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Full text of "The Lancaster Farmer"

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THE 



LANCASTER FARMER, 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY 



ONDER THE AU!?PICB8 OF THE 



LANCASm COUNTY AGSICDLTUML AND HORTICOLTURaL SOCIETY. 



TERMS.— ONE DOLLAR PER YKAR IN ADVANCE. 



V^ol. T, I ^-^( U>. 



LANCASTER, PA.: 

WTLIE A GRIEST, INQUIRER PRINllNO HOUSE ANO BOOK BINDERY, -iS XOUIH <iUKE?J STREBT. 



INDEX. 



Advertisements, 189, 

Agriculture a Progressive Science, 8. 

A Veteran Magnolia, 9. 

A Large Tannery, 15. 

A Paper on Fruit Culture, UK 

Agricnlturai; 24, 37, 53, 70, 84, 100, lift, 132, 148, 

163. 
A List of Varieties of Blackberries. 41. 
American EEtomologist, 61. 
A (rood Word for the Cat-bird, 70. 
Annual Report of Experimental Farm, 7H. 
Act for Protection of Game, 70. 
Ashe!=^ for Peai^, 80. 
Asjndiuhis Harrisi, 88. 
An Agricultural Library, 92. 
AnsTTcrs to Correspondents, %, 144. 
A Generous Yield, 108. 
Adventitious Buds, IK^. 
Alderney Breed of Cattle, 110. 
American Pomological Society, 121. 
Amherst Agricultural College, 122. 
Application of Marl to Fruit Trees, 12*ii. 
Average Age of Auimab, 127. 
Agricultural Improvements, 16:5. 
Agricultural Exhibitions, 168. 
Advice to Working Men , 169. 
About Candleri, 171. 
Arts for Home Use, 174. 
American Sumac, 170. 
.\ Remedy Against Insects, 170. 

B. 

Botany, 30, 57, 72, 87, 105, 118, 135, 151 . 100. 
Bowers' Complete Manure, 89. 122. 
Bread, 9S. 
Bee Culture. 100. 
Bean Weavil, 107. 
Bran for Milch Govs s, 110. 
Blackberry Culture, 40, 41. 
Bitter-Weed, 87. 

Butter and-Chee-e Culture as a P.trHt for Grain 
Culture, 181., 



G. 

Che.stnut Culture, 1 92. 

Cherries, 189. 

Cutting Grain before Ripe, 5. 

Clematis Flamula, 15. 

Correspondence, 27, 42, 88. 

Card the Cows, 32. 

Circulation of the Sap in the Plant, 177. 

Culture of Blackberries, 40. 

Climate, 42. 

Currant Culture, 44. 
i Crossing or Hybridizing Wheat, 54. 
, Census and Agriculture, 63. 
I Care of Sheep, 64. 
' Comnumications, 122, 152. 
I Clouds as Indications of the Weather, 128 
j Corn Culture, 133. 
I Can;ula Thistle, KM. 
I Cattle Kalxing, 138. 
I Cows fur General Use, 141. 
i Curious Eftects of Pine Trees on Soil. 160. 
' Curculios, 73. « 

i Closing Reflections, 18/ . 
, Creeping Spurge, 160- 
, Cure 'or Glanders, 192, 

D. 

Deep Flowing should be Gradually Done, 31. 
' Does Farming Pay in Lancaster Crunty? 55. 
I Destruction ot Insect.*, 02. 

De.^troyirg Stumps, 64. 

Draught, 95. 

Do the Constellatic>ns Influence Vegetation ? 117. 

Death of Mrs. Liz/.ie Englc, 01. 

Dandelion, 72. 

Domestic Ri ccipts. 191. 

E. 

Edible Fungi, 4. 

Entomology, 2, 28, 44, 50, 73, 88, 107, 136, 186. 
E.Ktvacts, 2, 5, 11, 10, 25, 40, 61, 80, 109, 152. 
E:^:-ays, 20, 49, 05, 09, 81, 98, 113, 129, 145, 161. 
Editorials, 29, 40, 58, 89, 107, 138, 1-52, 160. 
Extermhiation of Noxious Insects, 44. 
ExtermiuRting Insect? by Fire, 45. 



Index. 



11!. 



Evans' Catalogue, 47. 

Encouraging Thieves, 189. 

Economy ot Birds, 51. 

English Sparrows, 64. 

Experimental Farm, 101, 109. 

Exploded Theories, 117. 

Eatable Mushroons, 126. 

Excerpts from Ohio Farmer^ 1*28. 

Kiarly Goodrich Potato, 133. 

Effects of Trees on Climate, 144. 

Early Rose Potato, 192. 

Farming in Lancaster County, 180. 
F. 

Feeding Sheep for Manure, 16. 

Fruit Growers Society, Pa., 16, 168. 

Perrc, Batcheldcr & Go's. Catalogue, 47. 

Fish Culture, 48, (^S. 

Flowers, 55. 

Fusil Oil, 64. 

Fertilizers for Straw! crrics, 80. 

Fruit Exhibition, 149. 

Frait Trees, 184. 

Fall Planting of Trees, 192. 

G. 
Grape Culture, (>. 

Growing Figs in Northern Climate, 42. 
Gas Lime a Fertilizer and Insect Preventer, 62. 
(iood Tools, 115. 
(irceu Manure, 132. 
Gapes in Chickens, 144. 

H. 
How to Raise Forest Trees, 8. 
How to Buy Furs, 15. 
How I Make Dutch Cheese, 192. 
Hard Milching Cow.s, 16. 
How to Save Girdled Fruit Trees, IG. 
Horticultural, 26, 39, 55, 85, 102, 134, 149, 164. 
How to Raise Chester County Hogs, 38.^ 
How to liaise Blackberries, 41. 
How many Acres of Blackberries, 41. 
Houses for Bird.s, 45. 
Hoops Bro. & Thomas' Catalogue, 47. 
How to Improve Exhausted Lands, 53. 
How to Prepare liand for Orcharjls, 55. 
Hovcy's Illustrated Catalogue, 61. 
Hybridization of Wheat, 70. 
How to Raise Lima Beans, 86. 
How to Make the Butter Come, 92. 
Horticulture as Old as the Bible, 102. 
Horticultural Exhibitions, 120. 
How about Mushrooms ? 127. 
Hay Required for Cows. 160. • 
How Much y 155. 
Hydraulic Ram, 173. 
How to Grow Hair, 176. 
Household Market, 176, 192. 



I. 

Introductory, I. 

Improved Cattle in Lancaster County, 91. ., 

J. 
June Strawberry Exhibition, 1(>9. 

K. 
Kreider's Catalogue, 61. 

L. 
Letter from California, 27. 
Look out for Ilunibugs, 44. 
Liquid Grafting Wax, 96. 
LAXCAsTKit Farmetj, 96. 
Leaks on the Farm, 127. 
Lancaster County Tobacco , 1 3.">. 
Locust-Trec Blight, 136. 
Lightning Rods, 15S. 

M. 

Miscellaneous. 31. IS. 62. Wl. 110. 126. 141, 150. 

169. 
Model Blackberry Bubhcs, 4(i. '•' 

Management of Farm Manure, 63. 
Mildew, or Rust and it^^ Remedy, 84. 
Maple-Leaf Gall, 96. 
Mill Beetle, 137. 
Manurial Powder df Sjih, [(■,(). 
Mushrooms, 17(1. 
Mullicn, 135. 

Norway Oats, 25. 

National Pomological Society, 95. 

Notes on the Culture of Saffron, lOf. 

■\ 

O. 

Ornithology, 3. 75. ' "> 

Old Maids, .32. 

Origin of Varieties of Blackberrief^, 41. ; 

Orchards, 64. ;.<., 

Observations on Rain. 67. ,«5, 

Old Watonuan's Joui'nal, IKi. • . 

P. 

Proceeding of thf Agricukuial ami Hc>riicultur«. 
Society, 5, 30, 47. 59, 77. 90, Ki7. 119, .r39, 154 
167,187. 

Potatoc Culture, 7. 

Persian Insect Powtkr, 1 1 . 

Phenomena of Rain, 12. ' 

Property in Plants, 32. 

Plums for the Million, 39. * 

Preparing (Jround for Blackberries, 40. ''•',. 

i'rice of Blackberries, 41. 

Planting Grape Eyes, 41. 

Planting Trees, 42. 

Pennsylvania Fruit Grower's Society, 5.s. 

Plastic State Rooting, 61'. 

Preservation of Fruit Trees, 64. 



IV. 



Index. 



Poor Land — Poor Farmers, 64. 

Pear Culture, 69. 

Philadelphia Butter, 183. 

Plant a Few Raspberries, 92. 

Potatoes in Hills, 95. 

Peach Aphis, 96- 

Pear-shaped Coccoon, 96. 

Peach Crop of Maryland, 101. 

Pruning Trees, 104. 

Pea-bugs and Bean-bugs, lu7. , 

Plums, 127. 

Potatoes, 128. 

Potatoes and tkeir Winter Management, 190. 

Plowing Orchards, 164. 

Poultry Manure, 168. 

Preserving Fruit, 173, 

Profitable Reading, 141 . 

Plant more Trees, 121. 

Poke Weed, 118. 

R. 

Rotation of Crops, 24. 

Rust on Dinner Knives, 32. 

Robert Fulton — Historical Novel, 60. 

Roots as Organs of Vegetation, 81. 

Raising Locust Trees, 134. 

Review of Market**, 144, 176. 

Report of Committee on Apples*. 1 19. 

Report of Committee on Grapes, 149. 

Report of Committee on Pears, 150. 

Report of Committee on Peaches, 150. 

Report of Committee on Vegetables, &<■.. i.*^!. 

Raising Forest Trees, 164. 

Receipts for Preserving Fruits. 173. 

Raising Celery, 175. 

Rag Weed, 87. 

S. 
State Agricultural College, ih. 
Soldier Beetles, 56. 
Seasonable Pruning, 62. 
Snout Beetles, 73. 
Selection of Seed Corn, 94. 
.Silk Coccoon, 96. 
Smut, 102. 
Saffron Culture, 109- 
Save the Birds, 122. 
Scraping and Washing Tree.^, 128. 
Soot, a Powerful Fertilizer, 128. 
Small Fruit Culture, 141. 
Sparrows, 143. 
Spruce Up, 160. 
Storing Celery, 191. 

Scripture Farming and Horticulture. 165. 
Scientific and Mechanical, 15. 
Staking Fruit Trees, 128. 
St. John's Wort, 57. 
Slovenly Farming, 101. 



T. 

To the Public, J. 

The Culture of Fruit, 10. 

Tiger Beetles, 28. 

The Culture of the Peach. 26. 

The Duty of Writing, 30. 

To Cleanse Seed Wheat, 32. 

The Cellular Tissue of Plants, 33. 

The Culture of Wheat, and its Soil, 34. 

The Cell in the Process of Germination, 49. 

The Robin, 51. 

To Cook Spare Ribs, 63. 

The Organs of Vegetation, 65. 

The Water Streams of Lancaster County, 67. 

Truffles, and How to Grow Them, 71. • ' 

Take Care of the Birds, 75. 

Times Changes, 80. 

The Root as an Organ of Vegetation, 81. 

The Chinese Twining Honey-suckel, 86. 

The Pear Bark-louse, 88. 

The Lancasser Farmer, 96. 

Trees and Rain. 127. 

The Internal Growth of Plants. 129. 

The Teeth of Animals. 131, 147, 111,179. 

The Early Goodrich Potato, 133. 

To Relieve a Choked Cow or Ox. 135. 

The Mill Beetle, 137. 

The Capacity of an Acre. 142. 

The Sparrow, 143. 

The Farmer's Friend, 143. 

The Wire-worm, 144. 

The !.(af as au Organ of V'egetation, 145, 161. 

The Farmer's Cnrfc(\ 152. 

The Xew TjaniMster County Directory, 1.56. 

To Keep Clear .if Brd-ljugs, 160, 

To Dry Fniit, l-io. 

To our Patroiis, 166. 

Too Many Irons in the Firt', 169. 

The irydvanlic Ram, 173. 

Tiic I. all' Ilorii.'uk'iral Exhibition, 152, 

'I'iu; PlaiiL, its SinK'tiu-e. &c., 98. 

The Origin of Wheat and its Culture, 100. 

The Grape, 103. 

Thorn-apple, 1("5. 

Thi> First Thousand. 111. 

The Effect of Charcoal on Flowers, 112. 

To Make Cuttings Grow. 112. 

Temperature f(n- Chui-ning. 119. 

Trim Your Trees, 121. 

V. 

VaUie of Wood l^ands, 14. 

Vegi-iable Physiology, 20, 33,65. 81,98, 129, 145. 

Value of the Crow, 94. 

W. 
W n'k for Jaiuiar^, 3. 
Whv is ihe Country Desi-rted, and the City 

Thnsngedr 21. 
Wlieat, Its I'ri'sfi.t ai:d Future, 36. 
Wheat vs. ClH-a;. 37. 

Weeds, 36. 57. 72. 87, 105, 118, 135, 151, 166,187, 
Whv Wont the Butter Come ? 43. 
What Have AVe Done, and AVhat Neglected? 85. 
Washburn's Cuhivator's Guide, 61. 
Wheat, 148. 

When to Cut Timber to Make it Lasting, 104. 
White Weed, 151. 
Wanted— a Clerk, 156. 

Y. 
Yield of Blackberries per Acre, 40. 



THE 




Vol. I. 



LANCASTER, PA., JANUARY, 1869. 



No. 1. 



She gaucastcr ^mmx, 

PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY 

^VYLIE & GRIEST, 

»IXQUIRER BUILDING, LANCASTER, PA., 
At OWE DOLLAR PER YEAR In Advance, 

U>'DKR THE AUSPICES OF THK 

XASfCASTER COINTY AGRICri-TURAI. AND 
UORTIl UL.TUKAL. SOCIETY. 



Publishing Committee. 
Dr. p. W. Hiestand, 
H. K. Stoker, 
Jacob M. Frantz, 
Casper Hillki:, 
Levi W. Gkoff, 
Alexander H.\rri9. 



Editorial Committee. 
'J. B. Garber, 
H. M. Enoi.e, 
Levi S. Kbist, • 

"W. G. DlFFENDERFER, 
J. G. IMUSSER, 
S. S. RATHVO>f. 



O^All communications intended for the Farmer shonld be 
addr('S.«ed to S. S. Kathvon and Alex. Harris, the resident 
membiTS of the Editing and Publishing Committees. 

All advertisements, subscriptions and remittances, to Wylie 
& Griest, Printers. 



TO THE PUBLIC. 

The Lancaster Farmer, as oiir published 
prospectus implies, will be a journal, in the maga- 
zine form, issued monthly, at one dollar a year in 
advance, and devoted to Agriculture, Horticul- 
ture, Mechanics, and general correlative Miscel- 
lan3\ It will be a gatherer and disseminator of 
facts, relating to these specialties, rather than the 
promulgator of mere theories, and yet it will not 
discard theories that have facts for their basis. 
As the members of its editing and publishing 
committees reside in different parts of the County 
of Lancaster, where they are in the pursuit of 
their usual occupations, they will, individuall)^, 
constitute centres, to whom may be communica- 
ted, either verl)ally or written, such facts as it 
may be profitable for the public.to know; from 
whence they Avill ultimately concentrate at the 
centre of publication, in the City of Lancaster. 
It is also understood that the entire membership 
of the Society, to whose parentage our paper is in- 
debted for its existence, will constitute them- 
selves a " committee of the whole," for the col- 
lection of material to provide for its subsistence, 
for in this, as in other living things, sw^sistence 
is the only condition of existence. In order to 
facilitate and render more safe, transmissions and 
remittances, the members of the editing and pub- 
lishing committees are authorized agents, in their 



respective neighborhoods, to receive subscriptioiis, 
advertisements and communications ; and to re- 
ceipt for monies on account of the same, in the 
name of Mr. Stuart A. AYylie. the responsible 
printer and publisher — unless it would be more 
convenient to communicate immediately with him, 
or with the resident members of the editing and 
publishing committees. Advertisements will be 
inserte(J at the usual magazine rates, and a rea- 
sonable deduction made to those who occupy a 
whole page, or advertisers b}' the year. As our 
journal will reach ail parts of the County of 
Lancaster, and many places beyond its borders, 
and, moreover, will be preserved in a substantial 
form for ready reference, it will possess advanta- 
ges, as an advertising medium, not possessed by 
a daily and weekly newspaper. 

P. W. HEISTAND, 
H. K. STONER, 
■ JACOB M. FRANTZ, 
CASPER HILLER, 
LEVI W. GROFF, 
ALEX. HARRIS, 

Publishing Committee. 
Lancaster, Jan. 1, 18G9. 

INTRODUCTORY. 

The County of Lancaster, in all the elements 
that are essential to social progress, constitutes 
in itself an empire. Its geographical position, its 
populati-^n, its wealth, its intelligence and the 
productions of its soil, have deservedly earned for 
it the proud title of the "Garden of the Keystone ' 
State." Based upon the nnmerical ratio of its 
last presidential election, its population cannot 
fall far short of two hundred thousand souls. 
Notwithstanding the development of its vast 
natural and industrial resources, there necessarily 
must remain many still undeveloped, and hence a 
.great mission is devolving upon its people, which 
ought not to be evaded or disregarded. As a di- 
rect medium to assist in develoi")ing its Agricultu- 
ral, Horticultural and Mechanical resources, and 
incidentally also its intellectual, social, and do- 
mestic elevation. The Lancaster Farmer has 
been instituted and ordained, and, without apology 
for its appearance, asks the generous support of 



THE LANCASTER FAKMER. 



its people. It appears at this time, because the 
society under whose auspices it is published, con- 
cieved that the period in our domestic history has 
arrived, when such a Journal is demanded. The 
want of a- local medium of communication with 
the world at large, has long been felt and desired, 
by a large and intelligent portion of our people, 
and that demand the Editorial and Publishing 
ifommittees, who have the matter in charge, are 
now in the effort to supply. Of course, its ulti- 
mate usefulness will depend, in a great measure, 
upon the intellectual and pecuniary support it re- 
ceives from the people at large, and especially 
from that class for whose special benefit it has 
been instituted. Therefore, it respectfully soli- 
cits subscriptions from the people, and also useful 
contributions to its columns. Ko matter how 
illiterate individuals may be, if they are cognizant 
of facts that would be useful to others, and com- 
municate those facts, in even the most ordinary 
language, they will be dressed in such a form as 
may make them creditable to themselves, and in- 
teresting to the public. As a matter of course, 
the more originality there is in contributions, the 
more they will add to the general stock of human 
knowledge, but they need not necessarily be en- 
tirely original, only so that they contain facts that 
would be useful for the people to know. It is the 
design of the Editorial committee to publish in 
the columns of the Farmer, all essays of ac- 
knowledged merit, that are read before the meet- 
ings of the "Agricultural and Horticultural Soci- 
ety," and also a synopsis of its proceedings. As 
an advertising medium, to implement manufac- 
turers, nursery men, and others, the publishers 
believe this Journal will possess unusual local 
merit, and therefore a limited nmnber of these 
will be inserted, and are respectfully solicited. 
Ail matter intended for the columns of the^ARM- 
ER, will be subjected to the judicious exercise of 
that discretion which is claimed by publishers 
everywhere. 

In conclusion, generous public, and especially 
citizens of Lancasteu County, we do not come 
before you with an imposing Premium list, by 
means of which a temporary patronage is too 
often purchased, but we appeal to your native 
magnanimity and your local pride, trusting to 
base the value of our Journal upon its intrinsic 
merits, and anticipating your voluntary and un- 
biassed support. 

Our first number may not be a true reflex of 
the qualities, abilities and resources that may be 
developed through the experience of time and 
opportunity, but we hope it maybe appreciated 
as a step in the right direction. Our existence is 
ushered in cotemporary with the Newi Year — 



young, inexperienced 1869 — and we sincerely wish 
its advent may be as propitious to all our subscri- 
bers and readers, as we hope it may be to our 
enterprise. 

J. B. GAKBER, 

H. M. ENGLE, 

LEVI S. REIST, 

W. C. DIFFENDERFER, 

J. G. MUSSER, 

S. S. RATHVON", 

Editorial Committee. 



ENTOMOLOGY. 
From present indications, a period is approach- 
ing in the domestic economy of our country, when 
some knowledge of Entomology will be deemed 
absolutely necessary to the successful pursuit of 
Agriculture and Horticulture among our people. 
Whilst a very large portion of tlie insects which 
infest the vegetable and domestic productions of 
human industry, are absolutely noxious, and 
therefore destructive in their habits, yet there is 
probably nearly as large a proportion that are 
either neutral in their characters, or are unqual- 
ifiedly beneficial to the husbandman, and may 
therefore, be classed among the friends of vegeta- 
tion. If for no other purpose, still the facts relat- 
ing to these two classes of animals, are' worthy of 
the study of the farmer, the fruit-grower and the 
florist; in order that they may be enabled to wage 
a war of total extermination against the forrner 
kinds, and secure the general protection or undis- 
turbed action of the latter. To assist in furnish- 
ing a knowledge of the histoi'ical and econemical 
details of the insect world, will be the Expressed 
object of this department of om" Journal; but to 
make that object effective and useful, will require 
the direct co-operation of the people, and especi- 
ally of those who are immediately interested in 
the cultivation of the soil. This specialty will be 
under the immediate supervision of S. S. Rathvon, 
the resident editor ; and he embraces this oppor- 
tunity of- saying to the readers of the Lancaster 
Farmer, that carefully secured specimens of all 
insects or insect larvae, whether noxious or in- 
noxious, should be sent to him, with a statement 
of the circumstances under which they were 
found — for instance, upon or in what substance, 
the nature of the damage they do, if any, as well 
as the locality and the date — replies to which will 
be made, monthly, through the Entomogical col- 
umns of this paper, in order that they may secure 
the benefits of his experience, or a knowledge of 
the experiences of others, who have made Ento- 
mology an object of study. S. S. R. 

Keeping the soil well tilled is an important 
essential to a good crop. 



THE LANCASTER FARMEE. 



WORK FOB JANUARY. 

At this season of the year, when neai'ly all 
vegetation is denuded of its foliage, many insect 
enemies, in embryo, are brought to the view of 
the husbandman, if he will only take the trouble 
to exercise his faculties of observation. Pendent 
from the naked branches of trees and shrubbery, 
or encircleing them, will be found many coccoons, 
fallicles, or clusters of eggs, constructed or de- 
posited by insects of last season, which contain 
the germs of hordes of destructive species, which 
will develop and overrun vegetation as soon as 
the warm sunshine of spring vivities and brings 
them into active being. These, during the genial 
days of the jiresent month, should be carefully 
searched out and destroyed. In crevices, under 
loose bark, under boards and flat stones, and in 
old outhouses, may be found the pupw and coc- 
coons of many destructive moths — for, be it un- 
derstood, that the larcoi of all moths and butter- 
flies, without exception, are destructive, in a 
greater or a less degree, to vegetation, no matter 
how beautiful or how innocent, the perfect insects 
may be. If, in any sense, "an ounce of preven- 
tion is woi'th a pound of cure," it is eminently so 
in this respect. We sincerely believe that a re- 
duudencj'' of noxious insects, is, in many cases, 
the direct result of neglect to check their increase 
at the proper seas9n ; simply because we are un- 
willing to attribute it to ignorance. Turning up 
the soil for a fcAV inches in dejith, in the month 
of January, also exposes many inactive under- 
ground Za/yce aMdi 2)upce io the rigors of a frigid 
winter, and eventually destro3's their vitality, or 
allows them to be devoured by crows-, and such 
other birds, as pass their Avinters in oui- latitudes. 
For the collection of such' noxious objects as are 
beyond the ordinary reach of a man, no imple- 
ment can be used more efl'ectually, than a good 
pair of springed pruying shears, aflixed to the 
end of a long poll, and manipulated by. a good 
stout cord in the operator's hand. S. S. R. 

ORNITHOLOGY. 
Singular Habits of Crows. — A correspond- 
ent, residing in Conestoga township, writes to us 
that "on the banks of the Conestoga creek a short 
distance above "Wabank, in this County is a Croio 
Roost. At this place thousands of crows roost 
every night. They leave every morning and re- 
turn in the evening. They do not go singly or in 
flocks, but in four divisions, one division going 
nearly due East, one nearly due South, another 
nearly due West, and the other nearly due Xorth, 
and from these they branch off and spread over 
the country, and in the evening they return from 
precisely the same points. 



" In the morning as soon as daylight begins to 
dawn, they are stirring about and flying from tree 
to tree, keeping up an incessant cawing, which is 
very disagreeable and annoying to the people 
livmg in the neighborhood. About sun-rise they 
start oft', going in regular lines and always in the 
same directions, each division taking its own 
route, and it is very probable that the same crows 
always constitute the same division. Those which 
go in a Southerly direction, at a distance of five 
miles from the "Eoost," never deviate above a 
quarter of a mile East or West, from their regular 
route, either going or coming; never deviating 
arty except when the wind blows pretty strong, 
vrhen they fly very low and along the more shel- 
tered places, in order to avoid the wind as much 
as they can. It takes them on an average about 
thirty minutes to pass a given point, longer if the 
wind is against them, and less if it is in their 
favor. Their line being fully one hundred yards 
in width, and they flying with great rapidity it is 
impossible to count them or even to make an es- 
timation that will approximate closely to the 
nmiiber ; but their number is very great. About 
ten miles from the "Koost" these divide into 
two branches ; one going towards the Southeast, 
and the other towai-ds the Southwest. 

" Where, or how far all the crows that come to 
this place to roost go during the da}' is not known 
to the writer, but they undoubtedly spread over a 
large extent of territory to seek food, probably 
one hundred miles or more in every direction 
from the Roost. 

"A few years ago their roost, which had been 
about a half a mile farther up the Conestoga, was 
destroyed by the clearing away of the woods 
which contained it, but they did not leave this 
section of the country, but immediately selected 
their present roost, to which they have come 
ever since." 

The above, communicilted to tlie cohunns of the 
Lancaster Daily Intelligencer some weeks ago, 
was written by Mr. Hugh Strickler, an intelligent 
farmer of Conestoga township, sufliciently quali- 
fied to make his observations reliable, and there- 
fore we transfer them to the columns of our 
periodical, with our editorial remarks; because 
we consider that there is an economic question 
of some importance attached to the existence of 
this "Crow Roost" in the county of Lancaster. 
The questions of the greatest interest to the 
farmer and fruit-grower thai must suggest them- 
selves in reference to this vast multitude of crows 
is, what do they feed upon during the long win- 
ter season ? and how do they manage to obtain 
sufticient food ? It is true, they possess extraor- 
dinary powers of abstinence and endurance, but 



THE LANCASTER FAEMER. 



still they must eat something eventually. We have 
observed them feeding upon carrion of various 
kinds, and visiting the shores of rivers and creeks, 
picking up a dead fish, a mussel, or any other 
substance that might gratify the appetite of a 
crow. They will also attack corn in the field, and 
according to the observations of Mr. Chas. H. 
Nauman, as published in the I\^ovember number 
of the American Naturalist after the manner 
of the common Hawk, they will attack domestic 
fowls. But these resom-ces are only very parti- 
ally available, or of rare occurrence, during the 
winter season. "Whatever else they may feed 
upon, in emergencies, of this we have on many 
occasions been a witness, and that is, wherever 
there has been a freshly plowed field, during au- 
tumn, winter or spring, there the crows have 
congregated, and of all the busy bodies in that 
field, they have been the busiest. We have seen 
them coming up from the South in the morning, 
and returning thither again in the evening — per- 
haps to and from this very "Roost" — spending 
nearly the whole day in canvassing the plowed 
ground, in search of grubs, chrysalides, beetles, 
cutworms, and other delicacies congenial to the 
taste of corvine bipeds. It would be impossible 
to estimate the exact number of these noxious 
embryo that these crows would devour in a single 
day, unless we slaughtered them, and subjected 
their stomaches to an examination, but we feel 
sure that their name is legion, to say nothing 
about the legions that are thus prevented from 
ever coming into being. True, they 7nai/ destroy 
some insect friends ; but then if the enemies are 
destroyed, the friends will not be needed. A 
crow^'oost therefore, barring its annoyance, may 
be a aseful " institution." S. S. E. 



" EDIBLE FUNGI." 
In the December number of the Gardener''s 
Monthly^ is an excellent editorial article, together 
with extracts from the columns of the Gardener''s 
Chrojiide, (London,) on the subject of these sin- 
gular ephemeral vegetable productions, which we 
commend to the readers of the Farmer. Among 
us, these fungoid plants, which spring up during 
moist nights in summer, and by mid-day are al- 
ready in the process of decline and decay, are 
known by the names of Toadstools, Mushrooms, 
.Puff -Balls, Mauricles, DeviVs Umbrellas, Truffles, 
Pipe Stems, fyc, fyc, and the edible qualities of 
but very few of them.have been practically test- 
ed, but these few have been almost universally 
pronounced excellent. The larger number by far 
have been unhesitatingly pronounced poisonous, 
and although some of them without a doubt are 
really of that character, yet it appears from the 



tenor of the article alluded to, that the proportion 
of the poisonous species is not larger than that 
which prevails among plants in general, and by 
ordinary care, may become familiarized, and as 
subject to detection as othar poisonous vegetation 
is. We profess little or no scientific knowledge 
of this singular class of plants, but from our 
earliest boyhood up to the present time, we hare 
on many occasions tested the excellent quality of 
the kind commonly called "mushrooms," and 
within the last ten years also of those called 
" mauricles." In our 3^outh we knew persons 
who esteemed the " pipe-stems" a great delicacy, 
but we have not seen them for many years. 
Kow, when everything that can be appropriated 
to human use as wholesome food, commatids an 
enormous price, may it not be of some profit to 
direct attention to these delicious plants. In 
Europe, and especially in England, where these 
fungi are extensively eaten, premiums are offered 
for the best collections, and ,what the nobility, 
the intelligent and the rich approve and endorse 
soon becomes acceptable to the common people. 
On a recent occasion a large species was exhibi- 
ted there, called the " vegetable beefstake," and 
which, when jiroperly cooked, is said to have 
rivaled the best animal beefsteak. Another, of 
the "puff-ball" kind, was three feet six inches in 
circumference and weighed six pounds, and when 
sliced and fried, with egg and bread-crum batter, 
was far superior to fried egg plant fruit. 

As these plants develop very rapidly, we 
may suppose, that after they have reached ma- 
turity, they go into as rapid a decay ; and there- 
fore, it is thought that the cases of poisoning, if 
any, may often have been from eating them after 
decomposition had begun. We know that wilted 
and decomposing vegetation, of other kinds, has 
sometimes an unfriendly effect upon the human 
stomach. Even in some of the known poison- 
ous kind, there is only a so»t of sickening intoxi- 
cation which follows the eating of them. It is 
said, a French physician boasted he would eat 
any kind of fungus brought to him, the only pre- 
caution he observed, was to steep them in vine- 
gar and water before he had them cooked. Al- 
though we would not counsel recklessness on this 
point among our readers, yet on the other hand, 
an excessive manifestation of caution might de- 
prive them perpetually of a nutricious article of 
food. We have seen the day when we would no 
more have eaten a Tomato, on the ground that it 
was poisonous, than we would the fruit of the 
fabled Upas. Time and experience have com- 
pletely dissipated this prejudice. It appears that 
all attempts at domestic cultivation in this class 
of plants, have ended in partial if not entire fail- 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



ure. "We have often noticed this, that in enclos- 
ures of low moist woodlands, from which swine 
and cattle were entirely excluded, the various 
kinds of fungi were alwa3's found the most per- 
fect and the most abundant. Perhajis this would 
be about as much cultivation as would pay at 
present, but doubtless a time may come when some 
other mode may be made available and profit- 
able. Who, among our readers, will take the 
initiatory in the cultivation of Edible Fimgi ? 

S. S. R. 

LAlSrCASTEB, CITY AND COUNTY 
AGRICULTUKAL SOCIETY. 

The Society met at its usual hour in the Or- 
.phans"' Court Room, in the City of Lancaster, Dec. 
7th. Peter S. Eeist in the chair and Alexander 
Harris, Secretary. Upon the reading and appro- 
val of the minutes of the lasl meeting, Capt. W. 
A. Spera and Stuart A. "VVylie were elected mem- 
bers. After the transaction of its usual prelimi- 
nary business, Peter S. Reist proceeded to read 
an essay upon " The Tilling of the Soil and the 
means of rendering it more in'oductive." This 
essay was a graphic resume of agricultural repro- 
duction and embodied such facts as would advance 
the interests of om* farming communities duly 
considered. The ideas contained in this essay 
cannot be conveyed in a brief compass, and we 
leave its readers to pass upon its merits. 

Upon the conclusion of Mr. Reist's essay, 
Henry M. Engle, of Marietta, rose and read a 
paper upon Grape Culture, which is furnished in 
the columns of the Lancaster Farmer. When 
Mr. Engle had concluded the reading of his essay, 
he gave some practical information and illustra- 
tions on the Pruning of the Grajie "Vine, which 
is one of the most difficult matters to be learned 
save by experience. He remarked that he him- 
self had groped years in the dark, before attain- 
ing the knowledge of the system which he now 
possesses. His method of pruning is termed the 
Renewal system, and differs in some particulars, 
as he says, from that of most horticulturists. 
It is rather di!licult to convey, in a limited scope, 
a correct idea of Mr. Engle's system of pruning; 
and to be thoroughly understood, the operation 
must be witnessed. We would advise those who 
desire to acquire information on this point, to at- 
tend the meetings of the Society, wheie they may 
have an oijportunity of seeing the operation re- 
peated. 

Thd Society took definite steps with reference 
to the publication of The Lancaster Far- 
mer. 

The following gentlemen were selected for the 
Editorial Corps : 



Jacob B. Garber, H. M. Engle, Levi S. Reist, 
Dr. W. L. Dhfenderfer, Dr. J. H. Musser, S. S. 
Rathvon, Resident Member. 

For the Publishing Committee, the following 
members were selected : 

Dr. P. W. Iliestand, H. K. Stoner, Jacob M. 
Frantz, Casper Hiller, Levi W. Groff, Alexander 
Harris, Resident Member, Wylie & Griest, Print- 
ers. 

After the appointment of the foregoing com- 
mittees, the Society adjourned, to meet on the 
first Monday in January, 1869. 

CUTTING GRAIN BEFORE IT IS RIPE. 

An opinion extensively prevails in the United 
States, that grain is better if cut before it is quite 
ripe. The last year Prof. Isidore Pierre, of the 
university ©f Caen, in France, determined to try 
the matter by carefully conducted scientific ex- 
perunents. He cut the same quantities of wheat, 
from the same field, on the Gth, 11th, 15th and 
20th of last July, when the whole crop was cut by 
the mowers. He found a dailj'' increase of nitro- 
gen and phosphoric acid to the last — showing that 
the earlier it was cut the poorer it was in amyla.- 
ceous and glutinous matters. He thinks that, 
though there is some loss in shaking out of over 
ripe grain, it is more than compensated for in the 
increased value of the perfectly ripened article. — 
Gardener^s Montldy, 

The subject embraced in the above paragraph 
involves an important question, relating to quan- 
tity and quality, and is worthy of consideration. 
Our millers, almost without exception, claim that 
wheat cut as early as possible, without causing it 
to shrivel, will produce more and better flom- than 
when cut fully ripe. But the Professor and the 
millers are no doubt both right, when viewed 
from diflerent stand-points. The former has re- 
ference simply to its nutritiye properties, as 
a whole, without reference to its production of 
superfine flour ; whereas the latter have refer- 
ence only to its fine flom- producing qualities. 
Chemists and physiologists generally agree, that 
unbolted wheat flour — commonly termed wheat- 
meal, or Graham flour, contains more nutrition, 
and is far more healthful, pound for pound, than 
flour with the bran separated. If it were popular 
to use wheat to the best advantage, there would 
be a great saving, in addition to its health pro- 
ducing effects. Our readers, after due trialand 
examination, will doubtless reach their own con- 
clusions, if not ours, or the millers', or the French 
professor's. E. 

Contributions are requested on any topics 
of interest to the agricultural communit y. 



6 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



GRAPE CULTITRE. 

Bead before the Agricultural and Horticultural Society, 
by Henry M. Englo, Dec. 9ih, 18(18. 

Mr. Presidekt: Of all the Fruits, none have 
been more extolled than the Grape ; and justly 
so, for it will flourish upon a greater extent of 
territory than any other fruit, (unless the Straw- 
berry be an exception.) Although the belt be- 
tween 30 and 50 deg. lat. of the temperate zones, 
seems to be its natural area, yet it may be grown 
beyond either extreme, to an extent which few 
other fruits can be ; consequently, by a judicious 
selection and proper treatment, man may "sit 
under his own vine" over a larger extent of terri- 
tory than will apply to any other fruit. The 
thousands of acres now in contemplation for 
planting, in addition to those alreadj^ planted and 
fruiting, indicate that its value is becoming more 
appreciated than ever before ; in this country at 
least. 

The late improvements of our native grapes, 
which are still continued by crossing and hybrid- 
ising, certainly indicate that by and by we shall 
have them in sach variety, and of &u:h hardiness, 
' size, and other desirable qualities as will suit all 
tastes, and be adapted to almost any soil and 
situation. 

"We have now the Concord, which is compara- 
tively a good grape, nearly as hardy as an oak, 
and produces with reasonable treatment from 
moderate to extraordinary crops, m most of soils 
and situations. On the other hand, we have the 
Delaware, lona, Martha and others, which, (al- 
though only from small to medium size,) in point 
of quality are but little inferior to the best foreign 
kinds. May we not, ere long, expect to obtain a 
variety combining all the desirable qualities? 
Such an achievement would be heralded by all 
lovers of the exquisite, the beautiful and the use- 
ful, as a great triumph ; and fame awaits him who 
accomplishes such a result. 

I am aware that public opinion is rather skep- 
tical on the possibility of such a combination of 
good qualities ; but that should deter no one from 
casting in his mite toward progress and improve- 
ment — for, considering what has been accomplish- 
ed within the last twenty years in improving our 
native fruits, it is not reasonable to presume 
that the real, nor yet the ideal, has been obtained. 
The process of crossing and hybridizing is so sinc- 
ple and easy that, if only better understood, there 
would doubtless be much more accomplished in 
that way. 

Such as wish to. try their hand at it, will find 
directions in a number of works on Horticulture 
and Floriculture ; but in A. S. Fuller's Grape Cul- 
turist the directions are so plain and simple that 



no one need err. I know of nothing pertaining 
to Horticulture that has more charms, with prom- 
ising utility, than that of producing new varieties 
of valuable fruits. I have within the last seven 
years produced over 4000 new seedling Strawber- 
ries, (all by design,) from more than 200 different 
crosses, with very gratifiying results. 

The Grape has one peculiar advantage over all 
other fruits, which is that it can be planted and 
trained where no fruit tree can be, for instance, — 
close to a wall or building, where it can be train- 
ed against the surface to almost any height, where 
it generally produces certain crops of best quality, 
so that whoever has a homestead," may have at. 
least one grape vine, however much his ground 
may otherv\ise be occupied. 

We shall gladly hail the day when grapes will 
be as abundant, from August to April, as* any 
other fruit, which ■^ll be whenever we shall have 
a supply of good early varieties and also of late 
keepers. It is now no uncommon thing to see 
grapes keep in good condition until February and 
March. So long, however, as they will bring as 
much money for manufacturing into wine, as for 
the table — and the masses prefer a glass of wine 
to the most luscious cluster of fruit — we need not 
expect to see a full supply for the table, which 
might be had, were the fruit all appropriated to 
the uses intended by , the Creator, instead of 
alcoholic drinks, the effects of which need no 
notice here — they are evident to all. There is 
therefore no excuse (except an unnatural craving) 
for turning one of nature's noblest gifts into a 
beverage that can neither allay hunger nor thirst, 
but which in its natural state, not only satisfies 
both, but is one of the most healthful articles of 
food that man can partake of. It may also, as 
well as any other fruit, be canned or converted 
into jellies, which have became commercial 
articles, and as such are destined to increase for 
years to come. There is therefore no apparent 
danger of overstocking the market yet awhile, al- 
though old fogies and croakers have warned us 
thereof for a quarter of a century. Let us then 
continue to plant and encourage others to do so ; 
laboring toward and hoping for the amelioration 
and elevation of our fellow-men, until every one 
may sit under his own vine, enjoying the fruits of 
his labors in peace, with no one " to molest or 
make him afraid." 

We can scarcely weigh or measure the influence 
that a single vine may have upon a family. For 
instance, for Avant of room we put in a plant at 
the coi'ner of our humble cottage, the genial rays 
of the sun cause its buds to swell and expand, by 
and by they burst and the .young shoots send up- 
wards, meanwhile putting forth its little tendrils, 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



reaching as it were instinctivel}^ for something to 
hold by as a support. In the absence of a sprout 
or tree, we stretch a cord or wire, it soon takes 
hold, following its guide and as it grows fixes 
itself so firmly to its support that nothing but 
violence will detach it. 

Continuing its growth, it may be trained in any 
direction that may be desired, either vertically or 
horizontally, up or down, over the cottage door 
or window, forming a protection from the rays of 
a hot summer sun, and thus becomes a necessary 
appendagfe to the house. If properly managed, 
the third season will form new attractions ; it then 
commences to liloom — the fragrance, which is 
not excelled, adds new charms — gradually the 
berries and clusters form, they enlarge and ex- 
pand, and through rain and sunshine, storm and 
cahti,it continues to hold fix-mly and perfect its 
rich treasure ever ready to pour it into our basket 
at the ]n*oper season. The children observe what 
is forthcoming, they of course are tempted, (as 
big children too often are) but are told that when- 
ever the fruit is ripe j'ou all shall have a share ; 
in anticipation of which they resist the tempta- 
tion and cultivate respect for it. 

The consequence will be also to respect their 
neighbors' fruit which so often suffers from such 
as have not any growing at home. The season 
arrives for gathering the crop — baskets are in re- 
quisition — Father cuts off' the bunches, and all, 
from the least to the greatest, lend a helping 
hand — there is great rejoicing. What clusters I — 
other folks have none so fine — we must send some 
to neighbor A, and uncle B, and cousin C. It 
will hardly be questioned that, grown and gather- 
ed by our own hands, they will cause an influence 
for good that can not possibly be effected by the 
same quantity purchased with money. In conclu- 
sion, allow me to urge the planting of grapes. If 
you can not plant 100, or 50, or 10, plant at least 
one vine, take good care of it, and posterity will 
bless you. • 

POTATO CULTUPtS. 

Paper read before tiic Agricultural mid Horticultural 
Society, hy Dr. -I. H. Musser. 

On the second of April, 1868, I planted five 
pounds each, of the following varieties of Pota- 
toes, Peach Blow, Monitor, Calico, Early Good- 
rich, Harrison, Buckeye, Michigan" White Sprout, 
Early Rose, Prince Albert and Cuzco. Each 
variety was cut, as nearly as could well be done, 
to a single eye. Some of the sets were so small, 
that I feared they would not grow. This was es- 
pecially the case with the Cuzco and Michigan 
White Sprout. They were all fresh cut, and none 
of them prepared by .sprouting, or wilting; and 
as near in the same condition as could be. 



The ground was a fresh plowed god, lightly 
manured, but rather wet ; and not in as fine order 
a.s I would have desired. 

The experiment was not made to try what 
amount could be raised from a certain amount of 
seed, but to compare their respective qualities of 
early maturing, and productiveness. The ground 
planting and cultivation, were as nearly like as 
could be; the rows side by side, taken from the 
centre of the lot, where there was no tramping 
of the plants or ground in turning, whilst working 
them with the horse. They were all planted in 
straight rows, the sets about 8 or 10 inches apart. 
The furrow shallow and lightly covered with a 
hoe. 

A few days after they were planted we had a 
very cold, freezing spell ; and I feared my pota- 
toes were all frozen. Some fine sets did fail to 
germinate, and when examined found them soft, 
and the skin loose. Think the frost killed them. 
Observation made May 22d. The weather 
has been very wet and cool. Last ten days rain- 
ed every day, and seldom saw the sun all the time. 
Wind mostly east. To-day clear and warm. Po- 
tato plants mostly up but some missing. Early 
Rose largest in top, and best up at this time. 
Monitor next largest. Michigan White Sprout 
and Prince Albert, nearly if not quite as large 
as Monitor. Buckeye, Early Goodrich, Harrison 
and Cuzco, near alike, but less than preceding. 
Calico and Peach Blow, least, and not all up. 

Owing to the continued wet weather, we could 
not work the ground ; and every little sod had 
taken root and grown, so that the patch was quite 
green with grass. At the first working with the 
cultivator and hoe the ground was too wet. 

June 10th, Early Rose rather most in bloom. 
Monitors next, Michigan White Sprcut rather 
more blossom than Buckeye, or Early Goodrich. 
The Buckeye most regular in size of stalk, and 
blossom buds. In size of stalk, Prince Albert 
next ; then Cuzco and Harrison ; Calico and Peach 
Blow back. 

August 3rd, Early Goodrich, half the stalks 
dead, and the rest very yellow. Early Rose not 
quite so much dead as Goodrich. White Sprout 
declining considerably, but still more green than 
the former. Monitor rather more green than la st 
Buckeyes beginning to fade, but still pretty fresh. 
Harrison rather more green. Albert and Cuzco 
quite green, and Calico and Peach Blow freshest 
of all. 

August 11th, took up Early Goodrich. Tops 
nearly all dead. August 17th took up Early Rose ; 
tops about as dead as Goodrich were on the 11th. 
Same day took up Michigan White Sprout. Tops 
not quite as dead as Rose. 



8 



THE LANCASTER FAEMER. 



September 1st. On account of the lot being 
under preparation to seed in wheat, were neces- 
sitated to take out the balance. Harrison all 
dead but a few stalks. Monitor more green stalks 
than Harrison, but most were dead. Buckeye 
most of the stalks still somewhat green. Prince 
Albert, Cuzco, Calico, and Peach Blow, quite 
green. Think their tubers would hare grown 
some yet, but still the skin did not peel off much. 

Being cut to the smgle eye, some varieties 

made more sets than others; and consequently 

they made longer rows. 

Peach Clow yielded 40i lb. length of row 112 feet. 

Monitor " 92^ " " " 122 " 

Cahco " 03 " " " 130 " 

Early Goodrich " 115 " " " 158 " 

Harrison " 124 " " " 104 " 

Buckeye " 128 " " " 187 " 

Michigan W. S. " 123 " " " 190 " 

Early Rose " 148 " " " 101 " 

P. Albert " 110 " " " 194 '• 

Cuzco " 198 " " " 247 " 

Peach Blow, tubers not so numerous nor large 
in size, and yielded about 6 pounds to the perch. 

Monitors not numerous, mostly good size and 
some large. Yield about 13 pounds per perch. 

Oalico not numerous and rather small. About 
8 pounds per perch. 

Early Goodrich more numerous than any of the 
former, fair and smooth, some of very fine size, 
not quite 13 pounds per perch. 

Harrison very numerous, fine size, fair and 
smooth, yield about 14 pounds per perch. 

Buckeyes very large and smooth, not so numer- 
ous, yield about 11 pounds per perch. 

Michigan Yf hite Sprout not so nmuerous, but 
of fine size, rather uneven surface, yield lOi 
pounds. 

Early Eose numerous, very fair and smooth, 
good size, with some large, but with more small 
than Buckeyes. "White Sprouts or Monitors yield 
over 13 pounds. 

Prince Alberts very numerous and fair, but 
mostly small. Yield near 10 pounds. 

Cuzco numerous and many large, but also many 
not large and rather knobby. Yield over 13 
pounds per perch. 

I think if the Cuzco would have had time to 
mature, they would have yielded more to the 
perch' than any others. 

I think the earlier maturing varieties were 
more iajm-ed by the drouth in or about harvest 
than the latter varieties. The former being too 
far advanced to groAV much after the rain of the 
24th of July. 

On the 2d of April, Father planted fom- rows 
across the lot in the same ground, which measur- 
ed 141 perches, and which were treated in every 
respect the same as the foregoing. First row 



Buckeyes yielded 3i bushels by measure. Yery 
fine large potatoes. This would be 15^ pounds 
per perch, allowing 60 pounds per bushel. 

Second row. Prince Albert, 4 bushels, not so 
large but very numerous, which, allowing 60 
pounds per bushel, makes IG pounds per perch. 

Third row Michigan White Sprouts, a little 
over 44 bushels, which makes over 17 pounds per 
perch. Large and fine. 

Fourth row Early Goodrich, not quite 2 bushels. 
This would make only a little over or about 8^ 
pounds per perch. Yery large. 

The only difference in the planting and treat- 
ment was, that Father did not make his sets so 
small as I did. He always leaves two eyes to a 
set, and when they are full of eyes, they often 
have more. But why the Goodrich had so few 
tubers and so much larger than those in the 
other trial noticed, I can form no idea. 

In 1 case Buckeves 11 lb per perch, the other 15)^ lb per perch.. 
" P. Alberts 10 " " IB " 

'• M. W. S. \0}i " " 17 " 

" Goodrich 13 " " S>^ " 

— fi^P?— ^gB» i< J io— 

HOW TO HAISE PORSST THEES. 

It is still in season to raise forest trees from 
the seed — that is, from nuts that contain oil; 
such for instance as the Black Walnut, Butternut, 
and Shellbark Hickory. But for the Oak and the 
Chestnut, it is too late, unless the seed had been 
kept in sand since October last. By depositing 
the Shellbark and Walnut in the soil a few inches 
below the surface, they will sprout in a short 
time after the warm weather sets in, in the spring. 
The Walnut may be readily transplanted, but the 
Shellbark should only be planted in such places 
as it is intended they shall remain. For this pur- 
pose a large deep hole should be dug, and mulch- 
ing the ground thoroughly, to give the plant an 
opportunity to make a good tap root, without 
immediate side roots. It is for this reason that 
they should be left to stand where they were first 
planted, to insure a speedy and vigorous growth. 

L. S. R. 

AGRICULTURE A PROGRESSIVE 

SCIENCE. 

Agriculture, as at present understood, maybe 
regarded as one of the most progressive of modern 
sciences. When it be taken into consideration 
the vast advance that has been made in it since it 
fii'st began to be treated as such, its astonishing 
progress will at once appear. The contrast will 
be quite sufficient without recurring to the epoch 
when men are said to have subsisted on the spon- 
taneous productions of the earth, on the gains of 
the chase, and on such fruits and vegetables as 
being obtained with little exertion, were neverthe- 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



9 



less sutRcient to satisfy the demands of a people 
that had not as yet tested the advantage of civil- 
ized society. Drawing such a contrast might lead 
us to trench upon a state of society that would, to 
modern ideas, be rather viewed as fabulous and 
pertaining to the mythical, llather do we wish 
to compare briefly the agricultural status of the 
Greeks, Romans and other early nations, -when 
they had attained their height of civilization, and 
that which obtains in this science at the present 
day. It is true, the reader of the writings of 
Yirgil, Pliny and Columella, will find much that 
seems new to the uninitiated in this branch of 
science ; but after all the perfection of their at- 
tainments in agriculture be known, it will then be 
clear how great an advance the moderns have 
made upon the agricultural knowledge of the 
ancient nations. It is believed by modern in- 
vestigators that the people of Egypt, Chaldea and 
China, have been amongst the first who extended 
the limits of Agricultural Science in ancient times. 
From Egypt this knowledge made its way into 
Greece, and thence was adopted by the Romans, 
and from them has been introduced among 
modern nations. Historians tell us that agricul- 
ture was in a flourishing condition as early as the 
day of Hesiod, (who has written extensively upon 
the subject) ; but the farmer who w^oulduse a plow 
such as was used in the times of Hesiod, would 
rather excite the ridicule of our Lancaster far- 
mers. Without stopping to cite numerous in- 
stances of the difference between ancient and 
modern husbandry, it may be remarked that 
farming as a science, arose and was moulded into 
shape after the revival of letters and upon the 
new birth • of nationality, which overspread 
Europe consequent upon this important event. 
With the downfall of feudal despotism and the 
eirfancipation of mankind from the fettei's of me- 
diiBval ignorance and superstition, arose with the 
other sciences, likewise that of agriculture, and 
like them not alone to be re-habilitated with its 
ancient regalia, but to assimie the splendid robes 
which were being prepared for it by the skilled 
hands of modern civilisation and trans-Atlantic 
invention. Modern books on agriculture began 
to make their appearance in England in the early 
part of the sixteenth century, and so thoroughly 
have all branches of the science been investigated 
that it would seem a difficulty to conceive of any 
thing that could be added to complete the science. 
Perfect, however, as it now seems to be, its great 
masters declare it as yet only in its infancy, com- 
pared with what may yet be attained. When 
we consider the great multitude of inventions 
that have been made in this most inventive age, 
having for their object the facilitation of fciie pro- 



cesses of agricultural operations, and reflect upon 
the condition of ancient husbandry when brought 
to its greatest perfection, we see one great con- 
trast. This, however, is but one phase of agri- 
cultural life. When we reflect upon the vast aid 
that has been rendered to the science of agricul- 
ture by the developments of chemistry, we then 
have another illustration of the superiority of 
this age over all others. Chemistry, in its perfec- 
tion of development, is altogether a modern 
science, it having remained for the past and 
present century to make the discoveries of the 
different component elements of matter. Instead ' 
of the four elements of the ancients, Fire^ Air, 
Earth and Water, upwards of fifty elementary 
substances are now known to exist in matter, 
and it is by a skilful knowledge of these, that 
agricultural science can be properly understood. 
The developments that have been made in 
Botany, are likewise comparatively new, and 
upon a knowledge of these depends, in a great de- 
gree, success in matters pertaining to the growth 
of all the vegetable Creation. A high attainment 
in the knowledge of agriculture cannot be secured 
without an acquaintance with these above enu- 
merated kindred branches. The more attentiou 
we give to the study of these collateral subjects, 
the more agricultural knowledge will we accumu- 
late. The knowledge of the ancients was based 
upon empirical results ; ours is established by 
philosophical deduction and a knowledge of na- 
ture's laws. In so far then as we make progress 
in the development of the laws of nature, to such 
an extent do we likewise advance the science of 
which we now write. As agriculture is, so let us 
likewise be, progressive in our attainment of 
knowledge, and may the eflbrts of our Society 
ultimate in the incitement of our people to the 
necessity of keeping pace with the advance of 
this, the oldest and most honored science of man- 
kind. 



A VETERAN MAGNOLIA. 
There is now growing in Lancaster county, on 
the Litiz turnpike, near the Toll-gate, a magnolia 
tree — Magnolia Acuminata, [Linn.) — that is fully 
six feet in circumference- for thirty feet, which 
would make two splendid saw-logs of fifteen feet 
each. It is lofty and spreading, very imibrageous, 
and was the ornament of the place for many years. 
It was known as the " cucumber tree " by the, 
people in the neighborhood. Whether the tree 
stood in the original forest before itwas cleared, or 
Avhether it was planted by some of the old settlers 
afterwards, is a mystery, but under any circum- 
stance the tree cannot be less than a hundred 
years old. Whilst on a recent visit to Stark 



10 



THE LANCASTER FAEMER. 



county, Ohio, we saw specimens of the cucumber 
magnolia that were over three feet in diameter. 
Our opinion therefore is that this tree was either 
planted where it now stands by some person now 
unknown, or that the seed may in some manner 
have been brought from some locality where this 
tree is indigenous. 

A very different and much smaller species— the 
Magnolia Glauca, (Linn.)— in common in some parts 
of Lancaster county, especially at a locality called 
"Smithville Swamp," about ten miles south-east 
of Lancaster city. It is very fragrant, but dith- 
cult to grow on uplands. L. S. R. 

THE CULTURE OF FilUIT. 

Read before the Lancaster Agricultural and Horticultural 
Sociftj-, December, 1S68, by P. S. Reibt. 

Tilling the soil and dispensing its productions 
among the families of mankind, is no doubt the 
greatest and noblest of human occupations. 

Railroads and Telegraph lines are merely facili- 
ties for an economical administration of the work, 
an«l manufacture and commerce themselves 
would produce but small results in the absence of 
the products of the soil. He who effects the 
growth of two blades of grass where but one grew 
before, and she. who bakes the best and most 
breajd out of the smallest quantity of flour, are 
really greater benefactors than he who wins an 
empire. 

Living in an age of progress, it is our duty to 
form ourselves into associations to consult upon 
the best modes of applying art to nature, in order 
to enhance the quantity and quality of the earth's 
productions. Providence, through nature, has 
proved more propitious in southern climes than 
in northern ones. Armies consistingr of millions 
have been marshalled, immense walled cities 
have been reared, and costly edifices have been 
constructed, in ancient times, in southern lati- 
tudes, which could not have been accomplished 
in the north without the aid of modern improve- 
ments and their artificial appliances. People 
now are, however, more prosperous in northern 
climes than they are in those of the south, not- 
withstanding all their natural advantages, and 
this is chiefly owing to their innumerable im- 
provements, and the application of artificial 
means. The southern people depend too mitch 
upon nature, or a blind faith in Providence, for- 
getting, or not comprehending, that Providence 
works for man through means, requiring his co- 
operation in effecting results. They have not 
the five or six non-producing or winter months we 
have ; arc not compelled to keep in store the sur- 
plus we are, and hence their people becom-e im- 
provident, shiftless and enervated. It is true 
that in compactly built cities, and among the 



ruling and wealthy classes, there is an approxi- 
mation to northern civilization, but among the 
masses it is far otherwise. We are living in 
abput 40 degrees north latitude ; we have biting 
frosts in May and frequently in June, and again 
in September, scourging our young and tender 
vegetation. The ground, out of which we expect 
to raise our necessaries of life, often lies frozen 
from ten to fifteen inches, or is covered with 
snows for four or five months in every twelve, 
with the thermometer often down to, and below, 
zero. ISTotAvithstanding all these apparent disad- 
vantages, as a christian people, we seem to feel 
that it is our bounden duty, not only to provide 
for ourselves, but also to make provisions for the 
domesticated subjects of anmiated nature, out of 
the inanimate productions of the earth ; and not 
only for ourselves and them, but also for the living 
beings of other latitudes ; and it may also occur 
that the surplus of the six mouths productive orat- 
door labor, which the husbandman appropriates, 
may, under unfavorable circumstances, be required 
to sustain the community for a numJjer of years. 
Such contingencies have been partially realized 
by this community for some years past. 

Inasmuch as the fruit crops of our section have 
failed for several years, the duty devolves upon 
us as a progressive people, to adopt such plans 
and measures, so far as these may be applicable 
to our case, as may tend to, not only recover 
what we have lost in the failure or diminished 
yield of the fruit crops, but also to effect an im- 
provement in the quantity and quality of the fu- 
ture yields. 

Here comes the great problematic contrast. In- 
stead of large and thrifty apple orchards, inter- 
spersed with young and tender peach trees, yield- 
ing so prolific and abundant as to induce the 
people to make an unprofitable use of their sur- 
plus, we find good fruit crops "few and far be- 
tween" — in short, we have hardly anything but 
old, decayed, and partially defunct orchards of 
fruit trees, and even those that are apparently 
young and thrifty, are doing no good ; so that in- 
stead of having a surplus to sell, we are absolute- 
ly compelled to depend upon the shambles of the 
green grocer for our home supply. I confess that 
the reason for all this is not very obvious to me. 
People are attributing this eftect to difterent 
causes. Some think it is attributed to the clear- 
ing away of our forests — some to our long and 
cold winters — and others to gradual changes which 
are taking place in nature, &c., none of which 
are made very clear to my mind. One thing we 
have certainly experienced by practice, in our 
wheat crops, raised on the original soil for a num- 
ber of .years, without a change in the soil, wrought 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



11 



by the application of stimulants — such for in- 
stance as plaster of paris, and afterwards lime, 
in addition to good stable manure, or some other 
equally eftective fertilizer, and our lands could 
not have been brought up to what they originally 
were for the production of wheat crops, and other 
oereals. Comparatively the same rule may obtain 
in reclaiming our soil for th« production of those 
fruit crops which for a number of years have so 
signally failed. Our fruit soil, so far as relates 
to apples, pears and peaches, seems to be worn 
out, the fruit producing elements exhausted, at 
least I feel satisfied that the essential ingredients 
necessary to their production are nearly aljsorbed. 

At first when the soil of the Eastern States 
would not j-ield the usual wheat crops, the bulk 
of wheat, for general consumption, came from the 
Western States. At present it is shipped from 
the extreme Western States, and our soil is being 
renovated again, even beyond its original strength. 
We are now receiving our apples from the west, 
and in a few years, both they and we, ma}' be 
compelled to ship them from the extreme west, 
the same as the wheat is. Since then we may 
inferentiall)'- conclude that our fruit soil has be- 
come exhausted — or "worn out" as it is yomnion- 
ly called — the duty devolves upon us, as a pro- 
gressive and philanthropic people, to ascertain, 
if possible, by practical experiment, what artificial 
application — wkat means are required to renovate 
the soil and adapt it to the growing of those 
fruits, in which it has seemed to be so defective, 
in order that we may not only be able t© raise 
our accustomed crops from the natural soil, but 
also to compete with other advancing interests 
and demands — with the increasing population, 
and the productions of manufactures. 

With my limited abilities I can do little more, 
in these brief remarks, than to call the attention 
of this Society to the subject, without pointing 
out any particular way in which the desired end 
may be gained ; because I do not consider myself 
competent to do so. I may however be permit- 
ted to suggest this much, that no matter Vhether 
what I have advanced is truth or error, it still 
behooves the people to plants just the same as if 
there was no such thing as a failure. If we plant 
and nurture fruit trees, it brings a crop of fruit 
within the pale of possibility ; but if we do not 
plant, of course we cannot expect anything what- 
ever. To plant then, is one step in the right di- 
rection ; but we must not stop here, for in my 
humble opinion it is just stopping here, that 
mainly causes the results which we so much la- 
ment. We must find out, if possible, what the 
soil upon which we plant needs, and then supply 
that need by artificial means. 



Various and many are the apologies which 
people make for not planting fruit trees. Some 
have no spare land, some no land at all, and 
others declare it of no use, for the hand of na- 
ture is against them. To those who have no 
land of their own, I would still say plant, fcr if 
you do not reap the harvest yourself, another one 
may; and the fact that such a harvest exists, 
even though you do not possess it, is to the un- 
selfish man, a lasting reward. There might be 
both fruit and fruit trees, in specially favorable 
seasons, if landlords and tenants would freely 
l)lant and carefully tend. To foster these ideas 
and inculcate these duties, is the mission of our 
social afRliation. Such societies should receive 
the intellectual, moral and pecuniary patronage 
of the community, and especially of their mem- 
bersliip, because when conducted by the right 
spirit and towards the right end^ they conduce to 
the welfare of man and the prosperity of his 
country. 

In conclusion allow me to sa}', that according 
to my opinion, if practical men were employed 
by the iiational or state governments, through 
the instrmnentality of Agricultural and Horticul- 
tGral Societies, to analyze and experiment on soils, 
much might be eft'ected in the way of reclaiming 
those elements, in which they are deficient. That 
we may be enabled to produce the abundance 
that our fore-fathers did, is ''a consummation most 
devoutly to be wished," and with our improved 
varieties of apples, pears and peaches, and our 
more perfect implements and appliances, together 
with the increaseddijfusion of knowledge, it^seems 
a humiliation that we have not. done so. Not 
much less than 5^100,000 worth of apples have 
been imported into Lancaster county the present 
year. A single operator informed me that he 
sold five hundred barrels, averaging $5,00 per 
barrel, since the 1st of October last.< Fruit ship- 
ped from abroad has not the same taste, and is 
not relished so well by our people, as that which 
is raised in our county. These things command 
our serious attention, and commend themselves 
to the whole community. Let usthen encourage 
nurseries and fruit-growing, ai?.d partiently and 
perseveringly "work and wait," resting under 
this assurance , that if we do not sow we cannot 
expect to reap — if we do not plants we cannot 
gather fruit. 

A correspondent informs us that the Persian 
Insect Powder for the last two years has been 
yevy successfully used by several stock feeders in 
destroying lice on their cattle, merely by dust- 
ing it over them and brushing it among the long 
hairs. 



12 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



THE PHENOMENA OP RAIN". 

Bead before the Horticultural Society. 

It may perhaps not be uninteresting to the mem- 
bers of our organization, to devote a short time to 
the investigation of the Phenomena, which nature 
affords us in the descending showers of rain sent 
to fertilize the earth and refresh the vegetable 
creation. This from first impression might strike 
the mind as a sul)ject partaking too much of the 
speculative, to be introduced before a society or- 
ganized as ours for the dissemination of practical 
knowledge; but' the further we advance in the in- 
vestigation of the facts of meteorology the more 
we come to discover them necessary to be known, 
and of the greater practical utiliiy in their bearing. 
The phenomena of rain may be designated as the 
distillation of water which falls upon the earth in 
drops, or globules of various sizes, and the causes 
which give rise to its collection, and descent from 
the clouds have engaged the attention of some of 
the most eminent philosophers of modern times. 
Moisture ordinarily descends upon the earth in a 
two-fold manner ; in that of dew, or fog, and also 
in showers of rain. In the former of th(3se meth- 
ods, the drops of moistm-e are so small and insig- 
nificant, as to be altogether invisible to the naked 
eye ; whilst in the latter they are of a larger 
size, yet have a specific gravity little superior to 
that of the atmosphere, and may therefore be re- 
garded as hollow spherules rather than drops. 
Without designing to unfold in a prolix and dis- 
cursive manner, the different theories which have 
at various times been advanced as to the differ- 
ent influences thought to combine in the forma- 
tion- of rain, in the upper strata of air, and its 
descent therefrom, that which may be regarded as 
the generally received one, will alone be consid- 
ered. 

The rays of the sun together with the influence 
of the circumambient atmosphere has the effect 
of attracting moistiu-e from the earth, the rivers, 
and the ocean, and this moisture so detached rises 
in the air as small bubbles or vesicles, each, of 
which is specifically lighter than the atmosphere 
itself. These vesicles are buoyed up by the tit- 
mosphere until they arrive at a region where the 
air is in a just balance with them, and here they 
float until by some new agent they are converted 
into clouds, and thence into either rain, snow, 
hail or mist. But what it is that effects the 
change of the vapor into clouds, and of these 
again into rain has been a subject of much dispute 
amongst the learned, and perhaps the discussion 
may not yet be ended. It has come, l^owever, to 
be somewhat generally believed that the cold 
which occupies the superior regions of the air, 
chills and condenses the vesicles upon their arrival 



from a warmer locality, aggregates them together 
and causes them to coalesce into little masses ; 
and by these means their quantity and matter in- 
creasing ill a greater proportion than their sur- 
face, they become an overbalance to the thin air, 
and accordingly descend in rain. The aggrega- 
tion and iirecipitation of the small particles of 
moisture seem to be explained upon the following 
theory. After the vesicles have reached the point 
in the atmosphere in which they with it form an 
Equipoise andthence meet with a colder current of 
air than that contained in them, this iuternal air 
being contracted into a less space, and, as a con- 
sequence, the watery shell being rendered thicker 
is thereby made heavier, and thus the precipita- 
tion of rain commences. These atomic particles 
of rain thus uniting as suggested in the upper re- 
gions of the atmosphere, they continue to aggre- 
gate others to them during as it is supposed, their 
whole descent to the earth. This may have been 
within the observation of many of the members 
cf this Society that on the summit of a hill during 
a shower, the drops of rain were small, but in de- 
scending the hill, they become larger and larger, 
and at the bottom thereof, the rain was impetu- 
ous. 

Cold is not believed however, to be the only 
agency in the formation of rain , but winds liave 
likewise much to do in effecting the aggregation 
of the component ingredients of the rain-drop. 
Winds blowing upon a clould seem to cause the 
vesicles, or small elementary atoms of moisture, 
to coalesce at a high altitude, and thus enable 
them to descend towards the earth, and this effect 
is yet the more considerable, when two opposite 
winds blow together toward the same jDlace. It 
matters little by whichever of these wa3'S the 
small particles of moisture have been made to 
unite ; when once they begin to descend, they 
will continue until they have reached the earth. 
From the force of gravity, they will all tend to- 
words the centre of the earth, and the farther' 
they fa^, the more coalitions they will make, and 
the more coalitions the more matter there will be 
under the same surface ; the surface only increas- 
ing as the squares, but the solidity as the cubes, 
and the more matter under the same surface the 
less friction or resistance there will be to the 
same matter. 

Were the atmosphere at all times and in all 
parts of it of a uniform temperature, Ave should 
never have either rain, hail or snow. By what 
means the atmosphere is made to be of various 
degrees of temperature at different heights, and 
in the several pacts of it, we now proceed to un- 
fold as it is explained by philosophic observers. 
Upon this fact it has already been perceived, are 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



13 



dependent the conditions necessary to eftect the 
phenomena of rain. A general and well under- 
stood truth of which science has become cogni- 
zant, by a wide and cautious induction, and which 
may be regarded as the foundation of metereolog- 
ical science is this, that nearly all the changes 
Avhich take place on the surface of the earth, are 
due to the action of the Sun. As the air gets heated 
by the rays of the Sun, it becomes specifically 
lighter, and tends constantly to ascend , being 
pressed upwards b}'^ the heavier circumambierft 
fluid. The efl"ect thus produced upon the air, by the 
impulses from the Sun, is the great motive power 
which gives rise to all the currents of the atmos- 
phere, from the gentle zephyr which but slightlj^ 
ruffles the surface of the tranquil lake, to the 
raging hurricane which overwhelms whole fleets, 
and destroys in a moment the hopes of the husband- 
man for an entire season. This fact so well es- 
tablished by science, renders it unnecessary to 
seek for any other jjrimum mofttVe, for the great 
system of constant agitation to which the aerial 
ocean is subjected. Men no longer believe that 
the winds are subject to the commands of a fabu- 
lous iEolus, but are dependent upon and are ori- 
ginated by the rays of the Sun acting upon the 
atmosphere. 

The most striking instance of the effect of the 
Sun's rays in giving rise to the currents of wind, 
is found in the trade-winds on either side of the 
Equator. These -winds blow continually in the 
same direction, (except in the Indian Ocean,) 
north and south of the Equator, and to them is 
chiefly due the peculiar climate of the United 
States, most of which lies in the dry belt of the 
northern trade-wind. "There are two of these 
dry belts on each side of the Equator, and these 
winds blow diagonally into each other, producing 
by their mutual action, a belt of rain about 500 
miles in width under the Equator, and directly 
under the Sun. These winds are concentrated by 
the lofty range of mountains in South America 
and Mexico, and turned northward, carrying 
wiLh them this belt of rains. In our summer they 
extend as far west as the middle of Texas ; thence 
north through the middle of Kansas ; they curve 
gradually eastward and pass to the Atlantic by 
the line of the great northern lakes, covering all 
the old States with rains from this equatorial belt ; 
extending no farther west than the middle of 
Texas and Kansas, they leave the western por- 
tions of them to the dry California climate, thus 
limit mg the culture of our great American staple 
to the already settled portions of the country." 
— Agricultural Eepdrt, 1861, jj;. 275. 

These rains from causes not yet ascertained by 
science, are irregular as to their time, quantity 



and duration. In the Spring they are more con- 
csntrated, givmg us the heavy beating rains of 
March and April ; and in July and August they 
cease almost entirely. We have no rains of any 
consequence from the evaporations of our coun- 
try ; these we see in the form of dew only, or at 
most the}^ but slightly increase the amount of our 
equatorial rains. From this source of our raius 
result the extremes so peculiar to our American 
climate. At one time our ploughed lands are 
saturated with water, our clay soils are melted and 
in drying out are compacted so as to be much 
harder than the frosts left them in Spring before 
they were broken up. Then follow quickly 
droughts parching and baking the soil, making it 
unSt if worn, fur profitable production. These 
mfluences of the climate so act upon the soil that 
the standing topics of our agricultural writers are 
drainage, deep ploughing, and constant stirring 
of the soil. 

From the limited study which scientific men 
have devoted to meteorological knowledge, even 
already a considerable amount of useful informa- 
tion has been collected. The hypothesis already 
cited to explain the cause of rain seems to account 
likewise for the well established fact that a cold 
is usually a wet summer, and a warm, a dry 
one ; because the principle of precipitation ob- 
tains in the one case, and is wanting in the 
other. And does it not likewise explain, to a 
certain extent, why we have usually most rain 
about the equinoxes ? Because the vapors arise 
more plentifully than ordinary in the Spring, as 
the earth becomes loosened from the brumal 
constipations, and because also, as the sun recedes 
from us in the Autumn the cold increasing the 
vapors that had lingered above, during the sum- 
mer heats, are now despatched down in the form 
of rain. It also accounts for the fact that a set- 
tled, thick, close sky^ scarcely ever rains till it 
has been first clear ; because the equally diffiised 
vapors must first be condensed and congregated 
into separate clouds, to lay the foundation for 
rain, by which means the rest of the face of the 
heavens is left open, and pervious to the i*ays of 
the sun. 

These instances are cited as smiple illustra- 
tions of the manner by which the face of nature 
may be discerned, and the kind of weather 
predicted. I^ature instead of beinggoverned by a 
systemof arbitrary decrees, is regulated by great 
immutable and unchanging laws, and so soon as 
these come to be fully understood, their uniform 
invariability in all seasons, and in all climates, 
will be perceived and recognized. 

When once the general principles of meteorol- 
ogy be perfectly understood amongst the agricul- 



14 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



tural community, they will cease to be regarded 
as matters of trivial concern. The labor bestow- 
ed upon investigations of this kind, will then be 
seen as of the greatest practical importance, and 
the basis of the highest improvement cff which 
the art of agriculture is susceptible. The space 
of an essay is altogether too limited a scope 
to do more than point out the subject as worthy 
of study, instead of unfolding comparatively any 
information of which the theme i^ capable of im- 
parting. It is believed that meteorological, like 
many of the other sciences, is as yet in its infancy 
and that when the time shall have come when its 
truth be fully comprehended, the labors of the 
ao-riculturist will be greatly lessened, and his suc- 
cess doubly insured. After full and perfect ob- 
servations shall have been made upon the laws 
of natm'e, and a full code of inductions collected 
therefrom, the farmer will, Avith great certainty, 
De able to augur the signs of the weather, and 
the seasons predict the advent of rain, hail 
and the difterent phenomena of nature and there- 
by be enabled to take advantage of its aspects, 
and mould his agricultural operations in accord- 
ence therewith. 

If the belief of the celebrated Augustus Comte 
be true that a hierarchy of the sciences, like the 
Plastic power of the ancient philosophers, pre- 
sides over universal nature, then it would seem 
as if the attainment of a perfect knowledge of the 
workings of this nature would in time be within 
the reach and comprehension of man. Why then, 
should not our society take an interest in the 
meteorological observations of our country, and 
yield its aid in the collection of information for 
general diffusion amongst the people ? Great re- 
sults are anticipated from the deductions which 
are promised to be educed from the observations 
of the zealous corps of meteorological reporters, 
who now span the vast extent of our immense 
country, from the pine-clad hills of Maine to the 
grazing plains of Texas. 

VALUE OP WOODLANDS. 

Could every cultivator of th« soil be mipressed 
with the important part which forests bear upon 
Agriculture and Horticulture, he would most as- 
suredly discontinue his wholesale onslaught upon 
the comparatively small proportion of woodland, 
which is yet left to operate upon. Before the 
discovery of coal, there was no necessity to cau- 
tion him to save his timber. Self-interest prompt- 
ed him to do so. Wood for fuel selling at 6 to 10 
dollars a cord, with a fair prospect of doubling in 
price, was a sufficient stimulus to with-hold the 
axe. 

No sooner however was coal discovered, its 



uses understood, and its quantity in a measure as- 
certained, than the destruction of forests began 
anew, and if continued in the same ratio in the 
future, the " Woodman's axe" will soon become 
a relic of the jjast. 

The effects produced by the destruction of tim- 
ber are now seen and felt by many ; but the mass 
of farmers and fruit-growers do not yet fully re- 
alize them. We often hear it remarked that our 
grain and fruit crops are much more uncertain 
than formerly, and the usual impression is that 
there has been a change in our climate ; and that 
no remedy can be applied. That the climate — 
strictly speaking — has changed in any perceptible 
degree vrithin the last century, we are not dispos- 
ed to admit, but that the temperature is more 
variable — especially in the winter season, in con- 
sequence of the country being denuded of a large 
proportion of its forests, will hardly be question- 
ed. A few days of mild weather in the winter, 
will soon start vegetation in cultivated sections, 
where there is little or no forest ; and a sudden 
change to cold alwaj^s effects the j^oung and ten- 
der growth injuriously', while under similar cir- 
cumstances in largely timbered regions these 
changes are very little felt. We admit, there are 
degrees of cold which destroy vegetation gener- 
ally, but crops suffer less frequently from this 
cause than from sudden changes. 

The Western Pioneer — who is said to be an 
eastern man developed — is acting prudently in 
the planting of timber instead of destroying all 
within his reach. He can thus indulge the pleas- 
ant hope, that if not he , his posterity at least may 
reap the benefit of his investment. 

It shall be our province to j)lead with the 
landholder in favor of cutting down less and jDlant- 
ing more trees. If his acres be too few to add to 
them depth instead of surface area, by deep plow- 
ing, subsoiling, and enriching them to a proper 
degree of fertility. At the same time he may 
rely upon the surrounding groves and forests act- 
ing well their part in the economy of nature ; 
thus our crops may be increased by a different 
method of tillage, instead of decreasing as they 
are under the prevalent mode at iDresent. For 
posterity's sake the improvident landholder 
should know that the demand and value of Imn- 
ber is steadily increasing, and broad as our iTa- 
tional Domain is, there is a limit to the squatting 
from one tract of virgin land to another, leaving 
only exhausted and sterile soils behind. It is to 
be hoped that laws, state and national, will ere 
long be enacted exempting from taxation timber- 
ed lands generally, or so far at least as they are 
necessary to keep up the proper balance between 
wooded and cleared lands. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



15 



CLEMATIS FLAMULA. 

There are few of any climbing plants which 
have a better claini to the attention of those who 
love flowers, than the sweet-scented clematis. It 
is exceedingl}' irraceful in habit, with very neat 
but i^ot redmidauL foliage, of a drooping and fes- 
toon-like aspect, and although its flowers are 
small, white, and with no great pretention to 
beauty, they fill the warm air of the Sunmier 
evenings with a delicate and delicious fragrance, 
that does not fail to win favor. The plant is" 
hardy, is a perennial, and wants but little atten- 
tion. In the first year of its planting, or subse- 
quently when the winter is unusually severe, it 
will freeze down to near the ground in this vi- 
cinity, but the following Spring it again throws 
out shoots, which by the first week in July attain 
a growth of ten "to fifteen feet, and then it com- 
mences to bloom. When this period arrives it 
neglects the business of growing, but gives us 
during July, and part of August, a perfume not 
rivalled by "Balm of a thousand flowers," "Love 
among the roses," or any of the other compounds 
to which perfumers give these and like attractive 
names. It also retains its foliage into the "Win- 
ter. As we WTite — late in December — there is a 
vine near by which is still green, having been 
thus far only partially bleached by the snows and 
storms of Winter. 

With these merits, there seems to be no good 
reason why the Clematis Flamula is not more 
frequentl}'^ seen in the flower-garden. As far as 
om* observation goes, it is comparatively rare, 
doubtless hence it is not better known. To those 
intending to plant flowers and vines next Spring, 
om- advice is to place this lovely creeper among 
the first on the list. We shall receive thanks for 
the counsel at some future time. D. 



SCIEITTIFIC AND MECHAISTIGAL. 
What to Wear on the Feet. — One of the well- 
established facts of physiology is that anything 
wOrn upon the feet which, like rubber or patent 
leather, prevents the passing off of the insensible 
perspiration, is detrimental to the health. Those 
Avho regard the organic laws as having any sa- 
credness, will not use patent leather boots, cov- 
ering the whole foot, for constant wear, but limit 
them to particular occasions. Rubber ought to 
be removed, and something else substituted in 
their place, as soon as the feet come out of the 
wet which occasions their being put on. The 
same is true of all bouts that are water proof. They 
should be worn only when times of exposure 
make them necessary. This is sufliciently well 
known with regard to rubbers; but few think 
Imt leather boots are objectionable, for the same 



reason, in proportion as they are water-tight. 
There are comparatively few of them which are 
perfectly so ; yet there are many, which worn as 
they are, day after day, in dry weather as well as 
wet, must, by retaining a large part of the foot's 
perspiration, have an uuhealthful efiect. It is a 
good practice to bathe the feet after removing a 
pair of water proof boots which have been worn 
during the day. With many men this is a neces- 
sity, and it Avould be such with many more if they 
knew all the requirements of the laws of hj^giene, 
to say nothing of any other reason. To give the 
boots themselves a washing out occasionally would 
be advantageous, as the feet must be allowed to 
perspire naturally or the skin in some other part 
is liable to be overtasked, and it is stated by 
medical authority that many skin diseases have 
been produced by neglect of the feet in this par- 
ticular. 

How to Buy Furs. — In purchasing furs a sure 
test of what dealers call a "prime" fur, is the 
length and density of the down next the skin ; 
this can be readily determined by blowing a brisk 
current of air from the mouth " against the set of 
the fur ;" if the fibres open readily, exposing the 
skin to view, reject the article, but if the down is 
so dense that the breath cannot penetrate it, or 
at most shows but a small portion of the skin, 
the article may be accepted. 



4 ^ -^B.- ^^ 



A LARGE TANIfEIlY. 

The following brief description of Mr. Amos 
Hollinger's Tannery, (said to be the largest in 
this county) which is located on the Willow street 
pike, about 2i miles south of this city, is furnished 
the Express by a correspondent of that paper : 

The engine house of the tannery is 42 feet by 
20, two stories high, and contains an engine of 
twenty horse power. There is also a boiler- 
house, fire proof, which is 22 feet square, and 
contains two boilers, each of which is 30 feet long 
and 30 inches in diameter. In consequence of 
the engine and the two boilers occupying two 
separate apartments, the steam is conveyed from 
one to the other by means of a large caliduct or 
pipe, some 70 feet long. The stack connected 
with the boiler-house, which serves as a draft, is 
60 feet high, and contains 20,000 bricks. The 
currying-shop is 75 feet by 30, three stories high, 
with a large drying-loft capable of holding 1,500 
sides of leather. The yard is 100 feet long and 
75 wide, of which 75 feet are under cover, and 
which is used for the purpose of a drying loft and 
leather finishing deijartment. The dimensions of 
the main bark house, are: 51 feet long, 37 wide, 
and 40 feet high. The number of cords of bark 
used a year, is about 600. There are 100 vats^ 



16 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



most of them being eight feet long, five feet wide 
and five deep. There are from 20 to 30 workmen 
employed all the year, who make exclusively Qak 
harness and bridle leather, and turn out over 200 
sides per week. Mr. H. is an energetic business 
man and has established a large and extensive 
trade throughout the Middle and Eastern States. 



HAUD MILCHIH^G COWS. 

In almost all herds of cows will be found some 
animals whose milk is drawn with a great and 
painful expenditure of muscle, when no dispo- 
sition to hold up is manifest. The cause is 
generally found in a defective formation of the 
teats, the milk ducts being obstructed or con- 
tracted. A correspondent of the New Eng- 
land Homestead states that he had a valuable 
young cow that milked so hard from hind 
teats, as to make the operation slow and very 
fatiguing to the milker. He adds: "By the aid 
of a probe I ascertained that the obstruction 
was at the lower end of the teat; I therefore 
thought a little surgical skill might remove the 
evil. I took a very narrow-bladed knife, gave it 
a keen edge, took the teat in my left hand, in- 
serted the point very gently into the milk pas- 
sage, and then, without fear or trembling, gave a 
sudden thrust of the knife in the right direction, 
and the cure was affected. 

"The cov/ started a little and then stood still. A 
few drops of blood followed the cut only. I then 
operated on the other teat with the same result. 
Another 5"0ung cow that came of the above-men- 
tioned, had lost one-quarter of her bag, and milked 
so hard from one teat, that the stream of milk 
was no larger than a small knitting-needle. With 
the same success I operated upon that. They 
milked afterwards as easily as any one could de- 
sire, and no leaking of the milk followed." 

HOW TO SAVE GIRDLED PKITIT 
TREES. 

To tell how to save trees injured in this way 
will be to tell how I saved over a hundred trees, 
seven years planted, completely girdled by mice in 
my orchard a vear ago last month. There had 
been for some time a heavy snow on the ground ; 
and mice being plenty and in a starving condition, 
with nothing else to eat, they ate all the bark 
from the trees so far as they could reach, some of 
them for a foot up and down all around, and por- 
tions of the sap-wood all around, some of them at 
least half an inch deep. As soon as the damage 
was discovered — which was the first thawing 
days — I banked the snow up around them for a 
foot above the injury; then, as fast as the soil 
thawed enough, I banked with it about the trees 



to the same height. This was all the attention 
they received ; and to-day they have all the dam- 
aged parts covered by almost as thick a coating 
of bark as the uninjured portion of the trees. My 
directions, therefore, for saving trees girdled by 
mice or other means, would be to follow the prac- 
tice used to save my own, when girdled within a 
reasonable distance from the ground ; when dene 
higher up, this course would be impracticable, and 
we should have to look to some other covering 
than soil to protect the surface until a new bark 
was deposited. Common clay must be used for 
this purpose. If too high up to reach by banking, 
bind the clay on it. The sooner the surface is 
protected after injury, the better. The death of 
the tree, when girdled, is caused by the seasoning 
of the sap wood. — American Journal of Horticul- 
ture. * 

ij^ » ^ Bj i^^^ 

Feeding Sheep for Manxtre. — One of our 
nurserymen sent a man to Michigan to buy sheep 
to fatten this winter. He bought 400 good weth- 
ers, three and four year olds, that average about 
95 pounds each, at a cost here of S3. 10. His 
dbject is to make manure. He gets about a load 
of manure to a sheep, worth $3 or $5. He has 
adopted this plan three or four years, and his 
land already shows the effect. He thinks it far 
better manure than that wh'ch he draws from the 
city. I told him if he would use oil cake the ma- 
nure would be richer still. There will be a great 
many damaged beans this year, which, if not 
mouldy, can be fed to sheep with advantage. 
And the manure from beans or peas is nearly as 
rich as that from oil-cake. — /. Harriss in Agricul- 
ture. 

— i«3>' — «►■ >^ 

Meeting of the Pennsylvania Fruit 
Growers' Society. — Mr. S. B.Heiges,of York, 
Secretary of the Pennsylvania Fruit Growers' 
Society, has given notice that the annual meeting 
of the Society will be held in the Orphans' Court 
room, Harrisburg, on the third Wednesday of 
January, being the 20th, 18G9. Discussions on all 
the new fruits, from strawberries to apples, inclu- 
sive, will be engaged in. Members are desired to 
attend, and exhibit such fruits as they may have. 

This meeting will doubtless pi'ove to be iiter- 
esting and instructive, as all the former meetings 
of the Society have been. 

iil ^ ^ HB> '(^'1 

It affords us pleasure to learn that W. G. 
Kafroth has consented to act as agent for the 
Lancaster City & County Fire Insurance Com- 
pany. Mr. Kafroth's gentlemanly bearing will 
soon ingratiate him with the people of Lancaster, 
and the Company he represents is in need of no 
commendation. Lajs[CASter. 



a. b. kaufman's 
Insurance Agency, 

No. 1 EAST ORANGE ST., 
LANCASTER CITY, PA., 

Issues Life, and also, Policies against Fire and 
all o+her Accidents. 

AGENT FOB THE OLD 

CONN. MUTUAL LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY. 

The Best Company in the World. 

CAPITAL, :- . - - 833,000,000. 



LANCASTER CITY AND COUNTY 

FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, 

OF Z,.^J\'C^STJEIi. JPJl. 



CAPITAL, - - - ^JiOO,000. 



ZDIXiECTOItS : 



SAMUEL liESS, 

South Side Conestoga, opposite 
GrraefF's Landing, 

DEALER IN 

BUILDING LUMBER, 

O O -A. X. , 

Wood. Salt. Sand, Plaster, and all th? best Fertili- 
zers in the Market. Posts, Rails, Pales, and Fencing 
-Materials of ever}' Desoiption. 

Particular attention paid to Re-fa wing Lumber for 
Cabinet woik and Coachmaking. 

o:^ All Orders left at the Lancaster Post Office 

promptly attended to. 



S. S. RATHVOi^'S 
Mercbtant Tailoring, (it'iieral Clothing 

AND GENTLEMEN'S FURNISHING STORE, 

(KRAKP'S OLD STAND), 

Corner North Queen & Orange Sts,, 
Lancaster, Pa., , 

All kinds of Men's and Boys' Rea<iy-Mafle Clothing and 
Farnibhing Goods constantly on hand. Al.so, a superior assort- 
ment ot French, Ruglish, German and American Cloths, Cas- 
iimeresand Vestings which will be made to or'ler in any desired 
style, with the least possible delay ; warranted to give satis, 
faction, and at reasonable charges. 

S. S. RATHVON. 



GRUGER & RICE, 

DKUGGISTS & APOTHECARIES, 

No. 13 WEST KING STREET, 

NEXT DOOR TO STEINMAN'S HARDWARE STORE, 

Lancastei', Pa, 

Have always on hand Pure, Reliable Drugs and Medi- 
cines, Chemicals, Snices, Perfumery and Toilet 
Articles. Also Flavoring Extracts of 
their own .Manufacture, and of 
unsurpassed quality. 

Sole Agents for Hassow's C0MP0c::yD Stritp of Tak, the 

best Cough Medicine in the market. VVc have also on hand in 

season an assortment of Landreth's Warranted Garden Seeds). 

The public can rely upon AWW^Ta <i«TTJjTO waxT 'tUST 

AfS. ros ^3U> JfO BPB0TITCTS0. 



Hon.Thos. E.Fkanklin, Geo. K. Reed, Edw. Bkowk, 

Pres't, Treas., Sec'y 

John L. Atlee, M. D., B. F. Shenk, Jacob Bousman. 
Henrv Carpenter, M.D., F. Shroder, Jacob M. Frantz, 

Hon. A. E. Roberts, John C. Hager. 

Houses, Barns, Stores, Mills and Buildings of all kinds, with, 
their contents* Insured on Favorable terms. 

W. J. KAmOTH, Agent. 
Residence: 36 South Dake St., Lancaster. 



J. B. KBVI]irSKI^ 

DEALER IN 

Pianos, Organs, and Melodeons, 

AN!) MUSICAL INSTRIIJUENTS GENERALLY, 

A large assortment of Violins. Flutes. Guitars, Banjos, 

Tamborines, Accordeons, Fifes. Harmonicas, and 

Musical Merchandise always on hand. 

SHEET MUSrn: A large stock on hand and constantly re- 
ceiving all the latest publications as soon as issued. 

MUSIC) BT MAIL \ I would inform persons wishing Music, 
that JNIusic and Musical Books will be sent by mail free of 
postage when the marked price is remitted. 

I1ECALCOMA.N 1 Ai or the art of Transfeiring Pictures. Can 
be traTisferred on any olyect. I would call especial attention 
of Coachmakors to my stock of Decalcomania. 

ZAHM & JACKSON, 

No. 15 NOKTH ftXJEEN ST., 

Beg leave to call the attention of persons in want of 
a good and reliable Time Keeper to their full assoi-t- 
ment of 

AMERICAN m SWISS WATCHES, 

In Gold and Silver Cases which will be sold at 
prices which will defy competition. Also, a full assort- 
ment of 

of all kinds, which we wi.l warrant good and correct 
time-keepers. 

in great variety, such as Pins, Set' 6, Ear Rings, Finger 
Rings, Sleeve Buttons, Chains, &c. 

SOLID SILVER WARE, 

Manufactured expressly for our sales and warranted coin. 

PLATED WARE, 

From the best factories and warranted the finest quality. 

Gold, Silver and Steel Spectacles. Hair Jewelry 
3Iade to Order. 

Repairing Promptly Attended to. 

ZAHM &. JACKSON, 



S. WELCHENS, D. D. S., 

SURGEON DENTIST, 

Office and HesUlence, 

HOWELL'S BUILDING, No. 65^ NORTH QUEEN ST., 

Half a square south of the R. H. Depot. 

Twenty Years' Successful Practice in Lancaster. 



I Lancaster, June 25th, 1868. 

Editors Express : Dr. Wm. M. Whiteside, the cnterpri*- 
i ing Dentist, has purchased from me a large stock of teeth and 
1 all the fixtures, the nstruments fonnerly belonging to me, and 
I also those used by my father, Dr. Parry, in his practice. In 
j the purchase, the doctor has provided himself with some of 

the most valuable and expensive instruments used in dental 
I practice, and has beyond doubt one of the best and largest 
1 collections of teeth and instruments in the State. Persons 
i visiting the commodious offices of Dr. "Whiteside, cannot fail 
j to be fully accommodated. The Doctor loses no opportunity 

of furnishing himself with every late scientific imprevement 
' in his line of business. h. B. PAKRY. 






EAST KING STREET, 



The Latest improvements in INSTRUMENTS 
and TEETH and the very best materia!, Warranted 
in all operations. 

TEETH EXTRACTED WITHOUT PAIN with i O^ce and Residence, 

the use of Nitrous Oxide Gas, Ether, or the Ether 
Spray : 

TERMS, as low as any in the city, when low priced ^'^^t ^oor to the Court House, over Fahnestock's Dry 
material and low priced work are used. j Goods Store, 

But for riRST-CLASS'OPERATIONS, with ap- | 
pliances and material to corre.spond, prices range 
higl: 



>her. 



S. WELCHENS. D. D. S. 



CJ -A. ZE?F H) ' 

RE1« ART'S OLD WI?/l 

ESTABLISHED IN i7teo. 

No. 36 EAST KING ST., LANCASTER, PENNA. 



gT 



The reputation of REIGART'S OLD WINES AND BRAN- 
DIES for purity and excellent qualiry having been fully es- 
tablished tor nearly a centuiy, we regret that the conduct of 
some unprincipled dealers, who re-fill with and sell from our 
tabled bottles their deleterious, compounds, compels us to 
adopt the anne.xed trade mark, wliieli in future, for the pro- 
tection of ourselves and our customeis, will be found on all 
car old bottled Wines, Brandisa, Gms, Whiskies, Bitters, &c. 



TRADE 




MARK. 



And farther, in order to protect the same, ws hsreby .iii- 
Eounce our determination to vrosecuie hi ihe fullest extent of the 
Act of Assembly, approved, 31st day of Jlarch, 1860, any per- 
son or persons who shall violate the provisions of said act as 
applicable to our trade mark. 

N. B We respectfully request the public, when they have 

occasion or desire to use Old Brandy at the Hotels or Restau- 
rants to ask particularly for Keigarf s Old Brandy. 
Very re'pectfully, &c., 

H. E. SLAYMAKER, Agt. 



UNION SPOKE AND AGRICULTURAL WORKS 

Corner of Watf>r arx'^ L^^iiioti Stsi., 
Formerly Shirk & Royer's Warehouse, on the Penna. Rail- 
road, near Baumgardiier's coal yard, and 2 squares west from 
the Railroad Depot, ■'vhere ws manufacture the 

liATEST IMPROVED GRAIN DRli^LS, 
Also, Grain Drills T^ith Guano attached, warranted to give 
ssti'sfaction. Jiockaton;/ fang, Ci^fr ^llillf,' Crushers aud 

Cfratert, for horse or hand power, which will grind a bushel 
of apples per minute by hoise power, and are warranted to do 
it well. We would al.'^o inform Coiichmakers that we have put 
np in our Shop two of the latest improved Spohe ^Jiachtneg, 
nr JbatheB, and are fully prepared to furnish the best quality 
of SPOKES of .all kinds, sizes, drv or part dry, and warranted 
to be a good article. We buy none but the best split Spokes, 
and have now on h.and 1 00,00» sr'ffSfKS. Bent Fei^lowb 
of all sizes; Shafts and Oakriage Polsb, Bowb, &c., of 
seasonable stuff, constantly on hand. 

As Mr. Keeler his been in this business 16 or 18 years, and 
having served an apprenticeship at <'oachmaking, he knows 
whpjt the trade want in that line. All kinds of Bent Stuff for 
sale, or made to order — and Spokes of all sizes turned for per- 
sons having them on hand in the rough. 

Notice to Farmers and I'.Iechanics — Planing and Saw- 
ins done at the shortest notice. We have one of the best and 
1 afcBt Improved Surftice Planes for operation. 

KEELER & SHAEFFER, Lancaster, Pa. 



LANCASTER, PENNA. 

Teeth Ejctracted without pain by the use of 

{Nitrous Oxide) Gas. 

BOOKSAND STATIONERY. 



A Full assortment of 

SCHOOL, MISCELLANEOUS AGRI- 

DULTUEAL AND HORTI- 

CULTURL BOOKS, 

A large stock of 

STA^TIOISIEEY, 

• WHICH WILL BE SOLD AT 

GREATLY REDUCED PRICES, 

•On account of removal April 1st, 1869, to 

No. 52 North Queen Street, 

, (KEAMP'S BUILDING) 

Kour Doors above Orange Street, 

ISuhscriptions received for all the Agricultural ani 
Horticultural Magazines. 

J. H. SHEAFFER'S 

Cheap Cash Book Store, No. 32 N. Queen 
Street, LANCASTER, PA. 



DEALER IN 

FOREICtH and AMERICAN WATCHES, 

IN GOLD AND SILVER CASES, 

CLOCKS OF EVERY DESCRIPTION, 
Jejfclry in all its Shapes and Forms, 

SILVER WARE, designed for Bridal Presents; 

BRACKETS, TOIL"ET SETS. VASES. SPECTACLES, 
GOLD PENS, &c., «S;c., &c. 



Stoves ! 

GGdari7ira2?G I 

Housekeepers* Furnlsliiiig Goods ! 



The 'uuderaigned a( their old established si and in 
WEST KTNQ STREET, 

are constantly receiving fresh supplies to their exten- 
sive Stock, from the best manufactories in this Coun- 
try and Europe, and invite the attention of Merchants 
and Consumers, feeling that we can do as well as any 
house in Philadelpliia. 

Persons commencing Housekeeping will find the 

The Largest and Best Selected Lot of 

at Manufacturers' Prices. Also, every other nrticle 
kept in a first-class Hardware Store. 

.\ FULL STOCK OF 

Sadlers', Coaclimakers' and Blacksmiths' Tools 
and Materials. 

BUILDERS will hod a full supply of evevy thing 
suited to their wants at LOWEST FIGLTRES. 

CLOVER, TIMOTHY AND FLAX SEED, 

BOUGHT AND SOLD. 

STEINMAN & GO. 



p. E GRUGER. 



J.P. GRUGER. 



GRUGER BROTHERS, 

MARBLE MASONS, 

14 South Queeu St., Lancaster, Pa-, 

Have always on hand or will furnish to order at 

SHORT NOTICE, 

MONUMENTS, 

TOMBS, 

GRAVE STONES, 

&c., &c. 

We pay particular and personal attention both to the 
SELECTION OF THE MATERIAL and the EXECU- 
TION OF OUR WORK, and our facilities now are such 
that we can guarantee our customers the very best 
work, at the same, and often Lower Prices, than are 
usually paid elsewhei-e for inferior productions. 

Lettering 



in 



English 



and 



German, 

ELEGANTLY AND CORRECTLY DONE. 

W« earnestly invite our country fiiendsto give us a 
eaU. 



SHULTZ & BRO., 

Maiiufaciiirers, Wholesale and Retail Dealers im 

IIA.TS, 

Caps and Furs, 

L A D I K S' F A N C Y FURS, 

HOODS, 

TRIMMED GLOVES AND MITTS, 
Gents' Gloves, Capes and Collars, 

Fancy Robes, 
BLA.]SrKETS, &C, 

20 North Queen Street, 
LANCASTER, PA. 



ERICAN WATCHES 




J\'"o. 22 West King street, 

NsxT Door Below Cooper's Hotel, 
DKALKRS IN 

IMiilCii & IMP#Ef 11 

■WATCHES, 

J" E ^^w^ E L :r "5r , 
CLOCKS AND SPECTACLES. 



9 




THE UNDERSIGNED REPRESENTS THE 

ill! mi IMIMMS G^ifir 

AND ALSO THE 

Life ai IcsMeat Iiisaraiicfl Coiipaij, 

Both stable and well established companies, the former 
having a capital of $1000,000, and the latter $500,- 
000. 

The plan of issuing policies by the Brooklyn Life 
Insurance Conipanj' presents a feature altogether 
unique, and one which removes one of the strongest 
objection, hitherto urged against the plan of Life Insur- 
ance; and this is what is termed the Surrender Value 
Plan. Each and every Policy issued in the name of 
ihis Compivny bears an endorsement, stating the exact 
worth of the policy in Cash, at any time afier two or 
more annual premiums have been paid. 

Insurance can also be eflected in the North American 
Life Insurance Company, and at lower rate a, it is be- 
lieved, than in any other Company in the United States. 

All desirous of securing insurance upon their lives 
can do so by calling upon the undersigned. 

ALLE^i I^UTJIRIE, Agl, 

East Liemon Street, 

LANCASTER, PA. 



LANCASTER, PENN'A, 

Dealers in United States Bonds and all 
kinds of Railroad Stock and State Loans. 

Buy and Sell Gold, Silver, and United 
States Coupons. 

Sell Bills of Exchange on Europe and Passage 
Certificates. 

Receive Money on Deposit and pay Interest as 
follows : 

1 month, 4 per cent., 6 months, 5 per cent. 

3 •' 44 " 12 " H 



FOR SALE AT 

Chas. A. Heinitsh's Drug Store, 13 E. King St., 

LANCASTEE, PENNA., 

German Cattle Powders! 

The best Powder made for the Cure and PreTention of Dis- 
eases to which Oxen, Milk Cows, Shei'p and Hogs, arc subject. 
For Stock Cattle iirepariiig for market, a table spoonful in 
their feed once or twice a week, improve.s their condition by 
strengthening their digestive organs, and creates solid flesh 
and fjit. 
GERMAN VEGETABLE OR UNRIVALLED CONDITION 

POWDERS 
For preserving Horses in good health, removing all Diseases 
of the Skin, giving a Smooth and Glossy appearance, also a 
sure remedy for Distemper, Hidebound, Loss of Appetite, &c. 

PERSIAN INSECT POWDER. 
A perfectly safe, quick and easily applied destroyer of Lice 
on Cattle, Fleas, Bedbugs, &c. 

PYROLIGNEOUS ACID. 
A substitute for curing Beef, Pork, Hams, Tongues Smok- 
ed Sausages, Fish, &c., without the danger and trouble of 
smoking, imparting a rich flavor and color. 



CHARLES T. GOULD, 

CHAIR MANUFACTURER, 

No. 37 North Queen St., Lancaster, 

(NEXT DOOK TO SHOBER'S HOTEL,) 

Old Chairs Re-painted and Repaired. 

CHRISTIAN WIDMYER, 

S. E. Cor. East Kin^ & Duke Sts., Lancaster. 

Cabinet Work of every description and a full 

assortment of Chairs constantly on hand. 
n:F'All Warranted as JRepresented, .,£Xi 

JACOB ROTHARMEL, 

PREMIUM 
DEALER IN 

No. 9^ Nortli Quep.n Street, Lancaster, Pa. 
THE 

Lancaster Inquirer 




3L.ANCA8TBH3 PA., 

OFFERS &REATER lEUCEfflENTS 



m^ 



Executed in the Best Style of Printing, 
than any other office in tJie State. 



We are now printing The Pennsylvania School 
Journal, The Voice of Truth, The Good Idea, The 
Reformed Church Monthly, The Business Adver- 
tiser, The Inquirer, The Mechanics'' Advocate, Tlie 
Lancaster- Farmer^ and other publications that 
will compare 'witn any similar publications in 
the State for beauty, besides being printed 

ClieaBsr tian at any Otlier EstaMislnneit 

IN THE COUNTRY. 

Estimates for Newspapers, Books and jobs 
of all kinds made and forwarded, and all 
information gladly given by 

WYLIE & GRIEST, 

Book and Job Printers, 
Inquirer Steam Job Printing Establishment, 
LANCASTER, 1*A, 



L^IsTIDIS &c OO., 




Ijeiiioii Street, Lancaster, Pa., 

ARE PREPARED TO DO ALL KINDS OF 






IC 



BUILD LARGE AND SMALL ENGINES, 

, PUIYS. HB, BE k WITEI- 

MILL GEA-RI]Sr&, 
And all kind af Machine Work done at a first class Shop. 

Having recently removed to their new building, and provided themselves 
with a 

LARGE ASSORTMENT OF MACHINERY 

Adapted to the wants of their customers, they are prepared to execute all or- 
ders with neatness and dispatch, and on terms satisfactory to the customer. 
They would invite attention to their large foundry connected with their works, 
in which the best work is turned out. 

They also announce that they are now prepared to supply their 






m' 



^ 



TO ALL CUSTOMERS, 

This Machine requires Less Power, does More Work, and is considerable 
Cheaper than any other Separator now in the market. This Machine is now 
improved, well built, and does the best and most efficient class of work. 

Repairing of all kinds promply done at reasonable rates. 

Give us a call, and we will endeavor to please our patrons. 

FRANK LANDIS, 
EZRA F. LANDIS, 
JACOB LANDIS. 



Diller I Groff's Hardware Store, 

No. 8 East King Street, Lancaster City, Penna. 

DEALERS IN 

Foreig-n and Domestic Hard^v^are, 

Such as Building Material, Paints, Varnishes, Oils, Glass, Coach Trimmings, Stoves, 

Iron and Steel, &c., &c., etc. 

tiOU8K F U RNIsieiMG GOOOS. 

TIMOTHY AND CLOVER SEEDS OF THE BEST QUALITY. 

X3: .A. :Ft isr E s s 
No. 37 North Queen St, 

NEXT DOOR TO SHOBER'S HOTEL. LANCASTER, PA. 





61 J 












:E»i:ji-A.XKr wA.:Krx> aj'.A.isro'K' 



ii^ri 



;iMi 

WAGON GEARS, WHIPS, BUFFALO ROBES, 

BLAffiETS, TRUNKS, YALISES, CARPET BA&S. LADIES' & GENTS' SATCHELS, 

Of all kinds constantly on kept on hand or made to order. Repairing neatly done. 

Also, Agent for BAKER'S HOOF LINIMENT, the best article for Sore 
Hoofs in the country. 



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It is superior to other coverings for all kiiifls of buildings for these reasons : 

1. It is water, snow and air-proof from the beginning, and is as fire-proof as ordinary slate. (Sjo (estims- 
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2. It keeps buildings warmer in winter and does; not make them hot in summer as ordinary --lato does, and 
it can be. after the fiist year, nhitewashed or painted any desired color so as to obviate all difficulty arising 
from its dark color. 

3. Being entirely waier ani nro proof, it i)« invaluable as a covering for (he sides of buildings and lining 
cisterns ol whatevtr material they may be built; stopping water out of cellars and dampne.?s out of walls of 
house.-', ami closing leaks between buildings. 

4. Adhering, as it does, with great firmness to tin .'ind iron, it is useful for covering tin roofs and iron exposed 
to dampness or to the atmosphere, such as iron fences, cemetery-railings, &c. 

o. Buildings covered with PLASTIC SLATE do not. need tin spotiis at the eaves nor do the valleys neadtin 
to make them water proof. 

6. It is lighter than shingles, and is equally adapted to flat or steep roofs. 

7. The testimony of Wm. M'Gilvray & 6o., published herewith, shows that it is not only fire proof exter- 
nally, but, is also a great hindrance to the spread of fire within. 

8. It is much ciieaper in iirst-cost than any good roofing now in use. and when all attendant expenses of the 
two roofs are estimated, costs only about half as much as the best slate, and it niak<^s a better and closer roof. 

0. For the rooting of foundries and casting houses ot blast furnaces, wiiere therw are gases of a very high 
temperature, which injure^ and destroys other looff. this material is improved ind seems to produce a better 
roof, (see certificates of Messrs. Grubb, .Vlusselman & Watts, S. M. Brua and Wm. M'Gilvray.) 

l(t. If in process of year^ cracks or leaks occur in Plastic Slate Hoofs, they are about as easily repaired, as 
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O;^ The Pamphle! referred to in the foregoing notice can be had g. atuitousl}', by calling at the Otlice;; of the 
Lancaster iNQrjKEit and Examiner & Hera].i>. 

Persons wishing to examine PLASIIC SLATE ROOFS, and thus verify for thomsevelves the following 
statements, arc invited to call and inspect Roofs put on for the following persons, among many others : 

Lancaster— Thos. H. Burrowes, >ituiit .1. Wylie, ( KfJitnr Lancastsr rnquirer,) J. B. Scbwart.-5WiM.<?r. Abraham Bitner 
Sr. Maktetta — Henry Miu-selmaii it .Son"^., Myers anrl Benson. Oildmiua— 0. 15. Grnhb, (Furnace,) Columbia Gas Co., 
Samuel Shock, Pres't.,'Sn'«jueh3nna Iron Company, Wm. Patton, Pres't., Samuel W. Jlitttin. ?iron>-T Joy— Henrv Kurtz, 
Pr. J. L. Ziegler, William Brady, J. K. Hoflnr, (-Kiiitor Mt. Joy Herald). Christiana--E. G. .Boomell, AVm. P. Brinton. 
John G. Fogle. B\rt— VViDiam Whjtson. Belx-enonte P. O.— I-tobert P. Mcllvaiiie. Pabapisk — Bobcrt .S. Mcllvaine, 

WiLLiAMfiT0WN-—T. Scott Woods. KPHHATA— Dr, J.i\l. Grofl'. GORDON viLLE — Samuel M. Brua. C-erxarvon Twr 

^Tr5. Fanny Mast. Upri:n T,EAcocrc Twr.- Marks G. Mpn;;rr, Christian R. Ljiiulis, J:u:oh Ti. Miipser. Leacock Twp Isaac 

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H. Bvubaker. Svokting Hij,i, — Emanuel Long. Lrrtz— H. H. Tshudy. David Brisker. DnRLAOH P O.. Clat Twp— Jonas 
T^aber. Manheim Bor.. — Xathan Werley, Saniuel Ruhl. Pbxn Twp — Geori,'f Ruhl. West Lampeter— Aldus C. Herr. 
Ekterpripe p. O., Fast LAMPETER--Marks P. Cooper. Strasfurg Bor. — Hfcrvcy Braikhill. 

Orders for Rooftng Should be sent to 

Joseph G-ibbons, 

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Or JOIDs" R. BRICKER, Litiz, Lancaster county. Pa. 

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THE 




Vol. I. 



LANCASTER, PA., FEBRUARY, 1869. 



No. 2. 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY 

WYI^IE & aRIEST, 

INQUIllER BUILDING, LANCASTER, PA., 
At ONE DOLLAR PER YEAR In Advance, 

UNDEK TUE AUePICER OF THE 

liANCASTER COUNTY AORICT I.TURAI. AND 
H01iri« UliTlRAL, SOC'IETT. 



PuhlisJdng Committee. 

I)U. P. W. HiKSTAND, 

H. K. Stoner, 
Jacob M. Frantz, 
Casper Hillkr, 
Levi W. Groff, 
Alexander HARRig. 



Editorial Committee. 
rJ. B. Garber, 
H. M. Englb, 
Levi S. Reist, 

W. L. DlFFENDEEPEK, 
J. H. MUSSER, 

S. S. Rathvon. 



i^All communications intended for the Farmer should be 
addressed to S. S. Rathvon and Alex, irarris, the resident 
members of the Editing and Publishing Committees. 

All advertisements, subscriptions and remittances, to Wylie 
& Grie.st, Printers. 



$$n>^Jt. 



A PAPER ON FRUIT CULTURE. 

The people of Lancaster county, and I believe 
of a great part of the eastern counties of oiu- 
State, have for some years been lamenting the 
decline in the produce of fruit ; especially that of 
apples and peaches. Of late years pears and 
cherries have also shown a disposition to decline. 
Our friend, P. S. Reist, in his essay, read before 
the "Agricultural and Horticultural Society," and 
published in The Lancaster Farmer, says, 
" that "we may be enabled to produce the abun- 
dance which our forefathers enjoyed, is a consu- 
mation most devoutly to be wished." This is truly 
so, and I am hippy to see that there is a spirit 
being aroused in the community, which is making 
an eJfort to overcome the difficulty. 

The value of good fruit, as a means of promot- 
ing health and comfort, gives every man, woman 
and child in the county a deep interest in its pro- 
duction ; and every effort to resuscitate the declin- 
ing energy of our fruit trees should be fostered 
and encouraged, until the happy consummation is 
arrived at. 

I was pleased, therefore, to see the issue of the 
Lancaster Farmer, which will afford a medium 
through which our people can interchange ideas 



and views on this important subject. I also highly 
commend the kind and liberal offer of the gentle- 
men composing the editorial committee, inviting 
and encouraging our farmers who may be in pos- 
session of facts, freely to communicate them for 
publication; offering to dress their communica- 
tions in such form as to make them creditable, no 
matter how homely or ordinary the language may 
be, in which their ideas are couched. This is the 
right spirit, a d most cilVctual means of attaining 
the desired end. Many of oar plain Lancaster 
county farmers, are men of as good natural minds 
as any in the land ; possess sound judgment, and 
are close observers. They have sufficient educa- 
tion to manage their own business and calling, but 
have not much experience in writing; and do not 
like to undertake a thing which would not be 
creditable. The gentlemen composing the edi- 
torial committee, are chiefly their neighboring 
farmers, to whom they need have no raluctance 
to communicate their ideas and sentiments. Let 
every one of our solid old fi\rmers put his shoul- 
der-to the wheel, and perhaps the great desidera- 
tum may be attained: and if our apples and 
peaches can not be restored, the best substitute 
will at least be discovered and produced. 

As an encouragement in this direction, I feel 
inclined to offer a few ideas and suggestions, 
(mind I don't say/«c^.5,^ which, if the committee 
deem'of sufficient importance, they are at liberty 
to publish. But I desire to remind them, not to 
forget the dress they promised. 

That effect will follow cause, is a law of nature; 
and every effect must have its cause. If we un- 
derstood all the ope'ations of the law of nature, 
perhaps there would be but one prime cause, 
which produces a particular effect. But there are 
to us apparently, a variety of causes required to 
produce certain effects which we observe. The 
abundant yield of fine apples which we formerly 
enjoyed, required for its production certain ele- 
ments in the soil where the trees grew, as one of 
the causes of their production. But there were 
other conditions and circumstances operating 
with and favoring that of the elements in the 
soil, all of which had to act harmoniously, or in. 



18 



THE LANCASTER FAKMEK. 



concert, in producing the effect of these fine crops 
of fruit. This prodaction then was the effect of 
different causes, operating in harmony with each 
other. 

The fruit crop is now a faikire, and we eonckide 
that some of the causes which formerly existed 
must have ceased, or else some counteracting in- 
fluence has disturbed the harmony with which 
they formerly acted together. 

We had long and happy enjoyment of one ef- 
fect, with little knowledge, thought or care, of or 
about its cause. We are now having painful ex- 
perience of a different effect, in which we seem 
to be as yet equally ignorant of its cause, but are 
all anxious for a change in the effect. 

We have been waiting for a considerable time, 
hoping and expecting to see a change in this ef- 
fect spontaneously wrought ; until we begin to de- 
spair of the end being attained without means to 
work this change. 

All will readily admit, that the first and most 
important object is to ascertain the cause of the 
new effect. This then should be our first inquu-y. 
In this inquiry I have no doubt, but different ob- 
servers have arrived at very different conclusions, 
in regard to this cause. Our constitution is such 
that when we are impressed with an idea, we are 
intent on observing such facts as are connected 
with it, and truths equally apparent are not ob- 
served by us. Now if these different impressions 
or ideas are brought together and compared, if 
we cannot thereby arrive at correct conclusions, 
they may at least be wholesome. 

I feel some diffidence in presenting objections 
to ideas which have been advanced, because I 
know they are entertained by very able and close 
observing men, for whom I entertain a very high 
regard; but free discussion is the only means of 
eliciting truth. 

The idea of " cold winters " has been advanced 
as a reason for the failure of fruit. But we- had 
equally cold winters when fruit was plenty. Old 
fashioned winters, is quite as familiar an expres- 
sion as old fashioned fruit crops. Besides further 
north, where it is colder than here, they still en- 
joy abundance of fruit. The variable tempera- 
ture of our winters is also advanced as a cause, 
why fruit does not do well with us ; but those 
amongst us who have lived to be three-score, or 
tloree-score and ten years old, can remember that 
we had equally variable winters when fruit failure 
was rare. This then cannot be the cause, or the 
effect would be the same one time as another. 
The clearing of our forests is also very commonly 
held as being the cause of failure. But this clear- 
ing has not been as sudden as the failure in the 
fruit. Very large portions of our forests were 



cleared long before there was any diminution ob- 
served in the production of apples. It is recom- 
mended to plant trees and screens of evergreens. 
I am not without hope that benefit may accrue 
from this, but cannot think that the want 'of trees 
is the cause. In the west where ther^is compar- 
atively few trees or screens, but open prairies 
of vast extent, there is still abundance of apples. 

Our friend Reist in the essay alluded to, attrib- 
utes the failure to the exhaustion of thrse ele- 
ments in the soil, which are essential to the pro- 
duction of fruit. I observe also that in a conver- 
sation, or discussion had in the "Agricultural and 
Horticultural Society," as published in the Ex- 
press^ the partial failure in the wheat crop of late 
years, is attributed to the same cause. 

We know that the elements in the soil must be 
dissolved by the fibrous rootlets, before they can 
exert any influence on the plant, or its fruit. 
This element, be it abundant or scanty, is carried 
by the sap vessels to every part of the plant, in 
equal proportion. Tliere is no election either by 
the element, or any part of the plant, or its fruit. 
If the element is deficient, the whole plant with 
its fruit will alike betray its want. Years ago, 
when the ravages of the Hessian fly was so de- 
structive to the wheat crop, the elements neces- 
sary to the production of a full crop were as 
abundant in the soil as they ever had been; but 
the insect operating upon the roots of the plant, 
prevented these elements being conveyed to th« 
plant in sufficient quantity to produce a strong, 
healthy stalk, and full, plump berry. The grains 
were small, and shriveled in proportion to the de- 
ficit in the elements which were received by the 
plant. The same effect is observed when the roots 
of a tree are mutilated. The want of the ele- 
ments is preceptible in the whole tree, audits 
fruit alike. When rust, or mildew, infests wheat, 
the stalk is perfect ; elements may be in abund- 
ance, but the parasite, fixing on the stem, absorbs 
the elements and thus cuts them off, so that they 
do not reach the grain in sufficient quantity to 
produce a full plump kernel. 

The wheat fields have seldom presented a more 
promising aspect than they did last year. Fine 
healthy stalk, fully developed heads, bright and 
clean straw ; all was perfect but the quantity of 
grain. In the same head there would be observed 
very fine full and plump grains, with others more 
diminutive and shrunk, and some altogether 
(what is called) deaf. I can not reconcile this 
with the idea of exhaustion of elements in the 
soil. The same may be observed with regard to 
apples and pears. Our older citizens will remem- 
ber the perfection, beauty and excellence of the 
old Vandever, Carthouse, and Bellefleur apples, 



THE LANCASTER FAEMER. 



19 



and White Dayenne pear. When the fruit began 
to fail, the trees evinced no evidence of decline. 
Nor do I know that even now they are not as 
healthy and vigorous in appearance, as any of 
those which are yet fruitful. Nor was all the 
fruit defective. Some specimens were for a long 
time as perfect as ever, and we still find some 
good specmiens of fruit amongst the abundance 
of knotty and scrubby stuft". They are usually 
one sided and knobby, to a degree that makes 
them worthless, if they do not rot or drop off pre- 
maturely. The luscious White Dayenne pear 
tree grows and fleurishes about as well as 
ever, blossoms as profusely, and sets its fruit as 
well as ever, but before its maturity it becomes 
black on the surface, cracks open, and becomes 
altogether worthless. 

Now, these are not the phenomena we witness 
where there is a defect in the elements of the soil, 
or from exhaustion, but rather of some disease or 
agent exerting an influence on the fruit alone, 
and preventing the develepment and maturity of 
the fruit, despite the abundance of, and full ab- 
sorption and use of the essentials in the soil. 

If the defect were owing to exhaustion of the 
elements in the soil, the effect would not be so 
general. New land would be exempt, and would 
for years produce abundantly, as did cleared land 
in former times. But experience proves that it 
is but little, if any more, fruitful than the old 
land. Where there is long continued cultivation 
of the same crop, on the same soil, there is usu- 
ally a diminution in the yield of fruit, even though 
the ground is thoroughly cultivated and manured. 
This is usually attributed to exhaustion of the ele- 
ments in the soil, which is necessary to the pro- 
duction of this particular plant, and its fruit. This 
I esteem partly true, but not necessarily so. The 
necessary elements may exist in the soil, but 
other elements may exist there, which by their 
operation on the first, may neutralize them and 
make them nugatory. I believe agricultural 
chemistry has discovered that the fibrous rootlets 
of plants do not only absorb from the soil in which 
they grow, but that the plant also throws off cer- 
tain excrementitious matters, by exhalation 
through these rootlets, which if retained would 
be deleterious to its health and growth. By long 
continuance of the same plant in the same sail, 
this effete matter becomes so abundant, as to ex- 
ert a noxious influence on the plaift, and it be- 
comes weak and sickly, with diminished produc- 
tion of fruit. To other plants of a different na- 
ture this effete matter is a fertilizing element, and 
is taken up with avidity ; the soil is purified and 
rendered favorable for the production of the first 
plant again. Hence the advantage of pnident 



rotation in crops. We hear of them cultivating 
corn for many years in the same field in the west,, 
without any diminution of yi'ld, and this might be 
urged as objectionable to this doctrine. I con- 
ceive that the fact only proves the excessive fer- 
tility of the soil. Those who boast this, say noth 
ing of the crops of smart weed, and Spanish need- 
les that grow along with their corn, by which this 
effete matter is absorbed and carried off". 

It will be observed from what I have already 
said, that I view the effect as being caused by 
disease, chiefly of the fruit itself, and may also 
be owing in part, to disease of the leaves of the 
trees ; or perhaps what I here term disease, might 
more properly be called fungi or parasite. These 
being fixed on the fruit, absorb the juices or ele- 
ments within their reach, and arrest its growth. 
Such fruit of the same tree, or such parts of the 
same specimen, as are free from any such attach- 
ment, grows on not at all hindered, or only par- 
tially so, from full development and maturity. 

Our friend Reist observes that he has no par- 
ticular remedy to point out, by which the desired 
end may be obtained ; and I am sorry to say that 
I am as little able to recommend means to its at- 
tainment as he. I think, however, we are not 
without hope — that we may yet be relieved of the 
evil under which we now labor. 

The idea which presents itself to my mind is 
that the disease or agent is conveyed by the at- 
mosphere. There may exist in the atmosphere 
elements which produce disease of our bodies, 
which are not perceptible to our senses, and why 
not eflect plants as well ? Those of our friends 
who are old enough, will remember that from 
about the year 1816 or 18, to the year 1831 or 2, 
we had regular annual visitations of autumnal 
billious fever, intermittent fever, and ague ; which 
caused great distress throughout this and many 
other districts of country. Whole families often 
lying at the same time, with scarcely one able to 
minister to the wants or necessities of the other. 
On the streets and highways, we would meet faces 
pale and haggard, who for weeks, months, and 
even years could not get relief from the plague, 
since the year 1832, our country has been com- 
paratively free from this form of disease. True, 
there may have been localities which occasionally 
sufl'ered more or less, but as a general epidemic 
the country has since been free. Since then other 
diseases have prevailed epidemically for a season, 
and again disappeared. Sometimes almost every 
person has influenza, cold,* or sniffles. Why is 
this so? Since the prevalence of the epidemic 
noticed above, we have all had the pneumonia and 
vicissitudes in atmospheric change , as heat and 
cold, drouth and moisture, floods and storms, but 



20 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



no fever! There was no perceptible difference 
iu the air we breathed, but it must then have been 
charged with an agent which produced an effect 
from which it has since been comparatively free. 
At other times it must have been charged with 
something of a different nature, as it produced a 
different disease. Whatever the deleterious agent 
is by which these different .diseases have been 
produced, I cannot account for its simultaneous 
appearance over so wide a district of country, ex- 
cept that it has been conveyed by the atmosphere. 
The effect on the fruit and wheat, has also been 
Bimultaneous over a large district vv'hich could 
scarcely have occurred by exhaustion of the soil, 
and seems to me most reasonable that the agent 
is conveyed by the atmosphere. 

I am not, therefore, without hope that as epi. 
demic diseases of the human body change and dis- 
appear, so this disease of plants may also in time 
disappear ; or the great dispenser of good to man, 
may reveal to us a remedy by which to overcome 
the difficulty. 

There are still some varieties of apples which 
yield tolerably well. So far as I know, the fore- 
most amongst these is the Fallow-water, or Pound. 
They are perhaps not quite equal in flavor to 
Bome others, but in the absence of better, are 
most acceptable and delicious. I have several 
trees in my orchard which have not entirely tailed 
to bear in fifteen years, and have frequently had 
full crops of very perfect frui'. There is an ap- 
ple called Nedley, which some of my neighbors 
say produces very fair crops quite regularly. I 
have several trees of the old sweet pippin, which 
bear regularly every second year, and very per- 
fect fruit. Their chief value is for cider and ap- 
ple butter. Of the latter, these two trees have 
kept the table of our family pretty well supplied. 
The only remedy I have to suggest, is to plant 
freely of those varieties which are kiiown to do 
best in our own neighborhood ; even if they are 
not quite equal to some others we have seen or 
heard of. A tree with medium fruit is better than 
that with none. Sow also the varieties of wheat 
which proves to be most productive. Experience 
may teach us whether early or late sowing is most 
advantageous, and also the value of agents which 
have neutralizing effects. It behooves us there- 
fore to be observant of the influence of remedies 
and means, until we have surmounted the difficul- 
ties under which we now labor. 

The two last seasons we had very protracted 
rains about the tune the apples were in bloom. 
This occurence is detrimental to alniost every kind 
of fruit or grain. "K probaljly occurred as often 
years ago as now, and has nothing to do with the 
subject under consideration. It was accidental, 
and may, or may. not, occur soon again. 

Pbquea. 



VEGETABLE PHYSIOLOGY. 

The science of Physiology embraces so much 
that is instructive and interesting, that, unless it 
is made exhaustive, it is a difficult task so to pop- 
ularize any of its branches, as to render it worthy 
a place in the columns of a journal designed for 
promiscious reading. 

That branch of the science to which we design 
calling attention, is that which relates to the veg- 
etable kingdom. It comprises the endowment of 
vegetation with organic life, and the fulfillment of 
the purpose for which it was constructed. 

Its position in the sciences, and the world of 
nature, is a central link between the animal and 
mineral kingdoms, and constitutes a grand chemi- 
cal laboratory which gathers nutriment from the 
earth, and prepares it for the food and develop- 
ment of the animal creation. >. 

Tliere is so little similaiity between a lump of 
clay, a head of cabbage, and a piece of meat, 
that it becomes intensely interesting to under- 
stand how the one can be transformed into the 
other, and all bear so important a part in devel- 
oping the highest and most complex organic 
structure the world contains — the living, moving, 
thinking man. 

Science may account for results, and discover 
certain remote causes for the phenomena of vital 
power; but that grand principle which moves in- 
ert matter to an affinity with certain chemical 
combinations and forces, that nicely balanced ag- 
gregation of laws which gradually raise universal 
nature from the torper of mid-wniter into the ris- 
ing, budding beauties of spring, thence into the full 
blooni and vigor of summer, where it reaches the 
highest point of organic perfection, luxuriating aA 
it were upon the stimulating influences of the ele- 
ments around, until the modified apd restricted 
powers are exhausted, to gradually wane and sink 
into the substantial fruits of autumn, and again 
into the gloom of winter — must ever remain a 
mystery. 

The idea of chemical changes in the mineral 
substance of our globe, must rest upon certain 
conditions which give expression and force to the 
laws by which all organized matter is governed. 
Through the agency of those laws the highest na- 
ture of the mineral kingdom reaches toward the 
lowest principles of the vegetable; and then as 
ihii vegetable rises to a higher and more complex 
scale, under the endowment of organic life, it 
meets the coarser functions of the animal, and 
thus the three kingdoms, comprising the three 
great divisions of nature, are bound into one uni- 
versal, organic mass. 

The laws which are peculiar and fundamental 
to inert matter, are those of affinity and cohesion. 



THE LANCASTER FAEMER. 



21 



Those -which characterize organic matter, and 
govern, for the most part, the lowest forms of 
»ach matter, are re-production and change. Upon 
the great bosom of the earth, these laws find 
their ready solution, and the power which renders 
them capable of drawing together the elements 
of vitality. 

Apart from the chemical principles and laws 
by which this vital endowment is effected, there 
are certain elements which ai'e essential and fun- 
damental to all organized bodies, but which we 
design applying to our subject of Vegetable Physi- 
ology. 

The first of the elements refered to, is a "rf«/7- 
nite living origin.'''' Its existence ar.d life, whether 
animal or plant, must possess similar antecedents 
to its own peculiar life to give it a type, or species, 
by which it obtains a definite perennial succes- 
sion. It must have a parent of its own kind; must 
attain maturity, decay and die, after the manner 
of the being it represents. To carry forward this 
idea of a special and distinct individuality, there 
are other elements involved which are embraced 
in the idea of a ^''special and definite form,.'''' 

Throughout the entire vegetab'le kiugdom this 
peculiarity is apparent. Every plant and flower, 
every tree and fruit, represents its own genus and 
species, and draws its vitality from the conditions 
of nature which distinguish it from every other 
form. 

A.''^ definite size'''' forms the third element which 
•haracterizes the individuality of organized bo- 
dies. There may be dwarfs, but they are the ex- 
teptions to the general rule that fixes the restric- 
tions of nature, which bind all living things to the 
modified conditions of this unerring law. 

The fourth element essential to oganization, 
and which not only regulates the first principles 
•f intercellular tissue, but determines the arrange- 
ment of fibres and consequently the identity of 
the fabric, consists of a ^''definite and peculiar 
ttructure.''^ 

From this elementary principle, which is re- 
garded as primitive in its character, we pass on- 
ward in the scale of organic structures, and as the 
process of development is traced to its Jiltimate 
destination, the other elementary principles, 
which are embraced in mitrition, the nutritive 
fluids, dependency, and finally in limited duration, 
become subjects of the highest moment and in- 
terest. " There is in every organic fabric a neces- 
sary connection between its conformation, and the 
action it is destined to perform." 

This idea runs through the entire scheme of 
organized matter, influences the purposes of na- 
ture, from the genn, throughout all the vegetable 
creation, until it reaches the towering oak. Or 



from the cell of microscopical science, through 
the animal kingdom, until it culminates in the re- 
lation of each organ with the other, subject to the 
will-power, in the living man. 

In order to facilitate the study of regetable 
physiology, and eystematize the arrangement of 
our subject, we will divide it into three distinct 
parts or divisions, and treat them, as best we can,. 
according to scientific principles. The principles 
embraced in these divisions, are applicable alike 
to animal or vegetable physiology, and, of course, 
will apply to the subject in hand. 

1st. The formation of an orgaized body, as de- 
veloped by the cell system of microscopical 
science. 

2nd. The principles which govern the growth, 
or contribute to the perpttuity or continuity of 
vitality in the plant. 

3d. The laws of restriction and decay, which ore 
peculiar to all organized matter. 

The subject of our next communication, there- 
fore, will be, the remote principles of life, or cell- 
ular tissue. 8. W. 

WHY IS TIT^ COUNTRY DESERTED 
AND THE CITY THUOJSiGSD BY 

YOUITG MEN ? 

It is so, and there arc numerous and suflJicient 
reasons for it. It will be the purpose of the wri- 
ter, who speaks from actual experience, to enu- 
merate some of the principal reasons or causes of 
this cityward tendency, and to suggest a common- 
sense remedy for it. 

The I ity is more attractive to the young than 
the countr}', because the beauties and attractions 
of the country are not properly presented to the 
youth of the country, to instil and cultivate in 
their minds a love for nature, and rural matters of 
beauty and interest. Parents ia the country, in 
the farming districts, are drudging in their respec- 
tive departments from early morn till late at eve, 
and many rarely see their children except at 
meals, where they are scarcely cognizant of their 
presence with them, so great is their haste to re- 
turn to 'work,work,ii\\ work; no rest, no recrea- 
tion ; no pleasure in anything but gain. 

While the children are small and unable to par- 
ticipate in drudging in-doors or out, they are 
driven to the district school, a place as unattrac- 
tive to a chikl usually as a refrigerator is to a rat. 
A teaclier is hired and is to be paid, and the plod- 
ding mother says she has no time to take care of 
the "young ones;" "we have got to pay the 
teacher, and he or she (as the case may be) may 
mind 'em; that's what they are hired fur." But 
as soon as they reach an age that they can be of 
any service, in-doors or out, they are withdrawn 
from the school, so-called, and yoked into the 
diiidging of kitchen or field, according to the sex, 
there without cessation to plod and delve till they 
reach their majority, unless perchance they hap- 
pen in marketing some product of the farm, to get 
a peep at what is to them " the prettiest thing in 
the woiid,'' the city. There they see young men 



22 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



and young women " in Sunday clothes every day," 
with complexion fiir, and hands white and soft. 
"How nice!" what a contrast when compared 
with the life they have been living hi the country, 
and with their condition. 

The question naturally arises in their minds, 
why can I not live in the beautiful city too, and 
enjoy some of the luxuries of life, instead of liv- 
ing as I am living, and as father and mother have 
done all their da^-s. 

These youths have been bred in utter ignorance 
of every feature of loveliness with which the 
country abounds, for the enioymeut of those Avho 
have been so educated that they can appreciate 
the exalted order of enjoyment there to be found. 

No effort has been made to make the work they 
are required to perform, or their scholastic in- 
struction that they have received, in any way in- 
teresting ; on the contrary, all is monotonous and 
wearisome, and in no way calculated to meet the 
wants cf a youthful mind, but so repulsive that 
the first opportunity that offers to escape this un- 
natural ordeal it is embraced, and without waiting 
to consider the propriety of the contemplated 
change, which in fact they have little capacity to 
do, for they are as a natural consequence of the 
manner in which they have been reared, the mer- 
est children mentally. 

All will admit that reform is necessary, but 
how shall it be effected ? "We can reach the case 
in no other way than through the country school. 
The parents are generally incompetent to the 
task, or too much engaged in business. The 
work of reform is to be done through the State 
Superintendent, the School Commissioners and 
the Teachers, hence these are very important of- 
fices, and should be held by the best man in the 
country. These are the men who are to mould 
the minds and tastes of those who are to be the 
parents of the next generation, and if the system 
of education in the common schools and in the 
farm schools of the country are made what they 
should be, it i^ practicable through them to effect 
reform that will not only correct the evil above 
alluded to, but numerous others equally essential 
in promoting the general evil. 

The public mind can be reached through the 
properly-directed efforts and reports of the State 
Superintendent, and by the personal efforts of the 
School Comndssioners'in their respective locali- 
ties, by their faithful and sagacious co-operation 
with competent teachers, whose selection and di- 
rection they should have full power to control, 
lastead of the least competent teacher being sent 
to a rural district, the very best, most iiitelhgent 
and tl\08e possessed of the most powerful moral 
influence, should be selected for those particularly 
deficient districts, in order, with all possible dis- 
patch, to elevate them to their - true status in 
point of proi>er scholastic training. 

Every branch of the boasted common school 
system in every State and countv with which the 
writer is familiar, is still very defective, and de- 
mands immediate reform ; the same also may be 
said of all the State Agricultural Colleges. Who 
can point to anything that has emanated from 
these well-endowed State institutions that has 
contributed to the general advancement of the 
great national interests they were designed to 
foster, cultivate and perfect if possible ? 



I have looked with interest from time to time 
for the appearanee of an account of some useful 
discovery that had been made in physical science 
or in rural economy, in the reports of the numer- 
ous State Agricultural Colleges of our country, 
but in vain. I have yet to see, or hear, of the 
accomplishment of anything commensurate with 
the appropriation for their endowment and sup- 
port. In all my travels in rural districts, in 
which I drive annually from 4000 to GOUO miles, 
I have not yet met with any new sj^stem of cul- 
ture, or new modes of manipulating soils, or ap- 
plying fertilizers, or labor-saving machines, or 
vehicles, or any new grain, of grass that had been 
tested at an Agricultural College and found 
worthy of general introduction by the practical 
farmer. In some States — in Maryland, for exam- 
ple — those who control and direct the public 
school system, require a certain model, or plan 
of a school building, and a certain regulation of 
desk and seat, w^hich latter by the by, is, I believe., 
the most perfect of anything of the kind in use in 
any country. I think it is called " Saper's patent 
desk." 

I wish the same could be said of the regulation 
plan for the school buildings, for they are in the 
opinion of the writer, still very defective, in very 
many particulars. 

In some rural districts the number on the schocfl. 
roll is two or tliree times greater in winter than 
in summer, hence it is highly important that the 
school-building should be constructed to provide 
particularl}^ for the comfort and health as well a« 
all other requisites, of the large number of the 
winter sessions. This is by no means the case. 
There is, in many instances, an insufficiency of 
room to seat comfortably the regular attendants. 
The building is not unfrequently built upon j^ier* 
or piles, is entirely open underneath, hence as 
everybody knows, or should know, it is utterly 
impossible to heat a room thus arranged with the 
ordinary floor, so as to be comfortable at the floor, 
without an excess of heat at the height of the 
head of a person in a sitting posture ; conse- 
quently in all cold weather there is not only in- 
tense suffering from cold feet, but from roasted 
heads. The mode of heating is by direct radia- 
tion in all such cases, as no other is practicable, 
and if there is provided any means for ventila- 
tion or change of air, and it is adjustable, it i» 
closed to retain all the heat that can be generated, 
in order to heat the floor as nearly as possible. 
The result is, that in the coldest weather, where 
the school is most crowded, the air is most vitia- 
ted and most uncomfortable. The school-house 
is not unfrequently located near one end of the 
district, and perhaps on a by-road, instead of 
being central and on the most public thorough- 
fares within the district, as it sliould be. It is 
also generally located on a lot that is worthless 
for other purposes, often only large enough for 
the building, and room to deposit a load or two 
of wood. The building is perched upon a precip- 
itous bank, or in a low basin, and all its surround- 
ings and appurtenances of comfort and necessity 
are equally unadapted to their puiposes. 

The requirements are, a lot of at least tw© 
acres, pleasantly and centrally located. . It should 
be somewhat above the grade of the road oppo- 
site it. The site for the building should not be 



THE LANCASTER FAEMER. 



23 



less than one hundred and fifty feet from the road. 
The soil should be rather dry, and fertile, and 
adapted to the frrowth of trees, shrub'jery and 
flowers, a variety of each of which should he 
planted and cultivated. The grounds should be 
enclosed, and he kept by the pupils under the di- 
rection of the teacher, who should be aided and 
encouraged by the trustees of the district, who 
should give him every appliance needed, among 
which nothing is i)erhaps more essential than a 
good and suthcient rain-water cistern, with which 
to supply the pupils and the plants. No tree 
should be planted so near the building as to shade 
it only when the- sun is near the horizon. 

The sun should not be excluded only by inside 
blinds or shades, which should be adjustable, that 
the sun light may be admitted in ifull strength 
when it is not objectionable on the desks. 

Sunlight is indispensable to health. There is 
truth in the old proverb, " Where the sun is ex- 
cluded the doctor must enter." The walls of the 
building, if of stones or bricks, may have running 
vines, and a good variety of them, trained on 
them, without any injurious eftects on the build- 
ing or occupants, as the eflect is to make the walls 
dryer instead of the reverse. 

Beating rains are thrown oft' by the foliage, and 
the roots and feeders of the plants will absorb all 
moisture from the walls that may reach them 
through the foliage, besides the wind will rapidly 
dry it out. 

The pupils should be instructed in the nomen- 
clature and habits of trees, shrubs and flowers. 
This knowledge they will continue to cultivate 
and develope at their homes, and soon a strife to 
excel in the decoration of their homes, in which 
in some instances the parents, hitherto entirely 
ignorant of the subject may become interested, 
and a cultivation of taste in this direction may 
become quite general. The best agricultural 
journals of the day should be taken, also some 
devoted to floriculture should be taken by the 
trustees for the use of the school. 

The preceptor should read and explain such 
articles as are adapted to the capacities of his 
pupils, as this will enable them to comprehend 
such practical reading matter as will difluse gene- 
ral intelligence in these directions. 

The preceptor should also endeavor to place 
such reading matter in tlie hands of his rural 
patrons, and impress on them the importance of 
giving tlieir children some time for reading, and 
the character of cultivation of which I have 
spoken, and in every practical way endeavor to 
impress upon tlie parents the importance of doing 
ever\'thing reasonable to interest their sons par- 
ticularly in rural aftairs, and induce them to 
allow the youth sufficient time to cultivate their 
minds, and matters of ornament and decoration 
in the vegetaVile kingdom. By this means, and 
more eflcctually than by any other, will a taste 
for rural life be inculcated and tlie desired object 
be attained, of giving the young agriculturist a 
proper estimate of liis calling and an honest pride 
in reference to it, which they will naturally de- 
sire to infuse into the minds of their cliildrcn, and 
thus promote and perpetuate the work of reform, 
by making the life of the farmer dignified and at- 
tractive, and more and more so with every gene- 
ration. The city, then, will have but little power 



in seducing them from God and the country. 

An Old Farmer. 

The above, taken from the columns of such an 
able Family and Agricultural paper as the Ger- 
mantoicn Telegraph, is a suflicient warrant for its 
appearance in our journal ; particularly as we be- 
lieve it is in the main, as applicable to this local- 
ity, as to the one in which it was originally pub- 
lished. There is, however, two sides to the ques- 
tion, if not more, or perhaps rather two aspects 
or more of the same side. There does seem to be 
an overweening desire on the part of 5'oung peo- 
ple raised in the countrj^ — and many of the old 
ones — to become residents of the cities and larger 
towns, whilst very many of the inhabitants of 
those cities and towns, are themselves yearning 
for the quiet comforts of a home in the country. 
Cities and towns also seem more accessible to 
denizens of the country than the country is to the 
denizens of cities and towns, and hence the latter 
are overstocked with tradesman and working peo- 
ple, which makes competition great, labor scarce, 
and profits low, as well as rents and living high ; 
whilst the country itself sufiers from a want of 
cultivators, crippled energies, and diminished pro- 
ductions. "We are often not only astonished, but 
pained, to see the hardy young men of the coun 
try exchanging their healthful, peaceful and prof- 
itable occupatio'AS, for the very precarious and 
dubious occupations of the towns — occupations 
too, in which they have hitherto had no exper- 
ience, many of which are mere glittering baubles, 
and altogether uncertain in their pecuniary re- 
sults, ivnd then, too, in nine cases out of ten, 
their selection of associates and confidents in the 
towns, are ill-advised, and morally and ph}-8ically 
unprofitable, simply because they forgot the 
Scripture injunction of "Judge not from appear- 
ances, but judge righteous judgement." But this 
does not apply to the young people of the country 
alone ; many of those advanced in years, who 
have amassed an easy competency for life, and 
to whom daily exercise and fresh air have become 
a second nature, leave their ennobling professions, 
and desert the scenes of their youth and early 
manhood, for the noisy, crowded, dusty and un- 
healthful city, where a life of apathy and inactiv- 
ity, with their natural concomitants, often sen^ 
them to premature graves. How much better it 
would be to remain in the country; to divide 
their large farms into smaller ones ; to give them 
more thorough cultivation ; to drain, plant, and 
beautify them ; to make them attractive, as well 
as profitable; and to advise and guide with patri- 
archal counsel their children and their children's 
children. There is wisdom in the old "saw" 
that ""man made tlie town, but God made the 



24 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



country," and, all other circumstances being equal, 
there is just as much dift'ereuce between country 
and town, as there is between the works of God 
and those of man. Horace Greeley, with all his 
success in life as a printer, in his recent work — 
The Recollections of a Busy Life — makes tliis most 
emphatic and unequivocal statement: "Were I 
now to begin my life anew, I should choose to 
earn mv bread by cultivating the soil. Blessed is 
he whose day's exei'tion ends with the evening 
twilight, aiid who can sleep unbrokenly and with- 
out anxiety till the dawn awakes him, with ener- 
gies renewed and senses brightened, to fresh ac- 
tivity and that fulness of health and vigor which 
are vouchsafed only to those who spend most of 
their working hours in the free, pure air, and ren- 
ovating sunshine of the open country." Con- 
trast this with a recent statement of a New York 
paper, that there are over a hundred thousand 
people in that city, who are compelled to make 
their living this winter by begging, borrowing 
and stealing, which are too frequently but tlie pre- 
ludes to those systems of fraud, prostitution and 
murder, which often disgrace the chronicles of 
the larger cities. 

It is true, that cities have thoir lejtitimate at- 
tractions, beauties and uses, and the wretchedness, 
crime and suffering which are often found in them 
are not the arbitrary consequences of an agglom- 
erate population ; but a redundancy destroys the 
healthy balance between consumers and produc- 
ers, and therefore the fruits of such contingencies 
must ultimately manifest themselves in some form 
of evil. Under the most favorable circumstances, 
those who have been brought up in large cities, 
and who seem to be prospering there, have nev- 
ertheless many trials, deprivations and heart- 
aches, that are altogether unknown to the rural 
homes of the country people. Labor, even toler- 
ably hard labor, is not the evil thing which many 
permit themselves to regard it, especially when 
it is relieved by intervals of innocent and elevat- 
ing recreations. A judicious and wise system of 
labor is one of the means, in the order of a benefi- 
cent Providence, for the development and regen- 
eration of the human family. 

If the countr}^, therefore, needs additional at- 
tractions to prevent the alienation of its people, 
we would urge all who have ability, opportunity 
and authority, to give their serious attention to 
the suggestions of " u4n Old Farmer,^'' contained 
in the foregoing article, as embracing matters 
worthy of the candid consideration of any class of 
readers. They may not be all that is needed on 
this interesting and important subject, but they 
may elicit thought which may ultimately culminate 
in ads, in the right direction. s. s.R. 



Hgrirullu^aL 



ROTATION OP CROPS. 

It is generally conceded by most intelligent 
cultivators of the soil , that a rotation of crops is 
the better course in order to insure success in the 
art of husbandr}'. 

The present or general Pennsylvania system 
seems to be undergoing a change which no doubt 
will be an improvement. * 

Farms generally are divided into six fields with 
the following rotation : Sod is ploughed for a crop 
of corn, which is followed with one of oats, after 
which it is well manured and the same fall sown 
with wheat, followed by another of wheat with6ut 
manure and sown with grass,- generally timothy 
and clover, which is the first season mown for hay, 
and the second taken for pasture ; then again in 
corn, which makes the same rotation every six 
years, b.aving each year one field in corn, one in 
oats, two in wheat and two in grass. In some parts 
of the State, ditferent methods have been pursued 
for some time. One of which is to haul the ma- 
nure on sod for a crop of corn, which, when suffi- 
ciently mature, is cut oft" and either hauled into 
an adjoining field on shucks, or set against a fence 
to cure, or else set in rows of shucks in the same 
field as far apart as is convenient to carry the corn, 
then it is plowed and sown with wheat, except 
where the row^s of shucks stand, which strips are 
sown after the corn is husked, or left until spring 
and sown with oats. 

The same field is followed with a crop of wheat 
and sown with grass, and left two years as in the 
former method, when it is ready for corn again. 
Making a "rotation every five years — having one 
field in corn, two in wheat and two in grass. 

A third method is to divide the farm into four 
fields : First corn, next oats and generally some 
potatoes or other crops, manured and sown with 
wheat in autumn and set with grass, which in this 
case is left but one year for hay and a portion 
tempoi-arily fenced off' for pasture, or mowed and 
fed green instead; then it is put into corn, again, 
which makes a rotation every four years — having 
one field in corn, one in oats &c., one in wheat, 
and one in grass. 

Each method having its advantages and disad- 
vantages, it is difficult to detei'miue which is best. 
No doubt the quality of the soil should be con- 
sidered in connection with the different methods. 
The advantage of the two former methods are, it 
gives the fields two years' rest while in grass, pro- 
vided it is clover, for if in timothy, it can hardly 
be considered rest, and consequently no advan- 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



25 



tage. If there be a mixture of both grasses, the 
advantage will be in proportion to the amount of 
•lover. 

The disadvantages in the first and second are 
two successive crops of wheat in the rotation, 
which in the one case is a crop for every three 
years, and in the other one for every two and a 
half years. 

In the first case an additional crop of oats is 
taken oft', which is considered nearly as exhaus- 
tive as a crop of wheat. The second avoids a 
erop of oats but exacts two crops of wheat in five 
years, with the laborious job of hauling off the 
corn and fodder for the purpose of seeding, or of 
hauling over the young grain to remove it when 
left iu the field, and of plowing and sowing the 
strips with oats in the spring. 

The last method has the disadvantage of but 
one year in grass to rest, and the necessity of 
sowing more into oats than farmers are generally 
disposed to sow. The remedy for the latter, is to 
plant a part of the field for oats with potatoes or 
other summer crops. The advantages are, 1st, 
in having the farm in four fields, a large propor- 
tion of fencing is saved, which is quite an item at 
present. 2d. A regular rotation of each crop 
every four years, without a succession of the same 
crop, which will naturally make our wheat crops 
more certain and of better average quality. For 
by growing two successive crops, the second is 
generally gro^vn without manure, and conse- 
quently usually of inferior quality and always less 
in quantity. We see, therefore, that the latter 
system has also the important advantage over 
both the former in having the manure applied to 
the only wheat crop in the rotation, which should 
have the preference, if any is given; it being con- 
eidered the staff of life. 

The object of the fanner, however, should be 
. to bring each crop to as great perfection as possi- 
ble, which is more easily accomplished under the 
latter than with either of the former s3-stems. 
We, therefore consider, as a general rule, the lat- 
ter system preferable to any other now practiced 
in this section. 

The intelligent farmer, however, will be able 
to decide what course to pursue with regard to 
his soil, situation, &c. 

H. M. E. 



The Programme for 1869, of the " Experimental 
Farm" at West Grove, Chester County, Penna., 
•ame to hand too late to give an extended notice 
•f it in this number of our Journal, but we will 
allude to it in a future one. 



NORWAY OATS. 

Editors of Lancaster Farmer : Having ex- 
amined this grain, I will give you and your read- 
ers the benefit of my knowledge on the subject. 

This grain has been most extensively and per- 
sistently advertised, evidently at enormous ex- 
pense, and every reader of agricultural papers 
is no doubt familiar, if not with the grain, at least 
with the wonderful qualities claimed for it. Those 
persons in New York, who now have it for sale 
at $ 10 per bushel, say, " their investigations and 
experiments have been conducted, not wholly in 
the interest of a selfish and profitable specula- 
tion to ourselves, but more especially to discover 
if it were possible to benefit the farmintj commu- 
nity^ and the country at large.'''' [The italics are 
ours.] They say further, " the Norway oats will 
yield from 100 to 150 bushels per acre, heavier 
and better than atny other oats known." 

As we have invested lightly for the purpose of 
informing ourself as to this new speculation, we 
will give the readers of the Lan'caster Farmer 
the benefit of our investigation, just so far as we 
have gone, not yet having seen this — said to be 
new grain — growing. 

When at the State Fair, at Harrisburg, last 
September, we noticed a large number of sacks of 
wheat, rye, barley and oats, in bags of a bushel 
each. We will only notice the oats. There were 
three bags, one of Norway, one of Surprise and 
one of Brunswick oats, standing side by side. 
Curiosity tempted us to test the weight, simply 
by lifting. On lifting the Norway first, we 
thought it might possibly have the standard 
weight of thirty-two pounds, and nothing to spare. 
But on lifting the Brunswick and Surprise, we 
were surprised to find both these varieties so 
much heavier, so much so, that we judged full 
one-eighth to one-fourth heavier than the Nor- 
way. A gentleman who was with me, and who 
follows <?he milling business, fully agreed with me 
as to weight, and added that he consideied that 
Norway oats had very little tiour — and he would 
not want to buy it — the grains were too long and 
thin ; too much husk or skin. It might be sup- 
posed that this sample on Exhibition at Harris- 
burg, might not be the genuine Norway, but only 
the common black oats. To satisfy ourselves fully 
on the subject, we sent the agents .'tf2, and re- 
ceived by mail a package marked two quarts. 
This sample is identically the same with that on 
exhibition at the Fair. On measuring this sam- 
ple sent us, we had two quarts and three-fourths 
of a pint. By weight we had one potind and thir- 
teen ounces. Calculating from this sample, what 
would be the weight of a bushel, allowing thirty- 



26 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



two pounds as the standard? This remarkable 
Norway oats— that is to produce from 100 to 150 
bushels per acre, and to weigh forty-five pounds 
to the bushel as advertised— Aveighs just twenty- 
four and eleven nineteenth pounds per bushel. 
As they sell by standard weight of thirty-two 
pounds per bushel, it shows plainly that they had 
to make it up by measure— adding three-fourths 
of a pint to two quarts to reach even the thirty- 
two pounds by weight. 

Further comment is unnecessary. If persons, 
after reading this exposition, feel inclined to test 
this wonderful grain, let them invest. We shall 
sow our sample, and test its wonderful properties 

further. 

J. B. G. 



lorlicitllii^aL 



THE CULTURE OP THE PEACH. 

The main obstacle to be encountered in the 
successful cultivation of the peach, is a disease to 
which the trees are liable, and to which the name 
of " the yellows" has been given. Many super- 
ficial observers suppose that the unhealthiness 
of the foliage which becomes so apparent when 
this disease makes its invasion, is due to an injury 
at the root of the tree, committed by a worm 
well known to attack it occasionally near the 
surface of the earth. But in many instances the 
conjecture is an error. If that worm were the 
only enemy we had to contend against, the remedy 
would be simple enough. A few moments atten- 
tion, once or twice a year, at the proper time, 
would easily destroy that foe. The evil we have 
to contend against is of a more serious nature, 
and so destructive has this malady become, that 
if one now wishes to see an old peach tree, he 
has to travel long and far. 

It is scarcely necessary to describe the symp- 
toms of this disease, for who has not seen the 
trees with small and yellowish, instead of green 
leaves of the full natural size ? The fruit wilts 
and ripens prematurely and without flavor, and 
after lingering for a time the tree dies. 

Some have supposed that the soil has become 
exhausted of certain ingredients necessary to its 
sustenance, and without Avhich it cannot thrive. 
Others that bad culture and neglect have en- 
feebled the stock ; or that its early death is caused 
by hereditary taint. Both may be to some ex- 
tent true. 

So far as the disease is owing to hereditary 
transmission , it would bee asy to ])r ocure seed from 
localities where the malady is not known ; or to 
obtain healthy buds for the purposes of propa- 
gation. But this has been tried many times, and 



nevertheless the trees get sick and die prematurly. 
Again there are spots of ground yet to be found 
where peach trees have never been planted; or 
even that have never been cultivated at all, and 
yet if a tree is planted in such places it is not 
exempt from the yellows ; although it must be 
admitted such trees usually live longer than others 
planted in gi'ound which has been long under cul- 
tivation. We must therefore look for the cause 

elswhere. 

Our observations for some years past, and es- 
pecially the last two years, have fostered a con- 
viction that unpropitious weather during the 
spring months of April and May, is the leading 
agent in the production of this malady. As we 
have before stated, there may also be other in- 
fluences at work, but this we believe to be the 
first and principle one. The peach tree is a na- 
tive of a more genial climate than ours, and flour- 
ishes better in a dry than a humid air. In former 
times, when it throve so admirably here, it had a 
virgin soil to give it superabundant health and 
vitality, and it had a climate sheltered by wood- 
land. 2To doubt, since then modifications of cli- 
mate have taken place ; such is the opinion of 
many careful observers, and in fact, the conjecture 
becomes more than probable when we reflect that 
other fruits — apples, pears and cherries — are not 
now produced in the same abundance, nor with 
the same certainty that they were forty years 
ago. In what these changes consist, we are not 
prepared at present to state in detail, but we are 
forced to recognize them from their eflFects. 

To make our position more clear, let us recall 
some of the facts which claimed our attention du- 
ring the course of last spring and the spring be- 
fore. In the first few weeks of April the weather 
was sunny and uniformly pleasant and moderate ; 
the young leaves put forth, having that dark hue, 
which unmistakably indicates health. Before, 
however, they were fully formed, the weather 
underwent a great change ; it became cloudy, 
rainy and cold, and these untoward features con- 
tinue to characterized it without intermission for 
several weeks. It was not more than ten flays 
after this change, when the incipient leaves, yet 
too tender to endm'e this protracted spell of dis- 
mal weather, began to lose some of their color ; 
and presently they became pricked and had a 
mildewy appearance, and this finally proceeded 
to such a degree that their texture became dis- 
organized, and they dropped off. The young fruit 
whi -h had set during the fine weather and was 
of some growth, now became stationary and could 
be seen studding the naked branches- Most of it 
dropped off, but some continued to adhere until 
after many days leaves commenced to put forth 
the second time. The new foliage expanded very 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



27 



slowly, and had the sigus of feebleuees and ill 
health for a long time. The trees had manifestly 
received a shock from which the recovery was un- 
certain and tedious. Some did not recover alto- 
gether but took on that appearance which we see 
in trees' that are said to have the ' yellows.' Their 
fate was sealed. Others, and this seems to us the 
strangest fact of all, recovered entirely their 
foliage on some limbs, while other limbs on the 
same tree got the yellows. Here was an instruc- 
tive lesson. Who will doubt that if the early 
warm weather would have continued the result 
would have been quite diflerent. We might cite 
other facts of the same nature tending to support 
our views but the limits of this article will not 
admit of it. 

Supposing our hypothesis to be correct, it be- 
comes us to inquire what means are proper to be 
used to meet the case, and give us a better supply 
of this superior fruit. The few words we have to 
eay will be principally suggestive, and are more 
particularly intended for such as plant only a few 
trees. 

The main object to be kept in view in all our 
efforts, is to give the tree shelter — shelter from a 
variable spring. 

This can be done to perfection, and a crop made 
certain by building cheap glass houses. Another 
way in which health is preserved and a crop made 
much more certain, is to train the trees against 
the walls of houses, or walls built for that pur- 
pose, as the English are forced to do in their 
rainy climate, if they want to raise peaches at all. 
If then, unfavorable weather occurs in the spring, 
boards can be set up against the w^all and the 
foliage will thus be protected from the rain. Of 
course, when the weather becomes fine again, 
the boards must be removed. This, perhaps, is 
the cheapest and most available method for the 
large majority of persons. The attention neces- 
sary is not great, and the whole process easily 
learned. 

Those who will not go to the trouble and ex- 
pense of following the course suggested ab«ve, 
but->who will continue to plant as of old, will no 
doubt tjn4 it of decided advantage to proceed as 
follows : They should aim to kcvp tiie trees in as 
good a condition of hardy vigor as possible and 
thus increase their resistinr/ power. Over luxuri- 
ence resultinc^ from stnnulating manures does not 
produce hardiness. The plethoric condition is 
not the best. In the place of manure the tree 
should receive each spring a few whcfl-barrow 
loads of new soil dug up from the subsoil. Tbis 
should be spread as far as the branches extend. 
In the month of April each year, as soon as the 
tree is large enough to bear it should be ' short- 



ened in' — that is about one-half of the growth 
made the proceeding year should be cut away. 
Tliis we consider a very import'int and very bene- 
ficial operation. The object is two-fold — firstly 
to prevent an overcrop both of bloom and of fruit, 
for a too abundant bloom taxes the tree as w^U 
as does too much fruit ; and secondly this " short- 
ening in" not only prevents the tree from being 
overtaxed, but experience proves that we increase 
its vigor by depriving it with judgment early in 
the season, of parts of its smaller branches. Nur- 
serymen know this very well and practice it con- 
stantly on their young nursery stock. 

Planting trees near the walls, or better still, 
in the angles, of stone or brick buildings is of 
benefit, because these walls absorb heat by day 
and radiate it at night, thus ameliorating the 
rawness of the night air. How much may be ex- 
pected from planting evergreens as a shelter, 
we are unable to say from experience, but believe 
it would do good. What the trees want in our 
climate is protection, and to this end all our 
labors must be devoted. We feel assured if this 
principle is duly recognized, it will point the way 
to better success. D. 

LETTER PROM CALIFORNIA. 

October, 14th, 1868. 

J. B. Garber, Esq.: My Dear Sir: — I was 
surprised, a day or two ago, on looking over my 
correspondence to find (as I now believe,) that I 
had not written to you for some months ; I have 
been very busy all the time until the last six 
weeks, and during that time I have been away 
touring through the vineyards, trying to learn 
something. 

I have seen enough to surprise me in the great 
varieties of grapes, their abundant bearing, and 
beauty and size. In Green Valley, Solano coun- 
ty, there are over two hundred and fifty thousand 
(250,000) bearing vines, some over ten years old. 
They are all of foreign and California varieties, 
with none of what you call Amorican grapes. In 
addition to these there are as many more young 
vines. They plant them from Sx5 to 5x5 feefc 
apart, none over the latter distance. They prune 
to a low head, leaving three to eight spurs, of 
good eyes, on each. The vines when pruned, are 
not over 8 to tO inches higli from the ground. 
They are all through' with their vintages now — 
14th of October. Get 1 callon wine from 15 lbs. 
fruit, or one gallon brandy from 85 to 90 lbs. fruit 
— most in wine. In Pleasant valley, same county, 
they plant about the same; some, however, 7x7 



28 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



or 8x8 feet. Their vines grow larger and are 
more productive, and I think are finer and hand- 
somer than any I sa\T elsewhere. 

One grower, from 2000 vines, 5 years old and the 
second full crop, shipped 600 boxes, averaging 55 
toGO lbs., being 33,000 lbs., and sent about 2000 
or 3000 lbs. of inferior to be made into brandy. 
They brought about on an average of $1.35 per 
box. He also sent largely of many fine varieties, 
such as Malagas, (white and black,) Muscat of 
Alexandria, Black Hamburg, «S:c., which brought 
only 7 to 15 cents per lb., although some of the 
earliest go from 15 cents to SI. 50 per lb. One 
gentleman weighed tiie whole produce of one vine 
of Barbaroux, 5 years old, — 47 lbs., and all mer- 
chantable, not a bunch unfit for market. Another 
grower showed me 700 vines — 200 of them 5 year 
old and 500 four years old ; he got from the 700 
vines, 3 tons of fruit, shipped, made also 800 gal- 
lons of wine, and S5 gallons of brandy. It was 
the Black St. Peter's variety. There are many 
other vineyards in Pleasant Valley shipping 
largely of many of the European kinds — mostly 
of Sweet Water, Black Hamburg, and Muscats. 
They are very earlv, and I think excel in their 
fruit, and so do not make much wine. 

Mr. 's place is on the mountain side, 300 

to 400 feet above the valley proper, on a bench; 
and he beats them all in earliness and quality of 
fruit. It was a perfect sight to see some of his 
kinds. Bunches of Blue Portugal, Barbaroux, 
Black Hamburg, Muscats of Alexandria and 
others, as large and perfect as could be made, 
weighing 5 to Si lbs. the bunch. I went to the 
fair at Sacramento, and went to see some vine- 
yards in Sacramento county, and although the 
bunches were lai'ge, the berries were not so clear 
and perfect. 

Pleasant Valley heads up about three miles 
south of where I live, and extends south towards 
Suisun. It is, next to my locality, the earliest so 
far known. I amjmuch pleased with this section ; 
it is the earliest, and I am next year on the very 
earliest spot, which has, for thpee years, sent in 
the first beans, corn, &c., in advance of all others, 
to the San Franciseo market. 

The thermometer went up to 112 degrees last 
summer, and was over 100 degrees at 2 o'clock, P. 
M., for nearly or quite a month. Yet, what was 
singular, I did not suffer from heat as I did at 
Oakland (just across the bay from San Francisco,) 
at 75 or 80 degrees ! The air seems to be drier, 
for I was mostly at work all that time. The nights 
and evenings are so cool, we have to sleep under 
blankets. We have had no rain since April 11th ; 
2.S5 inches fell. Our total raia-fall last season, 
from October to April, was 45.^ inches. Average 



temperature for iN'ovember, 57 degrees ; Decem- 
ber, 51 ; January, 43; February, 49; March, 54; 
April, 58. We began marketing' tomatoes, June 
llth; beans. May 16th; cucumbers. May 31st; 
apricots, June 2nd; corn, June 2nd; Hale's early 
peach, June 16th; grapes, July 7th. We go in 
here all for the earliest varieties. 

It is now clouding up, and threateeing some 
rain ; we had a sprinkle on Sept. 3d, also on Oct. 
1st; wind, south; thermometer, 64 degrees. Last 
year it rained enough to plow by Dec. 1st; but 
then on the 15th, it began to rain in such a style, 
that I could do but very little until April. 

Yours, Respectfull}'^, 



^itldittaiai 



TIGER BEETLES. 

Noxious insects consti'ute, no doubt, the "dark 
side of nature " to the Agriculturist and Horti- 
culturist ; but dark as this side of nature is, it has 
also a " bright side ". As I may have occasion to 
say a great deal about noxious insects through 
these columns, and elsewhere, before the close of 
the present year, I shall devote a few pages of 
the mid-winter number to the discussion of some 
of the innoxious kinds— innoxious at least as far 
as man and the products of humau industry are 
concerned. We have a family of predaceous in- 
sects called in common language " Tiger Beetles," 
but scientifically Cicindelidae. They are called 
predaceous insects, I presume, because they make 
predatory incursions for the capture of other un 
wary insects, upon which they prey. They are 
also called Tiger Beetles because they lie in wait 
for their victims and pounce upon them like light- 
ning, with the ferocity of a tiger. They not only 
prey upon other insects in their mature or beetle 
state, but also during their whole larval period. 
But as the larva is a slow and indifferent t? aveler, 
compared with the mature insect, it therefore re- 
sorts to stratagem. It excavates a perpendicular 
gallery in th'e earth, in which it remains concealed 
with its head and powerful jaws just even with the 
surface, and wo betide any luckless insect that 
comes within reach of those jaws, for they close 
upon it with the quickness and relative power of 
a steel trap, and once within their embraces there 
is no escape therefrom. But should the trap fail, 
out comes the larva in pursuit, and when he has 
secured his victim it is ruthlessly dragged down to 
the bottom of its cell, where it is most ferociously 
dissevered and devoured. But the habits of the 
perfect insect are quite diff"erent, for it is lithely 
built, is a swift runner and a quick and perfect 
flyer; therefore it has the ability to capture its 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



29 



prey on foot, or to overtake and sieze it in flight. 
The Family CiciNDELiD^, in the United States, 
is composed of the genera TetracJia, Omus, Am- 
blycJieila, Cicindela and Dromochorus^ but none but 
the genus Cicindela is known to inhabit the county 
of Lancaster, but of this one we liave ten or twelve 
species. Usually they are found along the dry, 
sandy banks or beaches of streams, from a rivu- 
let to a river in size. A few of them, however, 
may be found in forests or woods, and one species 
at least, I have often found in gardens within the 
city of Lancaster, namely the Cicindela puncUdata. 
Some of these insects are of a bright green, in 
color, some almost an ultra-marine blue, whilst 
others are a purple, a brown, or modifications of 
these colors ; but all are of a bronzed or bright 
metalic lustre beneath. They varj' in size, from 
three to five-eighths of an inch in length, accord- 
ing to species ; the thorax is narrowed, and the 
head, eyes and jaws, are tolerably prominent. 
The legs and the anfennce are comparatively long 
and slender. Nearly all the species have elytra, 
or wing covers, more or less marked, from a mi- 
nute puncture to a dot, or a sort of hieroglyphic, 
but occasionally specimens are found that are en- 
tirely immaculate. I can recollect these insects 
from a very early period of my boyhood, along 
the banks and beaches of the Susquehanna, where 
they were known to us youngsters as " sand flies " ; 
because they could alight and flj' off", quicker than 
the common house-fly. Ind' ed a casual observer 
would suppose that they were a species of com- 
mon fly, that he was driving before him, in his 
perambulations through their localities. I would 
caution a novice in entomology against confining 
a living Tiger Beetle in his collecting box or bot- 
tle, if there was anything else in it which he val- 
ued, for the Tiger would make pieces of it, even 
if it were his own weaker brother or sister, unless 
he was stupified by the introduction of a little 
ether or alcohol. 

The species known to inhabit Lancaster county 
are the vtdgaris, ptinctulafa, hirticollis, purpurea, 
duodecemgutiata, patruela, marginata, unicolor, 
gravida, decemuotaia, sexguttata, and ocioguitata 
and immaculata, which are varieties of the last 
named species; but there are seventy-five, or 
eighty species of the family, that have been de- 
scribed, as belonging to the territory of the 
United States. These species are distributed 
frorh the Atlantic to the Pacific coasts, and from 
Maine to Mexico,' so that they are performing 
their uses everywhere, over our whole territory. 
These are some of the instrumentalities which 
have been vouchsafed, tlirough the permission* 
of a heneficient Providence, for the amelioration 
of an evil which otherwise might become unen- 



durable, and which no mere human ingenuity 
could possibly prevent. And yet how many peo- 
ple are there, who ridicule the idea of studying 
the histories and characters of such insignificant 
things as insects. In these studies it is just as 
important, however, to become acquainted with 
thdse species that are beneficial, as with those 
that are injurious. To assist the people in these 
Btudies is one of the objects o'f this department of 
oiu: Journal, but to increase its eflSciency in this 
respect, we need the co-operation of our readers, 
in the manner suggested in our article on the 
same subject, published in the Farmer, of Janu- 
ary last. If this bright s^ide of nature is thoroughly 
developed, it cannot fail to reflect its light upon 
the dark side. Before the end of the first vol- 
ume of our magazine is attained, every reader of its 
columns ought to be thoroughly acquainted with 
the Tiger Beetles of our county — with what they 
are like, when they make their appearance and 
disappearance, where they may be found, and what 
they do for a living. s. S. K. • 



Our January number was issued amidst the 
bustle consequent upon the winding up of the old 
year and the beginnmg of a new one, and there- 
fore, its general " make up," and the arrangement 
of its matter, we discovered when too late to 
amend it, was not at all in accordance with our 
design. An unintentional prominence was given 
to matter which we think should only bear a col- 
lateral or secondary relation to the leading ob- 
jects of our Journal. This we hope we have par- 
tially corrected in our present number, and will 
endeavor to further exemplify as we go forward 
and gather experience in the future. Still, our 
little bantling has met with severalcommeudable 
notices from the Press; and a general recognition 
of its usefulness, and the worthy objects it has in 
view, has withheld that rigid criticism which 
otherwise it might have occasioned. Our sub- 
scription list is gradually increasing, but we hope 
that each of our present patrons will endeavor to 
add another good paying name to it before the 
opening of spring. We have a suflicient surplus 
of copies struck otl', to supply subsci"ibers with the 
work from the beginning. One important item of 
interest to us, as well as themselves, our subscrib- 
ers will please bear in generous remembrance, 
and that is, that our terms are one dollar a year in 
advance. If, therefore, on reading this paragraph, 
any of our subscribers knoio that their subscrip- 
tions are still unpaid, they will confer a favor by 
settling them at their earliest opportunity. The 



10 



THE LANCASTER FARMEK. 



high price of material, and the pressing demands 
of labor, together with the low price at which our 
paper is furnished, makes an adherence to this 
rule an absolute necessity. "We also repeat our 
invitation to our readers to furnish appropriate 
contributions to our columns. Let them send all 
the important " facts and fancies" that come uncfer 
their observation, pertaining to the objects of our 
Journal — but most especially the facts — and, pass- 
ing the ordeal of our examination, we will print 
them. Some have already generously responded, 
but we desire many more, because "in a multi- 
tude of counsel there is safety." It is not pre- 
smned that our editorial committee should know 
more than any other equal number of men in the 
community, upon the subjects embraced in our 
paper. In many respects it can be but the reflec- 
tor of the opinions and experiences of others, who 
may be more competent as writers, experiment- 
ers, observers and judges. This assumption ought 
to be self-evident to all our readers, and freely 
acknowledged. 



THE DUTY OP WRITING. 

"Brother in the tow frock and ragged unthink- 
ables! have you an idea humming in your brain, 
that seems to you fitted to cure even the lightest 
of human maladies ? Out with it, I pray you, in 
mercy to a benighted, heart-sick, and blindly suf- 
fering race ! Sister in linsey-woolsey, and wear- 
ing a red cotton handkerchief by way of a dia- 
dem, have you aught to say, that, if uttered, would 
cheer and bless the weary steps whereby. we are 
all measuring ofi:' the little span which divides us 
from the grave ? For sweet charity's sake do not 
withhold it, but let your light shine, even though 
the darkness be sure not to comprehend it— a by 
no means novel or uncommon case." 

The above, quoted from a popular work by a 
popular writer, which we have been recently 
reading, seems to apply with equal force to those 
engaged in any of the branches of rural economy 
and industry. It is not always the high-born and 
the learned— not the wearers of '' purple and fine 
linen," and the daily sumptuous farers, alone, that 
possess all the wealth of thought, or develop the 
most practical and useful things of life. The man 
that can swim, when his boat founders in the mid- 
dle of a turbulent stream, is in a better condition 
to save his own life and help another, than he 
whose head is filled with astronomy, algebra and 
geology, and yet lacks that life preserving quali- 
ty. Not that we would discredit any embelish- 
ments or accomplishments of the human mind and 
character, but that we would also encourage the 
practical common sense illiterate, to take their 
candles from under their beds and place them in 



a candle-stick, that all in the house may see. We 
have often been struck with the superior manner 
in which many of the common people do things, 
simply because they know exactly how. And if 
they know how, and can communicate that how to 
others, the information is just as good as if it came 
from a Davey, a Herschel or a Faraday. More- 
over their light will not be any the less by com- 
municating its flame to their neighbor. Flooded 
as the country seems to be, with domestic litera- 
tuie, there still are many vacuums that need to be 
filled. Our social temple — our domestic struc- 
ture, needs a variety of workmen — masters, crafts- 
men and apprentices— in it there is a function for 
every faculty. Then let us hie to the vineyard 
of humanity. R. 
<i i i -^^ <»• 

MEETTING OF THE AGRICULTXJIIAL 
AND HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



The Society met at its usual place and hour, 
January 4th, Levi S. Reist in the Chair, and 
Alex Harris Secretary. 

After the President had called the meeting to 
order, the minutes of the last meeting were read 
and approved without dissent. The following 
gentlemen were elected members of the Society, 
viz: J. G. Garman of East Cocalico; Hon. John 
Zimmerman, city; C. L. Hunsecker, Manheim 
township; Benjamin Ritter, "Warwick; Almus 
Brubaker and J. F. Fry, Sheriff, of Manor. 

The Treasurer, Dr. P. "W. Hiestand next pro- 
ceeded to read his report to the Society which 
was on motion submitted to an auditing committee 
and declared correct. 

S. S. Rathvon suomitted a verbal report as to 
the success of the Lancaster Farmer, and 
spoke of its encouraging prospects. 

Mr. A. D. Hostetter proceeded to read an ex- 
tract from the Belief onte National on the subject 
of wheat culture. 

H. M. Engle, with reference to the sentiments 
of the extract, thought he was inclined to diff"er as 
regards leaving manure upon the surface of the 
ground, and believes that farmers will be required 
to give more attention to the question of manure, 
before they can expect to obtain the kind of crops 
they desire. "Western farmers have come to dis- 
cover that their land which was once supposed to 
be inexhaustible is becoming worn out in some 
places like our own eastern soils. 

Jacob Stauffer spoke of the great benefit to be 
derived from sub-soiling. 

Jacob M. Frantz thought the article read by 
Mr. Hostetter contained much practical matter, 
and he believes the farmers must give more atten- 
tion to the point of consuming their crops at 
home, and thereby insure a return of its necessary 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



31 



pabulum for the sustenance of their farms, as the 
land, like the animate creation, requires its full 
share of nutriment. He does not believe the 
plowing down of manures any better than simply 
putting it upon the surface. 

John Brady thinks the drilling of wheat too 
thick, is one reason why farmei-s do not raise bet- 
ter crops, and he is therefore utterly averse to 
drilling. 

In this connection Mr. Hostetter resumed and 
spoke of having seen a drill that scatters the 
grains of wheat so that they will not be too thick. 
>. Mr. Frantz acquiesced in this view and ex- 
pressed himself in favor of thin sowing. He 
spoke of a new kind of wheat which he had pro- 
cured of Davis Brown, Esq. He says wheat that 
stood thin on the ground does not mature as soon 
as that which stands thick. 

H. M. Engle diflered with Mr. Frantz on this 
latter point entirely. 

S. S. liathvon next proceeeded to read an arti- 
cle from the Germantoxon Telegraph upon the " in- 
quiry why is the country deserted for the city.^' 
He read a few reflections which he had himself 
written in connection with the above stated arti- 
cle. 

Levi S. Reist greatly favored the views con- 
tained in the article read by Mr. Rathvon, and 
added that he would much favor the introduction 
of the study of botany and such branches into the 
Common Schools, and he believes the knowledge 
of botany of more real utility than that of Geog- 
raphy and Astronomy. He does not, however, 
favor the neglect of these latter branches. He 
believes the science of agriculture should be in- 
troduced into the curriculum of studies in the 
common schools. 

Jacob Stauffer likewise greatly favored the study 
of botany as an elementary branch of common 
school education, and referred to Darlington's 
Botany as a book that should be introduced as a 
text manual into the common schools. On motion 
of Jacob M. Frantz, the article read by Mr. Rath- 
von was ordered to be published in the Lancas- 
ter Farmer. 

The Secretary read a letter from J. Lacey Dar- 
lington, President of the Chester County Agricul- 
tural Society, inviting the Lancaster County As- 
sociation to send one of its members to represent 
it in the meeting of the Board of Managers of 
the "East Pennsylvania Experimental Farm," 
at West Grove, Chester County, on the 8th of 
January, 1869. 

On motion, Levi S. Reist, President of the So- 
ciety, was chosen to represent the Association. 

The Society next went into an election for ofli- 
cers to serve for the ensuing year. Levi S. Reist 



stated that having filled the office of President 
since the organization of the Society, he desired 
no longer to be considered a candidate for re- 
election. The election then result^ed in the choice 
of the following officers : 

President. — Henry M. Engle, of Marietta. 

Vice Presidents. — Levi S. Reist, Jacob B.Garber, 
J. H. Hershey, U. K. Stoner. 

Recording Secretary. — Alex. Harris. 

Corresponding Secretary. — A. D. Hostetter, Mt. 
Joy. 

Treasurer. — Dr. P. W. Hiestand. 

Entomologist. — S. S. Rathvon. 

Botanist. — Jacob Staufter. 

Chemist. — Dr. J. II. Musser. 

Librarian. — John B. Erb. 

John B. Erb had on exhibition a very neat bo:f 
for carrying all kinds of small fruit. The box is 
square, and is one of the handsomest and most 
convenient that we have yet seen. A box of sim- 
ilar shape and appearance is designed by Mr. 
Erb for shipping fruit and not to be returned, and 
this he terms the '■'• free fruit box''^ These boxes 
are the invention of Mr. Erb and manufacttired 
by him, and our fruit growers would do well to 
examine them before supplying themselves else- 
where. 

On motion the Society then adjourned until the 
first Monday of February. 

DEEP PLOWING SHOULD BE DONE 
GRADUALLY. 

A correspondent of the American Agriculturist, 
who has one of the finest and most productive 
farms in "Western New York, which he keeps in 
a high state of fertility by thorough cultivation 
and the growth of red clover, makes the follow- 
ing sensible remarks in regard to deep plowing : 
" A sudden bringing up to the surface of many 
inches of heavy clay, that has never been punc- 
tured by the roots of plants, and this too in the 
spring of the year, would probably injure the first 
crop. Clay sub-soils are best brought to the sur- 
face two or three inches at a time, and that in 
the fall, so that the frosts of winter may mellow 
them down. The next spring plow, say twice as 
many inches deep as the clay subsoil is thick. 
This will mix things up so that even a crop of 
corn would be much improved by the deep fall 
plowing. If 'we had the power and tools neces- 
sary to go on with this process of bringing up the 
subsoil to, and mixing it with, the surface soil, 
until we had one foot or more of mellovr soil that 
had been enriched by turning under repeated 



ii- 



32 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



clover crops, and then under this foot or more of 
oil, we could run a subsoil plow two feet deep, 
and so break the clay to a depth of three feet, the 
clover roots would have a chance to bring to the 
surface the fertility that now lies dormant under 
the surface of our lands-. This is the theory that 
I have constructed ou the experience of a life- 
time as a farmer ; and I have no doubt of its ap- 
plicability on our lands here. I do not think it 
would do on all lands, but it is practicable here, 
or at least will be when we get the Steam Plow 
that can do the subsoiling for us. In the mean- 
time we are doing the best we can in the direc- 
tion I have indicated." 

PaOPEBTY IN PLANTS. 

* A question is now being discussed which is of 
no little importance to both raisers and growers 
of plants. In brief, it is this : Should not one 
who, by years of careful labor and patient exper- 
iment, produces a new and valuable fruit, or other 
plant, derive some pecuniary benefit from it? 
Books, the result of a few weeks' labor, are copy- 
righted, and cannot be reproduced without the 
consent of the author. A particular arrangement 
of sticks and strings for growing hops, or a com- 
bination of the posts and wires for a grape-trellis 
may be patented, and no one can use them with- 
out paying for the privilege of doing so. But if 
one, after many trials and years of failure, produces 
a new variety of hop, or a new grape of more 
value to the country than all the trellises that 
were ever invented, the moment the first bit of 
either goes out of his possession he loses all con- 
trol over it, and whoever possesses the most am- 
ple means for propagating realizes the greatest 
benefit from it. That the originator of a valua- 
ble plant should be remunerated no one will deny. 
IIow protection can be assured by law is not easy 
to see. Several earnest horticulturists, who think 
something should be done, are moving in the mat- 
ter, and it will, probably before long, be presented 
to our law-makers. — American Agriculturist. 



Card the (^ows.— One would think that any 
kind-hearted man, when he sees how grateful this 
operation is to a cow, would be willing to spend 
a few moments daily in carding^ her. It pays as 
well to clean a cow as a horse. All who have 
fairly tried it find, great benefit from the opera- 
tion. And yet not one farmer in a hundred makes 
it a practice to use the card or curry-comb in the 
cow-stable. We know stupid men who laugli at 
the ideas as a mere notion of some fancy farmer. 
But, in point of fact, no cow can give the best re- 
sults at the pail unless this matter is attended to, 
especially in winter. 



OLD MAIDS. 

There is a stigma of reproach cast upon the 
term " old maid" — too often justly so, I admit. 
But where does the fault lie ? I know two women 
who may be classed in this category — unmarried, 
forty years old, or thereabouts. Both are of good 
family, the daughters of wealthy men. The one, 
some dozen 3^ears ago, finding, as no sensible 
woman can fail to find, that fashionable life had 
nothing in it to satisfy her, made a stand for her- 
self. She told her 'family that she must have a 
life of her own. She had no especial gifts, ex- 
cept a remarkable aptitude for business inherted 
from her father. In a quiet way she had turned 
her attention to fruit-growing, a branch of indus- 
try offering many attractions to her, and into that 
business she determined to enter. Fortunately, 
she had sufficient money, left her by her grand- 
father, to be able to carry out her plans, despite 
the sneers of her fashionable acquaintance, and 
the objections and obstacles raised by the home 
circle. She established herself on a fruit farm in 
the western part of this Stale. Her work pros- 
pered. Now she is the owner of several hundred 
acres, and has constant and remunerative occu- 
pation of a kind agreeable to her. After a few 
years her father died, and, instead of the rich 
man he was estimated, he was found to be bank, 
rupt. This daughter had a comfortable home and 
support to ofier her mother and invalid sifter. 
She has quite a settlement of work people, men 
and women, to whom she and her sister minister 
in various ways. In fact, she lives a life which 
is useful to others and develops her own powers, 
and in the consciousness of that she finds happi- 
ness and peace. — " New Wine In Old Bottles," 
in Feh. No. of Lippincott^ s Magazine. 

^ urn — ^ — 

A correspondent of the Western Rural says : 
" I wished to raise enough wheat for my owa 
consumption, and wanted it clean from oats or 
other foul seed.* In order to clean it (the seed) I 
used a strong salt brine, skimming the trash off. 
The seed was left in the brine over night, and ia 
the morning I dried it with lime and wood ashes, 
and sowed it by hand, five bushels on 2i acres of 
clay land, on March 31. The result was seventy- 
seven bushels of splendid wheat. The threshers 
said it was the best yield and the best wheat they 
had seen this year. My neighbors' best crops 
have averaged from fifteen to twentj^-two bushels 
per acre." 

Rust on Dinner Knives^ — Cover the steel 
with sweet oil, well rubbing it on. Let it remain 
forty-eight hours, and then, using unslacked lime, 
finely powdered, rub the knife until all the rust 
has disappeared. 



THE 




Vol. I. 



LANCASTER, PA, MARCH, 1869. 



No. 3. 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY 

WYLIE & GRIEST, 

INQUIRER BUILDING, LANCASTER, PA., 
At 0:f7E DOLLAR PER YEAR In Advance, 

UWPER THE AUSPICES OP THE 

I.AKCASTEK COUNTY A«RIcrL,riIRAI. ABTD 
HORTI4'UI.TlIKAIi SOCIETY. 



Publishing Commiftfe. 
Dr. p. W. Hiestand, 
H. K. Stoner, 
Jacob M. Frastz, 
Casper Hillkr, 
Levi W. Grofs", 
Alexander Harris. 



Editorial Committee. 
•J. B. Garbbr, 
H. M. Kngle, 
Lev^i S. Heist, 
W. L. Difpenuerfer, 

J. H. MU.SSKR, 

S. S. Kathvon. 



■^ All communications intended for the Farmer should be 
addressed to S. S. Rathvon and Alex. Harris, the resident 
members of the Editing and Publishing Committee.s. 

All advertisements, subscriptions and remittances, to Wylie 
& Griest, Printers. 



®:5$ap. 



VEGETABLE PHYSIOLOGY. 

THE CELL, OR CELLULAR TISSUE. 

The simplest form of organic life is the " ce?Z." 
This minute organism proceeds from the germ of 
a living parent, and in its first stages of develop- 
ment is hut a bubble, as it were, upon the surface 
of the earth, which might be the result of fermen. 
tation, or a combination of the gases of the at- 
mosphere with the moisture of mineral matter 
and the heat of the sun. 

Herein exists the beginning of life, — the first 
vital principle of vegetation. It may be percept- 
ible to the naked eye, or it may be an atom of 
microscopical wonder. But, however small, and 
in whatever circumstances found, it is the remote 
principle and simplest creation of vital endow- 
ment. The precise property of this endowment 
is one of the mysteries connected with the science 
which has never yet been revealed. Suftice it to 
say that it is life, and that it is the result of con- 
tact between the genn and the conditions of 
growth. This germ may be a minute molecule of 
matter, butt it must have a living unity with its 
condition, and be identical with the species of 



plant which nature has designed shall be the re- 
sult of its complete development. 

This simple cell structure then is composed of 
atoms held together, not by outward mechan- 
ical or chemical laws, but by that innate and posi- 
tive principle known as " vital energy." It is, 
therefore, a membrane of living matter, contain- 
ing material and power for the formation of other 
structures of a similar character. 

When all the conditions of growth are fully met' 
and as this germ cell increases in size, a distinc- 
tion becomes perceptable between the walls and 
the contents of the cavity. The walls are trans- 
parent and homogenious in texture, whilst the 
contents of the cavity vary m color from green to 
crimson. At first they, too, appear to be homo- 
genious, but a fine granular appearance becomes 
perceptible, and a change gradually takes place, 
which seems to consist in the aggregation of min- 
ute granules into molecules of a more distin- 
guishable size and form. These molecules, which 
are the germs of new cells, se,em at first to be at- 
tached to the M'alls of the parent cell ; afterwards, 
however, they separate from it, and move about 
in its cavity, and at a later period the cell bursts 
and sets them free. This, then, is the end of the 
life of the parent cell, but the commencement of 
the life of a new brood ; since each of these germs 
may become developed into another cell after the 
foregoing manner, and will then in its turn multi- 
ply in kind by a similar process. 

Even in this remote form of life, therefore, we 
have the principles of life and death, and of re- 
moval and replacement. We have also tissues* 
and organs, which grow and multiply as the pro- 
cess of development is carried forward. As an 
organ, it possesses the function of secretion and 
excretion, to be followed with the higher func- 
tions of appropriation and assimilation, and also 
the property and power of formation, through 
the instrumentality of those functions. 

This simple organic structure in the vegetable, 
world, finds its nutriment and proper stimulant, 
in certain elements which are the results of the 
combined chemical action of heat, moisture and 
lio-ht. The essential agents of enlargement are 



34 



THE LANCASTER FAKMEE. 



carbonic-acid gas, water and ammonia. Where 
these are present, the cell will grow and multiply 
hy the appropriation of new and other compounds, 
whose properties adapt them to become part of 
the organized fabric. 

As these structures increase, and are built one 
upon the other, they form a net-work of living 
matter, which, when interwoven with matter of 
a more complex character, is termed " cellular tis- 
sue.'''' This is the lowest and simplest fabric 
known to vegetable life. All plants are com- 
posed of it, irrespective of the manifold forms 
they ultimately assume. But as the process of 
development has only begun, new tissues are 
formed, consisting of" Woody Tissue,'''' ov'-'- Woody 
Fibre,'''' and " Vascular Tissue,''^ and vessels of va- 
rious forms. 

The cells in the tissues just enumerated, as- 
sume different forms, according to the character 
of the plant or the nature of the tissue they are 
designed to build up, when the plant is in a higher 
and more complex stage of development. They 
are in the embryotic stage, however, exceedingly 
variable, but always adapt themselves, in form at 
least, to the conditions of growth by which they 
are surrounded. Some plants require a circula- 
tion of air through their entire fabric, as much as 
they do sap. In such structures the cells are 
usually round, or nearly so, with inter-cellular 
spaces adapted to such circulation. Others, again, 
of a denser texture, have the cells pressed to- 
gether into square blocks, as it were, like a brick 
wall. 

The tissue thus begun, is carried forward by 
the same process of rdmoval and replacement, and 
assimilation and appropriation. Drawing the 
conditions of life and growth from the inorganic 
world, the plant assumes a shape peculiar to its 
kind, f'and its tissues are condensed into the 
solid unyielding bark or wood of the tree, or the 
softer substances of fruit and vegetable fabric. 

There are peculiar isomeric compounds brought 
into requisition, in this phenomena of growth, by 
which a mutual convertibility of the different sub- 
'stances is effected. Cellulose, whteh is the same 
as starch, and which enters largely into the sub- 
stance of vegetation, is in the germinating seed 
converted into sugar, in which condition it seems 
better suited by virtue of its solubility to noiuish 
the embryo plant. 

This is analagous to the phenomena of growth 
and nourishment in the animal. Both plants and 
animals, therefore, it becomes apparent, in their 
properties and structure, may take their origin 
from the same organic material. Cellular tissue, 
vascular tissue, cellulose and lignin, in regular con- 
tinuity, are furnished by the same glutinous sap. 



elaborated by the same powers of nature, started 
by the germ of sugar, from the particle of cellulose 
placed in condition of vital force and activity. 

The process of nature in the mineral is far dif- 
ferent. There the law of attraction and cohesion 
being the principle of enlargement, the crystal 
grows by attracting particles of a similar sub- 
stance to it in solution. It enlarges by the de- 
posit of particles upon its exterior ; whilst there 
is no sueh change or power in the interior. 

The cell, on the other hand, grows by an inter- 
stitial deposit. Xew matter mingles with the 
old, from an inward force, and its growth is char- 
acteristic of the species of plant to which it be- 
longs. 

The laws, however, which govern formation and 
growth by the proces's of appropriation and as- 
shnilation, must have their counterpart in princi- 
ples of waste and displacement. There must be 
a circulation by which effete matter is thrown off, 
whilst healthy tissue is being formed ; in the veg- 
etable as well as in the animal. If this provision 
did not exist, the equilibrium of the conditions of 
vital force would be materially disturbed, and the 
organic mass, or object, would be subject to the 
most terrible and monstrous malformations. There 
would also be chemical convolutions by which 
volatile gases would roll together with no fixed 
laws, and be subject to violent combustion. Or 
be consumed by the oxygen gas, set free by the 
loss or absorbtion of the forces which hold it 
in chemical union and combination, in the forma- 
tion of cellular tissue, in the simplest vegetable 
organism, as well as in the elements which sur- . 
round the globe upon which we live. 



S. W. 



(to be continued.) 



THE CULTUHB OF WHEAT, AND ITS 
SOIL. 

BY P. S. EEIST. 

Among the various cereals there is none so pro- 
fitable, and none so palatable, to civilized man, as 
that of wheat. It is the most prominent and sta- 
ple product of the earth, and may be classed as 
one of the principal supports of human life. Cul- 
tivated in all civilized countries, and in all ages, 
it constitutes a great part of the world's com- 
merce. It has increased in quantity in the United 
States from time to time, varied only in unfavor- 
able seasons, the average bulk increasing steadily, 
the quality holding about its own. But the quan- 
tity is evidently decreasing to the acre, as gradu- 
ally as our lands are wearing down, especially in 
those parts of the.Union, where geod farming is 
neglected; hence the product is reduced from 
forty down to fifteen, and in some cases even to 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



35 



ten bushels to the acre, according to the fertility 
of the soil, favorable seasons or management. — 
That this result is not merely local, but that it is 
pretty widely extended, whatever the cause may 
be, is evident from the following extract culled 
from the colmnns of a cotemporary journal, and to 
say the least, is suggestive of a very unfavorable 
state of affairs : 

" The San Francisco papers complain that the 
yield of wheat in California has fallen from forty 
bushels an acre down to twenty bushels ; and that 
if the present improvident style of farming con- 
tinues, the crops will not average over twelve 
bushels an acre. The old custom of burning the 
stubble and straw, instead of turning it into com- 
post, has been revived. If the practice is not 
abandoned, the worn-out fields of California, it is 
asserted, cannot be restored without great ex- 
pense and the application of the best agricultm'al 
skill." 

In speaking of the soil it may be said, that prim, 
arily, there are two kinds, called natural and arti- 
ficial : the natural constituting the original, where 
timbers and forests have been cleared away, and 
prairie lands composed of deposits of perishable 
vegetable matter, that has been accumulating for 
thousands of years, filling up and creating a rich 
soil, and without which hardly anj^thm.g could l)e 
raised. The artijicial soil is made up of lime, 
manure, and different kinds of fertilizers, spread 
over and mixed with the ground. 

What we call new lands, such as is cleared of its 
timbers and forests, and prairie lands, will, by pro- 
per treatment, produce forty bushels of wheat to 
the acre, as is now naturally the custom. How- 
ever, crop after crop is taken oft', until the ingre- 
dients or substances composing wheat, such as 
hydrogen, oxygen, potash, silica,.&c., are entirely 
exhausted, and nothing is done to replenish the 
same. 

Of the grain cultivated, sold and shipped, much 
of it is converted into alcoholic liquors, and made 
into pernicious beverages, the excessive use of 
which mars the peace and happiness of the human 
family ; thereby reducing the bulk necessary for 
man's subsistence. A great deal of straw com- 
mitted to the flames — not enough manm-e made 
to keep up the soil to a grain producing standard, 
with no facilities to procure lime in maiiy parts 
of the Union , and most of the patent or improved 
fertilizers too expensive for general use. Thus a 
great part of the best sections of our country, the 
best wheat producing sections, are reduced to a 
deplorable condition, without any ?'e«Z prospect of 
their recovery. 

Our wheat crop Ijad steadily increased in bulk 
up to the year 1850. We had an annnal yield of 
100,400,000 bushels, and about seventy per. cent 
©f an increase every two years, which raised the 



amount up to 170,180,000 in 1860, which ought to 
show the gross amount in 1870, of 280,000,000 
bushels. It is not my purpose now to speak con- 
cerning the different kinds of wheat, nor the best 
quality, but the best way to raise the largest 
quantity to the acre. 

Land should be plowed early. Land that is 
plowed early in the spring of the year, even when 
a crop of tobacco had bjeen previously raised^ 
thereon, can be made to produce a good, cropof 
wheat, v/iihout plowing in autumn at all. Lxiid 
ought also to be plowed in June or July ; or at 
least, as early as practicable; indeed any kind of 
land can hardly be plowed too early, in order tliat 
the rains may beat it down. My way of raising 
wheat on stubble land, is to haul manure on it 
immediately after harvest, and to plow it under as 
soon as practicable, say before or by the first of 
September. Land for w'heat should be plowed, 
rolled and harrowed, so that the rains may beat 
it down solid and compact underneath, but should 
be cultivated and rolled on top about three inches 
as loose and mellow as the roller and harrow can 
make it, and then should be sown from the 15th 
to the 25th of September, when the ground is in 
good order, say from one bushel and a half to one 
bushel and tlnree pecks to the acre. The ground 
must necessarily be solid and compact though not 
hard and crusty underneath, but loose and mellow 
on the top, and should be sown early enough to 
give grain a chance to cover its roots in the fall 
before cold weather sets in, in order to protect 
itself from freezing out', or freezing on top, (when 
grass seed will also succeed better.) All this is 
proven on all alluvial soils, and where the tough 
sod on prairies is reduced to a fine loose state. 

No winter wheat can be raised, let the soil be 
ever so fertile, excejit the season turns out extra- 
ordinarily favorable, unless the wheat fields are 
covered with snow to protect it ; early in the fall 
until late in the spring The roots of wheat ex- 
posed to the cold air in the loose ground, will 
freeze, the same as the roots of apple or p'ear trees 
will. My advice to farmers is, in order |o raise 
good crops of wheat and in addition to what I 
have already said, to feed their corn to cattle, and 
convert all their straw into manure during winter, 
but keep less stock during summer, so as not to 
rob the fields of their verdure. 

[As have a bearing upon the subject discussed 
in Mr. Reist's essay, we commend to our readers 
the following ; especially as the matter is eliciting 
the attention of wheat-growers in various sections 
of our extended country, and not without well 
grounded anxiety in regard to the future. The 
time has arrived when it seems something ought 
to be done , in order to bring up the production of 



.^6 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



ihis staple cereal to the ratio of our rapidly iu- 
<;reasing population. — Eds.] 

Wheat— Its Present and Future Production. 

From present indications the production of 
-wheat does not l:eep pace with the increase of 
population ; or, in other words, the demand is 
rapidly out-growing the supply. Were it not for 
the adventitious supply from the Pacific slope, we 
:should be importing wheat or live upon rye and 
Indian bread — no bad substitute for the wheaten 
loaf, and much cheaper, and our bran-bread philo- 
sophers would say, much more heathful. There 
is no fear of a scarcity of bread food. 

Indian corn is truly the golden gift of a benefi- 
■cent Creator to man. Its importance is not even 
yet properly appreciated. Upon it more than any 
other cereal depends the prosperity of the Conti- 
nent. The wheat crop has no real significance 
beside it. A failure in the corn crop over the 
"whole country would be far more disastrous than 
•of the wheat crop. 

Upon an abundant crop of corn depends cheaper 
pork, beef, mutton, poultry and eggs— of butter 
^nd cheese, and, what some may consider the 
greatest benefit of any, whisky. The wide range 
■given to its successful cultivation, from Labrador 
to Florida, and the ease and certainty wherewith 
dt is cultivated, make it, especially among cereals 
■what gold is among metals — the most precious. 

But by adopting proper modes of cultivation, 
may not the production of wheat be increased to 
an unlimited extent ? In other words, has popu- 
lation so far trenched upon land as to materially 
lessen the area which can yet be devoted to its 
production, even in the older sections of the 
Union r* AVhile the soil is in its virgin state, filled 
■with vegetable matter, and the accumulated min- 
•eral plant food, wheat can be grown. But in most 
soils, except of a calcareous base, the usual modes 
-of cultivation soon exhaust its power of produ- 
cing wheat in any remunerative quantities. The 
area of lands which are natural to the plant, or 
to its successful cultivation, is smaller, perhaps, 
than is generally supposed. New England has 
not over two per cent. ; New York only twenty; 
Pennsylvania, eighteen ; while all that part of the 
West which lies upon the New York system of 
rocks has about sixty per cent, of natural wheat 
soils, and the Southern or Cotton States have a 
still larger proportion of their area where wheat 
may be grown as an indigenous plant. The area 
'hereafter brought under cultivation will be equal 
at le^t to that which may be taken up for the ex- 
igencies of an increased population. 

The area of land now in cultivation m the 
United States and its Territories is not far from 
one hundred and sixty-five millions of acres — say 
one hundred in the Northern and Western States 
and sixty-five in the Southern. For seed and 
bread our population requires an annual product 
of two hundred millions of bushels of wheat. This 
quantity is about om- annual product. The aver- 
age yield is about five to one sown. In California 
and in some of the most productive wheat-grow- 
ing States, it is much higher, but in the South, 
owing to their present defective mode of cultiva- 
tion, it is much lower— probably not reaching over 
-two and a half, or possibly three. 



By the " South," now and hereafter, I wish to 
be understood as referring to the Cotton Zone, 
which lies beyond and south of the thirty-seventh 
parallel of north latitude, or the north lines of 
North Carolina, Tennessee and Arkansas, to the 
Mexican boundary. 

It is safe to assume the annual average acreable 
product of all the acres sown to wheat in the 
Union do not exceed eight bushels of sixty pounds 
to the bushel, or not enough is harvested from the 
acre to support two persons and furnish seed for 
the next crop. The acreable product is undoubt- 
edly estimated at too high a figure. Of the en- 
closed land in farms, at least one-half, or fifty per 
cent., is in meadow or pasture. Of the other, or 
arable or plow land, it will be found that not over 
one-sixth will be in wheat, even in wheat farms. 
The balance will be in corn, rye, barley, oats, 
buckwheat, beans and roots of different kinds. It 
follows, then, that of the land enclosed and in 
farms, only about one-half, or eighty-two and a 
half-million of acres, are in grass as pasture or 
meadow, and the other half covered with tillage 
crops. Of tillage crops, wheat does not average 
more than twenty-five per cent, of the breadth 
plowed. 

The number of farmers occupying farms above 
three acres each amount to three millions and the 
average size of the area of enclosed land in farms 
is not far from fifty-five acres, of which not over 
twenty-seven acres are annually under the plow 
or in cultivated crops. If my premises be true, 
not over seven acres of each farm can be in 
wheat. — T. C Peters^ in Moore'' s Rural New 
Yorker. 



BOTANY. 

Mr. President and Gentlemen : The word Botany, 
from the Greek, signifies herb or grass. Indeed, 
the study of the vegetable kingdom is included in 
the word Botany, and embraces, 1st, A knowledge 
of the various parts comprising plants, and of 
their uses, their mode of culture, and their diffu- 
sion over the earth. 2d. An arrangement of plants 
into classes and families, according to certain pre- 
vailing resemblances, by which thej^ are named 
and described, so that they may readily be known. 
3d. The various uses of plants, as for food, medi- 
cine, art and manufactures. 

Considering the profusion and variety of vege- 
table forms with which God has clothed the earth, 
it is no wonder that the attention of the earliest 
races of mankind were, as they must have been, 
directed to the vegetable kingdom. Hence we 
find Noah represented as a husbandman, plant- 
ing the vine. The Ishmaelites carried spices, 
balm and myrrh from Gilead to Egypt, in the days 
of Joseph. Solomon was, no doubt, a Botanist. 
For in the Book of Kings it is said : " He spake 
of trees from the Cedar tree that is in Lebanon, 
even unto the Hyssop that, spriugeth out of the 
wall." Suffice it to say that the science is as old 
as it is honorable and worthy the attention of all 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



37 



classes, and especially adapted to the aspiring 
Agricultwalists of our growing country, who seek 
to elevate their noble profession to its just rank 
among human pursuits— knowing, as they do, that 
intellect will aid muscle in accomplishing useful 
purposes. That there are some plodding disciples 
of the old school of Agriculture, who despise every 
form of knowledge derived from books, may be 
true, and that they have serious objections to many 
of the terms adopted in the machinery of science, 
is not surprising. Yet, nev/ as the terms may be, 
and hard to understand at first, an active intellect 
will speedily acquire the meaning of words, which 
are definite in their signification, and. when once 
understood, will give a clear idea of what partic- 
ular plant or feature is described. 

In these, my introductory remarks, I have 
briefly hinted to the general question. The sub- 
ject is so extensive, and the field so large, that I 
shall not attempt to dwell upon the structure of 
plants, theii- organs and functions, of the nutrition, 
reproduction, fructification, germination, &c., as 
these matters are fully set forth in works pub- 
lished on these subjects, to the study of vt'hich, I 
would simply direct your attention. 

Nevertheless, I may say that Agricultural 
operations, with the vegetable kingdom, rank- 
higher than those with the soil or machines, as 
requiring not only knowlege, but a considerable 
degree of skill. 

Weeding, however simple an operation, re- 
quires a certain degree of Botanical skill to know 
what to weed -or extract. There are such plants 
as it is not desired to cultivate ; the weeder should 
know at' sight the plants to be left from such as 
are to be removed, which is generally a matter of 
no difficulty, since the cultivated plants are few 
and well known, whereas the weeds aie numer- 
ous. It is yet desirable to know the character of 
the weeds, however common. Some have valu- 
able medicinal properties, or are useful for other 
domestic purposes. You may have read of them 
in your papers, but being unacquainted with them, 
do not know that among the weeds plucked up 
and thrown on the muck heap, some bear seeds 
that will multiply the crop in your fields spread 
over with manure, which, had they been laid 
aside, there use might have saved you the expense 
of an inferior article bought in the drug shop. 

Many of our weeds have been introduced from 
Europe, like the Camelina Sativa, known as wild 
flax in German, Der Leindotter, and sold in the 
seed shops as " Gold of Pleasure." Dr. S. Keller, 
of Elizabethtown, sowed a large patch of this 
pernicious weed, bought under the glowing title 
of" Gold of Pleasure." I then informed him that 
it was a regular pest in many of the grain fields 



about Mount Joy, and being an annual, it is, how- 
ever, not easy to prevent it from maturing its 
seeds, and that farmers had better watch the pro- 
gress of this plant and .arrest its appearance. 
This fcjrcigner was formerly frequent among flax 
— and some ignorantly supposed it degenerated 
flax. I mention this plant because our worthy 
President called my attention to it under the 
German name of Dodd. 

The flax vine Dodder is a cusciita, belonging to 
the natural order of the ConvolvalaceK, while the 
camelina belongs to the crucifcrae, two very dis- 
tinct orders of plante. The cabbage tribe and 
mustard tribe, and the morning glory tribe, hav- 
ing no affinity with each other. Such is the dif- 
ficulty arising from common names indiscrimi- 
nately applied, which the true scientific name at 
once separates as not onl^'' distinct genera, but 
actually in widely separated classes — plants hav- 
ing the one polypetalous,and the other monopet- 
alous corolla. The cuscuta is a parasitic herb, 
with slender, twining, leitHess orange colored 
stems ; germinating in the earth, but speedily at- 
taching themselves toother plants by a radicating 
process, through which they derive nourishment 
and, dying at the root, soon lose all direct con- 
nection with the soil. The flowers are in clusters,, 
and form, frequently, tangled masses along the 
margins of our streams, entwining the lizard's 
tail and other plants growing along the banks,, 
as well as among cultivated plants, which they 
sap of their juices. I should, perhaps, not have 
made personal remarks, but I was referring to- 
facts to illustrate a point, and might adduce 
numerous instances of the kind, but my object is 
attained, if it will call your serious attention to 
the subject of Botany, Having done me the 
honor to elect me Botanist ,of your society, I 
shall cheerfully give at all times such informatioa 
as thirty years study of the subject may enablft 
me to give. Any weeds, culled by the members 
at any time, and submitted to my inspection, shall 
be described, as I doubt not, with satisfixction to 
those who may desire such description and name 
of the plant. Very respectfully submitted by 

Jacob Stauffer. 



^grkaWura 



WHEAT VERSUS CEEAT. 

After the many discussions and refutations of 
wheat turning into cheat, and the standing offer 
of SlOO by the Farmers' Club of Xew York to 
any person who will show to said club a stalk of 
cheat grown from a grain of wheat ; tliere are 
still many otherwise honest, good, practical farm- 



38 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



ers, who believe iu the transmutatiou theory as 
firmly as in anything else. Such a belief seems 
in itself harmless, but its tendencies and results 
are by no means harmless. It follows, as a mat- 
ter of course, that those who believe that wheat 
will turn to cheat, will grow a larger proportion 
of the latter, than those who disbelieve ; conse- 
quently thousands of bushels of it grow annually 
where wheat might grow as well. And this is not 
the only evil result, but also the reduction of the 
value of the wheat with which it is mixed, as mil- 
lers are often unable, and frequently indifferent, 
to clean it. The consequence is, blue flour and 
blue bread. Our candid belief is that if every 
farmer iu the country would, for a series of years, 
allow not a single grain of cheat to mature on 
his farm, he would have no longer any cheat 
about which to believe or doubt. As a general 
thing, the farmer who does not believe in the 
changing theory, is very little troubled with cheat, 
unless unfortunately he gets seed wheat from his 
believing neighbor, or, from some believer. Ad- 
mitting the theory of Botanists and Naturalists, 
that all the grains have been developed from the 
grasses, and consequently may return again to 
their original condition. 

It d.oes not, however, seem reasonable that a 
grass which had been thousands of years in de- 
veloping to a grain, should in one year return to 
a grass. That nature has frequently, and may 
again, produce remarkable freaks will not be de- 
nied, but the returning of wheat to cheat with so 
much certainty as many would have us believe, 
can scarcely be considered a freak. We, there- 
fore, admit our skepticism in the ease, and enter 
our protest against the disseminating of such a 
theory as derogatory to good husl)andry. And, 
further, why should not the rule work both ways, 
so that if wheat will tm-n to cheat and this be sown, 
may it not return to wheat again. Siich' results, 
however, our opponents do not claim, nor yet 
even admit. It is^ therefore, high time that this 
fossil idea be eradicated, and instead thereof, that 
sounder principles be inculcated, when, no doubt, 
better practical resuks will follow. 

_^^ _^ H. M. E. 

HOW TO RAISE CHESTES. COUH"TY 
HOGS. 
The "Chester county hogs" are extensively 
known throughout the state of Pennsylvania, at 
least Eastern Pennsylvania. In some places, and 
by some people they are called" Chester Whites," 
and are considered superior to anything else of 
the hog kind; while at the same thne, adjoining 
counties may have breeds of their own, that are 
not inferior to these— or indeed a better breed. 
There seems however to be " ever}- thing in a 



name." At an agricultural exhibition in 1860, a 
neighbor of mine purchased and brought home 
some Chester county pigs, obtaining them from a 
noted breeder of that county. As the holders of 
these animals claimed to be of the progressive 
type, I was also induced to procure some of them, 
turning my former stock out to run at large. I 
felt exceedingly proud in being the possessor of 
this " Chester county stock," but I soon " come to 
grief." They had an ungovernable penchant for 
crawling out of the pen and scaling fences, some- 
thing I had never seen before, to the same extent, 
in any breed of swine. I could only make them 
weigh from two to three hundred pounds, and felt 
that I had better let the man keep his pigs, and 
been content with the breed I had before ; and 
which, without having the crawling and scaling 
propensities of the Chesters, I could easily make 
to weigh from three to five hundred pounds. — . 
These latter were the pure Lancaster county 
breed. I started afresh with the ordinary Lan- 
caster county stock, and all other things being 
equal, they will compare with the best Chester 
county stock. Under favorable circumstances I 
can make them weigh from three hundred and 
fifty, to six hundred pounds. 

I sold one of them to Mr. Abraham Shenk of 
Oregon, in this county, which, at tliis writing, will 
weigh from six to seven hundred pounds, and bids 
fair to become much heavier. That.there is a dif- 
ference in the breed of hogs I admit. A person 
who IS a good judge of stock, is able at once to 
select a good breed, from the general appearance. 
Such judges are to be found in any of our eastern 
counties, and perhaps also elsewhere. Two years 
ago, I bred three litters — twentj'-three in num- 
ber, all about the same age, and all of the same 
breed. I sold them all, twelve of them to tlii'ee 
parties, who made a first, second, and third choice. 
The remaining eleven were sold to two parties, 
six months afterwards. I afterwards took occa- 
sion to see the hogs I had sold, and found that 
the three parties who had made the three first 
choices, had only ordinary hogs— they had the ap- 
pearances of western breeds; whilst the eleven, 
sold to the two parties, had the appearance of 
Chester whites, and could have been sold as such. 
To succeed with these boss, they should be kept 
in a dry and warm pen or stable, with tv/o apart- 
ments if possil)le. They should be furnished daily 
with dry straw, and fed regular. This is the way 
/ " raise Chester county hogs," namely, by select- 
ing good Lancaster county stock, and then giving 
them good Lancaster county treatment. By this 
rule you can increase the quantity one hundred 
per cent, over the Chesters, and lose nothing in 
qualit}' — at least this has been my experience in 



raising hogs. 



L. S. R. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



39 



SORGHUM. 

"We hear less and less of the culture of the Chi- 
nese sugar-cane. In the eastern and middle States 
it has evidently declined; but in the western 
States the reverse is the case. The Sorgho Jour- 
nal is still published at Cincinnati, but it is not 
devoted exclusively to this subject ; yet the man- 
ufactiu-ing of molasses from sorghum is clearly on 
the increase farther west, where the cost of the 
imported article is much dearer than with us. 
Sugar, of excellent quality, has in some instances 
been made from this cane, and from the fact that 
the business appears to be extending, it must be 
profitable. 



m 



PLUMS FOH THE MILLION. 

"We quote from the columns of that excellent 
journal the American Entomologist, the following 
article on the cultivation of certain kinds of i)lums, 
which seem to be curculio-proof, believing that 
the subject is of sufficient importance to interest 
cultivators of that fruit in this locality. 

" "We have shown, in preceding articles, 
how professional fruit-growers may raise good 
crops of plums, of any desirable variety suited to 
their locality : first by frequent jarring their trees 
and destroying the curculios that fall therefrom ; 
and, secondly, by allowing hogs the range of their 
orchards, so as to get rid of all wormy fruit as it 
falls, and thus nip the evil in the bud. 

But for the unprofessional cultivator, who has 
only a few trees growing in his garden, both the 
above methods are, as a general rule, impracti- 
cable. It is as much trouble to prepare for jarr- 
ing a single tree, as for jarring a hundred, and as 
to allowmg hogs the run of a garden, that of 
course is out of die question. 

I^uckily, however, for those who wish to culti- 
vate phnns on a small scale, though not of the 
finest quality, there are two varieties, which may 
yet be grown successfully, without any special at- 
tention to fighting the curoulio. Tlie first of these 
is the Columbia plum, a variety of the European 
species — Prunus domestica. The second is the 
Minor plum, otherwise known as the Hinckley 
plum, Isabella phun, Gillett plum, Townsend 
plum, liobinson phmi, &c., Avhich is a cultivated 
variety of one of our American v^ild plums, dis- 
tinguislu'd by botanists as the Chickasaw or Wild- 
goose plum — Prunus Chicalasa. The native home 
of tins wild species seems to be the South-West- 
ern states ; ])ut Dr. Lathum quotes it as occasion- 
ally found in Illinois. It is altogether .dillerent 
from the common wild plum of the "West — Prunus 
Americana, whiclihas a smooth, less elongate leaf, 
and diflers in various other respects." 

The article then goes on to state that the Col- 
umbian plum, is extensively raised near Albany? 
N. Y.,is round, and fully two inches in diameter, 
ripens in August, and brings from SIO to S12 a 



bushel in market. Although this plum is as freely 
stung by the curculio as any other vai-iety, yet 
such is the exuberent flow of its juice, that the 
larva which hatches out from the egg, is almost 
invariably drowned out and comes to naught. The 
Minor or Hinckly Plum, has been extensively 
grown near Galena, Illinois, for the last thirty- 
four years, has a thick skin, is one and a-half 
inches in diameter, is round, red, and fine in it» 
texture. It ripens from the last of September to 
the beginning of October, and by scalding is said 
to keep well through the winter, by simply plac- 
ing it in any open vessel, and covering it with the 
liquor with which it has been scalded. This plum 
brings from $4 to S6 in the Louisville market. 
Its firmness of flesh allows it a long transporta- 
tion without injury. But the most important 
quality, in these precarious times of the plum 
crop, is its almost complete exemption from in- 
jury by the curculio. It has always been said, that 
our common wild plum, m this state — Svhich by 
the by is becoming very rare, through the whole- 
sale slaughter of our forest trees — is exempt from 
the attacks of the curculio, and hence, the editors' 
remarks on the plum question, although discussing 
the subjectrather entomologically than pomologi- 
cally, are entitled to the respectful consideration 
of fruit growers in this region, even if they had 
not been supported by some of the most indubit- 
able authorities in the western states. The editor 
concludes as follows : 

""We repeat, therefore, that the Colimibian 
plum is probably, and the Minor or Hiiickl}' plum 
is certainly, the plum for the million, on account 
of its hardness, productiveness, and almost com- 
plete exemption from the attacks of the curculio. 
Whether in case of the latter, this exemption is 
due to the drowning out of the larva, as with the 
Columbian plum, or to the late period at which 
the fruit matures, rendering it unsuitable food for 
the " Little Turk," or finally to the fact of its be- 
longing to a distinct 1 otauicai species from all 
other cultivated plums, is a question of no practi- 
cal moment, though theoretically of the highest 
interest." 

We commend the whole article, as well as the 
jotu'ual itself, to the favorable attention of our 
readers, and in the mean time would suggest that 
its facts, and the experiences therein recorded, 
seem to breathe more "hope" to the pliuu- 
growers, than anything we have seen, upork that 
delicate subject, for' inany years. Are our nur- 
sery men cultivating these species of the aenus 
prnnvs? If not, had they not better do so without 
delay? 

Since writing the above, we have been informed 
by Mr. Peter Reiley, a jn-actical fruit grower of 
this City, that he has the Columbian Pfum under 
cultivation, and finds it as liable to injury from 
the curculio as any other variety. Still imder a 
change of circumstances this may not be the case. 

S. S. R. 



40 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



CULTUEE OF BLACKBERRIES. 

The following article was read by William Parry 
of Ciunaminsou, X. J., before the Fruit Grower's 
Club, of New York City, July 30th, 18G8. 

" The cultivation of this fruit for market was 
greatly stimulated by the introduction of the New 
Rochelle berry, about a third of a century since, 
and perhaps no person has contributed more than 
William Lawtou, whose name it mostly bears, to- 
ward calling public attention to the importance 
of the extensive culture of this fruit. Its large 
size, great productiveness, and other good quali- 
ties, surpassing any other variety then known, 
made it very popular among fruit growers, and its 
culture extended widely, so that fanners raised 
more bushels of blackerries,thau of corn or wheat. 
The blackberry occupies an important position in 
the list of small fruits, commencihgto ripen close 
ujDon the season of the raspbeiT}-, and liefore 
peaches and grtipes. Its easy culture, hardiness, 
and the high price at which the fruit sells, make 
it one of the most profitable fruits to grow. It is 
not particular as to the soil and location, but yields 
well where other crops will grow. There is no 
advantage in selecting the best land for a planta- 
tation, as the canes v>-ould there grow so large and 
tall as to recjuire much time and expense to prune, 
trim and keep within bounds. They need but 
once planting, as the bushes renew themselves 
annually thereafter by sending up a spontaneous 
growth of young suckers to bear fruit the follow- 
ing year; and with an occasional dressing of 
manure, they will continue to give large returns 
for many years. I have ten acres of them, on thin 
sandy land, that have been planted about thirteen 
years, and still produce fine crops, yielding several 
times 650, 700, and once 800 bushels of fruit, while 
land adjoining, equally good, planted with corn, did 
not produce more than half the number of bushels 
per acre. When the corn was removed , all was gc ne . 
To get another crop, we had to manure and plant 
again. But not so with the blackerries, for we 
only pick the ripe fruit, and leave the foliage to 
fall on the ground and add to its fertility. The 
plants being permanently established, the annual 
crop of fruit taken otf may be compared to the 
coupons taken from Government bonds, the prin- 
ciple remaining to produce more. 

YIELD OF BERRIES PER ACRE. 

At the average price at which blflckberries 
have sold in market for ten years past, a field with 
ordinary treatment will yield from S300 to «400 
per acre, and in some cases $600 per acre have 
been realized, and as it is from the net annual 
dividend received the real worth of any invest- 
ment ^is to be ascertained, we can readily arrive at 
the true value of a plantation of the best selected 
blackberries. Having experimented on several 
kinds of land, from a firm clay to a light blowing 
sand, I prefer as the most favorable 'location for 
blackberries, a light, moist, sandy loam, well un- 
derdrained, if water would other wise stand near 
the surface. Formerly we thought that low, rich 
land would be best, judging from the large growth 
of briars along the ditches and swampy places. 
Accordingly one of my neighbors plantedten acres 
of low, dark, rich land that had produced heavy 
crops of corn and timothy, expecting to get a cor- 



responding one of blackberry ; but in this he was 
disappointed, except in the growth of canes, which 
were very large and strong, but not well ripened 
before Winter set in, and consequents were 
greatly injured, and sometimes entirely killed be- 
fore spring, yielding but little or no fruit; while 
blackberries plante'd on thin higher land, not 
v.'orth near so much for agricultural purposes pro- 
ducing small canes with buds well developed and 
the wood matured before the approach of winter, 
would yield heavy crops of fine fruit. In walking 
through my patch -when loaded with berries, he 
remarked that he could not understand why those 
sfnall bushes had so much more fruit on them than 
his large ones.. I attributed it to the fact that the 
canes and fruit buds v.-ere better ripened the fall 
previous, and had stood the cold of winter with 
leas injury. 

MODEL BLACIvBEERY BUSHES. 

Another farmer near by having forty acres de- 
voted to the culture of blackberries, purchased a 
tract of light sandy land , at sf 13 per acre , and planted 
it with them. Biit desiring to have a model patch, 
he purchased a few acres of the richest and best 
land for ordinary agricultural purposes in the 
vicinity at S3U0 per acre, and planted it with the 
same kind of blackberries, giving the best treat- 
ment and special attention, which produced an 
enormous grovrth of canes ; but never yielded as 
much fruit per acre as the SIS land. He remarked 
to me, while looking at them, that — 'We have 
learned something since commencing tjiis busi- 
ness; to begin now, with the knowledge we have, 
the error of planting our best land with blackber- 
ries might be avoided, 

PREPARATIOK OF THE GROUND. 

The land should be ploughed and harrowed 
smooth ; then open furrows in the fall at a dis- 
tance of eight feet apart ; and if muck can be had 
conveniently, it is valuable to spread along them 
during winter, leaving it exposed to the action of 
the frost. Early in spring set the plants about 
four feet apart on the muck, which require 1,360 
plants to an acre. The intervening space, while 
the plants are small, need not be lost, but corn, 
potatoes or other vegetables may be grown mid- 
way between the rows for the first year or two. 
The roots will mostly follow along the rows to 
feed on the muck, and grow more vigorously than 
lateral or side shoots. Hence the strongest and 
best plants will come up nearly where they are 
wanted to produce fruit the following year. But 
the}' should not be left to stand along the rows 
closer together than an average of one plant to a 
foot in length in the rows. The plantation should 
be gone over several times during the summer, 
and the tops of the young canes, as they appear 
above the bearing bushes, should be shortened in, 
so as to keep them at a uniform height of about 
three to five feet according to, the strength of the 
soil. This will induce the side In-anches to grow 
vigorousl}^ and develop fruit buds near the ground, 
and, interlocking with each other, the bushes will 
support themselves, and thus avoid the necessity 
of stakes and wires to prevent high winds from 
injuring the tender canes. The side branches 
should be shortened in the follov.-ing winter or 
spring.to a pyramidical form, somewhat resembl- 
ing a dwarf pear tree when properly trimmed.— 



THE LANCASTER FAKMER. 



41 



Plants thus properlj treated will yield more fruit, 
and of better quality, than if let to grow tall and 
slender, as by nature they are inclined to do. 

PRICE OF BERRIES. 

Blackberries have sold readily for several years 
past at from three and a-half to five dollars a 
bushel ; and this year, owing to the scarcity of 
fruits, they bring '^double that price. They will 
be likely to sell well ijor many years to come, as 
thej' (fan be used in so many ways, and the de- 
mand will be greater than the supply. Some 
patches will be planted* ou unsuitable soil, and 
will not pay costs ; others in the most favorable 
locations will be suffered to grow at random, be- 
coming large and rank, and producing but little 
fruit. " 

HOW TO RAISE BOUNTIFUL CROPS. 

To insure' good crops requires close attention ; 
the canes should be kept thin and well headed 
back ; and on poor land ^n occasional dressing 
of manure, muck, or fertilizers of some kind, adds 
to the quantity and quality of the fruit. There is 
no likelihood of the market being overstocked 
with the fruit, as it pays well to make it into 
wine. Three quarts ef blackberries and three 
pounds of sugar, with the addition of a little water 
will make a gallon of wine, highly recommended 
for its medicinal properties, worth ^2 per gallon, 
while new; and its value increases with age. All 
the poorer berries, those that are too ripe to ship 
to market, maj- be ijroperly converted into wine at 
home ; and only the finest and most perfect fruit 
sent to market, which will always command a fair 
price. 

LIST OF VARIETIES. 

Being extensively engaged in the cultivation 
of blackberries myself, having grown thousands 
of bushels of them within the'last few years, and 
tested many varieties, such as the New Rochelle, 
Dorchester, Cutleaf. Newman's Thornless, Cape 
May, Cumberland, Sinclair, Mason's Mountain, 
Missouri Mammoth, Idaho Climbing, Crystal 
"White, Parker's Early, Felten, Brandenburg, Hol- 
comb, Needham's White, Col. Wilder, and Dr. 
Warder, also the dewberries sent out by Dr. 
Minor, of Honeyeo Falls, N. Y., and having now 
growing ten acres of the Kittatinny and thirty of 
the Wilson Early blackberries,! consider the lat- 
ter the most profitable for market, and therefore 
have planted more largely of it than any other 
variety. The fruit is large, luscious, and sweet 
as soon as black, holds its bright color and bears 
carriage well. The plants are hardy and produc- 
tive. The Wilson Avill become a general favorite 
when its merits become more wideh' known. The 
berries sold readily in New^ York and Philadel- 
phia markets last year, and this also at >?1G per 
bushel wholesale, and retailing to-day at '^l per 
quart, in Broadway, N. Y., where no other variety 
that I am aware of brought as much. 

ORIGIN OF THE MOST VALUABLE VARIETIES. 

It is somewhat remarkable that all the valuable 
varieties in cultivation have been found growing 
wild, and were selected and saved on account of 
their supposed merit over others, and from the 
thousands of seedlings raised, none have yet 
proved superior to their parents. May it not be 
attributed to the fact that sutficient cfire has not 



been taken to mix the pollen of different varieties? 
Having grown seedlings for many years without 
favorable results. I have now adopted the plan of 
planting some of the best varieties near each 
other, so as to ensure the admixture of the pollen 
of many flowers, thereby combining qualities in 
their seedlings which could in no other way be found 
in the same fruit. If as much care and attention 
were bestowed in selecting and propogating new 
seedling blackberries as have been with the straw- 
berry and grape, we might vet obtain varieties even 
superior to those now cultivated." 

HOW :MANY ACRES TO CULTIVATE. 

The number of acres that can be profitably de- 
voted to the cultivation of small fruits depends on 
various circumstances, the climate, soil and con- 
venience forehippiiigthe fruit to market, the cost 
of labor, manures and fertilizers have a bearing 
on this^nattei'. It has been proclaimed 

TEN ACRES ENOUGH. 

But Young America wants more and I gradu- 
ally advanced until we got 130 acres planted, viz : 
55 of Blackberries, 55 of Raspberries, and 20 of 
Strawberries, when I found we had passed the 
point of greatest profit. That the same amount 
of capital and labor required. to keep 100 acres in 
condition, will yield more profit employed thereon 
than if extended and distributed over a larger sur- 
face than can Ije well kept in good order. Grass 
and weeds will take advantage of neglect, and 
blast our briglitest hopes, so that for me 

ONE HUNDRED ACRES IS ENOUGH, 

In small fruits, leaving some land for Apples ' 
Pears, Cherries and grain, hay, pasture, vege- 
tables and truck of various kinds, very useful on 
a farm and valuable for sale. By having several 
resources for a dependence, if one should fail the 
others may carry you through. 



PLANTING GRAPE EYES. 

Those who have not some knowledge of plant- 
ing single grape eyes, placing them in boxes of 
rich soil and the boxes in a green-house, had bet- 
ter stick to the old plan of planting two eyes, al 
lowing the upper eye, which should have about an 
inch of the wood, to be just under ground.' They 
must be set in a straight trench and have the soil 
pressed firmly around them with the foot. They 
grow this way with great certainty and almost al- 
ways take root at both eyes. When this is the 
case, the lower, wood and roots should be cut off, 
as it makes a prettier and we think a more vigor- 
ous vine. When single eyes are to be planted, 
cut the wood with a sharp knife, commencing at 
the side opposite to the bud and about half an 
inch from the eye. In setting out these eyes in 
the open ground, they should be put half an inch 
under the soil perpendicularly, and the ground 
pressed closely around them. It is well to mulch 
them when hot weather comes on and keep them 
pretty moist. 



42 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



PLANTING TREES. 

Presuming that many of our readers may be 
young and inexperienced, and have lately started 
out into the practical field of life as farmers and 
husbandmen, we should be pleased to see them 
all mcline to the habit of a judicious and tasteful 
planting of fruit and ornamental trees, as well as 
other useful trees and shrubbery on their premi- 
ses. Such a course must eventually enhance the 
value of their property, and afford themselves and 
their families a higher degree of comfort than can 
be obtained through any other similar means. It 
surely will be a gratification in after years for the 
venerable father to say to his children and grand- 
children, " These trees I planted that you may 
gather the fruit." and for them in turn to say, 
" Yon bearing orchard is of the planting, Und the 
result of the forethought of my father," or, " my 
"grandfather." Or, perchance they may point 
out and say, " Those black Tartarian cherry trees 
along the lane, and those persimmons, shellbarks 
and butternuts in the meadow there, and the 
liaw-paws, locusts and maples on the hill-sid3, as 
well as the poj^lars, walnuts and oaks of yonder 
timber grove, w^re all planted by my paternal 
ancestors." Such reflections as these wculd do 
much to foster that local pride and home feeling, 
that seems to be dying out in our money-grasping 
and restless America. The local ambition of 
owning and retaining the old Homestead from 
generation to generation, cannot be an evil one ; 
and even should it eventually fall into other 
hands, to leave it a comfort and a beauty to the 
possessor is surely no ignoble record to make. 
We remember once having seen a very touching 
poem, by some author now unknown to us, in 
which an old man is represented as returning to 
the scenes of his childhood, and calls the atten- 
tion of a little girl to some trees of his planting, 
in the following lines : 

Yon two gate-way, Sycamores you see 
By me were planted, just so far asunder ; 

That long well-pole from the road to free, 
And tlie wagons to pass safely under ; 
NinetA'-three, 

Yon two gate-way Sycamores you see." 
Yes, friends, plant, sow, lend, and you will be 
rewarded. 

L. S. R. 



GROWING THE FIG IN A NORTHERN 
CLIMATE. 
A gentleman near Chillicothe, Ohio, has been 
very successful in growing and fruiting the Fig 
for a number of years. For the benefit of any of 
the readers of the Lancaster I^armer, who 
may feel an inclination to try the experiment, we 
will give his plan as follows. He says : Any good 



corn ground, with a gentle slope south, will an- 
swer. In the fall of the year he lays off the 
ground with the plow, in the direction of the 
slope, in beds eight feet wide and a foot high, 
with the water furrows between to carry off all 
surface water. He then digs holes in the centre 
of the bed, Avith alternate spaces between, of 
eight and sixteen feet for the plants — leaves the 
holes exposed to the frosts of wmter. Then in 
the spring, about corn-planting time, he trims the 
roots of the young fig trees, so as to have all the 
roots on the two opjjosiie sides, plants the trees 
with the roots crosswise of the bed, so that the 
side roots may remain firmly in the soil when the 
trees are being laid down in the trenches. About 
corn-cutting time strips off all the leaves, and digs 
trenches lengthwise of the beds, one spade deep, 
and large enough to coiatain the l)ody and top of 
the trees, when laid down in the trench ; pegs the 
trees down, and then covers with the earth taken 
out of the trench. In the spring, after all danger 
of frost is past, uncovers the trees, and tm-ns them 
again to an upright position. " It will be per- 
ceived that by this plan of treating the trees — 
all the main roots ai-e on opposite sides, and easily 
bent down into the trenches, without injury to the 
.roots, and the fig being so vigorous a grower — as 
soon as exposed to sun and air, pushes right ahead. 
The above is his plan in as few words as we can 
use to make it intelligible. AYe would, however, 
add as a precautionary measure, to put on an ad- 
ditional covering of ijoards, or strong manure, to 
keep out frost and moisture, on a first trial, as 
wet and frost are sure death to tig trees. 

J. B. G. 



Messrs Editors : — Your correspondent " D," 
has given a good article on the culture of the 
Peach, in the February number of the Farmer^ 
though , as I believe he has confounded two seperate 
and distinct diseases, Avill you allow me to make 
a few remarks in explanation of my dfssent from 
his theory? He is perfectly correct as "to the 
worms at the roots," being of small account, '' as 
a few moments attention once or twice a year at 
the proper time will easily destroy them." And 
we will add, a few shovels full of soap-boiler's 
ashes, heaped around the stems, in the shape of a 
cone, or even common soil, or a bunch of tobacco' 
stems tied around the trees, tarred paper, &c., and 
the earth brought up so as to leave no ingress for 
the parent fly, to deposit its eggs in the roots, or 
stem close to the roots. All such precautionary 
measures will be a safe guard against the worms. 



THE LANCASTEE FARMER. 



43 



la his description of the '• yellows," I opine he 
has mistaken the " curl " of the leaves, for the 
" yellows !" These are two distinct diseases. 

So far as soil is concerned, we have not a parti- 
cle of faith to believe, that it has any eftect in 
causing either of these diseases, nor has neglect 
or bad culture, or no culture at all ! We may in- 
stance a case many years ago, where peach trees 
were standing on an old field or commons, bear- 
ing large crops, every year, healthy, hardy, per- 
haps twenty or forty years old. 
, The seeds of trees having the " yellows," will 
never produce healthy trees, and buds taken from 
such infected trees, and placed on healthy stocks, 
will invariably be diseased. Hereditary trans- 
mission of the "j-ellows," is a well established 
fact. That unpropitious weather in the spring, 
when the young and tender leaves first escape 
from their winter covering, is very probably a 
cause of disease, and when the tender growth is 
thus checked, disease and death may follow, not 
necessarily so from the " yellows " however, l)ut 
from the " curl." Still, if the trees have flowered 
and any trees in the vicinity are alreadj'^ atYected 
bj' the " yellows," the bees and insects will soon 
carry the pollen frorii these infected trees, to 
others in close proximity. 

Thus you see, our theory is, and we have closely 
examined many cases since its first appearance, 
that the " yellows " can only be transmitted from 
tree to tree during inflorescence, by raising seed- 
lings from diseased trees, or propogating from 
such stock. When peach buds are killed in the 
winter, so that the trees do not flower at all, we 
have often noticed how healthy the trees become 
the following summer, and on the contrary, when 
the trees flower freely, if there is a single tree af- 
fected with the disease in the vicinity, may be 
hundreds of yards distant, the disease Avill be sure 
to make its appearance on neighboring trees. 

We might bring forth many cases to prove this 
theory, but the small space of the Fanner admon- 
ishes us not to go into details. 

Our friend " D," comes to the conclusion, "that 
had the warm weather continued, the result would 
have been diflerent." That the leaves would not 
have dropped oft', and the trees would have re- 
mained health)- •, the " yellows " would not have 
injured his trees. In brief, his trees, like many 
others, put forth healthy foliage and flowers, a 
cold wet spell checked their growth, the leaves 
and fruit dropped oft", and the trees got the " yel- 
lows." Xow this is a very plain case. Whether 
" the coltf and wet spell," caused the " curl" we 
are not fully prepared to say, but we do say, the 
'■'■ curV was the sole cause of the leaves dropping, 
and of course weakened the vitality of the trees. 



If, then, the " yellows," also made its appearance 
on the trees, then tliat disease was brought on by 
wind or insects transferring the pollen from trees 
already affected, to those otherwise apparently 
healthy. Under glass, peach trees might be safe 
from " curl " or " yellows," yet if trees infected 
with the " yellows " out of doors %eoidd hloom at 
the same time, we doubt very much if bees would 
not carry the disease even under glass. 

I well remember the time, M'hen neither worms, 
yellows, or curl were knoAvn, our peach trees were 
healthy everywhere, in gardens, orchards, old 
fields, or fence corners, rarely missed bearing a 
crop of fruit. Occasionally a cold winter would 
kill the buds, or a late frost cut oft" the expanded 
flowers, yet such occurrences were rare, and the 
tree lived and bore fruit until they were twenty, 
in many cases forty years old. The w^orms made 
their appearance, if my recollection serves, some 
forty years ago. Then a few years after the yel- 
lows came to bother the fruit grower, and perhaps 
twelve or fifteen years since, the " curl " first came 
apparently to finish what the worm and yellows 
had left undone. The worms may be easily over- 
come, the yellows may be arrested by laying the 
axe at the roots of the trees the moment it is dis- 
covered, but for this last pest, the curl, we know 
of no remedy. 

Yours, &c., J. B. G. 

WHY Y/ONT THE BUTTER COME? 

Editors LajSTCASter Farmer: Sometimes 
people complain, " Butter is too high in price." 
Could they understand the labor and drudging re- 
quired to furnish this indispensable luxury — 
could they only for a month or two, during the 
winter, have the pleasure (?) of milking the cows, 
tend to the milk and cream, churn butter " when 
it won't come," and then with a few pounds, 
trudge the weary, long , and lonesome miles to 
town through all kinds of weather, as our milk- 
maids are in tlie habit of doing to dispose oftjieir 
week's labor. Wouldn't they " change the bm-- 
then of their song?" 

i^ot to extend our remarks, we will not sayanj-- 
thing about the pleasure (?) of milking the cows 
when the thermometer is below zero, or the'rain 
is pouring down in torrents, or the snow filling 
up all the approaches to the cow stable. Here 
let us just give an inkling of the operation of 
churning a few pounds of butter : The girls have 
been churning from morning till noon— the butter 
won't come ! The " old man" takes a turn, but 
soon looses patience— the butter vron't come ! 
The young man tries his hand on the " double 
quick"— «/a; cum rous ? Then the girls having 
recovered their breath and equanimity, again take 



44 



THE LAKCi^STER FAKMEE. 



hold of the handle for another long and strong 
pull ; at last, after the patience of the whole house- 
hold is almost down to zero— the cheering news 
— the butter is coming ! 

Can not some of the readers of the Faemek, 
or some of those having a knowledge of chemis- 
try, (the hidden mysteries ©f nature.) gire us a 
clue , a hint, or an advice how to " fix things," so as 
to shorten this tedious and almost provoking ope- 
ration. Tell us, somebody, " how to make the 
butter come." Thafs what we want to know. 

J. B. G. 

CUEPvAWT CULTUEE. 
One of the easiest and most profitable fruits to 
grow is the currant. The plants are cheaplv 
bought, or easily propagated. They are entirely 
hardy. They will flourish in almost any soil, 
though apparently preferring a strong, rich clay 
or loam. They yield an abundant crop as regu- 
larly as the summer comes round. If a ready 
market for the fruit is not at hand, it can very 
easily be made into ".currant wine," for which 
there is always a remunerative sale. 

But to grow them with success and profit, two 
things are absolutely necessary. In the first 
place, plant only tJie best kinds. Many persons 
have no idea what improvements have been made 
in the size and quality of this fruit. Some of the 
new varieties are as much superior to those with 
which we were familiar in our boyhood as a Bart- 
lett pear is superior to a Bell. Plant only the best. 
In the second place, after you have planted, 
take care of them. 1 don't know why the currant 
should be left to fight the battle of life unaided^ 
with grass and weeds, any more than grape vines 
or pear trees should. Most plants are very grate- 
ful for kindness shown them, far more so than 
some men ; but it is especially so with the currant. 
Give your bush plenty of rich food ^oi air and of 
sunshine, and it will hang out its thanks in juicy 
clusters from every twig. I say your " bush,'''' 
for most currants are grown as bushes. But I 
have in my garden currant trees, which are a Vieau- 
tiful sight when laden with their richly-glistening 
fruit.. They have a single stem, and are just as 
tree-form as an apple tree. The currant can 
very easily be grown in this way. And I think 
we get larger and finer fruit. There is less wood 
for the roots to support, and so more of the vigor 
of the plant can go to the eulargening and per- 
fecting of the berries, and these are held well up 
from the dirt, and may easily be grown at such a 
height as to be beyond the reach of the chickens, 
or even the hens. 

If I am asked what are the best kinds,! an- 
swer, the VersaiUaise and the White Grape. The 



former is a red variety, as large as the cherry, 
much less acid and more prolific. The latter is 
white ; a very abundant bearer, and the berries 
large, and of a very mild and pleasant fiaror. 
Eiiher of these will give entire satisfaction. 
G. II. W. Eeadimj, Mass. 

LOOK OUT FOR HUMBUGS. 

Have any readers of the Lancaster Farmer any 
money to fool away ? If they have, then let them 
buy a right to use that (so called) "most useful 
discovery" ever known to man — " Improved fruit 
tree and vine insect destroyer and invigorator." 
Wonderful, " the Gods have come down in the 
likeness of men." If there are any fools about, 
let them send at once for the " greatest discovery 
of the age ;" only five dollars for the right to use 
the stuff" after paying for it ; what a clever chap he 
must be ; the fools are not all dead yet ; just think 
of it ; we can't have any fruit, nor any other good 
crops unless each one of us pays five dollars for 
the privilege to use his recipe, (as if it is the 
only remedy to insure a crop ! ) 

Xow if you will save yonv money and try some 
of the remedies recommended in the agricultural 
and horticultural journals, free for all to apply, 
and using the same care and treatment, we think 
the result will be fully as satisfactory, and less ex- 
pensive. At any rate, when they blow so hard, 
and want to extract five dollars from every person 
that has any trees, vines, or other products, they 
do not deserve the credit nor approbation of this 
Society, but should be looked upon with scorn as 
impostors, for they are nothing else. To 
read their recommendations, and testimonials, it 
would seem as though the Almighty had given 
over the control of the fruit crops to those extor- 
tionists, and patent venders, &c. Be not deceived; 
better have nothing to do with patent tree and 
vine remedies. If they have a good remed}'-, why 
not give it freely for the good of tlie whole country, 
and then they would indeed be public benefactors, 
and the world would call them blessed. 

J. B. E. 



EXTERMINATION OF NOXIOUS 

INSECTS. 
Xoxious insects are appearing in greater num- 
bers every season. Almost every article of 
human food must be protected while th% tender 
germs of useful plants are springing into life, or 
while the buds are unfolding or the fruit being de- 
veloped. There seems to be a larva, or .grub, or 
beetle, or worm to devour everything that grows. 



THE LANCASTER FAEMER. 



45 



from the field crops of golden grain to all kinds 
of fruit and vegetables. 

Joseph Treat, of Yinoland, Xew Jersey, has 
written a pamphlet, price twelve cents, in M-hich 
be suggests an effectual method for the extermin- 
ation of insects. He writes to the Times thus : 

" Fruit can everywhere be raised, in .spite of 
all insects. Noxious insects can be destroyed, 
and a new era in fruit growing introduced. In- 
stead of so many insects proving that we can 
never get rid of them, it is their very multiplicity 
which insures that we shall get rid of them, by 
making their extermination an absolute necessity. 
Nature tells us how this may be accomplished by 
the instincts implanted in the insects themselves. 
We never should have had the insects in the first 
place if we had not departed from Nature in the 
matter of birds. It is only because, for more 
than two hundred years, we have gone on, per- 
sistently cutting away the timber everywhere, and 
driving the birds before us in all directions, that 
at last the insects have taken the place of the 
birds and destroyed the balance of the system. 
One thousand pairs of moths will produce 300,000 
caterpillars the first yejr, 45,000,000 the second, 
and 6,750,000,000 the third year. One bird, in a 
single year, will destroy or prevent the existence 
of 1,000,000 of caterpillars ; a ixiir of birds, 2,000,- 
000, and the three, four or five young birds, 
3,000,000 moi'e, making 5,000,000 of caterpillars 
which one family of birds will destroy in a year. 
There ought to be more birds in every garden 
and orchard than in the woods. 

HOUSES FOR BIRDS. 

There ought to be birds in boxes all around the 
premises — boxes right among and over all beds 
or patches of vegetables and stnall fruits, Irish 
potatoes, sweet potatoes, melons, strawberries, 
raspberries and blackberries, as well as among 
the grapes. Small boxes or houses for birds, 
should be placed in fruit trees, groves and thick- 
ets. "Where only ten birds have heretofore ex- 
isted, there should be a hundred ; and perhaps in 
the future there will be a thousand. But we can 
destroy the msects even without birds. The sim- 
plest and cheapest means is molasses mixed with 
water, put in pans, crocks, old tin or wooden 
pails, or troughs, placed in gardens and orchards 
over night, to drow^n the multitudes of moths 
(or millers, as they are commonly called) that 
parent all the most destructive caterpillars. The 
moths are literally crazy to get into the sweetened 
water. They cannot be kept out of it. Insects 
of all kinds will drown I)}' the hundred and thou- 
sand in such a liquid, till there will be none left. 
One gallon of black molasses, unfit for any cul- 
inary purpose, will suffice for a small farm from 



early Spring till Fall, the same water answering 
from week to week, only requiring to have the 
dead moths removed. The vessels containing 
the sweet liquid should be covered by day to pre- 
serve from bees, and to be filled up and kept 
sweet, as it gradually wastes away. The same 
sweetened water, on plates, with cobalt, ratsbane, 
or anything similar chemical in it, will i^oison the 
moths. 

EXTERMINATINO INSECTS BT FIRE. 

There is a still more universal means, for 
Nature has made every insect a fire worshipper. 
Little fires in gardens and orchards, at early twi- 
light, burning ten or fifteen minutes, will attract 
and consume swarms of moths, beetles, bugs and 
curculios, and thus save the crop of fruit. Light 
wood obtained and split fine beforehand, enough 
for the whole season, or flat-bottomed tin lamps, 
like those of the ' campaign torches,' will be equal 
to money at a hundred per cent, in every man's 
pocket who owns either garden or orchard. * 
And picking up and boiling all the fallen fruit 
to kill the larvre in it, will make two or three 
hitodred to one less insect next year. These 
means forestall all ordinary ones, as hand picking, 
sprinkling with oil, cutting out borers, destroying 
nests on trees, providing toads, turtles, chickens, 
and ducks that eat every tomato-worm, and tur- 
keys that gobble the new potato-bug of the West 
— killing the parents, and thus preventing their 
increase. This is like beginning at the beginning 
and striking at the root of this great evil.— 
The means are literally so many that they become 
superfluous ; half of them will subserve a more 
satisfactory purpose. What we do not kill in one 
way, we shall in another. Wenlight have known 
that we should find means, because it would be < 
come a necessity, as necessity is that motive 
power which has done everything else. It is that 
which has given us the plow, which we should 
never have had if trees had borne loaves 'of 
bread." 

The foregoing, which we topy entire from the 
agricultural column of a weekly cotemporary, 
contains many rational sentiments and useful 
suggestions, but at the same time, little else than 
has been entertained and practiced in England, 
and some parts of our own country, for a series of 
years; and, therefore, on the whole, it is neither 
entirely new, nor yet a finality in its details. 
For instance, in all the insects which we have 
been enabled to attract at night by lamps or fires 
— amounting to many thousands through a long 
series of years — ^^we cannot recollect to have 
counted a half dozen cumdios among the whole 
of them. Although such contrivances may bring 



46 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



countless thousands of nightflying moths, and 
predacious beetles, as well as many of the woodbor- 
mg kinds, yet we doubt if there will be many of the 
true curculionidce entrapped thereby. In this re- 
spect they seem to differ from other Coleoptera, and 
therefore they will have to be captured or circum- 
vented by other means. In our opinion, jarring 
the fruit trees, and picking up and destroying the 
fallen fruit two or three times a day throughout 
the entire months of May and June, will be more 
efficacious in respect to them. The suggestions in 
regard to forests and birds are no doubt the true 
cause of a redundancy of insects, but even if this 
■were universally acknowledged and acted upon, 
it would require time before the balance in nature, 
which has thus been destroyed, could be restored 
again. But, as the evil exists, and must be met, 
no means should be left unemployed to reduce 
the number of noxious insects, and that too, ef- 
ficiently, and without unnecessary delay. ' "What 
are not destroyed in one way, or by one 
set of means, may be destroyed in another, so 
that no rational remedy should be left untried. 
But the operators should so far acquaint them- 
selves with the true characters of insects, as not, 
at the game time, to also destroy their friends, 
for these, if uninterrupted and not interfered 
with, will perform the work more thoroughly than 
it can possibly be done by the aid of human 
heads and hands. S. S. R. 



We sometimes rather regret that the " letter 
press" capacity of our journal is so limited, as to 
exclude from its columns the many pages of ex- 
cellent " selected matter" which fall under our 
observation in the various kindred publications 
throughout our wide extended country. Many of 
our readers and subscribers may doubtless wish 
this were otherwise, and we cannot say, that to a 
certain extent, we do not sympathize with them 
in that wish. However much the necessity for 
such a state of things may exist now, we sincerely 
hope it may not be so al\vays, unless experience 
may demonstrate that it should not be ©therwise, 
and as a reasonable beacon of that hope, we feel 
warranted in promising our subscribers that when 
the subscription and advertising lists of our jour- 
nal are increased a hundred per cent., they will 
find its letter press capacity increased a hundred 
fold. But, all other things beiug equal, it was the 
original design, that the columns of the Farmer 
should contain mainly or entirely original nmtter, 
that it should be a reflector of the experiences and 
thoughts of the cultivators of the county of Lan- 



caster. Xot, by any means, that they are pre- 
sumptous enough to assert that they know more 
than any other people, or that they believe what 
they do know, is better than any other body's 
knowledge, but that, right or wrong, it is just 
what their own knowledge and experience has 
taught them in the cultivation of the soil, in their 
various localities. Hints of the mode and manner 
of doing things, by those beyond our borders, 
and also their legitimate results, are valuable so 
far as they go, but we never can have the implicit 
confidence in them, that we would have, if they 
were wrought by our neighbor and on a contigu- 
ous farm. 

General modes of cultivation and their results, 
may have a general and wide extended applica^ 
tion, but, in their details, they never can super- 
cede local modes ; and it is for this very reason 
that a local journal may be . more valuable to a 
farmer than a foreign one. It was this aspect of 
the case that first suggested the publication of the 
Lancaster Farmer, and it is this attitude that will 
continue to make it the medium of local commu- 
nication. N^othing is more common, in perusing 
the contents of the various agricultural and hor- 
ticultural journals of onr country, than to meet 
with complaints, that the modes of culture recom- 
mended for one i^articular locality, have been al- 
together unavailable in another. We know th^it 
" circumstances often alter cases," but in any 
event, and as a general rule, circumstances never 
can, or never ought, to take precedence of centre- 
stances. There are internal or local conditions 
that are altogether independent of external or for- 
eign ones. These can be better developed through 
local experiences, local modes of culture, and local 
intercommunication. All this maybe done, with- 
out discarding or unheeding the superior sugges- 
tions of other localities, but they should never lead 
to the adoption of inferior ones, merely because 
they are foreign. We hope therefore to see the 
cultivators of Lancaster county self-reliant, but 
that they should at the same time " prove" all 
things," and "hold fast that which is good." We 
know that by their cotemporaries,they are some- 
times called " slow," but as it has never yet been 
determined that the man upon whose head the 
brick fell and killed, was walking too fast «r too 
slow to avoid it, they therefore stand on an equal 
footing with " faster " people. We hope also that 
our contributors will continue to give us their 
thoughts and experiences, on all matters relating 
to the farm, the orchard, and the fireside. 
^ » » 

Our subscribers will please bear in mind The 
Farmer is payable in advance. As material is 
very high, and labor cash, will our patrons be 
kind enough to respond ? 



THE LANCASTER FAEMER. 



47 



MEETING OP THE AGRICULTURAL 
AND HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

TJie Society met in the Orphans' Court Room, 
hi the city of Lancaster, Monday, February 1st, 
at 2 o'clock P. M. 

In the absence of the President, Levi S. Reist, 
1st Vice President, took the Chair and called the 
meeting to order, after which the minutes of the 
last meeting were read and approved sans dis- 
sentiment. 

The following new members were nominated, 
and on motion elected, viz: Dr. Joseph Gibbons, 
Aaron H. Summy, Esaias Billingfelt, Elias Brack- 
bill and John G. Rush. Most of the new mem- 
bers were present and signed the Constitution. 

Levi S. Reist, who had been elected delegate, at 
the January meeting, to represent the Society at 
the meeting of the Board of Managers of the " Eas< 
Penna. Experimental Farm," inChester County, 
stated that he had been unable to be present at 
said meeting. He, however, had met Thos. Har- 
vey, Superintendent of the Farm, who had in- 
formed him that they had thirty-six different 
kinds of wheat on trial and sown for experiment. 
Mr. Reist was unable to be present at the meet- 
ing, owing to other pressing engagements. 

S. S. Rathvon now proceeded to read an extract, 
taken from the Revue des Deux Mondes on Beetle 
Hunting. The extract, although very lengthy, was 
read out of regard to its intrinsic merit, and Mr. 
Jlathvon designs preparing an abstract of it for 
publication in the Lancaster Farmer. 

Jacob Stauffer next proceeded to read an essay 
upon Botany, and did itinhis bestmanner, andwas, 
on motion, asked for a copy for publication in the 
Farmer. Peter S. Reist was next invited to 
read an essay upon wheat culture and the soils 
necessary for its successful cultivation. 

Mr. John Carter, who was understood to be 
present and to represent the " Experimental 
Farm School in Chester County," was on mvi- 
tation requested to address the Society. He did 
so quite briefly, and detailed the workings of the 
Farm School in our neighboring county. He re- 
marked the great necessity there was for an ap- 
propriation- by the Legislature in aid of the new 
enterprise. A petition was in his possession, di- 
rected to the Penna. Legislature, and he asked the 
members of the Society to sign the same and give 
it the weight of their influence. 

Jacob B. Garbcr immediately rose and efl'ered 
the following resolution : 

Resolved, That we, the undersigned members 
of the Lancaster County Agricultural and Horti- 
cultural Society fully approve of the above peti- 
tion, and strongly urge the members of the Leg- 
islature to grant the application of the managers 
of the Chester County Experimental Farm. 



Levi S. Reist urged the adoption of the above 
resolution, and spoke of the great advantage it 
might be to the farming community of Lancaster 
County, owing to its contiguity to our borders. 
Farmers might, if this Chester County enterprise 
be successfully established, with little expense 
visit it, and see and learn by observation 
many things otherwise difficult to be compre- 
hended, and thus correct scientific information 
would be more generally diflused amongst our 
Lancaster County Agriculturists. In the course 
of his remarks, jNIr. Reist referred to the fact of 
the State of Massachusetts having lately appro- 
priated the sum of $30,000 for the propagation of 
fish. 

C. L. Hunsecker, of Manheim, likewise spoke 
a few words in favor of the resolution, and be- 
lieved the money could not be expended to better 
purpose. 

The resolution was then unanimously adopted. 

Engle and Brother, of Marietta, exhibited some 
very handsome apples, viz : The North Carolina 
Queen, Smith's Cider and the Lacker varieties. 

The Society, after the transaction of the remain- 
ing current business, entertained itself for a time 
in the testing of the fruit on exhibition and in 
social converse. The apples presented by Engle 
and Brother were pronounced of fine quality, es- 
pecially Smith's Cider. 

Society then, on motion, adjourned until the 
1st Monday of March. 

We have received the new seed catalogue of 
Edward J. Evans, of York, Pa. In his catalogue , 
Mr. Evans says : " By special arrangement with 
Mr. James Vick, of Rochester, !New York, we are 
prepared to furnish our customers all his choice 
flower seeds at his regular prices, and will mail to 
any address, on receipt of ten cents, his hand- 
somely illustrated Descriptive Catalogue and Guide 
to the Floioer Garden for 1869." 

Ferre, Batchelder & Co's Catalogue of Seeds 
and Vegetable and Flower Garden Manual, for ISQ9, 
has also been sent us. This is one of the largest 
catalogues we have yet seen. Address, Spring- 
field, Massachusetts. 

Hoopes' Brother & Thomas, of West Chester, 
Pa., have sent us their Annual Trade List of the 
Cherry Hill Nurstries for the Spring of 1869. They 
offer the charming Rocky Mountaib novelty, the 
Aquilegia Ccelndea, which the American Horticul- 
tural Annual describes as " the Queen of Colum- 
bines, and the most beautiful of all herbaceous 
plants." Young plants $1.00 each, and $9.00 per 
dozen. 



48 



THE LANCASTER FAKMER. 



M.hulljiMi$m. 



PISH CULTURE. 

Salmon Eggs Imported into Massachusetts. 

ISTearly 250,000 salmon eggs arrived on Friday 
last at the Cold Spring trout ponds, Charlestown, 
Mass., from the Miramichisahnon-breeding works 
at New Brunswick. They were packed m bas- 
kets of wet moss, well surromided with straw, and 
had traveled 120 miles on sleds, 320 by rail, and 
280 miles by water ; but they were so well pro- 
tected by the straw from the cold, and from the 
jarring incident to traveling, that they arrived in 
good condition , so far as examined. They were 
also found to be well impregnated and sufficiently 
advanced to hatch, at the present rate of develop- 
ment, early in January. The gentlemen engaged 
in getting them at Miramichi met with a preju- 
dice against their operations on the part of that 
community, so violent, as to nearly compel them 
several times to give up the enterprise altogether. 
The Canadian Govei-nment was quite unwilling 
to give pennission to take the spawn at all, and 
only granted it very reluctantly at last, on condi- 
tion that one-half of the ova taken should be 
deemed the property of the Crown, and should be 
hatched out at Mu-amichi for the benefit of that 
river. 

The above paragraph, taken from the columns 
of a cotemporary, contains nothii^ specially new, 
for the transportation of eggs and the culture of 
fish has been successfully conducted for a number 
of years in Europe, and also to some extent in 
some of our eastern States. It has also been suc- 
cessful on a limited scale in our own county, but 
we should like to see it generally introduced, and 
if we are not very much mistaken, the child now 
lives who will see the culture of fish in this county 
as successful and as common as the cultivation of 
strawberries at the present time. Just think of 
the immense quantity of fish consumed annually 
in this county, and of the immense sums of money 
expended in procuring them. Along our whole 
southwestern border we have the noble Susque- 
hanna, than which there is not a more genial 
stream in which to rear the finny tribes on this 
continent. The *shad that ascended that stream, 
within our own recollection, were considered the 
finest and most delicious of any iiroduced in our 
American waters. This is owing to the pure and 
fresh character of the aqueous element composing 
It, which tumbles down from the thousands of 
brooks and mountain rills which ramify nearly 
all parts of the great State of Pennsylvania. Then 
there are the Conestoga, Chiques, Pequea, Octo- 
raro, Conoy, Hammer, Mill, and a hundred other 
smaller creeks and streams that might be made 
available for such a purpose by a little labor and 
a reasonable moiety of legislative restriction and 



protection. If it is at all desirable to bring our 
county back again to an age of moderate prices, 
and wholesome recreations, we must make an ef- 
fort to develope all her natural resources. It is a 
great mistake for us to perpetrate the bull, that 
" we should do nothing for posterity because pos- 
terity can do nothing for us." Posterity may do 
much for us in the amelioration of the condition 
of our children and our children's children. It 
behooves us, therefore, to work for posterity if 
we wish to disenthral ourselves from an all-per- 
vading selfishness which is fast sapping the foun- 
dation of our social and moral structure as a pro- 
gressive people. Therefore, let us have fish. 

R. . 



STATE AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE. 

We are glad to learn, as will all the original 
friends of the Farmers' High School, that Mr. 
Burrowes has accepted the Presidency of the 
State Agricultural College, and has set out boldly 
to re-organize it, and with a view to make it sub- 
serve the purposes it was originally intended to 
do. We have done much, first to establish, and 
afterwards to sustain this institution, and with- 
drew our support only when we regarded the 
course of the Board of Managers as tendino- to 
destroy it rather than build it up. But we are 
again willing to lend it our humble aid in the 
hope that President Burrowes, whose antecedents 
could not be better, will be able to "reconstruct" 
it, and make it of marked importance to the ag- 
ricultural interests of the Commonwealth. 

We print m another column the official college 
advertisement, and ask for it the attention of our 
readers. It will be seen that the sons of all in- 
habitants of the State qualified for admission to 
the college, stand on precisely an equal footing, 
and it is expected that they will all understand 
and avail themselves of the advantage. 

We have room this week only to make the fol- 
lowing extract from a general statement of the 
nature of the institution oftered by the President : 

"In the term Fanning or Agriculture, as here 
used, are mcludeduot only the processes of field- 
crop raising, the breeding and care of live stock 
the nature and application of manures, etc. but 
also the principles of Horticulture or Gardening 
of Arboriculture, or the propagation and care of 
fruit, forest and ornamental trees, and of all the 
other employments and interests of rural hus- 
bandry. 

" So, in the term Mechanics, are embraced Me- 
chanical, Civil and Mining Engineering and Arch- 
itecture, as far as impartible % instruction in the 
related sciences, and by as niuch of practice in 
the- Shop, Laboratory and Field, as the nature of 
the institution and of these pursuits will permit." 




We are prepared to fill orders for Spring at the following prices, cash to accompany the order: 
i)ne Poundf $1.00, Three Pounds, $'^.00 by Mail rostpaid. 
One Peck, $5.00, Half Bushel, $S.OO Delivered to Express, 

One Bushel, $15.00, One Barrel $40.00 ** " « 

(GO pounds to the IdusIi**!, 165 poiands to the barrel.) 

The following varieties can be supplied in large or small quantities : 

Early Goodrich, per bushel, $1.50, per barrel, (65 lbs. $4.00. 

Mich. White Sprout, Early, " 1.50. 

Harrison, " 1.50, " " " 4.00. 

Address DESKTCS-IjES cfc 333EI.O., 

Send for a Circular. Marietta Nurseries, Marietta, Pa. 



World Mutual Life Insurance Company 

NO. 160 BROAD^VAY, NEW YOKK. 



J. F. FRUEAUFFy General Agent^ 

No. 5 North. Qiaeen Street, Lancaster, Pa. 

A. B. REIDENBACH, Litiz, Lancaster County, Pa. 
SAMUEL L. YETTER, Elizabethtown, Lancaster County, Pa. 
J. M. GRAYBILL, Columbia, Lancaster County, Pa. 

X..A.3SrC.A.STEI^ I^EFER,EI^TCES : 
JACOB BAUSMAN, President Farmers' National Bank. Maj. J AS. E. RICKSECKEK, City Treasurer. 
CHRIS'N B. HERK, Trea't Lancaster Co. Nat'l Bank. N. ELLMAKER, Esq., Attorney. 

Messrs. BAIR & SHENK, Bankers. B. F. BAER, Esq., Attorney. 

Judge A. L. HAYES. J. F. LONG & SON, Druggists. 

Col. WM. L. BEAR, Prothonotary. 
No fanner Is Justified in exposing his creditors, his wife or his children, to the loss 
certain to occur to thevt upon his death, without a Life Insurance Policy for their 
benefit, and in no Company can this be done with more safety and under better man- 
agement than in the above. See one of their Agents and have him explain all about it. 



asrxjiisEK.'sr sarocis:. 

PEACH TREES and GRAPE VINES. Very strong one an J two year old Concords by the thousand. 

Raspberry and Blackberry Stocks, Strawberry Plants, Osape Hedgje, Asparagus and Rhubarb Roots. 
I»OT.A.TOES EOR SEE3D. 

Popular Tarieties, leading' among which is THE EA.ItLY ROSE, grown from seed ob- 
tained from D. S. Heffron, and warranted pure. Quality best, very productive, and one of the earliest. For 
sale by the pound, peck, and bushel. Send for circular. 

H. M. ENGLE, Marietta, Penn. 



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V 



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V tI P- ■ ■ J iBJJjnJH will 



. ■{. ,-<.i/in. vDJvF .]] ill .a .A 






-Jr.- -H -'oiv-O -ciiii:!*! vnvff wjiTi'-'. ,-:fDc>r; yTroiWoiirtI Lnfi /'i- 



a. b. kaueman's 
Insurance Agency, 

No. 1 EAST ORANGE ST., 
LANCASTER CITY, PA., 

Issues Life, and also, Policies against Fire and 
all other Accidents. 

AGENT FOR THE OLD 

CONN. MUTUAL LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, 

The Uosl Company iu the World. 

CAPITAL, :- - - S'33,000,000. 



SAB^UEL HESS, 

South Side Conestoga, opposite 
GraefF's Landing, ' 



DEALER IN 



Wood, Salt, Sand, Plaster, and all the best Fertili- 
zers in tlie Market. Posts, Rails, Pales, and Fenciag 
Materials of every Descrii)tiou. 

Parlioular attention paid to Ee-sawing Lumber for 
Cabinet work and Coachmaking. 

CF" All Orders left at the Lancaster Post Office 

promptly attended to. 

S. S. RATHVON'S 

Merchant Ttillorisig, General Clotlsliig 

AND GENTLEMEN'S FURNISHING STORE, 

(KFAIiir'S OLD stand), 

Corner North ^ueen & Orange Sts., 
Lancaster, Pa., 

AH kinds of Men's and Boys' Ready-Made Clothing anil 
Furhisliiiig Goods constantly on hand. Al.so, a superior assort- 
ment ot French, English, German and American Cloths, Cas- 
simeres a n<l Vestings whicb will be made to order in any desired 
style, with the least iiossihlc delay; warranted to give satis- 
faction, and at reasonable charges. 

S. S. RATHVON. 



CRUGER & RICE, 

DRUGGISTS & APOTHECARIES, 

No. 13 WEST KING STREET, 

NEXT DOOR TO STEINMAN'S HARDWARE STORE, 

Lancaster, Pa, 

Have always on hand Pure, Reliable Drugs and Medi- 
cines, Chemicals, Spices, Perfumery and Toilet 
Articles. Aho Flavoring Extracts of 
their own Manufacture, and of 
unsurpassed quality. 

Sole Agents for Hasson's Compound Syrup op Tar, the 

best rjouch Medicine in the market. We have also on hand in 

season an assortment of Landroth's Warranted Garden Seeds. 

The public can rely upon always GBTTii'tt what thbt 

ASK FOE AND NO SUBSTITUTES. 



LANCASTER CITY AND COUNTY 

FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, 

«/i' l,JlJ%^r.^STF.R, P^l. 
■ « ■»> 

OA.r'I'FAT^, - - - ^JiOO,000. 

■ » »■«> -^ — 

Hon. Tuos. E.Franklin, Geo. K. Reed, Edw. Brown, 

Tres't, Treas., Sec'y. 

John L. Atlee, M. D., B. F. Slienk, Jacob Bousman, 
Henry Carpenter, M. D., P. Shroder, Jacob M. Frantz, 

Hon. A. E. Roberts, John C. Hager. 

Houses, Barns. Stores, Mills and Buildings of all kinds, with 
their contenlsj Insured on Favorable terms. 

W. J. KAFROTH, Agent. 
Eesldeuce: 33 South Duke St., Lancaster. 



DEALER IN 

Pianos, Organs, and fflelodeons, 

ANU MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS GENERALLY, 

A large as.iortment of Violins, Flutes, Guitars, Banjos, 

Tamhoriues, Accordeons, Fifes, Harmonicas, and 

Musical Merchandise always on hand. 

SHEET MUSIC : A large stock on hand and constantly re- 
ceiving all the latest publications as soon as issued. 

MUSIC BY MAIL ; I would inform persons wishing Music, 
that Music and Musical Books will be sent by mail free of 
postage when the marked price is remitted. 

DEOALOOMANIA, or the art of Transferring Pictures. Can 
be transferred on any object. I would call especial attention 
of Coachmakers to my stock of Decalcomania. 

ZAHM & JACKSON, 

No. 15 NORTH ftUEEN ST., 

Beg leave to call the attention of persons in want of 
a good and reliable Time Keeper to their full assort- 
ment of 

KBIGAN m SWISS WATCSES, 

In Gold and Silver Cases which will be sold at 
prices which will defy competition. Also, a full assort- 
ment of 

of all kinds, which we will warrant good and correct 
time-keepers. 

in great variety, such as Pins, Setts, Ear Kings, Finger 
Rings, Sleeve Buttons, Chains, &c. 

SOLID SILVER WARE, 

Manufactured expressly for our sales and warranted coin 

PLATED WARE, 

From the best factories and warranted ihe finest quality. 

Gold, Silver and Steel Spectacles. Hair Jewelry 
Made to Order. 

Repairing Promptly Attended to. 

ZAHM & JACKSON, 



S. •WELCHENS, D. D. B., 

SURGEON DENTIST, 

Office and Refildence, 

HOWELL'S BUILDING, No. 65* NORTH QUEEN ST., 

Half a square soiitli of the K. R. Depot. 

Twenty Years' Successful Practice in Lancaster. 

The Latest improvements in INSTRUMENTS 
and TEETH and the very best material, Warranted 
in all operations. 

TEETH EXTRACTED WITHOUT PAIN with 
the use of Nitrous Oxide Gas, Ether, or the EtTier 
Spray 

TERMS, as low as any in the city, when low priced 
material and loio priced work are used. 

But for FIRST-CLASS OPERATIONS, with ap- 
pliances and material to correspond, prices range 
higher. 

S. WELCHEN3. D. D. S. 



REII^ART'S OLD WOE STOUE, 

ESTABLISHED IN 1?S5, 

No. 36 EAST KING ST., LANCASTER, PENNA. 

The reputation of REIG ART'S OLD WINES AND BRAN- 
DIES for purity and exeellent quality having been fully es- 
tablished for nearly a century, we regret that. the conduct of 
some unprincipled dealers, who re-till with and sell from oar 
labled bottles their deleterious compounds, compels us to 
adopt the annexed trade mark, which in future, for the pro- 
tection of ourselves and our customers, will be found on all 
our old bottled Wines, Brandiss, Gins, Whiskies, Bitters, &c. 



TRADE 




MARK. 



And further, in order to protect the same, we hereby an- 
nounce our determiiuitiou to in-osecute to the fullest extent of the 
Act of Assembly, approved, 31st day of March, 1860, any per- 
son or persons who shall violate the provisions of said act as 
applicable to our trade mark. 

N. B. We respectfully request the public, when they have 

occasion or desire to use Old Brandy at the Hotels or Restau- 
rants to ask particularly for Reigart's Old Brandy. 
Very respectfullv, &c., 

11. E. SLAYMAKER, Agt. 



Lancaster, June 26th, 1868. 
Editop.s Express : Dr. Wm. M. Whiteside, the enterpris- 
ing Dentist, lias purchased from me a large stock of teeth and 
all the tixtures, the nstruments formerly belonging to me, and 
also those used by my father, Dr. Parry, in his practice. In 
the purchase, the doctor has i)rovided himself with some of 
the most valuable and expensive instruments used in dental 
practice, and has beyond doubt one of the best and largest 
collections of teeth and instiniments in the State. Persons 
visiting the commodious ottices of Dr. Whiteside, cannot fall 
to be fully accommodated. The Doctor loses no opportunity 
of furnishing himself with every late scient^jtic improvement 
in his line of business. H. B. PARRY. 



UNION SPOKE AND AGRICULTURAL WORKS 

Corner of Water and. Lenaon !Sts., 
Formerly Shirk & Beyer's Warehouse, on the Penna. Bail 
road, near Baumgardner's coal yard, and 2 squares west from 
the Railroad Depot, where we manufacture the 

LATEST IMPROVED GRAIN DRILLS. 
Also, Grain Drills with Guano attached, warranted to give 
satisfaction. Hockaway Fans, Cider Jflills, Crtmherg ami 

Graters, for horse or hand power, which will grind a bushel 
of apples per minute by horse power, and are warranted to do I 
it well. We would also inform Coachmakers that we have put 
up in our Shop two of the latest improved Spoke Jflachsuen, 
or Liathea, and are fully prepared to furnish the best quality 
of SPOKES of all kinds, sizes, dry or part dry, and warranted 
to be a good article. We buy none but the best? t Spokes, 
andhavenowonhand 100,000 SPOMES. Bent Fellows 
of all sizes; Shafts and Carriage Poles, Bows, «&c., of 
seasonable stuff, constantly on hand. 

As Mr. Keeler bus been in this business 16 or 18 years, and 
having served an apprenticeship at Coaohmaking, he knows 
what the trade want in that line. All kinds of Bent Stuff for 
sale, or made to order — and Spokes of all sizes turned for per- 
sons having them on hand in the rough. 

Notice to Farmers and Mechanics Planing and Saw- 
ing done at the shortest notice. We have one of the best and 
latest Improved Surface Planes for operation. 

KEELER & SHAEFFER, lancfister, Pa. 



3DBHTIST5 

Office and Residence, 

EAST KING STREET, 

Next door to the Court House, over Fahnestock's Dry 
Goods Store, 

LANCASTER, PENNA. 

Teeth' Extracted without jtain by theuseof 
{NitTOtis Oxide) Gas. 

BOOKS AND STATIONERY. 



A Full assortment of 

SCHOOL, MISCELLANEOUS AGRT- 

DULTURAL AND HOKTI- 

CULTUKL BOOKS, 

A large stock of 

STATIONERY, 

WHICH WILL BE SOLD AT 

GREATLY REDUCED PRICES, 

! On account of removal April 1st, 1869, to 

No. 52 North Queen Street, 

(KBAMP'S BUILDING) 

Four Doors above Orange Street, 

Subscriptions received for all the Agricultural and. 
Horticultural Magazines. 

J. H. SHEAFFER'S 

Cheap Cash Book Store, No. 32 N. Queen 
Street, LANCASTER, PA. 



'? 



DEALER IN 



FOREIGN MD AMERICAN WATCHES, 

IN GOLD AND SILVER CASES, 

CLOCKS OF EVERY DESCRIPTION, 
Jewelry in all its Sliapes and Forms, 

SILVER WARE, designed for Bridal Presents; 

BRACKETS, TOILET SETS, VASES, SPECTACLES, 
GOLD PENS, &c., &C., &C. 



Stoves ! 

Housekeepers' Furiiisliiiig Goods ! 



The undersigned at their old established stand in 
WEST KINQ STREET, 

are constantly receiving fresh supplies to their exten- 
sive Stock, from the best manufactories in this Coun- 
try and Europe, and invite the attention of Merchants 
and Consumers, feeling that we can do as well as any 
house in Philadelphia. 

Persons commencing Housekeeping will find the 

Tlie Largest and Best Selected Lot of 

at Manufacturers' Prices. Also, every other article 
kept in a first-class Hardware Store. 

A FULL STOCK OF 

Sadlers', Coachmakers' and Blacksmiths' Tools 
and Materials. 

BUILDERS will find a full supply of every thing 
suited to their wants at LOWEST FIGUKES. 

CLOVER, TIMOTHY AND FLAX SEED, 

BOUGHT AND SOLD. 

STEINMAN & CO. 



p. E. GllUGER. 



J. p. GRUGEPt. 



GRUGER BROTHERS, 

MARBLE MASONS, 

14 South Queen St., Lancaster, Pa., 

Have always on hand or will furnish to order at 

SHORT NOTICE, 

MONUMENTS, 

rOMBS, 

GRAVE STONES, 

&(<., &c. 

We pay particular and personal attention both to the 
SELECTION OF THE MATEPJAL and the EXECU- 
TION OF OUR WORK, and our facilities now are such 
that we can guarantee our customers the very best 
work, at the same, and often Lower Prices, than are 
usually paid elsewhere for inferior productions. 

Lettering 



m 



English 



and 



German, 

ELEGANTLY AND CORRECTLY DONE. 

We earnestly invite our country friends to give us a 
call. 



SHULTZ & BRO., 

Manufacturers, Wholesale and Retail Dealers in 

Caps and Furs, 

LADIES' FANCY FURS, 

HOODS, 

TRIMMED GLOVES AKD ^IITTS, 
Gents' Gloves, Capes and Collars, 

FaiTcy Robes, 
BLA]SrivETS, &0. 

20 North Queen Street, 
LANCASTER, PA. 



AMERICAN WATCHES 




ELHHOAOS&BRO., 

JVo. 22 West King Street, 

Next Door Below Cooper's Hotel, 
DEALERS IN 

IMiil€ii& lM?#Efii 

AV A. T O H E S , 



« ^ 1! 



SIL,¥i;il 

J E ■V\7' E Ij E. "ST , 

CLOCKS AND SPECTACLES. 




THE UNDERSIGNED REPRESENTS THE 



AND ALSO THE 

Life ai Accideit taraice CciDpiij, 

Both stable and ■n'ell established companies, the former 
having a capital of $1000,000, and the latter $500,- 
000. 

The plan of issuing policies by the Brooklyn Life 
Insurance Company presents a feature altogether 
unique, and one which removes one of the strongest 
objection, hitherto urged against the plan of Life Insur- 
ance ; and this is what is termed the Surrender Value 
Plan. Each and every Policy issued in the name of 
this Company bears an endorsement, stating the exact 
worth of the policy in Cash, at any time after two or 
more annual premiums have been paid. 

Insurance can also be effected in the North American 
Life Insurance Company, and at lower rates, it is be- 
lieved, than in any other Company in the United States. 

All desirous of securing insurance upon their lives 
can do so by calling upon the undersigned. 

ALLEN GUTHRIE, Agt., 

East ijemon. Street, 

LANCASTER, PA. 



LANCASTER, PENN'A, 

Dealers in United States Bonds and all 
kinds of Railroad Stock and State Loans. 

Buy and Sell Gold, Silver, and Unitedt 
States Coupons. 

Sell Bills of Exchange on Europe and Passage 
Certificates. 

Keceive Money on "Deposit and pay Interest as 
ollows : 

1 month, 4 per cent,, 6 months, 5 per cent. 

3 •' 4i " 12 " 5i 



FOR SALE AT 

Glias. A. Heinitsli's Drug Store, 13 E. King St., 

LANCASTER, P E N N A., 

German Cattle Powders! 

The best Powder made for the Cure .ami Prevention of Dis- 
eases to which Oxen, Millc Cows, Sheep and Hogs, are siili.ject. 
For Stock Cattle preparing for maiket, a tahle spoontiil in 
their feed once or twice a weelt, improves their condition l)y 
strengthening their digestive organs, and creates .solid flesh 
and fat. 
GERMAN VEGETABLE OR UNRIVALLED CONDITION 

POWDERS 
For preserving Hor.ses in good health, removing all Diseases 
of the Skin, giving a Smooth and Glossy appearance, also a 
sure remedy for Distemper, Hidobonnd. i.oss of Api^etite, &c. 

PERSIAN INSECT PoWDER. 
A perfectly safe, quick and easily applied destroyer of Lice 
on Cattle, Fleas, Bedbugs, &c. 

PYROLTGNEOUS ACID. 
A substitute for curing Beef, Pork, Hams, Tongues Smok- 
ed Sausages, F sh, &c., without the danger aud trouble o 
smoking, imparting a rich flavor and color. 



CHARLES T. COULD, 

CHAIE MANUFACTUREE, 

Wo. 37 North Queen St., Lancaster, 

(NEXT DOOR TO SIIOBER'S HOTEL,) 

Old Chairs Re-painted and Repaired. 



S. E. Cor. East Kin^ & Duke Sts., Lancaster. 

Cabinet Work of every description and a full 

assortment of Chairs constantly on hand. 
\X^All Warranted as Mepresented. ,^^i\ 

JACOB EOTHAEMEL, 

PREJIIUM 

wwmRm 



DEALER. IN 

;©mBjS aid f amej ArtxoIeSj 

No. 9i North Queen Street, Lancaster, Pa. 

' SEED POTATOES. 



EAELY GOODRICH, 
HAERISON, 

MICHIGAN WHITE, 

and GAENET CHILI, 

Ey the Peek, Bushel or Barrel. Also, 

THE EARLY HOSE, 

which is destined to suptrsede all of the older varieties 
for quality, earliness and productiveness, will be sold 
in quantities to suit purchasers. All the above varie- 
ies v/arranted pure and genuine. Send for circular. 

Marietta, Pa. 

Ornamental and evergreen Trees, Flower- 
ing Shrubs, Roses, ttc, &c.,aud a complete assortment of 
everything in the Nui'sery line, at reasonable rates. For 
Catalogues, address with Stamps, EXGLE & BRO., 
Marietta, Pa. 



THE 



.nquirer 







laANCAST]BH3 PA.., 

OFFERS &REATER INDnCEMENTS 

Executed in the Best Style of Printing , 
than any other office in the State. 



L^IsriDIS &c CDCD., 




James Street, Lancaster, Pa., 

ARE PREPARED TO DO ALL KINDS OF 










9 

BUILD LARGE AND SMALL ENGINES, 

Un, FDim. 11E8S, 

MILL &EA.EII^a, 

And all kind af Machine Work done at a first class Shop. 

Placing recently removed to their new building, and provided themselves 
with a 



Adapted to the wants of their customers, they are prepared to execute all or- 
ders with neatness and dispatch, and on terms satisfactory to the customer. 
They would invite attention to their large foundry connected with their works, 
in which the best work is turned out. 

They also announce that they are now prejiared to supply their 



mmm 



'^l 



Bm 



TO ALL CUSTOMERS. 






This Machine requires Less Power, does More AVork, and is considerable 
Cheaper than any other Separator now in the market. This Machine is now 
improved, well built, and does the best and most efficient class of work. 

Repairing of all kinds promply done at reasonable rates. 

Give us a call, and we will endeavor to please our patrons. 

FRANK LANDIS, 
EZRA F. LANDIS, 
JACOB LANDIS. 



Diller ft Groff's Hardware Store, 

No. 8 East King Street, Lancaster City, Penna. 

DEALERS IN 

Foreign and Domestic Hard^vare, 

Such as Building Material, Paints, Yarnishes, Oils, Glass, Coach Trimmings, Stoves, 

Iron and Steel, &c., &c., &g. 

EEOUSB FURHXSEtlMO G O O O S . 
TIMOTHY AND CLOYER SEEDS OF THE BEST QUALITY. 




■Wt.h% 



.p?W 






^MOS MILEY'S 
i3:-A.E.isrE ss 




' ^ No. 37 Worth Queen St., 



-^^( '^^^^ 



NEXT DOOR TO SHOBER'S HOTEL, LANCASTER, PA. 






mm 

mm 



:E*T,MJh.j::^ Jk.i!^j:> nF'-^a^BJO"^ 






^« 









^1^ 



WAGON GEARS, WHIPS, BUFFALO ROBEB, 

BLAffiETS, TRUffiS, TALISES, CARPET BA&S, LABIES' & &EETS' SATCHELS, 

Of all kinds constantly kept on hand or made to order. Repairing neatly done. 

Also, Agent for BAKEE'S HOOF LINIMENT, the best article for Sore 
Hoofs in the country. 



'5 



i 



No. 44, Corner North Queen and Orange Streets, 
L^3SrOA.STER, PA.. 

N. B.-T-Any Book ordered can be sent by Mail to any address. 



TO BTJIXjI3EI?,S T 



PLASTIC SLATE!! 

The Greatest Eoofiiig Material of the Age ! 

IS NOW OFFERED TO THE PEOPLE OF 

LANCASTER AND FORK COUNTIES, PA., AND CECIL COUNT!, 

WITH A PROMISE OF THE FOLLOWING ADVANTAGES : 

It, is superior to other coverings for all kinds of buildings for these reasons : 

1. It is water, snow and air-proof from the beginning, and is as fire-proof as ordinary slate. (See testimo- 
nials New York Fire Insurance Companies.) 

2. It keeps buildings warmer in winter and does not make them hot insummer as ordinary slate does, and 
it can be, after the first year, whitewashed or painted any desired color so as to obviate all diiliculty arising 
from its dark color. 

3. Being entirely water and fire-proof, it is invaluable as a covering for the sides of buiKlings and lining 
cisterns of whatever material they may be built; stojjping water out of cellars and dampness out of walls of 
houses, and closing leaks between buildings. 

4. Adhering, as it does, with great firmness to tin and iron, it is useful for covering tin roofs and iron exposed 
to dampness or to the atmosphere, sucii as iron fences, cemetery-railings, &c. 

5. Buildings covered with TLASTIC SL.ITE da not need tin spouts at the eaves nor do the valleys need tin 
to make them water proof. 

0. It is lighter than shingles, and is equally adapted to flat or steep roofs. 

7. The testimony of Wm. MGilvray & do., published herewith, shows that it is not only fire-proof exter- 
nally, but, is also a great hindrance to the spread of fire within. 

8. It is much cheaper in first-cost than any good roofing now in use, and when all attendant expenses of the 
two roofs are estimated, costs only about half as much as the best slate, and it makes a better and closer roof. 

9. For the roofing of foundries and casting-houses of blast furnaces, where there are gases of a very high 
temperature, which injures and destroys other roofs, this material is improved and seems to produce a better 
roof, (see certificates of Messrs. Grubb, Musselman & Watts, S. M. Brua and Wm. M'Gilvray.) 

10. If in process of years cracks or leaks occur in Plastic Slate Hoofs, they are about as easily repaired, as 
they would be to white-wash, neetliug only a brush and the Mastic, but no expensive labor of mechanics. 

[1^=" The Pamphlet referred to in the furegoing notice can be had gratuitously, by calling at the Ollice of the 
Lancaster Inquikek or Examinkk & Herald. 

Persons wi.shing to examine PLASTIC SIjATE ROOFS, and thus verify for themselves the fcdlowing 
statements, are invited to call and inspect lioofs put on for the following persons, among many others : 
Lancaster— Thos. H. Burrowes, Stuart A. Wylie, (Kditor Liincaster luquiior,) J. B. SchwarlzweMer, Abraliam Bitner 




Mrs. Fanny Mast. Uppek Lkacock Twp.- Marks G. Menger, Cliri.stiau K. Landis, Jacob R. Musser. Lbacock Twp Isaac 

Bair, Levi Zook. West Eakl— Christian Beikr. Leaman Place— Henry Leaman, Israel Rolirer. BKUNNEUViLLE-^Aaron 

H. Brubaker. Spoutinc; Hill— Kmanuel Long. Lniz— H. H. Tshudy, David Bricker. Durlaoh P. O., Clay Twp Jonas 

Laber. Manhkim Boit.— Nathan Werl^y, Samuel Kiihl. Penn TVvp.— George Ruhl. Wk^t Lampeter— Aldus C. Herr^ 
Enterpulse p. O., East Lampeter— Mark P. Cooi)er. Strasbuku Bor Hervey Brackbill. 

Orders for Roofmg Should be sent to 

Joseph G-ibbons, 

LICENSE FOR LANCASTER AND YORK COUNTIES, PA., AND CECIL COUNTY, MD:, 

Enterprise P. 0., Lancaster County, Pa. 

Or A. W. & J. R. RUSSELL, Lancaster, Pa. 

Or MOSES LIGHT, Manheim, Lancaster county, Pa. 

Or JOHN R. BRICKER, Litfz, Lancaster county, Pa. 

ALDUS C. HERE, Lampeter, Lancaster county, Pa. 




SMALL FRUITS, SHRUBS AND PLANTS. 

The following Catalogues sent on application, with stamps, as follows : 

No. 1. Descriptive Catalogue of Fruit, Ornamental and Evergreen Trees, 
Vines, Plants, Shrubs, Roses, &c., (30 Pages), 3 red stamps. 
No. 2. Amateur's Price List, 1 red stamp. 
No. 3. VVholesale Price List for Nurserymen and Dealers only, 1 red stamp. 

Address, HMCIaK ^ BRO«^ 

Marietta Nurseries, IVIARIETTA, PA. 



CHOICE SEED POTATOES. 

Eai-ly Goodrich, Harrison and Michigan White Spro^t- 
Descriptive circulai- with testimonials and prices, sent 
on application. 

Address, ENGLE & BRO., 

2t . Marietta, Pa. 



r^^iiiBii, ^TTil^TC®^]. 



A large Assortment of Fresh Garden Seeds have just 
been received at Sprecher & Go's. Seed and Agricultural 
Implement Store, No. 28 East King Street. 

A fine lot of Seed Oats, Seed Bai ley. Clover, Tmiothy, 
and other Field and Garden Seeds, together with a well 
selected assortment of Farming Implements of all kinds, 
are now in The Farmer's Store, and for sale by 

SPRECHER 8c Co., 

No. 28 EAST KING STREET, 



3mos 



Lancaster, Pa. 



Raspberries.— Philadelpliia, Clarke, Mam- 
moth Cluster, Miami, and Doolittle Black Cap. (Send for 
Catalogues.) ENGLE & BRO., Marietta, Fa. 



PDEE BMHMA PODTRA EGGS, 

From select Fowls, can be supplied 
during the season, carefully packed and 
delivered to Express for 

$2.00 FEE mim m m mm. 

A few pair of this breed of fowls, 
for sale, if ordered soon. Address, 



3mos 



Marietta, Pa. 



Dr. N. B. BHISBINE, 

No. 93 EAST KIKG STREET, Above LIme. 

The Doctor pays specitd attention to all olil obstinate 
diseases, such as Consumption, Liver Complaint, Dys- 
pepsia, Rheumatism, all diseases of the Heart, Head, 
Throat, Lungs, Stomach, Bowels, Kidneys, .Nervous 
Debility, General Debility, &c. The doctor niake^ ex- 
aminations of the Urine. Consultation Free. 

Concord, Clinton, Delaware, Ives, Hart- 
ford rrolific, Martha, aiid many olher varieties of Grape 
Vines. Send Stamps for Catalojiue. Address, 

ENGLE & BRO., Marietta, Pa. 



SUCCESSOR TO 

WENTZ BROTHERS, 

SiaN OF THE BEE IIIVE, 

U 5 EAST KING STREET, LANCASTER, PENrA., 

DEALER IN 

FOREI&H m DOMESTIC DRY GOODS, 

€11. ASS AJyri) qVEENSUVIBK, 

Carpcts,*Oil Ciotlis, Wiiidow SSiades. 

SPECIAL ATTENTION PAID TO 









Shawls and Embroideries, Cloths and Cassimeres, 

Handkerchiefs, Gloves and Hosiery, 

Best Kid Gloves. 



^mh I 



The Choicest of the Market, and at the Lowest Possible 
Prices. 

REMEMBER THE PLACE TO BUY. 

THOS. J. WENTZ, 

Bee Hive Store, No. 5 E. King St. 



GEO. F. ROTE, 

UNDERTAKER, 

Corner South Queen and Vine Streets, 

LANCASTER, PA. 



Coffins of all sizes always on h3,nd, and fm-nished ft 
Shoitest Notice, 



THE 




Vol. I. 



LANCASTEE, PA,, APRIL, 1869. 



No. 4. 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY 

WYLIE & aRIEST, 

INQUIRER BUILDING, LANCASTER, PA., 
At ONE DOLLAR PER YEAR In Advance 

UNDER THE AUSPICES OP THE 

L.ANCASTER COUNTY AGKI€ITI.TIIRAX AND 
IIORTICIJL.TUBAIi SOCIETY. 



Publishing Committee. 
I)U. P. W. HiKSTAND, 

H. K. Stoneu, 
Jacob M. Frantz, 
Casper Hiller, 
IjKVI W. Gropp, 
Alexander Harris. 



Editorial Committee, 
J. B. Garber, 
H. M. Engle, 
Levi S. Reist, 
W. L. Difpenderper, 
J. H. Musser, 
S. S. Rathvon. 



BG?" All communications intended for the Farmer should be 
addressed to S. S. K.athvon and Alex. Harris, the resident 
members of the Editing and Publishing Committees. 

All advertisements, subscriptions and remittances, to Wylie 
& Griest, Printers. 



C^^ap* 



VEGETABLE PHYSIOLOGY. 



THE CELL IN THE PROCESS OF GENERATION. 



The subject of the sexes in vegetation is one 
which has for some time claimed the attention, 
not only of Natm-alists, hut also of Farmers and 
Ilorticulturalists in our own county. Its import 
in our series of articles must, therefore, be ac- 
knowledged, and reaching as it does, away into 
embryonic research, and coming properly within 
the province of cellular life, we deem its consider- 
ation in the present connection as right and pro- 
per. This, article therefore, will be confined to 
the remote or structural aspect of the subject, 
treating it in the cell alone. 

All organic structures endowed with vital ac- 
tivity, must possess the fimction of perp'etuation. 
In this. In an especial manner, do all living be- 
ings, whether animal or vegetable, dillcr from the 
inert bodies which surround tlicm. Whilst the 
mineral, when not changed by art or violence, re- 
mains for ages with no perceptible enlargement, 
or no power of reproduction, the common lot of 
all organized matter is death and decay. Each 
iu(livi(Kial object successively disappears fmiii the 
surface of the earth, and to provide for this drain 



upon the vital power of the universe, the function 
of reproduction is co-extensive with it, and must 
be alike potential in the animal, and the vege- 
table. 

We have already seen, that in those simple 
forms of organic life, where each cell seems to 
live for itself alone, and is capable of performing 
its function almost independently of the rest, there 
is this property, and the death of the jiarent be- 
comes necessary to the liberation of the germ, 
from which a new race springs up. 

But m the higher and more complex organism, 
there are cells set apart for various physiological 
j)urposes. These often perform their functions 
without, in any way, interfering with the general 
life of the structure. In the animal there are or- 
gans of reproduction, in the vegetable, the pro- 
cess is reached by certain cells containing the 
germ from which the race is continued. 

These cells are inherent in the formation of the 
plant, but during its growth, and its life, indeed, 
they are devoted to this special and determinate 
function. We do not mean to intimate, that the 
cells of those higher tribes ai'e capable of this 
operation, as those of the lower classes are, where 
they multiply almost to an unlimited extent, in 
the separate cells, where heat and moisture, and a 
proper aliment are supplied. There is a mutual 
dependence between the component cells, and 
although they are able to perform their functions 
of generation separately, and independently as it 
were from the action of the other cell tissue in the 
same organism, they cannot maintain a distinct 
life separated from one another. 

The true generative process, according to Car- 
penter, seems to consist, throughout the vegetable 
kingdom, in the reunion of the contents of two 
cells. These cells after having been separated 
during the process of development, clVcct this re- 
union, the result of which a germ is formed, wliich 
is usually very dillerent in its characters and pro- 
perties, from ciLlicr of the cells whose contents 
have contributed to form it. " This process, ( he 
says,) has been observed to take place in the vege- 
table kingdom, under there principle forms, which 
seem to l>e characteristic of the lowest crijdogamia, 
of the higher in'jjlogamia, and of the higher ]jha 



50 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



verogania^ respectively. The first of these pre- 
sents itself in those simple cellular plants, in 
which, whether the cells remain in connection or 
not, their endowments are all of the same na- 
ture. 

" At a certain time of the year, in each species, 
the cells approach one another in pairs, and their 
coloured contents nrc intermingled either by the 
rupture of both cells, or by the formation of a di- 
rect communication from the interior of one, to 
that of the other, in which case the union of the 
contents of the two may take place either in the 
connecting channel, or in one of the pairs of the 
cells. 

"Of this process, which is kiio\\'n as congugcition^ 
the result is the formation of a 1 ody known as a 
s2yorangiu7n, which may be considprcd as the first 
product of the true generative process ; and from 
this sporangium, which is a siugle cell, or a pair 
or cluster of cells, a new generation is developed 
by a subsequent process of fission and multiplica- 
tion. There is here no definite distinction of the 
sexes, the conjugating cells being apprrently 
nlike in their endowments •, such a distinction is 
shadowed forth, however, where the sporangium 
is developed within one of them. 

" The second form of the tiae generative pro- 
cess, is seen even in the higher Algre ; and, 
although the extent of its prevalence has not yet 
been clearly determined, it is probably common 
to the Liverworts, Mosses, and Ferns, it being 'n 
the last of these groups, that it has been most 
satisfactorily made out. In confoi mity with the 
separation or specialization of organs, which is 
characteristic of those plants, we find that the 
generative power is now limited to certain small 
parts of them, and that these produce two orders 
of cells, very distinct in their endowments, which 
may be called, respectively, sperm-cells and germ- 
cells. It is from the latter that the new plant 
originates ; but this it can only do, when the fer- 
talizing influence of the former has been conveyed 
to it ; and the provision for the purpose is very 
remarkable. The sperm cells, developed within 
their bodies, termed antlieridia, form in their in- 
terior, as their characteristic products, minute 
spirally-coiled filaments, usually furnished with 
cilia at one extremity, and bearing a very close 
resemblance to the spermatozoa of animals. — 
These when liberated from the cells within which 
they were formed, possess a very active power of 
movement, in virtue of which they make their 
way to the germ cells ; and when they have im- 
pinged against them, there is reason to believe 
they dissolve away, and that the product of their 
diflluencc is absorbed into the germ-cells and 
mingles with the contents of the latter, the for- 



mation of a germ, or seed, being the result of this 
ntermixt -e. Here, then, we have the distinc- 
tion of sexes well mnrked; but both sperm-cells 
and geim-^ells are usually developed in the same 
organism, and are alike the product of a single 
original germ." 

The process just described by this author, is 
peculiar alone to the criptogamic series, and 
whilst a somewhat similar process takes place in 
flowering plants, there is nevertheless this 
marked and very important difference. In those 
just noticed, being of a simpler form of organiza- 
tion, the fertilized germ is thrown at once upon 
the soil, and made to depend upon its own i^ower 
of absorption and assimilation, for the growth 
necessary to give it a character as a plant of its 
peculiar species. "Whilst in fho. phanerogamia^ or 
flowering plants, by virtue of their higher and 
more complex organization, there is dependency. 
The geini seems to be matured by a store of ali- 
ment laid up in the seed, which gives it life until 
its leaves have been evolved, and its root-fibres 
have pene 'ated the soil, when it becomes capa- 
ble of absorbing and assimilating nutriment for 
its own development. 

"In this latter class, there is the same distinc- 
tion between sperm-cells and germ-cells, but the 
mode in which the action of the former upon the 
latter is brought abeut, is very diff'erent. The 
sperm-cell, which is known as the pollen-grain, and 
is developed in the anthers of the flower, does not 
here evolve self-moving filaments, but, when it 
falls upon the apex of the style, puts forth long 
tubes which insinuate themselves down between 
its loosely-connected tissues, until they reach the 
ovary at its base. Here they meet with the 
ovules, which are in reality germ-cells imbedded 
in a mass of nutriment stored up by the parent ; 
and the pollen-tube, entering the micropyle or 
foramen of the ovule, penetrates into such close 
approximation to the germ-cells contained within 
it, that its contents find a ready passage by en- 
dosmosis, or absorbtion, into the latter." In this 
process we have the same phenomenon of the in- 
termixture of the contents of those cells, only in 
a manner characteristic of a higher order of or- 
ganization. " In process of time, its generative 
apparatus is evolved; and here, too, we find, that 
the two sets of sexual organs are usually de- 
veloped in the same organism, it being only a 
small proportion of phanerogamia that have the 
male or staminiferous flowers, and the female or 
pistilline, restricted to different individuals." 

The mot as an organ of vegetation, will be the 
subject of our next communication. 

S. W 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



51 



ECONOMY OP BIRDS--THE ROBIN. 



AGRICULTURALLY AND IIORTICULTURALLY 
CONSIDERED. ' 

As the subject of birds., in an economic point 
of view, has engaged the attention of Agricultur- 
ists and Horticulturists for some time past, and as 
a movement has recentl}' been made by some 
Agricultural Societies in this and other States, to- 
wards the importation of Insectivorous birds into 
the United States, a few remarks upon this inter- 
esting subject may be appropriate and useful at 
this time. Doubtless much of the prejudice ex- 
isting for and against birds is founded upon par- 
tial or superficial observations, — some people 
claiming too much for them, and others according 
too little credit to them. Not being situated s* 
as to illustrate from my own practical experience 
the benefits and injuries sustained by Agricultm-e 
and Horticulture through the feathered tribes, I 
will confine my remarks mainly to observations 
made by Mr. Edward A. Samuels, an ornitholo- 
gist of some reputation in Massachusetts, and pub- 
lished in the Agricultural Report for 18G9, at 
Washington city ; an advanced copy of which I 
was fortunate enough to secure lately. 

Without adverting specially — any more than 
merely naming them — to Swallows, Nighthawks, 
Whip-poor-Wills, Warblers, Wrens, King-birds, 
and many others that are purely insectivorous 
birds, feeding exclusively on insects, and remain- 
ing with us only so long as they can obtain in- 
sects ; and which leave our pn rts as soon as the 
stock of insects become exhausted, to seek more 
favorable localities farther South — I will pass on 
to the consideration of the Common Robin — the 
Turclus migratorius of natm'alists — about * the 
liabits of which there has been considerable con- 
troversy, and at this time, which has as many 
human enemies as friends. What I say about the 
Rubin will apply equally to all the members of 
the Turdine family, which includes also the var- 
ious species of Thrushes, Catbirds, Mockingbirds, 
and others ; all of which, excepting, perhaps, the 
last named, have been familiar to us from the 
eai-licst days of our boyhood, and the pity is, that 
we are not more familiar with them m w, since we 
have become men. 

Taking the Robin, then, as the standard of our 
illustrations, according to the experience of a 
l>ractical ornithologist — one who makes the study 
of the hal)its of the feathered tril)es his speciality 
—the result is as follows : Mr. Samuels remarks 
that, beginning with the month of January, and 
continuing through February, from an examina- 
tion of the stomachs of these birds, he found them 
to coTitajn two parts of barberries ; three of in- 



sects ; tlu'ee of seeds ; three of insect larvae, and 
two of cedar berries. Considering the seeds aud 
berries of little or no value to the Agriculturist, 
forming therefore a neutral element, and suppos- 
ing that some of the insects destroyed may have 
been of the beneficial kinds, the Robins during 
these fifty-nine days, of the two months named, 
may be regarded as having been beneficial five 
four-teeths of the time, or about twenty-one days, 
injurious about four and a half days, and neutral 
the remainder of the time. In the month of March 
a larger number of . birds were examined wilh 
more favorable results. In April he found these 
birds beneficial equal to fourteen days, injurious 
two and a half days, and mental the remainder of 
the month. In May the result was nearly the 
same as in April, with a slight increase on the 
beneficial side of the scale. 

But in J^me these birds are in a high degreo 
beneficial; for it is during this month that the 
young are reared, which require to be fed on ani- 
mal food entirely, from " early dawn to dewy 
eve," consisting principally of earth-worms and 
soft larvoi ; such, for instance, as grubs, cutworms, 
caterpillai's, «&c. It will also be remembered that 
although the Robin feeds largely on earth-woriv '^ 
during the months of A2»il and May, yet in June 
the heat of the sun has increased so much, that 
these worms sink too deep down into the earth 
for the bird to obtain them, and therefore, it is, 
from the very necessity of the case, compelled to 
rear its young family on various kinds of insect 
larvre; and the quantity required for that pur- 
pose, a^ I shall show presently, is not a small one, 
but, on the contrary, astonishingly large. 

Mr. Samuels speaks in an interesting manner 
of the singular instinct of the Robin, in being able 
to detect the presence of cutwonns and grubs, 
even where they ai'e an inch below the surface of 
the soil, and his dexterity in unearthing them, a 
feat in which he never fails. I have myself, on 
many occasions, noticed this bird, hopping through 
the young corn and cabbage patches, suddenly 
turning to a hill, that was at least a foot to th"^ 
right or left of him, and digging up with his beak 
a worm of some kind, aud bearing it off to bi ■ 
nest to feed his ravenous young. 

Although this fact may be patent to many oi 
us, yet, perhaps, we have not gone to the troubk; 
to note how often the Robin repeats this opera- 
tion in a given length of time — at least I havs.; 
not been so situitcd lately as to have done so. 
The observer fsllude;! to above records the result 
of this SCI /enging of two Robins that had built a 
nest, and reared wo families near his residence, 
during the months of June, July and August. 
This pair destroyed, by actual count, the onf 



52 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



twenty-seven and the other twenty-four grubs and 
cutworms in the lapse of a single hour ; and on 
another occasion, the one twenty-six and the 
other thirty in the same period of time. Within 
the last ten years I have myself made similar 
observations on a pair of Blue-birds and a pair of 
Wrens, with a similar result ; although I am not 
prepared to say, in my cases, that the worms they 
destroyed were cutworms^ but so far as I 
could discover, they were small caterpillars and 
earth worms, together with some winged insects. 
Mr. S. then proceeds to remark that the season 
being very dry and earth-worms hard to obtain, 
all the insects his birds destroyed were cutwomis 
and smooth caterpillars. Their family consisted, 
at the time his observations were made, of four 
half-grown young ones, who, during some por- 
tions of the day, consumed as high as forty of 
these worms in a single hour. This may seem 
incredible, but when it is remembered that cater- 
pillars, cutworms, and other insect larvae are com- 
posed largely, or almost entirely of juices, and 
their digestion easy, the matter will not seem so 
difficult ta comprehend. 

In this connection, I believe, I cannot do bet- 
ter than to record brielly the experiments, with 
two young robins, made by Prof. Treadwell, of 
Cambridge, Mass. When caught the bu-ds were 
quite young, the tail feathers being less than an 
inch in length, and the weight of each, about 
twenty-five penny weights, or an ounce and 
a quarter. Both birds were plump and vigorous, 
and no doubt had been well fed by the parent 
birds. lie commenced by feeding them eartli 
worms, giving each bird three the first night. 
The second day he gave them each ten worms. 
Thinking this amount beyond what the parents 
could haVe supplied, he limited them to this num- 
ber. On the third day he gave them only eight 
worms each, but in the afternoon he found that 
one of them was becoming feeble, and finally 
died. On opening it he found the croi), gigzard 
and intestines entirely empty, so that the bird 
had evidently died for want of food. Tlie other 
bird being still vigorous, he removed to a warmer 
place, thinking it might lessen its desire for food, 
giving it the third day fifteen worms, the fomlh 
twenty-four, the fifth twenty-five, and on the 
sixth and seventh, thirty arid thirty-one worms; 
but all these seemed insufficient, and the bird 
seemed to be loosing its plumpness and weight. 
On the fifteenth day he tried a small quantity of 
raw meat, and finding it readily appropriated, he 
increased the quantity. By the table kept, it ap- 
peared that although the food of the bird was in- 
creased to the value of forty worms, on the 
eleventh day, yet it rather fell off in weight. It 



was not until the fourteenth day, when he ate 
sixty-eight worms, that he began to increase in 
weight. On this day, his weight was twenty -four 
pennyweights, he therefore ate forty-one per 
cent more than his own weight in twelve hours. 
The length of these worms, if laid end to end 
would have been fourteen feet, or about ten times 
the length of the intestines. Kow the question 
naturally suggests itself, " how is this immense 
amount of food, required by the young, supplied ? 
And the answer is, " soley and entirely by the 
continued labor of the parent birds. At the fore- 
going rate, a family of four young robins require 
two hundred and fifty worms for their daily food, 
without including the additional number for the 
support of the parents. 

With these facts before us, it becomes apparent, 
that the robin feeds almost entirely upon insect 
food during the month of June, and that during 
that month at least, it is beneficial. This food 
consists mainly of larvae of difl^erent kinds; but few 
hardshelled insects ; and but few seeds or berries, 
except strawberries, being available ; therefore, 
we may safely conclude that it is beneficial 
twenty-four days, injurious three days, and neu- 
tral the balance of the month. In July this bird 
is perhaps the most injurious. It is now that 
cherries and other small fruit are ripe, aiid the 
young birds are out of their nests, subsisting 
largely upon these and insects, in the proportion 
of, cherries four, worms two, berries two. But it 
must also be remembered that in this month they 
commence rearing their second brood, when of 
course their injuries are over balanced by their 
benefits. We may, therefore, safely conclude 
that during July the robin is beneficial nine days, 
injurious eighteen days, and neutral four days. 
During August the robins feed upon small fruits, 
and principally upon insects, larvte, worms and 
spiders, showing that it is beneficial about twelve 
days, injurious about nine days, and neutral about 
ten days. In September and October, wild cher- 
ries and other wild fruits, and seeds, furnish a 
large share of its subsistance, but grasshoppers 
and other insects are eaten in large numbers. 
During these two months, therefore, it may be 
considered as being beneficial thirty days, injur- 
ious eighteen, and neutral thirteen days. Dur- 
ing November and December, at which period 
most of the birds have migrated to the Southern 
States, the robins remaining in the north subsist 
princiijally upon seeds of various shrubs, and such 
berries as they may have access to ; and as in- 
sects are few, this bird may be considered, in an 
economical point of view, during these two 
months, as entirely neutral. These dates and cal- 
culations are based on the latitude of jyfassachu- 



THE LANCASTER FARMER.. 



53 



setts; therefore, for the state of Pennsylvania we 
may i^lace them at about ten days earlier, and the 
general results will be the same. In sumiug up 
the year, therefore, we find that this bird is bene- 
ficial one hundred and forty-two days ; injurious 
sixty days ; and neutral one hundred and sixty- 
tlirce days. 

It is hardly fair, however, to put down all this 
amount of injury as real, for among fruit growers, 
I presume there are but few, who would not allow 
the robin a reasonable share of their fruit, as a 
compensation for the benefit they receive from 
his earnest laljors thi'oughout the year. And no 
doubt, if we were to ask those who have large 
cherry orchards, whether this bird did not destroy 
a great many of their cherries ? the answer would 
be yes ; but if he did not eat them, many of them 
would rot upon the trees at any rate. To show, 
however, that the robin does not prefer fruit to 
insects, Mr. Samuels relates an instance, where 
he was passing through a part of the country 
where there was a large cherry crop at the time. 
Of course he found these birds very busy among 
them ; but, for one robin he saw on the trees, he 
saw two upon a piece of newly plowed ground 
near it, as busy in feeding upon the insects, that 
had been turned up by the plough. To the ques- 
tion he put the owner, as to whether the robins 
were not very troublesome, he received the reply 
••Yes, but I began to break up this piece of 
ground, and it seemed to me that all the robins 
in the neighborhood immediately flocked into it." 
To the question whether he thought the robin 
preferred worms to cherries ? his reply was, " cer- 
tainly, and if he did not, I could not aflbrd to take 
my hands ofi' haying, planting and hoeing, for the 
sake of marketing a few cherries. I take what I 
want, and give my neighbors and the birds the 
rest, but I notice that half the crop will rot on the 
trees at any rate ?" To show the folly of destroy- 
ing useful birds, it may be remarked, that the 
young of all the smaller kinds are fed upon soft 
caterpillars, gi-ubs, and insects exclusively, while 
they are in the nest. Mr. Bradly says, that a pair 
of sparrows will destroy three thousand three 
hundred and sixty caterpillars for a week's family 
supply. For four weeks, at the lowest calculation, 
the young of our sparrows are fed upon this diet 
exclusively, and the family in that period of time 
would therefore eat thirteen thousand four hun- 
dred and forty insects, and not only this, but if 
the half of these insects were females, and each 
\yas eventually to deposit but one hundred eggs, 
from which that number of larva; in time were to 
breed, the gross nmnber would be one million four 
hundred and forty four thousand, which are thus 
prerented from coming into existeuce,byasingle 



family of sparrows. The robin, we have seen, 
performs a similar service. A pair of thrushes, 
which belong to the same natural family that the 
robin does, liave been seen to carry to their nest 
over one hundred insects, principally caterpillars, 
in a single hour. If we suppose that this family 
is fed but six hours in a day, the number of in- 
sects destroyed would be six hundred daily, while 
in the nest; which being, say three weeks, the 
amount would be at least twelve thousand, and 
before they would leave in the fall, at only fifty 
insects for the daily allowance of each bird, they 
would kill in the aggregate at least twenty thou- 
sand more ; which, according to the foregoing 
calculation upon the reproduction of insects, 
would prevent three million two hundred thou- 
sand from coming into being, and that, too, by a 
single brood of thrushes. To show that these cal- 
culations upon the reproductive powers of insects 
are based upon a very low estimate, I need only 
say, that I have myself often counted from three 
to five hundred eggs, deposited by a single female ' 
and some of them are known to deposit a thou- 
sand and more. jSTow here is just where the real 
and the merely apparent truth comes in, in the 
economy of nature. Superficially considered, 
many things are regarded as positive, and even 
great evils, whereas, they are, from a more 
thorough consideration of the subject, only nega- 
tive evils, evils permitted that greater ones may 
be prevented. This is eminently so in regard to 
some seemingly injurious birds, of which the 
robin is said to be one, and in dealing with him, 
I think if we should " nothing extenuate,'''' we also 
ought to " nothing set down in malice.'''' When 
we, therefore, see a robin with a cherry in his 
mouth, we should not think so much of the loss 
of the cherry, as of the possible destruction of 
twenty-five or thirty embiyotic curculios that may 
be within it ; and when we see him with a cut- 
worm or caterpillar between his beaks, we should 
not limit his services so much to a single speci- 
men of these insect enemies, as to the one, two, 
or three hundred of these pests, which are there- 
by prevented from coming into visible and tangi- 
ble being. S. S. 11. 



HOW TO IMPROVE EXHAUSTED 
LAND. 
We often hear how this or that poor farm, in 
the vicinity of a large town or city, has been im- 
proved ; generally by some retired merchant or 
professional man, who is able to use his surplus 
fiUKjg to purchase guano, bone-dust, phosphate of 



THE LANCASTEK FARMEE. 



lime, or offal and sewerage from such city, to be 
used as fertilizers of said farms. The benefit of 
g ich knowledge is, however, mainly advantageous 
to those who are in similar circumstances. We 
think a more commendable service would be to 
ascertain the cheapest and best manner to im- 
prove a poor farm, owned by a man of small 
means; for instance, one who has purchased one 
hundred acres, at from fifty to sixty dollars an 
acre, and is only able to pay S2500 on it, to secure 
the purchase. Now, he owes the half or more of 
tlie original amount, and has to imj)rove his land 
and pay his debt. If he succeeds, at the end of 
ten years, to free his farm from debt, and in the 
meantime to support and educate his family, he 
certainly is entitled to more credit than the re- 
tired merchant or rich professional man. We 
have seen the very poorest land, overgrown with 
Aveeds and brambles, improved and made to yield 
generously, by a thin coat of lime alone, as a top 
dressing, and then i^lowed under, and well sowed 
with red-clover. If the clover is left on the fields, 
and plowed down again, it will produce either a 
good crop of wheat or corn. We have immense 
tracts of exhausted lands in our country, reclaim- 
able by those who have pockets full of money, 
but what we want, is to know how poor men mav 
avail themselves of the advantages of cheap and 
productive farms. ' L. S. R. 

CROSSING OH HYBRIDIZHSTG WHEAT. 

Messrs Editors : We hear many complaints 
from all sections of our widely extended country, 
of the deterioration and partial failure of the wheat 
crop. Many and various are the theories of those 
who pretend to explain the cause ; some claiming 
that our soils are worn out, or rather, that the 
food of the wheat plant has been extracted from 
the soil, and that this must be returned. But how ? 

A writer in the February number of the Far- 
mer tell us, " that crop after crop is taken off, 
until the ingredients, or substances composing 
wheat, such as hydrogen, oxygen, potash, silica, 
&c., are entirely exhausted, and nothing is done 
to replenish them." But how to restore these in- 
gredients, he forgot to tell us. Then after giving 
his mode of culture, says, " no winter wheat can 
be raised, let the soil be" ever so fertile, except 
the season turns out extraordinarily favorable, 
unless the fields are covered with snow to protect 
it, early in the fall until late in the spring." Had 
he only told us how to cover our wheat fields with 
snow, " from early fall till late in spring," there 
might still be some hopes of raising crops of forty 
bushels to the acre ! Would not a mulch of straw 
be a partial protection, in case old Boreas should 
fail to give us the needed blanket? Again, 



farmers are frequently charged with carelessness 
in selecting their seed, or continuing the same 
variety on the farm for many years, neglecting to 
change. With many other surmises, reflections, 
and suggestions, &c. 

That wheat does not produce as well as for- 
merly, we all know to our cost, but we have as 
yet seen no proof of the efliciency of any one of 
the plans recommended. We do not pretend at 
this time to review the many theories on the sub- 
ject, but commenced with the intention of giving 
the readers of the Farmer, what we conceive to 
be an experiment in improving our wheat crops, 
in a new direction. Though we have no permis- 
sion from the experimenter to publish his letter, 
yet we tliink he will not blame us for thus making 
use of a private letter, on a subject of such great 
importance to the whole countiy. These experi- 
ments have been conducted by Mr. Charles Ar- 
nold, of Canada, who has met with such splendid 
results in hybridizing, or crossing the grape and 
raspberry, as is already knowH to Horticulturists. 
Mr. Arnold writes : 

" I forgot whether I ever mentioned to)'^ou,that 
three years ago, I tried crossing or hybridizing 
wheat, having often heard our farmers say, 'some 
of our best varieties of wheat have run out, and 
no longer produce good crops.' The idea struck 
me that with plants as well as animals, close in- 
terbreeding caused them to degenerate ; and hav- 
ing proved by some of my grapes and raspberries 
that a cross with another variety, caused vigour 
and productiveness in the ofispring, I thought to 
try it with wheat. The result thus far has been 
very promising. One single grain in one season 
produced ( 48U0 ) four thousand eight hundred 
grains, on upwards of one hmidred stalks. The 
parents are white souls and red midge proof. Out 
of one hundred varieties, I have selected fifteen 
that appear very promising. I have now about 
an acre of these fifteen varieties sown, but after 
next harvest the experiment will be quite unman- 
ageable by me, and I fear the farmers in this sec- 
tion will not take hold of it, not having sufficient 
enterprise. 

"Some good judges who have seen my experi- 
ment, say it is worth a million of dollars to the 
country. Some of these varieties last year yielded 
at the rate of from sixty to eighty bushels to the 
acre, while old varieties in rows within six inches 
of them, did not yield at the rate of more than 
twenty bushels to the acre, under exactly the same 
cultivation in every respect. Of course the dif- 
ferent varieties will have to be tested upon dif- 
ferent soils, modes of cultivation, &c., t© prove 
their adaptability, qualities, productiveness, &c. 

" But however good it may prove, I fear I shall 
not be able to secure more than the honour of 
producing it, and you know that honour alone is 
a poor, transient thing to live upon. 

" I am no advocate for patent rights in these 
matters, but I think that a person thus experi- 
menting, if they succeed in producing a valuable 
thing for the country, should be well rewarded for 
their labor." J. B. G. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



55 



DOES FARMING PAY IN LANCASTER 
COUNTY? 

This question is often asked, since Col. J. W. 
Forney made tlie contrast between some of the 
old Southern States, and the county of Lancaster. 
Land is now selling in this county from S200 to 
$225, and in some mstances even above that price, 
an acre ; whilst in Virginia, and the Carolinas, it 
can be bought at from $2.50 to S20 per acre. One 
man in this county, raised 13000 pounds of to- 
bacco on six acres, in one season, while another 
raised 5.000 bushels of corn on sixty-eight acres. 
Still another farmer raised sixty head of hogs on 
his farm of one hundred and twenty acres, and 
these are now ready for the market, or were 
ready, more than six weeks ago. Another one 
has raised ten head of steers, for which he is 
offered $100 a head. Another man has raised 
twelve head of cows for which he can get from 
$75 to $100 a head. I know a farmer, who lately 
sold two home-raised Conestoga horses for S700> 
one bringing $450 and the other $250. These 
may be exceptional cases, but as they only ex- 
hibit the productive jiowers of a single district, it 
is safe to infer that every district in the county 
may be able to furnish a corresponding exhibit, 
proportioned to its population, and the quality of 
its soil. Under any circumstances; it must be 
evident, that even at the present high prices of 
land, farming in Lancaster county will pay. 
These results are more the effect of good manage- 
ment, than good luck. The man whose motto is 
"come boys," is more likely to succeed, than he 
who says, "go boys." All the men above enum- 
erated, conduct their farming operations on the 
"come boys" principle, so far as I know. 

L. S. R. 



^o^llciilliit^aL 



HOW TO PREPARE LAND FOR AN OR- 
CHARD. 

The almost constant failure of the apple crop 
for some years past, may discoui'age many per- 
sons from setting out new orchards, and it is per- 
haps owing to this cause, that thriving young or- 
chards are such rare things, and most of the old 
ones hare been used for fuel. One thing is cer- 
tain ; where there are no apple trees, there we 
can expect no apples. Who knows how soon 
there may bn a return of the fruitful " old apple 
years" ngaiu ? Believing with ray friend Musscr, 
that such an atmospheric or climatic change may 
take place, as to produce an al)undance of fruit 
again, perhaps at no very remote day, therefore, 
let us not despair, but continue to plant fruit trees 



just the same as if there were, or had not been, 
such things as failures. 

Many young orchards have been planted with- 
in the last twelve or fifteen years, and then have 
gone to destruction or decay through the negli- 
gence of the owner ; or through injuries intlicted 
by mice, rabbits, insects, and sometimes by cattle. 
Or perhaps these orchards may have been planted 
on the poorest kind of soil, unfavorably located, 
and without cultivation and care. An apple or- 
chard wants a good rich soil, as well as anything 
else, with the ground well prepared- A northern 
slope is preferable ; but any good ground will do 
well, if it is well prepared. The subject of sub- 
soiling has lately been much discussed by agricul- 
turists and horticulturists ; but it seems to be 
pretty well established, that subsoiling before the 
orchard is planted, is more beneficial to fi-uit trees, 
than it is to vegetable and cereal crops. There- 
fore, the ground for a young orchard should be 
thoroughly subsoiled before it is planted in trees. 
Use an improved subsoil plow for that purpose. 
A subsoil plow, however, can be made out of any 
ordinary plow, by attaching a V shaped shovel to 
the back end of the plow, in the furrow, fastened 
to the beam. It can be run down into the soil, in 
the furrow, to any desired depth, from four to 
eight inches, loosening the ground and leaving it 
lay in the furrow. By this plan much labor will 
be saved. All the holes in which to plant the 
trees can be dug with a spade or shovel. Plant 
the Baldwin pippin, and a goodly number of the 
pound apple, not because the last is the best ap- 
ple, but because it is a good and safe variety. 
Plant also freely the York, Imperial, Smith's 
Cider, Pittsburg pippin, Russet, Maiden's Blush, 
Water Mellon, and Krauser. Many others might 
be recommended, but I do not believe much in 
recommending too many varieties for the same 
locality, because some particular kinds may do 
well in one locality and fail in another. AVhy it 
is that some apples do better in different soils, is 
a thing not fully known to us. After a young or- 
chard is planted, it ought to be well taken care oJ, 
and well cultivated for six or seven years in suc- 
cession ; and also well manured. This will insure 
a thrifty young orchard, and a fair prospect for 
fruit. • . L. S. R. 

FLOWERS. 

Many flowering plants are cultivated more 
surely, and multiplied more rapidly, by cuttings, 
than by seeds. One of this kind is the Scarlet sage^ 
also called " early sagci" Some years ago we 
saw a magnificent "bush" of this sage, in full 
bloom, at the Pennsylvania State Fair, held at 
Norris'o.vn, ancl nothing could exceed the rich» 



56 



THE LANCASTER FAEMER. 



ness of the deep scarlet of its many flowers, in 
contrast with the rich green of its foliage. It 
took the lead of all the flowering plants in the 
exhibition. It is easily propagated fromcnttings, 
and also from seeds, if they are sown early 
enough, and the proper attention given them in 
reference to heat and moisture ; indeed without 
these latter conditions, the seeds will remain a 
long time in the soil without germinating at all. 
There is sometimes a tendency in this plant to 
stretch itself in long branches , which are apt to 
break off from the main stem by their own weight. 
We have seen them compacted and strengthened, 
and also the number of their flowering laterals 
increased a hundred fold, by shortening in their 
branches, before they were in bloom, making the 
plant almost litei'a.ly a " burning bush. " 

L. S. R. 



CttlutttoIogkaL 



SOLDIER-BEETLES. 

Of equal importance, but far more abundant 
and common than the Tiger 6eeiZes,arethe insects 
which constitute the family, which in common 
language are called " soldier-beetles," but scien- 
tifically, Lampryidce. This family is composed 
of the genera Phengodes, Follaclasis, Lucermda, 
EUychnia, Photinus, Pyradomena,' Phansis, Pho- 
turisj Lampyris, Luciola, Chauliognathus, Pole- 
mhis, Sillis, Telephorus, Podabrus,Malthinus, Try- 
phe7-tis, Tytthonyx , and Rhagonycha, but perhaps 
not more than the one-half of these genera are 
common, or well known to the county of Lancas- 
ter. Perhaps the best known and most common 
species, are those which have received the vulgar 
names ^ of "fire-bugs," "fire-fllies," "lightning- 
bugs," &c., and which in countless millions illu- 
minate the meadows, lawns, woods, gardens, 
fields, hills, and roadsides, from the middle of 
May, until the end of June, or middle of July. 

Only a few species, however, are luminous, and 
although they appear periodically in vast numbers 
in early summer, yet not many of them remain 
all the season tlu-ough, except perhaps cliaidiog- 
nathus and a few others, which visit the various 
pecics of " Goldenrod," {Slidago,) when it is in 
bloom, towards the summer's close. We have 
noticed these chauliognathan visitors of the Gol- 
denrod from an early period of our boyhood, but 
somehow then wfe always, in some manner, con- 
iounded them with the Iire-l)ugs of early summer. 
Some of these insects appear to Ijc, at least at one 
period of their perfect .state, mellilicous or pollcn- 
aceoaus in their iiabits, but in the larvre state they 
^re generally considered to be carnivorous. In- 



deed many of them are positively known to be so, 
both in their larva; and their mature states.— 
Small snails, slugs, grul^s, earthworms, aphids, 
worms eggs, and other similar insect garbage, are 
devoured by these soldier-beetles in countless 
millions every season, and as they undergo thyT 
transformations in the earth, we cannot telV ex- 
actly how much of the year is passed in this sciav- 
enging process. 

Doctors Walch and Hull, of Illinois, if I am 
not much mistaken, have detected some species 
belonging to the genus Telephorus destroying the 
grubs of the Curculio^ af.er they had reached the 
ground. 

Of course these genera of soldier-beetles are, 
by more modern classification, grouped together 
in different families, but as we can, on this occa- 
sion, only allude to them in a general manner, 
we have left them as they were grouped by the 
older entomologists, deferring a special notice of 
them, individually, to future occasions. Most of 
these insects are oblong in form, and of a blackish 
or yellowish color, but the elytrons and the ex- 
ternal integument of all of them, is of a soft or 
leathery consistence. In EUychnia^ Photimis, 
Plioturis and others, the head, in repose, is drawn 
nearly or quite beneath the thorax, which forms 
a sort of shield, but in most of the others, the 
head protudes, and the thorax forms a kind of 
neck. I have seen TelepJwms and Podabrus under 
circumstances which led me to infer that they 
were certainly in the act of destroying Aphids. — 
If the cultivator of the soil is capable of bringing 
in imagination, before him, this vast army of in- 
sect friends, and considers that they occur as 
abundantly throughout our country's vast domain, 
as they do immediately around his own domicil, 
he may form some idea of their useful and benefi- 
cent mission; and the multitude of evils and an- 
noyances which they prevent. We have before 
us, at this writing, a printed paragraph to the ef- 
fect that " last year the damages done to the 
crops in France, by insects, exceeded $105,000,- 
000," an amount that would make an " indepen- 
dent fortune" for a thousand of our readers. And 
yet these constitute the " little things " in the 
economy of nature, which many people affect to 
contemn or disregard. It is not our desire or in- 
tention to give an undue prominence to this sub- 
ject, but it may aflbrd a wholesome lesson to 
proud humanity to know, that under God's per- 
mission the elements of man's distress or destruc- 
tion may be coucoiitrated to that end before he 
is rightly aware of their presence. It is a conso- 
lation, however, Ui know that the facts of insect, 
life present many redeeming points, and that not 
the least among them are tlie economies and luilnts 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



57 



of the soldier-beetles, and that of these, a vast 
deal more should be known, than now seems to 
be known by the masses of our country's popula- 
tion. 

We do not deem it necessary to give a list of 
the species of these soldier-beetles, which inhabit 
our county, for their name is almost a legion, as 
we should perhaps have done, if they were fewer 
in number ; nevertheless, it is of importance that 
they should be individually known, in order to 
avoid unnecessary disquietude or alarm. To know 
that particular species of friendly insects are co- 
operating with us in the destruction of those that 
are known to be unfriendly, is an item of know- 
ledge that is by no means to be disregarded. It 
is true, that they may destroy many species, from 
which, under ordinary circumstances, no great 
danger to the productions of human labor might 
be apprehended, but then a great redundancy of 
comparativily harmless insects, even the common 
house-fly, is, to, say the least of it, sometimes a 
great annoyance. 

The soldier-beetles, by whatever means they 
may have received that title, are rather modest ia 
their demeanor, and do not generally visit our 
houses or annoy their inmates, no matter how 
nunierous they may be. Indeed the most 6f 
them remain quiet during the day, and only sally 
forth when twilight is approaching, and the 
luminous kinds then appear to have for their 
object, the beautifying of the " dark shades of 
night." They may have a special object in this, 
that is germain to themselves, but their appear- 
ance then, engenders pleasing thoughts and asso- 
ciations which we love to indulge in. Those that 
sip the nectar of flowers, or feast upon their pol- 
lenaceous treasures, of course go abroad during 
the day, and' bask in the rays of the smnmer sun. 
They have their love seasons too, and it is at 
these banqueting places where the sexes meet, 
and live their short life of love. At this incle- 
ment season of the year they are all underground 
in the ^fomi perchance of quiescent puiyae^ or 
gormandizing and unsightly grubs, but in due 
time will again appear. S. S. R. 



SJoljtim* 



WEEDS.— ST. JOHN'S WORT. 



BAS JOHANNES KllAUT. — GERMAN. 

« 

Tlic generic; name, of lliis plant is Ifyiicricum, 
(an ancio.iiL name, of ob.scnre origin.) 

Dr. (jray reeogni/es !r» s[)eeies as iulroducod 
north of Virginia and naUnalized. Louden In 
in his Kucyclopedia of herbr^, describes 01) species 



out of the 133 known to Botanists. Sotlie have 
quite showy flowers, and are cultivated as orna- 
mental herbs or shrubs. 

The species heading this article is common, and 
has some interest in an Agricultural point of view. 
This foreigner is deemed by Dr. Darlington as a 
worthless and rather troublesome weed on our 
farms, and says it ought to be diligently excluded. 
It is remarkable how time changes public o^iinion. 
I can well remember having heard it said, as no 
doubt most of my readers do, that 48 to 50 years 
ago, it was the prevailing opinion tliat cattle, 
especially loJiite cows, and horses with white feet 
and noses, were affected with cutaneous ulcers 
during the pasture season, and those sores were 
universally and confidently attributed to the St. 
John's wort, and was not doubted by men of 
superior intelligence. 

Although this plant it still common and in some 
fields quite abundant, how does it happen tlmt 
we do not hear the same charges now? Are 
there no white cows or horses with white feet 
and noses? Or has the plant lost its noxious 
quality? Or did the evil complained of arise 
from some other cause ? I shall not pretend to 
answer these questions, but state them as a curi- 
ous fact. Here I may be permitted to refer to 
another curious fact as regards this plant. 

It is recorded by observant persons, that in 
1842 this plant throughout Pennsylvania, failed 
to make its appearance in fields where it had 
been previously abundant. The succeeding year 
it was quite rare, but in the course of a few years 
it became as abundant as ever, more especially 
in neglected fields. 

There must evidently have been some wide 
spread cause to produce this result. Local causes, 
whether electric or atmospheric, no doubt often 
arise that produce either injurious or beneficial 
results on various kinds of plants as the grape, 
peach, apple, &c., and the subject is worthy of 
attention to note the corresponding condition, 
i^ot of soils only, but the prevailing states of the 
weather, in which is embraced the electric and 
atmospheric peculiarities of the season. Con- 
siderable light has already been thrown upon the 
subject, but more rigid oljservations are demand- 
ed before the true solution of the proljlem can be. 
attained. « 

But to return to the subject. If the scientific 
name " Hypericum" is obscure, I may be allowed 
to o;ivo ll>e re.Tson v/hy it is called St. Jolm's 
woi I. 

Tlu! eouunon people f)f France and CJermany 
heUl and do hold the herb in high repute, and 
gal her it with great ceremony on St. John's day, 
and hang it in their windows as a chann against 



5§ 



THE LANCASTEE PARMER. 



storms, thunder and evil spii-its. This supersti- 
tious notion is traced to the fact that it was ap- 
plied to wounds and hemorrhages as a balsamic 
by eminent physicians, and a certain quack used 
it in maniacal and hypochondriacal disorders, 
inider the name of Fuga Daemonium. 

This name " drive away the devils or evil 
spirits," in reference to the maniacal or Hypo- 
chondriacal subjects supposed to be possessed by 
evil spirits, or otherwise, is no doubt the source 
or the notion referred to. But as all plants have 
their uses, allow me to give you a few facts re- 
sx^ecting the St. John's wort, not generally known. 
Tlie juice expressed from the tops and flowers is 
perfectly soluble in water, alcohol and vinegar, 
A solution in the two former affords a blood-red 
color, in the latter a fine crimson. When com- 
bined with other acids, it exhibits a yellow color, 
which proves that it contains two coloring mat- 
ters, capable of separate solution in different 
menstrua. If alum, combined with a certain por- 
tion of patash, be used as a mordant, a bright 
yellow hue is obtained; by increasing the quantity 
of the mordant the color somewhat inclines to 
green, and by the addition of a solution of tin in 
nitvo-muriatic acid, according to the proportion 
used, rose, cherry or crimson hues, all of a fine 
lustre, will be produced. This juice can be made 
to assume a concrete form by being exposed in 
shallow dishes to the moderate heat of an oven. 
If then it be reduced to powder , it will readily com- 
bine by trituration with turpentine. The resin, 
thus saturated with the juice, can be mixed with 
olive oil, and forms the oil of St. John's wort- 
used in Pharmacy — for which I had frequent calls 
when engaged in the drug business. I may add, 
when incorporated with linseed' oil, and with the 
addition of a small portion of oil of turpentine, a 
fine red varnish is produced, which may be ad- 
vantageously employed for coating articles of fur- 
niture made of wood. 

J. Stauffer. 



The " Pennsylvania Fruit Grower's Society," 
at its annual meeting, held in the city of Harris- 
burg in February last, resolved to hold its next 
annual meeting in the city of Lancaster, in Feb- 
ruary, 1870. This action was had, if not at the 
request, at least in defterence to the members of 
the Lancaster County Agricultural and Horticul- 
tural Society, who were in attendence at that 
meeting. We therefore hope that the members 
of our society will show their appreciation of the 
action of the State Society, and in the meantime 



use all necessary efforts in making the meeting a 
success. The Society intends to make its next 
meeting " the largest gathering of the kind they 
have ever held," and we mistake the mettle out 
of which our Society has been composed, if its 
members do not give a good account of themselves 
on that occasion. They have nearly a whole 
year before them, and unless something unforseen 
should transpire, that might damage, or entirely 
destroy the coming fruit crop, being thus fore- 
warned, they may be sufficiently forearmed to add 
greatly to the numerical strength of the meeting 
and the display of fruit. But that is not all, nor 
the main object of the Society at its meetings, l^t 
desires to bring out all the information it possibly 
can on the subject of fruit growing, and for that 
purpose it is making an effort " to induce all our 
best pomologists to meet with its members at that 
time," and for the benefit of those who may be 
present. Much as the fruit growers of Lancaster 
county, and indeed the entire state of Pennsyl- 
vania, have been disappointed and discouraged 
through the failures of the fruit crop here, we be- 
lieve they should still persevere in their praise- 
worthy labors, for it is but reasonable to infer 
t^at they must ultimately succeed. The causes 
of failure surely cannot always combine to defeat 
their purposes. 

The experiences of different growers, from dif- 
ferent localities, and conducted under different 
circumstances, may yet result in developing some- 
thing useful to the great end which the Society 
has in view. We admonish the members of our 
local Society, the readers of our journal, and all 
others interested in the subject of fruit culture, 
to bear this meeting in remembrance, and give 
their hearty endorsement and personal attend- 
ance ; for no matter if they have but a single 
apple or pear to exhibit, or a single fact to com- 
municate, they will be adding materially to the 
common stock of pomological knowledge. This 
is what is most needed ; knowledge, positive 
knowledge of the causes of the decay and failure 
of the fruit crop. Such knowledge may be valu- 
able, even when there are no available means to 
circumvent or avoid a failure. It is a maxium 
among naturalists, that when we know positively 
what a thing is not., we have made one important 
step towards a solution of what it is. The late 
failures in the fruit crop cannot be accounted for 
upon the supposition that it is caused by a redun- 
dancy of insects, and the absence of insectivorous 
lairds alone ; for in the last few yeaz's there has 
been little fruit for these to protect or destroy. — 
There are also climatic and physiological causes ; 
causes doubtless also growing out of the modes of 
culture, ajid the nature of the soil. Whatever 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



59 



knowledge is promulgated on these subjects, belt 
ever so little, will be of interest to the com- 
munity. 

This is, however, only the negative side of the 
objects of the Fruit Grower's Society, and we pre- 
sume of all other kindred associations. The posi- 
tive side is to receive and impart, on an experi- 
mental basis, the best mode and manner of im- 
proving fruit, fruit trees, and fruit bearing plants 
in general, supposing that no adverse contingen- 
cies existed. The season is fast approaching 
when everybody will be regarding with interest 
and anxiety the prospects of the coming fruit 
crop, and the eyes of the people will also be on 
the active associations, organized for the encour- 
agement and development of all useful knowledge 
relating to that important subject. Therefore, 
the meetings of our local Society in the mean- 
time, and the meeting of the Fruit Grower's So- 
ciety of Pennsylvania, to be held here next year 
may work beneficially for the interest of the 
county, and we therefore hope our Society and 
the people at large will accord to them a cordial 
greeting in February, 1870. 



MEETING OP THE AGRICULTURAL 
AND HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

The Society met in the Orphans' Court Room 
March 1st, and was called to order by Henry M. 
Engle, Chairman. Mr. Engle , on taking the Chair, 
wished to return thanks to the Society for the 
honor it had* done him in electing him as its pre- 
siding officer. He desired to see the Society con- 
ducted in accordance with parliamentary usage, 
and he should expect of the members entire har- 
mony and accord in his eftbrts to maintain due 
order and decorum in the mcnthly meetings of 
the association. He was one of the first who had 
moved in the efibrt to, inaugurate the Horticultu- 
ral Society, and he was glad to see the progress 
which had already been made since its organiza. 
tion. That he had not been entirely unambitious 
of the honor which had been conferred upon him 
in being elected the presiding officer of this So- 
ciety he would not conceal; but this ambition 
alone consisted in his conceiving that thereby he 
might the better be enabled to render more es- 
sential service to the community in which he 
lived. Would the result thus desired and antici- 
pated be attained, he would then have entirely 
gratified any ambition he might have entertained 
for the honor which the Society had seen proper 
to bestow upon him in choosing him for its Chair- 
man during the ensuing year. 

The Secretary, A. Harris, by direction of the 
Chair, read the minutes of the last meeting, which 
Tyej-e approved by acquiesence. 



The following new members were placed in 
nomination and duly elected, viz : J. H. Brackbill, 
of Strasburg; S. J. GrofT, Paradise, and A. J. 
Frueauft', city. The new members were present 
and signed the Constitution. 

S. S. Rathvon drew the attention of the Presi- 
dent to his duty of appointing the standing com- 
mittees under the rules of the Society. 

On motion it was directed that the Chair an- 
nounce the standing committees at the next meet- 
ing of the Society. 

S. S. Rathvon next proceeded to read an essay 
upon the economy of birds. 

Levi S. Reist next read an essay upon the wa- 
ter streams of Lancaster county and his observa- 
tions upon winds. 

Mr. Reist, upon the conclusion of his essay, 
took up the subject of Mr. Rathvon's essay, and 
spoke of the great necessity of a law for the pro- 
tection of birds in Lancaster county. 

Mr. Rathvon remarked the great necessity for 
the protection of birds and the utility that they 
are to crops. He feels assured that so soon a« 
the people come to understand the advantages 
that birds are to fruit, the matter will regulate it- 
self. 

H. K. Stoner believed we had sufficient laws to 
protect the birds, but remarked the farmers had 
a timidity in preventing fowling upon their 
grounds for fear of incurring the hatred and re- 
venge of these prowlers. He thinks the Society 
should take the matter in hand and have all those 
killing birds made liable to the law. 

H. M. Engle coincided with the views advanced 
by Mr. Rathvon in his essay and his subsequent 
remarks, and he urged that the community should 
take the matter in hand and not allow the birds to 
be killed lawlessly. 

Mr. Groff said that he considered fthe planting 
of evergreen trees near residences, besides being 
an ornament, of great advantage in attracting in- 
sectivorous birds. 

H. M. Engle spoke of the utility of placing 
small boxes in cheiTy trees which will attract the 
wrens, and thus will fight off other fruit-destroy- 
ing birds. 

S. S. Rathvon concurred in the correctness of 
this remark, and said he had been convinced of 
this from his own observation. If wrens could 
be attracted in some way to grape-tines he thinks 
they would drive off the cat-birds. 

Dr. Hiestand desired to be informed of what 
utility the wrens were, and upon what they feed. 
He thinks they chiefly feed upon spiders. 

P. S. Reist spoke of the advantages extended 
in the Western States by railroad companies to 
Agricultural Societies. They meet with the great- 



60 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



est possible encouragement, and are oftcrecT free 
tickets to attend exhibitions and displays of fruit. 
In regard to the protection of birds he was satis- 
fied that the depredators intimidated the farmers, 
and thus they are afraid to hinder their shooting 
of the birds. Farmers fear that their buildings 
might be burned if they would incur the ill-will of 
the prowlers. Not only do they shoot the birds, 
but they also carry off water-melons, peaches, 
grapes and such like. 

Dr. Iliestand believes fear of farmers to prose- 
cute is the principal reason why fruit is stolen. 
If farmers would show a determination to enforce 
the law, he believes the thieving would soon 
cease. 

H. K. Stoner remarked that it is very easy to 
talk as Dr. Hiestand does, but he felt that farmers 
run great risk in putting the law in force against 
these lawless depredators. He believes the mat- 
ter should be taken up by the Society, by the 
County Commissioners or by some organized body, 
so as to have the law put in force against them. 

S. S. Rathvon thinks there should be a rigid 
execution of the law ; but he believes there is 
great excuse for the farmers. They fear no less 
than incendiarism. Look at the list of crimes 
upon our public records, and the fact is clear that 
the crmie of arson is the most difficult of detection 
of all. He feels that the officers of the law should 
look the matter up and see that offenders be 
brought to justice. 

H. M. Engle agrees with most that has been 
said upon this subject, and yet he believes it 
might be remedied by having the people educated 
up to a higher tone of morality. 

Jacob StaufFer believed human nature identical 
everywhere. He believes with Mr. Engle that 
the public mind should be reformed upon the 
point of killing birds, and the matter maybe rem- 
edied. 

H. K. Stoner does not believe education will 
remedy the lawless destruction of birds, as he 
thinks human nature is retrograding instead of 
getting better. 

H. M. Engle spoke of the Kew York nurseries 
and how they escape the depredations of thieves, 
and as he thinks this must be the result of educa- 
tion. For biitisclf he might remark that he has 
never lost much by pilfering, yet this may be ow- 
ing to precautions which he has taken. He once 
caught some depredators, and this chiefly ended 
that kind of business. 

Ja'cpb Stauft'er next proceeded to read an essay 
upon weeds, viz : St. John's Wort. 

On mo,tion this essay was ordered to be pub- 
ished in the LanqastBR Fakmer. 



On motion it was ordered that the Lancaster 
Farmer in future ])e printed and ready for dis- 
tribution not later than the 25th of each month. 

H. K. Stoner desired some information in re- 
ference to the article in the Farmer, " Look out 
for Humbugs." 

The Secretary read alctter from JosiahHoopcs, 
President of the Pennsylvania Fruit Grower's So- 
ciety, m reference to the next meeting of the 
Society having been fixed for Lancaster, in Feb- 
ruary, 1870. He also read a letter from the Cor- 
responding Secretary of the Agricultural Society 
of Villa Ridge, Pulaski county, Illinois. 

On motion the correspondence was directed to 
be received and entered upon the minutes and to 
be taken up in future. 

George W. Schroyer oflercd the following reso- 
lutions : 

Resolved, That the Secretary be authorized to 
have the law in relation to the destruction of 
birds printed in hand-bills for distribution among 
the members of the Society. 

Resolved, That the Society ofler a reward of 

dollars in addition to the penalty imposed 

by law for the detection and conviction of every 
person found guilty of destroying birds. 

These resolutions elicited considerable discus- 
sion — some favoring and others opposing them. 

S. S. Rathvon moved that the whole subject be 
referred to a committee of three, who shall report 
the laAV at the next meeting, and what it may be 
deemed advisable for the Society to adopt. 
, Members attending the Society in April are re- 
quested to bring with them cuttings, grafts, &c., 
for distribution among the members. 

On motion. Society adjourned until the 1st Mon- 
day in April. 

■» » »» 

Robert Fulton, an Historical Novel, translated 
from the Danish of John Carsten Hauch, by Paul 
C. Sinding. 

We give space for a brief notice of this work 
with the above caption, ii>asmuch as its sul)ject, 
Robert Fulton, first saw the sun's light in our 
county, as also on account of its intrinsic merit in 
a literary aspect, and because the scholar who 
adapted it to Anglo Saxon vision, is personally 
known and kindly remembered by us, as likewise 
by many others in this community. The author 
of this work, as well as its translator, are both 
natives of Denmark, the former a writer of world- 
wide renown, and the latter, one of the most ac- 
complished scholars of the present day, who has 
selected An^erica as his home, and who some 
years ago spent several months in Lancaster, 
whilst engaged in the translation of this book, to 
which we now direct attention. Prof. Paul C. 
Sinding, is already favorably known in this city 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



61 



and county, by his schoLirly work, " The History 
of Scandinavia," and we take great pleasure in 
being al)le to endorse another production of this, 
one of the most erudite and accomplished of Den- 
mark's scholars. A select few in this city have 
already perused this production of Danish intel- 
lect, entitled Robert Fulton, and concur in pro- 
•nouTiciiig it au fait, and a model production in 
this kind of literature, and those liaving read it 
afe convinced that persons of taste cannot but 
peruse it, with the greatest interest and pleasure. 
Tins deferential homage of European sjcholars- 
ship to Lancasterio- American ingenuity and intel- 
lect, should, if nothing else, induce a perusal of 
this work on the part of our citizens.' This work, 
a rare one of its kind, must elevate the author as 
i»lso the translator, in the estimation of all, who 
can in any way appreciate the beautiful and artis- 
tic, in writing and literature. This work is pub- 
lished by Macdonal & Palmer, 744 Broadway, 
Xew York. 

m^ » 4m 

TiiE following small fruit catalogues have been 
sent us : 

J. G. Kreider, of Lancaster county, has sent us 
his catalogue of choice and select vegetable and 
Held seeds, as cultivated by him. Address, J. G. 
Kreider, Box 103, Lancaster, Pa. 

We have also received the descriptive catalogue 
of fruit and ornamental trees ; garden, flower and 
Held seeds ; roses, shrubs and greenbush plants, 
cultivated and for sale by the Ryder Kursery As- 
sociation, Chambersburg, Pa. By enclosing ten 
cents to the Secretary of the Association, E. B. 
Engle, corner Front and King streets, Chambers- 
burg, Pa., a catalogue can be obtained. 

lIovcy''s Illustrated Catalogue, and Guide to the 
Vegetable and Flower Garden, for 1869, has like- 
wise been sent to us. This is a large catalogue 
containing one hundred and fifty pages, orna- 
mented with the plates of many handsome and 
late flowers, and is well worth what it costs, 
twenty-five cents. This catalogue and amateur 
cultivators guide to the fruit garden, contains full 
and complete descriptions of more than twenty- 
five hundred flowers and vegetable seeds, and in- 
cludes all the choice varieties of American growth 
and splendid assortments of the German and 
French selections. Address Ilovcy & Co., No. 
53 North Market street, Boston, Mass. 

We have just received Washburn «& Co's. 
Amateur Cultivator's Guide to the Floicer and Kit- 
chen Garden, containing one hundred and fifty- 
three pages and handsomely bound. This superb 
catalogue eclipses all that we have yet seen, and 
can be had by enclosing fifty cents to Washburn & 
Co., Seed Merchants, Horticultural Hall, Boston. 



21ie American Entomologist. — The March num- 
ber of this valuable monthly conies to us, as usual, 
replete Avith interesting matter, and fully and 
beautifully illustrated. We notice, also, that it 
has eight additional pages of reading matter, in- 
cluding, among other things, a facetious article 
on our large Polyphemus Moth, a valuable and 
lengthy article on " Wasps and Their Habits," 
"Do Toads eat Worker Bees," "Answers to 
Correspondents," Reviews, etc., etc. Published 
monthly, at $1 per annum, by R. P. Studley & 
Co., St. Louis, Mo. 

We have been sent an address, which was de- 
livered by John A. Riddle, Esq., before the Bed- 
ford Farmers' Club of New Hampshire, February 
28th, 18(39, and published by the Bedford Club. 
The subject, "Sterility is void," developes the 
new system of agriculture of Prof. Yille. This is 
an excdlent essay and treats of quite new theo- 
ries worthy of investigation. Persons wishing a 
copy of the address, can obtain one by enclosing 
twenty-five cents, and addressing Solomon Man- 
ning, Secretary of club, Bedford, N. H. 



Among all the diftercnt kinds of composition 
roofing which have been introduced to the public, 
and used, during the past fifteen years, we believe 
there are none equal to that now put on by Dr. 
Jos. Gibbons. We have made a personal exam- 
ination of this roof, and believe it to be, as far as 
our judgment extends, superior to any other we 
have ever seen, and that it is all that it professes 
to be, for the particulars of which, Ave refer the 
reader to the Dr's. advertisement in our journal. 
♦ ■» ^ 

We are sorry to be obliged to inform our friends 
that the February issue of the Farmer is entirely 
exhausted, owing to so many new subscribers 
coming in, who desired the back numbers of the 
Farmer. Subscribers can bear in mind, how- 
ever, that they will receive twelve numbers of 
the Farmer from the time they subscribed. 
■ — ^ « » 

We are sorry to notice the death of Mrs. Lizzie 
Engle, the esteemed wife of Mr. Henry M. Engle, 
the President of the Lancaster County Agricul- 
tural and Horticultural Society, and . one of the 
editors of this journal. Mrs. E. died on the 19Lh 
ult., at " Our Home," in Dansville, New York, 
after a somewhat protracted illness, very much 
regretted by all who had the pleasure of becom- 
ing acquainted with her. 



Working horses, when in the stable, are bet- 
ter without a blanket than with it. AVhen driven 
hard and left standing out the blanket should be 
used. 



62 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



Mhulimmm. 



Destruction of Insects. — Immense numbers 
of insects might be destroyed in a garden or or- 
chard, by using bottles of swoet liquid systemati- 
cally. This is quite common in England, where 
they do not let every fruit enemy run riot, and 
then sit down and cry about having no crops ; but 
work to get the good fruit they boast of. — Gard- 
ner's Monthly. 

: i» — ♦ 

GAS LIMB AS A FERTILIZER AND IN- 
SECT PREVENTIVE. 

Zuriel Swope, Esq., of this city, informs me 
that he has been experimenting for the last three 
years with this substance as a fertilizer of the 
soil, and as a preventer of insect depredations, 
but more particular the former. Even in a case 
where he had nothing but yellow clay, dug out of 
a new cellar, and used for filling up a hollow 
place in his garden ; with seventeen bushels of 
the lime, to a space thirty-two feet wide and one 
hundred and fifty feet long, he produced a luxu- 
riant crop of garden vegetables, consisting of cab- 
bages, red-beets, beans, peas and cucumbers, the 
first season, and he had also few or no noxious in- 
sects to attack them. He also found it exceed- 
ingly beneficial to grape vines and peach trees. — 
In forming a circle of the lime around cabbage 
and bean plants it has entirely prevented the at- 
tacks of the cutworm. For the expulsion of in- 
sects, however, it should be applied once or oftener 
every season, but as a fertilizer its beneficial ef- 
fects are more apparent the second season than 
the first. 

Lime is used in the manufacture of gas, and 
after thus used, the refuse is thrown out and is 
then what is called " gas lime." It may be ob- 
tained at the gas works for four or five cents a 
bushel. This lime has a strong oder similar to 
coal-tar. The remedy is so simple and cheap, 
and comes with a suflicient recommendation, I 
think, to justify the members of this society in 
making a trial of it. Doubtless if applied at the 
right time, for instance, during the months of 
June, July, and August, it would prevent the ap- 
ple and peach tree borers from depositing their 
eggs at the bases of those trees. Carbolic and 
crysilic acids are both eliminations of coal tar, and 
doubtless the lime contains a portion of their dis- 
infecting properties. In this connection I would 
mention that a correspondent in the last number 
of the American Entomologist, states that Mon. 
Ilaspail, a learned French chemist, gives a solu- 
tion of aloes and black pepper as a good substance 
for the expulsion of insects, especially moths 



from cases of drawers or boxes, containing wool- 
ens, furs, or specimens of animals, birds, insects, 
&c., and no doubt it would also be useful to plants 
if judiciously applied. S. S. R. 

^ ! ■» ^ 

SEASONABLE PRUNING. 

Those of your readers who have pruning yet to 
be done, should now have it attended to as soon 
as possible. When the grape vines are pruned 
late, they should be taken from then* fastenings 
and laid flat upon the ground, to chtfck the flow 
of sap until the wounds at the cuttings are par- 
tially healed ;— let them lie , say, three weeks. In 
pruning the tops of berry bushes late, let them 
remain in their bending, natural state — which pre- 
caution will prevent bleeding \ and common sense 
and experience alike teach us that profuse bleed- 
ing is injurious to both animals and vegetables. 

Some self-wise people say — " Don't prune in 
frosty weather." Now the most experienced 
pruners do all their pruning in frosty weather, 
when little else can be done. Such is the prac- 
tice with all the skillful gardeners in Em'opean 
countries. 

In pruning trees it should be borne in mind, 
that the wood dies back of the cut of as much as 
the diameter of the shoots and branches ; — so cut- 
ting ofi" close and paring the wound smooth, is 
very injurious. Knobs should be left as long as 
the diameter of the pieces cut oft', when the 
branches or stems from which the shoots and 
branches are cut remain sound and uninjured. 

In pruning shrubbery the shoots have often to 
be thinned out, and suckers cut away from the 
roots ; the ends of the shoots of many species 
should be cut off" more or less as they may need 
it, — that is such kinds as bear their blooms upon 
the sides of the shoots — such as Forsythia, Phila- 
delphus, etc.; but many species bear their blooms 
on top of the shoots, as do lilies ; — such top shoots 
should not be cut. 

In pruning gooseberry and currant bushes the 
shoots are thinned out when they are too numer- 
ous, and the points of the shoots cut oft" one to six 
inches, as they may need it. 

"With raspberry and blackberry the old dead 
shoots are cut down, and. a piece is clipped from 
the tops of living shoots. So, the modes of prun- 
ing are various, to suit the nature of different 
kinds of plants. — Fractical Farmer. 

Good Rusks. — Two tea cups of sugar, two- 
thirds of a cup of butter, two eggs. Beat these 
well together, add one pint of sweet milk and one 
of gooalively yeast, and flour sufticieut to make a 
soft sponge. Set it where it will be warm. Next 
morning knead in more flour and let it rise again, 
then mould into biscuits ancl when light b3.ke them 
in 0, moderate oven, 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



63 



FISH CULTURE. 

The Museum of Economic Fish Culture, in 
London, under the charge of Buckland, the well- 
known scientific naturalist, is reported to be in a 
prosperous condition. The hatching troughs arc 
filled with salmon and trout raised from eggs 
brought from Scotland, Sweden, Switzerland, the 
Rhine and the United States. The brook trout 
of America, hitherto unknown in England, is 
about to be introduced into that country as an 
exceedingly handsome fish and one that gives good 
sport with the rod. It is stated that on the walls 
of the museum will be found casts to show the 
enormous masses of roe deposited by a single sal- 
mon — a series to show how the egg becomes de- 
vcloped into a fish worth SIO or $15, or often 
more, as well as drawings, painted to the life, of 
nearly all the celebrated fish which have come 
to the London market for the last three or four 
years. Among the monster salmon are found a 
Tay fish, weighing 49i pounds; salmon from the 
"Wye. 514 pounds and 44 pounds ; from the Rhine, 
5U pounds ; from the Tay, 53 pounds. The illus- 
trations of the details of oyster culture are very 
interesting. In the cases are found specimens 
showing the growth of the oyster from its " living 
dust" state till it is fit for market at from two to 
three years old. In order to show the best kind 
of " culch" to be laid on oyster beds, is exhibited 
a large series of materials chosen there as a rest- 
ing place by the young oysters themselves when 
in a wild state , from which the oyster culturist 

may draw his own conclusions. 

■< 1^ » 

MANAGEMENT OP FARM MANURE. 

The composition of fai-m-yard manure is ex- 
ceedingly complex, and varies to a degree seldom 
fully appreciated. The mode of farming, the class 
of stock kept on the land, their supplies of food, 
and the careful preservation of the manure, each 
and all give to the composition of this manure a 
marvellous variety. This influence becomes the 
more striking when we remember that a ton of 
' good farm-yard manure contains only about half 
a hundred-weight of pure fertilizing ingredients. 
It is true that the farmer is dealing with a ton of 
manure, but any injury or loss of quality strikes 
at the value of the half hundred-weight of fertiliz- 
ing matter, which is the vital constituent of the 
manure, and that by which its value is practically 
determined. The value of this half hundred- 
weight of fertilizing is worth more than the price 
wc usually assign even to good manure, and the 
materials could not be purchased at the same 
cost. The lesson Avhich this fact is calculated to 
teach us is not to undervalue the fann-yard man- 
ure because it is a bulky representative of so 



small a quantity of fertilizing matter, but to guard 
it more jealously, and to improve it more care- 
fully since its valuable constituents are so easily 
decreased. 

There are various ways by which the vitality 
of such manure may be removed ; but the im- 
proved management of late years has done much 
to reduce these losses. The two most productive 
sources of loss tire the injudicious rotting down of 
the dung-heap and the waste of the liquid run- 
ning from the heap. Each of these losses may l)e 
readily controlled; the latter, of course, is evi- 
dent, and may be readily avoided, but the former 
demands special care and attention. In some 
districts, very great care is bestowed upon mak- 
ing the dung-heap and its general management. 

A bottom of road scrapings, or similar waste, 
forms the first layer, and upon this the manure is 
heaped and pressed down by the carts going over 
the heap, and finally it is thrown into shape^ some 
earth put against the sides for a certain depth, 
and a further quantity sprinkled on the top. A 
heap thus constructed, if it can be kept suflicicntly 
moist to regulate the fermentation, and yet not so 
moist as to cause drainage, is in a good condition 
for the rotting of the manure as it well can l^e in 
a heap. 

■♦— ^ » 

CENSUS AND AGRICULTURE. 

The Commissioner of Agriculture has addressed 
a long communication to General Garfield, chair- 
man of the Census Committee, indicating the 
facts that ought to be collected in the interest of 
the farmers. It states that neither the average of 
timber nor of various crops has ever been ob- 
tained. It suggests the importance of having 
separate statistics of winter and spring wheat, 
and also that the average of corn, root crops, field 
peas and winter rye should be entered by them- 
selves. The loss by disease of farm animals has 
been estimated by the Department to approxi- 
mate fifty millions of dollars per year, and the 
propriety of gathering information on that sub- 
ject is mentioned. lie also thinks it desirable to 
collect figures showing tlie ravages of insects upon 
the fruit, grain and cotton crops. The average 
of orchards and vineyards is also asked for ; also, 
information regarding new crops lately introduced 
in the South. 



To Cook Spare-Rib.— Take a whole side of 
fresh spare-rib, break the bones so as to be a])lc 
to carve them nicely, fold them together willUiie 
bones inward, then with a strong thread sew the 
edge lirinl}', leaving a space at one end to put in 
the filling, wliich should l>e prepared as if for 
fowls ; after filling them linisli the sewing, sprinkle 
a little salt, and pepper over it, and roast one hour. 
Do not put muclx water in the pan. 



64 



THE LANCASTAR FAEMER. 



PRESERVATION OF FRUIT TREES. 

We find tlie following in the N. E. Homestead^ 
which it saj'-s is taken from a discussion of the 
Farmers' Club at the Vermont State Fair. It 
has reference only to the small State of Vermont, 
but how true it is of all the eastern and middle 
States : 

Mr. J. R. Walker showed how early settlers 
perforce were enemies of trees, and how their 
descendants have inherited their habits, till in a 
centuiy our forests have all been swept away. 
There is abundance of evidence to show that the 
presence of forests increases the rainfall. Geo. 
P. Marsh, in " Man and Nature," adduces some 
startling examples of the evil effects of cutting off 
the forests in this respect. Nowhere is building 
material so cheap as it has been in the United 
States, because of her magnificent pine forests : 
but now lumber comes 2000 miles to market. As 
to the amount of firewood required it is estimated 
that the mills, schools, &c., use 859,800 cords, be- 
sides 1,000,000 cords for railroads, and thousands 
of cords for other purposes, amounting in all to a 
million cords a year. In lumber it is estimated 
that the mills of the State turn out 115 million 
feet a year. The railroad consumption is esti- 
mated at S550,000 for fuel besides ties, &c. Thir- 
ty thousand acres of heavy timbered land will be 
required to furnish all this wood, and fifty-four 
years will exhaust all we have in the State. 

Every man is interested in the wood question, 
in one way or other. As means for the preserva- 
tion and perpetuation of our forests, animals 
should be carefully kept out of all wood-lots ; for 
cutting, full-grown trees and decaying ones should 
be selected, or where thinning is needed, care and 
judgment should be used. 

The replanting of forests can be made by seed 
and requires little skill ; and the strong motive 
of self-interest must be brought to bear to secure 
it. Let us protect our forests, cover over our now 
jagged hills, beautify our streets and homos, and 
then shall we have done something not only for 
ourselves but for generations to follow. 



Poor Land — Poor Farmers. — Mr. Lawe used 
to say that in England the best farmers were 
found on the poorest land, and the poorest farm- 
ers on the best land. Thus Norfolk has the poor- 
est land and the worst climate in England, while 
nowhere in the world can be found larger crops, 
cleaner land, or more intelligent, wealthy and en- 
terprising farmers. Devoiishiie has tlie beat cli- 
mate and the IjesL soil in England, and, with some 
exceptions, the poorest farmers. Hitherto this 
rule did not prove good with us. We have the 
best farmers on the best and richest laud. It wiU 
not always be so. We are mistaken if New Eng- 
land will not produce some of the most enterpris- 
ing, intelligent and successful farmers on the con- 
tinent. — American A</riailiiiri.st. 

Those having the care of sheep should avoid 
any sudden change of food, for either sheep or 
lainbs. 



ENGLISH SPARROWS, AGAIN. 

We notice a paragraph in the New York Sun 
informing us that several private individuals have 
placed in Union Square, bird-houses for the aci 
commodation of the English sparrows abounding 
there. These boxes are of large size, painted in 
glaring colors, and made very picturesquely, in 
order, of course, to attract these pets. Now "we 
very well know that in severe weather sparrows 
and other winter-birds will seek shelter anywhere, 
even in a dwelling-house, sometimes, and these 
sparrows may be thus driven into the houses in 
Union Square, but that, as the article in ques- 
tion tells us, they will propagate their species by 
resorting to these boxes and taking possession of 
ready-made nests, is contrary to the nature of 
these birds, and will no more do so than will a 
bluebird, a wren or a martin make its nest on a 
tree. These metropolitan bird-fanciers are en- 
tirely too smart for nature, which they set aside 
as coolly as if they had entire control. 



FUSIL OIL. 

Fusil oil, of which so much is said in connec- 
tion with liquor adulterations, is a liquor color- 
less when pure, of offensive smell and burning 
taste, obtained by continuing in fermentation in 
the distilling process after the alcoholic portion 
is drawn oft'. Its action upon the animal system 
is that of a positive poison, its vapor producing 
nausea, headache and giddiness. Its presence in 
liquors is highly injuriou=!, and indicates bad dis- 
tillation, or the use of damaged grain. It may be 
detected by agitating the liquor with water and 
leaving it stand for the oil to rise to the surface. 
One ounce of fusil oil kills a rabbit in four min- 
utes. — Columbia Spy. 

i^ «» ^-' 

Destroying Stumps. — The Baltimore Leader 
suggests the following method for getting rid of 
stumps without making a large hole in the ground : 

'' We have heard of two methods of getting rid 
of stumps, which, as they appear feasible and in- 
expensive, we hope some reader will try and re- 
port upon. Boro with a two-inch auger to the 
heart of the stump ; fill tlic cavity thus made with 
sulphuric acid, or with crude oil of petroleum. In 
the first case, the acid becomes the destructive 
agent within a few months; in the latter, when 
the stump becomes saturated with the oil it is 
fired, and will then burn out to the last particle, 
like a candle." 



Orchards should be cultivated as corn fields. 
Laying down in grass is injurious to trees. Ifood 
crops may be raised between the rows of trees 
without damaging the trees. 



NoM Mutual Lite Insurance uompduor 

NO. 160 BROADWAY, NEW YORK. 

J P. FRUEAUPP, General Agent, 

I. AlSrC ASXEI^ ^ J j^ E RICK^ECKER, City Treasurer. 
U10B BAUSMAN, IVesWent F^^^^^'^^'^^^if^k"^" N.'^ELLMAKER, Esq., Attorney. 
'HKIS'N B. HERR. Pres't Lanc^ter Co. ^at 1 BauK. ^^ Attorney. ^.^^^^isls 

ARLY ROSE POTATO. 





. • of thP following prices, cash to accompany tbe order : 
we are prepared to fill orde- ^or-,r.n,^:^^^^^^^ Ma,l ^ostPaia 

0,te round, ^^f^i^J^'^'j^^if Bushel, $S.OO Delivered to Express. 
One Feck, ^^'^^J TZI UnTvel $40.00 ** 

One Bushel, $15.00, ^J'^^^lt ^^^ po--<i« '<> *^« ^^^^''^ 
(60 pouxxcis to t^« ^Yn Vrrae or small quantities : 
The following varieties can be -PP^/^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ peJ barrel, 165 lbs. $4.00. 

Early Goodrich, per ^» 

Mich. White Sprout, Early, ^^ J-^^. ^^ ^^ .. 4 OO. 

Harrison, Address ENGLE & BRO., 

Marietta Nurseries, Marietta, Pa. 



ITTJI^SER^Sr STOO - ^,^^^^^^g ^ the thousand. 

PEACH TREES and GRAPE ^}^^^J:Zf^Zl:Co::i H^dgl Asparagus and Rhubarb Roots. 
Raspberry and Blackberry Stocks^StrawberryF ^ qeeID- , ^ 

I»OT.A^TOES^^^^ ROSE, grown from seed ob- 

Popular varieties leading among .hichis THE EAR ^^^^^^^.^^^ ^^, ^^^ „, ,,, ,,,Hest. For 
X • J #-«™ T) S Heffron, and warrantea pure, v^u y 

rAVth^P-^OP"'- '"""■•'"■ ^"""-^"^''j^. ENGLE, Marietta, Penn. 






aaroUk^iSS"'""^ .Hf.i,o.a.o .1 Jia'/Aflc) .1;: .1 
















.i«ruaiiD )i 






T wo-r^ 



a. b. kaufman's 
Insurance Agency, 

No. 1 EAST ORANGE ST., 
LANCASTEK CITY, PA., 

Issues Life, and also, Policies against Fire and 
all oHier Accidents. 

AGENT FOR THE OLD 

CONN. MUTUAL LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, 

The i3est Company in the World. 

CAPITAIj, - - - $93,000,000. 

SAMUEL i^ESS, 

Sonth Side Cones toga, ox>i3osito 
Graeff's Landiixg, 

DEALER IN 

Vtood, Salt, Sand, Plaster, and all the best Fertili- 
zers in the Market. Posts, Rails, Tales, and Fencing 
Materials of every Description. 

Particular attention paid to Re-sawing Lumber for 
Cabinet work and Coachinaking. 

KT' All Orders left at the Lancaster Post Office 

promptly attended to. 

S. S. RATHYON'S 

Merchant Tailoring, General Clothing 

AND GENTLEMEN'S FURNISHING STORE, 

(KKAMP'S OLD STAND), 

Corner North Q,ueen & Orange Sts., 
Lancaster, Pa., 

All kinds of Men's and Boys' Ready-Made Clothing and 
Funiii-hiiig Good.s constantly on lianiri. Also, a suixuior assort- 
nicntof Frenfh, Engli.'«h, German ajid American Cloths, Cas- 
.siiiuavs and Vestings which will bo made to order in any desired 
stylo, with the least iiossiblo delay; warranted to give satis- 
t'iictioii, and at reasonable charges. 

S. S. RATH VON. 

GRUGER & RiCE, 

DKUGGISTS & APOTHECARIES, 

No. 13 WEST KING STREET, 

NEXT DOOU TO .STEINMAN'S HARDWARE STORE, 

I Lancaster, Pa, 

Have always on hand Pure, Kaliablc Drugs and Medi- 
cines. Cliomicnls, Spices, Perfumery and Toilet 
Ai-ti< 'o--. Al v) l''lavoring Extracts of 
ill 'ii- own Maiiufa • ui I', .ind u\ 
unsurpassed ipiality. 

Sol,' Ag llts for l^A^»SON^< CdSM'OTJNU SYnUi" OF Taii, ttio 

li' st ('(.ugh Mcdi^Sii!' ill Ihv mfu-kct. \Vc liave h1.<<o on hand in 

season an assoitincnt of I.MtidiolirsjWariantfd Garden Seeds. 

The i>iiblic can roly upon always* OEi'Tixd wjiatthky 

ASK POK ANU so SL'JlS'rn'f'i'ES, 



LANCASTER CITY AND COUNTY 

FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, 

««■«» 

CAI>IX^L, - - - #S00,000. 

Hon. Tuos.E.Franki.tn, Geo. K. Reed, Edw. Brown, 

Prea't, Treas., Sec'y. 

John L. Atlee, M. D., B. F. Shenk, Jacob Bousman, 
Henry Cariienter,M.D., F. Shroder, Jucob M. Frantz, 

Hon. A. E. Roberts, John C. Hager. 

Houses, Barns, Stores, Mills and Buildings of alt kinds, with 
iheir contents, Insured on Favorable terms. 

W. J. KAPROTH, Agent. 
Residence : 36 South Biifee St., Lancaster. 



Jn B. KBVmSKI^ 

D.EALER IN 

Pianos, Organs, and Melodeons, 

AND MUSICAL IXSTRFMENTS GENERALLY, 

A large assortment of Violins, Flutes, Guitars, Banjos, 

Tamborines, Accordeons, Fifes, Harmonicas, and 

Musical Merchandise always on hand. 

SHEET MUSIO : A large stock on hand and constantly re- 
ceiving all the latest iiublications as soon as issued. 

MUSIC BY MAIL ! I would inform ijersons wi.sliing Music, 
that Music an<l Musical Books will be sent by mail free of 
postage when the marked price is remitted. 

DEOALOOMANIA. or the art of Transfeiring Pictures. Can 
ho transferred on any object. I would call especial attention 
of CoacUmakers to my stock of Decalcomania. 

ZAHM & JACKSON, 

No, 15 NORTH atJEEW ST„ 

Beg leave to call the attention of persons in want of 
a good and reliable Time Keeper to their full assort- 
ment of 

AKRICAN AND SWISS WATCHES, 

In Gold and Silver Cases which will be sold at 
prices which will defy competition. Alf^o, a full assort- 
ment of 

CIj O C K S , 

of all kinds, which wc wiil warrant good and correct 
time-keepers. 

in great variety, such as Pins, Settp, Ear Rings, Finger 
Rings, Sleeve I'uKons, Cliains, &c. 

SOLID SILVER WARE, 

Manufactured expressly for our sales and warranted coin 

PLATED ^VARE, 

Froai '.h ' b\-.t laotorics and warranted the iiiic^t quality. 

Gold, Silver :ind Steel Spectacles. Hair Jewelry 
Made to Orde . 

Repairing Promptly Attended to. 

ZAUM &" JACKSON. 



S. WELCHENS, D. D. S., 

SURGEON DENTIST, 

Office and Residence^ 

HOWELL'S BUILDING, No. 65^ NORTH QUEEN ST., 

Half a square south of tlio R. K. Depot. 

Twenty Years' Successful Practice in Lancaster. 

The Latest improvements in INSTRU3IENTS 
imd TEETH and the very best material, Warranted 
ill all operations. 

TEETH EXTRACTED WITHOUT PAIN with 
I lie use of Nitrous Oxide Gas, Ether, or the Ether 
Sprat/ 

TERMS, as low as any in the city, when loivpriced 
material and low priced work are used. 

But for FIRST-CLASS OPERATIONS, with ap- 
])liances and material to correspond, prices range 
liigher. 

S. WELCHENS. D. D. S. 

CJ _A- ^Rf ID ' 

REIGART'S OLD YilM STORE, 

ESTABLISHED IN 1785, 

No. 3'6 EAST KING ST., LANCASTER, PENNA. 

Tlie reputation of REIGART'S OLD WINES AND BRAN- 
DIES for purity and excellent quality having been f ully es- 
lablished for nearly a century, we regret that the conduct of 
i^onio unprincipled dealers, who re-till with and sell from our 
liibled bottles their deleterious compounds, compels us to 
adopt the annexed trade mark, which in future, for the pro- 
tection of ourselves and our customers, will be found on all 
our old bottled Wines, Brandies, Gins, Whiskies, Bittei's, &c. 



TRADE 




MARK. 



And further, in order to protect the same, we hereby an- 
nounce our determination to prosecute to the fullest extent of the 
Act of Assembly, approved, 31st day of March, 18C0, any per- 
son or persons who shall violate the provisions of said act as 
iipplicable to our trade mark. 

N. B. — We respectfully request t}ie public, when they have 
occasion or desire to use Old Brandy at the Hotels or Restau- 
lauts to ask particularly for Reigart's Old Brandy. 
Very respectfully, &c., 

H. E. SLAYMAKER, Agt. 



-J- , /\ ^>n" CJ yy s t"" "f; t?^ 

UNION SPOKE AND AGRICULTURAL WORKS 

Oorner of Water and. Lemon. Sts., 
"Formerly Shirk & Royer's Warehouse, on the Penna. Rai 
lOad, near Baumgardner's coal yard, and 2 squares west from 
the Railroad Depot, where we manufacture the 

LATEST IMPROVED GRAIN DRILLS. 

Also, Grain Drills with Guano attached, warranted to give 
.satisfaction. Mockawatf fans. Cider Jflilla, Crushers and 
(Jraters, for horse or hand power, which will grind a bushel 
of apples per minute by horse power, and are warranted to do 
it well. We would also inform Coachmakers th:it we liave put 
up in our Shop two of the latest iruiiroved Spol^e <llachtnes, 
or Jjalltes, and are fully isrepared to furnish the best quality 
of SPOKKS of all kinds, sizes, dry or part dry, and warranted 
to be a good article. Wo biiv none but the best* iSjiokes, 
and have nowouhaiul 100,000 STOKES. Bent Fki.i.ows 
of Jill sizes; Shafts and Caruia<;k Polls, Bows, &c., of 
seasonable stuff, constantly on hand. 

As Mr. Kceler hns been in this business 16 or 18 yeais, and 
liaving served an apprenticeship at Coacliiuaking, he knows 
wliat the trade want in that line. All kinds of Bent Stuff lor 
sale, or made to order — and Spokes of all .sizes turned for per- 
sons having them on hand in the rough. 

Notice to Fabmkrs and MEtniANics Planing .and Saw- 
ing done at the shortest notice. We have one of the best and 
f atest Improved Surface Planes for operation. 

K£KI<i;R4;SHA£FF£K,liincastr Pit. 



Lanoastek, June 25th, 1868, 
Editors Express : Dr. Wm. M. Whiteside, the enterpris- 
ing Dentist, has purchased from me a large stock of teeth and 
all the lixtures, the nstruments formerly belonging to me, and 
also thosaused by my father, Dr. Parry, in his practice. In 
the purchase, the doctor has provided himself with some of 
the most valuable and expensive instruments used in dental 
practice, and has beyond doubt one of the best and largest 
collections of teeth and instruments in the State. Persons 
visiting the commodious oflices of Dr. Whiteside, cannot fail 
to be fully accommodated. The Doctor loses no opportunity 
of furnishing himself with every late scientific improvement 
in his line of business. H. B. PARRY. 



Office and Residence, 

EAST KING STREET, 

Next door to the Court House, over Fahnestock's Dry 
Goods Store, 

LANCASTtlR, PENNA. 

Teeth Extracted tvithout xmin hy the use of 
{Nitrous Oxide) Gas. 

BOOKS AND STATIONERY. 



A Full assortment of 

SCHOOL, MISCELLANEOUS AGRT- 

DULTURAL AND HOllTI- 

CULTURL BOOKS, 

A large stock of 

ST^TIOIS! ERY, 

WHICH WILL BE SOLD AT 

GREATLY REDUCED PRICES, 

On account of removal xipril 1st, 1869, to 

No. 52 North Queen Street, 

(KRAMP'S BUILDING) 

Foxir Doox-s above Orange Street, 

Subscriptions received for all the Agricultural and 
Horticultural Magazines. 

J. H. SHEAFFER'S 

Cheap Cash Book Store, No. 32 N. Queen 
Street, LANCASTER, PA. 



G. J. I^II^I^BSPIK^ 



DEALER IN 



FOREIGN m AMERICAN WATCHES, 

IN GOLD AND SILVER CASES, 

CLOCKS OF EN'ERY DESCRIPTION, 
Jewelry in all Us SSiapos and Forms, 

SILV^ll WAUIO. dcsigno'l f.T Bi-'.dal Prc.U'nts; 

BR.ACKETS, TOILKT SETS, VASES. SPECTACLES, 
GOLD P}<;NS, &c., &c., &c. 



Stoves t 

Oedarinrare ! 

Housekeepers' Furnishing Goods ! 



The undersigned at their old established stand in 
WEST KINO STREET, 

arc constantly receiving fresh supplies to their extcn- 
L^ivc Stock, from the best manufactories in this Coun- 
try and Europe, and invite the attention of Merchants 
and Consumers, feeling that we can do as well as any 
house in Philadelphia. 

I'ersons commencing Housekeeping will iind the 

The Largest and Best Selected Lot of 

at Manufacturers' Prices. Also, every other article 
kept in a first-class Hardware Store. 

A FULL STOCK OF 

Sadlers', Coachmakers' and Blacksmittis' Tools 
and Materials, 

GUILDERS will find a full supply of every thing 
suited to thoir wants at LOWEST FlGUilES. 

CLOVER, TIMOTHY AND FLAX SEED, 

BOUGHT AND SOLD. 

STEINMAN & CO. 



p. E. GRUGER. 



J. P. GRUGER. 



GRUGER BROTHERS, 

MARBLE MASONS, 

14 South Queen St., Lancaster, Pa., 

Have always on hand or will furnish to order at 

SHOUT NOTICE, 

MONUIVIENTS, 

rOMBS, 

GRAVE STONES, 

&c., &c. 

We pay particular and personal attention both to the 
SELECTION OF THE MATERIAL and the EXECU. 
TION OF OUR WORK, and our facilities now are sucl*- 
that we can guarantee our customers the very best 
work, at the same, and often Low^r Prices, than are 
usually paid elsewhere for inferior productions. 

Lettering 



m 



English 



and 



German, 

ELEGANTLY AND CORRECTLY DONE. 
We earnestly invite Qur country friend3 to give us a 



SHULTZ & BRO., 

Manufacturers, Wholesale and Retail Dealers in 

Caps and Fiars, 

LADIES' FANCY FURS, 

HOODS, 

TRIMMED GLOVES AND MITTS, 
Gents' Gloves, Capes and Collarr, 

Fancy Hobes, 

20 North Queen S^treet, 
LANCASTER, PA. 

AMERICAN WATCHES 




JVo. B2 West King Street, 

Next Door Below CoorEU'e Hotel, 
DEALKRS IN 



SIL¥ 



9^ 



HMWAm,, 



J E "V\7" E L R ~5r , 

CLOCKS AND SPECTACLES, 




THE UNDERSIGNED REPRESENTS THE 

BIllllTI iin IISIMIEI SSlFilY, 

AND ALSO THE 

Life ai Accilnt iBsiraice Comjaiij, 

Both stable and well eslablished companies, the former 
having a capital of S1000,000, and (he latter $600,- 
000. 

The plan of issuing policies by (he Brooklyn Life 
Insurance Company presents a feature altogether 
unique, and one which removes one of the strongest 
objection, hitherto urged against the plan of Life Insur- 
ance ; and this is what is termed the Sukrenper Value 
Plan. Each and every Policy issued in the name of 
this Company bears an endorsement, stating the exact 
worth of the policy in Cash, at any time after two or 
more annual premiums have been paid. 

Insurance can also be efl'ected in the North American 
Life Insurance Company, and at lower rates, it is be- 
lieved, than in any other Company in the United States. 

All desirous of securing insurance upon their lives 
can do so by calling upon the undersigned. 

ALLEN I^ITHEIE, Agt., 

East J-iemon Sti*eet, 

LANCASTER, PA. 



', use ^a»na9»it %«« ^ s^ a , 

LANCASTEIl, PENN'A, 

Dealers in United States Bonds and all 
kinds of Railroad Stoek and State Loans. 

Buy and Sell Gold, Silvei'j and Unitedt 
States Coupons. 

Sell Bills of Exchange on Europe and Passage 
Certificates. 

Receive Money on Deposit and pay Interest as 
ollows : 
1 month, 4 per cent., 6 months, 5 per cent. 

3 •' U " 12 " 5i 



S T. ^ 

OHAIK MANUFACTURER, 



I 



FOE SALE AT 

Chas. A. Heinitsli's Drug Store, 13 E. King St.^ 

L A N G A S T E 11 , P E N N A., 

German Cattle Powders! 

Tlio liest rowJor made tor the Cure and Prevciitiou of Dis- 
eases to wliicli Oxen, Milk Cows, Slieep and ilogs, are subject. 
For Stock Cattle preparing fur market, a table spoonful in 
their feed once or twice a week, improves their condition by 
strengthening their digestive organs, and creates solid flesh 
and fat. 
GERMAN VEGETABLE OR UNRIVALLED CONDITION 

POWDKRS 
For preserving Horses in good health, removing all Diseases 
of the >Skin, giving a Siuootli and Glossy appearance, also a 
sure remedy for Distemjier, Hido^bound, t^oss of Appetite, &o. 

PERSIAN 1N8ECT POWDER. 
A perfeictly safe, quick and easily applied destroyer of Lice 
on Cattle, Fleas, Bedbugs, &c. 

PYROLIGNEOUS ACID. 
A substitute for curing Beef, Pork, Hams, Tongues Smok- 
ed Sausages, F sh, &c^, without the danger and trouble o 
smoking, imparting a inch flavor and color. 



No. 37 Nortli Queen St., Lancaster, 

(XEXT door'to shobeu's hotel,) 

Old Chairs Re-painted and Eepaired. 



CHRISTIAIi WieiYEB. 
S. E. Cor. East King & Sake Sts., Lancaster. 

Cabinet "VYork of every description and a full 

assortment of Chairs constantly on hand. 
n:^AIl Warranted as Rejtrcsented. .jn} 



JACOB SOTHAEMEL, 

TRESnUM 



:.M|ii. 



DEALER IN 



0, ©ml)8 a^id Faney JlFtleHe^s 

No. 9i Nortli Queen Street, Lancaster, Pa. 



SEED POTATOES. 



EARLY GOODRICH, 
HARRISON, 

MICHIGAN WHITE, 

and GARNET CHILI,= 

By the Peek, Bushel or Barrel. Also, 

THE EARLY HOSE, 

which is destined to sup<rscde all ot'llie older varieties 
for quality, earliiiess and productiveness, will be sold 
in quantities to suit purchasers. All the above varie- 
ies v?arrauted pure and genuine. Send for circular. 

Marietta, Pa. 

Ornamental and evergreen Trees, Mower-. 

ing Slirubs, Roses, t^c, &c.,aiid a complete assoi'tnient of 
everything hi the Nurseiy line, at re;isonable i-ate.s. For 
Catalogues, address with Stamps, ENGLE & BliO., 
Marietta, Pa. 

THE 

Lancaster Inquirer 




J^AHCASTBK3 FA., 

OFFERS &REATER IPUCEMENTS 

Foa CHEAP woas. 

Executed hi the Best Style of Printing^ 
than any other office in the State. 




<oo.. 




James Street, Lancaster, P*a.. 

ARE PREPARED TO DO ALL KINDS OF 





BUILD LARGE AND SMALL BNGINUS, 



\v 



MILL aEA^RIIsTG, 
And all kind af Machine Work done at a first class Shop. 

Having recently removed to their new Luilding, and ])rovided themselves 
ith a 



'5Jf*l«« 



Adapted to the wants of their customers, they are prepared to execute all or- 
dei's with neatness and dispatch, and on terms satisiactory to tlie customer. 
They would invite attention to their large foundry connected with their works, 
in wliicli the best Avork is turned out. 

They also announce that they are now prepared to supply their 



TO ALL CUSTOMERS. 






This Machine requires Less Power, does Moke Work, and is considerable 
Chj:ai'j:r than any other Separator now in the market. This JMachiiie is now 
iui proved, well built, aa«l does the best and most eflicient ^-lass of work.'"^' 

Repairing of all kinds promply done at reasonable rates. 

Give us a call, and we will endeavor to please our patrons. 

FRANK LANDIS, 
EZRA F. LANDIS, 
JACOB LANDIS. 



Diller d Groff's Hardware Store, 

SJI03»- OJJ- THE! ja-lSTT^XX^. 

No. 8 East King Street, Lancaster City, Penna. 

DEALERS IN 

Foreign- and DoiTiestic HCarclA^^are, 

Such as Building Material, Paints, Varnishes, Oils, Glass, Coach Trininuugs, Stoves, 

Iron and Steel, &c., &c., &c. 

EtOUSB F€rRNJSB[I]SrG GOOOS. 

TIMOTHY AND CLOVER SEEDS OF TPIE BEST QUALITY. 









-'-^ ^^^. 






No. 37 North Queen St., 

NEXT DOOR TO SHOBER'S HOTEL, LANCASTER, PA. 




43 









DPJi.-A.iKr j3l3>3-j3 :F".^35gro3r 



.01. iiiii t 0, 






WAGON GEARS, 'WHIPS, BUFFALO ROBES, 

BLANKETS, TROffiS, YALISES, CAEPET BA&S, LADIES' & GEETS' SATCHELS, 

Of all kinds constantly kept on h^nd or made to order. Repairing neatly done. 

Also, Agent for BAKER'S HOOF J.INIMENT, the best article for Sore 
Hoofs in the country. 



WESTHAEFFER 



11 



No. 44, Corner North Queen and Orange Streets, 

N, B.— Any Book ordered cm be sent hj Mail to any aadr^ss, 



M 



TO BTTIXjIDBI^.S I 



PLASTIC SLATE!! 

The Greatest Eoofing Material of the Age ! 

IS KOW OFFERED TO THE PEOPLE OF 

LANCASTER AND YORK COUNTIES,' PA.. AND CECIL COUNTl 

WITH A PROMISE OF THE FOLLOWING ADVANTAGES: 

It is superior to otlier coverings for all kinds of buildings for these reasons : 

1. It is water, snow and air-proof from the beginning, and is as fire-proof as ordinary slate. (See testimo- 
nials New York Fire Insurance CoHipanics.) 

2. It keeps buildings warmer in winter and does not make them hot in summer as ordinary slate does, and 
it can be, after the first year, whitewashed or painted any desired color so as to obviate all difficulty arising 
from its dark color. 

3. Being entirely water and firc-praof, it is invaluable as a covering for the sides of buildings and lining 
cisterns of wliatever material they may be built ; stopping water out of cellars and dampness out of w.ills of 
houses, and closing leaks between buildings. 

4. Adhering, as it does, with great firmness to tin and iron, it is useful for covering tin roofs and iron exposed 
to dampness or to the atmosphere, such as iron fences, cemetery-railings, &c. 

5. Buildings covered with PLASTIC SLATE do net need tin spouts at the eaves nor do the valleys need tin 
to make them water proof. 

0. It is lighter than shingles, and is equally adapted to flat or steep roofs. 

7. The testimony of Wm. MGilvray & Go., published herewith, shows that it is not only fire proof exter- 
nally, but, is also a great hindrance to the spread of fire within. 

8. It is much cheaper in first-cost than any good roofing now in use, and when all attendant expenses of the 
two roofs are estimated, costs only about half as much as the best slate, and it makes a better and closer roof. 

9. For the roofing of foundries and casting-houses of blast furnaces, where there are gases of a very higli 
temperature, which injures and destroys other roofs, this material is improved and seems to produce a better 
roof, (see certificates of Messrs. Grubb, Musselman & Watts, S. M. Brua and Wm. M'Gilvray.) 

10. If in process of years cracks or leaks occur in Plastic Slate Roofs, they are about as easily repaired, as 
th(!y would be to white-wash, needing only a brush and the Mastic, but no expensive labor of mechanics. 

DC?" The Pamphlet referred to in the foregoing notice can be had gratuitously, by calling attheOflice of (he 
Lancaster Lnquireij or Examineu & Herald. 

Persons wishing to examine PLASTIC SLATE EOOFS, and thus verify for themselves the following 
statements, are invited to call and inspect Roofs put on. for the following persons, among many others : 

Lancaster— Tlios. H. Biirrowes, Stuart A. WvHe, (Editor Lancaster Inquirer,) J. B. SchwartzweMor, Abraham Hitiipr 
Sr. Marietta— Henry jMusselman & Sons., JNIve is and Benson. Cohimbia— C. B. Gruld), (Furnace,) Oolumbia (!as Co., 
Sanuiel Shock, Prcs't., Susquehanna Iron Compar.y, Wm. Patton, Pres't., Samuel W. Miftliii. Mount .Joy- Ilt^nry KuHz, 
Dr. J. b. Ziiiglur, William IJradv, .r. K. Hottor. (Kilitor Mt. .loy Herald). Christiana— E. (r. BooiueU. AViu. P. Briiiton, 
.John (i. Fojilc. Bart— Williaiu Whitsou. Bei.le.monte P. O.— llohcrt P. JNlcIlvaine. Paradise— Kobert S. Mellvainc, 
Wii.l.iAMSTowN—T. Scott Woods. EvHRATA— Dr. I. M. Grotf. Gouuonvili.e— Siiiiiiiel M. Brua. C.kunarvon Twp — 
Mns. Fanny Mast. Upper Lkacock Twp— Marks G. Mender, Christian K. Landis, Jacob K. Musser. Leacdck Twp. -Isaac 
Bair, Levi "Zook. West Earl— Christian Beiler. Lkaman Place— Henry Leaman, Israel Itol\n;r. Brijinkrvili. e— Aaron 
H. Brubaker. Sporting Hill— Emanuel Long. Lrriz— H. H. Tshudy, David Bricker. Ditklaoii P C, Clay Twp— .lonas 
Laber. Manhkim Bou.— Nathan Werley, Samuel Kuhl. Penn Twr.— Georjje Iluhl. West Lampeter- Aldu.s C. Herr. 
Enterprise P. O., East Lampeter— Mark P. Cooper. STRAsninri B<>R.— Hervey Brackbill. 

Ordei-s for Roofing Should be sent to 

Joseph Gribbons« 

LICENSE FOR LANCASTER AND YORK COUNTIES, PA., AND CECIL COUNTY, MD., 

Enterprise P. 0., Lancaster County, Pa. 

Or A. W. tS: J. 11. RUSSELL, Lancaster, Pa. 

Or MOSES LIGHT, Manheini, Lancaster county, Pa. 

♦ Or JOHN R. BRICKER, Litiz, Lancaster county. Pa. ■ 

ALDUS C. HERR, Lamjpeter, Lancaster jounty, Pa, 



•The 

No. 
Vines, 

No. 
■ No. 



SMALL FRUITS, SHRUBS AND PLANTS. 

following Catalogues sent on application, with stamps, as follow^s : 

1. Descriptive Catalogue of Fruit, Oriiamental and Evergreen Trees, 
Plants, Shrubs, Hoses, &c., (30 Pages), 3 "red stamps. . 

2. Amateur's Price List^ 1 red stamp. 

B. VVliolesale Price List for Nurserymen and Dealers only, 1 red stamp. 

Address, HMCI^^ dl^BRO.j, 

Marietta Nurseries, MARIETTA, PA. 



CHOICE BEBD POTATOES. 

Eaily Goodrich, Harrison and ISrichijian Wliite Sprout. 
Descriptive circular with testimonials and prices, sent 
on application. 

Address, • ENGLE & BEO., 



2t 



JIarietta, Pa 



iGRICULTU 



m 



A lai-ge Assoi-tmont of Fresh Gai'den Seeds have just 
been received at Siirechei' & Oo's. Seed and Agricultural 
Implement Store, No. 28 Ejist King Street. 

A iine lot of Seed Oats, Seed Barley, Clover, Tmiothy, 
and oilier Field and Gjirdei. 3eeds, together with a well 
selected assoi-tment of Farming ImplenKMits of all kinds, 
are now in The Farmer's Store, and for sale l>y 

SPRECHSR Sc Co., 

No. 28 EAST KING STREET, 
-mos Lancaster, I^. 



Raspbei-ries.— PhiladelpMa, Clarke, Mam- 
moth Clu.stei', iliami, and Dooliltle IMack (Jap. (Send tor 
Catalogues.) ENGLE & BlIO., IMarietta, Fa. 



Ml EEAHIA wmk im, 

From select Fowls, can hv supplied 
during the season, carefully pai ked and 
delivered to ExjDress for '' ' 

$2.00 ?m mnm m [is] mim, 

A fe^y pair of this bree.l of fowls, 
for sale, if ordered soon. Address, 



3'mo8 



Marietta, Pa> 



Dr. N. B. BHISEINB, 

No. 93 EAST KING STREET, Above LIme. 

Tlie Doctor pays special attention to all old ohstinate 
diseases, such as Consumption, Liver Complaiut, Dys- 
pepsia, llheu.matism, all diseases of the Ileart, Head, 
Throat, Ivungs, Stomach, Bowels, Kidneys, Nervous 
Dehility, Geno)-a! Debility, &c. The doctor makes ex- 
aminations of the Urine. ConsultatioA Free. 

Concord, Clinton, Delaware, Ives, Hai't- 

fdVil rt'i>iiiic, Martha, and many olher varieties of Gi-ape 
Viues. SQud Stamps for Catalogue. Address, 

ENGLE & BRO., Marietta, Pa. 



SUCCESSOR TO 



WENTZ BROTHERS, 

SIQN OF THE 13 KE IIIVE, 

No. 5 EAST KING STREET, LANCASTER, PENN'A. 



DEALER IN 

.Til m mi 

Carpets, Oil Ciotlis, Window Shades. 

SPECIAL ATTENTION PAID TO 



n 



Sliawls and Embroideries, Cloth.s and Cassimcres, 

Ilamlkercliiefs, Gloves and Hosiery, 

Best Kid Gloves. 

The, Clioicosf of tlio Market, and at the Lowest Possible 
Prices. 

REMEMBER THE PLACE TO BUY. 

TIIOS. J. AYENTZ, 

Bee Hive Store, No. 5 E. King St. 

GEO. r„ ROTE9 

I NDEllTAKER, 

Corner Soxith Queen and Vino Streets, 

I^ANCAST^R, PA. 

Coffins of all sizes always on hand, and furnished a 

.■^ Ik riest Notice. 



THE 




Vol. I. 



LANCASTER, PA., MAY, 1869. 



No. 5. 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY 

WYLIE & GRIEST, 

IXQUIKEK BUILDING, LANCASTER, PA., 
At ONE DOLLAR PER YEAR In Advance 

UNDER THB AUSPICES OF THE 

LAXCASTER COUSTY AGKIt'lIL I URAI. AND 
UOUTK IXTL'liAL SUCICTY. 



Editorial Committee. 
J. B. Garber, 
H. M. Enolb, 
Levi S. Kkist, 
w. l. t>iffbndkrper, , 
J. H. Mcsser, 
S. S. Kathvon. 
■»■ All communications intended for the Farmer should be 
ad.lr.8sed to .S. S. Kathvon an.l Alex. Harris, the resideut 
members of the Editing and Publishing Coramitteea. 

All adv.^rtisem'Mits, subscriptions aud remittances, to Wylie 
& Griest. Printers. 



Puhliihing Committee. 
Dr. p. W. Hikstand, 
H. K. Stoner, 
.Jacob M. Frantz, 
Casper Hillkr, 
Levi \V. Okoff, 
Alexander Harris. 



^$5a«$ 



VEGETABLE PHYSIOLOGY. 

THE ORG.\XS OF CIRCULATION, OR VEGETATION. 

An organ, in physiological language, is re- 
garded as '' any portion of a living body capable 
of performing a complete act, or operation, and 
this act is styled its function." 

The heart, the liver and the lungs of the ani- 
mal are organs, each performing its functions, 
and all combined constitute an apjjaratus. 

In the animal we have the apparatus of circu- 
lation, the apparatus of digestion, the lachrymal 
apparatus, &c. 

Corresponding to these, we have in the vege- 
table, as organs of circulation, or vegetation, the 
root, the stem and the leaves of the plant or tree. 
These form the apparatus of growth. 

The difference in the circulating system of the 
animal and vegetable, consists in the fact that in 
the animal there are distinct vessels communi- 
cating with each other, through which the blood 
is forced by the action of the heart. 

In the vegetable there is no such continuity of 
vessels, but the fabric being built up of 
cells, whose walls break up, as" it were, all ef- 
forts of nature to establish those vascular chan- 
aels, another system becomes necessary to pro- 



mote its circulation and its life, and this con- 
sists in '■^imbibition, or endo.smosis.^^ By the sac or 
cell imbibing the sap or fluid through its walls, it 
is carried forward to other cells in turn, for a 
similar process, and thus the circulation is carried 
on in the vegeta*"'le with the same force and cer- 
tainty as though it were propelled by the ever 
active pulsations of an organ as powerful as the 
heart of "he animal. 

It is a fixed law of nature that every plant, of 
whatever character, must have not only the con- 
ditions of growth as it meets them in the earth; 
but organs, both in form and size, adequate to the 
demands of its peculiar nature and ultimate des- 
tiny. The root, therefore, is not only necessary 
to finish it in its general conformation, but is as 
essential to its life and growth as the stem and 
leaves. And whilst the latter flourish in the sun- 
light, and drink in the elements of nutrition from 
the atmosphere, the root is so formed as to reach 
into the dark recesses of the earth, there to 
gather up those principles from the mineral king- 
dom which are not only necessary to the growth 
of the plant, but also to a proper development of 
animal nature. 

In order, therefore, more fully to understand 
this function, we must study the root as a distinct 
part and organ bearing a physiological relation to 
the entire growth- of all vegetation, and capable 
at all times to fulfill its part in the general econ- 
omy of nature. 

The root, as all must know, is far different in 
its appearance and formation to any part of the 
plant. It fastens it to the earth, and as the maia 
feeder in supplying vegetation with mineral mat- 
ter to harden the tissues of the higher grades of 
organic life, it must keep pace with the develop- 
ment of the branch. It grows, therefore, with 
the stem and branches of the plant, but its man- 
ner of growth is of a difl'erent character. Whilst 
the stem elongates tliroughout its entire length, 
the root grows only at its extremity. This 
provision of nature produces an admirable 
adaptation to the peculiar ottice it has to perform. 
It is searching in the dark earth for food to sus- 
tain the branch, and if it grew as the stem, " th© 
hard and unyielding earth would turn it into 



66 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



knotted or contorted shapes, which would be ill 
adapted for the free transmission of the fluid. 
But, lengthening only at their extremities, they 
insinuate themselves with great facility into the 
crevices or yielding parts of the soil, and after- 
wards by their expansion in diameter, they en- 
large the cavities thus formed in the earth. When 
this worm-like growth is arrested by insepcrable 
obstacles, their advancing points follow the sur- 
face of the opposing body until they reach a 
softer medium. 

"In this manner, too, they readily extend from 
place to place, as the nourishment in their imme- 
diate vicinity is consumed. Hence, also, may be 
derived a simple explanation of the fact that roots 
extend most rapidly and widely in the direction 
of the most favorable soil." 

Now, as the branch, or vine, or tree only bears 
fruit upon what is termed the new wood, the 
roots are only able to perform their functions of 
imbibition when there is a new and rapid forma- 
tion of celhdar tissue in this process of enlarge- 
ment and growth. To facilitate, therefore, healthy 
growth of the vegetable, the conditions for the 
formation of this tissue in the root must be pres- 
ent. The soil must be good, and the chemical 
elements in their various combinations must form 
the proper stimulants. These new cells are pro- 
duced near the end of each branch of the root, 
leaving at the very apex an obtusely conical 
mass of older cells to bear the brunt of opening 
cavities in the earth for their growth. As these 
older cells wear away in this labor, they are re- 
placed j by others of a similar kind, joining in 
rif^ht behind them, and hardening too, as the 
others. 

These peculiarities obtain in every form of 
vegetable life. All plants that feed upon the 
soil, have roots; and the general laws which gov- 
ern those roots in their growth and enlargement, 
apply to each and all of them. There are differ- 
ent kinds of vegetation, however, which have 
other characteristics peculiar to their respective 
classes and species, but our space will not allow 
an exhaustive treatment of them. We will, 
therefore, confine our researches to what are 
termed in l.otanical language, PhcBiiogamous, or 
fruit and flower-bearing plants. In these plants, 
and vines, and trees, as in all other forms of veg- 
etation, the roots are composed of cellular tissue; 
this tissue becomes dense in the centre as the 
roots thicken with their growth, and as trees and 
vines advance jin age it condenses into cellulose 
and lignin. The outer surface; or epidermis^ con- 
sists of sacs and cells more loosely arranged. A 
multitude of separate cavities, with closed walls 
or partitiona held together by vital force, consti- 



tute this important fabric. These structures hold 
the liquid until it is absorbed by the denser tis- 
sues, when it is carried forward into the body of 
the plant. 

When trees, or vines, or plants, therefore, are 
over a year in growth, and the roots become 
dense and hard in the centre, and when the 
growth of their branches can no longer keep pace 
with the enlargement of the plant above ground, 
without a more rapid growth of the root than is 
natural, another provision of nature presents it- 
self which is most admirably adapted to all its 
wants. We are speaking now of the function of 
the root as an organ of vegetation. If the plant is 
to live by proper nourishment from the soil, it 
does not only require good soil, but it must have 
an absorbing surface in that soil, suflacient to 
meet all its requirements. But to have as much 
of a growth in the root each year as there is in 
the branch, would make too much root, and 
throw it out of proportion as well as out of char- 
acter. To meet this emergency during the period 
of active vegetation, there are fibrils, or liair-like 
rootlets thrown out from the main branches, which 
are simply elongations of the cells of which the 
sm'face of the root is composed. These rootlets 
form an immense absorbing surface. They do 
not interfere with the natnral growth of the root, 
but live during the active circulation of the plant, 
and when vegetation ceases in the fall they die ^ 
and are destroyed. 

In the light of the foregoing facts, therefore, 
we may see the necessity of exercising the great- 
est care that no plant be disturbed during those 
stages of rapid vegetation. Those rootlets are 
of exceedingly delicate texture, and if ruthlessly 
torn from the main roots in the act of removal, it 
would deprive the branch of its normal stimulant ; 
there would not be sufficient of this new absorb- 
ing surface to nourish it properly, and it WQuld 
wither and die, being literally starved to death. 

After this period of active growth, when trees J 
and plants have yielded their fruits and flowers, \ 
and when waning vitality sinks into a compara- 
tive torpor by the congealing action of the frosts , 
of Autumn, and those minute rootlets shall have I 
performed their function and die ; or, in early 
Spring, before vegetation commences, the pro- 
cess of transplantation can be performed without 
the least injury to the life of the plant. 

These peculiarities and provisions of the root, 
which are characteristic of all manner of vegeta- 
tion, are no less interesting and important than 
any part of the physiological structures of the • 
plants which are above ground, and meet the con- 
ditions of growth amid the gases of the atmos- 
phere and the warmth and light of the sun. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



67 



Every part of the plant, however minute and 
apparently delicate, has its office to perform, and 
no function is more difficult, or requires more care 
and cultivation than the root. A plant maybe 
cut down, or broken and torn to pieces, yet there 
is recuperative power. But such injury to the 
root is sure and swift destruction. 

The fact that the root is so largely vital in its 
relations to the plant, is a provision of nature 
which is not at all surprising when we take into 
consideration the character of the elements with 
which it has to deal. The action of the heat of 
the sun, with the moisture of the ground and the 
atmosphere, produces chemical changes all over 
the face of the earth ; changes which require the 
most scientific management and intense heat in 
the laboratory of the chemist to produce. Min- 
eral substances of the most inert and unyielding 
character are thus reduced by this slow, quiet 
chemical action of nature, into the "Protean" and 
" Azotised" compounds, and other elements 
which enter freely and essentially into vegetable 
life. To meet the productions of these powerful 
re-agents, and to assort the elements and adapt 
them to the several wants of peculiar and re- 
spective plants, is the office and function of the 
root. And, although its spring of action and 
that which quickens all vegetation into life, is the 
liriJit^ yet its work is in the dark caverns of the 
earth ; its form, growth and habits are all directly 
opposite to the glory of the structure it is de- 
signed to build up and sustain. 

S. W. 

(to BE CONTINTIED.) 
^ *m ^ ■ 

THE WATER STREAMS OF LANCAS- 
TER COUNTY, AND OBSERVA- 
TIONS ON RAIN. 

The cause of the increase or decrease of water 
in our streams seems to be a plain question. 
That a continuous fall of rain in large quantities, 
for a week together, will start the springs, and 
increase the volume of our streams ; and that the 
absence of rain, for some weeks in succession, 
will decrease and depress them, is almost self-ev- 
ident. 

I have for some time thought of bringing this 
subject before our Society, for it is a very inter- 
esting one, and is connected with meteorological 
observations that may relate, although remotely, 
to the interests of Agriculture and Horticulture. 

Tiiere is nothing more essential at the proper 
seasons tfian copious showers of rain to insure a 
good crop of wheat, oats, corn, potatoes, and 
other species of vegetation ; and good water from 
a pure spring to quench our thirst, and for culi- 
nary purposes, is not less essential or desirable. 



There seems to be no good reason then why we 
should not include so interesting a subject in our 
list of discussions. I, however, feel myself in- 
competent to do the subject full justice, but I do 
not feel the less desire to introduce it, in order to 
bring out some of our more scientific members, 
who may be better qualified to throw light upon 
it. 

I have often noticed the irregular and unequal 
distribution of rain showers over the county of 
Lancaster. While " settled rains " fall more 
equally over the county, it is far otherwise with 
'•thunder showers." 

I have noticed during the summer months les$ 
ram falls by thunder showers in Mountville, West 
Hempfield, East Hempfield, Rapho, Penn, Eliza- 
beth, Clay and the Cocalicos, whilst in Lancaster, 
the Lampetcrs, Leacocks and the Earls, I have 
noticed more, and therefore these townships suf- 
fer less from want of rain, and their crops of corn 
are :more regular from year to year than in the 
first named. 

To prove my observations I would recommend 
some member to notice and keep a record of the 
rain falls in the neighborhood of Sporting Hill, in 
Rapho township, and another near Enterprise or 
Intercourse, and report the result to this Society 
next fall. 

Prof. Espy, who studied the phenomena of winds 
and rains, during the great drouth of 1838, when 
we had a general failure of corn over the whole 
country, was of opinion that rains could be 
brought down from the clouds by a dense smoke. 
In my opinion the city of Lancaster seems to 
have been more favored with rains than the 
neighboring districts, especially those west of it. 
Is it on account of the smoke, as Prof. Espy sup- 
posed, or is it because the city is supposed to be 
built over a subterranean lake ? In my opinion, 
the reason why the districts east of Lancaster 
city are more blest with thunder showers than 
those on the west, is because almost every other 
farm has running water, and the soil retains more 
moisture, and for a longer period, and that will 
aflbrd a greater attraction for thunder showers 
than is afforded by other districts not so circmn- 
stanced. 

Many years ago it was the prevailing opinion 
that the destruction of the forest trees caused a 
decrease or diminution in the volume of oiu* wa- 
ter courses. The tirst great drought after the 
settlement of this country occurred in the year 
1752 or 1753, when our country was sparsely set- 
tled, verj' little land under cultivation , and com- 
paratively few of the forest trees had been re- 
moved. The ctfuntry was so drj- after harvest 
tUat year that the cattle were compelled to sub- 



68 



, THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



sist upon the field stubbles, and people cut down 
trees in order that their cattle might find succu- 
lent provender in the leaves and twigs thereof. 
They had at times such very dry weather that 
some of the larger streams dwindled down to 
mere rivulets, and the smaller ones dried up en- 
tirely, according to traditions and records handed 
down from that period. 

About the year .1825 we also had a severe 
drought during the summer. Men engaged in 
blasting rocks would almost invariably set fire to 
the dry grass and other combustible matter com- 
municated by the ignited Avad falling upon the 
ground. The water courses became very small, 
and I think it was in that year that the great and 
beautiful spring at Litiz ceased to discharge water 
sufficient to run across the road between Litiz 
and Warwick, a thing that had not occurred since 
that period. In 1838 we has another very dry 
summer — so dry that the corn crop was a total 
failure over the entire county. 

We had also dry seasons at intei-vals since 
then, and our water courses became exceedingly 
low at times, and many wells and springs became 
dry. Engines were brought into requisition to 
assist the water power on many of our mill 
streams. Five out of six grist mills on the Litiz 
creek, and many others on different streams in 
this county could not run regularly for the want of 
water. Yet a gradual change has taken place 
within the last twenty years, and our streams 
have increased in volume, and are more uniform 
in their flow than they formerly were. It is sel- 
dom that those springs and wells fail now that 
used to fail. Engines are now more or less dis- 
pensed with at our water powers. What has 
caused this change? Our forests are nearly all 
cleared away. We have become almost one vast 
rolling prairie. 

And then, as to our modes of cultivating the 
soil in this county. Many years ago we planted 
our corn, then we went through the rows once 
with the spike or tooth-harrow; then it was 
plowed once, after which a slight touch of the 
hoe, and the work was finished. The yield was 
from thirty to fifty bushels to the acre. Now, we 
cultivate with the hoe-harrow, from four to six 
times, to the depth of four or six inches, and get 
from fifty to one hundred bushels to the acre 
We have learned that by keeping the soil loose 
and mellow it will draw the vapors to the ground, 
where they will penetrate to the roots of vegeta- 
tion, and in this way increase the yield. 

In my opinion, dry weather is more common in 
new countries, where there is no cnltivation, than 
in old and well cultivated districts. How often 
do we hear of great droughts in new countries, 



whilst old ones were entirely free from them? 

It was only a few years ago that they had such 
a dry spell in Kansas ; and it is a very common 
thing to hear that they have very dry weather in 
the prairie States, or in densely timbered coun- 
tries, when our old and highly cultivated districts 
are comparatively free from them. 

I have read quite recently that rains have be- 
come more frequent in the Sandwich Islands, 
since they have planted forest trees. If this be 
true, I believe that cultivating the soil has 
brought that change about, and not the planting 
of trees ; as I have fully shown that Lancaster 
county has suffered less from drought since it be- 
came one of the best cultivated districts in our 
country. 

In my opinion, it is cultivation alone that has 
brought us such copious showers of rain for the 
past fifteen or twenty years. It has almost con- 
stantly occurred in this county that where we 
were in want of rain a hard and compact soil had 
not the power to attract the clouds towards the 
surface of the earth. It is said that when more 
than the usual quantity of rain falls in one part 
of the world, there is a corresponding drought in 
some other part. This was true in 1867, when 
more rain fell in .July and August of that year 
than usual in some sections of the United States, 
or than had ever been known before, while at the 
same time the greatest drought prevailed in 
Asia, causing one of the severest famines that 
country ever experienced — caused solely from a 
want of rain, too. 

A small rivulet passes through my fixrm, which 
starts about half a mile eastward from my resi- 
dence. It frequently got dry twenty years ago; 
when it was surrounded by timber land. Now, 
however, it is surrounded by cleared and cultiva- 
ted land, and consequently for more than fifteen 
years it has not been dry at all. I will here 
mention a strange phenomenon in regard to this 
stream — after harvest, or about the middle of 
July and afterwards, it sometimes ceases to run 
for several hours, and then commences again. I 
have noticed the water to disappear and reappear 
a": all hours of the day, whether in sunshine or 
cloudy weather, and I have often wondered 
whether the high and low tides could affect water 
coursas so remote from the ocean. I would like 
to have the opinion of some of the members of 
the Society on that subject. L. S. R. 

[With regard to the allusion made to Professor 
Espy's theory of attracting showers kowards the 
earth's surface by means of smoke, was it not 
also a part of his theory that violent atmospheric 
concussions had the same, or a similar oi«ct? 
Such, for instance, as thuuder, discharges of artiU 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



69 



lery, or blowing of rocks ? In connection with 
this latter idea, we distinctly remember at least 
one ocwasion — either on the 22d of February or 
the 4th of July -that a copious shower of rain 
appeared to be brought down by such concus- 
sions. The clouds for several days previously 
had been dark and lowering, but no rain had fal- 
len. A company of volunteers had turned out to 
celebrate the day by street liiing. Although there 
seemed to be no more indication of I'ain fiilling 
that day than on any of the three or four preced- 
ing days, yet as soon as they commenced firing 
the rain began to fall, and each succeeding volley 
seemed to bring down an increased shower of 
rain, until they were compelled to desist alto 
gether. It was the opinion then of the members 
and others that the discharges of musketry were 
the immediate, if not the superinducing cause. 
As a singular coincidence, we may mention, too, 
that many of the- great battles recorded in history 
after the' invention of gunpowder, were fought 
during copious showers of rain — especially the 
great battle of Waterloo. During the " Great 
llebellion " many of the battles were fought in 
the rain, and some of the people imagined at last 
that many of tlie showers in the North were 
caused by the cannonading in the war South. Im- 
mediately after the battle of Gettysburg we had 
one of the heaviest rains that occurred that 
whole year. Be that as it may, every one capa- 
ble of observation must have noticed that imme- 
diately after every clap of thunder, during a sun.- 
mer shower, there is an increased fall of rain. 
And as to the smoke theory, we think we have 
heard it said that Pittsburg is more favored with 
rains than any other city in our State. The city 
of London, in England, is famous for its cloudy 
and rainy weather. We do not think, however, 
that any of these contingencies would have much 
or any eftect on a long continued drought, or on 
any condition of the surrounding atmosphere not 
saturated with a large quantity of vapour. — Eds.] 

PEAR CULTUHE. 
Essaif read before the Agricultural and Uortieultu- 

ral Society by P. S. Reist, Esq. 

Mk. Chaihman and Fellow Members.— 
This being the day of the regular meeting of our 
Agricultural and Horticultural Association, which 
has for its object the mutual improvement of its 
members, and the dissemination of different views 
ae t<) the best methods of growing fruit and vege- 
tables, I have deemed it not inappropriate to 
6ui>aut a few ideas on the subject of pear cul- 
ture. Not that I am so presumptuous as to as* 
6ume to iQstruet the memb^s of this Society, 
;nany of whom are far more conversant than my- 



self with this subject ; but my attempt upon this 
occasion is prompted rather by ray desire to open 
up a new field of inquiry, and thereby elicit, in- 
stead of hoping to impart, information. 

The age of man is scarcely adequate for the 
planter of a pear orchard to expect to gather 
much of its fruit, as this species of fruit tree is 
long before it begins to bear its fruit in abund- 
ance. The old and venerable pear trees which 
may be seen standing near many of our city and 
country residences, have been planted over sev- 
enty years ago by our ancestors and forefathers, 
who have terminated their earthly career for a 
more happy land. They, in their day, planted 
the trees from which we, their descendants, 
gather the fruit ; and, therefore is it not incum- 
bent upon us like them to plant, also, for our 
successors ? 

There is one feature as regards pear culture 
to which I specially desire to call the attention 
of this Society. 1 will illustrate this by what 
has come under my own observation. There are 
now standing on my farm four or five old and 
nearly worn out pear trees, which have been 
planted not less than seventy years ago, and 
which have long borne, and still continue to bear, 
good fruit, if not every year, at least every alter- 
nate year (except when a total failure of fruit 
occurs). These trees had attained their largest 
growth, and were in their prime about thirty-five 
years ago ; since which time they have been on 
the decline, and seemingly growing less year by 
year ; limbs in the meantime dying and dropping 
oft", whilst sickly new ones would for a time sup- 
ply their place until these again would die, and 
in turn be blown ofl". These trees are the sole 
remnants of many more that were planted about 
the same time — how many it is now impossible to 
say. 

What to me seems exceedingly strange, and 
the feature I refer to is no other pear trees could 
be grown upon the same ground where the first 
had failed, for a period of thirty-five years, when 
about the same number succeeded and scarce any 
since, except some dwarfs and a few stand irds 
not yet arrived at bearing. In order to succeed 
in having the few to live that have grown within 
the last three or four years, I have been com- 
pelled to plant and re-plant every year for eigh- 
teen years, all failing except the few already 
stated. I have observed this in addition that 
most of the trees alluded to which have suc- 
ceeded, have been planted either on places where 
the soil had been tilled up, or where the floods 
had washed considerably, and thereby rendered 
the soil rich. These points may be worthy of 
some reflection, and I throw them out for the 



70 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



consideration of others who may feel sufficient 
interest to ascertain if my observations be 
grounded in fact. On these points I have but 
said what I apprehend might be verified in many 
other places in this country. I only hope that 
some of our skilled horticulturists will note these 
facts as I have stated them, and see if they may 
in any degree aid in deducing correct principles 
for the guidance of our fruit growers. 

The atmosphere would seem to have as much 
to do, perhaps, with the growing of pears, as the 
soil, or how account for the fact that they can 
only be grown upon the same ground every thirty 
or thirty-five years ? If planted sooner, they are 
killed off" by drouth, cold, blight, or other kindred 
disease. While I have spoken of a, succession of 
pear trees being able to be raised upon the same 
ground every thirty or thirty-five years, let it be 
borne in mind that I have reference to the old 
family homestead, which has been settled over 
one hundred and fifty years, and on which many 
groups of pear trees have been planted seventy 
and one hundred years ago. As, however, I be- 
fore remarked, my aim in this feeble attempt at 
composition has not been so much to impart in- 
formation, as to endeavor to stimulate some one 
of our Horticultural friends in this direction, who 
after giving the mattter his attention, may edify 
this Society with his knowledge and refiection. 
If these few remarks hastily penned have. this re- 
sult, their object will then be fully attained. 



HYBRIDIZATION OP WHEAT. 

Farmers have been for years puzzled to assign 
the cause why wheat does not produce as it did 
in years gone by. We propose to submit a few 
suggestions as the result of investigation and re- 
flection upon this question, and which may some- 
what explain, if well founded, the difficulty to be 
solved. It is a well-known law of nature that 
neitlier among animals nor vegetables shall the 
distinction of species be obliterated. This be- 
comes clear when it be remembered that the off- 
spring of two animals of different species is rarely 
endowed Avith the procreative power, and still 
more rarely with a long continued succession. 
The product of two plants of different species is 
in general more prosperous than the animal hy- 
brid, yet it is forced at length to yield to the law 
of nature which compels the absorption of species. 
This law is believed to prevail likewise to a cer- 
tain extent among varieties which are only modi- 
fications of the same species, and 'the operations 
of nature tends, as it is believed, even to the 



mergement of varieties into their original species. 
From observation it has been discovered by emi- 
nent agriculturists of Europe that the cereals are 
among the plants the least favorable to cross- 
fecundation. This, however, has been successfully 
performed in repeated instances already in Europe 
and America, and it is now believed that herein 
is to be found the secret and remedy for unsuc- 
cessful wheat culture. Not that the soil has be- 
come so depleted of its ingredients as to be in- 
capable of producing good crops of wheat is the 
reason why farmers are unsuccessful in this branch 
of husbandry, but because the varieties of wheat 
are running out and returning to their normal 
condition. The diff'erent kinds of wheat which 
we now possess are the results of experiments 
and culture, and some of these now already so 
nearly relapsed into their normal condition that 
they have ceased to profitable. What is now 
needed is a new kind, the product of hybridiza^ 
tion which may be as jDroductive as the wheal 
crop used to be In former times. This, it is be- 
lieved, can be easily obtained when our. farmers 
once turn their aitention in earnest to this mattei 
and when they come to recognize the fact thai; 
innumerable kinds of wheat can be produced bj 
sowing diff'erent varieties near each other, aiu 
by removing the unexpanded anthers from one 
plant and applying the pollen of another and sub 
sequently guarding them from the attacks of birds: 
insects and other disturbing influences. Ne\'| 
varieties so produced have been discovered to b( 
much more prolific for a certain period, until the; 
have, in turn, run their course and become ex 
hausted. We believe by farmers turning thei 
attention to this method of producing new kinds 
will be found the only sure remedy by whicl 
abundant crops of wheat are t© be produced ii 
the future. The land is as fertile as formerly 
but the varieties in use have too nearly reache( 
their condition of nature to prove profitable. Le 
our farmers, therefore, study this question oi 
hybridization and production of new varietie 
and they will discover, as we suspect, the secre 
of the failure of the Avheat crop and how it ma; 
be remedied. An article of the length we desigi 
this, is altogether inadequate to do more thai 
call the attention of the farming community ti 
this very important matter in which the interesi 
of all is involved. Fortunes, we apprehendl 
await the successful producers of new kinds oi 
wheat which may take the place of the old variei 
ties now exhausted. By this means the deca;i 
can be remedied, and as an old and once value* 
variety becomes worthless a new one may havi 
been discovered to take its place. This dete'rior 
ation of varieties is but an exenlplification of uni 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



71 



/ersal nature which we see all around us — birth 
ind dissolution of all creation — the old fades, dies 
and passes away, whilst the young buds forth and 
;ikes the place which the former had ■occupied. 
t ia turn follows, and thus the current of nature 
s ever changing and assuming a new aspect. 

A. II. 



,rEUFFLES, AND HOW TO GROW 
THEM. 

'■ There is, perhaps, no edible delicacy so little 
mown to our people, generally, as that of truf- 
les, and scarely one that is higher appreciated in 
France and Italy. A dish prepared with truffles 
s one of the triumphs of the culinary art. The 
>erfume of truffles newly exhumed is, to one pre- 
iously ignorant of their appetizing fragrance, an 
•vent of lifelong remembrance. To many per- 
ons the very name of truffles is of something un- 
ittainable, the purchase of them a piece of extra- 
iiL'ance not to be thought of; and yet they ought 
(> 1)0 attainable, certainly as- plentiful as mush- 
onins. 

AVherever is thrown the grateful shade of oak, 
)eech, chestnut, birch, and hazel trees, grown, 
lowever, on calcareous soil — that is, soil abound- 
n^' in lime, chalk and flint — or on calcareous 
■lay grounds — that is, calcareous matter mixed 
villi fine quartz sand, lying on a bed of marly 
:lay, which easily splits into thin layers — there 
rulUes may be plentifully found. They disdain 
ill culture. The most careful attention to their 
;ultivation ends in disappointment, unless their 
)wn wild habits are consulted and followed. The 
ihade of trees seems to be the first thing need- 
nl for their production, provided always that the 
ground be equal to their needs. 

The growing of truffles in France on a regular 
•yslem of culture has been often tried, but with- 
>ut success, and it is the opinion of those who 
;iave made the experiment, that the only means 
:>f obtaining a supply is by planting fragments of 
mature truffles in wooded localities, having a 
care, however, that the soil be calcareous, or cal- 
careous clay. 

The most successful plan known is to sow 
acorns for oaks over a considerable extent of 
this kind of land, and when the young oaks have 
attained the age of ten or twelve years, truffles 
are found in the spaces between the trees, and 
this without sowing any morsels of truffles, or 
spores. Acorns are planted, and truffles come 
with the oaks— that is, they spring up of them- 



selves, probably from the spores lying dormant 
in the soil. 

Truffles were thus obtained from such planted 
grounds for thirty years, when the plantation 
ceased to be productive, in consequence of the 
trees shading the ground too much. 

Many of the truffle-ground proprietors in the 
district of Loudon and Civray, in France, make 
periodical sowings of acorns, and thus bring in a 
certain portion of the land as truffle-grounds each 
year. The trees are thinned to about five or six 
yards apart, and as soon as their branches meet 
and shade the ground too much, they are pruned 
out. In the market at Apt, in France, thirty-five 
hundred pounds of truffles are exposed for sale 
every week in their season, which is through De- 
cember and January. The department of Vau- 
cluse is said to yield u^vard of sixty thousand 
pounds weight annually, thus producmg a very 
large revenue. 

Four species of truffles are exclusively used in 
France. In Italy there is one of a very large 
size, the tuber magnatum, which commands a 
higher price than any other kind, and in the 
south of Italy and Sicily, in Syria, and in Africa, 
is another species, the serpezia leonis, which is in 
common use as an article of food. 

The truffles are gathered at two periods of the 
year : in May only a white species is to be found, 
which never blackens, and has no odor ; it is 
dried and sold for seasoning. The black truffles 
commence forming in June, enlarging towards 
the frosty season ; then they become hard, and 
are full of fragrance. They are dug up a month 
before and a month after Christmas. 

Mons. Gasparin, who visited the grounds at 
Carpentras, and from whose description the in- 
formation is obtained, sa3'S, " There is not the 
slightest doubt that truffle plots can be formed at 
will in the centre of France by the acorns of the 
common or evergreen oaks. A sow is employed 
to search for the truffles. At the distance of 
twenty feet she can scent them, and makes rapid- 
ly for the foot of the oak, when she digs into the 
earth with her snout. She would soon root up 
and eat her treasure, were she not turned aside 
by a light stroke of a stick on her nose, and given 
an acorn or a dry chestnut, which is her reward. 
In an hour was gathered upwards of two pounds 
of truffles, in a poor part of the field sown with 
oaks. Mons. Rosscau marked with white paint 
the foot of the oaks where truffles were found, 
so as to obtaim from them acorns for the new 
sowing, and also not to sacrifice the trees when 
he clears the woods." In some parts an artifi- 
cial snout is fitted on the swine, and they then 
throw up the truffles, but cannot eat them 



72 



THE LANCASTER FAEXER. 



The foregoing from the Chimney Corner of | 
April, 1869, is extracted from a work on The \ 
Manners and Customs nf Difererit Xations. In | 
an article on " Edible Fungi," published in our ; 
January number, we had occasion to allude to 
this subject, as a faintly prospective branch of j 
American husbandry, and we cannot see why it j 
should not ultimately become a subject of as much I 
hnportauce as that of fish culture and oyster cul- 
ture. 

"Well, but what are truffles?" asks the inqui- 
sitive reader. An authority before us says they 
are " a kind of mushroom, (iitfier cibarium) of a 
fleshy, fungous structure, and of a roundish figure, 
found buried in the soil of woods, at a depth of 
several inches, much esteemed as an esculent." 
The same authority says that the term truffle is 
from the old French, <r«/e— Norman French, 
<rw;^e— Provincial French, far^«/e— Spanish, ^nt- 
/a— Italian, tartufolo, tubero — and Latin, tuber. 

Roundish, spongy, mushroom-flavored tubers 
have been dug up in oak woods in this county at 
various times and places, many years ago, and 
which may still be in existence, which, no doubt, 
belong to this class of fungous plants, but whether 
any of them were prepared for the table, " this 
deponent saith not." We have seen what is com- 
monly called marieides, and ate them too; and 
these have somewhat the appearance of the illus- 
trations we find of truffles iu books, barring the 
stem. 

As the United States possesses all the varieties 
of climate found in France, Italy and Spain, and 
perhaps also truffle-producing Africa, we may in- 
fer that certain species exist here, or that, under 
favorable circumstancs, may 1 e introduced, and 
left to grow m their own free way, for, according 
to the foregoing article, they wiU not be cultivated. 
Let them then do as they please, only, if possible, 
introduce and prepare a proper abode for them, 
for they are good enough without cultivation. 
When we cannot better the condition or quality 
cf a thing it is best to " take it as it is," and as a 
wholesome and agreeable addition to our list of 
edibles, we shall rejoice in the introduction of 
truffles. S. S. R. 



^olaitg. 



WEEDS.— No. 2. 



DANDELION, OR PI33ABED. 



I find both these names, with reference to the 
plant, in Webster's Dictionary. In order to show 
how common names arise, I will begin with the 
classical Greek name of this plant, Leoutodou, 



from lion and tooth, in reference to the peculiar 
toothed edges of the leaves. The German name 
is Loewenzahn, Pfaft'enrohrlein, and Dotterblume. 
The French have also two nara'es for it. " Dent 
de lion," and hence our common name " Dande- 
lion." The other French name is " Piss-en-lit," 
from its diuretic qualities, and from this our vul- 
gar name "Pissabed," is derived, so that both 
the common names heading this article are cor- 
ruptions from the French. In Gray's Botany it 
is the " Taraxicum dens-leonis." The modern 
name of common Dandelion, which evervbody 
knows, so that I will not waste time to describe 
this native of Europe, naturalized and common in 
almost every part of the United States. It flow- 
ers from the commencement of the Spring to late 
in the Autumn, and is often more abundant than 
welcome in our pasture grounds and meadows. 
It is a diilicult weed to extirpate, because every 
inch of root will form buds and fibres, and thus 
constitute a new plant. The seeds, too, formed 
in the globose heads, with their tliin stipe and 
pappus, forming a parachute by which they are 
carried about by the winds and planted far and 
wide. To say nothing of schoolboys and lovers, 
who blow upon those heads by way of divination. 
Howitt says : 

Dandelion, with globe of down. 
The sjhool-l)oy's clo^k in every town, 
VVIiich the truant pufls amain, 
To conjure lost houis bade again." 

D.xrwin also takes notice of this plant in the 

following verse : 

" Leontodons unfold 
On the swart turf tbeir lay-encirded gold ; 
With Sol's expanding beam the flowers imdose, 
And rising HeSper lights them to repose." 

This plant is also called the rustic oracle by an 
old writer, who says res )ecting the globose head 
of seeds : "Are you separated from the object of 
your love ? — carefully pluck one of those feathery 
spheres; charge each of the little feathers com- 
posing it with a tender thought ; turn towards the 
spot where he loved one dwells ; blow, and the 
little ferial travellers will faithfully convey your 
secret message to his or her pet. Do you wish to 
know if that dear one is thinking of you, as you 
are thinking of him or her, blow again ; and if 
there is left upon the stalk a single aigrette, it is 
a proof that you are not forgotten." The author 
adds, " but this second trial must be conducted 
with great caution. You must blow very gently ; 
for, at any age, even at that which love renders 
most resplendent, it is wrong to dispel too rudely 
the illusions which embellish life." I know that 
even practical farmers can relish a morsel of 
light reading— and if the older ones can not, the 
youuger portion of our readers, I know, relish a 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



73 



slight digression that lifts the curtain upon the 
pleasant whims ofhy-gone years, — I shall, there- 
fore, offer no apology for introducing the poetry 
and romance connected with this common weed. 
I can, however, not do justice to the plant with- 
out stating a few other facts, some of which are 
not generally known. As a salad, blanched like 
Endive, it is rather bitter to be palatable ; m 
Spring, when quite tender, it answers to com- 
pound with other salads — some persons seem to 
relish it, it being frequently seen on the market. 
The root dried and ground is a good substitute for 
the chicory root in making coffee. Swine are 
fond of it, and goats wilt eat it, but sheep and 
cows dislike it, and by horses it is refused. 

The medical properties of Dandelion is aper- 
ient, diuretic and resolvent, and at onetime it wa^ 
much used, and thought to be endowed with very 
powerful properties. Dandelion pills are in the 
market still, and indeed, Park, an old English 
writer, says, " Whoso is macilent, (lean and thin, 
emaciated) drawing towards a consumption, or 
ready to fall into a cachexy, (a bad state of the 
body, a depraved state of the solids and fluids. — 
Hooper), by the use hereof for some time together, 
shall find a wonderful help." Almost all the old 
authors speak of it in equally favorable terms. 
Berhaave had a high opinion of its powers, and 
esteemed it capable, " if duly continued, of re- 
solving obstinate obstructions and coagulations of 
the Viscera." 

But, like many other old remedies, it wiiS for a 
long time neglected, but is agaui employed both 
in Europe and this country to some extent. It's 
diuretic effects are best promoted in combination 
with Supertartrate of Potash, (Cream of Tartar.) 
A decoction made with two ounces of the root, or 
whole plant, boiled in two pints of water down 
to one-half, the dose is about a wine glassful. 
The extract, when properly made, is of a brown- 
ish color, and not blackish •, bitter and somewhat 
aromatic, wholly soluble in water. Dose from 
ten grains to half a drachm. 

J.S. 



^itlotttalagicaL 



SNOUT-BEETLES. 

The insects commonly called " Snout-Beetles," 
and " Weevils," and of late years some of them 
designated by the almost as common term, "cur- 
culios," all belong to the caleoptuous Family 
CuRCULiONiD^, containing about one hundred 
Genera, and species too numerous to mention in 
this paper. We have about seventy-five of these 



species here in the county of Lancaster, but the 
best known and most dreaded, is the Conoirache- 
lus nennuphar of naturalists, but commonly called 
the " curculio.'''' All of these insects, or nearly 
all of them, were originally included by Linnreus 
and others, in the Genus curculio, but it is doubtful 
now, whether we have a single spcies in this 
country that properly belongs to it. The larv(B 
of the curculios live in, and feed upor\, various 
vegetable substances, such for instance, as fruits, 
nuts, seeds, leaves, grain, rotten wood, woody 
and other excrescences, &c., &c. ; and the mature 
insects of some of the species, are sometimes 
found on flowering plants, on fruits, in nuts and 
seeds, and also in decayed wood. There are not 
many of them that come in conflict with the pro- 
ducts of human industry, and culture, but these 
have baflled the utmost skill of man to circumvent 
or destroy, for many years, and at this moment, 
the horticulturist stands appalled at the inroads 
they have make upon his domain, without a cer- 
tain remedy for their convenient extermination. 
Excepting those that feed in nuts, seeds, and 
grain, therere is mainly but one species from 
which the fruit grower is apprehensive of -danger, 
and this one, by way of distinction, he calls the 
curculio, just as if there was but one species of 
that general name, when in fact, there are thou- 
sands of them. This makes it absolutely neces- 
sary to pay some regard to scientific names, how- 
ever objectionable they may be, and without 
which their whole history, in a great measure, 
would become confounded and confused. These 
insects are termed " Snout-beetles," in common 
entomological language, because a leading and 
distinguishing characteristic of the larger number 
of the species, is a prolongation of the front part 
of the head into a "snout," or ros^ntm, as it is 
technically called, with a pair of short, stout, 
sharp mandibles, or jaws, at the end of it, and 
with which they are capable of penetrating very 
hard or tough substances, into which they deposit 
their eggs. The length of the snout or rostrum, 
is more or less connected with the habits of the 
species, for instance, the genus Balannis has it 
very long, and therefore, these are found punctur- 
ing chestnuts and depositing their eggs therein, 
while the nuts ai'e still in the burr and on the 
trees. It is astonishing with what consummate 
patience and skill the female balanius will drop 
her egg, and then pick it up Avith her jaws, and 
with her long bristle-Uke snout, reach in and place 
it in the puncture she has made near the base of 
the nut. 

Nearly all, or perhaps quite all, of the snout- 
beetles, either hybernate m the perfect state, or 
remain in the pupa state, during the winter 



74 



THE LANCASTAE FARMEE. 



season ; for I have fourxd most of the species I 
have in my collection, during; the fall and spring 
months, hidden under stones, or under the bark 
of trees, and many other similar hiding-places. I 
have also taken them during the summer months 
on the wing ; therefore, any device to prevent 
them from crawling up the trunks of trees, is la- 
bor in vain ; for they are all rather poor pedes- 
trians, and in their locomotion depend more on 
their wings than their feet. Some of them are 
found abroad and active very early in the spring, 
as early at least as the blooming season of fruit 
trees, and perhaps at this season they feed upon 
the nectar or the pollen of flowers, as I have often 
found the smaller species, later in the season, 
with their snouts buried in the small flower cups, 
with nothing but the hinder parts of their bodies 
exposed. Our largest species, the Ithycerus cur- 
culionides, of naturalists, may often be found in 
eaaly spring feeding upon the unexpanded leaf 
buds of apple trees, and in some parts of the 
country they are very numerous and very des- 
tructive. I have found the black "wheat-weevil," 
Sitoph'lis granrins, and also a brown species, or 
a variety of it, in the ears of Avheat while it was 
yet uncut, and standing in the fields, about the 
time the grain begins to harden; and I have 
thought that that is the time and place when the 
females deposit their eggs in it; the insects after- 
wards maturing, or coming to perfection, Avhen it 
is in the stack or in the barn-mow. 

Of the "fruit-weevils," or curculios, [Coiistrach- 
elus nemqyJiar,) that siuwive the winter, most like- 
ly the larger number of them arc impregnated 
females ; and, if closely watched, they would per- 
haps be found on the trees when they are in 
bloom. If there are any birds that destroy them 
at this season, they would likely be the orioles, 
or golden robins, the willow urens, and the vari- 
ous species of warblers, which are often seen on 
fruit 'trees at this period, very busily engaged 
from morning until night, feeding upon such 
insects as visit the trees in their blooming sea- 
son, when the buxls arc not frightened off by 
human agencies. 

Presuming that the reader of our journal must, 
by this time, be very familiar with the form and 
general appearance of the popular cui'cuHo, I 
deem it unnecessaiy to give a special description 
of it here, suffice to say, that it is about a quarter 
of an inch in length, of a brownish gray in color, 
externally roughened, Avith a pair of warty eleva- 
tions and two whitish blotches on the back, near 
the middle of the wing-covers. From some cause 
or other, some individuals of the same species 
and same brood, are much darker in color than 
otb«rs. It would be impossible to state correctly 



on what particular day of the month they first 
make their appearance in the spring, for this is 
more or less mfluenced by the temperature of the 
weather, but of thisVe maybe quite certain, that 
from the time plums, peaches, apples, apricots, 
nectarines and pears are as large as a green 
cherry, almost until they ripen, you will find more 
or less of these insects about. Indeed, I have 
known the larvfE to have matured and gone into 
the ground as early as the 10th of June. On one 
occasion I gathered fifty plums which had fallen 
from the tree the previous night, out of which 10 
of the larva) had already gone into the ground ; 
in half a dozen instances they were dead, and in 
the remainder the larvse seemed to be still feed- 
ing. A very singular coincidence was, that in 
three-fourths of these plums, and in which the 
seed had not hardened, I found the larvce in the 
kernel, and only in about one-fourth, where the 
seed had already too much hardened, did I find 
them in the pulp around the seed. I also, on 
one occasion, observed the same thing and m 
about the same proportion in young peaches. 
This would seem to imply an instructive partiality 
for the seeds, or rather the kernel of the seeds, of 
fruit, or else that not sufficient pulp had yet form- 
ed around the seed for the larvfe to feed upon. 
Many nuts and seeds are infested by different 
species of curculio, even the seeds of the grape, 
during the last two years in Canada, Ohio and 
other places, have been infested by these insects. 
It may be, therefore, that their seed eating pro- 
clivities in general, lead them to prefer the seeds 
in stone fruit, and the reason that they are not 
always found there may be because they harden 
too soon for them to penetrate them. I have 
often found the kernel of apple and pear seeds 
eaten out by them, and also the seeds of the plum 
and peach eaten half through, or scored on the 
outside, as though they had been making an eftort 
to get through, and I have also observed the 
same in cherries. I have also observed that 
where the seeds in stone fruit are infested, a 
greater proportion of them fall to the ground, and 
also much earlier than where they are only in the 
outer pulp. The damages to the peach crop in 
former years, with us, has been but trifling, com- 
pared with that done to plums, but in some of 
the Western States it has been great, and we 
cannot tell what it would be now in our locality 
if peaches were as abundant as they once were. 
Although it may be needless to say that the cur- 
culios positively do not cmise the excrescences, or 
knots on plum and cherry trees, yet when those 
knots are still soft and fleshy, they do sometimes 
deposit their eggs in them, and these eggs also 
incubate and the larv« feed upon them. Indeed, 



THE LANCASTER FARMEB. 



75 



if fruit was to entirely fail, and continue to fail 
for some years in succession, 1 should not be sur- 
prised to find the curculios resorting to the tender 
branches of trees in order to perpetuate their 
species, and if I am not much mistaken, they 
have been so found. 

What then is to be done in the curculios case ? 
Is the crop to be resigned to them, or is fruit- 
growhig to be entirely abandoned ? These are 
very significant and very important questions. I, 
for my part, would counsel perseverance, and not 
an abandonment of fruit culture. But just here 
an important condition is involved. Every man 
who draws his sustenance and support from the 
productions of the soil, must accustom himself to 
recognize the circumventing and opposing char- 
acter of insects as a power in the economy of na- 
ture ; and that he cannot disdain or ignore their 
presence with impunity, any more than he can 
the elements of fire and water. The subject ha.s 
been too much sneered at and trivially spoken of 
heretofore, and those who have given any atten- 
tion to entomology have been too much regarded j 
as simpletons. But in your pursuit of this subject ] 
do not rely upon your entomologist alone. In 
many respects you have far better opportunities 
to observe and develop the characters and habits 
of the insect world than he has, if you wish to 
embrace those opportunities. 

But the main question, in a practical sense, in 
regard to the curculio, is how to circumvent or 
destroy it ; and this question, I regret to say, has 
not reached a satisfactory solution. True, there 
are remedies without number, eflectual and oth- 
erwise, some of them involving labor, and pa- 
tient, persevering observation and application; 
but tlie people are looking for, and want, some- 
thing as simple in the application, and as certain 
in its eftects, as the taking of a violent dose of 
salts, and the certain evacuation of the bowels 
that follows it. Unfortunately for the fruit crop, 
the horticulturist, and the fruit consumer, such a 
remedy is not yet at hand. By a combination of 
laborious ellbrts, however, the race of curculios 
may be lessened, and finally exterminated. I 
would, therefore, recommend the trial of every- 
thing and anything in which there Avas the least 
reasonable hope of success, without subjecthig 
the operator to palpable imposition. If there is 
any nauseous compound that will prevent these 
insicts from visiting the fruit trees, apply it. If 
thc.c is any nostrum that will destroy them 
wherever they may be found, try it. Wherever 
chickens, turkeys, pigs or birds will be benficial, 
let them haTC access. If picking up the fallen 
fruit and scalding it will do good, pursue that 
course vigilantly. If they be brought down from 



the trees, and then gathered and destroyed by 
jarring the trees, pursue that course vigorously, 
from the beginning to the end of the season. Xo 
reasonable effort should be left untried, or be re- 
laxed, or be pursued with apathy or indifference. 
A general, efficient, widespread and continuous 
effort must be ultimately crowned with suc- 
cess. It cannot be that the Almighty, in the 
plenitude of his creative and counteracting pow- 
er, has permitted a destructive insect to multiply 
and destroy his other beautiful and healthful 
productions, without vouchsafing to those for 
whom they were created, some means of circum- 
venting or counteracting the operations of such 
insects. Learn to know what a cucurlio is when 
you see it. Find out its seasons of coming and 
going, and how it comes and goes. If there are 
any varieties of fruit totally exempt from, or less 
lia le to their attacks than other kinds, find out 
what they are, and cultivate them. " In a multi- 
tude of CO insel there is safety." 



TAKE CARE 0¥ THE BIRDS. 

At least one of the members of our Society for 
the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals has done 
good service in trying to educate the popular 
mind up to a full knowledge of the usefulness of 
the familiar birds seen in the vicinity of Philadel- 
phia at different seasons of the year; and in 
pleading with the young sportsmen to cease hunt- 
ing and killing them oil that account, as well as 
for their cheerfulness, beauty and innocence. 
This view of the case is strongly enforced in a 
recent article in one of the magazines. Some 
naturalists have divided birds into three classes ; 
those which are supposed to feed exclusively on 
insects, those which eat seeds only, and those 
which feed promiscuously on anything at hand. 
This classification has been proved to be founded 
on erroneous principles. Of the many thousand 
species of birdsJ, it is not positively known that 
any do not feed on insects at some period of their 
lives, while at the same time but very few are 
exclusively insect caters. The large closs known 
a,so7nnivor(jUi, or eaters of all kinds of food, are 
among the most active and valuable assistants to 
the gardener and farmer in destroying insects. 
A recent writer, in pleading the economic value 
to agriculture of birds, declares that "no agricul- 
turist can destroy a bird without knowing that he 
may expect from the act only injury." 

The robin is generally regarded as the pest of 
fruit growers, and he certainly does plunder to a 
large extent the smaller fruits, but it has been 
demonstrated by a careful examination of the 
contents of his stomach that during six or seven 
of the months in which he is in this region he is 
exclusively a benefactor. During the early 
spring months, insects in difTcrent stages of de- 
velopment form his sole food. The larvaj of two 



76 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



hundred insects of a most destructive class have 
been taken from the stomach of a single robin. 
In one instance it is remarked that a shooting 
match had created a scarcity of these birds, and 
a large extent of grass land withered and dried 
up in consequence of the undistm-bed growth of 
insects. Later in the season, fruit was found in 
the crops of the robins, but always intermingled 
with insects, and in the fall of the year they re- 
turned to a strictly insect diet. The food of most 
young birds is almost exclusively of an animal 
character. It has been proved that a young robin 
will consume forty-one per cent, of animal food 
more than his own weight in twelve hours, and 
this food usually consists of earth worms, cut 
worms, and other destructive insects. 

"The measure worm" or "span worm," that 
destroys the beauty of the shade trees in our 
large cities, and is such a nuisance otherwise, it 
is said has been driven from the Central Park by 
the English sparrow, recently introduced there, 
a pair of which will destroy four thousand cater- 
pillars weekly. A thousand of these birds have 
been imported for the protection of the beautiful 
trees which are so justly the pride of Philadel- 
phia. In addition to the worm nuisance, another 
in the shape of the cabbage butterfly of Europe, 
has made its appearance on our shores. It is said 
that were it not for the sparrow, the cabbage could 
not be raised successfully in Great Britian. We 
may have to meet this new enemy by introducing 
large numbers of tts pretty little foe. Researches 
show that every species of bird has its particular 
use in the destruction of the injurious insects and 
vermin, which constitute the greater part of their 
food. Birds are in general iar more useful than 
hurtful, and the popular desire should be to take 
care of, instead of exterminating these beautiful 
little allies of the farmer and fruit grower. Why 
boys should be the mortal foes of birds, it is hard 
to understand. It is perhaps an instinct of the 
old savage nature of man not yet rooted out. 
They should be taught better at home, at school 
and through the magazines and newspapers." 

In addition to what appeared in our April num- 
ber on the subject of birds, we commend the fore- 
going timely remarks from the editorial columns 
of tUe Philadelphia Ledger, of March 25, 1869, as 
pertinent to the question of protection, especially 
at this season of the year ; and when our local 
Society, as well as Agricultural and Horticultural 
Societies elsewhere, are directing their attention 
to legislation in the matter. We Ye el justified in 
occupying more than ordinary time and space 
just now, because, perhaps at no other season of 
the year are birds more capable of performing 
the functions of prevention by destroying insect 
larvte, than they are in the early part of the sea- 
son. A notion, too, prevails, that the first rob- 
ins, blue-birds, and other birds that arrive here, 
do not nest and breed here, but go farther north. 
This is, on the whole, a mistake, and if it were 
not, it could not justify the slaughtering of these 
birds, for whatever good they may do in any other 
locality, either north or south, is a good which 



forms a part of the common good of the whole 
country. jdj 

We have not the "span-worm" that has been 
so destructive to the foliage of the trees in Phil- 
adelphia, in this county yet; nor yet the "canker- 
worm," so destructive to the foliage of the apple 
trees in the eastern States — at least there are 
very few of them here — but we cannot say how 
abundant they may become if the birds are all de- 
stroyed. Our Legislature ought to amend the 
bird laws so as to include, specifically, the names 
of a number of birds not therein mentioned, and 
which could not be included by the present law, 
without raising questions of interpi-etation. For 
instance, sparrows are not, properly speaking, 
insectivorous birds, and yet they feed two or 
three broods of young every season on insects 
alone. As these birds are not game birds, but 
are nevertheless often wantonly killed, their 
names should have been inserted in the body of 
the law. On the contrary, they are finches, 
{Fringillidce), and after they have left the parent 
nest, feed principally on seeds and grains, and 
perhaps on wild berries. The common Wren, 
Willow Wren, Red-Start, and the difterent warb- 
lers, should also- have been included in the un- 
qualified prohibition. Larks, Robins, Cat-birds, 
Thrushes and Black-birds might have been in- 
cluded, specifically, in the list of game birds; not 
on account of their value as game, but for inci- 
dental protection during their breeding seasons. 
The following, from the columns of a high-toned 
cotemporary, is additional testimony in behalf of 
two species of birds, whose injuries to fruit, we 
think, have been greatly exaggerated, and whose 
benefits have been too little heeded by people in 
general. It is true that Cat-birds, in some local- 
ities, are hard on Clinton, Delaware, and other 
grapes of a thin skin and a small berry, but if the 
Wren is encouraged to nest and breed in or near 
the grapery, he will fight the former off if no 
other means could be found for that purpose : 

S. S. R. 

A GOOD WOIJD FOll THE CAT-BlllDS. 

One rainy day, the past summer, as we sat by 
a window looking out upon the flower-bed, our 
attention was attracted to a Cat-bird, apparently 
buried head and shoulders in the soil and trying 
to cxti-icate himself. Our fust impulse was to 
run to his rescue, supposing him to be in dangei' 
from some hjdden enemy : but we soon discov- 
ered our mistake when we saw him gradually 
emerge, dragging out with him, not without some 
difficulty, a very large giub of the May-beetle, 
which he had detected in the very act of eating 
the roots of our favorite geranium. The offender 
was forthwith pounded to a jelly, and in this con- 
dition borne ofi' to the bird's nest hard l)y, where 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



77 



it no doubt gladdened the heartof one of its nest- 
lings. 

Our good opinion of the Cat-bird is confirmed 
by the recent experience of President Hill, of 
Cambridge. A favorite elm, near his house, was 
attacked'last summer by a large swarm of the 
Vanessa caterpillar. They rapidly devoured its 
foliage, and threatened soon to despoil the tree 
of its beauty. One day, when he was about to 
bring ladders and attempt their removal, and 
was considering whether this was practicable, he 
observed a Cat-bird fly to the tree and begin to 
destroy the caterpillers. Seeing this unexpected 
relief, he deferred any interference and awaited 
the result. Nor was he disappointed. In a few 
days the Cat-bird entirely cleared the tree. The 
writer was an eye witness to a similar result, but 
in this case the tree attacked by the vanessa worm 
was a poplar, and the birds which cleared them 
out were Baltimore Orioles. — Atlantic Montldy. 



C&ilatJiaL 



MEETING OP THE AGRICULTURAL 
AND HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

The Lancaster County Agricultural and Horti- 
cultural Society held its monthly meeting, April 
5th, at tlie Orphans' Court room, in the city of 
Lancaster, Henry M. Engle in the chair and Alex. 
Harris, Secretary. The minutes of the last meet- 
ing were read and approved without dissent. The 
following gentlemen were elected members of the 
Society, viz: John H. Miller, West Lampeter; 
Major Elhvood Griest, City •, John C. Martin, East 
Earl, and Simon E. Greybill, of Strasburg twp. 

J. H. Brackbill before signing the constitution 
spoke of the inconvenience of the name of the 
Society, but when he saw the word Agricultural 
as part of the name he was induced to become a 
member of the Society, and he was therefore ready 
to sign the constitution. 

S. S. Rathvon, from the committee appointed at 
the last meeting for the purpose of reporting the 
law in force against the killing of instctiv( reus 
birds, read the law as now enacted and applicable 
to Lancaster county. The committee recommend 
the otiering of additional rewards by the Society 
for the detection of otfenders and also submitted 
a petition to be signed by the members, and pre- 
sented to the Legislature for the purpose of se- 
curing additional legislation in order to prevent 
the destruction of insectivorous birds. 

The report of the Committee was, on motion, 
received and adopted, and the petition circulated 
for signatures amongst the members, all of whom 
present signed the same and attested their con- 
currence in its demands. 

S. S. Rathvou now proceeded to read an essay 
on " Snout Beetles." 



As to the great utility and practical bearing of 
this essay, the President expressed himself in the 
strongest terms. 

■ Peter S. Reist next read an essay upon " Pear 
Culture."' 

Upon the conclusion of this essay, J. H. Brack- 
bill remarked his having planted last year, a 
quantity of pear trees and he desired to know 
what kind could be relied on for winter pears in 
this localit}'. 

H. M. Engle suggested that the Lawrence could 
be relied upon as an excellent winter pear. 

Levi S. Reist spoke of the Lawrence blossom- 
ing with him, but never bearing any fruit. Mr. 
Engle replied, "give it time." Mr. Reist con- 
ceded the tree to be young yet. 

H. K. Stoner rose and spoke of the article on 
"Humbugs" in the February number of the 
Farmer, and stated that he had been intrusted 
in confidence with the receipt of the article con- 
demned as the remedy for fruit trees, and he meant 
to give it a trial and report his experiments to the 
Society. 

H. M. Engle said he had been likewise oftered 
the same to try, but having no confidence in it 
he had not deemed it worthy of a trial. 

Mr. Engle next proceeded to read an extract 
from Tilton's Journal of Horticulture on Fruit 
Growing in America. 

S. S. Rathvon spoke of the necessity of making 
vigorous eftbrts to destroy the curculios, and he 
even suggested it as reasonable that laws should 
be enacted compelling communities to use their 
united eft'orts to destroy these insect fruit dep- 
redators. 

H. K.Stouer had, in accordance with the receipt 
referred to, at an expense of S2.50, made fifty gal- 
lons of a mixture which he regards as sufficient to 
keep all the curculios otf his farm. He expresses 
himself a^ determined to give the remedy a fair 
trial. 

The Secretary, by direction of the Chair, read 
an extract from the Paris (Canada) 8tar, on the 
hybridization of wheat, by C. Arnold. 

Alexander Harris spoke of the success of the 
Goodrich potato as grown by a friend of his hi 
Juniata county. From one potato, near a peck 
of fine, large, smooth potatoes had been grown. 
He infers that while the Goodrich proves unsuc- 
cessful in certain soils, it does well in othei*s. 

Levi S. Reist said he was able to groAV more of 
the Harrison, as the finest potato tliat he has yet 
been able to grow. 

A. D. Hostettersaid the Early Goodrich should 
be planted early, as it is designed only tor an 
early potato. The Harrison did not do well with 
him. 



78 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



S. S. Rathvon referred to the report of the Expe- 
rimental Farm in Chester county, in which it is 
remarked that stable manure has been found the 
best for potatoes of all other fertilizers tried, itncl 
that the Harrison variety yielded better than all 
other kinds. 

J. H. Brackbill was pleased with the introduc- 
t on of the potato topic. From one and a half 
bushels of Goodrich, he had grown 48 bushels ; 
but a friend of his who had planted the (xoodrich 
10 days later, on land as good and equally well 
manured, the crop was a yiiserable failure. Mr. 
B. does not regard the Goodrich as a good potato, 
it being watery and entirel}'' unsaleable. 

Levi S. Reist spoke of the great injury done tc 
a crop of potatoes by permitting weeds to grow 
amongst them, as. it robs them of their nutriment 
and diminishes the crop by half. 

H. Burns raised of the Early Goodrich and dug 
them in August, and found no difficulty in selling 
them for SI. 50 per bushel. 

H. M. Engle regarded several things as essen- 
tial to entire success in growing potatoes : good 
.soil, good seed and good culture all being indis- 
pensable to insure a good;crop of potatoes. Some- 
times the difference of a few days in the time of 
planting them will make a great difference in the 
crop. The more rapidly the potato-tuber can be 
grown and perfected, its flavor and quality is the 
better. "When the tubers mature in too hot 
weather the potatoes are rarely good. 
. Mr. Engle, the President, announced the fol- 
lowing Chairmen of the different Committees, viz : 
on Fruits, Levi 8. Reist; on Vegetables, G. TV. 
Schroyer; on Plants and Flowers, H. K. Stoner; 
on Seeds, A. I). Hostetter; on Nomenclature of 
Plants, jj. B. Garber; on Premiums, Dr. P. W. 
Iliestand; on Finance, Peter S. Reist; on Bot- 
any, J. Stauffer ; on Entomology, S. S. Rathvon. 

After the members had supplied themselves 
with the various seeds sent by the Agricultural 
Department at "Washington, for distribution, and 
also had furnished themselves with such cuttings 
and grafts as various of the members had brought 
with them. Society, on motion, adjourned. 

We received some weeks; ago — but have not 
had an opportunity to make an earlier record of 
it — the First Annual Report of the Superintendent 
of the Eastern Pennsylvania Experimental Farm. 
Some time previously we also received the Pro- 
gramme of the operations of the same institution 
for the present year, which we briefly acknowl- 
edged, in a few lines, in our February number. 
We regret that our space is so limited, because it 
prevents us from transferring both these docu- 
ments entire to our columns. 



The experimental results of the different kinds 
of fertilizers on grass ; the relative merits of the 
different kinds of Oats, Barley, Corn and Pota- 
toes ; the dift'erent yields and qualities of the 
latter, as well as the modes of culture pursued, 
and the dift'erent kinds of fertilizers used in con- 
nection with them, must be of interest and' im- 
portance to every tiller of the soil. The report 
on Potatoes in particular, is full from the first to 
the last, and is only excluded from this number 
of our journal, from its too great length for our 
space. The first series of experiments were on 
the four leading varieties, viz : The Mercer, Moni- 
tor, Harrison, and Early Goodrich, and we sup- 
pose their relative qualities, as human food, may 
be considered in the order of succession in which 
they are named. The first acre was planted on 
the 5th of May, and had 1000 pounds of phosphate 
applied. The second acre was planted thellth 
of May, and had 14 loads of stable manure ap- 
plied as a fertilizer. The same kind, size and 
form of seed was used in both cases. From these 
experiments, stable manure as a fertilizer is far 
in advance of any other fertilizing material in the 
market. Among the artificial fertilizers used, all 
other conditions being equal, Shoemaker''s Phuine 
produced the most satisfactory result, viz : the 
largest yield of salable Potatoes, with as few cull- 
ings. The seed used in this last experiment was 
large Monitor, as contradistinguished from S7)iall, 
which yielded less. 

The form of the seed used was whole tubers — 
large, medium and small — half tubers, quarter 
tubers, the latter planted with the root end, in 
some rows, and the blossom end, in others, down. 

From these experiments it is manifest that the 
Harrison Potato is the most prolific, that is now 
under cultivation, in this, or perliaps any other 
country, yielding at least 150 per cent, more than 
the Mercer or early Goodrich, the two latter being 
nearly equal. Next, after the Harrison, in yield, 
comes the Monitor. Whole tubers, medium size, 
were the most prolific in the Mercer and Harrison ; 
half tubers, large size, cut across, blossom end, 
were most prolific in the Monitor, and Avhole 
tubers, small, in the early Goodrich. Twentj'^-five 
other varieties of Potatoes were experimented 
upon, and the results given, of which the Orono, 
Calico Cuzco and the Carter seemed to be the most I 
prolific^ but in quality they all appear to be in- \ 
ferior to the four first named varieties. We shall j 
refer to this report again, in regard to other crops, i 
at the proper season ; but as being seasonable I 
now, we may mention something about Corn. On|i 
timothy sod, ploughed late in spring, marked out 
both ways, covered with the hoe, and planted on 
the 27th of May, no fertilizer, ^ry seed, four grains 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



79 



to the hill, and hills four feet apart each way, 
produced the largest crop and greatest weight of 
salable Corn, and the smallest proportion of 
nubbens. Of drilled Corn, the large nine-holed 
plate, yielded the largest, but not so large as that 
planted in hills. Of fertilizers on Corn, 400 pounds 
of Moro Philip's phosphate, per acre, sown on 
sod, on the 4th of May, and ploughed in, produced 
the largest. 

Wo have seen one or two paragraphs in the 
newspapers in opposition to this enterprise, but 
they did not seem to be dictated by a liberal or 
enlightened spirit — therefore, the experiment 
should be further tried, before judgment is ren- 
dered. It seems to us that an institution of this 
kind, honestly, intelligently and practically ad- 
ministered, ought to commend itself to the appro- 
bation of the people. Thousands of dollars are 
squandered or purloined, through bad legislation, 
frauds and peculations, without much of a mur- 
mur on the part of the people ; but when a small 
appropriation is asked for, in behalf of an enter- 
prise of this kind, all sorts of selfish and sinister 
motives are attributed to those who ask it as a 
necessity. 

^ 1 ^ 

We have received the Farmers'' ^ Gardners^ 
Almaimcand illustrated Catalogue of the St. Louis 
Agricultural Warehouse and Seed Store , contain- 
ing 160 pages octavo. This is one of the most 
complete catalogues for the farmer we have seen, 
interspersed with farming implements of all kinds. 
Those desiring a copy can obtain one by address- 
ing Plant Bro., Piatt & Co., St. Louis, Missouri. 



AN ACT FOR THE PROTECTION OF 

GAME AND INSECTIVOROUS BIRDS. 

AND REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE 

THEREON. 

Sec. 1. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of 
Representatives of the Commomcealth of Pennsyl- 
vania, in General Assembly met^ and is hereby en- 
acted by the authority of the same, That from and 
after the passage of this act it shall not be lawful 
for any person, within the County of Lancaster, 
to shoot, kill, or in any way trap or destroy any 
Blue-bird, Swallow, Martin, or other insectivor- 
ous bird, at any season of the year, under the 
penalty of two dollars. 

Sec. 2. That from and after the passage of this 
act, no person shall shoot, kill, or otherwise de- 
stroy, any Pheasant between the first day of Jan- 
uary and the first day of September ; or any 
Woodcock, between the first day of January and 



the fourth day of July ; or any Squirrel, between 
the first day of January and the fifteenth day of 
August; or any Partridge or Ilabbit, between 
ihe first day of January and the first day of Octo- 
ber, in the present year, and in each and every 
year thereafter, under a penalty of five dollais 
for each and every offence. 

Sec, 3. That no person shall buy, or cause to bo 
bought, or carry out of said county, for the pur- 
pose of supplying any private or public house, 
or market, any Pheasant, Partridge, Wood-cock, 
or Rabbit, imless the same shall have been shot 
or taken in the proper season, as provided in 
this act, under a penalty of five dollars for each 
and every offence. 

Sec. 4. That no person shall at any time will- 
fully destroy the eggs, or nests, of any birds 
mentioned in the diflerent sections of this Act, 
within said County, under a penalty of two dol- 
lars for each and every offence. 

Sec. 5. That the possession of any person, in 
said County, of any of the game birds mentioned 
in the different sections of this Act, shot, killed, 
or otherwise destroyed, shall be prima facie evi- 
dence to convict under this act. 

Sec. 6. That any person offending against any 
of the provisions of this act, and being thereof 
convicted, before any Alderman or Justice of the 
Peace, as aforesaid, or^by oath or affirmation, of 
one, or more witnesses, shall for every such of- 
fence, forfeit the fine or fines, attached to the 
same, one half to the use of the county, and the 
other half to the use of the informer ; and if the 
oft'ender shall refuse to pav the said forfeiture, 
he shall be committed to the jail of the county, 
for every such offence, for the space of ten days, 
without bail, or mainprise ; Providedhowever, That 
such conviction be made within sixty days after 
the committing of the oftence ; and all laws, in- 
consistent herewith, so far as they relate to said 
county, are hereby repealed. 

James R. Kelley, 
Speaker of the House of Representatives. 
David Fleming, 
Speaker of the Senate. 

Approved— The seventh day of April, Anno 
Domino, one thousand eight hundred and sixty- 
six. A. G. CURTIN. 

The foregoing law, also applies to the counties 
of Chester, Schuylkill, Montgomery, Delaware, 
Mifflin, JSTorthampton, Lehigh, Allegheny, Law- 
rence and Philadelphia. 

Your committee therefore recommend, that in 
every case where a conviction under it takes 
place, within the county of Lancaster, as provided 
in said law, that this Society shall pay to informer 
an amount tqual to that which he shall receive 



80 



THE LANCASTER FAKMEE. 



from the county, and that a certified copy of the 
Alderman or Justice of* the Peace before whom 
f^uch conviction shall take place, shall be neces- 
sary to entitle said informer to the same ; and 
that the Treasurer is hereby authorized te pay 
said amount, out of any money in his hands, and 
if none is in his hands, then if paid out out of his 
own funds, the amount shall be refunded to him 
by voluntary contributions, at the next meeting 

of the Society. 

^ » » . — ■ 

TIME'S CHANGES. ' 
Many years ago, when Lancaster county was 
first settled by the " pale faces," a Frenchman 
traded with the Indians here. lie was known b}'' 
the name of " Indian Peter." There was then 
running thr-ough the county an " old road" to 
Philadelphia, used by the fur traders and others. 
It was on the lines between Warwick and Man- 
heim, and between Leacock and the Earls. It 
was known from the Rapho line to upper Lea- 
cock and "West Earl as the " old Peter's road," 
and between Lower Leacock and Salsbury as 
" old Peter's route." Peter was generally be- 
lieved to have cheated the Indians in his mter- 
course with them. Hence, after his death, it was 
believed by the superstitious that his spirit was 
doomed to pass over this road for an indefinite 
time, making a noise in imitation of the Indians 
whom he had cheated. A similar superstitious 
notion existed in reference to a famous old hun- 
ter, who once, in a fit of ungovernable passion, 
threw his hunting dogs into a fiery furnace, that, 
as a consequence of this cruel act, his spirit, after 
his death, was condemned to traverse the airy re- 
gions of this neighborhood, making a noise simi- 
lar to that made bv his dogs when shrieking in 
agony in the furnace. That such, or similar un- 
accountable noises, were often heard, was true ; 
and were generally attributed to the everlasting 
"hunter," or " Ewig Yachter." They were, 
however, subsequently accounted for on natural 
principles. In the then unfrequented and swam- 
py portions of Lancaster county, the " Night- 
Heron" was a common, and sometimes numerous 
bird, selecting the cedar swamps as their favorite 
breeding and feeding resorts. They are some- 
times called the "Quay-birds,"' from the fact 
that in flying through the air at night they utter 
a shrieking note that sounds like a hoarse and 
hollow pronunciation of qua. 

The Night Heron [Nycticorax Gardenii) builds 
its nest in the top of a tree ; therefore the re- 
moval of our forests apd the march of improve- 
ment has driven them away from the haunts of 
civilization, to more congenial localities, and the 
number that now nest and breed in the county of 



Lancaster must be very limited. An ornitholog- 
ical writer, in describing this bird, says that when 
a large number of them get together after night, 
as they fly through the air, their united croakings 
sound as if a hundred Indians were choking each 
other to death. Being concealed during the day 
in the tops of trees, and going abroad only at 
night, it ip not surprising that the uninformed 
should associate their strange sounds with the 
inhabitants of the invisible realm. In their mi- 
grations they fly very high, so that they may 
often be heard without being seen ; hence in the 
earlier days of our county, all sorts of supersti- 
tious notions existed in regard to almost every- 
thing that was not susceptible of an easy and 
common-place solution. A few years ago, a pair 
of Night Herons were known to hare raised a 
young brood in a thicket, near Kline and Erb's 
miU-dam, on Hammer Creek, in this county, 
where one of them was captured by Mr. R. R. 
Tshudy, who for some time kept it alive. These 
are but the evidences of timers changes. As the 
cobwebs of ignorance are brushed away by prac- 
tical education, and knowledge diftused among 
the common people, superstition and error will 
dissappear before them like the mists of morning 
before a noon-day sun. 

L. S. R. 



Fertilizer for Strawberries. — An exper- 
iment I made last year may not be amiss to the 
growers of strawberries. I procured a half hogs- 
head tub and filled it with ram water, and into 
this I dissolved one quarter pound of ammonia 
and one quarter pound of common nitre, and al- 
lowed the mixture to stand in the open air, ex- 
posed to the sun. "When my strawberry plants 
were coming into bloom I gave my bed a sprinkle 
of this solution in the evening for two times only, 
and the result was that I obtained double the 
fruit where the liquid was applied, to that ob- 
tained ofi" beds along side, which had been treated 
equally, except in the sprinkling above noted. 
John G. Kreider. 



Ashes for Peas. — The Eural New Yorker 
says, a woman sends us the following from her 
diary of her market garden : " In the spring of 
1866, in sowing peas we ashed some in the row, 
leaving other rows unashed. The difl"erence was 
very remarkable. Those that were ashed were 
more thrifty, of a darker, richer color, producing 
at the time of picking larger pods, and a superior 
quality of peas. The same is true of turnips." 

A whitewash of lime and tobacco will protect 
trees from rabbits and mice. 



World Mutual Life Insurance Company 

NO. 160 BROAE)\VAY, NEW YORK. 



J. F. FRUISAIJFF^ C^eneral Agent^ 

No. 5 North Queen Street, Lancaster, Pa. 

A. B. REIDENBACH, Litiz, Lancaster County, Pa. 
SAMUEL L. YETTER, Elizabethtown, Lancaster County, Pa. 
J. M. GRAYBILL, Columbia, Lancaster County, Pa. 

JACOB BAUSMAN, President Farmers' National Bank^ Mnj. JAS. E. RICKSECKER, City Treaeuirw. 

CHRIS'N B. HERE, Pres't Lancaster Co. Nat'l Bank. N. ELLMAKER, Esq., Attorney. 

Messrs. BAIR & SHENK, Bankers. B. F. BAER, Esq., Attorney. 

Judge A. L. HAYES. Col. WM. L. BEAR, Prothonotary. J. F. LONG & SON, DrngglBts. 

Ko fartner is justified in exposing his creditors, his wife, or his children, to the l09t 
certain to occur to them upon tiis death, without a lAfe Insurance Policy for their 
benefit, and in no Company can this be done tvith more safety and under better man- 
agement than in the above. See one of their Agents and have him explain all about U, 



TH 



POTATO 



H 

M ^ 
















We are prepared to fill orders for Spring at the following prices, cash to accompany the order : 
O/te Pound, $1.00, Three Pounds, $2.0(yby 3lail Postpaid. 
One Peck, $3.00, Half Bushel, $W.OO Delivered to Express. 

One Bushel, $15.00, One Barrel $40.00 ** " '* 

(OO pounds to the bushel, 1G5 pounds to th.o barrel.) 

The following varieties can be supplied in large or small quantities : 

Early Goodrioh, per bushel, $1.50, per barrel, 165 lbs. $4.00. 

Mich. White Sprout, Early, •' 1.50, 

Harrison, " 1.50, " *' " 4.00. 

Garnet Chili, * 

Address H. M. KlVCMLiX:, 

— .. *u ,^ , Marietta, Pa, 



A. B. KAUFMAN'S 

Insurance Agency, 

No, 1 EAST OBANGE ST., 

LANCASTER CITY, PA., 

Issues Life, and also, Policies against Fire and 
all other Accidents. 

AGENT FOR THE OLD 

COM. MUTUAL LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, 

The Best Company in the World. 

CAPITAL, - - - {$33,000,000. 



Gas t Steam Fittings, 

Made to Order 

On a new set of Staistdaed Dies, 

AT THE MACHINE SHOP OF 

LAHDIS & CO., 

6ni East James Street, Lancaster, Pa. 

S. 8. RATHVON'S 

Hepchaiit Tailoring, General Clothing 

AND GENTLEMEN'S FURNISHING STORE, 

(KRAMr'3 OLD STAND), 

Comer North Queen & Orange Sts., 
Lancaster, Pa., 

All klnrlfl of Men's and Boys' Ready-Made Clothing and 
Furnishing Goods constantly on hand. Also, a superior assort- 
ment of French, English, German and American Cloths, Cas- 
Bimeres and Vestings which will be made to order in any desired 
•tyle, with the least possible delay ; warranted to give satis- 
faction, and at reasonable charges. 

S. S. RATHVON. 



DEALER IN 

Pianos, Organs, and Melodeons, 

AND MUSICAL INSTRFMEJfTS GEJfEHiLlT, 

A large assortment of Violins, Flutes, Guitars, Banjos, 

Tamborines, Aceordeons, Fifes, Harmonicas, and 

Musical Merchandise always on hand. 

SHEET MUSIO : A large stock on hand and constantly re- 
ceiving all the latest publications as soon as issued. 

MUSIO BY MAIL \ I would inform persons wishing Music, 
that Music and Musical Books will bo sent by mail free of 
postage when the marked price is remitted. 

DEOALCOMAWIA, or the art of Transferring Pictures. Can 
fee transferred on any object. I would call especial attention 
•f OOROhiaakari to vxg gtooJc of Oacalconunla. 



liANCASTER CITY AWD COUNTY 

FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, 

<«■»> 

CA.PITA1L., - - - ^S00,000. 

n »<i ^- 

Hon. Thos. E. Fratj klin, Geo. K. Rked, Edw. Brown, 

Pres't, Treas., Sec'y, 

John L. Atlee, M. D., B. F. Shenk, Jacob Bousman, 
HenryCarpenter, M. I)., F. Shroder, Jacob M. Frantz, 

Hon. A. E. Roberts, John C Hager. 

Houses, Barns, Stores, Mills and Buildings of all kindsi'with 
their contcniSf insured on Favorable terms. 

W. J. KAJROTH, Agent. 
Residence : 36 South Duke St., Lancaster. 

AGENTS WANTED— $10 a Day. 

TWO 810.00 MAPS FOB $4.00. 

LLOYD'S 

PATENT MTOLVING DOUBLE MAPS. 

Two Continents, America and Knrope. and 

America witli tbe United States portion 

on an immense scale. 

Colored — in 4000 Counties. 

These great Maps, now just completed, 64 x 62 in- \ 
ches large, show every place of importance, all Rail- ' 
roads to date, and the latest alterations in tlie various 
European States. These Maps are needed in every 
school and family in the land — they occupy the space ! 
of one Map, and by means of the Reverser, eitkor ' 
side can be thrown front, and any part brought level 
to the eye. County Rights and large discount given^ 
to good Agents. 

Apply for Circulars, Terms, and send money for 
and see Sample Maps first, if not sold taken back on 
demand. Also ready a ?25.000 steel and plate illus- 
trated subscription book, " De Soto, the discoverer of | 
the Mississippi River." J. T. LLOYD, 

may-4t 23 Cortlandt Street, N, T. 

GRUGER & RICE, 

DKUGGISTS & APOTHECARIES, 

No. 13 WEST KING STREET, 

NEXT DOOR TO STEINMAN'S HARDWARE STORE, 

Ijaixcaster, Pa, 

Have always on hand Pure, Reliable Drugs and Medi- 
cines, Chemicals, Spices, Perfumery and Toilet 
Articles. Also Flavoring Extracts of 
their own Manufacture, and of 
unsurpassed quality. 

Sole Agents for Hasson's Compottnd Strup op Tar, the ■ 
best Cough Medicine in the market. We have also on hand in 
season an assortment of Landreth's Warranted Garden Seeds. 

The pubhc can rely upon always gettinq what thbt 

ASK FOR AND NO SUBSTITUTES. 



GEO. F. ROTE , 

IJNDEB TAKER, 

Corner South Queen and Vine Streets, 
LANCASTER, PA. 

Coffins of all size? sUways on band, and fuynlshad »t 
§bQrt«st Notic«. 



1.AV0ARTBB, June Wth, 1SC8. 
EditOes EarPRESs : Di. Wm. M. Whiteside, the enterpris- 
ing Dentist, has purchased froja me a large stock of teeth and 
all the fixtures, the liistruments foriaerlv belonging to mo, and [ 
also those used by mv fiitlier, Dr. Parry, in his practice. In 
the purchase, the doctor has provided himself with some of 
the most valuable and expensire instruments used in dental , 
practice, and has beyond doubt one of tlie best and largest ' 
collections of teeth and instruments in the State. Persons 
visiting the commodious oflices of Dr. Whiteside, cannot fail 
to be tully accommodated. The Doctor loses no opportunity 
of furnishing himself with every late scientific impvevement 
in his line of business. ll. B. PAKRY. 

PIT. M. TO'HITBSIDi:^ 

Office and Residence, 

EAST KING STREET, 

Next door to the Court House, over Fahneatock'a Dry 
Goods Store, 

LANCASTER, PENXA. 

Teeth Ex-tracted without pain by the use of 
{JVitrons Oxide) Gas. 

BOOKS AND STATIONERY. 

A Full assortment of 

SCHOOL, MISCELLANEOUS, AGRI- 
CULTURAL AND HORTI- 
CULTURAL BOOKS, 

A large stock of 

STATIONERY, 

WHICH WILL BE SOLI) AT 

GREATLY REDUCED PRICES, 

On account of removal April 1st, 1869, to 

iNo. 52 North Queen Street, 

(KRAMP'S BUILDING) 

l''otir Doors above Orange Street. 

Subscriptions received for all the Agricultural and 
Horticultural Magazines. 

J. H. SHEAFFER'S 

Cheap Casli Book Store, No. 52 N. Queen 
Street, LANCASTER, PA. 

Dr. N. B. BRISBINE, 

No. 93 EAST KING STREET, Above Lime. 

'lit'. Doctor pays special attention to all old obstinate 
liiscase.s, such as Consumption, Liver Complaint, Dys- 
IMjpsia, llheumatism, all diseases of tUc Heart, Head, 
Throat, Lungs, Stomach, Bowels, Kidneys, Nervous 
Debility, General Debility, Ac, The doctor makes ex- 
. aminationa (K the Urine. (Jpnsultation Free.. 



S. WEICHENS, D. V. S., 
SURGEON DENTIST, 

Office and MesidencCf 

HOWELL'S BUILDING, No. m NORTH QUEEN ST., 

Half a square south of the K. U. Depot. 

Twenty Years' Successful Practice la Lancaster. 

The Latest improvements in INSTRUMENTS 
and TEETH and the very best material, Warranted 
in all operations. 

TEETH EXTRACTED WITHOUT PAIN with 
tlie use of Nitrous Oxide Gas, Ether, or tho Ether 
Spray. 

TERMS, as low as any in the city, when lowpriced 
material and low priced work are used. 

But for FIRST-CLASS OPERATIONS, with ap- 
pliances and material to correspond, prices range 
higher. 

S. WELCHEWS, D. D. S. 



t V« 

SUCCESSOR TO 

WENTZ BROTHERS, 

SiaN OF THE BEE HIVE, 

No. 5 EAST KING STREET, UNGASTEB, PENN'i, 

DEALER IN 

FOREM AND DOMESTIC DM GOODS, 

Carpets, Oil Clotlis, Window Shades. 

SPECIAL ATTENTION PAID TO 

IL^DOii' ©^iii (i©©©S 

Shawls and Embroideries, Cloths and Cassimeres, 

Handkerchiefs, Gloves and Ilosiery, 

Best Kid Gloves. 

The Choicest of the Market, and at the Lowest Possible 

Prices. 

REMEMBER THE PLACE TO BUY. 

THOS. J. WENTZ, 

Bee Hive Store, No. 5 E. King St, 

DKALEU IN 

EOREI&N AND AMERICAN WATCHES, 

IN GOLD AND SILVER CASES, 

CLOCKS OF EVERY DESCRIPTION, 

Jewelry in all its Shapes and Forms, 

SILVER WARE, designed for Bridal Presents; 
BRACKETS, TOILET SETS, VASES, SPECTACLES, 

GOLD PENS, &c., &c., Sec. 

No 10 U West Kiiie Street, opposite tho Crois Keys tiot«l, 

LANCASTER. PA. 



HEA-RDW^REI SHULTZ&BRO. 

Manufacturers, Wholesale and Retail Dealers in 

Caps and Furs, 

LADIES' FANCY FURS, 

HOODS, 

TRIMMED GLOVES AND MITTS, 
Gents' Gloves, Capes and Collars," 

Fancy Robes, I 

20 North Queen Street, 
LANCASTER, PA. 

ERICAN WATCHES 



! 

Housekeepers' Furaishiug ^oodslj 

Tke undersigned at their old established stand in | 
WEST KINO STREET, i 

are constantly receiving fresh supplies to their exten- 
fire mock, from the best manufactories in this Coun- 
try and Europe, and invito the attention of Merchants 
aad Consumers, feeling that we can do as well as any 
keuse in Philadelphia. 

Persona commencing Housekeeping will find the 

Tlie Largest and Best Selected Lot of j 

a* Ma-Bufacturers' Prices. Also, every other aiticle 
kept is 6 first-class Hardware Store. I 

A FULL STOCK OF 

Sadlers', Coaclimakers' and Blacksmiths' Tools ; 
and Materials. 

BUILDERS will find a full supply of every thing 
suited to th«ir wants at LOWEST FIGURES. 

CLOVER, TIMOTHY AND FLAX SEED, 

BOUGHT AND SOLD. 

STEINMAN & CO. 



i 



.. .1 . .i< t ' I - 



p. E. GRUQEB. J. P. GRUGER. 

GRUGER BROTHERS, 

ARBLE MASONS,! 

1^ Soutk Q,ueen St., Lancaster, Pa., I 

Kayo always on hand or will furnish to order at 

•HOBT NOTICE, I 

TOMBS, 1 

GRAVE STONES, ! 

(fee., &c. j 

We pay particular and personal attention both to the 
SELECTION OF THE MATERIAL and the EXECU- 
TION OF OUR WORK, and our facilities now are such j 
that we can guarantee our customers the verj^ best j 
work, at the same, and often Lower Prices, than are ! 
usually paid elsowherer for inferior productions. i 

Lettering 




JVo, 22 West Kiizg Street, 

Next Door Below Cooper's Hotei,, 

DEALERS IN 

I 



ssa.: 






m 



English 



and 



German, ' 

ELEGANTLY AND CORRECTLY DONE. ' 

W* 6iaajest47 i«viie our country friends to give us a ! 



"VST A. T C H E S , 

SILWEMWAIll 

J E "Wr IB X, K, "S" . 

CLOCKS AND SPECTACLES. 



* 3); 




THE UNDERSIGNED REPRESENTS THE 



CHARLES T. GOULD, 

CHAIR MANUFACTURER, 

No. 37 North Queen St., Lancaster, 

(KEXT DOOR TO SUOBER'S HOTEL,) 



BRIflKlYI m IISMiEE UMll loid chairs Se-painted and Repaired. 



AND ALSO THE 



Life ai Accileit taraice CoiDpanj, 

Both stable and well established companies, the former 
having a capital of $1000,000, and the latter $500,- 

ooo 

The plan of issuing policies by the Brooklyn Life 
Insurance Company presents a feature altogether 
unique, and one which removes one of the strongest 
objection, hitherto urged against the plan of Life Insur- 
ance ; and this is what is termed the Surrender Valite 
Plan. Each and every Tolicy issued in the name of 
this Company bears an endorsement, stating the exact 
worth of the policy in Cash, at any time after two or 
more annual premiums have been paid. 

Insurance can also be effected in the North American 
Life Insurance Company, and at lower rates, it is be- 
lieved, than in any other Company in the United States. 

All desirous of securing insurance upon their lives 
can do bo by calling npon the undersigned. 

ALLEN GUTHRIE, Agt., 

East J-jemon Street, 

LANCASTER, PA. 



CHI?IST3AN WIDMYER, 

S. E. Cor. East King & Duke Sts., Lancaster. 

Cabinet Work of every description and a full 

assortment of Chairs constantly on hand. 
[rr'All Warranted as R epresented, ,£0 

JACOB ROTHARMEL, 



®MW^® 



^®l-miiE„ 



DEALER 1>1. 



-, BED «....r«...« ^ ^W», 

BANKERS, 

LANCASTER, PENN'A, 

Dealers in United States Bonds and all 
kinds of Railroad Stock and State Loans. 

Buy and Sell Gold, Silver, and United 
States Coupons. 

Sell Bills of Exchange on Europe and Passage 
Certificates. 

lleceive Money on Deposit and pay Interest as 
follows : 

1 month, 4 per cent., (J months, 5 per cent. 

3 " 4t " 12 " 5i 



(lambs aad Faiic| Ittiales, 

No. 9i North Queen Street, Lancaster, Pa. 

seedTotatoesT" 

EAELY GOODRICH, 
HARBISON, 

MICHIGAN WHITE, 
I and GARNET CHILI, 

\ By the Peck, Bushel or Barrel. Also, 

THE EARLY ROSE, 

which is destined to supersede all of the older varieties 
for quality, earliness and productiveneifs, will be solcl 
in quant itics t o suit purchasers. All the above vane - 
ties warranted pure and genuine. Send for circular. 

Marietta, Pa. 

PLANTS FOR SALE.— Cabbage, Tepper and Egg. 
lom-itoes by the thousand, once or twice transplanted; 
very fine Sweet potato Plants in quantiiy in season. 
Address H. M. ENGLE, 

Marietta, Pa. 



FOR SALE AT 

Chas. A. Heinitsh's Drug Store, 13 E. King St., 

LANCASTER, P E N N A., 

German Cattle Powders! 

The best Powder made' for the Cure ami Prevention of Dis- 
eases to which 0.\en, Milk Cows, .Slicop and Hotjs, are .suli.iect. 
For Stock Cattle preparing for market, a tal)le spoontul in 
their fesd once or twice a week, inipiove.s their condition by 
strengthening their digestive organs, and creates solid tlei^^h 

OEllMAN VEGETAULE OR rNRlVALLED CONDI- 

TION POWDKUS 
For preserving Horses in good liealth, removing all Diseases 
of the Skin, giving a Smootli ami Glossy appearance, al^o a 
sure remedy for Distemper, Hidel>ouiid, Loss ot Appetite, &c. 

■ I'KKSIAN IN8KCT POWDER. 
.A. perfectly safe, quick and easily applied destroyer of Eice 
on Cattle, Fleas, P.edl)Ugs, &c. 

PYROMGNEOUS ACID. 
A substitute for curing Beef, Pork. Hams, Tongues, fimoked 
Sausages, Fish, &c., without the danger and trouble of smok- 
ing, imparting a rich flavor and color. 



T IT E 



Lancaster Inquirer 

Book, }Mh aud S^iswsiiOipei^ 

Fimm ETiumHiHT. 

OFFERS [IREATER IMCEMENTS 

i Executed in the Best Style of rriniing 
than any other office in the bUite. 




James Street, Lancaster, Pa., 

ARE PREPARED TO DO ALL KINDS OF 






BUILD LARGE AND SMALL ENGINES, 



m. 



MILL aEA^EIN^G, 

And all kind of Machine Work done at a first class Shop. 

Having recently removed to their new building, and provided themselves 
with a 



Adapted to the wants of their customers, they are prepared to execute all or- 
ders with neatness and dispatch, and on terms satisfactory to the customer. 
They would invite attention to their large foundry connected with their works, 
in which the best work is turned out. 
They also announce that they are now prepared to supply their 



TO ALL CUSTOMERS. 

This Machine requires Less Powek,, does Moke Woiik, and is considerable 
Cheaper than any other Separator now in the market. This Machine is now 
.improved, well built, and does the best and most efficient class of work. 

Repairing of all kinds promply done at reasonable rates. 

Give us a call, and we will endeavor to please our patrons. 

FRANK LANDIS, 
EZRA F. LANDIS, 
JACOB LANDIS, 



Diller t GroflTs Hardware Store, 

No. 8 East King Street, Lancaster City, Penna. 

DEALERS IN 

Foreign and IDomestic Hard^vrare, 

Such as Building; Material, Paints, Varnishes, Oils, Glass, Coach Trimmings, Stoves,, 

Iron and Steel, &c., &c., &e. 

TIMOTHY AND CLOVER SEEDS OF THE BEST QUALITY. 






11 -A. n nsr E s s 

No. 37 North Queen St., 

NEXT DOOR TO SHOBER'S HOTEL, LANCASTER, PA, 



^r" 



i'^^^S^^^tJ 




,.0O 






€iMl, lUiif t Ollf ill 

^VAGON GEARS, WHIPS, BUFFALO ROBES, 

ELAEET3, TRUNKS, TALMS, CARPET BA&S, LADIES' k GENTS' SATCHELS, 

Of all kinds constantly kept on hand or made to order. Repairing neatly done. 

P Also, Agent for BAKER'S HOOF LINIMENT, the best article for Sore 
Hoofs in the country. 



J. M. WESTHAEFFER, 

11 




No. 44, Corner North Queen and Orange Streets, 
N. B. — ^Any Book ordered can h^ wnt by Mail to my address. 



TO BTJILIDIHII^SI 





The Greatest Eoofing Material of the Age ! 

IS NOW OFPEEED TO THE PEOPLE OF 

LANCASTER AND YORK COUNTIES, PA., AND CECIL COUNTY, 

WITH A PROMISE OF THE FOLLOWING ADVANTAGES: 

It is superior to other coverings for all kinds of buildings for these reasons : '*' 

1. It is water, snow and air-proof from the beginning, and is as fire-proof as ordinary slate. (See testima- 
nials New York Fire Insurance CoBipanies.) 

2. It keeps buildings warmer in winter and does not make them hot in summer as ordinary slate does, and 
it can be, after the fir'st year, whitewashed or painted any desired color so as to obviate all difficulty arising 
from its dark color. 

3. Boino' entirely water and fire-proof, it is invaluable as a covering for the sides of buildings and lining 
cisterns of" whatever material they may be built ; stopping water out of cellars and dampness out of walls of 
houses, and closing leaks between buildings. 

4. Adhering, as it does, with great firmness to tin and iron, it is useful for covering tin roofs and iron exposed 
to dampness or to the atmosphere, such as iron fencQf, cemetery-railings, &c. 

5. Buildings covered with PLASTIC SLATE do not need tin spouts at the eaves nor do the valleys need tin 
to make them water proof. 

6. It is lighter than shingles, and is equally adapted to flat or steep roofs. 

7. The testimony of Wip. M"Gilvray & Co., published herewith, shows that it is not only fire-proof exter- 
nally, but, is also a great hindrance to the spread of fire within. 

8. It is much cheaper in first-cost than any good roofing now in use, and when all attendant^expenscs of the 
two roofs are estimated, costs only about half as much as the best slate, and it makes a better and closer roof. 

9. For the roofing of foundries and casting-houses of blast furnaces, where there are gases of a very high 
temperature, which injures and destroys other roofs, this material is improved and seems to produce a better 
roof, (see certificates of Messrs. Grubb, Musselman & Watts, S. M. Brua and Wm. M'Gilvray.) 

10. If in process of years cracks or leaks occur in Plastic Slate Roofs, they are about as easily repaired, as 
they would be to white-wash, needing only a brush and the Mastic, but no expensive labor of mechanics. 

U^ The Pamphlet referred to in the foregoing notice can be had gratuitously, by calling at the Office of the 
Lancaster Inquibek or Examiner & Herald. 

Persons wishing to examine PLASTIC SLATE ROOFS, and thus verify for themselves the following 
statements, arc invited to call and inspect Roofs put on for the following persons, among many others : 

Lancaster— Thos. H. Burrowes, Stuart A. Wvlio, (Editor Lancaster Inquirer,) J. B. Schwartzwelder, Abraham BItner 
Sr. Marietta— Henry Musselman & Sons., Myers and Benson. Columbia— -C. B. Grubb, (Furnace,) Columbia Gas Co., 
Samuel Shock, Pres't., Susquehanna Iron Compar.y, Wm. Patton, Pres't., Samuel W. Mifflin. Mount Jot— Henry Kurtz, 
Pr J. L. Ziegler, William Brady, J. R. Hoft'cr, (Editor Mt. Joy Herald). Christiana- E. G. Boomell, Wm. P. Brinton, 
Joiin G. Fogle. Bart— William ^Vliitson. Bellemonte P. O— Kobert P. Mcllvaine. Pakadisk— Robert S. Mcllvaine, 

WiLLiAMSTowN—T. Scott Woods. Ephrata— Dr. I. M. GrotH Gordonville— Samuel M. Brua. Carnarvon Twp 

Mrs. Fanny Mast. ITrPER Lbacock Twp.— Marks G. Monger, Christian R. Landis, Jacob B. Musser. Leacock Twp.— Isaac 
Bair, LfviZook. West Earl— Christian Beiler. Leaman Pi-ace— Henry Leaman, larael Rohrer. Brunnerville— Aaron 
H. Brubaker. Sporting Hill— Emanuel Long. Litiz— H. H. Tshudy, David Bricker. Durlacu P. O., Clay Twp — .Jonas 
Laber. Manheim Bt)R.— Nathan Werley, Samuel Ruhl. Penn Twp — George Ruhl. West Lampeter— Aldus C. Herr. 
Enterprise P. O., East Lampeter— Mark P. Cooper. SfRASnuRO Bok — Hervey Brackbill. 

Orders for Roofing Should be sent to 

Joseph Gibbons, 

LICENSE FOR LANCASTER AND YORK COUNTIES, PA., AND CECIL COUNTY, MD., 

Enterprise P. 0., Lancaster County, Pa. 

Or A. W. & J. R. RUSSELL, Laiwaster, Pa. 

Or MOSES LIGHi", Manheim, Lancaster county, Pa. 

Or JOHN R. BRICKER, Litiz, Lancaster county, Pa. 

AUOyS C. HEBE, Lftmpotw, Lauc»iter «oi«it7, Pa. 

/' 



THE FLORENCE SEWING MACHINES. 

THE BEST MACHINE FOR FAMILY USE. 

SIMPLE AND EASY TO LKARx\ AND NOT LIABLE TO GET OUT OF ORDER. 

Capable of all varieties of sewing from the finest to the coarsest. Make the Lock 

Stitch alike on both sides, aud use the least thread. 

1^. F. DUNCAN, Agent, 

No. 65 North Queen Street, LANCASTER, PA. 

itTXJi^SEi^-^r stock:. 

PEACH TREES and GRAPE VINES. Very strong, one and two year old Concords by the thousand 
. Raspberry and Clackberry Stocks, Strawberry Plants, Osage Hedge, Asparagus and Rhubarb Roots. * 

I'OT-A.TOES FOI^ SEE3D. 

. Popular varieties leading among which is THE EA.KLY I^OSE, grown from seed ob- 
tained from D. S. Heffron, ana warranted pure. Quality best, very productive, and o e of the earliest For 
sale by the pound, peck, and bushel. Send for circular. 

. H. M. ENGLE, Marietta, Penn. 



/~N /\ -r-> -j-^ I 

REIGART'S OLD WOE STORE, 

ESTABLISHED IN 1785, 

No. 26 EAST KING ST., LANCASTER, PENNA. 

The reputation of REIGART'S OLD WINE AND BRAN- 
DIES, for purity and excellent quality having been tullv es- 
tablished for nearly a century, we regret that the conduct of 
some unprincipled dealers, who re-flll with and sell from our 
labled bottles their deleturious compounds, compels us to adopt 
the annexed trade mark, which in future, for the protection 
of ourselves and our customers, will be found on all our old 
bottled Wines, Brandies, Gins, Whiskies, Bitters, &o. 



TRADE 




^ MARK. 



And further, in order to protect the same, we hereby an- 
nounce our determination to prosecute to the fullest extent of the 
Act of Assembly, approved, Slst day of March, 1860, any per- 
son or persons who shall violate the provisions of said act as 
applicable to our trade mark. 

N. B.— We respectfully request the public, when they have 
occasion or desire to use Old Brandy at the Hotels or Restau- 
rants to ask particularly for Reigart's Old Brandy. 
Very respectfully. &c., 

H. E. SLAYMAKER, Agt. 



XJ.A.1NTO-A.SXEK. 

UNION SPOKE AND AGRICULTURAL WORKS 

Corner of Water and Lemon 8ts., 
Formerly Shirk & Royer's Warehouse, on the Penna. Rail- 
road, near Baiimgardner's coal yard, and 2 squares west from 
the Railroad Depot, where we manufacture the 

LATEST IMPROVED GRAIN DRILLS. 

Also, Grain Drills with Guano attached, warranted to give 
satisfaction. Roeleatcay Pans, Cider jruilii. Crushers %nd 

Graters, for horse or hand power, which will grind a bushel 
of apples per minute by horsa power, and are warranted to do 
it well. We would also inform Coachmakers that we have put 
up m our shop two of the latest improved Spoke JflaeMnes, 
*ro4^*.'^-'i?L*15' ^i'"? .^"I'y prepared to furnish the best quality 
ot SFOKES ot all kinds, sizes, dry or part dry, and warranted 
to be a good article. We buy none but the best turned Spokes 
and have nowon hand 100,U00 SI'OHXIS. Bknt Fblloks 
of all sizes; Shafts and Caeriagb Poles, Bo^v8, &c., of 
seasonable stulf, constantly on hand. 

As Mr. Keeler has been m this business 16 or 18 ye.ars, and 
having served an apprenticeship at Coachmaking, he knows 
what the trade want in that line. All kinds of Bent Stulf for 
sale, or made to order— and Spokes of all sizes tume.l for per- 
sons having them on hand In the rough. 

Notice to Farmers ajjd MECHANios.-Planing and Saw- 
ing done at the shortest notice. We have one of the best and 
latest Improved Surface Planes for operation. 

KEELER & SHAEFFER, Lancaster, Pa. 



ZAHM & JACKSON, 

No. 15 NORTH aUEEN ST., 

Beg le.ave to call the attention of persons in want of 
a good an.l reliable Tims Keeper to their full assort- 
ment of 

AMERICAN AP SWISS WATCHES, 

In Gold and Silver Cases which will be sold at 
prices which will defy competition. Also, a full assort- 
ment of 

C£.OCKS, 

of all kinds, which we will warrant good and correct 
time-keepers. 

J3E3 "V^E3XjiH.-Sr 

in great variety, such as Pins, Setts, Ear Eings, Finger 
Rings, Sleeve Buttons, Chains, &c. 

SOLID SILVER WARE, 

Manufactured expressly for our sales and warranted coin. 

PLATED WARE, 

From the best factories and warranted the finest quality. 

Gold, SilTer and Steel Spectacles. Hair Jewelrj 
Made to Order. 

Repairing Promptly Attended to. 

ZAHM & JACKSON. 



Vol. L 



THE 




LANCASTER, PA., JUNE, 1869. 



No. 6. 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY 

WYLIE & QRIEST, 

IJ^^QUIRER BUILDING, LANCASTER, PA., 
At ONE DOLLAR PER YEAR In Advance 

UNDER THE AUSPICES OF THE 

I.AXCASTER COrNTT AOKICTTIiTIIRAI. AMD 
HORTICUtTrRAI. SOCIETY. 



PuhlishiTig Committee. 
Dr. p. W. Hiestand, 
H. K. Stojskr, 
Jacob M. Frantz, 
Casper Hiller, 
Levi W. Gkoff, 
ALEXANDEHf Harris. 



Editorial CommiUee. 
J. B. Garber, 
H. M. Enolk, 
Levi S. Rkist, 

"W. L. DiFPENDEBFBK, 

J. H. Musser, 
S. S. Rathvon. 



■^ All communications intended for the Farmer should be 
addressed to S. S. Eathvon and Alex. Harris, the resident 
members of the Editing and Publishing Committees. 

All advertisements, subscriptions and remittances, to Wylie 
& Griest, Printers. 



C^^ap. 



VEGETABLE PHYSIOLOGY. 

THE ROOT OF THE PLAKT, AS AN ORGAN OF 
VEGETATION. 

la regarding the root of the plant as an organ 
of vegetation, we give it a position at once of 
vital importance in the economy of vegetable 
life. Its functions are not as numerous, nor as 
varied as the vital organs of the animal; but its 
relation is just as essential to the existence of the 
plant. 

We have already pointed out the peculiarities 
of structure, the capacity of the root to meet the 
wants ef the plant, and its function or action of 
imbibition. To complete the eniuueration of its 
functions we have yet to notice the action of di- 
gestion or assimilation. . These fundamental prin- 
ciples are as much embraced in the organic struc- 
ture of the root as they are in any other part of 
the plant. But its vital character is that which 
gives the root its leading significance, and which 
renders a thorough knowledge of all its charac- 
teristics necessary in order properly to under- 
stand its relations in the department of vegeta- 
tion. 

In the slow growth of the root, as it insinuates 
its worm-like form in the soil, seeking its rich sub- 



stances, and absorbing the moisture laden with 
the various mineral compounds necessary to the 
sustenance of anunal life, as well as vegetable 
growth, we are not apt to recognize any special 
physiological importance. But when we apply 
the laws of science, and draw out the principles 
of action which are surrounded by the mysteries 
of vital endowment ; a new life seems to pervade 
the whole economy, and each part or organ of the 
plant possesses a significance of a fundamental 
character. 

If we regard the root as a vital organ, embrac- 
ing the functions of absorbtion and assimilation, 
we see at once the wise provision of nature in 
burying it deep in the earth, in order to preserve 
it from injury by violence, or the congealing and 
chemical agencies consequent upon the exposui*e 
above the ground. 

Those functions are characteristic of every veg- 
etable growth, but in the root of the plant they 
seem to be especially active. It is through this 
organ that the structure is fed, and to keep the 
whole growth in a vigorous healthy state, it is 
necessary that all the conditions be present in 
order to have the function act in perfect harmonv 
with each other. If, for instance, there was an 
undue acceleration of absorbtion without the 
power to dispose of the material thus imbibed 
from the earth, the root would grow to an enorm- 
ous size, with no p'erceptible benefit to the plant. 
If, on the other hand, this action was regular 
and assimilation was enfeebled or retarded, the 
result would be equally disastrous. 

The fluids absorbed by the root are not simply 
water, nor yet well elaborated sap, but must con- 
tain mineral matter in solution ; and such matter 
[ to be efl'ective as food for the plant, must f^o 
through a process of preparation. This process, 
then, brings it in direct contact with the external 
conditions and forces of vital action. There is 
here a mutual influence upon the root and the 
stalk, rendering the functions of the whole growth 
dependant upon each other, yet in every action, 
perfectly congenial and hannonious. The oflfice 
of the root in performing those functions is the 
point to which we at this time wish to draw at-^ 
tention. 



82 



THE LANCASTER FAEMER. 



All organized matter mnst be governed by 
those principles. In the animal they are estab- 
lished tlirough the "lu's a tergo,^^ or propelling 
force of the heart, and are influenced by the com- 
plex character of the organization, andkept active 
by the decay and death of the tissue which 
passes ofl'tobe replaced by new formations. This 
process goes on in point of rapidity, in keeping 
with the nature and habits of the animal. Food 
is accordingly required in such quantities as will 
supply this waste. 

In the vegetable, however, the arrangement is 
different. The organization being less complica- 
ted, and the habits less active, the demand for 
food is from the vegetating properties, to build 
up the tissue, ripen its fruit, and to supply the 
waste of fluid tlirough the stem and leaves. All 
those actions are carried forward by a proper and 
peculiar arrangement of cells, corresponding to 
the minor organs of the animal, to complete the 
function. 

There are peculiarities of size, organic compli- 
cation and capacity , which influence the efficiency 
of those functions. The root as an organ is en- 
dowed with the same powers as the main body of 
the plant. With its absorbing action it must pos- 
sess the ability to assimilate nutriment, or it 
would be destitute of the power of enlargement. 
We see ^also many plants where the fruit is de- 
veloped entirely in the root, which could not be 
possible if it did not have this vital endowment as 
a distinct agency in its formation and structure. 

In the higher species of vegetation where lig- 
nin or woody tissue is developed in great abun- 
dance, and deposited in such forms and charac- 
ter, as not only to preserve vitality, but to pre- 
vent exhaustion of the earth, we tind the power 
of self-preservation in the glutinous sap- inter- 
vening betvyeen the wood and the bark. This is 
true of the root as well .as the stem or trunk. It 
is a substance which is elaborated before and after 
active vegetation, and gives the structure a kind 
of vitality or generative power which precludes 
the idea of a constant strain upon the root for 
nourishment. There is thus capacity to retain 
nutrition and keep the tree alive, where plants of 
a lower order of vegetation would droop and die. 
So also in the animal. The formation is of such a 
character as to enable them to go many days 
without food or drink with but little exhaustion 
or injury. Muscle produces muscle, bone gene- 
rates bone, nerve developes nerve in continuity 
with itself, all at the expense of the material sup- 
plied by the same blood arising from the capacity 
for a larger quantity of food than animals of a 
lower grade of organization. 



This principle is beautifully illustrated in the 
growing powers of the tree, and enlargement of 
the root. From this cambium or glutinous sap 
the wood generates anew layer of wood, and the 
bark produces a new cylinder of bark. The lig- 
nious fibre predominates in the wood, and the cel- 
lular tissue in the bark — the whole process being 
performed by the functions under consideration. 

In this interesting process there must not only 
be a harmony of functional power, but the struc- 
ture in all its organic conformations must be in 
keeping with the species of plant which nature 
designs to be the result of the development of its 
vegetating powers. 

As we pass from a consideration of the higher 
order of vegetable life — those plants and trees 
which live many years, in which the root assumes 
a central fibrous trunk, branching olT into many 
parts, not only to brace the sturdy oak against 
the storm, but to gather its food — we find a va- 
riety of other forms of roots variously character- 
ized, and with more or less limited duration. 
They differ in many essential particulars from 
each other, and curioush' strive to ro^ict the same 
destination. 

There are growths which spring from the seed, 
unfold then- foliage and flowers, ripen their fruit, 
and wither and die the same season. Such an- 
nual plants are usuall}- destitute of what is termed 
the '' radical,^^ ov"- pre-existimj axis,'''' but from the 
stem are at once thrown out fibrous branches af- 
fording ample absorbing surface for their nutri- 
tion. The corn and the cabbage are of this class, 
and the stalk composed of fibrous tissue seems to 
act as a depository for the nutriment which is 
rapidly gathered up by the roots in active vegeta- 
tion, to be appropriated as the season advances, to 
the full development of the fruit. In grain, and 
in the grasses, a different order exists with regard 
to the stem and branch, but the absorbing power 
of the new and tender rootlets are well adapted 
to nourish the leafy branches and the ripening 
harvest. This maturing process exhausts the veg- 
etable growth and the plant perishes at the close 
of the season. 

There is another class of roots just the opposite 
to thase above enumerated. They are what are 
termed the JiesJiy roots, 9«ch as the carrot, beet, 
turnip, radish, &c. There the root constitutes 
the fruit, and it is" developed under the ground. 
There are also fibrils and rootlets to complete the 
same functional process as we find in Other plants, 
with the difference that the latter retain the ele- 
ments of nutrition where they are held as reser- 
voirs of matter not only for their own subsistance, 
but for that of such animals as feed upon them. 
They are gorged with starch and the vegetable 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



83 



jellies, which arc elaborated within the body of 
the root by the aid of the little tuft of leaves 
upon the surface of the ground. 

There are also " Bennial " and " Perennial" 
roots, which perish only after their second and 
third seasons of vegetation. Having surrendered 
their powers, like all created things of vital en- 
dowment, they fall into decay and death. 

Secondary roots spring from any portion of a 
growing vine that lies on the ground, or is buried 
beneath its surface so as to provide the moisture 
and darkness they require, for such roots obey 
the ordinary tendency of the organ in avoiding 
the light and seeking to bury themselves in the 
soil. Most creeping plants produce them at 
every joint. And pieces of young stems of 
such plants as are propagated by cuttings will 
throw them out, where the proper conditions are 
applied, as tokens of the natm-e and character of 
their endowments. 

There are also " Aerial Boots,^^ and" Paras-ites''^ 
of various kinds and of peculiar liabits which 
our space will not allow us to notice in this con- 
nection. Enough have been pointed out, how- 
ever, to show their physiological relation to the 
subject in hand. 

The root then as an organ has a function to per- 
form. We have endeavored to show its capacit}^ 
and the adaptation of its structure for such func- 
tion. It now remains for us to notice, brief!}', 
some of the forces which condition its vital 
activity. 

There must be power somewhere to put the 
structure we have contemplated in action. The 
germ, and the root, are but particles of matter 
and fabrics, unable to perform any action of them- 
selves. "We may readily contemplate an organ- 
ism, and analj'ze its component parts; but that 
power which gives it life, and which renders it 
possible for it to meet the exactions of nature, 
must, after all, be supjilied from some source or 
other, or it will forever remain in a state of 
torpor, and be inoperative. 

When we speak of the union of an organism 
with its conditions in the vegetable, we are too 
apt to regard the earth alone as the sum total of 
those conditions. And when we regard the habits 
of the root as seeking the darkness, by burymg 
itself in the soil, we conclude that a little mois- 
ture, with a good rich loam, is all that is neces- 
sary to promote the richest and most flourishing 
vegetation. These, of course, must be present ; 
but, without liyht and heat, those chemical changes 
f liich condition the external force of vital action, 
can never take place. Light, therefore, as an ex- 
ternal condition, although excluded from a direct 
participation in influencing the root to perform 



its function, is, nevertheless, one of its most pow- 
erful agents. 

There are principles in the economy of nature, 
whether in the vegetable or animal kingdoms, in 
which we find opposite elements in close proxim- 
ity, and often blending their power to produce 
other and different compounds, or to balance pro- 
perties and laws regulating growth and enlarge- 
ment, and even vital energy itself. Thus in the 
animal, in the function of assimilation, the blood, 
when circulating through the systematic capillar 
ries, yields a portion of its oxygen to the tissues, 
and receives from them carbonic acid. 

On the other hand, when it circulates the pul- 
njonary net-work, it gives up its carbonic acid to 
the atmosphere, and imbibes a fresh supply of 
ox3'^gen. Now, the elements here at work are in 
direct antagonism in their influence and action 
upon the same species of life. Carbonic acid gas 
is a destructive agent to the animal economy, but 
it is a source of life and health to the vegetable ; 
whilst oxygen, on the other hand, is life to the 
animal, but death to the plant. Here, then, are 
the same elements of life and death, running side 
by side in the same channels, not to destroy, but 
to produce life by the chemical changes occasioned 
by their mutual antagonism. 

In rendering a plant a living organism this 
same process enters largely into the operation. 
Heat and moisture, light and darkness, though 
severally opposite in essence and principle, are 
indispensible adjuncts in moving the germ to 
unfold its vitality, and giving functional power fo 
th.e root in the development of the growing 
living plant. 

These are, of course, external agencies, and 
will be treated more extensively hereafter, but 
the importance of light, even as an indirect con- 
dition to the root, can scarcely be overestimated. 
Its influence is often confounded with that of 
heat, the tv.'o elements being combined in the 
solar beam. But heat, in the main, is less essen- 
tial than light, a position well settled by most in- 
teresting and iustructive experiments. 

Mineral substances held in solution, are here 
to be formed through the chemical agents above 
enumerated, and those compounds are to be 
drawn into the plant through the medium of the 
root as a source of nutrition. Whilst heat and 
moisture may be regarded as factors in this trans- 
formation,^ their oiEce unaided by light will never 
prove to be more propitious in this vital move- 
ment than the root would be without all those 
agencies combined. 

Light must be regarded after all as the motive 
power, and darkness as an element of repose. A 
plant can live for a season in a dark place, just 



84 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



as an animal, but when in this state vegetation 
ceases, and if held too long thus it must of neces- 
sity perish. "Without this influence the order is 
reversed, and as in the '■'■ fungV which seeks 
darkness rather than light, oxygen is absorbed, 
and carbonic acid is set free. Chlorosis thus sets 
in, and where death is not the result, the vegeta- 
ble loses its flavour and nourishing properties, 
and is unable to fulfil its mission. Night, as a 
season of repose, is as invigorating to the plant 
as to the animal, for the waste consequent upon 
the action of vegetation can be to some extent re- 
cuperated. But to keep it thus perjietually is 
simply to cause it to droop and die, tlu-ough a 
species of starvation for a want of the aliment of 
carbonic acid. Light calls all the powers of 
vital endowment into activity, and quickens the 
force of nature, and hence its essential character 
in the process of vital activity. S. W. 



MILDEW, OR RUST, AND ITS REMEDY. 

As mildew is one of the diseases that proves 
hm-tful to the wheat crop, it may be well to glance 
at it and endeavor to explain its caus« and rem- 
edy, so far as science has been able to develop^ 
It is not a disease that has but recently made its 
appearance, but one that is mentioned in history 
in the earliest ages. This disease is recorded as 
one of the scourges of the Jewish people , and it 
is likewise noted by Grecian and Roman histo- 
rians. Ovid, describing the rubigalia, a religious 
festival, established by one of the earliest rulers 
of Rome, makes the priest say, "• If the suu fer- 
vently heats the moist stalks, then, O dread god- 
dess, is the opportunity for thy dread wrath. Be 
merciful, I pray, and withhold thy rusting hands 
from the crops." 

The cause of mildew is a moist stalk heated by a 
hot sun ; and hence heavy dews precipitated by 
clear, cool nights, aad succeeded by a hot sun during 
the day, soon develops the disease. There are 
species of plants that live on the sap of other 
plants, and the mildew and smut are plants of 
this character. That these plants attach them- 
selves to the stalks of wheat and grow thereto, 
and form mildew and smut we know from the 
developments of the microscope which has made 
known such astounding wonders within the last 
half century. The microscope shows the fact 
that the rust is a perfectly formed plant, having 
roots, stems, and branches, and producing seed 
too small for the unaided eye to discover. The 
seeds of this parisitic plant exists in the atmos- 
phere in innumerable quantities, awaiting the con- 



ditions essential to their germination and devel- 
opment. When the stalks of wheat are moist- 
ened from showery weather, no danger, it is be- 
lieved, is to be experienced; but when moisture 
occurs from the precipitation of dew in cool 
nights, then the danger supervenes. Either the 
coldness of the night or the rapid drying of the 
moisture from the stalks, causes a contraction of 
the outer portion of the stem so as to induce 
splitting of the straw through, which the sap 
oozes out. The invisible and multitudinous seeds 
of the rust attach themselves to this sap, and 
burying in it, rapidly vegetate, striking their 
roots into the openings of the straw and thus di- 
vert to themselves the sap of the plant which 
should be used for the nourishment of the stalk 
and the ripening of its grain. As soon as these 
parisites have fixed themselves to the stalk, it 
shrivels and often becomes worthless. 

The Romans, to avert the calamity of mildew 
from their crops, were accustomed to sacrifice a 
red female of the canine tribe on the altar of the 
Goddess Rubigo, the Priest entreating her to 
withhold ber rusting hands. It is exceedingly 
doubtful if this remedy would prove efi'ectual in 
our day, beneficial as it may have been amongst 
ancient nations. Hecatombs of dogs would be 
oSered up if our farmers had as firm faith as the an- 
cient Romans as to this method of preserving their 
crops. By the developments of the microscope it 
has been discovered that it is not in all stages of 
growth of the wheat plant that the straw is liable 
to split under the heavy dews and hot sun. It is 
only in its ripening stage that this result occurs. 
Hence, whatever rapidly shortens the ripening 
stage lessens the danger. Por this purpose there 
is nothing equal to barn-yard or well prepared 
artificial manure, which has the effect of hastening, 
the maturing of the crop. Again, when the wheat 
becomes aflected with rust, it should be immedi- 
ately harvested. This latter remedy might seem 
to the unobservent or unreflecting as ill advised 
and impracticable. This, however, may have 
been observed by farmers that the stem of the 
wheat plant will be found turning yellow imme- 
diately at the ground, from ten daj^s to two weeks 
before it is fully ripe, thus indicating that the roots 
have ceased to supply the plant further with sap. 
Hence, whatever sap and iiutricious elements are 
yet necessary to fill out the grain, must be in the 
stem and leaves. These (if the crop be not cut) 
the rust plants appropriate to themselves and ab- 
stract from the maturing grain. It has, however, 
been discovered that the cutting of the wheat 
stalks immediately destroys the life of the rust 
plants, leaving to the grain the sap and nutricious 
elements in the stem. The grains will mature in 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



85 



the same manner after the stalks being cut as is 
the case with maize. "When the com is cut green 
the grains in a few days will be shrivelled and 
loose on the cob ; but in two or three weeks, 
when the stalk is well dried, the grain is full and 
tight upon the cob. This arises from the contin- 
ued course of the sap to the cob, and from thence 
to the grain. The same holds good in a much 
greater degree with the wheat stalk, whose roots 
cease their action before the maturity of the grain. 
Cut it, therefore, (when aftected with rust) as soon 
as the stem begins to turn yellow at the ground. 

A. II. 



^orficuTluraL 



WHAT WE HAVE DONE, AND NEG- 
LECTED TO DO, IN HORTICUL- 
TURE. 

Those who carefully read the history of Ameri- 
can Horticulture will very likely be as forcibly 
impressed with that which we have neglected to 
do, as with that which we have really accom- 
plished. 

It is true that our progress in the past few 
years has been exceedingly rapid, and the strife 
for a still farther advance is without a parallel in 
this or any other country. There are hundreds 
of men at this very time who are hybridizing, 
crossing and raising seedlings of both fruits and 
flowers for the purpose of making improvements 
upon those already in cultivation. That some 
will succeed, and many fail, must be expected; 
but, upon the whole, progi'ess is certain to be the 
final result. It is not always those who strive 
the most persistently, that have their labors 
crowned with the greatest success ; nor is it 
those who take the lead in making experiments 
in particular directions, that reap the greatest 
reward. The lamented Brinckle taught us by his 
numerous experiments with the raspberry, that it 
was an easy matter to produce new varieties, and 
this has led others to follow in the same path, 
and we are expecting that the coming raspberry 
will be far ahead of its predecessors. It is a fact, 
however, that the most noted varieties of this 
fruit, now in cultivation, are accidental seedlings, 
and were not produced by the direct effort of any 
horticulturist. The Philadelphia, Doolittle, Mi- 
ami, Clarke, Kirtland, and a host of others, are 
chance seedlings, no one claiming to have inten- 
tionally produced them. The same is true with 
our blackberries, for the Dorchester, Lawton, 
Kittatinny, Wilson's Early, Sable Queen, in fact 
the whole list can be traced to no better som-ce. 
Here is an instance which either shows a neglect 



upon our part to improve upon natural products, 
or a want of the requisite skill to do so. 

With Strawberries we have no cause for com- 
plaint, for we have produced native varieties that 
are far more valuable to us than any that have 
been introduced from foreign countries. 

Oiu- Apples and Pears are fully up to the high- 
est standard of excellence, known anywhere ; but 
we lack something in the way of skill in cultiva- 
tion, pruning, and training. This is, perhaps, 
owing to the fact that nature has been too lavish 
in bestowing upon us a soil and climate that per- 
mits neglect. 

In the culture of the Grape, we have much to 
learn, and there is room for great unprovement 
in varieties. The Delaware grape alene is suffi- 
cient proof of the fact that we possess the mate- 
rials out of which a variety may be produced that 
shall equal, if not excel, all other known varie- 
ties, whether native or foreign. Forty years is 
certainly a very long time to spend in making so 
little improvement upon the old Catawba grape, 
as shown in the Delaware, Diana, lona, and 
Walter ; still, if we have moved safel}' and surely 
in the right direction, it should encourage us to 
put forth greater exertions in the future. Our 
progress, however, is not confined alone to what 
has been done in the way of producing new and 
improved varieties, for it is also apparent in our 
increased knowledge and abilities for doing more. 
Our people are rapidly becoming horticulturists, 
even if they do not practice it, and thousands of 
men can be found to-day who know how, and the 
laws which govern the art of hybridizing and 
crossing of species and varieties of plants ; yet a 
few years since the operation was regarded as a 
secret among a few of the most learned in the 
profession. Theories and facts are rapidly ap- 
proaching each other, and it is to be hoped they 
will soon be synon}'mous terms in horticulture. 
We have no sympathy with those who denounce 
all theories, and claim that we should rely en- 
tirely upoil what they choose to call facts, or, in 
other words, practice. 

Every grape-grower knows, theoretically as 
well as practically, that our wild fox-grapes are 
scarcely worth cultivation, but the stickler for 
facts would compel us to prove their worthless- 
ness under cultivation. One scientific theorist 
can accomplish far more for his fellow-man, and 
in less time, than a score of those who call them- 
selves matter-of-fact, and positive-proof men. It 
is not necessary to take a ride over Niagara Falls 
to prove that it would be sure death to the one 
who should perform such a feat. Neither should 
we be compelled to grow every fruit or flower 
for the purpose of proving that they are of no 



m 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



value, when we have theoretically proved that 
such will be the result. 

Again: we have proved, by long experience, 
the truth of the theory that all wild plants may 
be improved, or so changed that they will more 
fully meet our wants than they do in a natural 
state. If we acknowledge this to le true, and 
few will deny it, then we must also confess to our 
great negligence in not endeavoring to improve 
om: native and too long neglected fruits. For 
the last fifty years our fruit-growers have been 
aware that the European gooseberry would not 
succeed with us, except in a very few localities 
and soils, yet it is equally true that scarcely an 
effort has been made to improve our native spe- 
cies, which possess naturally as many good quali- 
ties as the original species from which the Euro- 
pean varieties were produced. A few possibly 
good native varieties have appeared in the last 
few years, but they may be regarded as only the 
starting point for further improvements. 

The imported varieties of currants succeed so 
well that we have a better excuse for not improv- 
ing our native kinds than with gooseberry, still 
the merits of the species found in our Western 
States and Territories demand our attention, and 
they should no longer be neglected. 

The native Crab apple, Plum, Cherry, Persim- 
mon, Paw Paw, June Berry, Huckleberry, and a 
number of other species of fruits, are now await- 
ing the magic touch of the scientific horticulturist. 
It is not necessary to dwell upon the merits of 
these fruits, nor attempt to decide what would 
doubtless result from a careful and persistent ef- 
fort to improve them. 

That they have not been cultivated and im- 
proved is sufficient reason why they should be, 
and it is to be hoped that, before another ten 
years is past away, no such cause for complaint 
will exist. It is not only our indigenous fruits that 
demand our attention, but our nut-bearing trees 
and shrubs are equally worthy of care and culti- 
vation. Even a careful selection and propagation 
of our best wild varieties would be one step in 
the right direction, but even this much has, as 
yet, never been attempted. The Pecan-nut, 
Chestnut, Butter-nut, Black-walnut, Hickory-nut, 
and Filbert, will, at no distant day, le looked 
upon as worthy of cultivation. J. G. K. 



HONEY- 



THE CHINESE TWINING 
SUCKLE. 

Pew things more adorn the dwelling than well 
selected climbing plants. Among these, honey- 
suckles have long held a high rank, and very de- 
servedly so. 

The Lonicera Flexuosa, or Chinese twining 



honeysuckle, which will now claim our attention, 
is one of the most desirable of them. It is onextf 
the number that are devoid of objectionable fea- 
tures. Unfortunately, in this vicinity, some of 
them, as the 'Coral, and the Belgian Monthly 
honeysuckles, and also some others, are liable to 
be infested with the green aphis to such an ex- 
tent, during spring and early summer, as to inter- 
fere materially with their growth and bloom. 
The Chinese Twining has, so far, here proved it- 
self entirely free from this, and similar pests, 
which occasionally so much try the patience of 
the horticulturist ; and being a free, vigorous 
grower, prolific in bloom, and perfectly hardy in 
all our winters, it is worthy of a place wherever 
there is true taste, and flowers are grown and ap- 
preciated. It is a perennial; once planted and 
established, it lives for many years, requiring a 
very small measure of care and attention. It 
blooms here in June, and produces its very fra- 
grant flowers in such abundance as to perfume 
the surrounding air for a considerable distance. 
The first bloom of the season, which is by far the 
most profuse, continues for some weeks, and, after 
that is over, it will produce a scattered bloom 
from time to time, which is prolonged into fall. 
The leaves remain green nearly all winter, and 
some of them even hang fast, and remain partially 
green until the new growth commences in spring. 
It consequently, in this latitude, almost deserves to 
be called an evergreen. On account of their de- 
lightful fragrance and delicate beauty, the flowers 
are much in request in making up bouquets. 

This creeper is well known, and is easily ob- 
tained from nursery-men. It' is also already 
somewhat extensively planted in this vicinity, 
but not as much so as it deserves to be. D. 

HOW TO KAISE LIMA BEANS. 
The following article, which seems to wear a 
practical face upon it, we clip from the Daili/ In- 
telligencer, of this city, in its issue of Monday,' 
May i7th. Although it may be too late to be of 
material use to our patrons, the present season, 
so far as plantmg is concerned, j'et, in a number 
of other respects, it is timely, and, we think, very 
much to the pm-pose, and therefore we do not 
hesitate to give it to our readers without abridg- 
ment : 

" How TO Raise Lima Beans.— The follow- 
ing article of interest to farmers and gardeners 
is furnished us by our correspondent at Conestoga 
Centre : 

" Although Lima beans have conceded to them 
the palm of superiority in quality over all other 
beans, but few persons undertake to grow them 
after several trials, on account of their failure to 
grow them successfully. Many have tried to 



THE LANCASTER FAEMER. 



87 



raise them, and but few have succeeded. This is 
owiag to the want of proper treatment. "VVe 
Have grown them for a number of years, and have 
always succeeded in getting a good crop — a 
larger /juantitv than we could raise on the same 
amount of land of any other kind of beans. The 
principal objections to growing them are, that 
they come up badly, bear poorly, and ripen so 
late that the grcaterpart are caught and destroyed 
by the frost, all of which can easily be obviated. 
Any person observing the following suggestions 
will tiud them to come up as well as corn or 
other beans, yield abundantly, and ripen before 
frost. 

" The ground should be well worked, finely 
pulverizcil, and tolerably rich. A sandy loam is 
the best, but they will do well in any kind of soil 
except a stift" clay, as it gets hard on top, and 
they cannot come up through- a hard crust. We 
plant them in hills Si feet apart, five beans to 
each hill, putting them in on the edge, with the 
eye.s dnwmcard, and covering "very lightly, just 
enough to hide them fully. After the}- are up we 
remove all but three at each hill. As beans do 
not remain under ground, and send up a shoot 
like corn, but the whole bean is pushed out of 
the ground, and Lima l>eans being very broad, 
they will have too much resistance to overcome 
in lifting all the ground with which they are 
covered, if they are laid flat and covered thickly. 
But if put in edgewise, there is very little weight 
upon them, and they come up without fail. They 
are generally planted too early, while the ground 
is yet cold and wet, and in consequence they lie 
in the ground several weeks, and the greater 
part of them rot before they come up, and the 
few that escape rotting and do come up are 
stunted. If planted after the ground has become 
warm, they will come up in a few days, and go 
right ahead. "We never plant ours before the 
middle of May, when those of others are up, and 
still ours ripen first. The poles can be put to 
them when planted, or after tney are up. They 
should be about eight or nine feet long, anii 
should be stuck in the ground slanting, so -that 
four of them will meet at the t»ps, where they 
should be tied together. This prevents the hea- 
viest storm from blowing them down, as each one 
firmly holds the others ; while, if put in Avithout 
being fastened together at the top, they are easily 
blown down after the vines are on. The}' should 
be put in outside of the hills, and lean over them, 
then the vines will go up without any difficulty. 
They must, of course, be kept free from weeds. 
"When the vines are about seven feet high, we 
pinch oft" the ends, and also all the laterals eg 
last as they appear. If the ends are not pinched 
t)ft', and the vines kept free of laterals, the greater 
part of the substance will grow into leaves and 
vines, and each bunch will have but a few pods ; 
the vines will keep on growing until caught by 
the frost, when but a small part of the beans 
have ripened. If the lato-als are kept off", and 
the substance thus thrown into the fruit, all the 
bunches will be full, and the first fruit will all re- 
main, and thus will ripen nearly at the same time, 
and before being overtaken by frost. This is an 
important part, and must not be neglected. They 
should not hang long upon the vines after being 
ripe, as they are easily injured by rain." 



"WEEDS.-No. 3. 

BITTER "WEED, RAG "WEED. 

This coarse, unsightly weed occurs in most cul- 
tivated fields, and is abundant among the stub- 
ble after crops of wheat and other grain. It is 
fortunate, however, that where the soil is good and 
properly cultivated, a good crop of clover and 
timothy will choke it out the next season, but 
like some other coarse weeds the seeds remain, 
and are always ready to spring up again whenever 
the grassy turf is broken up. This weed is cpnr- 
mon from Canada to Florida, and every one 
knows it, and it belongs to the composite family 
of plants, (the compositae.) The generic name 
given to this class of weeds by Tournefort, is a 
misnon^er; he called it "Ambrosia;" the word 
implies immortal in the Greek language and used 
as the food of the Gods, (as nectar was the drink,) 
and withheld from mortals as containing the 
principles of immortality. But Botanists know 
this genus of coarse, common weeds by the 
name of Ambrosia. The Rag weed is the " Am- 
brosia artemisisefolia ;" the specific name is de- 
rived from the leaves resembling those of the 
wormwood, (Artemisia) ; hence it is also known 
as Roman Wormwood, and again by the common 
name of Hog Weed. Each section has its own 
local name. It is therefore better to have a uni- 
versal name so that all who read Botouical works 
all over the world may know it by its scientific 
name, however inappropriate it may be in this 
case. Gray describes four species, all coarse 
and weedy plants. The Rag weed is much 
branched, from one to tliree feet high, hairy or 
roughish pubescent, leaves thin, twice divided, 
(twice pinnatified,) and. too common to require a 
fuller description. 

The old adage that " there is nothing in a 
name, a rose by any other would smell as sweet," 
may be correct, but to call such a nuisance by 
the elegant name of " Ambrosia," makes it no 
food for the Gods, and although called Hog Weed, 
I doubt much whether hogs are fond of it. This 
reminds me of a circumstance that came to my 
notice, of a young country girl sent to a boarding 
school, where she heard about Ambrosial food and 
Nectar. Before her return home she wished to 
purchase some rare and pretty flower seeds to 
beautify the garden, and among others was 
tickled by the high sounding name, got some of 
the seeds of "Ambrosia," and gave it a con- 
spicuous place in the garden on her return home. 
She attended with great care to the rearing of 
her choice plants, but when fully developed her 



88 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



mother took her to task for introducing into the 
garden the vile and execrable Rag Weed, so 
common all over the farm. A further investiga- 
tion convinced her that it was not prudent to be 
governed in our choice by fine sounding words 
only ; that we should first investigate the char- 
acter and habits of plants Or mortals before in- 
troducing them, and lavishing our attention upon 
them. Sallie learned a moral which her mother 
did not fail to impress more fully on her mind ; it 
is not all " gold that glistens," nor every titled 
mortal," Ambrosial." Even Majesty deprived of 
its external remains is a — " a jest." J. S. 



€o^r055jtOlt&0UC0. 



Messrs. Editors: In your April number, 
under the heading " Does Farming Pay ?" your 
correspondent says, is a question often asked, 
" since John Forney made the contrast between 
Lancaster county and the South." How strange 
the story I Why, it is a question that was asked 
as eagerly before J. W. was born. He answers 
the question by telling us it will pay, if conducted 
on the " come-boy " principle. Xow I do not 
know whether your correspondent is some theo- 
retical dreamer, with a bilious penchant for the 
compilation of the marvellous, or a practical 
farmer who has ever seen or experimepted u^on 
the quaggy bosom of a well-filled barn-yard. 
But this I do know : there is considerable fogi- 
ness in the mode he answers the question. To 
learn how successful men make farming pay, is 
the " wherefore" many of us study with eagerness 
from title-page to colophon, the contents of the 
Farmer. But to be told by it we must raise six, 
or perchance eight acres of tobacco, ire stop 
short at once, and shudder to think that our beau, 
tiful Alma Mater shall be cursed by the same 
meaps that so impoverished the once fertile soil 
of Virginia, that it can now be bought for the 
beggarly pittance of $2.50 per acre. 

Another mode is stock raising " ten bullocks 
which are now worth SlOO per head." If it were 
• not for the unthinking, this one of a jumbled 
group of heresies should pass unnoticed. W^hat 
practical farmer, with transportation so direct 
from the broad prairies of the West, would think 
of raising steers on land costing .K;225 per acre- 
Baising cattle, and fattening cattle, are two dif- 
ferent things. It costs not a rod less than 90 
acres to subsist those steers until they were 3 or 
3i years old. Deduct price of calves, ($80,) and 
interest on cost of land, !iii20250, and the cash 
value of cereals that might have been grown on 



that land, and any good Lancaster feeder will 
net as much on ten well-selected Illinois steers 
in seven months. 

Now, Mr. Editor, there is one system of farm- 
ing does not pay, comparatively with other occu- 
pations — we mean the cropper; simply because 
there is too exuberant a growth of merciless 
middle-men, which denies him the same margin 
or rates that many other pursuits are conducted 
upon. It is tme, there are some who acquire a 
respectable competence, not through easy profit- 
ableness, but by much self-denial, and the most 
rigid economy- 
There is another system we believe does pay, 
and from where we sit we see the " housetop " 
where lives the true type of the successful Lan- 
caster county farmer, owner of the soil, indepen- 
dent, intelligent, well read in farm literature, and. 
who possesses the rare qualities of thinking for 
himself, whose products are of the highest order, 
whose every acre is thoroughly treated with the 
phosphate of common sense, where every one of 
the varied departments of the (arm is fully devel- 
oped, and made to pay its proper dividend — thai 
mode we propose to speak of more in detail ; but 
the editorial curfew tolls, and, awaiting a clearer 
exposition of the curriculum of your correspond- 
ent's section — then De Novo. 



CitlutttDlagitaL 



THE PEAR BARK-LOUSE. 

LACANIUM [ASPIDIOTUS] HARRISII. 

Although this insect is generally found on 
young pear trees, and especially on the dwarf 
varieties, yet it does not confine its operations to 
these, but is also found on young apple trees, 
cherry trees, and in a few instances I have found 
it on the common wild rose, or " sweetbrier.'' 
These insects are very small, and can scarcely be 
seen with the naked eye, and yet they multiply 
so rapidly that I have seen young apple and pear 
trees rendered entirely worthless within three 
years by their numerous punctures, and the de- 
pletion of their sap. During the winter season,, 
and in early spring, before the trees are in 
foliage, on the smooth part of the trunk, but 
more especially on the branches, a small, white, 
oblong, flat scale, scarce the eighth of an inch in 
length, with a small blackish or brovy'uish dot at 
one end will be seen, sometimes in countless 
numbers, which when rubbed over with a hard 
instrument will leave a blood-like streak. Under 
these small scales are concealed from ten to 
twenty small red or pink colored eggs, which 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



89 



when crushed leave the streak aforesaid. These 
eggs cannot be seen, except by those who have 
exceedingly sharp eyesight, but under a common 
magnifier they become plainly visible. Alkalin- 
ous and Salinous washes have been recommended 
for their extermination, but with only partial or 
temporary eflect. Kerosene has also been recom- 
mended, but this is knoAvn to have killed the 
small branches. I have seen these insects ef- 
fectually destroyed and removed entirely from a 
a number of pear and apple trees the present 
season by Major C. M. Howell of Lancaster city, 
by the simple application of neat''s foot oil, ap- 
plied with a common paint brush, early in the 
spring, and before the bursting of the leaf and 
flower buds. It is presumed that other kinds of 
oil would be as effectual as the kind Mr. H. used, 
but whether they would or not, it is quite certain 
that the neat's foot has cleaned his trees on this 
occasion without damaging them by the retnedy, 
which is sometimes the case. The effect of the 
oil seemed to be the loseningof the scales, which 
dropped off of their own accord, or were sub- 
sequently washed off by^the rains, not, however, 
without leaving thousands of their blood red 
punctures on the smooth young bark. Without 
deeming it uecessaiy to give a minute descrip- 
tion of so small an insect itself, which is not 
much larger than the "red spider" of the green- 
house, I have thought the communication of these 
facts to the readers of the Farmer might be of 
some essential service to them. 

It would be well perhaps to mention, that some 
oile are said to have been very injurious to trees, 
one of which is " tanners oil." Any oil that 
would form an incrustation and close the porefe of 
bark or leaves, would be likely to have an injuri- 
ous effect. "With milder oils, that would soon dis- 
sipate or wash off, the result would be otherwise 
no doubt. S. S. R. 



^HIoriaL 



We have received a communication from the 
proprietor or inventor of Bower''s Complete Ma- 
nure, taking exceptions to our editorial remarks 
in the May number of the Farmer, upon the re- 
sults of the '• Eastern Pennsylvania Experimen- 
tal Farm," in reference to fertilizers. In our re- 
marks we did not intend to make comparisons 
between the different fertilizers now in the 
market, but only to give the experimental re- 
sults in reference to the cultivation of potatoes, 
and incidentally of corn as being just seasonable 
at the time. Of com*se, if what we said may 
seem to muiitate against the real merits of any 



fertilizers not mentioned in our remarks, we will 
not hesitate a moment to make honorable amends 
for the same. On page IG of the Report of the 
Superintendent of the Experimental Farm, is a 
table giving the results of different fer-tilizers 
experimented with on sundry rows of large moni- 
tor potatoes, which we find as follows : Bower's 
Complete Manure, 8oO lbs per acre," produced 
in per row of 100 yards, 2001 pounds by weight of 
salable potatoes, and 3i' lbs of cullings or small 
ones. " Harrison's Plant Fertilizer, 800 lbs per 
acre," on the same amount of ground, produced 
2031 lbs. salable potatoes, and 24 lbs of cullings. 
" Shoemaker's Phuine, 800 lbs per acre,'.' on the 
same amount of surface, produced 2074 lbs of 
salable potatoes, and 2^ lbs. cullings. In refer- 
ence to corn, (drilled,) on page 11, we find the 
following experimental result, with superphos- 
phates, sown on sod and ploughed in : 400 lbs 
of Moro Philips' Phosphate sown on sod 4th of 
May, produced per acre 5,325 lbs sound corn, 
and 459 lbs of nubbins. The same quantity of 
the same fertilizer sown on ploughed ground ou 
the 22nd of May produced nearly 300 lbs less f 
corn, and where no fertilizer was used still less. 
On page 10, where the results of nine or ten dif- 
ferent kinds of fertilizers are given Ave find the 
following : 

" Harrison's Plant Fertilizer" produced 5,073 
lbs of sound corn, by weight, to the acre, and 516 
lbs of nubbins. " Bower.'s Complete Manure" 
produced 5,125 lbs of sound corn, and 443 lbs of 
nubbins per acre. In both of these cases 200 lbs 
of the fertilizers were used to the acre. But sin- 
gular enough, where •' dry seed, and no fertilizer" 
at all was used, the product was 5,486 lbs of 
sound corn, and 258 lbs of nubbins to the acre. 
In all these cases the gross results were more 
fiivorable to other fertilizers than Bower's, and 
therefore our editorial remarks are sustained so 
far as they go. 

But, as we have promised to refer to the 
Report again on futiure occasions, and in order to 
"render unto Cnesar the things that are Cicsar's," 
as well as to enlighten our readers, we may as 
well do so now. On page 5 we have the results 
of eight different kinds of fertilizers used on 
timothy sod " of about uniform quality, and 
equally well set with grass." Bower's Complete 
Manure, applied April 11, 400 lbs per acre, pro- 
duced 4,784 lbs of hay to the acre, the conuner 
cial value of which is given at f 10.60, (a ton we 
presume,) being a gain of 1,136 lbs over the 
amount produced where no fertilizer was used. 
Shoemaker's Phuine, under like circumstances, 
produced 4,768 lbs of hay, valued at S10.40, 
being a gain of 1,120 lbs. The next most favorar 



90 



THE LANCASTER FAEMEE. 



ble result was from Harrison's Plant Fertilizer. 
On page 6 we have the results of fertilizers on a | 
clover field '' of uniform quality, and nearly 
equally well set," in -which Bower's Complete 
Manure showed the most favorable result, and 
next after it Shoemaker's Phuiue. In this case 
the fertilizers were applied on the 7th of May, 
immediately before a heavy drizzling rain, 400 
lbs per acre, and harvested the ISth of July. 
The increase in the first named was 824 lbs, and 
in the latter 608 lbs per acre over that upon 
which no fertilizer was used. In this case nine 
ditierent kinds of fertilizers were tested, the re- 
sults of. some of w' hich were verj' close to those 
named, especially Moro Philip's and Whaun's 
Phosphate. In reference to fertilizers on bar- 
ley under like circumstances, sown on the ground 
on the 23d and 24th of April, thoroughly har- 
rowed in, and the seed sown on April 27th, the 
following was the result : 400 lbs of Bower's Com- 
plete Manure to the acre produced 29 bushels 
and 24 quarts cleaned barley, weighing 972 lbs, 
and 1,448 lbs of straw. Nine kinds of fertilizers 
were used, including dry wood ashes, five of 
which showed more favorable results than Bow- 
er's; namely: Hewes' Phosphate, Baugh's Phos- 
phate, Harrison's Plant Fertilizer, Shoemaker's 
Phuine, and dry wood ashes. Even where no 
fertilizer was used the result was more favorable 
than in several instances where they were used. 
The relative merit of oats without fertilizers may 
be of interest to our readers, even if it is too 
late for the present season. The "White Poland, 
Black Hungarian and Norway produced the best 
yields, both in reoard to quantity and weight, of 
grain and straw, excepting cleaned grain of the 
Hungarian. The White Poland, 29 bu. to the 
acre, weighing 20 lbs per bushel, Norway, 14 bu., 
11 qts., weighing 19i lbs. per bushel, Black 
Hungarian, 17 bu., 21 qts., weighing 16 lbs. per 
bushel, and so on. We wish it distinctly under- 
stood, that in making these remarks, we are not 
officially endorsing or disparaging any man's fer- 
tilizer, but are merely giving the gross results of 
the experiments alluded to, for the benefit of our 
readers. If we deem it necessary and useful we 
may refer to this subject again in a future num- 
ber of our journal. 



^ — » 



MEETING OF THE AGRICULTURAL 
AND HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

The Society held its regular monthly meeting, 
May 3d, 1869, at the Orphan's Court Room, in 
the city of Lancaster, Henry M. Engle in the 
chair, and Alex. Harris, secretary. The minutes 
of the previous meeting being read, were ap- 



proved by acquiescence. The follbwing names 
were submitted for membership, and. on motion, 
duly elected, viz.: Dr. Saml. Welchons, city; 
John G. Tanger, of Pequa; Jacob Kline, of 
Ephi-'ata; D. G. Swartz, city; Israel Johns, of 
Upper Lacock ; David E. Mayers, of Strasburg, 
and Adam Espenshadc. Moses Brinton, of 
Chester county, was elected an honorary member 
of the Society. 

Dr. Saml. Welchens being present, was invited 
to read an essay upon vegetable physiology, 
which he proceeded to do, and afterward sub- 
mitted the same for publication in the Farmer. 

Upon the conclusion of the Doctor's essay, 
Jacob Stauflfer rose and remarked his entire ac- 
quiescence in the soundness of the positions men- 
tioned by the essayist, and added, that perscSns, in 
the taking of up plants, should be careful to pre- 
serve as many of the small fibrous rootlets as pos- 
sible, as the_v will grow the better. He said 
everv grain of corn contains an ascending and 
descending axis, one of which is inclined to de- 
scend into the earth, and the other to ascend. 
Mr. S., while discussing the subject of the essay, 
was handed by the President, for examination, a 
bunch of blossoms which had grown out of a crab- 
stalk, at a point where before it had seemed per- 
fectly smooth, and these he designated, in phys- 
iognomical language, as adventitious. 

S. S. Rathvon called attention to a remedy de- 
tailed in Warden's Pomology, for the destruction 
of bark-lice. [See another remedy given in an 
article under Entomology.] 

Henry M. Engle suggested that he had heard 
it said that bark-lice only attack weakly trees, 
and* to this Dr. Diffenderfer replied that they had 
attacked all kinds with him, both sickly and 
sound. And he further remarked that they might 
be removed in the month of September, by rub- 
bing them oft' with a cloth or brush. 

D. D. Hostetter asked at what time the brood 
of the apple-tree borer is deposited, and was in- 
formed, by S. S. Rathvon, that the borer deposits 
its eggs from about the middle of May to the 
middle of June. 

Moses Brinton asked how insects can be de- 
stroyed, and whether pear-trees should be culti- 
vated or not. 

Mr. Engle replied that he believed it to be a 
disputed matter, whether pear-trees should be 
cultivated or not ; but, for his part, he had culti 

vated his. 

P. S. Reist said he believed the question of the 
preservation of timber had never been brought 
before the Society. He has observed, in some of 
the papers, a new society which has been organ- 
ized, in some of the Eastern States, which calls 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



91 



itself " The Timber-preserviug Society." He ia- 
quired ;f any of the otlier members of the So- 
ciety liad seen any notice of the existence of such 
a society. 

Jacob Stauffer said a new patent had recently 
been taken out for the preservation of timber by 
the exhaustion of the sap of the wood, and by in- 
filtrating the cellular tissues thereof with a cer- 
tain liquor by means of hydraulic pressure. 

Jacob H. Brackbill asked why dealers in timber 
desired to have trees cut when the leaves have 
attained their largest expansion. 

Jacob Staufler replied as to what might be sur- 
mised as a reason, but of the fact he was not be- 
fore cognizant. 

Mr. Brinton spoke of timber which had been 
cut in July and August, and which did not suffer 
any from worms ; whilst that cut at other seasons 
had suffered very much from that cause. 

Several other members believed Mr. Brinton 
had given the reason why dealers iu timber prefer 
its being cut in Jul}"^ and August. 
^ S. S. Rathvon drew attention to the late law 
passed by our Legislature, which imposes a pen- 
alty of $25 for the killing of certain insectiverous 
birds which are specitied in the enactment. 

H. M. Engle hinted that if it was intended to 
hold a strawberry exhibition in June, it might, 
perhaps, be necessary to take some action at this 
time with reference to it. 

It was therefore moved, by A. D. Ilostetter, 
that a committee be appointed to consult as to 
the propriety of holding such an exhibition, and 
take such preliminary steps as the case may de- 
mand. 

The chairman appointed the following members 
on the said committee, viz.: A. D. Hostetter, H. 
K. Stouer, S. S. Rathvon, Alex. Harris, Levi S. 
Keist, Jacob Stauffer, and Dr. Saml. Welchens. 

Jacob B. Garber presented to the Society a 
root of a grape vine that had been grafted, and, 
where a perfect union bad been effected, a result 
that been greatly questioned by plwsiologists. 

After the transaction of some matter of minor 
importance, the Society on motion adjourned. 



IMPROVED CATTLE IN LANCASTER 
COUNTY. 
As much noted as Lancaster county is in Con- 
estoga horses, it has no promising record in the 
rearing of fine cattle, and, although Lancaster 
county furnishes well-fed steers in the Philadel- 
phia market, and of her farmers are some who 
pride themselves as being considered leading 
cattle-feeders, yet raising good cattle in the coun- 
try is a different thing. All the good cattle fed 



in the country are raised in the Western States. 
Kentucky, Ohio, Illinois, Iowa, and Missouri 
raise the best of stock, and may be regarded as 
he leading cattle-growing States. In travelling 
over those States last summer, I noticed, almost 
everywhere on the prairies, nothing but the 
lieavy Durham breed. In many places a law, or 
universally observed custom prevails, that no 
scrul>bull is allowed to run at large, and, in case 
one is turned out on the prairie, he is sure soon 
to be changed into a stag. It is owing to this 
custom that the Western people invariably have 
good improved stock. The people of Lancaster 
county might soon improve their stock, if they 
would be more attentive to the keeping of good 
bulls. But the excuse alleged is that cattle-rais- 
ing does not pay in Lancaster county, and this 
may have some foundation as regards the raising 
of stock steers, yet most farmers keep from four 
to eight cows on their farm. The calves are sold 
off" for the shambles, with the exception of a few 
heifer calves, and hence a carelessness as to stock 
prevails, because raising stock steers does not 
pay, as is alleged — our Lancaster county farmers 
hang on to the old breeds of cattle which were 
brought here many years ago ; while, were they 
to choose their stock from the Western improved 
kinds, they Avould be well paid (as it occurs to 
me) for the raising of them, as these kinds would 
bring from ten to thirty dollars per head more in 
our markets than the old, unimproved stock. It 
is said by some that our ordinary cows are better 
milkers, and consequently more valuable; but 
this is asserted by those who have no knowledge 
of the Western cows, for the West produces milk 
cows of the finest kind, having large square udders, 
and such as would have brought from ninety to 
one hundred dollars at our sales. Only a few 
men in Lancaster county make a practice to raise 
good stock. Our people would have all opportu- 
nities to improve their cattle through the con- 
tinual transportation of bulls and heifers from the 
West to our Eastern markets. Four years ago I 
saw one whole car-load of bulls brought from 
Kentucky, all heavy durhams, or short-Korns,and 
not one of them could be sold for a breeder ; and, 
as a consequence, all were purchased by one man 
for feeders, at only ordinary prices. When once 
a bull is three years old, it does not matter what 
quality he is, he cannot be sold for more than a 
scrub l)ull of the same weight. In fact, the people 
seem to make no difference between a neat im- 
proved, and a scrub bull. Durhams, so ciUed, 
may differ in color, size, and weight, but ought 
not to differ in shape. On the Western reserves 
they generally have the red Durham tolerably 
heavy ; in Kentucky they have the white Dur- 



02 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



ham, very heavy. All over Illinois and Iowa, 
the white and roan calves are generally very 
heavy when first dropped, weighing frequently 
from eighty to one hundred pounds. These are im- 
proved in weight over the old English breed from 
which they are sprung, and this improvement has 
taken place chiefly in the blue grass country of 
Kentucky. The first Durhams brought tp this 
country by Jackson, near Lancaster, were red and 
roans, neat in appearance, and not very heavy. 
The calves were very small when first dropped. 
Some of the full-blooded cows had sometimes a 
bulk in the back of the udder, which proved some 
objection in the selling of them. In the half- 
breeds and graded stock, however, the very best 
results followed. It is not specially of the Dur- 
hams or short horns that I wish to speak. It is 
the generally improved breeds that I particularly 
have in view, and I desire that our friends should 
endeavor to improve their stock, especially their 
cows, in the same manner they have done in the 
Western States. L. S. R. 

^ IMI <i 

AN AGRICULTURAL LIBRARY. 

Xowthat Lancaster county has an agricultural 
society and monthly organ, the Lancaster 
Farmer, it seems to bid as if determined to 
keep pace with the improvements and develop- 
ments of the age, one thing is yet wanting -he 
wants a well selected library of agricultural 
books on different branches of husbandry, and 
which shall embrace the standard writings of 
Thaer, Leibig, Humplire/, Davy, Boussingault 
and others who have devoted their lives to the 
development of agriculture as a science. Such a 
library at this time is what we particularly want, 
and by reference to the State Agricultural Re- 
port of 1867 it will bs seen that many counties of 
our Commonwealth and Union have already se- 
cured libraries numbering several hundred 
volumes. Let not Lancaster county, the garden 
of the Keystone, lag behind her sister counties in 
this important particular, but allow her society in 
its next report to be able to name the nmnber of 
volumes in its library. Let the Society move in 
this matter, and raise means sufficient to pur- 
chase the principal treatises on agriculture and 
horticulture. 



^i$C0llan0iiii- 



few of the older and better known varieties are 
perfectly hardy. Farmers as a rule know little 
of the science of high culture or the care re- 
quired to produce fruits from the more tender 
sorts that needs protection, and after they have 
tried them a few years without getting any returns 
for their labor they usually dig them up and put 
them on the brush heap. Kow, a raspberry of 
fair quality is far better than none, and I advise 
those who have been disappointed in cultivating 
other sorts to try a few of the black cap varieties, 
or if they prefer the red raspberries plant a few of 
the Philadelphia, Ellisdale or Purple cane. These 
three will grow almost anywhere, and will yield 
abundantly, although they are not quite equal to 
the Fastolf or Clark. The Ellisdale is the 
hardest red raspberry that we have ever seen, 
and it is a rampant grower and wonderfully pro- 
ductive, although the fruit is neither very large 
nor handsome. J. G. Kreider. 



PLANT A PEW RASPBERRIES. 

In travelling through the country we have al- 
ways noticed that raspberries are rarely seen in. 
the gardens of our farm^ers. One reason for this 
scarcity is probably owing to the fact that very 



"HOW TO MAKE THE BUTTER 
COME." 

I noticed, in the March number of the Lancas- 
ter Farmer, an article, b}'^ J. B. G., entitled, 
How to make the butter come. It M'as well written, 
and the duties of the dairy are well described 
therein, as is too well known, by all those who 
have been raised on a farm. 

The labor of milking is no longer incumbent 
upon women, in the Eastern and Western States, 
if ever it had been heretofore. Indeed, in some 
parts of New York and northern Pennsylvania, 
t is quite common to see men performing this 
labor. 

Although Lancaster county has made some 
progress in its domestic character, and therefore 
women are now seldom seen performing field 
labor, yet " milking the cows" seems to be still 
entailed upon them. I think women ought to be 
relieved from this laborious operation, especially 
since men have been relieved from the slow and 
tedious process of tramping out grain with horses, 
by the aid of labor-saving machines. 

But all this is not answering the significant- 
question, Hoiv to make the butter cornel Well, the 
thing maybe done in this wise : In the first place, 
the cream must be kept at the proper tempera- 
ture, and, if so, butter may be confidently ex_ 
pected in from 25 to 30 minutes. On the morn- 
ing of the 9th of March last, just at the moment 
when a sudden change to intensely cold weather 
took place, I had but one cream-pot full of cream, 
into which I poiu-ed a pint of boiling water. 
Some prefer boiling sweet-milk — one or the other 
will answer equally well. One pint of boiling 
milk or water, to every common cream-pot full of 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



93 



cream, will bring the mass to the proper tempera- 
ture, in cold weather, to speedily form butter. In 
the second place, this process will increase the 
quantity and quality of butter, from a given mass 
of cream. In summer, when the cream is above 
the proper temperature, then add thereto, in like 
proportion, as above stated, very cold spring, or 
ice-water, in order to bricg the cream to its 
proper temperature. 

Tliis has been my experience for the last 
twen^-five years, and has always been success- 
ful. The "proper temperature" is about seventy 
degrees of the common thermometer ; a few de- 
grees either way will not aflect it. 

Anna Reist. 
^ » » 

BREAD. 

A lady submits the following to the attention 
of our readers : 

" There are so many ways for making bread, 
and all claiming to be equally good, that some 
feel puzzled which to choose. After an experi- 
ence of 30 years housekeeping, and having never 
had sour bread, if at all, more than five times in 
those years, certainly some credit may be given 
to a few remarks on a subject so closely con- 
nected with health and life. "Oh, any one can 
make bread," somebody says, tossing her head, 
and any one can ; but if I had not so often seen 
the best of housekeepers fail in this one point, 
this article never would have been written. One 
housekeeper always uses boiled butter milk and 
potatoes, and her bread is white and spongy. 
But it leaves a taste of acidity in the mouth afcer 
eating, and ailects the stomach unpleasantly. 
Auocher will use nothing but new milk for her 
bread. It has a nice look, tastes well while 
fresh, but becomes stale and unpleasant very 
quickly. Sometimes they work in an egg to make 
it look nice, and then it dries even more speedily. 
Some boil potatoes and mash and pour water and 
all into the bread ; some heat the whey of butter- 
milk or som- milk and mix with that. But none 
of these things give us a pure article, and they 
render the bread unhealthy. 

Then there ai-e various modes of managing the 
"rising" or "spone." Some set it over night 
and let it raise three times afterward, others set 
iu the morning and by noon, or earlier, have it 
baked. Bread can be a very troublesome thmg 
to manage, and it can be done with very little 
•trouble and be good. I am not giving a scientific 
article, and shall write nothing on the chemistry 
of bread-making. But a few plain hints will be 
sufficient to the wise. The woman who always 
has sour bread is found in many places, the one 
who has it very often is still more readily found, 



and both are giving slow but sure poison to all 
who eat at their tables. Much, perhaps nearly 
all the flour which has been sold the past year, 
has had the elements of acidity so strongly mani- 
fest as to require more care than formerly to pro- 
duce good sweet bread. (Farmers have had to 
buy their flour as well as others.) Bread may be 
sweet and yet heavy and injurious, and it may be 
sour and look very fair. 

I^ow, to insure healthy, palatable bread, I have 
found by experience that no elements should en- 
ter into its composition but pure flour, pure water 
and pure yeast. The kind Father of all has this 
year sent us good wheat, and no one but a covet- 
ous, speculating' villain, would adulterate it. But 
I have seen very little flour sold this year past, 
iu which I have not detected the presence of 
alum or white clay. In boiling the flour in the 
sweetest milk, entirely new, I have repeatedly 
found it to curdle, and abandoned all experiments 
to obtain good porridge, as useless. The same 
results took place when boiling the flour in water, 
which aftbrded proof positive of the adulteration 
of the flour. And these tests would be well ap- 
plied by purchasers beforehand, fin order to judge 
of the flonr they buy. Pure, soft water is the ar- 
ticle intended by nature to mix with our bread. 
Milk may be used for cakes of every kind. Pota- 
toes can be used as food by themselves, but, 
worked into bread, make anything bnt the real 
"staff of life." 

The character of the yeast is of the first impor- 
tance, and dm-iug the heated term it spoils more 
quickly than at any other time. For many years 
I have used but one kind, and it never fails to 
make good bread. But it must be kept in a cool, 
dry place, and very tightly excluded from the 
air. Try it if you wish. Boil a very large hand- 
ful of good hops in two quarts of pure hot water ; 
boil it fast in a porcelain kettle, long enough to 
get out all the strength. While it is boiling stir 
a stiff batter of flour and cold water, into which 
stir a tablespoonful of sugar, and of ginger. 
Some add a tablespoonful of powdered alum, but 
I consider it unhealthy. Over this mixture, when 
the hops are sufficiently boiled, pour through a 
strainer hops and water, and press them tightly 
and stir quickly into the batter. Let it stand till 
luke warm, then add a gill of sweet lively yeast. 
Set it to rise, it will not go high, but will become 
foamy on the top. After standing a day or so 
the foam will disappear, and the liquid will be at 
the top, the batter at the bottom, and one would 
think it had no life. But stir it thoroughly from 
the bottom and it will become foamy and light. 
One-half or two thirds of a common sized tea- 
cupful will make three good sized loares. When 



94 



THE LANCASTER FARMEE. 



about a teacupful only is left, it can be used to 
start a fresh quantity. 

At night take lukewarm water and stir in flour, 
with the cup of yeast also, and a tablespoon of 
salt, and set it to rise. It will be light m the 
morning, when stir in fresh flour till it is almost 
dough. After awhile it will be very light, when 
knead it into as much flour as you want to use, 
working in one mass on your flour-board. When 
it is light enough, but not too light, take it again 
to your flour-board, work it into loaves, and set 
it to rise in pans for the stove, or in baskets for 
the brick oven. Have the right degree of heat 
or three-quarters of an hour, and your bfead 
will be fit for any table in the land. 

Health requires that 24 hours shall be allowed 
after baking, to ripen the bread fit for the stom- 
ach. Economy also demands the same thing, for 
hot bread is very wasteful. If cooking-stoves 
could always have ovens lined with brick, our' 
bread would be more wholesome than when baked 
in iron ovens. " Out-ovens," as they are called, 
are the very best bakers for bread, cakes, and 
pies. — N. Y. Tribune. 

SELECTION OP SEED CORN. 

The great lasis of the important discoveries of 
the naturalist Darwin are summed up iu the 
term " Natural Selection." The idea is that the 
external circumstances of nature are in a con- 
tinual state of change, and that plants and ani- 
mals have been endowed with a principle of slow 
but constant variation, somewhat related to the 
change i^ their external surroundings. Among 
these variations are some which are better suited 
to the changed condition of things than others. 
These get more aid and support than others from 
changed nature, become stronger, and then 
crowd out and utterly destroy those which are 
less suited to the new sphere. This principle is 
called Natural Selection. There are, therefore, 
in the vegetable and animal kingdoms two dis- 
tinct principles — the conservative and the radical 
— the one seeking to maintain things just as they 
are, the other endeavoring to modify and improve 
them; but neither can do much only as external 
circumstances foster and favor them. These 
principles of construction and destruction are 
about evenly balanced, and neither can go very 
far away before it is brought back by the other ; 
the change goes on just in proportion as any re- 
tentions strength is afforded it. 

The value of this principle to us is in its ap- 
plication to selection for seed purposes. If man 
had never intervened, there would probably be 
' yet but one kind of Indian corn. Varieties 
would shoot out ■, but these, being relatively 



weaker in proportion to the degree of divergence 
from the main type, would soon be killed out by 
the rest. But man notes the variation as some- 
thing which would be useful to him, and selects It, 
giving it his special protection from the pressure 
of the rest ; and the conservative powei becomes 
gradually consolidated by his assistance. 

This then should be the method of man iu 
seed saving. If corn with thin cobs and large 
grain, be an object, select continually from those 
which have these characters ; and in whatever 
point we notice a tendency to vary, or to approach 
our wishes in the line of variation, a selection of 
those points, followed up for a year or two, will 
produce marked varieties. 

An absolutely new vegetable has jugt been 
given to the world by a Preuch philosopher, M. 
Carriere. He conceived the idea that a kind of 
radish, growing wild, more or less, all over Europe 
and America, the raphanus raphinastrum, could 
be as much improved as the common radish has 
been from its progenitor, and allied species. The 
root of the natural weed is very hard and wiry, j 
but he selected one which seemed a trifle softer j 
than the rest. From this he sowed seed, and 
kept selecting, year after year, the softest, until 
now he has round, long, red, white, and all sorts 
of roots, as in the common radish. The flavor of 
the root is peculiar, and distinct from the common 
radish, and is described as being something 
between a turnip and the radish. 

These experiments show how much ma}^ be 
done by man to aid nature in her principle of 
variation against the conservative element ; and 
as the season of corn planting is at hand, it will 
be very seasonable to apply the knowledge to 
practice. He who shall raise a real first-rate 
■^ariety may make his fortune , for the public soon 
tire of one hobby, and want new ones. The pota- 
toe is king just now ; but corn may turn up bye 
and bye. 

VALUE OF THE CROW. 
Some of our exchanges were startled when we 
pointed out that, with some faults, the crow was 
on the whole, one of the farmer's best friends 
It is gratifying to find that many of them are now 
joining with the Weelily Press in showing the real 
value of this bird to us. The Atlantic Monthly 
has had an able article on the farmer's feathered 
friends, from the pen of Dr. Thomas M. Brewer 
the distinguished ornithologist, in which he de 
fends the crows as we have done ; and the Ger 
mantoion Telegraph, Boston Cultivator, and othei 
enlightened papers, are following in the sami 
wake. How long will Virginia ofter a premiup; 
for crows' feet ? — Press. 



THE LANCASTER FARMEH. 



95 



NATIONAL POMOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

We hope our Middle State readers will uot for- 
get that next September the biennial session of 
the National Poniological Society will be held in 
Philadelphia, and that it will be their duty to 
show that they are not in that benighted state of 
ignorance which is frequently charged against 
them. True, the Legislatures of these States do 
little for agriculture ; but the more reason that 
our fiirmers should bestir themseves, and show 
that they are not faithfully represented. The 
Southern and Southwestern States are moving 
with great energy, determined to show at least 
that they understand the value of their reputa- 
tion. Even .beyond the Mississippi they are 
awake to the effort — the Kansas Legislature 
having voted $500 towards the delegation which 
will bring their fruits to the exhibition here ; 
and in other places whe*e nothing officially has 
been done by the States, the various agricultural 
and horticultural societies have taken steps to see 
their various localities worthily represented. In 
Pennsylvania absolutely nothing of any conse- 
quence is being done. Our State Agricultural 
Society, we believe, has taken no action what- 
ever. Our State Horticultural Society has moved 
so far as to offer the use of their hall on Broad 
street for the meeting of the convention, but 
nothing more. Delaware and Maryland we have 
heard nothing from, while iSfew Jersey has taken 
no step-!, except so far as the ever lively local 
agricultural society of Yineland is concerned. 
T?te>/ know its importance, and have already ar- 
ranged to have their town worthily represented. 

The citizens of Philadelphia seem hardly 
aware of the approach of the convention, which 
is in striking contrast with the enthusiasm mani- 
fested long in advance by other cities in which 
the meetings have been held. The few enter- 
prising agriculturalists who went to St. Louis two 
years ago, to get the honor ef the next meeting 
for this city, and who succeeded only to the 
ihagrin off Cincinnati and other places, should 
act be left alone in their efforts to see the pomo- 
ogiial branch of the agriculture of the Middle 
states have the justice done it, to which it cer- 
wiinly is ^rititled. 

It is the boast of so many agricultural journals 
;hat most of their readers ai'e from Pennsylva- 
lia and the Middle States, that it should be the 
nterest of all of us to show that agricultural rcad- 
rs and excellent agriculture really go together. 
We hope the fruit men will take the hint in time, 
ind make the event by their excellent, contribu- 
ion of fruits and intelligent fruit men worthy of 
;hemselves. — Philadelphia Press. 



DRAUGHT. 

What is in agricultural matters technically 
called the " draught" of a vehicle, when in mo- 
tion, or the ease or otherwise with which it can 
be drawn along, is badly understood by practical 
men. The following, from an exchange, affords 
a fine text for a few words in relation to it : 

" A queer bet was recently made in Swansey, 
Mass. One man wagered that no horse in town 
could pull four bushels. of corn (two hundred and 
twenty-four pounds) in a bag or bags, four feet, 
on a barn floor, the bags being fastened to an 
inch rope one hundred feet in length. The nov- 
elty of the bet attracted fjuite a crowd to witness 
the performance, but the first horse did the busi- 
ness easily. The principle which induced the 
wager was, that a small anchor, attached to a 
long cable, will fasten a large vessel, even in a 
very high wind." 

To those -who are at all acquainted with me- 
chanical matters, it seems, in the first place, 
strange that any one should be willing to risk his 
money in favor of the long-rope side of the ques- 
tion, and then a litt^ strange that a horse could 
be found with strength enough to win the bet ; 
and yet any one who has had any conversation 
with teamsters generally, knows that he could 
find a hundred men, any day in the week, who 
would readily bet that it made no difference 
that a horse could haul as easily in a long set of 
gears as in a short one. " Any day in the week" 
one may see farmers' horses jogging along in 
shafts with traces eighteen inches or two feet 
longer than they need be, the owiiers or drivers 
all unconscious that they were adding from one 
hundred to tu'o hundred j^onnds to the burden of 
the horse. Horses, too, in single file, are com- 
mon enough, when they would be able to accom- 
plish one-third more by being set in double stands. 
Sometimes we have to sacrifice one point to gain 
another. In mule teams, for instance, only very 
well broke animals will work together in pairs ; 
and thus the single file often becomes the easiest 
managed, although with a loss of power. But in 
many more cases than usual much may be gained 
by attention to the main principle, that the closer 
the vehicle, the easier the draught. 

— . — ■<»— ^ ^f 

POTATOES II'T HILLS. 

The following, from an exchange, reminds us 
of a subject m which we once took great interest : 

K. E., a successful potato raiser of Ohio, writes 
to the Coutifri/man as follows : "I have tried rais- 
ing potatoes in hills and in drills, in the same 
ground, and I am decidedly in favor of the former 
practice. When potatoes are planted in rows, so 
that they can be cultivated both ways with the 
plough, there is a great saving of labor ; and I 
believe, also, that potatoes raised in hills yield 
as much and produce finer potatoes than when 



96 



THE LANCASTER FAnMER. 



they are planted in drills one wsLy. I see no ne- 
cessity of planting whole potatoes, when they are 
of good size." 

The crop on the field where we saw the hill sys- 
tem tested was certainly very fine ; but we do not 
think there was much more profit in it than in the 
row system. The theory was that by cultivating 
both ways, less hoeing would be required to keep 
down the weeds. .But much hand-hoeing was 
necessary to keep the weeds out of the hills, and 
much more ground than actually necessary had 
to be given the crop. "We have never known of 
any but our own single experiment. "We should 
liee to have it thoroughly tested this season, and 
some of our readers report their experience. 



LIQUID GRAFTING WAX. 

"We advise none of our readers to pay a dollar 
for a receipt for making liquid grafting wax. We 
have once or twice * published such a receipt and 
again repeat it for the benefit of our subscribers. 
The following will make a wax that can be put 
on with a brush, will alwaysnae ready for use if 
kept tightly corked in a bottle, and can be ap- 
plied to bruises or wounds on trees, or used as a 
grafting wax ; viz : Melt one pound of rosin over 
a gentle fire ; add one ounce of beef tallow and 
stir it well ; take it from the fire, let it cool down 
a little and add a table spoonful of spirits of tur- 
pentine, and after that about seven ounces of 
very strong alcohol (95 per cent.). It will be ne- 
cessary, after putting in the alcohol, to put it on 
the stove again, stirring it constantly, takmg 
great care that the alcohol does not get inflamed. 
To avoid this, remove the kettle from the stove 
as soon as the mass, which may have cooled rap- 
idly by the addition of the alcohol, begins to melt. 
Continue to stir, until the whole mass becomes 
the consistency of honey. This will be found far 
better and cheaper than the common shellac pre- 
paration used for this purpose ; and after being 
put on for a day or two, becomes a clear, white 
color, and as hard as stone — impervious to water 
and an-. 

"We charge our readers nothing lor the above, 
and will warrant it better than that made from a 
receipt for which maiiy will pay one dollar. The 
preparation for it has been proved and recom- 
mended by some of the best horticulturists in the 
country. — Maine Farmer. 

The following commendatory notice, clipped 
from the Lancaster Intelligencer^ indicates that 
the Farmer is making a favorable impression in 
this community : 

The Lancaster Farmer.— "We have received 
the May number of this Journal and find it un- 



usually interesting. It contains articles on the 
following subjects, viz: Vegetable Physiology, 
by Dr. S. "Wclchans ; The "Water Streams of Lan- 
caster Countv and observations on Rain, by Levi 
S. Heist ; Pear Culture, by Peter S. Reist ; Hy- 
bridizing of "Wheat, by Alex. Harris, Esq. ; Truf- 
fles, and How to Grow them, by S. S. Rathvon; 
"Weeds, by Jacob Stauff'er; Snout-Beetles, by S. 
S. Rathvon— Take Care of the Birds, the same 
author ; Times' Changes, by Levi S. Reist; Fer- 
tihzer for Strawberries, by John G. Kreider. 

All the above articles are well written and 
contain much valuable information for the far- 
mer and horticulturist. The Lancaster Far- 
mer is deserving of a large subscription list ; the 
practical and able character of its articles should 
make it a welcome visitor to every farm house, 
not only in Lancaster county, but throughout the 
entire country. The Farmer is published 
monthly under the auspices of the Lancaster 
County Agricultural and Horticultural Society. 
Terms $1.00 per annum. 



ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS. 

Peach Aphis B. B. H., Strasburg Twp — The peach leaves 

which you sent me, although iu bad condition when I re- 
ceived them, contained specimens of the common peach aphis, 
or plant louse, (Aphis persica ?) upon them, although they 
were almost to o young and too much shrivelled to delermine 
their species to a certainty. The ants on the same tree have 
nothing to do with the production of the aphids. They are 
there merely for the purpose of lapping up the sacarium fluid 
which is discharged npon the leaves by the former. Heavy 
rains wash off and destroy many of these aphids, but they may 
also be removed by syringing the trees with a soapy solution, 
or decoctions of tobacco or cayenne pepper. 

Silk Cocoon — W. L. S., Philadelphia, Pa The cocoon 

enclosed in a leaf, sent me by the hands of Mr. B., of Lan- 
caster county, which you say you took from the " Sweet 
Gum," is evidently a small specimen of the Prometheus 
tilothj^AUacus Pomethcus,) ■fi\\ic'h does not confine itself to a 
single kind of tree, but may also be found on the Sassafras, 
the Wild Cherry, the Swamp Pink, the Button bush and 
others ; but in this region it .seems to be partial to the Sass 
fras. The moth comes forth aoout the end of June or begin- 
ning of July, some specimens of which are from 3>^ to 4 
inches across their expanded wings. The male is of a deep 
smoky brown in color, and the female a reddish brown. Both 
have eye-like spots near the ends of the front wings, and va- 
rious other markings ; the females being usually the largest, 
with the markings more distinct than the males. (Set 
Harris, pp. 390, 391. 

Maple Leaf Calls — D. M. H., Mount Joy, Pa.-r:\,i clus- 
ters ot small galls on the upper surface of the maple leaves, 
which you sent me, are too young yet to be deteroiined. I 
have seen similar galls on the leaves of the Grape, the Beach 
and the Sumac. In those of the last named, I found aiMds. 
Two of the largest tubercles were hollow, and contained each 
a minute white egg. They will probably turn out gall-mak- 
ing aphids— -we will have to wait until lateer in the season. 
Send more specimens then. 

Peae-Shaped Cocoojfs.— J". B. E., Beaver— Valley Nur- 
series — The three pear-shaped cocoons which you found fas- 
tened by long footstalks to a cherry branch, are beyosd my 
ken. They were probably constructed by some species of 
spider. On cutting one open I found the whole internal cav- 
ity filled with yellowish eggs, and with nothing else. The 
cocoons are about the size of a marrowfat pea. 



World Mutual Life Insuance Company, 

NO. 160 BROADWAY, NEW YORK. 



J. F. FRUnAIXFF^ deneral Agsnt^ 

No. 5 North Queen Street, Lancaster, Pa. 

A. B. REIDENBACH, Litiz, Lancaster County, Pa. 
SAMUEL L. YETTER, Elizabethtown, Lancaster County, Pa. 
J. M. GKAYBILL, Columbia, Lancaster County, Pa. 

JACOB BAUSMAN, President Farmers' National Bank. Maj. JAS. E. RICKSECKER, City Treasurer. 

CHRIS'N B. HERR, Pres't Lancaster Co. Nat'l Bank. N. ELLMAKER, Esq., Attorney. 

Messrs. BAIR & SHENK, Bankers. B. F. BAER, Esq., Attorney. 

Judge A. L. HAYES. Col. WM. L. BEAR, Prothonotary. J. F. LONG & SON, Druggists. 

No farmer is Justified in exposing his creditors, his wife, qg his children, to the loss 
certain to occur to them upon 7iis deatli, without a Life Insurance Policy for their 
benefit, and in no Company can this he done with more safety and under better tnan~ 
aijement than in the above. See one of their Agents and have him explain all about it, 

200. $200. 

HA-RV^EST OF 1869. 



?.c?\ 



After our success in the Harvest of 1868, in pleasing our customers with a neat, light, durable, and a com- 
plete Combined Harvester, we again come into the market for the Harvest of 18G9 with our "VALLEY CHIEF 
feeling a great confidence in its superiority. 

We offer this machine still at the low price of $200, and when a farmer is offered a first-class Mower and 
Self-r>aking Reaper Combined at this price, it is well for him to examine into the merits of the offer. Ae a 
Mower, it has been tried in the worst kinds of heavy meadow grass and lodged clover and has gone through 
it triumphanlly, and we call on our hundreds of customers in Lancaster county and elsewhere to speak a good 
word for the Marsli Self-Rake. We claim that this Self-Rake in heavy tangled grain or lodged oats is the most 
simple and efficient one ever invented. It is not a new thing, but has been most severely tested all over the 
United States, as well 8S in England and France. We think no other one in the market can fairly compete 
with it. See what the report of the great National Reaper trial lield at Auburn, New York, by the New 
York Agricultural Society, says on page 41 and 42 : It performed better than was expected of any Self-Rake, 
as it raked off heavy, tangled, wet grain. And in their language, Reapers are not built for so severe a test • 
thpy gave it the hisrhest mark for perfect work. 

The VALLEY CHIEF is a simple two-wheeled machine, having side delivery which throws the grain en- 
tirely out of the way of the team for the next round. It has a rear cut, a floating finger bar, the guards or 
fingers are made of the best wroughtiron, faced with steel. The height of the cut can be altered with ease 
while in motion, thus enabling one to pass obstructions or cut long or short stubble and the whole machine is 
built with an eye to convenience, simplicity and durability. This Machine is built in Lancaster county, one of 
the heaviest grass and wheat growing districts in the United States, and we have had every opportuni ty 
of knowing what is wanted. In this machine we have a combination of a complete Mower with a first-class 
Self-Raking Reaper, thus giving our customers a simple, strong and handy machine which two horses can 
draw with ease. 

Please call and see this macliine at our manufaotory, in Mount Joy,"- Lancaster county. Pa., or on D. Biirk- 
holder, Agent, at Mrs. Neher's Saloon, Southwest corner of GentrelSquare, Lancaster, Pa., or at Yundt's Corn 
Exchange Hotel. Mi^ItSH, 0RI£:R. & CO. 



A. B. KAtTFMAN'S 

Insurance Agency, 

No. 1 EAST OMANGE ST., 

LANCASTER CITY, PA., 

Issues Life, and also, Policies against Fire and 
all other Accidents. 

AGENT FOB THE OLD 

CONN. MUTUAL LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY. 

The Best Company in the World. 

CAPITAL, - - - ^33,000,000. 



Gas & Steam Fi 




Made to Order 
On a new set of Standard Dies, 



AT THE MACHINE SHOP OF 



6ni East James Street, Lancaster, Pa. 



Merchant Taiioriiig, General Cl^tlimg 

AND GENTLEMEN'S PURNISflING STORE, 

(KRAMP'S OLD STAND), 

Comer Nortli Queen & Orange Sts., 
Lancaster, Pa., 

All kinds of Men's and Boys' Ready-Made Clotliing and 
ruruishing Goods constantly on hand. Also, a superior assort- 
ment of French, English, German and American Cloths, Cas- 
simcres and Vestings which will be made to order in any desired 
Btyle, with the least possible delay ; warranted to give satis- 
faction, and at reasonable charges. 

S. S. KATHVON. 



Ji Si 



DEALER IN 



Pianos, Organs, and Meiodeons, 

AND MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS GENERALLY, 

A large assortment of Violins, Flutes, Guitars, Banjos, 

Tamboriues, Accordeons, Fifes, Harmonicas, and 

Musical Merchandise always on hand. 

SHEET MUSIOi A large stock on hand and constantly re- 
ceiving all the latest publications as soon as issued. 

MUSIC BT MAIL i I would inform persons wishing Music, 
that Music and Musical Books will be sent by mail free of 
postage when the marked price is remitted. 

LEOALCOMAUIA. or the art of Transferring Pictures. Can 
be transferred on any object. I would call especial attention 
of Ooachmakers to my stock of Decalcomania. 



LANCASTER CITY AND COUNTY 

FiRE INSURANCE COMPANY, 

©^ Zi.ajvc.asTER, p.m. 
C^^PIT^Iu, - - - #300,000. 

Hgn.Thos. E.FxiANKLiN, Geo.K.Reed, Edw. Brown, 

Pres't, Treas., Sec'y. 

John L. Atlee, M. D., B. F. Shenk, Jacob Bousman, 
Henry Carpenter, M.D., F. Shroder, Jacob M. Frantz, 

Hon. A. E. Roberts, John C Hager. 

Houses, Barns, Stores, iVli!ls and Buildings of all kinds, with 
their contents^ insured on Favorable terms. 

W. J. KAPROTH, Agent. 
Residence : 36 South Duke St., Lancaster. 

AGENTS WANTED— $10 a Day. 

TWO $10.00 MAPS rOS $1.00. 

PATENT REyOLYING- BOOBLE lAPS. 

Two Contiiieints. Ani(>i:ica aBicS Ehpojw', and 

America with tSec United Ststtcs portion 

on an isnanen'^e scale. 

Colored — in 4000 Counties. 

TIscbc great Maps, now just completed, G4 x 62 iu- 
chert larn;e, show every place of importance, all Rail- 
roads to date, and the latest alterations in the various 
European States. These Maps are needed in every 
school and family in the land — they occupy the space 
of one Map, and by means of the Reverser, either 
side can be thrown front, and any part brought level 
to the eye. County Rights and large discount given 
to good Agents. 

Apply for Circulars, Terms, and send money for 
and see Sample Mape first, if not sold taken back on 
demand. Also ready a rr.25.000 steel and plate illus- 
trated subscription boi>l;, " De Soto, the discoverer of 
the Mississippi River." J. T. LLOYD, 

may-4t 23 Cortlandt Wtreet, N. Y. 



DRUGGISTS & APOTHECARIES, 

No. 13 WEST KING STUEET, 

NEXT DOOR TO STEINMAN'S HARDWARE STORE, 

Ijancaster, Pa, 

Have always on hand Fure, Reliable Drugs and Medi- 
cines, Chemicals, Spices, Perfumery and Toilet 
Articles. Also Flavoring Extracts of 
their own Manufacture, and of 
unsurpassed quality. 

Solo Agents for Hasson's Compound Strpp of TAE,the 
best Cough Medicine in the market. We have also on hand in 
season an assortment of Landreth's Warranted Garden Seeds. 

The public can rely upon always getting what they 
ask for and no substitutes. 



O. F. ROTH 



Corner 



UNDERTAKER, 

South Queen and Vine 
LANCASTER, PA. 



Streets, 



Coffins of all sizes always on hand, and fui'uished at 
Shortest Notice. 



Lanoastekj June 25th, 1868. 
Editors Express : Dr. Wm. M. Whiteside, the euter]>ris- 
ingDentist> has purchased from me a large stock of teeth and 
all the fixtures, the instruments formerly belonging to me, and 
also those used hy my father. Dr. Parry, in his iiractice. In 
the purchase, the doctor has provided himself with some of 
the most valuable and expensive instruments used in dental 
practice, and lias beyond doubt one of the best and largest 
collections of tcelh and instruments in the State. Persons 
visiting the commodious offices of Dr. "Whiteside, cannot fail 
to be fully accommodated. The Doctor loses no opportunity 
of furnishing himself with every late scientific improvement 
iu his line of business. ll. B. PAKKY. 

Office and 'Residence, 

EAST KING STREET, 

Next door to the Court House, over Fabncstock's Dry 
Goods Store, 

LANCASTER, PENNA. 

Teeth Extracted wiflioiit jyain hy thetiseof 
{Nitrous Oxide) Gas. 

BOOKS AND STATIONERY. 

A Full assortment of 

SCHOOL, MTSCELLA.NEOUS, AGRI- 
CULTURAL AND HORTI- 
CULTURAL BOOKS, 

A large stock of 
WHICH WILL BE SOLD AT 

GREATLY REDUCED PRICES, 

On account of removal April 1st, 1869, to 

No. 52 North Queen Street, 

(KR AMP'S BUILDING) 

Four Doors ttbove Orange Sti-eet. 

Subscriptions received for all the Agricultural and 
Horticultural Magazines. 

J. H. SHEAFFER'S 
Cheap Cash Book •Store, No. 52 N. Queen 
Street, LANCASTER, PA. 



Dr. N. B. BRISBINE, 

No. 93 EAST KING STREET, Acove Lime. 

The Doctor pays special attention to all old obsliiiato 
diseases, such as Consumption, Ijivor Conii)laint, Dys- 
pepsia, Rheumatism, all disea.ses of the Ilcait, Hea<l, 
Throat, Lungs, Stomach, Bowels, Kidneys, Nervous 
Debility, General Debility, &c. The doctor makes ex- 
aminations of the Urine. Consultation Free. 



S. ■WELCHENS, D. D. S., 

SURGEON DENTIST, 

Office and Kesidence, 

HOWELL'S BUILDING, No. m NORTH QUEEN ST., 

Half a square soutli of the R. II. Depot. 

Twenty Years' Successful Practice in Lancaster 

The Latest improvements in INSTRUMENTS 
and TEETH and the very best material, Warranted 
in all operations. 

TEETH EXTRACTED WITHOUT PAIN with 
the use of Nitrous Oxide Gas, Ether, or the Ether 
Spray. 

TERMS, as low as any in the city, when low priced 
material and low priced work are used. 

But for FIRST-CLASS OPERATIONS, with ap- 
pliances and material to correspond, prices range 
higher. 

S. "WELCHEWS, D. D. S. 



SUCCESSOR TO 

WENTZ BROTHERS, 
SiaN OF THE BEE HIVE, 

No. 5 EAST KING STREET, LANCASTER, PENN'A., 

DEALER IN 

FOEEM AND DOMESTIC DRY GOODS, 

Carpels, Oil Clotlis, Window Shades. 

SPECIAL ATTTSNTION PAID TO 

t^(E)3ii' ©ladSS ©©©©i 

Shawln and Embroideries, Cloths and Cassimeres, 

Handkerchiefs, Gloves and Hosiery, 

Uest Kid Gloves. 

The Choicest of the Market, and at the Lowest Possible 

Prices. 

REMEMBER THE PLACE TO BUY. 

THOS. J. WENTZ, 

Bee Hive Store, No. 5 E. King St, 



DEALER IN 

FOREIGN AND AMERICAN WATCHES, 

IN GOLD AND SILVER CASES, 

CLOCKS OF EVERY DESCRIPTION, 

Jewelry in all its Shapes and Forms, 

SILVER WARE, designed for Bridal Presents; 

BRACKETS, TOILET SETS. VASES. SPECTACLES, 

^ GOLD PENS, &c., &c., &c. 

\o lOK West Kiug Street, opiiosite the Cross Keys Hotel 
" ■ LANCASTER, PA. 



Stoves ! 

Gedarinra3*G ! 

Housekeepers' FuruisMng Goods! 

The undersigned at their old established stand in 
WEST KINa STREET, 

are oonstantly receiving fresh supplies to their exten- 
sive Stock, from the best manufactories in this Coun- 
try and Europe, and invite the attention of Merchants 
and Consumers, feeling that we can do as well as any 
house in Philadelphia. 

Persons commencing Housekeeping will find the 

The Largest and Best Selected Lot of 
STO"VES, 

at Manufacturers' Prices. Also, every other article 
kept in a first-class Hardware Store. 

A FULL STOCK OF 

Sadlers', Coacliinakers' and Blacksmiths' Tools 
and Materials. 

BUILDERS will find a full supply of every thing 
suited to their wants at LOWEST FIGURES. 

CLOVER, TIMOTHY AND FLAX SEED, 

BOUGHT AND SOLD. 

STEINMAN & CO. 



P. E. GRUGER. 



J. P. GRUGER. 



GRUGER BROTHERS, 

MARBLE MASONS, 

14 South Queen St., Lancaster, Pa., 

Have always on hand or will furnish to order at 

SHOKT NOTICE, 

S^ ON U STENTS, 

TOMBS, 

GRAVE STONES, 

&c., &c. 

We pay particular and personal attention both to the 
SELECTION OF THE MATERIAL and the EXECU- 
TION OF OUR WORK, and our facilities now are such 
that we can guarantee our customers the very best 
work, at the same, and often Lower Prices, than are 
usually paid elsewhere for inferior productions. 

Lettering 



m 



English 



and 



German, 

ELEGANTLY AND CORRECTLY DONE. 

We earnestly invite our country friends to give us a 
calL 



SHULTZ & BliO. \ 

Manufacturers, Wholesale and Retail Dealers Ih 

Caps and Furs, 

LADIES' FANCY FURS, 

HOODS, 

TRIMMED GLOVES AND MITTS, 

Gents' Gloves, Capes and Collars, 

Fancy Robes, 
BLA.:N'K3i]TS, &C. 

20 North Queen Street, 
LANCASTER, PA. 



AMERICAN WATCHES 




J\ro. 22 West Ki72.g Street, 

Next Door Below Cooper's Hotel, 

deal?:rs in 



AV^ A. T O H E S , 

IIL¥1 



^ W A H g 



J E -W E Ij H -V , 

CLOCKS AND SPECTACLES. 



n lUMIIC! AH! 



THE UNDERSIGNED REPRESENTS THE 

ifleilYI IIFE IBSlMil C8M?yY. 

AND ALSO THE 

Life ai Iccifleit taraice Companj, 

Botli stable and well established companies, the former 
having a capital of $1000,000, and the latter $500,- 
000. 

The plan of issuing policies by the Brooklyn Life 
Insurance Company presents a feature altogether 
unique, and one which removes one of the strongest 
objection, hitherto urged against the plan of Life Insur- 
ance ; and this is what is termed the Surrender Value 
Plan. Each and every Policy issued in the name of 
this Company bears an endorsement, stating the exact 
worth of the policy in Cash, at any time after two or 
more annual premiums have been paid. 

Insurance can also be. effected in the North American 
Life Insurance Company, and at lower rates, it is be- 
lieved, than in any other Company in the United States. 

All desirous of securing insurance upon their lives 
can do so by calling xipon the undersigned. 

ALLE^ GUTHRIE, Agl., 

East Ijemon Street, 

LANCASTER, 1*A. 



LANCASTER, PENN'A, 

Dealers in United States Bonds and all 
]<inds of Railroad Stock and State Loans. 

Buy and Sell Gold, Silver, and United 
States Coupons. 

Sell Bills of Exchange on Europe and Passage 
Certificates. 

Receive Money on Deposit and pay Interest as 
fnllows : 

1 month, 4 per cent,, 6 months, 5 per cent. 

3 " 4i " 12 " 54 

.FOR SALE AT 

Chas. A. Heinitsli's Drug Store, 13 E. King St., 

LANCASTER, PENNA., 

German Cattle Powders! 

The best Pov.-der made'for the Cure and Prevention of Dis- 
eases to which Oxen, Milk Cows, Sheep and Hogs, are subject. 
For Stock Cattle preparing for market, a table spoonful in 
their fe?d once or twice a week, improves tlieir coiulitioii Ijy 
strengthening their digestive organs, and creates solid tlesh 
and f:it. 

GEKMAN VEGETAHLE OK UNRIVALLED CONDI- 
TION POWDERS 
For preserving Horses in good health, removing all Diseases 
of th(; Skin, giving ;i Smooth and Glossy appearance, also a 
sure remedy for Disteuipor, Hidebound, Loss of Appetite, &c. 

PERSIAN INSECT POWDER. 
A perfectly safe, quick and easily applied destroyer of Lice 
on Cattle, Fle.as. Bedbugs, &c. 

PYROLIGNKOUS ACID. 
A .substitute for curing Beef, Pork. Hams, Tongues, Smoked 
Sausages, Fish, &c., without the danger and trouble of smok- 
ing, imparting a rich flavor au'i color. 



CHARLES T. GOULD, 

CHAIR MANUFACTUEER, 

No. 37 North Queen St., Lancaster, 

(NEXT DOCK TO SHOBER'S HOTEL,) 

Old Chairs Re-painted and Repaired. 
CHRISTIAN WED^YER, 

S. E. Cor. East Kin^ & Duke Sts., Lancaster. 

Cabinet Work of every description and a full 

assortment of Chairs con.stantly on hand. 
[XF'^W Warranted as Heprcsented. ,^^n 

JACOB ROTHARMEL, 

PREMirM 
DEALER IN 

Oombs aQid Fancy J^rtiol^s, 

No. 9i North Queen Street, Lancaster, Pa. 

SEED POTATOES. 



EARLY GOODRICH, 
HARRISON, 

MICHIGAN WHITE, 

and GARNET CHILI, 

By the Peck, Bushel or Barrel. Also, 

THE EAHLY HOSE, 

whicli is destined to snpfrsede all of the older varieties 
for quality, earliness and productiveness, will be sold 
in quantities to suit pnrcliascrs. All the above varie- 
ties warranted pure and genuine. Send for circular. 

II. IML. ENOLE, 

Marietta, Pa. 

I'LvVNTS FOR SALE.— Cabbage, Pepper and Egg. 
1 omatoes by the thousand, once or twice transplanted; 
very fine 8weet potato Plants in quantity in season. 
Address II. M. ENGIE, 

Marietta, Pa. 

T ME 

Lancaster Inquirer 

Bookj Ml and So\rs]pc^]peF 




OFFERS CtREATER IPUCEMENTS 

ExeruUd hi fJic Best Style of Printing 
than any other office in the State. 



James Street, Lancaster, Pa., 

AEE PEEPARED TO DO ALL KINDS OF 




m !i 










9 



iUILD LARGE AND SMALL ENGINES, 

MILL GEA.RIIS'G, 

And all kind of Machine Work done at a first class Shop. 

LI{^ving recently removed to their new building, and provided thei^selve 
with a 

LAHGE ASSORTMEMT OF MACHIWEBY 

Adapted to the w^ants of their customers, they are prepared to execute all or 
ders with neatness and disjDatch, and on terms satisfactory to the customei 
They would invite attention to their large foundry connected with their wbrks 
in which the best work is turned out. 

They also announce that they are now prepared to supply their 



a_i uii ck-Lj L.j''^'J V xrcili*>ijirjiL^\f_ijirA Vj- 



>^\d^^^M^^ 



M^ 



This Machine requires Less Powee, does Moke Woek, and is considferab' 
Cheaper than any other Separator now in the market. This Machine is no 
improved, well built, and does tlie best and most efficient class of work. 

Repairing of all kinds promply done at reasonable rates 

Give us a cull, and we will endeavor to please our patrons. 

FRANK LANDIS, 
EZRA F. LANDIS, 
JACOB LANDIS. 



Diller d Groff\s Hardware Store, 

No. 8 East King Street, Lancaster City, Penna. 

DEALERS IN 

Foreign and Domestic Hard^ware, 

Such as Building Material, Paints, Varnishes, Oils, Glass, Coach Trimmings, Stoves, 

Iron and Steel, &c., &c., &c. 

TIMOTHY AND CLOVER SEEDS OE THE BEST QUALITY. 






mp 



;'^-- 



AMOS MILEY'S 



^r'r 



'.^^^ 



KC^A-IEtlSrE S 



i:^ 



^;:-i^.-<^W^ AM ilk M ly ir' iii ly I I UM i ., >^"^^;. vL- 



^^XESr 






No. 37 North Queen St., -— 1-^#- 

NEXT DOOR TO StlOBER'S HOTEL, LANCASTER, PA. 



coAuximii MM * MiJim »»! 






i=»Zjiu^xTg- ja.]?ar33 iF'-^isro^' 



iiiReY 



Jt 1 Ji IrS im 

K*U»1 SMI *;*.'*j!fi!j 



ViTAGON GEARS, WHIPS, BUFFALO ROBES, 

BLANKETS, TRDNIS, YALISES, CARPET BA&S, LADIES' & &1TS' SATCHELS, 

Of all kinds constantly kept on hand or made to order. Repairing neatly done. 

Also, Agent for BAKEE'S HOOF LmiMENT, the best article for Sore 
Hoofs in the country. 



J. M. WESTHAEFFEf 



'5 



3 






No. 44, Corner North Queen and Orange Streets, 
LA_ISI"CA-STER, I^A.. 

N. B. — Any Book ordered can be seat by Mail to any ac' dress. 





The Greatest Roofing Material of the Age ! 

IS NOW OFFEEED TO THE PEOPLE OF 

mmm m mi counties, pa,, and cscil counti, md. 

Vf ITH A PEOMISE OF THE FOLLOWING ADVANTAGES : 

It is superior to other coverings for a.11 kinds of buildings for tliese reasons : 

1. It is water, snow and air-proof from tlie beginning, and is as fire-proof as ordinary slate. (See testimo- 
nials New York Fire Insurance Companies.) 

2. It keeps buildings warmer in winter and does not make them hot^n summer as ordinary slate does, and 
it can be, after the first year, whitewashed or painted any desired color so as to obviate all difficulty arising 
from its dark color. 

3. Being entirely water and fire-proof, it is invaluable as a covering for the sides of buildings nnd lining 
cisterns of whatever material tliey may be built ; stopping water out of cellars and dampness out of walls of 
houses, and closing leaks between buildings. 

4. Adhering, as it does, with great firmness to tin and iron, it is useful for covering tin roofs andiron exposed 
to dampness or to the atmospjiere, such as iron fences, cemetery-railings, &c. 

5. Buildings covered with PLASTIC SLATE do not need tin spouts at the caves nor do the valleys need tin 
to make them water proof. 

6. It is lighter than shingles, and is equally adapted to flat or stecj) roofs. 

7. The testimony of Wm. MGilvray & Co., published herewith, shows that it is not only fire proof exter- 
nally, but, is also a great hindrance to the spread of fire within. 

8. It is much cheaper in first-cost than anj' good roofing now in use, and when all attendant cxpen.-ses of the 
two roofs are estimated, costs only about half as much as the best slate, and it m.akes a better and closer roof. 

9. For the roofing ol foundries and casting houses of blast furnaces, where there arc gases of a very high 
temperature, which injures and destroys other roofs, this material i.s improved and seems to produce a belter 
roof, (,sce certificates of Messrs. Grubb, Musselman & Watts, S. M. Brua and V\'m. M'Gilvray.) 

10. If in process of years cracks or leaks occur in Plastic Slate Koofs, they are about as easily repaived, as 
they would be to white-wash, needing only a brush and the Mastic, but no expensive labor of meehiiuics. 

n^ The Pamphlet referred to in the foregoing notice can be had gratuitously, by calling at the Oflioe of (h» 
Lancaster Inquieek or Examikf.r & Heeald. 

Persons wishing to examine PLASTIC SLATE ROOFS, and thus verify for thcmHelves (he follow iug 
statements, are invited to call and inspect Roofs put on for the iollowing persons, among many others: 

Lancaster— Thos. H. Bnrrowes, Sttiart A. Wvlie, (Editor* Lancaster Inquirer,) J. B. SchwartzvveUler, Abraliiim Bitner 
Sr. Marietta— Henry Musselman & Sons. , Mye rs and Benson. Oolumdia— C. B. Grubb, (Furnace.) CoUiml)i;i G.is Co., 
Samuel Shock, Pre.s'r., Susqurlruma Iron Onaipai.y, Wm. Patton, Pres't., fc'.amuel W. Mirtiin. Mount Joy— Henrv Kurtz, 
Dr. J. L. Ziegler, William Bratly, -T. Iv. Hoffer, (Editor Mt. Joy Herald). Christiana— E. G. Boomell, Wm. P. lirirton, 

John G. Fogle. Ba.i!t — Williara Whitson. BKLLiisiONTE P. O EobeitP. Mcllvaine. Pakadi.=!E — Roliert S. ISIcIlvaiue, 

W1LLIA.MST0WN—T. Scott Woods. IOphrat.^- i:>r. I. M. Grotf'. Gordonvillb— Samuel M. Brua. C.f.r^-arvon Twp 

Mrs. Fanny Mast. Uppeu Leacock Twp.— Marks G. Menger, Christian H. Landis, .Jacob K. Mu.sser. Leacock Twp.— Isaac 
Bair, L?vi Zook. West Karl— Christi:^u Beiler. Leaman Place — Henry Leaman, I^srael Rolirer. Brunn-euvii-l]: — Aaron 
H. Brubakcr. Sporting Hill— Emanuel Long. laTiz— H.H. Tshudy, David Bricker. Dtrlach P- o., (Jlay Twp — Jonas 

Laber. Manheim BoR — Nathan Werlpy, Samuel Kuhl. PENjf Twp Gsorge Kuhl. West Lampeter — Aldus 0. Hen". 

Enterpri.se p. O., East Lamplter— jiark P. Cooper. Stkasburo Bor Hervey Brackbill. 

Orders for Roafing Should be sent to 

LICENSE FOR LANCASTER AND YORK COUNTIES, PA., AND CECIL COUNTY, MD., 

Enterprise P. 0., Lancaster County, Pa. 

Or A. W. & J. R. RUSSELL, Lancaster, Pa. 

Or MOSES LIGHT, Manheim, Lancaster county, Pa. 

• Or JOHN R. BRICKER, Litiz, Lancaster county, Pa. 
; r L^Zj ALDUS C. HERB, Lampeter, Lancaster county, Pa. 



I 



THE FLORENCE SEWING MACHINES. 



THE BEST 

SIMPLE AND EASY TO 



MACHINE FOR FAMILY USE. 

LEARN AND NOT LIABLE TO GET OUT OF ORDER. 



Capable of all varieties of sewing from the finest to the coarsest. Make the Lock 
Stitch alike on both sides, and use the least thread. 

W. F. DUNCAN^ Agent, 

No; 65 North Q ueen Street, LANCASTER, PA. 

REGISTER OF^WTLLSy 

We are authorized to announce that 

DR. WILLIAM M. WHITESIDE, 

late Lieutenant of Company E, 10th Regiment, first three months service, and 
Captain of Company I, 79th Regiment f*enna. Volunteers of Lancaster, is a 
candidate for REGISTER of Lancaster county, subject to the decision of the 
Republican votes at the ensuing Primary Election. 



G -A. lE^ "T~) \ 

REIGART'S OLD WDE STORE, 

ESTABLISHED IN 1785, 

No. 26 EAST KING ST., LANCASTER, PENNA. 

The reputation of KP:iGART'S OLD WINE AND BRAN- 
DIEM for purity and excellent quality having been luUy es- 
tablished for nearly a century, we regret that the conduct of 
some unprincipled dealers, who re-lill with and sell from our 
labled bottles their deleterious compounds, compels us to adopt 
the annexed trade mark, which in future, for the protection 
of ourselves and our customers, will be found on all our old 
bottled Wines, Brandies, Gins, Whiskies, Bitters, &c. 



TRADE 




MARK. 



And further, in order to protect the same, we hereby an- 
nounce our determination to prosecute to the fullest extent of the 
Act of Assembly, approved, 31st day of March, 1860, any per- 
son or persons who shall violate the provisions of said act as 
applicable to our trade mark. 

N. B — We respectfully request the public, when thev have 
occasion or desire to use Old Brandv at the Hotels or Restau- 
rants to ask particnlarly for Reigart's Old Brandy. 
Very respectfully, &c., 

H. E. SLAYMAKER, Agt. 



UNION SPOKE AND AGRICULTURAL WORKS 

CoiTier of" Water and L*»mon Sts., 
Formerly Shirk & Royer's Warehouse, on the Penna. Rail- 
road, near Baumgardner's coal yard, and 2 squares west from 
the Railroad Depot, where wo manufacture the 

LATEST IMPROVED GRAIN DRILLS. 

Also, Grain Drills with Guano attached, warranted to give 
satisfaction. Rockatcay J^'axs, Cider »nuis, Crunhers and 
Grater; for horse or hand power, which will grind a bushel 
of apples per minute by horse power, and are warranted to dp 
it well. We would also inform Coachmakers that we have put 
up in our shop two of the latest improved Spoke ^nachiiiet, 
or J,athet, and are fully prepared to fuinish the best quality 
of SPOKES of all kinds, sizes, dry or part dry, and warranted 
to be a good article. We buy none but the best turned Spokes, 
and have nowoTi hand luO,ano SPOKES. Bknt Felloes 
of all sizes; Shafts and ^.itEiAOK Poles, Bows, &c., of 
seasonable stuff, constantly on hand. 

As Mr. Keeler has been in this business 16 or 18 years, and 
having served an apprenticeship at Coachmaking, he knows 
what the trade want in that line. All kinds of Bent Stuff' for 
sale, or made to order— a id Spokes of all sizes turne.l for per- 
sons having them on hand in the rough. 

Notice to Farmers and Mechanics Planing and Saw- 
ing done at the shortest notice. We have one of the best and 
latest Improved Surface Planes for operation. 

KEELER & SH.4EFFER, Lancaster, Pa. 



ZAHM & JACKSON, 

No. 15 NORTH ftTTEEN ST., 

Beg leave to call the attention of persons in want of 
a good and reliable Time Keeper to their fall assort- 
ment of 

AIERICAN AND SWISS WATCHES, 



In Gold and Silver Cases which will be sold at 
prices which will -defy competition. Also, a full assort- 
ment of 



of all kinds, which wc will warrant good and correct 
time-keepers. 



in great variety, such as Pins, Setts, Ear Rings, Finger 
Rings, Sleeve Buttons, Chains, &c. 



SOLID SILVER WARE, 

Manufactured expressly for our sales and warranted coin. 

PIRATED WARE. 

From the best factories and warranted the linest quality. 



Gold, Silver and Steel Spectacles. Hair Jewelry 
Made to Order. 



Repairing Promptly Attended to. 

ZAH.M & JACKSON. 



If^ 



THE 




Vol. I. 



LANCASTER, PA., JULY, 1869. 



No. 7. 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY 

' WYLIE & amEST, 

INQUIRER BUILDING, LANCASTER, PA., 
At ONE DOLLAR PER YEAR In Advance 

UNDER THE AUSPICES OF THE 

liASrCASTER COUNTY AGRIC'l LiTlTRAi:. AND 
HORTI€lJI.TIJRAI, SOCIETY. 



Publishing Committee. 
Dr. p. W. Hiestand, 
H. K. Stoner, 
Jacob M. Frantz, 
Casper Hillkr, 
Levi W. Grofp, 
Alexander Harris. 



Ediinrial Committee. 
J. B. Garber, 
H. M. Engle, 
Levi S. Reist, 

W. L. DlFPENDEKPEE, 
J. H. MUSSER, 

S. S. Rathvon. 



i^" All communications intended for the Farmer should be 
addressed to S. S. Rathvon and Alex. Harris, the resident 
members of the Editing and Publishing Committees. 

All advertisements, subscriptions and remittances, to Wylie 
& Griest, Printers. 



^S5<11)5i. 



VEGETABLE PHYSIOLOGY. 

THE PLANT, ITS STRUCTURE AND CONDITION. 

In a proper physiological examination of the 
plant, it will be found that it possesses all the 
organs necessary to a complete development of 
its growth, and a jperpetuation of its kind. They 
are so arranged as to meet in a proper man- 
ner and to the best advantage the conditions 
which nature designed should produce that pecu- 
liar property which we term vital endowment. 
Thei'e is a marked difference between the general 
appearance and conformation of those organs in 
the well developed plant in regard to locality, 
and the structural capacity to meet the wants of 
the organism through its functional power. The 
root and the leaves, for instance, are the principal 
organs of nutrition, yet they are not only widely 
separated by the stem or axis, but in point of form 
and stmcture there is no perceptible similarity, 
and yet there is a mutual dependence essential to* 
the very life of the growth. 

"We further notice that there is a difference of a 
corresponding character in the intimate structure 
of these organs. Those parts most concerned in 
this vital operation are made up of aggregations 



of cells which seem, in all essential particulars, ta 
be the same from the germ upward, and yet in 
one class of vegetation the structure is supported 
by a frame work of woody fibre, whilst in the 
other, the tissue is weak and yielding with n 
power to resist the changes of climate or temper- 
ature, or the injuries to which all vegetation is 
more or less subject. 

The difference of distance, as well as structure, 
in many of the higher forms of vegetation, require 
another arrangement by which the air and fluids 
are transmitted from the root to the leaves, in- 
stead of from cell to cell, as is characteristic of 
the lower species. There are dticts interposed, 
forming a separate and ready transmission of 
those elements without the necessity of their pass- 
in g through cells which are devoted to other 
functional offices. These organs are all mutually 
dependent and connected, and contribute, each 
in its own special manner, to the life of the plant 
as a whole. 

The highest organic vegetable structure does 
not possess a very large variety of organs, such. 
as are found in the animal for instance, but the 
most essential ones are many times repeated, so 
that the loss of some of them does not involve 
the destruction of the plant. Their separation 
often gives rise to new plants by evolving them- 
selves into adventitious buds or branches of the 
same organism and thus develop the ability to 
maintain an independent existence in a multipli- 
cation of the products of the original germ. When 
this is the case it it is the result of a modification 
or interruption of the ordinary nutritative process, 
and cannot be regarded as a true or normal gen- 
eration or the rei^roduction of the species. Tliis 
distinction in the reproduction of the plant, and 
especially of the higher order of vegetation, is 
regarded as of considerable importance. The in- 
dividuality of the branch thus generated is denied, 
in as much as its growth is contrary, and conse- 
quently antagonistic to the true germinal process, 
since on it rests the recognition of organs in the 
lower grades of vegetable life. 

All these principles and peculiarities, however, 
are governed by the nature and character of the 



98 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



growth. The hroacl principle and law of every 
form of organic life, is patent in the fact that all 
the endowments and conditions of vegetation in 
the full grown plant, must be present in the germ 
or it never can reach that state in which it can 
be distinguished from inert matter. 

We may not be able fully to explain what that 
peculiar property or essence, which is germed life, 
may be ; what it is that germinates, forms the 
root, pervades the stem and brings forth the foli- 
age and the flowers, or what that mysterious 
principle is, which, when dismissing the bloom, 
develops the higher and more glorious form of the 
fruit. But tloi'ough the application of the laws of 
science, and by research and the various experi- 
ments upon organic matter, we can, to a great ex- 
tent, draw forth the plant from the mystery which 
surrounds its growth, analize its structure and 
note some of the forces and conditions concerned 
in the production of vital activit}^ 

There is no part of the globe that is entirely 
unfit for living beings to reside. And where 
there is animal life, there do we also find vegeta- 
ble life. The broad empire of flora is commen- 
surate with the animal kingdom, and they have 
no hmitation. . In the Arctic circle where trees 
and shrubs and plants of advanced power of or- 
ganization are forced to disappear before the 
storms of perpetual winter, a low Cryptogamic 
vegetation is still to be found. And at the Equa- 
tor dense forests of leafy evergreens attest the 
universality and unbounded dominion of the vege- 
table kingdom. The forces and elements of vital- 
ity in the opposite zones, and those which condi- 
tion the character. and organic texture of every 
variety of growth in intermediate localities are 
of necessity jDCCuliar to temperature and climate. 
Where these are not congenial, there is not only 
a debilitative influence upon the vital functions 
of the plant, but there is an interruption in the 
external conditions of growth, and the result is 
either a miserable dwarf, a monstrous malforma- 
tion, or no growth at all. 

When the climate is congenial, there is a favor- 
able influence upon the actions of the organs of 
the plant, and a good healthy development is the 
result. But change this order of things, reduce 
the heat which is natural and congenial to the 
growth so low as scarcely to allow it to live, and 
all the functional power which is left in the cir- 
cumstance, is the ability simply to absorb the 
nutriment, with no power to assimilate it. The 
tissue then, instead of being built up with solid 
vegetable matter, becomes distended with a 
watery fluid which renders it incapable of bearing 
fruit and unfit as a vegetable substance to be food 
for the animal. 



In tropical regions, on the other hand, the tem- 
perature being too high for such plants as may be 
found in the Temperate or Frigid Zones, and 
thus the force of life being rendered too active, 
there is a derangement of the organs causing an 
injury to the productiveness of the plant fully as 
disastrous. 

It is in the Temperate regions that rich mead- 
ows abound with tender herbs, and fruit and 
flowers attest the congeniality of cUmate, and 
where the largest variety of vegetable structure 
is found. 

The conditions of growth are of two fold char- 
acter — the internal and external. The internal 
are those peculiar.to the structural arrangem^ent, 
whilst the others are those which embrace the 
element and condition of vegetation by external 
influences. 

The most obvious division of vegetable life, 
wherein size and duration are expressed, is that 
which has long been known as trees, shrubs and 
herbs. In the development of each of these 
several divisions there are peculiarities of struc- 
tiu'e which require some notice in order to make 
our subject intelligible to the casual reader. 

The external characteristics of growth in those 
several divisions are very simple and obvious. 
In trees and shrubbery the stem becomes hard 
and woody ; but in its early development there is 
a succession of similar parts of soft and yielding 
tissue one upon another. The rapid growth or 
accumulation or formation of organs and tissues 
produces an elongation of the stem, throughout 
its entire length. " The nodes or leaves they 
bear are first formed in close contiguity with the 
preceding ones ; then the internodes appear and 
by their elongation separate them, and so carry 
upward the stem. To have a good idea of this, 
we have only to observe the gradual evolution of 
a germinating plant, where each internode de- 
velops nearly to its full length, and expands the 
leaf or pair of leaves it bears before the elonga- 
tion of the succeeding one commences. The rad- 
icle or internode which pre-exists in the embryo, 
elongates and raises the seed leaves into the air. 
They expand and elaborate the material for the 
next joint, the leaves of which in turn prepare 
the material for the third, and so on. The inter- 
node, or space between the knots lengthens prin- 
cipally by the elongation of its already formed 
cells, particularly in the lower jDart, which con- 
tinues to grow after the upper part is finished." 

When the embryo tree begins to develop its two 
fold substance of Lignin, and cellular tissue, there 
is a condensing process by which the woody fibre 
is thrown in towards the centre , and the cellular 
tissue is hardened into the epidermis or bark.— 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



99 



The waste of tissue being ia the dense -wood in 
the heart of the tree, jind in the rough surface of 
the bark. This process is carried on by the cam- 
bium or glutinous sap intervening between those 
two principles of growth. This substance is com- 
posed of cells laden with the elqments of those 
several tissues, wliich in the function of assimila- 
lation, are consigned to their respective localities. 
Shrubs and trees are thus constructed, and by vu*- 
tue of the complexity of their organization they 
can retain aliment withm themselves in such 
quantities as the natm-e of their growth requires, 
where a constant di-ain upon the absorbing power 
.of the root, and the sterility of the soil will not be 
required. 

All the higher order of plants, termed " Plice- 
nogamous,'''' possess stems. In those which are 
said to be " acaulesceyit" or " stemless" it is either 
very short or concealed beneath the ground. — 
Stems do not necessarily assume an upright posi- 
tion, but sometimes trail along the surface of the 
ground, or bm-row beneath it. The stem or as- 
cending axis thus form a complete organ and con- 
stitutes one of the leading featm-es of the species 
of plant we have just been considering. It gives 
rise to another organic part, namely, the leaves, 
which will be treated hereafter. 

The essential characteristics which distinguish 
Herbs from trees and shrubs, are in the nature of 
the tissue forming the structure. In the former, 
the fabric does not become hard and persistent, 
as does the woody fibre in the tree and shrub, but 
the cells remain open in order to allow a free 
transmission of the sap and air, in the process of 
vegetation. This kind of tissue requu-es a larger 
proportion of the conditions of growth than that of 
a higher organism, where a quantity of aliment is 
stored within the trunk for future assimilation. — 
The rapid growth, and the excessive excretion 
of fluid in the herb, demand a constant supply of 
nutriment, and if all the conditions of vegetation 
are not present, especially warmth and moisture, 
there cannot be a vigorous development. 

This species of vegetation being similar to the 
structure of the leaves of trees, and requiring 
those conditions incident to climate and tempera- 
ture, and not calculated to withstand the frosts 
of autumn |and the congealing blasts of winter ; 
flourishes but for a season, yields its fruit and 
flowers and seed, and then dies. 

The effect of climate and temperature upon the 
harmonious operations and actions of these or- 
gans which characterize all vegetation, may, to a 
great extent, account for plants of one locality 
not flourishing as well when transferred to 
another. In tropical regions, the physiological 
fitructure of the plant is especially adapted to the 



climate. The organs of vegetation, the sexual 
organs, and the whole process of germination, 
must necessarially conform to the external condi- 
tions, which are regulated principally by heat. — 
"When a plant is out of its latitude, it is neces- 
sarily removed from the proper external condi- 
ditions of growth. " Thus it has been remarked 
that shrubs growing among the sandy deserts of 
the east, have as stunted an appearance as those 
attempting to vegetate in the Artie regions ; their 
leaves being converted into prickles, and theu' 
leaf-buds prolonged into thorns instead of branches. 
The influence of excessive heat in destroying life 
can sometimes be traced through the direct physi- 
cal changes which it occasions in the vegetable 
tissue." 

Where there is this disturbance in the vegeta- 
tive i^owers of the plant by an attempt to trans- 
pose its native elements, is it not plain that the 
sexual organs will also be destroyed, and if so 
what wonder that the fruit peculiar to the tropics, 
cannot withstand the congealing changes of the 
temperate zones, and that of the latter on 
the other hand will become sterile and barren in 
an atmosphere entirely unfitted for its i^owers of 
reproduction, and ultimate fructification. 

If corn, for instance, cannot germinate in a 
higher temperatm-e than 95 degrees, and is neces- 
sarily sterile when placed in soil which will reach 
120 or 140 degrees, how can it be expected that a 
grape vine which flourishes best in the latter 
temperature, can bear fruit in the former. The 
loss of the power of germination in tbecorn when 
imbedded in soil of 140 degrees of tempel'atiu'e is 
occasioned by the rupture of vesicles of the starch 
which enters so largely into its composition, 
This, of com-se, is a destruction, not of its vitality, 
but of its power of reproduction. The seed un- 
dergoes a disorganizing process and cannot be- 
come productive. Apply this same test to the 
fructifying plants of the tropics, and a similar 
condition ofaflairs may be expected. 

There is a variation to these general rules, which 
amounts almost to a law of tolerance. The tem- 
perature most favorable to germination varies in 
diflerent species, and perhaps may condition the 
adaptation of climate. And accordingly, by 
proper cnlture a plant may be brought to a pretty 
reipectable state of vegetation, but be unable to 
bear fruit, when it is removed from all the condi- 
tions peculiar to its climate. It may not lose its 
vitality for j-ears, but the differentiation of its 
sexual organs may not approach that standard 
necessary to render them effectual and a loss of 
the power to bear fruit is the result. 

If there are physiological discrepancies there- 
fore, in the growth of the plant, as developed 



100 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



through its habits and the results of its germina- 
tion, they must be attributed to a transposition, 
or an attempt at hybridizing, rather than a funda- 
mental deficiency of physical structure. 

S. W. 



^ 



THE ORIGIN OF„WHEAT AND ITS 
CULTURE. 

I consider this as one of the most useful sub- 
jects that can be brought before our society in 
anticipation of harvesting an unusually good 
wheat crop the coming harvest. "Wheat is ex- 
tensively grown in Europe, Asia, Africa, Korth 
and South America. On the plateau of southern 
Peru, Meyen saw a most luxurious crop of 
wheat at a height of 8500 feet, and at the foot 
of volcanoes at an elevation of from 10,600 feet 
to 12,^0. "Wheat seems to be cultivated by al- 
most all nations, both civilized and uncivilized, 
but it is no where found to grow wild. "Where. 
ever it exists it is sujiposed to have been dropped 
by human agency or by migrating birds. "Wheat 
is found in all the Territories from the Missouri 
River to the Pacific ocean. It is supposed to 
have originated from a grass known as cbqUojjs 
ovato found in Italy and France. 

Mons. Esprit Faver, of France, has made an 
important discovei-y on this point in 1838. He 
took seed from the ajgilops, planted it in the fall 
and cultivated it from 1838 to 1850, when it had 
become 'perfect wheat. 

It it be true (and we have no reason to dis- 
believe it) that wheat has been improved by 
culture, this may be the reason why it has 
always a tendency to degenerate. "We had many 
varieties of wheat for the last 40 years, and each 
variety was soon sujDplanted by another, except 
the old Mediterranean, imported in 1836-7. It 
was the most productive variety up to 1848, when 
Mr. Metzler, of Paradise township, selected some 
heads of wheat from the old Mediterranean, for 
which he deserves all honor. "What he selected 
was superior to the old variety and was named 
the Red Mediterranean wheat, and this has ever 
since been cultivated in Lancaster and the west- 
ern, counties of the State and the "Western States 
generally. 

Selecting new varieties of wheat is entirely too 
much neglected by farmers. It is very much to 
be regretted that our society is not able to offer 
good premiums to the best new varieties of wheat 
selected from the wheat the coming harvest. I 
would i>ecommend that our members and all 
others would make observations about the time 



wheat ripens and select some of the earliest heads 
from the fields. No doubt in this way new varie- 
ties could be discovered ; the earlier the variety 
the better ; the earlier the less subject to the 
weevil and rust. 

A successful wheat grower used to mix two 
varieties of wheat before sowing it, and with 
good results. I would like to see the Mediterra- 
nean and Canada flmt or Rappahanoc mixed. 
I would not approve of mixing an early and late 
variety. I believe if that process had been prac- 
ticed and good selections made out of those mixed 
fields, we might now have wheat superior to the 
Mediterranean, both in yield and in quality. 
This is a matter that could be done by any farmer, 
and not like hybrydizing wheat, which requires a 
skilled hand to perform it, as practiced by Lin- 
nffius. As this is just the season, I will give the 
process of Mr. D. T. Browne. This process con- 
sists in bringing the pollen which is contained in 
the anthers of the one flower in contact with the 
stigma of the pistil of the flower intended to be 
impregnated. 

In _order then to hybridize, it is necessary to 
take the heads of wheat w^iich are intended to be 
the parents, both male and female, when they 
have arrived at that state of maturity when the 
pollen is in its proper state, or before any of the 
anthers have escaped from the glume. Suppose 
a cross is intended to be consummated between 
the Genessee flint as male, and white Blue stem 
as female. Then on a dry and warm day — this 
state of weather seems to be necessary, as at such 
times impregnation not only more readily takes 
place, but appears to be more successful — be- 
tween ten and twelve o'clock, hold the head of 
the blue stem downwards and carefully open 
the glmne, then with a very sharp, pointed scis- 
sors cut off the anthers and let them fall to the 
ground. Great care must be taken that no anther 
is permitted to touch the pistil of the same 
head, either before or after separation of the fila- 
ments. This is perhaps themost delicate part of 
the operation. 

After the anthers have been removed, pollen 
grains from the anthers of the Genessee flint 
must immediatelj^ be applied to the pistil of the 
glumes from which the anthers have been re- 
moved. In order to preserve the heads thus im- 
pregnated from injury by insects or birds, they 
maj^ be enveloped in a hood of gauze or Swiss 
muslin, but no caution whatever is necessary ta 
guard against the accidental introduction of pol-. 
len grains. I have brought forward these sugges-' 
tions and hope some one will experiment on 
raising new varieties of wheat and report the 
result to the Society. L. S. R. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



101 



SLOVENLY FARMING. 

The farmers of Lancaster county are often re- 
ferred to as models in the art of husbandry, and 
so th^y are, compared with the generality of 
farmers of some sections of this and other 
states. 

We are, however, satisfied from j'ears of close 
observation, that there are not a dozen farmers in 
this county, who have carried their system to 
such perfection, as not to be susceptible of decid- 
ed imi^rovement. 

Quite -.a number may be considered thrifty, 
energetic, enterprising farmers, compared with 
their ancestors, but are by no means advancing 
with the age in which they live. 

The largest number, however, may safely be 
classed under our title at the head of this article. 

In order to substantiate our assertion in^ the 
face of the prevailing contrary opinion, we M^ould 
like to see, 1st a candid report from all the niillers 
in our county, as to the percentage of wheat sold 
that is entirely pure. 2d. What number there are 
who do not grow, or suffer to grow, a large quan- 
tity of useless weeds, where something might 
grow as well, which would be of value to both 
producer and consumer. 3d. How many persons 
there are, whose stock, (cattle in particular,'* is in 
as good flesh in the spring as m autumn, and how 
few whose stock is turned out in the spring simi)ly 
walking skeletons, to build up during the summer 
what it had lost during the winter ? 4th. What 
proportion of them turn the fertilizing materials 
on their farms to good account, or who allow none 
to waste ? 5th. How many there are, who keep 
theii" farm implements under cover when not in 
use ? Gth. What proportion of fruit trees planted 
that go to ruin from neglect ? 

There are many other questions that might be 
put, that are quite essential in farm management, 
but if the above Avere fairly answered, it would no 
doubt cause many to open their e5'es and wonder 
why all this blowing about Lancaster county 
farming. But if a true exhibit of our county 
should fall so far below the general estimate, a 
report from other sections of our state and county 
would not be at all flattering. 

If the unnecessarily, wasted energies, and ap 
pliances of means to ends, were always properly 
directed and applied, the large number of disap- 
pointed and discouraged tillers of the ground all 
over the country, would rapidly grow less, our 
agricultural districts would exhibit a l)righter as- 
pect, and the vast area of our country might ere- 
long be teeming with additional millions of happy, 
contented, and prosperous cultivators of the soil. 

II. M. E. 



EXPERIMENTAL FARM. 

We have had the pleasure of attending a meet- 
ing of the managers of the Experimental Farm, of 
Eastern Pennsylvania, held June 10th. The at- 
tendance was quite good considering the day, 
which was so rainy as to prevent even a general 
view of Avhat was to be seen ; yet sufficient could 
be seen to show that there is order and system in 
its management. 

The Farm is located near West Grove, Chester 
county. The land is sufficiently rolling with a 
variety of soil and excellent running water, so as 
to make it well adapted to the above named pur- 
pose. 

With such an active and efficient superinten- 
dent as Thomas Harvey, ( the present superin- 
tendent,) the agricultural and horticultural public 
may look forward with flattering hopes, for the 
results of very valuable experiments, provided, 
the means will be furnished him to carry out the 
plans laid down by him and the board of man- 
agers. 

It is therefore to be hoped that ever}' farmer 
and fruit grower, ( in Eastern Pennsylvania at 
least,) will make an effort to sustain <ind develoi^ 
this Experimental Farm to its fullest capacity. 

The time has arrived, when experimetal farms 
should and must be sustained, for, under the pre- 
sent system of agriculture and its uncertainties, it 
will not pay for each farmer to be an experi- 
menter to any great extent, while a comparatively 
small contribution will furnish him with the data 
and results of a thorough system of experiments. 

This institution is, however, in its infancy and 
will require the fostering care of its friends for 
some time to come, to which the people of Ches- 
ter county seem to be wide awake ; an evidence 
of which, was the large gathering of both ladies 
and gentlemen, at the meeting on the 10th ult. 
Among those present was Thomas Meehan, edito. 
of the Gardener''s Islonthhj. 

The counties of Delaware, Bucks, Montgomery, 
and Lancaster, were also represented, the latter 
principally by members of our Agricultural and 
Horticultural Society, in the persons of L. S. and 
P. S. Reist, J. and E. Brackbill, J. and H..Landis 
and others. 

The next meeting will b,e held Thursday, Aug. 
19th, when tliere will be a trial' of plows, which 
may be interesting to our farmers, as there will 
be no horse-racing in connection with it. 

H. M. E. 



The peach crop of Maryland, except in a few 
locations, is said not to have been seriously in- 
jured bv the late fi-osts. 



102 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



SMUT. 

The disease so named is one of the most dele- 
terious which affects tlie wheat crop. It manifests 
itself by the enclosm-e of the grains of wheat in 
a fetid black powder within the husks of the wheat 
head. This powder, when viewed through the 
microscope, is perceived to be a collection of small 
seeds which adhere to the wheat when all are 
threshed together. This disease is sometimes 
confused with mildew or rust, but it is entirely a 
different disease, and readily distinguishable the 
one from the other when their main characteris- 
tics be known. It is commonly the grain of the 
wheat that is invaded by the smut, but sometimes 
the leaves and stems of the plant are liable to it. 
Besides wheat, oats barley and maize are likewise 
liable to this disease. The disease is engendered 
by the- absorption of these minute seeds (which 
the microscope has displayed) into the roots of 
the plant where they germinate, and use the plant 
and its entire organization for the production of 
then- own seeds. The plant thus affected is una- 
ble to grow, as a consequence, as large as a health- 
ful one, and it exhibits a dark green appearance 
from the blackened sap within. It is. said that 
heads have been found containing some good 
grains and some smutted ones, but it is exceedingly 
doubtful if this be the fact. If any of the grains 
should seem to escape it may be considered as 
certain that they will be very weak and small. 

Smut is disasterous to the farmer in proportion 
to the number of heads attacked by the disease. 
Fields have been seen in which one-fourth, one- 
half and even two-thirds of the heads of grain 
have been diseased. All heads growing from the 
same root are sure to be smutted. This disease 
is developed in a dry as well as in a rainy season, 
and in a dry as well as in a moist soil. It has 
been discovered, however, to generally make the 
greatest ravages in soil not over fertile, or on 
such as had the preceeding year produced a ^?-am- 
ince affected by smut. In the first instance the 
vegetative life being weak, the mushroom met 
with less resistance in its development ; and in 
the second, the ground having retained the spores 
of the mushroom of the preceding year, it already 
contained the elements of the malady. 

The remedy for this disease would then seem 
to be, 1st, the getting rid of the spores which may 
be attached to the grain or seed; 2d, never to 
sow grain upon any kind of cereal stubble which 
had been affected by smut. The means by which 
the seed may be freed from the infectious spores 
of smut, is to soak it in various washes, amongst 
which may be mentioned dissolved bluestone 
and then mixing the still wetted wheat with 
quicklime. It should be soaked one night in the 



dissolved bluestone. Another remedy is to use 
salt instead of bluestone, soaking it for some time 
and following the soaking with the same applica- 
tion of quicklime. The soaking destroys the 
vitality of the smut seeds. 

The following plan for the x^reparatiou of 
wheat seed accredited by the Cincinnati Gazettee, 
to R. G. Carmichael, may perhaps be of interest 
to our farming community : 

" To Prevent Smut in Wheat. — Dissolve half a 
pound of sulphate of copper in three quarts of 
warm water. After the mixture has cooled, 
sprinkle it over two bushels of wheat, stirring it 
through until the whole be wet. Put it up on a 
heap, turning it occasionally for an hour, when it 
will be ready for sowing. Should wet weather or 
any other cause prevent its being sown immedi- 
ately, spread it thin on a dry floor, giving it an oc- 
casional turning, and it will not suffer injury foi* 
weeks." 

Other remedies might be given but the spac6 
of an article such as we design this forbids fur- 
ther amplification. A. H. 



r^ 



HORTICULTURE AS OLD AS THE 
BIBLE. 

" And God said, behold I have given you every 
herb bearing seed which is upon the face of the 
earth, and every tree in which is the fruit of a 
tree yielding seed, to you it shall be for meat, and 
to every beast of the earth, and to every fowl of 
the air, and to everything that creepeth upon the 
earth wherein there is life, I have given every 
green herb for meat, and it was so. And God saw 
everything that he had made, and behold it was 
very good, &c." 

" And the Lord God planted a garden eastward 
in Eden, and there he put the man whom he had 
formed. And out of the ground made the Lord 
God to grow every tree that is pleasant to the 
sight, and good for food, and the tree of life also 
in the midst of the garden, and the tree of know- 
ledge of good and evil, &c." 

" And the Lord God took the man and put him 
in the garden of Eden to dress it and to keep it," 
( as though God intended him to be a horticultur- 
ist.) " And the Lord God commanded the man, 
saying, of every tree of the garden thou mayest 
freely eat, but of the tree of knowledge of good 
and evil, thou shalt not eat of it, &c." 

But mark the dreadful consequence of disobe- 
dience to God, see what sin has brought into the 
world. " And unto Adam he said, because thou 
hast eaten of the tree of which I commanded thee 
saying, thou shalt not eat of it, cursed is the 
ground for thy sake , in sorrow shalt thou eat of 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



103 



it all the days of thy life, thorns also and thistles 
shall it bring forth to thee, and thou shalt eat the 
herb of the field, in the sweat of thy face shalt 
eat bread till thou return unto the ground, &c." 

" Therefore the Lord God sent him forth from 
the garden of Eden to till the ground from whence 
he was taken, &c." 

"We have Scripture as a foundation for our so- 
ciety, but that does not prove that we are per- 
fectly right. We don't mean to say we are right 
when we are so far from it. But although man- 
kind ( and perhaps oiu: fruits also,) haye degen- 
ated from that pure state in which they were 
created when God saw that they were very good ; 
yet we rejoice to know that there is still a way, 
and the means whereby we can be reclaimed and 
brought back into peace and favor with God, and 
we believe also, that our fruits can be greatly im- 
proved and brought back from their degenerated 
state, into a better and more perfect condition. — 
In fact there has already been great improve- 
ments, bnt perhaps we are not progressing as fast 
as we might or should, either in morals or fruit 
culture. What are the signs of the times ? We 
call this God's country. Very well, so it ought to 
be. But I fear we have gone away from God, 
and robbed God of the honor due to his name. 
Does not this seem to be the reason that Provi- 
dence is some wliat against us, and we do not pros- 
per in our efforts as well as we might ? I^ow God 
commands us to retm-n unto him and he will return 
unto us ; will we begin to say, wherein shall we 
return, or wherein have we robbed God? Why is 
it, that with all our inventions, and remedies, and 
insect exterminators, &c.,we are still cursed with 
a curse ? I firmly believe it is, because we have 
robbed God ; even this whole nation has robbed 
Him. 

" Bring ye all the tithes into the storehouse 
that there may be meat in my house, and prove 
me now herewith, saith the Lord of hosts, if I 
will not open you the windows of heaven, and 
pour you out a blessing, that there shall not be 
room enough to receive it, and I will rebuke the 
devourer for your sakes, and he shall not destroy 
the fruits of your ground, neither shall your vine 
cast her fruit before the time in the field, saith 
the Lord of hosts. And all nations shall call you 
blessed, for ye shall be a delightsome land, saith 
the Lord of hosts, &c." 

" That our sous may be as plants grown up in 
their youth ; that our daughters may be as- corner 
stones polished after the similitude of a palace; 
that our garners may be full, affording all manner 
of store •, that our sheep may bring forth thou- 
sands and tens of thousands in our streets ; that 
our oxen may be strong to laljor ; that there be 



no breaking nor going out ; that there be no com- 
plaining in our streets. Happy is that people, 
whose God is the Lord." 

J. B. E., Beaver Valley. 



THE GRAPE. 

Grape growing, in our country, is so much in 
its infancy, that experience more than- all else is 
wanted to lead us to better results. Most of the 
popular varieties of the grape are of ^recent 
origin; some of very recent origin, and but few 
have been well tested over a wide range of coun- 
try. 

What variety does best in one section ; what 
in another ; what requires a deep soil, what a 
shallow one ? these are questions of importance. 

My first planting was done in deeply trenched 
ground. The soil is clay, a little mixed with fine 
slate, and is situated at the foot of a slate ridge 
which shelters the spot from the northwest wind. 
Of many kinds planted in this ground only four 
were successful, viz : the Hartford Prolific, Clin- 
ton, Martha, and Telegraph. Of Concord, I had 
only one vine planted ; it fruited only twice and 
grew less every year afterwards, until it died. 
Isabella and Catawba did well for some time, 
but their day is past. Of the later and newer 
varieties, the Delaware ripened a few small crops, 
and then did no more good; Its leaves scorched 
in midsummer, and the grapes remained unripen- 
ed. Diana ripened a few crops and then became 
worthless. Anna never ripened a perfect berry ; 
it constantly fell a prey to mildew. Cassidy did 
did not ripen well ; it also mildewed. Alvey did 
not bear well, nor was the fruit of good quality, 
Of Rodgers' hybrids, I have numbers 1, 9, 15, 19 
and 33. They all mildewed, and some of them 
rot badly. Nos. l,and 9 have done the the best. 
No. 15 has done thei worst of them all. Crevel- 
ing does not ripen its fruit because it mildews 
very badly. Union Village also mildews and is 
not hardy, besides being of a poor quality. Cuy- 
ahoga in five years did not come to fruiting, and 
besides this barrenness, also mildews. Iowa and 
Adirondac are five years old ; the vines are now 
about one-fourth of an inch in diameter and have 
never shown any fruit. This year, however, the 
Adirondac shows some flower stems. Maxataw- 
ny did well for a few years ; particularly a vine 
that was grafted on a Franklin stock, which grew 
more vigorously than the rest and fruited better. 
Both bunches and berries were larger on this vine 
than on the others of this variety, biit mildew 
also overcame it at last, and they were all carted 
off the ground together. Taylor proved a ram- 
pant grower, free from mildew, but a poor bearer. 
Franklin did not bear well on this trenched 



104 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



ground, but ou theslate hill which was uottrenched 
it is au enormous bearer, and the fruit is of very 
good qualit}'. Allen's H3'brid, Clara and Rebecca 
turned out worthless. Of Salem, I have a small 
plant which mildewed last season, and this season, 
up to this time (May 10) shows no signs of life. 
Weehawken made a strong growth last summer, 
but mildev/ed somewhat and did not ripen half 
its wood ; this spring it grows feebly. The Hart- 
ford Prolific I have found one of the most hardy 
and reliable of all grapes. It is a good bearer, 
and frost always finds it with a healthy and per- 
fect set of leaves. The Clinton bears enormously ; 
its leaves have not proved as healthy as those of 
the Hartford, but sufficiently so to ripen its fruit 
well. Telegraph fruited last season for the first 
time and is a very promising grape. The Martha 
I received from my friend, Mr. Samuel Miller, 
(who is the originator of that variety) in the fall 
of 1863. My plant was feeble and made very 
little growth the first season. It fruited the first 
time iu 1856, bearing a few small bunches of very 
good quality. In 1867 it had quite a large num- 
ber of bunches of fair size ; but the excessive 
wet weather of that summer caused some of the 
berries to rot and the bunches to become small. 
What remained ripened well and were very ex- 
cellent in quality. Almost all my other grapes 
rotted that season — Hartford and Clinton being 
the exceptions. In 1868, which was also a wet 
season, a few of the Martha berries rotted, but 
not enough to much lessen the crop, while Eodger's 
Hybrids, fifteen feet distant, rotted much more. 
My Martha vine was weakened by continued and 
excessive layering. Young Martha vines thence 
procured and now planted two years, are very 
thrifty and show a growth equal to Concord un- 
der favorable circumstances. In size, the leaves 
are a little smaller than the Concord's, and of a 
paler green. These young plants so far have 
been as hardy and as free from mildew as any 
Concords. The old vine, now six years old, in all 
that time, has shown no mildew on its leaves. 
It is ajjrojyos to mention here that I have made in- 
quiry of those of my acquaintances who have 
fruited Martha vines, and am told by all that 
they have not seen any of the fruit rot. My vine 
is the only one on which any rot had appeare~d, 
and may not the trenched ground be to blame for 
it? In quality, the Martha is rich and sweet, 
and very tender, with very little pulp and no un- 
pleasant acidity near the seeds. It has a slight 
touch of the native foxy aroma. Its skin is thin, 
the color, yellowish green, with a thin white 
bloom. Persons who have tested grapes from 
my vine pronounce it equal or superior to the 
Delaware. With me it has proved worth more 



than all of the other white grapes, so far known 
to me, put together. 

My newer plantation of grape vines is on tha 
slope of the slate hill (inclining southward) of 
which I spoke at the commencement of this j^aper. 
The ground here is not trenched, and the vines 
look more promising than on the trenched ground. 
My Concord's here are all I could wish for. The 
Clinton's are also very good, and the Franklin 
surpasses anything I ever saw elsewhere of that 
variety. The Hartford Prolific also does well 
here. In this ground I have planted 400 Con- 
cords and 160 Martha vines, together with 100 
plants of other varieties. 

Litiz, May 10, 1868. I. H. 

[From the foregoing the conclusion may be" 
dra'^'^ni that, except for a few varieties, trenched 
ground is not so congenial to the grape, in a soil 
like that of Mr. H.'s, as is ground prepared in the 
common way. It seems that both mildew and 
rot are fostered by a soil over deep and over rich 
— avery important lesson if verified by further 
observation. — Ed.l 



V/HElSr TO CUT TIMBER TO MAKE IT 
LASTI3S"G. 
In looking over the proceedings of a late Agri- 
cultural meeting, I was reported to say that I cut 
black-oak wood in winter, or December, that was 
sound after ten years exposure. That was a mis- 
take. I cut black-oak trees iu May, 1859, and 
took the bark ofl:\ip to the top limbs, which were 
intended for fire wood, and some of it with the 
bark off was exposed for 9 years, and still sound. 
Any timber to be used for fence rails will last 
longer when cut in the spring, when the bark 
comes oft' freely. I have willow rails on my farm 
cut 45 years ago and still sound. Fence posts, 
when they are well seasoned, will last much 
longer than posts set in the ground green. A 
remarkable case came within my experience in 
the cutting of swamp oak, in February, for fence 
posts. I set the posts in the ground in the fol- 
lowing April, and the}^ all rotted through, above 
ground, in eight years. 

L. S. E. 



1^ -^^o- ^^ 



PRUNING TREES. 
February is generally considered the time to 
prune fruit trees, when much pruning is neces- 
sary; but much pruning at onetime is often more 
injury than benefit, like too much bleeding as 
was formerly resorted to for health, which is 
now rarely performed. A neighbor of mine, 
who is a considerable Pomologist, does all bis 
pruning during the summer, and very little at 
one time. In the spring he generally cuts his 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



105 



trees back more or less, which insures a more 
vigorous growth and he uses the knife all sum- 
mer to his trees to work them in a beautiful 
shape ; his peach trees are low and spreading, 
making a handsome appearance. I know of 
instances where whole orchards were ruined by 
too much pruning at one time, L. S. R. 




WEEDS, NO. 4. 



THE THORN APPLE. 



This coarse, unsightly, fetid weed, is an annual 
plant, which seems to follow the progress of cul- 
tivation, and is rarely found remote from the 
vicinity of dwellings. It occurs in every part of 
the Atlantic coast from Maine to Florida, and iu 
the neighborhood of settlements in the Western 
States. It usually grows along road sides, among 
rubbish and in neglected spots of rich ground, and 
is a well-known poisonous, medicinal, coarse 
herb, stem stout, much forked or branching ; 
leaves coarsely toothed, with white or bluish pur- 
ple, funnel-shaped, folded flowers, succeeded by 
a prickly, four- valved fruit, containing many black 
seeds. The genuine botanical name is "Datura," 
from the Arabic " Tatula," and the specific name 
" stramonium," is from the Greek, signifying 
"Mad Apple." Its native countr.y is doubtful. 
Gerarde gave the first satisfactory account of it 
on record, who published a description and figure 
in 1597, raised from seeds by himself that came 
from Constantinople. 

Notwithstanding, in Miller's Dictionary by 
Mart}^, the editor ( like most European writers) 
says. " That it is a native of America, we have 
the most undoubted proofs, for in the earth 
brought with plants from various parts of that ex- 
tensive counti'y, we are sure to have the thorn 
apple come up. Allow me to quote the original 
statement of Gerarde in his herbal of 1597, re- 
ferred to ; he says — 

" The inyce of thorne apples, boiled Avith hog's 
grease to the forme of an ungent or salve, cureth 
all inflammations whatsoever, all manner of burn- 
ings or scaldings, and that in very short time, as 
myself have Ibund by my dayly practise, to my 
great credit and profit.'' 

Stick a pin here ; old as the news is, it is not far 
from the truth, and much more modern authority 
could be quoted to the same end. It is not my 
object to introduce this plant to the notice of the 
public for its various reputed medicinal proper- 
ties, nor the many stories that have been related 
of the power of this and other species of Datura 
lO produce mental alienation without at the same 



time materiall}' aflecting the body. It is a fact 
— that the lioyal Society of London, gravely in- 
quired of Sir Philberto Yeruatti, " whether the 
Indians can so prepare the stupifying herb Da- 
tura, that they make it lie several days, months, 
or years, according as they will have it, in a man's 
body ; and at the end kill him without missing 
half an hour's time," such was the superstition 
respecting this plant. 

It is, however, a well-established fact, that it is 
dangerous to have it grow within the reacb of 
children, Avho maybe tempted to pluck the flowers 
and suck the open tubular bells, as they do Honey 
suckle or clover heads. I know of one case where 
the parents were much alarmed at the frantic 
actions of the children who had indulged sucking 
the juices, i Dr. J. L. Ziegler, of Mount Joy, was 
called on that occasion, other facts of the like 
have come to my knowledge. The name " Jim- 
son" Weed, is a corruption from Jamestown 
Weed, in connection with the above I will quote 
a passage from Beverhfs History of Virginia, 2)- 
121. 

" The Jamestown Weed, ( which resembles the 
thorny apple of Peru, and I take it to be the plant 
so called,) is supposed to be one of the greatest 
coolers in the world. This being an early plant, 
was gathered very young for a boiled sallad, by 
some of the soldiers sent thither to quell the re- 
bellion of Bacon ; and some of them ate plenti- 
fully of it, the eftect of which was a very pleasant 
comedy, for they turned natural fools upon it for 
several days. One would blow up a feather in 
the air, another would dart straws at it with much 
fury; another stark naked was sitting up in a cor- 
ner like a monkey, grinning and making mows at 
them; a fourth would kiss and paw his compan- 
ions, and sneer in their faces with a countenance 
more antic than a Dutch doll. 

In this frantic condition they were confined, 
lest, in their own folly, thev should destroy them- 
selves. A thousand simple tricks they played, 
and after eleven days returned to themselves 
ao-ain, not remembering anything that had pass- 
ed." 

In the Language of Flowers, this is emblematic 
Gi '• Deceitful Charms,'" too often enervated by 
luxurious ease, and indolent beauty languishes 
the whole day, and avoids the cheering rays of 
the sun. At night, arrayed with all the coquetry, 
she exhibits herself to her admirers. The un- 
steady and delusive light of tapers, aiding her ar- 
tifices, lends her a deceptive brilliancy, and she 
enchants by charms that are not her own. 
Her heart, meanwhile, is a stranger to love ; all 
that she wants is slaves and victims. Imprudent 
youth, flee from the approach of this enchantress. 

The flowers of the thorue-apple, like those 
nocturnal beauties, drop while the sun shines be- 
neath their dull-looking foUage ; but, on the ap- 
proach of night, they revive, display their charms, 



106 



THE LANCASTER FAEMER. 



and unfold their ivory bells, Avhich nature has 
lined with purple, and to which she has given an 
odour that attracts and intoxicates, stupifying 
snout insects that inhale it. The Night-Hawk 
moth, bred from the tobacco worm and its kindred 
species are the only visitors of this plant to sip its 
juices, fitting associates. The busy bee avoid 
it, as deleterious, unless it is an out cast from the 
hive. Flowers muy impart a lesson ; they do well 
who heed it. J. S. 



NOTE ON THE CULTURE OP SAFFRON 
. IN PENNSYLVANIA. 

BY CHARLES A. HEINITSH. 

Crocus Sativtts. — Saffron, until the last few 
years, was activated in Lancaster county, Pa., 
to a considerable extent, particularly amongst 
the German portion of its inhabitonts, for its use 
as a flavoring and coloring ingredient in soups 
and tea, and as a domestic remedy for measles 
and other febrile diseases, besides making an 
ornamental flower-bed in their gardens. 

Saffron requires a rich soil to grow it abundant- 
ly. The usual mode of cultivating it is to prepare 
the bed by digging deep and filling up with ma- 
nure and rich soil, planting the corms or bulbs, 
after separating the young from the parent,* 
about eight inches apart in rows, similar to onion 
sets,) in the month of August. Care is necessary 
to keep the beds free from weeds. 

The flowering season commences about the 
middle of September, and continues until the be- 
ginning of October, according to the locality of 
the bed. The flowers are picked off early in the 
morning; the stigmas separated and dried in the 
shade. This continues every day until the sea- 
son ends. The leaves remain green all winter. 
The following June the beds are cleansed from 
the decayed leaves, and left until renewing time 
in August. 

Saffron must necessarily be dear, says Mr. Bent- 
ly in an article on adulterations published in last 
May's number of Journal of Pharmacy, because 
it takes a great number of flowers to make a 
pound ; and there are other causes, viz., failure 
of crops from excessive rains or drought, and 
attacks of the field mice, which destroy the bulbs. 
But withal, when we remember that (all our pro- 
ducts of the garden and farm are liable to failures 
from various causes, though probably not to such 
an extent, I think it can be profitably raised, 
judging from the following two calculations, 
taken as an average : -On inquiry from some of 
the growers, one informed me that about 3,000 



flowers, or 9,000 stigmas, can be raised off a bed 
12x6 feet =72 square feet. Another, that often 
in a good season between 2,000 and 3,000 flowers 
can be had in one morning's picking off" about 500 
square feet, and this continues for a number of 
mornings, though not always with so large a num- 
ber. These two make about the average result 
of experienced growers. 

In counting and weighing the stigmas, I find, 
after several trials, that 300 weigh 13 to 14 grains, 
which would be a yield of about 420 grains to 72 
square feet, or 33 to 36 pounds to an acre. If 
these calculations only approximate to correct- 
ness, at present prices it will be very remunera- 
tive to the grower in comparison with many other 
products. 

Specimens of the stigmas and corms are sub- 
mitted. 
Lancaster, Pa. — Proc, Amer. PJiar, As. 1866. 



U fflltltUlt. 



* The young corms or offshoots are attached similar to col- 
chicum. 



BEE CULTURE. 

Previous to the clearing of our forests, bee- 
keeping proved a profitable business to many 
people, especially to those that had an inclina- 
tion and fondness for this kind of pursuit. It was 
generally attended with little more expense than 
the cost of a few boards and straw hives. So well 
did persons informer times succeed with the cul- 
ture of bees that hives of them were destroyed in 
the fall for the honey which they had gathered 
during the season. 

Now, however, since our forests have been so 
greatly thinned, and the wild flowers have become 
so scarce, bee-keeping, according to the old style 
of culture, has ceased to be profitable, and most 
farmers have given up the raising of bees with 
disgust as a business altogether unprofitable. 

About twenty-five years ago several enterpris 
ing men, some of them Europeans and others 
Americans (of whom Longstreth, of Ohio, Dr. 
Berg, of Philadelphia, and Saml. Wagner, of York 
Pa., deserve especial mention,) undertook to de- 
velop plans by which the old systems of bee cul- 
ture should be dispensed with. These gentlemen 
have devised new systems of bee culture, and 
have made the business again one of profit. It 
has been discovered through the ingenuity of 
these enterprising men that now, since so many 
peach and apple orchards are planted by our 
fai-mers and flowers are grown in abundance by 
the ladies, bees may find sufficient scope again upon 
which they can forage and gather their honey in 
great quantities. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



107 



I would call special atteutiou to those known 
as the Kidder and Longstreth hives as being the 
best within the range of my knowledge. These 
hives are admirably arranged with slats, frames 
and glass, so that a young swarm can be put in 
and examined at all times ; a part or all of the 
bees removed and transferred to a new hive and 
furnished (if queenless) with a young queen, or 
the whole hive may in a short time be changed 
from black to Italian bees. In my remarks at 
this time I will confine myself to a few facts leav- 
ing further explanation for a future article. 

To my limited apiary, in 1868, 1 added four Ital- 
ian swarms which I obtained of W. J. Davis, of 
Youngsville, Pa. These I forced to swarm, or 
rather divided them, and then again they, to my 
surprise and against my inclination, swarmed 
four times. This so weakened them that I lost 
several of them before I moved them from their 
summer stand to a dry cellar for winter. By 
careful attention, however, I succeeded in placing 
what was left, in tolerably good condition, on the 
summer stand again. These seem to flourish 
well, having swarmed the first time on the 8th of 
May, and have now swarmed in all six times 
when I pen this article. 

Anticipating the continuance of this subject in 
some future number of the Lancaster Farmer, 
I in the meantime would refer all apiarians and 
those desirous of information on this subject to 
the Atnerican Bee Journal^ and to the Bee Keeper'' s 
Journal. 

I believe, in conclusion, the keeping of bees 
might be made quite a profitable business if our 
farmers could be induced to turn their attention 
to it. We have instances of swarms doubling, 
and each producing from twenty to forty pounds 
of honey in a season. Honey itself in the farm- 
er's family is a valuable addition to the table, 
and now in these times, when molasses and sugar 
are both so high, why might not our farmers sup- 
ply themselves with this most useful and palata- 
ble article of diet. 

Peter S. Reist. 



(!JHt0m0l(j0ic<iI. 



PEA-BUGS AND BEAN-BUGS. 
The infestation of peas by a small colespterous 
insect, ( Brxichus pisi^) commonly called pea-bugs, 
is a familiar occurence, no doubt, to all our 
readers, but it is not so common to find beans 
similarly infested ; indeed, we do not remember 
to have seen them before the present season. — 
Mrs. P. E. Gibbons, brought us a lot of beans a 
few days ago, containing hundreds of them. In 



peas we usually find but a single insect in a seed 
— on rather rare occasions two may be found — 
but in these beans some of the seeds contained a 
half dozen or more. These, on examination and 
comparison, we find to be Bruchus mimusl- or 
nearly allied to it. They belong to the great 
family CuRCiLiONiDiE, the very name of which, 
is associated with a sort of terror to the fruit 
grower and gardener. Many of the peas infested 
will nevertheless germinate and grow, but we 
cannot tell what the eflect would be on beans, for 
some seemed so perfectly riddled by the perfora- 
tions of the insect, that there does not seem to be 
suflicient of the inner substance left to support 
their germination. There may, however, be some 
in which the germ is not effected. "Whatsoever 
remedy may have been applied to the destruction 
of the pea-bug, no doubt, would also apply to 
these. 



e^dit0««l 



MEETING OF THE AGRICULTURAL 
AND HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

The Agricultural and Horticultural Society of 
Lancaster county, held its regular monthly meet- 
ing, in the Orphan's Court room, in the city . f 
Lancaster, on Monday, June 7th, Henry M. 
Engle, President, and Alex. Harris, Secretary. 
The minutes of the previous meeting were read 
and approved without dissent. The chairman 
then rose and suggested, that as a considerable 
quantity of business would likely be transacted at 
the meeting, he hoped the members would do all 
in their power to aid him in having the business 
conducted in strict accordance with the rules of 
the Society and parlimentary usage. Levi S. 
Reist, chairman of the committee on fruits, re- 
ported verbally that the fruit this season promis- 
ed unusually well ; apples looked better than they 
have done for years ; peaches seemed to promise 
a finer crop than they have done for ten years; 
pears are not so promising as in some former 
years ; strawberries and blackberries looked ex- 
ceedingly fine and gave evidence of a very large 
crop. The other chairmen of the several stand- 
ing committee were called by the President, but 
had nothing special to report. 

Dr. Sam'l Welchans, from the committee hav- 
ing charge of the strawberry exhibition, reported 
that the committee had held a meeting, but hav- 
ing arrived at no definite conclusion as to the 
time of holding the exhibition, preferred to refdr 
the matter back fo the Society. The report of 
the committee was on motion received. Dr. "Wel- 
chans moved to hold the exhibition on the 10th 



108 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



of June. Several members discussed the subject 
of the motion at considerable length, when J. G. 
Piush offered an amendment that the exhibition 
be held on the 14th instead of the 10th, which was 
adopted. The jDreviously appointed committee 
was by direction of the Society continued, and di- 
rected to make the requisite preparations for 
holding the exhibition. 

S. S. Eathvon now proceeded to read an essay 
prepared by Jacob Stauffer, on Weeds. 

J. Q. Taggart and B. C. Kready, Esq., were 
l^roposed and elected members of the Society. 

The following question was handed to the Se- 
cretary to be read, and answered by any member 
of the Society, in accordance with its rules. "What 
remedy can be suggested by any member of the 
Horticultural Society, as a cure for the gapes in 
chickens?" 

Peter S. Keist in answer to the question pro- 
posed, remarked that he believed that the re- 
moval of the worms from the throats of the 
chickens would cure the disease. Several mem- 
bers now remarked that by doubling a horse hair 
and inserting it so doubled in the open mouth of 
the chicken and drawing it out, will sometimes 
extract as much as a dozen worms. This they 
gave as a remedy for the disease. Levi S. Reist, 
thought the chickens kept awaj^from the henner}' 
are not so so liable to this disease as those kept 
amongst the flock. J. H. Brackbill said, that by 
keei:)ing chickens out of the rain and wet grass, 
has been sufficient in his experience to prevent 
the disease. S. N. Warfel differed with J. H. 
Brackbill as to the virtue of keeping the chickens 
out of the rain and wet grass, and does not be- 
lieve that the gapes are so cured. Heretofore, 
he has had no faith in the removal of worms by 
means of the horse hair mentioned by the mem- 
bers. He always regarded it as an old woman 
idea. 

Dr. Saml Welchans now proceeded to read an 
essay upon vegetable phj-siology. 

The Secretary, by direction of the Chair read a 
letter from W. L. Brinton, secretary of the Board 
of Managers of the Experimental Farm, in Ches- 
ter county, inviting the Lancaster County Agri- 
cultural and Horticultural Society to send a dele- 
gate to represent the Society at the meeting of 
the Board of Managers, at the said Experimental 
Farm, on Thursday the 10th of June. 

On motion the Society went into an election 
for a delegate for one year, Avhich resulted in the 
choice of Henry M. Engle. The said delegate 
was on motion authorized to appoint a substitute 
in case, he could not any time during the year, at- 
tend the meetings, at which he was authorized to 
represent the Society. 



A fine display of fruits was on exhibition at the 
meeting, viz: Henry M. Engle, had a variety of 
seedling strawberries of a very large and fine ap- 
pearance. 

J. B. Erb, hacl some of the Early Rose potatoes 
fully half grown. He also had on exhibition 
strawberries ; the Wilson, Early Scarlet, Early 
Red and Hautbo}- . 

Peter Reiley had Triumph de Gand and Phila- 
delphia. 

Daniel Smeach had xVgriculturist, Wilson and 
Triumph de Gand. 

John G. Rush had several branches of different 
kinds of trees, the leaves of which were infected 
with insects and which were referred to the Ento- 
mologist. 

Hon. J. Zimmerman exhibited a very handsome 
seedling verbena. 

After the transaction of the current business 
the members of the Society, by allowance of the 
Chair, were permitted to indulge themselves in 
social relaxation and in the free testing of the 
fruits on exhibition, (always an agreeable part of 
the proceedings,) upon the conclusion of which, 
the society, on motion, adjourned. 

U l > — 1^ 

A GENEROUS YIELD. 

Mr. Daniel Smeach, of this city, had a " small 
patch" of strawberries the i^resent season, which 
we think produced not only a generous but a pay- 
ing crop. The enclosure was just thirty feet wide 
and one hundred and fifty long, or what is gen- 
errlly called "half a lot." From this jiatch he 
gathered twenty-three bushels of marketable ber- 
ries, and then threw it open to his poor neighbors, 
who gathered mau}^ more. The greater part were 
of "Wilson's Albany Seedling," and the remaind- 
er, the "Agriculturist," and "Russel's Prolific." 
The aggregate number of quarts sold was seven 
hundred an thirty-six, and the average i)rice 18 
cents per quart, showing a money value of $130.- 
48. We saw some of Mr. S's Agriculturists, that 
when first pulled, measured two and one-half 
inches in their largest diameters. We should 
take great pleasure in recording the results, in 
strawberry culture, of any of our patrons who will 
take the trouble of furnishing us the necessary 
data. Some cultivators indulge apprehensions 
that the market may become glutted, and that 
consequently the business may not ultimately 
pay, but there are no just foundations for such 
apprehensions. The demand is every year in- 
creasing, and strawberries will after awhile be re- 
garded rather as a necessity than as a luxury. If 
matters could be so arranged as to get them very 
early into market, and also very late, so that their 
season would be prolonged, there would be little 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



109 



daoger of depretiatiou from an overstocked mar- 
" ket. The chief danger lies in a simultaneous 
ripening, and a short season, when the crop is 
abundant. The best and largest berries, the pre- 
sent season, brought from 25 to 30 cents a quart ; 
medimn qualities were sold at from 15 to 20 cents, 
and only a few very inferior ones at 10 cents. On 
a visit to Xew York, a few days ago, we found 
the stock in market very limited and the quality 
inferior, indeed the New York papers state that, 
on the whole, the strawberry crop there the pre- 
sent season was a failure. In some particular in- 
stances it may have been so here, but not, we 
think, as a whole, although we may not be able 
to say it was very abundant. 



We call the attention of our farmers and gar- 
deners to an article in the present number of our 
Journal, on the subject of Saffron, and its culture, 
which was read before the " American Pharma- 
ceutical Society," at its annual meeting in De- 
troit, in 1866. The article, as will be seen, is 
taken from the proceedings of said society, and 
was written by Mr. Chas. A. Heinitsh, of this city, 
and has been copied into a number of home and 
foreign scientific and agricultural publications. 
We reproduce it for the benefit of any of the cul- 
tivators of our county who may desire to engage 
in the production of a plant that will be sure to 
remunerate them for their labor. Mr. H. informs 
us that he himself will give $;1600 for one hun- 
dred pounds of pure American saftron. Saftron, 
it appears, has been growing scarcer every year, 
and still the demand for it continues, and espe- 
cially for the home article, which seems to be pre- 
ferable to the foreign. It is true that the demand 
must necessarily be limited, but, no doubt, two 
or three hundred pounds might be sold in the 
county of Lancaster every year. This would at 
least produce pin-money for a number of the 
housewives and maidens of our county, who 
might easily add a bed of saftron to the other ob- 
jects of their garden culture* It is a plant that 
would yield bountifully to the gentle manipula- 
tions of a female hand. The uses of satfrou are 
various, among which are seasonings for teas and 
soups, and coloring for bitters, wmes, &c., as well 
as medicinallj'. 



Through some unaccountable neglect, at the 
exhibition of the Society, held ' on the 14th of 
June last, no committees were appointed to re- 
port 'on the kind and quality of the fruit and flow- 
ers, and therefore no detailed notice can now be 
taken of them other than that which appears in 
the reports made to the daily papers. This is to 
be regretted, for not only the kind and quality 



of the fruit, but also the cultivators' names and 
the mode of cultivation, together with the locality 
and the nature of the soils, should have become 
the subjects of a committee's consideration. 

We can, however, safely say that we have 
never before seen an exhibition that contained so 
fine a display of strawberries, or so many large 
and luscious varieties, in proportion to the quan- 
tity on exhibition. Those of Peter Riley, Daniel 
Smeach, John Shields, J. G. Rush, Samuel Bm-ns, 
John Erb, and H. M. Engle, were particularly 
fine. There may have been others which we can- 
not just now call to mind, and therefore we can 
only refer om- readers to the columns of the In- 
telligencer and Express, where the reports on 
them, and also the many beautiful flowers on ex- 
hibition, appeared. We hope on future occasions 
this matter will receive proper attention. In- 
deed, the Society should previously appoint com- 
mittees to examine and make up their reports, 
before the doors are opened to the public on the 
exhibition day. 

^ ^ »i 

We clip the following item from the Lancaster 
Intelligencer, of a late date, which contained a 
brief sketch of the proceedings of the Board of 
Managers of the Experimental Farm, at West 
Grove, Chester county, on the 10th of June, 1869. 
H. M. Engle, Esq., was the tluly accredited dele- 
gate and representative of the Lancaster County 
Agricultiural and Horticultural Society. Mr. 
Engle, of Lancaster county, exhibited some very 
tine specimens of hybrid and seedling strawber- 
ries. The Chair appointed Thomas Meehan, 
(editor of the Gardener''s Monthly,) and Joseph T. 
Phillips a committee to examine the strawberries, 
who made the following report . 

" The committee appointed by the annual meet- 
ing of the Board of Managers of the Eastern Ex- 
perimental Farm to report on some seedling 
strawberries exhibited before them by Mr. Henry 
M. Engle, respectfully report, that some of them 
are berries of the largest size and highest flavor, 
equal to the best now out, and that if they shall 
prove productive and hardy will prove valuable 
additions to our list of varieties." 



We have received a well-written and interest- 
ing communication from Mr. Henry Bower, the 
inventor and owner of " Bower's Complete Ma- 
nure," which we will ^lay before our readers in 
the next number of our Journal ; because we 
think it contains matter of interest to the farming 
public, and also because the author seems to think 
that our editorial notes, in the two last numbers 
of our paper, on the comparative results of fertil- 
izers, in the report of the Superintendent of the 
Experimental Farm at West Grove, may have a 



110 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



tendency to prejudice the sale of his manure ; a 
result which was the very farthest from our inten- 
tion. The paper alluded to seems to be a very 
carefully and impartially collated statement of 
the efiects of the leading fertilizers now in use ; 
but if, in publishing it, it may seem to be unjustly 
joartial, we will not assume the responsibility of 
answering any cavils upon the subject. The 
paper, to our mind, is of particular pecuniary 
value, inasmuch as all the results are carried out 
also in dollars and cents. 

OLD WATERMAN'S JOURNAL. 

"Good morning, Mr. "Waterman, I thought I 
would step over and see what a reviving effect 
this spring weather has upon you." 

"Good morninan' thankee, Mr. Fisk, yournigh- 
est the very man I want to see. I was jist a 
huntin up that i^en you gave me afore you quit 
the town business. You see, it happened this 
way, I was up in Lancaster about that check I 
was a tellin you of — well, I met one of them 
chaps that edits the Faemee. Glad to see you, 
says he, you must go right along to the meetin, 
and furthermore, we must have some of Old 
Waterman's dolus aji' sayins. Well, I kmder 
promised, but I told him his sayins are pm*ty 
l)lain talk, an' he can't write very proper — wise 
— that's all right, says he.'* 

"And so, says I, nothing would gratify me more 
truly than that your practical experience should 
become embodied in the pages of the Farmer, 
(he has city larnin, Mr. Editor) and as I want to 
put in my potatoes to-morrow, I thought I would 
ask to see your plot over there and learn yom' 
mode." 

"Sartinly, Mr. Fisk, I'll jist tell the boys to 
dig in them broke bones to the grape stalks an' 
fill up the mulch boxes, an' I'm ready." 

Isow, you see, I can't efford to plant pertatoes 
in sod ground, keep that for corn, nighest the best 
general crop a farmer can raise ; grain and fod- 
der both, you see, but in stock ground in place of 
oats, an' anyway they are a bad crop in good 
ground, fur in a flush season they drop an' cost 
too much to barn 'em. Now you see the stalks 
on this four acre patch was all a hauled off last 
of last November, into the dry yard at the barn, 
then manured an' plowed for winter freezin,then 
jist cross plowed deep this spring an' got in good 
order, an, now here's the pint, Mr. Fisk, you see 
them furrows were made with a ridgin plow. A 
shovel plow '11 do if you go twice through, so the 
ridges are ten inches high, drop an' take all but 



two hind teeth out of a hoe harrow, make narrow 
to suit and kiver." 

"Well really that looks like burying them to 
keep." 

"Hold on, Mr. Fisk, don't you know if you 
keep kiverin the tender plant, the pertato will be 
on the top. Don't you know the weeds '11 always 
beat — then jist afore the pertato'stlirough,drag a 
tooth harrow lengthwise, an' conker, then wait 
till they are up a half an' inch or so, an' drag 
crosswise an' conker agin, hoe-harrow two or 
three times an' your'e done without a touch of 
the hoe. You want to know about that meetin'. 
Well, you see I took a back seat an' purty soon 
the meetin' begun — seemed to go on reg.elar 
principles. Some said so, an' some said it an- 
other way. One science man was a readin about 
birds, callen 'em hard names. Said he was often 
a sufferin' from his neighbugs. I jist thought, 
why don't he touch 'em with a little science an' 
fix em. Another said he had a patent panacea to 
destroy fruit insect, or driye 'em away, an' he 
would tell the meetin' when the fruit time was 
a comin'. I tell you. Waterman reads them chap- 
ters very slowly, least-wise he is unwillin' in the 
spirit an' weak in the flesh." 

Excuse me, my friend, but I cannot help think- 
ing " damnant quod non intelligunt,^^ for really it 
may be a valuable discovery ; at least wait until 
this mountain has brought forth its mouse and see 
what a big house they will build for it, and what 
a big bell they will put on this Stone — or brick 
house. 

J. H. Brackbill. 
< » » < 



Bean for Milch Cows. — One of our best 
dairymen in this section relies mainly on bran as 
feed for his cows, and finds it produces the most 
milk. He gives them as much as they will eat, 
and wants them to eat all they can, as they re- 
tm^n him a vastly increased value in milk. The 
quantity for a cow raiist be regulated by experi- 
ment and by sound judgment, avoiding surfeiting. 
He gives six to seven quarts of bran and two 
quarts of Indian meal for the morning feed, hay 
at noon, and bran meal again in the evening. — 
Bran has a value for milch cows, as a milk proi 
ducer, which is not fully appreciated or known, 
and seems for all stock, but especially neat cattle, 
to promote health and thrift. On first turning 
out to fresh pasture in the spring, succulent grass 
is apt to produce scouring. This is often collect- 
ed by a feed once a day of bran, in connection 
with free access always to a lump of rock salt. — 
An analysis of bran shows it abounds in phos- 
phates the very element of milk and bones. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



Ill 



THE FIRST THOUSAND DOLLARS. 

The first thousand dollars that a young man, 
after going out into the world to act for himself, 
earns and saves will generally settle the question 
of busines life with him. There may be excep- 
tions to this statement ; yet, for a rule, we think 
that it will hold true. 

The first condition that the young man actually 
earns the thousand dollars in question. He does 
not inherit this sum. It does not come to him by 
a streak of good luck, as the result of a fortunate 
venture in the purchase and sale of a hundred 
shares of stock. It is the fruit of personal indus- 
try. He gives his time and his labor fof it. 
While he is thus earning and saving it, he must 
earn two or three, or perhaps four times as much 
to pay his current expenses. He is consequently 
held sternly to the task of industry for a very con- 
siderable ]period. The direct consequence to him 
is a steady, continuous and solid discipline in the 
habits of industry, in patient, persistent, forecast- 
ing and self-denying effort, breaking up all the 
tendencies to indolence and frivolty, and making 
him an earnest and watchful economist of time 
He not only learns how to work, but he also ac- 
quires the love of work ; and, moreover, he learns 
the value of the sum which he has thus saved out 
of his earnings- He has toiled for it ; he has ob- 
served its slow increase from time to time •, and 
in his estimate it represents so many months or 
years of practical labor. His ideas of life are 
shaped by his own experience. 

These natural eftects of earnmg the first thou- 
sand dollai's we hold to be very large benefits. 
They are just the qualities of mind and body 
which are most likely to secure business success 
in after years. They constitute the best i^ractical 
education which a man can have as a worker in 
this working world. They are gained in season 
for life's purposes ; at the opening period, just 
when they are wanted, when foolish notions are 
most likely to mislead an experienced brain, and 
when, too, there is a full opportimity for then* 
expansion and development in later years. Men 
have but one life to live ; and hence they start 
from opening manhood but once. And the man- 
ner in which they start, the principles with which 
they start, the purposes they have in view, and 
the habits they form, will ordinarily determine 
the entire sequel of their career on earth. To 
succeed, men must have the elments of success in 
themselves. One great reason why there are so 
many useless, inefficient and poverty- 
stricken men on earth — or, rather, boys seeming 
f to be men — consists in the simple fact that they 
did not start right. A prominent reason why the 
children of the rich so frequently amount to noth- 



ing may be found in the luxury, ease and indo- 
lence which marked the commencement of their 
lives. It is the law of God that we should be 
workers on earth ; and no one so well consults 
the best development of his being as when he 
conforms his practice to this law. The workei-s 
in some suitable sphere are the only really strong 
men in this world. 

The other condition of the statement is that the 
thousand dollars should be saved, as an actual 
surplus beyond daily consumption. He who 
spends all he earns is always poor. He never has 
a dollar of accumulated wealth. The stream 
runs out as fast as it runs in. In spending his 
entire earnings he will, on the one hand, contract 
the habits of prodigality, with its kindred vices, 
and, on the other, lose those of a sound and judi- 
cious economy. This being the phase of things 
as life opens with him, his prospects for the fu- 
ture are a minus quantity. Life with him will 
be a failui-e ; matm-e years will be marked by sig- 
nificance; and old age, if he lives to see it, will 
be loaded with poverty. He is an object of char- 
ity at the moment in which he ceases to be a pro- 
ducer, having no reserve upon which to draw in 
the day of adversity. Some men seem to be 
doomed to this by necessity, and in this case pov- 
erty and want are not their fault ; yet a very large 
number make this condition their choice — and, 
hence, with them it is self-produced. 

The great rule of good sense and Christian vir- 
tue is not to spend more than one earns, never to 
spend anything either foolishly or viciously and 
always spend as much less than one's earnings as 
is consistent with a reasonable degree of personal 
comfort and a proper sense of duty to God and 
maai. This is the general thought which every 
one must apply for himself. It is not meanness, 
but economy. It is not selfishness, but a legiti 
mate self-love. It is far more likely to dwell in 
the bosom of virtue than in that of depravity. It 
is, indeed, a form of virtue, graded to the reali- 
ties and necessities of this life and not imfiting 
its subject for the enjoyments and glories of the 
next. 

Now, in saving the first thousand dollars, the 
young man whom we have in view practices this 
economy. He lives within his means, and hence 
owes no debts he cannot pay ; he never spends 
money in a foolish or vicious way ; and, after a 
proper attention to his own wants, and the duties 
which bind him to others, of which questions he 
is the sole judge, he lays by, from month to 
month, or year to year, his surplus earnings as so 
much accumulated capital. At length he reaches 
the point, and is worth a thousand dollars. The 
lessons thus acquired will almost certainly last 



112 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



him for a life time. They are wrought into the 
very tissues of his personal being. If fortune 
smile upon him, as it probably will, it will not 
make him a fool. He can stand prosperity with- 
out explosion. He understands economy, for he 
practiced it. It is Avith him not an idea merely ; 
but a fact, and a fixed feature of character. The 
outflow of his earnings may increase with his in- 
crease of means ; yet the law which governed and 
the processes which secured the saving of the 
first thousand dollars will be likely to stand by 
him in all time to come. Some men fail for the 
want of sufficient action to command success; 
others fail for the want of sufficient economy in 
respect to the products of action ; still others fail 
for want of both. Some have no discretion in 
prosperity, and others have almost no energy and 
force in the day of adversity. The trained 
worker and trained economist belongs to one of 
these classes. His personal qualities make him 
Si.man — a sensible, prudent, forcible, practical 
man in any relation and all times. 

We select a thousand dollars as the trial sum 
because it is not too large to be attainable in most 
cases, or so small as to be of easy attainment. It 
is about sufficient to put a young man to the test, 
aod bring out what there is in him, and in this 
way give him a practicable education for the bu- 
siness work of life. 

It is quite true that this article refers mainly to 
a point in material civilization, development, and 
progress ; and it is just as true that humanity was 
designed, while moving through this sphere, 
wisely and well to do the things that belong ''to 
this sphere. The present life has its laws and its 
necessities ; and to obey the former and meet the 
latter is really a duty as it is to pray or sing 
psalms. There are six days in every week for 
business as well as a seventh for religious wor- 
ship. Society rests on business. Productive in- 
dustry is the life blood of the world. It feeds and 
clothes the race. The surplus earnings of hu- 
manity beyond immediate consumption constitute, 
the accumulated wealth of mankind. It is first 
produced by industry, and then saved by econo- 
my •, and but for it the race would be a herd of 
paupers and savages. The man who fools away 
this life in indolence or prodigality is a fool if 
there be no other life ; and he certainly is a fool 
if there be another. The young man to whom it is 
a matter of no consequence whether he works or 
plays, whether he saves or spends, deserves a 
workhouse to task him and a short allowance to 
discipline him. The father who, having an ample 
fortune, brings up his sons upon this shiftless 
theory is practically their enemy, and is as inex- 
cusable as he would be if he shoidd poison them 



with rum. To all such fathers and all such sons 
we commend the practical profit of earning and 
saving the first thousand dollars. 



THE EFFECT OF CHARCOAL ON 
FLOWERS, 

A correspondent of the Revue Horticole, says 
that not long ago he made a bargain for a rose- 
bush of magnificent growth and full of buds. He 
waited for them to blow, and expected roses 
worthy of such a noble plant and of the praises 
bestowed upon it by the vender, but when it 
bloomed all his hopes were blasted. The flowers 
were of a faded hue, and he discovered that he 
had only a middling multiflera, stale colored 
enough. He therefore resolved to sacrifice it to 
some experiments which he had in view. His at- 
tention had been directed to the effects of char- 
coal, as stated in some English publications. He 
then covered the earth in the pot in which the rose, 
bush was about half an inch deep, with pulverized 
charcoal. Some days after he was astonished to 
see the roses which bloomed, of as fine a lively 
rose-color as he could wish. He determined to 
repeat the experiment, and therefore when the 
rosebush had done flowering he took off" the char- 
coal and put fresh earth about the roots, and 
waited for the next spring impatiently to see the 
result of the experiment. "When it bloomed the 
roses were at first pale and discolored but by ap- 
plying the charcoal as before they soon assumed 
their rosy-red color. He then tried the powdered 
charcoal in large quantities upon petunias, and 
found that both the white and violet colored 
flowers were equally sensitive to its action. It 
always gave great vigor to the red or violet colors 
of the flowers, and the white petunias became, 
veined with red or violet tints; the violets be- 
came covered with irregular spots of a bluish or 
almost black tint. Many persons who admired 
them thought they were choice new varieties 
from the seed. Yellow flowers appear to be in- 
sensible to the influence of charcoal. 



To Make Cuttings Grow.— I used to have a 
great deal of trouble to make current and goose- 
berry cuttings or slips grow, until I tried the fol- 
lowing plan : I boiled some potatoes until they' 
were nearly done, and then stuck one on each 
slip and put in the ground. Every slip sprouted 
and grew well all summer, with but one or two ■ 
exceptions. The idea of putting the boiled por 
tatoes to the end of the cuttings was to furnish 
and keep moisture enough for them to grow, un- 
til the roots became large enough to gather this 
moisture and substance from the soil. I never 
tried it on grape cuttings, but do not see any rea- 
son why it would not do as well with grapes as 
with anything else. *' 



World Mutual Life Insuance Company, 

NO. IGO BKOADWAY, NEW YORK. 



J. F. FRKUAUFF;, General Agent^ 

No. 5 Nortli QLieeii Street, Lancaster, Pa. 

A. B. REIDENBACH, Litiz, Lancaster County, Pa. 
SAMUEIi L. YETTER, Elizabethtown, Lancaster County, Pa. 
J. INI. GlIAYBILIi, Columbia, Lancaster County, Pa. 

JArOB BAUSMAX, President Farmers' National Bank. Maj. JAS. E. RICKSECKER, City Treasurer. 

CIIUIS'N B. IIERR, Rrcs't Lancaster Co. Nat'l Bank. N. ELLMAKER, Esq., Attorney. 

Messrs. BAIR & SHENK, Bankers. B. F. B.U3R, Esq., Attorney. 

Judge A. L. HAYES. Col. AVM. L. BEAR, Protlionotary. J. F. LONG & SON, Druggists. 

No fanner is Justified in exposinf/ his creditors, his tvife, or Iiis children, to the loss 
certii in to occur to them, upon his death, without a Life Insurance Folicy for their 
benefit, and in no Co tnpani/ c<ni this be done wit Jt more safety and under better nian- 
afjeinent than in tJie above. See oite of their Ayoits and have him explain all about it. 



$200. $200. 

H^R'VEST.OF' 1869. 

A COIVIBiNEO SELF-BMING REAPER AND iVlOWER. 

ACler (iiir .«uccess in tlic Harvest of 1868, in pleasing our customers vvitli a neat, liglit, durable, and a com- 
pli>ti> Coiul.iiied Harvester, we again come into the market for the Harvest of 18G9 with our VALLEY CHIEF, 
feeling a great confidence in its superiority. 

We "offer this machine still at the low price of §200, and when a farmer is offered a first-class Mower and 
Scll-liaking Reaper Combined at tliis price, it is well for him to examine into the merits of the oiler. As a 
Mower, it has been tried in the worst kinds of lieavy meadow grass and lodged clover and has gone through 
it triumphantly, and we call on our hundreds of customers in Lancaster county and elsewhere to speak a good 
word for the Marsh Self-Rake. AVe claim that this Self-Rake in heavy tangled grain or lodged oats is the most 
simple and ellicient one ever invented. It is not a new thing, but has been most severely tested all over the 
United Stales, as well as in England and France. AVe think no other one in the market can fairly compete 
with it. See wliat the report of the great National Reaper trial held at Auburn, New Y'ork, by the New 
Y'ork Agricultural Society, says on page 41 and 42 : It ftprformed better than was expected of any Self-Rake, 
as it raked olf heavy, tangled, wet grain. And in their language, Reapers are not built for so severe a test ; 
they gave it tlie highest mark for perfect work. 

The VALLEY CHIEF is a simple two-wheeled machine, having side delivery which throws the grain en- 
ir«ly out of the way of the team for the next round. It has a rear cut, a lloating finger bar, the guards or 
fingers are made of the best wrought iron, faced with stecL The height of the cut can be altered witli ease 
while in motion, thus enabling one to pass obstructions or cut long or short stubble and the whole machine is 
ibuilt with an eye to caiivrnimce, dmpHcltii and diirahilili/. This Machine is built in Lancaster county, one of 
Uie heaviest glass and wheat growing districts in the' United States, and we have had every opportunity 
of knowing what is wanted, in this machine we have a combination of a complete Mower with a first-claas 
Self-Rakiiig Reaper, thus giving our customers a simple, strong and handy machine which two horses can 
draw with ease. 

Please call and see this machine at our manufactory, in Mount Joy, Lancaster county, Pa., or on D. Burk- 
tholder, Agent, at Mrs. Neher's Saloon, Southwest corner of Centre'Square, Lancaster, Pa,, or at Yundt's Corn 
Exchange Hotel. M^IiSI-I, OKIEK. Sc CO. 



a. b. kaufman's 
Insurance Agency, 

iVo. 1 EAST ORANGE ST., 
LANCASTER CITY, PA., 

Issues Life, and also, Policies against Fire aud 
all other "Accidents. 

AGENT POR THE OLD 

CONN. MUTUAL LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY. 

The Best Company in the World. 

CAPITAL, - - - 8^3,000,000. 



Gas i Steam Fi 




Made to Order 

Oil a new set of Standard Dies, 
AT THE MACHINE SHOP OF 

LANDIS k CO., 

Gm East James Street, Lancaster, Pa. 

S. S. RATHVON'S 

MeiThaiit Taiioriiig;, (jieiicral Clothing 

AND GENTLEMEN'S FURNISHING STORE, 

(KRAMP'3 OLD STAND), 

Corner North ftueen & Orange Sts., 
Lancaster, Pa., 

All kinds of Men's and Boys' Beady-Made Clotlihig and 
Furnishing Goods constanti}' on hand. Also, a sujierior as.sort- 
nient of Fiench, English, German and Anioiican Clotlis, Gas- 
si iiieics and Vestings which will be made to order in any desired 
.stylf!, with the least possible delay, warranted to give satis- 
faction, aud at reasonable cliarges. 

S. S. RATHVON. 

^ J. B. KSVIWSKI^ 

DEALER IN 

Pianos, Organs, and Melodeons, 

A\D MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS GENERALLY, 

A large assortment of Violins, Flutes, Guitars, Banjos, 

Tamborincs, Accordeons, Fifes, Harmonicas, and 

Musical Merchandise always on hand. 

BHEET MUSIC: A large stock on hand and constantly re- 
ceiving all the latest publications as soon as issued. 

MUSIC BY MAIL : I would inform persons wishing Music, 
lliat Music and Musical Books will be sent by mail free of 
postage when the marked price is remitted. 

DEOALCOMANIA, or the art of Transferring Pictures. Can 
be transferred to any object. I would call especial attention 
of Ooaclimakers to my stock of Deoalcomania. 



liANCASTER CITY AND COUNTY 

FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, 

O^PITAL, - - - ^S00,000. 

<>■ » — — . 

Hox. Tnos.E.FKANKLiN, Geo.K.Bked, Edw. Brown, 

Pres't, Treas., Sec'y, 

John L. Atlee, M. D., B. F. Shenk, Jacob Bousman, 
Henry Carpenter, M.D., F. Shroder, Jacob M. Frantz, 

Hon. A. E. Roberts, John C. Hager. 

Houses, Barns, Stores, Mills and Buildings of all kinds, with 
their contentsi insured on Favorable terms. 

W. J. KAFROTH, Agent. 
Residence : 36 Soiitli Duke St., Lancaster. 

AGENTS WANTED— $10 a Bajr 

TWO $10.00 MAPS FOR $4.00. 

LLOYD'S 

PATENT EEYOLYING DOUBLE MAPS. 

Two Continents, America and Snrope. and 

Auici'ica 'nith ttac TJuited States portion 

on an immense scale. 

Colored — in 4000 Counties. 

These great Maps, now just completed, G4 x G2 in- 
ches large, show every place of importance, all Rail- 
roads to date, and the latest alterations in tlie various 
European States. These Maps are needed in every 
scliool aud family in the land — they occupy the space 
of one Map, aud by means of the Reverser, eithar 
side can be thrown front, and any part brought level 
to the eye. County Rights and large discount given 
to good Agents. 

Apply for Circulars, Terms, and send money for 
and see Sample Maps first, if not sold taken back on 
demand. Also ready a $25,000 steel and plate illus- 
trated subscription book, " De Soto, the discoverer of 
the Mississippi River." .7. T. LLOYD, 

may-4t 23 Cortlaudt Street, N. Y. 



CRUGER & RICE, 

DRUGGISTS & APOTHECARIES, 

Ko. 13 WEST KING STMEET, 

NEXT DOOK TO STEINMAN'S HABDWAKE STORE, 

Lancaster, Pa, 

Have always on hand l^ure. Reliable Drugs and Medi- 
cines, Chemicals, Spices, Perfumery and Toilet 
Articles. Also Flavoring Extracts of 
their own Manufacture, and of 
unsurpassed quality. 

wSole Agents for Hasson's Cosipouxd Svnur op Tar, the 

best Coiigli Medicine in the market. We have also on hand in 

season an assortment of Landretli's Warranted Garden Seeds. 

The jiubliQ can rely upon always okttikg what thky 

ASK FOll AMD NO SUBSTITUTES. 

GEO. F. ROTH, 

UNDERTAKER, 

Corner South Queen and Vino Streets, 

LANCASTER, PA. 



Coffins of all sizes always on hand, aud furnished at 

Shortest Notice. 



LvNGASTEU, June 25111, 1868. 
EDITOK8 Express : Dr. Wm. M. Whiteside, tlie enterpris- 
ing Dentist, has i.urchased from me a large stock ot teeth ant 
all the tixtures, the instrnmentR formerly beloiigine to ine, an-l 
also those used by my father, Dr. Parry, in his jiracticc. In 
the i)urcha8e, the doctor has provided himsclt with some ot 
the most valuable and expensive instniments used in dental 
practice, and has beyond doubt one of the best .ind largest 
collections of teeth and instruments in the ••htate. Persons 
visitinp the comniodioua offices of Dr. Whiteside, cannot tail 
to be tully accommo.lated. The Doctor loses no opportunity 
of furnishing himself with every late scieutihc improvenient 
in his line of business. "^- ^- ^ AKH.\ . 

TOT. M. l?y^HITESIDE^ 

Office and Residence, _ ^ r.n.^^^rr> 

EAST KING STREET, 

Next door to the Court House, over Falincstock's Dry 
Goods Store, 

LANCASTER, TENNA. 

TeefJi Extracted without jmin by the use of 
{mtrous Oxide) Gas. 



BOOKS AND STATIONERY. 



S. WELOHENS, D. D. S., 

SURGEON DENTIST, 

Office and Jtesidence, 

HOWELL'S BUILDING, No. 65^ NORTH QUEEN ST., 

Half a square south of the K. U. Depot. 

Twenty Years' Successful Practice in Lancaster 

The Latest improvements in INSTllUMKNTS 
and TEETH and the very best material, Warranted 
in all opcr.ations. 

TEETH EXTRACTED WITHOUT TAIN Vith 
the use of Xitrous Oxide Gas, Eilier, or the Ether 
Spray. 

TERMS, as low as any in the city, -when loio priced 
material and low priced work are used. 

But for FIRST-CLASS OPERATIONS, with ap- 
pliances and material to correspond, prices ran,!j;c 
hip-licr. 

S. WELCHENS, D. D. S. 



A Full assortment of 

SCHOOL, MISCELLANEOUS, AGRI- 
CULTURAL AND HORTI- 
CULTURAL BOOKS, 

A large stock of 
WHICH WILL BE SOLD AT 

GREATLY REDUCED PRICES, 

On account of removal April l.st, 18G9, to 

No. 52 North Queen Street, 

(KKAMT'-S BUILDIXG) 

Vo\xv Dooi's ulDOve Orange Street. 

Subscriptions received for all the Agricnltural and 
Horticultural Magazines. 

J. H. SHEAFFER'S 

Clicap Cash Book Store, No. 52 N. Queen 
Street, LANCASTER, PA. 



THOS. J. WENTZ, 

SUCCESSOR TO 

WENTZ BROTHERS, 

» 

SKiN OF THE BEE HIVE, 

No. 5 EAST KING STREET, LANCASTER, PENN'A , 

DEALER IN 

milU m DOMESTIC DRY GOODS, 

Carpets, Oil Clotlis, WiiidoTV Shades. 

SPECIAL ATTENTION PAID TO 



gr ©^1 



Dr. N. B. BRISBINE, 

No. 93 EAST KING STREET, Above Lime. 

The Doetoi- pays^spccial attention to all old nbslinate 
diseases, such as Consumption, Liver ( 'omphiint, Dys- 
«pepsia, Rheumatism, all diseases of the Heart, Head, 
Throat, Lungs, Stomach, Bowels, Kidneys, Nervous 
Debility, General Debility, <Src. The doctor makes ex- 
tions of the Urine. Consultation Free. 



Shawls aud Embroideries, Clollis and Cassimeres, 

Handkerchiefs, Gloves and Hosiery, 

Best Kid Gloves. 

The Choicest of the Market,, and at the Lowest Possible 

Prices. 

REMEMBER THE PLACE TO BUY. 

THOS. J. WENTZ, 

Bee Hive Store, No. 5 E. King St. 



G. J. GILiljrBSPIlS^ 

HEALER IN 

FOREICtN m AMERICAN WATCHES, 

IN GOLD AND SILVER CASES, 

CLOCKS OF EVERY DESCRIPTION, 

Jewoliy in all its Shapes and Forms, 

SIL^'Kll WARE, designed for Bridal Presents; 
BRACKETS, TOILET SETS. VASES. SPECTACLES, 

GOLD PENS, .sec. .^cc., &c. 

No. 10-.X Wubt Kiuc Street, .opposite the Cross Keys Hotel 

LA:N CASTER, PA. 



mnina 



Stoves ! 

Oedarmrare ! 

Housekeepers' Fiiriiisliiiig Goods! 



The undersigned at their old established stand in 
WEST KINQ STRJEET, 

are constantly receiving fresh supplies to their exten- 
sive Stock, frcm the best manufactories in this Coun- 
try and Euroje, and invite the attention of Merclian's 
and Consume) s, feeling that we can do as well as any 
house in Philadelphia. 

Persons comraencing Housekeeping will find the 

The largest and Best Selected Lot of 

at Manufacturers' Prices. Also, every other article 
kept in a first-class Hardware Store. 

A FULL STOCK OF 

Sa dlers', Coachmakers' and Blacksmiths' Tools 
and Materials. 

BUILDEES will find a full supply of every thing 
suited to their wants at LOAVEST FIGUIli:S. 

CLOVER, TIMOtHY AND FLAX SEED, 

BOUGHT AND SOLD. 

STEINMAN & GO. 



p. E. GKUGER. 



J.P. GRUGEH. 



GRUGER BROTHERS, 

MARBLE MASONS, 

14 South Queen St., Lancaster, Pa., 

Have always on hand or will furnish to order at 

SHOUT NOTICE, 

MONUMESNETS, 

TOMBS, 

GRAVE STONES, 

&c., &c. 

AVe pay particular and personal attention both to the 
SELECTION OF THE MATEEIAL and the EXECU- 
TION OF OUR WORK, and our facilities now are such 
that we can guarantee our customers the very best 
work, at the same, and often Lower Pi-ices, than arc 
usually paid elsewhere for inferior productions. 

Lettering 



m 



English 



and 



German, 

ELEGANTLY AND CORRECTLY DONE. 

We earnestly invite our country friends to give us a 
call. 



SHULTZ & BRO. 

Manufacturers, Wholesale and Retail Dealers in 

- Caps and. Fiix*s, 

L A r> I E S' F A N C Y F U 11 S , 

HOODS, 

TRIMMED GLOVES AND MITTS, 

Gents' Gloves, Capes and Collars, 

Fancy Ho"bes, 

20 North Queen Street, 
LANCASTER, PA. 



ERiCAN WATCHES 




J\^o. '22 West King Street, . 

Next Door. Bi:low CoorKK's Hotel, 
DEALKRS IN 

w m im K m wi ' 



J- E "^77" :E3 Xj I^ "^ , 

CLOCKS AND SPECTAGLES, 




THE UNDERSIGNED REPRESENTS THE 



ISIMI 



AND ALSO THE 

Life aiiil AcciSent Insiiraiice Compaiy, 

]5o(h stable aiul well established companies, the former 
having a capital of $1000,000, ami the latter $500,- 
000. 

The plan of issuing policies by tlie Brooklyn Life 
Insurance Company presents a feature altogether 
unique, and one which removes one of the strongest 
objection, hitherto urged against the plan of Life Insur- 
ance ; and this is what is termed tlie Sukrenuer YaLue 
Plan. Each and every Policy issued- in the name of 
this Company bears an endorsement, stating Ihe exact 
worth of the policy in Cash, at any time after two or 
more annual premiums have been paid. 

Insurance can also be effected in tlie North American 
Life Insurance Company, and at lower rates, it is be- 
lieved, than in any other Company in the United States. 

All desirous of securing insurance upon their lives 
can do so by calling upon the undersigned. 

ALLEN GUTHRIE, Agl., 

Ka.-sit J-jeinoia Street, 

LANCASTER, PA. 

REEO, M'GRANN & CO.," 

LANCASTER, PENN'A, 

Dealers in United States Bonds and all 
kinds of Railroad Stock and State Loans. 

Buy and Sell Gold, Silver, and United 
States Coupons. 

Soli Bills of E.Kchangc on Europe and Passage 
Ccrtiticates. 

Ileccivo Money on Deposit and pay Interest as 
follows : 

1 month, 4 per cent., fi months, .5 per cent. 
i.3 " 4i " 12 " 5i 
l^ __ 

FOR SALE AT 

Chas. A. Heinitsh's Drug Store, 13 E. King St., 

J. A X C A .S 'r K 11 , r E N N A., 

German Cattle Powders! 

The best PowiIiT made' for the Cure and Prevention of nis- 
eascs to which Oxen, Milk Cows, Sheep and nogs, arc siilijcct. 
For .Stock Cattle preparing for market, a table spoonful in 
their feed once or twice a week, iniproves their condition by 
BtroiigUicnivfg their digestive organs, and creates solid flesh 
and fat. 

UEKMAN VEGETABLE OR UNKiyALI.EI) CONDI- 
TION POWDER -J 
Eor prcsiMving Horses in good health, removing all Diseases 
of tlic .SJiin, giving a Smooth and Glossy appcar.anco, also a 
s»re remedy for Distemper, Hidebound, Loss of Appetite, &c. 

PERSIAN INSECT POWDER. 
A perfectly .safe, quick and easily applied destroyer of Lice 
on Cattle, Fleas, Bedbugs, &-■. 

PYROLlONEOrS ACID. 
A substitute for curing Beef, Pork. Hams, Tongues, Smoked 
Sausages, Fish, &c., without the danger and trouble of smok- 
\ ing, imparting a rich flavor and color. 



CHARLES T. GOULD, 

CHAIR MANUFACTURER, 

No. 37 North Queen St., Lancaster, 

(XEXT nOOU TO SHOBER'S HOTKL,) 

Old Chairs Re-painted and Repaired. 
CHRISTIAN WIDMYER, 

S. E. Gor, East Kin^ & Duke Sts., Lancaster. 

Cabinet Worlc of every description and a full 

as.sortment of Chairs constantly on hand. 
n:^AU Warranted as Heprcsentcd, .-£11 

JACOB ROTHARMEL, 



I'BEMIX'.M 



®E¥i® IlJlWWf ^d^'WMlM, 



UE.VLER IN 



No. 9i North Queen Street, Lancaster, Pa- 

SEED POTATOES. 



EARLY GOODRICH, 
HARRISON, 

MICHIGAN WHITE, 

and GARNET CHILI, 
By the Peck, Bushel or Barrel. Also, 

THE EARLY ROSE, 

which is flestinefl to suptrsede all of the older varieties 
for (juality, earliness and productiveness, will be fold 
in quantities to suit purchasers. All the above varie- 
ties warranted pure and genuine. Send for circular. 

II. i\I. ElVGtLE, 

Mai'ietta, Pa. 

PLANTS FOR SALE.— Cabbage, Pepper and Egg. 
lomatoes by (he thousand, once or twice transplanted; 
very fine Sweet potato Plants in quantiiy in season. 
Address H. M. EXGLE, 

Marietta, Pa. 



T I-I E 



Lancaster Inquirer 

Book, Jol) aM ^Kowspapor 

Fim ESTtBmEHIT. 

]bAlN^CASTB3R3 PA., 

OFFERS [IREATER INDUCEMENTS 

Executed in the Best Style of rrinting 
than anil other office in the State. 



L JLZsTXDIS &c CO., 







James Street, Lancaster, Pa., 

AEE PKEPARED TC^DO ALL KINDS OF 







9 



BUILD LARGE AND SMALL ENGINES, 



SMFTIi, FILIEYS. WM, IBSE k Wm-NWESS 

• MILL aE^RIlSTG, 

And all kind of Machine V/ork done at a first class Shop. 

Having recently removed to their new building, and provided tliemselve 
witb. a 

LABCE ASSORTMENT OF MACHmERY 

Adapted to the wants of their customers, they are prepared to execute all oi 
ders with neatness and dispatch, and on terms satisfactory to the custonie 
They would invite attention to their large foundry connected with their work 
in which the best work is turned out. 

They also announce that they are now prepared to supply their 



IIW i^l 



»^' 



S) 



TO ALL 



This Machine requires Less Poavek, does Moke Work, and is considerat 
Cheaper than any other Separator now in the market. This Machine is nc 
improved, well built, and does the best and most efficient class of work. 

Repairing of all kinds promply done at reasonable rate 

Give us a call, and we will endeavor to please our patrons. 

FRANK LANDIS, 
EZRA F. LANDIS, 
JACOB LANDIS. 



Diller & Groff's Hardware Store, 

si03sr CDiF' the: j^isr-xrjLJL^, 

No. 8 East King Street, Lancaster City, Penna. 

DEALERS IN 

Foreign and. Domestic Hard-w^are, 

Such as Building Material, Paints, Varnishes, Oils, Glass, Coach Trimmings, Stoves, 

Iron and Steel, &c., &c., etc. 

jeJOUSB FURHIS3BXMG GOOOS. 

TIMOTHY AND CLOVER SEEDS OF THE BEST QUALITY. 



(S^^^^^i .''/'"i 



i'Ks 



/ >v 



"C 



^ffi, .'- - 



\ 



A.MOS ]VriLEY'S 



H .A. H TsT E S S 



^!we*lA 



i|jr' ;^: 



No. 37 North Queen St., 




NEXT DOOR TO SHOBER'S HOTEL, LANCASTER, PA. 






^l®¥fiii\'ir i^(©/ 



:?^js«^ -s'^srv '««*f' <^ y^ <«VSU 






WAGON GEARS, WHIPS, BUFFALO ROBES, 

BLAffiETS, TBUNKS, VALISES, CARPET BACtS, LADIES' & m\l SATCHELS, 

Of all kinds constantly kept on hand or made to order. Repaii'ing neatly done. 

Also, Agent for BAKER'S HOOF LINIMENT, the best article for Sore 
Hoofs in the country. 

J. M. WESTHAEFFER, 






No. 44, Corner North Queen and Orange Streets, 
L^IS"CA.STEPi, FA.. 

N. B. — Any Book ordered can be sent by Mail to any address. 




TO BTJIXjIDEI?,S ! 



PLASTIC SLATE!! 

The Greatest Eoofing Material of the Age ! 

IS NOW OFFEKED TO THE PEOPLE OF 

LANCASTER AND YORK COUNTIES, PA., AND CECIL COUNTl MD., 

WITH A PROMISE OF THE FOLLOWING ADVANTAGES: 

It is superior to other coverings for all kinds of buildings for these reasons : 

1. It is water, snow and air-proof from the beginning, and is as fire-proof as ordinary slate. (See testimo- 
nials New York Fire Insurance Companies.) 

2. It keeps buildings warmer in winter and does not make them hot in summer as ordinary slate does, and 
it can be, after the first year, whitewashed or painted any desired color so as to obviate all difliculty arising 
from its dark color. 

o. Being entirely water and fire-proof, it is invaluable as a covering for the sides of buildings and lining 
cisterns of whatever material they may be built; stopping water out of cellars and dampness out of Avails of 
houses, and closing leaks between- buildings. 

4. Adhering, as it does, with great firmness to tin and iron, it is usefuLfor covering tin roofs and iron exposed 
to dampness or to the atmosphere, such as iron fences, cemetery-railings, &c. 

G. Buildings covered with PLASTIC SLATE do not need tin spouts at the eaves nor do the^valleys need tin 
to make them water proof. 

C. It is lighter than shingles, and is equally adapted to flat or steep roofs. 

7. The testimony of Wm. M'Gilvray & Co., published herewith, shows that it is^not only fire-proof exter- 
nally, but, is also a great hindrance to the spread of fire within. 

8. It is much cheaper in first-cost than any good roofing now in use, and when all attendant expenses of tlic 
two roofs are estimated, costs only about half as much as the best slate, and it makes a better and closer roof. 

U. For the roofing of foundries and casting-houses of blast furnaces, where there are gases of a very high 
temperature, which injures and destroys otlier roofs, this material is improved and seems to produce a better 
roof, (see certificates of Messrs. Grubb, Musselman & AVatts, S. M. Brua and Wm. M'Gilvray.) 

10. If in process of years cracks or leaks occur in Plastic Slate Roofs, they arc about as easily repaired, as 
they would be to white-wash, needing only a brush and the Mastic, but no expensive labor of mechanics. 

H^ The Pamphlet referred to in the foregoing notice can be had gratuitously, by calling at the Office of the 
Lancaster Inquiker or Examinku & Hkuai.d. 

Persons wishing to examine PLASTIC SLATE ROOFS, and thus verify for themsalves the following 
statements, arc invited to call and inspect Roofs put on for the following persons, among many otiiers : 

Lancaster — Thos. H. Burrowes, Stuart A. 'WvUc, (Editor Lancaster Inquirer,) J. B. Schvvartzvvelder, Abraliam Bitner 
Sr. Marietta — Henry ]Mus.selman & Sons., Mye rs and Benson. OoLUjriiiA — 0. B. Gnil)b, (Furnace,) Columbia Gas Co., 
.Samuel Shock, Pres't., Susquehanna L-on Corupar.y, Wm. Patton, Pres't., Samuel \V. Mittlin. Mount Joy— Heiirv Kurtz, 
Dr. J. L. Ziegler, William Brady, J. K. Hotter, (Editor Mt. Joy Herald). Chkistiana— E. G. Boomell, Wm. I". Brinton, 

.John G. Fogle. Bakt — William Whitson. Bellkmontk P. O Kobert P. Mcllvaine. PAUAniSK — Kobert S. Mcllvaine, 

Willtamstown — T. Scott Woods. Epiiuata — Or. I. M. Grotf. GoiSDONvrLLE — Samuel M. Brua. C.krnar.von Twr 

Mrs. Fanny Mast. LTpper IjKAGock Twp Marks (i. Menger, Cliristian R; Landis, Jacob K. Musser. Leacock Twr I.saac 

Bair, Levi Zook. West Eakl — Christian Beiler. Lkaman Place — Henry Learaan, Israel Kohrer. Buunxeuvili.e — Aaron 
H. Brubaker. SroRTiN(4 Hill — Emanuel Long. IjItiz— H. H. Tshuily, David Brlcker. Dnp.LACii P- O.; Clay Twp— Jojia.H 
Laber. Manheim Bor. — Nathan Werley, Samuel Ruhl. Penn Twp. — George Rnhl. West Lampeter — Aldus C. He rr. 
Knterpkise p. O., East Lampeteu- Jlark P. Cooiier. Strasuukg Bor Hervcy Brackbill. 

Orders for Roofing Sliouid be sent to 



LICENSE FOR LANCASTER AND YORK COUNTIES, PA., AND CECIL COUNTY, MD., 

Enterprise P. 0., Lancaster County, Pa. 

Or A. W. & J. R. RUSSELL, Lancaster, Pa. 

Or MOSES LIGHT, Manheim, Lancaster county. Pa. 

Or JOIiX R. BRICKER, Litiz, Lancaster county, Pa. 

AXJ)US C. HERR, Lampeter, Lancaster county, Pa. 



CJ -A. !Rt T> 1 

REIGART'S OLD WI]\"e STORE, 

ESTABLISHED IN 1785, 

Mo. 26 EAST KING ST., LANCASTER, PENNA. 

The reputation of REIGART'S OLD WINE AND BRAN- 
DIES for purity and excellent quality having been lullv es- 
tablished for nearly a century, we regret that the conduct of 
some unprincipled dealers, who re-till with and sell from our 
labled bottles their deleterious compounds, compels us to adopt 
the annexed trade mark, which in future, for the protection 
of ourselves and our customers, will be found on all our old 
iiottled Wines, Brandies, Gins, Whiskies, Bittei-s, &c. 



THE FLORENCE SEWING MACHINES. 

THE BEST MACHINE FOR FAMILY USE. 

SIMPLE AND EASY TO LEARN AND NOT LIABLE TO GET OUT OF ORDEB. 

Capable of all varieties of sewing from the finest to the coarsest. Make the Lock 

Stitch alike on both sides, and use the least thread. 

W. F. DUNCAN^ Agents 

• ^o. ^5 North Queen St reet , LANCASTER, PA. 

REGISTER OF WILLS7 

We are authorized to announce that 

DR. WILLIAM M. WHITESIDE, 

late Lieutenant of Company E, 10th Regiment, first three months service and 
Captain of Company I, 79th Regiment Penna. Volunteers of Lancaster is 8 
candidate for REGISTER of Lancaster county, subject to the decision of the 
Republican votes at the ensuing Primary Election. 

r ZAHM ^JACKSONT" 

i 

j No. 16 NORTH ftUEEN ST., 

[ Beg leave to call the attention of persons in want oi 
a good and reliable Time Keeper to their full assort- 
ment of 

AMERICAN AND SWISS WATCHES, 

In Gold and Silver Cases which will he sold at 
prices which will defy competition. Also, a full assort- 
ment of 

of all kinds, which we will warrant good and correct 
time-kee]>ers. 

in great variety, such as Pins, Setts, Ear Rings, Finger 
Kings, Sleeve ]3uttong, Chains, &c. 

SOLID SILVER WARE, 

MauHiH.'nmcl expressly for our sales and warranted .oin. 

PLATED AVARE. 

From tlic best factories aiid warranted tlie fiiiesf .intlity. 

Gold, Silvtr and Steel Spectacles. Hair Jcwclrj 
Made to Order. 

Repairing I'loniptly Attended to. 

ZAU.M & JACKSON. 



TRADE 




MARK. 



And (iirther, in order to protect the same, we hereby an- 
nounce onr determination to prog>'cute to the fullest extent of the 
Act ol A8.sembly. approved, 31st day of March, 1860, any per- 
son or persons who shall violate the provisions of said act as 
api>li«able to our trade mark. 

>r. B — We respectfully request the public, when they have 
■jcca.xion or desire to use OUl Brandy at the Hotels or Restau- 
r.ants to ask particularly for lieigart's Old Brandy. 
Very respectfully, &c., 

H. E. SLAYMAKER, Agt. 



UNION SPOKE AND AGRICULTURAL WORKS 

Conier of Water and Lemon Sts., 

Formerly Shirk Hi Royer's Warehouse, on the Peuna. Rail- 
road, near Bauragardner's coal yard, and 2 squares west from 
the Railroad Depot, where we manufacture the 

' LAT£ST IMPROVED GRAIN DRILLS. 

Also, Grain Drills with Guano attached, warranted to give 
«atislaction. Xoekatcay Van*, Cidtr »nilla, Cruthert and 
OraUrB, for horse or hand ix)wer, which will grind a bushel 
of apples per minute by horse power, and are warranted to do 
It well. \\ e would also inform Coachmakcrs that we have put 
up in our shop two of the latest improved apoh-t Jtlachiu*; 
"'C^'^'"'* *'"' '^^^ ^^^^y prepared to fuinish the best quality 
ot 5P0KK.S of all kinds, sizes, dry or part dry, and warranted 
to be a good article. We buy none but the best turned Spokes, 
and have now on hand 100,009 8J»OBJBS. Bent Felloes 
of all sizes; Shafts and Carriage Poles, Bows, &c., of 
•sieasonable ntuft", constantly on hand. 

As Mr. Keeler has been in this business 16 or 18 years, and 
having served an apprenticeship at Coachmaking, he knows 
what the trade want in that line. All kinds of Bent Stuff for 
.■•ale, or made to order— and Spokes of all .sizes turned for per- 
sons having them on hand in the rough. 

NoTicK TO Faumers and Mechanics— Planing and Saw- 
ing done at the shortest notice. We have one of the beet and 
latert Improved Surface Planes for operation. 

KEKLER A SHAEFFER, Lancaster, Pa. 



THE 




YOL. I. 



LANCASTER, PA., AUGUST, 1869. 



No. 8. 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY 

WYLIE & GRIEST, 

INQUIRER BUILDING, LANCASTER, PA., 
At ONE DOLLAR PER YEAR In Advance 

UXDER THE AUSPICES OF THE 

LANCASTER COUNTY AGKICTIiTCRAIi AND 
HOKTIt'UtTlTRAI, SOCIETY. 



Pitblishing Committee. 
Dr. p. W. Hiestand, 
H. K. Stoner, 
Jacob M. Frantz, 
Casper Hiller, 
Levi W. Groff, 
Alexander Harris. 



Editorial Committee. 
J. B. Garbeb, 
H. M. Engle, 
Levi S. Reist, 
W. L. Diffenderfer, 

J. H. MUSSER, 

S. S. Rathvon. 



tST All communications intended for tlie Farmer should be 
addressed to S. S. Rathvon and Alex. Harris, the resident 
members of the Editing and Publishing Committees. 

All advertisements, subscriptions and remittances, to Wylie 
& Griest, Printers. 



er55m)s. 



VEGETABLE PHYSIOLOGY. 

ADAENTITXOUS BUDS. 

In the prosecution of our researches for the 
true physiological principles and laws of vegeta- 
tion, we expected to awaken a spirit of inquiry, in 
regard to the varied and important points in the 
science , and especially Avith reference to the pe- 
culiar habits of plants, their abnormal condition, 
and their species or individuality. 

Attention has accordingly been directed to Ad* 
ventitious Buds, by some of the members of the 
Horticultural Society, and we have thought 
proper to devote this communication to the na- 
ture and character of the plants, which is the re- 
sult, or the development of those buds. 

Such plants or branches, in the higher order of 
vegetation, are regarded by the best authority as 
irregular and abnormal. They seem to be the 
result of an interruption of the regular functional 
operation of the economy, and not a ligitimate in- 
dividuality as the natural result of the organs and 
powers of reproduction. To what extent such in. 
terruption might influence or interfere with the 
fructification or bloom of such growth it is diffi- 
cult fully to determine. The plant of the lower 
order of vegetation is less dependent upon the 



true germinal process of reproduction than those 
of the higher, and can, accordingly, be propigated 
by cuttings or a proper division of its organs. 
This is true also of certain, species of the animal 
economy. But growi;h of an abnormal character 
maybe found, as exceptions to general laws, in 
every variety of organic life. 

The Adventitious Branch, is not an individual 
germinal reproduction, but simpl}-- a division of 
the same germ originating in the parenchyma, 
and produced on the woody system when it is sur- 
charged with sap, and to expect just as much from 
it either in bearing fruit or flowers, in regard to 
quantity or quality, would seem to run counter to 
the laws upon which true development or sexual 
propigation is founded. Careful cultivation, in 
some instances, might restore some of the vigor 
of vegetation of the parent growth, but it would 
require much more time to make it productive, 
and there is room for the conclusion that its 
powers of endurance will be materially "weakened, 
with the chances of premature exhaustion and 
early death. 

These nice distinctions can only be discovered 
and properly appreciated by the study of the re- 
mote principles of vegetable physiology ; and a 
careful comparison of the nature and habit of such 
plants with those of a regular origin, in their re- 
spective botanical classification. 

It seems to be settled by the best authority 
that no germ can meet its full power and destiny 
which is not the result of the reunion of two cells. 
This is the true germinal process and nature's 
method of reproduction in every living being, and 
no plant can be of ligitimate growth without it. 
It may be interesting to know when and where 
this reunion takes place, and w^hether or not it is 
possible for the bud under consideration to exist 
without it. A discussion of this character would 
involve the locality of the sexual organs of the 
plant, the existence of an organ within an organ- 
ism, and the nature of the parenchyma at certain 
localities,— its susceptibility to the external con-, 
ditions of growth. It would also be a question 
whether, after all, such buds were not just as ligi- 
timate and regular as those from which the na- 
tural branches spring. But it will be recollected 



114 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



that there are distinctive parts and organs pecu- 
liar to all manner of vegetable organization, each 
"With its own special organs devoted to a given 
purpose, and all that is developed outside of those 
general principles and laws of the economy must 
be regarded as abnormal and irregular. Such, 
then, we regard the Adventitious Bud to be. 
The root or the stem or ascending axis have their 
ligitimate functions to perform, and as far as we 
have studied those functions, we have seen that 
they are not designed to develop a multitude of 
shoots or branches from the same germ, but to 
build up an individual structure, and they are but 
parts or organs of the same. If, therefore, you 
grow a branch from the stem or root of a plant or 
tree in full life and vigor, the plain logical con- 
clusion as well as ph3^siological deduction is, that 
such branch or bud is irregular and abnormal. 

There are many tribes of animals and plants 
which muitiply spontaneously, and are capable 
of maintaining an independent existence, either 
from the prolific nature of the organism, or an 
artificial division of its parts. This process is in 
keeping with its nature, and is obviously to be 
regarded as a normal manifestation of the ordi- 
nary operations of the economy. There is no 
difiiculty here in establishing an independent ex- 
istence, and the new growth thus propigated has 
all the organs, and is capable of performing all 
the functions peculiar to the parent germ or or- 
iginal organism. But the branches which sprout 
from the root or any part of the trunk of a tree, 
or any part of a living animal body, when all the 
organs are already faithful to the economy, and 
there is a full natural development, are of a far 
difierent character, come into the science in an 
irregular way, and cannot be regarded in the light 
of nature in the same category as the structure of 
ordmary power and capacity. 

The star fish, among others of the lower tribes 
of the animal kingdom, is capable of propogation 
by a division of its parts. Here, then, seems to 
be an elongation of the principles of generation, 
with the organic growth, and each divided part, 
when fully developed, will rank as a true individ- 
ual existence. But where there are abnormal 
growths upon any part of the body of an animal 
of a higher order of organization, such growth is 
not capable of a normal function while in connec- 
tion with the living body ; and when seperated, 
it dies. The growths just referred to are not 
those of a diseased or pathological condition of 
the system, but spontaneous out-croppings of mem- 
bers or organs of the body, and as such they are 
the result of some functional disturbance of the 
remote principles of life, or the elements and 
conditions of vital activity. And though they 



seem to fall in naturally -with a healthy develop- 
ment of the organism, their very existence stamps 
the object with the principles of an outside issue, 
and renders the subject, not only an unnatural 
being, but often a physiological monstrosity. 

When those adventitious growths occurr upon 
the living animal, they are rarely capable of any 
phj^sical power, and if so, they lack endurance, 
and are, of course, the first to yield to the wear 
and decay of nature. There are well authenti- 
cated cases on record of a third growth of teeth 
in the human species, but in no mstance have 
they ever proved to be of lasting serrice. 

There is a case reported of a child having been 
born in England with two thumbs upon one hand, 
'or rather a thumb doubled from the first joint, the 
outer one less than the other, each i^art having a 
perfect nail. When the child was about three 
years old, the lesser one was taken ofi" by what 
was regarded as a well performed surgical opera- 
tion. But to the astonishment of all, it grew 
again with the perfect nsrtl as before. The fam- 
ily went to reside in London, where the case came 
to the notice of the siu:geon of the Queen's house- 
hold. This surgeon thought the former operation 
had been imperfectly performed, and accordingly 
executed his own plan in removing it, and turned 
the ball of the joint fairly out of the socket. !N'ot- 
withstanding this it grew again, nail and all, as 
before, and it remained in this state. 

These instances show an apparent perfect 
power in the vital activity of those abnormal 
growths, and yet their inability to take rank as 
members or organs of a distinctive individuality 
of true germinal origin, as other members or or 
gans of the body. Their abnormal condition and 
relation to the, economy, therefore, must be re- 
garded as settled beyond a peradventure. 

To establish the " individuality" of the plant, 
we must pay strict regard to its functional ca- 
pacity. To admit any other aspect of the argu- 
ment, we run it into a question of degree, and 
nothing can well be more variable, and conse- 
quently more at variance with true germiral pro- 
cess. We must, in the latter instance, admit such 
individuality to " exist in the segments of the 
leaves of one plant, and in the entire leaves of a 
second, in the leaf-bud of a third, in the branches 
of a fourth, in the entire axis and appendages of 
a fifth ; whilst in a sixth, the individuality shall 
entirely depend upon circumstances, its buds not 
being able to sustain their vitality after their de- 
tachment, unless their development be favored 
by engrafting them on the living stock." To 
maintain the In-ue genniral individuality of the 
plant, it must have the power to develop roots, 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



115 



-/^ 



and it cannc/ perform the generative act unless it 
can evolve the flower. 

Can the Adventitious Bud do this ? and if its 
individuality is to be established by the fact that 
it will grow when engrafted on the living stock, 
might not the same attribute be allowed to parts 
of animals, such as " teeth, testes, ovaries, etc., 
which have been removed from one animal and 
implanted in another, and which have formed new 
attachments to the latter, and continued to grow. 

Our limits will not allow an exhaustive argu- 
ment upon this branch of oiu- subject. There is 
room for the conclusion, in the light of what we 
have here set forth, however, that the " individ- 
uality " of the " adventitious growth " cannot be 
accepted as being in strict conformity with phys- 
iological laws and principles. That it can live 
and grow, and even bear fruit when surrounded 
with its proper conditions, or be engrafted upon 
other living plants, no one will deny, but it exists 
only in abject dependence, with no true germiral 
origin, and all the irregularities which seem to be 
peculiar to its habits and powers of fructification, 
and which have been noticed by those whose 
business it is to cultivate and propagate trees and 
shrubberv, would only be characteristic. 

S. W. 



THE TEETH OF AISTIMALS. 
No. I. 

Our heading may strike the reader as being 
rather of a novel character for the prouiiscuous 
reading of a farm joui-nal. It is a subject, (it 
might be said) much better suited for a dental 
periodical than the columns of the Lancaster 
Farmer. Let us have more practical matter, 
and the Farmer will have a wider range of use- 
fulness, and a much better subscription list. 

This may be true in a certain e^nse, and yet a 
journal of the dimension and character of the Far- 
' mer might very soon run itself out with too much 
of what is called *' practical matter." May not, 
after all, subjects which blend the scientific with 
the practical, be the proper food for the inquiring 
mind of the husbandman, whose every-day expe- 
rience is a statiety of the practical, with a reach- 
ing desire for that Avhich is a little beyond the 
labor of his hands, and the objects of his vision. 

At the commencement of our journalistic enter- 
prise, we thought those scientific papers upon the 
subjects of bug-ology and bird-ology and vegeta- 
ble physiology were superfluous, but have we not 
been vastly benefitted by their perusal ? And is 
it not evident that their very existence in our 
journal has given it a position and dignity which 
it never could have reached by being devoted 
entirely to practical matters ? 



We propose to contribute a series of short 
articles upon the Comparative Anatomy of the 
Teeth, and to make them just as practical as pos- 
sible ; and in order to give our readers an idea of 
what we mean by this phraseology we will 
simply state that it is to direct attention 
to the peculiarities of the teeth of their horses 
and cattle, and enable them, by comparison, to 
judge of their age and habits. In the pros2cution 
of this task, we will take occasion to introduce the 
peculiarities of the teeth of all the tribes of the 
animal kingdom, in their various classification, 
and we feel very certain that the perusal of 
these ai'ticles will benefit the reader fully as much 
as the writer will be compensated in and by his 
researches to produce them. 

How often persons assume a cunning look, and 
open the mouths of horses, to judge of their age 
by the marks on their teeth, or the number of 
them, when they know about as much of the sub- 
ject as the horse itself. And, also, in regard to 
the habits of the animal. They will pass and re- 
pass a cow or an ox for a life time, and see them 
chewing the cud, and not have the least idea of 
the admirable provision of nature which renders 
all that use of the teeth necessary. 

The anatomy of the teeth will, also, often sugr 
gest the kind of food which natiu-e has designed 
for the animal, and thus much practical informa 
tion will be gathered from a source whence, at 
first sight, nothing but dry anatomical study might 
seemed to be promised. 

It is not our design to give a dissertation upon 
the human teeth. "Whilst this subject might be 
of vast benefit to all, yet the examination of sim- 
ilar organs in the inferior animals has alwa3^s- 
been a subject of the deepest interest and close 
study to the anatomist and physiologist, and 
always been regarded by them as essential to a 
full understanding of the structure and functions ' 
of the various organs of the human body. 

What is true of the body as a whole, applies 
with equal force to its several parts. Each organ 
finds its analogue in some one or more of the in- 
ferior animals ; and the teeth, as forming parts, 
and indispensable parts of the human frame, come 
in equally for their share of examination in this 
comparison of organs in the inferior animals. 

The importance of this subject has now fully 
aroused the master spirits of the professions to its 
investigation, and their labors have already been 
crowned with the most useful and happy results- 

S. W. 



Good Tools are hatf the battle in farming. 
Be sure to hunt up what yon want, and buy 
it. 



116 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 






^ 



THE ALDERNEY BREED OF CATTLE. 

A gentleman of Lancaster, who has always 
taken great interest in matters pertaining to agri- 
culture, recently showed us a calf of the above 
breed which he had imported from Connecticut, 
and which he stated he would not part with for 
the sum of one hundred dollars. He added that 
he was getting a milk cow of the same breed, for 
which he was paying the sum of two hundred and 
fifty dollars. His remarks made such an impres- 
sion upon us that we have examined the authori- 
ties upon the different kinds of cattle, and find 
the Alderneys described as furnishing the richest 
milk of any other kind of cows that are known. 
That oiir readers may have the benefit of our in- 
vestigations on this matter, we submit the de- 
scription of the Alderney cattle as given in Lou- 
don's Encyclopsedia of Agricultm'e, page 1018. 

"The Alderney cattle are to be met with only 
about the seats of a few great landholders, where 
they are kept chiefly for their milk, which is very 
rich, though small in quantity. This race is con- 
sidered by very competent judges as too delicate 
and tender to be propogated to any extent in 
Britain, at least in its northern parts. Their 
color is mostly yellow or light red, with white or 
mottled faces ; they have short crumpled horns, 
are small in size and very ill shaped, yet they are 
a fine breed in general, and their beef, though 
high colored, is very well flavored. I have seen, 
says Culley, some very useful cattle bred from a 
cross between an Alderney cow and a short 
horned bull." 

On this breed of cattle we clip the following 

remarks of Tim Bunker, (from the July number 

■ of the American Agriculturist,) who seems to be 

well posted on every subject he undertakes to 

dilate. 

"The Jersey cows (Alderneys) are small, thin, 
and their milking quantities are fabulous. Is'ow, 
I do not see why we may not breed cows for but- 
ter just as well as for beef, or for large quantities 
of milk, or to give us sprightly red working oxen. 
There is certainly need enough for it, for butter 
is about the dearest among farm products. If I 
wanted everything in one animal I should not 
breed Jerseys, though I have seen very fair grade 
working oxen, and I have eaten as good beef of 
this stock as ever came to market. I want good, 
rich milk for my coffee, cream for my strawberries 
and other fruits, and golclen butter for my johnny 
cakes and lima beans. If there is any animal 
that can equal the Jersey cow in giving rich milk 



I have not found it. Just how this breed came by 
this quality I may not be able to tell. Titus 
Oaks may be right or wrong in laying it to the 
buffalo of America. It shows a pretty keen scent 
to smell a buffalo track after two centuries. But 
of the fact that this breed gives richer milk than 
any other there can be no doubt. They will make 
more rich cream and butter out of a given quan- 
tity of fodder than the Durham or Devons. There 
is, indeed, a diff"erence among them, as there is 
among other breeds. But they as uniformly give 
good rich milk as the short horns give large car- 
casses of good, juicy beef. There are multitudes 
^f men, and the number is steadily increasing in 
our cities and villages, who keep but one or two 
cows for family supplies. They do not want to 
sell milk. They do not want skim milk for the 
pigs. They want good milk for the baby, plenty 
of cream, and butter of the best quality for the 
table. They have fastidious tastes, it maybe, 
but they have them very decidedly, and are will- 
ing to pay for them. Now, I claim that it is a 
farmer's business to supply the market with those 
articles in his line that are most in demand. If 
scrub cows are going out of fashion, and nobody 
wants them who can get anything better, what is 
the use of ^ly raising them ? If men who can 
afford to pay for it want their milk condensed the 
Jersey cow will do it about as well as Gail Bor- 
den and it won't cost half so much. I don't mean 
any reflection upon that gentleman or the rival 
milk condensers, but I rather guess if the Jerseys 
had been better known their occupation .woulfl 
have been gone. These folks, too, who want 
family cows, haven't a great deal of barn room, 
and they want the cow put up in the smallest 
compass. The Jersey hits this nail exactly on the 
head. You can't put her in a hencoop exactly, 
but you can pul her and the coop into a common 
stall without overcrowding. They want some- 
thing too, that is just a little handsome, and fond 
of being petted, to keep company with the well 
groomed horses, and to share the attentions of 
Levi, when he has put the last touch upon his 
sleek team. I know there are some very bad 
looking Jerseys, with ugly Jieads, sharp bones 
and thin, lank carcasses. But take them as a 
race they are fair to the sight and an ornament 
to the farm yard. A little oil-meal inside and the 
brush outside, improve their looks and help the 
butter wonderfully. Their mealy mouths, per- 
haps, indicate the want of meal. At any rate it 
is a pretty safe rule to follow. There are several 
different styles of Jersey cattle. I like the wild 
Jersey type the best, which is very popular with 
some of our best breeders. They have black 
tongues, black noses and mealy muzzles. The 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



117 



horns are black, small, firm, pointed, brown near 
the head, but not waxy. In shape, the horns 
have but one cur\'e (except that the boms of fe- 
males turn back a little at the very end.) stand- 
ing high — as high as at right angles with a line 
drawn from the mouth to the ear, forming a curve 
of nearly half a circle. The foundation color of 
the females is chocolate, dark brown or olive 
along the back, and a brownish gray between the 
horns and eyes. The hair is soft, silky or woolly 
on the body, through which there project, after 
the calves are four to eight months old, long, 
coarse hairs, often tipped with white or brown, 
sometimes all black or other color. The males 
are much darker, nearly black, but neither males 
nor females have any white spots, and both 
change color. The skin, udder, teats, and inside 
of the ears are olive brown, with a brown stripe 
in the ear, and the ends of the tail terminate in 
a brush, like the American buft'alo. There is no 
coloring matter on the end of the tail, but it is 
di"y and scaly. Then they have a wild look and 
action, not easily described, which I sujipose 
Titus would say smelt of the buffalo. Cattle of 
this type are as handsome as deer, and will long 
be in demand at high prices, for folks will buy 
them as they do pictures — ^just to look at." 

It will be perceived in the agricultural report 
of 1807, page 292-5, that the celebrated dairymen 
of Chester and Delaware counties have discovered 
the superior qualities of the Jersey or Alderney 
stock, and prefer them to all others for dairy pur- 
poses. Many of them keep no others. "We quote 
again from the report of a committee who had 
visited the Chester dairymen : "Prom this farm 
we returned to Philadelphia, and went toChelton 
Hills, on the "West Pennsylvania railroad, to visit 
the Jersey cows imported by Chas. L. Sharpless. 
They were selected by Mr. Sharpless in 18G5, on 
the island of Jersey, and have only now been 
admitted in consequence of the danger that had 
previously existed in introducing the rinderpest. 
They are an exceedingly fine lot of cows, seven 
in number ; one of them, " Duchess," is by far 
the finest animal that any of us had seen. She is 
now giving, by actual measurement, 21 quarts of 
milk daily, which yields more than four quarts of 
the richest cream, and she is as fine and delicate 
as a thoroughbred horse. Her color is brown and 
white, with the richest orange colored skin under 
the white hair. Her horns are small, thin, and of 
a translucent amber hue, slightly tipped with 
black. After a long examination of her our 
party broke up, being fully confirmed in our opin- 
ion, that for the butter dairy the Jersey is par 
excellence^ the cow of all others to select. Again 
the committee say : " Mr. Penrose, as well as Jtlr. 



Shaefler,keep the Alderney. For a butter dairy 
there is no doubt of their superiority." 



We transfer to the pages of our journal the 
following excellent article, credited to the Rural 
Neiv Yorker^ which treats upon a subject on which 
we have often meditated. But a few days since a 
gentleman and ourselves had a conversation upon 
this very matter, and he asked if we had ever met 
with any thing treating thereon. We agreed that 
this popular delusion should be dissipated as speed- 
ily as possible from the public mind, and we think 
this article may help to explode a superstition 
which has not even the semblance of a vision 
upon which to rest itself. There are numbers of 
men who pass for our most intelligent citizens 
who cling to this ancient delusion of planting 
crops and doing all kinds of work in certain 
signs : 

EXPLODED THEORIES. 

DO THE CONSTELLATIONS OF THE ZODIAC IN- 
FLUENCE VEGETATION ON THE EAKTH? 

It is a favorite idea among many of our old 
farmers, that the moon and constellations in the 
zodiac have a great influence upon the vegetation 
of this world. This idea has been handed down 
to them by tradition ; nor is the end likely to be 
with this generation. Among those of German 
descent is this infatuation the most prevalent. 
Although it does not speak well for their intelli- 
gence, yet it shows the obstinate tenacity with 
which they hold to the ignorant creeds and dark 
mysteries of by-gone ages. This superstition, or 
rather rampant ignorance, has stood in the way of 
their own prosperity — the progress of agriculture 
and home improvements — and, consequently, has 
materially impeded the progress of civilization 
and refinement wherever it has been adhered to. 

These deluded people believe that each vege- 
table grows best when planted in its appropriate 
sign. For instance, j)Otatoes should be planted 
in the sign of the " scales " or " lion," in order 
that they may grow large, always avoiding the 
sign of the " fish," for if "they are planted in that 
sign they will be sure to get " watery potatoes." 
Again, clover seed should be sown in a dry sign, 
orit will make horses slobber. Vinegar should 
be made in the sign of the "lion," in the first 
quarter of the moon, in order that it may grow 
strong. 

The moon, too, it is said, exerts a powerful in- 
fluence on new^ roofs and fences. I was even sur- 
prised with a notice in the Rural that a certain 
man out West had succeeded in killing a lot of 
locust trees by cutting them down in the " dark 
of the moon," just as though that had done the 
whole business. 

Now, for the benefit of the misguided, I will 
endeavor to show that these signs are generally 
an unmitigated humbug. I will venture to say 
that one-half of those who pay so much attention 
to them, know nothing at all about them outside 
of their almanacs. The zodiac is an imaginary 
belt beyond the apparent path of the sun in the 
heavens. This belt is sixteen degrees broad, and, 



118 



THE LANCASTEK FAEMEE. 



of course, extends clear around the heavens, or 
three hundred aud sixty degrees. The distance 
between every thirty degrees is called a sign. 
The sun, in its apparent path, seems to travel 
eastward through all these twelve signs once a 
year. The ancients imagined the stars in each 
sign to represent some animal or object, and gave 
them names accordingly. They also pretended 
to predict future events by these signs, the science 
of whic 1 was called astrology. But how the 
modern ^'prophets'''' came to pervert the original 
" science " in applying it to the growth of plants, 
is to me unknown. 

Xow the question is, do these constellations of 
the zodiac affect the growth of plants on the 
earth ? For good, healthy growth, plants re(iuire 
light, heat, air, and the necessary elements iu the 
soil. Now the nearest star in the signs of the 
zodiac has been demonstrated to be more than 
twenty hillions of miles distant from the earth. 
They, no doubt, influence the motions of the 
earth to a limited extent, but the light and heat 
received from all the stars together is not enough 
to justify the assertion that they aflect the growth 
of vegetation here on the earth; much less"^ then, 
would the stars of a single constellation consti- 
tute so much light and heat as to materially influ- 
ence its growth. 

The earth must be balanced as it floats in its 
orbit around the sun, aud since that is a truth, it 
necessarily follows that the attraction must be 
just about the same m every part of its orbit. Of 
course, account must be taken of the elliptical 
shape of the earth's orbit, aud the place in which 
the earth is, whether at its perihelion or at its 
aphelion-, but this difference of motion is evi- 
dently not occasioned by the fixed stars, aud con- 
sequently their influence is about the same all the 
time. And siuce all these are astronomical aud 
philosophical truths, it follows that one day is as 
^^ood for piautiug as another, the soil aud season 
favorable. 

Xow, let me attack the theory of the moon. It 
is claimed that if a roof is put on a l)uilding in 
the dark of the moon, the shingles will remain in 
their places ; but if put on while the moon is in- 
creasing they will inevitably '' turn up ;" likewise 
with ordinary rail fences. The moon, apparently, 
goes around the earth in about the same time, in 
whatever quarter it is. To be sure, it appears later 
every day, but it nevertheless goes around (ordi- 
narily speaking) in a little over twenty-four hours, 
as regularly as the sun. Now, it must be gravita- 
tion or attraction that causes these shingles to 
turn up, and if it has the power to raise them 
during one revolution when it is full, why does it 
not have the same power when in its last quarter, 
it being at the same distance from the earth? 
This leads to absurdity at ouce. The moon cer- 
tainly does aflect the growth of vegetation, but 
not to the ex ent claimed by these ultra signists. 
The light reflected from the moon contributes 
very little to the growth of plants, but its light 
and heat are so feeble iu comparison to those of 
the sun, that it is not considered of much account 
by those who have investigated the matter. 

These are old and exploded theories, and are 
only upheld by those who are far behind the 
times in their knowledge of natural sciences. 
When education once becomes more universally 



disseminated throughout the world, the people 
will l)etter understand the mysterious workings 
of that "• Glorious Architect who built the skies." 
But as we are in " the foremost ranks of all the 
files of time," and have the accumulated knowl- 
edge of all the ages, we should endeavor to profit 
by it, and to use our advantages in such a way as 
to bring about the best results for the refinement 
of the people and the improvement of humanity. 
Gallon, Ohio. J. C. S. 



WEEDS.— ]S"o.-5. 



POKE WEED. 



The name Poke is an abbreviation of Pocan, by 
which it was known in Virginia over one hundred 
and fifty years ago ; it has other local and com- 
mon names, such as Scoke, Garget, Pigeon Berry, 
Pted Ink Plant. The French call it Raisin 
d'' Amerique ; the botanical name is Phytolacca 
decandra ; the generic name is compounded from 
the Greek. Phiton, plant, aud the French lac, 
lake, in allusion to the coloring matter resembling 
that pigment which the berries yield ; the specific 
name, decandra, because it has ten stamens, as 
well as ten styles. 

From the testimony of diff'erent writers it ap- 
pears that the Phj^tolacca decandra is an inhabi- 
tant not only of Xorth America, but likewise of 
the south of Europe from Portugal to Greece, and 
also of the Barbary States in Africa. Its origin 
is, however, considered American. Parkinson, in 
his Theatrum Botanicum, published in 1640, de- 
nommates it " Solanum magnum Virginiassum 
rubrwn.''^ This is the oldest account found re- 
specting it. 

This plant is well known. It prefers a rich 
soil, on banks, borders of fields, in clearings, and 
along roadsides, &c., and is regarded as a weed 
by all neat farmers. It was popular during the 
campaign of James K. Polk for President, in 
1844. The stalks, which are annual, grow to 
six and even nine feet iu height. They are round, 
smooth, Ijranched, and when matured of a tine 
purple color. The flowers are succeeded by long 
clusters of dark purple berries, almost black, de- 
pressed, with ten furrows. Every schoolboy 
knows them aud has tried them in Avritiug or col- 
ormg pictures. The juice of the berries is of a J 
very fine, bright purple color, but this color is ex- " 
tremely fugacious, and disappears in a short time 
from cloth or paper that has been tinged with it. 

A few drops of lime water added to this purple 
juice changes it to yellow, but when fresh the 
smallest quantity of water is suriicieut to restore 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



119 



its purple hue, and forms a more delic ate test fo 
acids than an infusion of litmus of equal depth or 
color; one-fourth the amount of acid is sufficient 
to change it that it takes to change the litmus, 
and is therefore four times as sensible. The taste 
of the berries is sweet and nauseous and slightly 
acrimonious. In Portugal and in France they 
were formerly employed to improve the color of 
red wines, until the interference of government 
became necessary to put a stop to the practice. 

They were at one time considered a specific for 
the cure of cancer. There is a letter published 
from Dr. Franklin to Dr. Golden, in which he 
says : " I am heartily glad to hear more instances 
of the success of the Pokeweed in the cure of 
cancer. You deserve highly of mankind for the 
communication. But I find in Boston they are at 
a loss to know the right plant, some asserting it 
is what they call Mechoacan, others other things. 
In one of their late papers it is publicly requested 
that a perfect description may be given of the 
plant, its place of growth, &c. I have mislaid 
the paper or I would send it to you. I thought 
you had described it pretty fully." Another 
letter of Dr. Frarukliu to M. Dubourg commences 
with : " I apprehend that our pokeweed is what 
botanists term Phytolacca, &c.," referring to the 
jjuice used and Dr, Golden's description. This is 
simply of interest as the writing of Dr. Benj. 
Franklin respecting this plant. 

The root also ha 1 and may still have consider- 
able reputation as a medicine. Dr. Bigelow gives 
a lengthy account of it in his American Medical 
Botany. Dr. Darlington saj's, in his Agricultural 
Botany, that " the young shoots of this plant aflbrd 
a good substitute for asx)aragns\ the root is said 
to be actively emetic " (and I add truly so when 
collected in autumn, rather too nuich so to make it 
safe.) He continues, "and the tincture of the 
ripe berries is, or was a popular remedy for chronic 
rheumatism. The mature berries, moreover, have 
been used by the pastry cook in making pies of 
equivocal merit." I agiee with the doctor in 
that respect. I like pies of strawberries, but poke- 
berries are not to my taste. Poke is a weed after 
all. "Enufsaid!" J. S. 



#ditatiiiL 



Temperature for CiirRNiNO.— In cold 
weather the cream should be about 05 degrees, 
not higher, when you begin churning. In warm 
w^eather 62 degrees is about right ; for in the 
course of the operation the temperature will rise, 
but should not get above 67 degrees. Avoid add- 
ing much of either hot or cold water to secure the 
proper degree of warmth. 

An acre of growing wheat absorbs and throws 
off ten tons of water per day. 



MEETING OF THE AGRICULTUIIAL 
AND HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

The Agricultural and Horticultural Society, of 
Lancaster county, met at the Orphans' Court 
Room, in the city of Lancaster, Monday, July 5th, 
at the usual horn-, Henry M. Engle, President, 
and Alex. Harris, Secretary. 

Owing to the day being a holiday, the meetmg 
was small, but very interesting. 

After waiting a considerable time for the fur- 
ther arrival of members, the Chairman called the 
meeting to order, and the Secretary read the 
minutes, which were approved without dissent. 

S. S. Rathvon, the chairman of the Committee 
who had charge of the late fruit exhibition, sub- 
mitted his report, showing that the exhibition 
had cleared itself of expenses, and left the sum of 
one dollar and twenty-five cents in the treasury. 
The report was adopted and the Committee dis- 
charged. 

S. S. Rathvon oftered the following resolution, 
viz.: 

Whereas, the American Pomological Society 
intends to hold its next annual meeting in Horti- 
cultural Hall, Philadelphia, Pa., on the 15th day 
of September, 1869 ; and, 

Whereas, The Pennsylvania Horticultural 
Society intends to hold its semi-anuual exhibition 
at the same time and place ; and. 

Whereas, " All Horticultural, Pomological, 
Agricultural, and other kindred institutions in the 
United States and British Provinces, are invited 
to send delegations as large as they deem expe- 
dient," and take seats ia the convention, and 
also to contribute specimens of fruits from their 
respective districts ; therefore 

Iiesolved,Tha.t this Society appoint ten members 
to attend said meeting, as delegates from the 
Lancaster City and County Agricultural and Hor- 
ticultural Society, with power to fill up the requis- 
ite number by their own appointments, in case 
the delegation should not be full, whether said 
substitutes are members of this Society or not, 
only so that they are respectable citizens of Lan- 
caster county, and interested in the cultivation of 
fruits. 

Resolved, That the Secretary send a notice to 
each delegate, or as many of them as are not 
present at this meeting, informing them of their 
appointment, and also "of the Lime of the conven- 
tion, and requesting them, if they attend, to take 
^yith them specimens of their fruit, if they have 
any suitable for exhibition. 

The resolution was adopted, and the appoint- 
ment deferred until the next meeting of the So- 
ciety, when there will be a fuller attendance of 
the members of the Society. 

Mr. Rathvon also offered the following resolu- 
tion, which was adopted : 



120 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



Whereas, The " Lancaster City and County 
Agricultural P^rk Association" has announced 
its intention to hold its second semi-annual exhi- 
bition on the 3d, 4th, 5th, 6th, and 7th of October 
next; and 

Whereas, It is presumed that our own Society 
will hold an Autumn Exhibition near that time ; 
therefore, 

JResolved, That a committee of five be appointed 
by the President of this Society, to consult, con- 
sider, and inquire in regard to the expediency of 
holding an exhibition at the same time, and place, 
in connection with the Park Association, and 
upon what conditions such a temporary union 
could be effected, said committee to report in 
writing at the next meeting of this Society. 

The Chairman appointed the following gentle- 
men on the said Committee of Conference, viz. : 
S. S. Rathvon, Dr. W. L. Diftenderfer, Dr. Saml. 
Welchens, J. G. Kreider, and Alex. Harris. 

The Secretary read the following question, 
which had been handed him — To the President 
and members of the Agricultm-al and Horticultu- 
ral Society: A friend desires to know if any 
remedy can be proposed by which ants may be 
prevented from creeping up young fruit trees, 
and infesting them with cm-led leaf. The ants 
are found on the under side of the leaf. — A 
Priend of Your Society. 

S. S. Rathvon, in reply to the above question, 
said that no other remedy could be given than 
syringing the leaves with tobacco-juice, whale- 
oil soap-suds, or common lye, or by sprinkling 
water over the trees and leaves, and dusting them 
with common lime. 

H. M. Engle remarked that he had never found 
anything more effective than sjTinging the leaves 
with tobacco-juice. 

Dr. Saml. Welchens next proceeded to read a 
short essay upon the teeth of stock animals. 

S. S. Rathvon also read one upon the bean 
weevil, and, upon the conclusion of it said that it 
was to him a novelty to find a weevil in beans. 

J. G. Kreider presented some heads of the early 
Boughton wheat, some heads of barley, and some 
heads of the Brunswick oats. He also had some 
heads of German red wheat. 

John B. Erb had raspberries ; Brinkle's orange, 
Doolittle's Black cap, and English Morello chef- 
xies. 

S. S. Rathvon showed some clusters of Clinton 
grapes. He likewise exhibited some large goose- 
berries, grown by David Hartman, Jr. 

Henry M. Engle had of the cluster gooseberries, 
Gloria de Sablons Currants, Cherrj^ Currants, 
Black l«raples Currants, and common red Dutch. 
He also had Philadelphia black cap, and Brinkle 
orange raspberries. 

The testing of the fruits on this occasion was ] 



the most interesting part of the proceedings, all 
seeming to enjoy it with zest, the fruits being m 
abundance, and the spectators so limited that 
ample scope existed for a full comparison of the 
qualities of the different varieties. After the ter- 
mination of this most agreeable part of the pro- 
ceedings, the Society, on motion, adjourned. 



HORTICULTURAL EXHIBITIONS. 

It seems unquestionable — in our minds at least 
— that if the Scripture injunction "Whatsoever thy 
hand findeth for thee to do, do it with thy might." 
has any application at all to secular affairs, it car- 
ries with it an additional force, when applied to 
the getting up of horticultural exhibitions. Be 
cause, without some such stimulating spirit, they 
must prove unsatisfactory to the public, and dis- 
creditable to those engaged in them. The mere- 
ly recorded resolution of a Society, or .any vol- 
untary body of men, no matter how unanimously 
adepted. and however blazoned in show-cards and 
public advertisements, will never successfully ef" 
feet the end, if each individual member does not 
work privately in that direction, and also work 
with his might. Just see with what persevering 
energy men think and work in ultimating the 
evils, sins, and crimes, which afflict society; or 
the labors, deprivations, and vexations, which oth- 
ers endure in accomplishing their own selfish 
purposes ; and how comparatively little is done, 
and how feebly executed, in matters which do 
not promise an immediate pecuniary reward. In 
our view, the reason that our horticultural exhibi- 
tions do not seem to be sutficiently appreciated 
and encouraged, is not to be attributed so much 
to the indifference of the public, as it is to the 
apathy of the members of the Society, under 
whose auspices those displays are gotten up. A 
society composed of hundreds of the wealthiest 
and most intelligent cultivators of the county, 
usually finds but a half dozen or so — a mere 
" corporal's guard" — who go to the trouble of plac 
ing their products on exhibition, and these per- 
haps do not bring specimens of all they have, 
nor the best they have ; and sometimes so spar 
ingly too, that their variety is not likely to be 
seen at all. The feeling seems to be, to gather 
delight, amusement and entertainment for them- 
selves without contributing to the delight, amuse- 
ment and entertainment of others. They seem 
to know little of the fears, the dreads, and the 
anxieties, which a committee feels, in making its 
promises to the public, lest they may not be sus- 
tained in making the affair they are commissioned 
to carry into effect, a credit to the association, 
and satisfactory to that public to whom they have 
appealed. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



121 



These reflecttons have been suggested in con- 
templating the exhibition of our Society on the 
l4th of June last, which, although excellent in its 
character, so far as quality was concerned, yet 
was dreadfully deficient in variety and quantity. 
The affair plainly indicated that we have the ma- 
terial, but lack sadly the energy and public spirit, 
in bringing it freely out. 

There can be no reasonable question about the 
utility of these exhibitions, for public demonstra- 
tions of some kind, are recognized as useful, by 
all the different organizations of our country, 
whether social, beneficial,; moral, philanthrophic 
or otherwise, and in them is often found one of 
the most stimulating elements of their progress. 
It is nothing more than " making friends of the 
unrighteous mammon," on a practical domestic 
plan, while at the same time it fosters that social 
intercourse which ought to exist among all men, 
and especially among those interested in kindred 
pursuits. " In order to increase the sum of hu- 
man happiness, we should cultivate kind and fra- 
ternal feelings one with another," as well as cul- 
tivate the soil for mere wordly gain. " A true 
life consists in something else than simply accu- 
mulating property." " We do not, and cannot 
live by bread alone.'''' The following from the 
colimins of the Journal of Agriculture, relating to 
this subject, seems so happily written, that we 
do not hesitate to reproduce it here, because the 
moral and social elevation of our readers is one 
of the objects of our journal. 

" The sole object and aim of too many indi- 
viduals seems to be to get gain, let the conse- 
quences be what they may to others. The desire 
to accumulate wealth, regardless of the comfort 
and social happiness of our neighbors, and the 
interchange of friendly sentiments, should be ig- 
nored. Let us be more social, and cultivate our 
convivial qualities by frequent interchange of 
friendly greetings and social gatherings. Let no 
aristocracy be acknowledged, but that of intel- 
lect. Let us beautify our homes, and make them 
what they should be, by fostering a love of the 
beautiful." In ultimating these principles, no 
better instrumentality than that of periodical ex- 
hibitions of the work of our heads and hands can 
be used. If we cannot see an immediate pecu- 
niary reward in such a course, let us neverthe- 
less proceed, and if we are not the most incor- 
rigibly selfish of all of God's creation, we shall 
soon find our chief reward in the love of a labor 
that will not be lost. Although our local society 
has thus far exercised but a moiety of its latent 
energies, yet its effects are becoming plainly 
visible upon the public mind, as well as upon its 
individual membership. All that is required is 



more thorough individual action. Each man 
ought to regard the success of these little enter- 
prises as depending on his own individual ener- 
gies, whether he feels or sees the co-operative 
support of others or not. It is in accordance 
with moral and social law, that if we expect to 
freely receive, \te must as freely and disinterest- 
edly give. 

^ » » 

TRIM YOUR TREES. 

This is only to remind you of the necessity of 
this branch of horticulture. The Agriculturalist 
and other journals describe the proper method of 
pruning. If the limbs are large and you must 
use the ax (some prefer a saw), have it very sharp 
and do not cut too close at first ; commence on 
the under side of the limb, so that it does not 
peel the bark when falling, and then dress the 
wound close up to the main stem. If it is a fruit 
tree, a little melted grafting wax or composition 
brushed over the wound is very good. But I was 
going to say trim those locust and other trees 
along the roads and lanes, so that persons will 
not scratch their faces and tear the oilcloth on 
their wagons while di-iving along. If locust trees 
were kept properly trimmed they would make 
better timber for posts, &c. J. B. E. 

PLANT MORE TREES. 

If you will not plant fruit trees, then try locust, 
and you will be sure to make money, if that is 
your object. Just look around about you and see 
what room for improvement. That lane or road- 
side ought to have locust trees to beautify it and 
make it comfortable, and in a few years how 
many dollars would it be worth ! Do you see that 
waste corner in your field, that gully, or that old 
quarry hole, or that bank which you cannot farm 
to advantage ? AVe say plant locust. It will be 
a saving bank, and you get your money and very 
large interest payed oft' in golden locust. See, 
now, if you can not improve your homes a great 
deal with only a trifling expense. See along 
those streams, ponds, or water courses how fast 
trees would grow. If it is too wet for locust, then 
plant willow, &c. Just think a little and you can 
find plenty of room for improvement. Plant trees 
along the banks of the creeks and other waste 
places, &c. This is and should be an age of im- 
provement. J- ^' ^' 

^ » » 

AMERICAN POMOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

The next meeting of this Society will be com- 
menced on the 15th of September next, at Horti- 
cultural Hall, Broad street, in the city of Philadel- 
phia to continue in session two or three days. It 
promises to be one of the greatest .gatherings of 



122 



THE LANCASTER FAKMEE. 



the kind ever held in this country, and, so far, 
everything looks propitious to make it such. A 
general invitation has been extended to all Agri- 
cultural, Horticultural, Floricultui-al, and kindred 
Institutions in the United States, the Doniinion 
of Canada and elsewhere, to send strong dele- 
gations to take seats in the Oonvention, and 
participate in its proceedings, and they will doubt- 
less, to a large extent, take action accordingly. 
Already we hear of some States making liberal 
appropriations, in order to send representatives 
to this meeting, and others may follow. But the 
invitation is not confined to organized associ- 
ations alone, for it is also extended to isolated 
fx'uit-growers and amateurs, and all other per- 
sons occupied in the cultivation of the soil. In 
approaching this shrine of Horticulture, it is de- 
sired that its votaries should not go empty handed, 
but that as many as possibly can, should take 
with them specimens of their productions, and 
place them on exhibition, and be prepared, if 
possible, to add their moiety to the general ditfu- 
sion of knowledge upon the subjects brought be- 
fore it. We trust an honorable record in the 
proceedings of this P. mological Convention will 
be made by the fruit-growers of the " Garden of 
Pennsylvania." Our local Society has already 
had the subject brought before it, and we trust 
that those appointed from Lancaster County to 
attend as delegates, will, for the time being, lay 
all other business aside, and give their undivided 
attention to the subject. There is much to learn, 
and, doubtless, also much to unlearn in the cul- 
ture of fruit yet, before we can expect a return 
of the " good old times," with the improvements 
in quantity and quality, which the experiences 
of intervening years naturally ought to have de- 
veloped. The Pennsylvania Horticultural Society 
will hold its semi-annual exhibition at the same 
time and place, so that on the whole, the occasion 
will be an interesting one, and worthy to be 
patronized and seen. 



The sophomore class of the Agricul. College at 
Amherst recently put in practice a degree of ag- 
ricultural science by husking 450 bushels of corn 
in one afternoon. The estimated products of the 
college farm the past year are: Hay, 200 tons; 
oats, 300 bushels; shelled corn, 1,200 bushels; 
besides a good supply of garden vegetables. 

Save the Birds— A certain insect lays 2,000 
eggs, but a single tomtit will destroy 200,000 eggs 
in a year. A swallow destroys 543 insects in a 
day, eggs and all. A sparrow's nest was found 
to contain 700 pairs of the upper wings of the 
cockchafer, though other food was procurable in 
abundance. So, save the birds. 



An Easy Method to Have Healthy 
Fruit Trees. — An experienced fruit grower, 
who possesses a beautiful orchard near the 
Niagara, river. Western jSTew York, has used 
one simple method with great success. He takes 
ley from leached ashes, mixes a little grease with 
it, heats it quite warm, and with a syringe throws 
it up into all parts of the trees, branches and 
trunk. It will eftectually kill all caterpillars, all 
kinds of worms that are either infesting the tree 
in nests or running over the bark. Trees treated 
in this manner were exceedingly healthy, beau- 
tiful, and vigorous in appearance, possessed a 
smooth, glossy bark, and bare the best apples o^ 
the country. The remedy is easy and cheap. 



Philadelphia, June 21, 1869. 
Messrs. S. S. Rathvon and Alex. Harris : 

Gentlemen : — I regret that I did not in my com- 
munication of May 5th, set forth more fully why 
I did not think you did the " C. M." justice in 
the May number of your journal, as I find in the 
June number your views are given in a manuer 
which will possibly militate against the sale of 
"Complete Manure," thereby injuring me in 
both reputation and in purse. I also regret that 
you did not, before publishing the last article, ask 
me wherein I considered you had done injustice 
to the article ; as you state if it will be useful and 
necessary to refer to the " Farm Report " again, 
I beg that you will continue to render unto 
" Ctesar the thiugs that are Ccesar's." I believe 
it is far from your wish to injure by word or deed 
any of the proprietors of the fertilizers used in 
the trial, and trust you v/ill ascribe the same de- 
sire to me. 

The report of the "Experimental Farm" is 
certainly a most instructive and interesting docu- 
ment, admitting of much careful study and con- 
sideration. It is lendered doubly so by the fact 
that Mr. Thomas Harvey is a gentleman who can 
be implicitly relied upon, for his carefulness, his 
strong sense of justice, and for being an iutelli 
gent, good farmer as well. 

In entering upon an analysis of this report it 
will be necessary to take the condition of the 
farm into consideration. Mr. Harvey states that 
the soil contains suriicient phosphate of lime, and 
I have learned from other sources that in years 
past it has been veiy heavily treated with bone 
dust. This, therefore, is an important point, and 
one carrying with it miich of the apparent lack of 
usefulness of artificial fertilizers in the trial, it 



THE LANCASTER FAEMER. 



123 



being fair to presume that the bulk of the whole 
of them was phosphate of lime. Next we must 
consider that the season of 1868 was very propi- 
tious for the crops of corn and grass in the sec- 
tion in which the experimental farm is situated. 
Both Timothy and clover should be calculated 
as being among the most valuable products of a 
farm ; it is in the grass where the profit of farm- 
ing lies principally. 

In estimating the value of hay it must be borne 
in mind that it is worth very nearly as much per 
pound as corn, and it will not do to ignore its 
highly nutritive properties and large amount of 
flesh and bone forming constituents. In fact, the 
seeds of Timothy and clover contain more phos- 
phate of lime than those of any other cereals. 
It is this which renders it such valuable food for 
horses or cattle, the grains, corn, wheat, «&c., 
containing so much larger proportions of fat or 
heat producing elements. 

Here we have a farm producing without manure 
the following crops per acre : 

Timoth}^, 3,fi48 pounds. 

Clover, 4,464 do. 

Barley, 2,528 do. 

Corn, 5,280 do. 
The yield showing clearly the high state of cul- 
tivation to which it has been brought by the use 
of artificial fertilizers, and showing as well that 
it is possible to manure a farm too heavily. In 
fact, there appears to be such a thing as overload- 
ing the stomach of a field for a particular crop. 
All of this, however, is a strong and conclusive 
argument in favor of bringing a place to this 
state of fertility. How gratifying it must be to 
the owner or renter of such a' farm, to know that 
he can not add anything to increase its fertility or 



productiveness, yet in a single crop, without fer- 
tilizer, enough of the mineral or organic substances 
may be removed by ft to require a good, hearty 
meal of either in the next crop. 

It is to be regretted that in the Baily trial the 
comparison is not so complete, as I miss some of 
the fertilizers used in the other crops, and have 
consequently averaged some of those not repre- 
sented. This trial had ene contingency which is 
very fairly stated by Mr. Harvey, viz. : That the 
barley sown contained a large admixture of oats ; 
therefore the test was not as conclusive, certainly, 
as either he or others could wish. Barley is 
moreover, a crop but little raised in our section 
of country, and requu-es a peculiarity of soil and 
climate which exists further north of this. 

The results in the corn trial go far towards 
proving that the soil of the farm needed no phos- 
phates, having already quite enough of it. 

In the following table the profits and loss in 
the experiments are accurately sho%vn by the 
figures as given in the report. The result is not 
in any case remarkably favorable to the use of 
artificial manures upon^tbis particular farm ; but 
in the use upon a farm of ordinary size, in which 

there would be— 

20 acres in Timothy. 
. 20 " " Clover,. 



20 




" Corn, 


20 




" Oats, 


20 




" Wheat, 


10 




" Barley, 


5 




" Potatoes, 


20 




" Pasture. 


15 




" Wood. 



Total, 150 acres. 
We have as follows : 



Fertilizers on Grass, No. 1, Page 5. Hay valued at i cext per pound. 



I 



Nothing 

Baugh's Raw Bone Phosphate . 
Baugh's Chicago Bone Fertilizer 
Bowers' Complete Manure. , 
Harrison's Plant Fertilizer. . 

Shoemaker's Phuine 

Hewes' Raw Bone Phosphate. . . . 
Moro Philips' Phosphate .... 
Whaun's Phosphate 





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Vh rt 


o 


^ 


;3 


Ch 




2 




o ^ 


--^ 


^_f 




,^^ 




o 


^o 


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a 


s 


ci 


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^ 


:i CO 


o ^ 


o 


o 


a 


o 




^ 


Vj 


^ 


O 


H 


'^ 


H 


1-^ 






> 




;',048 






11th of 


Snow 


400 


?11.20 


4088 


440 




S 5.70 


4th mo. 


on 


400 


9.20 


3008 


ls.40 




9.70 


a 


ground. 


4tH) 


10.00 


4784 


1136 


$3.60 




a 


u 


4i »( 1 


10.00 


4512 


864 


.80 




25th of 


ti 


400 


10.40 


47 OS 


1120 


3.60 




4th mo. 


Wet 


400 


10.00 


428S 


640 




2.60 


7th of 


and 


400 


10.60 


4184! 536 




3.90 


5th mo. 


Rainy. 


400 


10.00 


4168 


1 520 




4.10 






ci 

H 



S72.00 


16.00 


72.00 



S 144.00 
194.00 



52.00 
78.00 
82.00 



124 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



Fertilizers on Grass, No. 2, Page 6. Hay Valued at li cents per Pound. 






Nothing 

Baugh's Baw Bone Phosphate 



Hewes' Kaw Bone Phosphate . 

Whaun's Phosphate 

Moro Philips' Phosphate 

Shoemaker's Phuine 

Harrison's Plant Fertilizer. . . . 

Bowers' Complete Manure 

Baugh's Chicago Fertilizer 

Barley, Page 9 



7th of 
5th mo. 






4 



Drizzly 

heavy 

rain 

after. 



w O 



400 

400 
400 
400 
400 
400 
400 
400 



o 

o 

B 
B 






$11.20 

10.60 
10.60 
10.60 
10.40 
10.00 
10.60 
9.00 



H 


Q 


o 


p 






p 


D 






^ 


P 


ro 


H'-* 


^' 


O' 


•"^ 


an 


■73 


• 


CD 


-tJ 


>-t 


a> 


P 


>-i 


O 


P 


1-8 


o 


a> 


i-< 




rt) 


4464 






loss 


4408 


56 


4712 


248 


5048 


584 


5048 


584 


5072 


608 


4896 


432 


5288 


824 


4896 


432 



^ 2- 

02 P, 



•^ 2. 
S p. 



S11.90 



7.50 
3.30 
3.30 
2.80 
4.60 
30 
3.80 



$238.00 



150.00- 
66.00 
60.00 
56.00 
92.00 
6.00 
76.00 



Barley Valued at Four Cents per pound. 



Nothing 

Bowers' Com. Manure 

Shoemaker's Phuine 

Harrison's Plant Fertilizer. 

Baugh's Phosphate 

Baugh's Chicago Fertilizer. 

Hewes' Phosphate 

Moro Phillips' Phos. (av.). . 
Whaun's Phos. (average) . . 



Pm i 



^&c 



<y 



400 lbs. 

400 " 

400 " 

400 " 

400 " 

400 " 

400 " 

400 " 



eg oj 
P. 2 

a" S <u 

O c3 



$10.60 
10.40 
10.00 
11.20 
9.20 
10.60 
10.60 
10.60 



OT o e 

g 'C o 



2,.528 
2,528 
2,624 
2,.528 
2,776 
2,376 
2,912 



C3 ^ 



S P 



G e5 -I 



31 bu. 60 qts. 



24 
00 
20 
00 
00 
16 



.2 i 



920 lbs 

972 
1,028 
1,082 
1,066 

860 
1,152 
1,026 
1,026 





^ 








OJ 










i 


a; 






s 


jj 




« 




o 






o 


eu 










rt 


^ r 






O 


o '• 


H 


H 



$8.52 
6.08 
3.-52 
5.36 

11.60 
1.32 
6.36 
6.36 



^ 



o ^ 



$85.20 
60.80 
35.20 
53.60 

116.00 
13.20 
63.60 
63.60 



Corn, page ,10.— Estimated from Gross Yield per A, by Weight of Corn in Ear- 
Valued AT lie. per lb. 



CUrH 



Dry seed, no fertilizer 

Whaun's phosphate in hill, 200 lbs. 

to acre ^ . . . 

Hewes' " " " 

Baugh's Chicago Fertilizer, " 
Harrison's Plant " " 

Moro Phillips' Phosphate, " 
Shoemaker's Phuine, " 

Baugh's ratr bone Phos., " 
Bowers' Complete Manure, " 



4 by 4 



o 



>-. 


u 


l-i— 


cS 


«-. 


O 


< 


a 




a 

u 
o 


'C 


o 


O 


o 






>^. 








w 


to 






O 


o 




^ 



5754 

5465 
5362 
5403 
5589 
5269 
5537 
5300 
5568 



o 



5341 

5135 

5022 



5073 
4888 
5073 
4826 
5125 









C^l 


, 


o 


o 






rt 


^l 


u 


O 


u 
o 


^ 

^ 


o 

ft 


;-i 






-1-9 


ft 


o 


ft 


o 




ft 


_o 


ft . 


^ 


,_4 


,-H 


:§ 


o 


o 


iy 


^ 


^ 


H 


H 


413 








330 




$9.63 




340 




11.18 




505 




9.86 




516 




7.47 




381 




12.57 




464 




8.45 




474 




12.41 




443 




8.09 


1 



o « 



$192.60* 
223.60 
197.20 
149.40 
251.40 
169.00 
248.20 
161.80 



THE LANCASTEK FARMER. 



125 



Potatoes, (Large Monitors,) Page 16. Estimate 50 rows, 300 feet long, 3 feet apart to acre. 
Value crop at He. per lb, or 90c. per bushel. 













io 


^ 


6 


lo 








Ot 


. 


O'^ *^ 


o 


o 










r3 


d 


Ph««X1 


i* 


cJ 


o 








<u 


o tc 


t^ 


i^ 


ia, 








'El 





o^'S 














62 


3 

1 

a 

o 


ross yield 
toes per ro 
yards, by \ 


-to 

2 

o 


O 

'3 


2 

CO 

li 








)^ 


O 


O 


H 


H 


H 


H ewes' Phosphate, 800 lbs per acre 
Whann's '' 800 " " " 






16 lbs. 
16 " 
16 " 


$ .42 
.42 
.42 


1004 lbs. 
19U " 
2031 " 


$1.08 
2.45 
2.64 


$ 54.00 
122.50 
132.00 


$270.00 






612.50 


Bowers' Complete Manure, 800 lbs 


per acre. 


660.00 


Harrison's Plant Fertilizer, 800 " 


^u 


it 


16 " 


.40 


206 " 


2.69 


134.50 


672.50 


Shoemaker's Phuine, 800 " 


ii 


(( 


16 " 


.4H 


2104 " 


2.74 


137.00 


635.00 


Moro Phillips' Phosphate, 800 " 


(.1 


(( 


16 " 


.42 


187 » 


2.39 


119.50 


597.50 


Baugh's Raw Bone Phosphate, 800 lbs 


per 














acre, (averaged.) 






16 " 


.45 


183 " 


2.30 


115.00 


575.00 


Baugh's Chicago Bone Fertilizer, 800 lbs 


per 




' acre, (averaged.) 






16 " 


.37 


180 " 


2.38 


119.00 


595.00 



Recapitulation of Gain and Loss, in a Farm of 150 acres. 



C5 



Baugh's Raw Bone Phosphate gain. 

" " " " loss. 

Baugh's Chicago Bone Fertilizer... gain. 

^' " " " ...loss. 
Bowers' Complete Manure gain. 

" " " loss. 

Harrison's Plant Fertilizer gain. 

" •' " loss. 

Shoemaker's Phuine gain. 

" " loss, 

Hewes' Raw Bone Phosphate gain. 

" " " " loss. 

Moro Phillips' Phosphate gain. 

'. " " " : loss 

"Whann's Phosphate gain. 



.loss. 



o 



114.00 

194.00 
72.00 

16.00 

72.00 

52.00 
78.00 



238.00 

76.00 

6.00 

92.00 

56.00 

150.00 
66.00 



o 



53.60 
116.00 
85.20 
35.20 
60.80 
13.20 
63.60 



CO 






« 






;-l 






o 






a 






kC 












M 






O 






o 












cS 


cS 


S3 








o 


o 


•cS 


p.^ 


H 


^ 



12.001 66.001 63.60 



248.20 
197.20 
161.80 
149.40 
169.00 
223.60 
251.40 
192.60 



575.00 
595.00 
660.00 
672.50 
685.00 
270.00 
597.50 
612.50 



.00 ( 

.80) 



575 

634 

595.00 

583.20 

732.00 

253.00 

688.50 

276.60 

757.00 

285.80 

270.00 

438.80 

597.50 

459.00 

612.50 

404.20 



11.80 
479.00 
411.90 
471.20 



138.50 

208.30 



$78.00 



168.80 



the comparison of experiment, page 11 of the report (corn), it will not be unfair to take the 
yield in experiment, page 10 (corn), where 200 lbs. of fertilizers were used, and compare it 
the averaged yield, page 11 (corn), from Moro Phillips', making the problem stand in this way : 
5269 : 5616 : : 5465 : 5824 lbs Whann's Phosphate. 

5715 lbs Hewes' " 

5759 lbs Baugh's Chicago Fertilizer. 

5957 lbs Harrison's Plant -. " 

5902 lbs Shoemaker's Phuine. 

5649 lbs Baugh's Raw Bone Phos. 

5934 lbs Bower's Complete Manure. 

Yours truly, HENRY BOWER. 



5269: 


5616:: 


5362 


5269: 


5616 : : 


5403 


5269: 


5616 : : 


5589 


5269: 


5616 : : 


5537 


5269: 


5616 : : 


5300 


5269: 


5616: 


5568 



126 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



^isccIlHtteattSi. 



EATABLE MUSHROOMS. 

Few persons in this country are aware of the 
number of species of fungi, or mush-rooms that 
are capable of being made useful as food, or for 
sauces, and of the excellent qualities that many 
of them present. One or two species, gathered 
with much apprehension, and frowned upon by 
most persons, exhaust the stock of availables in 
this direction, while our more fortunate or more 
learned foreign brethren have at their command 
varieties that serve to replace nearly every kind 
of food, or at least aid in giving to them a piquant 
flavor. One species, known as " vegetable beef- 
steak," cut in slices, stewed for half an hour, and 
th'en fried with gravy, would be readily mistaken, 
•with the eyes shut, for the article the name of 
which it bears. The puff-balls sliced, fried, with 
egg and a few bread crumbs and fine herbs, pre- 
sent a no distant resemblance to very fine ome- 
lette. 

Another species, called the " fairy ring mush- 
room," which is found on every grass plat in' 
Europe, when broiled, on toast and before the 
fire under a cover, makes a dish " fit to set before 
the king." Another furnishes an excellent sub- 
stitute for sweet-breads. The English cookery 
books abound in recipes for dressing these differ- 
ent forms of fungi, in every imaginable way, no 
less than a hundred recipes being found in some 
of them. It is, of course, well to be careful in 
regard to the use of musln-ooms in this country, 
and where there is any reasonable doubt it is best 
to abstain from them altogether. 

A gentleman, however, residing in North Car- 
olina, the highest American authority on this 
family (Dr. Curtis), it is understood, has been for 
some time engaged in preparing an illustrated 
work upon the mushrooms, in which, by means 
of figures and general descriptions, he expects to 
be able to point out readily what species may be 
eaten and what must be avoided, so as to render 
it entirely practicable with such a guide to make 
a suitable selection from those that present them- 
selves to notice in our daily walks. It is said to 
be perfectly possible by means of simple and in- 
telligible instructions to distinguish between the 
noxious and useful kinds, though we shall not at- 
tempt here to give the rules which are published 
on this subject, for fear of leatling some of our 
readers into difficulty. 

We are assm-ed that all the varieties that are 
known to the French and English cooks are found 
in this comitry, and som6 species of finer quali- 



ties than any that are met with abroad. The total 
number of species that are not merely eatable, 
but actually desirable, as articles of food, amounts, 
we believe, to as many as sixty ; and it is said 
that the proportion of the poisonous kinds to 
those that are wholesome, is not greater than 
exists between the wild fruits and berries that are 
ordinarily met with. 

^ ^ » 

Application of Marl to Fruit Trees. 
Marl as a fertilizer has never been used to any 
great extent until within a few years. But that 
it supplies a large quantity of potash to growing 
plants has been abundantly proven by the ex- 
perience and testimony of those who have used 
it for any length of time. It has also proved it- 
self an excellent fertilizer on light soil, being 
especially adapted to promoting the growth of 
fruit trees, grape vines, etc. The larger the 
quantity applied the better will be the results ; 
consequently, no one need fear applying too much 
of it, thereby causing injury to the tree, vine, or 
crop, as the case may be. 

The best way in which marl may be applied to 
trees, vines, etc., with a certainty of good results 
following its use, is first to spread it about evenly 
on the ground, and then work it in. This can be 
effected quicker and more thoroughly by using a 
spade than any other tool. In thus working in 
the marl we would advise keeping it as near the 
surface as possible ; as by so doing the alternate 
freezing and thawing of winter will render more 
available those properties contained in the marl 
which are most required by growing trees, plants, 
or vines. 

Probably some of our readers have noticed 
that when large quantities of ashes are applied 
to the soil about fruit trees, the fruit is larger, 
more abundant, and of a finer quality. The 
cause of this is that the soil originally lacked a I 
sufficient quantity of potash, the presence of! 
which is very essential ; and by using marl this 
difficulty is obviated. > 

For the purpose of promoting the growth of 
winter wheat the application of marl has proved 
highly advantageous and profitable. It should 
be applied to the growing wheat as soon sts the 
surface of the ground is frozen sufficiently hard 
enough to bear a loaded wagon and team. 

Marl abounds in Xew Jersey, of a superior 
quality ; and is being used by farmers of that 
State and Pennsylvania with success. — Rural 
American. 

For six years Mr.R. W. Buel, of Franklin, X. 
Y., was successful in raising onions with no other 
manm-e than leached ashes, of which he has ap- 
plied about a bushel to the square rod. Last year 
his crop failed, as he was troubled by the maggot. 



THE LANCASTEE FARMEK. 



127 



Leaks of the Farm.— To feed nubbins of 
corn or dry ground-feed to cattle ; because it is 
not properly chewed, as intended by nature, and 
as is necessary to be entirely digested. 

To feed cattle at stacks, because they waste 
more than they eat. 

To allow cattle to roam at will all over the 
country or the farm ; because they tramble and in- 
jure valuable grass-lands or grain-crops. Keep 
them at home, soil them, and have warm stables ; 
you will save the manure and economize feed. 

To allow hay to lie late before evening. It is 
better to neglect yoiu- corn lo secure j'our hay 
early. 

To burn valuable timber for fuel, at present 
prices of timber. 

To let untilled land lie waste and unused when it 
would be quite easy to devote it to the production 
of trees for the purpose of building. The wood- 
fuel any farmer uses each winter would be worth 
in money sufficient to purchase coal for two 
years. 

To let cattle out of the stable on cold days 
after eating dry feed, and be sent off to fill them- 
selves with ice-water and get a chill, or stand 
huddled up in some fence-corner the greater part 
of the day. 

To cultivate any more land than can be thor- 
oughly taken care of and well maniu-ed. 

If every farmer will look long and hard enough, 
he will find more leaks than he is aware of. 



Trees and Rain. — A sugar grower, in the 
Sandwich Islands, having suffered seriously from 
drought, resolved, the San Francisco Bulletin says 
to plant trees on the mountains adjoining his 
plantation. Fifty thousand forest trees were set 
out in 18G0, and at this time no inconvenience is 
experienced from lack of rain water. Cisterns 
holding thirty thousand barrels of water have 
been constructed, and in this way, though there 
are no streams for irrigation, destructive droughts 
are insured against. A flourishing sugar planta. 
tion has been formed on a dry plain, which, with- 
out this expedient, would have been useless. 

Hov about the mushrooms ? We have a recol- 
lection of eating them some years ago, and thought 
they were excellent. So we thought we, would 
try to cultivate the plants ; we purchased a couple 
of cakes called mushroom spawn, about the size 
of a brick, and then prepared the bed and planted 
it according to the directions on the label ; but 
we failed in our experiments, for they did not 
come up. Now I suppose there was something 
lacking in the management. "Who will give us 
the necessary information how to raise the plants 
— and oblisre J. B. E. 



Average Age of Animals.— The average 
age of cats is 15 years ; of squirrels and hares, 7 
or 8 years ; of rabbits, 7 ; a bear rarely exceeds 
20 years ; a wolf, 20 ; a fox, 14 to 16 ; lions are 
long-lived, the one known by the name of Pompey 
living to the age of 70 years ; elephants have 
been known, it is asserted, to live to the great 
age of 400 years. When Alexander the Great 
had conquered Porus, King of India, he took a 
great elephant which had fought very valiently 
for the king, and named him Ajax, dedicated him 
to the sun, and let him go with this inscription: 
" Alexander, the son of Jupiter, dedicated Ajax 
to the sun." The elephant was found with this 
inscription 350 years after. Pigs have been 
known to live to the age of 20, and the rhinoceros 
to 20 ; a horse has been known to live to the age 
of 62, but average 25 to 30 ; camels sometimes 
live to the age of 100 ; stags are very long-lived ; 
sheep seldom exceed the age of 10 ; cows live 
about 15 years, and are then killed for beef. 
Cuvier considers it probable that whales some- 
times live 1,000 years; the dolphin and porpoise 
attain the age of 30 ; an eagle died at Vienna at 
the age of 104 ; ravens frequently reach the age 
of 100 -, swans have been known to live 300 years. 
Mr. Malerton has the skeleton of a SAvan that at- 
tained the age of 100 years. Pelicans are long- 
lived. A tortoise has been known to live 107 
years. 

Pltjms.— A correspondent of the Rural World 
thinks plums can be raised successfully if the 
fruit grower will only plant an abundance of 
trees instead of a very few. 

"There is a secret about plum raising. We 
have discovered it in travelling over the country. 
We never visited a large plum orchard in our life 
that we did not find plenty of the fruit ; and we 
never visited any place with eight or ten trees 
and found a good crop of this fruit. Now these 
facts set u« to thinking, and the result of our 
thoughts is this : The secret connected with plum 
raising is simply to plant plenty of trees, so as 
give fruit to the curculio and to yourself also. If 
you will plant fifty, or a hundred, or two hun- 
dred trees, you will have enough for everybody. 
Every such orchard that we ever visited had 
plenty of ripe fruit. Some even complained that 
the curculio did not thin out the fruit enough— 
that the trees were overloaded. 

" So we say to our readers, if you want plums 
at all, plant fifty or one hundred trees; then you 
will be sure to have all the fruit you want. The 
prices vary from three to ten dollars a bushel, 
and it is one of the most profitable crops raised." 



128 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



Staking Fruit Trees.— We have for years 
practiced but one method of supporting j^oung 
fruit trees, and like the way so well we shall con- 
tinue it until we see something better than has 
yet come to our notice. We drive a stake which 
we usually make of a strip of board or plank, 
strong enough to support the tree, but elastic, to 
allow it considerable motion, about six or eight 
inches from the tree, on the south or west side , 
and fasten the tree to it by a strip of waste 
leather, forming a single loop, so as to allow the 
tree to move a little in the wind, fastening the 
ends of the leather on the top of the stake by a 
shingle nail. By this method the young tree has 
sufficient 'play to induce it to throw down its roots, 
which it will very soon, and stand erect without 
any support. This never mars or prevents the 
growth of the tree by stopping the circulation of 
the sap, and is the cheapest manner a tree can be 
stayed up. During the summer months it is well 
to cast off this leather, letting the tree depend 

upon its own energies. — N. E. Homestead. 
i^ — » 

Clouds as Indications of the Weather^ 
— Soft-looking or delicate clouds foretell fine 
weather, with moderate or light breezes ; hardr 
edged, oily-looking clouds, wind. A dark, gloomy 
blue sky is windy ; but a light, bright blue sky 
indicates fine weather. Generally the softer 
clouds look the less wind, but perhaps more rain 
may be expected ; and the harder, more " greasy,'' 
rolled, tufted, or rugged, the stronger the coming 
wind will prove. 'Also, a bright yellow sky at 
sunset presages wind ; a pale yellow, wet ; and a 
greenish, sickly-looking color, wind and rain. 
Thus, by a prevalence of red, yellow, or other 
tints, the coming weather may be foretold very 
nearly; indeed, if aided by instruments, almost 
exactly. Small, inky-looking clouds foretell rain; 
light scud clouds, driving across heavy masses, 
show wind and rain ; but if alone, may indicate 
wind only. 

^ » » ■ — 

The Ohio Farmer is responsible for the follow- 
ing: 

Large horses are most admired by farmers ; but 
farmers are most admired ^h.o pony up. 

Prosperity is generally based upon knowledge 
and industry ; the swine will always get most that 
nose most. 

Farmers are like fowls ; neither will get full 
crops without industry. 

Because a man who attends a flock of sheep is 
a shepherd, makes it no reason that a man who 
keeps cows should be a cow-ard. 

We like to see a fanner increase the growth of 
useful plants and shrubs around his home, but we 
do not like to see him use rails, poles, and boards 
to prop-a-gate with. 



Scraping and Washing Trees. — We con- 
sider early winter to be the best time for scrap- 
ing and washing the trunks of trees. It is well 
known to all observing fruit-growers that the 
loose bark of trees is the winter-quarters of my- 
riads of insects ; where they securely remain 
until the ensuing spring, when the warm, genial 
weather invites them to begin their destructive 
operations for the season. We have found a 
narrow saw, rather fine-toothed, to be an excel- 
lent tool in rasping off the superfluous bark. It 
accomplishes it more uniformly than a hoe, 
trowel, or other scraper. A trowel, or a short 
handled hoe, however, is very good when the 
other may not be possessed. After the bark is 
removed, the tn;nks should be washed thoroughly 
with a preparation of whale-oil soap and water, 
say in proportion of a pound of the soap to four 
gallons of water. It can be applied to large 
trees with a hickory broom or a stiff whitewash 
brush, and to small trees, especially dwarfs, with 
the hand scrub-brush. Sickly trees, which can at 
this season be easily detected by being covered 
with a'species of fungi — or perhaps more prop- 
erly a peculiar insectiverous deposit— should be 
scrubbed so as to completely remove this. The 
mixtm-e will of itself benefit the tree, while the 
removal from the stem of all extraneous and in- 
jurious substances will give it new health and 
vigor the ensuing season— in some instances to 
a sm-prising extent. When whale-oil soap is not 
obtainable, ley may be used : but it should not be 
very strong, or it might be injurious to the roots 
of the tree, if applied plentifully and the tree 
SDiSilL—Germantown Telegraph. 



Soot a Powerful Fertilizer.— Every farm- 
er's family can find good use for the soot which 
is usually so abundant in their stove-pipes and 
chimneys. Twelve quarts of water, well mixed 
with soot, will make a powerful liquid manure, 
which will improve the growth of flowers, garden 
vegetables, or root crops. In either a liquid or 
solid state it makes an excellent top-dressing for 
crrass or cereal crojis. 



Potatoes— J. S. Smith, Roselle, Union 
County, IS". J., raised last year, from five acres, 
over $1,000 worth of potatoes, clear of all ex- 
penses. Katm-ally the ground was wet ; but it 
was underdrained and moderately manured the 
previous year, and there was no rot. The quali- 
ty was only second rate, but they netted $1.50 a 
bushel. 

From an acre and one-half of ground in Som- 
erset, Maryland Peninsula, there were raised 
this year one hundred barrels of Irish potatoes, 
which realized the sum of $400. 



World Mutual Life Insurance Company, 

NO. 160 BROADWAY, NEW YOKK. 



J. F. FRXSUAUFF^ General Agent^ 

No. 5 North. Queen Street, Lancaster, Pa. 

A. B. KEIDENBACH, Litiz, Lancaster County, Pa. 
SAMUEL L. YETTER, Elizabethtown, Lancaster County, Pa. 
J. M. GRAYBILL, Cplumbia, Lancaster County, Pa. 

JACOB BAUSMAN, President Farmers' National Bank. Maj. JAS. E. RICKSECKER, City Treasurer. 

CHRIS'N B. HERR, Pres't Lancaster Co. Nat'l Bank. N. ELLMAKER, Esq., Attorney. 

Messrs. BAIR & SHENK, Bankers. B. F. BAER, Esq., Attorney. 

Judge A. L. HAYES. Col. WM. L. BEAR, Prothonotary. J. F. LONG & SON, Druggists. 

No farmer is Justified in exposing Jiis creditors^ his wife, or his children, to the loss 
certain to occur to them upon his death, without a Life Insurance Policy for their 
benefit, and in no Company can this he done with more safety a%id tinder better tnan- 
agement than in the above. See one of their Agents and have him explain all about it. 

200. $200. 

HA-R^^EST OF 1869. 



A COMBINED SELF-RAKING REAPER AND MOWER. 



After our success in the Harvest of 18G8, in pleasing our customers with a neat, light, durable, and a com- 
plete Combined Harvester, we again come into the market for the Harvest of 1869 with our VALLEY CHIEF, 
feeling a great confidence in its -superiority. 

We offer this machine still at the low price of S200, and when a farmer is ofl'ered a first-class Mower and 
Self-Raking Reaper Combined at^ this price, it is well for him to examine into the merits of the offer. As a 
Mower, it has been tried in the worst kinds of heavy meadow grass and lodged clover and has gone through 
it triumphantly, and wc call on our hundreds of customers in Lancaster county and elsewhere to speak a good 
word for the Marsh Self-Rake. We claim that this Self-Rake in heavy tangled grain or lodged oats is the most 
simple and efficient one ever invented. It is not a new thing, but has been most severely tested all over the 
United States, as well as in England and France. We think no other one in the market can fairly compete 
with it. See what the report of the great National Reaper trial held at Auburn, New York, by the New 
York Agricultural Society, says on page 41 and 42 : It performed better than was expected of any Self-Rake, 
as it raked off heavy,- tangled, wet grain. And in their language. Reapers are not built for so severe a test ; 
they gave it the highest mark for perfect work. 

The VALLEY CHIEF is a simple two-wheeled machine, having side delivery which throws the. grain en- 
tirely out of the way of the team for the next round. It has a rear cut, a lloating finger bar, .flift.ltuards or 
fingers are made of the best wrought iron, faced with steel. " The height of the cut can be altered with ease 
while in motion, thus enabling one to pass obstructions or cut long or short stubble and thiBi ^"('liQl^ ?^a?hin.Q .is 
built with an eye to convenience, simplici/i/ and diirabilit)/. This Machine is built in Lancaster county, bne^ of 
the heaviest grass and wheat growing districts in the United States, and we hfkve had ev^ry pppo|rty.mty 
of knowing what is wanted. In this machine we have a combination of a complete. Mower ^ with, a first-claims 
Self-Raking Reaper, thus giving our customers a simple, strong and hg,ndy 6iaclitne which two horses caii 
draw with ease. ' ' ' ' • ' ' .1 • , ^ 

Please call and see this machine at our manufactory, in Mount Joy, Laiicaat^r cdujity. Pa., or on iD. Bnri&- 
holder. Agent, at Mrs. Neher's Saloon, Southwest corner of Centre SquariP, Lqncast^r, P^., pr at Yundta C,orx^ 
Exchange Hoteh 3£AK:^l£, ^|Gr;p,|:i;^ ^,^<;^P ,^, ,.,,,^ 



Lancaster," June 25th, 1868, 
Editors Express : Dr. 'Wm. M. Whiteside, the enterpris- 
ing Dentist, has purchased from me a large stock of teeth and 
all the fixtures, the instruments formerly belonging to me, and 
also those used by my father. Dr. Parry, in his practice. In 
the purchase, the doctor has provided himself with some of 
the most valuable and expensive instruments used in dental 
practice, and has beyond doubt one of the best and largest 
collections of teeth and instruments in the State. Persons 
visiting the commodious oflices of Dr. Whiteside, cannot fail 
to.be fully accommodated. The Doctor loses no opportunity 
of furnishing himself with every late scientific improvement 
in his line of business. li. B. PARRY. 



3QBHTIST5 

Office and Residence, 

EAST KING STREET, 

Next door to the Court House, over Fahnestock's Dry 
Goods Store, 

LANCASTER, PENNA. 

Teeth T^'y'>rc^"ied\v'dliout pain by the use of 

; ■">-?/, g Oxide) Gas. 



BOOE.S Al^i.-SxiTIONERY. 



A Full assortment of 

SCHOOL, MTSCELTjANEOUS, AGRI- 
CULTURAL AND HORTI- 
CULTURAL BOOKS, 

A large stock of 

STA.TIOIsrERY, 

WHICH WILL BE SOLD AT 

GREATLY REDUCED PRICES, 

On account of removal April 1st, 1869, to 

No. 52 North Queen Street, 

(KEAMP'S BUILDIKG) 

Four Doors above Orange Street. 

Subscriptions received for all the Agricultural and 
Horticultural Magazines. 

J. H. SHEAFFER'S 

Cheap Cash Book Store, No. 52 N. Queen 
Street, LANCASTER, PA. 

Dr. N. B. BRIBBINE, 

No. 93 EAST KING STREET, Above Lime. 

The Doctor jiays special attention to all old obstinate 
tliseases, such as Consumption, Liver Complaint, Dys- 
pepsia, Rheumatism, all diseases of the Heart, Head, 
Throat, Lungs, Stomach, Bowels, Kidneys, Nervous 
Debility, General Debility, &c. The doctor makes ex- 
aminations of the Urine. Consultation Free. 



S. WELCHENS, D. D. S., | 

SURGEON DENTIST, 

Office and Residence^ 

HOWELL'S BUILDING, No. 65J NORTH QUEEN ST., 

Half a square south of the B. H. Depot. 

Twenty Years' Successful Practice in Lancaster 

The Latest improvements in INSTRUMENTS 
and TEETH and the very best material, Warranted 
in all operations. 

TEETH EXTRACTED WITHOUT PAIN with 
the use of Nitrous Oxide Gas, Ether, or the Ether 
Spray. 

TERMS, as low as any in the city, when low priced 
material and low priced work are used. 

But for FIRST-CLASS OPERATIONS, with ap- 
pliances and material to correspond, prices range 
higher. 

S. WELCHENS, D. D. S. 



SUCCESSOR TO 

WENTZ BROTHERS, 

SiaN OF THE BEE HIVE, 

No. 5 EAST KING STREET, LANCASTER, PENN'A., 

DEALER IN 

lOREICJ AND BQKSTIC DRY GOODS, 

Carpets, Oil Clotlis, Window Shades. 

SPECIAL ATTENTION PAID TO 

L^i)jii* ©Kiis ©©©©i 

Shawls and Embroideries, Cloths and Cassimeres, 

Handkerchiefs, Glov.es and Hosiery, 

Best Kid Gloves. 

The Choicest of the Market, and at the Lowest Possible 
Prices. 

REMEMBER THE PLACE TO BUY. 

THOS. J. WENTZ, 

Bee Hive Store, No. 5 E. King St. 



DEALER IN" 



FOREIGN AND AMERICAN WATCHES, 

IN GOLD AND SILVER CASES, 

CLOCKS OF EVERY DESCRIPTION, 

Jewelry in all its Shapes and Forms, 

SILVER WARE, designed for Bridal Presents ; 

BRACKETS, TOILET SETS, VASES, SPECTACLES, 

GOLD PENS, &c., &c., &c. 

No. lOx West King Street, opposite the Cross Keys Hotel 

LANCASTER, PA. 



Stoves ! 
ISousekeepers' Furmshiuj? Goods ! 



The undersigned at their old established stand in 
WEST KINQ STREET, 

ar3 constantly receiving fresh supplies to their exten- 
sive Stock, from the best manufactories in this Coun- 
try and Europe, and invite the attention of Merchants 
and Consumers, feeling that we can do as well as any 
house in Philadelphia. 

Persons commencing Housekeeping will find the 

The Largest and Best Selected Lot of 

at Manufacturers' Prices. Also, every other article 
kept in a first-class Hardware Store. 

A FULL STOCK OF 

Sadlers', Coachmakers' and Blacksmiths' Tools 
and Materials. 

BUILDERS will find a full supply of every thing 
suited to their wants at LOWEST FIGURES. 

CLOVER, TIMOTHY AND FLAX SEED, 

BOUGHT AND SOLD. 

STEINMAN & CO. 



r.E. GEUGER. 



J. P. GRUGER. 



GEUGER BROTHEES, 

MARBLE MASONS, 

14 South dueen St., Lancaster, Pa., 

Have always on hand or will furnish to order at 

SHORT NOTICE, 



lOMBS, 



ONUMENTS, 

GRAVESTONES, 



&c., &c. 

We pay particular and personal attention both to the 
SELECTION OF THE MATERIAL and the EXECU- 
TION OF OUR WORK, and our facilities now are such 
that we can guarantee our customers the very best 
work, at the same, and often Lower Prices, than are- 
usually paid elsewhere for inferior productions. 



Lettering 



in 



English 



and 



German, 

ELEGANTLY AND CORRECTLY DONE. 

W© earnestly invite our country friends to give us -b 
call. 



SHULTZ & BRO. 

Manufacturers, AVholesale and Retail Dealers in 

Caps and Fu.rs, 

LADIES' FANCY FURS, 

HOODS, 

TRIMMED GLOVES AND MITTS, 
Gents' Gloves, Capes and Collars, 

Fancy Robes, 
BL^ISTKETS, &C. 

20 North Queen Street, 
LANCASTER, PA. 



AMERICAN WATCHES 




&BROm 



JVo:^^ West King Street, 

Next Door Below Coopek's Hotel, 
DEALEItS IN 



A^Ti^TOHES, 



IL¥ 



im 



® MS 



J E -VvT- E L I?. -S" . 

CLOCKS AND SPECTACLES. 



yii 



THE UNDERSIGNED REPRESENTS THE 



AND ALSO THE 

Life M MM taraace Coipaiiy, 

Both stable and well established companies, the former 
having a capital of $1000,000, and the latter $500,- 
000. 

The plan of issuing policies by the Brooklyn Life 
Insurance Company presents a feature altogether 
unique, and one which removes one of the strongest 
objection, hitherto urged against the plan of Life Insur- 
ance ; and this is what is termed the Surrender Value 
Plan. Each and every Policy issued in the name of 
this Company bears an endorsement, stating the exact 
worth of the policy in Cash, at any time after two or 
more annual premiums have been paid. 

Insurance can also be effected in the North American 
Life Insurance Company, and at lower rates, it is be- 
lieved, than in any other Company in the United States. 

All desirous of securing insurance upon their lives 
can do so by calling upon the undersigned. 

ALLEN GUTHRIE, Agt., 

East Leraon. Street, 

LANCASTER, PA. 



', in Miir>i«>« ^ ^w., 
BANKERS, 

LANCASTER, PENN'A, 

Dealers in United States Bonds and all 
kinds of Railroad Stock and State Loans. 

Buy and Sell Gold, Silver, and United 
States Coupons. 

Sell Bills of Exchange on Europe and Passage 
Certificates. 

Receive Money on Deposit and pay Interest as 
follows : 

1 month, 4 per cent., 6 months, 5 per cent. 

3 «' 4i " 12 " 5i 

FOR SALE AT 

Chas. A. Heinltsli's Drug Store, 13 E. King St., 

LANCASTER, PENNA., 

German Cattle Powders! 

The best Powder made for the Cure and Prevention of Dis- 
eases to which Oxen, Milk Cows, Sheep and Hogs, are subject. 
For Stock Cattle preparing for market, a table spoonful in 
their feed once or twice a week, improves their condition by 
strengthening their digestive organs, and creates solid tiesh 
and fat. 

GERMAN VEGETABLE OR UNRIVALLED CONDI- 
TION POWDERS 
For preserving Horses in good health, removing all Diseases 
of the Skin, giving a Smooth and Glossy appearance, also a 
sure remedy for Distemper, Hidebound, Loss of Appetite, &c. 

PERSIAN INSECT POWDER. 
A perfectly safe, quick and easily applied destroyer of Lice 
on Cattle, Fleas, Bedbugs, &c. 

PYROLIGNEOUS ACID. 
A substitute for curing Beef, Pork, Hams, Tongues, Smoked 
Sausages, Fish, &c., without the danger and trouble of smok- 
ing, imparting a rlcli flavor and color. 



CHARLES T. GOULD, 

CHAIR MANUFACTURER, 

No. 37 North Queen St., Lancaster, 

(NEXT DOOR TO SHOBER'S HOTEL,) 

Old Chairs Re-painted and Repaired. 
GHRISTBAN WIDMYER, 

S. E. Cor. East Kin^ & Duke Sts., Lancaster. 

Cabinet Work of every description and a full 

assortment of Chairs constantly on hand. 
U^^All Warranted as Represented, -^n 

JACOB ROTHARMEL, 

PREMIUM 



DEALER IN 

^©mls ami f aaef Artloles 

No. 9i North Queen Street, Lancaster, Pa. 

GRUGER & RSCE, 

DRUGGISTS & APOTHECARIES, 

No, 13 WEST KING STREET, 

NEXT DOOR TO STEINMAN'S HAKDWAKE STORE, 

Lancaster, Pa, 

HaTe always on hand Pure, Reliable Drugs and Medi- 
cines, Chemicals, Spices, Perfumery and Toilet 
Articles. Also Flavoring Extracts of 
their own Manufacture, and of 
unsurpassed quality. 

Sole Agents for HASsoif's Compound Syrup of Tar, the 
best Cough Medichie in the market. We have also on hand ir 
season an assortment of Landreth's Warranted Garden Seeds. 

The public can rely upon always getting what thei: 
ASK for and no substitutes. 



GEO. F. ROTH, 

UNDERTAKER, 

Corner South Queen and Vine Streets, 
LANCASTER, PA. 

Coffins of all sizes always on hand, and furnished ai 
Shortest Notice. 



THE 



Lancaster Inquirer 
FilTI! 




OFFERS &EEATER IMCEMENTS 

Executed in the Best Style of Printing 
than any other office in the State. 



I 




I IJII 



A ROUND, FULL RICH TONET' 



FLUTO, 

MELODIA, 

BASSOON, 

BOURDON, 

MANUEL-BASS, 

EOLEON-FORTE, 

KNEE-TREMOLO. 




PICCOLO, 

GAMBU, 

CLARIONET, 

EOLEON, 

OCTAVES, 

PICCOLO-FORTE, 

KNEE-SWELL. 



"THE TEI^IPXjE OZRCB-J^IsT" 

Is ackiK.wlPtlKPd liv all who have cxainhied it to l,e the most perfect Heed instrument ever introduced to the imbhc, having 
been a\vui(h"d the FIRST I'UIZK, over all eomiiititois, "for quality of tone and promiitness of action. IX OUm- 

BINES ALL RECENT IMPROVEMENTS, a^J I'V"- 1;".^^''^«' ^'^'^^^^l^^^.'^'^^'^*' ''*?''' -"j^^jl^w*^^^^ 
TO THE Toicii, 8uriia.s.ses all others in its close resemblance to the Pipe Organ. Its Construction IS entirely WeW, 
and dirterent from all other Reed Organs now in use, surpassing all in simplicity and equal to any in durability, lue eaiior 
of the "Tk.mvi-e OF Mrsic" says : •* * • ■*«*;„<» 

"It is a most magnificent instrument, and has many tine qualities to recommend it ; among others, its stops, imitating 
most suecessfullv luaiiv of the most useful in the pipe organ. The flute, the Piccolo, bassoon, clarionet and various others, 
are such perfiit'imitatioiis that it would be difficult to distinguish them from the genuine at a little distance Irom the per- 
former. We have for a long time seen the necessitv for a reed organ that combined the qualities which we believe are con- 
tained in this ; and we inviti- tlu- severest criticism, not only as to its superior excellence as a musical instrument, but also 
<is to its elegant finish, making it the m<ist beautiful parlor instrument extant." , ^, . . ^ 

All tlie various styles for Cliurcli, Hall and Parlor, furnished to order, at manufacturers' prices, by their Agent, 

J. M. W. GEIST, 

No. 70 East King St., Lancaster, Fa., 
where tlie Organ may be seen, and details as. to styles and prices obtained. 



STANDARD 

PHATE OF LIME, 

THE GREAT FERTILIZER OF ALL CROPS, 

MANUFACTTRED FROM BONES, DISSOLVED IN jSULPHURIH ACID. WARRANTED PERFECTLY 

FREE FROM ADULTERATION. 
Our new Circular containiiiL: much valuable iuforuiatiou, will bo furnished free on application to 

MILLER & SMITH, Sole Manufacturers & Proprietors, 
AGRICULTLTRAL CHEMICAL WORKS, 

OCBOO TNTO- e JSOTJltlX StlX »t,, REAI3IIVO, P A. 

'file Best Work! The Lowest Prices!! 

A. SCHINDlYr & BROTHER, 

(iildcis and Maiiuiaoturers of Loukiuii (Classes, (Maiitol, Pior Gl;^se.s. etc.,) aii.l Pictiir.' Frames of all kiiuls. 
Dealers in Cliromo EilhoKrapli.s, Sloel Eiiiiravings and >V^ator Color Paintings. n< ■ 

(iilt, Rosewood, and Walnut Frames W every description, and Square and Rustic, Room Moulduigs, Cornices, 
etc.. always on hand or made to order. 

Also,i;e-(iilding, repairing ai'd in.serting of Looking Cilasses, etc., etc. 



THE FLORENCE SEWING MACHINES. 

THE BEST MACHINE FOR FAMILY USE. 

SIMPLE AND EASY TO LEARN AND NOT LIABLE TO GET OUT OF ORDEU. 

Muko the L(K'k 



Capable of all varieties of sewing from the finest to the coarsest. 
Stiteh alike on both si(ies, and use the least threa 



No. 65 North Queen Street, LANCASTER, PA. 



REGISTER OF ^WILES. 

We arc autliorized to announce that 

DR. WILLIAM M. WHITESIDE, 

late Lieutenant of Company E, lOtli RegimeDt, first three months service, and 
Captain of Company I, 79th Kegiment Penna. Volunteers of Lancaster, is a 
candidate for REGISTER of Lancaster county, subject to tlie decision of tlie 
Republican votes at the ensuing Primary Election. 



REIGAET'S OLD WINE STOUE, 

ESTABLISH KD IN I7S5, 

No. 26 EAST KING ST., LANCASTER, PENNA. 

The ivputatioii of RKIGART'S OLD WINE AND BRAN- 
DIES I'oi- I'urity and excellent quality having been tally es- 
tablished lor nearly a century, \ve regret that the conduct of 
some unprincipled dealers, who re-llll with and sell from our 
labled bottles their deleterious compounds, compels us to adopt 
the annexed trade mark, which in future, for the protection 
of ourselves and our customers, will be found on all our old 
bottled Wines, Brandies, Gins, Whiskies, Bitters, cK:c. 



TRAOE 




MArav. 



And further, in order to protect the same, we herebv an- 
nounce our determination to prnsccutc to ihe.fuW'sl cj-h'rd of the. 
Act of Assembly, approveil, 31st day of March, 18G0, any per- 
son or persons who shall violate the ijrovisions of said act as 
applicable to our trade mark. 

2s[. 13 We respectfully request the public, when tliey have 

occasion or desire to use Old Brandy at the Hotels or Restau- 
rants to ask particularly for Reigart's Old Brandy. 
Very respectfully. &c., 

■ H. E. SLAYMAKER, Agt. 



^%^'' ^T.!aLi:,A. 3sr c A. s t e i?, ■ 
UNION SPOKE AND AGRICULTURAL WORKS 

CoT-ner of" \Vat*»r and Lf^iiion Sts., 
Formerly Shirk ^S: Rover's Warehouse, on the Penna. Rail- 
road, near Baumgardi'ier's coal yard, and 2 scjuarcs west from 
the Railroad Depot, where we manufacture the 

LATEST IMPROVED GRAIN DRILLS. 
Also, Grain Drills with Guano attached, warranted to give 
satisfaction. liockaivay J-'atm, Cider Mills, Crushers ami 
Graters, fo#horse or hand power, which will grind a bushel 
of apples per minute by horse power, ajid are warranted to do 
it well. We would also inform Coachmakers that we have put 
up in our shop two of the latest improved Spohe Jflsuhinex, 
or IjOthes, and are fully prepared to fuinish the best (luality 
of SPOKES of all kinds, sizes, dry or part dry, and warranted 
to be a good aifticle. We buy none but the best turned Spokes, 
and have now on hand 100,000 SPOHHS. Bent Full.oks 
of all sizes; Shafts and CAnuiAGE Poles, Bows, »&c., of • 
seasonable stulf, constantly on hand. 

As Mr. Keeler has been in this business 16 or 18 years, and 
hiving served an apprenticeship at Coachmaking, he knovs 
what the trade want in thai line. All kinds of Bent Stulf for 
sale or made to order— and Spokes of all .sizes turned for per- 
son'j'having them on hand in the rough. 

NoTiCK TO FAr.JiKK^ AND MECHANICS — Planing and Saw- 
iu" done at the shortest notice. We have one of the best and 
lat"est Improved Surface Planes for operation. 

KEELER & SHAEFFEU, Lancastei', Pa. 



ZAHM & JACKSON, 

BTo. 15 NORTH aUEEK ST., 

Beg leave to call the attention of persons in want of 
a good and reliable Time Keeper to their full assort- 
ment of 

AMERICAN AND SWISS WATCHES, 



In Gold and Silver Cases which will be sold at 
prices which will defy competition. Also, a full assort- 
ment of 

C -b O C K S . 



of all kinds, which we will warrijnt good and correct 
time-keepers. 



in great variety, such as Pius, Setts, Ear Kings, Finger 
Kings, Sleeve Kuttons, Chains, &c. 



SOLID SILVEH WARm, 

Manufactured exi)ressly for our sales and warranted coir 

PI.ATEI> WARE, 

From the best factories ami uavianled Ihe finest quality. 



Gold, Silver ami Steel Spectacles. IJair Jewetry 
Made to Order. 



Repairing Promplly Atlended to. 

ZAIIM & JACKSON 



LJ^DtTIDIS ac CO-, 





James Street, Lancaster, Pa., 

AKE PREPARED TO DO ALL KINDS OF 






BUILD LARGE AND SMALL ENGINES, 



*«j, 



MILL GE^EII^a, 

And all kind of Machine Work done at a first class Shop. 

Having recently removed to their new building, and provided themselves 
with a 



Adapted to the wants of their customers, they are prepared to execute all or- 
ders with neatness and dispatch, and on terms satisfactory to the customer. 
They would invite attention to their large foundry connected with their works, 
in which the best work is turned out. 

They also announce that they are now prepared to supply their 



TO ALL CUSTOMERS. 

This Machine requires Less Power, does More Work, and is considerable 
Cheaper than any other Separator now in the market. This Machine is now 
improved, well built, and does the best and most efficient class of work. 

Made to order on a new set of STANDARD DIES. 

Repairing of all kinds promply done at reasonable rates. 

Give us a call, and we will endeavor to please our patrons. 

FRANK LANDIS, 
EZRA F. LANDIS, 
JACOB LANDIS. 



Diller I Groff's Hardware Store, 

No. 8 East King Street, Lancaster City, Penna. 

DEALERS IN 

Foreign and Domestic Hard^v^are, 

Such as Building Material, Paints, Varnishes, Oils, Glass, Coach Trimmings, Stoves, 

Iron and Steel, &c., &c., &c. 

TIMOTHY AND CLOVER SEEDS OF THE BEST QUALITY. 



-'^" 










yg-gli-PO'. 



Klh^ 



No. 37 North Queen St., 




NEXT DOOR TO SHOBER'S HOTEL, LANCASTER, PA. 






li 



mm 






im. jkjIii iRyfy mm mm. j% pi 



g'CO 



{^.CJIJ 



€iif mil 






WAGON GEARS, WHIPS, BUFFALO ROBES, 

BLANKETS, TEDffiS, VALISES, CARPET BA&S, LADIES' & &ENTS' SATCHELS, 

Of all kinds constantly kept on hand or made to order. Repairing neatly done. 

Also, Agent for BAKER'S HOOF LINIMENT, the best article for Sore 
Hoofs in the country. 

J. M. WESTHAEFFER, 







.5 uiiiiiuiimiij iiiiiiyi uuuu^;^ w^v., 

44, Corner North Queen and Orange Streets, 
N; B. — Any Book ordered dan be sent by Mail to any address. 




TO BTJIXjIDEI?,S I 



PLASTIC SLATE!! 

The Greatest Roofing Material of the Age ! 

IS NOW OFFERED TO THE PEOPLE OF 

LANCASTER AND YORK COUNTIES, PA., AND CECIL COUNTY, 

WITH A PROMISE OF THE FOLLOWING ADVANTAGES: 

It is superior to other coverings for all kinds of buildings for these reasons : 

1. It is water, snow and air-proof from the beginning, and is as fire-proof as ordinary slate. (See testimo- 
nials New York Fire Insurance Companies.) 

2. It keeps buildings warmer in winter and does not make them hot in summer as ordinary slate does, and 
it can be, after the first year, whitewashed or painted any desired color so as to obviate all difficulty arising 
from its dark color. 

3. Being entirely water and fire-proof, it is invaluable as a covering for the sides of buildings and lining 
cisterns of whatever material they may be built ; stopping water out of cellars and dampness out of walls of 
houses, and .closing leaks between buildings. 

4. Adhering, as it does, with great firmness to tin and iron, it is useful for covering tin roofs andiron exposed 
to dampness or to the atmosphere, such as iron fences, cemetery- railings, &c. 

5. Buildings covered with PLASTIC SLATE do not need tin spouts at the eaves nor do the|valleys need tin 
to make them water proof. 

6. It is lighter than shingles, and is equally adapted to flat or steep roofs. 

7. The testimony of Wm. M'Gilvi-ay & Co., published herewith, shows that it is not only fire-proof exter- 
nally, but, is also a great hindrance to the spread of fire within. 

8. It is much cheaper in first-cost than any good roofing now in use, and when all attendant'expenses of the 
two roofs are estimated, costs only about half as much as the best slate, and it makes a better and closer roof. 

9. For the roofing of foundries and casting-houses of blast furnaces, where there are gfmes of a very high 
temperature, which injures and destroys other roofs, this material is improved and seems to produce a better 
roof, (see certificates of Messrs. Gi'ubb, Musselman & Watts, S. M. Brua and Wm. M'Gilvray.) 

10. If in process of years cracks or leaks occur in Plastic Slate Roofs, they are about as easily repaired, as 
they would be to white-wash, needing only a brush and the Mastic, but no expensive labor of mechanics. 

[17= The Pamphlet referred to in the foregoing notice can be had gratuitously, by calling at the Office of the 
Lancaster Inquiker or Examiner & Herald. 

Persons wishing to examine PLASTIC SLATE ROOFS, and thus verify for themselves the following 
statements, are invited to call and inspect Roofs put on for the following persons, among many others : 

Lancaster Thos. H. Burrowes, Stuart A. Wvlie, (Editor Lancaster Inquirer,) J. B. Schwartzwelder. Abraham Bitner 

Sr. Marietta— Henry Mus.selman & Sons., Myers and Ben.'son. Columbia— C. B. Gruhb. (Furnace,) Cohimbia Gas Co., 
Samuel Shock, Pres't., Susquehanna Iron Company, Wm. Patton, Pres't., Samuel W. Mirtiin. Mount Jot— Henry Kurtz, 
Dr. J. L. Ziegler, William Brady, -T. R. Hotter, (Editor Mt. Joy Herald). Christiana— E. G. Boomell, Wm. P. Brinton, 

elohn G. Fogle. Bart— William Whitson. Bkllemonte P. O Robert P. Mcllvaine. Paradise — Roberts. Mcllvaine, 

Wili,iamst6wn—T. Scott Wood.s. Ephrata— Dr. I. M. Groff. Gordonville— Samuel M. Brua. C.eenarvon Twr — 
Mrs. Fannv Mast. Upper Leacock Twr.- JIarks G. Menger, Christian R. Landis, .Facob R. Musser. Leacock Twp — Isaac 
Bair, Levi Zook. Wert F nul- Christian Bailer. Leaman Place- Heiirj' Leaman, I.^rael Rohror. Brunnerville— Aaron 
H. Brubaker. Sporting Hill— Emanuel Long. Litiz— H. H. T.shudy, David Bricker. Durlaoh P O., Clay Twp— Jonas 
Laber. Manheim Bok.— Nathan Werley, Samuel Ruhl. Penn Tup.- George Ruhl. West LAJjrKTEH— Aldus C. Herr. 
Enteepri.sk p. O., East Lampeter— Mark P. Cooper. Strasbueq Boe.— Hervey Brackbill. 

Orders for Roofing Should be sent to 

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LANCASTER CITY AND COUNTY 

FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, 



«>■ » 



CAPITAL, - - - ^Q00,000. 



Hon. Thos.E.Eranklin, Geo. K. Reed, Edw. Beown, 

Pres't, Treas., Sec'y. 

JohnL. Atlee, M. D., B. F. Shenk, Jacob Bousman, 
Henry Carpenter, M. D., F. Shroder, Jacob M. Frantz, 

Hon. A. E. Roberts, John C. Hager. 

Houses, Barns, Stores, Mil!s and Buildings of all kinds, with 
their contents* insured on Favorable terms. 

W. J. KAPROTH, Agent. 
Residence : 36 South Duke St., Lancaster. 

S. S- RATHVOi^i'S 



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AND GENTLEMEN'S FURNISHING STOKE, 



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THE 




YoL. I. LANCASTER, PA., SEPTEMBER, 1869. No. 9. 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY 

WYLIE & aRIEST, 

INQUIRER BUILDING, LANCASTER, PA., 
At ONE DOLLAR PER YEAR In Advance 

UNDER THE AUSPICES OP THE 

LANCAiSTER COVBTTY AOKICUIiTVRAIi AND 
HORTICVI.TIJRAI< l$OCI£TT. 



Publishing Committee. 

Dr. p. W. HlESTAND, 

H. K. Stoner, 
Jacob M. Frantz, 
Casper Hiller, 
Levi W. Grofp, 
Alexander Harris. 



Editorial Committee. 
,J. B. Garber, 
H. M. Englb, 
Levi S. Reist, 
W. L. Dipfendbrvkr, 

J. H. MUSSER, 

S. S. Bathvon. 



<^" All comniunications intended for the Farmer should be 
addressed to S. S. Rathvon and Alex. Harris, the resident 
members of the Editing and Publishing Committees. 

All advertisements, subscriptions and remittances, to 'Wylie 
& Griest, Printers. 



#SSiagS. 



VEGETABLE PHYSIOLOGY. 

THE INTERNAL GROWTH OF THE PLANT. 

"While settling the organs of the vegetable, 
their functions, and the various tissues which form 
the structure of the plant, our articles heretofore 
may have been somewhat prosy and uninteresting 
to the casual reader. "We have, from the start, 
felt this difficulty ; but it is almost impossible to 
point out those peculiarities and principles in an 
intelligent way, without holding the mind of the 
reader to some scientific rules. If we would study 
organic life, we must know what an organ is. 
We must also understand the import of a func- 
tion, and bear inmind those nice little distinctions 
in regard to the cells, the difference between cells 
which form the woody tissue, and those which 
form what is known as cellular tissue, or that 
which forms the bark of the tree, and parenchyma 
or body of the vegetable. These points we have 
been endeavoring to develop, and now taking it 
for granted that all our readers have understood 
them as we passed along, we will treat the bal- 
ance of our subject in a more practical manner. 

One of the things most common and familiar to 
us all is growth. We are rarely able to see things 



growing, and yet we know that there is growth 
and enlargement continually all around us. In a 
mechanical and artistic way, we can see things 
growing larger, as piece after piece, and particle 
after particle are attached to each other. But 
the growth of an organic fabric is fraught with 
mystery to those who do not take the trouble to 
examine its philosophy, or, in other words, to 
think much about it. 

Go into one of our cotton factories, and observe 
the manner in which the fabric there is made to 
grow, and you have an illustration, at once, of 
the whole mystery. Living tissue everywhere is 
formed upon the same principle, though by no 
means with the same appliances or the same con- 
ditions. You will there see tlireads stretched 
length-wise, which are called the warp^ and then 
other threads thrown cross-wise by the shuttle, 
which are called the woof. This inter-twining or 
inter-lapping process, whether natural or artifi- 
cial, is the whole story. 

Now, in applying those principles to the growth 
of vegetation, we must bear in mind the /ac^ that 
we previously learned, namely, that there are 
two kinds of cells, forming two distinct kinds of 
tissue, and the intertwining, as it were, of those 
cells with each other, constitutes the growth of 
the fabric. The woody tissue forming the warp^ 
and the cellular tissue the woof. 

The wisdom of this provision of nature will be 
apparent if "we reflect upon the nature and posi- 
tion of the plant. The woody fibre being of a 
hard and unyielding nature, is well adapted to 
the perpendicular aystem, and elongates as the 
growth advances. It does not at once harden 
into a dense substance, but as the cell-function 
proceeds, and the softer tissue is introduced, ver- 
tically, to help to increase the stem in length, 
and horizontally to increase it in diameter, there 
is a condensing process, in which both the tissues 
receive strength sufficient to sustain the upright 
position of the plant. 

In weaving a piece of carpet or cloth, we speak 
of the chain and the filling, and all seem to under- 
stand their uses in the construction of the fabric. 
That which builds up, and causes the enlarge- 
ment here, however, is a structure previously pre- 



130 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



pared fbr the purpose, and in its artistic use it 
creates the body, not by a living process, but by 
the layer of one strata upon the other in a me- 
chanical way, and with the use of an inert sub- 
stance. The fabric is thus made to grow, and the 
enlargement is perceptible, because it is mechani- 
cal. 

But, m the growth of nature, the conditions and 
appliances are of such a complicated character, 
and the execution is so gradual and complete, 
that the result alone is perceptible, whilst the pro- 
cess is hidden beneath a maze of impenetrable 
mystery. 

We can speculate upon the subject, and, by the 
application of the laws of science, we can picture 
to the imagination, even the process by which 
nature does her work. But the endowment which 
moves this magnificent machinery, as the weaver 
would his loom, can only be explained by the 
terms so familiar to us all, namely, vital energi/. 

We have compared this process of growth to 
the weaving of a fabric upon a loom. !N'ow, with 
this figure before us, let us follow up the process 
of enlargement in the organic structure, and we 
will be able, perhaps, to form an idea of its nature 
and character, whether we understand its vital 
principle or not. 

The cells which form the woody tissue, in con- 
sequence of the eventual hardness of their tex- 
ture, must be allowed to take the lead, and shoot 
forward and upward to constitute the skeleton, or 
warp, to be filled in by the cells which form the 
softer tissue, and eventuate in the parenchyma 
or fatty substance of the plant, the bark of the 
tree, and the green substance of the leaves. 
There is now an inter-twining or weaving opera- 
tion of those cells, as they elongate, and form one 
upon the other. But there is no steam-engine or 
hand-loom to propel the operation. It is life, 
and, instead of the filling being an inert substance, 
each little cell-bubble propagates a brood of 
others, and the vital principle which pervades 
the whole mass works np the fabric by virtue of 
the function those living cells perform. 

Those functions are appropriation and assimi- 
lation. The elements which are carried from one 
cell to the other by the absorption of the sap, as 
it comes up laden with the various compounds 
designed to nourish every species of tissue, are 
respectively appropriated to this cell for the 
formation of celhdar tissue, — to that cell, for the 
formation of wood tissue. 

This function of appropriation then being per- 
formed, digestion or assimilation must next fol- 
low, after which the tissue gradually hardens as 
the naUire and character of the plant may require 
This growth is governed by fixed laws, which 



confine the development to size and species, and 
it takes whatever direction the forces of vegeta- 
tion require, whether in the blade or grass, or the 
tree, which is almost a forest in itself. 

We have now two systems. The woody tissue 
just referred to, composing what is termed the 
" fibre or vertical system." And the cellular tis- 
sue forming the '■'■cellular system.'''' There are 
accordingly diversities in the internal structure 
of the various vegetable growths, arising from 
the different modes by which these two systems 
are imbedded within each other. 

" These diversities are reducible to two gen- 
eral plans, upon one or the other of which the 
stems of all Flowering Plants are constructed. 
Not only is the difference in structure quite 
striking, especially in all stems more than a year 
old, but it is manifested in the whole vegetation 
of the two kinds of plants, and indicates the divis- 
ion of . Phfenogamous plants into two great 
classes, recognizable by every eye ; which, in 
their fully developed forms, may be represented, 
one by the Oak and other trees of our climate ; 
the other by the Palm. " The difference be- 
tween the two, as to the structure of their stem, 
is briefly and simply this : In tlie first, the 
woody system is deposited in annual concentric 
layers between a central pith and an exterior 
bark, so that a cross-section presents a series 
of rings, or circles of wood, surrounding each 
other and a distinct pith,' and all sm-rounded 
by a separable bark. This is the plan not only 
of the Oak, but of all the trees and shrubs 
of the colder climates. In the second, the 
woody system is not deposited in layers, but con- 
sists of separate bundles or threads of woody 
fibre, running thrugh the cellular system with- 
out apparent order, and presenting on the 
cross-section a view of the divided ends of these 
threads in the form of dots, diffused through 
the whole, but with no distinct pith, and no bark 
which is at any time readily separable from the 
wood." The Cane or Rattan, the Bamboo, of the 
tropics, and the stalk of the Indian Corn, and 
Asparagus, of our climate, will present an idea 
of the latter. The former is technically termed 
" exogenous structures'^ and the latter, " endogen- 
ous structures;^'' or plainly rendered, outside- 
growers, and inside-growers. 

Kow the systems above referred to, are the 
same in both these structures ; but the mode of 
development varies with the character of the 
plant, and the peculiarities of climate. The " Ex- 
ogens^' in their conformation and general charac- 
teristics, are especially adapted to the changes 
of the colder climate, whilst the " Endogens'^ are 
incapable of withstanding such congealing blasts, 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



131 



but in texture and quality are rendered peculiar 
to the tropics. 

Now the beauty and wisdom by which these 
evolutions are carried forward in the vegetable 
kingdom, especially in the higher orders of this 
life, should commend the study of them to every 
one who makes their cultivation a pursuit. 

It is a poor compensation to the mind, to be 
able simply to propagate, and by applying the 
conditions of gro\vth to develop the plant ; even 
though you understand its habits, and can botan- 
ically call them by name, if the internal work- 
ings of this verdure and life which is scattered 
abroad upon the face of the earth, remains a 
sealed up mystery, and nothing can be seen or 
understood but results. 

Por the want of space we have condefised this 
subject into the smallest possible compass. The 
most beautiful provisions of nature in the inter- 
nal growth of the plant, are yet open before us. 

To trace the process by which the woody cells 
are transformed into tissue, and the manner in 
which the cellular tissue is made to develop the 
parenchyma, and their life, as kept up by the ck- 
culation, — the adaptation of the various forms of 
growth to the different climates, — the necessity 
of more woody tissue in one climate than in an- 
other, the Avaste of all of both the systems of 
which we have been speaking, are all subjects 
of unbounded interest. 

If, however, in our feeble efforts, we have been 
able but to direct attention to the subject, we will 
have accomplished something, which, so far as it 
goes, will be a compensation. 

Our next article will be upon the leaf, as an 
organ of vegetation. S. W. 



THE TEETH OF STOCK ANIMALS. 
No. II. 

The science of comparative anatomy has reached 
that stage of development in which it can be ap- 
plied to practical purposes, and be useful not only 
as a dry prosy theme for professional students, 
but to distinguish the habits and character of the 
animal, with but a single bone or tooth. And 
also, to enable us in some cases to tell the age 
by certain marks upon the teeth. This is espe- 
cially true in the case of the horse. 

It has long been the habit of those who pro. 
fess to be able to judge this noble animal, to look 
into his mouth for evidences of age, which do not 
show themselves in an outward way. The horse 
IS not, as a general rule, apt to show his age by 
external marks , such as f tiffness of the joints, and 
that peculiar condition of body which character- 
izes the decay of nature, and which gives unmis- 



takable evidence of the weight of years in every 
species of the animal kingdom, until he has 
passed his tenth year. Then all the marks of 
youth become obliterated, so far as the teeth are 
concerned, and those of age come apace, in every 
lineament and movement until his death. The 
horse rarely lives beyond thirty years. But the 
average lifetime of his species is scarcely more 
than half that time. 

We propose to give the number of the teeth of 
the horse, their marks, and the age of the animal 
at which those marks appear and disappear, and 
then, in the further treatment of ovur subject, to 
give some of his habits, as indicated by those or- 
gans. 

In his scientific classification, the horse belongs 
to thefamily solidungula, or single hoofed variety . 
He has forty teeth. There are twelve of each 
class, namely, twelve incisors or cutting teeth ; 
twelve bicuspids, or side teeth, and twelve mo- 
lars, or back grinding teeth, and four canine, or 
tusks, making forty in all. These are divided, 
three of each on either side, and in both jaws. 

The marks by which his age is known are found 
upon the incisors, and the canine or tusks. The 
cause of those marks and their disappearing at a 
certain age, will be given at another time. In 
this article we will confine ourselves to the time 
of coming and their duration, which of course will 
give the age to those who study the subject, and 
are expei't in determing their characteristics. 

The milk teeth of the colt begin to make their 
appearance when it is about fifteen days old, and 
they are replaced by the permanent teeth in the 
following order : At two years and a half the 
middle ones are replaced. At three and a half 
the next two follow, and at four and a half, the 
outermost or corner teeth. This of course takes 
place in both jaws at the same time, and is con- 
fined to the front or incisor teeth. The bicuspids 
and molars arc always permanent. The canine, 
or tusks, do not always make their appearance in 
the lower jaw, and are said never to be present 
in the female. They come, however, when at 
all, at three and a half years; and in the upper 
jaw at four. Those of the upper jaw always come^ 
whether in the male or female, and at four years 
of age. 

"The incisors are slightly curved, having long, 
subtrahcdral fangs, tapering to their extremity, 
and closely arranged in the segment of a circle. 
These teeth, says Mr. Owen, are distinguished 
from those of all other animals by the fold of 
enamel which penetrates the body of the crown 
from il? broad, flat summit, like the inverted fin- 
ger of a glove. This fold encloses a cavity, which 
presents the form of an island, when the teeth 



132 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



begin to be worn. This cavity is partly filled by 
cement, and partly by the discolored substances 
of the food, and is called the mark. This mark is 
usually obliterated about the sixth year, in the 
middle incisors, about the seventh year, in the 
second, and in the third incisors, or corner teeth, 
about the eight year, when the animal is no longer 
marked. They are longer disapearing in the up- 
per jaw than in the lower. 

The canine teeth remain pointed until six, and 
at ten years begin to peel away. 

Old horses have dark marks upon the surface 
of the incisor teeth, but they are more of the 
character of decay than those just referred to. 

S. W. 



J^pinilttival 



GSEEN MANURE. 

The growing and plowing down of some vege- 
table crop while it is yet green and living in order 
to benefit the soil, is what is termed yreen man- 
uring. This is a manner of adding fertility to the 
soil, which is no late discovery, having, as we 
learn from the ancient agricultural writers, Cato, 
Celsus, and Pliny, been practiced by the Romans 
in Italy in the earliest periods. Xenophon, the 
Grecian historian, general and philosopher, ad- 
vises his countrymen to make use of this species 
of manurial agency, and details the various herbs 
and grasses that are best to be sown and plowed 
down to add the greatest strength to the soil. In- 
deed it seems strange how this system of recu- 
perating an exhausted soil should ever have been 
abandoned as it was during the middle ages ; yet 
it, with all the other arts, lay, as it were, sub- 
merged by the tide of barbarian aggression and 
madieval indolence. With the dawn of learning 
that illumined the eastern world in the fifteenth 
century, the arts, like science and literature, 
again began to elevate their lowered forms, and 
with the setting in of the sixteenth century this 
system of fertilizing the soil began to be revived 
in Flanders the garden of Europe ; and green 
manuring as an agency in the restoration of an 
impoverished and exhausted soil, has from that 
period to the prfesent time been steadily practiced 
and pursued. In the country where the farmer 
can without difficulty raise regularly, year by 
year, his 32 bushels of wheat per acre, his 52 
bushels of oats, and his 350 bushels of potatoes, 
there green manuring as a means of restoring 
nutriment to exhausted lands is perfectly under- 
stood anid systematically practiced. 

The wonder is that the farmers of Lancaster 
county, who are sounded abroad as the best and 



most successful husbandmen of Pennsylvania, 
should be so slow in introducing a cheap and 
always at hand system of manuring, and which 
appears to have given such satisfactory results in 
other portions of the world. This manner of 
replenishing the treasury of the earth's bosom, 
discovered originally by a careful observation of 
the workings of nature, and by no means excogi- 
tated in the deluded brains of chimerical dreamers, 
is a system having the endorsement of the most 
skilled and scientific men that this or any other 
age can boast — one which claims in its favor 
the world-renowned names of Baron Liebig, Sir 
Humphrey Davy, and Prof. Voelcker — men 
whose experiments have done more perhaps for 
the advancement of agriculture as a science than 
those of any others who have ever devoted their 
time to the elucidation of its varied departments 
The philosophy of green manuring is based 
upon the fact that growing plants derive a large 
part of their nutrition from the atmosphere as 
well as from the soil in which they grow, and 
when the plants are turned beneath the soil and 
rot, they add to it all the fertilizing ingredients 
which were furnished them by the atmosphere, 
and as a consequence leave the soil so much the 
gainer by this process. Any weeds, grass, or 
vegetables whatsoever grown upon the ground 
and plowed under must add to the soil and render 
it richer than it was before. On this point I 
quote the language of the celebrated agricultm-al 
chemist. Sir Humphrey Davy : " All green succu- 
lent plants," says Davy, " contain saccharine or 
mucilaginous matter, with woody fibre, and readily 
ferment ; they cannot, therefore, if intended for 
manure, be used too soon after their death. When 
crops are to be used for enriching the soil, they 
should be plowed in if possible when in flower, or 
at the time the flower is begining to appear, for 
at that time they contain the largest quantity of 
easily soluble substances, and their leaves are 
most active in forming nutritive matter. Green 
crops, pond weeds, the parings of hedges or 
ditches, all kind of fresh vegetable matter require 
no preparation to tit them for manure. The 
decomposition slowly proceeds beneath the soil, 
the soluble matters are gradually dissolved, and 
the slight fermentation that goes on, checked tty 
the want of a free communication of air, tends to 
render the woody fibre soluble, without occasion- 
ing the rapid dissipation of elastic matter. When 
old pastures are broken up, and made arable, not 
only has the soil been enriched by the death and 
slow decay of the plants which have left 
soluble matters in the soil, but the roots and 
leaves of tlie grasses living at the time and occu- 
pying so large a part of the surface aflbrd sacchar- 



THE LANCASTER FAEMER. 



133 



ine, mucilaginous and extractive matters, which 
become immediately the food of the crop, and 
the gradual decomposition affords a supply for 
successive years." — Agricultural Chemistry, p. 280. 
It is believed that no crop with so little ex- 
pense would be better for green manuring than 
corn. Were farmers to plow their ground and 
sow it with corn, and when it had attained a con- 
siderable growth turn the crop under, a great 
benefit would be- derived therefrom. Years ago 
the writer of this remembers, when a boy, a 
farmer plowing and sowing with com about one 
acre of his field, (which he designed for wheat,) 
and at harvest time the result was manifestly in 
favor of the portion where the corn had been 
sown and plowed under. Farmers, however, 
generally seem to anticipate that the plowing 
down of such a crop should be as marked in its 
results as the application of a heavy coat of barn- 
yard manure. So much should hardly be expected. 
If a green manurial crop would do half so much 
benefit as an ordinary barn-yard manuring, the 
farmer should be satisfied, and this we think it 
would accomplish. And this system steadily and 
regularly pursued would soon enable farmers to 
bring their land into much better condition than 
they well otherwise can do. The cost would be 
but the expense of a couple of bushels of corn 
per acre, and the small labor of plowing and 
sowing the crop ; and this labor should not be 
estimated, for farmers often could do this when 
they had little else to perform. It is to be hoped 
some of the members of our Society will try this 
upon some of their ground, and report their re- 
sults to the Society. In a future article we may 
treat this subject further, and emmierate the 
different kinds of vegetables and grasses that are 
generally used for green manurial purposes. 

A. H. 



LANCASTER COUNTY TOBACCO. 

Lancaster county has become the largest tobac- 
co growing county in Pennsylvania. It may not 
be generally known what an immense amount of 
tobacco IS raised in the county, amounting to sev- 
eral million dollars worth. The heaviest crop 
fti raised in Manor township ; next comes West 
Hempfield, East Donegal, Conoy, East Hemp- 
field, Manheim, Lancaster and Conestoga; and 
more or less in most of the other townships. Tobac- 
co is very unequal in growth and size in dilerent 
localities ; in some places it has been cut already, 
while in others it is as yet very small, and will 
hardly make a good crop. The crop this season 
is not likely to come up in yield to that of former 
years. Some of the largest tobaceo at the pres- 



ent writing, Aug. 9th, is in the vicinity of Cat- 
fish, or Oregon, and Petersburg. Much of the 
tobacco seems to be more or less foxy, and will 
not likely recover to make a full crop. It may 
not be generally known that a company of tobac- 
co men, gentlemen from Connecticut, have 
erected a large tobacco warehouse in Mountville, 
for the trade. L. S. R. 



THE EARLY GOODRICH POTATO. 

I shall not make any preference of the early 
Goodrich or any other kind of potatoes, but leave 
them all to stand on their good or bad qualities. 
All potatoes seem to be a mere drug in the mar- 
ket at the present time. Most people prefer the 
Mercers to all others ; but they seem to be noth- 
ing again in some localities, and should a wet 
spell of weather fall in, many other varieties 
would commence to rot, as it is believed, in like 
manner. The Goodrich is one of the best vari- 
eties, as an early potato, and a good potato for 
summer and fall use. At this writing (August 7th) 
the tops of the Goodrich's are all dry, and are 
ready to be taken up, yielding well. The tops 
of the early Rose are not quite so dry as the 
Goodrich, but I have taken some of them up and 
they yield very well. If they be as good late in 
the season as at present, they may take the 
place of the Goodrich. The Mercers, Monitors, 
and White Peach Blows are green yet in the tops, 
as well as many oftier varieties in my neighbor- 
hood. Some potatoes will do very well in certain 
soils, and very bad in others. We ought, there- 
fore, to make experiments with different pota- 
toes in different soils, &c. L. S. R. 



CORN CULTURE. 

An excellent custom prevails in certain couu- 
tres in the Eastern States where life Agricultu- 
ral Societies exist, and one which would, I think, 
have an excellent effect in this section of country 
if it were introduced by our Society. The custom 
to which I refer is this : At a meeting of the So- 
ciety, a committee of three gentlemen is ap- 
pointed, whose duty it shall be not to report the 
names of poor and sloverlv farmers, and indiffer- 
ent cultivators of the soil, but to re ' names 
of those who have the best cult? lui.as, the 
best crops, whose stock is in the best condition, 
and whose buildings, lences and all else pertain- 
ing to the farm, are in good order and indicate 
thrift. 

In traveling through the county, I have observed 
how differently corn is planted and cultivated. 
Some plant too thick, and others do not keep the 
weeds down. I think were such a committee ap- 



134 



THE LANCASTEK FARMER. 



pointed in our county, they could not but report 
in favor of Samuel Binkley, of Millport, Warwick 
township, who has a field in corn containing six 
acres. It is checkered, only two stalks to the 
hill ; the ground between the stalks is clean of all 
weeds ; most of the stalks have two ears. It is 
what we might call thorough cultivation, and will 
make a very large yield from the acre. 

S. S. R. 



gottifttlturc. 



CANADA THISTLE. 

This much dreaded pest of the soil seems to 
continue to fix itself upon not a few farms all 
over the country, to the great annoyance of farm- 
ers generally. 

We are not prepared to give our readers a 
botanical description of it, nor do those who have 
it on their land, or fear getting it, care. What 
landholders most care, is, to prevent its getting a 
foothold on their land, or if already so, how to 
eradicate it, as it is one of the most formidable 
weeds known in this State. Every wide-awake 
farmer will therefore watch it, even at a distance, 
and hold himself prepared to meet the enemy at 
the threshold. 

The salutary law on our Statute Books, will, 
we trust, have the effect, not oftly to prevent its 
spread, but its ultimate eradication. To believe 
that it cannot be eradicated after it has become 
established, is equivalent to surrendering to an 
enemy without battl*^. It seems that too many 
have acted upon this theory herefore, which ac- 
counts for the extensive spread which it has al- 
ready made. The proverb " an ounce of preven- 
tion is better than a pound of cure," or even ten 
pounds, of course, is strongly applicable in this 
case ; but when once established, nothing but un- 
remitting vigilance will exterminate it. Our own 
success was by destroying the first plants, until 
no more made their appearance. Others who 
left it run until established in plots, have de- 
stroyed it by covering, it with lime, si: "^ - ';r '".tho: 
material that would prevent it from getting day- 
light. A farm in this county, which some years 
ago had become very foul with this weed, and 
sold for about half what it would otherwise have 
brought, was, by having the thistle continually 
hoed down for a few seasons, almost completely 
cleared of it, and is now one of the most valuable 
farms. 

As a preventive it is important to see that it is 
not brought upon the farm wfith seeds, hay, straw, 
manures, &c., and if: ccidcntally scattered, " nip 



it in the bud." It is believed that the seed has 
been carried hundreds of miles in the wool on 
sheeps backs. H. M. E. 



RAISING LOCUST TREES. 

The question is how to raise them so as to make 
it pay. I will here give a few observations, to 
show how some persons are making it pay, and 
you can proceed as seems proper : 

Observation 1st. E. W. says to me, "What do 
you think those few clusters ©f locust trees are 
worth which you see here ?" 

" Well," says I, " perhaps fifty dollars." (This 
was before I knew the value of locust,) 

Says he, "the post-maker says there will be 
three hundred dollars worth of posts." 

I looked surprised ; he thinks it pays. 

Observation 2d. I noticed a deep gully on H. 
L's farm, caused by an old road that used to run 
through there, but when it was changed to an- 
other place he planted it with locust, and now it 
has a splendid lot of locust fit for posts, only 
about twenty years old. Does it pay ? 

Observation 3d. C. H. had a few acres on his 
farm that was too rocky to farm to advantage. 
So he set it with locust, and still it was a good 
pasture for calves, &c. IN'owpal•^ of it has been 
cut for posts, I should say for the sak • of getting 
a thicker growth of sprouts ; and now what a wob- 
derful luxurious growth of sprouts are springing 
up. I have seen them cut down only a few years 
after they were planted so as to get more sprouts. 
It will pay in the end. 

Observation 4th. E. H. had considerable rough 
hill along the edge of Pequea, rocky banks, 
quarry holes, gullies, &c. Some years ago he 
planted it with locust, atid now there is plenty fit 
for posts to supply the farm, and it is likewise an 
ornament to the |fann and a good run for stock, 
&c. Little work and big pay if a person can 
raise their own plants. 

Observation 5th. H. B. always kept a little 
l^atch for a locust nursery, raised them from seeds, 
and whenever he set a new fence, if it was on a 
bank likely to crnmble or wear down through 
time, he would clean away the old fence, then 
plough and level ofi" a good position for fence and 
a row of locust. 

He pruned them severely before planting, and 
set them inside of the fence, and very few failed 
•to grow, and they did not fall or blow over by the 
soil wearing away from the roots, as I have often 
seen when they were just stuck on the out 
1 edge of the bank. He has also a fine row of lo- 
cust on each side' of his lane from the barn to the 
road, trimmed up in good style, so as not to inter- 
fere with anything. They are an ornament to 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



135 



his fanii, and at the same time makiug money 
fast for his children. Do you still ask, will it pay ? 

Observation Gth. M. P. set a new woma fence 
some years ago along the road, and planted locust 
in each angle, so as to form a straight row ; now 
they are pretty well grown, and the fence can't 
fall or blow over, and when it is worn out the 
trees will make posts enough to set a new fence 
and pay for rails and other expenses. He must 
think it pays, for he still plants on. We say to 
him, keep advancing, push on, for it is a good in- 
vestment. 

Observation 7th. P. B., when a boy, set three 
locust trees in front of the old farm-house yard at 
the roadside, (I suppose he did it for ornament, 
but he might have done worse,) nnd about tv.'cnty- 
five years afterwards he had them cut, aud what 
a splendid lot of posts they made for the yard and 
garden fence. They cost but little. Does it pay ? 

Observation 8th. H. R. set abeut half a mile of 
locust immediately after setting anew post fence 
on the south side of the road, running east and 
west. A noble plan, as it throws the shade 
nearly all in the road, a point that should be ob- 
served sometimes, so as to cause no harm by the 
shade. So far, so good. He sold his farm for a 
good price a few years after, and the present 
owner does not trim them ; now they are very 
bushy and the limbs are an obstruction in the 
road ; but if they were properly trimmed they 
would be an ornament and a benefit to the road, 
and certainly a good deal more valuable to the 
owner for posts, aud I am certain it would pay. 

Observation 9th. The Hon. J. S. does not plant 
very extensively, but what he has planted he 
keeps trimmed bystematically. You don't see a 
great mass of bushy limbs all along the trunk of 
the trees. He uses the ladder occasionally, 
whacking off limbs, &c., only leaving, perhaps, 
one, two, or three main stems, trimming them out 
the length of a post or two, as they require it. 
This throws the whole strength to them, and it 
makes excellent clean timber very fast. But some 
persons wont believe that it will pay unless they 
can almost see the money. "We might cite in- 
stances of the cash value of prime locust for me- 
chanical purposes, but I have taken up too much 
foom already, and persons might think that I had 
the small locust trees for sale, which I have not. 

Persons should use good judgment both in 
planting and in trimming, so as to be successful. 
J. B. Erb, Beaver Valley. 
"» — » — ■ 

When a cow or ox gets choked, it is said that 
Immediate relief may be obtained by strapping 
up a fore leg and compelling the animal to jump, 
when the obstruction will fly out. 



lotaing. 



WEEDS— NO. 6. 



MULLEIN, (germ., Das WoUkraut). 



The common mullein is considered a natural- 
ized foreigner, although very abundant in all the 
old settlements. The botanical name of this 
genus isverbascura, an alteration from barbascvm, 
on account of the beard (barba) with which the 
leaves and stems are closely covered. Loudon 
describes thirty-one species out of seventy. In 
Gray's Botany, three species are described— the 
comrao.1 mullein (verbascum thapsus), the moth 
or sleek mullein (v. blattaria), and the white mul 
lein (v. lychnitis). These three species are found 
in our county; the two first are common, the lat- 
ter, V. lychnitis, so called because the nap of this 
aud several other species may be used as tinder 
and to make wicks for lamps, whence the name 
lychnitis applied to one of the species of this 
genus. This species I only met with in a field 
near Speedwell forge, and gave specimens to 
Prof. Porter, who has also given me the credit, 
on page 591, in the History of Lancaster Co., by 
J. I. Mombert, in the enumeration of indigenous 
and naturalized plants found growing in the 
county. 

Although recognized as weeds, and a sure evi- 
dence of a slovenly, negligent farmer, who sutlers 
his fields to be over-run with mulleins, some spe- 
cies are quite ornamental, and bear manv hun- 
dreds of magnificent gold colored flowers like the 
V. pulverulentum. In company with S. S. Rath- 
von and H. L. Zahm on the road to Oregon, this 
county, we met a specimen of the common mul- 
lein, that had quite large and showy flowers, truly 
beautiful and worthy of the flower garden. Mr. 
Zahm took a specimen along and planted it in his 
gai-den ; I do not know what cultivation may yet 
bring about. 

Our other common species, v. blattaria (Moth 
mullein), is said to have the power of driving 
away the blatta, or cockroach. As a genus, they 
are widely dispersed over Europe, western and 
central Asia, and northern Africa ; the immense 
number of species described are probably mostly 
varieties or hybrids. They are tall, erect, strong- 
growing, mostly biennial herbs. Our common 
wooly-leaved mullein (v. thapsus), or the great 
mullein, have a mucilaginous bitterish taste, and a 
decoction of them is employed in domestic prac- 
tice in catarrh and diarrhoea. They are also used 
as emollient applications to hard tumors, aud ia 
pulmonary complaints in cattle — hence in some 



136 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



sections it is also called Bullock's Lungwort. 
The ancient Greeks are said to have used the 
dried leaves as lamp-wicks, while the Eomans, 
who call the plant candfekrm, dipped its stalks in 
suet to burn at funerals. The English name, hig- 
taper or high-taper, appears to allude to a similar 
use. This was a famous plant with the witches 
of old, whence it has been sometimes called hag- 
taper. The young leaves are also recommended 
as a good substitute for hops. 

As the plant produces a vast number of seeds, 
it can only be kept in subjection by a careful 
eradication while young, or at least before the 
fruit is matuic. "When neglected, the soil soon 
becomes so full of seeds that the young plants 
will be found springing up in great numbers for a 
long succession of years. The other species, quite 
common in fields and along road-sides, v. blattaria 
or Moth mullein, is so different in the stem and 
leaves that it would not be recognized as a mul- 
lein. The stem is slender and smooth, "the 
lower leaves petioled, oblong, doubly serrate, 
sometimes lyre-shaped, the upper partly clasping; 
racemes loose; filaments all beared with violet 
wool." — A. Gray. The other is so common and 
well known as to require no description ; the 
name Mullen or Das Woolkraut is sufficient, from 
which the latter, the v. lichnitis, differs chiefly in 
apyramidal panicle of flowering heads. The plant 
is clothed with a thin powdery wolliness, stem 
and branches angled above. Rather rare. 

J.S. 



LOCUST TREE BLIGHT. 

My attention has been called, on several occa- 
sions, to what is commonly called, and to appear- 
ance, what seems to be, a " blight" of the locust 
trees, in many parts of Lancaster county, the 
present season. I had noticed this appearance 
last season still more extensively than it has oc- 
curred the present season, up to this time, (Aug. 
10,) so far as my observations have been made- 
These blights are caused by various insect depre- 
dations upon the leaves of the trees, and perhaps 
also from other causes. On the 10th of August of 
the present year, while passing through a long 
lane, having a row of fine thrifty young locust 
trees growing along the one side of it, I had 
an opportunity of making an examination of 
them, as many of their branches were brown and 
crisp, with this supposed blight, and many others 
rapidly becommg so. I found the immediate 
cause, on this occasion, to be the feeding of a 
small coleopterous insect, {Uroplata suturalu)\>Q- 



longing to the family Hispid ae, on the upper 
and lower surface of the leaves. It may seem 
almost incredible that an insect could possibly 
be so numerous as to cause all the blight of this 
kind in Lancaster county. Be that as it may ; I 
am sufficiently satisfied that the afore named insect 
was the cause of the nineteen-twentieths of what 
I saw and examined on the occasion alluded to. 
They were present in thousands, yea, tens of 
thousands, and all actively engaged in gnawing ofif 
the surface of the leaves, on both sides, but what- 
ever side of the leaf is attacked, that seems suffi- 
cient to wilt, curl, or turn it brown, in a very few ; 
days. I do not think I ever saw this insect so 
numerous before, in all my entomological expe- 
rience — indeed, I well remember the time when 
it was considered comparatively rare, at least in 
some localities. Dr. Harris says, " in the mid- 
dle of June," this insect '" may be found pairing 
and laying its eggs on the locust trees." " The 
grubs appear during the month of July, and are 
transformed to beetles in the month of August." 
I found numbers of them pairing on the luth of 
August, and therefore, there very probably are 
two broods in a season, especially in southern 
Pennsylvania, and localities south of it. It may 
be otherwise, but it seems to me that the great 
extent of the damage to the locust trees, can 
only be accounted for on the hypothesis that 
there are two broods ; our summer season being 
at least ten days in advance of that of Massachu- 
setts, whdie Harris wrote, they appear so much 
earlier here. 

The mature beetle varies in length between 
three-eighths and five-eighths of an inch. The 
head, antennos, body beneath, and legs, are a jet 
black. The thorax is of an impure or tawny yel- 
low color, deeply and roughly punctured. The 
wing covers are deeply striated, and punctured in 
the striations logitudinally, and of the same color 
as the thorax, except a black line on each side of 
the suture, or central dorsal seam, which widens 
below the middle, and covers three of the stria 
on each side, by the time it reaches the apex of 
the elytra. The Hispidans may be easily recog. 
nized by then- oblong, flattened bodies, short 
thorax, small head, with the antennce projecting 
in front, and their rough puncturings and stria- 
tions. 

The Zarua are "leaf-miners," and are flattened, 
whitish, six-footed worms, about a quarter of an 
inch in length, when mature. They taper gradu- 
ally from " fore to aft," with serrated projections 
along each side, marking the segmental division? 
They feed upon the parenchyma of the leaf, leav- 
ing the skin entire, and in this way they are even 
more damaging than the mature insect. They 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



137 



undergo their transformations between the skins' 
of the leaves. I have found the mature insect 
late in autumn, and also early in the spring, and, 
therefore, I conclude that they hybernate during 
the winter, appearing on diflerent kinds of foliage 
in the end of May and beginning of June, accor- 
ding to the advanced or retarded state of the sea- 
son. 

I found also, on the same trees, and at the same 
time, (Aug. 10,) a very small, black, pear-shaped 
curculio, (Apionsayii,) eating holes in the learves; 
but there were twenty of the Uroplata to one of 
^hQApion. These last-named insects are said to 
breed in the seeds of the locust tree. There are 
also various species of Micro-Lepidoptera, the 
larvae of which are said to be leaf-miners, and 
these may also assist in producing the effect upon 
the foliage of the locust trees we see so extensively 
in this county. As to an eftective remedy for 
such a wide-spread disease, I confess I can suggest 
none. I have seen the same efiect twenty years 
ago, and, very likely, after a few years the disease 
will abate, from some cause beyond our view, and 
which we usually term " of its own accord." 
These periods of redundancy and scarcity are as 
common in the insect crop as they are in other 
crops. S. S. R. 

# » » 

THE MILL BEETLE. 

About a month ago Mr. J. 0. Steinhauser 
brought me about twenty specimens of a small, 
oblong, flattish, black beetle, belonging to the 
genus Trogosita, which, he informed me, was the 
very bane of millers' bolting-cloths. The com- 
plaints of the millers against this insect have 
been loud and long ; for it eats their bolting-cloths 
into holes, allowing the bran to pass through, 
and so far, injuring the market quality of the 
flour, and against which no remedy can be 
applied without a probability of a further damage 
to its quality. From what I can learn, all, or 
nearly all, the mills in tliis section are infested 
with this insect ; and I have also seen it in corn 
cinbs, granaries, and feed-troughs, in barns and 
stjables. There are at least fifteen species of the 
genus Trogosita known in the United States, eight 
of which are in my collection, but those I ob- 
tained from Mr. S. do not correspond with any of 
them. I have also one unnamed species from 
Europe, which seems almost identical. Mr. 
Curtis, on page 332 of his " Farm Insects," says 
that Trogosita mauritanica which infests barn and 
granaries, " has evidently been introduced from 
the shores of Africa, iu which country it is abun- 
dant, as well as in America, and has now spread 
itself over the continent of Europe." It is very 
probable, therefore, that mauritanica is the com- 



mon species that so generally infests the mills, 
barns, and granaries, in this country. It is said 
also to attack dead trees, " and even bread and 
nuts." I have myself often found a species of 
Trogosita in ground nuts and English walnuts. 
On one occasion a cargo of loose corn, which 
arrived at Marietta, while I resided there, from 
the interior of Pennsylvania, was so badly in- 
fested that the whole cargo had to be run through 
a screen, and among these screenings a bushel of 
these msects could easily have been collected 
On another occasion, on the Glatz farm, opposite 
Marietta, whilst they were cleaning wheat in 
the barn, quarts of these insects, and the black 
weevel [sitoplulus granarius), could have been 
collected. It is therefore very common, but 
common as it is, there does not seem to be much 
known about the larva and its habits as identified 
with the imago ^ I have found a larvce in mills where 
I found the beetle, corresponding with the follow- 
ing description from Curtis. 

The larvse are, however, well known in the 
south of France, where they are called Caddie, 
and are particularly destructive, because they in- 
jure much more than they consume. Mr. Cmtis 
says : " When full grown the larva is eight lines 
in length, and one in breadth ; the body is whitish , 
composed of twelve segments, distinct enough 
and rough, with short scattered hairs ; the head 
is hard, scaly, black, and furnished with- curved , 
sharp, horny jaws ; the three thoracic segments 
of the body bear each a pair of short, scaly legs, 
and a pair of obscure dorsal spots ; the anal seg- 
ment is terminated by two very homy hooks. 
They enter the earth, or bury themselves in dust, 
to become piipce, of which I have no description." 
My friend Mr. Staufl^er informs me that a miller 
from Rapho, in this county, on several occasions, 
brought him a large number of small, whitish 
larvse with black heads, which he took from a 
conducting trough in his mill, which he said 
sometimes become so numerous as to impair the 
quality of the flour. This trough or box is square, 
horizontal, and has a revolving screw passing 
through it, and is part of the apparatus used iu 
a mill for conveying the grist from the grinding 
room to the bolting-room. Along the two lower 
angles of this trough the grist or flour remains, 
and here is where these grubs remain and feed. 
It is only after they become beetles, it appears, 
that they commence gnawing the bolting-cloth. 
A plan has been suggested to make these troughs 
cylindrical instead of a square box, and then there 
would be no corners for the insect to harbor in ; 
for if the harbor of the larva is destroyed, the 
disappearance of the beetle itself might be ex- 
pected to follow. The insects Mr. Steinhausfer 



138 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



brought me are of half a dozen different sizes 
varying from one-fourth of an inch in length, to 
one-half of an inch, and from one-sixteenth to 
one-eighth of an inch broad ; depressed or flat- 
tish ; of a pitchy color, with a chestnut shade ; 
head and thorax irregularly and deeply punctured, 
and the elytra, or wiug-coyers, puncto-striate, that 
is, lined and punctured in the lines ; antennse 
short and clavate ; head broad, and furnished with 
a pair of strong, black, bifed jaws. The thorax 
is somewhat broader than the head, and the elytra 
are broader than the thorax, from which they are 
separated by a narrow neck, and about three 
times as long ; legs stout and short, the anterior 
pair the stoutest, showing their burrowing pro- 
clivities. This insect is said to be also carniverous, 
destroying, in its perfect state, the larva of the 
grain moth ( Tinea granella) in Europe. But when 
and where the female deposits her eggs, is not 
yet known there, or was not, when Mr. Curtis 
wrote, in 1860. 

The species are very much alike, and are ex- 
ceedingly difficult to determine, especially as the 
same species vary so much in size. It is probable 
that the species under consideration may be dif- 
ferent from the species Mr. C. describes as mauri- 
tanica, for it seems to be larger. He says a Mr. 
Kirkup bred the beetle from a Spanish almond, 
in which it lived as a larva for fifteen months, 
after which, it remained alive as a beetle for 
twenty-one months, making a period of three 
years, to say nothing about how old it was when 
he first obtained it. The fact of the larva having 
been found in an almond, and the perfect insect 
in nuts with the shell entire, leads to the infer- 
ence that the eggs must, at some period, have 
been deposited there. But if the imago is car- 
niverous, what can it find in a dry cotton bolting- 
cloth to excite its carniverous appetite ? More- 
over, if Mr. Kirkup's experience is a correct 
representation of their longevity, it is not very 
encouraging to millers. There is some difficulty 
in finding an expressive common name for this 
insect, for there are other species which infest 
mills, one of which is the "meal-worm," or the 
"mealworm-beetle," [Tenebrio Molitor) which is 
also an imported species. The " Bolting-cloth 
Beetle," would perhaps be better, although 
longer. Under any circumstances, common 
names alone are unsafe guides, from the fact that 
half a dozen different localities may have half a 
dozen different names for the same insect, but 
what leads to the greatest confusion, is the appli- 
cations of a common name to a particular species 
in one locality, and the same name to a different 
species in another locality. I trust, from the 
foregoing remarks, millers may be led to discover 
mpre of the habits of this insect, and also a rem- 
edy for its destruction, or prevention. S. S. R. 



CATTLE RAISING. 

I propose to submit a few reflections as indi- 
cating my thoughts on the subject which heads 
this article, one as I conceive, of as much practi- 
cal utility as any that could be discussed in the 
columns of the Lancaster Farmer. The sub- 
ject has been somewhat broached in previous 
nunibers of our journal, and I throw out some 
additional ideas, hoping to elicit a fuller expres- 
sion of sentiment on this topic from some of our 
practical and scientific gentlemen, readers of the 
Farmer. 

Is'ext to the growing of the cereals do I regard 
that of the raising of all kinds of live stock as 
holding position, and an interest of husbandry 
that by no means should be lost sight of by those 
who desire to be ranked as systematic farmers. 
It is not the exclusive raising of stock that is 
here urged upon the attention of our readers, for 
as we shall endeavor to point out, that would not 
be profitable in this section of country. From the 
known habits and customs of our people, it is ap- 
parent that most owners and cultivators of farms 
in Lancaster county and this section of Pennsyl- 
vania, raise more or less stock of one kind or an- 
other, influenced by motives of various kinds. The 
cow is regarded as an indispensable appendage of 
the farm and household; and he would be re- 
garded as a thriftless farmer, indeed, who would 
not have his farm-yard stocked with cattle of one 
kind or another. Again, one farmer may be struck 
with the beauty of a heifer calf, and he is induced 
by its appearance to raise it for a milk cow, think- 
ing at the same time, that home-raised cows are 
the most tame and gentle to the milker. Another 
"B gjiBUi ppoM j\vo puooas v ^f'eq^j s9AI9Duoo 
first class bull, and he raises it. Many raise a 
greater than ordinary number of cattle on their 
farms, without calculating whether it be profitable 
or otherwise. Thus the farms in our agricultural 
communities are from various motives stocked 
with cattle, and little or no attention bestowed 
upon the kind of cattle that are so raised. Would 
not the objects of our farmers be better attained 
if, instead of indolently clinging to the old breeds, 
they would look around and learn the kinds of 
cattle that far surpass the old breeds and stock 
their farms therewith ? ; 

Of the new kinds of cattle Avhose reputation at 
this time seems to lead all others, may be men- 
tioned the Alderney and Durham. The Alderney 
is at this time, as will be perceived by every 
attentive reader of our agricultural journals, at- 
tracting almost universal attention. We have just 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



139 



learned of a gentleman in the city of Lancaster 
who is stocking his farm at great expense with 
this new kind of cattle. The raising of tlie best 
grades of cattle costs no more than the growing of 
the poorest, and when this is the case why is it 
that a little eflbrt is not made to secure the supe- 
rior kinds ? It is like paying a trifle extra for a 
new variety of wheat, or a new seed of potatoes, 
that pays ten times better in the end. It is 
believed the mixture of the old breed with the 
new would greatly improve the stock, and this 
could be done with trifling expense indeed. In 
no event, of course, can the growing of stock of 
any kind in this section of country be so profita- 
ble as in the West, where thousands, nay^ even 
jnillions of acres of prairie land lie waste, upon 
which herds of cattle by [the hundreds are kept 
at an expense of two dollars diu-ing the whole 
season. Many are fed for a trifle during winter 
even, upon the stocks of corn left standing in the 
fields. 

Stock raised in Pennsylvania is equal to any 
other, but, as stated before, cannot be raised at as 
little expense as in the West. In proof of this, 
and by way of comparison between raising cattle 
in the West and in Lancaster county, the follow- 
ing estimates are submitted : 

Value of a calf in Pa., when 4 weeks old, $8.00 

Cost of first year's raising, 10.00 

" second " " 12.00 

" third " " 15.00 

" fourth " '' 20.00 



Whole cost of raising (without charge for 

trouble), ' $05.00 

N'ow suppose a steer to weigh at five years old 
1,200 lbs., and to bring 6 cts. per pound, and you 
liave only S7.00 of profit, much risk besides 
to encounter, and nothing for the trouble. 

In Illinois or Iowa on the contrary we have 
the calf of 
4 weeks old costing only $ 5.00 



First years' keeprag 
Sec'd " '^ 

Third '• 
Fourth " 



5.00 

7.00 

8.00 

• 10.00 



Whole cost of raising in Illinois or Iowa $35.00 
Estimate this Western steer fouryear's old, 
to weigh as above 1,200 poimds and to 
bring 5 cts. per pound $60.00 

Profit in Western States on steer S25.00 

Thus it will be perceived there is a difTereuce of 
$18.00 of profit on every steer raised in the West, 
over one raised in Pennsylvania, and besides, it 
can be done there with less trouble and no im- 
poverishment to the soil as is the case with us. 

The above estimate may in the eyes of many 
seem blind or conjectural, but is nevertheless 



true, and can be verified by facts. Land in Penn- 
sylvania is worth from one hundred to two hun- 
dred dollars per acre, corn, one dollar per bushel, 
hay, twenty dollars per ton, and pasture, two dol- 
lars per month. 

In the West, on the contrary, I land is worth 
twenty dollars per acre, corn fifty cents per bush- 
el, hay from five to ten dollars per ton, and pas- 
ture for a whole season, two dollars per head for 
any kind of cattle. 

It becomes clear therefore that we can never 
enter into competition with the people of the 
West m the item of stock growing as a business 
to be pursued of itself. Our only recourse is 
therefore to secure the best grades of cattle, and 
feed them during the winter, and make maum-c 
plenty from them, by which we shall be enabled 
to keep our fanns in good condition. In this way 
we shall, by turning the whole of our corn and 
hay into manure, be able to make (as is believed) 
our farms so productive as that they will yield 
us thirty bushels of wheat to the acre, fifty of 
oats, and from sixty to one hundred bushels of 
corn. 

Another obstacle with us to successful stock 
growing is the fact that pasturing cattle greatly 
lessens the strength of land and renders it un- 
productive. This fact has been demonstrated to 
absolute satisfaction, and when land becomes re- 
duced it requires a cost often dollars per acre to 
bring it again into condition, by the application 
of lime or other fertilizers. 

I may add, in conclusion, that the introduction 
of the Cherokee Texan cattle among the West- 
ern graziers (which breed is regarded amongst 
them as an excellent acquisition) is greatly revo- 
lutionizing the business of stock growing in the 
Western States. 

Peter S. Reist. 



MEETING OF THE LANCASTER COUN- 
TY AGRICULTURAL AND HORTI- 
CULTURAL SOCIETY. 

The Society met Aug. 2d, 1869, in the Orphans- 
Court Room, H. M. Engle in the Chair, and A. 
Harris Secretary. The minutes of the last meet- 
ing having been read and approved, the Chair- 
man made a few brief remarks, congratulating 
the Society upon the great variety of fruit on ex- 
hibition, which he considered as auguring well for 
the success of the Association, and remarked that 
the attendance of ladies upon this occasion may 
be the beginning of a new era in the progress of 
this Society. 

Peter S. Reist next proceeded to read an essay 
upon Cattle Raising. 



140 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



On motion, A. B. Kauffman, of the city, was 
elected a member of the Society, and Tobias 
Martin, of Franklin county, Pa., an honorary 
member. 

The Secretary, by direction of the Chair, read 
two articles of editorial correspondence from the 
Philadelphia Press. 

S. N". "VVarfel made some remarks on the grow- 
ing of strawberries, and said that he had at- 
tempted to grow them in three different kinds of 
soil, but he failed to grow them in such perfection 
as he had seen them on the grounds of J. Knox 
of Pittsburg. 

Jacob. Stauffer said that he suspected car- 
bon was needed for the perfect growth of fruit, 
and as this substance was so abundant at Pitts- 
burg, this might account for the fact that Mr. 
Warfel could not equal J. Knox's strawberries. 

Hon. John Zimmerman said he had a grape 
vine of the Clappier varietj', which grew very 
enormously, and yet did not yield much fruit. 
He was at a loss to account for this. 

H. M. Engle could not agree in Mr. Staufter's 
surmise as to the utility of carbon, as he once 
knew peach trees to be planted in a coal bed, and 
they did not do as well as others that stood else- 
where. 

On motion, the matter having in view a union 
with the Park Association the coming autumn, 
so far as holding a fall Fair is concerned, was in. 
definitely postponed. 

Jacob Staufier next proceeded to read an essay 
upon weeds (the mullein). 

H. K. Stoner reported on the insect destroyer, 
which he conceives he has fairly tested, and he 
says he has fruit where he never had before, but 
he is still at a loss to know if the insect destroyer 
has had any influence or not, in the production of 
fruit. 

H. M. Engle stated that he himself had had 
fruit this season where he never could grow any 
before, and he had used nothing, and he regarded 
all as owing to the season. 

On motion, the Secretary was authorized to 
piirchase Downing's Fruit Trees of America. 

On motion, the President was directed to an- 
nounce the committee of ten at the next meeting, 
who are to represent this Society in the National 
Pomological meeting, in Philadelphia, in Septem- 
ber of this year. 

Peter S. Eeist submitted his views as to the 
cereals that farmers would do best in growing in 
Lancaster county and this part of Penusylvania. 
Of the six kinds of wheat, viz., old red and old 
white Mediterranean, the smooth chaff and the 
Canada bearded (all winter varieties), and the 
bearded and smooth spring wheat he considered 



best ; first the Canada bearded, second the old 
white Mediterranean bearded, and third the old 
red wheat. Of spring varieties he regards the 
bearded spring wheat as the best. 

He says " the Canada-bearded seems stiffer in 
the stem than the common kinds of wheat, and 
finer in quality." The spring-bearded did as well 
with him as could be expected under the circum- 
stances. He says, " my opinion is that we shall 
be able to grow it ere long." 

Of four kinds of oats, viz., the Black, the Side, 
the Barley, and the Schonen oats, he says " I like 
the common best under favorable circumstances 
but it grows too rank on rich land ; the Schonen 
grows too long on rich ground, so I therefore pre- 
fer the Black and Side oats, because these variet- 
ies do not grow so long in the stem." 

Calvin Cooper stated that he was about to dis- 
continue the Lawton blackberry, and says he de- 
cidedly prefers the Kittatinny and Wilson's Early. 
He believes blackberries should not be picked 
when wet. 

H. M. Engle believes the Kittatinny a superior 
berry to the Lawton, so far as eating quality is 
concerned. 

S. N. Warfel thinks the Kittatinny much the 
best berry of the cultivated kinds. 

The display of apples, pears, and blackberries 
was creditable, indeed. 

H. M. Engle had Hale's Early Peaches, Os- 
baud's Summer Pears ; All Summer, Gan-ettson's 
Early, Red Astrachan and Sweet Bough Apples 
on exhibition. 

Calvin Cooper contributed Maynard pears, ap- 
ples to be named, and Kittatinny and Wilson's 
Early blackberries. 

Dr. J. H. Musser exhibited two varieties of 
wheat found in Saxonia barley distributed by the 
Society, a Bloodgood pear, two pears to be named, 
an a^ple to be named, and Beeven apples. 

Two varieties of pears, to be named, were sent 
into the meeting by A. C. Herr. 

Casper Hiller sent in to the meeting All Sum- 
mer, Rose, Sine qua Non, Early Joe and As- 
trachan apples, Gifford pears, and Hale's Early 
peaches. 

Dr. W. L. Diffenderfer had on exhibition ap- 
ples for which a name was wanted. 

Mrs. Mary Reist, of Manheim township, had on 
exhibition several Reist apples. 

A lot of gooseberries raised by John Rohrer, of 
West Lampeter township, from a plant obtained 
in Ohio, attracted considerable attention among 
the persons at the meeting. 

Mr. Eby, of Elizabethtowu, sent in sardples of 
the Norway oats, to show that this variety some- 
times fails to yield well. Mr. Eby also sent in a 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



141 



branch of grape vine thickly covered with the 
grape leaf louse, and which had almost entirely 
destroyed the foliage of the branch. 

After the members had indulged themselves in 
social intercourse and testing of the fruits, ad lib- 
itum, the Society, on motion, adjourned. 



SMALL-FRUIT CULTURE. 

Mr. Peter Riley, residing within the limits of 
Lancaster, and a member of the Agricultural 
and Horticultural Society, furnishes us with the 
following, as the result of his experience in fruit- 
culture the present season. Mr. R's residence is 
on Orange Street, in the eastern part of the city, 
and his occupation is that of a machinest, work- 
ing every day in the shop, devoting, with the as- 
sistance of his boys, only the mornings and even- 
ings to the labors of the fruit gardening, and 
therefore only claims t© be an amateur in the 
profession. 

Area of strawberry grounds under cultivation, 
about one third of an acre , two parts of which 
was devoted to Triompho de Gand and Wilson's 
Albany seedling, and one part to Agriculturalist, 
Green Prolific, French, and Russel's seedling, and 
several other varieties. 

The first fruit was gathered on the 8th of June, 
and the last on the 6th of July. The gross amount 
sold, 1,988 quai-ts, averaging 20 37-100 cents per 
quart, amounting to S405.0G for the entire crop 
sold. 

Mr. R. also raised and sold 295 quarts of Phila- 
delphia Raspberries, at 25 cents per quart, amount- 
ing to S73.75. These were grown in hills, four 
feet apart each way, producing two and a half 
quarts per hill, which per acre of 2,741 hills pro- 
ducing 6,8524 quarts, at 25 cents per quart, would 
realize S1713.12i, all other circumstances being 
equal Also 135 quarts of currants at 7 cents per 
quart, amounting to $9.42, and 51 quarts of early 
Richmond cherries at 10 cents per quart, amount- 
ing to $5.10. 

The strawberries, raspberries, currants and 
cherries, were grown on a fraction less than half 
an acre. The first named was one. two and three 
years bearing, those of the third year not yielding 
more than half a crop. In a recapitulation of the 
amount realized in dollars and cents by Mr. Riley 
from this less than half an acre of ground, we find 
it amounts to $493. 36. 

Surely this result ought to afibrd sufficient en- 
couragement to all those who may have a little 
ground, a little time, and a little energy, backed 
by a little will-power, to cultivate these luscious 
products of our generous soil. 



We shall, on the whole, have a fair crop of 
fruit the present season, but mark our words, it is 
not going to be " dirt cheap," as some suppose, 
and so many desire. The consumption of fmit 
of all kinds is on the increase ; it is coming to be 
regarded as one of the healthful necessaries of 
life, and therefore the people will avail them- 
selves of th6 opportunity of canning and preparing 
it in various ways for future use. Sufficient atten- 
tion is not paid to this part of domestic husbandry 
everywhere. Only a few days ago, in a drive 
through the southeastern part of our county, we 
observed numbers of cherry-trees, whose ample 
crops seemed to be entirely uncared for. If these 
hadbeen gathered and dried, or canned, or pre- 
served some other way, in due season, there is 
nota doubt they would in time have paid well 
for all the labor bestowed upon them. 

In reading over the Lancaster Farmer, I 
was highly pleased with the writer's suggestions 
on " Horticultural Exhibitions," and a certain 
passage seemed t3 occupy my mind considerably : 
" A true life consists in something else than sim- 
ply accumulating property." Is there not a great 
deal of meaning in those few words ? Might we 
not all profit a little by pondering over them care- 
fully ? In fact, I think they would be a good 
foundation for a sermon. But as I do not intend 
to preach from them, I would only suggest that 
each one mark the words, (as a text,) and preach 
their own sermon by trying to live up to the true 
meaning of tbg same. Let each one read over 
the whole communication, Commencing on page 
120 of the August number, and see if there is not 
some beautiful suggestions held forth. 

J. B. E. 



COWS FOR GENERAL USE. 

A correspondent of the Country Gentleman in- 
quires very pertinently what breed of cattle should 
be selected with a view of making butter and 
turning them off to the shambles when their use- 
fulness for dairy puiposes is ended. This is the 
aim a majority of farmers have in raising stock; 
and anaid the discussions on fancy cows bred for 
specific objects, the wants of the agricultural com- 
munity at large are lost sight of. It may be laid 
down as a truism that there has been no class of 
animals more suitable for dairy purposes than 
what are called native stock — because they have 
been grades of early importations from all parts 
of the world, and the admixture of qualities has 
produced a hardy, good sized, milky and beefy 



142 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



race, and if the best had been culled out and bred 
to pure bulls and the progeny well cared for, we 
should have had a class of milkers superior on 
the average to any in the world, and animals fit 
for the butcher at early age. But gross neglect 
in raising the young, pinching pastures, poor hay 
and mongrel bulls, have deteriorated the stock 
so much that we are compelled to begin anew, 
and start about where our fathers left off a cen- 
tury ago. "We have now presented for our con- 
sideration the Durhams, Devons, Holstein, Ayr- 
shire, Jersey, Guernsey, &c., and writers abound 
who praise up this or that breed according as their 
wishes may dictate, or if inexperienced in practi- 
cal farming, as they are told. 

A very accomplished writer in a popular maga- 
zine lately instructed the public that the Ayrshire 
is the cow for New England, as he was informed 
by those interested in that species of stock, that 
the return from such cows, in butter and cheese, 
is estimated at $100 per year, and in milk at S175 
a year, and his city readers probably believed 
that such was the average yield of cows, but far- 
mers know that it must be exceptional cows and 
exceptional circumstances to produce any such 
returns. 

The average yield from the best dairies in 
Orange county is nothing like that, and in the ex- 
periments continued for several years by Ayrshire 
owners in Scotland, Col. Pratt and the Utica Asy- 
lum in New York, recorded in the Country Gen- 
tleman, Col. Pratt's dairy of native cows equalled 
those of the competitors in the amount of milk 
produced, and butter and cheese made, and yet 
fell far short of the estimate above given. A por- 
trait of the most famous Jersey cow has been 
going the rounds of the agricultural papers, and a 
statement of the amount of milk and butter given 
and made by her, and the amount does not exceed 
that of many native cows, and certainly no one 
but a " Jersey fancier" would buy her for her 
shape and " latter end." In their place there is 
none superior to the Jersey cow, and every farmer 
can afford to have one or two in his herd, as they 
perpetuate their butter qualities , and its golden hue 
and flavor will do more for the rest of the churning 
than any vegetable or chemical compounds, but 
yet they are not the cows for farmers mainly to 
rely on. The Devon is not generally popular, 
owing to its comparatively light milking qualities. 
The Holstein and Guernsey are not sufficiently 
known to have their merits fully appreciated, and 
those introduced into the country have not met 
with eminent approbation. 

A writer in a late issue of the Country Gentle- 
man, on the Jersey cows, referring to the Short- 
Horns, speaks of the class raised only for beef 



purposes, ignoring the fact of New England and 
New York State possessing at this time a breed 
of improved Short Horns, inferior to no other class 
of animals in quantity and quality of milk, and with 
a carcass unequalled for beauty and handling. 
These are not the ponderous, long-legged animals, 
which so many have in their eye, but short-legged, 
round-bodied, capacious-uddered, easy-keeping 
beasts, and if they were numerous enough to be 
purchased at reasonable prices, every farmer who 
had one to breed from would be on the road to 
fortune ; but, unfortunately, the breeders are 
rare who can raise such animals, and the best we 
can do is to purchase the males and breed them 
to our common cows ; and, as is generally the re- 
sult, the progeny will be a superior animal, show- 
ing that the male stamps the characteristic of the 
offspring ; and if we breed this progeny to a male 
of high breeding, and so continue, the improve- 
ment will last, as it is only a repetition of well- 
directed efforts that raises the quality of the herd, 
and not single crosses, as many farmers not ac- 
quainted with the true principles s 'Pin +o think. 

Now, without disparaging any otlv/ breed, 
without disturbing the comely Ayrshire in her 
efforts to fill the cans in which the lacteal fluid is 
conveyed to our cities and towns, or the Jersey 
in her successful endeavors to furnish the rich 
men's tables with piles of golden-hued butter, 
without robbing the Devon of her fame in produc- 
ing the best of working oxen, without interfering 
with the march of the Holstem and other new 
importations in their successful paths, we cannot 
overlook the fact that, for general use on our 
farms, especially on inland farms, we need an 
animal of good size, yielding a fair quantity and 
quality of milk, that we may have our comple- 
ment of butter and cheese, and at the same time 
feel that, when not suitable for the dairy, she can 
be easily fattened and turned off to the butcher 
with profit. For such uses can we find any breed 
superior to the improved milking Short-Horns of 
New England, and can we improve our stock 
better than by u^ing the males of this breed on 
our native or grade cows ? What do other folks 

say? A NEW-ENGLAND FARMEK. 

-^ » ^ 

THE CAPACITY OF AN ACRE. 

Previous to the building of the Camden and 
Amboy railroad through New Jersey, over thirty 
years ago, there were tracts of land within two 
miles of Burlington, New Jersey, which were 
sold at S5 to $10 an acre. The reason for these 
low prices was the simplest one imaginable-^they 
did not produce the interest of the money they 
cost. Now some of this very land is selling at 
over $100 per acre, without buildings. The cause 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



143 



of this advance in prices is equally plain — the 
land now produces much more than interest on 
its cost. 

In any location where -land can be made to 
produce the interest of $1000 per acre, it would 
seem safe to purchase it at $200. Though many 
acres around Burlington have produced and ai-e 
still producing such returns, yet all are not. Some 
are very far exceeding it, while others are falling 
below, according to the crops cultivated and the 
skill and industry applied. It is to be observed 
in this connection, that the best returns are real- 
ized by perse verence, continuing at the business 
for a term of years, until fruits, if fruit culture be 
adopted, have come into full bearing. A trial of 
a single year amounts to nothing if then aban- 
doned, as the first year on even an old farm is 
generally one of me re preparation for the second. 
The first may pay a profit, but not often. 

Long experience in a thousand places has shown 
that an acre of land can be made to pay the inte- 
rest on a very large sum Mr. Leonard of Mon- 
mouth, obtained from asparagus the interest of 
$5000, and from grapes the interest of $7000 per 
acre. Both these may be regarded as standard 
crops, not liable to casualty, especially asparagus. 
In our neighborhood some remarkable results 
have been secured from standard fruit crops. 
There is an acre of blackberries on the farm of 
Mr. Dulty, which has produced the interest of 
over $8500 gross— no doubt of $7000 net. 

The owner of a three-acre field of purple cane 
raspberries, told me that his sale in one season 
produced him the interest of $25,000 gross. Large 
fields of even perishable strawberries have been 
made to pay the next interest of $4500 per acre. 
There is a field of two and a half acres of black- 
berries near me, containing twenty-six hundred 
plantts, which last year produced the interest of 
very nearly $30,000 net. There can be no mis- 
ake about th is last crop. But it was altogether 
exceptional, not likely ever to be repeated, as 
berries were then high, and while other growers 
had few or none, this field bore abundantly. 

The value of land is to be measured by its pro- 
ductiveness, not by its price. All the paying re- 
turns above recited were obtained by good ordi- 
nary cultivation, not by forcing or extravagant 
outlay. Had these been resorted to, the return 
would have undoubtedly exceed the extra cost. 
But the owners [planted, cultivated, and waited 
until their plantings came into bearing. Such 
waiting is sometimes inconvenient to men of 
moderate means ; but men will wait longer for 
legacies which are much less valuable. Thus 
grapes, asparagus, and the cane-producing ber- 
ries are seen to yield a larger interest for money 



invested in them, even in the high-priced land, 
than can possibly be realized from low-priced land, 
where no^uch markets as ours are within reach. 
The land at $300 per acre in snch a market is 
cheaper than that at $10 without the market. The 
one acre pays interest on the cost of ten acres, 
while the other pays interest only on its own cost. 
But time and patience are required to realize such 
returns. It is he who endures to the end that 
succeeds ; not he who plants and immediately 
quits. — Hearth and Home. 



THE SPARROWS, 

Frederick the Great, of Prussia, waged war in 
his day against the sparrow, because he did not 
respect his favorite fruit, the cherry. The spar- 
row, of course, yielded to the conquerer of Aus- 
tria, and disappeared from Prussia. But, at the 
end of two years, not only were there no cherries 
in all Prussia, but also hardly any other kind of 
fruit. The caterpillars destroyed all. And this 
great king, conquerer in so many battle-fields, 
was glad to sign an humble treaty of peace, and 
to surrender up a fau' proportion of his cherries 
to the sparrow, once more restored to the country 
and to royal favor. 

In several well-recorded instances, the whole- 
sale destruction of these birds has been imme- 
diately followed by calamitous consequences to 
agriculturists. Koxious insects, the rapid produc- 
tion and increase of which man was totally unable 
to prevent, and against which he was powerless, 
but which the sparrow had kept in check, multi- 
plied to a frightful extent, and swept before them 
the vegetables of the garden, the grass, grain, fruit 
trees,and vineyards. Wherever this has happened, 
men have been at last only too glad to reintroduce 
the sparrow ; content to put up with the liberties 
he tootc in their gardens and wheat fields for the 
sake of the greater good he alone could do them 
in the destruction of their insect pests. 
— . ^ — » 

The Farmer's Friend. — A foreign provincial 
paper regrets " the reckless destruction of the 
goldfinch and other lovely denizens of the air for 
the purpose of supplying the London market," 
and thinks it would be well to head the example 
of France. 

It says, '• the slaughter of small birds in that 
country having led to a plague of insects, which 
destroyed the crops, a stringent law was passed, 
and is now in force there, to prohibit further de- 
struction and every .encouragement is oflered for 
the restoration of the feathered element. Tlie 
colonists spend heavy suras to secure the availj 
able services which we at home too slightly value_ 
Shall we ever learn the lesson':"' 



144 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



EFFECTS OF TREES ON CLIMATE. 

The ground on which stands Ismailia, a town 
of G,000 mhabitants, on the Suez Canal route, and 
the headquarters of M. de Lesseps,was but a few 
years since a dry, sandy desert, on which rain 
was never known to fall. All is now transformed. 
The old, dried-up basin of Lake Timsah has been 
again filled with water from the Nile by a fresh 
water canal. Trees, shrubs, and plants of all de- 
scriptions grow rapidly wherever the soil is irri- 
gated, and the artificial oasis widens fast. " Ac- 
companying," writes a correspondent, "this extra- 
ordinary transformation of the aspect of the 
place, there has oeen a corresponding change in 
the climate. At the present time Ismailia, dur- 
ing eight months of the year, is probably the 
healthiest spot in Northern Egypt." The mean 
temperature for the four months, June to Sep- 
tember, is 94 degrees ; the following four months, 
74 degrees, and the four winter months, 45 de- 
grees. Until two years ago rain was unknown ; 
but in the twelve months ending April last, there 
were actually fourteen days on which rain fell ; 
and very lately there fell a tremendous shower 
of rain, a phenomena which the oldest Arab had 
never previously witnessed. Rain ceases to fall 
on a country deprived of its forests, or only falls 
in violent storms. Here we see rain returning to 
the desert on restoring the trees. 



The Wire Worm. — A correspondent of the 
Gardener''s Chronicle says that he destroys the 
wire worms in his flower garden by using a liquid 
composed of one gallon of sulphuric acid to 
twenty of water, and applying plentifully to the 
soil late in the autumn, when the plants have 
done blooming, and early in spring, before vege- 
tation commences. It is better to use it on the 
soil before the plants are set out or the seed is 
sown, as when it comes in contact with the larvse 
it is very injurious to them. He says that he 
tried it on soil that was very much infested by 
these pests, and it killed every one of them. 



Gapes in Chickens. — A correspondent of the 
American Agriculturalist gives the following mode 
for preventing gapes in chickens. He says he 
has treated his young chickens in this way for 
several years with complete success. When the 
chickens are in condicion to take from the nest, 
he puts them with the hen in a coop with a board 
bottom, so as to keep the young ones from the 
cold and damp ground. They are fed with Indian 
meal, on which boiling water is poured from the 
tea-kettle, well stirred, and allowed to cool. The 
whole secret is to keep chickens dry and warm 
when quite young, and give them cooked food. 



Answers to Correspondents. 

Mrs. p. E. G., Enterprise, Lancaster county, Pa., July 14, 
1869. --The .small spur-shaped galls on young grape leaves about 
quarter of an iuch> in length, of a greenish-yellow color, and 
brownish at the apex, I am not able yet to determine. They 
contain an orange colored larva about three lines in length 
(thre'e-fortieths of an inch), and are composed of a bead and 
eleven .segments, very distinctly marked in their divisions. 
The head is of the same color as the body, but the caudal 
antepenaltimate segments are whitish translucent. No feet 
or eyes are visible, but as the head is obtuse and retractile 
within the first segment, the eyes may therefore be concealed 
when the insect is dead or at rest. I will try and breed the 
image, but until I succeed in doing so, I will not be able to 
determine what it is with any degree of certainty — whether 
coleopterous, hymonopterous, or dipterous. A similar gall is 
found on other siiecies of vegetation also. 

P. S. --Since writing the above all our specim?ns have died, 
and therefore we must await others. They i)robably are a 
species of midge, (cicidomyida). 



Review of Markets. 

Monday Evbnino, Aug. 16 The tone of the cattle mar- 
ket was very dull last week, but prices were without material 
change. 2400 head arrived and sold at9w9)^c for extra Pa., 
and western steers ; 9Xc. for a choice ; 7a8>^ c. for fair to good ; 
and 5>ja- 6>jc. W ft grss, lor commoon as to quality. 
The following are the particulars of the sales : 

82 Western, Owen Smith Sj^'O) 9^ 

112 " A. Christy & Bro., ., 8 «» 9^ 

48 Chester CO., Dengler & McCleese. . .! 6>^a 8 

140 Western, P.McFillen 1 m 9}^ 

100 " P. Hathaway 7 a 9^ 

65 " James McFillen 7 « 8je 

50 " E. S. McFillen 8® 9},i 

142 " Ullman &Bachman 8 a 9^ 

21 " Martin, Fuller «& Co 7>^a)9 

95 " Moonev & Smith 7 a 9)i 

105 " J. Smith 7 a 9^4 

50 " T.McArdle 5>^a 9,-^ 

20 " Pa, H. Chain..'. 5>^a 7,V 

109 Chester CO., Jas. S. Kirk 7 <a> 9 

36 " B.F. McFillen 7 a ii)i 

27 Chester county, B. Baldwin C «t 8 

35 " J. Clemson 6 «* 8 

65 " Chandler & Alexander .6 a 9 

14 " A O. Kimble ...6 &1 

14 " .Jesse Miller 6 a 9 

loo Viginia, T. Mooney & Bro 608 

90 Virginia, L. Frank 6^® 8 

62 " Frank «& Schomberg 7 a 8 J, 

92 " M. Dryfoos & Co 6>^ai 8^ 

65 " Elkon & Co., 6>^a 8 

3« " Blum «& Co 6 a 8>^ 

40 " T. Weldon 5 a7V 

32 " Thos Duffy 7 O) 8 

16 Delaware, L. Home 1 &S 

Penn'a Hope & Co., 7 ia> 9 

Cows were unchanged. 200 head sold at $40a60 for Springers, 
and $45a75 for Cow and Calf. 

Sheep were dull and rather lower ; 11,000 head sold at the 
different yards at 5,^a6c. ^ ft gross, as to condition. 

Hogs were in fair demand at an advance; 2600 heads old 
at the Union and Avenue Yards at$14al4.72 ^ 100 lbs., net. 

Lancaster, Wednesday, August 12 Our market, which 

is usually more abundantly supplied with produce, and at 
cheaper rates than any other considerable town perhaps in 
the United States, fairly outdid itself this morning in these 
respects — as regards most of the leading article, meat except- 
ed, which remains about as heretofore, and dear enough. 
Butter sold mostly at 28c. ^ lb., with some at 30, and still 
more at 25c.; Lard, 22c. ; Eggs, 20 a 22c.— mostly at 20c. ; Veal 
by the iquarter, 10 a 12c. # ft. ; Beef— best cuts, 20 c; boiling 
pieces, 15 a 16c. ; dres.sed chickens, 35 a 60c. each; Potatoes, 
8 a 10c. ^ }i peck, and 50 a 60c. ^ bush. ; Tomatoes— mostly 
6 a 8c. ^ >^ peck, and offered before the close of the market 
at 4c. ^ j^ peck, and 25c per bush. ; Apples 6 a 12 to 15c. ^ 
j^ peck; Pears 15 a20o.; Peaches 20 a 30c. ^ X pi'ck— 
several loads from Maryland selling at 20 a 25c. ■; Onions 20 
a 2oc. ^ X peck ; Gr^en Corn 10 a 15c., and late in the morn- 
ing at 6 a 8c ^ dozeii;; Cucumber 4 a 6c ^' dozen ; Squashes 1 
and 3c each; Jersey Sweet Potatoes, 25 a 40c. i?' )^ peck, 
according to .size ; tfersey Watermelons, 20 a 40c each ; do. 
Cantelopes, 5 a 10 u|p to 15c each, for very lai/^e ones ; do. 
Lgg Plants, 5 a 10c. each ; Common Blackberries continue 
plentiful and cheap, selling mostly at 5c. %*■ qt., but were 
freely ottered late in the morning at 4 and 3c. ; Huckleberries, 
10 a iSc. ; Elderberrip.o, 3 a 4c., and afterwards at 2c ^ qt. ; 
new crop Oats, $1.65 W bag^of 3 busIielBf 



TO BTTILIDEI2,SI 



PLASTIC SLATE!! 

The Greatest Eooting Material of the Age ! 

IS NOW OFFERED TO THE PEOPLE OF 

LANCASTER AND !0M COUNTIES, Pi AND CECIL COUNTY, 

WITH A PROMISE OF THE FOLLOWING ADVANTAGES: '^j | f'j ' 

It is superior to other coverings for all kinds of buildings for these reasons : 

1. It is water, snow and air-proof from the beginning, and is as fire-proof as ordinary slate. (See testime- 
nials New York Fire Insurance Companies.) 

2. It keeps buildings warmer in winter and does not make them hot in summer as ordinary ^Inte does, and 
it can be, after the first year, whitewashed or painted any desired color so as to obviate ail ''■ t'fi ulty arising 
from its dark color. 

3. lieing entirely water and fire-proof, it is invaluable as a covering for the sides of buildings and lining 

, cisterns of whatever material they may be built ; stopping water out of cellars and d^xnpness x)ut of walls of 
house?, and closing leaks between buildings. 

4. Adhering, as it does, with great firmness to tin and iron, it is useful for covering tin roofs and iron exposed 
to dampness or to the atmosphere, such as iron fences, cemetery- railings, &c. 

6. Buildings covered with PLASTIC SLATE de not need tin spouts at the eaves nor do the^valleys need tin 
to make them water proof. ^\\^ 

6. It is lighter than shingles, and is equally adapted to flat or steep roofs. llili. 

7. The testimony of Wm. M'Gilvray & Go., published herewith, shows that it is not only fire-proof exter- 
nally, but, is also a great hindrance to the spread of fire within. 

8. It is much cheaper in first-cost than any good roofing now in use, and when all att«»dant,expenses of the 
two roofs are estimated, costs only about half as much as the best slate, and it makes a better and closer roof. 

9. For the roofing of foundries and casting-houses of blast furnaces, where there are gases of a very high 
temperature, which injures and destroys other roofs, this material is improved and seems to produce a better 
roof, (see certificates of Messrs. Grubb, Musselman & Watts, S. M. Brua and Wm. M'Gilvray.) 

10. If in process of years cracks or leaks occur in Plastic Slate Eoofs, they are about as easily repaired, as 
they would be to white-wash, needing only a brush and the Mastic, but no expensive labor of mechanics. 

K^ The Pamphlet referred to in the foregoing notice can be had gratuitously, by calling at the Office of the 
Lancaster Inquirek or Examiner & Hbrald. 

Persons wishing to examine PLASTIC SLATE ROOFS, and thus verify for themselves the following 
statements, are invited to call and inspect Roofs put on for the following persons, among many others : 

LA^'CARTER— Thos. H. Burrowes, Stuart A. Wvlie, (Editor Lancaster Inquirer,) J. B. Schwartzwelder, Abrabam Bitner 
Sr. MAfiiETTA— Henry Musselman & Sons. , Mye rs and Benson. Cohtmkia— C. B. Grubb, (Furnace,) Columbia Gas Co., 
Samuel Shock, Pres't., Susquehanna Iron Compar.y. Wm. Fatten, Pres't., Samuel W. Mifflin. Mount Jot— Henry Kurtz, 
Dr. J. L. Ziegler, William Brady, .T. R. Hofter, (Editor Mt. Joy Herald). Christiana— E. G. Booniell, Wm. P. Brinton, 
John G. Fogle. Bart— William Whitson. Beli-emontk P. O— Robert P. Mclhaine. Pabadise— Robert S. Mcllvaine, 

WiLMAMSTowN—T. Scott Woods. Ephrata— Eh-. I. M. Groflf. Gordonvili,e— Samuel M. Brua. C^:rnarvon Twr 

Mrs. Fanny Mast. Upper Lbacock Twf.— Marks G. Menger, Christian R. Landis, Jacob B. Musser. Leacock Twp Isaac 

Bair, Levi Zook. Wert Earl — Christian Beiler. Lkaman Place— Henry Leaman, Israel Rohrcr. Bruknerville — Aaron 
H. Brubaker. Sporting Hill— Emanuel Long. Litiz— H. H. Tshudy, David Bricker. Ddrlaoh P- O., Clay Twp— Jonas 
Laber. Manheim Bor.— Nathan Werley, Samuel Ruhl. Penn Twp.— George Ruhl. West Lampeter— Aldus C. Kerr. 
Enterprise P. O., East Lampeter- Mark P. Cooper. Strasburg Bob Hervey Brackbill. 

Orders for Roofing Should be sent to 

Josepli G-ibbons, 

LICENSEE FOR LANCASTER AND YORK COUNTIES, PA., AND CECIL COUNTY, MD., 

Enterprise P. 0., Lancaster County, Pa. 

Or A. W. & J. R. RUSSELL, Lancaster, Pa. 

Or MOSkES light, Manheim, Lancaster county, Pa. 

Or JOHN R. BRICKER, Litiz, Lancaster county, Pa. 

ALDUS C. HERR, Lampeter, Lancaster county, Pa. 



WEEK'S WHEAT, (WHITE. 



We offer prime seed of this very early White Wheat, which we consider the most valuable variety of 
recent introduction, combining the hardiness and early maturity of the Mediterranean, with the high 
flouring quality of the best White Wheats. Its straw is stiff, protecting it against the Fly, and it suc- 
? cecds well in land of moderate fertility, yielding from 25 to 45 bushels, according to soil and season. 
« Prices : 1 bushel^ (SacJcincluded,) - - - - $ 4.00, 

*i ' 2 '' { '' '' ) - - - - 7.50, 

'( 10 ** I *' *' ) - - - - 36.00. 

We also offer a fine supply of FRENCH RED and WHITE CHAFFS, EXTRA EARLY JERSEY, 
ROCHESTER RED CHAFF, LANCASTER RED CHAFF, by the bushel and sack, and a number of 
other varieties in limited quantity. 

Descriptive Priced Circular mailed free to applicants. 

Ed-w^ard J. Evans & Co., 



vrrtr r ' 



THE GREAT AMERICAN COMBINATION 



Is warranted to execute in the best manner, every variety of 

SEWING, HEMMING, FELLING, CORDING, TUCKING, BRAIDING, GATH- 
ERING, QUILTING, OA^ERSEAMING, EMBROIDERING ON THE EDGE, 

And in addition makes beautiful Button and Eyelet Holes in 
•^ " ^=^=( 21 a^l fabrics, being absolutely the best FAMILY MACHINE 

?1 m^ iJmL. in the world, and intrinsically the Cheapest, for it is two 

Machines combined in one by a simple and beautiful Mechani- 
cal Arrangement. This is, in fact, the only new machine in 
the market that embodies any substantial improv'^ement upon 
the many old machines that are being forced upon the public. 
Circulars with full particulars and samples of work done on this 
Machine, can be had on application at the 

Sales Hooms of tlie Conapany, 

S. W. Cor. nth and Chestnut Sts., PHILADELPHIA. 




Instructions given on the Machine gratuitouslv to purchasers. 

AGENTS WANTED TO SELL THIS MACHINE. 



aug 'C9-ly 



A. B. KAUFMAN'S 

Insurance Agency, 

No. 1 EAST ORANGE ST., 
LANCASTER CITY, PA., 

Issues Life, and also. Policies against Fire and 
all other Accidents. 

AGENT FOR THE OLD 

CONN. MUTUAL LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, 

The Best Company in the World. 

CAPITAI., - - - ^33,000,000. 



PEACHES! PEACHBBM 

A heavy stock, 4 to 6 feet high, at low rates, 

i@;§iSI ^@§iS!| ^@gi§.0? 
Best kinds in all the classes. Heavy stock 

of Prairies. 

Larf/e blocks of CHERBTEH, DWARF 

APPLES, PLU3IS, APRICOTS, 

IRISH JUNIPER, ARBOR 

VITjE, &c., &c.. 

Full Line of Stock in every Department. 

Hoopes Bro., & Thomas, 

Cherry Hill Nurseries, 

WKSX CHESXJER, P^. 

N. B. The "BOOK OF EVERGREENS." by .Tosiah 
Hoopes, sent per Mail, prepaid on receipt of price, ? 3.00. 
Address as above. 



.jirlj^ISriDIS &c CDO., 



f P 




fJames Street, Lancaster, Pa., 

AKE PREPARED TO DO ALL KINDS OF 







BUILD LARGE AND SMALL ENGINES, 

Wm. PULLEYS. MSeEIS, BOISE k WM-FOWEIS. 

MILL GE^RIISTG, 

And ail kind of Machine Work done at a first class Shop. 

Plaving recently removed to their new building, and provided themselves 
with a 



■^ 



14 



Adapted to the wants of their customers, they are prepared to execute all or- 
ders with iieatness and dispatch, and on terms satisfactory to the customer. 
They would invite attention to their large foundry connected with their works, 
in which the best work is turned out. 
• They also announce that they are now prepared to supply their 

TO ALL CUSTOMERS;niHK0 orff Vd'eVooH 

This Machine requires Less Powee, does More Work, and is considerable 
Cheaper than any other Separator now in the market. This Machine is now 
improved, well built, and does the best and most efficient clnss of work. 

:Made to order on a new set of STANDARD DIES. 

Repairing of all kinds promply done at reasonable rates.'' 
Give us a call, and we will endeavor to please our patrons. 

FRANK LANDIS, 
EZRA F. LANDIS, 

'^^'^ "V ^"-= : JACOB LANDIS. 



Diller 4 Groff's Hardware Store, 

No. 8 East King Street, Lancaster City, Penna. 

DEALERS IN 

Foi^eigii and Domestic ECard^ware, 

Such as Building Material, Paints, Varnishes, Oils, Glass, Coach Trimmings, Stoves, 

Iron and Steel, &c., &c., &c. 

XiOCfSB FTJRHJS]BIMG G O O I> S . 

TIMOTHY AND CLOVER SEEDS OF THE BEST QUALITY. 





No. 37 North Queen St., 

NEXT DOOR TO SHOBEIR'S HOTEL, LANCASTER, PA. 

liiif ^ oiif 1, 

WAGON GEARS, WHIPS, BUFFALO ROBES, 

BLAMETS, TRDMS, VALISES, CARPET BA&S, LABIES' &GENTS' SATCHELS, 

Of aU kinds constantly kept on hand or made to order. Repairing neatly done. 

Also, Agent for BAKER'S HOOF LINIMENT, the best article for Sore 
Hoofs in the country. 




J. M. WESTHAEFFER, 

44, Corner North Queen and Orange Streets, 




M 



•/» A T 



LA.lSr CASTER, PA.. 



N. B. — ^Any Book ordered ean be sent by Mail to any address. 



H[A.RD^VA.IIE! 

Stoves ! 

GedariTirare ! 

Housekeepers' Furnishings Goods! 



The undersigned at their old established stand in 
I WEST KINO STREET, 

are constantly receiving fresh supplies to their exten- 
sive Stock, from the best manufactories in this Coun- 
try and Europe, and invite the attention of Merchants 
and Consumers, feeling that we can do as well as any 
house in Philadelphia. 

Persons commencing Housekeeping will find the 

The Largest and Best Selected Lot of 
STO'VES, 

at Manufacturers' Prices. Also, every other article 
kept in a first-class Hardware Store. 

A FULL STOCK OF 

Sadlers', Coaclunakers' and Blacksmiths' Tools 
and Materials. 

BUILDERS will find a full supply of every thing 
suited to their wants at LOWEST FIGURES. 

CLOVER, TIMOTHY AND FLAX SEED, 

BOUGHT AND SOLD. 

STEINMAN & CO. 



p. E. GRUGER. 



J.P.GRUGER. 



GRUGER BROTHERS, 

MARBLE MASONS, 

14 South dueen St., Lancaster, Fa., 

Have always on hand or will furnish to order at 

(SHORT NOTICE, 

MONUMENTS, 

TOMBS, 

GRAVE STONES, 

&c., &c. 

We pay particular and personal attention both to the 
SELECTION OF THE MATERIAL and the EXECU- 
TION OF OUR WORK, and our facilities now are such 
that we can guarantee our customers the very best 
work, at the same, and often Lower Prices, than are 
usually paid elsewhere for inferior productions. 

Lettering 



m 



English 



and 



German, 

ELEGANTLY AND CORRECTLY DONE. 

We earnestly invite our country friends to give us v 
call. 



SHULTZ & BRO. 

Manufacturers, Wholesale and Retail Dealers in 

Caps and Fiars, 

LADIES' FANCY FURS, 

HOODS, 

TRIMMED GLOVES AND MITTS, 
Gents' Gloves, Capes and Collars, 

Fancy Robes, 

bla.nk:ets, &c. 

20 North Queen Street, 
LANCASTER, PA. 

AMERICAN WATCHES 




H.LRHOADS&BRO., 

JVo. 2^ West King Street, 

Next Dock Below Cooper's Hotel, 
DEALERS IN 

&MiSl€M & IMPdRf IJ» 
^w A. T c H e:s , 

CLOCKS AND SPECTACLES; 



c 



11 Bill KEiY!! 



THE UNDERSIGNED REPRESENTS THE 



Y. 



AND ALSO THE 

Life M kikil tarance Compiif, 

Both stable and well established companies, the former 
having a capital of $1000,000, and the latter $500,- 
000. 

The plan of issuing policies by the Brooklyn Life 
Insurance Company presents a feature altogether 
unique, and one which removes one of the strongest 
objection, hitherto urged against the plan of Life Insur- 
ance ; and this is what is termed the Surrender Value 
Plan. Each and every Policy issued in the name of 
this Company bears an endorsement, stating the exact 
worth of the policy in Cash, at any time after two or 
more annual premiums have been paid. 

Insurance, can also be effected in the North American 
Life Insurance Company, and at lower rates, it is be- 
lieved, than in any other Company in the United States. 

All desirous of securing insurance upon their lives 
can do so by calling upon the undersigned. 

ALLE^ CIllTflRIE, Agt., 

Cast Ijemon. Street, 

LANCASTER, PA. 



CHARLES T. GOULD, 

CBfAIR MANUFACTURER, 

; ^ 'No. 37 North Queen St., Lancaster, 

. "^'"mI^next door to shober's hotel,) > J/;'K|J< 

Old Chairs Re-painted and Repaired. 
' CHRISTIAN WIDMYER, 

S. E. Gor. East King & Duke Sts., Lancaster. 

Cabinet "Work of every description and a full 
, assortment of Chairs constantly on hand. 
n^All Warranted as Represented. ,,£j\ 



d. yiii 



■> 



h 




LANCASTER, P 

Dealers in United States 
kinds of Railroad Stock and State! 

Buy and Sell Gold, Silver, and United 
States Coupons. 

Sell Billa of Exchange on Europe and Pas^uge 
Certificates. 

• Receive Money on Deposit and paj Irceicsi as 
follows: 

1 month, 4 per cent,, 6 months, 5 poT cent. 
3 " 4i " 12 " 5i 



FOR SALE AT 



J^aX 



Chas. A. Heinitsli's Drug Store, 13 E. King 5f., 

LANCASTER, PENNA., 

German Cattle Powders! 

The best Powder made for the Cure and Prevention of Dis- 
eases to which Oxen, Milk Cows, Sheep and Hogs, are subject. 
For Stock Cattle preparing for market, a table spoonful in 
their feed once or t^fice a week, improves their condition by 
strengthening their digestive organs, and creates solid flesli 
and fat. 

GERMAN VEGETABLE OB UNRIVALLED CONDI- 
TION POWDERS 
For preserving Horses in good health, removing all Diseases 
of the Skin, giving a Smooth and Glossy appearance, also a 
sure remedy for Distemper, Hidebound, Loss of Appetite, &c. 

PERSIAN INSECT POWDER. 
A perfectly safe, quick and easily applied destroyer of Lice 
on Cattle, Fleas, Bedbugs, &c. 

PTROLIGNEOUS ACID. 
A suflltltute for curing Beef, Pork, Hams, Tongnef", Sinobed 
Sausages, Fish, &c., without the danger and trouble of smok- 
ing, imparting a rich flavor and color. 



JACOB ROTHARMEL, 

rEEJIIUM 
DEALER IN 

^©Mlbs. and FaEoj AFtlelleSj 

No. 9^ North Queen Street, Lancaster, Pa. 

CRUGER & iilCE, ~~ 

DRUGGISTS & APOTHECARIES, 

^o. 13 WEST KING STREET, 

NEXT DOOR TO STEINMAN'S HARDWARE STORE, 

Lancaster, Pa, 

Have always on hand Pure, Reliable Drugs and Medi- 
cines, Chemicals, Spices, Perfumery and Toilet 
.. ■ Articles. Also Flavoring Extracts of 
their own Manufacture, and of 
unsurpassed quality. 

Sole Agents for Hasson's Compound Syeup op Tab, the 
best Cough Medicine in the market. We have also on hand in 
season an assortment of Laudreth's Warranted Garden Seeds. 

The public can rely upon always getting what thky 

ABK rOE AND NO BUBSTIT0TES. 



GEO. To ROTH, 

UNDERTAKER, 

Corner South Queen and Viae Streets, 

LANCASTER, PA. 

Coffins of all sizes always on hand, and furnished at 
Shortest Notice, 



•1 V I /I 



i J. B. KEVINSKI, 

• i)'EALER IN 

woj; -"iit;!! ■ 

Pianos, Organs, and Melodeons 

AND MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS GENERALLY, 

A large assortment of Violins, Flutes, Guitars, BanjoSj)^ 
Tamborines, Accordeons, Fifes, Harmonicas, and 
Musical Merchandise always on hand. 

SHEET MUSIC ! ^ large stock on band and constantly re j 
ceiving all the latest intblieations as soon as issued. 

MUSIC BY MAIL : I would inform persons wishing Music,! 
that Music and Musical Books will be sent by mail free of J 
postage when the marked price is remitted, 

DECALCOMANIA, or the art of Transferring Pictures. Can] 
be transfeiTed to any object. I would call especial attentio ■■ 
of Ooachmakers to my stock of Decalcomania. 



World Mutual Life InsurancQ,Company, 

NO. 160 BROADWAY, NEW YORK. 

J. F. FRXSUAUFF^ General Agenf^ 

No. 5 North Queen Street, Lancaster, Pa. 

A. r>. REIDENBACH, Litiz, Lancaster County, Pa. 
SAMUEL L. TETTER, Elizabethtown, Lancaster County, Pa. 
J. M. GRAYBILL, Columbia, Lancaster County, Pa. 

JACOB BAUSMAN, President Farmers' National Bank. Maj. JAS. E. RICIiSECIvER, City Treasurer. '\ 

CHRIS'N B. HERR, Pres't Lancaster Co. Nat'l Bank. N. ELLMAKER, Esq., Attorney. 

Messrs. BAIR & SHENK, Bankers. B. F. BAER, Esq., Attorney. 

Judge A. L. HAYES. Col. WM. L. BEAR, Prothonotary. J. F. LONG & SON, Druggists. 

Xo farmer is Justified in exposing his creditors, tiis wife, or Ids children^ to the loss 
certain to occur to them upon his death, ivlthout a Life Itisv/rance Policy for their 
benefit, and in no Cor.ipany can this he done tvith more safety and under better man- 
agement than in the above. See one of their Agents and have him explain all about it. 



$200. 



ECi^RVEST OF i 869. 

w mm w iP^i 



$200. 



A COiViBi^EO SELF-BAKiHG REAPER AND iOWER 

After our success in (be Harvest of 18^8, in pleasing our customers with a neat, light, durable, and a com- 
plete Combined Harvester, we again come into the market for the Harvest of 1869 with our VALLEY CHIEF, 
feeling a great confidence in its superiority. 

We offer this machine still at the low price of $200, and when a farmer is offered a first-class Mower and 
Self-Raking ]\eaper Combined at this price, it is well for him to examine into the merits of the offer. . As a 
Mower, it has bean tried in the worst kinds of heavy meadow grass and lodged clover and has gone through 
it triumphantly, and we call on our hundreds of customers in Lancaster county and elsewhere to speak a good 
word for the Marsh Self-Rake. We claim that this Self-Rake in heavy tangled grain or lodged oats is the most 
simple and efficient one ever invented. It is not a new thing, but has been most severely tested all over the 
United States, as well as in England and France. We think no other one in the market can fairly compete 
with it. See what the report of the great National Reaper trial held at Auburn, New York, by the New 
York Agricultural Society, says on page 41 and 42 : It performed better than was expected of any Self-Rake, 
as it raked off heavy, tangled, wet grain. And in their language, Reapers are not built for so severe a test; 
they gave it the highest mark for perfect work. 

The VALLEY CHIEF is a simple two-wheeled machine, having side delivery which throws the grain en- 
tirely out of the way of the team for the next round. It, lias a rear cut, a floating finger bar, the guards or 
lingers are made of the best wrought iron, faced with steel. The heiglit of the cut can be altered with ease 
while in motion, thus enabling one to pass obstructions or cut long or short stubble and the whole machine is^ 
built with an eye to convenience, siinplicifi/ and dttrahilit'i. This Machine is built in Lancaster county, one of 
the heaviest grass and wheat growing districts in the United States, and we have had every opportunity 
of knowing what is wanted. In this machine we have a combination of a complete Mower with a first-class 
Self-Raking Reaper, thus giving our customers a simple, strong and handy machine which two horses can 
draw with ease. 

Pleaee call and see thig machine at oiir manuftotory, in M<iunt Joy, Lancaster county, Pa., or on D. Burk- 
holder. Agent, at Mrs. Neber's Saloor^, Souihsvest corner of Centre Square, Lancaster, Pa., or at Yundts Corn 
Exchange Hotel. JMAJRSH, CrKIEK. &> CO. 



\ 



LAN0A8TER, June 25th, 1868, 
Editobs ExPKEes : Dr. Wm. M. Whiteside, the enterpris- 
ing Dentist, has purchased from me a large stock of teeth and » 
all the fixtures, the instruments formerly belonging to me, and 
also those used by my father, Dr. Parry, in his practice.. In 
the purchase, the doctor has provided himself with some of 
the most valuable and expensive instruments used in dental 
practice, and has beyond doubt- one of the best and largest 
collections of teeth and instruments in the State. Persons 
visiting the commodious olRces of Dr. Whiteside, cannot fail 
to be lully accommodated. The Doctor loses no opportunity 
of furnishing himself with every late Scientific imprevemeut 
in his line of business. • H. B. PABRY. 

W. M. ITITHITBSIDX:^ 

Office and Residence, 

EAST KING STREET, 

Next door to the Court House, over Fahnestock's Dry 
Goods Store, 

LANCASTER, PENNA. 

Teeth Extracted without 2*ain by the use of 
{Nitrous Oxide) Gns. 

BOOKS AND STATIONERY. 



A Full assortment of 

SCHOOL, MISCELLANEOUS, AGRI- 
CULTURAL AND HORTI- 
CULTURAL BOOKS, 

A large stock of 

ST^TIOlSTiCRY, 

WHICH WILL BE SOLD AT 

GREATLY REDUCED PRICES, 

On account of removal April 1st, 1869, to 

No. 52 North Queen Street, 

(KRAMP'S BUILDING) 

Four Doors ubove Orange Street. 

Subscriptions received for all the Agricultural and 
Horticultural Magazines. 

J. H. SHEAFFEE'S 

Cheap Cash' Book Store, No. 52 N. Queen 
Street, LANCASTER, PA. 

Dr. N. B. BRISBINE, 

No. 93 EAST KING STREET, Above Lime. 

The Doctor pays special attention to all old obstinate 
diseases, such as Consumption, Liver Complaint, Dys- 
pepsia, Rheumatism, all diseases of the Heart, Head, 
Throat, Lungs, Stomach, Bowels, Kidneys, Nervous 
Debility, General Debility, &c. The doctor makes ex- 
aminations of the Urine. Consultation Free. 



S. TVESLCHENS, D. D. S., 

SURGEON DENTSIT, 

Office and Hesidence, 

HOWELL'S BUILDING, No. m NORTH QUEEN ST., 

Hiilf a square south of the K. H. Depot. 

Twenty Years' Successful Practice in Lancaster 

The Latest improvements in INSTRUMENTS 
and TEETH and the very best material, Warranted 
in all operations. 

TEETH EXTRACTED WITHOUT PAIN with 
the use of Nitrous Oxide Gas, Ether, or the Ether 
Spray. 

TERMS, as low as any in the city, when low priced 
material and Imc priced work are used. 

But for FIRST-CLASS OPERATIONS, with ap 
pliances and material to correspond, prices range 
higher. 

S. WELCHENS, D. D. S. 



THOS. J. WENTZ, 

SUCCESSOR TO 

WENTZ BROTHERS, 

SIOJN OF THE BEE HIVE, 

Ho. 5 EAST KING STREET, LANCASTER, PENN'A., 

DEALEK IN 

FOREI&N AND BOMESTIC DRY GOODS 

CariM*fs, Oil Cloths, Window Shades. 

SPECIAL ATTENTION PAID TO 

HiaDJiS' ©l^iii (E®®©l 

Shawls and Embioideries, Cloths and Cassimeres, 

Handkerchiefs, Gloves and Hosiery, 

Best Kid Gloves. 

The Choicest of the Market, and at the Lowest Possibh.' 
Prices. ; 

BEMEMBER THE PLACE TO BUY. 

THOS. J. WENTZ, 

Bee Hive Store, No. 5 E. King St, 



G. J. GILiLiBSFIK, 



DEALER IN 



FOREI&N AND AMERICAN WATCHE 

IN GOLD AND SILVER CASES, 

CLOCKS OF EVERY DESCEIPTION, 

Jewelry in all its Shapes and Forms, 

SILVER WARE, designed for Bridal Presents; !j 

BRACKETS, TOILET SETS, VASES, SPECTACLBSlj 

GOLD PENS, &c., &c., &c. !^ 

No. 10)^ West King Street, opposite the Cross Keys HoteilN 

LANCASTER, PA. 




BEST fll €1 



FLUTO, 

MELODIA, 

BASSOON, 

BOURDON, 

MANUEL-BASS, 

EOLEON-FORTE, 

KNEE-TREMOLO. 

c c 



A ROUlf^D, FULL IRSCH TOPIE!" 




■■.::o\"c;:;-i,|:,l'::j. 



■/-iH.rr^J.'alllSmprKTi 



M. 









■>\\ 




PICCOLO, 

GAMBU, 

CLARIONET, 

EOLEON, 

OCTAVES, 

PICCOLO-FORTE, 

KNEE-SWELL. 



THIS TEHVCIPIliE OE.O-.A.3sf 

Js aokiKiwk-ducd l.v all who have exaiaiiiort it to W- the most perfect Reed instrument everintroduced to the pnhlic, having 
been awardeil the FIRST PKIZK, over all eomprtiJois, "for quality of tone and promptness of action." IT COM- 
BINES ALL, REGENT I IMPROVEMENTS, and for poweu, fulnkss pukity of tone, and quick kesi-onse 
TO Till-; TOUCH, snri)as;se.s all others ill its ch>se resemblance to the Pipe Organ. Its Construction IS entirely WCW, 
and different from all otlier Reed Organs now in use, surpassing aU in simplicity and equal to any in durability. Tlie editor 
of the "Temple ok IMusic" says : 

"It is a most mactnificent instrument, and has many fine qualities to recommend it; among others, its stops, imitating 
most siieeessfully many of tlie most useful in the pipe organ. The flute, the Piccolo, bassoon, clarionet and yarious others, 
are such iierfect' imitations that it would be difiieult to distinguish them from the genuine, at a little distance from the per- 
former. Wc liayo for a long time seen the necessity for a reed organ that combined the qualities which we believe an; con- 
tained in this ; and wo invite the severest eritici.sm, not only as to its superior excellence as a musical instrument, but also 
•IS to its ele;,'ant finish, making it the most beautiful parlor instrument extant." ; 

All the various styles for Church, Hall and Parlor, furnished to ordivr, at manufacturers' prices, by their Agent, 



r.i<i J.^ 



No. 70 East King St., Lancaster, Ir*a., 
wliere the Organ inay be seen, and details as to styles and prices obtained. 

SUPER FHOSPHATE OF LIME, 

THE GREAT FERTIEIZER OF ALL CROPS, 

:\L\NUF.\('TTRED FROM BONES, DISSOLVED IN SULPHURIC ACID. WARRANTED PERFECTLY 

FKEE FROM ADULTERATION. 
Our new C'irculav containing much valuable infoiiuatiou, will be furuislied free on application to 

MILLER & SMITH, Sole Manufacturers & Proprietors, 
AGEICITLTURAL CHEMICAL WORKS, 

flic BesTWork ! The Lowest Prices!! 



A. SCHINDLER & BROTHER, 

(JildtT.s and ^JLtiniraetuiors dl' Ivonkinii (Mas.scs, (ISfanlC'l, I'k'i* Glasses, etc.,) and Picture Fi-anios of all kinds. 
Dealers in Cliiomo Lilliogrnijlis, Kteel Engravings and Water Color Paintings. 

Gilt, ]!ose\vood, and Walnut Fi-amcs of every description, and Square and Rustic. Room Mouldings, Cornices, 
etc., always on hand or made to order. 

Also,lte-Gilding, j-epairing ard inserting of Looking Glasses, etc., etc. 



THE FLORENCE SEWING MACHINES. 

THE BEST MACHINE FOR FAMILY USE. 

SIMi-LE AND EASY TO LEARN AND NOT LIABLE TO UET OUT OF ORDER. 

Capable of all varieties of sewing from the finest to the coarsest. Make the Lock 

Stitch alike on both sides, and use the least thread. 

OT. F. DUBTGAN Agent^ 

Xo. 65 North Queen Street, i.ANCiVSTER, PA. 



REGISTER OP WHILES. 

We are authorized to announce that 

DR. WILLIAM M. WHITESIDE, 

late Lieutenant of Company E, 10th Regiment, tirst three months service, and 
Captain of Company^ I, 79th Regiment Pen na. Volunteers of Lancaster, is a 
candidate for REGISTER of Lancaster county, subject to the decision of the 
Republican votes at the ensuing Primary Election. 



C -A. !R, ID ' 

REIGART'S OLD WIIVE STORE, 

ESTABLISHED IN 1TS5, 

No. 26 EAST KING ST., LANCASTER, PENNA. 

The reputation of REIGART'S OLD WINE AND BKAN- 
DIES for purity and excellent quality having been tully es- 
tablished for nearly a century, we regret that the conduct of 
some unprincipled dealers, who re-till with and sell from our 
labled bottles their deleterious compounds, compels us to adopt 
the annexed trade mark, which in future, for the protection 
of ourselves and our customers, will be found on all our old 
bottled Wines, Brandies, Gins, Whiskies, Bitters, &c. 



TRADE 




MARK. 



And further, in order to protect the same, we hereby an- 
nounce our determination to prosecute to the fullest extent of the 
Act of Assembly, approved, 31st day of March, 1860, any per- 
son or persons wlio shall violate the provisions of said act as 
appUeable to our trade mark. 

N. B — We respectfully request the public, when they have 
occasion or desire to use Old Brandy at the Hotels or Restau- 
rants to ask particularly for Reigart's Old Brandy. 
Very respectfully. &c., 

H. E. SLAYMAKER, Agt. 



UNION SPOKE AND AGRICULTURAL WORKS 

Cornex" of Water antl Leixion Sts., 
Formerly Shirk «& Royer's Warehouse, on the Penna. Rail- 
road, near Baumgardner's coal yard, and 2 squares west from 
the Railroad Depot, where we manufacture the 

LATEST IMPROVED GRAIN DRILLS. 

Also, Grain Drills with Guano attached, warranted to give 
satisfaction. Rockaway J^'ana, Cider JtlillH, Cruahem and 
Grattrs, tor horse or hand power, which will grind a bushel 
of apples i)er minute by horse power, and are warranted to do 
it well. We would also inform Ooachmakers that we have put 
up in our shop two of the latest improved Spolce Jaachinea, 
or Jjathea, and are fully prepared to fuinish the best quality 
of SPOKES of all kinds, sizes, dry or part dry, and warranted 
to be a good article. We buy none but the best turned Spokes, 
and have now on hand 100,000 SFOKJES. Bknt Felloes 
of all sizes; Shafts and Cakria(;k Poles, Bows, &c., of 
seasonable stuft", constantly on hand. 

As Mr. Keeler has been in this business 16 or IS years, an<l 
having served an apprenticeship at Coachmaking, he knows 
what the trade want in that line. All kinds of Bent Stutf for 
sale, or made to order— and Sjiokes of all sizes turned for per- 
sons having them on hand in the rough. 

Notice to Farmers and Mechanics Planing and Saw- 
ing done at the shortest notice. We have one of the best and 
latest Improved Surface Planes for operation. 

KEELER ii SHAEFFEK, Lancaster, Pa. 



ZAHM & JACKSON, 

No. 15 NOBTH ftUEEN ST., 

Beg leave to call the attention of persons in want of 
a good and reliable Time Keeper to their full assort- 
ment of 

AMERICAN AND SWISS WATCHES, 



In Gold and Silver Cases which will be sold at 
prices which will defy competition. Also, a full assort- 
ment of 



of all kinds, which we will warrant good and correct 
time-keepers. 



in great variety, such as Pins, Setts, Ear Rings, Fiuoer 
Rings, Sleeve Buttons, Chains, &c. 



SOLID SILVER WARE, 

Manufactured expressly for our sales and warranted coin. 

PLATEI3 WARE, 

From the best factories and warranted the tinest quality. 

Gold, Silver and Steel Spectacles. Hair Jewelry 
Made to Oraer. 

Repairing Promptly Attended to. 

ZAHM & JACKSON. 



THE 




Vol. I. 



LANCASTER, PA., OCTOBER, 1869. 



No. 10. 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY 

WYI^IE & GBIEST, 

INQUIKER BUILDING, LANCASTER, PA., 
At ONE DOLLAR PER YEAR In Advance 

UNDER THK AD8PICK8 OP THE 

I^ANCASTER C'OUNTT AOKICITLIXRAI. AND 
UOKTlCUIiTUBAL. SOCIETY. 



Publithing Committee: 
Dr. p. W. Hiestand, 
H. K. Stoner, 
Jacob M. Fkantz, 
Casper Hillek, 
Lkvi W. Gkofp, 
Alexander Harris. 



Editnrial Committee. 
J. B. Garbeb, 
H. M. Englk, 
Levi S. Kkist, 
"W. L. Diffenderpeh, 
J. H. Musser, 
S. S. Rathvon. 



"All communications Intended for the Farmer should be 
addressed to 6. S. Kathvon and Alex. Harris, the resident 
members of the Editing and Publishing Committees. 

All-advertisements, subscriptions and remittances, to Wylie 
& Griest, Printers. 



€5mH^ 



VEGETABLE PHYSIOLOGY. 

THE LEAF AS AN ORGAN OF VEGETATION. 

The organs in all living bodies are more com- 
plex as they approach the surface, or become ex- 
posed to external agencies. The root of the plant, 
as we have already seen, is an organ of vegeta- 
tion, but by reason of its protection by being 
buried in the earth, its structure is coarse and 
tender. Its function being simply to imbibe the 
moisture ; no complication beyond the cell struc- 
ture is^'required. The stem is also an organ of 
vegetation, but its exposure to the changes and 
violence of the elements renders a higher and 
more complicated organism necessary. The leaf 
in its turn, emerging still higher into the air, and 
venturing more and more into the maze of exter- 
nal conditions as they are presented in the gases 
of the atmosphere, has a function to perform 
which requires a wonderful complexity of organic 
mechanism. 

The economy of nature is so rich and lavish in 
all its powers of adaptation to the conditions of 
growth, that, although the organs just mentioned 
as the essential principles of vegetation, are to 
some extent isolated from each other, and widely 
different in form and structure, they are neverthe- 



less most happy in their relative actions andblend, 
their functional powers so perfectly that every 
element of growth in the earth and air is carefully 
taken up, and all the changes of season and 
climate are most opertunely provided, for. 

In the process of vegetation, nature has not 
only amply provided for the upbuilding of the 
plant through its organs, but by various complica- 
tions of structure and texture every action is 
carefully guarded. The living, moving animal 
is<warned of danger, and seeks self preservation 
from an instinctive principle, which is inherent 
and always equal to the task, and when violence 
threatens destruction, hunger pinches, or thirst 
parches, the power of locomotion is the ready 
and gracious instrument of salvation and protec- 
tion. But the plant being held to the spot by 
virtue of the very organ designed to furnish and 
sustain life, the stem has its safeguard in the 
epidermis, or bark, but the leaf being always 
tender and flexible, and ever in service during 
the whole season of vegetation, must, in its very 
composition, contain the power of preservation, 
in connection with every active exercise of its 
proper function. 

The leaf as it meets our every-day vision, or is 
trod under foot when it has subserved its pur- 
pose and has fallen to the earth as inert matter, 
excites very little wonder or admiration to those 
who do not take the trouble to examine its won- 
derful mechanism, or its admirable adaptation to 
the office it is destined to perform. We look up 
into a tree when in full foliage, or upon the plant 
covered with the verdure of living green, and be- 
yond the promise of fruit, or a rich harvest, our, 
minds rarely penetrate the grandeur of the great 
scheme of nature which requires such a surface of 
what we term " Parcrchymo." Were it not for 
the economy which is presented in this wonder- 
ful organism, it would be about as difficult to pre- 
serve a proper vital equilibrium in the world, as 
to expect a full vegetable growth in the absence 
of rain or sunshine. Those great fundamental 
powers that move and preserve the vital ener- 
gies of the world, as they are recognized in the 
gases of the atmosphere,— heat, moisture and the 



146 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



laws of life and health, must have their purifying 
and balancing principles, and there is no sub- 
stance more effective in this work than that which 
is represented by the blade of grass, or the leaf 
of a tree. 

The leaf is not only so constructed as to elab- 
orate the sap of the plant, but it absorbs and con- 
sumes the carbonic acid gas, which is everywhere 
evolved, and which, were it not thus disposed of, 
would render the earth uninhabitable. In this 
general view it will be seen that nature is not 
thus clothed simply to gratify the vision of man, 
but to be conducive to his health, as well as to 
aftbrd him food and nourishment. 

The same laws which govern the conformation 
and structure of the root and branch, are applica- 
ble to the leaf also as an organ of vegetation. 
The nature of the tissues which enter into the 
fabric of the towering oak, runs through these de- 
ciduous organs, which flourish but for a season, 
and then fall and wither as the grass of the field. 
The relative position of the leaf upon the tree 'is 
not only essential to its function ; but it is sug- 
gestive of the species and habits of the growth it 
represents. Its formation and size indicates its 
duration, and often determines its life, destiny, 
and the climate to which the plant that it repre- 
sents, belongs. • 

The function of the root is to absorb the mois. 
ture of the earth, which, by a previous chemical 
action, has become laden with the various min- 
eral compounds which enter into the life of veg- 
etation. The fluid thus taken up is water simply, 
holding this mineral matter in solution, which 
undergoes a change by contact with the air that 
prepares it for assimilation. The leaf is not only 
the medium by which this is efiected, but its pe- 
culiar structure renders it capable of its elabora- 
tion also. In order to understand properly the 
structure of this organ, it is necessary to explain 
the import of its functions. 

This process of chemical change in the circula- 
ting medium, is natvu*al to every species of life. 
It seems to be necessary that this transformation 
be effected within the body of the object, and the 
higher the organization is, the more complicated 
the apparatus for this purpose seems to become. 
In the animal this change takes place in the 
lungs. The venous blood there comes in contact 
with the oxygen of the atmosphere, and a combus- 
tion takes place which sets free carbonic acid gas 
and returns arterial blood to the system for assim- 
ilation. This, however, is not the whole process 
of elaboration of the blood of the animal. The 
liver and other organs are concerned in its prepa- 
ration for this final change. The structure of the 
organs thus involved would be a theme of fruitful 



and profitable study, but it does not properly be- 
long to our subject. We refer to them here, 
simply, as an analogy. But the grandeur of the 
arrangement between the two kingdoms, which 
is here suggested, is well calculated to challenge 
our admiration. One of the fundamental laws of 
chemistry, m effecting elementary combinations, 
is to have fixed and determinate proportions. 
Now to preserve that balancing power, which 
regulates the remote principles of vital action, 
elements which, in their normal relations, are 
mutually repellant, must become subservient to 
the common interests of life. Accordingly, the 
gas that is exhaled from the lungs of the animal 
becomes food for the plant, and is inhaled by its 
leaves. This gas is volatile in the extreme to the 
animal, and by reason of it being engendered in 
unlimited quantities from every species of dead 
or decaying matter, and every object of combus- 
tion ; the economy of nature m using it up as food 
for the vegetable meets in a remarkable degree 
the very law of mutual benefit, by chemical equiv- 
alent, above referred to. Where the leaves of 
trees and grass and weeds, therefore, are to be 
found, there animal life can be sustamed, and will 
be protected by the immense surface afforded by 
this verdure, for the absorption of all that is poi- 
sonous in the atmosphere. 

As an organ to promote the growth of vegeta- 
tion, the leaf has a two-fold significance. By its 
structure it is capable of nourishing the plant by 
a rapid absorption of the element, and it is also 
able to protect it by preventing an undue evap- 
oration of the circulating fluid, in a dry season. 
These powers are the leading features in^its func- 
tion. If, as is alleged by some authors, the evap- 
oration of the sap through the leaves, is equal in 
all cases to the absorption of the root, the heat 
of the sun, when the earth is parched and sterile, 
would very soon consume the parenchyma, which 
is formed of cellular tissue, and is extremely ten- 
der and susceptible to the slightest injury, where 
there is not a perfect chemical equilibriiun of the 
conditions of growth ; unless in its formation there 
be some safeguard in the leaf to prevent such in- 
jury. Whether this theory be correct or not, 
(and we are obliged to dissent from it on princi- 
ple,) it will be seen that some provision for the 
protection of the tender plant, in such an emer- 
gency must be present. 

There is an immense quantity of fluid lost by 
what is termed the perspiration of the plant, but 
as it is worked up in the various functions of 
vegetation, there must necessarily a great quan- 
tity of sap remain, for obvious reasons, and to 
prevent the loss of this, is one of the leading 
characteristics of the leaf. 



THE LANCASTEE FAKMER. 



147 



The spongy and cellular tissue in the vegetable 
which is called " Parenchyma,^'' and which consti- 
tutes the green surface of the leaf, is the central 
object of interest in the study of its function. In 
this tissue the life of the plant meets the condi- 
tions of growth as they are presented in the air 
and light, just the same as the cellular tissue im- 
bibes the condition of growth as they are found 
in the soil. Though differently constructed, the 
root and the leaf are homogenous in nature, the 
difference in their conformation being necessary, 
in consequence of the character of the elements 
in which they have to operate. 

It is the " Parenchyma " which constitutes the 
food for the animal. Grass and herbs which are 
designed expressly for such noiu*ishment, are con- 
structed almost entirely of this tissue. The woody 
or fibrous tissue enters largely into the higher 
order of vegetation, where fruit is developed, or 
the flower is evolved. In trees and shrubs that 
live for years, the woody tissue is found in larger 
quantities in the leaf, not only to produce a more 
enduring texture, but to render it better able, by 
virtue of its organization, to elaborate a higher 
quality of sap. 

"VVe have devoted this article to these reflec- 
tions upon the uses and functions of the leaf, to 
enable us better to understand its peculiar struc- 
ture, which will be our theme for the next article. 

S. W. 

THE TEETH OP ANIMALS. 

No. 3. 

In the animal kingdom, as well as in the vege- 
table kingdom, there is a classification into tribes, 
families, and species. Xature has fixed laws and 
boundaries, which must be observed, if we desire 
to acquaint ourselves with her operations, and 
systematize our studies of her mysteries. As the 
result of careful investigation, the teeth of ani- 
mals are regarded as the most secure basis for 
their classification. 

The teeth of all animals are composed of three 
distinct substances ; namely, Enamel which con- 
stitutes the crown, or grinding surface ; the Den- 
tine which constitutes the body and internal 
fabric •, and the Cementum which invests the root, 
or that portion of the tooth which is embedded in 
the jaw. The importance of these distinctions in 
the structure of the teeth cannot be overestima- 
ted, since in their arrangement, the whole question 
of classification rests. The Enamel is the hardest 
Organic substance known. Its percentum being 
from four to six parts of enamel matter in a hun- 
dred. When we consider the immense amount 
of service allotted to those organs, the amazing 



strength of the animal will cease to be a wonder. 
The Dentine contains a great deal more animal 
matter than the enamel, and is consequently ex- 
ceedingly sensitive when exposed to the air, or 
to the action of food and the fluids of the mouth. 
It is also a much softer substance than the en. 
amel. The Cementum is still softer than the den- 
tine, and more analogous to the substance of the 
bones of the system. 

As we said before these structural distinctions 
must be borne in mind, in order to comprehend the 
mode of classifying, and determining the habits 
of the animal, and the kind of food necessary to 
its sustenance. For instance,Sthe gramenivora, or 
those that live on grain and grass, have the ar- 
rangement of those substances entirely diflerent 
to the carnivora, or those that live on flesh. In 
the latter the whole strength of the enamel is 
thrown to the surface, and the texture is dense or 
soft, according to the habits of the animal, or the 
length of time in keeping with the allotted limi- 
tation of duration and life. 

In the former, as iia the horse or cow, the 
crowns of the teeth, and especially of the front 
teeth, the soft substance of the cementum is mixed 
with, or is rather arranged between folds of the 
enamel. This provision of nature is admirably 
adapted to the wants and habits of those animals 
which are indispensable adjuncts of the farmer. 

To illustrate this point, we have no better com- 
parison at hand than the millstone. The trans- 
verse and concentric layers of the enamel as their 
sharp cutting edges come up boldly to the sur- 
face, and are filled in with this softer substance, 
and kept sharp by use, by the softer substance 
wearing out from between the harder substance, 
and thus in the normal state, the grinding surface 
of the teeth of those animals, is like the grinding 
surface of the mill-stone, with the exception that 
the tooth is self-sharpening. By this arrange- 
ment the outer edges or comers are kept as sharp 
as a knife, and is well calculated to clip off the 
smallest and finest blades of grass. 

These soft centres are subject tochanges.as the 
animal grows in years, as indeed is the case with 
the whole bony system. They arc hardened by 
age, and this will explain the disappearance of 
the mark of the horse when he reaches his tenth 
year. This cementum which fills up the spaces 
between the layers of the enamel, while the ani- 
mal is yet young, is soft, and becomes stained or 
colored by the grass or food. As age advance, 
therefore, this cementum hardens almost to the 
density of the enamel, and it being no longer sus- 
ceptible to the coloring properties of food, th» 
mark of the horse gradually but T«ry certainly 
disappear. 



148 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



These constitute some of the characteristics of 
the teeth of animals that are purely graniverous. 
In their classification of course other distinctions 
come up in the way of peculiar formation, of the 
teeth and bone, by which their tribe and family 
can be identified. Our object being simply to de- 
velop the habits of the animal, by the kind of 
food suggested through the formation of the teeth, 
we will devote our future article to that purpose. 

S. W. 



gtiaiKual 



WHEAT. 

Wheat is by far the most important and most 
extensively cultivated species of bread corn 
raised. Lancaster county at one time took the 
lead in raising wheat, the flour of which com- 
manded the highest market prices. Our soil is of 
a clayey nature, most suitable indeed. Wheat is 
adapted to heavy, stifflands, so that a great por- 
tion of Lancaster county might be termed wheat 
soil. It seems that Lancaster county flour now 
only commands S7 to $7.25 per barrel, while 
Western or Michigan flour.brings SIO to S10.50. 
How does this happen ? there must be a cause for 
this falling ofi*— because the same varieties are 
accessible and mode of culture; has the climate 
changed, or the soil ? Or may the hasty mode of 
cutting and stacking or storing away, the use of 
reaping machinery and the "double-quick go- 
ahead principle" now so prevalent, augment the 
cause ? Perhaps each may have a bearing on the 
question of " why and the wherefore." Wheat 
cut ten days before thoroughly ripe, and when 
fally ripe, grown in the same field of thin lime- 
stone soil, yielded diflerent results in the pro- 
duct—the one 220 pounds and the other 209 
pounds. The time of cutting then makes a dif- 
ference. Again, when cut, the shocks should be 
loosely set up and exposed to the sun and air, to 
drive off" the excess of moisture before the wheat 
is densely packed or stored in the barn ; is this 
done now as in former years ? Or is it cut one 
day and packed away the next, because not cut 
till dead ripe? If cut earlier, and immediately 
stored, it is inclined to sweat and heat, and in 
proportion as this heating and sweating takes 
place, the grain is more or less damaged for 
bread making. 

It is well understood by bakers, that the flour 
is not profitable to them that will take up and re- 
tain the greatest amount of water in the baked 
bread. It is ascertained that on an average 66i 
pounds of dry flour naturally holds lOi pounds of 
water. The flour in making bread will take up 



half its weight in water besides, so that 100 
pounds of flour will very nearly give 160 pounds 
of bread, allowing five per cent, for the loss in 
fermentation and the dryness of the crust. Com- 
mon salt makes the paste stronger and causes it 
to retain more water, so that the addition of salt 
is a real gain to the baker. Alum is also used 
with a view to this end, but it is doubtful as being 
conducive to the general health. There are 
other adulterations known to the initiated bakers 
to improve inferior qualities of flour, which are, 
however, really deleterious. I shall therefore 
not mention them, lest unprincipled bakers 
might profit by the information, to the injury of 
their customers. 

I, however, did not design to write a treaties 
on flour or bread making — my object is to awaken 
the inquiry as to the cause—" Why is Lancaster 
county flour inferior to Western- flour?" Some 
may claim that the vergin soil in the West would 
be a sufficient reason, as also the climate, the 
variety of wheat cultivated, the absence of in- 
sects, atmospheric blight or fungoid infection, not 
yet introduced in this comparatively new country. 
All this may have a bearing upon ihe question, 
yet do they not leave their shocks longer in the 
field, exposed to the action of air and sunshine, 
to consolidate the grain, by carrying off the super- 
ficial moisture more eff'ectually before the grain is 
stacked or put into barns? I, of course, do not 
pretend to know, and diflerent farmers, through 
choice or necessity, may adopt different niDdes of 
manipulation. The question now is, do our 
farmers rush their grain into stacks or barns too 
soon? Can the difference of the produce be 
traced to a difference of time in cutting and se- 
curing the grain ? These are the points. Not to 
enter into the question, what kind out of the 55 
varieties of winter wheat, or the 67 varieties of 
spring wheat, found to exist in the catalogues 
should be used in given localities or soils ? That 
may properly come under another head. Here 
arises the question, how do we come by these 
varieties ? A few facts may draw the attention 
of our farmers to an important consideration. I 
will here simply state how and from whence 
several varieties of wheat came into use, gleaned 
from published and good authority : 

Mr. Lambert, in a field extensively injured by 
rust and midge, found in the middle of the same 
a few heads perfectly free from both these mala- " 
dies. These he carefully gathered, and from the 
product came the once famous Lambert wheat, 
a variety that ripened even earlier than the 
Mediterranean. It was found that a larger pro- 
portion of eilicious matter had entered into its 
composition, thereby, perhaps, protecting it 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



149 



against the attack of the rust or midge. A su- 
perior variety of spring wheat, known as the 
China or black-tea wheat, originated from a few 
kernels found in a chest of black tea. Hunter's 
wheat, one of the oldest and most esteemed 
varieties in Scotland, was discovered half a cen- 
tury ago, by the roadside in Berwickshire. The 
Fenton wheat, a very valuable variety, which 
yields heavily on very strong soil, such as that on 
which it originated, was derived from a few ears 
found growing among the rubbish derived from a 
quarrry of basaltic rock. Piper's thick set, a 
wheat which yields largely on meadow soils, 
having produced 60 bushels to the acre, but is 
deficient in straw product, was derived from a re- 
markable ear, found in a wheat field and its pro- 
duce carefully cultivated. 

This shows the importance of observation and 
availing ourselves of natural indications of su- 
periority in the growth, and following it up with 
judicious cultivation, and care to prevent admix- 
ture. Yet such arc the laws of nature that all 
varieties tend to relapse to their original type, so 
that unless intelligence to guide and vigilance to 
perform or render the necessary attention at the 
proper time, the best soits may deteriorate, the 
best soils wear out, and the product diminish 
both in quality and quantity. Who is sufficient 
to understand all the conditions conspiring to pro- 
duce the best results, and even when greatly 
understood to guard against local or unusual or 
periodical climatic and other causes and effects? 
Echo answers who ? J. Stauffer. 



§^otticttlttttal 



FRUIT EXHIBITION 
IN THE orphan's COURT ROOM. 

Udd Sept. 2Qth. 1869. 

A special meeting was convened in the ante- 
chamber of the Orphan's Court Room, for th'' 
purpose of the appointment of the various com- 
mittees to pass upon the fruits on exhibition. 
The President announced the following gentle- 
men as constituting the different committees, viz: 

On nomenclature, Casper Hiller, .J. B. Garber, 
Calvin Cooper, Levi S. Reist, and Henry M. 
Engle. 

Commttee on the merits of apples, A. D. Hos- 
tetter and Calvin Cooper. 

Committee on the merits of grapes, H. K. 
Stoner and S. "Welchens. 

Committee on the merits of pears, J. H. Her- 
sbey and Peter Riley. 

Comftiittee on the merits of peaches. Dr. S«,n(il. 
Welchens and John B. Erb. 



Committee on the merits of vegetables and 
flowers, S.S. Rathvon, J. B. Kevinski, and Mrs. 
A. E. Roberts. 

The committee on apples submitted the follow- 
ing report : 

Levi S. Reist exhibited a small red apple worthy 
of cultivation, and also an assortment of other 
well-grown apples. 

P. S. Reist had some good specimens of apples. 

G. W. tthroyer showed Fallawater, and Bald- 
win, and H. K. Stoner had some fine apples. 

Henry M. Engle had a dark red apple of good 
size and fine flavor, together with seven othci,; 
varieties. 

C. Cooper had three extra large and highly col- 
ored Gravenstcins, together with 40 other very 
well-grown apples. 

J. G. Rush had eleven varieties of apples. 

A. D. Hostetter had good specimens of Falla- 
water, together with a number of other varieties. 

Levi Hoover had six varieties. 

Christian Hoover, five varieties. 

W. L. Diffenderfcr a handsome plate of Agnes 
apples. 

Casper Hiller a seedless apple, and some very 
large specimens of Rambos, with 30 other varie- 
ties. 

J. H. Hershey a plate of apples. 

Aaron Witmer, fine Bellflower and Fallawater. 

J. B. Erb, some very fine specimens. 
By the Committee, 

Calvin Cooper, 
A. D. Hostetter. 

GRAPES. 

Tlie committee report the finest" display of 
grapes ever exhibited in Lancaster. 

H. M. Engle, Marietta, a large assortment of 
very fine grapes ; the Concord and CreveJing de- 
serve special notice. 

PeterRiley,Lancaster, the Concord and Israel- 
la. The latter a new variety, but of very fine 
flavor and growth. 

D. Sraeych, Lancaster, Attends Hybrid, a white 
grape of fine flavor and growth. 

Reuben Weaver, of Rapho township, a fine as- 
sortment. The Martha, a white grape and seed- 
ling from the Concord, in quality and growth, is 
equal if not superior to it, deserves especial at- 
tention by our grape growers. Also, the Tele- 
graph, early, hardy and of fine flavor. These va- 
rieties deserve special notice. 

S. is^. Warfel, Strasburg. The finest display 
of Diana, a hardy , vigorous grape, aud fine flavor ; 
very creditable. 

H. K. Stoner, W. Lampeter.- The White Mal- 
laga, and the Black Hamburg, grow in a cold 



150 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



grapery. Very fine specimens, and deserve 
special notice. 

G. W. Schroyer, Lancaster. The Black Ham- 
burg and Catawba. Both very creditable. 

Aaron Witmer, Lampeter. The Concord ; a 
very creditable display. 

8. Benedict, Lancaster. The Maxaiawny and 
Diana ; splendid specimens, equal to any on ex- 
hibition. 

D. I. Mayer, Strasburg. Very good Delaware, 
and the best Clinton. 

J. B. Amwake, Lancaster, a fine assortment ol 
excellent grapes. 

John K. Reed, Lancaster, a splendid specimen 
of the Clinton. 

Dr. Carpenter Weidler, Mechauicsburg, tlie 
Herbemont and Iowa, both deserving special no- 
tice, and the finest specimen of Concord upon ex- 
hibition. This display was so good and the fruit 
80 well cultivated, and of such excellent quality, 
that the committee award Dr. Weidler the highest 
premium. 

J.H. Hershey, Rohrerstown, splendid Catawba, 
fine Concord, and best Isabella. 

J. B. Garber, Mountville, the largest assortment, 
and all very fine grapes. s 

Allen Richards, Columbia, the Concord Adiron- 
dack, and the Union Village. The latter a large 
fine fiavored grape, and hardy, vigorous grower, 
deserves special notice. 

C. Hoover, East Earl, splendid Delaware, the 
^finest on exhibition. 

Casper Hiller, Couestoga Centre, a large as- 
sortment of very fine varieties. Deserving spe- 
cial notice. 

T. M. Strole, New Holland, a very creditable 
specimen of the Delaware. 

Geo. Sigle, Xew Holland, a very fine specimen 
of the Catawba. 

H. K. Stoner, 
f>. Welchens, 
Committee. 
PEARS. 

The Committee on Pears report a fine display 
generally. The following are especially men- 
tioned : 

H. M. Engle, one dish very fine Belle Lucra- 
tive. 

Peter Riley, one dish extra fine Beurre Clair- 
geau ; one dish very fine Beurre Diel ; one dish 
very fine Lawrence. 

D. Rhoads, one dish very fine Bartlett. 
S. N. Warfel, one dish very fine Seckel. 

J. p. Schaum, a few specimens Beurre C^air- 
geau, very fine. 
L. S. Reist, fine Seckel. 
H. K. Stoner, fine Beurre Diel. 



S. Benedict, one dish extra Buerre Clairgeau ; 
one dish fine Buerre Diel. 

Charles E. Long, one dish fine Beurre Diel ; 
fine Beurre Clairgeau. 

J. H. Hershey, a few specimens extra large 
Lawrence. 

C. F. Eberman, city, had a dish of very fine 
Louisa Bonne de Jersey pears. 

C. Hiller, fine Flemish beauty. 

There are quite a number of dishes of fine fruit 
deserving of special notice ; suffice it to say, it is 
so generally good as to deserve a flattering com- 
pliment to all the exhibitors. 

J. H. Hershey, 
Peter Riley. 

PEACHES. 

The Committee report a very creditable display 
of Peaches. 

H. M. Engle, Marietta, had the largest assor- 
ment, and very fine varieties. This display de- 
serves special notice. 

J. P. Schaum, Lancaster, the Susquehanna., a 
splendid peach, and the Crawford's late. Deserve 
special notice. 

John P. Meyer, Lancaster, a Seedling, and 
Belle de Vitry. Very fine. 

P. S. Reist, a few very fine peaches, without ^ 
name. 

J. C. Snyder, a splendid specimen of the Susque- 
hanna 2)each. Deserves special notice. 

J. B. Erb, Strasburg twp., six varieties of Seed- 
ling. A very creditable display. 

Aaron "Witmer, Lampeter, a few fine peaches 
without a name. 

D. Evans, Lancaster, Crawford's late. Very 
creditable. 

Andrew Leibly, Lancaster, one peach. The 
largest Crawford's Tate on exhibition. 

Casper Hiller, Conestoga Centre, Southern 
Cling, large, yellow, fine ; Crawford's late,Ward's 
late, Amelia, Southern, and a variety of Seedling, 
all very fine. 

John Hubley, Lancaster, a branch with peaches, 
no name. Very creditable. 

Calvin Cooper, Enterprise. Good assortment, 
and very fine fruit. Deserves special notice. 

CAISTNED PEACHES. 

Mrs. J. B. Livingston, Lancaster. A fine dis- 
play. 

Mrs. D. S. Bursk, Lancaster. A splendid dis- 
play. 

Mrs. J. P. Schaum, Lancaster. Very fine fruit. , 

H. A. Cooper. Fine fruit. 

The display of canned peaches, though not 
large, ^ras very cruditable, and deserves especial 
notice. Dr. S. Welchens, 

John B. Erb, > 



THE LANCASTER FARMEK. 



151 



VEGETABLES AND FLOWERS. 

The Committee appointed to examine and re- 
port on the vegetables and flowers on exhibition 
at the Court House, on the 20th of September, 
submit the following : 

In the vegetable department .they found that 
the exhibitors were Dr. C. Weidler, Casper Hil- 
ler, Peter Reiley, D. E. Mayer, H. K. Stoner, J. 
H. Hershey, S. D. Hostetter, D. Landis, J. P. 
Schaum, and J. G. Rush. The vegetables on ex- 
hibition embraced the Early Rose, Excelsior, 
Early Sebec, Goodrich, Harrison, Willard, Michi- 
gan White, Western Chief, and Monitor, pota- 
toes ; Crosby's Sugar Corn ; Accidental Tomato ; 
Turnip Beets; Drumhead Cabbage ; Filderkraut; 
Red-peppers; and the Hercules Club Gourds. 
All the specimens on exhibition were of the finest 
kind, and therefore, where they came in compe- 
tition, it was difficult to determine between them. 
The Committee feel, however, that a preference 
is due to the lot of Early Rose potatoes exhibited 
by Dr. C. Weidler, although they were not so 
large as the same variety exhibited by H. K. 
Stoner. But for fine shape, uniformity of size, 
and smooth skin, nothing excelled them. The 
nearest approach to them were those exhibited 
by Peter Reily, which, except that they were not 
quite so smooth, could not be distinguished from 
them. As the other articles on exhibition con- 
sisted of only single specimens, all of which will 
be reported in the city papers, with the names of 
the exhibitors annexed to them, it is not deemed 
necessary to notice them further here. Although 
the display in this department was very fine, it 
was, at the same time, rather limited when com- 
pared with our resources. 

The floral department was also limited. There 
were 64 varieties of Verbenia by G. W. Shroyer ; 
a handsome specimen of " Joseph Coat," Ama- 
ranthus tricolor^ by Daniel Smeych ; fine Zinias, by 
Mrs. J. P. Shaum, also a fine Boquet; a dwarf 
Oleander in bloom by Mrs. Smith ; a beauti- 
ful Double Geranium by Calvin Cooper ; Roses 
by J. G. Rush ; a Boquet by Mrs. Daniel Smeych 
also one by Mrs. P. Riley ; two Boquels, two 
Hanging Baskets, and a Scarlet Canna plant, by 
Mrs. S. S. Rathvon. 

Respectfully submitted, 

S. S. Rathvon, 
J. B. Kevinski, 
!Mrs. a. E. Roberts. 

The exhibition was indeed the finest ever seen 
in this city, and reflected great credit upon all 
concerned. 

The Wheeler and Wilson Sewing Machine on 
exhibition was admired by many. 



iotang. 



WEEDS— NO. 7. 



WHITE AVEED — Die Wucherblume. 



Twenty years ago I noticed the fields m Ches- 
ter county, along the railroad, perfectly white 
with the ox-eye daisy — the Leucanthemum vul- 
gare, of Botanists. I notice this vile intruder is 
becoming a great nuisance in certain sections of 
Lahcaster county. The common wild or stinking 
chamomile, also known as Dog's Fennel, May 
Weed, «&c., German, Stinkende Kamille. The 
botanical name of this is Manda Cotula, D. C, 
and is common and abundant in lanes and farm 
yards. Although a disagreeable little weed, it is not 
so apt to spread to an injurious extent over culti- 
vated grounds as the white weed. This latter has 
been permitted to get too extensively introduced 
into pasture fields. Above Mount Joy I noticed 
fields quite white with it this summer. Cows will 
occasionally crop a portion of the weed, and some 
have alleged that it contrib-ites to the making of 
good butter. This fancy may have, in a measure, 
been a protection, but on the best authority it is 
deemed wholly worthless. This plant propagates 
rapidly and is difficult to get rid of when once 
fully established. Like the Canada Thistle, con- 
tinual cropping and plowing up is about the only 
remedy ; but thenceforth fence rows and neigh- 
boring fields must be well watched and kept 
clean also, to prevent the formation of fresh seed 
to be introduced. 

I agree with H. M. E., in his article on the 
Canada Thistle, that "what landholders most 
care, is to prevent its getting a foothold on their 
land." Yet allow me to say that the Canada 
Thistle belongs to the genus Cirsium, of which 
we have ten species, agreeing in many particu- 
lars, so that it can form no objections for specify- 
ing the particular point of distinction. There is 
another pasture thistle, found in dry fields, the 
cirsium pumilum, that has often been mistaken 
for the Canada Thistle, but it is easily extermi- 
nated. The true Canada Thistle, Cirsium arvetise , 
is quite a difierent thing to get rid of—every little 
fibre will sprout again, and it requires constant 
cropping, so as to exhaust its vitality and kill the 
roots. True, the name is of no consequence, nor 
a botanical description to him who knows the 
plant and its evil. Yet it is well enough to know 
how to distinguish it. In this, the outer scales 
of the appressed involucre are barely pricky 
pointed; the filaments nearly smooth; in the 
others tlieyare hairy; heads imperfectly dioecious. 
Plant low branched ; roots extensively creeping : 



152 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



leaves slightly wooly beneath sinuate pinnatifid, 
that is much divided and cut, with prickly mar- 
gins; heads small and numerous; flowers, rose 
purple. J. S. 



^ommunicatiottjS. 



THE FARMER'S CURSE. 

Messrs. Editors : — There is no doubt but that 
the farmers will have to contend against weeds 
always, as it is on record in Holy Writ — that for 
the disobedience of the divine command by our 
forefather Adam, the curse was pronounced — that 
" Thorns and also thistles shall the Earth bring 
forth for thee, and in the sweat of thy brow shalt 
thou eat bread." 

Now as our friend H. M. E., in last No. of the 
Lancaster Farmer, has given us a chapter ou, 
the Canada Thistle, I may be allowed, I presume? 
to say my say on that pest, and also on another of 
even a greater curse. 

As to what Mr. E. states about the Canada 
thistle, I fully agree with him, and farmers can 
not be too wide awake to keep it at a distance. 
Many farmers possibly may not know the nuis- 
ance even when they see a stalk or two on their 
farms, and thus permit it to get a foot-hold on 
their grounds, causing much trouble afterwards ; 
while had they taken it on its first appearance, 
it can be easily eradicated. Some te" or twelve 
years since, I noticed a small patch on my farm, 
close to the turnpike, perhaps about ten by fif- 
teen feet in extent. I went to work with a will, 
determined to conquer it. The field was in pas- 
ture, and I gave each stalk a good sprinkling of 
salt, two or three times during the summer — this 
killed the stalks, and the cattle licking the salt 
and tramping the ground, altogether had the ef- 
fect of badly using up the pest. Next season only 
a few sickly sprouts made their appearance, and 
with a few more doses of salt it disappeared en- 
tirely. The field has been in corn, oats, wheat, 
and grass, but none has been there for the last 
six or eight years. 

Bad as this Canada thistle pest is, there is an- 
other that is even worse. The weed I allude to 
hasliowever neither "thorns nor thistles," and 
yet is worse then any other weed that the farmer 
has to contend with, when it once has a local 
habitation on his grounds. Vouch or Quack grass 
— Arp-opyroiiy Triticum rejyens, is the most trouble- 
some of all weed nuisances. It propagates from 
both seeds and roots ; and if a scrap of a root is 
dragged from one part of a field to another, by 
plow or harrow, it will be sure to " fix itself," 
and in a j^ear or two, a large patch is there. "When 

/ 



it gets along fences, or in an orchard among the 
roots of trees, it is a " permanent fixture," and 
rea ly to migrate in all directions— the ground be- 
comes a mass of roots, preventiag all other crops 
from growing, and at least injuring, if it does not 
kill the trees. 

Farmers should become familierwith all weeds 
as well as useful plants, noxious as well as harm- 
less insects — in a few words, to study Botany and 
Entomology. It would be the means of aiding 
and enlightening them far beyond what they 
otherwise can possibly have any conception of. 

J. B. G. 



THE LATE HORTICULTURAL EXHI- 
BITIONS. 

The Horticultural Exhibition, held at Philadel- 
phia, by the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society ^ 
in their spacious hall, on Broad street, was per- 
haps the finest of its kind ever held in this State 
or elsewhere. Over 3,200 different varieties of 
fruits were on exhibition from all parts of the 
United States and Territories, besides a large 
variety of fine vegetables- The floral department 
was superb, and well represented in native and 
rare exotic plants, many of which were in bloom, 
including the "Century Plant" — Agave Americana 
— which reared its flower-stem some fifteen or 
twenty feet above its base. The display was 
grand, and the immense throng which crowded 
into the hall, especially on the evenings of the 
exhibition, showed that the efibrts of the Society 
are dul}' appreciated in the community where it 
exists. The arrangements on the whole were 
admirable, and the liberality of the managers 
worthy of a standing example to other similar 
institutions. The exhibition closed to the public 
on Thursday evening, Sept. 16th, and the central 
portion of the hall was cleared for the reception 
and banquet, which took place on Friday evea- 
ing, the 17th. ' 

Here the Society, its friends, and its special 
guests, the members and delegates of the "Amer- 
ican Pomological Society," which held its bien- 
nial convention in an upper apartment of the . 
hall, all assembled to engage in familiar chat, 
and to partake of the festivities of the evening. 
Of course, on such an occasion, the leading viands 
were fruits — the rich and luscious fruits, which 
had been for two days so temptingly set before 
the masses, with the admonition, not to "touch, 
taste, nor handle." It was also arranged that all 
who desired it had a cozy little basket of fruit to 
carry away with them, to their friends at home. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



153 



But the banquet did not consist of fruit alone, 
but other things in abundance, including oysters, 
lobster sauce and coffee, with cakes and comfits, 
were profusely provided. The whole ended with 
toasts drank in wine and lemon punch, in a mild 
and refreshing form. 

"We cannot possibly give any of the details of 
the fruit on exhibition, for the amount was too 
vast to comprehend it at a glance, but we were 
particularly struck with the superlatively fine 
contribution of our young sister State of Kansas, 
and we could not help thinking, that "bleeding 
Kansas" has not certainly bled in vain, if these 
are the evidences of the productive qualities of 
her " gory soil." Such apples and pears — but we 
forbear, lest we may not be able to do the subject 
justice. 

Our local society was represented in the Pomo- 
logical Convention by ten delegates, several of 
whom had fruit on exhibition, namely: Messrs. 
Riley, Hostetter, Erb and Engle, the last named 
taking two of the premiums awarded, for six 
bunches of second best Concord and Creveling 
Grapes. 

The late exhibition of our local society was 
perhaps the finest of its kind ever held in the 
city of Lancaster — such at least seems to be the 
unanimous opinion of all who witnessed it. The 
display in grapes, apples, peaches, pears, quinces 
and potatoes, compared favorably with the late 
great exhibition at Philadelphia. The only de- 
partment in which there was apparent meagre- 
ness was in the floral. The lady friends of the 
society — if it has any lady friends, and surely it 
ougJU to have — do not take the same interest in 
the exhibitions and general welfare of the society, 
that characterizes the ladies of the eastern coun- 
ties of our State. We know that there is material 
suflicient at almost any time for such floral embel- 
lishments, as none but a female mind and hand 
could conceive and execute. But we are pro- 
gressing, and perhaps a good time is coming when 
our association will even receive female recogni- 
tion. 

Neither was the vegetable department so full 
as it should have been, and, perhaps, on this oc- 
casion, it was lucky that it was not, for every 
particle of space on the tables was occupied, and 
in some places things were too much crowded to 
look well. Although the display was a most 
magnificent one and highly creditable to the so- 
ciety, yet there is still room for improvement, 
and no doubt future times and opportunities will 
suggest what is yet needed in attaining a higher 
state of perfection. We refrain from giving de- 
tails, because these are published in the daily 
papers, and report* of the respective committees 



will be found in this number of our Journal. 
We may add, however, that over 350 varieties of 
fruit were on exhibition. 

Since ^vriting the foregoing we have received 
the account of the annual exhibition of the "Fruit 
Growers and Farmers Society of East Donegal," 
which was held in the Marietta Town Hall, on the 
21st and 22d of September. From all accounts, 
printed and verbal, this exhibition was fully twke 
as large as that of the county Society held at the 
Court House on the 20th. It occupied the two 
large rooms on the second and third stories of 
the Town Ilall, each of which is fully as large as 
the Orphans' Court Room, and are lighted from 
rows of windows on- each side. In each of these 
were three tables, extending their entire length, 
all of which were crowded with fruit, vegetables, 
cereals, plants, flowers, &c., and in addition to 
which, a large variety of domestic fowls were ad- 
ded. We feel as much pleasure in this horticul- 
tural demonstration on the part of Marietta and 
its vicinity, as we possibly could feel, if it had 
taken place here in the city of Lancaster, because 
we see in it a noble example for good, which we 
hope the citizens of Lancaster may ultimately 
find it their pleasure and interest to imitate. It 
also suggests that in another year, blessed as this 
has been, the county Society ought to secure Ful- 
ton Hall for two or three days, in which to hold 
its autumnal exhibition, and that it also ought to 
offer a liberal list oi premiums. Notwithstanding 
our last exhibition might have been larger, had 
there been more space, still, our people require 
more than an ordinary stimulant to bring them 
out ; but should they once come to the proper de- 
termination, we hioio they have the material, the 
ability, and the taste, to make a most magnificent 
display. The late exhibition at Marietta does 
honor to the horticultiu-al head and heart of that 
place, and ought to be as a sign of hope for the 
county of Lancaster, which has so long been 
behind her sister counties of Chester, Delaware, ^ 
Philadelphia, Montgomery, Bucks and others. 
We have been informed, and indeed the printed 
report will show, that the main department in 
which it excelled ours, was the very department in 
which we were sadly deficient, namely, the vege- 
table, floral, and cereal. These in future mast 
demand more of our attention, for if fruit alone 
exhausts our whole attention, to the neglect of 
vegetables, we shall be as bad ofl'for vegetables 
as we have been for years past for the want of 
fruit. 



We hope our patrons who yet owe for the Far- 
mer will remit to this office the amount of their 
subscription, as we are greatly in need of fundi. 



154 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



MEETING OF THE AGRICULTUIIAL 
AND HOBTICULTUKAL SOCIETY. 

The regular monthly meeting of the Lancaster 
County Agricultural and Horticultural Society 
was held at the Orphans' Court Room, Septem- 
ber 6, 1869, H. M. Engle in the Chair, and Alex. 
Harris Secretary. After the minutes of the pre- 
vious meeting had been read and approved, the 
following gentlemen were proposed as members, 
and duly elected, viz : George B. Owens, Upper 
Leacock ; Samuel M. Clair, Millersville ; John 
Hershey, Manor; and David Eva.ns, City. 

The Chair now submitted the names of the 
following gentlemen as those who shall compose 
the delegates from this Society to represent it in 
the National Pomological Convention at Horti- 
cultural Hall, Philadelphia, viz : J. B. Garber, S. 
S. Rathvon, Levi S. Reist, Dr. W. L. Diffender- 
fer, John Brackbill, J. H. Hershey, J. D. Hostet- 
ter, Jacob Frantz, Silas K. Walfel, and A. Har- 
ris. On motion the name of H. M. Engle was 
added. On motion of A. J. Groflf it was decided 
to hold a special meeting of the Society on Tues- 
day evening, September 14th, in order to make 
arrangements to attend the Pomological Conven- 
tion, beginning on September 15. 

The President urged the propriety of the dele- 
gates and others attending the Pomological Con- 
vention that they should take of their fruits with 
them, in order that Lancaster county be fully repre- 
sented. He suggested that the Convention would 
be a good place to have fruits presented, in order 
to have them named. 

On motion it was decided to hold a fruit exhi- 
bition in the Orphans' Court Room, on Monday, 
September 20. The Chair appointed as a com- 
mittee of arrangement the following named gen- 
tlemen : Dr» W. L. Difienderfer, S. S. Rathvon, 
Alex. Harris, H. K. Stoner, S. N". Warfel, C. E. 
Long, A. J. Groflf, A. D. Hostetter, J. B. Erb, and 
J. B. Kevinski. 

On motion the following gentlemen were ap- 
pointed as a committee to inspect and report 
upon the merit of the fruit upon exhibition at 
the meeting, viz : J. B. Garber, Dr. W. L. Diflfen- 
derfer, S. D. Hostetter, Jacob Frantz, and Calvin 
Cooper. 

Jacob Stauflfer now proceeded to read an essay 
on Lancaster county wheat. He endeavored to 
show why western wheat in our market reports 
is quoted so much higher than that raised in this 
neighborhood. Experiments made in England 
showed that grain cut ten days before ripe produced 
more flour than when taken off at any other pe- 
riod. Wheat should be cut early and left stand 
in the field three or four olayi before taken to the 



barn or stack, in order that superfluous moisture 
be removed and the albumen become compact. 

Mr. Brubaker was in favor of early cutting. 
Other members made remarks on this subject, 
one of whom apprehended that while the grain 
would 3^ield more flour, the quantity . of grain 
would be less. 

H. K. Stoner stated that from fifteen square 
yards of ground, planted with Early Rose pota- 
toes, he raised one hundred and forty pounds, 
which would be at the rate of seven hundred and 
fifty-three bushels to the acr^. Thirty of these 
tubers aggregated thirty pounds, seven of them 
weighed, in the aggregate, nine and a half pounds, 
one sprout had seven which weighed five pounds, 
and forty-nine sprouts averaged three pounds to 
the sprout. 

To a question from Dr. Hiestand, Mr. Stoner 
replied that the potatoes were of good quality. 

Casper Hiller said he had Early Rose potatoes 
which were equal to the Mercer. 

J. Hartman Hershey had Early Roses which 
were equal to the Mercer. He had a good yield 
from them. 

Dr. Hiestand thought this variety had sustained 
its reputation. 

H. M. Engle said that the Early Rose has sus- 
tained itself. The production is good, but there 
is some difference of opinion as to quality. He 
considers them nearly as good as Mercers, which 
have never been equalled, taking everything into 
account. The Goodrich, which last year was a 
failure, has redeemed itself. It is not equal in 
quality to the Early Rose. The liability of the 
Mercer to rot, is probably owing to its fine tex- 
iXive. Potatoes should not be left to lie long in 
the sun after being taken out of the ground. 

Mr. Stoner gave his experience in raising pota- 
toes from sprouts. A larger crop can be obtained 
from sprouting the potatoes than from planting 
the eyes. 

J. B. Erb had failed in planting sprouts. It 
might do well, if started well. 

Casper Hiller can raise as many potatoes from 
a sprout as from an eye. He made an experiment. 
He put the potatoes into flower pots and left them 
there