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General Editor: W. MURISON, M.A. 





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Cambridge County Geographies 





Fellow of the Royal Scottish Geographical Society 
Late Lecturer in Geology, Glasgow University 

With Maps, Diagrams and Illustrations 

Cambridge : 

at the University Press 

(STambrtoge : 


-S o 



1. County and Shire. The Origin of Lanarkshire . i 

2. General Characteristics. Position and Relations . 3 

3. Size. Shape. Boundaries ..... 5 

4. Surface and General Features . 8 

5. Watershed. Rivers. Lakes . .11 

6. Geology and Soil . . . . . . .26 

7. Natural History .... -37 

8. Weather and Climate ... -44 

9. The People Race, Language, Population . 56 

10. Agriculture . . . . ' -63 

11. Industries and Manufactures . . -69 

12. Mines and Minerals . .81 

13. Shipping and Trade 9 

14. History of Lanarkshire . . -95 

15. Antiquities i<H 



1 6. Architecture (a) Ecclesiastical . . . .112 

17. Architecture (b] Castellated 121 

1 8. Architecture (c) Municipal and Domestic . .126 

19. Communications Past and Present. . . ' . 131 

20. Administration and Divisions 136 

21. The Roll of Honour 140 

22. The Chief Towns and Villages of Lanarkshire . 151 



Leadhills, with Lowthers in background. Phot. Valentine 8 
Characteristic scenery of Southern Uplands. Phot. Valentine 10 
Falls of Clyde Bonnington Linn. Phot. Valentine . 13 

Gorge above Corra Linn . . . . . .18 

Falls of Clyde Stonebyres Linn 19 

Section across the Lanarkshire Coal Basin . . -31 
Fossil Trees at Whiteinch. Phot. J. R. Stewart . . 34 
White Cattle in Cadzow Forest, Hamilton. Phot. Valentine 41 
Wind Roses showing prevalent winds at Glasgow in 

January, in July, and throughout the year . . 47 
Tree showing south-west wind. Phot. F. Mort . . 48 
Curves of rainfall at four Lanarkshire stations . . 54 
Population curves of Lanarkshire and Edinburghshire . 61 
Clydesdale Stallion. Phot. Sport and General Illus. Co. . 68 
Ironworks, Coatbridge. Phot. Valentine . . . . 71 
First modern gun made in Scotland .... 74 
Latest type of Locomotive. Hyde Park Works . . 76 
Houses cracked by underground workings, Motherwell. 

Phot. W. S. Crockett 87 

The Broomielaw. Phot. Valentine . , . . .91 
Lee Castle. Home of ' Lee Penny." Phot. Valentine . 97 
Monument in memory of Battle of Langside. Phot. Valentine 99 
Battlefield of Drumclog. Phot. Valentine . . 101 

Banner of the Covenanters at Drumclog and Both well Brig 102 
Bothwell Bridge and Monument. Phot. Valentine . .103 
Flint Implements . . . . . . . .105 

The Lesmahagow Flagon . . . . . 1 1 1 

Old Church Tower, Rutherglen. Phot. Valentine . .114 
Glasgow Cathedral. Phot. Valentine. . . . .115 

Crypt, Glasgow Cathedral, showing St Mungo's Tomb. 

Phot. Valentine . . . . . . . .117 



Old Church, Bothwell. Phot. Valentine . . . .119 
Bothwell Castle, interior. Phot. Valentine . . .122 
Craignethan Castle. Phot. W. S. Crockett . . .124 
George Square and Municipal Buildings, Glasgow. Phot. 

Valentine . . . . . . . . .127 

Provand's Lordship. Oldest house in Glasgow. Phot. Valentine i 2 8 
Hamilton Palace. Phot. Valentine . . . . .130 

Thomas Campbell . . . . . . . .143 

David Livingstone . . . . . . . .148 

Sir Colin Campbell . . . . . . . .149 

"The Cadger's Bridge," Biggar. Phot. Valentine . . 152 
"Roman" Bridge near Bothwell. Phot. Valentine . . 153 
Jamaica Bridge. Phot. Valentine . . . . .156 

Curve showing growth of population of Glasgow . . 157 
Royal Exchange, Glasgow. Phot. Valentine . . .158 
Glasgow University and Kelvingrove Park. Phot. Valentine 160 
High Street, and Wallace's Monument, Lanark. Phot. 

Valentine . . . . . . . .163 

Strathaven Castle. Phot. Valentine. . . . .165 

Diagrams 167 

Orographical Map of Lanarkshire .... Front Cover 

Geological Map of Lanarkshire .... Back Cover 

Sketch Map illustrating the origin of the Falls of Clyde 21 
Rainfall Map of Scotland . . . . . .52 

Population Map of Lanarkshire 59 

Note. For the photographs on pp. 1 8 and 1 9 the writer is 
indebted to J. W. Reoch, Esq. ; for that on p. 74 to Messrs 
Beardmore, Parkhead Forge; for that on p. 76 to the Manager, 
Hyde Park Works ; for permission to reproduce the photograph 
on p. 34 to Prof. Watts, Secretary of the Geological Photographs 
Committee, British Association ; and for permission to have the 
Lesmahagow Flagon photographed, to the Glasgow University 

i. County and Shire. The Origin of 

The present sub-divisions of Scotland are the result of 
a long process of adjustment between different competing 
systems. The King, the Church, and the Nobles were 
centres of segregation that tended to group the community 
in different ways. Yet among these discordant forces the 
powerful influence of the natural, physical features of the 
country can often be seen to have shaped the political 
divisions in harmony with natural regions. Of this fact 
there is no better example in Scotland than the county of 
Lanark. The modern county is the division of the king- 
dom administered by a sheriff, and this system dates back 
at least as far as the reign of David I (i 124-1 153). When 
the crowns were united in 1603, the districts administered 
by the sheriffs of the king coincided with the modern 
counties, except that Caithness, Sutherland and Ross were 
under the jurisdiction of the Sheriff of Inverness. 

The shires, that is shares, were originally governed by 
the great earls of the country, who in many cases took 
their titles from the districts they ruled. When William I 

M. L. i 


had conquered England, many of the English earls were 
dispossessed of their lands, which were given to William's 
companions or comites. Each district was therefore called 
a comitatus, from which we get the word county. The 
English feudal system was introduced into Scotland by 
David I, and the sheriffdom or county of Lanark probably 
dates from his reign. * William Hamilton, of Wishaw, 
writing about 1710, tells us that "The shyre of Lanark 
was anciently of greater extent than now it is ; for there 
was comprehended in it the whole sheriffdome of Ranfrew, 
lying laigher upon Clyde... untill it was disjoyned therefra 
by King Robert the Third, in anno 1402." Since that 
time the changes in the county boundary have been geo- 
graphically unimportant. Many meanings of the word 
Lanark have been suggested, but most authorities are 
agreed that it is derived from llanerch a clearing in a 
forest, a word belonging to the Welsh or Cymric branch 
of the Celtic group of languages. 

It has already been stated that Lanarkshire is a good 
example of the way in which natural physical features 
have influenced the political divisions of a country. For 
the county is a geographical unit, namely, the basin of the 
Clyde, a fact that is well expressed by the old name 
Clydesdale. The most southerly part of the shire is Gana 
Hill, and on the slopes of this hill the Clyde rises. To 
the north-west the county ends just where the river 
becomes too wide to be bridged or crossed conveniently. 
Thus while Lanarkshire embraces both banks of the 
Clyde, nearer the sea the broader river forms the boundary 
between Dumbartonshire .and Renfrewshire. Naturally 


the limits of the county do not everywhere coincide 
exactly with the watershed of the Clyde, yet for consider- 
able distances the county boundary is absolutely identical 
with the watershed of the river. 

2. General Characteristics. Position 
and Relations. 

Imagine two lines drawn from north-east to south- 
west across Scotland, one from Stonehaven to Helensburgh, 
the other from St Abb's Head to Girvan. These two 
lines divide Scotland into three districts called respectively 
the Highlands, the Central or Lowland Plain, and the 
Southern Uplands ; and these three districts differ strongly 
in physical aspect, in rocks, in scenery, in vegetation and 
in industries. The lines mark the course of two great 
faults or cracks, which traverse the whole country, and 
between which the land has gradually sunk for thousands 
of feet. This sinking of the central part of Scotland took 
place many ages before man inhabited this country, but 
yet it may be considered the most significant stage in the 
evolution of Scotland, for it preserved the all-important 
coal fields of the lowlands on which the prosperity of the 
country largely depends. 

The Central Plain of Scotland is not only the most 
fertile part of the country, but by far the greatest propor- 
tion of the mining and the manufactures is carried on 
there. It has thus become a district unique in Great 
Britain, for it corresponds to no less than four separate 

i 2 


parts of England the south-eastern plain devoted to 
agriculture, the Black Country with its coal and iron 
industries, the woollen district of Yorkshire, and Lanca- 
shire with its cotton manufactures. In some respects 
Lanarkshire is the most typical county of the Lowlands, 
and its diversity of surface and variety of industries are 
increased by the fact that the most southerly of the two 
great faults mentioned crosses the Clyde near Roberton, 
so that Lanarkshire is partly in the Lowland Plain and 
partly in the Southern Uplands. 

The position of Lanarkshire on the western slope of 
the country was at first a disadvantage. For long the 
eastern coastal strip was by far the most important part of 
Scotland. The commerce of Europe to a large extent 
was carried on in the districts bordering the North Sea. 
In Lanarkshire, however, just as the drainage of the 
county is collected by a thousand little streams that feed 
the main current of the Clyde, sweeping down with ever 
increasing volume to the western sea, so the movement of 
trade naturally tended to take the same course. The face 
of the county was turned away from the chief commercial 
centres, but the progress of civilisation in its westward 
march has shifted the balance of trade to the shores of the 
Atlantic, and thus the geographical position of Lanarkshire 
at the present time is one of its most important advantages. 
The stream of trade that now pours out of Lanarkshire to 
the Atlantic is double that from all the other counties of 
Scotland put together. 

Position alone, however, does not fully explain the 
phenomenal growth of the county during the last century 


and a half. Its natural resources are just as important. 
Its mineral wealth surpasses that of all the other counties 
of Scotland, and it may be said with truth that Lanarkshire 
owes its importance to coal and iron. In the latter half 
of the eighteenth century, steam power began to be applied 
to the world's industries. Coal was urgently needed, and 
for the first time coal could be easily obtained, for it was 
not till James Watt had improved the steam engine that 
adequate means were available for pumping water from 
the mines. The introduction of machinery necessitated 
a great increase in the production of iron, and this reacted 
again on the coal trade in the demand for coal for smelting 
purposes. Scores of busy industrial centres sprang into 
existence in Lanarkshire, and soon the population far out- 
numbered that of any other county. The banks of the 
Clyde with easy access to the sea and their proximity to 
the coal and iron fields formed an ideal home for the 
shipbuilding industry. The yards of Renfrewshire and 
Dumbartonshire launch many a goodly ship, but Lanark- 
shire supplies the material. 

3. Size. Shape. Boundaries. 

Although Lanarkshire contains more than a quarter 
of the population of all Scotland, in size it ranks only 
tenth among the counties. (See Figs. I and 2, p. 167.) 
Inverness is nearly five times larger than Lanark, but the 
latter has nearly fifteen times the population of the former. 
From north-west to south-east the shire extends for fifty 


miles, while a line drawn east from the point where 
Dumfries, Ayr and Lanark meet to the eastern edge of 
the county stretches for thirty miles. The total area, 
including water, is 567,385 acres. The county is fairly 
symmetrical in shape. As the basin of the Clyde broadens 
on going down the river from its source, so the county 
widens to a maximum and then narrows towards its 
north-western extremity. Slight changes were made in 
the boundary in 1891 and 1892 by the Boundary Com- 
missioners, chiefly to correct the anomaly of a parish being 
partly in one county and partly in another. 

Starting from Gana Hill in the south, the boundary 
strikes north-north-west, coinciding exactly with the 
watershed between the Nith and the Clyde, and passing 
over hills about 2000 feet in height. A little north of 
Slough Hill the boundary swings to the west and leaves 
the watershed, but only for about two miles. Keeping to 
the watershed again, the boundary line runs west over 
hills about 1500 feet in height till it reaches Threeshire 
Stone, the point where Ayr, Dumfries and Lanark meet. 
The line now runs along the watershed between the 
Clyde and the Ayr, passing Cairn Table on the way, and 
then swings away west in order to include the head-waters 
of the Avon. Leaving the watershed the boundary now 
follows the Avon for some distance and then goes north- 
north-west to the point where Ayr, Renfrew and Lanark 
meet. Bending north the line follows the Cart for some 
distance, then leaving the Cart it reaches the Glasgow 
boundary, follows it by bending to the west, and so runs 
down to Renfrew through Govan. From Renfrew the 


line turns east and crosses the Clyde just west of White- 
inch. Passing to the Kelvin the line follows that river 
almost to Kirkintilloch, where it turns south and then east 
through Lenzie to the Luggie, a tributary of the Kelvin. 
Leaving the Luggie the boundary crosses the watershed 
of the country to the Avon, a tributary of the Forth. 
Then it turns to the south-east by Black Loch and next 
bends sharply east till it is only three miles from Bathgate. 
It runs south now to Black Hill, then bending north-east 
it rejoins the watershed at Leven Seat. It cuts across 
the south part of Cobbinshaw Reservoir and then follows 
the course of the Medwin, keeping just to the east of the 
watershed. It reaches the watershed again at Broomy 
Law, but then keeping to the east of Biggar the line 
encroaches on the Tweed basin, a strip of which is in- 
cluded in Lanarkshire. It comes back to the watershed 
at Scawdmans Hill, and follows it south to Clyde Law by 
hills over 2000 feet in height. Passing the point where 
Lanark, Dumfries and Peebles meet, the boundary coin- 
cides with the watershed between the Annan and the 
Clyde, and runs in a zig-zag line through Lamb Hill to 
Earncraig Hill, finally swinging sharply round to Gana 
Hill again. The detailed tracing of the boundary has 
shown us, therefore, that on the whole Lanarkshire may 
be fairly described as the upper and middle basin of the 
Clyde, and the modern county is almost equivalent to the 
mediaeval division of Clydesdale. 


4. Surface and General Features. 

The surface of Lanarkshire is extremely varied, rang- 
ing from a height of nearly 2500 feet down almost to 
sea level. As has been mentioned, the south-east portion 
of the county forms part of the Southern Uplands, and the 
highest hills are almost exclusively confined to this district. 

Leadhills. Behind are the " Lowthers," the highest 
hills in Lanarkshire 

With the exception of Tinto (2335 feet), all the hills 
above 2000 feet are found south-east of a line drawn 
through Culter, Lamington, Roberton and Crawfordjohn. 
A glance at the physical map on the cover will show 
at once the strong contrast between the districts on each 
side of the line mentioned. 


The highest hill situated entirely in the county is 
Green Lowther (2403 feet), two miles south-south-east 
of Leadhills, although Culter Fell on the Lanark-Peebles 
border is 50 feet higher. Green Lowther forms one of 
a group of hills over 2OOO feet in height, which run in a 
north-east and south-west direction from the Clyde to the 
county boundary, and of which the next in altitude is 
Lowther Hill (2377 feet). From the names of its two 
highest summits the group is sometimes called the Lowther 
Hills. There are in all about a score of hills in Lanark 
two thousand feet or more in height, of which about one 
half are entirely in the county, the others being on the 
boundary line. Of these, in addition to the hills men- 
tioned, the most important are Glenwhappen Rig (2262 
feet) on the Peebles border, Rodger Law (2257 feet) and 
Ballancleuch Law (2267 feet) in the southern extremity 
of the shire, and Dun Law (2216 feet), one of the summits 
of the Lowther group. The Tinto Hills are the most 
conspicuous in the county, as they are separated from any 
other important group. Tinto Tap is a landmark all 
down Clydesdale, and it is said that from its summit on a 
clear day parts of no fewer than sixteen counties can be 

The upper part of Clydesdale has a charm of scenery 
that is confined to the Southern Uplands. The district 
does not make the same sudden and arresting appeal to 
the unobservant traveller that some parts of Scotland do. 
The wildness, ruggedness and grandeur of the Highlands 
as a rule are absent, for the outlines of the hills are 
generally smooth and rounded, yet there is a softly 


flowing sweep of contour, a tenderness of colour and 
a melancholy loneliness about these green and treeless 
summits that make a quiet but irresistible appeal to the 
wanderer among them. 

In Lanarkshire the transition from the Southern 
Uplands to the Lowland Plain is not so abrupt as it is 
farther to the north-east or farther to the south-west. 

Characteristic scenery of Southern Uplands. View 
across the Clyde valley near Crawford 

The higher parts of the Lowlands, particularly away from 
the Clyde valley, are bare and bleak moors undulating 
monotonously almost as far as the eye can reach. The 
land rises not only to the south, but also as it recedes from 
the Clyde, so that the highest parts form the boundary of 
the county. Thus the more fertile central part is flanked 


by long stretches of barren moorland, useless for agriculture, 
but in many cases forming good shooting districts. Yet 
these moorlands are intersected at intervals by unsuspected 
glens of rare beauty. Although the rocks and therefore 
the details of the scenery are different, the district in this 
respect has a strong resemblance to parts of Derbyshire, 
where the same alternation of featureless uplands with 
sudden bits of charming river scenery is found. Many 
of the smaller streams of the county, almost unknown 
except to those living in the locality, will bear comparison 
with the finest parts of the Clyde itself. 

From the Falls of Clyde to Bothwell the scenery is 
almost uniformly beautiful. The bareness of the Southern 
Uplands is gone. The river flows through a green and 
fertile country, well-wooded and dotted over with fine 
mansions. The valley is broad with gently shelving 
banks, although in places it contracts and takes on the 
character of a gorge. The lower ward of Lanarkshire 
is somewhat flat and unpicturesque. The most notice- 
able height is the ridge that runs parallel to the Clyde 
from Cathkin to Dechmont. 

5. Watershed. Rivers. Lakes. 

We have already shown that the watershed of Lanark- 
shire coincides approximately with the county boundary. 
The watershed of the southern half is a framework of 
high hills shaped like a great irregular V, with the point 
at Queensberry Hill just south of the county boundary. 
On the north-east side while the boundary follows the 


general direction of the watershed, it swings first to one 
side and then to the other. There is here no well- 
marked line of hills, but a wide expanse of bare and lonely- 
moorland, eight or nine hundred feet above the level of 
the sea. 

There is a prevalent but mistaken belief that a water- 
shed must be a range of hills, or at any rate must stand 
well above the level of the surrounding country. In 
many cases this is not so. The watershed may be a flat 
marsh, and one may sometimes walk right across an 
important watershed without noticing any change of 
slope whatsoever. This is illustrated in an interesting 
way by the Clyde near Biggar. At this point the main 
river actually is within a mile of the watershed between 
the Clyde and the Tweed. The divide is the broad flat 
valley of Biggar Water, and in times of heavy flood the 
waters of Clyde and Biggar mingle. It would be an easy 
task to divert all the head waters of the Clyde at this 
point into the North Sea. In fact, Michael Scott, the 
famous warlock, is said to have been in the act of doing 
this. He was marching down the vale of Biggar with 
the Clyde roaring at his heels when he became alarmed 
at the threatening sound behind him. Fortunately for 
the present prosperity of Glasgow he looked back, the 
spell was broken, and the waters resumed their usual 

The explanation of the origin of this low pass between 
the basins of the Clyde and the Tweed is not easy. Sir 
Archibald Geikie attributes it to " the recession of two 
valleys and to the subsequent widening of the breach by 

Falls of Clyde Bonnington Linn 


atmospheric waste and the sea," but this is not convincing. 
An explanation has been given that is more probable, 
although it involves a startling readjustment of our ideas 
regarding the permanence of natural features such as 
rivers. On this theory the Clyde now flows in an 
opposite direction to its course in former times. Originally 
it took its rise somewhere on the western border of Scot- 
land, at least as far west as Loch Fyne, at a time when 
Loch Long and Loch Lomond were not in existence. 
Like the Tay and the Forth and the Tweed, it flowed 
south-east to the North Sea, cutting the valley where the 
Biggar Water now runs. Later on when Loch Long 
and Loch Lomond were formed, they cut across the 
original head-streams of the Clyde, diverting them to 
the Atlantic and leaving a dry valley where the modern 
" Tail of the Bank " is situated. This was occupied by 
a westward flowing stream that rapidly thrust its head 
backwards and occupied the old valley, thus becoming 
the parent of the present Clyde. This explanation, 
fanciful though it seems at first sight, has many facts in 
its favour ; and other passes similar to that of Biggar, but 
in different parts of Scotland, have been explained on the 
same principles. 

Though not the largest river in Scotland, the Clyde 
is by far the most important. It is the gateway to one 
of the great industrial districts of the world. Along its 
banks more than one-third of the total population of 
Scotland is clustered. No other river in Britain can 
show such strange and violent contrasts in its course as 
are revealed by a walk along the valley of the Clyde 


from source to sea. From its source for many miles its 
course is through the Southern Uplands, a pure mountain 
stream among lonely hills, still clear and unpolluted as 
when the Roman legions tramped along the old road 
by its banks. After issuing from the hills, it flows 
through bare moors till it enters the ravine above the 
falls. It races through its gorges and leaps its falls as if 
in haste to reach the garden of the Clyde, the orchard 

The pleasant banks of Clyde 

Where orchards, castles, towns and woods 

Are planted by his side." 

The sternness and bleakness of its upper course have 
vanished. The landscape seems hardly Scottish in its 
rich, luxuriant beauty. But the pall of smoke is already 
visible in the west, and soon the Clyde flows through the 
"black country" of Lanarkshire, almost every town along 
its banks eager to defile its purity with every conceivable 
form of industrial waste and pestilential sewage. From 
here to its mouth the Clyde is a slave to commerce ; and 
foundries, mills, engineering-shops and shipyards roar 
about its banks till it escapes at last and finds rest in the 
clean, salt waters of the firth. Beautiful though the 
river is in its upper reaches, surely there are no lovelier 
scenes in Scotland than on the estuary of Clyde. 

According to tradition the source of the Clyde is on 
Clyde Law, down the slopes of which runs Little Clydes 
Burn. The older writers are unanimous in this opinion : 

" Annan, Tweed and Clyde 
Rise a' out o' ae hill side." 


But if we seek, as we should, for the true head-waters 
in the most important stream, we must select Daer 
Water, rising at a height of 1600 feet above sea-level on 
the slopes of Gana Hill on the southern border of the 
county. Below the point where the Daer Water joins 
the Powtrail Water, the united stream is called the 
Clyde by the Ordnance Survey, the supreme authority 
on matters topographical. The valley of Daer Water 
is perhaps the most inaccessible part of Lanarkshire. 
There is no road within many miles ; a little footpath 
only runs up the valley, deserted save for a shepherd or at 
infrequent intervals a solitary fisherman. 

A mile and a half past Watermeetings is the junction 
with Clydes Burn, and down its valley from Beattock 
Summit come the road and the railway from the south to 
keep the Clyde close company all the way to Glasgow. 
The engineers of road and railway knew well the easiest 
and straightest way from Carlisle to the rich Scottish 
Lowlands; but long before their time the Romans, with 
unerring skill, had discovered the route up Annandale, 
across Beattock Summit and down Clydes Burn to 

Still north the river flows receiving Elvan Water, 
where the gold-seekers even yet search for specks of the 
precious metal in the sands and gravels. At Crawford 
the river swings west for a mile before resuming its north- 
ward course. On the right bank is Tower Lindsay, the 
ruined stronghold of the Lindsays, Earls of Crawford. 
With its inseparable, comrades, the railway and the road, 
on each side, the river flows to Abington, where in 1839 


Prince Louis Napoleon, who was to sit on the throne of 
France, took his supper by the kitchen fire of the little 
inn. Duneaton Water comes in on the left bank from 
far Cairn Table and the Ayrshire border, and then the 
stream flows past Roberton and leaves the Southern 
Uplands behind it. 

The Clyde now takes a bend to the east that brings 
it to the head of Biggar valley. Tinto the hill of fire 
dominates all this part of Clydesdale. The commanding 
appearance of Tinto from almost any part of the Clyde 
valley is due to its splendid isolation, far from any rival 
peak. It heaves a huge shoulder, curving to a massive 
dome, for nearly 2000 feet above the level of the sur- 
rounding district, and from its summit can be seen a wide 
expanse of country, from the Bass Rock to Arran, from 
the Grampians to the peaks of Cumberland. On its 
south-east slope are the remains of Fatlips Castle, over- 
looking Symington. 

Northwards again the stream flows, now a stately 
river 40 yards in width, among its fertile haughs, past 
Thankerton and Covington. On receiving the Medwin 
the Clyde turns first to the west and then to the south- 
west, making the curious curve in its course that finishes 
just before the falls. Here comes in the Douglas Water 
from Douglasdale, home of the most powerful family that 
ever lived in Scotland, greater often than the kings them- 
selves. Where the Douglas joins the Clyde the river is 
flowing gently between sloping banks, while all around 
for many miles the ground is covered with great heaps 
and ridges of sand and gravel, the remnants of the Great 

M. L. 2 



Ice Age. Soon the valley contracts, the speed of the 
river increases, it hurries breathlessly down over a series 
of rapids and then with a roar makes its first leap over 
Bonnington Linn. Below Bonnington the scene is 
magnificent. The river toils and foams along in a deep 
gorge walled in by rocky cliffs 60 feet in height, in many 
places beautifully clothed with foliage. For half a mile 

Gorge above Corra Linn 

the chasm continues till at a sharp bend in the river, the 
water leaps in a mass of foam with a noise like thunder 
over Corra Linn. The river valley below the fall is a 
veritable canon ; the sides are dark precipices over 100 feet 
in height, amazing not only to the actual eye but to the 
mental vision that sees that this defile has been caused by 
the gradual recession of the falls up stream. 



Below Lanark the Mouse Water comes in through 
the high and narrow defile of the Cartland Crags, c< dark, 
rugged and precipitous crags, which are the astonishment 

Falls of Clyde Stonebyres Linn 

and terror of every beholder," according to the writer of 
the Statistical Account. Our nerves are surely stronger 
now than they were a hundred years ago. Still the gorge 

2 2 


of the Mouse here is certainly magnificent, and one can 
hardly realise that one is standing by the same stream that 
a few miles higher up steals along so gently through the 
flat, bog country round Carstairs. Stonebyres Linn, a 
mile below the junction of the Mouse Water, is the last 
of the falls, in time of flood an unbroken drop of 70 feet. 
Of the three falls (for Dundaff Linn is hardly worth con- 
sidering compared with its greater sisters) Corra Linn has 
the greatest reputation, and is by far the most visited. 
Yet the others are hardly, if at all, inferior. Stonebyres 
in particular, from certain points of view, is perfect, and 
worth more attention than it receives. 

The origin of the falls is an interesting problem. It is 
supposed that the course of the Clyde near Lanark before 
the Great Ice Age was quite different from what it is 
now. The curious curve from Hyndford Bridge to 
Lanark did not exist, the river taking a fairly straight 
course between these points. The Douglas Water also 
had a different course, as is shown in the map on p. 21. 
The old channels were filled up with material brought by 
the glaciers, and after the melting of the ice the former 
channels were not everywhere re-excavated. When the 
grip of the ice was released, the Clyde joined the former 
channel of the Douglas near the site of Core House, and 
easily scooped it out, forming a waterfall over the old 
bank. The waterfall thus caused receded, as all water- 
falls do, until it reached its present position at Bonnington 
Linn. Where the Clyde joined its old course near the 
site of New Lanark another fall was formed that worked 
backwards, and is now known as Corra Linn. Stonebyres 



Linn seems to have been caused in quite a different way. 
A very hard conglomerate full of quartzite pebbles crosses 
the river about 300 yards below the present position of the 
fall. The softer beds under this were eroded more rapidly 
than the hard bed, and so a waterfall was formed. It is in 
this way that most waterfalls have been formed. 

Sketch Map illustrating the origin of the Falls of Clyde 

(After Stark, Trans. Geol. Soc. Glasgow) 

Half a mile from the right bank of the Clyde stands 
Lanark. Near here, if tradition is correct, took place 
the first serious encounter of Sir William Wallace with 
the English. Incensed at a jest against his young wife, 
Wallace drew his sword and cut off the hand of the 


offending Englishman. A general fight took place, but 
the English garrison poured out in overwhelming numbers, 
and Wallace escaped from the town through his own door 
opened by his wife. For this his wife was slain, and 
Wallace vowed a lasting enmity to the English. With 
a few brave followers he attacked the garrison and slew 
many of them, including Hazelrig the governor. 

From Lanark down to Bothwell is the orchard country 
famous throughout the centuries since the time of Bede. 
In May the valley is white with blossom. Fruit trees 
and currant bushes clothe the slopes to the very edge of 
the river, and send fragrant offshoots up every tributary 
stream. Strawberry culture, though a recent introduction, 
is outstripping the other fruits ; and still more recently 
ugly little tomato houses seem to have sprung up every- 
where from the ground to meet the rapidly increasing 
demand. On the right bank we look up at the entrance 
to the fine gorge of Fiddler's Gill, and almost opposite the 
Nethan comes in, with Craignethan Castle on its left 
bank. Several miles lower down, the Clyde is joined by 
the Avon Water, a fine stream for trout and grayling. 
Not only in fish does it rival the Clyde, for its scenery in 
some parts is equal to anything the main river can show. 
Modern mansions and castles old in story are round us, 
but for the present must be left behind. There is a 
darkening haze to the west, and at times we catch a 
glimpse of tall chimneys warning us of a different type of 
scenery if we leave the river's hanks. At night the indi- 
cations of Lanarkshire's " black country" are even more 
apparent. Alexander Smith has well described the im- 


pression a traveller to Glasgow obtains who approaches 
the city from the south at night. 

The wild train plunges in the hills, 
He shrieks across the midnight rills; 
Streams through the shifting glare 
The roar and flap of foundry fires, 
That shake with light the sleeping shires; 
And on the moorlands bare, 
He sees afar a crown of light 
Hang o'er thee in the hollow night." 

The proximity of the great industrial centres gives 
a peculiar atmospheric effect that is finely portrayed in a 
little word-picture from the pen of Sir Harry H. Johnstone 
in his Life of Livingstone^ a description remarkable both 
for vividness and accuracy. " Beyond the factories, with 
the invisible Clyde rushing over weirs in the gorge be- 
tween, is a high ridge of wooded down ; and above all 
that strange, opalescent heaven, with its rainbows and 
curtains of vapour, its wreaths and rolling masses of cloud, 
its mists and films of smoke, its watery sunshine or its 
livid glare of fire, when night falls and the smoke-pall 
which daylight has rendered so dull-coloured and opaque 
becomes one vast shimmer of rosy flame." 

The lower part of the course of the Clyde has always 
been subject to destructive floods. In 1454 " ther wes 
ane right gret speit in Clyde, the quilke brocht down 
haile housis, bernis and millis," and even yet at intervals 
much damage is done to crops and houses by the river 
overflowing its banks. An inundation in 1831 caused 
irreparable loss by the destruction of a large number of 


letters written by Robert Burns to his friend William 
Reed, the publisher. 

The valley here is open and the river winds through 
rich haugh lands, but below Both well Brig the banks close 
in and steepen with a marked change in the character of 
the scenery, which is here exceptionally fine. Two miles 
below the bridge old Bothwell Castle looks across to 
Blantyre Priory on the other bank, comrades for nigh six 
hundred years. A little further down, at Kenmuir and 
Carmyle, the Clyde is linked with the names of many 
famous artists. Sam Bough, McWhirter, Horatio 
McCulloch, and many others of lesser note have painted 
on these banks. But a forest of chimneys, a wilderness 
of stone and lime is near at hand, and after doubling from 
one side to the other time and again as if looking for 
some way of escape, the river glides slowly into the heart 
of Glasgow. 

From Glasgow to the firth the Clyde is largely the 
product of man. The conversion of a stream, in places 
but a few inches in depth, into a water-way for ocean- 
going ships is one of the romances of industrial history. 
In the sixteenth century an attempt was made to improve 
the channel at Dumbuck but was not successful. The 
magistrates of Glasgow therefore reported in 1668 that 
they had had " ane meeting yeasternight with the lairds, 
elder and younger, of Newark, and that they had spoke 
with them anent the taking of ane piece of land of theirs 
in feu, for loadning and livering of their ships there, 
anchoring and building ane harbour there, and that the 
said lairds had subscryvit a contract of feu this morning : 


quhilk was all allowed and approvine be said magestratis 
and counsell." 

On the ground thus purchased the magistrates laid 
out the town of Port Glasgow with harbours and a 
graving dock. Here the goods were taken from the ships 
and loaded on the backs of little pack-horses that brought 
them by badly made tracks to Glasgow. In 1755 the 
river was still in a state of nature, for between Glasgow 
and Renfrew there were twelve shoals, one of which was 
only 15 inches deep at low water. James Watt surveyed 
the river in 1769, and reported a depth of 14 inches at 
Hirst Ford during low water. To John Golborne of 
Chester is due the first marked improvement in the navi- 
gation of the river, which was dredged and also narrowed 
by the construction of jetties. A few years later Golborne 
deepened Dumbuck Ford to a depth of seven feet, and 
owing to the scour of the river due to his jetty system 
this depth was in 1781 found to have become 14 feet. 
Act after act was carried through Parliament giving new 
powers, and each meant a further improvement in navi- 
gation and a consequent stimulus to the commerce of 
Glasgow. A great advance was made by the application 
of steam power to dredgers and the adoption of steam 
hopper barges, to which the present state of the river is 
largely due. A formidable obstacle was found in the 
Elderslie Rock, extending right across the river at a depth 
of eight feet below low water. After years of labour 
this was removed at a total cost of about 140,000, 
giving now a depth at low water of 28 feet. 

The principal tributaries can be easily remembered 


from Wilson's enumeration of them in his poem The 

"Glengonar's dangerous stream was stained with lead; 
Fillets of wool bound dark Duneaton's head; 
With corn-ears crowned, the sister Medwins rose, 
And Mouse, whose mining stream in coverts flows; 
Black Douglas, drunk by heroes far renowned, 
And turbid Nethan's front with alders bound; 
Calder, with oak around his temples twined, 
And Kelvin, Glasgow's boundary flood designed." 

The lakes of Lanarkshire are neither numerous nor 
large. Hillend Reservoir, five miles north-east of Airdrie, 
is the largest, being about a mile long. It supplies the 
Monkland Canal with water. There is a little group of 
lochs north-west of Coatbridge, of which the largest is 
Bishop Loch. The others include Lochend, Woodend 
and Johnston Lochs. East of Glasgow is Hogganfield 
Loch, and near Lanark with wooded banks is Lang 
Loch. As a rule the loch fishing is poor, pike providing 
almost the only sport. 

6. Geology and Soil. 

The rocks are the earliest history books that we have. 
To those who understand them they tell a fascinating 
story of the climate, the natural surroundings and the life 
of a time many millions of years before the foot of man 
ever trod this globe. They tell of a long succession of 
strange forms of life, appearing, dominating the world, 
then vanishing for ever. Yet not without result, for each 


successive race was higher in the scale of life than those 
that went before, till man appeared and struggled into the 
mastery of the world. 

The most important group of rocks is that known as 
sedimentary^ for they were laid down as sediments under 
water. On the shores of the sea at the present time we 
find accumulations of gravel, sand and mud. In the 
course of time, by pressure and other causes, these 
deposits will be consolidated into hard rocks, known as 
conglomerates, sandstones and shales. Far out from 
shore there is going on a continual rain of the tiny 
calcareous skeletons of minute sea-animals, which accu- 
mulate in a thick ooze on the sea-floor. In time this 
ooze will harden into a limestone. Thus by watching 
the processes at work in the world to-day, we conclude 
that the hard rocks that now form the solid land were 
once soft, unconsolidated deposits on the sea-floor. The 
sedimentary rocks can generally be recognised easily by 
their bedded appearance. They are arranged in layers or 
bands, sometimes in their original horizontal position, but 
more often tilted to a greater or less extent by subsequent 
movement in the crust of the earth. 

We cannot tell definitely how long it is since any 
special series of rocks was deposited. But we can say 
with certainty that one series is older or younger than 
another. If any group of rocks lies on top of another, 
then it must have been deposited later, that is it is younger. 
Occasionally indeed the rocks have been tilted on end or 
bent to such an extent that this test fails, and then we 
must have recourse to another and even more important 


way of finding the relative age of a formation. The 
remains of animals and plants, known as fossils, are found 
entombed among the rocks, giving us, as it were, samples 
of the living organisms that flourished when the rocks 
were being deposited. Now it has been found that 
throughout the world the succession of life has been 
roughly the same, and students of fossils (palaeontologists) 
can tell, by the nature of the fossils obtained, what is the 
relative age of the rocks containing them. This is of very 
great practical importance, for a single fossil in an un- 
known country may determine, for example, that coal is 
likely to be found, or perhaps that it is utterly useless to 
dig for coal. 

There is another important class of rocks known as 
igneous rocks. At the present time we hear reports at 
intervals of volcanoes becoming active and pouring forth 
floods of lava. When the lava has solidified it becomes 
an igneous rock, and many of the igneous rocks of this 
country have undoubtedly been poured out from volcanoes 
that were active many ages ago. In addition there are 
igneous rocks like granite that never flowed over the 
surface of the earth as molten streams, but solidified deep 
down in subterranean recesses, and only became visible 
when in the lapse of time the rocks above them were 
worn away. Igneous rocks can generally be recognised 
by the absence of stratification or bedding. 

Sometimes the original nature of the rocks may be 
altered entirely by subsequent forces acting upon them. 
Great heat may develop new minerals and change the 
appearance of the rocks, or mud-stones may be compressed 


into hard slates, or the rocks may be folded and twisted in 
the most marvellous manner, and thrust sometimes for 
miles over another series. Rocks that have been pro- 
foundly altered in this way are called metamorphic rocks, 
and such rocks bulk largely in the Scottish Highlands. 

The whole succession of the sedimentary rocks is 
divided into various classes and sub-classes. Resting on 
the very oldest rocks there is a great group called Primary 
or Palaeozoic. Next comes the group called Secondary 
or Mesozoic, then the Tertiary or Cainozoic, and finally 
a comparatively insignificant group of recent or Post- 
Tertiary deposits. The Palaeozoic rocks are divided 
again into systems, and since the rocks of Lanarkshire 
fall entirely under this head, we give below the names 
of the different systems, the youngest on top. 

Palaeozoic Rocks. 
Permian System. 
Carboniferous System. 
Old Red Sandstone System. 
Silurian System. 
Ordovician System. 
Cambrian System. 

All these systems are represented in Lanarkshire except 
the oldest (Cambrian) and the youngest 1 (Permian). 

A line running in a north-east and south-west direction 
by Crawfordjohn, Roberton and Lamington to the county 
border near Culter marks the position of a great crack or 

1 A small area in the Snar Valley between Crawfordjohn and Leadhills 
has been referred to the Permian system by some writers. 


fault, to the north-west of which the rocks have subsided 
until the Old Red Sandstone System has been brought 
level with the Ordovician rocks that occur south-east of 
this line. The sudden change in the character of the 
country observed in crossing this line and already men- 
tioned is thus due to the geological structure of the district. 
The Ordovician rocks consist of grits, conglomerates, 
flagstones, shales and cherts, along with volcanic lavas 
and volcanic ash. Since their deposition they have been 
thrown into such numerous and complicated folds that it 
is hopeless to determine from their present position what 
is the true order in which they were laid down. In a 
series of brilliant monographs, however, Professor Charles 
Lapworth, by a careful study of their fossils, demonstrated 
their true order of succession. 

Along the crests of folds or arches in the Old Red 
Sandstone rocks north of the fault there are found bands 
of Silurian rocks. One band occurs near Douglas Water 
and another at Logan Water near Lesmahagow. The 
latter is noted for the peculiar forms of life that have 
been found there. Giant crustaceans and the very earliest 
known of Scottish fishes, some of them found nowhere 
else, have been collected there in great numbers by 
enthusiastic geologists. 

The Old Red Sandstone rocks get their name from 
the fact that a considerable proportion, although by no 
means all of them, are sandstones of a red or brown 
colour. In Lanarkshire they occur in a very irregular 
band north-west of the fault separating the Lowlands 
from the Southern Uplands. This band extends down 


the Clyde to Crossford, and all the falls occur in the 
lower Old Red Sandstone. The rocks consist of con- 
glomerates, grits, sandstones and mudstones, as well as 
rocks of volcanic origin. The igneous rocks stretch across 
the county from Douglas past Biggar to Dolphinton. At 
Tinto a great sheet of igneous rock has been thrust into 
the surrounding strata, and the origin of the Tinto Hills 
can be traced to the way in which this rock has resisted 
the ceaseless attacks of the weather. The roads in this 
district owe their red colour to the fact that the bright- 
pink igneous rocks of Tinto are the chief source of road- 
metal in the locality. 

Section across the Lanarkshire Coal Basin 

The Carboniferous System is by far the most important 
in the county, for it contains the Coal Measures on which 
the very existence of Lanarkshire as an industrial com- 
munity depends. The sub-divisions of the Carboniferous 
System are as follows: 

Coal Measures. 
Millstone Grit. 

Carboniferous Limestone Series. 
Calciferous Sandstone Series. 

In Clydesdale these rocks have a synclinal or trough-like 
arrangement, so that the highest beds, the Coal Measures, 


appear in the middle bordered by lower and lower beds as 
we recede from them either to the north-west or the 
south-east. (See the section on p. 31.) 

The Calciferous Sandstone series comprises con- 
glomerates, marls, sandstones, shales, variegated clays and 
impure limestones. When these rocks were being de- 
posited, volcanoes were active in many parts of Scotland. 
The high moors and hills that stretch for thirty miles 
north-west from Strathaven are formed of the lava that 
poured from the throats of countless volcanoes in early 
Carboniferous times. 

The Carboniferous Limestone series consists of sand- 
stones, shales, limestones, coal-seams and ironstones, and 
forms a belt surrounding the Lanarkshire coal-field on the 
north, west and south sides. These rocks are not the 
true Coal Measures, but many of the coal-seams have 
been worked. The valuable gas coal of Lesmahagow 
belongs to this division. Some of the other beds are also 
of considerable economic importance. The clayband and 
blackband ironstones, though now almost exhausted, have 
been extensively worked, as have also the numerous bands 
of limestone. In addition the sandstones furnish building 
material of the finest quality. A large proportion of the 
city of Glasgow has been built from the sandstones of this 
series that are found within a few miles of the centre of 
the town. 

Overlying the Carboniferous Limestone series comes 
the Millstone Grit, consisting of sandstones, fire-clays, 
thin coal-seams, ironstones and limestones. This is the 


group of strata known in England as the "farewell rock," 
because below it no coal-seams are found. In Scotland, 
however, as we have shown, the conditions are different. 
About 5% of the Lanarkshire coal is obtained from seams 
below the Millstone Grit, which are worked by about 
14 collieries. The remaining 95% of coal is got from 
the true Coal Measures above the Millstone Grit, worked 
by about 250 collieries. The coarse sandstones of this 
group have been much used for the making of millstones, 
from which fact the name was derived. In Lanarkshire 
the fire-clays are the most valuable deposits of the series. 
They are worked in the northern part of the basin at 
Glenboig, Gartcosh, and Garnkirk. They are clays 
eminently suitable for the making of bricks that must 
withstand the action of fire. The alkaline compounds 
found in ordinary clays are absent, so that the fire-clays 
are highly infusible. They are generally supposed to have 
been the soils of that far-ofF time when the Millstone 
Grit was being deposited, and the absence of alkalies is 
ascribed to the extraction of these compounds by plants, 
but recent investigation has shown that all the occurrences 
cannot be explained in this way. 

The Coal Measures occupy a large area in the centre 
of the county. They stretch from Glasgow up the 
Clyde to Carluke and Stonehouse, and extend eastwards 
by Coatbridge and Airdrie right across the county 
boundary. Most of the area lies north of the Clyde, 
and nearly all the large industrial centres are situated 
north of the river on this formation. The rocks consist of 
sandstones, shales, marls, fire-clays, coal-seams and iron- 

M. L. 3 



stones. There are eleven coal-seams, of which the most 
important are, in descending order, the Ell, the Pyotshaw, 
the Main, the Splint, the Virtuewell, and the Kiltongue. 
Some of the seams rest on a bed of fire-clay, representing 
the old land-surface, while in other cases the under-clay is 
absent. In the former case the coal has probably been 
formed on the actual spot on which the forests grew, 

Fossil Trees at Whiteinch 

while in the latter case the vegetation may have been 
drifted to its present position. At Whiteinch, near 
Glasgow, can still be seen the remains of an ancient 
Carboniferous forest. The boles and roots of several fine 
trees have been exposed, and this unique " fossil grove " is 
now carefully protected in the interests of science. The 
bands of ironstone vary in number in different parts of the 


basin from four to seven. The constant repetition of 
sandstones, shales, ironstones and coals throughout these 
strata suggests that land conditions prevailed, alternating 
with periods of comparatively slight submergence. 

The Carboniferous beds are pierced in many places by 
dykes and sills of igneous rocks. The dykes occur in 
wall-like masses, and the sills as great horizontal sheets 
of rock. Where the latter are thrust along a coal-seam 
the coal is totally destroyed and a field may be rendered 
unworkable. Well-known examples occur in the neigh- 
bourhood of Shotts, near Carluke, and to the east of 
Glasgow. The prominent ridge on which Glasgow 
Necropolis is situated is formed by one of these sills. 

Throughout the whole extent of Lanarkshire the 
solid rocks are in large measure hidden by deposits of 
gravel, sand, and thick sheets of tough clay studded with 
boulders. In parts of the Clyde basin these deposits are 
over 300 feet thick. They project the mind back to a 
time when the climate of Scotland was very different 
from what it is. to-day, when the sites of the present corn- 
fields and orchards were occupied by glaciers creeping 
down from their gathering grounds, the great ice-fields 
lying among the high ground to the north and to the 
south. The stones in the boulder-clay show that two 
main streams of ice met in Clydesdale, the one from the 
Highlands, the other from the Southern Uplands. The 
opposing ice-sheets were then deflected both to the east 
and to the west, one part moving to the North Sea, the 
other to the Firth of Clyde. It is the ground-moraine 
of these ice-sheets that now forms the boulder-clay of 



Lanarkshire. Gilmorehill and Garnethill in Glasgow 
are merely huge accumulations of boulder-clay left by 
the ice. 

There are deposits of the glacial epoch known as 
"kames" that are better developed near Carstairs and 
Carnwath in Lanarkshire than in any other part of 
Scotland. Beyond the low, flat stretches of peat and moss 
about the Mouse Water there suddenly rises a tumbled 
sea of ridges and little peaks, beautifully green in colour 
and smooth of outline, and forming a remarkable contrast 
to the black peat-hags in front. The ridges are composed 
of sand and gravel, and wind about so as to enclose little 
lakes of clear water or little basins of peat marking the 
sites of former tarns. According to some writers the 
kames have been caused by denudation out of glacial 
debris, but it seems far more probable that they have been 
deposited by water in the shapes they now have against 
the front of the retreating ice-sheet. 

It is only in parts of Lanarkshire that the soil is 
favourable for agriculture. In the upper ward the soil on 
the whole is poor and thin, and tilled land is scarce. In 
the centre and west of the county the ground is cold and 
clayey, with tracts of bog and peat. Where the volcanic 
rocks occur tillage is in general impossible, for the soil 
forms a mere film on the surface of the hard rock. Even 
in the lower ward the soil was originally bleak and mossy, 
although now vastly improved by care and cultivation. 
The most fertile part of the shire lies along the Clyde 
and its larger tributaries. Here the soil is a rich alluvium 
brought down by the river. Even in the upper reaches the 


flat, alluvial haughs are green, fertile and wooded, and 
contrast strongly with the bare and treeless slopes on 
either side. 

7. Natural History. 

Many centuries ago the British Isles formed a part 
of the continent of Europe. Where the waters of the 
English Channel and the North Sea now ebb and flow, 
there was dry land offering a free passage to the migration 
of plants and animals from Central Europe to our country. 
Such was the case when the palaeolithic hunters, the men 
who chased the mammoth and the reindeer with their 
rude stone weapons, lived in Britain. By neolithic times, 
however, when our primitive ancestors were using finely 
chipped and polished weapons of stone, the British Isles 
had become separated from the Continent, and Ireland 
was severed from Great Britain. The land-bridge existed 
after the disappearance of the great ice-sheet from this 
country, and plants and animals from Europe migrated to 
Britain. The land connection, however, did not remain 
long enough for all the continental forms of life to find 
their way to Britain, for we find that there are, fewer 
species in Great Britain than in Western Europe, and 
fewer species in Ireland than in Great Britain. The 
comparative poverty of animal species in Britain is most 
marked in the case of the mammals and the reptiles, since 
these do not possess the power of flight. Thus while 
Germany has about 90 species of land mammals, Britain 


has only about 40. There is not a single species of 
mammals, reptiles, or amphibians found in Britain that 
is not found on the Continent, and only one bird, the 
common Red Grouse of Scotland, does not occ^r in 
continental Europe. 

The plants of Lanarkshire are fairly representative of 
the whole of Scotland. There is, however, no mountain 
of sufficient height to exhibit well the peculiar Alpine 
plants of Scotland, although these are found in the lower 
basin of the Clyde outside Lanarkshire. 

The moors of upper Clydesdale afford typical examples 
of the flora of the Scotch grouse moors. The old Cale- 
donian forest probably existed over many areas that are 
now bare of trees. There is a charter extant giving to 
the inhabitants of Crawford parish permission to cut wood 
in the Forest of Glengonar, where there are now only 
two or three solitary trees. The existing woods of 
Lanarkshire have practically all been planted by man. 
Deciduous trees are best developed in the locality of the 
Falls of Clyde. Some of the individual trees of Lanark- 
shire are magnificent specimens. At Lee Castle there is 
an oak nearly 24 feet in girth, in the hollow trunk of 
which it is said that Cromwell and a party of his followers 
dined. The "Covenanters' Oak" at Dalziel House is 
19 feet in girth, and there are two giants in Cadzow 
Forest over 21 feet in girth. There is a beech at 
Daldowie 1 1 1 feet high, and a poplar at Mauldslie Castle 
119 feet in height. 

The uplands of Clydesdale away from the river are 
mainly moor and marsh. In autumn they are purple 



with the flowers of the ling (Galluna vulgar is) and the 
fine-leaved heath (Erica cinerea). The milk-wort, the 
bog-asphodel, and in wetter parts the cotton-grass are 
abundant. In the marshes also the butter-wort and the 
sundew set their traps for unwary insects. All summer 
the grassy uplands are bright with the tiny, yellow flowers 
of the tormentil and the beautiful mountain-pansy. In 
damper parts are found the stone-crop and the golden 
saxifrage, the cinquefoil, the bog-bean, and the beautiful 
grass of Parnassus. 

The hedge-rows are not nearly so rich as in the more 
genial climate south of the border, though this fact is due 
partly also to the general stiffness of the soil, which is as a 
rule derived from boulder-clay. The locality of the Falls of 
Clyde however is especially rich. The wood-vetch and the 
rarer wood-bitter-vetch are found, and here also the crane's- 
bill and the rock-rose are abundant, though uncommon in 
other parts of Lanarkshire. At the falls can be found the 
rare narrow-leaved bitter-cress and the purple saxifrage. 
The cowslip as a rule is rare in Lanarkshire, but near 
Bothwell it is abundant. In this locality, too, can be 
found the bird-nest orchid and the dusky crane's-bill. 
Below Bothwell Brig, round Kenmuir and Carmyle, the 
plant-lover is often seen, and here he may find the large 
loosestrife, the great leopard's bane, and the goat's beard. 
Fossil Marsh is a favourite resort for Glasgow botanists, 
and several species are commonly found here that are rare 
in any other part of Scotland. 

The mammals of Lanarkshire are quite typical of 
Scotland as a whole. Only three species of bats are 


known, the long-eared bat, the common bat, and Dau- 
benton's bat, of which the last is distinctly the least 
common. The hedgehog and the mole are everywhere 
abundant. The common shrew is plentiful, the small 
shrew, though rare, has been found in the south of the 
county, and the water shrew has been seen near Glasgow. 
The wild-cat is now extinct, and the badger has also 
practically disappeared, although it has been seen in recent 
years near Carluke and at Milton Lockhart. The pole-cat 
and the pine marten are extinct, but the fox, the stoat, the 
weasel, and in suitable places the otter, are fairly common. 
Most of the British rodents occur in Lanarkshire, but the 
dormouse and the harvest mouse are not found. Of rats 
and mice, the old black rat is extinct, but its supplanter 
the brown, rat is everywhere. Ubiquitous also are the 
house mouse and the field mouse, the field vole and the 
water vole are abundant, and the black vole has been 
recorded. The squirrel is also fairly common. Rabbits 
are so abundant as to become pests, and the common hare 
and the mountain hare are fairly often seen. 

The white cattle of Cadzow Forest are in some 
respects the most interesting animals in the county. 
They are pure white in colour, except the muzzle, the 
hoofs, the ears, and the tips of the horns, which are black. 
They are popularly supposed to be the direct descendants 
of the ancient wild cattle of this country, the mighty 
Bos prlmigemus or Urus^ but most naturalists consider 
them to be derived from an ancient stock of domesticated 
cattle. The great antiquity and interest of the breed are 
however undoubted, and they are the only specimens to 


be found in Scotland. The red deer is extinct in Lanark- 
shire, but the roe deer and the fallow deer are found. 

Many parts of Lanarkshire offer very favourable 
opportunities for the study of bird life. In the higher 
parts the number of species is comparatively small, but 
along the well-wooded banks of the Clyde and its 
tributaries the variety and abundance of the birds are 
remarkable. A list of all the birds of Lanarkshire cannot 
be attempted here, but a few of the more typical species 
may be referred to. Of the birds of prey, the sparrow- 
hawk is still not uncommon in wooded districts. The 
kestrel is still fairly plentiful, sometimes appearing in the 
heart of Glasgow ; but the merlin, formerly by no means 
rare, has now been persecuted almost to extinction. The 
barn owl, the tawny owl, and the short-eared owl are 
fairly often seen. On the quiet reaches of the river the 
beautiful kingfisher can still be found. The song thrush 
and the blackbird make the spring melodious in almost 
every part of the county. The missel thrush, the red- 
wing, and the fieldfare are everywhere abundant. The 
chiffchaff is rare in Lanarkshire, though frequent in other 
places. The redstart, stonechat, wheatear, and sedge 
warbler all make their appearance in early summer, and 
the garden warbler and the grasshopper warbler are also 
common. The great tit, the long-tailed tit, the blue tit, 
and the cole tit are all abundant, while the marsh tit, 
though very rare in some counties, is common in the 
orchard district of the Clyde. The pied wagtail and the 
white wagtail are common generally, but the yellow 
wagtail, though frequently seen in lower Clydesdale, is 


rare in the upper part of the shire. The great grey shrike 
is a regular winter visitor, and there is a doubtful record 
of the red-backed shrike having nested in Lanarkshire. 

The greenfinch, the goldfinch, the chaffinch, and the 
bullfinch are all found. The linnet, the crossbill, and 
the lesser redpole are not uncommon, and the rare mealy 
redpole has been seen. In the towns the starling and the 
house sparrow abound everywhere, and the very rare tree 
sparrow is recorded from Carmichael parish. Rooks and 
crows can be seen in all parts, but the hooded crow is 
rare, and the chough and the jay are now extinct in this 
county. Other rare birds that have been recorded are the 
nightjar, the wryneck, the roller, the rose starling, the 
snow bunting, and the waxwing. The swift, the swallow, 
the house martin, the sand martin, the cuckoo, and the 
skylark are of course abundant everywhere. 

Of the goose family the teal, the widgeon, and the 
tufted duck are common. Of the doves the wood pigeon 
is common, and the stock dove is known to nest in the 
county. Black grouse and red grouse are common. The 
capercailzie was quite extinct about the end of the 
eighteenth century, but the descendants of introduced 
species have extended to Lanarkshire. Other birds im- 
portant to the sportsman, the pheasant, the partridge, the 
snipe, the moor-hen, all are common. On the moors 
the mournful cry of the lapwing and the curlew can 
everywhere be heard. 

Compared with the Continent the reptiles and amphi- 
bians of Britain are remarkably few in number. Most of 
the British species are found in Lanarkshire. There are 


two species of lizards, the lizard proper (Lacerta vivipara] 
and the blind-worm or slow-worm. The former may 
often be seen on a hot day frequenting dry, sunny places 
such as stone-heaps, walls, or ruined buildings. The latter 
is common among dead wood, decayed leaves, or stone- 
heaps, generally preferring a dry situation. The slow-worm 
is of course not a snake as is often supposed. It is a timid, 
inoffensive and perfectly harmless creature. When caught 
it becomes so rigid through fear that it easily breaks in 
two. It is from this fact that its specific name "fragilis" 
is derived. Of the true snakes there are two species, the 
adder or viper and the smooth or ringed snake. Although 
the latter is very uncommon in Scotland, it has been seen 
in the woods near Carluke. The adder is the only 
poisonous reptile in the country. To the healthy adult 
its bite is practically never fatal, although death has 
resulted in the case of children and infirm persons. The 
adder loves dry, warm places, among ruins or under fallen 
trees or on sunny banks. It is not common, but can 
hardly be called rare. The frog and the common toad 
abound, but the natterjack toad has never been recorded. 
The common newt and the palmated newt are everywhere 

8. Weather and Climate. 

The weather of Britain depends largely on the dis- 
tribution of atmospheric pressure over these islands. To 
put the matter in its simplest form, when the barometer 


is high we expect good weather, and when the barometer 
is low we expect wet and stormy weather. These two 
types of weather correspond respectively to a condition of 
high atmospheric pressure or anticyclone and a state, of 
low atmospheric pressure or cyclone. The winds in a 
cyclone are often strong and swirl round the centre of 
lowest pressure in great spirals with a direction opposite 
to that of the hands of a clock. When anticyclonic 
conditions prevail, the winds are light and move round 
the area of highest pressure in the same direction as the 
hands of a clock. 

Generally speaking we may say that the winds of 
Scotland throughout the year are controlled by three 
fairly permanent pressure centres. There is a low 
pressure area south of Iceland, an Atlantic high pressure 
area about the Azores, and a continental area in eastern 
Europe and west Asia that is high in winter time and 
low in summer time. In winter as a rule the Icelandic 
and the continental centres predominate, as they are then 
working in harmony. The tendency of both centres is 
to draw the air in a great swirl between them from 
south-west to north-east. Thus we find that in winter, 
south-west winds predominate in Scotland. (See p. 47.) 
Occasionally the continental anticyclone spreads as far as 
Scotland, and then for a few days in winter we experience 
clear skies, keen frosts, and very light winds. All too soon 
the Icelandic cyclone centre reasserts itself, and we are back 
again to storms of sleet or rain with a higher temperature. 
In summer the Atlantic high-pressure centre has more 
influence. It tends to draw the winds more to the west, 


sometimes to north-west. This high-pressure area with 
its accompanying fine weather is now at its most northerly 
limit, and occasionally spreads over these islands, reaching 
the south of England frequently, but not so often extending 
to Scotland. 

This shift of the prevailing winds from south-west to 
west according to season can be shown very plainly by 
reference to Lanarkshire records. We shall take the 
records of Glasgow Observatory 1 , both because they are 
typical of the county and also because they can be abso- 
lutely relied on, which, as we shall see later, is not the 
case with all the records of the shire. Instead of giving 
numerical tables, the results are expressed as diagrams 
from which the prevailing winds may be seen at a glance. 
Along each of the eight principal points of the compass 
we mark a distance proportional to the percentage of days 
on which the wind blew from that direction, and so get 
a star the longest points of which show the winds that 
blew most frequently. The top figure on p. 47 shows that 
the winds during January are chiefly from the south-west, 
and the second figure shows that the winds during July 
are chiefly from the west. Easterly winds are commonest 
in late spring and early summer. In May they are more 
frequent than winds from any other direction. 

The prevailing winds throughout the whole year can 
be shown in the same way. The third figure on p. 47 

1 For most of the data in this chapter referring to Glasgow the writer 
is indebted to Professor Becker of the University Observatory, who generously 
gave full access to the manuscripts containing the valuable meteorological 
records of the Observatory. 


Wind Rose showing the prevalent winds at Glasgow 
in January 



Wind Rose showing the prevalent winds at Glasgow 
in July 


Wind Rose showing the prevalent winds at Glasgow 
throughout the year 


shows the directions of the wind at Glasgow for the year. 
West and south-west winds are clearly the most common. 
The three wind stars show average conditions for the 
1 6 years, 1893-1908. In many parts of the country the 
trees are inarticulate witnesses to the same fact. They 
grow with their branches pointing east or north-east, away 

Tree showing S.W. wind 

from the wind. The branches of the tree shown in the 
photograph point almost exactly north-east. 

It is a general belief in this country that storms are 
more frequent and violent at the time of the equinoxes 
than at any other time. The phrase "equinoctial gales" 
is heard so frequently that the assumption it implies is 
accepted without question. It is an interesting point, 
therefore, to consider if the phrase is truthful. Examina- 


tion of actual records proves that the so-called equinoctial 
gales are mythical. Storms are not more frequent at the 
equinoxes than at any other time. This has been clearly 
shown in America, where the myth is also well-established, 
but the records for Glasgow during the last 40 years are 
quite convincing on the point. They show that storms 
are most frequent in winter and least frequent in summer. 
The maximum number occurs in January, and the number 
decreases steadily till June and July, then rises steadily 
again to January. The actual figures are very interesting 
and are as follows : 

Number of gales over 40 miles per hour at Glasgow 
for 40 years, 1868-1907 : 

Jan. Feb. Mar. Ap. May Je. Jy. Au. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec. . 

50 42 36 ii 5 2 2 5 10 15 27 39 

During these 40 years there were four storms that for 
a period of 15 minutes attained a velocity of 76 miles per 
hour, that is, the violence of a hurricane. Not one of 
these was at an equinox and only one in the same month 
as an equinox. The dates of these four record storms 
were (i) January 24-25, 1868, (2) March 12, 1871, 
(3) October 20-21, 1874, (4) January 6, 1882. 

The prevailing south-west winds of this country in 
winter have much to do with our favourable winter 
climate. The climate of the British Isles in winter is 
milder than that of any other part of the world in the same 
latitude. The following comparison will illustrate this 
very strikingly. Aberdeen and Nain (Labrador) are in 
the same latitude. The mean temperature of the coldest 

M. L. 4 


month at Aberdeen is 35 F., or three degrees above the 
freezing-point. The mean temperature of the coldest 
month at Nain is 4 F., that is thirty-six degrees below 
freezing-point. Most of us learned at school that our good 
fortune as regards climate was due to the beneficent 
influence of the Gulf Stream, but in recent years this 
explanation has been entirely abandoned. It is a myth 
as fanciful as the supposed "equinoctial gales." The 
Gulf Stream becomes a negligible factor a little to the 
east of the Newfoundland banks. Our true benefactor 
is the wind. In winter time the south-west winds blow 
from the warm, southern regions of the Atlantic, raising 
the temperature of Britain and depositing moisture, which 
means a still further rise owing to the liberation of the 
latent heat. In addition they blow the warm surface 
waters of the ocean from more southerly latitudes and 
cause them to flow round and past our islands. There 
is no strongly-marked current, but a general " Atlantic 
drift" of the heated surface waters. 

The temperature conditions of Lanarkshire are similar 
to those of other counties on the western slope of Scot- 
land. The summers are cooler and the winters are 
milder than on the east coast. The mean temperature 
in Glasgow for January, taking an average of 40 years, is 
38-6 F., and the mean temperature for July is 57*5 F., 
giving an annual range of 19 F. The annual range for 
Edinburgh is 21 F., and for London is 26 F. As the 
height of the land above sea-level increases, the tempera- 
ture becomes lower. Thus the mean temperature for 
the year at Glasgow Observatory, 180 feet above sea-level, 


is 47 F. ; at Baillieston, about 200 feet above sea-level, 
it is 467 F. ; at Carnwath, a little less than 700 feet 
above sea-level, it is 45 F.; and at Douglas Castle, nearly 
800 feet above sea-level, it is 44*8 F. 

Lanarkshire is not so favoured in the way of sunshine 
as many other parts of the country. As a rule the amount 
of sunshine can be judged from the rainfall. Districts 
with a high rainfall have little sunshine, and conversely a 
low rainfall means much sunshine. The amount of sun- 
shine diminishes as we go from south to north or from 
east to west. The average number of hours of sunshine 
per annum at Glasgow is 1095, while on Ben Nevis the 
amount is less than three-fourths of this figure, namely 
735 hours. Aberdeen, on the other hand, has 1401 hours 
of sunshine per annum. The temperature and the sun- 
shine are important factors in crop-raising. For example, 
wheat needs a hot, bright summer to ripen properly, 
and therefore we find that Lanarkshire is not an im- 
portant wheat-growing county. In proportion to its size 
Fifeshire grows eight times the amount of wheat that 
Lanarkshire does. 

Since in our country the moist winds come from the 
west, we find that the eastern counties of Scotland are 
distinctly drier than the western. Of even more import- 
ance is the effect of altitude on rainfall. The greater the 
altitude the heavier the rainfall, and if a rainfall map of 
the country be compared with an orographical map (that 
is, one showing increasing height above sea-level by a 
different tint of colour), the resemblance is very striking. 
The marked effect on rainfall of increase in altitude is 


Rainfall Map of Scotland. (After Dr H. R. Mill) 


shown by the fact that on the summit of Ben Nevis the 
average rainfall is about 160 inches per annum, while at 
the foot of the mountain in Fort William the annual 
rainfall is 73 inches. 

The records of rainfall for Lanarkshire are neither so 
numerous nor so reliable as could be wished. Many of 
the earlier records must be looked on with considerable 
suspicion. In the New Statistical Account of 1845 an 
average of 30 years' rainfall at Glasgow is given as 22*3 
inches, and the maximum during that period as 28-55 
inches. More recent observations, however, taken over 
periods of 10 to 25 years show an average rainfall of 38 
or 39 inches, and a maximum of well over 50 inches. 
Either the rainfall of Lanarkshire has altered to an amazing 
extent or the early records are untrustworthy, and the 
latter is the likelier explanation. At Dalserf, again, the 
average rainfall "drawn up from the observations of a 
medical gentleman" is given as 21*7739 inches. The 
"medical gentleman" who calculated his rainfall to the 
ten- thousandth part of an inch ( !) should almost certainly 
have added over 50 per cent, to his figures. No wonder 
the worthy clergyman who gives these figures remarks 
with pardonable complacency, "These results, if compared 
with those in places lying considerably to the east, will be 
found to be in favour of this part of Scotland." 

Remembering that the rainfall increases with height 
above sea-level and also to a less extent as we move to 
the west, we can understand the distribution of rain in 
Lanarkshire. The highest rainfall occurs near the head 
waters of the Clyde, the mean annual amount at Leadhills 
being over 60 inches. As we descend the river the 



amount gradually diminishes, until when we reach the 
orchard region it is little more than half that amount. 
Lower down the change in level is insignificant, and is 



Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nou. 

Curves showing the rainfall throughout the year at 
(i) Douglas Castle, (2) Glasgow, (3) Cambuslang, (4) Blantyre 

more than counterbalanced by the approach to the west 

coast. The rainfall, therefore, increases again to about 40 

inches where the Clyde leaves the county below Glasgow. 

In Lanarkshire as a rule the driest month of the year 


is April, and the wettest is January. This can be clearly 
seen from the curves on p. 54, which show how the rain- 
fall varies from month to month. The curves show the 
average rainfall for each month of the year at four places 
in Lanarkshire, and have been drawn from the mean 
values of 25 years' rainfall. Although the total amounts 
for the year are quite different, yet the fluctuations from 
month to month show a similarity that is astonishing, 
particularly in the curves of 2, 3, and 4. Early spring is 
much the driest season of the year, and winter is the 
wettest. The curves show very clearly the sudden rise 
in the rainfall that takes place in July and August, a 
phenomenon that is but too well known to holiday- 
makers in the west. As regards length of daylight, 
dryness and hours of bright sunshine, June is undoubtedly 
our ideal month of summer. 

The following table, compiled from the data given in 
the annual volumes of British Rainfall^ shows the average 
rainfall over the ten years 1899 to 1908 of several selected 
stations in Lanarkshire : 

Airdrie ... ... 38-1 inches. 

Biggar ... 30-1 

Bothwell ... ... 33-9 

Carluke- ... ... 34-8 

Cleghorn ... ... 387 

Glasgow Observatory ... 38-8 

Hamilton ... ... 37*5 

Lanark ... ... 31*5 

Leadhills ... ... 63-5 

Motherwell ... ... 327 


Results for the four years 1905-1908 are given for 
Lamington and Slamannan as 41 '6 inches and 37*2 
inches respectively. But this period was rather below 
the average, so that if we make allowance for that fact 
the corrected figures will be approximately 43 inches and 
38*7 inches. Buchan gives results for the 25 years 1866 
to 1 890 for the following places : 

Blantyre ... ... 29*74 inches. 

Cambuslang ... ... 34*67 

Douglas Castle... ... 45'68 

9. The People Race, Language, 

The earliest inhabitants of Britain probably crossed 
from the continent of Europe when it was connected to 
these islands by a land-bridge. They used very roughly 
made stone weapons and were mighty hunters, chasing 
the reindeer, the mammoth, the wild-horse and other 
animals that lived in this country in those days. From 
their stone weapons they are called palaeolithic (ancient 
stone), and their nearest representatives in modern times 
are believed to be the Bushmen of Africa. Authorities 
are almost unanimous in maintaining that there is no 
evidence that this race reached Scotland. These early 
palaeolithic men were followed by a race that used stone 
weapons of a much finer type (neolithic), and relics of 
this race are found all over Scotland. Stone implements 
of neolithic type have been frequently found in Lanark- 


shire, and will be referred to again in the chapter on 

One of the most constant and valuable physical 
characters of a race is the shape of the skull, which may 
be classed as long or broad. The primitive race of Scot- 
land were long-skulled, short in stature and probably very 
dark in complexion. They are known as Iberians, and 
have no affinities with Celts or Teutons, who are of 
Aryan stock. Later on Scotland was invaded by Celtic 
tribes, who were broad-skulled, and who are generally 
supposed to have driven out or exterminated the Iberian 
race, for in early historic times the language of almost 
the whole of Scotland was Celtic with, however, a 
number of non-Aryan peculiarities of syntax. Yet it is 
a remarkable fact that the majority of the people in 
Scotland at the present time are long-skulled. Now the 
Teutons are long-skulled ; but we know from history 
that the Scottish Highlanders are not of Teutonic stock, 
and in addition the Teutons are fair while the Celtic- 
speaking races are very much darker in complexion than 
the people of other districts. It would seem therefore 
that the Celtic invaders were merely a predominating 
and ruling caste, who completely imposed their language 
on the conquered tribes but did not seriously dilute their 
blood. The aboriginal stock absorbed the invaders, and 
thus on the whole the inhabitants of Scotland may be 
said to be of pre-Celtic or of Teutonic blood. No 
definite agreement on these points, however, has yet 
been reached. 

The earliest records relating to the Clyde valley state 


that it was in possession of the Damnonii, a Celtic- 
speaking tribe. At the end of the fourth century, when 
the Roman legions were withdrawn, Clydesdale was in- 
vaded by the Scots, a Goidelic tribe, and the original 
inhabitants were driven to the south of the district. 
About the beginning of the fifth century the Teutonic 
race began to appear in Scotland, and for 500 years this 
immigration went on until practically the whole of the 
Lowlands was in the hands of Teutonic tribes, the 
ancestors of the present Lowland Scots. 

The place-names of Lanarkshire are extremely inter- 
esting. They are not nearly so exclusively Celtic as in 
the districts bordering the firth. The names of the hills 
illustrate this. The Celtic bens, stabs, sgurrs, maols and 
mealls are as a rule conspicuous by their absence, although 
we meet with the Celtic words dun, torr and cairn. We 
find the Anglo-Saxon laws, dods, hills and rigs. In the 
names of the rivers, however, we meet with Celtic words 
chiefly, such as Clyde, Avon, Douglas and Calder. The 
names of villages and towns fall into two classes. Those, 
the history of which stretch furthest back such as Lanark, 
Glasgow, Dunsyre, have generally Celtic names, while 
those founded in more recent times as Roberton, Mother- 
well, Lamington, have names of English origin. Several 
words of Norse origin also occur, such as fell and gill, and 
town names as Biggar, Busby and Bearholm. In fact, as 
Sir Herbert Maxwell tells us in his Scottish Land Names, 
" There is perhaps no district in Scotland where the inter- 
mixture of languages is so perplexing as in the southern 
part of Strathclyde." 


At the present time Lanarkshire contains between 
one-fourth and one-third of the total population of the 
country. The census of 1901 gave 1,339,289 persons 
to Lanarkshire out of 4,472,043 for all Scotland. No 

per sq. mile 

\Less than 100 

1 250-500 

\0uer WOO 

Map showing density of population in Lanarkshire 

other county even approaches this number, Edinburgh- 
shire coming second with less than half a million. 
Although much of Lanarkshire is bare moorland, it is 
yet the most densely populated of all the counties, having 


1524 persons to the square mile. This contrasts very 
markedly with Sutherland, which has only n to the 
square mile, or even with Scotland as a whole, which has 
150 persons to the square mile. (See Fig. 3, p. 167.) 
It is only in the last hundred years that Lanarkshire has 
shot to the front so conspicuously, and this has been due 
to the industrial development of the county, following on 
the exploitation of its rich coal and iron fields. Motherwell 
has now a population of over 30,000, yet at the beginning 
of the nineteenth century it did not exist even as a village. 
In 1 80 1 the population of the county was 147,692, that 
is to say it has increased during the nineteenth century 
almost ten-fold, while in the same time the population 
of the whole country has only tripled itself. The curves 
on p. 6 1 show the comparative growth during the nine- 
teenth century of Lanark and of Edinburgh, the county 
next to it in importance. 

The alien element is stronger in Lanarkshire than in 
any other county of Scotland. Every nationality into 
which foreigners are grouped by the census authorities is 
represented in Lanarkshire, and this doubtful distinction 
is shared by no other shire in the country. At the time 
of last census (1901) there were three foreigners in Suther- 
land, three in Nairn, two in Kinross and 13,438 in 
Lanarkshire, more than half the foreigners in the whole 
of Scotland. Of the population of all Scotland less than 
one-half per cent, are foreigners, but in Lanarkshire the 
proportion rises to just over one per cent. The nations 
most strongly represented are Russia, Poland, Italy and 
Germany. The proportion of Russians and Poles is 


nothing less than astonishing. Nearly four-fifths of the 
total number of these peoples in Scotland are to be found 
in Lanarkshire. These figures are largely accounted for 
by the number of Russian Jews engaged in various occu- 
pations in Glasgow, and the continual influx of Poles, 







o 5 
3 4 


Curves showing the comparative growth of the populations 
of Lanarkshire and Edinburghshire 

not single spies but in battalions, to Hamilton and the 
surrounding colliery districts. There is many a John 
Smith or Sandy Macgregor in these parts whose know- 
ledge of English scarcely goes beyond his new agnomen. 
The Poles have the reputation of being good workers 
and respectable neighbours. Their occasional outbreaks 


on festive occasions are almost invariably confined to 
their own circle. There are others, not foreigners, 
whose knowledge of English is insignificant or absent. 
In 1901 there were in the county nearly 27,000 persons 
who spoke both Gaelic and English, and 104 who spoke 
Gaelic only, and of the latter, curiously enough, only 
eight did not reside in Glasgow or its suburbs. 

Lanarkshire, in spite of its wealth and industrial 
supremacy, compares unfavourably with other parts of 
Scotland in some respects. Of its families, 71 per cent, 
live in houses of one or two apartments, a striking 
contrast to the fact that the percentage for all Scotland 
is 51. 

The occupations of the people of the county are 
numerous and varied. Naturally those engaged in 
industrial pursuits form by far the majority of the 
workers. Of a total of over 400,000 men engaged in 
occupations of all kinds, over 300,000 are industrial 
workers. Those engaged in commerce total little more 
than a fourth of the latter number. The professions 
account for nearly 17,000, while agriculture claims less 
than half that amount. Among the industries the 
various branches of metal and machinery manufacturing 
absorb the greatest numbers, almost exactly 100,000, 
while next in importance come mining and quarrying, 
in which nearly 56,000 men are engaged. 

Of course the conditions are different with women 
workers. Household duties for which no salary is paid 
are not considered " work " by the census, so that over 
300,000 women are (nominally) unoccupied. Of the 


others nearly 100,000 are engaged in industries, while 
less than 38,000 are employed in some branch of 
domestic service. In the textile industries women take 
a prominent position, nearly 25,000 of them being so 
employed, a total that is more than double the number 
of male workers. 

io. Agriculture. 

Although at the present time Scottish gardeners and 
Scottish farmers have a world-wide reputation, yet it was 
not till the eighteenth century that there was any agri- 
culture worthy of the name in Scotland. Most of the 
country was unenclosed, roads and bridges were almost 
unknown, artificial drainage was not employed, and only 
the driest parts were tilled. Yokes of oxen dragged a 
rude plough far up the hill sides, because the lower parts 
were hopeless swamps. A few sentences may be quoted 
from Henry Grey Graham's description of the state of 
agriculture at the beginning of the eighteenth century. 
" There were no enclosures, neither dyke nor hedge 
between fields, or even between . farms ; so that when 
harvest began or the cereals were young, the cattle either 
required to be tethered, or the whole cattle of the various 
tenants were tended by herds."... "When the harvest was 
over the cattle wandered over all the place, till the land 
became a dirty, dreary common ; the whole ground being 
saturated with the water which stood in the holes made 
by their hoofs. The horses and oxen being fed in winter 


on straw or boiled chaff, were so weak and emaciated 
that when yoked to the plough in spring they helplessly 
fell into bogs and furrows ; even although to fit them 
more thoroughly for their work, they had been first 
copiously bled by a ' skilful hand.' "..."The harrows, 
made entirely of wood, ' more fit,' as Lord Kames said, 
4 to raise laughter than to raise soil,' had been in some 
districts dragged by the tails of the horses, until the 
barbarous practice was condemned by the privy council." 
... u lf one man dared to cultivate a neglected bit of 
ground, the others denounced him for infringing on their 
right of grazing on the outfields. How could he begin 
the growing of any new crop ? The others viewing 
every innovation with the contempt which comes from 
that feeling of superiority, which ignorance and stupidity 
produce, would refuse to join him."..." With a system 
so atrocious, with land uncleaned, unlimed, unmanured, 
undrained, it frequently happened that the yield could not 
feed the inhabitants of the district, and men renting from 
40 to 100 acres needed to buy meal for their families." 

Gradually new crops and better methods were intro- 
duced. The cultivation of turnips and potatoes marked 
the beginning of a more rational agriculture. Old ideas, 
as the determination to use no mechanical aids to winnow- 
ing because it contravened the Scriptures and "was making 
Devil's wind," gradually disappeared. Stock-breeding was 
introduced, the land was let in larger holdings, alternation 
of crops was practised, artificial fertilisers were used, until 
at the beginning of the nineteenth century agriculture was 
on a satisfactory basis. 


In some respects Scotland will always be at a dis- 
advantage compared with England. In many parts the 
soil is as fertile as any south of the border, but the more 
favourable climate of England causes an earlier harvest. 
An additional crop of turnips or cabbages or vetches can 
then often be secured after the main crop has been got in, 
whereas in Scotland this can very seldom be done. 

On the whole Lanarkshire cannot be considered one 
of the chief agricultural counties of Scotland. Much of 
the ground, particularly in the upper ward, is quite un- 
suited for tillage. Thus it follows that only about a 
quarter of the total area of the county consists of culti- 
vated land, "whereas in Fife and Haddington more than 
one-half of the land is cultivated. The only branch of 
agriculture in which Lanarkshire excels is that of fruit- 
growing. Its orchards have been famous for many 
centuries. From Lanark to Bothwell both banks of the 
Clyde are devoted to fruit-growing. Apples, pears and 
plums of the finest quality have been grown here since 
the beginning of Scottish history. Gooseberries and 
currants claim a fair proportion of the area, but in recent 
years strawberry cultivation has increased enormously. 
Even Perthshire, the other great fruit-district of Scotland, 
has less than half the acreage of Lanarkshire devoted to 
this fruit. The former county excels in raspberries, 
however, which are grown only to a moderate extent in 

A common practice is to grow strawberries for three 
or four years. The land is then ploughed and a corn 
crop is taken. Next year potatoes are grown for the 

M. L. 5 


purpose of cleaning and enriching the soil, when the 
ground is heavily manured and is ready again for straw- 
berries. Over four tons of strawberries per acre can be 
gathered from the fields bordering the river. Higher up 
the banks, the yield is not so heavy, but the fruit is 
considered of finer quality. The tomato is quite the 
newest incomer to the district, but its cultivation has 
spread with remarkable rapidity. Everywhere the little 
glass houses are springing up like mushrooms to meet the 
rapidly increasing demand for this fruit in the large towns 
of the district. 

Of the area under orchards proper, most is claimed 
by plum trees, and in autumn the wayfarer may see for 
miles along the road within easy reach the scarlet fruit 
gleaming through its green setting. Apple trees are 
almost as common, and both these species are grown 
over twice the area given to pears. Cherry cultivation 
is relatively unimportant. The total area under different 
kinds of small fruit in 1908 was 2259 acres, and under 
orchards was 765 acres. 

Scotland is not a great wheat-growing country; the 
summers are too wet and cold. In fact, in several of the 
counties not a single acre of land is given to wheat. By 
far the most important crop is oats, which is peculiarly 
well suited to our climate. In Lanarkshire, for example, 
oats occupy more than twenty times the area devoted to 
wheat. This contrasts very markedly with some of the 
English counties such as Cambridge, where wheat is 
grown over nearly twice the extent occupied by oats. 
The comparison with a purely agricultural county like 


Cambridge is instructive. The latter county is not quite 
so large as Lanarkshire, but it has nearly 52,000 acres of 
oats to 37,000 in Lanark, and actually 93,000 acres of 
wheat to 1700 in Lanark. There are no other corn 
crops of any importance in the shire, but of other pro- 
ducts turnips and potatoes are the most valuable. There 
are over 9000 acres under turnips and 5000 under 
potatoes. The area given up to hay is, of course, 
extremely large, there being nearly 48,000 acres thus 
cultivated in 1908. (See Fig. 4, p. 168.) 

In stock-raising also Lanarkshire cannot compete 
with many of the other counties of Scotland. Compare 
it with Aberdeenshire, for example, and the contrast is 
striking. The latter contains over 31,000 horses used 
for agricultural purposes, while Lanarkshire can boast of 
barely 8800. It is of interest to note, however, that one 
of the best known breeds of horses in the world is of 
Lanarkshire extraction. It is said that the famous 
Clydesdales originated from the crossing of a Flemish 
stallion with a Scotch mare in the seventeenth, or as some 
say in the eighteenth century. They were certainly 
brought to a high pitch of perfection in the upper ward 
of Lanarkshire during the eighteenth century. The 
type is not unlike the mighty English "shire " horse, but, 
to quote an authority, " the English breed is larger, and 
possesses more substance than the Clydesdale, but the 
latter has a decided superiority in bone and muscle, with 
a compact and firmly knit body, symmetrical head, and 
strong feet and pasterns, that render its strength more 
durable and admirably fit it for heavy draught work." 



Lanarkshire ranks third among the counties for cattle, 
being surpassed only by Aberdeen and Ayr. The total 
in 1908 was more than eight times the number of horses, 
namely 71,636. The cattle are kept chiefly for dairy 
purposes, and therefore the great majority of them are 
Ayrshires, although a number of Highland cattle may be 
seen in the upper ward. The former breed has been 

Clydesdale Stallion 

found peculiarly suitable to the moist climate of the 
south-western counties. It is not only hardy, but yields 
a larger proportion of milk to food consumed than any 
other breed in the country. Glasgow and other large 
towns absorb the supply of most of the dairies, but cheese 
is made in some parts, particularly round Carnwath and 


In the upper ward the green hill slopes form fine 
pasture grounds for sheep, and there are many large 
sheep-farms in the district. The stock consists chiefly 
of Cheviots and Black-faced sheep. The wool of the 
Black-face does not bring so high a price as that of the 
Cheviot, but the former breed is hardier and more suited 
to mountainous tracts. It will thrive on poor fare and 
withstand privations that would exterminate any other 
breed. In 1908 the number of sheep in Lanarkshire 
was 257,779. (See Fig. 5, p. 168.) 

The ancient Caledonian forest probably at one time 
extended over most of Lanarkshire, but only a few 
doubtful vestiges of this now remain in Scotland. In 
certain parts of Lanarkshire there were undoubtedly 
within the last thousand years forests that have now 
entirely disappeared. At the present time the woodlands 
in the locality of the Falls of Clyde show a better develop- 
ment of deciduous trees than any other part of the west 
of Scotland. Over 21,000 acres of the county may be 
classed as woodland, and within the last ten years this 
amount of land under trees has just barely held its own. 

ii. Industries and Manufactures. 

There is probably no district in Britain where the 
variety of industries and manufifttures is greater than in 
Lanarkshire. This is, in truth, one of the most significant 
features of the county. Specialisation, to any marked 
extent, is absent. We do not find groups of towns 


engaged almost exclusively in the cotton trade as in 
Lancashire, or in the woollen trade as in West York- 
shire, or in the iron trade as in the " Black Country " of 
England. This is undoubtedly a favourable state of 
affairs, for it is seldom that several of the great industries 
are notably depressed at the same time, and sudden 
fluctuations from excessive prosperity to the depths of 
adversity are not nearly so common in Lanarkshire as in 
other great manufacturing districts. 

The pre-eminence of Lanarkshire as an industrial 
centre is due to several causes, of which the most im- 
portant is the possession of valuable coal-fields of large 
extent and fine quality. The position of these coal-fields 
must not be overlooked. In the chapter on Geology 
they were shown to stretch as far down the Clyde as 
Glasgow, and thus the manufactures of Lanarkshire have 
ready access to the markets of the world. It was about 
the middle of the eighteenth century before the manu- 
factures of the county began to develop. The stimulus 
given to the textile trades by the application of machinery 
in the second half of the eighteenth century was felt in 
Scotland. The inventions of Hargreaves, Arkwright, 
Crompton and Cartwright in England practically laid 
the foundations of a new industry, and Lanarkshire was 
not slow to seize its opportunities. Other industries 
followed, reacting one upon the other, until the county 
became a hive of varied industries the spinning of cotton, 
silk and flax, weaving and dyeing, the production of 
pig-iron, the rolling of steel, the firing of pottery, glass- 
making, the building of bridges, the manufacture of 


chemicals, distilling and brewing, and a thousand and one 
other industries from the building of battle-ships to the 
making of clay tobacco-pipes. 

For over a century the production of iron has been 
a leading industry of Lanarkshire. For many years the 
West of Scotland was the most important iron district in 
Britain and now ranks second only to Cleveland. The 

Ironworks, Coatbridge 

first blast-furnaces in the county were begun at Wilson- 
town (Carnwath) in 1781. In 1788 there were only 
eight blast-furnaces in all Scotland, turning out less than 
7000 tons of pig-iron in a year. At the present time 
there are nearly 60 in Lanarkshire alone. Coatbridge is 
the chief centre for this branch of the iron trade, more 
than half the blast-furnaces of the shire being situated there. 
The neighbourhood of Glasgow is next in importance. 


The two most marked advances in the production of 
pig-iron have both originated in Lanarkshire. At first 
charcoal was used as fuel, and later coke, but in 1831 
Messrs Dixon introduced the use of coal, thus effecting 
an enormous saving. The consumption of coal per ton 
of iron produced has fallen from eight tons to less than 
two tons. The other striking innovation was the intro- 
duction of the hot blast, suggested by James B. Neilson 
in 1828. Experiments were made at the Clyde Iron- 
works with complete success, and soon every furnace in 
the country adopted the idea. 

The production of mild steel, which began about 
1872, led to the demand for purer ores than could be 
found in the district. This necessitated a great import 
of iron ore, chiefly from Bilbao in Spain, in addition to 
supplies from England, Algeria and Elba. Steel-making 
is now one of the most important industries in Lanark- 
shire. The Steel Company of Scotland was the pioneer 
firm and was founded in 1871. It owns works at 
Newton and Glasgow, and uses the Siemens or open- 
hearth process. There is, it may be noted, no Bessemer 
steel made in Lanarkshire. Motherwell is now recognised 
as the centre of the Scottish steel industry. The Dalzell 
Steel and Iron Works (Colville's) in this town have the 
largest plant in Scotland and can turn out 5000 tons per 
week. On every side in Motherwell indications of the 
predominant industry assail one's eyes and ears. The 
air resounds with the clatter and bang of the rolling-mills, 
the clanging of the steam-hammers and the rattling 
fusillades of the pneumatic riveters. At Parkhead Forge 


near Glasgow, armour plates are the speciality, and this 
firm can now build a battleship, protect it with armour 
plates, fit it with boilers and even supply it with guns. 
This last fact is particularly interesting, for it marks a 
new industry in Lanarkshire. The first modern gun 
from this county was completed towards the end of 
1909. It is a 12-inch gun firing a projectile over a third 
of a ton in weight, and nothing like it has ever been made 
in Scotland before. 

To describe in detail the multitudinous industries 
based on iron and steel would need many volumes and 
only a rapid glance can be given at them in these pages. 
Foundries are numerous, producing castings which vary 
in size from the parts of a model engine to the gigantic 
cylinders of a battleship. Boilers of all kinds, Lancashire, 
water-tube and ordinary marine types, are made in Glasgow, 
Motherwell, Govan and other places. Many works, again, 
devote themselves to machine tools, half-human con- 
trivances for punching and shearing, for rolling and 
bending, for planing and sawing. Machinery of every 
kind, in fact, is manufactured in the industrial towns 
of the county-land and marine engines, cranes, pumps, 
steam-hammers, winding-engines, sugar-machinery and 
innumerable other kinds. 

The making of scientific instruments has an added 
interest from the long connection of Lord Kelvin with 
this branch of industry. The name "Kelvin and White" 
is known wherever Glasgow-built ships go. It was the 
invention of the mirror galvanometer by Lord Kelvin 
that made possible communication across the Atlantic. 


Over 50 patents were taken out by him, and with many 
pieces of scientific apparatus Glasgow practically supplies 
the world. Another Glasgow invention of great interest 
and importance is the range-finder of Barr and Stroud. 
Their design was adopted by the Admiralty, and is now 
fitted on all battleships and cruisers. It is used also in 
nearly every other navy in the world. 

The building of locomotives has been brought to a 
high pitch of perfection in Lanarkshire. The Hyde 
Park Locomotive Works, Springburn, Glasgow, in many 
respects are the premier works not only of Britain but of 
all Europe. Three hundred engines in a year can be 
turned out, and when one thinks of the wonderful com- 
plexity of the modern locomotive this is an astonishing 
figure. The north-east of Glasgow is in fact devoted 
to locomotive building, for there also the Caledonian 
and North British Railways have their works. Other 
locomotive firms too there are in the city; the trade 
employs many thousands of men, and Glasgow engines 
can be seen in every quarter of the globe. 

Roof and bridge work is carried on in various parts 
of Lanarkshire, chiefly in Glasgow and Motherwell. 
Those stupendous examples of human achievement, the 
Forth Bridge and the Tay Bridge, might justly be regarded 
as among the wonders of the world. They were con- 
structed by the well-known Glasgow firm of Sir William 
Arrol & Co., and there are other builders in the county 
of hardly less eminence. 

The Clyde and ship-building are synonymous. The 
first passenger steamer ever launched in Britain was built 


on its banks, and at the present time it is the greatest 
ship-building centre in the world. In 1907 the tonnage 
built on the Clyde was nearly double that produced by 
the whole of Germany. Every kind of sailing craft that 
can be called a ship will be found a-building here, from 
a racing yacht to a Lusitania, from a square-rigged wind- 
jammer to a battle-ship. It is only the north-western 
extremity of Lanarkshire, from Glasgow seawards, that 
takes part in this industry. The Renfrew arid Dumbarton 
banks are lined with yards of the first importance, turning 
out a tonnage far exceeding that of Lanarkshire, but it 
must not be forgotten that their existence depends largely 
on this last county. Their coal and steel come from 
Lanarkshire, and in several cases the workers themselves 
travel from Glasgow and its suburbs to the ship-yards 
and back again every day. 

The most famous yard in Lanarkshire is that of the 
Fairfield Company, Govan. They have built several of 
the most famous Cunarders, but it is in warships that they 
take the most prominent position. Up to the end of 1908 
they had built for the British navy ships in total displace- 
ment amounting to almost 200,000 tons, a figure equalled 
by no other firm on the Clyde. 

The textile industries of Lanarkshire, although im- 
portant, are not to be compared with those of Yorkshire 
or Lancashire, where whole communities devote themselves 
to nothing else. The weaving industry, however, is one 
of the oldest in the county and in the sixteenth century 
was firmly established. After the Treaty of Union, when 
new markets were opened to Scottish enterprise, the trade 


grew rapidly, and by the beginning of the nineteenth 
century, spinning and weaving provided employment not 
only in the towns and villages of Lanarkshire but in 
lonely cottages far from urban districts. But in the 
struggle for existence the factory operative conquered 
the hand-loom weaver, who, in many instances, had either 
to emigrate or starve. The industry is now concentrated 
in large factories. 

Cotton-spinning is largely carried on in Glasgow and 
the surrounding district. The east end of the city also 
still produces muslins and curtains on quite a large scale. 
The subsidiary industries of bleaching, dyeing and printing 
employ large numbers of people. The manufacture of 
linen used to be an important industry in the west of 
Scotland, but the competition of Belfast has been too 
keen, and now the trade is practically extinct. Worsteds 
and woollen cloth goods are made to some extent, but 
the most important branch of the woollen industry in 
Lanarkshire is the manufacture of carpets. Glasgow 
carpets have a very great reputation for high quality, and 
some of the best designers in the country were for the 
first time induced to enlist their talent in the service of 
Templeton of Glasgow. The manufacture of silk fabrics, 
though not increasing to any marked extent, still holds 
its own. Handkerchiefs, ties, chiffons and other light 
materials are the chief articles produced. 

The chemical manufactures of Lanarkshire are charac- 
terised, like the industries in general, by great variety. 
Perhaps the most important product is sulphuric acid, or 
oil of vitriol, which is produced in large quantities by 


several makers. Other acids, bleaching powder, and 
Epsom salts are also important products. In recent 
years the increased appreciation of the value of fertilisers 
has given a stimulus to the manufacture of artificial 
manures. Even ironworks are engaged in this business, 
for the spare gases from the furnaces are not allowed to 
escape, but are made to yield their share of ammonia from 
which to make ammonium sulphate, a valuable fertiliser. 

It is estimated that twenty years ago there were only 
fifty tons of potassium cyanide per annum consumed in 
the whole world. The invention of the cyanide process 
for gold extraction entirely altered these conditions, and 
created an enormous demand for cyanide. The process 
was evolved in a Glasgow laboratory by MacArthur and 
Forrest, and the patents were in the hands of a Glasgow 
firm. The demand for cyanide at the present time may 
be imagined from the fact, that the use of it for a period 
of five years on the Rand alone has recovered thirty-five 
millions sterling of gold. The Cassel Gold Extracting 
Company of Glasgow have a manufacturing capacity 
more than double that of any other works in the 

A very interesting industry that has sprung up in 
Glasgow during the last few years is the making of 
rubber-cored golf balls. Hundreds of girls are now em- 
ployed in this manufacture, and the industry is growing 
rapidly. There are many other branches of chemical 
industries that can only be mentioned. Among them the 
most important are sugar refining, brewing, distilling, the 
manufacture of oxygen, the making of paints and varnishes, 


soap making, oil-distillation, tanning, starch and gum mak- 
ing, electro-plating, and waterproofing. 

Pottery and glass-making have for long been staple 
industries in Lanarkshire, particularly in Glasgow. Many 
different kinds of glass are made, and the products have 
a wide reputation. In recent years, however, the com- 
petition of France and Germany has been more severely 
fejt, perhaps because the local manufacturers are not so 
modern in their methods as their continental rivals. Of 
the various branches of glass-making, probably the one 
that has been brought to the highest degree of perfection 
in Lanarkshire is the manufacture of globes and shades for 
gas and electric lights. 

The clay for use in the potteries is obtained largely in 
the south of England, and is brought to Glasgow in small 
sailing vessels. It varies in quality and also in the ingre- 
dients added to it according to the class of ware desired. 
The clay used always to be worked on the potter's wheel, 
an instrument that was in use five thousand years ago, 
and is only now becoming extinct owing to the intro- 
duction of machinery. 

The presence of valuable beds of fire-clay in different 
parts of Lanarkshire has resulted in a very important and 
flourishing industry in the west of Scotland, namely, the 
making of fire-bricks, retorts, pipes, troughs, garden vases, 
and many other articles. Ordinary building bricks are 
also made in large quantities, and the supply could be 
largely increased, but the presence of so much good build- 
ing stone in Lanarkshire limits the demand for brickwork. 
In recent years an interesting method of using waste 


material in brick-making has been discovered. This 
consists in the utilisation of the great "bings" or heaps 
of blaes that form too conspicuous a feature in the land- 
scape of many parts of Lanarkshire. The material is 
crushed and then moulded into bricks under high 

12. Mines and Minerals. 

Lanarkshire has been an important mining centre for 
many centuries. Although there is no definite information 
on the point, it seems very likely that the lead mines of 
the upper ward were worked by the Romans. From 
many points of view, however, the most interesting 
mineral found in Lanarkshire is gold. The history of 
the gold workings makes a fascinating story. The early 
Celtic tribes of the district certainly made torques and 
other ornaments of gold, specimens of which have been 
found in different parts of the county. The gold of 
which these ornaments were made must almost certainly 
have come from upper Clydesdale. When we come to 
the beginning of the sixteenth century in the reign of 
James IV, we find that the mines of Crawford were well 
known, and several valuable finds are recorded. A manu- 
script in the British Museum tells us that there were three 
hundred miners at work in this reign. The writer states 
shrewdly "that there hath ben...plentie of golde gotten in 
ye waters of the said cloughes and Gilles 80 fad[oms] 
above the foresaid waters in ye valleis, wch golde being 
M. L. 6 


ponderous... must bie common reason descend : so as con- 
sequentlie, whereas some peeces of [gold] of above 30 
ounces weight have been found in the said Gillies, the 
same must...growe there aboute or bie violent waters be 
dryven out of higher places wher they did grow within ye 
circumference of those places where the golde is founde." 

Tradition tells us that in the reign of James V the 
French ambassadors were hunting with the king near 
Crawford. They taunted the king with the poorness of 
his country till, stung by their jeers, James wagered that 
the district produced richer fruit than any in the fair land 
of France. His wager was won when, at the banquet 
that evening, instead of fruit the ambassadors were served 
with covered dishes containing " Bonnet pieces," coins 
made of the gold found in the neighbourhood. 

In 1542 crowns both for the king and the queen were 
made of gold from the Leadhills district, and these can 
still be seen in Edinburgh Castle. During the minority 
of James VI, a Dutchman, Cornelius de Voss, formed a 
company and prosecuted the search with such vigour that 
in thirty days gold worth ^450 was sent to the mint at 
Edinburgh. Another company, headed by a Fleming, 
was not so successful, and James ended their license. A 
number of good reasons for so doing was given, but the 
best undoubtedly was, as the act states, "and which is 
most inconvenient of all, has made no sufficient payment 
of the duty to our Sovereign Lord's treasury." Later on 
our Sovereign Lord James conceived a very characteristic 
and ingenious " plot " to make the mines productive. He 
suggested to Bevis Bulmer, a mining expert of the day, 


that twenty-four gentlemen should each contribute ^300, 
and the king would make each a knight, "a Knight of the 
Golden Mynes or a Golden Knight." 
This Bevis Bulmer, 

"Who won much wealth and mickle honour 
On Shortcleuch Water and Glengonar," 

was the most famous of the gold miners of Lanarkshire. 
Working with a staff of 300 men he secured in three 
years gold to the value of .100,000 sterling. It is very 
interesting to note that he erected a stamping mill at the 
head of Longcleuch Burn, for he had found a "little string 
or vein powdered with small gold." Many attempts have 
since been made to find the gold in situ but without 
success. All the gold obtained is found among the stream 
gravels and clays. Bulmer's friend and pupil, Stephen 
Atkinson, tells us that, he had "too many prodigall wasters 
hanging on every shoulder of him... and at last he died in 
my debt ^340 starling, to my great hindrance : God 
forgive us all our sinnes." 

Atkinson obtained power to continue the work and to 
make " ane new searche, tryall and discouerie of the 
mynes, seames and minerallis in Crawfurde Mure," but 
his elaborate project was not successful. Throughout the 
three centuries since that time, gold has been collected 
in small quantities from the Leadhills and Wanlockhead 
district. Little nuggets have occasionally been found as 
large as a bean, but most of the stream washings of gold 
are in the form of fine grains. The miners still turn out 
on special occasions, such as the marriage of one of the 



Hopetoun family, and obtain enough gold to make the 
wedding-ring. There are mining experts who are of the 
opinion that with the application of modern, economical 
methods, gold-mining in Lanarkshire might be made a 
commercial success. 

The lead mines of Lanarkshire have certainly been 
worked for nearly seven centuries. In a grant of lands 
to the monks of Newbattle in 1239 by Sir David Lindsay, 
a lead mine on Glengonnar Water is mentioned, and in 
1264 the sum of forty-two shillings is entered in the 
accounts of the sheriff of Lanarkshire for the conveyance 
of lead from Crawford to Rutherglen. Lead-mining in 
the old days was a more exciting occupation than it is 
now. In spite of guards the wild Borderers occasionally 
raided the lead-bearers, and even certain staid burgesses of 
Lanark and Glasgow were accused of seizing a quantity 
of lead on its way to Leith, and were ordered to restore 
their stolen goods. With varying success the lead-mining 
was carried on until recent times. In 1810 about 1400 
tons of lead were produced, but towards the middle of the 
century the output diminished to about seven or eight 
hundred tons. The mines were then taken over by the 
Leadhills Mining Company, and soon the industry was 
placed on a prosperous footing, so that by 1892 the output 
of dressed ore amounted to nearly 2OOO tons. The plant, 
however, was old and out of date, but during the last ten 
years the company have embarked on the bold policy of 
adopting modern methods and putting down expensive 
machinery with complete success. 

As this is the only district in Scotland where lead is 


mined at the present day, a few details may be given 
regarding the methods of working. Hauling, pumping 
and lighting are now partially done by electricity, and 
the system is being extended. To this day the ore is 
entirely hand-mined, but compressors are being put down 
for rock drilling. When the ore (galena or lead sulphide) 
has reached the surface it is first hand-picked, the lumps 
of pure ore being thus extracted. This is almost all ex- 
ported to India. The residue is washed and crushed, and 
the rock is separated from the ore by gravitation. The 
ore is mechanically graded according to size, and is sold 
in the condition of pure, dressed ore. Until two or three 
years ago the ore was smelted on the spot, but owing to 
complaints of farmers regarding the injurious effects of the 
lead fumes on vegetation, the smelting was discontinued. 
Even the washing water is not allowed to escape without 
paying its toll of lead. It is run into circular troughs and 
set rotating. The lighter sand, owing to centrifugal 
force, settles round the outside of the tank, while a heavy 
lead mud is recovered from the centre. In 1908 the 
quantity of ore produced was 3199 tons, while the neigh- 
bouring mines at Wanlockhead just over the Dumfries- 
shire border produced less than half that amount. 

By far the most important mineral in Lanarkshire is 
coal. It forms the foundation on which the whole 
industrial success of the county is based. The method of 
occurrence of the seams has already been described in the 
chapter dealing with the geology of the county. The two 
methods of extracting the coal are known as the " stoop 
and room " system and the " long wall " system, and both 


methods are largely used in Lanarkshire. In the first 
method roads are driven through the coal and connected 
by cross-passages, leaving pillars of coal to support the 
roof. The roof is afterwards propped up by timber and 
the coal-pillars removed. This method is generally em- 
ployed for thick seams. For thin seams the long wall 
system is preferred. As the work proceeds outwards the 
whole of the coal is extracted, and the "face" is thus 
gradually pushed outwards, while the waste material is 
stacked up to support the roof. In recent years in 
Lanarkshire coal-cutting machinery has been largely in- 
troduced. It is used on the long wall system for thin 
seams, and is often made to cut through the under-clay, 
thus preventing any waste of coal. About two- thirds of 
the machines are driven by electricity and the rest by 
compressed air. 

Lanarkshire is the most important county for coal in 
Scotland. In 1908 it produced over seventeen million 
tons, the next county being Fife, with exactly half that 
amount. The coal is not all used locally, as there is a 
considerable export trade from the Clyde. There are 
more than 55,000 people employed at the coal mines of 
Lanarkshire, and this number and the coal-output increase 
from year to year. It is therefore a point of very great 
importance to know how long this enormous drain on the 
coal resources of the county can last. It has been esti- 
mated that there are probably between one and two 
thousand million tons of coal left in the ground. Even 
taking the higher figure and assuming that the production 
will not increase, it is plain that the coal of the county 



will be exhausted in little more than a century. Almost 
certainly the easily got and therefore cheap coal will be 

Houses cracked by underground workings, Motherwell 

exhausted before then, and it is cheap coal that makes 
Lanarkshire the great industrial centre that it is. 


In various parts of Lanarkshire the extraction of 
minerals, particularly coal, has had various effects on 
buildings. Some towns exhibit every appearance of 
having been visited by an earthquake. Gaping cracks 
run through the walls of some of the houses, others are 
supported by beams and stays, and others have become 
so dangerous that they have had to be deserted altogether. 
In Motherwell quite a number of the houses show how 
their foundations are gradually giving way, and builders 
and purchasers of new property have to be extremely 
particular regarding their choice of a site. 

In the early days of the iron industry only local ores 
were used. A great impetus to the mining of iron ore 
was given in 1801 by Mushet, who discovered that the 
miners were rejecting under the name of " wild coal " the 
valuable ore known as blackband ironstone. For many 
years there was no need to import foreign ore, but the 
advantages of foreign haematite for steel-making and the 
gradual exhaustion of the better seams of ironstone have 
caused a great change in this respect. The output of 
Scottish ores has fallen off rapidly. Thus in 1881 the 
production of Lanarkshire and Ayrshire was 2,232,237 
tons, in 1890 it was 721,793 tons, and in 1908 it was 
432,840 tons, not a fifth part of what it was thirty years 
ago. In the production of ironstone in 1908 Lanarkshire 
ranked second among the counties, being beaten by Ayr, 
which had nearly 270,000 tons. 

The extraction of fire-clay is now an important in- 
dustry in Lanarkshire. Mining is carried on chiefly at 
Glenboig, Garnkirk, and Gartcosh. The fire-clay occurs 


in beds from four to twenty feet thick, and is of a very 
high quality. In 1908, 354,000 tons of fire-clay were 
mined in Lanarkshire out of a total for the whole country 
of 880,000. Large quantities of ordinary clay are also 
dug for the making of building-bricks. Over 200,000 
tons were extracted in 1908. 

The oil-shales of Scotland are found chiefly in the 
east of the country, Linlithgowshire being by far the 
largest producer. In the eastern part of Lanarkshire, 
however, a considerable amount of oil-shale is mined ; 
the quantity in 1908 being nearly 45,000 tons. The 
oil-shale industry is a peculiarly Scottish one. It was in 
1850 that James Young made the important discovery 
that paraffin oil and solid paraffin could be obtained by 
the distillation of certain shales. A flourishing industry 
sprang up, and Scotch oil was exported to every part of 
the globe. In recent years the history of the industry has 
been one of continual struggle against the competition of the 
enormously rich oil fields of America and Trans-Caucasia. 
The industry still flourishes only through the far-seeing 
policy of applying technical skill of the highest kind to the 
different manufacturing processes, resulting in improved 
methods and therefore diminished working expenses. 

In connection with the mining industry it seems 
strange to remember that little more than a hundred years 
ago slavery existed in Scotland. Many of the coal-hewers 
and coal-bearers were serfs, compelled to labour all their 
lives in bondage. A workman who dared to leave his pit 
was in the eyes of the law a thief, for he had stolen him- 
self from his master. If his children once went to work 


in the mines they were slaves thenceforth. Even children 
in their infancy were sometimes sold by needy parents to 
the coal masters. This monstrous state of affairs was only 
partially remedied in 1775, and it was not till 1799 that 
tardy justice gave unconditional freedom to all. 

13. Shipping and Trade. 

Glasgow is the gateway through which enters and 
leaves the mighty double stream of trade that continually 
pours in and out of Lanarkshire. Moored to its ten miles 
of quays lie ships that have come from every corner of the 
globe here a sailing-ship laden with ore, battered and 
rent by its long voyage from the far South Seas; a hundred 
yards away a floating hotel plying across the Atlantic with 
the regularity of a river-ferry. The shipping that now 
enters and clears from Glasgow each year amounts to 
over five million tons. 

The history of the shipping trade is a continuous 
record of the triumph of human determination and fore- 
thought over opposing natural forces. The originator of 
Glasgow's commerce overseas is said to have been William 
Elphinstone, who about 1420 exported salmon and herrings 
to France, and brought back brandy and salt in exchange. 
By the middle of the seventeenth century most of the 
inhabitants were engaged in commerce, and traded with 
Ireland, the Western Islands, France and Norway. By 
the end of the century Glasgow's mercantile marine num- 
bered 15 ships, having an average register of nearly 80 



tons. It was not, however, till after the union of the 
Parliaments that Glasgow's trade showed a rapid growth. 
The ports of England and the English colonies were now 
thrown open to Scotland, and soon Glasgow's colonial 
trade was of considerable importance. Ships were at first 
chartered from other ports to bring back the tobacco from 

The Broomielaw 

Virginia, but in 1718 the first Glasgow-owned vessel, a 
Greenock-built ship of 60 tons, crossed the Atlantic. The 
trade was so successful that several English ports formed a 
" combine " against Glasgow, and complained to govern- 
ment regarding the fraudulent dealings of the Scottish 
merchants. Investigations ensued, resulting in the ac- 
quittal of the Glasgow merchants without a stain on their 


characters, the finding being that "the complaints are 
groundless and proceed from a spirit of envy." 

During the latter half of the eighteenth century more 
than half the tobacco imported into the kingdom was 
brought to Glasgow, and made the fortunes of the 
" tobacco lords," who strutted in their scarlet cloaks on 
the " plain-stanes " of the Trongate, ignoring the appeal- 
ing looks of the mere shopkeepers, who, when they wished 
to do business, stood in the gutter meekly awaiting an 
opportunity of catching the eyes of the great men. The 
outbreak of the American war in 1775 dealt a crushing 
blow to the tobacco trade, from which it never fully 
recovered, but Glasgow enterprise and Glasgow capital 
soon poured into other channels, and a flourishing trade 
with the West Indies arose. 

The introduction of steam-navigation marked the 
beginning' of a new era in the history of shipping, and 
the first successful steamboat may justly be considered 
to be Symington's "Charlotte Dundas," which was 
built about 1801 and plied for a short time on the 
Forth and Clyde canal. Ten years later Henry Bell's 
"Comet" was built, and soon was followed by several 
other steamers. About the same time a new trade was 
opened up with the East Indies and proved so successful 
that in a very short time it reached large dimensions. 

The most famous line of steamships in the world, the 
Cunard Line, was founded by Messrs Burns in 1840 
with the "Sinus," and this was the first steamship to 
cross the Atlantic. Soon afterwards the hardly less 
famous "Anchor" and "Allan" lines were formed, at 


first for trade with America only, but soon sending ships 
to many other countries. At the present time there is 
regular communication with almost every port in the 
British Isles, all the great ports of the Mediterranean and 
Western Europe, with Canada and the United States, 
with South America, India, China, Japan, the West 
Indies, and Australia. 

In 1907 the -total tonnage that entered and cleared 
at Glasgow was over five millions, a tonnage nearly 
double that of Leith, which ranks as the second port of 
Scotland. The export and import trade in the same 
year was valued at over 46,000,000. In spite of a 
few fluctuations, the trade of Glasgow still seems to be 
growing rapidly in value, as in 1895 it was only about 
half the 1907 value. Glasgow generally ranks fourth 
among the ports of Great Britain, the other three that 
surpass it in value of trade being London, Liverpool and 
Hull. It is somewhat surprising, however, to find that 
in 1907 it had to yield pride of place to Manchester, a 
practical illustration of the value of a ship-canal. 

The imports are chiefly food-stuffs, namely wheat 
and flour, animals and meat. The wheat and flour 
come principally from the United States, the Argentine 
Republic, India, Canada, Russia, and Australia. We 
receive our supplies of cattle .and sheep chiefly from the 
United States and Canada, and our dead meat from the 
United States, the Argentine Republic, Denmark, New 
Zealand and Canada. The exports, as might be expected, 
consist almost entirely of manufactured goods, the most 
important being machinery and iron and steel goods. 


Cotton goods rank next in importance, and coal, linens 
and spirits are valuable items. Glasgow has always 
formed one of the chief emigration ports of the country, 
particularly for the United States and Canada. Most of 
the emigrants are natives of Scotland, but many are 
foreigners who cross to this country from the Continent, 
generally in large batches under supervision, in order to 
obtain the advantage of Glasgow vessels. 

The growth of Glasgow has been accompanied by 
the relative decline of Rutherglen. It was a royal burgh 
in the twelfth century, and for centuries it was the chief 
trading town of lower Clydesdale. Even at the be- 
ginning of the fifteenth century, when Lanarkshire was 
divided into two wards, Rutherglen was the chief town 
in the lower ward. It asserted active superiority over 
Glasgow and levied tolls from the Glasgow inhabitants 
until the fifteenth century. In matters of trade, however, 
the people of Rutherglen were not so far-seeing as their 
canny Glasgow neighbours, who consistently clung to 
their commercial ideals. Thus in the sixteenth century, 
when Glasgow, Renfrew and Dumbarton combined in 
an attempt to improve the navigation of the Clyde, 
Rutherglen held aloof. As a result the town is still in 
no more favourable a position as a port than it was 500 
years ago. Small vessels can reach the town at high tide. 
It must not be forgotten, however, that Rutherglen has 
still a ship-building yard from which vessels of fair size 
have been launched. 


14. History of Lanarkshire. 

Two thousand years ago Clydesdale was inhabited by 
a tribe called the Damnonii. They are usually referred 
to as Celts, but we have already indicated the possibility 
that Celtic blood may not have been nearly so prominent 
in Scotland as Celtic culture and speech. When the 
Romans invaded Scotland the route down Clydesdale was 
one of the easiest ways from England to the Scottish 
Lowlands, and therefore this part was overrun by the 
Romans. The great rampart built on the line of Agri- 
cola's forts passes through the north-west extremity of 
Lanarkshire, and is known as Antonine's Wall. There 
was no real colonisation of Clydesdale by the Romans. 
It was held by the soldiers as a military outpost, and con- 
sequently we find remains of camps and well-made roads, 
but not of permanent settlements. 

After the departure of the Romans the district re- 
verted to its former owners, better known as the Britons 
of Strathclyde, and the capital of the kingdom was 
Alcluyd or Dunbreatan (hill of the Britons), now known 
as Dumbarton. In the seventh century the district 
became for a time subject to the Anglian King of North- 
umbria, and for centuries after this time there must have 
been a constant influx of Anglo-Saxons and a gradual 
expulsion of the natives. In spite of attacks from the 
Norsemen, the kingdom grew in power until in the tenth 
century it stretched as far south as Cumberland. 

After the defeat and death of Macbeth, about the 


middle of the eleventh century, most of Scotland was 
united under Malcolm, the son of Duncan. From about 
this time Anglo-Saxon influence predominated in the 
Scottish Lowlands, and Celtic influence became sub- 
sidiary. On Malcolm's death the kingdom was again 
divided, until the accession of David I in 1124 finally 
united all Scotland into one kingdom. At the court of 
Henry I of England, David had become imbued with 
Norman ideas and culture, and therefore we find during 
his reign an influx of Normans into Scotland, who soon 
settled down in permanent residence and founded some of 
the most powerful families in Scotland. 

It was in David's time that the county of Lanarkshire 
probably first became an administrative district with 
boundaries roughly approximating to its modern limits. 
It was not, however, until the War of Independence that 
Lanarkshire came prominently to the front. Although 
Sir William Wallace was not born in the county, he 
made his home there, and many of his best-known 
exploits are associated with the shire. His first serious 
conflict with the English in Lanark has already been 
described. The last phase of Wallace's career is also 
associated with Lanarkshire. It is said that it was in the 
church of Rutherglen that Sir John Menteith agreed to 
betray Wallace, and at Robroyston, a few miles from 
Glasgow, he was made prisoner by the English. 

Wallace had been aided by Sir William Douglas, a 
member of the famous house of Douglas, powerful in 
Scotland before the influx of the Normans. Their ancient 
seat was in Douglasdale, one of the most inaccessible parts 



of Lanarkshire. Most famous of the Douglas line was 
the "Good Sir James," generous and valiant friend of 
King Robert the Bruce. When Sir James met his death 
in Spain on his way to Palestine with the heart of the 
Bruce, he had in his company another brave Lanarkshire 
knight, Sir Simon Loccard of Lee. To him was entrusted 
the duty of bringing back the heart in its padlocked casket 
to Scotland, and since that time his descendants have 



W WTf 

Lee Castle. Home of "Lee Penny" 

added to their coat-of-arms a heart and padlock, and the 
name of the family was changed to Lockhart. Since that 
time also the Douglases have carried on their shields a 
bloody heart and a crown. 

Sir Simon Loccard returned from this campaign with 
the famous "Lee Penny," part of the ransom of a prisoner. 
It is a red, heart-shaped stone, latterly set in a shilling- 
piece of Edward I's reign, and for centuries was used as a 

M.L. 7 


healing talisman. Sir Walter Scott's novel, The Talisman^ 
obtains its title from this relic, as a fanciful account of 
the stone forms an important incident in the story. 

From the time of the Bruce the county was at peace 
until the ambition of the Douglas family brought upon 
the district the miseries of a civil war. William, eighth 
Earl of Douglas, took refuge abroad for a time, and on 
his return was slain by the king's own hand. In 1455, 
James II demolished Douglas Castle. Passing to Glasgow, 
he gathered the men of the west, returned to Lanark, 
and then burnt and harried all Douglasdale and Avondale. 
Other members of the house of Douglas who figured 
prominently in Scottish history are Archibald Bell the 
Cat and Archibald, sixth earl (of the younger branch), 
who was grandfather of Lord Darnley, and thus great- 
grandfather of James VI. 

The county was torn again by civil war in the time 
of Queen Mary. In 1544, during the Queen's minority, 
the Regent James Hamilton, Earl of Arran, besieged the 
Earl of Lennox in Glasgow. On the surrender of the 
garrison they were all, with the exception of two, treacher- 
ously massacred. The most important event of this period 
was the Battle of Langside, on which to a large extent 
depended the future of the whole of Scotland. When 
Queen Mary escaped from Lochleven her supporters 
assembled in force at Hamilton. The Regent Murray 
was encamped at Glasgow to prevent the passage of the 
Clyde on the way to Dumbarton. Learning that the 
Queen's army would attempt the passage lower down 
the river, Murray moved out to Langside Hill to intercept 



the enemy. Here he was attacked by the Queen's 
forces, but completely defeated them. Mary was watch- 
ing the battle from a hill near Cathcart, and on seeing 
the flight of her army, galloped off in terror and did not 
stop till she reached Sanquhar, 60 miles away. 

For a hundred years peace reigned in Lanarkshire, 
and then the flame of civil strife broke out anew. The 
county became a refuge for those who sought a respite 

Monument in memory of Battle of Langside 

from the persecutions of the "killing times." The un- 
frequented hills, the wide moorlands, and the peat bogs 
of Clydesdale became the haunts of the Covenanters, and 
many of the best-known episodes of the struggle against 
Episcopacy were associated with Lanarkshire. The 
famous Peden "the Prophet" has given his name to a 
stream that runs down from the Lowthers to join the 
Powtrail Water, for here he found shelter in a shepherd's 
cottage beside the burn. In Crawford, John Willison 



had a secret chamber constructed where the persecuted 
might find shelter, and here Donald Cargill found refuge 
for a time. It was at Covington mill in Lanarkshire that 
Cargill was at length taken prisoner, in 1681. 

Monuments of the Covenanters are dotted all over 
the county, in the heart of Glasgow, and on bare hill 
sides far from any town. One of the most interesting 
may be seen in Hamilton churchyard erected to the 
memory of four martyrs whose rudely carved heads 
ornament the stone. They were Lanarkshire men who 
were executed at Edinburgh in 1666. Their bodies were 
quartered, the right hands were taken to Lanark, where 
they took the covenant, and their heads were exhibited 
on the old Tolbooth at Overnewton. The inscription on 
the stone is as follows : 

" Stay, passenger, take notice what thou reads ; 
At Edinburgh lie our bodies, here our heads, 
Our right hands stood at Lanark; those we want 
Because with them we sware the Covenant." 

The affair at Rullion Green originated in Lanark- 
shire and Dumfriesshire. The insurgent Presbyterians 
assembled at Lanark and then moved towards Edinburgh. 
Meanwhile General Dalziel was marching from Glasgow 
to Lanark when he found that his enemy had given him 
the slip. He came up with them on Rullion Green, on 
the eastern slopes of the Pentlands, and there completely 
routed them. Many of the prisoners that were taken 
experienced the tender mercies of the "boot" and the 



It was in Lanarkshire in 1679 that the Covenanters 
obtained their most noted victory over their persecutors. 
The 29th May was being celebrated as a holiday, 
since that day was the anniversary of the restoration of 
Charles II. The bonfires were blazing in Rutherglen 
when a party of Presbyterians entered the town, quenched 
the fires, held a brief religious service, and entered their 

Battlefield of Drumclog 

protest against the forcible establishment of Episcopacy, 
a copy of which they nailed to the cross. Graham of 
Claverhouse drew out his dragoons from Glasgow to 
avenge this affront. In Hamilton he heard of a con- 
venticle at Loudoun Hill, and moved in that direction. 
He was opposed by a fairly large body of men, though 
poorly armed, who were stationed at Drumclog, in 
the upper Avon valley near the Ayrshire border. The 


insurgents were skilfully drawn up on a boggy piece of 
ground behind a large ditch. A hot engagement ensued, 
the dragoons were outflanked, about 30 were killed and 
the remainder hurled back in disorder, Claverhouse him- 
self escaping from the field with difficulty. This success 

NoQp^s MTMim EwMissw' YJOrawnif- 

Banner of the Covenanters at Drumclog and Bothwell Brig 

greatly encouraged the insurgents, and their numbers 
rapidly increased. 

In June the Duke of Monmouth advanced against 
them with a powerful army. They were well posted at 
Bothwell Brig, across which the Duke would have to move 
in order to attack them, but their ranks were torn with 
dissensions between the moderate and the extreme parties. 



Part of them behaved gallantly, but we are told that the 
main body seemed "neither to have had the grace to 
submit, the courage to fight, nor the sense to run away." 
Five hundred of the insurgents were slain and about 1200 
prisoners were taken, many of whom were executed or 
sent as slaves to the plantations. A body of Scottish 

Bothwell Bridge and Monument 

Highlanders with Monmouth's army distinguished them- 
selves by their cruelty. 

The revolution of 1688 put an end to the persecution 
of the Covenanters, and active warfare was seen no more 
in Lanarkshire. At the rebellion of the '45, however, the 
road through Clydesdale was chosen by Prince Charlie in 
his retreat from England. The army followed the route 
now traversed by the Caledonian Railway from Carlisle, 


namely up Annandale, over Beattock Summit into Clydes- 
dale, and then down the Clyde to Glasgow. Prince 
Charlie spent the last few days of 1745 in Glasgow, a 
most unwelcome guest. He had extorted large supplies 
from the city, both in money and in food and clothing, 
but even the compensation received by the citizens, 
namely, a grand review on Glasgow Green, roused no 
enthusiasm. He procured only 60 adherents during his 
stay, and these the scum of the town. In fact the provost 
of the time maintained that his only recruit was "ane 
drunken shoemaker," and it is said that but for the inter- 
cession of Cameron of Lochiel the Prince would have 
sacked and burnt the town. 

Since the beginning of 1746 the history of the county 
has been one of uninterrupted progress. Its epoch-making 
events have been discoveries in industry, its revolutions 
have been revolutions of industrial methods, and the 
improvement in social conditions and customs has been 
no less marked. 

15. Antiquities. 

The earliest men in Britain were unacquainted with 
the use of metals. Their weapons and tools were of stone 
roughly shaped and chipped. These weapons of palaeo- 
lithic type do not occur in Scotland, but stone weapons 
and tools finely chipped or polished have been discovered 
in many parts of the country. Neolithic implements of 
this type have been frequently found in Lanarkshire. 

Palaeolithic implement 

(From Kent's Cavern, Torquay] 

Neolithic Celt of Greenstone 
(From Eridlington, Torks.} 


They consist of celts or axes, arrow-heads, spear-heads, 
flail-stones, knives or scrapers, slick-stones for softening 
hides, and other implements. Many of the so-called 
Druidical monuments were probably erected by Neolithic 
man. The race was widely distributed, stone structures 
of a similar kind having been found all over Europe, in 
Africa, Asia, and America. The cromlechs or "standing 
stones" of Scotland probably belong to this period. One 
of the finest in Lanarkshire is a megalithic pillar near 
Elvanfoot, the largest in the district, which gave its name 
to the farm on which it was found, Crooked Stone. Near 
Biggar, part of a circle of standing stones may be seen, 
and near the head-waters of both North and South 
Medwins similar monuments occur. 

As mankind progressed in civilisation the art of metal- 
working was discovered, and the earliest metal implements 
are made of bronze. These at first imitated the shape of 
the stone tools, so that we find celts and other implements 
fashioned like the stone ones, but of bronze. Many such 
relics have been discovered in Lanarkshire. A fine bronze 
axe-head over six inches long was found near Biggar, and 
bronze spear-heads, celts, crowbars, and other tools have 
been discovered from time to time in different parts of the 

In a British camp on the right bank of the Clyde, 
below the junction of Glengonnar Water, an interesting 
sepulchral urn was found. It was about six inches in 
height and made of coarse clay mixed with grit. A rough 
ornamentation of a herring-bone pattern had been given 
to it, and on being opened the urn was found to be full 


of calcined bones. With the urn was found a bronze 
armlet, which is stated to be perhaps the finest specimen 
of this type of personal ornament which can be met with 
in any collection or museum. It is nearly three inches 
in external diameter, nearly half an inch thick, and dates 
probably from the time immediately preceding the Roman 
invasion. Sepulchral tumuli, often containing remains of 
this nature, are common throughout the county. There 
is a tumulus in Lesmahagow parish over 50 feet high, 
many of the stones used in the construction of which 
weigh about a ton. 

Ornaments of gold have been found in a few places. 
At Stonehill, in Carmichael parish, two rings of pure gold 
but of rude workmanship were dug up. Gold torques or 
collar ornaments have been found in more than one part 
of Lanarkshire. One very fine specimen was obtained 
near the borders of Culter parish. It is of thin gold in 
the shape of a crescent, the horns of which nearly meet. 
The middle part is almost an inch and a half broad, 
and the torque is decorated with lines and depressions. 
Another is a circular ribbon of gold spirally twisted and 
ending in two hooks. It is too small to have been hooked 
round the neck, so that if worn as a necklet the ends 
must have been joined by a thong, or the ornament was 
possibly hooked round the arm. Another specimen was 
found at Carmichael. They have been attributed to a 
time just after the withdrawal of the Roman legions. A 
Strathclyde poet about 650 A.D. describes how 363 warriors 
wearing the collar of gold went out to fight the Saxons 
and were all slain but three. 


Several British camps have been discovered in different 
parts of the county. At Cairn Grife, near Crawfordjohn, 
is a fine example of one of these ancient British forts. 
The fort is about a hundred feet square, and is enclosed 
by two ramparts separated by a distance of from five to 
seven yards. Camphill in Glasgow gets its name from 
the remains of a British camp that can still be seen there. 
At Nether Abington there rises abruptly from the banks 
of the Clyde a hillock, partly artificial and partly natural. 
It is protected by a ditch on the land side, and projecting 
from this, a rampart and a ditch of later construction 
take the form of a horse-shoe. This type is common in 
England, but rare in Scotland. They seem to have been 
used first by the Saxons and then by the Normans. The 
mound was excavated by G. Vere Irving, who found that 
a fortress had been built on a sepulchral tumulus. 

A crannog or pile-dwelling was discovered a dozen 
years ago on the margin of a pond near Hyndford. It 
was probably inhabited during the Roman occupation of 
the surrounding country, for a large number of Roman 
remains were obtained from it. The most interesting 
relic discovered was a fine torque, consisting of large, 
ornamented bronze beads strung on an iron rod. 

In Roman times Clydesdale was one of the chief 
highways from England to the Lowlands of Scotland. 
The chain of Agricola's forts and later the wall of 
Antonine ran for a short distance across the north- 
western part of the county, about four miles north of 
Glasgow. Traces of the wall can be distinctly seen to 
the west and to the north of Cadder. The "wall" or 


rampart was built of sod in layers upon a stone founda- 
tion. Its height was about 12 feet, and it was protected 
by a fosse or ditch nearly 40 feet wide and about 12 feet 
deep. A magnificent collection of inscribed stones from 
the rampart can be seen in the Hunterian Museum, 
Glasgow University. The stones include sepulchral 
monuments, altars to Jupiter, Hercules, Apollo, Diana, 
and other deities, and slabs commemorating the com- 
pletion of the building of portions of the wall by the 
troops that set up the tablet. 

From Annandale to the west end of the wall the main 
Roman road from England followed the Clyde. Its course 
was almost identical with the present route of the Cale- 
donian Railway from Carlisle. It entered Lanarkshire 
by the head streams of the Annan, crossed Beattock 
Summit to Clydes Burn, and then followed the main 
stream through Carstairs and Cleghorn, past Uddingston 
and Glasgow to the wall. A branch road came into 
Lanarkshire by the Powtrail Water, joined the modern 
road below the Dalveen Pass and reached the main 
Roman road near Elvanfoot. Above Carstairs a Roman 
road ran at right angles to the main route. The east 
limb probably went into Edinburghshire, while the west 
limb ran parallel to Douglas Water towards Duneaton 
Water and Crawfordjohn. Another branch stretched 
through Stonehouse and Strathaven parishes to Ayrshire. 
In many places these roads can still be clearly made out, 
particularly in the upper ward of the county. They often 
run for considerable distances parallel to the modern road, 
and generally at a slightly higher level. 


Along the roads a great many camps have been dis- 
covered. In the valley of the Clyde they can be counted 
in dozens, and they are generally accompanied by relics 
of some description that give clear evidence regarding 
their occupants. A large and important camp near Cleg- 
horn is supposed to have been occupied by Agricola. It 
is rectangular in shape, its length being 600 yards and its 
breadth 420 yards, and there are six gates. Another 
important camp is situated on the right bank of Clydes 
Burn above its junction with the Clyde. It is not quite 
so large as the one just mentioned, as it measures 500 
yards by 300 yards. It is believed to have been one of 
the temporary camps of the western column of Agricola's 
army. A typical Roman castellum was discovered on the 
right bank of the Clyde near its junction with Clydes 
Burn. On three sides access is difficult, and therefore a 
single rampart protects it on these sides. On the weak 
north-western side the defences were doubled. The 
interior was excavated and a circular basin was found 
chiselled out of rock, the tool marks being quite distinct. 
It was lined with clay for the purpose of holding water, 
and an abundant supply was still in the reservoir. Round 
Tinto there are several camps that cannot be referred to 
any Roman road. 

Traces of Roman occupation abound in this district, 
and fancy can easily conjure up the picture of the con- 
quering legions marching vigilant and irresistible through 
the lonely hills, where the Caledonian guerillas were 
waiting to take advantage of any slackness of discipline. 
All along the line of march we find their armour, their 


utensils, their ornaments, their money. At Carstairs camp 
were found coins of the reigns of Aurelius, Antoninus, 
and Trajan ; a silver coin with the head of Faustina was 
found at Lanark ; near Biggar many Roman coins have 
been obtained, one of gold bearing the head of Vespasian; 
and along the line of road at Burnhead and Castlehill gold 
coins have been discovered. 

The Lesmahagow Flagon 

A find made at Lesmahagow in 1810 is of particular 
interest. The natives had been familiar with a round 
stepping-stone in a certain burn. The stone became 
indented, and this peculiarity roused curiosity and led to 
its examination. It was found to be a beautiful bronze 
flagon with 'several symbolic figures, including Mercury 
and Minerva. It is now in the Hunterian Museum, 
Glasgow University. A very rare and curious relic of 


the middle ages was found in Culter parish. It consists 
of a small metal shrine about four-and-a-half inches high, 
and shaped like an arm. In it were kept the relics of some 
holy man, a portion of the arm, or perhaps only a finger. 
Its date is about the end of the thirteenth century. 

1 6. Architecture (a) Ecclesiastical. 

The earliest Celtic examples of ecclesiastical architec- 
ture were dry-built stone cells with a roof closed with 
overlapping stones and flag-stones. These were followed 
by the Columban Scottish churches, consisting of one 
small oblong chamber with one door and one window. 
No ornamentation was used until the Romanesque influ- 
ence made itself felt, introduced by the Normans. The 
type was elaborated later by the addition of a chancel. 

The Celtic structures were superseded by churches of 
Norman style, introduced in the twelfth century. This 
style is characterised chiefly by simple massive forms and 
semicircular arches. As a rule there is little ornament 
except in the doorways, the arches of which are moulded, 
and into which zig-zag or bird's-head ornamentation is 
introduced. Very few good examples of this style exist 
in Scotland, but parts of the cathedrals of Dunblane and 
Kirkwall and the abbey of Dunfermline exhibit it very well. 

The round Norman arch was replaced by the pointed 
arch, giving the First Pointed Style, which reached Scotland 
in the thirteenth century. Fresh ornamentation was 
introduced showing itself in mouldings and in vigorous 
foliage. The windows were always pointed, narrow and 


lofty, and an effect of greater spaciousness, combined with 
lightness, was aimed at. In Scotland the style was not so 
pure as in England or France, as round Norman forms 
lingered on, especially in doorways, although the general 
style was altered. Glasgow Cathedral presents a fine 
example in its crypt and choir, and in St Kentigern's, 
Lanark, the style is shown particularly well by the doorway. 

From the middle of the fourteenth to the middle of 
the fifteenth century, the Middle Pointed or Decorated Style 
prevailed in Scotland. The details aimed at a still lighter 
effect. The windows were enlarged, the tracery became 
more ornate, and the vaulting and buttresses were made 
lighter. Perhaps the finest example of the style in 
Scotland is Melrose Abbey. The nave of Glasgow 
Cathedral is also a good fourteenth century example of 
the Decorated style. 

The transition to the Third Pointed Style was gradual. 
In England the tracery became more rigid, and the 
windows were carried up in straight lines so that the 
style was called Perpendicular. In Scotland the exterior 
is generally marked by rather heavy buttresses, termina- 
ting in small pinnacles. The semicircular arch is often 
used, and there is a revival of early ornamentation. Most 
of the examples are not cathedrals but collegiate churches. 

A fragment of St Mary's Church, Rutherglen, is of 
Norman architecture. The tower of this church, which 
still stands, is unique in Scotland. It had no connection 
with the original church, being built later. The church 
was granted to the Abbey of Paisley by William the Lion 
in the twelfth century, and remained a possession of the 

M. L. 8 



abbot till the Reformation. In Lamington Church, 
founded by Lambin in the twelfth century, a fine 
Norman doorway is still preserved. The elaboration of 
the doorway is surprising for such a remote place. There 
are three orders of mouldings all showing characteristic 
Norman ornamentation. The bell of the church bears 
the date 1647, an ^ down to 1828 the church still kept 
its "jougs" for the punishment of evil-doers. 

4 A 

Old Church Tower, Rutherglen 

St Kentigern's Church, Lanark, is a fine example of 
the First Pointed Style. It certainly existed in the 
twelfth century, and was given by David I to the Abbey 
of Dryburgh. It possessed the somewhat unusual feature 
of a double chamber, being divided down the centre by a 
row of arches. In the south wall is a fine example of a 
First Pointed doorway, with characteristic foliage and 


bold, pointed mouldings above. The church continued 
to be used till after the Reformation, but by the middle 
of the seventeenth century it had fallen into a ruinous 

Glasgow Cathedral was built in parts at different 
times, and therefore shows different styles of architecture. 
The earliest part of the present building dates from the 

Glasgow Cathedral 

twelfth century. It is a mere fragment, but enough 
remains to show that it was in the Transitional style 
in use in the second half of the twelfth century. The 
choir, after being destroyed by fire, was completed by 
Bishop Joceline in 1197^ and of this building a consider- 
able part still remains. The present choir was built in 
the thirteenth century by Bishop William de Bondington, 



and illustrates not only the genius of the architect but the 
wealth of the community that erected it. The mouldings 
are very elaborate, and the whole structure is of singular 
richness and beauty of design. Later on in the century 
the nave was built, a work distinguished by great simplicity 
and dignity. The mouldings are characteristic, but not so 
elaborate as those in the choir. The whole structure was 
probably roofed, and the basement of the central tower 
erected, by the middle of the fourteenth century. In the 
fifteenth century Bishop Cameron erected the stone spire 
of the cathedral, the details of which are especially fine. 

The general form of the building, like that of all 
cathedrals, is a cross, but the transepts project so slightly 
that the long stretch of the walls seems almost unbroken. 
The general impression given by the exterior is that of 
simplicity bordering almost on bareness, but the interior 
is magnificent. The proportions are noble and harmonious, 
and the details are particularly beautiful and rich. 

In 1560 the government ordered the destruction of 
the altars, images and other monuments of the old faith, 
and this barbarous edict was consequently carried out. In 
1574 the Assembly instigated a further act enjoining 
more destruction, and then ensued throughout Scotland 
the devastation of many of those beautiful structures of 
the middle ages, in most cases replaced by Protestant 
churches that architecturally were beneath contempt. 
Andrew Melville urged the Glasgow magistrates to order 
the destruction of the cathedral, and they at length 
consented. Masons and other workmen were assembled 
to begin the work of demolition, but the Crafts of the 


city took arms and swore that he who cast down the 
first stone should be buried under it, nor would they be 
pacified till the workmen were dispersed. Thus Glasgow 
Cathedral escaped untouched, almost alone of all the 
cathedrals of Scotland. The building remained in a 
dilapidated condition till 1854, when the Commissioners 
of Woods and Forests undertook its restoration, and 
under their care it was put in its present state. 

St Bride's Church, Douglas, belongs to the Middle 
Pointed or Decorated Period. Although the church 
existed in the twelfth century, the present building is 
much later. In 1307 the old church was attacked by 
Sir James Douglas, and the English garrison who were in 
it at the time were slain. The present church was built 
about the end of the fourteenth century. The architec- 
ture is very simple, but the church is interesting for the 
monuments it contains. The oldest is ascribed to the 
Good Lord James, the friend of Bruce, although some 
authorities hold that it dates to a still earlier time. It is 
surrounded by a finely cut canopy. A silver case is still 
preserved containing all that is left of the heart of the 
Good Lord James. His bones also are said to have been 
brought home from Spain and buried here. 

"The Banys haue thai with thame tane 
And syne ar till thar schippes gane 

Syne toward Scotland held thar vay, 
And thar ar cummyne in full gret hy. 
And the banys richt honorabilly 
In-till the kirk of dowglass war 
Erdit, with dule and mekill car." 


Another monument is to Archibald, the fifth earl, who 
died in 1438. The base of the monument is ornamented 
with sculptured foliage, which seems to have been done 
about the middle of the fifteenth century. A third 
monument, inferior in design and execution, is to James, 
seventh earl of Douglas and his wife. This was James 
the Gross, who died in 1443. Remains of the earlier 

Old Church, Bothwell 

church still exist in fragments of capitals of Norman 

St Bride's Collegiate Church, Bothwell, is another 
example of the same style. It was founded in 1398 by 
Archibald, Earl of Douglas, surnamed the Grim, who 
was the lord of Bothwell Castle. Here the Duke of 
Rothesay was married to the earl's daughter in 1400. 


The church is a simple oblong building divided externally 
by buttresses. Above the entrance doorway is a remark- 
able arch of elliptic form. The roof is protected by 
overlapping stone slabs which are carefully curved so as 
to throw the water away from the joints. The church 
contains some fine monuments and several ancient carved 

The Church of St Nicholas, Biggar, is a representative 
of the Third Pointed Period, and was founded in 1545 by 
one of the powerful Fleming family, then Chancellor of 
Scotland. Like many others of this style the doorway is 
surmounted by a round arch. The walls are buttressed 
on the outside and there is a battlemented tower. One 
unusual feature is that the pointed windows are set in a 
rectangular recess, probably due to the square Renaissance 
forms then being introduced. 

The Reformation put an end to mediaeval ecclesiastical 
architecture in Scotland. A few churches were certainly 
erected under the influence of the Episcopalians, but 
the Presbyterians attempted to eliminate everything that 
savoured of the old forms, and to this end were content 
to erect buildings that had absolutely no claim to respect 
so far as their architecture was concerned. One interest- 
ing example of a seventeenth century spire, a type few of 
which now remain in Scotland, is the Tron Steeple, 
Glasgow, erected in 1637. It seems to be an imitation 
of the steeple of Glasgow Cathedral, modified, however, 
according to the style of the time. The wide arches at 
the base are modern. 

In the eighteenth century there was in England a 


distinct revival of the interest in architecture, and particu- 
larly in classical styles. This awakened feeling hardly 
stirred in Scotland till the nineteenth century. We are 
told that in the eighteenth century the Scottish churches 
u were disgraces to art and scandals to religion. They 
were mean, incommodious and comfortless ; the earth of 
the graveyard often rose high above the floor of the 
church, so that the people required to descend several 
steps as to a cellar, before they got entrance by stooping 
into the dark, dismal, damp and hideous sanctuaries." At 
the beginning of the nineteenth century, however, a great 
change for the better began to take place. Architects 
made a special study of old buildings and old styles, and 
this combined with the rapidly increasing wealth of the 
country was soon reflected in many noble, ecclesiastical 
buildings. The great and wealthy industrial communities 
of Lanarkshire can now without exception boast of 
modern churches that will bear comparison with those 
of mediaeval times. 

17. Architecture (6) Castellated. 

Bothwell Castle, situated on a high promontory on the 
north side of the Clyde, is perhaps the most magnificent 
ruin in Scotland, and is undoubtedly the finest example of 
the castles of the thirteenth century. It encloses a large 
courtyard surrounded by high walls, strengthened at the 
corners with towers. In places the walls are sixty feet in 
height and more than fifteen feet thick. The splendid 


donjon, which dominates the building, dates probably from 
the second half of the thirteenth century. The whole 
structure is built of red sandstone in regular courses, and 
the earlier parts particularly bear witness to the wonderful 
care and skill expended on the building. In the north- 
west tower there is a drawbridge of a kind unique in 
Scotland. It was constructed to cut off the tower from 

Bothwell Castle, interior 

attacks from the inside^ and was counterpoised for easy 
lifting. The great hall, the chapel and other buildings 
were probably erected about 1400 by Archibald the Grim, 
Earl of Douglas. Round the red towers of the castle 
linger memories of some of the most famous names in 
Scottish history. Edward I and Edward III of England 
both lodged within its walls. One of its owners was 


James Hepburn, Earl of Bothwell, who married Queen 
Mary. The present owner is the Earl of Home. 

Directly opposite the castle stand the ruins of Blantyre 
Priory. Only two gables and a vault are left of the 
priory founded in the thirteenth century by Alexander II, 
and gifted to the monks of Jedburgh, who found at times 
a refuge there when the Border was troubled. It stands 
on a steep bank; and Wallace is said to have leapt through 
a window over the cliff, thus eluding his pursuers. Tra- 
dition tells also of an underground tunnel beneath the 
river connecting it to the castle on the other side. 

The end of the thirteenth century is marked by a 
great change in the style of the castles of Scotland. The 
War of Independence completely exhausted the resources 
of the country, and consequently we find that large and 
massive buildings such as Bothwell Castle were no longer 
erected. Their place was taken by strong, square towers, 
fashioned after the model of the Norman keeps. These 
are specially characteristic of the fourteenth century, but 
continued to be built at much later dates, and from the 
simplicity of the design it is often difficult to determine 
the exact age. In the fifteenth century it became custo- 
mary to build the castle round a central quadrangle or 
courtyard. In addition, a separate tower or keep is often 
found, capable of being defended although the rest of the 
castle should be captured. 

One of the best known of fifteenth century castles is 
Craignethan Castle, near Crossford, the " Tillietudlem 
Castle" of Old Mortality. It has a beautiful situation 
above the Nethan Water, about a mile from the Clyde. 



The keep of the castle is certainly older than the other 
portions, and is built on a plan very unusual in Scotland. 
At first the keep was probably the only part erected, but 
later the extent of the building became considerable. The 
castle has been held in turn by the Hamiltons, the Hays, 

Craignethan Castle 

and the Douglases ; and Queen Mary is said to have 
occupied it for some time before the battle of Langside. 

Another interesting castle of the fifteenth century 
overlooks the town of Strathaven. It is situated on a 
rocky hill nearly surrounded by the Powmillan Burn, a 
tributary of the Avon. The castle was built by the 


grandson of the second Duke of Albany, who in 1457 
became Lord Avondale. It seems to have been oblong 
in plan with two towers at diagonally opposite corners, 
although only one round tower and fragments of the walls 
remain. There are large port-holes for the mounting 
of guns. 

Covington Tower is another example of the simple 
keep of the fifteenth century. The walls are eleven feet 
thick, and the tower must originally have been a fine 
specimen of the massive work of the time. The estate 
was obtained in the fifteenth century by the Lindsays, 
and was held by them till the seventeenth century. 
Lamington Tower is traditionally associated with Wallace, 
for it is said that he married Marion Bradfute, the only 
daughter of the Laird of Lamington. The existing tower, 
however, is not older than the sixteenth century. Craw- 
ford Castle or Tower Lindsay is noticed in Scottish 
records as early as the twelfth century. It is situated 
near the Clyde, commanding the road up Glengonnar 
Water into Dumfriesshire. The castle was a favourite 
resort of James V as a centre for hunting. The ruins 
that still exist probably date from the reconstruction of 
the castle by the first Marquis of Douglas, about the 
beginning of the seventeenth century. 

Douglas Castle was the scene of many of the most 
famous exploits in Scottish history. It had been seized 
by the English, but was recaptured by Sir James Douglas 
in 1307. Not wishing to be besieged in it by the English, 
he removed all the valuables, piled up the provisions and 
wine in the cellars, slew his prisoners and added their 


corpses to the heap, cast the dead horses on the mass, and 
threw salt over all. He then set fire to the building with 
its dreadful " Douglas Larder." No trace remains of the 
original castle, the " Castle Dangerous " of Sir Walter 
Scott. The solitary tower of an old castle that still exists 
is probably not earlier than the seventeenth century. In 
1755 a fire destroyed the whole structure except the 

18. Architecture (c) Municipal and 

The Glasgow Municipal Buildings were finished in 
1889 at a cost of over half a million sterling. The style 
is the Italian Renaissance, and the buildings are four 
storeys in height with a domed tower at each corner and 
a central tower rising to a height of 237 feet. The 
windows and other parts are elaborately ornamented with 
columns, and figure sculpture has been used to a large 
extent. The result, while extremely rich, perhaps errs 
on the side of over-elaboration. The interior is as mag- 
nificent as the exterior. A splendid marble staircase leads 
from the entrance hall, and the corridors and walls are 
pillared and panelled with marble and alabaster. In the 
banqueting-hall is a fine series of panels painted by the 
most eminent Scottish artists and representing scenes in 
the history of Glasgow. 

The town hall of Rutherglen is a remarkably imposing 
structure for the size of the town. It is late baronial in 


style and bears a square clock tower with turrets. The 
tower forms a conspicuous land-mark for many miles 

There are many interesting dwelling-houses in 
Lanarkshire, but space will permit the mention of only 
a few especially notable either architecturally or for their 
historic associations. Provand's Lordship is the oldest 

George Square and Municipal Buildings, Glasgow 

house in Glasgow and one of the oldest in Scotland. 
This interesting link with the past is situated in Castle 
Street on the west side of Cathedral Square. It was the 
town manse of one of the prebendaries of the Cathedral 
who was Laird of Provan, and is said to have been built 
in the fifteenth century. It has of course suffered con- 
siderable alteration ; for example, the present level of the 



street is five feet above the old ground floor of the house. 
The interior still retains many of the old features. It is 
said that Queen Mary stayed here when Darnley lay sick 
in Glasgow. 

Gilbertfield is an interesting old mansion standing 
about two miles south-east of Cambuslang. It was built 
in 1607 on a simple L plan and was designed both for 

Provand's Lordship. Oldest house in Glasgow 

comfort and strength. For many years it was the 
residence of William Hamilton, of Gilbertfield, the friend 
and correspondent of Allan Ramsay. 

Part of Bedlay House near Chryston dates from about 
the end of the sixteenth century. It is a quadrangular 
structure with high-peaked, crow-stepped gables, and two 
round turrets. It once belonged to the Earls of Kilmar- 


nock, the last of whom was executed after the rebellion 
of the '45. 

Hamilton Palace lies between the town and the river 
Clyde. The first castle of the Hamiltons in this vicinity 
was the royal castle of Cadzow, obtained from Robert the 
Bruce. Queen Mary resided there before the battle of 
Langside, and the Regent Murray therefore burnt the 
castle to the ground after the battle. Thirteen years 
later, in 1581, a new castle was erected on the site of the 
modern palace. The oldest part of the present building 
dates from this time, but large additions were made in 
1705. Further buildings were added in 1822 by the 
tenth duke, and the structure is now a most imposing 
one. The interior is as grand as the exterior, and until 
recently contained the finest collection of art treasures in 
the country, but most of these were sold in 1882. The 
grounds are magnificent, and include Cadzow Forest with 
the interesting white cattle. The present owner is the 
thirteenth Duke of Hamilton. 

Douglas Castle stands on the site of the " Castle 
Dangerous" of Scott, of which no trace remains. Ad- 
joining the present building is a tower of an old castle, but 
considerably posterior in date to the historic pile burnt by 
the Good Lord James. After the conflagration of 1755, 
the last Duke of Douglas kept before him the prophecy 
that as often as Douglas Castle should be razed it should 
rise from the ruins with increased splendour. Accordingly 
in 1762 the present magnificent mansion was erected, and 
it is only a fraction of what the Duke intended it to be. 
The grounds and surroundings are particularly fine. The 

M. L. Q 


estate now belongs to the Earl of Home, a descendant of 
the nephew of the last duke, who died childless in 1761. 

Mauldslie Castle is situated three miles from Carluke 
on the north bank of the Clyde. It is a large and 
imposing building with round, flanking turrets and a 
massive square tower. It was built for the fifth Earl 
of Hyndford in 1793, but its present owner is Lord 
Newlands. Mauldslie was originally a royal forest com- 
prising most of the present parish of Carluke, but it was 
gifted in portions to several nobles by Robert the Bruce. 
The father of Lord Newlands acquired part of the estate 
some time after the death of the last Earl of Hyndford. 

IQ. Communications - Past and 

Since the beginning of history Clydesdale has been 
one of the main routes between England and the Low- 
lands of Scotland. The barrier to communication is the 
Southern Uplands. But this area of high ground is deeply 
scored by the Clyde and the Annan, and the head waters 
of these streams come very near each other. They are 
joined by a pass a thousand feet above sea-level, and 
therefore from the earliest times to the present we find 
a tide of traffic ebbing and flowing along this channel. 
Two thousand years ago a Roman road was built along 
this route ; to-day the London express passes over Beattock 
Summit and roars down Clydesdale within a few hundred 
feet of the old road by which the Roman legions marched. 



Again, Scotland is more easily crossed from the Clyde 
to the Forth than at any other place, and therefore we 
find communication established between Glasgow and the 
east coast for many centuries. Glasgow stands at the 
convergence of many of the natural routes of the west of 
Scotland. The two already mentioned cross at Glasgow. 
The fertile Ayrshire plain is joined to the Clyde basin 
by a low valley that runs past Beith, Lochwinnoch and 
Paisley and points towards Glasgow. A second easy 
route from Ayrshire by the gap in the lava hills at 
Neilston and Barrhead is directed straight towards 
Glasgow. The western Highlands are practically shut 
off from the Lowlands by land, but they are easily 
accessible by sea, and the natural route from the west 
is up the Firth of Clyde and so into the heart of the 
Lowlands at Glasgow. 

Clydesdale is connected with Tweeddale by the low 
valley of Biggar, and with eastern Ayrshire by a more 
difficult route up the Avon Water and another up the 
Douglas Water. Man has taken advantage of all these 
natural thoroughfares, and therefore we find both roads 
and railways running along these routes. A glance at 
the physical map on the cover will show at once how the 
valleys have controlled the directions of the roads and 

Although communication in Lanarkshire has been 
kept up for many centuries along the routes indicated, 
yet proper roads are of comparatively recent origin. In 
former times wheeled traffic was hardly possible, and 
most of the trade was done by pack-horses. It was not 


till the middle of the eighteenth century that a stage- 
coach ran between Edinburgh and Glasgow, and its 
average rate was less than four miles per hour. There 
was no coach communication between Glasgow and 
London till within 12 years of the nineteenth century. 
Until 1797 the letters to Glasgow were carried by a 
post-boy on horseback. Before the Clyde was deepened 
so that boats could come to Glasgow, the goods were 
carried from Dumbarton or Port Glasgow on pack- 
horses. The state of the Glasgow streets and roads may 
be imagined when we know that until 1777 only two 
men were employed in keeping up the "streets, causeways, 
vennels and lanes, the highways and roads, within and 
about the city, and territories thereof." 

The passing of the Turnpike Roads Act in 1751 
marked the beginning of a new era. In Lanarkshire 
Telford's Glasgow to Carlisle road became a model for 
future engineers. One of the most remarkable of 
Telford's achievements was the carrying of the road over 
Cartland Crags by a viaduct 130 feet high. The main 
artery of the county may be considered the road from 
Glasgow up the Clyde valley. Of the greatest importance 
also are the main roads from Glasgow to Edinburgh, one 
passing by Bathgate, the other by Shotts and Midcalder. 
The latter road is joined at Midcalder by the highway 
from Lanark to Edinburgh. Below Glasgow a highroad 
runs on each side of the Clyde connecting Lanarkshire 
with the most important towns of Dumbarton on the 
north and Renfrew on the south. The county is joined 
to Ayrshire by highroads running up the valley of the 


Avon and the valley of the Douglas. Nithsdale may be 
reached from the Clyde by a road from Elvanfoot over 
Leadhills and Wanlockhead, or by a road up the Powtrail 
Water and over the Dalveen Pass. Eastwards Tweed- 
dale can be reached easily by the route from Symington 
along Biggar Water to Peebles. Minor roads form such 
a complicated network as to baffle description. 

The main railway lines form almost a duplication of 
the most important roads, and the reason for this has 
already been indicated. There are certain natural routes 
through the county, and the work of the engineer of 
both road and railway has consisted largely in taking 
advantage of these easy routes. The first railway in 
Lanarkshire to give communication from one end of the 
county to another was the Caledonian Railway opened 
in 1847 fr m Carlisle to Glasgow and Edinburgh, the 
divergence taking place at Carstairs. The line crosses 
Beattock Summit from Annandale and joins the Clyde 
at Elvanfoot. From this point for a long way, railway, 
road and river go side by side, crossing and recrossing like 
the strands of a cord. From Carstairs the main line 
passes through Wishaw, Motherwell, Uddingston and 
Cambuslang to Glasgow. The Caledonian main line to 
Edinburgh goes up the Clyde valley to Bellshill, then 
crosses the moors by Shotts and enters Linlithgowshire 
just west of Fauldhouse. The North British main line 
takes an easier route to the north by Falkirk, Polmont 
and Linlithgow, entering Edinburgh from the west. 
Another Edinburgh line passes by Coatbridge and Bath- 


Main lines run west down the Clyde on both sides 
of the river. The two roads already mentioned from 
Lanarkshire to Ayrshire by Avondale and Douglasdale 
are accompanied by railway lines, and a line from Elvan- 
foot goes towards Nithsdale as far as Wanlockhead. The 
easy route from Clydesdale into the Tweed basin by the 
Biggar valley is -utilised by the Caledonian line to Peebles. 
The dense population and the heavy mineral and goods 
traffic in the lower and middle wards have necessitated 
the building of almost innumerable lines of railways, lying 
over the lower part of the county like a spider's web of 
which the centre is at Glasgow. 

A short portion of the Forth and Clyde canal lies in 
Lanarkshire. It passes through the north-west corner of 
the county taking advantage of the Kelvin valley. The 
Monkland Canal lies wholly in Lanarkshire. It starts 
from a branch of the Forth and Clyde canal at Port 
Dundas, Glasgow, runs east into the parish of old Monk- 
land, passes through Coatbridge and terminates in the 
North Calder Water. The project was suggested in 
1769, in order to ensure for all time a plentiful supply of 
coal to Glasgow. The canal was surveyed by James 
Watt and after some difficulties, chiefly of finance, was 
finished in the last decade of the eighteenth century. It 
was taken over by the Caledonian Railway along with 
the Forth and Clyde canal in 1867. 

The palmy days of canal traffic both for passengers 
and goods have passed away. As railways were extended 
the importance of canals declined. The complete explana- 
tion of this is by no means easy. It has been attributed 


to their passing into the control of railway companies, but 
this explanation is not satisfactory. The smallness of the 
vessels in use and the consequent additional handling of 
goods undoubtedly militate against the greater use of canals 
in these days, when the whole tendency is to handle and 
carry goods in as large amounts as possible. With the 
adoption of improved methods of traction there seems no 
good reason why the importance of canal traffic should 
not to some extent be restored. 

20. Administration and Divisions. 

The county of Lanarkshire as an administrative unit 
probably dates from the time of David I, when the 
sheriffdom was inaugurated. At first the position of 
sheriff was hereditary and was held by one of the power- 
ful families of the county. The Douglas family held the 
office for some time, for a period also it formed one of 
the hereditary titles of the Hamiltons. It was not till 
1747 that appointments to the office were made in the 
modern method. Hamilton of Wishaw tells us that the 
sheriffdom originally included Renfrewshire until the two 
were separated by King Robert III in 1402. The county 
was originally divided into two wards, an upper ward, the 
capital of which was Lanark, and a lower ward, the capital 
of which was Rutherglen. In the middle of the eighteenth 
century the county was divided into an upper, a middle 
and a lower ward, the head towns of which were respec- 
tively Lanark, Hamilton and Glasgow. Since that time 
the middle ward has again been subdivided for adminis- 


trative purposes, the chief towns being Hamilton and 

The county possesses a lord-lieutenant, a vice-lieutenant, 
and a large number of deputy-lieutenants and justices of 
the peace, but the most important administrative body is 
the county council, which is composed of 70 elected 
members. Glasgow of course is not included in the 
county, as in 1893 ]t was constituted a county of a city 
with the lord-provost of the city as lord-lieutenant. The 
law is administered by a sheriff-principal and five sheriff- 
substitutes for general work along with two resident 
substitutes. The police force is a county constabulary, 
except in the large towns, most of which have their own 
separate forces. 

The upper ward contains the following parishes : 
Biggar, Carluke, Carmichael, Carnwath, Carstairs, 
Covington, Crawford, Crawfordjohn, Culter, Dolphin- 
ton, Douglas, Dunsyre, Lamington and Wandel, Lanark, 
Lesmahagow, Liberton, Pettinain, Symington, Walston, 
and Wiston and Roberton. The middle ward contains 
the parishes of Avondale, Blantyre, Bothwell, Cambus- 
nethan, Dalserf, Dalziel, East Kilbride, Glassford, 
Hamilton, New Monkland, Old Monkland, Shotts, and 
Stonehouse. In the lower ward are the parishes of 
Gadder, Cambuslang, Carmunnock, Cathcart (part), 
Eastwood (part), Govan, Rutherglen, and the parishes 
of Glasgow. 

The county is represented by six members of Parlia- 
ment, the districts being North-east Lanark, North-west 
Lanark, Mid-Lanark, South Lanark, Govan, and Partick. 


In addition Glasgow returns seven members, and the 
burghs of Rutherglen, Hamilton, Airdrie, and Lanark 
unite with burghs outside the county in returning two 
more. Rutherglen has a share in the member for Kil- 
marnock Burghs, and the other towns mentioned combine 
with Falkirk and Linlithgow in returning the member 
for Falkirk Burghs. 

The County Councils were established in 1889, and 
look after the finances, the roads and bridges, the public 
health, and the general administration. The parish 
councils administer the poor-laws, the unit of poor-law 
administration being the parish. The control of the 
insane is vested primarily in the Commissioners of Lunacy, 
and for each county there is a Lunacy Board. There are, 
finally, a number of burghs largely independent of the 
County Council. The burghs of Lanarkshire are Airdrie, 
Biggar, Coatbridge, Glasgow, Govan, Hamilton, Lanark, 
Motherwell, Partick, Rutherglen and Wishaw, and of 
these Glasgow, Lanark, and Rutherglen are royal burghs. 

The burghs are managed by town councils, which 
administer the property of the burghs, impose the rates 
necessary for upkeep, and make bye-laws for the regula- 
tion of the trade of the town and the conduct of the 
inhabitants. Town councillors are elected for three years 
and one-third of the council retires annually. The coun- 
cillors elect among themselves magistrates, who, besides 
performing other duties, act as judges in the cases that 
come before the ordinary police-courts. 

It must not be forgotten that there is still a con- 
siderable amount of overlapping and confusion in the 


administrative divisions, not only of Lanarkshire but of all 
the counties of Scotland. The registration county is not 
the same as the civil county; the ecclesiastical parish 
differs from the civil parish ; the district under municipal 
authority has no fixed relation to any of these areas. For 
example, a householder in the west of Glasgow may help 
to elect a town councillor for Glasgow, may vote for the 
School Board of Govan ; and may have as his parlia- 
mentary representative the member for Partick, although 
the three towns are municipally absolutely distinct. 

In 1889, under a Local Government Act, the Boun- 
dary Commissioners rectified some of the most glaring 
anomalies, and transferred certain areas from one parish to 
another, and in other cases from one county to another. 
The ecclesiastical divisions, however, in many cases still 
fail to harmonise with the civil divisions. For example, 
several of the parishes of Lanarkshire are in the synod of 
Lothian and Tweeddale, while the rest are in the synod 
of Glasgow and Ayr. 

Since the Education Act of 1872, the management 
of education in Scotland has been entrusted mainly to 
School Boards, of which Lanarkshire has 49. Education 
is compulsory for children between the ages of five and 
14 years, and is free to all. Above the primary schools 
there are two classes of higher schools, called intermediate 
and secondary. The former schools provide a three years' 
course, and the latter at least a five years' course of edu- 
cation after the elementary stages. Pupils who have 
passed through a secondary school with credit are quite 
able to go with profit directly to the University. 


The County Council is also interested in secondary 
education, and is empowered to give grants to schools 
and to assist pupils by bursaries or otherwise. The two 
Glasgow training colleges for teachers, which were for so 
many years managed by committees of the Established 
Church and the Free (later United Free) Church, have 
now passed into the hands of a provincial committee, 
elected or nominated by various representative bodies. 

21. The Roll of Honour. 

In addition to one or two superlatively great men, 
Lanarkshire has produced a large number of persons who 
fall just short of that class, but whose names are neverthe- 
less household words. There are at least two names that 
might legitimately be placed in the first of these classes. 
In the records of exploration no name stands higher than 
that of David Livingstone, and in the history of British 
physical science Newton alone takes rank before Lord 
Kelvin. It is a matter for further satisfaction to think that 
each of them was not only a genius in his own line, but 
also a genuine benefactor of mankind. Kelvin was not 
born in Lanarkshire, but his whole education and life-work 
were bound up inseparably with Glasgow University. 

We can hardly claim for Lanarkshire any of the 
giants of pure literature, although the number of well- 
known names is very large. Nor, strange to say, have 
the many and exquisite beauties of Clydesdale inspired 
any literature of the first rank. One of the earliest of the 


county's famous writers was William Lithgow, who was 
born at Lanark in 1582. He travelled on foot all over 
Europe and North Africa, covering more than 36,000 
miles, and on his return composed his best-known work, 
The Rare Adventures and Paineful Peregrinations of William 
Lithgow. He died in his native town about 1645. Allan 
Ramsay was born in 1686 at Leadhills, where his father 
was mine manager. He describes himself as 

" Of Crauford-muir, born in Leadhill 
Where mineral springs Glengonir fill 
Which joins sweet flowing Clyde." 

Ramsay was 15 years of age when he Jeft Leadhills, and 
his career afterwards was bound up with Edinburgh. 

John Wilson was born at Lesmahagow in 1720. He 
was parish schoolmaster at Lesmahagow, Rutherglen, 
and Greenock. The last appointment he obtained only 
by promising to abandon "the profane and unprofitable 
art of poem-making." His best-known work is Ihe 
Clyde^ a long poem of nearly 2000 lines, of considerable 
merit and containing many interesting descriptions. 
Smollett was born in Dumbartonshire, but Glasgow has 
many claims on him. He was apprenticed to a Glasgow 
apothecary, and he drew on his Glasgow experiences for 
many of the characters in his novels. Adam Smith was 
not a native of Lanarkshire, but his connection with 
Glasgow University forms a strong link binding him to 
the county. He was educated at the college in Glasgow, 
and came back in 1751 to fill in succession the chairs of 
Logic and Moral Philosophy before retiring to his native 


Kirkcaldy to produce his great work, The Wealth of 
Nations. On his election as Lord Rector of Glasgow 
University, he wrote "No man can owe greater obliga- 
tions to a society than I do to the University of Glasgow." 

The author of Te Mariners of England was born in 
Glasgow in the vicinity of the High Street, and was 
educated at Glasgow University. All his life Campbell 
had a strong affection for his birth-place. "I was better 
pleased," he says, u to look on the kirk-steeples and whin- 
stone causeways of Glasgow than on all the eagles and 
red deer in the Highlands." In the height of his fame 
he was three times elected Lord Rector of Glasgow 
University. Lanarkshire has a claim on De Quincey, 
from the fact that he resided in Glasgow between 1841 
and 1843, an d l ater on f r shorter periods. He had 
lodgings in Rottenrow and Renfield Street. His greatest 
friends in Glasgow were Lushington, the professor of 
Greek, and Nichol, the professor of Astronomy, for De 
Quincey was at this time intensely interested in the latter 

John Gibson Lockhart, the biographer of Scott, was 
a Lanarkshire man, born in Cambusnethan manse, near 
Wishaw. His life-work, however, was done in Edin- 
burgh and London. He occasionally collaborated with 
Christopher North in the Noctes Ambrosianae\ and the 
latter, too, had close associations with Glasgow, as he 
was educated at the University, and always looked back 
to the time he spent there as the happiest of his life. 
Sheridan Knowles, the dramatist, was for some years a 
teacher of elocution in the Trongate, Glasgow. His 


best-known play Virglnius was produced for the first time 
in the Theatre Royal, Glasgow, in 1820, and its success 
there induced Macready to stage it at Covent Garden, 
London, where it immediately made the author famous. 

Thomas Campbell 

Sir Archibald Alison, author of The History of Europe, 
was appointed Sheriff of Lanarkshire in 1834, and there- 
after resided at Fossil House, Glasgow. He was elected 
Lord Rector of the University in succession to Macaulay. 
Michael Scott, the author of Tom Cringle s Log and The 


Cruise of the Midge, was a Glasgow man, having been 
born at Cowlairs. He was buried in Glasgow Necropolis. 
The kindly Dr John Brown, author of Rab and his Friends, 
was another Lanarkshire man who gravitated to Edin- 
burgh. He was born in his father's manse at Biggar, but 
when he was eleven years of age the family removed to 
the capital, which was his home for the rest of his 

Alexander Smith, the author of Dreamtborp and A 
Summer in Skye, was born at Kilmarnock, but was edu- 
cated and went to work in Glasgow, and it was in this 
city that he began to contribute his poems to the local 
press. Smith knew Glasgow thoroughly, and one of his 
verses on the city is worth quoting. 

"Draw thy fierce streams of blinding ore, 
Smite on a thousand anvils, roar 

Down to the harbour-bars ; 
Smoulder in smoky sunsets, flare 
On rainy nights, with street and square 

Lie empty to the stars. 
From terrace proud to alley base 
I know thee as my mother's face." 

William Black, the popular novelist, was born in 
Glasgow in a house in the Trongate, and before going 
to London he wrote for a time for The Glasgow Weekly 
Citizen. Robert Buchanan and he were close friends in 
Glasgow, where both determined some day to be famous. 
Though the link is much slighter, it is worth recalling 
the fact that James Boswell was educated partly at 
Glasgow University. It was at the famous Saracen's 


Head inn that he and Dr Johnson stayed when passing 
through Glasgow on their tour in Scotland. 

In science the two most illustrious names connected 
with Lanarkshire are James Watt and William Thom- 
son, Lord Kelvin. Neither was born in Lanarkshire, 
but the life work of each was done in Glasgow. James 
Watt came from Greenock in 1754, and found employ- 
ment in the little shop of a mechanic calling himself an 
"optician." Here Professor Anderson handed him the 
model of the Newcomen engine to mend, and so origi- 
nated one of the greatest discoveries in the history of the 
world. It was on Glasgow Green that Watt was walking 
one Sunday afternoon in 1765, pondering over his engine, 
when just as he got to the herd's house the " idea of a 
steam condenser flashed upon his mind." 

For 67 years Lord Kelvin lived in Glasgow, and by 
his long series of brilliant researches in every department 
of physical science caused the name of his university to 
be renowned throughout the civilised world. 

William Cullen, the celebrated physician, was born in 
Hamilton and educated at Glasgow University. He was 
the first holder of the chair of medicine there. The 
medical faculties of Scottish universities have always 
been particularly strong. Two of their most famous sons, 
William and John Hunter, were born in Lanarkshire at 
Long Calderwood, near East Kilbride. William Hunter 
was the first professor of anatomy to the Royal Academy, 
London. His magnificent collections in literature and 
science were bequeathed to Glasgow University, where 
they form the most important part of the Hunterian 

M. L. 10 


Museum. Another distinguished holder of a medical 
chair was Joseph Black, the famous chemist. He was 
born in France, but for ten years he was professor of 
medicine in Glasgow Univerity. He showed the dis- 
tinction between air and carbon dioxide ("fixed air" it 
was then called) and made the great discovery of latent 

It is now generally admitted that William Symington 
was the first man successfully to originate steam naviga- 
tion. He was born in the village of Leadhills, and his 
little whitewashed cottage can still be seen there, with 
the fine obelisk behind it erected to his memory. Of him 
Lord Kelvin said, "Symington was the real discoverer and 
the practical originator, the engineer who foresaw that 
good was to be done, who understood how to make the 
machine to do it, and who had the true engineering and 
mechanical principle for doing it in the right way." In 
1802, several years before Bell or Fulton was successful, 
Symington's stern-wheel steamer the "Charlotte Dundas" 
gave a successful demonstration on the Forth and Clyde 

Sir A. C. Ramsay, one of the most brilliant of the 
many famous geologists that Scotland has produced, was 
a Glasgow man; and it was at the British Association 
meeting in Glasgow, in 1840, that he first attracted the 
attention of men of science to his work. He afterwards 
became Director-General of the Geological Survey of 
Great Britain. 

Lanarkshire has taken such a prominent place in the 
industrial history of the country, that we might expect 


that in the field of applied science her sons would be in 
the van, and this we find to be the case. In the mining 
and metal industries particularly, there are several names 
of more than local reputation. The smelting of iron was 
revolutionised by the introduction of the hot blast, sug- 
gested by James B. Neilson, manager of the Glasgow 
gasworks. It was David Mushet again who in 1801 
pointed out that the miners were throwing away under 
the name of "wild coal" a very valuable iron ore, the 
blackband ironstone. Mushet was born near Edinburgh, 
but was employed in the Clyde iron works. By dint of 
severe application he became one of the foremost authori- 
ties on iron and steel in the country. 

James Young, the founder of the important oil-shale 
industry of Scotland, was born in Glasgow in 1811. He 
was an assistant in the old Andersonian College, Glasgow, 
and it was there he obtained the knowledge of minerals 
that enabled him to create the paraffin industry of this 
country. Another famous Glasgow chemist was Charles 
Macintosh. While experimenting with the naphtha 
obtained by the distillation of coal-tar, he discovered a 
method of dissolving india-rubber and thus of making 
cloth waterproof. The invention was patented in 1823. 
MacArthur, one of the discoverers of the method of 
recovering finely divided gold by the cyanide process, was 
a Glasgow man. 

The name of David Livingstone will always stand 
for what is best in the Scottish character. He combined 
determination to succeed, eagerness for learning, and 
nobility of mind with natural aptitude for his life-work 



to such a degree, that we may say without exaggeration 
that his gifts as an explorer rose to the height of genius. 
The house in Blantyre where he was born still stands, 
although the mill where he worked and snatched a 

David Livingstone 

sentence from an open book as he passed to and fro is 
now dismantled. Like Young, he obtained his early 
scientific education in the Andersonian College. 

The two most famous soldiers associated with the 
county are Sir John Moore and Colin Campbell, Lord 



Clyde. The former was born in Glasgow just east of the 
Candleriggs, the latter in High John Street off George 
Street. Another distinguished Lanarkshire soldier was 
General Roy, born in Carluke parish. His fame, how- 

Sir Colin Campbell 

ever, rests chiefly on his work as a surveyor. He was 
one of the early pioneers of that magnificent organisation, 
the Ordnance Survey, and wrote also a standard work 
on Roman Military Antiquities in Britain. The famous 
General Wolfe lived for some time in Glasgow at Cam- 


lachie House. He was not favourably impressed by the 
citizens, for he described them as "excessive blockheads, 
so truly and obstinately dull that they shut out knowledge 
at every entrance." 

The names of some well-known divines are linked 
with Glasgow. Bishop Elphinstone, the founder of 
King's College, Aberdeen, was a Glasgow man. He 
became Bishop of Aberdeen and was largely instrumental 
in introducing printing into Scotland. It is supposed that 
John Knox studied at the university, although there is 
considerable doubt on this point. The famous Andrew 
Melville was Principal immediately after the Reformation. 
Zachary Boyd was minister of the cathedral when Crom- 
well visited Glasgow, and so soundly rated the General that 
he narrowly escaped being pistolled. Dr Chalmers lived 
in Charlotte Street near Glasgow Green, and his famous 
astronomical discourses were delivered in the Tron Kirk. 
The house of his hardly less famous assistant, Edward 
Irving, was in Kent Street, a stone's throw from his own 


The figures in brackets after each name give the population 
in 1901, and those at the end of each section are references 
to the pages in the text. 

Airdrie (22,288), Gaelic ard ruith, high pasture run, 
was a mere hamlet until the rise of the coal and iron industry 
made it a large and prosperous town. Some historians believe it 
to be the site of the great battle between the Pagans and the 
Christians of Strathclyde, in which the pagan chief was slain and 
his bard Merlin forced to flee, while the victor recalled the good 
St Mungo back to Glasgow from his exile in Wales. It stands 
on the highroad between Edinburgh and Glasgow, and is con- 
nected to the latter town by the Monkland Canal. There are 
several important coal and iron mines in the vicinity. In addition 
to foundries and engineering shops there are works for calico- 
printing, paper-making, cotton and wool manufacturing, oil- 
refining and fire-clay making. Airdrie was the first town in 
Scotland to adopt the Free Library Act of 1856. Its academy has 
a high reputation, (pp. 26, 33, 55, 137, 138.) 

Baillieston (3784) perhaps takes its name from the bailie" 
who managed the estate of Monkland for the monks of Newbattle, 
or from the Baillie family, prebendaries of Glasgow Cathedral. 
It is a little coal mining town just over six miles east of Glasgow. 
A confectionery work and large nurseries give employment to 
numbers of the inhabitants, (p. 50.) 



Bellshill (8786) is a mining town in Bothwell parish, nine 
miles from Glasgow. The coal and iron industries are its chief 
support. It is a long straggling town, with a first-class school, 
Bellshill Academy, (p. 134.) 

Biggar (1366), Norse bygg garr, barley-field, is a 
little town on Biggar Water, a tributary of the Tweed. It is an 
old historic town and has been a burgh since the fifteenth century. 
Its parish church was founded in 1545. In its churchyard lie the 

The Cadger's Bridge," Biggar 

Gledstanes of Libberton, the ancestors of William Ewart Glad- 
stone. In the vicinity was Boghill Castle (now destroyed) the seat 
of the powerful Flemings, who settled here in the twelfth century. 
Blind Harry tells of a great battle fought on Biggar Moss in 
which Wallace and his men slew 11,000 Englishmen. The 
Cadger's Bridge is supposed to have obtained its name from the 
tradition that Sir William Wallace crossed it in the disguise of a 
cadger in order to reconnoitre the English camp. (pp. 12, 14, 17, 
3 J > 55 58, 106, in, 120, 132, 138, 144.) 


Blantyre (2521) stands on the right bank of the Rotten 
Calder, just over six miles from Glasgow. It is a mining town, 
and is surrounded by coal and iron workings. The town is 
famous for having been the birthplace of David Livingstone. In 
the vicinity is Blantyre Priory, (pp. 24, 56, 123, 148.) 

Bothwell (5179) stands on the right bank of the Clyde, 
about six miles to the south-east of Glasgow. The charming 
surroundings have made it a popular residential town. There are 

" Roman " Bridge near Bothwell 

ruins of an old church founded in 1398 by Archibald the Grim, 
Earl of Douglas. Joanna Baillie, the poetess and correspondent 
of Scott, was born at the manse in 1762. Bothwell Brig was the 
scene of the defeat of the Covenanters in 1679. Across the 
Calder there is an old single-span bridge, believed to be of Roman 
workmanship. The lands of Bothwell were originally possessed 
by the Murrays, from whom they went to the Douglas family 
in 1361. Bothwell passed out of their possession for a time, but 


was regained by Archibald Douglas, fifth Earl of Angus. The 
present proprietor is the Earl of Home, whose mother was heiress 
of the last Lord Douglas, (pp. n, 22, 24, 39, 55, 65, 102, 119, 


Calderbank (2077) is an industrial village two miles from 
Airdrie. It depends to a large extent on the finely equipped steel- 
works of the Calderbank Company. 

Cambuslang (12,252) is prettily situated on rising ground 
about three miles from Glasgow. There are several coal-pits in 
the neighbourhood and the Steel Company of Scotland has large 
works at Newton. Of late years it has become popular as a 
residential suburb of Glasgow. Above the town is Dechmont 
Hill, where in pagan times the Beltane fires were lit. The town 
is known for the famous " Cambuslang Wark," which took place 
in 1742 a gigantic religious revival, (pp. 56, 128, 134.) 

Carfin (2115) is a large village a little less than two miles 
north-east of Motherwell, of which it may be considered almost 
a suburb. The inhabitants are chiefly colliers engaged in the 
neighbouring pits. 

Carluke (4740) stands on the right bank of the Clyde just 
over two miles from the river, and about twenty miles from 
Glasgow. Its situation is magnificent, overlooking all the lower 
basin of the Clyde. The fruit-growing industry is carried on all 
round it, and there are jam factories in the town. In the 
seventeenth century it was quite an important place, but later it 
declined greatly. In the last century it has prospered largely 
owing to the neighbourhood of mines. Several valuable minerals 
are worked in the vicinity. At the present time its advantages as 
a residential place are recommending it to many Glasgow business 
men. (pp. 33, 35, 40, 44, 55, 131.) 

Chapelhall (2030) adjoins Calderbank and, like it, is 
dependent on the steel works and coal-pits of the Calderbank 


Cleland (with Omoa) (2729) is a large village three miles 
to the east of Motherwell. It is engaged chiefly in coal-mining. 

Coatbridge (36,991), just two miles from Airdrie, has 
sprung into importance owing to the development of the coal and 
iron in the vicinity. It is the iron-smelting town of Lanarkshire, 
and has in its neighbourhood more blast-furnaces than any other 
town in Scotland. In addition to the making of pig-iron there 
are malleable iron works, steel works and rolling mills. Other 
industries are the making of boilers, tubes, heavy metal goods of 
every description, ordinary bricks and fire-bricks. To the west 
of the town lived the blind poetess, Janet Hamilton. The 
Coatbridge Technical School is an important centre of industrial 
education, (pp. 26, 33, 71, 134, 135, 138.) 

Glasgow (761,709) is by far the largest and most important 
commercial town in Scotland, and in point of size is the second 
city of the kingdom. Its rapid growth has been due largely to its 
favourable position. Before the coming of the Romans much of 
the present site of Glasgow must have been under water, for 
canoes have been found buried in the silt hundreds of feet away 
from the present banks of the river. The position of the end of 
the Roman wall, however, shows that by that time the level of the 
land stood approximately the same as now. 

The real beginning of Glasgow may be correlated with 
St Kentigern, generally called St Mungo (loved-one or blessed). 
He settled by the banks of the Molendinar, and here took place 
his meeting with St Columba about 584. Then for five hundred 
years the record of the little place is a blank, till the see was 
restored in 1115 with John, the first of the new bishops, who 
replaced the early church by a new cathedral. By a charter of 
William the Lion, Glasgow was constituted a burgh with the 
privilege of holding a weekly market and an annual eight days' 
fair. On the burning of the cathedral the present crypt was built 
in 1197. The first permanent bridge over the Clyde was built 



It had eight arches and was solidly 

by Bishop Rae about 1350. 
constructed of stone. 

The immediate effect of the Reformation on the material 
welfare of Glasgow was almost disastrous. The loss to the town 
of the wealthy clergy and university students was severe. Yet by 
turning the energies of the citizens away from ecclesiastical 
matters, in which hitherto they had exclusively been exercised, and 
by forcing the city to look round for other openings for industry, 

Jamaica Bridge 

the effect of the Reformation in the long run was extremely 

Glasgow entered into the Darien scheme with great en- 
thusiasm; the council invested 3000, many of the citizens 
subscribed largely and not a few accompanied the expedition. 
The failure of the scheme brought ruin to many families in 
Glasgow, and was one cause of the bitter enmity of the city to the 
Union of the Kingdoms. It seems strange to read that at this 


time the city was noted for its beauty, being reckoned superior 
even to Edinburgh. Defoe states, " Glasgow is the beautifullest 
little City I have seen in Britain." Another description was 
" a much sweeter and more delyghtful place than Edinburgh " ; 
and a third, " the nonsuch of Scotland." 

It was not till the eighteenth century, however, that Glasgow 
was of any importance as a commercial centre. At the beginning 


1650 1700 1750 18OO 185O 190O 

Curve illustrating the growth of the population of Glasgow 
from 1650 to 1900 

of the century its population was little more than 12,500, and the 
total tonnage of its vessels barely more than 1000 tons. It 
was the exploiting of the coal and iron wealth of Lanarkshire, 
however, that brought Glasgow quite into the front rank of 
British cities. The description of the growth of the manufactures 



of the county in a former chapter may be taken to apply to 
Glasgow. The growth of the city is well illustrated by the curve 
of population shown on p. 157. The rise in the eighteenth 
century after the Union in 1707 is clearly seen, and so also is the 
sudden increase in population towards the end of the eighteenth 
and the beginning of the nineteenth centuries, due to the industrial 

Royal Exchange, Glasgow 

Glasgow is undoubtedly a well-built city. The material used 
is chiefly yellow or white sandstone obtained largely from local 
quarries. Of late years the red freestone of Dumfriesshire has 
become extremely fashionable. In addition to the Cathedral, the 
University and the Municipal Buildings, described elsewhere, 
mention must be made of the new Art Galleries and Museum in 
Kelvingrove. The building has not only a handsome exterior but 
possesses one of the finest collections of paintings in this country. 


Glasgow has a high reputation in municipal matters. Its 
water supply from Loch Katrine is not only ample but of 
exceptional purity, its electric car service is a model to the world, 
and its new sewage schemes are on a gigantic scale. Yet strange 
to say it has made no serious attempt to purify its atmosphere. 
Undoubtedly one of the most attractive features of Glasgow is the 
ease with which one can get out of it. In less than two hours one 
can be among some of the grandest and wildest scenery of the 
West Highlands, and this can be effected with a comfort, cheap- 
ness and celerity probably not equalled by any other town of its 
rank in Britain. 

In 1450 Bishop Turnbull obtained from Pope Nicholas V a 
bull authorising the erection of a university in Glasgow. At first 
the classes were held in the Cathedral, but afterwards in a 
building in Rottenrow. In 1459 tne University received ground 
on the east side of High Street, on which, in the seventeenth 
century, were erected the old University buildings. 

Like the Cathedral, the very existence of the University was 
threatened by the Reformation, for its officers were of course all 
churchmen. In 1571 the number of students on the roll was 
about a dozen and the annual revenue about 25. Andrew 
Melville became Principal in 1574, and by his exertions the 
institution was put on a sounder footing. 

In 1677 the University received one of its most important 
foundations, the Snell Exhibitions, the winners of which still hold 
their scholarships at Balliol College, Oxford. Adam Smith and 
Sir William Hamilton were Snell Exhibitioners. By the middle 
of the nineteenth century the old buildings had become quite un- 
suitable. In 1864 the old buildings were sold and land was 
purchased at Gilmorehill, a magnificent site in the west end of the 
city. The new buildings were designed by Sir George Gilbert 
Scott, in the Early English style with Scottish modifications. 

The Bute Hall was added by the Marquis of Bute, and the 
Randolph Hall by Charles Randolph, the shipbuilder. The 


Students' Union was erected by means of a bequest from 
Dr Mclntyre in 1885. The University buildings are grouped 
round two quadrangles with a magnificent frontage to the south, 
culminating in a spire rising to a height of nearly 280 feet. 
Additional buildings have since been added, including two 
splendid separate departments for Botany and for Natural Philo- 
sophy, and the fine ' James Watt " Engineering Laboratories. 

The Library contains about 200,000 volumes. Several of the 
University's greatest literary treasures are housed in the Hunterian 
Museum, which possesses about 12,000 printed books and six or 
seven hundred manuscripts. There are nearly 500 examples of 
fifteenth century printing, including thirteen volumes printed by 
Caxton. Other treasures are an illuminated manuscript Psalter 
of the twelfth century, and two beautiful manuscripts of Chaucer's 
Romaunt of the Rose, one of which is the finest extant. Then there 
are first editions of Milton's Paradise Lost and Spenser's Faerie 
Qjieene ; a First Folio Shakespeare ; and some beautiful examples 
of binding from the libraries of Diana of Poitiers, Louis XIII of 
France, and other royal book-lovers. The collection of coins and 
medals is unrivalled. 

Affiliated to the University is Queen Margaret College for 
women students, instituted by the munificence of Mrs John Elder 
of Govan. The Faculties of Medicine, Arts and Science in the 
University itself are open to women. The Glasgow and West of 
Scotland Technical College now rivals the University in numbers 
and equipment. In the huge new building almost every branch 
of science is pursued. The Chemical department has long had an 
especially high reputation ; and particular attention is given to 
trades classes, such as printing, weaving, bootmaking and bakery. 

Since 1885 Glasgow has returned seven members to parlia- 
ment, the electoral divisions being Bridgeton, Camlachie, 
St Rollox, Central, College, Tradeston, and Blackfriars. (pp. 
16, 23, 24, 25, 32, 33, 35, 36, 39, 42, 46, 48, 49, 50, 51, 53, 54, 
55, 58, 61, 62, 68, 70, 71, 72, 73, 75, 77, 78, 79, 80, 84, 90, 91, 
M. L. 1 1 


9 2 > 93, 96, 98, ioo, 101, 104, 108, 109, in, 113, 115, 116, 118, 
120, 126, 127, 132, 133, 134, 135, 136, 137, 138, 139, 140, 141, 
142, 143, 144, 145, 146, 147, 149, 150.) 

Govan (82,174) is really now a part of Glasgow, although it 
still remains a separate municipality. It stretches along the south 
side of the Clyde to the west of Glasgow. At the end of the 
eighteenth century the population was probably less than 2000 ; 
and Govan remained a mere village to the middle of the nine- 
teenth century. It is now a great engineering and ship-building 
centre. From the famous Fairfield yard, founded by John Elder, 
whose father had been associated with Napier in making marine 
engines, more men-of-war have been launched than from any 
other yard on the Clyde. A fine park and library keep green the 
name of Elder, (pp. 6, 73, 77, 137, 138, 139.) 

Hamilton (32,775) is prettily situated on the south bank of 
the Clyde among very picturesque surroundings and about ten 
miles south-east of Glasgow. There are few manufactories of any 
importance, although the town is in the heart of the coal-measures 
and many of the inhabitants are engaged in coal-mining. William 
Cullen the famous physician was born here in 1710. Hamilton 
Academy is one of the finest schools in Scotland. Near Hamilton 
are Cadzow Castle and Hamilton Palace, (pp. 55, 61, 98, ioo, 
101, 129, 136, 137, 138, 145.) 

Holytown (4483), eleven miles from Glasgow, is in 
Bothwell parish, in the midst of a mineral working district. 

Lanark (6567), a royal burgh since the time of David I, was 
the ancient capital of the county. It stands in a fine situation 
among beautiful scenery, and is a favourite residential town. 
William Lithgow was a native of Lanark and is buried there. 
New Lanark, a mile away, was the scene of Robert Owen's social 
experiments. Lanark is the best centre from which to see the 
Falls of Clyde, Cartland Crags and some of the best parts of the 
river valley. At the annual horse-races the Lanark Silver Bell is 



competed for. This is perhaps the oldest sporting trophy in 
existence : tradition describes it as a gift from William the Lion, 
although it probably does not date back quite so far. (pp. 19, 20, 
2I > 2 6, 55, 58, 65, 84, 98, 100, in, 113, 114, 133/138, 141-) 

L/arkhall (i 1,879) stands on the right bank of the Avon, not 
far from its junction with the Clyde. It was a small village until 
about 100 years ago. The inhabitants are engaged largely in 
mining and also in the bleaching industry. 

High Street, and Wallace's Monument, Lanark 

Mossend (3415) lies between Bellshill and Holytown, and 
owes its origin to the coal and iron industry. It contains the 
large iron and steel works of the Summerlee and Mossend 

Motherwell (30,418) takes its name from a well dedicated 
in early times to the Virgin Mary. The town is entirely a product 
of the nineteenth century, as on its site there was previously not 
even a village. It stands on the north bank of the Clyde just over 


a mile from the river and faces Hamilton. In the very centre of 
the coal-mining- district, Motherwell is one of the most important 
towns in the kingdom for the manufacture of iron and steel. The 
Glasgow Iron and Steel Company, the Dalzell Steel Works, the 
Etna Iron and Steel Company, the Lanarkshire Steel Company 
(the two last mentioned at Flemington), and many others are 
engaged in the making of steel ingots, sheets, bars, rails, girders, 
boiler-plates and every conceivable article of steel. Roof and 
bridge work is an important branch, and another is the making of 
cranes. In the vicinity are also fire-clay works, boiler works, 
rivet and bolt works, and engineering works of every description. 
The town lies on the main Caledonian line to England and is an 
important railway centre, (pp. 55, 58, 60, 72, 73, 75, 88, 134, 

Newarthill (2156) is a large village three miles to the east 
of Motherwell. Its inhabitants are engaged chiefly in the sur- 
rounding collieries. 

Newmains (2755) is a little town in Cambusnethan parish, 
two miles north-east of Wishaw, engaged in coal-mining and iron- 
working. The Coltness Iron Company possess the most important 
works in the vicinity. 

Newton (2139) is a little town just over five miles to the 
south-east of Glasgow. The Steel Company of Scotland have 
large works here ; and there is also a large nail-factory, (p. 72.) 

Partick (54,298) is now really a part of Glasgow, although it 
still remains a separate municipality. The town is very ancient and 
has had ecclesiastical associations with Glasgow for many centuries. 
In the twelfth century lands at Perdeyc were granted by David I 
to the Bishop of Glasgow ; and later there was a bishop's residence 
at Perthik. Until sixty years ago Partick was a little country 
village, but the wave of industrialism extending from Glasgow- 
has now completely penetrated and surrounded it. Its ship- 



building yards fringe the north bank of the Clyde, and the town 
continually resounds with the clatter of the riveters' hammers. 
There are extensive flour-mills near the Kelvin. At the west end 
of the burgh is Victoria Park, a public pleasure-ground that 
contains one unique feature. This is the Fossil Grove, a number 
of trunks and roots of fossil trees belonging to the Carboniferous 
System, (pp. 137, 138, 139.) 

Strathaven Castle 

Rutherglen (17,220) was for long the most important town 
in lower Lanarkshire. Even in 1402, when the county was 
divided into two wards, Rutherglen was considered the chief town 
of the lower ward. Its jurisdiction extended over Glasgow, and 
the Bishops of Glasgow had considerable difficulty in obtaining 
freedom from the exactions of the neighbouring town. It is said 


that Rutherglen was constituted a royal burgh in 1126 by 
David I ; certainly a charter granted by Robert the Bruce quotes 
a confirmation of this by William the Lion. Part of the old 
church still remains, one of the few fragments of Norman 
architecture left in Lanarkshire. John Wilson, the author of the 
descriptive poem, The Clyde, was a teacher in Rutherglen for some 
time. Rutherglen stands at the western extremity of the coal- 
measures, and has large chemical works, tube works, rope works, 
dye works and brick works, (pp. 84, 94, 96, 101, 113, 126, 136, 
138, 141.) 

Shettleston (12,154), once a weaving village, is a little 
colliery town, three miles to the east of Glasgow. In recent years 
it has grown in favour as a residential suburb. 

Stonehouse (2961), on the right bank of the Avon Water, 
stands high in a fine, healthy situation. It is a town of recent 
growth and was formerly a weaving village. It is situated near 
good seams of coal and limestone, (p. 33.) 

Strathaven (4076) is a weaving town on the left bank of 
Avon. Placed as it is six hundred feet above sea-level and on the 
edge of the Lanarkshire moors, the locality is an ideal residential 
one. It is an old town that grew up under the protection of the 
Lords of Avondale, the ruins of whose castle are still conspicuous, 
(pp. 32, 124.) 

UddingSton (7463) is prettily situated about seven miles 
east of Glasgow, of which it is largely a residential suburb. 
There is also an industrial population, chiefly miners. The town 
possesses jam and confectionery works, (pp. 109, 134.) 

Wishaw (20,873), fifteen miles from Glasgow, although a 
large town to-day, was sixty years ago a mere village of 3000 
inhabitants. It is one of the most important coal towns in the 
kingdom. Its industries also include iron and steel making, 
foundry work, railway-waggon building, and fire-clay making, 
(pp. 2, 134, 136, 138, 142.) 




30,902 sq. m. 

Lanarkshire 809 sq. m. 



Fig. i. Comparative areas of Fig. 2. Comparison in popu- 
Lanarkshire and all Scotland lation of Lanarkshire and 

all Scotland 

(i) All Scotland (2) Lanarkshire (3) Sutherland 

(The dots represent the number of persons in each tenth of a square mile) 

Fig. 3. Density of population of all Scotland, Lanarkshire, 
and Sutherland 



Fig. 4. Comparative areas under different crops 
in Lanarkshire 

(From Agricultural Returns, 1908) 

Fig. 5. Comparative numbers of different kinds of 

live stock in Lanarkshire 
(From Agricultural Returns, 1908) 


DA Mort, Frederick 

880 Lanarkshire