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THE 



LANCASTER FARMER, 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY, 



UNDER THE AUSPICES OF THE 



LANCASTER COUNTY 



Agricultural AND Horticultural Society, 



Terms — $1.25 Per Year in Advance. 



VOL. IV, 1872. 



J. B. DEVELIN, PUBLISHER. 

LANCASTER, PA.: 

WYLIE & GRIEST, INQUIRER PRINTING HOUSE AND BINDERY, NO. 53 & 55 N. QUEEN ST. 



\ 



INDEX TO VOL. IV. 



Agricultural, 1, 21, 41, 61, 83, 128, 148, 184, 184, 

205, 224. 
An old Settler on Thistles, 30. 
" A Good Cheap," 43. 
An Alliterative Reporter, 58. 
Atmospheric and Electric Fertilizers, 61. 
Apples, 69, 71. 

A New Potato Insect Coming, 73. 
Asparagus, 80. 
Agricultural Chemistry, 83. 
Aiding the Corn Crop, 87. 
A Cure for the Piles, 94. 
Anthracite Coal, 95. 
A Dying Nation, 97. 
All Kinds of Poultry, 100. 
Alternate Mowing and Crazing, 108. 
A Correspondent, etc., 118. 
Apocryphal, 127. 
Agricultural Production, 128. 
Agricultural Items. 129. 
Answers to Correspondents, 131, 176. 
An Expression of Grief, 135. 
A Perpetual Weather Table, 142. 
Artificial Remedies, 146. 
A Few Facts, 152. 
A Large W^eat-field, 166. 
American Monsters, 180. 
Agricultural Colleges, 184. 
A Cup of CotTee, 199. 
Another Corner oa Corn, 205. 
Applying Corn Culture to Wheat, 206. 
A Visit to Cinnaminson, N. J., "209. 
Agricultural Fair.s 218. 
American Homes, 14. 
Alsike Clover, 79. 

A Pretty Way to Train Fuschias, 113. 
Almond Cake, 138. 
An Egyptian Plague, 192. 
A Correspondent of American Stock Journal. 

118. 
A Simple Filterer, 117. 
All Kinds of Meat— How to Cook It, 100. 
Agricultural College of Pennsylvania, 224. 
A Destroying Ant. 229. 
Address of U. S. Centenial Comniission, 223. 
An Enormous Crop of Wheat, 237. 

B 

Bees, 3. 

Book Notice, 14, 70. 

Botany, 27, 46, 74, 172, 183, 214. 

Book Table, 39, 59, 81, 101, 121, 141, 161, 181, 

201, 222. 
Blackberries, 69. 
Boiled Custards, 80. 



Bathing, 121. 

Roiling Indian Pudding, 122. 

Bee Culture, 147, 212. 

Bee-Keeping, 169, 190. 

Botanical Garden, I). C, 172. 

Blight, 192, 195. 

Botanical Gossip, 214. 

Butter Churn, 191. 

Black Swan, 208. 

Beetles, 

c 

Closing Remarks, 

Correspondence. 9,' 29, 47, 75, 117, 154, 193, 9 . 

Care of Stock, 10. 

Cob Meal, 55. 

Cherries, 69. 

Currants, 69. 

Chapped Hands, 73. 

California Correspondence, 75. 

Columbia Correspondence. 76. 117, 50. 

Chicago Markets, 82, 102, 122, 141, 162, 182, 

202, 222. 
Cincinnati Market, 82. 
Cleaning Tinware, 121. 
Cocoanut Cake, 138. 
Cooking Pood for Stock, 139. 
Colorado Potato Beetle, 143. 
Covering Grape Trellises, 15.3 
Cattle Market, 162. 
Curious Things to Know, 177. 
Cold Germination, 180 . 
Consumption of Hay, 217. 
Crib-biting Horses, 52. 
Clover — How it enriches the Soil, 149. 
Charcoal and Pigs, 41 
Connecticut Tobacco, 42. 
Clover For Hogs, 201. 
Currant and Raspberry Ice, 340, 

D 

Does electricity perfect oiTr Wheat Crop, 3. 

Destruction vs. Construction, 23. 

Diminished Production of Wheat, 36. 

Death to Grasshoppers, 45. 

Don't waiite the Soap Suds, 47. 

Dwarf Pears, 69. 

Doctoring old Orchards, 71. 

Domestic Recipes, 94. 

Deep Plowing, 109. 

Death of Stuart A. Wylie, 134. 

Doughnuts, 138. 

3)ry Earth and Poultry Houses, 170. 

Danger of sewing .Winter Wheat too Early, 207. 

Do Forests Induce Rain ? 5. 

Domestic. 71, 94. 

Daniel Webster's Old Home. 179. 



Index- 



English Farming. 341. 

Entomology, 9. 4.5, 113, 130, 153, 166. 216. 

Editorial'Il, .50, 1.57. 175, 78. 

Elevating Farming, 37. 

Electricity vs. Wheat-growing 47. 

Experience with the Egg-plant, 57. 

Egyptian Corn, 67. 

Easter Bergamot Pear, 68. 

Experiments with O.iions, 71. 

Essay. 123, 144, 2U3. 

English Buns, 138. 

1- astern Experimental Farm, 163. 

Evergreens, 40. 

Every-day Pudding. 136. 

iMiormous Crop of Wheat. 

English Rules for Preserving Fruit, 229. 

Epizooty, 231. 

F 

Forests and Timber, 2. 

Fresh Eggs in Winter, 6. 

Fifty Years in the Field, 14. 

Farmci-s' Hay and Straw Market, 20. 

Fried Halibut, 27. 

Farmers' Wives, 37. 

Fattening Poultry, 40. 

Farmers' Gai"dens, 95, 151. 

From Crass to Winter Feed, 238. 

Facts and Science. 104. 

Fowls that vShow Weakness, 106. 

Fig Culture, 156. 

Fruit in Tin Cans, 179. 

Floor Warming. 188. 

Farmiug a dull Business, 197. 

Feeding Bees, 213. 

Fruits and Berries, 211. 

Feeding Swiue and Eating Pork, 223. 



Grapes and their Easy Culture, 340. 

Grosving and Saving Clover Seed, 19. 

General Washington's Farm, 22. 

Grapes, 69. 

Griddle-cakes, 94. 

God, First and Last, 98. 

Grafting Geraniums, 121. 

Gingerbread. 138. 

Gossip, 155, 183. 

(irasshoppere in Dakota, 198. 

Gapes in Chickens, 200. 

Gooseberries, 69. 

Good recipes for cakes, 138. 

Give us more Fruit trees, 230. 

H 

Horticulture, 7, 25, 68, 209, 229. 

Heading off the Borer, 29. 

Harlequin Cabbage Bug. 

Houghton's Seedling (Gooseberry, 70. 

How much Horses feel, 72. 

How to make Farm Lile Attractive, 73. 

Horseradish, 80. 

How to set Cabbage Plants, 90. 

How to get rid of Rats and Mice, 96. 

How to raise Celery, 113. 

Hot Cakes, 120. 



How to wash Colored Flannels, 133. 

How to get a Good Wife, 133. 

Hints for the Sick Room, 137. 

How to Cure Hams, 139. 

How long shall We Sleep ? 140. 

How Clover Enriches the Land, 149, 

Horse Distemper, 

How shall I Cut My Asparagus, 24. 

Hungarian (Jrass, 150. 

How Money is Made in Farming, 181. 

Horticultural Exhibition, 194. 

How Shall 1 Distino-uish, 196. 

House Planis, 197,^99. 

Hints to Housekeepers, 232. 

How to Beautify our Homes in Winter, 197. 

How to Have a Neat Farm, 205. 

How to Get Plenty of Fresh Eggs, 217. 

How to Brighten Straw Matting, 221. 

Housekeeping Hints, 136. 

Hints to Housekeepers. 

I and J 

Improvement of Crops, 19. 

Influence of Electricity, etc., 31. 

Indian Bannock, 94. 

Insects " Fiddling," 167. 

In Defense of the Cockroach, 191. 

International Exhibition, 235. 



Keeping Sheep, 15. 
Kittatinny Blackberry, 45. 
Keeping Cream, 220. 
Keeping Apples in Plaster, 230. 

L 

Literary Notices, 342. 
Live Stock Market. 20, 59, 162. 
Lightening Hard Work, 72. 
Longevity of Farmers, 96. 
Linseed Oil, 117. 
liight Gingerbread, 138. . 
Leaks in Dairy-Farming, 159 
Letter from Dr. Fitch, 174. 
Liquid Fuel, 185. 
Live-Stock Journal, 207. 
Lateral, or Bark-Graft, 211. 
Locusts as food, 235. 
Light Gray Brahmas, 227. 



Meetings of A. and H. Society, 12, 30, 51, 79, 100, 

118, 157, 17.5, 19.5, 219. 
Miscellaneous, 14, 31, 52. 
Markets, 39, 59, 81, 342. 
Manuring Orchards, 40. 
Mauures, 43. 

Manufacturer and Builder, 117. 
Milk Biscuit, 138. 
Mildew on Plants, 151. 
More About the Col. Potato Beetle, 166. 
More Utility, 219. 
Milk as a Remedial Agent, 220. 
MoreWlieat than can be Sent to Market, 220. 
Mechanism of an Egg, 230. 
May be Worth Preserving, 232. 



Index. 



3 



N 

Notes on Farming Potatoes, 21. 

Number of Hens to a Cock, 29. 

Noxious Insects, 113. 

Nutritive Value of Milk 120. 

National Agricultural Congress, 134. 

No Starvation, 136. 

New York Markets, 59, 81, 102, 122, 141, 161, 

182, 201. 222. 
No Summer, 339. 

o 

Officers of P. F. G. Society, 13. 

Our Book Table, 39,19, 81, 101, 121, 141, 161, 181, 

20.5, 222. 
Ornamental .Trees, 53. 
Our Revised Fruit List, 69. 
Onions, 93. 
Obituary, 1.34. 

One Cord of Wood, etc., 151. 
Our National Wheat Crop, 36. 
Opinions of the Press, 39. 
Old and New, 



Plowing Under Snow, 1. 

Pro. Veg. Names in Four Languages, 8. 

Pennsy vania Fruit Growers' Society, 13. 

Preserving Kggs. 18. 

Pruning Too liate in Spring, 34. 

Plant Grape Vines, 35. 

Philadelphia Markets, 20,40, 59, 82, 102, 122, 141, 

161, 182, 202, 222, 342. 
Pumpkin Preserves, 40. 
Pittsburg Markets, 59. 
Peaches, ?9. 

Planting Trees in Grass, 111. 
Pruning in June, 112. 
Potatoes in the Olden Time, 117. 
Plowing Twice for Wheat, 166, 
Pickels, 186. 
Pheasants, 187. 

Preserving Posts from Decay, 223. 
Pine-apple Ice, 340. 

R 

Random Sketches, 14, 52, 74, 159. 

Rotating Manures, 33. 

Raspberries, 69. 

Rye for Milch Cows, 96. 

Results of Thorough Manuring, 110. 

Rag Carpets, 138. 198. 

Room, or Parlor Plants, 150. 

Rules for the Care of Sheep, 162. 

Remember these two Things, 180. 

Rural Life and Rural Homes, 203. 

Rapid Growth of Timber, 210. 

Rotation, 88. 

Review of the May Number, 116. 

Raspberry Moth, 114, 

s 

Sprains and Bruises, 340. 
Selecting Poultry, 340. 
Saving Seed, 16. 
Sowing Oats in February, 35. 
Selected Recipes, 40. 
Seed Corn, 58, 151. 



Steam for Dwellings, 60. 

Soap for Borers. 67. 

Strawberries, 69, 

Strawberry Market, 91. 

Steamed Pudding, 121, 

Store Hogs, 121. 

Scientific Farming, 140. 

Supply of Nitrogen, 148. 

Sowing Flower Seed, 149. 

Signals, 180. 

Something Worth Knowing, 180. 

Salt for Farm Stock, 189. 

Saw-dust as Manure, 200. 

Sour Subject, 201. 

Senex Writes to Know, 216. 

Stir the Surface, 221. 

Spiced Apples, 24. 

Soda Cakes, 94. 

Science and Fairy Rings, 116. 

Standard Pears, 69. 

Scratches, 340. 

Sweeney in Horses, 237. 

Steaming Food for Stock, 237. 

Strawberry and Raspberry Ice, 340. 

T 

Toads vs. Insects, 17. 

The Seckel Pear, 25. 

The Curculio Mastered at Last, 26. 

To Kill Pea-weevils, 26. 

The Cow Tree, 28. 

The Battle of the Ants, 216. 

The Curculio Again, 45. 

The Persimmon, 48. 

The Lancaster Farmer, 52, 218. 

The Weather, 78. 

Trimming Grapevines. 82. 

The Pennsylvania Hay Crop, 87. 

The Tulip, 89. 

Triomph de Gand Strawberry, 91. 

The Crop Prospect. 99. 

The Loneliness of Farming Life, 103. 

The Law of Storms, 106. 

Turning Under Clover, 109. 

The Agriculture of Pennsylvania, 115. 

The Sweet Potato, 114. 

The A^alue of Red Clover, 117. 

The Weather and the Crops, 119. 

The Lesson of the Drought, 156. 

Tobacco— How to Grow It, 119. 

Treatment of Soft Corns, 120. 

To take Bruises out of Furniture, 122. 

The Seven*een-year Locusts of 187^, 123. 

The Key Note, 129. 

The House Cricket. 130. 

To Kill Curculio on Plums, 131. 

Tribute of Respect, 135. 

To Farmers and Gardeners, 143- 

The Bee and Bee-keeping, 147, 169, 190, 212. 

The Farmers Progress, 164. 

The Apple Borer. 168. 

The Mallard Duck, 170. 

The Public Grapery, 171. 

The American Prun^^ 178. 

The Use of Fruit, 179. 

The Corn-cob Hum lUg, 181. 

The Work of the L.af, 210. 



4 



Index. 



The Cocoa-nut, 210. 

Farming Leather, 160. 

Table of Quantity of Seeds, 212. 

The Horse Distemper, 231. 

The Old and the New, 236.' 

To Crystalize Flowers, 339. 

To Renew Old Grape Vines. 341. 

Table of number of Seeds. 212. 

The Testimony of Agriculture, 217. 

To Remove Iron Rust. 221. 

The Western Farmer, 221. 

The Fruit Recorder, 221. 

The Cow's Intelligence, 6 

To the Readers of the Farmer, 11. 

Tobacco Market, 20. 

To Prevent Oattle from Jumping Fences, 64, 

The Cabbage Butterfly, 153. 

The Southern Cabbage Butterfly, 229. 

u. 

Uncle Joe's Hints to Farmers, 24, 

V. 

Vegetable Leather, 50. 

Visiting, 94. 

Value of Re-planted Corn, 111. 

w. 

Wilson's Early Blackberry, 7. 

Washington's Farm, 22. 

What are Artificial Manures, 38. 



What Shall Farmers' Boys Study, 49. 

What Breed of Dairy Cows, 56. 

Winter Bergamot Pear, 68. 

Weather and Crop Observations, 107, 119. 

When should Pigs be Weaned? 122. 

Why Matches Ignite, 193. 

What is the Law ? 199. 

White Swan, 208. 

Wintering Roots, 211. 

Water in Milk, 213. 

White Scour in Oalvss, 341. 

Y, 

Yellows in Peach Trees, 193. 
Yeast from Grape Leaves, 215. 



LIST OP ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Wilson's Early Blackberry, 7, 

Seckel Pear, 25. 

Kittatinny Blackberry, 44. 

Easter Bergamot Pear, 68. 

Houghton's Seedling Gooseberry, 70. 

Gesner's Tulip, 89. 

Triomph de Gand Strawberry, 91. 

Mallard Ducka. 171. 

Crested Pheasants, 187. 

White and Black Swan, 208. 

Light Brahma Fowls, 227. 




lEtttast^r 




DEVOTED TO 
Agriculture, Horticulture, Domestic Economy and Miscellany , 

EDITED BY S. S. KATHVON AND ALEXANDER HARRIS. 
" The Farmer is the founder of civil izaf ion.''— WEBSTI.R. 



Vol. IV. 



JAJVUARY, 1872. 



JVo. 1. 



AGRICULTURAL. 



PLOWING UNDER SNOW. 



FOR the third time quite an interesting 
case has come under my observation, 
which I think is worth recording. Every one 
has heard the old saying that " a late snow is 
the poor man's manure;" evidently there mu?t 
be some foundation for it to rest upon, or it 
would not be so frequently repeated. Last 
fall, while plowing for corn, there fell during 
the night about three inches of snow. The 
preceding day was clear in the morning, 
cloudy and very smoky in the afternoon ; the 
next day, when I began to work, I had a 
seven-pace land about half done ; I plowed 
this and three more lying in the middle of the 
field, turning under the snow. The land is a 
light friable clay, one rod as good as another, 
laying alike, pitching slightly to the east, light 
sod turned under, and no manure used upon it 
during the past fifteen years. The preceding 
crops alike all over the piece. I state this 
fully, because, I think all experiments 
should be so stated. Now, the corn on those 
three and a half beds is at least one-quarter 
larger than any of the rest ; nearly every hill 
grew, while the rest failed more or less. The 
division is so clearly marked that there can be 
no mistake about the cause. Twice before in 
my life I had the same experience, with the 
same results ; once with corn and once with 
oats. Now, why is this ? We all know how 
much more quickly grass starts in the spring 
after a sap sqow than after a rain. Does the 
snow bring down the smoke and gases from 
the air, or why does ic produce a greater effect 
than rain ? Snowy countries are always bet- 
ter grass countries than those where snow sel- 
dom falls, and there must be something in the 
snow to produce this effect. — Cor. Country 
Gentleman. 

Perhaps no fact, in connection with the sub- 
ject of snow, and its relations to the soil 



upon which it happens to fall and lie during 
the winter, is more generally conceded, than 
that it not only protects the crop of grain or 
grass thereon, but that in some way it also 
increases the fertility of the soil ; and there- 
fore, the experiments contained in the above 
extract, from a correspondent of the Country 
Gentleman, may find their counterpart and 
corroboration in the experience of many 
farmers of Lancaster county. All are per- 
fectly aware of the fad, that where snow falls 
before the ground is frozen much, and lies all 
winter, that it is much warmer xuider the suow 
than it is a&oi'g it; and therefore what is known 
as " winter freezing " of the crop, is entirely 
avoided. In many instances sheep, cattle and 
other animals have remained embedded be- 
neath the snow for many days without having 
sustained much injury, and when found dead, 
the surrounding circumstances have evinced 
that they have died from starvation, rather 
than from cold. But what ingredients there 
are in the composition of snow, which consti- 
tutes it the " poor man's manure," is not yet 
so well understood as it ought to be. Snow 
(German schnee) is defined as " congealed 
water which falls from the bosom of the atmos- 
phere ;" but, very little seems to be known 
of the meteoric formation of this substance. 
It has not been ascertained, for instance, 
whether the clouds which produce it are com- 
posed of vasicular vapors, or of frozen parti- 
cles ; nor whether the flakes are completely 
formed before they begin to descend, or re- 
ceive an increase in passing through the lower 
strata of the atmosphere. The precise tem- 
perature of the flakes, and the circumstances 
which determine their form and volume, are 
likewise unknown ; and if all this were posi- 



^ 



TEE LAjYCASTER FARMER. 



tively known, it perhaps would not elucidate 
in what manner snow benefits the soil, or 
produces the results described in the above 
extract, except it might be the resultant satu- 
ration and consequent irrigation, produced by 
the gradual melting of the snow, after the cold 
winds of winter and early spring have ceased 
to prevail. Perhaps the only observations 
which may at all be considered complete, in 
regard to snow, are those which have refer- 
ence to its crystallization , or the different forms 
the flakes assume. The most interesting series 
of observations made in this field are those of 
ScoRESBY, more than fifty years ago, and his 
representations of these beautiful crystalline 
forms, mainly, have found their way into books 
and pamphlets, in which the phenomena of 
snow have been illustrated and described. In 
addition to all this, there is a bright cheerful- 
ness about snow which dissipates much of the 
gloom attending long and cold winters. 

Of course, it is needless to admonish our 
readers, that— according to the caption of our 
extract — they are not to suppose that any one 
has been carrying on the agricultural manip- 
ulation, called ploiving, under the snow, but 
that the writer simply means that he plowed 
a layer of superincumbent snow down, or 
under, just the same as if he had been plow- 
ing down or under a layer of lime or stable ma- 
nure. Perhaps the peculiarity of the caption 
may have the effect of calling the attention 
of the wonder-loving to the perusal of this 
article, in hopes of meeting with the recital 
of an extraordinary instance, in which the 
snow was so deep and laid so long, that 
people were compelled to do their plowing 
under it. If that can induce any agricultural 
reader to make similar experiments and ob- 
servations to those in the extract, and to re- 
cord the results, the temporary misconcep- 
tion of the import of the title of our extract, 
will, so far, be beneficial ; because the corrob- 
orative testimony that " snowy couotries are 
always better grass countries than those where 
snow seldom falls," must also evince, we think, 
that there is " something in the snow to pro- 
duce this effect;" therefore, the idea that 
snow, in falling through the atmosphere, may 
absorb and bring down some nutritive ele- 
ment — whether it be " smoke " or other ele- 
ment—is well worthy of careful and serious 
consideration. There are, perhaps, few farm- 
ers, of the contemplative and observant kind, 
who could not relate some marked instance, 



in which snow was greatly beneficial to the 
grass and grain crops in general, and espe- 
cially to root and bulb plants, which remain 
in the ground during the winter, even if it 
should afford nothing more than a sort of 
carpet, to protect them from hard freezing. 
It is well known that occasionally, in different 
parts of the world, snow of a pink or red 
color has fallen to the depth of two or three 
inches, which, on analysis, by distinguished 
naturalists, has, in their opinions, produced 
different results. Saussure supposed the col- 
oring matter to consist of vegetable dust. 
Dr. "Wollaston remarked that it is composed 
of minute spherical globules, which have a 
transparent envelope, and are filled with a 
species of red oil, insoluble in water; while 
DeCandoUe supposed the globules to be a 
kind of algcB. Here we have, at least, vege- 
table dust, or oil, or miuute moss-plants, any 
of which, in their decomposition, may be 
supposed to add something to the fertility of 
the underlying soil, after the melting of the 
snow, and if these substances may occasionally 
occur of a reddish color, why may they not 
frequently occur white, or colorless? and thus 
demonstrates that a fall of snow indeed " adds 
fat to the soil," and may thus be practically, 
as well as ^theoretically, " the poor man's 
manure." R. 



FORESTS AND TIMBER. 



BY PETER S. RE' ST. 

NOT many days ago we applied the wood- 
man's ax to a large white oak tree that 
measured over five feet across the stump, and 
from the growths counted was evidently up- 
ward of two hundred years of age. Prom 
this tree we measured two logs of sixteen 
feet each, one of twenty feet, and another 
of ten feet. The first log, at a rough calcula- 
tion, may be set down as worth $16.00, the 
second $10.00, the third $7.00, the fourth $3.00, 
and with the top estimated as worth $12.00, 
the tree can be" considered as worth $48.00 in 
the aggregate. Of course, the expenses of 
cutting and hauling are to be deducted. 

This tree was an instance of one spared 
originally by the aboriginal natives, next by 
our forefathers, and lastly, from the fact of 
its standing near a line fence, was removed 
out of the way, and thus grew unmolested. 



THE LANCASTER FAIUIEK 



S 



Our estimate of the value of this tree maj, to 
the readers of the Farmer, seem a very ex- 
erbitant one, but we hesitate not to affirm 
that many a tree in Lancaster county could 
not be purchased at less figures, nor some 
even for higher. 

In this we see the great value that timber 
is coming to be, especially in the older settled 
counties-, and this is sufficient to suggest us 
reflections as to methods of replenishiug our 
country again with timber. From the natural 
wastfi and destruction of timber that is going 
ou in our country ,we can safely predict that the 
day is not distant when its restoration must 
becoiue a question of governmental interest. 
It should become such without delay, and he 
will be a true friend of his country who may 
introduce into our State and National Legis- 
latures measures looking toward the planting 
of timber trees that may in years grow into 
valuable forests. We have men in our Legis- 
lature who come from among the farming 
communities, and such as experience -, Iready 
a scarcity of timber, and why is it that some 
of tbem do not introduce measures for the 
protection and growth of new forest timber. 
If our Legislature would undertake the mat- 
ter and compel districts to plant a certain 
number of acres in timber every year, it could 
not inaugurate a wiser policy, nor one that 
would entail more beneficial consequences 
for coming generations. 



BEES. 



BY PETER S. REIST. 



MESSRS. EDITORS: -Could we not, 
through the medium of the Farmer, 
create sufficient interest in Lancaster county 
as to hold a oee-keepers meeting in Lan- 
caster, or some other convenient place that 
might be agreed upon ? Any one reading the 
bee journals will notice meetings being held 
all over the country', and communications from 
almost all places except Lancaster county. 
Indeed, many profitable hints would be ob- 
tained were bee-men to meet together in our 
county, as every one is aware who is in the 
habit of reading a journal devoted to this 
branch of industry. 

Bees are more profitable than almost any- 
thing to which a man can turn his attention, 
which is saying a good deal. Any one in 



possession of bees, that has ordinary luck, 
will soon be convinced that this is the fact. 
The bees are a class of laborers that work for 
their owner at little expense, and besides the 
small amount of care required to attend to 
them, their increase is clear profit to their 
possessor. 

Feeling that others entertain similar no- 
tions with myself, and that any hints upon 
this subject will be received with pleasure, I 
submit hereby a few remarks upon my success 
in the bee business, which may have a tend- 
ency to prompt others to experiments of the 
same kiui). Some eight years ago I began the 
keeping of bees, having some four or five 
hives of black bees, with which, however, I 
had no success. In 1869, I purchased four 
Italian hives at eighteen dollars per piece, 
and these have so increased that therefrom I 
have had fifty-four hives at a time. This last 
fall I secured about three hundred pounds of 
honey, and all of an excellent quality. 

Much more I might here say, but desire not 
to be tedious. A fevv days ago I handled all 
my hives, and gave good honey to some of the 
weakest of them- Most of the hives I found 
in pretty good condition, except two, which 
were dead— one for want of honey, and the 
other for what cause I was unable to conceive, 
unless it was that it were queenless. I keep 
them all on their summer stand, which is well 
secured from the cold winds, the front being 
so arranged that I can close it. I might say 
much in regard to the kinds of bees— natural 
and artificial swarming- the latter method of 
which I adopted this last year. I had as high 
as three swarms in a day, and swarming con- 
tinaied from early in June till as late as August 
8th ; on this last day the swarms came off, 
one of which is doing as well as could be ex- 
pected. 



DOES ELECTRICITY PERFECT OUR 
WHEAT CROP ? 

MESSRS. EDITORS : Will you allow 
me to offer a few remarks on the lead- 
ing article in the December number of the 
Lancaster Farmer, from your contributor 
from Manhiem township, who appears to have 
"a local habitation," — but no name. He 
says " he has kept an eye on the articles in 
the Farmer, in the hope of finding some- 
thing that would dispel the cloud that over- 



^ 



TEE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



hangs and befogs the wheat-raising theory, 
but so far, has not been able to glean any- 
thing thit would impart the instruction so 
eagerly sought." Grueps he too is on the 
lookout for that compoat, or whatever it may 
be, that is to produce the thirty or forty bush- 
els of wheat per acre. 

I do not generally notice the writings of 
persons who have no names, yet in this case 
it appears to me, that this (to many) new 
theory, of electrical influence on the perfec- 
tion of the wheat crop, deserves at least some 
explanation — whether there is anything in it 
worth our notice, also to see if this " thunder- 
gust theory " will give any light on the ques- 
tion, or still further " befog the wheat-raising 
theory." 

That electricity is a powerful agent (either 
for good or evil) when applied by Him who 
governs the universe, none will dispute, but 
that our good crops of wheat in 1871 were pro- 
duced through the agency of thunder-storms, 
or an excess of electricity in the atmosphere, 
is, to say the least, to my mind rather doubt- 
ful. This nameless writer says, " I presume 
it will be admitted by all who observe pass- 
ing events, that our section of country was 
visited with more thunder-storms last sum- 
mer, than it had been for many years before." 
"What are the facts ? I will refer to my re- 
cord, and take the months of April, May and 
June for ten years back ; these three months 
grow and mature the wheat plant— so it is not 
necessary to take in the mouths after June, 
by this record I find we had the following 
number of thunder-gusts during the three 
mouths respectively, from 1862 to 1871, both 
inclusive. 

1862—14 thunder-storms, 1 

18ti3— U " " I 

1864—21 " " I 

186)— 18 " <' 

1866—16 " " 

1867— 9 " " 

1868—18 '< '• 

1869—13 " " 1 

1870—17 << << I 

1871—12 " " J 

Thus it appears during seven of the ten 
years, there were more thunder-gusts than in 
1871, yet in all these years, our wheat crops 
were inferior to the crops of last season. 

In California there were no thunder-gusts 
known until last season; still they had better 
wheat, and larger yield, that we can raise. 
Thirty to fifty bushels per acre is, with them, 
an average crop — some special crops , on good 
soil, good cultivation — and a favorable season, 



During the 3 months of April, 
May and June. 



eig'aty bushels have been grown on an acre. 
And what they call volunteer wheat — that is, 
wheat droppe d iu harvesting without cultiva- 
tion, frequently produces twenty and more 
bushels per acre. 

The season of 1871 was more of a failure of 
the wheat crops in California than for many, 
years. Could the thunder, which was new to 
the Californians, have had any agency in re- 
ducing their crops ? I opine just as likely to 
reduce, as to increase it. 

Thus I think the question of electricity 
being the cause, or having had any agency in 
the production of our superior wheat crop 
last year, is pretty well ventilated and explo- 
ded. 

However, the idea of electricity producing 
most astonishing results on vegetation was 
extensively circulated in the papers many 
years since. 

It was stated that with a coil of copper, and 
another of zinc, with a copper wire connecting 
the one with the other, and buried under 
ground, that plants growing above this wire 
would grow with amazing rapidity. As I al- 
ways had a love of trying new experiments, 
I wasn't slow in testing this new idea. But 
if there was any effect produced, good, bad or 
indifferent, I could'nt see it I The row of 
" Murphys" planted over the wire, just grew 
along slowly, like all the other potato rows in 
the patch. 

A Rev. gentleman once wrote me in rela- 
tion to the Mammoth Rocky Mountaiu black- 
berry, that those having it lor sale, must have 
viewed it through a pair of magnifyiag spec- 
tacles, to make them look as large as goose 
eggs. Perhaps I ought to have also examined 
my row of potatoes through a powerful mag- 
nifier — but I didn't. 

Another subject. In a former number of 
the Farmer, in speaking of artificial manure, 
1 made the comparison, that it was very much 
like the Indian's gun, costing more than it 
comes to; in other words, more than it was 
worth. Thus our "nameless" friend says: 
" With your permission, and the approbation 
of our friend I. B. Gr-, I will make a few re- 
marks with regard to the repairing of the In- 
dian's gun. It seems that the Indian did not 
much like the fun of paying more for the repair 
of his gun than what, in his estimation, the gun 
was worth after being repaired." Now, our 
nameless friend says, " might not that gun, if 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



properly charged, and fired in the right direc- 
tion, with precision, have paid itself at a sin- 
gle fire? yea more, even ten-fold more." To 
be sure, he miglit have so remunerated him- 
self. But that was not the drift of the argu- 
ment at all ! at all ! Miglit not the poor In- 
dian with the same amount of money, or pelf, 
that his old gun cost for repairs, have pur- 
chased a bran new gun? As was once said, 
"some things maybe done as well as others." 
But I guess I''ll stop ; for after all said and 
done, this wheat question still remains in the 
same condition, and I do not pretend " to dis- 
pel the cloud that overhangs and befogs the 
wheat-raising theory." 

J. B. Gaeber. 



DO FORESTS INDUCE RAIN? 

BT LEVI S. REIST. 

THE above question is one deserving of 
consideration. If forests produce rain 
a strong reason exicts therein for the plant- 
ing of forest trees. One fault is asserted that 
since the introduction of trees into the Sand- 
wich Islands rains are more frequent than 
in the olden time. The Philadelphia Ledger 
says: " Where the land has been denuded of 
forest trees periodical droughts are as sure to 
follow as the sun is sure to rise after it has 
set." Forests retain moisture in the earth, 
while vast tracts of land, when cleared, be- 
come parcned and dry, and the small streams 
dry up. 

It has been frequently stated in the western 
papers that the Mississippi, Missouri and 
Illinois rivers have become shallower of late 
years than they used to be in former times, 
and the same is believed to be case with all the 
western streams. In Pennsylvania streams 
are not effected, it seems, as they are in the 
western States. 

The Pasha of Egypt, under the advice of 
some French engineers in his employ, caused 
a large number of trees to be planted on the 
banks of the Nile, in hopes that a change in 
the climate might thereby be produced, and 
the result seems to have somewhat met his ex- 
pectations. M. De Lesseps planted trees on 
both sides of the Suez canal, both for shade 
and to induce moisture in the atmosphere, and 
with entire success. That a change of climate 
took place along the Suez canal seems con- 



ceded, but whether from the planting of trees 
or not, is not yet fully ascertained. I rather 
incline to the opinion that the water in the 
canal and the loose earth on its banks had 
more effect in attracting rain than the few 
trees planted upon its banks. 

It cannot be denied that unsettled countries 
and those covered with limber have in many 
instances suffered from droughts as well as set- 
tled countries. Kansas, as many may recollect' 
was sugaring from severe droughts at the period 
of its first settlement, and it is known that our 
county sufiered from severe droughts about 
year 1760. So grevious does tradition inform 
us that the drought became in Lancaster 
county about that time, that the cattle had to 
subsist on wheat stubble after harvest, and 
that the trees had to be felled for food 
for the cattle. Of course, at that period 
Lancaster county was covered with dense 
forests. The last severe drought that occurred 
in this county was in the year 1822. At that 
time everything became so parched that the 
grass was as dry as hay, and the sportsmen 
had to be cautious lest they might set a whole 
section of country on fire. The streams in 
the county sunk very low, and the water from 
the Litiz spring would no longer flow across 
the road between Litiz and Warwick. 

I will add some observations of my own 
during the last forty years in this county. 
From 1830 to 1850 the streams had less water 
in them than they have had from 1850 to 1870. 
A small stream passes through my farm which, 
thirty years ago, became dry in the summer, 
but now continues to run the whole year. 
This stream thirty years ago took its source 
in ground covered with forests, but which is 
now all cleared. Forty years ago the county 
abounded in forests, now it is almost denuded 
of timber, yet the streams of water are stronger 
at this time than they were then. This evi- 
dence does not seem to agree with the opin- 
ions advanced by the paper above referred to, 
nor with the opinions that generally seem to 
prevail on this point ; but the observations I 
adduce are simply confined to this county. 

I desire to elicit further information on 
this question, as it is only by an accumulation 
of evidence from many quarters that it can 
finally be decided. In my own mind it is a 
question wliicli induces the more moisture, cul- 
tivation or trees. Lancaster county is now bet- 
ter cultivated than it was ever before,one-third 



6 



TEE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



of the land being generally put out in corn, 
Mliich is well cultivated before harvest, and 
as soon as the araiu is cut plowing again com- 
mences, and thus in this way fully one-third of 
the surface is kept during the whole summer 
in a loose and mellow state, which may at- 
tract the moisture and cause rain. I there- 
fare do not pretend to entertain an opinion 
upon this question, and have merely thrown 
out a few hints in the hopes rather of gaining 
than of imparting information. • 



THE COW'S INTELLIGENCE. 

THAT cows have memory, language, signs 
and means of enjoying pleasant associa- 
tions, or combine for aggressive purposes, has 
been recognized, but scarcely to the extent 
the subject merits. Traveling in Italy 
many years aco, we visited some of the large 
dairy ifarms in the neighb .rhood of Ferara. 
Illt^rposed among much low lying, unhealthy 
laud, remarkable for the prevalence on it of 
very latal forms of anthax in the summer 
season, are fine uodulati!)g pasture lands, and 
the fields are of sreat extent. We happened 
to stop at a farm-house one fine summer after- 
noon when the cows are about to be milked. 
A herd of one hundred were grazing home- 
ward. The women took their positions with 
stool and pail close to the house, and as the 
C0W8 approached, names were called out, 
which we thnuyrht addressed to the milk- 
maids, at first ! Rosa, Florenza, Gilio, Sopsa, 
and many other names which were not noted 
by us at the time, vt^ere called out by the 
overseer, or one of the women, and we were 
astonished to see how cow after cow ceased 
feeding or chewing the cud, and made direct, 
sometimes on a trot, for her woman who 
usually milked her. The practice, we found, 
was not confined to one farm ; all the cows on 
each farm knew their respective names, and 
took up their positions in the lot ju^t as 
r.-adily as the individual members of some 
large herd in the country returning from the 
fields, take their places in the shod. — Milk 
Journal. 

When a mere boy, and working on a farm, 
where there were from forty to fifty cattle to 
house and feed during the winter, we were 
often struck with their memory of their re- 
spective places, and especially the cows; no 
one of them got into the place of another, 
and if it did, it soon " backed out " and found 
its own proper place, although we boys often 
drove them in '• pell-mell," in order to hurry 
our evening work through before supper. If 
cows are not endowed with more than an or- 
dinary share of animal intelligence, and ap- 



parently a good deal of mental, the-n their 
looks belie them. Instances without number, 
analogous to those in the above extract, have 
come uuderour own observation, and we have 
often been rebuked, as we thought, by the 
very look of the cattle, when we have been 
derelict in cur duty toward them. No doubt 
many of those'' who have been raised among 
cows " will have observed their grave, calm 
and philosophical look, as they stand on the 
sunny side of a barn, in winter days, quietly 
chewing their " cuds." And when a stranger 
approaches, what an inquisitive stare they 
give him, much as to say, " What do y.ou want 
here ?" 

And when we enter a barnyard, or an en- 
closure, even now, where cows are feeding, 
their very smdl brings up all the pleasant as- 
sociations of our youth— for the milky smell 
of a well kept cow, is more grateful, and v/e 
doubt not more healthful, to the nostrils than 
much of the perfumery used at the present day 
by stinking specimens of humanity. That 
rural swain, who likened the breath of bis 
sweetheart, to that of a cow, made use of a 
simile that was not only rational, but also* 
highly complimentary. The cow is an emblera 
of civilization, and when we find her domesti- 
cated and properly cared for, we are likt^y to 
find people who will have a liberal and chaii- 
table care for human beings. And then, see 
how lady-like Mrs. Brindle is. She goes forth 
in the morning gatheriug and distilling health- 
ful sweets, and in the evening she returns, and 
walks up to your very door, almost begging 
for you to come and relieve her from that for 
which she has no special use, but which will 
be of much use to you. We would not like to 
be compelled to kill a good cow, or one that 
ever had been good. We say nothing about 
the moral quality of such a deed : we only say 
that we would not like to be the perpetrator 
ot it, even in a case of necessity. It is enough 
that the constitution of society is such that we 
are required to cannibalize on the carcass of 
the cow, when it is dressed for the table, 
without being the slayer of such an animal. 



Eeesh Eggs in Winter.— For winter eggs, 
now is your time to lay in. Raise pulie's of 
the Brahma kind, or Cochins. When they 
are seven months old, if well kept, they will 
lay. They will do so whether cold or hot, 
temperature having nothing to do with it. 
This will give fresh egss the winter through. 
A fev/ chickens are sutficient. A neigbi'or of 
ours has eight hens, which furnish him all the 
eggs he wants, with some to spare for the 
neighbors. He has four members in his family. 
His hens are a cross between the Brahma 
and Black Spanish. 



THE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



HORTICULTURE. 



WILSON'S EARLY BLACKBERRY. 

THIS variety of the blackberry is valua- 
ble, mainly, oa account of its early 
ripening, which brinies it into market from 
eight to ten days earlier than any other varie- 
ty cultivated in this latitude; and this quality 
alone would enhance its value. But in addi- 
tion to this, it generally perfects its whole 



and is considered more healthful, and can be 
put to more uses. Blackberries, in general, 
when perfectly ripe, act on the human system 
as a gentle astringent, and this variety ripens 
about the season when the human system is 
liable to suffer most from summer laxation. 
Wilson's Early i<, however, not as strong 
a grower as the Kittatinuy, and has not 
proved quite as hardy in this locality, during 
severe winters, as some others of the culti- 
vated varieties; but the first is large, and the 




Wilson's Early Blackberry. 



crop before any other variety has fully ripen- 
ed its earliest berries, and, therefore, it al- 
ways is sure of commandmg the very highest 
price, and has the almost entire patronage of 
the market. It is a worthy and valuable suc- 
cessor to the strawberry and raspberry crops, 



canes productive and vigorous. Moreover, 
the berries bear carriage remarkably well 
without changing color. 

The above illustration and notice of " Wil- 
son's Early Blackberry," is taken from the 
" Illustrative and Descriptive Catalogue of 



8 



THE LAJSrCASTER FARMER. 



small fruits, seeds, potatoes, &c.," cultivated 
and for sale by John G. Kreider, " Nursery- 
man and Fruit Grower," Lancaster, Pa. 

In addition , we may add, that blackberries in 
general are considered one of the most health- 
ful fruits that grows. Whether the well- 
ripened simple fruit, or in the form of jellies, 
syrups, or wines, there is nothing more sim- 
ple and accessible, as a remedy, in summer 
bowel complaint. Although there may be 
special cases, in pecular stages of disease, 
when they may be too active as an astringent, 
and their use would not be advisable, yet in 
the majority of acute cases, they are benefi- 
cial. The unripe fruit, however, like all other 
unripe fruit, is very liable to prove hurtful 
when taken into a diseased system ; but this 
is one of those contingencies in which " cir- 
cumstances alter cases "—or all things are not 
equal. When we mention blackberry wine, of 
course,we refer to it as a medicine, and not as 
a common beverage. If pulling a tooth is a 
good cure for toothache, it would be folly to 
pull out all the teeth, whether they ached or 
not, simply for the purpose of doing that 
which, under other circumstances, was deem- 
ed ^oocZ. 'Tis even so in the use of wine. 



PRONUNCIATION OF VEGETABLE 

NAMES IN DIFFERENT 

LANGUAGES. 

BY JOHN G. KREIDER, LANCASTER, PA. 



English, 


German. 


French. 


Spanish. 


Artichoke, 


Artiscboke, 


Artichaut, 


Alcacbofa. 


Asparagus, 


Spargal, 


Afperge, 


Esparrago. 


Beans, 


Bohnan, 


Haricot, 


Frijolenano. 


Beet, 


Both rube, 


Betrare, 


Remolacha. 


Borecole, 


Grune kobl, 


Choul, 


Breton. 


Brussels 


Gruner spros 


Choudebrux 


- Breipn de bru 


sprouts, 


sen, 


elles, 


sclas. 


Cabbage, 


Kopiikobl, 


Chou pomme 
ou cabos. 


RepoUo. 


Ca'rots, 


Mohre, 


Carotte, 


Zanahoria. 


Cauliflower, 


Blumen-kobl 


, Choufleur, 


Coliflor. 


Celery, 


Sellerie, 


Celeri, 


Apio. 


Corn, 


Rel'Clikorn, 


Mais, 


Maiz. 


Cress, 


Kresse, 


Cresaon, 


Mastuerzo. 


Corn salad, 


Ackersalat, 


Mache, 


Valeriana. 


Cucumber, 


Gurke, 


Concombre, 


Pepino. 


Egg-plant, 


Leierpflanze, 


Aubergine, 


Bert-ngena. 


Endive, 


Endive, 


Cbicoree, 


Endibia. 


Garlic, 


Knoblanch, 


Ail, 


Ajt.. 


Kobi-rabl, 


Kobl rabi, 


Cbou-rare, 


Kobl-rabi. 


Leek, 


Laucb, 


Poireau, 


Puerro. 


Lettuce, 


Gart nsalat. 


Laitue, 


Lechuga. 


Me.'on-water 


■Wassermelone, Melon d'eau 


, Sandia. 


Melon, musk 


, Melone, 


Melon, 


Melon. 


Onions, 


Zinbiel, 


Oignon, 


CeboUa. 



Parsley, 


Petersilie, 


Persil, 


Perejil. 


Parsnip, 


Pastinake, 


Panals, 


Pastinaca. 


Peas, 


Erbse, 


Pois, 


Guisante. 


Pepper, 


Pfeffdr, 


Piment, 


Pimiento. 


Potato, 


Kartofel, 


Pomme de 


Solanum. 


Pumpkin 


Kurbies, 


Courge,[terre 


, Calabaze. 


Radish, 


Radies, 


Radis, 


Rapano. 


Rhubarb, 


Rhubarrer, 


Rhnbarre, 


Raibarbo. 


Sorrel, 


Saueriupfer, 


Orsile, 


Acedera. 


Spinach, 


Spinat, 


Epinard, 


Espinachi 


Squash, 


Kurbiss, 


Courge, 


Calabaza ton- 
tanera. 


Tomato, 


Liebesapfel, 


Tomate, 


Tomate. 


Turnip, 


Rube, 


Naret, 


Nabo coraun. 




ENTOMOLOGY. 











R. H. M. E., Marietta, Pa.— The bird 
you sent us by express, a few days ago, 
is a specimen of the " Great American 
Shrike" or " Butcher-bird" — Lanius borealis 
of Veillat — and the pugnacious character 
which you witnessed is very common to this 
bird. They live upon mice, small birds, and 
insects — sometimes on frogs and other small 
Reptilia also— and their habit of impaling 
these animals on thorns, has been observed 
and commented upon more than fifty years 
ago. But their object in impaling these ani- 
mals, or parts of animals, is not so apparent, 
as they are known to impale much more than 
they ever eat, or indeed more than they ever 
return to again. 

Miss A. K., Lancaster, Pa.— The small, 
reddish, wormlike animal, which you found in 
the fresh water, pumped up out of the well on 
North Queen street, seems to be a species of 
Planaria, belonging to Cuvier's second order 
ofENTOzoA, named Parenchymata, because 
their bodies are filled with "parenchyma," 
or pulpy matter, either in a cellular tissue, or 
simply in an internal cavity, in which there is 
no alimentary apparatus that can be discov- 
ered. They are usually very voracious ani- 
mals, and in the absence of other food, will 
feed upon each other. Mutilated parts of 
these animals very readily reproduce new in- 
dividuals, although reproduction also takes 
place in the ordinary manner, through the 
intervention of fertilized ova. It is difficult to 
determine th( ir use in the economy of nature. 
Mr. L. R., Lancaster, Pa.— The living 
beetle you picked up in your yard on Christ- 
mas day was a spec'es of " Bacon beetle " — 
Dermestes mai'moratus—^hioh had been tem- 
porarily revived from its winter hybernation, 



THE LAjy CASTER FARMER, 



9 



by tbe supervening mild weather. The vi- 
tality of some insects is so enduring that 
the coldest winter cannot freeze the life out 
of them, and a few mild days will revive them 
during the winter at any time, and as often 
as it may occur. These beetles usually de- 
posit their eggs on hams, shoulders, flitches 
of bacon, or greasy peltry, and the larvae feed 
thereon. This larva is not the maggot which 
gets in around the bones of hams. That is a 
Dipterous larva and produces a two-winged 
fly. The larva of Dermestes is flat, has six 
feet, and is as good a walker as the perfect 

insect. 

R. 

CORRESPONDENCE. 

ESSRS. EDITORS Lakcaster Farm- 
er: I do not know if the following 
transcript of a letter will be of interest to the 
readers of the Farmer, so I submit it to your 
better judgment. My friend, a lady of Iowa, 
thus sends me an account of a journey she, in 
company with several others, made to Kansas. 
She writes as follows : 

"Had you seen us you would doubtless 
have considered our mode of conveyance very 
odd. In a two-horse lumber wagon with a 
white cover. Thus prepared we started on 
the 4th of September, went by way of Ne- 
braska City, Tecumseh, Marysville, Pawnee 
City, Clyde, Concordia, Quaker City, and 
Gaylord, which last named place, by the way, 
you will have to look close for to find on the 
map, as there is only one little dirt-roofed 
log cabin, and the stakes for the coming city. 
That is in Smith county, Kansas, on the north 
fork of Solomon river. It rained, or rather 
poured down, the second night out, but we 
did not get wet. After that night we were 
considerably troubled to get wood and water 
to do our cooking. There were plenty of 
places where streams should have been, but 
they were all dry, with the exception of holes, 
or Buffalo wallows , as they are called, we used 
water out of some of these that way so full of 
green animalcula3, that we had to strain it be- 
fore we could use it. Sometimes we had to 
haul our wood with us. One night that we 
camped on the prairie, we had only a little 
wood, so next morniog we drove seven miles 
before breakfast. We here found only a little 
standing water — and so hard, that if you put 



soap into it, it was like dipping your hands in 
grease. It commenced raining on Friday and 
continued till Wednesday, not all the time, 
but enough to make it disagreeable. 

" There is some fine looking land throughout 
iSTebraska and Kansas, in spite of its disad- 
vantages, and some very good and productive. 
I think it will be a famous peach country in 
two or three years, we saw many young trees 
not old enough to bear. One orchard near 
Pawnee City was hanging fuH of fine look- 
ing fruit. There are some apple orchards 
newly planted. Those two States will in all 
probability, in time, be the most beautiful in 
the Union. Being scarce of timber they are 
obliged to make hedge fences mostly. The 
laws of the State compel them to make all 
laid-out roads on the section lines. It takes 
a very small capital to open a farm. A man 
goes there and breaks his ground, puts in a 
crop of corn or what else he chooses — sets out 
a few trees, builds a little .shanty. The next 
year he can set out his hedges ; if he keeps 
stock he must either stake them out or herd 
them. There is some land, however, so poor 
that weeds can't grow on it, much less any- 
thing else. You Eastern people might say, if , 
you had traveled over both these States, that 
there was no timber ; but people there find 
the scarcity of timber not so great a drawback 
as water. They do not need much timber, as 
they have plenty of fine building stone and 
coal for fuel. Bu': water is one of the essen- 
tials. I like the situation of my brother's 
claim very well, two sections of eighty acres 
lying along Beaver creek, a running stream. 
He has good farming land, and considerable 
timber (for that country), plenty of stone, and 
a good prospect for stone coals. The stone 
is white limestone, almost as white as the 
lime itself. He is about four miles north of 
the north fork of Solomon river. 

" We arrived on the 15th, being eleven days 
on the road. I think the animal kingdom is 
pretty well represented out here, in flying 
and creeping things, as well as larger ones- 
There are more butterflies, more varieties of 
grasshoppers, more and bigger olack crickets 
than I ever saw ; plenty of rattlesnakes and 
prairie dogs. These little animals are the 
cut3st Ihin^s you ever saw, it is almost impos- 
sible to kill one, unless it is away from its 
hole, for they will almost invariably 'drop.' 
We stayed at my brother's place till the 20th, 



10 



THE LAJy CASTER FARMER. 



we females cooking, and the boys hunting and 
looking at the country ; then we all went on a 
general hunt some twelve or fifteen miles 
north. The first evening they killed a two- 
year old buffalo, and two young turkeys. 
The next day sister and I and the children, 
and fi;ur men (there were nine altogether), 
went out again ; we had traveled six or seven 
miles and concluded there was no game in 
that direcli n, when they looked off' south and 
saw four buffUlo, that were just right, for the 
wind was from the south ; the men set off on 
a run, leaving a boy with us, we followiag 
slowly. The boy shot a big wolf in the mean- 
time. We drove near enough to hear them 
shooting. Then the boy left us in charge of 
the team, and started for the men ; just as he 
got on the hill, a big buffalo came up on one 
side. He shot at him, and before he could load 
another came up on the other side, nearer 
than the first. He came down the bill and 
across the gulch, straight toward us. I had 
as much as I could do to hold the horses. The 
children were afraid, and I too a little, but he 
soon turned on his course ; he was wounded, 
but still able to travel. We then drove our 
team to where the men had two buff"aloes 
down. One was dead and the other was 
wounded so that he could not get up, so sister 
Myra went and shot him dead, I preferred 
to remain at a little distance, for fear he mit-ht 
get up, as they are very dangerous when 
wounded, and you never know that they can't 
get up until their hams are cut olf. That and 
the tenderloin is about all that is taken, and 
sometimes the shoulders. The one they killed 
the first day was shot sixteen times. When 
we got back to camp the other boys had killed 
three more turkeys. We then had as much 
meat as we could take care of, so we returned 
to my brother's place, and stayed there a day 
and a-half to dry the meat. I think the meat 
is better than beef. The antelope s, of which 
we saw more than a hundred, were to o sharp 
for us ; we could'nt get one. A neighbor gave 
us a ham, and I think that was the best meat 
I ever tasted. They are a beautiful animal. 

" We started for home on the 27th, taking a, 
different route, part of the way. There was 
more timber and water, though in one locality 
it was twenty-two miles without any water, 
except " Buffalo Wallows." Some places 
where there was timber, there was no dry 
wood that would burn, as so many bad camped 



there, that everything that would burn had 
been used up. We arrived home October 2d, 
having been gone four weeks. My health has 
been greatly improved by this squatter life." 

In a later letter in response to one from me, 
she says : 

"November lOlh: Youis duly received, 
and I write to say there is much corn out in 
the fields yet, and the crop is more than an 
average one, but wheat has pr.wed an entire 
failure. Corn is worth 15 cents per bushel, 
and no feeders this year. Oats, 18 cents ; 
wheat, $1.00; potatoes, 25 cents; sweet po- 
tatoes, 50 cents ; hogs, 3 cents gross; apples, 
95c. to S1.25." 

On my doubting that buffaloes are slaughter- 
ed merely for sport, and the carcass left on 
the ground for the wolves, Jlc, she says. 
" Possibly you might not wish to slay them 
for mere sport, but by the time you had climb- 
ed rocky points and descended deep ravines, 
stopping in the mfeanlime to pick sand-burrs, 
getting your fingers full, and having been out 
long enough to have eaten up all your pro- 
visions, and being, perhaps, 20 tu 50 milci 
from 7ww]iere, to use a common expression, 
with such an appetite as I had, I think you 
would not stop long to slay the first buff'alo 
you came in sight of. Bat I willini>ly admit 
that there are more buff.iloes killed than is 
use for. Western life changes people greatly. 

"I wish I could send you such a boquet as 
Myra and I gathered on the evening of our 
arrival at my brother's. I gathered some 
seeds but lost them ; also a few plants, which 
are planted. There are many cactus growing 
in this country ; there are two varieties, one 
is called the ' prickly pear,' it was full of 
small red pear shaped fruit, and is well 
named, as I found on gathering some of ihe truit 
my hands gotfull of prickles. Tbe other variety 
ha-i spines an inch and a half long, and so 
strong that it will penetrate a man's boot if 
tramped on. Both are said to have beautiful 
flowers, but their flowering season was past 
when I saw them. Yours, etc., 



Care OF Stock. — The fVirmer who stints 
the feed of his stock during the winter months, 
in order to have something to carry to mar- 
ket, is foolish ; the farmer who feeds his stock 
well through the winter months is wise. One 
makes his stock bring a price far more than 
the cost of the extra feed given ; the other 
has the pleasure of seeing his neighbor's 
stock sell readily at the highest market, while 
his own is slow of sale, and at a reduced 
price. 



THE LAJYCASTER FARMER. 



11 



LANCASTER, JAKUAKY, 1872. 
S. S. RATHVON AND ALEX. HARRIS, Editors. 

Published monthly under the auspices of the Agricul- 
Tur.AL AND Horticultural Society. 

@l.!i3 per year in advnncc. 

A considerable deduction to clubs of five or more. 



All communication.'!, to insure insertion, must be in the 
bands of the editors before the 20th of each month. Ad- 
dress Bath von & Harris, Lancaster, Pa. 

All advertisements, subscriptions and remitt.ancesto the 
addressof the publisher, J. B. DKVKLIN, 

Inquirer Building, Lancaster, Pa. 



We have a number of copies of the Farmer 
bound in volumes of one, of hoo^ and of three 
years, which we propope to ofl'er as premiums 
to any one who may get up chib subscriptions 
for 1872, on the follovviug conditions. Any 
person who shall bring or send us within the 
next three months, ien responsible new sub- 
scribers, shall receive a bound volume of one 
year ; for twenty subscribers, a volume of two 
years ; and for thirty subscribers a volume of 
three years ; and if they are accompanied by 
the cash in advance, they shall receive in 
addition, twenty-Jive cents on each subscription 
— our terms beiug rated at $1.25 a year. 



TO THE READERS OF THE FARMER. 

AFTER another year of unprecedented 
" peace and plenty " within our bor- 
ders, we come again before our readers with 
our annual greetings. Our wishes for their 
happiness and welfare are neither formal nor 
timeserving, but the earnest out;j;oiugs of our 
liearts, and a desire that they may realize in 
the ]^ew Year, all the expectations vvh'ch the 
Old Fear— now buried in the grave of the 
past — has left unaccomplished. TFe, iu com- 
mon with them, turn over a new leaf in the 
book of Time, and if we or tliey have soiled 
or marred the pages of the past, let all our 
shortcomings serve as warnings for the years 
that may still be before us, in the long and 
unknovyn future. Under any circumstances, 
there is uo time like the present, in starting 



anew in the journey of life ; for the present is 
all that we have. The past belongs to God 
and history, and the future may never be ours. 
In contemplating these annual epochs in the 
cycles of time, the whole human family have 
much to be thankful lor, whatever appear' 
ances of a contrary character may outwardly 
exist. We can hardly conceive of an evil of 
any kind, which, on mature reflection, we can- 
not see might have been something worse. 

The fertile hills ond valleys of our good old 
county, during the advent of 1871, have amply 
rewarded the husbandman for his honest, in- 
cessant, and often weary toil. With abun- 
dance of subsistence, and an appetite to relish 
and appropriate it — with a sound constitution 
and a peaceful and contented mind, he stands 
before the world, as one of nature's beneficent 
and man-sustaining noblemen. If he lacks in 
anything, it is in that which perhaps is lack- 
ing everywhere among the masses of man- 
kind, namely : a higher degree of moral and 
intellectual culture. That culture will be 
facilitated by a ready recognition of human- 
ity, outside of himself, and by embracing the 
opportunities and the means that are em- 
ployed for his moral and mental elevation, 
" No pent up Utica " should contract his 
powers, but the whole continent of intelli- 
gence sh uld be his. Having freely received, 
he should as freely give, wherever his gifts 
can be worthily and usefully bestowed. It is 
sometimes as charitable to withhold as it is to 
give ; but it requires more than merely ordi- 
nary intelligence to make the proper discrim- 
ination. This intelligence is one of the bene- 
fits flowing from the "republic of letters," 
but it is only attainable through mutual co- 
operation and persevering labor. 

Such is the stcdus of our desires, our wishes, 
and our aims, feebly and hastily reflected in 
these desultory and imperfect lines. But in 
coming before our readers with our fourth 
salutatory, we confess that we do so under a 
very peculiar state of feeling — a feeling vacil- 
lating between a hope of ultimate success, and 
an api)rehension of final failure ; for, in our 
life experiences, we can only practically 
judge the future by the past. For three long 
weary years we have been catering for the 
intellectual wants of the agricultural, horti- 
cultural, domestic and miscellaneous interests 
of the friends of these specialties, in the coun- 
ty of Lancaster, with little hope of any present 



n 



THE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



or future reward. Indeed, our desire has been 
so much to see our native county the acknow- 
ledged center of agricultural, mechanical and 
literary effort, in the "Keystone State," that 
we have thought but little of personal remun- 
eration or reward. Were it not for the liberal 
advertising patronage which we have re- 
ceived, during the past three years, the Lan- 
caster Farmer would have been utterly 
" swamped" long ago ; but even with this, and 
all the other income combined, it has not yet 
paid expenses. 

If we are asked — " Then why desire the 
continuance of the journal ?" our reply would 
be, that we had hoped and still hope lor final 
success. Under the Scriptural admonition 
that " He that layeth his hand to the plow 
and looketh back is not fit for the kingdom of 
God," we have ever been looking forward. 
We have not the moral courage to disappoint 
the expectations of the friends who have 
stood by us and sustained us so far as their 
means and influence extended — from the very 
begmning, and who would feel deeply morti- 
fied at the discontinuance of the journal now- 
We still believe that the elements and the 
material support of a good magazine, devoted 
to the intertsts of agriculture, horticulture 
and the domestic fireside, exists in Lancaster 
county, and is capable of being finally 
developed. 

We may not be the proper individuals to 
effect such a development ; but, then, be it 
distinctly understood, that from the very be- 
ginning we have only regarded ourselves as 
a sort of pioneers or scouts, ready and will, 
ing at any moment to resign our charge into 
more competent and efficient hands, without 
withdrawing any moral, literary and pecu- 
niai-y support, which it, from time to time, 
might need. 

Elated and encouraged by this hope, we 
have again launched our little craft upon the 
sea of journalism, and are bound to make 
another voyage. Whether it be rough and 
boisterous, or smooth and placid, whether it 
ultimates in reasonable success, or in fatal 
disaster, will depend, perhaps, something upon 
our own energies, but we opine more upon 
the measure of support we shall receive from 
those whom it most concerns. Come what 
may, we cannot do less on this occasion, with- 
out doing violence to our own feelings, than 
to wish one and all a prosperous and Happy 
New Year. Eds. and Pub. 



MEETING OF THE AGRICULTURAL 
AND HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

THE Society met December 4,1871, and 
the minutes of the last meetmg were 
read and approved. 

On motion, all delinquents liable to fine 
for non-appearance at 1 o'clock, as per resolu- 
tion of former meeting, were excused. 

In answer to question as to the best time to 
plant chestnuts, J. B. Gerber said when they 
are ripe. 

H. M. Eogle thought nature designates this 
as the proper period to plant nuts of any k^nd. 
They must not be covered deep, else they wiU 
rot. He thought no subject of more impor- 
tance than this to the farmers of Lancaster 
county, for thereby they find instruction as to 
the method of replenishing the county with 
timber. 

E Hoover spoke of the subject of growing 
turnips for cattle feed. An important point 
in this connection was, what is the proper time 
to sow the turnip seed as to make the crop a 
surety. 

Levi W. Groff nas never had any difficulty 
in growing turnips. He generally grows them 
among his corn. 

Levi S. Reist believed last year the best for 
a turnip crop that we have had for years in 
this county. 

H. M. Engle did not believe any particular 
time could be fixed for sowing the seed. All 
that is necessary is to have a cool, dry climate, 
as that in England or Canada. In this country 
the best turnips' are usually grown in the lat- 
ter part of the year. They may do well when 
sown among the corn if rain soon follows. A 
very successful turnip grower of his knowledge 
was in the habit of passing, after the seed 
was sown, among the corn with a small har- 
row. He himself has been in the habit of 
sowing the turnip seed and covering it with a 
hand harrow or drag. Our farmers will be 
yet obliged to come to recognize the im- 
portance of root crops as feed for their cattle. 

Casper Hiller has never had much experi- 
ence in growing root crops, but one thing to 
be remembered about this is, that the seed 
should be sown upon freshly tilled ground 
upon which rain has not yet fallen. 

Levi W. Groff sowed about 2 lbs. of seed 
upon ten acres of corn ground. 

J. G. Peters, one of the essayists of the 



TEE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



13 



meeting, was en motion excused till next meet- 
ing of the Society. 

Mr. Peters regarded the root question as 
one of great inaportance, as he has come to 
know how extensively it is prosecuted in va- 
rious countries of Europe. Some American 
people are but obtaining a hint of it. 

H. M. Eagle consilered the carrot one of 
the most profitable root crops for cattle. The 
sugar-beet, ruta-baga and kohl-rabi are like- 
wise valuable crops. A cool barn cellar is 
one of the best places to keep roots during 
winter, and it must be one neither too warm 
nor too cold. A question here to be consider- 
ed, and one somewhat mooted is. Do these roots 
impart any peculiar flavor to the milk and but- 
ter ? 

H. K. Stoner desired to know if roots should 
be cut for cattle feed. He named several 
leading farmers who never cut the turnips 
for their cattle. * 

J. G. Peters always cuts his turnips for cat- 
tle. Some loss has been sustained by him 
from neglect of this, some of his cattle hav- 
ing choked on the whole turnips. 

H. M. Engle thought all progressive farmers 
not only cut their turnips for the cattle, but 
they likewise cut all their hay, corn-fodder 
and other feed. 

J. G. Peteis mentioned J. G. Stehman, 
whom he regards as the leading farmer in 
Couestoga township, who not only cuts all 
hU feed for his cattle, but also steams it. 

C. L. Hunsecker proceeded to read an essay 
upon "Wheat as a Civilizer of Mankind." 

Upon the conclusion of the essay, a vote of 
thanks was tendered Mr. Hunsecker for his 
production. 

E. Hoover believed more nutriment was 
coutainedin wheat than in any other grain. 

C. L. Hunsecker remarked that the ques- 
tion of wheat culture was arresting the atten- 
tion of thoughtful men throughout the world. 
Straw is a very important item in the value 
of a wheat crop. Years ago as much wheat 
was exported out of this country as at the 
present day. In countries where wheat is not 
grown the people live in a state of abject 
misery. Enough of wheat is still not yet 
raised to supply the consumption of the world. 

J. G. Peters thought our people were too 
apt to be discouraged in growing crops when 
an occasional failure occurs. It should be 
borne in mind that success in the main crowns 



the farmer's labors, for do we not see most of 
them becoming rich and independent. He 
suggested that a method might yet be dis- 
covered for extracting the essence of wheat 
and having it in smaller bulk. 

C. L. Hunsecker said this already was 
attainable in the different grades of flour, the 
best grade being by far the most nutritious. 
Lancaster is known far and wide as a great 
wheat-growing county. 

J. G Frantz took Mr. Peters to task for his 
eulogistic remarks upon Lancaster county. 

Mr. Peters retorted by saying that he be- 
lieved Lancaster county could comppete with 
any district in the world as regards intellect- 
ual capacity. Dr. E. K. Hertz considered 
the wheat question one of great importance. 

Society on motion adjourned. 



PEiq'NSYLYAKIA FRUIT GROWERS' 

associatio:n^. 

The following circular has been issued an- 
nouncing the annual meeting of this thriving 
association which is to be held in Horticultural 
Hall, Philadelphia, on the seventeenth of 
January. A strong appeal is made to fruit 
growers to attend this meeting, which we 
hope will be cheerfully responded to. There 
is wide room for improvement in fruit culture 
in our State. It is a fact not very creditable 
to our horticulturists generally, that nearly 
all the fruit consumed by Pennsylvanians, and 
especially Philadelphians, comes from other 
States. The convention promises to be a very 
interesting one, as a number of prominent 
pomologisis from abroad have agreed to be 
present, and participate in the proceedings. 
The committee announces also, that it is ex- 
pected that the railroad fares of the delegates 
will be reduced. 

Officers for 1871.— President, Josiah 
Hoopes, West Chester ; Vice Presidents, 
Samuel W. Xoble, Jenkintown, Dr. J. L. 
Suesserott, Chambersburg, J. B. Garber, Co- 
lumbia ; Recording Secretary, AlexanderHar- 
ris, Lancaster ; Corresponding Sec'y., Thomas 
Meehan, Germantown ; Treasurer, Robert 
Otto, West Chester ; Committee on Arrange- 
ment and Reception, J. E. Mitchell, A. W. 
Harrison, William Hacker, Dr. J. S. Houghton, 
D. W.Herstine. 



u 



TEE LAKCASTEB iARMER. 



FIFTY YEARS IK THE FIELD. 

The New York Observer is celebrating its 
jubilee, entering upon its fiftieth year, Janu- 
ary 1st, 1872. It is one of the oldest news- 
papers in the country, one of the ablest, and 
one of the most steadfast and fearless in main- 
taining the truth in religion, the right in 
morals, and honesty in all public and private 
affairs. It announces for the coming year, 
the publication of the second volume of its 
Y'ear-Book, a vast repository of information, 
statistical and otherwise, relating both to 
Church and State, which will be sent free to 
all who pay their subscription for 1872. This 
volume last year was worth the subscription 
price of the paper, and the publishers promise 
a more complete Year-Book for 1872. Speci- 
men copies of the paper, with prospectus for 
the Year-Book, sent free on applicaiion from 
any source. 



BOOK NOTICE. 



American Homes : The January number 
of this popular illustrated dollar magazine is 
as full of good things as a Xew Year's morn 
is of good promises. Among the notable arti- 
cles is one on " Society in Washington " by 
Mr. Ramsdell, the well-known "Washington 
correspondent, and there is the usual supply 
of stories, disquisitions, wit, household arti- 
cles, a popular song, and departments for 
Freemasons, I. 0. O. F., G. A. R., K. of P., 
&c., the whole forming a rich collection of 
literature for ten cents. The New York Tri- 
bune well says, that its pictorial embelliah- 
ments enhance the value of American homes, 
and that it will hold its own in many families 
against more costly magazmes." A new 
story by George Alfred Townsend is an- 
nounced for the February number. A perfect 
copy of the Grand Duke Alexis' autograph is 
sent with the January number, and our speci- 
men snows that it is a valuable memento of 
the Duke's visit. Chas. H. Taylor & Co., 51 
Water street, Boston, are the publishers. 

Any subscriber to the Lancaster Farmer, 
who may desire the above valuable journal, 
by paying S2 cash, in advance, will not only 
receive both magazines for the year 1872, but 
also a large and popular engraving— 18 inches 
by 14— entitled ''' The Family Reunion." We 
have a copy of the January number of this 
journal before us, aud can fully indorse all 



that the Tribune says in reference to its " pic- 
torial embellishments." Send in your names 
immediately, and receive the Lancaster 
Farmer, and American Homes, one year, for 
two dollars. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 

RANDOM SKETCHES AND FARM 
ITEMS— No. 10. 

BY n. M. ENGLE. 

BLEAK winter is at our doors. While 
jotting this article, the ground is cov- 
ered with snow for the first time this season. 
The farmer generally has almost everything 
necessary for comfort. Although the winter 
winds whistle around his dwelling, he can sit 
cosily by his fireside, with an abundance to 
eat a15d driuK, and raiment for hi* protection 
against all inclemencies of the season. To 
all this he is fully entitled in return for his 
frugality and labor. He at the same time 
owes important duties which are in many 
cases neglected. His dumb brutes in many 
instances are subjected to such inhuman 
treatment, that a Berg or a Reicheubach 
should be at hand, to enforce the laws for 
their protection. 

The majority of farmers have good, com- 
fortable stabling (in this section at least), but 
many turn out their stock all day, thus ex- 
posing them to storms, snow, sleet and rait, 
oftimes to stand and shiver for hours. 

Some have such poor shelter that it aflF>rds 
but little protection. While others expose 
some of their anima's day and night to all 
the inclemencies of the weather, the whole 
year round. 

It is hi>;;h time that all who own animals 
should know it to be to their interest pecuni- 
arily to feed, shelter and treat them humanely ; 
and where self-interest does not prompt men 
to such duty. Christian feeling and piiblic sen- 
timent should create and enforce such laws as 
will protect ail brutes from cruel treatment 
in every respect. 

Ice Houses.— Ice has become a necessity, 
instead of a luxury, as formerly. With such 
a fine crop early this season and favorable 
weather for housing it, there will be no ex- 
cuse next August for a scarcity of the article. 

Farmers^ Clubs. — It is to be regretted that 



TEE LAJ^CASTER FARMER. 



15 



so few agricultural and horticultural societies 
exist in our State, even in sections that have 
a reputation for good farming. Every town- 
ship or school district should have an organi- 
zation that would meet weekly or semi- 
monthly, at least during the long winter even- 
ings, where the isolated experience and wis- 
dom of farm husbandry, and kindred subjects 
would be brought together and thrown into 
common stock, whereby no one would lose, 
but all would gain. 

Fencing Farms.— It has become an impor- 
tant question whether, at the present prices of 
timber, it pays to keep farms fenced into fields 
simply for the purpose of pasturing. Many 
of the most intelligent and successful farmers 
have abandoned fencing cli* into fields, and 
would not fence at all to keep their stock in, 
but under present laws they are obliged to 
fence other stock out. 

In many of the older countries the fencing 
system has long since b.een abandoned, partly 
on account of the value of land, but more on 
account of the scarcity of timber. 

At the present rate of the destruction of 
forests and woodlaudi, a large proportion of 
this country is rapidly drifting into the same 
condition. 

It IS merely a question of time, when we or 
our posterity will see the folly of " killing 
the goose that lays the golden egg." 

The agitation East and West of the timber 
question will, howerer, create a sentiment 
that must produce good results, not only in 
preventing the unnecessary and rapid destruc- 
tion and waste of timber, but will also stirau- 
late the planting of new groves and forests. 
Men of science and extensive observation 
have shown beyond question the influence of 
forests, and fields, and fruit crops. Long con- 
tinued droughts and great floods are the ex- 
tremes which have followed the denuding of 
large sections of country of its forests. 

It is also a fact, that sections of country 
that had been barren trom want of rain have 
been made fertile by the planting of belts and 
groves of timber, which cause rain to fall 
where little or none fell before. It is possi- 
ble that the Government will soon have to 
take this matter in hand by reserving a por- 
tion of its forest, and also plant, or provide 
by statute for the planting of forests, se as to 
keep a proper balance between the timber 
and arable lands. 



KEEPING SHEEP. 

The great excitement in the wool markets 
must give a new start to sheep farming. 
American farmers are so liable to change — so 
many will drop a crop or product, when the 
price is low, and rush into it when apparently 
doing better — that hereaftei we may expect 
that sheep will be in demand. The erradual 
decline in dairy products and the large decline 
in fat cattle, will also have some influence- 
For a few years beef and pork, and butter and 
cheese have brought good prices, while wool 
was quite low, but the recent changes will 
restore the equilibrium, and at least for a time, 
sheep may be expected to pay as well as any 
other stock. 

This change will be of considerable advan- 
tage on grain farms, where a rotation of 
crops and keeping considerable stock is prac- 
ticed. One of the worst difficulties on such 
farms is the scarcity and high prices of good 
help; hence, other things being equal, the 
stock that requires the least labor and atten- 
tion will be ths most desirable. In this re- 
spect there is scarcely any stock that is ahead 
of good grade merino sheep. In the winter 
they need less labor in their pens or sheds — 
they should have shelter — than any kind of 
cattle in stables ; and in summer, although 
they should have water, they need less labor 
and attention than most other stock. A 
moderate number of these sheep are very 
easily and cheaply kept on a good grain farm. 
If teams are pastured they must have good 
feed to keep them in good condition for labor ; 
cows must also have good pasture in order to 
give profitable returns ; hence many fields 
that no longer afford suitable pasture for 
teams and cows will answer well for sheep. 
Summer fallows will also afford some feed; in 
fact they are the only stock that should be 
kept on a fallow after it is plowed. On the 
smaller farm a few sheep will glean afier other 
stock to good advantage ; on large farms, 
where labor is^iot plenty, besides the teams, 
cows and other stock needed for the use of 
the farm, such sheep may answer as well as 
any other stock. 

But on all grain farms much care is needed 
to auoid overstocking the land with sheep. 
It is not good policy to feed pastures too 
close; many have been injured by feeding 
them down very short with sheep. It is also 



16 



TEE LAJSrCASTER FARMER. 



poor policy to feed meadows down close in 
the fall, as overstocked farmers are often 
forced to do. Besides it is never good policy 
to keep more stock than can be kept improv- 
ing. Sheep in good condition can usually be 
sold to good advantage ; those not in condi- 
tion, that the owner must sell because he is 
overstocked, ara often sold at a loss. It is 
most profitable to sell finished products. If 
a farmer must sell his surplus, his wethers 
and dry ewes in moderate condition, he must 
not only sell so the purchaser can get pay for 
feeding, but there must be an allowance for 
contingencies and profits besides. Hence it 
is better for all farmers to make such sheep 
fat— to sell finished products instead of divid- 
ing the profits with others. Sheep in good 
condition also shear better, and are less liable 
to losses from diseases and accidents ; hence 
it pays in this way to keep gheep well, giving 
the two-fold advantage of better returns and 
better sales for those thus kept. 

Of course this mainly relates to common 
farming, where wool is the main object, and 
only the moderate surplus of such flocks go 
for mutton. Bat improved farming, where all 
necessary care can be given, sheep may be 
managed so as to return a good deal more 
money. There are two principal ways in 
which this can be done. One is in keeping 
some of the leading long wool breeds, in 
which combing wool and mutton will both 
pay well; and the other is in raising early 
lambs for market. It has been repeatedly 
demonstrated that by using a buck of some 
one of the larger breeds on good common or 
grade merino ewes, so the lambs will come in 
the winter, these lambs may be made to sell 
for $5 or more apiece in the spring, and the 
ewes give a good fleece besides. If the ewes 
are well-fed, as they should be to have the 
lambs do well, some two months' feeding after 
the lambs are sold, so that they may be ready 
for market soon after shearing, may make 
them sell well also. So it should not be dif- 
ficult to realize $10 each in lambs, fleeces, 
and advance on cost or value at the com- 
mencement,for less than a year's keeping, on 
such ewes. With warm stables and barn 
cellars, so lambs could come in the fore part 
to the middle of winter, and near large mar- 
kets, much better than this has been done; 
hence this may be considered a safe estimate 
where there is good management. 



This is the next thing to, though not equal to 
keeping long wool sheep ; as with such sheep 
more and heavier lambs may be raised, and 
more money realized. It is also probable that 
if the increase of such sheep is kept until 
some 20 months old and well fed, giving a 
heavy fleece in the meantime, they will pay 
still better. If good blood is secured, and the 
best are sold for breeding, no doubt a still 
larger profit may be realized. 

On good farms, in all the older sections, in 
reach of good markets, some such course of 
raising lambs or mutton sheep for market 
should be adopted. Then keeping sheep 
mainly for wool may be confined to the poorer 
farms and farming in the older States, and to 
the very extensive, rich, and cheap pasturage 
of the Western and South-western States and 
Territories, where wool-growing is attended 
with very little expense. — Country Gentleman. 



SAVING SEED. 



Each farmer is to have seed to sow and 
plant. This he usually retain? trom his crops. 
Sometimes he is careful to select, sometimes 
not. 

Now, each farmer can be an imppover of his 
seed, his crops, as is done by those who make 
it a business to improve. It is done by selec- 
tion—selecting every time such quality or 
qualities as he wants. Selecting every time 
the largest, earliest and best ears, there will 
be a show of larger, earlier and better corn. 
So with potatoes. Secure always the larger 
and coarser, and there will be large and 
coarse, tillage the same. Tnis will do for 
feeding. But a smaller potato is wanted for 
the table, a finer grained, better form, ap- 
proaching the flat and smooth, so that the 
cooking is expedited. There is also more 
sweetness and better quality generally in 
medium-sized tubers. These, and only these, 
should be selected yearly. 

Squashes and lumpkins may be improved 
in the same way. Select such as you want 
every time, and of the same quality. Thus to- 
matoes improve or deteriorate according as 
we select them. Poor, dirty wheat (or any 
grain) will give poor, dirty wheat; that is the 
tendency. If the season is very favorable, 
this will be less seen ; but the tendency is 
nevertheless there, and a good selection of 



THE LAJf CASTER FARMER. 



17 



seed would have made a better crop. Each 
farmer may thus be his own improver of what 
he raises. — Cor. Country Gentleman. 



TOADS vs. INSECTS. 

[The toad is a much abused animal. For 
the benefit of those who are not aware of the 
great insect-destroying propensities of this 
not beautiful little animal, we publish the fol- 
lowing facts] : 

The question of toads vs. insects is sure to 
come up, and perhaps an experiment of mine 
on the capacity of a toad may be of interest. 
Dr. T. W. Harris, remarked to me some 
twenty years ago, that he supposed the odor 
of the squash bug (Corews tristis) would pro- 
tect it from the toad, and to test the matter I 
offered one to a grave-looking buffo under a 
cabbage. He seized it eagerly, but spit it out 
instantly, reared up on his hind legs and put 
his fore feet on the top of his head for an in- 
stant, as if in pain, and then disappeared 
across the garden in a series of the greatest 
leaps I ever saw a toad make. Perhaps the 
bug bit the biter. Not satisfied with this, I 
hunted up another old toad, who lived 
under the piazza, and always sunned him- 
self in one place in the grass, and offered 
him a fine squash bug, which he swal. 
lowed, winking in a very satisfied manner. 
Twenty other fine bugs soon followed the 
first, with no diflSculty nor hesitation in the 
taking nor swallowing, though, from his 
wriggling and contortions afterward, it seemed 
as if their corners did not set well within. 
The stock of bugs being then exhausted, I 
found a colony of smooth black larviB on a 
white birch, each about three quarters of an 
inch long, and fed him over a hundred of 
them. Touching one of them with the end of 
a straw it would coil around it, and then when 
shaken before him, he would seize and swal- 
low it at first eagerly, but then with dimin- 
ished zest as the number increased, until it 
became necessary to rub the worm against 
his lips some time before he could decide to 
take it. He would then take it and sit with 
his lips ajar for a short time, gathering 
strength and resolution, and then swallow by 
a desperate effort. 

There is no telling what the number or re- 
sult would have been but the dinner-bell rang 
as the one hundred and first worm disap- 



peared, and by the close of the meal he had 
repaired to his den ; nor did he appear for 
four days in his sunning place. It is to be 
hoped he slept well, but there might have 
been nic^htmavQ.— Entomologist and Botanist. 

We make the following extracts from some 
passages iu Fogt's book " On Noxious and 
Beneficial Animals," which are quoted at full 
length in the fourth number of Le Naturalists 
Canadien— For the benefit of the American 
reader, we translate from the original French : 

" A remarkable fact has lately been pub- 
lished in the newspapers. There is actually a 
considerable commerce iu toads between 
France and England. A toad of good size 
and in fair condition will fetch a shilling 
(twenty-five cents) in the London market, and 
a dozen of extra quality are worth one pound 
sterling (five dollars.) You may see these 
imported toads in all the market gardens where 
the soil is moist, and the owners of those gar- 
dens even prepare shelter for them. Many 
grave persons have shaken their heads, when 
they heard of this new whim of the English ; 
but those laugh the best who laugh the last. 
This time the English are in the right. I 
used to have in my garden a brown toad as 
big as my fist. In the evening he would crawl 
out of his hiding place and travel over a bed 
in the garden. I kept careful watch over 
him ; but one day an unlucky woman caught 
sight of him and killed him with a single 
stroke of her spade, thinking that she had 
done a very fine thing. He had not been 
dead many weeks, before the snails ate up all 
the mignonette that formerly perfumed every- 
thing round that bed. * * # » 
— American Entomologist. 



THE ORCHAED. 



Many farmers do not place a very high esti- 
mate upon the orchard. To them it has never 
been of much account, and they cannot see 
much encouragement for the future. To be 
sure, years ago they set out several hundred 
apple trees, cropped the ground with corn, 
oats and wheat, for several years, and then 
seeded the ground to clover and timothy, and 
have mowed it ever since. This they con- 
sider good treatment, yet their trees yield 
but very light crops of very poor fruit. In 
deed, they never have but very few apples 
sell, and those so small and gnarly that 



18 



THE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



price obtained hardly pays for the time re- 
quired to gather them. This need not be the 
case. The orchard may be made a very profi- 
table part of the farm. But it will coat some- 
thing to have an orchard that the owner may 
well be proud of and that will pay a handsome 
interest on the time and means expended. 
Many labor under the mistaken notion that 
the orchard should cost nothing except to har- 
vest tie crop. This is a great mistake, but a 
verycdnnon one. As a general rule, if an 
orchard cost nothingbut harvesting, the crop 
will not be worth harvesting. 

Many farmers who have no orchard, make 
a mistake at the outset, in this way. A neigh- 
bor is harvesting and marketing a splendid 
crop of apples, for which he obtains a great 
price. The returns from his orchard are so 
great that they make up their minds there is 
more money in a large orchard than in any- 
thing else. So they send an order to the nur- 
sery for irees enough to set out five, ten, and 
sometimes many more acres, without even once 
taking a thought of the labor necessary to 
make such an orchai'd a success. They do 
not seem to take into consideration the fact 
that those trees must be cultivated just as 
carefully as any farm crop — that the soil 
should be made richer, as a general thing, and 
not robbed year after year by grain crops, that 
take ofi"the very material that the trees ought 
to have. They do not think that with all that 
trash about their trunks, during the coming 
winter, the mice will girdle half of them — 
that next season when they are too busy to at- 
tend to the trees, the tent caterpillar will strip 
the leaves from the rest of them, thus giving 
them such a check that they will never wholly 
recover. They take no notice of the borer 
that is slowly but surely cutting out the life 
of the trees. If they had given these things, 
and many more that might be spoken of, that 
consideration which they deserve, their order 
on the nursery would have been much small- 
er, which would not only have been a good 
thing for them, but also for the community, 
as there would not be so many large orchards 
that have proved failures, thus discouraging 
many from setting even small ones. 

The foregoing discouraging picture need 
deter no one from setting an orchard — a large 
one if they wish— and making it a success. 
The proper attention given, at the right time, 
will be fully rewarded. It is better to guard 



against girdling by mice, by attention in the 
fall, than to repair their darpages in the 
spring. It takes far less time to dig out the 
borer as soon as he can be discovered in a 
tree, thin it does to plant and raise another 
in its place. It takes far less time to destroy 
the tf lit caterpillar when in the egg or just 
hatched, than it does after it has spread over 
half the tree and badly damnged it. Though 
the caterpillar moth may fly from one orchard 
to another to lay its eggs, yet it is not half so 
apt to as it is to lay its eggs in the orchai-d 
where it came into life; so that if the cater- 
pillars are all destroyed this year in one or- 
chard, there will be far less next year than in 
an orchard near to it where they were not 
thus destroyed. There is an orchard of sev- 
eral hundred trees in sight of where I now 
write, where they have always been destroyed 
as soon as possible. This season, thus far, 
there have been but six nests found, while or- 
chards in the vicinity where they were al- 
lowed to go to seed, are very full of them ; 
more than six nests can frequently be counted 
in a single tree. Horses and cattle can de- 
stroy trees much faster than the damage can 
be repaired. Without proper attention, the 
orchard will prove a failure ; with proper 
care, even a small orchard will furnish a 
family with excellent fruit the entire year, 
and make a handsome return in cash besides. 
— Cor. Country Gentleman. 



[From the Weekly Intelligencer.] 

PRESERVING EGGS. 

BY THE EDITOR. 

Hens do not lay well during the early part 
of winter, hence the eggs become scarce and 
are high in price. It is therefore desirable to 
preserve them when plentiful and cheap, so as 
to keep them fresh during the winter. All 
fresh-laid eggs packed now or during the fall, 
will keep fresh until spring, if treated pro- 
perly. Various methods are recommended — 
some good, some bad. Some time ago the fol- 
lowing, in substance, went the rounds of the 
press : " Set eggs an instant in boiling water ; 
it will coagulate a thin fibre of the albumen, 
and thusmake eggs keep a long time." This 
is all humbug. Eggs so treated will not keep 
as long as those not so treated ; in fact, they 
will spoil in a very short time. It is well 
known that a boiled egg will soon become 



THE LAJf CASTER FARMER. 



19 



unfit for use. "Who would like to — or who 
could — eat an egg that had been boiled a few 
weeks bt fore? No doubt the author of the 
above method for preserving eggs would find 
some difficulty in swallowing, were he to try 
the experiment. In the same manner the 
eggs dipped m boiling water will hasten the 
decay of the thin layer which has been boiled, 
the same as if the whole egg had been boiled. 
This ibin layer of albumen becomes dead 
matter by the boilirg, and of course decay 
immediately — or in a few hours — begins as 
with all dead matter. Let no one try this 
new egg-preserving hoax, unless he is fond of 
rotten eggs. 

There are two causes for the spoiling of 
eggs, and unless one or both of these are 
avoided, we cannot hope for success. The 
first is exposure to a high temperature, and 
the other is access of air. The freezing point 
is too low for the preservation of ecgs in good 
condition, as freezing affects the flavor unfa- 
vorably ; but they should be kept cool— say 
to a temperature of fifty degrees if possible. 
But it will be of no use to keep the eggs in 
a cool place, if they have been previously ex- 
posed for hours to a temperature of over 
ninety degrees. The collection of eggs must 
therefore, in the first place, engage our atten- 
tion. They must be collected every day, or 
if a number o. hens lay in the same nest, they 
should be gathered several times a day. If 
any one will attempt to preserve eggs that 
have been sat upon for a day or more, he will 
discover the force, of this statement. After 
collecting then' carefully we preserve ours in 
the following manner : We take a box or 
keg, place the eggs in as soon as gathered, 
with the small end downward, on each layer 
we sprinkle coarse saU enough to cover them. 
We then ktep in a cool place, and never have 
any difficulty in keeping them through the 
winter. Other methods are recommended — 
greasing the shells with lard to prevent the 
admission of air, covering with lime water 
and other methods. These methods are no 
doubt all effectual, if the eggs are in proper 
condition when packed, and are afterward 
kept in a cool place. 



GROWING AND SAYING CLOVER- 

SEED. 

Upon this subject Birdsdale, in his Clover 
Leaf, says : It requires some skill in growing ' 



clover for seed, to understand how long to 
pasture and when to mow the first crop. Of 
course the season has much to do with its fill- 
ing, yet the crop can be materially helped if 
managed as it should be. The large kind, if 
saved for seed, can be pastured till the 15Lh 
of June, and very close; tliea give it a coat 
of plaster, so as to give it a good start. The 
medium or common clover should be pastured 
till 25ih of June, or if mown, cut th'i same 
time, and be sure and get it off July 1st. 
You can then look for a good yield of seed, 
and if later, your crop will not pay for hand- 
liug^ Give it a coat of plaster, and you will 
find it very beneficial, and pirticularly on 
light soil, and if the season is dry. 

Be sure and keep your stock out of the clo- 
ver saved for seed, as it will spoil the young 
plants. In cutting the seed, do not let it 
stand till dead ripe, as one-third will rattle off 
and be wasted. Cut when the head is hand- 
somely brown and the stalk not quite dead ; 
there will then be scarcely any waste, and the 
seed just as plump. Many people, in gather- 
ing cloverseed, waste at least one-fourth in 
allowing it to stand too long before cutting. 
Cut with a mower or reaper — a mower is pre- 
ferable — attaching a drag apron, and throw 
• iff in bunches of medium size aud in winrows. 
Turn it over when the dew is oa, so as not to 
rattle off the bolls. When thoroughly dry, 
you can thrash immediately, or put it away 
where it will keep dry, as damp clover is very 
difficult to hull, and at the same time it is im- 
possible to get all the bolls from the straw. 



IMPROVEMENT OF CROPS. 

Almost every crop raised upon the farm or 
in the gaiden, is susceptible of impro vement. 
The Trophy tomato is the result of twenty 
} ears, or more, of study and selection. Its 
good qualities are madj permanent, and with 
little care can be kep: up to its present 
standard of excellence. The French, who 
cultivate the sugar beet for its saccharine. 
qualities, have, by selection aud cultivation, 
produced a beet that yields nine per cent of 
sugar, instead of four and a half, in root, with 
which they began. The wheat plant is sus 
ceptible of very great improvement, and most 
of the varieties now cultivated are the results 
of a careful selection of the largest seed, or 
the longest and fullest ears. A large crop pf 



20 



THE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



corn can be grown by selecting the best ears 
from the most productive stalks, boine far- 
mers du this haMtually, and find the plaot 
very tractable in their hands. The amount 
of fodd^a- in the stalk can be increased or 
diminished by the selection of seed and change 
of soil. Every plant will be found plastic to 
human skill , and every animal can be moulded 
in successive generations to our convenience 

and taste. , p -t. 

Even the Canada wild goose, whose feathers 
seemed to be fixed, hopeless of change, has 
yielded to the influences of domestication at 
Bronxville, and broken out into new colors. 
White wild geese may yet be in ths market. 
These plastic qualities of the plants and am- 
mals under our care should be carefully studied 
and turned to economical use. It will give us 
more <^ras8 and grain to the acre ; larger pota- 
toes and of better quality; more luscious 
fruits and longer keepers ; better milkers la 
the stall -, working cattle of fleeter step and 
greater symmetry ; more eggs in the basket, 
and more pounds of poultry for the Christmas 
market. It cannot fail to make all our labors 
lighter, pleasanter, and more profitable.— 
Hearth and Rome. 



REVIEW OF MARKETS. 



PHILADELPHIA CATTLE MAKKET. 

Monday Evening, January 1 — There was more 
demaod for Beef Cattle this week, and prices gen- 
erally were firmer. The cfierings of "show" cat- 
tle were leps liberal, and pales were made at SaQjC. 
We quote extra at 7a7|c; fair to good at 6i-E6|c, 
and common at 4a5^c '^ ft* gross. Eeceipts, 1550 
head. 

Cows and Calves were exceedingly dull and 
prices for the most part nominal. Sales of springers 
at $40a55, and fresh Cows at $45a60. Eeceipts, 150 
head. 

Sheep were in small supply and held firmly. 
Sales of fair to choice at 6a7ic, and common at 
$3a4. Lambs ranged from GaTjC. Eeceipts, 2000 
head at the Avenue and 10,000 head at the Park 
Drove Yard. 

Hogs were in light supply, but there was not 
much dem«id. Sales of corn-fed at 6|a6jC, the 
latter for extra quality. Eeceipts, 2472 head. 



Grain — The wh^at market is firm, and there is 
a fair demand from the local millers for prime 
lots, but the absence of stock r<i^stricts transactions. 
Sales of Pennsylvania red at $1 54al 57; amber at 
$1 58al 60; and white at$l 69 A lot of fancy 
sold at $1 83. Eye ranges from 88a90c for western 
and Pennsylvania. Corn is steady, but there is 
not much doing. Sales of 6000 bushels yellow at 
68a70c, and western high mixed at 70a71c. Oats 
are without essential change ; 5500 bushels western 
white sold at 54a55c for white, and 50'i52c for 
mixed. The receipts to-day are as follows : 1427 
barrels flour, 2500 bushels wheat, 20,300 buihela 
corn, 7700 bushels oats, 200 bbls whisky. 

Provisions continue quiet, and prices unchanged. 
Sales of Mess Pork at $14 50al5 50 per barrel for 
old and npw. City packed extra Mess Beef \a 
taken at $15al5 50 per bar-el. Bacon is steady. 
Sales of plain sugar-cured city-smoked Hams at 12 
al3c, canvassed western at 13al4c, sides at B-", and 
shoulders at 7c. Green Meats are unchanged. Siles 
of pickled Hams at 9al0c ; and shoulders in salt at 
5|a6c. Lard U quiet. Sales at g^alOc per pound. 

Seeds. — There is less doing in Clover; 200 bush- 
els sold at lO^c %T ft. Flaxseed sold at $1 SOal 82 
and Timothy at $3 25a3 50 "^ bushel. 

FAEMERS' HAY AND STRAW MAEKET. 

Philadelphia, Dec. 30 — During the past week 
384 loads of Hay and 55 of Straw were weighed 
and sold at the following prices . 
Prime Timothy - - - - $1 70al 80 

Mixed Timothy 1 50al 60 

Straw 1 20al 25 



PHILADELPHIA GRAIN MAEKET. 

Flour — The market was very quiet to-day, but 
prices are quotabiy the same. The demand is 
mostly to supply the wants of the home consumers, 
whose purcnases foot up 1000 barrels, i'' eluding 
superfine at $5 25 ■ 5 75 ; e'stras at $6a6 50 ; A'ls- 
consin extra family at $7 25a7 62} ; Minnessota do 
do at $8d8 50 ; Pennsylvania, Indiana and Ohio do 
do at $7a7 50, and fancy brands at $8a9, as in qual- 
ity ; 1000 bbls Quaker City Mills sold on private 
terms. Eye flour is steady at $5. In Corn Meal 
no change. 



TOBACCO MAEKET. 

Tobacco. — Large sales, market being excited 
owing to so many foreign and local buyers. 8200 
bales changed hands at from $50a60 '^5 qtl, as to 
quality. New crop promises to be large and of good 
class, plantings being extensive all over the land. 

LIVE STOCK MAEKET. 

New York, Friday, Dec. 29. — Thirty-four cars, 
or 549 beeves arrived, making 2,261 since Monday, 
preciselv the same number as for the same time 
last week. The market was firm, and the cattle 
were all sold before noon at higher prices, consid- 
ering the quantity of the stock, than have been re- 
ported during the laft three months. Commonish 
to prime native steers were readily sold at 10il2J ; 
common to fair Texans at BjaOc. ; and bulls and 
rough stags at about 8jc. "Wholesale slaughterers 
generally paid lOfallfc. '^ th. for their supplies. 

Two cars, or 331 sheep, arrived, making 5,907 
since Mondav, against 11,443 for ti e same time 
la^t week. There was not enough stock offered to 
make a market, but quite enough for the demand, 
and no advance could be made. A few good lambs 
were said at 8c per pound, and some very good 
sheep a 6|c. 

Nine cars, or 1,220 hogs, were received, making 
13,377 sin«e Monday, against 21,313 for the same 
time last week. The market was better ; live hogs 
were sold at $4 87 ^a5 06 J^ per 100 pounds. 
Western dressed at 5Ja5|c ; and city dressed at 5| 
a6Jc. 



DEVOTED TO 
Agriculture, Horticulture, Domestic Economy and Miscellany , 

EDITED BY S. S. RATIIVOX AND ALEXANDER HARRIS. 



** Tlie Farmer is the founder of civilization.''— WEBSTER. 



■Vol. IT. 



FEBRUARY, 1872. 



JVo. 2. 



AGRICULTURAL. 

NOTES 0^ FARMING POTATOES. 

BY D. L. RESII. 

POTATOES require a good, rich, well- 
manured soil. Clover plowed under 
will do in lieu of a dressing of harn-3'ard ma- 
nure. One or the other is essential to secur- 
ing a good crop. 

The ground should be plowed to a medium 
depth, and well pulverized, then marked out 
by going twice through the same furrow, so as 
to throw loose soil on either sidii and secure 
a furrow of sufficient depth. Three or four 
inches below the surface is deep enough. 

The rows should be two and a half feet 

apart. It has been proven by experiment 

that more, and fully as large potatoes, can be 

raised from an acre, with the rows at that dis- 

. tance apart, than at a further distance. 

There are various theories held by potato 
growers, as regards the preparation and plant- 
ing of the seed. Practically, we consider the 
following the best : 

The seed potatoes should be cut two eyes 
to a piece, and dropped or thrown into the 
row about" fifteen inches apart. It matters 
not which »ide of the potato is turned up, 
though if the cut side is turned up the roots 
will strike a little sooner, and the young plant 
will appear at the surface perhaps a few days 
earlier. 

Cov,er to the depth of about two inches, 
with a common one-horse hoe-harrow, taking 
out all the shovels except the two hind ones, 
and allow the horse to walk in the furrow, as 
he will not injure the potatoes more than to 



occasionally tread a piece a little deeper into 
the ground. Three or four small boys can 
drop them as fast as a man can cover. 

Small potatoes should never be used for seed, 
they are worth more to hogs or cattle ; medium 
sized will do, but here as elsewhere the larger 
and better the seed, other things being equal, 
the larger and better will be the yield. 

The seed potatoes should be prepared 
several weeks— not longer — before planting, 
so as to have everything in readiness when 
the time comes for planting, which should be 
as early in the spring as the weather permits 
— say from April 1st to 15th. An early crop 
generally yields better than a late one, because 
it receives the benefit of the spring rains. 

The hoe and hoe-harrow are the only im- 
plements needed for working the soil after 
the young plant has reached the surface ; be- 
fore that time little attention is required. 

The advantage of marking out deep is that 
the soil is gradually worked against the plants 
as the}' uead it, and thus more tubers are pro- 
duced, and if the crop is put in early they will 
all have time to mature. A top dressing of 
ashes or plaster on the rows, about a month 
after planting, is beneficial. 

For raising potatoes, the common two-horse 
shovel plow, or a plow made for the purpose 
by R. II. Allen & Co., of IS". Y., are the best. 
A machine for raising and sorting has been 
patented, which we believe works well where 
the ground is enUrely free from clods and 
stones. 

In good soil 175 to 200 bushels per acre is 
a fair yield, and this crop pays better than 
any other legitimate crop raised on the farm. 
It costs less to raise 100 bushels of potatoes 
than to raise so much wheat or corn. 



n 



THE LAjYCASTEK FARMER. 



It would be well for farmers to devote part 
of the space given to the oat crop to potatoes. 
They thrive well on the loose soil where 
corn was grown the previous year — provided 
the soil be well manured. 

There are innumerable varieties of pota- 
toes, and new ones are constantly being intro- 
duced. Among the best for this locality we 
may mention, for an early crop, the Early 
Rose — which is evidently the best, Early Mo- 
hawk, and Buckeye. For late crop, Mercer, 
Peach Blow, and Peerless. The latter prom- 
ises to become a universal favorite, as its 
quality is good and it is also a great yielder. 

Marietta Jan. 20, 1872. 



GEN. WASHINGTON'S FARM. 

The farm of General Washington at Mount Ver- 
non, contained ten thousand acres of land 
in one body — equal to about fifteen square 
ujiles. It was divided into farms of convenient size, 
at the distance of two, three, and five miles from his 
mansion house. He visited these farms every day, 
in pleasant weather, and was constanty engaged in 
making experiments for the improvement of agri- 
culture. Some idea of the extent of his farming op- 
erations may be formed from the following facts ; 

In 1787 he had five hundred and eighty acres in 
grass ; sowed six hundred bushels of oats ; seven 
iiundred acres with wheat — and as much more in 
corn, barley, potatoes, beans, peas, &C., and one 
hundred and fifty with turnips. His stock consist- 
ed of one hundred and forty horses ; one hundred 
and twelve cows, two hundred and thirty-six work- 
ing oxen, heifers, and steers, and five hundred slieep. 
He constantly employed two hundred and fifty 
bands, and kept twenty-four plows going during the 
whole year, when the earth and state of weather 
would permit. In 1780 he slaughtered one hundred 
and fifty hogs for the use of his family, and provis- 
ions for his negroes, for whose comfort he had 
great regard. 

Washington was emphatically a farmer, 
whatever else he may have been. He was 
born on a farm ; he made the farm his home 
throughout his whole life, and he died on the 
farm. That was his coveted relation to socie- 
ty, and the one he ultimately expected to re- 
sume when called to- occupy other positions 
in the service of his country. Washington the 
surveyor, Washington the soldier, and 
Washington the statesiran, were only inci- 
dental relations, and were subordinate to 
Washington the fanner. Even while he was 
President of the United States he could so 
far withdraw himself from the more weighty 
duties and responsibilities of his august office 
as to send written instructions to his agents 
on the farm, giving the most minute details. 



in relation to farming improvements and farm 
labor. He was eminently a " book-farmer" 
too, in more senses than one ; for he not only 
patronized all that was extant on agriculture 
in his day, but he kept precise and elaborate 
accounts of what he was doing as a farmer. 
If perchance there should be any among our 
readers who are averse to book farming, or 
who indulge in depretiatory notions concern- 
ing intellectual farmers, or who lack confi- 
dence in the quality of the productions of the 
Mount Yeruon farm, we need only refer 
them to i\\Q, fact, well known in history, that 
Washington's brand on a barrel of flour was" 
sufficient to exempt it from the customary in- 
spection in any port where his name was 
known; and good four implies good wheat, 
as a prior assumption. Washington did not 
entertain ultimate views of a city or town 
life, but being every inch a farmer, he cher- 
ished a longing desire to return to the farm, 
so soon as he could be honorably released 
from those public duties which he felt he owed 
to his country; and when death at length 
came, there is the place where he met him, 
and where he desired to meet him. Think of 
this, ye temporary farmers, who are longing 
for the corrupt atmosphere, and the sharp 
practices of a city or a large town. Real suc- 
cess in life does not involve the rapid accumu- 
lation of a large fortune, so much as it does 
the consciousness of being nsefxd to the worM 
and the human family ; and in this, is life's 
chiefest happiness. 

In our advanced states of agriculture and 
agricultural facilities, we can hardly realize 
the harvesting of seven hundred acres of wheat, 
by one farmer, at that early day in the domes- 
tic history of our country, when our present 
horse-ieapers— or even the grain-cradles, and 
horse- rakes — were totally unknown. As to 
a " turnip patch " of one hundred and fifty 
acres, we doubt if it has been equaled in 
modern times, unless by some person who has 
made the cultivation of turnips a specialty. 
Some of the great prairie wheat fields of the 
West may be equal, or may even exceed in 
area, those of Washington's, but his turnip- 
patch we think will be hard to beat. But 
the great farmer, soldier and sage of Mount 
Vernon, had more mouths to feed than falls 
to the lot of ordinary farmers, and the above 
extract implies that he provided for them 
bountifully. No hungry mortal ever left 



THE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



23 



Washington's hospitable mansion unsatisfied, 
whilst it was in his possession, for a farmer's 
cheer and a farmer's welcome was extended 
to every one, and doubtless to many who 
may not have deserved ii. 

The 22d day of this month is the one hun- 
dred and fortieth anniversary of Washington's 
birthday. The small spot on this earth where 
Washington was born in 1732, is now an open 
field, and part of b. farm, with scarcely any- 
thing to distinguish it from its surroundings ; 
and yet Washington " still lives." In con- 
templating such a noble specimen of a farmer, 
well might Henry Lee have been inspired with 
the historic phrase — " First in war, first in 
peace, and first in the hearts of his country- 
men." R. 

DESTRUCTION vs. CONSTRUCTIOX. 

BY LEVI S. REIST. 

THE destruction of timber is a matter that 
is beginning more and more to arrest 
public attention. In view of the wholesale 
manner in which the timber of our county is 
made to disappear, it is indeed no wonder if 
the public mind should begin to wake up to 
the importance of this great interest. The 
fact that while counties in the Western States 
in Minnesota, Wisconsin and Michigan, are 
denuded of their forests, by the most reckless 
destruction of the timber, is one of the misfor- 
tunes to be lamented. In the terrible fire of 
Chicago, in which its lumber yards perished, 
see the vast amount of valuable material that 
has been taken away from the aggregate wood 
material of our country ; and all this the for- 
ests must supply. While we live in an age 
of progress, we also live in one of destruction. 
Consider the extensive machine shops and 
manufacturing establishments of the United 
States, all of which must be kept in motion by 
the aid of fuel. Timber is requi'-ed to build 
cars and other implements of industry, and 
fuel is needed to keep in motion the machinery 
for this purpose. Look at the vast amount 
of timber it requires for the numerous rail- 
roads of the country now being built and rami- 
fying in all directions. 

Already many of the older states are al- 
most divested of their timber. In the West, 
many states are so wanting of timber that 
they have to draw their supplies from the tim- 
bered ones; and even that required for build- 



ing purposes must come from districts outside 
of their borders. 

Much timber is now destroyed by farmers in 
the wooded states, usmg greater quantities 
for fencing and other purposes than is re- 
quired. Fences could be sufficiently made of 
four instead of five rails, and thus much noa- 
terial be saved for other purposes. The esti- 
mated cost of fencing material in the west is 
put down at $130,000,000. 

The time must come ere long when farmers 
will be able to have only outside fences around 
their farms, and indeed it is apprehended that 
the time will be when there will be no fences, 
as is the case in Germany and in England, 
and this because of the reckless manner in 
which the timber has been destro5'ed. If 
farmers had been saving of their white oak 
trees, many of them might yet be standing 
relics of the olden aboriginal times. Again, 
had they replenished their farms with timber 
by planting locust, as they might have done, 
many an oak might now be standing that has 
been cut down and made into posts only to 
rot ia from ten to twelve years. They could 
have raised locust for posts, which would last 
from twenty-five to fifty years. 

A neighbor lately cut down a white oak 
that measured six feet in diameter, and by 
counting the growths its age was estimated at 
two hundred and fifty years. Many of our 
Lancaster county farmers have no excuse for 
cutting the last remnants of timber left them 
by their ancestors ; nothing but the sordid 
greed of money induced them to fell the old 
beacons of former ages. I might individual- 
ize some of ray acquaintances, who, though 
under no necessity to do so, yet in order to in- 
crease their loans, have cut the last remaining 
white oaks upon their farms. It is all right 
for a man to increase his means by all honesty, 
but scarcely by the destruction of so valuable 
an appendage to the farm as timber. Ho 
who is willing to do so seems to lose all sight 
of everything save self, which feeling is surely 
not to be commended. 

Instead of cutting down the remaining 
scattering trees of our farms, every farmer 
should, as it strikes us, set aside a small part 
of his farm, in which he would plant timber 
for futurity. By so doing, he would rather 
enhance than diminish the value of bis estate, 
and comirg ;jent :3'ior^ would hold his name 
in honor for so doing. I'ublic opinion is now 



^Jf 



TEE LAJ^CASTER FARMER. 



coming to view this matter in its proper light, 
and it is to be hoped that enlightened legisla- 
■ tion will follow in its wake that shall make 
the planting of timber a matter of obligation 
upon all sections of our country. 



"UNCLE JOE'S" HINTS TO" FARMER 
BOYS." 



u 



ncle Joe " has been among the " far- 
mer boys," and, as among every 
other kind of boys, has found some who were 
disposed to be a little careless. In the hope 
that he may thereby sow some good seed, he 
has constrained to throw out a few hints to 
this class, which may do them good, and per- 
haps even their elder brothers and friends, 
the " farmer men," also. 
And first he would suggest : 
Be Careful. — Never use wooden or "shak- 
ing forks" in damp straw, nor allow them to 
become wet, as this will tend to straighten 
the prongs and thus impair their use. 

Never leave an iron fork or hook in such a 
position that any person might tramp or fall 
on it. Painful accidents, and even death, 
have resulted from such negligence. 

In feeding cattle, be careful not to spill 
part nor throw any across the troughs. You 
are robbing the cattle by so doing, besides 
wasting that for which some one must pay. 

In empting bran or chop, boys, be sure 
to shake them out well. " Every little 
helps." 

Never, through haste or neglect, fail to give 
each creature under your charge just its 
proper portion of food. Half of your usual 
food denied you would make you feel very un- 
comfortable. 

, Do not forget to give your stock salt occa- 
eionally. Salt is as necessary to them a"? it is 
to us. 

Never use a lantern, except when absolutely 
necessary, and then only with the utmost care. 
Never light matches nor extinguish a light 
in the vicinity of straw, hay or other combus- 
tible matter. 

Never hanga scythe where any one is likely 
to walk. You might have cause to regret it. 
Be sure your lines, traces, &c., are all in 
their proper places after tbe day's work. 

Be Neat. — Keep your " entries" clean. 
Some hungry calf, colt or ox, may be glad for 
the clover leavings, you will oiLuwise be 



tramping on, and you will feel all the better 
for having a clean " work-house." 

Never leave feed chests and doors open. 

Do not accumulate cornstalks in your racks, 
nor dirt in your troughs. You would be loth 
to eat out of filthy dishes. 

A little care and a pair of " overalls" dur- 
ing feeding will save your clothes many a 
" trou-shot" and stain. 

Never allow chickens to roost in your stables 
if you can possibly prevent it. 

"Would you like to drink out of a stagnant 
mud-puddle V Look at yonder watering-trough 
and see that it is clean and the water therein 
fresh before allowing your horses to drink. 



How Shall I Cut my Asparagus.— Beds 
have been set about twelve years, trenched 
deep, put in a good portion of manure. Set 
the crowns four or five inches below the sur- 
face. I manure pretty thoroughly in the fall, 
salt in spring, and fork over lightly. Soil 
originally clay loam ; have mixed sand with 
it so that it is now quite light. I have usually 
cut it until the middle or last of June ; some 
years have cut all clean as long as I cut any, 
other years have only cut the longest stalks 
and left the slender ones to grow up, think- 
ing it would make stronger roots and come 
up larger the next year. Did so last year, 
but do not see much improvement this year. 
Am now cutting it clean again. Which is the 
best way to inpurc strong stalks?— A New 
Subscriber. 

This inquiry has been overlooked, but we 
answer it now. It will probably make very 
little difference whether you cut all the stalks 
or leave a few of the smallest on each hill. 
The general practice is to cut everything clean, 
leaving no stalks to grow during the cutting 
season. The greatest injury done to asparagus 
beds is continuing the cutting too late in the 
season. We have known quite large planta- 
tions to be almost, if not quite, ruined by this 
practice, owing to the greediness of the 
owners to obtain large returns from one 
season's crops. 

» 

Spiced Apples. — Eight pounds of apples, 
pared, four pounds of sugar, one quart of vine- 
gar, one ounce stick cinnamon, half ounce of 
cloves. Boil the sugar, vinegar and spices 
together; put in the apples when boilin2,and 
let them remain until tender — about twenty 
minutes. Take them out, and put them in a 
jar. Boil down the syrup until thick, and 
pour it over. 



THE LAJYCASTER FARMER. 



25 




THE SKCKEL PEAK 



HORTICULTURE. 



THE SECKEL PEAR. 



I'^REE of healthful but not rapid growth; form- 
ing a compact, tymmetrical head, n( t attain- 
ing a very large Bize. 

Young th wis brown clive, stout and fhort. A 

pood and regular bearer. Fruit small, obovate, 

rfddish-brown. Flesh white, buttery, juicy, and 

mflting. 

Flavor peculiarly high, rich and aromatic. The 



very finest of pears. Ripens in the house, through 
September and October, or later. 

This small, but exquis^ite fruit, stands deservedly 
at the head of all pear?", for its peculiarly "ich, high 
flavor. There is no European variety that resem- 
bles or comparer with it. It is not a result of care- 
ful, intelligent cul'i nation, but like many of our 
foremost fruits, an "accidental variety." The pre- 
cise derivation i^ unknown. 

The original tree wan found near the Delaware, 
a few miles frcm Philadelphia, and was in bearing 
at the period of the Revolution; but the fruit re- 
mained in obscurity until the land on which the 



f 



26 



THE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



parent tree stood, and perhaps still stands, became 
the property of Mr. Seckel, after whom the pear is 
named, and by whom it was first brought to public 
notice. 

It is supposed that the tree originated frosi seeds 
dropped by Germans who emigrated from Germa- 
ny, as it bears some affiuity to the Eousselet. 

The foregoing, from Deitz's Eoio to Make the 
Farm Pay, in reference to this luscious little 
pear, needs no indorsement of ours to give it 
currency, for the Seckel has long bince been 
almost universally regarded as the prince of 
pears. Culture has wrought an increase in 
the size of this fruit, in some cases, but it has 
always appeared to us that we have never 
tasted an overgrown Seckel that we did not 
think had lost something in the quality of its 
"flesh and flavor." The superiority of this 
pear is now so far conceded, that in discussing 
the merits of the different varieties, the "talk" 
is conducted pretty much outside of its limits; 
for although there are other excellent varie- 
ties of the pear, and some that occupy a place 
in fruit economy to which the Seckel cannot 
attain, yet, when quality alone is considered, 
they are all nowhere^ in the estimation of ccn- 
noisures. R. 



THE CURCULIO MASTERED AT LAST. 



THE following is one of the most sensible plans 
of killing the Curculio that we have yet seen, 
even better than the jarring process in some re- 
spects, being much easier ; still that should not be 
omitted. We quote from the Ohio Farmer : 
^ 'Tor many years past Curculio has been an al- 
most unconquerable enemy of the fruit-grower, and 
not a few have cut down their plumb trees as cum- 
berers of the ground, not receiving any return from 
them. I have remaining a few nice trees, left 
standing for ornament and shade, and year after 
year these trees have bloomed and set full, but in 
spite of every eflbrt, until the present season, not a 
quart of fruit was received. While the trees were 
ia full bloom last spring, my wife determined to 
try an experiment upon one of tht-m, which she did, 
and it resulted more favorably than could have been 
exfxjcted. 

Early every morning, while in fuU bloom, corn- 
meal was strewn over the ground beneath the 
branches, and the whole flock from the poultry- 
yard at once set to work to gather up the particles 
of grain. The ground was daily thoroughly scratch- 
ed over, and meal, insects, and everything to the 
fowls edible gathered up. Later in the season a 
brood of chicks were cooped beneath the tree, and 
the operaticn of sowing meal still continued. The 
operation was not omitted for a day from the time 
of the putting forth of the trees until the plums 
were beyond the reach of the litt'e pests. 

Now, for the result : This tx f, and this alone, 
was loaded with fruit, to the perfect amazement of 
all who saw it. It was literally covered with fruit 



as perfect as could be desired. So heavily were the 
limbs laden that props had to be used all around the 
tree. I really believe there were more and better 
plums upon this single tree than all in the town- 
ship, and I am disposed to say, all of the county. 

Not a plum matured on any other tree on my 
premises, and all are of the same variety as the one 
saved. 

I would earnestly urge a trial of this method by 
all who have fruit-trees. It will certainly be con- 
tinued by me, as I believe it to be a specific against 
the ravages of insects. 

The foregoing curculio remedy has a strong 
plausibility for its support, and therefore we 
do not hesitate the recommendation of a trial 
of it to our horticultural readers. Twelve 
years ago we witnessed a similar remedy ; we 
recommended it then. We saw a plum tree, 
standing in the middle of a " chicken yard," 
and another, the branches of which, on the 
outside, hung over the same yard, and thus 
bore and matured a splendid crop of fruit ; 
whilst other trees, including the other half of 
the second named tree, which were not so 
situated, did not mature half a dozed plums, al- 
though there was no difference in the blossom- 
ing or setting of the fruit. The yard alluded 
to had been kept for that purpose for a num- 
ber of years, the surface trodden down toler- 
ably hard by the poultry, and nowhere yield- 
ing a single spear of grass ; the central tree, 
forming a shade, resorted to by the poultry 
during the day to get out of the sun, and where 
they often were fed. Reader, make a mark of 
this, and try the " corn-dodg-(er)," anyhow, 
when convenient. R. 



TO KILL PEA WEEVILS. 



MANY years' experience has satisfied me of the 
eflicacy of "spirits of turpentine" for the 
preservation of peas and beans from the weevil. 
For the garden, put the peas and beans in a com- 
mon glass bottle, with a few pieces of paper satu- 
rated with spirits of turpentine, and cork tightly. 

Last year I preserved my field peas perfectly 
sound and bright by placing strips of paper saturated 
with turpentine in the bottom of a flour barrel, 
then a bushel of peas, and again strips of paper as 
above, until the barrel was full. The peas, when 
taken out late to plant, late in June, were sound, 
and no sign of the weevil about them ; a few not 
used in planting are still free from weevil at this 
date. My invariable success with spirits of turpen- 
tine, in the preservation of peas and beans, justifies 
m9 in recommending the above method. Care 
should be observed not to pour the turpentine on 
1 he peas, or they will not germinate. — Cor. Field 
end Factory. 

Tbe weevil lays her eg^s in the pods of the peas 
in s imraer, where they hatch, and the larva or 



TEE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



27 



grub penetrates to the pea, in which it undergoes 
its transformations. Now, if the turpentine does 
any g<^od, it is in destroying the beetle or its larva 
while in the pea, not in protecting the pea from the 
attacks of this insect ; and the sooner the remedy is 
applied after the peas are gathered the belter, be- 
cause the grubs in them are at this time quite 
small. 

The bean weevil is another very destructive in- 
sect of similar habits, which probably would also be 
destroyed by the use of spirits of turpentine if ap- 
plied in the same manner soon after the crop was 
harvested. — Ag. Ed. M'eekly Sun. 

"Pea weevils" and "bean weevils" are 
tolerably abundant in Lancaster county in 
some seasons— especially the former, and we 
therefore offer the above to our readers for 
what it may be worth, on " due trial and ex- 
amination." "We confess, however, that no- 
thing but a practical test would entirely con- 
vince us of its etlkacy. We apprehend that 
it would take a good deal of turpentine to kill 
either the larva or imago, snugly ensconsedas 
they are in their thin separate pea, and sur- 
rounded by an almost impervious integument 
— enough, perhaps, to impair the quality, if 
not the vitality, of the pea. We have seen 
this remedy in print long ago, and it always 
seems to imply that the pea weevil deposits 
its eggs upon or in the peas after they are ripe 
and gathered. If this was the case, turpen- 
tine would, doubtless, prevent the insect from 
approaching the seeds to make a deposit of 
its eggs in such a place. 

But, unfortunately, as the editor above 
justly remarks, the embryo of the insect is al- 
ready in the peas when they are gathered and 
stored away. Still, as " many years of expe- 
rience," has satisfied the correspondent above 
alluded to of the " ciricacy" of the remedy, 
it may also satisfy others, and therefore may 
be worthy of a trial. But has it ever occurred 
to this experimenter that some season.^, often 
several seasons in succession, there are few 
or no pea weevils, especially in the more 
northern localities of our country, and that 
he may have struck one or more of these ? 

R. 



Fried Halibut. — Have the slices seasoned 
some hours before frying, as it will be less 
liable to break in turning ; when ready to fry, 
dip it in egg beaten up and roll it in bread 
crumbs ; then fry in hot lard, or have three or 
four slices of sweet salt pork fried till quite 
orown and crisp, and then fry the halibut in 
the hot lard which came from the pork. Dish 
it and lay the crisp brown pork around it. 



BOTANY 



BOTANY, 



BY JACCB STAUFFER. 



THIS term does not merely include a list 
of names and dry descriptions of plants 
as many would infer from the books pub- 
lished on botany. It embraces not only the 
vegetable kingdom, but the structure and or- 
ganization of plants. This comprehends 
whatever relates to the various forms of tis- 
sues of which plants are anatomically con- 
structed; it explains the exact organization 
of all those parts through which the vital, 
functions are performed; and the relation 
that one part bears to another, with the de- 
pendence of the whole upon the common sys- 
tem. 

Descriptive botany is simply an expression 
of language by which one plant may be known 
from another, without necessarily impressing 
the mind so as to acquire a knowledge of the 
fundamental laws, or physiology of plants. 
Vegetable physiology belongs to the highest 
branch of natural science, and is not merely 
a general idea of external form, or a vague 
notion of internal anatomy, but the most pre 
else knowledge that the nature of the subject 
will admit. 

What is termed Morphology— a. word which 
signifies literally the " science of changes or 
transformations," a very important and inter- 
esting branch of comparative anatomy in 
plants or animals. It is found that vegetable 
structure follows certain laws, and varies in a 
simple change or plan of arrangement, and 
the study of which constitutes the basis of the 
theory of botany. These laws are so general 
that we scarcely pay attention to them ; but 
our curiosity is at once excited when thpy 
seem to be violated by an abnormal develop- 
ment, or so marked through degeneracy, abor- 
tion and cohesion with which the vegetable 
kingdom abounds. 

We are so accustomed to view the leaves, 
flowers and fruit, so evident to our senses, 
and dissimilar, as diflerent states of a definite 
outgrowth. We can hardly conceive that the 
pure white petals of the lily, the rich red flow- 
ers of the rose, the sweet-smelling blossoms 
of the jasmine and the orange, or the long 
trumpet-shaped corollas of the honeysuckle, 
should all be transformed leaves, or that 



28 



TEE LAJVCASTER EARMER. 



the stamens in which the utilizing powder 
is locked up, the pistils which are destined 
to receive the influence of the pollen, the 
ovules that they contain, and finally, the 
fruit which is the result of the action of the 
two last, are all so many parts formed out 
of one common organ, which in a very par- 
ticular and frequent state is what we call a 
leaf. It need not be inferred that when we 
eat an apple, or an orange, or a peach, we are 
under a mental delusion, and simply fancy en- 
joying its delicious flavors, while we are really 
chewing the leaves of the plants. Still, it is 
no less true that they are so developed by cer- 
tain laws to produce such results by certain 
fixed laws and a generally uniform plan with 
respect to each other ; so that all the other or- 
gans, whether calyx, corrola, stamens, pistils 
or fruit, have an atomical structure essentially 
the same, bear the same relation to the axis 
that they grow upon, are developed accord- 
ing to the same laws, are arranged upon the 
same certain and uniform plan as before said, 
and finally, are constantly becoming trans- 
formed into leaves of the ordinary appear- 
ance, thus losing the condition in which 
they are usually found, and reverting to their 
structural type. It does not follow that our 
knowledge becomes obscured by witnessing 
the second development of green leaves from 
that of flowers, as any one, who has paid at- 
tention to the subject, frequently meets with 
cases of such transformation — but on the con- 
trary enables us the better to understand the 
real nature of the organization of any part, and 
the plan upon which the most complicated ar- 
rangement of these organs has been effected. 
For example, who is to explain how it hap- 
pens that buds occasionally spring from the 
axis of petals or sepals, that anthers are 
found bearing ovules, that branches push forth 
from the center of pistils, that petals become 
antheriferous and stamens petaloid, unless 
the proposition is admitted that all these ap- 
parently different parts are formed upon a 
common plan, the type of which is a leaf, and 
hence all interchangably convertible into each 
other ? 

The microscope has brought to light many 
wonderful physiological facts, showing the 
foresight and wisdom with which all the phe- 
nomena of the universe have been adapted by 
the Great Author of our being to the ac- 
complishment of the objects for which they 
have been severally intended. 



The vegetable tissues, how admirably adapt- 
ed by its cellular structure ; capable of indefi- 
nite extension ; possessing also prodigious com- 
pressibility, its particles either cohering firmly 
or loosely, according to circumstances; its 
sides composed of a most delicate membrane, 
through which fluid and gaseous matter passes 
readily in every direction, is destined to form 
the principal mass of the vegetable, and to 
execute all those functions with which ab- 
sorption and respiration are connected. The 
fibrous tissue, composed of myriads of threads 
compactly combined into bundles, dispersed 
through the cellular substance which supplies 
the place of bones and nerves found ic the 
animal economy, aflbrding strength, solidity 
and elasticity to the most delicate parts ; 
while the vascular tissue exclusively intended 
for the reception and rapid transmission of 
gaseous and liquid matter from the roots to 
the extremities, is most wisely contrived and 
most carefully prepared by its spiral struct- 
ure, for extending and turning, as the cellular 
substance develops, to those parts where the 
peculiar matter that ic contains is most re- 
quired. There is no confusion ; each part has 
its peculiar functions assigned to it, for which 
it has been especially destined and for which 
it is specifically adapted. The leaves may be 
considered to perform the fuctions of the 
stomach in animals, (hat is, it is in them that 
the fluid matter taken up by the roots, and 
injected into them from the stem, is digested 
and inspissated, and separated into the nu- 
tritious and excremental portions. This di- 
gestion of the leaves is chiefly by the absorp- 
tion of carbonic acid, the emission of oxygen, 
and the evaporation of water, with suitable 
provisions to guard, to a certain extent, 
against excessive dryness, moisture and cli- 
mate changes, or atmospheric vicissitudes. 
[To be continued.) 



THE COW TREE. 

Among the many curious phenomena pre- 
sented to the traveler, none affect the imagi- 
nation more powerfully than the " Galactod- 
endon Utile," or Cow Tree. This useful tree 
grows on the parched side of rocks among 
the mountains of Venezuela, and has dry, 
leathery foliage, with large, woody roots 
scarcely penetrating the ground. For several 
mouths in the year the leaves are not moist- 
ened by a shower ; the branches look dead 



THE LAJy CASTER FARMER. 



29 



and withered, but when the trunk is bored, a 
bland and nourishing milk flows from it. The 
vegetable fountain flows most freely at sun- 
rise, and at that time the natives are seen 
coming from all quarters provided with large 
bowls to receive the milk, which grows yel- 
low and thickens at the surface. Some empty 
their vessels on the spot, while others carry 
their contents to their children. 



Number of Hens to a Cock. — We have 
no hesitancy in recommending to breeders 
the following ratio of hens to a cock of the 
breeds named : Houdans, twenty hens to two 
cocks ; Creve-ca3urs, eight hens to one cock ; 
Buff" Cochins, twenty -four hens to two cocks ; 
Gray Dorkings, ten hens to one cock ; White 
Leghorns, fourteen hens to one cock; Span- 
ish, twelve hens to one cock; Ilamburghs, 
fourteen hens to one cock ; Polands, twelve 
hens to one cock; Game, ten hens to one 
cock. With this proportion of hens to a cock, 
the vitality of the eggs will prove good, and 
at least eleven out of twelve set will produce 
chicks. For breeding purposes, we inclose in 
a yard ten or fifteen hens of each variety we 
wish to propagate, and with them one cock. 
If we have two or more cocks whose qualities 
are equal, we think it preferable to change 
every two days, leaving only one cock with 
the hens at a time. Two weeks are necessary 
to procure full-bloods ; and we prefer the eggs 
the third, rather than the second week. 



Heading off the Borer. — A writer in 
the Canadian Farmer says one mode of doing 
this is to rub the trees over with common soap 
—soft soap will do very well — early in June, 
; ust before the beetles lay their eggs. Another 
mode suggested, is to plaster over the trunk of 
the tree with a thick mixture of cow-dung and 
clay ; this is said to prevent the egress of the 
insect, and causes it to die underneath. 
Thinks it would also prevent the eggs being 
laid on the tree, or at any rate be a hiuderance 
to the newly hatched grub in his attempts to 
penetrate the bark. 



CORRESPONDENCE, 

Editors Lancaster Farmer: At the 
last meeting of the Horticultural and 
iigricultural Society, held at Lancaster, a pa- 
per was read from the Commissioner of Agri- 
culture in regard to the proper time of apply- 
ing manure to the wheat crop. The commis- 
sioner contends that the application of fresh 



stable manure to the land just before seeding 
is to some extent injurious, or at least not 
the proper time of applying it. 

His plan is to put the raw stable manure 
on the ground in the sprinsr, raise a crop of 
corn, and the following spring seed to oats, 
and in the fall follow with wheat without any 
additional manure. He asserts that on this 
plan he has raised crops of wheat that have 
not been aff'ected by the general decline that 
has attended the crop for years past. 

This failure of the wheat crop has been the 
cause of much speculation and solicitude 
among cultivators. Various theories are ad- 
vanced from time to time, but very little has 
resulted in anything practical. The great im- 
portance of the question should, however, in- 
duce us to examine into all plans that have a 
plausible appearance. 

For this reason I looked around my locality 
but could find no one that had worked a rota- 
tion on that plan. A rotation that somewhat 
approaches it is practiced by a few, as fol- 
lows: a clover sod is plowed in the spring, 
from 50 to 100 bushels of lime spread thereon, 
and is then planted to corn. The following 
spring this ground is well manured and plant- 
ed to corn again. In the fall the corn is cut 
off" and shocked in rows 40 or 50 yards apart, 
and the intermediate spaces are plowed up 
and seeded to wheat, and on the following 
year the wheat is repeated. All these crops 
being raised from one dressing of lime and 
one of stable manure, and they are fully equal 
to the best crops raised on freshly manured 
ground. 

A second approach to it is the seeding of 
tobacco ground. This is usually heavily man- 
ured with fresh stable manure in the spring, 
and afrer the tobacco is harvested the gronnd 
is seeded to wheat, with a result usually bet- 
ter than the freshly manured oat stubble, thus 
creating the impression that tobacco is not 
an exhaustive crop ; when it really is one of 
the most exhaustive crops that can be planted. 
The foregoing examination seems to favor 
the conclusions of Commissioner Watts : that 
it will prove a complete remedy for the fail- 
ure of the wheat crop is not probable, but if 
it should prove only one step in the right di- 
rection, it will be well worthy the attention 
of the readers of the Farmer. 

Casper Hiller. 
Co7iestoga, Jan. 8, 1872. 



30 



THE LAJYCASTER FARMER. 



LANCASTER, FEBRUARY, 1872. 

S. S. RATHVON AND ALEX. HARRIS, Editors. 

Published monthly under the auspices of the Agricul- 
tural AUD HOUTICULTUKAL SOCIETY. 



1^1.^5 per year in advance. 



A considerable deduction to clubs of five or more. 



All communications, to insure insertion, must be in the 
hands of the editors before the 20th of each month. Ad- 
dress Kathvon & Harris, Lancaster, Pa. 

All advertisements, subscriptions and remittances to the 
addressof the publisher, J. B. DEVELIN, 

Inquirer Building, Lancaster, Pa. 



MEETIKG OF THE AGRICULTURAL 
AND HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

THE society met January 1st, 1872, in the 
Orphans' Court room, and after the 
reading and approval of the minutes, Presi- 
dent Engle proceeded to read his valedictory 
address upon the conclusion of his official term. 

^ym. R. Seltzer, of Ephrata, Tobias D. 
Martin and W. L. Hershey, were elected mem- 
bers of the society. 

Levi S. Reist spoke of the success so far of 
the agricultural society, and reflected with 
some regret upon the jealousy of certain in- 
dividuals connected with the press in this 
county, and remarked that if our society was 
supported by the entire press of the county it 
would become one of the most influential so- 
cieties in the whole State. 

Joseph C. Snyder presented to the society 
the " Annual Report of the Chief of the Bu- 
reau of Statistics on Commerce and Kayiga- 
tion" for 1870. Yote of thanks passed. 

Simon P. Eby drew attention to a letter of 
Judge Watts, Commissioner of Agriculture. 
The letter was on motion read by the secre- 
tary. 

Jacob Stauffer, H. M. Engle and Peter S. 
Reist made some general remarks as to the 
requirements of soil in order to keep it in a 
condition of fertility. 

H. M. Engle spoke of the matter of allowing 
land to rest^ and did not seem to believe any- 
thing was gained by this method, provided 
sufficient nutriment was added ; he, however, 



stated that the permitting of the ground to 
remain in grass certainly adds to its fertility. 

P. S. Reist referred to the habit of farmers 
in the olden time allowing their land to rest ; 
he did not believe it essential. He neverthe- 
less believes that land is benefited by resting. 
He considers that manure should be applied 
to land as soon as it can be after it is taken 
out of the stables. 

E. Hoover thought that owing to the high 
price of land in Lancaster county it is, as a 
usual thing, overworked, and this in his opinion 
is a main reason for the failure of our crops. 
Farmers must be more sparing of their farms 
if they expect to get them in good crop-pro- 
ducing condition in the future. 

Jacob Staufter said that when ammonia is 
escaping from manure, by scattering salt over 
it the ammonia becomes absorbed and the 
strength is retained in the manure. 

S. P. Eby seemed to discern the philosophy 
of manuring wheat. 

Mr. Engle recommended his. composting 
system, and P. S. Reist in his hauling the 
manure out as soon as it is taken from the 
stable. The great object is to adopt that 
method which will be to prevent the escape 
of ammonia. 

E. Hoover wants his manure plowed down 
as soon as it is hauled out. 

On motion, society went into an election for 
officers to serve for the ensuing year. The 
old officers were all re-elected by acclamation. 

The Chair appointed D. G. Swariz as es- 
sayist for the February meeting of the society. 

Society, an motion, adjourned. 



An Old Settler on Thistles.— No good 
farmer need be afraid of thistles. We know 
this by trial. Fifty years ago we bought most 
of this farm— all woods then, nearly. Wood 
was nearly all cut to boil salt, and hauled 
twelve miles. Of course, the land was cleared 
slowly, and Canada and Bull Thistles overran 
the farm. Yet no man in the county beat us 
raising grain of all kinds when we got at it. 
There were then no reapers, no threshing 
machines. I have threshed 3,000 bushels of 
grain in one year with two horses ; hauUd 
wheat to Albany on a wagon fifty years ago 
this winter. I can show titles of land with 
Asaver C. Fag's name to them ; Benjamin 
Knower, State Treasurer ; Simeon Dewitt, 
Surveyor-General. I worked land here before 



THE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



31 



one shovelful of dirt was thrown out of the 
Erie Canal. I saw Scott's army go by and stay 
in this town over night. He was then only 
twenty-six years old. What would boys say 
now to our old-time tools ? On the 8th day of 
March, 1817, we saw in Albany two pairs of 
c:ood horses loaded with one rope, bound for 
Buffalo ; the teamster got S300 to take it there. 
What changes since !— O.Smith, ilfanZms Cen- 
ter, Dec, 1871. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 



HARLEQUIN CABBAGE BUG. 

INCLOSED I send you a specimen of a bug 
which made its appearance here about Ibiee 
years since. They are numerous in many p'aces, 
and very destructive to cabbabe and rutabagi's. 
They completely destroyed my entire crop of .cab- 
bage this year, not leaving one sprout. I tried 
sprinkling lime and then soot, to no effect, except 
to drive them from the top to the bottom of the leaf. 
Can you tell me the name and how to get rid of 
them, and oblige ? Y. M. S. 

Stony Hill, Richmond county, Va. 

This is certainly a formidable pest, and is no other 
than the Harlequin cabbage bug (strachia liistrion- 
ita of Hahn.) The first account we have of its 
habits ig that given by Dr. Gideon Lincecum, of 
Washington county, Texas, in the first volume of 
the " Practical Entomologist," p. 110, 1866. At 
first it was supposed that this insect would confine 
itself to the more Southern States, but in this all 
have been disappointed, for every season since the 
time named we have received specimens from lo- 
calities which showed that it was gradually woik- 
iug northward, a few having been received this 
year from the Southern counties of Pennsylvania. 
This destructive pest does not confine itself to the cab- 
bage, but will eat turnips, horseradish, mustard, and 
every plant belonging to the crucifo ai or mustard 
family. The gay appearance of this bug, it being 
beautifully marked with blaok anJ yellow, no 
doubt suggested the name of Harlequin. The per- 
fect insect lives through winter, and is therefore 
ready to deposit iN eggs upon the first cabbage or 
other plant of the same family that app3ars in 
spring. Many ditterent methods of destroymg it 
have been suggested and tried, but we do not know 
of any that have met witli success, except that of 
handpicking, although this is an almost endless task 
where the bugs are abundant. Birds or domestic 
fowls will not touch them, and there seems to be 
little hope of checking the ravages of this pest un- 
less soine chemical compound is discovered that 
will destroy them and at the same time i ot inju. 
-the plants. We would suggest trying powdered 
white hellebore, the same as used to destroy the 
currant worm. In fact those who ht.ve the oppor- 
tunity should not cease their efforts to discover a 
preventive until one is found. 

We have been informed that the " Harle- 
quin cabbage bug" has been found in the 
southern townships of Lancaster county, but 



we have not received any specimens of it yet. 
It affects cruciferous vegetation pretty much 
the same as the " squash-bug " does the cu- 
curbitacecc, causing them to wilt and die as 
surely as if they had been scalded, and they 
continue reproducing during the greater part 
of the spring and summer season. We have 
found several allied species — Scutellerida — in 
this county twenty years ago, and there seems 
to be no special assignable reason why Stra- 
chia histrionica may not eventually become 
domicilated here also. We do not wish evil 
to our neighbors, although we do wish that 
this insect, if it must be in the land, would 
come no further north than it is, for, aside 
from our beets, turnips and radishes, we would 
not like to see our "saur-kraut " in jeopardy. 
]fit(?ofs come, however, a united effort at 
hand-picking will be necessary to exterminate 
it ; but, if other remedies must be resorted to, 
then in addition to the remedy above named, 
"Paris green," carefully and judiciously ap- 
plied, would, no doubt, prove an effective ex- 
tinguisher. Like all the Sciitelleridce, this is a 
hybernatiug insect, and must be first looked 
for early in the spring, when it is in the act 
of laying it» first brood of eggs on the lower 
side of the leavesof its favorite plants. 

E. 



IS THE INFLUENCE OF ELECTRICITY 
ON THE VEGETABLE KINGDOM EN- 
TIRELY VENTILATED AND EX- 
PLODED ? 



MESSRS. EDITORS :— I did not thiuk 
that I would again trouble you with 
any more of my scribbling, but iu looking over 
the last Farmer, I found an article over the 
signature of J. B. Garber, Eeq., who seems to 
be shooting thunder at a nameless friend. 
Now 1 do not exactly know for whom the fire 
was intended, but after reading his production 
carefully, it appeared to me to have such a 
strong bearing on an article that I handed you, 
and which you saw proper to publish in the 
December number, that I take it for grant- 
ed that it is me that his attention was di- 
rected to. It therefore becomes necessary for 
me again to ask your indulgence for occupy- 
ing your time and attention, whilst I will en 
deavor to maintain the position I assumed, 
however new, or howevtr full of electricity, or 



3^ 



THE LAJYCASTER FARMER. 



goose-egg blackberries, tbe theory may seem 
to be. 

Our good-humored friend certainly wouldn't 
have had need to have troubled himself 
about guessing that I too was on the lookout 
for something that would enable me to raise 
from thirty to forty bushels of wheat to the 
acre, for this appears to me should be the 
natural inclination of all. I will, therefore,with 
the permission of our fortunate friend with a 
name, class myself among that number, unfor- 
tunate and nameless as I am. I do not care so 
much for a name as I do for the game, especi- 
ally the game where there is so much labor 
involved, and which is of so much interest to 
us all. 

Kow, Messrs. Editors, let us see how far 
our friend has succeeded in ventilating and 
exploding the theory '• that electricity has a 
salutary influence on all vegetation." He does 
not deny that it is a powerful agent either for 
good or evil. He, however, seems to be very 
full of doubt as to the good it may have done 
to the wheat crop last season, and refers to 
his record (which unfortunately I do not keep) 
for facts, from which it appears that out of 
ten years there were seven years that had 
more thunder-storms than the year 1871, in 
the months of April, May, and June. The 
truth of this I do not doubt ; but if he would 
have given us the record for the whole season 
it might perhaps have changed the table some- 
what. My remarks were made from recollec- 
tion and from record, and were intended for 
the whole season. I also stated that these 
storms were attended with more intensely 
vivid lightning than we had for some time be- 
fore. From the number of buildiugs that were 
struck and consumed by the fluid last season, 
I would infer that it was brought in very close 
contact with old mother earth, and would 
again say that it might have imparted that es- 
sential ingredient to the earth, or to the plant 
itself, that was requisite to produce the crop. 

The number of storms, however, is a matter 
of very little consequence ; one will suffice, 
if the fluid is properly applied and at the right 
time, in the vegetable kingdom, as well as on 
the human body, as I think was very plainly 
shown in the extraordinary case of the Rev. 
Mr. Winder, to which I had reference before. 

I presume that our friend will be ready to 
admit that we did not knowingly ad 1 anything 
to the soil that Drought about thi^ beneficial 



result, and that there is such a thing as at- 
mospheric fertilizers or atmospheric influence 
on all plants. Now, Messrs. Editors, until 
our friend will show that it was something 
that was done by the farmer that brought 
about this happy result, I must continue to 
believe that it was nature's laws operating 
with nature's great laboratory, the earth, that 
supplied the deficiency which wrought the 
change, and that electricity might have done 
its share of the work. Our friend says that 
in California there were no tliunder-gusts 
known until last season, still they had better 
wheat and larger yield than we could raise, 
and that the season of 1871 was more of a 
failure of the wheat crop than for many years ; 
and then asks the question, could the thunder, 
which was new to them, have had any agency 
in reducing their crop ? The soil in Califor- 
nia being new and no doubt possessing all the 
ingredients required for the successful raising 
of the wheat crop together with the favorable 
seasons, wculd seem to be the great secret of 
their success. But the Californians, like a 
great many others in new countries, may have 
continued a succession of crops until the most 
essential ingredients were exhausted, and like 
ourselves, are to grope their way in the dark ; 
and hence the failure, thunder being nothing 
more than the report of exploded electricity, 
which might have taken place so far from the 
earth that the fluid failed to have an effect. 
But if the wheat pla.it is of a very nervous 
temperament, and susceptible of being 
frightened out of a year's growth, or even to 
death, by any sudden and strange noise, then 
I am ready to admit that the novel and terrific 
report of such an explosion might have had a 
detrimental effect. I feel as if I was entirely 
denuded of the optical magnifier, of which our 
humorous friend speaks, and which he says 
he didn't use to examine his row of pota- 
toes with ; yet methinks I can see that our 
friend jumps at conclusions too hastily, and 
endeavors to catch lightning by the tail for 
the purpose of retarding its progress. Did 
not our friend err, in his experiment, by bury- 
ing the wire under ground (which would ap- 
pear to have been the case from his descrip- 
tion) along the line of his row of potatoes '? 
Ought he not, at least, to have left one end of 
it above ground for the purpose of attracting 
the fluid ? But when attracted, copper being 
considered one of the best conductors, would 



THE LAJy CASTER FARMER. 



3S 



have'carried it along his row of potatoes to the 
other end. The great probability is that it 
would have passed along the row (the same 
as the cable carries it through the Atlantic) 
and been discharged in the earth, at the other 
end, away from the roots of the plants, and 
consequently be of no benefit to his "Mur- 
phys." 

AVould his experiment not have succeeded 
much better if he would have cut his wire, 
and inserted the pieces, with one end in the 
ground, along his row of potatoes, about the 
depth they were planted, thus conducting and 
bringing it in contact with the earth, around 
the roots of the plant, and there, by nature's 
law, be mingled with the earth, and in 
nature's great laboratory be converted into 
nourishing food for the plants '? I however 
believe that no experiment will succeed as 
well as a natural application of this fluid. I 
very often have to call into play the article 
that is stuck on the nasal organ for the pur- 
pose of aiding vision ; but in this case it ap- 
pears to me I can see enough without it — to 
know that the more knowledge we finite men 
acquire, the better we must know that we are 
short-sighted and dull in comprehension, when 
compared with that infinite wisdom displayed 
in nature. 

I beg pardon for allowing myself to be so 
fir led astray as to mistake the drift of our 
friend's argument, but with all deference daa 
to our, apparently, veiy good-natured friend, 
I would say, that it looked very much as if he 
had made the comparison for the purpose of 
showing the worthle&sness, or extravagance, 
of using artificial manure. I, therefore, sim- 
ply made another comparison, with the same 
poor, old Indian's gun, for the purpose of 
showing that artificial manures could be eco- 
nomically and beneficially used ; all that is 
necessary is to know how and when to apply 
them, as was fully illu3trated iu the case of 
" Prof. Mapes." Our friend has very truly said, 
that some things may be done as well as oth- 
ers, and asks the question, might not the poor 
Indian have purchased a bran new gun with 
the money he paid for repairing the old,one ? 
Certainly he might, if the charges for repairs 
were high enough, but even new things some- 
times are defective, and only become good af- 
ter being repaired. 

To illustrate this, I will relate a case I 
heard a few days ago : I heard aMr. H. state 



that he had a new entry door at his barn, and 
that sometime ago his bull took a notion to 
break it; as was quite natural, Mr. H. went 
to work to repair it, making it much stronger 
than it was before, and he said the scamp 
couldn't break it since. 

As I do not consider myself competent to 
appear before the public as a writer, I will, 
therefore, close by subscribing myself an hum- 
ble observer, in a local habitation, and pa- 
tiently awaiting further developments. 

January 15, 1872. 



ROTATING MANURES. 

BY DAVID Z. EVANS, JR. 

THE title of this article may, and no doubt 
does, sound strange to many, for, al- 
though all have heard of, and many put into 
practice, rotating crops, yet when we couple 
the word rotating with manures it has a rather 
odd sound. 

That rotating manures is beneficial to land 
requires but a few trials to be abundantly 
verified. Even the best of all manures, stable 
manure, which possesses most of the elements 
suitable for sustaining the growth of vegeta- 
tion, is no exception to this rule, although it 
can undoubtedly be used for successive years 
for a longer period than almost all others, 
without the crops showing that a rotation or 
change would be advisable or desirable. Next 
to stable manure, in point of permanency, in 
my opinion, comes the pure ground bone, or 
bone meal or flour, not what is known in a 
commercial sense as pure ground bone, for 
most of this, I am sorry to say, is more or less 
adulterated with some foreign or bulky sub- 
stance, as we have found out by experience, 
but crushed bones and bones only ; this manure 
is strong in plant food, and will for several, 
perhaps many years, support a luxuriant 
growth of vegetation, especially grass or clover, 
which delight in an abundance of it. Peruvian 
guano can be said, and rightfully, too, to come 
next to bone for durability, when it is pure 
and unadulterated, and can be applied for 
several years to almost all crops with marked 
good results. We might next name some of 
the phosphatps ; but having tried several 
kinds without any flattering results, and in 
some cases with much loss. I am not very en- 
thusiastic in their praise, for where you find a 



3Jf 



THE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



sort that really does well, the effects are far 
from being permanent ; nor is it desirable to 
apply these phosphates year after year to the 
different crops, for it gradually and surely 
kills the soil, and here it is that we see the 
great desirability of rotating manures. It is 
with the soil as it is with man, so to speak. 
The manure put on is the food the land re- 
quires for supporting the growth of vegetation, 
its allotted task ; but if it has the same kind 
of food year upon year, it will become wearied 
in well doing, just the same as a man would if 
fed on one kind of food for an indefinite period. 
A rr tation , say from manure to bone or to green 
manuring, will work such a great change as 
would be gratifying to all. I do not rtean to 
substitute one for the other, and then continue 
with the one substituted for several years, but 
only for one or two years at the most, after 
which continue the rotation in favor of some 
other fertilizer of a desirable nature, when 
jou can then revert to stable manure, and at 
the same time be increasing the richness and 
capacity of your soil, which latter should be 
the great desideraium with all would-be farm- 
ers, and is with all thorough ones. There 
are many who utterly condemn and complain 
of the complete worthlessness of all the phos- 
phates and patent manures manufactured, 
having been, no doubt, at some past time se- 
verely bitten with ihem ; but I, although 
badly served wiih some, will be more gener- 
ous, for I think that, as manures to use in the 
series of a rotation, the best and purest brands 
of course they are indeed good. I have seen 
much of it basely adulterated, but this does 
not say that all is so done, for I know to the 
contrary. 

I know that some of the readers of this will 
consider me too enthusiastic or over-zealous 
in regard to the rotation problem ; but if they 
only take the trouble to solve it as we have 
done, they will tind the results just the same 
and in good keeping with what I have just 
said, I koow that thus far comparative 
little attention has been paid to this subject 
by those who are or should be the most inter- 
ested in it ; and why it is so I cannot imagine, 
for its importance or value is not so small as 
to be unworthy of a careful attention, when 
the increased richness of the soil, and a&A 
matter of course, the greater yield obtained 
from pursuing such a case, is taken into con- 
sideration. As the season for active opera- 



tions on the farm is soon to commence, I 
would earnestly a?k the farmers to give this 
matter a trial, for it deserves it; and it is not 
necessary to make the experiment on a large 
scale, if not so desired, for you can make it 
upon an acre or so without much or any ad- 
ditional expense being incurred by the experi- 
menter. If the market gardeners would only 
give the subject of rotating manures at least 
one trial, usmg green manures, if convenient, 
the results, I am confident to assert, would 
warrant a repetition of the same, or rather a 
continuance. Of course you must use your 
judgment in the matter, for it requires fore- 
thought as well as anything else does, and 
must not be rushed at blindly, or blunders 
might be the legitimate results of such a hasty 
course. — Mass. Ploughman. 



TRUNING TOO LATE IN SPRING. 

In passing through the country we observed 
a great improvement in the management of 
newly set orchards. Twenty or thirty years 
ago not one orchard in fifty received proper 
cultivation. The consequence wjis that a large 
majority of the trees set out either perished 
in a few years or else made a feeble and sickly 
growth. In some instances not ten per cent, 
survived. An extensive observer, whose busi- 
ness gave him special opportunities for judg- 
ing, informed us he was satisfied that among 
dwarf pears not one in a hundred of the mul- 
titudes that were set out ever made a good 
growth or came into successful bearing. But 
at the present time, total neglect has become 
the exception, and good clean cultivation is 
more and more common. Thrifty young or- 
chards are frequently met with, and good fruit 
is finding its way among all classes. 

But while we see a great improvement, so 
far as the cultivation of the soil is concerned, 
there is frequently a serious loss from improper 
pruniag, and the importance of observing the 
right season for the work is less understood. 
These remarks are specially suggested at the 
present moment by seeing a large and newly- 
set pear orchard nearly ruined by cutting back 
after the buds had opened. The trees selected 
for setting out were of good size, handsome 
and thrifty when taken up, the work was done 
in the best manner, and the ground where 
they stand is kept clean and mellow, and in 



THE LAJ^CASTER FARMER. 



35 



the best condition. But one important part 
of the work has been done wrong. The trees 
had been heeled in until the leaves be^an to 
expand ; the shoots and branches were then 
shortened' back at the time of setting out. It 
is now midsummer, and none of them have 
grown half an inch — many barely survive. 
Had the cutting been performed early in 
spring, when the trees were dug up, and be- 
fore the buds had swollen, we see no reason 
why they should not have made a growth of a 
foot or two, and have presented a thrifty and 
handsome appearance. Nothing checks a 
young tree more than heading back too late. 
Some have pronounced the practice ot cutting 
back at all to be worse than useless, because 
they did it at the wrong time. Pears and 
cherries are particularly sensitive to this man- 
agement. Young cherry trees are sometimes 
ruined by it. We have seen rows of standard 
pear trees in a nursery that had been budded 
the previous season, actually killed by scores, 
by cutting down after growth had commenced. 
We have had occasion to speak before of this 
error in practice ; but while the subject is so 
commonly misunderstood, we shall have to 
give line upon line until the error is corrected. 



PLANT GRAPEVINES. 

It is surprising that so many families in 
the country are willing to live year after year 
without cultivating a single grapevine about 
their dwellings. They are compelled to pur- 
chase the delicious fruit for the table, or not 
taste it during the season. There is a com- 
mon impression that to cultivate grapes prop- 
erly, a vast amount of knowledge and tact is 
required. To many, the simple trimming of 
a vine is a mystery, more ditiicult to compre- 
hend than the hardest problem of Euclid. 
This is an erroneous view, and ought not to 
prevail. Any person of ordinary intelligence 
can learn in one hour how to trim and nou^ • 
ish vines, and if instruction cannot be obtained 
from some experienced cultivator, Ihere are 
books filled with cuts and illustrations which 
make everything plain. Three vines,. of as 
many different varieties, planted in some sunny 
nook, or by the side of buildings, so as to 
obtain shelter, will, if properly cared for, fur- 
nish many bushels of delicious grapes every 
year. Select a Concord, a Delaware, and Ad- 
riondack; make the ground mellow and rich. 



by the use of the spade, and by employing old 
manure, fine ground bone and ashes, and set 
out the plants. In three years the rich clus- 
ix^ will appear, and in four years the product 
will be abundant. 

It is well to have vines planted so that the 
waste liquids from the dwelling can be used 
in fertilization. If there is any food the vine 
specially loves, it is the soapy liquids which 
accumulate on washing days in families. 
Vines drenched every week with these liquids 
will flourish amazingly, and extend themselves 
so as to cover laige buildings, every branch 
bearing fruit. We say to our readers every- 
where, plant vines — Journal of Chemistry. 

SOWING OATS IN FEBRUARY. 

Several years since I seeded oats on the 
last snows in February. The result was the 
crop ripened two weeks earlier than that 
seeded early in the month of April, and a 
marked diflTerence of product in favor of Feb- 
ruary seeding was strikingly perceptible, say- 
ing nothing of the advantage gained by get- 
ting the crop-in market in advance. 

Wmter oats, sown early in the month of 
October, will ripen upward of a month earlier 
than those sown in April. I cannot speak 
practically, but I suppose oats, like wheat and 
rye, can, by repeated seeding in the autumn, 
become sutliciently hardy to resist the winter 
frosts, and vice versa. I was told a short 
time since by an intelligent Irish farmer, that 
in Dublin county, Ireland, oats are almost 
exclusively sown in the autumn. 

In making the experiraeut alluded to, I 
plowed an acre of light loam in the month 
of November, where potatoes were previously 
grown. Plowing may be done at any time 
during the winter, when the ground is suffi- 
ciently dry and friable. In such land harrow- 
ing is unnecessary, fi-om the fact that the 
freezing and thawing process renders the soil 
sufficiently level, friable and in good condition 
to receive the seed, which will be sufficiently 
covered by the porous condition of the land. 
Previous to sowing, the oats ought to be 
passed through a fa'^nlug mill, giving a heavy 
blast of wind for the purpose of separating 
the light oats and weed seeds from the heavy, 
well-ripened oats. After the plants become 
sufficiently rooted and the soil dry, a harrow 
ought to be passed over the crop, followed by 



36 



THE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



a roller. Previous to harrowing and rolling, 
it is advisable to sow clover and orchard or 
mixed grasses for a succeeding crop. No 
advantage can be gained by steeping the seed. 

An advantage will be gained, however, by 
coating the seed (for an acre) with ten bushels 
dry sifted ashes, with enough beef or pork 
brine, or its equivalent in salt, using black 
water for dilution (brine is preferable, because 
it contains nitre, blood, etc.), to produce a 
mass to the consistency of thick cream or 
lard; i ext add the oats; mix by turning over 
the mass frequently, or until the oats become 
well coated ; then dry the mass with sufficient 
gypsum or dry screened clay ; screen the oats 
from the mass and sovv immediately. The 
screenings will be valuable for the potato and 
other crops, or for the preparation of addi- 
tional seed. Two to three bushels of oats are 
sutBcient to seed an acre ; the former quantity 
if the seed is heavy, short, and well ripened. 
/S., Baltimore, Md., in Country Gentleman. 

[The above practice probably would not an- 
swer in more northern localities, but it teach- 
es a very important lesson, viz., that farmers 
as a rule do Jot sow their oats early enough in 
the spring. Oats will grow in very cool 
weather, and when the seed first germinates 
it requires a large amount of moisture.— ii'd. 
Sun] 



OUR NATIONAL WHEAT CROP. 

Such frequent allusions have been made to 
the fact that our American wheat crop is rap- 
idly deteriorating, that it would seem as 
though the farmers ol the country would rise 
en masse and resolve that they will retrieve 
their repututions, by proving that they are 
not only capable of but determined to main- 
tain unimpaired the original fertility of th3 
soils. 

Here and there we find one who appears to 
adopt this determination, and the pity is that 
there are not more. Thus for instance we 
find it recorded that on Sherwood Island, 
California, 09 bushels of wheat have been 
raised to the acre. Now it is not to be ex- 
pected that such an enormous yield as this 
could be made general, but it seems to show 
that we have wheat-lands in the United States 
unsurpassed in the world. 

Again, I noticed a day or two since that in 
Monroe county, Pa., a trifle over 40 bushels 



per acre of Diehl wheat was raised. The 
owner of the farm on which this fine crop was 
gathered plows to the depth of 12 inches, the 
furrows are leveled with a harrow and the soil 
is then thoroughly disintegrated with a wheat 
cultivator, . with teeth 15 inches long and 
drawn by four horses. The seed bed is thus 12 
inches deep, the land is largely clayey, deep 
and fertile. Now as there are millions of 
acres of land similar to this in our country, 
why cannot the same thing be done on them? 
If itbe possible for one man to raise 40 bushels 
of wheat to the acre, why should not all 
farmers with equally good lands do the same, 
or at least approximate to it ? 

Even in Burlington county, N. J., we find 
farmers who grow an average crop of over 30 
bushels to the acre, and if the proper system 
were adopted, this happy state of affairs 
would prevail generally, or at least we would 
be able to report an average crop, which year 
for year would exceed the present one at 
least on3 half. 

Planting as deep as the nature of the soil 
will permit, thorough pulverization of the 
entire depth of the seed bed, and a liberal ap- 
plication of manure, are the requisites, and 
these are within the reach of all who have the 
spi''it to avail themselves of them. If we 
had such a system of cultivation as should 
prevail, and as is followed by the farmers to 
whom allusion in this article has been made, 
the average wheat crop of the country would 
not be less than twenty-five bushels. — Vor. 
Journal of the Farm. 



DIMINISHED PRODUCTION OF WHEAT 
UNDER THE COMMON ROUTINE. 

The following letter, which we find in the 
Rural Messenger, from our new Commissioner 
of Agriculture, Judge Watts, possesses interest 
at this time : 

" Department of Agriculture, \ 
Washington, D. C, Sept. 27, 1871. S 

" Sir — Your letter brings to my mind again 
what has frequsntly occurred to me as a mar- 
velous result of the great improvement in 
agriculture which characterizjs the present 
day— a great dimunition in the production of 
wheat, the great staple of the country. To 
what cause we may attribute it, is a question 
which presents itself to the mind of every ag- 
riculturist who takes an interest in the success 
of this great leading interest of the land. An 



THE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



37 



easy solution is given, ' that our soil haa lost 
that original, rich virgin character which it 
had in the beginning of our operations.' But 
when was that beginning? It is not now, so 
far as concerns newly cleared and cultivated 
lands ? Are they not as they were one hun- 
dred years ago? No, we must look for some 
other rational cause, and he who can trace it 
to a satisfactory and practical conclusion, will 
benefit mankind. Until it is discovered, let 
us console ourselves with the reflection that 
human skill, knowledge and experience will 
solve the difliculty. Where so many minds 
are occupied, as there are upon this subject, 
the truth will be discovered. 

" Let me add my mite to the consideration 
of it. The ordinary routine (I now speak of 
the practice in the Middle States) is clover, 
corn, oats, wheat; and the last often re- 
peated. Inasmuch as this embraces the whole 
course of farming, the solution of the great 
question must be found here, if it be found at 
all in the fault of the the farmer. If it be in 
the seasons, in the atmosphere, or otherwise 
Providential, we may excuse ourselves to the 
world, and be content with the reflection that 
He doeth all things wisely. 

" But my experience leads me to the belief 
that the fault or the failing is ours. The 
experience of many years has led me to the 
conclusion that the deterioration of the wheat 
crop is mainly attributable to the improper 
and-untimely use of barn-yard manure. In 
our practice, the clover sod is turned down 
and planted with corn. The ground is again 
plowed in the spring, and sowed with oats, 
and upon the stubble of this crop all the man- 
ure of the barn-yard is put ; then plowed 
again, and sowed with wheat. This delicate 
plant is thus subjected to the rawness and gross- 
uess of barn-yard food, with all its germs of 
flies, worms, lice and bugs— seemingly a sufh- 
cient cause of the unsuccessful growth of a 
grain so pure and delicate as wheat. 

" Corn is the hog of plants, and will devour 
food of any quality and thrive upon it. Here, 
then, upon the sod to be plowed for corn is 
the place for barn-yard manure. Bury it deep, 
and when the corn is cut off break the stub- 
ble even with the ground during the winter. 
In the spring harrow the ground well, sow 
your oats upon it and roll it. You will thus 
keep your manure where you put it. and not 
subject the oat crop to bei"g thrown down by 



it. When this crop is removed, bring your 
manure to the surface by deep plowing and 
thorough tillage. The barn-yard manure 
having thus received proper preparation, is a 
fit food for the wheat plant. 

" Experience has taught me this lesson : 
On my farm, in Pennsylvania, I never fail to 
raise a satisfactory crop of wheat, and I have 
known no such thing as midge, Hessian fly, 
or army worm. 

"I remain, sir, very respectfully, your obe- 
dient servant, 

"Frederick Watts, 

" Commissioner." 



ELEVATING FARMING— EARMERS' 
WIVES. 

Our physical growth, our political safety, 
and our moral and intellectual well-being, 
depend largely on our agricultural advance- 
ment and a popular understanding of its value, 
let our farming is often wretchedly rude, 
our system deplorably defective, and we fail 
to develop such great improvements in agri- 
culture as characterize other occupations. 
To-day scarcely one farmer in a hundred real- 
izes 5 per cent, on his money invested, while 
money in large quantities is readily lent for 
10 per cent, on the best land securities. Why 
is it ? Are our farmers lazy ? Is the soil nat- 
urally unproductive ? Are our markets poor ? 
Emphatically, no! Our farmers are unsur- 
passed for energy, our soil is without a rival 
in productiveness, and our markets are amply 
remunerative. The source of our trouble is 
found in the fact that we lack education. We 
cannot talk understandingly of acids and phos- 
phates. We are ignorant of chemistry and 
botany, and we do not know where to set our 
cabbage plants that the harvest may not prove 
us to be cabbage-heads ourselves. 

An ambitious young man brought up on a 
farm now-a-days, sees ihe defects of our agri- 
cultural system, and the ignorance of his fel- 
low-farmers, and resolves to elevate the call- 
ing. He enters college with this object in 
view, and whether it be a classical or an agri- 
cultural mstitution, he finds a new world 
opened to him. The rust and shackles which 
confined his latent powers are worn away. 
He finds new society, and is most favorably 
impressed with the improvement on his form- 
er social privileges. He returns home to 



S8 



THE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



spend his vacation, and everything seems al- 
tered to him. His enthusiasm for farming has 
leceived a check during his absence, and his 
friends at home noticing the improvement in 
the young man's manners and appearance, 
become ambitious to have a lawyer or a doc- 
tor in the family. Hence every influence is 
employed to divert him into the new channel; 
the growing contrast between home society 
and college privileges, which becomes more 
apparent during each succeeding vacation, 
casts the die, and the young collegian studies 
law ; while his duller brother, debarred from 
college privileges, follows in the foot-steps of 
his father, and farming remains in statu quo, 
for another generation to do likewise. 

Occasionally, however, an educated young 
man turns his attention to farming, and the 
question that gives him the greatest embar- 
rassment is where to find a wife, educated, 
energetic and refined — one who can sympa- 
thize and talk intelligently with him on gen- 
eral matters outside of the domestic routine — 
whose education has not unfitted her for the 
cares and duties incumbent upon her. Un- 
fortunately, great as is the tendency in our 
colleges to lead young men from rural pur- 
suits, many times more pernicious is the edu- 
cation received in our female seminaries by 
discouraging young ladies from becoming 
farmers' wives ; and it is a frequent expres- 
sion among them, " rather than marry a farm- 
er, I'd live and die an old maid !" They re- 
member, if they are farmers' girls, the few 
social privileges of their younger days — that 
farmers and farmers' sons, as a rule, fail to 
cultivate the sesthetical part of their natures, 
and they become impressed with the idea that 
farmers are boors and farming contemptible. 
They connect the term " gentlemen" with 
"Alexandres" and silk hats, a No. G French 
calf boot, and hair parted^ in the middle— ig- 
noring the fact that in nine cases out of ten, 
under the coarse shirt of the farmer beats a 
heart and lives a principle as much strangers 
to the kid-gloved gentleman as decency is to 
the wild-Women of the Victeria Woodhull 
school. Some girls, too, are so foolish as to 
have their heads turned by the reputation 
gained by leading " female sufl'rage" ladies, 
and to lose themselves in a mad passion for 
notoriety. The beef-steak burns, shirts re- 
main buttonless, and unclean pens are wielded, 
to the neglect of clean clothes. Added to 



this, the fact stares us in the face that many 
American women have no health and no 
physique. Slate pencils, lily-white, horse- 
hair, plumpers, cotton, india-rubber, steel 
corsets and arsenic have done their work un- 
til adulteration seems to be getting almost as 
applicable to our American women as to Am- 
erican whisky. 

But Antoinette Brown Blackwell tells us 
that she has found healthy women even in 
America — rosy-cheeked maidens whose edu- 
cation has not contracted their chests or their 
intellect, who have established a harmony be- 
tween mind and body by educating their men 
tal faculties and still retaining a fair share of 
physical beauty. Such girls, as wives, will 
bring health and refinement to the farm— a 
love of labor where duty demands it, and a 
love of literature, taste, culture and music all 
the time, making home attractive, and destroy- 
ing the contrast between home society and 
college associations. By woman's aid only 
can we hope to destroy the supposed antago- 
nism between education and agriculture, and 
elevate our calling by drawing the young men 
back to farming after finishing their college 
course, and thus bringing into practical use 
the latest developments of science. — Cor. 
Cotiniry Gentleman. 



What are Artificial Manures.— There 
does not seem to be a clear understanding as 
to what are natural and what are artificial 
manures. Many farmers have a prejudice 
against what are called chemical manures, 
probably for the reason that they can not see 
the connection which exists between a product 
of a chemical manufactory and the needs of 
the vegetable products of their soil. Such 
manures, therefore, as nitrate of potash, ni- 
trate of soda, chloride of sodium (salt), sul- 
phate of lime (plaster), etc., are looked upon 
as either useless or of doubtful advantage. 
But there are many so-called artificial manures 
which are really as much the natural products 
of the farm as the manure from the stables or 
hog-pen. For instance, bone-dust and super- 
phosfhate of lime return to the soil precisely 
the same elements which they derived from 
it. So with many articles manufactured from 
refuse flesh, blood, waste of tanneries and 
soap-works. If these are not adulderated with 
useless foreign articles they but bring back to 
the soil what was originally taken from it. 
For this reason, if these manures can be pro- 
cured at their actual value, their use should 
become as regular a part of the farm economy 
as that of barn-yard manure. Every calf, 
hog, or sheep sold off the farm creates a de- 
mand for the return of a portion of one or an- 
other of these incorrectly called artificial ma- 
nures, as much so as the feeding of an animal 
calls for the return of its waste. — American 
Agriculturist. 



TEE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



39 



BOOK AND SPECIAL NOTICE DE- 
PARTMENT. 

SPECIAL AND LOCAL NOTICES. 

TEN 0EKT3 TEU LINE EACH INSEKTION. 



We have on our table a copy of Puijlic Ledger Al- 
manac for 1872. It is handsomely printed, and full of use- 
ful information. A copy of this Almanac is dibtributed 
gratuitously to each of its eighty thousand subscribers. 

The N. y. Tribune Alma.nac for 1872, has made its ap- 
pearance, and is as interesting and as useful as ever. It 
can bo procured at any book store in the county ; price, 20 
cents. 

How TO Make The Farm Pat.— This sprightly agricul- 
tural monthly is making rapid progress as one of the best 
of its kind published. Jas. F. Downey, of this city, has 
charge of the advertising department. It is edited and 
published by Geo. A. Deitz, Ohamberrburg, Pa., pric3, 50 
cents a year. We will furnish the Farmer and Hno to 
Make the Farm Pay, one year, for SI. 53. 

OUR BOOK TABLE. 

Tub January numbar of the Pennsylvania School Jourrml 
appears in a new dress of beautiful, clear-cut type. It eon- 
tains the Thirty-eighth Annual Report from the Department 
ment, showing the present condition and remarkable devel- 
opment of our Common School system ; an article on " Con- 
ducting Recitations," by Prof. Wm. F. Phelps, of Minnesota; 
"The Swedish School System," by Mrs. Anna Randall Diehl ; 
"Programme and Tirae-Table for an Ungraded Schosl," by 
Hon. M. A. Newell, State Superintendent of Maryland; 
" The SchoolJQuestion in Europe," by Hon B. G. Northrop ; 
with full Editorial department.'lnteresting miscellany, book 
notices, and publishers' department. Do you rea<l an edu- 
cational journal ? If a teacher or director, hero is what 
you need. Begin with the'New Year. Subscription price, 
$1.50; to clubs of five or more, S1.25. Address, J. P. Wick- 
ersliam. & Co., Lancaster, Pa. 

The Gardener's Monthhj, for'January,i872, prompt, fresh 
and vigoroiis, and as full of good things "as an egg is full 
of meat." Every fruit and flower gardener ought to have 
it. $2 a yea -. Th. Meeuan, Ed., Philadelphia, Pa. 

American Homes Published by Cbaa. H. Taylor &. 

Co., Boston, Mass., is a domestic magazine, which fills au 
important place in the tamijy fireside. Only J-1 a year. 

"Tub Laws of Life and Woman's Health Journal," 
Edited by Harriet N. Austin, M. D., and aided by four 
assistant editors, ought to be in the hands of every woman, 
at least, who has any appreciation of her life and mission 
on earth. Dansville, N. Y., S1.50 a year. 

The National Live Slock Journal, for January, 1S72, ed- 
ited by Jno. p. Reynolds, Chicago, 111., is a capital num- 
ber of an illustrated quarto, ably conducted, and devoted 
to the specialty embraced in its title. Terms, $2 a year, in 
advance. 

■ EvERyBOD\'s JouuNAL— A live, neat, at d racy folio, 
published monthly by John Wananaker, corner of Si.\th 
& Market streets, Philadelphia, at 50 cents per annum. 
The typographical execution, the quality of (he paper, 
and the tone of its literary contents are unexceptionable; 
and on the whole, it is just su(h a journal as one might 
wish to see as a weekly visitor iastead of only mcnihly. Aiily 
edited by Mr. H. Jones, and devoted to the young men of 
our country. The January number comes to us with a 
supplement, containing a catalogue of books which are 



given as premiums to clubs of subscribers, from four up to 
eighty E ^ery subscriber of the Farmer ou^ht also to be- 
come a subacriber to this journal; for there is no conflict 
in their separate interest — and to facilitate that end we will 
furnish the two at if 1.50 per annum . 

New Banking Firm.— By reference to our advertisiog 
columns it will be noticed that Dr. W. L. Diffenderfer, 
well known to our readers, has associated himself with hij 
two brothers to engage in tho banking bui-iness in this city. 
To such persons as require the service of a banker, we re- 
commend them as safe, prompt and reliable businessmen, 
meriting any trust that may be reposed in them. Putting 
into their business a capital as gr.3at as that of any other 
private banking firm in this city, they will no doubt at once 
fill a prominent place and receive their full share of pat- 
ronage. We wish them success. 

OriNIONS OF THE PRESS. 

"Lancaster Farmer.— The January number of this neat 
and valuable agricultural and horticultural journal is re- 
ceived. Every farmer in this and adjoining counties who 
defies to keep up with tho progr.ss of his business should 
subscribe for it. It gives the experience of many of our 
best farmers, besides m'lch scientific and other informa- 
tion important to farmers. Terms, Sl.23 per year in ad- 
vance. J. B. Develin, publisher, Lancaster, Pa. We will 
furnish the Berald and Farmer one year for |2." 

The above is from our modest rural co temporary, tha 
Mount Joy Herald, whose good opinion is far more flatter- 
ing to us than the commendations of more pretentious 
journals, simply because, occupying our own i)lane of 
use it has a better conception of oar worth to rural 
readers. 



MARKETS. 



CHICAGO CATTLE MARKET. 

Saturday, January 27, 1872. 

Cattle. — The offerings embraced every grade ot stock, 
from scrawny rows up to finely formed, thoroughly fattened 
blooded steers, and sales were reported all the way from 
S2 25 to 17. Sales at tha extremes, however, ware few, 
most of the transfers being made at and within the range 
of $4 25a5 73. The notable sales of the day were fifteen 
head, averaging 1,7SG lbs, and 11 head averaging 1,720 ftis, 
at S7. 

Stock steers continue in steady, fair request, and all 
suitable lots find buyers at full previous rates, or S3a3 50 
for common lota averagina from 700 to 900 ft s., and at 
.'rrS 7ia4 25 for fair to prime droves averaging trom 950 to 
1050 fts. Thero is also a good demand for fat cows au I 
light fleshy Pteers to supply the city trade. The market 
clo.'ied steady for good to choice, but dull and a shade 
lower for common thin cattle. 

Extia Graded steers, averafing 1500 lbs and upward, 
$6 25aG 75 ; Choice beevet,— Fine, fat, well-f )rmfd 3 to 5 
year (dd steers, aud averaging 1300 to 1100 lbs, £5 75a 6 00; 
Goid beeves — Well tflttened. fin* ly-formed steers, averap- 
iog 1100 to 1300 lbs, S5 25n5 50 ; Fair erades— S'air steers in 
fair flesh, averaging 1050 to 1200 lbs, Si 75a5 00; Medium 
class — Medium steers and good cows for city slaughter, av- 
eraging ^03 to 1100 lbs, V3 25a4 50; Stock cattle — ('omraon 
cattle, in decent flesh, averaging 700 to 1050 lbs, S3 OOai 25; 
Inferior— Light and thin cows and steers, 2 50,'2 75. 

The extreme range of prices was 4 lOal CO, with the 
bulk of the sales at $1 20a4 40 for fair to good fat smooth 
even lots. As showing that a shade better prices prevailed 
at the close than at the opening of the marker, may be 
mentioned th^ sale eflected late in the afternoon, of 29 car 
load3,at84:V".-i4C0. 

Sheep— Without being quotably lower, prices for this 
class of stock w.-re weakt-r- There was only a moderate 
demand either on local account or for shipment, and, in 
view of thfi li^e^:^l Eiirp'y. ^'■''^er^ seemed willing to con- 
cede a little when by so doiii^ the V- could effect a sale, as 
the close of the week is near at hand, and none are desirous 



I 



JfO 



TEE LAJ^CASTER FARMER. 



of " holding over." Good to choice were salable at 8' 50a 
6 75, and medium grades at $1 65a5 25. Common thin lota 
were neglected at 3-la4 5'J. A good many remain in the 
pens unsold. 

PHILADELPHIA MARKETS. 



MoHDAT, January 29, 5 p. m. 

JTLOUR.— The market is dull and weak. The inquiry is 
confined to the wants of the home consumers, and their 
wants are limited. A few hundred barrels were disposed 
of, including superfine at S5 25a5 75 per barrel ; extras at 
$5 87^^86 50; Wisconsin and Minnesota extra family at 
^7 25a8 25 ; Pennsylvania do. do. at $7a7 50 ; Indiana and 
Ohio do. do. at $8 50alO. Nothing doijg in Rye Flour or 
Corn Meal. 

Grain. — The Wheat market is very dull, and prices 
hardly maintained. Small sales of Pennsylvania and West- 
ern red at SI 53 a 1 68, and white at $1 70 a 1 75. Eye 
commands 92c. There is no change in Corn. Sales of GOOO 
bushels new yellow at 66 a 67140., and Western mixed at 08 
a 70 cts. Oats are steady wiifi sales of white at 55 a 56c., 
and mixed at 5 c. The receipts to-day are as follows : 1052 
bbls flour; 1701 bush wheat; 11,155 bush corn; 5700 bush 
oats ; 529 bbls whisky. 

Provisions continue quiet, and prices are unsettled. 
Sales of M ss Pork at 14 50 per bbl for o'd and new. City 
packed extra Mess Beef is taken at $15 a 15 50 per bbl. 
Bacon is steady ; sales of plain sugar-cured city smoked 
Hams at 12 a 10c; canvassed Western at 13c, sides at 8c, 
and shoulders at 7c. Green Meats are unchaiged ; sales of 

Eickiaa Hamsrt 9'^ a 9'/^c, and shoulders in salt at 5j/^c. 
ard is quiet ; sales at 9 j^ a 9J/<c per pound. 



PHILADELPHIA CATTLE MARKET 



Monday, January 29, 5 p. M. 

The <^attle Market was dull this week and prices favor- 
ed buyers ; about 2000 head arrived and sold at 7 j^a7 ^40. 
for extra Pennsylvania and Western steer*, 8>^c for a lew 
choice, 6a6)^c. for fair to good do., and 4a5>^c. ■t?' lb 
gross, for common as to quality. 

Cows were without change; 200 head sold at S:i5a65^ 
head. 

Shbbp were in demand ; 15,000 bead sold at 5>^a8c, ^ 
Ib^ross, as to condition. 

Hogs were in better demand ; 4 000 sold at S6 2,5a7 ^ 100 
Jbs. net. 



FATTENING POULTRY. 

Corn is in this country the obviously iiroper 
feed for fattening fowls. It makes flesh of 
fair quality. Oatmeal gives a better flavor 
but less fat. Corn should predominate, and 
be fed for the most part ground, because more 
can be digested than when it must all be reduced 
by a slow process in the gizzard. The latter is a 
perfect mill, but if employed too much for 
muscular exertion of working it takes some- 
thing from the rate of fattening. The corn 
meal should, for a few days, be thoroughly 
cooked, but the mess will soon pall upon the 
appetite, and then the meal may be merely 
scalded and fiaally fed raw, since fowls like 
this best, and they should be induced to eat as 
much as possible. To tempt with variety, 
give an occasional feed of buckwheat, corn, 
and wheat whole, and oats, which last should 
be ground and screened, so as to remove all 
the larger fragments of the hulls. Boiled po- 
tatoes and fresh cooked meal &L . aid be al- 



lowed sparingly, and every other day a little 
cayenne and salt must be added to the dough. 
Feed adult poultry, for fattening, three times 
a day, and chickens four. It is especially ne- 
cessary, when the days are short, to give the 
first food at the appearance of light, and the 
last as late as possible. After they have 
eaten to satiety, always remove what is left. 
Feed at stated hours, and keep the feediog 
trough clean and sweet. It is best to confine 
grown fowls in rather small coops, as exercise 
prevents fattening. If, however, individuals 
unacijuainted with each other are put together, 
there is no gain in close quarters, for they be- 
come uneasy ; and also half-grown chickens 
ought not to be shut up, but rather induced 
to eat so much that they will roam as little as 
possible, for if taken from the accustomed 
run they are apt to worry constantly. Shut 
Qut light from the coop, excepting at feeding 
time, to promote quietness. There should be 
no perches. Cover the floor with dried earth, 
often renewed. 



SELECTED RECIPES, ETC. 

Pumpkin PRESERVES.—Mahala Eaton ,Rcck 
Island, 111., writes : " Cut a nice ripe pump- 
kin into pieces a third of an inch thick, par- 
ing them. Take equal weight in white sugar. 
Allow the juice of one lemon to a pound of 
pumpkin. Let the pumpkin remain in a pan 
with the sugar and juice all night. In the 
morning put into a preserving kettle, cooking 
till perfectly clear. Be sure to skim well. 
Then add lemon peol cut in pieces small as 
marbles. Take out and strain the syrup 
through a jelly-bag and pour over the pump- 
kin. — Western Rural. 



Evergreens are planted more extensively 
every year, now that their value is apprecia - 
ted, and this a good time in which to decide 
where they can be used most advantageously 
to give a pleasing effect. Too many ever- 
greens near a house are in bad taste, as they 
give it too sombre an aspect. There should 
be a proper admixture of diciduous trees. 



Manure may be carted upon the orchard 
during the winter ; or it may be carted to 
some convenient place, and the coarrer por- 
tions allowed to rot. 



DEVOTED TO 
Agriculture, Horticulture, Dornestic Economy and Miscellany , 

EDITED BY S. S. RATHVOX AND ALEXANDER HARRIS. 



** The Farmer is the founder of civilization." — WEBSTER. 



Vol. IV. 



MARCH, 1872. 



JVo. S. 



AGRIGULURAL. 

CHAECOAL AND PIGS. 

HOGS that are much confined, and cannot get 
to earth, will frequently be benefited by hav- 
ing a Uttle charcoal, soft brick bats, or rotten wood 
thrown into them; and a trifling quantity of brim- 
Btone occasionally, mixed in their food, is an ex- 
cellent thing. 

We are not much of a pig fancier, have no 
special partiality for pigs in any shape, never- 
theless, some years ago, we had a limited ex- 
perience in raising pigs, confined in a pen. 
The above brief escerpt, which we clipped 
from the columns of a cotemporary, recalls to 
our memory an instance of strong corrobora- 
tive testimony in our experience. In the month 
of April, 1839, we purcha^^ed a six-weeks' old 
pig, and paid two dollars for it. It was the 
poorest, smallest and " scrawneyest" among 
a lot of six, but ours was the last choice, and 
we were bound to have a pig in any event. 
At first it remained in statu quo, until a friend 
advised us to give it charcoal. Our swill bar- 
rel was kept under a shed which sheltered the 
oven, and on every " bake-day" a shovelful 
of charcoal from the oven was thrown into 
the swill. This kept the swill in " color" 
nearly all the time, and the pig began to 
thrive on it. Until the first of October that 
pig got nothing but the slops from the kitchen 
of a small family and the garbage from a 
small garden, but still it waxed in stature, in 
flesh, and in the general beauties usually 
claimed for a thrifty pig. 

From about the middle of October to the 
20th of December, in addition to the char- 
coaled slops, the pig goitTiree bushels of yellow 
corn fed in grains ; sometimes boiled, but oft- 



ener hard and dry. Lumps of coal as large as 
walnuts would go into the trough along with 
the swill for several feedings after bake-day, 
but before the return of the next these would 
all be consumed at his pig^hip's leisure. A 
few days before Christmas of the above named 
year, the pig was slaughtered, and when 
dressed weighed three hundred and thirty odd 
pounds, which was considered a good porker 
in those days for a chance pig, entirely with- 
out pedigree. The highest weight attained 
by the most choice pig of that litter was only 
about two hundreds and fifty pounds, after 
feedinsr to them double the quantity of corn 
that we did. 

Now we are not, by any means, going to 
recommend charcoal as a specific in all cases 
of " scrawny pigs," but merely to record a 
fact, in corroboration of the theory that char- 
coal, in the absence of anything better, is 
beneficial to the thrift of pigs. Our pig-stye 
had a plank floor, and, therefore, our pig never 
got his nose into any other dirt than his own 
droppings, except that which might have ad- 
hered to the roots of the weeds thrown in to 
him. 

Many years ago a story went the rounds of 
the newspapers to the eft'ect that a pig bad 
somehow got lost, in the hold of a sailing ves- 
sel, in which it could not possibly have Iiad 
access to anything but charcoal, and perhaps 
water. After an incarceration of eight or ten 
weeks, piggy was found in blooming health 
and as " fat as butter," although its character, 
externaVy, was somewhat " blackened " by its 
contact with the coal. 

" Charcoal " — according to Brande — " ex- 
clusive of its important uses as a fuel, is pos- 
sessed of some curious and valuable proper- 



Jf 



^ 



THE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



ties. It is an indifferent conductor of heat, 
and hence powdered charcoal is used to sur- 
round tubes and vessels which are required to 
retain their heat. It is not injured by air and 
moisture ; hence stakes and piles are super- 
ficially charred to preserve them. It is infus- 
ible, and provided air be carefully excluded, it 
undergoes no change in most intense heats. 
It absorbs air and moisture, and also the color- 
ing and odoriferous parts of many animal and 
vegetable substances. Tainted flesh and pu- 
trid water are thus sweetened by the action 
of powdered charcoal. Colored vegetable so- 
lutions, filtered through well burned charcoal, 
are materially discolored by it." 

When charcoal is burned in oxygen or air, 
it is converted into carbonic acid. 

As a common human remedy, pulverized 
charcoal is often used in cases of indigestion, 
flatulency, heart-burn, and "waterbrash;" 
the last of which is a kind of fermentation or 
souring of the contents of the stomach. Now, 
whatever beneficial effect charcoal might have 
on the diseased stomach of a man, it probably 
would have the sameeflect on that of a pig. 
(There is a class of "rough" phybiologisls, 
which contends that the " innerds " of a man 
and a pig are alike.) Be that as it may, if 
charcoal purifies the contents of the stomach, 
and thus promotes digestion, more of the nu- 
tritious properties of the food it contained 
will be appropriated and converted into blood, 
muscle, tissues and fat, in a healthy and vig- 
orous exercise of the digestive functions, thau 
when they are diseased and feeble. 

Carbonic acid gas, when inhaled into the 
lungs, is known to be fatal to human and ani- 
mal life ; but when, in the form of charcoal, 
it is taken into the stomach it may furnish a 
vital j^re, and differ in its effects, just as the 
poison of the rattlesnake differs when infused 
into the blood, or is taken into the stomach. 

We have, very probably, much yet to learn 
in reference to the effects of various substan- 
ces upon the physical economy of the animal 
world, and of the modus operandi we proba- 
bly will never be informed. Even physicians 
of toe longest experience and of the greatest 
eminence sometimes confess, that in relation 
to internal causes, they are more or less grop- 
ing in the dark, because the external manifes- 
tations or symptoms often betray them. 

In conclusion we may add that an excess- 
ively fat and unwieldy condition cannot ab- 
stractlj be regarded as the normal, state of any 



animal. That itself, is an abnormal condition, 
produced by artificial means — by the diver- 
sions and concentrations of the functions in 
such a channel as will develop the greatest 
mass of matter at the expense of strength, 
vitality, and activity. Fat pigs, or fat kine, 
cannot pass the ordeal that lean ones can. It 
is a pecuniary interest in their carcass alone 
that saves them. R. 



CONNECTICUT TOBACCO. 

BY LEVI S. KEIST. 

THE Hartford (Conn.) Post lately con- 
tained an article on Connecticut tobac- 
co, which was extensively copied into our 
Pennsylvania papers as being of interest to 
tobacco growers. Last year's tobacco crop 
in the Connecticut valley was a most remark- 
able one, and the growers have discovered 
that the stable manure is the best fertilizer 
that they can use. The consequence is that, 
instead of being sold for fifty cents a load, 
stable manure now commands ten and twelve 
dollars per cord. 

The prices obtained for Connecticut tobac- 
co are enormous. One purchaser sold three 
cases of East Hartford leaf at 55 cents per lb. 
Three acres of Newington were bought for 
37 c. per lb. ; another purchase is given of East 
Hartford variety, at from 60 to 69c. per lb. 
One grower sold the product of seven acres 
and a half for over $12,000. Hartford county 
alone raised $4,000,000 worth in 1871. 

The only points specially interesting to 
Lancaster county tobacco growers are the 
prices realized for tobacco raised in the Con- 
necticut valley, and that stable manure has 
been discovered to be the best fertilizer in the 
growth of this crop. This discovery of the 
Eastern people touching stable manure is no- 
thing new to the people of Lancaster county, 
for our farmers have never had strong faith in 
any other kind of fertilizers. Our Pennsyl- 
vania journalists are mistaken if they suppose 
this is a discovery for our farmers ; it is sim- 
ply a confirmation of their long retained 
opinions. 

Tobacco growing scarcely exists outside of 

the valley of the Connecticut river, and their 

resources for stable manure are alone to be 

j found in the city of Hartford and outside of the 

State. W ith us in Lancaster county the case 



THE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



4S 



is different. We grow wheat, bay and corn, 
the very things out of which abundance of 
stable manure i? manufactured, and thus we 
shall be enabled to keep up the strength of 
our soils from our own stables. "We can thus 
raise tobacco m great quantities without ihe 
impoverishment of our soils. 

On sandy soil, as is found in Drumore and 
Little Britain townships, of this county, my 
opinion is that with heavy manuring as fine 
tobacco might be grown as in the Connecticut 
Valley. 

With its excellent facilities, Lancaster 
county must rise in scale of tobacco culture 
and become, it is probable, as favored as Con- 
necticut. Oar growers, it seems to us, need 
not apprehend a great fall in price, as dis- 
tricts well adapted to its growth are not so 
numerous as might be supposed. 



Another matter to be borne in mind is that 
the excrement of cattle is valuable in accor- 
dance with the feed that the cattle have con- 
sumed. 



MAIN'URES. 



BY PETER G. REIST. 



THE subject touched by Judge Watts,Com- 
missioner of Agriculture, and discussed 
before our agricultural society, has been, per- 
haps, satisfactorily handled in the estimation 
of some, but a word yet may not be out of 
place to the uninstructed, who are, by no 
means, of small number. Dang, manure and 
compost are terms of somewhat synonymous 
import, each, however, signifying something 
different from the other. The first signifies 
the excrement of cattle, the second the same 
with straw and the other ingredients inter- 
mingled, and the last implies a collection of 
decomposed matter of any vegetable matter 
whatever. The first in itself evidently has 
the greatest strength, the second next to it, 
and compost is necessarily of still less value. 
If farmers desire afertilizer of strength and 
permanent value they must obtain it in the 
excrement of their catUe and horses, for the 
addition of straw to it adds less strength than 
is generally imagined. Kot that I desire to 
be understood as advancing the opinion that 
straw is of no value and to be neglected, for 
its use is considerable ; but if we want ma- 
nure of real value it must be sought ia animal 
excrement. Compost is also of some value 
and should be attended to wherever practi- 
cable, as all aids in the building up of our 
soils to a higher grade of fertility, and that is 
the great requisite of the farmer. 



" A GOOD CHEAP." [A bon march^ 

THERE may be many words in foreign tongues, 
misapplied for aujjht we know, but" we 
know of none, in onr ow n native English so much 
abused as c/teap. llo^v often may we hear peo- 
ple say, a tiling; is not good, but it is cheap — 
meaning that it is ofl'ered ber.eathits value ; but caa 
anything which is not good be cheap, in the proper 
sense of the word. It would hardly do to say that 
sugar which had been sanded was cheap, though 
sold beneath the price of a good article ; that shoes 
were cheap which had the s-oles pasted (as has hap- 
pened), instead of being sewn, or pegged — so it 
would be manifestly an abuse of words to say that 
dead or impure seeds were cheap, at a penny a pa- 
per; and yet vast quantities of just such seeds are 
liawked about the country, deposited at village 
stores, with the hope people may be found willing 
to purchase them, at some price. We make no 
charges, but it is a proverbal saying, that boxes of 
such seeds are transferred fi'om store to store doing 
duty, at eacli one season ordy, and thus forever 
fresh — at least where last deposited on commission. 
One might think it were poor compensation at the 
end of a seas m to reflect that, though the garden 
was a failui-e the seed cost but little — surely it 
could not be said they were ckecq:) — that the absence 
of abundant vegetables, which might have been en- 
joyed if good seed (even at greater cost had been 
procured), was compensated in degree by the trifle 
saved in seeds ! 

We may, perhaps, occasionally amuse ourselves 
in some respects with "-Cheap Johns" — but it will 
be safe to steer clear of them in garden seeds. 

We doubt, exceedingly, whether aiiy article, 
obtained '' too cheap to be good," is any safer 
investment of money, than " to throw it 
away " in spurious garden seeds. There is 
perhaps no subject upon which the mass of 
mind is so singularly obtuse, as upon that of 
cheapness. Many people seem to think that 
when an article is sold at a comparatively low 
price, it must necessarily be cTieap. This is a 
mistake. The best is always the cheapest, to 
those who can afford to buy the best. Some 
people are in the habit of surrounding them- 
selves with quantities of tawdry and useless 
" trash," only because they have obtained it 
at prices which they have mistakenly regard- 
ed as cheap. Our farmers, however — at least 
the more intelligent among them — are begin- 
ning to dissipate this phantom, and take a 
wiser and more economical course. When 
people are so poor that they are compelled 
to buy the lowest priced article, of course, 
nothing else can be expected. Still, the arti- 
cle may be dear euoui!;h to thera in the end ; 
and the great pity is that this class of people 
become so much the subjects of imposition, 
often voluntarily so, and when they have the 
means to avoid it, or modify it. * 



u 



TEE LAJ^CASTER FARMER, 




KITTATINNY BLACKBEBBY. 



THE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



45 



HORTICULTURE. 

KITTATINNY BLACKBERRY. 

Grown by John G. Kreider, Nurseryman and Fruit 
Grower, near Lancaster, Pennsylvania. 

'nr^HIS resembles the Lawton, but lar- 
i ger, earlier and more productive, 
and remains a loncj time in bearins; ; berries 
are firm, sweet and of excellent flavor, and 
are perfectly ripe as soon as they turn black ; 
is a vigorous grower and hardy ; it has with- 
stood the winter when all other varieties with 
me were winter-killed." 

These are all most excellent qualities in 
this berry ; and so far as its edible character is 
concerned, we take pleasure in being ready 
to stand as one of its indorsers. It is really 
gratifying to witness the efforts made by fruit- 
growers to produce improved varieties of the 
long neglected hlackherry—i\xQ berry of our 
youth, and except the dewberry^ almost the 
only berry with which our boyhood had any 
intimate acquaintance. Tastes may differ, 
but the Kittatinny is amongst the best " Kit- 
tys" we know of, according to our humble 
opinion. — Ed. 



ENTOMOLOGY. 



THE CURCULIO, AGAIN. 

REGENTLY a jparagraph has been " going the 
rounds of tbe papers" to the eftect that air 
concussion was an exterminator of the curculio. 
This discovery is claimed by Col. L. A. Hardee, of 
Florida, who lately addressed a meeting at .Taclcson- 
ville explanatory of his theory, in which hf^ re- 
marked : 

" I claim to have utilized concussion ia the per- 
fect annihilation of the horticultural pest known as 
curculio. I was led to believe that tiie noise of 
the whistle, or jarring, was the cause of their disap- 
pearance from the vicinity of the railroad. To satisfy 
myself, I placed two pounds of powder in the liollow 
of alive-oak stump, immediately iu the vicinity of 
where they promised the entire destruction of some 
plums, loaches, etc. Tliis powder was fired off one 
calm night, and it not only destroyed every curculio, 
but every M'inged insect in my entire orchard." 

We have been in correspondence with (Jol. Hardee 
since the meeting at Jacksonville, and find him con- 
firmed in Ills opinion as therein expressed. He 
says : "it has been proven that concussion will de- 
stroy the cotton caterpillar." If so, who can esti- 
mate the value of the discovery. But we have 
learned to doubt — the hard lessons of life incline us 
to ask for proof. 

Forty-five years ago the writer of this article was 
corresponding secretary to the Pennsylvania Hor- 
ticultural kSociety (the fruitful mother of all Hort- 
cuUural Societies within the Union), and he recol- 
ects quite distinctly the results of a large premium, 
perhaps a thousand dollars, which the society 



offered for a preventive to blight in pear trees. It 
was his duty to receive and report upon the respon- 
ses, which flowed in in an unbroken current — each 
claimant for the prize fully self-assured he had pro- 
posed a sure, unfailing, unquestionable remedy. 
But, alas for their pretensions, the prize was never 
gained, and the pear blight still holds its undisputed 
sway. 

We have " scissored" the above from 
" Landreth's Rural Register and Almanac, 
for 1872," not so much for v/hat it is worth 
as for what it possibly 7nay be worth, to our 
curculio-ridden readers and subscribers, who, 
in semi-despair, are anxiously looking for 
some easy remedy to get rid of this enemy of 
the plum and peach crops. Let them try it 
in any event. The case is such an aggravat- 
ing one that it would justify almost any ef- 
fort to forestall the curculio. A series of pa- 
triotic anniversaries celebrated in our orch- 
ards, accompanied by copious explosions of 
"villainous saltpetre," might thus be utilized 
in behalf of " suffering humanity." Suppose 
they are deceived in the remedy ? According 
to the above extract they will have the con- 
solation of knowing that a " live colonel" 
was deceived before them. Town gunners 
might be tolerated on the farmer's premises, 
provided, they kept up whilst there an inces- 
sant firing ; for if they found no other game 
they would be of some use in frightening off the 
the curculio. But what would become of 
them y Where would they go to ? That is 
another question. X. 



DEATH TO GRASSHOPPERS. 

A NOVELTY iu machinery is reported from 
Salt Lake City, wliere a machine has been in- 
vented to kill grasshoppers. The cost of the ma- 
chine is $75, and it should at once be imported in 
large numbers into those countries where locusts 
abound, as it might make a sensible difference in 
their ravages. The machine, which is drawn by 
two horses, consists of a large iron apron, which 
picks up the insects as it is drawn forward. Be- 
hind the apron is a pair of rollers, driven by the 
cai'rying-wheels, and whatever finds its way into the 
froiit of the machine is obliged to pass between 
these rollers — a passage fatal to grasshoppers. The 
amount of execution done against tlie enemy is, 
theiefore, proportioned to the strength of the horses. 
IIow far these machines may be cipable of dealing 
with a really fine swarm of locusts remains to be 
seen, but four or five of them working steadily 
backward and forward all day might, perhaps, do 
something to defeat the advancing hosts. — National 
Oil Joitrnal. 

If a machine has been invented, able to 

successfully " pick up" grasshoppers " as it Is 

drawn forward," it must be " quicker on the 



46 



TEE LAJ\rCASTER FARMER. 



trigger" than we have been even in our best 
days. In passing through fields infested with 
with saltitorial insects, we never could see 
any of them just on the spot where we stood, 
but any number some distance in advance of 
us, and they also kept that distance between 
us. Still, they ought to know all about grass- 
hoppers in the Salt Lake region, and, there- 
fore, we shall wait patiently, and see what 
comes of this " machinery." R. 



BOTANY 



BOTANY. 



BY JACOB STATJFFEE. 



Continued From Page 28. 

UPON the birth of a plant one or two 
leaves are developed, directly from the 
seed, called the seminal leaves, which are fed 
by the albuminous deposit through an 
umbilicus, in other words ; the seed feeds 
the infant plant until it is strong enough to 
develop one or two more. These last not 
only, like the first, proceed without exception 
from opposite sides of the stem or body, but 
are so placed as to alternate with the first. 
This goes on with unvarying uniformity as 
long as growth continues ; so that, view a 
plant in whatever way we will, whether in its 
earliest state, or at the most advanced period 
of its existence, it will always be seen to ex- 
hibit the same beautiful symmetry as the most 
highly developed animal. 

A counterpoise is observed on the respect- 
ive sides; in order to protect the young and 
tender buds against cold, the leaves surround- 
ing the buds suddenly contract into hard 
scales, perhaps exude some resinous or gummy 
matter, or clothe themselves in a deep cover- 
ing of wool, and an impenetrable living shield 
is thus interposed between the bud and dan- 
ger. 

To develop the flower so beautiful to the 
eye, its leaves again contract ; the interposed 
space obliterated, new colors are assumed, 
and petals are created with all their varied 
and brilliant hues, or exhaling the most fra- 
grant perfumes. To propagate its kind, the 
petals contract into stamens ; their central 
substance becomes changed into pollen folded 
within the anthers, resolved into living mat- 
ter, which, in conjuuction with other leaves, 
is rolled together in the form of a pistle (the 



apex of the midrib being denuded, and young 
buds developed at the margins). A. grain of 
pollen falls upon the denuded apex of the 
fructifying leaf, absorbs moisture from it, dis- 
tends, and finally produces a tube of incon- 
ceivable fineness, which abstracts from the 
pollen its impregnating matter, some of which 
descends the midrib into the matrix of the 
leaf, and thence, entering the young buds or 
ova that are developed at its margins, is finally 
hatched, and appears at last in the form of a 
perfect seed or embryo plant. Such is the 
simple teaching of modern microscopic inves- 
tigation observable in the most perfectly 
formed, the most elaborately constructed 
plants. In the lower formation of plants the 
propagation is still more simple. A vesicle 
elongates and distends until it becomes a 
tube ; from the end of this tubo more vesicle s 
are generated, which themselves give birth to 
others, and thus a simple branching plant is 
formed. As a general rule a green matter is 
deposited inside of each tube, and in due time 
it is emitted in the form of little green vesi- 
cles, like that from which the plant originally 
sprang, and themselves capable of develop- 
ing as new plants. 

In certain tubes this dissolution takes place 
in a much more astonishing manner, not into 
inert green matter, but moving particles, hav- 
ing all thft properties of spontaneous motion 
and animal existence. Soon, however, the 
moving particles elongate ; thus losing their 
power of motion and becoming plants to 
whose laws of life they ever after submit. 

Botany, to many mind, appears to be a dry 
and barren subject. The hard names, derived 
from the classic Greek and Latin, are objected 
to, but when duly considered that these names 
are significant to scholars of various nation- 
alities and languages, it is found much better 
to learn the universal name of a thing than 
the mere vernacular or local, as the same 
thing is known by a variety of local names, 
unintelligible to those of another locality. 
How can we write about a thing so as to be 
understood the world over in the use of names 
confined to a certain limited section? Hence 
it is better to acquire a knowledge of the 
proper names known to science, if somewhat 
difiicultat first. But not to seem pedantic, I 
sha'l endeavor to use such terms as will con- 
vey a correct idea. No man can know all 
things relating to such a science as this — 



THE L A J^ CASTER FARMER. 



47 



hence, we need a means of forming clear 
knowledge by a proper classification of the 
vegetable kingdom. This is not so very diffi 
cult, if attention is paid to the doctrines of af- 
finities. 

Every one must have seen that some species 
of plants are more like each other than they 
are like difierent species. Every farmer 
knows that a radish is more like a turnip 
than it is like a cucumber; that a pea is more 
like a beau than an apple, and so on. The 
affinities of plants are more or less indicated, 
however variable in some particulars. Classi- 
fication is founded upon a consideration of 
general resemblances and differences; and 
by carefully examining the characteris- 
tic organs of plants, those species may be 
classed most nearly together which have the 
greatest degree of resemblance and the most 
perfect constitutional agreement. 

Thus the knowledge of one species is the 
key to many or other species of the same 
group. For example, in the Cruciferce , con- 
sisting of perhaps 1,600 species, the study of 
the common radish or mustard, or the cress, 
will give the student a very accurate general 
knowledge of the remaining number, because 
they are all close modifications of the same 
forms. This order is so named because the 
flowers of four petals are in the form of a 
Maltese cross ; their fruit consists in a short or 
long pod, either siligusae or siliculosce. They all 
possess a more or less degree of pungency and 
antiscorbutic and stimulant properties — such 
as the mustard, horseradish, cress-radish, etc. 
This order is allied to C'apjsmrfaccee (the caper 
family), but differ in their tetradynamous 
stamens (4 long and two short) ; and also to 
the Papaveracecc (poppy family) and Fuintri- 
arte, from which they are readily distinguished 
by the seed. Thus there are certain affinities 
by which orders approximate to each other, 
and yet differ collectivelj' in the genera com- 
posing each order, as species differ in the same 
genus. So with Solanacece, which contains the 
common potato and night shade ; or the Labi- 
ate embracing 2,000 species of the mint tribe. 
Thus we gam great assistance from a knowl- 
edge of one plant by which to know others of 



its kind. 



(, To be continued.) 



Don't waste the soap suds, but apply it to 
garden, vines, bushes, evergreens, or lawn. It 
is too valuable to be turned out at the back 
door. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

ELECTRICITY VERSUS WHEAT 
GROWING. 

MESSRS. EDITORS : On looking over 
the January number of the Lan- 
caster Farmer, I find that our name- 
less friend, from the drift of his article, " ex- 
pects that I should 'ventilate' his 'thunder- 
gust theory' in regard to the fertilizing ef- 
fects of electricity on the wheat crops of 1871. 

" Says : ' until oiir friend will show that it 
was something done by the farmers, that 
brought about this happy result,' [a good 
crop of wheat], 'I must continue to believe 
that it was nature's laws operating with 
nature's great laboratory, the earth, that 
supplied the deficiency that wrought the 
change,' [just so!] 'and that electricity 
might have done its share of the work.' Ho 
thinks ' I will admit, that there is such a 
thing as atmospheric fertilizers (?) or at- 
" mospheric influence on all plants.' " 

As to atmospheric fertilizers, I plead igno- 
rance, but as to atmospheric influences there 
can be no diversity of opinion — sometimess fa- 
vorable sometimes the reverse. He, himself, 
admits the destructive influence of electricity 
from the number of buildings that were struck 
and consumed by the fluid last year, but fails 
to give any proof of its fertilizing effects. 
True, we have abundance of proof of its de- 
structive influence. Atmospheric i-^flueuce we 
experience every season, indeed all the time. 
A few years since we had a fair promise of a 
fine crop of wheat to within a week of its ripen- 
ing, then a hot spell so scorched and dried 
the straw that the wheat kernels failed to 
fill up. Sometimes we have a hot and moist 
spell just as the grain is being perfected ; 
then this atmospheric influence is favorable 
to the spores of mildew and rust, again in- 
juring the crop. Light, heat, moisture and 
aridity, all eflect growing crops for good or 
ill. 

If electricity has the fertilizing quality at- 
tributed to it by our nameless friend, surely 
we are open to conviction, but we would like 
very much to have some better proof of its 
efficiency than the mere saj^-so of a writer 
who even fears to give his name to the public. 

I certainly do not intend " to show that it 
was something done by the farmers all over 



Jf8 



THE LAJYCASTER FARMER. 



the county simultaneously that produced an 
extra crop of wheat. ' Man may sow, but God 
giveth the increase !' " 

Without atmospheric influencesthere would 
be no vegetation. May not planetary and 
steller influences also have some effect on 
growing crops ? 

After preparing the soil, by manuring and 
cultivating, and sowing the seed, we are at 
the mercy of the elements. Atmospheric in- 
fluence may give us thirty or forty bushels of 
wheat per acre, or it may give us less than 
the seed. 

In my article I only noticed the thander- 
strrms for April, May and June, for the last 
ten years, supposing those after harvest of 
course could have no fertilizing effect on the 
wheat that was harvested. But he says : " Had 
I given the record for the whole season it 
might have changed the table somewhat." 
That's so ! I could easily have done so ; but if 
he believes that electricity after harvest will 
have any salutary effect in perfecting the 
grain, I can yet accommodate my nameless 
friend by giving the record of all the thunder- 
gusts for ten or thirty years ! 'Tis true, nearly 
all the heavy thunder-gusts came after har- 
vest—destroying buildings, etc. Does he sup- 
pose that electricity can eflect beneficially 
wheat in the barn ? If it has the fertilizing 
quality that our friend thinks it might have, 
then the thunder-gusts after June, 1871, will 
only be appreciated the present season of 
1872. May we not, therefore, hope for a crop 
of thirty or forty bushels per acre the present 
season ? 

Says: "He does not care so much for a 
name, as for the game." Be it so. There is 
an old saying, " What's in a name ? a rose by 
any other name would smell as sweet !" — yet 
were arose without a name, we might mistake 
a bkiink cabbage for it, and that certainly 
would Hoi smell as siveet ! So you may per- 

cieve friend ! if you wish to secure the 

game, you had better also have a name ; oth- 
erwise some interloper may rob you of your 
xdiQaX fertilizing electrical laurels. 

In my former article I made the compari- 
son of the Indian's gun — " costing more 
than it comes to" — with artificial manures; 
not that such fertilizers are entirely worthless, 
but their cost exceeds the profits, or that we 
receive a benefit by using them on our land in 



proportion to the cost. They cost more than 
they are worth. Is'nt that so ? 

J. B. Garber. 

Columbia, Pa., Feb. 12, 1872. 



THE PERSIMMON. 



ESSRS. EDITORS : I think this fruit 
is not appreciated as it deserves. 
Would it not be advisable to grow more of it ? 
The trees are free from the depredations of 
insects, so destructive to all our other fruits. 
Keither heat nor cold seems to injure the 
trees. There are many varieties (as with the 
apple and pear) all over the country. Some 
ripen early before frost, others require freez- 
ing to bring them to perfection. Some are 
small, others larger ; and again, there are some 
that are very full of seeds, while other varie- 
ties are seedless. There is not a more deli- 
cious fruit grown than the persimmon, when 
in perfect condition ; and, if dried, they are 
a very grateful addition to the stock of delica- 
cies during the winter. The trees mostly 
grow naturally in damp, though not wet, situa- 
tions, where no other fruit trees will live; 
though, in many localities, they grow and 
bear profusely in soil composed almost en- 
tirely of sand. 

In the lower part of Maryland, along near 
tide-water, where there is simply a poor, 
sandy soil, these trees grow and flourish in 
abundance. There, too, some trees produce 
very large fruit. I have seen some that meas- 
ured seven and a half inches in circumference. 
Whether these large varieties will continue 
to produce such large fruit, when grown on 
our limestone or slate soil, is yet to be tried ; 
though apparently they are a different va- 
riety from those growing in our section, as 
the seeds are shorter, wider and lighter col- 
ored. The trees may be grafted, and are almost 
as sure to grow as the apple or pear. By rais- 
ing seedlings of our common kinds, or where 
young trees or even sprouts can be obtained 
by grafting the large or better varieties on 
them, great improvement will result. I now 
have a tree that was grafted on the top some 
three years since, with some thirty grafts, of 
a seedless variety. Some twenty-five of the 
grafts grew, and the tree has now a perfect 
top — bearing some two dozen of fruit last sea- 
son. Though it is called a seedless variety, 
it is not entirely free from seeds, as the largest 
specimens generally have from two to four 



TEE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



49 



seeds, but many of the smaller fruits are free 
from seeds, and a most luscious mouthful ! 

However, we may hope soon to grow the 
mammoth varieties from Japan. A nursery 
man in Kentucky informs me that last fall he 
had the good fortune to secure six of these 
Japan varieties. He will, of course, increase 
them as fast as possible, so as to offer them 
to the public. 

From the descriptions that I have seen of 
these large persimmons, I doubt not but they 
will prove a great acquisition to our list of 
fruits. 

Several persons who have seen them in 
Japan, and given us descriptions, say they 
are as large as a good sized apple, some as 
large as a "coffee cup;" some are round, 
others pear shaped, egg shaped, &c. ; some 
ripen early, and others keep till February. 
They are eaten with a spoon ! 

Some years since, when Mr. Hogg was Con- 
sul to Japan, he wrote home to his brother in 
York State that the persimmons in Japan 
were the only fruit that he had met with that 
were really worthy of being introduced into 
America. It now appears that Mr. Hogg 
brought some trees home with hiai, and that 
last season, for the first time, one of his trees 
produced fruit. He Jnvited some of his friends 
to come and taste this new fruit. Mr, P. 
Berry, of Rochester, N. Y,, and ottiers, avail- 
ed themselves of the privilege, examined, 
tested and tasted the fruit, and they say it 
•was very sweet and most delicious. The 
trees begin to bear while yet quite small, and 
appear to be as hardy as our native varieties. 

Evidently this fruit is worth looking after. 
J. B. Gakber. 

Columbia, Fa., Feb. 14, 1872. 



For fbe Lancaster Farmer. 

WHAT SHALL FARMER BOYS STUDY? 

We know full well, from personal experi- 
ence, what difficulties beset the pathway of 
the farmer boy, what obstacles he must over- 
come in his upward march of intellectual ad- 
vancement. We know, too, that many lose 
both their mental energy and their ambition 
for intellectual triumphs long before they 
have reached the goal of that ambition. 

It is the case with many of this class of boys : 
after their school-days in the old school-house 
are over they consider their education com- 



pleted. They think the only thing now left 
for them to do is to look around for a wife, 
and after they get one to settle down to their 
business and work along in the same 61^ 
beaten path that their fathers trod before 
them. 

They not only cease to make any new men- 
tal acquisitions, but forget a great deal of 
what they had acquired at school. Subjects 
in which they once took a lively interest 
cease to arouse their feelings, and the great 
questions which agitate the nation and the 
age are treated by them with cold indiffer- 
ence. 

This is certainly wrong, and the result is 
the mental deterioration of that large, and by 
nature the better class, of our citizens, the 
sturdy yeomanry of the land, from whose 
ranks spring our great men — the men who 
wield the power in the learned professions 
and in the Senate halls of the nation. 

What we said above about farmer boys ap- 
plies, perhaps, with greater force to other 
boys and young men everywhere. 

How can this mental retrogression be ar- 
rested? Only by continued mental labor. 
The mind like the body is developed by exer- 
cise — the mental faculties are kept bright 
only by constant use. The farmer boy can 
find many objects worthy his attention and 
study all around him, by which he can keep 
his mind employed all his working hours. 
The sky above him ; the earth below him ; 
the little plant at his feet; the rocks and 
pebbles by the wayside ; all are interesting 
subjects for thought, and a knowledge of 
which is of incalculable benefit to the farmer 
in the successful prosecution of his business. 

A knowledge of farming consists of a 
knowledge of the soil and its properties ; of 
manures and how to apply them ; of plants 
and seed and the fitness of certain varieties 
for different kinds of soil ; of the many useful 
and labor-saving implements ; and lastly, but 
not of the least importance, a knowledge of 
the infinite variety of animals (including in- 
sects, useful and iujurious,) used and found 
upon the farm. 

Chemistry, botany, natural philosophy and 
zoology are the sciences which treat of these 
subjects. 

It w'ould be well for farmer boys to save 
their pocket money and buy a text-book on 
each of these subjects, and we would include 
astronomy and geology. Let them spend 



50 



THE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



their long winter evenings studying these, in- 
stead of worse than wasting their time, as, 
alas ! too many of them do, in stores and ho- 
tel bar-rooms, where nothing is heard that 
tends to enlighten the human mind. 

By diligent application, and by economizing 
time, a farmer boy can, in a few years, gain 
as good a knowledge cf the above branches 
as can be obtained at college. Though it may 
require longer, he has this advantage : he 
does not receive his knowledge from the lips 
of teachers and professors, but masters every 
difficulty himself. What is thus learned is 
deeply impressed upon the mind, never to be 
erased, while what is heard from the lips of 
others is, frequently, soon forgotten. 

If any feel discouraged amid the many 
difficulties which they meet at every step of 
their upward course, let them for a moment 
think of a Hugh Miller or an Elihu Burrit, 
the one a stone-mason the other a blacksmith, 
both from being mere physical laborers ele- 
vated themselves to a high position in the in- 
tellectual world. They, when the severe phy- 
sical labors of the day were over, left their 
companions to enervate themselves with pipe 
and beer, and employed their evenings in 
study— hard, earnest, patient, toiling study, 
and left their impress upon works which will 
enlighten mankind for ages to come. 

The sciences of chemistry and botany, es- 
pecially, are easy and fascinating studies for 
farmer boys and girls to pursue during the 
leisure hours between v/ork. 

To analyze a flower — to learn its name and 
characteristics, during the resting hour at 
noon, is of infinitely mi, re value to the farmer 
boy than to read the columa of stale jokes in 
the weekly newspaper. 

The great Washington said " inarming is the 
most useful, the most healthful, and the most 
noble employment of man." 

The most useful and the most healthful it 
most certainly is, and, it raiionally pursued, it 
is also the most noble. It lies ia our power 
to make it such. Let us preserve the dignity 
of the time-honored calling by preserving the 
dignity of our own minds. Phjjsical labor is 
good, useful, necessary; but after all, it is the 
mind that makes the man. 

What a celebrated writer said a century 
ago ia as true to-day as it was then : 

'Could I in stature reach the pole 

Or grasp creation In mv span, 
I'd still be measured by iny soul ; 

It is the mind that makes the man." D L. R. 



Columbia, Feb. 7, 1872. 

Mr, J. B. Develin, Publisher Lancaster 
Farmer — Dear Sir : I haye been too neglect- 
ful of the Lakcaster Farmer, and have 
suffered my subscription to remain urpaid — 
because, I presume, no personal application 
had been made for the money, and the work 
was sent in the first instance without my soli- 
citation. This, however, does not excuse me. 
I certainly wish well to the agricultural inter- 
ests of the whole country, and feel a special 
pride and self-interest in that of our county. 
Shall be glad to know that the circulation, the 
usefulness, and the pecuniary success of the 
Farmer increases. My February l^o. is 
marked S. H. M., April 1, 1870. Will that 
make two years unpaid? I inclosed S5.00. 

Please return me a receipt for that amount 
as far as it pays. 

Respectfully yours, &c., 

S. H. M. 

[We. publish the above communication out 
of a number sent to us of the same import, 
because it expresses so fully and so fairly the 
sentiment of personal obligation, in a case 
where an individual had not been a voluntary 
subscriber to our journal. There is no at- 
tempt here to evade the responsibility which 
every honorable man assumes, when he con- 
tinues to take a paper sent to his address, 
even though he had not subscribed for it. 
When we send one or two numbers of our 
journal to any person, under such circumstan- 
ces, it is merely a solicitation, tiud if they do 
not desire it, a return of the number, or num- 
bers, to the office from which it was sent, 
ends the whole matter. But when this is not 
done, we take it for granted that they intend 
to give us their support in aid of our enter- 
prise in the establishment of a local journal 
in Lancaster county, devoted to the interests 
of agriculture and kindred occupations, and 
we feel greatful for such support. — Ed.] 



Vegetable Leather is now extensively 
manufactured, the principal materials being 
caoutchouc and naptha. The product is only 
one-third as costly as ordinary leather, which 
it resembles so closely that they can be dis- 
tinguished only by close inspection ; and the 
vegetable leather has the additional advantage 
of being made in entire pieces of fifty yards 
in length, if desired, one and half yards wide, 
of any thickness demanded, of uniform quality, 
and ample strength. — National Oil Journal. 



THE LAJYCASTER FARMER. 



51 



Wixt p^wciistw $jkx\\m 



LANCASTER, MARCH, 1872. 



S. S. RATHVON AND ALEX. HARRIS, Editors. 
Published monthly under the auspices of the Agricll- 

TUUAL AND HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



$1.!35 per yeinr iu ndvaiicc. 

A considerable deduction to clubs of five or more. 



All communications, to insure insertion, must be in the 
hands of the editors before the 20th of each month. Ad- 
dress Kathvou & Harris, Lancaster, Pa. 

All advertisements, subscriptions and remittances to the 
address of the publisher, J. B. DEVELIN, 

Inquirer Building, Lancaster, Pa. 



MEETING OF THE AGRICULTURAL 
AND HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

The regular meeting of the society was 
held at the usual place of meeting, February 
5th, 1862. Henry M. Engle in the chair. 
The minutes of the last meeting were read 
and approved. 

Peter H. Summy, of East Hempfield, was 
elected a member of the society. 

Peter S. Reist spoke of the subject of 
manure, and said that the straw added to it 
did not much increase its value, but simply 
enabled it to keep the ground more open and 
porous. 

JJaniel Rhoads, on this point, begged to 
difi'er with Mr. Reist, as in his opinion the 
straw, being composed of vegetable matter 
and silica, must add greatly to the Value of 
the manure with which it is mixed. "When 
straw is put in stables it absorbs the urine of 
the cattle and adds, in h.is opinion, greatly to 
the strength and substance of ihe manure. 

P. S. Reist adheres to the opinion, by hiin 
expressed at a former meeting, that it is best 
to hall the manure out upon the land as soon 
as it is taken out of the stable. 

Daniel Rhodes was ready to admit that it 
would be best to hall it out as soon as possi- 
ble after it is taken out of the stable, but such 
apian is utterly impracticable, as it would 
entail too much labor upon farmers to drop 
their other work and hall manure according 
to this plan. 

H. M. Engle differs with Mr. Reist as to 
some of his ideas of manuring. He is yet of 
the opinion that judicious composting is the 



best method for the preservation of the 
strength of the manure. 

P. S. Reist does not condemn the system of 
composting. By collecting vegetable matter 
together and covering it with clay, a good 
quality of manure is obtained. 

R. G. Swartz next proceeded to read an 
essay upon the " Almanac." 

A vote of thanks was tendered the essayist 
for his able and learned production. 

On motion, Mr. Swartz was invited at some 
future meeting to ontinue this essay. 

Dr. P. W. Hiestand, treasurer, reported the 
condition of the finances rf the society, show- 
ing that on January 1, 1872, the sum of S58.90 
was in the treasury. 

P. S. Reist introduced the question of bee 
culture by saying it was one of great interest 
and importance. He considered no other could 
be named of more value for discussion before 
the society. He named an apiarist who from 
600 hives derived a profit of from five to six 
thousand dollars. The bees are simply the 
gatherers of what otherwise is lost. What 
they add is then for a community clear gain. 

J. B. Erb was desirous to hear of the profit 
from keeping bees. He is conversant with 
the methods of raising them, but he has never 
yet been able to get a sight of the profits. 

Charles E. Long keeps some bees for profit 
and pleasure, and has obtained, satisfactory 
results with them. He instanced from bee 
journal statistics some exceedingly profitable 
results in bee culture. He gave a case when 
in this county 110 pounds of honey in one sea- 
son were obtained from one hive of bees. 

P. S Reist submitted some results of bee 
culture iu his experience. His bees (Italian) 
do not stand hi n over SlOO, and he should 
scarcely be willing now to dispose of his stock 
for less than ten times their original cost. 
Of course care and atlenciou are necessary to 
be bestowed upon them. From a small be- 
ginning of Italian bees a large stock can soon 
be obtained. If he could not get Italian bees 
he should have nothing to do with bee raising. 
No others pay. He is perfectly satisfied that 
millions of dollars could be made in this busi- 
ness. He would like to see a society of bee- 
growers established in this county. A few 
men interested iu this branch of business by 
coming together and by an interchange of 
sentiments could learn much of one another. 
Levi S. Reist is not so sanguine as regards 
bee cultm-e. He has had of the Italian bees, 



5^ 



TEE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



yet has experienced no luck with them. He 
cannot see any profits in keeping bees. He 
would not advise any to go into the culture of 
bees unless they are adepts. If any wish to 
try it let them do so cautiously. 

J. B. Erb has carefully studied some of the 
elevated systems of bee keeping, and has ob- 
tained and managed his bees as the books 
directed, but instead of doing so with profit it 
has been with loss. J. B. Breckbill thought, 
under the question of bees, he might suggest 
a word in favor of the bumble bee, on account 
of its utility in the fertilization of the clover 
crop ; where they are plenty clover is abund- 
ant. 

The president presented aletter from a com- 
mittee representiog the interests of the Ex- 
perimental Earm, of Chester county, and 
asking the appointment of a delegate to 
represent the society in the meetings con- 
cerning the said farm. On motion, society 
agreed to appoint a delegate, and chose H. M. 
Eagle as said delegate, with Levi S. Reist as 
alternate. 

Society, on motion, adjourned. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



The Lancaster Farmer. — A.mont.}ily journa], 
devoted to Agriculture, Horticulture, Domestic Econ- 
omy and Miscellmiy ; and published monthly by J. 
B. Daveiin, under the au-=pioe8 of the " Lancaster 
Cou;ity Agricultural and Horticultural Society," 
at $1 25 per annum in advance. Thin is an octavo 
magizine, illustrative of the sptcialiies afore- 
named, and is mainly made up of local contribu- 
tions from farmers in thi-s coun'y, where it is pub- 
lished, and as mch must possess an interest to 
many in the same belt of latitude beyond the 
limits of the great county of Lxncaster. 

"We clip the above notice of our journal 
from the columns of the Strasburg Free Press, 
because we value the local opinion of one who 
knows more than we do, the opinions of a hun- 
dred who knoio nothing about a matter. It is 
the " local contributions " above referred to 
that gives to our journal its practical charac- 
ter, and who will say that an intelligent Lan- 
caster county farmer may not know as much 
about his calling as the most exalted in the 
land. 



M. J. Carter writes to the Rural New York- 
er that if those who have crib-biting horses 
will nail a sheepskin, wool side up, wherever 
there is a chance for the horse to bite, he will 
not do very much cribbing in the stable. His 
father has tried it successfully. 



RANDOM SKETCHES AND FARM 
ITEMS.— NO. IL 

BY n. M. ENGLE. 

S the season is at hand for the farmer to 
prepare his land for the summer crops, 
the plow will be the first in requisition. The 
improvement of this implement from its prim- 
itive crude form to its present complete con- 
struction is great indeed ; but whether it is 
applied in proportion to its increased capacity 
is doubtful. A little deeper plowing each 
successive time, and fertilizing material ad- 
ded in proportioQ, is adding acres by strata 
instead of by area. To acquire lands by the 
former course is far more desirable than by 
the latter. The great advantages are, the 
saving of fences and taxes, seed and labor, 
time and distance, with almost every other 
advantage in its favor. 

The best farmers in the country understand 
this, and those that practice it reap its rich 
benefits. Such a course is much more laudi- 
ble than to spread over a greater area than 
can be worked to its full capacity. Had this 
course been followed generally, in the past 
half century, instead of the expanding and 
skinning systems, the country would be better 
and richer for it. There would have been no 
occasion to denude the country of so much of 
its finest timber under the pretext of neces- 
sity of more arable land. What an amount 
of wealth there might have been botli saved 
and earned. 

In order to carry out the deep tillage sys- 
tem, a cheap available fertilizer is of the first 
importance ; for this purpose clover stands 
preeminent. Some soils are either impover- 
ished by slovenly cultivation, or by nature so 
poor that some other fertilizer is required ; but 
wherever clover will set, it has scarcely a rival 
(except stable manure) as a renovator of soils. 

The value of root crops for winter feeding 
of stock is not fully appreciated in this coun- 
try. Many of the most progressive and suc- 
cessful farmers consider thvm indispensable 
where stock is to be kept in the best condi- 
tion, with the least expense ; but their great- 
est value is obtained by feeding to milk cows. 
The increased amount of milk, and the rich 
cream and butter produced therefrom, should 



TEE LAJfCASTER FARMER. 



53 



be sufficient to induce every farmer in the 
country to raise root crops. 

Tlie scarcity of water the past winter should 
be sufficient to impress many with the neces- 
sity of being better provided in the future. 

The sinking of wells is on an average ex- 
pensive. It has prevented many an enter- 
prising family from acquiring a homestead. 

The want of supply of pure v/ater has caused 
untold misery and death in the human family, 
and also among the brute creation. Were 
the valueof cisterns with filters, and their com- 
parative cheapness, better understood, the 
want of this pure element would certainly be 
better supplied throughout the country. My 
own experience and observation in this mat- 
ter justify the assertion. Could we enumerate 
and look upon all the aches, jains, sickness, 
distress and dgath in consequence of the lug- 
ging of water where a slight expense would 
have prevented it, we would shrink with hor- 
ror from the sad spectacle. I will further as- 
sert that there are thousands who, would they 
avail themselves of a full supply of filtered 
rain-water, would wonder at their previous 
ignorance of the value and blessing of this 
heaven distilled liquid, so free to all. 

Grape vines, if not yet pruned, should be 
attended to at once, to prevent bleeding. It 
is claimed by some that bleeding is not inju- 
rious, but the best and strongest testimony is 
on the other side. 

Hot beds should be made as soon as the 
condition of the ground will permit. Seeds 
of the hardier vegetables maybe sown at once, 
if the beds are protected on cold nights. Glass 
alone is not sufficient against frost. It is not 
generally known that plants are much im- 
proved by frequent transplanting in the beds ; 
by this method they can be set out perma- 
nently in any kind of weather with scarcely a 
visible effect upon the plant. The same rule 
holds good with flowers, shrubs, trees or any- 
thing that may be transplanted. 

Potatoes may be sprouted the same as sweet- 
potatoes, and by proper management will 
mature a full crop, considerable earlier than 
by any other method, beside the great saving 
of seed. 

It is still not too late to destroy most of the 
broods of insects in cocoons, or in whatever 
condition the pupa may be found. 

Marietta, Feb. 26, 1872. 



ORNAMENTAL TREES. 

AT the meeting of the New York Rural 
Club, Dec. 7, Mr. Josiah Hooper, presi- 
dent of the Pennsylyania Horticultural So- 
ciety, read a lengthy and excellent paper on 
ornamental tree planting, from which we 
make the following brief extracts : 

I invariably commence with a stereotyped 
phrase : '* Don't plant large trees in small 
yards." One of the greatest of all errors, and 
one that is indulged in by so many of our 
planters in their horticultural infancy, is that 
of setting out a first-class tree in a second- 
class yard. Scarcely a town lot or a cemetery 
iuclosure is laid out but this mistake is made, 
although ignorance in nearly every instance 
is the excuse, and justly so too. Taking, for 
instance, the laborer's cottage, with its few 
square feet of grass in front — and, by the way, 
what is more attractive than a well kept sod ? 
— in the place of a Norway spruce or Aus- 
trian pine, I would suggest what is termed a 
dwarf evergreen — one of the smaller forms of 
arbor vitte, now becoming so popular, or a 
juniper, with its variety of outline, or perhaps 
a form of the newer genus Retinispora. If the 
front should have a northern aspect, the best 
plant for this purpose is either some hand- 
somely variegated variety of Aucuba or Eno- 
nymus Japonica. The newer introductions of 
these are exceedingly attractive, and a group 
composed of distinct kinds forms an agreea- 
ble feature. To those whose taste for flowers 
is predominant, I would recommend a circu- 
lar bed of roses, not planted promiscuously, 
but in lines or ribbons, each circle a distinct 
color, all trimmed low, and consequently well 
branched. If the entire bed should be of one 
variety, the eftect will also be very fine. For 
this purpose the China or Bengal class can- 
not be excelled. 

As I am not here to-night to give you a les- 
son upon landscape gardening, even had I the 
ability to do so, I shall simply call your at- 
tention to a few of the most desirable trees 
for what might be termed second-class places. 
For a group of low-growing trees, commend 
to me always certain species of the Magnolia. 
The M. conspecua, with pure white bloom ; 
M. Sonlangeana, with its white flower, striped 
and shaded with purple ; M. cordata, with yel- 
low, odorous bloom ; and lastly, but very far 
from least, the beautiful M. Thompaoniana, 



5Jt. 



TEE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



with creamy-white fragrant flowers. We have 
here a group of four trees that cannot be ex- 
celled — hardy, beautiful — in foliage and flower, 
and so entirely free from iojurious insects 
that they seem to combine all the excellencies 
one could desire. 

Another pretty group of small-sized trees 
may be composed of the Ealesta ietraptera or 
Silver Bell, Laburnum or Golden Chain, and 
the Cercis Canadensis^ Red Bad or Judas tree. 
Still another group of the same size can be 
formed of the Prunus Padus or European 
Bird Cherry, Rhus cotinus or Purple Mist, 
Chionanthus Virginica or White Fringe, and 
the Cladrastis tinctoria, Yellow Wood or Vir- 
gilia. 

In a corner of the grounds a closely-massed 
group of the diff'erent colored double flower- 
ing peaches will be very pleasing when in 
bloom, and where they will succeed nothing 
can excel the numerous varieties of thorns. 
In the center of the peaches I would insert a 
tree of Reid's weeping variety, a graceful 
drooping tree, and among the thorns plant 
the weeping variety of it. These have a tend- 
ency to remove a certain uniformity of outline 
prevalent in all such masses. As we have the 
small class of trees and advance to those of 
larger growth, I unhesitatingly place in the 
front rank, if not at the very head, the Norway 
Maple. Seldom do we find its equal in all 
that pertains to a specimen tree. With ample 
foliage of the richest shade of green, globular 
in form, perfectly hardy and healthy in almost 
every situation, it appears peculiarly adapted 
to stand alone on a beautiful lawn. Another, 
although of a widely difierent character, is the 
White Birch [JBetula alba), and iis delicate 
cut-leaved variety. The silver-leaved Linden 
succeeds well everywhere, and is undeniably 
a beautiful specimen tree, as well as the Eng- 
lish cork-barked maple when branched to the 
ground. Although of large size, the Sweet 
Gum (Liquid amber) forms one of our most 
available ornamental trees. Beautiful at all 
seasons, with its curious corky bark, rich, 
glossy star-shaped leaves and picturesque form, 
it is well adapted for creating marked efi'ects ; 
and then in the autumn its brilliant crimson 
hue is remarkably attractive. Either for 
grouping or as single specimens, the genua 
Fagus or Beech supplies ua with a charming 
set of trees. Among the most striking in 
character I would place the fern-leaved and 



purple-leaved as especially fine. The cut- 
leaved Alder and the newer variety asplenifo- 
lia I consider very desirable for particular lo- 
calities. 

There are very many other trees of beauti- 
ful form that are unfortunately not adapted 
for general planting. In the neighborhood of 
Philadelphia we cannot use the elms, because 
the leaves are often perforated by insects : 
nor the ashes on account of the borers ; the 
Mountain Ash meets with the same fate, and 
the Thorns are destroyed by a fungus ; the 
Horse Chestnuts become disfigured by midsum- 
mer, and so we have to rely on other trees ; 
but where this list will succeed, as they evi- 
dently do in central New York, my advice is 
to use them all freely. There are four genera 
belonging to the great natural order Coniferae, 
that are furnished with deciduous leaves and 
tall spiral tops, all well adapted for the cen- 
ter or background of groups — the Larch fam- 
ily, of which the European species is prefer- 
able ; the Salisburia, or Japan Ginako, with 
curious yet pretty fan-shaped foliage ; the 
Deciduous Cypress, with light feathery leaves ; 
and the Glyptosti-obus, or Weeping Cyprus, 
having unusually graceful foliage and pendant 
branchlets. 

Every place should have at least one droop- 
ing tree, as much for its intrinsic beauty as 
for the effect it produces when grown near 
other forms. For this purpose the Weeping 
Beech posseses an individuality peculiarly its 
own. Not so pretentious perhaps as the pre- 
ceding, but with a graceful drooping of the 
more slender branches, the Weeping Linden 
stands next in the list. Where they will flour- 
ish, the Weeping Elms and Weeping Moun- 
tain Ash are very handsome ; and the old- 
fashioned Weeping Willow, especially when 
in the vicinity of water, is often a valuable 
assistant for creating a beautiful picture. For 
small-sized weepers I would suggest the fol- 
lowing, all of which are useful, and in fact 
indispensable to tho landscape gardener : The 
thorn, grandidentata poplar, Kilmarnock wil- 
low, dwarf cherry, sophora, and beech. The 
drooping varieties of the common ash are stiff" 
and formal in outline, yet often attractive 
from their very oddity. 

A feature often overlooked in American gar- 
dens is the massing of trees that axe beautiful 
in the autumn. Most places can be improved 
by a little group of these bright-tinted species, 



TEE LAJyCASTEB, FARMER. 



55 



and for this purpose I would name for the 
hack-ground the scarlet oak ( Querous coccinea) , 
dazzling in its scarlet dress ; the sour gum 
(Nyssa multijlora), with the deepest shade of 
crimson ; the red maple (Acer rubnim), gray 
with yellow, red, and orange; and a sassafras 
(S. Officinale), with golden yellow leaves. To 
the front I would place a white flowering dog- 
wood [Cornus Florida), with its vivid shade of 
red; one or two common sumachs {Rhiis gal- 
bra), as hright as the petals of a crimson 
poeony, with a few vines of the green brier 
{smilax rotundifolia) , of golden hue, and am- 
pelopsis quinguefolia, dyed with crimson, 
clambering over the whole. It is needless to 
add that the eflfect of such a blending of colors 
cannot be overrated. In leaving the decidu- 
ous trees, I would merely call your attention 
to the neglected family of oaks, although be- 
yond the limits of such places as we are dis- 
cussing to-night. For very large lawns no 
genus in the flora of the world can exceed 
their majesty of form, their picturesqueness 
of outline, nor their value for every purpose 
appertaining to the landscape art. 

We now arrive at the Evergreens, but as 
my time has nearly expired, I will hurriedly 
particularize a few of the most valuable for 
a majority of our country places, all of which 
will undoubtedly succeed in this vicinity. In 
the spruce family, as not only the first in the 
genus, but among all cone-bearing trees, the 
Norway spruce is fully entitled to considera- 
tion before any other. You all know it well, 
and knowing it, haye nothing to say against 
it. It is a tree at once appropriate in all situ- 
ations and for every purpose ; hardy every- 
where, and unexceptionably beautiful. 

More formal in outline, but remarkably 
pleasing in color, the white spruce stands 
next, and the hemlock, with its charming 
drooping branchlets, curving in even circles 
to the ground must never be neglected. In 
particular localities and exposures, the Abies 
Smithiana, A. Dotiglasii, and A. Menziesii ar© 
among our handsome kinds. In silver firs, the 
A. Nordmanniana is, without doubt, the best 
hardy species known to us at present — always 
beautiful and healthy, we cannot well dis- 
pense with its presence ; and almost as valua- 
ble, the A. PicTita ranks next. With varying 
success, although generally firm, I would 
name the rare A. amabilis, A. grandis, A. 
nobilis, and A. Cephatonicay while common bal- 



sam fir and European silver fir are unexcep- 
tionable in many grounds. The pines must 
be used sparingly, as they are rather coarse 
for close proximity to the dwelling. Among 
well-tested kinds, the Austrian, Cembren, 
White, Lambert's, and Scotch are all hardy, 
and deservedly admired, and where the P. 
excelsa is free from blight, I would add it to 
the list. A few of the newer species, such as 
P. ponder osa,7ixi([ P. Massoniana are promis- 
ing to be valuable, but they require a more 
extended trial. The Cedar of Lebanon must 
not be forgotten, not alone for the many re- 
minipcence=! connected with it by the sacred 
writers, but for its individual beautv on the 
lawn. The Lihncednis decurrens, Cypressus 
Laicsoninna,Q.n(S. C. iVw^iaensi,?. notwithstand- 
ing they are almost unknown to cultivators, 
are surpassing our most sanguine expecta- 
tions, where they have been tested. Our 
American Arbor Vitfe,aswell as the Sibe- 
rian variety, are so well known and appreci- 
ated that it seems unnecessary to urge their 
claim to public notice. Low-growing coni- 
fers are of such vast importance to the land- 
scape gardener in creating dense evergreen 
masses, that of latter years our arboricultur- 
ists have been eagerly gathering from every 
available source all of which have proven dis- 
tuict. 



COB MEAL. 



CORRESPONDENT inquired two or 
three weeks ago as to the value of the cob 
of Indian corn. We had not space in our reply, 
at that time, to do more than to allude to it 
as a comparatively worthless article, paying 
little more than the cost of grinding. It is, 
however, an article in pretty common use, 
and it may be well to speak of it a little more 
in detail. A pig when put up to fatten, if fed 
too exclusively on fine Indian meal, which is 
a very hearty food, will, unless some care is 
taken to provide a little change, especially to 
see that there is some bulky, and less con- 
centrated food, be very liable to cloy, from 
the fact that the meal will lie in a solid mass 
in the stomach and not furnish a sufficient 
distension to the walls of that organ, and in 
the intestinal canal. All animals that are fed 
upon highly concentrated and hearty food, 
must have something coarser and more bulky 
to be fully satisfied, and to keep the digestive 
organs in full activity and health. 



56 



THE LAJYCASTER FARMER. 



Now although the actual amount of nulri- 
ment in the cob is very small, so slight that 
if it wero ground alone after the corn is 
shelled off, no animal could be induced to 
touch it, yet when it is ground with the grain 
as we commonly find cob-meal, it undoubtedly 
serves the purpose of distending the stomach, 
and giving to the food the bulk which the ani- 
mal requires. An ox fed on meal will often 
eat coarse swale hay with avidity to gain 
that distention which a too concentrated food 
does not furnish, and without which there will 
be the gnawings of hunger. 

Still there is a trace of nutriment in the cob 
itself. Dr. Salisbury, who wrote a prize essay 
on Indian corn for the New York State Agri- 
cultural Society, said that " by rejecting the 
cobs of one thousand pounds of dry ears, 
about two hundred pounds of organic matter 
is lost, which consists of thirteen and one-half 
pounds of sugar and extract, one hundred and 
twenty-seven and one-half pounds of fibre, 
forty-five and one-half pounds of matter sepa- 
rated from fibre by a weak solution of potash, 
one and one-half pounds of albumen, twenty, 
eight one hundredths of a pound of casein, 
two and three-tenths pounds of glutinous mat- 
ter. Hence the cob, although not rich in 
nutritive matter, can by no means be said to 
be destitute of those proximate principles 
which go to support respiration, and sustain 
animal heat, and those which are capable of 
being transformed into nerve, muscle, etc., 
and the phosphate which contribute so largely 
to the formation of bone." It is probable 
that a mixture of the cob with the meal se- 
cures in many cases a more complete diges- 
tion of the food. This is an incidental ad- 
vantage which is independent of any slight 
nutriment there may be in the cob itself, and 
which as we said, is so slight of itself as, in 
our opinion, not to pay for the expense of 
grinding, especially as we can gain all the ad- 
vantage of a proper distension of the stomach 
by feeding some roots, pumpkins, or other 
coarser food in connection with meal.— i/a^sa- 
cJiusetts PlougTim,an, 



WHAT BEEED OF DAIRY COWS ARE 
THE BEST FOR ALL PURPOSES? 

THIS is a question often asked, but a 
difficult one to answer, unless by the 
sweeping assertion that we want them all. 
So far as we are able to learn, there is no one 



breed that, as a rule, is possessed of all the 
points desired. There may exist individuals 
in almost all of the established breeds, that 
possess all good qualities in a sufficient degree 
to answer the purposes of the ordinary farmer, 
but as a race, there are none that embrace all 
good qualities, and every farmer must be gov- 
erned in his choice by his situation. 

If he has rich pasture and extensive corn- 
fields, and is near a market where the price 
0^ good 6ee/ rules high, the Durham will prob- 
ably be as near perfection as any that can be 
obtained. 

The Shorthoros are great eaters. If they 
run to milk they give a large quantity of it. If 
they have a tendency to fatten, they fatten 
with great rapidity. They grow rapidly, and 
are capable of carrying an immense load of 
flesh. They require the best of care and the 
richest of feed, and with this they will amply 
repay all outlays. 

But if allowed to r^am in the public roads 
and wild pastures in summer, and kept on 
poor hay and mouldy corn-fodder in winter, 
they will invariably prove the worst scrubs, 
and the poorest investment that a farm can 
make. The objection to them as dairy cows 
is, that you are not sure whether they will 
prove to be great milkers or great feeders, or 
half-and-half. The remedy is to feed liber- 
ally at all times, and if the cows are good 
milkers they will be very good ones, and if 
not, they will fatten rapidly, and can be dis- 
posed of to good advantage as beef. With a 
dairy of forty cows, a dozen or so of the best 
heifer calves should be raised each year, and 
ten or a dozen cows fattened each winter to be 
sold in the spring, when the beef commands 
a very high price. 

If he keeps Shorthorns, on the system pro- 
posed, he will not receive as much money 
from the cheese-factory as if he kept Ayr- 
shires or natives. But it is for him to decide 
whether half a dozen or more fat cows sold 
every spring to the butcher, will not make up 
for the deficiency. On the whole, we would 
say, if he has high-priced land and proposes 
to adopt high farming, take the Shorthorns ; 
cows solely to the production of milk and but. 
ter, take the Ayrshire or Alderney. 

If the location is near a large city, where 
milk is the chief object, we must have the 
Ayrshires, as there is no race that can equal 
the pure Ayrshire in quantity of milk ; it being 



THE LdJYCASTER FARMER. 



57 



generally esliraated at from 30 Lo 50 pounds 
per day. Our best Ayrshire cows give 60 
pounds of milk per day. A commi'.tee ap- 
pointed for tlie purpose, testified under oath, 
that one of Messrs. Waleot & Campbell's cows 
gave 85 pounds of milk per day, f )r several 
days ia succession. 

The Ayrshiros have been bred exclusively 
for milk, and will probably yield a greater 
quantity for the food consumed than any 
other breed. On the other hand, if he pro- 
poses to sell beef and raise oxen as well as 
cheese and butter, we would advocate the 
Devon. 

The Devons, as a race, are thrifty, and with 
good pasture present a handsome appearance. 
The milk is quite rich, and prodaees butter of 
a better color than that obtained from the 
Durham, but the quantity is not large. They 
are a quick, active race, and for farm labor, 
the oxen can hardly be excelled. They will 
move the plow almost, perhaps quite, as fast 
as the horse. To cany out the laiter system 
of raismg cattle for beef, rather than the dairy, 
to the best advantage, we must adopt a higher 
order of feeding than when the only object is 
milk. We want cows that will eat a large 
amount of food. This is of the very first im- 
portance. An animal that will not eat freely 
should be rejected. 

If there is no great demand for beef, but a 
large one for good butter, then the Aldeniey 
will come as near the standard as any v/e 
have. For richness of milk, ihey have no 
equal, but their diminutive size puts beef en- 
tirely out of the question •, but there is uo race 
of cattle that can surpass them in producing 
golden lumps of butter, and plenty of them. 

A good butter-maker, with a herd of Alder- 
ueys, will produce a " fancy brand " of butter 
that will command a ready sale, at double the 
price that can be obtained for common 
brands. Good specimens of this stock will 
make from twelve to fourteen pounds of but- 
ter per week, of a peculiar yellow color, not 
attained by any other race. Some extra good 
cows have produced from eighteen to twenty 
pounds per week ; but this stock is deficient 
in beef qualities. We most earnestly recom- 
mend the use of a thoroughbred bull on all dairy 
farms. Whether it stould be an Ayrsliire, De- 
von, Alderney, or a ShorLhorn, depends very 
much on whether the dairyman wishes to 
turn oif some fat cows every year to the 



butcher, or whether he intends to keep his 
cows till they are used up, and then sell them 
for about what they are worth for their hides. 
If he adopts the latter course, we should re- 
commend the use of an Alderuey or Ayrshire 
rather than the Shorihora bull. In all sea- 
sons dairy farmers are apt to have an unne- 
cessarily large percentage of barren cows, ow- 
ing to the irrational management of the male 
animal. In some districts it is the fashion to 
use yearling bulls •, whilst to make matters 
worse, the weakly, immature subjects are 
scandalouslj' overworked. — American Stock 
Journal. 



EXPERIENCE WITH THE EGG-PLANT. 

I WAS interested in an article by Peter 
Henderson, in the October Agriculturist 
upon the egg-plant, and as I have succeeded 
in raising an abundance of this delicio js veg- 
etable during the past season in a rather less 
expensive way than he deems essential, I 
will, for the information of your readers who 
have never raised it, narrate my experience. 
I grew the two varieties. Black Pekin and 
Improved New York Purple, of which I 
made my first sowing in boxes in the house, 
late in March, but keeping them in a room in 
wh'ch ther;; was no fire ; it was over a month 
before they germinated. My second sowing 
was made in my hot-bed on April 1st, and 
they came up in eight days. This was twenty 
days too early, according to Mr. Henderson's 
view, and had I kept up a heat of 70* until it 
was safe to transplant them, they mu'^t cer- 
tainly have outgrown the bed, which, by the 
way, had mudin covers instead of glass sash- 
es ; but the heatiug material being solely 
fresh horse-manure, the heat was soon ex- 
hausted, and their growth for a long time 
very slow. I also made a third sowiog in a 
cold frame, similarly covered, on Auril 10th, 
where they came up in eighteen day^. 

May 17tb, I transplanted several of the 
purple plants from the hot-bed into tlie field, 
but their vitality was impaired by the cold, 
and they soon succumbed to the attacks of a 
small black flea, that first appeared about that 
diite. I do not recall tlic name of this flea, 
but it was an old acquaintance, that had de- 
stroyed my plants on a former attempt to 
raise them. It attacks all the plants of the 
Solanum family, so far as I know, except 



58 



TEE LAJ^CASTER FARMER. 



peppers. They destroyed all my tomatoes 
sown in the open eround, and made sad havoc 
in my beds, damagina: tomatoes there, and 
threatening the entire destruction of petunias 
and egg-plants, even going so far as to riddle 
the leaves of the wild Bittersweet [Solanuvi 
Dulcamara), while I have seen potato-vines 
covered with them. To check them, I tried 
dusting with lime and sprinkling with solu- 
tions of tobacco, guano, etc., which were at 
best but partially successful, as every one of 
the egg-plants in the cold frame perished, and 
a part in the hot-bed, the remainder suffered 
severely. As they did not attack my plants 
in the house, I am of the opiuion that a box 
in a warm room would be the safest and per- 
haps the best place for us to start them. 

July 12th I transplanted about twenty of 
each variety from the hot-bed into the field, 
and although they seemed very impatient of 
removal they all survived. The Black Pekins 
commenced to bloom July 21st, several days 
before the others, and were far ahead in 
fruiting, but not as prolific. We have had an 
abundant supply ot both through September 
and October thus far, and would have had a 
large stock on hand now had not I been so 
hasty as to cut them up and house my fruit 
on September 22d, in anticipation of the frost 
which occurred on the next succeeding night, 
but did not kill, only scotched the vines I 
left. There has not been a sign of frost 
since, and I might just as well have had the 
benefit of a whole month's growth, and dou- 
ble the quantity of sound fruit on the vines at 
. thi« date, as to have a pile of them nearly all 
. decayed in an out-house. Thus have I learn- 
ed how " haste makes waste." 

Those sov/n in boxes in the house and kept 
spindling in the shade in a cold room, I trans- 
planted into the old hot-bed June 12th, and 
from thence into the open ground on July 25 th, 
yet they had eggs as large as the largest 
apples by September 20th. Had these plants 
been kept in a warm room instead of a cold 
one, it would have made nearly a month's 
difference in their growth, and they might 
have been as early as any ; their exemption 
from the attacks of the flea giving them one 
great advantage over even those grown in the 
hot4)ed. 

From these facts, I conclude that a uniform 
temperature of 70"^, although desirable, is not 
absolutely required, or even the most impor- 
tant requisite for the egg-plant. — American 
Agriculturist-, 



SEED CORN. 

Now is the time for farnaers to make ar- 
rangements to secure new and valuable seed, 
as we have now in store the best seed corn 
ever offered to the farmer. "We have just re- 
turned from a trip through the western part 
of the country, where corn is made a spec- 
ialty, and selected of the best. We have 
secured specimens from most every part of 
the country where corn is grown, all of which 
has been thoroughly tested. That which 
proved to be good we so improved that we 
feel safe in saying that we offer the farmer 
the best seed corn known in this country. 

In regard to the many-eared varieties, it 
ha-* been proved, so far, that not more than 
two to three large ears can be produced to a 
stalk of the field or stock corn varieties. All 
of the varieties tested by us show that the 
stalks which produce many ears always pro- 
duce small and inferior corn for field cultiva- 
tion. 

1 1 is only the Parching Corn varieties that 
give many ears per stock ; and all the experi- 
mental crossing has proved of no benefit 
whatever to the farmer. There are several 
persons advertising the branching corn as field 
or stock corn varieties, yielding immense 
crops of large cora. We feel it our duty to 
inform our readers that they are nothing more 
than our Parching or Branching Pop Corn 
varieties, and are of no benefit to the farmer 
to raise a crop of merchantable corn. The 
Mammoth Orange Dent or Hybrid Yellow 
Dent, Kentucky Mammoth Dent and Early 
Mammoth Mulatto Corn have from one to 
two ears per stalk, and are considered the 
choicest merchantable corn grown. The 
King's White Prolific is a well-established, 
large two-eared Variety, and novf considered 
the best bread, as well as stock corn, known in 
this country. It can only be planted with 
success south of 40°. We have established a 
Hybrid corn, half white and half yellow, that 
is earlier, and produces two to three large 
ears on each stalk. We think it will make one 
of the best field corn varieties yet introduced. 
— How to Make the Farm Pay. 



An alliterative Illinois reporter fathers the 
following : 

" Parson Palmer, of Padola, is the proprie- 
tor of a pen of pigs. These pigs escaped 
and persecuted a peaceable neighbor named 
Piper. Piper persuaded them off his prem- 
ises with dogs, and punished Palmer's boy. 
The Parson paid his respects to Piper, pra- 
ting of a prospective prosecution, and was in 
turn pounded to a pulp by the precipitate 
Piper. The penitent man at present lan- 
guishes in prison." 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



59 



BOOK AND SPECIAL NOTICE DE- 
PARTMENT. 



OUR BOOK TABLE. 

Deber'8 Garden Oalkndar, for 1872, isa neat 12coo.of 
16G pages, illuftrated with many engravings of fruits, flow- 
on., vegetables and plants; and furnishes " brief directions 
for the cultivation and raaDagement of the vegetable and 
flower garden," containing also ''select lists of seeds 
juid plants." Address Henry Dreer, Seedeman and I'lor- 
1st, No. 714 Chestnut street, Philadelphia. 

Landreth's Rural Register and Almanac for 1R72, 
published for gratuitous distribution, annually is a 12mo. 
of 75 pages, containing lists of sttds, and instructiye farm 
and garden calendar* for each sepaiate month. Perhaps 
no similar publication in thi.s country has reached the 
number this has. " 500," OO copi.s of the edition of 1871 
were distributed," and lh72 will probably exceed that num- 
ber, it has b-en translated into the German and Swed- 
ish, 

The fJouRNAL OF THE FARM a si.xteen pag« illustrated 
monthly quarto, published simultaneously at Philadelphia 
and Clucapo, at .$1 a year, for a single subscription, and 
liberal club rates. The February nutnber is on our teble, 
and is both interesting and useiul in the details of its 
various departments. 

The National Oil Journal, for January, 1872, is 
also on our table. This is a large folio monthly, publish- 
ed at Pittsburg, Pa., and is devoted aimost exclusively to 
the oU interest of the country — and especially of Pennsyl- 
vania. $1 per annum. 

The Mew York Oopt Book 's published in the interest 
»of newspaper publishers throughout the United States, by 
the " Blackwell JSIanufacturing Company." This is a 
folio paper of valuable scientific, agricultural, historical, 
literary and domestic import, and any article it contains 
may he obtained in stereotype, by addressing the compa- 
ny, at very reasonable rates. 

The Little Corporal presents the following inter- 
< sting table 01 contents for February: Dora, chapter II., 
■with illustration — by Heien C. Week«. Parsonage Doves, 
witk illustration— by Miry E. C. Wyeth. Quest of the 
Flower — bj' Kdgar Fawcet Number Three— by A. H. 
Poe. Lillie's Valentine — by Olive Thome. Summer days 
at Kirkwood, chapter VII— by Emily Huntington IMiller. 
Afloat on an Ice Cake, with illustration — by iJharK s IC. 
Kurd. The Rivals, with full page illustration— by Gprald 
North. Prud 's Pocket is tilled wita the usual variety of 
spicy letters from the lit'le folks; and Piivate Queer's 
Knapsack is crowded vriih things to puzzle the minds of 
the boys and girls for months to come If you want a mag- 
azine that is always )resh, sparkling, and vigorous, sub- 
scribe for The LlTTLt; CoRPotiAL. Terms — $1.5U a year. 
John E. Miller, publisher, Chicago, 111. 



SPECIAL NOTICE. 

Gregoj-y'b Sbkd Catalogue.— Mr. J. J. H. Gregory, 
of Marlilebead, Mass., wlio advertises his Catalogue iu 
our papijr fills a position somewhat unicino among seeds- 
men, being a giower of se, d as well as dealer in them. 
The extracts- Irom letters received from over thiriy differ- 
ent States and Territories published on the cover of his 
catalogue are a very satisfactory evidence in favor of the 
reliability of the Eet>d, as well as of his honesty as a dealer ; 
while the well-known fa''.t of t is having been the originai 
introducer of the Hubbard Squash, and numerous other 
valuable vegetables that have become well-known through- 
out the United States, are pleasing evidence that his cata- 
logue as issued from year to year, will always prove a live 
one. 



MARKETS. 



PHILADELPHIA MARKETS. 

Philadelphia, Feb. 28. 
Floue and Mbal. — There has been less demand for 
Flour, but holders are as firm as ever in their views. 
Supplies from all sources come forward slowly, and with a 
relatively light stock, and high prices for wheat, the re- 
cent advance is lully maintained. Sales ot 100 bbls su- 
perfine at $5 50: 100 bbls Pennsylvania extra choice at 
$6 50; 100 l)bl8 Minnesota extra family at $7 75 ; 300 bbls 



Pennsylvania do do at $7 2r>a7 50 ; 100 bbls do do. choice, 
at S7 75, and 100 bbls Ohio do do, fancy, at $8 50. Rye 
Flour is unchanged. Hmall sales at 5f4 87'^a5. In Corn 
Meal there is nothing doing. We quote Brandywiue at 
$3£0. 

GrjMN. — There is more demand for "Wheat for the sup- 
l->ly of local millers, tiut shijipers are not operating at 
present prices. .Sa|es ot 7,60u bus fair and prime Penn- 
sylvania red at Si (JOal 52; 1,000 bushels ito do on private 
terms, and 400 bus do anibei at !*1 G4. We quote prime at 
$1 75al 93. Rye comes in slowiy, and 800 bus Pennsylva- 
nia fcold at 95c. Corn is in bettor demand, but we can 
record no improvement in priie-<; sales of 400 bus old 
Western yellow at C7c ; 800 bus new do do at 62aiC ; 1,000 
bushels .Southern do at 6yaG6c ; 400 bushels Penn.sylvania 
do, pale, at 65c ; 5,000 bus Western high mixedat 66a 
66Vic, and 10,000 bus do for forward delivery at G5c. Oats 
are'duil ; sale.-: of 2,700 bus West'irn white at .54a55c, and 
1 500 bUN do mixed at 53 ^^'c. in Barley nothing doing. 
Barley Malt ranges from $1 10 to SI 30. 

Provisions are held firmly ; sales of Mess Pork at $14.50 
al4 75, and prime Mess at $i2 50 ; city packed extra Mo.ss 
Beet sells at $14 75 per bbl. Beef Hams command .$25a 
20. Bacon is steady. Sugar-cured city-smoked Hams 
sell as wantpd at na!2c ; Sides at 8a83^c, and .shotilders 
at G^aHUb. Green Meat-i are steady ; sales of 800 tierces 
pickled hams at 9,3^0, sides at GJiJaGj^c, and shoulder^, in 
salt, at 5^a5>|^c. Lard is held -vith much firmness ; sales 
ot bbls and tierces atOXaOj^c.for western steam and kettle- 
recdered C^beese is in suiall suptilv and firm; sales of 
New York Factory at lG,'^al73^c. Butter— There is noth- 
ing exciting in the trade to note; t^e feeling, howevor, is 
better on all grades, and quotations are well sustained; 
the receipts are light, and the late accumulations are 
pretty well worked off} salrs of roll at 17a25c. and nacked 
at 12al6c. Eigs — Keceipis light; sales on arrival at 32a3oo. 
per dozen. Receipts tor the week, 5S3 bbls. 

Seeds. — Clover seed is more sought after, and 1,210 
bushels were taken at 9a9>.<c, and 130 bushels recleaned at 
10c. Timothy is held at $3 62X, and Flax seed at §2 00, 
with a great scarcity of the latter. 

PHILADELPHIA CATTLE MARKET. 

IvIONDAT, February 26. 

There was only a limited demand for beef oattln this 
ruoming, and with libfral olferiogs prices favored buyers, 
f-'alef of extras at7!|2'a8e.; choice, G>^a 7'*. ; fair to good at 
5a6c., and common -i 4a43^'c. Receiptr, 2,400 he^d. 

Cows and Cilves attr.icted but littie atiention, but 
prices were steady. Sales of springers at $30*4 ', and fre* 
and I'rcth Cowh atS35a05. Receipts. 2 brad. 

Pheep met a f.ur inquiry at fortntT figures; sales of 
choice at 10c ; fnir to good at 7i;jabXe. per pound, and 
common at .$3:(5 per l;ei>d. 

Hogs declined, and were much In requsBt. Sales «>f 
corn-fed at S7a8 pt-r hundred pounds, net, the Isttter for 
choice 

NEW YORK CATTLE MARKET. 

Monday, February 26. 

With 'V fair off-rin?, Bpeve.s were firmer and more ac- 
tive than on Tbur.-day and Friday, and the oflVrings w. r.-» 
nearly closed out at noon. Price-^ rangf^d from lOi'. to 13c. 
per pound, with a Jew fancy sold ai i;'.;^c. Sipep were 
comparatively scurce, ai.d the twenty carloads otf red had 
a quick sale at 7>j'a9>i'c. per pouud.no poor lots bf-ingof- 
feied There was uotliing in Live Ho s, as the consign- 
ments wore exclusively for slaughternr*. Drcsied firtuer 
but iuaciive at 5^'^a57aC. for western and G,':^a6jhC. for city. 

Cows and Caivcs Uave ruled dull ann prices arw v.n- 
cbang'd. We quote at $30a80, as in quality. Receiijts, 
128 head. 

Veal calves are dull and in the buyers' favor. Wo q'lote 
at 5allc. l{.ec<^i pt.M, 92.-> head 

Good Hogs are (piotid at 5^ per pound. 

PITTSBURG LIVE STOCK MARKET. 

The Commercial of Saturday has the followimr: The 
following are the arriv; Isof live sto-k for the week ending 
to-day, as reported by ]\Ir C. R. Martin, yard master : Cat- 
tle, 320 car.. ; hogs, 12'9 cars; sheep, 85 cars, and hois"-?, ."i? 
cars. Comparing these with the arrivals of last week, we 
find there has been an increase of 4 cars of cuttle and 14 
of horses, and a cle>rance of 29 of hogs ard 07 of sheep. 

Cattle.— As will be seen by the abofe report, the arri- 
vals of tJattle for the week have been about the same ■% 
last, and the quality, taking lots all through, a little mor.^ 
common, though we beli-ve there was a bunch or two <.f 
as good Cattle offered as have been on the market for some 



60 



THE LAJsTCASTEE FARMER. 



lime. Cue lot of them sold for S7.12 per 100 Jbs. The 
market during the week ruled incd<:rat> ly act.ivt, and lasi 
wetk figures wore fully sustaiued on prime griides, ynd we 
tliink commtiii sold a shade lowc r, ihoiisrh not ejiougti so to 
make any (luotable change. Toward the close the market 
rulM a little dull on Friday, with but fev buyers present 
find some lots unsold. The d* maud for the wetk was not 
heavy, pnd dealers did not purchase liberally. Some few 
lots of Cattle are f'till urpold, one !oad of which goes to Al- 
leghany for rt-tail. Following are t'le rates curient forthe 
ditn'rcnt grades: Extra. 1 300 to 1,500 lbs steers, t().50 to 
86.75 ; prime, 1,100 to 1,200 lbs steers, 1f5 50 to $6 2.5 ; common 
to medium 1,0(10 to 1,100 tt)s, H75 to §5 25; bulls, S2.75 to 
%?,.m ; eows, S3.50 to $4 -50 

Hoss.— The rtceipis of Hogs for the week have been some 
29 cars higher than the week ]>revious. Prices bs'vo de- 
clined a little every day for the last f.iw days, although the 
runs were not heavy. At Philadelphia trade was reported 
dull and s'uggish, and with these advices in the markft on 
the best grades aecliued steadily and slowly. To-day there 
18 very little doing and the feejing has not improved any, 
A bunch of extra Philadelphia Hogs sold to-day, to b^ 
weighed on Monday morning, at S5 4ii per KiO pounds. The 
hogs are very ,sood, and this (inuie may now be con.-idejr d 
at the top of the market. Following are the current rates 
for the diflerent grades and kinds as bought and sold here : 
Extra Philadelphia, $5.25 to SO 40 ; prime Philadelphia, .*5 
to §5.15; prime Yorker, S4.50 to $4.05; common, $4.25 to 
$4.45. 

Sheep.— The receipts of sh'=ep to-day were light, ana for 
the week some G7 cars higher than the preceding on.?. 
Trade has ruled moderately active on the best grades. To- 
ward the close priofs were a little lower, say from 5 to 10c 
per hundred pounds. To-dav there is nothing doing ; no 
buyers here, and business is at a standstill. Tue lollowing 
are the current prices for the dift'eient grades bought and 
Sold in the market: Extra, lOo to 110 pounds, $8 25 ; from 
85 to SiO pounds, i?7 75a8 ; medium, 80 to 85 )>ounds, $6 75a7 
6u ; common, $5 25a5 75 ; scallawags, %t 50a3. 



CHICAGO MARKET. 

CuiCAGO, Ft brnary 2C, 1872. 
Flour in Tgbt demand but holders are Arm ; extra .' pring 
$6 50^6 65. Wheat in active demand but prict s are un- 
changed ; No. 2 spring $1 25;^ ; seller. March SI 26^;;. 
Oorn dull and declined; No. 'i mixed 39a3:) '„ c ; coru on 
track, 37c. Oats dull; No. 2, 32c. Bje quiet and nu- 
f nanced ; No. 2, 74o. Barley quiet and unchanged ; No. 
2 tan .■•.)c for regular and oOc for tresh. Mess iciork dull 
and declined; .sales for cash and March at S12 35. Lard 
dull and a fhade lower at *8 83a8 85. There was no 
essent'al change in green and bulk meats. Hogs quiet ; 
range from $1 t5 to $4 60. Dre.ssed hogs were in good de- 
mand ; soft S-i 95 ; ■ tiff $4 35a5 10. Cattle— good grades in 
strong demand, and the supply was scarce. 



STEAM FOR THE DWELLING. 

The matter of improvemert in heating our 
houses has long been one of the most promi- 
nent items of di'^cussiou, both among builders 
and householders. Many have been the de- 
vices suggested; many have been the im. 
provements patented. Many have been the 
bold ideas, emanating from fertile brains, 
only to find permanent burial in the form oi 
models in the show cases of that great char- 
nal house of invention, the Patent Office at 
Washington. And yet we are dependent ou 
moans of heating little better, for the most 
psirt, even if more complicated, than those 
enjoyed by oui- forefathers. The forefathers 
clustered by families around their old hearth- 
stones, and our poetfi yet sing of our hearth- 



stones. But the hearthstone of the past has 
given place to the hole in the floor, or open- 
ing in the wall, through which the heat as- 
cends from the cellar, and the great fire place 
of former days is a thing of the past. 

The open grate is cheerful to look upon, 
but troublesome to keep in order. It is dusty 
and costly in its operation. The best place 
to secure the heat generated by the fire which 
occupies it, is at the top of the chimney. A 
coal stove in each room may be " a thing of 
beauty," if the ornamental castings on it are 
handsome ; but to have Bridget bouncing in 
at intervals, with a scuttle of coal, and to lis- 
ten to the sound of the poker with which she 
vexes the burning anthracite, is hardly " a joy 
forever." The quiet working of a gas stove 
secures exemption from cinders, ashes and 
dust ; but the carbonic acid generated by it is 
unwholesome, the expense is great, and, ex- 
cept for very small rooms, the heat obtained 
is inadequate. The furnace in the cellar 
spends a large proportion of its energy in 
warming the bricks vrhich surround it, and in 
giving out beat to that portion of the hcuse 
which is not generally used for habitation, 
save by cats and rats. 

Are we on the road to anything better ? 
Steam has been used with advantage, for the 
heating of dwellings, hotels and factories. A 
convenient low pressure apparatus seems to 
work well, the principal objection against it 
being its costliness. For small houses this is 
an insuperable obstacle to its general intro- 
duction. 

The idea is now advanced tha;t we may heat 
our dwelling-houses .in cities by means of steam, 
furnished in pipes, from a certain steam appa- 
ratus, as gas is furnished. To a certain ex- 
tent this may be practicable, but there is a 
distance at which steam loses its value, and 
stale steam is about as worthless a thing as 
can be charged for. If generators are placed 
within convenient distances of each other, 
there is no good reason why steam should not 
be furnished to whole neighborhoods as a 
means of heating and cooking. A block of 
houses could easily be heated in this manner, 
and with great economy. If the steam is fur- 
nisbed regularly and reliably, the amount of 
domestic comfort promoted would be incalcu- 
lable. The saving of dust, ashes, smoke, 
cinders, and general botheration, would be 
incredible. 



site iHittast^r Amur. 



DEVOTED TO 



Agriculture, Horticulture, Domestic Economy and Miscellany , 

EDITED BY S. S. RATHVOX AND ALEXANDER HARRIS. 



" The Farmer is the founded' of civilization." — WEBSTER. 



Vol. ir. 



APRIL, 1872. 



A'o. 4. 



AGRICULTURAL. 



ATMOSPHERIC AND ELECTRIC FER- 
TILIZERS. 



MESSRS. EDITORS: Our venerable 
friend of Columbia seems to be deter- 
mined not to believe in atmospheric fertili- 
zers, nor in the salutary influence of electrici- 
ty on plants, and is even skeptical as to the 
economical use of artificial manures. Now, I 
wonder if a little peal of California thunder, 
together with a trifling flash of lightning, 
might not have a tendency to shock him a 
little, and like on the vegetable kingdom, 
drive out all that is calculated to vitiate, and 
restore him to a healthy ondition, thereby 
relieving his mind of that ignorance which he 
acknowledges with regard t j atmospheric fer- 
tilizers. 

For the purpose of bringing about the con- 
summation of such a happy state of things, I 
will associate myself with an author, whose 
name I will not mention, not because I am 
not ashamed or afraid of him, for I will stick 
to him with the utmost tenacity, so long as 
there is a button left on his coat, and endeavor 
to ward off all interlopers who mxy attempt 
to rob him of his atmospheric fertilizing 
laurels : 

" I know that it is not common to look on 
the gases in the atmosphere in the light of 
manures, but they are nevertheless decidedly 
so. Indeed, they are almost the only organic 
manures ever received by the uncultivated 
parts of the earth, as well as a large portion 
of that which is occupied in the production of 
food for man. If these were not manures, 
if there were no means by which they could 



be used by plants, the fertility of the soil 
would long since have ceased, and the earth 
would now be in an unfertile condition. 

" That this must be true will be proved by a 
few moments' reflection. The fertilizing gases 
in the atmosphere being composed of the con- 
stituenls of decayed plants and animals, it is 
as necessary that they should be again re- 
turned to the form of organized matter as it is 
that constituents taken from the soil should 
not be put out of existence." 

Thus in the course of nature the atmospheric 
fertilizers are plentifully supplied to the soil, 
without the immediate attention of the farmer. 
The laws of nature are so beautifully and har- 
moniously arranged, and perform their func- 
tions in such a quiet way, that unmindful man 
may be surrounded with the most astonishing 
works, and enjoy all the benefits of their pro- • 
duction, and yet be iijnorant of the cause that 
produced the effect. But must this necessa- 
rily be so? Can we not by exercising our 
plebian reasoning faculties unravel, at least, 
some of the mysteries of nature? Now I 
claim no such honors fur myself, but being 
dependent on the atmosphere, I am induced 
with Pope to say: "I am an atmospheric 
creature." 

My associate, who keeps himself very close 
to my elbow, is continually whispering such 
things into my ear, and from the language 
that hn, uses I am inclined to believe that he 
knows something and has actually made some 
discoveries. Now I do rot want him to prompt 
me too much with these newfangled ideas, 
or our friend might think that I am writing a 
novel. But he continues to say that the air, 
in circulating through the soil, gives up fertiliz- 
ing gases to the carbon which it may con- 



62 



THE LANCASTER EARMER. 



tain, and also gives an analytical table, in 
which he shows that ten bushels of wheat will 
extract from the soil twelve pounds of inor- 
ganic matter, and that the twelve pounds are 
composed of nine different ingredients, all of 
which are necessary to raise the ten bushelfl 
of wheat. Now of the twelve pounds 6.01 are 
phosphoric acid, a little over one-half of all 
the ingredients, showing clearly that this 
ingredient is v-jry heavily drawn on, and that 
it is oae of the principal coQstituents in the 
formation of wheat; hence the necessity of a 
liberal return to the soil of this ingredient in 
order to keep up the supply and iusure success. 
Novv as lightning contains a great deal of 
phosphorus, and during the prevalance of 
thunderstorms emits it freely, Avith which the 
air becomes impregnated, and the air circulat- 
ing through the soil would naturally deposite 
it there, as one of the most important elec- 
trical atmospheric fertilizers. I have no 
doubt that all the other ingredients may find 
their way to the soil, through some natural 
channel of which vre are ignorant. 

Now, Messrs. Editors, as we farmers have 
been goiog on in the even tenor of our way, 
manuring and cropping year after year, and 
not knowing what ingredients, nor what 
quantity, we added to the soil, and also not 
knowing what amount of these ingredients 
ours crops extracted from the soil, thus going 
it blind and being dependent on chance, may 
\\iQ not, by our ignorance of this, have ex- 
hausted, or so far reduced some of the most 
essential ingredients, as to cause the failure, 
and then leave nature to do what we didn't 
know how to do. Truly, sirs, successful farm- 
ing has become a science, and in order to be- 
come successful we must become acquainted 
with the laws that trovern it, or else continue 
to go it blind, and only to take good crops 
when nature will bestow them. There has 
been a great deal said in your journal about 
the failure ; but no plausible cause assigned 
and no remedy suggested. I therefore ven- 
tured to offer a suggestion,, with the hope of 
seeing some developments made and gaining 
some information on the subject, which ap- 
pears to me ought to be the undoubted right 
of every reader. But our friend from " Co- 
lumbia " seems to think there is no such thing 
as I sugg83ted. Will our esteemed, unknown 
friend, with a name, have' the kindness to sug- 
gest something more plausible and relieve me 



of such a great iiJeal delusion ? Until he doe's, 
I must continue to adhere to this like bricki* 
to mortar. 

Our friend has very truly said that " man • 
may sow, but Gnd giveth the increase." This 
he is doing all the time, by the Avise and har- 
monious administration of the laws of nature, 
and doing it in such a quiet and mysterious 
way that we short-sighted men can't conceive 
it, but in innumerable instances are forced to 
acknowledge our ignorance. 

But where is the man, especially the mau 
engaged in agricultural pursuits, who is re- 
veling, as it were, in the very lap of nature, 
that will look at nature around him and its 
wisely governed laws, that will not find some 
little room and time for study and admiration, 
and thereby, from some a;)pareGtly novel 
(there is nothing new in nature, it is only 
because man is ignorant that it appears so), 
idea of the unbounded and indefinable claim 
of causes and effects. 

I have formed a slight acquaintance with 
another author. "•' Oh ! no I'll never mention 
him, but his name is sometimes heard,'' who 
says: "' At sea the winds swell the mariner's 
sails, and speed his course along the watery 
way." By land they perform the office of au 
immense seedsman, scattering abroad the 
seeds of numberless plants, which, through 
the support of many animals, are too small 
for the management or too mean for the at- 
tention of man. Here are lightnings stationed, 
in the act to spring whenever their piercing 
flash is necessary, either to destroy the 
sulphurus vapors, or dislodge any other nox- 
ious matter which might prejudice the deli- 
cate temperature of ether, and impart that 
life-giving principle which is so necessary to 
all vegetation. Here we may well give vent 
to the ideas of Pope : 

" Vast chain of being which from God began, 
Nature's ethereal, liumau augel, man." 

Now, Messrs. Editors, I hardly know what 
to do. This new companion, with whom I 
thought I had formed but a slight acquaint- 
ance, seems to be a very warm-hearted fel- 
low, and is actually becoming more annoying 
than the first one. He keeps sliding up so 
closely, and seems fully determined to put into 
my head some of his newfangled electrical 
ideas, whether I am willing or not. " He seems 
determined to convince me against my will, 
but I think I'll hold my own opinion still." 

Now mark what he says. It appears to me 



THE LAJ^CASTER FARMER. 



he holds very singular ideas. lie says: " One 
very particular effect of lightning. is what the 
vulgar call fairy circles. These are of two 
•kinds. One kind is around, bare path, about 
a foot broad, with green grass in the middle, 
and is frequently seven or eis'ht yards in 
diameter. The other is a circle of the same 
breadth, of very green grass, much fresher 
than that in ihe middle. These are generally 
observed after storms of thunder and iight- 
uing. And it is no wonder that lightning 
like all other fires, moves circularly, and burns 
more at the extremity than in the middle. 
The second kind of circles, without all doubt, 
spring originally from the first, the grass 
which was burnt up by the lijjhluing growing 
uf.erward more fresh and green." 

Now I must consider this matter a little 
while before I will allow myself to be con- 
vinced. Could the simple burning of the 
grass on the surface have produced this luxu- 
riant growth ? Or did Ihe fluid in performing 
its revolutions impart an essential ingredient 
to the earth, that in Ihe great natural labora- 
tory was converted into food, and taken up 
by the uuburned roots, that cau-sed the grass 
to grow so wonderfully fi:esh and green ? If 
the latter is the fact, and it certainly looks 
plausible, then I must admit that I am con- 
vinced, beyond the shadow of a doubt, and 
that there is such a thing as atmospheric fer- 
tilizers, and that this is one of the beneficial 
effects of electricity on ail vegetation. 

Our worthy friend asks whelher I could sup- 
pose tbat electricity can effect beneficially 
wheat in the barn ? This appears to me to 
be a most, singular question. Whoever heard 
<.f ^ucli a novel idea? I am sure I didn't. I 
hardly know how to answer, but for the sake 
of liaving something to say I will suppose one 
of these vulgai- electrical fairy circles wending 
its way into a mow stored full of wheat, and 
keep dancing around in there for a while in 
regular Indian war style. The only inference 
I caa draw is, that it would very soon be in 
ashes, and that this would be one of the ill 
effects of electricity. 

The a-^-hes, however, might be beneficially 
used in the raising of another crop ; but then, 
1 tliiuk, it would require such a vast amount 
of chemical knowledge to apply it in such a 
manner as to make it pay that we might as 
well class it among our friend's extravagant 
artificial manures. Don't you think so ? 



Our friend, who " hails from the happy land 
of Columbia," seems to have his mind consid- 
erably disturbed for want of knowing a name. 
I am not much of a florist; but it appeals to 
me I would select the rose, however, full of 
thorns, and namtless it might be, and allow 
liitn to hold on to the skunk cabbage with all 
its cinuining beauties and odoriforous allure- 
ments. Siuely, my friend, according to the 
laws of equity, a fair choice would be no rob- 
bery. As to laurels, I claim none, and the 
inttrioper that would uadertake to rob me 
would be mo.-5t sadly disappointed, for in all 
my subtractions 1 have found that, to take 
nothing from nothing, nothing remained. 

Our friend's skunk comparison reminds me 
of an anecdote I rf'ad some years ago of a 
well-to-dj Irish farmer. I don ot recollect the 
exact language, but will try to givesomel,hing 
near it : He purchased a farm in a certain 
neighborhood, one field of which was detached 
by a small farm owned by an American, and 
as Americans are very fond of flowers, they 
had reared a beautiful flower-garden along 
the road-side, oa which they erected a small 
implement-house with a board floor in it, and 
under which a skunk had taken up its 
" io' al habitation" for the purpose of propa- 
gating its race. Now as the attachment of the 
mother skunk to its young is very strong, she 
will show fight whenever annoyed. 

Along this road the Irish farmer's sou, a 
soiall boy, had to drive the cattle to pasture 
in the detatched field. When he came along 
in the evening, while driving the cattle out 
for the night, this skunk would make its ap- 
pearance and assume quite a menacing atti- 
tude ; the boy, being afraid, kept off at a re- 
spectable distance. He repeatedly expressed 
his fears to his father, but be never heeded 
him uniil matters grew so serious that the 
son refused to drive the cattle along there any 
longer, and he begged to be allowed to drive 
them into another field. "-No," said the heroic 
father, " there they must go \ come along you, 
•ittle fraid, I'll co with you and see if any of 
the American tlowers can fvighten me." Well, 
away they went, the son keeping on behind 
when approaching near the garden. The 
skunk, as usual, made its appearance ; the son 
took to the fence on the opposite side of 
the road to witness the fight, and the old 
man v/ith a braaen front approached the 
flowery enemy, and, when near enough, with 



6^ 



THE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



one dash of the foot sent him a-flyine, how- 
ever not itjuring h-ra much. As soon as 
the enemy recovered his equilibrium he put 
himself in position again, and wiih one twirl 
of his extreme appendage sent such a shower- 
bath of sweet-scented aroma on the old hero 
that caused him to change front and take to 
his heels ; the enemy, taking advantage of th's 
part of the battle, pursued. The son on the 
fence witnessing his father's defeat, en- 
couraged him by crying aloud: ''liun, bigfraid, 
or little fraid will catch you " As soon as the 
would-be Irish hero arrived at home and re- 
covered his equilibrium somewhat, but before 
being altogether relieved of the effects of the 
battle, he declared that if his Araerioan neigh- 
bors did'nt quit raising such nasty things in 
their flower gardens, that will «pit in their 
neighbor's faces in such a way, he would sell 
out and lave the countfary. 

Well, there does appear to be something in 
a name. I have no doubt, if our Irish hero 
would have know the name and nature of the 
animal, he would have guarded himself with 
more precaution, and armed himself with the 
poor old Indian's gun. 

Our friend also asks whether we may not 
.hope f(;r a crop of 30 or 40 bushels to the acre, 
next harvest, on account of the ) eavy thun- 
der stoTms, after harvest last year? 

Now, as inhalation and exhalation, in the 
verv nature of things, are going on all the 
time, I will answer by asking another ques- 
tion. 11 our friend should happen to get sick 
(which I hope may never be the case), an<i be 
cured by a certain medicine, and after being 
curedhe would take a dose of the same medi- 
cine, could he hope that that dose would cure 
him of the same disease a year afterward? 
Does he not believe that by a natural course 
of evacuation it would be carried eft', and re- 
quire a fresh dose? 

Messrs. Editors : You uo doubt have been 
tired of me long ago. I will therefore clo&e by 
bidding our friend adieu, and wishing him 
every degree of comfor . I remam yery truly 
an humble observer in a local 

March 13, 1872. HABITATION. 



To Prevent Cattle from Jumping 
Fences. — Clip off the eyelashes of the uuder 
lids with a pair of scissors, and the ability 
of disposition to jump is as effectually destroy- 
ed as Samson's power was by the loss of his 
locks. The animal will not attempt a fence 
until the lashes are grown again. 



[We publish the following address of the 
Kafional Agricultural Association in order 
to help to extend its organization and thus 
become more national.] 

UNITY OF ACTION AMONG AGRI- 
CULTURISTS. 

TO THE PRESS THROUGHOUT THE UNITED 
STATES AND TERRITORIES. 

The duty of transacting the business of the 
National Agricultural Association ad interim 
devolves, by the Constitution, upon the Presi- 
dent and Secretary. Our first and greatest 
duty, unquestionably, is to make known to the 
people throughout the length and breadth of 
our land the existence of such an organization; 
its purposes and ol jecis, the time of meeting, 
the basis of representation and such other 
matters as may be of general interest to the 
farmers and other agricultural associations 
throughout the United States. There is no 
method by which this can be done so effectually 
and so quickly ss by and through the press ; 
and we trust that we are not asking too much 
of it to aid us in an enterpiise so praiseworthy, 
so patriotic, and with possibilities tor good so 
immens ■, wides^pread, and of such transcendent 
importance to the highest interests of the 
country. 

Any improvement in the methods of agri- 
culture guarantees is an improvement in every 
other industrial pur.-uits. The business of ag- 
riculture li 8 at the foundation of all others, 
and unless the farmers are prosperous oth r 
classes cannot be, for the material of art must 
of necessity be supplied by the production of 
nature. Any organization, therefore, that 
look« to an enlarged and progressive develop- 
ment of agricultural science and a diffusion of 
agricultural facts and an elevation of ag- 
ricultural industry, is of general and perma- 
nent benefit to the entire country. The ob- 
jects of the National Agricultural Association 
are : 

1. To protect this leading industry from un- 
just discriminations m the legislation of the 
country. Ail other arts and trades have 
their organizations, and their voices are heed- 
ed in our legislative halls. The farmers of 
the country Iiaye no perfected national or- 
ganization. Instead of joining their united 
energies to effect deliverance from those evils 
that have oftentimes sorely oppressed them, 
they have preferred to work singly, pulling in 
various and oftee opposite directions ; neu- 



\. 



THE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



65 



tralizing the power of each other and pro- 
ducing a state of rest and inactivity by the 
exertion of equal and opposing forces. In 
this way they have in a large measure nulli- 
fied t'eir influence and importance. One of 
the leadius objects of the Association is to 
centralize and consolidate this power, so that 
it may be used at any time that it may be 
nece^^sary for the pr )tecLioa and defense of 
the pursuit of agriculture. 

2 To collect and disseminate information 
pertaining to agriculture, and lo act conj oiully 
with, and as an assistant to, the Agricultural 
Depar ment at Washington. 

3. To awaken among farmers a class spirit 
which induces co-operatiou and associated 
effort. 

4. To dignify and popularize I he business 
of agriculture, by showing its importance and 
usefulness to the country ; by making it a de- 
sirable field for educated young men to enter; 
by holding forth its past history, its splendid 
promises, its many advantages, its independ- 
ence, its liberalizing tendencies, its con serva- 
tism, its comparative freedom from failure, 
and its healthful and invigorating influences. 

5. To create unity of aims as well as con- 
cert of action in refer^tice to those measures 
calculated to insure efficiency aud to secure 
the development of this great national pur- 
suits ; also to consider questions affecting its 
commercial relations and the means of trans- 
portation, and to tike such steps as may be 
necessary and proper to protect it against the 
influences of the great accumulations of capi- 
tal in commercial centers, guarding it against 
heartless speculators and great corporations. 

BASIS OF REPRESENTATION. 

The constitution provides that each State 
and Territory shall be entitled to two delegates, 
to be appointed by the State Agricultural 
Society or Association, if there be such an 
organization ; if there is not, then the Gover- 
nor of such State or Territory shall appoint 
its delegates. 

Each agricultural college in the United 
States, organized in conformity with the law 
of Congress of 1862, made for that purpose, 
shall be entitled to one representative. 

That each regularly orgauiz >d agricultural 
society, of fifty or more members, which shall 
have contributed to the funds v*f this national 
organization, in proportion to their represen- 



tatives, shall be entitled to one representa- 
tive. 

Delegates in all cases shall be active mem- 
bers of some agricultural organization; they 
shall preseet credentials u.der seal from their 
respective constituencies; their certificates 
shall state the bodies represented, and the 
number of members in each. 

DUES. 

At a meeting of the Executive Council of 
the National Association, upon the adjourn- 
ment of the convention, it was, on motion, re- 
solved that each agricultural organization in 
each Slate and Territory of the United States, 
upon the payment to the treasurer of five 
dollars for the first fifty members, one dollar 
for each additional fifty members, or frac- 
tional part thereof, and such further contri-' 
butioDS as they may deem proper, shall be 
regarded as constituent bodies of this Asso- 
ciation, and shall be furnished with a copy of 
every publication or report emanating from 
this association. 

The present treasurer is F. H. French, 
Xashville, Tenn., to whom remittances may 
be made by the various agricultural associa- 
tions. 

The next session will be held in St. Louis, 
on the 4lh Monday in May, 1872. We hope 
that every local organization in the United 
Slates will be repieseuted. Essayists have 
been appointed, aud it is expected that the 
occasion will be one of great interest to those 
engaged in agriculture. All who want more 
definite information can procure a copy of the 
coastitntiou and proceedings, by addressing 
the secretary at Nashville, Tenn 

F. Julius LeMoyne, President. 

J. B. Killebrew, Secretary. 



WHENCE PLANTS DERIVE THEIR 
FOOD. 

FRIEND FREAS: In the Telegraph of 
January 31st, Mr. Royal Smith has an 
article on this subject, upon which I wish to 
offer some comments. Although I am not a 
scientific scholar, I am a sort of a naturalist, 
and have learned many things from nature, ob- 
servation and practice. I have also read 
some, and while working or reading my mind 
has been thinking. 

Many years ago I learned that Judce Buel, 
the founder of the Albany Cultivator^ the paper 
upon which our prestnt Country Gentleman was 



66 



THE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



engrafted, went from Eoctester to Albany 
and bought a piece of poor sand plain near 
the city. He cut a trench eight inches deep 
and three feet wide, and threw the saody soil 
one side, then filled the trench with'clay from 
adjoining laud; then cut another trench, lay- 
ing the sandy soil on the clav, and so went 
over his acres for a farm, the size I have for- 
gotten. Then he had a poor sandy soil with 
a clay subsoil, naturally well underdrained. 

He then sowed on clover and plowed in Ihe 
crop, and repeated this two or tliree times 
until he had his soil equal to the bc^t eandy 
loam. Although thi^ was expensive, being 
near the city it was worth more than it cost 
Now I have got the foundation text to preach 
from. 

From whence did Judge Buei'sgoil get its 
fertility? Prom the clover, to be sure ; and 
the clover must have returned to the soil a 
vast amount of fertility that it got elsewhere 
than from the soil. It cannot be from the 
rain water, for whilst we liave three feet of 
rain water annually, the sterile clay or sand 
is not fertilized. Animal and vegetable growth 
are much alike in many re-pects ; they both 
derive much of their food from the atmos- 
phere. 

But Mr. Smith will ask, why do we attach so 
much importance to rich soil and cultivation? 
The rich soil and manure are a chemical 
laboratory to assist in the manufacture of tJie 
g.ases upon which the plant feeds. The roots 
must have air to feed upon as well as water. 
Water is a mechanical agent to assist in ex- 
panding the cells, forming the leaves and 
growth of wood. The plant or tree is full of 
water and air, and is constantly giving off 
large quantities of water. It matters but 
little whether that water is from the well, rain 
or distilled water. It has to be finely filtered 
through the bark of the roots, and nearly all 
the earthy substance excluded from the pores 
of the wood. Experiments have taught us 
that when a tree was planted in a tub of earth 
it took but a small moiety of. its weight when 
dried from the earth, and the water used by 
the tree was distilled to exclude earthy sab- 
stances. ; 

Professor Johnson, of Yale College — and 
we have no higher authority in our country — 
}ias told us " that from ninety-five to ninety- 
nine per cent, of the entire mass (weight) of 



agricultural plants ]s derived directly or in- 
directly from the atmosphere." 

This was considerably more than my former 
calculation, and perhaps it will be quite in- 
credible to Mr. Royal Smith, and most other 
farmers and gardeners. Nevertheless, I took 
it as a truth and set myself about its applica- 
tion and adoption. 

We have been taught that a tree obtains its 
plant-food through the youngr, tender, succu- 
lent ends of its roots, called " spongioles," 
and through its shreds and root-hairs. But I 
early learned that when I transplant a tree I 
leave all the spongioles, rootlets and root 
hairs in the grou id, and set the iree out with- 
out them, and it immediately goes into action 
of growth, damaged only about in proportion 
to the amount of root left in its original place, 
and the dimage of imperfect setting out. If 
we had left all its nwu hs to receive its food, 
we certainly should have kil'ed the tree. It 
certainly receives food through every pore of 
the bark of all the roots, both great and small. 
I once transplanted a tree bj' setting it in stiff 
clay mud, and it never opened a bud. Why ? 
Not because it lacked its spongiole mouth?, 
but because I have of en set out trees with 
their roots worse mulSlated, and they grew 
readily. Not because it lacked a supply of 
water and earth. But because it lacked air at 
the roots. 

Now from these facts and my practical ex- 
perience I learn this lessou : The transplanted 
tree is in best condition when it has suitably 
rich earth, air and water, fr m which the gases 
upon which it feeds are generated, the earth 
finely pulverized and closely packed upon 
every part of the bark of all the roots, leaving 
the spongioles and rootlets out of the opera- 
tion, and the work is well done. The tree 
feeds upon water and m' stly oxygen gas, with 
some carbonic acid ; but precisely how it 
manufactures them into leaves, flowers, fruit, 
wood and bark, is among higher laws of nature, 
the secrets of which I have never been able to 
get into. Mr. Smith is a little puzzled to know 
how it is that one crop exhausts certain quali- 
ties of the soil. Each variety of plant has the 
power of choosing and absorbing the particu- 
lar properties of the gases it most delights in 
— the wheat, corn and potatoes, and the oak, 
apple and pine, varying somewhat in their 
wants ; but more essentially varying in their 
inherent faculty of manufacturing the raw 



THE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



67 



material into their particular products. These 
are interesting studies, proper for students at 
our Agricultural Colleges, where the hand 
that works must accompany the mind that 
thinks. SuEii Foster. 

Muscatine county^ Iowa. 

[The above, communicated to the German- 
town Telegraph, involves a problem that per- 
haps never will be satisfactorily solved, and 
probably the solution is not of so much im- 
portance in vegetable economy as the fact. 
It brings to our rfcollectioa a test whicb was 
said to have been made when we were still a 
" sm^ll boy." A hundred pounds oT earth, 
and one pound of willow were pUced in a tub. 
After receiving nothing but water for five 
years, they were again weighed and there was 
twenty pounds of willow and still nearly a 
hundred pounds of earth. The question was, 
where did the nineteen poundnot' willow come 
from? The answer was, that the earth, thy 
water, and even fertilizers, are but mediums 
throutjh which imponderable substances are 
absorbed, conveyed and condensed into j)ou- 
flerable and tangible substances, but how it is 
<lone, is perhaps not for us to know ; all that 
we need is to know that it is so, without a perad- 
venture. — Ed.] 



EGYPTIAN CORST. 



'E have rtcenily seen the advertise- 
ment of this corn iu one of the most 
respectable journals in the country . The seed 
is now for sale by Mr. F. E. G. Lindsey, Hol- 
ston, Washington county, Virginia, at SI. 50 
per package; and when it is said that from 
one package of seed enough can be raised this 
season to plant twenty or thirty acres next 
season, our readers of a mathematical turn of 
mind may be able to determine by a rule of 
supposition how m iny grains of corn such a 
package contains. The original seed was 
brought to the United States by Mr. Jones, 
our consular agent, on his return from Egypt. 
In addidon to Mr. Lindsey, it h.is been tested 
and indorsed by R. B. Hamilton, Esq., Ra- 
ven's New P. O., Va.; Capt. T. M. Coble, 
Craig's mills, and Capt. J. C. Staufield, Hol- 
ston ; and the veracity of these men has been 
indorsed by postmasters, ex-sht rifls and justi- 
ces of the peace. The corn itself has been 
favorably noticed by the Abiogton Virginian., 
the Cliniou (Mo.) Advocate., and the Washing- 
ton Constitutional Union. Its merits are, early 
maturing, prolific character, and comparative 
indifference to soil, as well as its weight and 
nutritious qualities. It is alleged that it will 



ripfin as far north as the city of Boston, even 
when planted in the last of July, and iu the 
South two crops on the same ground can be 
raised in one season. 

One hundred and fifty bu-hels to the acre 
has been estimated as its yield with good soil 
and proper culture ; but that an average crop 
may be produced with only the most ordinary 
culture. Its weight, by " sealed measure," is 
claimed to be sixty-five pouuds to the bushel. 
For domestic purposes, it is said to be unpa- 
ralleled, for when ground aad prop rly bolted 
it is equal in fineness and color to wheateu 
flour. It grows in the form of a tree, and 
thifty-four ears have been known to grow on 
one stalk, but the average is from five to fif- 
teen. Ocher merits are claimed for it, espe- 
cially as a forage ; but we cannot enumerate 
them here, and we only call the attention of 
our farmers to the subject from the fact that 
there seems to be a gap in the productiveness 
of our breadsluffs in this country and State 
that is waiting for something to fill it up. It 
is true we have tobacco in abundance, but what 
is tiiis weed to the hungry poor in a season of 
the failure of vvheat. Should the wheat, rye, 
and oat crop all fail in any season, there is 
still time enough to mature a crop of the 
Egyptian corn under ordinary circumstances. 
Of course the representations in reference to 
it might not be realized, but we confeos that 
if we were a corn cultivator we would " risk 
one package anyhow." — Er>s. 



Soap foe Borers. — The Prairie Farmer 
says that in order to make the application of 
soap to ihe trunks of apple trees entirely ef- 
fectual for the exclu-iou of the borer, it is 
necessary to take a very thick soft soap ; with- 
out diluting, heat it to the boiling point, and 
then paint the trees freely with it, especially 
near the ground and thei.ce up some distance 
among the branches. It strikes into the bark 
when thus put on hot, so that one aj plication 
about the first of June protects the trees for 
the season, killing the young borers or eggs 
which happened to be at the surface of the 
bark. We have never tried this mode^ but 
have used tue old one of rubbing with cold 
soft soap, which always proved useful, but 
never entirely eftectual ; and it was always 
necessary, iu order to t If set compleie extir- 
pation, to go over the for IS once <r twice a 
year with the knife and fivxib e wire. Our 
readers will, of course, undi-rstand that the 
soap has no tffdct on borers already in the 
wood. 



68 



THE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 




Easter Bergatnot Fem\ 



HORTICULTURE. 

SYNONYMS 

WINTER BERGAMOT ; Bergamot de 
Paques : Bergamot d''Hivfr; Padding- 
ton. Described technically under the follow- 
ing formula: " Size, medium or rather large ; 
round obovate, approaching turbinate, nar- 
row at stalk ; surface yellowish-green ; dots 
oouppicuous ; stalks from three-fourths to an 
inch and a half long; calyx small ; basin round ; 
flesh firm, becoming melting, juicy, bnttery ; a 
second or third-rate dessert fruit, but fine for 
fstewing, keeping ihrcjush winter. Differs from 
Easter Baxirfe in its inferior quality, rounder 
form, lighter color, and in its green shoots." 
This pair is ?aid to succeed better on the 
quince stock than on pear, and therefore it 
shouM be mainly cultivated as a dwarf. A 
good keeping winter pear is certa'nly very 
desirable, and one that will keep well until 
Easter posseses a rare merit that will fully 



compensate for a shade or two of inferiority 
in quality. 

Although in an economical sense the pear, 
as an object of general fruit culture, cannot at 
'all be compared with the apple, yet, when 
grown in full perfection, it far surpasses that 
fruit in its greater delicacy, its melting, juicy 
testure, and perhaps only falls below it in con- 
sequence of the less uniformly healthy habit 
of the two. The great number of varieties 
in this fruit is perfectly astounding, and every 
year this number seems to be increasing, so 
that without some reliable guide upon this sub- 
ject the inexperienced culturist would bard- 
' iy know what variety or varieties he ought to 
adopt. Some of these varieties, of course, are 
very inferior, and the only use in their culture 
at all has been to illustrate what ought to be 
rejected. There are not many J^rs^ra<« pears, 
and therefore a fruit of this kind that is sf- 
ond-rate., or even third-rate, comes within the 
category of what is worthy of cultivation. A 
good winter culinary variety, as we before 



THE L A J^ CASTER FARMER. 



69 



have said, is furely something very desirable 
at that season of the year, when there is usu- 
ally a dearth of the luxurious snd refreshing 
summer fruits ; and of such we think it safe to 
recommend the curivation of the Easter Ber- 
gamof. 



OUR REVISED FRUIT LIST. 

WE again present to our readers, as the 
time approaches for transplanting, a 
revised list of fruit trees, vines, etc.. w ich 
we can recommend for general cultivation. 
Twelve or fifteen varieties of psars and eight 
to ten of apples are all-sufficient, provided 
they are the best adapted to the soil ai;d 
locality — a fact which each one, upon trial, 
must judge for himself. Frequently a pear, 
an apple, or a grape may do well for a few 
years and then deteriorate ; or may do ex- 
cellently well in one location and not in 
another, though separated by a very narrow 
space. In such case it had better be disposed 
of by grafting it with more reliable varieties. 
We have changed our opinion respecting a 
number of fruits within the last half dozen 
years, and yet in some of the instances we are 
convinced the fault was in the location and 
soil. 

According to our present preference, we 
should select the following for our own plant- 
ing: 

STANDARD PEARS. 



J. DoyeTme d'Ftp, 

2 Earlv Catharine, 

3 Bloodirool, 

4. Summer Juliana, 

5. Tyson, 

6. Hartlett, 

7. Belle Lucrative, 

8. Boussock, 

9. Manning's EMzabeth, 



10 Spokel, 
n. Giffar<1, 
12. Howell, 
18 Lodge, 

14. Sbelrien, 

15. Aiilou, 
Ifi. Lawrence, 

17. Feaster, 

18. Reading. 



For those who may desire a smaller num- 
ber, we should select, 1. Doyenne d'Ete ; 2, 
Bloodgood ; 3. Tyson ; 4. Bartlett ; 5. Belle 
Lucrative ; G. Seckel ; 7. Lawrence ; 8. Read- 
ing. They ripen in the order they are ar- 
rauired. 

Of the above general list, from No. 1 to 6 
are summer varieties ; from 6 to 14 autumn ; 
and 16 to 18 winter, thus affording a suflQcient 
number for each of the periods, of the best 
known sorts for this region. 

It will be seen that we have added the 
Beading, and arc satisfied that it is fully en- 
titled to a place in our list of standard pears. 
It is a sub-acid pear, fully as large as the 



Bartlett, and is a brisk, spicy and most re- 
freshing fruit. We had some grafts of it 
years ago, but being put on an old Windsor 
tree, they all died. At the city of Reading, 
Pa., it is highly esteemed, where it is raised 
in great quantities. As we write this we have 
half a dozen in our fruit closet, irom a basket 
sent us by a friend two weeks ago, and they 
are decidedly the best pear we have at this 
season of the year. It will easily keep into 
March or later with care. 

After the present year's trial we sha 1 de- 
cide whether or not to retain the Anjuu and 
Howed upon the list. 

DWARF PEARS. 



7. Belle Lucrative, 

8 Lawrence, 

9 Dearboru's Seedling, 
III. Feaster, 
11. Bosc 
i2. Boussack. 



1. St. Micliael d'Archange, 

2. Bartlett, 

3. Oomice, 

4. Rostiezer, 

5. Diet, 
C. Tyson, 

APPLES. 

1. Maiden's Blusli, 5. Smith's Cider, 

2. Baldwin, G. Ward's La e, 

3. Ku-set, 7 Fornwalder, 

4. Jtfteries, 8. Cornell's Fancy. 

PEACHES. 

5. Crawford's Late, 

6. >ortbt-rn S|iv, 
7 Frteman's White, 
8. Smack's Yellow. 

GRAPES. 

5. Martha, 

6. Croveling, 

7. Delaware, 
6. Rogers No. 32 

CHERRIES. 

5. Belle Mngniflque, 

6. Downtou, 

7. E'ton, 

8. Kentish or Pie. 
RASPBERRIES. 

1. Brinckle's Orange, |4. Hprstine, 

2. Hornet, 5. Philadelphia, 

3. Catawissa, |6 Hudson Antwerp. 

STRAWBERRIES. 

1. Triomphe de Gand, 13. Hovey's Seedling, 

2. Green Prolific, |4. Albany Seedling. 

CURRANTS. 

|2. Red Dutch. 
GOOSBERRIES. 

1 2 Downing. 
BLACKBERRIES. 

13. Wilsjn'a Early. 



1. Crawford's Early, 

2. Hale's Earlv, 

3. Troth'.s Early, 

4. Oldmixon, 

1. Telegraph, 
2 Concord, 

3. Hartford, 

4. Rogers No. 4, 

1. May Duke, 

2. Etrly Hichmond, 

3. Black Tartarian, 

4. Black Eagle, 



1. Black Naples, 
1. Houghton, 



1. New-Rochelle, 

2. I'Jorchester, | 

It is better that those who intend to culti- 
vate fruit and have to make purchases should 
take this list with them to the nursery, and 
adhere to it as far as possible. It is not fair 
to the nurseryman to ask him for a list of the 
best sorts, as he has all kinds to sell to accom- 
modate every taste and demand. 

The amateur or those who want only a few 
varieties will find the above list entirely re- 
liable, and hence cannot go wrong by adhering 
to it. 

"We cull from the columns of the German- 



70 



THE LANCASTER FARMER.. 



town Telegraph, of February 28, 1872, the 
above list of fruits, which, from our own 
limited observation and experience, but more 
particularly the indorsement of the veteran 
editor of that journal, we submit to the fruit 
growers of Lancaster county as worthy of 
their cultivation, subject to the contingencies 
and qualifications included in his explaidtory 
remarks. Indeed we want no better general 
authority in matters of this kind than Maj. 
Freas, although, so far as it relates to this 
county, we would include in the list of apples 
our l<)cal varieties now becommg known under 
the names of " All Summer," and " Agues." 



And now, as germain to this subject, we 
may be permitted to say that we have not a 
more able and welcome visitor on our ex- 
change list than the Germantown Telegraph- 
Altho igh it onlv devotes about one third of 
one ■. f its larare pages to practical agriculture 
in its various departments and economies, yet 
what it does furnish is condensed and reliable. 
Moreover, its literary, political and domestic 
departments are of a high order, and, on the 
whole, it Kipplies a place occupied by few 
other journals in the country, whatever their 
pretentions may be. — R. 




Houghton's Seedling Gooseberry. 



HOUGHTON'S SEEDLING GOOSE- 
BERRY. 

THIS variety is best suited to our climate 
on account of it being entirely free of 
mildew. The bush is a strong grower, hardy 
and very productive ; fruit medium, roundish, 



inclined to oval; skin, pale red, valuable 
market variety. 

The above illustration and description of 
the Houghton's Seedling Gooseberry is taken 
from the illustrated and descriptive catalogue 
of small fruit, plants, seed potatoes, etc., cul- 
tivated and for sale by John G. Kreider, 



THE LAJf CASTER FARMER. 



71 



nurseryman and fruit gro-^^er, Lancaster, Pa. 
[We are pleased to see the perceptible ad- 
vance which is beinsr made in the culture of 
the gooseberry, and any variety which is free 
from mildew — which appears to have been 
the great drawback to its culture in times 
past, will be sure to reward the grower of 
small fruits lor all his toil. As a general 
thing they are hardy and proliflc bearers, 
and well adapted to the common i;un of soil, 
and for culinary purposes have not many 
equals. Their firm character makes them 
particularly desirable as a market article, as 
no small fruit can bear transportation better 
than they. Houghton's Seedling has received 
the indorsement of some of our best fruit 
growers, and therefore it must ultimately 
come into general favor.] 

DOMESTIC. 

EXPERIMENTS WITH ONIONS. 

JOHNB. WOLF, M, D,, of Washington, 
forwarded to the Farmers' Club, New 
York, the following communication : 
On shipboard, at New Orleans, in the year 
1849, in charge of one hundred marines, with 
cholera among them, I observed that those 
who ate freely of onions, supposing thsm to 
be healthy, were attacked certainly and fa- 
tally. Onions and salt cured the bi.e of a 
rattlesnake on my son, and are considered 
specific in all snake bites. I have found 
four separate witnesses of phenomena con- 
nected with small-pox and fever : 

1. Onions in rooms wiih small-pox rot 
rapidly. 

2. Blisters rise on them. 

3. They retain and communicate the virus 
many weeks after the epidemic has sul sided. 

4. Applied to the feet of fever patients, 
they rapidly turn black, 

5. They prevent the spread of small-pox in 
thickly populated tenements by absorbing the 
virus. 

G. A man with hydrophobia, in his frenzy, 
ate voraciously of onions, and recovered. 
From all these facts may be deducted: 

1. That onions should not be eaten when 
there is a prevailing epidemic. 

2. That onions sliced and frequently changed 
are good dibinfectants. 

3. That experiments should be made to test 



the extent of their usefulness. For many 
years I have opposed vaccination as ordin- 
arily done, and hence hail with satisfaction 
any means of mitigating the virus of this dis- 
temper. 

♦ 

DOCTORING OLD ORCHARDS. 

SEVERAL mo-^es are recommended how 
this can be successful'y done; but we do not 
see how it can be more effectually done than by 
the one we have frequently recommended. 
That is to cut out all the dying v\'ood,and 
three-fourths of the suckers, scrape the trunks 
of the trees completely, removing all the old, 
hard, broken bark ; wash with a preparation 
of whale-oil soap and water, a pound of soap 
to a bucket of water ; and give the orchard, not 
merely under the trees, but every part of it, 
a heavy top-dressing of good barn-yard or 
compost manure. If there is any life or pro- 
ductiveness lefc in the trees this will bring it 
out. 

The suggestion that the trunks of the trees 
should be shorn of all the boughs and allowed 
to sucker, and some of these when lars;e 
enough grafted, will prove a failure. The 
grafting of the ordinary suckers growing from 
the trunks of old trees can rarely be done with 
success. We tried this several times, and the 
grafts all died at the end of the second or third 
year. Far better to graft the old trees when- 
ever there is any smootJi-barked wood near 
enough to a main bough. They will not only 
grow, but iu most cases fruit the second year, 
and all' ays the third year. We have now 
growing on suckers from the main boughs, 
grafts of the Chance'lor pear set eighteen years 
ago, and they are yet to fruit the first speci- 
men! 

Not a day should be lost in getting at the 
orchards. — Gennantown Telegraph. 



APPLES. 

WE do not use apples enough in our families. 
Baked sweet apples should be on our tables 
every day ; some prefer sour apples. We should 
use them in pif\s, tarts, puddings, apple sauce, apple 
butter, or in some way every day. They are more 
healthy than corn and pork. 

The above is all very true, but that is not 
" what's the matter." We want to know 
how a man in indigent, or even moderat e cir- 
cumstances, is to keep his table daily supplied 
with either pies, tarts, puddings, butter, or 



7^ 



THE LAJ^CASTER FARMER. 



sauce, made of apples? Indeed it might be 
difficult for even a rich man to do so. We are 
exceeding y fond of apples, and have a high 
appreciation of their healthful qualities, but 
we confess that we cannot afford to use them 
as above recommended without an entire de- 
pletion or embarassment of our finances, and 
we cannot but think that there must be a 
"screw loose" somewhere in the productive 
economy of the country, that a fruit which is 
deemed so essential to domestic comfort as the 
apple, should, to the larger portion of the p eo- 
ple, and during the larger part of the year, so 
distinctly occupy the position of a luxury — and 
sometimes an exceedingly rare luxury. "We 
have seen prominent frut growers of this 
county pay as high as %'i CO a barrel for ap- 
ples, who had orchards of the capacity to 
bear hundreds of bushels ; and where, or how, 
under such circumstances, is the poor man to 
get them? It is true "we do use apples 
enouo;h in our families;" but how to get 
enough at a fair price is a problem, the solu- 
tion of which we have long been looking for. 



LIGHTENING HARD WORK. 

THiRE are many things in one's every- 
day work which will be done in diflerent 
ways by different people. Some get over a 
great deal easily and in a short time, and this 
is termed by practical people the " knack " of 
doing things, and by others common-sense. 
We are not sure hut some would say it was 
science. Be this as it may, it U a very good 
thing to have. 

Here is a man trying to split a log. He 
drives in his ax from the top of the chunk 
downward, and keeps on driving with all his 
force, and very often gives it up in disgust. 
Another takes the ax, sets the piece up with 
the narrow end downward, and with one 
short, easy stroke the pieces fly apart as 
easily as if the log was a piece of cheese. 

And now comes the Country Gentleman^ 
with another kink which, simple as it is, will 
be a blessing to the boy who has to do the 
wood-splitting. After the pieces have been 
sawn into fire-place lengths in order to split, 
it is often the question how best to make the 
pieces stand up or lie, while they are operated 
on. Many a toe has been cut while steadying 
the block, and many an eye has been black- 
ened by the flying piece ! This genius gets a 



hollow trunk, about half the depth of the 
piece to be slit, and sets said piece upright in 
the trunk. Thus they are split, but cannot 
fall down, and the splitter can keep on split- 
ting till the whole is as small as (thick) match 
wood, and never stop to pick up one single 
piece I 

And so it goes! It was atone time sup- 
posed that the editor had the easy work. He 
had to tell how^ but the worker had to do the 
hard work. All the farm work is getting so 
light that we shall soon want to give up the 
pen, and take to the easier and much more de- 
lightful task of splitting wood. 



HOW MUCH HORSES FEEL. 

MR. ROWELL relates some hornble 
cases in which horses had broken 
their bones at the fetlock joint and were com- 
pelled to walk upon their stumps, with their 
fore-feet turned up, as we should turn b;ick our 
knees, and yet continued to graze quietly un- 
til they were dispatched. He acknowledges 
that horses are keenly alive to the stroke of 
the whip, the prick of the spur and the sting 
of an insect. That they are peculiarly sensi- 
tive to lameness is also a matter of every-day 
experience. They groan when they are 
wounded on the field of battle, and by their 
looks and their restlessness betray great un- 
easiness when the lacerated flesh begins, to 
inflame. The absence of pain, particularly 
instances of extensive injury, can only be 
temporary, in the same way that the soldier 
is often unconscious for a time that his arm 
has been shot off or a ball been lodged in his 
body. The numbness which appears to be pro- 
duced by the concussion passes away, and the 
sensitiveness is to be judged by the suffering 
which ensues at a subsequent stage. Horses, 
no doubt, feel less than men, but they feel a 
great deal. It is impossible, however, to 
gauge with precision the degree of anguish 
which is allotted to each grade of animal life. 
— London Quarterly Review. 

[ We hope that no owner or driver of a horse, 
will ever attempt to shelter himself behind 
the assumption that horses do not feel pain as 
sensibly as man. It is said, that when Maj. 
Ringgold had his both legs shot off— or nearly 
off— in one of the early battles of the Mexican 
war, he suffered no pain, but calmly sunk into 
the arms of death from exhaustion. A horse 



THE LAJ^CASTER FARMER. 



73 



or a dog, or any other mammal, may occasion- 
ally exhibit the same indifference to pain, but 
these are only exceptional cases, influenced 
by counteracting causes, whatever they may 
be. VV e believe, however, that the lower we 
go down in the scale of animal organization, 
the less they are liable to the sensation of 
pain— indeed, some of the very lowest— the 
polypi for instance — if cu. up into pieces, each 
piei.e will become reorganized into a new and 
separate animal. Animals so circumstanced 
cannot be supposed to feel pain. So also 
dragon flies and bees which have been de- 
prived of the abdominal portion of their 
budies ; the head and thorax— to which are 
attached the feet and wings— have returned 
to their accustomed food, as though nothing 
serious had happened, but a sudden crushing 
of the segments which compose their bodies 
will produce a nervous tremor which seems to 
indicate the presence of great pain. Instances 
of the apparent absence of pain might be 
enumerated amongst the chelonians, but it is 
most humane to regard all animals as subjects 
of pain. J 

Chapped Hands.— The easiest and simp- 
lest remedy is found in every store. Take 
common starch and grind ic with a knife until 
it is reduced to smooth powder. Take a tin 
box and fill it with the starch thus prepared, 
so as to have it continually at hand for use. 
Then every time the hands are taken from 
the suds, or dish water, rinse them thoroughly 
iQ clean water, wipe them, and while they 
are still damp, rub a pinch of the starch thor- 
oughly over them, covering the whole sur- 
face. The eff it is magical. The rough, 
smarting skin is cooled, soo.hed and healed, 
bringing and insuring the greatest degree of 
comfort and freedom from this, by no means 
insignificant trial. We know many persons 
formerly afflicted with hands that would chap 
until the blood oozed from many minute crevi- 
ces, completely freed from the trouble by the 
use of this simple remedy. 



HOW TO :\Iake farm life at- 

TRACTIVE. 

First— By less hard work. Farmer? often 
unr'ertake more than they can do well, and 
consequently work too early and too late. 

(Second— By more system. The farmers 
should have a time to begin and stop labor. 



They should put more mind and machinery 
into their work. They should theorize as 
well as practice, and let both go together. 
Farming is healthy, moral and respectable, 
and in the long run may be made profitaole. 
The farmers should keep good stock and out 
of debt. 

Third— By taking care of health. Farmers 
have a healthy variety of exercises, but too 
often neglect cleanliness, eat irregularly and 
hurriedly, ^leep in ill-ventilated apartments, 
and exp se themselv.s needlessly to cold. 

Fourth — By adorning the home. Books, 
papers, pictures, music and reading should 
all be brou2;ht to bear upon the in-door 
family entertainments ; and neatness and 
comfort, order, shrubbery, bowers and fruits, 
shou'd harmonize all without. There would 
be fewer desertions of the old homesteads if 
pains were taken to make them more agree- 
able. Ease, order, health, and beauty are com- 
1 atible with farm life, and were ordained to 
go with it. 



ENTOMOLOGY. 



A NEW POTATO INSECT COMING. 

A CALIFORNIA paper says: Olive-green bugs 
about as large as a grain of tiax seed have 
completely ruined several fielJs of potatoes in Peta- 
luma valley. They appeared suddenly in great 
numbers, and in a day or two ate the vines to such 
an extent that they eoukl not live. There is a de- 
mand for information about the best means of pre- 
venting their ravages, says the same paper. Will 
not Prof. Riley give us information in regard tj 
this " new departure" fom the Pacific slope, wh )se 
intent is to devastate our potato fields, peihaps, the 
coming season ? "Forewarned is forearmed." 

The above very lucid description of " a new 
potato insect" is going " the rounds" of the 
newspaper:^. Neither Prof. Riley, nor any- 
body else, that had not seen the insects, could 
give any more " information" on such a sub- 
ject than if the writer had said they were as 
green as " cheese" and the size of a " piece 
of chalk." The essential preliminary steps, 
when any new insect depredator has been 
discovered, is to capture specimens of it and 
send them to an entomologist. They may, 
perchance, be new to him, but he will know 
to what ord r, family, and, perhaps, the genus 
they belong to, even if he does not know the 
species. He will then also be in a better con- 
dition to give information in reference to their 
habits, and the necessary means to effect 
their destruction. 



74 



THE LAJyCASTER FARMER. 



BOTANY. 



BOTAKY— IJANDOM SKETCHES. 

BY J. STAUFFER. 

'HAT can I say that has not been said 
over and over again, and may be 
found in the books? Still there are things 
learned in forty years' s'udy that may be of 
use to others, and there are facts recorded in 
books to which aiany have no access, and 
are yet equally interested. I therefore crave 
the indulgence of the readers of the Farmer, 
■who may knovir all about the matter, or do not 
care to know, the latter will no doubt skip it, 
and consider it a waste of valuable space. 

But relax your austerity, and let us enjoy a 
botanical ramble together, in early spring, 
when nature laughs out io her thousand varie- 
ties of flowers. See ! here is a fine white flower 
proceeding frbm the bosom of a young con- 
voluted leaf — right here in the shady wood 
along our path ; what is it? Every school 
boy knows the blood-root. Well, suppose we 
want to know what the books say of this, we 
find that it has many local names, such as 
Blood-root, Puccoon, Turmeric, Red-root, 
Ponesou, etc.; in German , Bothivurz and Blut- 
wurz. The botanical name is " Sanguinaria 
canadensis." The generic name is derived 
from the Latin — sanguis (blood) from the color 
of the juice in the root. This common and 
only species, growing in rich woods, is truly 
handsome in cultivation. The root is an acrid 
emetic, and dangerous in over-doses. The 
tincture in small doses excites the stomacli 
and accelerates the circulation. It is used in 
various forms. Farriers use the leaves to 
sweat horses. The Indians used it as'a paint, 
a dye and a medicine. It belongs to the pop- 
py family, which have a milky or colored 
juice, like the celandine, the juice of which is 
orange yellow, while in the poppy it is white. 
The opium poppy is the Papaver somniferum. 
Here also we fiad the May-apple iu full 
bloom. Some call it mandrake^ which name 
really is applied to the " Mandragora," quite 
a wonderful and celebrated plant, and is sim- 
ply a corruption of its proper name ; other 
local names are applied to it as — wild lemon, 
raccoon-berry, duck's-foot, pecan, yellow- 
berry, ground-apple, or in German : Busch 
Apfel and Enten Fuss. Thus we see the ne- 
cessity of proper scientific! names, at once ex- 



pressive to every scholar at least, of what- 
ever language. This well known common 
plant, has the scientific name of Podophyllum 
peltatum. I admit it is not so short as '' May- 
apple." Excuse ine for analyzing the scientific 
name, because many are prejudiced against 
the science on that account. This hard name 
is coined from the Greek — Podos, a foot and 
Puillon a leaf, just as the German proper 
name '•'•Enten Fuss''' or dack's-foot, the stem of 
the leaf centrally attached or peltate (shield- 
like) as in the " siurtion" properly Nasturtium 
or Indian cress, in which the leaves are pel- 
tate but undivided. The roots of this plant 
run along under the ground and form buds, 
and are really an underground stem, rooting 
at different points, which is termed a, Phizoma, 
in botanical language, and not properly a root. 
This also has medicinal properties. However, 
we are not now on medical botany, but in the 
woods so familiar to all of us. Let us look 
around. Here is the common blue violet, but 
it has not the fragrant smell of the sweet 
violet— the Viola odorata, as we find it in cul- 
tivation. This is the V. cucullata, the tallest 
and commoaest among the blue violets. The 
violet is emblematic of modesty — as it par- 
tially conceals itself aoaid the foliage, as it 
were in bashful timidity. W. Smith says : 

"A worn id's 1ov3 da«!p io the heart, 
Is like the violf.t fiower, 
That lilts its luodtst head apart 
In sonio sequestered bower." 

Yes, flowers have tht-ir language ; theirs is 
an oratory that speaks in perfumed silence, 
and there is a tenderness induced while con- 
templating their variegated beauty. To the 
poetical mind, they are not mute, and to the 
pious they form liaks between us and the Cre- 
ator. But come, let us look around us. See, 
here we fiad a small, modest, purplish flower, 
close to the ground, with its three lobed livor- 
shaped leaves, called the iiver-leaf, and just 
so, botanically, it is the Repatica triloba. The 
Greek ^ejyaz- signifies the liver, and hepatitis 
inflammation of the liver, which it was sup- 
posed could be cured by this plant. Let us 
examine the flower more carefully, and we see 
what seems to be calyx is really an involucre, 
and the colored sepals are mistaken for petals. 
Compare it with other fl jwers, it really be- 
longs to the Apetake ; but the sepals are 
petal-like, the involucre like a three-leaved 
calyx. 

Here, too, so early as May, wa find a low 
plant of a single stem, terminated by purplish 



THE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



'5 



flowers like ia the common radish, cruciform, 
of four petals, with a whirl of three compound 
leaves, variously toothed ; dig up the root, it 
is horizontal and fleshy, with a mustard-like 
taste, or like water cress, called tooth-wort 
and pepper root. This belongs to the natural 
order of the Cruciferai (mustard family) and is 
the Dentaria laciniata. There are other spe- 
cies, but not so common around here. Here 
we have cometo a rocky portion of the woods 
along the stream. See the large white blos- 
soms of the flowering dogwood. These grow 
from twelve to, thirty feet and are very showy 
shrubs. A facetious wag told m * h^ kaew 
the dog wood by the " bark." This s the 
Cornus florida. These large louud, or heart- 
shapedaudnotched white pel aMike leaves, are 
not the flower, as many think, but an involu- 
cre. Examine closely and you tiod a group of 
small flowers in the center of the iuvolu- 
crum, each bavingfour petals and four stame-s. 
The dwarf cornel or buuchberry is rather rare 
with us, more common northward. This has 
a similar involucre, but only grows to the 
height of five to seven inches. Tlie other spe- 
cies of cornel are shrubs three to ten feel 
high. The Cornus sericece, common in damp 
situations, is the "silky cornel," or kinnikinnik. 
But the other seven species do not have the 
showing involucre. 

The American papaw we find in flower. 
These are axillary and solitary, and very pecu- 
liar. The petals are dull purple, one and a half- 
inch wide, thickish ; the calyx has three sepals, 
and the corolla is formed of six petals in two 
rows ; stamens very numerous ; a tree ten 
to twenty feet high; fruit, two to three inches 
long, and relished by some. These belong to 
a tropical family, and is the only one genus 
found outside the tropic?, and is our cus- 
tard-apple, the Asamina triloba. The pa- 
paw found in the East and West Indies is the 
Carica papaya, and is a remarkable plant or 
small tree, with a soft, spongy stem ; large, 
deeply lobed leaves ; having gashed segments, 
and unisexual flowers, succeeded by oblong-, 
dingy, yellow fruit. Throughout the West 
Indies the juice of this treo, or an infusion of 
its fruit or leaves, is reputed to possess the 
remarkable property of causing a separation 
of the muscular fibre of animal flesh, and thus 
rendering the toughest meat tender. An old 
author describes our native species under the 
genus "Annona," aad says : " All parts of it 



have a rank if not a fetid smell ; and few, ex- 
cept the negroes, relish the fruit. It usually 
grows in low, shady swamps, and in a very 
fat soil ; it is a native of the Bahama Islands, 
Carolina, Maryland and Virginia." He might 
have added Pennsylvania. My neighbor, Mr. 
Matthias Zahm, has quite a tall tree in his lot 
in this city, that blooms and bears fruit every 
year. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



CALIFORNIA CORRESPONDENCE. 

PER J. B. G.— Your favor of 22 1 January 
came to band a few days asro at the end 
of the snow blockade. Rain commenced De- 
cember 17, 1871, and then it began to be a 
certainty that a'l intercourse with the East 
would he interrupted with for a while, and 
therefore I did not write, but was just going to 
write when I received yours, and for a few 
days since have been very basy day and night, 
hurryhig through my grahing. We have had 
a most stormy winter, much worse than 1862. 
The ground is so wei that we can hardly go 
on it. We have had few perfectly clear days 
since December 17. 

There will be double the crops put in this 
season than usual. But we vegetable men 
will be very late in getting in our crops. There 
was a short time before the 17th of December, 
when some little rain had fallen that some 
few got their crops in the ground, but gener- 
ally the spring vegetables are behind. We 
have had here 38 80-100 inches of rain so far, 
with prospects of sudden showers daily. I 
hope it will be dry enough soon to lay out my 
orchard and to plant my peas, which were in- 
tended for early market, but will now go in 
as second crop. The snow blockakehas been 
very annoying. It was over four weeks that 
we got no eastern mails. Now it is hoped we 
shall get mails more regularly. The mails 
have not all got in yet. The papers announced 
800 bags to arrive to-day. 

Last season was so dry that I lost all the 
grafts and cuttings sent me from the East. I 
put in one graft of euraalon grape, in a stock 
four years old, in May, when the shoots were 
twelve to eighteen inches long It lived and 
made twenty-seven good cuttings besides wood 
to bear fruit this season. Besides that I had 
about twenty varieties of the best American 
grapes, new kinds, and lost them all. I shall 
mail you a package containing two trees of my 
Egerton peach, some of the Japan plum 
" Domby," and some of the Utah hybrid 
cherry, a hybrid between a plum and a cherry, 
hiijhly recommended, but curiously, is to be 
worked on the peach stock. The Egerton 
peach is, I am satisfied, as early, or a few days 



76 



TEE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



earlier, than Hale's early, and then, oh, how 
much better. 

You mention snow with you. We had a 
little here on the 17th of December, but it did 
not reach (he j^round. Some on the m mn- 
tains near las'.ed several days, but since the 
storms set in the rains have been warm, and 
no frost. 

If I succeed in ray operations this year and 
get ray or-mae orchard I think it will be a pay- 
ino; investment, for I expect to clear from S300 
to $1,000 per acre, when three to five years 
old, and " ttn acres will be enough," sure. 
Yours, etc. 

A correspondent in Indiana writei me as 
follows— abridijed : 

" I have all the new varieties of grapes you 
mention, wth many others new and valuable ; 
•I also have a number of Utah grapes, seven 
generations from the old mission grape of 
California, perfectly hardy , and very valuable ; 
beside those named in Rural New Yorker, I 
have Greeley, Judd, Ledger, Elizabeth, Susan, 
Marcellus, Florence, Harris, Tucker, New 
Seedlings of Mr. R. Steward, and all very pro- 
mising ; have also Thompson's Farmers' Club, 
N. C. Eby, Lavina, Eleanor, Grant and Car- 
penter, of whi h the two latter are lemarka- 
bly fine in fruit audvine; I have Cay wood, 
red Walter, improved Hybrid, Clinton, Mo- 
hawk, and Hudson, also Herman, Cottage, 
Una, Angwick, Cynthiaua, etc., etc." 

I began ci Uecting fruits for the purpose of 
having fine fruit myself, but finding it easy to 
propagate I have concluded to go into that. I 
propose, friend Garber (God willing), to have 
a garden of fruits unequaled in the West, and 
shall spare no means or labor to have it so, and 
propose letting out new fruits at living p7-ices, 
knowing full well that present prices of most 
nurseries are too hiah. I have over 80 varie- 
ties of new grapes ; I also have 250 varieties 
of pears, choice and new, raany of which can- 
not be had in the United States. I have 
bought them, at great expense, from all parts 
of Europe and even Asia. 1 have gotten ray 
pears from England, Germany, France and 
Prussia; my apples from Russia, France and 
England, besides all American varieties of 
real value. I received, last November, 70 
new varieties of pears from France — have 
an order out now for 100 varieties of new, 
choice European fruits, to be sent me In 
March. I propose issuing a catalogue next 
fall and giving descriptions and prices of all 
such fruits as I have ready to spare. Will 
send you some cuttings of grapes and pear«. 
Very respectfully, etc., 



MESSRS. EDITORS : We feel at times 
as if everything that could be said in 
favor of the raising of fruit had been already 
said, and that nothing remains to be added. 
If, however, we reflect that we live in an age 
of improvement and progress, and that a kind 



and merciful providence shows in this economy 
of creation a never-ending movement in the 
change from summer to winter aad the re- 
verse, which alternation supplies us with the 
bounties of earth, are we not admonished 
thereby to aid in our efforts and co-operate 
with the beneficent Father of creation ? Let 
our watchw^ord then be onward, and let our 
efforts be untiring in the production of new 
fruits and in the improvement of our time in 
raiding, if not new varieties, the best of what 
we have in our possession. 

Gradual improvement and skillful practice 
in cultivation have given us the present 
varieties of superior apples, pears, peaches, 
and other small fruits which we now possess ; 
and eyen wheat itself, the staff" of life, is a 
production of skillful cultivation, being in its 
native state an inferior plant, no better than 
cheat or chess. The apple was originally 
raised irom the sour and bitter crab ; the pear 
from the hawthorn. All are excellent fruit 
was, in its native state, of a very inferior 
quality, and by the cultivation of the same 
Irom seed it has been brought to its present 
state of superiority. How many of us sup- 
plied ourselves with seed last fall, and having 
planted the same are now waiting with 
anxiety to see its germinating shoots appear 
above the giound and its subsequent growth 
as ornamental or fruit trees, and to which we 
miaht in after years point out to our children 
and graudchi dren, and say to them : " This 
tree is one of my own planting from the 
seed." Have we looked all over our grounds 
to see it there be no suitable place 
for forest, fruit or ornamental trees? How 
much vacant space have we yet upon our 
land that is not so occupied ? Have we made 
out a list of what we want and what we can 
plant to advantage on our premises ? Have 
we been at our nearest nurseries to engage 
such trees as are appropriate for our places ? 
If we have not done so let this be attended to 
without delay, and if we are unable to get the 
verv kinds we desired, then let us lake the 
thriftiest trees of other varieties. There is 
nothing like getting strong and vigorous 
growers when you »re selecting trees to plant, 
for if you have not the kinds you should desire 
you can graft them with other varieties and 
soon have your orchard all that you desire. 
If you have not prepared yourself with giafts 
do so at once as the season is late. There is, 
however, time to do so yet. 

I deem it useless to commend certain vari- 
eties of fruit, as most people have a choice, 
and it is not for want of a knowledge of vari- 
eties that planting is neglected, but because 
care and expense are required. It is well- 
laid-out money, however, that is expended in 
procuring fruit trees for a farm, and an ample 
interest is obtained on the investment. So 
I'^ng as a necessity exists that the planting 
of trees be continued every season, we should 
be excused for reminding our friends of their 
duty to do 80 for themselves, their children 



THE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



77 



and their neighbors. And is it our want of 
comprehension that induces us to infer that 
all is said upon this subject that can bp said. 
The subject is inexhaustible, and should be 
discussed from time to time, or we will re- 
trograde like the Egyptians and Persians, 
who have abandoned religion and the grow- 
ing of forest and fruit trees, and yet who, in 
the early history of the world, were the first 
civilizers of mankind. L. S. R. 



MESSRS. EDITORS of "Lancaster 
Farmer : " Do you know what I 
would like to see? Can you guess? No, 
that's nor, it, so I'll tell you. I would like to 
see you issuing ten thousand copies of the 
Farmer each month 1 That's what I would 
like to see — yes, to our farmers of Lancaster 
county alone, and as many more to others 
outside of our ccunty. Then you could " in- 
crease the size and reduce the price." Then 
you would not only iind it a paying investment, 
but the subscribers would receive more valua- 
ble and interesting ioformation, and that too 
for less money. Isn't that so ? And why 
should not every farmer in the county, and 
hundreds of them outside the county as well, 
become paying subscribers, and readers ? 
would not every one get the worth of his 
money? Certainly there are none so wise, 
but that they could meet with some items 
during the year, that would more than com- 
pensate them for so trifling an investment as 
a dollar and a quarter or if a number join on 
club terms, even for less thau the dollar. 
Again, on the other side, is there a single man 
in the county so ignorant, or so involved in 
moral darkness, as to stand in his own light, 
and not see that a years reading of the Farmer, 
will give him information not otherwise ob- 
tainable, that will pay him ten times over, for 
the paltry investment? Then why do not 
all our farmers encourage our home papers, 
as well as home industries? Aye and thous- 
ands who are not farmers can, by subscribing 
for this " home farmer," and placing it within 
reach of their families, be benefited far more 
than the value of 1 he dollar. Who that can 
look back for half a century, and recall to 
mind the wonderful discoveries and improve- 
ments that have been brought to light during 
this period of time ! Well may we be aston- 
ished ; will these discoveries and improve- 
ments be continued during the next half cen- 
tury ? That is a question only to be answered 
by the next generation. These many discov- 
eries and improvements that are called "labor- 
saving," have greatly .benefited the farming 
community as we I as mechanics, artisans and 
others. AH the diflerent trades, occupations 
and sciences are directly or indirectly con- 
nected and interested in the productions of 
the soil, in the progress and well doing of the 
farmer. The improvements in any one branch, 
directly or indirectly conduces to the well- 
being of others. 



Formerly, and I well remember the time, 
farmers considered thirty bu.*hels of wheat per 
acre only an average crop— forty bushels was 
not uncommon ; now ten or fifteen is proba- 
bly above the avprage. We have lately been 
told that " by proper management we may 
again raise thirty to forty bushels per acre." 
How this is to be done, we trust, will some 
time appear in our Lancaster Farmer. 
This alone will be worth many times the price 
of the paper. Another discovery durini^ the 
last half century we must bring into this arti- 
cle from its probable tendency' to the improve- 
ment of our farms. We are now all familiar 
with that wonderful discovery of the electric 
telegraph; how it, the electricity, is made to 
carry messages all through and even around 
the world! May there not be other uses not 
yet discovered to which this subtle invisible 
fluid, or whatever it is, may yet be applied : 

A late writer in the Farmer even suggests 
that " electricity is a powerful fertilizer, and 
might have used its influence in producing a 
belter crop of wheat in 1871, then for many 
previous seasons." May we not, therefore, 
hope that this fertilizing element of electricity 
may in time become available as a manurial 
stimulus to our crops? " Wooders never 
cease," and " we know not what a day may 
bring forth." Thus I am fully convinced tlui; 
by reading agricultural papeis we become ac- 
quainted with all those new discoveries that 
relate, or are applicable, lo our farming ope- 
rations. 

Therefore I would say, encourage our 
Lancaster Farmer, our home orgau, 
and the editors, who exchange with other 
publications of similar tendencies, will select 
such matter as may be new or interesting to 
our Lancaster county farmers, and by such 
means we can avail ourselves of all new appli- 
ances and improvemen t*. Progress, as I slated 
before, is the watchword of these times, and 
he who fails to glean the knowledge spread 
broadcast over the land through the agency of 
the press, and esi)ecially the agricultural 
press, so far as farmeis are :iarticularly anrt 
pecuniarily interes^ted, will not be enabled to 
keep pace wih the times iu. any calling, and 
much less iu the cultivations a^d utUizatiotiM 
of mother earth. 

If th" above remarks are true, then I would 
advise every farmer in the county, and many 
other counties, lo at once sub-cribe and jia v 
for our home organ, the Lancaster Far.aii^.k 
and my word for it, you will receive iu return 
a greater per centage iu knowledge and infoi- 
matiou, than can be acquired by any oilier 
means. Wish we cuuld reach every farmer 
iu our county, and many outside of it, too, 
who do not read agricultural papers— but eb- 
pecially our Lancaster Fakmer. Then we 
would see our publisher issuing each month 
ten thousand or more copies. That, Messrs*. 
Editors, I would like to see I Would'nt you ? 

J. B. G. 



78 



TEE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



LANCASTEU, APRIL, 1872. 

S. S. RATHVON AND ALEX. HARRIS, Editors. 

Published monthly under the auspices of the Agricdl- 

TURAL AND HORTICULTURAL SOOIETT. 

$1.35 |»er year in advance. 

A considerable deduction to clubs of five or more. 



All communieation.s, to insure insertion, must be in the 
hands of the editors before the 20th of each month. Ad- 
dress Bathvon & Harris, Lancaster, Pa. 

All advertisements, subsoriptionsand remittances to the 
addressof the publisher, J. B. DEVELIN, 

Inquirer Building, Lancaster, fa. 

Three Years in a Man-Trap. — By T. S. Arthur : 

The long expected companiou to "Ten 

NrGHTSiN A Bar-boom" is nearlj ready, 

and will shortly appear. 

The popularity and great usefulness of that 

standard temperance book is evinced by the 

immense sales that have been made — much 

greater, perhaps, than any book of its class 

ever published. 

'Who has not read Ten Nights in a Bar-room., 
so true to nature, so intense in effect, and so 
terrible in its moral ; and who that has read it 
has not wished for a companion. To satisfy 
this desire, the authur has just completed a 
new volume that unmasks the liquor trafiic in 
a way to startle the public. The new book, 
. " Three Tears in a Man-Trap.,'''' gives an inside 
view of the liquor trade, and portrays the 
terrible effects of the traffic, in a series of life 
pictures, full of interest, with the skill and 
fidelity to nature so eminently characteristic 
of the authur. The book cannot fail to make 
a strong impression, and as a new auxiliary to 
the temperance cause will have a wide and 
powerful influence. Kothing could be more 
timely than its appearance now. We learn, 
by the publisher's circular, that it is to be sold 
exclusively by agents, and as it is a good op- 
portunity to secure a book that will sell easily, 
and at the same time do a vast amount of 
good, those who desire profitable employment 
would do well to apply immediately to J. M. 
Stoddard & Co., publishers, Ko. 733 Sansom 
Street, Phil'a., and secure an agency. 



One of the most welcome visitors to our 
editorial desk is Wood''s Household Magazine. 
Kg na,me for a journal of its class could have 



been more appropriately selected. Its pages 
abound with the choicest producdons of our 
best writers, and the subjects treated awaken 
an interest in the reader that make him long 
for the coming of the next number. 

We have hanging on the wall, over our 
desk, the beautiful chromo of Niagara Falls, 
which is given to every subscriber to the 
magazine for three years in advance. We 
will not attempt to describe this beautiful 
work of art, but will let our readers see the 
opinion of an exchange : 

" Niagaba Falls. — We received, a few 
weeks since, this beautiful chromo from S. S. 
Wood & Co., Newburgh, New York, pub- 
lishers of Wood''s Household Magazine. As we 
glance at it as it hangs on our wall, in the 
deep gilt frame in which we have placed it, 
we seem to be looking, not at a picture, but 
at the real falls in the distance, and we almost 
listen to the roar of that wonderful sheet of 
water, as it rushes headlong over the preci- 
pice, dashing against the rocks beneath. The 
Tower and Horse-shoe Fall, with all their 
surroundings, are as clearly portrayed as the 
soft, silvery, overhanging mist will fallow ; 
and the scenery in the rear, so far away and 
5et so real, contrasted with the bold ever- 
greens which stand out so distinctly in the 
foreground, lends an added charm to the pic- 
ture, which is, ia a word, a grand, truthful 
representation of a well-known and far-famed 
subject. The regular price of this chromo is 
five dollars. We know our readers will say, 
as they walk into our sanctum, it ought to be 
in the parlor of every family." 

We have made arrangements with the pub- 
lishers to place this magazine on our premium 
list, and can furnish this chromo, worth $5, 
Wood^s Homsehold Magazine, $1, and the 
Lancaster Farmer, for one year, at $4.25. 



THE WEATHER. 



THE weather — how cold how continuously 
and uniformly cold it has been, and is, 
the present winter ; for, although far on in the 
month of March, as we are writing this, 
(March 20th) winter still reigns supreme. We 
may have had winters when the cold was 
more intense, but few, if any, within our life's 
experience of sixty years, of which we have a 
clear recollection, that were so evenly cold, 
and in which the cold weather commenced so 
early and continued so late. The Susque- 



TEE LANCASTER FARMER. 



'9 



hanna river closed duriusj the last quarter of 
November '71, and it is still bound in its icy 
fetters, a period of one hundred and fifteen 
days— nearly one third of a whole year. Per- 
haps that ubiquitous individual, the " oldest 
inhabitani." who may be squatted some- 
where, everywhere or anywhere, along its 
borders, cannot recall a similar event in the 
history of the weather, and its congealing ef- 
fects upon thatstream. There has been but 
little snow, andjustas little rain during all that 
long period of cold weather ; and this, 
in connection with the fa'^t, that the 
water was at a low stage, at the time 
the river was first frozen in, has produ- 
ced a result that might have been far oth- 
wise if heavy snows, thaws and rains had 
supervened. "What effect all this will have 
upon the crops, and the sanitary cmditinn of 
the insect world, are contingencies that time 
alone can clearly maniftst. Uniformly dry 
w tii< rs, although cold, are generally favora- 
ble to the preservation of hybernatlng insec's, 
their eggs, their Zaft-a' and their jtK/jofc. Could 
our farmers have f uud any period, or 
periods, between the first of December 
and the fifteenth of March, favorable 
to turning up the soil with the plow, 
they might thereby have facilitated the 
destruction of many noxious insects in their 
various stages of developmei t. 

They could not have survived the many al- 
ternate severe night freezes and midday 
thaws, to which they would have been exposed. 
It would be difficult, under present circum- 
stances, to prophesy what the final result may 
be iu this respect ; because there may be some 
counteracting influences at work of which we 
are not aware. Such a winter cannot be very 
favorable to the winter grain, and the grass 
crops, althous;h copious spring rains, at the 
proper times, may efi'ect a recovery of what 
has been delayed, dimiuished or suspended 
by a long open exposure and i)rotracted 
cold. K. 

P. S. — After one of the most boisterous, 
coldest and dryest equinoctial blows, within 
our immediate recollection, the Susquehanna 
river is still fast bound in its icy letters 
(March 28), a full period of four months, and 
the weather is still unseasonably cold. 



Alsike clover, rye and orchard grass do 
best on moist soils. Ou dry soila they soon 
run out. 



MEETING OF THE AGRICULTURAL 
AND HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

THE regular meeting of the society was 
held March 4tb, 1872, in the Orphans' 
Court-room, and after the reading and appro- 
val of the minutes, the president excused him- 
self for his inability to attend the meeting at 
the Experimental Farm iu Chester county. 

Ou motion Milton G. Eshelman, of Paradise 
township, was elected a member of the 
society. 

Casper Hiller, took occasion to call atten- 
tiou to the Krouser apple, as one of the best 
varieties that he grows. It keeps better 
even than the old Romanite,and is one of the 
kinds that every one setting out a new orchard 
should procure, 

Jacob G. Peters obtained leave of the soci- 
ety to introduce to the attention of the mem- 
bers his new improved " Celebrated Cham- 
pion Combined Cultivator." Mr. Peters, in 
stating the advantages of this new improve- 
ment, explained that with it a man did the 
work that is now performed by five other im- 
plements of husbandry, and that a workman 
could with it do double the amount of work in 
one day than can be done with the old culti- 
vators. He showed that his improved cultiva- 
tor is recommended by a number of the lead- 
ing farmers of the county, who regard it as a 
great labor saving machine, and the best they 
have ever setn. 

Henry M. Engle was fully convinced of the 
utility of this new improvement, and intends 
procuring one this season. He sees its supe- 
riority from the fact that it can be turned to 
so many useful purposes. 

J. G. Frantz has used this machine, and 
seen it iu use, and he is fully satisfied that it 
surpasses anything as a cullivaior of which 
he has any knowledge. 

Cyrus T. Fox has examined this machine, 
and he is satisfied that it is going to be a great 
improvement upon the farm. He agrees with 
Mr. Hiller iu his estimate of the Krouser apple, 
and considers it one of the finest apples grown 
in this locality. It is a native of Berks county. 
The Krouser apple is an excellent cooking 
apple, and serves both as an early and late 
one. It gets ripe early in the fall and lasts 
till May, and- is a good eating apple all this 
time. 

Henry M. Engle, in accordance with an- 
nouncement, proceeded to deliver a lecture 



80 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



upon grape culture, and illustrated his method 
of culture by means of the blackboard. He 
regards wood ash the very bsst manure for the 
production of a good grape. The best vines 
are grown from cuttings of a s'ngle eye ; cat- 
tings with two eyes are also jjood, having one 
inch of wood above the last eye, and thi cut- 
ting should be placed ao that the earth covers 
the eye. Some varieties of "gr if)es grow from 
cuttings better than others. Taose growing; 
best are the Isabella, Concord, a d Hartford 
Prolific. Grafting thegrapeviue has been suc- 
cessfully practiced. 

In the matter of producing grapevines, the 
plant should be placed five or six inches be- 
neath the surface of the earth ; grow the plant 
for the first year with a stake to assist it ; af- 
ter one year's growth cut the vine back to a 
few eyes ; the plaat should be left one foot or 
fifteen inches in height. The second season 
take the vines growing from the two eyes, and 
attach each to a stake ; thsre will be laterals 
growing out from the vine, and when these 
laterals obtain a length of several eyes pinch 
them back to one or two eyes, .so as to give 
more strength to the main vine. Afcor the 
second sea.sou the vine is ready for trel Using, 
having attained a height ot perhaps six or 
eight feet. Now take away the stakes and cut 
the vines down to a height of about five feet. 
After tTainiug upon the trellis, pinch off the 
laterals, and you now .have a bearing vine, 
each stem producing probably two or three 
bunches of grapes. As these stems grow up- 
ward on the trellie they should be occasionally 
pinched, in order to give strength to the base 
of the vine, thus driving out the foliage be- 
low, which is always t<5 be desired. The sap 
will continually course upward, and by pinch- 
ing back, the cane obtains more strength at 
its base, which is just what ought to be. The 
question now arises how to keep this vine 
upon, the original trellis, how to prevent it 
from running out and away from the base, 
until it will require another trell s to accom- 
modate it. The matter is simple : cut the old 
cane away, down to the first eye, nest the 
base, and from this eye raise your vine-vihe 
rule being to look to your one-year old wood 
far fruit, two-year old wood si Idem producing, 
although it does occasionally in some varie- 
ties of grape. 

On motion members of the soci-ety were 
permitted to take one book out «f the library 
for a month at a time, and if the member 



retain it when over a month he shxU bs lia- 
ble to a fine of twenty-five cents for every 
month till it be returned. 

Cuttings of Duchess de B irdeaux and Cyn- 
thiona pears (the latter from Texas) were 
presented for distribution bv Jacob B. G-arber. 
Also, cuttioKS of the Mount Vernon pear were 
presented by John Huber, of Jjitiz. 

On motion society adjourned to meet on 
the second Monday of April instead of thj 
fir.st Monday. 



HoRSEKADisii is an excellent condiment (o 
mix with the food of cows to give them an ap- 
petiie, and make them sleek and thrifty. It 
should be fed freely to all animals that are 
not well, and it will be of great service to 
working oxen troubled with hert. If given 
to cows in doses of a pint, mixed with pota- 
toes or bran, it will prevent or relieve cows 
of the disease called cake in the bag. Few 
animals will refuse to eat, and some will eat 
of it greed ly, as much as half a peck at a 
time. 



Boiled Custards— Excellent.— Mix the 
yelks of 4 eg^s with 1 spoonful (jf sugar, 4 of 
milk and a pinch of salt. Beat the whites till 
you can turn the plate over without their fall- 
ing off; heat a pint of milk in a flat dish like 
a spider or pan; just before it boils put the 
whites of the eggs in the milk, a spoonful 
in a place, turn immediately, each spoonful 
separately. Take out on the plate ; turn the 
yelks in the milk ; stir constantly till it begins 
to boil ; do not let it whey ; turn into a dish for 
the table ; flavor with vanilla and lemon; put 
the whites on top with bits of jelly on each 
To be eaten cold. 



Asparagus —Sow early in spring, in rich 
soil, in drills a foot apart, and one inch deep, 
thinning the plants to 3 inches apart in the 
rowis; when one or two years old tran=5pldut 
to well-trenched and enriched ground, plant- 
ing in beds 4 feet wide, with path 2 feet wide 
between, and setting plants 1 foot apart each 
way and 4 inches deep ; late in the fall mow 
off' the tops and cover the beds deeply with 
manure, which fork early in the spring and 
give a good dressing of salt ; allow two sea- 
sons of growth before cutting from the bed. 



THE LAjYCASTER FARMER. 



81 



BOOK AND SPECUL NOTICE DE- 
PARTMENT. 

OUR BOOK TABLE. 

PocKEnr DiCTioNART.— We have received from tbe pub- 
lishers. 1S8 and Ho ({rand street, a copy of Wt-bster's 
Pocket Dii tionary, \vhich is ii gnat impiuwerui nt iiver all 
rrevious t'cli^. ons »nd all siniilar work.-. In the first plaice 
it is neatly printed, nnd bound in morocco, w th i;ilt e<ig-8. 
Then it cont iti.s 2ijO [lictori il illustrations, which give a 
much clt-arer idea of the itiKHniiig of iiianf words than 
could posbihiy bfi conv. yed tiy the usual definition. Tlie 
little voliuue, while l»e,iug no larger than au ordinary 
fiocket-boi>k, erahraci's in its vocabulary acaieiul pe ec- 
tion of over 18 Oofl of the iH'v-t itnuortant words of the 
lanauagh", with detintions suttierent y clear, though neces- 
»>arily brief, to meet thj ordin ry wants of any one requir- 
ing its U'^e. Prefix d to the wo k are taldes or niout-y. 
weight and measure, a brevialious words and pfira.^cs 
fr.iic f reign languages, rnlt-s fur .sp 'Uing, explanationi-, 
etc. It is in fact a most valii ible little book, and is doubly 
v?orth the dollar it costs. The t'ublishers, Ivison. Bhike- 
man Tuylor &; o , 13'^ and 140 Grand street, N<rW Yoik, 
■will forward it by mail on recei{it of««« doiUr, or it can be 
bought at almost any book store. 

We do not con.sMer t e sueoe^^ of the Blancbar<i Churn 
to be wondervd at. Everybody koowsi that "thebtat" 
will awayswin. 

Thk Celtic Wekki.t. — Tn apivcarance and contents the 
■first number of this new illustrattd j.>urn;il is fully egual 
to our most p'pul'r literary weeklies, P'.very cdumn is 
fi'led with ''ntertilning arUter, fact and tiction ot the 
choisest kidd. The st.iff of writers embraces a liost of 
names well-known in the high walks of Irish and ■ rish- 
American Literature As a tamilv jo uual, we know of 
none that can be con-id ;red supeiior to this new compe i- 
tor foi- popular patrouage. Its illustrations are finisher), 
and full of vigor. No advertisements admitted to its col- 
amns. 

Who was " Dolly Vardbn ? "—The nnly correct thing 
from which to make up lov.dy .spring dresses lor ladies is 
a gorgeous ittnterial— all bright blo^soui-i and maizy inter- 
twining bt 'ms—k; own as " Dolly Varden." Wh.*nce thi.s 
sin t!UUr appellation for dres.s go(xls n tural'yqueri s the 
fair seK. The npw name in dry goods is ihat of o'C of 
Charles Utckens' heroines. " Doily Varden" is one of ♦^he 
female characters in " Batnaby Kti lye." is the dHught r 
«t tiabriel Varden, a locksmith; is sought in mar inge by 
"Sim Tappertii," a vain Londoi apprentice, a^ul .Foe Wil- 
lett, a very eKemplsirv young geutieman indeed. Miss 
l>olW becouies Mrs. Willett. She is described by Dickens 
a« possessing •' a face lighted up by the loveliest pair of 
sparkling eyes that evr locksmith iook^'d upon ; the face 
of a pretty (attghing girl ; oiuipled and fresh, and health- 
ful — the very impersonati >n of good humor aud 1(» )miog 
beauty." as for Mjss Dolly's atcire, «e refer <iur readers 
to the ilhistrat^l editions of Charles Dickens' Works, 
pu'^lished iu endless variety, and at all prices, liy T. B. 
Pettrson and Brothers, No. 306 Chestnut street, Phila. 

A NoBLK LoRi>, b.-ing the Sfjuel to " The Lost Heir of 
LinlithgOK ," by Mrs. Kmma I>. K. N. Southworth, ia in 
press, and will be published in a few d lys by T. B, I'eter- 
son & Brothers, Philadelphia. Pa. It is s tid to bT the 
bast book thnt this popular authoress has ever written. 
"A Noble Lord " will be issued in a lar^e duod. cinio vol 
"mo, uniform with Mrs .Soiilliworth's other works, and 
will be sold at the 1 iw price of .#1.7.5 in cloth, or SI. 50 in 
paper cover; or copie.s will bg sent bv mail, 1o a'ly place, 
post-paid, by the putdishers, on receipt of the price of tbe 
work in a letter to them, ftie fi)llowin2; new books are 
having immense sal s and should he read br .all : '' John 
Jasper's Secret," being the senuel to Char'es Dickens' 
'• Mystery of Edwin Drood; " a new and enlarced edition 
of" Bleister Karl's .Ske'ch t'ook." by (Mia les G. Lela' d ; 
" Aunt Patty's Scmp Bag," by Mrs ('.iroline Leo Hentz ; 
"A Noble Woman," by Mrs. Ann S Step ens; •• Cvrilla." 
by author of" Initials ;" " Kite Kennedy," by Mr-". 0. .1. 
Newhv; "Monsieur Antoine," by Creorge Sand; and the 
popularpoeiaof" Beautiful Snow." Send to T. B Peter, 
son & Brothers, Philad'a, tor their Illustiated Catalogue. 

Westrrn Pomolootst and GARDKNI3R " Dcvote 1 to 

Pomology, Horticulture, '^loricultur^.etc." Tbisjournal, 
now reduced in size to the popular magazine form, is 
among the best works of the kind on our exchange list. 
Ably conducted, and illustrated; Des Moines, Iowa. 
Terms, $1.50 a year. 



Some of our very best dairymen tell Uj that they com- 
pli^te the whole prticcss of butter-making, churning, work- 
ing and salting, to their entire satisfaction in the Blanchuid 
Churn, without touching their hands to the butter. We 
know it can be done. 

Thb Stockholder, a " monitor t'f finance and industry 
milling; ami railway record,'' a royal quarto o'' l(i pages, 
published by I)i smoke & i o , No. .5'J, Cedar street, N. Y. 
As its title implies it giVts a copious account of all tin 
different kinds of put>lic s^ocka in the country, including 
railroad shar s liondi and earnings, municipal securities 
and bonds, bank stocks, insurance, telegr iph, gas and ex- 
press stocks, State and U. S. bonds, and a record of the 
(lai y trair,saciioiis thereitt, with interesting juiscellaneom 
mit:«r. Price 10 cents a number. 

luDrsTKiAL Bulletin, devoted to thn "Protection of 
American Industry;" published by the Industrial League, 
•John.-town, Pa.— au ably coniucted royal quarto of 8 
pages. 

AMERICAN Bank Circular, and " Invester's Guide," of 
the same z>>. of the immediately pree«eding. A. Wilkins, 
editor and proprietor, Detroit, Michigan. I'erms. Si 00 a 
year. A very useful medium iu all that relates to financial 
en'er,vrises an investments. 

iNDtJSTni.vL MnTOR— '' For the promotion of iod istry 
science, arf.. health, v.'ealth. virtue and happiness " Is- 
su d from tht^ Iowa p,at-iit office, Des Moines. A siiirite«l 
eight-pige r lyal quatto; monthly, at 50 ceuts a year, oc- 
cupying an important place in economical literature. 

The Practical Farmer.— The March number of thLj 
mOit excellent and substantial agricultural monthly is on 
our table. It is eiiited wi'h judj;ment anl ability, aud po - 
scf-ses corp^ ot correspundenrs who are eminently prac- 
tical men, discussing practical quH.stions from the stand- 
point of actual experience Thf. Farm.'ir is thus rendered 
line of thf very best journals of its class pub!i.-hed, and in 
worthy of a larg-? p-atronage. For terms aud specimen 
cupy, ad<!rf .ss Pacchall Morris & Knight, No. IS North ISlli 
street, Philadelphia. 

National Business Index. — The National Business In- 
dex is a new monthly m-^gazine ; " an encyclopedia of bu.si- 
ness knowledge for the people." It contains a very 
lar^e amount of infjrmaiion botl\ iuterealiog and 
valuable to th'? general putdic. Every thing is clas- 
sified and arranged with thorongti system, and at the same 
time prtsented in - readable, attractive .style. The price is 
exceedingly low, only •''lO cents a year. The publishers also 
present a very fine ehromo, "Apple BlosS'tms," (one of 
Prang's, wortii iu th i art stores Sl.OO eacii), to each sut>- 
scriber. Send for specimen c)py ta THii; Inde.x CoiirANY, 
443 West JacltsoD strett, Chicago, 111. 

American Farmev.s' Advocate, the "official organ 
ot thii Agricultural Congrti,ss," dt-vottd to the special in- 
terests of the farmers of the whole country, at 8100 a 
year Issued at Jackson, Tenn. A large quarto ol 20 
pages, lull of etitertainiug and iastructive matter on ag- 
ricultural and domestic subjects. 

The " Farmers' Club," a spicy, eight-page q'larto, 
by K. P. L"fev r, Oxford, Chester county. Pa. devoted to 
the interests ot the larm, and, and especially to " Farmerii 
clubs," at $1 5) a year. 

Nursery Catalogues Fou Spring, 1872.— James J. II. 
Gregory's " Hetail Catalogue of Choice Vegetable's ami 
Flowers." M'l'blehead, Mass. i". B. Flemming''s Retail 
Catalogue rf" Choice Farm and Garden Seeds." James- 
port, L. I., N. Y. Edward J. Rvans <£- Co.'s "catalogue of 
(re.sh genuine Garden Seeds " York Pa. "Monthly Heport 
of Dept. of Agriculture," Wa.shingtou O. C Prter Hindt.r- 
son'.i ■■.'Spring catalogn ot new, rare liud beautiful plants. " 
O. L: Allen <£• Co^s" Illustrated catalogue of seeds, bulbti 
aud plants." 



MARKETS. 



NEW YORK MARKETS. 

Ivy.w York, March 28. 
Flour, &c.— Only a limited demand for Flour, and the 
market is heavy f )r the low grades and steady tor the me- 
dium grades and fairly active and quitt and tirm for fam- 
ily extras. Good No.'2 and ruperline in fair demand at 
full prues. At the close the market is fairly active lor all 
grades above S8. The s des are 9^00 barrels. We quote: 
Sour, SSrtfi 20 ; No. 2 at $.5a6 15 ; supcrtine S6 40af> 70 ; Sta^e 
extra brand, S«S5i7; State, fancy brand, $7 20a 7 50 ; 



8^ 



THE LAJVCASTER J^AUMEE. 



■western shipping extras $6 75a7; Minnesota pxtr-is $7a 
8 50 ; good t ) choice spring wheat extra $7 3ra7 75 ; extra 
amber Indiana, Ohio and Michigan .$7sna8; Ohio, Indi- 
ana and Illinois (-uperdne $6 40a6 70 ; Ohio roinid hoop 
extra (t-hippuu), S;7a7 10 ; Ohio exu-i trad* brands V] soa 
7 75; wliit'J wh-tat extra Ohio. Indiana and Aiich'gau 
$7 75iS 80 ; double extra do do S8 hOai) 50. 

Eye Flour is in fair demand and is steaf'y. Sales of 190 
bbN. Westen at $4 10a4 70 ; State and Tennsylvania at 
Jl 65a5 05. Corn meal is firm but dull Trie sales are 
350 btirrf^ls. We quote : Jersey at *3 50a3 55 ; western at 
$3 50;'3 70; western white at ,f ? .^0h3 60; Brandywine at 
$3 75a3 80; do puncheons S18 25ilS 50 

Grain — A limited demand for spring wheat, and the 
market is heavy and unsettled. Winter is held with 
much firmntss At the close the demand is fair, but at 
prices below the views of holders. Spring is steadier and 
winter stronger. The sales are 33,800 hushe's, at $1 50 
for No 2 Cldcago spring, in store; SI CO for No. 1 Mil- 
waukee, in siore ; $170 for red wp.«tirn, in ftore, «1 6fa 
1 69 for red .Tersey. on pier, $1 90 tor white Mi'-higm, 
alioat ; SI 75 for aiiibir do, in stor-«. 

Barley is heavy and the demand light; sales of 11,200 
bushels two-rowed State $1. and Ca ada Lake on pr v^tte 
terms, supposed $1 10. Barley Malt is in limited rt (luest ; 
the supply is fair ; sab sot 5200 bushels, at$l for two-j owe i 
State and SI 403$1 50, prime. Onts are less active and 
easier for mixed and tirm tor white; the s les are 16,400 
bushels; western mixed at SSX" store and 56c afloat, and 
whife ;it 57c on track and 5So6yc afloat; State mixed on 
track at Thirty-third street at Stic Kye Inac ive aiul stea- 
dy ; 83c bid for we.-tern, in store. Coi n is quite, ac ive and 
niuch better, with more inquiry lor the future ; the de- 
mand is chiefly for export ; th : sales are 136 000 bn^hels ; 
damp and unsound at TOc ; western mixed 70a7lj^c «fioat, 
closing strong at 71XC and 71c for next week, and 70c in 
store : do white at 72c ; do yell w at 72a73c ; sou h rn 
v'liite at76a76^c; do yellow at72a72j^c ; Jersey do at 71^ 
a72c. 

Jr'iiOVrsiONS. — Pork js m modera'e demand at about 
former rates, with fair offerings of stock. The sales cash 
and regular, are 400 bbls. at S12 3)al2 50 tor old mess, and 
#12 S7>^>il3 for new do. For inture delivery the market is 
dull, ^ales of 250 bbls mess at $1275 forApril a,nd 250 
bbls at %Vl S-S for May. Heef con.inues iu fair jobbins de- 
mand and thit market is steady. Sales of I7.t bb;s at ff-falO 
for p ain mess, and $10al2 tor extr^ mess. Tierce J/c t is 
dull and noninal, though former figures woud he accept- 
ed. We quotp at $l5al8 for prime mes^, and $18a21 for 
India mess. Bet-f hams are firm for all choice grades with 
a fiir trade demand current. Sales of 70 bb's at $22.^26 for 
western. 

Out meats s re fairly active and st^'ady for light we'ehts, 
>iut heavy stoc'x is weak. Snles of 3U0 pkgs at 8^a9^c for 
h^ms. Bacon is wanted, and clear stock steady, but th« 
otferinga are tair. Sales of UOJ boxes at 7c for long clear, 
and 7;^'c for short clear. Dressed hogs steady. We quote 
at 5j4a6>^cfor cty. 

Lard is dull, an I lbs market standi at abont f-rnier 
rates. Sales of 300 blls. and tcs. at 8Uh8,^c for No. 1; 
g^aSj^c fur city ; 87^0 for fair to prime steam, and 9e for 
ketile rendered. Fur future delivery fl.mer. 

Hay— Tbe market for shipping continues quiet but firm 
at $1 35al 40. Ret'>il lots are steady and quiet at «1 4(ia 
175. Salt Hay is quoted at 50 iG>, and Clover at 75a80c 
Straw remain'" dull and unchanged at Si 05al 15 for long 
rye ; 85a95 for short do, and 75a85c for oat. 

Broom Corn— The m irket is dull and unchanged. We 
quote old mixed »t 3.i6c per lb ; new red 3a5 ; n ediiim 
g'ef n 5a8c ; choice hurl atOalOc. Brooms are quiet but 
tirm. 

gi^pds— Clover is in limited demand, and steady at OaD^c 
for Ohio, and 9jiial0c for Indiani. Timothy steady at 
$3a3 25. 



PHILADELPHIA MARKETS. 

Thursday. March 28. 1872 
Serds — There is more Clover,<eed ottering, anl the de- 
mand is limited ; sales of 100 bus. in lots at 8>4a9 5j'c, the 
latter for choice. 300 hags Tiinothv sold at a price kept 
st-cret ; we quote at $2 87i^a3. The market is bare of 
Flaxseed, and it is wanted at $2. 

Bark— The stock of quercitron bark is reduced to a very 
low figure, and holders now demand $3.5 per ton for first 
qualitv No. 1. Tanners' Bark is nominal at $13al4 for 
Chpstnut, and SHaiS per cord for Spanish o^k. 

Flour.— The flour market continues very firm, but the 
demand is less active. J^he receipts continue small from 
all sources, and the stock is now greatly r duced. Sales 
of ino barrels, low grade, superfine ac $5 25; extras at 
$6 25a6 75 ; 200 bbls. Northwest extra family at $7 75 ; 
100 bbls. Minnesota do. at $8 12>^ ; 600 bbls. Pennsylvania 



do at 7 75a8 ; 500 bbls. do, on secret tern>s ; 600 bbls. 
Camden Mills, also on f^ecret terms, and Ian y lots at 
$9 50al1. Kye flour is firmer, and 2'i0 bbls. so'd at $4 75a 
5 ; ■. 00 bbls. we e taken on .secret terms. Corn meal is in- 
active ; holders ask %'', 51 for Brandywine. 

Grain.— The i^' ceij.ts of Wheat continue small, and 
choice lots are held firmly at the advance recorded yester- 
day, but tbe demand is lim'ted; ^ales of 2 600 bushels 
Pennsylvania and Western red at Sl-76al.T7; 400 bushels 
Western amber at $1.78, and 400 bushels Penn.sylvania 
wbi'p at $1.88)^. Rye is very quia' ; we quote Western 
and Penn.svlrania at 87a88c. Corn is dull, and, within- 
creased otiVriiigs, prices favor buyers; sales of 5 000 
bushels yellow at 65c ; Western mixed is otled at&lc with- 
out finding buyers ; 15 000 I)nshei8 sold on private terms. 
Oats are quiet and lotfer ; sale." of ,5 000 bushels Wesiern 
white at 5.3c. and 2,000 bushels Western mixed at 51a,53e. 
Barley is held firmly, bTit no further sales have been re- 
ported. Barley Mait ranges fri.m $1.15 to $150, accord- 
ing to quality. 

CHICAGO MARKETS. 

Thursbay, March 28, 1872. 

Flour— Extra spring, $6 50a7. Wheat firmer; No. 2 
spring $1 20s^al 2 )i. Corn firmer, but quiet'. No. 2mi.xed, 
37%a37>!i'c. OatsquiVt; No. 2 at 3034a30.1b;c. Ryestrongerp 
No. 2 at 69a70c. Barley easier and qiiiet, at 50c. Mess 
pork unsfttled, at 811 30. Lard unsettled, at 8a].5. Balk 
meats unchaj3..'ed; b ose shoublers, 3^^340 ; clear rib sides, 
5,^a6c ; clear sides, ^%iS>%c. Hams in picrkeJ du>I. at 6^^^' a. 
giij'c. Live hosjs lower, at $la4 80. Cattle firm, at $5 ; bhip- 
ptiig st^ers, $7 25. 

HALTIMORli: MAKEtg. March 2S.— Cattm: ojene-l 
with some litt'e animiiion. I nt closed dull and %^^ 
lower; very best on sale today 6aTc ; that generally 
rated first quality 5^a6c ; roeiiiom or good lair (jiia'ity 4 
a5t^c ; sales 961 head ; 977 H'-gs iw full szrpply and only 
moderate dem'.<n(^,and declined about ^c ; siles at 6,'^a7c; 
net receipts 9610 head. Shoep in light supply and good 
demand and i^c h ghtj; saUs at G^^ag^cj receipts 794 
head. 

CINCINNATI MARKETS. 

THtrRfi>A'S', Mareh 2S. 

Foirti dull and drooping. Wheat quiet and unchanged; 
red $1 70al 72. Oorn opened firm but closed dull at 4.Ta46c, 
Kye in lair demind and firm at 90ti&2c. Oats and Barley 
quiet atd unchanged. 

pROvisioBH — Mess pork dull and iinehaaged at $12asie(}, 
Lar \ in fair demand and lower ; sales prime steam at 8^c. 
Bulk meats Q ii;t and un»haT'g>^d ; sVoulders, -ic ; sides, 
5^,6a6,Vc Bacon unchanged at 5, 6?4a7/|^c. Live hc^ 
steady at ^5ua4 85; reeeip 1:^80 he d. 

PHILADELPHIA CATTI^E MARKET. 



MoN»AT, March 25 5 P, M. 

Beef Cattle were <iull this week, but prices remain about: 
tbe same as bst q>iot d. 2050 hetd arrived and sold at 7% 
aS^c for extra Pennsylvania and Westeju steers; 6,^a7c 
for fair to good do., and 4aSc per lb., gross, for coaamou, a* 
to quality. 

Cows and Calves were dull of sale. We quote springers 
at $40a50, and fiesh cows at $4.'^a35. Rpt-ei|its, 200 head, 

Phf'cp were in demand at full prices at ^a^/^c for c-boice; 
S'4a9Kc for fair to goi d, and 7a8c for common. Receipts 
15,'000 hpad. 

Hogs were also in demand, but prices favor buyers, zX 
J6 75a7 75, the latter for corn-ftd. Receipts, 4000 head. 



Trimming Grapevines.— A correspond- 
ent of tbe weekly Sun^ living in western 
Maryland, senfLs us the following, which is ia 
fact the application of rude surgery to plants. 
But, unless tbe trimming be delayed until tbe 
sap begins to rise i'» the spring, there is hardly 
any neces.^ity at all for stanching : 

"La-t February I trimmed some of ray 
choicest vines too close, thereby causing them 
to bleed so much that I was in danger of 
losing them. Seeing (hat some of the smaller 
ends had dried, and thereby having their 
pores closed did not bleed at all, I heeded the 
lesson it taught me, and heating an iron seared 
the wounds, which closed up the pores and 
saved my vines." 



©Ire iHittitsti^r ^unuw 

DEVOTED TO 
Agricidticre, Horticidture, Domestic Economy and Miscellany ^ 

EDITED BY S. S. RATHVON" AND ALEXANDER HARRIS. 
" The Farmer is the foiiuder of civifizafion."—WEESTEK. 



Vol. ir. 



MAY, 1872. 



JVo. 5. 



AGRICULTURAL. 



AGRICULTURAL CHEMISTRY. 



An e.=Bay read before the Lancaster County Agriciiltural 
and HorticuHural Society, by JacoB Staupfbb, IbTl. 



MR. PRESIDENT & GENTLEMEN; 
Being desired to make some remarks 
ou Agricultural Chemistry, at this meeting, I 
shall comply without wasting any time in 
making apologies or a lengthy preface. You 
will, however, bear in mind that chemistry is 
so intimately connected with the soils, ma- 
nures and vegf table physiology ,that it is not an 
independent science, its actions being mani- 
fest ia all the ctianges takiag place in the 
germmation of seeds and the growth, matur- 
ity and decay of plants. 

Agricultural chemistry, in its application to 
farming, is comparatively a new science, and 
professors of chemistry are too apt to over- 
estimate their own powers, and set them- 
selves up as guides, without that experimental 
knowledge to enable them clearly to ex- 
plain themselves in a manner as to be truly 
beneficial to practical men. 

"We require experiments made for special 
purposes, researches carried on in the field as 
well as in the laboratory. A general knowl- 
edge of the principles involved is certainly 
of great advantage, and will enable the judi- 
cious agriculturalist, iB step aside from the 
mere imitative routine established by custom, 
when changed conditions demand a change of 
operation. 

It is ascertained by analysis of various soils, 
that certain elements are found in various 
proportions. For instance, a square foot of 



earth, 6 inches deep, through which rain- 
water is passed, in one million parts of this 
filtered water the soluble constituents are 
clai5sified and a table of each of five experi- 
ments given by Dr. Fraas, of Munich. Dry- 
ing the solid residue at 212^ and analyzing the 
solution, he found potash, soda, lime, mag- 
nesia, peroxide of iron, chlorine, phosphoric 
acid, sulphuric acid, and soluble silica. 

The soils experimented upon gave good 
crops of corn and straw^ and the quantities of 
potash and phosphoric acid required by these 
crops much exceed'* those which would be 
furnished by solutions of the above composi- 
tion. Moreover, the comparison of ash of 
cpreals, nnd the substance dissolved from the 
soil, is inconsistent with the opinion that the 
food of plants is supplied in solution, unless 
they are supposed to possess a very consid- 
erable selective power. 

In reference to the culture of ruot crops, 
Prof. Voelcker says, that generally, ammon- 
iacal manures, such as guano, are thrown 
away on roots, and the phosphates are 
more profitable. Guano and superphos- 
phate of lime both rather retard the germin- 
ation of the seeds, but they push forward the 
young plant in its early growth. This we be- 
lieve to form the true value of such manures, 
though perhaps this is over-estimated. 

It is remarkable, that in none of the resi- 
dues, above referred to, could the presence of 
a soluble compound of alumina or of ammonia 
be recognized. It was only by boiling for a 
long time with concentrated caustic potash, 
that ammoniacal reaction became percepti- 
ble, and that was probably due to the decom- 
position of a nitrogenous organic substance. 
There is, however, so large an amount of ni 



SJi- 



THE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



trie acid present, that when the residues of 
of evaporation are heated upon platinum foil 
they deflagrate ; and when the solution is 
heated with sulphuric acid, it decolorizes indi- 
go solution. 

This nitric acid may originate chiefly from 
ammonia by oxidation, or in part be produced 
directly by the combination of atmospheric 
nitrogen. With the oxygen condensed by the 
aoil, ammonia would always be oxidized first, 
and converted into nitrate of ammonia. How- 
ever, since the nitric acid in the solution 
from soils exists in the state of a linae or 
magnesia salt, this is a further proof of the 
powerful attraction of the soil for ammonia. 

Nature is avast chemical laboratory, per- 
formiHg its wonders silently and unseen, and 
when we consider the numerous compound 
products used as food, for medicine or in the 
arts, resulting from the assimilation, absorb- 
tion and elaboration of the elements difl"used 
through earth, air and water, it is truly mar- 
velous. Such as gum, sugar, starch, gluten, 
albumen, fibrine, extract, tannin, coloring 
matter, bitter principle, narcotic principle, 
acids, oils, wax, resin, gum resin, balsams, 
camphor, caoutchouc, cork, woody fiber, s-ap, 
proper juice, charcoal, a-hes, alkalies, earths, 
and metallic oxides, and perhaps other pro- 
ducts omitted, all resulting from chemical 
changes produced by the analysis of certain 
and various plants, or derived from the vege- 
table kingdom ; exhibiting a great diversity of 
combinations, mainly comprised of carbon, 
oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen. 

As water is a compound of hydrogen and 
oxygen, it is itself the chief element of food to 
plants ; as certain plants perform all their 
functions when immersed in water, without 
the aid of any soil, or exposure to the atmos- 
phere. Nevertheless it is not the only food 
as some writers have supposed, and ofiered. 
experiments in proof of their theory— among 
whom were such distinguished men as Von 
Humboldt, Boyle, Bonnet and Du Hamel; 
the latter reared in water alone, plants of 
the horse chestnut and almond to some con- 
siderable size, and an oak till it was eight 
years old— un which these opinions were 
based. 

Tulips, hyacinths and other bulbous roots, 
as well as some other plants, are known to 
grow and flower in water. Nevertheless, the 
atmosphere is known to supply not only food, 
but gives a vigor and stimulus, aided by the 



changes of light and darkness, performing 
very important offices in she growth and per- 
fection of plants — their blossoms and fruit. 

That water is absolutely necessary to the 
commencement of vegetation as well as to its 
progress (to the roots especially ), there is no 
question. We will now consider a few facts 
resulting from the experiments of Thenard 
and Gay Lussac with respect to the propor- 
tional constituents of the elements combined. 

1. Vegetable substances are always acid 
when the oxygen they contain is to the hydro- 
gen in a greater proportion than in water. 

2. Vegetable substances are always resinous, 
or oily^ or spiritous, when the oxygen they 
contain is to the hydrogen in a smaller propor- 
tion than in water, 

3. Vegetable substances are neither acid, 
nor resinous, but saccharine or mucilaginous, 
or analogous to woody fiber or starch, when 
the oxygen, and hydrogen they contain are in 
the same proportions as in water. 

Water is a compound of oxygen and hy- 
drogen ; two volumes or measures of hydrogen 
gas, and one of oxygen gas. The proportion 
of the ingredients in weight, is 88.9 parts of 
oxygen to 11.1 of hydrogen, as analyzed by 
Berzelius. 

Oxygen is an electro-negative basifying and 
acidifying elementary principle. It is the 
vital part of the atmosphere. In union with 
azote or nitrogen, it forms atmospheric air, 
of which it constitutes twenty-one parts to 
i?eventy nine of azote or nitrogen out of every 
one hundred parts, ly volume. The name 
azote is derived from its fatnl effects an animal 
life, but more generally nitrogen gas, from its 
forming nitric acid by combination with oxy- 
gen. Combined with hydrogen, in a certain 
proportion, it forms ammonia, and it enters 
into the composition of most animal substances 
particularly of the muscular fiber. 

Hydrogen gas is an aeriform fluid, the light- 
est body known, and though extremely in- 
flammable itselfjit extinguishes burning bodies, 
and is fatal to animal life. Its specific gravity 
is 0.0694, that of air being 100, or in round 
numbers, 700 times lighter than the air we 
breathe ; hence it is employed for filling air 
balloons. As these elementary principles are 
frequently mentioned and perform important 
offices in the economy of nature, I can do no 
less than give a brief definition ; to this we 
might add carbon, an elementary, cumbusti- 
ble substance, existing pure and crystallized 



THE LAJSrCASTER FARMER. 



85 



in the diamond and sometimes in graphite. 
One equivalent of carbon and two of oxygen 
composes carbonic acid gas. One of carbon 
and one of oxygen is called carbonous acid. 

The gases constituting, or in other words, 
the atmospheric air, is indispensably neces- 
sary to the health and vigor of the plants, as 
may be seen by the different aspects of plants 
exposed to a free circulation of air and plants 
deprived of it ; the former are vigorous and 
luxuriant, the latter w^eak and stunned. 

The result of experiments on this subject is, 
that atmospheric air and water are not the 
only principles constituting tlie food of 
plants. In the experiments of Dr. Priestly 
and others, the results are : 1st. That car- 
bonic acid gas is of great utility to the growth 
of plants vegetating in' the sun, as applied to 
the leaves and branches, and whatever in- 
creases the proportion of this gas in Lei" at- 
mosphere, at least within a giv.i'- -:■v:^^^. icr- 
wards vegetation. The oiubu-ition on rti). 
road trains, lime kilns, furnaces, etc, I appre- 
hend aid in increasiug this element. 2d. That, 
as applied to the leaves and branches of plants, 
it is prejudicial to vegetation in the shade 
if administered in a proportion beyond that in 
which it exists in atmospheric air. 3d. 
That carbonic acid gas, as applied to the 
roots of plants, is also beneficial to their 
growth, at least in the more advanced stages 
of vegetation, but founJ to be altogether pre- 
judicial in the process of the germination of 
the seed. 

The chemical phenomena of germination 
consist chiefly in the changes which are 
effected in the albumen or nutriment of the 
seed, destined for the support and develop- 
ment ot the embryo until it is converted into 
a plant. I must be very brief on this and 
kindred topics. I simply wish to refer to the 
important agency of oxygen gas, which is in- 
dispensable to germination ; being gradually 
inhaled by the seed, the farina or albumen is 
tound to have changed, either to an acid or 
analogous to sugar, precisely like fci'mentation 
in barley when converted into malt, as known 
by the name of the saccharine fermentation, 
in which oxygen gas is absorbed, heat and 
carbonic acid evolved, andja tendency to ger- 
mination indicated by the shooting of the 
radicle. 

The effect of oxygen, therefore, in the pro- 
cess, is that of converting the farina of the 
albumen or cotyledons into a mild and eac- 



schariue food, fit for the nourishment of the 
infant plant by diminishing the proportion of 
its carbon and in augmenting, by conse- 
quence, that of its oxgen and hydrogen. The 
radi«le gives the first indication of life, ex- 
panding and bursting its integuments, and at 
length fixing itself in the soil ; the plumalet 
next unfolds its parls, developing the rudi- 
ments of leaf, branch and trunk ; and 
finally, the seminal leaves decay and drop off, 
and the embryo has been converted ii.to a 
plant, capable of abstracting immediately 
from the soil or atmosphere the nourishment 
necessary to its future growth. 

The flower-bud will not expand if confined 
in an atmosi)here deprived of oxygen, nor 
will the fruit ripen. Flower-buds confined in 
an atmosphere of pure nitrogen faded without 
expanding. A bunch of unripe grapes intro- 
duced into a globe of glass which was luted 
by its orifice to the bough and exposed to the 
sun, ripened without aflfecting any material 
alteration in its atmosphere ; but when a 
bunca was placed in the same circumstances, 
with the addition of a quantity of lime, the 
atmosphere was contaminated and the grapes 
did not ripen. Oxygen, therefore, is essen- 
tial to the development of the vegetating 
plant. 

The proper tissue of plants is composed of 
three elements only, namely : Carbon, hydro- 
gen and oxygen. Plants as a necessary result 
of assimilating their inorganic food, decom- 
pose carbonic acid and restore its oxygen to 
the atmosphere. On the other baud, animals 
in respiration continually recompose carbonic 
acid at the expense of the oxygen of the 
atmosphere and the carbon of plants. 

What a field for reflection is laid open by 
the wonderful harmony manifested in the 
economy ot nature, but we must not digress. 

Though nitrogen gas is in so large a pre- 
ponderance, it does not seem capable of 
aft'urding nutriment to plants; for as seeds 
will not germinate, so neither will plants 
vegetate in it, but for a very liuiited time, 
with the exception of the vinca minor, lythrum 
salicaria, irula dysemterica, epilobiura hirsu 
tum and polygonum persicaria, so tar as ex- 
perience goes, which seem to be the only 
plants that succeed equally well in an atmos- 
phere of nitrogen gas as iri'aji atmosphere of 
common air. Nitrogen is found in almost all 
vegetables, particularly in the wood, in ex- 
tract and in their green parts, deprived, no 



S6 



THE LAJ\rCASTER FARMER. 



doubt, from the extractive principle of vegeta- 
ble mould. 

This vegetable mould contains a large per 
cent, of vegetable extract; in the common 
soil it is not in general very considerable. 
The soil when deprived of this extract is not 
so well fitted for the plant as when it is 
present, and as the pxtract contains nitrogen ; 
for it yields by distillation a fluid impregnated 
with ammonia. Although plants refuse nitro- 
gen in a gaseous state, it is plain that: it must 
admit it along with the extract and a small 
quantity of carbonic acid gas, which is also 
found to exist in the extractive principle. 

The soil may be regarded as consisting of 
earths, water, vegetable mould, decayed ani- 
mal substances, salts, ores, alkalies, gases, 
perhaps in the proportion corresponding to 
the order in which Lhey are enumerated. 

The food of plants, whether lodged in the 
soil or wafted through the atmosphere, is 
taken up by what is termed introsusception, 
in the torm of gas or other fluids. It is then 
known as their sap ; this sap ascends to the 
leaves, where it is elaborated as the blood of 
animals is in the lungs. It then enters into 
the general circulation of the plant and pro- 
motes its growth. 

The causes of the sap's ascent, and its 
elaboration, belong as much to vegetable phy- 
siology as to its chemistry. Many theories 
have been advanced in explanation of these 
phenomena, which we can not stop now to 
consider. The most satisfactory hypothesis, 
however, for the ascent of the sap, is that of 
M. Dutrochet. He refers it to a kind of polarity 
or two distinct currents of electricity; one 
negative, by which the vessels have the power 
of absorption, which he calls the endosmose, 
and by which the vessels become turgid ; and 
the other posifve, by which the vessels exude 
or secrete, which power he calls exosmose. 
I can not follow him in his microscopical ex- 
periments and the reason he assigns for his 
philosophy. He also accounts tor the causes, 
of the descent of the sap, or rather the proper 
juice. By way of a hint for further experi- 
ments, I will state that the experiments with 
several artificial stimulants have been found 
to operate as an agency to the vital principle 
when artificially dissolved in water, and ap- 
plied to the root or branch. 

Oxygenated muriatic acid is one. Kitre in 
solution accelerates the vegetation of hyq,c- 
inth and narcissus. Dr. Barton, of Philadel- 



phia, found that a decaying branch of the 
tulip tree (Liriodendron tulipifera) and a 
fa 5ed flower of the yellow iris, recovered and 
continued long fresh when put into water im- 
pregnated with camphor ; though flowers and 
branches, in kU respects similar, did not re- 
cover when put into common water. 

When the sap has recovered its last degree 
of elaboration irom the diflTerent organs 
through which it has passed, it is converted 
into a peculiar fluid, called the proper juice. 
This fluid may be distinguished from the sap 
by means ol its color, which is generally 
green, as in periwinkle, or red as in logwood, 
or yellow as in celandine, or white as in euphor- 
bia, milkweed, etc. Its principal seat is in the 
bark, when it occupies the simple tubes) or 
between the bark and the wood, as in the 
juniper tree or in the leaf, as in the greater 
part of the herbs. The virtue of plants gen- 
erally reside in their proper juices. 

When vegetables are burned in the open 
air the greatest part of their substance is 
evaporated during the process of combustion •, 
but ultimately there remains a portion which 
is altogether incombustible, and incapable of 
being volatilized by the action of fire. This 
residuum we call ashes. Herbaceous plants, 
after being dried, yield more ashes than woody 
plants ; the leaves more than the branches ; 
and the branches more than the trunk. The 
alburnum also yields more ashes than the 
wood ; and putrified vegetables yield more 
, ashes than the same vegetables in a fresh 
state, if the putrifaction has not taken place 
in a current of water. The analysis of the 
ashes are found to contain alkalies, earths, 
and metals, which must therefore be consid- 
ered as ingredients in the composition of 
vegetables. There are found other principles 
generally overlooked on account of their small 
proportions. 

I am admonished by the facts before me, 
however much I may have omitted to say — 
even in this brief skimming most of it may be 
of little use for the practical members pres- 
ent. Yet I will say a few words on soils. 
To ascertain the quality of soils by chemical 
analysis, is both tedious and difficult. I will 
therefore state how the quality of soil can be 
discovered mechanically and empirically. 1st 
then as to the specific gravity. Take a vial 
that holds 4 ozs. of water, fill it half full with 
water, then add soil till the fluid rises to the 
mouth, the difierence between the weight of 



THE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



87 



the soil and that of the water will give f^e re- 
sult. Suppose it now weighs 6 oz.— then the 
soil weighs 4 and the water 2, or is twice as 
heavy as the water. 

The presence of clay and sand in any soil 
can be felt by the touch, the one by its tena- 
city, the other by its roughness to the touch, 
and by scratching glass when rubbed on it. 

Calcareous matter in soil is ascertained by 
pouring muriatic acid on it and observing if it 
effervesces freely. Calcareous soils, magnesian 
soils and clays, are, for the most part, softer 
to the touch than arenaceous or sandy soils. 
To ascertain the quantity of calcareous pres- 
ent, dry soil thoroughly, and weigh 100 grains 
of it, which gradually add to one drachm of 
muriatic acid diluted with two drachms of 
water in a vial balanced in a scale ; the loss 
of weight will indicate the escape of carbonic 
acid, which will be 44 per cent of the quanti- 
ty of calcareous earth in the soil. 

Organized matter in any soil may be ascer- 
tained very satisfactorily by weighing it after 
it is thoroughly dried ; then subjecing it to a 
red heat and weighing it again, the weight 
last found will be the proportion of organic 
matter and carbonic acid gas, if thore should 
have been any. The same object may also be 
attained by ascertaining the specific gravity 
of the soil, but with less accuracy. 

Metallic Oxides are generally known by the 
color. Ferruginous soils are red or yellow ; 
cupreous soils, interspersed with greenish 
streaks, etc. Cupreous soil is rare, green or a 
greenish matter is also caused by iron, which 
is almost tbe only u)elallic impregnation in 
quantity. Salt, sulpher, coal, etc., may be 
known by the absence or peculiarity of vege- 
tation, as well as by color, and the appearance 
of water of such soils. Saline soils may be 
distinguished by the taste ; sulphurous soils 
by their smell when thrown on a hot iron ; 
and the presence of coal by its fragments, 
which will be left after the soluble matters 
are removed by water and muriatic acid. 

The capacity of soil for retaining water may 
be acertained by placing a glass funnel or tube 
in a tumbler. Provide two such, put the soil 
moderately packed (like in nature) around the 
tube, in the center of the glass, of each sam- 
ple ; now pour equal quantities of water into 
each tube, and the capillary attraction of the 
soilSj will show which conducts it more rapid- 
ly and prove to be the better soil. 



AIDING THE CORN CROP. 

THE first great point in corn culture is, 
to work the soil after the corn is 
planted. We will begin in the start and say 
it is difficult to work it too much. Every 
working enriches the land, gives a shock to 
the weeds and thus aids on the corn. Weeds 
rising up certainly hurt the crop, even if the 
weeds are but small, and here is a point that 
all should consider : what the corn loses in its 
early growth is lost forever ; the stunt goes toith 
it to the end. Attend then to the corn till the 
stand is well established. By this time it 
will be too large to work in, and the weeds 
will have been quieted. It will then take 
care of itself. But see that the start is a good 
one ; ground kept mellow and worked till up 
to the C'>rn. This keeping afresh surface for 
the air to act upon — this is what is wanted, 
and there are so many implements to do this 
the man is inexcusable who neglects it. We 
must help our corn along, and as we have 
said, every neglect will be beyond remedy. 
Do not say the hot weather will bring it up. 
It will bring it up to a certain extent, but not 
to a full crop. Who ever heard of a premium 
crop being raised by early neglect ? At best 
there is but a fair crop ; never the large yields 
we read of. To secure this it requires the 
whole of the benefit. Push the early parts of 
the season, and when the heats of summer 
arrive they will find large corn to be readily 
pushed on to the highest point. Wbat will 
prevent a large yield in such a case ? A con- 
stant Use of the implements is sure to aid 
largely, while without it what do we get? 
Weeds and stunted corn, yielding little. One 
or two workings will help, but they will not 
be sufficient. It wants a constant attention, 
occupying all the soil, so that the ground 
about the plants and in immediate c<<ntact 
is fresh and moist. If this does not pay, corn 
culture must, from necessity, be a failure, 
notwithstanding the richness of the ground, 
which may grow weeds, and it always grows 
them more successfully if let alone, overcom- 
ing the corn. The success of our corn crop is 
depending upon what we do to it the first few 
weeks or more after it makes its appearance 
— County Gentleman. 



The Pennsylvania hay crop of 1868 reached 
2,448,000 tons, valued at S39,1G8,000. 



88 



THE LAJ^CASTER FARMER. 



ROTATION. 

OUGHT THE FARMER TO APPLY THE USUAL 
ROTATION TO ALL HIS LAND. 



THIS is a nice question . and , we fear, is not 
sufficiently considered. There is great 
diversity of soil, and this diversity requires 
different treatment. Hence (for one thing) 
there is no end to the variety of rotation. A 
black sandy loam requires a different treat- 
ment from a coarse, stubborn clay. Color is 
essential, acdhas its influence on the direc- 
tion of crops. We are more inclined to i)ut 
corn on dark soil so as to get the heat of the 
snn. On the contrary, wheat wants the color 
of clay, requiring less heat. The grasses also, 
of a cool nature, flourish best on clay land. So 
the potato will thrive most on yellow or light- 
eolored soil. Clover, oats, barley, peas, will 
do for all soils ; these can be relied on for a 
regular rotation on any land. 

But not only the soils in their color have 
an influence, adapted to particular grains, but 
the seasons have an equal if not superior 
effect. A cold season is hard upon claiy, and 
corn, even on a rich soil, would not do well ; 
but the grasses would flourish exceedingly, 
especially with moisture accompanying. So 
would wheat and other crops. On the other 
hand, a dry, hot season would give us the op- 
posites, making a difference of half; this is 
good ground ; on poor land the difference 
would still be greater, amounting almost to a 
failure in some cases. A warm showery sea- 
son would favor all. Much rain would injure 
all, some more, some less, depending upon the 
amount of drainage and the kind of product. 
Thus the potato in such a season, on porous 
laud, would do well, requiring coolness and 
moisture as it does. 

Then the climate has its influence, in some 
some parts of the country varying more than 
in others, and making early or late crops un- 
reliable. Particularly is this the case with 
respect to fruit-growing. Connected with 
climate is the inclination of the land, that 
facing north having a different influence from 
that facing south, and requiring a different 
management. 

We have not mentioned all that goes to ef- 
fect a difference, but sufficient to show that a 
strict uniformity in rotation will not do. It 
becomes us, therefore, to look carefully into 
the matter, so as to discriminate and apply 



the means proper to each soil. This requires 
tact and extensive knowledge, and then much 
will have to be mere haphaz3rd. 

The farmer who has his hills of drift, light- 
colored and cold, will do well with clover and 
timothy, aided by light and rather frequent 
top-dressinos, particularly of barc-vard manure 
or compost. In such case, and in almost all 
seasons, the best of crops are raised here, and 
for years requiring no rotation, as the land is 
improving all the while, the sod thickening 
and preparing the land for the plow. On such 
a soil, in a warm, moist season, corn may be 
raised ; but it is not generally practiced. It 
is found that the lower land with the black 
mould will pay best with corn ; that it seldom 
fails, while the hills frequently do. We raise 
oats, barley, wheat and other crops on our 
hill soils; this two years in succession, gener- 
ally without manure ; then the land is put to 
grass and clover again. In this way our hills 
have been treated for more than thirty years, 
and the result of what before was worn out 
soil is the land that is greatly improved; pro- 
fitable crops meantime have been realized, 
and of late years, since the introduction of 
machinery, with little labor. Top-dressings 
of these lands are relied upon by the best of 
farmers, and are of more benefit than on the 
low land, a little manure going further than 
a little more in the valleys. It is remarkable 
how these uplands will show the benefit of 
small applications of manure, a thin coat from 
the stables in the fall raising a cloud where 
before was but an ordinary crop. A simple 
rotation will therefore do for these hills, grass 
and clover— that is timothy and clover — being 
most relied upon, and grass is nature's coat, 
that needs no change, but is improved by it 
sometimes ; it is improved by enrichment 
(from the top) and by turning down and thor- 
oughly decomposing and pulverizing the sod, 
thus preparing it for a better coat, and par. 
ticularly for that most excellent of crops, the 
clover. 

In a dark soil, in an intervale for instance, 
a wider rotation may be practiced. Here corn 
follows the sod, succeeded by the grains, and 
a great variety of the latter may be indulged 
in. Koot crops may be risked here, almost 
any crup in almost any season, so that the 
soil is deep and rich and well-drained. If 
quite dark, a dense growth will still lessen the 
heat (by its shade) ; and if cold, the heat will 
be invited by glimpses of the sun and the less 



THE LAJ^CASTEU FARMER. 



8 



dense growth, so that there still may be a fair 
yield. If further the ground is made warm 
with manure and rich, it must be indeed an 
inhospitable season if there is not at least a 
fair yield, so that in the valleys we may prac- 
tice a regular system of rotation— and we 
' may do it with safety if th"^ work is thorough- 
ly done, drainage, manure, proper cultivation, 
being applied. This is different from the hills, 
which cannot therefore be brought under the 
same system of changes in the valleys. So 
we should aim to have less corn and more 
grass on our land inclining to the north. 



Wheat will do well here, and potatoes and 
root crops, and will alternate well with the 
grasses. But the corn will only in a hot sea- 
son do well, which cannot be foreseen ; but as 
the seasons are getting more and more drouthy , 
there is less risk with corn when other grains 
are more suitable ? 

Thus we see that the same locality has dif- 
ferent systems of rotation, the same farm, 
even, each adapted to the c rcumstances. 

There may be shorter or longer rotations 

Cor. Country Gentleman. 




THE TULIP, 



THE TUlAP—TuUpa gesneriana. 

PERHAPS no subject, in the long cata- 
logue of flowering bulbs, has created so 
great a sensation in the floricultural world as 
that of the tulip, in times past; and yet, in 
many of the beautifully illustrated catalogues 
of the present day, we can scarcely find a 
single allusion to it, so completely does it 
seem to have been superceded by other 
beauties of the floral realm. Notwithstand- 
ing this general neglect, however, there are 
still a few florists who make it somewhat of a 
specialty. The (ulip belongs to the natural 
family Leltace-E of Linnaeus. It is a native 
of the Levant, and is found wild in Syria and 



Persia, and by the latter nation was called 
Thoulyban, from whence the French name 
Tulipan, and no doubt also the common Ger- 
man name Dulibawn, are derived — and the 
English name Tulip. Ried says, it appears to 
have been brought from Persia, by way of 
Constantinople, into Europe in 1559, and 
about a hundred years thereafter it became 
an object of considerable trade in the Nether- 
lands. For a considerable period after this 
time the demand for tulips among the Dutch 
became a sort of mania— so much so indeed 
that quite frequently a single favorite bulb 
has been sold ior Jive himdred pounds., and im- 
mense amounts of money were lost and made 



90 



THE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



by speculators in this flower. It was intro- 
duced into England near the end of the seven- 
teenth century, and about the beginning of the 
eighth century it had gained its zenith there, 
but soon after it declined, and the English 
taste was turned in a different direction. 
Although it has lost much of the fashionable 
patronage it at one time commanded, it is still 
cultivated extensively in Holland, from which 
all Europe and America have been supp led. 
Allen & Co.'s catalogue enumerates about 
seventy varieties which they have under culti- 
vation, belonging to several groups, as the 
"Due Van Thol," the "Parrot Dragon," ±e 
"Early Single Flowering," the "Late Flower- 
ing," the " Bizarres," and the " Double 
Tulips." "We have seen some so very double 
that if it were not for the great distinction in 
the laws, they might easily have been mis- 
taken for a double poppy. The brilliant colors 
of some of the varieties, their early blooming, 
and the fact that they may occupy ground 
upon which an " after-crop" of other flower- 
ing plants may be grown, together with old 
association, renders the tulip stil mu-^h of a 
favorite as a bed and border garden flower. 
Frequent change of soil is recommended— as 
well as change of situation — as a means of ex- 
pediting the variegation of tulips. In raising 
from the seed, that from the healthiest and 
strongest plants is preferable, and is not t^ 
be gathered until the pericarp or seed vessel 
assumes a brownish color. Offshoots should 
be planted very soon after they »re separated 
from the parent bulb, in beds of fresh study 
loam mixed with decayed cow droppings, 
from seven to twelve laches below the sur- 
face, according to the best authorities, and in 
a dry, airy situation. Tulips wiil bear to be 
shaded or covered from light longer than any 
other plant, without sustaining any very per- 
ceptible injury. On this account, they may 
be cultivated under vines, shrubbery and 
trees, where if even the shading, if long con- 
tinued, would be injurious, their blooming 
period would be past before the trees, shrubs 
and vines,would be in full foliai,c. The early, 
dwarf varieties are consid red the best for 
forcing in pots or water glasses. The bulbs 
are perhaps less liable to disease than any 
other kind of bulbous plants, but when they 
are attacked by grubs, wire worms or fungi 
the best remedy is to remove them altogether 
and plant fresh ones. 



HORTICULTURE. 

HOW TO SET CABBAGE PLANTS. 

THE cabbage is a plant that needs to be 
worked, either with the hoe or plow ; 
and in transplanting t ney should be so set as to 
facilitate the after-working. Our experience 
with them has been limited to garden culture, 
though on a pretty large scale ; and we have 
long practiced a plan of setting that renders 
after-working with a hoe a very quick oper- 
ation. We first ridge up the ground in beds, 
as if for cotton plantmg, and in dry weather, 
with the garden line, mark the row distinctly, 
so that the plants may be set in straight lines, 
which adds greatly to the fine appearance of 
the crop in the garden. This row is marked 
nut, not on the top of the bed, but on the side 
of and as near the bottom, or waer furrow, as 
it can be, not to have water stand or collect 
about the plants when they are set. 

We prefer a rainy spell for setting plants, 
and the operation is performed in the usual 
manner, with a short pointed stick for a 
dibble. 

As soon as the rain is over, and the soil 
dry enough, the plants are caref'illy but 
lightly hoed over ; and we find frequent stir- 
ring of the soil, while the dew is on, early in 
the morning, very promotive of a quick, vig- 
orous growth. By reason df the plants being 
set low down on the side of the bed, with the 
ridge of earth in between every two rows, the 
first three or four .workings are very quickly 
done by merely drawing down a part of the 
bed and pulling the fresh earth up around the 
roots. The operation is much more quick 
than when the plants are set on the level 
ground, or on top of the beds, as is the prac- 
tice of many persons. A chief advantage of 
this method, also, is that when the earth is 
finally worked down to a level, as it will be, 
after a few hoeings, the plant is then found to 
be deeply set in the ground, which is very 
necessary if the cabbages are expected to 
make firm heads. — Ex. 



Water for the Ear. — From careful ex- 
periments, made by a physician of Lyons, it 
has been ascertained that the old remedy of 
warm water is the best solvent of accumulated 
wax in the ear, being superior to olive oil, 
glycerine, etc. 



THE L A J^ CASTER FARMER. 



91 




" TRIOMPHE DE GAND 
BERRY. 



STRAW- 



• * X^RUIT, bright scarlet ; flesh, very firm, 
X^ sweet and juicy ; strong grower ; har- 
dy and very productive ; one of the best ber- 
ries for both market and table use'' 

Our illustration and brief description of the 
"Trioraphe de Gand" strawberry is takt-n from 
the illustrated and descriptive catalogue of 
small fruits, plants and vegetables cultivated 
by Jdo. G. Greider, nurseryman and fruit- 
grower, Lancaster, Pa. Although on the whole 
this strawberry may not be as prolific a bearer 
or occupy as wide and diversified a geograph- 
ical range as " Wilson's Albany Seedling," 
yet in size, flavor and color it is far superior 
to it, and by comparison, in many instances, it 
has proved as profitable a bearer. The size 
that many of them sometimes attain is truly 
astonishing— looking, at a distance, more like 
a dish of clever-sized tomatoes than like straw- 
berries — and the prices they often bring are 
fabulous. As an alternating crop with the 
the Albany seedling, and other prolific varie- 
ties, they have, perhaps, very few equals, if 
any. 

Perhaps nothing has been so marked in the 
horticulture of our county— and the entire 
country— nor has produced such astonishing 
results, as the cultivation of the strawberry. 
From the insignificant position it occupied 
forty, and even thirty, years ago, it has risen 
to one of the most exalted among the " small 
fruits," and millions of dollars are invested in 
its cultivation. From a rare luxury it has be- 



come almost as essemial as potatoes, and 
through the invention of the canning and pre- 
serving process, its use is extended from a few 
weeks throughout the entire year, and by hot- 
house culture, it has bten brought into mar- 
ket, in this country, as early as February, as 
fresh and luscious as we find it in June. "When 
properly ripened, no danger need be appre- 
hended from its free use, for the fruit possesses 
sutficient astringent qualiiies to render it agree- 
able to the most delicate stomach, and decoc- 
tions of the leaves and roots are often admin- 
istered in cases of intestinal laxation. It has 
been said that in the production of large straw- 
berries, quantity is always attained at the ex- 
pense of quality. This may be so, and if so, 
it is only a jule that may be, with equal truth- 
fulness, applied to all kinds of fruits ; but we 
think it would be difficult to prove that the 
Kit ta tinny blackberry is inferior in flavor to 
our common wild varieties. 

The strawberry, however, is so superior in 
its flavor, and so delicious in its edible quali- 
tis, thit we can afi'ord to accept a dilution of 
these properties wheie quantity is insured. 
Indeed, the very pronounced and intense fla- 
vor of the strawberry is urged, by some per- 
sons, as an objection to it, especially when 
canned or preserved, but most especially iu 
wines. To our mind there is only one thing 
lacking in reference to the strawberry, and 
that is, that it has never yet been produced in 
this county in quantity large enough, and in 
price low enough, to bring its consumption 
within the means of the poor. Indeed a fam- 
ily that can afford to use strawberries but once 
a day during their season, at the prices they 
have heretofore brought, cannot be exactly 
ranked with the poor families of our county. 
Therefor", there need be no apprehension 
that we shall have too many strawberries for 
some time to come. Neither is there much 
danger of a reduction in prices unless every- 
body who has a garden begins a skillful culti- 
vation of them for themselves, and if so I 
would admonish them that in making their se- 
lections of stock tbey should not forget to in- 
clude the Tiiomphe de Oand. 

R. 



THE STRAWBERRY MARKET. 

THE following remarks, made by J. B. 
Lyman before the Rural Club of New 
York, and published in i\xQ Horticulturist , con- 
tain many interesting facts on the influence 
of latitude on the strawberry market. 



92 



THE LAJVCASTER FARMER, 



I have been astonished at the evidences of 
enormous growth in the strawberry business. 
From the frequency with which this most deli- 
cate of fruits is met with on our tables, 
from the length of fruit trains and the num- 
ber and size of coasting vessels engaged in the 
transport of strawberries, we have supposed 
that the business had largely increased. But 
a day spent among the commission men along 
our wharves has convinced tue that we have 
now three great national fruits, the traffic in 
which must be reckoned by millions of pack- 
ages, and the proceeds from which make 
handsome incomes for thousauds of farmers. 
These gr at fruits are the strawberry, the 
peach and the apple. The strawberry sea- 
son now covers one-fourth of the year. On 
the 10th of April 560 packages of berries were 
received by the Charleston sieamer. Last 
year the shipments from Rochester, and the 
cool, late clay lands of Wayne and Sc. Law- 
rence and Niagara counties in New York, 
lasted till the 20th of July. Beginning at the 
southern margin of the Eepublic, on soils 
warmed by mellow airs from the Lower Gulf, 
and closing with the grovvth of Upper Canada , 
the extremes of the season take in a hundred 
days. 

But in a commercial sense the business 
commences its upward grade on the middle of 
April, continues to wax and wax till the 10th 
or 15th of May, and then holds its way on a 
table-land of perpetual demand aod supply till 
the 20 h to 25th of June, when it enters on a 
down grade, which falls off quite rapidly till 
the middle of July, when strawberry time is 
over. Charleston has begun the work of 
making April a full strawberry month. By 
another year our receipts from that coast will 
number thousands of crates. There is more 
profit in extending the season at this end than 
from pushing it into July. In April it comes 
in competition with nothing but the cran- 
berry. In .July and the last quarter of June 
it kenps up a brave contest With the rasp- 
berry, with currants, with c'^erries and Ar- 
kansas plums, with early blackberries and 
with Carolina peaches. Yet it dies game, for 
well in July such berries as Dr. Hexamer 
shows us will command fifty cents a quart, 
when the finest raspberries are slow at fifteen. 
About the first of June there often occurs 
that curious phenomenon, that crisis in de- 
mand and supply which the market men call a 
glut. There are probably 200,000 of our 



population who eat strawberries about as 
often as they eat fresh figs ; yet while streets 
and wards full of the poor are languishing and 
growing sick for want of a v. ried and gener- 
ous diet, a pint of berries will sometimes sell 
on the tip of this island for one cent. The 
last large glut happened two years ago, on the 
8th of June, 1869, and this is the description 
of it in the language of the market : 

" This is the greatest day ever known in 
the strawberry line, so far as receipts go. 
The New Jersey road alone brought in 
twenty-eight car loads, besides two express 
loads and thousands of crates by boats. Never 
before were so many berries carried over as 
remained unsold to-night. Besides the enor- 
mous receipts, vhe weather has been very un- 
favorable. In such a glut the peddler boys 
usually go in heavy, and help the dealers out; 
but the showers of to-day interfered with 
them. Norfolk berries are over. The stock 
to-day was half Jersey, the other half from 
Maryland and Delaware. It is impossible to 
give any fixed quotations, prices varjiing 
from twenty cents for fine to ten for medium. 
The sales of one dealer are a fair sample : 
Thirtj -three crates Wilson, hulls on, at 
twenty ; soon after the same berry sold at 
sixteen — then fifteen; then, as they were in 
danger of going over, ten cents. Small bas- 
kets of hulled berries, four to a quart, sold at 
two and three cent^, and some at one cent." 

Yet seven days later we find Extra Wilsons 
selling at twentj-five cents per quart, and 
Fancy Jucunda, Barnes and Agriculturist 
commanding twenty to twmty-five cents per 
pint. So, within a week, we find small ber- 
ries selling at two cents a pint, and berries 
such as these worth twenty-five, the former a 
slow sale and the latter eagerly sought. 
Sometimes bitter things have been said of the 
cupidity and beartlessness of hucksters who 
would throw crates of delicious fruit into New 
York harbor rather than lower the demand or 
allovv a plethora to have legitimate efl:ect in 
forcing down the price. Most of those stric- 
tures are unjust. I find the truth of the old 
saw is perfectly understood on our wharves — 

Th" worth ol a thiug 
Is what itwiU bring. 

The real cause of a glut is not overproduc- 
tion ; it is large arrivals of fruit unfit for ship- 
ment to the northern towns. For instance, 
two days of moist and hot weather will bring 
10,000 crates of Dele ware and Jersey berries 



THE LAMCASTER FARMER. 



93 



on our wharfs. We can consume 5,000 in the 
usual course of trade ; the other 5,000 should 
be shipped up the Hudson, on the Fall River 
line, up Erie and toward Hartford, Spring- 
field and Worcester, some should go to Port- 
land, and Montreal would appreciate two or 
three score crates. But the mnist, dog-day 
weather sours the benies, shippers ai'C afraid 
of them, and leave them m first hands. This 
creates a glut. In short, the producer has 
two elements in his calcu'atiou^;. He may 
be sure that he is growing for a consuming- 
population of 10,000,000 an article that every 
individual of those 10,000,000 likes and is will- 
ing to pay him for. Oa the other hand, his 
product is in the last degree perishable, and 
if the weather is bad he cannot reach his con- 
sumers with a berry which they will buy at 
any price. — Country Gentleman. 



ONIONS. 

ONION growing near cities or railroads, 
may be made a very sure and profitable 
business by those having a good, strong, 
kind-working soil, with plenty of manure at 
hand. If the proper care be taken in select 
ing and preparing the ground, and in cultivat- 
ing the crop, there will generally be a good 
yield ; and, if convenient to market, there will 
always be a ready sale for the product. This 
profit, too, may be increased by raising, as 
we do, one's own sets. It requires from 8 to 
10 bushels of sets to plant an acre. These 
sets are worth, here, two dollars per bushel, 
thus making it cost from eighty to a hundred 
dollars to plant one acre of land. This ex- 
penditure ma} be, for the greater part, saved 
by sowing onion seed in he fall, and raising 
your own sets. Four pounds of seed will 
plant an acre, costing $20. The following re- 
mark will show our plan of growing this 
crop: 

New land is not so good for an onion crop 
as older, clean, nearly level land, which has 
been previously manured for other crops. 
We use the same land every year for onions, 
as this i3 one of the crops which do not re- 
quire rotation ; and we find that, after having 
cultivated this crop on the same land for two 
or three years, we have but little trouble 
with weeds, and const-quentiy can work over 
the crop in a short time, and do not have to 
work it over so often. Having selected the 
ground, about the 15th of September, manure 



it very heavily. Bear in mind, that to make 
large crops of fine onions, the land must be 
verij rich, light, deep and well pulverized. 
Spread the manure evenly over the surface. 
After you have put about enough on, at least 
what you suppose to be sufficient, put on as 
much more, and you will have it about right. 
Turn over, five or six inches deep, with a 
turning ylow, and follow in the same furrow 
with a two horse sub-soil plow, as deep as the 
team will readily pull it There's no danger 
of getting too deep in red clay land, provided 
the soil is in good working condition. After 
it has been plowed thoroughly, harrow until 
the soil is well pulverized and the surfiice 
level ; then pass a roller over and crush the 
remaining clods, which will leave but little 
work for the rake. 

Mark off, by stretching a line across the 
land and marking with an instrument made to 
mark off five rows at a time, ten inches wide 
and one inch deep. Sow the seed in the rows 
with a seed drill or with the hand, rather 
thick, for some of the young plants may be 
killed by winter weather. Cover lightly with 
a rake or hand roller; the latter is preferred, 
as the seed come up better when the soil is 
pressed on them with a light roller. Work 
the plants over after two or three sharp frosts, 
to destroy the weeds which the frosts fail to 
kill, but do not thin them to a stand until 
spring, so that you may have enough plants 
to take the places of the few killed by the 
winter. In the spring, so soon as the land is 
in good working order, we apply a top-dress- 
ing of Peruvian guano, fine bone dust and 
salt. Work it ligbtly by hoeing. At the 
same time, thin out the sets so as to leave 
them standing three inches apart in the row, 
and fill missing places with the sets pulled 
out. After this they will require three or 
four more careful workings. And here we 
suggest, in regard to working this, and, in fact, 
all other crops, that the proper time to work 
them is just as so n and as often as the grass 
and weeds make their appearance, and not, as 
most people seem to think, when the patch 
has become be.tutifully green with grass and 
weeds. One man can work over more garden 
ground in one day, when the weeds are just 
starting from the ground, than six or eight 
men, after the weeds are six inches high. 

The onion crop may be harvested in time 
to get another crop of late cabbage, turnips 
or late potatoes, by those who wish two crops 
on the same land. 



94 



TR£ LAJYCASTER FARMER* 



■ From three to six hundred bushels of on- 
ions may be grown to the acre — much, of 
course, depending on the season, ground, 
manure, and preparation and cultivation of 
the soil. They bring in this market from one 
dollar to one dollar and a half per bushel. We 
do not know how many could be sold here ; 
but we do know that there are not half enough 
raised here to satisfy the demand. Nearly all 
the onions used in winter in this State are 
brought from the North or East. This should 
not be so. Let us grow at home at least what 
vegetables and fruits we use. The farmer 
who attends well to his garden and orchards 
will have better living, better health, more 
real enjoyment of life, and more money, than 
he who neglects garden and orchard to"j;;Zan^ 
all cotton.^^ — Rural Southerner. 

DOMESTIC. 

VISITING. 

I HAVE often thought that there should be 
a change among farmers' families in their 
mode of visiting. No ono enjoys to a greater 
extent than I do myself the friendly inter 
course between families, especially those en- 
gaged in farming. Nothing mdeed conducts 
more to that feeling of good ueishborhood 
which should ever prevail in the same commu- 
nity. It is one of the sails of the earth, and 
without it we should all become selfish and 
morose. 

But what I desire to suggest in the urief 
communication is that thei^e visits should be 
properly timed. When a formal visit is made, 
that is, when intended to speod the day, or 
stay for a meal, it should always be an under- 
stood thing with the family to be visited, in 
order that they may have no other engage- 
ments upon their hands, and that their domes- 
tic affairs may be properly arranged to suit. 
This, however, is not the case generally. In- 
deed, it is the common practice of many 
never to give notice of their intended visit, 
but to go just when it suits them., however in 
convenient it may be to others, or whatever 
engagements others may have. This should 
not be. A visit should produce equal pleasure 
to both parties ; but this will never be the case 
while this practice continues. 

But where these matters are suitably ar- 
ranged I know of nothing so agreeable. The 
very essence of it is friendliness and good 



neighborhood, and promotes a kindly feeling 
which pannot be too much sought after in this 
world of so many troubles and trials. They 
banish selfish thoughts for a space, and in- 
spire other and better feeling«, and make of 
us all an improved human machine. I know 
of nothing so pleasant in rural life and toils as 
good, kind neighbors, and I shall try at least to 
be one of ihQva.—Germantowii Telegraph, 



DOMESTIC RECIPES. 

INDIAN BANNOCK. 

Take one pint of Indian meal and stir it 
into a pint of sour milk— fresh buttermilk 
is better -half a teaspoonful of salt, a spoon- 
ful of molasses, and a spoonful of melted but- 
ter. Beat two eggs and add, and then stir in 
a pint of wheat flour ; then thin it with 
milk to the consistency of drop cakes, and 
when ready to bake a'M two heaping tea- 
spoonfuls of soda dissolved in hot water. 
Pour in square buttered paus an inch thick, 
and bRke fifteen minutes. This quantity 
makes two pans. Try it. 

SODA CAKES. 

Take one quart of flour, one tablespooful of 
soda, and one of cream tartar, dissolved in hot 
water ; one tablespoonful of lard, one of but- 
ter, rubbed into the flour ; a little salt ; mix 
soft with sour or buttermilk, and cut with a 
tin in round cakes ; bake in a quick oven. 
These are very nice for tea. 

GRIDDLE CAKES. 

To one quart of flour add one teaspoonful 
of cream of tartar and one three-fourths full 
of soda; mix with sour or buttermilk and 
bake on a griddle ; season to taste. Butter- 
milk cakes made the same way, adding two 
eggs, are very nice. — Ibid. 



A CURE FOR THE PILES. 

The South Side Signal publishes the follow- 
ing : 

Ed. Signal : I feel it my duty to communi- 
cate to you the following directions for the 
cure of the above-named disease, and by 
giving publicity to it, no doubt you will confer 
a great favor on many of the Signal readers. 
In the first place, put about ore-half pint of 
cold ashes in the bottom of a chamber, and on 
these ashes a coal fire, and on the coal a piece 
of rosin the size of a pea, or a little larger, 
and sit immediately over the burning rosin a 



THE LAJYCASTER FARMER . 



95 



few minutes raorniog and evening, for a few 
days. A cure can thus be afiected at the ex- 
pense of less than two cents. 

In proof of the above remedy, I would say 
I suffered extremely for a number of years, 
earnestly sought every remedy within reach 
that appeared reasonable, but hardly obtained 
momentary relief, and feared I should have to 
give up labor entirely, as a neighbor of mine 
had done, and had taken his bed expecting to 
die with this disease, as his father had. This 
was in May, 1870, and in a most suflering 
condition, his doctor failing to relieve him, a 
friend of his hearing of his illuess sent the 
above directions. I called to see him the same 
evening, when he told me of the cure; that he 
was immediately relieved of the soreness and 
unpleasantness of the disease. I went imme- 
diately home and applied the same remedy, 
and was relieved in tw o minutes of the pain 
and soreness, and after applications of per- 
haps not more that six or eight sittings over 
the burning resin, I was relieved of all sore- 
ness and afflicting sensations. I write thus 
particularly, for if only one of your readers 
should be benefited as my neighbor and self 
have been, he will have cause to regard you 
as the instrument of conferring a great bless- 
ing upon him. After two years' liberation, 
from such extreme suffering, I submit the cure 
for other aflSicted ones. It is 

NO HUMBUG. 



ANTHRACITE COAL. 

This coal was discovered in Pennsylvania 
about eighty years ago. A gentleman named 
Guiter was hunting among the mountains and 
found some out-croppings of anthracite coal ; 
but he did not know it was coal, and nobody 
else thought it was coal ; so it was called 
"blackstone." First one and then another 
looked at the blackstone, and after a few 
years some few began to think that it was a 
peculiar kind of coal. Some took a little 
home and tried to make a fire, but nothing 
could be done with it, no stove could burn it. 

At lenj;th a gentleman in Philadelphia 
thought he could do something with the 
" blackstone." He tried it in a stove, in an 
open fire, and in a furnace. Many and various 
ways he tried, and at last he discovered that 
he could burn it ; that it was fuel. He went to 
his dinner one day feeling sad, very sad; he 
had been trying all the morning to make the 



" blackstone" burn, but nothing could be done 
with it. Twelve o'clock came, his dinner 
hour ; he pushed-to the furnace door, and off 
he went to dinner. That was just the thing 
needed ; the draft was open and while he was 
eating his dinner the coal took fire from some ^ 
burning wood inside the furnace, and lo ! the 
heat wa«!so great that his furnace was nearly 
destroyed. Sadly he walked back to his fur- 
nace after his dinner ; he little thought what 
had been goina: on, never dreamed of finding 
a hot fire, and his astonishment and delight 
can be better imagined than described. 

The news spread — the " blackstone" was 
coal ! the " blackstone was fuel ! Forty years 
had passed sioce the anthracite coal had been 
discovered by the hunter. The world had 
been forty years in learning how to burn an- 
thracite coal. 



FARMERS' GARDENS. 



Few are aware how much a good and well- 
cultivated garden saves to a family in the 
course of a year. There are certain things 
which may be regarded as indispensable, 
whether regarded in point of health or econ- 
omy. Many of our garden vegetables are 
great luxuries. They can be had cheaply and 
fresh only in the farmer's own garden. 
Radishes, rhubarb, celery, asparagus, straw- 
berries and the smaller fruits generally, ought 
to be cultivated on a much greater extent 
than they are, and consumed more extensively 
in every farmer's family. 

Green peas, too, are easily cultivated, and 
to most persons they are very healthful and 
nutritious; and so are summer squashes, 
cucumbers, melons, and a vast number of 
other plants that might be named. The more 
general use of these vegetables would reduce 
the amount of the butcher's bill and also that 
of the doctor. 

Now is the time to prepare for a supply of 
these important articles, and the means of in- 
formation in regard to all these crops are so 
easily within reach of all, that there should 
be no hesitation in attempting their culture, 
even on the part of those who have never 
raised them. 

If any farmer has neglected his asparagus, 
or his rhubarb plants, let him begin now. If 
any one has neglected to set out a strawberry 
bed, let him neglect it no longer. If any one 
has failed to have a supply of currants, or to 



96 



THE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



give them the proper care and treatmeut, let 
them begin to set out and cave for a few 
plants, aad he will soon find his family well 
supplied, if farm work presses, never mind. 
The garden will pay better than the farm and 
ought to have the first care. — Massachusetts 

Ploughman. 

. ^ 

Longevity of Farmebs.— In a late ad- 
dress before the Farmers' Club of Prin<?eton, 
Mass., Dr. Nathan Allen said that according 
to the registration report of deaths in Massa- 
chusetts, published now for about thirty 
years, and preserved with more accuracy and 
completeness than anywhere in the country, 
the greatest longevity is found to obtain in 
agricultural life. In the ten different occupa- 
tions as given in these reports, the cultivators 
of the earth stand, as a class, at the head, 
reaching, on an average, the age of nearly 
65 years, while that of the next class, mer- 
chants, is only about 45 years ; that of me- 
chanics, of all kinds, about 43 years, and that 
of shoemakers, about 41 years. Thus there 
is an advantage of about 15 years on the side 
of farmers as compared with merchants, and 
they reach an average age but little short 
of the three score years and ten allotted by 
the psalmist for human life. 



Rye for Milch Cows. — A foreign paper 
says : When rye is of good quality, it certainly 
constitutes an excellent food for all kinds of 
stock. Dairy cows fed daily on five pounds of 
rye meal and a sufficiency of cut straw have 
been found to yield very large quantities of 
milk. In Holland, which is famous for its ex- 
cellent butter, rye is a common food for milch 
cows ; and, indeed, generally throughout 
northern and central Europe there exists as 
great a prejudice in favor of rye as a cattle 
food as there is a prejudice against it in these 

countries. 

• 

How TO Get Rid of Rats and Mice. — 
A gentleman of large experience, and fully as 
humane as the most of us, says he gets rid of 
rats by putting potash in their holes and runs. 
The poor wretches get it on their feet, and 
over their fur, then lick it and don't like the 
taste of it ; it burns them somewhat, and the 
more they see of it the less they like it ; so they 
clear out almost as soon as the application is 
made. To get rid of mice the same person 
uses tartar emetic mingled with any favorite 
food ; they take it, become sick and take their 
leave. 



wo]s:ders kever cease. 

ESSRS. EDITORS :— In looking over 
the last Farmer, the above sentence 
was brought to my notice, in an article pro- 
duced by our venerable agricultural father. 
It appears to me the sentence contai-is a vast 
amount of meaning, but for want of time I 
will have to content myself with but a brief 
cocsideradon of it, as well as some other por- 
tions of the article . 

If the list of subscribers to the Farmer 
could be swelled to the magnitude that his 
imagination fancies — and it is a consummation 
most devoutly to be wished — then it would 
truly be wonderful, and then indeed we might 
experience the verification that " wonders 
never ceJise ;" because there might be such 
an array of scientific, electrical theorists 
brought into the ring of contributors that could 
give us their experiences, not only theoreti- 
cally butpracticaUy, in manner so plain that 
would cause us to stand aghast with utter as- 
tonishment and wonder at our own ignorance, 
and as wonder is the effect of novelty upon ig- 
norance we might well be filled with wonder 
and amazement at things that might happen. 

There is not a solitary discovery made, nor 
machine or implement invented, however sim- 
ple or complicated, with which, through daily 
use, we have become familiar, and which now 
to our minds appear very simple, yet when 
first discovered were the great wonders of the 
age, and even aroused our prejudices against 
them, which took a considerable time to over- 
come and teach us the utility of their use. 
Bacon says : "To try things and never to give 
over doth wonders." Truly, sirs, " Wonders 
will never cease. 

However numerous the discoveries may be, 
there are yet millions upon millions of secrets 
hidden in the future, which leaves plenty of 
room for the mind of man, and as the tide of 
improvement is upward and onward, so long 
as the inventive genius of the mind of DLan 
will continue to pry into the secrets of nature 
" wonders will never cease." 

Will we have to leave to the rising gener- 
ation all the discoveries ? Is it not a duty 
we owe to God, our fellow-men and to our- 
selves to exercise the reasoaing faculties 
with which we have been endowed, in such a 
manner as to gather information and hand it 
down to posterity, ther^-by elevating our- 
selves in the scale of being to that point 
for which we were designed by creation. The 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



97 



more we study the works of nature the nearer 
will we approach to that stage of perfection 
which imperfect man is capable of gaining. 
Creation is so immense and nature so diversi- 
fied in her productions that the mind of man, 
comparatively speaking, is but a mjth ; but 
when we look at nature around us, and by 
chance discover some of her mysteries, and 
then reflect how many mysteries ara hidden 
from our view, may we not be well induced to 
exclaim with astonishment — truly, " wonders 
will never cease !" 

There is not a day that will not force upon our 
minds something apparently new (however 
old in nature), and the mind thus engaged 
cannot help but fill up, and betimes overflow, 
and impart something that will be beneficial 
to his fellow-man. 

Among the many discoveries made, within 
the last few years, for the benefit of the agri- 
cultural portion of the community, is the 
" Buckeye Feed-Steamer Baker, Drier and 
Range, all combined, and complete in one 
machine, which stands pre-eminent in point 
of utility and economy. There is an old 
adage, that the man that causes two blades of 
grass to grow, where but one grew before, is 
a benefactor." But what shall we say of the 
man who has invented a machine that will 
economize and utilize oae-fourth of a crop 
raised by the sweat of the brow of the farmer? 
Truly, sirs, " Wonders will only cease " when 
men ceases to think and act. Without going 
into a discussion of the merits of this machine, 
I would in conclusion say, that all it needs is 
a fair and impartial trial, to remove every 
prejudice, and satisfy every discerning mind. 

I very respectfully remain an humble obser- 

r,in a loca 

Habitation. 
A ri I 15th, 1872. 



A DYING NATION. 



THE accounts of the famine in Persia, 
which continue to arrive in greater de- 
tail, bid fair to treat the world to a spectacle 
of a calamity, the like of which has not been 
witnessed, in historic times at least — the sud- 
den extinction of a nation frc.m want of food. 
This has really been the fate of the great 
States which once filled the valley of the 
Euphrates, and it is a fate which has for cen- 
turies been threatening some modern States — 
Spain, for instance. Man has stripped the 
soil of trees ; the absence of trees has brought 
droughts -, droughts have slowly diminished 
the productive powers of the ground, and 
finally destroyed them — the population in the 
mean time dwindling in numbers and vitality. 
Spain had forty millions of people in the time 
of the Romans, and flowed with milk and 
honey; it is now an arid region, only half of 
it under cultivation, with only sixteen millions 
of inhabitants, and if modern science had not 
come to its aid, would probably go the way of 
Babylon. Persia was one of the most power- 



ful States of antiquity, and even in the four- 
teenth century was able to support the arrjiy 
of Tamerlane, who marched without commis- 
sariat or bagcjage during a bloody contest. It 
is now almost a wilderness, with a population 
of two millions — about half of them nomads — 
which is rapidly perishing from famine 
brought on by a three years drought. The 
worst of it is, that owing to the absence of 
either common roads or rjiilroads, it seems to 
be impossible for the charity of the rest of the 
world to reach the suflerers> go that there is 
really a strong prospect of the depopulation 
of the whole country. The moral of this hor- 
rible story is — look after your trees. 

[The abvve extract from the New York Nation 
is Bf nt to U3 by an anonymous friend of humaniiy, 
with a request that we should eive it a place in the 
columns of the Farmer; which we cheerfuliy do, 
for there is a significance in the spirit of the arti- 
cle that must excite the rtflsctions of ths com- 
monest mind that reflec s at all. The geiceral 
theory of the cHraatio and sanitary chmges caused 
by the wh; legale, and often wanton, destruc ion or 
displacement of forests in our country, has been 
discussed, through various ariicles ou that subject, 
which have appeared in thecolumns of this journal ; 
and although fome of them have been sufficiently 
pronounced, as to what is likely to occur from this 
cause in the future, none have so explicitly identi- 
fied with it me calamities and ruins of the present 
and lhepa.s<. Indeed the men living now, who were 
able to make observations upon the gradual, though 
marked, climatic change-^, which have taken place 
in this country during the past fifty years, have 
com? to the very general conclusion that theae 
changes are largely, if not entirely, attributable to 
the removal of our forest trees. We are convinced 
tha^ all warnings on this subject, as a general 
thing, will be about as futile as '' preaching sermons 
to millstones" so long aa there is a demand for 
lumber, and lumbering is pursued as a business of 
profit. But there are some who will think of the 
matter, if they do not heed the warnings, and those 
we would admonish to begin to devise some amends 
for the mutilations and destructions of the past. A 
time certainly ivill came — it may not be in our fife- 
time — but it may be in the life-time of our im- 
mediate posterity — when the use of lumber must 
be superceded by some other material for builoing 
purposes, just as its use has been superceded as a 
subject of fuel. A more thorough cultivation and 
regeneration of the cleared land we now have, aud 
the replanting of the bare hills and ridges — where 
crop cultivation is not practicable — will be ab- 
solutely necessary, and will so far restore that 
equilibrium which has already been destroyed. 
And not only this, but every lane and public road 
should be flanked with rows of trees, and i-f these 
should involve too much danger in the case of rail- 
roads, these should be flanked with rows of hedge, 
which would not be so liable to prostration .and 
perilous obstruction from the intervention of 
storms. If fence lines muM be continued to divide 
farm lands, or for special inclosures, let hedges be 
used for tnis purpose, for before the close of the 
century, timber fencing may be too expensive, ex- 
cept to men of the most ample means. And if there 
were no other considerations than merely pecu- 
niary economy, there are many places where the 



98 



THE LAJfCASTER FAR MER- 



EDS. Fakmer— /Sirs; In the April uum 
ber of your valuable monthly appears 
an abridged portion of a private letter written 
by me to my friend Garber. Inasmuch as I 
never thousihi of its appearing in print and as 
its construction is such as to cause misunder 
standing, I ask you to insert, this in May 
numb3r. In the article referred to I speak 
of having Mr. R. Stewart's and Thompson's 
seedling grape, many of which are indeed 
very good. 1 here remark that I have not 
the right to sell these, although negotiations 
are pending for the purchase of Mr. Stewart's. 
I have several other kinds also on trial, not 
being permitted to offer for sale. 

My object is to work for the general good 
of the friends of pomology, and in order to do 
80 to test critically any new fruit trusted to 
my care. 

Among the new grapes I regard especially 
valuable are Onondaga, Crotou, Senasqua, 
Paxton, Wordens, Irving, Early Black, Car- 
penter, Grant, Sumner, etc. 

Of new pears, " Clapp's Sarah," Mt. Ver- 
non, Goodale, Dr. Reeder, are very promising, 
and of European kinds, Souvenir du Congrt s. 
Marshal "Wilder, St. Louis, Leclere Thouin, 
are very good and trees remarkably fine. 

In conclusion all'W me to say it will afford 
me pleasure to report my success of any new 
fruits which I may have, and when I am pre- 
pared to offer for sale due notice will be 
given to the people of your section through 
the advertising columns of the Lancaster 
Farmer. 

Yours, etc., 

Delphi, Ind. J. H. Hayes. 
• 

GOD FIRST AND LAST. 

MESSRS. EDITORS : This may seem a 
queer piece to put i'l the Farmer; but 
might it not have a place, too, while we find 
many persons that do not believe that God 
has anything to do with the affairs of men and 
nations, in regard to their prosperity and ad- 
versity on their rise and downfall ? 

Now I contend that in proportion as a 
people own and seek after God, just in such a 
degree will it go well with themV Therefore 
I send this with the hope that it may induce 



surface of the soil would afford ample material to 
build stone walJs instead of lumber fencing, and 
would leave said soil in a better cond tion for i ro- 
ductive cultivation. The country Ti^eds thin labor 
maTdpulaticr, for without a hetUhful and prosper- 
ous ci uniry around it, there cannot long coutinne a 
healthful and prosperous city or town. But tbe^e 
prospective, prosperous ar d economic il results are 
merely sfconday coat^ideratiuns, whtn compered 
with the future sanitary condit'on of the country — 
the prevention of the droughts, the epideusic . and 
tile famines which may * e in store for thi^ future i 
yic^ints of CUT present selfishness — a fuure, akhdugh 
far distant, yet which will f^urely come, r.nd whe?!. it 
come;-, may leave a d(so]at.i wake behind it. R ] 



some to raise their thoughts higher than I or 
the things that perish. 

Have ye not known ? have ye not heard ? 
hath it not been told you from the beginning? 
have ye not understood from the foundations 
of I he earth ? It is He that sitteth upon the 
circle of the ear h (and the inhabitants there- 
of are as grasshoppers); He thatstretchelh out 
the heavens as a curtam, and spteadeth them 
out as a tent to dwell in ; that brinsreth the 
princes to nothing; He maketh the judges of 
the earth as vanity. Behold, the nations are 
as a drop of a bucket, and are counted as the 
small dust of the balance; behold, He taketh 
up the isles as a very little thing. All nations 
before Him are as nothing,and they are count- 
ed to Him less than nothing and vanity. 

To whom then will we lilien God ? or what 
likeness will ye compare unto Him? who 
hath measured the waters in the hollow of 
01 His hand, m^•ted out heaven with the span, 
and comprehend the dust of the earth in a 
measure, and weighed the mountains in scales, 
and the hills in a balance? 

Who hath directed the spirit of the Lord, 
or being his counselor, hath taught Him ? 
With whom took He counsel, and who in- 
structed Him, and tau2;ht Him in the path of 
judgment, and taught Him knowledge, and 
showed to Him the way of understanding ? 

Lift up your eyes on high, and behold who 
hath created these things, that bringeth out 
their host of number ; He calleth them all by 
names, by the greatness of His might, for that 
He is strong in power ; not one faiieth. Who 
hath wrought and done it, calling the genera- 
tions from the beginning ? I the Lord, the 
first, and with the last. I am He. Is my 
hand shortened at all, that I cannot redeem ? 
or have I no power to de iver? 

Behold at my rebuke I dry up the sea ; I 
make the rivers a wilderness, and I have made 
the earth, and created man upon it ; I, even 
my hands, have stretched out the heavens, 
and all their host have I commanded. Hast 
thou not known, hast though not heard, that 
the everlasting God, the Lord, the Creator of 
the ends of the earth, fainteth not, neither is 
weary ? Thou shalt worship no other God. 
And ye shall dwell in the land that I gave to 
your fathers, and ye shall be my people, and 
I will be your God, and I will call for the corn 
and will increase it, and lay no famine upon, 
you. And I will multiply the fruit of the tree 
[without any patent compound, etc,] and the 
increase of the field, that ye shall receive no 
more reproach of famine among the heathen, 
etc. Then the heathen that are left around 
you shall know that I, the Lord, build the 
ruined places, and plant that was desolate ; 
I the Lord have spoken it, and I will do it. 
And they shall say, this land that was deso- 
late has become like the garden of Eden. 
Thou art worthy, Lord, to receive glory, 
and honor, and power, for Thou hast created 
all (things, and for Thy pleasure they ,are and 
were created. JohnB. Erb. 



TEE LAJVCASTER FARMEB- 



99 



%\\t ^mtmin ^mux. 



LANCASTER, MAY, 1872. 



S. S. RATHVON AND ALEX. HARRIS, Editors. 

Published monthly under the auspices of theAor.icuL- 
TURAL AND Horticultural Sooiett. 

#1 !35 per Year In Advance. 

A considerable deduction to clubs of five or more. 

All communications, to insure insertion, must be in the 
hands of the editors before the 20th of each month. Ad- 
dress Raihvon So Harris, Lancaster, Pa. 

All advertisements, subscriptions and remittances te the 
address of the publisher, J. B. DEVELIN, 

Inquirer Building, Lancaster, Pa. 



thousand inhabitants of Lancaster county 
before the close of the present volume, and 
we want every intelligent farmer to have it in 
his family. We are often told by subscriber.?, 
far away, that they read, with " pleasure and 
profit," our whole jouinal, from " hecjinning 
to end," every month; and we want our home 
readers to do likewise ; and we believe they 
will be fqualy pleased and profited. ThaVs 
what we want. 



WHAT WE WANT. 

" Man wan^s but little here below, 
Nor wants that little long." 

WE are compelled to confess that we are 
just " weak and vile " enough to be 
dissatisfied with the abstemious philosophy 
of the above little, widely- known, and oftly- 
repeated couplet. We want a large num- 
ber of good advertisers and a long list of 
paying subscribers. We want to enlarge and 
improve the Farmer, and we want a longer 
list of good contributors. We want to make 
our journal the honorable and well-merited 
representative of the most honorable and use- 
ful men, as a class, that grace any community, 
and we want them to permit us to make it so 
every new paying subscriber is such a permit. 
We want suflScient pecuniary emolument to 
cover our expenses for the paper and ink con- 
sumed during the past three years or more, 
working in its editorial harness — not even a 
pint of peanuts more — to say nothing about 
the time employed in its service. This may 
be an extravagant want, and not in harmony 
with our poetic quotation, but then we have 
placed it at the head of this article to be 
understood Pickwickianly. 

We have as large and respectable a list of 
" foreign exchanges " as any other paper in 
the country, and our journal in its circulation 
reaches farther ; and although this might be 
regarded as length sufficient to gratify the 
ambition of any editor or publisher, yet we 
confess we want a little more breadth, as a 
base of home operations. We want to circu- 
late at least seven thousand copies of the 
Farmer among the one hundred and twenty 



THE CROP PROSPECT. 



E must confess that the prospects of 
even a " half-crop " of cereals, which 
are now immediately before us, are by no 
means encouraging, if they are not absolutely 
gloomy. The/y, last fall, and the cold, open 
and dry character of the intervening winter, 
have had a bad effect upon the growing wrain, 
over our whole State, with few exceptions. A 
few of our farmers are plowing down their 
worst grainfields, and are preparing the 
ground for a crop of corn. Thia may be "wise 
or otherwise " just in proportion to its pres- 
ent real condition, and the character of the 
coming summer and autumn. At least, we 
have known instances, in our life-time, when 
those who " plowed down " made a mistake, 
and those -who d d not realized an average 
crop. Circumstances, however, alter cases, 
and if therefore a large crop of corn can be 
secured, it will be some compensation for the 
loss of wheat. In addition to this, if the 
weather should prove favorable, we may also 
have the oat, potato, vegetable and tobacco 
crops to fall back upon. It is true that tobacco 
would be a poor substitute in case of entire 
failure or fatuiue ; but then it brings in money, • 
and with mi-ney m a country so vast and 
diversified as ours, if the means of subsistence 
fail in the one district, ii can be obtained from • 
another more fortunate one. Along the 
" Pacific Slope," especially in California, the 
prospects seem to be more favo table. So far 
as we have been able to learn, up to the pres- 
ent writing, the prospects of a fruit crop are 
more promising, and even now the trees are 
blooming profusely beautiful. The injury 
which the fruit trees really sustained last win- 
ter cannot truly be known until the fruit be- 
gins to " set." But even if it has escaped in- 
jury from winter freezing, storms, hail and 
cold dashing rains, at the fertilizing period, 



100 



THE LANCASTER FARMER, 



may produce results as damaging as freezing — 
results which we have had cause to deplore 
on many previous occasions. These results 
probably will never cease, as contingencies, 
until there can be some return to primitive 
forest protection ? far in the future we fear. 



MEETING GF THE AGRICULTURAL 
AND HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

THE regular monthly meeting of the soci- 
ety was held, pursuant to adjournment, 
on Monday, April 9, 1872, and in the absence 
of the chairman, Levi S. Reist, First Vice 
President, called the society to order, and the 
minutes of the previous meeting were read and 
approved. 

A committee of ladif s representing the inter- 
ests of the Children's Home called upon the 
society and asked that the members would 
consent to inaugurate a plan for the raising of 
supplies for the Home in different parts of the 
county. 

On motion of Jacob G. Peters a committee 
of four members of the society was appointed 
to act in conjunction with the managers of the 
Home to devise some method for the raising 
of supplies for the Home, and to report to the 
next meeting. 

Committee, J. G. Peters, H. K. Stoner and 
Jacob M. Frantz. 

D. L. Resh was elected a member of the 
society. 

Henry M. Engle proceeded to submit some 
views as to the best method of raising early 
potatoes. He considers the Early Rose the 
leading potato now grown as regards produc- 
tiveness, quality and earliness. 

Milton B. Eshleman agrees with Mr. Engle 
in his estimate of the Early Roso. He thinks 
small white potatoes the best for planting. 

Levi S. Reist thinks the Early Rose will do 
well also for a late potato. 

Henry M. Engle thinks that the Early Rose 
will do well for a late potato. A diflSculty in 
having it for a late potato, however, is that it 
grows very early in the spring. The process 
to secure an early variety of potatoes is to plant 
always those that first mature, for a number of 
years, and you still get them earlier and ear. 
lier, "and rice versa^ by planting the late-ma- 
turing ones you get a late variety. This seems 
to be a web of nature that obtains not only in 
' potatoes, but also in corn and other vegetables. 



To question of H. K. Stoner, Mr. Engle re- 
plied that it makes no difference whether we 
plant large or small potatoes. He has plant- 
ed large and small ones, side by side, and no 
preceptible difference in the crop was ever 
perceived. He however is inclined to think 
that by constantly planting the largest, the 
variety may be improved, and on the other 
hand by planting the small ones for years 
they would in time degenerate. 

To question of Israel Landis, concerning 
Chester county mammoth corn, Johnson Mil- 
ler said that he had tried it last year, and he 
found it not equal to Lancaster county corn. 
Milton B. Eshelman knew a farmer who had 
grown at the rate of one hundred bushels of 
Chester Mammoth corn per acre. 

Johnson Miller thinks farmers should al- 
ways select the finest ears of corn for seed. 

As regards the comparative quality of fer- 
tilizers, Milton Eshelman said that although 
he owned a bone mill and sold considerable 
quantities of bone dust, yet he was free to say 
that he still regards stable manure as the best 
of fertilizers. Next to stable manure he esti- 
mates bone dust. 

Israel L. Landis had seen in an agricultural 
paper, that the tobacco growers of Connecti- 
cut had abandoned all fertilizers except barn- 
yard manure . 

"Webster L. Hershey remarked that manure 
is better preserved in the Eastern States than 
in Pennsylvania. There they generally keep 
their manure under cover. 

H. M. Engle whilst ready to concede that ia 
most cases barn-yard manure is the best, yet 
in some cases he thought artificial fertilizers 
might answer equally as good a purpose. 

Milton B. Eshelman was named as essayist 
for the meeting in May, and Ephraim Hoover 
for the June meeting. 

Society on motion adjourned. 



All kinds of poultry and meat can be cook- 
ed quicker by adding to the quart of water in 
which they are boiled a little vinegar or a piece 
of a lemon. By the use of an acid there will 
be a considerable saving of fuel, as well as 
shortening of time. Its action is beneficial 
on old, tough meats, rendering them quite ten- 
der and easy to be digested. Tainted meats 
and fowls will lose their bad taste and odor if 
cooked in this way, and if not used too freely, 
no taste of it will be acquired. 



THE LAJ^CASTER FARMER. 



101 



BOOK AND SPECIAL iNOTICE DE- 
PARTMENT. 



OUR BOOK TABLE. 

Gardener'8 Monthly.— We know of mo .iournal, de- 
voted to a similar speciality, more punctual, more retresu- 
ing, or teeming with a greater vaneiy than thw ever wel- 
come monthly. The April number, be tore us, ' last and 
beat," is apropos to the season. 

We have received a copy of an " Address to the Agri- 
cultural Organizations in the United Sta-es, preparea by 
a committee in Obedience to a rcsolutioa by tne JVatiunal 
Agricultural Aisociauon, together wituthe c^ustuution and 
proce<5ding3," and aiso a list of its officers. We refer our 
reidera to our April number, pago 64, and hope to pubiish 
the ad.lress in some future number. 

Never get a poor farm implemen;,. Oct the best. Get 
the Blanchard Ohurn. 

A. B. Allen & Go's " Descriptive catalogue of Live 
Stock, both imported and home-bred, lucluaing uoraes, 
neat cattle, sheep, goats, swine, dogs, poultry, pigeons, 
rabbits, and useful and ornameut*i tisu," la tue very 
thing for stock tanciers to consult. Address, Jf . O. JtSox 
376, New York. 

The South— An 8-page folio, " devoted to the material 
interests of the Southern States," contdius a vaso d,mouut 
of useful information, especially to those who think of 
emigrating to that sunny region. JStw York. jfS.uO per 
annum. 

The Iron World and Manufacturer, " a represen- 
tative of American Metal Manufacturers, Workeis a d 
Dealers. This is a royal illusiratad fodo, containing the 
" prices current" ana much other useful aud interesting 
matter relating to the subjects embraced in its title. 
Pittsbarg. $4.00 per year. 

Amkhican Kural Homes, a royal quarto, devoted to 
tiild and stock husbandry, rural misceliany, hoiticulture, 
practical science, the heartnsioue, 6abbatU reauiug, liter- 
ature, exchange, the outside world, and hous.-keeping. 
Kochester, New York. $2.00 per annum. 

The Building Association Journal, published by 
Oharies H. Marot, 23 North btn street, Fhii'a., is on our 
table. This journal should be in the hands of every mem- 
ber of a Building Association. It is published monthly at 
only 50 cents per year. 

Over Fifty Thousand Blanchard Churns are now in suc- 
cessful operation. Pretty good pruof that they are 
liked. 

Our Church Work— " Nil desperandumdsoduce " pub- 
lished monthly by the'- Church r-rtsj Association, " jial- 
timore, Md., Hev. Hugh Boy Scott editor. An Episcopal 
disseminator of religious instruction to the common peo- 
pie. $1.00 per annum. 

The American Agriculturist and the New York Rural 
those twin princes in agricultuial and domestic literature' 
are regularly upon our table, aud freighted with usefui 
and entertaining matter in their special departments 
They are both too well established to need any eulogy 
from us. 

The GermarUown Teiegraph, the New York Observer and 
the exchanges generally, which hive been noticed ia our 
February, March and April numbern, have come regu- 
larly to hand. Also the Manheim Sentmel, the Vallev 
Spirit, The Free Press, theMoutU Joy Herald, and other city 
and county papers. 

A Noble Lord, sequel to '< The Lost Heir of Linlith- 
gow," by Mrs. Eiuma D. E. N. Southworth, has Just been 
published by T. B. Peterson & Brothers, Philadelphia. 

Ail who have read that most fascinating of modern 
novels, " The Lost Heir of Linlithgow "—and who has 
not, as it has passed to four editions in tive weeks- will be 
pleased to learn that its gifted authoress has provided a 
sequel to the wondrou.sly interesting story. " A Noble 
Lord " is the title of the conclusion of the last entrancing 
narrative from the prolific and graphic pen of Mrs. South- 
worth. It takes up the thread of the absorbing romance 
where the tinul chapter of the " The Lost Heir " left it, and 



from the woof and web of the thrilling incidents, myste- 
rious circumstances, and interesting and sharply indiviu- 
ualized characters, the practiced and talented novelist 
has wrought out a literary masterpiece in the popular 
held of prose fiction. Those desiring entertaining reading 
of the highest order should .secure both Mrs. Soutuworth's 
last great novel and its sequel. Published in uniform, 
elegant and durable style by X. B. Peterson & Brothers, 
No 306 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

It is issued in a large duodecimo volume, and sold by all 
booksellers at tue low price of $^1.75 in cloth, or $1.50 in 
paper cover ; or copies will be sent by mail, lo any place, 
postpaid by the publishers, on receipt ot the price oi the 
worK in a letter to tliem. 

The LiDT's Friisnd for May. This number opens 
with an uncommonly beautilui engraving of •• The Lady 
Elleyu " — who u kneeling at an open window, and evi- 
dently awaiting the eouilug ot her own true Knight. The 
Fashion UesiJiis are as usuil, novel and stylish, and the 
pattern dep^trtuient is ampiy i.lustrated with mo lels lor 
useful and ornamental wear, suitable for ladies of mod- 
erate means, as well as tue wealthy. In the literary de- 
partment, wnich is as rich as usual, we note '• Pink 
Corals," by Daisy Veutnor ; -'The Old Maids of Hope- 
ton," by Sarah Brion ; '• Shiloh," by Mrs. M. c. Pyle ; and 
Mrs Henry Wood's absorbingly interesting story ot 
•' Within the Maze ; or. Lady Andinniau's Trial," which 
none of our laUy leaders, who like a good story, should 
fail to peruie. I'he Music this month is the song of '• Ethel 
Wayne." Price, .if 2 00 a year. Four copies, $6.00. Eight 
copies (and one gratis) $12 00. " The Lady's Friend " and 
" xhe Saturday Evening Post," $4.00. Publishedjby Dea- 
con tS Peterson, Puiladelpuia. /Single copies for sale by all 
News Dealers, and by the Publishers, price 20 cents. 

Home AND Health. — The April number of this valu- 
able and spicy family and health journal is received. The 
Miy number is to be greatly enlarged, and will be under 
the eaitoiial management of Kev. Geo. Lyon, a gentle- 
man 01 rare acquirements. In every number there will be 
tne most entertaining and instructive reading tor parents 
aud aduUs, va.uable iniormatiou on plants, limts and 
flowers useful hints on housekeeping and cooking, to- 
gether with the most varied and elaborate articles ou'hy- 
giene aud medicine, and on the heme treatment of all 
diseases and ailments. Notwithstanding all these im- 
provements the price is to remain the same, $1.50 per 
annum. Address, Home Publishing House, or De Pay, 
Lyou & Co., 62 Fourth Avenue, Now York. 

Tna Printers' uiecular published by R. S. Menamin 
515, 517 and oiO Minor street, Philadelphia, is on our tabl«'' 
and is as intcrtstijg as it is useful. Our friend, -'Bob '' 
knows how to cater to the good tastes ot the piinters. His 
journal is more reliable than any other of its class pub- 
lished. 

Pure Hubbakd Squash. 

Having been the original introducer of this famous 
Squasii, I am prepared to supply seed dealers and farm- 
ers aud gardeners with the purest seed of my own raising. 
Catalogues with prices, fe:e to all. 

JAMES J. H. GUEGOBY, Marblehead, Mass. 
Marblehead Mammoth Cabbage. 
This is the largest Cabbage in the world ; has been grown 
to the weight of sixty pounds. Packages of seed with an 
engravingof this Cabbaga, aud full instructions for grow- 
ing, 25 cents :— par ounce, $1.00. I am the original intro- 
ducer of this Cabbage, and my seed is pure. Descriptiye 
Catalogues/rec to all. 

JAMES J. H. GREGORY, Marblehead, Mass. 

It will pay you to send to Porter Blanchard 's Sons, Con- 
cord, N. H.,or to any dealer in fist-class dairy machinery, 
for the circulars oi their excellent churn. 

TuKNew York Ind -.pendent is the one of all our religious 
Ameriean lewspapers that deserves to find a place in tl»a 
family of every farmer of our couutry. Its articles Hre 
from the penof the uiost|talentcd writers, and they breathe 
a freshness and vigor of thought tliat are p(>culiar charac- 
teristic.** of the Ind pendent, 'iae cireulation of this paper, 
which in 18G2 was already very large has since thit tim- 
almost trebled itself, is steadly increasing. Any of our 
readers who wish to subscribe for a first-class religious pi- 
per, should procure the Independent. Terms S3 5i) per 
annum. Addres-*, Henry U. Bowen, publi-her. No. 3 Park 
Place, New York. 



102 



THE L A J^ CASTER FARMER. 



PH1L,ADELPHIA MAKKETS. 

Monday, April 29, 1872. 

B AEK is scarce and firmly held at $37 .50a-l0 ^ton for No_ 
1 Qaercitron. Tanner's is nominal. 

Seeds. — Cloverseed moves slowly and ranges from 8 to 
8J^c for common, up to S^iaOij'c fur good and prime Penn- 
sylvania and Wes-tern. Timothy is nominal at $2.87X- 
Flaxseed is scarce and commands $2.10a2.15. 

Feed.— Bran is dull and otter-d at $29 ^ ton. 

Flour. — There islpf?s activity in the Flour market, bu^, 
with very moderate receipts aud a greatly-i educed stoik, 
holders are very firm to their views, particularly for de- 
sirable grades of extra familins. The demami is princi- 
pally from the home trade, who are temporarily well sup- 
plied. Small sales of superfine at 5.75*6 25; extras at 
$e 50a7 25 ; ICO bbls Wisconsin extra family, good, at $8 , 
100 bbls Iowa do. at S8 ; 100 bbis Minnesota do. at t8.50 ; 
400 Ibis Pennsylvania do, good and choice, at S9a9.25 ; 
Ohio and Indiana do., in lots, at S9i9 .W ; 2C0 bbls We-^tern 
fancy at $10 ; and high grad-s at $10 51*11. Rye Flour is 
uncbaiige 1 ; sales of 100 bbls at $5.25. In corn meal noth- 
irgdoing 

Grain.— The receipts and ofienngs of Wheat are small, 
and holders are very stitf in their vi-ws, in tact, many are 
indifferent about operating at present prices ; sales of 500 
bushels Pennsylvania red at $1 92 ; 2,300 bushels Western 
do. at$l 91al 93; 800 bushels Indiana amber at S2 : 400 
bushels Michigan white at 82 10 ; 400 bushels Pennsylva- 
nia do. at 82. and 400 bushels No. 1 sprins; at $177 The 
receipts of ttye are small, and it Is held firmly at $1. Corn 
is in fair request at Saturday's quotations; sales of 1,200 
bushels yellow at 69.-; ; 400 bushels low and high Western 
mixed at 68a69e,and40,000bushelsdo. do. on private terms. 
Oats are in moderate request atformer rates ; salesof 1,400 
bushels Western white at 55a56c, and some mixed at 53a 
54c. In Barley and Barley Malt no sales were reported. 

Provisions are without improvement Sales ot" Mess 
Pork at $13 25al3 -50 ^ bbl, prime Mess at $12, and Mess 
Beef at$14 50al4 75. Beef Hams are worth $23 1.27. Bacon 
is depressed ; sales of plain sugar cured city-smoked hams 
at lOallc, canvassed Western at Halite, sides at lul^c, 
and shoulders at 5>4'c. Green meats are steady; sales of 
pickled hams at 9V;ic for 14 lbs averages, ^'r^a for 15 lbs, 
and 9c tor 16 lbs ; 'sides at 6a6;^c, and shoulders, in s It, 
at4^a43i^c. Lard attracts but little attention; sates of 
bblsand tcsat9a9ji^c for Western steam and kettle-ren- 
dered. 

CHICAGO MAKKETS. 

Chicago, April 29, 1872. 
Flour — Strong but quiet; spring extr^ $6 25a7 25. Wheat 
strong; No. 2 at $135. Corn active; JSo. 2 mixed 43xa 
43^c. Oats active ; No. 2 at ;^5a35!.^c. Kye strong ; No. 2 
at 75c. Barley firm; No. 2 at 57c. Provisions opened 
stro' g but closed weak. Mess pork $12 55a 12 60 Lard 
S8 75aS 80. Bulk mtats steady ; shoulders i]4c, clpar ribs 
6^a6;^c, clear sides 7,Va'?Mc, hams in pickle 8a9;^c. Liva 
bogs active but a shade easier ft $4 10a4 45. Iteceipts— 
Flour 5,000 bbls, wheat 400 bush, corn 187,000 do, oats 35,000 
do, rye 100 do, barley 2,000 do, hogs 3000. Shipments — Flour 
6,000 bbls, wheat 55,000 bush, corn 780,000 do. oats 26,000 
do, rye 2,000, do, bai ley 8,000 do, hcgs 4,000. 

ST. LOUIS MARKETS. 

St. Louis, April 29, 1872. 
Flour— Demand light and holders firm; treble $8 25a 
8 75 ; family S9a9 80. Wheat active and higner ; No. 3 fall 
SI 65 ; No. 2 winter red $2 05 ; No 2 spring nominally 
higher at $1 40. Corn active and higher and irregular ; No. 
2mixed43Xa45c. Oats higher ; No. 2 at 40c, Barley dull; 
choice Towa 70c. Bye firm ; No. 2 at 82c. Provisions- 
Mess pork higher at $12 75 ; generally held at Sl3. Dry 
salted meats active and higher ; loose Jhoulders 4i^c; dear 
rib sides 6>^c ; clear sides 6%c ; hams l}i@:iy^c; boxed 8c. 
Bacon active and higher; packed phouldsrs 5xc ; clear rib 
sides7>4c ; clear sides 1%c; last half May 8c; loose clear 
rib sides, same option, held at 7 xc. Lard wanted atS^c; 
heldatsjlic. Live Hogs quiet at $3 75a3 70. Cattle un- 
changed at $3 50a6 75. Receipts— 4,000 bbls flour, 4,000 bush 
wheat, 15,000 do corn, 4,000.do oats, 2,000 do barley, 1,000 
^hogs. 

PHILADELPHIA CATTLE MARKET. 

Monday, April 19, P. M. 
Bebf Cattlw.— The prominent features of ihe cattle 
market remain subsvantially the same as at the close of our 
last r.port. Some extra droves were on sale, and were 
taken un quickly at very full figures, but for other descrip- 
tions tlitre was no demand of moment, and prices, if any- 
thing, favored buyers. We quote extra at 7Ji,'a9e; choice 
at 7a7>^c ; fair to good at 5>^a6)7<c, and comiuon at 4a5c ^ 
lb. gro,.s. Receipts, 2,100 head, of which 1,200 were from 
Pennsylvania. 



Cows and '^-alves met a fair demand at about last 
week's figures; sales of springers at $40a55 ; fresh cows at 
$50a70 ; receipts, 200 head. 

SHEKP.-The gjneral market was devoid of animation, 
and prices favored buyers; sales of wooled at lOalO^c tor 
choice, 9j4a9>^c for fair to good. Tjy^etS^c for common, and 
clipped at 6a7^c W lb. gross. Lanibs were taken as want- 
ed at $2 50a4 tor common up to $5 07 lor prime ; receipts, 
16,000 hea.J 

Hogs attracted but little attention, buyers purchasing 
only to supply pressing wants ; sales of slop at $6 25a5 50, 
and corn-fed at $7a7 25 ^ 100 lbs. net ; receipts, 4,049 
head. 

NEW YORK MARKETS. 

New York, April 29, 1872. 

Flour, etc — Our market for Flour is quiet but firm; the 
demand is chiefly for the low and medium grades; these 
are in moderate supply and wanted for the West Indies. 
Family brands ttroug. At the close the market is quiet 
but firm. The sales were 7,500 barrels. We quote as fol- 
lows : Sour, =r barrel, $5 OOaO 75 ; No. 2 $4 70a6 45 ; super- 
fine $6 55a7 00 ; State, extra brancJs, $7 25, .7 60 ; State fancy 
ditto, Wi 50a8 20 ; western shipping extras $7 15a7 40; Min- 
nes ta extras $7 90a9 50 ; good lO choice spring wheat ex- 
tras $7 90a8 75 ; extra amier Indiana, Ohio and Michigan 
$8 60al0 ; Ohio, Indiana and Illinois superfine $6 60a7 00 ; 
Ohio round-hoop extra shipping $7 60u7 95 ; Ohio extra 
trade brands .$8 00a9 00 ; white wheat extra Ohio, Indiana 
and Michigan $8 80al0 ; double extra do do S9 SOalO 50; 
St. Louis single extras '$9a9 75; St. Louis double extras 
,$9 85all 75 ; St. Louis triple extras $11 85al3 25 ; Genesee, 
extra brand?, $9 25al0. 

Grain. — At the close the market ia heavy and inactive 
for spring and firmer for winter. The sales are 31,600 bush- 
els, at $1 85 lor red western in store ; $2 for white Michi- 
gan on canal, and $2 10 afloat; 1 93 bid for amber do in 
store. 

Barley is inactive and tame for common but firm for 
choice. Barley malt is dull and heavy. Oats are more ac- 
tive and firmer. The sales are 61,400 bushels; new Ohio 
mixed at 52a52>^c in store ; white at 54c in store ; western 
mixed at 52c in store, a d 53c afloat ; white at 58c on track. 
Kye is belter and more active, the demand in part specu- 
lative. The sales are 28,600 bushels ; western at 93a94c in 
store, and small lots at 56c ; State at $1 00. 

Corn ia less active, and closes tame ; shippers hold off, 
and there is only a limited speculative inquiry for the fu- 
ture. The sales are 82,600 bushels ; western mixed at 76a 
77c, closing tame at 76c ; western white at 77)^0 ; western 
yellow at 77a77;^c ; souihern white at 78; State round yel- 
low at 86c. 

Seeds.— The market for both clover and timothy re- 
mained inactive and quotations entirely nominal at 9;^a 
10c for clover and $2 75a3 for timothy. 

Tallow dull and nominal. Most of the holders ask 9i^c 
for citv. Later sales of 25, 000 lbs at 9%c. 

Tobacco. — seed leaf continues in good demand and the 
market is firm, but in prices we learn of no particular 
change. Wi^ quote old crop ar 25a40c for Connecticut and 
Massachusetts wrappers ; 20a25c for do. secou'S, and 16a 
16 lor do. fillers; 2ori40c tor Ohio and Pennsylvania wrap- 
pers; 15a25c for average lots, and 12al5c for tillers and 
binders, and new crop at 8;^al0c for State running lots; 
12i^.i21,'^c for Pennsylvania fair to fine ; lOaH^^c for Ohio 
running lots, and S^iaOc for Missouri and western. 

Hay.— There continued a good demand, and the market 
is firm. We quote : $1 40al 45 for shipping ; $1 50al 85 for 
retail lots; 60a80c for salt hay, and $lal 10 for clover. 
Straw in limited demand ana steady, at$lal 15 for long rye, 
80ca$l for short do, and 80a90c for oat. 

Provisions— The pork market is fairly active and steady, 
but otfered with a little more freedom. The sales, cash and 
regular, are 800 bbls at $13 25 for old mess, $13 90al4 for 
new do ; $13al3 50 for western prime mers. For future de- 
livery dull. Beef is in moderate request and prices are 
steady. Sales oi 200 bbls, at gSaiO for plain mess and ftlOa 
12 for extra mess. Tierce meat is in rather better de- 
mand, and though no higher, the market has a compara- 
tively steady tone. Sales of 300 tcs at $15al8 for prime 
mess and $i8all for India mess. Beef hams are firm and 
in good jobbing demand, sales of 195 bbls at $22a27 for 
western. 

Cut meats are sparingly offered, meet with a good de- 
mand, and generally rule qui-e firm on all grades; sales 
of 275pkg8 at55^a5;^c for shoulders, and 9al0c for hams 
in dry salt and pickle. Bacon is not active and hardly so 
firm; sales of 25 boxes at 7>4'c for short rib. Dressed 
Hogs are firm; we quote 6a6xc for city. Lard is not ac- 
tive and barely steady ; sales of 350 bbls and tcs, at 9c for 
No. 1, 9^0 for city, 9^ for fair to prime steam, and 0%c 
for ketlld rendered. For future delivery, sales of 2,000 tcs 
at 9X^ tor June and 9^ for July. 



DEVOTED TO 
Agriculture, Horticulture, Domestic Economy and Miscellany . 

EDITED BY S. S. KATHVOX AXD ALEXANDER HARRIS. 
" Tlte Farmer is the founder of civiUzatloii.''--WEBSTER. 



Vol. ir. 



JUJVE, 1872. 



JVo. 6. 



THE LONELINESS OP FARMING LIFE 

IN AMERICA. 

IN Scribner^s Monthly for June, which is al- 
ready upon our table, Dr, J. G- Holland 
gives a new and not over-agreeable picture of 
American farm life in the following sketch : 

An American traveler in the Old World 
notices among the multitude of things that 
are new to his eye, the j;athering^ of agricul- 
tural populations into villages. He has been 
accustomed in his own country to see them 
distributed upon the farms they cultivate. The 
isolated farm life, so universal here, either 
does not exist at all in the greater part of 
continental Europe, or it exists as a compara- 
tively modern institution. The old popula- 
tions, of all callings and professions, clustered 
together for self-defense, and built walls 
around themselves. Out from these walls, 
for miles around, v/ent the tillers of the soil 
in the morning, and back into the gates they 
thronged at night. Cottages were clustered 
around feudal castles, and grew into towns ; 
and so Europe for many centuries was cultivat- 
ed mainly by people who lived in villages and 
cities, many of which were walled, and all of 
which possessed appointments of defense. 
The early settlers in our own country took the 
same means to defend themselves from the 
treacherous Indian. The towns of Hadley, 
Korthfield, and Deerfield, on the Connecticut 
river, are notable examples of this kind of 
building; and to this day they remain villages 
of agriculturists. That this is the way in 
which farmers ought to live we have no ques- 
tion , and we wish to say a few words about it. 

There is some reason for the general dis- 
position of American men and womt n to shun 
agricultural pursuits which the observers and 
philosophers have been slow to find. We see 
young men pushing everywhere into trade, 
into mechanical pursuits, into the learned 
professions, into insignificant clerkships, into 
salaried positions of every sort that will take 
them into towns and support and hold them 
there. We find it impossible to drive poor 



people from the cities with the threat of 
starvation, or to coax them with the promise 
of better pay and cheaper fare. There they 
stay, and starve, aud sicken, and sink. Young 
women resort to the shops and fact;)rie3 
rather than take service in farmers' houses, 
where they are received as members of the 
family ; and when they marry, they seek an 
alliance, when practicable, with mechanics 
and tradesmen who live in villages and large 
towns. The daughters of the farmer fly the 
farm at the first opportunity. The towns 
grow larger all the time, and, in New Eng- 
land at least, the farms are becoming wider 
and longer, and the farming population are 
diminished in numbers, and, in some locali- 
ties, degraded in quality and character. 

It all comes to this, that isolated life has 
very little significance to a social being. The 
social life of the village aud the city has in- 
tense fascination to the lonely dwellers on the 
farm, or to a great multitude of them. Espe- 
cially is this the case with the young. The 
youth of both sexes who have seen nothing of 
the world have an overwhelming desire to 
meet life aud to be among the multitude. 
They feel their life to be narrow in its oppor- 
tunities and its rewards, and the pulsations of 
the great social heart that comes to them in 
rushing trains and passing steamers and daily 
newspapers, damp with the dews of a hundred 
brows, thrill them with longings for the places 
where the rythmic throb is felt aud heard. 
They are not to be blamed for this. It is the 
most natural thing in the world. If all of 
life were labor— if the great object of life 
were the scraping together of a few dollars, 
more or less — why, isolation without diver- 
sion would be economy and profit; but so 
long as the object of life is life, aud the best 
and purest and happiest that can come of it, 
all needless isolation is a crime against the 
soul in that it is a surrender and sacrifice of 
noble opportunities. 

We are, therefore, not sorry to see farms 
growing larger, provided those who work 
them will get nearer together ; and that is 
what they ought to do. Any farmer who 



lOJi. 



THE LAJ^VASTER FARMER, 



plants himself and his family alone — far from 
possible neighbors — takes upon himself a ter- 
rible responsibility. It is impossibie that he 
and his should be developed and thoroughly 
happy there. He will be forsaken in his old 
age by the very children for whom he has 
made his great sacrifice. They will fly to the 
towns for the social food and stimulus for 
which they have starved. We never hear of 
a colouy settling a Western prairie without a 
thrill of pleasure. It is in colonies that all 
ought to settle, and in villages rather than on 
separated farms. The meeting, the lecture, 
tbe public amusement, the social assembly, 
should be things easily reached. Thi-re is no 
such damper upon free social life as distance. 
A long road is the surest bar to neighborly 
intercourse. If the social life of the farmer 
were richer, his life would by that measure be 
the more attractive. 

After all, there are farmers who will read 
ibis article with a sense of affront or 
injury, as if by doubting or disputing the suf- 
ficiency of their social opportunities we insult 
Ibem With a sort of contempt. We assure 
them that they cannot afford to treat thor- 
oughly sympathetic counsel in this way. We 
know that their wives and daughters and sons 
are on our side, quarrel with us as they may ; 
and the women and children are right. "The 
old man," who rides to market and the post- 
office, and mingles more or less in business 
with the world, gets along tolerably well ; but 
it is the stayers-at-home who sutler. Instead 
of growing wiser and better as they grow old, 
they lose all the graces of life in unmeaning 
drudgery, and instead of ripening in mind 
and heart, they simply dry up or decay. We 
are entirely satisfied that the great curse of 
farming life in America is its isolation. It is 
useless to say that men shun the farm because 
they are lazy. The American is not a lazy 
man anywhere ; but he is social, and he will fly 
from a life that is not social to one that is. It 
we are to have a larger and better population 
devoted to agriculture, isolation must be 
shunned, and the whole policy of settlement 
hereafter must be controlled or greatly modi- 
fied by social considerations. 

The above comes from such a high literary 
authority, and contains so many good thoughts 
on Social Economy, that we have concluded to 
transfer it to our columns, as something which 
every progressive and intelligent farmer 
ought seriously to ponder. We never can 
forego, or by any morbid system of isolation 
or exclusiveness hedge in or stamp out the 
fact, that man is normally and essentially a 
social being, and that deviation or departure 
from this status is an abnormal condition of 
his being — whether it is self-imposed or 
through circumstances over which he has no 
control. Perhaps no man who has been 



brought up exclusively in the country can 
call up more pleasing recollections than those 
connected with his school-days, the country 
singing schools, or the annual Christmas fes- 
tivals, mainly on account of the predominat- 
ing social elements which gave them their 
specific characters. From the period of boy- 
hood to early manhood, wherein the social 
principle ruled, they were bright, joyous and 
progressive, and only receded from this con- 
dition and became moody, dull and selfish in 
proportion as they withdrew from and abjured 
the social circle and social sentiments. Na 
wonder then, in obedience to their natural 
impulses and instincts, so many of those resid- 
ing in the rural districts should be yearning 
after the social intercourse of the towns. 
And, although that social intercourse — from a 
want of judgment, consequent of their former 
isolated condition — in many instances may be 
morally and socially hurtful, yet under proper 
discriminations it is edifying, enlarging and 
elevating. But, man is not only naturally 
a social being, but be is also spiritually so, 
and he feels a greater moral and spiritual con- 
solation and support when he unites with hi» 
fellow-man in social wor&bip, than he does- 
when he has worshiped alone, especially 
when he engages m re)igioas exercises with 
those whose sentiments and experiences are 
in harmony with his own. E. 



SCIENCE, 



FACTS AND SCIENCE, 

BY J, STAUFFEK. 

THERE is an inherent tendency in every 
reflecting mind to acquire knowledge ; 
there is a pleasure, independent of the many 
extrinsic advantages which it brings to every 
individual, according to the station of life in 
which he is placed. The pursuits of science have 
a peculiar interest for men of a peculiar turn. 
Some thirst after general knowledge. These 
may acquire a fund of information scattered 
over various fields of research, and yet are 
not considered scientific. Profound erudition 
is obtained but by few. 

Science, it is claimed, is the natural enemy 
of superstition, and as such it has assailed and 
overthrown idolatry, witchcraft, and kindred 



THE LAJVCASTER FARMER, 



105 



follies, but with them deep gashes and fester- 
iog wounds were given to theology. 

Learned men of perverse minds, unhappily, 
were as fanatical in their skepticism as those 
they abused for their fanatical faith. Hpncei 
they are as dogmadc and rampant in one ex- 
treme as the ignorant boor may be in his su- 
perstitious notions in the other. 

Such results arise from a morbid train of 
thought running in certain grooves, and as the 
faculties of the most learned men differ in 
certain modes of reflection, they arrive at dif- 
ferent conclusions. Hence, a one-sided 
knowledge, no matter how great, may prevent 
a due perception of the most essential quali- 
ties for arriving at correct conclusions. 

But to which side this morbid action of the 
mind is chargeable, causes the contest, and 
volumes of controverted matter was and is 
written continually in vindication of both 
sides, and each side has its adherents and 
claims the triumph of their opinions. 

Pope says : " A little knowledge is a dan- 
gerous thing." No doubt iu the mind of one 
puffed up with conceit such is the case of all 
superficial knowledge ; yet we may ask like 
Denham : 

" Can knowledge have no bound, but mu-t advance. 
So far to make us wish tor ignorauce ?" 

Yes, science unfolds marvelous things, and 
vain man finds God in matter, and matter 
God ; an accidental monad in time to people 
space, by evolution, aggregation and subdi- 
visions. We may exclaim : 

"Are there (still more amazing !) who resist 
The rising thought, who smother in its birth 
The glorious truth, who struggle to be brutes ? 
Who fight the proof* of immortality ?" 

So I turn from that science that links man 
to the monkey and the latter with the reptile, 
and take my stand with a higher class of think- 
ers, who believe that God is absolute be- 
ing above the world, which is of God, but 
which is not God. He is the unity of special- 
ties; having the perfection of beiug, therefore 
self-existent ; unconditioned as to time, there- 
fore eternal, having neither beginning nor 
ending ; unconditioned as to space, therefore 
everywhere present ; having the perfection 
of power, therefore almighty. In Him all 
specialties are resolved into universality, 
therefore he is incomprehensible. Thus there 
is no point in space, no atom in matter, in 
which God is not. Change indictates growth 



or decay, and God being eternal, there can 
be neither one nor the other in Him. 

"With this view of the matter we can accept 
the wonders discovered by Lenwenhoeck, 
Mantell, Spallanzani and others, who have 
found that the microscopic animalcnles, suffer- 
ed to dry up on the glass on which they were 
swimming about in a drop of water, and the 
glass stuck into dry sand, were again restored 
to life after twenty-one months, by being sim- 
ply moistened with water, and this as often as 
fifteen times repeated. This would stagger our 
faith, but science has established the fact. 
Many formerly considered animalcules are 
now found to be the nuclei of vegetable struc- 
tures, called zoospores — found active in Algse, 
etc., endowed with apparently voluntary mo- 
tion. 

The occurrence of spores of this class was 
formerly considered so surprising that it 
was either rejected as unworthy of credit, or 
the organisms which produced them were con- 
sidered as animals. 

It is now, however, generally allowed that 
there is no essential difference between ani- 
mal and vegetable life, and that therefore the 
usual indications of either are not to be re- 
garded as decisive of the especial kingdom to 
which beings belong iu which they are mani- 
fested. Zoospores, so long as they are free, 
have indeed a great likeness to infusoria, but 
as soon as they have found a fit resting place 
all traces of motion cease, and their offspring 
comforts itself as a vegetable. 

"We must actually witness these wonderful 
minute creations in all their diversified forms 
and prolific increase— in short, without giving 
the subject some attention, no one would 
dream of the wonders made known by the 
microscope, in the minute thiugs, as also with 
the telescope in the vastly great. 

Reflecting upon this subject connected with 
the germination of seeds, something like the 
following came before my mind's eye. So far 
as I know it is original, but may have occur- 
red to others. 

Let us examine a grain of corn, in its milky 
state; how soft a^d tender, with its delicate 
thread of silk attached to each seed, so neatly 
arranged to its rachis or cob, and carefully 
wrapped up in the husk. When we reflect 
that these numerous seeds, leaves, tassel and 
stock have all sprun from a single seed, it 



106 



TEE LAJYCASTER FARMER. 



seems truly marvelous, but too common to 
arrest our attention. 

What are called Twilight Monads are only 
24-1000 of an inch long; some only 12-000. 
The conception of such minuteness is beyond 
the grasp of our mind; yet each is proved to 
be an organized structure, and is adapted to 
the mode and ra ige of its existence. The 
question arises, are not all the vegetable 
juices stimulated in their vital action, from ex- 
ternal relations, impelled by such mmute liv- 
ing bodies to branch, bud, bloom and fructify. 
In other words, to return to ray grain of corn: 
just as miriads of polypi build up the gigantic 
sponges— a living vase called the Cup ofKep- 
tune (Neptune's cup—Baphidophora Patera), 
corrals, stone lilies, etc., might also be cited, 
but the sponge referred to Cumes nearer the 
vegetable structure. 

These fragile animals work each on its own 
hook, commence on the bare and narrow 
stalk, widen out, and flute the sides and ex- 
cavate the top, 80 that when the habitation 
is finally complete, three feet in height per- 
fectly symmetrical without stiff or formal out- 
lines, but gracefully curved and rounded so as 
to form an object of beauty. In this structure 
the animals can be seen at work. Should it be 
a sigQ of mental weakness to suppose that 
still more minute organisms constitute the 
vitality and growth of plants, and dwell in 
their juices, like in the sap, elaborated into the 
milk of the grain, this becomes consolidated 
into the albumen^ the silicious particles form- 
ing the husk or hard outer shell of the grain, 
the nutritious portions encased and the vital 
action retires to a point and dries up as the 
animalcula mentioned before, not dead, but 
the vital principal dormant, locked up— until 
again started to action through moisture, and 
the chemic action of the albumen in the act 
of germination, again to reproduce all the 
phenomena of growth, flower and seed, turn- 
ing its course to its ultimation, and then rest- 
ing. Is this strange ? It is at least true, ac- 
count for it as you will. 



Fowls that show lassitude or weakness may 
be strengthened by giving a decoction of ci- 
trate of iron mixed with water in such pro- 
portion as to be given every perceptible taste 
of iron. Iron-water for fowls, made by put- 
ting some scrap-iron of any kind in a trough 
or pail of water, also answers them the same. 



METEOROLOGICAL. 



THE LAW OF STORMS. 



IN the fourth meteorological report by Prof. 
J. P. Espy, of Washington, D. C, we 
find tne following instructive generalizations : 

1. The rain and snow-storms, and even the 
moderate rains and snows, travel from the 
west toward the east in the United States, 
during the months of November, December, 
January, February and March, which are the 
only months to which these generalizations 
apply. 

2. The storms are accompanied with a de- 
pression of the barometer near the central 
line of the storm, and rise of the barometer in 
the front and rear. 

3. The central line of minimum pressure is 
generally of great length from north to south, 
and moves side foremost toward the east. 

4. This line is sometimes nearly straight, 
but generally curved, and most frequently 
with its convex side to the east. 

5. The velocity of this line is such that it 
travels from the Mississippi to the Connecti- 
cut river in twenty-four hours, and from the 
Connecticut to St. John's, Newfoundland, in 
nearly the same time, or about thirty-six miles 
an hour. 

6. When the barometer falls suddenly in the 
western part of New England, it rises at the 
same time in the Valley of the Mississippi, 
and also at St. John's, Newfoundland. 

7. In great storms the wind for several 
hundred miles on both sides of the line of 
minimum pressure blows toward that line di- 
rectly or obliquely. 

8. The force of this wind is in proportion to 
the suddenness and greatness of the depres- 
sion of the barometer. 

9. In all great and sudden depressions of the 
barometer there is much rain or snow; and in 
all sudden great rains or snows there is a great 
depression of the barometer next the center 
of the storm, and rises beyond its borders. 

10. Many storms are of great and unknown 
length from north to south, reaching be- 
yond our observation on the Gulf of Mexico 
and on the northern lakes, while their east 
and west diameters are comparatively small. 
These stoima therefore move side foremost. 

11. Most storms commence in the " far 



TEE LAJ^CASTER FABMEB- 



107 



"West," beyond our Western observers, but 
some commence in the United States. 

12. When a storm c( mmences in the United 
States the line of minimum pressure does not 
come from the " far West," but commences 
with the storm, and travels with it toward the 
eastward. 

13. There is generally a lull of wind at 
the line of minimum pressure, and sometimes 
a calm. 

14. When this line of minimum pressure 
passes an observer toward the east, the wind 
generally soon changes to the west, and the 
barometer begins to rise. 

15. There is generally but little wind near 
the line of the maximum pressure, and on 
each side of that line the winds are irregular, 
but tend outward from that line. 

16. The fluctuations of the barometer are 
generally greater in the eastern than in the 
western part of the United States. 

17. The fluctuations of the barometer are 
generally greater in the northern than in the 
southern part of the United States 

18. In the northern parts of the United 
States the wind generally sets in from the 
north of east, and terminates from the north 
of west. 

19. In the southern parts of the United 
States the wind generally sets in from the 
south of east, and terminates from the south 
of west. 

20. During the passage of storms the wind 
generaUy changes from the eastward to the 
westward by south, especially in the southern 
parts of the United States. 

21. The northern part of the storm gene- 
rally travels more rapidly toward the east 
than the southern part. 

22. During the high barometer on the day 
preceding the storm it is generally clear and 
mild in temperature, especially if cold weath- 
er preceded. 

23. The temperature generally falls sudden- 
ly on the passage of the center of great 
storms, so that sometimes, when a storm is in 
the middle of the United States the lowest 
temperature of the month will be in the west 
on the same day that the highest tempera- 
ture is in the east. 

Some of the storms, it is true, are contained 
entirely, for a time, within the bounds of my 
observers, and in that case the minimum ba- 
rometer does not exhibit itself in a line of 



great length, extending from north to south, 
but it is confined to a region near the center 
of the storm, and travels with that center 
toward the eastward. 

From the experiments it may be safely in- 
ferred, contrary to the general belief of scien- 
tific men, that vapor permeates the air from a 
high to a low dew point with extreme slow- 
ness, if, indeed, it permeates at all ; and in 
meteorology, it will hereafter be known that 
vapor rises into the region where clouds are 
forced only by being carried up by ascending 
currents of air containing it. 



weather and crop observa- 

tio:n's. 

ONE feature distinguishes modern sci- 
entific researches from those of past 
times, and that is the wide extent of their 
range. In former days philosophers were 
comparatively few, and scattered here and 
there. They had to rely on their own obser- 
vations and their own comparisons of the ob- 
servations made by others, and these were 
not always easy of access. It might be mouths, 
or even years, before the discoveries of a scien- 
tific man in this country could he made known 
to one in a far distant land, Russia, for in- 
stance. Now how changed is all this ! By 
mutual arrangement and the use of the tele- 
graph, observers far apart from each other 
can make simultaneous observations of any 
given object, and these can at once be 
classified and published. What formerly re- 
quired years to achieve can now be done in a 
few days with greater ease and certainty, 
and the results to the world are as much 
greater as the ex'ent of the area of the oper- 
ations is widened. A very striking illustra- 
tion of this occurs in a project recently sugges- 
ted for the establishment of a system of 
weather and crop observations all over the 
world, from which reports can be framed 
keeping producers in all lands informed of 
what is going on everywhere in matters which 
specially concern them. ^ 

This has long been a disideratum among 
agriculturists, merchants who deal in agri- 
cultural produce, and manufacturers whose 
raw material comes from the farm and the 
plantation, for it is important for them to 
know wherewith they are competing, and 



108 



THE LAJVCASTER FARMER* 



what their prospects are in the markets. They 
are, in fact, incessantly enga2;ed in a compe- 
tition with all the producers in the world, but 
at present it is carried on to a great extent in 
the dark. A bl'ght may fall on the crops of 
Southern Russia, and yet remain unknown to 
producers in other countries ; yet the failure 
of the former crops will cause an increased 
demand for those of this and other countries, 
and, of course, materially effect the prices of 
the latter. But if the producers remain igno- 
rant of the fact, the middlemen and specula- 
tors, who make it their business to keep them- 
selves informed ot' the state of the world's 
markets, take advantage of ihe rise in the 
prices, and realize enormous profits, but a 
small share of which, if any, goes to the pro- 
ducers. So again, the cotton crop in India 
may turn out very poor ; yet our Southern 
planters may send their produce to market 
without having the advantage of early infor- 
mation. Some striking illustrations of the 
losses suffered by our agriculturists from the 
present unreliable methods of estimating the 
value of the coming crop have been recently 
published. 

During the eight particular years, in the in- 
terval between 1853 and 1860, estimates were 
made of the coming crop, which fixed its 
amount on an average for each of the years at 
2H per cent, in excess of what it afterward 
really proved to be. The price paid to the 
planters was based on this e»timatp, but when 
all the cotton had been sold by them and was 
in the market, it Wcis found that iis amount 
fell short of the anticipation, and conse- 
quently prices advanced in the same ratio as 
the amount of the crop had been overesti- 
mated. This advance, which properly be- 
longed to the growers, went into the pockets 
of the speculators, and was, of course, so much 
loss to the farmer. It is estimated that the 
loss for these eight years aggregated to the 
enormous amount of $375,000,000. Similar 
losses by farmers, through incorrect reports 
of the growing wheat crops, are also noticed. 
Thus, the price fixed for wheat in London 
and Liverpool, in October, 1866, based upon 
the unreliable reports then at hand, was $1.- 
49i per bushel ; but the crop, when delivered, 
falling short, it rose to S1.59i. before the end 
of the year, and to S1.92i in 1867 ; so the far- 
rapr lost 424c per bushel, or at the rate of 
$8.07i^ per acre of 19 bushels. The instances 



cited are sufficient to prove the value of some 
remedial system. The most recent suggestion 
was submitted to the Rockford Agricultural 
and Mechanical Society of Virginia at one of 
its recent sessions. It provides for united 
meteorological observations in all countries, 
and on board national cruisers, the results of 
which are transmitted by telegraph from one 
meteorological station to another and each 
commercial center. It also provides for the 
elaboration of a scheme of universal crop re- 
ports, by the perfecting of the method of the 
Agricultural Bureau, and by the appointment 
of crop inspectors to every 10,000 square 
miles of territory in all the civilized countries 
of America, Europe, Africa and Australia, 
and of course in all parts of Asia where prac- 
ticable, as in British India and the Russian 
dominions. 

By this telegraph meteorological system it 
is expected that an approximately correct 
idea may be formed of the laws which govern 
atmospherical phenomena and that forecasts 
of the weather, useful alike to the agricu tur- 
ist and tbe seaman, may be made. And by 
the system of crop reports, based on personal 
observations of the state and prospects of tbe 
growing crop, it will be possible every year to 
form correct, or nearly correct estimates of 
their quantity and quality, and thus enable 
the farmer, the planter and the merchant to 
determine with a considerable degree of prob- 
ability the prices which ought to rule in the 
coming season. It is proposed to petition the 
Government to communicate with the Gov- 
ernments of all other civilized nations, in or- 
der to take steps by a convention of the lead- 
ing meteorologists of the world (similar to that 
held at Brussels in 1853, with reference to 
sea-coast observations), to introduce the sys- 
tem into general operation. 



ALTERNATE MOWING AND GRAZING. 

I ALLUDE more particularly to land lying 
in grass for many years, where a variety 
exists. A piece of the best hay I have seen 
for many years, cut and being cut last week, 
suggested my mentioning this subject again. 
Mr. Whimpy says that he mowed it the year 
before last, having done so some preceding 
years too, and manured it, as he does all his 
land, with stable dung brought from Balti- 



THE la:n'CAster farmer. 



109 



more, as well as what he makes at home ; but 
the grass, chiefly timothy and orchard grass, 
was becoming thin in the bottom, and last 
year (spring of 1870) it looked rather unprom- 
ising for hay, so he rented it to a dairyman 
for the summer, and it was well grazed, Mr. 
W. thinking to plow up and seed down again. 
However, there has come such an extraordi- 
nary mass of white clover and bottom grass of 
other descriptions that it is a prodigiously 
heavy crop, and the quality the very best, 
taking two and three days turning to cure, be- 
ing so youug, thick and full of sap ; in fehort it 
is like much of the best English upland hay, 
an-d like that, leaves the ground looking, after 
the grass is cut, as if the roots were killed, the 
short stems being yellow; but there is already 
a densely thick aftermath two inches high on 
the parts first cut. The owner has rented 
more this season for grazing, and will continue 
to do 60, f wd it is probable that he will har- 
vest every year nearly as much hay, a id of 
much better quality, from l^alf the land, and 
pocket the rental of the other moiety, besides 
u-ing six times the afterfeed, as mowing so 
much earlier as he is obliged to do, lest the 
white clover and orchard grass should ripen, 
the quantity to graze is in fact much more than 
is mowed by tnose who mow year after year 
when their grass is ripe. Here are two fal- 
lacies exposed which are very serious to the 
country -that grazing injures an old mowing, 
and the mowing early and eating the after- 
grass does so too. 

I mentioned some years since the particu- 
lars of a piece of land on the side of the bot- 
tom part of one of the iSTew Hampshire moun- 
tains, wh'ch, having been closely grazed down 
for two successive summers with sheep, was 
supposed to be ruined, and being unexpected- 
ly brought to the hammer through the owner's 
death, made several di liars per acre less than 
had previously been paid for it, and after- 
ward proved to be the thiv-kest set grass in 
the neighborhood, and continued benefited by 
close grazing. I saw an instance given where 
a mowing had been grazed because it was not 
worth mowing longer, the intention being to 
plow up and plant corn ; the result in this case 
was similar — complete renovation and the 
springing into existence of a new set of bot- 
tom grass which made it better than it had 
ever been before. 

Although I may lay myself open to a charge 



of repetition I cannot avoid asking graziera 
who still hold the opinion that half the pas- 
ture ought to rot on the ground, to look at the 
parts closely eaten down, and see, whenever 
the stock is taken away for a while, and after 
a shower, where, the grass starts first, and to 
notice near any premises where all kinds of 
animals have access and thus always kept 
short, if there is any bottom grass thick like a 
beautiful lawn, as that is among those fields 
where half rots on the ground. — Cor. Country 
Gentleman. 



AGRICULTURAL. 

DEEP FLOWING-TURNING UNDER 
CLOVER. 

MR. THOMAS FOSTER has recently 
furnished the writer an account of 
some experiments in deep plowing and turn- 
ing under clover, made on his farm in Claren- 
don, Orleans county, that may be of interest 
to others. 

The most interesting experiments were 
made on a field situated on an elevated ridge, 
at some distance from the barns and not con- 
venient to manure with barn-yard manure. 
The soil is a limestone, clayey loam, natur- 
ally good, but was reduced by repeated crop- 
ping, without seeding down or manuring, be- 
fore it was purchased by Mr. Poster. It then 
produced about 15 bushels of wheat per acre, 
and was seeded to clover. The next season, 
when this clover was in blossom, it was 
plowed under. The plow was taken on to 
the barn-floor and set to run one foot deep, 
and the field plowed with it thus gauged ; but 
the actual depth plowed averaged ten inches. 
The land was then fitted with the harrow and 
cultivator, not plowed again, and the wheat 
sown broad-cast ; the yield was 25 bushels of 
Mediterranean wheat per acre. 

Clover was sown with the wheat, and the 
next spring the clover was plowed under for 
corn,which gave a splendid crop. The next sea- 
son this field was again plowed deep, summer- 
fallowed and sown to wheat, which also gave a 
heavy crop. Clover was sown with this crop 
of wheat also, and the next season siaved for 
seed — the first crop giving over three bushels 
per acre ; the subsequent growth that season 
was left on the land. This was in 1869. la 



no 



THE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



1870 the clover again made a heavy growth, 
aud when in blossom was turned under, plow- 
ins; as deep as first described, and the land 
fitted and sown to Treadwell wheat. Mr. 
Fost':r says there is now a splendid crop of 
wheat on the ground, which all who have seen 
it estimate at 40 bushels per acre ; he says 
that if nothing happens to the crop, it may go 
40 bushels. 

Mr. Foster says that plowing under clover 
IS the easiest and best way to manure such 
land. It makes the soil loose and mellow, 
and one good span of horses will plow his 
field as deep as described without difficulty. 
Turning under clover and deep plowing are 
all that are needed to make the land very 
productive ; except plaster on the clover no 
other fertilizers are needed, and even the 
straw may be sold or used for the benefit of 
other parts of the farm, as may be convenient. 
He also said that plowing under clover is 
the best way to manage clay land, and re- 
lated an instance in which a field plowed up 
very hard and lumpy— the lumps so large and 
hard that they had to be pounded to pieces 
before the land could be got into good condi- 
tion for the wheat. Plowing under one crop 
of clover made a great difference in this land ; 
no more large lumps were seen, and now, 
after several crops of clover have been 
plowed under, the soil works up loose and 
mellow without the least difliculty. It is thus 
evident that a large amount of labor may be 
saved, as well as a great increase of fertility 
be secured, by a judicious use of clover. 

Mr. Foster also related an experiment of 
top-dressing wheat with rotten manure. This 
manure was piled in the spring, and lime 
mixed with it when piled at the rate of three 
or four bushels to 100 loads of manure. The 
wheat was well put in on a summer fallow, 
and immediately after sowing, the manure 
was finely spread on the surface. This gave 
36^ bushels of wheat per acre. This crop was 
grown last year. Clover was sown with the 
wheat, and this spring the land was well 
manured with coarse manure, plowed and 
planted to corn, and ha3 a splendid crop now 
growing. 

Mr. Foster also spoke very favorably of his 
tenant who raises these crops and carries out 
these operations under his general directions. 
The farm was first let for one year, but the 
tenant has now had it five years. Others 



have asked how long he was going to stay, 
saying they would like to g.et him if any 
change was expected ; but Mr. Foster 8ay» 
the tenant can stay as long as he does as well 
as he has done. 

This is an example that should not be over" 
looked by men that take farms. There are 
thousands that only fail of procuring perma- 
nent situations on good farms like this, be- 
cause they don't farm well. In Eogland, 
farmers prefer to rent land instead of buying 
it, as their money used to work the farm, pays 
much better interest than when invested in 
land. With good farming this may often be 
the case here, and the tenants do better by 
thoroughly working a good farm than by any 
other course he could take.— Cor. Countri/ 
Gentleman. 



RESULTS OF THOROUGH MANURING, 

AN exchange says : One of our neighbors, 
with land not any too good, barely able 
to support a family, tried upon advice the ex- 
periment of applying manure to wheat spread 
on the surface . It was compost, also made 
upon recommendation, and applied evenly on 
the land jnst before sowing. Only part of the 
lot was thus treated. The wheat was sown 
and the land well harrowed. At the end of 
the fall the difference was so great that a dis- 
tinct line marked the manured part. 

In the spring there was still (he difference 
a whitish and partly green hue pervaded the 
manured part. The rest was barren. Here 
and there on the manured part, where the 
land was wet, the grain lay on the surf; ce. 
This, however only in a few small spots. In 
a short time the manured part was a dense 
green, the rest straggling and backward, and 
most discouraging to all who saw it. Toward 
the last this, however, brought up some in 
comparison with the other. The manured 
part grew less rank and matured well, yield- 
ing over 200 per cent, more than the other. 
An estimate was made of the expense of the 
manure and labor, and there was something 
nice in favor of the applicatios. 

But the best, perhaps, is not yet told. The 
land had been seeded down early in the 
spring, and it was recommended to use plenty 
of seed, which was but partially followed out. 
Still the manured part of the lot showed not 



THE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



Ill 



only a good catch, but what was thought a 
thick stand, growing well, and continuing 
late in tbe fall. The rest of the lot was as 
usual, a poor thing, not paying for seeding ; 
there was not the catch and not the growth as 
in the other. 

This satisfied. Tbe year following the dif- 
ference was still greater (in the two the crops 
which it was advised to cut), not so much be- 
fore harvesting as in the crops secured. Then 
it was found what a little manure did— that it 
brought ail the seed, while the rest had lost 
much of it that did not come, and did not 
grow so well. In the spring following, 
upon advisement, the land was plowed 
and put to corn; the difference being 
even greater here, if possible, than in the pre- 
ceding crops. This was followed by barley 
and oats mixed, continuing the same difference 
— a large crop on the manured part, and ordi- 
nary on the other. Seed was sown, and nearly 
the same variation was observable. But be- 
fore this was reached other land was treated 
similarly, only that the manure was applied 
to the whole field. The neighbors took the 
contagion — all but the indolent — and there is 
a general improvement. 

Why is it that this thing is not done more ? 
So repeatedly is it advised to top-dress with 
manure land that is so-"n, if poor and in- 
tended to seed down. And yet people are 
not doing it, only the few. It pays in the 
grain, and still more m the grass crop which 
is to follow, and in after culture. It is the 
manure that helps the grass (or clover) to the 
nutriment of the atmosphere, after first being 
established in the soil, getting not only a 
catch, but a thick stand. Then, aided by a 
little plaster, there can be no failure, espe- 
cially with clover. 

VALUE or REPLANTED CORN. 

THE practice of replanting corn is com- 
mon enough, being usual on every farm 
and plantation where the stand is not perfect 
in the first instance. According to the sug- 
gestion of an intelligent planter, the replant- 
ed corn is of essential value in the crop, 
more than is apparent, and he himself makes 
it a rule to replant whether the first stand is 
good or not. If the first stand is perfect, as 
rarely occurs, he still replants in about every 
fifteenth or twentieth hill in every tenth or 



fifteenth row, either cutting out the plant 
already growing, or putting in an extra hill, 
if the space will admit. The purpose of the 
replanted or late stalks is to furnish pollen, 
in case a dry sjiell should wilt the tassels of 
the first planting before the grains are filled. 
One stalk in two hundred will shed pollen in 
abundance. 

If the weather turns very dry in the filling 
time, both the silks and tassels wilt. When 
rain falls, if it comes in time, t^e silks re- 
cover and become fresh again, but the tassel 
once dry does not revive. The replanted 
corn being younger; will wl en the tassel 
blooms furnish pollen for all the older stalks 
around. Deficient or unfilled ears are caused 
by want of pollen on the silk. 

Such is the suggestion of an observant 
planter, and we submit it for the benefit of 
our readers. — Planters'' Journal. 



HORTICULTURE. 

PLANTING TREES IN GRASS. 

FOR setting out orchards of apples, 
pears, plums and cherries, the Garden' 
er^s Monthly recommends the following prepa- 
ration of the ground and subsequent manage- 
ment : Manure the ground heavily and put in 
a crop of potatoes the first year ; manure 
again lightly in October and sow rye. Sow 
red clover seed on tiie rye m April ; take off 
the rye and set out the youug trees in small 
holes cut in the clover sod, just large enough 
to receive the roots, in autumn. Tread the 
soil and trim in the head severely. The fol- 
lowing spring "just break the crust and leave 
everything to grow." Cut the clover as hay 
in June or July — this, it is stated, will pay for . 
all the labor. Then spread a quarter or half 
an inch of rich earth around the tree as far as 
the hole extended. Mow annually afterward, 
top-dressing every two or three yeprs "for 
the sake of the grass," which is thus to pay 
the way. This is the substance of the pro- 
posed system. 

An objection will occur to most planters — 
the loss of the two years in preparing the 
clover sod in which to set the young trees. 
Many would prefer planting the first year, in 
the soil enriched and prepared for the pota- 
toes, allowing the trees and potatoes to grow 
together, and thus gaining at least two years. 



112 



TEE LAJ^CASTER FARMER. 



There is no doubt the editor of the Gar' 
dener^s MontJily has been successful with this 
treatment, or he would not recommend it ; 
but it is obviously adapted only to peculiar 
circumstances. With a soil naturally very 
rich, and then heavily manured, and in a cli- 
mate as warm at southern Pennsylvania, the 
young trees might be made to make a fair 
growth ; but in most parts of New York and 
New England, the course would be little bet- 
ter than ruinous. As far north as our own 
latitude, we should almost as soon attempt to 
raise corn in clovei, as to make young and 
newly set trees grow well the first year. In 
other instances they have barely survived, 
none making an annual growth of more than 
two or three inches ; while on young trees 
set in potato ground, where the surface was 
kept clean and mellow, the growth of the 
shoots, under similar circumstances in other 
respects, was one and a half to two feet. We 
have seen a young pear orchard, which had 
been set out five years before, and kept culti- 
vated, seriously checked and stunted by a 
single year of clover on the ground, although 
the vigor was subsequently restored in a 
great degree by plowing under the clover as a 
green crop. 

John Morse, of Cayuga, N. Y., who sells 
annually from four to eight thousand dollars' 
worth of fruit from his standard pear trees, at 
first adopted the practice of allowing the 
"ground to run to grass ; but he has long since 
repudiated the practice, and he now keeps the 
whole surface plowed and cultivated, planting 
with corn, potatoes, and other bowed crops. 
The thrift of his trees (some 18 or 20 years 
old) has increased, and his fruit is so much 
improved that he obtains /or much of his crop 
about twice the sum in market paid for fruit 
grown on uncultivated trees. His soil is 
naturally excellent for the standard pear, and 
the roots not being coofiued to the surface, a 
very small portion of them is injured by the 
necessary processes of cultivation. Doubtless 
the depth of the roots varies with the charac- 
ter of the subsoil ; we have apple trees on our 
own grounds, thirty years old, and although 
some of them necessarily stand in grass where 
the surface roots are never disturbed, most of 
them run to a depth varying from one to four 
feet, and some deeper. It is an easy thing to 
injure an orchard, however, by cutting the 
roots in plowing, if this is done while the trees 



are growing ; but we have never known any 
injury whatever, when the plowing has been 
done early in spring, while the trees were yet 
dormant. 

In discussing the merits of the difterent, 
modes of cultivating and managing fruit trees 
a great deal of needless controversy would 
be avoided, if the partisans would observe the 
index or guide which we have repeatedly 
recommended, to determine whether to stim- 
ulate or increase growth by manuring and 
mellowing, or to check it by suspending cul- 
tivation and laying down to grass. The 
general instruction may be given, to check the 
growth when too vigorous, and stimulate it 
when too feeble ; but how are we to deter- 
mine, without some definite rule, when either 
of these conditions prevails, as they are 
merely comparative ? We answer, by the 
very simple operation of inspecting the an- 
nual growth, laying it down as a general rule 
that young trees, in the first years of their 
growth, should not make annual shoots more 
than about two and a half or three feet long, 
and that older and bearing trees should not 
grow more than from one to two feet. If they 
grow only a few inches annually, they will 
not bear so heavy crops or so good specimens, 
and the trees must suffer by the cropping. 
Such trees obviously need stimulating. 

A few words on the subject of manuring 
may not be out of place. We always obtain 
better and healthier trees (where the soil 
possesses a fair degree of fertility) by depend- 
ing more on a clean, mellow surface than on 
manure mixed with weeds, grass and neglect. 
This is especially the case with standard pear 
trees, the frequent and thorough mellowing 
of the surf ice tending to promote a sufficient- 
ly thrifty and a healthy, well-ripened condi- 
tion of the young shoots, which is the best 
protective against disease, and which cannot 
be obtained by making up through the appli- 
cation of manure for the neglect of cultiva- 
tion. — Country Gentleman. 



PRUNING IN JUNE. 



N your issue of Feb. 14, 1 noticed two cor. 
respondents asking for information as to 
the best time for pruning trees, and W. D. N., 
of Cedar Hill, N. J., asserting that spring was 
the best time, as he has always practiced it at 
that time, and his trees had done well. I 



THE LAJ^ CASTER FARMER. 



113 



have been engaged in cultivating fruit trees 
for the past twenty years, and have pruned 
apple and pear trees in every month of the 
year. If I could always have the time to 
spare I would prefer to prune in the month of 
June, for the following reasons: First, the 
wound made by the removal of a branch at 
this season will heal sooner than one made at 
any other time of the year. Second, very few 
water sprouts will grow after pruning, and the 
fruit which remains will be mUch larger in 
consequence. Any person who is at all ac- 
quainted with the management of fruit trees, 
knows that if a tree is barked in June the 
wound will heal in a very short time. To 
prune in June, persons should wear rubber 
or other soft shoes, to prevent breaking the 
branches. My reasons for not pruning in the 
the spring are, we generally have high winds 
and copious showers, the winds dry and crack 
the new wound, and the rain enters and black- 
ens it, which it does not do in June. Water 
sprouts will also grow, which will have to be 
trimmed off every season. You suggest 
covering the wound with paint or wax ; but 
every farmer does not always have these ma- 
terials at hand, and in June he does not need 
them.— iV^. F. Sun. 



soil between the rows on each side, to the top 
of the plants. In this way the celery will be 
ready for the table in September." 



How TO Raise Celery. — A correspondent 
of the Journal of Agriculture says : " There is 
no need of a hot-bed for starting celery plants. 
In April, as soon as the ground can be thor- 
oughly worked, sow your bed. Keep the 
weeds out and use a little patience, as celery 
is slow to make its appearance. To insure 
stocky plants the tops should be shorn off once 
or twice before transplanting. About the 
middle of June prepare thoroughly the plat of 
ground you desire the celery to grow upon ; 
transplant in rows three feet apart, setting the 
plants five to six inches from each other in 
the row. The ground should be moist at the 
time of planting ; if not, press the earth by the 
side of the plant gently, with the foot. After 
this keep the we ids down and the ground 
mellow until August. During this month, for 
fall use, the bleaching process should be com- 
menced. To do this it is best to use the hoe 
in drawing the soil up against the plant, and 
then, witu the hand, press close around each 
plant the soil, the leaves being held firmly 
in an upright position. Draw up more soil as 
a support and finish by breaking up, with the 



A Pretty way to Train Fuschias. — 
When a slip has grown six or eight inches 
high nip out the top down to the last set of 
leaves ; it will then throw out branches on 
each side. Let these grow eight or ten in- 
ches, then nip out as before ; the tops of each 
branch, when grown the same height as the 
others, nip out again ; then procure a stick the 
size of your finger, eighteen inches m length ; 
take hoopskirt wire, twine back and forth 
alternately through holes made in the stick 
equal distances apart ; place this firmly in the 
pot back of the plant, tie the branches to it, 
and you will have, when in flower, a beautiful 
and very graceful plant. Having one trained 
in that way last summer, it was the admira- 
tion of air who saw it. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL. 



NOXIOUS INSECTS. 



YOUNG cabbage plants, after being trans- 
planted, sre frequently cut off" at the 
stem by a black grub, which lodges in the 
ground. Whenever that is observed .search 
around the root of the plant, cut off aid you 
will find the grub a quarter of an inch under 
the surface, and kill it. If it is not there it 
will be on the plant next to it, and near by 
there will be another. They are always in 
pairs, and near to each other. 

There is a small black flea in vast numbers, 
which eats off the leaves of young cabbage, 
both when they have just come up from seed 
and after being transplanted. If the plants 
are lightly dusted over with fresh slaked 
lime for two mornings, while they are wet 
with dew, the lime will kill or drive off the 
fleas and the plants will thrive. 

There is a greenish, mealy louse that at- 
tacks cabbages when half or nearly full grown, 
frequently covering the whole plant. A dust 
of fresh lime for two mornings, over the 
plants while wet with dew, will kill all the 
intruders. 

A large, green grub,with black bands around 
its body, which devours tbe leave of carrots, 
celery, parsnip and parsley. It is slow in 
motion, and can be gathered with the hands 
and killed. 

All kinds of fruit trees should have their 
stems washed now with a strong solution of 
carbolic soap and water. It will keep off 
borers and cut-worms, and if the leads of the 



lU 



THE LAJyCASTER FARMER. 



tree are syringed with a weak solution of the 
carbolic snap and water, insects will not be 
apt to attack them. Another syringing of the 
heads of the trees, after the fruits are set, 
may keep off " curculio" from plum and peach 
trees. The cause of failures in keeping off 
insects is that remedies are not persevered in 
a sufficiently long time. A man standing upon 
a pair of steps ten feet high can syringe over 
trees twenty feet hxgh.— Journal of the Farm. 
[There is not a doubt that the above 
suggestions, if perseveringly followed, would 
yery much tend to the diminishing of the 
number of " noxious insects." Although it is 
of some importance to know the name, and 
something of the history, of the insects re- 
ferred to, still farmers and gardeners are so 
well acquainted with their destructive habits, 
that if they have the animal itself before 
them, and are able to apply the proper 
remedy, it makes little difference about the 
scientific name. They would onl> be unable 
to communicate to others— in the absence oi 
specimens— t<?7ia^ they had succeeded in de- 
stroying—that's all. We may suggest, how- 
ever, that the washing with carbolic soap and 
the " syringing" process, would be an im- 
mense job— where the infestation should ex- 
tend over an orchard of two or three thou- 
sand of fruit trees — be it ever so effective. 
Still, so far as it can be done, it ought to be 
done ; not once only, but all the time, during 
the whole season, or so long as insects in 
any form are known to be present. The 
greatest failure in remedies, is perhaps not so 
much on account of the quality of the remedy, 
as upon a lax application of it, or the absence 
of a simultaneous effort by a whole neighbor- 
hood. Many remedies only go a little way in 
the destruction of insects— so-ne so little that 
it would be almost as well not to try them at 
all — so little judgment is displayed in their 
use ; and this lack of judgment comes from a 
lack of intelligence, and this is perhaps be- 
cause people don't sufficiently " heed what 
they read," or what is less hopeful, don't read 
at all. It is true that many "humbug" rem- 
edies are from time to time published, but on 
the whole if people are occasionally humbugged 
in what they read, they may learn at least 
what to avoid, and although .this may be only 
a nesative kind of knowledge, it is much 
better than no knowledge at all. To conclude, 
we know that fresh, pulverized lime is death 
on all kinds of plant-lice, when properly ap- 
plied.] 



Raspberry Moth. — This evening (May 
20) through the open window came a beauti- 
ful little grass-green insect, which the unin- 
formed would call a " tiny butterfly," but 
which belongs to the "geometer moths," of 
the order Lepidoptera, and which has been 
described by Mr. Chas. V. Riley as the 
" Raspberry and blackberry moth" (Aplodes 
ruhivora) in his first report, on the noxious 
and other insects of the State of Missouri. 
The body of this little moth is about a quar- 
ter of an inch in length, and it is nearly three- 
quarters of ar. inch across the expanded 
wings. As we said before the color is a grass 
or verdigris-green, but the color is not opaque 
— indeed, through a magnifying glass the 
wings seem to be sparsely covered with the 
green colorings, and there are two delicate 
wh te lines across each of the fore wings and 
hind wings, dividing them nearly into three 
equal parts. As the larva of this little insect 
feeds on the fruit of the blackberry and rasp- 
berry, the appearance of the moth at this 
time seems a little premature. But that 
question does not bother us so much as the 
question of where it has been, and how it 
has preserved itself, during the long and severe 
winter which h-^s intervened since the rasp- 
berry and blackberry season of last year. The 
larva, which we do not remember ever having 
seen — although the moth we have observed 
at intervals for more than twenty years — is 
described by Mr. Riley as a small, ten-legged 
" geometer," over tbree-quarters of an inch 
in length, and of a light yellowish-gray color ; 
excavating the berries, and concealing itself 
by covering its body with small particles of 
the skins and seeds of the berry, and also its 
own debris. The extent of its depredations, 
as a general thing, must be very limited, 
although it is said to have done considerable 
damage to these fruits in some parts of 
Illinois. Under any circumstances, it is not 
pleasant to contemplate the presence of such 
a little pest, particularly as the application of 
a remedy wou^d be as likely to injure the 
quality of the fruit as to destroy the worm. 



The Sweet Potato.— To grow a pretty 
vine from the sweet potato, put a tuber 
in pure sand or sandy loam, in a hanging 
basket, and water occasionally. It will throw 
out tendrils and beautiful leaves, and will 
climb fref ly over the arms of the basket, and 
upward toward the top of the window. Not 
one visitor in a hundred but will suppose it 
to be some rare foreign plant. 



THE LAJyCASTER FARMER. 



115 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



THE AGRICULTURE OF PENNSYL- 
YANIA. 

ADVANCE sheets of the volume of Agri- 
cultural Returns, by the census of 1870, 
have just been received at the Census Bureau. 
The following are the returns for Pennsyl- 
vania for the year in which the census was 
taken : 

Acres of improved land 11,515,965 

Acres of woodland 5,740,stii 

Acres ot other unimproved land 737,371 

Total i,umber of aLies ;. 17,991,2U0 

Cash value of farms $1,043,841,582 

Value of implements and machinery ig35,6a8,196 

"Wages paid during the y-^ar $23 181944 

Value of farm productions $183,946,027 

Value of orchard products $4,208,094 

Produce of market gardens 11,810,016 

Forest products $2,670,370 

Home manuta!:tuifcs $1,503,7 14 

Value of all live stock 8115,647,075 

Number of horses 400,339 

Number of mules and asses 18,009 

Number of milch cov?s 706,437 

Number ot working oxen 30,048 

Number of other cattle 608,066 

Number of sheep 1,794,301 

Number of swine 867,548 

Bu-sbels of whea,t produced 19,672,907 

Bushels of rye 3,577,607 

Bushels of Indian corn 34,702,004 

Bushels of oats 36,478,581 

Bushelf of barley 529,562 

Bustiels of buckwheat 2,532,173 

Pounds of tobacco 3,467,539 

Pounds of wool 6,,561,722 

Bushels of peas and beans 39,574 

Bushels of Irith potatoes 12,899,367 

Bushdls of sweet potatoes 131,572 

Gallons of wine 97,165 

Pounas of butter 60,834,614 

Pounds of cheese l,145,20i^ 

Gallons of milk sold 14.411,729 

Tons of hay producea 2,848,219 

Bushels of cloverseed produced 200,679 

Busbels of grass seed produced 50 612 

Pounds of hups 9o,6S8 

Tons of hemp 571 

Pounds of llax 815,906 

Bushels of flaxseed 15 624 

Pounds of maplo sugar 1,645,917 

Gallons or soruhum molasses 213,373 

Gallons of maplo molasses 39,385 

Pounds of wax 27,033 

Pounds of honey 796,989 

The following are some of the leading re- 
turns of the State according to the census of 
1860 and 1850 : 

I860. 1850. 

Acres of improved land 10,436,296 8,628,619 

Acres of unimproved land 6,548,844 6,264.728 

Value of larms $662,050,707 $407,876,699 

Value of implements, etc $22,442,842 %\\,Vl'2.,b\\ 

The total number of farms in Pennsylvania 
in 1870 was 174,041, against 156,357 in 1860, 
and 127,577 in 1850. In 1870 there were in 
the State 95 farms containing 1,000 acres and 
over; 76* containing between 500 and 1.000 
acres ; 38,273, containing between 100 and 500 
acres ; 61,268 containing between 50 and 100 
acres ; 74,348 containing under 50 acres. The 
percentaore of unimproved land in farms was 
36 against 38.5 in 1860. The average size of 
farms in 1*70 was 103 acres ; in 1860 it was 
109 acres; and in 1850 it was 117 acres.— 
Daily Express. 



From the work before named, of which we 
have also received an advanced copy, we 
quote the following, relating to the Coimti/ of 
Lancaster, and which, according to the cen- 
sus returns, contains in area 540,691 acre=(, of 
which, 65,413 are woodland, and 11,445 other- 
wise unimproved; leaving 463,833 acres im- 
proved. From these figures, it seems self-evi- 
dent that the early climatic- and meteorologi- 
cal status of Lancaster county will never more 
be attained, so long as these disproportions 
of improved and forest lands exist. 

The present cash value of these lands, in- 
cluding implements and machinery, is $73,180, 
564. Total amount of wages paid, including 
value of board during the year 1869, $1,979° 
768, and the total value of farm productions 
during the same year, including " betterments 
and additions to stock," was $11,845,008. The 
orchard produce was $218,566, and the pro- 
duce of market gardens $87,399. Value of 
forest products $31,624, of home manufactures 
$39,708, and the value of animals slaughtered, 
and sjld for slaughter, $2,371,809. The gross 
value of live stock was $6,044,215, the details 
of which will be given in our July number. 

The total number of bushels of wheat, rye 
corn, oats, barley and buckwheat produced 
the same year, was 5,338,480, tobacco 2,692,- 
584 pounds, wool 20,092 pounds, butter 2,462,- 
376 pounds, cheese 82,614 do. and of hay 124,- 
185 tons. The number of gallons of wine 
produced 7,722, and of milk 142,630; of 
peas, beans and potatoes 454,793 bushels. 
There are many other interesting details 
which we will note in our next number, 
in reference to these and other products. 
There are in the couuiy cf Lancaster, of all 
sizes, 7,447 farms, of which nine are un- 
der 3 acres, 927 over 3 and under 10 acres, 949 
over 10 and under 20, 1,423 over 20 and under 
50, 2,465 over 50 and uader 100, 1,702 over 
100 and under 500, and two over 500 and under 
1,000 acres. 

The whole state of Rhode Island has only 
5,368 farms— 2,079 less than the county of 
Lancaster, and yet the former possesses 2 
farms over 1,000 acres. This gives a favorable 
exhibit of our grand old county, and illustrates 
that the days of largo landed monopolies and 
consequent aristocracies, are gradually pass- 
ing away, and that an era of greater social 
freeholds and pecuniary equality is approach- 
ing in our county, "a consummation devoutly 
wished for." 



116 



THE LAJ^CASTER FARMER. 



REVIEW OF THE MAY NUMBER. 

BY " COSMOS." 

LAST year we were much instructed and en- 
tertained hs reviews of articles in previous 
numbers, by your correspondent Humboldt. 
That correspondent seems to have become de- 
funct with the old year beyond hope of resur- 
rection ; but his spirit, like that of the old Ger- 
man philosopher whose name he had adopted, 
still lives in " Cosmos " 

The first article in the May number is one 
well worthy of perusal and study by agricul- 
turists. Agriculhtral Chemistry is a subject 
"which is daily becoming of more importance 
to farmers. A thorough knowledge of this 
important subject would greatly enhance the 
material interests of our country. 

Aiding tlie Corn Crop. — *' What corn loses in 
its early growth is lost forever " is an agricul- 
tural truth. This crop can be greatly aided 
by putting a tablespoonfal or less of stimulat- 
ing fertilizer with the corn in the hill when 
planting, or on it as soon as the plants have 
made their appearance above the surface. 
Ashes, plaster, guano or hen manure are good. 
This plan was formerly pursued to a greater 
extent than at present,with much benefit. The 
young plants will thus get a start ahead of the 
weeds. 

Rotation is carried out more perfectly, we 
think, in Lancaster county than elsewhere, 
and generally a uniform system is pursued. 
Will some old farmer, for the benefit of the 
less experienced, give a detailed account of 
the system under which his farm has been 
steadily improving for many years, notwith- 
standing heavy cropping. 

In the article on onions it was shown that 
as a crop they are very remunerative in the 
Southern States. They are the same here. 
Why do we not pay more attention to this nu- 
tritious, health-producing, disease-preventing 
vegetable. 

" Habitation,''^ in speaking of wonders refer- 
red to the Improved Feed Steamer, but omit- 
ted to mention the two great Lancasterian in- 
ventions — which directly concern the farmer 
in the field. The first is the improved double 
cultivator, which can be used as a corn-marker 
and corn-cultivator, and also as a general field 
cultivator. With it one man can perform the 
labor of two men and a boy, in cultivating 



corn. The little plants are not covered and 
no " setting up " is required. The second is 
the great improvement in farm fences. By 
the use of light posts and portable panels much 
labor and material are saved in the matter of 
fencing. 

Plant Trees, by all means. Every one owning 
a plot of ground should appropriate a few 
dollars each year to the planting and care of 
fruit anl forest trees, so that our now prosper- 
ous country may never share the sad fate of 
the " dying nation" — Persia. We should heed 
the moral of the dreadful story and pay at- 
tention to this much-neglected matter of 
planting trees. Our country is fast becoming 
treeless. A treeles country can never be a 
fertile one. 

" What we wanf^ — a first-class agricultural 
journal suppoited by every intelligent farmer 
in the county. This is a journal for the 
farmer, and from us farmers mainly must 
come its support. We have men and women, 
too, in the agricultural community, who have 
heads that think and hearts that feel in this 
work. Let us unite our efforts in raising 
The Farmer to a still higher standard, and 
in increasing its circulation and thus advance 
the noble cause in which we labor. 



SCIENCE AND FAIRY RINGS. 

EVERY one, says Once a Week, who is ac- 
customed to the country knows a fairy 
riug when he sees it. Each ring is only a belt 
of grass of a much darker green than that sur- 
rounding it. In a paper on " The Fairy Rings 
of Pastures," read by Professor Wray before 
the British Association, at Southampton, in 
1846, it was stated that the grass of which 
such rings are formed is always the first to 
vegetate in the spring, and keeps the lead of 
the ordinary grass of the pastures till the per- 
iod of cutting. If the grass of these fairy rings 
be examined in the spring and early summer, 
it will be found to conceal a number of agaries 
or toadstools of various sizes. They are found 
situated either entirely on the outside of the 
ring, or on the outer border of the grass which 
composes it. 

The professor's view of the formation of 
these fairy rings was as follows : A fungus 
is developed on a single spot of ground, sheds 
its seed, and dies. On the spot where it grew 
it leaves a valuable manuring of phosphoric 



THE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



117 



acid and alkalies, some magnesia, and a little 
sulphate of lime. Another fungus might un- 
doubtedly grow on the same spot again *, but, 
on the death of the first, the ground becomes 
occupied by a vigorous crop of grass, rising, 
like a phoenix from its ashes. Dr. Wollaston 
and Sir Humphrey Davy both adopted this 
elucidation of Professor Wray's as the correct 
one ; and his is the explanation most general- 
ly accepted by the best naturalists. The 
theory has also been very clearly stated in an 
early volume of the London Medical and Physi' 
cal Journal thus : Every fungus exhausts the 
ground on which it grows, so that no other can 
exist on the same spot. It sheds its seeds 
around ; and on the second year, ins ead of 
a single fungus as a center, a number arise in 
an exterior ring around the spot where the 
individual stood. These exhaust the ground 
on which they have come to perfection •, and 
in the succeeding year the ring becomes 
larger, from the same principle of diver- 
gency. 



Linseed Oil.— Linseed oil is made from 
the seeds of the flax plant (formerly called 
lint seed), by grinding them in a mill, and 
pressing the powder in a hydraulic or other 
power. When first pressed it is of a golden 
yellow color, but soon collects impurities from 
the air and turns brown. The impurities can 
be washed out by stirring water into it thor- 
oughly, and leaving the water to settle. It 
contains no stearine, and hence does no^ 
congeal at low temperature. Its chief use is 
in decorative and preservative painting. 
Being mixed with the powdered colors, and 
spread on wood, stone or iron with a brush, 
it soon dries and hardens into a coating which 
acts as a cement-varnish, and shields from 
weather. To quicken its drying it is often 
boilod before using. It is sometimes used in 
medicine as a laxative, and for this purpose is 
made from the raw seed without roasting. It 
is quite an important article of commerce. 



The Manufacturer and Builder gives the 
following directions for a simple filter to 
purify cistern water : " Place on the per- 
forated bottom of a box a piece of flannel, 
and on this some coarsely powdered charcoal, 
then coarse river sand, and cover the whole 
with sandstone broken into small pieces." 



Potatoes in the Olden Time. —An En- 
glish writer of a hundred yearspgo thus speaks 
of the status of the potato : "•This root in- 
creases prodigiously, and is very proper for 
feeding and fattening cattle. They are 
boiled in water, and require but little boiling, 
though they may have been kept two months 
in the store. Cattle can eat them raw, but 
for the stable they are wholesome boiled. I 
earnestly recommend the culture of this plant 
to husbandmen, as it is not only excellent food 
for cattle, but iiood for man in years of scarcity. 
After a little use the taste becomes at least 
as agreeable as turnips, and particularly if 
the potatoes are boiled with bacon and salt 
pork." 

The Vadtje of Bed Clover.— Soils in 
our climate need to be kept covered in clover 
and grass to as great extent as is consistent 
with good husbandry. They improve under 
the shade of clover, because this dense cover- 
ing prevents evaporation ; and because also 
the long tap-roots of this fine forage plant 
penetrate deep-down into the soil where they 
root and furnish aliment for succeeding crops. 
A good crop of clover, turned under with a 
plow, is equivalent to a good dressing of barn- 
yard manure, for it contains all the constitu- 
ents in which the cereals delight. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



Columbia, May 25, 1872. 

MESSRS. EDITORS : I have often thought 
tbat we farmers do not fairly or fully com- 
prehend the cowi^^araiiVg value of artificial fertil- 
izers, or more properly, as stimulants to vege- 
tation — as their action on our soils is of short 
continuance and not truly permanent im- 
provers of the ground. Our barn-yard ma- 
nure, after all, is our main stay, though oc- 
casionally we have not this in sufficient quan- 
tity, or does not push things fast enough for 
this fast age, so we resort to these artificial 
stimulants to fjrce vegetation into a more 
vigorous growth. Do we fully consider their 
real value (even allowing the preparation to 
be honestly prepared) ? In plain language, 
are they worth what they cost ? I would be 
pleased to see those better posted than my- 
self take up this question and give us their ex- 
perience or opinions through the pages of our 
Lancaster Farmer — in comparison with 
barn-yard manure. I may at some future 
time try and have something more to say on 
this subject, but in the meantime would like 
to hear from others. J. B. Garber. 



118 



THE LAJ^CASTER FARMER. 



%\u p 



?A%in ^mwm. 



LANCASTER, JUNE, 1872. 



S. S. RATHVON AND ALEX. HARRIS, Editors. 

Pablished monthly under the auspices of the Abkicul- 

TURAL ANDHoBTICULTUEAL SOCIETY. 

$1^5 per Tear In Advance. 

A c'onsiderable deduction to clubs of five or more. 

All commuuicitions, to insure insertion, must be in the 
hands of the editors before the 20th of each month. Ad- 
dress Rathvon & Harris, Lancaster, Pa. 

All advertisements, subscriptions and remittances te the 
address of the publisher, J. B. DEVELIN, 

Inquirer Building, Lancaster, Pa. 



MEETING OF THE AGRICULTURAL 
AND HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

THE moQthly meeting of the Society was 
held May 6th, 1872, Levi S. Reist, iu the 
chair. The miautes of the last meetiog were 
read and approved by acquiescence. 

Levi S. Reist read an essay on " Wheat 
Failure. ^^ 

Milton B. Eshelman next proceeded to read 
an essay upon labor, and was complimented 
upon its conclusion by a unanimous vote of 
thanks for the production. 

Ephraim Hoover thought the essayist had 
furnished the ablest production ever read be- 
fore the society, and concur red in the view of 
the essayist, that it is by labor that every- 
thing of excellei ce is obtained. 

A. Harris regarded the essay as ^^ar excel- 
lence e unciating the soundest maxims of 
wisdom, as regards the importance of labor, 
that had ever been expressed before the so- 
ciety. The essay was a succinct resume of the 
advantages secured by labor, and the same 
that the wisest minds of all ages have con- 
curred in expressing, and which the observa- 
tion of every day practical life fully corrobo- 
rates. 

P. S. Reist agreed in characterizing the es- 
say as the ablest ever delivered before the 
society. 

C. L. Hunsecker regards labor as the basis 
cf all prosperity, and he is ready to accredit 
high honor to the man who, by the sweat of 
his brow, rears his family in comfort and sur- 
rounds it with the blessings that a wise 
Providence showers upon the diligent and in- 
dustrious. 



R. L. Rfcsh considers labor an admirable 
theme for the pen of the essayist. There are 
still too many in our country, however, who 
do not labktr as they should. But our agricul- 
turists should by no means neglect to avail 
themselves of labor-saving implements of in- 
dustry, as by the application of these mental 
takes the place of manual labor, and success 
in agriculture is thereby greatly promoted. 
Idleness is the mother of vice. It is not for 
the accumulation of money solely that labor 
should be expended, as higher aims should be 
objects of man's aspirations, such as the ele- 
vation of humanity and the advancement of 
civilization. 

Society on motion adjourned. 



A CORRESPONDENT of the American 
Stock Journal says : We have been in 
the habit, for a long series of years, of weigh- 
ing all the hay, fodder, straw, grain, etc., fed 
or sold on the farm, and we are satisfied that 
we have saved the price of a pair of good 
platform scales every year by so doing. 

The profits of farming depend very largely 
upon the attention to things small in them- 
selves, but in the aggregate amountiug to a 
large share in one's income. With this in- 
strument at hand he may knowjusthow much 
corn is fed to the hogs and poultry ; how many 
oats to the horse ; how much seed is sown 
upon the land, and many other points equally 
valuable to know. For instance, in selling 
live stock, the weight is usually estimated by 
the drover or butcher buying at the farmer's 
door. 

The careless farmer feeds his cattla until 
he thinks they are fat enough to turns ofi, sell 
them to the butcher at their estimated dressed- 
weight, and pockets the proceeds. How much 
of the amount is profit he cannot tell ; he did 
not measure the feed or weigh the animal. 

Long practice enables the buyer to weigh 
them very correctly with the eye, and thus he 
has the inexperienced seller at an advantage, 
which he is not slow to use. A good Fair- 
banks' Standard Platform scales would save 
its own cost in a few such transactions. 

The careful farmer feeds out grain by meas- 
ure or weight, and charges it to the bullock ; 
at intervals of a week or so, he rigs his plat- 
form scale so that the animal can stand upon 
it, notes how much beef it shows for the grain 



THE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



119 



eaten, and when the feedinti; does not pay, sell 
to the butcher or drover. In doing this he is 
not afraid of the buyer's practiced eye, which 
can almost fix the notch at which a bullock will 
turn the scale. 



THE WEATHER AND THE CROPS. 

THE complaints and the anxieties we al- 
luded to in our May number, in refer- 
ence to the crop prospects, still remain in 
statu quo. There has been just sufficient rain 
to enable the seeds that have been planted 
to germinate, and give the grasses and the 
foliage of the trees a summer greenness. We 
do not, however, despair, but look to the future 
hopefully. An excellent and refreshing rain 
fell last night (May 23) that will be worth mil- 
lions to the country, and although the wheat 
crop may be irrecoverable, still it will not be 
a total failure. But now that the long dry 
spell is bioken, we may hope to have a suc- 
cession of showers at the usual intervals. We 
can only judge the future by the past, and in 
all past times, the average fall of rain during 
the whole year has not very materially dif- 
fered. If this rule proves true the present 
year, we may expect more rain between now 
and the first of November than we actually 
need. 

The absence of drenching and disturbing 
rains have been rather beneficial to the fruit 
prospects, and these are beginning to loom up 
mere prosperously than we had dared to hope 
earlier in the season. Of course, small fruits, 
not deeply rooted, and which depend more or 
less on a humid surface soil — as the strawberry 
for instance— will be shortened in their growth 
and productiveness by the want of rain at the 
proper time, but grape vin'es, peaches, apples, 
pears etc., will be able to bear a greater 
drought. On the whole we do not think it 
wise to entertain unnecessary anxieties about 
the future, but continue to do our whole duty 
in the present, and when the year 1872 closes 
we may have reason to be thankful, that an 
unseen wisdom, that far transcends our own, 
has " carried us through," in " manner and 
matter," far beyond our most sanguine expec- 
tation. But should these hopes not be realiz- 
ed ? What then ? " Why, be resigned, uncle 
Joe, be resigned ! " What better philosophy 
can fretting suggest ? It is worth trying in 
any event. 



TOBACCO—AND HOW TO GROW IT. 

BY " BRU." 



THE first thmg necessary to the perfect 
growth of every plant is perfect seed. 
Without it the grain itself will deteriorate, 
and each succeeding crop will be less pro- 
ductive. With it the quality will become 
finer and the yield larger. Comparatively 
speaking — take care of the seed and the seed 
will take care of itself. This manifests itself 
plainly in tobacco. 

THE SEED. 

Let every tobacco grower first get perfect 
seed. Secure it early and sow it about the 
latter end of March. Seed sown at this time 
is as large as a man's three fingers by trans- 
planting time. Spade barnyard manure 
down in some moist place in the garden and 
sow the seed. If the ground becomes dry 
sprinkle it with rain water. If your tobacco 
is good you should raise your own seed the 
coming year. Let the finest stalks grow and 
trim oil the lower leaves. Twelve buds at 
the upper end of the plant will raise sufficient 
seed. Cut off the stalKs when the pods are 
perfectly dry and hang them away in a dry 
room until you are ready to sow the seed. 

THE SOIL 

should be rich and loamy. Fall plowing is 
always preferable and should be from twelve 
to fourteen inches deep. Then haul on about 
eight four-horse loads of barnyard manure and 
one hundred bushels of lime to the acre. As 
soon as the frost is out of the ground plow 
again. Harrow once and roll if cloddy (a 
roller is always preferable to a drag). The 
patch should now be left lay until the latter 
end of May. Then plow shallow and harrow 
till it is thoroughly pulverized. Mark out four 
feet each way— known as " checkering." 
Make a hole with the finger and set the plant 
deep. 

CULTIVATE 

thoroughly and keep the bed full. Cut-worms 
are sometimes bad. Replant every niorning 
until the plants are well started. The ground 
should be cultivated at least once a week and 
oftener in cases of heavy rains. Keep the 
ground loose around the plants with a hoe. 
Continue this until the tobacco shades the 
ground. Hoeing alone is not sufficent. The 



120 



THE LAjYCASTER FARMER. 



ground must be loosened up in order to absorb 
the dews and rains. 

WORMS 

are this plant's great enemy. The " eternal 
vigilance" of " early rising " is the only way 
to rid them out. Tobacco should be wormed 
every morning. The worms then in the mid- 
dle and edges of the plant are easily seen ; 
•while in the heat of the day they keep close 
to the stem of tbe plant. The top should be 
pinched from every stalk when about fourteen 
leaves have grown thereon. Suckers now 
begin to come. When they are about three 
inches long, twist them oflF. 

PUTTING AWAY. 

Cut down the tobacco with a hatchet 
and leave it lay across the rows till it wilts. 
This prevents its breaking. Then haul away 
on a plank wagon. Load with buts out on 
both sides. There are several methods of 
hanging it. One is spearing on laths ; an- 
other is nailing to rails. Spearing is the 
most speedy method and speared tobacco will 
cure sooner than any other. 

SHEDS, 

A good shed should be thirty-five feet high. 
It will then hold four tiers. Leave all the 
air doors open until the tobacco is half cured. 
They should then be closed until it is thor- 
oughly cured. It should be stripped about 
the holidays. "When the weather is rainy and 
damp open the air-doors. When the tobacco 
is damp and tough take it down and strip it. 
It should be well sorted into lots. Every 
stalk should make a " hand." Pack into a 
cellar and it is ready for market ; or— sell it 
for twenty cents a pound. — Marietta Register. 

Wal Oak Farm, Jan. 20, 1872. 



DOMESTIC. 



Treatment of Soft Corns. —A small 
piece of sal-ammoniac dissolved in two table- 
spoonfuls spirits of wine, and the same 
quantity of water. Saturate a small piece of 
sponge or linen rag, and place it between the 
toes, changing it twice a day. This will cause 
the skin to harden, and the corn may be 
easily extracted. A good remedy for soft 
corns is common chalk rubbed on the corn 
every day, and a piece of cotton wool worn 
between the toes affected, to prevent pressure ; 
the chalk appears to dry up the corn. 



NUTRITIVE VALUE OF MILK. 

A CHEMIST of Providence, Pt. I., states 
that milk is more nutritious than meat. 
The nutritive value of milk, as compared with 
other kinds of animal food, is not generally 
appreciated. There is less difference betweea 
the economical value of milk and beefsteak 
(or eggs or fish) than is compaonly supposed. 
The quantity of water in a good quality of 
milk is eighty-six per cent., in round steak 
seyenty-five per cent., in fatter beef sixty per 
C€nt.,in eggs about sixty-eight per cent From 
several analyses made last winter, I estimated 
sirloin steak (reckoning loss from bone), at 
thirty-five cents a pound, as dear as milk at 
twenty-four cents a quart; round steak, at 
twenty cents a pound, as milk at fourteen 
cents a quart ; eggs at thirty cents a dozen, as 
dear as milk at twenty cents a quart. Many 
laborers, who pay seventeen cents for corned 
beef, would consider themselves hardly able 
to pay ten cents lor milk, when, in fact, they 
could as well afford to pay fifteen cents. 

Milk is a most wholesome and economical 
food for either the rich or poor. It ought to 
be more largely used. If the money expend- 
ed for veal and pork were experded for milk, 
I doubt not it would be an advantage both to 
the stomach and pocket, especially during the 
warm season. Relatively speaking, then, milk 
at ten cents, or even twelve cents a quart, is 
the cheapest animal food that can be used. 
Whether farmers can afford to produce, it 
cheaper is a matter for them to decide. „ is 
very probable that were they to ask twelve 
cents, a very large number of poor people 
would refrain from its use from mistaken no- 
tions of economy, notwithstanding they are 
excessive meat eaters. 



Hot Cakes. — A griddle for baking cakes 
should never be greased, as apart from the 
annoyance caused by the smoke arising from 
a greased griddle, the delicate flavor of the 
cakes is destroyed. Scour well with a cloth 
and sand, wash with hot suds, wipe dry, and 
just before baking rub with a coarse cloth and 
salt. It is not necessary to wash and scour it 
every time it is wanted ; only once to get all 
the grease out ; but use the cloth and salt 
every time you put fresh cakes on, just as you 
would grease the pan. 



THE LAJf CASTER FARMER. 



121 



Bathing. — Many pei-sona have lost their 
lives in the process of bathing; sometimes by 
going into tlae bath too soon after eating. Ko 
person should take any kind of bath sooner 
than three hours after a regular meal, and the 
•room should show a heat of seventy five de- 
grees of Fahrenheit's thermometer, at about 
■five feet above the floor in the middle of the 
room, in order to avoid dangerous chills ; per- 
sons of a feeble circulation should have the 
room still warmer ; if there is an uncomfort- 
able feeling of coldness to the body when it 
comes out of the water, the room is too cold. — 
HalVs Journal of Health. 



Grafting Geraniums.— Many of the new 
Zonal geraniums are wonderfully slow grow- 
ers on their own roots, requiring two or three 
years to obtain a good showy plant. Among 
the plain leaved sorts there are plenty of 
etroDg, vigorous growers. I am using these 
for stocks upon which to graft the more deli- 
cate kinds. Grafting geraniums has been 
practiced but very little in this country, but I 
thmk when our gardeners learn its value, it 
will be extensively used for tho slow-growing 
but elegant Zonal varieties. Even for the 
purpose of obtainirg a supply of good strong 
cuttings, grafting the weaker sorts upon the 
stronger will be found of considerable value 
to the commercial florist. 



Steamed Pudding.— Two eggs, two tea- 
cupfuls of sour milk, one teaspoouful of soda, 
a little salt, flour enough to make it quite 
^^' k, or it will be heavy. Beat this smooth. 
Ai.d cherries, raspberries, currants, or any 
dried fruit you may have. Steam two hours, 
taking care that the water is kept over the pud- 
ding or bag all the time, and that it does not 
stop boiling. Eat with cream and sugar, hard 
sauce, or any liquid sauce you may prefer. 



Cleaning Tinware. — An experienced 
housekeeper says the best thing for cleaning 
tinware is common soda. She gives the fol- 
lowing directions : Dampen a cloth and dip 
in soda and rub the ware briskly, after which 
wipe dry. Any blackened ware can thus be 
made to look as good as new. 



BOOK AND SPECIAL IsOTICE DE- 
PARTMENT. 



Store Hogs should be kept in a growing 
condition, and not be suflTered to stand still in 
their growth. 



our book table. 

The Lady's Friend for Ju^E. — The June number 
leads ott" with ii charming picture of ilie heroine of theday, 
Dolly Varden. Here Bhe is, in all her glory of youth arid 
beauty. On theoIJpo^ite page, a picmresque ecens in 
Switz»'rlaT)d areets Uh. The music is— "Some One to Weep 
when I am Gone." Mrs. Henry Wood's novel, "Within 
the Maze," grows more absorbingly interestniK with p-^ery 
number. There are als-> exce lent storif.s by Daisy Vent- 
nor and Anrje L. P'oroelle, and Mies Douglas begins one 
of her attract' Vf^ s.-ria s, ''An Every-day Heroin*-." The 
Fashion and Housekeepini; Departments apjear to be 
thoroufjhly attended to. Pnce,$2.00 a year. Published 
by Deacon & Peterson, Philadelphia. C p es for mile by 
all News Dealers, and by Ike Publishers, price 20 ctiHs. 

Thb New York In'lepend'nt is the one of all our religious 
American n-wspapei s that (i( sprves to find a place in the 
family of every farmer of our country. Its articles a'e 
from the pen of the ran.st talented writers, and they breathe 
a freshness and vigor of ihiut^ht that are peculiar chnrac- 
teristics of the Indrppwleid. The ci-culation of this papT, 
which in 1862 w*8 already very large, has since that time 
almost treb ed itself, is steadily increasing. Any of our 
readers who wish to subscribe for a tirst class religious pa 
per, thould procure the Independent. Terms #3 00 p r an- 
num. Address Henry C. Brown Publisher, No. 3 Park 
Place, New York. 

Home and Health for June is before us, and is cer- 
tainly a very valuable number. No other migazine sur- 
passes it in the qualiiy of its literature, while it sur- 
passes all others ot its size in the number and variety of 
its artl les, and in its adaptation to all the wants of the 
family. Its dei>ar ment of Health Culture, and ■ ome En- 
tertainmt'nt, Humorous Incidents and Current Events, 
make it the mo.Ht valuable pnd cheapest family magazine 
published in the country. Older it from the N. wslealers, 
or send direct to De Pu7, Lyon & Co., No. 52 Fourth Ave- 
nue, New YorK. Single copies 15 cents ; §1.50 per annum. 

The New Yoyk Independent is the one of pU our religlona 
American nwwspspers that deserves to find a place in the 
family of every farmer "f our country. Its articles are 
from the pens of the most talpnted writers, and they 
breathe a freshness and vigor of thought that are peculiar 
characteristics of the Independent. The circulation ot this 
paper, which ia 18G2 was already very large, has since that 
time almoMt treble i itselr, and is steadily increasing. Any 
of our readtrs who wish to sub.ocri'^e fur a first- class reli- 
gious paoer should pr )cu-e the Ind'pendent. Term:*, $2.50 
per annum. Addrcsi Hecry C. Bowen, Publisher, No. 8 
Park P. ace, New York. 

We again insert the above notice of the New York Inde- 
pendent because of the mistake that occurred in our May 
issuB in making the terms of the paper $3.50 per annuna 
instead of $2.50. 

The National Business Index has more condensed 
information on Agriculture, Commerce. Education, Fi- 
nance, Government, Insurance. Legul Intellijence, Legis- 
lation, Literature Manufactures, Mining, Kailrtads, Ship- 
ping, Real Est.ite. Science, Art, RoUgion. Benevolence, 
Adverisiner, and S-'pecial and Jtiscellaneous matters, com- 
pacted in the snialUs*. space, than any other publication in 
the countrv. Putdished by the Index Company, Chicago, 
Ko. 433 West Jackson street, at 50 cents a year. No. 1 for 
March, 1872, received. 

The Induptuial Monthly for May, 1872. is a rich and 
finelv illu.strated number, of a quarto, published in the In- 
terest of Manufacturers, Mechanics, Builders, Architects, 
Engineers, Inventors, and Railways. New York : $1.5C a 
year. 

Wood's Household Magazin'— for .June, '72— Newburgh, 
N. Y., one dollar a year", is "the early bird that catches the 
worm," and what it catches it keeps. Its contents are so 
interesting and so morally toned, as to be sure of catching 
the attention of the reader, and not only this, but also 
ke'ping that attention. No wonder it is sent to 15,147 post- 
offices, in fifty states and territories, where a further dis- 
tribution among a larger numberof intelligent subscribers 
takes place. Amone its contributors are such names as 
Horace Greeley, Gail Hamilton, Harriet Prescntt Stopford, 
James Parton, Violet Hastings, Dr. Dio Lewis, Luella 
Dowd, etc. 



n'^ 



TEE LAJVCdSTER FARMER. 



American Stock Journal, Monthly Report Departs 
ment of Agriculture for April, National Agitator, Iron 
World, Pra tiunl Farmer, American Farmers' Advocate, 
Journal of the Farm, New York Rural, Everybody's Jour- 
nal, American AgricuUuri-t, American Homes, Journal 
of Health, New York Independent, NevF York Observer, 
Germautdwn Telegraph, and the Patent Riiht Gazette, 
all freighted with the current matters of the times in their 
vari us specialties, have been received for the month of 
May, 1872. 

F<R simplicity, beauty, durability, cheapness, and ef- 
fectiveaess, we sincerely commend that Queen of dairy 
implements, the Blanchard Churn. 

Few im- laments that farmers use have been tested and 
Improv-d for so manyyeirs, that they are as near perfect 
as any thing can be made of wood and iron. The Blanch- 
ard Churn is one of this kind. 



NEW YORK CATTLE MARKET. 

New York, May 20, 1872. 
The offerings comprised 4:J00 Beeces, 125 Cows and 
Calves, 4,339 Veals, 15426 Sheep aid Lambs, and 3.3.302 
Swine. Beeves are rather depressed, under heavy offer- 
ings, and prices are called at !4 c. below below last Mon- 
day's quitations. The extremes of the market are 10 to 13 
cents per lb. Milch Cows are io light demand. A few 
choice were sold at *80 ; poor &tock, $25 per head; me- 
dium, trom $40 to $60. Veal Calves active, and higher 
for all grades. W.J quote from 6>^ to7>^ c. per lb., as in 
qua'ity. Sheep are >;$c. per ,b. higher. Lamb? abundant, 
and rather easier. Tne tormersoid at Q%(g)lO],-^ c. per lb.; 
and the latter at 12ail7c. Nothing doing in Liive Hogs; 
Dressed sell at 5-% to 63!^ c. per lb. 

NEW YORK MARKET. 

New York, May 21. 
Cotton is more active and in betttr demand ; middling 
upland 24 j^c. Flour quiet ; superfiae western and State, 
$7,10@7.3; ; common to good, S7,60@8,10; good to choice 
$8,15®9,0U;St. Louis $9,50fa)lH,50. Rye flour ^nd cnrn meal 
u iijuiu^ vl. Wheat uusettled; spring No. 1 $1,730)1,75; 
No. 2$l,67@l,71; amber red western $1,98; No, 2 Chicago 
spring $1,68 Rye dull ; western in store 90c. Barley and 
malt u. changed. Corn heavy ; western mixed afloat 
74a74>^c Oats active and firmer; western fi6a58c; Ohio 
57a6oc Hay firm ; shipping $1,75. Hops firm at 25a65c 
for '7 1 ; inaSOc for '70 ; 10al5 for '69. Pork held momlnally 
atSl3 90 tor mess. Beef and Cut Meats unchanged. Lard 
unchanged. Butter steady at 29a31c for new. 

CHICAGO MARKET. 

Chicago, May 20. 
Flour quiet. Wheat active for spot; famiiy active on 
speculation prices and higher; No. 2 spring $1,52 ; spot 
$1.52, seller June; $l,f4x seller July. Corn firm andjad- 
vanced; No. 2 mixed 4l3.^a43J^c, spot; 48}/^a483|c, seLer 
June; rejected 45a45>^c. Oats dull ; No. 2 4i)^c. Rye 
fi m; No. 2 85c. Barley quiet and a shade firmer; No. 2 
fall 60a65c. 



PHILADELPHIA MARKETS. 

PniLADELPHiA, May 20, 1872. 

Flour.— There is not much doing, but holders are de- 
manding high figures. Sales of 1200 bbis , including super- 
fine at $a6,75 ; extra at $7.^7,75; Wisconsin and Minnesota 
extra family at $8,50; Pennsylvania do. do. at $9,50al0,f0; 
Indiana and Ohio do. do. at $9,10, and high grades at $i,- 
50dll,5i>. Rye flour commands $Ga6, 25. ^.orn Mealis dull. 

Grain.— Wheat is quiet, and prices rather weak. Sales 
of 28'jO bu'hels New "Vork and Western red at $2.20. Rye 
is worth $1.10. Cora is in limited request, with sales of 
yellow at 74a75c., and Western mixed at 73a74c. 10,000 
bushels of the latter sold ou secret terms. Oats are un- 
changed ; sales of 5,000 bushels white at 58c. and 4,500 bush- 
els mixed at 57c. Birley and Malt are dull. Thereceipts 
to-lay are as follows : 2121 bbls flour; 9,000 bushels 
wheat; 54,800 bushels corn; 11,700 bushels oats; 504 barrels 
of whisky. 

Provi-ions continue quiet, but prices are unchanged. 
Sales of Mess Pork at $l3,75al4 per barrel. City packed 
extra Mess Beef is taken at $14,5.:al5 per barrel. Bacon 
18 steady; sales of plain sugar-cured city-smoked Kam.o at 
lliillX cants. Canvassed western at 12c., sires at 8c., and 
shoulders at 7c. Green meats are quiet. Sales of pickel- 
ed Hams at 93^ to lOc, and shoulders in salt at 5a5xc. 
Lard is quiet; sales at 9a9)^ per lb. 



Seeds. — There Is less doing in Clover ; small sales at 9a 
10c per lb. Flaxseed sold at $2,15, and Timothy at $2,75 
per bushel. 

PHILADELPHIA CATTLE MARKET. 

Philadelphia, Mav 20, 1872. 

Beep Cattle were dull this week, and p'ije" favored 
buyers ; abou'' 2000 head arrived and sold at 7^'^a8o for ex- 
tra Pennsylvania find Western Steers; 6a7c. lor fair to good 
do. and 5.i5)^c per lb. gross tor common, as to quality. 

Cows were wiihout change; 200 head sold at $35a65 per 
head, as lo quality. 

Shkep were in fair demand; 15,000 head arrived and 
sold at 6>;,'a73^c per lb, for clipped, and $3 to 8 per head for 
lambs. 

Hogs were rather lower; 3261 head sold at $5,7 5a7 per 
100 lbs., net — the latterrate for prime corn fed. 



WHEN SHOULD PIGS BE WEANED? 

The Field and, Factory gives the following 
answer to the above question : 

" Eight weeks old is the best age. Seven 
weeks will do. They should become accus- 
tomed to food, such as ordinarily given to 
hogs before weaning, and then there will be 
no need of any loss in growth from the loss of 
the mother's milk. If they are at all inclined 
to scour, one of the best preventives is an 
occasional day's feed of whole corn, or a few 
kernels with their other food each day. They 
should have all they will eat, and the growth 
will generally pay at least fiity per cent, over 
and above the cost." 



To take bruises out of furniture, wet the 
part with warm water ; double a piece of 
brown paper five or six times, soak it in 
the warm water, and lay it on the place 
apply on that a warm but not hot flat- 
iron till the moisture is evaporated. If the 
bruise be not gone repeat the process. After 
two or three applications, the dent or bruise 
be small, merely soak it with warm water, and 
hold a red-hot iron near the surface, keeping 
the surface continually wet — the bruise will 
soon disappear. 



Boiling Indian Pudding. — Into one 
quart of boiling milk stir as much Indian-meal 
as will make a batter. Add half a pint of 
beef-suet, chopped finely ; one quart of dried 
apples, chopped ; a teacupful of sugar, and a 
teaspoonful of salt. Mix well together, and 
then proceed as with the flour-pudding, only 
boiling sis hours instead of two. Dried cher- 
ries or pears will answer as well as dried ap- 
ples. Serve with cream-sauce. 



mu 




iirnier. 



DEVOTED TO 
AgrLcidtivre, Horticulture, Domestic Econormj and Miscellany* 

EDITED BY S. S. RATHVOX AXD ALEXANDER HARRIS. 



" The Farmer is the founder of civiUzaUoii."—WY.BSTER. 



Vol. IV. 



JULY, 1872. 



JYo. 7. 



ESSAY. 



THE SEVENTEEN- YEAR LOCUSTS OF 

1872. 

[Cicada Sepzendecino.] 

N the 25th of May last we were informed 
that a large brood of these singular in- 
sects had made its appearance in " Pire 
.Swamp Valley," Hellam township, York cu., 
I'a., and subsequently we noticed in the news- 
papers that " locusts were appearing on the 
surface of the ground in Union co., Pa., and 
:ilso Perry county, atid that the Sinliiag 
Valley farmers had plowed them up by mil- 
lions." On the 29th of the same month, in 
company with Mr. H. M. Engle, we visited 
ihe Ilellam township locality, and found the 
report verified— indeed, we found the^e insects 
m n-e nnnjerous than we had ever seen them 
hi fore aiiijwhere, especially in that portion of 
Mr. i'"s peach orchard, which seventeen years 
a^o had been forest land. Peach tree?, apple 
trees, pear trees, cherry trees, oak, chestnut, 
liickory, walnut, sassafras, and other sprouts, 
as well a.s wild grape, milk-weed (Aschpeas), 
clover and grass, and weeds in general, were 
Hlerally covered with them. The ground 
everywhere wua perforated with hole.", and 
tiii-ir evacuated pxipa shells were found adhrr- 
ii'g to stones, clods cf earth, chips, fences, 
weeds, trunks of trees, or any other objiHst that 
li'st came in their way after they came out of 
ilie ground. 

Mr. .Jacob Fahrey, a /armer residing in the 
valley, informed us that to the best of his re- 
collection, the locusts appeared in that locali- 
ty about the year 1855, and that then, as now, 



they were confined to the north side, which 
has a southern exposure, and few or none on 
the soulhside,and also that he heard they were 
appearing on the south side of the hills which 
bound Kreutz Creek Valley. After securing 
a number of specimens we returned home and 
addressed letters to several persons in York 
county, in order to ascertain the extent of the 
range t»f this brood. On the Gth of June Gen. 
A. II. Glatz wrote us to the effect that " the 
locusts have appeared in great numbers on the 
river hills from the Codorus to Pine Swamp, 
in the townships of Spring Garden and Hel- 
lam. On the 14th of June the same gentlemati 
wrote us that while on a visit to the country 
he found that " the seventeen year locusts 
have appeared on the hills bounding the south- 
ern portion of the Kreutz Creek Valley," but 
could not learn how far they extended. About 
the same date the following response to our 
inquiries appeared, which we take from the 
Lancaster Express •• 

Seventeen"- YEAR Locuars.— The York 
True Democrat ot to day says: "Some of our 
readers will no doubt be surprised to learn 
that tlie seventeen-vear locusts, as they are 
called, have made their appearance in large 
numbers iu some portions of York county. 
The localities they have visited are princi- 
pally those bordering along the Susquehanna 
river, extendiug fromPleasureville, in Spring 
j Garden, to a short distance this side of 
Wrightsville, iu Hellam township. We have 
not heard of them being anywhere else. The 
peculiar croaking of a few of them has been 
heard a short distance beyond our borough 
line, in the direction of Prospect Hill Ceme- 
tery, but they are not numerous and are prob- 
ably stragglers from the brood which has ap- 
peared in the localities above mentioned. Jt 
will be remembered that three years ago they 
were in the borough of York and its surround- 
ings, and did considerable injury to young 



12Jf 



THE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



fruit trees. The writer of this article had a 
fine, large pear tree, which was coverad with 
fruit, entirely destroyed by them that season. 
This was, however, inside the borough limits. 
Pieasureville, where they have appeared this 
year, is a small village, about two miles north- 
♦^ast of York, in Spring Garden township. 
From that place on along the hills down to the 
Susquehanna river, they are said to be numer- 
oup. Ou inquiry we ascertain tbat there were 
none seen in this locality three years ago,with 
the exception of here and there a wandering 
one — a straggler, doubtless, from a brood 
■which was operating in some near vicinity. 
But we never knew them to be more plentiful 
than they were in the borough of York that 
season. 

In a letter from Mr. George Keesey, of Co- 
dorus Furnace, in York county, dated June 
lOth, he says : "The locusts are very numer- 
ous in our neighborhood, the woods btingfull 
of them. They extend all the way to York 
wherever there is timber, a distance of eight 
miles ; also all the way from here to the Cone- 
wago mountains, a distance of twelve miles ; 
where I understand, hogs have died from eat- 
ing them. 

" If I mistake not, they were in our neigh- 
borhood in the year 1855 and 1838. There 
v/ers a good many of them in part of the tim- 
ber, about a mile south of this place in 1868 ; 
and also about Mount Wolf, four and a half 
miles north-west of us, in 1851." 

On our visit to Pine Swamp Valley, there 
were no locusts on the north side of the hill 
which separates this little valley from the Sus- 
quehanna, and many of those ou the south 
side were pairing, and some even ovipositing ; 
but on the 17th of June, Mr. Engle and others 
informed us that their area had been extended 
down the north side lo the river, that they 
were as numerous and as musical as their val- 
ley cogeners, and that their songs can be 
heard distinctly across the Susquehanna, in 
Lancaster county. 

T3y the 21st of June their area had extend- 
ed on the face of the hills as far eastward as 
opposite the borough of Marietta, and the 
citizens of tbat place could hear them dis- 
tinctly from the front street, near the bank 
of the river. This is the more remarkable 
because they appeared in that locality in 
1834, 1851 and 1868, but we have no knowl- 
edge of their having been in the same locality 
iu 1838 or 1855. In 1834 we resided at Ma- 
rietta, and know the locusts to have been both 
■ In and around that town, and also along the 



north side of the hills in York county oppo- 
site the town. We did uot reside at Marietta 
in 1851, but Mr Jacob P.. Hoff^^r, of the bor- 
ough of Mount Joy, ioforms us that he has a 
distinct recollection that when the locusts ap- 
peared in Lancaster county in 1851, they also 
appeared, about two weeks later, on the north 
side oC the river hills in York couuty, and 
they were so numerous that he plainly heard 
them from the shore in Lancaster couuty. 
Mr. Joseph Windolph, of Marietta, informed 
us that he both heard and saw them in the 
same locality in 1868, but that there were 
none on the south side of the hills in Pine 
Swamp and Kreufz Creek valleys, but that 
the people informed him that they would ap- 
pear there again in 1870. Fro'n this it will 
appear that they committed an errrorin their 
calculations, which is not at all surprising 
with people who do not make a written rec- 
ord of such events. This erroneous report 
having been communicated^to M, C. T. Riley, 
State entomologist of Missouri, he. thereupon 
made use of it in establishing his theory of 
broods; which, not being verified, was criti- 
cised by Rev. Morris, a distinguished ento- 
mologist of Baltimore, and both seemed to 
hold us responsible for the discrepancy in 
this part of the aforesaid theory, when we 
never intended it as evidence in support of 
amj system of broods. 

From all the foregoing, taken together, 
there seems to be a Lancaster and a York 
county brood, and that the area of these over- 
lap each other along the north fide of the 
hills which margin York county on its river 
boundary — at least, from Marietta to the Con- 
cwago hills, a distance of fourteen or fifteen 
miles, according to the testimony of Mr. Kee- 
sey, v/ho is a man of intelligence, integrity, 
and of practical observation. Bat we have 
to notice another brood in our own county. 

On the 10th of June — in answer to an in- 
quiry on the subject — Mrs. P. E. Gibbons, of 
Enterprise, this county, wrote us to the follow 
ing effect : That on mentioning the matter, a 
colored woman, ia her employ, informed her 
that she could have brought her a pint of the 
pupai shells of the locust from Zion — the 
meeticg-house of the colored people, near 
Penningtonville — the previous Sauday. This 
brought distinctly to her mind a remark made 
by her friend, J. Williams Thorne, at that 
time one of her most intelligent and observing 



THE LAjYCASTER FARMER. 



125 



cal, or differently dated brood of locusts, 
made its appearance on one side of a ridge 
near his house, he thon living on a farm on 
the " Mine Hill," not far from the Mt. Ver- 
non Tavern, about two miles north-west of 
Parkesburg. They were then conversing 
upon the suuject of the locusts of 1868. Mr. 
Thome made the same remark to us at the 
June exhibition of the Laocaster Horticul- 
tural Society, in the Court House, that year, 
when we had some locusts on exhibition. 

On the 15th of June, Mr. John Linville, an 
intelligent farmer, near Belleview, in this 
county, informed us that the locusts were then 
' swarmicg " on the Gap hills, from the afore- 
named village to Mfc. Vernon, a distance of 
two miles. 

Mr. L. also informed us that the locusts were 
in that district in 1855, but that then, as now, 
there were very few in Pequea Valley, and 
tha*. the old inhabitants had observed tiat at 
each returning cycle these insects were be- 
coming fewer in that valley, and were princi- 
pally confined to the hills which bound it. 
Only a few stragglers were found in the valley 
of the Pequea the present season, here and 
there, where there had been timber growing 
seventeen years ago. On the 17th of June, 
Mr. S. L. Deuney, a brother-in-law of Mr. L., 
brought us a box containing thirty-eight lo- 
custs, which he had picked oil' a single bush 
that morning at Bellville, stating that they 
could be gathered by thousands anywhere on 
the Gap hills, for a distance of two or three 
miles. Mr. D. says that in a grain field of his, 
which seventeen years ago was timber land, he 
counted ten holes in a square foot, in a path 
which leads through it, and this was the first in- 
dication he had of their presence, for on ex- 
tending his observations, he found the insects 
or their evacuated shells in great numbers on 
the stalks of growing grain. He says he has a 
distinct recollection of these insects being in 
that locality in 1868, in 185~» and in 1851. 
From this it will appear that there is a 
Chester county brood of locust*, which over- 
laps our Lancaster county brood on the east, as 
well as the York county brood on the south. 
Penniugtonville, where the colored woman 
saw so many of their " hulls," is in Chester 
couuty, and perhaps the reason she did not 
see the locusts themselves, was because they 
lar instance a physical impossibility. The 
ast we hear of comes from York county, 



had made their flight to the tree tops. It was 
the same in Mr. Engle's orchard, in York 
county. Where there were no trees the 
ground was perforated with holes out of which 
they had issued, and clods, sticks and stones, 
were'covered with their pupa shells, but the 
insects themselves took to the bushes and 
trees. And here we may state that Mr. E. 
confirms an observation which we made in 
1868, but did not record it, because it was only 
limited to one tree. It is this— although the 
'• sprouts," which grew up around the stamps 
the present season in the "clearing" were 
full of locusts sometimes a hundred or more 
on a single bush, yet, when the time to 
oviposit came, they all left, and took to the 
older trees in the orchard, and even there they 
did not deposit any of their eggs in the wood 
of the present season's growth, but generally 
selected that of the growth of last season. 

We have here, in the city of Lancaster, a 
small artificial, or introduced brood of the 
Chester county locusts. In 1855, Mr. George 
Hensel, of this city, was working in Chester 
county, when the locusts appeared there in 
vast numbers. He gathered a box fiill of 
these, brought them home, and set them at lib- 
erty on his premises. The box contained 
twenty-two hundred which were alive, and 
many that were dead. The living individuals 
immediately flew to the trees and shrubbery 
in his and his neighbors' gardens. Mr. H. is 
now engaged in the cultivation of flowering 
plants, and the present season he dug up num- 
bers of i\iQ pupa in di2"erent parts of his gar- 
den early in the spring, and lately a goor'ly 
number of the mature insects evolved, which- 
he has no doubt is a return of the brood he 
transplanted seventeen years ago. However, 
here and there in this city, as well as other 
places in this county, a few locusts have been 
heard and seen everj' season since 1868. We 
saw one or more specimens in 1860, in 1870 
and in 1871. This was also the case in parts 
of York counlv. 

Of course, the old stories of people being 
stung by locusts are repeated again the pres- 
ent season, but none of these tales come Avith 
sufficient authority to give thein credence 
among intelligent people. It is not impossible 
that they should sting, but the circumstances 
under which such stinging usually occurs, are 
{ of such a character as to render that particu- 
; neighbors, to the cfioet t^at an interperiodi- 



126 



THE LAjYCASTEB FARMER. 



througli a citizen of Marietta. A locust was 
sitting on a boy's back or coat-sleeve, or 
other part of his body, when another boy 
struck it off, aud was stung in the ficger. 
This could not be. Admitting a locust can 
sting, it could not sting so quick as that, either 
with its proboscis or its ovipositor. 

In that respect it would be like a mosquito, 
a horse-fly, or a squash-bug or bed-bug. It 
would require some time to introduce its 
piercer, if it attempted to sting with its probos- 
cis; and if with the ovipositor, it would be like 
a saw-fly, requiring some time to make an in- 
cision ; for its ovipositor is not a lance, it is a 
saw. The ovipositor or sting of a locust is by 
no means like that of a bee, a wasp, a hornet, 
or a yellow-jacket — not so sharp. 

A hand-saw would not be a very good weap- 
on to execute " cut and thrust" v.-ith, but give 
the manipulator time, and he could " go 
through" more with it, than he could with a 
sword. And this brings us to the considera- 
tion of the damages done to vef.etation by 
locusts. We often see paragraphs in the 
newspapers to the effect that locusts have ap- 
l^eared in great swarms in certain districts of 
our country, and have devoured the foliage of 
trees, shrubs and vegetation in general. The 
error here is in the misnomer of the insect. 
The insect known in this country as the 
" seventeen-year locust," canuoi possibly 
" devour" vegetation. The organic structure 
of its mouth is such that it cannot masticate 
anything, and vvuatever food might be ne- 
cessary for its sustenance, must be appro- 
priated in a fluid form. But its life is so 
brief that food does not seem necessary, and 
therefore it is chiefly occupied in the propa- 
gation of its species, after which it soou dies 
— indeed the labors of ovipositiou arc so 
great, that the females often die in a very short 
time thereafler from shear exhaustion, and 
the males share the same fate soon after the 
labors of imprfgnation. Sometimes the lives 
of a few are extended beyond the usual time, 
but there is reason to believe that these are 
among those which have not been mated. 
But there is nothing ou record to show that 
these insects have ever injured vegetation in 
any other manner thau by the perforations 
the females make in the smaller branches of 
trees and shrubs in depositing their eggs. 

In the whole history of this insect in this 
country, there has been but very little indi- 



cation, above ground, to show that locusts 
have been injurious to vegetation under 
ground. It is, however, not impossible that 
they should thus injure it, but the subject is 
so completely covered, that there seems to be 
no certainty as to the where, when, and how. 
In those enclosures in this city and county 
where the locusts are remembered to have 
appeared at regular intervals of seventeen 
years, ever since 1783, no one has ever noticed 
that vegetation, immediately before and after 
their visits, was in anything different from 
what it was during the long interval between 
their visits, except the damage sustained by 
young trees and shrubbery, while the}'^ were 
above ground. Their earth range seems to 
be below that of garden vegetation, and if 
they tap the roots of trees, their demands are 
so limited, that a large tree would never feel 
the loss. 

It is true, there is an isolated case reconied 
by Miss Morris, of Germantown, where a 
sickly pear tree was dug up, and the roots 
found to have a number of larvcc of the lo- 
cust adhering to them, which were said to 
have caused the depletion, but if we do not 
soon have a more emphatic corroboration of 
this record thau any made before or innce, 
we fear that practical entomologists will ul- 
timately come to regard it as a myth ; and yet 
v/e do not dispute tha fact, for it is a rational 
supposition that these insects must be physi- 
cally sustained, by food of some kind, during 
their long larval period. 

It is not known how far down into the earth 
they uniformiv go. It was recorded in this 
county in 1834, that a single individual was 
found, some time previously, thirty feet be- 
low the surface. Others have been found six, 
eight, and tea feet down. In 1868, they came 
up through the bottom of a newly dug cellar, 
which was about eight feet deep, m the old 
south-east ward of this city (Lancaster.) It 
is certain that they approach the surface, and 
then retreat to lower regions in their burrows, 
according to the temperature of the weather, 
immediately before their septendecenial, or 
final issue, from their earthy homes. Mr. 
Engle informs us that the damage done to his 
young trees the present season will be very 
considerable, and that some of the smaller 
ones are injured beyond recovery, but that 
the larger ones will only receive a summ-^i 
pruning from which they will ultimately re- 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



127 



cover. AVhere locusts were abundant in 1868, 
we, on several occasions, have seen young 
trees totally destroyed. Some think that these 
insects infuse an active poison into the per- 
forations they make, which kills the branches 
of the trees, and otherwise effects the whole 
body, but this does not seem to be warranted 
by all the circumstances of the case. The 
eg^s of the locust cannot mature and hatch 
in a dead branch, unless it receives some 
moisture from other sources. In every in 
stance where we have so tried to breed them 
from dead wood, we have failed. The egajs 
increase in size, and their incubation is as- 
sisted by the surrounding sap; therefore, all 
the young locusts which are bred from their 
eggs, are those which are in the living wood, 
and few or none from dead or dry wood. 
This has been corroborated by obiervalions 
made in different parts of the country, where 
they have existed. 

In conclusion we would remark, that we 
looked in vain, in the " Pine Svyamp Valley" 
brood of locusts, on the 29th of May, for the 
small black variety, which was so numerous 
among the Lancaster county broods of 1834, 
1851, and 1868. Nor were there any among 
those brought us from the Gap hills by Mr. 
Denney — nor yet, so far as we observed, but a 
single individual among Mr.Hensel's trasplant- 
ed brood, of this city. Mr. D's collection was 
made on the June 17, ours on the May 29. He 
gathered his promiscuously, and among them 
were 29 females and 9 males, whilst in the 
York county brood there were abnul • ie'it 
niales to one female, and this was about tlio 
proportion of the 'sexes in this county in 
1808. Before we close, we must say to our 
readers, that we throw ourselves upon their 
kind indulgence for having said so much upon 
a subject which seems so foreign to the ob- 
jects of our journal •, but the insects come 
so seldom, and th^re is something so wonder- 
ful about their coming and going, that we 
know it will be interesting to them and their 
children in future years, to be able to refer to 
these records, particularly because there are 
po few in any community who are in the habit 
of recording and dating events passing around 
thpm. Sen. Ep. 

AFOCRTTHAL. 

—Since writing the foregoing sketch we 
hire been informed by Mr. Thomas Cumminge, 



of this city (Lfincaster), that one year after 
the appearances of the locusts in Lancaster 
county in the years 18:U and 1851 , they had ap- 
peared in great numbers on the river hills op- 
posite Marietta, in York county. 

With due respect for the testimony of Mr. 
C, we are nevertheless compelled, in this in- 
stance, to regard it as apocryphal until verified 
by corroborative testimony. Unless there is a 
written record to appeal to — made at the time 
the event transpired— we find the verbal data 
of the appearances of these insects very con- 
tlictinir, and therefore, in that degree, unrelia- 
ble as a finality. 

May it not have been m 1838 and 1855 in- 
stead of 1835 and 1852, that Mr. C. made his 
observations? He must have been a very 
" small boy" in 1835 at least. We were then 
twenty -four 3 e:t:s of age, a married man, and 
not altogether unconscious of v/hat was trans- 
piring m the world of nature around us 
and although we have a distinct recol- 
lection of the loc-ists in Lancaster and York 
counties in 1834,we never before heard of those 
in 1835. 

We arc in the same predicament in 
reference to their appearance in that locality 
in 1852; but as we did not then reside in the 
vicinity, we had not the opportunity of a per- 
sonal obsyrvati'..;:. All through the foregoing 
r<-marks, ihere seems to be the harmonious tes- 
timon^y of two overlapping broods of locusts on 
the eastern and southern borders of Lancaster- 
county, the one appearing four years before 
or after the other, wit", the usual seventeen 
year interval between the appearing of each 
brood, but nothing of any other interperiodi- 
cal brood. Xo brood of locusts appeared in 
in that loci^lity in York county in 1809 that Ave 
have heard of, although, as we before have 
stated, a few stragglers were found at different 
places, in both of the afore named counties, 
in 1852, 1853 and 1854, and then again in 1809, 
1870 and 1871. Still we do not declare such 
reported events either untrue or impossible, 
and in making this addenda, our object is 
solely to place on record what is known and 
reported to be known about these singular 
denizens of the insect world, as a chronicle 
of future reference, leaving the matter to time 
and further observation, for a confirmation or 
contradiction of the statements therein made. 
—Ibid. 



128 



THE LAJfCASTEE FARMER. 



AGRICULTURAL. 



AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIONS. 

THE advance sheets of the third, volume 
of the census returns of 1870 contain a 
great variei}' of the hi2;hly interesting statis- 
tics of agricultural productions in every State, 
territory, county and township in the'Utiiou. 
We extract the following in regard to our own 
county, compared with the productions of the 
adjoining county of Chester, which, next to 
Lancaster", rather makes ttie best exhibit on 
ihe whole, though Berks is very little behind 
Chester, and in tome of the principle items 
largely exceeds it. In Berks, indeed, the 
total value of farm productious exceeds that 
of Chester more than half a million of dol- 
lars, the amount being given at $9,150,789 : 



Laucasrer.l Otiestcr. 



Improved Laud, acres 

Woodland 

<'ash value of larms 

Do. farm implements and machin- 

eiy 

AVagea paid including board 

Value of farm products and addi-j 

tions to stock 

Orchard products 

Produce of market gardens 

Purest products 

Value of home manufHclures .... 
Do. animals slaughtered or sold for 

same 

Value of all live stock 

Number horsep 

I-Jo. mule.s and asses 

ivtilch cows 

Working oxen 

(Jihcr cattle 

>-heep 

Swine 

Wheat, bushels 

Kye, bushels 

Indian corn, bushels 

Oats, busUelf 

Barley, bushels 

Buckwheat, bushels 

Irish potatoes, busliels 

Tobacco, pounds 

Wool, pounds 

liiitter, pounds 

<Jhee.«e 

Tffiy, tons 



40?. 833 1 

f)5,41S 

$:0,721.908 

S»2,4'=5.65fi 
S1,'J79TGS 

S11.845,0n.s 

.*213,6Gr) 

*h7,390 

*3l 624 

$39,708 j 

S(!2,371,SC.n 

.$6,044,2 1. n 

21 ,4091 

2,5(14' 
313(if^ 
1.14-.' j 

1 r S'2] I 

.'.(I 07(1 
2,077,4131 

88,24.5 I 
2,820,S2.5 
1,9 '3 577 

]5,o?S 

3 Mn! 

4]9,7;>6 
2,W)2,.'i84 
20 0.no 
2,402 .37h I 
82,014 
]24.f85 



o74,7o9 

02,161 

$46,737,683 

%\ «i;o,2ii 

SI, 058,2.56 

58.554,928 

il«2:<2,279 

.¥3.5,103 

JKi.-;,.5i>.5 

Sti8.,o75 

P 2, 181 ,79.^ 

;if.3 192,517 

t4.0,S6 

7iiS' 

32,070 

3 37 1 

18,545 

13,009 

28 105 

7.^3..<<ri3 

12.481 

1,540,125 

1,031430 

I.SSI 

2,440 

404,303 

2,400 

31.776 

2,848.243 

8,526 

114 898 



The tables embrace many minor products 
iu addition to the above, such as milk, wine, 
grass seed, tlax, etc., etc., which it is unneces- 
sary to copy. 

The only coaaty in th >. United States out- 
side of Penusylvauia in which tho. total value 
of farm productions approaches Lancaster, is 
St. Lawrence, N. Y., where the amount is 
89,598,071. Five other counties in Kew York 
)-ange from seven to eight millions, one in 
Missachu-ietts (Worcister) .?ti.351,4Il Be- 
sides these, uo county iu the Union reaches 
6ix n-!illioa&. 

[We promised, in out- lant issue, to give 
further sLatistics from the. census returus, of 



the products of our county ; but we find all 
that seems to be essential, for the present, in 
the above table which we extract from the 
columns of the Daily Express, although it may 
contain some items which we have given 
before. The most interesting feature of it is 
the comparison made between our own county, 
and the best of those outside of the limits of 
our State— when we say the best, of course we 
mean those which have yielded the largest 
aggregate producfs. From these returns, it 
appears that Lancaster county is the foremo^t 
in the Union in the amount of its agricultural 
or farm products. In comparison with our 
sister county of Chester, we find that she ex- 
ceeds us in forest products, house manufac- 
tures, milch cows, working oxen, sheep and 
butter. Notwithstanding her area of improved 
land is nearly one-fourth less than that of our 
count}', yet her annual product of butter is 
385,807 pounds more than ours. Our greatest 
" ofl'set" to this is our tobacco crop, which is 
2,69'^, 184 pounds more than hers ; but this is a 
matter — except for its pacuaiary value — 
might " not bo much to brag of." 

But let the tobacco take care of itself— we 
think it has become sufficiently important to 
do so now. We will have to balance the over 
production of Chester's butter with our 
wheat, which is 1,343,015 bushels more than 
herd. From this it is manifest Ihat Lancaster 
and Chester counties "■ br^ad and butter" a 
gresit many people beyond their respective 
borders, and that, in their specialties, they 
are both on the high road of usefulness. We 
feel sure that in looking over these figures, 
the farmers and producers of our county have 
abundant reason to entertain a reasonable 
pride in results so favorable to their locality 
and taeir callings, and also something to be 
thankful for. As there is abundant room for 
still greater improvement and productiveness 
m every department of agriculture, these facts 
ought to serve as a stimulant to renewed and 
intelligent effort, so that, when the next 
census is taken, an increase may be exhibited 
commensurate with the progressive spirit of 
the age. As the population increases the 
demand will increase, and this must be met 
with an increased supply. We must not 
it suddenly became cold, and all the insects 
deserted the carcase. They had visited it for 
the purpose of enjoying a temporary " winter 
s^ap^" 



THE LAJVCASTEE FARMEli. 



Ii9 



retrograde iu anythiug ; our march must be 
onward, and not only onward, but — if we pro- 
gress healthfully — it will also be upward. 
Brighter days mny be in the future. — Eds ] 



"THE KEY-NOTE." 

WE must raise larger crops ; aud to do this 
we must raise theiuless frequently. This 
is the key-note of the coming improved system 
of American agriculture in all sections where 
good land is wortti less than SlOO per acre. In 
the neighborhood of large ciliss, and where- 
ever land commands a high price, we must 
keep our farms in a high state of fertilil}' by 
the purchase of manures or cattle food. Those 
of us in the interior, where we cannot buy 
manure, must raise fewer grain crops and 
more clover. We must aim to raise forty 
bushels of wheat, fifty bushels of barley, eighty 
bushels of oats, and one hundred bushels of 
shelled corn, and five bushrls of clover-seed 
per acre. That this can be done on good, 
well-drained land, from the unaided resources 
of the farm, I have no doubt. It may give us 
no more grain to sell than at present, but it 
will enable us to produce much more mutton, 
wool, beef, cheese, butter and pork than at 
present. " But tlittii will there be a demand 
for the meat, wool, etc. ? " The present in- 
dications are highly f ivorable. But we must 
aim to raise good meat. The low-priced beef 
aud mutton sold iu our markets is as profit- 
able to the consumer as it is to the producer. 
Wc must feed higher, and to do this to advan- 
la^o >v.i m Ht h ive improved stock. There is 
no prolit iu iaimiug without good tillage, lar- 
ger crops, improved stock and higher feeding. 
— Joseph Hur) ix. 

♦ 

AGRICULTURAL ITEMai. 



STABLE manure is sold in the Connecticut 
Yalicy for SIO a cord. 
The potato crop of M:ui)o last year is esti- 
mated at 2,500,000 bushels. 

A cheese factory is about being started at 
Lake Crystal, Miuu., with the -nilk from 400 
cows. 

Nearly 800 barrels of sugar were produced 
last year from 250 acres of beets, in Sauk 
county, Wisconsin. 



A Farmers' and Mechanics' Association is 
being organized at Mankalo, Minn., with a 
capital of $25,000. 

The receijits of the Iowa State Agricultural 
Society last year were $22 280.95, aud the ex- 
penditures S- 1 5.770 05. 

The receipts of the Michigan State Agricul- 
tural Society last year were S14.214 25, and 
the expenditures -Si 4,024.07. 

The seed establishment of.Briggs & Bro., 
Rochei-ter, IT. Y., is said to have over 60,00(> 
square feet of floor room. 

A Kansas paper says: "The beef of an 
average Texan ox, if the bones are taken out, 
can be salted away in the horns." 

Johnson county, Iowa, during the last three 
years, has sold S70,000 worth of limothy seed 
and $150,000 worth of flax crop. 

The last year's pecan crop ia Texas is esti- 
mated at over 1,000,000 bushels for export, 
which will realize to that State several mil- 
lions of dollars. 

The Springfield, Mo., Board of Trade ofler 
a premium of $;175 for the best specimen aud 
bale of cotton raised north of the Arkansas 
rivor. 

In June last there were 0,700,000 sheep in 
Scotland, 4,500,000 of which were on regular 
mountain sheep farms •, the remainder on ara- 
ble lands. 

M. M. Baldridge, of St. Charles, 111., took 
605 pounds of honey, net weight, from four 
stocks of bees in 1871 , and had an increase of 
seven swarms. 

Makanda, Jackson county. 111., shipped the 
past year 90,840 boxes of peaches, 152,000 
pounds of strawbrrries, aud 24,850 pounds of 
raspberries. 

The directors of the Northern Michigan 
Agricultural and Mechanical Society have 
voted to ofler .SIO.OOO in speed premiums for 
horses at the fair next fall. 

A correspondent claims that Montana will 
be the finest agricultural State west of the 
Rocky Mountains, v,ii,h; perhaps, the excep- 
tion of California. The Territory now cou- 
tains 20,000 population. 

In some parts of Virginia peanuts are, next 
to corn, the standard crop, and are very prof- 
itable. With good cultivation they yield 
from 50 to 100 bushels per acre, aud average 
about S2 per bushel. 



130 



THE LAJYCASTER FARMER. 



Mr. Bidwell of South Haven, Mich., has 
auocessfully undertake q the culture of figs, 
having 300 trees in i3ne growing condition. 
He hati aU'eady raised two crops, and has 
made a handsome profit. 

So greatly has the stock of short-horned 
cattle in this country improved under tlie 
hands of American feeders and breeders, that 
English breeders are now to be found amongst 
the purchasers at our public sales. 

The Ohio State Board of Agriculture have 
decided to locate the Ohio State Fair for the 
next two years at Mansfield. The fair will be 
held from the 2(1 to the Gth of September. In- 
creased premiums are to be ofiered. 

General Diven, of the Elmira, K. Y., Far- 
mer's Club, thinks that five tons of straw, 
with one ton of cornmeal for feed, is equal to 
six tons prime hay. Ftating hay at $18 a ton 
and meal at 3i)40, straw would be worth $13.50 
a ton . 

There is a great scarcit}'' of hay in some of 
the counties of Pennsylvania, owing to the ex- 
tensive drouth last summer. Speculators have 
found it out and are shipping to destitute lo- 
calities, where they get about $30 a ton. 

The culture of rice is attracting the atten- 
tion of agriculturists in California. The val- 
leys of San Joaquia and Sicramento rivers are 
said to contain extensive swamp lands suita- 
ble for the culture, the climate also being fa- 
vorable ard the soil rich. 

In the lowlands of Scotland about two acres 
are required, on an average, for each sheep, 
and each farm grazes from 500 to 2,500 ani- 
mals. The principal stocks are the Cheviot 
breed. Th3 Highland farms comprise from 
1,000 to 2,500 sheep, a largo proportion of 
which are the hardy black faced breed. 

Ivlr. William Stewart, of the Belle Yiew 
stockfarm,Ill.,hasonecow," Violets Forth," 
for which he paid $1,800 in gold. He also has 
seventeen imported Gotswold sheep, the 
bucks costing $160 each, two of the ewes $120 
each, and the remainder $85 each. The value 
of the blooded stock on this farm is over 
$30,000. 

The most successful experiment iu manufac- 
turing beet sugar in this country is reported 
from Alvarado, Cal., where a factory has been 
built, capable of handling GO tons of beets 
every twenty-four hours ; 500,000 pounds of 



sugar were manufactured in 1870 at a fair mar- 
gin of profit, and it is thought the products of 
1871 will be double that of 1870. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL 



THE HOUSE CRICKET. 

THIS little inmate of our dwellings is well 
known for its habits of picking out 
the mortar of ovens and fire-places, where it 
not only enjoys warmth, but can procure. 
abundance of food. It is usually supposed 
that it feeds on bread. M. Latreille says it 
only eats insects, and it certainly does thrive 
well in houses infected by the cockroach; but 
we have also known it to eat ard destroy 
lamb's wool stockings and other woolen stuff 
hung near a fire to dry. It is evidently not 
fond of hard labor, but prefers those places 
where the mortar is already loosened, or at 
least is new, soft and easily scooped out; and 
in this vray it will dig covert ways from room 
to room. In summer, crickets often make 
excursions from houses to the neighboring 
fields, and dwell in the crevices of rubbish, or 
the cracks made in the ground by dry weather, 
where they chirp as merrily as in the snuggest 
chimney corner. Whether they dig retreat 
in such circumstances we have never ascer- 
tained, though it is not improbable they may 
do so for the purpose of making nests. The 
Spaniards are so very fond of crickets thai 
they keep them in cages like singing birds. 

The cricket above alluded to is perhaps the 
"cricket of the hearth" — Achcta domestica — 
which is said co have been introduced into 
Virginia long ago from England. They are 
said to be running wild in the fields in Vir- 
ginia, but hie themselves to human habita- 
tions at the approach of winter, where they 
are said to eat sometliiug more than vegeta- 
bles. "We had a specimen sent from Virginia 
fifteen years ago or more ; snd on one or two 
rare occasions, it has been found in this enmi- 
ty. Once on a warm aiternoou, tluri.,g the 
month of November, we encountered iu our 
path, the carcass of a calf which seemed to 
have died only the night before. Several 
places the skin was torn oft' as if by dogs, 
leaving the fiesh exposed. These places were 
literally covered with crickets — AcTieta nigra 
and ahhremata — which were so intent on gorg- 
ing themselves, that they suffered themselves 
to be taken without making much of an at- 
tempt to escape. There wei'e also many 
"carrion beetles" present — N^ecrojjJwrus ameri- 
canus and orbicallis. Three days thereafter 



THE LAj\ CASTER FARMER. 



131 



TU KILL CURCULIO OX PLUMS. 

A COltRESPONDENT says that he wraps 
/ \_ plum trees, below the lower limbs, with 
cotton, which he keeps wet with camphor and 
spirits of ammonia. He wets the cotton twice 
a week, and the result has been a good crop 
of plums and no curculio. A correspondent 
in another journal says: 

"I have seen various methods for keeping 
these insects off plum trees, but none so sim- 
ple or yet so effectual as the following : Soak 
corn-cobs iu sweetened water until thoroughly 
saturated, then suspend them to the limbs of 
the trees a little while after blossoming, being 
gure to burn the cobs after the fruit ripens, as 
they will be found full of the young insects. 
A good plan is to change the cobs every few 
weeks. My theory is this— that the insects 
deposit their eggs in the cobs in preference to 
doing so in the young plums. The first sea- 
son I tried it upon one or two only, and in the 
summer was rewarded by a good crop of as 
fine plums as ever ripened, while those on 
the other trees fell off when about half grown. 
I have since tried it more thoroughly and 
have never known it to fail." 

Go ahead, try anything, and everyihSxig ; but 
be sure not to wait until the plums are ripe 
before you burn the cobs. The man who 
would give such advice, don't know much 
about the " plum weevil" — indeed we doubt 
whether he would know one if he saw it. 
Just as if a curculio would remain in a dry 
corn-cob — for it must become dry, long before 
the plums are ripe, and wait until the fruit 
ripens, for the sole purpose of being gathered 
in and burned, if any ever got into a cob. 
But this remedy will not injure anything, 
therefore try it. If it don't kill the curculio, 
it will kill nothing else, except the time re- 
quired to perform the operation. This insect 
lias become such a desperate enemy to the 
plum, the peach and the apple, that any 
remedy, no matter how desperate it is, should 
be thoroughly tried. If you cannot circum- 
vent it with your eyes open, then " go it 
blind," for it is said "a blind sow will some- 
time find an acorn." Knowing something 
about the habits and instincts of the curculio, 
we " can't see" how it could get its eggs into 
a tough corn-cob, unless it could manage to 
gain access to the pith in it. It might, how- 
ever, do so. but then again it might not, and 
there is where the ruh comes in. 



Get Up Clubs for the Farmer, the best, 
cheapest and only jouraal of its kind in the 
State. 



ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS. 

Mk. U. S., Columbia, Pa.— The long four- 
winged insect, with the two long filaments at 
the hind end of the body, is an immature 
specimen of a " May fly" {Palingenia bilineaia) 
which you will have found common along the 
Susquehanna during the month of June, with 
only ordinary observation. The larvcv and 
pupa live in the water, and require three 
years to come to maturity, when they crawl 
out, affix themselves to any object that is iu 
the way, and undergo a pseudo transforma- 
tion, after which the real transformation takes 
place, leaving their while skins adhering to 
the place of final change. They belong to a 
division called Pseudo Neukopter-e from 
this peculiarity iu their metamorphosis. The 
larvcB feed on other small water larvce (doubt- 
less on those of the mosquito amongst the 
rest), but the mouth of the mature insect being 
nearly obsolete, they are incapable of par- 
taking of any food, and therefore, after a very 
brief life, during which the females become 
fertilized, and deposit their eggs on the 
water to perpetuate the species, they all die. 
Many of them are blown into the streams, 
where they become food for fishes — others arc 
eaten by birds and other animals. 

Mr. J. L., Landis Valley, Lancaster Co. — 
The white and brown striped, long-horned 
insect you brought on the 15th of June, is a 
mature specimen of the common " apple tree 
borer" [Saperda Candida), which at that period, 
and also earlier and later, comes forth in the 
beetle form, after having passed three years 
as a wood-boring worm near the base of some- 
body's apple, pear or quince tree. As a 
means of preventing the females from de- 
positmg their eggs around the base of the 
trees, they should be protected from the first 
of June until the first of August, by any kind 
of a contrivance that will effect that end. 
Stiff paper, canvas, old clothing, sheets of old 
tin, with the earth heaped up around them 
will answer, if properly done. Some wash 
the parts with tobacco decoctions, or sapon- 
aceous solutions— especially the carbolic and 
whale-oil soaps— but these require frequent 
renewals. These insects always deposit 
their eggs near enough to the earth to supply 
them with the necessary moisture to hatch 
the eggs, and also because near the roots, the 
bark is more tender and penetrable. These 



13 



o 



THE LAjYCASTER FARMER. 



precautions, of course, will Lave no effect 
upon the worms already in'the trees. 

Mr. G. W. M., Marietta, Pa. — The minute 
insects appearing lilse " little heaps of pow- 
der," which have been coming up out of the 
ground iu your garden-walks in the months 
of May and June, for the last two or three 
years, belong to a wingless order of insects 
called Aphanipteba, or Aptera, by authors, 
the latter name meaning simply without 
wings ; of which the fiea of North America, 
and the Jigger of South America, are the most 
common examples. These little subjects be- 
long to Q, family in that order, called Podtjri- 
DA, or " Spring-tails," from the fact that they 
have a crudal appendage that turns under the 
body, and by the springing of which they pro- 
pel themselves on the land, something like 
a lobster propels itself in water. We are not 
sure of the species, for about forty or fifty 
have been described in;Europe and America, 
as belonging to the typical genus Podura alone. 
We are of the opinion, however, that these 
may be referred to Symuthurus hortensis, or 
" Garden-flea," of Dr. Fitch, or a species near- 
ly alliedjto it. Twenty years ago, Dr. F. al- 
so described a similar species {Podura nivico- 
la), commonly known as the " Snow-flea," be- 
cause it was often found like gunpowder, scat- 
tered over the snow. " According to Nicolet, 
the PODURiDAE are very prolific, as he found 
1,3G0 eggs in'a single individual," and this.may 
account for the immense numbers found 
in your garden walks ; and the fact that they 
are found issuing from the ground there and 
nowhere else, may be owing to the fact of 
the presence of a stratum of "tan-bark" 
which underlies their present surface. These 
msects are said to have been injurious to 
young and tender vegetation in many places. 
They occupy a very equivocal position in sys- 
tematic classification ; some authors consider- 
ering them a degraded family of Neuroptera 
which includes the dragon-flies, May-flies, etc. 
Scalding them as they come out of the ground 
would be perhaps the most ready way to ex- 
tinguish them. Cold water, we apprehend, 
would have little effect upon them. We tried 
to immerse some of those you sent us in cold 
water, but we have not yet succeeded. After 
ten days they remain floating dry on the sur- 
face, "shake them up " as often and as vio- 
lent as you will, whilst those immersed in al- 
cohol all sank to the bottom withiu half an 



hour afterward. The minule scales which 
cover them resist the action of the water simi- 
lar to the feathers on a duck. 

Mr. H. M. E., Marietta Pa.— The brownly 
blotched apples which you brought us from 
Mr. D's. orchard on the 25th of May, and 
those from your own orchard on the 17th of 
June, are similarly infected, but what the 
cause of the iufectation is is more than we 
are able to say. It seems to be a species 
" blight," like that which sometimes effects 
bunches of leaves on apple and other trees, 
without any visible cause. On cutting them 
open, the inside is found to be perfectly sound, 
and no indication of the presence of an insect 
of any kind. On submitting small portions of 
the fruit to our highest magnifying power, we 
found a reddish-brown giazed surface, ramified 
by eccentric cracks or breaks iu the skin, ex- 
actly like the upper surface of a brownly baked 
and glazed loaf of bread. Those first received 
are, at this writing, all shriveled up, and hard 
and dry as pine knots, so that they probably 
did not contain either insect or insect eggs, 
Ko puncture or incissions of any kind, that 
seemed to have been made by an insect of any 
kind, were visible. We could not discover 
anything even that looked like a fungus of 
any kind, and therefore we are reluctantly 
compelled to pronounce the case outside of 
the limits of our scientific accessibilities. 

Mr. p. M. PldladelpTiia, Pa. — In our com- 
munication in reference to the apples you 
sent us on the GLh of May we endeavored 'to 
explain what it was that gnawed those cavi- 
ties on the fruit, and therefore we do not 
deem it nece.^sary to say anything more on 
that subject now. We placed the apples on a 
smooth surface and turned a glass cup over 
them, and by the 17th of Jane we found all 
except the stems reduced to a brownish pow- 
der, and ten or twelve larvfe therein, most of 
them fully developed, which on exarainatiou 
are merely in correspondence with the larvre 
of CojiGtraelieh's neunphar^ otherwise the plum 
curculio. We have transferred them to a ves- 
sel, and have also added some moist earth, and 
now await their final transformation. If all 
your friend's apples v/ero infested as these 
were, we would not giye him a pinch of snuff 
for his whole crop. In all our experience 
with the curculio we never before witnessed 
such a destruction, nor so many of the insects 
present in such a small quantity of substance. 



THE TLAJYCASTER FARMER, 



ISS 



There is just sufficient difference between 
these larvfe and others of this genius we have 
examined to indicate the possibility of a dif- 
ferent species, although we have discovered 
variations in others. 

Hon. J. J. L.—MarieUa, Fa.— The ap- 
ples you brought to us on^ the 1st of June, 
together with the two green LepidopUrous 
larvas have been under our observation since, 
but owing to the death of the one, and the 
other burying itself in the ground in the box 
in which we confined them, we are not able 
to give a specific account of them, any further 
than what may be based on conjecture. The 
larger green larva, about 1 i inches long, which 
you say you detected in the act of eating a 
cavity into the apple, burrowed into the ground 
on the 7th of June. On examining the earth 
on the 17th of June we found a plain pup 
of a mahogany- brown color, % inch long, hav- 
ing two diverging bent spines on the caudal 
segment, and exhibiting the usual characters 
of nocturnal Lepidoptera, in other respects ; 
this pupa was contained in a weli-formed 
earthy cavity, having its wall very smooth on 
the inside ; but until the moth evolves we 
must refrain from any attempt to locate it 
specifically or even generically. It can 
hardly be the " rascal leaf crurapler" of the 
west, for Mr. Ilile^/ says that inspct changes 
to a pupa in its case among the crumpled 
leaves. (Strange that Mr. R. in neither his 
popular or scientific description of that larva 
says anything about its length.) The other 
larva was also of a green color, less than 
half an inch in length, and occupied a sort of 
silken case, in a cluster of crumpled leaves, 
held together by a number of silken cords ; 
but it seemed to have been injured, and 
could not leave its case, and died a day or 
two after we received it. This larva seemed 
to be entirely different from the one first 
named, and makes an approximation to Mr. 
"Walsh's " rascal Icaf-crumplcr," reproduced 
by Mr. Riley in his fourth report of the nox- 
ious and beneficial insects of the State of 
Missouri (Pycita mehdo), which he says is 
about naif-grown when winter sets in, remain- 
ing in that condition among the crumpled 
clusters of leaves until the return of spring, 
when it cojupletes its larval development, 
and appears in the moth state at various pe- 
riods during the month of June. These clus- 
ters of crumpled leaves containing the larvus, [ 



are fastened securely to the branches, and 
may easily be removed after all the other 
leaves are fallen, and then is the best time to 
gather and destroy them. But, as they are 
often infested by parasites, M. R. suggests the 
removal of them to some locality remote from 
trees, where the parasites would evolve, and 
the Zca/'cru»i/>Ze>-5 would starve for the want 
of their proper food. 

Mr. J. G. K.—Marielta, Pa.: The large 
gray insect, with the two black velvety spots 
on the upper side of its chest {thorax), was a 
specimen of the largest species of " click- 
beetle," " Sehnellkaefer" (Alaus occulatm), 
known to the Northern United States. Al- 
though we by no means regard it as a rare m- 
sect, yet, from the fact that it seems to be a 
" new thing" to you, it cannot be regarded as 
very common. The larva or " grub," from 
v,'hich the beetle is bred, is a wood-boring 
worm, but it is usually found in wood that is 
dried, or partially decayed. It, however, does 
not confine itself to one particular kind of wood 
ior we have found it in white oak, apple and 
locust. It takes its specific name from the eye- 
like spots on its thorax, and when we tell you 
that over two thousand of these click-beetles, 
of various colors and sizes, have been de- 
scribed by naturalists, you can form some esti- 
mate of the value of specific names. In 
systematic classification it belongs to the 
" saw-horns" (Serriconico), the family of 
"click-beetle (Elateridce), and the order of 
" sheath-winged" insects (Coleoptera.) It 
is not considered injurious to living timber, 
but accelerates the decay of that which is dead. 

How TO Wash Colored Flannels.— 
To wash colored flannels and prevent them 
from shrinking, take half the weight of soda 
there is of soap ; boil them with water, allow- 
ing a gallon to every pound of soap, and use 
it when perfectly cold. Wet the flannel in 
cold water, wash it then in fresh water, with 
some of the above boiled mixture among it ; 
changt the water until the flannel becomes 
perfectly clean ; then rinse well, and dry in 
the shade. To prevent flannels from shrink- 
ing at the first washing, put them in a pailful 
of boiling water, and lot them remain until 
cool. 

HoAV to get a good wife— take a good girl 
and go to the parson. 



13Jf 



THE LAjYCASTEK FARMER. 



LANCASTER, JULY, 1872. 



S. S. RATHVON AND ALEX. HARRIS, Editors. 

Published monthly under the auspices of the ^.oiucul- 

TUP.AL AN^IIOETICULTUKAL SOCIETY. 

$1.35 per Year in Advanoe. 

A considerable deduction ta clubs of live or more. 

All communications, to insure insertion, must be in the 
hands of the editors before the 20th of each month. Ad- 
dress KatliTon & Harris, Lancaster, Pa. 

All advertisements, subscriptions and remittances fo the 
address of the publisher, J. B. DEVELIN, 

Inquirer Building, Lancaster, Pa. 



It is not a little merit that an article for 
common use should be tastefully finished as 
well as thoroughly made. The Blanchard 
churn is one of the Jiandsomest things a farmer 
can have in his house. 



NATlOi^AL AARICITLTURAL COK- 
GRESS. 

Secretary's Office, ] 
Jackson, Tenn., June 20, 1872. J 
Publishers of the Lancaster Farmer : 

Dear Sirs : To secure the most efficient co- 
operation among farmers, it becomes rdvis- 
able and necessary for me to open correspon- 
dence with all of the Agricultural societies 
and clubs of the country. At present there 
seems to be no correct list of such societies 
obtainable, not even through the Department 
of Agriculture ; and I ask your assistance to 
obtain such a list, for which I will reciprocate 
as opportunity offers. If the entire agricul- 
tural press of the country will give conspicu- 
ous place to the following notice in their 
columns, there is no doubt but some one or 
more papers will reach every society in the 
land. 

KOTICE. — We are requested to ask of the 
officers of all agricultural, Horticultural and 
kindred societies and clubs that they will 
send at oucc the address of their President 
and Secretary, to Chas. W. Greene, Secretary 
of National Aj^^rlcultural Congress, at Jackson, 
Tenn. It will )^e greatly to their interest to 
comply with this request. 

The list will be carefully compiled aiid 
printed, and wc shall be pleased to furnish a 



copy to any publisher giving the above notice 
two or three insertions. 

In this connection permit me to ask your 
attention to the following preamble and reso- 
lutions presented by Mr. F. C. Johnson, of 
Indiana, and unanimously adopted at the 
recent session of the Congress. 

Preamble. "Whereas, we recognize the 
Agricultural and Horticultural press of our 
country as liaving a common aim and sym- 
pathy with us in advancing the interests of 
the agriculturists and horticulturists of the 
nation, and as being the best medium through 
which to disseminate the facts and principles 
it is the object of this organization to promul- 
gate ; therefore be it 

Resolved, That we earnestly recommend to 
the county and district Agricultural and 
Horticultural societies throughout the country 
that they offer subscriptions to the best agri- 
cultural and horticultural periodicals pub- 
lished in their respective States or sections, 
as premiums on articles for which money or 
silverw.ire of equivalent value are usually 
given, and that they aid by all other legitimate 
means in their power, as corporate bodies, to 
extend the circulation of such periodicals. 

And also to the following : 

liesolved, That while this Congress is with- 
out a recognized organ we invite the co-opera- 
tion of the press, especially the agricultural 
journals of the country, in disseminating its 
transactions. 

Very respectfully, 

Chas. W. Greene, 

Secretary. 

JoiiN Reynolds, Pres., Rockford, 111. 

Lee R. Shryock, Treas., St. Louis, Mo. 

CiiAs. W. Greene, Sec'y, Jackson, Tenn. 



OBITUARY. 

EATHOFSTUARTA.WYLIE,KSQ : 

Stuart A. "Wylie, Esq., of the firm of 

AVylie & Griest, Inquirer printing establish- 
ment, died at his residence in Litne street, 
this city, between 12 and 1 o'clock to-day, in 
the oud year ol his age. Deceased was born 
in Lancaster, and at the close of his school 
life entered the office of the Inland Daily as a 
reporter, then published by Theo. Fennand 
edited by II. L. Goodall. In this position he 
remained for several years, and on the 1st day 
of January, 1S59, he started, in connection 
with several others, the Lancaster Inqw'rer, a 
weeklv iourual, which iu 1831 gave support tci 



TEE LAJVCASTEB, FARMEB. 



135 



the presidential ticket headed by Stephen A. 
Douglas. Subsequently the Inquirer become 
a warm advocate of the principles of the Re- 
publican party, which it continues to main- 
iKin at this time. In September, 1860, Mr. 
Wylie became sole proprietor of the Inquirer, 
and on the 7th of July, 1862, commenced the 
publication of the Daiki Inquirer, which was 
continued until February l;5th, 1864. On the 
Ist of May, 1868, Mr. "VVylie sold an interest 
in the Inquirer to Elwood (Jrieat, which was 
ilie origin of the present lirm of Wylie & 
(iriest. The deceased was a young man of 
fi;reat energy, and succeeded in building up 
one of the most extensive printing and bind- 
ing establishments in Pennsylvania, the pre- 
sent force of employees ?.mouating to nearly 
two hundred persons. A few years since he 
completed the large four-story building on 
North Queen street, known as the Inquirer 
building, in which the business of the es- 
tablishment is conducted. Mr. Wylie was 
extensively known throughout the county 
and largely in the State, and was regarded as 
a geutlemau of strict habits aud generous 
impulses. He was an active member of the 
Union Fire Company, and for the past ten 
years one of its vice presidents. He also be- 
longed to many of the secret Orders— all of 
them, we believe, with the exception of the 
Masons. He had been in his usual good 
health up to Saturday last, when he v/as at- 
tacked with cramp in the stomach, aod lin- 
gered in great agony until his death. He 
was a good citizen whose place cannot bo 
easily supplied. Mr. Wylie leaves behind 
him a devoted wife and several interesting 
children who will sadly mourn their loss. — 
Luihj Express, June 12th. 

TRIBUTE OF RESPECT. 

The employees of the Inquirer Printing 
House met on Thursday afternoon, June 13th, 
aiid organized as follows : 

Cbairman — Charles W. Wiley. 

Vice President— Charles P. Kraues. 

Secretary — Henry O- Gusley. 

After appropriate remarks by several gen- 
tlemen the following paper was presented 
and adopted : 

AN EXrHESSlON W GRIEF. 

God, in His mysterious workings, having 
seen fit to call from earth, in the very midst 
of his usefulness, our dearly-beloved and 
highly honored employer, Stuart A, Wtlie, 
we meet here to day to give oral expression 
to those feelings of deep sorrow and regret 
which fill our hearts to overflowing, and to 
mingle cnr grief and sympathy with those 
nearer and dearer to him than all else of this 
earth. We can do no more, for He who, in 
Ilis all-wise dealiugs, bringeth sorrow to the 
beans of bis children, alone can heal. 

lat. As an employer we always found him 
jufet and equitable— a friend, a brother. The 
dividing Hue between employer and employee 



was never rigidly drawn bv him, but he en- 
deavored, by the exercise of a natural kind- 
heartedness and charity, to gain the affections 
of those in his service wtiile commanding their 
respect. He taught us to love him •, and now 
that he is no more, we honor his memory and 
shall ever cherish it fondly. 

2d. We feel that his sudden death has left 
vacant a place not soon to be filled. A few of 
us know more of his secret acts of kindness 
and that " charity that vaunteth not itself" 
than, out of respect to a natural desire, when 
living, to hide them, we can here make public. 
3d. As a citizen, his loss will be as deeply 
regretted as an employer. He was prog'-essive, 
liberal-spirited, generous and honorable in all 
his dealings. As a friend, he was never-fail- 
ing. With all public charities he was open- 
handed. 

4th. In his intercourse with his employees 
he ever endeavored to make them feel that 
their interests were his, and he always evinced 
an unselfish and most liberal disposition to 
aid them collectively, or individually, in all 
honorable enterprises. But we have his genial 
companionship no more, and his good counsels 
will be no longer heard. The Omnipotent 
has stretched forth His hand : the silver cord 
is loosened : the golden bowl is broken, and we 
bow in humble submission. 

5th. As a further expression of our respect 
and esteem for the deceased we will attend his 
funeral in a body, and order that this expres- 
sion of our grief be published in the papers of 
the city and county. 

James F. Downey, 
Chas. p. Krauss, 
J. F. CuxotiNs, 
G. Ebw. Hegener, 
George H. Rotiier3iel, 
Geo. Leiblet, 
Amos Hoffman, 
CiiAs. G. Bates, 
Reuben S. K Huffman. 
[Although it is not usual for us— in our limited 
space — to notice the death of individuals, how- 
ever distinguished they may be, yet the subject 
of these records,occupyiug the peculiar relation 
he did to our journal, forms an honorable ex- 
ception. 

It was mainly through Mr. Wylie\s enter- 
prise in assuming the responsibilities of pub- 
lication, when the matter still was involved 
in doubt, that the Lancaster Farmer finally 
ultimated in a " local habitation and a name,"' 
and it has been printed by the establishment 
of which he was the leading spirit from that 
time to the present. There may be reasons 
for his sudden recall from a field of use in 
which he seemed so efficient, that cannot bp 
comprehended by a finite mind ; we can only 
submit to the Infinite, and try to properly 



136 



TEE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



realize that " in the midst of life we are in 
death," whether in blooming youth, mature 
manhood, or decrepit age.] 



ISO STARVATIOJ^. 

According to reports from the West we 
don't think there will be much starving ne- 
cessary before the harvest of 1873. From the 
Chicago Tribune we learn that California will 
have ten million bushels of wheat for expor- 
tation, or at least four times as much as she 
had last year ; and the increase of the export- 
able surplus in that State alone will add 25 
per cent, to the usual annual export from the 
whole United States. 

We congratulate our readers — and we trust 
that inwardly we do more — that many of our 
exchanges contain paragraphs like the above, 
and that there need be no unnecessary iudv.l- 
gence in fears of want, calamity or starvation 
from present indications. Indeed, if there is 
any disappointment in the crops, it seems like- 
ly now to be an agreeable one for things look 
much more hopefully than they did earlier in 
the season. There is a world of philosophi- 
cal resignation in " Old Cudjo's " blessing, 
which it would be well to cultivate in times of 
threatened failure : 

" Blessed am dem wTiat donH expect nuffen, 
case dey wonH he disappointed.'''' 

Even in Lancaster county some of the grain 
fields are looking promising, and although it 
is certain there will be less straw than usual, 
yet the yield of solid grain may be propor- 
tionally larger. The grass also in many places 
could not be desired better. Even if we get 
but a quarter of a crop no one need suffer. 
Our country is so vast and varied, our trans- 
portation facilities are increasing so rapidly, 
and our means of diffusing information are so 
effective and efficient, that we can soon learn 
the condition of every part and also have ac- 
cess to it, in a very short time and at a small 
cost. 



"Every-day" Pudding.— Half a loaf of 
stale bread soaked in a quart of milk ; four 
eggs, four tablespoonfuls of flour; a little fruit, 
dried or fresh, is a great addition. Steam and 
boil three-fourths of an hour. Serve with the 
following sauce : 

'' Wine sail ce''' uitlwut Wine. — Butter, sugar 
and water, thickened with a little corn starch 
and flavored with lemon extract or lemon 
juice and rind. 



DOMESTIC. 



HOUSEKEEPING HINTS. 

EALTH is impaired, and even life lost 
sometimes, by using imperfect, unripe, 
musty or decaying articles of food. The same 
mgney's worth, of a smaller amount of good , 
is more nutritious, more healthful, and more 
invigorating than a much larger amount of 
what is of an inferior quality. Therefore, get 
good food, and keep it good uut"l used. Re- 
member that 

Fresh meat should be kept in a cool place, 
but not freezing or in actual contact with ice. 

Flour and meal should be kept in a cool, dry 
place, with a space of an inch or more be- 
tween the flour and the bottom of the barrel. 

Havana sugar is seldom clean, hence not so 
good as that from Brazil, Porto Rico and Santa 
Cruz. Loaf, crushed and granulated sugars 
have most sweetness, and go further than 
brown. 

Butter for winter use should be made in 
mid-autumn. 

Lard that is hard and white, aud from hogs 
under a year old, is best. 

Cheese soft between fingers is richest and 
best. Keep it tied in a bag hung in a cool, 
dry place. Wipe off the mold with a dry 
cloth. 

Rice, large, clean and fresh-looking, is 
best. 

Sago, small and white, called " Pearl," is 
best. 

Coffee and tea should be kept in close can- 
isters, and by themselves. Purchase the for- 
mer green; roast and grind for each day's 
use. 

Apples, oranges and lemons keep longest 
wrapped in paper, and kept in a cool, dry 
place. Thaw frozen apples in cold water. 

Bread and cake should be kept in a dry, 
eool place, in a wooden box, aired in the sun 
every day or two. 

All strong-odored food should be kept by it- 
self, where it cannot scent the house. 

Bar-soap shcild be piled up with spaces be' 
them in a dry cellar, having the air all around 
it to dry it for months before using ; the less 
waste. 

Cranberries kept covered with water vril 1 
keep for months in a cellar. 

Potatoes spread over a dry floor will not 



THE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



137 



sprout. If they do, cut oft" the sprouts often. 
If frozen, thaw them in hot water, and cook 
them at once. By peelinoj oti" the skin after 
they ar ; cooked, the most nutritious and 
healthful part is savet'. 

Corned beef should be put iu boiling water, 
and boil steadily for several liours. 

Hominy or " samp" should steep in warm 
water all night, and boil all next day in an 
tarthen jar surrounded with water. 

Spices and peppers should be ground fine, 
and kept in tin cans in a dry place. 

A good nutmeg " bleeds " at puncture of a 
pin. Cayenne pepper is better for all purpo- 
ses of health than black. 

Beans, white, are the cheapest and most nu- 
tritious of all articles of food in this country. 
The best mealy potatoes sink in strong salt 
water. 

Hot drinks are best at meals ; the less of 
any fluid the better. Anything cold arrests 
digestion on the instant. 

It is hurtful and is a wicked waste of food to 
eat without an appetite. 

All meats should be cut up as fine as a pea, 
most especially for children. The same 
amount of stomach-power expended on such 
a small amount of food, as to be digested per- 
fectly,Vithout its being felt to be a labor, 
namely, without any appreciable discomfort 
in any part of the body, gives more nutriment, 
strength and vigor to the system than upon a 
larger amount, which is felt to require an 
(-fl'ort, giving nausea,fullnes8, acidity ,wind, etc. 

Milk, however fresh and rich, if drunk large- 
ly n\ eic-h meal, say a glass or two, is gener- 
ally hurtful to invalids and sedentary persons, 
as It tends to cause fever, consumption or bil- 
iousness. 



HINTS FOR THE SICK-ROOM. 

IN nothing is there so much ignorance 
manifested as in the proper arrangement of 
furniture and other surroundings in a sick-room. 
More persons die from their rooms being 
lunereal and gloomy than people would gen- 
erally believe. A writer in Sci-ibner^s Month- 
ly says truly that a sick-room should liave a 
pleasant aspect. Light is essential. Blinds 
and cm'tains may be provided to screen the 
eyes too weak to bear full day, but what sub- 
stitute makes up for the absence of that bless- 
ed suDsbiae without which life languishes ? 



The walls should be of cheerful tint ; if possi- 
ble, some sort of out-door glimpse should be 
visible from the bed or chair where the inva- 
lid lies, if it is but the top of a tree and a bit 
of sky. Eyes which have been traveling for 
long, dull days over the pattern of the paper- 
hangings, till each bud and leaf and qairl is 
familiar— and hateful — brighten with pleasure 
as the blind is raised. The mind, wearied of 
the grinding battle with pain and self, finds 
Hnconscious refreshment in the new interest. 
A view out-of-doors is full of refreshment, es- 
pecially in these days, when the birds are 
sporting in she newly clothed branches of the 
trees, and all nature seems aglow, looking 
with kindly eyes of interest even into the 
room where sickness is, giving (he heart cour- 
age as nothing else will, and seeming to im- 
part new life to the blood, carrying oif the 
Beeds of death, and bringing instead those of 
life. The writer quoted above says further 
that if nurses and friends knew how irksome, 
how positively harmful, is the sameness of a 
sick-room, surely love and skill would devise 
remedies. If it were only bringing in a blue 
tiower to-day, and a pink one to-morrow ; 
hanging a fresh picture to vary the monotony 
of the wall, or even an old one in a new place 
— something, anything — it is such infinite re- 
lief. Small things and single things suffice. 
To see many of his surroundings changed at 
once, confuses an invalid ; to have one little 
novelty at a time to vary the point of obser- 
vation, stimulates and cheers. Give him 
that, and you do more and better than if you 
filled the apartment with fresh objects. It is 
supposed by many, that flowers should be 
carefully kept away from sick people — that 
they exhaust the air or communicate to it 
some harmful quality. This may, in a degree, 
be true of such strong, fragrant blossoms as 
lilacs or garden lilies, but of 'the more deli- 
cately scented ones, no such effect need be ap- 
prehended. A well aired room will never be 
made close or unwholesome by a nosegay of 
roses, migonette or violets, and the subtle 
cheer which they bring with them is infinite- 
ly reviving to weary eyes and depressed 

spirits. 

■ 4. 

Messrs. P. Blanchard's Sons give due credit 
for their large sales to a very liberal use of 
printers' ink. "We asrree with them, but must 
add that even printers' ink will not m«tke a 
permanent success of a poor thing. They 
make " the best" churn. 



7-?^" 



TI[£ LAA'aiST£E FA£.M£Ji 



(JOOB RECIPES FOR CAKES. 

Lipy Gingerbreads— Three cups of flour, 
one of sugax, one of butter, and one of mo- 
issse*, three e^i^ beaten light, rablespoonful 
cf ginger, ter spoonful of peiirlss^h and some 
cIoTGS. Feat the butter in sui;:ar as for ix)un<!-' 
cake, then add the other inirreilienfs. putiiug 
in the pe^ariasb last. Bake ibtiu in cake 
lies. 

Cocoanut Calx. — For 1 pound of oocoanut 
grated, put a pound of loaf sugar and a sutW- 
cient quantity of flour to make a paste. Put 
paper on the tins and bake them iu h warm 
oven. 

Rod- Cal'i. — The whites of four eggs beaten 
vert light, pound of loaf sugar added to them, 
three^ourths pound of sweet almonds slightly 
biuised. Baked on paper in tins. 

Gingerbread, — Three pounds of flour, one 
pound of butter, half a pound of sugar, a 
quart of molasses, two ounces of ginger, an 
ounce of cinnamon an ounce of allspice, ounce 
and a half cloves. Washed before baking, 
with molasses and water. 

EnglisJi Suns. — One pormd ot flour, i pound 
of sugar, i pound of butter, some cinnamon, i 
pint of rasins: rub them all together ard mix 
with milk and 4 or o drops of pearlash ; wash 
them after they are baked with sugar water. 

Almond Cake. — One pound of sugar, i pound 
of flour, 10 eggs. 1 ounce bitter almonds, a 
glass of kase water : beat the yolks tiU they 
are quite a batter, then add the sugar and heat 
it well : bavins previously pounded the al- 
monds fine in the kase water, sdd them to the 
yolks, the whites must be beaten very light, 
and then add the flour lust stirred into the 
other ingredients. Bake it one hour and ten 
minutes in rather a quick oven. 

Milk Bhcvit. — One quart of milk, one pound 
cf butler, enough flour to thicken it, a small 
tea-cup of yeast: set them to rise early in the 
morning. 

Soft Gingerbread-. — Take 6 cups of flour, 2 
of sugar, '2 of butter, 2 of molasses and 2 of 
milk, 4 eggs, tablespoonfol of ginger, a little 
allspice; beat the butter, sugar and eggs 
light, then stir in the other ingredients. And 
a teaspoonful of pearlash dissolved in vinegar, 

BouglinadS' — Take 3 pounds of flour i pound 



of sugar . 1 pound of butter. 6 eggs, 2 wineglass- 
fuls of go^d yeast, mix them with milk to a 
I paste, set it to rise, shape them and fry in lard. 

Phil/idelphia. 



RAG CARPETS. 



Most housekeepers seem to thiuk ;t the 
height ot economy and good management to 
convert iheir worn-out aud cast-ofl' clothing 
, into good substa.ntial cai'peting. Sometimes 
it 13 ; but we have known some of these gaily 
' striped rag carpets to be very expensive af- 
fairs. Frequently articles are cut into carpet 
rags which could be worn much longer, or 
made over for the little ones. For instance, 
i madam, this old pair of pantaloons, patched 
I in the seat, and worn through at the knees, 
if turned, will be found to look like new ou 
■ the wrong side : and a skirt for your little six 
years old girl can be made of it. You will 
find the eored breadths can be cut nicely 
from it. Trim wiih bands of blue or scarlet 
flannel, pinked on both edges and staohed on 
wiih ;hc machine, and i: will be prettier, and 
j warmer and more durable than the felt skirts, 
: costing from $1.50 to t2. 
j It is almost always the case that afier the 
\ carpet is fairly off" to the weaver's, and the 
! good housewife is resting from her labors, 
j that more of son- e particular color or stripe 
must be had to fiDi>h it. Then various arti- 
cles now in u-e must be sacriflced, and the 
\ " gude man "' is compelled to sleep with his 
last pair of unmentionables under his pillow 
for fear he will awaken iu ihe morniug and 
! find that that insatiable rag carpet h.<is ab- 
sorbed tveu them. Sometimes the good 
I housewife, in her ambitious attempts to make 
j a carpet whose brilliant hues shall uut-rival 
j all her neighbors, buys yard? of gay calico 
i and flannel to tear into carpet rag s. In such 
^ cases the actual cost of the carpet is about the 
same as English body Brussels. 

Persons wiih any tendency to pulmonary 
1 difficulties should never work at tearing car- 
pet rags. A dear friend of ours, after breath- 
ing the poisonous dust arising from the tear- 
\ ing of colored rags, died of ^uick consumption. 
A very expensive carpet, that, to her husband 
and little children. 

But where the rags could not be better era- 
ployed, it if. far preferable to have rag car- 



THE LAjYCASTER FARMER. 



1S9 



pels than the bare, desolate-looking floors we 
tind in so many farmers' houses, and which 
cause so many hours of moppinof and scrub- 
bing to keep clean. And when your new car- 
pet is lacked down, don't forget, from the 
halls that are left, to crochet rugs to lay over 
the parts most liable to wear, thus making the 
carpet last much longer. — Rural -Veu- Torker. 



HOW TO CURE HAMS. 

AAMOST every farmer ha? his own partic. I 
ular recipe for curing his pork and hams, 
liut this is not saying that every one of them 
succeeds in producics a first-rate article, and 
there is no doubt but some might improve 
upon their present mode of curing hams. The I 
following four recipes are said to be those 
after which the premiums were cured that 
gained a prize at the Maryland State fair : 

First Premium. — Mix two and one-half 
pounds saltpeter, finely powdered, one-half 
bushel fine salt, three pounds brown sugar, 
one-half gallon molasses. Rub the meat with 
the mixture; pack with ekin down. Turn 
over once a week and add a little salt. After 
being down three or four weeks, take out, 
wash, and hang up two or three weeks until 
it is dry. Then smoke with hickory wood 
three or four weeks; then bag or pack away 
in a cool place (not a cellar) in chaff or hay. — 
Thomas Love. 

Second Premium.— The meat, after being cut 
out, must be rubbed, piece by piece, with very 
finely powdered saltpeter, on the flesh side, 
and where the leg is cut off a tablespoonful 
(not heaped) to each ham, a dessertspoonful 
to eaoh shoulder, and about half that quantity 
to each middling and jowl ; this must be 
rubbed in. Then salt it by packing a thin 
coaling of salt on the flesh side of each piece, 
say one-half an inch thick; pack the pieces on 
a scaflblding, or on a floor with strips of plank 
laid a few inches apart all over it (that is, 
under ihe meal) ; the pieces must be placed 
skin side down, in the following order : First 
layers, hams; second, shoulder3 ; third, jowls; 
fourth, middlings ; take the spare ribs out of 
the middlings. The meat must lie in this wise 
six weeks if the weather is mild ; eight if cold, 
the brine being allowed to run freely. — /. 
Hoirard McEenrtj. 

Tldrd Premium.— U&U bushel of fine salt, 
three pounds of brown sugar, two and one- 



half pounds saltpeter, one-half gallon best 
molasses. Mix these ingredients together, 
then rub each piece well with the mixture un- 
til all be absorbed. The meat must be taken 
out of the pickle once a week for six weeks ; 
the two first times the meat is taken out, there 
is to be a plate of alum salt added lo the 
pickle. — Mrs. William II. Harriott. 

Fourth Premium.— Two and one-half pounds 
saltpeter, dried and finely powered, one-half 
bushel best Liverpool salt, three pounds of 
brown sugar, and one-half gallon molasses. 
Mix all in a vessel, rub the meat well with 
same, and pack with skin down. The above 
is the exact amount required for 1,000 pounds 
of pork. After being in salt three to four 
weeks, take out, wash clean the pieces, dry, 
and hang it up for smoking. Three weeks is 
sufficient to smoke them thoroughly by fire 
made of hickory wood. When smoked, take 
down or pack away in dry chaff or cut straw. 
Examine them occasionally, and if found to be 
at all damp, renew th3 packing with dry 
material. 

i COOKHnCt food for STOCK. 

THOSE who oppose cooking food for stock 
en general principles will be pleased 

■ with the following from the London (Eng.) 
I Country Gentleman s Magazine: 

; Thorough mastication of food la recom- 
i mended as all-important, but it must be re- 
i membered that cooked food rarely calls forth 
! the necessary process, and no amount of 
i cooking will render food more nutritious. 
' Mastication is necessary for two purposes — to 
break down and saturate the food with an 
important fluid — the saliva, that fluid eSect- 
; ing important changes in the nutritive ele- 
ments to fit them to undergo subsequent ac- 
tions by other juices of the digestive organs. 
( It is not possible to supplant these secretions 
by any process of preparations by cooking or 
i addition of fluids. Dame nature has supplied 
; vesretable food for every season, and only re- 
quires of man that he should observe the je- 

■ cularit^es of each, and give the benefits to 
j animals as far as possible. It is a decided 
j mistake to cook the food of animals when it 
' is sound and sweet. The mistake, so called, 

of supplying the dry food m winter, is more 
apparent than real. The exercise of common 
sense is called for in order to regulate the 



UO 



TEE LAJS'CASTER FARMER. 



practice with suitable roots and proper shelter 
and warmth, more than is usually done. It is 
a mistake to neglect the young stock so much 
as is commonly done. If more attention 
were paid to them, and supplying of artificial 
food increased during the period of their most 
active growth, adverse states would not be 
so general, and the remedy less sought after 
in useless preparations of food which run into 
expenses. Among working horses the ef- 
fects of cooked food are something marvelous. 
Colic, and indigestion generally, with di- 
cease of the liver and kidneys, is of common 
and fatal occurrence. It may be more easily 
understood to say such preparations are quite 
unnatural, the digestive organsare constituted 
to act upon the most nutritive grains. It is 
also commonly believed that animals, es- 
pecially horses, pass much away by the bowels 
ihat ought to be digested and appropriated to 
the system. This question requires more 
philosophical research before it can be de- 
finitely and accurately settled, but we can go 
so far as to say that when the masticatory or- 
gans are in good order, and digestion perfect, 
a proper allowance of food is thoroughly as- 
similated. Apparently whole grains may be 
found in the excrement, but upon close ex- 
amination they will turn out to be the shells 
only, which, by the action of the digestive 
juices, have been divested of their internal 
nutrient parts. Some persons look upon di- 
gestion as a process in which everything 
must be utilized for the building up of tissue. 
They forgot it is quite as essential that other 
substances should be present — those non- 
nulritious in themselves, but by their con- 
stitution and presence give bulk to the rest, 
and assist in their general reduction in the 
stomach of the higher animals, exactly as the 
sand and pebble act in the crops of birds^ 
The success of feeding our domestic animals 
does not lie in the way of cooking food and 
administration of condiments, but in a judi- 
cious management generally, in which the 
peculiar features of organization, physiology, 
geology, meteorology, and hygrometrics, play 
their respective parts, and agricultural suc- 
cess will never be certain until these branches 
of science are more definitely acknowledged. 



rising become impossible. We take irore 
sleep than our ancestors, and v/e take morvi 
because we want more. Six hours sleep 
a day will do very well for a plowman or a 
bricklayer, or any other man who has no ex- 
haustion but that produced by manual labor, 
and the sooner he takes it after his labor is 
over the better. But for a man whose labor 
is mental the stress of work on his brain and 
his nervous system, and for him who is tired 
in the evening with a day ot mental applica- 
tion, neither early to bed or early to rise is 
altogether wholesome. He needs letting down 
to the level of repose. The longer interval 
between the active use of the brain and his 
retirement to bed, the better his chance of 
sleep and refreshment- To him an hour after 
midnight is probably as good as two before it, 
and even then his sleep will not so completely 
and quickly restore him as it will his neigh- 
bor who is physically tired. He must not 
only go to bed later, but lie longer. His best 
sleep probably lies in the early morning hours, 
when all the nervous excitement has passed 
away, and he is in absolute rest. 



How Long Shall we Sleep.— The fact 
is that, as life becomes concentrated, and 
its pursuit s more eager, short sleep and early 



Scientific^ Farming. — Scientific farming 
consists altogether and solely in deriving the 
greatest possible profit from the soil. Lessen 
the labor and increase the yield, is the sum of 
the whole. To do this everything must be done 
at the right time, and in the best manner. By 
draining, the water must be got rid of ; by cul- 
tivation, weeds must be destroyed ; by manure, 
the soil must be enriched; by rotation of crops 
the largest yield must be secured; by improving 
stock, the feed must be economized and made 
of more value ; and the how-to-do-ali this is the 
sum and substance of agricultural science 
Books on farming relate the experience of 
successful men, the experiments they have 
made, and the results they have attained. 
Any and every farmer who, by the use of his 
reasoning powers, is enabled to raise one 
bushel of corn per acre more than he has hith- 
erto done, by improved methods, is a scien- 
tific farmer, however much he may disown the 
name ; and not only has he done a good thing 
for himself, but the world at large is, to some 
extent, better for his efforts and success ; his 
mission, g'? a man, has been to that extent 
fulfilled, and he will leave the world better 
than he found it. — Hearth and Home. 



THE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



Ul 



BOOK ANT) SPECIAL NOTICE DE- 
PARTMENT. 



OUR BOOK TABLE. 
Ouii OWN FiKKSiDK.— A large quavlo of sixteon pages, 
published by W. 1.. Gumi- at »l.."0 a year, and devoted to 
home literature and domestic aliaiis, contains an immense 
anr.otint ol" iuterestlnfj reading matter of a healtliy, moral 
and social character, with only a single page of advertise- 
ments. New Vork, Ko. 7, Sun Buiiding. 

The Pkintbk ARTizAJf. — A beautifully illustrated ad- 
vertising quarto, of eight pages, devoted to the printer's art. 
The typograi)hical execution is superb. Printed in colors 
on fine paper, by C. C. Child, at 5G Federal street, Boston. 

American Newspaper Eepokter at^d Printers' 
Gazette, a royal octavo of sixteen pt-ecs, devoted entirely 
til matters relating to professional and practical printing 
snd printers. A copious advertising medium for the trade, 
published by Geo. P. Koavell »& Co., weekly. No. 41 Park 
KovF, New York, at ^2.00 per annum. 

The Faem and Fireside.— A folio of eight pages, de- 
voted to domestic literature and agriculture, lliustra ed 
and published by the "Farm and Fireside Association." 
No. 12 Pine street, N. Y., at Sl.OO a year. 

The ViKfiiNiA Real Estatk and Farm .Tournal, 
liy A. F. Kop.ertson & Co., Lynchburg, Va., at iSl 00 a 
a year. A medium folio of eight pages and devoted to 
the specialties named in its title. 

The Copy Book, " Issued in the interest of newspa- 
per publishers throughout the United States. Printed 
from stereotype plates, which are imposed and Lcid in 
columns by Blackwell's Improved Method ; duplicate 
plates, to fit columrs of various widths, furnished by the 
N tional Newspaper Union, 3-t Park Row, New York." 
This Journal contains choice articles in Poetry, Miscel'a- 
ny, Agriculture, Biography, Anecdotes, Foreign Intelli- 
genca. Travelers' Sketches, Literature, Fashions, Hous?- 
ho'd Atf.irs, Science, Usefal Information, Wit and Wis- 
dom, Humorous Incidents, Home Culture, &nd Religion. 
Each of the thirtj-two columns has the number of the 
volume, tbo date, and the number of the column and 
similar numbers are also attached to each of its original 
articles; and we infer that any newspaper desiring to 
use any of these articles, can do so by paying a fee for the 
stereotyped plates, which would be a great saving of time, 
labor and expense, in getting up a paper. 

The ConnBADo Real Estate Begistfk — A sixteen- 
page nv-.arto; "Devoted to Real Estate, Railroads, Insur- 
ance, Finance, Agriculture, Mining, Live Stock, and 
General Industry of Colorado." $2.00 a year. E. V,. Mat- 
hew & Co., Denver, Colorado. 

Amerioak Homes SurPLEMExr.— A New Oil Chromo, 
railed the " Two Pets," has been issued by Ohas. H. Taylor 
it Co., of Boston, publishers of American Homes, the poj)- 
ular illustrated magazine. It is a rich and beautiful'y 
executed chromo, and is given with the magazine for only 
:fl.25, through agents. People who subscril>e by mail, 
send ten cents extra for postage on the chromo. '* The 
Two Pets" consist of a beautiful little golden- headed girl 
and a large Ne-.rfouadIaud dog, and the HuiforA Coiiranf 
and other leading newspapers weli say that it is Tt-orth 
far la.tre than the price of the subscription. The 'June 
number of Am^rimn Homes is fully up to the high stand- 
ard of the pa^t, and the maga/.ine continues on its bright 
career of proispcrity, to which there seems to be no limit. 



Rkceitkd. — American Agriculturist, New York Ru- 
ral, Farmers' Club, School Journal, National Oil Journal, 
American Stock Journal, Industrial Bulletin, Practical 
Farmer, National Live Stock Journal, Journal of the 
Farm, Building Association Journal, Journal of Health, 
Farmers' Zeitung, Manheiui Sentinel, Everybody's .Ictrn- 
al. Valley Independent, Carthage Gazette, Mouot Joy 
Herald, Free Press, New York Observer, Our Churoh 
Work, Independent, Germantown Telegraph, and VolkJ- 
freund, up to the latest issues have been regularly re. 
ceived. Any of our subscribers who may have ability and 
desire to subscribe for one or mire papers than they are 
now taking, will do well to consult the list of publications 
noticed in this Journal. 

V/k acknowledge the reciept of a quarto vo'.umj of the 
Ninth Agricultural Census of tha United States, contain- 
ing tables 3, 4, 5, 0, and 7. We hivj published Interesting 
extracts from it, in our June anl July numbers, so far a^ 
they related to our State and county, and on futuri o.'c i- 
sions we shall refer to its pages again. 

AL30, the R'.port of thr: Commissioner of Agricjdtart, on. 
fht Diseases of the Cattle of the Uniled Slates : An illustrated 
quarto volume of 205 pages; from which we expact to 
cull sams useful and interesting inf>rmition, as soon as 
we can flad time to lojk it throug'i, which wa w.U gva to 
our readers. 

Also the Proct*dings of the XMional AjricuUur>,l Conven- 
tion, held at Washington City, February 1.5, IR, and 17, 
1872, an octavo pamphlet of eighty-four pages of interest- 
ing matter. 

Also the American Farmers' .4(i('jca/d— official organ o ' 
the Agricultural Congress, and Sam MBrideU Advertiser 
Peublo, Colorado. 



PHILADELPHIA CATTLE MARKET. 

Monday, June 24. 

Bebp Cattle.— The dullness which has marked the 
course of the market for all deicriptions of stock for some 
time past was the prevailing feature to-day, and with lib- 
eral arrivals, in the aggregate reaching 3,000 head, prices 
favored buyers. A few inirehasers could be found nego- 
tiating on "small line.-i, but they were by no means anxious 
to handle stock, and did not bid very full figures ; we 
quote extra at7"3aKc; fair to choice at 6a7Xc ; common 
at 5a5J,'c, and scalawags at 3i4c t< Hi. 

Cjwsand Calves arecxcessively dull, and prices have n 
downward tendency ; sales ot Springers at 822a,S0, and 
Fresh Cows at S^it'aio. Receipts, 2.50 head. 

SiiicEP.— The market is wihout features of interest. 
The demand is ((uite limited, and the tone decidedly 
tame; we quote fair and good at 5*6o ~f, lb, and stock a'- 
»:ia^ 50 i^ bead. L-^mb-^ are worth «alOc j^ lb for good, and 
$1 50»:^.')0 perhead for common. Receipts, 13,000 head. 

Hoes are in lively request at full figures ; sales of corn 
fed at CoOaO 75 ■^ 100 lbs net. Receipts, 3,528 hea<l. 

NEW YORK CATTLE MARKET. 

Monday, June 24. 

Receipts, 9,5.00 head. Poor to medium Cattle 10a Uc ; 
medium to fair steers llallxc ; good steers and fat oxen 
llVall\'c; prime to extra steers 12aI2,'^c ; choice 12'.,? 
12»,c; ianoy 13al3vc. The majority of the sales wore at 
U'<!'al2c; average price 11 J, c. 

Sheep heavy ; receipts, 22,«5.5. Clipped Sheep— Cora 
mon to fair 5a.T V c ; fair to good 5?^ a6 ',^- ; extra o V A^^'i 
choice 6'.:a6:',c; Lambs 7al2c. 

IIoGs.— 'Reueiots 44,200 head. Prime heavy corn fed, 
live, is4.50a4.62>^; dressed 5?,a6c; medinm liye .«4.37j,a 
1.50: dreE'JCd 6a6'v. 

I CHrCAGO MARKET. 

( .Monday, June 24. 

' Fi.OLa dull and nominal and no sales reported. 

Wheat (lull and a shade lower for cash, and ill fair de- 
I mand but at lower rates for futures; No. i' spring Sl.iO'i 



U2 



THE LAJVCASTmi FARMER. 



cash, and iiSl.30 ]4a\.'6QY. for July and August ; No 1 spring 
sold at 1 yiMai.32. 

Corn steady ; No. 2 mixed •i2^<;a42'Xc on the spot for reg- 
ular and fresh. 

Oats in pood demand and highor ; No. 2 at 29c casli. 

Ba'K dull and nomin.nl ; No. 2 at 62c. 

Baklev .«tP:Kty ; No. 2 fail .50a. 5Sc. 

PKOvrs.'ONs. — ivie.ss Pork S12 85 ou the spot. Lard stea- 
dy at S8. 7.5 cash. Bulk ments and Bacon steady and un- 
changed, and no .sales of either. 

Cattlis easier but not quotably lower ; heavy receipts 
depress the market. Live Hogs active and higlier at 
S:-;.80a4.25. 



NEW YOKIC MARKETS. 

MOKDAV, June 24. 

Flour, etc. — The Flour market is dull and declining. 
We learn of sales of 4,8uo bbls at $-5.55a6.15 for supeitine 
State ; $6.4530.75 for extra .State ; SC.SOaO.'.ni for cho ce 
do ; S:6 9.5dT.OO fancy do ; ipJ.oSat! 1.5 for superhne western ; 
*6 45a7.00 for common to medium extra western ; ^T.Ooa 
7.50 for choice do ; P7.95a0.40 for common to choice white 
wheat western extra ; S6.70a6.90 for common to good 
.shipping brands extra round hoop Ohio; S-6.95a9 20 for 
trade brands; SfS.lOalO for common to fair extra St. 
Louis, and .*IO.f .5a]2 for good to choice do. 

Soutliern Flour is quiet. The sales are :;20 bb's at %1 50a 
9 75 for common to fair evtra, and S9.80al3 for good to 
choice do_. Rye Flour is dull. The sales a. e 200 bbls at 
$4.2035 1.1). Corn 5Ieal is quiet. 

Gkain.— Tn Wheat there wis nothing doing. At the 
opening holders advanced their prices, and .shippers held 
back. The market closes epsy for spring, with a limited 
demand. Winter Wheat in ntglccted and nominal. The 
.«ales are .'>2i00 bushels at S1.59 for No. 2 Chlc'ac.o spring 
alioat; $1.62 for No. 2 Milwaukee; $1.75 for white Cana- 
dian in bond. 

Barlky is quiet and prices are unsettled. B »rley Malt 
in ijiudeiate demand and steady; sales of :>.o;)0 biishels 
at ?•' 50jil.."5. Ocits are firmer r.ud lairly active, the de- 
mand chiehy for the traue, though in part speculaMve. 
The sales are 94 000 l>urhels: New Ohio mixed at 47c; 
white at 49a50c on track ; western mir.ed at i''-d.i'l}ic. afloat; 
wljite at 49a50c : State at olauo on track. Rye "is lowsr 
and in limited demand ; sales of 7,800 bushels West- 
ern at S()C afloat. ( "oru in good supply and a shade easier, 
tue demand fair at the concession. Much of the C(vrn to 
hand lo-day was previou,sly sold. The sales are 170 000 
bushels : Damp at 0latil>^c ; 62aG3cfor steamer ; we«'ern 
mixed at 653660 ; do white at 80c ; do vel'ow at 66 >^ a67c. 

Provisions.— Pork fairly active, but the dem/ii'l met 
and pri''es easy. The sales, cash and regular, are 900 bbls, 
at .'|1;12.62i/2al2 75 for old mess; iS;i3.25a]3.50 for new do; 
^^10.75 for extra prime ; §1275 for western prime mess. 
For future delivery in very good demand, with easy 
Terms. Sales of 1,000 bbls mess at .*613.25 for July. Beef 
remains very (^uiet. but prices are without change ; sales 
of l2o bb's, at $7a9 for plain mess, and ??9al2 for extra 
mess. Tierce Beef is dull and heavy ; sales of 70 tierces 
at S!4al7 for jjrime mess, and S17a20 tor India mess. Bejf 
hams are dull and unchanged ; sales of 30 bbls at ,S20a25 
for western. 

Cut Meats remain about as before, very choice and 
fancy grades showing a steady uniform tone, but medium 
and common lots rather favoring the buyer. .Sales of 175 
pkgs, mostly pickled ilanii at fl yi?A\%v., with a Jew light 
at 12al2>jC fi, 1b. Bacon is in fair dem^ud, and the mar- 
ket remains tiim. L>rtsied Hogs are firmer ; we quote fit 
5;3a6'4'c for city. Lard is firmer and in good demand to 
meet contracts; sales of 8,50 bbis and tcs, at 8V„'c for No. 1; 
8'„c for city ; 9.7-16a9;{c for fair to prime steam, and 9 'j'a 
9 's c lor kettle rendered. 

PHfLADELPHIA iVIAKKETS. 

Monday, .June 21. 

Ir'LouR — There is very little demand for either export 
or home use, a-"<i the market continues very dull. About 
'■CO Itblssold in luti co the home trade at ??5..50a6 for super- 
hne ; .$6a7 lor extras ; $7.7,')a8.25 tor Wisconsin extra tami- 
'y; *8.7.ia9.25 for Minnesota, do do ; $9?9.7.5 for Penrsyl- 
vania do do ; SO^in f- r Indiana and Oh'o do do; .«i0.- 
25*11. i'o for fancy bran 's. Kyo tlour is quoted at 3f5.25a 
5 .lO. 

•jRAiN.— The Wheat market is exceedingly dull, an'' 
prices aro weak, b, ^e.s of weftern and PeurV.lvknia red 
.H.t S1.99a3.9.5, n.n.bh^r at SI 35a 2, and whifp ats2i2.0.5. i:ye 
's held at )^7a90c for wcftern avd Pennsvlvani.i. Corn 
meets witij a limited inquiry. Sales of vpIIow at 66i67o, 
and .5,00Q busheJs w-'-^ fern "mixed jit 64a54;.4C. Oa»s ire 
unchanged. Sales of 7,000 biishels ■ffeaieru at 45a46c for 



white, and 43a44c for mixed. The receipts tn-day areas 
follows: 2. £65 bbls of flour ; 2 800 bu«heis wheat; 40,000 
bushels corn ; 24 900 bushels oats, and 726 bbls -whisky. 

Provisions continue (juiet, but prices are without ma- 
terial change. Sales of Mess Pork at $14^14 25 f) bhl. 
<5ity packed fx ra Mf.«s Beef is taken at Sl4 10al5 'f bl>l. 
Bacon is steady; sales of plain s\igar-cur('d city-smoked 
Haras at 12' ^;ai4c, canvassed western at 12c, .sides at 8r. 
and shoulders at 6c. Green Meats are quiet. Sales of 
pickled Hams at I2al2\>, and shoulders in salt at 5>;;'c. 
Lard is quiet ; Sales at s^ti'ao .. c 'x>. lb. 

Sebds — Tlipre is less dome in (over: Fniall sales af 
OalOcv fti. Flax'ecdsoldat Sf2.iO ; and Timothy at $3.20 
T* bushel. 



A PEPtPETUAL WEATHER TAliLE. 

J. Cool, Mexico, Miami county, Indiana, 
sends the following table which, he says, was 
constructed by ths celebrated Dr. Herschell, 
upon a philosophic consideration of the at- 
traction of the sun and moon. It is confirm- 
ed by the experience of many years' obser- 
vation, and will suggest to the observer what 
kind of weather will probably follow the 
moon's entiance into any of her quarters. As 
a general rule it will be found to be wonder- 
fully correct : 

If the mo.m changes at 12 o'clock, noon, the 
weather immediately afteiward will be very 
rainy, if in summer, and there will be snow 
and rain in winter. 

If between 2 and 4 o'clock P. M., changeable 
in summer — fair and mild in winter. 

Between 4 and 6 o'clock, fair both in win- 
ter and summer. 

Between 6 and 10 o'clock P. M., in summer 
fair, if the wind is north-west; rainy, if soutli 
or south-west. In winter fair and frosty, if 
the wind is north or north-west ; rainy if south 
or south-wes*^. 

Between In and 12 o'clock P. M., rainy in 
summer and fair and frosty in winter. 

Between 12 at night and 2 o'clock AM., fair 
in summer and frosty in winter— unless the 
wind is from the south and south-west. 

Between 4 and 6 o'clock A. M., rainy both 
in winter and summer. 

Between 6 and 8 o'clock A. M., wind and 
rain in summer, and stormy in winter. 

Between 8 and 10 o'clock A. M., showery in 
summer, and cold and blustery in winter. 

The lungs, after a full inspiration, contain 
220 cubic inches of air, Ihus making their in- 
ner surface equal to 440 square feet, nearly 
thirty times greater than the body ; and 
these organs on an average, make from 
28,000 to 30,000 respirations ju twenty-four 
hours. 



DEVOTED TO 
Agriculture, Horticulture, Domestic Economy unci Miscellany* 

EDITED BY S. S. RATH VON- AND ALEXANDER HARRIS. 
** The Farmer is the founder of civil ization."— WEBSTER. 



Vol. IV. 



AUGUST, 1872. 



JVo. 8. 



lELSSKY. 



[ A.S the Colorado Potato beetle has been 
found in Lancaster county, and very probably 
will " spread itself,'' and as the present indif- 
ference of many readers may chanij;e to anx- 
ious inquiry in future, we have thought it ad- 
visable to republish from the columns of the 
Express the following paper on that subject.] 

COLORADO POTATO-BEETLE 1 1 



TO THE FARMERS AND GARDENERS OF LAN- 
CASTER COUNTY AND ELSEWHERE. 

THE unpleasant duty devolves upon me 
of proclaiming that the notorious "Colo- 
rado Potato-beetle," or " Ten-line Spearman" 
{Doryphora \0-lineata) is at last domicilated in 
the Susquehanna valley, in Lancaster county. 
How extensive I am not able to say; but at 
the meeting of the Horticultural Society, held 
at the C( uit House on July 1st, H. M. Engle 
and George W. MehafFey, Esqrs., exhibited 
about forty specimens of the mature beetle 
and larva in its various stages of development, 
gathered in the potato field of H. S. Musser, 
Esq., about half a mile above the western 
borough line of Marietta, along the railroad, 
and they report that they are also in potato 
fields of Messrs. Sharp and Sourbeer, in the 
same vicinity, with a probability of being at 
other places in that valley. On examination 
and comparison, I find these true Colorado 
beetle, which has for years been so damaging 
to the potato crops of the Western States, 
specimens of which had been sent me on vari- 
ous previous occasions, so that their identity 
is unquestionable. These beetles may be 
seen at any time during business hours at the 
corner of North Queen and Orange streets 



(No. 101), Lancaster city, and, therefore, po- 
tato growers may make themselves acquainted 
with their appearance if they choose, for the 
time has come when the subject can no longer 
be regarded with indifference. 

These insects were first noticed in the afore- 
said locality on the 28th or 29th of June, but 
as the fully developed beetle, and the matured 
larva were also found, they must have been 
there some days, if not weeks, earlier. I have 
n'^t heard of them being in any other part of 
Pennsylvania, and that they have appeared so 
suddenly, and so near the eastern limit of the 
State, is a marvel, unless they have been 
borne thither among the Western freight car' 
goes on the railroad. This suggestion is ren- 
dered at least probable from the fact that in- 
sects are often found here in Lancaster coun- 
ty which belong to localities and latitudes 
far north of this, and which are brought hith- 
er in cargoes of lumber from the north by 
way of canals, railroads, and the Susquehanna 
river. Indeed, the Hon. M. P. Wilder had 
communicated to the New England Farmer, 
last summer already, that these insects had 
been found in a potato patch in the town of 
Worcester, Mass., whither it was supposed 
they had been conveyed on the railroad. I 
have heard no tidings from that quarter since, 
but even that communication stimulated the 
State Board of Agriculture to at least contem- 
plate some action in the case. About three 
years ago, some person unknown to me sent 
me a box containing about one hundred of 
these insects, all alive, from some point in 
Kansas. Not a single line accompanied the 
box. Now, suppose he had sent them to some 
person who had not known what they were, 
how easily they might have been colonized 
here ; or suppose the box had been broken on 



lU 



THE LAJ^CASTER FARMER. 



the way, how easily they might have then 
been scattered abroad. 

la carder to demonstrate this to practical 
entomologists as well as others, I would state 
that Sphceroderus niagarensis., Leptura cana- 
densis, Upis ceramboides, MonoTiamtnus titilator 
and dentator, and other rare species of coleop- 
tera, have occasionally been found in the 
lumber yards along the lower Susquehanna— 
the last two named species quite frequently, 
even in the lumber yards of Lancaster city. 

When we reflect that our common " cock- 
roach," and many other insects, as well as the 
" Norway rat," have been imported in car- 
goes of various kinds from Europe, it will not 
be so surprising that this insect should be 
thus carried to diflferent localities in our own 
country. 

As the iiisect is now amongst us, the first 
inquiry naturally will be, how to destroy it, 
or prevent its increase? The first thing I 
would recommend, while its numbers must 
yet be limited, is a thorough examination of 
the vines, and vigorous handpicking. If you 
can help it don't leave a single survivor. This 
may be effectual in the present state of the 
case. 

But more on this part of the subject here- 
after ; for the present allow me to call the at- 
tention of the reader to the history and habits 
of oue of the most destructive insects known 
to those regions of our country, where it has 
had an existence, although from its recent in- 
troduction here, and want of time and oppor- 
tunity, I shall be able to add nothing new to 
those who are familiar with its character. 
When we reflect that the losses which West- 
ern farmers have sustained from the ravages 
of thi3 insect, may be estimated by tens of 
thouyands of dollars— if not millions, it will 
become apparent how important the subject 
is, how criminal it is for those most aff'ected 
by its presence to remain in blissful igno- 
rance of its history and habits, and the means 
of its destruction. 

HISTORY. 

About the year 1846 Mr. John Wittick, 
fomerly of Marietta, Pa., but then residing 
at Grand Detour, Wiaconsin, sent me a collec- 
tion of coleoptera from that locality, among 
which were fou specimens of an insect, which 
an experienced entomologist labeled for me 
Poljjgramma lO-lineatce Say, and during the 
war of the rebellion Lieut. J. M. Johnston 



sent me specimens of the same insect from 
Tennessee ; but prior to that. Judge Libhart 
had given me two specimens from Virginia. 
These, I had always supposed, were identical 
with the insect which is the subject of this 
paper; and according to Mr. Riley, in his 
" First Report on the Noxious and Beneficial 
Insects of Missouri," " Up to the autumn of 
1865 it was generally supposed, by economic 
entomologists, that this destructive insect had 
existed from time immemorial in the North- 
western States, feeding upon some worthless 
weed or other ; and that of late years, from 
some unexplained cause, it h.id all of a sud- 
den taken to attacking the potato plant." 
But in the year above named, Mr. Walsh, of 
Rock Island, Illinois, clearly demonstrated 
that my insects were the Dorapliory jiincta, o 
Germar, and that the true Colorado potatof 
beetle originated, or had its exclusive home 
in the Rocky Mountains, where it had been 
known to exist for at least forty-five years, 
feeding on Solanum rostratum, a wild species 
of the potato peculiar to that region, and that 
when civilization was extended to that far-ofl" 
region, and the domestic potatoes began to be 
cultivated there, these insects gradually ac- 
quired the habit of feeding on that plant, in 
preference to the original wild species. This 
peculiar characteristic of insects is also mani- 
fested in other species, conspicuous among 
which are the " Curculio'' and the " apple- 
tree borer," and many others. 

As the potato fields of the West sprung up 
and increased in numbers, the potato-beetle 
increased, and began to travel eastward, and 
in 1859 it already reached a point one hundred 
miles west of Omaha, in Nebraska. In 1861 
it reached Iowa and in 1864 or 1865 it crossed 
the Mississippi and invaded the State of Illi- 
nois. In 1867 it passed through Illinois and 
advanced as far as Indiana and the south-west 
corner of Michigan. In 1868 it had already 
made its appearance in Ohio. Mr. Riley re- 
marks : " Thus it appears that its average an- 
nual progress toward the east has been up- 
ward of seventy miles. At the same rate of 
progression it will touch the Atlantic ocean 
in about 1878 ; so that, in any event, it must 
have reached Pennsylvania within the pres- 
ent decade ; but in some manner it seems to 
have anticipated its ordinary progress, and is 
now in the third county from the eastern bor- 
der of the State. 



THE L A jY CASTER FARMER. 



IJfO 



HA15ITS. 

The " Colorado Potato-beetle" belongs to 
the family of Chrisomelans, and among the 
common people would doubtless be called a 
large striped " Ladybird," or " Ladybug," 
and, like those insects, it has an ample pair of 
wings, folded up under its striped wingcov- 
ers, and, therefore, it can fly if it will, but 
does not readily do so, and hence it is easily 
captured. Its color is rather a cream yellow, 
and it has five black lines on each of its wing- 
covers. The thorax, or chest, is spotted 
blackish on top, two central spots being ob- 
long and diverging in front, forming a discon- 
nected V. The average length of the insect 
is half an inch, and its greatest width about a 
quarter of an inch, rather more than less. As 
it is entirely a new subject to Lancaster 
county, I can only speak approximately of its 
periods. In the West the mature insects is- 
sue from the ground about the first of May, 
and the last brood enters the ground to pass 
its winter hybernation some time in October. 
Although this insect is generally considered 
three-brooded, yet in the localities where it 
has heretofore existed it may be found almost 
at liny time in its different stages of develop- 
ment. This, according to Mr. Riley, is owing 
to the fact that the female deposits her eggs 
in patches from time to time, covering a 
period of about forty days ; and also to an- 
other fact, among insects in general, that from 
some cause or other some eggs will hatch 
sooner, and some larvce will develop more 
rapidly than others, often making a difference 
of eight or ten days between them. Each fe- 
male is capable of depositing about one thous- 
and eggs before she becomes barren, and in 
from thirty to forty days after they are de- 
posited they will have been developed into 
perfect beetles. These beetles are again 
capable of depositing eg^s in about two weeks 
after tliey issue from the ground, and thus it 
will be seen that they possess extraordinary 
powers of increase. 

When the larva is mature, it is about half 
an inch in length, of an orange color, has a 
black head, black feet, two rows of black 
spots on each side of the body, and the first 
segment transversely margined with black. 
It then goes into the ground and forms a harfl 
and smooth cavity, in which it is transformed 
to a jau^a, which is of the same color as the 
larvdy and makes an approximation to the 



form of the mature insect. In about ten days 
XhQ pupa is transformed, and the beetle comes 
forth from the ground, very soft and of a pale 
color, and without any markings of the mature 
insects. 

The true Colorado potato-beetle is destruc- 
tively partial to the domestic potato (SoZawwrn 
^MfeerosHTw), because this seems to be nearer the 
species of plant on which it was originally 
discovered, but occasionally it has been found 
feeding on the tomato, the "ground cherry" 
{Physalis), the "gympson weed" (Datura) and 
on the " horse nettle" [Solanum carolinensis), 
the latter of which it prefers to some varieties 
of the potato. It is also said to be as destruc- 
tive to the egg plant as it is to the potato, 
and thus it seems that the nearer the plant 
comes to the domestic potato the better the 
insect likes it. Mr. Eiley says that he could 
never succeed in making them feed on any 
plant that did not belong to the potato family, 
although specimens have been sent to him, 
said to have been feeding on the raspberry and 
other plants not solanaceous. It is also on 
record that they not only eat the tops of the 
potato, but that they greedily attack the 
tubers after they are dug out of the ground. 

REMEDIES. 

First, there are natural remedies, that are 
constantly and silently operative, but these 
are not always present, or not in proportion 
to the evil, and wherever this absence or 
disproportion exists, there the Potato-beetle 
will get the upper hand. Therefoie, although 
these natural remecies will ultimately assist 
the potato grower, he must not relax his in- 
dividual efforts and depend on them. Among 
these are the " Lady birds," which destroy the 
eggs of the Potato-beetle. When these little 
insects once become locited in a colony of 
those pests, they remain there all the time,, 
and do not go into the earth to undergo their 
transform itions. Th'^y not only feed on their 
eggs, but alsi- on the " plant lice," and other 
noxious (depredators. But there is a parasitic 
[Lydella doryphara') described by Mr. Le 
Baron, State Entomologist of Illinois, which 
is said to have been more efficient in check- 
ing the increase of the Colorado Potato-beetle 
than any other yet known. 

The"Spiued Soldier bu^''^ {Arwa spinosa) 
is known to have depredated extensively on 
the larva of the Potato-beetle in Illinois and; 
Missouri, although it also . destroys other iu,. 



U6 



THE LdJVCASTER FARMER- 



sects. This busf has been long known in this 
county, and may help to diminish the number 
of Potato-beetles, should they unfortunately 
be spread amonsrst us. We have also in this 
ouaty the " Many-banded Sjldier bug" 
[Harpactor cinctus) . th.Q Rapacious "Soldier 
\)ni'[Redvmm rajyt jtorius), and others which 
have been observed to attack the larva of the 
Colorado Potato-beetle in some of the "West- 
ern States. Among our local beet'e (Coleop- 
te7-a) there are also several species which have 
been occasionally noticed destroying the larva 
aforesaid. Namely, the " Fiery-ground bee- 
tie" [Colosoma caUdum),a. large black insect 
■with Drassy or coppery spots on its wing-co* 
vers, and the larva of which preys^upon cut- 
worms and caterpillars, and hence is called 
the " cut-worm lion ;" the " Elongate ground 
beetle''^ (Fasimachus elongatus) a black pol- 
ished insect with a broad head, and thorax, 
and a deep blue line around the edges ; the 
" Murky ground beetle" {Pangus caHginasas) 
of a dull black color, and longitudnial grooved 
lines on the wing covers ; and, "• strange to 
say," as Mr. Riley remarks, two at least of 
our "blister beeJes," which are known to 
depredate on the potato vines, here and else- 
where, are known to have destroyed the larva 
of the potato pest, namely, the " striped 
'blister beetle" [Lytta lineata) and the " ac*h- 
gray blister beetle," (L^^te cinerea.) Although 
these, and many other insects which 1 cannot 
even name in this paper, are destructive to 
the potato-beetle •, yet, neither ducks, geese, 
turkeys, nor chickens will touch these insects 
when offered to them, and, therefore, the ap- 
prehensions of the people in reference to 
.poisoned fowl's flesh, from this cause, are 
groundless. 

ARTIFICIAL EEMEDIES. 

Of course, after hand-picking, or where it is 
ineffectual or impracticable, resort should be 
had to other means. In hand-picking a pair 
of V, ooden or iron pinoers, made for that pur- 
pose, may be Ubed, and every individual, as 
fast as they appear above, ground, should be 
crushed. I used such an instrument effectu- 
ally in crushing the "squash bug" [Cereus 
tristis) more than twenty years ago. After 
all that has been tried and written about in re- 
gard to artificial remedies, nothing has been 
develOf^ed for the purpose bttter than Paris 
(/ree«— that is, pure Paris green, mixed with 
ilour or pulverized plaster of Paris. When 



this poison is of a good quality, it will bear a 
dilution of 25 parts of flour to 1 part of the 
green. This powder put into a tin-box, with 
a perforated lid, like a large pepper-box, and 
with a handle of aboiit four feet in length, if 
held inverted over the plants, and then a smart 
blow is struck on the handle with a small bil- 
let of wood, enough of the contents will be 
precipitated to kill the bugs. In this way the 
operator should follow tho rows and give them 
a thorough peppering wherever the beetles 
may be found. Whether this poison affects 
the soil or the quality of the potatoes has not 
been satisfactorily demonstrated, but certain 
it is, that a notion to that eff'tct exists, strong 
erough to make a dijtinction in the market 
price between potatoes raised with or with- 
out the aid of green. It may be necessary to 
say that Paris green is a deadly pois -n, ii in- 
haled in large and undiluted quantities, and 
therefore in applyirg it the operator shuuld 
keep to the windward. Diluted it is not in- 
jurious or at least not dangerous in homoeo- 
pathic doses 

There have also been several machines in- 
vented for striking the beetles off the vines 
and gathering them in a receptacle at the 
bottom ; but in the present aspect of the case, 
in this county, it does not seem necessary to 
give a description of these now. The best ex- 
perienct-s in the premises at this time recom- 
mends early, constant and vigilant hand-pick- 
ing, a,s the simplest, the most harmless, aid 
the most thorough remedy. 

In conclusion upon this subject for the pres- 
ent, I would respectfully remark, that al- 
though I do not wish to create unnecessary 
alarm, yet I utter no uncertain sound : The 
Colorado Potato-beetle is now located within the 
limits of Lancaster county, and the people 
should know it. If " to be forewarned is to 
be forearmed" in any case it may be so in 
this ; therefore, every newspaper in the county 
should publish as much of this article as may 
be useful to its agricultural readers, if it can- 
not publish the whole of it, without regard to 
the paper in which it Jirst appears. The 
writer would cneerfully have furnished dupli- 
cate copies of the manuscript, but he has not 
the time to prepare them. S. S. R. 

Lancaster, July 4, 1875. 



Subscribe for the Farmer, the best Agri- 
cultural Journal in the State. 



THE LAJf CASTER FABMER- 



w^ 



BEE CULTURE. 



THE BEE AND BEE-KEEPING. 



M 



ESSRS. EDITORS : Why so few bees 
are kept ia Lancaster county, and 
these few receive so little attention — or so 
much inattention — is a mystery to me. They 
give a greater return for the amount of mon- 
ey expended and the cave bestowed on them 
than any other live slock that farmers can 
keep. They help themselves ; that is, they 
furnish their own provisions, and besides give 
us of their surplus for our consumption. All 
they ask of us i< a proper home, and a little 
attention and ])io ection. 

I intend to wiite a series of short articles 
on the bee and bee-keeping, for the Farmer, 
which I hope may prove interesting to a por- 
tion of its readers. I do not claim that all 
or many of the facts which I shall give have 
been discovered by myself, or that the ideas 
advanced are original with me, but on the 
contrary, much of my information in the first 
place was received by reading books and peri- 
odicals on bee-keeping, and by profiting there- 
by. Although many of the facts and ideas 
are not original with me, they have been 
verified by my own observations. The first 
few of these articles will be for beginners and 
for those who have paid little or no attention 
to this subject. Those who have given this 
subject more study will, therefore, bear with 
me, if I do not leave first principles as soon 
as they may desire. So much by way of ex- 
planation and introduction. 

THE QUEEN. 

Every prosperous colony, or stock, con- 
tains one queen, several thousand workers. 
Some say a good-sized swarm coi.tains forty- 
thousand workers, and during a few months 
in the spring and summer, a few hundred 
drones. 

Not many years ago a celebx-ated legislator 
declared that " the queen bee is a myth," and 
not long since an old gentleman who has 
kept bees for forty years or more contended 
in my presence that there is no such thing as 
a "queen-bee," giving as proof that in all his 
experience he had seen but two kinds : work- 
ers and drones. When such ignorance exists 
among those who keep bees, can the best re- 
sult be expected? Bee-keepers should under- 



stand the natural history of the bee ; its hab 
its and nature, to be successful. 

The queen is a female, and hence the name 
king, which we still hear applied sometimes, 
is a misnomer. She res rabies in irhape the 
wor er, more than the drone, but is longer 
than either. She p'^sses^ses a sting but seldom 
uses it. except in a battle with a rival queen. 
She lays all the eggs, and as .ihe does not gov- 
ern fhe colony and regulate all its affairs as a 
queen proper, the name wotTier would be more 
appropriate than queea. She is reared in a 
cell entirely different from worker and from 
drone cells, and is fed on peculiar food, some- 
times called royal pap. Queen cells are gen- 
erally built at the edge of the combs, and in- 
stead of being horiz mtal, are vertical, hanging 
downward, the young queen standing on her 
head, while in the cell. While the queen 
cell is quite short the egg is deposited there- 
in, and the same cell is never used more ihau 
once. After the egg has been in the cell 
about three days a small white worm may be 
seen at the bottom, or rather at the top, of 
the cell ; it is then called a grub or larva, and 
remains in this state about five or six days, 
after which it is sealed up, when it is said to 
be in the pupa state, in wh ch it remains about 
seven or eight days, thus taking about sixteen 
days from the egg to the mature queen. I 
should have said that as soon as she is a larva, 
the bees begin to leuijthen the ce I. Ic is ar- 
gued by many that the que«n never deposits 
an egg in a queen cell, but that the eggs are 
transferred from the worker cells to the 
queen cells, by the workers, when wanted 
there ; that her antipathy toward another 
queen, althouirh an immature one and her 
own offripring, is suflii;ieut to prevent her de- 
positing eggs in these cells. 1 do not believe 
that the bees ever remove an egg from a 
worker cell to a queen cell, and I have evi- 
dence to that effect. In making artilicial 
swarms, as soon as queen cells were started 
and eggs deposited in some, we examine very 
closely all queen cells that were started, and 
we have found invariably that those queen 
cells that contained no eggs or larvte, when 
the old queen was removed, would remain 
empty, while worker cells containing eggs 
were changed into queen cells. Queens and 
workers are reared from similar eggs, while 
drone eggs are difi'erent. But more of this in 
a subsequent article. Worker cells can also 



U8 



THE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



be changed into queen cells, eapecially when 
short or near the edge, by turning them down- 
ward and prolonging them. 

HINTS FOR AUGUST. 

I shall aUso, each moQth, give appropriate 
suggestions for the management of bees dur- 
inij that month. 

During August weak colonies are \a danger 
of suffering from the moth. As a protection 
make a mixture of molasses, waer and a little 
vinegar, and set in saucers or shallow dishes 
near the hives at ni^ht. The moths are pas- 
sionately f)nd of this liquid, and will be 
caught in it. Destroy every morning those 
that are alive, and set the liquid again in the 
evening. Cohtuies that were allowed to over- 
swarm, and late swarms might be entirely de- 
stroyed if not protected by destroying the 
moths. 

In sections in which no buckwheat is raised 
the supply of honey has'c^ased — unless there 
be honey dew ; and weak stocks must also be 
protected against robbers by contracting the 
entrance, aud all surplus honey boxes should 
be removed, for if any unsealed honey remain 
it will be carried below. In buckwheat sec- 
tions, strong colonies will store considerable 
surplus honey, and sometimes cast swarms. 
When the largest increase in stocks is desired 
they may be hived, if early in the buckwheat 
season, and thsy may store honey enough to 
winter. When an increase in colonies is not 
particularly desired, or if near the close of 
the buckwheat season, they had better be re- 
turned to the parent stock. 

All box honey that is intended for keeping 
through the season mast be watched, tf a 
streak ar white powder-like substance appear 
on the surface of the combs, it is a sign that 
a swarm is there ; although yet so smaU as to 
be hardly perceptible. Put the honey box in 
a close box or barrel, and smoke with brim- 
stone, but not so strong as to discolor the 
combs. 

The early part of the present season was 
cool, which prevented the bees from storing 
early in the surplus boxes, and consequently 
they stored too much honey in the hives, oc- 
cupying the place that should have been re- 
served for breeding. In consequence stocks 
that cast swarms will not have bees enough, 
but a superabundance of honey. If you have 
any such, and also swarms that have propor- 
tionately more bees than honey, and if you 



use the movable comb-hives, exchange a comb 
or two fu'l of honey for comparatively empty 
ones. 



AGRICULTURAL. 

SUPPLY OF NITaO&EN". 

IN speakiiig of the necessity of a combina- 
tion of elements in the preparation of a 
perfect special fertilizer for grass, in an article 
on Grass Lands in the last issue of the Plough- 
man, we did not allude to the sources of supply 
of this all important constituent. Every farmer 
is of course interested in knowing where it 
comes from. Nitrie acid is indeed the most 
important of all the compouaas of nitrogen 
and oxygen and the source from which most 
nitrogen compounds are obtained. It occurs 
in nature most coraTionly in combination with 
patash or soda or lime in the soil, especially 
in tropical countries, and in some parts of In- 
dia and Per i. When combined with potash 
it is known as nitre or the saltpeter of com- 
merce. 

There is, in Chili and Peru, a desert called 
Atacama, where it is found in vast quantities 
n combination with soda, and is the nitrate 
of soda, often called " Chilian saltpeter," or 
cubic nitre. We believe a very large propor- 
tion of the nitrate of soda now so largely used 
in the preparation of artificial fertilizers comes 
from there. Nitrate of potash is common 
saltpeter. Nitrate of [soda is the "Chilian 
saltpeter" of commerce. In this crude from 
as it comes from the desert it is never pure 
nitric acid, and is of a sort of golden yellow 
color, though pure nitric acid is quite colorless. 
It is one of the strongest acids, intensely sour 
to the taste, ranking next in strength to sul- 
phuric aciJ. It attacks most inorganic sub- 
stances and all living or organic tissues, turning 
skins, feathers, and other . substances which 
contain albumen, to a bright yellow. The 
orange colors in our common table cloths are 
produced by its use. In its pure aud concen- 
trated state it is so powerful that if the fibers 
of cotton are soaked in it only a few mo- 
ments and then washed in water, they are 
changed into an explosive substance like the 
well known gun cotton. 

The source of obtaining the phosphoric 
acid, to which we alluded in the same article 
as essential to a special grass fertilizer, is 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



U9 



bone dust or superphosphate. This mater- 
ial in a crude form is found in inexhausti- 
ble quantities in the phosphate beds of 
Charleston, S. C, or it may be from bones in 
any form, after preparation with sulphuric 
acid. The South Carolina phosphate beds are 
regarded as of immense importance to agri- 
culture. 

Potash is found abundant enough' in wood 
ashes, but these are so scarce, and expensive 
that the discovery of the potash salt beds at 
Strassfurth, in Germany, is regarded as of 
the highest value to the agriculture, not of 
Germany only, but of the civilized world. 
These salts are now extensively imported. — 
Massaclmsetts Ploughman, 



SOWING FLOWER SEED. 

THE time is now approaching for sowing 
the seed of annuals or other plants, 
and it is important that the work be properly 
done. We once employed a novice to sow 
srme seed, in the absence of a better 'gar- 
dener, and he resolved to do his work well. 
He accordingly buried the seed so deep that 
few ever came up, and the seedsman was de- 
nounced for selling what was bad. A portion 
was left for a time, and then sowed in a hurry, 
the man having time only to give a thin dash 
of earth over them. These came up pro- 
fusely, and the reputation of the seedsman 
was rescued. The rule which we have adopt- 
ed for beds in open ground is to cover all seed 
from three to five times their shorter diame- 
ter—small seed receiving only a slight sprink- 
ling, and larger a more copious sifting of the 
fine mould. No seed should be sown when 
the soil is not dry enough to reduced to fine 
powder. The best soil is sandy loam, but a 
larger proportion of clay makes a good ma- 
terial if dry enough to be made perfectly mel- 
low. The addition of sand and leaf mould 
will make any soil of proper consiteucy. 
The best way to sow seeds is, in the first 
place in drills or circles ; then the weeds may 
be easily taken out. If sown broadcast, it 
will be more ditllcult to keep the bed clean. 
Provide a quantity of finely pulverized mould 
in a basket or barrow, and cover them by 
sprinkling it evenly over with the hand. Avoid 
soaking the beds with water until the plants 
are up. If the surface is likely to become too 
dry after sowing, which is often the case, put 



on a thin gauzy mulching. This may be pul- 
verized moss, thin canvas, or even a news- 
paper. Every person who plants a flower 
garden should know the hardy plants, which 
usually come up soon, and may be sown early, 
from the tender, which are often more tardy. 
Most seed catalogues designate these sep- 
arately. 



CLOVER — HOW IT ENRICHES THE 
LAND. 

WE are afraid of clover. We are afraid 
to raise it largely ; afraid to feed it ex- 
-ensively, especially as a main feed ; and afraid 
to plow it in. 

This is wrong, very wrong ; we are con- 
stantly losing by not growing more clover; 
losing in many respects. Clover, if we could 
only impress the fact on the general farmer, 
is a plant that draws from the atmosphere and 
enriches the land. Other plants do this, but 
clover more ; it has to do with the most vital 
and important element in manure, nitrogen, 
the very thing that is the rarest and most dif- 
ficult to obtain. It improves the soil by its 
roots alone, if the crop is used for other pur- 
poses ; this even if a seed crop is taken. IIow 
much more benefit, then, if a whole crop is 
turned down containing so much nirogen? 
And you have the manure without working 
for it. The plant works for itself and for you. 
We get its strength from a free source, the 
atmosphere, the great storehouse that gathers 
from all sources, but most from the energetic 
farmer. 

And you can make this plant work for you 
on a poor soil. A little manure applied on 
the surface will do this ; and if plenty of seed 
is sown there will be a thick set. Then it 
needs but a chance with the atmosphere, aad 
plaster will aid this greatly. With warm 
showers there will be a growth almost surpris- 
ing. It will be dense, fine stemmed and of a 
fair length, depending somewhat on the sea- 
son. Cut this when it begins to lodge, which 
will be about the time when blossoms appear, 
and then will be avoided all rot or niildew 
consequent on long, coarse lodging, and the 
yield will surprise you— two aid a half or 
three tons, and such hay is not made from any 
other plant. And the second crop will be 
nearly or perhaps quite as good as the first. 
— Live Stock Journal. 



150 



THE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



HUNGARIAiq' GRASS. 

I IT answer to inquiries how to manage Hun- 
garian-grass hay, we insert the following 
from a former number of our paper : 

"The trouble about Hungarian grass is, 
that it is not generally cut at the proper time. 
I have raised it for twenty years and consider 
it the very best hay for horses. They will 
keep fal on it where on timothy they will 
grow poor. I sow one one-half bushel per 
acre. It then makes fiue hay, aud on good 
land should yield from two to three tons per 
acre. Cut it when in the blow, before any 
seed is formed ; wilt in the swath the same as 
clover and make in the cock. The stalk is 
nearly solid and the hay very heavy, and if 
mada in this way will be as green as gr.iss, 
and a horse will want little grain for ordinary 
farm work. I only feed grain in the spring 
when doing heavy plowing. Give your horses 
all they will eat of it and they will fatten, 
with decent usage. But if allowed to turn 
yellow and form seed, it is the same as any 
other grain, and will of course injure a horse 
the same as if he were fed wheat in a bundle, 
to excess. Any over-fed grain is bad. It is 
better to rake it by hand, but ou good soil 
you will tumble up a big cock in a small 
space." — Prairie Farmer. 



ROOM OR PARLOR PLANTS. 

EASTERN windows are preferable to 
southern oues ; the sun is now too pow- 
erful, and the morniog sun being more conge- 
nial than that of the after part of the day, 
even west or north windows are now better 
than those opening toward the south. Plants 
that become dusty should occasionally be put 
out during light showers, taking care not to 
drench them. Roses and geraniums should 
be kept very near the light, or they will lose 
color and become pale. Plants that have been 
in the cellar during the winter, ought to be ex- 
posed by the end of the month, unless the sea- 
sou should be unusually late. Re-pot or plant 
out such as require root room. Xeep hydran- 
geas in shady situations. Cleanse wood and 
foliage as early as practicable. A little pul- 
verized wood charcoal on the surfrce of the 
of the earth iu the pots containing parlor 
plants is always advisable, and by changing it 
two or three time during the season, it will be 



found to obviate bad odors, and to increase 
the thriftiness of the plant. 

When potted plants are placed in the ground 
some earth should be drawn up about the 
stems so as to form a cone to lead off the ex- 
cess of moisture. Very few "plants that have 
been^housed during the winter will stand the 
full sun in early spring and summer ; theraxbre, 
the warmest exposures should not be selected 
for them. 



THE USE OF CONCENTRATED PER- 
TILIZERS. 

THE cause of failure in the use of the 
concentrated fertilizers is often due to 
the manner in which they are applied. It is 
difficult for those who have been accustomed 
to use bulky manures to realize that the full 
fertilizing potency of a bushel of animal ex- 
crement may be held in a large-sized table- 
spoon, and that a handful of one adds to plant 
structures as decidedly as several shovelfuls 
of the other. A full dose of opium as given 
to patients, furnishes quite a dark, bulky pow- 
der or pill: but if we sepaiate the alkaloidal 
principle upon which its hypnotic power de- 
pends, we have only a delicate white powder 
which a breath of wind will blow away. 

The one-cighth-grain-powder will effect the 
human organism as powerfully as ten times the 
weight of opium. If we were so forgetful of 
potencies as to administer as much, or even 
one quarter as much of the white concentrated 
powder as of the bulky dark one, we should 
destroy our pa'ient's life, or at least do great 
injury to his health. So it is ia the use of 
genuine superphosphate or guano, or ground 
bone and ashes ; we forget their power, and 
apply them too directly — we endanger the life 
of our plants. 

An experiment made upon corn affords an 
illustrative case in point. At the time of 
planting, upon a field divided by a narrow 
strip of sward land, we directed that on one 
side a tablespoonful of the mixed bone and 
ashes should be placed' in each hill, and well 
covered with soil ; upon the other, four rows 
were to be treated similarly, and upon the re- 
mainder the hills should receive a double 
quantity. It is curious to observe the effect. 
The first field and four rows are remarkably 
thrifty. The corn came up well, and has 
manifested remarkable vigor from the start. 



TEE LAJV'CASTER FARMER. 



151 



On the other hand, the overdosed corn ap- 
peared for a long while as if it had been par- 
alyzed by some wasting disease. It could not 
bear up under so much of the good thii g. 
More free ammonia was formed at the start 
than could be appropriated by the tender 
plants, and many of them perished from over- 
Btimulatiou and heat produced by the fermen- 
tative changes of the active bodies in contact. 
The corn that survived is at present growing 
finely, and will, no doubt, afford a large yield. 
Kow, if this had happened in the course of 
our regular agricultural labors, and without 
any understanding of the nature of the fertili- 
zing substance used, it is probable it would 
have been condemned as a worthless or dan- 
gerous article. This has been the case with 
hundreds of experiments, and is indeed a per- 
fectly natural conclusion to reach. But we 
must learn to reason, learn to have patience, 
learn the character of the substances we em- 
ploy upon our lands. We must be careful how 
to reach conclusions ; we must examine close- 
ly to see if they are based upon principles in 
agriculture ; let us cling to them, and when 
we get results that are puzzling or paradoxi- 
cal, we must study causes, and not judge 
hastily. — Journal of Chemistry. 



Fai^meks' Gardens.— We find the follow- 
ing couplet of excellent suggestions about 
farmers' gardens in the Tribune of South 
Bend, Indiana : 

As a general thing, we see the same 
form of beds and ridges as were common fifty 
years ago, some at least one foot high, and 
that too on our porous sandy soil. Kow, if 
either should be higher, we would elevate 
the walks, and thereby we have the benefit 
of the showers, thus utilizing the resources 
for growth, and avoiding the collection of wa- 
ter in the walks and alleys ; besides this, it 
requires much hard labor to make those high 
riiiges and beds, and when made, they do 
with their inclined surface, throw off much of 
the water that is of vast account, especially in 
a season of light showers or drouth. 

Have the garden so arranged that it can be 
cultivated by horse power. Select a suitable 
piece of ground where you can have gtod 
turning room at each end ; then lay ofl" your 
rows clean through. I find it pays to lay off 
the rows with a line, so as to have them per- 
fectly straight and of uuif >rm width. In these 



rows, plant your vegetables — early potatoes, 
peas, beans, tomatoes, sweet corn, cabbage, 
e;c. Now if you will run through these rows 
at least once a week with the horse and culti- 
vator the hoeing will be a comparatively light 
job, and can be done by children. Beside, the 
frequent and thorough stirring of the soil will 
give your " truck" a much more vigorous 
and thrifty growth than the cultivation it 
usually gets in the garden. This is the meth- 
od 'pursued by nurserymen, and market gard- 
eners, and I am sure its practical adoption by 
farmers would be a great improvement on 
the little square " garden full of weeds" now 
so common. 



Seed Corn. — A Maryland correspondent 
sends us a couple of ears of corn, which he calls 
Kent corn, and of which he says: "It was intro- 
duced into our county pf Kent some years since , 
from Nova Scotia, and is now thoroughly ac- 
climated. After experimenting with and 
testing all the prominent seed corn to be 
found here, I am convinced that this is the 
best and most productive, and hence take 
pleasure in recommending it for its early ma- 
turity'and'its large yield from the weight on 
the cob. In your market, 70 lbs., of corn on 
the cob is sold as a bushel of 56 lbs. Owing 
to the small cob of this corn, the yield is 
from 58 to 61 lbs., as I have often demon- 
strated by weighing on a fine balance. I send 
you two ears to look at — one shelled, which 
weighed 134 oz. before shelling, giving 11^ 
oz. corn, or above 52 lbs. to the 70 ; hence 
about 70 such ears will produce 56 lbs, of 
shelled corn. In conclusion, will say that 
this corn can be purchased in our market 
(Baltimore) at the present time for about 65 
cents a bushel — not a pint.'''' — Country Gentle- 
man, 



Mildew on plants may be removed by 
syringing them with a strong decoction of 
green leaves of the elder, or solution of nitre, 
made in the proportion of one ounce nitre to 
one gallon water. A mixture of soap suds 
and water will also answer. 



One cord of wood cut and split fine, and 
corded up beneath a shelter while it is yet 
green, will furnish more heatjafter it has be- 
come seasoned than two cords of the f^ame 
kind of wood which have been continually ex- 
posed to the alternate influences of storms 
and sunshine. 



152 



THE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



HORTICULTURE. 



A FEW FACTS. 

A FARMER who expects to raise nice-fla- 
vored apples and of laro;e size, and yet 
takes no care of his apple orchard, will find 
himself greatly mistaken. It is one of nature's 
eternal laws that nothing can grow where the 
natural food is wanting. The trees of our 
woods have their leaves, the decayed branches 
andshrubs besides the natural benefits of rams 
and atmospheric influences- Siill when oak 
woods have had their time, oak will grow no 
more in the same soil, at least thriftily, and 
withou t changing its constitution. It is a well 
known fact that virgin soils produce sponta- 
neously, first the noblest among the forest 
trees, afterward an inferior grade, till noth- 
ing but cedars or resinous plants will cover 
the once rich but now worn-out soil. 

The inquiry often arises, why do the apple 
trees fail of bearing, or why yield such a scanty 
crop ? Why is the fruit of such poor quality ? 
Why so wormy ? and why will it not sell in 
the market like other fruit ? The reply is easy. 
The soil^ are worn out by fifty or more crop^ 
of applfcs, and also by grass crops innumer- 
able, by which the phosphates, carbonates 
and the once abounding potashes of the old 
forests have been carried to market, without 
any restitution to the generous soil. So much 
for the growth of the trees and their bearing. 
Now, when it happens that by a long interval 
of rest the trees have regained their strength, 
by some of the natural influences of the air, 
rain and snow, nitrogen and ammonia, they 
soon blossom and yield another crop of fruit. 
But the soil has been so long in grass, and Sq 
long neglected, that worms, bugs and a legion 
of insects have found in that undisturbed soil 
a permanent home for themselves and their 
generations, and no sooner is a fruit tree set 
than they are at work by hundreds to sting 
and deform it. 

A fruit orchard requires higher cultivation 
than any other crop, because its cultivation is 
in two stories, a crop below and one above. 
All that seems so very plain that I am very 
often amazed when I see able and intelligent 
farmers, who would laugh at the idea of get- 
ting a crop of wheat in an old and worn out 
field without any manure or extra labor. To 



the farmers we say look at your apple orchards 
and see if they. are an exceptioa to this rule ; 
and can they expect them to bear every year, 
no matter how poor the soil is, because they 
did so fifty years ago? The country is now 
so cleared of foi-ists that the winds sweep 
away all the leave" from under the apple trees 
and this deficitncy should be made up by an 
application of ashes or manure of such a kind 
as the soil is deficient in. 

J. L. Hersey. 
Tuftonburough^ N. H. 



THE GRAPEVINE IN SUMMER. 

PERHAPS the most serious difficulty the 
vine grower — whether he has a single vine 
or a thousand, has to contend with i- mildew. 
The trouble with this is that its approach is so 
insidious that the mischief is done before the 
inexperienced cultivator has detected the pre- 
sence of the enemy. A discoloied spot upon 
the up;ier part of the leaves is seen ; in a few 
days this becomes brown, and the leaf, if se- 
verely attacked, curls up and dies. Mildew 
not only attacks the leaves but the fruit clus- 
ters and the young wood. It may be arrested 
if attacked in time. Tbe vines should be fre- 
quently watched, and if grayish patchrs ap- 
pear upon (he underside of the leaves, upon, 
the stem of the bunches, indeed, if they are 
found anywhere, apply sulphur immediately. 
Do not wast until the next day, nor even the 
next hour, but apply at ones. So certain a 
remedy is sulphur, and so very apt are vines 
to be attacked by mildew, that many grape 
growers find it to their advantage to pursue a 
systematic sulphurizing, whether indications 
of mildew are visible or not. The vines are 
dusted as soon as tbe leaves expand, when 
they are in flower, when the berries are of 
the size of peas, and when the fruit begins to 
color. This is done regularly, and if any signs 
of mildew are in the intervals, sulphurizing ia 
immediately resorted to. 

Flour of bulphur is the form in which it ia 
used, and it is best applied by a bellows. 
There are blowers and other implements in 
use, but a propcT-ly constructed bellows, such as 
may be had at the implement and seed stores, 
is the most convenient for applying it. The 
bellows having a curved nozzle, allows the 
undersides of the leaves to be dusted, which 
is very important. The application should 



THE LAJYCASTER FARMER. 



153 



be made on a dry day, and if the rain should 
wash away the sulp'^ur soon after it is applied, 
the dusting should be renewed. One with a 
little practice can so manage the bellows as to 
throw the sulphur in a fine cloud of dust, which 
will settle upon and cover all parts of the 
vine with an evenly distributed but almost im- 
perceptible coating. Next in destructiveness 
to the mildew c< me the hordes of insects. 
The most (ffectual remedy for the majority of 
these is hand-picking. Old vines especially 
are disposed to push out adventitious buds 
and form branches where they are not need- 
ed. These should be rubbed off. — American 
Agriculturist. 



decided effect in preventing rot in the berry, 
that disease proceeding from the soil rather 
than from atmospheric influences. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL. 



Covered Grape-Trellis.— The Superin- 
tendent of the Experimental Garden and 
Grounds at Washington says that inquiry is 
frequently made relative to the efficiency of 
the covered grape-trellis described in the re- 
port of 1861, a'^d its effects as a preventive of 
mildew and rot. A trellis of this kind was 
erected in the garden early in the spring of 
1863, and has proved valuable, enabling us 
to tfst the qualities of many varieties of 
grapes that failed to ripen on the common 
trellises a few yards distant, on account of the 
destruction of the foliage by mildew. The 
philosophy of the action of protection in this 
particular case seems to be its tendency to 
arrest radiation of heat, thus protecting the 
foliage trom the cooling action of night tem- 
peratures, which in turn prevent condensa- 
tion of atmospheric moisture on the leaves, 
thereby checking, to a certain extent, the pre- 
disposing cause of mildew. 

In experiments with registering thermome- 
ters, it was found that during clear, still 
nights in July, an exposed thermometer would 
mark from f^ix to ten dt^grees lower than that 
under the cover, the foliage being thus kept 
warmer, and in consequence dryer, on the pro- 
tected plants. This would almost seem to 
give a reason for the eariy maturity of the fruit, 
which has been observed to result from protec- 
tion. The best grapes climated in this country 
are those of greatest immunity from dews, and 
it has been proved beyond a doubt that protec- 
tion from dew will enable many varieties of 
grape to mature which otherwise cannot be 
successfully grown in ungenial locations. 
These covered trellises do not seem to have any 



THE CABBAGE BUTTERFLY. 
\Pieris rapce.] 

THIS insect has been imported into this 
country from England, and, like other 
imported insects, it increases more rapidly 
than any of our native species, or perhaps 
than it does in its native country. In England 
its common name is the "Little Garden Whit," 
to distinguish it from the larger species [Pie- 
ris brassica), which feeds upon the same plant. 

It seems to have been introduced into Cana- 
da about the year 1857, from whence it spread 
over parts of that country, especially south- 
ward, and reached New Hampshire, Vermont 
and New York in 1866. In 1869 it was no- 
ticed in Massachusetts, and in 1870 it reached 
New Jersey. A few specimens were obser- 
ved in Lancaster county, Pa., in the summer 
of 1871, although it may have been here earli- 
er, but the present season it is quite numer- 
ous, and we learn very destructive to the cab- 
bages in parts of Donegal township. 

Mrs. Gibbons sent us specimens of the 
larvce from Enterprise, and Mr. J. B. Erb 
from Beaver Meadow, where it has done con- 
siderable damage. AVe have noticed it ab 
large the present season in Lancaster city, 
and there is every reason to believe that be- 
f.>re long it may prove a serious obstacle to 
the cultivation of the cabbage in this and other 
localities where the insect abounds. 

The larva is a green worm, about an inch 
and a half long, when it is fully developed, of 
apale green color and finely dotted with black, 
but this dotting is not perceptible to most 
persons, without using a magnifier ; it has a 
fine, pale, yellow line down the middle of the 
back, and a row of yellow dots on each side,- 
on a line with the breathing holes. This 
worm is not content with merely eating the 
loose outside leaves of the cabbage, but bores 
into the very heart of the plant, and for this 
reason among the French it is called "Heart- 
worm," (Ver du cmir.) Mr. Riley says 
( Amer. Ent. p. 75): " It leaves the plant and 
changes into a chrysalis in the middle or la t 



154 



THE LAJ\VASTER FARMER* 



ter part of Sepiember, ani in this stage it 
hybernates," the butterfly appearing the fol- 
lowing spring. 

There are two broods of the insect in this 
latitude in one season. Mr. Erb exhibited, 
at the meeting of the Horticultural Society, 
July 1, a cabbage leaf, having a number of 
larva, and two chrysalids u)on it, from the 
latter of which butterflies evolved on the 
15th of July ; and at this writing the butter- 
flies are at large in s-everal parts of Lancaster 
city. On the 13th of July Mrs. G. brought us 
a similar group of larvfe and chrysalids, from 
which a butterfly evolved on the 17th. All 
of these larvce are now changed to various 
colored ^wpfB, or chrysalids. Some are green 
of difl^erent shades, some yellowish, and others 
brownish, and all more or less speckled, with 
minute spots of black. We noticed that those 
pupte which had changed on the leaf devel- 
oped into butterflies much eariier than those 
which left it and changed on the sides of the 
cage that contained them. 

The perfect butterfly expinds two inches, 
and the body is about three-fourths of an inch 
in length. The color is white, faintly veined 
with black. The head and body, the tips of 
the forewings and the clubs on the ends of the 
autenufe are black. The other markings are 
sexual, for instance, in the male there is a 
round black spot on each of the forewings, 
near the middle of the outer third ; and a small 
oblong spot near the front edge of the hind 
wings. The under surface of all the wings 
are a yellowish white or pale yellow. Ou 
the female there are two black spots on the 
forewings, similar to those of the male, but 
larger. Both male and female vary in their 
markiua'S ; in some the black spot ou the hind 
wings is absent, and in some females there are 
thrje spots on the forewings and an addition- 
tional small faint spot near the middle of the 
hind wings. In some males also two spots are 
visible on the underside of the front wings. 

In company with the larvse brought by 
Mrs. G. were two specimens, evidently of the 
"Southern cabbage Butterfly" (Pleris proto- 
dice) which we have noticed in this locality, 
in limited numbers, for many years. 

Remedy. — As these larvce usually leave the 
plant, and seek any convenient object upon 
which to undergo their metam-rphoses, if 
pieces of boards, raised two or three inches 
from the ground, in the form of low, roughly 



made stools or benches, were~distributed 
through the cabbage patch, the larvee would 
resort to these instead of the fences or other 
places, where the chrysalids might be col- 
lected and destroyed. The butterfly itself 
should also be taken in a net and destroyed, 
and the larvfe be hand-picked ofl" the cab- 
bages. When they are very numerous, per- 
haps a douche of tobacco water, or strong soap- 
suds, would be a quicker way to exterminate 
them. Pulverized quicklime, white Helle- 
bore, or fine snuS", would have a beneficial ef- 
fect upon those ou the surface of the plant ; 
but as these worms sometimes eat into the 
head of the cabbage none of these remedies 
would reach them. At this moment (July 19) 
one which we are still feeding has eaten it- 
self about half way into the stem of a red- 
beet, upon which we have been feeding it, in 
the absence of cabba:e. If sparows, while 
they are rearing their young, could be in- 
duced to trust civilized beings, so far as to lo- 
cate their nests in or about their cabbage 
patches, they might destroy many of these 
larvce. The titmouse is said to eat them at 
all times, but we have not seen a titmouse 
within gunshot of a human habitation for a 
long time past. R. 

CORRESPONDENCE. 



GOSSIP. 



U 



W 



HAT I know about farming," is 
very little, practically ; and as to 
theorizing we have any amount of it. I doubt 
much whether Horace Greeley acquired any 
popularity on the subject of farming. The 
numerous squibs and jokes circulating are 
enough to try his philo-iophy. 

There are other things, however, 'worthy of 
cultivation, besides pumpkins and pickles — 
for instance, patience it an herb that it is well 
to have at hand on trying ocr^asions, either 
on the fa,rm or in the family. An o'd German 
couplet says 

" Gediilt ist. das beste graut, 
Das maun in America baut " 

If that is not good German, it will pass for 
Lancaster County Dutch, whether Mrs. G. or 
Pete Schwefl"elbrenner approve of it or not. 
Addison in one of his poems, says— 

" But tbo' heav'n 
In every breatb lias sown tbese early see 8 
Of love and admiration, yet in vain 
Without fair culture's kiiid parental aid. 



THE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



155 



I claim, therefore, that not only mental cul- 
ture and that of the social virtues -are of as 
much, if not of greater importance, than 
agriculture, and should, as it also is, be asso- 
ciated with it. 

Now, I claim to be good-natured and not 
wholly void of good manners, and ask your 
civility, because I do not pretend to be wiser 
than my gentle reader. Mark Twain, has it 
" ferocious reader ;" he says the word gentle 
reader, is too common-place, and has lost its 
meaning — played out ; but Mark is no good 
authority on matters of taste, and has .good 
sense enough to " own the corn." 

There is no harm in using spice Jn our food, 
and I relish it even in ordinary hum-drum 
matters of fact, be it on botany or horticul- 
ture. 1 trust I know enough to avoid as 'tis 
said i' the adage: 

lU nBc, 10 make a leak a cabbage. 

There is a kind of cabbage, that proves a 
leak in matters of finance, in bank shares; 
jilow shares are less subject to being handled 
by the light-fingered gentry, who^need culture 
aud ought to be trained against a wall with 
a sunny exposure, or be plarted below the 
frost line. If they wouldn't come up there 
would be no great loss to society. 

If you consider this a medley of nonsense, 
I shall take no ofieuse in being told so by the 
Farmer's critic, Humboldt, or "any other 
man." Ic is true, our self-love does not relish 
to own its folly. The Indian became ^exceed- 
ingly indignant when, on inquiring the road to 
hia wigwam, the astonished per on observed : 
" What, ail Indian lost? ' Ugh I ludian not 
lost, but wigwam,'''' was tbe surly reply, and, 
truly analyzed, he was right. He knew ex- 
actly where he stood, but could not tell the 
locality of his wigwam. Well it is for us if 
wc really know where we stand. Our indivi- 
dual standing in tne estimation of others, too, 
is highly imporiant, and without due cultiva- 
tion we may remain like stubble in the field, 
a standing disgrace, fit to be turned under to 
make room for a better crop. 

It is said we have five senses, all of which 
can be cultivated, and yet some folks lack an 
important sense, which is common sense. But 
do you know, my '\gentle reader" (I will say 
gentle, Mark Twain to the contrary notwith- 
standing,) that It is proved that we have six 
senses ; thusly, make a cube of equal size, one 
of lead, the other of wood; gild them both, 



and let them be as exactly alike as possible, 
and equal in temperature ; and not one of our 
five senses is able to tell which is the wood 
and which the lead. Sight, hearing, taste, 
touch and smell will not aid you •, but handle 
it, the weight determines the fact. Now it is 
argued that weight is as much one of the sen- 
ses as any of the rest This is considered a 
new discovery, but Dr. Thomas Brown and 
Sir C. Bell have propounded the doctrine of a 
sixth sense, called tne muscular sense — our 
whole muscular frame being supposed to be a 
distinct organ of sense, a doctrine to which 
Dr. Whewell declared his adherence in his 
Philosophy of the Inductive Sciences, etc. 
Therefore, this new discovery of the sense of 
weight is not so very new after all. 

But science is a wonderful thing ; it makes 
grand discoveries, and is often fooled. A 
microscope will show you minute creatures, 
as lively in a drop of water as " eels in the 
mud," and more abundant and active, but it 
does not teach you how or where they come 
from. So they analyze the brain and physi- 
cal man. What is the result ? "A man is, 
chemically hpeaking, 45 pounds of carbon and 
nitrogen, diffused through 54 pailfuls of wa- 
ter." In plants we find water thus mingling 
no less wonderfully. "A sunflower evaporates 
H^pints of water a day, and a cabbage about 
the_same quantity." This is science, true no 
doubt in one sense, but we have six, and the 
other five must not be ignored. We are none 
the less conscientious and accountable beings 
that sadly need cultivation. The doctor's scalpel 
and the savans'^materiality requires a higher 
training, than assumptions aud conclusions 
drawn from surrounding matter. But sci- 
ence is wonderful. The London Chemical 
Society have discovered a new organic base, to 
which they have applied the name " Azodin- 
apthyldiamine," and another they call " Azo- 
dinapthyldicitraconanaic." I have tried to 
give it in plain letters, for it is a sober fact, 
and copied let.er for letter. If Mark Twain 
dislocated his jaw in trying to pronounce the 
name of a Russian lady that smote his fancy, 
I fear the task in getting the type right will 
prove a puzzle. I caution the setter-up, but 
it is hardly possible to exaggerate such names. 
"Fact is stranger than fiction," but the learned 
asses string a lot of Greek words in a row, after 
the manner of the Chinese. The whole word is 
composed ofcertain hooks aud crooks forming 



156 



THE LANCASTER FARMER, 



one letter, however long the word may be. 
Is it science or is it nonsense to coin names 
that are unpronounceable i* I find strange in- 
ventions, also, of the sphygmograph, myo- 
graph 8tomatoscope,iridoscope, etc. We are 
familiar with stereoscope, and spectroscope. 
I like inventions and try to make myself useful 
to inventors. But I must stop or some Jew that 
hates pork will accuse me of sandwiching 
business into articles for the farmer — like 
slipping a slice of fine ham between two slices 
of buttered bread — not hard to take, provided 
you have no conscientious scruples. I do not 
mean to say that I am a'* solicitor of patents" 
and will be at your service on fair terras, but 
you may infer what you please. What I say is 
in defense of your inference of what do I 
mean — that is, if you donH see the point, and 
just so, if you do. But I'll stop like the old 
lady that spoke out in meeting and then 
checked herself for "talking and kept on talk- 
ing to tell how ashamed she was for being 
guilty of disturbing the meeting. I will con- 
clude by appealing for your pardon in the 
lines of Dryden 

The powers above are slow 
In punishing, aad should we not resemble them ? 

J. Stauffer. 



FIG CULTURE. 



ESSRS. EDITORS : As the cultivation 
of the fig is attracting considerable at- 
tention of late, I beg leave to make some 
inquiry through your columns. 

Some forty years ago in a garden, not more 
than six miles from your city, I knew a clump 
of fig trees that would shoot up as thick as a 
cane-brake every spring, blossom, and be full 
of small figs, about two-thirds grown, when 
the first frost would come. That, of course, 
put a stop to their further development, and 
the winter following would kill all to the 
ground. 

The following spring they would come up 
again and repeat the same story. One fall 
my father set a shock of corn-fodder around 
them, thinking to save them through the wir_ 
ter, but it availed nothing. 

It was on a place in Pequea now owned by 
Cyrus N. Herr, if not lately changed hands. 

Now it is possible that some one may still 
have that kind of fig on their grounds, and if 
so, it would interest me very much to get a 
start of them here ; as I believe that the six 



weeks more of a season we have here would 
ripen them,, even if they would die down 
every wiiiter. 

If any of your readers (in case you should 
publish this) can give me any irformation on 
this subject, it will be thankfully received and 
reciprocated. 

I have now four varieties of figs growing, 
and as soon as wood is to spare, will be ready 
to distrioute gratis. 

We have a semi-circular amphitheater be- 
tween two lofty cliffs, facing the south, where- 
in they may even stand the winter after they 
are a few years oLl. 

To give you an idea of our season, I will 
state that tomatoes are \'\\,q, corn ten feet 
high, and in the tassel, a late variety; sweet 
corn for some time ; Hale's early peach nearly 
ripe ; Mary Ann grapes colored, etc. 
Yours truly, 

S. Miller. 

Bluff ton , Mo., July 10, 1S72. 



THE LESSON" OF THE LAST YEAR'S 
DROUGHT. 

THE following extract is from a report by 
W. W. Daniels. Professor of Agriculture 
in the University of Wisconsin, which we find 
in the Western Farmer : 

" While there is no means of preventing the 
recurrence of these extremes of climate, and, 
perhaps, no means of modifying their eff"ects 
that will be universal in its application, ther« 
is a remedy, general in its nature, which is 
within the reach of all farmers. It i^ the 
adoption cf a better sy^iem of culture, better 
and deeper plowing, better cultivating, and 
better manuring. 

The stratum of soil needs to be deepened, 
to be more thoroughly pulverized, and to be 
made richer. Any means that m ly be adopt- 
ed that will accomplish these ends will be of 
value as a remfdy against drouoht. 

There is another means of preventing the 
evil eff'ects of both droughts and floods upon 
all clay land . or upon those having a clay sub- 
soil, and \vhi h at the same time increases the 
productiveness of the soil so as to pay well for 
its adojtion. It is under-draining. Tiie effect 
of uoder-di-air.ing is to pulverize the soil by 
natural uitans to nearly or quite the depth of 
the drains, and by this deep pulverization 
the soil is enabled successfully to withstand 
drought^ so severe as to ruin crops upon simi- 
lar laiid undrained, while the drairis benoath 
the surface form a ready means cf escape for 
the surplus water of wet seasons. In the 
adoption of a thorough system of under-drain- 
ing upon all heavy soils will be found ".he 
most effVctnal remedy, and the one most gen- 
eral in its a]) plication, against such extremes 
as thoye of the past three seasons." 



THE LAJy CASTER FARMER. 



157 



%\\t %mwAn p(\mt. 



LANCASTER, AUGUST, 1872. 

S. S. RATHVON AND ALEX. HARRIS, Editars. 

Published luoiitlily under the auspices of the Agricul- 
tural AND Horticultural Society. 

$1.!2S per Tear in Advance. 

A considerable deduction to clubs of five or more. 

All communiMtions, to insure insertion, must be in the 
bands of the editors before the 20th of each month. Ad- 
dress Rahvon & Harris, Lancaster, Pa. 

All advertisements, subscriptions and remittances to the 
address of the publisher, J. B. DEVELIN, 

Inquirer Building, Lancaster, Pa. 



W'E respectfully call the attention of ouj. 
readers, to the two entomological 
contributions in this issue, on the '' Colorado 
Potato Beetle," and the " Garden White 
Butterfly," as two enemies to the potato and 
cabbage plants that are likely to become 
formidable in this county before many years. 
It therefore becomes potato and cabbage 
growers to keep a vigilant watch, and make 
an energetic warfare upon them. It will not 
do to remain ignorant of their history, their 
habits, and their appearance, and also of the 
best means to fight against them ; because, 
the time may come when such ignorance may 
involve great loss, a loss too, that is as likely 
to reach the poor man as the rich one, be- 
cause it strikes at the very foundation of the 
poor man's most reliable home supply. We 
hope that these enemies to vegetation may 
not have a wide circulation in ourcouuty \ but 
the present season is peculiarly favorable for 
insect propagation, and therefore the chances 
are in their favor. 

Since our last issue, the harvests of hay, 
wheat and oats, have been giUhcred, and al- 
though they have not been nearly eo short as 
was anticipated earlier in the season, yet, if 
any calamity should befall the corn, the pota- 
toes and cabbages, the supply of our necessary 
food might become scarce and high iu price. 
Farmers are becoming vigilant enoiigh in their 
warfare agaiust the enemies of tae tobacco, 
and this, so far as it goes, is perhaps all right ; 
but there will not be much economy display- 
ed in saving the tobacco at the expense of 
those productions more immediately connect- 



ed with the life, the health, and the comfort 
of the people at large. We should think more 
upon poor famine-stricken Persia, and reflect 
that a similar^condition here, cannot be reck- 
oned in the list of impossibilities. On the 
whole we are still prospering, and therefore 
we should not be unmindful or unthankful of 
prosperity. 



MEETING OF THE AGRICULTURAL 
AND HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

SOCIETY met in the new apartment ap 
propriated by ,the commissioners, for 
the first time after the division of the old Or- 
phan's Court Room, June 3d, 1872. Minutes 
read and approved, none dissenting. 

Henry M. Eugle, Chairman, called for the 
reports as to the condition of the crops. 

8. M. Kendig spoke of the condition of the 
wheat crop as indicating better than it had 
early in the season. Farmers were puttin<y 
out their tobacco crop. The first in general 
was well set and promises a good crop. 

John B. Erb. — Wheat fields exposed to the 
winds look very poor. The cut-worms are 
very bad upon all things planted this spring. 
Had seen as much as ten or twelve worms at 
one stalk. Raspberries, except the hardy 
ones, were frozen down to the ground last 
winter. Apples promise well and potatoes 
have a good appearance. 

Levi IS. Reisc did not agree with Mr. Ken- 
dig's estimate that the wheat was improvintr. 
With him it is not. He has plowed down 
some of his wheat. Apples with him do not 
promise well. Peaches are well loaded but 
the pears are not. 

E. Hoover thinks in East Hempfield the 
wheat is quite as good as any he has seen in 
the county. The late rains have helped the 
wheat Fruit promises well. Grapevines 
have been frozen very much. 

D. M- Resh thinks iu this section the wheat 
crop will not be over the one third of the 
usual crop. 

M. B. Eshelman thought thatthe best fields 
of wheat would bring about half a crop. The 
weed called by the growers " dotters " has 
taken possession of the fields. 

H. R. fcjlover thought in Lancaster the crop 
of the best fields of wheat will not be over a 
half a crop. Many have plowed their fields 
of wheat down, putting in other crops. He 



158 



THE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



has traveled over the county and also in Berks. 
The same condition in all places has been 
witnessed. 

The hay crop will be very small- Grape- 
vines have been very much frozen last winter. 

Johnston read a report upon the condition 
of the crops within range of his observation. 

Dr. P. W. Hiestand thought the reports too 
favorable. He did not believe the crop this 
year would be over half a crop. Apples will 
be plenty from appearance . 

J. M. Frantz in his observations along the 
Pennsylvania railroad from Harrisburg to 
Philadelphia, had not seen a single good 
field of wheat. The appearances for a hay 
crop are also poor. He does not think the 
Lancaster county wheat crop will average 
over from 5 to 8 bushels per acre. In his 
opinion wheat that does not mature by the 
4th of July is not usually good. 

C. L. Hunsecker remarked that in Kew 
York and Canada, the harvest is generally a 
month later than ours and yet it matures 
well and good wheat is obtained. In 1835 
the wheat was an entire failure on account of 
the fly. The crop in Lancaster county this 
year is going to be a great failure. 

M. B. Eshelman agrees with J. M. Frantz 
that wheat to be good must mature early in 
July. 

Johnson Miller is ready also to accept this 
as a sound view. 

Henry M. Engle believed the quality of the 
hay cut this year will be better in proportion 
to its quantity, than if a more luxurious growth 
had been obtained. He does not apprehend 
a hay famine. The weather is now favorable 
for a good hay crop. High temperature is not 
favorable to potato and wheat crops, but is 
excellent for sweet potatoes. Fruit prospects 
are favorable. More fruit is set in this coun- 
try than has been peruaps m any one for 
twenty years. Even during this year good 
manuring shows itself. 

E. Hoover read au essay upon farming, 
"Does It Pay?" 

Milton Eshelman regarded the essay as an 
excellent and sensible production, and one 
embodying sound maxims of wisdom. On mo- 
tion a vote of thanks was tendered the essay- 
ist for his able eflbrt. 

C. L. Hunsecker. — It is generally considered 
that the occupation of agriculture is a very 
honorable one. All cannot, however, be 



farmers. It is one of the safest occupations 
of man. But an occasional failure even oc- 
curs among farmers, as in other occupations. 

J. M. Frautz was inclined to agree with all 
the sentiments of the essay. But he would 
not advise the farmers to feel entirely 
secure aud that no failure can take place in 
this business. 

D. G. Swartz considers that the farmers 
have the amplest opportunity for self- improve- 
ment of almost any other calling or profes- 
sion of which he has any knowledge. In the 
circles calling for mental effort those in them 
have not that taste for reading which farmers 
might acquire. The farmer can alternate his 
time between reading aud labor. He regard- 
ed, so far as respectability was concerned, all 
occupations as eqaal and should be so consid- 
ered. The professions are no more honor- 
able than the pursuit of agriculture. He en- 
umerated as noble instances of farmers, 
Washington, Webster and Greeley. Cin- 
cinautus was called from his plow to assume 
the guidance of the helm of State. Other 
businesses are risky, ten-fold more so than 
that of agriculture. He cautioned farmers 
against going in debt, as a financial crisis may 
set in and prove destructive to many. 

Peter S. Reist thought the essay one of the 
best we have heard. He regarded the farmers 
as the bone and sinew of the country. He 
did not regard, however, Webster and Greeley 
as instances of successful farmers, for they 
simply kept up their farms by their other in- 
comes. This IS not the kind of farmers we 
can imitate. Give a boy a fine education, 
aud one huudred chances to one he will 
abandon farming for some other occupation. 
Labor, hard, steady labor, and economy are 
the requisites for successful farmers, and little 
save these. Education is not so essential. 

Andrew M. Frantz, Esq., difiered with Mr. 
Heist in the ideas expressed by him as to the 
advantages of education for farmers. 

fcociety on motion adjourned. 



Society met July 1st, 1872, and the atten- 
dance of the members being limited, the read- 
ing of the minutes of the last meeting were 
dispensed with. 

J. B. Erb showed cabbage leaves which 
were badly infested with the green cabbage 
worms, which seemed to be depredating very 
much upon the cabbage in this county. 



THE LAJ^CASTER FARMER. 



159 



Henry M. Engle showed specimens of the 
Colorado potato-beetle. 

On motion Mr. Abraham Herr Smith was 
elected a member of the society. 

The Secretary submitted a letter from Johns- 
ton Miller on the condition of the crops. 

Society on motion adjourned. 



RANDOM SKETCHES AND FARM 
ITEMS, NO. 12. 

BY H. M. ENQLB. 

THE wheat crop south of fortieth latitude 
is now harvested. From reports of some 
farmers, the yield is better than was expected. 
Unfortunately, however, as usual, a large 
proportion of the crop was not cut until over- 
ripe, and consequently is much impaired in 
quality for the purpose of making fine flour. 
It is very strange, that with all the facts and 
arguments, written and published for a num- 
ber of years, by some of the ablest men in 
favor of early harvesting, the larger number 
of farmers still continue a custom so much 
against their own interests. 

There is scarcely an intelligent miller who 
will not pay from three to five cents per bushel 
more for wheat harvested and housed at the 
proper time, than for such as has been ne- 
glected by overripening. 

Farmers are generally considered shrewd 
as to dollars and cents, but in the above case 
they are certainly deficient. 

The early potato crop will yield much bet- 
ter than was expected early in the season, 
but will not be so large as last year. 

With all the urgent .requests through the 
puplic papers to have farmers plant largely of 
late potatoes, the advice was not heeded as 
it deserved. 

The late plantings, therefore, are not so ex- 
tensive as circumstances required. Those 
that have been planted late do not promise 
as well as the early, the drouth, perhaps, being 
the cause of many not coming up . So from 
present indications there will be no surplus 
stock in those sections where drouth pre- 
vailed. 

The Colorado Potato-beetle having made its 
appearance in this county, may well cause 
alarm among both producers and consumers 
of potatoes; although it will not effect the 
crop this season, it is not likely that it will be 



prevented from multiplying and spreading 
rapidly. 

Another enemy has made its appearance, 
which may well cause anxiety among sour- 
krout eaters. The green cabbage worm, 
which has been so destructive in New York 
and New Jersey, is among us in formidable 
numbers, knawingthe heart out of the plant, 
which prevents it from heading. 

I have knowledge to what extent it prevails, 
but from information I suspect we shall soon 
hear more of its ravages than is at present 
suspected. 



LEAKS IN DAIRY FARMING. 

THE foUwing discussion on " Leaks in 
Dairy Farming, and How to Stop them," 
we extract from the Country Gentleman : 

Hon. Harris Lewis of Herkimer opened the 
discussion in a very practical and sensible way. 
He remarked that, as a general rule, it is not 
the large leaks that ruin the farmer, but the 
small ones. The large ones are easily discov- 
ered and stopped, while the smxll ones are 
suffered to run on. 

The first leak he would allude to was the 
manner of driving the cows to and^from the pas- 
ture. Many dairymen suffer the cows to be 
driven by dogs, and not uafrequently through 
a close and muddy bar-way, where permanent 
injury to the cows was often caused by their 
crowding and hooking each other. Boys are 
sometimes allowed to drive them with stones 
and sticks, often scaring them into a run. He 
would prefer a well-trained shepherd dog to 
any boy he ever saw. Carelessness in driving 
cows caused a leak of from ten to fifteen per 
cent. 

2. Time and manner of milking. — Here is a 
big leak. No rough man, who storms and 
yells at the cow, should be allowed in the 
yard. The cows should be milked by the clock. 
Each man should have his own cows, and al- 
ways milk No. 1 first. No. 2 next, and so on. 
It will not do to milk Polly first and Sally last 
in the morning, and Sally first and Polly last 
at night. Milk quickly and gently, without 
any noise or excitement. The cows will give 
more milk and more readily. 

3. Care in Feeding. — It is important not only 
to provide good and sufficient food, but it must 
be fed regularly. If the food is delayed, the 
cows become impatient and fret like a hungry 
child. 



160 



TRE LAJYCASTER FARMER. 



4. Kind of Stock.— A great leak is caused by 
keeping poor cows. Every year dairymen 
have to milk cows that do not pay for their 
keep. Has had cows in his herd that made 
700 pounds of cheese in a season, while others 
in the samo herd gave not more than 200 
pounds. We should select our herd with great 
care, an (i then endeavor to improve it. We 
must raise our own dairy cows. The native 
cows are the best to start with, if selected for 
their milking qualities. Then get a good thor- 
oughbred bull of the breed we desire, and be 
sure that he comes of a good milking fam- 
ily of the breed. We should raise 10 per cent, 
every year. That is, in a dairy of fifty cows 
we should every year raise five heifer calves, 
and when they come in, turn off five of the 
oldest or poorest cows. His own choice of 
breed is decidedly the Durham, unless the pas- 
tures are poor, in which case he should prefer 
the Ayrshire. The Durham is good for beef, 
and if a cow faih to be a good milker, she can 
be sold to a butcher at a good price. Two 
years ago there were 1,500 cows sold in the 
fall at an average of $13, which cost S70 each 
the previous spring. The cheese from each 
cow cost 35 cents per pound, while it was sold 
for 14 cents. This was a big leak. 

6. Letting Hay get overripe. — He would cut 
the grass when the first timothy blossoms ap- 
pear, and so with clover. If you do not com- 
mence as early as this, the last cut hay will 
be overripe. Feed the early cut hay to the 
cows as soon as they come in. It is better 
than grain. 

1 . Kind of Grass . — Farmers are as wedded 
to timothy and clover as Ephraim was to his 
idols. They kill the native grasses by plow- 
ing the land, and then iusist on making timo- 
thy and clover grow where the soil is not 
adapted for them. This is a leak equal to 
feeding a hog with a whole in the pig trough. 

8. Drainage is destined to work a greater 
revolution in our grass land than all other 
things combined. The loss sustained from 
the want of drainage constitutes one of our 
worst leaks. 

9. Poor help to make Butter and Cheese. — 
Better abandon the business if we cannot do 
the work ourselves or get good help. There 
is a great deal of butter made that is worth- 
less except for grease. A few cents more a 
pound would pay for the best help and the 
best dairy utensils. 



10. Allowing Manure to Waste is a great leak. 
He would always apply manure on the surface. 
As a dairyman he would rather have one load 
of manure applied on the surface than ten 
loads plowed under. Would draw out the 
manure fresh, and apply it at all seasons when 
most convenient, on the meadows and pas- 
tures. Had not a foot of land on his farm 
that manure did not agree with. It is all 
moonshine to fork over manure and rot it. 
It leaks away. He spreads his manure on the 
surface, and goes over it with a brush harrow. 

11. Poor Implements are a great leak. He 
would always get the best that were to be 
had. 

There are a great many other leaks. We 
are all acquainted with them, and often prom- 
ise ourselves that we will stop them. He 
would leave the subject to the meeting. 

Mr. Curtis of Saratoga— One of the most 
important implements on the dairy farm was 
the curry comb. Most farmers leave the ani- 
mals to do their own scratching. It is as im- 
portant to curry as it is to feed. The cows 
like it. They get impatient for their turn. 
Knew a farmer who had a quarrel with his 
hired man because he would not curry the 
cows. It is a great mistake not to provide au 
abundance of green food for extra feeding in 
summer. The cow is a machiae for convert- 
ing food into milk, an 1 the more she will eat 
the better. It is great folly to give abui'dance 
of food when it happens to be plenty and to 
starve the animals when f :od is scarce. Com- 
fortable quarters, shelter, and a good yard 
save half the food. He believed Mr. Lewis 
claimed t lat it saved three-quarters of the 
food. He did not agree with Mr. Lewis in 
regard to Durham being the best breed. True, 
they are better for food. But we want milk. 
A Durham cow will eat heiself up twice a 
year before she is ready to turn off at the end 
of the year. He prefers the Ayrshire. 



Tanning Leather. — It is often a matter 
of both conveuierce and economy in the 
household or the farm to be able to do a little 
tanning; so we give here an approved recipe 
which may prove useful. Soak the skiu or 
hide eight or nine days In water, then put it 
in lime ; take it out, and remove the hair by 
rubbing, and soak it in c ear water until the 
lime is entirely out. Pat one pound of alum 
to three of salt ; dissolve in a vessel suffi- 
ciently large to hold the hide : soak the hide 
in it three or four days ; then take it out, let 
it get half dry, and then beat or rub it until 
it becomes pliable. Leather prepared by this 
process will not do well for shoes, but answers 
for hamstrings, back-bands, and various other 
purposes on the farm. — Boston Journal of 
Chemistry, 



THE LAMCASTER FARMER. 



161 



BOOK AND SPECIAL NOTICE DE- 
PARTMENT. 

OUR BOOK TABLE. 

Papbrs Rboeived.— American Bank Circular, Journal 
of the Farm, National Oil Journal, The Copy Hook, Real 
Estate and Farm Journal, California Horticulturist, Month- 
ly Report, Department Agriculture, Everybody's Journal, 
American Stock Journal, Farm and Fireside Journal, ^a- 
tional Live Stock Journal, Practical Farmer, Western Po- 
mologist and Gardener, Penna.School Journal, Proceedings 
National Agricultural Convention, Farmers' Club, Indus- 
trial Bulletin, American Farmer^' Advocate, Free Press^ 
American Land and Law Advisor, Our Church Work, 
American Agriculturist, Wood's Household Magazine, 
American Homes, The Valley Independent, N. Y. Ob- 
eerver, N. Y. Independent,N. Y. Rural Register, Manheim 
Sentinel, and other good publicatiocs which we really re- 
gret have neither time nor space to more than mention this 
month. 

p^ We have never yet seen a book of testimonials containing 
more valuable evidence of real merit in an article spoken 
of, than the little pamphlet entitled, " What people say 
about the Blanchard Churn." .Send to any dealer in dairy 
implements for one of them. 

The Lady's Friend for AnouST. — The leading engrav- 
ing in this number is that of a most lovely lady on a 
balcony, waving her handkerchief— a beautiful picture. 
''MoouiightatSea,"isalsosomethingexqaisite. The illustra- 
tions of stylish costumes and tasteful novelties in dress are 
rathtr more than usually captivating we should say. Al- 
together this August number of the Lady's Friend presents 
as entertaining a feast of light reading for the warm weather 
as could well be found. Price, S2.00 a year. Four copies, 
$6. Eight copies (and one gratis) $12. " The Lady's Friend" 
and "The Saturday Evening Post," $4. Published by 
Deacon & Petersoa, Philadelphia. Single copies for saie 
by all news dealers and by the Publishers, price 20 cents. 

" Lights and Shadows of New York Life ; or, the Sights and 
Sensations of the Great City." A work descriptive of New 
York City in all Hs vartous j>hases. lis ti'lindois and 
Wretchedness; Its High and low Life; Its Mmble Palaces 
and Dark Dens ; its Attractions a:cd Daggers ; Its Rings and 
Jfrauds : Its Leading Men and I'ldiiicians ; Its Adventurers ; 
Its Mysteries and Crimes. By James D. McVabe, Jr. 

What Paris is to the Frenchman, or London to the Briton, 
New York is to the American. It is not only the Metrop- 
olis, but it is the chief attraction upon this continent, the 
great center to which men and women resort tor both busi- 
ness and pleasure, and as such is a source of never -failing 
interest. Of late years several attempts have been made 
to reproduce its varied attractions in book form. The 
most successful result of these efibrts is the book cow be- 
fore us. The author has had unusual facilities to see every 
feature of the great city, and has written the work with an 
enthusiasm which is apparent in every page. He has not 
merely produced a t-ensational story, but has given us a 
record of actual facta, of which he is personally cogni- 
sant. 

The book is as fascinating and absorbing as a novel, and 
were it not for the evidence he furnishes, we should be 
tempted to believe that he has carried us into the realm 
of fiction. He tells us the history of the great city which 
has grown to be the most remarkable in America, and re- 
lates its old traditions with zest and humor. He introduces 
us to all classes of people, and initiates us into their ways 
and manner of life. He brings us face to face with great 
merchants and bankers, actors, editors, working-women. 



ballot girlsthieves, ganblcrs, sailors, quacks, firemen and 
and a host of ot lers. He delights us with his sketclie of 
the better and brighter side of city life, of the genius, en- 
terprise, charity and humanity of the great city, and appals 
us With his thrillicg accounts of the darker and more terri- 
ble side of life he is delinentiug. 

A truthful picture of New York life cannot be otherwise 
than deeply interesting. Our author has succeeded admir- 
ably in his task, and we predict Jor his book a large sale. 
It is brimful of useful information, brilliant and fascinat- 
ing, and an emphatic w.'irniug against the vices of the city- 
It is pure and lofty in tone, and while it disjusses fully 
many of the darker sides of city liie, it do-s so with deli- 
cacy and candor. An interesiing feature of the book is a 
powerfully written history of the Tammany Ring frauds, 
with sketches of the actors therein. 

It is compris, d in one large octavo volume of 850 pages, 
illustrated with nearly 2.)0 tiaa engravings of noted places 
life and scenes in New York, and publishedby the National 
Publishing Co., of Philadelphia. 

The low price at which the work is issued, brii;gs it with- 
in the reach of all, and no one who wants to know New 
York as it really is, shoult' fail to buy this book. It is pub- 
lished in Englifch and German, sold by subscription only 
and agents are wanted in every county. 

It is no joke, but a fact, that the Blanchard Chum is lit- 
erally an Automatic Butter Jiluker. Try it for yourself. Send 
to any dealer in flrst-class farm machinery for a circular ot 
a churn. 



PHILADELPHIA MARKETS. 

Wednesday, July 24. 

Flour — The movements continue of a limited character- 
and we have no cuange to lecord in prices. The demand 
for dour is confined chiefly to thj vaiits of the home con- 
sumers. Sales of (wO barrels Mirket Street Mills on secret 
ttfruis; supeffln^i in lots at S.5i5.50; oxtriis at $.5.75,i6.25 ; 
Iowa and Minnesota extra family at J7a8.25; Pennsylva- 
nia, Ohio and Indiana do. do. at i?iiS.75, and tiigti grade* 
at $9411)50. Nothing doing ia rya fl jur or corn m^al. 

Gkain — The ortferings of wheit are sm ill and pricei 
steady. Sal's oi 7.000 bisheK ; oM Western red at l.SOa 
1.82; new Southern do at $1 67 1I.75. and white t $2. No 
sa'e.sof rve. Corn is dull. Saies of yeilow at Sic , and 
6000 bushels mixe Western at 59.i6ic. Oats quiet. SilM 
of white at 42c ; 7000 b ishels d ;. on secret terms, and mix- 
ed at 40a41.-. The receipts to- lay .'ire as follows: 1229 t;)ar- 
res tlour, 7,200 bushels whe it, 36,80j bushels corn, 8 500 
bu.«hel8 oats, 597 barrels whisky. 

Provisions continue quiet, but v'rices are firm. Sales- 
ef M^ssPork at !ifl4al4 25 per bbl. Citv packed extra 
MessB^ef is 'aken at $14..50al5 per hbl Bacon is steady. 
Sales of plain sugar-cure.l city smoke i H <ms at l5al6o, can- 
vssed western ac 15>^al6, sides at 80, and ^-boulders at 6c. 
Green Meats are higuev. Sales of [)icklsd Hams at 13>ia 
14c, and shoulders in salt at 5% c. Lard is quiet ; sales at 9* 
0)(c per lb. 

cjEEDS. — There is very little doing in clover ; small sales 
at llalixc. per lb. Flaxseed sjld atft2.10,and Timothy 
at i3.50 per bushel. 



NEW YORK MAIiKEIS. 

V.'E1>NE.SDAV, July 24. 

Flour and Meal. — There was a fair demand for l«cal' 
wants, and moderately far export inquiry. Minnesota 
firmer anii fairly iictive. Wisconsin choice biought higher 
prices. Southern St. Louis and t^outhern Illinois steady and 
in fair demand. Sliipping grad.s fw irce. Extra State in 
limited supply. Medium grades rather in buyera' favor. 
Superfine -nii No 2 in bettei' deiriaui, without improve- 
ment in prices. (}oru m- al rfioro active. We quote: Flour 
— Supprfiiie, ^tate Slid We tern, !» h'jl. , $5.80a5.S5 ; ■ xtr» 
State, &c,, $() 50aG 75 ; Western spriuii; wh'.>at extras $6 20a 
6 50; do. douhle extras, $7.50a8 .50 ; do. winter wheat ex- 
tras and ilouble extras S7al0.50 ; city shppin? extra, $6.75a 
7; city trade and family bra'id-,S7.5) ilO ; .So itberndo do. 
$8 75.tlO 25 ; do. shipping extras, $7.25a8. Rye flour S4.25 
a5. Corn meal— Western, &C., $3.10a3.40; Brinlywine,, 
dec, $3.70a3.85. 



162 



THE LAJ^CASTER FARMER, 



Provisions.— Pork active and Arm ; 2,500 bbts atf$13.75 
for July, and 13.75al3 SO (or August. Beef unchanged. 
Bacon about steady ; 350 bxs. sold at 7%c. for long clear 
for next week, and 7c. f'«r new short rib. In cut meats 
sales of about 25tcs. pickled bellies at 6%c., and about 25tc8. 
bagged smoked hams, at 14}/^c. Lard was quietbut steady ; 
450 tes sold at 9^40 for western for Jul-, 8>^c. for fair new 
do., and 81-^c. for prime city. Dressed hog^ firmer at 6i^a 
6%c. Butter unsettled; prime State quoted at 24a26 c, 
and Orange county pails 25a30c., the latter for selections in 
a small way. Cheese active and firm Eggs firmer at 
lSal9c. for western, loss off. 

Grain. — Wheat Ic. higher on spring but less active. The 
demand was for both milling and export ; sales of 62,000 
bushels at $1.50 afloat for Ko. 1 Milwaukie spring, $1.48a 
1.48>^ for Milwaukie No. 2 spring, $1.45al.46 for No. 2 Chi- 
cago (spring, SI. 60al 63 for winter red western, and $1.80a 
1 90 for white Tennessee. Corn flrmt-r ; sales 138,000 bush- 
els at 61}/^i62c. for western mixed prime sail, 58h58;4c- for 
warm, 59a60c.for steamer mixed, Q(i%c. in store for western 
mixed sail, 62xar3i;. tor yellow western, 6la63c, for straw 
colored, and GSaCSo. for white western. Oats steadv ; sales 
72,000 bu.she 8 at 41i^al2c. in store, and 43.i43!^c. afloat for 
No. 2 Chicago, 46)^ c. on the track for fancy white and 
46a47c. afloat for good to choice white Ohio and State. Kye 
— S les 8,000 bushels western at 71c. in store. Canada peas 
flat at 90a95c. in bond. 



LIVE STOCK MARKET. 

New York, Wednesday, July 'lA. 

The market was fair and most of the cattle were sold at 
ptevioui quotations, llal3c, '^ ft>, good, fleshy steers selling 
generally at 12a]2>^c. 

Calves were in demand at6a9c. for milk-fed, with a few 
sold at 9i^al0c. 

Sheep were firm at 5a7c. f. ft)., with the bulk of the sales 
at 5%fiM%<i. Lamb3 were barely steady at lOalSc. for ordi- 
nar >' to inoiee. 

The hog slaughterers sold dressed hogs at BJ^afi^c. ^ R)., 
.an advano* of about J^c. None were oftered alive. 



CHICAGO MARKET. 

Chicago, July 24. 

Flour— Quietjand unchanged ; extra spring, $6.25a6.80 ; 
Buperflne, 3.60a4.25. 

Wheat — Opened fair but closed dull ; No. 2 spring Chi- 
cago sold at Sl.25 ; closed at Sl.28%, cash for July ; $1.17i^a 
1.18, seller August ; No. 1 ditto, $1.26al.26]^ ; No. 3 spring, 
81.10. 

Corn — Fair demand and prices advanced ; No. 2 mixed, 
40}^c.; regular, 41c. for fresh, cash ; 41»^a41X,seller August j 
43c. seller September ; rejected, Zl]/^c. 

Oats —Fair and advanced ; No. 2. 26%c. cash ; 25^0. sel- 
ler August. 

Ryb— Steady; No. 2 55a55i^c. 

Barley— Quiet and uncharged; no sales. 

Provisions— Pork market buoyant but unsettled ; cash 
nominally $14 75 ; sales seller August at $14.50 ; held at 
$14.62J^ at the close. Bulk meats, demand good at full prices, 
shoulaers, 51^0.; clear lib sides, lit'!}^c., loose. Bacon, de- 
mand gooj at mil prices; shoulders. 6a6J,^c.; clear ribs, 
■7%a7J^c.; clear sides, S^nS^c. Sugar-cured hams, 13il5c. 
All packed. 

CATTLE MARKET. 

Monday, July 22. 

The cattle market was quite active this week, and prices 
were higher . 21.000 head arrived and sold at 7i4a7^c. for 
extra Pennsylvania and western steers; 6a7c. lor lair to 
good do., anaSaS^C'^fti,, gross for common, as to quality. 

Cows were oull; 200 head were sold at $30;i46 W head 

Skeep were in good demand ; 3000 head sold at 6a6>^c^ 
fi) , gross, as to condition. 

Hog.s were higher ; 3100 head sold at the different yards 
at $7.25a7.60 ^ 100 lbs. net. 



EULES FOR THE CARE OF SHEEP. 

ACIEICULAR issued by F. C. D. McKay, 
the general agent of the American Emi- 
"-rant Company, gives the following : The 
' have already 10,000 sheep scattered 



among the farmers who purchase land of 
them, in flocks ranging in size from 50 to 200 
head. 

I. Keep sheep dry under foot with litter. 
This is even more necessary than ropfing 
them. Never let them stand or lie iu mud or 
snow. 

2 Take up iamb rams early in the summer, 
and keep them up until December 1, follow- 
ing, when they may be turned out. 

3. Drop or take out the lowest bars, thus 
saving broken limbs. 

4. Count every day. 

5. Begin graining with the greatest care, 
and use the smallest quantity at first. 

0. If a ewe loses her lamb, milk her daily, 
for a few days, and mix a little alum with her 
salt. 

7. Let no hogs eat with the sheep, by any 
means, in the Spring. 

8. Give the lambs a little mill feed in time 
of weaning. 

9. Never frighten sheep, if possible to avoid 
it. 

10. Sow rye for weak ones in cold weather, 
if you can. 

II. Separate all weak or thin or sick, from 
those strong, in the fall, aad give them spe- 
cial care. 

12. If any sheep is hurt, catch it at once 
and wash the wound ; and if it is fly time ap- 
ply spirits of turpentine daily, and always 
wash with something healing. If a limb is 
broken, bind it up with splinters slightly loos- 
ening as the limb swells. 

13. Keep a number of good bells on the 
sheep. 

14. Do not let the sheep spoil wool with 
chaff or burs. 

15. Cut tag locks in early spring. 

16. For scours, give pulverized alum in 
wheat bran ; prevent by taking great care in 
changing dry for green feed. 

17. If one is lame, examine the foot, clean 
out between the hoofs, pare the hoofs if un- 
sound, and apply tobacco with blue vitriol 
boiled in a little water. 

18. Shear at once any sheep commencing to 
shed its wool, unless the weather is too se- 
vere, and save carefully the pelt of an"\ sheep 
that dies. 

19. Have at least one good work by you 
for reference. This will be money in your 
pocket. 



site InntHst^r cvfarmer. 



DEVOTED TO 



Agriculture, Horticulture, Domestic Economy and Miscellany' 

EDITED BY S. S. RATHVON' AND ALEXANDER HARRIS. 
** T/te Farmer is the founder of c'tvUizdtion.'' — WEBSTER. 



Vol. ir. 



SEPTEMBER, 1872. 



J\o. 9. 



EASTERN EXPERIMENTAL FARM OP 
PENNSYLVANIA. 

BY H. M. ENGLE. 

THIS Institution, with all its progress and en- 
ergetic management, is almost unknown to 
the larger portion of farmers and citizens of east- 
ern Pennsylvania, for whose special benefit it was 
established. It is located near West Grove, 
Chester county, and was purchased and is con- 
ducted as a branch of the Agricultural College 
farm in Center county, Penna. 

Thos. Harvey, its first superintendent, although 
laboring under many disadvantages, succeeded in 
putting it on a good working basis, so far as fi- 
nancial means would allow. John I. Carter (son 
of Henry Carter of this county), the present 
superintendent, is also working industriously to 
bring the farm to the standard for which it was 
originally intended, i. e., to make a succession of 
experiments in everything that pertains to agri- 
culture, horticulture, pomology and dairying. 

The benefits which may eventually be derived 
from said experiments by those engaged in the 
above departments of industry are at present ap- 
preciated by few, but it is to be hoped that the 
time is not distant when such establishments will 
be considered indispensable. Farmers and others 
are beginning to see that with the high prices 
for which farms sell in this section it will not 
pay to grow uncertain crops. 

Thorough scientific and practical experiments 
only will bring farm husbandry upon a reliable 
basis. 

It is evident that those engaged in the above 
pursuits cannot afford individually to make the 
experiments necessary to strictly successful tillage 
of the soil ; hence the importence of experimental 
farms. 



Having had , the pleasure of attending the 
monthly meeting of the Experimental Farm Club, 
which met on the 25th ult., I was so favorably 
impressed with the proceedings that I would ad- 
vise the establishment of such a farm, or at least a 
farmers' club, in every township. There were at 
least one hundred persons in attendance, among 
whom were quite a number of ladies. The ma- 
jority were from Chester county, but there were 
some from our own (Lancaster) and other coun- 
ties. The subject before the meeting was : Causes 
of failure in the wheat crop, and how to prevent a 
recurrence of the same, which was warmly discuss- 
ed ; but no definite conclusion was reached. It 
was then continued for next meeting. 

Prof. Cook, of New Jersey Agricultural Col- 
lege, who had been announced to deliver a lecture 
before the meeting, was then introduced, and gave 
a very interesting and instructive lecture on Dai- 
rying in England, Holland, Sweden and Norway. 
Space forbids ray giving a report in detail, but 
suffice it to say that the professor did ample jus- 
tice to his subject. Vie of this section are sadly 
in want of light on the importance of dairying, 
while Chester and other of the eastern counties 
are wide awake, where this business forms an ex- 
tensive part of farm husbandr3\ As the country 
becomes more densely populated a more diversified 
farm industry becomes indispensable. 

Proper management and detailed reports of the 
results of experimental farms will supply in a 
great measure the wants created by such diversi- 
fied farm husbandry. 

I have no fault to find with the management of 
said experimental farm, but would rather censure 
the farming comnmnity of eastern Pennsylvania 
for its want of co-operation in bringing the farm 
to the standard which it should have reached at 
this period. 



164 



THE LAJ^CASTER FARMER. 



The superintendents and managers have labored 
industriously to make the farm what it should be, 
but the financial means have never been adequate 
for the objects aimed at. A moderate appropria- 
tion by the State sufficed to put up several build- 
ings and repair others, but more funds are neces- 
sary to make improvements of which the enter, 
prise is sadly in need. Some contend that it should 
be self-sustaining, but such have only a faint idea 
of the many little, but none the less important, 
things requiring strict and constant attention; 
for instance, the testing side by side of 20 varieties 
of wheat and as many of potatoes, or the same 
kind sown or planted at different periods, or a cer- 
tain variety manured with ten or a dozen kinds of 
fertilizers, the planting and sowing at different 
distances or depths, selection of seeds and testing 
of farm implements, the test of various kinds of 
fruits, and their cultivation, pruning and training ; 
vegetables of various kinds and their different 
modes of culture ; stock raising and the compara- 
tive value of different bloods for beef, milk or 
butter ; dairying, with best methods for making 
butter and cheese and shipping milk, and many 
other practical experiments which are being made 
from time to time. 

An accurate account must also be kept of the 
condition of crops at different stages of their 
growth ; and the results carefully noted. It be- 
ing necessary to repeat these experiments for suc- 
cessive years to anive at reliable conclusions, it 
will readily be seen that the management of an 
experimental farm requires close application, un- 
ceasing labor and liberal donations of money, to 
accomplish valuable results. 

It is to be hoped that not only a few farmers, 
but the entire community of eastern Pennsyl- 
vania, will give this institution both moral and 
material aid sufficient to fully develope it, and 
the beneficial results which will flow therefrom 
■will only be fully appreciated by posterity. 

AGRICULTURAL. 

[We had intended to condense that part of the 
census of 1870 which related to agricultural products 
for the use of our rcadere, but we find this so ably 
and satisfactorily accomplished in the following, 
that we have concluded to transfer it entire to 
our columns instead. No doubt some of our 
readers will be surprised to find that the products 
of some of our important crops have decreased 
during the last decade, especially the production 



of Indian corn ; and, also, that the increase in pota 
toes has been- so small, to say nothing about 
sweet-potatoes and other items, which certainly 
should have increased to show a thoroughly 
healthy condition of the products of the country. 
Now why is this '? Is it possible that the great 
increase in the tobacco crop in the Middle States 
has had anything to do with diminishing the crops 
of corn and potatoes ? This ought not to be so 
at the next taking of the census in reference to 
the two sustaining products of the country, and 
the very two which, in case of an emergency, the 
poorer classes are compelled to most rely upon. 
Whatever money the cultivation of tobacco may 
put into the pockets of the growers, dealers, and 
speculators, it never can supply the place of corn 
and potatoes in a time of need.] 

THE FARMERS' PROGRESS. 

Extraordinary Increase of Our Agricultu- 
ral Products. 
THE New York Evening Post, in a review of 
the census report, says : Our increase in all 
the chief articles of agricultural produce, as 
shown by the census report, is something enor- 
mous. Wine has increased fourteen fold since 
1850, and nearly doubled in the last decade, Cali- 
fornia being its chief producer. Hops have in- 
creased seven fold in the same time, and more 
than doubled in the last ten years. New York 
growing two-thirds of the whole crop. Barley 
has increased six fold. Flax six fold, and flaj;:- 
seed trebled. Wheat trebled and oats doubled. 
Irish potatoes has only increased one-third, and 
sweet decreased one-half. 

Live stock trebled in value, and now amounts 
to the handsome total of one thousand five hun- 
dred and twenty-five millions of dollars, or an 
average of nearly two huudi'ed dollars for every 
family in the nation. Animals slaughtered have 
nearly quadrupled in value, now amounting to 
four hundred millions of dollars annually. 

Wool has increased from sixty to one hundred 
millions of pounds. 

Cotton is half a million of bales above what it 
was in 1850, and three-fifths of its amount in 
1860. 

In only one instance is there a decrease of an 
important product, and that is in Indian corn, 
which falls short of the amount reported in 1860 
by seventy-eight millions of bushels, or ten per 
cent, of the whole. 

In some of the lesser products, however, the 



2 HE LAJf CASTER FABMER. 



165 



downcome is considerable. Silk cocoons are only 
a third of their former amount, hemp a sixth, peas 
and beans and rice about a third each. Buck- 
wheat has decreased from seventeen millions of 
bushels to sixteen. 

The farms themselves, as may be expected from 
this great increase of product, have risen in value 
from three to nine thousand millions of dollars, 
while farming implements, valued in 1850 at 
$1.51..5S7,6:)8, now foots up $330,878,429, an 
annual increase of nine millions of dollars. Few 
minds can form even the remotest conception of 
what these numbers imply. The value of the 
farms in dollar bills would take an expert account- 
ant, capable of getting over one hundred a min- 
ute, five hundred years to count them, or if Com- 
munists and luteriuitionals had their way. and 
their value was divided equally among the whole 
people, it would afford !$1,000 to each family, in 
addition to the million or two which would be 
sure to stick to the hands of the dividers. 

The farms have consideraljly increased in num- 
bers, but diminished in size, from 199 to 153 acres, 
being on an average fifty acres, each, less than in 
1850. This decrease extends to every State in 
the Union save four : Arkansas, Massachusetts, 
New Hampshire and New Mexico. Of the pres- 
ent number of farms (2,659,485) 6,875 are under 
three acres. Those with more than 10 acres and 
less than 500, have increased, those with less than 
10 acres decreased in number, one-sixth of the 
whole are over 100 acres and under 500, but the 
largest number (847,614) contain between 20 and 
50 acres. 

In France the extension of railways is said to 
have had the effect of shifting much of the wine 
product to those districts best adapted to the pur- 
pose, and most convenient to market. With us a 
process at least in part the reverse seems going on. 
Great exertions have been made from time to time, 
and much money expended, to get fla.x culture 
localized as an industry in New England and some 
of the >[iddle States, where the land for its pro- 
ducts is of the best description, and facilities for 
market all that could be desired. But it could 
nut be done, and it is now rapidly disappearing 
from those States that took most care to extend 
and keep it, and going West, to where the land is 
not better, if so good, for the finer qualities, and 
where the best part of the product — the fiber — 
has to be thrown to the manure heap, for want of 
a market. There it is extending with surprising 
rapidity, apparently without special effort on the 
part of any one to get it to do so. 



Twenty years ago Kentucky supplied nearly 
a third of all our flax product ; Virginia and New 
York about a million of pounds each, making up 
together as much as Kentucky ; and Ohio sup- 
plied less than half million of pounds. But now 
Ohio has nearly forty times its former product, 
while Kentucky has only a tenth of it, and Vir- 
ginia has gone dowoi to a seventh. The chief flax 
producing States are: Ohio, 18,0()!),000 of 
pounds, or two-thirds of our whole product of 
27,133,039 pounds, (the product in 1850 was only 
7,209,670 pounds;) New York, 3,000,000, and 
Illinois 2,000,000 ; while New England, with the 
exception of a little in Maine and Vermont, may 
be said to have ceased to be flax-producing ; as 
have also Alabama, Delaware and Georgia. 

New York has now, as hitherto, aljout a sixth 
of the whole milch cows of the nation, and used 
to occupy a similar position as to working oxen ; 
but now Texas has t\5rice the number it can show. 
California has increased its sheep from 17,574 to 
5,768,187, being an increase of 160 fold, and the 
largest made by any State in any important article. 
Louisiana still grows nearly all the sugar, but the 
pigs have changed their headquarters from Ten- 
nessee and Kentucky to Illinois and Missouri.. 
Pennsylvania, which used to be the highest in the 
production of wheat, is now sixth upon the list, 
Illinois with 30, Iowa with 29, Ohio and Indiana 
with 27 each, and Wisconsin with 25, all coming 
before its nineteen millions of bushels. 

The agriciUtural position of New England is a 
puzzle which Oedipus himself could not unravel. 
A people in the foremost rank for intelligence, 
force and good sense, more bent usually than most 
others in doing the right and the best, when op- 
portunity offers — taking time by the forelock and 
not putting off till to-morrow what can be done 
to-day ; having before them line upon line, pre- 
cept upon precept ; supported by experience on 
experience, as to the possibility, propriety and ad- 
vantage of very greatly increasing their agricul- 
tural product at little or no increase of trouble, 
they stand face to face with a deteriorating posi- 
tion, with bountiful Nature ready to increase her 
product to almost any amount and put millions of 
dollars in their pockets, but they don't put forth, 
a hand to help her or show any desire to be the 
recipient of her increased bounty. 

They are content to go on year after year with, 
every important crop decreasing in amount. 
Wheat, corn, oats, sheep, butter, swine, flax, 
wool and potatoes, all " getting smaller by de- 
grees," and not " beautifully" but miserably " less," 



166 



TEE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



with even the bees — the prototj^pe of their former 
iictivity, as if ashamed of the situation — leavino; 
them, and honey and wax becoming a diminishing 
product. The only item in which New England 
has any credit, during the last decade, is cattle, of 
which there is a large inci'ease. both in the value 
of the slaughtered and the live stock ; to this 
Connecticut ailds a large increase in tobacco, not 
exactly the direclion in which we should expect 
" the land of steady habits" and utilitarian pro- 
jects to be most progressive. The increase of 
manufactures will not put money into the pockets 
of the farmers, unless they have something to 
sell ; but, going on as they hiwe been, their bread 
products will soon hardly sufBce for their own 
families, and New England, agriculturally, will be 
like a withered branch on a fruitful tree, or a 
sluggard's field brought into bold relief by con- 
trast with its neighbor, New York — active, ener- 
getic, prosrressive, always excelling in the most 
useful and best jiaying products, and those espe- 
cially which New England is so much neglecting. 
With their brains and money there is no ex- 
cuse for the people of New England occupying 
s»ch a position, but a little eSbrt and change of 
system is needed to make this country a beautiful 
garden, aifording, in richest abundance, the 
choicest and most desirable products, and they owe 
it to themselves and the nation, but especially to 
the high character of New England in other re- 
spects, to make their agricultural system also ex- 
cellent, and thus get in accord with the rest of the 
nation and with themselves in other and even less 
important particulars. 



PLOWING TWICE FOR WHEAT. 

A CORRESPONDENT of the Cincinnati 
Gazette writes : 
If any one will break his ground deeply and 
thoroughly two or three times during the spring 
and summer, the extra amount of wheat per acre 
will pay for plowing, and leave a handsome profit 
beside. I have tested this practice several times, 
with the most satisfactory results. In 18G9 I had 
a field of 16 acres of like fertility. I expected 
to plant half of the field in corn, but for some 
reason I did not. In the half that had been 
plowed for corn after the ground had been broke, 
the weeds grew more rapidly. Consequently I 
broke it again the 20th of June. On the first of 
September following I plowed the entire field, 
and sowed in wheat. The result T^-as as follows : 
The half which had only received a single plow- 



ing yielded per acre 13 bushels and 18 pounds ; 
the half that "received three breakings yielded per 
acre 23 bushels and 40 pounds, which made a dif- 
ference of more than 10 bushels per acre. xVt 
one dollar per bushel this would pay for the extra 
plowing, and leave a net extra profit of six dol- 
lars per acre beside. 

Vai,ue of Nioitt Soil. — Liebig relates that in 
the fortress of Rastadt and in the soldiers' bar- 
racks of Baden, generally, the privies are so con- 
structed that the seats open, through wide funnels, 
into casks fixed upon cart^;. l>y this method the 
whole of the excrement, both fiuid and solid, is 
collected without the least loss. When the casks 
are full they are replaced by empty ones. The 
farmers about Rastadt and other garrison towns 
having found out by experience the powerful fer- 
tilizing effects of these excrements upon their 
fields, now pay for every full cask a certain sum 
(still rising in price every year), which not only 
has long since repaid the original outlay, beside 
covering the annual cost of maintenance, repairs, 
etc., but actually leaves a handsome profit to the 
department. The results brought about in these 
districts are highly interesting. Sandy wastes, 
more particularly in the vicinity of Rastadt and 
Carlsruhe, have been turned into smiling corn- 
fyelds of groat fertility. 



-A Large Wheat Field. — It is claimed 
that a farmer named Mitchell, in the San 
Joaquin Yalley, California, is the largest wheat- 
grower in the United States. Early in March 
he had planted 35,000 acres, and expected to 
make the amount over 40,000 by the mid- 
dle of that month. At 1.5 bushels per acre, 
which may not be too high an estimate this year, 
this would give a crop of 600,000 bushels, and 
that at 60 cents per bushel — not a high estimate 
— would bring !$360,000. The average expense of 
planting and harvesting wheat in that region 
is estimated at ^4 per acre, which would leave a 
clear profit of 1^200,000. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL. 

MORE ABOUT THE COLORADO POTATO- 
BEETLE, ETC. 

SINCE our last issue, Mr. H. S. M. brought 
us specimens of the beetles which he had 
picked off his potato vines during July and Au- 
gust. He reports that they had generally disap- 



THE LAJ^CASTER FARMER. 



1G7 



pearcd from his field — only here and there a per- 
fect beetle could be found. This disa])pearance 
niay however lead to a fatal apathy, if too much 
dependence is placed in it. As soon as the larvce 
is matured it goes into the ground and is there 
transformed into a beetle, and every female comes 
forth endowed with the power to deposit one 
thousand eggs, within the next twenty days. 
There is some consolation, however, in the assur- 
ance that when the ground becomes exceedingly 
dry and hot many of these larvie perish. Still no 
potato cultivator ought to abate one iota of his 
vigilance on that account. 

It has also been demonstrated in the Western 
States that these beetles have been found feeding 
on five or six species of Solanum as well as on the 
tomato, eggplant, night shade, and Jimson weed, 
also the ground cherry, and even the cabbage and 
raspberry, so that when they have destroyed the 
cultivated potato there is an abundance of other 
food to fall back upon. 

It has also transpired in various localities, in 
the "West, that ducks and chickens can be educat- 
ed to eat them, and soon become fond of them, and 
that if, therefore, coops containing hens and their 
broods are set in the potato fields, the young 
chickens will destroy large numbers daily, of the 
smaller larvce at least. Crows, partridges and 
skunks, are also said to feed on them, and these, to- 
gether with their numerous insect foes, may assist 
the farmers to extinguish them. 

We have received a letter from a member of 
the Kansas colony, stating that our article in the 
August number of the Farmer agrees substan- 
tially with their experience on this subject, and he 
admonishes the farmers of Lancaster county to use 
their utmost vigilance to prevent the beetle from 
getting a foothold here. Last year_ it almost 
totally " used up" their crop, and this year they 
are engaged in •' fighting it down.'' 

In regard to the "little garden white" or "cab- 
bage worm," we have only to say that the country 
everywhere is teeming with them, and that pro- 
bably not a single effort has been made to destroy 
a single one of them. If nothing should trans- 
pire, of a climatic character, between now and 
the next Spring season, to dimii;iish or destroy 
these insects in their jri;j)a; hybernation, or if no 
insect, enemy to them should, in the meantime, be 
developed, and the present apathy on the part of 
\cabbage growers continues, we don't see how the 
cabbage crop, next year, can possibly escape total 
destruction ; for we have never seen, in all our ex- 
perience, so many butterflies of any one species — 



not even our common yellow — so numerous, as 
this little white l)nttertly is at the present time 
in the city of Lancaster and vicinity. 

Mr. Glover, in his report to the Department of 
Agriculture, for 1871, states that the -'white 
helebore." which has been so freely recommended, 
although destructive to the currant and gooseberry 
worm, has little or no effect on the " green-worm," 
of the cabbage, and that therefore cabbage culti. 
vators should depend upon 

First: Vigilant and persevering handpicking. 

f'^'rrond: Destroying it in its j)ttpa state, and 

Third: In capturing and destroying the but- 
terflies. 

Although this worm, in its early stage, is so 
near the color of the plant as to be often over- 
looked, yet when it is nearly or quite full grown 
it is very noticeable, and is as easily picked as pick- 
ing berries. These worms sometimes change to a 
pupa on the cabbage leaf, but they generally seek 
the lower side of a fence-rail. If, therefore, rough 
strips of board, three or four inches from the 
ground, were distributed among the cabbages, the 
insects would resort to them, and might be daily 
gathered and destroyed. To catch the butterflies, 
a wire hoop, on the end of a broom-handle, with 
a gauze bag-net attached to the end, will make a 
good instrument. If thistles in bloom arc visited 
early in the morning, when the butterflies are 
hungry, they can be captured very easily with the 
hand, only exercising an ordinary amount of cau- 
tion. The slightest pressure will then kill them 
and prevent egg-laying. R. 



INSECTS " FIDDLING." 

'"1~^]IE chirping and singing of the cricket and 
^ grasshoi)pcr are fre(|uently spoken of, but 
they do not sing — they fiddle. By rubbing the 
wings and legs together — each in a manner pecu- 
liar to the species — these insects produce the 
sound which characterize them. Perhaps our 
best insect instrument perfornaer is the " katydid." 
Each wing contains a little tamborine, and by the 
opening and shutting of the Avinga these rub 
against each other, and produce the sound of 
" katy-did-she-did," which can be heard at such a 
long distance, and .gives the insect its name. 
These sounds are supposed to be useful in enab- 
ling insects to find their mates ; or they may in- 
dulge in them for their own gratification, and too 
add to the general harmony of nature. 
In addition to the above, we may mention ako 



168 



TEE LAjYCASTER FARMER* 



Hie fact that male insects alone are endowed 
with the " fiddling" facilities, the females being 
doomed to perpetual silence — poor things ; but, 
per contra, the females alone possess the abdomi- 
nal sting, and power to inflict a wound there- 
with — cruel things ; and furthermore, it is only 
the female gad-flies, horse-flies and mosquitos, 
that puncture the bodies of animals, and suck 
heir blood, or deposit therein their eggs — wretch- 
ed things. It is true that all insects that are al^le to 
fly have more or less power to make a humming 
noise, by the action of their wings in flight, or in 
their efforts to escape, when taken in the hand. 
For instance, the common '" mud-wasps" {SJiex 
pensylvamca and cerulea) mak'e a sharp, hum- 
ming noise while they are in the act of adding 
a new pillet of mud to their nests, which seems 
to assist them in incorporating the fresh material 
with the old,but no female insects possess what is re- 
garded as the vocal apparatus, if it can be prop- 
erly called vocal. The little " tamborine" above 
alluded to is not located in all insects alike. 
In the katy-did, crickets, and the grasshoppers 
in general, it is located on the back, at or under 
the base of the wings, whilst in the cicadas the 
musical organs are under the base of the abdo- 
men, or attached to the metasternum. Of course, 
the object of the musical faculty in insects is 
more or less conjectural, but it is supposed to be 
for the purpose of attracting the opposite sex, 
Avhich is a rather reversal of the order, as it ob- 
tained in the human family, where the females 
are esteemed the sirens, instead of the males. 
But the attractive qualities are not cdl on 
one side of the insect world, for the " glow-worm," 
which is only the female of species of ktrnji- 
yris, is luminous, and this luminosity is supposed 
to be given her for the purpose of attracting the 
male, for she is entirely wingless and doomed to 
the nether earth, where the male could never 
find her, without this beacon of love. 

Although not of a specially practical character, 
yet it may be useful to our readers to Tcno^o some- 
thing about the " fiddling" and other qualities of 
some of the denizens of the insect world. R. 



THE APPLE-TREE BORER. 

"I" AVING seen a great many remedies, and 
j[ ^ great many plans for destroying the 
apple-tree borer, and none of them very satisfac- 
tory, suppose I give a case from actual knowledge 
of my own : 

" My neighbor put out an orchard of fifty trees ; 



they were four years old from the graft, and as 
they had not been very well pruned in the nursery, 
pruning was done at the time of transplant- 
ing. The trees started all right in the spring, but, 
alas ! the borer. The trees were i)unctured from 
root to branch, and took on the usual sickly ap- 
pearance. The owner concluded to try an exper- 
iment, for it was nothing but death anyhow, so he 
prepared a whitewash as follows : Take fresh slaked 
lime and coal oil sufficient to make a good white- 
wash, and put it on with a brush from root to 
branch, or as high as the borer had been working. 
This proved a perfect success, for the trees cast 
off their sickly appearance the same season. I 
examined them the same fall, th.e whitewash still 
on thcin, and I think I never saw more healthy 
and vigorous trees. I have not tried this remedy 
in my own orchard, for there are nO borers in it ; 
if there were I should not hesitate a moment. We 
are not much troubled with the borer in this 
country, except on trees that have been wounded." 
— American Farm Journal. 

"We often find paragraphs like the fore- 
going, published and republished in the agricul- 
tural and horticultural presses of the country, 
and we confess often with some feeling of disap- 
pointment at their unsatisfactory character. In 
the first place we are in doubt what insect the 
writer may mean, when he speaks of the apple- 
tree borer, knowing that there are a number of 
borers located in different parts of the apple 
tree, which differ from each other as much as an 
ox differs from a goat ; not only in their forms, 
but also in their habits and periods of develop- 
ment. It could not have been the striped borer 
{Sapcrda Candida), for tliat insect confines its 
operations to the base of the trunk, and never 
" punctures from root to branch," but laj's its eggs 
without a, puncture at all, in little crevices in the 
bark as near as possible to the surface of the 
ground. If we just knew when and where the 
above event occurred we might suggest that the 
punctures alluded to were probably the work of 
the " seventeen-year locusts," or " tree crickets," 
in which case the lime and coal tar would, of 
course, destroy the vitality of the eggs. It could 
not possibly have the least effect on the borers 
within the body of any of the trees, although it 
might prevent the female insects from depositing 
their eggs upon it. Seriously speaking, does the 
writer of the aljovc paragraph actually know the 
insect — popularly known as the apple-tree borer — 
when he sees it ? We are always thankful for all 
the solid information on this subject we can get, 



THE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



169 



in order that we give the benefit of it to our horti- 
cultural readers, but we deplore such unsatisfac- 
tory experimental reports. 

The base and roots, the trunk, the branches, 
and the twigs of the apple tree, are each infested 
^?ith a different kind of a borer ; but no man can 
gath(>r from the above account which is meant, 
or whether a real borer at all. Lime and coal 
tar would doubtless destroy the barklice or scale 
insects, if any were present, but unless the trees 
are very young, these are usually found only on 
the more tender branches. "We are not calling 
into question the fact and effect of the above 
treatment, but we doubt the cause of the disease 
treated. R. 

BEE-KEEPING. 

THE BEE AND BEE-KEEPING, NO. 2. 

THE QUEEX (CONTINUEJ)), 

IN about five or six days after the queen has 
left her cell she leaves the hive to meet the 
drone. She chooses a clear, warm daj', generally 
between twelve and four o'clock in the afternoon, 
at which time the drones are also flying out in 
large numbers. If it is during the swarming sea- 
son, when drones are numerous, she seldom fails to 
meet one, and become impregnated during her first 
trip. If unsuccessful on the first trip, she will re- 
peat it on the following day, and if necessary, for 
several days, until successful. This meeting is 
said to take place on the wing, high in the air. 
This is altogether probable, but I am not aware 
that any one has ever seen it ; it is mere conject- 
ure. It is, however, pretty well established that 
one fecundation lasts for life ; that after having 
once met a drone, she never leaves the hive again 
for that purpose, nor for any other, except when 
swarming. Upon the young queen's return from 
her bridal tour, she sometimes mistakes the hive, 
and enters the wrong one, when she is destroyed, 
and the colony to which she belonged is queen- 
less, and having no eggs or larva; from which to 
rear another (lueen, it rajjidly dwindles down, and, 
if not furnished with another queen, or material 
from which to rear one, is finally destroyed by 
worms or robbers. More colonies become queen- 
less in this way than in all others. Hives should 
be placed rtoi Zess than two feet apart; better three 
or four ; and when all of the same form and color, 
as far as the space will permit. When hives are 
all alike, and crowded close together, probably one 
queen in six is lost by entering the wrong one, but 



when the hives are sufficiently far apart, not one 
in one hundred is lost during her trip. 

About the third day after fecundation the 
queen begins to deposit eggs. The number of eggs 
that one lays varies. She can adapt herself to 
circumstances. The full laying capacity of a 
prolific queen is not less than 2,500 every twenty- 
four hours, and probably much exceeds that num- 
ber. The average age attained by a queen is 
about three years. 

DRONES. 

The drones are the males, and their only use 
seems to be the fecundation of the queen. Their 
bodies are large and clumsy. They have no sting. 
Their buzzing, when on the wing, is loud and dif- 
ferent from that of the workers. The number 
reared is governed by the strength of the colony, 
and the amount of stores on hand or being collect- 
ed. In the spring of the year, generally about 
the beginning of May or last of April, the queen 
deposits eggs in the drone cells. Drone cells are 
hexagonal, like worker cells, differing from them 
only in being a little larger and deeper. They 
are also more convex when the brood is capped 
over. The period from the Gg^ to the mature 
drone is about twenty-four days. In this section 
they are killed and driven off by the workers as 
soon as white clover fails, which is generally in 
July. Some strong colonies frequently allow 
some to remain much longer, and probably a few 
the entire winter, but a scarcity of honey is early 
death to the drones. 

The question might be asked, what use in such 
a large number of drones, when scarcely one in a 
thousand fulfills the important duty of fecundating 
a queen. If only one drone, or half a dozen, were 
reared in each hive, the chances of the queen 
meeting one in the air wouM be very small, but 
when each one rears a thousand or more, the 
chances are a thousand times multiplied. When 
several thousand are in the air, the queen can 
scarcely Qiil to meet one. Thus instinct teaches 
the beesHo make as sure as possible by multiplying 
the chances. If a queen would have to leave 
many times, the chances of her being lost would 
be greatly increased, and as the loss of the young 
queen, at this time, would be the destruction of 
the entire colony, rearing so many drones is a 
wise provision of nature to perpetuate the species. 

There are various theories in relation to drones, 
but it is proven beyond a doubt that an Qgg de- 
posited by a fertilized queen, in a drone cell, be- 
comes a drone, and in a worker cell, a worker. 
That the eggs differ is proven by the fact that all 



170 



THE LAJVCASTER FARMER, 



attempts to rear queens from eggs laid in drone 
cells have failed, while eggs laid in worker cells 
will produce queens. There is no doubt that eggs 
laid in drone cells are not impregnated. In proof 
of this, I will cite the following facts : First, 
queens with faulty wings, or otherwise unable to 
fly out to meet the drones, or such as are reared 
very early or late in the season, when no drones 
exist, are certain to prove what are called drone 
layers, that is, every Qgg they deposit, whether in 
drone or worker cells, produces a drone. Second : 
All drones are like their mother, no mailer with 
what kind of a drone she mated, If an Italian 
queen has met a native drone, her worker progeny 
will be hybrids — half Italian and half native — but 
her drone progeny will be just as beautifully 
marked — and as has been proven by other facts, 
just as pure — as of one not fertilized, or of one 
fertilized by a pure Italian drone. On the other 
hand, if a native queen has not an Italian drone, 
her worker progeny will also be hybrids, but her 
drone progeny will be without a trace of the 
Italian. To account for their not being impreg- 
nated, especially those laid by a fertile queen, 
various ingenious theories have been advanced, but 
which I will not give at present, but may refer to 
in a subsequent article. 

HINTS FOR SEPTEMBER. 

While bees are obtaining honey from nat- 
ural sources they are not disposed to rob, but 
when there are no more iiowers producing honey 
weak stocks are in danger of being robbed and 
entirely destroyed. This occurs in this section 
in September ; even buckwheat will be cut off. 
. Bees seldom attack a strong stock, where they 
would be powerfully resisted, and undoubtedly 
repulsed, but they attack the weak, and generally 
with such force as to overcome their feeble resis- 
tance. 

If any stock is attacked by robbers its entrance 
should be contracted to a very small space in order 
to require less bees to protect it. If the attack of 
the robbers is persistent and determined, the en- 
trance should be contracted until only one bee can 
enter at a time, and if they still persist the hive 
should be removed for a few days into a dark room. 
If a stock is once overpowered, its own bees will 
join the robbers in carrying out their stores and 
leave with them and probably join their hives. 
No honey should be left standing about, where 
bees can get it, as it induces robbing. 

If any surplus honey boxes have not been re- 
moved, tliey should be at once, as no more surplus 
will be stored, and all unsealed honey will be car- 



ried below, and the sealed will become darker 
every day it remains in the hive. The bees mov. 
ingover it stain the combs, and all honey, however 
clear it may be, will become yellow if not removed 
as soon as filled. 

Light stocks may be fed the latter part of tkis 
month, but I would advise putting it off until next 
month. In the October number of the Farmer 
we will speak in detail about feeding. 

Ulrich Strickler. 
Cvlumhia, Aug. 13, 1872. 



THE MALLARD DUCK. 

{Anas hoschas.) 

THE Mallard, or common wild-duck, is per. 
haps only exccelled in the exellency of its 
flesh by the '• Canvass-back," and has a wider geo- 
graphical range than any other species in the 
whole list of ducks. It is most amply spread 
over the whole of Europe and America, and exists 
also in Asia, specimens from India having been 
received in this country years ago. This is par- 
ticularly an interesting subject of " duckdom," 
from the fact that it is the original stock from 
which our domestic ducks are derived, and al- 
though no special date may be assignable as to 
when it first became a subject of domestication, 
yet it has preserved its identity in a remarkable 
manner. Specimens may be obtained from wild 
flocks that are in no respect distinguishable from 
the common tenant of the barnyard. The wild 
Mallard nieasui-es about two feet in length, ex- 
pands about three feet, and weighs ovei* two 
pounds and a half. It is found in almost every 
fresh-water lake and river in the United States, 
during winter, but seldom visits the sea-shore3 
or salt-marshes. Although instances are known 
of some solitary pairs breeding in our latitudes in 
autumn, yet their summer residence is in the north, 
which is the great nursery of the numerous species 
which belong to this and other genera of the Ana- 
TiDyE. The nest is generally made in some soli- 
tary recess of the breeding ground, and usually 
contains from twelve to sixteen eggs. The young 
are led about by the mother the same as the do- 
mestic duck, but with superior caution. The male 
attaches himseJf to a single female, and is the 
protector of her and of her feeble brood. The 
stamp of slavery, however, seems to be impressed 
upon the domestic variety, in the dull and indiffer- 
ent eye, and groveling gait, but still retaining 
something of the lofty looks of the wild duck, 
with his spirit of independence. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



171 




THE MALLARD DUCK. 



Iminonpe numbers of these clucks are captured 
in various ways, or slaughtered by powder and 
shot, every year, and furnished to the difiFerent 
markets of America and Europe, and perhaps 



there are few " duckeries " to be found anywhere 
which do not contain a large proportion of this 
species. The domestic variety, for the sake of 
distinction, is sometimes called Anas domesticus. 



HORTICULTURAL. 



THE PUBLIC GRAPERY— A NEW FEA- 
TURE AT THE AGRICULTURAL DE- 
PARTMENT. 

'"T^HE Washington Star of Monday says: 
_l The gra])ery of the Agricultural grounds, 
constructed about one year ago, under the super- 
vision of Mr. Wm. Saunders, attracts the atten- 
tion of most visitors to these admirably kept 
grounds. It is 150 feet in length, running from 
the center of the main conservatory southward, 30 
feet wide, with glass roof and sides, with ample 
ventilation by means of hinged sashes in the roof 
and sides, and so constructed as to exclude the 
rain. This building was erected for the purpose 
of cultivating and testing the most valuable va- 
rieties of foreign grapes, with the view of encour- 
aging this industry, which is annually increasing 
tliroughout the country. The vines have been 
planted some three feet apart on the outside of 
the walls, and trained through openings in the 
brick walls and run up the inside on wire trellis 



work toward the center of the roof and very near 
to the glass. The heating in winter is by means 
of hot water circulated through iron pipes run- 
ning length^ase the building. By this arrange- 
ment the required temperature can always be pre- 
served, the rain and dews excluded, the rays of 
the sun unobstructed, and the full benefit of the 
rains to the roots of the vines secured. The 
ground inside is kept covered with tan bark, and 
stands of various foreign plants are placed around 
the interior, the whole forming a novel and pleas- 
ing scene. There are upward of one hundred 
varieties now growing in this room, and bearing 
fruit for the first time. The dark colors seem to 
be arranged on one side and the light colors on 
the other. Among the varieties grown are the 
AFarmora, Black Muscat, Black Alcante, Black 
Lomliardy, Frankendale, Madame Prince, Prince 
Albert, Lady Donnr, Black Frontigan, Black 
1 hunburg. Pope's Hamburg, Wilmot's Hamburg, 
Millhill Hamburg. Victoria Hamburg, Black 
Barbarosa, Alexandria, Royal Ascot, Purple Da- 
mascus, Black Prince, Trentham, Espcriom, 
Madressfield Court, Zinfindel, Tripoli, Sonora, Due 



THE LAJVCASTE'R FARMER. 



de Malacoff, Madame Prince, Muscat Hamburg, 
Grizzly Frontignan, Gros Marde, Scharges Hentin, 
Purple Hamburg, Bureharts Prince, Austrian 
Muscat, Black St. Peters, Prumvis Frontignan, 
Early Smyrna, Bouker Muscat, Chusselas Du- 
liamel, Muscatel, Cannon Hall Muscat, T^Hiite 
Tokay, Napoleon's Muscadine, Sultana, Deacon's 
Subcrt, Muscat of Alexandria, Marchioness Hast- 
ings, Golden Hamburg, Early Malingre, Chath- 
worth Tokay, Rasin de Calabra, Syrian, Bowoods 
Muscat,Chasselas Yibert, Brickland's Sweetwater, 
Palestine Muscat, Chasselas de Fontainbleau, 
Muscat Frouren, Tottenham Park Muscat, White 
Malasia, White Nice, Chassalas Nursque, Reim 
de Nice, Santa Cruz, Royal Muscadine, Gros 
Granier, and many others. Most of these grapes 
are very fine samples, well developed ; of different 
shapes, size, and color, and the combination of so 
many kinds are not often to be seen together. The 
whole arrangement is well conceived and carried 
out in all its parts with neatness and good order. 
Immediately south of the main department build- 
are two long rows of trellis work also covered with 
a great variety of native grapes, and all in thrifty 
condition. These experiments will doubtless form 
the subject of an interesting chapter in the super- 
intendent's next annual repoi't. 

[We commend the above paragraph to the 
consideration of our readers who possess pecuniary 
means, and who also possess the public or private 
enterprise to make a liberal and judicious use of 
them. There is no reason why we should not 
have fresh fruit at almost any season of the year, 
and at a reasonably fair price. Go to any large 
city — Philadelphia, New York, or Cincinnati for 
instance — and look in to any of their first-class 
fruit stores, at almost any season of the year, 
and your sight, at least, will be gratified with the 
view of fine, lucious, and fragrant fruit. Some of 
this fruit is raised in "hot-houses" in this country, 
but by far the larger portion of'it — especially the 
grapes — is imported from foreign countries ; in- 
deed our foreign importation of fruit amounts to 
tons annually. 

Of course much of this fruit, at certain periods, 
is too high in price for any poor man to eat, but 
the fad is very suggestive. We want fruit to 
eat, not only in season, but also out of its 
normal season and we M^ant it not only to 
be looked at, but also cheap enough for a poor 
man, or a man in ordinary circumstances of life, 
to afford to eat. The fact also suggests, that if 
it pays to import it from other countries, it might ' 
be made to pay by raising it in cold and hot i 



graperies, or fruit houses, in this country. This 
is a contingency that the future loill develop — 
it is only a question of time.] 

BOTANICAL^ 

BOTANICAL GARDEN, D. 0. 

BY J. STAUFFER. 

ON my late visit to Washington, D. C, I 
devoted a few hours to the inspection of the 
grounds of the Agricultural Department. Those 
who have the report for 1870 will find a plan of 
the department grounds, with numbers and descrip- 
tion of the ti'ees, introduced in groups, from No. 1 
to No. 115, embracing many rare and beautiful 
trees, besides our common beech, poplars, plantain, 
walnut, cedars, the sequoia, among other rare and 
beautiful species and genera of this group — many 
of which were new to me — and I shall not attempt 
to enumerate them, as the mere mention of the 
botanic name will give no idea of their beauty or 
character ; the plants must be seen to be duly ap- 
preciated. 

I was agreeably surprised to find, in the superin- 
tendent of the gardens and grouud,an old and highly 
esteemed friend and correspondent, when in Ger- 
mantown, Pa., Mr. William Saunders, a gentleman 
thoroughly posted for the situation, and the right 
man in the right place. Although he had an en- 
gagement on hand, he received me so cordially and 
manifested his genial, courteous attentions to such 
a degree, that I feel truly grateful to my old 
friend. 

I can only say that as a druggist for twenty-five 
years, and student of the vegetable materia medica 
in connection with botany, I was made familiar 
with the names, properties and products of numer- 
ous plants, many of which I had seen figured in 
books, but never had the pleasure of seeing the ac- 
tual plant in bloom or fruit. This, to me, was a 
great treat, and I felt like blessing the institution 
that affords us such a facility. 

We are all familiar with the coffee, tea, spices 
and perfumes, dye-woods, gums and many medici- 
nal plants, as sold in the shops, and more or less 
interesting. Here are plants from all sections of 
the globe, luxurious, fresh and vigorous as in their 
native clime ; growing in the extensive and well 
regulated and well kept conservatory of the de- 
partment, such as, the plant that yields the coffee- 
berry. Introduced into Paris by the Turkish Am- 
bassador, Soleiman Aga, in 1683, who caused it to 



THE LAJ^ CASTER FARMER. 



173 



be served to his guests with all the luxurious minutiaj 
of Oriental fashion, now so common. This belongs to 
the great family, Ruhiarecv., and is therefore al- 
lied to Peruvian bark and madder, also cultivated 
and found in close proximity. Our native " but. 
ton bush," found in wet places (the Cephalanthus 
occidentalis), belong to this order. The " tea- 
plant," also a native of Asia, resembles the culti- 
vated camelias. Tea-drinking was introduced as 
early as 1133 among the Germans. Lords Arun- 
del and Ossory are said to have introduced it into 
England in 1666. 

The poet Young says of a fashionable beauty 
that, 

Her two red lips affectcil zephyr's blow, 
To cool the Bohea and inflame the hean ; 
While one white finger and a thumb conspire, 
To lift the cup and make the woi-ld admire," 

Apart from poetry, I found so much to ad" 
mire, to gaze and wonder at, that I dare not be- 
gin to particularize any further — it would fill 
pages — and yet, if I could depict them as they 
seemed to me, blending the beauties, uses and le- 
gends, or plain history, it would still be read with 
interest, I doubtnot, notwithstanding! would have 
but little to say, that has not been better said be- 
fore, in some of the many books we have. 

I will only add that of the cocoa tree, which 
flourishes in the green depths of the forests of 
equatorial America. The nutritive properties of 
chocolate were so highly valued by Linnceus, the 
great Swedish botanist, that he christened it 
" Theobroma." or "a drink for the gods." Its na- 
tive name, chocolatl, was given to it in Mexico, 
whence our common name, chocolate. I must, 
however, notice a plant in full bloom, of which 
Judge Livingston has a specimen, but never saw 
it in bloom. This is truly magnificent by the 
marked contrast of the bright crimson flowers, 
surrounded by a large purely white and jietaloid 
calyx or involucre, in dense clusters, on delicate 
branching peduncles, bending over gracefully. 
This is the Clerodendron belfouni, a stove- 
climber. • 

On referring to Loudon, who gives the names of 
1,5 out of 27 species known growing in China, East 
Indies. Japan, New Holland, Java, and Mauritivis, 
he says clerodendrum, is derived from the Greek for 
" accident" and " tree," in allusion to the various 
effects in medicine by its various species. The 0. 
fortunatum is useful. The C. calami, to sum, and 
infortunatum, dangerous. Thus we see species of 
the same genus differ, like children of one father ; 
one may prove a Cain, the other an Abel. Such is 
the mysterious allotmeut in the mixture of good 



and evil, of nutrition and poison, that makes food 
for reflection and teaches lessons of caution. 
That which we may admire in the glossy skin and 
beautiful markings of the tiger, we must take 
heed, and keep out of the reach of his claws. 
Beautiful he maybe — but a tiger, still. 

Yes, we cannot divest ourselves of the sense of 
an overpowering mystery, that shrouds much that 
comes to view, however well informed by scientific 
investigation. A feeling akin to that awakened 
in us by the nursery tales of fairies, fays, elves and 
gnomes, crowds back the cold philosophy which 
sees nothing but so much matter, as we gaze upon 
the singular colored markings of the different 
species of callidiums, begonias, cissus, and a host 
of others remarkable for the wonders of their 
foliage or diversity of their flowers. God has en- 
dowdd us with the faculty of imagination, a 
power of seeing with the mental eye what is not 
revealed to the physical eyes. We are prone to 
yearn after things of beauty, novelty and grace, 
while we find many such in nature. There is 
nevertheless a dream world — a wonder-land, in 
which we picture to ourselves scenes brighter and 
fairer than those immediately before us — dream- 
ing of worlds outside or inside of this actual 
every-day world. This tendency, fostered by the 
divine spirit, is an element of human happiness, 
and the great spring of human activity and a stim- 
ulus to improvement — our "ideal" takes a higher 
stand point, the scenes pictured to the mind are 
of a character more perfect than those we are 
familiar with — so that we are not completely sat- 
isfied with the attainments we may have made in 
our present condition ; we seek and yearn for that 
enjoyment of superior excellence, based on 
scriptural truth, sustained by our instincts, and ag 
matters of faith, convinces our judgment and 
philosophy, though we may not be able so to 
define it as to lead to the same joy or conviction in 
the minds of others ; this is the office of a mysteri- 
ous power with which we arc intimately connected 
— and one of our chief aims should be to under- 
stand, so far as to be benefited by the wonderful 
provision, made and blended with the surround- 
ing materials that go together to make up the 
wonders of creation. 

In contemplating the plant world, we cannot 
avoid moralizing. We see the mineral kingdom 
support the vegetable. The vegetable, the ani- 
mal, including .man, in all his relations. The 
spiritual is no less tangible nor certain, how- 
ever obscured or darkened by vain philosophy or 
stolid ignorance. 



njf 



THE L A JT CASTER FARMER. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



"WHAT I KNOW ABOUT FARMING." 

"a /l ESSRS. J]DITORS :— Owing to the impor- 
.L V 1 tance of the subject, I listened with much 
interest to the discussion, at the last meeting of 
the Agricultural Society, of the question as to 
whether drilling tends to prevent winter-killing 
of wheat ; and not wishing to occupy the time of 
Ihose more experienced and practical than myself, 
I preferred hearing the views and experience of 
others ratlier than expressing my o^\^l. 

Having had a limited experience in farming, 
however, both before and since drills came into 
use, I ]iropose, Avith your permission, and at the 
risk of being thought presumptuous, to relate the 
same without occupying much of your valuable 
space. 

The result of my experience is, that I have 
ol>tained good crops, and have also had great 
failures by both methods of sowing the seed. 
And, some years since, having had a field for 
seeding, part of which was stumpy ground, it 
afforded an opportunity for testing both methods 
side by side. I therefore sowed that part of the 
field which was stumpy, broad-cast, and the other 
with the drill, the result of which showed no 
appreciable difference, either in the quantity or 
quality of the crops. 

It is. therefore, my opinion, that although in 
an ordinary favorahle season, it makes but little dif- 
ference by which method the see<i is sown, but in a 
season in which winter-killing is likely to occur, the 
chances are in favor of the drill. It has, however, 
always ]>e(Mi a (lucstion to me. wiu-thcr, on the other 
hand, the advantage is not to some extent coun- 
terbalanced by placing the seed/oo deep to receive 
the full benefit of that whicli was intended to 
nourish the growth of the plant. I am, therefore, 
constrained to say that, although a "Paul may 
plant and Apollos water, God alone can give 
the increase." W. McComsfa'. 



O'i' being satisfied, as to the precise species 
^ of the multitude of little insects we received 
from Mr. Mehaffey of Marietta in June last, and 
whose inquiry we ap]n-oximately answered in our 
July number, we sent specimens of tliem to Dr. 
Fitch, of New York State, who for many years 
has been observing and ilescribing these minute 
insects. The following is the doctor's reply: 

FiTi'ii's ]m)ixt, Salk?,i, N. Y., Aug. 7, 1H72. 

S. S. Rathvon, Esq. Dear Sir: Your letter 
of June loth, misdirected to Rochester, N. Y., as 
appears from post-marks on the euvolope, was 



there advertised June 22d, and after lying some 
weeks uncalled for, was forwarded to Albany, and 
from thence was dispatched to me hei'e, just now 
coming to hand. 

On perusing what you wrote, I was aware the 
insect in question was. what an examination of 
the contents of the quill also indicates it to be, 
the snov,--flea, Podiwa nivicola-. as I named it in 
1847, in my article on "Winter Insects," in Em- 
mons's Journal of Agric. and Science, vol. v. p. 
283. In the forests all over our country, when a 
warm, sunshiny day occurs in winter, the surface 
of the snow is covered with countless myriads of 
this insect, appearing like gunpowder scattered 
upon the snow. And when the snows are melt- 
ing in the rills of water which they form, running 
down the hillsides, multitudes of these little snow- 
fleas are carried along upon its surl'ace, in contin- 
uous strings and become collected in the eddies 
and still pools, in such quantities that they nuiy 
be taken up in handFuls. Their bodies are coat- 
ed over with a pruinrose powder resembling a fine 
black dust, which keeps them from becoming 
wetted. By rubbing against each other as they 
are carried along in a rivu'et, some of this powder 
becomes detached, and is seen here and there on 
the surface of the water, like a scum of soot or 
lampblack. In the winter of 1857 a severe snow- 
storm extended south into Virginia, where the 
ground remained several days covered 
with snow, until a rainy night occurred, and next 
morning the snow for miles was robbed of its 
whiteness and appeared like a vast sheet of col- 
ored velvet spread over the ground, these snow 
fleas being so thickly scattered upon it — having 
fallen (so the newspaper account sagely said)with 
the rain in the night ! And all ^iver our conti- 
nent from as far south at least as Virginia, north 
to Hudson Bay, and probably to the Arctic Ocean, 
on the melting of the snow each year, these in- 
sects make their appearance upon it in this man- 
ner. They thus probably exceed in number the 
sands upon the sea-shore. 

When I named this insect I supposed it occur- 
ed only in winter and early spring. But since 
then I have noticed it in about every month in 
the summer season. I doubt not it may al- 
ways be found in damp moss in the forests. In 
mid-summer, on breaking open a damp rotten log 
in the woods, I came upon a cavity which was 
filled with more than a tjuart of these snow fleas. 
They cannot endure a dry a1mos])here. Hence, 
in the instance you relate, they all disappeared 
from the garden beds during the middle and after 
part of the day, probably crawling down into the 
loose soil, or under straw or dead leaves, or into 
any other damp situation. Of course they will 
do no injury in the garden — everything that has 
been observed indicating that the species of this 
family all subsist upon putrid vegetable matter. 

My reports since the 9th have only been pub- 
lished in the Transactions of the State Agric. 
Society; as I am about bringing them to a close, 
and design to revise and re-issue the whole, iu 
probably two volumes. Yours respectfully, 

Asa Fitcu. 



THE LAJVCASTER FARMER, 



1 



iO 



®he ^miastcv ^iitmi^r. 



LANCASTER, tjEPTEMDER, 1S72. 

S. S. RATMVON AND ALEX. HARRIS, Editors. 

Publisihed m'>nthly under rhe auspices of. tie /ouiccl- 
TUKAL andHosticultukal Sooiett. 

j$l 35 i»cr Year in AUvnucc. 

A considerable deduction to clubs of five or more. 

AU commuI■ic^ti()ll8, to insuie insertion, must be in the 
hands of the i ditors before the 2()th of each month. Ad- 
dress lla h^oii & !^I arris. Lancaster, Pa. 

All advertisenieritrt, sul)Scriptions and remittances to the 
sddretaof the publisher, J. B. IJEVELIN, 

Inquirer Builduiff, Lancaster, Pa. 



We cannot refrain from the acknowledgment 
f a basket of lucious " Crawford's early peaches," 
from our genial subscriber, Mr. C. 0. llerr, of 
Blue Rock. Such material tokens of remembrance 
compensate many a lonely and weary hour in the 
experience of an editor. 

We should certainly wish that his " shadow 
might never grow less," did we not half surpect 
he might want it no larger than it already is — 
especially during this sweltering August weather 
— if not any less. 

It is a gratification to know that his peach 
crop is an abundant one this season, and we sin- 
cerely wish it may continue so during many com- 
ing years, for we feel assured that he will know 
how to appreciate it, in the double blessing of 
giving as well as receiving. Sen. Ed. 



MEETING OF THE AGRICULTURAL AND 
UORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

THE regular monthly meeting of the society 
was held in the Orphans' Court room, Mmi 
day, August 5th, 1872. Reading of the niiuutc^s 
of last meeting was on motion dispensed willi. 

The reports on the condition of crops being 
asked for, Henry M. Engle stated that the corn 
promised ecpuilly as well as last year. Potatoes will 
not (piite come up to last year's crop. Fruit of 
all kinds is plenty. Pears and apples will be 
good. While a tree however buds well in a sea- 
son, if it be permitted to mature all it is injured 
for the following crop. The tobacco crop along 
the Susquehanna is as promising as he has ever 
seen. 

Mr. Johnson Miller, of Warwick township, 
read the following crop report : 



The wheat and oats crops have been harvested 
since my last repnrt. Before harvest the pros- 
pects for the former were quite discouraging, 
while the latter was pretty fair ; now, since har- 
vest is over, the farmer is next interested as to the 
yield per acre. This cainiot yet be ascertained, 
as little or nothing has been threshed up to this 
time save the rakings, which yield very good, tak- 
ing (piantity of straw into consideration; so that 
there will be a good yield according to tl;e bulk 
of straw in the barns ; which is, however, only 
about half as nmch as in former years. Corn 
looks very promising at this time ; with the re- 
cent good showers we have had, it is growing very 
fast, and the prospect for a large crop has never 
been more encouraging ; but one great mistake 1 
find with farmers is planting too thick, which will 
only result in small nubbins and a short crop, with 
all such farmers as do not thin their cerii to two 
stalks to a hill. Pasture is more plenty than some 
time ago ; the late rains will keep up a fine sup- 
ply of grass for cattle, so that there wi'l -be no 
coniplaining for aome time. Tobacco has been a 
little backward, but it is growing finely now, and 
will be an average crop ; but patclies look very 
uneven, owing to the ravages of the cut worm in 
the spring. Consequently, late planting. Pota- 
toes will be rather a short crop ; the early planted 
were too far advanced when the late rains came, 
while the late planted will this year be a better 
crop with us than if we had planted early. The 
stalks are green, and will now produce a good 
crop. Fruit is promising finely ; apples are plenty 
and of good (juality, while peaches are an average ; 
so v/ith other things in fruit, farmers will go into 
winter quarters with cellars full of apples and 
cider barrels, and closets full of apple butter aiul 
fruit cans ; a happy season is at liand, my friends, 
in old Warwick. 

i^L D. Kendig — In Manor the wheat crop was 
small but of good tpiality. Oats average. Corn 
looks very promising. Tobacco also indicates a 
"•ood crop. The fruit prospect is very fir.e. 

Levi S. Reist thought the wheat was even 
poorer than it at first was estimated. 

Henry M. Engle diflfercd with this estimate of 
Mr. Reist, as he thought the wheat crop was bet- 
ter than had been at first believed. The early 
ripening wheat was good; that getting ripe later, 
not so. 

H. K. Stoner did not think that wheat turned 
out as well as expected. It did not average over 
six bushels per acre. Potatoes are very good. 
Some farmers are already taking up their crop. 



176 



TEE LANCASTER FARMER. 



Corn looks very fine, as fine as he has ever seen. 
Fruit has a splendid appearance, and presents a 
better prospect than has been seen for years. Mr. 
Stoner here detailed his plan of growing grapes 
under glass, and stated that his grape house cost 
him about $100, and this year he expected to get 
200 ft)S of grapes under glass. 

D. L. Resh and A. C. Hostetter, agreed in the 
main in their report of the condition of the crops. 

S. S. Rathvon submitted a supplementary state- 
ment on the Colorado potato beetle, to form a 
part of that already published in the Daily Ex- 
press and the Farmer. 

H. M. Engle deems it very important to be upon 
the lookout as regards the potato beetle. It has 
already appeared in one or two sections of our 
county, and if the most determined efforts be not 
made these enemies will obtain a lodgment in our 
midst, out of which it will be difficult to banish 
them. Indeed entomology is one of the subjects 
that it will become necsssary for our farmers to 
study. We feel almost astonished of ourselves 
when we come to compare our fruit with that of 
the new States. 

Israel Landis is not sure that even any united 
effort upon the part of our farmers could retard 
the progress of insects. We would greatly re- 
joice to see if something could be done to eradi- 
cate noxious weeds and insects. He would very 
willingly co-operate to that end, if united effort 
could be inaugurated. 

Henry M. Engle thought that law if executed 
would secure the destruction weeds. As regards 
the midge it is very difficult to baffle, but in the 
Tennessee Valley by planting a new kind of wheat 
they were able to get rid of them, and then the 
old kind of wheat could be introduced. 

S. S. Eatlivou is not sure that insects can be de- 
stroyed, nor is he sure that it would be desirable 
to allow the friends and enemies of our crops to 
be in an equipoiso. In that case the enemies will 
not be destructive. 

Johnston Miller submitted a question addressed 
him by the Agricultural Department. 1st. Does 
drilling tend to prevent winter-kdling of tvheat ? 

Israel Landis thought drilling rather the best 
method of putting in wheat. 

Henry M. Engle remarked that many of the 
most experienced farmers thought broad-casting 
the best. 

D. L. Resh thinks it rather concurred in by the 
best farmers that drilling in wheat the best 
method. 

Levi S. Reist is of the opinion that more wheat 



can be grown by broad-casting than by drilling. 
Particularly is this the case upon upland. 

H. M. Engle is decidedly of the opinion that 
it is less liable to freeze out when drilled in, than 
when broad-casted. There is no good philosophy 
to sustain broad-casting. 

H. K. Stoner remarked that in the olden times 
farmers plowed their wheat in, and that was put- 
ting it deeper than the drill covers it, yet he 
thinks it should not be covered too deep. But 
when plowed in farmers raised good crops. The 
proper plan is to pulverise the ground well, then 
roll it and afterwards drill in the wheat, in this 
way the best crops can be raised. 

Alexander H. Hood, Esq., submitted a few re- 
marks upon the matter of winter-killing of wheat, 
and from the causes which produce this, drilling- 
was surely the best plan to prevent this. He then 
presented to the President of the society two 
plum seeds which he had received from the Judge 
of Wyoming territory, who had written to him 
that they were the best he had ever tasted. 

H. M. Engle altogether favors early cutting of 
wheat. 

Dr. P. W. Hiestand favored the sowing of 
wheat which was two or three years of age. Old 
seed (the same of tobacco seed) brings much bet- 
ter crops. 

H. M. Engle concurred with Dr. Hiestand as 
regards the sowing of old wheat. But it must be 
guarded against to prevent the wheat (intended 
for seed) from heating in the gi-ound. 

On motion Alex. H. Hood, Esq., Benjamin H. 
Longnecker and Peter Summy were elected mem- 
bers of the society. 

Dr. Elam Hertz, of Ephrata, was named as es- 
sayist for the next meeting of the society. 

H. K. Stoner stated that walnut water juice 
rubbed upon a horse will prevent flies from biting 

him. 

Milton Eshelman does not think the juice will 
answer the purpose, for as soon as it gets dry, the 
flies again trouble the horses as before. 

Society, on motion, adjourned. 



ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS. 

Mr. P. S. Stevens, Lancaster county. The 
"worm with many legs," which you found among 
"rotten saw dust," and sent us by Mr. J. S. H., is 
a large species of Millipede (the largest we have 
of this kind in Lancaster county), and is scienti 
fically named Sqiroleolus marginatus. This ani- 



THE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



177 



mal is generally found in such places, and feeds 
upon rotten wood and funqi. Although some of 
the smaller species of the same family, are some- 
times found in gardens feeding on the roots of 
lettuce, radishes, beets, turnips, cucumbers, and 
strawberries, yet we have never seen this species 
eating anything but rotten wood, and occasionally 
boletus, a large kind of fungus, in its soft state. 

Mr. A. R., Columbia, Pa. On a more thorough 
examination we find that the large '"Hawk-Moth" 
you brought us, is a large specimen of Si)hinx 
[Macrosilla) Carolina, and not a quinque macul- 
ata, as we first supposed. It is the parent of the 
large green worm, with a dorsal horn or spine 
near the hinder end, that is found indiscriminately 
on the tobacco, the tomato and other solanaceous 
plants. 

Mr. U. S., Columbia, Pa. The large gray 
insect, with the stout jaws and ample wings, is a 
female specimen of the "Horned Corydalis" ( Cory- 
dalis cornutus). The larva, a long dark alli- 
gator-like grub, lives in the water, comes out and 
changes to & pupa in an earth cavity under some 
shelter, in the spring, from which the mature in- 
sect issues in a few days. As a fly it is entirely 
harmless. 

Mr. A. S. K., Manheim, hop. The long slender 
green insect you brought us is a female specimen 
of the "specter insect" or "walking twig," {spec- 
trum femoratum). It belongs to the same order 
as do the grasshoppers, the cricket, roaches, etc., 
and is a vegetable feeder, but so far as we know 
it has not attacked domestic vegetation. We 
have found it on the locust and the sassafras in the 
country. 

Mr. A. B. S., Frederick street, Lancaster, Pa. 
The beautiful "Hawk-Moth " which you, in com- 
pany with Squire F. brought us, some days ago, 
is a very perfect specimen of Philampelis Satelitia, 
or " Satellite-moth." The larva from which this 
moth is bred, is a large velvety greenish, and then 
brownish, worm, which may often be found on 
grape vines, upon the leaves of which it feeds. It 
may be distinguished from other similar worms, by 
having a conspicuous eye-like spot on the back, 
near the hind end of the body. It is a great 
feeder, and many of them would soon destroy the 
foliage of the grape vines. But it has many 
parasitic enemies, and therefore docs not multiply 
very fast. This moth must have evolved from the 
pupa state, the night before we received it, and 
probably had never made an extended flight — 
twenty-four hours ihereafter,it might not have been 



so perfect — and in the absence of ether or chloro. 
form, we were a little perplexed about how to kill 
it, without destroying its beauty, or marring its 
form. At length we thought of ammonia ; and 
by inverting a glass cup over it, and placing be- 
neath it a peice of sponge saturated with strong 
volatile ammonia, we succeeded more completely 
than we had ever succeeded before in killing an 
insect quickly and effectually ; leaving it perfect- 
ly relaxed, and in fine condition for " setting," 
and we make this record for the benefit of those 
interested, although it may be nothing new. 

The beautiful little spider, with a spiney, angu- 
lar abdomen, left us by an intelligent farmer, but 
whose record and specimen we have unfortunately 
lost or mislaid, is doubtless a species of Theridioii 
perhaps T. trigonum—awA although not rare, is 
still not generally common. 

It forms a little compact pear-shaped cocoon, 
which is found sometimes in clusters of half a 
dozen — more or less — suspended by a tolerably 
long and slender stem, from the branches of trees 
and shrubbery. Mr. J. B., E. of " Beaver Mead- 
dows," once brought us such a cluster. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 



u 



CURIOUS THINGS TO KNOW. 



ESIDES the fact that ice is lighter than 



J^ water, there is another curious thing about 
it which perhaps persons do not know ; namely, its 
purity. A lump of ice melted will always become 
purely distilled water. When early navigators of 
{he Arctic seas got out of water, they melted 
fragments of those vast mountains of ice called 
icebergs, and were astonished to find that they 
yielded only fresh water. They thought the ice 
was frozen salt water, not knowing that the ice- 
bergs were formed on laud, and in some way 
launched into the sea. The fact is, the freezing 
turns out of it all that is not water, such as salt, 
air, coloring matter, and all other impurities. 
Frozen sea water makes fresh ice. If you freeze 
a basin of indigo water it will make ice as pure as 
that made from distilled water. When the cold 
is very sudden, these foreign matters have no time 
to escape either by rising or sinking, and are thus 
entangled in ice, but don't form any part of it." 

Last winter the streams were frozen over very 
early in the season, and at a very low stage of 
the water, and they continued thus ico-bound for 
a period of more than one huiulred days, the 
water becoming lower, and the ice freezing thicker. 



178 



TEE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



Toward the last third of this time, diarrhea of a 
eevcre character prevailed at Harrisburg, Co- 
lumbia, Lancaster, and various other places, 
where the inhabitants used water pumped out of 
the streams ; and the question was asked by many 
— " What effect does long continued ice coverings 
on streams have upon the quality of the ivater?" 
Notwithstanding examinations were made at va- 
rious places, and committees reported that the 
water was pure, and therefore not the cause of the 
disease, still there is a probability that it may 
have been the cause after all, but, that it was not 
the fault of municipal neglect, in whose behalf 
these reports were made. Under the organic law 
of fceezing, if the half, the two-thirds, or the 
three-quarters of the water in the stream was fro- 
zen into ice, all the impurities in the same would 
be concentrated in the remaining unfrozen por- 
tion. This may also occur during a summer 
drought, when the streams become low through 
evaporation and non-supply. 

This would necessarily affect the quality of the 
water, and we are convinced that in our individ- 
ual case, and others of which we were cognizant 
Inst winter, it laas the case. It is altogether a 
question of quantity. One pill may not have a 
laxative effect upon the bowels, two may barely 
move them, but when three or four are taken, the 
effect may be violent. It is just so that water 
may be charged with matter that produces diar- 
rhea, and the more of it that is present, the greater 
will be the liability to the disease. The " Curi- 
ous tilings to K710W," which we clip from a con- 
temporary journal, illustrates the theory of freez- 
ing, in its effects upon the residue not frozen. 
When during an intense cold season the water 
freezes at a very low stage, it would be safe to 
cut and melt the ice, instead of using the unfro- 
zen water beneath it. Of course,when the streams 
are full and have a rapid under-current, which 
carry off the impurity of the water, the case 
would be different. Ice, is water solidified or 
crystallized by congealation, and any liquid sub- 
Btance crystallized — orang mineral, acid, or alkali 
crystallized — is purer than that in a fluid or 
massive state. Unless the solidifying or crys- 
tallizing process is sudden, it rejects all foreign im- 
purities. 



THE AMERICAN PRUNE. 

MR. WM. MILLAR, of Lancaster city, has a 
tree growing upon his premises, at No. 
20 North Queen street, which has, by a species 



of common consent, been recognized under the 
name of "American prune" — Prunus Americanas 
— and for the last three years has borne very good 
crops. The tree is nine years old, and about 
fifteen feet high; has a very clean smooth, dark, 
chestnut-colored bark, and a moderately bushy 
form. The leaves are very dark green, large, 
smooth, and of the usual form. The fruit is a 
uniform purple, darkly colored ; the skin smooth, 
thin, strong, and easily separated from the pulp, 
which is a greenish yellow, and very lucious. sweet, 
and juicy. Some of the fruit which we measured 
would average five and a half inches in their 
transverse circumference, and over five and three 
quarter inches in their lateral circumference, and 
in weight averaged two ounces. The seed is very 
free, a flattened pear-shape, over an inch long, and 
nearly three- quarters of an inch wide. The stem 
is medium, and the stem cavity almost obsolete. 
Every intelligent German who sees and tastes the 
fruit pronounces it a prune, whose original must 
have been the large G-ermau prune. The present 
season it bore about nine hundred prunes and 
ripened about five hundred. We never saw fruit 
so clean and free from the curculio as that which 
ripened this season on this tree. The rapid 
growth in many specimens, threw the egg of the 
insect out on the surface before it developed into 
a worm. It has been said that if the German 
prune was transferred to American soil, it would 
be free from curculio. This is a mistake. The 
late Mrs. Fisher, of Middle street, in Lancaster, 
had a tree brought from Germany twenty years 
ago, which bore prunes evei-y year, and never 
matured a single one until the present season; all 
were destroyed by the curculio and the rot. The 
history of these two trees , and reports from other 
localities, seem to indicate that at some future 
period, perhaps still remote, we may expect an 
immunity from the attacks of this insect pest. 



Treatment of Feloxs. — A felon is easily known 
by a sharp pain near the bone. Fill a pint tin 
cup one-fourth full of wood ashes, then fill the cup 
u]i with warm water and place it in the stove. 
Hold the finger or the affected part in the cup 
until the pain is removed. The contents of the 
cup must be kept as hot as the hand can bear. If 
the pain returns repeat the process. In the more 
advanced stages a poultice made of slippery-elm, 
flaxseed, or even bread and milk, is good ; but the 
best thing to draw a felon to a head is to apply a 
salve made of the yolk of an egg thickened with 
wheat flour. — Exchange. 



THE LA^rCASTER FARMER. 



179 



THE USE OF FRUIT. 

WE think, as a general rule, fruits are best 
adapted to people who reside where they 
grow. The belt of country in which the cherry, 
strawberry and apple flourish best is the one in 
which they should chiefly be eaten. The country 
of the grape, peach, apricot and plum is the one 
where these products should be used. So of the 
orauge,*lemon, pineapple and banana. Oranges, 
pineapples and bananas are rarely fit to eat as 
far north as Richmond, Va., as they must be 
picked before they are ripe and transported to 
their place of consumption. And they become 
wilted by heat and sweating, and often become 
partially decayed or soured before they are eaten. 
Fruits, if properly canned, could be. carried north 
or south and i"each the eater in a fresh and nor- 
mal condition. Pears, it is claimed, are nowhere 
better in America than in the vicinity of Boston. 
In California they grow to be very large, but, it 
is said, lack the fine flavor of eastern fruit. New 
England and Northern New York apples are finer 
than they are in the south-west, not so large, but 
of finer texture and richer flavor. The Rhode 
Island greening apple in New England will keep 
nicely six months from the time of picking. In 
the south and west the same variety grows larger, 
but does not keep nearly so long. — Science of 
Health. 



DRY EARTH AND POULTRY HOUSES. 

THE employment of dry pulverized earth as 
the means of deodorizing poultry houses, 
appears to be worthy of more attention than it 
has hitherto received. The fact that from four to 
five hundred fowls can, by this aid, be kept in one 
building for months together, with less smell than 
is to be found in any ordinary building capable of 
accommodating a dozen chickens, is very conclu- 
sive as to its efficacy. In the buildiug of the 
National Company, where this fact has been as- 
certained, seven or eight fowls are kept in each 
compartment twelve by three, and yet there is no 
smell or trace of moisture. Mr. Greylin informed 
us that if a larger numbtir are put into each run, 
the ground becomes moist, ceases to deodorize, 
and the birds at once become unhealthy. It should 
bg stated that the droppings that fall from the 
petches during the night are removed from the 
runs each morning, and the dry earth only re- 
ceives t^e manure that falls during the day ; this 
has its moisture absorbed so speedily by the earth 



that it at once becomes pulverized, mixed with 
the soil, and ceases to smell. So powerful is the 
deodorizing effects of the earth that it does not 
require to be renewed in the runs for many weeks 
together. 



Daniel Webster's Old Home. — Edmund 
C. Stedman has visited the old home of Daniel 
"Webster, at Marshfield, and thus describes 
some of its features in a letter to the Tri- 
bune : " The mansion — a long, low, cross-roofed, 
wooden pile — has been so often pictured that I 
need only speak of it owing its attractiveness to 
an appearance of having grown, foot after foot, by 
alteration from some old building, and of not hav- 
ing been made bi'an new and at once, to the long 
piazzas, where roses and the Virginia creepe r . 
wander at will, to its peaked gables ; lastly, to 
the indefinite feeling one derives from it, that 
here has been a sturdy presence of manho od in 
the past, now gone forever, but leaving its latent 
individuality stamped upon the less transitory in - 
animate objects which surrounded it. ' We are 
what suns and winds and waters make us ; ' but 
here nature is as Webster transformed it. The 
house grew with him ; the trees except ' tlie 
white apple tree' and the famous elm, were plant 
ed by his hand ; and the rolling acres, the unbroken 
lawn, are the impress and the reflection of the man 
himself. The elm, under which Mr. Webster 
used to place his chair, and was painted sitting in 
country farmer's garb, differs from any .specimen 
of New England's royal tree that I have ever 
seen. The trunk is of the largest, but the limbs 
shoot out not far above the ground, and whether 
by art or nature, are trained to cover a circle of 
100 feet in diameter, drooping low, so that the 
tree casts a shadow beyond that of any Windsor 
oak, and enhouses you like a banyan. The great 
limb has yielded to a recent blast, and touches 
the ground with leaves still green upon it. . As if 
a servitor, smitten in defense of the mansion, and 
sunk his wounded limb to earth, the tree still 
holds its head proudly, and wards off the tempest' 
onset with unharmed branches." 



Fruit in Tin Cans. — The Boston Journal of 
Chemistry says : The impression prevails among 
those who use freely fruits which are put up in 
tin cans that they are injured thereby, and this 
impression is in many cases correct. We have 
long contended that all preserved fruits and veg- 
etables should be stored in glass, and that no metal 
of any kind should be brought in contact with 



180 



THE LAJy'CASTER FARMER. 



them. All fruits contain more or less of vegeta- 
ble acids, and others that are highly corrosive, are 
often formed by fermentation, and the metalic 
vessels are considerably acted upon. The cans 
are held together by solder, an alloy into which 
lead enters largely. This metal is easily corroded 
by vegetable acids, and ])oisonous salts are formed. 
Undoubtedly, many persons are greatly injured by 
eating tomatoes, peaches, etc., which have been 
placed in tin cans, and we advise all our friends 
who contemplate putting up fruits the present 
summer to use only glass jars for the purpose. 



SCIENTIFIC. 



AMERICAN MONSTERS. 

-'"I^^HERE was a period in the history of this 
A continent when elephants and mammoths 
were numerous. Which of the two lived first 
cannot be determined. But that the mammoth 
far exceeded in stature that of the elephant is 
abundantly proved by their skeletons. They ap- 
pear to have had a range from the regions of the 
Ohio river, and plains of the Mississippi and Mis- 
souri rivers, quite across the great mountain 
ranges to the borders of the Pacific, bounded 
northerly in latitude about forty-seven. 

Probably the Rocky Mountains had not their 
present elevation when the mammoth roamed over 
the vast extent of country in which their bones 
are found. In 1870, a tusk of one of those mon- 
ster quadrupeds was found in a gorge of the Sierra 
Nevada mountains, nearly eight feet in length, 
and almost a foot in diameter at the root. It was 
exhibited at San Francisco. 

How shall the problems of the day of extermi- 
nation be solved? They evidently disappeared 
suddenly, but they must have been numerous, 
living to a great age, since their teeth indicate 
long service. Ohio and Illinois were favorite 
haunts, no doubt, from the number discovered of 
their remains constantly brought to light as bogs 
and low lands, their tombs, are explored. 



Signals. — The following particulars of railroad 
signals will be interesting : One whistle of the lo- 
comotive means "down brakes;" two whistles, 
"off brakes;" three whistles, "back up;" a 
•continued succession of short whistles is the cat- 
tle alarm. The conductor's signal, given by a 
sweeping parting of the hands on a level with 
the eyes, means " go ahead." A downward mo- 



tion of the hand, " stop." A beckoning motion, 
" to back." A lantern raised and lowered vertL 
cally, signals starting ; swung at right angles or 
across the track, to stop ; swung in a circle, to 
back. A red flag waved on the track is a signal 
of danger ; hoisted at a station is a signal for 
stopping ; stuck up by the roadside is a signal of 
danger on the track ahead ; carried unfurled on 
an engine is a signal that another engine or train 
is on its way. 

Something Worth Knowing. — It is worth while 
to know how to stop bleeding from the nose 
when it becomes excessive. If the finger is 
pressed firmly upon the little artery which 
supplies blood to the side of the face affectedi 
the result is accomplished. Two small arter- 
ies, branching up from the main arteries on 
each side of the neck, and passing over the 
outside of the jawbone, supply the face with blood. 
If the nose bleeds from the right nostril, for ex- 
ample, pass the finger along the edge of the right 
jaM'.till the beating of the artery is felt. Press 
hard upon it, and the bleeding will cease. Con- 
tinue Ihe pressure five minutes, until^the ruptured 
vessel in the nose has time to eontract. — Knoxville 
Chronicle. 



Cold and Germination. — M. Duclaux, of 
France, is engaged in a series of experiments 1>o 
demonstrate that cold is indispensable to germina- 
tion. He placed two portions of seed in an ice 
house for one and two months, respectively; a 
third portion was deposited in an apartment 
moderately heated. Cold is known to be essential 
to the silk-worm's eggs. Well, the three lots were 
placed in circumstances favorable to germination . 
the third lot showed no signs of life ; the others 
sprouted ; the seeds enclosed for two months in 
the ice house without an exception, those for one 
month but imperfectly. 



Remember These Two Things. — Let your 
friend in, and let your enemy out. In other 
words, take measures to keep pure air con- 
stantly flowing into your house in every room ; 
and give the impure air a chance to escape 
through the fire-place or open windows, or other 
means of egress. Multitudes of people are poison- 
ing themselves by breathing impure air in crowded 
and illy-ventilated houses, when a little effort 
would remedy the evil. To every one living in a 
house we say : Let your friend in, and be sure to 
get your enemy out 



TEE LAJVCASTER FARMER, 



181 



THE CORN-COB HUMBUG. 

CARBON, hydrogen and oxygen, combined in 
certain proportions, make a good food for 
producing fat, but the fact that a substance con- 
tains either or all of those elements does not make 
it a valuable food. Add nitrogen to the above 
elements, and we have the constituents of the nu- 
tritious foods. It is not the fact that an article 
contains these elements, which makes it a valuable 
food, but the proportions and their mode of com- 
bination. Common rosin, for instance, contains 
carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, yet but a few 
farmers would care to adopt it as a diet for their 
cattle. Yet there are uses to which rosin is put 
for which wheat or corn would be of no value. 
Chemistry presents many curious contradictions ; 
there are substances, which by analysis contain 
exactly the same elements in the same proportions, 
which are utterly dissimilar. Therefore, because 
a theoretical scientist finds that straw or corn 
cobs, or any other such stuff, contains a certain 
amount of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen, he im- 
mediately publishes to the world that they are 
preferable, as food, to substances which good 
old-fashionable experience has proven of value. 
We knew a farmer once who acted upon just such 
nonsense, and it cost him about ten cents a pound 
to fatten his pork on cob meal and corn meal 
mixed, while his neighbors fattened theirs on corn 
meal and potatoes at little over half the cost. 

The next thing that we shall hear is that corn- 
cob meal is the best food for dyspeptics, and some 
vegetarian fool will be urging everybody to 
scratch their stomachs with it. We think it will 
do very well to go with the sawdust brandy, an 
article about which is going the rounds of the 
papers, and we venture the opinion that the man 
who eats the one and washes down the dry com- 
pound with the other will soon be in the under- 
taker's hands. 

Much more sensible is the idea suggested by 
some one that the corn-cobs be used for fuel and 
the ashes be utilized for making potash. — New 
York World. 



HOW MONEY IS MADE BY FARMING. 

MUCH labor is done on farms that is not 
farming in its true sense. By such labor 
^0 money is ever made. A man may support 
himself and family, keep out of debt and 
have a few dollars in pocket by practising th-e 
most stringent economy. If he is otherwise than 



industrious and sober, he is on the down grade 
with loose brakes, and the end is not reached. 
But farming in its true sense is a profession equal 
in dignity to that of law or medicine, and needs 
equal study, mental capacity, and intelligently di- 
rected labor to command success in it. The prin- 
ciple which underlies the practice of the true 
farmer must be well understood, and a steady, 
consistent course of operations must be followed. 
Having thoroughly learned the nature and ca- 
pacity of the soil he possesses, and chosen the 
rotation most suitable, and the stock to be most 
profitably kept upon it, he does not swerve from 
his chosen course, but in good markets and bad, 
raises his regular crops, and keeps his land in 
regular increasing fertility. No special cry tempts 
or frighten him. He does not talk dairy this 
season or crops the next; but doubtless if any 
particular product be in demand, and brings a 
good price he has some of it to sell and heaps his 
share of the advantage. He saves as much 
money as some men make by care and economy in 
purchrsing and preserving tools, seeds, manure 
and machines ; and his business habits and con- 
stant readiness for all occasions give him resona 
ble security against the effects of adverse seasons 
and bad weather. Always prepared, he is never 
too late, and always calm, he is never too soon, 
and thus, " taking time by the forelock ;" he has 
the stern old tyrant at his command, and turns 
him at his will. He has no losses, and his gains 
are steady. — Exchange. 

BOOK AND SPECIAL NOTICE DE- 
PARTMENT. 

OUR BOOK TABLE. 

The School of Cheiuical Manures, or elementaiy princi- 
ples in the US3 of fertiliiiug agents, from the French of 
M. George Ville, by A. A. Fesquet, Chemist and Engi- 
neer. Philadelphia: Henry Carey Baird, Industrial pub- 
lisher, No. 406 Walnut Street, 1872— with appropriate il- 
lustrations — is a handsome and compact little 12nio. vol- 
ume of 116 pages, which ought to be in the hands of every 
intelligent cultivator in the cauntry. 

This work is briefly and practically treated in six chap- 
ters, written in dialogue, involving some of the most in- 
teresting questions and answers in the whole school of 
Agricultural Chemistry, fully illustrating the expj^mental 
philosophy of the subject. An appendix discussing the 
" Plowing and Preparing the Soil ; " the " FoimulsB of 
Manures " for the dltterent kinds of feeds, roots and vege- 
tables, with their compositions, variations and results; 
the Rotation and Alteration of the various kinds of crops, 
from one year to six. Also, " Experimental fields," with 
their soils, manures, and special results ; with a ■' Vocab- 
ulary of Chemlc»l Manures '' Illustrating their composi- 
tions and proportions. >J()thing can be more striking 
than the productive results between the " ground without 
manure," and that with " complete manure," noting the 



182 



THE LAJyCASTER FARMER. 



effects of "mineral luaiiures without nitrogenized mat- 
ter "and " nitrogenized manure without mineral matter." 
No intelligent and progressive Farmer's or Gardener's 
library is complete without this valuable little work ; 
and although we may on suitable occasions, draw from it 
for the use of our columns, we would recommend in the 
mean time that every farmer of suflacient intellect and en- 
terprise to comprehend and apply its doctrines, should 
possess a copy for himself. The letter, press and typo- 
graphical execution of this little wjrk are so plain and 
perfect, and the colloquial style so familiar, that it cannot 
but be a pleasure to the farmer to peruse its interesting 
and instructi ve pages. 

Wb acknowledge the receipt of a copy of the " Report 
of the Commisaioner of Agriculture for the year 1871," is- 
sued at Washington City under a special act of Congress. 
This volume of over 500 pages, actavo, eontains an im- 
mense amount of practical information on agriculture, 
and allied subjects. Although two hundred and fifty-five 
thousand extra copies of this work have been authorized, 
they do not always seem to get into the hands of those 
who most need them— and per contra, thousands of those 
who really ought to read them have too great a dread for 
book-farming, to avail themseJves of this knowledge dif- 
fused by the government. The book has twenty-eight 
I'uU-page illustrations, besides a number of cuts distrib- 
uted through the letter press ; among them an interesting 
"Fungoid Series," illustrating the blights, mildews, or 
fungi, which infect the leaves 'aad fruit of trees and 
vines. 

The " Report of the Commissioner of Agriculture on 
the Diseases of Cattle in the United States," 1871, an il- 
lustrated quarto of over 209 pages, had previously 'been 
received and mislaid. This volume contains many prac- 
tical observations on the different diseases of cattle, and 
illustrates.by full-page colored plates, their effect upon the 
liver, lu igs, spleen, kidneys, fat, uterusfand bones of the 
animals. Also many statistical tables on the comparative 
effects of splenetic fever, and ought to be in the hands of 
every cattle doctor at least. 

An illustrated royal octavo pamphlet of over forty 
pages, giving a schedule of premiums, amounting to fotty 
thousand dollars, of the twelfth fair of the St. Louis Agri- 
cultural and Mechanical Association, to commence on 
Thursday, the third day of October next, and to continue 
for o*e week, has been sent us by the Secretary. " Com- 
petition is invited from the whole Union," and no entry 
fee is charged. This association certainly manifests a 
living and progressive spirit, far in the advance of the 
Older oouiniunities of oar country. 

Tn^ American Farmer's Advocate, devoted to the inter- 
eats represented in the National Agricultural Cengress, is 
one of the largest, and by far the cheapest agricultural 
paper in the country, and should be in the hands of every 
farmer. It should be remembered that the publishers of- 
fer it fr< e w ith any $2.00 or higher priced paper in the coun- 
try, and at only 50 cents advance with lower priced ones 
Price — single, $1.00 per year; in clubs of four or more, 
50 ctnts each. Address Advocate Publiahing Company, 
Jackson, Tenn. 



PHILADELPHIA MARKETS, 

Monday, August 26. 
FiOUB. — The market is very dull, there being no de- 
mand except to supply the immediate wants of the home 
consumers, whose purchases foot up 1,500 barrels; includ- 
ing 1,000 barrels Quaker City Mills on private terms; su- 
perline at $4 75a5 50 ; extras at $5 75a6 ; Iowa and Wis- 
consin extra family at f 7a7 50 ; Minnesota do. do. at 38 25 



88 8714 ; Pennnylvania, Indiana and Ohio do. do. at S8 50 
a9, an"d fancy brands at $9 12>ial0 as in quality. Rye 
Flour is quoted at $4. 

Grain.— Poor Wheat attracts but little attention . but 
prime grades are in demand at full prices. Sales of 7,000 
bushels Western red at $1 5Jal 55 and amber at 81 60al 65. 

Ryk is held at 80c 

Corn moves slowly at previously quoted rates. Sales of 
6,000 bushels yellow at 61c. and mixed Western at 60a 
6OX0. 

Oats are unchanged. Sales of 6,000 bushels white at 
46a48c., and mixed at 40a45e. 

The receipts to-day are as follows : 3,561 barrels Flour, 
18,000 bushels Wheat, ^1,200 bushels Corn, 12,500 bushels 
Oats, 329 bavrels Whisky. 

Provisions.— In the Provision market thera is a firm 
feeling, and mess pork is selling in lots at S15 25 ; smoked 
hams at 16al8c. ; do. sides at lOalOJ^c. ; salted shoulders at 
8c. ; smoked do. at 83^a9c., and lard at 9a9ji^c. 



PHILADELPHIA CATTLE MARKET. 

Monday, August 26. 

The market for Beef cattle wasduU this weekaud prices 
favfr buyers. We quote common quality at 3a53^c., me- 
dium at 6a7c., and prime at la,l% cents. Receipts 4,000 
head. 

Cows and Calves were quiet. Sales of 250 head S20a$45. 

Shkep. — The supply was less than last week. We quote 
sales of 5,000 head at 53/^a6X c. ; stock sheep at 3a4c., and 
lambs at Gi4a8>^c. 

Hogs— There was a large amount of offerings, and 
prices were lower. We quote at $7 50a7 75 W 100 lbs. net 
lor corn-fed, a decline of 75c. per 100 lbs. Receipts, 3,521. 



NEW YORK PRODUCE MARKET. 

Monday, August 26. 

Cotton is ^uiet ; middling upland 20e. 

Flour is quiet and superfine westtrn and State $5 50a 
6 15 ; good to choif^e $6 80a7 60 ; f xtra Ohio at $6 65a8 85. 
Rye ttour in fair demand at $4 20a5 00. 

Wheat quiet and steady ; new amber Tennessee at 
$1 63al 98 : white western f 1 67al 85. 

Corn lower, fair and active ; steamer western mixed 
eOaCl^c; sail do. 61j^a62c; 

Rye, Rarley and malt unchanged. 

Oats easier"; western 4l3^a43c. ; Ohio 45a53. 

Hay and Hops unchanged. 



CHICAGO LIVE STOCK MARKET. 

Monday, August 26. 

Cattle. — Receipts of 761 head. Rainy and market ex- 
tremely dull ; two lots common shipping steers sold at 
84 70a4 90 respectivelv ; a few stockers at $i 30a4 50 ; a 
good many Texans and Cherokees left unsola ; shipments 
yesterday 1,137 head. 

Hogs.- Receipts, 4,432 head. Yorkers very quiet it (f4 50 
a4 70 ; hesvy grades in fair demand and firm at 84 75a4 90. 
Shipments yesterday 8,828 head. 

Sheep.— Receipts, 104 head. Dull and unchanged. 



CHICAGO MARKET. 

MoNDiY, August 26. 

Flour dull and in buyers' favor ; choice extitis nomi- 
nally $6 25a675 ; superfine $3a4 25. 

Whbat quiet and steady at $1 12al 12 1^ cash. 

Corn easier, closing quiet at SS^c. 

Oats easier at 28c. cabh. 

Rye firm and saleable at 56c. 

Barley strong at 62)^0. 

Pork inactive; nominally $14 84)^. Lard firm and 
quiet; saleable summer S^c augar-cured hams quiet 
and nominally unchanged. Meats firmly held ; offerings 
light ; shoulders held at 7c. ; short ribs 9Xc. 



NEW YORK CATTLE MARKET. 

Monday, August 26. 
Receipts— Beeves, 9,600; Veals, 2,700; Sheep, 19,000; Hogs, 
34,000. Beeves heavy and declining— poor to medium, 10a 
10>ic; medium to fair steers 10 X^aie^c ; good steers and 
fat oxen, 11 si^' ; fancy, 13al3>^c. Vea's firmer; grasscalves 
very dull; prime, 8)ia9}4c; good, 7xa8Xc. Sheep 
stronger; clipped, common to fair, 4>^a5c; fair to pood, 
5a5Xc; extras, 5X a6 xc ; choice, 6 J^a6^c. Lambs.'aS^^c. 
Live Hogs firmer ; prime, $5.37a5.50 ; medium, $525a5.37. 
Dressed Hogs firm ; Medium to prime, 6Xa6^. 



©li^ lantHster (farmer. 

DEVOTED TO 
Agriculture, Horticulture, Domestic Economy and Miscellany > 

EDITED BY S. S. RATHVON AND ALEXANDER HARRIS. 
** The Farmer is the founder of civilization."— WEBSTER. 



Vol. ir. 



OCTOBER, 1872. 



Mo. 10. 



BOTANICAL, 



GOSSIP.— NO. 2. 



BY J. STAUFFER. 



SHOULD any of my grave readers object to 
my fjofsip, as bad stock that don't pay to 
read, yielding no interest, there is other stock we 
know of in the same fix, and yet it is taken. 
Tastes differ, and we all have a good opinion 
of ourselves " individually." "We see the fail- 
ings in others. The Scotch bard, Burns, has 
written a short prayer on the subject 

'' O wad some power the giftie gie us 
To see oursel's as others see us ! 
It wad frae mony a blunder free us 
A nd foolit-h notion." 

Perhaps I make a blunder in writing gossip 
for the " Faemer," and if it is a " foolish no- 
tion," allow me to indulge the hope of being 
indulged—" For ye suffer fools gladly, seeing 
ye yourselves are wise." But the c mpositor 
and proof-reader complains, and say it is my 
fault, b^cau8e they did not know that there 
were two distinct plants, one a cacao, and the 
other a cocoa ; and consequently corrected me 
in the last article. Well, I stand corrected, 
and will try to do better — they do not profess 
to be botanists. 

Practically, the readers of the Farmer 
know more about their vocation than I do, 
therefore I shall not be sillj enough to attempt 
to teach them. I esteem them as an intelli- 
gent class, and far in advance of the tillers of 
the soil, even in the boasted land of our fore- 
fathers. An American traveler recently in- 
quired of a group of farm laborers in England 
whether they were " prospering." " No I" 
replied one of their number, " we are hay- 



ing !" It seems the word " prospering" was 
as new to them as " cacao," and supposed it 
referred to their work— or so intended. 

"VVe are all liable to make blunder^, and it 
is often a difficult matter to get out of the old, 
deep-worn ruts of time and habit traveling 
in the same track produces. This is forcibly 
illustrated in the fact related of the West In- 
dia negroes, who when furnished by their 
masters' humarity with wheel-barrows, in or- 
der that they might no lunger carry such enor- 
mous loads on their heads, persisted in carry- 
ing their burdens in the good old way — loheel" 
barrow and all! 

The venerable tyrants custom and fashion 
hold many in servility. S3e our modern 
belles, with high-heeled folly, unable to cook 
a meal or bake a pie. In such matters it is 
preferable to go back to the days of our wor- 
thy grandmothers of whom you could say in- 
dividually : 

'' She was knowing in all needle-work 
And shone in dairy and in kitchen too, 
As in the parlor." 

Knowledge does not necessarily puff up — 
and science properly so called is simply the re- 
cord of the experience and investigation of 
men who gave their special attention to a 
special subject, who gleaned from the expe- 
rience of by-gone ages, and use of new discov- 
eries and appliances, of which knowledge we 
have a right to avail ourselves ; and it will be 
found of practical value in our daily pursuits. 
Why turn up your nose at botany, as some do ? 
It is the science that not only teaches us the 
names of plants we may meet in and around 
our farms and dwellings, woodland and mea- 
dow, but it embraces the bubiect of vegetable 
life, a knowledge of which is so essential to 
the horticulturist. He may know by his own 



18Jf 



THE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



expfrience ard the verbal instructions of his 
father, how to graft or hud, and succeed with- 
out a book, I ut no one man can teach us all, 
for a life-lime is too short to learn by exper- 
ience and observation alone ; and these croak- 
ers against " bo k-leaniing," can learn much 
to their profit if they give their attention to 
the right kind of books. 

We rejoice to know that the old prejudices 
are fi;st giving way and the study of vegetable 
physiology, or botany, recognized as pertain- 
ing to fruit as well as to flowers — and to wheat 
as well as weeds. I now write as a botanist, 
and as such you will indulge me. I may de- 
vote my remarks more particularly to that 
subject hereafter. 

Chemistry is a science by which the rela- 
tions and pi'opcrties of vegetable and other 
matters have, whether for building up the 
muscular system or fattening stock, to utilize 
the gluten, starch, oil, sugar, albumen, etc., 
on the one hand, and the water, lime, potash, 
ammonia, etc., on the other, to deodorize or- 
ganized matter in the process of decomposi- 
tion, to imprison the volatile elements and 
hold them captive in compost for distribution 
to fertilize the soil. Agricultural chemistry 
is of vast importance, notwithstanding some 
men have fooled themselves by analyzing a 
pint of soil and came to sage conclusions on 
a very meager foundation. 

Entomology is equally important. This 
teaches us what class of insects are injurious 
to vegetation and which may prove as a coun- 
ter-check, and hence beneficial. This summer 
we have the air filled with a white butterfly 
having a few spots on the wings. Those of 
my readers who have the report for 1870 (pub- 
libhed in 1871) of ihe Commissioner of Agri- 
culture, may refer to page 78, or to page 153 
August number of the Farmer, current yol- 
ume, for a fuller account. They will find that it 
is theEuropepn cabbage-butterfly, introduced 
into Quebec, Canada, in 1856 or '57, and grad- 
ually coming on and as predicted, reached 
Pennsylvania in 1871. They were then but few 
and far between, and might have been easily 
prevented from exerting the wholesale de- 
struction of the cabbage they have. My atten- 
tion was called to a lot in which stood one 
thousand tattered fragments of what, a week 
before, promised to make that many fine 
heads of cabbage. Alas I for " sauer kraut." 
My German friend fought bravely, but like 



Piiddy who ran fast, but the train had just left 
as he breathlessly reached the depot. A gen- 
tleman observed — "You didn't run fast 
enough." " Sure," said Pat, " I ran fast 
enough, but did not start soon enough." So 
it is, my friend did not commence killing the 
caterpillars till the mischief was accomplished. 
He said he saw those butterflies, but did not 
know their character, or he would not have 
allowtd them to lay their eggs on his cabbage. 
That was for want of a knowledge, hence we 
learn how important it is to learn entomol- 
ogy. I might also refer to geology, but have 
occupied sufficient space for this time. 



AGRICULTURAL. 



AGRICULTURAL COLLEGES AND 
PRACTICAL FARMING. 

THE preacher who does not edify and in- 
struct his congregation ought to be 
dismissed his charge, and be employed at 
something better suited his capacity ; so of 
the school-teikcher : unless he can teach his 
pupils it, and make them comprehend the les- 
sons, he had better be employed at such man- 
ual labor that would require no exertion of 
the mind. In short, the men who are set forth 
as instructors, or rather set themselves forth 
as such, should be closely scanned, and have 
no right to claim exemption from public 
opinion, public praise or public censure. This 
is an age of investigation and of out-spoken 
opinion, an age of reason and reflection. 
When Prof. Bateman stated that after all tlie 
teaching in our agricultural colUges did not 
difler essentially from that of other colleges 
and universities, he, no doubt, told us a broad 
truth, and one that is becoming daily more 
and more apparent. At the same time, he 
said that it was a new education, but that, no 
doubt, he intended for a rhetorical metaphor, 
to show how an old thing may be called by a 
new name. 

Next comes Prof. Turner, and advises that 
a part of our educational force should be ex- 
pended in the elucidation of new methods and 
of new forces in nature. He would teach all 
that is now known, and at the same time be 
looking into the arena of nature for new laws 
and new developments. While these two 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



185 



great luminaries of our educational firmament 
diffr-r, the schools go on in the old routine, and 
make no effort to know which is in the ritiht, 
and the fanner's son is consequently being 
educated for a profession, not for the farm. 

The fact is that there is less to learn about 
agriculture than is generally supp'^sed, but 
this knowledge is diffused through so many 
channels that it is not available to the masses 
of our people. If we had a class of profes- 
sors who would sift out the wheat from the 
chaff, and reduce the whole thing lo a system, 
we should have the founda'ion laid for a new 
order of things. Until we can do this in our 
schools we may call agriculture an art. But 
I do not like this term, for art implies a com- 
bination of skill and taste. Now the farmer 
must rest his success on laws that no skill of 
haidicraft can compensate for. He, of ne- 
cessity, must depend on the laws of science, 
or in plain tarnos, the laws of nature. One of 
the best farmers that I know is ignorant of 
what is called science, and yet he understands 
the science of farming better than any of our 
professors. This man's practical knowledge, 
reduced to a formula, might be called scientific 
farming. 1 said he is the best farmer, but this 
must be qualified to say the best manager of 
our clay prairie soils for the growth of corn, 
wheat, oats and grasses. He owned a large 
farm in his native State, but in an evil hour be 
was persuaded to go on the official bond of a 
relative, who proved a defaulter. He came to 
this Slate with his all in a covered wagon. 
The first year he rented a farm, and the next 
purchased a small one, nearly all on credit. 
To this he has added another farm, and now 
it is one of the best, if not the best, managed 
farm in the country. It is of such men that 
we may in part learn how to manage a farm. 
Had this man had the advantage of a truly 
scientific education, he might to-day be one 
of the best of teachers, for his would be a 
school of practical science applied to the rou- 
tine of farm life. Among farmers such* a min 
is called lucky, and well he may be, for he 
commands luck and it comes at his bidding. 
To call such a man an empiric is to show igno- 
rance of the value of applied science. It is to 
such men that we must go in order to learn 
the true system of scientific agriculture, and 
when it becomes written down in form it may 
be called book-farming.—" Rural," in Prairie 
Farmer. 



LIQUID FUEL. 

THE lately published report of the British 
Coal Commissioners contains a contribu- 
tion from Dr. B. H. Paul upon the use of 
liquid fuel, which contains many valuable 
suggestions. An English exchange thus re- 
views the paper: 

The materials which have been proposed 
for use as liquid fuel are : Petroleum in a 
crude state ; crude paraffine oil, obtained by 
the distillation of caniiel coal or of bitumin- 
ous shale ; the heavy oil separated from these 
mati rials; waste products of the manufacture 
of burning oil, etc., from petroleum and par- 
affine oil; and dead oil, or creosote. All these 
materials agree in consisting essentially of 
mixtures of certain oils, composed of carbon 
and hydrogen, hence termed hydrocarbons. 
The oils d') not vary much in the relative pro- 
portions of their constituent elements, but 
chiefly in their degrees of volatility and den- 
sity. The average space occupied in stowing 
is by crude petroleum 43 41 cubic feet per ton ; 
crude paraffine oil, or heavy oil from either, 
40 93 cubic feet per ton ; dead oil, or creosote, 
34 25 cubic feet per ton ; and coal, 40-20 cubic 
feet per ton. All these materials are much 
more inflammable than coal. This is especi- 
ally the case with crude petroleum and crude 
paraffine oil, both of which contain a consider- 
able amount of very volatile spirit, or oil, that 
will take fire at and below the ordinary at- 
mospheric temperature on contact with flame, 
and will also give off vapor that is rsadily in. 
flammable, and when mixed with air becomes 
explosive. But the oil from which this more 
volatile portion has been separated will bear 
being considerably heated without taking fire 
by contact with flame. The dead oil from the 
coal tar of gas works will bear being still more 
strongly heated before it will take fire, and it 
is scarcely capable of giving ofl' inflammable 
vapor. In this respect, therefore, its use as 
fuel is attended with It^ss liability to accident 
by fire than any of the other materials pro- 
posed to be used as liquid fu 1. 

The relative calorific power and evapora- 
ting efficacy of these materials, and of coal, or 
other kinds of fuel, can be estimated accord- 
ing to their chemical composition, and a com- 
parative statement of the results obtained by 
such an estimate shows the heat generated 
and available to be by crude petroleum, crude 



186 



THE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



paraffiae oil, or heavy oil from either, 20,000 
luiits, of which 16,847 are available for pro- 
duciuf; steam ; by dead oil, or creosote, 16,628 
units are generated, of which 14,567 units are 
available for producing steam ; and by coal 
14 361 units are generated, of which 10.409 
are available for producing steam. These fig- 
ures represent the evaporation of 15 lb., 13 lb. 
aj3d 9 31 lb. of water respectively for each 1 
lb. of fuel consumed. The steam producing 
oapabil ty of the liquid fuel is, therefore, from 
58 to 08 per cent, hiirher than coal, so that 
the saving of stowage space wilh liquid fuel 
would be less by 35 or 40 per cent, than that 
required for coal or equal steam-producing 
capability. One of the applications of liquid 
fuel first attempted was for generating steam. 
The chief difficulty was that of insuring the 
perfect combustion of the oil at the proper place, 
under the steam boiler— so that production of 
smoke might be prevented, and the full heat- 
ing or evaporative capability of the fuel might 
be realized. Dr. Paul points out that the ad- 
vantages claimed for liquid fuel for generating 
steam on board ship are of such a nature as 
to appear at first sight very sttractive, but 
they have been in many instances enormous- 
ly exaggerated by enthusiastic advocates, and 
there are many other circumstances that re- 
quire to be taken into account before the true 
value of these advantages can be properly 
e'5timated. 

With regard to the danger of using liquid 
fuel, Dr. Paul remarks that it must be remem- 
bered that crude petroleum and crude paraffine 
oil are both highly inflammable even in the 
cold ; that they both readily give off an ex- 
tremely mflammable and very diffusive vapor, 
especially when slightly warmed, and that 
this vapor, when mixed with atmospheric air 
in certain proportions, becomes violently ex- 
p'osiye on contact with flame or with any 
body sufficiently heated. These materials 
likewise possess a great capability of penetra- 
ting through extremely small apertures, and 
therefore, they would be liable to escape from 
any defect in the tanks containing them, and 
thus by con ing in contact with atmospheric 
air in confined spaces to form an explosive 
mixture that might endanger the safety of a 
vessel ; he also refers to the danger to be ap- 
prehended from the liquid itself taking fire. 
The only known material of this class that is 
free from the objections that may reasonably 



be urged against the adoption of either petro- 
leum or paraffine oil in the crude state, or the 
less volatile portions of them, is the dead oil 
or creosote obtained as a waste product from 
coal tar. 

The prospects, moreover, of a supply of ma- 
terials applicable as liquid fuel at a price that 
would permit of its use are anything but re- 
assurino;. The total production of petroleum 
in America does not amount to more than 
40t ,000 a year, and the demand for it f )r 
lighting and lubricating are rapidly increasing. 
No other source of petroleum is known which 
at all approximates in extent to that in Amer 
ica, but even that appears trifling when com- 
pared with the enormous consumption (f coal 
for steam navigation — upward of 10,000,000 
tons a year. Tha present price of creosote is 
'22 per ton, f. o. b. in the Thames. Dr. Paul 
mentions, too, that all the liquid fuels possess 
a strong penetrating and, to many persons, 
disagreeable srraell, which becomes much more 
perceptible when the oil is in contact with 
heated objects, even in very small quantity. 
Hence, la the use of any of these materia,l8 as 
fuel, a slight leakage of the reservoirs or con- 
ducting pipes, and the almost unavoidable 
presence of small quantities of the oil spilt or 
smeared about the stoke-hole of a steam ves- 
sel, would be likely to diffuse throughout the 
whole vessel a smell which might be consider- 
ed highly oujectiunable, especially in passen- 
ger ships. Giving full weight to the various 
advantages capable of being gained by the 
use of 1 quid fuel, and considering: the various 
circumstances of cost, extent of supply, etc. 
which would affect its applicability. Dr. Paul 
concludes that the use of liquid fuel for steam 
navigation purposes must in any case be very 
limited, and that it is only under special con- 
ditions that it would be desirable. But liquid 
fuel when burnt wilh '; blast affords the same 
advantages as the gas furnace introduced by 
Mr. Siemens, and for this reason it appears 
to be likely that its application in this ^ay for 
heating iron-plates, forgings, etc., would be 
attended with considerable advantage in iron 
Works. 



PiCKELS. — 1 gallon cold vinegar, 1 oz. white 
ginger root, 4 pound garlic, 4 pound mustard, 
4 pound salt, 1 oz. pepper corns, cayenne pep- 
per and spice to suit the taste. 



THE LAJ^CASTER FARMER. 



1S\ 




PHEASANTS (PHASIANUS). 

TO adopt the words of BufFon : " It is 
sufficient to name the pheasant to re- 
mind us of the place of its o; igin. The pheas- 
ant, that is, the bird of Phasis, was, it i«> said, 
exclusively confined to Colchis before the ex- 
pedition of the Argonauts ; those Greekf; 
ascending the Phasis, to arrive at Colchis, be- 
held these fine birds spread along the banks 
of the river, and by bringing them back to 
their own country, bestowed upon it a gift 
more precious than the golden fleece. 



"At the present day the pheasants of Col- 
chis, or Minguila,and some other of the neigh- 
boring counties, arc the largest and finest iu 
the known world." 

Cassel says: " 'F'roiu the^e countries they 
have been extended iu alino-t >'ll the regions 
of the known world. They are found iu the 
greater parts of Europe ; they are abundant 
in Spain, in Italy, in soaae parts of Germany, 
and in the south of France. In the north 
they are less common. Tne common pheas- 
ant does not appear to inhabit Africa ; but is 
greatly multiplied in Chitia, where it lives ia 



188 



THE LAJ\"CASTER FARMER^ 



the woods, without mixing with other species, 
which are also equally abundant in this vast 
empire. Pallas describes pheasants as found 
in Siberia. They are very common among 
the Kirghis, who ornament their bonnets with 
the plumes of this bird. Pheasants are fond 
of the shelter of thickets and woods, where 
the grass is long ; yet, like partridges, they 
often breed in clover fields. They form their 
nests on the ground, where from twelye to 
fifteen eggs are laid, smaller than those of the 
domestic hen. The parent-birds and their 
biood, if undisturbed, remain iu stubbles and 
hedge-rows for some time alter the grain is 
ripe. If disturbed, thej seek the woods, and 
oul}' issue thence in the mornings and even- 
ings to feed in the stubbles. They are fond 
of g7-ain ; but procure a subsistence without 
it, since they ofteu feed on acorns and the 
wild berries of the woods." Ic has been sup- 
posed that the pheasant is destitute of sagaci- 
ty ; aod that on being roused from its usual 
state, it will often perch on a neighboring 
tree, where its attention will be so fixed on 
the dogs as to suffer the sportsman to ap- 
proach very near, but there are persons who 
can testify that an old cock-pheasant will 
take to thick and extensive coverts, when he 
has found himself pursued, and resort to many 
stratagems to elude his pursuers. 

It may be necessary to state here that we 
have no bird, indigenous to the United States, 
except the wild turkey, that belongs to the 
family Phasianid^. What we call a pheas- 
ant belongs to the Tbtraonid^, or grouse 
family, andisthe yei;?aoz(/w6eWM5of Temminck, 
and is still found in Lancaster county. 

Our illustration represents a variety of the 
" horned pheasants " (Tragopan hastingsii?) 
which originally came from the northern 
range of the Himalayan mountains, and con- 
cerning which we yet know very little, except 
that it has been domesticated in Europe, and, 
we believe, has been introduced into the Uni- 
ted States. It is said to be a ver;^ pretty bird, 
reiiiarkable for its large pendent crest, and its 
rich, predominating maroon color. 



FLOOR-WARMING. 



IT is slowly dawning upon our people, that 
the system of heating the head, or the up- 
per part of our rooms, to seventy-five or eighty 
degrees, while the floor, and consequently the 



feet, are only fifty or sixty degrees, is radically 
acd essentially wrong. Yet the warming of 
our floors instead of our ceilings is now be- 
coming quite iashionable amongst thoughtful 
men ; and sensible women, too, are quite 
charmed with it. 

And now it is the architect's and builder's 
business to advise the best means of accom- 
plishing so desirable an object. Of course, as 
in the introduction of all other great reforms, 
there will be many blunders committed at 
first and mistakes made; perhaps a few 
houses will be burned down, and various in- 
conveniences experienced, before we arrive at 
perfection in this matter. But it is not in the 
nature of things that any great modification 
in the habits and style of living of an intelli- 
gent people should be effected at once. It 
must uot be expected that we can jump at 
perfection in this matter of house-vrarming, 
any more than we can jump at correct prac- 
tice in medicine, in building, iu religion, or 
anything else. No man ever built a house he 
was entirely satisfied with. He always wants 
to build one more, that he may correct the 
mistakes he has made in the last one. 

Most of our arrangements for artificial 
warming are of recent origin. They are gen- 
erally very imperfect and unsatisfactory. But, 
on the other hand, we must not suppose that 
any system of warming and ventilation will 
ever be invented that will be perfect, that 
will answer for all the variations of our 
changeable climate, without further care. No : 
all artificial warming and ventilation is ex- 
pensive, troublesome, aod. at best, with all 
the intelligence and care that can be bestowed 
upon it, is far inferior to the natural warmth 
of the sun and ventilation of the external at- 
mosphere; and we would earnestly recom- 
mend every one to avoid the artificial substi- 
tute as long as he possibly can. It is scarcely 
possible, however, for us to avoid them alto- 
gether. It would, no doubt, be better in many 
instances to wear more clothing in cold 
weather, and have our rooms less heated than 
are many of our American houses. This 
would apply especially to our bed-rooms. It 
is undoubtedly much more refreshing and in- 
vigorating to put on plenty of blankets, and 
sleep in a cold room with the windows open, 
in winter, than to sleep in a warm room, espe- 
cially if closed, and even if well ventilated, 
because the breathing of cold air gives more 



THE LAM CASTER FARMER. 



189 



vigor than the breathing of warm. But how 
shall we do it? That is the question. 

One of the first things we want to know is 
how warm should the floors be to give the 
greate.st amount of comfort. The tempera- 
ture of the blood is ninety-eight degrees ; ai d 
the soles of our feet ought to be kept that 
warm also, to maintain a perfect circulation 
and action of the blood throughout the 
whole system. I at first thought that this 
temperature would be the best for the 
floors, as that, bring the temperature of 
the blood, would feel neither warm nor 
cold. But man}' experiments in this direc- 
tion seem to indicate that this is rather warm- 
er than i- generally desired. A temperature 
of eighty-five or ninety degrees seems to give 
the most general satisfaction, and if, in addi- 
tion to this, many of the floors of the outsde 
walls could be warmed, a great advantage 
would be gained. These may be warmed to 
one hundred and ten or one hundred and 
twenty degrees. JTow, these temperatures 
are perfectly safe with any of the ordinary 
materials of our rooms. This is not warmer 
than the floor would be with the sun shining 
upon it, and is not injurious to wood, and 
ought not to be to any carpet with which the 
floors of a living-room should be covered. But 
to produce just this temperature and no more, 
is the difficult matter, If that could be done, 
it might be applied to any of our ordinary 
houses with wooden floors. 

The circulation of hot water through pipes 
between the joists comes the nearest to ac- 
complishing it. This has been done in many 
instances with marked success, and may be 
considered safe for the first floor where there 
ib. a warm cellar underneath; but it would not 
answer in second stories, or in exposed posi- 
tions where the pipes were liable to freeze 
and burst. Steam answers a good purpose 
where there is considerable space for the cir- 
culation of air around them; and, where a 
pressure of less than five pounds is used, it is 
scarcely necessary to protect the wood work 
from immediate contact with the pipes. It is 
better, however, '^ot to allow any wood to 
touch them. Although combustion would 
probably never take place from that cause, 
yet the wood thus in contact becomes very 
dry ; and, if a fire occurs from other sources, 
such wood is in condition to burn rapidly. 
Wherever it is practicable to do so— and I 



think that with a little ingenuity it would be 
f. uud to be 80 in almost every case — the steam 
])ipes should !)e run between the joists on the 
outside under the winiows, and the space 
directly over them could be covered with soap- 
stone or with slat'.'. The latter hi b coming 
a favorite material amongst builders for 
various uses besides covering roofs. It makes 
an excellent tiling, and, in the ornamental 
manner in which it is now worked up, makes 
a very handsome substitute for the expensive 
marbles for waiuscottiug. 

In cases where the ordinary hot air furnace 
is used, it is scarcely safe, with our present 
method of construction, to allow even the air 
from the "^f:nas," and the " Vesuviuses," 
and such other lung-scorchers, to come in con- 
tact with the wooden floors (these floors are 
of so much more value than our lungs) for 
fear of burning them ; but, where it is possible 
to use iron joists and a brick arch, it makes 
an excellent arrangement to let the floor be 
the top of the furnace. The floor is thus 
warned ; and, with a little ingenuity, the heat 
may be quite evenly distributed over a large 
space. If hot-air furnaces could always be 
used in this manner, it would quite retrieve 
their character, and render them a conveni- 
ent, and perhaps a popular method of warm- 
ing. From these few hints it can readily be 
seen what a field architects and builders have 
before them for devising new and improved 
methods of rendering our buildings far more 
comfortable than they now are, by adopting 
some means of keeping our feet warm and 
our heads cool. — Lewis W. Leeds, Engineer •/ 

Ventilatio7i. 

^ . 

SALT FOK Farm Stock.— Prof. James E. 
Johnson, of Scotland, says that half the saline 
matter of the blood (75 per cent.), consists of 
common salt, and as this is partly dissolved 
every day through the skin and kidneys, the 
necessity of continued supplies of it to the 
healthy body is sufficiently obvious. The bile 
also contains soda (one of the ingredients of 
salt) as a special and indispensable constitu- 
ent, and so do all the cartilages of the body. 
Stint the supply of salt, and neither will the 
bile be able properly to assist digestion, nor 
the cartilages to be built up again as fast as 
they naturally waste. It is better to place 
salt where slock can have free access to it, 
than to give it occasionally in small quantities. 
They will help themselves to what ihcy need. 



100 



THE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



BEE-KEEPING. 



THE BEE AND BEE-KEEPING. 
NO. 3. 

BY ULiacn STlilCKLER. 
AVOEKERS. 

^'^HE workers are imperfect females, that 
is, they are females with undeveloped 
organs of generation. Fertile workers occur 
occasionally. They are workers that have 
the power to lay a few eggs, but this power is 
only developed when a colony has lost its 
queen, at least we discover it only in queen- 
less colonies. The eggs laid by fertile work- 
ers, hatch, but produce invju-iably drones. This 
is another evidence that dr.>ne eggs, or eggs 
that produce drones, are not impregnated. 

The time from the egg to the mature work- 
er, averages about tvventy-one days, or three 
days less than for the drones. They are call- 
ed workers, because they perform all the 
labor. Worker-bees are emphatically labor- 
ers, being without doubt the mo^t industrious 
insects of which we have any knowledge — the 
ant not excepted. No opportunity for gath- 
ering stores is allowed to pass away unim- 
proved. Every moment of time — weather 
permitting — is employed, and every nook and 
corner ransacked, so that no source of honey 
or pollon escapes their scrutinizing search. 
When their hives are well filled, having an 
abundant supply of honey and all things 
necessary to take them safely through the 
winter, without any more labor, if we furnish 
them additional room, they will toil assidu- 
ously to fill it up. Sometimes when their 
hives are filled, and w^e neglect to furnish 
them more ro.>m they vvill build combs and 
store honey on the outside, showing that in- 
dustry is essential to their existence, and idle- 
ness contrary to their nature. The phrase 
" as busy as a bee," and the song 

" How does the busy little bee 
Improve each shining hour," 

are " as familiar as household words," and 
yet how few, comparatively, know how busy a 
bee really is, or how industriously it impi'oves 
its time. But I am digressing. 

They are provided with a sac in which they 
carry the honey to the hive. Pollen they 
carry in little pellets attached to their poste- 



rior legs. Nature has furnished them with a 
sting and a virulent poison. These they use 
in defense of themselves and their treasures, 
but will not attack wlien abroad, only near 
their hives. They secrete was, construct 
comb, nurse and feed the yf)ung, as well as 
prepare their food; in short, perform all the 
labor about the hive, except laying the eggs. 
For about ten or twelve days after leaving 
the cell, they are almost exclusively engaged 
within the hive ; afterward they assist in col- 
lecting honey and pollen. Their age varies 
according to the season in which they are 
hatched. In the busy se son the average age 
acquired does probably not exceed a month, 
a great many beia; lost every day, but when 
hatched in the fall, their life is ex!;eQd3d dir- 
ing the winter, into spring, so that some 
probably live to the age of eight or nine 
months. 

HINTS FOR OCTOBER. 

Now is the time to select stocks for winter- 
ing. Every stock to winter safely should have 
twenty-five to thirty pounds of honey, and 
bees sufficient to cover all the combs nearly to 
the bottom. Some judgment is needed to de- 
cide about the number of bees. If the hive is 
very full of honey, the bees are crowded to 
the bottom, and appear to be more numerous 
than they really are. But where the combs 
are ordinarily filled, the bees will be near the 
bottom, and extend through all of them. Such 
usually winter best. When stores of honey 
are a little short, the bees will be farther up 
among the coaibs, and a large colony may 
appear quite small. Too much honey is also 
a disadvantage. The middle combs should be 
empty nearly to the top, that the bees cannot 
occupy only the space between the combs, but 
creep into the ce'ls, pu3hing very closely to- 
gether, to economize all the heat generated 
by them. 

Keep all the colonies that can be made 
profitable next year, but decide now which 
are to be wintered. Some colonies cannot be 
wintered, and it is mercy to kill at once, 
rather than allow them to starve by degrees. 
It is mistaken kindness and false economy to 
decide to keep colonies that cannot be win- 
tered. If it is desirable to keep light colo- 
nies, they should be put in the best possible 
condition this month, by feeding, that the 
honey maybe sealed over before cold weather. 
Feed at night, and give them all they will 



THE LAJ^CASTER FARMER. 



191 



take, until they have enough. Feed iu the 
top of the hive, that robbers cannot get at it 
without passing throui^b the hive. Honey is, 
of course, the best feed, but a syr.ip made of 
the best white sugar and water — two parts of 
the former to o le of the latter by weight — 
brought to a boil, and all impurities skim- 
med from the surf iCe, i^ a very good substi- 
tute. There are several patented bee-feeders 
in use that are very couveureut, but a home- 
made one, which any one can make, answers 
our purpose very wfll. Take four pieces of 
lath, about an inch wide and one-fourth of an 
inch thick, and of any length to make a feed- 
er of the size desired, or suited to the top of 
the hive ; tack together, and for the bottom 
take heavy unbleached muslin and fasten on. 
Or the sides may be made of tin, and the mus- 
lin pasted on with gum-arabic. Honey, or 
syrup of the proper consistency, will pass 
through the muslin just fast enough for the 
bees to take it from the under side. This 
feeder should be set over the openings in the 
honey board, on a frame the same size as the 
feeder. The bees can then ascend through 
the openings in the honey board, and get to 
the under side of the muslin, under the honey 
or syrup, and take it through without getting' 
outside of the frame on which the feeder rests. 
Whenever the feeder becomes empty, it can 
be filled without any bees being \a the way. 

If any stocks cannot be wintered, it is bet- 
ter economy to put away the hives with their 
contents, after taking out all the bees, fur a 
swarm another year, than to Dreak out the 
honey for the table. Close it up, that neither 
mice nor bees can enter, and a swarm put into 
it the following season will pay for the con- 
tents and trouble. 

Those who use movable frame hives — and 
every bee-keeper should use them — will have 
very little trouble with light stocks. A frame 
or two containing honey from a stock that 
can spare it, exchanged for one or two empty 
ones will help the difficulty ; and it is all that 
is required, unless there are too few bees, 
when the bees clustering on the combs from 
the strong st( ck may be permitted to remain 
on, and be transferred with the combs to the 
weak colony. 

* — 

Butter made in the Blanchard Churn com- 
mands the highest price, as the buttermilk is 
sure to be worked out more thoroughly than it 
can possibly be by hand. Expert butter 
buyers well know this. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL. 



IX DEFEASE OF THE COCKROACH. 



AEEMARKABLE result of modern util- 
itarian inve-itiaation is the discovery of 
the value of the cockroach as a scavenger. 
These repulsive animals, which have been 
d-emed the t-nemies of correct housekeeping, 
and a^^ainnt which a thousand patent poisons 
have been discharged, is after all a friend of 
our race, and has been unjustly persecuted. 
And now lor what the cockroach does. Re- 
cently a terrible disease has been discovered, 
which f rigiostes :n the p?:trid paste on bill- 
boards in large cities. The cockroach has a 
strong likinjr for this putrescent, farinaceous 
food, and, when permitted, cleans it all up. 
In Paris they .re encoura2;ed in this work, 
and prominent men say that when the ani- 
mals are allowed full swing, cerebro-bpinal 
meningitis and kindred diseases are not heard 
of. Repulsive as it may seem, it has leaked 
out that bakers use the cockroach to clear 
the p tridity from yea^t, and frequently in- 
sert them into the loaves of bread for sanitary 
purposes. New York is awakening to the 
sense of their utility, and is looking them up 
to clear off her putrid bill-boanls a prominent 
doctor having insisted that "a bill-b .ard is 
equivalent to the death of three hundred peo- 
ple, from the putrid matter it contains " A 
number of cockroach breeders were present 
at a recent meeting of entomologists in Salem 
Mass., and exhibited a number of differert 
varieties of the insect. It was there demon- 
strated that the English breed is superior to 
all others for scavenj^er purposes. It was 
contended that the popubir preju 'ice against 
the insect is groundless, the roach being per- 
fectly harmless, and capable of great affection 
for his keeper. Who will inaugurate the cul- 
tivation of the new sanitary agent in this 
vicinity ? 

[It is so seldom that a good word is said in 
behalf of the cockroach, and we feel so natur- 
ally inclined to give even "the devil h^s due," 
that we cannot refrain from submitting the 
above to the consideration of our readers 
" for what it is worth," and nothing more. 
We can so far vouch for the truthfulness of 
the foregoing testimony as to corroborate 
what is said of the cockroaches eating the 
paste attached to papered walls, printed or 
otherwise, but at the very best this is but a 
negative virtue, for, to our great annoyance, 
he persists in also eating the paper in holes 
for two inches or more along the washboard 
of our kitchen. Still, as we do not know how 
mucb fatal disease this has prevented during 
the past hot summer, he may possibly have 



192 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



performed a sacitary office in our household, 
and therefore will not unqualifiedly condemn 
him, but charitably give him the benefit of 
the doubt. 

It has often been alleijed by analytic tem- 
perance -or rather total abstinence— advo- 
cates that the extract of cockroach constitutes 
the coloring matter in some of the liquid com- 
pounds, manufactured and sold as human bev- 
erages. Be that as it may, we know from ex- 
perience, that the immersion of cockroaches 
in limped alcohol, in not a very long time, 
chauires it^to the color of the most beautiful 
brandy. If it be true that bakers use cock- 
roaches to destroy the putridity of yeast, and 
for other sanitary purposes, may they not 
have a sanitary efi'ect upon the beverages in 
which they are used as a coloring matter? 
and if so, what becomes cf the argument 
against the poisonous liquid compounds, so 
freely made use of by analytic temperance 
reformers ?] 



AN EGYPTIAN PLAGUE. 



Reports from various sections of Ohio state 
that the potato crop will be almost an entire 
failure, on account of the ravages of the potato 
bug. Now that the cold weather is beginning 
to set in, the bugs are leaving the fields and 
seeking shelter in the houses, b'rns and other 
buiidiues Every window is full of them, and 
the sides of buildujgs are in many places com- 
pletely covered. Every path is crowded with 
them, and the residents cannot walk about 
their houses and barns without stepping on 
and killing hundreds of these destructive bugs. 

We have a letter before us, more than cor- 
roborating all in the above extract. These 
insects are now seeking winter quarters in 
which to hybcrnale until next spring, but the 
number that do so are nothing in comparison 
to the number that go into the ground in the 
grub form, and those change to a pupa, and 
remain buried in the earth during the winter, 
away from accident and damaging exposure. 
Those therefore, that go into the ground, are 
comparatively safe ; although they may be 
more numerous than those seeking winter 
hiding places above ground, yet they do not 
commence operations in the spring so early 
as the latter. We hope the potato growers of 
Pennsylvania may have entirely exterminated 
the broods of these maects which appeared 
the present season in different parts of the 
State, and most especially those that appeared 



in Lancaster county. Next spring will tell 
the tale. Even if all these' should have been 
extinguished— which is hardly probable — it 
will not be long before they reach our State 
from Ohio, for the letter above referred to was 
from'Tuscarawas county, the northern line of 
which is only about forty miles from the 
Western Pennsylvania line. With the "• po- 
tato beetle" and the " cabbage worm" in 
Lancaster county, judging from the ravages 
of the latter this season, we would not be able 
to look very hopefully for our usual su poly of 
potatoes and cabbage, in the summer of 1873. 
As civilization advances, and the country is 
opened up to domestic culture, it seems there 
is a corresponding increase in the develop- 
ment of our insect enemies, and this is pretty 
much the case all the world over. It may be 
accounted for on the principle that an increase 
in the quantity and quality of the food on 
which certain insects subsist, increases and 
facilitates their development, in localities 
where these conditions exist. To show that 
we are not alone in these insect troubles, we 
append an extract sent us by a friend in the 
Sandwich Islands, exhibiting some of their 
depredations in that far-off and generally 
esteemed Elysium of the tropical realms. It 
tells a sad tale. 

BLIGHT ! 

In that solemn, short significant word, is 
comprehended simply a nasty, shiny, dirty, 
little louse, yet so preposterously anti-Mal- 
thusian, that the smallest speck of him is to 
be dreaded as an enemy's invasion with a 
destroying army I It is the true trail of that 
malicious old serpent who poured his infernal 
poison into a frail woman's ear and then spit 
upon our cocoa and our coflee, and hasn't 
done spitting yet. This detestable little aphis 
can put whole countries into mourning, send 
fleets to rot for want of work, elude the vigi- 
lance of science and turn a smiling land into 
a waste wilderness, crying Havoc ! with the 
biggest dogs of war ! Look at ourci ffee alone. 
What might not this single Island of Hawaii 
have done but for this pesky parasite I Mil- 
lions on millions of dol ars it might have 
raised, and a revenue and a commerce capa- 
ble of many hotels ar>d palaces, worthy the 
benignant patronage of Foreign Relations in 
all his glory ! There is scarce a limit to ibe 
amount of exportation thnt there might have 
been from the six apanas of Hawaii. With 
a chaplet of coffee leaves encirclifig her m«- 
blighted brow, and a wand of cocoa in her 
hand, guarding the green and fruitful planta- 
tions at her feet, and unnumbered cream dai- 
ries round among the hills, the Genius of 
Hawaii might have taken her imperial seat 



TEE LAJVCASTER FABMER. 



193 



OD Mauna Kea with Mauna Loa for her break- 
fast table, anr] while sipping the ambrosial 
compourd of her own inspirations, with a 
slight tlick of her big toe, have sent the gree- 
dy sugar kings with their compound interest 
guns all rolling into the briny deep. I have a 
present pertinent cause for wrath, though 
impotent. For being something of a digger 
with the rest, in part pursuance of my allott- 
ment I planted "garden sarse," cabbages, 
corn and asparagus. As they sprouted I 
weeded and watered and looked proudly on. 
Mv asparagus took the form of feathery 
plurae.s,my corn sheltered scratching p )uUry 
and my cabbages swelled as if affected with 
bydrophalus. (Perhaps hydroceph"lus —drop- 
sy of the head.) So I weeded and watered 
on and grew prouder, and when a melancholy 
stranger in black bailed me as a " brother 
sinner " over the garden wall, I ignored the 
connection and told hibi to peddle allegories 
and mind his own business. And the Philis- 
tines were vjyon me ! — the Aphides I mean, 
with a filth\ clean sweep of utter destruction ! 
They plastered my corn leaves with a dirty 
gum and turned them all to fly-traps. They 
broke my cabbage hearts and sprinkled them 
with odorous mummy powder, and they clad 
my aspa^aeus with a mouldered fluff. I misht 
have known it. Hilo is black with blight I 
The very bread-fruit trees are gomg, the kou 
is gone, and symptoms appear all round. In 
parts of Hamakua and Kona the ants have 
taken complete possession of thousands of 
acres, and destroy all crops. In some shape 
or other it.affects the people, as Molokai and 
the hospitals will testify, and (if you'll not 
mention it) I'm afraid it's in the Parliament. 
And what are you going to do about it r* 
"Marry now, tell us that and unyoke ! " 

A desponding friend of mine who yet has 
good ideas, let himself out the other day, 
quite treasonably I thought, for whei? I hopp- 
fuUy suggested that we might be in an epoch, 
and the aichipelagoiu the spasms of a phase, 
he threw away the stump of his cigar quite 
vicinus'ly and snarled out, "Not a bit of it; 
Ws a biike! " Of course that shut me up. 
Yours truly. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

YELLOWS ON PEACH TREES. 

WILL HEADIKQ DOWN THE TKEES CURE THIS 
DISEASE. 

MESSRS. Editoks of Farmer: Last 
season visiiiug several of my friends, 
and looking through their orchards !*nd vine- 
yards, I noticed on the grounds of Mr. Bink- 
ley, adjoining the farm of Mr. Levi S. Reist, 
a number of peach trees that had been headed 



down, the year previous, close to where the 
bi'anches started from the trunks of the trees. 
These trees were badly effected with the yel- 
lows, as Mr. Binkley told us, and he thought 
to try an experiment, " kill or cure 1 " Now, 
when I saw them a year aft ji ward, all these 
trees had pushed out numerous sprouts, form- 
ing beautiful dense heads. The foliage and 
healthy appearance of these trees, apparently, 
left not the slightest doubt as to their perfect 
freedom fi'om disease. As another season has 
passed round, I feel curious to know if thus 
heading down the trees has in reality, and ra- 
dically, cured them of this destructive malady ! 

Mr. Reist, no doubt, can easily examine 
these trees, standing near his apple orchard, 
and, as he is a close observer, will Mr. R. give 
through the Farmer the result of this expe- 
riment for the benefit of all whom it may con- 
cern ? 

If the heading down of the trees will cure 
this formidable disease, it may be of interest 
for the peach growers to know it. There is to 
my mind, at least, some plausibility in this 
operation, thus preventing the trees from 
flowering for a season it may arrest, possibly 
cure this disease. 

Many years since, I noticed that trees ap- 
parently affected one season and ready to die, 
on a cold winter, killing the germs in the 
flower buds so the trees did not flower the fol- 
lowing spring ; then the trees recovered, and 
remained healthy, and bearing fine fruit for 
years afterward. 

J. B. Garber. 



"Why Matches Ignite.— Although fric- 
tion matches are as common as nail-', a very 
small proportion of those who use them under- 
stand the principle on which they operate. It 
is in fact a very simple affair. The tip of the 
match is a combination of sulphur and phos- 
phorous. The phosphorous ignites at the 
heat of one hundred and twenty degrees, 
which a slight friction will produce, and this 
in turn ignites the sulphur, which requires 
four hundred and fifty or five hundred degrees. 
The flame of the sulphur sets fire to the pine 
wood of which the match is composed, and 
which ignites at about six hundred degrees. 
The combination is necessary, because the 
phosphorous alone would not kiudle the 
match, while the sulphur alone would not 
ignite with the ordinary friction. 



194 



THE LAMCAST-RR FARMER. 



s 



^ 



LANCASTER, OCTOBER, 1872. 



S. S. RATHVON AND ALEX. HARRIS, Editors. 

Published monthly under the auspices of the .Agricul- 
tural AND Horticultural Society. 



$1.35 per Tear in Advance. 

A considerable deduction to clubs of five or more. 

AH communications, to insure insertion, must be in the 
hands o the editors before the 20th of each month. Ad- 
dress Ra'hvon & Harris, Lancaster, Pa. 

A advertisements, subscriptions and remittances to the 
address of the publisher, J. E. DEVELIN, 

Inquirer Building, Lancaster, Pa. 

HORTICULTURAL EXHIBITIOK. 

THE exhibition of our local society, at 
Fulton Hall, on the 12th of September 
last, was the fiaest and largest display of 
fruit and flowers that has ever been seen in 
the City of Lancaster, and only shows the 
capabilities of the society, when it has a will 
to make a demonstration. The income came 
within a small fraction of covering the ex- 
penses, and would more than have covered 
them, but f r the threatening character of the 
weather during the afternoon and evening. 
Under any circumstances, it may be regarded 
also as a financial success, for beiog the first 
exhibition of the society, held in a large rent- 
ed hall, it was merely an experiment, and 
realized more than the society anticipated. 
This experiment clearly suggests what the 
society can do, and doubtless what it will do, 
on future occasions. Although there was a 
very large display of fine fruits and flowers, 
and also a creditable display of beautiful orna- 
mental plants and evergreens, yet the quantity 
of vegetables and seeds on exhibition— al- 
though of a fine quanfity — was very meager 
indeed, as a representation of the field and 
garden products (;f Lancaster county. This is 
not because these useful products do not exist, 
both in quantity and quality, but because of 
the habitual apathy of those who cultivate 
them. There is not suflicient personal pride 
in that which is proverbially the pri.le of our 
land, and the success of which, forms the 
physical basis upon which the superstructure 



of all other occupations, professions, and en- 
terprises are erected. Oue sister society at 
Marietta did infinitely better than we in this 
respect, and it only represents a single district 
in the county ; but, to its credit be it said, it 
is, horticulturally, a live district, and or all 
such occasions, manifests a laudable enterprise. 

Our late exhibition suggests another import- 
ant matter ; and that is, tha-: it ought to be 
continued for at least two days in buccession, 
and previous proclamation should be made at 
least one fu'l month before the exhibition is 
held. It will require nearly all of the first day 
to get things properly ia order, and it seems 
that publish and advertis^e as we may, many of 
the people receive their first knowledge of it 
from some friend or neighbor who has visited 
it. There are many other details in which the 
public have no special interest, but which 
ought to be clearly understood between the 
society and the managing committees is may 
appoint, to carry out its will, on future occa- 
sions. 

Perhaps at no other period in the agricul- 
tural history of our country, has there been 
finer and more successful agricultural and 
horticultural displays than have chiracteriz.d 
the present season. Improved culture, and 
improved products of the soil, must always 
command a remunerating price, and iherefore 
the culturists of our progressing country have 
nothing specially to risk or fear, in this re- 
spect. 

Simultaneously with the appearance of this 
number of our journal, the " Agricultural 
Park Association " will be holding its fourth 
annual fair ^ and the Vtry liberal list of premi- 
ums it off"ers, ought to bring out a large amount 
of the choicest products of our county, in all 
its industrial departments. If any word of 
ours could be of any avail at this late day, we 
would admonish our friends to give encourage- 
ment to that part at least, which is in harmony 
with their sentiments, and secular interests, 
without regard to other features in which they 
are not interested. There must be some feat- 
ure, on occasions of this kind, more prominent 
than others, and if you make that feature 
agricultural, horticultural or mechanical, it 
will not be in " trials of speed," to which 
some object. For the honor of Lancaster 
county we desire its success, at least in those 
departments in which our late exhibition so 
signally failed. 



THE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



195 



BLIGHT. 

EXCEPT a similarity in external effect, 
perhaps there is no term in the English 
language which conveys a more indefinite 
idea in reference to the causes of certain phe- 
nomena, than that called " blight." It cov- 
ers 80 many contingencies, that it would be 
altogether impossible to suggest a remedy in 
any case, where the descriptijn of an animal 
or vegetable disease, is couched in the simple 
word blight. If we look into a common dic- 
tionary, we find That it means " anything nipp- 
ing or blasting." " A disease incident to 
plants, affecting them variously. Sometimes 
the whole plant perishes; sometimes only the 
leaves and blossoms, which will shrivel, as if 
scorched." The use of this term may be 
proper enough, if used merely to describe, 
briefly, an effect, without regard to the cause. 
But it is so often used with the definite arti- 
cle the^ as a prefix, that it conveys the idea of 
a disease, in special cases, that is indppeadent 
of any superinducing causes. Where vegeta- 
bles are infested by certain species of aphis 
or coccus, which enervates them, and causes 
their leaves and fruit to wilt, they are said to 
be affected by the " blight." When the &ame 
effect is produced by the presence of imm nse 
numbers of minxx q fungoids, they are said to 
be blighted. The same general term is ap- 
plied when the root is cut off a plant under- 
ground by worms, and the top withers and 
falls under *:he rays of the sun. It is the same 
in cases where the twig-boring and twig-gird- 
ling insects destroy the vitality of the smaller 
branches of trees and shrubbery, causing 
their leaves to wither ; or where the same ef- 
fect is produced by the punctures of the 
"seventeen-year locust," or tiie repulsive 
" squash-bug " and "Colorado potato beetle ;" 
or when, after a violent summer storm, some 
of the branches of trees are found to have 
been killed by electricity ; in all these cases, 
vegetation is said to have suffered from 
blight. Well, in a popular sense, and for the 
sake of convenience, it may as well be called 
by this general name, as any other. But ad- 
mitting this, here is where the " trouble " 
comes in. Viewed a'' a simple disease, only 
apparent from the general outward effect, peo 
pie will be looking for a simple uniform reme- 
dy, that will be applicable to all cases, when 
it is very evident that each particular case 



may require a different remedy. In any case, 
little or nothing can be recommended as a 
remedy for blight, unless we know what has 
been the cause of it, and even when we truly 
know the cause, there may be many difficul- 
ties in the way of applying a remedy. 

In connection with this subject, we may 
mention that there are some forms of blight 
which have a remedy inherent in them, or in 
natural association with them, and especially 
that form of it which is caused by aphids. 
Some weeks ago, we noticed that the blighted 
end of a grapevine was covered with aphis 
vitis in various stages of development, and 
also with a number of, what seemed to the 
naked eye, a small globular fungus. 

A microscopic examination, however, re- 
vealed that these were also aphids, but with 
the abdominal portion of their bodies much 
enlarged, and changed in color. We cut off 
the end of the blighted vine, and placed it 
under a glais cup. In twenty-four hours 
thereafter, out of about thirty of these insects 
about twenty had assumed the bloated and 
discolored form, anrl from these within forty- 
eight hours thereafter, emerged as many little 
Chalets flies— Si parasite which preys upon the 
aphids. In addition to this, and various arti- 
ficial remedies which may be applied to this 
form of blighi , there are a number of other 
insects which prey upon aphids ; and if it 
were not for this, their increase would be 
much facilitated and their presence intolera- 
ble. 



MEETING OF LANCASTER COUNTY 
AGRICULTURAL AND HORTI- 
CULTURAL SOCIETY. 

The regular monthly meeting of the Society 
was held September 2d, 1872, at the Court 
House, and the minutes of the last meeting 
were read and approved. 

The question of holding a Fruit Exhibition 
was immediately taken up, and, after cou'-'id- 
erable discussion, was fixed to be held in Ful- 
ton Hall on Thursday, September 13Lh, 1872. 

The following were appointed by the chair 
as managers to make arrangements for the 
holding of the said exhibition, viz. : William 
McComsey, J. B. Garber, Dr. E. Hertz, K. K. 
Stoner,Levi S. Reist, Samuel Hillm in, C. Fox, 
Casper Hiller, CaWin Cooper, Johnson Mil- 
ler, S. S. Rathvon, Jacob Stouffur, J. B. Ke- 



196 



THE LAJYCASTER FARMER. 



vinski, Charles E. Loug, M. D. Kendig, S. P. 
Eby, and Alexander Harris. 

The following committee was then appoint- 
ed to superintend the floral department, viz. : 
Mrs. J. B. Livingston, Mrs. Krampf, Mrs. 
Charles Rengier, Mrs. Charles Long, and 
Mrs J. H. Pearsol. 

Price of admittance was fixed at fifteen 
cents. 

Dr. Elam Hertz, of Ephrata, now proceeded 
to read an essay on " Household Science." 

A vote of thanks was tendered the essayist 
for his production. 

On motion, Davrd Evans was elected a 
member of the Society. 

Society, on motion, adjourned. 



How SHALL I Distinguish ? — I pur- 
chased egirs from what was reported pure-bred 
poultry, light Brahma. The chickens from 
the eegs are now about ten weeks old. I 
would like to know how they ought to look, 
also how to tell the cockerels from the pullets, 
whether by the oomb or growth of tail-feath- 
ers. Three or four of the chickens are nearly 
all white, and have tail-feathers three inches 
or more long, the birds being rather long 
shaped ; the others are broad, deep looking 
chickens, very fluffy, scarcely any tail. The 
query to me is, are they all cockerels? I hope 
not. Will some of your poultry fancying read- 
ers aid me. 

Lexington, III. Brahma. 

The above extract we copy from the Prai- 
rie Farmer, and, by^the aia of a friend who is 
well posted, we append what we deem a sat- 
isfactory reply. Hens and cockerels at that 
age bear the same relative appearance. All 
pure light Brahraas at this age are a beautiful 
light color, a small speck of black on the wing 
and tail, or, not attempting to be witty, where 
the tail will be. The Brahma is a close set 
bird. The cock should have no sickle feath- 
ers, only a short, upright tail, with four or 
five dark feathers when fully fledged, and 
finely penciled down the hackel. At ten 
weeks you can hardly tell the cockerels from 
pullets. The comb is the safest guide. The 
" long-shaped birds," with tail-feathers "three 
inches or more lon^>;" are very likely not Brah- 
mas. All the Asiatics are short and broad. 



All the first-class agricultural journals in 
the country give the Blanchard Churn as one 
of their premiums for a certain number of 
subscribers. This is a pretty good ind( rse- 
ment of the churn , as they are in a position to 
know which is the heat. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 

RANDOM SKETCHES AND FARM 
ITEMS. 

BY H. M. BNQLE 

THE short wheat crop just harvested has 
not, thus far, brought the high prices 
which were anticipated by many farmers in 
this section, which indicates that the crop, in 
the aggre^i-ate, is not much bel()W the average. 
Proper transportation facilities in a country 
are evidently the levelers of prices of its pro- 
ducts. Before the era of railroads, a wheat 
crop as short as the present one in this section 
would have caused an advance in prices al- 
most beyond the reach of the laboring classes. 
It is evidently conclusive that in a country 
like ours a thorough system for the irausport- 
ation of its products is second only to the pro- 
ducts themselvi-s. There is still in this nine- 
teenth century quite a large number who 
occasionally clamor for the good old times 
when the products of the farm were moved on 
wagons. 

In those days prices of everything were 
much more fluctuating than with the pre- 
sent system of moving our products. Then 
speculations were more reliable; now they 
recoil upon the operator's own head, which is 
caused by rapid transportation. The more 
uniform and steady the prices of all the pro- 
ducts of a country are maintained, the better 
for its citizens. "We should, therefore, hail 
with pleasure the building of as many rail- 
roads as can be conducted in a healthy con- 
dition. 

The flattering prospects of the apple crop 
in the earlier part of the season will not be 
realized in this section. The premature 
dropping and decaying of much of the crop up 
to this period has already reduced it far be- 
low its former estimate. The cause or causes 
of this drawback I am not prepared to give. 
It is, however, quite plausible that the ex- 
treme and continuous heat has had a serious 
efi'ect on the crop. Good keeping winter 
apples will not be over-abundant; in fact, it 
is doubtful whether Eastern Pennsylvania 
will have a supply. It would be wise policy 
to turn the stock on hand to the best account 
for future use, by drying or otherwise — such 
as cannot be kept fresh for winter use — as it 



THE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



197 



is not likely that a full crop next year will 
follow such an extraordinary one this season. 
The light crop of hay this season will, no 
doubt, cause many farmers to pasture close 
and late this fall. Nothing is more deleteri- 
ous to the coming hay crop than such a course, 
and those who practice it will pay pretty dear 
"for the whistle.-' Should there be plenty of 
snow the coming winter, the grass thus pas- 
tured would not suffer so seriously as with an 
open winter; but it is always safest to allow 
a sufficient body on the surface for self-pro- 
tection. With such a heavy crop of corn and 
fodder, properly utilized, stock should appear 
in good couditioQ next spring, notwithstand- 
icg the short crop of hay. 



FARMING A DULL BUSINESS. 

TALKING with a very bright and am- 
bitious young woman, a farmer's 
daughter, where we stopped < ver night, she 
said farming was a dull sort of life. " Yes," 
said a young man of twenty-two years, 
" there is no incent ive to work ; it is all hum- 
drum routine, and hard work — no relaxation 
of effort, and nothing to stimulate the mind." 
" What nonsense," we replied. There is 
everything for a stimulu.s. Each farm is a 
world in itself, about which those who have 
lived upon it know little or nothing compara- 
tively. Suppose, for example, we were to 
ask you hovv many kinds of grasses— reaZ 
grasses — grow on your farm — could you tell 
us, with their correct names, habits and his- 
tory V Suppose we ask you howmauy species 
of plants are indigenous on your farm, and 
the names of these plants, time of flowering, 
color of flowers, soil and locality on which 
they grow — could you tell us ? Suppose we 
were to ask you how many species of birds 
visit your farm every year, the time of their 
arrival and dt-parture, their habits while with 
you, their names and their habits while ab- 
sent from your locality the balance of the 
year — could }ou tell us? Suppose we ask 
you how many species of insects are to be 
found on your farm — their names, history, 
habits, whether injurious to you or not, upon 
what trees or plants they live, when and how 
often they appear, and how long they stay- 
could you tell us ? Suppose we ask you to 
show us specimens of the grasses and other 
plants, the birds, insects, etc., which maybe 



gathered within your boundary fences— could 
you show them to us ? And yet, if you were 
to undertake to acquire the knowledge we 
have suggested by these inquiries, you would 
find your life too short; yet the knowledge 
you would gain, the interest jou would soon 
take in it, and the knowledge of your own im- 
potency you would acquire, would prove to 
you that it is not the farm that is a dull 
place, but it is you who are dull I— il/oore's 
Rural New Yorker. 



HOUSE PLANTS-HOW TO BEAUTIFY 
OUR HOMES IN WINTER. 



JAMES YICK, of Rochester, has issued 
his illuistrated catalogue, from which we 
take the following hints : 

" The hyacinth and narcissus, the crocuses 
and early tulips, are especially adapted to 
house culture. The Egyptian lily is a favor- 
ite for the house, and with a few geraniums, 
etc., will mike a flue collection. All the lil- 
ies will grow well in the house, the longiflorum 
being the first to flower, the aura'um and the 
lancifolium sorts last. The dicentra, or Bleed- 
ing Heart, is so excellent for winter breeding 
and keeps so long in flower that it is a great 
favorite with us. The ivy and Madeira vine 
are fine climbers and furnish abundance of 
delicate foliagj. Many plants in the garden 
that have not become exhausted by overflow- 
ering may be taken up and potted before hard 
frosts, and in this way a collection can be 
secured at a very little cost or labor. The 
stock, tropaaolum, diauthus, ageratum, cobceo 
scandens are desirable for this purpose. 

" Few plants can endure the high tempera- 
ture and dry atmosphere of most of our living 
rooms. The temperature should not be al- 
lowed to go al.iove sixty-five in the day-time, 
and not above forty in the night. As much 
air and light as possible should be given, 
while the leaves should be sprinkled every 
morning. A spare room, or parlor, or extra 
bed-room, is better for plants than a living 
room. A bay window, connected with a 
warm room, especially if facing the south or 
east, makes an excellent place for keeping 
plants in winter. It should have glass doors 
on the inside, which can be closed a part of the 
time, especially when sweeping and dusting. 
The main thing in keeping house plants in 
health is to secure an even temperature,a moist 



198 



THE LAJVCASTER FAR MER. 



atmosphere and freedom from dust. Sprinkle 
the leaves occasionally, and when it needs 
water use it freely. If the green fiy, or aphis 
appears, wash with soap-suds frequently, and 
occasionally with a little tobacco water, or a 
decoction of quassia chips. If the red spider 
comes, it shows the plants are in too dry an at- 
mosphere. Burn a little sulphur under the 
plants, the fumes of which will kill the spider, 
and afterward keep the stems and leaves well 
moistened. Occasionally, but not often, 
worms appear in the pots. This can be 
avoided in a great measu e by careful pott- 
ing. A little weak lime water is sometimes 
of benefit in such cases, also five drops of 
liquid ammonia to a gallon of water, though, 
perhaps, the better way is to re-pot,removiug 
the earth carefully, so as not to injure the 
groivth of the plant. 

" While a good many plants can be obtain- 
ed from the garden for potting for winter 
flowers, bijlbs must be the main reliance, 
aad are unrivaled for house culture dur- 
ing the winter months. As nearly all can 
be grown in so ra any ways— in pots, or bask- 
ets of sand and moss, or in vessels of hot wa- 
ter — they are almost an endie ss source of in- 
terest and amuementia every stage of growth. 
With a little moss from the woods or swamps, 
a few quarts of sand, some pots, or a shallow 
box or two, and a few dozen crocuses, early 
tulips, hyacinths and narcissuses, any one 
is prepared for a pleasant little winter gar- 
den." 



GRASSHOPPERS IX DAKOTA. 

PERSONS down from Dakota yesterday re- 
port that vast swarms of grasshoppers have 
appeared in the section of country between 
Yermilion and Yankton, aud are committing 
fearful devastation. One man said he had 
twenty-five acres of cjrn, and in a single af- 
ternoon it was completely destroyed. The 
stage driver says the insects were an inch 
thick in the road, and the wagon-ruLs were 
filled with them. At times they passed in 
clouds so dense that the sun was obscured. 
Wheat, oats and barley- are safe, but corn, 
potatoes and everything in the vegetable line 
in the track of the voracious invaders are de- 
stroyed. They appeared to come from the 
south, and should the wind hold its present 
course they will pass on into tho more sparse- 



ly settled portions of the territory, and the 
damage after all may be trifling compared 
with what it might be. It is to hoped that 
Iowa and the rich country this side of Elk 
Point in Dakota may be spared, but it would 
be nothing strange if the grasshoppers which 
have already appeared were but the vangaurd 
of a still more numerous ho^t to follow Old 
settlers distinctly remember the fearful rava- 
ges committed by these pests of civilization 
several years since, and no greater calamity 
could befall this country than to again be gen- 
erally overrun by them. 

The amount of damage they inflict is hardly 
credible to one who never witnessed their op- 
erations. They devour every green thing in 
their track, leaving behind nothing but a waste 
of desolation. — Sioux City Journal. 



RAG CARPETS. 



MAKING rag carpets seems to be quite an 
important branch of industry among 
economical farmers' wives and daugh'^ers,and a 
few susgestions in regard to their manufacture 
may not come amiss. An Ohio lady gives the 
following, which may be useful to farmers' 
wives. She says : 

Put none but strong rags in, for it does not 
pay, and the economy in a rag c«rpet is not 
in the first c^st, but because it will outlast 
any you can buy. It is not at all necessary to 
cut or tear the rags ofl" at each end of the 
piece, but turn the corners, roundhig them ofl" 
neatly, or it will make the carpet rough. When 
I have finish'^ done piece and commenced anoth- 
er I sew the ends together,and they are all ready 
to wind up, so they are sewed up as fast as 
they are cut. I think it is very discouraging 
to have ten or twenty pounds of rags ail in a 
mass, as they are almost sure to be, to be 
sewed. The cotton rags I sew and reel into 
skeins before dyeing ; the woolen ones I dye 
in the piece. I prefer prepared warp, and 
always try to get some I cannot break. 

A very pretty stripe for carpets is made by 
taking two contrasting or some bright color 
and white (we have a crimson and white), 
cutting the rags in pieces five inches long, and 
sewing the colors alternately. Get the weaver 
to be a little careful in weaving it and make 
into clouds or steeples. I like clouds the best. 
It is very pretty when just woven in as it 
comes. I have one stripe that I tied the 



THE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



199 



skeins of white rags with new unbleached fac- 
tory for two or three inches, with intervals of 
six or seven inches; then dye it dark blue. 

WHAT IS THE LAW? 

WE have frequent inquiries as to the law 
governing the sale and warranty of 
aninaals, and as many suits at law and much 
ill-feeling is occasioned by mistakes in regard 
to warranties, we have taken some pains to 
ascertain what in law constitutes a warranty, 
and also what constitutes a " vice " or '• un- 
soundness." 

It is often considered a pretty smart thing 
to sell an unsound animal for sound, and there 
is a common opinion that unless the seller 
gives a written statement that the animal is 
sound, or distinctly says"! warrant the ani- 
mal sound," he is not held by the law respon- 
sible for unsoundness. On the contrary, we 
find it always held by judges that the seller 
is responsible for any statements made before 
the purchase which were in the nature of an 
inducement to the purchase. In a case where 
the seller simply said "The horse is all right," 
it was held to constitute a warranty. There 
are many cases of this kiid on record, and in 
every case, so far as we can find, it has been 
held " that any affirmation by the seller as to 
the soundness of the animal made as an in- 
ducement to the sale constitutes a war- 
ranty." 

It is therefore, besides being a despicable 
meanness, not safe policy to misrepresent the 
quality of an animal you wish to sell. 

But what constitutes" unsoundness?''^ There 
are upward of fifty faults, vices and unsound- 
nesses which have been legally decided to be 
a breach of warranty. It is useless to at- 
tempt to give a list of these, but in general 
terms any " disease," " injury " or fault of 
temper or training which lessens the value or 
afterward interferes with the usefulness of the 
animal, is an " unsoundness " 

It will be seen from the above that but few 
horses can be warranted as sound, and the 
better way is to state frankly just what un- 
soundness yrur horse does possess, and how 
far in your opinion it interferes with his use- 
fulness. 

The term " a horse trade " has become a 
by-word simply because the common law of 
commercial honor has not been regarded in 
this respec 



A CUP OF COFFEE. 

A WRITER in Scribner for October says : 
C\ It has been truthfully said that in these 
eolighteued dxy^, and ia the laads most bles- 
sed by the influence of civilization, there are 
thousands upou thousands of persons born 
into the world who live long lives and then 
go down into their graves without ever hav- 
ing tasted a good cup of cofi"e3. There are 
many reasons for this, and the principal ooe, 
of course, must be that so few persons know 
how to make good coffee. And yet there have 
been thousands of recipes and directions pub- 
lished which teach us how to make good coffee 
by boiling it ; by not boiling it ; by confining 
the essence and aroma ; by making it in au 
open vessel ; by steeping it ; by not steeping 
it; by clearing it; by not clearing it; by 
grinding it fine ; by grinding it coarse, and by 
many other methods opposed to each other 
and to all of these. Now we do not intend 
to try to tell anybody how to make good 
coffee, but we just wish to say a word about 
the treatment of the coffae after it is made. 
And on this treatment depends its excellence, 
brew it as you may. Tlie rule is simple ; 
never decant it. Whatever else you do about 
it, bring it to the table in the vessel in which 
it was made. A handsome urn or gorc^eou 
coffee-pot is the grave of good coffee. O ' 
course it is considered more desirable to have 
the pot look well than to have the coffee taste 
well, we have nothing more to say. But 
when hot coffee is emptied from one vessel 
into another, the kitchen ceiling generally re- 
ceives that e-<sence-laden vapor w^iich should 
have found its way into the cups on the 
breakfast table. And one word about the 
cups. When the coffee enters them it should I 
find the milk or cream already there. By ob- ■ 
serving these rules, ordinary coff^je mide in 
almost any way, is often very palatable in-.- 
deed. 



HOUSE PLANTS. 



lb decide upon the proper amount of water 
necessary to the health of house plants re- 
quires consideration. Some species require 
more water than others, and plants in large 
pots will need it less frequently than those in 
small ones. The temperature of the room has 
also a powerful effect upon the evaporation of 



200 



THE L A JV CASTER FARMER. 



moisture. If very warm the plants will re- 
quire more than if cool. There are two very 
essential things relating to house culture of 
plants which should not ba overlooked. 

Fu-st : never apply cold water from a cistern 
or well, but let it be somewhere near the tem- 
perature of the air in which the plants are 
grown. Very cold water is sure to check the 
growth of plants; second: when the plants 
are watered give the soil in the pots a good 
soaking, and then omit watering them again 
until the soil shovvs that it is needed. A lit- 
tle at a time, and very often, is too generally 
the practice with the novice. If house plants 
are infested with the gr^en fly, place them in 
a deep box, and then put a few live coals into 
an earthen or metal dish, and throw a hand, 
ful of fine-cut tobacco upon them. The box 
should then be covered up tightly, in order to 
confine the smoke about the plants. Allow 
the plants to remain in the box two or three 
hours; then take them out, and syringe the 
limbs and stems with clear, tepid water. Re- 
peat this operation as often as the green fly 
appears, if you desire healthy plants. 



THE FARMERS' ALPHABET. 

Ask no man for credit. 

Bring your children up to love work. 

Cheap seed is often the dearest. 

Don't sell your crop till you have made it. 

Early to bed and early to rise. 

Full corn cribs make fat horses. 

Graft all your plants from the Indus-tree. 

Hang your gates to stand shut. 

In everything give thanks. 

Jars of jelly, but not family jars. 

Keep no stock but what you can keep fat. 

Limit jour per diem drinks to 0. 

Ma'^ure your head with brains. 

Never put off till to-morrow what should 
be done to-day. 

Owners are the best overseers. 

Plow well, plow deep. 

Quit chewing and smoking. 

Raise your own bread and meat. 

Subscribe for a good agricultural paper. 

Try. 

Under the bar-room door is a grave. 

Venture, but not everything. 

Wmd and weather you cannot order, but 
you may profit by them. 



'Xcellent manure— Sweat. 
You don't know everything. 
Zeal in a good cause, and this is a good one, 
to owe no man anything. 



The Importance of Mulching. — A 
sagacious fruit grower, near New Brunswick, 
N. J., mulches his place heavily, and never 
removes it from one year's end to the other. 
His soil is always cool and mellow, and his 
trees and vines never sufi"er from heat; his 
fruit is large, fair and delicious, and his pro- 
duce is extraordinary in quantity. For all 
newly planied trees in the spring of the year, 
mulching is the only safe guarantee of their 
success. Without mulching many will fail ; 
with it, not one should be lost. The practice 
is also a saving of labor, and if the mulch is 
applied two or three inches deep it will keep 
down all weeds. Mulching can a'so be used 
to retard the ripening of fruit from three to 
ten days. Upon light sandy soil, currants 
cannot be grown without it. Pears dropping 
from the trees are safe from braises. Toma- 
toes well mulched will double their produce. 
We scarcely know of a single objection to 
mulching, and in our experience it has proved 
to be one of the most economical and efficient 
aids to fruit culture ever brought to the notice 
of the public. Try it, farmers, all of you, and 
see whac the result will be. — The Horticulturist. 



Sawdust as Manure.— It is of very little 
value as a direct fertilizer, and none till it 
has rotted, when it is similar to vegetable 
mold. Worked through heavy soil, it would 
tend to render it lighter for a time. It would 
doubtless be most useful applied to grass land, 
a coating half an inch thick or an inch, on 
exposed places, serving as a mulchina;, pro- 
tecting the roots mechanically, and adding to 
the moisture of the soil. Sawdust might be 
used as an absorbent in stables and cattle 
yards, having an advantage over straw in 
giving shorter manure, but hardly as good as 
straw in rotting down freely. 



Gapes in Chickens.— A writer in Poultry 
Bulletin says he puts a small quantity of car- 
bolic soap in solution under the wings and on 
the breast of the hen as soon as she comes off 
with her brood, repeats the application once 
a week, and thus prevents gapes, which dis- 
ease, he claims, is caused by the larger spe- 
cies of the louse, which lays its young in the 
chicken's mouth. 



7 HE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



201 



Clover for Hogs. — An Ohio hog-raiser 
advocates the system of pasturing on clover 
during the summer. He presents, as the ad- 
vantage of his plan, the statement that an 
acre of ground in clover will pasture five hogs 
four mouths, and that it will take the corn 
from half an acre to feed them the same time. 
The cultivation of the corn he couni.s equal to 
the rest of the other half acre. He further 
claims that hogs pastured on clover are in far 
better condition than if fed on corn, as they 
are better framed, healthier, and eat better, 
and also states that the land is enriched by the 
clover pasturing. 



Sour Subject.— Edwin S. Nelson , of Maine, 
is spoken of by the Oxford Register as " one 
of the best farmers." His specialty is grow- 
ing apples for vinegar. He never removes 
any of the grass that grows in his orchards, 
but mows it and leaves it on the ground lo 
decay for food for the trees. When he has 
young trees to set, he takes his cart and goes 
into the wood lot and gathers a quantity of 
rotten wood and decaying leaves, sufficient to 
put a bushel or more beneath each tree, mix- 
ing it with loam. He keeps cider apples in 
perfect condition from fall till midsummer 
following, " simply by freezing them and then 
putting them into a bin and covering them 
with hay." To cleanse oil casks he fills them 
with new cider, keeps them tilled, and all im- 
purities are worked out with the pomace at 
the open bung. 



BOOK AND SPECIAL JNOTICE DE- 
PARTMENT. 

•' Thk Patent Right Gazbttb".— A monthly illustra- 
tid journal of iii«lu8tii!ilarts,P6pecially devote i to the sale 
deecriptiou, and illustration of patents, and to the latest 
progress in ergineeriug, manufacturing, building, and a 
choice selection of entertaining literature. Price 81.00 « 
year. Published by the United States Patent Right Asso- 
ciation, 94 Chambers street, New York, solicitors of pa- 
tents, under guarantee, for the United States and all for- 
eign countries. Address P. O. box 4544, New York. 
Hknry Gurnek, Publisher. This is a royal quarto of 
fwenty-four pages, including the beautifully' illustrated 
coven, printtd on fine paper and in clear type, and con- 
tains a great variety of useful and reliable information 
within the Bphere of its specialties, as well as other in- 
teresting literary matter. The September number con- 
tains the second part of " Ma-na-hatt-ana; or, Slcetches 
of New Yorlc in 1872," with fine illustrations of prominent 
points of beauty in Central Park. On the whole, this 
J onmal will compare favorably with the best on the sub- 



ject of patents, published in this or any other country, 
and, we think, ought to be in the hands of every practi- 
cal patentee of mechanical and other inventions. 

" Tine Iowa Homestead, and Western Farm Jour- 
nal," a plain folio of eight pages, published weekly, by 
the •' Homestead Company," in Des Moines, Iowa, at 82.00 
a year, conoains a great deal of matter of special inUraet 
to those who ara looking westward as a final point of toin- 
icilat^on. 

The South —Devoted to the material interests of the 
Southern states. This is an illustrated folio of eight 
pages, and, a^ its title implies, is thoroughly .-outhein in 
all its dttails. As an adveitifing medium, and a dispenser 
of va u-blo information relating lo the Sou;hern St .tea, 
it is a valuable guide to those who may contemplate lo- 
cating iu that delightful portion of the North American 
continent. New York. $2 00 a year. Weekly. 

The Amhrioan Stock Journal.— The publishers of 
this valuaWe agricultural journal, olier to send the re- 
maining numbers of thisydar/ret; to all nw subscriberB 
for 1873. Thus giving over 500 pages ot valuable reading 
matter, illusirated wiih numerous engravings, for Sl-00 
Sample copies free. Adlress, N. P. BoYaB & Co , Parkes- 
burg, Chester county. Pa. 

The Young Folks Rural is a novelty among publica- 
tions for young people entirely oifterent from any o'ber 
in sty Is and character. Cash priz s are giyen for b«rt 
" compositions." Write for a specimen number and par- 
ticulars, which will be sent free. 'lerms, Sl-60 per year 

Si. 00 in clubs of four an J more, and every tubscriber re- 
ceives a pair of beautiful chromos as a gift. Splendid 
premiums to those who form clubs. Address H. N. F, 
Lewis, Pi blisher, Chicago. 

What a " School Ma'am " Says.^" I am a teacher, 
and take the paper for the benefit and amusement of my 
pupils. Jiyes are brighter, and lessons better learned 
when the Young Mlks Rural makes its appearance, 
so I may find time to read it aloud to them, as is my usual 
custom. My last subscription is not yet out, but noticing 
your splendid offer ot the chromos to subscribers, thougkt 
I would wiite at once. * * * —Florence G. 
Balch, Van Baren Co., Mich. 

A sa aple copy of the above beautiful monthly will be 
sent/ree on request. Address H. N. V. Lewis, Publisher, 
Chuago. 

This is a beautifully illustrated royal quarto of 10 
pages, and 64 columns, with clear type and on tine white 
paper. Contents admirable. We oft'er the Farmkr and 
the Rural atS2.25 a year, including a p*ir of beautiful 
chromos. Now is the time to subscribe for 1873. 

" The North American Bee Journal," a neat litte 
monthly periodical— octavo— devoted to Bee Culture. Pub- 
lished by Moon & King, Indianapolis, Ind., at $2.00 a 
year, for Mngle subscriptions, and valuable premiums to 
CI ubs. The entire contents seem to be of a practical char- 
acter, and are the resulta of a wide and varied range of 
experience. 

Patents at less cast, quicker and surer, secured under 
guarantee, by U. S. Patent Right Association, 94 Chamber* 
street, New York, P. O. Box 4544. Patent Rights dispo- 
sed of Ht better prices, quicker and surer than elsewhere, 
by the U. S. Patent Ri.ht Association, Publisher of the 
Patent Right Gazette, a large, beautifully illustrated 
monthly, devoted exclusively to the sale of Patent Righta. 
Terms, single copy, 10 cents, $100 per annum. Address, 
with stamp, U. S. Patent Eight Association, P. 0. Box 
4544, New York. 



202 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



The Ladi d Fribnd for October. — An uncoicmonly 
beautiful and spirited engraving " The Wishing Well," 
leads oflF the at ractions of this number. The second en- 
gravirg, " On the Summit of the Ju gfrau,"' pictures a 
lofty distinction attained by a trio of tourists. The fash- 
ion illustrations are as elegant as the ladies cou'd desire. 
The music is the •' Honeymoon Schottische " And the 
stories are certainly unequaled. " Uua and her Lions," 
and "Within the Muze,'' are splendid serials; and "An 
Everyday Heroine, concluded by Miss Douglas, is one of 
ht«r best. The capitn] story, "Only a Wish," is also con- 
cluded. The work-table and pattern department and the 
editorials are also vf^ell artended to. Price $2.00 a year. 
Four copie 4, $6.00. Eight copies (and one gratis) 3B12.00. A 
large and beautiful steel engraving al.^o is sent to the 
getter-up of every dub. " The Lady's Friend " (82 00) and 
"The Saturday Evening Post " (3 00) forf4.50. Published 
by Deacon & Peterson, Philadelphia. Single copies for 
sale by all newsdeaiers, and by the publithers. Price 20 
cents. 



PHILADELPHIA CATTLE MARKET. 

Monday, Sept. SO, 5 P. M. 

The cattle market was rather dull this week, but prices 
were unchanged. About 3,800 head arrived aad sold at 
T!{ ^^/^.I'c for extra Pennsylvania add Westf ru steers ; 6a7c. 
for fair to good do., aud 4*5 >^c. per pound, gross, lor com- 
mo 1, as to quaiity. 

Cows and calves were in better demand at higher fig- 
ures. Sales of ►priugers at $35a50, and fresh cows at*40iu 
60. Receipts, 212 hdad. 

Good sheep were fair request, but inferior grades were 
nesflecced. Sales of choice at 6>^c. and fair to xood at 5;^ 
a6o. Hogs have advanced, and sell at $8a8.12x per 100 lbs. 
nett, forcoru-fed. l-£.eceii»ts, 4,100 head. 

NEW YORK PRODUCE MARKET. 

Monday, Sept. 30, 5 P. M. 

Flodk, Etc.— Flour is heavy, and common grades are 
in the buyer's favor. Included in the sales are inferior 
grades of extra at a Irifla under inside quotaiioDS. Salda 
of 10,600 bbls. at 8615aG,6o for s-uperliae Western and 
State ; 7.20t7 50 for Common to good extra Western and 
State; $7.55a8.40, for good to choice do; $8.40a9 75 for 
common to choice white wheat Western extra ; $7.35^10 for 
commm to good extra Ohio, and S7 65all.25 for common 
to choice extra St. Loui.s the market closing heavy. 

Southern flour is in mi derate request and without deci- 
ded change in price. Sales of 9.50 boia at S7.70^10 for c.»m- 
inon to fair extra, and S10.05al2 50 for good to choice ao. 

Pvye flour is a shade easier and Ies3 active. Sales of 230 
bbls, at if?4 ?5a5.30. Orumeal is more active. Sales of 9 
bbls. Brandy wine at $ i.85a3 90. 

GR4IN— Spring wheat opened at la2c better, with a fair 
export demaal, closisg quiet with the advance partly 
lost. We quote, at $1.5ii»i.57 for No. 2 spring, in store ; 
»1 ."JS^LOS for Ho 1 do.; $1.63al.73 for winter red Western; 
$1 75al 85 for ainb^r Western, and SI 70a2 02 for wiite do 
The s.iles «re 13 600 bu.shels at SI 4.5al.47 for No. 3 Chicago 
spring; 81 52iiL'i4 for No. 2 Chicag . ; $1.56al 57 for No. 2 
Mi'waukee ; SI 06 for No. 2 do ; »1 C2al.7.i lor winter red 
Wtstiru, ana SI 75 for new amber Michiijan. 

Barey U in moderate requet<t and steady. Sales of 60 000 
bushels of prime Western at $1 07^^, an extreme. Corn 
opened ^c. hft.ter, with a fair exporo and home trade de- 
mand, and closed quiet with the advane lo^t. Sales of 
18r.,000 bushels at ei^^aOSXc for steamer Western mixed ; 
0jJia66^ ti,r sail uo., cioslig at 65^ c; oSaGuc. for kiln- 
dried attou and in store ; also, sales i>t 50,000 bushels Wes- 
tern mixed, 8f>ller all October, at 66xc.; 50,000 do. for No- 
vember, at 680. Receipts or oats, 58.250 bushels. Oats 
quiet, wi bout decided <-bange in price. Sales 48,000 bush- 
els, at 45a46c. for old Western in store and afloat ; 40a43xo. 
for new mixed ; 43i47c for new white ; 3Sa39c. for blalk 
Wedtern; 43c for black St>ite. 

Hay is steady at $lal.05 for shipping, and $1 20al.55 for 
retail loti. 

»ir,1*'TJ®„'*^?^ -P"""^ '** fi""™ The sales are 1,750 bbls. at 
814 10al4 20 for m< ss ; $Jlall 50 for prime, and $13al3 50 for 
prime mess. Befisquiec. Sales of 60 bbls. at «4ati for 
So^o'",;?^^*,^' *"*^ *^*1'^ *'<"■ «^'''a do- Beef hams are dull at 
»^8a<J0. Tierce beet is quiet. Sales of 50 tcs. at S13al6 
tor piijae iae?8, and 817al9 for India do. 



Cut meats are active and firm. Sales of 370 pkgs. at 9>^a 
14c. for hara*. and 7c for shoulders. Middies are dull. 
Sales or 100 boxes of long clear at S^^'c; 700 loug and short 
clear for January at7^4C.; 150 1 ng and short clear for 
Pubniary at 75^c. Lard is dull and heavy. Sales of 400 
tcs. at 8^ S^c for new No. 1 to prime steam ; 85^c. foro d 
do., and 9>.^c. lor kettle-rendered. Batter is dull at 10al6c. 
tor Wrsiei 11, aud 24a28c. for State. Cheese is quiet at 11a 
14o. for common to prime. 

CHICAGO MARKETS. 

Chicaoo, Sept. 30. 
Flour ste^kdy ; fair to good extras S8.25a6-50 ; Minnesota 
$7a7.50a8 00. Wheat irregular, closing easier at 81.19. 
Corn steady at 36c; fresh 35Jia36c. Oats tir.u at23>^c. 
cish. ivve steady; salable 55o Barley lower and closing 
quic-t; 67c. cash. Pork quiet at i;15.00 apot ; nominally 
$12.75. Lard inactive and nominal ; winter 8^4'c.; summer 
S}^a.ii%a. Loose meats Arm ; .-uoulders geusrally held at 
7c.; chort ribs IQi.^ 1IUI4C.; sugar cured liams quiet and 
unchanged. 

NEW YORK GATfLE MARKET. 

Monday, Sept, 30, 1872. 

The market f)r Beef Cattle is dull, heavy and lower, 
at 7al3 cts. Receipts, 9721 head. 

Cows and Calves have ruled dull and nominal at S25i70. 
Receipts, 70 head. 

Veal Calves are firmer, 5a6e. for fed calves, 3a3J/^c. for 
grassers, and 7alOc. for milk calves. 

Sheep and Lambs are dull and heavy at 4J^a6^ cents 
for sheep, and 5%a?=^ cents lor lambs. Kecoipta, 35,061 
head. 

Swine — The market is dull at 5a5xc, for live hogs, and 
6J^a7c. for dressed do. Receipts, 44.961 bead. 

PHILADELPHIA MARKETS. 

Philadelphia, Sept. 30, 1872. 

Seeds — There is no movement in Cloversead, and new 
crop IS offered to arrive at lOo. , but buyers ret use to pay 
th 8 ligure; old is selliug in a retail way at 10 .io^i'c. Tim- 
othy 18 held at $3.75i3.80 for new. Fiaxs ed is much 
wanted, and, if here, would command $2 and up- 
ward 

Flour and Meal. — The quiet state of the Flour mar- 
kec noted last week still continues. There is no sh pping 
demand, but the home trade are purchasing to a fair ex- 
tent, and prices are well maiatained. Xue stocks are 
very moderate for this season of the yeir, and iha supply 
of fresh ground Minnesota is nearly exhausted ; choice 
brands of the latter are in demand and biiug hign prices ; 
sales of 308 bbls. spring wheat, sup^rflne, at $4.2.i; 20iJ bbls. 
Ohio do. at $5; 15o Obis. Western extra ai 186 ; 100 bbls. 
Iowa extra family at $8 ; some Wisconsin do. do. at lifS ; 
100 bbls. Minnesota do. do at $9.25; 300 bbls Ohio do. do. 
at$8.12i,^a8.62>^ ; 200 bbls. Southern Illinois do. do., low 
grade, at $7.75, and lOJ buls. VVdbtern do. do., fancy, at 
jftlO. 

Rye Flour is tirmer, and sells at $4.25a4.50. 

Corn Meal is innccive, and no sales of either Pennsyl- 
vania or Brandywme have been reported. 

GuAiN.— The arrivals of wheat are light, but the de- 
miiid has fallen oil'. Prices, however, are weak, and 
favor buyers ; sales of 1,200 bus. good Western red at 
$1.75al 76 ; 4()0 bus. fancy do. do. at Sfl.80 ; Delaware do. at 
$1.82 , 400 bus. Indiana amber at $1.80, aud wnit^ at 3l.90a 
2. 

Rye is held at 75a76c. but without sales to any extent. 
The demand is only tor small lots for local use. 

Corn is held with firmness, and there is a fair demand 
at Saturday's quotations ; sales of l,20J bus. Pennsylvania 
and Western yjUow at 70c , and 3,8,0 bus. Western mixed 
at 68168;^ and 69c. ; we quota white at 61a6D0. 

Oats are in limited request, but holders still maintain 
former quotati -ns. The quality of the new crop now 
coming tor ward is very interior, and old white oats are 
scarce, and command relatively higu prices. The stock 
here is large, a;id in New York it exceeds 2,000,000 bus.; 
sulesof '.^.lOO bus Western white at 42a43>^o., and 3,400 
bus. black and white mixed at SSall^c.; old white is 
held at 49di50c. 

Barley is oflering more freely, but the quality of that 
now being received is very variable. Choice grades com- 
mand satisfactory prii-es ; we quote Western at Slal.lO. 

barley Malt is in limited supply, and ranges irom $1 to 
$1.33, according to quali'.y. 

Provisions. — in itrovisions we note a firm feeling, and 
the stock of all descriptions of the kog product is now re- 
duced to a very low figure. 



^\u %mtMUv (farmer* 

DEVOTED TO 
Agricidture, Horticulture, Domestic Economy and Miscellany,* 

EDITED BY S. S. RATHVOX AND ALEXANDER HARRIS. 



'* The Fai-mer is the founder of civilization." — WEBSTER. 



Vol. IT. 



J^OYEMBER, 1872. 



JVo. 11, 



ESSAY. 



[The followiciij paper, altbougli originally 
written for a different locality, aud addressed 
to a diflferent people, yet contains some 
tb .ughts which have a general application to 
civilized soc ety, wherever it may exist in the 
world, and especiallj' to that class of society 
which embraces the I'arraing and business 
community. We, therefore, do not hesitate 
to present it to our readers, as containing 
truths which will bear repeating a thousand 
times, or ten thousand times, if so often may 
be necessary to make a practical impression 
of the truth upon a single mind. An intelli- 
gent and tbrifiy firmer planted on his broad 
and wel'-tilled acres, with his harJy sons and 
daughters around him, is somebody ; aud, as a 
general thing, should no more think of trans, 
planting himself and family in the soil of a 
large town or city, where he soon may become 
nobody, than he should of leaving Elysium, and 
locating in the infernal regions. Aud yet, 
how many farmers are like lishes bobbing 
around a trap, trying to get in through the 
meshes, to be in company with a faw pamper- 
ed gudgeons inside, who would fain be out 
again, if they only knew some avenue of saie 
escape. True, there must be artisans as well 
as farmtrs, and towns as well as country, in 
order to equalize consumption and production ; 
but, all other things being the same, we 
would rather enjoy the enviable independence 
of an American farmer, than any other situa- 
tion in Christendom.— Ed.] 

RURAL LIFE AND RURAL HOMES. 

THE love of the country and a coimtry life 
is inherent in human nature. However 
much the merchant, the manufacturer and the 



other business men of our great cities are ab- 
sorbed in the pursuit of wealth ; however eag- 
erly they seek the all-powerful dollar, as the 
one thing indispensable to comfort ; however 
absorbed in the pleasures and vanities of life ; 
however grasping aud avaricious they may be 
in everyday matters, there is one place that 
all either remember or look forward to, when 
the battle with fortune is won, and that is, 
the quiet homn where they were born, or the 
pleasant home they will one day make— a 
home with its cool grove, emerald lawn^ 
shadowy trees and beautiful flowers, where 
life may pass peacefully away in the calm en- 
joyment of uature, aud in the gifts of its fresh 
ripe fruits. 

How many live to see its realization ? Alas I: 
very few. The farmer reared upon the old 
homestead, grown up with flocks and herds, 
who may commune each day wirh every beau- 
tiful thing, God-given and strewn over the 
landscape in such lavish profusion ; he may 
appreciate these as they are worth, but how 
many do ? At least, not until time has worn^ 
furrows in the cheek, and the eye is dimmed' 
with age. 

Who among the masses of our farmers have^ 
done their whole duty upon these prairies, 
from which they have carved homes ? Who. 
among the millions occupying these homes 
have rendered them as beautiful as they 
might? The few are the exception ; neglect 
is with the many. And this in a country un 
surpassed in the fertility of its virgin soil, in. 
the gentle undulations of its broad swells of 
verdure, rich in everything that nature can give 
except trees. Here and there we see isolated 
attempts at rural adornment, but to the edu- 
cated eye, farmers' homes, as a rule, are bleak 
and cheeiless in all that pertains to the aesthe- 



^OJf 



TEE LAJ^CASTER FARMER. 



tics— the beautiful in home adornment. It is 
not because they do not appreciate the difi'er- 
ei;ce between a home, however humble, em- 
boweied in trees, with its green lawn, its 
tasieful beds of flowers, and winding paths, 
or drives, leading to the house aud the various 
buildings of the farm ; but there is an idea 
that this costs largely m money, and that it 
can neither be accomplished nor kept in re- 
pair, excepi under the eye of an artist espe- 
cially educated in the work. 

This is all wrong. We have too long taken 
our lessons from the artiticial woik of artists 
in and near our great cities, whose only aim 
might seem to be to spend as much money for 
their employer as poasibie. All this is well 
enough in its pUce, on the grounds of the 
wealthy who can aflord to pay for if, but the 
farm home aud the tarm grounds need differ- 
ent treatment. Here we must take our lessons 
from nature. On the broad prairies we lack 
trees. Let us then plant trees, at least about 
our homes, an. 1 then take advantage of the 
Bituation to carry a gentle curving drive about 
a knoll, if need be, or by a bold swetp reach 
the hou e over a gentle undulating surface ; 
asking ourselves at each siep vfhat the effect 
will be when finished. 

The taste for ornamentation being exercis- 
ed, ideas will grow as you proceed, aud in the 
end you will be surprised to find that simple 
landscape adornment is not the abstruse sci- 
ence you thought it. Your children will no 
longer seek the allurtmeuts of the village, or 
the city, for with the beautiful creations that 
you and themselves are rearing, in just such 
dt'gree will they come to love home and its 
surroundings; in just such degree will come a 
longing for higher art and for study. Study 
will induce thought, and thought is the legiti- 
mate province of man ; for he or she who 
thinks carefully and earnestly and consecu- 
tively, is seldom at loss for the means of true 
enioyment. And that farmers nowadays are 
becoming m'^re and more a thinking class, is 
due to the schools that are scattered broad- 
cast over the land, and to tne added fact that 
there is no better place for thought than on 
the quiet farm. 

There are few farmers, indeed, who, becom- 
ing rich, seek the tity to enjoy thedr wealth — 
to become swallowed up in the multitudes 
about them, living at No. 1 or 1,000 om some 
dusty street, living an aimless life, unknown 



perhaps, to their next neighbor. Such few 
are like the gentry of England in King James' 
time, who, seeking London, were told by the 
King that they were like " ships at sea that 
shew as nothing." 

It is related of Webster as being one of the 
proudest days of his life when, at an agricul- 
tural after-dinner speech in Eugland, where 
the nobility, gentry and yeomanry meet on 
an equal footing, he was pointed out by a 
bluff', hearty old gravier as that " honest 
black-faced farmer, who could beat them all 
at farm-ialk." 

Railways have now rendered it possible for 
n^auy citizens tovombine the business of city 
life with the quiet of country hotaes, aud 
their families are growing up purer and bet- 
ter aud nobler for it. We all love better to 
think of Washington at Mount Vernon, Jeffer- 
son at Monticello, Jackson at Hermitage, 
Clay at Abhland, Webster at Marshfieid, or 
Irving at Suunyside, in the simplicity and 
quiet of their country homes, then as war- 
riors, statesmen, or engaged in literary labor. 
It is because we lore them as loving labor, 
not disdaining with honest sweat and toil to 
gather in the richest aud best gifts from God 
to man. 

The love of country life is inherent in man, 
is a natural growth, and is not dying out, as 
is sometimes stated. Therein all realize the 
dreamt of their young lives— that living they 
might rest quittly and apart from the din and 
turmoil of the great city, rejoicing with the 
springtime, listening to the song birds in the 
green branches, planting the seed-, of the har- 
vest grains, the vegetables of the garden, or 
the tender flowers, tending their flocks even- 
ing and morning, or sojourning with them in 
the green pasture, beneath the shade of some 
umbrageous tree, thinkiug of the great All- 
Givtr, and the infinite creatures of His power ; 
embrowning themselves in the toil of the har- 
vest, garnering golden sheaves of fragrant 
hay, rejoicing in the latter showers, ripening 
the great fields of golden and pearly corn ; 
and when winter locks bill-side and valley and 
stream in its cold embrace, enjoying quietly 
the bounty that they have helped to pro- 
vide. 

Living thus, they can rejoice with the 
springtime, be glad in the summer sun, reap 
the yellow sheaves of harvest, enjoy the ripe 
fruits of autumn, and rest when the winter 



THE LAJ^CdSTER FARMER. 



205 



shall scatter the forests with its dead leaves. 
Dying, they know that the springtime will 
surely come; and if the spring come again, 
resurrecting insect and plant and flower — is 
it not a type of that after life whicb we all 
hope somelime to realze ? — Western Rural. 



AGRICULTURE. 



HOW TO HAVE A NEAT FARM. 

TO those who are desirous of giving a 
more orderly appearance to their prem- 
ises, but who don't quite know what to take 
hold of first, the Hearth and Home offers some 
helpful hints: Take a yoke of cattle or a 
span of horses, and put them to a wagon or 
cart. Fasten a stoue-boat behind. On the 
8tone-boat put a crowbar, a pick, a hoe, a 
Bpade, an ax, a saw, a brush hook or scythe, 
a hammer, nails, spikes, a few bolts of differ- 
ent sizes, a monkey-wrench, and such other 
tools as you may be likely to want, and drive 
along the side of every fence on the farm If 
you come across a pi^ce of board or a broken 
rail throw it into the wagon. If you find a 
plow-point, cultivator tooth, a broken reaper- 
guard, a horse-shoe, an oil-can, or an old hoe, 
put it into the stone-boat and bring it home. 
Stones may be thrown on and drawn to sf me 
convenient place. If you come across any 
weeds, mow them down ; if any brambles or 
brushfs, cut them with the brush-hook or ax. 
If a board is loose on the fence, put a nail in 
it. If a gate sags, straighten it up. If there 
are any bolts in the gate, see that the nuts 
are tight. Take a man or a boy, or both, 
along with you. You will find pit nty of 
work. If there is a plank bridge across a 
Btream, see that tbe sleepers are not rotten. 
The hot sun has probably warped the planks, 
and they will need another spike or twc. If 
there are any sticks or weeds in a ditch re- 
iiiove them, and throw out any dirt tliat may 
have been trodden in from the sides by the 
cattle or hogs. In this way go over the 
whole farm. Then attend to the barn-yards. 
Pick up anything that may be lying around, 
and put it in its proper place. Boards that 
are of any use should be placed in a pile by 
themselves under cover. Those that are use- 
less should be sawn, and split up into kind- 
ling, to be piled by itself in the wood-shed. 
If there are any loose stones in tbe yards, 



draw them off. Scrape up all the scattered 
manure or dirt, and place it in a compact 
heap where it will ferment, or draw it at once 
on to gra>8 land and spread it. Go into the 
garden and see if there is any rubbish there 
that should be removed, or any sticks or 
pieces of board or tools to pick up. Possibly 
you will find some old barrel staves or hoops 
about. Make kindling of them. If there is 
any old iron about the premises, it is a good 
time to dispose of it. It is worth one and a half 
cents per pound. Old implements, machines, 
tools, etc., that are worn ouL and of no further 
use, had better be knocked to pieces and the 
iron sold. If there are any parts that may be 
useful in repairing, they should be preserved 
by themselves. This id true of wood-work as 
well as of the castings. Almost everything, 
sooner or later, comes in useful on a farm. 
But unless you have abundance of room, it 
does not pay to lumber up the premises with 
useless implements and machines. Have all 
your bags mended ; mark them and hang 
them up. Mark all the forks, rakes, hoes, 
spades, ."^hovels, corn cutters, etc. Rub them 
over with petroleum, and put them in their 
proper places. All harvest tools and ma- 
chines should be painted with petroleum and 
stowed away. If you are short of room, much 
space may be saved by takng the wheels off 
the steel-toothed rake, and the poles and cut- 
ter-bars off the mower and reaper. Any one 
who has not tried it will be astonished how 
many implements and machines may be stow- 
ed away in a small space. This will do for a 
beginning. Then when any implement is 
done with for the season, rub it over with 
petroleum and stow it away. When once 
things are in order, it is a comparatively easy 
matter to keep them In order ; but still it is a 
daily work. It is, however, work that pays 
over and over again. 



ANOTHER CORNER ON CORN. 

• • /"T^HERE can be seen at the office of 
X. the Atchison, Topeka & Sante 
Fe R. R.. in this city, several stalks of corn 
which were grown in the Arkansas valley, on 
the line of that road, which were twelve feet 
high when they were plucked, which was sixty 
days from the time the seeds were planted. It 
was ' sod corn,' and had no cultivation. Fret- 



e06 



THE LAJ^'-CASTER FARMER* 



ty good for the ' virgin of soil.' " — Boston 
Journal. 

"This is probably a ' big thing ' for Kansas, 
but would be no uncommon sight in Southern 
Iowa and South-eastern Nebraska. There 
are to be seen at the Burlington & Mo. R. R. 
Land Office, in this city, stalks cf Iowa corn 
fifteen feet in height, and Nebraska 'sod 
corn,' plucked on the 20th day of August, con- 
taining twenty-two rows and upward of 
1,250 well-developed kernels to the ear; also 
a castor-} e an stalk, the product from one 
bean, this season's growth in Nebraska, which 
measures fourteen feet high and ten inches 
in circumference, a perfect tree. Beside 
these we might mention sweet potatoes 
weigbiDg three to five and a half pounds each, 
radishes six to nine and a half ptunds each; 
au Iowa pumpkin, which ' had no cultiva- 
tion,' weighing 160 pounds; beets which can't 
be beat, and numeious other small things to 
match, indicative of a moderately (!) rich soil 
in these parts. 

"Come on, Kansas, you have done well and 
Bbould certainly be encouraged, but remember 
this is a free country, and the whole of it is 
open to show what parts present the most 
substantial attractions. 

"What we have said has bten with studied 
moderation, as we would in no wise injure 
your ' pheelinks,' — but auy day when you 
want to stand up for a square, good-natured 
fight, we will bring out some of our ' big 
guns ' instead of throwing small shots at >ou 
in this way." 

[We clip the above from the Burlington 
(I( wa) Eawheye, which was sent to us, and 
marked by some unknown friend. It may 
show what is transpiring in the agricultural 
world, outside of Lancaster county. If any 
of our farmer readers can beat it— and we 
have no doubt they can — we should like to 
hear froi.i them, if for no other purpose, 
merely to take the starch out of that Western 
'•corner on corn," although we are aware that 
these occasional " big things " are not always 
the evidences of the best productive thrift 
of a county, a district, or a State in general. 
We were informed by an intelligent and reli- 
able authority, that at the late Horticultural 
Exhibition held at Marietta, a basket contain- 
ing a peck of peaches were on exhibition, the 
least of which weighed eleven ounces, and 
the largest thirteen ounces. Having in our 



mind's eye the eight-ounce peaches exhi- 
bited at Fulton Hall on the 12th of Septem- 
ber last, we are compelled to regard these as 
" some" peaches, and therefore '■ pit them " 
against the corner on corn. — Eds ] 



APPLYING CORN CULTURE TO 
WHEAT. 

IF it is a benefit to cultivate corn between 
the rows, why is it not an advantage to 
give wheat the same treatment, and for that 
matter, all or most of the grains ? Winter 
wheat has the fall and spring, as well as the 
summer in part, to favor the growth of weeds 
and grass, and we find these abundantly inter- 
spersed among the wheat. To sow a crop of 
corn broadcast for feed is found to be of advan- 
tage ; to sow in drills and cultivate is found to 
be still better. It pays more than the extra 
labor. What used to be sown broadcast and 
do well, it is now fon;.d that it will do better 
in drills. Thus it follows corn. Why will it 
not still further be benefited like corn if work- 
ed between the dri Is, using the cultivator, 
and even the hoe, if necessary ? The truth is 
we have not yet arrived at that point of ad- 
vantage. England has so far as the decision 
in favor of it is concerned. Mecbi and others 
have tested this matter, and experiments in a 
small way practiced here have pointed the 
same way. Now, since drilling is getting to 
be established let us introduce and prosecute, 
or at least test, cultiv.ting between the rows. 
Grass and weeds by this means are kept out; 
the ground is moisler and becomes the more 
fertile by it; the crops are strengthened and 
kept clean (the last quite a consideration) 
and the land will have no oc^-asion to be self- 
sown with fur seed, as is usual in grain and 
grass crops and neglected corn fields. 

Have we too much to do, too much land to 
cul'ivate, and too little help to do it with, to 
be able to engage in this ? But if it is a ben 
efit, why neglect this to attend toother things 
no more beneficial, and not perhaps so much 
as this ? Why cultivate our corn and negkct 
our whtat, when the latter requires it equally, 
and it may be more ? I am sorry to have it 
to say that I have tested this no more than in 
a general way in the garden, and then not so 
carefully as I might. But the thing seems as 
if there were more profit in treating wheat in 



THE LA J\ CASTER FARMER. 



207 



this way than corn. Who will eive it a fair 
test? Who will lead off and cou firm what the 
English experimenters have introduced so 
successfully, getling the benefit at the f^^ame 
time and at once? If harrowing the field 
with a smoolhing-harrow ere the grain is too 
large and where there are weeds and grass 
starting up, is a benefit, why not work the 
ground between the rows and leaving th*^ 
grain uninjured ? 

There is a great advantage in cultivation. 
We find it so among trees, shrubs, vines, hoed 
crops, and why sliould it not also apply to 
grain, especially that careful, kingly cereal, 
wheat ? And it needs it, as the wheat crop is 
degenerating among u.-=. It is an important 
crop in rotation, and should be made the most 
cf. If it is worth fallowing ihe soil for it, and 
giving it the preced.-nce of good land, why not 
further improve by what is s-uch an advantage 
to it, cultivation ? Especially such crops as 
are poor or much winter killed need this aid, 
or weeds and grass will overpower them. Let 
us come to the rtlitfof this fine cereal, and 
make it something like what it is made iu En- 
gland. — Country Genileman. 

DANGER OF SOWING WINTER 
WHEAT TOO EARLY. 

VERY few farmers ever make the mis- 
take of SO", ing their winter wheat too 
early in autumn. Yet ihere is such a thing 
as seedirg '00 early as well as tou late. The 
danger incident to seeding too early is smoth- 
ering the wheat beneath a heavy fall of snow 
in the winter, or iiijury by the Hessian fly : 
" The young wheat withers and turns yellow 
in October and November, and when the 
warm rays of spring come the larva is rapidly 
stimulated to n.aturity. This will be about 
one week after the red or swamp maple 
{acertrubra) first begins to bloom." The in- 
sect remains iu this condition about ten or 
twelve days, and then goes out the winged 
fly, ready to lay its eggs for another genera- 
tion. So it will happeu that if this fly once 
gets possession in the fall of a field of wheat, 
that one generation, reared at the root of tht^ 
plant in the fall, produces another that occu- 
pies the lower joints of the stalks the next 
season. Spring wheat can rear but one brood 
of these insects ; they consequently resort to 
it but little, if at all. Nor can the Hessian 



fly sustain itself except in districts where wir>- 
ter wheat is cultivated in which to nestle dur- 
ing the autumn and winter." 



The Live Stock Journal of Buffalo declares 
that, to the end that it may be carried on effi- 
cient y in all its branches, agriculture needs 
500,000 more laborers. Our population is in- 
creasing with great rapidity; our manufactur- 
ing industry spreading in all the States. This 
population must be fed, and ii cheaply, we 
must haye more and cheaper labor. The 
Americans surpass all other people in the 
adaptation of machinery to the performance 
of farm work, but even this machinery will 
not run without human help, and our mining, 
manufacturing, railroad building and running, 
employ to the full all our available labor. All 
these branches of industry pay such prices 
fur labor as would ruin the farmer iu ten yeans 
unless he also can fix the price of his pro- 
ducts. Another effect of this fierce competi- 
tion for labor is to compel the farmer to ac- 
cept such as has failed to command full wages 
at anything else. It is clear that we must 
look to the Mongolians. They wait for a sign 
of welcome. Shall we allow the narrow j'-al- 
ousy of our present laborers for hire, wtko 
cannot do the labor them:-elves, to prevrrt us 
from reaping the advantage of this proffered 
assistance ? The Chinese are at home as 
earth-workers ; they possess excellent traits 
as stock raisers. There is a patience and a 
gentleness about their character adapticg 
ihem to the care of animals. It is said of 
them, in California, that no mule is balky in 
the hands of a Chinaman. Ilis good disposi- 
ti' 11 is too much even for ihe '• cusseduess *' 
of a mule. They wou'd fall readily into our 
system of dairying at the East, and cattle and 
sheep raising at the West. Their introdue- 
tion into agriculture would excite less oppoai- 
tion than in any otiier branch of industry- 
The Chinese are clannish, and are more con- 
tented if a number of them work together or 
so near that they can vis t each other ofien. 
This would be done easily by employing them 
in neighhortioods, and one interpreter and 
financial agent could look after them all. The 
Chinese would be 8t*-ady laborers, year atier 
year, and would furnish such help as the far- 
m* r could rely upon. He might th n lay oitt 
his work and know how he was to accomplish 
it. For these reasons the Journal concludea 
that fanners would do well to make provi- 
sion for labor from this source fur the nexl 
season. This would necessitate the forma- 
tion in each locality of a co-operative labor 
associatiou. 



^08 



THE LAJV'CASTEB FARMER. 




WHITE SWAN, KCygaus Americanus.) BLACK SWAN, (Cygniis Atratus.) 



WHITE SWAN, (CYGNUS AMERICAN ' 

US.) BLACK SWAN, (CYGN US 

ATRATUS.) 



" Bebold ! the mantling spirit of reserve. 
Fashiwm his neci into a goodly curve, 
An arch thrown back bftfwten luxuriant wings 

Of whitest garniture, like fir-tree boughs, 

To which, on some unruffled moruirg. clings 

A dusky wi ight of win er's purest snow." 

AMONG all the swimming-birds known to 
natiual history, for grace and elegance the 
swan is pre-eminent ; and a swan-like neck 
and motions have long been regarded as the 
highest and most perfect figures of female 
loveliness and beauty. 

" She was like the swan that swims the ocean, 
Alwayp in motion with her wing, 
Her snowy white breast would be a portion 
For any Lord or Irish Kins" — 

among the old Irish balladists, typically 
expressed all that was admirable in the form 
and movements of womankind. 

The American swan, has a wide geograph- 
ical range, and sometimes appears plentifully, 
even in the waters of Lancaster county, es. 
pecially in the Susquehanna river, along its 
southern border. We have seen them in 
hundreds, floating gracefully on that inland 
water, and specimens have been shot from 



the old Columbia bridge, and elsewhere with- 
iu the limits of the county. 

Swans are not difficult to domesti:ate, and 
most of the city parks which have suitable 
bodies of water within them, are supplied 
with these graceful birds, as necessary orna- 
ments. In " Merry old England," from a 
very remote period in her history, swans were 
domesticated in flocks of fifties or more, along 
the Thames and other streams. So complete- 
ly were they localized there, that special laws 
were enacted for their protection, and there 
was even a special court, called " The King''s 
Majesties Justices of Sessions of Swans^ For 
ag 8 Lbe corporation of Londou city was iu 
the habit of visiting the swaneries along the 
Thames, for the purpose of marking them. 
This was called "swan- up ping," which word 
was subsequently corrupted into " swan-Ao^- 
ping." Iu the same way the tavern sign of 
the '■'two neck'' d swan, ^'' which is common in 
England, is a corruption of '' two nicFd,'''' be- 
cause two nicks was one of the marks made 
in upping. S*vans, among water fowl, exhibit 
the most perfect illustrations of monogamy, 
and they manifest much affection for each 
other and for their offspring. The male is 
very attentive to the female, and assists her 
in making her nest. Tne female lays from 



TEE LAXCASTER FARMER. 



W9 



six to seven dull greenish white eggs, during 
the laying season, which are about tour inches 
in lensrlh, and over two inches in breadth. In i 
Ec^land swats are fed on barley and fattened j 
for the table, but in our country they are net j 
epecially valued for this use : but, shou'd any 
of our readers be fortunate enoush to obtain 
a goo ! fat one, we will here transcribe the 
mod^ of roasting it. 

" T*ke three poouds of beef, b 'at Sne in a mortar ; 
Pntitintofhe STin— ttat is, wh?a yoa'r^ csiu?ht heil 
Sinje pepper, salt, mace, soxe nntmeg. an onion ; 
"Will height-n the flaTOr in gormand's opinion 
Then tie it up tight with a tm^l piece of tape ; 
That the eravy and other things may EOt f scape. 
A meal past«, rather ftiff. .«h'>uid be l?.id on the brean ; 
And some whited brown paper shoald c^Ter Xh.^ re-t. 
Fifteen minutes, atle&s-. ere th^ swan yon take down ; 
Pall the piste off the bird, that the breast niiv get b. own 
To a gravj of beef, good acl strong I opine, 
Tou'll t)e right :f fou add half a pint of g'>cd wine- 
Ponr this through the swan, yes, quite throti^h the bell - , 
Th^n serve the whole up with some hot corrant jell"." 

y. B. — The swan must not be skinned. 

HORTICULTURE. 



A VISIT TO CIXXAMIXSOX, X. J. 

CIXXAMIXSON township is in Burling- 
ton county, on the Mount H-lly road» 
ten or twelve miles east of Pnila<irlphia, and 
is noted for fruit farms, like the county of Bur- 
lington generally. No stock is allowed to 
run at laree in this county. The fruit-grow- 
ers and farmers generally are just now b?- 
ginnins to dispense wi.h fences. At Vineland, 
the town and vicinity dispensed witb fences 
from the very beginning. It would be quite a 
novelty to Lancaster county farmers, to see 
the grounds cultivated up to the edges of the 
public roads. These thoroughfares a^e gen- 
erally very leve! ; the fruit farms range from 
one to two and three hundred acres.and the chief 

pr- ducts are strawberries, raspberr es.bla^k- 
berries.cranberries, sweet potatoes and peach- 
es. The premium crop of strawberries of Burl- 
ington county was at tberste o( twohundred and 
sixty three bushels to the acre, yielding a prof- 
it of 8l,0!X) per acre ; but one-third would be 
nearer ihe average crop. For the pa^t ten 
years they hare averaged about 2.500 quarts 

of strawberries per acre, and the average 
price per quart in market, has been about 
twelte cents. Mr. WiViam Parry raised last 
year from ten acres S5,000 worth of strawber- 



ries. He had tieenty acres m strawberries, 
thirty in blackberries, fAiVry in raspberries and 
proportionately a.s much in other fruiis. Of 
strawberries, " Wilson's Al'iany Seedling " is 
regarded as the most prolific and profitable 
tor market purposes. " Her«tiae's," ia now 
looked upon as the be«t raspberry. At the 
head of ih>- li-^t of blackber.ies under cultiva- 
tion is •' Wilson's Early," ripening early af- 
ter the raspberries, and before the peaches 
are in market. When fruit is scarce it com- 
mands the highest price. The berries from 
two acres have been sold on the farm for^/- 
/y c«nf5 a quart. An extensive fruit grower 
in West Jersey has seveucy-five aores of these 
blackberries in bearing condition, and received 
S20,0Ci) for the frnit of one season, realiz ng a 
profit of SU.OOO after deducting all expenses, 
accomplishing all this in the space of three 
weeks. The Dorchester and Kittalinny are 
considered the next best. Land within ten 
or twenty miles of Philadelphia has risen rap- 
idly in price during the last ten years, on ac- 
count of the demand for all kinds of fruit- 
Fertilizers are obtained comparatively cheap 
near Philadelphia. They use much marl, 
bonedust, guano and a variety c\ compounds, 
in improving worn-out lacds. They are even 
beginning to cultivate ches'nucs in New Jer- 
sey and Delaware. Mr. Dupont, near Wil- 
mington, has in cultivation a large variety of 
chestnuts. He sold from ten acres S5M worth 
of these nuts in one season. Mr. William 
Parry had planted oa the Uch of October one 
bushel of these nuts for propagation. They 
sell in market at thirty-seveu and fifty cents a 
quart. I purchased a pint of these che-tnu s, 
for twenty-five cents, and twnty nine of them 
filed a pint measure. I hav- planted them 
and also a pint of our ordinary Lancaster 
county chestnuts, picked up under different 
tree*, and it tcok one hundred and txcenty-jivt 
to fill the pint measure. Ti.ese large chest- 
nuts are ju-it as sweet, as delicious, and as fine- 
ly flavored as our own. The price of the 
common chestnut is from ten to twenty cenU 
per quart. From ibis we may be able to 
judge the relativ,^ value of these the most 
popular nuts indi^'icoas to or cultivated on 

our local soil. 

L. S. Reist. 

[It seems to us that the abo^e interesting 
and important /ac/* ought to atford suffijienk 
encouragement to some of our fruit-growers, 



no 



THE LAJ^f-CASTEE FARMER. 



lo go into a more ex'ensive cultivation of 
"small fruits," and also tke introduced and 
improved varieiit'B of chestnuts. In regard to 
the Albany Seedling strawberry, we beard an 
experienced grower once declare that he couid 
raise as many bushels of these berries on the 
same quantity of ground, as any other man 
could raise patatoes. — Ed.] 



RAPID GROWTH OF TIMBER IN 

KANSAS. 

IT is astonishing to see how rapidly the 
timber grows on the prairies. There are 
large tracts of land in this county, and partic- 
ularly near the Missouri river that was clear 
open prairie before, when we came here 
twelve years ago, that now has a thick growth 
ot young timber. Black-oak, hickory and 
white-oak, seem to grow up spontaneously 
where the Are is kept out of the prairie grass, 
and the rapid growth soon makes it valuable 
for fire-wood and fencing. In eight or ten 
years more, large quantities of this timber 
will be large enough for railroad ties, and the 
ground is so thickly covered that it is almost 
impossible to cut prairie hay anywhere in the 
eastern part of this county. People have 
been commended for planting a tree, but it 
seems not to be necessary here, and all that 
is to be required is to' prevent the prairie 
from burning over and destroying the young 
sprouts ; and if the trees are trimmed up and 
the undergrowth kept out, a farmer having 
from twenty to fifty acres will, in ten years, 
have till the timber he will want for his own 
use. There is an important duty devolving 
upon all the owners of the soil lo protect this 
b untiful growth of timber, and when the 
next generation takes our places they will 
have a plentiful supply. Let aU protect a 
tree, if they don't plant one.— Wathena (Kan.) 
Reporter. 



THE WORK OF THE LEAF. 

HAT does it do? I tpump^ water from 
the ground i brough the thousands of 
tubes in the stem of the tree, and sends it to 
the atmosphere in tbrt form of unseen mist, 
to be condensed aid fall in showers, the 
very water that, were it not fur the leaf, would 
sink in the earth and find its way, perchance. 



through the subterranean channels into the 
sea. And thus it is that we see it works to 
give us the " early and the latter rain." It 
works to send the rills and streams, like lines 
of silver, down the mountain and across the 
plain. It works to pour down the larger 
brooks which turn the wheels that energize 
the machinery which gives employment to 
many millions, commerce stimulated, wealth 
accumulated and intelligence disseminated 
through the agency of this wealth. The leaf 
does it all. It has been demonstrated that 
every square inch of leaf lifts 3,500 of an ounce 
every twenty-four hours. Now, a large forest 
tree has about five acres of foliage, or 6,272,- 
640 square inches. This being multiplied by 
3,500 (the amount pumped by every inch) 
gives us the result~2,252 ounces, or 1,176 
pints, or 294 quarts, or eight barrels. The 
trees on an acre give ti^ht hundred barrels in 
twenty-four hours. An acre of grass, or clo- 
ver, or grain, would yield about the same re- 
sult. The leaf, is a worker, too, in another 
field of labor, where we seldom look — where 
it works for the good of man in a most wonder- 
ful manner. It carries immense quantities of 
electricity from the earth to the clouds, and 
from the clouds to the earth. Rather danger- 
ous busmess transporting lightning ; but it is 
particularly fitted for this work. Did you ever 
see a leaf entire as to its edges ? It is always 
pointed, and these points, whether they be 
large or small, are just fitted to handle this 
dangerous agent. These tiny fingers seize 
upon and carry it away with ease and wonder- 
ful dispaich. There must be no delay ; it is 
" time freight." True, sometimes it gathers 
up morti than the trunk can carry, and in the 
attempt to crowd and pack the baggage the 
trunk gets terribly shattered, and we say that 
lightning struck the tree. But it had been 
struck a thousand times before. This time it 
was over-worked. 



THE COCOA-NUT. 



TO enumerate all the services which the 
cocoa-nut tree, and its fruit, render to 
man, in the East, would be almost a hopeless 
task. The kernel is not eaten as we eat it, as 
fruit, but is prepared in a variety of ways for 
curries and other ditches ; the milky juice is re- 
lished as a pleasant beverage, the oil is used 
in making steariue candles and marine soap, 



THE LANCASTER FABMER. 



211 



ard, in the tropical countries, lamp-oil, oint- 
ment, and an aid to cookery ; the resia from 
the trunk, mixed with the oil from the nut, 
and melted, forms a subafance used for fiUino' 
up the seams of ships and boats, Cf)Verins; the 
corks of bot'les, and repelling the attacks of 
(he white ant ; the root possesses narcotic 
properties, and is sometimes chewed like the 
areca-nut. The terminal bud is esteemed a 
delicacy although not easily obtainable with- 
out cutting down the tree. 

The sap, or toddy, is a beverage, and is 
also fermented to produce palm-wine and ar- 
rack-spirit. The dried leaves are used for 
tha'ch, and for making screens, mats, bas_ 
kets. and a kind of plait; while the mid-rib of 
the leaf serves the natives as an oar. The 
wood of the lower part of the stem is very 
hard, takes a beautiful polish, and is known to 
our turners and ornamental joiners as porcu- 
pine wood ; the fibrous center of the older 
stems is worked like coir into cordage and 
similar articles. The husk of the ripe nut 
when cut across, is used for polishing furniture 
and scrubbing floors. Within the nut is occa- 
sionally found a small stony substance of a 
bluish-white color, worn by the Chinese as a 
kind of amulet or charm. In short, the cocoa- 
nut tree is one of the most useful products of 
the tropical regions. 



"WINTERING ROOTS. 

^'qUBSCRIBER'S" question, as to the 
k3 best mode of wintering roots, cannot 
be better answered than by the following ex- 
tract from "What We Know About Turnips," 
published by David Landreth & Son : 

" The main winter and spring stock of bulbs 
we preserve in pits— not mounds, as made in 
some localities — narrow pits, after this fash- 
ion : Select a suitable spot, near the stables 
if practicable, but surely where the drainaj!,e 
is good and — indispensable prerequisite ; dig a 
trench sixteen inches wide, and as many or 
more inches in depth, the length as conven- 
ient as necessary. In this place the topped 
bulbs, and cover with the earth dug out of 
the trench, using a little more in addition as 
winter approaches. If cold may be expect- 
ed in severity, place over all aloug stable ma- 
nure, or anything whioh will impede the en- 
try of frost, without creating warmth. Thus 



we have found roots of any and all descrip- 
tions — ruta bagas, common turnips, car- 
rots, beets, parsnips — to keep well. They 
are accessible at all times, and when needed 
may be removed in larger or smaller quantity 
art desired. Altogether, it is better than 
mounds, which, being elevated, are exposed to 
frost, and require care in construction. In the 
pits described, we annually keep beets and 
carrots far into the sprin;:;, indeed have fed 
our working oxen with beets, to their great 
delight, up to July 1st." 

Our limited experience in the winter care of 
roots has been with a regular root-cellar un- 
der the bridge way into the barn, and hence, 
we know little or nothing about burying 
them, but have confidence in the above, and 
would not hesitate to put it in practice if oc- 
casion required it. 

When the cellar will not accommodate all 
the roots it can be filled, and the remainder 
buried as above described. During the win- 
ter, when the cellar is emptied, a whole pit 
may oe removed into the cellar, thus making 
one opening suffice each pit. — Phila. Age. 



Lateral or Bark Graft.— Take a sharp 
budding or two-edged knife ; insert it between 
the bark and the fiioer (or wood) ; cut your 
graft slanting on both sides ; insert it as far 
as the slant goes •, cover the wound with a lit- 
tle grafting wax, anl you make limbs start 
all over the body of your tree ; but it is neces- 
sary to reduce or trim the upper limbs so as 
to make the sap take hold of your grafts. 
Grafts should never have more than five nor 
less than three buds exposed iu all cases of 
grafting. For the terminal, rather stout scions 
are the best. The grafts taken from the top 
of a tree are much preferable to those taken 
from side limbs. The graft should be less ad- 
vanced than the stock. The latter part of 
February till middle of March is the best 
time for grafting — too late, the tree bleeds ; 
too soon, the sap is not starting, and the co- 
hesion, or soldering, of graft and stock, is de- 
layed or retarded too long.— Farmer and Gar- 
dener. 



Fruits and Berries —Fruits and berries 
at this season of the year? re not only pre- 
cious luxuries, but great promoters of health. 
They act upon the liver, promoting that secre- 
tion naturally which many are in the habit 



^12 



THE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



of obtaining only by the means of artific al 
medicines. They thus avert many a disease 
resulting from a torpid condition of the liver. 
Another way in which they act bentficially 
is the mechinical effict thair little ^eeds pro- 
duce in passing through the bowels, very 
much the same as the watering of an irritated 
eye-ball when any hard substance touches 
that delicate organ, and this water, by dis- 
solving the hardened couteuts of constipated 
bowels, keeps them in a healthier state than 
any p,ll or purgative invented by the apothe- 
cary. There can be no doubt that in the 
suram-r and fall seasons people who live 
mainly on fruits and berries and coarse bread 
can almost insure exemption from sickness, 
while those who eat heartily of solid meats 
and vegetables two or three times a day are- 
liable to all the diseases that flesh is heir to 



TABLB SHOWING THE QITVNTITYOP SBED BBQUIRSD TO 
THE AOKK. 

Desigi ation. Quantity of seed. 

Wheat 1'^ to 2 bushels. 

Barley Ii| to 2]^ " 

Oats 2 to 4 " 

Bve 1 to 2 " 

Buckwheat % to ly^ " 

Millfct 1 to ) >i " 

Corn % to 1 " 

BeaDS 2 to 2 " 

Peas 2}^ to Z}i " 

Hemp ' to \% •• 

Flax 1^ to 2 " 

Kice 2 " to 2^ " 

Broom Oorn i to 1^ '' 

Potatoes 5 to 10 " 

Timothy 12 to 24 qts. 

Mustard 8 to 20 " 

Herd Grass 12 to 16 " 

Flat Turnip 2 to 3 lbs. 

Rpd Clover 10 to 16 " 

White Clover 3 to 4 " 

Blue Grass 10 to 15 " 

Orchard Grass 20 to 30 " 

Carr- 18 4 to 5 '' 

Parsnips 6 to 8 " 

TABLE SHOWING THB NUMBER OF SEEDS IN ONE POUND, 
AND WBIGHT PER BUSHEL. 



No. of 

Seeds per lb. 



No. lbs 
per bush. 



Wheat 

Barley 

Oats , 

Rye 

Vetches 

Lentils 

Beaus 

Peas 

FlaxSted 

Turnip Seed 

Rape Seed 

Mustard (white; 

Cabbage Seed 

Mangel-wurzel 

Parsnip Seed 

Carrot Seed 

Lucern Seed 

Clover (rfd) 

" (white) 

Eye-Grass (perennial). 

" (la ian)... 

Sweet vernal grass. . . , , 



600 
1800 



10 500 

15,403 

20,000 

23.000 

8,300 

8.2.111 

to 1,300 

to 2 OCO 

108.' 00 

155 OOO 

118000 

T5,000 

12-1,000 

24.600 

97,000 

257,000 

215(100 

249 600 

686 400 

.S.34,000 

272 000 

923,000 



58 to 64 

48 to 56 

38 to 42 

56 to 60 

60 to 63 

58 to 60 

6!, to n,'> 

60 to 65 

.50 to 60 

50 to 55 

50 to 56 
57 
52 

20 to 24 
14 
9 

58 to 60 
60 to 63 

59 to 62 
20 to 28 
13 to 18 



BSE CULTURE. 



THE BEE AND BEE-KEEPING.— NO. 4. 

BY ULRICn STRICKLER. 
BREEDING 

AS stated in a previous number, the queen 
is mother of the entire family. In good 
strong colonies, she besiins to deposit eg*8 
about Christmas or New Year. Weak colonies 
do not begin to rear brood for a month or two 
later, depending on the strength of the colony 
and amount of stores on hand. In weak col- 
onies she, at first, depo.-^its but a few eggs ; 
sometimes not more than a space of 
an inch or or two in diameter, on but one 
cnmb, about the center of the cluster of bees, 
where the most heat is generated. A certain 
degree of heat is necessary for the perfection 
of the brood ; in small clusters, there is but a 
small space near the center where sufficient 
heat is generated for the purpose of breeding, 
this space she fills with eggs, and no more. If 
there is sufficient heat in the hive, either 
generated by t'le bees, or produced by warm 
weathe-, she will fill the adjoining combs, 
one on each side, corresponding to the fiist, 
but not quite as large. She will then enlarge 
the circle on the first comb, then on the ad- 
joining ones, continuing to spread as fast as 
the amount of heat permits, until all the 
combs are filled to the edge with brood. But 
long before she reaches the outer edge of the 
combs, the first egafs deposited are matured, 
when she immediately fills the space again. 
If scarce of honey, they will breed very cau- 
tiously until the/ receive a supply. 

In strong colonies there is always a large 
space, where there is sufficient heat for breed- 
ing. In January this space will be found fill- 
ed with brood, and by the time fruit blossoms, 
these hives are filled with yo»jnebees to work 
thereon. Such colonies cannot fail to do well. 
But colonies that were weak, have reared but 
few young bees in time to work on the fruit 
blossoms, which, in th's section, gives bees 
their first start, and upon which greatly de- 
pends whether there will be early swarms or 
not. Hence all will see the advantage in hav- 
ing strong stocks to winter, which breed ear- 
ly, and consequently can take advantage of 
the early supplies. This is the reason that 
early young swarms frequently fill their hives 
before weak ones of the previous summer. 



THE LAJSrCASTER FARMER. 



213 



These weak colonies can spare but few bees 
for gatherinor stores beff re quite warm weath 
er. they bein? needed in the hive to keep up 
sufficient heat for breeding. 

During the breeding season, a circle of cells, 
an inch or two wide, containing bee bread, 
surrounds the sheets of comb containing 
brood. Breeding continues in strong colonies 
until November, but in weak ones ceases ^ 
month earlier. 

HINTS ron NOVEMBER. 

Bees that have re'5eived seasonable atten- 
tion, require little care this month. Anything 
neglected in October should be attended to 
now. Stocks that have not sufficient honey 
to winter on, may still be fed during warm 
days. Such as can not be wintered for want 
of sufficient bees to keep one another warm 
during cold weather, had better be taken up 
even now, than allowed to freeze before 
spring. 

Surplus boxes not filled should be set away 
in a dry place for next year's use. ff any con- 
tain t^mpty combs, preserve them carefully, 
as the bees will begin storing in them a week 
earlier than in empty boxes. When the 
combs contain a small quantity of unsealed 
honey, the box should be given to a stock 
that is short in stores for the bees to empty, 
as honey not sealed would sour before spring 

If, from timidity, any one has been deterred 
from making a thorough examination of his 
stocks, he should do it the first cold day. 
They then seem to be much more chilled than 
during much colder weather, after they have 
become accustomed to it. The entrance to 
all hives should now be contracted to a spice, 
admitting but one or two bees at a time, 
which will exclude mice and robbers. 



FEEDING BEES. 



LAST winter and spring was a remark- 
ably fatal times for bees. Of those tkat 
did come through alive, many were very 
weak, with solid or mouldy combs. As a 
consequence, this been a rather poor year for 
honey, and there are probably many hives 
which will need feeding to winter through. 
This will be especially the case amongst those 
who practice artificial swarming, and have 
tried to fill up all ihi old hives in which 
swarms died out, with new ones, and amongs^ 



those who with natural swarming, have tried 
to save all their second swarms. 

If you have not already done so, lose no 
time in finding out something about the con- 
dition of your hives, and if any of them need 
feeding, do no' delay attending to it any long- 
er. Those that are very weak in bees had 
better be left to be united with others, al- 
though some good bee keepers prefer keeping 
their weak swarms. It may do for those of 
much experience, but for others, weak swarms 
are only a nuisance. 

Some think honey the best feed, others pre- 
fer a syrup made of best coff'ee sugar, using 
about a quart of water, to five pounds sugar, 
being