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Full text of "Lancashire illustrated, from original drawings"

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LANCASHIRE ILLUSTRATED, 



FROM ORIGINAL DRAWINGS, 



BY S. AUSTIN, J. HARWOOD, AND G. & C. PYNE. 



WITH DESCRIPTIONS. 



" Art thrives most, 

Where commerce has enriched the busy coast : 
He catches all improvements in their flight, 
Spreads foreign wonders in his country's sight, 
Imports what others have invented well, 
And stirs his own, to match them, or excel." 

COWPER. 



LONDON: 

H. FISHER, SON, AND JACKSON, 38, NEWGATE STREET. 

MDCCCXXXI. 



I)A41 



PREFACE. 



Lancashire has long been to Great Britain the cradle of mercantile 
science, and the great emporium for machinery and manufactures. 
A publication, therefore, which presents to the reader a pictorial cyclo- 
pedia of what is most remarkable in the County, accompanied with his- 
torical notices of the rise and progress of its trade, can hardly fail to meet 
the approval of an enterprising and commercial people. 

That this is a Work of no common character, the number of its 
Engravings, and the superior manner in which they have been executed, 
will most fully attest. To elucidate, explain, and describe these superb 
graphic Illustrations, the letter-press accompanying each plate has 
been purposely adapted. It irradiates the site on which the pictorial 
objects stand ; and, while diffusing some rays of light on the horizon of 
time and space by which they are bounded, glances at the general history 
of this populous County. 

To the expense incurred in sending this publication into the world, the 
price at which it has been, and still continues to be sold, bears but a very 
inadequate proportion. It was not to a heavy charge, but to an extended 
sale, that the proprietors were induced to look for a reimbursement of the 
capital advanced. Having, therefore, accomplished their undertaking on 
these liberal principles, from which they are not disposed to deviate, they 
flatter themselves that the patronage hitherto conferred on this publication 
will be considerably increased, now the volume is complete. 



i ii^ . 



Mlii:iG30 



INDEX. 



Abercrombie Square, Liverpool , page 37 

Amphitheatre, Liverpool 74 

Ashton Hall 95 

Ashton-Under-Line 93 

Bail-Room, Interior of, Liverpool 60 

Black Rock Fort, Liverpool 83 

Birch House 95 

Birkenhead Ferry 23 

Birkenhead, from Liverpool 83 

Brunswick Chapel, Liverpool 25 

Cemetery, St. James's, Liverpool 102 

Chetham Hospital, Manchester 103 

Childwall Abbey 43 

Collegiate Church, Manchester ........ 78 

Conishead Priory . . . i '-.- v ...... 96 

Corn Exchange, Liverpool . .; . ...... .15 

Cotton Factory, Manchester . . . . \ \ . . .69 

Duke's Dock, Liverpool 87 

Exchange Buildings, Liverpool •''f>t'>'''^ .... 14 

Exchange, Manchester 65 

Fairfield 92 

Foxholes 94 

Furness Abbey 89 

Garratt Hall 97 

George's (St.) Church, Everton 47 

George's (St.) Church, Hulme 90 

George's (St.) Church, Liverpool 67 

George's (St. ) Crescent, Liverpool 59 

Goree Warehouses, Liverpool 60 

Haigh Hall 9g 

Hale Hall 60 

Hall i' th' Wood 86 

Heaton House 91 

Helen's (St.) Church, Sefton 58 

History, Observations on . . . . ... ; .,. ^ .-. . . 1 

• ita ,iu i'l <&::■ 
Hulme Hall 104 

Hulton Hall ^ .... 80 

Infirmary, Liverpool 17 

Infirmary, &c. Manchester . . *{ h h^K ■^^ . . 71 

Irlam Hall .- . % ; . . .92 

Kirkdale Prison 54 

Kirkdale Sessions House . >>i.i;.-*;.iii .J.»»i; . .54 

Knowsley Hall , . ..^ 29 

Lancashire, General History of 2 

Liverpool, History of ,■.,-,.. . 9 

Liverpool, from the Mersey, (4 Views) ..... 32 

Liverpool, South View of 75 

Lord Street, Liverpool 45, 46 

Low Hill Cemetery, Liverpool 26 



Luke's (St.) Church, Liverpool page 76 

Lycaeum News-Room, Liverpool 19 

Matthew's (St.) Church, Manchester 91 

Market Place, Bolton 84 

Market Street, Manchester 66, 68 

Mary's (St.) Church, Prescot 58 

Methodist Chapel, Salford 84 

Michael's (St.) Church, Liverpool . ... . . • .66 

More Street, Liverpool 49 

New Bailey Prison, Salford -^ V . *•'.' ..... 72 

New Baths, Liverpool . . i- . . .' ,,,,,,.. .27 
New Jerusalem Church, Manchester . . . . . . 77 

New Quakers' Meeting House, Manchester ... 98 

News-Room, Interior of, Liverpool 51 

Nicholas' (St.) Church, Liverpool . . Vv •."' . . 48 

Paul's (St.) Church, Liverpool 52 

Philip's (St.) Church, Salford 84 

Preston 97 

Preston Market-Place 97 

Prince's Dock, Liverpool 86 

Rail-way Tunnel, Entrance to 20 

Roby Hall 101 

Roscoe's House 41 

Royal Institution, Liverpool 42 

Royal Institution, Manchester 67 

School for the Blind, Church of the, Liverpool . . 53 

Scotch Kirk, Liverpool 19 

Scotch Chapel, Liverpool 25 

Seacombe Slip, Liverpool 33 

Sessions House, Liverpool 38 

Speke Hall 39 

Statue of George III., Liverpool 37 

Steam Engine Manufactory, Bolton 85 

St. John's Market, Liverpool . 82 

Storrs, Windermere 88 

Tiviot's Dale Chapel, Salford 100 

Todmorden Hall 81 

Town Hall, Liverpool 38 

Town Hall Manchester 67 

Town Hall, Salford 100 

Turton Tower 85 

Twist Factory, Manchester 70 

Unitarian Chapel, Liverpool 73 

Warrington Church . 101 

Water Street, Liverpool 49 

Wavertree Hall 44 

Wellington Rooms, Liverpool .18 

Wesleyan Chapel, Liverpool 73 

Wigan Market-Place 99 



GRAND NATIONAL ILLUSTRATIONS. 



The study of History may be numbered among the most important pursuits of man. 
By the aid of the historian, we obtain access to the wisdom and experience of ages long 
past, and acquire a knowledge of the progress of human society, in its advances from a 
state of barbarous rudeness, through every grade of improvement, to that of ultimate 
civilization. Of late years, historical research has found a powerful auxiliary in the 
delineations derived from the graphic art, of which this work will furnish many splendid 
examples. 

By history we become acquainted with the government, laws, customs, and habits of 
life, as practised among many great nations of antiquity, almost as familiarly as with those 
which now inherit the various regions of the earth. Hence we cannot contemplate the 
actions of those illustrious men, whose superior wisdom first established order, directed 
industry in the path to opulence, and paved the way to science, refinement, and legal 
power, without admitting that the knowledge we have thus acquired, is beneficial in pro- 
portion as it is capable of practical application. 

Of the early state of society in our own kingdom, we know but little, and that little we 
owe to the scanty chronicles furnished by the Romans, who made a conquest of the island 
nearly two thousand years ago. From these we learn, that the ancient Britons were rude, 
superstitious, and brave, and led a life not very dissimilar to that of the American 
Indians when first discovered by the Europeans, or other savages just emerging from a 
state of barbarism. 

Whatever knowledge of the arts leading to civilization these ancient Britons had 
acquired, under the dominion of the Romans for more than three centuries, there is reason 
for believing that much of it was soon lost, for none but vestiges of the rudest monuments 
of British art have been discovered, assimilating with the ages immediately succeeding the 
departure of their enlightened conquerors from the island. 

ENGLAND. B 



2 GRAND NATIONAL ILLUSTRATIONS. 

The Saxon invaders, who shortly after ruled the kingdom, though superior in mental 
acquirements to the subjugated natives, themselves too long harassed by the incursions 
of the despoiling intruders, the Danes, had but short intervals of repose, for the general 
improvement of society; and it was not until the time of Alfred, that laws and institu- 
tions were formed, which could steadily tend to effect that general intellectual culture 
which constitutes national civilization. 

From this epoch, during succeeding reigns, but slow progress was made to the attain- 
ment of general national improvement ; for even at the period of the Norman conquest, 
when Harold had just ceased to reign, the state of society in Great Britain was scarcely 
above semi-barbarism. 

It appears that the Normans, who obtained the country by the sword in the eleventh 
century, were a more enlightened people than the Saxons. From the period of the Con- 
quest, then, we must chiefly deduce those changes, which, by degrees, led to the 
ultimate improved state of the empire. 

William the Norman, cognomened the Conqueror, though a tyrant, was a saga- 
cious prince, and to his rule, as king of England, may justly be referred the steady 
establishment of that power, which has sustained the glory of the empire for so many 
succeeding ages. 

One of the wise acts of this prince was, the ordering a general survey of the lands of his 
newly acquired kingdom. This being accomplished, the divisions were recorded and 
preserved in Domesday book. Happily this invaluable record has been preserved, and to 
its pages reference has been made by several intelligent historians, in their researches 
towards forming a County History of the kingdom. Through these we learn, that of so 
little importance was the county of Lancashire, that this part of the empire, now next to 
Middlesex in point of population, riches, and vast commercial interest, which has been 
selected for the commencement of this Work, is only found incorporated as part of another 
county. 

THE COUNTY PALATINE OF LANCASTER, 

Is bounded on the north by Cumberland and Westmoreland, on the east by Yorkshire, on 
the south by Cheshire and Derbyshire, and on the west by the Irish sea. Its extreme 
length is seventy-four miles, and its greatest breadth forty-four miles and a half; its 
circumference is two hundred and forty-two miles, and its surface seventeen hundred and 
sixty-five miles square. 

The area of the county comprises 350,000 acres of land in tillage ; 450,000 in pasture, 
and about 400,000 in wood-lands, moors, and mosses, making together 1,130,000 acres. 

It is divided into the six hundreds of Lonsdale, Amounderness, Blackburn, Leyland, 
Salford, and West Derby, and contains sixty-six parishes, four hundred and forty-two 
townships, six parliamentary boroughs, and twenty-nine market towns. 



COUNTY PALATINE OF LANCASTER. 5 

The county of Lancaster and its six boroughs, which are Lancaster, Liverpool, 
Preston, Wigan, Clitheroe, and Newton, return two knights and twelve members to 
parliament. The county has been represented without intermission from the 22d of 
Edward I. 

Lancaster became a county palatinate in the reign of Edward III., who, reviving the 
title of duke of Lancaster in favour of his fourth son, the renowned John of Gaunt, advanced 
the honour of Lancaster to the dignity of a palatinate, since which it has continued the 
seat of the duchy of Lancaster. 

The climate of Lancaster, though humid, is considered to be pretty generally salu- 
brious, and mild and genial, excepting in the elevated and hilly regions on the northern 
and eastern boundaries, where the cold is occasionally piercing, but by no means 
unhealthy. 

The name of the county, Lonkeshire, is derived from the Saxons, from Lancaster, the 
Alauna of the Romans, which had become the capital of the Segantii. 

Under the dynasty of the Saxons, England was divided into counties, hundreds, and 
tithings. These divisions are supposed to have proceeded from the wisdom of the illus- 
trious Anglo-Saxon king, Alfred, who, to prevent the miseries of that predatory warfare 
which had so long disturbed and laid waste the country, instituted tithings, so denominated 
from a statistical regulation, wherein ten freeholders with their families were made to 
compose one. These dwelling in immediate neighbourhood, were held as sureties, or 
free-pledges to the king, for the good behaviour of each other. Ten of these in community 
formed a town or vill ; and ten of these again composed a superior division, called a hun- 
dred, or ten times ten families. The hundred was governed by a high constable, or bailiff, 
with its court for trial of causes, and an indefinite number of these constituted a county or 
shire, and was governed by a shire-reeve. 

During the six centuries which intervened, from the departure of the Romans to the 
arrival of the Norman invader, and for ages subsequent, it does not appear that Lancashire, 
with all its superior natural advantages for foreign trade, and local facilities for the estab- 
lishment of manufactures, was considered of sufficient importance to obtain a place in the 
annals of the nation, although London, then the capital of one of the smallest kingdoms of 
the Heptarchy, had, by availing itself of its favourable situation on the Thames, become an 
emporium of trade, as early as the beginning of the seventh century. 

In the Domesday survey, the counties of Northumberland, Cumberland, Westmoreland, 
and Durham, are not separately described, owing, perhaps, to the desolation of that part 
of the island thus contiguous to Lancaster ; nor is this county surveyed under its own 
title, the north parts of Lancashire being included in the West-Riding of Yorkshire, and 
that part of Lancashire situate between the Ribble and the Mersey was comprehended in 
the county of Cheshire. 

It appears that even in the fourteenth century, the county had risen so little in th^ 
statistical scale, that when the government made a general requisition upon the sea-port 



4 GRAND NATIONAL ILLUSTRATIONS. 

towns of England for ships and men, according to the custom of former times, all that 
Lancashire was required to furnish was one bark and six men. In the same century, a 
census was taken of the principal towns in England, wherein the population in some 
returns amounted to less than eight hundred inhabitants, yet there is no mention in this 
public document of any town in Lancashire. Neither does it appear that any town in 
this county contributed to a public state loan, raised about the same period, though many 
other towns in the neighbouring division of the country, did. Further, the comparative 
scale against Lancashire, so late as the seventeenth century, as opposed to the means 
possessed by Yorkshire, is made evident in the first year of the troubles of king Charles I. 
A levy of troops being made upon ten counties of the north, and the centre of Eng- 
land, amounting to 19,483 foot, and 1233 horse, the quota Lancashire was called 
upon to furnish was, 420 foot and 50 horse, whilst Yorkshire provided 6720 foot, and 60 
horse. 

Who at these remote periods could have prophesied, that the county, which in the 
wars of Edward III. was of so little commercial importance as to be required to add 
only one bark and six men to his extensive navy, should, in the eighteenth century, 
so increase by the mighty efforts of a few successive years, at one of its ports alone, 
(Liverpool,) as to import and export more general merchandise than all the sea-ports in 
England, in the reign of that renowned sovereign. 

The obvious commencement of the manufacturing spirit of this county, though its 
progress was slow, is traced to the period of Edward III. ; when certain discontented 
manufacturers in the Netherlands, hoping to better their condition by expatriation, sought 
the protection of this warlike and noble-minded prince, and removed with their families 
to England. These ingenious emigrants brought with them their art and mystery of 
weaving. The wise policy of Edward thus encouraging their views, under his fostering 
care, the knowledge of their art spread over the counties of Westmoreland, Yorkshire, and 
Lancashire ; and the ingenious fabrics of their looms were named Kendal cloths, Hali- 
fax cloths, and Manchester cottons. 

Notwithstanding these auspicious beginnings, more than three centuries elapsed ere 
this county was roused to those mighty exertions, which, in one age, has rendered 
Lancashire, in a manufacturing and commercial point of view, the wonder of the world. 
Such, indeed, has been the rapidly increasing population and prosperity of this long 
neglected division of our Island, that of late, the annual average sum raised in Lancashire 
for the support of the poor alone, exceeds the whole amount of the annual revenue of the 
crown, in the boasted reign of Elizabeth. 

The people of Lancashire were comprehended under the Roman denomination of 
Brigantes, which included the inhabitants of all the northern part of England. This dis- 
trict was named by the Saxons, Lonkasterscyre. It had its particular lords under the 
Norman government j gave the title of Earl to a son of Henry III., and was created a Duke- 
dom by Edward III. To the duchy of Lancaster, Henry V. annexed considerable estates. 



COUNTY PALATINE OF LANCASTER. 5 

which he possessed in right of his mother. Since which, with the addition of other great 
estates in various parts of the kingdom, it has continued as a separate possession, belong- 
ing to the kings of England, having its chancellor, attorney, receivers, and other officers. 
The offices for the palatinate are held at Preston. 

The common judicial administration of Lancashire, is a part of the northern circuit, 
and the assizes are held twice a year at the county-town, Lancaster. 

The county is divided into six hundreds, namely, those of 
Salford Hundred, divided into forty-three townships. 
West Derby Hundred, divided into seventy-one townships. 
Leyland Hundred, divided into twenty- two townships. 
Blackburn Hundred, divided into fifty-nine townships. 
Amounderness Hundred, divided itito fifty-one townships. 
Lonsdale Hundred, divided into forty-nine townships. 

The ecclesiastical jurisdiction of Lancashire is part of the diocese of Chester, and is 
divided as follows. 

The Archdeaconry of Chester, which includes the deaneries of Manchester, Warrington, 
Blackburne, and Leyland. 

The Archdeaconry of Richmond, which includes the deaneries of Amounderness, Furness 
and Cartmel, Kirhy Lonsdale, and the deanery of Richmond. 

The wealth of this county, depending upon many local circumstances abstracted from 
the spirit and industry of its popidation, is materially owing to its cotton manufacture ; 
a branch of commerce, the rapid and prodigious growth of which, says the intelligent 
Dr. Aikin, is perhaps absolutely unparalleled in the annals of trading nations. Man- 
chester is, as it were, the heart of this vast system, the circulating branches of which 
spread all around it, though at different distances. 

To the north-western and western points it is most widely diffused, having in those 
parts established various head-quarters, which are each the centres to their lesser circles. 
Bolton, Blackburn, Wigan, and several other Lancashire towns, are stations of this 
kind ; and the whole intervening country takes its character from its relation to them. 
Stockport to the south, and Ashton to the east of Manchester, are similar appendages to 
this trade ; and its influence is spread, more or less, over the greater part of Lancashire, 
and the north-eastern portion of Cheshire. Under the general head of the cotton manufac- 
ture may be comprised a variety of fabrics, not strictly belonging to it, but accompanying 
it, and in like manner centering in Manchester and its vicinity. 

Though the cotton-trade peculiarly characterises Lancashire as a commercial county, 
continues this author, yet it has other considerable branches of manufacture ', as that 
of sail-cloth, and coarse linens ; of nails, of watch-tools and movements, of cast-plate, and 

ENGLAND. C 



6 GRAND NATIONAL ILLUSTRATIONS. 

common glass.* The silk trade has also been introduced, calico-printing^ dying, machine- 
making, 8^c. 

Early in the fourteenth century, an inexhaustible source of wealth was discovered in 
the coal-mines, with which Mid-Lancashire abounds ; a mineral, which has not only 
contributed to the prosperity of this, but many other parts of the kingdom j hence, its 
apposite title in the north, " the black-diamond." 

Another natural advantage possessed by this county, which affords additional facilities 
to commerce, is, its abounding in rivers. These, however, have been rendered available 
by art ; for, many being not sufficiently navigable for the demands of commerce, the 
ingemiity and industry of man, wanting only the material, has bent and wound the 
waters to his purposes. 

It should be observed, that from this well-watered region originated the name given 
to its inhabitants by the Romans, the Segantii, or dwelling in the country of waters. 

The navigable rivers of this county are, the Mersey, the Ribble, the Lune, the Irwell, 
the Douglas, the Wyre, the Ken, the Leven, the Dudden, and the Crake. The Tame, the 
Etherow, and the Gayt, which rise in Yorkshire, Cheshire, and Derbyshire, unite at 
Stockport. These waters, after their confluence, take the name of the Mersey, which 
river anciently divided the kingdoms of Northumbria and Mercia, and now forms the 
boundary of Lancashire and Cheshire in its whole course. It is increased by various 
tributary streams, and empties itself below Liverpool, into the Irish sea. 

The expansive and beautiful Kibble, has its source in the West-Riding of Yorkshire, 
receives the Hodder stream in its course, and the Calder, and, winding by Ribchester to 
Walton near Preston, is joined by the river Darwent. 

The Lune, rises in Westmoreland, passes Kirby-Lonsdale, enters Lancashire, 
crosses the hundred of Lonsdale, passes Hornby and Lancaster, and falls into the Bay 
of Morecambe at Sunderland point. In its course it receives the Leek, the Greta, and 
the Wenning, and is navigable for vessels of small burden to Lancaster ; those of larger 
tonnage pass no higher than Glasson Point, where there is a splendid dock. 

Two streams flowing from Bacup Booth and Cridden Hill, in the hundred of 
Blackburn, give rise to the river Irwell, which flows to the manufacturing town of Bury. 
Near this place it receives the Roch, and flows on to Manchester; here, joined by the Irk, 
it becomes navigable. Thence it flows nine miles below Manchester, and merges into 
the Mersey. 

The Douglas, springs from the north of Rivington Pike, flows to Wigan, and 
onward to Rufford. Its tributary streams are the Lostock and the Yarrow, with which it 



* On the authority of Eddius, in the eighth century, glass for windows, lamps, and domestic vessels was made in 
Lancashire, and other neighbouring parts. The art was introduced by Benedict Biscop, who, whilst building an 
abbey at the mouth of the Wear, brought masons and glass-makers from the continent, who taught the English this 
valuable branch of manufacture. 



COUNTY PALATINE OF LANCASTER. 7 

proceeds, and mixes in the estuary of the Ribble. This river was made navigable from 
Wigan to the Ribble in the year 1727- 

The Wyre has also two sources, the confluence of which occurs at Hawthornthwaite, 
receives many streams, and forms a safe harbour for ships of burden, as it widens on 
entering the sea. 

. The Leven, formed of the overflowing of Windermere lake, in its passage to the 
Bay of Morecambe, supplies, by its falls, a power for working the machinery of 
manufactories for cotton, iron, gunpowder, &c. 

The DuDDEN, a fine river, having its source in the small lakes dividing Cumberland 
and Lancashire, falls into the Irish sea. 

The Crake, owes its source to Coniston lake, and mixes with the waters of the 
Leven near Penny Bridge. 

The secondary rivers of Lancashire are, the Tame, the Irk, the Medlock, the Leven, 
and the Koch, in Salford Hundred ; the Hodder, the Darwent, the Brun, and East Calder, 
in the Hundred of Blackburn ; the Yarrow and the Lostock, in Leyland Hundred ; the 
Brock and West Calder, in Amounderness ; the Alt, in West Derby Hundred ; and the 
Wenning, the Keer, the Hindburn, the Greta, the Conder, the Winster, and the Breathy, 
in the Hundred of Lonsdale. Besides this prolific supply of water, in this celebrated 
district, of rivers and canals, are to be numbered the lakes, Coniston- water, Esthwaite- 
water, in Furness j and Windermere, partly in this county, and partly in Westmoreland. 

Having thus given a brief history of the natural waters of Lancashire, we shall, in 
course, notice those artificial rivers, which, improving the inland navigation, have rendered 
the whole available to the industrious pursuits of the active-minded inhabitants of this 
flourishing division of the empire, and to which we must ascribe a very considerable 
portion of its prosperity. 

Much of the foreign commerce of Liverpool consists in the exchange of the 
manufactures of the county; to which local trade may be added, the exports of 
the woollens and the cutlery of Yorkshire, the produce of the salt-mines in Cheshire, 
the earthenware of Staffordshire, and the hardware of Warwickshire, which are borne 
upon the surface of the waters towards this great emporium of traffic. 

These are exported to America and the West Indies ; to Africa, and the East 
Indies ; and to the continent of Europe ; exclusive of the vast trade with Ireland. 

The imports consist of cotton, sugar, tobacco, rice, timber, corn, and a great 
variety of other commodities, the production of every civilized country, and of all climates. 
The inland navigation is the main feeder and disperser of all this traffic -, and it must 
be recorded, to the honour of Lancashire, that here the stupendous canal system of 
modern times, which has spread so extensively over this kingdom, originated. 

The first expedient for effecting these improvements, was by deepening the rivers, 
beginning with the Mersey, by which vessels were enabled to navigate as high as Bank 
Quay, near Warrington. 



g GRAND NATIONAL ILLUSTRATIONS. 

This being accomplished, to render the higher parts of the river accessible to vessels 
as far as Manchester, naturally suggested itself as a desirable improvement, and a mutual 
benefit to Manchester and Liverpool. 

Irwell and Mersey navigation began in 1720, an act being then passed, empower- 
ing certain persons to make navigable the rivers Irwell and Mersey from Manchester 
to Liverpool, — which was effected by the usual contrivance of wears, locks, &c. The 
very winding course of the river was corrected by cuts across the necks of the prin- 
cipal bends. 

Weaver navigation, begun also in 1720, afforded another accession of commercial 
intercourse, by making navigable the river Weaver, from Frodsham bridge, near its con- 
flux with the Mersey, to beyond Northwich. A vast number of vessels are constantly 
employed on this navigation, carrying rock-salt to Liverpool, and returning with coals 
and other commodities — which is of vast importance to commerce. 

Besides these, are the Douglas navigation, already noticed ; the Aire, Calder, and Dun 
navigations, &c. 

Considerably before this period, the clothing country of Yorkshire had applied its 
rivers to the purposes of water carriage ; and, as early as 1699, an act was passed for 
making navigable the rivers Aire and Calder, to Leeds and Wakefield ; and, in 1725, 
another river in the West-Riding, the Dun, was made navigable from Doncaster to the 
distance of tv/o miles from Sheffield ; since which, many other great plans for the im- 
provement of water carriage have been projected and completed with success. Some, 
however, have failed. 

In 1755, the memorable Sankey canal was begun, under the powers of an act ; and 
this may be considered the precursor of all the great schemes of this nature, so abundant 
in advantages to the empire. The navigation on this canal is never obstructed by floods, 
and seldom by frosts. It transports coals worked out upon its banks, and carries on 
considerable business with the large copper- works belonging to the Anglesea Company, 
erected on its branches j and by plate-glass, and other manufactories, founded near its 
channels. 

The Duke of Bridgewater's canals, so memorable in the history of civil engineering, 
commenced in the year 1758. The first of his Grace's beneficial schemes was, to carry 
a canal from Worsley to Salford, and then to deviate from that course across the Irwell to 
Manchester. Here it was, that the great self-instructed genius of James Brindley first 
developed itself. The many grand works which succeeded for the facilities of commer- 
cial intercourse with Liverpool, Manchester, and other parts of this great manufacturing 
district, in which his genius was engaged, will be noticed in another part of this work. 

Having thus briefly touched upon the most interesting circumstances, historical 
and statistical, of the County Palatine of Lancaster, we shall proceed to describe, 
with like brevity, the general history of Liverpool, enlarging upon its local history, 
as the graphic Illustrations. 



COUNTY PALATINE OF LANCASTER. —LIVERPOOL. 9 

LIVERPOOL. 

The noble river Mersey, taking nearly a western course until within a few miles of its 
termination, makes a sudden bend to the north, and at length flows into the sea by a 
channel forming an almost continued line with the coast of Lancashire. On the eastern 
side of which, within three miles of the mouth of the river, and where the channel is 
narrowest, Liverpool is situated. At high tide the Mersey is here about twelve hundred 
yards wide across ; but it soon widens, both above and below. The town is well situated 
for shipping business, as the common [neap tides rise fifteen feet, and the spring tides 
thirty feet. 

Camden traces the first existence of a town on this site to the period of William the 
Conqueror, when Roger of Poictiers, lord of the honour of Lancaster, built a castle here . 
Henry I., in 1129, granted charters to the town ; so did John, in 1203; and Henry HI., 
in 1227, who constituted it a perpetual corporation and free borough, with a merchant 
guild, and other privileges. 

Little is known of this ancient sea-port for many succeeding ages ; and even in the 
beginning of the sixteenth century, Leland, in his Tour, it is evident, found it of no great 
importance, as may plainly be inferred from his accoimt : " Lyrpole, alias Lyverpoole, 
is a paved town, having only a chapel ; its parish church being Walton, four miles distant, 
near the sea. The king has a caslet,* and the earl of Derby a stone house in it. Irish 
merchants resort thither as to a good haven, and much Irish yarn bought by Manchester 
men, and other merchandize, is sold there. The customs paid at Liverpool are small, 
which causes the resort of merchants." By the same authority we learn, that in the 
reign of Queen Elizabeth, 1565, there were in Liverpool only one hundred and thirty- 
eight householders and cottagers ; and all the shipping of the place consisted of ten barks 
(the largest of forty tons burden) and two boats, the whole making two hundred and 
twenty-three tons, and navigated by seventy-five men : and at Wallasey, a creek opposite, 
were three barks and boats, making together thirty- six tons, and navigated by fourteen 
men. It is obvious that the town must have declined from its former state, compared 
with the times ; for, in a petition sent to this queen by the inhabitants of Liverpool, 
praying to be relieved from a subsidy, the petitioners subscribe themselves. Inhabitants of 
her majesty's poor decayed town of Liverpool. 

AVhat it was then, is of little import to its present inhabitants. Those who may be 
curious to know more of its progression from this period to the last century, may find 
ample information in the works of late historians, who have investigated the subject with 
no less industry than success, and thereby added greatly to the public stores of topo- 
graphical and antiquarian research. 

• A small castle, pulled down in the early part of the last century. This was occupied, in the reign of 
Edward III., by Sir Thomas Latham, of Latham. 

ENGLAND. D 



10 GRAND NATIONAL ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Liverpool, in the beginning of the last century, had greatly increased in population, 
the best test, in former days at least, of growing prosperity; for, in the year 1701, it 
appears the number of inhabitants amounted at least to between four and five thousand, 
while Dr. Enfield, as we shall presently notice, states them to be more numerous. 

The first strong inference of its improving state may be drawn from the circumstance 
of its being able to emancipate itself from its parochial dependence on Walton, and to 
become a distinct parish. In the year 1699, an act was obtained, by which the inhabitants 
were empowered to build a new church, in addition to the former chapel. A rector was 
also appointed to each. The old parochial structure was the church of St. Nicholas ; the 
new one, that of St. Peter ; views of which will appear among the pictorial embellishments 
of this work. 

Within ten years of this period, the increase of trade demanded the convenience of a 
dock, when an act was obtained for the purpose, and one was accordingly constructed. 
Before this time, the shipping laid before the town in open channel, there being no natural 
creek, or artificial inlet, to afford them shelter. 

Liverpool could now reckon, belonging to its own port, eighty-four vessels, averaging 
nearly seventy tons burden each, and navigated by eleven men at a medium : more than 
three times this number of ships, belonging to other places, frequented the port. 

Wherever commercial prosperity is seated, there public and private munificence propor- 
tionately abounds. The spirit of charity grows with wealth obtained by industry; hence the 
people of Liverpool founded a charity school, which soon merging into the Bluecoat Hos- 
pital, within a few years received sixty children, who were provided for by a subscription 
fund, and were lodged within a building that cost upwards of two thousand pounds. 

In the year 1715, the town, improving in wealth, obtained an act for building a third 
church, which took more than fifteen years in completing. This was the spacious, hand- 
some church of St. George, which formed one of the first fine architectural features of this 
rising town ; but, with the exception of some parts of the interior, it has since been 
rebuilt, the steeple, walls, &c. being entirely new. 

About the year 1710, the period of commencing the Docks, it is supposed Liverpool 
first commenced its trade with the West Indies ; from whence the advances to general 
prosperity may be traced with sufficient accuracy, to follow its progress to its ultimate 
importance, as one of the first commercial towns in the world. 

In the year 1730, the population had increased to twelve thousand ; and a few years 
afterward, the inhabitants amounted to eighteen thousand. Industry and enterprise 
increased with numbers, and all the attributes of civilization followed in their train. Public 
improvements were planned, and rapidly accomplished; new docks and warehouses 
sprung up in aid of commerce ; halls were planned for every secular occasion ; whilst 
temples dedicated to the service of religion, charitable institutions, and structures for the 
rational amusement of the hours of leisure, spread new grandeur through the place, 
which rapidly approximated its present splendour. 



COUNTY PALATINE OF LANCASTER.— LIVERPOOL. U 

The burgesses of Liverpool were not erected into a corporate body until late in the 
reign of Charles I. ; though, in the year 1626, the second of his reign, a charter was 
granted to them, under the designation of the mayor, bailiffs, and burgesses of Liverpool ; 
and James Strange, Lord Stanley, of the family of the Earl of Derby, first filled the office 
of mayor, under the new charter. The commercial superiority of Bristol over that of this 
town, during the reign of Charles, may be estimated by the proportion of ship-money 
raised for the public service, Bristol furnishing one thousand pounds, and Liverpool 
only twenty-five pounds. 

Before the end of this century, it appears that the town was advancing in importance ; 
for, on the authority of a respectable tourist, we learn, that on his first visit to Liverpool 
in 1680, he found it a large thriving town ; that at a second visit, ten years after, it had 
doubled its size ; and on his third visit in 1726, it was still increasing in wealth, popula- 
tion, business, and buildings. 

The extension of the trade in this rapidly improving seat of commerce demanding 
further accommodation for the shipping, in 1734 an act was obtained for making an addi- 
tional dock, which was immediately commenced, and opened in 1753. 

In 1748 commenced the building of the magnificent new Exchange, which was opened 
in 1754, in the mayoralty of James Crosbie, Esquire, with a splendid ball, &c. which 
might almost vie in elegance with the civic splendour of the entertainments of the 
metropolitan city. 

Notwithstanding this fast growing prosperity of the town, as late as the middle of 
the last century no stage-coach approached it nearer than Warrington, the roads being 
then impassable for those vehicles. It further appears, that in the year 1750 there was 
but one private coach in all Liverpool, and that was kept by a lady of the name of 
Clayton. These trivial circumstances, however, are related, to shew by what rapid strides 
the opulent habits of life had been attained within fifty years, with reference to the state 
of society at Liverpool at the commencement of the present century. 

The period between the year I7OO and that of the accession of George HI. in 1760, 
forms a remarkable epoch in the history of Liverpool ; for, during this interval, the 
shipping belonging to its port increased from sixty, to two hundred and twenty-six vessels; 
forming an aggregate burden of from four thousand, to twenty-three thousand six hundred 
and sixty-five tons. 

From about this epoch the rapid increase of the architectural improvements of the 
town may be deduced, of which the churches, and other religious structures, form no 
small part. — St. Nicholas's, or the Old Church, has already been noticed. St. Peter's, in 
Church-street, was built in 1704. St. George's, begun in 1715, was finished in 1734. 
St. Thomas's, Park-lane, was opened in 1748. St. Paul's, in the Square, was opened in 
1769. St. Anne's, in Great Richmond-street, was opened in 1773. St. James's, in 
Parliament- street, was opened in 1774. St. John's, in the Haymarket, built in 1784, and 
opened the next year. Trinity Church, in St. Anne's -street, consecrated in 1792. Christ 



12 GRAND NATIONAL ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Church, in Hunter- street, was opened in 1797- St. Mark's, in Duke-street, opened in 
1803. St. Luke's, in Berry-street, begun in 1811. St. Andrew's, in Renshaw-street, 
opened in 1815. St. Philip's, in Hardman-street, built in 1815. St. Michael's, in Upper 
Pitt-street, lately completed. The Church of the School for the Blind, opened in 1819. 
St. Stephen's, in Byrom-street, opened in 1722 ; St. Matthew's, opened in 1707, formerly 
Dissenting Meeting-houses, consecrated and opened for the service of the Established 
Church ; the former in 1792, the latter in 1795. All Saints, in Grenville-street ; and the 
New Church, in Rodney-street, as a Scottish Kirk. To these may be added a numerous 
list of chapels and meeting-houses, of various sects and denominations, which, together, 
form a considerably larger extent of ecclesiastical structures, than have been raised within 
the same period in any provincial city or town in the British empire. 

In addition to these structures, provided for the holy purposes of religion, the town of 
Liverpool has shewn no less charitable zeal in forming a proportionate number of bene- 
volent institutions, and in providing, at a vast expense, buildings suited to the respective 
objects for which they have been erected : a mere list of which would serve to shew 
their utility and extent, though a particular notice of each will accompany the engraved 
views of these buildings, as they appear in the work. 

The corporation of Liverpool being one of the most opulent corporate bodies in the 
kingdom, its vast revenues are thus made subservient to the public good. 

The police of this town is well regulated ; and justice is daily administered, either by 
the mayor, or the other magistrates, at the Town-hall. 

The increase of the population of Liverpool is thus estimated by Dr. Enfield. — 
The number of inhabitants in the town, in the year 1700, was only 5145. In 1720, the 
number was more than doubled, amounting to 11,833. In 1750, it was nearly quadrupled, 
being stated at 18,400 ; and in 1770, had increased to 34,050. In 1801, the number was 
77,653; in 1811, it had reached to 94,376; and in 1821, the population amounted to 
118,972. Since which, the increase is supposed to have reached to nearly 150,000 eouls. 
Two centuries ago, this now mighty town was described as ^'The little creek of Liverpool." 

The public buildings in Liverpool, for the purposes of trade and commerce, are, first, 
the Docks ; namely, the Old Dock, now closed, and the Salt-house Dock, both communi- 
cating with the Dry Dock, The King's Dock, and the Queen's Dock, with their Basins. 
The George's Dock, and the Prince's Dock, with their Basins. These stupendous works, 
collectively, occupy sixty-three acres of ground. The continually increasing commerce 
of Liverpool suggested the propriety of making still further additions to these convenient 
harbours for their shipping, under the titles of the Brunswick Dock, and the North Dock, 
which, together, occupy at least eighty statute acres of land. 

The other public buildings in Liverpool, for the service of trade and commerce, are, 
the Exchange, the Custom House, the Excise Office, the Post Office, the King's Tobacco 
Warehouse, the Warehouses for Bonded Com, &c. the Com Exchange, the Dock Office, 
and the Seamen's Registry Office. 



COUNTY PALATINE OF LANCASTER.— LIVERPOOL. 13 

The manufactures of this town, besides such as relate to the shipping, are, China and 
Earthenware, Watches and Time-keepers, and fine Files and Watch-movements ; there 
are also Sugar- works. Salt-works, Corn-mills, and Breweries, upon a large scale ; Ship- 
yards, and Roperies ; and an extensive manufactory of Iron Chain Cables, with all the 
ordinary trades incident to English sea-ports. 

The literary and scientific institutions of this place are also worthy the growing 
opulence, and improving intellect, of its inhabitants. They consist of the Liverpool 
Library, established in 1770, and now held in the Lyceum j the Athenaeum, in Church- 
street, established in 1799 ; the Botanic Garden, established in 1800 ; the Lyceum, at the 
bottom of Bold-street, established in 1814; the Union-rooms, in Duke-street, established in 
1801; the Exchange News-room, and the Underwriters'-room, established in the same year; 
the Royal Institution, in Colquitt- street, established in 1814 ; and the Medical Library. — 
The number of Newspapers published weekly, is nine ; of which two are devoted almost 
exclusively to the dissemination of commercial information : the others combine with this 
object, reports of public aff'airs, notices of popular publications, and original essays. 

The places of public amusement are, the Theatre, in Williamson-square ; the Circus, 
Great Charlotte-street; the Music-hall, in Bold-street; the Wellington-rooms, at Mount 
Pleasant ; the Ball-room, in the Town-hall ; and the Rotunda, in Bold-street. Thus, it 
appears, that the improvements, within little more than half a century, embrace almost 
every order of buildings applied to the purposes of devotion, charity, commerce, science, 
literature, laudable recreation, and rational amusement, which being the distinguishing 
marks of a period of prosperity and civilization, render society happy. 

Liverpool, and its immediate neighbourhood, combine many topographical beauties, 
which the various engraved Views in this work are intended to illustrate. For a general 
description of its pretensions to the notice of a traveller, however, we for the present shall 
quote the language of the late Lord Erskine, who says, " If I were capable of painting 
in words the impression Liverpool made on my imagination, it would form a beautiful 
picture indeed ! I had before often been at the principal sea-ports in this island, and 
believing that having seen Bristol, and those other towns that justly pass for great ones, 
1 had seen every thing in this great nation of navigators, on which a subject should pride 
himself ; I own, I was astonished and astounded, when, after passing a distant ferry, and 
ascending a hill, I was told by my guide, * All you see spread out beneath you — that 
immense place, which stands, like another Venice, upon the waters — which is intersected 
by those numerous Docks — which glitters with those cheerful habitations of well-protected 
men — which is the busy seat of trade, and the gay scene of elegant amusements, growing 
out of its prosperity — where there is the most cheerful face of industry — where there are 
riches overflowing, and every thing that can delight a man who wishes to see the prosperity 
of a great community, and a great empire — all this has been created by the industry and 
well-disciplined management of a handful of men, since you were a boy;' — I must have 
been a stick, or a stone, not to have been affected by such a picture." 

ENGLAND. E 



)4 GRAND NATIONAL ILLUSTRATIONS. 

A more particular account of the extent of commerce, and the general state of society, 
will 'be given in connection with our descriptions of the various Public Edifices that 
conduce to the embellishment of the town, or promote its prosperity. Of these 
structures it may be remarked, that, with a few exceptions, they have risen into existence 
within the last half century ; while, during the same period, many of the principal streets 
have been converted from mere alleys into spacious and magnificent avenues. The 
process of renovation has, indeed, been so rapid, that the most prominent features of 
Liverpool will bear the date of the nineteenth century, and combine to give it 
an aspect of cheerfulness and youthful vigour, not to be paralleled, except in the 
Metropolis. 

THE EXCHANGE. 

Of the buildings dedicated to commercial pursuits, this is the most important. This 
magnificent pile (in the opinion of many travellers, the most beautiful commercial 
structure in the world) was raised by a subscription of 800 shares, at £100 each share ; 
but it is ascertained that the entire expense was not less than £110,000. The first stone 
was laid on the 30th of June, 1803, and the building was completed in about eix years. 
The area, enclosed by the four fronts, is 194 feet by 180; and is, consequently, double 
that of the London Exchange. This Building is formed by four facades, or fronts, of 
which three adjoin each other, and the fourth is formed by the north front of the Town 
Hall. 

The architecture consists of a rusticated basement, with a piazza, extending round 
the whole, and opening to the area by a series of rustic arches, between strong piers. 
Above are two stories ornamented with Corinthian pillars and pilasters, and surrounded 
with an enriched bold cornice and parapet. In the centre of the north side, resting 
on the basement, is a grand recessed portico, with eight handsome Corinthian columns. 
In the east wing is a coffee-room, 94 feet by 52, the roof of which is supported on large 
Ionic columns ; and above this is another spacious room, appropriated to the under- 
writers. A public sale-room, and counting-houses, occupy the other sides of this 
extensive range of buildings. Such are the dimensions, plan, and architecture of an 
edifice, which may well be esteemed one of the finest specimens of Grecian archi- 
tecture ever erected in this country, and, perhaps, the most splendid edifice raised 
in modern times, for purposes purely commercial. Hence, as from the heart of the 
commercial body, proceed those impulses which make themselves felt in all quarters of 
the globe. 

MONUMENT TO THE MEMORY OF LORD NELSON. 

This elaborate work of art, in bronze, stands near the centre of the area of the 
Exchange Buildings. It is after a design of M. C. Wyatt, Esq., executed by Richard 
Westmacott, Esq., R. A., and was erected in the year 1812, at an expense of £9000, 




■rms FLATK is MVST KESTECTTVLJ?/ OtSCIUBED TO THE COKN MERCBAirrS OF ITVEKFOOL. 3Y TWB FUBLIBIIERS 




;iif Mf.HCHAJrr.':. eROKtfis and rrNDEKvnoTERs of mvETii'OOL. tbis plats: is resfsctfitlzy df.hicated by tile FUBLISHFH:: 



COUNTY PALATINE OF LANCASTER.— LIVERPOOL. I5 

which was defrayed by public subscription. The bronze alone weighs twenty- two 
tons. 

The Admiral is placed in the centre of the group, and represented as in the moment of 
conquest, receiving on the point of his sword a fourth naval crown, in addition to three 
already obtained, emblematical of his decisive victories at St. Vincent, Copenhagen, and 
Aboukir. It is scarcely necessary to remind the reader, that the Trafalgar wreath was 
purchased at the price of the gallant Nelson's life. Having lost his right hand at the 
attack of Teneriffe, he receives this, his last trophy, in his left ; while, at the same instant 
of triumph. Death, represented by a skeleton lying concealed under the enemy's flag, 
with too fatal certainty reaches his heart. — ^This part of the design has been much and 
severely criticized. It has been thought that the artist might have found some other, and 
more pleasing, symbolical representative of the last enemy, than a human skeleton ; if, 
indeed, any such representative were necessary. — The four captives in chains, at the foot 
of the pedestal, are also, it is asserted, a very unfair emblem of the usages of modern 
warfare, and seem to indicate a ferocity totally inconsistent with the well-known generous 
temper of Nelson. These objections have been made, and there is, perhaps, some founda- 
tion for them ; but, at the same time, it should be remembered, that, in allegorical repre- 
sentations, the fancy of the artist must be allowed greater scope than in those which are 
merely descriptive. 

Around the pedestal is inscribed in capitals of enduring brass, the more enduring 
watch-word of the day — ^^ England expects every man to do his duty," — a sentence 
destined in future ages to nerve the arm of patriotism in the hour of danger. In the back 
ground of the principal group, is a British sailor with a battle-axe in his hand, pressing 
forward to revenge the death of his gallant commander. 

These are the principal features of the monument, as exhibited in the engraved View, 
while a nearer inspection discovers to the spectator bas-reliefs in bronze, surrounding the 
pedestal, and detailing some of the most interesting events in Nelson's eventful life. 

Situated as this M9nument is, in the very centre of business, of the second commercial 
tovm in the kingdom, it must force itself on the notice of all foreigners, and tend to 
impress upon them a conviction of the stability of that Naval Empire which Britain has 
so long, and Jby such transcendent exertions, been able to retain. 

THE CORN EXCHANGE, 

Is a plain modem Building, of ample dimensions. The architecture is of the Doric 
order, from the designs of Mr. J. Foster, sen. It was built in the year 1807, at an 
expense of jeiO,000, raised in shares of £100 each. However unpretending the appear- 
ance of the building, it deserves notice on account of the immense extent of business 
transacted here. The intimate connection existing between Liverpool and all parts of 
Ireland, renders this town the great northern dep6t of Irish agricultural produce, which 



16 GRAND NATIONAL ILLUSTRATIONS. 

is conveyed into the interior manufacturing districts, in quantities proportioned to the 
demand. These districts are known to be the most populous portion of our domestic 
Empire, and must consequently require great importations of the necessaries of life. 
Accordingly we find, from authentic statements, that in the year ending October 1, 1828, 
the quantity of wheat imported into Liverpool, was 352,298 quarters ; of oats, 605,968 
quarters ; flour, 163,584 bags, and 25,881 barrels. A large proportion of this produce 
is consumed in Manchester, and the other inland towns of Lancashire, in the West- 
Riding of Yorkshire, in Staffordshire, &c. The rapid increase of that branch of trade, 
may be estimated by comparing the imports in the year ending October 1, 1809, being 
the first year after the erection of the Corn Exchange, with those of the year just ended, 
and already stated. 

In 1809, the quantity of wheat imported was, 114,000 quarters; oats, 460,000 qrs. 
flour, 13,000 bags, and 170,000 barrels. When it is considered how much shipping 
must be employed in the transportation of this produce, both by sea and by inland navi- 
gation, and the vast numbers of persons to whom employment is furnished, either directly 
in the corn trade itself, or indirectly in those various trades which depend upon shipping, 
we may form some idea of the great importance of this branch of commerce to Liverpool. 
The number of vessels entered in the Custom-house, laden with grain, &c., from Ireland, 
in the week ending Feb. 10, 1829, was 72. If to this number be added the numerous 
coasting vessels from all parts of England, even from the eastern coast, as Ipswich, &c. 
and those from Scotland, the aggregate will not be found less than 100 per week. From 
this statement it will be easy to imagine the extent of employment afforded to the 
industrious classes by this single department of trade. We have entered into this detail, 
principally with a view to the information of our country subscribers, who may have 
witnessed with surprise the astonishingly rapid increase, of this port, and may have felt 
curious to investigate the causes of it. From the slight sketch which we have given, and 
which our limits precluded us from enlarging, they will be enabled to perceive the sources 
of Liverpool's prosperity, and to judge of the likelihood of its continuance. The 
monopoly which this town enjoys, of supplying with all the luxuries, and a great part of 
the necessaries of life, so dense a population as that contained in the manufacturing and 
midland districts of England— a population amounting to at least one-third of the whole 
kingdom — affords a basis of confidence, and an assurance of continued improvement, which 
may well counterbalance the gloomy presages of some saturnine observers, who imagine that 
in the rapid advancement of the port they see a prognostic of its speedy downfall. Such 
observers, if they examine more minutely the nature and foundations of this prosperity, 
will be convinced that it bids as fair for continuance, and even for progression, as ever, and 
that its decay can only be a consequence of national impoverishment. The interests of 
the commercial body are so bound up with that of all orders of the community, that they 
must advance or retrograde together ; and of this assertion, the experience of past years 
affords indubitable evidence. We could wish that all classes, especially the agricultural. 




Ih-awn by Tlio'Allom , 



Eiitfraved "by Ja^ AUen. 



TMIE EHFEIEMAIRT, mm.®WmiL®W gTIEEIET, 

TO THE PATRONS. PHYSICIANS. AKD SURGEONS OF THE' INSTITVTION .THIS PLATE IS RESPECTFULLY SEDICArES. 




Drawn "byGS: C.Pynf. 



Engravei hy Ja^ Allen 



TISE WIEILlLIIWE-TCaW MiDcOMS, M^DWH'T IPILIEASAMT, 



COUNTY PALATINE OF LANCASTER.— LIVERPOOL. 17 

were fully impressed with the conviction of its importance, as well as of its truth. Such 
a conviction would tend more than any thing else to advance the well-being of the 
community, and make the nation powerful, by rendering every individual in it pros- 
perous. 

. THE INFIRMARY, BROWNLOW STREET. 

During several years past, the Committee of this Institution had been strongly 
impressed with a conviction of the expediency of removing the establishment from the 
former site, at the top of Shaw's Brow, to some more open and elevated situation. 
Their choice was influenced by a consideration of the comparative advantages of 
different localities, in reference to purity of atmosphere, seclusion from the noise and 
bustle of a populous town, and proximity to those districts where accidents are most 
frequent. Whilst it would be impossible to select a site which could so completely 
realize the wishes of the humane in the first two particulars, as the present, it must be 
confessed that great inconvenience is often experienced on account of the distance between 
the Infirmary and the Docks. This defect might be remedied by the establishment of 
receiving-houses, with skilful medical attendants, at one or two stations in the heart 
of the town : and such an arrangement would render complete the system of charity, 
which has for its object the alleviation or cure of disease. 

The present building, which was opened for the reception of patients in September, 
1824, possesses the strongest claims to attention, whether considered as an asylum for 
the diseased, or an architectural ornament. The colonnade or portico in front is formed 
by six massive columns of the Ionic order, with corresponding pilasters in the angles, 
supporting a plain broad frieze and a bold projecting cornice. The wings recede from 
the front of the portico 82 feet, while the total breadth of the building is 204 feet. This 
arrangement of the ground-plan, which is somewhat novel, was adopted for the purpose 
of admitting a more free access of air than could have been obtained according to the 
more customary plan of withdrawing the centre. There are 138 windows in the front 
and wings, exclusive of those at the back, which look eastward. The great extent of 
masonr^% the fine effect of the numerous windows, and the harmony of all the parts, 
combine to render this edifice particularly worthy of a stranger's notice, and eminently 
conducive to the well-earned reputation of the architect, Mr. John Foster, jun. 

Nor are the internal arrangements less deserving of approbation. The ground-floor 
is appropriated to purposes of domestic utility ; the first floor contains a suite of 
twenty apartments, for the accommodation of Committees, Officers of the Institution, 
and the Household, except one long room in the left wing, which is fitted up as a ward 
for the reception of those patients whose situation requires prompt attention. 

The wards for other patients occupy the second and third stories, and are both 
lofty and airy. The elevated ceilings, and the cheerful light and regulated temperature, of 

ENGLAND. F 



18 GRAND NATIONAL ILLUSTRATIONS. 

these apartments, impart a degree of comfort, which, combined with the utmost degree 
of cleanliness, cannot fail to exhilarate the spirits of the patients, and conduce to their 
recovery. The whole building is warmed and ventilated upon the plan of the late 
philosophical and estimable Mr. Sylvester. The kitchen is peculiarly worthy of inspec- 
tion. Here, without one of the moveable utensils in common use, the range is con- 
structed and supplied with fuel and steam, in such a manner, that articles of food 
may b^ cooked, in any way, whether by fire or steam, while scarcely a burning ember 
can be seen ; and the compactness of the whole is such, that the room may be kept as 
clean and neat as a dining-room. 

The entire cost of this building, which ranks as one of the principal ornaments of 
the town, was upwards of £25,000. The income of the year 1828, exclusive of a 
donation of £1,600, from the Committee of the Musical Festival, was £4,676, derived 
from subscriptions, fees of pupils, and interest of property. The expenditure amounted 
to more than £7,000. The total number of in-patients, was 2,105, and of out-patients, 
465. The weekly average number of patients is 205. There is accommodation for 230 
patients in the house. 

THE WELLINGTON ROOMS, MOUNT-PLEASANT. 

From the house of mourning and disease, we traverse but a short distance, till we 
arrive at the house of mirth and revelry. This extensive suite of assembly rooms was 
erected by public subscription, from the designs of the late amiable and lamented' 
Edmund Aikin. The front, which is of stone, is in the Grecian style of architecture, 
without windows. At the western side of the building is an open porch for sedan 
chairs; and at the eastern, a similar one for carriages to set down under cover. The 
circular portico in front was originally open ; but this plan', though much more con- 
ducive to architectural beauty, was found practically inconvenient. In consequence, the 
spaces between the beautiful Corinthian columns have been closed up by a dead stone 
wall, and a door has been placed in front, the dimensions and appearance of which 
would be much more appropriate to a house of correction. 

The interior of this building is very splendid. The Ball-room is eighty feet by 
thirty-seven ; the Card-room forty-four feet by twenty-five : and the Supper-room, 
which is used occasionally as a ball-room, is fifty-feet by twenty-five. The whole are 
appropriated to the amusements of the upper classes of society, as subscription balls, 
assemblies, and occasionally fancy-dress balls. These amusements are no where greater 
favourites than in Liverpool, where successful enterprise furnishes the means of splen- 
dour, and the disposition to display. ; 




TO JOHN FOSTER. ESQ: iO WHOSli VIXTl NGUISIIEU AUC'HrTKCT U RAI. TAf.EtlTS fJVKRPOOL IS INDEBT El> FOR THIS 
OTHER SPLKNDtD PUBLIC BVILTIINGS. THIS PLATE IS RESPECTFULLY INSCRIBED. 



SO MANY. 




Drawn Is J G.fe C, Pyne 



Engraved \>y Henrj Jorden 



lLT€/iEWM NEWSm®®M AH© ]L]IBIEAIg.T. ]S®I[dD gTM-EIg^r. 



COUNTY PALATINE OF LANCASTER.— LIVERPOOL. 19 

SAINT ANDREW'S SCOTCH KIRK, RODNEY STREET. 

It is an old observation, that the blood of martyrs is the seed of the church. It may as 
truly be said, that the dissensions of a sect are the causes of its multiplication. Such, at 
least, has been the experience of the Scottish presbyterians in Liverpool. A few years 
ago, a difference of opinion arose, concerning the choice of a new minister for the original 
congregation, meeting in Oldham Street : the disappointed party seceded from the 
parent body, and having chosen their favourite, erected for their own, and his accommo- 
dation, this splendid chapel. Subsequent dissensions arose, and the seceders again 
divided, which second division was the prelude to the erection of a third edifice, in Bold 
Street, devoted to religious instruction. 

The Rodney Street Chapel is certainly an ornament to the town. The front is of stone; 
and the remainder of the building, though originally of brick, has been recently covered 
with stucco, which has given an appearance of congruity to the whole. The columns and 
pilasters of the portico are of the Ionic order, much enriched, and surmounted by a balus- 
trade. Each turret is composed of a square tower, with a window on each side, sur- 
rounded by eight insulated Corinthian columns, with a full entablature, pediment, &c. ; the 
whole terminating in a dome. This structure was built in 1824, after a design of 
Mr. John Foster, jun. whose name stands imperishably associated with some of the most 
classical buildings recently erected in his native town. The cost, we understand, 
exceeded £14,000, and was defrayed by subscriptions in shares. — No dividend has yet 
been proclaimed. 

THE LYCEUM N^WS-ROOM AND LIBRARY, BOLD STREET. 

This very classical building includes one of those establishments devoted to literary 
purposes, which may be said to be characteristic of Liverpool. It contains under one 
roof, a news-room and a library, which are not only distinct properties, but managed by 
distinct committees, officers, &c. The proprietors of the library are indeed only tenants, 
under a lease of 50 years, commencing in the year 1800. Previously to the erection of 
this building, they occupied rooms in Lord Street, from which they removed in December 
1802. The room which they now occupy is circular, and surmounted by a dome, richly 
ornamented, through this is admitted the only light that the library enjoys. In winter, 
this is found insufficient to enable the librarians easily to read the titles, &c. of books in 
the recesses, but it very much enhances the beauty of. the apartment itself. The number 
of volumes (which has lately been rapidly increasing,) amounts to nearly 30,000, which, 
with a few exceptions, are allowed to circulate freely among the proprietors. These are 
about 800 in number, and each pays an annual subscription of £1. Is. This is the 
oldest literary establishment in the town, as is proved by the existence of a regular 



20 GRAND NATIONAL ILLUSTRATIONS. 

list of its officers since May 7j 1769. It is also one of the most useful, as its benefits 
are extended to many classes of people — -who have no desire, or no aptitude, for the 
pursuits of science, or the cultivation of the fine arts, and vi^ho yet ought not to be left 
without the means of general information. We are not aware that a circulating library of 
such magnitude, and so easily accessible to the majority of the reading portion of the 
community, exists in any other provincial town. 

The news-room is very spacious, being 68 feet long, and 48 feet wide, with a coved 
ceiling 31 feet high from the floor. It is furnished with an ample supply of the principal 
London and Provincial Newspapers, Magazines, and Reviews. The expenses are defrayed 
by an annual subscription of one guinea from each subscriber. Mr. Harrison of Chester 
was the architect, and the cost of the whole structure amounted to £11,000. The front 
towards Church Street has been much admired for its chastened elegance ; and that 
towards Bold Street, for its simple grandeur, its massive Ionic columns, colonnade, &c. 
It is iiftich to be regretted that this, like most of the public buildings of Liverpool, is so 
situated as to be incapable of being seen from the best points of view. This is a defect 
which must exist in all towns that are allowed to increase, without reference to any 
pre-conceived and pre-established plan. It is a defect, however, that might be easily 
guarded against in future ; and in a town which is extending itself so rapidly as 
Liverpool, we may hope to find the foresight of the Corporation surveyors keeping pace 
with every enlargement. 

Proceeding up Bold Street, the next building on the left hand is the Rotunda, a 
circular edifice, intended originally for the exhibition of panoramic paintings, but 
afterwards converted into a billiard-room, &c. and occupied by a society, which in many 
particulars resembles the clubs of London. It has no pretensions to architectural 
beauty. 

So rapid have been the encroachments of trade, that Bold Street, which was very 
recently the residence of the principal merchants and most respectable families, is how 
almost an unbroken line of shops. 

ENTRANCE TO THE TUNNEL OF THE LIVERPOOL AND MANCHESTER 

RAIL-WAY, EDGE HILL. 

This magnificent undertaking, the greatest of its kind hitherto attempted in this or 
any other country, has resulted from the dissatisfaction of the merchants and manufac- 
turers of Liverpool and Manchester with the management of the pre-established modes 
of conveyance — these are, the Duk§ of Bridgewater's Canal, and the Mersey and Irwell 
Navigation : with regard to both of them, allegations were made, which continue still 
vnimpeached — that they are not only inadequate to the accommodation of the merchant 
and carrier, but subject to such risks and charges as rendered it imperative to seek out 
some other channel of communication. Accordingly, the attention of the trading part of 



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COUNTY PALATINE OF LANCASTER.— LIVERPOOL. 21 

the community was called to the advantages of Rail-roads, and a deputation sent to 
inspect the Rail-ways and Steam-carriages already in active employment in the counties 
of Northumberland and Durham. The report of this deputation proving favourable, 
application was made to Parliament for an Act enabling the Subscribers to proceed with 
the undertaking. The first application was negatived, in consequence of the strenuous 
exertions and great parliamentary influence of the Canal Proprietors, who already 
possessed a monopoly of the carrying trade in this district, and value of which may be 
estimated from the fact, that a share in the Mersey and Irwell Navigation, that 
originally cost £70, had been recently sold for £1250. In the ensuing session, however, 
the applicants were more successful, and, having obtained the requisite powers, commenced 
their proceedings in the year 1826. In consequence of the opposition experienced from 
the Select Vestry, and other inhabitants of Liverpool, to the passage of locomotive 
engines through some of the most frequented streets, the conductors determined to 
construct a Tunnel, extending from the outskirts of the town to the neighbourhood of the 
Docks, where their warehouses will be situated. From a recent report of the surveyor, 
Mr. George Stephenson, it appears that this gigantic enterprise was commenced in 
January, 1827, and the excavation completed in September, 1828; and that the dimensions 
of the work are 16 feet high by 22 feet wide ; the length being 2200 yards, or nearly a 
mile and a quarter. Though inferior in length to the famous Tunnel of the Grand Trunk 
Canal, it is greatly superior in height and width ; and is, we believe, the most spacious 
subterranean passage hitherto constructed. At a short distance from the mouth of the 
Tunnel, a smaller one branches off from the main line, and is intended for the convenience 
of passengers, &c. who will be set down in the suburbs, instead of being conveyed to 
the chief dep6t at Wapping. The depth of the floor-level at the lower end of the Tunnel, 
where the warehouses are to be situated, is 20 feet below the surface of the earth, and at 
the upper end, represented in the engraved Plate, it is upwards of 50 feet, two-thirds of 
which is red sand-stone, and the remainder marl. The machinery erected at this spot, for 
the removal of earth, stone, &c. exhibits considerable ingenuity, and daily attracts the 
attention of the curious. 

After leaving the Tunnel and adjoining excavation, the road proceeds but a very short 
distance on the level of the adjacent land, until it arrives at a considerable hill, called 
Olive Mount, composed entirely of rock, through which it has been found necessary to 
cut a passage of two miles in length, and, in some places, of 70 feet in depth. The stone 
obtained here has been found sufficient to build all the necessary bridges and walls on this 
part of the line. 

Emerging from this deep enclosure, the road is conducted across a valley of consi- 
derable depth and great extent, by means of an embankment nearly three miles long, 
and, for a distance of 400 yards, averaging 45 feet in height. The appearance of this 
embankment strikes the spectator with a sensation almost approaching to awe, when he 
contrasts the ma^,nitude of the work with the diminutive size of the workmen. 

ENGLAND. G 



22 GRAND NATIONAL ILLUSTRATIONS. 

In this manner the engineer has proceeded along his line of operations, " exalting the 
valleys, and making the rough places plain," until, arriving at the Sankey Valley, where, 
in consequence of the insecurity of the foundation, he has been compelled to drive pile* 
into the alluvial soil, and upon them to erect a viaduct, supported by nine arches, each 
50 feet span, and from 60 to 70 feet in height. Thence the Rail-road crosses the main 
post-road, and also a small river, over a bridge of, four arches ; so that the extraordi- 
nary spectacle will be exhibited, of vehicles, at different elevations, crossing each other's 
line of route. Then succeeds an excavation of 700,000 cubic yards at Kenyon; after 
which we arrive at Chat Moss, a mere bog and shaking morass, over which, only two 
years ago, no person was able to walk except in the dryest weather. Upon the softest 
portion of this moss the engineer has laid hurdles thickly interwoven with twisted heath, 
which forms a platform for a, covering of sand and gravel, generally two or three feet 
thick ; and such has been the success of this plan, that the road will sustain, without 
shrinking, a weight of from six to twelve tons. This is certainly the weakest point of the 
whole scheme, and that to which the most sedulous attention of the curators of the road 
must be hereafter directed, especially in seasons of unusual moisture. 

By an extension of the original plan, it is proposed to carry forward the line of road 
into the town of Manchester, by means of a lofty bridge over the Irwell. To effect this 
purpose, a new application has been made to Parliament, and an increase of the number 
of shares authorized. Notwithstanding this and other additions to the original estimate 
of cost, which was £400,000, the shares have, almost uniformly, borne a large premium. 
Nor does the confidence of the public in the successful result of this important speculation 
appear misplaced, if we take into view not merely the vast quantity of merchandise 
Requiring to be transmitted along the existing lines of communication, amounting to at 
least 1200 tons per day ; but the immense accession also to that amount which must arise 
from the completion of a more economical, direct,' and speedy mode of conveyance, as 
well as from the creation of new manufactures, and the increased stimulus to old ones 
lying in the vicinity of the line. Add to all this, that goods conveyed along the Rail-road 
will not be subject to the risks of river-navigation, to detention by frosts during the 
winter, or a rate of tonnage much enhanced by the necessarily circuitous route of 
water-rcarriage. 

The length of the Liverpool and Manchester Rail-way is about 33 miles, being 
considerably less than that of the shortest post-road ; it is laid with a double row of 
edge-roJA's,, and the greatest rise, per yard, does not exceed one-twenty-third part of an inch. 
This ver)'- uncommon degree of equality in the level renders it peculiarly well adapted for 
the employment of locomotive steam-engines. By means of these, the velocity of travelling 
may be increased to any degree compatible with the safety of passengers ; and it is 
confidently anticipated that a rate of from nine to ten miles per hour may be maintained 
without reasonable apprehension of danger. 

In connexion with this most important undertaking, which may well be designated a 



COUNTY PALATINE OF LANCASTER.— LIVERPOOL. 23 

" National Improvement," it may not be irrelevant to mention, that a proposal was made, 
nearly at the same time, to construct a Rail-road, on the same extensive scale, from the 
town of Birmingham through Staffordshire to Livbrpool : this proposal was nullified by 
the preponderance of the same monopolists who had offered so serious an opposition to 
the Manchester and Liverpool Rail- way. Should the latter work succeed, to the extent 
anticipated, it is probable that many other undertakings of a similar kind will be com- 
menced or resumed in different parts of the kingdom. The example of South Wales 
ought to stimulate other districts to exertions. In that portion only of the kingdom, the 
aggregate extent of Rail-roads exceeds 400 miles. All these have been constructed since 
1790, and some of the most considerable by individual proprietors ; among whom we may 
particularize Mr. Bailey, of Nant-y-Glo, near Abergavenny. This spirited individual cut 
a road of eight miles through tremendous rocks, and over ground almost impassable, in 
the short space of seven months. 

When we contemplate these and other great undertakings, originally projected and 
solely executed by combinations of comparatively obscure individuals, we cannot but feel 
a high degree of confidence in the national resources ; a confidence which other considera- 
tions might have tended to diminish. Even France, the most civilized nation of the 
European continent, is far behind us in the race of improvement ; her Rail-roads are too 
few and too insignificant to deserve notice ; her canals are not numerous, and scarcely 
maintain themselves ; her steam-engines are equivalent only to a power of 480,000 men, 
while in England the power acquired by the use of steam is equal to that of 6,400,000. 
As long as our mechanical advantages continue so eminently superior, we have little to 
fear from the numerical inferiority of our population ; and it is only necessary that fair 
scope be afforded for our confessedly superior powers of industry and invention. 

BIRKENHEAD FERRY, OPPOSITE LIVERPOOL. 

Not many years have elapsed since the site of this Hotel formed part of one of the 
most picturesque scenes on the banks of the Mersey. A lawn, extending from the river- 
side to the front of an antique mansion, situated on the most elevated part of the grounds, 
was studded with majestic trees, of some centuries standing, and carpeted with a turf 
whose verdure might vie with that of the " emerald isle." Across this lawn a winding 
footpath conducted the traveller to the ruins of the ancient Priory of Birkenhead, the 
chapel of which still remains entire — and the whole demesne was secured from the 
encroachment of the tide by a natural barrier of rock, over-hung by copse-wood. 
Altogether it formed a scene of rural beauty not often surpassed ; and peculiarly pleasing 
to the eye of the returning mariner, to whom green fields and luxuriant foliage present 
a delightful contrast to the unvarying monotony of the ocean. 

The alterations (we do not call them improvements) which have recently been made, 
in consequence principally of the establishment of steam-packets to and from Liverpool, 



24 GRAND NATIONAL ILLUSTRATIONS. 

have entirely changed the character of the scenery. The land in the neighbourhood of 
the Hotel is laid out for streets, several of which are already built upon, and a number of 
elegant houses erected. The antiquarian, and the man of taste, will lament, that in the 
arrangement of the plan, care was not taken to reserve a vacant space sufficient to secure 
a good view of the Priory, which is almost the sole surviving relic of "olden time," 
in the immediate vicinity of Liverpool. They must feel disgusted also with the incon- 
gruity of the modern buildings, (some of which are of an order of architecture hitherto 
nondescript,) thrust into actual juxta-position with the ivy-mantled walls of this 
rujlned fane. From this censure we most willingly exempt the very beautiful little 
church recently erected by R. F. Price, Esq. lord of the manor, after a design by Mr. 
Rickman — an edifice in the Gothic style, which is universally admitted to be a chef 
d'ceuvre of the architect. 

The Priory, of which the remains are in the same enclosure with the church, was 
founded in the reign of Henry II. and endowed for the maintenance of sixteen monks of 
the Benedictine order. The prior had also the exclusive right of ferrying passengers to 
Liverpool; and the fare at that time was twopence for a man and horse, and one farthing 
for a person on foot. 

In 1818 an ancient grave-stone was dug up, having a Latin inscription in Saxon 
characters round the margin, and underneath it were found three skeletons in a very 
perfect state ; the teeth in particular were in complete preservation. The date of the last 
burial has been partly effaced, but the name of the deceased, Thomas Rayneford, is 
perfectly legible j and in "Ormerod's Cheshire" this person is mentioned as having been 
inducted into the Priory in 1460; consequently the body must have lain there undecayed 
at least 350 years. 

The Hotel, of which a view is given in the plate, is a recent erection, and, without 
exception, the most complete and commodious one on the banks of the river. It contains 
all the usual accommodations of sea-bathing establishments, as hot and cold water baths, 
&c. and has extensive grounds surrounded with numerous alcoves, commanding a good 
view of the river and town. The Quay adjoining is extremely convenient for the landing 
and embarking of passengers, carriages, and cattle, at all times of the tide. 

From the upper windows of the Hotel the prospects in every direction are peculiarly 
interesting. Southward, the river Mersey expands to the width of five or six miles, and 
being then suddenly bent in an easterly direction, appears rather like an extensive inland 
lake, than a salt-water stream — while immediately opposite to the Inn, are the South 
Docks, with their forests of masts, and a foreground varied by the arrival and departure 
of a never-ending succession of vessels of all sizes, from the portly Indiaman to the 
diminutive wherry. 

Though situated in a different county, Birkenhead, with the adjacent country, may 
justly be considered as one of the suburbs to Liverpool ; and if the rage for building 
proceed as it has begun, no long time will elapse before the Cheshire shore will have 




SCOTCSI CIBIAIPEIL, MKDWWT FILIEASAI^X 



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COUNTY PALATINE OF LANCASTER.— LIVERPOOL. ^ 

become as much a portion of the town as Southwark is of London. Already the rudi- 
ments of a great manufacturing district are visible in the neighbourhood of Wallagea 
Pool ; and should the schemes now in progress be carried into full execution, a New 
Liverpool will speedily spring into existence, and threaten to rival the " good old 
town." 

THE SCOTCH CHAPEL, MOUNT PLEASANT, 

was erected in the year 1827, for the accommodation of a congregation under the 
pastoral care of Dr. Stewart, that had previously assembled in a very inconvenient and 
almost unsafe chapel in Gloucester Street. They belong to a class of Christians now 
denominated the United Scottish Secession Church, composed of two sects formerly 
distinct, and but recently amalgamated — the Burghers and the Anti-Burghers. Their 
tenets are very similar to those maintained by the Presbyterian Established Church of 
Scotland ; but they lay claim to the reputation of greater strictness in discipline, and con- 
tend for an entire equality of privileges in the election of their ministers. 

This Chapel, built after designs by Mr. Rowland, at an expense of more than £6000, 
is advantageously situated. Its internal arrangements deserve notice, especially the 
pulpit, which is of singular construction, supported by a Corinthian pillar, and large 
enough to allow the preacher scope for displaying the graces of action. The architecture 
of the exterior is not sufficiently defined to rank under any of the five regular orders, but 
approaches most nearly to the Doric. We are far from imputing blame either to the 
architect or the committee, when we express our dissatisfaction with this want of preci- 
sion, and especially with the overwhelming load of masonry laid upon the portico. We 
are perfectly aware, that it is a work of extreme difficulty to combine utility and beauty 
in the construction of any edifice — that the committee may have had difficulties to 
encounter, and favourite objects to accomplish, with which a casual spectator must neces- 
sarily be unacquainted — and that consequently imputations of bad taste or unskilfulness 
are totally unwarranted. All that we claim is, a liberty of criticizing the edifice when 
complete, without reference either to the contriver or approvers ; and in the exercise of 
that liberty, we must again object to the plan of supporting the whole upper story on 
four pillars. It is true, that those pillars being Doric are of the most substantial kind, 
but all the massiveness and strength characteristic of that order, cannot prevent the 
spectator from entertaining an apprehension of insecurity; and we need not inform our 
readers, that this is the very last feeling which a well-planned building ought to excite. 

BRUNSWICK CHAPEL, MOSS STREET, 

belonging to the Wesleyan Methodists, who have been established here almost since 
the origin of Methodism, is an elegant and classical modern structure, designed by 

ENGLAND. H 



26 GRAND NATIONAL ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Mr. Byrom, architect^ and erected at a cost of nearly £8000. The portico in front, which ia 
of the Ionic order, has a fine effect when viewed at some distance, and, together with th< 
frieze and pediment, forms a good model of a correct and chaste style of architecture! 
Simplicity and harmony contribute, in this art, as in all others, to constitute true subli-| 
mity, and to impress on the spectator a feeling of unmingled admiration. 

The interior is arranged in the form of an amphitheatre, without any gallery, except 
a small projection on the west side, which is appropriated to the organ and to the use oi 
the singers, and the children of the schools attached to the chapel. At the centre of this 
side stands the pulpit ; and the successive tiers of pews, rising as they recede from it,| 
present to the view, when they are filled, a sort of inclined plane of human countenancesJ 
The effect produced by this arrangement is very imposing; and when aided by the pealing 
tones of : the organ, and the voices of a multitude of worshippers, impresses the mind with^ 
sentiments favourable to the indulgence of religious feelings. 

Underneath the Chapel, sufficient space is afforded for school-rooms, which accommo- 
date 180 boys and 95 girls, as day-scholars ; and for vestry-rooms, and other usual appur- 
tenances to places of worship. The whole space included within the external walls, is 
equal to 784 square yards } and the chapel affords sitting room to 1300 people. On 
account of the absence of a gallery, the audience is necessarily fewer than in some 
churches of smaller dimensions ; but this defect is in our opinion amply compensated by 
a greater degree of comfort, and a superior aspect of grandeur. 

Besides this, the Wesleyan Methodists possess six other chapels in Liverpool ; some 
of which, exhibiting architectural beauties, may form subjects of future embellish- 
ment and description. 

THE LOW-HILL GENERAL CEMETERY 

owes its existence to a few public - spirited individuals, who, in common with 
the majority of their townsmen, deprecated the evils, both moral and medical, which 
have resulted from crowded Cemeteries in the midst of populous cities and towns. 
These evils are abundantly obvious— the generation and diffusion of a pestiferous 
atmosphere, the desecration of some of the most eacred ordinances of religion, and, above 
all, disgusting exhibitions of indecorum and indecency. If any regard is due to the 
feelings of surviving relatives ; if the idea of death is in itself terrible enough, without 
any of those loathsome adjuncts with which it is too frequently attended; if, in short, 
the grave ought to be rendered, in appearance as well as in reality, a place of rest, the 
projectors of the Low-Hill Cemetery may justly lay claim to the gratitude of their fellow- 
townsmen. 

It is, indeed, matter of surprise, that the project was not at an earlier period Carried 
into effect. The well-known Cemetery of Pe re- la- Chaise has long been the theme of every 
tourist's admiration ; while ' the Catacombs in Paris, those subterraneous quarries whence 




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COUNTY PALATINE OF LANCASTER.— LIVERPOOL. 27 

the city was built, and where the bones of millions of human beings are deposited, offer 
an impressive lesson to the curious visitor, and furnish an example worthy of universal 
imitation. 

With a view to counteract the evils referred to, a piece of land, situated in one of the 
most retired spots in the immediate vicinity of Liverpool, was purchased, and surrounded 
by a wall, thirteen feet in height. By this plan, it is intended to provide against the attempts 
of those miscreants who make a trade of exhumation. An additional security is afforded 
by the employment of a watchman, at all times of the night, to prevent depredations. 
These precautions will not be undervalued by those persons, who call to mind the extensive 
system of body-lifting, discovered not long since in this town, as well as the horrid 
atrocities which have so recently been perpetrated in the northern metropolis. 

The Cemetery contains about 24,000 superficial square yards, or about five statute 
acres. The form of the enclosure is an oblong square. A border of ten feet wide, 
immediately adjoining the interior side of the wall, "and surrounding the whole ground, is 
set apart for an arcade or colonnade, which will be roofed with slate, and railed in. This 
border will be used for tombs and monumental inscriptions. The centre of the ground 
is appropriated to vaults and graves, laid out in regular order ; and every corpse, when 
interred, is registered in the books of the institution. The number of such registries, 
during the year 1828, amounted to 706 : a number which, occurring in the third year of the 
establishment, seems fully to justify the expectations of the projectors. The property is 
held in shares of £10 each, which produced a first dividend of £5 per cent, in the same 
year. This substantial proof of success must have been the more gratifying to the 
majority of the subscribers, as we believe very few, if any, of them had a mercenary 
motive. 

Among the regulations for the management of this Cemetery, perhaps the most remarkable 
is the entire freedom which is granted to the relatives of the deceased, to bury their dead 
either with or without a religious service, and according to such forms and methods as 
they may severally approve. The services of the Chaplain are at all times at the command 
of such as are disposed to avail ^themselves of them. The burial service of the Church 
of England, with a few alterations, is used in all cases where it is desired. Ministers of 
the different sects are at liberty to attend and officiate for their respective friends. 

NEW BATHS, GEORGE'S PARADE. 

Since the year 1819, when the Old Baths belonging to the Corporation were taken 
down, no public accommodation of this kind has existed in Liverpool, except a Floating 
Bath belonging to a private individual, which has been moored in the stream of the Mersey, 
and has served, in some degree, as a substitute. This vessel is similar in construction to 
the Floating Baths on the Thames, but much larger and more commodious. The reservoir 
is eighty feet long by twenty-seven feet wide, and has a current of water continually 



2g GRAND NATIONAL ILLUSTRATIONS. 

flowing through it by means of sluices at each end. The depth of water is graduated by 
the slope of the floor from seven feet to three feet and a half; but swimmers, who prefer 
bathing in the river, may pass through a door in that side of the vessel which is not 
presented to the town. There are two convenient cabins, where refreshments, newspapers, 
&c. are provided ; and the upper deck being neatly railed, forms a most agreeable pro- 
menade. 

However convenient this establishment may be, (and we think its proprietor deserving 
of a tribute of approbation for his public spirit,) the Floating Bath never did, and never 
could, adequately accommodate so large a population as that of Liverpool in the bathing 
season. Accordingly, the New Baths have been constructed at the expense of the 
Corporation. 

Viewed from the river at a small distance, the West Front (exhibited in the Plate) has 
an elegant appearance ; but at a great distance, the spectator feels dissatisfied with the 
disproportion between its length and height. This defect, however much to be lamented, 
was unavoidable by the architect, Mr. J. Foster, junior, whose attention was necessarily 
given to the primary object of relieving the foundations, which are laid on piles driven into 
the bed of the river. A building of more stories than one, and containing so great a mass 
of masonry, would have been altogether unsuitable for the present site. 

The external form of the structure is quadrangular, the length being two hundred and 
thirty-nine feet, and the breadth eighty-seven. The colonnade is composed of cast-iron 
pillars, coloured to resemble stone ; and so complete is the deception, that many inhabit- 
ants of the town are ignorant of the fact. The architecture (as may be supposed) is not 
regular, but approaches the Corinthian : on the East Front it is rusticated. The colonnade 
is extremely useful to passengers who may have occasion, in bad weather, to await the 
arrival of passage-boats and steam-packets. 

The northern end of this edifice is appropriated to the Gentlemen's Baths, the largest 
of which is quadrangular, and is forty-five feet by twenty-seven. In the southern end 
are the Ladies' Baths, to which access is afforded by a separate entrance. The largest 
is thirty-nine feet by twenty-seven, having a covered gallery and dressing-rooms adjoining. 
In both divisions are warm and cold private Baths, with dressing-rooms containing fire- 
places. In the centre is a spacious reservoir, calculated to contain eight hundred tons of 
water, which is supplied from the river at high- water through tunnels. Here also is a 
small steam-engine, the power of which is applied to a great variety of useful purposes. 

Besides these and the Floating Bath, there are, on the north shore, other conveniences 
for bathers, generally called Bathing-machines. They are covered carts, similar to those 
used at fashionable watering-places j but here they can only be used with safety at certain 
times of the tide. 



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TEE RESIDENCE OF THE RJGST SON. TEE EASL OF DERBY. TO WHOU TSIS PLATt IS TWTH OREAT RESPECT. TTEDICATED 

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SOIDTTM FKOWT ©IF IK.Kf®WSlLKT HAILEa. 



COUNTY PALATINE OF LANCASTER. 29 

SOUTH-EAST AND SOUTH FRONTS OF KNOWSLEY HALL. 

This ancient mansion, the principal seat of the Earls of Derby, is situated in the 
parish of Huyton, one mile and a half from Prescot. Before the visit of Henry VH. 
to his mother, then Countess of Thomas first Earl of Derby, it was a house of inferior 
note, but was then enlarged by the erection of the stone -building, with its two round 
towers. The more modern part was built principally by James the tenth Earl, who 
died at Knowsley in 1736 : and very recently, considerable additions, with extensive 
internal improvements, have been made, under the superintendence of John Foster, Esq. 
The inscription placed in the centre of the South Front commemorates the ingra- 
titude of Charles n. in the following terms: — "James Earl of Derby, Lord of Man 
and the Isles, grandson of James Earl of Derby, by Charlotte, daughter of Cloud 
Duke of Tremoville, who was beheaded at Bolton, the 15th of October, 1651, for strenu- 
ously adhering to King Charles IL, who refused a bill unanimously passed by both houses 
of parliament for restoring to the family the estates which he had lost by his loyalty to 
him." — ^The Hall is situated on an elevated part of the park, which is extensive and well 
wooded ; but from its proximity to the sea, and the prevalence of westerly winds, many 
of the largest trees are inclined considerably towards the. north-east, and exhibit but a 
scanty foliage. 

Knowsley has to boast a choice collection of Paintings, by some of the first masters of 
the Italian and Flemish schools, principally selected abroad by Hamlet Winstanley, a 
native artist, under the patronage and at the cost of James the tenth Earl of Derby. 
Some of the most valuable are : — A Holy Family, by Titian — ^The Feast of Belshazzar, by 
Rembrandt — ^The Roman Augur, Banditti in a rocky Landscape, and Hagar and Ishmael 
with the Angel, by Salvator Rosa — The Angel driving Adam and Eve from Paradise, by 
Denis Calvert — A Wild Boar Hunt, by Snyders and Rubens — The Love of the Arts repre- 
sented by a beautiful figure of Cupid leaning over rich Armour, musical Instruments, 
Pictures, and Pieces of Sculpture, attributed by Winstanley to Snyders and Vandyck — 
Nicodemus communing with our Saviour by Night, by Tintoret — &c. &c. 

In addition to these rare foreign productions of the pencil, the gallery of Family 
Portraits is interesting to antiquaries, and to all true lovers of their country, as serving 
to perpetuate the remembrance of persons, eminent in all periods of our history. 

Waving the controversy concerning the early genealogy of the family of Stanley, we 
content ourselves with a short sketch of its history, commencing with Sir John Stanley, 
who, in the reign of Henry IV. laid the foundation of its future grandeur. 

This valiant warrior first distinguished himself at the battle of Poictiers, in 1357, when 
John, king of France, was taken prisoner by Edward the Black Prince. His next exploit 
was in single combat with a French knight who had challenged all England, and whom he 
overcame and slew at Winchester, in the presence of the king and a numerous crowd of 

JBNGLAND. I 



30 GRAND NATIONAL ILLUSTRATIONS. 

spectators. This feat of arms procured him the honour of knighthood, and not long 
afterwards the hand of Isabel, daughter and heiress of Sir Thomas de Latham, Lord of 
Latham and Knowsley. In the first year of Richard II. he was commissioned to assist in 
the subjugation of Ireland; and on the deposition of that unfortunate monarch, was 
continued in his office of Lord Justice of Ireland by Henry IV., to whom he shortly after- 
wards rendered most essential aid at the battle of Shrewsbury. 

For these, and other important services. Sir John Stanley was rewarded with a grant of 
the Isle of Man, with all the royalties thereto belonging, under the style and title of " King 
of Man." He died in the first year of Henry V. and was succeeded by his son, John 
Stanley, Esq. The latter filled several important offices of government, and received the 
honour of knighthood. 

His son. Sir Thomas Stanley, who had been knighted some time before his father's 
death, was Lieutenant of Ireland, as his grandfather had been, and summoned a parliament 
for the redress of grievances in 1432. At the memorable battle of Bosworth Field, he 
joined Henry, Earl of Richmond, and, by his seasonable reinforcements, decided the 
fortune of the day. The same year, 1485, he was created Earl of Derby, and enriched 
with a large share of the forfeited estates in Lancashire. He died in 1504, and was 
buried at Burscough. His second consort, Margaret, Countess of Richmond, was mother 
of Henry VII. ; and it was upon the occasion of a visit from this monarch that 
Knowsley Hall was first enlarged, and a Bridge built over the Mersey, at Warrington. 
The Earl was her third husband ; and she obtained permission from him to spend the 
remainder of her life in acts of self-denial and mortification. She spent much of her 
time in translating religious books, and performing acts of charity; and, among other 
pious deeds, she founded St. John's CoDege, Cambridge. She died in 1509, and was buried 
in the sumptuous Chapel of King Henry VII. at Westminster. 

Thomas, second Earl of Derby, grandson to the preceding Earl, was succeeded by his 
son Edward, whom Mr. Pennant declares to have been the finest example of the ancient 
English nobility that remains on record. He offered to raise ten thousand men, at his own 
charge, in defence of Queen Elizabeth ; and, at the coronation of Queen Mary, he was 
attended by more than " eighty esquires, all clad in velvet, and two hundred and eighteen 
servants in liveries. He had two hundred and twenty servants on his roll for forty-two 
years ; and twice a day a meal was given to sixty aged and decrepit poor : and on every 
Good Friday, for thirty-five years, he fed two thousand seven hundred persons with meat, 
drink, and money." Henry, the fourth Earl, was appointed by royal commission, 
(a. d. 1586,) one of the judges for the trial of Mary Queen of Scots. 

Ferdinand, the fifth Earl, met his death by poison. The perpetrators of the deed, in 
order to screen themselves from condign punishment, imputed the catastrophe to witch- 
craft : and it is related that " Sir Edward Filton, who, with other justices, examined 
certain witches, reporteth, that one of them being bidden to say the Lord's Prayer, said 
it well; but being conjured in the name of Jesus, that if she had bewitched his honour, she 



COUNTY PALATINE OF LANCASTEK. 31 

should be able to say the same, she never could repeat that petition. Forgive us our tres- 
passes." Such were the credulity and ignorance of our ancestors in the sixteenth century. 

This unfortunate Lord was succeeded by his younger brother Sir William Stanley, who, 
being abroad at his accession to the Earldom, found himself, on his return home, debarred 
by other claimants from the inheritance of the greater part of the princely estates attached 
to it. The dispute was referred to arbitrators, one of whom was the great Lord Burleigh, 
principal Secretary of State to Queen Elizabeth. Their verdict adjudged to William 
Earl of Derby the ancient Seats of Latham and Knowsley, the houses, lands, castles, and 
appurtenances in Lancashire, Cumberland, Yorkshire, Cheshire, and many in Wales : the 
manor of Meriden, in the county of Warwick : the old seat in Channon Row, Westminster : 
and the advowson of the parish church of the Holy Trinity, in the city of Chester. 

These, and other estates, he resigned to his son in 1637, five years before his death ; 
and retired, to spend the evening of his. life at a house which he had purchased on the 
banks of the Dee. 

James, the seventh Earl, was one of the most distinguished characters of an illus- 
trious age. This nobleman raised three regiments of foot, and three troops of horse, 
at his own expense; with which he joined Charles I. before the battle of Edge-hill. 
Leaving his forces in the royal army, he returned to Lancashire, to uphold the interests 
of his sovereign. After many desperate skirmishes, he was at length compelled to 
retire to the Isle of Man, leaving his wife and family in Latham-house. The noble 
defence made by this heroine, during a siege of three months, against a greatly superior 
force, will be detailed in our notice of that mansion. The siege was raised by the approach 
of Prince Rupert's army, at the instigation of the Earl, who subsequently conveyed his 
family to the Isle of Man. 

Being summoned thence in 1648, by Charles II., to aid him in his attempt to recover 
the throne of his father, the Earl landed with three hundred men, and advanced towards 
Wigan. Here his small army, amounting by that time to no more than six hundred men, 
was totally routed and dispersed ; and he himself, after performing prodigies of valour, 
compelled to make his escape as a fugitive. He reached Worcester in time to take an 
active part in the sanguinary fight at that city, but was made prisoner in attempting to 
return to Lancashire. He was soon afterwards brought to trial at Chester, on a charge of 
high treason against the Commonwealth, and executed at Bolton, 15th December, 1651. 

Charles, his eldest son, the eighth Earl of Derby, contributed essentially to restore the 
house of Stuart, whose ingratitude has been recorded on the front of the Hall by one of 
his successors. 

The present Earl, born September 18, 1752, succeeded to the title and estates on the 
death of his grandfather, 24th February, 1776. His Lordship is Lord-Lieutenant and 
Custos Rotulorum of the county palatine of Lancaster ; of which his eldest son and heir, 
the Right Hon. Edward Smith, Lord Stanley, is one of the representatives in parliament ; 
and his grandson, the Hon. Edward Geoffry Smith Stanley, is M. P. for Preston. 



32 GRAND NATIONAL ILLUSTRATIONS. 



LIVERPOOL, FROM THE MERSEY. 



The Views which we have given under this title exhibit a series of objects peculiarly 
characteristic of the port. " Ships, Colonies, and Commerce," have furnished the means 
as well as the motive for the erection of those stupendous works which have been the 
basis of the town's prosperity. The River-wall, built in the most substantial manner of 
large blocks of stone secured by wooden fenders, effectually defends the town and 
shipping from the violence of the wind and tide. When the additions now in progress 
are completed, this wall will extend about three miles in one continuous line, and will 
enclose an area of nearly ninety acres of dock-room, besides a greater space appropriated 
as quays, building-yards, and parades, all gained from the bed of the river. In the 
'"View of Liverpool as it appeared in 1650," the tide is represented as flowing against 
the wall of the old church-yard of St. Nicholas, up Water-street as far as the site of the 
Tower, and thence in a straight line to the lower end of More-street, unrestrained in its 
course by any artificial embankment. In I7IO, an act of parliament was obtained, 
authorizing the construction of a Dock " in or near a certain place called the Pool, on the 
south side of the said town of Liverpool ;" and this Dock was the first of the kind built 
in England for keeping vessels afloat. The advantages derived from the accommodations 
afforded to shipping, soon became apparent in the increased trade of the port, and led to 
the formation of other Docks at subsequent periods j the total expense of which, up to 
June 1824, exceeded £2,500,000. 

The funds for the maintenance and extension of the Docks are derived from duties 
levied upon all vessels entering them. The amount of dock duties for the year 1824 was 
£130,911. lis. 6d. levied from 10,001 vessels. In the year 1724, or exactly a century before, 
the amount was £810. lis. 6d. The increase has occurred principally in the present 
century, as is evident from the account for 1799, in which year the dock duties were 
£14,049. 15s. Id. In the year 1828, they amounted to £141,369. 15s. 7d. levied 
from 10,703 vessels. — ^Notwithstanding the vast amount of these duties, the expenses in- 
cident to shipping in this port are very little more than half of those charge^ in London. 

The duties received at the Liverpool Custom-house, during the year 1828, were 
nearly three millions and a half sterling. The joint revenue of the Corporate and Dock 
estates is now not less than £250,000 per annum ; the whole of which must be expended 
for the benefit of the town. — ^The postage revenue in Liverpool amounts to £93,000 per 
annum, and is on the increase. 

A number of salutary laws have been enacted, for preserving property, and directing 
the management of mercantile affairs, which tend to facilitate business and prevent acci- 
dents. These regulations are enforced by dock-masters and their assistants ; and any 
infractions of them are punished by severe fines, inflicted, under the authority of an act of 
parliament, by the sitting magistrates at the Dock police-office. 




C0MldB2^ClNG AT 



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l>ra.v.-n oy C. ./'.ustia, KiSq 



r^^-^'^ 



COMM F.N 



li'iaiE MEiE§:£T, n?* ti 



COUNTY PALATINE OF LANCASTER.— LIVERPOOL. 33 

For the purpose of cleansing the Docks, a dredging-machine, worked by a steam- 
engine of ten-horse power, is employed, which raises fifty tons of mud per hour, and 
deposits it in barges adapted for its reception. Occasionally also, when a Dock needs a 
thorough cleansing, it is suifered to become dry 5 the tunnels which communicate with 
other docks are opened, and the streams of water issuing from them, sweep away the 
mud that has been thrown into their channels. 

The government of the Docks is vested in a Committee of twenty-one persons, of 

whom thirteen are nominated by the common- council, and eight by rate-payers, who, 

within one year previous to the election, have paid rates to the amount of £10. Provision 

is made for the retirement of the members of the Committee at different periods— but they 

are all re-eligible. 

Vignette. — Seacombe Slip, Liverpool : 

So named after a small village, situated in the hundred of Wirrall, Cheshire, stands on 
the west banks of the Mersey, which is here about 1200 yards broad. From it are 
conveyed large quantities of fruit, butter, potatoes, poultry, &c. for the supply of the 
Liverpool markets. The bustle and animation occasioned by the weekly return of the 
market-day, are well depicted by the group of objects which occupy the centre of this 
View. The smaller boats are filled with live-stock, and baskets of provisions, from the 
adjacent farms in Cheshire and North Wales ; the larger vessel is laden with produce 
from the Isle of Man. 

To the left of this group, and in the back-ground, a lofty Warehouse supports the 
apparatus of the telegraph, recently established under the superintendence of Lieutenant 
Watson. By a series of stations along the Welsh coast, a communication is maintained 
with Holyhead, in the Isle of Anglesea, at the distance of about eighty miles : and so 
rapid is the interchange of signals, that a message has been conveyed from Liverpool to 
Holyhead, and an answer returned, in fifty-three seconds. 

Besides the telegraph, there is another mode of conveying nautical intelligence, which 
is more generally intelligible. On Bidston Hill, an elevated point of land in Cheshire, 
commanding extensive views of the Irish Channel, about ninety signal poles are erected, 
all of which are visible from the town. When a vessel comes in sight, the keeper of 
the light-house affixes a signal-flag to the pole appropriated to the owners, and thus 
makes known the name of the vessel some hours previously to her arrival in port. 

The Tower of St. Nicholas, surmounted by its very elegant lantern, occupies the centre 
of the back-ground ; and on the right hand, the Dome of the Town-hall supports a Statue 
of Britannia, looking down with complacency on her industrious sons. 

Liverpool prom the Mersey — No. I. 

The stranger who may visit this second Tyre from sea-ward, will find in this, and the 
succeeding Views under the same title, a faithful and picturesque delineation of the most 
prominent features of the town. After passmg the Light-house and Fort at the entrance 

ENGLAND. K 



34 GRAND NATIONAL ILLUSTRATIONS. 

of the river, a few minutes' sail will bring him to the North Docks, now in course of 
erection on a gigantic scale. His attention will probably be first attracted to the frame- 
work of timber extending along the line of the future river-wall, and supporting a sort of 
wooden rail-way, along which are conveyed the vast blocks of stone that are intended 
to form a barrier against the inroads of the tide. A diving-bell of a cubical form, made 
of cast-iron, and nearly resembling that employed by Mr. Smeaton in the erection of the 
Eddystone Light-house, is suspended (see the plate) to the stern of a barge, and enables 
the masons to proceed in their labours without interruption. Proceeding onwards, we 
arrive at the entrance to the Prince's Dock Basin, where a flag-staff indicates to the 
navigator when he is, or is not, at liberty to enter. This basin contains an area of four 
acres and a quarter, and is appropriated to the use of coasting-vessels and steam-packets. 
We proceed from it into the Prince's Dock, through a gut, or passage, having double 
locks, by means of which vessels may be admitted at half-tide. 

The foundation-stone of this fine Dock was laid in 1815, and it was opened on the day 
of his present Majesty's coronation, July 19, 1821. It is five hundred yards long, and one 
hundred and six broad, and covers an area of fifty-three thousand square yards. On the 
quays, which are very spacious, are erected cast-iron sheds, for the preservation of mer- 
chandise ; and it is enclosed by a lofty brick-wall, with gates at convenient distances, 
where sentinels are placed for the detection of thieves. 

The objects in the distance are chiefly ranges of warehouses recently erected, above 
which are seen the cupola of St. Paul's Church on the left, the dome of the Town-hall in 
the centre, and the spire of St. Nicholas on the right. 

Liverpool from the Mersey — No. II. 

Between the wall which encloses the Prince's Dock, and the river, a spacious Terrace 
has been left for the accommodation of the public. At high-water the view from this 
parade is exceedingly interesting, as it embraces not only the scenery on the opposite 
shore, but fleets of vessels of all dimensions, amounting sometimes to two or three hundred 
in number. 

The building, which occupies nearly the central station in the plate, and from which 
smoke is seen to issue, was a Steam-engine house, for grinding the lime used in the 
construction of the Docks, and for setting in motion two cast-iron cranes, fixed at a very- 
considerable distance on the margin of the quay. M. Dupin, in his elaborate work on 
the Commercial Institutions of Great Britain, has given minute descriptions and plans of 
one of these cranes, which he thought ingenious, and deserving the notice of his country- 
men. The whole edifice has been removed since the taking of our sketch. 

The forest of masts, which next presents itself, indicates the situation of George's 
Dock, one of the most convenient in the port. It was completed, according to the 
original plan, in the year 1771? l>ut has been since altered and enlarged. It now occupies 
a space of thirty -one thousand square yards, devoted chiefly to the accommodation of the 




awn hj 3. Aistm. Esq^. 



Rdbt .■WaHis. ditsni.. 



COXUENClNa ^T TBE NEV/ BATSS. KIMG GBORaE S PARAHE . 




ccnnnEKCiNG at the aHip-svuj>n/a- -yards, aitd ENunroAT tse wrcvlaubum fotteky 



COUNTY PALATINE OF LANCASTER.— LIVERPOOL. 35 

smaller class of vessels employed in the foreign trade. It communicates by a basin with 
the Prince's Dock to the northward, and with the Dry Dock and the Salthouse Dock to 
the southward. 

On the east side of George's Dock stands a magnificent range of warehouses, on the 
site of the former Goree warehouses, which were destroyed by fire in 1802. The loss of 
property on that occasion was, according to the best authorities, £323,000 ; and the ruins 
continued burning more than three months. 

On the west side stand the New Baths, opened to the public June 8th, in the present 
year, (of which we have already given a detailed account,) occupying a portion of a most 
extensive quay, which is defended from the river by a pier-head very substantially built. 
A broad flight of stairs, of the hardest granite, occupies the site of a six-gun battery, 
which formerly terminated the line of river- wall northward. 

About the centre of this plate, and in the back-ground, is seen the elegant Spire of 
St. George's Church, "lifting its tall head" where once the Castle of Liverpool stood ; 
a happy substitution, and most characteristic of the progress of society. 

Liverpool from the Mersey — ^No. III. 

At the quay, in front of the New Baths, which is the first object that presents itself 
in this plate, the steam-packets that ply to the opposite ferries, as well as those trading 
to North Wales, the Isle of Man, Ireland, &c. receive and disembark their passengers. 
They were first introduced into the Mersey in 1815, since which time they have become 
so numerous as to have almost entirely superseded sailing-vessels in the conveyance of 
passengers. Ten years afterwards, the number was forty-five, including vessels of all 
sizes, from ninety tons to five hundred, employed in the carriage of goods and cattle, as 
well as of passengers. They afford facilities which did not formerly exist, for the impor- 
tation of horses, cows, sheep, pigs, poultry, &c. from the nearest ports of the sister 
kingdom, and the northern counties of England. Of pigs and sheep alone, the average 
weekly import from Ireland is four thousand, and that of other live stock in proportion. 

To give some idea of the accommodation afforded to the traveller in these moving 
palaces, we may state, that in one vessel of the largest class, trading to Dublin, the 
principal cabin is twenty-six feet by eighteen, lined with highly-polished mahogany, 
profusely decorated with mirrors, silk draperies, &c. and furnished with ranges of elegant 
sofas. The ladies' cabin is eighteen feet by sixteen, and is fitted up like the former ; 
while between these are two separate rooms for family parties, each eight feet and a half 
by six. The voyage to Dublin is performed generally in twelve or fourteen hours : the 
fare is £1 in the cabin ; and passengers are supplied with provisions on nearly the same 
terms as at respectable inns on shore. At least three packets sail for Dublin daily ; one 
of which, the Post-office packet, departs from George's Dock parade at five p.m. precisely. 
Our limits do not permit us to specify all the ports with which a regular communication 
is maintained by steam-navigation : it may suffice to state, that the coast from Cork to 



36 GRAND NATIONAL ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Londonderry on the one side of the Irish channel, and from Glasgow to Bristol on the 
other, is in a manner united to Liverpool by a series of these flying bridges. 

Leaving the Baths on our way southward, we pass a small basin appropriated to the 
flats of several companies of can-iers ; then the entrance to the Manchester Dock, belong- 
ing to the proprietors of the Mersey and Irwell Navigation ; and conclude this portion of 
the view at the entrance of the Dry and Salthouse Docks. 

Liverpool from the Mersey — No. IV. 

The ship-building yards which are exhibited in this plate, are situated between the 
river and the Salthouse Dock, and have long been occupied for their present uses. 
Notwithstanding the great quantity of shipping required to carry on the business of 
the port, the number of ships built in Liverpool was inconsiderable, when compared with 
the number annually launched at several insignificant towns on the north-east coast of 
England. This resulted more particularly from a combination among the journeymen 
shipwrights. Happily this confederacy no longer exists, and Liverpool may compete with 
other ports in naval architecture. 

The number of vessels belonging to the port in 1828 was 793, measuring 158,446 tons, 
and navigated by 8900 men. This statement, however, affords no criterion of the quantity 
of shipping actually employed here, as a great part of the trade is carried on by means of 
vessels belonging to other ports. 

The large warehouse, which occupies the centre of the plate, belongs to the estate of 
the late Duke of Bridgewater, who caused this building to be erected, and a Dock, conti- 
guous to it, to be constructed, for the accommodation of the vessels employed in trading 
along his line of internal navigation. A branch of the Dock is beneath the roof of the 
building, by which arrangement goods may be warehoused without incurring any charge 
for cartage, or being subject to risk of injury from exposure to the weather. 

Farther south is shewn the King's Tobacco-warehouse, enclosing an area of three acres, 
one rood, and twenty-five perches, situated between the river and the King's Dock, erected 
by the Corporation, and rented by Government. All the tobacco imported is lodged here 
until the duties are paid, and the article examined. Whatever portion is damaged, so as 
to be unsaleable, is burnt within the premises, to prevent injury to the revenue. A 
gravelled terrace, extending the whole length of the King's Dock, lies between the ware- 
house and the river, and commands a fine view of the opposite shore. 

The entrance to the basin of the King and Queen's Docks immediately succeeds, and 
the view is terminated by the Herculaneum Pottery, which successfully competes with the 
great manufactories of Staff'ordshire, both in the quality and cheapness of its wares. 

We beg leave to add, that the series of Views now described, exhibits the most com- 
plete graphic delineation of Liverpool which has yet been presented to the public. 



LIVKRPOO: 




ro THE jtBsniTinTs of which . rms pzate is ksspscttvlly msdUBSS. 




Engraved by J.Btaxncg, 



THIS PLATE IS KESPSCTFULLY HEDICATSD TO R .WESTMdCOTT. ESQ. PliOFESSOP. OF SCUl.PTUKi:. K. A 



iy TUP, PUmiSHBRS. 



FISJIER.SON i- C?101«D0N, 1829, 



COUNTY PALATINE OF LANCASTER.— LIVERPOOL. 37. 

ABERCROMBIE SQUARE, 

is the most spacious area of the kind in Liverpool, covering about three and a half acres of 
ground. On three sides it is enclosed by houses built in an elegant style, and on a regular 
plan : on the fourth, or eastern side, it is proposed to erect a church, to be named St. Katha- 
rine's, the property of which will be vested in a company of proprietors. An act of 
parliament was obtained for this purpose in the session recently closed, and the work will 
be immediately commenced. 

The space thus appropriated for the residence of the richer inhabitants, was formerly 
covered with water, and denominated Moss Lake. Great importance seems to have been 
formerly attached to the preservation of this lake by means of flood-gates — as it served 
the two-fold purpose of cleansing the old pool, and supplying tanners, dyers, &c. with the 
water required by their trades. In an ancient manuscript, bearing the date of 1667, 
written by Sir Edward Moore, and containing advice to his son relative to his property in 
Liverpool, the following passage occurs : — " I am confident, that God Almighty, who 
makes nothing in vain, hath ordained this (the lake) to be the greatest good for this town. 
Therefore I hope the town will never lose the advantage of the water coming that way ; 
for if they do, all they are worth cannot procure a stream to cleanse the pool, as above 
said." 

What would be the surprise of the worthy knight, were he now to revisit his former 
haunts, and find the site of the pool converted into one of the busiest streets, and that of his 
favourite lake into the most fashionable square in Liverpool ; while the town continues 
to flourish, notwithstanding the annihilation of " its greatest good \" 

Other streets and squares are in the course of construction in the vicinity of Aber- 
crombie Square, and in a few years may be expected to cover the entire space between the 
tovm and the Botanic Gardens. 

THE STATUE OF GEORGE III. LONDON ROAD, 

was erected in September, 1822, by R. Westmacott, R. A. at an expense of nearly £4000, 
raised by public subscription. The inscription, which occupies two sides of the pedestal, 
intimates that the Monument is intended to commemorate the Fiftieth Anniversary of the 
accession of his Majesty George III. to the throne of these realms. On that occasion the 
national jubilee was celebrated, and the first stone of the pedestal was laid in Great 
George Square, October 25, 1809. Subsequently the Committee decided upon the 
present site as more eligible, and their decision has been justified by the approbation of 
the public. 

The Statue is of bronze, after that of Marcus Aurelius at Rome. The Horse, which is 
a very fine specimen of sculpture, is represented in a spirited attitude, impatiently sub- 

ENGLAND. L 



3g GRAND NATIONAL ILLUSTRATIONS. 

mitting to the restraining hand of his rider. The figure of the King, which is clad in the 
ancient Roman costume, is a good resemblance of his Majesty when in the prime of life. 

The pedestal is of considerable elevation, and surrounded by a substantial iron railing, 
at the four corners of which are neat cast-iron pillars, supporting lamps lighted by gas. 
The whole work may be considered a successful effort of the artist, and an ornament to 
the town ; while it serves as a durable memento of a Monarch, whose long reign of fifty- 
nine years witnessed the successive extinction of two generations of the inhabitants. 

The street on the left hand of the Monument leads into the great London road, along 
which all stage-coaches proceed that are destined for Manchester, Yorkshire, and the 
more southerly parts of the kingdom. The number of these which depart and arrive 
daily falls little short of one hundred. - 

THE SESSIONS-HOUSE, CHAPEL-STREET, 

completed in 1828, extends in length 174 feet, and in breadth, at the north end, 81 
feet, and at the south end 59 feet. The principal front exhibited in the Plate has two 
entrances, leading by winding staircases to a saloon of 23 feet in length, by 17 feet in 
width, which forms the ante-room to that appropriated for the court of quarter-sessions. 
This apartment is 61 feet long, and 39 feet wide ; the upper end is devoted to the use of 
the magistrates, barristers, jurors, and officers of the court : the prisoners' bar is near the 
centre of the room, and a communication leads from it to the cells in Bridewell, by a 
passage under ground. About one-third of the room is allotted for the accommodation 
of spectators, and is floored with ranges of steps gradually ascending. At the other end 
of the building, another court, of much smaller dimensions, is fitted up in a similar man- 
ner, for the examination of prisoners brought up before the sitting magistrates for 
offences against the peace. The ground- floor contains cells for the reception of prisoners 
while waiting for trial. 

The street in which this building is situated is named from the church of St. Nicholas, 
formerly a chapel of ease under Walton. It is bounded by ranges of warehouses and 
offices, occupied by some of the principal merchants, and leads to the basin of George's 
Dock, and to the Princes' Parade, already described. {Fide page 34.) 

THE TOWN-HALL. 

A magnificent structure from designs by the late Mr. Wood of Bath, stands, in a 
central and elevated situation, at the north end of Castle street. The basement is rustic, 
and supports a range of Corinthian columns and pilasters, between which are the windows 
with circular arches, also supported by Corinthian pilasters. The portico in- front was 
erected very recently, and contains some of the most beautiful and richly ornamented 
pillars of which the town can boast. 



LrVEE-POOL 




"bj W. TATa tTi-iTK 



SIESSIOWS M 




Btsvm by G* C.Pyru 



Enj^aTed tj "W. "Watiins. 



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TO TSBJlAYORgc CORPORiTtCW.TSlS I'-LA'VB IS KESI^FXTFTZTT nt'.DICATSD BY THK PUBT.IS.HKKS . 



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Engraved 'by l. AsplaiLd 



SFEIE.1S MAJLId. 

TO RlCHAJiU WATTS, FSQ. TOSS PLATB JS KF.SPKCTFmj.V TNSChLIBED. 

HY TUF, J'trjil.ISnF.ltS. 



LAJrCA-SHIR.K 




IfiTAlLE MAJLilL. 

TME KESLDKlrCE OF JOUH BZACICBirRN E . ESQ. M.J: F^R TUE COUMTY, TO WHOM THIS FLATF, IS RESPBC1'FULl,T TUSCRJPrWn. 

BY 'run I'UllliTSHKRS. 



COUNTY PALATINE OF LANCASTER.— LIVERPOOL. 30 

The whole of the interior was destroyed by fire in 1795, but has since been restored 
with very considerable improvements, at an expense of about £110,000. The dome forms 
one of these improvements, and surmounts the Grand Stair-case at an elevation of 106 
feet from the floor. The basement story contains a spacious kitchen, with appropriate 
ofl&ces ; the ground story, a council-room, committee-rooms, town-clerk's, treasurer's, and 
surveyor's offices, &c. Of these some are now rendered unnecessary by the erection of 
the New Sessions' House, and will be speedily converted into apartments for the accom- 
modation of the Mayor. The principal story contains a suite of rooms, consisting of a 
saloon, two drawing-rooms, a banqueting-room, two ball-rooms, and a refectory. A 
more minute account of these will be embodied in our description of the " Interior of the 
Ball-room." 

A colossal figure of Britannia, in a sitting posture, crowns the dome j and on the 
exterior of this is a circular gallery, which affords very interesting panoramic prospects 
of the town and neighbourhood. 

SPEKE HALL, .-^^--^^ 

one of the most interesting antiquities of Lancashire, is situated in the parish of 
Childwall, about eight miles southward of Liverpool. It is built principally with timber 
and plaster, and surrounded by a moat, now dry, over which is a stone bridge, 
leading to a porch, overgrown with ivy ; and bearing the following inscription : " This 
work, 20 yds. long, was wholly built by E. N. 1598." From the porch a passage leads 
to an inner court, of an oblong form, in the centre of which stand two yew-trees 
of gigantic dimensions. The gallery windows on the chamber-floor, and the bay- 
windows of the great Baronial hall, look into this court. The Great Hall is remark- 
able for an ancient oak wainscoting, traditionally reported to have been brought by 
Sir Edward Norris from the palace of the king of Scotland, after the fatal battle 
of Flodden Field. This trophy exhibits all the orders of architecture, and has this 
inscription round the top : " Sleep not til thou hast well considered how thou spent the 
<iay past : if thou hast well done, thank God for't, if otherwise, repent." Besides the 
wainscot, Sir E. Norris conveyed to his hall at Speke part of the library of the de- 
ceased king of Scotland; many books, which are still there, particularly several large folios, 
containing the records and laws of Scotland, as they existed at that time, (1513.) 

The mansion and estate of Speke came into the possession of the Norris family 
by the marriage of William Norris, Esq. with Joan, daughter and heiress of John 
Molineux, Esq., of Sefton. In the reign of William III. Sir William Norris, (or Norreys) 
at that time M. P. for Liverpool, was appointed ambassador to the Great Mogul, in 
order to negociate a commercial treaty in behalf of the New East India Company. 
The sword prepared for this embassy was, in 1702, presented to the corporation of 
Liverpool, and for many years used as the sword of state. It bears the following 



40 GRAND NATIONAL ILLUSTRATIONS. 

inscription; "This sword of state, carried before his excellency. Sir W. Norris of 
Speke, in his embassy to the Great Mogul, given as a memorial of respect to this 
corporation, A. D. 1702. John Cockshutt, Mayor. 

The estate of Speke descended from the Norris family to the late Topham Beau- 
clerk, Esq., and was sold by his son to the late Richard Watt, Esq., the father of 
the present proprietor. 

HALE HALL, 

situated in the parish of Childwall, about eleven miles southward of Liverpool, is the resi- 
dence of John Blackburne, Esq., who has filled the distinguished station of representative 
for the county since the year 1784, and is consequently one of the oldest members of 
parliament. 

The estate devolved to the present family by the marriage of the heiress of the Ireland 
family with Thos. Blackburne, Esq., of Orford, near Warrington. The oldest part of the 
mansion is the North Front, which we have exhibited in the Plate, and was built (as the 
inscription over the porch testifies) by Sir Gilbert Ireland, in 1674. The present pro- 
prietor has erected a new South Front and Tower, after designs by Mr. Nash, in confor- 
mity with the style of the ancient building. This front commands a pleasing view of the 
river Mersey, which is here three miles broad, together with the opposite shore of Cheshire 
and the mountains of North Wales. Mr. Blackburne, as lord of the manor, is entitled to 
levy a contribution of four-pence from every vessel that anchors on the northern shore of 
the river. 

In the centre of the modern building is a large and elegant room, appropriated for the 
Library and Museum, containing, besides many valuable books, an extensive collection of 
subjects of natural history, especially birds and insects, — and a cabinet of coins. The 
Gardens, which are in a warm and sheltered situation, are enriched with the celebrated 
collection of plants formerly belonging to the Botanic Garden at Oxford : the exotics are 
particularly worthy of a vistor's attention. 

In the chapelry of Hale was born, A. D. 1578, John Middleton, commonly called the 
" Child of Hale," whose extraordinary size and strength have been rarely equalled since 
the period of the sons of Anak, when " there were giants in the land." His hand, from the 
wrist to the end of the middle finger, measured seventeen inches : his palm eight inches 
and a half; and his height was nine feet three inches, or only six inches less than that of 
the Philistine champion Goliath. This " Child" lies buried in the churchyard of Hale. 

The village is remarkable for its neatness and rural aspect, and forms a pleasing con- 
trast to the wretched hamlets in some other parts of the county, which are the abodes of 
our miserable manufacturers. 



J,1VKHPOOI., 




■ra.reiT)y Eobt .V/a.llis. 



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TO W^HOSCOE, ESQ. THIS ITUTB IS RESPFCTFITLLT TNSCmBKD.BT THE PrrBl.ISHKES. 



COUNTY PALATINE OF LANCASTER.— LIVERPOOL. 41 

THE HOUSE IN WHICH WILLIAM ROSCOE, ESQ. WAS BORN. 

This building, situated on Mount-Pleasant, is now remarkable for nothing but having 
given birth to the distinguished individual, on whose account it is noticed. The case, 
however, was somewhat different at the period to which we refer. Erected on elevated 
ground, and at a distance from nearly all other edifices, it afforded a commanding view of 
" the good old town" of Liverpool, of the entrance into its majestic river, of Bootle Bay, 
of the ocean sparkling at a distance, of the remote hills in Wales, and, in various directions, 
of a scenery at once diversified and extended. 

The history of Mr. Roscoe's life, like that of Dr. Franklin, furnishes a splendid 
example of the benefits resulting both to the individual and to society, from the union of 
studious ability with indefatigable industry. By the careful cultivation of his talents, and 
the judicious improvement of his opportunities, Mr. Roscoe has secured to himself a place 
among the classic authors of his native tongue ; and by his public spirit, and unwearied 
attention to the literary and benevolent Institutions of the town, he has guided the taste, 
and stimulated the humanity, of his fellow-citizens ; and will leave behind him, (alas ! too 
soon,) a name endeared to every lover of the arts and of his species. 

Having made himself acquainted with the works of our best English poets, and, while 
glowing with animation, "caught some sparks of their celestial fire," at the age of 
sixteen, in an elegant poem, entitled " Mount Pleasant," he thus pleads the cause of the 
injured Africans : — 

" There Afric's swarthy sons their toils repeat, 
Beneath the fervours of the noontide heat ; 
Torn from each joy that crowned their native soil, 
No sweet reflections mitigate their toil ; 
From morn to eve, by rigorous hands oppressed, 
Dull fly their hours, of every hope unblessed ; 
Till broke with labour, helpless and forlorn. 
From their weak grasp the ling'ring morsel torn : 
The reed-built hovel's friendly shade denied, 
The jest of folly, and the scorn of pride ; 
Drooping beneath meridian suns they lie, 
Lift the faint head, and bend th' imploring eye j 
Till death in kindness, from the tortured breast. 
Calls the free spirit to the realms of rest. 

" Shame to mankind, but shame to Britons most, 
Who all the sweets of liberty can boast, 
Yet deaf to every human claim deny 
That bliss to others which themselves enjoy ; 
Life's bitter draught with harsher bitter fill. 
Blast every joy, and add to every ill ; 
The trembling limbs with galling iron bind, 
Nor loose the heavier bondage of the mind." 
ENGLAND. M 



42 GRAND NATIONAL ILLUSTRATIONS. 

As early as the year 1773, we find Mr. Roscoe's name in the list of members of a 
Society for " the Encouragement of Designing, Drawing, and Painting." It was at one 
of its meetings that he read one of his earliest literary productions, an Ode on the Institu- 
tion of the Society. He subsequently published a great variety of works on different 
subjects, of which the most important, and those on which his reputation will hereafter 
rest, are, "The Nurse, a Poem from the Italian of Luigi Tansillo, 4to. London, 1789" — 
" The Life of Lorenzo de Medici, called the Magnificent, 2 vols. 4to. London, 1795-6" — and 
"The Life and Pontificate of Leo X. 4 vols. 4to. Liverpool, 1805"— "The Life of 
Alexander Pope," prefixed to a new Edition of his Works, 1824 — and a Botanical 
Work, on a portion of the Class Monandria, publishing in numbers. 

Most of the public Institutions of Liverpool are under especial obligations to 
Mr. Roscoe ; but the Athenaeum, the Royal Institution, and the Academy of Arts, owe 
to him, almost exclusively, their existence and prosperity. 



LIVERPOOL ROYAL INSTITUTION. 



This was formerly a gentleman's mansion, but, on being converted to its present uses, it 
has undergone great internal alterations. The stone portico at the entrance, erected by the 
late Mr. Edmund Aikin, which is much and justly admired, has formed the model of 
many similar structures since, annexed to the residences of the principal merchants. 
The cost of the original buildings and the alterations, amounted to about £14,000, 
defrayed by subscriptions, in shares of £100 and £50 each. 

This Institution was formed in 1814, and incorporated by royal charter in 1822. Its 
object is declared to be " the promotion of literature, science, and the arts," by academi- 
cal schools ; by public lectures ; by the encouragement of societies that may associate for 
similar objects ; by collections of books, specimens of art, natural history, &c. ; and by 
providing a laboratory and philosophical apparatus. It was opened November 25, 1817, 
by an inaugural discourse, " on the origin and vicissitudes of literature, science, and art, and 
their influence on the present state of society," delivered by the President, William 
Roscoe, Esq. 

On the ground-floor is a public room, for the accommodation of the subscribers, amply 
supplied with periodical works on literary and scientific subjects ; a lecture room, fifty 
feet in length, by thirty feet in breadth, capable of containing 500 auditors : and several 
other apartments for the use of the Committee, and the mathematical and classical schools. 
One large room on this floor is devoted to the accommodation of the Literary and Philo- 
sophical Society of Liverpool, of which Mr. Roscoe is President, and to that of the Philo- 
mathic Society, more recently established. The first-floor contains a spacious exhibition 




:,ANCASHIIIK 





Drawn, "by S„Aiistm. 



Engraved Tjy V/. le Petit 



TJTE SEAT OS THE MOST NOBLE THE MARQUIS OF SAZISBl/KY. 



LANCASHIRE. 




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Engraved "by ''-V: Le P^tit . 



WATISmTmiElE HAILiIL, 
> 



COUNTY PALATINE OF LANCASTER.— LIVERPOOL. 43 

room, for the use of the members of the Liverpool Academy ; another exhibition room 
for the casts of the Elgin and ^Egina marbles ; and two other rooms, well adapted for a 
drawing- school and a committee -room. On the roof of the house a stone platform is laid, 
for an Observatory; and at the back, are additional buildings for a Laboratory, and for 
philosophical experiments, immediately connected with the lecture-room. 

The museum of the Institution contains a number of curious specimens in natural 
history — a few popular curiosities, as, idols from the East Indies, New-Zealanders' heads, 
&c. and two collections of minerals, one belonging to Dr. Traill, the other to the Literary 
and Philosophical Society. 

The exhibition room contains a series of original paintings, designed to illustrate the 
early history and progress of the arts, purchased at the sale of Mr. Roscoe's valuable 
collection. An adjoining room contains casts from the Elgin marbles, presented to the 
Institution by his present Majesty ; casts from the Phygalian Frieze and the ^gina 
marbles, presented by J. Foster, Jun. ; besides casts of the Apollo Belvidere, and other 
celebrated and ancient statues. Among these, it would be unpardonable not to particu- 
larize, a cast of the Laocoon, recently presented to the Institution by the Liverpool 
Literary and Philosophical Society. 

Opposite to the Institution, and forming part of the property, is a valuable piece of 
ground, on which has been very lately erected a School for Gymnastic Exercises. . 



CHILDWALL HALL, AND ABBEY. 



This place, distant five miles E.S.E. from Liverpool, is protected from the N.W. winds 
by the intervening high grounds, which were enclosed by act of parliament in 1805, and 
have been since planted and laid out as an ornamental shrubbery. The Hall was built by 
the late proprietor, Bamber Gascoyne, Esq. after the designs of Mr. Nash, Architect, 
London, and completed in 1813. It contains a suite of spacious apartments, consisting 
of a Great Hall, Dining-room, Drawing-room, Library, and octagonal Study. A circular 
Staircase leads from the Study to the summit of the Great Tower, whence the prospects 
are both extensive and beautiful. A populous and well-cultivated plain spreads itself out 
before the beholder, and impresses him with the cheerful emotions that naturally arise on 
contemplating the results of successful industry. Commencing at Aughton Hills, near 
Ormskirk, the view extends beyond Prescot and Farn worth, and terminates towards the 
south-east, at the ruins of Halton Castle, and Norton Priory, Cheshire, the elegant resi- 
dence of Sir R. Brooke, including within its range fifteen miles of rich land, and a large 
portion of the river Mersey. The beauty of its situation has, rendered Childwall the 
favourite resort of Liverpool citizens on Sundays and holidays, and given to it a celebrity 



44 GRAND NATIONAL ILLUSTRATIONS. 

almost equal to that which Richmond possesses in the estimation of our metropolitan 
tourists. For the accommodation of those amateurs of the beautiful in scenery, a very- 
good inn has been erected, about two hundred yards from the Hall. It is denominated the 
" Abbey," from a tradition that on this spot stood an ancient Abbey of Childwall : although, 
after diligent search, we have come to the conclusion, that no monastic establishment of 
the kind ever existed in this part of the country, and that the designation of the house has 
originated in a confusion of the terms " Chantry" and " Abbey." In Domesday-book, 
which contains a register of the state of the kingdom in 1080, we find mention made of a 
" priest" resident at Childwall, whose benefice consisted of half-a-carucate of land, or from 
thirty to fifty acres. In 1291, according to the valuation ordained by Pope Nicholas IV. 
the living of Childwall was estimated at £40 per annum ; no inconsiderable sum in those 
times, when the wages of a harvest-man were two-pence per day, and the rent of the lord 
mayor's house £1 per year. In the new arrangement of ecclesiastical jurisdictions conse- 
quent upon the Reformation, the rector's tithes of this, and five other parishes in Lancashire, 
were impropriated to the see of Chester. The tithes of Childwall parish are leased out to 

the family of Gerrard, of Garswood, and are reputed to be worth £600 per annum. 

The Rev. Augustus Campbell is the present vicar. 

Childwall Hall and estate came into possession of the Marquis of Salisbury, by his 
marriage with the daughter and heiress of the late Bamber Gascoyne, Esq. who was thrice 
member of parliament for the borough of Liverpool. He was succeeded in that honour- 
able station. A, D. 1796, by his brother. Gen. Isaac Gascoyne, who has ever since continued 
to be the representative of the town. Indeed, we may remark, that in perusing the 
parliamentary annals of this " free borough," we find no evidence of the inconstancy 
usually attributed to popular elections. The historical records seem to us to establish the 
reverse proposition. 



WAVERTREE HALL, THE SEAT OF CHARLES LAWRENCE, ESQ. 



It appears that the manor of Wavertree is mentioned in Domesday-book. The present 
residence was built more than a century ago, by an ancestor of the present Colonel Plumbe 
Tempest, of Tonge Hall, Yorkshire. Without much pretension to architectural elegance, 
it exhibits a degree of quiet old-fashioned comfort and sober antiquity, which is almost 
peculiar to itself in the immediate neighbourhood of Liverpool, where every thing speaks 
of modern affluence and recent acquirement. Its rookery of venerable elms is, probably, 
the growth of many centuries ; and its sunny and sheltered situation has been peculiarly 
favourable to the cultivation and beauty of its trees, shrubs, and flowers of all kinds. 
The terrace appears to be a diminished copy of the noble one at Croxteth Hall, (the Earl 
of Sefton's.) 



MVEKPOOL. 




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TO TSE MEMORT OF THE LATE J.B. HOLLINSBSAD. BSQ . TMIB I'LJITX IS ZfTSCnZSED, 

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COUNTY PALATINE OF LANCASTER.— LIVERPOOL. 45 

The following lines (from a recently published poem) contain an accurate description 
of its terrace, bay-trees, &c. They are supposed to have been written by one of its old 
inhabitants who was leaving it. — 

* Farewell yon terrace' sunny mound, 
Its time-worn urns with woodbine bound ; 
With sculptur'd masks so quaintly gay, 
Calm smiling in serene decay ; 
Its low gray walls which jasmines climb'd, 
Where sweetbriar and roses twin'd ; 
Light through its ponderous balustrade 
The trembling bells of bindweed played, 
From each worn crevice, shooting fair. 
Some self-sown herb perfumed the air ; 
In tangled wreaths the violets hung, 
In golden bloom the wall-flower sprung, 
And time and age had o'er it thrown 

A grace and beauty all their own. 

m » * * * * » 

Fair towering there, on either side, 
The bay-trees rear'd their stately pride ; 
Unscath'd by storm or wintry air. 
Their spicy blossoms flourish'd there : 
How oft they won the stranger's praise, 
Express'd in Holy Scripture's phrase ; 
When green, amid December's snows. 
Their varnish'd foliage'darkly rose," 



PART OF LORD STREET, WITH ST. GEORGE'S CHURCH IN THE 

DISTANCE. 

This Street was, until a very recent period, one of the most paltry and inconvenient 
avenues in the Town. In 1825, an Act of Parliament was obtained for widening it ; and 
so great were the industry and zeal exerted by the Corporation's agents on the occasion, 
that the alteration was effected in less than two years. The new houses on the South 
side are built of brick, covered with stucco, uniform in their elevation, but varying in plan. 
It is in contemplation to rebuild the houses on the North side in the same way ; and 
when this design shall have been accomplished. Lord Street will be, without exception, the 
most magnificent in the Town, and worthy of the "west end" in the Metropolis. An 
unbroken line of spacious and elegant shops extends the whole length of the Street, and 
affords to the fair and the fashionable, at once, an excuse and a motive for a morning's 
lounge. 

The View up Lord Street is terminated by St. George's Church, which (by a kind of 
fatality) is situated neither wholly in, nor wholly out of the line of vision. Doubtless 
if its erection had been subsequent to the recent alterations, so disagreeable an obliquity 

ENGLAND. N 



46 GRAND NATIONAL ILLUSTRATIONS. 

would have been avoided; but, like many of the human race who labour under disadvan- 
tages, it has at least the comfort of possessing partners in affliction. We need only allude 
to the Town Hall and St. Luke's Church, as examples of beauty 

" — — ^ • born to blush unseen. 



And waste their sweetness in the desert air." 

St. George's Church was commenced in 1715, but not consecrated till 1732. It has 
been recently rebuilt, with the exception of the roof and ceiling, and the frame-work of 
the pews, gallery, and pulpit, under the superintendence of Mr. Foster. The base of the 
steeple is thirty square feet, and its height about 214 feet. From the base springs a 
square pedestal for the support of a story of the Ionic order, of octangular form, with a 
column at each angle. The next story is of the Corinthian order, having eight detached 
columns surrounding the base of the spire. At this Church, the mayor, aldermen, and 
common-council usually attend divine service ; and in the vaults beneath it, lie interred 
the remains of many of the principal natives of the Town. 

At the spot on which the spectator is supposed to stand in the engraved View, there 
was formerly a small tenement called the Boat-house, where a ferry-boat was stationed for 
the purpose of conveying passengers across the Pool (now no longer in existence) into the 
Town ; and where, at a later date. Lord Molyneux erected a bridge, to connect the pen- 
insula of Liverpool with the main land. The township and manor of Liverpool 
formerly belonged to the Molyneux family, and the corporation were only lessees ; but 
about fifty years ago they purchased the reversion of the estate, together with the manorial 
and other rights. 

The expense of the recent alterations in Lord Street exceeds £170,000, or rather more 
than one year's income of the corporation estate, forming part of a sum of £1,067,554 
expended since 1786, in improvements, in the erection of churches, charity-schools, 
markets, and other public buildings. In 1327 (the annals inform us) the castle and 
borough of Liverpool were estimated to be worth £30. 10s. per annum. 



PART OF LORD STREET AND SOUTH JOHN STREET. 



The latter Street, formerly denominated Marshall Street, crosses Lord Street at right 
angles, and, when completed, will extend from Dale Street to the site of the New 
Custom House, (heretofore the Old Dock) . It is a wide and handsome avenue, and some 
of the houses now in course of erection, are in a style of princely magnificence. The 
range of buildings which occupies the central place in the View, named the Clarendon 
Buildings, was erected by Wm. Statham, Esq., town-clerk, the proprietor ; and contains. 




f4 
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sa 


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! 


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COUNTY PALATINE OF LANCASTER.— LIVERPOOL. 47 

besides commercial offices, &c. rooms appropriated to the accommodation of the commis- 
sioners in cases of bankruptcy, and for the reception of a Law Library. Comparing 
together the two Engravings given in this Plate, the stranger should observe, that the 
station of the draughtsman in the second is rather more than half-way up Lord Street, as 
shewn in the first Engraving — on the North side, or the side opposite to the Church — and 
with his view directed down the Street. 



ST. GEORGE'S CHURCH, EVERTON. 



This building is placed in a very commanding situation, on a hill that overlooks the 
Town, and a wide extent of sea and land. In clear weather the distant mountains of 
Blackcomb, in Cumberland, and the Snowdonian range in Wales, may be distinctly seen 
from the summit of the tower, which is 80 feet high. The Church is built of stone, in Aq^ 
the Gothic style, and is 119 feet in length, by 47 feet in breadth. The roof is of cast- 
iron, covered with slate ; the pillars under the gallery, the window-frames, some part 
of the pulpit, and many of the internal and external ornaments, are made of the same 
durable material. It was built in 1814, and the present chaplain is the Rev. R. P. Bud- 
dicom, M.A. F.S.A. 

Nearly on the site of the Church there formerly stood an ancient fire-beacon, supposed 
to have been erected by Randulph Blundeville, Earl of Chester, on his return from the 
Holy Land in 1220. It consisted of a square tower of three stories, the lowest of which 
was used as a kitchen : the upper rooms were large enough to accommodate a small garri- 
son. At one end of the angle of the building, a stone receptacle rose above the roof, in 
which were placed combustible materials, prepared for lighting, in case of alarm or inva- 
sion. This beacon was blown down by a storm in 1803. During the siege of Liverpool 
by Prince Rupert, in the wars of the Commonwealth, the encampment of the royal army 
was in the neighbourhood of this beacon, whence detachments were sent to man the lines 
of the besiegers, situated on the high ground now forming part of Seymour- street and 
Gloucester-street. The Town was defended with great resolution during nearly a month, 
and was ultimately taken by storm, when, as the old registers certify, " a great companye 
of oui'e inhabitants were murthered and slaine by Prince Ruperte forces." The same 
event is noticed in Sir Edward More's instructions to his son, in the following terms : — 
" Prince Rupert tooke Leverpool, Whitsontid 1644, putting all to the sword for many 
houres, giving noe quarter, where Carill y* is now Lord MuUinex kiled seven or eight 
pore men with his owne hands. Good Lord, deliver us from the cruelty of blud thersty 
papest ! Amen." 



48 GRAND NATIONAL ILLUSTRATIONS. 



ST. NICHOLAS CHURCH, CHAPEL STREET. 

This is the oldest ecclesiastical foundation in the town, and was formerly a chapel of 
ease under Walton. Both the Church and Tower have been rebuilt since the date of their 
first erection. On the 11th of February, 1810, a few minutes before the commencement 
of divine service, the old Tower suddenly fell upon the roof of the Church, burying in 
its ruins twenty-eight individuals, mostly children belonging to a Charity School, who 
were at that moment entering the Church. 

Since this fatal occurrence, a new Tower has been erected, at a cost of about £22,000, 
from a design of Mr. Harrison, of Chester. This Tower is forty yards in height, 
surmounted by an extremely elegant lantern twenty yards in height, built in the orna- 
mented Gothic style. 

The rebuilding of the Church took place a.d. 1774, when it was ordered, that " the 
roof and Gothic pillars, with the old blue ceiling, black and white clouds, golden sun, 
moon, and a number of golden stars, of different sizes, painted and gilt, should be taken 
down and removed. Sic transit gloria mundi." Among the monuments in the interior 
of the Church, is one to the memory of Ann, wife of William Earle, elegantly sculp- 
tured by Gibson, a native of the town, a pupil of Canova, and a very eminent living 
artist. 

The Churchyard was formerly the boundary of the river Mersey ; and it is recorded, 
that a portion of it was washed away by a storm in 1565, an event not likely to occur 
again, as old father Neptune is now kept at arm's length by a furlong of embankment. 
In the Churchyard there was once a statue of St. Nicholas, at whose shrine sailors 
formerly presented offerings, to obtain from the saint a prosperous voyage and a safe 
return. Except in Portugal, modern seamen rely more on their own skill and intrepidity 
than on the intercession of St. Nicholas, or any other of the sainted brotherhood. 

In the records relative to this Church, is preserved a curious decree of the reverend 
CZtt/fffl^ father in God, John, Lord Bishop of this diocese, dated 1685, ordering, " That no person, 
under the degree of an alderman, shall sit in the aldermen's seats, without license from 
Mr. Mayor and the chapelwardens ; that none under the degree of an alderman's wife 
shall sit in the seat next unto the aldermen, without license ; that none but housekeepers 
shall sit in the seat on the north side 'twixt the pulpit and the north door, who 
are to be seated according to their quality and age; and that all apprentices and 
servants shall sit or stand in the alleys, according to ancient custom." From this docu- 
ment, we are surely warranted in concluding, that how ignorant soever our ancestry may 
have been on subjects familiar to their more fortunate posterity, they at least understood 
and practised, with laudable decorum, the all-important science of etiquette! 



COUNTY PALATINE OF LANCASTER.— LIVERPOOL. 49 



"MORE STRET." 

The picturesque Engraving which represents " More Stret" is submitted to the public as 
affording a specimen of the " good old town of Lyrpul." The antiquated edifice on the left^ 
hand is usually considered to be the most ancient building in the town. The modern 
erections in this street contrast very strongly with the other parts. Contiguous to the 
old building, on the left, stand extensive warehouses of very recent date. The street 
is inhabited principally by market-people and sutlers, and offers for the pencil of the artist 
all the interesting details of poultry, chicken coops, panniers, &c. 

From an ancient MS. bearing date 1667, written by Sir Edward Moore, who then 
possessed considerable property in Liverpool, and whose ancestors are supposed to have 
settled here shortly after the Norman Conquest, we learn, that "the ground whereon 
this stret and houses now stand was a small close of ground, called y^ Castell-street-fild, 
^ch gd gjjj J ^s^j. -^ Moore) and my anhest®* have for many hondreds of years injoyed." 
And, in another part, speaking of a well which he had sunk for the inhabitants of " More 
Stret," the author says — *' Where-as many or most of y^ wells in y® Watter-stret {are) at 
about twenty yards dipe, it pleased God to send me there watter at 14 yards." In the same 
MS. occurs a singular piece of advice to his son, respecting one of his tenants in "More 
Stret." 

" I R , an arent knave, one y' grinds from my Mille very ofton. He 

haith plad me 20 slipery trickes : trust him not ; make him pay V^ rent, and ten pounds 
fine ; for he is but a poor knave, and mercy must be had to his children ; onely, for being 
such a knave, make him to slate his house, as y® whole stret is besides him silfe. He pays 
at present 3 hens at Chrs*, 3 days shiring. Ould rent 00 04 00." 



WATER STREET. 



Water-street is coeval with " More Stret j" for, from the ancient manuscript before 
cited, it appears, that it formed part of the property of Sir Edward Moore, the author. 
In its present state it consists of extensive mercantile buildings. In the right-hand 
comer of the Engraving is shewn one end of the Goree warehouses. A little higher up 
appears one extremity of another range of warehouses, called also Goree. This side ol 
Water-street opens into Drury-lane, Charley-street, Fen wick- street, and Lower Castle- 
street. The other side leads into Tower-gate, Covent-garden, Rumf or d- street, and 
Exchange- street. At the upper extremity of Water-street stands the Town-hall, not 
centrally situated with respect to it, but inclining to the north. 

ENGLAND. O 



50 GRAND NATIONAL ILLUSTRATIONS. 



INTERIOR OF THE BALL-ROOM, TOWN-HALL, LIVERPOOL. 

When, in 1795, all the interior of the Town-Hall was destroyed by fire, very con- 
siderable improvements were projected, and ultimately accomplished in the building. 
Previously to this event, the principal story was occupied by the Sessions-room, Rotation- 
office, and Assembly-rooms ; but the catastrophe, just mentioned, led to renovations, at 
a cost of £110,000, which have completely altered the plan of the interior. The chief 
story, at the present time, contains a splendid and magnificent suite of rooms communi- 
cating with each other. A noble saloon, most richly furnished, opens from the grand 
staircase, and contains a full-length portrait of his late Majesty George the Third, painted 
by the highly-talented President pf the Royal Academy, Sir Thomas Lawrence. There 
are also portraits of his present Majesty, when Prince of Wales, by Hopner ; of the late 
Duke of York, by Phillips ; and of the present Duke of Clarence, by Shee. Two handsome 
drawing-rooms, running east and west, measure, the one, thirty feet by twenty-seven, 
and the other, (the west drawing-room,) thirty- two feet and a half, by twenty-six feet 
nine inches. The saloon and drawing-rooms are all of the same height, twenty- five feet. 
There are two ball-rooms, one towards the north, and the other in the east, both of 
which are fitted up in the most sumptuous style. That on the eastern side is sixy-one 
feet by twenty-eight, and twenty-five feet in height, lighted by three chandeliers of 
elegant construction. On the west side, is a noble banqueting-room, vrhere the mayor 
holds his civic entertainments ; and in the centre of the whole suite is a delightful 
refectory, where, on public occasions, the tables groan beneath a luxurious load, from 
which may be selected viands suited to every palate. 

The principal ball-room, of which a beautiful representation is submitted in the 
annexed Engraving, occupies the entire north front of the Town-Hall. It is a room of 
magnificent dimensions, and all the delicate suggestions of art have been called into requisi- 
tion for its completion. Three superb glass chandeliers, containing seventy-two gas 
burners, throw a flood of splendour on the fair and graceful assemblages which meet there, 
"to trip it on the light fantastic toe." Each chandelier weighs not less than eight hun- 
dred pounds. The ceilings are similar through the whole suite of apartments, being 
Arched, and divided into square compartments, which enclose others of an octagonal 
shape, and terminating in a moulding of rich and massive construction. The sides of the 
ball-rooms are ornamented with superb pilasters, made to represent Scagliola marble 3 
and so perfectly has art succeeded in copying the shade, polish, and variegated colour of 
the stone, that a stranger would scarcely distinguish between the imitation and reality. 
The pilasters in the large ball-room are surmounted by richly executed capitals of the 
Corinthian order, in plaster. The windows, shown on the left-hand side in the Engrav- 
ing, stand in elegant recesses, tastefully decorated with rich drapery. Those of the end 



irvy^RPOOL, 




])r awn "byBarwoo i 



Tp TRE ZADy J-ZA^ZORESS. TSE FXTBLZSSKRS FEEL HON'OUKED IN DEDICATINa THIS FIXATE. 



Engraved. "by K.'WixLlde 



LIVERPOOL. 




Drawn by "Har wo od 



rnlS rhATK is liRSI'ECT^rrLVY nSniCATBU to TRE 2IKKCaAt^T3 OF LlVEItPOOL . 

BY THE PUHLtSRERS. 
FISITEK.. SON &: C9 LONDON. 1829. 



Engraved ty RWinkks. 



COUNTY PALATINE OF LANCASTER.— LIVERPOOL. 51 

windows are supported by Corinthian columns of chaste workmanship ; and, between 
each of these principal recesses and the one adjoining, rise two of the pilasters before 
described, but between the ordinary recesses there is only one. On the right-hand side 
of the picture is shewn the massive mahogany doors fronting the principal windows. In 
the centre of this side is the orchestra for the accommodation of the band ; and between 
it and the doors are two richly ornamented stoves. The pilasters on this side are 
arranged uniformly with those on the other. The room presents a magnificent coup 
d'oeil, and strikes the beholder with admiration. 

In this noble apartment, appropriated to the elegant amusement of dancing, the festive 
scene is not unfrequently devoted to the highest philanthropical and benevolent purposes. 
The loveliness which charmed every heart, while it swam in chaste and graceful attitude 
through the various evolutions of the dance, may be seen, in a softer and not less pleasing 
light, assisting the cause of sickness, infirmity, and distress. We wish not to rob the 
ladies of Lancashire of one iota of their "fair fame," when we say, that whilst turning 
aside from elegant pleasures to promote the comforts of the poor and indigent, they throw 
the blaze of ball-room loveliness into comparative shade. 



INTERIOR OF THE EXCHANGE NEWS-ROOM, LIVERPOOL. 

The Exchange News-Room, and the rooms connected with it, occupy nearly all the 
lower story of the eastern wing of the Exchange-buildings. The Interior of the News- 
Room, shewn in the Engraving, exhibits the magnificent dimensions of the apartment 
projected, with architectural correctness. The extreme length, from north to south, is 
ninety-four feet, three inches ; and the width, from east to west, fifty-one feet, nine 
inches ; the greatest height, from the centre of the arched ceiling, is thirty-one feet, 
four inches. 

The architecture and decorations of the room are of the Ionic order, and purity of 
style has been carefully preserved throughout. There is no order in which simplicity 
and elegance are so pleasingly combined as in the Ionic ; and the architect has fully 
availed himself, in the present instance, of the facilities it offers for the union of simple 
beauty with expressive grandeur. It was the best model that could be adopted for a 
public building of this nature, on several accounts ; the characteristic feature of the Doric 
style, consisting almost entirely in unadorned massiveness and strength, while the 
Corinthian and Composite orders have a floridness of detail that consists better with the 
ball-room and saloon than with a building devoted to mercantile purposes. 

The ceiling of this apartment is supported by sixteen columns, surmounted with 
volutes, and other distinguishing ornaments of the order. The shaft of each column 
consists of a single stone, without joint or fissure ; a peculiarity, if not unparalleled, at 
least seldom observable in this species of architecture. These columns form a magni- 



52 GRAND NATIONAL ILLUSTRATIONS. 

ficent colonnade in the centre of the room, which has a most striking and commanding 
effect, when viewed from the north or south extremity. 

The height of the ceilings, on each side of the colonnade, is less by several feet than 
the coved one in the centre. They are flat, and divided into compartments ; and their 
architraves rest on sixteen pilasters, arranged to correspond with the pillars. 

The ceiling, which runs through the centre of the room, is laid in a beautiful curve, 
terminating in a massive architrave that rests on the sixteen columns before described. 
It is divided into a number of compartments, including lesser divisions or panels, some 
of which are decorated with the proper ornaments. From the centre of this coved ceiling 
suspends a handsome chandelier, furnished with gas burners. 

On the east side of the room are six large arched windows, and five of similar pro- 
portions, with a door on the west. At the south end are two smaller windows. 

The accommodations which the Exchange News-room offers to mercantile gentlemen 
and others, who take an interest in the affairs of the day, are most complete. Tables, 
furnished with slopes, are provided for greater convenience of reading or making 
extracts, &c. A person is in attendance to supply the paper called for by any gentleman. 
Refreshments of coffee, &c. may also be had by the visitants, in an adjoining room. 

The Underwriters' -room, which is smaller than the News-room, occupies part of the 
second story of the Exchange-buildings, and lies over the appendages of the latter room. 
It is seventy-two feet in length, and thirty-six feet wide ; has a neat coved ceiling, and is 
furnished with a handsome chimney-piece of black marble. Six large windows overlook 
the area of the buildings, over four of which is an oval aperture, with an emblematical 
figure in stained glass. There are two other windows at the south end. The room is 
fitted up with boxes for the accommodation of persons transacting business ; and is well 
supplied with newspapers, and other means of mercantile information. It is conducted 
on a principle similar to that of Lloyd's in London. 



ST. PAUL'S CHURCH, LIVERPOOL. 

This noble ecclesiastical structure stands in the north-west quarter of Liverpool, in 
the centre of a square which takes its name from the building. The western side of the 
Square, facing the principal entrance to the Church, being formed by Earle-street. 

St. Paul's Church, Liverpool, a miniature imitation of that architectural chef (Twuvre 
erected by Sir Christopher Wren in the Metropolis, was built under the powers of an 
Act, 2d Geo. III. at the expense of the town, and consecrated to divine uses in 1769. It 
does not display all that richness of detail which adorns the metropolitan edifice ; but 
this circumstance is perhaps an evidence of the correct taste of the architect, who might 
deem it prudent, whilst reducing the general dimensions, to subdue, in some measure, the 
floridness of the original. 



jIVERPOOL. 




STo FAITJti'S €IHIDrjaClEr. 



XcTwry. 



UVUtPOOL. 




(Cie[W]w.''c:er M^r •^c^ctji'' ?A((:j0f^)fD):r.| ^'rcr.i^ 'ii'-wn.; ■K:f,^f, 



COUNTY PALATINE OF LANCASTER — LIVERPOOL. 53 

On the west side of the building stands a boldly projecting Ionic portico ; which 
throws a fine breadth of shadow over the face of the edifice, thereby affording full relief 
to the four columns that support the pediment. 

On the north and south sides are pediments of lesser projection, similar in construc- 
tion to that on the west, and supported in like manner. 

Three handsome flights of steps lead up to these fronts, and conduct to the grand 
entrances into the church. The main body, excepting the first story, which is rusticated, 
is of the Ionic order. Round the top of the building is carried a range of balustrades, 
surmounted with plain stone vases. 

From an octagonal base, in the centre of the building, is projected a beautiful dome, 
on which is placed a lantern, terminating in a large gilt ball and cross. Dials, facing 
the cardinal points, occupy four of its sides. An iron-railing encloses the Church, 
leaving, however, a spacious area on all sides of the building. 

Neatly constructed galleries, divided into pews, recede behind the Ionic columns that 
sustain the dome, and are supported by concealed brackets, inserted in the shafts of the 
pillars. Open seats, for the use of the poor, occupy the ground floor. There is little 
worthy of remark about the altar ; it is a square recess, particularly neat and plain. 

As originally constructed, the interior of St. Paul's Church was very unfavourable to 
the communication of sound ; and though the pulpit was moveable, the minister could not, 
in whatever situation he might be placed, make his voice audible to a great part of his 
congregation. The judicious alterations, effected in 1818, have, however, in a great 
measure obviated this inconvenience. 

From the simplicity of its architecture, and the massiveness of the parts, the exterior 
of this church possesses a solemnity and sublimity of character strikingly adapted to the 
nature of its holy services, and contrasts in a marked manner with some of the more 
modern and lighter specimens that adorn the town. 



CHURCH OF THE SCHOOL FOR THE BLIND, LIVERPOOL. 

This classic structure stands in Duncan-street, and communicates with the School for 
the Blind, by a subterranean passage. The site of the latter building is contiguous to 
that of the Church, there being a space of only a few yards between them. The founda- 
tion-stone of this modern temple was laid on the 6th of October, 1818, by Dr. Law, the 
then Lord Bishop of the diocese. In the course of a year the edifice was completed ; and, 
by the same prelate, it was consecrated on the 6th of October, 1819. 

This Church exhibits one of the purest copies of the early Grecian architecture to be 
met with in England. The architect, Mr. John Foster, accompanied by Mr. Cockerell, 
visited Greece in 1811, and made some important and interesting antiquarian discoveries. 
During his stay in that land of ancient fame, he selected for one of his studies the ruined 

ENGLAND. P 



54 



GRAND NATIONAL ILLUSTRATIONS. 



temple of Jupite^ Panhellenius, in the island of Egina ; and upon this model the portico 
at the west end of the Church is projected. 

The accompanying Engraving exhibits a correct and spirited representation of our 
subject. The sublimely massive portico, and the southern side of the building, are here 
presented to our readers ; and a judicious gradation of light and shade has given to the 
picture a substance, which can hardly fail to convey an adequate idea of the edifice, even 
to those who may not have seen the original. 

The distinguishing characters of the west front are, a Doric pediment, terminating in 
a chastely ornamental entablature, and supported by six fluted columns of the same 
cliaracter. The architrave of the portico, where it unites with the main building, rests 
upon pilasters. The character of the order is strictly preserved throughout the building, 
as may be seen in the form and decorations of the five windoAvs on the south side. (See 
Engraving.) Convenient flights of steps lead across an enclosed area to the Church. 

The interior of the building exhibits a neatness of arrangement that consists well with 
the noble simplicity of the exterior. At the east end is a monument, erected at the 
expense of the subscribers, to the memory of Pudsey Dawson, Esq. an early and warm 
patron of the Institution foi* the Blind ; and a fine painting, by Hilton, of Christ restor- 
ing Sight to the Blind, enriches the altar. A fine-toned organ, built by Gray, of London, 
has been erected, to assist the choral department of Divine service, the vocal part of which 
is performed by the blind pupils, for whose accommodation the church was expressly 
designed. Stoves, upon Mr. Sylvester's improved plan, by an ingenious contrivance, 
withdraw the impure air, and substitute warm or cold air, as the season may require. 

This building was erected with reference to two important objects : the first of which 
was, to provide eligible means for the pupils of the Blind School to enjoy the benefits and 
comforts of Christian devotion ; and the second was, to furnish an auxiliary for the support 
of that philanthropical institution. One half of the pews are appropriated to strangers, 
who are expected, before entering the church, to leave a small contribution with the gen- 
tlemen who wait at the door to receive their donations. 

We now dismiss our subject, expressing the highest admiration for the motives which 
induced the erection of the edifice, and for the architectural skill that has rendered it so 
faithful a transcript of classic times. May the projectors and architect derive that exqui- 
site satisfaction and t^ue fame, which -re suit from combined energy exerted in the cause 
of humanity ! 

COUNTY HOUSE OF CORRECTION, and SESSIONS HOUSE— KIRKD ALE. 

(two vievts.) 
As these two buildings are united, and form in fact one establishment for the adminis- 
tration of justice, we shall combine in one description our notices of both. 
• The Sessibhs House, in which the General Quarter Sessions for the hundred of West 
t)erby are held, stands on the south front of the whole edifice, and attracts the attention 




Drivmty C.C.F; 



i^, : f, v\- nc 



TO THE REV. JOKATHAW BROOKES. AND THE VISITTNG MAGISTRATES , THIS PLATE IS RESPECTFULLY INSCRIBED. 




^iggSa'DKfS IS®lDfS]g, lEIIRKBAJLIE. 



d by W Wa-fkint 



LORD SKh:i.UEl<SIlAI.t:. CHAIRMAN OF TEE QUARTER SESSlfiUS FOR THE HUNLIRED 



OF WEST liERJiY 



COUNTY PALATINE OF LANCASTER.—LIVERPOOL. 55 

of the traveller by its grand portico, supported by six lofty Ionic columns. The Sessions 
Room within is 70 feet in length by 42 feet in breadth, and has a suite of apartments 
adjoining, for the convenience of the magistrates, barristers, witnesses, &c. It was 
opened on the 5th of November, 1821. 

The House of Correction, one of the largest in the kingdom, is built in a circular 
form, with two large wings, and is adapted to contain eight hundred prisoners, arranged 
in twenty-two classes. Great ingenuity has been exercised in effecting a judicious 
classification of the inmates, and in furnishing them with employment suitable to 
their sex and circumstances. Among other expedients for this purpose, one of 
the largest tread-wheels in the kingdom has been erected; which requires for its 
propulsion the continual labour of 130 prisoners at one time. These are divided into ten 
classes, according to their respective crimes and characters ; and every class has a depart- 
ment appropriated to it, entirely distinct from the others. Three of these departments 
are occupied by female prisoners, and great vigilance is exercised in proportioning the 
duration of the labour to the criminality of the culprit ; the oldest offenders working six 
hours a day, while the less hardened escape with a punishment of four or two hours' daily 
labour. The discipline of this establishment is so well conducted, and the whole manage- 
ment so judicious, that a precise model of the building, and a narrative explaining its 
regulations and general economy, have been, by particular request, transmitted to the 
present Emperor of Russia. 

This extensive building was erected at an expense of more than £80,000 : it occupies a 
space of 28,648 square yards of land, and stands in a very salubrious situation, distant about 
two miles northward from Liverpool. The area is divided by partition walls into a great 
number of compartments, to which the prisoners resort during the day-time, under the 
observance of officers stationed in two circular lodges, which command a view of all the 
yards. The Chapel stands in the centre, (as seen in our View,) and is connected with the 
lodges on each side by a hanging bridge : the house of the Governor, Mr. Amos, is at the 
north front ; from which is seen the entire entrance to the harbour of Liverpool, a 
considerable extent of the east coast of Lancashire, and a magnificent range of the 
Welsh hills. The Chaplain, the Rev. W. B. Horner, A. B., resides in a very picturesque 
cottage situated without the walls, on the right of the approach to the Sessions House. 

The prison was first occupied in 1819, but not entirely completed until 1821, when it 
was appointed the House of Correction for the Hundred of West Derby in this county. 
Previously to 1819, the prisoners for the Hundred were lodged in the Borough Gaol of 
Liverpool ; which was found to be too small, and very inconvenient. The present esta- 
blishment contains not only the conveniences already enumerated, but schools for juvenile 
offenders, and separate hospitals for invalids of both sexes. It was built under the direc- 
tion of Mr. Wright, the architect, of Manchester ; and is regularly inspected by the visit- 
ing magistrates, among whom the Rev. Jonathan Brooks has contributed most essentially, 
by his indefatigable exertions, to the efficiency of the institution. 



56 GRAND NATIONAL ILLUSTRATIONS. 



SAINT MICHAEL'S CHURCH, PITT-STREET, LIVERPOOL. 

Saint Michael's Church stands in a square formed by the intersections of Pitt-street, 
Cornwallis-street, Grenville- street, and Kent-street. 

This beautiful structure is of a mixed style, including the Corinthian and Ionic orders ; 
but the former constitutes the prevailing feature of the edifice. It was built under the 
authority of an Act, 54th Geo. III. subsequently amended by an Act, 4th Geo. IV. When the 
parish of Liverpool had expended the sum of £35,000 upon it, they, in 1823, entered 
into an arrangement with the Corporation to finish the building ; and it was ultimately 
completed at an additional cost of £10,267. lOs. 6d. 

The Engraving, illustrative of our present subject, has all the picturesque character of 
a fancy composition ; and is a happy association of faithful drawing and pictorial effect. 
The street, exhibited in perspective, is Pitt- street, in a line with which runs the West 
Front of the Church. The little details, in the right-hand corner of the Engraving, in 
conjunction with the adjoining buildings, relieve the picture, and preserve the keeping, 
or relative situations of the various parts. A fine oblique view of the Portico of the 
Church, and the Spire, with its rich and elegant pedestals, forms the principal object in the 
Plate. The shaded side of the building, beyond the Church, points out the direction of 
Kent-street ; and, over the illumined side, showing the continuation of Pitt-street, rise 
the tower and spire of St. George's Church : still further in the distance may be seen, 
peering above the houses, the upper part of the Church of St. Nicholas. On the left-hand 
side is an opening that marks the intersection of Cornwallis-street with Pitt- street. 

The portico of St. Michael's Church, which surrounds the west-end of the building, 
consists of ten Corinthian columns, and two half-columns, three feet two inches in 
diameter, and thirty-one feet eight inches in height. The capitals of these pillars are a 
copy from the temple of Jupiter Stator, at Rome. The entablature which they support is 
carried round the body of the Church. Six columns uphold the entablature and pedi- 
ment of the front, which is sixty-one feet seven inches in extent. Corinthian pilasters, 
arranged to correspond with the pillars, decorate and support the interior of the portico. 
The windows, throughout the building, are circular-headed, finished with an architrave, 
and divided by a panel into two. The steeple commences with a pedestal, from which 
rise sixteen Ionic columns, attached to the wall, supporting an entablature and balustrad- 
ing. These pillars are two feet one inch in diameter, and, including the base and capital, 
twenty-two feet six inches in height. Within the balustrading stands a pedestal, on 
which are erected eight Corinthian columns, and corresponding pilasters, forming four 
projecting portals ; the height of the pillars being twenty-one feet, and the diameter two 
feet one inch. From the entablature of these portals rises an octangular spire, finished at 
the top with a capital. 



COUNTY PALATINE OF LANCASHIRE— LIVERPOOL. 57 

The edifice we have just described is a fine architectural ornament to the town of 
Liverpool, and will not shrink from comparison with the finest ecclesiastical building, 
of recent times, in the Metropolis. 

SAINT GEORGE'S CHURCH, LIVERPOOL. 

Saint George's Church, situated westerly of a line formed by Castle-street and Pool- 
lane, has the Crescent, at the end of Lord-street, on the east. 

In the left-hand corner of the Engraving is shewn a small portion of the Crescent, and 
the opening into Lord-street ; and the receding buildings on the right-hand side of the 
Plate, occupy an angle formed by Cable-street and Pool-lane. The house, partly con- 
cealed by the Church, forms the termination of the Crescent, on the south. 

For notices of the first erection and subsequent rebuilding of Saint George's Church, 
the reader is referred to page 46 of this work. 

The body of this elegant structure is rusticated, and combines solidity with neatness. 
The windows are twelve in number, having circular heads, and architrave, with a chastely 
ornamented Doric entablature, from which rises an elegantly empannelled parapet. It is 
intended to embellish the east window with a representation of the Crucifixion, in stained 
glass, from a design by Hilton. An organ, of exceedingly rich and extensive power, 
occupies a considerable part of the organ-loft, and the decorations of its exterior contri- 
bute materially to the elegant appearance of the Church. 

The west-door, exhibited in the Engraving, is ornamented, according to the Doric 
order, with pilasters, supporting an entablature and a pediment. The window above is 
remarkable for its unpretending neatness. The base of the steeple is rusticated, and 
surmounted with an entablature, similar in character to that which belongs to the main 
body of the building. 

From the cornice of the base springs a square pedestal, supporting the Ionic order, 
which consists of eight columns, disposed in an octangular form, each pillar measuring 
two feet six inches in diameter, and, including the base and cap, twenty-two feet six 
inches in height. Between the columns are the belfry windows, with their architrave 
and entablature ; and over them are placed, in sunk panels, the dials of the clock. 

Perfectly detached from the Ionic, rises the Corinthian order, surrounding the cir- 
cular base of the spire. It is composed of eight columns, measuring two feet one 
inch in diameter, and, from cap to base, twenty-one feet in height. A balustrading, at the 
top of this order, forms a passage round the springing of the octangular spire, furnished 
with oval openings for the admission of light, and terminated with a composite cap. 

The several parts of the structure harmonize exceedingly well, and form a pleasing 
and consistent whole. The rustication of the main body judiciously subdues the florid- 
ness of architectural beauty, and carries the eye, by an easy transition, to the regular 
orders, and the elegant spire which surmounts them. We regard this edifice as a happy 

ENGLAND. Q 



58 



GRAND NATIONAL ILLUSTRATIONS. 



production of art, alike honourable to the town of Liverpool, anu the talents of the 
architect who superintended its erection. 

The mayor, and municipal authorities, attend divine service here every Sunday. 

SAINT MARY'S CHURCH, PRESCOT, near LIVERPOOL. 



Prescot is a market-town, eight miles distant from Liverpool, pleasantly situated on 
the great road between Liverpool and Manchester. 

Saint Mary's Church, represented in our Engraving, is a large edifice, and has a very 
lofty steeple. It is in the incumbency of the Rev. B. G. Driffield. By a valuation of 
church livings, made in 1756, the rectory of Prescot was rated at £500 per annum. 

One circumstance, connected with the town of Prescot, demands our notice. John 
Philip Kemble, the Thespis of the English stage, was born at this place, in 1757. The 
accompanying Wood-cut is a representation of the house rendered famous, as being the 
identical spot where he first drew breath : it is the building with the gable-end in front. 
Prescot is also the birth-place of the late Matthew Gregson, Esq. author of the 
" Antiquities of Lancashire." 




CHURCH OF SAINT HELEN, SEPHTON, or SEFTON, near LIVERPOOL. 

The parish of Sephton, or Sefton, distant about eight miles from Liverpool, is prin- 
cipally remarkable for its having formerly belonged to the Molyneaux family, who 
had a seat there. The Church, shown in the Engraving, is a handsome building, said to 
have been erected in the time of Henry the Eighth ; and consists of a nave and side 
aisles, with a tower and steeple. The chancel contains sixteen elegantly carved stalls, 
and exhibits a great number of monumental memorials. 

There is a considerable degree of touching interest in this View of Sephton Church. 
** The heaven-directed spire" — the mourners consigning the remains of a deceased friend 



LrvEHTOC 




STo t&iS(a):i«.it>ii''S (.Cii'ijssc'ijii'i' '^ ^AS'A'iLjis isTjstJtsjs'ji; 




ij^ '-i7vCi/'iijii;:E WAIBLIElEIOIDrSlSSs, ©■;aOIK.'&S»S BQ^'M., 



FISHEK SON 8c C9 LONDON, 187.9 



COUNTY PALATINE OF LANCASHIRE— LIVERPOOL. 59 

to their place of rest — and the numerous emblems of mortality, which appear in the fore- 
ground of the picture, distinctly characterize a spot, where, 

" Each in his narrow cell for ever laid, 
The rude forefathers of the hamlet sleep." 

SAINT GEORGE'S CRESCENT, AND CASTLE- STREET, LIVERPOOL. 

The Engraving of Saint George's Crescent, and Castle-street, places before the reader 
the most magnificent improvements which the town of Liverpool has recently undergone. 
Space for the erection of the Crescent was obtained by the removal of the houses in 
Castle-street, opposite Saint George's Church. In little more than twelve months the 
Crescent was completed, and very important alterations effected in Lord-street. These 
great objects were accomplished by the Corporation at an expense exceeding £170,000. 
The widening of James- street, leading to the docks, which has just been effected, will, on 
tlie removal of the warehouses and other buildings from Mann's Island, very materially 
improve the view from the north wing of the Crescent, and render it a still more 
desirable place of residence. 

Castle-street derives its name from the ancient Castle, the remains of which were 
taken down in 1715, when Saint George's Church was erected on its site. This street 
has been greatly improved by the removal of the buildings that have given place to the 
Crescent. The Town-hall, though not quite centrally situated with respect to Castle-street, 
renders the perspective view, as seen from Pool-lane, highly effective. 

The View, illustrative of our subject, is taken from Pool-lane, and embraces an 
interesting field of observation. Beginning at the right-hand corner of the Engraving, 
we first notice the south extremity of the Crescent, a small part only of which 
is visible till we pass the magnificent opening into Lord-street. The elegant character 
of the modern erections in this street will next engage the reader's attention. His obser- 
vation will then be drawn to the north wing of the Crescent, which forms the most 
prominent feature of the Plate. Passing forward into the perspective, a curvature in the 
buildings denotes the commencement of Castle- street, and points out the opening into 
Harrington-street. In the extreme distance appears the west end of Dale-street ; and 
the line of perspective, continuing its course, is seen traversing part of High-street, over 
which appears the dome of Saint Paul's Church. We then notice the south front of the 
Town-hall, which assumes a conspicuous station in the View ; and, in a line with this 
and Dale-street, runs Water-street. The west side of Castle-street is perceptible 
between the Town-hall and the east end of Saint George's Church, the latter forming 
the boundary of the picture on the left-hand. The market-woman and children in this 
corner, mark an opening which leads into Redcross-street, and thence to the Docks. 

The bustling appearance of this scene is calculated to give a stranger an adequate idea 
of the mercantile importance of Liverpool. A commingled crowd, including merchants, 



60 GRAND NATIONAL ILLUSTRATIONS. 

gay promenaders, and a motley assemblage of "the sons of art/' fill the avenues with 
sounds of life and commerce, 

" Trade and Joy in every busy street, 
Mingling are heard." 

We congratulate the Town and Corporation of Livkrpool on the happy issue of their 
recent exertions for its improvement, which have invested it with a grandeur and magni- 
ficence that will enable it to contest the palm of enterprise with the Metropolis itself. 

THE GOREE WAREHOUSES, GEORGE'S DOCK. 

The extensive range of Warehouses, called Goree, occupying the site of those 
mercantile depositories which, in 1802, were entirely destroyed by fire, were loftier, 
by two stories, than the present buildings. The conflagration occurring at a time 
when the warehouses were stored with property, the consequences were most ruinous. 
This terrible visitation forms an epoch in the history of Liverpool ; and when deter- 
mining the date of any remarkable occurrence, the inhabitants speak of it as being 
prior, or subsequent, to the Goree fire. The devastation produced by the ignition of 
the Caxton Printing Offices, in 1821, which destroyed valuable property to a 
vast amount, awful and extensive as it was, will not compare with this dreadful 
calamity, the total loss of which, amounted to £323,000. The ruins continued burning 
for upwards of three months ; when preparations were made for clearing the ground, 
for the erection of the present Goree warehouses. 

The Docks and Commercial Offices of Liverpool form the grand features of this 
modern Carthage, and claim the first attention of the stranger. The warehouses, shown 
in our View, occupying a very considerable space of ground, rise to a great height; 
and the spectator notices with admiration the facility with which goods are conveyed 
to all parts of the building. 

The illustrative Engraving commences in the right-hand corner with the south end 
of the Goree Warehouses, standing in a direct line with Moor-street ; and the per- 
spective, beginning at this point, traverses the entire front, facing George's Dock, 
the entrance to which is shown by the shipping on the left-hand side of the Plate. 
The tower and spire of St. Nicholas appear above an opening, which is Water-street ; 
and between this and the south end, before mentioned, occurs the entrance to Brunswick- 
street. Arched piazzas lead underneath the warehouses, and form a covered walk, 
extending the whole length of the buildings. 

This View gives the reader a pleasing idea of the maritime importance of Liverpool, 
and marks it as a proud seat of Commerce, where people of all nations daily meet, and 
from whence many an ocean-palace sails to lands heretofore unknown. Long may she 
remain the Tyre of modern times — 

" Her merchants princes, and each deck a throne." 



COUNTY PALATINE OF LANCASTER.— MANCHESTER. 61 

MANCHESTER. 

This very populous "Village," seated on the rivers Irk, Medlock, and Irwell, is the 
centre and emporium of the cotton manufactures, and one of the most ancient towns of 
Lancashire. It is situated in 53° 22' N. L. and 2° 42' W. L. ; distant from London 183 
miles, and 36 from Liverpool. Manchester gives the title of Earl and Duke to the 
family of Montague ', the former having been granted by Charles I., in 1621, and the latter, 
in 1719, by George I. 

General History. — ^The Ancient History of Manchester commences, with tolerable 
certainty, about A.D. 79- Julius Agricola, whose conquests in Britain were more 
extensive than those of any other Roman general, had, about the time that Titus was 
besieging Jerusalem, effected the subjugation of this country as far north as the Clyde ; and, 
in order to secure the Roman possessions, fortified several military stations, of which 
Mancunium (hodie Manchester) was one. A castle was erected in this place, occupying 
the site of what is, in the present day, called Castle-field. During the Saxon dynasty, 
Mancunium, or Mancestre, was occupied by a chief, who, to remedy the incon- 
venience of sending his corn to the mill on the Medlock (still named Knott-mill, a sup- 
posed corruption of Canute's mill) constructed another on the fosse, where Cateaton- 
street now stands. Deansgate derived its name from the then dean, whose residence 
subsequently became the parsonage-house ; and a few plots of land, alienated from the 
Church, are now built on, and still retain the name of the Parsonage. 

About the year 1086, Albert de Gresley, a follower of the Conqueror, fixed his residence 
here ', and his son obtained, in 1134, from his sovereign, Henry I., a royal grant for holding 
an annual fair in his lordship of Manchester, on St. Matthew's day, the day before, and 
the day after. This fair is now held on the first of October, under the name of Acres 
Fair, usually corrupted into Ackers Fair. Another descendant of this family, on the 
fourteenth of May, 1301, constituted Manchester a free borough. And, in the 9th, 
Henry V. Thomas de la Warre, son of Robert de la Warre, who succeeded Robert de 
Gresley, in this lordship, obtained a license to found a collegiate church, which 
he liberally endowed. The expense of building this venerable pile, when the wages of 
artisans were only 2d. per day, was £3000, (equal to £50,000 of our present money) and 
was defrayed partly by the parishioners, and partly by the munificent founder. In the 
beginning of the sixteenth century, Hugh Oldham, a native of Oldham, and bishop 
of Exeter, founded the grammar-school. In 1579, the manorial rights and privileges 
passed into the hands of Sir Nicholas Mosley, from whom the present lord of the manor. 
Sir Oswald Mosley, Bart., is lineally descended. 

In 1654 the Lord Protector issued his writ, requiring the burgesses of Manchester 

to return a member to Parliament ; in obedience to which, • — Worsley was elected 

their representative. When the Restoration took place, however, the town was deprived 

ENGLAND. R 



62 GRAND NATIONAL ILLUSTRATIONS. ' 

of the elective franchise. At this period, not less than eight days were necessary to 
effect an exchange of a post-letter with London. In 1737? R- Whitworth established 
here the first newspaper, under the title of the "Manchester Magazine," which, in- 
cluding the stamp, was sold for three-halfpence. Manchester was greatly agitated in 
1745, in consequence of the second attempt of the Stuarts to regain the throne ; and on 
the twenty-ninth of November, the Pretender arrived here, and took up his quarters in 
Market-street Lane, at the house of Mr. Dickenson, since converted into an inn, but still 
retaining the name of ^^the palace." The introduction of hackney-coaches, effected a 
few years since, was first attempted in 1750, but sedan-chairs were, at that time, deemed 
preferable. Christian the Seventh, of Denmark, in 1768, whilst making the tour of 
England, visited Manchester, and lodged with his suite at the Bull's Head Inn. 

Manufactures. — So early as 1552, the manufacture of woollen goods was carried on 
in Manchester ; but it was not till 1750 that the cotton trade assumed an important 
character. In 1781, the quantity of cotton-wool imported amounted to 5,198,778 lbs. ; 
but the improvement of machinery has more than trebled the extent of this importation. 
The official value of the cotton manufactures in the year 1821, was £30,000,000; at the 
present time it cannot be less than £60,000,000. In 1825, there were, in the parish of 
Manchester only, 20,000 steam-looms in motion; and the number has since then consi- 
derably increased. The woollen, linen, and silk trades are by no means inconsiderable, 
though inferior to the cotton business. Hats are also a prominent feature in the manu- 
factures of Manchester. The iron foundries are of great magnitude, and machine-making 
is executed to a very great extent. 

Some idea may be formed of the cotton trade, from the circumstance that, the raw 
material is brought to Manchester and, when manufactured, returned to eastern 
countries, from which it is again sent to England as a foreign production. The Pacha of 
Egypt is a regular trader in cottons, with this seat of industrious art. 

Public Buildings. — The public buildings of Manchester, which may vie with the 
proudest erections in the kingdom, will be brought before the reader in a series of 
spirited and elegant Engravings, accompanied with full particulars relative to their 
foundation, use, and architectural character; it is therefore unnecessary, in this place, to 
enter into any description of them. 

Government and Police. — ^The government of the town is vested in a boroughreeve 
and two constables, chosen annually from the most respectable inhabitants. Those 
gentlemen have usually been selected for boroughreeves, who have already served in the 
office of constable. The office of the former is principally to preside at public meetings ; 
the judicial functions connected with the police being executed by the constables and 
their deputies. A court-baron is held every third Wednesday, for the recovery of debts 
and damages under 40^., and a court of requests, for the parish of Manchester, every 
second Wednesday, for the recovery of debts under £5. A magistrate, who is a barrister, 
appointed by government, with a salary of £1000 a year, sits every day (Sunday 



COUNTY PALATINE OF LANCASTER.— MANCHESTER, 63 

excepted) in the court-room of the New Bailey, for the administration of justice, in which 
he is usually assisted by one or more magistrates. The quarter-sessions are held before 
a barrister in the commission of the peace, who takes the chair, and receives from the 
hundred of Salford £800 a year for his services. The parochial concerns of such a town 
as Manchester, where the fluctuations of trade occasionally throw vast numbers out of 
employ, are extremely heavy. The Work -house is a large, spacious, and handsome 
building, erected in 1792, upon an eligible piece of high ground, near the confluence of 
the Irk with the Irwell, and opened for the reception of paupers in 1793. In the years 
1816 and 1817, not less than 526 persons were here furnished with sustenance. 

Population. — According to the census taken in 1821, the population of Manchester 
amounted to about one hundred and ninety thousand ; but the increase of buildings, and 
other causes, must have swelled the numerical strength of Manchester to at least 
200,000 souls. The total amount of inhabitants may be said to include those of Salford, 
Ardwick, Brougliton, Chorlton-row ^ Hulme, and Pendleton; the last named place, 
though in the parish of Eccles, must be considered as contributing to the population 
of Manchester. Vast and extensive as is the population of this town, in the present 
day, it is stated to have contained, in 1717? only 8000 inhabitants. In 1757? it was com- 
puted that there might be in Manchester and Salford 19,839 souls. A census, in 1774, 
fully established the population of the town at 22,371, and that of the whole parish at 
41,032 ; and in 1821 it was fixed at 186,996. 

Markets. — ^The markets of Manchester, not including Salford, or any of the other 
townships, are under the regulation of the lord of the manor, both as to number and 
situation. Every day in the week, with the exception of Sundays, provisions of all kinds 
are exposed for sale, but the regular market-days are four. Tuesday is the principal day 
set apart for the sale of provisions and manufactures ; Wednesday for cattle ; Thursday 
and Saturday are also market-days for provision and manufactures. A fair is held, 
annually, at Knott' s-mill on Easter Monday ; and Acres fair, in St. Ann's Square, on the 
1 st of October, for cattle only. Two chartered fairs take place annually at Salford ; the 
first on Whit Monday, and the latter on Nov. 17. The last continues twenty-one days, 
for the sale of woollen cloths, the two first days being also for cattle, toys, and pedlery. 

Improvement of the Town. — ^The improvement of Manchester has been going on 
progressively, from the commencement of the nineteenth century, with great spirit, 
and on a very magnificent scale j and since the year 177^ the town has increased with 
such rapidity, that, at this time, the aggregate length of all the streets amounts to 
upwards of eighty miles. Buildings in Police-street have been taken down for the 
extension of King-street, and connecting it with Deansgate. The narrow avenues at 
the lower end of Cannon-street leading to Hanging-ditch have been widened ; and, by 
setting back the railing of the Infirmary pond, Piccadilly and Mosley-street have 
gained a valuable accession of carriage-way. Market-street Lane has given place to 
Market-street, which may well be termed the "Regent-street" of Manchester. 



64 GRAND NATIONAL ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Atmosphere, Water, and Fuel. — Manchester is situated on low ground, there 
being a descent to it, on which side soever it is approached. Seated at the junction of three 
rivers, and lying immediately in the vicinity of the Yorkshire hills, the air is, perhaps, 
usually too moist. Notwithstanding its peculiarity of situation, it may, however, be 
deemed a healthy place, judging from the longevity of the inhabitants,and the bills of 
mortality, which exhibit a considerably greater number of births than burials. 

The water for culinary purposes was, till very lately, obtained from wells, many of 
which are now rendered useless by the deeper-sunk wells of the steam-engines. Nearly 
every house is provided with a cistern, to preserve the rain that falls upon the building; 
and by some this is used for nearly every purpose. By an act of parliament obtained a 
few years since, a large reservoir was formed at Gorton, four miles from Manchester, 
which transmits the water through iron pipes, for the supply of the whole town. 

Manchester is well supplied with coals from the neighbourhood of Oldham, Ashton- 
under-Line, &c. The average price is about 17s. per ton. Besides the common coal, 
there is another kind called Cannel, of which the best sort is brought from Haigh, near 
Wigan, which not only makes the most cheerful fire, but is capable of being manufactured, 
like Derbyshire spar, into a variety of ornamental utensils. On the south side of the 
town are extensive peat or turf bogs, which, in the absence of coal, would be invaluable. 

Miscellaneous. — In 1806 the Portico, including the News-room and Library, was opened 
to the proprietors, and, in the following year, Broughton Bridge was completed. In 
1807, the Independent Chapel, in Grosvenor-street, and the new Theatre Royal, were 
opened ', the Regent's Bridge, over the Irwell, was also finished this year. At the same 
time, the Exchange Buildings being in a sufficient state of forwardness for the purpose, 
the Post Office was removed to its present situation. 

In 1809 the Exchange News-room was opened, and the Lancastrian and Ladies' 
Jubilee Schools were founded. An Auxiliary Bible Society was established in 1810, and, 
in the following year. National Schools, on Dr. Bell's system, were resolved on at a public 
meeting. The year 1812 was marked by scenes of riot and confusion, which required 
the interposition of military aid. In 1813 the Pitt Club held its first dinner, and the 
same year witnessed a grand pyrotechnical display, in honour of the success of the allied 
army over Napoleon. In 1814 the Ducie Bridge was thrown across the Irk, and a dilapi- 
dated Stone Cross in the Market-place taken down. In 1816 the Savings Bank was 
opened ; and, in the following year, the present Emperor of Russia, then Grand Duke 
Nicholas, visited Manchester, and inspected the manufactories. In the year 1819, 
considerable disturbances arose, when military interference became necessary, and 
many lives were lost. 

Having detailed a few particulars of the early history and distinguishing features of 
Manchester, we refer our readers for further information to the descriptions which 
will accompany our Engravings. 




M. J. Staxiinp 



THJB E^ClSAniS-IE, KIAMCIHESTnElE, 



ro ■VdK MUJISCKIHKtca. JiiLhHCRAN.J'S. MAN U F ACT V R.BKS . AX D TRADMSMMU . THIS PLA'fE IS RSSI^CTFVLlrr BTJSJCATI.D . 

 BY THR -eUBLTSjmRS . 



MAHCHESTEB. . 




maj!s.ie:ie,t-§t:k.ie]s-t.- cu"i?ijii3^''iF!ss ^ ]sm.®®iK:i 



3 IBAHK. 



?1SHER.,S0N fc C? LONDON, 1839. 



COUNTY PALATINE OF LANCASTER.— MANCHESTER. 65 



THE EXCHANGE, MANCHESTER. 



A building called the Exchange, but more aptly named the Lazaret, from its being 
the resort of vicious characters, and a nest of loathsome disease, formerly occupied what 
is now an open space in front of the commercial edifice represented in our Engraving. 
The filthiness and inconvenience of the old building preventing its application to mercan- 
tile purposes, it was, in 1792, taken down. The site, however, still retaining the name 
of the Exchange, was used by the merchants as their place of meeting, till the present 
erection was provided for their accommodation. 

In 1804, the leases of some old buildings, in the Market-place and Exchange-street, 
having expired, the proprietor. Lord Ducie, offered the ground, on liberal terms, for the 
erection of the Exchange, and other commercial offices. A fund of £20,000 was formed 
by four hundred shares of fifty pounds each, and the ground purchased of Lord Ducie, 
at a yearly rent of ten shillings per square yard, when his lordship generously gave 592 
yards to the public streets. Preference was given to the plans, for the intended Exchange, 
furnished by Mr. Harrison of Chester ; and Messrs. Buxton and Cape were directed to 
complete the structure, under his superintendence. 

On the 2lst of July, 1806, the first stone was laid by George Philips, Esq., (now Sir 
G. Philips, Bart. M.P.) and the building then proceeded with such celerity, that, early in 
the year 1808, the part designed for the Post Office was occupied. On the 2d of January, 
1809, the Exchange News-room was opened to subscribers of two guineas, and one guinea 
per annum ; the former being residents in Manchkster, or its environs, to a distance 
of six miles, and the latter, persons more remotely situated, who open a warehouse 
occasionally in the town. Strangers are admitted to the room, through the medium of 
one or more of the subscribers, and treated with the greatest urbanity and politeness. 
The convenience and elegance of the room brought in subscribers very rapidly, and not 
less than sixteen hundred names are, at this time, included in the list. In 1809, four 
hundred new shares, of £30 each, were formed, when the purchase of the land in fee, 
from the present Lord Ducie, was completed for the sum of £12,000. 

The Exchange is built of Runcorn stone, and constructed on the Doric model. The 
columns, twenty-seven feet in height, support an entablature with a decorative frieze and 
cornice, surmounted with an empanelled parapet. The north front, shewn in the 
Engraving, is semicircular. The principal entrance is in this quarter, and another opens, 
on the west, from Exchange-street, through the vestibule to the News-room, and the 
grand stair-case. The Post Office is entered from the south-west corner ; and on the 
east side are stair-cases leading over this part of the building, and conducting to the 
ante-chamber of the Dining-room, and to the Library. The arms of Lord Ducie occupy 

ENGLAND. S 



66 GRAND NATIONAL ILLUSTRATIONS. 

the panel of the parapet, over the west entrance, and those of the town of Manchester 
are similarly placed over the north door. 

The Exchange News-room, containing an area of 4060 feet, occupies the whole north 
front, and is lighted by plate-glass windows, and a semicircular dome light, the glass for 
the last of these costing not less than £150. The upper part of the room forms the Circulat- 
ing Library, supported by fluted Ionic columns, that contribute materially to the beauty of 
this magnificent apartment, which terminates above them in a richly panelled semi-dome. 
The room is handsomely furnished with mahogany tables and chairs, and provided with 
gas-lamps of elegant construction. The tables are supplied with London and provincial 
papers, reviews, and periodicals, in great variety. The building remains open from seven 
in the morning till ten at night. 

The ground-floor of the Exchange includes the Exchange-room (the News-room just 
described,) two shops, one on each side of the west entrance, the Master' s-office and 
Retiring-office, the Tavern-bar, now Mr. Aubrey's-office, and the Post Office. The situa- 
tion of the latter is admirably adapted for facilitating the despatch of business. 

The grand stair- case leads to the Dining-room, which is fitted up with an orchestra, 
and occasionally used as a ball-room. Ante-rooms, and other necessary appendages, 
communicate with this apartment. 

Whilst we express our surprise that the town of Manchester, distinguished for its 
high mercantile character, should have remained so long without an adequate building 
for commercial purposes, we must also observe, that its enterprising inhabitants have 
now completed an erection, the grandeur of which is fully commensurate with the extent 
and dignity of their commerce. 



MARKET-STREET— CUNLIFFES, BROOKS, and GO'S BANK, MANCHESTER. 



Li the course of our work, other views of Market-street are given, which mark the 
character of this street more distinctly than the subject under review j we shall, therefore, 
reserve our notices of the improvement that has been made in this quarter of Manchester, 
till we come to speak of those Illustrations, merely stating, at present, that all the old 
buildings in this View will shortly be taken down, and replaced by erections in a line 
with the Bank, and more worthy of this elegant street. 

The principal feature in the Engraving, is the Banking-house of the highly respectable 
firm of Cunliffes, Brooks, and Company. The front of this building is elegantly classic 
in design and execution. Four Doric columns support an entablature, from which rise 
four Ionic pillars, crowned with a characteristic cornice, and terminating in an attic 
story. The edifice recedes between two elegant shops, which, from a similarity in their 
architecture, form two noble wings, and render the coup d'oeil more effective. 




THIE BiOTAIL IMSTITHJTKSrf, MiiEfCli:ESTISK., 




iticf^TAinlies, 



'J'l&IlS T(a)"Wl^ -iEIAiLli, 'jiaAKf(ClEI]KSTlKlE. 



i«K HOROVoimr.sYF,, coirsiiiiaas. t MjmafRATKS.Tms pjatsis iteerscvrmj.y nr,DiCA:rhD hy 

. TSX I'VBLISllJfli.S. 
i'MSIlKR, SOU & C9 lOMJOK. 1629, 



COUNTY PALATINE OF LANCASTER.— MANCHESTER. 67 

THE ROYAL INSTITUTION, MANCHESTER. 

Early in 1823, a few enlightened and public-spirited individuals entered into a com- 
mittee, to consider the expediency of forming a society for effecting an alliance between 
commercial and liberal arts. A general meeting of the inhabitants was held in the 
Exchange-room, on Wednesday, the 1st of October, the same year; when it was unani- 
mously resolved, " that the society be forthwith established." It was, at first, intended to 
occupy premises in King-street, but the ardour of public opinion expanded the views of 
the governors, and it was determined to erect the Royal Institution in Mosley-street, 
which object was finally completed, under the superintendence of the celebrated Mr. Barry, 
at a cost of £30,000. 

This noble pile of building is applied to exhibitions of Paintings, similar to those of 
Somerset-house in the Metropolis; and to Lectures on the liberal arts and sciences, 
generally. It also affords ample accommodation for the servants of the Institution. 

The Engraving exhibits a fine perspective view of the west front of the Royal Institu- 
tion, beyond which is Bond-street ; and at the bottom of Mosley-street stands St. Peter's 
Church. 

The Institution stands on a decorative basement, from which rise six lofty Ionic 
columns, supporting the pediment of a projecting portico. Two Ionic columns, on each 
side of the portico, sustain the entablature of the front. Above the cornice of the main 
building rises a plain parapet ; and from the centre of the structure ascends a Doric order, 
surmounted with a statue of Britannia. 

The wishes of the original projectors of the Royal Institution have been realized. 
Within the walls of this building is heard the voice of instruction, emanating from refined 
and scientific minds ; and beautiful displays of pictorial art are here exhibited for the 
improvement of juvenile artists, and the general gratification of an enlightened public. 

THE TOWN-HALL, MANCHESTER. 

This magnificent structure, which stands in King- street, was erected at a cost of 
£30,000, for the transaction of the police and municipal business of Manchester. The 
temple of Erectheus, at Athens, was selected for the model of the building ; and the dome, 
in the centre, is copied from the octagonal tower of Andronicus, usually called the 
" Tower of the Winds." The portico, in front, commands universal admiration. Four 
richly executed Ionic columns, and eight pilasters, support the entablature ; above which 
are placed, on a massive basement, emblematical figures of the Town of Manchester — 
Commerce, and Trade. Statues of Solon and Alfred decorate the niches on each side of the 
portico. The attic is ornamented with medallions of Pythagoras and Locke, of Lycurgus 
and Judge Hale. 



68 GRAND NATIONAL ILLUSTRATIONS. 

The foundation of the Town-Hall was laid on the 19th of August, 1822, and the 
structure was brought to completion under the able direction of Mr. Goodwin, architect. 
The front measures 134 feet, and the depth of the building is 76 feet ; yet these vast 
dimensions have scarcely rendered it adequate to the great purposes for which it was 
designed. 

The ground-floor of the Town- Hall contains a vestibule and grand stair-case, besides 
two other entrances from King-street, and provides offices for the boroughreeve and 
constables, and their deputies, rooms for the meetings of the Commissioners of Police, 
Committee-rooms, &c. The principal floor covers the whole, with a room (the largest 
in the town) in which general meetings are held, and public dinners given ; but, as it is 
not completed in its designed decorations, we shall not attempt a particular description. 

Our Engraving exhibits the south front of this truly classic edifice to considerable 
advantage, and, by exposing part of the west end, affords a correct idea of the whole 
building. The opening, in the left of the picture, is Cross-street, and at the other 
extremity of the front is seen the entrance to Cheapside. A secondary, but not unim- 
portant feature of the Plate, is the York Hotel, a fine, handsome structure, ornamented in 
front with a neat and elegant pediment. 

MARKET STREET, FROM PICCADILLY, MANCHESTER. 

Market- street, the principal thoroughfare of Manchester, had long been inadequate 
to the vast traffic with which it was continually crowded, when, in 1821, an act was 
obtained, with the general concurrence of the town, for the improvement and widening of 
this and other confined avenues. The commissioners instantly commenced operations, 
and, in the course of a few years, they have nearly completed the present Market- street, 
with handsome shops and dwellings on each side, and descending by a regularly inclined 
plane from Piccadilly to the Exchange. 

This drawing is taken from the west end of Piccadilly ; a spot well chosen by the 
artist for picturesque effect, but which does not exhibit Market-street in the best point of 
view, nor give it that commanding appearance which it assumes in the engraving we next 
describe. 

MARKET STREET, FROM THE MARKET PLACE, MANCHESTER. 

A few years since, the market accommodation in Manchester was not equal to the 
increasing trade of the town ; but, under the auspices of Sir Oswald Mosley, Bart., the 
lord of the manor, the generally prevailing spirit of improvement soon manifested itself 
in the erection of new shambles and other necessary conveniences for public business. 
The covered market, on the London road, was opened on the 14th February, 1824. 
Subsequently to this, Smithfield Market at Shude Hill, and the market in Brown-street, 




lOUEKET gTB.ISET. FROM PICGMJILLT. MMf CHESTER = 




MM«JST STRSKT. FROM THE SMIESJEIT FILACE.'MABCHESTISIR,. 



# 




TO Ur- UVRRAT. AND M>' U? COI/JfBL . THIS PLATE IS BJiSPECTFULLY JXSCRIBEJi.. 




TWE TWIST ]FAC.T®jR;rs, ©X7038.B STKIEIETs, MAHCPIBSTER. 

TO StKSSKfi JtYDK.WOOD.l: COOK , THIS PLATl: IS PJ'.SPECryur.iy IXSCPIBFJ}. 



USHKK.SON S: C9 J.ONPON. 1329. 



COUNTY PALATINE OF LANCASTER. 69 

for butchers' meat, have been opened. On the site of the " Old Shambles," a very con- 
venient, and for the purpose, an elegant building has been erected, which, in 1828, was 
opened as a Fish-market. The abundance of provisions of every description exposed for 
sale, in the several markets on Saturdays, strikes a stranger with astonishment, both as to 
its collection and probable sale. The quantity of meat sold on these days is almost 
beyond belief; and the quality is allowed on all hands, to be, at least, nothing inferior 
to that of any market in the united kingdom. 

On Tuesdays, more particularly, Manchester presents a busy scene. A great number 
of manufacturers from the adjacent towns and neighbourhood, attend, for the sale of 
their cotton goods ; and when no adventitious circumstances throw a temporary gloom 
over the trading interests, the value of goods sold in one day is frequently very con- 
siderable. A stranger notices the cotton market with peculiar admiration, as being a 
grand characteristic feature of Manchester, the chief seat of this,' the staple manufacture 
of the kingdom. 

The Engraving is a faithful representation of Market-street, as seen from the old 
Market-place 5 and it is here the spectator obtains an adequate view of this splendid 
avenue. The ground floors of the buildings on the left are occupied by magnificent shops, 
the interior of which is arranged with great taste and elegance. Lofty pilasters separate 
the windows of the first and second stories ; and the first story window of the corner 
house is finished off with a Doric pediment. The pilasters support an entablature, above 
which rises the attic story, crowned with a parapet. Though not similar throughout in 
point of architecture, this street has a noble aspect, and bears strong testimony to the 
mercantile importance and enterprising spirit of the town of Manchester. 



COTTON FACTORIES, UNION STREET— MANCHESTER. 

In the time of Edward the Third, many of the manufacturers of the Netherlands were 
induced to come over into England, when they settled themselves in the counties of 
Westmoreland, Yorkshire, and Lancashire ; their fabrics being known by the name of 
'f Kendal Cloth," "Halifax Cloths," and « Manchester Cottons." 

The cotton trade, the staple manufacture of Lancashire, had its origin in the East, 
where the cotton plant is indigenous. At the time when the Romans brought cotton 
fabrics from India, the manufacture had attained the same perfection which it possesses 
at the present day, in that country. The implements used by the Indians are now pre- 
cisely what they were two thousand years ago. 

It was not till the year 1760, that the cotton trade of this country found markets on 
the European continent and in America ; subsequently, however, the supply became inade- 
quate to the demand. This was owing principally to a want of weft, and partly to the 
limited capabilities of the machinery. 

ENGLAND. T 



70 GRAND NATIONAL ILLUSTRATIONS. 

At this juncture, Thomas Heys, a reed-maker, a native of Lancashire, projected a 
machine for the spinning of cotton with greater rapidity than had hitherto been done. 
He associated himself with one Kay, a clock-maker, in the same town with himself. 
Their efforts were at first unsuccessful, and the project was for a time abandoned; 
when Heys again took it up by himself, and brought it to completion. The new machine 
he called, after the name of his daughter, a Jenny. 

In 1767j James Hargrave constructed a spinning Jenny of greater power, when the 
spinners, dreading the consequences of the discovery, destroyed the mechanism, and 
drove its contriver out of the county. 

Sir Richard Arkwright, a native of Preston, having a mechanical genius, directed his 
attention to the improvement of the machinery used in the prevailing manufactures of 
Lancashire, and, in 1768, removed into Nottinghamshire, where he built a factory for 
spinning cotton by the new process. From this era we may date the extension of the 
cotton trade. 

Every part of the manufacture, from the importation of the raw material to 
its completion, is carried on in Manchester, but the branch for which this town is 
principally distinguished, is the spinning. 

Our Engraving exhibits a view of the cotton factories of Messrs. Murray and Co. and 
Messrs. M^Connel and Co., in Union-street, Manchester. In the external appearance 
of these buildings, we remark little else than their great height. It is the interior which 
is most interesting. The hundreds of persons employed in them, the various depart- 
ments of the art, and the regularity of the process, strike a spectator with astonishment, 
and impress him with a high opinion of the value and importance of the manufactures of 
Manchester. 

THE TWIST FACTORY, OXFORD-STREET, MANCHESTER. 

In the infancy of the cotton manufacture, the warp, which was made of linen yarn, was 
prepared for the loom by being bound on pegs fastened to the wall ; but the invention 
of the warping mill, about 1760, introduced a better and more rapid method of perform- 
ing the operation ; and the subsequent improvements in spinning machinery produced 
cotton twist, which superseded the use of linen yarn. The difficulties of obtaining warp 
and weft being thus done away, still greater facilities were afforded to the trade by the 
supplies of English yarn to the amount of several thousand tons per year. It is estimated, 
that the twist and weft spun in Great Britain amounts in weight to one hundred and ten 
million pounds per annum. Nearly one-tenth is used in the making of lace, thread, and 
stockings ; two-tenths are exported in twist, and the remaining seven-tenths are used 
in manufactures at home. 

The annexed Engraving represents the Twist Factory of Messrs. Hyde, Wood, and 
Cook, in Oxford- street, Manchester. 





TC TME PKESIDEHT. TEli RiaKT SOU. TKE EARL OF STAMFORD JNH TmimiH6T0S'.Aim OTFICERS. TMIS PLATE IS ItBSPECTFUZlnr INSCILLBZD 

BY TSE FUBLISKERS. 




TIOE HK"5^ ©^ILiISir IPXuSOi^s, ITTJI^C/ -2XJ iliOSlF'iTAId, &£. SAJC'^©Xi!J) . 



COUNTY PALATINE OF LANCASTER. 71 



INFIRMARY, DISPENSARY, AND LUNATIC ASYLUM, MANCHESTER. 



This threefold establishment had its origin in 1752. Several meetings had been held, 
to consider of the means by which an Infirmary might be established ; but a number of 
difficulties seemed to threaten the entire failure of the project. Joseph Bancroft, Esq., a 
philanthropic character, thought, however, that an Infirmary only wanted a beginning, to 
ensure its ultimate success. He accordingly proposed to defray all the expenses for one 
year ; and Charles White, Esq., a highly talented member of the surgical profession, 
volunteered his services for the furtherance of his object. A house was therefore engaged 
in Garden-street, Shude-hill, and, on the 24th of June, 1752, opened for out-patients ; and, 
by the end of July, in-patients were admitted. 

In 1754, the advantages of the Institution became so manifest, that the trustees 
purchased land from Sir Oswald Mosley, Bart., and the foundation of a more suitable 
building was laid by James Massey, Esq., May 20, 1754. 

The new Infirmary was opened in 1755. The subsequent additions are very con- 
siderable, and, at this time, there are not less than one hundred and sixty beds, appro- 
priated to the use of patients. 

In the year 1765, the Lunatic Hospital and Asylum was founded, and, in the spring 
of the following year, a suitable erection was completed for the reception of patients. 

The establishment was rendered complete in 1792, by the addition of a Dispensary. 
A structure for the purpose was raised, adjoining the Infirmary, the expenses attending 
the erection of which were partly defrayed by sermons, preached in all the churches 
and chapels of the town and neighbourhood. The sums collected on these occasions 
amounted to £4297. 17«- 6rf. 

The Infirmary has recently undergone considerable alteration, and it is in contempla- 
tion to remove the Lunatic Asylum to some retired situation. 

The inside of the buildings is distinguished by cleanliness, and the arrangements are 
adapted to enhance every comfort of which the patient's case will admit. 

The Operation-room is upon the higher story, and all its appurtenances are calculated 
to give confidence to the surgeons, and to abridge the suffering, as well as tend to the 
safety, of the sufferers who require their assistance. 

The Library is supplied with a good collection of books ; and the Board-room is 
adorned with portraits of the benefactors to the Institution. 

" The cleanliness and comfort," says Mr. Aston, in his * Picture of Manchester,' 
" which pervade every room, command applause ; and the being who can examine them, 
without sensations of pride that so much real charity is practised upon earth, must either 
be very superior, or much inferior, to man." 



72 GRAND NATIONAL ILLUSTRATIONS. 



SALFORD. 



Salford, though a distinct township, a joyal demesne, and governed by its own 
officers, forms a part of the town of Manchester ; with which it has communication by 
one iron and four stone bridges. It has three churches : Trinity Chapel, built on the site 
of another church, founded in 1635; St. Stephen's Church, consecrated July 23, 1794; and 
St. Philip's Church, consecrated September 21st, 1825. Salford has also two large 
Methodist Chapels ; two Independent Chapels ; two chapels where the doctrines of 
Emmanuel Swedenburg are taught ; and one Unitarian chapel. 

Till 1827, this township had no market. On Whit-Monday, and November 17th, 
annual fairs are held ; the latter being for horses, cattle, and woollen cloth, and lasting 
for nearly the space of a fortnight. 

According to the census in 1821, Salford then contained 4818 houses, 5549 families, and 
25,772 inhabitants, of whom 12,453 were males, and 13,319 were females. Salford gives 
its name to the hundred in which it is situated. 

The Public Buildings are represented in a series of Engravings, which we shall 
describe in order. 

THE NEW BAILEY PRISON, LYING-IN HOSPITAL, &c. SALFORD. 

The New Bailey Prison, forming the principal feature of the annexed Plate, was built 
after the plan of the celebrated John Howard, the philanthropist, and opened for the 
reception of prisoners in April, 1790. A rusticated stone building forms the entrance to 
the structure, and contains apartments for the turnkey and his family, and rooms for 
the confinement of suspected persons, previous to their committal by the magistrates. 
Over these is a large Sessions-room, in which the weekly and quarterly sessions are 
held. Adjoining this are withdrawing-rooms for the magistrates, council, jurors, &c. 
and a house for the governor of the prison. 

The Lying-in Hospital was instituted May 5, 1790, when the subscribers engaged 
a building at the north-west end of the Old Bridge. It was not till 1796 that the 
Charity was removed to the present hospital in Stanley-street, which had been purchased 
for a comparatively small sum. In the year 1825-6, considerably upwards of 3000 poor 
married women received the benefits of this Institution. 

The Deaf and Dumb School occupies part of the Hospital in Stanley-street. Twenty- 
four poor children, whose afflictions make them eligible objects for this charity, are here 
supported and educated. The expenses are defrayed by subscription ; and the master 
of the school is allowed to take other pupils, labouring under similar privations, from 
parents who are able to pay for their education. This Institution is of recent date, (1825,) 
but its benevolent effects are already very considerable. 




IffOTTARIAKT CifllAFEIL, FAB-AIDISIE SIT'IRISIET. 




ISiLEXAH (CMAFIIL:, STAMMOPE S 



E'lSHIR. SOU 8t C?L0NI)ON.i8Z9. 



COUNTY PALATINE OF LANCASTER. 



UNITARIAN CHAPEL, PARADISE-STREET, LIVERPOOL. 



73 



There are two Unitarian Chapels in Liverpool, one in Renshaw-street, and the other 
(shewn in the Engraving) in Paradise- street. The last mentioned structure is of an 
octagonal shape, uniting in the west with the main front, which occupies one face of the 
figure. Each side of the octagon exhibits two windows, and round the whole building 
runs an attic balustrade, ornamented with vases at the angular points. The centre of the 
edifice is occupied by a large octagonal lantern, having pilasters at the angles, surmounted 
with smaller vases. The structure is enclosed within a handsome railing and gateway, 
which contribute materially to its beauty and neat appearance. A pediment, of trifling 
projection, resting upon four half columns, gives a decorative and pleasing finish to the 
principal entrance. 

The arrangements in the interior of the building are deserving of notice. It is well 
lighted, and in every respect commodious. The pews are comfortably lined, and chastely 
ornamented ; and the pulpit, supported by six columns, with a double flight of stairs, 
occupies a prominent and well-chosen situation. Over the gallery, which is richly inlaid and 
veneered with mahogany and satin-wood, stands a handsome and well-toned organ. 

The view, exhibited in the Engraving, is taken from the east end of Cable-street. 
The perspective traverses Paradise-street ; in a line with which the front of the Chapel is 
situated. The, extremity of the house, in the left-hand corner of the Plate, shows the 
continuation of Paradise-street, leading to Whitechapel. The direction of School-lane is 
pointed out by the carriage, &c. introduced in the same side of the Engraving. 
Passing the Unitarian Chapel, and the range of houses on the south, an opening occurs, 
leading to College-lane. The house on the right-hand stands partly in Paradise- street, 
and partly in Cable-street. 

The Chapel in Renshaw-street is a plain handsome building of brick, having a stone 
front. The windows are circular-headed, and the front is finished oif with a bold and 
handsome pediment. A fine-toned organ has been provided, to assist the choral services. 
Behind the Chapel is a spacious cemetery, 

WESLEYAN chapel, STANHOPE-STREET, LIVERPOOL. 

This spacious and elegant Edifice is situated without the southern boundary of Liver- 
pool, formed by Parliament-street, in the suburban parts which pass under the general 
name of Harrington. This building has a stone front, with pediment, and a Doric por- 
tico supported by double columns. The whole structure is surrounded with palisadoes 
raised upon a high stone basement. The interior of the building is finished in a chaste 
Grecian style, that consists well with the exterior. A powerful fine-toned organ, by 
Bewsher and Fleetwood, gives solemnity to the services ; and the " dim religious light" 

ENGLAND. U 



74 V GRAND NATIONAL ILLUSTRATIONS. 

falling through an oval window of stained glass, executed by Messrs. Lyon and Son, 
imparts a sacred shade to the communion table. 

On the left-hand side of the Engraving, is shown the side of the Chapel, running 
parallel with the Park Road. Passing over the front of the edifice, we notice the con- 
tinuation of Stanhope-street, out of which, on this side, is an opening into Grafton- street, 
and below that are timber-yards. In the extreme distance is shown the noble Mersey with 
its forest of masts, and the line of the Cheshire shore. 

ROYAL AMPHITHEATRE, LIVERPOOL. 

This noble and handsome structure, appropriated to dramatic and equestrian exhibi- 
tions, is situate in Great Charlotte street, in the immediate vicinity of St. John's 
Market, (see Plate of latter building.) It was built in 1825. The erection was begun 
in shares of £100 each, by Mr. Cooke, the equestrian, who occupied it Jot two seasons ; 
but it was then only partially completed. It afterwards came into the possession of the 
present spirited proprietor, Richard Armistead, Esq., and under his auspices it has been 
brought to its present state of convenience and perfection. The total cost amounted to 
upwards of £18,500. 

It is said, by those who have had opportunities of forming an opinion on the subject, 
that it may claim the distinction of preeminence, both as to extent of accommodation 
and splendour of decoration, over every similar erection in the kingdom. It is capable of 
accommodating from 3,000 to 4,000 spectators. The total length of the building 
is 135 feet by 76 feet wide. The roof presents a remarkable specimen of skilful 
carpentry, being so constructed as to span the whole breadth of the building, without 
any interior support. The stage is 51 feet long by 41 1 feet, opening at the proscenium. 

It is opened during the winter months, when the patent Theatre Royal is closed ; 
and is at present rented under a lease by Mr. Ducrow, the proprietor of Astley's 
amphitheatre, London. Mr. Ducrow's extraordinary displays of elegant and daring skill, 
as the first equestrian of the age, aided by those of his numerous and very efficient 
company, form attractions for the public quite unprecedented in Liverpool. 

The audience part of the house is fitted up in the most convenient, tasteful, and 
brilliant style. The front of the three tiers of boxes, and of the galleries, presents to the 
eye a prevailing mass of crimson ground, enriched with burnished gold mouldings and 
ornaments. A large and splendid gas chandelier, suspended from the ceiling, and 
numerous subsidiary ones ranged round the front of the boxes, serve to shed over the 
whole place the glow and radiance of an Oriental palace. 

During one part of, the evening's performance, while the various displays of horse- 
manship are exhibited in the circle, the whole opening of the proscenium is occupied by 
an admirably executed representation of the Death of Nelson, on the deck of the Victory, 
painted as a huge picture contained in a gigantic gilt frame, richly ornamented with 




RETAIL AMl'HITMIEATmE, 3.irTIEBF®(0)L. 




.IITIEIEF©©!. T:&©M TEIe' ^®W^.-mATLL,^lL<S)(Q'Kl^<&. SO^JTH. 



COUNTY PALATINE OF LANCASTER. 75 

emblematic nautical devices. At this period, the magnificent sweep of the body of the 
house, crowded with cheerful human faces, the rich and sparkling decorations so prodi- 
gally, yet tastefully, flung over every part ; and the graceful evolutions of the numerous 
equestrian corps, remind us of those days 

" When ancient chivalry displayed 
The pomp of her heroic games, 
And crested chiefs and tissued dames 
Assembled"' 

The building consists of tliree stories, of which the lower one is rusticated. Four 
Corinthian pilasters support the pediment of the front. The passages and entrances are 
judiciously contrived, and the avenue leading to the boxes is adorned with busts, paint- 
ings, and other appropriate ornaments. 

As a whole, for architectural beauty, and respectability of management, it forms one of 
the most creditable and conspicuous establishments in the town. 

The extensive stabling, required for the accommodation of the large stud of horses, 
is ingeniously formed under the side wings of the stage. 



SOUTH VIEW OF LIVERPOOL, FROM THE TOP OF THE TOWN-HALL. 

This beautiful panoramic View of Liverpool, embracing the most picturesque and 
interesting features of the town, concentrates many particulars which have been already 
exhibited in detail, and displays them in a light at once novel and commanding. 

The noble avenue in the centre, forming the principal object in the picture, is 
Castle- street ; at the extremity of which is seen the south wing of the Crescent. 

The classic tower and elegant spire of St. George^s Church, are seen, rising to a 

magnificent height, above the dense mass of buildings which surrounds them, — 

Quantum lenta solent inter vibuma cupressi. —Virgil. 

As the tall cypress lifts its head with pride, 
High o'er the shrub that shelters at his side. 

Translation. 

In the back-ground of the View, and in a line with Castle- street, may be seen the 
tower of St. Thomas's Church ; while more to the left, the Church of St. Michael forms 
a conspicuous, though distant object. 

The situation of the Docks, which are concealed from the spectator by intervening 
buildings, is pointed out by the masts and rigging of the vessels, resting, like huge 
leviathaps, within their spacious basins. Beyond these, the Mersey raises her urn of 
waters, across which numberless skiffs are stretching their white sails, and floating onward 
like insects in a summer's eve. 



ye GRAND NATIONAL ILLUSTRATIONS. 

The reader, whilst surveying this bird's-eye View of Liverpool, will be struck with 
the almost metropolitan extent and character of the town. As repeats those features 
which have rendered it " the stronghold of commerce/' he must candidly confess, that 
our modern Rome can offer no competition. 



SOUTH-EAST AND NORTH-WEST VIEWS OF ST. LUKE'S CHURCH, 

LIVERPOOL. 

This fine ecclesiastical edifice stands at the top of Bold- street, from whence one angle 
of its lofty and elegant tower is seen to great advantage. The whole of this costly 
erection is in a corresponding style of architecture, being constructed throughout on the 
most superb and decorative gothic model. 

The fertile genius of Mr. Foster suggested the elegant design, which has been com- 
pleted, under his superintendence, at the expense of the Corporation of Liverpool. The 
beautiful simplicity of the interior contrasts strongly, yet pleasingly, with the florid 
architecture without; and a noble flight of steps at the west end, confers an air of 
grandeur on the principal entrance. 

In the south-east View of the building, the castellated and embattled tower, the south 
aisle with its embattled parapet and rich spiracles, and the chancel with its superb 
buttresses and turrets, are exhibited with considerable fidelity. We may here remark, 
that gothic architecture, when compared with classic erections, has a decided advantage in 
richness of composition and picturesque effect. The latter please the judgment by the 
orderly disposition of their parts, the former delight the eye with an exuberant 
profusion of ornamental details, varying in effect according to the light ; those are 
hallowed reminiscences of barbarous and feudal times, while these carry back the memory 
to the sun-lit eras of Athens and Rome. 

The north-west View is much less angular than the above, and shows to great advan- 
tage the beautiful gothic windows and buttresses of the main building. The reader is 
here looking upon the edifice from the top of Renshaw-street. On the right hand is 
the extremity of Bold-street, and in the back-ground appears the tower of St. Mark's 
Church. 

As a chaste specimen of the decorative gothic order, this church may vie with any 
similar erection in the kingdom; while its sublime character, so consistent with the 
uses to which it is appropriated, points it out to every feeling mind as one of those 
hallowed spots, 

" Where, through the long-drawn aisle and fretted vault, 
The pealing anthem swells the note of praise." 




.E:jS»§ CHWiaeH, ]LIIT-iSiSP@®IL. 




TO J pull FOSTFR. ESQ 



T. LU1SE°S SHUIS-CHj LKTS'i^-js©®^ 



# 




MErW cJFEHUSAILlEM CMUlSCHs.MAi^CHlSSTISlEo 

TO THE REV. mCHAKD JOIIES . AND SIS COlieH-EOATl ON. TBIS PLATE IS RESPECTFULLY INSCRIBED, 

BY TME PUBLISHERS. 




TO -TlTF. VERY REV. TH1: WAHLIEH. A If O FELLOWS TH/S PLATE IS MOST RESPS CTfllL LY UKDTCATED, 

' BY THE PatlLISBE^S. 



COUNTY PALATINE OF LANCASTER. ff 

NEW JERUSALEM CHURCH, MANCHESTER. 

This structure, composed partly of brick and partly of stone, is situate in Peter- 
street, and was erected in 1793. The exterior of the building (see the Engraving) has 
a peculiarly neat and uniform appearance, and the interior arrangements conduce to 
comfort, and are consistent with the sacred character of the edifice. The organ, com- 
posed of three distinct parts, with more than twenty stops, possesses great richness and 
variety of tone, and the vocal department of the services is conducted with much 
solemnity and chastened effect. Originally there was much singularity in the disposition 
of the pulpit, but, in the year 1826, it was removed to its present and more appropriate 
situation. 

A printed liturgy is made use of by the members of this Church j and the Rev. 
Richard Jones, who has conducted the worship for many years, addresses his congrega- 
tion in a simple yet impressive style of eloquence, distinguished by all that ardour and 
energy which usually characterize extempore preaching. This amiable and disinterested 
minister has uniformly rejected all remuneration for his services, deeming the faithful 
discharge of his duty a better reward than *^ thousands of gold and silver." 

Mr. Jones's followers uphold the doctrines of Emmanuel Swedenborg : a literal 
copy of their creed is given beneath. 

" The members of the New Church believe in one God, who is a Being of infinite 
love, wisdom, and power, the Creator, Redeemer, and Regenerator of man : and that 
this God is the Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, who is Jehovah in a glorified human 
form. 

" They believe in the sacred Scripture, as being the Word of God, or the Divine 
truth itself : which is the fountain of wisdom to angels and men, and is able to make them 
wise unto salvation. 

" They believe that, whosoever would be saved, must shun all evils as sins against 
God, and live a life according to the ten commandments. 

" They believe, that when man dies as to his natural body, he rises again in a spiritual 
body, and will be judged according to his works ; and that if he is good, he will go to 
heaven, and become an angel, and be happy for ever ; but if he is wicked, he will go to 
hell, and become an infernal spirit, and be miserable for ever. 

" They believe that Now is the time of the Second Coming of the Lord, and of the 
commencement of the New Church called the New Jerusalem." 

A small burial ground is annexed to this sacred edifice, which was opened for 
the inhumation of the mortal remains of those who die in communion with the Church, by 
the Rev. William Cowherd and the Rev. Joseph Proud, on the 11th of April, 1/93. 

ENGLAND. X 



78 GRAND NATIONAL ILLUSTRATIONS. 

THE COLLEGIATE CHURCH, MANCHESTER. 

This beautiful and venerable relic of " olden time" assimilates very nearly, both in its 
constitution, and in the character of its architecture, to our cathedrals. Like those 
splendid erections of feudal days, this structure is characterized by the space of ground it 
occupies, by magnificence of design, and by luxuriance of decoration. Over this build- 
ing, also, as over them, the mist of half- forgotten ages has gathered j and whilst we gaze 
through the hallowed veil upon the labours of a race of men, long since returned to their 
dust, memory sheds her light upon the cloud, and invests the sacred pile with a 
gorgeous halo. 

This edifice was originally erected by Thomas de la Warre, the eighth Baron of Manches- 
ter, about A.D. 1422, and its noble founder procured the royal license, in the ninth year of 
Henry the Fifth, for the appropriation of the rectory, and the formation of the College, 
as originally endowed. The structure did not, however, reach completion in the hands of 
its pious projector: many enlargements and embellishments were added by successive 
wardens. The first of these. Sir John Huntingdon, it appears, built the choir of wood,* 
which was afterwards displaced by a stone fabric. 

In 1485, Sir James Stanley becoming warden of the Collegiate Church, built the large 
Chapel on the north side, dedicated to St. John the Baptist. During his wardenship, 
the Church assumed very nearly the appearance which it presents in the present day. 

Amidst the confusion of the civil wars, and the barbarous efforts of puritanical zeal, 
the Collegiate Church remained uninjured. Several reasons have been assigned for this : 
the most probable of any is, the circumstance of Manchester, and the 'leading men in the 
neighbourhood, being devoted to the interests of the Parliament. 

The several members of this Church, and their respective duties, appear to be the 
following : — 

The Warden is appointed by the Crown to superintend the Church as Collegiate, to 
see that the Fellows do their duty, and to preach to them four times in the course of the 
year ; he mUst likewise have the Collegiate part of the edifice kept in proper repair. He 
and the Fellows form a Chapter, for the management of all business connected with that 
division of the Church belonging exclusively to them. 

The Fellows are elected in a Chapter, and are four in number. Their duties consist in 
reading the liturgy, morning and evening, every Sunday, and preaching twice during the 
day ; this they do alternately. The Fellows of the College are the rectors of the parish. 

Two Chaplains (who are also Vicars of the parish) are appointed to read prayers on 
week days ; to marry, baptize, and perform the other ordinary ceremonies of religion. 
From the first Sunday in March to the last Sunday in September, they are enjoined to 
read the litany, and preach a sermon every Sabbath morning at seven o'clock. 
* The whole edifice, as begun by the Lord de la Warre, was built of wood. 



COUNTY PALATINE OF LANCASTER. 79 

There are two Clerks ; one of whom belongs to the College, and the other to the 
parish. The former of these is in effect a sinecure ; and the latter is an office so 
lucrative, that not less than £800 has, on the occurrence of a vacancy, been offered for the 
nomination, though all the fees of the situation are shared with the Clerk of the 
College.* 

The remaining members of the Church are, the Choristers and Organists, who differ in 
no respect from those of cathedrals. 

The Collegiate Church of Manchester includes also the parish church ; the former 
occupying the choir and parts adjacent, and the latter the body of the building. On 
Sundays the service is restricted to the place commonly used in parish churches ; but 
on week days, every day at half-past ten in the morning, and at half-past three, or, in 
summer, at four, in the afternoon, it is performed, cathedral-like, in the choir, by the 
Chaplains and Choristers. 

Our limits will not permit an extended description of this magnificent structure, 
or an enumeration of the various chapels, and other subordinate erections j a few general 
remarks will suffice to give it an interest in the estimation of every lover of the antique, 
but he must take an actual survey of the edifice before he can form an accurate idea of its 
peculiar features. So far as the accompanying Engraving extends, it exhibits, with much 
spirit and fidelity, the beautiful gothic work of the exterioi*, and will enable those who 
are familiar with cathedrals, to form a tolerably just conception of the general character 
of the building. 

The exterior of the Church is conformable to the style of gothic architecture, as it 
existed in the fifteenth century ; and nearly all the subsequent alterations and additions 
have been executed with reference to the original design. 

The Chapels are now less interesting than they were formerly. They contain each a 
few monuments, possessing, however, no great merit as specimens of sculpture. The 
screens, leading into several of them, exhibit most exquisite workmanship. 

* In 1825, the register of the Collegiate Church of Manchester stated the number of baptisms during the 
year, at 4,463 ; and of marriages at 2,983. Frequently not less than one hundred infants are brought, on one day, 
to be baptized. In the confusion incident to such a scene, it sometimes happens that wrong names are given to 
children, to the great annoyance of their friends ; and more than once a boy's name has been given to a girl, and 
vice versUt. On one occasion, the eccentric Chaplain, the late Rev. Joshua Brooks, christened an infant in direct 
opposition to the wishes of the parents. This circumstance occurred at the time when Buonaparte was in his first 
popularity. A child was brought to the Font : •<' Name this child ?" said the Chaplain.—" Buonaparte," eagerly 
replied the father. — " Buonaparte be hanged !" (peevishly rejoined the Minister :) " George, I baptize thee in the 

name of the Father " " I have one George already !" shouted the man : " I cannot help that," said Mr. Brooks ; 

" this lad is George, however : we'll have none of your Jacobin names here." 

Marriages are solemnized by wholesale at this Church. It is not uncommon to see ten or more couples standing 
at the altar together, when once reading the service does for all. One day, when, as is often the case, some of the 
parties were drunk, immediately after the conclusion of the ceremony, one of the brides made her way up to the 
oflSciating Minister, and, in a whimpering tone, said, " You have married me to a wrong man !" " Settle it among 
yourselves," was the hasty and only reply of the Chaplain. 



gQ GRAND NATIONAL ILLUSTRATIONS. 

" The inside is solemnly grand." Between the nave and the choir rises a beautiful 
i(Othic screen, which supported the magnificent organ, till the year 1829, when the latter 
was very judiciously removed to the west gallery : the small or choir organ being left in 
its original situation. 

" The windows in the choir have many remains of the painted glass with which they 
were once ornamented. In some of them, very beautiful specimens of this long-neglected 
art are still visible. In the upper and smaller compartments, are still to be found the 
heads of (perhaps) several hundred saints, popes, monks, and benefactors to the Church, 
Some of these, when viewed with a good telescope from the inside, on a clear day, exhibit 
no little merit as specimens of early portrait painting. 

" The choir, if those of cathedrals are excepted, is, without doubt, the finest, taken 
in all, its parts, in the kingdom ; and, in some particulars, few cathedrals excel it. The 
tabernacle work is perhaps unrivalled in this island." " The view from the communion 
steps, towards the body of the Church, is truly magnificent. It is from hence that the 
harmony of the design of the choir is most visible. The organs contribute to the 
grandeur of the view, as much as the stalls, and the tabernacle work above them, do to the 
picturesque."* 

The height of the tower on the outside, including the pinnacles, is 120 feet ; the whole 
length of the building is 132 feet, and the breadth 147 feet. 

HULTON HALL, LANCASHIRE. 

The parish of Dean, in the Hundred of Salford, contains ten townships, of which 
three have the same name : viz. Little-Hulton, Middle-Hulton, and Over-Hulton. 
In 1821, the latter place contained only five hundred and ninety-one persons, and the 
annual value was then estimated at £2,125. 

Hulton Park, situated in this township, is the residence of William Hulton, Esq. the 
sole proprietor of the soil, who is not only, by the intermarriages of his ancestors, 
collaterally allied to the ancient nobility, but is also a lineal descendant from the First 
Edward. The decision and energy which this gentleman has brought to the discharge of 
his public duties as a magistrate, on the most trying occasions, have connected his name 
with the principal judicial concerns of the county. 

The illustrative Engraving exhibits a faithful and spirited representation of the 
Hall, and surrounding shrubbery. During the many centuries that the " Hulton of the 
Park" (the ancient designation of the heads of the family) have resided here, several 
mansions must have fallen into decay, and been replaced by others, though we have not 
the means of ascertaining the fact. 

Over-Hulton is four miles and a half south-south-west of Bolton, and twelve miles 
west-north-west of Manchester. 

* For an elaborate description of the Collegiate Churck of Maachester, see Aston's " Picture of Manchester." 




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Rolers. 



COUNTY PALATINE OF LANCASTER. gl 



TODMORDEN HALL, VALE OF TODMORDEN. 

ToDMORDEN, a Small but thriving town, situated towards the eastern limits of the 
county, stands partly in the parish of Rochdale and Hundred of Salford, and partly in the 
parish of Halifax in the West-Riding of the county of York, in a picturesque valley, 
called the Vale of Todmorden. 

" A branch of the family of Radcliffe, of Radcliife Tower, was established at Todmor- 
den as early as the time of Edward in.," and continued to reside there occasionally for 
nearly four centuries, till, in 1700, the possessions were dissipated, and the estates 
consigned to other hands. 

The Manor House itself was rebuilt by Saville Radcliffe, Esq. about the beginning of 
the reign of Charles I., as appears from his arms yet remaining in one of the rooms, and 
from his impaling the coat of Katharine Hyde of Norbury, his last wife. 

The Todmorden Hall Estates, about the year 1796, were purchased by Anthony 
Crossley, eldest son of John Crossley, of Scaitcliffe 5 and, some j-ears previous, under 
his direction, the ancient Church had been rebuilt by subscription, at a cost of £606, a 
considerable share of which expense was defrayed by himself. The Todmorden posses- 
sions belong to Mrs. Ann Taylor, his only daughter, who resides in the Hall. The 
estate of Scaitcliffe, which has remained uninterruptedly in the same family from 
the time of the Saxons, is now the property of the eldest representative, John 
Crossley, Esq. 

Todmorden Vale possesses the three great requisites for manufacturing prosperity — 
building materials, coal, and water communication. In 1829, not less than 90,000 lbs. of 
cotton-yarn were spun weekly in the township and the vicinity ; and 2,000 pieces of calico, 
not to mention other articles, were produced in the same space of time. The market is on 
Thursday ; there is a fair for cattle, held on the first Thursday in every month ; and two 
annual fairs for live stock and general trafiic, held, the one on the Thursday before 
Easter, and the other on Michaelmas day. Baines, in his History of the County Palatine 
of Lancaster, has this concluding remark, in reference to Todmorden : — " Wealth has 
happily increased as fast as men ; unlike large toMms, there is here room for expansion, 
and the valley of Todmorden is studded with cheerful habitations, equally distant from 
splendour on the one hand, and penury on the other." 

The Eagle-Crag, in the vale of Todmorden, is the site of an old tradition connected 
with the house of Stanley; which has been wrought into a narrative of considerable 
interest by Mr. Roby, in his " Traditions of Lancashire." 



ENGLAND. 



^2 GRAND NATIONAL ILLUSTRATIONS. 



EXTERIOR AND INTERIOR OF ST. JOHN'S MARKET, GREAT CHARLOTTE- 
STREET, LIVERPOOL.— TWO VIEWS. 



This extensive building, situate in the immediate neighbourhood of Queen- square, 
CI ay ton- square, and Williamson-square, was designed by Mr. Foster, and erected by the 
Corporation of Liverpool, at an expense of £35,000. The edifice was begun in August, 
1820, and finished in the month of February, 1822. 

The principal front of the Market (shown in the Engraving) . is in Great Charlotte- 
street, and faces the Amphitheatre. It is built of brick, with the exception of the founda- 
tions, entrances, and cornices, which are of massy stone. The roof consists of five ranges, 
two of them being considerably elevated, to admit side-lights, that swing upon their 
centres, and afford a free circulation of air. There are 136 windows in the upper and 
lower tiers, taken together. The building measures 183 yards in length, and 45 yards in 
breadth; and occupies a space equal to nearly two statute acres. Eight spacious entrances, 
three in Great Charlotte- street, three in Market- street, and one at each end, lead into 
the interior of the structure. 

Viewed from the inside, the building appears to the amazed spectator as one large, 
well-formed, and lightly-painted hall, in comparison with which most buildings of a 
similar character are insignificant. The interior is divided into five avenues, supported by 
four rows of cast-iron pillars, 25 feet high. The walls are lined by fifty-eight shops and four 
offices ; the latter being for the use of the superintendent of the Market, the toll-collectors, 
and the weighers of provisions. One hundred and forty-four gas-lights illuminate the 
building by night. Four pumps, one of which supplies hot water, are disposed in different 
parts of the Market ; and every evening the place is thoroughly cleansed by twelve scaven- 
gers engaged for that purpose. After the gates are closed, two watchmen remain within, 
to guard the property from depredation. 

Thelprincipal market-days are Wednesday and Saturday ; but there is a considerable 
market every day. The regulations are adapted for the equal protection of the buyer and 
seller ; and the rates of porterage being clearly understood, any exorbitant demand by 
tlie carriers is effectually prevented. The persons employed in the latter capacity, who 
have badges on their arms, are deemed most trust-worthy. 

: " The rents charged in this Market are as follows: — Shops, £18 per annum; cellars, 
(of which there are 29,) £5; butchers' stalls, £8; the corner ones, £10; vegetable and 
fruit stalls, £6; potato- compartments, £3; the corner ones, £3. 4s. ; table-compartments, 
£1. 12s.; bench-compartments, 12s.; outer fish- standings, £8; the inner ones, £4. 
Occupiers of shops pay £2. 12s. per annum each for a gas-light." 




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COUNTY PALATINE OF LANCASTER. 83 

BIRKENHEAD AND THE CHESHIRE SHORE, FROM LIVERPOOL. 

The Engraving presents the reader with a view of the village of Birkenhead, and the 
bold outline of the Cheshire shore, as seen from Liverpool. Taking in a foreground, 
composed of interesting details connected with commercial life, the spectator's eye is 
carried across the waters of the Mersey, presenting at intervals all the varieties of floating 
machinery, and embraces a wide extent of country lying on the opposite shore. 

A considerable portion of antiquarian interest attaches to Birkenhead. Some historical 
particulars relative to the Priory will be found at page 24 of this work. 



THE BLACK-ROCK FORT AND LIGHTHOUSE, LIVERPOOL. 

Black-Rock Fort, standing on the Rock-point, presents not only an excellent structure 
of defence to the port and town of Liverpool, but is likewise a most pleasing and inter- 
esting object at the entrance of the river. It is built in the form of a trapezoid, covering 
a surface of between three and four thousand square yards. At each of the angles nearest 
to the main land is a circular tower, flanking the rear front. The external wall varies in 
height, partly owing to the general irregularity of the rock's surface. The west, or prin- 
cipal front, mounting six thirty- two" pounders, exceeds two hundred feet in length, and is 
from twenty-five to twenty-seven feet high. The front between the north-west and north- 
east angles is upwards of one hundred and fifty feet long, and from twenty-nine to thirty- 
one feet high, and mounts four guns. The fourth side, fronting the main land, is well 
flanked by the two towers above mentioned, and has an escarp, varying from thirty-one to 
thirty- three feet in height. This front is occupied with barracks. 

The exterior wall of the barracks discovers twelve loop-holes for musketry, to fire upon 
the approach to the fort, which leads through a handsome gate-way of the Tuscan order. 
The entrance is by a stone bridge of three arches, connected with a wooden drawbridge. 
A large bomb-proof magazine, capable of containing many hundred barrels of powder, is 
built in the middle of the fort. This military structure was erected from the design and 
under the direction of Captain Kitson, of the Royal Engineers. 

Beyond the battery stands the Lighthouse, erected by the Corporation of Liverpool, 
at an expense of about £35,000. This admirable specimen of Mr. Foster's architectural 
skill rises to the height of ninety feet above the level of the rock, and is surmounted by a 
lantern, which, throwing its light to a great distance out at sea, afi^ords considerable security 
to inward-bound vessels. The diameter of the building, at the base, is thirty-five feet, 
diminishing upwards to the lantern. The masonry is perfectly solid to the height of 
thirty-two feet ; then commences a spiral staircase, communicating with the room appro- 
priated to the use of the men who superintend the building. 



84 GRAND NATIONAL ILLUSTRATIONS. 

The Engraving presents a faithful and picturesque representation of the subjects W( 
have described, executed with much graphic talent. The outward-bound vessel and pilot- 
boat, the bold front of the battery, the lighthouse, the boat in foreground, the broad masses 
of clouds, and the chafing waters — are noble details for the artist's use ; and it must b« 
confessed, that both the limner and engraver have employed them to considerable advantage 
on the pres^it occasion. 

ST. PHILIP'S CHURCH, SALFORD. 

This Church, (erected by order of parliament, at a cost of £14,000,) stands on the* 
north side of Bank Parade, Salford. The foundation-stone of this unique Ionic structure 
was laid in November, 1822 ; and, on the 21st of September, 1825, the building was con- 
secrated to divine uses. A great similarity exists between this edifice and the new Church 
at Camden Town, near London. 

IRWELL-STREET METHODIST CHAPEL, SALFORD. 

This building was opened for divine worship on the 13th of October, 1826. It is 
capable of accommodating about eighteen hundred persons. Four hundred of the sittings 
are free. The front of the Chapel (see Engraving) is finished off with a noble cornice, two 
elegant wings, and a light Ionic portico surmounted by a pediment, and supported by 
four fluted columns. 

Sixty years since, the Methodists were not possessed of a single edifice in Manchester, 
or its environs, which would contain two hundred persons ; now, however, they are 
furnished with a number of neat, nay, even splendid erections, adapted to contain, at least, 
ten thousand. The year 1826 is memorable in the annals of Wesleyan Methodism, four 
very large and handsome Chapels having been opened at that auspicious era 

THE OLD MARKET-PLACE, DEANSGATE, BOLTON. 

Bolton-le- moors, commonly called Bolton, is a market-town and parish in the hundred 
of Salford, and deanery of Manchester, consisting of two distinct townships, separated by 
a small rivulet — -the one named Great Bolton, and the other Little Bolton. The two 
townships together contain about six thousand houses, and upwards of thirty thousand 
inhabitants. The market-day is on Monday ; and fairs are held on July 19, and Oct. 2, 
for cattle, horses, clieese, &c. 

For some years past the spirit of public improvement has been making rapid strides in 
Bolton, by the erection of splendid buildings for commercial purposes, handsome squares, 
and elegant places of amusement. The gas and water works also are 'eminently deserving 
of notice. The manufacture of cotton, which has now become a principal source of 



I 



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Br THE PVVTJSHKKS . 
FISHER. SOU. &. C LONDON. 1329 



COUNTY PALATINE OF LANCASTER. 85 

national wealth, originated in this place. Ainsworth, author of the Latin Dictionary, and 
Lempriere, author of the Classical Dictionary, were both at different periods masters of 
the Grammar-school at Bolton. Sir Richard Arkwright, also, lived in this town ; and 
during the time he was engaged in endeavouring to improve the Machines for spinning 
cotton, he followed the humble occupation of a barber. 

The Old Market-place at Bolton, derives very considerable interest from its exhibiting 
the spot where the brave and loyal James, Earl of Derby, suffered death on a public 
scaffold, October 1G51. Opposite to the building, distinguished by a number of crosses, 
is the place where he submitted to the executioner, for his devoted attachment to an 
ungrateful prince.* 

Blome, an ancient topographer, remarks, that — *' Boulton, seated on the river Irwell, 
a fair well-built town, with broad streets, hath a market on Mondays, which is very good 
for clothing and provisions ; and it is a place of great trade for fustians.'* 

STEAM-ENGINE MANUFACTORY, AND IRON-WORKS, BOLTON. 

The extensive Steam-engine Manufactory and Iron Works of Messrs. Rothwell, 
Hick, and Co. at Bolton, (represented in the Engraving,) are employed not only in 
manufacturing and providing steam-engines and mill-work for the numerous spinning 
factories, bleach works, calico-printing establishments, collieries, &c. in the immediate 
neighbourhood, but also in the fabrication of steam-engines, sugar-mills, &c. for our 
Colonies abroad, in the transit of which the proprietors of these works will soon have the 
greatest facilities. An extensive branch of the Bolton and Leigh rail-road is carried 
through their premises, by which means heavy castings, placed upon carriages constructed 
for the purpose, are removed from place to place by two or three men, with greater ease 
than in the ordinary way by as many horses. This rail-road, which is completed to the 
Leeds and Liverpool canal at Leigh, a distance of eight miles, will soon be connected by 
a short branch to the Manchester and Liverpool rail-road, and form part of that grand 
national undertaking. A steam conveyance for goods and passengers will shortly be 
established between this town and Liverpool, several locomotive steam-engines for that 
purpose being now in progi-ess. 

TURTON TOWER. 

Turton is a township five miles north of Bolton-le-moors, under which parish it has 
a chapel of ease. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the gift of M. Green, Esq. 

In this chapelry is still existing an ancient Tower, consisting of four stories, with an 
embattled parapet, in which are deposited some curious relics of ancient armour.—" In 

* Many interesting particulars relating to the Derby family, will be found in the description of Knowsley, 
Hall, at page 29. 

KNGLAND. Z 



86 GRAND NATIONAL ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Camden's time, Turton Tower was the residence of the illustrious family of Orell ; subse- 
quently it has been inhabited by the Chethams and the Greens; and is now occupied by 
a yeoman/' 

HALL I'TH' WOOD, NEAR BOLTON. 

Considerable obscurity invests the ancient history of this antiquated edifice. Of 
several dates, existing upon various parts of the building, the earliest is 1591. The first 

owner, on record, was — Brownley, Esq. ; but the . period of his ownership cannot 

now be ascertained. It afterwards passed into the Morris family, who built vthe stone 

front of the house, upon which is inscribed ^ 

• . AA 

The Starkie family, the present proprietors, are said , by some to. have obtained 
possession of this property by marriage ; but the general opinion seems to be, that it 
passed from the Morrises through an informality in a mortgage, and that all the papers 
found in the house, concerning its early history, were destroyed. 

In 1770, part of this old mansion was occupied by Mr. Samuel Crompton, an inha- 
bitant of the parish of Bolton; and it was here that he invented and . constructed a 
machine, which, from its combining the principles of the spinning-jenny and the water- 
frame, was named a mule. The progressive improvements in the manufacture of, muslins 
and cambrics, that resulted from Mr. Crompton' s scientific labours, occasioned the latter 
to be brought under the consideration of parliament, when a grant of £5000 was awarded 
to the inventor; and, a few years before his death, several of his townsmen raised a sum 
of money, amongst his friends in the neighbourhood, sufficient to purchase him a com- 
fortable annuity, which he was enjoying at the period of his decease. 



THE PRINCE'S DOCK, LIVERPOOL. 

An act of parliament for the construction of this fine Dock was obtained 51st Geo. III., 
and the foundation-stone laid in the year 1815. On the 19th of July, 1821, being the day 
of His late Majesty's (George IV.) coronation, it was opened with much ceremony. 

This Dock, yielding in extent to the Queen's Dock only, is 50Q yards long, and 106 
broad ; and covers an area of 53/854 yards. It has gates, 45 feet wide and 34 feet deep, 
with locks, at each end; the latter being so constructed as to admit vessels in and out at 
half-tide. It is enclosed within a lofty brick wall : at the north end of which is a dwelling- 
house, with suitable offices, for the dock-master. The quays are spacious, and are provided 
with sheds, to shelter the merchandise from the effects of weather. 

Along the west side, nearest the river, runs the Marine Parade, 7^0 yards long and 
11 yards broad ; from which a delightful view of the shipping is obtained. 




F.R.Hay. 




THIS BUIKIE'S 



/ 



COUNTY PALATINE OF LANCASTER. 87 



THE DUKE'S DOCK, AND WAREHOUSES, LIVERPOOL. 

The Dock, and contiguous Warehouses, shown in the Engraving, are the property of 
the executors of Francis Egerton, late Duke of Bridgewater ; and were constructed for 
the use of the flat-bottomed boats which ply on the Duke's Canal, and for the reception 
of merchandise. 

The Duke is said to have projected an extensive plan of canal navigation before he was 
of age ; which, on coming to his fortune, he began to put into execution, under the direc- 
tion of Mr. James Brindley ; who, having acquired considerable fame as an engineer, 
directed his fertile genius to the accomplishment of this great object. Happily for Mr. 
Brindley, and for his country, the Duke's patronage was sufficiently powerful to counteract 
the opposition which was raised against the undertaking ; otherwise the obstinate attach- 
ment of the public to established customs, might have rendered abortive one of the noblest 
projects that were ever contrived or executed. 

The Duke possessed an estate at Worsley, about seven miles from Manchester, rich in 
coal mines, which yielded but little advantage, owing to the great expense attending the 
removal of the product to a suitable; market. Sensible, of the utility of a canal from 
Worsley. to Manchester, his Grace consulted Mr. Brindley on the subject, who, after a 
survey of the country, declared the scheme practicable. An act of parliament was there- 
fore obtained in the year 1758-9 for this purpose. 

When the canal had been completed as far as Barton, where the Irwell is navigable for 
large vessels, the engineer proposed to carry it across that river by means of an aqueduct, 
39 feet above the surface of the water. This project was much derided : but, in the course 
often months, the work was finished; and. the first boat sailed over it July 17th, 1761. 
The canal was then continued to Manchester. 

The Duke now extended his views to Liverpool, and obtained, in 1762, an act of 
parliament for branching his canal to the tide-way in the Mersey. The difficulties with 
which the engineer had to contend in the prosecution of this part of the work, and the 
ingenious expedients which he adopted to overcome them, impressed the public with a 
just sense of his extraordinary abilities, and gave a decisive impulse to the infant project 
of canal navigation. 

About the commencement of the present century, Duke's Warehouses were con- 
structed for the use of merchandise brought into the Docks. These works (shown 
in the Engraving) form one of the bustling scenes of Liverpool, which strike a visitor 
with surprise and admiration. The foreground of the View is occupied by Wapping, the 
continuation of which, running north and south, extends, to a distance of nearly three 
miles, along the whole range of the Docks ; and is constantly crowded with all the noisy 
vehicles of commerce, and a moving tide of people. 



g^ GRAND NATIONAL ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Further on in the Engraving, are seen the Quays, laden with the rich treasures of the 
internal trade of the country. The ponderous building, on the left, includes the Ware- 
houses before-mentioned. A branch of the Dock runs under the large arch-way seen in 
the side of this structure ; and affords vessels the convenience of taking in and discharging, 
without exposure to the weather. 

Duke's Dock, of which an end view only is presented in the Plate, is situate about 
the centre of the line of the Corporation Docks. It is generally understood, that very 
liberal offers have been made, by the Liverpool -Dock Trustees, for the purchase of the 
Bridgewater property ; but the proprietors are, it seems, too well aware of the value of 
their central situation, to part with it. 

So long as commerce shall continue to be the distinguishing feature of this country, 
the names of Francis Egerton, Duke of Bridgewater, and Mr. James Brindley, will be held 
in grateful remembrance. 

STORRS, WINDERMERE LAKE. 

Storrs, the magnificent residence of Colonel John Bolton, an extensive ship-owner 
of Liverpool, stands in a beautiful and picturesque situation on the margin of Windermere 
Lake. This structure is of nwdern date : yet, though we cannot carry back its history 
through ancient annals, or decorate it with gleanings of traditional lore, it derives a proud 
interest from its being the habitation of an active and enterprising Englishman ; and the 
occasional calm retreat of an English statesman, whose deeply regretted decease left the 
vessel of our State unhelmed. Here, relieved for a time from the crushing weight of 
legislative occupations, the late Mr. Canning recreated with his friend, the distinguished 
owner of the mansion; here he restored, in some measure, the elasticity of a mind, whose 
lofty energies were ultimately, and, for our country, we may say prematurely, exhausted 
in the preservation of a nation's welfare. 

Windermere, or Winandermere, is a large lake on the eastern border of Lancashire, 
and divides the district of Furness from Westmoreland. The water, occupying an area of 
about fifteen miles in length by one in breadth, has been ascertained by soundings to be 
201 feet in the greatest depth. The bottom of the lake in the middle of the stream, is 
a smooth rock ; and in many places the sides are perpendicular. This vast reservoir 
is formed by the junction of the rivers Brathay and Rothay, at the west corner of the 
lake. At the southern end it terminates at Newby-bridge, whence the waters usually 
fall with great rapidity through the channel of the Leven-river, and in their course form 
several cascades over the cragged rocks. — Before leaving the subject, we may suggest to tbe 
English tourist, who travels " in search of the picturesque," whether a visit to the lakes of 
Westmoreland does not supersede the necessity of a journey to Switzerland. The taste 
of an Englishman must be deemed rather outre, when he learns, for the first time, at 
Geneva, that the lakes of his own country are beautiful. 




Haxwood. 



THE SEAT OF COL" JOHN BOLTON. TO ymOM THIS PLATE IS FSSFECTFULnr DEDICATED. 

BY THE PUBLISHERS . 




Haj-wood 



FURHESS A.BBEX 3IH THE TAJLK OF MIGHT SHABE. LAIfCASHIK.E 



COUNTY PALATINE OF LANCASTER. g^ 

FURNESS ABBEY, IN THE VALE OF NIGHTSHADE. 

The ruins of Furness Abbey, though exceedingly picturesque, are comparatively but 
little known, owing to their peninsular situation, which obliges the tourist who visits them 
to leave the line of his route. 

Furness is a district twenty-five miles in length, and six miles in width, comprehend- 
ing the whole of that division of the county of Lancaster, called Lonsdale north of the 
Sands, with the exception of the parish of Cartmel. It is divided into High and Low 
Furness ; though the line of demarcation cannot be very clearly defined. 

This district was awarded by the Conqueror to Roger de Poictou ; but it afterwards 
reverted to the crown, in consequence of the defection of the Norman baron. It was 
then given to Stephen, Earl of Mortaigne, (subsequently. King of England,) who con- 
ferred it on the Abbey of Furness ; by which institution it was held till the dissolu- 
tion of the monasteries, when it again returned to the crown, and became parcel of the 
duchy of Lancaster. In 1622, Charles H. bestowed this property on the Duke of 
Albemarle and his heirs, with all the rights, privileges, and jurisdictions appertaining 
thereto. The possessions of this nobleman descended by marriage to the Duke of 
Buccleuch and Lord Beaulieu, by whom the lordship of Furness is now held. 

The ancient glory of the district of Furness was the Abbey, situated in a valley, called 
Bekansgill — " the glen of the deadly nightshade,'' at a distance of about a mile south 
of the town of Dalton. This building was founded in the nones (the 7th) of July, 1127, 
by a body of Cistercian monks, with Ewan, the first Abbot, at their head, and dedicated to 
St. Mary. 

Ewan and his monks arrived in England in 1124, and seated themselves in the centre 
of the county of Lancaster, in a monastic building, already established at Tulket, near 
Preston. The Abbot having chosen a favourable site for the erection of his house, was 
enabled, from the abundance of materials, and through the patronage of Stephen, Earl 
of Boulogne, to construct a sanctuary, almost sufficiently stable to defy the ravages of 
time itself. 

At the dissolution, in the time of Henry VIII., Furness Abbey was endowed with a 
revenue of about £800 per annum, exclusive of other property. " The interval between 
abandonment and ruin, in an edifice of this nature," Baines observes, " is generally short : 
soon after the appropriation of the funds to the use of the state, the building itself began 
to decay ; and a structure that would have weathered the storms of a thousand winters, 
if cherished and supported by monastic hospitality and timely reparations, soon sunk into 
a state of dilapidation." 

The windings of the glen, or vale of nightshade, conceal these venerable ruins till they 
are closely approached; and the roads leading to them are margined with a few ancient 
oaks, stretching their broad branches entirely across the avenues. The northern gate of 

ENGLAND. 2 A 



90 GRAND NATIONAL ILLUSTRATIONS. 

the Abbey presents a beautiful Gothic arch luxuriantly festooned with nightshadej and 
overshadowed on the right, by a thick grove of plane trees, with oak and beech inter- 
mixjpd. These picturesque objects lead the eye onward to the ruins, which are seen 
through the dark archway lying in remote perspective. "The principal features are 
the great northern window, and part of the eastern choir, with glimpses of shattered 
arches and stately walls beyond, caught between the gaping casements." 

The Abbey is built of a pale red stone, dug from the neighbouring rocks, which time, 
however, has changed to a tint of dusky brown. The finest view of the ruins is on the 
east side, where, beyond the vast shattered frame that once contained a richly painted win- 
dow, are seen the choir and distant arches, remains of the nave, closed by the woods. 
This perspective measures about 287 feet in length, the choir part being thirty-eight feet 
wide inside, and the nave seventy feet. The walls, as now standing, are fifty-four feet 
high, and five feet in thickness. Southward of the choir are the remains of the chapter- 
house, cloisters, and school-house j the latter building being the only part of the Abbey 
which still boasts a roof. 

Of the large quadrangular court on the west side of the church, little vestige now 
appears, except the foundation of a range of cloisters, under the shade of which the 
monks passed in procession on days of high solemnity. What was the belfry, is now 
a detached ruin, exhibiting an appearance of picturesque grandeur. 

The insulated situation of the monastery, and the deep forests which surrounded 
it, secured this institution from the depredations of the Scots, who were constantly 
harassing the borders. On a summit over the Abbey are the remains of a watch-tower, 
raised by the society for their further security. 

The tempojal power of the Abbot of Furness was very great; and the services he 
rendered the House of Lancaster during the civil wars, obtained for the monastery a con- 
siderable accession of wealth. 

Mr. Baines concludes his description of the ruins of Furness Abbey with this nervous 
remark.— "The hand of decay is here continually at work, but owing to the original 
strength of the erection, and to its seclusion from the busy haunts of men, the ruin 
will probably survive longer than the building stood in its pristine glory, when the 
Abbot was monarch of Furness, and the Abbey was the school and the tomb of suc- 
cessive generations of the most elevated portion of the inhabitants." 



ST. GEORGE'S CHURCH, HULME, NEAR MANCHESTER. 

oini ; 

Hulme, a hamlet in the parish of Manchester, from which it is separated by the river 
Medlock, would, if it were detached from the parent town, rank as a considerable place, 
owing to the number and respectable character of its buildings. There are in this town- 
ship commodious barracks, usually occupied by a squadron of horse. 



.^.H « 




M:aA,^:-'L..- ai^niis, ila,i^ga.s 



TEE SEAT or TJTF. KARJ, OF WILTOir, TO ITMOM THIS VUilV 75 RF.SFI)CTrt72.iy DEDICATED, 

EY THE PIIBLISSERS. 




ERLiAM HA.IL,]L. ]L^I.TGjLgHI]R.]E . 



TBE FROFERTY OF lOHN aREAVES, ESQ. TO WVOM THIS FLAXE IS WSCRISED . 



-JBUSSEa.S. 



COUNTY PALATINE OF LANCASTER. 91 

St. George's Church, Hulme, is an elegant edifice ; the foundation of which was laid 
by the Bishop of Chester, in September, 1826. It is provided with free sittings; and was 
built from the funds allowed by parliament. 

This structure is not less richly decorated than many ancient Gothic edifices ; the 
design is noble, and the tout ensemble exceedingly chaste. 



ST. MATTHEW'S CHURCH, CAMP FIELD, MANCHESTER. 

This beautiful specimen of the modern Gothic, is one of the churches built by parlia- 
ment. It was erected from the design and under the direction of Mr. Barry, of whose 
architectural genius and taste, it is a creditable production. The edifice stands upon the 
site of the ancient Mancunium ; and, perhaps, occupies the identical spot on which the 
first Christian temple that was erected in the town formerly stood. 

This Church contains six hundred free sittings, for the use of the poor. The elegance 
of the interior excites the particular attention of strangers ; and the light lantern tower 
and spire are objects of general admiration. 



HEATON-HOUSE, NEAR MANCHESTER. 

This elegant structure, the seat of the Earl of Wilton, a lineal descendant of the 
ancient Barons of Malpas, is situate in a fine part of the county, at the distance of four 
miles north-east from Manchester. 

The Heaton estate, forming part of the township of Little Heaton, in the parish of 
Prestwich, came into the hands of the Egerton family, in the reign of Queen Anne. The 
present noble possessor, being the sixth in regular descent, inherits this princely domain 
from his great-grandfather. Sir John Egerton, Bart, of Wrine Hall, Staffordshire, who, in 
the reign of James II., married Elizabeth (in good time sole heiress) of William Holland, 
Esq. of Heaton and Denton, the last male of a very ancient family, which had the honour, 
at various times, of uniting itself, not only to the peerage, but with royalty itself. 

The mansion, which is a modern stone edifice, built by the first Earl of Wilton, (the 
grandfather of the present proprietor,) from designs by the late Samuel Wyatt, Esq., 
occupies a commanding situation, in the midst of a fine park, abounding with trees and 
plantations, and containing a capital private race-course, on which races are annually run. 

The Ionic order in the centre of the building is semicircular, and surmounted with a 
dome ; and the colonnades, connecting with the wings of the structure, terminate in two 
octangular pavilions. On an apparently inconsiderable eminence, at no great distance 
from the house, stands a circular temple, from which are obtained extensive views into 
Yorkshire, Cheshire, Derbyshire, and Staffordshire. 



92 GRAND NATIONAL ILLUSTRATIONS. 



IRLAM-HALL, NEAR MANCHESTER. 

Irlam is a hamlet, in the township of Barton and parish of Eccles, situate eight miles 
west-south-west of Manchester. 

Irlam -Hall, the property of John Greaves, Esq. stands at a short distance from this 
hamlet. The building was erected in the time of Elizabeth; and is characterized by sub- 
stantial comfort, rather than by elegance. The father of the present owner obtained 
possession of the Hall, with its demesnes, by purchase. 



FAIRFIELD, NEAR MANCHESTER. 



The Church of the United Brethren, (commonly called Moravians) was formed in the 
beginning of the 15th century, by some of the followers of John Huss, of Prague. Having 
obtained a retreat at Lititz, in the mountainous parts of Moravia, they were solicitous 
to receive and perpetuate episcopal ordination ; they, therefore, selected three of their 
ministers, who were consecrated Bishops, by Stephen, Bishop of the Waldenses, assisted 
by another prelate of that church. A violent decree was not long after issued against 
the Brethren, and commanded to be read from all the pulpits of Bohemia. The prisons were 
crowded with the members of their church : of these, many perished in dungeons ; and 
the remainder fled to thick forests, where they spent their hours in reading the Scriptures 
and in prayer. 

The Moravians appeared in England about the middle of the last century; when their 
doctrines, discipline, character, and history, having been scrupulously examined in com- 
mittees of both houses of parliament, a bill was, in 1748, passed in their favour, with 
the unanimous consent of the Bishops, in which they were fully acknowledged by the 
British legislature to be, " an ancient Protestant Episcopal Church, which had been coun- 
tenanced and relieved by the Kings of England, his Majesty's predecessors.'' 

The Brethren have now several settlements and congregations in England, Scotland, 
and Ireland. Their missions among the heathens, which were begun in the year 1732, 
have of late years attracted general attention. 

Fairfield, near Manchester, one of the settlements of the United Brethren, was built in 
the year 1784-5. It lies four miles east of Manchester, near the road from that town to 
Ashton. The ground-plot is laid out with much taste, and forms a commodious square. 
The front consists of several large well-built houses, with the Chapel in the centre. Rows 
of dwelling-houses complete the square, round which runs a broad paved street with 
flagged foot-paths. In the front there is a succession of well-cultivated gardens. The burial 




IF'A.lIM.Fli^SilL.lQo ]Ls^i^'(DAS2I[2:S.ISo 



TO Tax BISHOPS a KLBERS OF THE CinjV.CK OF TBF. UinTED BP.ETSREN, OS. MORAVlaNS, TBXS PLATE TS HFSPF.CTFUZLy DEDICATED . 

SY TWE PUBLISHERS. 




TO GEORGE -HO-RSa GPjr.^. F.AK.T, OF STAUTOVXl AUt) WABJUKGTOU, THIS PLATE. IS IIUliBIIT UEDICATED, 

BY THE FCTBLISHERS. 



riSHF.R,, SON, Si. C° LONDON. 1930. 



% 



COUNTY PALATINE OF LANCASTER. 93 

ground is opposite the Chapel. The number of inhabitants is upwards of 300. An 
academy for young gentlemen, and a seminary for young ladies, have long been established 
in this place, at which children of all denominations receive their education. Here is 
also an institution called the Sisters' House, the voluntary residence of unmarried females; 
all of whom belong to the Church of the United Brethren. The inhabitants are chiefly 
employed in executing the celebrated Moravian needlework, for which a depository is 
established in the house. There is a good Inn in this settlement, for the accommodation 
of strangers. 



STAMFORD-STREET, ASHTON-UNDER-LINE. 

The town of Ashton, in the hundred of Salford and deanery of Manchester, is situate 
on an eminence rising from the north bank of the river Tame. It has been greatly 
enlarged within the last twenty years, and the new erections are on a scale of elegance 
and usefulness ; but the old streets are inconveniently narrow. Henry the Sixth granted 
to this town a patent for holding a weekly market, every Wednesday; in 1762, however, 
it was discontinued, and the charter has never been revived. 

Ashton, though now disfranchised, was anciently a borough ; and a power of life and 
death was formerly vested in the Assheton family, the lords of the manor. This house 
failing in the male line, the possessions passed by marriage, early in the 16th century, 
into the hands of Sir William Booth, an ancestor of the Earls of Warrington. The manor 
is now held by a descendant of that family, the Earl of Stamford and Warrington, who 
represents the families of Grey and Booth, and enjoys the honours and estates of those 
ancient houses. 

On the 24th October, 1821, the foundation of a magnificent Gothic church was laid by 
Dr. Law, bishop of the diocese ; which was completed under the direction of the parlia- 
mentary commissioners, at a cost of £14,000. The Sunday-schools, connected with the 
various places of worship, are respectably conducted, and supported with great liberality. 
The followers of Johanna Southcote are very numerous in this town ; and the singularity 
of their appearance, being bearded like Polish Jews, renders them objects of curiosity to 
strangers. 

The canals in the neighbourhood of Ashton furnish ample conveyance for its natural 
products, coal and peat ; and also for its manufactured articles, calicoes, ginghams, and 
muslins. The population, which has increased proportionally with its wealth and import- 
ance, is now, perhaps, little short of thirty thousand. Two annual fairs are held by patent, 
granted by Henry the Sixth; and four others, of which the charters are more recent. 

On Easter Monday, at Ashton, a singular ceremony takes place annually, which 
appears to be meant as an expression of popular abhorrence to the memory of 
Sir Ralph Assheton. Its origin has been traced, by Dr. Hibbert, to a species of ancient 

ENGLAND. 2B 



94 GRAND NATIONAL ILLUSTRATIONS. 

manorial perambulation, called guld riding, the object of which was to extirpate the 
corn-marygolds. On inspection of his grounds, every farmer was liable to forfeit a 
wether sheep for each stock of guld found amongst his corn. In the time of Henry VI., 
Sir Ralph Assheton, a nobleman of great authority, was accustomed on a certain day in 
the spring, to make his appearance in the manor clad in black armour, mounted on a 
charger, and attended by a numerous retinue, in order to levy penalties on those who had 
not cleared their lands of the obnoxious weed. The tenants regarded this interference as 
a tyrannical intrusion ; and to this day a sentiment of horror attaches to the name of the 
Black Knight of Assheton. The subjoined traditional lines serve to show the dread in 
which he was held by his tenantry : — 

" Sweet Jesu, for thy mercy's sake, 

And for thy bitter passion ; 
Save us from the axe of the Tower, 

And from Sir Ralph of Assheton." 

On the death of the guld rider, a small sum of money (formerly lOs. now 5s.) was 
reserved from the estate, to perpetuate, in an annual ceremony, the yearly riding of the 
Black Knight. 

The manner of the ceremony is as follows : — An efl&gy of a man in armour is derid- 
ingly emblazoned with some emblem of the occupation of the first (or last) couple linked 
together in the course of the preceding twelvemonth. The Black Lad (so the effigy is 
called) is then placed on horseback, and led in procession round the town ; after which 
it is dismounted, and made a shooting butt for every idle person who possesses a rusty 
firelock and a few pence to purchase ammunition. 

From this singular legend, Mr. Roby has woven a tale of romantic interest in his 
" Traditions of Lancashire." 

Ashton is seven miles east of Manchester, and one hundred and eighty-six north-west 
by north of London. 



FOXHOLES, NEAR ROCHDALE. 

^ . 

Foxholes, situate on the easterly side of the town of Rochdale, is the seat of John 

Entwisle, Esq. The modern erection of free-stone was built in 1792, by the father of the 

present possessor, on the site of the old hall. 

' The family of Entwisle, of great antiquity in the county of Lancaster, was originally 

seated at a place of the same name ; which is described by Camden as a neat and elegant 

house, formerly belonging to the Entwisles. 

In the 16th century,, the family, quitting the above-named residence, fixed their 

abode at Foxholes. 




FOXMOILlESs WIEAM M© CMJD) AIL IE s, X^AMCASMIMEo 

THE SEAT OF JOHM" ENTWISXE , ESQ. TO IVSOM THig PtAXE IS KE SEE C TFTJLIY DEDICATED, 

BY THE PTJBIISHEES . 




BIMCM-MOTUSIS „ WISAM 3S®X.TOW„ JLAIfCASHIMlE , 



THE RESIDENCE OT JOHN BEUTLEY. ESQ. TO WHOM. TB.IS PI ATE IS HI: 



1 MSCBIBED , 
I ILE PUBLISHER^. 




TICE SEAT OF MIS ORACM TSE DUKE OP JtJOCCL'roir. F.B..S. TO T¥JfCaf TBtS PLATE J3 maUBLY DBDICATEJ). 

BY THE puBi,isaims . 







COHISMJEAIQ)-FMI©IK.T, HEAM ITIL'VEMST^H. 

TUE SEAT OF COL'r HRADnYTa.K.TO WBOM THIS PLATE IS JiESPECTFTTLl.Y DEDICATKII, 

BY TBB rvBUSSHRS. 



t'LSIfF.R. SaN.fr C? LONDOM.iaaO. 



COUNTY PALATINE OF LANCASTER. 95 

One of its members. Sir B. Entwisle, distinguished himself at the battle of Agincourt, 
and in the wars between the rival houses of York and Lancaster. He fell at the second 
battle of St. Alban's ; and was there buried in St. Peter's church.* 



BIRCH-HOUSE, NEAR MANCHESTER. 

Birch-House, in the township of Farnworth, is the seat of John Bentley, Esq. and 
stands on the road between Manchester and Bolton, at a distance of eight miles from 
the former place. 

Previous to the erection of those numerous modern edifices, which commercial wealth 
has scattered over the county of Lancaster, this venerable mansion was deemed a residence 
of very considerable importance. 

This structure, built in the reign of Charles I., bears date 1641, and is in the style 
of architecture adopted in most of the mansions of that period. For a considerable 
time, it was the seat of the Rishtons, an ancient Lancashire family, who purchased the estate 
in 1573, from Robert Worsley, Esq. of Bothes. Subsequently it came into the possession 
of the Dornings, and was afterwards the property and residence of Doming Rasbotham, Esq. 
(author of the tragedy of Codrus, &c.) an active magistrate of this county, who also served 
the office of High Sheriff. From the late John Bentley, Esq. (who pulled down and 
rebuilt a part of the house) it descended to his son, the present proprietor. 



ASHTON HALL, NEAR LANCASTER. 



Ashton Hall, the property of his Grace the Duke of Hamilton and Brandon, is situate 
three miles south of Lancaster. ,0 vun 

This antique mansion is seated in the midst of a beautiful park, through which a 
small rivulet winds its course, and falls into the estuary of the Lune. From some of the 
eminences in the park, the eye can traverse to a considerable distance in the direction 
of Morecambe bay, and the Irish sea ; while the views eastward present fine specimens of 
sylvan scenery, and those to the southwest and northwest exhibit an assemblage of pic- 
turesque objects comprising the river Lune, the ocean, jutting headlands, and distant 
mountains. 

Ashton Hall was the residence of the ancient family of Assheton, and is supposed 
to have been built in the fourteenth century. John Wood, Esq. is the present inha- 
bitant. 

* The battle of Aginconrt occurred in 1415, and the second battle of St. Alban's in 1461 ; if, therefore, we sup- 
pose this gallant soldier to have been twenty years of age at the period when the field of Agincourt was contested, he 
must have numbered sixty-six years, ere, at St. Alban's, " his free-born spirit fled." 



96 GRAND NATIONAL ILLUSTRATIONS. 



CONISHEAD PRIORY. 



Conishead Priory, in the parish of Ulverstone, was originally a hospital, founded about 
A. D. 1172, by Gabriel de Pennington, with the consent of William de Lancaster, lord of 
the manor, for the relief of poor, decrepit, indigent persons, and lepers. The valuable 
endowments of the hospital soon excited the cupidity of the monks, who in their bene- 
volence, converted the hospital into a priory, and took charge both of the land and of the 
poor. When Henry VIII. dismantled the priory, it was valued at £161. 5s. 9d. per 
annum ; and the lead, timber, and other effects sold for £333. 6s. 3id. 

This house, with all its demesnes was, subsequent to the dissolution, leased to Thomas 
Stanley, second Lord Monteagle. After passing through several families, these posses- 
sions became, in 1680, the property of the Braddylls, of Portfield, in the parish of 
Whalley, by a descendent of which ancient house, the manor and estate are at present 
enjoyed. 

The Priory having fallen into decay, it was partially rebuilt about the middle of the 
eighteenth century ; but, in a few years, it was found that nothing less than an entirely 
new erection could repair the dilapidations of time. The structure has, therefore, very 
recently been re-erected in its original character, under the direction of P. Wyatt, Esq. 
During the preparations for rebuilding the Priory, several interesting remains of the 
original edifice were discovered. The site of the ancient church was perceived on the 
lawn to the south of the present mansion house, and from the remnants of several pillars 
and other fragments, it is supposed to have been of considerable magnitude. A range of 
vaults was opened in the south wall, and on the right of the high altar was a cemetery, 
which had been enclosed within an iron railing. Appearances seemed to indicate that 
this spot had been the burial-place of some family of distinction in the neighbourhood. 

From an inspection of the engraving which illustrates this description, it will be seen 
that the modern Priory blends the rude magnificence of monastic ages, with the splendour 
and elegance of modern times. The spectator will connect with the structure itself, 
" a tale of the times of old," while, from the pleasure grounds and other decorative adjuncts, 
he will recognize in it the residence of a gentleman, whose ancestors were the defence and 
ornament of our country in " other days." 




PROM PEN'WORTHAM HILL. 




.AM.M.ET F3LACB.- FR3EST®M. 



nils PJATF, IS Rr 



> LONDON- 1831 



1 CATKL . 
IIBJ.ISHKRS , 




©AmiEiET-MAZdiL p ia:A:sTCMissT:sm. 




J. Hax'-wood 



THE if . I . t 



yiSHr.R. SON it C9 LOHUOW, ie.X- 



COUNTY PALATINE OF LANCASTER. 



97 



PRESTON, AND PRESTON MARKET-PLACE. 

(two views.) 

Preston, a town in the hundred of Amounderness, stands on an eminence rising from 
the north banks of the river Ribble, and is situate fifteen miles north of Wigan, and thirty- 
one miles north-west of Manchester. 

This town is said to have derived its name (originally Priests' -town) from the number 
of religious houses formerly existing here. It obtained the privilege of a borough in the 
twenty-sixth of Henry II. ; and other liberties, granted by King John, were subsequently 
ratified by Henry III. and Edward III. Members of Parliament are, in this borough, 
returned by universal suffrage. In the sixteenth year of Edward II., Robert Bruce made an 
irruption into England by way of Carlisle, and advanced as far as Preston, part of which 
he demolished. 

The celebrated Preston Guild (held every twenty years) was instituted in the reign of 
Henry III., and is, perhaps, one of the most splendid and elegant festivals in this kingdom. 
Its object, as appears from existing records, is to receive and register the claims of persons 
to the freedom or other franchises of the borough. The Guild commences on the Monday 
immediately following the Feast of St. John the Baptist, and continues for a fortnight. 
The last celebration occurred in 1822, when from 50,000 to 60,000 persons were present. 

The first cotton -factory erected in Preston was builtby Messrs. Collison and Watson ; 
but the trade made little progress till the year 1791} when the skill and enterprise of 
John Horrocks raised it to an enviable eminence. At the present time, the extent of the 
cotton works in Preston is truly astonishing. John Horrocks, Esq., and his brother 
Samuel, were successively the parliamentary representatives of Preston for several years. 

The Market-place at Preston consists of a spacious well-paved square, to which business 
was chiefly confined, previous to the opening of the New Market in Lune- street, August 
26th, 1824. The principal market for grain, fish, fruit, &c., is on Saturday ; but large 
quantities of fish, butter, and vegetables are exposed for sale on Wednesdays and Fridays. 

The public buildings of Preston are on a magnificent scale j and its charities are in a 
state of effective operation. According to the census taken in 1821, the inhabitants of the 
whole parish amounted to about 27,000 ; and those of the borough of Preston only, to about 
25,000. 

December 15th, 1830, Henry Hunt, Esq. was returned member of parliament for 
Preston, by a majority of 338 votes ', the Hon. Edward Stanley, the late representative, 
polling 3392 votes. 

GARRATT HALL, NEAR MANCHESTER. 

This ancient building, which is now occupied by a number of families, was, in all 
probability, built on the site of one still more ancient. The estate belonged to the 
Traffords so early as the time of Henry III. and the present Hall was inhabited by 

ENGLAND. 2 C 



98 GRAND NATIONAL ILLUSTRATIONS. 

George Trafford, Esq. in the reign of Henry VII. ; subsequently to this, the possessions 
were, in 1590, demised with the adjoining Charlton Row estate, by Edmund Trafford, Esq. 
to Ralph Sorocold, a merchant in Manchester, for £320. 

Towards the latter end of the last century, the estates of Garratt Hall were disposed 
of to diiferent purchasers, by Roger Aytone, Esq., who was at that time the possessor. 



NEW QUAKERS' MEETING HOUSE, MANCHESTER. 



In the early part of the last century, the Society of Friends had a small Meeting House 
in Jackson Row, Deansgate, but their increasing numbers rendering further accommo- 
dation necessary, land was purchased in Dickenson Street, and a new place of worship 
erected in the year 1795. That structure in its turn being found too small, another, of 
increased dimensions and more imposing appearance, has been built on its site, from the 
design and under the superintendence of R. Lane, Esq. architect. This building, repre- 
sented in the Engraving, will be viewed with interest by the members of the Society, as 
being of greater extent, and more convenient in its internal arrangements, than any other 
in the kingdom. 

The front of the building, which is of stone, has an Ionic Portico, surmounted by a 
pediment after the manner of the temple of Ceres, on the Ilissus. It is exceedingly 
chaste and elegant, and its simplicity is perfectly accordant with the unostentatious 
character of the Society for whose use it was erected. A broad flight of steps leads to a 
spacious covered portico, from which three large folding doors give entrance to the corri- 
dors leading to the places of worship. 

The interior is fitted up in the same simple style as the exterior. It has galleries all 
round, supported by Doric columns, with the regular architrave, frieze, and cornice of the 
order; and a plain but neat ceiling slightly coved. 

The house, which is admirably constructed for the conveyance of sound, is divided near 
the centre by sliding partitions extending the whole width of the building, forming two 
distinct meeting-houses, that may be thrown together at pleasure by means of machinery 
which raises one half of the partition above the ceiling, whilst the other half descends 
below the floor. The whole weight to be moved is nearly ten tons ; yet it is efi*ected so 
quietly and speedily as almost to appear the effect of magic. The building includes also 
a large commitee-room, a library or book-room, a cloak-room, and other conveniences ; 
and the keeper's dwelling-house is attached to it. The building is heated by a warm air 
stove, on an improved principle, and ventilated by ten circular openings in the ceiling ; 
It is 132 feet 6 inches in length, and 62 feet 6 inches in width externally, and is capable 
of holding about 1600 persons. It was begun in 1828, and completed in 1830, at an 
expense of about £7000. 




TO THE MAYOR. CORPORATION, t FREE BURGESSES OF THIS ABCHnfT BOROUGH. THE PUBLISHERS INSCRIBE THIS PLATE 




mAI[(SM-=-MAJLIL, JLAWa^ASMIM-JE. 

TO JAMES LiUUSAY. EARL OF BALCARHAS. AND BAROIT WIGAH", THIS PLATE IS KESPECTFULLy DKIJICATBD. 



COUNTY PALATINE OF LANCASTER. CJ9, 



HAIGH HALL, NEAR WIGAN. 

On an eminence in the township of Haigh stands Haigh Hall, the seat of the Earl 
of Balcarres. This ancient edifice was built at different times, and inhabited through 
a long succession of ages by a family of Saxon origin. It is delightfully situated in^ 
the vicinity of a manufacturing town; and from a large mount in the park may be 
seen on a clear day thirteen counties of England and Wales, together with the Isle of Man. 
The gardens and pleasure grounds are disposed with much taste. 

Sir John Bradshaw, or Bradshaigh, having been restored to his possessions by the 
Conqueror, his posterity, for five and twenty generations, remained lords of Haigh. 
On failure of male issue, the estate descended in the female line to John Edwin, Esq., 
whose only daughter married Charles Dalrymple, Esq. From this family it passed 
by marriage into the hands of Alexander Lindsay, sixth Earl of Balcarres, who was, 
succeeded, in 1825, by the present Earl, James, Lord Lindsay. 

The exterior beauties of Haigh Hall claim the attention of the antiquarian and man 
of taste ; and the connoisseur in painting will derive much gratification from a survey 
of the portraits and other productions by eminent artists, which adorn the interior of 
the mansion. 

WIGAN MARKET PLACE. 

Wigan, a market and borough town, situate eighteen miles west-north-west of 
Manchester, and one hundred and ninety-nine miles north-west by north of London, is 
somewhat irregularly constructed ; but the houses in the principal streets are substantial 
and well built, and admit a free circulation of air. It has long been famous for its manur, 
factures of cotton goods ; and several extensive brass, pewter, and iron- works exist in the 
neighbourhood. In common with many other towns of Lancashire, Wigan was the arena, 
of the civil contest between Charles I. and his Parliament. 

In the parish church, a handsome substantial structure, is an ancient monument tp thj^ 
memory of Sir William and Lady Mabel Bradshaigh, of whom the following traditional 
story is told : — " that in Sir William Bradshage absence (beinge ten years away in the holy 
wars), she married a Welsh knight. Sir William returning from the wars, came in a palmer's 
habitt, amongst the poor, to Haghe, who, when she saw and congetringe that he favoured 
her former husband, wept, for which the knight chastised her ; at which Sir William 
went, and made himself known to his tenants ; in which space the knight fled, but, 
neare to Newton Parke, Sir William overtook him and slew him. The said Dame, 
Mabel was enjoined by her confessor to doe penances by going onest every week 
barefoot and barelegged to a crosse ner Wigan from the Haghe, wilest she lived, and 



100 GRAND NATIONAL ILLUSTRATIONS. 

is called Mabel to this day; and ther monument lyes in Wigan church, as you see 
them ther portry'd."* 

In the Market-place at Wigan, (see Engraving) stands the Commercial Hall, a com- 
modious brick structure erected in the year 1816, whose area is thirty-four yards by 
twenty-two. The apartments on the first and second floors consist of sixty-eight shops, 
and the third floor is occupied by a cloth-hall. There is a spacious news-room at the 
front of the building, which during the fair is appropriated to the sale of woollens. 

Wigan has two weekly markets, the first on Monday, and the last on Friday ; and 
three annual fairs. 

TIVIOT'S DALE CHAPEL, STOCKPORT. 

Stockport, the chief part of which is in the county of Chester, appears to have been 
originally a Roman station. On the spot formerly occupied by the citadel the Saxons 
erected a baronial castle, of which every vestige has long since disappeared, though 
the semblance of a fortress is still preserved in a castellated building erected on the 
site ; this is not, however, occupied by soldiers, but by a number of the manufacturers. 
(See Engraving.) 

Stockport was made a free borough in the time of Edward I. ; and about the same 
period a grant was obtained for holding an annual fair for seven days, and a weekly market 
on Friday. The parish church, dedicated to St. Mary, was erected on the site of the ancient 
edifice, which had become ruinous. Besides the parish church, there are also two others 
in this town. 

Among the establishments of the Wesleyan Methodists, is Tiviot's-dale Chapel, 
opened in the year 1825. This substantial and handsome structure, situated in that 
part of the town which is built on the Lancashire bank of the river Mersey, forms the 
principal subject of our Engraving. 

Seated in the midst of a manufacturing district, Stockport has become a place of 
considerable trade ; and its modern buildings evince the spirit and enterprise which 
characterise its inhabitants. The attention which is here paid to the education of the 
children of the poor, confers a proud distinction on the town and neighbourhood. 

TOWN HALL, SALFORD. 

The noble structure represented in the annexed view, has recently been erected in 
Salford for various public purposes, by private subscription, in shares. The foundation 
stone was laid August 30th, 1825, by Lord Bexley, at that time. Chancellor of the Duchy 
of Lancaster. Possessing all the characters of the Doric order, chastely and effectively 
combined, it will compare advantageously with other edifices of a similar nature, both for 

* See Roby's Traditions of Lancashire, p. 45, vol. 1. 




'ITOWM MAIL3L, SAILFORB. 




J'"l%g'iUAll K €lHrA.lPKJf-d, gT(D)(niKF(Q)lR.T, 



I'lSHER. SON, it C? LOUDON, 1831. 




M-OBir MAILIL, ILAM(CA.SHiIME, 

THE SEA3.' OP HICHAHD ED-WARD S , E S Q . TO "WHCal THIS. PLATE IS KESPECTFULlTr DEDICATED , 

By THE PUBLISHERS. 




WAB.MIIM©TOM CSLUmCH, ILAMCASnUB-M, 



COUNTY PALATINE OF LANCASTER. \Ql 

solidity of structure and simplicity of style. It was built from designs by, and under the 
superintendence of Richard Lane, Esq., at a cost of £12,000, and opened for its designed 
purposes on St. George's Day. 1827. The market is situate in the rear of the Town Hall. 
The inhabitants of Salford are mainly indebted, we understand, to the active exertions 
of their townsman, Mr. Thomas Peet, for the accommodation which this really valuable 
building affords. 

WARRINGTON CHURCH. 

Warrington, situate eighteen miles west of Manchester, and eighteen miles east of 
Liverpool, is one of the most ancient towns in the county of Lancaster. It appears, from 
concurrent facts, to have been a Roman station, established by Agricola about the year 
A. D. 79. There was formerly an Augustine Priory in this place ; no traces of which 
are now existing. The manufactures of Warrington consist chiefly of glass and sail- 
cloth 3 but it possesses also no inconsiderable portion of the check and cotton trades. 
The market-day is on Wednesday ; and annual fairs are held July 18, and Nov. 30; the 
latter continuing for nearly a fortnight. 

The parish church of Warrington, exhibited in the Engraving, is of Saxon origin, and 
existed at the period of the Conquest. It was originally dedicated to St. Elfin, and 
endowed with a carucate* of land. It has subsequently undergone great alterations, but 
without removal from the original site ; the patron has, however, been changed to St. 
Helen. There are two other Churches in Warrington, one in the centre of the town, and 
the other in the suburb, on the south side of the Mersey. 

The attention of a stranger is arrested by the brilliancy of the gas lamps, which are 
erected on handsome pillars in the most public parts of the town. One of these lamp- 
pillars occupies a prominent situation in the accompanying plate. 

ROBY HALL. 

Roby Hall, a modern building, in the township of Roby, and the Hundred of 
West Derby, is situate about five miles and a half east of Liverpool. It has a central 
projection formed of three sides of an octagon, and is flanked by two small but neat 
green-houses, forming a pleasing termination to the line of the whole front. A light 
iron balustrade runs partly across the first story, affording access to the French windows 
which open door- wise to the lawn. — This handsome structure is seated on the side of a 
fertile valley, which separates it from the beautiful village of Childwall, and the seat of 
the Marquis of Salisbury. The lawn in front is ornamented with shrubs and foliage, 

* A carucate was as much arable land as could be tilled and managed by one plough, and the beasts belonging 
thereto, in a year ; having meadow, pasture, and houses for the householders and cattle belonging to it. — Rees' Ency^ 
art. Carrucate. 

ENGLAND. 2 D 



102 GRAND NATIONAL ILLUSTRATIONS. 

that form a rich and tasteful foreground to the magnificent scene, which spreads along 
the adjoining vale, and terminates in the distant hills of Cheshire, The occupant is 
Richard Edwards, Esq. an opulent merchant of Liverpool. 

During the second siege of Lathom, we find mention of a Captain Roby, who held a 
commission in the besieged garrison. His courage and heroic deeds are warmly 
eulogized in the extant accounts of that long protracted warfare. He was the ancestor 
of the highly talented author of " The Traditions of Lancashire ;" a work to which we 
have occasionally referred in the course of our publication. This loyal defender of the 
house of Derby, is said to have been born in the township of Roby, in an old mansion 
long since destroyed. ^ 

Roby Hall was built by the late John Williamson, Esq., of Liverpool, where, in 1761, 
he served the office of mayor. On his death, his co-heiresses were mai'ried, the one to 
John Dent, Esq., late member of parliament for Lancaster, and the other to General 
Gascoyne, member of parliament for Liverpool. The estate was sold a few years since to 
William Leigh, Esq., whose only son is now the owner. 



ST. JAMES'S CEMETERY, LIVERPOOL. 

(two views.) 

In the year 1825, a general Cemetery was formed at Low Hill, near Everton, (see page 
26. of this work,) for the inhumation of the dead, in consequence of the contracted 
space allotted to the burial grounds in Liverpool, and the frequent violation of public 
decency and feeling, arising from the disinterment of one corpse whilst preparing a grave 
for another. This institution was found insufficient to answer the designed purposes ; 
and, in 1829, St. James's Cemetery, the subject of the present description, was opened 
in Liverpool. 

This burial ground, the foundation stone of which was laid August 28th, 1827, is 
situated at the top of Duke-street, on the site of a delf or quarry, and comprises 44,000 
square yards of land, surrounded with a stone wall and an iron railing. There are four 
entrances by gates, the principal one leading through an elegant archway to the lower 
part of the grounds. 

The eastern side, 1,100 feet in length, and 52 feet in height, is nearly perpendicular, 
and faced with masonry. Two inclined roads extending north and south intersect each 
other ; and through the point of intersection runs a horizontal road to each extremity of 
the wall. These roads are sufficiently wide to admit a carriage, and are protected by a 
course of masonry two feet six inches in height. 

The catacombs, making altogether one hundred and five in number, are formed in 
the sides of the horizontal and declined roads before described, and are entered by 




ST JAMES CKMJBffKKi'. ]L,j:VKK.POJIL, 

L00KJ1T& NORTH. 




S>?jrAK[IE§ (CKMSSTKEX l,?;^r]E]8POO]L . 
LnoKTira- south. 




MWJLMIE- MA3LIL . r.„,-\j;i MAMCHE STEM, 




CMETMAM'S MO § FETAVIL , MABrCME STE] 



COUNTY PALATINE OF LANCASTER. 103 

door- ways four feet six inches wide, and seven feet high, finished at the sides and round 
the arches with rustic masonry. 

The width of this burial ground is about 90 yards, and the greatest length 500 yards. 
The sides on the north, west, and south, are formed by sloping banks thickly planted with 
shrubs ; and the lower part is disposed in much the same manner as the celebrated Ceme- 
tery of Pere la Chaise, at Paris. 

The Church or Oratory, a beautiful specimen of classic architecture, built under the 
direction of John Foster, Esq. occupies a prominent situation near the face of the perpen- 
dicular rock, at the top of Duke-street. The Minister's house, a handsome stone building, 
stands near the Church ; and the Porter's lodge is situate on the high land at the 
south end. 

In our southern view of the cemetery, the reader will perceive the place of Mr. Hus- 
kisson's interment occupying a distant, but nearly central situation in the engraving. 
The northern view discloses the Church, and the Minister's house ; and exhibits, under a 
new combination, the solemn features of this " city of the dead." 

CHETHAM HOSPITAL, MANCHESTER. 

Manchester college was founded by Thomas de la Warre, Baron of Manchester, so 
early as the year 1422. The various members of this ancient institution, and a detail of 
their respective duties will be found in our description of the collegiate church, (see p. 
78.) In this place we have only to remark that the original college was dissolved in the 
year 1547, when the house and part of the lands were sold to the Earl of Derby. After 
being several times refounded and dissolved, a final blow was struck at the institution by 
the parliamentary forces in 1649 ; who, (though they offered no violence to the collegiate 
edifices,) forcibly carried to London all the deeds and writings connected with its founda- 
tion ; and these were afterwards destroyed in the great fire of 1666. About this time the 
structure itself was purchased of the Earl of Derby by the executors of Mr. Chetham, who 
in his will had recommended the building as suitable for a charitable institution, he had 
contemplated for some years previous to his death. 

Humphrey Chetham, born July 10th 1580, appears from the testimony of Fuller to 
have been descended from a family of high antiquity ; his nobility, however, rests not on 
the length of his pedigree, but on those manly and christian virtues which adorned his 
whole life. His principal residence was Clayton Hall, near Manchester. 

Having never married, Mr. Chetham became a father of the fatherless and destitute ; 
and during his life " maintained fourteen poor boys of the town of Manchester, six of the 
town of Salford, and two of the town of Droylsden ; in all twenty-two." The charity of 
Mr. Chetham was not, however, fully to appear till after his death. On an examination of 
his will it was found that he had directed the number of boys to be increased from twenty- 
two to forty, and had bequeathed the sum of £5000 for the purchase of a fee simple estate. 



104 GRAND NATIONAL ILLUSTRATIONS. 

the profits of which should go to the support of the institution. The boys were to be 
clothed, fed, and instructed, from the age of six to fourteen years j and afterwards bound, 
at the expense of the charity, to honest and useful trades. 

The collegiate structure, thereafter and at this time known by the name of Chetham's 
hospital, is divided into a refectory, kitchen, dormitory, feoffees' room, and various other 
domestic apartments, besides a large library, for which the benevolent testator had made 
distinct provision in his will. 

Perhaps there is no charitable institution whose purposes have suffered less from 
innovation on its original design than Chetham's Hospital. The feoffees, who are a body 
corporate by charter, seem to be guided by the same lofty principle which actuated the 
noble founder ; and if, as there is no cause to doubt, men of high integrity succeed to the 
execution of this sacred trust, the manna of Mr. Chetham's bounty will continue for ages 
to feed the friendless and distressed. 

HULME HALL, near MANCHESTER. 

This singular specimen of ancient domestic architecture, situate a short distance west 
of Manchester, stands on the edge of a shelving bank of the Irwell, and, being now in the 
hands of several poor tenants, it is fast approaching to decay. The exterior of this build- 
ing is romantic and picturesque j and the interior is ornamented with a greai variety of 
curious and ancient carved work, which is much admired by strangers. 

The manor of Hulme beldnged, in the time of Edward I., to Adam de Rossindale ; 
afterwards, in the reign of Henry VL, it was held by the family of Prestwich. It con- 
tinued in the name of Prestwich till 1660, when it was purchased by Sir Edward Mosely. 
In 1/64, it became the property of the Duke of Bridgewater. 

" The dowager Lady Prestwich, in the civil war, encouraged her son to continue in the 
royal cause, saying, she had treasure to supply him with : this was supposed to be hid 
about Hulme ; but on account of her being taken speechless in her illness, it was never 
found." 



FINIS. 



London, Fisher, Son, and Jackson, Printers. 



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