
ceive the coolies. This was the first time in 
some centuries that an envoy from Cliina had 
been sent to Japan, and their mission was en 
tirely successful. For this service he received 
from the Chinese government a gold medal and 
a complimentary letter. At the instance of Dr. 
Guido F. Verbeck, then advisor to the Japanese 



department of education, Dr. McCartee was ap 
pointed professor of law and natural science in 
the incipient University of Tokio ; there lie 
served, 1872-77, resigned in 1877, and became 
vice U.S. consul-general, U.S. assessor of mixed 
court, and director of mails in the consulate at 
Shanghai, for the next six months, during a dif 
ficult exigency of the consulate. In November, 
1877, he became foreign advisor of the first Chi 
nese legation to Japan, with rank of secretary of 
legation ; and in 1879, at the request of Gen. 
U.S. Grant, then in Japan, he suggested the 
plan of settlement of the Loo Choo Islands dis 
pute that was adopted. At this time he wrote 
the series of letters entitled Audi Alteram Par- 
tern, published first in the Japan Gazette, and 
afterward in pamphlet, and translated into Chi 
nese. He also did all the translating into the 
Chinese character of the English, French and Jap 
anese documents, which the legation handled. 
He was given the title of Honorary Consul-Gen- 
eral by the Chinese government. In May, 1880, 
he resigned his position and returned to the 
United States, where he acted as foreign advisor 
to the Japanese legation at Washington for 
some time. In May, 1887, he visited Japan, 
spending the summer there, and then a year in 
Amoy, where he was engaged in missionary work. 
He accepted an appointment to the East Japan 
mission by the Presbyterian board in April, 1889. 
In October, 1899, he left Japan for San Francisco, 
where he arrived, and celebrated his 80th birth 
day, Jan. 13, 1900. He translated the Book of 
Jeremiah s Lamentations from the Original He 
brew into Chinese, to complete the Bridgman- 
Culbertson Version of the Bible (1862); and 
wrote and translated numerous brief tracts, and 
some more extended works, religious and educa 
tional, in Chinese and Japanese. He also contri 
buted to the Transactions of the China Branch 
of the Royal Asiatic Society ; was a member of 
other learned societies including the American 
Oriental society and the Natural History society 
of Portland ; and corresponding member of the 
Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 
and of the Department of Archaeology of the 
University of Pennsylvania. His tract, An Easy 
Introduction to Christianity, first written in 
Chinese in 1831, and translated into Japanese 
and Korean, is one of the most widely circulated 
and influential of Protestant tracts in those 
languages. This was remodelled and enlarged 
by him in Japanese, and called TJie Way of Truth 
( 1890) . In this form 20,000 copies had been used up 
to 1901. He left two books in MS. : Personal Re 
miniscences, and Critical and Exegetical Notes on 
the New Testament with Especial Reference to the 
Chinese Characters Used in the Japanese Protes 
tant Version. The , Japan Evangelist, Yokohama, 



[193] 



McCARTEE 



McCAULEY 



November, 1898, has an extended account of Dr. 
McCartee s life written by E. R. Miller of Tokyo. 
He died in Sail Francisco, Cal., July 17. 1900. 

McCARTEE, Robert, clergyman, was born in 
New York city. Sept. 30, 1790 ; son of Peter and 
Mary (McDowell) MeCartee ; grandson of Finlay 
McEaclian ; and a great-grandson of Angus Mc- 
Eaehan, of Islay. Argyllshire, Scotland, wlio in 
1757 came to America as a political refugee, 
after taking a prominent part on the losing side 
in the battle of Culloden. He soon settled in 
New York city, and changed his name to Mc- 
Cartee. Robert was graduated at Columbia, 
A.B., 1808, A.M., 1811 ; practised law in New 
York city for a short time and was graduated at the 
Theological Seminary of the Associate Reformed 
church. New York city, in April, 1816. He was 
pastor of the Old Scots church. Philadelphia, Pa., 
1816-21 ; of the Irish Presbyterian church, New 
York city. 1821-86 ; at Port Carbon, Pa., 1836-40 ; 
at Goshen and Newburgh, N.Y., 1840-56, and 
of the Associate Reformed church, New York 
city, 1856-62. He was married to Jessie Graham 
Bethune (1796-1855), sister of the Rev. George 
W. Bethune (q.v.), and daughter of Divie and 
Joanna (Graham) Bethune : the latter was a 
daughter of Isabella Graham, who, with her 
children was identified with the beginnings of 
organized charity in New York city. Robert 
McCartee received the honorary degree of S.T.D. 
from Columbia in 1831. He died in Yonkers, 
N.Y., March 12, 1865. 

McCARTER, Henry, illustrator, was born in 
Norristown, Pa., July 5, 1865 ; son of Marshall 
J. and Anne (Bowden) McCarter. He was a 
student at the Philadelphia Academy of Fine 
Arts under Thomas Eakins, 1883-89; meanwhile 
illustrating occasionally for the Century and 
other magazines. In 1889 he went to France and 
stuilied under Bonnat, Rixens and Alexander 
Harrison. His illustrations for Zola s " Lourdes " 
and Paul Verlaine s poems, which appeared in 
1894, at once established his reputation as an 
illustrator. He returned to America in 1891 and 
made numerous notable drawings for Scribner s 
Magazine. In 1895-96 he was again in Paris, 
studying under Merson. Among his more im 
portant drawings may be mentioned the illustra 
tions for An Easter Hymn (1895): a series of 
drawings of Coney Island (1895); The Sen is His, 
a series of colored drawings for Scribtiers Maga 
zine and a number of mural decorations. 

flcCARTHY, Dennis, representative, was born 
at Salina, N.Y., March 19. 1814; son of Thomas 
and Percy (Soule) McCarthy. His father, a na 
tive of Cork, Ireland, born 1786, came to Salina. 
N.Y., in 1807 ; was a pioneer merchant and 
manufacturer of salt ; a member of the state 
assembly in 1843, and president of the village of 



Salina in 1845. Dennis attended the Onondaga 
Valley academy until 1834, and in 1843 joined 
his father in business. In 1844 he was elected 
by the Democratic party to the state assembly, 
and in 1846 became a leading merchant and 
banker in Syracuse, and was mayor of the city 
in 1853. He became a Republican in 1861 and 
was a representative in the 4()th and 41st con 
gresses, 1867-71. He was defeated as the Independ 
ent Republican cadidate for representative in the 
42d congress in 1870 ; was state senator, 1S75-85 ; 
president of the senate, 1881-85 ; and became 
lieutenant-governor of the state, Jan. 6, 1885. 
He died in Syracuse, N.Y., Feb. 15, 1886. 

MacCARTNEY, Washington, educator, was 
born in Westmoreland county, Pa., Aug. 24, 
1812. He was graduated from Jefferson college, 
Canonsburg, Pa., in 1834. and was professor of 
mathematics at Lafayette college, 1835-36 and 
1837-38 ; and of mathematics and modern lan 
guages at Jefferson college. 1836-37. He was ad 
mitted to the bar of Northampton county. Pa. , 
Jan. 18, 1838. He was married, April 18, 1839. to 
Mary E., daughter of William Maxwell of New 
Jersey. He was professor of mathematics at 
Lafayette college, 1843-44 and in 1846, and w;is 
deputy attorney-general for Northampton county, 
1846-48. He established a law school in Eastoi:, 
Pa., in 1846, which was incorporated as the 
Union Law school in 1854. He was a trustee of 
Lafayette college. 1847-52 ; professor of mental 
and moral philosophy, 1849-53, and was president 
judge of the 3d judicial district of Pennsylvania, 
1851-56. He also lectured before schools and in 
stitutes. He received the degree of LL.l). from 
Marshall college in 1X52. He is the author of 
Differential at/d Integral Calculus (1X44); 77<e 
Origin and Progress of the I nited States (1846). 
He died in Philadelphia, Pa., July 15. 1X56. 

McCARTY, Jonathan, representative, w;is 
born in Tennessee about 1X00 ; son of Judge Ben 
jamin McCarty, who removed to Indiana with 
his family, settled in Franklin county and was 
one of the judges of the circuit court under the 
territorial government. Jonathan attended the 
public school, engaged in mercantile pursuits and 
served as a representative in the state legislature, 
where he procured the passage of the law laying 
off Fayette county. Ind. lie settled at Connois- 
ville, its count} 1 seat, where he served for a 
time as clerk of its courts. He was a Whig re 
presentative from Fayette county in the 22d, 
23d and 24th congresses, 1X31-37 : a presidential 
elector on the Harrison ticket in 1840, and fora 
short time was receiver of public moneys at Fort 
Wayne, Ind. lie died in Keoknk, Iowa, in 1X55. 
ricCAULEY, Charles Adams Hoke, soldier 
and author, was born in Middletown, Md., July 13. 
1817. He was graduated from the U.S. Military 
[194] 



McCAULEY 



McCAULEY 



academy in 1870 ; was promoted 2d lieutenant, 
and assigned to the 3d artillery. He served 011 
garrison duty, 1870-75 ; accompanied the Red 
River expedition into the Indian territory and 
Texas as ornithologist, 1876 ; was assistant to 
the chief engineer of the department of the Mis 
souri, 1877-79 ; was promoted 1st lieutenant, 3d 
cavalry. May 5, 1879 ; captain, Feb. 18, 1881 ; 
was assistant quartermaster, Ogclen, Utah, 1882- 
83 ; and quartermaster of the department of the 
Platte, 1883-87. He was promoted major, Aug. 
8, 1894, and lieutenant-colonel and deputy quar 
termaster-general. Nov. 13, 1898. He invented a 
system of signalling by means of mirrors. 1871. 
He is the author of : The Ornithology of the Red 
River Region of Texas (1877) ; The San Juan 
Reconnaissance in Colorado and Neiv Mexico 
(1877) ; Re2wrts on the White River Indian 
Agency, Colorado, and the Uintah Indian Agency 
(1879) ; Pagasa, Springs, Colorado ; its Geology 
and Botany (1879). 

McCAULEY, Charles Stewart, naval officer, 
was born in Philadelphia, Pa.. Feb. 3. 1793 ; son 
of John and Sarah (Stewart) McCauley ; grandson 
of Colonel Stewart of the British army and 
nephew of Rear-Admiral Charles Stewart, U.S.N. 
He was warranted midshipman U.S.N., Jan. 16, 

1809 ; was promoted 
lieutenant Dec. 9, 
1814 ; commander 
March 3, 1831 ; cap 
tain Dec. 9, 1839, and 
commodore April 4, 
1867. He served as 
midshipman and act 
ing lieutenant in the 
war of 1812 on the 
Constellation in Vir 
ginia waters and on 
the Jefferson in 1814 
on Lake Ontario. He 
was on the Consti 
tution. Erie. Constel 
lation and United 

States in the Mediterranean fleet, 1815-20 ; 
on the Constellation in the Pacific, 1820-22 ; on 
furlough in the merchant marine service, 1823-25 ; 
lieutenant on board the Boston in the South 
Atlantic squadron. 1825-29 : on the receiving ship 
Fox. Baltimore, 1830 ; commanded the naval 
rendezvous at Boston. 1831. and Baltimore. 1832 ; 
and commanded the Fairfleld. bound to the Pacific; 
in 1833, but was relieved on account of domestic 
affliction after two months service. lie com 
manded the St.Lonis. West Indian station. 1834 ; 
the Fa i mouth, 1835 ; was commander and ex 
ecutive officer at the Philadelphia navy yard, 
is:{7-41 ; commanded the Delairare on the Brazil 
and Mediterranean stations, 1841-14 ; was com 




mandant of the Washington navy-yard, 1846-49 ; 
in command of the Pacific station, 1850-53 ; and 
in command of the Home squadron and sent to 
the West Indies on particular service, 1855, for 
which service he was tendered a dinner at the 
White House by President Pierce. He was a mem 
ber of the retiring board, 1855 ; and president of 
the board to recommend a code of signals subse 
quently adopted by the navy department, 1856. 
While commandant of the Norfolk navy-yard, 
1860-61, when all hope of relief from the depart 
ment was abandoned early in 1861, he scuttled 
the vessels at the docks to prevent their imme 
diate use by the Confederates, and placed the 
Cumberland, the only manned vessel, in an atti 
tude of defence, when he received peremptory 
instructions to bring out the vessels and destroy 
and abandon the place. As the vessels were 
already scuttled and rapidly sinking Commodore 
Paulding. who brought the instructions, did not 
deem it advisable to wait to undertake to raise 
the vessels and departed with the Pawnee and the 
chartered vessel 011 which he entered the Eliza 
beth river on his mission. Captain McCauley 
followed on the Cumberland after firing the 
ship-houses together with the combustible por 
tions of the yard and the unmanned frigate Mer- 
ritnac, which was afterward raised by the Con 
federate navy department and remodeled into the 
ironclad Virginia. He was retired Dec. 21, 1861, 
and died in Washington, D.C., May 21, 1869. 

McCAULEY, Edward Yorke, naval officer, 
was born in Philadelphia, Pa., Nov. 2, 1827. He 
was a nephew of Capt. C. S. McCauley, U.S.N. 
He was graduated from the U.S. Naval academy 
in 1841 ; was warranted a midshipman in the 
U.S. navy and was promoted passed midshipman 
Aug. 10, 1847 ; lieutenant, Sept. 14, 1855 ; lieut- 
tenant-commander, July 16, 1862 ; commander, 
Sept. 27, 1866; captain, Sept. 3, 1872; commo 
dore, Aug. 7, 1871 and rear-admiral, March 2, 
1885. He served on the Mediterranean squadron, 
1841-45, and on the United States on the coast of 
Africa, 1846-48 ; was attached to the Constitu 
tion. Mediterranean squadron, 1849-52. and the 
Powhatan. East India squadron, 1852-56, being 
present at the attack on the pirates in the China 
sea in 1855 : was on the receiving ship Philadel 
phia, 1856-57 : the steamer Niagara on the cable 
expedition, 1857-58 ; was stationed at the naval 
observatory. 1858-59, and resigned from the 
navy. Aug. 19. 1859. He served on the steamer 
Flag of the South Atlantic blockading squadron 
as acting lieutenant. 1801-02 : commanded the 
steamers Fort Henry. 1802-03. and Tioga, 1863- 
64, both of the East Gulf blockading squadron : 
the gunboat -Benson, of the Mississippi squadron, 
1864-05: was on special duty in Philadelphia. 
1866-67 ; was fleet captain. North Atlantic squad- 



McCAULEY 



McCLAMMY 



ron, 1867-68 ; was stationed at the navy yard, 
Portsmouth, N.H., 1868-70 ; at the U.S. Naval 
academy, 1870-72 ; commanded the Lackawanna, 
Asiatic station, 1872-75 ; was at the Boston navy 
yard, 1875-78, and at the Naval Asylum, Phil 
adelphia, Pa., 1878-80 ; was commandant of the 
League Island navy yard, Philadelphia, 1884-85, 
and of the Pacific: station, 1885-86. lie was re 
tired on his own application, February, 1887. Re 
received the honorary degree of LL.D. from 
Hobart college in 1892. He is the author of : 
The Egyptian Manual /i<l Dictionary (1888-84). 
He died in Jamestown, R.I.. Oct. 24, 1894. 

McCAULEY, James Andrew, educator, was 
born in Cecil county, Md., Oct. 7, 1822 ; of English 
and Scotch ancestry. He removed to Baltimore, 
Md., with his parents at an early age. He was 
graduated from Dickinson college, Carlisle, Pa., 
in 1847 : was employed as a private tutor, 1847- 
49 : entered the Baltimore conference of the 
Methodist Episcopal church, 1850 ; and was prin 
cipal of the Wesleyan Female seminary at 
Staunton, Va., 1850-54. He ministered at 
Wesleyan chapel, Washington, D.C. ; was pre 
siding elder of the Washington district, 1869-72 ; 
was delegate to the General conference, Balti 
more, Md., in May, 1872 ; to the English and 
Irish Wesleyan conference in 1874 and to the 
general conference of 1884. He was president of 
Dickinson college as successor to the Rev. Robert 
L. Dashiell (q.v.), resigned, 1872-88. During his 
presidency a hall of science, a library building and 
a gymnasium were added to the college, and the 
invested fund was increased by one hundred and 
forty thousand dollars. He resigned the pres 
idency in 1888. He received the degree D.D. 
from Dickinson in 1867, and that of LL.D. from 
Lafayette in 188:5. 

flcCAULEY, Mary (Ludwig) Hays ("Molly 
Pitcher"), Revolutionary heroine, was born in 
Carlisle, Pa., Oct. 1:3, 1744; daughter of John 
George Ludwig, who emigrated from Germany 
with the Palatines. She was employed as a ser 
vant in the home of Gen. William Irvine at Car 
lisle, and on July 24, 1769, was married to John 
Hays, a barber, who became gunner in Proctor s 
1st Pennsylvania artillery in December, 1775. 
She followed him to the field, where she was em 
ployed as a laundress and nurse. She carried 
water to the men in action at the battle of Mon- 
mouth, and was on the field when her husband 
was shot down in a charge made by the British 
cavalry. There being no one to take charge of 
his piece, it was ordered from the field, but at this 
point "Molly Pitcher," as she was familiarly 
called by the gunners, dropped her pitcher, 
stepped forward and grasped the ramrod, declar 
ing that she would take her husband s place and 
avenge his death. She did excellent service for* 



which she was commissioned sergeant by General 
Washington 011 the following day. She served 
nearly eight years in the army, and was after 
ward placed on the list of half-pay officers. She 
lived at the Carlisle barracks for many years, 
where she washed and cooked for the soldiers and 
was employed as a children s nurse. She married 
secondly Sergt. George McCauley, who lived 
on her earnings and ill-treated her. She was 
granted a pension of $80 annually for life by a 
special act of the Pennsylvania legislature in 
February, 1822, and at her death was buried with 
military honors. She left one son, John Hays. 
A monument representing her in the act of load 
ing a cannon was erected on the field of Mon- 
mouth, and in 1876 a second was erected on her 
grave at Carlisle. She is also represented in 
George W. P. Custis s painting. The Field of Mon- 
montJi. She died in Carlisle, Pa., Jan. 22, 182:3. 

flcCAY, Charles Francis, educator, was born 
in Danville, Northumberland county, Pa., March 
8, 1810; son of Robert and Sarah (Reed) McCay; 
grandson of Neal and Rachel (Thornton) McCay, 
and a descendant of Donald McCay who landed 
in America in 1757. He was graduated from Jef 
ferson college, Pa,, A.B., 1829, A.M.. 1882 ; taught 
school, 1829-82 ; was professor of mathematics, 
natural philosophy and astronomy at Lafayette 
college, 1832-33 ; tutor at the University of Geor 
gia, 1833-35 ; professor of civil engineering, 1837- 
42, of philosophy, 1842-46, and of mathematics 
and civil engineering, 1846-53. He created the 
Charles F. McCay fund of $20,000 for the benefit 
of the University of Georgia. He was married, 
Aug. 11, 1840, to Xarcissa, daughter of Prof. 
William Williams. He was president of South 
Carolina college and held the chair of mathema 
tics, 1855-57, and engaged as secretary and 
cashier in an insurance and banking company in 
Augusta, Ga., 1858-69. and as actuary in Balti 
more, Md., 1872-84. The College of New Jersey 
conferred upon him the honorary degree of LL.D. 
in 1857. He is the author of Lectures on the Dif 
ferential and Integral Calculus (1840); Civil En 
gineering ; and a treatise on evolution. He died 
in Baltimore, Md., March 13, 1889. 

flcCLAnriY, Charles Washington, represen 
tative, was born at Scott s Hill, N.C., May 29, 
1839 ; son of Luke D. and Anna E. (Chadwick) 
McClammy. He attended Scott s Hill academy 
and was graduated from the University of North 
Carolina in 1859. He taught school, 1859-61, and 
at the outbreak of the civil war he organized a 
cavalry company. He served under Gens. J. E. 
B. Stuart and W. H. F. Lee, and was promoted 
on the field of battle to the rank of major of the 
3d North Carolina cavalry for gallantry dis 
played in action. He refused to surrender at 
Appomattox, and with a few troopers escaped 

[196] 



McCLEARY 



McCLELLAN 



Grant s army, April 8, 1865. He was a represen 
tative in the state legislature, 1866 and 1870. and 
state senator in 1868. He was a Democratic pres 
idential elector in 1884, and a representative in 
the 50th and 51st congresses, 1887-91. He was 
married in 1860 to Margaret, daughter of Owen 
Fennell, sheriff of New Hanover county, and his 
son Herbert became a lawyer in Scott s Hill. He 
was mortally injured by a boiler explosion and 
died at Scott s Hill, N.C., Feb. 26, 1896. 

flcCLEARY, James Thompson, representa 
tive, was born, in Ingersoll, Out., Feb. 5, 1853. 
He attended the public schools and McGill uni 
versity, Montreal, and taught school in Wiscon 
sin. He was married, June 4, 1874, to Mary 
Edith, daughter of David Taylor, of Maiden Rock, 
\Vis. He was elected superintendent of the 
schools of Pierce county, Wis. ; was appointed 
state institute conductor of Minnesota in 1881, 
and was professor of history and civics in the 
state normal school at Mankato, 1881-92. During 
the summer months he conducted institutes in 
Wisconsin, Dakota, Virginia, Tennessee and Col 
orado, and in 1891 was chosen president of the 
State Educational association. He was a Repub 
lican representative from the second Minnesota 
district in the 53d-57th congresses, 1893-1903. 
He is the author of : Studies in Civics (1888) and 
Manual of Civics (1894). 

McCLELLAN, Carswell, civil engineer, was 
born in Philadelphia, Pa., Dec. 3,1835; son of 
Dr. Samuel and Margaret Carswell (Ely) McClel- 
lan. He matriculated at the University of Penn 
sylvania in the class of 1854, but left in 1851 to 
complete his college course at Williams, and was 
graduated A.B., 1855, A.M.. 1858. He entered 
the volunteer army in May, 1862, as ensign in the 
32d New York regiment, and in June, 1862, was 
made topographical assistant to the adjutant- 
general and special aide on the staff of Gen. 
Andrew A. Humphreys. He was wounded at Mal- 
vern Hill and at Gettysburg. After April, 1864, 
he was assistant adjutant-general, 1st division, 
cavalry corps, Army of the Potomac, and of the 
3d division, 5th army corps. He was taken pris 
oner in the battle of Weldon Railroad, Aug. 19, 
1864, and was paroled. Nov. 16, 1864, when he re 
signed. He engaged as civil engineer on various 
roads in the United States and Brazil, 1864-81, 
and was U.S. civil assistant engineer, 1881-92. 
He was married to Annis, daughter of Vines 
Davis, of Collinsville. 111. He wrote Personal 
Memoirs and Military History of Ulysses S. Grant 
rs. the Record of the Army of the Potomac (1887). 
He died in St. Paul. Minn., March 6, 1892. 

ricCLELLAN, Charles A. O., representative, 
was born in Ashlarid, Ohio. May 25, 1835 ; son of 
William and Eliza (Wiggins) McClellan, natives 
of New Jersev, and of Scotch-Irish descent. He 



attended the district schools and in 1856 removed 
to Auburn, Ind. He was admitted to the bar in 
1860 and engaged in practice at Auburn. He be 
came connected with the banking business in 
1868, and was elected president of the First Na 
tional bank of Auburn and of the DeKalb bank 
of Waterloo. He was judge of the 40th circuit 
court of Indiana, 1887-89, and was a Democratic 
representative from the twelfth Indiana district 
in the 51st and 52d congresses, 1889-93. He died 
at Auburn, Ind., Jan. 30, 1898. 

McCLELLAN, Ely, army surgeon, was born 
in Philadelphia, Pa