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Full text of "The Lancaster Farmer"

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Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2009 with funding from 

Lyrasis IVIembers and Sloan Foundation 



http://www.archive.org/details/lancasterfarmer05jbde 



A 



1 



THE 



LANCASTER FARMER, 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY, 



UNDER THE AUSPICES OF THE 



LANCASTER COUNTY 



Agricultural and Horticultural Society. 



Terms— $1.25 Per Year, in Advance. 



V^OT.. V^.,1873. 



J. B. DE\^ELIN, PUBLISHER. . 

LANCASTER, PA. ; 

T.NQUIRER PRINTING AND PUBLISHING COMPANY, 53 & 55 NORTH QUEEN STREET. 



INDEX TO VOL. V, 



A 

A Bee-Sting, 5, 

About Deep Plowing, 16. 

A Bee Story, 52. 

A Curious Climate, 140. 

Agriculture, 1, 48, 63, 93, 107, 124,143,^63, 

207, 232. 
Agricultural College Again, 1. 
Agricultural Education, 63. 
Agricultural Fairs, 124. 
Agricultural Meeting, 11. 
Agricultural Notes, 147, 190. 
A Happy New Year, 13. 
Air Beds in the Morning, 191. 
Alfalfa, not a Grass, 174. 
A Lesson in Stock Feeding, 35. 
Alden Fruit Drying, 157. 
Amateur Asks, 9. 
American Salmon, 77. 
American Farmers' Club, 188. 
Annual Address of H. M. E., 21. 
An Important Discovery, 48. 
An Acknowledgment, 118. 
An Inferior Race, 122. 
A Neat Room, 59. 
A New Kind of Butter, 161. 
A New Tree iu California, 161. 
Apples, 27. 
Apple Eating, 192. 
Artificial Butter, 71. 
Arresting Decay in Potatoes, 170. 
A Royal Ant Battle, 210. 
A Spurious Promissory Note, 138. 
A very Valuable Book, 182. 
A "Word for the Agricultural College, 1. 
Agricultural Report, 234. 
Acknowledgment, 245. 

B 

Baltimore Market, 250. 

Bark-blight ou the pear-tree, 132. 

Bechamel Sauce, 170. 

Berks county Farmers' Club, 185. 

Best Work on Dairy Products, 9. 

Blonde Sauce, 170. 

Boiled Lettuce, 72. 

Brains in Agriculture, 248. 

Bread-making, 71. 

Breakers Ahead, 130. 

Breeding Colts, 157. 

Breakfast Rolls, 193. 

Bulb Culture, 214. 

Butter and Cheese Exchange, 218. 

Butter Made Without Milk, 226. 



185, 



Butter-making in Small Dairies, 226. 

c 

California Letter, 162. 

Can Hens be Too Fat to Lay, 163. 

Caper Sauce, 170, 

Cause of Fruitfulness of 1872, 30. 

Care of Lambs, 73. 

Census Returns, 118. 

Cecidomyia Destructor, 5, 

Celery Sauce, 170. 

Changing Pastures. 108. 

(Jharlier Horse-shoe, 193. 

Cheap Labor, 121. 

Cheese-making in Small Dairies. 168. 

Chedder and Chilton Cheese, 169. 

Cherries, 29. 

Chemical Compounds of Grain, 156. 

Cherry Bounce, 193. 

Chicago Markets 40, 60, 80, 100, 182, 228, 250. 

Chinaman or White Man, 121. 

Cicada 17-decwi, 194. 

Clover, 126. 

Corn Fodder, 118. 

Corn-meal Bread, 193. 

Colorado Potato-beetle. 170, 131. 

Correspondence, 10, 32, 64, 65, 66, 97, 162, 198, 

219, 240. 
Cranberries, 90. 
Cream Puffs, 78. 
Cucumber Sauce, 170. 
Cream Sauce, 170. 
Curiosities of Planting, 210. 
Curious Hybrid, 247. 
City and Country, 244. 



Dairy Farming, 213. 

Delicate Cake, 78. 

Dense Population, 139. 

Depth of Soil and Length of Roots, 90. 

Desirable Qualities in a Pig, 107. 

Deviled Turkey, 78. 

Discriminating Fruit List, 33. 

Domestic, 7, 71, 167, 191, 237. 

Don't Pay Taxes, 122. 

Donyphora IQ-lhieata, 131, 170. 

Double your Corn Crop, 38. 

Dutch Method of Fertilizing, 169. 

Durham Bulls, 192. 



E 



Egg Sauce, 170. 
Editorials, 13, 34. 



2 



Index- 



Essays, 21, 41, 61. 81, 101, 121, 161, 183, 205, 229. 

Entomology, 5, 51, 131, 150, 170. 

Excellent Domestic Confections, 193. 

Excursion to West Virginia, 201. 

Exhibitions, 134. 

Experimental Farm Statistics, 163. 

Extract from the Irish Far-mer. 35. 

Early Importation of Cattle, 233. 

Effects of Manure on Weeds, 237. 

F 

Facts for Farmers, 9. 

Facilities of the Season, 25< 

Faith in Farming, 126. 

Fall Plowing for Potatoes, 17. 

Fattening Sheep, 23. 

Farming Institute, 139. 

Fawk's Steam Plow, 106. 

Filberts, 3S. 

Filler for Cistern Water, 209. 

Fish Culture, 96. 

Fences of the United States, 41. 

Fertilizere for Potatoes, 109. 

Fluctuations in Fanning, 159, 

French Hot Beds, 96. 

French Fritters, 110. 

Fruit of PennsylTania, 110. 

Fruit Culture and Keeping. 117. 

Fultz Wheat in Pennsylvania, 19. 

Facts in Fattening Cattle, 237. 

Farm and Household, 241, 

Farmers' Club, 245. 

G 

Galls on the Grape, 132. 

Gapes in Chickens and Pheasants, 7. 

Garden Seeds, 96. 

German Prejudice vs. Potatoes, 18. 

Glycerine Boot-blacking, 178. 

Gossip about Grafting, 5. 

Gossip about a Pear, 22. 

Gossip about Water and Plants, 53. 

Gossip about Food, 61. 

Gossip about Potatoes, 93. 

Gossip about Water, 101. 

Good Rules, 141. 

Good Effect of Mulching, 202. 

Gorged Stomachs in Horses, 221. 

Grapes, 27. 

Grape Grower's Maxims, 68. 

Grated Cheese, 110. 

Grafting Grapes on Laterals, 214. 

Green Manuring, 161. 

Growing Asparagus, 108. 

Growth of Horses' Bones, 37, 

Gum Arabic, 174. 

n 

Heeling in Trees, 8. 

Heat for Rooms, 110. 

Hens Eating Eggs, 191. 

Hickory Bark for Coloring, 181. 

High Priced Cattle, 222. 

Horticulture, 5, 22, 65, 103, 132, 171, 199, 209. 

Horticultural Exhibitions, 200, 

Hyppo-Zymosis, 45. 



Hominy FuddingJ 78. 

Household Notes, 78. 

How to Plant Apple Trees, 38. 

How to Make Soft Soap, 71. 

How to Get Along, 141. 

How to Wash Summer Suits, 178. 

How to get the Weight of Cattle, 190. 

How to Cm-e Hams, 192. 

How much Butter from a Cow, 49. 

How much Milk for 1 lb. Butter, 169. 

How Shall We Spend Time, 58. 

How they Raise Peaches in Delaware, 138. 

Hungarian Grass for Hay, 224. 

Husman's Method of Pruning, 167. 

Hens.and What they Eat, 239. 

How to keep meat, 248. 



Iced Apples. 226. 

Ideas of an Old Farmer, 118. 

Immense Wheat Farm, 16. 

Important Dates, 140. 

Industrial Exposition, 136, 139. 

Indiana Wheat, 166. 

Insects, 29. 

In-door Gardening, 239. 



Jos. Harris's Plan, 147. 



Keeping Eggs for Winter, 7. 
Khedive of Egypt, 31. 
Keeping Cabbage in Winter, 249. 
Keep the Cattle Growing, 241. 



Land-sale Company, 127. 

Lancaster Farmer, 14. 

Laying Grape Vines, 227. 

Leached Aashes as Manure, 109. 

Lime vs. Plant Poisoning, 140. 

Linseed Tea for Sick Horses, 36. 

Literary Notices, 19, 39, 59, 79, 99, 119, 141, 163, 

181, 203, 227, 249. 
Lobster Sauce, 170. 
Look to your Orchards, 7. 
Live Stock, 238. 
Laying Hens, 239. 

M 

Maitre d'Hotel Sauce, 170. 
Make a Map, 105. 
Making Sour-kraut, 168. 
Making Butter, 214. 
Management of a Dairy Farm, 213. 
Manure in Orchards, 68. 
Manure for Fruit Trees, 172. 
Manure on Wheat, 190. 
Manure for Grape Vines, 221. 
Manuring Lands, 208. 
Manufacturing Manure, 107. 
Mattresses. 9, 
Meteorological Notes, 88. 
Meeting Pa. F. G. Society, 14. 
Meetings Lancaster A. and H. Society, 13, 34, 57, 
74, 95, 113, 134, 156, 176, 200, 220, 24 . 



Index. 



Mexican Dishes, 227. 

Minute Insects, 196. 

Miscellany, 139, 178, 222. 

Model Potato Culture, 84. 

Mussel Sauce, 170. 

Meeting of Pa. Fruit Growers' Society, 245, 

Mushroom Sauce, 170. 

Mushroom Culture, 211. 

Mice in Orchards, 249. 

N 

National Fish Culture, 96. 

Nutritive Value of Feed, 172. 

New Work on Butterflies, 1.51. 

New Fruit-drying Process, 209. 

Newspaper Decisions, 209. 

New York Markets, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 142, 

164, 182, 204, 228, 250. 
Novel Way of Serving Peaches, 193. 



Oats for Soiling, 49. 

Oh ! Mother, "I Smell a Cow," 148. 

On Climbing Plants, 161. 

Order of " Patrons of Husbandry," 134. 

Origin of Aroma in Butter, 191. 

Our Grain Crop, 225. 

Our National Wealth, 225. 

Oyster Sauce, 170. 

Our Journal's Future, 243. 

Our Fifth Volume, 242. 

Oyster Progeny, 246. 



Pastry, 8. 

Painting Shingle Roofs, 73. 

Parthenogenesis, 51. 

Patronizing Home, 116. 

Patrons of Husbandry, 155, 244. 

Pasturing too Much, 166. 

Pennsylvania Fruit Grower's Society, 32. 

Pears and Pear-Blight, 28. 

Pears — to Prevent Rotting, 211. 

Peach-Bark Heetle, 195. 

Pequea Farmer's Club. 164, 198, 207. 

Percheron Norman Stallion, 128. 

Personal, 57. 

Peat. 114. 

Philadelphia Markets. 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 142, 

164, 182, 204, 228, 250. 
Phylloxera Vastatrix, 196. 
Picn's Eapce, 73, 153. 
Pierre Blot on Sauces, 170. 
Pittsburg Markets, 20, 80, 120, 182. 
Plant Trees, 31. 
Plant Life, 144. 
Plants and Philosophv. 205. 
Plaster— How to Use It, 160. 
Plowing by Steam, 10. 
Plowing out Potatoes. 181. 
Plums and Peaches. 29. 
Preserving Germination in Potatoes, 8. 
Preserving Grapes, 174. 
Preparing Fruit for Preserving, 153. 
Predisposition to Spavin, 36. 
Preventing Potato Rot, 173, 



Propp'ing Fruit Trees, 170. 

Proper Feeding, 193. 

Proceedings Pennsylvania Fruit Grower's Society 

24. 
Protection against Freezing, 67. 
Providing for Short Pasture, 215, 
Pruning Fruit Trees, 173, 
Publisher's Appeal, 14. 
Poultry Question. 246. 
Peculiarities of Birds, 247. 

Q 

Quaker Plum Pudding, 193. 

R 

Random Sketches, 15, 70, 157. 
Reply to " Three per Cent.," 104. 
Rolling Wheat, 208. 
Runaway Horses, 36. 

s 

Salt as Manure, 189. 

Scotch Cake, 78. 

Seed for Early Potatoes, 94. 

Separating Honey from Bees-wax, 8. 

Sheep as Weed P]xterminators, 169. 

Shelter for Cattle in Winter, 190. 

Shall we Feed Straw ? 222. 

Shad-breeding, 129, 

Short-horn Cows, 4. 

Should the Currency be Increased? 84. 

Shrimp Sauce, 170. 

Sixteen Good Habits, 109. 

Slaves, 122. 

Small Compost Heaps, 18. 

Small Fruits, 27. 

Soil for Sweet Potatoes, 103. 

Soiling Farm Stock, 221. 

Some Facts about Rain, 187. 

Spanish Mackerel, 175. 

Special Notice, 100. 

Strawberry Beds, 7. 

Strawberry Culture, 118. 

Sulphate of Ammonia, 38. 

Supplement to Lyceum Echo, 176. 

Sowing Wheat — Late or Early, 229. 

Salt, 248. 

Scratches and Cracks, 239. 

T 

Tapioca Cream, 140. 

The Apparent and the Real, 216. 

The Ant and its Habits, 217, 

The Cost of Royalty, 36. 

The Crops of 1873, 57. 

The Country of Butter Ranches, 213. 

The Crop Prospect, 115. 

Ilie Crops, 137, 158. 

The Cellar, 140. 

The Baldwin Apple, 7. 

The Bee and Bee-keeping, 12. 

The Berks County Fair, 177. 

The Best time to Kill Bushes, 171. 

The Apple-tree Borer. 194. 

The Corn Fodder Crop, 209. 

The Domestic Sheep, 50. 

The Domestic Cow. 148. 

The Decay of Wood, 111. 

'J'he Economy of Soiling, 164, 



4 



Index, 



The Financial Crisis, 218. 
The Future of Agriculture, 125. 
The Eamelan Grape, 68. 
I'he Greatest of the Crops, 145. 
The Harvest is Past, etc., 203. 
The Hog, or Swine, 69. 
The Human Eye, 140. 
The Horse, 91. 
The Financial Question, 81. 
The Cholera, 153. 
The Colorado Potato-beetle, 170. 
The Hessian-fly, 5. 
The Land-grant Business, 17. 
The Late Rains, 178 
The Micros copeand Milk, 59. 
The Mangel Wurtzel, 174. 
The Mustang, 179. 
The Nag, 215. 
The Old and the New, 37. 
The Prospect, 219. 
The Promise of the Peach Crop, 137. 
The Patrons of Husbandry, 184. 
The Persimmon, 199. 
The Seasons, 96. 
The Scotch Dairy System, 9. 
The Sweet I urnip, 174. 
The Seventeen-year Locust, 194. 
The Telegraph Grape, e'i. 
The Use and Action of Lime, 144. 
Three Per Cent., 75, 98. 117, 
Tilling Orchards. 199. 
To'Avoid Cut Worms in Corn, 155. 
To Have Apples Every Year, 215. 
To Make Boots Water-proof, 109. 
To Mend China, 218. 
To Make Sheep Own Their Lambs, 10. 
To Make Boys Farmers, 38. 
To Keep Milk Sweet, 8. 
To Purify and Preserve Cider, 9. 
To Soften Putty and Paint, 9. 
Trees, 90. 

Treat the Cows Kindly, 58. 
Training a Heifer, 218. 
Trimming Fruit Trees. 112. 
Trumpet Grape Gall, 150. 
Turtle Sauce, 170. 
To Pleasure Seekers, 157. 
The Fall Aspect, 247. 

The Visit to Pennsylvania Agricultural College, 
234. 



To Kill "Live Forever," 241. 
To Our Patrons, 242. 

u 

United States Corn Crop, 1873, 58. 
Useful Receipts, 193. 

V 

Varieties of Fruit, 30. 
Veal Cutlets, 193. 
Vitis Lituus, 150. 

Y 

Younsr Orchards, 33. 

w 

Watermelons, 18. 

Water House Plants, 49. 

What Causes Hair-Balls ? 133. 

What a Heavy Soil Will Do, 163. 

AVhat the Birds Say. 227, 

What Subsoil Did, 226. 

Wheat Caterpillar, 152. 

Wheat and Cheat, 183. 

White Cabbage Butterfly, 73, 153. 

Whitewash and Plastering. 110. 

Which the Best Breed of Cattle, 140. 

When to Plow Deep, 225. 

Who Buys our Grain, 108. 

Why Clover Improves the Soil, 147. 

Why Apple Trees Die, 199. 

Wine Making, 191. 

Winter Work on the Farm, 189. 

Wintering Celery, 214. 

Wonderful, 53. 

Worms in Flower Pots, 162. 

Wheat, 237. 

Wolf-tooth Question, 245. 



LIST OP ILLUSTRATIONS. 

The Short.Horn Cow. 4. 

The Domestic Sheep, 50. 

The flog, or Swine, 69. 

The Dray Horse, 91. 

I^he Steam Plow, 106. 

The Percheron Horse. 128. 

The Domestic Cow, 148. 

The Mustang Horse, 179. 

The Durham Bull 192. 

The Nag, or Driving Horse, 215. 



a; he 





CHSter ^iHrmer. 



DEVOTED TO 



Agriculture, Horticulture, Domestic Econoniy and Miscellany* 

EDITED BY S. S. RATHVOX AND ALEXANDER HARRIS. 
'* Tiie Fanner is the founder of civilization." — WEBSTER. 



Vol. r. 



JAjYUAR.Y, 187S. 



JVo. 1. 



AGRICULTURAL. 



PENNA. AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 
AGAIN. 

[Having published (by request) in our Decern, 
ber number of the Farmer an article sharply 
criticising the management of our Agricultural 
College at Bellefonte, and, believing that the 
welfare of our public institutions, as well as the 
credit of the State, requires that both sides of the 
question should have a fair hearing, we, in our 
present issue, publish the following from the 
Reading daily Times and Dispatch of the 20th 
ult. We confess ourselves not at all advised 
upon the subject, for we have not learned that 
any members of the Lancaster Agricultural 
Society were in attendance at any of the public 
meetings held in the interest of the college, and es- 
pecilaly not at the one referred to in this discussion. 
We therefore publish these papers without repu- 
diation or endorsement, and without any speciaj 
reference to the facts they profess to proclaim, 
but simply as an act of even-handed justice to 
toth parties. We do not promise to publish any- 
thing more on this subject, except it might be 
the substance of a report of a legally constituted 
committee authorized to investigate the matter. 

If we have any suggestion to make in the 
premises, it is this : that whatever discussion may I 
grow out of the publication of these papers it 
should be conducted with no more personality I 
than is absolutely necessary in developing the 
whole truth of the case. Even the truth may 
sometimes become so ensphered in personalities 
and individual prejudices and partialities that 
the public may entirely fail to see it. We deem 
the subject too deeply interwoven with the most 



important domestic interest of Pennsylvania to 
become a subject of partisan controversy, whether 
political, educational, economical or social ; but 
if there are any grievances, either pro or con,, 
they should undoubtedly be redressed as speedily 
as possible. 

The agricultural interests of our State underlie 
and constitute the very foundation of our material 
and social superstructure, and if those interests 
become impaired or destroyed all others will cor- 
respondingly suffer ; for in them are involved the 
daily bread ot our people. We verily believe^ 
that in the present state of society, a properly or- 
ganized and conducted agricultural college is an 
institution that is needed ; and that in its manage- 
I ment reference alone should be had to its legiti- 
mate aims and ends in order to insure its success.] 

A WORD FOR THE AGRICULTURAL 
COLLEGE. 

Philadelphia, Dec. 9, 1872. 

GENTLEMEN :— The issue of your paper of 
October 1st, containing the report of the 
delegates of the Berks County Agricultural So- 
ciety to the convention for electing trustees of the 
Agricultural College of Pennsylvania, was handed 
to me a few days ago. I can truthfully say that 
I never read such a scurrilous and untruthful 
article. 

After speaking of Bellefonte and the kindness 
of the citizens, etc., the delegates commence their 
criticisms at the time they come in sight of the 
college and the lands belonging to it. In their 
criticisms upon the college lands they say: "They 
areas poor as nature could well supply for agricul- 
tural purposes, and there are but few traces of any 
attempt to redeem them from their native rude- 
ness." In answer to this I will say that these 
gentlemen have clearly shown their utter unfit 



^ 



THE LAJs'CJlSTER FARMER. 



ness for the duties imposed upon them, and their 
ignorance of the cultivation of soils. I suppose 
they referred to the large field in front of the col- 
lege, which was sown with grass seed last spring. 
At the time these gentlemen looked upon it it did 
not present a very comely appearance ; the ground 
being unusually dry, and fearing the loss of the 
crop, the college authorities did not dare to mow 
it. But these intelligent gentlemen supposed the 
field had not been redeemed from its " native 
rudeness." 

All of the fields intended for the growth of 
crops are in a 'high state of cultivation. In re- 
gard to the criticism upon the fact that the col- 
lege had no wash-room, I will say the coflege has 
five, but, as the gentlemen well knew from the 
remarks of Mr. McAllister at the meeting of the 
delegates, these rooms could not be used, as some 
of the students who attended the college a couple 
of years ago abused the privilege. Yes, gentle- 
men, boys engaged in practical farming in this in- 
stitution travel to the third, fourth or fifth stories 
to cleanse their soiled hands and faces. Why did 
they not ask the students if they objected to it ? 
They would, without doubt, say they preferred to 
retire to their own private apartments to perform 
their ablutions. 

With what a burst of amazement do these gen- 
tlemen utter, "think of it, six stories to get to the 
attic and land dear at twenty dollars per acre." 
The price of land at the college, and for miles 
around it, ranges from sixty to one hundred dollars 
per acre. 

The assertion that wide cracks are open all over 
the front of the college building is false, for there 
is not even one. They say they noticed " the 
armory as being well kept and judge there were 
from twenty-five to thirty stand of arms." The 
armory of the college contains between eighty and 
ninety stand of stnall arms and accoutrements and 
fifty cavalry sabers with belts. They say they 
saw " uncouth ground, weeds everywhere, piles of 
rubbish everywhere." They saw no such a thing. 
The grounds of the college are kept neat and cl e an, 
and they were neat and clean the day these gentle- 
men saw them. 

Again we quote : " We peeped into the stables 
but^bund them unfit to enter; they were Augean 
in their filth." Such an assertion as the foregoing 
I pronounce an infamous fabrication, having not 
even the semblance of truth in it. There is not 
a farm in the State upon which the grounds and 
outbuildings arc kept cleaner than at the Agricul- 
tural College of Pennsylvania. What a heart- 



less criticism they make upon the beautiful garden 
and grounds belonging to Prof. McKee's resi- 
dence ! The garden which they referred to as 
being composed of "common showy flowers" is a 
model of beauty and neatness, the flowers in it 
being of the most select and costly varieties, and 
it was praised by all the delegates who were intel- 
ligent enough to comprehend what a beautiful 
garden is. 

After leaving the refectory these gentlemen re- 
tired to a circular enclosure (commonly called by 
the students the campus or ellipse, it being ellipti- 
cal in shape), in front of the college to enjoy a 
smoke. This was entirely against the college 
rules, as no one is allowed to smoke in or about 
the college building. 

Their criticism upon the chapel of the college 
is about as mean as usual. They speak of it as 
being " a mean low-ceiliuged room," capable of 
holding perhaps two hundred people, and either 
through carelessness on the occasion not ventilated 
or incapable of being so. The chapel is a comi 
fortable, well ventilated room, has not a low ceil, 
ing, and is capable of holding four hundred people 
The reason that Mr. Taylor, of Indiana county 
and Mr. Turner, of Chester county, were elected 
trustees was fully explained by Mr. McAllister. 
The Western ExperimentaUFarm being in Indiana 
county and the P^astern Experimental Farm in 
Chester county, it is necessary to have some one 
to represent the college in these localities. 

In Dr. Colder's address he said the education a 
student obtained at the college was equal, as far 
as usefulnees is concerned, to that obtained at 
Harvard or Yale. Does any intelligent mind 
doubt this ? What finer country would any one 
wish for the practical study of botany or geology ? 
What better college would any one wish to attend 
to learn practical surveying? What better col- 
lege would any one wish to attend to study prac- 
tical and scientific agriculture ? Ask any of the 
graduates and students of the college these ques- 
tions, and they will answer them as I answer them • 
we can wish no better. 

Farther on in their report I read, " of the num- 
ber of students, a certain proportion are girls ; the 
Professor did not say what proportion, but judg- 
ing from appearances at the dinner-table we should 
say one-third." At the time these gentlemen 
were at the college there were exactly six young 
ladies in attendance as boarding students and about 
ninety male students, of which fact the delegates 
heard Dr. Colder speak. With what candor do 
they say, when speaking of the President's ad- 



THE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



3 



dress, " we do not think we have in any particu- 
lar exaggerated it, but we must confess we could 
not comprehend many of its parts." What better 
evidence do we wish of a triumvirate of muddied 
brains and ignoramuses. Yes, the graduates of 
the Agricultural College of Pennsylvania could 
not only enter the Freshman class at Harvard or 
Yale, but they could compare favorably with its 
highly polished graduates. Your dele gates say 
they could not understand ' ' how an institution re- 
ceiving $30,000 from the State and a like subsidy 
from the United States Government should be so 
involved as the Doctor represented it." The coL 
lege does not receive a " like subsidy" from the 
general government, nor does it receive a cent. 
The total income of the college this year from the 
endowment is $30,000, heretofore it was $24,000. 
Out of this is paid $6,000 to the experimental 
farms, and about $6,000 for interest upon the debt 
of the college building. The remainder goes to 
pay the salaries of the officers of the institution 
and in making as many improvements as such 
limited means will allow. This same statement 
was made by Dr. Colder at the meeting of the 
delegates, but these gentlemen had an axe to 
grind and as it was not ground, the statement 
must be misrepresented. 

The investigation which they speak of as being 
expedient, is just what the college authorities 
wish, for by that means the members of the Legis 
lature can sec that the college is struggling under 
an insufficient income. They also wish upon that 
investigating committee men who will criticise 
fairly and honestly, those who have principle 
enough to set a good example before the students, 
and not sigh for " their ale," as the college is a 
poor place to sigh for any intoxicating drink. 
Some of the delegates got over this difficulty by 
bringing it along with them, especially those who 
bitterly complain of the want of water. After 
further unjust criticisms they ask this question : 
*' Does the school we have visited come up to the 
idea of what an agricultural college should be ?" 
They answer emphatically, " No !" I answer 
equally as emphatically. Yes I Its lands are 
naturally good, and art, labor and science have 
lent them aid. The immediate surroundings are 
kept in good order. Experiments on soils, crops, 
manures, and varieties of seed are made upon 
each and all of the experimental farms belonging 
to the college. The admission of females to 
the college has been found to be a perfect suc- 
cess. The courses of study are as high as those 
of any college in the State, and more numerous 



than many possess. The scientific course can com- 
pare favorably with those of Harvard and Yale. 

These delegates, in conclusion, say : " As to the 
Trustees of this ill-fated, abortive institution, we 
know of no language sufficient wherewith to con- 
demn them." Messrs. Lauer, Wanner and Stew- 
art know of no language sufficient wherewith to 
condemn such men as Hon. Francis Jordan, 
Secretary of the Commonwealth, Hon. H. L. 
McAllister of Bellefonte, James Kelley, the 
philanthropist of Pittsburg, Hon. Frederick 
Watts, Commissioner of Agriculture at Washing- 
ton, and other eminent men. The Trustees of 
the Agricultural College of Pennsylvania are, un- 
like a few of the delegates sent to the college, 
gentlemen and eminently fitted for the duties im- 
posed upon them, faithful to their trust, and re- 
spected among their fellow-citizens as men of 
honor, intelligence and sobriety, the last virtue 
being one in which, are not the aforesaid dele- 
gates fearfully lacking? 

If Augeas in his filth could hare smelt the 
stench which arises from the lager beer breweries, 
of which certain delegates are large stockholders, 
he would undoubtedly have had a committee ap- 
pointed to bore for Mr. Lauer's " artesian water." 

This article I have written because I thought 
an institution, which is eminent as an educational 
school, should be protected from calumny and vi- 
tuperation. I believe the college invites those 
interested in agricultural education to visit it and 
see for themselves; and come to the same conclu- 
sion as many delegates have come to, viz.: that 
such a report was written because the axe was not 
ground as they wished it to be. 

The college was never in a more prosperous 
condition. There are 110 students in actual at- 
tendance at Ihe college at this time, about 18 of 
whom are females. I am told a full report of the 
experiments of the last four years, made upon the 
experimental farms, is being made out, and that 
the financial status of the college will be present- 
ed to the Legislature at the proper time. 

In conclusion, I would say that the foregoing 
statements are made from my knowledge of the 
college and from having been present all the time 
that the Berks county delegates were at the insti- 
tution. 
Hoping you will insert this, I remain 

Yours, very respectfully, 

B. W. Thomas. 



I^Subscribe for the Lancaster Farmer. $1.50 
per year. 



Jf 



THE LAJYCASTER FARMER, 




SHORT-HORN COWS. 



SHORT-HOEN COWS. 

ALL the animals of the ox kind belong to the 
order Rtjminantia — animals chewing the 
cud — and the family BovidjE, in the great class 
Mammalia — that is, animals having teats, or 
mammce. In this family there are usually estima- 
ed to be eight distinct and original species — the 
different domestic breeds being merely varieties. 
1. Bos urus, is the ancient Bison. 2. Bos lison, 
the American buffalo. 3. Bos moschatus, the 
musk ox. 4. Bos frontalis, the gayal. 5. Bos 
grunnicus, the grunting ox. 6. Bos caffer, the 
South-african buffalo. 7. Bo-i huhtdus, the com- 
mon buffalo, and 8. Bos tawus, the common 
domestic species. All the different varieties — 
good, bad or indifferent — long-horns, short-horns 
or middlings— ^are said to have been produced by 
culture and crossing, from the original Bos tauriis; 
and from Scripture records we have ample testi- 
mony that oxen were owned by the patriarchs at 
a very early date, and are supposed to be the same 
species that are now domesticated in the different 
parts of the world, both civilized and savage. 



The most approved varieties are now included in 
three general divisions, namely, short-horned, long- 
horned and middle-horned ; but the distinctions 
between these classes are becoming more modified 
or diminished by crossing, and therefore it re- 
quires somewhat of an expert to determine to 
what stock some of them belong. In all ages and 
climes these animals have been most highly 
valued and prized, and among some nations they 
have been deified. And well they might, for in 
the abs jnce of any other god, commend us to a 
cow in preference to a block of stone or wood . 
Our illustration represents a Durham, or perhaps 
a cross between that and a Yorkshire — a breed 
which, on the whole, yields more milk than any 
other variety known, although it may not be of 
so rich a quality as some others. An experienced 
stock grower, in scanning a cow, looks for a very 
different outline in form, from what he does in a 
horse. Dorsally and latterly, he looks for a 
parallelogram, with very little projecting be- 
yond, save the head and feet. Transversely, or 
from an anterior or posterior view, he looks for a 
right-angled, or cubic outline, with only the four 



TEE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



corners vacant — in short, the breadth and depth 
should equal the length. These are, however, 
only the superficies ; there are a hundred other 
things between the head and the tail — the belly and 
the back — the bone and the skin — which enter 
into the composition of a good cow. 

But a cow of any degree of good, and under 
some circumstances even a bad one, is the greatest 
animal blessing that has been vouchsafed to the 
human familv. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL. 



THE HESSIAN FLY— (CECIDOMYIA DE- 
STRUCTOR.) 

FROM various sources we learn that this in- 
sect has shown itself very destructive to 
the wheat crop in the early part of the fall and 
winter in diflPerent localities in this county. In a 
conversation with Mr. Benjamin Pownall, an in- 
telligent farmer of Christiana, we elicited some 
facts from him on this subject of a very practical 
character, and as they are suggestive of what 
ought to be done in the premises we print them 
for the benefit of farmers generally. Mr. P. in- 
forms us that, for the sake of experimenting, he 
sowed a field in wheat on the 20th of August last ; 
also one about the 1st of September ; one on the 
15th of September, and one about the 1st of Octo- 
ber. The earliest sown was entirely destroyed by 
the fly ; the next in date was nearly all destroyed, 
but the last two were entirely free from their 
ravages. From this it would appear that it is best 
to sow late in order to escape the fly. But just 
here comes in another '' trouble." It has been 
found that late sowing in the fall — except under 
peculiarly favorable circumstances — generally re. 
suits in a late start, and consequently a late crop 
in the spring and summer, and the trnuhle referred 
to is this : The Hessian fly has a very near rela- 
tive called variously the " wheat fly," " wheat 
midge," or the " red weevil " — it is the cecidomyia 
tritici, of naturalists, and consequently is a Jly. 
Now, it has heretofore been found that wheat 
sown early in the fall has matured so early in the 
succeeding summer that the grain had hardened 
before the fly made its appearance, and thus es- 
caped it; whilst that which had been sown late fell 
a prey to it. The Hessian fly attackg and exhausts 
the stalks of wheat, whilst the midge attacks and 
exhausts the grain while it is in the milky state. 
Betwixt these two enemies, it will be perceived, 
that the wheat crop has a fearful gauntlet to run, 
nd the question arises, " How shall we get outo^ 



the frying-pan without falling into the fire ?" We 
might perhaps circumvent the Hessian fly by sow- 
ing only spring wheat, but then, except under 
very favorable circumstances, resulting in early ri- 
pening, this is the very kind of wheat that usually 
falls a prey to the midge. If late fall sowing will 
defeat the fly, then the sowing of those varieties 
of wheat which are known to develop rapidly and 
mature early will defeat the midge, and thus the 
crop may be saved. It, however, does not follow 
that these two enemies will succeed each other the 
same season, for one or the other may occur in a« 
succession of seasons and the other be entirely 

absent. B. 
• 

A Bee Sting. — The sting of a bee is naturally 
more violent than that of a wasp, and with some 
persons is attended with fatal effects. Two 
deaths from such a cause have occurred. The 
sting of a bee is barbed at the end like a fish- 
hook, and consequently is always left in the wound ; 
that of a wasp is pointed, so that it can sting 
more than once, but a bee cannot. When a per- 
son is stung by a bee, let the sting be instantly 
pulled out, for the longer it remains in the flesh 
the deeper it will pierce, and the more poisonous 
it will become. The sting is hollow, and the poi- 
son flows through it, which is the cause of the 
pain and inflammation. The extracting of the 
sting requires a steady hand, for if it breaks in 
the wound the pain will continue for a long time. 
When the sting is extracted suck the puncture, 
and thus prevent inflammation. Spirits of harts- 
horn, if applied to the affected part, will more 
fully complete the cure. The poison is acid, and 
the alkali will neutralize it. If the hartshorn is 
not at hand, saleratus can be wet and laid upon 
the place ; and soft soap will often ease the acute 
pain. On some people the sting of bees and 
wasps have little eff"ect, but it greatly depends 
upon the state of the blood whether it will prove 
injurious, and these simple remedies, if applied at 
once, will soon effect a cure. 

HO RTICULTURE. 

GOSSIP ABOUT GRAFTING. 



BY J. STAUFFER. 



SOME one who signs himself as "Logos" sup- 
poses he has discovered the true secret for 
grafting. He starts out with the well known 
views of Dr. Lindley — " Tliat each cell must have 
its own inherent 'power of secretion" — which, he 



6 



THE LA JV CASTER FARMER. 



continues, " has often struck me. I once saw a 
white Muscat of Alexandria grape grafted on the 
end of a cane of the black Hamburg. It, of 
course, always bore white Muscat grapes in every 
shade of color, every form, and every peculiarity 
of taste the same as other Muscats not grafted . 
yet all its sap had to be drawn through the cells 
or sap vessels of the Hamburg. If the first had 
the power of forming its own peculiar secretions 
so as to retain its exact distinctiveness, why should 
the wood-producing principle be deemed an excep- 
tion ?" " Logos" then concludes : " If wood loas 
formed, corporeally, from above downward, 
would it not in time so incase the wood of the 
stock, that when a shoot sprung out of what was 
once the stock, it would be of the same character 
as the scion ?" 

So long as it was believed that absolute wood 
was formed corporeally, from above downward, 
such an inference was natural. The idea prevailed 
that a scion would speedily form a sheath of wood 
over the stock, and thus secure itself permanently 
once a good union was formed. But Dr. Lindley 
has shown years ago " that, although wood is 
formed by a descending process, yet that its de- 
scent is not in an organized state. Fluid matter, 
out of which it is produced, passes, indeed, from 
above downward, but the formation itself is wholly 
local and superficial, and, consequently, there is no 
such thing as an incasement of a lower part of a 
tree by wood descending from above." Thus ad. 
hesiononly takes place ingrafting, and no junction 
can be permanent unless the stock and scion have 
a great similarity, not only in every part of the 
structure, but also in constitution, and that the 
strictest consanguinity alone offers security that a 
grafted plant shall be as durable as each of the 
two individuals thus artificially joined is, when 
left on its own root. Temporary unions are often 
formed — when this rule is violated, to some de. 
gree. Yet no intelligent grafter will depart from it. 

" Logos" states a case that may be useful — 
which I will give in his own words; " Two years 
ago I received a lot of pear grafts from a distant 
friend. They were buried in the ground at the 
ends, so as to preserve them a few weeks till the 
season was further advanced. When that came, 
the closest search could not find them. In July, 
while budding pears, I ' ran against' the grafts. 
They appeared green and tolerably fresh, so I 
budded them as I would do with young wood. 
Every bud had started to grow immediately, and 
made on an average, shoots a foot long before fall. 
The result was that, though I had not quite as 



strong plants as I should have had by March 
grafting, I had double the quantity I should have 
had ; beside, no failures" Cases of this kind give 
practical hints which may be turned to some ac- 
count. 

A method for grafting the grape which proved 
highly successful was, " by shortening a strong 
cane in the fall of the year to within six or eight 
feet from the ground ; it is then grafted wedge 
fashion, and tied with grafting twine. The vine 
is then bent down so as to bring the graft below 
the ground, as in layering, a single eye only be- 
ing allowed to remain above gronnd, and left so. 

Another recommends the use of a narrow and 
sharp blade ■ of a knife for grafting — by simply 
making a smooth, narrow, oblique stab, so as to 
get between the wood and inner bark to the depth 
of about \^ inches, then to cut the graft so 
wedged as to adapt it to the stab and to fill it 
completely, to bring the edges of the bark to come 
in close contact ; no evaporation or bleeding will 
follow ; no open gap, if skillfully managed, so that 
wax will not be required, unless to make it doubly 
sure. Much more might be said from the varied 
experience of practical men, but as the readers 
of The Farmer are such, as a general rule, I will 
only add by way of gossip, a kind of grafting 
which really may be new, if not especially edify- 
ing or useful. 

Our savans" seem bent upon discovering 
the hidden mysteries of nature, and to discover 
the nature of engrafted tissues. The experiments 
of M. Bert are of the highest interest, as they 
show that the tissues of one animal may not only 
be engrafted on those of another, but that after 
a time they become supplied with blood-vessels, 
etc. The following case, as published, is very sug- 
gestive : " The tail of a full grown rat was re- 
moved from the body and then inclosed in a glass 
tube and maintained for 72 hours at a tempera- 
ture of from 7° to 8° centigrade. It was after- 
ward deprived of portions of its skin, and intro- 
duced into the subcutaneous cellular tissue of an- 
other adult rat. Three months afterward the 
second animal was killed, and coloring matter was 
injected into its aorta. This coloring substance 
absolutely penetrated the marrow of the engraft- 
ed vertebrae, thus showing that the tail had been 
supplied with vessels communicating with those 
of its host's body." 

The above being vouched for by undoubted au- 
thority, it would seem to prove that this graft of 
animal tissues was more than simply adhesion — 
a true circulation of the blood, it would seem, 



TEE LA^r CASTER FARMER. 



7 



had been established. Well, it's curious, but 
rather cruel to dismember even rats. But curi- 
osity will investigate and science dissect and 
analyze matter, as critics will writers. This ad- 
moaishee me to " quote" Burns and " quit" : 

Conceal ycrser as wool's ye can 

Frae critical dissection'; 
But koelc thro' every other man 

With lengthen'cl sly inspection." 



DOMESTIC. 



The Baldwin Applk. — Not more than one in 
ten of those who enjoy the superior flavor of the 
Baldwin apple knows from whence it originated. 
For the enlightenment of the ignorant nine, we will 
inform them that this peculiar species of fruit 
came from a seeding planted by Josiah Pearce, 
Esq., of the town of Baldwin, Me. From this 
stock innumerable grafts have extended the fruit 
far and wide ; but from a well known law of ex- 
tension, the Baldwin apple is rarely found in per- 
fection when far removed from the place where it 
originated. In Maine, the color, texture, aroma 
and solidity of the apple have nothing to desire, 
being in truth so delicious that it might have 
been akin to the one said to have brought difficulty 
upon mother Eve. In other localities, where the 
soil, climate, or culture may have proved unfriend- 
ly, what is called the Baldwin apple may often be 
found a total failur , being puffy, insipid, and sub- 
ject to early decay. 



Look to Your Orchards, — No investment of 
the farmer pays so well as a good orchtird, and 
every one should now attend to his fruit trees. 
Cut out the dead ones, trim in time, plant thrifty 
trees in the place of those taken out. Examine 
the trunks and kill the worms, and see to it your 
trees have a fair start in the spring. What better 
crop can you raise than good apples. If you plant 
out a young orchard, select those kinds that have 
been proved most fruitful and the best adapted to 
the climate. Select fruit of fine flavor, and those 
that grow to perfection. 



Gapks i\ Chickens and Pheasants. — In speak- 
ing of the above dLsease among fowls, AV. B. Teg- 
etmeier, the celebrated English breeder and 
author, says, in a late number of the London Field, 
that the " fatal disease, caused by the presence of 
the gape-worm, appears unusually prevalent thi.s 
season. I have had it in ray own runs, where it 
has attacked some Sebright bantams ; but I have 
found no difficulty in curing it by the means of 
carbolic acid, which I first re( om nended for this 
purpose last year. So potent are the fumes of 
this powerful remedy, and so destructive are they 
to parasitic life, that their inhalation for even a 
few moments seems perfectly effectual in destroy- 
ing the life of the worm. It is not even neces- 
sary to employ any special apparatus ; a few drops 
of carbolic acid may be placed in a spoon and held 
over the flame of a candle until the vapor is seen 
to rise, when the head of the young chicken or 
pheasant (held in the other hand) may be placed 
in the vapor, which the animal is forced to inhale. 
Care must be taken not to carry on the process 
until the fowl as well as the worms are killed. I 
find after exposure to the fumes for a few seconds 
the bird may be regarded as cured, and may be 
seen running about quite well on the following 
day; if not, the treatment should be repeated. 
The medicinal carbolic acid is preferable to the 
tarry liquid used for disinfecting sewers and 
drains." 



Strawberry Beds. - Make the soil deep, rich, 
• and pulverize it thoroughly. This is all the most 
successful grower ever attempted and accomplished. 
When the soil is put into such a state, a man 
may plant strawberries with a pretty good expec- 
tation of obtaining a strong, vigorous growth, pro- 
vided he obtains sorts adapted to his locality. 
Whether he ever gets any fruit will depend some- 
what upon the variety planted and the method of 
culture adopted. But the ground- work and foun- 
dation of success is in putting the land into the 
condition we have described. 



Keeping Eogs for Winter. — A lady reader 
of the Rural Neiu Yorker sends us the following 
recipe for preserving eggs for winter use, which 
she says she clipped from the Country Gentleman. 
She has used the recipe for several years with suc- 
cess, and desires that the readers of the Rural may 
also have the benefit of it. Though rather late in 
the season, we give it more particularly for future 
reference. The writer says : " In August I gen- 
erally commence saving eggs, and am very careful 
to save only good and fresh ones. I take boxes 
which hold about 1.200. put on the bottom a layer 
of oats, and set my eggs all point downward, so 
that not one touches the other, until the layer is 
full, then cover with oats and make another l-ayer, 
and so on until the box is full, and then cover and 
set in a cool, dry place, where it docs not freeze, 
until used. I have followed this way for the last 
twenty years, and cannot say that I ever lost more 
than one or two out of fifty, and then generally 
found that it was knocked or put down unsound. 



8 



THE LAJ^CASTER FARMER. 



I use small boxes, so that I can use first the eggs 
which I put down first. I have never thought of 
changing my way, although I have read so many 
ways to do it, for instance, in ashes, in fat, in lime> 
in lime water and even varnishing them, because 
my way seemed to me the simplest and cleanest* 
and I am just as sure to have good eggs next 
February and March, which I lay in now, as I can 
have good eggs now. There is no danger of hav- 
ing any muBty taste to the eggs if you keep them 
in a dry place and are careful to use dry oats," 



Prkventino the Germination of Potatoes 
IN Cellars.— Much trouble is^experienced by 
farmers.and others who have occasion to store po- 
tatoes for a considerable length of time, in pre. 
venting their germination, and consequently de- 
preciation in value as food ; and our readers may 
be interested to know that experiences prosecuted 
in Germany, have shown that this may be meas- 
urably prevented. This is accomplished by ex- 
posing the potatoes to the va,por of sulphurous 
acid, by any of the various well-known modes, and 
a large mass of potatoes can be treated at the 
same time. This process, if not entirely effective 
in accomplishing the object, will retard or modify 
the sprouting of the potato to such an extent as 
to render the injury caused thereby very slight. 
The flavor of the potato is not affected in the least 
by this treatment, nor is its vitality diminished ; 
the action being simply to retard or prevent the 
formation and growth of the eyes. 



Pastry. — Every housekeeper is supposed to 
know all about pastry ; and yet it so often fails to 
be the light, flaky article which it should be, in 
order to be delicious and wholesome, that a few 
suggestions may not be de trop. Very good 
pastry may be made by taking two-thirds the pro- 
portion of butter to flour, instead of the old rule, 
" pound to pound all the world round." Be sure 
that your materials are perfectly nice. Pastry 
being made only of flour, butter, water, and salt, 
should never be imposed upon by inferior ingredi- 
ents, or it will tell the tale very quickly. Hav- 
ing weighed your butter and flour, take out one- 
third of the butter and crumble it into the flour, 
adding salt if your butter is very fresh ; but this 
is not generally needed. Then get ice-water, or 
the coldest water you can find, and pour it gradu- 
ally with one hand while you stir it with the other, 
uijiil the paste is of a consistency fit to roll out. 
Flour the board, and roll this out, and put over it 
small pieces of the butter you have saved out, say 



as large as a bean, and about two inches apart ; 
after this is covered, dredge in some flour lightly, 
turn over the edges of the pastry, pound it once 
or tvv'ice with the rolling pin, and roll out as be- 
fore, using your butter in three or four rollings. 
Bake in a quick oven and do not open the door to 
look at it for a few moments. 



Heeling in Trees. - The Gardner's Monthly 
says: "We have no doubt that more trees are 
lost from imperfect heeling in than from any other 
cause whatever," which every observing person 
who has seen the way in which the roots of trees 
are buried in masses with large interstices of air 
among the roots will assent to. Trees badly 
heeled in should not remain so twenty-four hours 
before planting out. Clods and masses of earth 
are merely thrown on the tops of roots, and only 
shade them from the sun's rays. In a few days the 
roots will become dry, because they are not in con- 
tact with the moist earth. If the heeling in is well 
performed, every crack and crevice will be com- 
pactly filled with fine pulverized earth, and the 
trees will keep a long time, as well as in the 
nur ery rows. If badly heeled in autumn, and left 
till spring, trees are nearly, if not wholly, ruined 
by freezing and drying combined. 



To Keep Milk Sweet. — A teaspoonful of fine 
salt or of horse-radish, in a pan of milk, will keep 
it sweet for several days. Milk can be kept a year 
or more as sweet as when taken from the cow by 
the following method : Procure bottles which 
must be perfectly clean, sweet and dry ; draw the 
milk from the cow into the bottles, and, as they 
are filled, immediately cork them well, and fasten 
the cork with packed thread or wire. Then 
spread a little straw in the bottom of a boiler, on 
which place the bottles, with straw between them, 
until the boiler contains a sufficient quantity. Fill 
it up with cold water, heat the water, and as soon 
as it begins to boil draw the fire, and let the whole 
gradually cool. When quite cold, take out the 
bottles and pack them in sawdust in hampers, and 
stow them away in the coolest part of the house. 



Separating Honey from Bee-brkad.— A lady 
correspondent of the California Agriculturist 
gives the following convenient and old-fashioned 
way for separating honey from bee-bread : 

Put such pieces of comb as have bread in them 
into round tin butter cans (those a little flaring at 
the top are best), until nearly full. Then set the 



THE LA J^'C ASTER FARMER, 



9 



wash-boiler on the stove with water a few inches 
deep in it. but not enough to boil up into the cans ; 
then lay a few pebbles or an iron chain evenly on 
the bottom and set the cans on them ; put the 
cover on the boiler and let the honey steam until 
all the wax is melted, which can be ascertained by 
a small stick or wire. -The honey must not be 
stirred if you wish it clear. When it is all 
melted, lift the cans out and set away carefully to 
cool, and when just about milk warm, with knife 
and fork lift the wax and bread off the top, and 
yourhouey will be clear and nice in the can. 



Facts for Farmers. — A series of experiments 
instituted to test the average loss in weight by 
drying show that corn loses one-fifth, and wheat 
one- fourteenth by the process. From thi-i the 
statement is made that farmers will make more by 
selling unshelled corn in the fall at 75 cents than 
the following summer at ^1 a bushel ; and that 
wheat at $1.32 iu December is equal to $1.50 for 
the same wheat iu June following. This estimate 
is made on the basis of interest at 7 per cent., and 
takes no account of loss from vermin. These 
facts are worthy of consideration. — Ex. 



To Soften Putty and Remove Paint. — To 
destroy paint on old doors, etc., and to soften 
putty in window frames, so that the glass may 
be taken out without breaking and cutting, take 
one pound of American pearlash, three pounds of 
([uick-stone lime, slake the lime in water, add the 
pearlash and make the whole about the consist- 
ence of paint. Apply it to both sides of the 
glass, and let it remain for twelve hours, when the 
])utty will be softened so that the glass may be 
taken out of the frame without being cut, and 
with the greatest facility. To destroy paint, lay 
the above over the whole body with an old brush 
(as it will spoil a new one) ; let it remain for 
twelve or fourteen hours, when the paint can be 
easily scraped off. 



To Prkserve and Purify Cider. — The Cleve- 
land Leader says the following was sent by a 
well-known gentleman of that city, and his recipe 
is entitled to consideration : 

Use five eggs for each barrel, and beat them 
well, yolk and all, and pour them into the bung- 
hole, stir well with a stick, and add a spoonful of 
coarse salt. In about two weeks the cider will be 
as clear as crystal, and of a light amber color. 
'I'liose who like sweet cider can do it while new, 
but fermentation will be immediately arrested at 



any desired time. It will keep in the same state 
for years, if drawn off down to the sediment and 
put into a clean cask, which should be done after 
it becomes clear ; but without that process it will 
keep for a year, but lose some of its fine fliavor, 
unless separated from the must and dregs at the 
bottom. 



TiiR Scotch System in the Dairy. — The F^cot 
tish Farmer says the manager of a large dairy in 
Scotland gives the following as general orders for 
all hands employed about his stock : 

1. Every cow must be in her stall at the ap- 
pointed time of milking. 

2. Milkers are expected to be on hand at 4| A. 
M. and 5J P. M., Sundays excepted, when milking 
will commence at 65^ A. M. and 5|^ P. M. - 

3. Each milker will have charge of a definite 
number of stalls, and will be held responsible for 
the thorough milking of every cow occupying 
them. 

4 Gentle words and kind treatment are en- 
joined. Striking cows with stools, clubs or heavy 
sticks will under no circumstances be allowed. 

5. In driving the cows to and from pasture, 
great pains must be taken not to hurry them. 



Mattresses. — For the majority of farmers husks 
are the most available material for mattresses. 
They may be prepared by children, or, on a rainy 
day, all hands can assist in the work. The ruts 
and refuse should be rejected. A well made 
husk mattress on an underbed of straw or laid on 
springs makes a very cheap and comfortable* rest- 
ing-place. . In the coldest weather it may be 
necessary to lay on top a thin hair or cotton mat- 
tress for warmth. Those living on a sheep farm 
can have a first-class bed by saving the tags and 
coarse wool and making it into a mattress. Wool 
never wears out, and for softness, warmth and 
elasticity is preferable even to hair. The only ad- 
vantage the latter has over it is in the fact that 
moths never molest hair mattresses, but if the 
ticking is good they cannot infest the wool. 
Thirty-five pounds of hair or wool will make a 
f^ood mattress, though forty-five pounds is the al- 
lowance for those of greatest thickness. 



" Amatrl'r" asks us to name the best work on 
dairy products. 

We know nothing better, or, what is more im- 
j)ortant, more practical than WiUard's Practical 
Dairy Husbandry, by X. A. Willard. It con- 
tains 546 pages, and is a complete treatise on 



10 



THE LAKCASTEU FARMER. 



dairy farms and farming ; dairy stock and stock- 
feeding ; milk, and its manufacture into butter 
and cheese. We know of no work upon this ques- 
tion wherein the writer has better proven him- 
self to be possessed of a practical knowledge of the 
question. We consider it better than the work al- 
luded to by our correspondent. 

He may also obtain much valuable information 
from the annual reports of the American Dairy- 
men's Association and those of the Northwestern 
Dairymen's Association, the former, published at- 
Syracuse, New York, and the latter at Madison, 
Wisconsin. They both give the practical results 
of practical men, who discuss various questions 
of interest at the general meetings. Both reports 
refer more directly to the manufacture of cheese, 
but contain a fair amount of information with re- 
gard to butter. If he wishes to direct his atten 
tion to butter-making, we would advise him to ob- 
tain " Practical Hints on Dairying ; or, a Manual 
for Butter-Making," by John P. Corbin, New 
York. 

To Makk a Shekp Own a Lamb. — A correspon- 
dent writes : " Sometimes it is desirable to make 
one sheep own the lamb of another, but often it is 
a difficult task. An experiment that we tried a 
few days since proved a perfect success, and was 
easily conducted ; and for the benefit of those who 
may be similarly situated we communicate it to 
your columns. One of our sheep lost her lamb. 
In a few days a yearling dropped a lamb Jwhich 
she id not own, and, in fact, had no milk for it_ 
We took the lamb immediately after it was 
dropped and sprinkled it with fine salt and placed 
it with the sheep that had lost her lamb, and in a 
short time was as fond of it as she was of her own- 
She is now taking the greatest care of her adopted 
charge." — Western Rural. 

According to Dacaisue, the rolling of fruit is 
caused by two microscopic fungi, which are devel- 
oped in moist or confined air. If the fruit is 
wrapped up in cotton or with soft tissue paper, or, 
still better, in waxed paper or tin foil, the intro- 
duction of these germs, will be prevented, and 
the fruit may be kept for a long time without any 
change. 

The names of these two microscopic fungi are 
mucor mucedo, and penmciulum ylaucum, but we 
don't know any more now than we did before. — 
Phila. Age. 

I^Subscribe for the Lancaster Farmer. $1.50 
per year. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



PLOWING BY STEAM. 

TO THE EDITOR OF FARMER :— The 
numerous inquiries addressed us in respect 
to steam plowing by direct traction, as opposed to 
the more cumbrous and costly ''double engine and 
rope system," induces us to request space for a few 
remarks which may interest parties who desire 
information as to our experiments at Bloomsdale. 
The engine used by us mainly is the three 
wheeled, rubber-tired, of Thomson, of Scotland, 
improved greatly ))y Williamson, of New York, 
the American patentee, and sole builder in this 
country. One with four wheels, the drivers being 
fitted with rubber tire (also by the same party), 
has been experimented with, but the first-named ex- 
cited most interest, and probably will be generally 
preferred ; though the latter has some good points 
which are not to be overlooked. 

In this communication we shall confine our- 
selves, however, to the three-wheeled engine, the 
special advantages of which are fully set forth in 
various publications on the subject, to which the 
reader is referred. 

Our experiments were commenced in August, of 
the present year, under the direction of an aid of 
Mr. Williamson, who, though not a professional 
engineer, was quite an expert in mechanics; he 
proved to be ever ready to acknowledge minor de- 
fects as they were exhibited from time to time, 
and prompt in a desire to amend them. 

At first some difficulty was found in steering the 
engine, so as to have each furrow swath regularly 
and uniformly lap the preceding, but a little prac- 
tice overcame the inclination to vary from the 
proper line. The gang of five or six plows, (five 
being principally used), are of steel, made by the 
Ames Plow Company, of Boston, and are affixed 
to an oblique rigid beam, so inclined as to cause 
each furrow slice to fall into its proper place, and 
with levers so adjusted as to run the plows to 
the desired depth, say eight inches, as in our trials, 
though a shallower or deeper depth may be adopt- 
ed at pleasure. Each plow turns a slice of four- 
teen inches, and when five only are used the 
breadth simultaneously turned is nearly six feet. 
The speed usually exceeds that of mules or horses 
when engaged in plowing, and we have, without 
difficulty, accomplished an acre in an hour. With 
greater experience and proper facilities for sup- 
plying fuel and -water, there is little room to doubt 
tight acres a day, with full allowance for deteu- 



THE LAJ^CASTEB. FABMER 



11 



tions and stoppages, may be set down as an aver- 
age result. Indeed we hope, with increased prac- 
tice, and the more thorough removal of obstruc- 
tions, to exceed that area. 

It is not, however, from the plows that we 
look for the most important results, but from an 
implement, termed by the English a " breaker." 
which is simply a series of iron coulters or sub- 
soilers, so arranged on a frame as to cover a. 
breadth of nine feet, which, as it offers less resist. 
ance than plows, moves with greater facility, 
and prepares many acres a day. This breaker is 
designed at one operation to disintegrate and pul. 
verize the surface soil, and also disturb the hard 
pan below it may be months after it has been 
plowed — and with a harrow attachment used 
simultaneously, leave the surface smooth and ready 
for seeding. Practical men can at once perceive 
the advantage of this process. 

In our own culture, with five hundred or more 
acres to prepare for seeding, if possible betwixt 
the opening of spring and the first of May ensu" 
ing, it may be difiBcult to estimate its value, es- 
pecially as we propose to execute the plowing 
in autumn, and early winter — only using the 
breaker end harrow in spring to lighten up and 
further disintegrate the soil. Such, it is certain, 
may be a profitable practice in the preparation of 
oat and corn lands, and also emphatically so with 
exhausted cotton lands of the South, allowing the 
plant as it were to revel in fresh pastures ; and with 
an imperfect knowledge of rice culture, obtained 
by casual observation, we do not hesitate to say 
the traction engine and breaker is destined to re- 
cover our almost abandoned interest in that crop. 
Not only will cropping be thus facilitated, but if 
the experience of our English brethren be con- 
firmed here, of which there can be no doubt, en- 
larged products will attend the more thorough 
tillage which steam-pow er may enable us to prac- 
tice. 

"VVe do not purpose, on this occasion, to enter 
into details as to the relative cost of muscular, ani- 
mal and steam plowing, but we may say, that if 
with steam eight acres a day can be counted on 
as an average day's plowing, and twice that 
number with the breaker, there ni ed be no ques- 
tion as to its economy oq large plantati-ons ; no. 
body, it is presumed, imagines steam is adapted to 
the tillage of small farms, except through a sys- 
tem of co-operation among farmers. 

It is hardly necessary to say that, in addition to 
plowing, the Williamson steamer will be of 
great service in hauling farm produce and manure 



threshing grain, sawing wood, grinding fertilizers, 
and in many similar employments, which the pro- 
gressive farmer must adopt in self-defense. 

David Landredtii & Son, 
Bloomsdale, near Philadelphia, December, 1872. 



AGRICULTURAL MEETING. 

MESSRS EDITORS:— It appears by the 
report of the December meeting of the 
Horticultural Society that a proposition for hold- 
ing an exhibition next fall of agricultural, mechan- 
ical, horticultural and otlier productions was ap- 
proved generally. There is no doubt in my mind 
but that Ijancasier city and county can, or ought 
to, get up such an exhibition as would be an 
honor to all concerned -if only the people gener- 
ally will aid the society by taking as much interest 
in the affair as they do in many other counties. 
York county has been holding such fairs for many 
years, and the interest taken by the people in ex- 
hibitiuff and visiting does not decrease ; but. as 
we can say from being present, that last fall was 
the best show out, and the greatest collection of 
people of any preceding fair. 

Chester and Berks and many other counties are 
holding such exhibitions annually, and from what 
we hear, generally very successfully. Then why 
should not Lancaster " go and do likewise ?" We 
certainly have the material, if only the people will 
encourage it to get up a first-class exhibition. 

However, as the experiment has been tried years 
ago of getting up such exhibitions in the usual 
form, which proved failures, would it not be worth 
while for the society to at least take into consider- 
ation the propriety of changing the pro- 
gramme, and instead of getting up a mere show 
of fa?t horses, big pumpkins and raree-shows, as 
the usual custom of such fairs, and, for a change, 
to get up a regular market fair. This would give 
variety, and 'tis said " variety is the spice of life." 
You would then have the substantial and business 
men to take part and encourage the institution. 
People who have anything to sell, and those de- 
siring to buy, would here come together and ex- 
change their articles to the mutual advantage of 
both parties. Such an exhibition would not be a 
mere show to amuse, but can be made of sub- 
stantial benefit to all parties. 

This plan is found to work well in Europe, and 
has been tried in some of the Eastern States with 
success. Will the society take this matter into 
consideration and judge if the plan is feasible or 
not? It would be "something new under the 
sun," for Lancaster county at least ; and the very 
navelty of the affair would, I believe, attract 
notice, and be approved by a majority of the 
people. I merely throw out these hints for the 
societv to consider. Respectfully, 

J. B. G. 
Dec. 14, 1872. 

[Although our society, at the meeting referred 
to, expressed a desire that our annual exhibitions 
ought to be gotten up on a more extensive and 
improved plan, yet no special system was then 
suggested or adopted. We confess that we like 



1^ 



THE LA J\' CASTER FARMER- 



the idea suggested by our venerable correspondent, 
and hope that something of that sort may ulti- 
mately prevail in Lancaster county.] 



THE BEE AND BEE-KEEPING— NO. 5. 

BY URIAH STRICKLER. 
HIVES. 

DURING the season in which there is but 
little work to do hives should be prepared 
for next season. All hives should be painted, 
and since bees do not like the smell of paint, it is 
necessary to paint them some time before the 
swarming season, so that they may be perfectly 
dry and free from smell before using them. All 
bee-keepers should give due attention to the style 
and size of their hives, upon both of which de- 
pends in a great degree whether keeping bees be 
profitable or not. 

There are hundreds of worthies^ patented hives 
scattered all over the country, against which we 
would caution the readers of The Farmer. Pat- 
entees and their agents, or those having bought 
territory, travel around among bee-keepers, ex- 
tolling the virtues of their hives, claiming that 
they are superior to all others. With few excep- 
tions they are provided with certificates of the 
enormous quantities of honey produced by their 
hive, and premiums for " best bee-hives" from 
county and State fairs throughout the country. 
Everything is now recommended as well as pat- 
ented, and " diplomas" and premiums from fair 
committees is no longer a recommendation. If 
one has nothing to offer in favor of his hi'^e, ex- 
cept Ihe large amount of honey bees will store in 
it, and a favorable notice from a committee, set it 
down at once as a humbug. All variations trom 
the common box hive are for the convenience of 
man, not for the benefit of the bees. Bees will 
store as much honey in a box, keg or hollow log 
of the proper size, as in any patent fixture made 
for this special purpose. 

We do not condemn all patent hives, for there 
is one really valuable improvement made in hives. 
We have reference to the movahle comb hive. 
For the introduction of this valuable improve- 
ment, which has completely revolutionized the 
science of bee culture, we are indebted to the' Rev. 
L. L. Langstroth. All patented hives without 
the movable comb improvement are unworthy the 
attention of intelligent bee-keepers. In the next 
number of The Farmer we will speak of some of 
the advantages of this hive, and also of some of 
the disadvantages of several other styles of pat- 
ented hives. 

The size of the hive is a very important matter. 
Some English authors recommend hives containing 
about 1,200 cubic inches, while bee-keepers in the 
United States, a few degrees north of us, say they 
should contain not less than 2,000 cubic inches. 
Our experience is that in our latitude hives con- 
taining from 1,700 to 1,800 cubic inches, in the 
clear inside, are the proper size. The queen needs 
room for all her eggs, and the bees need space to 
store their winter provisions. When this is too 



small, their supply of food is liable to be exhaust- 
ed. The swarms from such hives will be small, 
and the stock liable to accidents. If too large, 
more honey will be stored than is required for 
their winter use. It is evident that a portion of 
this might have been stored in surplus boxes and 
thus secured, ifthe hive had been smaller. Swarms 
will issue but seldom from such hives, and will not 
be proportionately large. A medium between the 
two is no doubt better adapted than either ex- 
treme. In this latitude hive^s containing from 
1,700 to 1,700 cubic inches contain room enough 
for breeding and for winter stores, while several 
degrees farther north, where the winters are longer, 
and consequently more stores required to winter 
on, 2,000 cubic inches is not too large, 

HINTS FOR JANUARY. 

Whether it is preferable to winter bees on their 
summer stands, or in a building, in this latitude is 
still an open question. We have tried both plans, 
but finding advantages as well as disadvantages 
in both, we are still undecided. Strong stocks 
can, we think, be wintered as well out as in-doors, 
but weak ones had better be housed as they fre- 
quently freeze when out-doors during very cold 
weather. When wintered in- doors less bees are 
lost and less attention required, but wintered out- 
doors they begin to breed earlier. Prom Novem- 
ber to March is too long to keep bees confined 
without flying out. If mild weather occurs, they 
should be taken to their summer stands at least 
once, but better twice, during the winter, that they 
may fly out to discharge their faeces. 

If very cold weather continues more than two 
or three weeks in succession, bees will frequently 
starve, although they may have honey enough. 
At the beginning of cold weather they crowd 
closely together, in order to keep warm —the 
whole colony often occupying less than one-fourth 
of the combs. The cluster is in that part of the 
hive where there is no sealed honey, where the 
combs are thin, and where there are many empty 
cells into which the bees creep. They pack them- 
selves more densely as the weather grows colder. 
When they have consumed all the honey contain- 
ed in the few open cells widiin the cluster, if cold 
weather continues they must starve. Moderate 
weather usually intervenes in time to save them ; 
but if it does not, the hives should be taken to a 
warm room for a short time to give the bees an 
opportunity to reach the honey. In handling the 
hives, jarring and any unnecessary disturbance 
should be avoided. (Occasionally, when there is 
no frost in the hives, they should be raised care- 
fully and all the dead bees, dirt, etc., swept out. 

If there is sufficient snow at any time to cover 
the hives entirely it may remain, as it affords a 
good protection in the coldest weather. When 
there is but a little around the bottom board it 
should be swept away. When a warm spell oc- 
curs, the bees may and ought to fly out, if the 
ground be dry, or the snow covered with. a hard 
crust, but, if a light snow is on the ground, every 
means should be used to prevent it. A bee can 
alight on an icy crust and rise again, but in a 
soft snow it sinks to die. Careful shading helps 
to keep them back. 



THE LANCASTER FAKMER. 



13 



ihe Jautasitct 



gmwu 



LANCASTER, JANUARY, 1873. 



3. S. RiVlHVDi^ Ai^O ALEX. HASrSIS, Ediljrs. 
Published monthly under the auspices of the /*gi!IC0L- 

TUKAL ANDHo -TICOLTDUAL SOCIETY. 



01 a^ per YoHr in Aflvanec. 

A ronsiderable deduction t" clubs of five or more. 

AH commucic tions, to iti.suie insertion, must be in the 
hands of the fditors before the 20th of each month. Ad- 
dress Ra'livon & Harris, Lancaster, Pa. 

All advertisements, subscriptions and remittances to the 
addrrssofthepuMLher, J. P. D1':VELIN, 

Inquirer Building, Lancastt-r, Pa. 

A HAPPY NEW YEAR. 

l*^ ENTLE patrons every one" — a thrice 

\ X l^cippy -^^^ Year. Perhaps at no 

period since the origin of our journal have 
Me. and all mankind, been so peculiarly and 
so propitiously situated as at this time. All the 
world is at this moment in the enjoyment of a 
more profound state of peace than has prevailed 
in the human family for very many years. We 
do not know a single part of the inhabited world, 
at this moment, where it can be said a war of any 
kind exists, unless it may be those hidden con- 
flicts which do not come fairly within the sphere 
of human vision, except so far as may relate to 
the knowledge of the individual man — the con- 
flicts between the natural and the spiritual ele- 
ments of his organization. 

Under the auspices of this profound state of 
peace — which we fondly hope may result in a cor- 
responding state of prosperity — we again launch 
our unpretending bark upon the sea of journal- 
ism for another annual voyage ; and we earnestly 
invite our old passengers, and as many new ones 
as may feel a disposition to sail with us, to take an 
annual passage on our craft. The Farmkr is be- 
coming a " fixed institution" amongst us, and so 
long as its friends desire its continuance we will 
endeavor to gratify that desire. And we will 
labor in that behalf the more cheerfully because 
the work is in harmony with our own sympathies, 
and because we have ever f It, and still feel, that 
a journal devoted to the agricultural and horticul- 
tural interests of our great county is a thing that 
is needed, whether all those who are devoted to 
those occupations appreciate its necessity or not- 
And now, having started out again, we as earnest- 
ly solicit those valuable cargoes of freight which 



we know our agricultural friends can contribute 
if they only will, and which are the chief instru- 
ments in the dissemination of practical agricul- 
tural knowledge. We do not expect elegant or 
grammatical compositions, in every case, for we 
know that these are not always procurable ; but 
we desire facts, as they come within the compre- 
hension and experience of practical men. No 
matter how crude these facts may be, we will en- 
deavor to give them a " top-dressing" that will 
make them intelligible, useful and symmetrical, if 
we cannot impart to them acknowledged ideas of 
beauty. 

Thankful, for the favors of the past, and im- 
bued with the virtues of that profound peace 
which now pervades our country and the world at 
large, we repeat to our patrons the usual — " covi- 
plimeuts of the season." 



MEKTING OP THE LANCASTER COUNTY 
AGRICULTURAL AND HORTICUL- 
TURAL SOCIP]TY. 

THE December meeting of the society was 
held in the Orphans' Court Room, Mon- 
day tht 2d of the said month ; Henry M. Engle in 
the chair, and Alex. Harris secretary. After the 
reading and approval of the minutes of the last 
meeting several members reported the condition 
of the crops in their difierent localities. 

H. M. Engle said the last corn crop was one of 
the best that had been raised in the county for 
years. Potatoes were also very excellent. The 
apples, though fine, were rotting considerably. 
The fall wheat was well set and promises a good 
crop. 

Milton B. Eshelman remarked that the wheat 
of his section had been injured by a white worm 
to a considerable extent, and one which was new 
to the section. 

Mr. Engle had not as yet seen or heard of this 
worm. 

A. D Hostetter said apples are already becom- 
ing scarce, although the crop was so abundant ; 
the rot has been very destructive. 

Mr. Engle thought apples grown on heavy 
limestone soil are much more li-kely to keep well 
than those grown upon low, moist ground. 

Mr. Eshelman attributed the rotting of the 
apples to the fact that they had matured too 
early. 

Ephraim Hoover reported his apples as keeping 
well. Heretofore he has been in the habit of 
turning his swine into his orchard, which devoured 



u 



THE LANCASTER FABMER. 



the punctured apples, and this had a iendency to 
diminish the enemies of the fruit and prevent 
their propagation. He thought his course in this 
particular had much to do with the present con- 
dition of his apple crop. In this Mr. Englc con- 
curred. 

Casper Miller was of opinion that apples 
grown upon moist soil will keep better than those 
raised upon dry. 

Levi S. Reist believed in high ground and red 
shale soil for apples. Plums had done remark- 
ably well with him this year. 

Henry M. Engle attributed the increase of the 
plums to the fact of having had such poor crops 
for years [past. The absence of the crop for sev- 
eral years had prevented its enemies from propo- 
gating. 

Levi Shenk of Rapho, was elected a member of 
the society. 

Henry M. Engle next proceeded to read an essay 
upon the method of making unfermeuted bread. 

Levi S. Reist doubted if it were possible to ever 
get the people to adopt Graham bread ; this he 
thought would be the case even though it could 
be demonstrated that it was the most wholesome. 
S. P. Eby in this differed with Mr. Reist. If it 
can be established to be the most wholesome, the 
difficulty would be overcome as to its general in> 
troduction. 

0. L. Hunsecker illustrated by an anecdote the 
variety of many tastes, and that they will indulge 
their tastes. He believed Graham bread to be 
wholesome, but the trouble is that men will eat 
what their appetites crave. He regarded it quite 
as injurious to overload the stomach by too 
much food, the same as by having too dainty a 
quality of diet. 

L. S. Reist firmly believed the day would come 
when Graham bread would be generally used, as 
he had no doubts of its superior wholesomeness. 

D. G. Swartz favored going back to unbolted 
flour for bread. It was clear to his mind as being 
the most wholesome. 

M. D. Kendig desired to see the Graham bread 
have a fair trial. 

After some further discussion of the question 
society on motion adjourned. 



"We are sorry to say that we are again compelled 
to call the attention of our Bubscribers to the 
yellow slips on their paper. There is no reason 
why every one of them should net read January 
or February, '74. We know it is only negligence 
and forgetfulnesa. We trust all will pay particu- 



lar attention to the bills enclosed in the journals, 
also take advantage of the inducements we offer 
in our advertising columns. We want to increase 
the circulation of The Farmer to a paying basis, 
and are willing to work for our expenses until 
this is established. In addition to the induce- 
ments offered in our advertising columns we will 
present to the person bringing us one hundred 
subscribers at $1.25 per copy and $2.5 additional, 
a first-class Howe Sewing Machine, warranted t^ 
be worth $100 in cash, or to any less number of 
subscribers at same rates a proper equivalent 
in cash. Any person sending us a club of five 
subscribers at .f 1.25 each will receive a copy of 
the great Industries of the United States, a large 
volume of over 1300 pages and 500 engravings 
handsomely bound. For eight subscribers at 
$1.25 each, an extra copy of the same will be sent 
in addition. We trust our friends will take ad- 
vantage of these^liberal offers and those in arrears 
we hope will pay up promptly and send us in large 
numbers of subscribers. 



The Lancaster Farmer. —What a "household 
word " that name has become in our land— not 
only in its application to the yeomanry of our 
county, but also in its application to our journal 
— thrilling the hearts of its former citizens in their 
new homes abroad, and looked for, with welcome 
expectation, by its friends at home. We would 
infinitely rather have the title of ''Lancaster 
Farmer" applied to us than that of general, king^ 
prince or president — that is, deservedly applied — 
although we cannot say we have any hankering 
after titles for their mere sake alone. What a 
noble title is that of simply farmer, or, as " Zach. 
Meanwell " has it, American Farmer — " Now do 
I feel the enviable independence of an American 
farmer, for while he turns the furrows and scatters 
the seed he feels that he is not laboring for a 
master." The name of farm, or farm,er, enters 
into the titles of the most respectable and impos- 
ing agricultural journals of our whole country. 
1 hese names, and the material interests they rep- 
resent, cannot be ignored, because they constitute 
i\ie palladium of our Stale and national prosperity. 
There is a magic power in a well-earned name. 
Farmers of Lancaster county, help us to build up 
and perpetuate an honest and an honored name — ■ 
the simple name of Farmer. 



Meeting of the Pennsylyania Fruit-Growers' 
Society. — We hope our horticultural readers will 
bear in mind this live association meets in the city 



THE LAJ^CASTER FARMER. 



15 



of Reading, on the ISth of the preKent month. 
From the published programme, it promises to he 
an interesting and instructive occasion, and we 
hope the fruit-growers of Lancaster county will 
help to make it such, by sending a large delega- 
tion. All interested in fruit culture are invited to 
be present, and aid it in disseminating practical 
knowledge on this subject among the people ; and 
from the experiences of the past, we think we can 
assure our readers of a useful and entertaining 
time. Fruit culture, in spite of counter oppera- 
tious, is becoming a leading interest in the indus- 
trial pursuits of our country, and the more that is 
done in that behalf now, the more earnestly pos- 
terity call the present generation blessed. 

IVIISCELANEOUS 



RANDOM SKETCHES AND FARM VIEWS. 

BY H. M. ENGLB. 

No. 14. 

^ARM life is by many considered monotonous 
and drudging, while by others it is pro- 
nounced all that a man need desire as regards 
earthly happiness and enjoyment. 

Both these conclusions are arrived at honestly, 
but from far different stand-points. Both are 
correct according to practice, simply because we 
live and practice so widely different. 

There are thousands of tillers of the soil who 
labor and toil almost incessantly, early and late 
they work, work, work, of which the good house- 
wife has generally more than her share. Children 
are trained up in the same routine, having no time 
for recreation except Sundays, which time is oft- 
times appropriated with a vengeance. Their 
school term and even their school hours are often 
cut short for the purpose of wresting a little more 
work from their growing muscles. Mental disci* 
pline and training is in many cases considered of 
secondary importance. 

We need, therefore, not wonder why farmers and 
farmers' sons and daughters are generally looked 
upon by town and city people as being a grade or 
two lower in the scale of intelligence than they- 

Many of the above class of farmers accumulate 
wealth more, however, by saving than by enter- 
prise, and seemed to be well satisfied with their 
lot; of their sons and daughters, however, it is 
different, for a large proportion are dissatisfied 
and long for a change. 

Many young farmers possessing advanced ideas 



have left their father's avocation and are engaged 
in other apparently successful pursuits ; whether 
for better or worse results only will prove ; others 
nevertheless will follow, as young America ig 
bound to go ahead whether right or wrong. 

One thing is certain, that many of the most suc- 
cessful business men in towns and cities have been 
either farmers, mechanics or laborers. Although 
many of these appropriate their energies to busi- 
ness only, there are not a few among them who are 
of very high intelligence and refinement. 

This fact proves that muscular labor does not 
preclude either business, intelligence or refinement. 
There is also a class of farmers who do not labor 
but have their farms well improved and every- 
thing belonging thereto in the best of order. They 
are men of extensive means. They superintend 
and give directions behind a span of 2:40s, and 
may be termed a kind of kid-glove yeomanry. 

They live on the best that their land produces, 
and would not dispense with farming under any 
circumstances; are generally intelligent, and give 
their children a good education. Life with them 
passes smoothly, as farming in their style is no 
drudgery. This class of farmers, however, have 
not accumulated their wealth by farming. They 
have either inherited wealth, or made it by some 
easier or quicker way, and, therefore, are not 
proper patterns to copy from. 

There is, however, a third class of farmers which 
are worthy the name of true yeomanry. They are 
not above laboring with their own hands, nor be- 
neath the dignity of true gentlemen. They apply 
their mental as well as their physical energies to 
their avocation. Farming with them is a suc- 
cess. As a class, they, perhaps, do not accu- 
mulate as much wealth as either of the former, 
but they never stint themselves nor their stock, 
and pay their laborers and mechanics fair wages, 
and all they owe. They give their children a re- 
spectable education, and keep posted with the age 
in which they live. A library is considered a ne- 
cessity, and a few good papers and periodicals in- 
dispensable. The good wife is not subjected to 
continual drudgery, but enjoys intellectual treats 
and recreations. A taste is shown for the orna- 
mental as well as the useful. Not only orchards 
and fruit gardens are planted, but also ornamental 
trees, shrubs and flowers. Things around their 
residences look fresh and green both summer and 
winter. Musical taste and talent is also shown 
by the presence of a melodeon or organ in the par- 
lor, to which their youths of both sexes resort and 



16 



TEE LAJyCASTER FARMER. 



make the interior cheerful also. Neatness, thrift, 
and an abundance of life's comforts are general 
characteristics of such homes. With all these ap- 
parent expenditures, which the former class alluded 
to would consider extravagance, these live in com- 
fortable circumstances, and when reasonable de- 
mands are made on their philanthropy they are 
not found wanting. 

These characteristics so far as enumerated are 
our ideal of what farm-life should be, and gener. 
ally may be. Agricultural and horticultural so- 
cieties and colleges are now doing much toward 
elevating the tillers of the soil to the standard to 
which they are entitled. May the time speedily 
arrive when none shall have occasion to look upon 
farm-life despisingly, for if not already a profession 
it eventually will be, and stand in honor, dignity 
and intelligence equal to any other profession. 



IMMENSE WHEAT FARMS. 

THERE are three wheat farms in the San 
Joaquin Valley with areas respectively of 
36,000 acres, 23,000 acres, and 17,000 acres. On 
the largest of these farms the wheat crop this 
year is reputed to be equal to an average of 40 
bushels to the acre, the yield running up on some 
parts of the farm to 60 bushels. The product of 
this farm for the present year is 1,440,000 bushels. 
The boundary on one side of his farm is 17 miles 
long. At the season of plowing, ten four-horse 
teams were attached to ten gang-plows, each gang 
having four plows— or forty horses with as many 
plows were started at the same time, the teams 
following in close succession. Lunch or dinner 
was served at the midway station, and supper at 
the terminus of the field, seventeen miles distant 
from the starting-point. The teams returned on 
the following day. The wheat in this immense 
field was cut with twenty of the largest reapers, 
and we believe has now all been threshed and put 
in sacks. It would require over forty ships of 
medium size to transport the wheat on this farm 
to a foreign market. Even the sacks required 
would make a large hole in the surplus money 
of most farmers. We have not the figures for 
the product of the other two farms, but presume 
that the average is not much below that of the 
first. There are thousands of tons of wheat 
which cannot be taken out of the valley this sea- 
son, and must remain over as dead capital, or, 
what is nearly as undesirable, will only command 
advances at heavy rates of miQiQsX.— Bulletin. 



ABOUT DEEP PLOWING. 

THERE was never, perhaps, a better illustra- 
tion of the truth of the moral drawn from 
the old fable of the chameleon than has been ex- 
hibited by the learned discussion of the past year 
about the value of deep plowing. This discussion 
is still continued in agricultural papers and 
farmers' clubs. Indeed, it was in one of these last 
that the discussion first opened — the celebrated 
Farmers' Club of New York. It has been a gen- 
eral truth that deep soils were the best, but some 
one of these modern philosophers started the idea 
that deep plowitig was a great injury. He had 
tried it and knew whereof he spoke. 

It is hard to get over the statement of that man 
who avers positively that the animal is black. 
There could not indeed be the least doubt but 
that those who had spoken this way found the re- 
sults to be injurious just as he stated they were. 
Moreover, now comes a very careful set of experi- 
ments made on corn by the Michigan College, 
in which many tracts of corn plants, with the soil 
plowed of different depths, and just in proportion 
to the different depths of plowing did the amount 
of the crop decrease. Besides this there are score 
of cases, undoubtedly genuine and truthfully 
stated, wherein there was loss from deep plowing. 
On the other hand thousands can testify to the 
fact that deep plowing has been the great founda- 
tion of success with them ; and they would as 
soon abandon their hope of all that is blessed as 
to give up this time-honored and time-proved 
practice. The animal is red to them. 

There would be no harm in this if each party 
would only admit that the other might possibly 
be right. But they will not. Each fights for his 
favorite color. With one side there is no belief 
that any good crop ever came from shallow plow- 
ing, and with the other the skinny plow in the 
deep sub-soil Ib but the veriest moonshine. 

But we can look on and declare the animal 
white. It is either or both of the others to us, or 
there is the absence of any particular color, as the 
philosophers tell us white is. We know that deep 
soil is sometimes an injury ; and sometimes — and 
most generally — the deep soil has much the best 
of the argument. Why then do these experiments 
vary so ? 

There are two reasons why. The term soil is a 
very indefinite one. It is not the soil which 
operates on plant-growth. If what is in the soil 
be good, the better. The deeper the soil the more 
food it contains. On the other hand, if the soil 



THE LAJ^CASTER FARMER. 



17 



contains bad matter ofxjourse the more of this the 
worse for the crop that grows in it. 

Now suppose the subsoil to be filled with an 
overdose of iron, such, for instance, as many of 
the Montgomery county soils are ; the turning up 
of this to the surface, and the turning of the good 
earth down below, would be very bad. The deeper 
it be buried the worse of course. The young 
plant, feeding in its earlier stages in the surface, 
can make no headway through this infertile stuff. 
There can be no circumstances more favorable for 
the " heart worm " or the many other excuses 
which poor farmers give for having bad corn 
crops. 

Another case: we all know how much water 
which lodges in the soil injures a crop. Under- 
draining is founded on this fact. Water must go 
through the soil rapidly before plants will grow 
healthy in it. Now, if a soil is wet, retains mois- 
ture long, the deeper it is made the more water is 
in there, and the worse for the crop ; hence has 
arisen the dogma in good soil culture that under- 
draining and subsoiling should go along together. 
There are many soils which may be subsailed 
without being undcrdrained. But these are not 
those which have retentive hard pans below where 
the soil is stirred. 

This lesson is not only profitable in connection 
with this subject of deep plowing, but is applica. 
ble to a great many things in agriculture where 
reports of experiments seemingly contradict one 
another. 



FALL PLOWING FOR POTATOES. 

EVER since the period of the appearance of 
the potato rot in this country, farmers have 
been studying, more or less closely, the potato 
crop, and we believe we speak within the bounds 
of truth in saying that all who have had the best op- 
portunity to judge have decided that the applica- 
tion of mineral manures will give the best results, 
and the use of strong horse, or other fermenting 
manures, the poorest return. Especially does this 
prove true in seasons when rot is most prevalent. 
In New Jersey the green sand marl used lavishly 
supplies all the mineral elements. In other lo- 
calities where this cannot be obtained, ashes, 
lime, plaster and superphosphate of lime are em- 
ployed with certainty, when properly applied in 
sufficient quantities. 

All strong soils yield a better crop of potatoes 
when plowed, and completely pulverized in { 
autumn, and we suppose this to be mainly due to i 



i the elimination of the mineral elements, conse- 
quent on the comminution of the soil, and its ex- 
posure to atmospheric influences during winter. 
In the spring the more thoroughly the ground is 

again plowed the better for the crop. 
♦ 

THE LAND-GRANT BUSINESS. 



MR. POOR'S Railroad Manual for 1872-3 
contains a statement in detail of the amount 
of public land granted by Congress to States 
and corporations, in aid of railroad construction, 
since Sept. 20, 1850, when the first grants of the 
kind were made, in aid of the Illinois Central, 
and the Mobile and Ohio roads. Acts have been 
passed at different times granting to fourteen 
States an aggregate of 57,066,240 acres, in aid 
of sixty-seven roads, being an ^average of 851,735 
acres to each road. Assuming the lands to hare 
brought Government price, $1.25 per acre, the 
companies have realized an average of $1,064,669 
each from their grants. It is probable that the 
companies which have availed themselves of the 
grants, and actually constructed their roads, 
have realized very much more than thi.*?. 
They have, it is likely, derived not less than 
$8,000 per mile of the road, on the average, from 
their grants. The following table shows the 
States to which grants have been made, the num- 
ber of roads in aid of which the grants have been 

applied, or were intended to be applied : 

No. 
States. Acres. roads. 

Illinois 2,595,053 2 

Mississippi 2,062,240 3 

Alabama 3,729,120 8 * 

Florida 2,360,014 4 

Louisiana 3,178,720 3 

Arkansas 4.804.871 4 

Missouri 3,745,170 4 

Iowa 7,207,837 8 

Michigan 4,931,361 8 

Wisconsin 4,328,360 5 

Minnesota 7,783,403 7 

Kansas 5,420.000 6 

California 2,006.000 3 

Oregon 2,860,000 2 



Totals 57,066,240 67 

The above shows i)ia.i fifty-seven million, sixty- 
six thousand, txoo hundred and forty acres of the 
public land has been given by the General Gov- 
vernment, to sixty-seven railroads, in the form of 
subsidies, which will ultimately inure to the bene- 
fit, if not the enrichment, of the individual mem- 
bers of the companies controlling those roads. 
We are not, in this place, nor at this time, finding 
fault with these bounties of the Government. 



18 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



These stimulaids may have been necessary, under 
all the circumstances, to insure the building of the 
roads, and for the settlement and improvement of 
the lands. In not many years hence these lauds 
will be worth hundreds, if not thousands, of mil- 
lions of dollars. 

How little, comparatively, has been done by 
the States and the nation in behalf of agricul- 
ture? Without the practical and energetic de- 
velopment of the agricultural resources of the 
country, what would all those public lands be 
worth? How meagerly and how feebly are the 
agricultural interests of Pennsylvania supported 
by the Government ? 

Nine millions might easier be abstracted from 
the " sinking fund," under the forms of law, for 
the benefit of railroads, than nine thousand — in 
any wise — could be obtained for so important an 
industry as agriculture. Discourage, cripple or 
destroy agriculture, and you work the same effect 
upon manufactures and commerce, and without 
this triple base in material progress, what is a 
railroad worth ? 



GERMAN PREJUDICE AGAINST POTA" 
TOES. 

IN Germany there exists a decided prejudice 
against potatoes, because they are composed 
of three-fourths water, with but ten to fifteen per 
cent, starch contained in indigestible cells. The 
French, who make a perfect science of the whole 
business of nourishment and cookery, rarely eat 
•potatoes except occasionally fried for the second 
breakfast. They consume beans more than any 
other vegetables, and with reason', for dried beans 
contain twenty -two per cent, albumen and fifty of 
starch. In the monasteries of France and Italy 
great quantities of beans are used, especially du- 
ring the Lenten seaaon. German naturalists are 
now searching all over the world for a substitute 
for potatoes, and this is believed to have been 
found in China in the dioscorea japanica, which 
endures the greatest cold and is more nourishing 
and better flavored than the potato. In the Mu- 
seum of Natural History at Paris a specimen 
three feet long and weighing three pounds was ex- 
hibited. 

Several German writers upon races predict that 
nations, far from improving, will deteriorate both 
in physical and mental characteristics, if potatoes 
become a principal article of diet. The cele- 
brated Carl Voigt says, "that the unnourishing 
potato does not restore the wasted tissues, but 



makes our proletariats physically and mentally 
weak." The Holland physiologist, Mulder, gives 
the same judgment, when he declares " that the 
excessive use of potatoes among the poorer 
classes, and coffee and tea by the higher ranks, is 
the cause of the indolence of nations." Leiden- 
frost maintains that the revolutions of the last 
three centuries have been caused by the changed 
nourishment. In former days, the lowest work- 
men ate more flesh than now, when the cheap po- 
tato forms his principal subsistence, but gives hiui 
no muscular or nervous strength. — November 
Galaxy. 



SMALL COMPOST HEAPS. 

ALL farmers know the value of " compost' 
and how to prepare it. Many farmers 
manufacture hundreds of loads of the best manure 
in this way. They gather together on the prem- 
ises forest leaves, corn stalks, including the roots, 
weeds, vines, offal from fence corners, muck from 
ponds and ditches, occasional sprinklings of lime 
through the mass, layers of barn-yard manure, and 
thus build up oblong squares and let remain over 
winter. When April arrives the mass has gone 
through fermentation and comminution and pre- 
sents a mound of fertilizing matter better than a 
small gold mine would be to the proprietor of the 
farm. 

But we want to see these compost heaps in the 
garden, and there is no reason why they should not 
be there as well as upon the farm. There is rub- 
bish enough in the garden, with the assistance o^ 
leaves, some mold from the woods, if attainable' 
if not, from portions of the premises where it 
can be spared ; scrapings from the turnpike ; ma- 
nure from stable, and every attainable substance 
that will decay through the winter. A little 
slaked lime will be a good assistance. A half 
dozen loads of excellent manure will be manufac- 
tured by the time it is wanted in the spring, with- 
out incurring a cent of actual expense, and at the 
same time the garden will be cleared of its 
vines, stalks, weeds, and all otherwise worthless 
trash. 



Watermklons. — In California an immense 
watermelon has appeared on the farm of Mr, 
James M. Short, of Santa Barbara. Mr. Short 
was working on a side hill when the watermelon, 
weighing eighty-six pounds, broke loose from the 
vine and started for him. The farmer saw his 
danger and tried to run from it, but the vine 
treacherously caught his feet, and the ruffianly 
vegetable came thundering down upon him with 
terrible speed, striking him to the earth and roll- 
ing over his prostrate body. 



THE LAJ^CASTER FARMER. 



19 



FuLTZ Wheat in PENNSYLVANiA.-Mr. Wni. Ru- 
ber of Chambersburg, Pa., reports that last fall, oa 
a field of 6 acres, limestone soil, with gravel, which 
had been in corn and potatoes the preceding sea- 
son, he drilled in 1^ bushels of Fultz wheat per 
acre, applying no manure. A dressing of barn- 
yard manure had been applied for the potatoes, 
but no fertilizer had been used since then. From 
this field he has obtained 231.3 bushels of wheat, 
by weight, or a little more than 38^ bushels per 
acre, beside a yield of good straw amounting to 
about 1^ tons per acre. The yield was especially 
remarkable in view of the greatly reduced yield 
of the general crop. 

BOOK AND SPECIAL NOTICE DEPAllT- 
MENT. 

LITERARY l^OTICES. 
The PKtfN ''/[ONTHLY.— rha December number of this 
excellent magizine bas been received, and is " chuck full" 
of excellent aud instructive reading matter — and not only 
this, but it is aldo readable — a tning that cannot be said of 
eU publicati'jus oi the kind. This number concludes the 
third volume, and we find that subscribers get seven hun- 
dred pa^es of residing matter, with a title page and copious 
index, for S2. )'>, and a'so sevcfrai fine steel-plate engavings 
Tnis number contains iutaresiiug biogripnical sfeetcues of 
the late Jacob Bal.kbr and of Prof. John F. Frazbb, of 
PhiladPlphia ; both emi'iently distinguishea in their dif- 
ferent spheres of life. The other If&ding articles are 
■' The King i» id the Prof sssrs," "TheSirvice of Sonu," 
'• Household Taste," and the editorial or monthly gossip 
Nothing in art ecu d well be flier than the engravings 
representing the portrait of Mr. Barker, wliich embeP?he 
this number. The size is a royal octavo, and the paper is 
80 opaque aud white, the type so distinct and plain, that it 
can be freely reiid by au ordinary li^^bt, aad this is a great 
dec'dbri.tum to p*:' pie who are advancing in life, and 
whoie physical sight is on the wane — asu)« know from per_ 
sonai experience. As the journal is devoted to ' Litera- 
ture, Science, Art and Politics '' it cannot fail to meet the 
wants of readers of diversided tastes. 

Published at 506 Walnut street, Philadelphia. Wiley & 
Griest, printers, Lancaster, Pa. 

SupPLKMuNT TO Farmers' Advocate. — The subject of 
co-operation among farmers is beginning to attract very 
much attention in a 1 parts < f the country. At St. Louis, 
last May, the National Agricultural Congress was or- 
ganized by the consolidation of the National Agricultural 
Association and the Agricultural Congress, and^at once by 
wise and judicious action secured tbe confidence of socie- 
ties throughout the country, both collectively and individ- 
ually. In many parts of the country district conventions 
have been called and numerously attended by the farmers, 
and the resolutions adopted evince a growing appreciation 
of the value and necessity of co-operative action. 

The American Farnitrs' Advocate, which has espoused the 
cauSf of the C ougress, has, with full confidence in the grow- 
ing popularity of this movement, been sent to every agri- 
cultural society and to all the newspapers of the country, 
at the individual expense of the publishers. It has perse- 
veringly presented the benefits ot the Congress, and we 
c«n heartily commend it to the attention of every farmer 
The Congress holds its next meeting in May, at Indian- 



apolis, Ind., and it promises to be an occasion of much in- 
terest tr) ag iculturists Every society in the country 
should be represented there. 

Full in'ormitiou in reference to it may be obtained by 
addressing the Secretary, Chas. W. Greene, at Jackson, 
Teun., at wh'ch point also the Axlvocate ia published. 

The amkrican 6tock Journal for 1873 will be greatly 
enlHigrfdand improved in every respect. The price will 
be $!.50 per ainum, and a $5 00 picture /ree. We hjpe all 
our farming friends will send for eample copies, as the 
publishers, N. P. Buyer & Co., Parkesburg, Chester 
county. Pa., otter to send three numbers /re« to all who 
send stamps to pay postage. 

Ws bav received a copy of the Argus, an illus.trated, iu- 
depeirfeut Dem(;cratic paper, devoted to Politics, choice 
Liter.iture, Romance, News, Fashion, Arts, Science, Agri- 
culture, Horticulture, Finance and Commerce. The pub- 
li>her in his prospectus says: "We shall endeavor to make 
the Argtis in every way a first-class family journal, 
which will be so conducted as to cheer the sorrowful, en- 
courage the weak aud amnse the weary — a paper that no 
parent need fear to take to the circle of his sacred home." 
Terms $2.0u per annum, in advance. Address C. P. Sykes, 
New York Argus, New York. 

The Lady's Friend for January —The engravings 
ot this charming Magazine are apt to be above the usual 
common-place round which we see so generally, and this 
month we have a romantic picture of " The last ride of the 
WiH Huntsman," another quieter one of "Two Widows," 
and anotber called '" With the Bloom on " — all handsome 
and successful pictures of their kind. In literature, Mrs. 
Henry Wood begins her new story, " The Master of Grey- 
lands," which, judging from the opening chapters, will 
prore one of the most successful stories. There is the 
usual piece of music — this time it is the song " Only be 
Ivind"— with Fashion Cuts, Work-Table Varieties, and 
other matters interesting to ladies. 

Besides Mrs. Wood's story, novelets are also announced 
for this year by Daisy Ventnor, Miss MuzZey, Miss Doug- 
las, and Fannie Hodgson. A beautiful premium chromo 
(Little Samuel, the Child-Prophet) is also announced, 
whilealoDg list of premiums — fromSewlng Machines and 
Gold Watches to Plated Tea Spoon?, etc.— are promised to 
those who get up lists of subscribers. Send for sample 
number containing all the inducements. Price $2.00 a 
year, or $2.50 with the Premium Chromo. A Premium 
Chiomo or a large Steel Engraving is alsj given to the 
sender of every club. Published by Deacon & Peterson, 
319 Walnut street, Philadelphia. 

Vegktable and Flower SEBDS.—Mr. J. F. Gregory, 
of Marblehead, Mass., is well known as one of the few 
leading seed growers in this country. He was the original 
introducer of the Hubbard squash and many other of our 
new aad valuable vegetable?. All seeds from him are 
warranted fresh and reliable. His advertisements will bo 
found in this number, and we invite attention to them. 
His illustrated catalogue for 1873 (now ready) will be sent 
free to all applicants. 

The annual compliments of Geo. W. Childs, publisher 
of the Philadelphia Ledger, are on our table in the shape of 
a ijeatly printed Almanac full of good and ioterestinj; 
reading matter. It is issued free to all the patrons of the 
Ledger. 

The attention of capitalists is invited to the advertise- 
ment headed 10 per cent, investments. 

The National Live Stock Journal is certainly the 
finest publication devoted to that subject that is printed on 
this cai\tinent ; an4 its 28 columns of compactly printed 
index, indicates the vast amoant and variety of nutter 



w 



THE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



the last year's volume of 448 royal quarto pages cont ains. 
The full page embellishments of horses, cattle, pi!?s, sheep, 
etc., in the bast style of art, will compire with tha best 
journals in the country, of any kind. Each number con- 
tains 40 pages, and only $2 a yepr in advance. Geo. W. 
Bust & Co., 173 Madison street, Chicago. 

Other books, magazines, pamphlets, and papers re- 
ceived : 

" Gardener.s' Monthly," " Rural New Yorker," " Practi- 
cal Farmer," " Germantown Telegraph," " Wood's House- 
hold Magazine," " American Homes," " Independent," 
"New York Observer," "Oil Journal," "Our Church 
Work," "Pen and Plow," " Bright Side," all of which 
are worthy of a special noticf, but our space just new is 
too limited to afford it. 

"History of Department of Agriculture," "Monthly 
Report of Department of Agriculture," "Maury's Ad- 
dress before National Agricultural Congress," "Free 
Press," " Manheim Sentinel," beside many others, a 
notice of which we must -defer to " a more convenient 
season." 

Ambrican Hc'Mbs for December is the best issue of that 
standard magazine, and is full of amusing and interesting 
reading and beautiful illustrations. It employs only good 
writers. The Boston Daily Globe well says that " American 
Homes aims to occupy the whole held of literature, ma- 
t»re and juvenile. The publishers may well call' their en- 
terpiise 'the succens of the nineteenth century.' If we 
deduct the price of the oil chromo, 'The Two Pet',' the 
magazine practically costs the subscriber nothing. The 
whole English race should rush to subs' ribe for such a pe- 
riodical." The beautiful oil ch.omo is mailf d immedi- 
ately to subscribers on receitt of only Si 25, the subserip- 
tlon price, by Chas.H. Taylor & Co., 51 Water street. Bos 
ton. Agents everywhere are doing splendidly with this 
chromo. as they deliver it when they take the names. 



NEW YORK MARKETS. 



New York, January 4. 

Flour, Ac— The Inquiry for flour is. limited, but with 
very light ar ivals, holders are confident. Tbe low grades 
are held higher, other grades strong. Good superfine sal- 
able. At tbe close the market is better for most grades un- 
der 810 with an active demand for the close of the week. 
We notice a more active demand for tha future. We quote 
as follows: Sour, ^ bbl., S4 60a5 60; No. 2,$i35a5 30; su- 
perfine $6 00a6 35 ; State extra brands, %1 10a7 30 ; State 
iancy do., $7 7ea8 00 ; western shipping extra, $7 00a7 25 ; 
Minnesota extras, common to fancy, $7 50a9 50 ; do. super- 
lative extras, }i9 50al3 50 ; good to choice spring wheat ex- 
tras, 87 70a920; extra amber Indiana, Ohio and Michigan, 
$7 30a8 55 ; Ohio Indiana and Illinois superfine, $6 00a(> 35; 
Ohio round hoop extra shipping $7 I5a7 35; Ohio .xira 
trade brands, $7 70a7 90 ; white wheat extra Ohio, Indiana 
and Michigan, $8 oOa9 15 ; double extra do. do.,$9:i5al0 00; 
St. Louis single extras, $8 00a8 75; St l^ouis doub e do., 
$8 75a9 75 ; ft. Louis triple extras, $9 90al2 50 ; Genesee 
extra briind, 88 OOalO 25. Rve Flour Is strong but quiet. 
We quote : Western, S4 55a5 50 ; State and Pennsylvania, 
85 76«6 50. Corn Meal less plenty and firm. Sales of 200 
bbls. We quote : Jersey, $3 35; western, 82 20a3 50 ; west- 
ern white, S3 25a3 35 ; barrel,$3 80a3 90; golden ear, S3 7\ 
Buckwheat— The market is steady, the demand fair. Buck- 
wheat Flour is In moderate demand and is easier. Sales 
of State at $3 70a3 80, and Pennsylvania at |3 85a4 00. Cali- 
fornia and Oregon Flour is quiet at 88 60a9 75 ^ bbl. 

Gkain.— Wheat at the opsning was held higher, with a 
fair demand for Spring for export. Winter is scarce anti 
firmer. The market for Wheat closes quiet butfiim at the 
advance. The demand is chit- fly for export. 

Barley is firm at the advance, but buyers hold back. 
Barley malt is firm and in fair demand. Hales of 6700 
bushels at $1 35 for Canada western, and $1 50 tor City. 

Oats are dull and close tame lor mixed. The sales are 
37.600 bushels ; new Ohio mixed at 46a48)ic ; white at 50a 
51c; black at 46a47c, and good white on the track, 5lc; 
wettern mixed at 44a48j^c; white at 50a5li^c. Rye is 
strong but qalet. Corn is better and in fair demand to hold 



and for investment ; the local inquiry is fair. Unsound 
mixed in store at 63 ; old westenn mixed at 66a66i.<c, and 
<^o. in store at &i\<,a, and new mixed afloat at 66p ; western 
white at 72c; do. yellow at 67 j,^ c ; southern white at 75a 
75>^c; Jersey yeli'xv at 613^a62c. 

Provisions —The Pork market is better and the demand 
more active for the future and the trade. The sales cash 
and r-gular, are 450 bbls. at .$13 75 for new mess, Sll .S7 for 
extra prime, $14 25 for western prime mess and f 13 50 for 
thin mess. For future deliveiy we Lear of 7.50 bWs. sell<=r 
February, at $13 25, and 250 bbls. seller, March, at S13 5o! 
Beef i.s titeady anil qu et. Sales of 40 bb!s. at S1I11I2 for 
plain me^s, and Sl3ai4 for extra mess Tierce beef quift 
and steady. Beef hams htavy ; sales of 75 bbls. at $32 for 
western. 

Cut meats are in fair Jem^nd and firmer. Sales of 2,000 
fresh hams at 8%a9c; 100 tierces choice pickled hams at 
9;j'al0c ; 1.000 smoked shouldeis at 5»^c ; 225 boxes drv 
salted shoulilers on the spot at 4?4C. Bacon is stronger and 
in fair demand ; sales of 225 boxes long clear at 6^c for 
western ; 175 boxes do city at 6J^c. Dressed hogs are lams 
for heavy and strong for light. We quote at SaS^c for 
western, and 5%a6% Jor city. Lard is stronger and in de- 
mand in part for the future. Sales of 870 tierces at 7 Xc 
for No. 1 ; 7?ic for city; 7Jia7 15-16c for fair to prime 
steam j fancy at 8;^c, and 8^ for kettle rendered. 



PITTSBURG CATILB MARKET. 

Pittsburg, January 4. 

Cattlb — The receipts of cattle to-oay have been light 
of ihroug and w<iy stock. There have been some hunches 
of fine cattle on sjle since our last report, but the prices at 
which buyers wanted to purch-se did not meet the xiws 
of sellers, severrtl parties shipped east expecting to do bet- 
ser. Trade to-day is very slow and dull, and few cattle are 
sCiling. Mo.st of the buyers have left tor home. 'J here 
is some cattle left in the yards unsold, and tbe holders at 
the time we left the yards weie talking of sending some to 
Allegheny for retail. Below wi 1 be found the rates at 
which the market closed : Extra 1500 ft) steers, fine and 
smooth, S6 87 ; extra 1400 lb steer", fine acd smooth, S6 50a 
6 65 ; prime l3i ft) cattle, Hne and smooth. 86 to 6 25 ; prime 
1200 lb cattle, fine and smooth, $5 2fa5 50 ; fair Uno lb cat- 
tle, fine and smooth, 84 75 to 6 25 ; cnrarDon, .$3 50a4 00 ; 
bulls, $2 50 to 353 50 ; CijWH, 83 26 to $4 50. 

The receipts of Hogs to-day have been light. There is 
a better feeling ru ing and prices are quotable 10c fi hun- 
dred higher tban yesterday. The lieht run cau.ses a dispo- 
sition among buyers to purchase, and at t' is writing the 
yards are better cleared of stock than for Fome time. 
Yorkers are purchasing freely this evening, and the mar- 
ket closes firm at th« following rati r ; Extra Philadelphia, 
•S4 '5 ; prime do., $4 05a4 10 ; prime Yorkers, $4 ; common, 
83 90. 

The run of Sheep to-day light, the market inactive and 
most of the buyers have lelt for the E.st. Prices are off 
from ji to )^c since Monday last. The fo'lowing are the 
current rates: Extra, 100 lbs, tine wool, $6 25 ; extra, 100 
Ib.s, open wool, $5 50a5 75 ; prime, 9-5 lbs, fine wool, 85 75 ; 
prime, 90 lbs, fine wool, $5 50; prime, 86 lbs, tine wool, 
85 25. 



PHILADELPHIA. MARKETS. 

Saturday Evening. January 4. Bark— No. 1 Quer- 
citron is quoted at $-'ll 50 ^ ton. 

Flour — The tone of the market is firm, but there is less 
doing; the inquire i« mostly from the home coasumers, 
whose purchases foot up 1 200 bbls., including superfine at 
8i 5na5 50 ; extras at. $5 75a6 50 ; Iowa and Wisconsin do do 
at $8 25a8 75 ; Pennsylvania, Ohio and Indiana do do at 
$8 25a9 25, and fancy brands at S9 25all, as to quality. 
Rye flour is quoted at $5 50. In corn m-^al no sales. 

Grain — The receipts as well »s the stocks of wheat are 
small, aud prices bave advanced ; sales of 3,000 bushels 
western red at 8195a-^; No. 1 spring at $1 70al 75, and 
white at S2 05a2 10. Rye is nominal. Corn is in fair re- 
quest, with limited receipts and otterings; sales of yellow 
at 65c; new doandi) ixed at61a64c. Oats is without change; 
sales of 7,000 bushels western while at 50a5lc, and mixed 
at 45a47c. The receipts to-day are as follows: 1,275 tibls 
flour, 8,800 bushels wheat, 6,8l<»0 do coin, 4,900 do o»ts, 2,500 
do barlev, 415 bbls whisky. 

PKOViaiONfi.-Theie is very little doing, but pric^^s are 
unsettled. Mess pork is selling in lots at 813al3 50 for old 
and new ; smoked hams at U^aiec, do. sides at 1}ic.; 
ealted shoulders at 4%a£c, smoked do. at 6c, and lard at 
7xa8c. 

Seeds.- Cloverseed is in fair demand ; 700 bushels sold 
at 9alOc ii lb, the latter rate for reclaimed. Timothy sold 
at 83 50, and Flaxseed at 82 ■f. bushel. 




e 




Hf 



DEVOTED TO 




Agriculture, Horticulture, Boniestlc Econoniij and Miscellany- 

EDITED BY S. S. RATHVON. 



♦* The Farmer is the founder of civUiziitiou." — WEBSTER. 



Vol. V. 



FEBRUARY, 1873. 



^0. 2. 



ESSAY. 



ANNUAL ADDRESS. 

DELIVERKD BEFORE THE SOCIETY AT ITS JANUARY 
MEETING, 1873. 

BT H. M. ENOLE. 

FELLOW-MEMBERS of the Agricultural 
and Horticultural Society of Lancaster 
County: 

My annual address on this occasion will be 
brief, not from want of matter in the prospective 
or retrospective of this society, but from want of 
time. A kind Providence has, during the past 
year, bountifully blessed us, not only as a commu- 
nity, but as a nation. Though in some vicinities 
crops have been partial, or total failures, in the 
aggregate there is still a surplus for man and 
beast, and with the facilities for transportation, 
there is no occasion for real want. Fruit has been 
«o unusually abundant that the demand and anxiety 
for it in former years was lost in a general surfeit 
that could not appreciate its real value. 

The mission of this organization is, however, the 
irabject of this essay. The small nucleus from 
which this society sprang is still fresh in our minds. 
That it has accomplished much during the brief 
period of its existence we strongly claim ; that it 
might and should have accomplished more we do 
not deny, but the field for its useful mission has in 
no wise contracted, but rather widened. 

The first question that arises is, in what have 
we, as a society, been derelict of duty, or failed in 
the object of its mission ? 2. What is the duty of 
the hour to shape its course for greater usefulness 
in the future ? The past, if viewed, will 



always teach lessons for improvement in the 
future. Our society must necessarily be an 
educator in the branches of industry which it pro- 
fesses to represent. Very excellent essays have 
been produced and read at our monthly meetings 
by some of its members. Many subjects of vital 
interest to agriculturists, horticulturists and others 
have been ably discussed, and the experience and 
sentiments of members freely given for the benefit 
ofaH who wished to avail themselves thereof. 
Valuable seeds, cuttings and cions have been dis- 
tributed, of which not a few have taken advantage. 
Our exhibitions were generally a success, but were 
not sufficiently extensive to keep pace with the 
progress of the age ; and let me say here that 
since our late exhibition at Fulton Hall proved 
so generally satisfactory that the members of our 
society have resolved to hold a county agricultu- 
ral and horticultural fair during the coming fall 
that shall be a credit to the great county of Laiv- 
caster. Now for the purpose of making such an 
enterprise a complete success, it is necessary to 
begin early and keep the matter before the people. 
Plans may be laid and calculations made at any 
time. The farmer must put his land in the best 
order, plant the best seed, give his crops the best 
cultivation, ha\ e the best stock, and all in the 
best condition, if he expects to make the best show 
or win the first prize. So the fruit grower must 
prune and feed his trees, thin out fruit where too 
full, and keep off destructive insects, if he wishes 
to stand at the head of his class. The gardener 
also must make early calculations if he wishes to 
show the finest vegetables. The florist must not 
forget to prepare for the completing of the orna- 
mental department. The mechanic is supposed to 
exhibit the choicest specimens of his workmanship, 
and so to the end of the list of the industrial 



n 



THE LAJ^CASTER FARMER. 



branches — all are expected to do their share and 
ihould therefore be at work in good season. Tlie 
ladies' department must not be overlooked, and to 
them we would extend a cordial invitation to lend 
a helping hand. 

In order to have our organization do more ef- 
fective service to the community, a more punctual 
attendance is required at its meetings, and less 
disturbance during the reading of essays and dis- 
cussions. The prompt payment of dues would 
also greatly enhance the usefulness of the society, 
and the enlarging and improving of its library 
ehould be kept constantly in view. There are 
other items of importance that demand the 
attention of our society, but want of time forbids. 

In conclusion I would heartily thank the society 
for the many and oft-renewed expressions of con- 
fidence received at your hands, and assure you 
•that the part taken in our deliberations was 
prompted by a love for the noble calling we are 
Btriving to encourage, and that my hearty co-ope- 
ration may be expected in the future as it has been 
extended in the past. 

H ORTICULTURE^ 



GOSSIP ABOUT A PEAR. 

BY J. STAUFFER. 

AT the close of the last meeting of the Lan- 
caster County Agricultural and Horticul- 
tural Society, the worthy president, H. M. Engle, 
presented me with a fine-formed and luscious-look- 
ing pear. I really forgot what he called it ; but 
DO matter about its name. I simply wish to re- 
cord some reflections suggested upon enjoying its 
delicious flavor, so rich and juicy, that strong as 
the temptation was, I felt as if it were selfish to 
enjoy it alone, and hence divided. Left to myself 
with thanks to friend Engle for the pear, my 
thoughts arose to that wonder-working Power 
tliat formed the pear What has science revealed ? 
What do we know of this mysterious chemistry of 
nature ? Let us briefly review some ascertained 
facts. We will consider the pear tree, with its 
woody stem, branches, roots and leaves, as the 
type of deciduous fruit in general — the trunk, 
branches, leaves, flowers and fruit exposed to the 
air, its root spread around the trunk in the soil. 
As it draws all its nourishment from the soil and 
atmosphere, let us briefly consider the component 
elements of the soil and subsoil : First, in the sur- 
face soil we find organic matter from decayed 
plants previously grown or put upon it; in the 



subsoil very little organized matter is found. This 
may be denominated earth, clay, sand, gravel, lime, 
or mixed earth formed from rocks or stones, as the 
case may be. All rainaral misses underlying the 
soil have certain basis, whether stratifi^^d or un- 
stratified. The compounds have been more or 
less bicDit. The mitals potassium and sodium 
burn if put in contact with water and become 
oxydcs, and thus form the oxydes of pntash and 
soda. Calcium also b3cora3S /me. So with mag- 
nesium, silicon and aluminum. In these mineral 
bases we discover Ihe formation of other com- 
pounds which constitute plant food. These ingre- 
dients in the soil are mixed with water to moisten 
the soil, water itself being a compound of hydro, 
gen and oxygen. From those ingredients the 
roots absorb what they select or find essential to 
the nature of the plant. Those blending in the 
sap with those abstracted by the leaves from the 
atmosphere, which is also a mixture of nitrogen 
and oxygen gases, with a small portion of car- 
bonic acid gas and of the vapor of water. Thus, 
we find the primary elements in the soil and air 
that go into the structui'e of the innumerable pro- 
ducts of the vegetable kingdom so numerous that 
we will not attempt to specify them, but come 
back to the "pear tree" in order to reach the 
pear, not forgetting heat, light or sunshine. Let 
us first examine the component parts of the pear, 
and briefly Bum them up according to the re- 
searches and patient analysis of Fresenius of the 
sweet pear : First, saccharose and fruiticose, which, 
in plain words, let us call sugar 7.940, with a trace 
of hydrated malic acid, and 0.287 of albuminoid, 
gum and organic acid 4.409, soluble ash ingredi' 
ents 0.284. These constitute the soluble matters. 
The seeds, skin and insoluble matters consist of 
tectose, etc., 4.123, and water 83.007 in 100. The 
analyst finds the component parts to be sugar, 
malic acid, albumen, gum. tectose and water, to say . 
nothing of a few minor ingredients. What is su- 
gar? Saccharose or cane sugar is put down C. 
12, H. 22, O. 11. Fruit sugar, tructose, has a lit- 
tle more hydrogen, H. 24, and oxygen 0. 12. Car- 
bonic C. the same, and is called grape sugar or 
glucose, formed from cellulose, starch, and dextrin 
in combination with water — starch, etc., C. 12, H. 
20, 0. 10 X water or 2 H., 2 0., =- C. 12, H. 24, 
O. 12. In this process 90 parts of starch, etc., 
yield 100 parts of glucose. The formula is vari- 
ously stated for grape sugar — C. 12, PI. 14, 0. 14, 
This modification also abounds not only in grapes, 
but plums, and other fruit which is more or lesa 
uncrystallizable, called fruit sugar. 



THE LAJ\''CASTER FARMER. 



0j^ 



Albumen, a peculiar organic principle, entering 
largely into the composition of animal bodies, 
such as the blood, muscles, membranes and most 
of the soft organs, such as the liver, lungs, kid- 
neys, etc.; also the chief component of white of 
^%^\ this consists of nitrogen, carbon, hj'drogen 
and oxygen, in the ratio of 1.5, .51, 7 and 24 per 
cent, in round numbers in the order named. This 
is a proximate principle of many vegetables found 
in their sap and in some of their solid products. 
It surrounds the seed or germ in the seed to nour- 
ish the young embryo when it first springs into 
life, and the parts that furnish the flour of corn, 
the flesh of the cocoa nut, the great mass of the 
seeds of coff'ee, are albumen, and never found poi- 
sonous, no matter however the plant may be that 
bears it. There are sometimes parts connected 
with it (the seed) that may prove deleterious. 

Gum is a vegetable product, soluble variably in 
alcohol and water. It consists of carbon 41.4, 
o.xygcn 52.09, hydrogen 5.51 — in short, simply a 
compound of carbon and water, as is the wood it- 
self, or pure woody fiber called lignin ; this is the 
same again as cellulose. Its ultimate composi- 
tion is represented by C. 6, H. 5, 0. 5. Tectine, 
tectic acid and tectose, is a gelatinous principle 
also called vegetable jelly, usually associated with 
the cellular tissue, and which is insoluble in water, 
alcohol and ether, but which, under the influence 
of acids, aided by a gentle heat, becomes con- 
verted into a soluble gelatinous snhst&nce, pectine, 
represented by the formula C. 64, H. 48, 0. 64. 
This latter is found ready formed in the juices of 
ripe fruits, in consequence of the action of their 
acids upon the original pedose. It may be ob- 
tained from the expressed juice of ripe pears or 
apples (after the lime which it contains has been 
precipitated by oxalic acid, and the albumen by a 
strong solution of tannin. The oxalic acid and 
tannin are also of vegetable formation. But I 
must not stop to follow up the diverging lines — 
as such would ruu me into the whole vegetable 
Materia Medica- and physiology— and what else 
besides I cannot stop to consider — because the 
Japan Isinglass is a product of a plant — the gel- 
tdiamcorneum, having the formula C. 24, H. 21, 
O. 24, and so on to the end of the chapter. "We 
have now examined into the component parts of 
the mixture in making up the pear. But it is be- 
yond the art of man to combine these ingredients, 
even when placed to his hand, manufactured 
from the vegetable productions with all his knowl- 
edge and skill, so as to restore the pear — nay, in- 
deed, he cannot manufacture one article of nutri- 



tion from the mineral elements, from which plants 
elaborate all our food. Oh, how wonderful and 
past finding out are the works and ways of God 1 
Yes, we see here the diversity resulting from mi- 
nute changes in the proportions of the elemen- 
tary ingredients. The starch deposited in the 
cells, the glucose and albumenoids manufactured 
and interchangeably acting from the swelling of 
the bud to the elongation of the branch, the 
leaves transformed into sepals, petals, stamens, 
and pistillum, or seed vessel — the various ways the 
seeds are ripened, whether in stone fruit, the pulp 
of the apple, pear, etc., nuts — and in short the 
endless varieties of seeds and fruit. The more ex- 
tended our knowledge of this multiplicity of pro- 
ducts, from a few elementary principles and com- 
pounds, the more do we adore that goodness and 
wisdom that manifests itself so wonderfully — ala 
why do these evidences, in connection with the or 
acles of God, not more fully realize the language 
of holy writ in Isaiah Ixi. 11, " For as the earth 
bringeth forth its bud, and as the garden causeth 
the things that are sown in it to spring forth, so 
the Lord God will cause righteousness an^d. praise 
to spring forth before all the nations." . ■ 

In conclusion I will only add, that a .scientific 
friend of mine found fault with me for quoting 
Scripture in connection with scientific subjects. 
" It always seemed to him," he said, " to be bad 
taste or manifesting a disposition to ingratiate 
yourself with those who hang on to the. .old Jew- 
ish dogmas perpetuated in the church." In short, 
he repudiated the Bible and its precept. The 
Gospel of Christ, so beautiful and essential to 
happiness, in my humble opinion — he simply 
said " he did not understand it, but that he be- 
lieved in a God." I replied, "Well, I love science 
and the facts it reveals, but cannot help quoting 
Scripture to such language," and referred him to 
James ii. 19, " Thou believest that there is a God, 
thou doest well ; the devils also believe and trem- 
ble." 



Fatting sheep should be allowed from a pound 
to a pound and a half of grain per day, accord- 
ing to their size, and it is well to give them one 
foddering of hay per day and all the straw they 
will eat. Wool is in demand, and most farmers 
will desire to keep their sheep and clip them be. 
fore selling. On this account it is not improba- 
ble that those who sell fat sheep the latter part of 
February or the first of March, may realize more 
profit than by keeping them later. 



^A 



THE LAJ\'CASTER FARMER. 



PENNSYLVANIA FRUIT GROWERS' 
SOCIETY. 

[From the Reading Times and Dispatch.] 

FOLLOWING are the letters addressed to thg 
chairman of the General Fruit Committee 
of the Fruit Growers' Society of Pennsylvania, 
and read by him at the last annual meeting of the 
society. The chairman in his report says of these 
letters that they contain " many valuable ideas 
and interesting facts," and that they " have been 
carefully prepared and contain the right kind of 
information in as good shape as could be desired." 

LETTERS TO THE GENERAL FRUIT COMMITTEE. 

Columbia, Pa., Dec. 19th, 1872. 

E. Satterthwait, Esq.— Jfy Dear Sir .-—Your 
letter of the 9th inst., asking me to aid you in 
getting up " a full and interesting report" on the 
condition, etc., of the fruit crop is received. 

Gladly would I aid you, had I anything of in- 
terest to communicate, but the fact is the crop of 
fruits of all kinds was so extraordinary, and of such 
invariable good and fair quality, that there is no 
distinction to be made in varieties. Even our old 
Bellfiowers and Rambos once again produced full 
crops of fair and sound fruit — had failed for over 
37 years. Our apple trees all were overloaded ; 
our pear trees bore full crops ; our peaches, cher- 
ries, with all the small fruits, were fuller, fairer 
and freeer from insect depredations than*for many 
years. Even the plum, especially the Richland 

filum, had so large a crop as to defy the curculio 
rom taking all, and a large crop ripened on the 
trees. Grapes, too, generally produced fair crops 
free from disease. To particularly describe varie- 
ties that did best would be a difficult undertak- 
ing, where all did well. The " All Summer apple" 
of Casper Hill, is however, an apple that deserves 
special notice, as it is a medium early fruit and 
continues a long time in use. It appeared to be a 
general favorite, as every person going into the 
orchard started in the direction of that tree. Also 
an apple received from Thos. Harvey called the 
" Pearl" Sheep or Bland apple, a very mild and 
pleasant eating apple. Then I have a number of 
apples from Georgia, of excellent quality, with 
the usual number of local varieties. Tho' the 
trees all bore such heavy crops, I may mention 
that all varieties that we consider winter apples 
ripened too early to keep well. The Fallowater 
and Winter Sweet Paradise, that forty years ago 
remained sound till April and May, this last fall 
nearly all I'ipeued or rotted in September, and 
now only a very few remain. As to culture, last 
season has dispelled all ideas of "citlture or no 
culture," as trees the most neglected brought as 
heavy crops as those treated on the most scientific 
principles, though of course such neglected trees 
had a surplus of small and inferior fruit. 

Since the cold winter of 1835, we have not had 
a fair crop of apples until last season. And now 
the crop was so abundant that thousands of bushels 



rotted on the ground in Lancaster county. The 
price was so low as not to pay for gathering and 
marketing ; and to turn them into cider, the bar- 
rels would cost more than the cider would sell for. 
Farmers, however, again have a good supply of 
apple butter, vinegar and dried fruit, that will 
last them several years. 

Why don't the Gardener's Monthly for Decem- 
ber give tho time and place of the meeting of the 
society in January 1873? 

Hoping, health and weather favorable, I may 
again have the pleasure of attending the meeting, 
Yours most respectfully, 

J. B. Garber. 



The Cumberland Nurseries, ] 

Shiremanstown, Cumb. Co., Pa.. > 
December 21, 1872. ) 
E. Satterthwait : — I received your letter on 
the 19th inst. in regard to fruit growing. I 
hardly know what to write. We had an unusually 
good crop of all kinds of fruit the past summer. 
The varieties of apples considered (at this time) 
by the best fruit growers the most profitable in 
our valley, are the Early Ripe and Astrachan, for 
early ; Porter, Summer Queen, and Summer Pip- 
pin, for summer, and Smokehouse, Fallenwalder, 
Smith's Cider, Winesap, York Imperial, Krauser, 
Cheese, and Dominie, for late fall and winter, and 
the Ortly Pippin, Lancaster Greening, and Mum- 
per Vandevere for late spring. The above are all 
good bearers ; hang well to the trees, except 
Smokehouse and Fallenwalder, but even of these 
we have good crops nearly every year. The 
Smokehouse sells the best in the market ; no ajv 
ple can compete with it in its season. The Bald- 
win is not worth much here, as it drops too easily. 
Ill peal's the Bartlett takes the lead, next How- 
ell, then Seckel, Beurre Diel, Osband's Summer, 
Cressane, Ducheron Dwarf and Vicar. These are 
about all the varieties that are reliable ; the 
Flemish Beauty and Buerre Clairgeau bear well 
and are generally fine, but the trees drop their 
leaves, so they will not ripen as they should. 

The grape business in this valley is about fin- 
ished up — that is, cultivating fancy grapes. The 
bulk of the crop is Concord, with some Clinton 
and Muscadine. I had some fifty varieties plant- 
ed in my vineyard ; I dug them all out last spring 
except the Concoi-d, Catawba, Clinton and Musca- 
dine. They do no better all through the valley, 
except for a few years on some very favored spots. 
There are a good many raspberries and straw- 
berries grown for the Harrisburg market, which 
pay rather better than any other fruit. The Black 
Cap raspberry is principally planted, with some 
Philadelphia and Purple Cane. The Philadel- 
phia AVinter kills badly some winters ; is not re- 
liable. About nine-tenths of the strawberries 
planted are the Wilson ; some Green Prolific and 
Russels. 

The finest peaches grown here are the Craw- 
fords, Susquehanna and President. The past 
season was a very good one for peaches ; never 
saw finer. 

We have no particular method in cultivating 



THE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



25 



fruit, though I can say we have a good many men 
who take very good care of their fruit trees, vines, 
etc. We are only getting into the business of 
fruit growing in this section. The large farms are 
being divided into small tracts, and the Harris 
burg market being convenient and good, the peo 
pie find that fruit growing and marketing pays 
them better than farming grain; consequently 
they take more interest in it. 

I think, after all is said about the different 
methods of cultivating, locations, soils, etc, the 
great point in making fruit growing pay is to 
know what varieties to plant, and this is frequent- 
ly not discovered in time, and disappointment 
and losses are the rewards of the planter. 
Yours, very respectfully, 

Henry S. Rufp. 



Wir,Low Dale, Jan. 7, 1872. 

Mr. Edwarp Satterthwait — Dear Sir : Your 
favor of the 19th inst. was received. I will en- 
deavor to answer your letter hastily. If I fail to 
give you such information as you desire. I shall 
have the satisfaction of knowing that I have at 
least shown a desire to aid you. The fruit crop of 
1H72 in this part of the county was an abundance. 
No kind of fruit was an entire failure, and all the 
small fruits were far above the average for many 
years. 

Strawberries — Not more than one-fourth of a 
crop, on account of continued dry weather during 
the time they were in blossom and while the fruit 
was ripening. Varieties : Wilson's Albany and 
Charles Downing. 

Raspberries — CJanes badly winter killed, espe- 
cially the Philadelphia ; even the Black Caps were 
somewhat injured. The drought reduced the 
yield very materially. Crop about one half. Va- 
rieties most popular : Mammoth Cluster and ISus- 
queeo or Brandywine. 

Blackberries — (^rop almost a failure. Canes 
badly injured by the hard winter. The fruit upon 
what canes were livinii was very imperfect. Va- 
rieties : Lawton and Kittatinny. Wilson's Early 
does not make enough of cane here ; it is a very 
poor grower and the berry is insipid. 

(j\nTants and (iooseberries — An abundant crop. 

l*eaches — Crop was the largest for many j'ears. 
Best varieties for market orchard. Troth's Early, 
(icorgc TV., Crawford's Early, Old Nixon Free, 
Crawford's Late, Stump the World, Ward's Late 
Free and Smock Free. 

Pears — A'^ery abundant. Varieties that seem 
best suited to this section. Doyenne D'Ete, lilarly 
Catharine, Bartlett, Belle Lucrative, Seckel, 
Beurre D'Anjou and Lawrence. 

Cherries — Not considered a reliable crop here, 
but the past season were very imperfect and plen- 
tiful. 

(i rapes— Crop large and perfect. Reliable va- 
rieties : Concord, Ives' Seedling and Christine. 
One party who has two hundred vines of the latter 
in bearing, and has sold two crops in the Pliila- 
doljihia market, contends that they are much more 
profitable than Concord, being fit to market ten 
to twelve days earlier, rnd bringing this season 



five cents per pound more than the first picking of 
Concord. 

Plums — A pretty good crop. Probably the 
curculio, having had such a variety to contend with, 
was why we were favored once more with this de- 
licious fruit. 

Apples— Crop was immense and fruit very per- 
fect. Winter fruit dropped from the trees very 
badly during the months of September and Octo- 
ber. The old winter varieties seem to be our best 
keepers, viz. : Red Romanite, Gray House, Pen- 
nock and Betsey's Fancy ; for early winter, Smith's 
Cider is very popular. Fall varieties, Smoke- 
house, Jefferies and Maiden's Blush; summer, Early 
Harvest (Prince's). Red Astrachan and Townsend, 
As to cultivation, 1 do not know that I can offer 
anything that will be of any instruction ; it is 
generally admitted that to secure the best results 
from an orchard it must be planted in good soil, 
well cultivated with some A'egetable crop the pre- 
ceding year, and continuing to cultivate the ground 
for several years in some hoed crops that receive 
a liberal quantity of barn-yard manure annually. 
Bv neglecting to cultivate ground set with a peach 
orchard for two years, is always followed by the 
loss of the trees entirely, or damaged to such ex- 
tent that they yield no profit ever afterward. We 
set a small dwarf pear orchard in 1866, and at the 
same time planted the space between with straw- 
berry plants. The following year, in another plat, 
we planted with standard pear trees and straw- 
berry plants betwe(*n. Our trees made a beautiful 
growth the first season, but the second season al- 
most no growth at all. In the standard pear or- 
chard we were so well satisfied that it Mould be ar 
loss to leave the strawberry plants remain, that 
they were removed. The following season we aguitt- 
got a good growth of tree, and by cultivating 
vegetable crops our trees continued to grow well. 
In the dwarf orchard the strawberry plants re- 
mained for three years, and most of our trees have 
died or are so far gone that they are worthless. 
We believe no Avorse crop than strawberry can be 
planted in ground set with an orchard, and merely 
mention it, as we have never heard any one meiv 
tion the matter before the Fruit Growers' So- 
ciety. Yous, very respectfully, 

J. W. Pyle. 



CoNESTOGA, Lancaster co., Pa. 
Mr. E. Satterthwait, Chairman of Genei'al 
Fruit Committee of Penna. Fruit Growers' So- 
ciety : The apple crop of this locality was enor^ 
moiis. We had nothing to equal it for 20 years. 
The quality, too, was very good, being fairer and 
less affected by insects than usual. The only 
drawback on its being perfect was the great and 
continued drought and heat o*" summer, which 
caused the fruit to ripen prematurely, making our 
winter apples fall apples — for nearly all fell off 
the trees before the usual time came for picking 
winter apples. The consequence is, our crop of 
v.'inter apjiles is small. The idea, too, was general, 
that it would be labor lost to store up many, 
thinking that they would not keep, but in this we 
were much mistaken. I have a lot of Baldwin* 



26 



THE LAJ^CASTER FARMER. 



that fell in September that are in good condition. 
This year should set at rest the oft reiterated 
question, "Have your apple trees deteriorated ?" 
Bellflowcrs, Paradise, Rambo — varieties that were 
said to be. worn-out, were very fine this year. The 
ca\ise must be laid to other causes. Perhaps to 
climatij--. But it matters little to us what the 
caus(; i.'^, for we cannot control either. 

We have, however, a partial remedy, and that 
is by selecting such varieties as are by some pecu- 
liarity able to surmount those influences. 

In this locality, during the period of eight 
years. .AH Summer, Hubbardston Nonsuch, Ben 
Davis, have produced fair crops every year. While 
riiiie Qua Non, Benoni, Red Astrachan, Graven- 
stein, Krauser, York Imperial and Baldwin, have 
been pretty sure in alternate years. 

In pear culture we are comparatively young. 
Very few persons 20 years ago could boast of more 
than a few varieties. Now we have most of the 
leading varieties on trial. The crop Avas good the 
past season, though the later sorts, such as An- 
jou. Lawrence, etc., did not fill up as well as usual 
and ripened several weeks before their time. The 
crop is not so easily afifected by colder rain as the 
apples, and has been quite sure for ten years past. 

Blight is about the only trouble that we have 
to contend with. My annual loss is about, on an 
average, .5 per cent. I have tested about 75 
Varieties, and out of that number the following 
are all that are really first-rate in every particu- 
lar, viz. : Manning's Elizabeth, Bartlett, Seckel, 
Lawrence, and Beurre D'Anjou. 

In this "first-rate in every particular" is speci- 
ally included the important fact : they sell. Years 
ago the cherry flourished on hill tops and in the 
valleys. The fruit would ripen and hang upon 
the trees for many days. Now it rarely ever 
succeeds. The past season was better than usual. 
The main trouble is, rot about the time of ripen- 
ing. Early Richmond is the most reliable. Gov. 
Wood and Rockport Bigarreau are No. 1 in quali- 
ty and produce moderate crops. In reading over 
the grape literature for years past we were led to 
expect that long ere this we should have fruited 
varieties, exceeding in quality some of the famous 
European varieties. I have spent some dollars, 
which I had not well to spare, in seeking and cul- 
tivating the "pets," and the result was that after 
every trial I loved the Concord better and better, 
until I begin to think it is good enough* for any- 
body. Respectfully submitted, 

Casper Hili-er. 



Picture Rocks, Dec. 26, 1872. 

E. Satterthwait, Esq. — Dear Sir : — Yours 
of the 19th is received, requesting information, 
etc. 

With few exceptions we have had good crops 
of fruit generally. Apples better than average. 
Peaches, few are grown ; the same with pears and 
grapes. Strawberries good. 

As to failures and disease : 

Apples had a remarkably good setting. All 
appeared well until midsummer, when some varie- 
ties were attacked with blight, first appearing at 



the ends of the new growth, extending to that of 
the old, appearing as if stung by an insect, biit no 
puncture to be found. The Golden Pippin and 
Rhode Island Greening suffered the most. The 
crop seemed to ripen prematurely, so that before 
time to harvest it was two-thirds on the ground, 
but still we have an abundance for all pur- 
poses. 

Pears suffered the most from the blight, 
many trees being killed outright. Tho^ft that 
were the most affected were Summer Doyenne, 
Dearborn's Seedling, Louis Bonne and some 
others. 

Peaches — Trees that were well cared for look 
well and bore well. The curculio is its worst 
enemy. Grapes, quinces and raspberries were 
much injured by the previous winter ; also the 
evergreens suffered. Grapes— Of those that were 
killed, were Isabella, Catawba, Creveling, and 
some of the Concord. With me the Diana and 
Rebecca stood the test and fruited well. The grape 
crop was generally light. Strawberries were fine. 
Mine cultivated in hills produced six thousand 
qts. to the acre, sold by the crop all to one party 
at twenty cents per quart. The Gift box and crate, 
costing 2^ cts. per quart., gave me at least 3 cts. 
per qt. the advantage of my neighbors. I recom- 
mend them. 

All in ail, the show of fruit at our fair, that of 
Muncy Valley Farmers' Club, held at Ilughes- 
ville, was pronounced the best ever exhibited in 
the county. 

I would recommend the free and generous use 
of lime and wood ashes for all kinds of fruit. 
Cultivate and mulch, and still apply the lime and 
ashe.s. 

I hope to meet you at the meeting at Reading, 
but if I should fail to be present, you may be as- 
sured of my interest therein. 

Respectfully yours, 

A. RE.\ssEt.AKR Sprout. 



West Grove, 1st mo., 10, 1873. 

E. Satterthwait — Esteemed Friend : — With 
us the past season was a very fruitful one ; every- 
thing in the shape of a fruit tree bore fruit, and a 
difference from other years was perceptible in the 
character of the fruit - nearly all of it perfect and 
very little injured by insects. We have to re- 
mark, however, that there seemed an increa.'-ing 
disposition to fall off too soon in such varieties as 
Fallowater, Baldwin, Rhode Island Greening, etc. 
What caused this unusual yield of fruit ? is an in- 
teresting subject of inquiry. The spring was re- 
markably favorable— both dry and clear of frosts 
to injure -but can this be all? We have a few 
neighbors who scarcely ever fail having a fair crop 
of apples ; they feed their trees well with a coat 
of stable manure, say about one-third of a cart load 
under and around each tree annually, and they 
seem to be in strong and healthy condition, and. as 
one of the proprietors remarked, they seem " to 
laugh at the storms." 

I don't know why all the poor, neglected trees 
should bear, unless it be the long years of rest and 
the very few insects. Remain very truly, etc., 

Thos. M. Harvey. 



J HE LA.YCASTER FABMER. 



27 



HKrOIIT OK THK GENERAL FRUIT COMMITTEE. 

Ill atrain representing to the society the report 
of its Goneral Fruit Committee, the chairman 
has the satisfaction of stating that he has received 
more than usual amount of assistance from tlie 
monibors of the committee and otliers, his letters 
Bolicilinjr information upon the subjects proper to 
be treated of in this r-^port having been generally 
responded to, and many valuable ideas and inter- 
esting facts have thus come into his possession, 
and as some of these letters have been carefully 
prepared and contain the right kind of informa- 
tion in as good a shape as could be desired, he has 
judged it best to present the views of the writers 
entire. As, however, the territory covered by the 
reports contained in the letters alluded to, and 
which are hereto annexed, does not embrace 
nearly the whole of the fruit growing region of 
the State, and as it would seem to be proper that 
such a remarkable fruit season as the past one has 
been should not be suffered to pass by without 
more than ordinary notice from this committee 
and this society, the undersigned has thought 
proper to present some observations of his own 
derived from other sources of information and 
from the results of his own experience. 

THE PRCl'I.IARITIES OF THE SEASON. 

The year just past must certainly be set down 
as one of the most extraordinary on record, and 
one that those interested in fruit growing will not 
be likely soon to forget. And it is to be hoped 
that the valuable experiences of such a season will 
be turned to good account by those whose interest 
it is to profit by every opportunity of acquiring 
knowledge upon the subjects that so deeply in- 
terest them. The question of how much the ex- 
traordinary fruit crop of the past season was de- 
pendent upon the extremes of weather which pre- 
vailed during a large portion of the years, is an 
important one for fruit growers to solve, certainly 
both were very remarkable. A long and extreme- 
ly cold and dry winter was followed by a cold and 
exceedingly dry spring, the drought continuing 
in some sections of the State with great severity 
nearly the whole season The summer also was 
a remarkably hot one, the temperature averaging 
higher than any on record. The long and severe 
winter, extremely dry spring and hot summer 
made the season a most unfavorable one for plant- 
ing ; in some sections where the drought contin- 
ued during most of the summer transplanting was 
almost a total failure, and trees generally made a 
poor growth. It would perhaps be well to note 
here 



THE EFFECTS OF THE WINTER. 

upon the different kinds of fruit and fruit trees. It 
is certainly very remarkable that a season of suoli 
extraordinary severity and which proved so de- 
structive to many kinds of vegetation, should ap- 
parently be so favorable to fruits. Not only did 
all kinds of fruit trees escape with less injury than 
usual, but appeared, in some unaccountable way 
to be greatly benefited ; the extraordinary, and io 
some instances unprecedented, -crops of fruit beinj 
by many ascribed to some mysterious effects of the 
extreme winter weather. It is not easy to see how 
there can be anything in this, except it may b« 
that the sevcritj^ of the cold and perhaps the ab- 
sence of snow proved destructive to curculio and 
other fruit-destroying insects. 

SMALL FRUITS. 

however, did not fare so well. The berry crop 
was generally poor, much below the average, all 
kinds being more or less injured by the winter^ 
and all suffered severely from the drought and in- 
tense heat of the summer. The season havin* 
been such an unfavorable one for these fruits. ther« 
appears to have been very little said as to the 
relative merits of different varieties, and as w» 
know of nothing of special interest to report shall 
defer saying anything on the subject. Currant* 
and gooseberries, though hurt somewhat by the- 
drought, were a fair crop. 

GRAPES, 

though in some instances hurt by the winter, seem 
to have generally done well, the Concord in par^. 
ticular fairly outdoing itself, as the manner ia 
which our markets were glutted with it for a long 
time fully attests. The quality also seemed bet- 
ter than usual and appeared to give universal sat- 
isfaction. The amount of this wholesome and de- 
licious fruit that is now annually sold in our mar- 
kets, at prices so low as to be within the reach of 
all, is one of the best proofs of the progress that 
fruit growing has made within a few years, result- 
ing in great measure from the influence of suck 
associations as this. 

APPLES. 

The great fruit crop of the season was the ap- 
ple crop. Never within the memory of the oldest 
inhabitant has there been seen in Pennsylvania a 
more magnificent crop of this fruit, and not for a 
generation at least has there been anything t« 
compare with it. From every section of the State 
comes the same report — apples have been s* 
abundant as to be almost a uuisauce. Nor han 



^s 



THE LAJ^CASTER FARMEJR. 



the tremendous yield been confined, as it general- 
ly is, to particular varieties. Neither did soil, 
situation or culture seem to make the least differ- 
ence, but utterly setting- at defiance all rules and 
theories, every old, neglected and apparently worn, 
out tree, trees by the roadsides, and in hedges 
and in neglected pastures, trees that had never 
been pruned or otherwise cared for, and whether 
' grafted or natural fruit, all alike were loaded and 
with fruit the best of its kind. Where all did so 
well, it seems utterly useless to attempt to par- 
ticularize varieties, but it does seem too remark- 
able to let pass without particular notice, that 
all the old and supposed-to-be worn-out varieties, 
euch as the Yellow Bellflower, Newtown, Pip- 
pin, llambo and many others that might be men- 
tioned, never were finer than they were last year. 
There was one drawback only to the satisfaction 
of beholding once more in Pennsylvania a regular 
old-fashioned crop of apples, and that was the 
mortifying reflection that no use could be made 
of it, but that the greater part must inevitably go 
to waste. However much this may be regretted, 
it is not at all strange that it should have hap- 
pened under the circumstances. It having 
been many years since there had been a general 
large crop of apples in these parts, it had become 
common to plant a large proportion of summer 
and fall varieties, and the season being an unusual- 
ly hot one, and most winter apples ripened early, 
and the consequence was a great super-abundance 
of this fruit during the peach season, when apples 
will not sell, and as cider making and drying 
apples in the old way pay very poorly, and far. 
niers not being supplied with the improved appa- 
ratus for drying. fruit, but a small part of the 
crop was utilized in that way. Though probably 
more than half the apples grown in Pennsylvania 
last year were thus lost to the producer, a large 
part of what was sent to market in peach time, 
not bringing enough to pay expenses, yet the 
amount of winter apples grown in the State is 
not a tithe of what the market demands. The 
moment that peaches were done, apples began to 
pour in from other States as usual and command- 
ed the usual good prices, the crop produced here, 
large as it was, not seeming to have the least 
effect on the market, so immense was the consump- 
tion of this fruit when peaches were not to be had. 
As it seems to be demonstrated that the people 
will not buy apples when they can get peaches, 
and it being more than probable that we shall 
continue to have a glut of this fruit, during its 
season (the area of peach culture for the eastern 



markets having become so extended), there are 
certainly some important lessons for fruit growers 
to learn from these siginificant facts ; and the 
first of these seems to be to plant only late varie- 
ties of apples for market. It is also strongly re- 
commended to examine into the merits of the 
new methods of drying fruits lately introduced ; 
some of these it is believed will prove to be very 
valuable. 

PEARS. 

Pears also did well last year, though the crop 
was not universally a large, one as was the case 
with apples. As doing remarkably well every- 
where, may be mentioned, among the leading var 
rieties, Bartlett, Duchesse d'Angouleme, Lawrence 
and Howell. Amongst the early sorts, Beurre 
Giffiird was uncommonly fine. Manning's Elizabeth, 
as usual, did splendidly. Amongst the newer 
sorts the Rutter should be mentioned as doing fine 
as usual. But the most remarkable thing about 
the pear crop and which must be ascribed to the 
peculiarities of the season, was the entire absence 
of any tendency to crack. Many varieties that 
are usually worthless from cracking were all fair 
and fine this year, even the old white Doyenne, 
that for a great many years in most localities haa 
been only a nuisance from this cause, was perfect 
and fine as it ever was. Another remarkable case 
was that of the Glout Morceau, which in this sec- 
tion of the country has long been set down as 
worthless, except for city planting, where it always 
does well, was last year so remarkably fine that 
nothing could excel it. In the grounds of the 
writer, amongst some hundred of varieties that 
did well, the crop of Glout Morceau was about the 
best of all, taking into account both quantity and 
quality ; the only one that approached it were 
Duchesse d'Angouleme and Rutter. Lawrence 
was not far behind, but the trees of this variety 
having all borne a splendid crop the previous year, 
were not so generally loaded as were the others 
mentioned. The instances above mentioned as re- 
markable exceptions to the general rule of failure, 
are thought worthy of particular notice as being' 
among the peculiar incidents of a most remark- 
able season which are calculated to awaken 
inquiries of surpassing interest to fruit growers, 

PEAR BLIOHT. 

There was one serious drawback to pear culture 
the past season that must be mentioned. 'I~he 
blight appears to have been more than usually 
prevalent. From pretty extensive observations 
that have been made the past two seasons, the 
undersigned has been forced to the conclusion, 



TEE LA J^ CASTER FAEMEB. 



29 



that the theory of Mr. Downing in regard to this 
disease, which has been generally accepted as cor- 
rect, is not the true one, but as it might seem to 
be presumptuous to attack such high authority 
without the most conclusive testimony, we will 
leave that for the present. Whatever may be the 
cause of this direful malady, there seems to be but 
one remedy, and tliat is to replace the stricken 
trees with more healthy sorts and avoid planting 
those kinds that are much liable to blight. And 
it fortunately happens that the greater part of 
the most valuable varieties are almost entirely ex- 
empt from this disease. Perhaps we caimot do a 
better service than to give here a list of those va- 
rieties that seem to be peculiarly liable to blight, 
and also of others which are exempt, or nearly so, 
from its attacks, confining ourselves, of course, to 
the leading varieties. ^Ye notice as blighting 
badly, Madeleine. Dearborn's Seedlings, Osband's 
Summer, Belle Lucrative, Louise Bonne de Jersey, 
Maria Louise, Beurre de Montgeron, Forelle, 
Urbaniste, Golden Beurre of Bilboa, Passe Col- 
mar, Catillas, Glout Morceau, Vicar of Winkfield, 
Easter Beurre, and some others of lesser note. 
As not blighting at all, or very rarely, we men- 
tion Seckel, Lawrence, Duchesse d'Angouleme, 
Beurre d'Anjou, Buffam, Manning's Elizabeth, 
Kingsessing, Rutter, Doyenne, Boussoch, Kirt- 
land, Beurre Clairgean, Beurre Bosc, Gushing, 
Ananas d'Etee, Dix, and many others not so gen- 
erally known. Among the valuable varieties, 
blighting some but not enough to condenm them 
for general planting, might be mentioned Bart- 
lett, Howell, Doyenne d'Etee, Beurre Giffard 
and St. Michael Archange. 

CHERR'B^. 

The cherry crop was a magnificent one, as re- 
markable in fact as the app'e crop. For many 
years cherries have done very poorly in this re- 
gion, almost always rotting so badly as to be 
worthless, but the perfection and abundance of 
this fruit the past season could hardly be ex- 
celled. As with apples, every variety did its very 
best, and as there was no rot to interfere, the 
whole crop could be marketed and sold well, in 
the absence of a large crop of strawberries. As 
was the case with apples, all varieties did so well 
that it seems to be a needless task to attempt to 
particularize. One variety, however — the yellow 
Spanish — we cannot avoid mentioning as being 
conspicuously magnificent among some forty va- 
rieties fruited in the grounds of the writer. This 
is the first time in many years that this crop has 
generally been a satisfactory or profitable one. 



This may be attributed in part, but not altogether, 
to the small crop of curculio, and the favorable 
dry weather during the time the fruit was matur- 
ing. But besides these causes there must have 
been something else in the peculiarities of the 
season particularly favorable to healthiness in this 
fruit, as has been noticed in both the apple and 
pear. 

PEACHES. 

Notwithstanding the extreme severity of the 
winter and the many predictions of the destruc- 
tion of the peach crop from this cause, the great 
superabundance of this fruit in our markets, and 
for a longer period than usual, is sufficient evi- 
dence that the crop must have been a bountiful 
one, or else that more ground has been put under 
culture with this fruit than the present demand 
would seem to warrant. All our reports agree 
that peaches have done well throughout the State 
the past season, but enough reliable information 
on the subject has not been received to warrant 
an expression of opinion as to the merits of par- 
ticular varieties. 

PLUMS, 

also, for the first time in many years, for a large 
portion of the State at least, were last year a fair, 
and in some localities an enormous crop, and were 
far more abundant in our markets than probably 
they ever were before. The comparative absence 
of curculio may, perhaps, be sufficient to account 
for this. Though the ravages of this insect have 
been perceptibly decreasing for two or three years, 
we can scarcely consider ourselves out of the 
woods yet in regard to it, and consequently, it 
hardly seems worth while to say much 
about varieties of plums until there seems to be 
more certainty of getting rid of this one great 
enemy of this fruit, and perhaps it would be as well 
to say here what we have to say on the subject of 

INSECTS. 

This is probably the most important question 
that could claim our attention and needs all the 
light that can possibly be shed upon it. It is 
supposed by many intelligentjpomologists that the 
unusual severity of the winter had much to do 
with the comparative scarcity of both curculio and 
codling moth, those two merciless destroj'ers of 
fruit. This, of course, is only supposition, and I'e- 
mains to be tested by future investigations, and in 
the meantime no moans should be spared in en- 
deavoring to find out a permanent remedy for the 
evil; and it is with pleasure |,we mention that a 
plan of destroying effectually the codling moth has 



so 



THE LAJ^CASTER FARMER. 



come under our notice and has been partially test. 
ed with a success that seems quite encouraging. 
This plan consists in a very simple trap made by 
taking two or three rough pieces of thin boards or 
old shingles and attaching them together and to 
the trunk of the tree with a nail or screw so that 
they can be readily separated and the worms 
taken out and destroyed, which should be done 
about every fortnight, commencing as soon in the 
summer as the fruit begins to fall. It is found 
that these worms (the larvie of the codling moth) 
leave the fruit mostly before it drops from the 
tree, or whether before or after it falls, they leave 
the fruit and immediately commence to hunt for a 
suitable place to retire to make their cocoons and 
pass through their transformation to the winged 
state, and if all the loose bark has been scraped 
from the trunk of the tree as should alwaj-s be done, 
the insect can find no place to suit it so well as 
between these shingles, and there they all appear 
to congregate and may be quickly destroyed. It 
'g claimed by the inventor of this trap, that or- 
chards may be entirely rid of this pest in one sea- 
son, by placing one of these simple traps on every 
tree and properly attending to them. From the 
success attending a partial use of this trap, we do 
not hesitate to recommend it as worthy of a gene 
ral trial, as the cost would be so trifling and the" 
result, if effectual, would be of such incalculable 
value. It seems proper however to mention that 
a patent has been taken out for this invention, and 
trouble might arise from using it without the con- 
sent of the patentee, and we do not now remember 
where he is to be found. It cannot be too strong- 
ly urged that the great obstacle to success in the 
growing of tree fruits is the ravages of these two 
insects, curculio and codling moth ; once rid of 
these and the road would be easy. 

VARIETIK.S OF FRUIT. 

Before closing this report it seems proper to ob- 
serve that less than usual has been said upon the 
all-important subject of the best varieties for 
planting. The reason for this has been stated that 
the season did not seem to be favorable for form- 
ing correct judgments as to this question, for, as 
was observed in regard to small fruit, the weather 
was so unfavorable, all varieties suffering from the 
extreme drought, so that no satisfactory conclu- 
sions could be formed upon the respective merits 
of particular varieties, and with most kinds of tree 
fruits every variety did so well it was alike difficult 
to discriminate, and it will, perhaps, be better to 
leave this question to be discussed in other less 
fortunate seasons, when the question of " what 



varieties succeed best," will probably possess more 
interest. 

WHAT CAUSED THE WOXDEKFUL FRUITFULXF.SS 01' 
LAST YEAR. 

Just now there are other questions of surpassing 
interest to fruit growers, which the peculiarities of 
the past season have forced upon our attention, 
and which it would seem most fitting at this time 
to consider. The question which above all others 
now forces itself upon our notice and claims the 
earnest consideration of fruit growers presents 
itself in this form : Why is it that after a lapse 
of thirty years or more of almost total failure of 
our most important fruit crop in Pennsylvania, 
that all at once, all over the State, as if by some 
magic influence, we find ourselves alike astonished 
and perplexed by such an overwhelming abun- 
dance as to make the crop absolutely of no market 
value to the producer ? And not alone the apple 
crop is it which seems to have been thus suddenly 
rejuvenated, but as has been noticed, the (therry, 
the plum, and to some extent the pear, were alike 
favorably affected. The questions which right 
here press upon our mind with overwhelming 
force are of the deepest significance. What Inis 
caused this sudden and unlooked for change ? Is 
it only a spasmodic effort, to last but for one 
season, or have we again entered upon another 
bountiful era, such as a few only now living re- 
member to have seen ? Can it be attributed to 
the extreme and long-continued cold and absence 
of snow, whereby the soil was loosened with iVost 
to an unusual depth and thereby inparting fertili- 
ty to old and famished trees ? Was it that the 
extreme severity of the winter destroyed in a great 
measure the fruit depredating insects? Was the 
almost total absence of moisture in the soil during 
the winter and spring favorable to fruitfnlness? 
Had the dry weather and absence of storms during 
the blossom season anything to do with it ? And, 
lastly, was the unprecedented heat of the summer 
favorable ? or did some or all of these causes com- 
bine to produce such wonderful i-esults ? These are 
questions of the deepest interest to fruit growers, 
because, though we may uot be able to control any 
of the influences which may have tended to pro- 
duce the results in question, it is always important 
in the pursuit of scientific knowledge on any sub- 
ject to ascertain facts and discover causes, no 
matter how much they may seem to be beyond our 
control. Mere abstract truth is always valuable, 
and its discos ery will, sooner or later, always lead 
useful practical results. It would be out of 
place here to pursue this subject further, f to 



TEE LAJ^CASTER FARMER. 



31 



attempt to discuss these (|Uostioiis at length would 
be to trespass on your time and far exceed the 
proper limits of a report like this, but it seemed 
proper to call your attention to a subject of such 
importance, the investigation and discussion of 
which cannot but be interesting!:, and may lead to 
important discoveries, for surely a season so ex. 
traordiiiary cannot be without its lessons of great 
practical moment, and what these may be must 
pre-eminently concern a society like this to find 
out. 

Respectfully submitted by 

E. Satterthwait, 

Chairman of Committee. 



PLANT TREES. 



AS our forests are annually fast disappearing i 
to make way for the tiller of the soil, and ' 
being converted into all kinds of material for I 
manufactories, railroads and fences, the qnestion ' 
natiirally occurs to the thinker, What will we do as | 
a nation in future years for timber for building \ 
and manufacturing purposes? It naturally fol- 
lows that taking away and not replenishing again, 
or, in other words, keeping up the supply, will 
Boon exhaust the source or head, taking out of the 
meal tube often, and not replacing any will soon 
find us at the bottom, tn some of the foreign 
countries forests are protected by the government 
and he who cuts down a certain amount of timbci- 
must plant the same number of acres again or be 
subject to the penalty of the law, while here in 
the United States, in nearly all newly-settled u 
tricts that are heavily timbered, it is often the ob- 
ject of the possessor thereof to clear his lands of 
timber in any manner he can. AVhile he is destroy- 
ing it in the most reckless manner, future genera- 
tions will be in want of it on account of this 
great destruction. This is the case of those 
heavy timbered districts in the far West. Let us 
now come home to our own Stale, and. more di- 
rect still, to our own county. Land being in de- 
mand and sc'ling at high prices, nearly all good 
land has been converted into arable land to pay a 
good interest, as some would say, as it does not 
pay to have lands in that condition and annually 
get but a small return for present use. It may be 
said by some that their timber land is at its best, 
and soon will be on the decline, and in this case 
should be cut and used to the best purpose. But. 
as is too often the case, hardly a single tree is 
planted to replenish acres that have been re- 
moved, and thus we in our county, noted for its 



fertility and abundance in nearly all other things, 
are annually getting more iu want of building and 
fencing materials, and at no very distant day we 
must get most of our supplies of this kind from 
some distance place at steep prices. This can be 
remedied to a great extent if each one who is the 
owner of a tract of land, be it large or small, 
would plant from time to time a eertain number 
of trees. This may be done on such portions of 
the farm that cannot be cultivated to a good ad- 
vantage. For instance, along permanent foncea, 
broken lands laying in an angle of a field often 
left uncultivated, still having sufficient good soil 
on it to grow trees to a good advantage along 
streams fiowing through the farm, etc. Thus, the 
owner of the farm may at least grown a good por- 
tion of his fencing material. One of the best 
kinds of trees for this purpose is the yellow locust ; 
it is a quick grower, and is one of the surest trees 
to grow, if properly planted, and when once a 
good sized tree, it may be cut, and the stump, if 
protected from cattle, will soon send forth sprouts 
again which will in a short time be fit to cut 
again, and thus it may be continued perpetually. 
For rails chestnut is mostly used, and those who 
have that kind of timber land can continue it the 
same as locust trees. In marshy soils and along 
streams willows may be planted and used for fence 
rails, and often answers the purpose quite well. 
Then, again, we must not forget our fruit trees. 
What makes the farm more attractive and hence 
more saleable than an abundance of fruit, and this 
can so easily be done by planting a goodly num- 
ber of trees each year, amounting to but a few 
dollars, and requiring but a short time to do it. 
In this way we can keep up the supply. Some of 
the finest farms are often sadly neglected in this 
respect. Then, again, the yards and buildings 
should be adorned and made comfortable by plant 
ing shade trees. Nothing is more delightful on a 
hot summer day than a social group in a well 
shaded farm-house yard. Let the owners, then, 
of the farms of this great county of ours plant 
trees of various kinds, so that we can hand down 
to posterity, to some extent as we received them, 
farms not wholly destitute of trees. 

E. S. H. 
East Hempfield, January 18, 1873. 



The Khedive of Egypt is believed to be the 
richest person in the world. Some report his in- 
come to be .§50,000,000 per year. He indulges 
in twenty-five magnificently furnished palaces, 



s^ 



THE LAMCASTER FARMER^ 



and has his private steam yachts for sea and 
river service. With all his wealth, however, he 
is far from being a man of leisure. He is not 
only the ruler of a vast country, but a merchant, 
manufacturei", banker, statesman, shipbuilder and 
farmer. He is represented as being the largest 
farmer in the world, and one of the most enter- 
prising. His experiments in agriculture extend 
to almost every department of the business, and 
embrace tillage, manures, stock breeding and the 
acclimation of plants and animals. Among the 
little enterprises he has now on hand is the con 
Btruction of factories to work up the raw pro- 
ducts of his vast plantations of cotton and sugar 
cane, and the construction of a railroad the en- 
tire length of his dominions. As he is giving 
great attention to the improvement of his army, 
many believe this railroad is undertaken largely 
■with a view of carrying on a war of conquest with 
the savage nations that live to tho south of him. 
His industry is remarkable. He sleeps but six 
hours in the twenty-four, after which he attends 
to matters of state ; then to public enterprises, 
and lastly to his private business. 



CORRESF'OiMDENGE. 

PENNSYLVANIA FRUIT GROWERS, AS- 
SOCIATION. 

THE fourteenth annual convention of this 
Society was held in the city of Reading, 15th 
and 16th inst. This sooiety was organized and 
held its first meeting in the city of I-iancaster, 
February 1st, 1860. A large majority of its first 
members were from Lancaster and Chester coun- 
ties ; since then nearly all the counties of easteru_ 
and middle Pennsylvania have been represented.. 

A number of members were present at Reading 
who were also at the first meeting of the society. 
President Hoopes, I believe, has not missed a ses- 
sion since its organization. During its existence, 
meetings have been held in Philadelphia, Harris 
burg, Easton, Pittsburg, West Chester, Bcthle 
hem, Chambersburg, and other places; thus dif- 
fusing pomological and horticultural knowledge 
throughout a large proportion of the State, and 
its mission is thus to continue until horticultural 
knowledge and interest shall stand second to no 
other calling, and until our State shall export in- 
stead of import such fruits, etc., which her soil and 
clinuite will yield in abundance whenever proper 
attention is paid to them. 

The meeting at Reading was consisdered one of 



the most interesting which the society has held. 
Nearly all to whom subjects were allotted 
for the occasion responded either verbally or by 
essay, consequently much valuable matter was 
brought before the meeting and much thereof 
ably discnssed. 

The fine fruits on the tables were very much 
admired. The largest proportion of the applea 
were from Berks county, among which were quite 
a number of seedlings, or having only local names, 
but no doubt well worthy of dissemination. 

It is becoming more evident Avith each year that 
Pennsylvanians have committed a serious mistake 
in introducing and planting so many New York 
apples instead of selecting the best of our native 
State for general planting. The society will of 
course do, and is already doing, much to correct 
this error. 

At its annual meetings the merits of the various 
fruits are considered and a correct conclusion will 
be the necessary consequence. 

It is to be regretted that so few among those 
who are interested avail themselves of the ad van. 
tages gained by attending the Society's meetings 
or receiving its annual reports. 

At the late meeting a new feature was intro- 
duced which will interest an influential class of 
our citizens. It is the adding of " Landscape and 
Ornamental Gardening" to the subjects usually 
discussed at its sessions. These discussions will 
have an elevating and refining influence. In thia 
age the useful and the beautiful are becoming 
more and more blended and will eventually be 
considered inseparable by the raassess as it is now 
by the few. 

With all the importance that attaches to this so 
ciety I feel sorry to say that Lancaster city, where it 
was brought into existence had only two represen- 
tatives at Reading although the county was fairly 
represented. 

Jan. 20, 1873. H. M. Engle. 



EDITORS FARMER: In looking over nursery 
catalogues of pears, we find varieties without 
number described, all said to be good. But ex- 
perience has taught many that at least a few were 
poor, worthless stutT. Many, too, desirous of 
planting, are confused by this long array of names. 
If any one should be able to draw any crumbs of 
comfort from the twenty years' experience which 
the writer had in the described varieties, they are 
welcome thereto. The varieties ripen somewhat 
in the order in which they are described. 



THE LAJ^CASTER FARMER. 



33 



Doyenne d'Etc— a good little pear, but some- 
times cracks. 

Maynard — fair size, second rate quality, but in- 
dispensable on account of its productiveness. 

Bcurre Giffard — fine in quality, size and color — 
cracks sometimes. 

Osband's Summer— generally of fair quality 
and productive. 

Madeleine - good, but rots too soon. 

Ou — nearly always good, small. 

Manning's Elizabeth— first rate in every re- 
spect ; productive and profitable, if small. 

Rostiezer — some years very good, but mostly 
poor. 

]31oodgood — a rich russet color, good flavor ; 
rather poor grower. 

Tyson — good quality, poor bearer ; have a 
standard twenty years old never fruited. 

Dearborn's Seedling — small, productive, good. 

Julienne — quality medium, productive. 

Clapp's Favorite — a splendid fruit in size, 
quality and color, but rots entirely too soon. 

Bartiett — first-rate in every respect, deservedly 
stands at the head of the list. 

Hosenshenk — large, good quality, but the fruit 
is not fair. 

Kirtland — fair size and quality, rots at the core. 

Belle Lucrative — quality mostly excellent, does 
not sell well on account of color, 

Beurre de Amanlis — poor, rots badly. 

Flemish Beauty — a splendid pear, sometimes 
difficult to ripen, rots soon. 

Brandywine - good quality, poor bearer. 

Nixon — small, poor. 

Henry IV. — green, insignificant. 

Doyenne Boussack— not of much account. 

Andrews — fine size, medium quality. 

St. Ghislain — good, productive. 

Buerre St. Nicholas — beautiful, poor. 

White Doyenne — cracks, worthless. 

Gray Doyenne — sometimes good. 

Westcot — fair quality, not productive. 

Howell — fine size, good, promising. 

Philadelphia — large, poor. 

Oswego — sour, cracks, worthless. 

St. Michael Archange — sweet, excellent. 

Urbanite — sub-acid, good, slow bearer. 

Onondaga — large, coarse, poor, 

Stevens' Genesee — worthless. 

Canandaigua — large, poor quality. 

Kingsessing — large, good, poor color. 

Chinese Sand — beautiful, good for preserving. 

Leon Le Clerc — large, not productive. 

Noveau Poiteau — medium quality. 



Pius IX. — of no account. 

Petre — of no account. 

Chaumantel — large and mostly good. 

Beurre Superfine — sub-acid, good, rots badly. 

Brown d'Ezee — ^jnicy, good. 

Brown Beurre — acid, poor. 

Forelie — beautiful, poor. 

Martin Sec — worthless. 

Belle et Bonne — the name beautiful and good, 
docs not always hold good. 

Democrat — rots badly at the core. 

BuflFum — good, productive. 

Seckel — first rate quality, productive. 

Louis Bonne de Jersey — large, nearly always 
good. 

Duchess de Angouleme — very large, good, 
great bearer wants thinning to bring the fruit to 
perfection. 

Beurre Diel — large, good, productive. 

Sheldon — a promising fruit. 

Beurre Bosc — good and productive. 

Dix — will bear little before fifteen years old^ 
Very good, promising. 

Beurre de Anjou — first-rate in every respect. 

Beurre Clairgeau -large, showy, medium qual- 
ity. 

Triomphe de Jodoigne — very large, medium 
quality. 

Lawrence — always good. 

Winter Nclis — not always good. 

Vicar of Winkfield — large, productive, mostly 
poor quality. 

Glout Morceau — sometimes excellent, but does 
not oft«n do well. 

Doyenne d'Alencon — does not ripen well. 

St. Germain — good, not productive. 

Reading — promising. 

Easter Beurre — good, not easy to ripen. 

Of the foregoing varieties there are perhaps 
not a dozen that are always first-rate in every par 
ticular. Quality, productiveness and season' 
could i>e covered with five varieties, viz. : Man. 
nings Elizabeth, Bartlet, Seckel, Lawrence, 
Beurre de Anjou. 

It might perhaps be well enough for many to 
stop here. 

But when we take into consideration the great 
difference in taste, productiveness, beauty, season 
and the effect that different soils and locations 
have, those who have time and means should 
plant a greater number of varieties. Q. 

Conestoga, January 1, 1873. 



Subscribe for the Lancaster Farmkb. 



SJf 



THi: LAJ\'CA8TEM FABMER. 



ihc ^mv^k^itx ^avmev. 



LANCASTER, FEBRUARY, 1873. 



S. S. RATHVON, Editor. 

Putilit bed monthly under the auspiee? of tlieAouicuL- 

TUKAL ANDHoRTICtn.TURAL SOCIETY. 

§135 per Tear in Advance. 

A consiflerable fieduction t ) club.s of five or more. 

A'l coinmunicitions, to insu-e insertion, must be in the 
hands <if tlie editors befort^ tl;e 20th of each nunth. Ad- 
dress S. P. Ea'hTOTi, Lincaster, P;;. 

All ajvei tisemants, tubscnptions and remitrancep to the 
addre^3 0f the publisher, ,1. P. DEVKMN, 

Inquirer Building, Lancaster, Pa- 

We devote much of our present number to 
matters relating to the late meeting- of the Penn'a 
Fruit (Jrowers' Society, held at Reading, Pa., 
commencing on the 15th of January last. As 
these papers eminate from such a respectable and 
reliable source, and are of such a practical charaC' 
ter, we feci they will amply compensate for the 
absence of our usual variety, and that our readers 
will, therefore, need no other apology. This insti- 
tution is composed of some of the ablest and most 
intelligent fruit-growers of our State, and is 
gradually attaining to a distinguished rank in the 
country. AVe take a special pride in its progress- 
and often regret that the stern and irrevocable 
circumstances in which we are placed, disables us 
from an active participation in its proceedings. 
We have some good members in the society from 
this county, but not nearly so many as its position 
in the material annals of the country would seem 
to demand. Lancaster ought to be a fearless and 
intelligent leader in fruit culture, and give charac- 
ter to the institutions of the State ; but instead 
of that, she has thus far been content to occupy 
rather a subordinate position. She seems slow to 
comprehend that the cultivation of fruit maybe a 
better paying crop than many others upon which 
quite as much labor is bestowed, and as much re- 
sponsibility is involved. 

R. 



MEETING OF THE LANCASTER COUNTY 
AGRICULTURAL AND HORTICUL- 
TURAL SOCIETY. 

THE regular monthly meeting of the Society 
was held Monday, January 6th, 1873. in 
the Orphans' Court Room. Henry M. Engle in the 
chair. Minutes read and approved. 

Milton B. Eshelman proceeded to read an essay 
upon, " What shall we do with the Coal Ashes ?" 



One of the uses proposed by the essayist wa.s to 
make of them an absorbent of unpleasant, unsalu. 
brious and pestilential odors. He referred to the 
earth-closet system patented by E. Magee KeifJer- 

H. M- Engle remarked that earth-closets were as 
yet but little known, but said that those who had 
used them would be very unwilling to dispense 
with them. He narrated the views expressed coa- 
cerning tbem by President Colder of the Agricul- 
tural College, who regarded them a great family 
convenience. 

Milton B. Eshelman had introduced the earth- 
closet system in his section, and he would now be 
very unwilling to be without them. Jacob (». 
Peters commended this use of ashes that several 
of the mcMTibers were recommending. 

E. Magee KeiflFi^r, who happened to be present, 
explained the advantages of the earth-closet sys- 
tem, and said he believed the time would come 
when they would become as generally used as is 
now the sewing machine. 

Casper Hiller thought the only question before 
the meeting was whether coal ashes would answer 
for earth-closets instead of clay. E. Magee Kief- 
fer regarded coal ashes as good for deodorizing 
purposes as anything else except perhaps swamp 
muck. He had used ashes and they answered the 
purpose remarkably well. 

M. B. Eshelman remarked that all that was ne- 
cessary with coal ashes was to sift them carefully 
in a sieve and extract therefrom the cinders. 

Magee Kieflfer spoke from experience when he 
asserted that coal ashes constitute oik; of the best 
fertilizers imaginable after they have been used as 
deodorizers. 

A bill of Joseph Snyder for $300 for services 
was ordered to be paid. H. M. Engle next deliv- 
ered his valedictory address upon the close of offi- 
cial term for the year 1872. 

Levi S. Reist addressed the society and said 
that our organization was of great utility to the ag- 
ricultural interest of our country and he thought 
much yet remained to be done in the way of in. 
troducing and trying varieties of fruits. The so- 
ciety had labored under great disadvantages, hav- 
ing been obliged to hold exhibitions at their own 
expense, but he hoped the future would be bright- 
er. The study of })otany he regarded as very 
necessary, and indeed thought it should be made a 
branch of study in the common schools. 

On motion of Johnson Miller a vote of thanks 
was unanimously tendered Mr. Engle for the full 
and efficient manner in which he had discharged 
his duties as president during the past year. 



THE LAJSrCASTER FARMER. 



35 



Jacob L. Landis next read an essay upon the 
subject of " Fences of the United States." 

Johnson Miller remarked that though the fence 
expenses as given by Mr. Landis in his essay 
eeemcd large, yet he believed they were fully sus- 
tiiiued by publications from the agricultural de- 
partment, and he moved a vote of thank ■ to the 
essayist, which was adopted. 

Society went into an election of officers to serve 
for the ensuing year. Henry M. Engle was elec- 
ted President. 

Levi S. Reist, Ephraini Hoover, H. K. Stoner, 
and Johnson Miller were elected Vice Presi- 
dents. 

For the remaining offices the following were elec- 
ted : Secretary, Alex. Harris ; Corresponding Sec- 
retary, Calvin Cooper ; Treasurer, Dr. J. W. Hies- 
tand ; Librarian, S. P. Eby ; Botanist, Jacob 
StoulTer ; Entomologist, S. S. Rath von ; Chemist, 
Dr. W. L. Difxenderfer. 

Levi S. Rsist was chosen to read an essay at the 
uext meeting. Society then on motion adjourned. 



MISCELLANEOUS 



A LESSON IN FEEDING STOCK. 

A CORRESPONDENT of the Maina Far- 
mer having made the statement that among 
the valnab'e essons that the past winter had 
taught him in feeding stock, was the conviction 
that he has heretofore " fed nearly double the 
amount of hay needed," another writer for the 
saino paper comments as follows on his remarks : 
If feeders have learned, as many no doubt have 
done, that it is better to feed less hay and substi 
tu e meal or some other concentrated food in 
place of the hay withheld, then the lesson will 
not be controverted ; but if they mean what they 
say. that they have been feeding too much hay to 
the stock - have been giving much more nutri- 
ment than was needed — it is cjuite another thing. 
1 have learned no such lesson. I have learned 
(from tlie experience of others) that stock can 
be wintered— can be kept alive — on much less hay 
than has usually been fed to them. 

AVhen you want stock to grow during the win- 
ter, oxen to lay on fat, cows to give an abundant 
flow of milk, you must give them something to do 
it with. Muscle, fat, milk, are all in the feed 
given, be that grain or hay. It comes from no 
other source, and can be obtained in no other way. 
A certain amount of nutriment is required to suj)- 
port vitality in an animal. If yon get growth, 
fat, or milk, it must come from nutriment digest- 
ed and assimilated in excess of what is reciuired 
to sustain vitality. If you desire rapid growth, 
much fat, or an abundant flow of milk, you must; 
leed liberally, and at the same time feed such food 



as Avill keep all the organs of the animal in a 
healthy, active condition, that they may be en- 
abled to digest and assimilate the greatest possi- 
ble amount of food. Milk producers understand 
this well, and you have not heard them say they 
have learned to keep their cows on a, small amount 
of food. 

They all feed shorts, and feed them not to save 
hay, but to make their cows eat more hay. Shorts 
are heatlhy food, and promote the health and ac- 
tivity of all the organs of digestion and assimi- 
lation, and thus the cow is enabled to convert 
more hay into milk. I have been feeding c()ttoa 
seed meal with the greatest satisfaction. It saved 
me no hay, but it gave the cows a voracious ap- 
petite, and that appstite, created by a 
healtliy digestion, converted a larg.; quantjlV of 
hay into milk. 

My expL'rience has taught me, and last winter 
confirmed it, that the profit from keeping stock 
comes from the food digested and assimilaled in 
excess of what is.rcquircd to support vitality, a id 
the more we can get a single animal to digest and 
assimilate, and therefore convert into the desired 
product, the greater the profit. 



W¥j extract the following from the Innh 
iSporbnan and Fanmr .- 
" With respect to the growth i>\' horses, as far 
as regards height, it generally discontinm.s be- 
tween three and four years old. After three years 
old the limbs very seldom become longer, but the 
carcase increases in depth between the top of the 
withers and that portion of the chest immediately 
beneath it. Professor Ferguson some years ago 
discovered that the measure- of tli(> fore-limli of a 
three-year-old colt or filly, from the center ■ r the 
l)astern joint, is the measure of that ))(trtinn .>f the 
adult animal between the center of the elbow 
joint and the top of the wither. Tlin-'. it is want- 
ed to know what increased height a thi'.v-year-old 
will attain when he or she shall have reacfied ma- 
turity it is only necessary to ascertain how much 
greater the distance is between the elbow joint 
and the top of tlie wither. The diffcrenr,;" be- 
tween these two measurements will nearly exactly 
indicate the maximum height the animal will at- 
tain in the ordinary course of nature, on an viiig 
at maturity This rule has for some time bei-n 
recognized in the cavalry of the English and Con- 
tinental armies as almost infallible. Doni's are 
continually, though slowly, chaniging their strnc- 
ture ; but as to their length, the bones of horses 
generally discontinue their elongation at about 
between four and four and a half years old. With 
respect to substance and structure, they are nc* 
quite developed until the animal is about five 
years old." There is also in the same ])aper a 
letter from a " Netrinary Studen," of which the 
annexed is a portion, but which hardly displays .so 
much practical knowledge : " I i)erceived a par- 
agraph, signed ' RoAvel,' condemning the use of 
bearing rains, and, as I fully concur with the 
views of the writer on the subject, you will per- 
haps allow me to observe that he has omittud ia 



S6 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



his list of diseases, vices, etc., consequent upoa 
the continued use of the bearing-rein, a vei'y com- 
mon and at the same time rather dangerous affec- 
tion, viz : poll-evil. When the head of the ani- 
mal is elevated for a length of time, the muscles 
of the neck —especially the longissimus dorsi — 
being placed in an abnormal position, that is, too 
long contracted, become irritated, and a certain 
amount of inflammation is set up which ends in the 
formation of an abscess, constituting the so-called 
poll-evil ; and owing to its proximity to the spi- 
nal cord, there is danger of the pus burrowing in 
on the cord, causing paralysis and death. Then, 
in the operations for this disease, it is almost im- 
possible so perform successfully unless conversant 
with the anatomy of the parts, as the ligamentum 
flucha; is situated there, and if that is cut the head 
immediately dropsj." 



R UNAWAY HOESES. 

R REALIZING that it is very easy to give 
directions about stopping runaway horses 
much easier than it is to put them in practice, the 
Christian Union ventures the following hints : 
" If you ai-e in a wagon and the horse takes fright, 
and gets on the full jump before you can bring 
your strength to bear on the bit, there is nothing 
for it but to hold on and try your best to stop 
him. " sawing," if necessary, on the bit. Failing 
in this, you can perhaps keep him in the road until 
his wind gives out, or should a good opportunity 
occur you may turn him against a fence or the 
eide of a house, or in fact against anything that 
will stop him. The last is a dangerous recourse, 
Vtut we have seen it done with success. When a 
Bpan of horses arerunning the difficulty is increas- 
ed, and more strength, more skill and better luck 
on the part of the driver are very desirable quali- 
ties. A strong hand and a determined will nearly 
always sufBce to stop runaways, if nothing breaks. 
If the lines break or the bits give way, an active 
person may, without much difficulty, climb over 
the dash-board, get on the animal's back, and 
check hmi by grasping his nose. Leaping from 
the carriage while the horse is running is almost 
certain to involve more or less injury. An active 
person may do it safely, but it is the part of pluck; 
and generally that of wisdom, to stay by the car- 
riage as long as the traces hold. When the horse 
is fairly stopped, treat him kindly, and, if possible, 
let him stand until his nerves are quieted. If a 
horse is running toward you, courage and adroit- 
ness may enable you to stop him. If you can 
secure a hold on the reins, or one of them, near 
the bits, you are all right. Hold on, and within 
a few rods at most, the horse will stop, unless he 
is a most extraordinary animal. In the case of a 
span, if you stop one horse, the other must stop 
too, if nothing gives way. We can tell those 
who have never tried it that it is not a pleasant 
pastime to stand by the roadside and watch the 
approach of a frantic horse, making calculation 
the while to catch some part of the harness. Still 
it can be done, and is done many times during 
every year. A runaway was stopped in this city 



a short time ago by a boy, who climbed into the 
wagon from behind, passed forward and along the 
thills till he could reach the reins, when he placed 
himself astride the animal and stopped him within 
three squares. An equestrian has a better, chance 
every way to check his horse than has the driver 
of a vehicle. One trouble is, that the motion of 
the animal causes his mane to stream out, and 
embarrass the rider's hold on the lines. This, 
however, is a minor difficulty, and an equestrian 
who has a firm seat ought to be able to check the 
horse or steer him clear of all obstacles until he ia 
glad to stop. 



LINSEED TEA FOR SICK HORSES. 



THE following item, which we find credited 
to an exchange, is well worth perusing : 

" Linseed tea is not only a valuable restorative 
for sick horses, but is exceedingly useful in cases 
of inflammation of the membranes peculiar to the 
organs of respiration and digestion ; it 
shields and lubricates the same ; tranquilizes the 
irritable state of the parts, and favors healthy ac- 
tion. We have prescribed linseed tea in large 
quantities, during the past month, for horses la- 
boring under the prevailing influenza; they seemed 
to derive much benefit from it, and generally 
drank with avidity. Aside from the benefit we 
derive from the action of mucilage and oil which 
the seed contains, its nutritive elements are of 
some account, especially when given to animals 
laboring under soreness in the organs of degluti- 
tion, which incapacitates from swallowing more 
solid food. In the event of an animal becoming 
prostrated by inability to masticate or swallow 
more food, linseed tea may be resorted to, and in 
case of irritable cough, the addition of a little 
honey njakes it still more useful. In the latter 
form it may be given to animals laboring under 
acute or chronic diseases of the urinary organs, 
more especially of the kidneys. 

" To make linseed tea : Put a couple of hands- 
ful of the seed into a bucket, and pour a gallon 
and a half of boiling water upon it. Cover it up 
a short time ; then add a couple of quarts of cold 
water, when it will be fit for use." 



THE COST OP ROYALTY. 

THE English Cabinet is compo.sed of sixteen 
members, who are receive annually between 
them in salaries £G6,000. The American Admin- 
istrative Department is composed of seven mem- 
bers, who receive a sum equal to £8,400 among 
them. In England some members get £5,000, 
others £7.000, and one as much as £10,000 a year. 
In America no member gets more than £1,200. 
The entire English Administration is paid, in 
salaries alone, £176,718, which, with the £4.5.023 
for expenses of the House of Lords, and £49,806 
for the House of Commons, together with £G92,- 
373 paid to the Royal family, make the cost of the 
English Government to be £963,920, while the 



THE LAJsrCASTER FARMER. 



37 



Kepublic in America costs only between £700,000 
and £800,000. Out of tliis sum tlie Americans 
pay their representatives. In America the sov- 
ereignty is the people. The people pay to rule 
themselves, while in England they pay royalty to 
rule them. In America the sovereignty supports 
itself; in England it is supported by something 
outside of itself. Surely then that which is self- 
supporting is more economical than that which 
depends on something extraneous for its existence. 
In America its £700,000 or £800,000 are dis- 
tributed among nearly five hundred persoms, but 
in England the £903,920 are given to less than 
one hundred individuals. So that in England 
about one hundred Government officials cost over 
£163,000 more than five timep that number in 
America. 



THE OLD AND THE NEW. 

WHAT is Stewart, or Belmont, or the Mar- 
quis of Westminster, to Ptolemy Phila- 
delphus, of Egypt, who amassed a little property 
of $350,000,000 ? And which of our extravagant 
young ladies in these boastetl times ever gave to her 
lover, as Cleopatra did, a pearl dissolved in vine- 
gar (or undissolved) worth $400,000. Then there 
was Paulina, one of the ton of Rome, who used to 
wear jewels when she returned her visits worth 
$800,000. Well, they boast of Mr. Stewart's 
"marble palac-e" on Thirty-fourth street and Fifth 
avenue. We do not suppose this house, which is 
about the best they have in New York, cost more 
than half a million of dollars. Cicero, who was a 
poor man, gave $150,000 for hLs house, and Clo- 
dius paid $650,000 for his establishment on the 
palatine, while Massala gave $2,000,000 for the 
house at Antium. Seneca, who was just a plain 
philosopher, like Mr. Greeley, was worth $120,- 
000,000. They talk about a man's failing iuNew 
York for a million fis if it was a big thing. Ca;sar, 
before he entered any office— when he was a young 
gentlemen in private life — owed .$14,000,000. and 
he purchased the friendship of Qua?sor for $2,500,- 
000. Mark Antony owed $1,400,000 on the Ides 
of March, and he paid it before the Kalends of 
March. This was nothing ; he squandered $720;- 
000,000 of the public money — Maj. Hodge's de- 
falcation being for the contemptible sum of $470,- 
000. And these fellows lived well. Esopus, 
who was a play-actor, paid $400,000 for a supper. 
Their wines were often kept for two ages, and 
some of them sold for $20 per ounce. Dishes 
were made of gold and silver, set with precious 
stones. The beds of Heliogabalus were of solid 
silver, his tables and plates were of pure gold, and 
his mattresses, covered with carpets of cloth of gold, 
were stuffed with down from under the wings of 
partridges. It took $80,000 a year to keep up 
the dignity of a Roman Senator, and some of them 
spent $1,000,000 a year. Cicero and Pompey 
" dropped in " one day on Lucullus — nobody at 
home but the family — and that family dinner cost 
$4,000. But we talk of population. We boast 
of London and New York. Rome had a popula- 



tion of between three and four millions. The 
wooden theater of Scarurus contained 80,000 
seats ; the Coliseum, built of stone, would seat 
22,000 more. The circus maximus (think of it, 
old John Robinson !) would hold 385,000 specta- 
tors. There were in the city 9,000 public baths, 
those of Diocletian alone accommodating 3,000 
bathers. Even in the sixth century, after Rome 
had been sacked and plundered by the Goths and 
Vandals, Zaeharia, a traveler, asserts that there 
were 384 spacious streets, 80 golden statues of 
the gods, 46,097 palaces, 13,052 fountains, 3,785 
bronze statues of the emperors and generals, 22 
great horses in bronze, 2 colossi, 2 spiral columns, 
31 theaters, 11 amphitheaters. 9,026 baths, 2,000 
shops of perfumes. 2,091 prisons. As a setoff to 
Mr. Sprague's " monumental tombstone," we may 
merely mention the mausoleum of Augustus, in 
the northern part of the Campus Martius, consist- 
ing of a large tumulus of earth raised on a lofty 
basement of white marble, and covered on the 
summit with evergreens, as in the manner of a 
hanging garden, and the whole surmounted by a 
bronze figure of Augustus. At the entrance were 
two Egyptian obelisks, fifty feet high, and all 
around was an extensive grove, divided into walks 
and terraces. 



PREDISPOSITION TO SPAVIN. 

Every horsemen knows that a certain form of 
hock is predisposed to curbs, and the bulging back- 
ward of the hock at the place of curbing is a for- 
mation that condemns a leg in the mind of any 
critical horseman, about as certainly as a curb it- 
self would if seen on a well formed leg. It is 
also well understood that knees that bend natur- 
ally a little forward of a straight line are more 
likely to become " sprung." or to " go over" by 
hard usage than knees that are naturally straight, 
or a little set back, in the form designated iis 
" calf-kneed." These facts prove nothing in re- 
spect to spavin, but they seem analogous to what 
I believe is a fact in relation to that disease. 
There is a form of hock that looks like a spavin, 
a prominence of the bone at the lowest part of 
the hock on the inside that gives a square appear- 
ance to the joint when viewed from the front by 
looking between the forelegs, and that would often 
be mistaken for a spavin, if only one leg were 
seen, but a comparison of the two legs shows that 
it is a natural formation. I believe that examina- 
tion will show that nearly all the spavins are to 
be found on hocks of that form. The opposite 
form of hock presents a very different appear- 
ance. In it the hock, on the inside, tapers 
smoothly down to the shank bone, and, if my ob- 
servations are correct, that is the safest kind to 
invest in so far as spavin is concerned. 



GROWTH OF A HORSE'S BONES. 



Oats for Lambs. — The importance of having 
lambs ready for market at as early a period of the 
season as possible, is a matter which every farmer 



38 



THE LAJyCASTER FARMER. 



who lives in the vicinity of large markets under- 
stands, or at least onght to. It may perhaps not 
be known to all farmers that lambs are able to 
eat oats when from three to four weeks old, and 
my experience has been that there is no provender 
with the use of which I am familiar, that appears 
to have such immediate and salutary effect upon 
them. All that is necessary to be done is to 
moisten the oats and place them in a trough 
raised about six or eight inches from the floor, and 
where the old sheep cannot get at them. Those 
who are skeptical in regard to this matter, can 
very readily test the value of this suggestion on 
a single lamb or a pair, 



To Make Boys Farmers. — I wish all the far- 
mers would heed what the American Agricultu- 
rint says : " Induce the boys to take an interest 
in the farm, in the imi)lements, in the stock ; tell 
them all your plans, your successes and failures; 
give them the history of your life and what you 
did and how you lived when a boy ; but do not 
harp too much on the degenerate character of 
young men of the present age ; praise them when 
you can and encourage them to do still better. 
Let them dress up in the evening, instead of sit- 
ting down in their dirty clothes in a dirty room. 
Provide plenty of light. Thanks to kerosene, 
our country homes can be as brilliantly lighted 
as the gas-lit residences in the city. Encourage 
the neighbors to drop in evenings. Talk agricul- 
ture rather than politics ; speak of the importance 
of large crops, of good stock, of liberal feeding 
and of the advantages of making animals com- 
fortable, rather than of the hard times, low 
l)rices and high wages. Above all, encourage the 
boy to read good agricultural papers. Get him 
some good agricultural book to study. Read 
with him and give him the benefit of your expe- 
rience and criticism. When he has mastered this, 
give him another. In our own case, we owe our 
love for farming principally to the fact that our 
father told us of everything that he was doing on 
the farm ; answering all the questions, and en- 
couraging, rather than refusing, our childish de- 
sire of helping him to plow, to chop, to drain, as 
well as firing the brush heaps. 



Filberts. — The Turf, Farm and Fldd has the 
following in reference to the cultivation of filberts : 
We were surprised, on visiting one of our Broad- 
way fruit shops, to find fresh filberts, imported 
from Kent, in England, selling with their heavy 
j!;reen husks on for eighty cents per pound, and 
this has been the average for several years. Why 
should not our farmers in the Middle and Southern 
{States grow filberts ? The climate which will 
produce good peaches will also produce filberts, 
and all of our light tobacco lands in the basin of 
the Chesapeake are as well suited to their growth 
as the soil of Kent, and certainly at the prices now 
ruling in New York, or at even half these prices, 
filberts would prove the most profitable product 
within the whole range of agriculture. Nor is 



the adaptation of the soil and climate of our Mid- 
dle States to the growth of these nuts at all prob- 
lematical, for they have been grown in a small 
way on some of the old homesteads in Virginia for 
more than a hundred years. 



Double Your Corn Crop. — Now is the 
time to secure your seed corn. Do not 
postpone it until planting time. By 
careful selection, and proper culture, corn can be 
made to produce two or three ears, instead of one. 
Every farmer should secure the best seed offered 
for sale, and, after the crop matures, select the 
best at the time of husking the corn, always choos- 
ing from stalks that produce two ears. Take the 
lower one. But why take the lower one, you in- 
quire, when the upper one is generally the lai'gest? 
For two reasons — first, to have your corn throw 
out ears near the ground, and, second, to make it 
mature early. By selecting seed corn from the 
field in this way from year to year you will find 
that the corn will produce two and three ears to 
each stalk. 



How TO Plant Apfle-t'rees. — It is astonish- 
ing how much diversity of opinion there is and 
has been about the distance apart to plant apple- 
trees. After an experience of fifteen years I 
would plant apple-trees not less than twenty-four 
feet ajjart, from that to thirty-two feet. Apple- 
trees planted sixteen feet apart, when they get 
large enough to bear, are found by experience to 
be entirely too near each other, the limbs inter- 
lock, and it is difficult to get through the ore" 
with a wagon ; and the want of light and ' ^d 
causes the leaves to fall from the lower limh.s •>' 
the other trees become unhealthy. ' .."" ' 



Youxa orchards should be cultivatecj like a 
corn field until the trees begin to bear, and there 
is no better crop to grow among young trees than 
corn. Let the row of trees have the ground of 
the row to themselves, and then cultivate the row 
of trees the same as a row of corn, but let it stand 
as it forms a protection to the trees in winter. 
After the trees begin to bear, seed the ground to 
clover — clean, no blue grass or timothy mixed 
with it and don't take the clover off for hay, but 
either turn in the hogs or cut the clover and let 
it rot under the trees ; and whenever the clover 
gets crowded out by blue grass or timothy, plow 
It up and seed down again with clover. This is 
not theory with me, but it is based on observa- 
tion and successful practice. — Iowa Homestead. 



The sulphate of ammonia is excellent manurial 
liquid to apply to verbenas or any other flower, 
giving to the foliage a dark green, luxuriant and 
healthy appearance. It is economical, clean, and 
easily api)lied. Prepare it in the evening before 
using, b}' dissolving one ounce of ammonia in two 
gallons of water. It may be applied once a week 
with safety. 



THE LA J^ CASTER FARMER. 



89 



BOOK AND SPECIAL NOTICE DEPART- 
MENT. 

[For Tlie Faimer. 
Dblhhi, Indiana, 
January 0, 1873. 
Eds. Farmer :— 

According (o promise made you last, 
M ay, 1 now offer ih rough yi>ur advertising ca'nmns a few 
varieties of Grapes aud Pears, which I aiu certain are 
■worthy of exteasiTO trial, for their many merits and good 
qu aliii.s. 

You will See my prices are very reasonable, when the 
c ost at which most of thtm were procured is considered, 
and should they prove ts worthy in the succeeding years as 
they have in the past, their price will materially advance. 
And lay desire is to give lovers of choice fruit an opportu- 
nity to test thim wiih is little expense as possible, only so 
that I am reasonably paid lor my labor. 1 have secured 
now for me in Europe a very large selection of fruit trees, 
etc., which will be sent me next month, and I will let no 
pains or expense prevent me from, giving them a tair 
trial, 
'io all Horticulturists let me say, See Advertisement. 

J. H. HAYNES. 



LITEEAKY NOTICES. 



"The South, deToted to the material interests of the 
Southern States." This is an eight-page fol.o, published 
at Ko. 161 "W illiam street. New York, at $3 00 a year. To 
any person desiring to emigrate to the Southern States, or 
to engage in southern enterprises, whether agricultural, 
•ommercial, or mechanical, this journal must be of great 
value. It »bly illustrates southern fini-nces, property 
'•O^' Tiirists, ptrsonals, iijarketB, improvements, emigra- 
jp^^' , buciety, and southern interests in general, in so co- 
J^, • lucid aLd rational a manner , that reliability seems 
"Cuipresftd on tvtry page. Those intending to make in- 
vest ments in southern lands, railroads and manufactories, 
should by all means consult the columns of this paper, and 
as an a ".vertiting medium it has perhaps few or no superi- 
018. It doi s not confine itself merely to home interests, 
but also taXes in our foreign relations, and gives ample 
reports of all foreign markets, in which Americans are 
interested. 
Livic Stock, Farm and Fireside Journal. — A mag- 
niflctnt roj jil quarto, ol 32 pages, published by Haas, Kel- 
ley & Co., 191 William btieet, New York, at i82.0C a 
year, with a m»gnificent chromo as a premium. 

This really is, ae it professes to be, a journal ''for the 
arm, the turf, the dairy, the poultry yard, the apiary and 
the lamily," ai.d durirg the ye^r the subscriber gets 384 
pages of choice reading on all these subjects, printed on 
fine white paper, and in clear type, together with from 
three to four well-executed iliustrations in each number. 
Its content* are of an unexceptionable cider. 

The American Laud and Law Advisor —"A weekly 
j ournal of rtal estate, finance, building, and popularization 
of law'"— conducted upon the principal that "land is the 
basis of pr(!perty." This is a semi-tolio, of 16 pages, pub- 
lished by Croft & Philips, Pittsburg, Pa., at $2.50 per an- 
num, with a S5.00 chromo premium. In the specialties to 
which it Is devoted, we consider it eo[Ual, if not superior, 
to any other jcurnal In th« country. 

The Aurora Borealis. — A temperance and literary 
quarto, of 16 pages, issued quarterly, by Maaaonean Broa., 



Red Hook, N. Y., at 25 cents a year— in all respects the 
cheapest paper devoted to that cause in the country. 

The Farmers' Club.— A 12 pa^c semi-folio, "a radical 
agrirulturaljournal," devoted to the Interest of the farmer 
and the entertainment of the home circle, published by F. 
P. Lefever, Oxford, Chester county. Pa., at $1 00 a year, 
with a . eduction to clubs. A spirited paper identified with 
mental and material progress. 

Landreth'b Rural Register and Almanac for 1873, 
published by David Landreih & Son, Nos. 21 and 23 South 
Sixth Street. A perfect vaae mecum for tke faimer, the 
fruit-grower and the kitchen gardener, for gratuitous dis- 
tribution. 

Our Dumb ANiMALS.~An eight^page quarto, published 
monthly, at 46 Washington street, Boston, by the " Massa- 
chusetts Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals,' 
at 81.00 per annum. 

The Eclectic Ruralist and nursery exchange journal 
devoted to commercial, botanical and sesthetkal horticul- 
ture. IsFued bi-monthly by Geo. T. Fish, 36 Arcade, Ro- 
chester, N/ Y. 16 p^ges octavo, free. 

Our Church Work.— A semi-folio, of 16 pages, publish- 
ed monthly, by the Church and Press Association, Nos. 3 
and 5 Post-Office Avenue, Baltimore, Md., at $1.00 a year 
contains a large amount of interesting reading on practi- 
cal Christianity, and the progress of Church matters in 
general. 

"Monthly Report of the Department of Agriculture' 
for November and December received. Also "The Drug- 
gists Journal," the " Industrial Bulletin," "The Evening 
Post," the "National Oil Journal," "Bamberce's Newspa- 
per Reporter;" "The Farmer and Gardener," the "Penn- 
sylvania School Journal," "College Days," "Free Press," 
"Manheim Sentinel," and ether excellent publications 
for January, 1873, snd will receive our future atten- 
tion. 

The Land Ownbr— A journal of real estate, bnilding 
and improvement. The December number of this royal 
quarto is full of illustrations of the restored public build- 
ings of Chicago, and in looking at them we cann»t but re- 
gret that eo much mechanical labor and artistic magnifi- 
cence are subject to casualties so destructive to their per- 
manancy. The Colonnade Building, State «t., the Andretvt 
Building, Lasalle and Arcade Court, the New Criminal 
Court and Jail Buildings, Peter Page's Building, Wabash 
Avenue and Washington street. Our Manufacturing Zi^^r- 
ests and the A^ew U. S. Branch Mint, San Francisco, Oal., 
are among those of this number. 

The Index. — Devoted to "Liberty and Light," Toledo, 
Ohio, and New York ; a royal quarto of 16 pages, at $3.00 a 
year. A progressive journal advosating Union in essen- 
tials, and In non-essentials Liberty. 

Dreer's Garden Calendar for 1873.— A 12 mo. of 161 
pages, containing full descriptive lists of Garden and 
Flower Seeds, with directions for thalr cultivation ; price- 
lists for Market Gardeners, Horticultural Implements, 
books on Horticulture and rural affairs. Rustic Work, 
fancy Flower pots, terra-cotta ware, Immortelle Flowers 
improved vegetables, and all that relates to the truck and, 
flower Gardens, wHh a large number of illustrations, ia the 
mest complete publication of its kind that has fallen under 
observation the present season. Published by Henry A. 
Dreer, Seedsman and Florist, NOv 714 Chestnut street, 
Philadelphia. Pa., for gratuitous circulation, amo»g his 
patrons, present and prospective. 

The Journal op Industry.— "Devoted to the industries 
of the country." A royal quarto of 16 pages, and a tinted 
cover. This Is an entire new candidate for natronage, and 
from a cursory view of the contents of this its first number, 
we have no hesitation in saying that it deserves a liberal 
encourage ?nt, and no doubt will receive it. 

Published by Richard Irby and associates, Richmond, 
Ya., for $1.0« a year. 



JfO 



TEE LAJyCASTER FARMER. 



Thr Annual Report of the Chief Signal Officer, for the 
year 1872. This is an octavo volume of 2 2 pagps, with 
numerous engravings. This volume contains an immense 
amount of statistical and < ther information, on a sut>jf'ct 
Comprehending the meteoiological interests of the entire 
country. 

A Manual of Weeds, or the "Weed Exterminator, 
"being descriptive, botanical and familiar, of a century 
of weeds injurious to the farmer, with p actieal sugges- 
tions for their extermination, by Ezra Michener, M. D." 
This is a very neatly printed little 12 m'o. volume of 148 
pages. Published by Henry L. Brinton, Ed. Oxford Press, 
ana will ba t-ent by mail, pos^t-paid, for the low price of 75 
cents. A. useful little volume, and ought to be in the 
hands of eveiy intelligetit farmer — ignorant ones will have 
no use for it — in the State, and out of it. We shall take 
occasion to publish some useful extracts from it in future 
numbers of the Farmer. Dr. Michener's reputation as a 
Botanist, furnishes a sure guaranty of the real value of the 
book, and ought to secure its ultimate succeirs. 

The GARriENEEs' Monthly — The January number of 
this excellent periodical, now before us, commences the 
15th volume ot one of our country's most invaluable jour- 
nals. This is really, as its title implies, a "Horticultural 
Advertiser," and is filled from "stem to stern" with choice 
reading on all that relates to the kitchen and flower gar- 
dens, ihe orchard, the grapery and Ibe gr'en-h<.use, both 
foreign and domestic. Edited by Thos. Mechan, Esq., who 
occupies a distinguished rank among the Horticultural 
caterers of the country. Published by Ohas. H. Marot, No. 
814 Chestnut street, Phila.. Pa., at two dollars ptr annum. 
For a practical and reliable jouri.al, commend us to the 
, 'Gardener's Monthly." 



PHILADELPHIA MARKETS. 

Philadelphia, January 29, 1873. 

Flouk —The market is unchanged, and only 900 barrels 
changed bands, including supertioe at S4 75«5 50; extras 
at $6®7 ; Iowa, Wisconsin and Minnesota extra family at 
$8ffl9 121^; Pennsylvania and western winter wheat do do 
at $8 25(a»9 5u and fancy lots at $8@11. Nothing doing in 
rye flour or corn meal ; no change in prices 

Grain. — The market is poorly supplied with wheat, and 
prices are steady. Sales of fair pnd good western red at 
$1 93ffil 9*4 ,and amber at $2 f. bushel. Rye is selling at 87c. 
vornis rather dull; sales of 5,000 bushels new yellow at 
68(a59c. and some white at G7c. Oats are very quiet ; sales 
of 4,000 bushelrt white at 49m.52c, and mixed westernat 46@ 
47c. The receipts to-day are as follows : 3,062 bhls flour, 
S.OrO bus wneat, 6,800 do corn, 8,400 do oats, 4,000 do barley 
and 30 bbls whisky. 

Peovisions There is very litt e doing, but prices are 

firmer. Mes-s pork is selling in lots at $1S25@14 for old 
and new; smoKed hams at 12X®14c; do sides at 7^0 ; 
saUed shoulders at 5c ; smoked do at 6c, and lard at )*@ 

Seeds.— Cloverseed ie in fair demand-; 200 bushels sold 
at 9X@^c ^ ft, the latter rate for recleaned. Timothy 
sola at ^ 7C@4, and flaxseed at $2 10 ^ bushel. 



CHICAGO CATTLE MARKET. 

Chicago, Jan. 27. 

Cattle dull ; demand mainly from local butchers. Most 
of the sales were cows and Texan steers, at $2 85@3 10 for 
former; $3 87>i'«»4 50 for Cherok«;e8, and 12 cwt Texans ; 
few lots good Cherokee native steers, $5@5 75 ; good many 
cattle unsold, bxt mostly common qualities. 

Hogs active and firm at $3 90 for fair to choice packing 
grades, and$U0@415 for choice smooth shipping grades, 
closing steady. 

Sheep steady ; fair to good, $4@5 12^. 



NEW YORK MARKETS. 

New York, Jan. 28. 
Flour, e*c.— The flour market is very quiet chiefly 
owing to the inclement weather. The little arri'als in- 
duce much confidence on the part of reee.vers generally. 
Family grades are strongly held. Shipping brands scarce. 
At the close there is rather more steadiness, with a good 
Inquiry for menium spring wheat, extras and good super- 
fine. Sales of 5700 bbls we quote as follows : Sour, "f, bbl. 
A4 60ff6. No. 2 $3 90@6; superfine, *5 50@7; State extra 
bracds, $7 tdol 80 ; State fancy do ^7 90ai8 50 ; western 



Bhippinir extra $7 40@7 75 ; Minnesota extras, common to 
fancy, $7 90@10 00 ; do superlative extras, $0l0ffll350 
good to choice spring wheat extras, $S@9 50 ; extra amber 
Indiana, Ohio ai;d Michigan $S«.9 2.j ; Ohio, Indiana and 
Illinois superfine, $6 5007 ; Ohio round hoop extra ship- 
ping, $7 55@7 80; OMo extia tiade brands, $8@9; white 
wheat extra Ohio, Indiana and Michigan, $'i76(a 9 60; dou- 
ble extra do do, $9 75@l(i 50 ; St. Louis double do. $9 50@10; 
St. Louis triple extras, $10 25@13 50 ; Genesee extra brand, 
$SS0@10 75. 

Kye Floi I is quiet and tame. Sales comprise 75 barrels. 
We quote: Western $l50ffl5 50; State and Pennsylvania 
S'ie @6 to. Corn meal is dull, prices comparatively firm. 
.-ales of 50 barrels. We quote Jer.sey at $'i 60 ; western 
white $3 3003 45; Brandywine $i 90@4; golden ear $375. 
Buckwheat Flour is nactive and tame; State $3 10ia325, 
and Penn.'iylvaula $! 25(6 3 40. 

Grain.— There is no inquiry of moment for wheat, and 
in the absence of either shipping or local inq iry. Sales 
could only be made by submitting to lower tigurts. The 
market fur wheat closes tame for car lots of spring ; large 
steady; winter firm, but quiet. Th^ sales are 15,006 bus ; 
at $1 55 il 60 for No. 3 Chicago spring ; $i 65 lor No. 2 Chi- 
cago sitring afl lat; $170 for No 2 Milwaukee , iSsi lor red 
western. Barley is nrmly held and is quitt. Baney malt 
is stea'y and in limited demand ; sales of 4800 bushels at 
$1 40 for Canadi n, and $1 55 for city. 

( ' ats are firmer and more active ; the absence of supplies, 
afioat ciiecki- bu.siness. The sales are 46,000 bus new Ohio 
nixed at 52y^a.5ic ; white at ,'ioao7c; black at 52>^ao3c ; 
western mixed at 53a54c,a d 15,000 bus old. In store early 
at 5234c; white at 55a58c. Kye is neglected. Corn is less 
active ; old sells less freely; the trade gives new the pre- 
ftrence. The sales are 39,700 bus ; unsound at 633^a64c for 
mixed, in store; oid western mixed at 66>ia66^c nfloat, 
and held at 64}/^c in store, and new mixed at 65=s,'a66c 
afloat; western white at 67>^a68c ; western yellow at 66 ^^'a 
66^^ ; southern white at 75c ; Jersey yellow at 61a62^c. 

Provisions. — The pork market is firm and fairly active 
for the day. The sales, cath and regular, are 650 bbls, at 
$13 37al3 50 for old mess, $14 37al4 50 for new do, and $11 50 
for extra prime. Beef is in fair demand and is steady. 
Beef hams steady and quiet. Sales of 80 bbls at $30 for 
Ohio pd Texas. Cut meats are less ac'ive ; the higher 
prices checks the inquiry. Sabs of 176 tc« western pickled 
hams at 9>ial0, and 2000 fresh hams at 9Xa9>ic and 1000 
smoked city at 12^0 ; 700 iresh shou'ders at 5^a6c ; 1000 
smoked do at 7c, and 71 boxes dry galied at 5^c. 

Bacon i.- scarce and again stronger ; the supply of heavy 
is moderate. Sales of 350 boxes long clear at 7Jsa7,:^c, 
500 boxes do T ^c ; 180 boxes short rib at 7^a7Xc ; dresKQ 
nogs better and in demand. We quote at 5>i^a6xc f<r 
western, an Ca" j^ for city. Lard is firm but quiet for pp/t, 
but time for ttie luture at the close. Sales of 1170 tierces 
at 8c for No. 1 ; 8;^' for ctty ; S!^ lor fair to prime steam ; 
8;^c for kettle rendered, aud fancy steam 8 7-16c 

Feed.— The m:irket is qui' t ana unchanged. We quote 
40 lbs, 60 lbs, 80 lbs and 100 fts at $.'3a24 ; sales of 10 tons 
Rye feed quiet but steady at «24 ^ ton. 

There has been a good inquiry, and the market remains 
firm. We quote North Kiver shipping at $1 15al 20 ; re- 
tail lots $1 30al 70 ; salt hay at 80a8ic and clover at 81ca 
1 05. Straw is without important change ; quoted at »1 30a 
1 40 for long rye, $1 05al 15 for short do, and $lal 10 for 
oat. 



PHILADELPHIA CATTLE MARKET. 

MoMDAT, Jan. 27. 

The disagreeable weather to-day interfered with the 
trade in beef cattle, and th > market was in a very quiet 
state. We quote choice at 8a8js^c. Fair to choice at 6a7>ic 
and common at 4a5^c fi ft gross. Receipts 2300 head. 

Cows and calves were du.l and nominal at $ SacO. Re- 
ceipts, 200 htad. 

Sheep were wanted and at fnll figures ; sales of prime at 
7a8c, and fair to good at 4>ia6>^c. Receipts 10,000 head. 

Hogs sold freely at $5 50 ;or corn-fed. Receipts, 5000 
head. 



NEW YORK CATTLE MARKET. 

New Tork^ J»d. 27. 

Beeves strong ; poor to medium cattle, '^ ft 8allc ; medi- 
um to fair steers, ll;^al2c ; good steers and fa' oxen. 12i^a 
IZ/^i'c ; prime to extra steers, 13al3Xc ; choije, 13>^al4c : 
fancy, 14rl4Xc. Veals fair ; prime calves, 9>ial0i^c ; good 
real. Si9)4c ; common to tair, 6a8c. Sheep and lambs un- 
steady ; common to fair, $5a6 ; fair to good, 6a6Vic; extra, 
6Xa7>^c; choice, 7>^a8c. Swine firm; medium to prime 
live, $5a5 25 ; dressed, 5V^a7c. 



^Ixt %mxtmUr ^im\m\ 



DEVOTED TO 



Agriculture, Horticulture. Domestic Economy and Miscellany, 



EDITPJD BY S. S. RATHVOM. 



" The Farmer is the founder of civUization." — WEBSTER. 



Vol. r. 



APRIL, 187S. 



JVo. 4. 



ESSAY. 



GOSSIP ABOUT 



[For the Fanner. 
FOOD." 



BY J. STAUFFKK. 

IT seems the word food is derived from the An- 
glo-Saxon. /c(Za, hence, also, fodder. We of 
course are not expected to prove that man or beast 
needs " food or fodder," to keep the vital machine 
in motion. It is asserted by those who seein to 
know, that to keep a man living and able to work. 
he will require daily five ounces of nitrogenous or 
flesh-forming food, and ten ounces of calorific 
matter or carbon, for heat-giving or breathing. 
Women and school boys require two and a half 
ounces of flesh-formers, and about three-fourths of 
the man's amount of carbon or heat-givers. This 
amount is required daily by a grown man, to re- 
pair the waste and yet retain his weight. 

The food required by the body consists of glu- 
ten, fibrin, albumen starch, fat, sugar and saline 
matters. As regards vegetable food, wheat and 
almost all the esculent grains consist principally 
of starch and gluten. The same ingredients are 
found in many fruits and roots. Sugar, gum, or 
vegetable-jelly, together with minute traces of 
aromatic principles, which give flavor, more or 
less abundance of water and vegetable acids, are 
the chief component parts of apples, pears, peaches, 
currants, gooseberries, and all analogous tribes of 
fruits. A very few contain oil. Then, as regards 
animal food, the muscular parts of various ani- 
mals closely resemble each other in composition 
and nutritive power ; in some cases texture merely, 
and in others, minute additions of foreign matters, 
confer upon them their relative digestibilities, and 



their different aspects and flavors. Albumen, or 
fibrin, and gelatine, small portions of saline bodies, 
and a large quantity of water, are found in them 
all. Gluten contains nitrogen ; the fibrin of meat 
and the albumen or white of an Q^g also con- 
tains nitrogen nearly in the same proportion as 
gluten. In these three similar substances, there- 
fore, the nutritive or flesh-forming parts of food 
are chiefly found. We may say here, that the al- 
bumen in 'plants is not the same as that in the 
white of an egg. It is, however, the white inner- 
side of the seed, on which the plants feed, as the 
chicken does on the albumen of the Qgg. Albu- 
men has a close chemical relation to gluten and 
fibrin, and serves nearly the same purpose in feed- 
ing animals. 

The heat-givers, to keep up the internal com- 
bustion always going on to enable us to breathe 
and live, is the fuel to the engine that generates 
the motor power, such as the fats and oils, sugars 
and starch. Human fat feeds the animal heat. in 
combination with the oxygen of the air, and con- 
sists of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, and is 
transformed into carbonic acid and water by the 
oxygen of the air we breathe. This oxygen taken 
into the blood circulates through our bodies, unites 
with the carbon and hydrogen of the fat, and 
changes it into carbonic acid and water, to be 
breathed off again through the lungs. Starch 
and sugar take the place of the animal fat, and 
thus prevent its diminution. Starch consists of 
half its weight in carbon, oxygen and hydrogen* 
in the proportions found in water. It is th& 
source of muscular force and animal heat, but is 
not either a flesh or muscle former. It is essential 
that starch and gluten be united in vegetable food. 
Hence we like butter on our bread, or in our pie- 
crust. Wheaten bread will support life; but to 



62 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



repair llie waste of animal fat, and to help diges- 
tion, it needs a little extra fat in the form of but- 
ter. One pound of wheat flour contains, 



OZ. GR 

^nter .' IWJ 

Gluten 2 21 



oz. on. 
^^^um 119-) .yy o2 pf ,,vi,eat 

Filt 84 



,,.,•,,. , ^, A n,, I ure required to 

Albuiueii...O l'2(i Woody tiberO 119 r,nakc 1 11) of 

Starch 9 242 | Ashes H- 1 dour 

Sugar 3S5 I Carbon 7 OJ 

The woody fiber, or lignin, will often resist the 
joint action of the stoniaclv- and bowels, and pass j 
off, as many seeds and husks of fruit do which are 
composed almost exclusively of this material. It ; 
is in this way l)irds become the carriers of seed, ] 
which pass through them undigested, retaining \ 
even their vegetative powers. Hence it is neces- I 
sary to break down the envelopes of seeds by mas- : 
tication so as to subject them to the digestive I 
powers. In reference, however, to the food of 
man, much of its digestibility and nutritious power 
depends on important chemical operations, pre- 
paratory to its use, which are carried on in the 
kitchen — in other words, cookery — to render raw 
materials fit for digestion and nutrition, and make 
them palatable. 

Salt, and a variety of condiments, as they are 
called, and which are aromatic and stimulant sub- 
stances chiefly of vegetable origin, play an 
important part, together with heat, which of 
course is essential in the art of cooking, etc. 
Meat is not only softened in its fiber by proper . 
boiling and roasting, but new substancesare gen- 
erated in it, such as an extractive matter, and 
that peculiar principle which gives an agreeable 
flavor and odor to dressed meat, called osm,azone, ' 
readily recognized. So, also, with vegetables the 
influence of heat is equally important. There is 
another important point in the history of our food, 
namely, its ultimate composition. Starch, sugar, 
gum, albumen, etc., are i\ie proximate principles 
upon which we live ; but what is the ultimate con- 
Btitution of these secondary products ? What are 
their true elements ? Like in vegetable physiol- 
ogy and plant food, considered in a former article, 
it is curious that four elements only are princi. 
pally concerned in the production of our food. 
These are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen ; 
and of these the bulk of our food is composed ; 
but sulphur, phosphorus, lime, iron and several 
other substances must be present in it. 

Habit, as is well known, will do much in accus- 
toming the stomach to particular kinds of food. 
Many persons live exclusively, or almost so, on 
▼e^etable, others on animal, matters. A proper 
mijKtnre of the two seems to be the general rule, 
if not compelled of necessity to exclude one or the 



other. We must not forget milk, the most im- 
portant of all food — in which nature provides a 
mixture or combination of vegetable and animal 
matter. The curd, or caseine, abounds in nitro- 
gen and a principle called sugar of milk. This 
latter, in composition, is intermediate between the 
vegetable gum and sugar. 'J he third component 
of milk is butter, i his partakes of the nature of 
vegetable oil and animal fat ; besides there are 
certain saline and other substances in small pro- 
portions, and all these matters are suspended or 
held in solution in a relatively large proportion of 
water. 

For the curious. I will append a table drawn 
from the best authority, showing the average 
quantity of nutritive matter in 1.000 parts of 
several varieties of animal and ve"-ctable food : 



Blood 215 

Beef 2K0 

Veul 2r>0 

M utton V'M 

Pork 40 

Brain 2(J0 

Chicken 270 

Cod iJO 

Haddock 180 

.^ole 210 

Bones 510 

Milk 72 

V\hiteof e<'tr...l40 



Wheat a-)0 

Rice 880 

Barley 920 

Kve 792 

Oats 742 

Botatoes 2G0 

1 arrets 98 

Turnips 42 

Cabbage 73 

Beet root 148 

Slrawberries.l 

Bears KiO 

Apples 170 



Cooseberrics. 190 

Cherries 250 

Plums 290 

Apricots 260 

Peaches 200 

Grajx's 270 

Melon 30 

Cucumber 25 

Tamarind .340 

Almonds (55 > 

Morels ..69S 



The above table represents the '-dative propor- 
tion of solid digestible matter contained in 1000 
purls of dillbrent articles of food which are con- 
sumed or enumerated. 

As much attention has been paid to this sub- 
ject by scientific men, I will append a table, also, 
showing the ultimate elementary composition of 
1000 parts of the following proximate principles, 
of animal and vegetable food : 





. 516 




. 4s;5 


i'at 


. 7!<0 


1 uril of milk.. . 


. 009 


Sugar of milk... 


. 4.54 


Glutene 


. 557 


Starch 


. 438 




. 419 


Sugar 


.. 444 


Liirnin 


. 500 



Hydrogen 


Oxygren. 


76 


2.58 


80 


276 


122 


98 


73 


116 


61 


485 


78 


220 


62 


.500 


68 


.513 


1 62 


494 


1 56 


444 



150 
161 



203 
145 



The ultimate and proximate components of food 
is elaborated in the vegetable world. Vegetables 
absorb certain substances from the soil and from 
the atmosphere, and appropriate to themselves 
these substances in a changed condition, from in- 
organic compounds into organic products, and it 
is through their functions, and in their structures, 
that the water, carbonic acid and ammonia of the 
atmosphere, together with various substances de- 
rived from the soil, are thus converted into the 
innumerable products of the vegetable world. 
The reciprocal action between the animal and veg- 



THE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



68 



etable kingdoms has often been repeated. ThesR 
are beautifully contrasted by Dumas and Caliours : 



VEGETABLES. 

Produce : Azotized sub- 
stances, fa t ty 
matters, starcli, 
gum, and su^ar. 

Decompose: arbouicaeicl, 
water and aui- 
monia. 

Evoia^e: OxvK<'n. 



I ANIMALS. 

Consume : Azotizcrt sub- 
stances, tatty 
matters, starcli, 
gum and suf^ar. 

Produce: Carbonic acid, 
water aud am- 
monia. 

Absorb : Oxygen, 



Constitute an apparatus Constitute an apj^aratus 
of rcduclion : arc sUUion- of oxidizement : arc loco- 
ary. \motive. 



AGRICULTURE. 



AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION. 

WHAT changes it has efTectcd ! Sixty years 
ago wc had plows with wooden mould- 
boards, and harrows with iron spikes and wooden 
pegs for teeth. Now we have many improved 
kinds of plows, with iron and steel mould-boards 
and in some cases the whole plow is made of iron 
and steel, besides a great variety of cultivators. 
In the Western States they have what is called a 
" Sulky cultivator." A man starts in a 40 or 50 
acre corn-field, perched comfortably upon the seat 
of his implement, with his span of spirited horses 
and check-line, furrowing, planting and covering 
a row of corn every round he makes of the field. 
At the same period we allude to above, we had to 
rake our hay by hand, and gather it in the same 
way. Next we had a wooden rake with wooden 
pegs about six inches apart, fixed in a beam four' 
inches scjuare. To this sometimes a man was at- 
tached, and other times a horse, and this another 
man would follow on foot, and lift it up at every 
"winrow" in order to empty it. After this fol- 
lowed the " self-revolving rake," which had to be 
reversed to make it empty its gatherings ; but, in 
following a smart horse, the operator had to be 
quick in his motions. Another objection to this 
rak(! was, in reversing the teeth came down like 
the fingers of an old-fashioned flail, and would knock 
the best grains of wheat and rye out on the ground. 
Afterward _the " sulky-rake " was introduced, with 
a boy or a superannuated man as a driver, because 
it was considered next to doing nothing (some 
old fogies still think that every mouthful of bread 
ought to be laboriously earned) ; and according to 
the old way it required an able-bodied man. Theru 
our grass was cut with the old Dutch scythe, and 
the wheat and rye with the sickle. Oats was also 
cut with the scythe, and was tossed and raked up 
into winrows and ricks, or heaps, like hay. Then 
came the era of the grain-cradle, which seemed the 
very ne plus ultra in agricultural implements. 



But, alas, it was doomed by the supersedence of 
the patent horse-reaper and motvers. It is note- 
worthy to 'remark, that all these improvements 
and evidences of agricultural progress were at 
first regarded with distrust, and were considered 
an impious innovation upon the legitimate and 
settled order of things. The mode of thrashing 
run parallel with other implemental improvements. 
Sixty years ago, and even ten or twenty years 
later, all the rye was thrashed out with the flail 
— " The suple and the couple 0" — and the wheat, 
oats and corn were trodden out by horses. A boy, 
or in some instances, even a girl, would have to 
lead or ride the horses round in a circle on the 
barn-floor, shifting its center and circumference, 
until the whole mass was brought under their con" 
tinuous and fatiguing tread, whilst one or two men 
were in attendance " shaking up " and turning the 
straw, and only treading out about four hundred 
sheaves of grain per day ; and often much less, 
('old. dry weather, in January and FebruaVy, was 
usually selected in'which to thrash the grain, and 
the children employed were often in a half-frozen 
condition when the day's work was ended, and 
there is reason to believe that some died prema- 
turely in consequence of the exposure to which 
they were subjected. Then, in rapid succession, 
were introduced the various invention? of horse- 
power thrashers, by which one hundred bushels of 
grain^aided by five or six men— could be thrashed 
out in a day. Now we have the steam-power im- 
proved machines, which, with seven or eight men, 
will thrash out three hundred bushels as easily as 
could twenty under the old tramping system. Now 
our boys and girls can attend school during the 
autumn, winter and early spring months, and have 
already a better education than our grandfathers 
and grandmothers had at the end of their lives. 
Forty years ago, with one heavy Oonestoga team, 
we could only haul twenty to twenty-five barrels 
of flour to Philadelphia at a load, realizing about 
one dollar a barrel as freight, requiring from eight 
to ten days to make a trip. We can go to Califor 
nia or to Ireland in that time now. On the re- 
turn trip, store goods for Lancaster, Harrisburg, 
Pittsburg or intermediate points, would be shipped, 
requiring at least four weeks to reach the last- 
named town. For the round trip from Philadel- 
phia to Pittsburg the team would realize about 
one hundred dollars. Now we can send our flour 
to Philadelphia by railroad at 25 cents per barrel, 
aiid freights to the city of Pittsburg are almost 
nothing compared to what they were then. Not. 
withstanding all this, when a charter was first 



eji- 



THE LAJYCASTER FARMER, 



asked for to build a railroad from Columbia to 
Philadelphia, it found strong opposition in the 
Legislature of Pennsylvania. When the bill au- 
thorizing the road was put upon its final passage, a 
well-known fanner from the neighborhood of the 
Gap, who was then a member of the " House," 
took the floor and made what purported to be a 
'■ solid speech " against such a ruinous and reckless 
enterprise, wliich, he alleged, would break down 
the farming interests of Lancaster county, and to. 
tally destroy the market of our Conestoga horse , 
and bankrupt our wagonmakers and harnessma- 
kers, and thereby produce a blighting effect upon 
the interests of mechanics and workingmen in 
general. Well, the bill nevertheless was passed, 
and the railroad was finally finished ; and the re- 
sult was that Conestoga horses advanced in value ; 
for horses that sold for one hundred dollars before 
the road was built are. now sold for tlxree. hundred. 
And this is not all ; one htindred dollars are in- 
invested in harness and wheeled vehicles now to 
every twenty that w'as then,- and other interests 
have advanced in the same proportion. 

Are we not, then, in that measure, a progressive 
people ? and has it not been agricultural education, 
or what is practically the same thyig, the educa- 
tion of the agricultural classes, that has wrought 
all this change in the condition of the fanning 
people ? Has it not been this enterprising spirit 
that has stimulated and built up all the agricul- 
tural and horticultural societies and printed jour- 
nals of the country ? Hoping that our people will 
manifest an increased interest in agricultural mat- 
ters, especially since the political atmosphere has 
been cleared, and the press, without a single ex- 
ception, to aid in the diffusion of agricultural 
knowledge. L. S. E. 



MESSRS. EDITORS: Inclosed please find 
an article from " Colman's Rural World," 
published at St. Louis, Mo., showing the great 
disadvantage that the farmers labor under in the 
interior of the great West — from the exorbitant 
charges for transporting their produce to a market. 
In many instances the freight to the sea-board 
exceeds the value of the article. Thus placing 
the farming community of the great West in a 
most unenviable position. 

They can raise any amount of " bread and 
meat." They can also grow " flax and wool," so 
as to have enough " to eat and wherewithal to 
clothe themselves." But that is about all. 
Store goods, coffee, tea, sugar, etc., what we here 
^hink a necessity to our comfort, where are they 



to get the cash to purchase, when their produce is 
unsalable, or costing more to transport to market 
then it will sell for ? 

I have often thought of the great inconveni. 
ence of farmers locating thus in the interior of 
our country, far away from the sea-board. 

Only a few years since, the Western farmers 
were clamorous for railroads. Now when railroads 
are passing almost every man's door, they find 
that railroads and middle-men use up all the 
farmer can produce — thus he is barely able to 
make shift to live. 1 here is at present, much 
feeling in the West against the railroad managers- 

J. B. G. 

Columbia, Feb. 14, 1873. 

Appended is the article alluded to above : 

IMPORTANCE OF UNITED ACTION. 

The tendency of our population to concentrate 
in large cities still continues, and there is evident, 
ly to be no limit to it ; and what is worse, with 
this concentration comes political power, which 
virtually rules the agricultural districts of the 
country. The true remedy for this alarming con- 
dition of things is counter-concentration in the 
country and rural districts. The country is being 
ruled, and will ultimately be ruined, by trading 
politicians and gigantic corporations. The latter 
mean to control the markets, the labor of the pro- 
ducer, the transportation of his products and, if 
possible, his vote. To avert such a calamity, ring 
after ring must be broken by the power and influ- 
ence of honest men, who are yet to be found en- 
gaged in agricultural and mechanical pursuits. 
These constitute the world's workers, and they 
should control its political destiny, th assessment 
of our taxes, the transportation of our products, 
or any and every element that has a direct bear- 
ing upon our material prosperity. In spe9.king 
of the efforts of rings and combinations, their en- 
croachments and arbitrary dictations, Commodore 
Maury says : 

According to the census returns of 1870 — as far 
as I can see, and as I can understand — there are 
in the United States, using round numbers, 12,- 
505,000 " bread-earners." These twelve and a 
half millions subsist nations with the fruits of their 
labor ; they give food, shelter and raiment to the 
39,000,000 of souls that inhabit this country. 
Thus, you perceive that every " bread-earner" has 
on the average to fill a little more than three 
mouths. 

Of these "bread-earners," 5,922,271 were en^ 
gaged in agriculture, and 1,765,010 in other rura^ 
trades and callings — such as blacksmithing, car- 



THE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



pentering and the like — making, with their food 
dependents, a total of 23,830.000 souls, in round 
numbers, out of the 39,000,000. 

The manufacturers, including operatives and 
servants, earn bread for 1,117,000 souls. Com- 
merce, including merchants, shop-keepers, sailors, 
clerks, pedlars, bur-keepers, etc., earn bread for 
2,250,000. Railroad and expressmen earn bread 
for 595,000. Miners earn bread for 472.000. 

So it' comes to this, according to this census; 
■while agriculture and mechanics fill ten times as 
many mouths as commerce, twenty times as many 
as manufactures, forty times as many as railroads 
and fifty times as many as mining, yet the least of 
these, by combination and management — as one 
of your orators on a former occasion has told you 
— exercises three times the influence in the coun- 
try, and thrice the power with the government, 
that you do-all for the lack of proper spirit 
among farmers to work and pull together. 

These facts, the power of " rings," and the lee- 
ward drift of our rival industries, have not escaped 
the attention of our thinking men. 

The farmers and producers, who should in real- 
ity constitute the governing power, must cease to 
be governed; they must claim their natural 
rights, and maintain them by means of prompt 
and efficient organization. Farmers' clubs may 
serve as a basis for a township organization — these 
to form the basis for a county, state and national 
one. It is not desirable that such an organiza. 
tion should be politial in character, and its whole 
aim should be to accomplish the greatest good for 
the greatest number. The time is at hand for the 
marshaling of the mighty forces that have hith- 
erto been apparently at rest. The worth and 
value of the producer must be acknowledged. It 
is time that equitable and just laws be enacted in 
the interest of farmers and workingmen. 

In order to effect this an organized effort must 
be put forth. I^et it be done at once. The be- 
ginning of a new year is an appropriate time to 
commence this work of reform. Let us begin it 
by placing intelligent, conscientious farmers and 
mechanics in all the public positions of honor and 
trust. This done, we may confidently look to 
them to thwart the unlawful schemes of designing 
and unscrupulous men, who now have the power 
to bind us hand and foot. In order to effect the 
reform so much needed, unity of effort is desirable ; 
what we now need the most is, united action. 



HORTICULTURAL. 



The men with horny hands are the peers of the 
idle kid-gloved gentry. 



EDITOR OP THE PARMER: Having 
been requested to contribute to the 
columns of your journal, I cheerfully 
do so, after ray own peculiar manner, 
and trust you will accept the willingness, as a 
compensation for the lack of quality. I attended 
the meeting of your society in February last, and 
exhibited thirty-two varieties of apples, raised on 
the farm of H. S. Landis, last year. The follow- 
ing is a list of them : 1. Jucy-bites, or eating 
apples ; 2. Black Bell flowers ; 3. Flat Pippin ; 4- 
Hubbertsou's Nonsuch; 5. Bellflower; 6. Northern 
Spy ; 7. Roxbury Russet ; 8. Smoke house Ven- 
dervere; 9. Wine-Sap; 10. Hoops; 11. Rusti- 
cote ; 12. Winter Paradise ; 13. Rambo ; 14. 
Large Paradise; 15. Long Island Russet; 16. 
Seek-no-Further ; 17. Pinick; 18. King of Tomp- 
kins Countyj; 19. Monmouth Pippin ; 20. Hamaker , 
or Cut Pippin; 21. Smoke house; 22. Grind- 
stone; 23. Pound Apple; 24. Romanite; 25. 
Green Pippin ; 26. Sugar, or Tough-skin ; 27. 
Baldwin Pippin ; 28 Golden Russet ; 29. Smith's- 
Cider; 30. Swarr; 31. Nameless; 32. do; and 
one pear nameless. 

The foregoing ai-e varieties in season at the 
time, not including those that are past. We cul- 
tivated over sixty varieties of apples on our farm 
last season, some of which have not yet come to 
perfection Our crop last fall amounted to more 
than three hundred bushels. About two-thirds 
of these were stored away in an arched cellar, but 
their keeping was none of the bfest The Bell- 
flowers and some other varieties we were com- 
pelled to market, on account of not keeping. 

Our orchard contains about two acres of land, 
in which arc about seventy apple trees, mainly 
survivors of the great tornado of 186G. Fourteen 
of that number had been entirely torn up by the 
roots. They were afterwards set up straight 
again, and a cart-load of earth placed at the base 
of each, and they were otherwise secured with 
props Some of them afterwards fell down again, 
but most of those that remained standing are in a 
prosperous condition, some having had a full crop 
last fall. The whole orchard is now replanted 
with young trees. Before the storm above allud- 
ed to, this was considered the best bearing orchard 
in this part of the county. The young orchard 
is just beginning to bear It covers about one 
acre of ground, and contains about thirty trees; 
this we distinguish as No. 2. Both orchards lay 



66 



THE LAJ^'CASTER FARMER. 



toward the east ; and, according to my experience, 
every orchard should be so planted, as to give 
them the benefit of the morning sun. 
An orchard will be more thrifty and produc- 
tive than one deprived of it, even if 
it should have the unobstructed rays of the sun 
for the remaining portion of the .day — especially" 
when the dew is falling, when all vegetation drinks 
it in, as though it were the sap of the plant. 
Orchards should not be planted on very high 
ground or a hill; neither should they be planted in 
low or swampy ground. For example, look at our 
native forests, and it will be evident, as a general 
thing, that the largest and heaviest timber will be 
found in the best soil, which is intermediate, be- 
tween the highest and lowest grounds. I think, 
therefore, that we should imitate nature in the 
planting of our orchards, for a soil not too wet 
and not too dry is as necessary to the thrift and 
productiveness of a tree, as education is to the 
moral and intellectual thrift of a child. The 
mind is the soil— the spiritual and intellectual 
soil — of the child ; and those are the best teachers, 
who know best how to stimulate and direct the 
energies of the mind ; and also on what plane of 
mental altitude it will be capable of performing 
the greatest moral and m!lterial use — that is, grow 
up in the right way and bear good fruit. 

Some farmers think if they have a tract of land 
that is not very valuable for farming purposes, it 
will still do for an orchard ; but this is a most 
egregious blunder. I know examples of this kind, 
but the trees are not making much progress, either 
in growth or bearing. The reasons for this are 
fimt, our winters are too severe on elevated lands, 
causing the trees to bend and bloom late in the j 
spring, and mature their fruit late in the fall ; | 
second, if the summers are a little dry, it will 
affect the trees injuriously, for they too require a 
certain amount of moisture to secure their thrift. 
The water that falls on an elevation will run off 
and not sink into the ground, unless special pro- 
vision is made for its retention. This may be 
done by running furrows along the hill-sides with 
a plow. This will to some extent keep the water 
where it falls. The ground should also be culti- 
vated, by letting in the hogs, in the spring or fall, 
to root it up ; I prefer the fall. But the ground 
shouid not be cultivated with plows, as they go 
down too deep and break or loosen the roots, and 
often bruise the trees, or break them down en- 
tirely, when they are young and tender. Farmers 
cannot be too careful in planting and nurturing 
fruit-trees. Yours truly, H. K. L. 



[The above, from a young and new contributor, 
seems to contain some valuable and practical 
hints, which may be of service to fruit growers, 
especially since they were backed by an abundance 
of material evidence, at the meeting of the 
society alluded to. We hope that experimental 
farmers generally will follow his example in con- 
tributing to our columns. — Ed.] 



EDITOR FARMER : The cherry bemg one 
of the earliest of all fruits, is much valued on 
that account. But this is far from being its only re- 
commendation ; its juiciness, delicacy and richness, 
together with the many uses which can be made of 
it, especially since canning has become so general 
make it always acceptable. 

Unfortunately the cherry has for some years past 
failed to a great extent. The time was, not many 
years ago, when the cherry was a very sure crop. 
It ripened finely, and often hung many days on 
the trees before it decayed. 

There was fun then in picking them. They could 
be grasped by the handful, and wanted very little 
sorting. 

Now the crops are usually light, but the chief 
trouble is that fruit rots prematurely, very ofteii 
before it is fully ripe. 

Lest some should think that this state of things 
has been brought about by the introduction of del- 
icate and choice varieties, it may be said that the 
native wildings are very little more exempt. 

Nor is this owing to the ravages of noxious in- 
sects. Although the curculio has very much in- 
creased of late years, still the great bulk of the 
fruit is not injured by them. Rain has always 
been an injury to the lighter colored varieties, and 
we have been saying for years past, " the rain de- 
stroyed all our cherries," and it undoubtedly had 
something to do with it ; but last year we had 
very little of it, and yet many of our cherries per- 
ished, though to a less extent than usual. One of 
the pests that formerly made mischief among the 
light colored Bigarreans, has nearly disappeared, 
viz. : the rose bug [Macrodactylus suhspinosus). 
May we not hope that the curculio may share its 
fate ? 

The causes of failure are most readily accounted 
for, by assuming that the atmosphere has become 
somewhat changed, perhaps we might say denser. 
I believe that if there was in the county an ele- 
vation one hundred feet higher than the city of 
Lancaster (soil being equal), the atmosphere 
would be sufficiently rarified, to raise cherries as 
fine and as free from rot as ever. 



THE LANCASTER FAHMEB. 



67 



1 am led to this belief, from the fact tliat on the 
high land in Martic township, ten or twelve miles 
south of Lancaster, there are seldom late spring 
frosts, nor fogs in summer, and there the cherry 
fldurislics remarkably well. 

Whether these atmospheric influences will re- 
main, or what is their cause, is not for me to say 
We shall have to search into nature's laws deeper 
than we yet have done, before we obtain a satis- 
factory answer. 

In the meantime we will ti-y to grow cherries as 
best we can. If we cannot grow enough for prof- 
itable marketing, we can grow enough to sup- 
ply our own tables. 

The early varieties are somewhat less liable to rot 
than later kinds, and if it were not for the birds 
they might be profitably raised. The robin, 
thrush and cat-bird, all pretty good fruit eaters, 
need not be dreaded very much, for a few extra 
trees planted, will supply them. But the little 
crested cedar-bird, is not easily satisfied. Perhaps 
if every farm in the country had a grove of early 
cherries, a few might be saved. I have not 
less than a dozen trees that some years had 
many bushels of fruit, and yet we often have a 
difficulty in saving as many as will make a few 
pies. Some years ago we used to shoot them, 
sometimes as mauy as one hundred a day, bu 
found it a non-paying business; for we lost time> 
powder and shot, as well as the cherries. 

These birds are gregarious, but mostly pair and 
scatter over the country to breed, before the cherry 
season is over, and are then no more trouble. 

Any one that has a suitable spot near the house, 
and is willing to make a scare-crow of himself, 
may have good early fruit by planting early Pur- 
plfe Guigre, May Duke, Karly Richmond and 
*Ilockport Bigarrean. Early Richmond is a sour 
cherry, and is the most reliable of all cherries. 
Some of the later varieties of merit are Governor 
Wood, Coe's Transparent, Conestogo, *Cumber- 
laud Seedling, *Napoleon Bigarrean, and *Bigar- 
rean d' Mezel. Those marked with a star are 
especially fine for canning. Caspek Hiller. 

Conestoga, Feb. Ifjth. 1873. 



THE TELEGRAPH GRAPE. 

FROM the report of Mr.Reuben Weaver, made 
at the meeting of the Lancaster County Agri- 
cultural and Horticultural Society, it appears that 
the above-named variety of the grape stood the 
intense cold of January and February last, with 
less injury than any other variety he has under 



cultivation — not even excepting the Concord, Isa- 
bella, and others, usually esteemed the most hardy 
This, to our apprehension, is a fad that is notc- 
wortliy, and in which grape growers in this latitude 
should " stick a pin." True, we may not have to 
record tlurty degrees heloro zero in Lancaster 
county for many long years to come, but then 
again we may, and therefore this forewarning may 
illustrate the M'isdom of forearming against future 
contingencies. Not that other good varieties 
sliould be neglected or discarded, but that a goodly 
proportion of the Telegraph should be cultivated 
as a reliable reserve, in similar emergencies. It is 
true also, that other varieties were not entirely 
destroyed by winter freezing, but the prospects of 
a crop the coming season, from present appear- 
ances, are exceedingly unpropitious. How the 
matter may stand, by comparison, in other locali- 
ties, has not yet come to our knowledge, but the 
reports made thereon are anything but favorable. 
If such has been the effect in Mr, W.'s district, 
where the mercury fell to 18'^ below zero, there 
can be little hope for those districts where it fell 
down to 30 and 32. 

PROTECTION AGAINST FREEZING. 

1 here is another item in the report of Mr. Wea- 
ver to which we desire to caH the attention of our 
readers, and that is the exemption which Mr. 
Wenger's grapery seemed to enjoy from the effects 
of frost ; and supposed to be owing to the western 
and north-western protection afforded by a large 
barn and sheds in the foreground, and forest trees in. 
the background. Mr. Wenger's grapery is not 
more than half a mile east of Mr. Weaver's. It 
slopes gently from the eastern gable of his barn, 
and it was at the eastern limit of the enclosure 
that any of his grapes were frozen. The appear- 
ance is, that so far as the north-west winds were 
warded off by the interposition of the buildings 
and the trees, so far they escaped the effects of the 
frost. Some years ago, when we were on the 
" Summit level " of the Alleghany Mountains, we 
noticed that the apple and peach trees were break- 
ing down with their superabundance of fruit, in a 
season when their were but few apples, and perhaps 
not twenty bushels of peaches in the whole county 
of Lancaster. On expressing our surprise, an aged 
amateur of the locality pointed to tlie towering 
trees on the west and north of the inclosure, and 
remarked, than when our orchards in Lancaster 
county had the same protection — other things be- 
ing ecpial — we M-ould have an abundance of fruit 
without fail. Of course there may be other and 
exceptional causes of failure, but protedion is 
certainly a matter worthy of some consideration. 

R. 



68 



TEE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



MANURE FOR ORCHARDS. 

WOOD ashes are doubtless excellent for 
orchards, but instead of being put round 
the trees they should be spread over the whole 
land. But where are the ashes to come from in 
this region ? We have little or no wood, and of 
course little or no ashes. In our limited experi- 
ence we have learned one thing in regard to or- 
chards as well as fruit trees of every kind that 
we have cultivated, and we believe the principle 
can be applied pretty much to everything that 
grows upon the earth, which is, that the applica- 
tion of manure benefits them all. 

Ground occupied with fruit trees should be ma- 
nured as are other portions of the land used for 
the raising of wheat and corn. It is the neglect 
to do so, in connection with the general negli- 
gence with which orchards are treated in many 
sections, that makes them unprofitable and worn 
out prematurely. And as to the kind of manure 
with which orchards ought to be treated, while 
any kind, almost without exception, will prove of 
advantage, there is none in the world to be com. 
pared to stable or barn-yard manure. A liberal 
application of this only every third year, with 
careful pruning and scraping of the trees and 
ferreting out the borers, will make prodigious 
change in an orchard. Autumn, and even in 
December, if the ground is not frozen, is perhaps 
the best time to apply it. — Germantown Tele 
graph. 



GRAPE GROWERS' MAXIMS. 

1. Prepare the ground in fall; plant in spring. 

2. Give the vine plenty of manure, old and well 
decomposed ; for fresh manure excites growth, but 
it does not mature it. 

3. Luxuriant growth does not always insure 
fruit. 

4. Dig deep, but plant shallow. 

5. Young vines produce beautiful fruit, but old 
vines produce the richest. 

6. Prune in autumn to insure growth, but in the 
spring to promote fruitfulness. 

7. Plant your vinos before you put up trellises. 

8. Vines, like old soldiers, should have good 
arms. 

9. Prune spurs to one well developed bud ; for 
the nearer old wood the higher flavored the 
fruit. 

10. Those who prune long must soon climb. 

11. Vine leaves love the sun, fruit the shade- 

12. Every leaf has a bud as its base, and 



either a bunch of fruit or a tendril opposite to 
it. 

13. A tendril an abortive fruit bunch ; a bunch 
of fruit a productive tendril 

14. A bunch of grapes without a healthy leaf 
opposite is like a ship at sea without a rudder — it 
can't come to port. 

15. Laterals are like politicians — if not checked 
they are the worst of thieves. 

16. Good grapes are like gold — no one has 
enough. 

17. The earliest grape will keep the longest, 
for that which is fully matured is easily pre* 
served. 

18. Grape-eaters are long livers. 

19. Hybrids are not always high bred. 

20. He who buys the new and untried varieties 
should remember that the seller's maxim is : "Let 
ihe buyer look out for himself." 



The Eumelan Grape. — The Eumelan grape 
having done so well with us for the last two years* 
I would call the attention of your readers to its 
great value. Of all black grapes that I have 
seen or tested, the Eumelan is the earliest, best 
table grape, splendid in bunch and beri-y, very 
salable, first in market ; a prodigious bearer, al- 
ways ripe before early frosts ; strong grower, 
hardy vine, ripening more wood than any other 
vine we had, notwithstanding it yielded double 
the fruit of any other vine of its size, the yield 
being some seventy-five pounds. Every bunch 
ripened evenly, though only ten feet of space on 
trellis, whilst two Concords, same age, each near- 
ly as large (thirty feet on trellis), yielded only 
about twenty pounds, same soil and culture, less in 
bunch, and not so good in quality. Evidently the 
Eumelan is the grape for the North. Safe in 
seasons, and no dropping of berries if left out as 
long as any grape dare be left out of doors. But 
as to its wine qualities, I can't say; don't care. I 
grow grapes only for the joy and comfort of 
home. 

If short of space, the Eumelan is the grape. 
It gives the greatest yield, is sure to ripen, and 
is the most luscious of all black grapes we have 
yet seen. But, if there is space, and a variety is 
wanted, then for quality, and a sure crop, early to 
ripen, the Croton has no superior among the 
white grapes, so far as we have tested. 



Subscribe for The Lancaster Farmer. 



THE LAJYCASTER FARMER. 



69 




THE HOG, OR SWINE [SUS APER). 



THE swine belongs to the order Parliyder- 
mata, or tbick-skinned animals. There are 
several species belonging to the genus Sus, but all 
the different domestic varieties are said to have 
sprung from the wild boar of Europe, Asia, and 
Africa {Sus aper). Then there is the " Babiroas- 
sa" {Sus hahiriissa) of the islands of the Eastern 
Archipelago, which is of a much lighter form than 
the common wild-hog. The " Papuan hog" {Sas 
papuensis) of New Guinea; and the "masked boar" 
{Sus larvatus) of southern Africa and Madagas- 
car. Allied to these are the " collared and white- 
lipped Peccaries" of South America {Dicotyles 
torquatus and lahiatus) inhabiting the Atlantic 
countries from Guiana and Paraguay, as far north 
as Eed River within the limits of the northern 
continent. Also the " wart-bearing hogs" of Afri- 
ca, belonging to the genus Phacochcerus. There 
are no species of the genus Sus that are indigen- 
ous to either North or South America ; all the 
swine in this counti-y, either wild or domesticated, 
having been introduced from Europe, through emi- 
gration. There is no animal so susceptible to 
improvement under domestication, as the hog. 
The large head, the muscular neck, the formida- 
ble tusks, the stiff bristles, the long limbs, and the 
thick bones, all have undergone a radical physical 
change, tlirough domestication. Not only has this 
change taken place in tho form of the animal, but 
also in its habits, its texture and its qualities in 
general. The wild hog is solitary and nocturnal 
in its habits, whilst the domestic hog is gre"-ari- 
ous and diurnal. The female wild hog litters but 



once in a year, whilst the domestic female will 
litter two or three times in the same period. A 
great change also takes place in the dental econo- 
my of the animal. The wild boar has six incisors 
in the upper, and six in the lower jaw, but under 
domestication this number is reduced to three or 
four in each. Wild boars have been known to 
have lived from thirty to forty years, whilst that 
age is never attainable in a domestic state. 

Swine may primarily be divided into two great 
classes ; namely, those of small or medium size, 
with ears erect, or partly so ; and those of a larger 
size, with long pendent ears ; and these classes are 
composed of many different breeds or races, more 
or less local in their characters ; and among these 
races or breeds are many varieties, produced by 
almost innumerable crossings. The English breeds 
are the BerJcshire, the Hampshire, the Shrop- 
shir,e, the Norfolk, the Suffolk, the Tonquin, the 
Dishley, the Essex, the Wiltshire, the Glouces- 
ter, the Hereford, and the Northampton. ; many 
of which are crossings between the Berkshire and 
others, producing many varieties, better known 
under the names of the swinc-brcedors, who make 
them a specialty. The Pays d' avge, the Poiton, 
the Perigord, the Champagne, and ihtiBotdonge 
are the most prominent French breeds. Other 
European breeds are the Jutland, the Stvedish, 
the Polish, and the Russiaji. In addition to 
these, are the South African, the Siamese, the 
Chinese, the Zealand, the Turkish, the Guinea, 
the Maltese, the Australasian, the South Ame- 
rican, the Mexican, and many others. In the 



70 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



United States we have representatives of many 
of these breeds, and some of them are popularly 
known as the Chester County Whites, the Blacks, 
and many others — indeed, their name is almost 
legion. 

According to the census of 1870, there were in 
the United States, 25,134,560 swine, of which 
there were 807,548 in Pennsylvania, and 50,070 
in the county of Lancaster. Our county is, there- 
fore, not so remarkable for the quantity of its 
pork, perhaps, as it is for its quality. But, under 
any circumstances, it cannot be regarded as a 
swine-growing county ; which, considering the 
strong prejudice existing in many of the districts, 
and among many of the people, against the use of 
pork, is nothing to their disgrace. Our illustra- 
tions exhibit varieties of the Chester county breed, 
distinguished by their long and large bodies, short 
and erect ears, low limbs, light bones, and many 
other points. Of course, so long as pork is used 
as human food, the most economical system should 
be pursued, and, unquestionably, that system in- 
cludes the best breeds to be had. R. 



RANDOM SKETCHES AND FARM ITEMS. 

No. 15. 

BY H. M. EXGLE. 

THE short crop of hay and straw the past 
season compels many farmers to econo- 
mize feed. Various measures are resorted to in 
order to have stock to appear well when spring 
ari-ives, and in many cases on short allowances. 
Cut-feed steamed — scalded — soaked with cold 
water, or fed dry, are, in their order as mentioned, 
decidedly better than the common method of feeding 
provender in an unprepared condition. Yet with 
the best of the above methods, a certain amount 
of bulk, as well as nutritive matter, is indispensa- 
ble to keep animals in a thriving condition. 

The custom so prevalent, to let stock lose in 
the winter what it has gained in the summer (or 
nearly so) should be condemned by every humane 
citizen. Whether the Society for the Prevention 
of Cruelty to Animals would be justifiable in tak- 
ing such (Jjees in hand, is not for me to decide, 
but extreme cases of neglected stock certainly 
come under the purview of the law; the fine 
point is, where to draw the dividing line. 
Agents whose business it is to look after such 
cases might find something to do this spring. 

The past severe winter has injured not only 
the fruit prospects, but also trees, vines, etc., to a 



great extent. Some are past recovery ; others by 
judicious management may be saved and restored 
to fruitfulness in a few years. Early and severe 
pruning is of first importance to save trees that 
are severely frozen, for if left until the sap circu- 
lates through the injured branches, it will carry 
disease throughout the entire tree. It is a mat- • 
ter of life or death to the tree, and therefore the 
motto often quoted "spare not the ' knife" is 
strongly applicable in such cases. 

Strawberry beds are worth all the care and at- 
tention ihat can be reasonably applied to them, 
as it is the only fruit crop that has entirely es- 
caped injury the past winter, in this section, 
The continuous snow having protected it from 
heaving out, which is often very injurious to the. 
crop 

The fine weather just breaking in, will cause all 
tillers of the soil to bestir themselves to get first 
crops planted, which is all right and meritorious ; 
but very often in the haste to be ahead of their 
neighbors, some will work their ground and plant 
before it is in proper condition, and thus fail to 
accomplish the desired object. 

Soils vary so much that fields in close prox- 
imity may be a week apart in time of tillable 
condition ; some soils will bear working pretty 
wet without injury to the immediate crop, while 
others can hardly be put in friable condition" all 
season, if workecf too wet in the spring, conse- 
quently the crop will be a partial failure, al- 
though a favorable season and good culture may 
follow. 

The potato is such an important crop, that no 
means should be spared to bring it to, and keep 
it in, its greatest perfection, and all customs and 
methods of cultivation and management which 
tend to its degeneracy should be discarded and 
discouraged. "When the planting season arrives, 
there is always inquiry for seed potatoes, which 
by a majority means culls, or such as are not 
otherwise salable. It seems strange seed pota- 
toes should be an exception to the general rule ; 
perhaps it is because sometimes a good crop is 
grown from poor seed, and vice versa, but such is 
the case with everything we plant ; yet as a rule 
the best seeds are selected from all other crops 
except the potato. Trust it will receive justice 
by and by. 

The prospect for a good wheat crop is very 
fair at present, so that if nothing untoward be- 
falls it, there will not be so much trouble with 
chess as when wheat fails. 

Wonder whether those fanners who are so 



IHE LANCASTER FARMEB.. 



71 



much troubled with chess believe in the Darwin- 
ian theory ? If they do they must have got it 
muddled up or reversed, because Darwin ajivo- 
cates progression, while the chess theory is cer- 
tainly retrogressive. Our advice to such as be- 
lieve in the transmutation of wheat to chess, to 
trust to Providence and keep their seed wheat 
strictly clean. 

'J'he necessity of planting trees for timber is 
entirely underrated in our Eastern States, while 
in the West it is one of the important questions. 
Legislatures and R. R. companies seem to vie 
with each other in this important work. Judg- 
ing by the interest which is shown at present, no 
one need be surprised to hear that a quarter of 
a century hence the West will be the timbered sec" 
tion, while the East will be bleak and bare of 
woodland. 

Why should not our legislatures pass laws hold- 
ing out inducements to all who will do something 
toward replenishing this portion of our country 
with timber ? It is high time that public senti- 
ment be educated to a stand-point from which the 
necessity of such a work will be seen and appre- 
ciated. 

DOMESTIC. 



ARTIFICIAL BUTTER. 

AT the request of the victualling department 
of the French navy, for some wholesome 
Substitute for butter, that would keep well, Mege 
Mouriez, after a long course of experiments, has 
succeeded in producing an excellent substitute for 
genuine butter, that does not become rancid with 
time, and is otherwise highly recommended. Ex. 
periments made with cows submitted to a very 
severe and scanty diet, led to the discovery that 
they continue to give milk, though in greatly di- 
minished quantity, and that this milk always con 
tains butter ; whence it was inferred that thig 
butter was formed from fat contained in the ani. 
mal tissues, the fat undergoing conversion into 
butter through the influence of the milk-secreting 
glands. Acting on this hint, Mouriez's process 
begins with splitting up the animal fats. Finely 
divided fresh beef suet is placed in a vessel con- 
taining water, carbonate of potash, and fresh, 
sheep's stomachs, previously cut into small frag- 
ments. The temperature of the mixture is then 
raised to about 112° Fahr., when, under the join- 
influence of the pepsin and the heat, the fat be 



comes separated from the cellular tissues. The 
fatty matter floating on the top is decanted, and 
after cooling, submitted to a very powerful hy- 
draulic pressure. T he semi-fluid oleomargarine is 
thus separated from the stearine, and becomes the 
basis of the butter to be afterward produced. 
One hundred pounds of this oleo-margarine, along 
with about twenty-two quarts of milk and eighteen 
(juarts of water, are poured into a churn, and to 
this mixture are added a small quantity of 
annatto and about three ounces of the soluble mat- 
ter obtained by soaking for some hours in milk 
cows' udders and milk-glands. The mixture is 
then churned, and the butter obtained, after being 
well washed with cold water and seasoned, is ready 
for use. If required to be kept for a long time, it 
is melted by a gentle heat in order to eliminate all 

the water. — Popular Science Monthly for Nov. 
♦ 

HOW I MAKE SOFT SOAP. 

I keep my ashes dry, and when put in the hop- 
per preparatory to making soap, I have from a 
half to one peck of unslacked lime put in with the 
ashes. Before putting the grease in, I swing the 
kettle off the fire and let it hang a few moments. 
If there is any potash in it, I take a shovel and 
take it out, for if there is much potash in it it will 
not make good soap. I pack the ashes well, add- 
ing water enough to dampen them. Then I put 
three or four buckets of water on each day for two 
or three days, until I think it suSiciently soaked. 
And lastly, I pour on boiling water to run the lye 
off. As soon as I have enough run off to com- 
mence boiling, I put my kettle over the fire, and 
boil the lye as fast as it will boil, still adding 
more lye as it boils down. In this way I continue 
for a whole day. By evening it will probably be 
sufficiently strong to eat a feather in passing it 
three times across the liquid. I now put my grease 
in (all I think it will eat), still boiling as fast as I 
can without its running over. If it eats the grease 
all up I add more. I now leave my kettle to hang 
over the fire all night. In the morning, if there 
are any scraps of grease that are not eaten up, I 
boil again for an hour or two, and if they do not 
dissolve I take them out. Then I take out a few 
spoonfuls of the soap, and set it away a little 
while to cool. When cold, if there is no lye un- 
der it, and it appears free from grease, I set my 
kettle off, and hang another one to boil more lye. 
Managing in this way, I generally can make from 
sixteen to eighteen gallons of nice white soap in 
two days, and often in one day and a night. — Cor. 
Cincinnati Gazette. 



7^ 



THE LAJYCASTER FARMER. 



BREAD MAKING. 

AN experienced housewife says: In making 
bread always use potato es or nice corn- 
meal. I do not feel as if I was doing the correct 
thing if I use only flour. The corn-meal need not 
be made into mush ; scald it first in the mixing 
pan before adding the flour, then set in the usual 
manner. The most prejudiced person cannot de- 
tect by the taste any corn in the bread, but there 
is an increased sweetness, and it keeps moist much 
longer. Of course, the best corn meal must be 
used, not that rank-chicken feed kind. Besides 
the improvement in the bread, the flour barrel 
holds out m uch longer, and health is promoted. 
I put about one part of corn to three parts of flour, 
when setting the sponge. 

Graham Bread. — One woman wishes to know 
how to make good Graham bread. It is never 
made successfully after the usual recipes for bread 
of fine flour. To all who have thoroughly tried 
the Graham gems, I think that form of Graham 
bread is most acceptable. The method of making 
these is very simple. The essentials are patty- 
pans, buttered and well heated, and a hot oven. 
Nothing else but the meal and water. Inexperi- 
enced persons will probably make the batter too 
stiff", and it may take them some time to learn that 
^he gems seem lighter and stveeter if made with- 
out salt. I am no vegetarian, and use salt daily 
in my food, but I think it a mere superstition and 
a gastronomic mistake to put salt in some 
forms of bread. 

Our inquirer may have no patty-pans (the iron 
clusters are best), or she may wish especially to 
learn how to make Graham bread with yeast. 

In an August number of Hearth and Home for 
1871, "Mrs. Hammond" gave a recipe, which is the 
best I have found. She always sifts Graham flour 
to make it light, but mixes the bran again thor- 
oughly with the flour. This is an improvement' 
certainly. For one quart of flour thus prepared, 
use half a cup of good yeast and a little more 
than half a pint of warm water. Stir this well 
together at night, and set in a warm place. In 
the morning add more flour, but not too much to 
stir with a spoon — for Graham bread should not 
be kneaded. Stir it well, pour it into the pan, and 
let it rise an hour. Some prefer to steam Graham 
loaves, as well as those of corn-meal, before baking 
This prevents the formation of thick hard crust so 
dreaded by poor teeth. Many suppose that 
molasses is essential to good Graham bread, but 
some of the best cooks do not use it. 



Care of Cisterns. — Water may be preserved 
pure and whole in rainwater cistern, by letting the 
supply pipe connect at the bottom of the cistern. 
The fresh water being heavier than that already 
in the cistern, will force the stale water to the top 
so that it can be used before it becomes offensive. 
It is well known, however, that cistern water be- 
comes impure from the organic matter it contains, 
and if this can be got rid of by destroying its 
vitality and precipitating it to the bottom, it will 
leave the water pure. .It is claimed that there is 
nothing better to effect this than permanganate of 
potassa. used in the proportion of about an ounce 
to fifty sections of water. This causes the inor- 
ganic matter to sink to the bottom an innoxious 
sediment. But the permanganate must be con- 
tinued as long as the water has a purplish appear- 
ance, indicating that the offensive matter has not 
all been precipitated. Though this is not a pois- 
onous drug, and is, we believe, in no way hurtful, 
still no more should be used than necessary. 
Every druggist has it for sale. Care must be 
taken to have the cistern thoroughly cleaned at 
least twice a year, as well as the troughs upon 
the buildings supplying the water. 



Boiled Lettuce. — This to our taste is a deli- 
cious vegetable, and the gout is something inde- 
scribable, resembling asparagus or sea^kale, and 
yet not quite like either. Lettuce may be simply 
boiled and eaten as other greens, but they can be 
bo iled and served as entremets in a variety of 
ways. Have ready some neatly-cut pieces of toast* 
a pale brown color ; lay them on a dish, a hot 
one ; let each piece be of a size to hold the let- 
tuce and one poached o^g ; pour over the toast a 
little of the water and some good gravy ; if the 
latter be not handy, a little fresh butter should be 
spread on the toast previous to pouring the water 
from the lettuce ; place on each piece of toast 
enough of the boiled lettuce to form a flat layer ; 
neatly trim the edges of the vegetable, and place 
a poached (^gg on the top, or prepare some toast as 
above, and spread over each piece a thin layer of 
anchovy or bloater paste on which lay the lettuce ; 
then season to taste. To prepare the lettuces for 
boiling they should be well cleansed, and the top 
of the leaves, if they have the slightest appear- 
ance of fading, cut ; leave as much of the stalk 
as possible, cutting off the strong outer skin. The 
stalk is, when boiled, the most delicious part. 
The large coarse lettuce makes the handsomest dish, 
though we prefer the flavor of the drumhead. 



THE LAJyCASTER FARMER. 



73 



WHAT TO DO IN CASE OF ACCIDENT. 

Prof. "Wilder, of Cornell University, gives the 
following short rules for action in cases of acci- 
dent, which it will be found useful to preserve or 
remember : 

For dust in the eyes, avoid rubbing; dash water 
into them ; remove cinders, etc., with the round 
point of a lead-pencil. 

Remove water from the ear by tepid water; 
never put a hard instrument into the ear. 

If an artery is cut, compress above the wound ; 
if a vein is cut, compress below. 

If choked, get upon all fours, and cough. 

For slight burns,- dip the part in cold water ; 
if the skin is destroyed cover with varnish. 

Smother a fire with carpets, etc.; water will of- 
ten spread burning oil, and increase danger. Be- 
fore passing through smoke take a full breath and 
then stoop low ; but if carbonic acid gas is sus- 
pected, then walk erect. 

Suck poisoned wounds, unless your mouth is 
sore, enlarge the wound, or, better cut out the 
part w ithout delay ; hold the wounded part to a 
hot coal or the end of a cigar. 

In case of poisoning, excite vomiting by tickling 
the throat or by warm water and mustard. 

For acid poisons, give alkalies ; for alkaline poi- 
sons, give acids— white of e^^^ is good in most 
cases ; in a case of opium poisoning give strong 
coffee and keep moving. 

If in water float on the back with the nose and 
mouth projecting. 

For apoplexy raise the head and body ; for 
fainting lay the person flat. 



PAINTING SHINGLED ROOFS. 

The Industrial Montldy strongly advocates the 
painting of shingled roofs, and gives some facts to 
show how remarkably their durability is promoted 
by the process. 1 he following suggestions with 
regard to the kind of paint to be used, and the 
mode of applying it, are very sensible : The true 
way to paint a roof is to apply paint of some kind 
to both sides of the shingles. It is quite as im- 
portant that the under side of every shingle be 
covered with paint as the surface, to prevent the 
water from being drawn up between the courses 
by capillary attraction. If good shingles are 
painted on both sides, and good paint be applied 
to the roof once in ten years, it will continue leak- 
tight for more than a hundred years. When roofs 
are not painted, moss is liable to collect at the 



buts of every course of shingles, which promote 
their decay more rapidly than alternate rain and 
sunshine. 

When oil paint is used for painting shingles, it 
is always better to employ some light color rather 
than black, as the apartments of the attic story, 
beneath a black roof, are liable to be uncommonly 
hot in the summer ; and more thau this, as black 
paint absorbs more heat than any other color, 
neither the paint nor the shingles will endure as 
long as if the roofs had been covered with some 
light-colored paint. A metallic roof covered with 
light-colored paint will last much longer than if it 
had been painted with black paint. The most 
economical paint for a roof is a generous coat of 
coal tar, once in a few years ; but coal-tar will 
color the water for five years after a coat is ap- 
plied to the roof. 



CARE OF LAMBS. 



Sheep are not the only farm stock that have re- 
tained or advanced their actual value in the market 
during the past year. Is is therefore for the 
farmer's interest that he carefully watch his ewes 
and lambs at this season. Ewes need better care 
thau wethers, and should be removed to pens 
where they can be looked after daily. As they 
near the time of lambing, they should be again re- 
moved to a warm, dry pen and watched closely. If 
the lamb comes weakly, it should have a mouthful 
or two of warm milk until it is active enough to 
suck. If it should become chilled, let it be re- 
moved at once, and warmed and fed until restored. 
But there will be few weak lambs if the ewes are 
fed previously with good clover hay, a few roots, 
and a handful of oats daily. No hogs should be 
permitted near a pen of lambs; and the tamer and 
more gentle the sheep have been made, the less 
danger there will be of the ewe resenting any in- 
terference either with herself or her lamb, and dis- 
owning it in consequence.— ^H;er. Agnculturist. 



Ox the 16th of February, and on the 3d of 
March last, living specimens of the " White Cab- 
bage Butterfly" — Pieris rapcc — were captured 
abroad in Lancaster city. This fact seems to in- 
dicate that the past intensely cold winter has had 
but little effect upon the vitality of this insect, 
and that consequently, we may look for a goodly 
number of them next summer. Deplorable pros- 
pect — and ought to stimulate cabbage growers to 
early and energetic vigilance. 



74 



THE LAJ\rCASTER FARMER. 



LANCASTER, APRIL, 1873. 



S. S. RATHVON, Editor. 

Published monthly under the auspices of the A gricul- 

TURAL ANDHoHTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

91.$S5 per Year In Advance. 

A considerable deduction to clubs of five or more. 

All communications, to insure insertion, must be in the 
hands of the editor before tue 20th of each mouth. Ad- 
dress S. S. Rahvon, Lancaster, Pa. 

AH advertisements, subscriptions and remittances to the 
address of the publisher, J. B. DEVELIN, 

Inquirer Building, Lancaster, Pa. 

MEETING OF THE AGRICUL lURAL AND 

HORTICULIURAL SOCIETY OF 

LANCASTER COUNTY. 

THE Society met in the Orphans'Court Room, 
on Monday March. 3d, Henry M. Engle 
in the chair. Ihe minutes of the hist meeting were 
read and approved by acquiescence. 

Henry M. Engle remarked in confirmation of 
his statement made at the last meeting, that the 
peaches, pears, cherries and apricots were, in 
general, killed by the severe cold of the winter ; 
also the raspberries and blackberries. A large 
portion of the apples are likewise killed, and 
large numbers of the trees of the tender varieties 
are frozen down to the snow line. With him the 
thermometer ranged from 20 to 25 degrees below 
zero on the coldest morning. 

Other members reported even lower degrees of 
temperature than that given by Mr. Engle. 

The Secretary here read the report of Reuben 
Weaver on the condition of the fruits, the passage 
of the winter and the prospect for the coming 
year. 

John Huber reported that pear and peach-trees 
on high ground are not killed, but that the buds 
everywhere are frozen. 

Levi S. Reist moved the appointment of a com- 
mittee on nomenclature, which was adopted. Com- 
mittee, Levi S. Reist Jacob B. Garber, John 
Huber, Casper H iller and Henry M. ?]ngle. 

Israel L. Landis moved that the Corresponding 
Secretary be authorized to secure the National 
Census. Agreed to. 

Johnson Miller proceeded to read his report 
which he had prepared for the Washington Agri- 
cultural Department. The report drew forth 
quite a discussion on questions touching upon 
husbandry. 



Jacob Stauffer remarked that in Europe, green 
soiling is a customary mode of fertilizing land but 
in America little is plowed down except clover. 

Levi S Reist thought several reasons might be 
assigned for the decline of land in price. Crops 
have been so poor for years that farming no longer 
pays. This he has from many farmers with whom 
he conferred. Another reason for the decline, is 
that money can be invested in the AVest at such 
figures as cannot be obtained in farming. Land 
sells 25 or 30 dollars less, per acre, than it did four 
or five years ago. 

Henry M. Engle thought that land had d^^pre- 
ciated in price on account of a change in the state 
of the currency, but not intrinsically. 

B. C. Kready also recognized the fall in the 
price of land, and he thought the low price of farm 
products the reason. Several causes may have 
combined, but that would by him be considered 
the principal. He is not disposed to believe the 
depreciation so great as supposed. 

Dr. P. W. Hicstand did not see in the lower 
price of land anything but its recurrence to the 
normal prices that obtained before the war. 
Prices during the civil struggle became exorbitant, 
and they are gradually resuming their old posi- 
tion. 

Wm. McComsey did not deem it judicious to 
allow the impression to go out that laud is depre- 
ciating in value, and he is simply of the opinion 
that prices are coming back to what they were 
before the war. In the main he thinks land is go- 
ing up ; especially is this the case in and around 
the city. 

Ephraim Hoover did not think a few exceptional 
cases around Lancaster can be adduced as evidence 
of a rise in the price of land elsewhere. He is 
satisfied that for a few yoars it has been falling in 
price, and he believes no other reason can be as- 
signed save that the old style farming will not 
pay. No man can do a profitable business at 
farming at the prices now paid for land. A farm 
near the city for dairy purposes may pay, but not 
for general crops. 

Wm. McComsey knew a farm that sold twenty- 
five years ago for $110 per acre that could not 
now be be bought for !$300 per acre. 

Levi S. Reist— Land from 1800 to 1810, sold 
from $90 to $100 per acre ; from 1810 to 1817 it 
sold up to $300 per acre. Some few years after- 
wards it sold from $30 to $35 per acre. In 1 846 
land could be bought for $80 and $90 per acre. 
Shortly afterwards it rose, and sold up to 1865 at 
prices ranging from $150 to $250 per acre. It is 



THE LA J\ CASTER FARMER. 



75 



now soiling considerably lower than during the 
war. It often sells $00 and $70 per acre lower 
than it did some j'cars ago. If crops continue to 
fail prices will go even lower yet. 

B. C. Kready remarked that in the city of Lan- 
caster property sells by a half higher than it did 
during the war. 

H. M. ?ingle thought the great cheapness of 
"Western lands, and the opening up of the country 
by railroads, were among the causes for the sink- 
ing of land in price. If we want to keep up the 
price of our lands we must turn our attention to 
growing something besides the old crops. 

I). G. Swartz. entirely agreed with Mr. Engle. 
that the cheapness of Western lands and abundant 
railroad facilities was lowering the price of our 
farms. Since the war almost the whole West has 
been opened up by new railroads. Much, however, 
of the fluctuation of land prices has been owing to 
monetary changes, since the war. Upon the close 
of the war, confidence being again restored, the 
price of land went up at once and above its value. 
It is now resuming its natural condition, and 
must come down somewhat. In the city, on the 
contrary, it is going up, and must so continue for 
an indefinite future. Interest must come down in 
years to come; but all these matters are regulated 
by the laws of trade, over which we have no con- 
trol. 

H. M. Bngle was glad to see this discussion. 
Farmers should know something besides the mere 
raising of crops. 

Johnson Miller thought farmers should keep 
accurate accounts, and in this way they would be 
able to determine if farming pays or not. 

Peter S. Reist thought when the Eastern and 
Western prices of land are taken into consideration, 
and the prices obtained severally for the crops, it 
will be seen that the land in the East is not so 
much too dear after all. He once thought that 
money invested in bank-stock would pay so much 
better than in land, and when young he tried it 
and lost all his bank investment. Land in Lan- 
caster county should not sell for more than $150 
per acre, and that would be a fair price. Land 
and real estate may pay less percentage, but 
there is no loss in them. 

Johnson Miller does not think there is a farm 
of over one hundred acres that for the last eight 
years has paid over three per cent. 

Peter S. Reist agrees in the opinion that if we 
desire to make our farms pay large percentages we 
must go out of the old ruts and raise new products. 

H. M. Engle thinks in addition to all this we 



must secure consumers in abundance by building 
up diiferent kinds of manufactures. 

Levis. Reist thought farmers may make as high 
as four per cent, on their investments in their 
farms. 

Israel L. Landis knew farmers that were renting 
their farms at prices that paid them six per cent. 

Levi S. Reist said that the cases referred to by 
Mr. Landis were instances of farms near the city, 
and where they were used for dairy purposes. 

H. M. Engle thought in the midst of land con 
sideration, that the fruits should not be overlooked. 
In view of the reports submitted by Reuben 
Weaver and others, it became of the first impor- 
tance to ascertain the kinds of fruit that do the 
best, and escape the severe freezing of such a 
winter as we have passed. If it can be ascertained 
that some kinds do better than others, the most 
successful should be known by the people. A fail- 
ure of fruit may be expected the coming year, as 
reports from various States seemed to indicate this 
result. A matter of interest he here mentioned as 
regards grapes. Where they have been badly 
frozen, they should be pruned back very severely, 
if the vines are at all to do any good. When trees 
are winter killed the pruning-knife must be vigor- 
ously used, and they will revive and regain their old 
vitality. Have plenty of courage, therefore, and 
prune back severely. 

Johnson Miller having obtained the census of 
the United States from Col. Dickey, presented the 
same to the Society. 

On motion the following new members were 
elected, viz. : B. H. Hershey, David R. Diffender- 
fer and Henry B. Buch, of New Haven. 

Society now, on motion, adjourned. 



THREE PER CP]NT. 



IN connection with the subject of "cent per 
cent.," we often hear the hackneyed phrase of 
" Does farming pay ?" some answering the ques- 
tion affirmatively, and others negatively. Much, 
of course, depends on what is relatively meant by 
pay. A thing may ultimately pay, without re- 
gard to a mere dollar and cent value of the sub- 
ject. Sometimes even pecuniary loss, is, in the 
end, a great physical, social, or moral gain. But 
to confine the subject to mere per cents., we 
think — indeed we happen to knoio — that many 
farmers are in the habit of committing great 
errors in their modes of calculation. 

If a merchant invests ten thousand dollars in 
goods, and continues in business a year, and finds 



76 



TEE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



at the end of that time he has ten thousand 
dollars' worth of goods on hand, and one hundred 
dollars in bank, his rent and personal expenses, 
amounting to one thousand dollars, all having 
been paid out of his profits, he never dreams of 
saying that he has only realized one 'per cent, on 
the sales of the year, no matter how often his 
stock may have been exhausted and replenished 
durin"' that year. This would be a sophistical 
mode of mathematical calculation that he has 
never learned ; for in reality he has made seven 
per cent. ; or, duducting one hundred dollars for 
natural depreciation of goods— but this is not 
absolute, for they may have been appreciated— 
he is still a^lear gainer of ten per cent, on his 
original investment, and so he accustoms himself to 
regard it. 

Another man invests ten thousand dollars in 
lands, improvements, stock and implements, and 
conducts farming operations for a year. If at 
the end of that time, deducting one thousand 
dollars for his personal expenses and " wear anj 
tear" of implements, he has only three hundred 
dollars left in cash, he complains that he has only 
realized three per cent. / or, if he deducts one 
hundred dollars for depreciations, he will be apt to 
call it two per cent., and then alleges that " farm- 
ing don't pay." Could anything be more pre- 
posterous than this mode of calculating per cents ? 
" Why," he would perhaps exclaim, " I could have 
realized six per cent, by loaning my money out at 
usuary." fcfo he could, and so also could hitve the 
merchant, but both would have been compelled to 
work at some other kind of business, to make up 
the other four hundred dollars that it cost them 
to live, and neither of them might have gained 
the one hundred or three hundred dollars sur- 
plus. Under any circumstances - even allow- 
ing the deduction of one hundred dollars for de- 
peciation— the farmer has really gained twelve 
per cent, on his original investment, and so he 
ought to regard it ; because his income has been 
the legal interest of twenty thousand dollars, 
instead" of ten Even at the low estimates we 
have made, there are millions of farmers 
in the world who consider this a paying income. 
We would by no means limit our farmers to this, 
or double or treble this--amount of profit on 
their hard and honest labor, but we would have 
per cents, called by their proper names. 

This mode of reckoning per cents, is not more 
fallacious than that of the old shop-keeper, whd 
claimed that he never charged more nor less than 
one per cent, on his investments. But as his sales 



were very limited, his mathematical neighbors 
could not conceive how he could live on so small a 
profit. They told him that he ought to realize at 
least twenty per cent, or he would surely fail. But 
he insisted that one per cent, was enough for any 
honest man, and in order to demonstrate the case 
according to his practice of reckoning per cents, 
it transpired that he was exacting just one hun. 
dred per cent., for he made it a universal rule to 
charge just double what he paid for an article, 
and this he called one per cent. 

Suppose a farmer retires with twenty thousand 
dollars, which he loans out on mortgage at the 
legal interest, and it costs him one thousand dol- 
lars a year for personal expenses. Can he say that 
he realized tivo per cent., and therefore loaning 
money at six per cent, don't pay, because he has 
only two hundred dollars left above expenses ? 
Suppose his neighbor loans out the same amount 
of money, at the same rate of interest, and his per- 
sonal expenses are only five hundred dollars a 
year. According to this mode of reckoning, his 
neighbor has made seven per cent out of his money, 
whilst he has has only made two ; when, in reality, 
they have both realized the same, the amount 
of surplus being determined entirely by their cost 
of living. 

We know that some persons contend that their 
personal expenses ought not to be included as an 
item in their gains, alleging that they give their 
labor, and that that is surely worth as much as 
their living costs them. So must the merchant 
give his labor — so must the manufacturer and the 
mechanic. If they did not. they might find them- 
selves at the end of the year, coming " out of the 
little end of the horn." A skillful mechanic who 
can earn six hundred dollars a year, is practically 
as well off as a man who owns ten thousand dol- 
lars, and is at the same time destitute of all busi- 
ness or mechanical qualifications ; for, the former 
has possessions which — except under extraordi- 
nary circumstances — cannot be taken from him, 
whilst the latter, through injudicious investments, 
profligacy or robbery, may soon lose all he has. 

Yet that mechanic would say that his profession 
was worth the interest of ten thousand dollars at 
six per cent., even if it cost him all of that amount 
to live. In the assessment and collection of the 
United States taxes during the late rebellion, the 
manufacturers and mechanics, at least, were taxed 
on their gross productions, without regard to per- 
sonal expenses. Indeed such a tax could not have 
been equitably assessed, for the personal expenses 
of some men were twice, or thrice as great as 



THE LAJ^CASTER .FABMER., 



77 



others in the same business ; besides, such an as" 
sessment might have been a temptation to con- 
sume aU their profits, in order to evade the taxes. 
True, some legal deductions were made, but they 
did not include personal expenses. 



AMERICAN SALMON. 

STOCKING OUR RIVERS AND LAKES. 
PROSPECT OF AN ABUNDANCE OF THIS DELICIOUS FISH. 

IT is well known that not a great many years 
ago the rivers of New England and the 
tributaries of Lake Ohamplain and Lake Ontario 
abounded with salmon, during the proper season 
of the year, to such an extent that apprentices, 
paupers in workhouses, and others objected to be- 
ing fed with them more than three times a week. 
From the St. Croix to the Connecticut, inclusive, 
on the sea-board, the numbers of salmon were very 
great, and they were but little less common in the 
lakes just mentioned. At the present time the 
case is very different, the only United States 
waters where salmon occur being a few streams in 
Maine. The causes of their partial extermina- 
tion are to be found in the erection of impassable 
dams, which cut them off from access to their 
spawning-beds; in the discharge of sawdust into 
the streams, by which their eggs, when laid, are 
covered up; in indiscriminate capture at improper 
times, etc. 

Similar experience abroad as to the reduction in 
numbers of this valuable fish, and the desire to 
restore it to its original abundance, especially in 
view of its commercial and economical value, led 
to experiments for its restoration, and with such 
success as greatly to stimulate effort throughout 
Europe. More recently the subject has attracted 
attention in this country, and for some years past 
the Fish Commissioners of all the New England 
States have been earnest in their endeavors to re- 
new the supply. Their first efforts were directed 
to the gathering of eggs in the rivers of New 
Brunswick, and were not very successful. They 
then applied to the authorities at the Canadian 
Salmon Breeding Establishment, at Newcastle, 
not far from Toronto, and succeeded in procuring 
a few thousand, at a cost of $40 per thousand in 
gold, a price which prevented their securing a 
large supply, or one sufficient to make a satisfac- 
tory experiment. As may be readily imagined 
the young salmon when hatched and place^l in the 



water are liable to be devoured by their fellow-in- 
habitants, and it is only after these have taken 
their toll that a surplus can be counted on. For 
this reason, the larger the number introduced at 
at one time, the better the chance of success. 

Limited, as above mentioned, in their efforts to 
obtain a sufficient supply of eggs for their pur- 
poses, the State Commissioners and the leading 
pisciculturists of the country, at an annual meet- 
ing of a society established by them, determined 
to ask Congress for aid in accomplishing their ob- 
ject. Their appeal was met by an appropriation 
during the session of 1871-'72, the disbursal of 
which was placed in charge of Professor Spencer 
T. Baird, of the Smithsonian Institution, and at 
the time United States Commissioner of Fish and 
Fisheries. After consultation with gentlemen in. 
terested and realizing the importance of leaving 
no effort untried to accomplish the object, the 
Commissioner determined upon three methods 
looking toward this end, excluding at the same 
time any idea of dependence upon the Canadian 
Government with its exorbitant charges. The 
first method was found in a plan devised by Mr. 
Charles Gr. Atkins, formerly Fish Commissioner 
of Maine, and practiced by him with much success 
in 1871. This consisted in securing the living 
fish (principally by purchase at the weirs and 
ponds) from the period of their first entrance into 
the Penobscot river, in spring, and transferring 
them to a fresh water pond near Bucksport, Me. 
until their spawning season should arrive. About 
600 fish of both sexes were thus secured, and the 
eggs stripped from the females when ripe (about 
the end of October) and fertilized by the milt of 
the male, the total yield being about a million and 
a half of eggs. Half the e.xpense of this experi- 
ment was borne by the United States, and the 
other half by the States of Maine, Massachusetts, 
Connecticut and Rhode Island. It has been a dis- 
tinguished success, and will, we hope, be repeated 
on a larger scale during the coming season. The 
next source of supply suggested was the Sacra- 
mento river, the salmon of which, though of a dif- 
ferent species from that of the Atlantic waters, is 
equally good, and has the advantage of thriving 
iti much warmer water, and thus of being fitted for 
introduction into such States as Pennsylvania, 
Maryland, Virginia, and possibly the Mississippi 
Valley. To turn this opportunity to practical 
account, Mr. Livingston Stone, a well-known pisci- 
culturist, was sent to the Sacramento river, and 
erected a hatching-house on the McCloud river, 
one of the tributaries. Misled by the informatioa 



78 



THE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



furnished as to the spawning season of this fish, 
Mr. Stone arrived on the ground a little too late 
for the full realization of his purposes, and suc- 
ceeded in obtaining only a few eggs. These were 
Bent East, and hatched out at the establishment of 
Dr. Slack, at Bloomsberry, New Jersey, where, to 
the number of 6,000, they are now awaiting the 
period of their transfer to the Susquehanna river, 
their ultimate destination. They prove to be 
very hardy, and there will be no difficulty in 
greatly increasing the number another season. 

These two efforts not promising a sufficiency. 
Prof. Baird directed his efforts toward obtaining 
a supply from Germany, and, on application to the 
Deutsche Fischerei Verein, was informed that the 
(Jerman Government would give orders to the 
Director of the National Establishment at 
Hiiningen on the Rhine to reserve at the proper 
season 250,000 eggs as a present to the United 
States. To supplement this generous act, and to 
make sure of an ample supply, an additional 500,- 
000 was ordered from Mr. Schuster, Burgo- 
meister of Freiburg, at the low rate of ^2 per 
1,000— a considerable difference from the Cana- 
dian ^40. These eggs were duly packed up by 
the middle of January last, and delivered to Mr. 
Rudolf Hessel, an experienced fish-breeder of Of- 
fenburg, Baden, who sailed with them on board 
the Bremen steamer Weser, which left for New 
York on the 1 8th, arriving on Tuesday, the 4th 
of February. By the courtesy of the officers of 
the ship, who rendered evei'y facility in their 
power, the boxes containing the eggs were placed 
in a small house on deck, where they could be read- 
ily attended to by Mr. Hessel. They filled sixty 
boxes, occupying about seven tons of measurement. 
The unprecedentedly warm weather which pre- 
vailed in Gei'many during the last of 1872, and 
prior to the sailing of the Weser, was very un- 
favorable to the success of the experiment, as it 
hurried forward the hatching of the eggs, and ren- 
dered them much more delicate than usual. It 
was, therefore, not surprising to find, on unpack- 
ing them, that a considei'able number of the eggs 
had spoiled, though it is hoped that the majority 
will be saved. As soon as the vessel arrived, the 
eggs were transhipped to the fish hatching estab- 
lishment of Dr. Slack, where they are now under- 
going the necessary treatment. Whatever be their 
fate the experience of the past season will, it is 
hoped, make further eSbrt a distinguished suc- 
cess. The Commissioner expects very shortly to 
transmit the eggs at his command from the differ- 
ent sources mentioned to various establishments in 



the New England and Middle States, and tjiose 
bordering on the lakes, to be hatched out and in- 
troduced into the waters. Where there are State 
Commissioners the charge of the supply for their 
respective constituencies will, it is understood, be 
given to them. — N. Y. Tribune. 



All communications for any current number of 
the Farmer should reach us by the 20th of the 
month. T his may explain the non-appearance of 
articles fi'om our contributors. 



We desire to express our sincere acknowl 
ments to friend Cochran, of the State Senate, for 
regular and consecutive files of the Legislative 
Journal for the session of 1873. 



Household Notes : To Make Sausage.— To 
ten pounds of meat, add four and a half ounces 
salt, one ounce pepper, three-quarters of an ounce 
sage. 

Delicate Cake.- — Take one pound of flour, one 
of sugar, three-quarters of a pound of butter, one 
wineglass of wine, one of brandy, the whites of 
sixt een eggs. This makes a delightful cake, well 
named. 

Cream Puffs.— Boil together one gill water and 
one-eighth cup of butter ; while boiling stir in 
three-quarters cup of flour. Let it cool ; then 
add three eggs well beaten separately. Butter 
and flour your tin, and drop the mixture upou it. 
This quantity will make ten puffs. 

Hominy Padding. — Prepare as for batte 
cakes, add one egg for each pint, some whole cin- 
namon, sugar to suit the taste, and a few raisins, 
and bake like rice pudding. A little butter or 
chopped suet may be added. Serve hot or cold, 
with or without sauce. 

Scotch Cake.— Take one pound of fine flour, a 
half pound of fresh butter, a half pound of finely- 
sifted loa f sugar ; mix well in a paste, roll out an 
inch thick in a square shape, pinch the edges so as 
to form small points ; ornament with comfits and 
orange chips ; bake in a quick oven. When of a 
pale lemon color it is done. 

Deviled Turkey. — Take the legs of a turkey or 
large fowl, cut it all over to the bone, pepper and 
salt it well ; then take mixed mustai'd, mix it with 
one-third its quantity of flour, and plaster the legs 
over with the mixture as thick as it will stick, 
also stuffing the gashes in the legs with it ; when 
this is done put it on a gridiron over a clear fire ; 
serve hot. 



THE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



7g 



We hope our subscribers will not forget their 
subscriptions when making their yearly payments. 
"We have a large amount due us in small sums 
which would aid us very materially in improving 
the Parmer, if prompt payment of same was made. 
The yellow slip on each number will assist our 
subscribers in calculating the amounts, and we 
hope none will fail to give it their closest atten- 
tion. 

BOOK AND SPECIAL NOTICE DEPART- 
MENT. 

LITEEARY NOTICES. 



" Practical Am: rican Fences and Gates." — An illus- 
trated oclovo pamj h et ol 20 psges, by Is ael 1j. Lrinlis, 
giving a history ot tlie latet-t anil the most important 
ac.hievem nt lu th s line of imiTOvement. This htt'e work 
contains 2.5 well executed tigures, together wi^h descrip- 
tive 'et er jirefs, explanatoiy of a new, economical and 
durable syst< m ot fencing, wliieh cannot but bp of iutrrest 
to all farruers ai.d lamlholders. So long as fences seem t > 
be ne fssary, in the domesti/! eronoray of the farm, we 
thiuk the farmer miglit learn something to his pecuniary 
and focial advantage, by consulting the pages of this 
pamphlet. Address Israel L. Landis, Lancswter, Pa. 

^ HE GermantownTklkoraph. — Few. very few. papers 
in this country, have so hontstly aid ably liuilt up and 
FU.«tainc(l the n putalion that this veterati paper and its 
Veteran editoi have. It has been unusually ard uniformly 
sound and reliable in literature, politics, <gii cult lire, gen- 
eral husbai'diy, and the current news. Puh^ih'sd ina large 
lolio weekiy, by MHJor Fitas, at $2.00 jer annum. 

The Carthagk Gazette— a spirited folio, corai s to us 
regularly every week, from some unknown frier d; a per- 
fect budget of interesting reading matter. Carthage, III. 
T. C. Sharp, editor and proprietor. $2 00 a year in ad- 
vance. 

MoNTHLV Report of the Department of Agriculture, 

for January, 1873 Vanderbilt's Seed and Implement 

Li.st, lor 1873, No 23 Fulton street, New York ...Peter 
Henderson's Spring (Jaialogiie ot new, ra-e, and bf autitul 
plants for 1873, No. 35 I :our land street, New York..,.S. 
H. Purple's Descriptive Catalogue of roses, bedding and 
greenhouse plants, trnes, shrubs, flower and vegetable 
see's, nnd summer flowerin^j bulbs, for Spring, 1S73, Co- 
lumbia, Pa Fifth Annual Report of the Pennsylvania 

SO' it ty, for the Prevention of Cruelty to Aniniala De- 
scription I t the Oper ition of thi" Willia'tison Roal-steam- 
er and Steam-plow, on the ^ seed farm of T>. Landreth & 

Son, at B;oomingdale, Pa The New York fi y "Ring," 

its iriyin maturity and fall, etc , by S. J. Tilden Pen 

and Plow, P. O. box 3242, New York— all have been 
thankfully received, and are worthy of a more extended 
notice, but our time abd space loriiids, 

Thb Model Potat(>. — An exposition of its proper culti- 
vation ; the cause of its rotting ; the remedy therefor ; its 
renewal, pres' rvation, productiveness and cooking. Bv Dr. 
John Mctaurin. l:;dited with annotations, by R. T. Trail, 
M. n. 12rao, 102 pp. Price 50 ce: ts. S. R. Wells, Pub- 
lisher, 389 Broadway, N. Y. 

A work in wbieh every farmer, every gardener, and 
ev.ry reader is interested. Any effort made to improve 
this universa'ly used tuber is worthy of commendation. 
Her are new views on the subject of Potato Culture, and 
a plan to prevent ite rutting and " runniui{ out." The 
work is the result of twenty years' experience andob.serTa- 
tion. 

Amrrioa'n Sunday-school Workkr. — We have re- 
ceived the January and February numbers of this maga- 
Bine which has entered its fourth year. In its Sunday- 
»choal Less ins it follows the popular course known as the 
International Course of Lessons. This ia regarded as one 
of the best Sunday-school journals of this country. Many 
teachers tiike several journals this year to =id them in ex- 

f>laining the same lessons. We ndvis* schools about adopt- 
ng a course of study to' send for specimen of this Journal 



for examination. Subscription, $1.50 per year, single copy 
15 cen 8. The publii-her is J. W. Mclutyre, St. Louis, Aio. 

Don't Forokt thb Children.- When providing your 
supply of reading for the next year do not target the- chil- 
dren. They need a weekly paper as well &> the older 
folks Noihiuij better cin b' found forthrtn tJian the 
weekly " Brij^ht .Side and Family Circle," which is de- 
sign d especially for them. |i it, edited by O. b. G. Paine, 
A. M , a teacher in the fhioxgo Hi{:h School, arid has 
anions its contributors some of tho best writers of the 
country, such as Rev. Dr. A len. President of tne N. Y. 
Mate Normal School, Prof Saiilioni Tenney, of Williams 
'oUege, Mrs A. E. Sherwood, Ina Claytoo, Ameiia E. 
Daley, and others. It is designed to interfSt a-> well as in- 
struct, and is ^uch a (.api r as any parent or teacter may 
give to his children or puj-ils, a>sured that tiny will be 
b .11. fitted by it. It is lurui-hed at. the low pncc of ■CI 60 
per year, and every subscriber receives a havid.-ome Chrome, 
the t^alla Lili. s. Published by the tirighi Side Company, 
Chicago. 

.Supplement TO FABMkR's Advocate.— The subject of 
co-oj erat on among tarmeis is beginning to attract very 
much atteution in nil parts of the country. At St. Louis, 
1 St May. the Niitional Agricultural Congress wan oraariz- 
ed by the consolidation of the National Agriculturwl Asso- 
ciation and the Agricultural Congress and Mtoiicb by wise 
and judicious acuon secured the eoutidrfuce of sooi'ties 
thou^hout the country, both coilectively and individu- 
ally- In many parts of the country distric convent ons 
have been called and numerously attenoeu by thi farmers, 
and the resolutions pdopt*"- evince a >;rowing appreciation 
or the value an;l necessiTy of co-operative action. 

'I'he AiWi ican Farmer'^ ^dvvcat-. which has espoused the 
cause of the * ongress, has, with full coiitidenee in the grow- 
ing popularity of this movenieut, b. en sent to > very «gri- 
cultural society and to all the newspap rsof the co-intry, 
at the individiial expen^e ot the publishers Jt has per- 
.severingly prtsent'u 'he benefits of th«; Congress, and we 
can lie/.rtiiy commeiid it to the ettention of every f;<rraer. 
The Congress holds its next meeting in viay, at Ii (1 ana- 
polis, Ind., and it promises to be an occasioa of much in- 
terest to agriculturists Every society m the country 
should be represented there- 
Full information in reference to itniiy ba obtained by 
addretsipg the Secretary, Ohas. W Cireene, at Jackson, 
Tenn , at which point also th.' Advocah is published. 

Wood's Household Magazine for April, inv'tes us to 
the following " f.^ast of reason and flow of soui": Tha 
Good Goddess; Mid-"^uinmer Dream; The Slosv Poison- 
ing; Wuiius, by Aadison ; Miss "Pop-In"; Mnsii', Make 
Your Opportunities; A Prize Story; An Honest Rum- 
seller's Advertisement; Unreasonable Devotion, by Gail 
Hamilton; Simplicity in Prayer ; My Little Gentleman, 
by L. M.Aitott; Cradle Song, by J. G Holland, Kikke- 
Tikkc- lak; tiood Advice, by Harriet Bi^echer Siowe ; and 
Editorial, including The Pictures i.o Our Home-i, I'orres- 
pondence, Hout-ekeeper, Fashiou Letter, Sense and Non- 
8' use, Home, etc. W e alsonotice that about four thousand 
professional men and women, farmers, etc., who want 
•' something to do," may be accomuiodat- d by ad -r 8>-ing 
the Editor. For specimen copv, enclose two stamps and ad- 
dress "Wood's household Magazine" (Times B.ilding), 
New York city, or 81 and 83 Front street, Newburgh, New 
York. 

The American Sunday-school Workkr "for parents 
and teachers." The January and February niimlnrs of 
this " Worker" in the vineyard of practual teaching, have 
been received ; and we must contt^s?, that, so far as coi- 
cerns the ciassitication and arrangement of the lessuns im- 
I>res' ifig the histor cal signiticanee of the Scrip un s, 
nothing has come under our observaiion that is iie^ter. 
But, uiid' r the editorial cor«Zue/ of sevi n Heverendg' iitl - 
men, six of whom are Doctors of hivinity, it cou'd not well 
be less, aud cannot fail to be an efficient instrument in iha 
caii.se of Sabbath-school instruction. Thirfy-twi paiiea 
royalo' tavo, well executed, and published at SSl.fiO a year 
by J. W. Mclnlyre, No. 4 oouth 5th sir et, .St Louis, Mo. 

Moore's Rural New Yorker for Man h, 1S73, is on our 
table, and is a Juper-excellen'^ number; full of Hiiely ex- 
ecuted i lustrations, ano ably written and instructive letter 
prtSH. As this journal is one of thefixed rural inititiit'ons 
of the country, and has nearly completed the 27ih volume, 
it is too well known to nffd any special recominendati'jn of 
ours. Published at Rochester, N. Y., at $2 50 pei annum. 

Thk Evangelist, " devoted to the promotion of a 
rational understanding of the sacred Scriptures, a firm 
faith in the Lord, and a life of obedience to His command- 
ments." L. P. Mercer, editor Filty cents a year in nd- 
Tance. Detroit, Mich. Published monthly. 16 pp. Quarto. 



80 



TEE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



Thw New Tobk Independent. — This mamiuolh relig- 
ious iiewspape burpaesrs all of the kind of which we have 
smy knowl- dgp. It is filled with articles writt«n by the 
best of our Anifrican writtrs upon sulject?of almost every 
varifty, and yet all breathing a motal, religions and intel- 
lectual air. &» it set IBP to us, the paper sioulil become an 
irmate of every American houstbold.and it wi'l nowgen- 
eially tie disrovertfl ll^at the ]jidejie?idenleiitvTi^ the families 
of those who are at all familiar with progressive life and 
the ^dvance of literature tied culture. Jtis and has been 
for yeais one of the leading educators of moral and social 
progress and as our country develojs its ir,tlu<rep must 
sllH contji ue to nnfold. It i.M worth its price ($3.00 per 
year) iourt mis over. Addrfss Henry 0. Bowen, Publish- 
er, ISo.SPark Place, Kew York. 









x 



LANDRETHS' 
SIZBDS. 



] Have spoken their own 

I praise for upwards of three- 
quart^^s of a Century. 
O^'The attention of Mar- 
1 ket Gardeners is particular- 
' ly requested. 

Landreth's Rural Regis- 
ter and '\lmanaf, will be 
I mailed without charge to 
J all who apply. 
DAVll* LANDKETH & SON, 
21 and 23 South 6th St., Philadelphia, Fa. 



NEW YOKK MARKETS. 

New York, March 28. 
Flour. — The inquiry for Flour is limited, bat 
there i.'* little change to note in values. Choice spring 
wheat Flou' ((avor>te brands) scarce and wanted at ex- 
treme prices. Good No 2 and superfine scarce and in fair 
demand. Choice amily grades are heavy and irregular. 
Flour closes quiet and irregular. We quote: Sour per bbl 
&4 60a5 80 ; No. 2 $4 OOao 55 ; superfiue, $6 10^6 75 ; State 
extra brands, $7 10.7 iO; St ite lancy do. $7 70a8 25; wes- 
tern shippinsi extia $6 95a7 30. 

Grain — Our wheat market Is extremely quiet, but 
th re is little pressure to sell. Prices of spring favor the 
biyer. Millers are holdirg oft' Choiie white is scarce 
and firm. The market for wheat closf s dull and unset- 
tled. Sales at SI 62 ft.r Iowa spring; rgected do at $1 48; 
$1 81 fur red western; 81 '1]4{«t led State ; Si 20 for choc - 
white Michig'.n, and JH9.5@197 for white Gentsse. Barl. y 
is inact Te and is heavj'. Sales of small lots of western 
No. 2 atjfllS ^ti()at. Bar'ey Malt is quiet and steady. 
Sa1<-8 of 3000 bu.-hels city at f 1 55, time 

Oats are without imi ortant change; the demand fair. 
The sales are 61 (iOO bu^beis; new Ohio mixed at 48(ai50c 
afloat ; white at 5i@55c; b ack at 47x@49c; western mixed 
at 4.Sj-^@fOc, and old afiiat at 54o ; white at ol)^(aj55c ; State 
mixed at 49X@50c, aflorst, Kye is quiet and prices are un- 
C rtain. Corn is in limited dtm^ntl and prices of o d are 
firm, but new is dull and heavy ; the inquiry is chiefly for 
the tr.*de The sales are 41,000 bushels ; western mixed at 
64>^c in store for old and CO^jc afloat, and new mixed afloat 
at 66(gj66;^c ; very choce high mixed old in store at 65e; 
western white at; 69(a)7Uc ; do yellow at 6631^ c for new afloat ; 
southern white at 71@72c. Jersey yeilow at 64>^c on 
pier. 

Broom Corn AND BROOM.S. — The market firm, with a 
fair jot)bJng demand. We quote at 3@4c lor old mixed ; 
4a'5c for new mixed ;5a6c tor fine new green, and 7i^c for 
new hurl. Brooms are quiet and unchanged at $n5a2 50 
per dozen. 

ASHKs. — The receipts to*day are 31 pkgs. Pots are 
steady with a moderate jobbing demand. Quoted at $3. 
Prarls are inactive and nominal. 

Hat. — The demand has been only moderate'and the mar- 
ket is steady. We quote Timothy fancy at $80 per ton ; do 
prime $27 per ton ; do fair $24 per ton. Shipping grade 
!tf20 per ton. Straw is steady ai a in limited demand. We 
quite long rye at$22a24 ; short do $16 ; oat at $15 and wheat 
at #13 per tea. 

SKBD9. — I ;lover quiet and steady at 8>^a8J^cfor prime; 
the demand confined to the wants of the home trade. Timo- 
thy dull at $376. 



PHILADELPHIA MARKETS. 

Philadelppia, March 28. 

Flour.— There is a fair demand from the hom« trade at 
fall prices. 3000 bbls of City Mills family sold on private 
terns, ?nd 1000 bbls. in lots, including superfine at $4 60 a 
5 .50 ; extras t $6a6 75 ; Iowa ard Wiscon.'in extra family 
at 917 50a 8 ; Minnesota do. do. at $7 75a8 40 ; Pennsylvania, 
Indiana and Ohio do. do., at $8 o0a9 2.5, and high grades at 
*975all50. Rye Flour sells at $4 75. In Corn Meal no 
sale 8. 

GRAIN. — There is but little prime Wheat here, and it is 
in fair demand at full prices ; sales of 3000 bushels at $1 94 
al96for>ed, $198:i200for amber. $1 >'3al 8,5 for amhec 
spring, and J2 10a2 30 for white. Rye is quoted at 85c. for 
Pennsylvania. Corn is less active ; sales of 3000 bushels at 
60c. for yellow, 61c for mixed, and e^'c. for white. Oats 
are quiet ; 40o)0 bush, sold at 48a49c. f^^r white, and 46 and 
47c. for mixed. The receipts to-day are as follows : 2104 
bbls. flour, 11,200 bush, wheat; 6400 bush, corn ; 4900 bush, 
oats; 51,500 bush, barley ; 362 bbls. whisky. 

Provisions. — There is less doing, but prices are firmer. 
Mess Pork is selling in lots at $1650 ; smoked hams at 14a 
15c.; do. sides at 8)^a9c. ; salted shoulders at |6a6'!^o. ; 
smoked do. at 7^a8c., and Lard at S^^c. 

Seeds — Clovf-rseed is du'l. 500 bushels sold at 8fi9c. per 
lb. Timothy sold at $3 25, and Flaxseed at $2 lu per bushel. 



PITTSBURG CATTLE MARKET 

Pittsburg, March 27. 

The receipts of cattle to-day light, both of through and 
way stock. The attendance of buyers isjgood all the eas- 
tern markets being well represented. Trade to-day has 
ruled a little slow on account of the advance in prices, 
buyers are unwil ing to pay the fii?ures demanded by hold- 
ers, and hence sales are not made so fast a- when the 
opinions of dealers are the same. Sellers say there is an 
advance of from }^ to J^c. over last week's rates, while 
buyers cloim sellers ask figures from %c. to >^c. higher. 
The market, however, is firm , with the advantage on sel- 
lers' side, and if buyers purchase a cupply it will be pretty 
near at holders' rates. Market closes to-night firm, at the 
following prices : Extra 15"0 ft) cattle, fine and smooth, $7 
to 7 10 : extra 1400'do. do. $675 to $6 85 ; extra 1300 do. do. 
S6 25 to $6 50 ; prime 1200 do. do S5 75 to #« ; prime 1)00 do. 
do. $5 to $=! 50 ; fair 1000 do. do. $4 25 to $475. 

The run of hogs light of all grades and kinds and we 
have to note a general advance. Advices from th« eastern 
markets are better, and this fact, coupled with a light run, 
has made a dec ded improvemont To-day trade ruled ac- 
tive both on Philadelphia and York grades. The quality 
of the hogs on sa'e was not th»^ br'.st, and it was the opin- 
ion of some dealers that a bunch of choice hogs would have 
sold as high as $6 12 or $6 15. Following are the rates rul- 
ing on difterent kinds : Kxtra Philadelphia, 86a6 10; prime 
do. $5 80a5 90 ; prime Yorkers, 85 75; fair do. 85 50a5 60; 
common, $5 25 

The run of sheep was light. The market, in consequence 
of the light run and a better demand, is good, and sales are 
made soon after arrival. Dealers report trade fully ^c. 
better. Market closes firm at the following rates: Exira 
no fi)s. fine wool. 87 50 ; extra 100 lbs, fine wool, $7a7 30; 
extra 90 lbs fine wool, 5?6 75 ; prime 85 lbs, fine wool, $6 58 ; 
prime 80 lbs. fine wool, S6a6 25. 



CHICAGO CATTLE MARKET. 

Chicago, March 28. 
Cattle fairly active and prices steady, though the sales 
were not as large as yesterday; medium 10>^al2i^ cwt. 
.stf-ers $4 75a85 ; good well-fatted steers 85 25a5 on ; choice $5 
75a86 45, and au extra lot averaging 1521 lbs brought $6 80 ; 
corn-ff d Texans ranged from $4 25a85 2" ; fe? ders $4 fO a 
4 85. Hogs fairly active and steady at f5 li a5 t8, with an 
extra lot at 85 75 Sheep firmer and higher and fairly ac- 
tive; good extra $5 25a$6 50, outside price for lot avertging 
115 pounds. 



PHILADELPHIA CATTLE MARKET. 

Philadelphia, March 24. 

Beef Cattle were In fair demand this week and prices 
were firmer. 2000 head arrived and sold at 7^a8xc for 
extra Pennsylvania and western steers j 63,^a7xc. lor fair 
to good do, and 5a6c f( ft gross for common. 

Cows were unchangt d. 250 hf ad sold at 825a50 f* head. 

Sheep are in fair demand. 9000 head sold at 6a8c. per ft 
gross, as to condition. 

Hogs were dull. 6000 head Bold at $8a8 25 per 100 fts 
net. 



DEVOTED TO 
Agriculture, Horticulture, Domestic Economy and Miscellany. 

EDITED BY S. S. RATHVON". 



The Farmer is tJie founder of civilization." — WEBSTER. 



Vol. r. 



MAY, 187S. 



j\ro. 5. 



ESSAYS. 



MODEL POTATO CULTURE. 

Compiled and Read Before the Agricultural 
and Horticultural Society, April 7, 1873, by 
S. S. Rathvon. 

MR. PRESIDENT : Samuel R. Wells, of 
New York city, has published a duode- 
cimo of over 100 pages, entitled " Model Potato, 
or Potato Book," being an exposition of the 
proper cultivation of the potato ; the causes of 
its disease, or " rotting ;" the remedy therefor; its 
renewal, preservation, productiveness and cook- 
ing, by John McLaurin, M. D., and edited, with 
annotations, by Dr. R. T. Trail. 

Of course, I am not enough of a potato cultu- 
rist to corroborate a theory which the author 
claims to havfe been founded upon the facts of ac- 
tual experience, nor yet to yield an unqualified 
assent to it an}- further than it seems to be in 
harmony with the acknowledged principles of. 
vegetable physiology; but, as the season is ap- 
proaching when the farmer and gardener will be 
making the necessary preparations for the culti- 
vation of next season's crop, I have thought a 
general outline of the subject might be of some 
interest, if it done nothing more at present than 
to elicit reflection, and a desire to know more 
about the matter in the future. 

The author starts out with the proposition that 
the larger number of potatoes consumed by the 
human family, are more or less diseased ; and 
that, although there are at least ten different kindg 
of insects that prey on the potato vines, and 
that innumerable parasitic /w7^^^ also infest them, 
yet these are not the causes but the incidents 
of the disease. He alleges that undoubtedly 



the essential cause, and perhaps the only cause, 
of the deterioration, decay, failure, and rot- 
ting of the potato, is the erroneous and unphysio- 
logieal mode of its culture, or preservation, or 
both. Indeed, if the assumption of the editor is 
well-founded (and sometimes when we look at a 
dish of cooked potatoes and notice the difference 
in size, texture, color and taste, we cannot but 
conclude that something is wrong in many of them) 
if his deductions then are correct, there are but 
few of us, who really know what the proper taste 
and texture of a good, healthy potato is. The 
deterioration of the potato, the author alleges, is 
caused by the following seven prominent errors in 
the methods of cultivation, and to each error is 
attached the remedy, based upon the laws of veg- 
etable physiology : First, bad seed and neglected 
renewal; second, bad seed and promiscuous mix- 
ing; third, vivisection or cutting and slicing; 
fourth, dwarf planting; fifth, crowded planting ; 
sixth, deep planting, and seventh, excessive cov- 
ering. There are also other causes of deteriora- 
tion and decay, but these are secondary in their 
character, and do not properly belong to the cate- 
gory of culture. Of course, in a limited paper 
like this must necessarily be, I can only notice 
very briefly these various divisions of the subject, 
but enough may be elicited to exhibit the sub- 
stance of the argument, leaving those who desire 
to pursue it further to procure the book, and ex- 
amine the details for themselves. 

Error 1. Bad seed, through the absence of 
reneival. It is emphatically stated that no kind 
of potatoes will attain a large size, or continue 
productive, if unrenewed from the apple or seed- 
ball, for more than twenty years ; indeed, some 
kinds will not thrive without such renewal, for 
more than ten years. The rejuvenating and re- 



8S 



THE LAJ^CASTER FARMER. 



producing resources of nature, are located in the 
seed-ball, and from this fresh varieties are derived 
Conscious of decay, yet ignorant of the cause, 
planters sometimes exchange seed potatoes from 
distant localities, and so far as change of soil and 
climate may be beneficial, this may be temporarily 
effective, but no remedy short of a compliance 
with the law of renewal, will restore the plant to 
its primitive vigor. For this purpose, when fully 
ripe, the apples or seed-balls from the best kinds 
of potatoes should be selected -the largest and 
healthiest seed-balls — dry and preserve them from 
frost or dampness, sow them in the nursery in the 
spring, and afterward treat them as other potatoes 
are treated ; from the product of which the best 
specimens may be selected for field planting. 

Error 2. Bad seed, through mixing. It is also 
claimed that the promiscuous method of planting 
potatoes is another cause of their deterioration 
and disease. Mixing together indiscriminately all 
kinds of seed potatoes— good, bad, old, young and 
indifferent, affects the crop as deleteriously as a 
similar process would the breeding of animals ; 
and no good crop can ever permanently come from 
such irregular planting, no matter how the season, 
or the soil, or how skillful the tillage may be. Dr. 
Trail remarks that he is not aware that any other 
kinds of seeds, whether grains, fruits, or roots, are 
selected and treated by farmers in this promiscuous 
manner, and there is no reason in the nature of 
things, that the potato alone should be. 

The author reminds his readers, that in choosing 
the kinds of potatoes for planting, it should be 
remembered that the most profitable, if not the 
most palatable, grow large in size ; in shape they 
.«re round, egg-shaped or oblong ; in color red, pink, 
or white, or these three colors intermingled ; and 
the eyes are few and protuberant. The potato 
.should be hard, heavy, dry and sweet, and when 
perfectly healthy it will have all these qualities ; 
and from these the seed for planting should be 
;selected. No injury necessarily results from 
iplanting different varieties in the same field, if the 
iselections are made in conformity with the fore, 
igoing rules. 

Error 3. Vivisection, or cutting. Although 
-cutting, slicing, and gouging out the germs, or 
leyes, of potatoes for planting is a method that 
has been practiced by nearly all planters, yet the 
author alleges, that it is the chief cause of the 
potato disease. The use of his own language, 
" the sundering of the bud from the body of the tu- 
feer, under the impression that such mutilated frag- 



ments will produce healthy and vigorous fruit, is 
most fallacious and absurd, and has no parallel 
among the many blunders in agriculture." This 
is regarded as an unnatural severance, which dis- 
sipates the vital forces of the seed, and produces 
debility and disease in the offspring. In propor- 
tion as the unity of the tuber is destroyed by 
multiplied sections, in that degree is the progeny 
derived from it enfeebled and rendered liable to 
disease. Nothing in the anatomical structure of 
the potato, nor in the physiology of its functions, 
gives the least countenance to vivisection, nor is 
its analogy found in nature. In its effect it is the 
inoculation of the rot. It neither saves material 
nor increases production, but, on the contrary, 
wastes the one and diminishes the other. Each 
single potato, like each single grain of corn or 
wheat, is a perfect organism, and just in the ratio 
that either is mutilated, its generative powers are 
weakened. [Without denying the effects, yet 
the parallel is not well drawn here, in a botanical 
sense ; for, the potato is not in reality a seed, but 
a tuber, the eyes of which are analogous to the 
buds of trees, shrubs and other perennial vegeta- 
tion.] 

The simple remedy for this error, is thus em- 
phatically stated : " Never touch the seed potato 
with a knife. Do not mar, mangle, bruise or 
mutilate it in any manner. Drop it in the earth 
whole and sound." It is impossible to give here 
all the reasons for this method of culture, suffice it 
to say, that the author only asks the farmer to 
test this mode side and side with the old mode, 
and note the difference himself; admonishing him, 
however, that should his neighbor continue to 
cultivate on the old plan, while he adopts the 
new, the diseased potatoes of his neighbor may 
infect his, more or less, in the bloom. 

Error 4. Dwarf planting — that is, selecting 
the smaller, poorer, bruised and scabious pota- 
toes for seed, whilst eating or selling the larger 
ones. This is branded as a most pernicious error, 
and the farmer who should apply such a principle 
to the raising of domestic animals, a field of 
wheat, or a patch of corn, would be suspected of 
idiocy or madness. Yet the priifciple in both 
cases is precisely the same. Farmers are advised 
to reserve their best and largest potatoes for 
seed, just as they would act in the business of 
raising animals, or as they would do were the 
seed anything else but a potato, for that which is 
not fit to eat or sell is certainly not fit to plant. 
It is claimed that potatoes will produce more 



THE LdJ^CASTER FARMER. 



83 



abundantly by weight, in an equal ground or air 
space, if the number is smaller and the size larger, 
than if the reverse is the case. Dividing large 
potatoes into two or three times as many small 
ones adds nothing to the quantity, while it 
impairs the quality, besides it increases labor and 
consumes time. 

Error 5. Crowded planting — that is, insuffi- 
cient allowance of space for potatoes to grow in. 
This is regarded as a grave error, and the in- 
jurious consequences are second only to vivisec 
tion, or seed-cutting, and yet among farmers, 
with but few exceptions, it is an invariable rule- 
Although there is a continuous circulation, ad- 
mixture of properties derived both from the earth 
and the air, and a constant reciprocal interchange 
of elements through and between the stems and the 
roots, yet the growth of the potato receives much 
the larger proportion of its nutritive material from 
the atmosphere ; therefore, it is not so much for 
the want of earth-room as for the want of air- 
space, that the potato suffers, under the common 
methods of culture. The potato, as well as an 
animal, must have sufficient breathing room ; its 
foliage constituting its lungs, and with its stem 
its respiratory apparatus ; and hence without a 
given space it cannot maintain its normal condi- 
tion, nor produce sound structures. Potatoes, 
therefore should be planted uniform distances 
apart, according to size, from three and a half 
to four feet is the general rule. Seed potatoes 
should be unsprouted and carefully dropped on the 
ground, and if they have been properly preserved 
for planting, there will be no sprouting until 
they are placed in the ground, tierminatiou im. 
pairs the quality of the seed, and if the sprouts 
are long or have been broken off such potatoes 
should never be planted at all. 

Error 6. Deep planting — treating the potato 
as if it were dead matter. Burying the seed in 
the cold bottom of a deep furrow, where the 
undrained moisture settles, and the vivifying heat 
of the sun never sufficiently penetrates, is re- 
garded a;- another egregious blunder. The ordi- 
nary deep planting retards growth, delays matu- 
rity, and enfeebles the whole plant. It also 
predisposes the tubers to disease. Different lati- 
tudes, different soils and different elevations might 
suggest different methods of planting ; but in 
northern New York and Canada, where this sys- 
tem has been successfully pursued, it is recom. 
mended to run a furrow with a double-moulded 
plow, capable of opening a furrow from twenty- 
one inches to two feet wide. Not in this furrow. 



but on the surface, the seed should be laid, and 
the return trip will sufficiently cover it, and at 
the same time turn over a new sod for another 
row of potatoes. It is claimed that double or 
treble the quantity can be planted in one day 
by this method, than that which can be in the old 
way. The advantages of this method are stated 
at considerable length, also the variations accord- 
ing to soil, elevation, etc., but I cannot give them 
here, as they would occupy too much lime and 
space. 

Error 7. Excessive covering, or smothering the 
potato by an over-abundance of earth, is also° one 
of the evils of common culture. Heaping too 
much earth on the seed, even when planted on the 
surface of the ground, instead of in the furrow, 
hinders a speedy development of the shoot, pre- 
vents a rapid growth, retards maturity, impairs 
the quality and diminishes the yield. It is also, 
among the predisposing causes of disease. Two 
or three inches of earth, and sometimes even 
less, according to the^ dryness or moisture of the 
soil, are quite sufficient. The principal objects of 
covering the potatoes with earth are, to obtain 
and maintain both heat and moisture in due pro- 
portion, without exposing them to light and air. 
Potatoes should never be planted under the shade 
of trees or high fences, and the growing plant 
should always have the benetit of air and light, of 
winds, sun, moon and stars. Of course, freedom 
from grass and weeds, is an indispensable requisite 
to perfect a crop. These rules are as applicable 
to the sweet potato as to the common potato. 

Thus far these remarks relate to what are re- 
garded as the errors of culture, and the remedies 
therefor. But according to this author and his 
editor, there are errors and <ivils in digging and 
preserving potatoes, which eminently influence the 
health and quality of the crop. The maimer of 
digging may be left to the machinery of inventive 
genius ; but the time for digging must be deter- 
mined by physiological laws, demonstrated by 
experience. In the long catalogue of errors pecu- 
liar to the potato crop, one of the most uutrageoua 
is, the neglecting to harvest them as soon as they 
are ripe. When any other crop is fully matured 
the farmer secures it at once, lest it should wast« 
and decay. But not so with the potatoes ; when 
he can find nothing else to do, then the farmer 
condescends to dig them, and perhaps indulges in 
complaints because of their inferior character. To 
suit the pleasure or convenience of the grower 
potatoes are left for weeks iu the ground after 
they are ripe, as if they were dead and undamage. 



8Ji, 



TEE LAJyCASTER FARMER. 



able stones, instead of living, perishable organ- 
isms, subject to all the conditions, changes, trans- 
formations and diseases that pertain to all vita, 
structures. When the tops of the potato plants 
wither, it is an indication that the tubers are ripe 
and, like other crops, they will be injured if not 
immediately gathered and cared for. If allowed 
to be once soaked in the ground by a prolonged 
rain, after they are ripe, they lose some degree of 
their flavor, and some portion of their nutrient 
properties — some of their soundness and vitality 
as seed. 

Potatoes should not be exposed to the air 
sun or wind, to dry them, after being dug. Every 
potato that protrudes above its earthly covering 
Boon becomes blighted in its exposed part— a fact 
which proves that it is defenseless against the 
serial elements, and its need of protection imme- 
diately after it is dug. The principal of protec- 
tion applies equally to sun, light, air, rain and 
frost. They should be kept by themselves in 
closed cellars or bins, or in an underground pit, or 
root house. The temperature should never be 
below thirty4hree degrees, nor rise above f/ty. 
The more constantly the temperature is main- 
tained at about forty degrees the better. The 
normal condition of the tubers of the potato plant 
is darkness. Had it been otherwise, the Deity 
would doubtless have caused them to grow on the 
tops. And whenever, through an abnormal freak 
of nature, tubers are found on the vines, they are 
always greenish, acrid, or bitter, and entirely use- 
less as food for man or beast. The washing of 
potatoes, and long exposing them to the sun, and 
the air — as for instance heaped up on market 
stands, or open barrels in front of grocery stores — 
is to be condemned,, because many of them are 
actually dangerous to health, and are unfit to be 
planted. The book contains a treatise ' on the 
proper mode of cooking potatoes, but I cannot 
possibly introduce any portion of it here. The 
work also contains an interesting paper on " Agri- 
cultural Chemistry, and Chemical Fertilizers," 
with tabulated results, by some of the most 
eminent experimentors in Europe; the general 
argument of which is, as water, ammonia, carbon, 
and a few earthy and saline matters constitute 
the food of plants, and as all those are constitu- 
ents of the mineral kingdom, it is certainly a 
round-about, expensive and troublesome business 
to keep animals, merely for the sake of manuring 
the soil. 



^* Subscribe for The Lancaster Farmer. 



THE FINANCIAL QUESTION. 

SHOULD THE CURRENCY BE INCREASED? 

A Paper Read before the April meeting of the 
Lancaster County Agricultural and Horticul- 
tural Society, by D. G. Sioartz, Esq., of 
Lancaster. 

THE volume of the currency should be gov- 
erned by the legitimate demand for the cir- 
culation. Too much will produce inflation ; too lit- 
tle will paralyze business and diminish production. 
As the currency is made the standard for measuring 
values, it should itself be made as stable and fixed in 
value as possible ; for if you diminish or increase 
its value, you transfer that much between debtor 
and creditor, without consideration ; and positive 
injustice results to the debtor, when its value is 
increased, and to the creditor when its value is 
diminished. Therefore, in justice to all, neither 
contraction nor expansion should be attempted. 

But contractions and expansions are relative 
terms compared with the service the currency has 
to perform. Primarily, supply and demand govern 
prices, and where the demand is increased the 
supply should necessarily be increased. As well 
say that the amount of gain that was raised 
twenty years ago is sufiicient for the consumption 
now, as to say that the currency required now is 
no greater than it was at that time. 

It cannot therefore be expansion when the cur- 
rency is increased no faster than the legitimate 
use for it, increases. To keep it restricted to some 
arbitrary sum, while the population, wealth, busi- 
ness and area over which it circulates are constantly 
and largely increasing, must operate as ruinous — • 
contraction most disastrous to the interests of the 
people. 

The growth of this country is unparalleled among 
the nations of the earth. The increase of popu- 
lation from 1860 to 1870, though covering the 
period of our great war, was over seven millions. 
The wealth of the country increased in a much 
greater ratio. In 1860 it was $16,159,616,068, 
and in 1870 it was i$30,068,918,507. 

The area of settlement has been widely ex- 
tended. Some six to eight thousand miles of rail- 
road are built each year, and at least two more 
railroads are rapidly constructing to the Pacific 
ocean, and the vast territories are rapidly opened 
out to settlement and civilization ; and constantly 
drawing the currency to new fields of usefulness 
where it is required in developing and utilizing 
the resources of the country. 



TEE LA J^ CASTER FARMER. 



85 



At the late stockholders' meeting of the Penn- 
sylvania Railroad Company, Colonel Thomas A. 
Scott made these significant remarks : 

" When you take into consideration the simple 
fact that every four years from 1857 the business 
of the Pennsylvania Railroad has doubled on the 
preceding four years, you will understand that the 
wants of the company are becoming greater con- 
stantly. Thus, if we have seven hundred locomo- 
tives, and twenty thousand cars on the line in ac- 
tive business, in four years from now, at the same 
ratio of business we are making now, we will want 
fourteen hundred locomotives and forty thousand 
cars." 

This is an illustration of the wonderful growth 
of business. The cars produce nothing, but they 
transport products, and are a necessary medium 
to effect exchanges of values ; and in this respect 
they bear a striking analogy to the money circu- 
lation which is a medium for effecting exchanges. 

If growth of business requires more cars to 
transport the increased production, between pro- 
ducer and consumer, does it not also require more 
circulation to make the payments between buyer 
and seller? As more cars, boats, wagons, and 
drays, are required to accommodate increased busi- 
ness, so more circulation is required to make the 
payments of that business. A portion, it is true, 
may be represented in bank checks, drafts and 
credits ; and the rapid transmission of money by 
steam locomotion, and transfei'S of credits by tele- 
graph, all help to make the same circulation more 
available and speedy in performing its functions . 
so that the increase of business does not require 
an increase of circulation in the same ratio. As 
business extends over the new and distant sections 
the currency will be much slower in performing 
its work, so that a larger amount is required. 

The business of large cities like New York is 
nearly all done through the banks. Payments 
are made by checks, and checks are settled through 
the Clearing House, where each bank has an ac- 
count, and the balances between them are also 
paid by checks on currency lying idle in the 
vaults. 

A day's business often represents one hundred 
millions of dollars, an amount larger than that of 
bankers' clearing house of the city of London, yet 
the balances between the banks may be only one 
or two millions, and as these iare settled by checks 
from the debtor to the creditor banks, no currency 
is necessarily moved in the whole transaction. 
Yet the currency in reserve is the basis of the 
whole business, and has performed an immense 



work though apparently idle. Instead of acting 
as circulation, it does its work by proxy, through 
checks and drafts, which serve the purpose o^ 
circulation. 

Thus, in densely settled localities, the circulation 
required is much less compared with business thau 
in sparsely settled regions. 

If all the people kept their accounts at the same 
bank, and made their payments by check, the cur- 
rency would not circulate at all ; it would remain 
in that bank to be transferred from one account 
to another, from buyer to seller, or from debtor to 
creditor, and would make all the payments ^f the 
country without being moved, and no actual cir- 
culation would be required. 

But when we consider the vast area of our 
country, extending from ocean to ocean, the new 
fields opened to the enterprise of the farmer, the 
manufacturer, and the merchant, the new rail- 
roads, cities and States building up with such 
wonderful rapidity, the 1,960 National banks, 
with perhaps as many more private and State 
banks, acting as the reservoirs of capital and 
credit, and as the foci from which the circulation 
radiates through all the ramifications of business, 
stimulating production as the sap in spring invig- 
orates and fructifies the trees, it becomes appar- 
ent that the currency has an immense work to 
perform, and that it must be kept in some 
proper proportion to the work to be done, or the 
consequence will be that the business itself must 
be diminished to seek its equilibrium with the 
circulation. 

That volume of currency which is most favor- 
able to healthy production and substantial pro- 
gress, is what is required. Its proper ratio to 
business should be neither increased nor dimin- 
ished. There should be no contraction or expan- 
sion, relatively considered. 

To make it an arbitrary, fixed sum, with no 
expansive element to accommodate itself to the 
wants of the times, is to fix a limit to the nation, 
as if to say, "Thus far thou mayest go, but no 
farther." The circulation that may be sufTicient 
now will be quite inadequate some future day. 

Its relation to business should govern its vol- 
ume, and neither expansion nor contraction can 
take place without changing its purchasing power. 
Contraction takes from the debtor, and gives it 
to the creditor. Expansion takes from the 
creditor, and gives it to the debtor. Either, 
therefore, works injustice to individuals ; but 
as each debt has a corresponding credit, it 
follows that the aggregate debits must equal the 



86 



THE LAJiCASTER FARMER. 



aggregate credits, and taken as a whole there is 
no change of value. Double the currency price of 
all the property in the States by inflation, and the 
real value remains as before. Value cannot be 
created by issuing paper money ; but paper money, 
as far as needed for circulation, will set a thousand 
agencies at work to produce value. It is the car 
that transports merchandise, but does not create 
it. It is the mason's trowel, the farmer's imple- 
ment, the miner's pick, and the merchant's ship. 
It performs a thousand offices, and remains intact, 
ever ready for the next transaction. 

Its volume may be too large or too small by 
only a small sum, and yet the effect be very 
marked on the price of the whole. A small 
weight tips the balance, and it is the last feather 
that breaks the camel's back. A small deficiency 
will make a great demand for and scarcity of the 
whole. In illustration of this, suppose the supply 
of flour in an isolated city to be larger than the 
consumption, the whole will sell at moderate 
prices ; suppose it be slightly less, and the whole 
bulk will sell at high prices. 

Thus a slight deficiency in the currency pre- 
vents A from borrowing one thousand dollars 
from his bank with which to pay B, and so B does 
not pay 0, nor C D, down through the whole 
alphabet to Izzard. Now, had Izzard received 
the money which Y owed him, he would have 
paid a note which he owed at the same bank 
where A had vainly tried to borrow the money to 
pay B. So a deficiency rings its disatrous 
changes throughout the whole community, one 
payment depending upon another, like wave im- 
pelling wave. If a short supply is embarrassing 
to the payment of existing debts, it is equally un- 
favorable to all new enterprises requiring capital. 
A surplus of currency, a larger volume than circu- 
lation requires, will reduce the rate of interest, or, 
what is worse, 'equalize itself by an advance of 
prices, producing inflation, and fostering specula- 
tion. Either evil should therelore be avoided 
with the skill of the mariner who steers his ship 
in safety between the Scylla and Charybdis — the 
rock on the one side the whirlpool on the other. 

Should the circulation be increased ? Secretary 
Chase, in 1861, estimated the gold circulation at 
not less than $275,000,000; the bank circulation 
at the same time was $202,000,000, making in alj 
$477,000,000. Now, we have legal tenders, 
$356,000,000 ; and national bank notes, $343,000,- 
000— say, in, all, $700,000,000, omitting the 
fractional currency and the gold in circulation on 
the Pacific coast. But the law requires fifteen to 



twenty-five per cent, of the circulation and deposits 
of the national banks to be kept in hand in legal 
tender notes as a reserve. This reserve cannot be 
used as a basis for new issues, and gives no 
expansive element to the currency. It is effectu- 
ally embargoed, and does not enter into circula- 
tion. 

The amount of reserve held by the banks 
October 3, 1872, was, in round numbers, two 
hundred and ten millions, of which one hundred 
and two millions was in legal tender notes and 
the balance in three per cent, certificates, and 
deposits with their redeeming agents. Deducting 
one hundred millions for reserve, we have six 
hundred millions as the present available circula- 
tion, which hardly beai"s as large a ratio to the 
present population and business as the circulation 
of 18G0 did to that time. 

Assuming the circulation of 1860 to have been 
$477,000,000, it was fifteen dollars to each inhabi- 
tant, and about one dollar to each thirl y-three 
dollars of the wealth of the country. The same 
ratio to the population of 1870 would require 
$578,000,000 ; and the same ratio to the wealth 
of 1870 as returned by the census, would require 
$911,000,000 circulation. From this it will be 
seen that the present circulation bears nearly the 
same ratio to the population of 1870, as the circu- 
lation of 1860 did to the population then ; and that 
to give it the same ratio to the wealth 1870 as it 
had in 1860, the present circulation would have 
to be increased more than one-half. 

In the United Kingdom of England, Scotland 
and Ireland, the specie and bank notes amount in 
round numbers to $600,000,000, which is nineteen 
dollars to each individual ; but as the population 
of the United Kingdom is about 7,500,000 less, 
and the wealth $10,000,000,000 greater than that 
of the United States, it has more money to the 
inhabitant, and less in proportion to the wealth of 
the kingdom. 

In France the specie and bank note circulation 
is $952,000,000, or twenty-five dollars to each 
inhabitant ; and the ratio is only slighty less than 
in the United States. It w'U be noticed that 
England and France each has more circulation 
to population, and less to wealth, than the United 
States. As they are compact, embraced on small 
territory, the same circulation is made available, 
and interest is low and business stimulated to great 
activity. 

The government's policy has been contraction. 
Secretary McCulloch withdrew $44,000,000 legal 
tender notes, and would have ruined the country 



THE LAjYCASTER FARMER. 



87 



had not Congress stopped him. Secretary Bout- 
well recently withdrew all of the three per cent, 
certificates, which were mostly held by the banks 
as reserve, and their place had to be supplied by 
legal tender notes. In place of these three per 
cents., national bank notes were Issued, not avail- 
able for reserve. The currency to be redeemed 
was increased, while the reserve for its redemption 
was decreased. Thus severe contraction has 
taken place, and it is beginning to show its 
embarrassing effects. Money all over the'land is 
quoted in great demand, at high rates, which are 
severely bleeding the productive interests of the 
people, for the benefit of money lenders. 

For this want of circulation for the rapid liqui- 
dation of debts, business is forced into the credit 
system. Before the issuing of legal tender notes, 
mercantile credits were stretched to a greater 
extent, and over longer time than afterward. 
With ample circulation, debts were rapidly paid, 
and credits diminished, business was vitalized and 
flourishing. With inadequate circulation, busi 
ness will run on until the credit system is over- 
done and exhausted, when it must collapse in 
panic and revulsion. 

Prompt payment is the life of business. It is 
the lubricating oil that keeps the machinery in 
rapid motion. It keeps capital available instead 
of locking it up in book charges and promissory 
notes, and enables men of moderate means to 
keep their capital turning instead of having it 
tied up and represented by the figures on their 
ledgers. 

But prompt payment requires more currency to 
be kept in circulation than when business is only 
represented by debits and credits, which, as a 
system, encourages extravagance and generally 
precipitates an evil day of accounting at last. As 
the contraction has already been severe, in the 
face of a growing demand, the currency should be 
gradually and moderately increased to keep up to 
the amount necessarily required. How to increase 
it is a question. To issue legal tender notes 
saves interest to the government and aids the 
banks in keeping up their reserve. But to in- 
crease the irredeemable issues of the government 
is a direct departure from resumption ; and the 
greatest objection to it is, that no legislative 
power can determine the ever-changing wants of 
the community. 

The wants of trade would be better served by 
making the national banking system free, allow- 
ing banks to be organized wherever wanted, 
and giving them national bank currency, on 



deposits of United States bonds. If it be sup- 
posed that too many new banks would spring up, 
so as to cause inflation or an excess of currency, 
they could be restricted by giving them a less 
proportion on the bonds pledged to secure it. 
But with the amount of taxes, state and national, 
which the banks pay, being over four per cent. 
on their circulation, it is not likely that banks 
wculd organize faster than required for use- 
ful purposes. 

No good reason exists why banking should be 
restricted. It should be made free to all, and 
governed for the benefit of all. In case of re- 
sumption, each bank has only its own circulation 
to protect, and each bank is an additional power 
to protect it. The more active the circulation is, 
the more scattered and distributed, the greater 
the number of individuals and banks that hold it 
the slower will be its return for redemption and 
the easier the resumption of specie payments. 

The members of Congress who recently dis- 
cussed the question, did not seem to fully realize 
the gigantic growth and progress of the nation. 
They seemed to forget that the Union of 1873 is 
quite different in extent and wealth from the 
Union of 1860 ; and that the largely increased 
area over which the currency must circulate, as 
well as the greater service it must perform, is 
relative contraction too great to be long endured 
without disastrous results. 

The idea of resuming by first grinding down if 
not destroyed the producing interests by contrac- 
tion is vei'y erroneous. If it could be successful 
it would be a dear-bought achievement, ten times 
worse than suspension, against which the whole 
community would revolt long before its success 
could be assured by the last agonizing throbs of 
business prostration, revulsion and bankruptcy. 

Keep the curnaicy of that volume which will 
cause the greatest production of wealth, manufac- 
tures and commerce, and they will be footsteps in 
the way to resumption. The balance of trade 
against us must be earned ; and it will be earned 
much faster when all the wheels of progress are 
kept in busy motion by a sufficient currency, than 
when they are impeded for the want of it, and 
impinged upon by high rates of interest. 

Men like Cornelius Varderbilt and Thomas A. 
Scott seem much more keenly alive to the pro- 
gress of the age, and much more prompt to use 
means to aid that progress by building up and 
developing the resources of the land. They look 
to the future and anticipate what the country 
shall and will be, and give their best eff'orts to 



88 



THE LAJ^'CASTER FARMER. 



make that future greatness; while Congress seems 
to be retrospecting for some past standard to 
which to limit and restrain the struggling ele- 
ments of progress, which, however, like the Ghost 
of Banquo, will not stay down, in spite of their 
efforts. We need more enterprising business men 
in Congress, of enlarged practical views, untiring 
in their efforts to foster all public interests, and 
more anxious to use the money and credit of the 
nation, to advance and build up and develop the 
country, than to vote increased salaries into their 
own pockets. 



METEOEOLOGICAL NOTES. 

BY S. S. RATHVON, 

Read before the last meeting of the Lancaster 
Board of Trade. 

MR. PRESIDENT: As the cold winter 
through which we have recently passed 
has been the subject of very general remark, as 
well as a great deal of speculation among people, 
both at home and abroad, and as the meteorolog- 
ical character of the weather has always exercised 
an important influence on the productive interests 
of the country, it has occurred to the Committee 
on Agriculture that it comes within the sphere of 
its functions to offer a few remarks upon the char- 
acter of preceding winters, and especially 
those that have occurred within the period of the 
present and the immediately preceding generations. 
>And here, it may be respectfully suggested that, 
judging from appearances alone, and in the 
absence of actual records made at the time when 
particular events transpire, present heats and 
colds, joys and sorrows, pains and pleasures, 
always seem to be greater than those which are, 
perhaps, nearly obliterated in the dim vista of the 
past. Again, a phenomenon, an event or a special 
circumstance, nearly always appears different to 
the youthful apprehension from what it does to 
those who have had the experience of maturer age; 
and even the minds of men outgrow the status of 
objects and events that are past, as absolutely as 
boys outgrow the amplitude of their jackets, their 
breeches and their boots. 

We have indulged in these preliminary re- 
marks, because the winter just past, by way of 
distinction, has been almost universally regarded 
as an " old-fashioned winter " — implying that the 
winters of the olden time, or even those of our 
boyhood, were more severe than those that we 
have experienced in our later years; and upon 



which are predicated the theories, that the tem- 
perature of certain latitudes are gradually sinking 
lower, or rising higher, as time progresses ; when 
in point of fact, intensely cold winters and extra- 
ordinarily mild ones, are intermittent in their vis- 
its, occurring usually at long intervals ; the mean 
temperature in the same latitudes having very little 
variation. It is very seldom that two intensely 
cold winters or intensely hot summers follow each 
other in immediate succession. 

We are told, for instance, that in the year of 
the Christian era 762, the ice in the Black Sea 
was eight feet thick, and in the winter of 1323 the 
Mediterranean Sea was entirely frozen. Here 
was an interval of 561 years, during which time it 
may be supposed no such events occurred as those 
above recorded. We are also told that in 1405 
an invading army in China lost nearly all its men, 
horses and camels by the excessive cold. Here 
was an intermission of 82 years. It is said that so 
intense was the cold in 1420, that Paris was 
depopulated in consequence, and that animals fed 
on corpses on the streets ; and that in the winter 
of 1460, both in France and Germany, wine was 
frozen so hard that it was cut in blocks and sold 
by weight ; and that Mass was suspended in cer- 
tain provinces, because the wine could not be kept 
in a fluid state. In 1735 the thermometer is said 
to have fallen to 97 degrees below zero in Chinese 
Tartary. Here was another interval of 266 years. 

Of course, we cannot suppose that these ancient 
records could be as reliable as those of more 
modern times. If these are the winters to which 
people refer, in their remarks on cold weather, 
then we presume last winter may be called an 
" old-fashioned" one, but under any circumstances, 
these cases can only be fairly regarded as excep- 
tions and not as a rule. 

But, coming to our own couurry, it is on record 
that the winter of 1742 was " one of the coldest 
since the settlement of the country," and that " a 
gentleman drove a horse and sleigh through Long 
Island sound to Cape Cod." In 1764 and 1765 
the Delaware was frozen over, and on the 19th of 
February of the latter year, an ox-roast was held 
on the ice. Here were two cold winters in succes- 
sion. In 1772 the Delaware was frozen over for 
three months, and in 1780 the same river was 
closed from the 1st of December to the 14th of 
March. So cold was it that the ice was from two 
to three feet thick, and the thermometer stood 10 
to 15 degrees below zero for many days in succes- 
sion. The winter of 1783 was also a very long 
and severe one, the Delaware closing on the 28th 



THE LAJYCASTER FARMER. 



89 



of November, and remaining closed until the 18th 
of March. The winter of 1788 was intensely 
cold, forming a kind of landmark in the meteoro- 
logical records of that and subsequent periods ; 
indeed, it is stated that since that year the 
mercury has never fallen so low as it did on the 
30th of Jan. last. Still, there arc some intervening 
cold winters ; for on the 1st day of Jauuary, 1795, 
the cold was so intense in England that the river 
Thames was frozen over while the tide was turning. 

In 1797 the Delaware was ice-bound for several 
miles below Philadelphia, and sleighs were driven 
on the river from Philadelphia to Trenton. We 
have also had some cold winters within the pre- 
sent century, one of M'hich was in 1835, when the 
Susquehanna remained closed until the first week 
in April, and footmen crossed it on the 28th or 
29th of March. The winter of 1872 will long be 
remembered as a cold one, the Susquehanna being 
closed for one bundred and ten days in succession, 
although there was little or no snow on the 
ground for nearly all that time. With all these 
records in evidence, the winter of 1873 can hardly 
be regarded as an " old-fashioned" one — if indeed 
we may not justly call \i new-fashioned —iov at 
no period in the history of this country has the 
mercury fallen so low as it did last winter ; the 
temperature being, in some of the higher lati- 
tudes, from 42 to 48 degrees below zero, and in 
our own county, not more than one mile from the 
city limits, it rrgistered 32 below. It is true that 
if as careful a record of the state of the thermom- 
eter had been kept, at the periods alluded to in 
this paper, as they are now kept, they might 
have evinced colder winters than the last ones ; 
but, in the absence of these records, the winter of 
1873 must bear the palm. But, then, there have 
been many moderate winters during all this time, 
some very moderate, and also some exceedingly 
mild. The winter of 1779 was so mild that trees 
blossomed in February, in the latitude of the 
Middle States. The winter of 1781 was also very 
mild. In 1784, 1785, 1786 and 1787 were four 
very moderate winters in succession ; no instance 
of which occurred in very cold winters. 

In January, 1790, we learn that the average 
medium t( mperature was 40 degrees above zero ; 
that fogs prevailed in the mornings, but a hot sun 
soon dispersed them, and at midday the mercury 
rose to 70 degrees. Roys were occasionally seen 
swimming in the Delaware and Schuylkill rivers. 
The meridian temperature for the same month in 
the years 1791, 1792, 1793 and 1795 was from 
30 to 40 degrees above 0, notwithstanding, it was 



so intensely cold in England on the first day of 
the month, in the last named year. These records, 
therefore, do not sustain the theory that our 
winters are gradually getting colder, nor yet that 
they are gradually getting warmer, according to 
the opposite theory. On the whole, for hundreds 
of years at least they have been very uniform in 
their degrees of coldness. As an evidence of 
this, we have only to refer to the last report of 
the " Board of Commissioners of Public Parks," 
in the city of New York. From statistics 
gathered from various places in the country where 
records have been kept for over one hundred and 
thirty years, it appears that although there often 
had been a great difference in the temperature 
between two succeeding winters, yet on the whole 
very cold winters were not more frequent fifty or 
one hundred years ago than they are now. For 
instance, the mean temperature of the first three 
months in the five years ending Avith 1826, was 
33:48 in New York city, while for the same three 
months, in the same locality during the five years 
ending with 1871, it was 32:73, showing that it 
has been — during our boyhood— slightly warmer 
in winter than we have experienced in our later 
years, practically dissipating our i-omantic ideas 
about " old-fashioned winters." The same general 
truth is shown in the records kept of the number 
of days the Hudson has been closed with ice, and 
is entirely in harmony with records kept in 
Europe for the last three hundred years, in regard 
to the time of the breaking up of the ice in some 
of the great rivers flowing into the Baltic and 
White seas. Intensely cold winters and re- 
markably mild ones, as well as intensely hot 
summers and remarkably cool ones, are, therefore^ 
irregularly intermittent events, depending on 
causes not yet sufficiently understood to establish 
a certain system upon. 

During the last winter, whether it is regarded 
as an old-fashioned or a new-fashioned one, in 
addition to the extreme low temperature, it has 
been characterized by a fall, of over seven feet of 
snow ; and if much of the vegetation above the snow 
line has been injuriously affected, that which was 
below it has been unquestionably protected, if it 
has not been actually benefited. So far as these 
injuries can be estimated at the present time, they 
will result in the almost entire loss of the peach, 
plum, apricot, nectarine, cherry, and perhaps 
grape, blackberry and raspberry crops, of a large 
portion of the country that lies in the latitude of 
New York, Pennsylvania, and the northern bor- 
ders of Maryland and Virginia. Apples, quinces 



90 



THE LAJ^CASTER FARMER. 



and pears, are also more or less injured in many 
localities, but especially the fruit last named. 
Under any circumstances, however, we could not 
have reasonably expected two such fruit crops as we 
had last year, in immediate succession. But the 
great body of snow which has covered the ground 
during the entire winter, and the manner of its 
passing away, will greatly benefit the grass and 
the winter wheat that has not been injured or des- 
troyed by the " Hessian fly " early in the fall of 
1872. The effect of the past winter upon such 
insects as hibernate underground, or in debris, or 
rubbish on its surface, vve apprehend will not be 
very serious, and even those favorably situated 
above the snow will sustain but little injury from 
the effects of the cold. On the i7th of February 
and on the 3d of March living butterflies were 
brought to us, that were taken at large. These 
proved to be Pieris rapce, the same species that 
was so destructive to cruciferous plants — especially 
the cabbage — during the latter part of last sum- 
mer. On the 10th of March we had in our pos- 
session a living caterpiller. These facts exhibit 
the extraordinary power of insects to resist the 
effects of cold Saturating winter rains, with ex- 
treme alternations of heat and cold, are, however, 
destructive to insect life, but this was not the 
character of last winter. All these things have a 
near or remote relation to the agricultural produc. 
tions of the country, and as such they are respect- 
fully subm itted. 



DEPTH OF SOIL, AND LENGTH OF 
ROOTS. 

THE average depth of New England soil is 
probably somewhere between four and six 
inches. Some of the alluvial, or of the heavy up- 
land soils. v^W be more than that, but the plains 
and much of the sandy loams will be less. In 
the highly cultivated parts of Europe, the average 
depth of the soil is put down at six inches. Un- 
der proper cultivation, any soil can gradually be 
made deeper ; and the deeper it is, the more luxu- 
riantly plants will grow. By the most careful 
observations and experiments made in Germany, 
it appeared that if a soil six inches thick was 
worth fifty, that seven inches thick was worth 
fifty-four, so that going back in the scale, that 
only three inches thick would be worth thirty- 
eight. 

A little deeper plowing annually, and a regular 
increase of the vegetable matter, would constantly 
increase the depth of the soil, and as constantly 



increase the value of the crop. The importance 
of a deep soil will be seen when it is noticed that 
it costs about as much to work a soil of three 
inches as it does to work one of six, and that the 
crop on the latter would usually be double of that 
on the thinner soil. 

Where circumstances are favorable, the roots of 
plants i^enetrate the soil much deeper than they 
are usually supposed to do. In certain places, 
the roots of red clover will go down six feet. By 
careful examination, Schubert found the roots of 
winter wheat as deep as seven feet, in alight soil, 
forty-seven days after sowing. The roots of clover 
one year old were three and one-half feet, those 
of two year old clover but four inches longer. A 
parsnip will ordinarily grow in a common soil to 
about one foot in length, but dig a hole five or 
six feet deep, fill it with rich loam, sow a few 
seeds on the surface, and some of the plants will 
be quite likely to find the bottom of the hole ! 

One of the great advantages of a deep soil, 
therefore, is a large accumulation of roots ; these 
decay, constantly increase the amount of vegeta- 
ble matter in the soil, counteract the effects of 
drought, and greatly increase the amount of 
crops. — New England Farmer. 



Trees. — Almost every kind of animal matter 
appears to be offensive to rabbits, and they will 
not touch the bark of a tree that has recently 
been smeared with blood, grease or offal of ani- 
mals. Several correspondents have written us 
that they protected their trees by smearing the 
stems with blood, saved for the purpose at the 
time of killing animals in autumn. Any old lard 
or soap fat will probably answer the same pur- 
pose, but if mice are abundant then a little poison 
should be added ; but it would be necessary to 
keep your fowls out of the orchard, for they 
would be sure to pick up any small pieces that 
were dropped or found adhering to the trees. 



Cranberries. — There are now planted in New 
Jersey, according to the most reliable authority, 
6,000 acres with cranberries. Two years from 
now these will be in full bearing. The value of 
this crop the past year is estimated at about 
$600,000. There will be large additions made to 
these acres during this year. Hundreds are now 
preparing to plant, and the price of unimproved 
bogs has rapidly advanced. New Jersey has 
taken the lead in cranberry culture, as she did a 
few years ago with strawberries, raspberries and 
blackberries. — Vineland Independent. 



2EE LAJyCASTER FARMER. 



91 




THE HOESE, [Equus cahelus.) 



SCIENTIFICALLY classified, the horse be- 
longs to the tht'rd family (solidungul^) 
of the seventh order [Pachydermata] of 
hoofed* mammalians. As a pachydermous animal 
he is in company with the elephant, the mastaden, 
the hippotamus, the rhinoceros, the tapir, the 
peccary and the pig. There is but a single genus 
belonging to the family solidungul^e- quadrupeds 
with apparently but one toe and a single hoof on 
each foot, although beneath the skin, on each side 
of the metacarpus and metatarsus, there are 
stylets representing two lateral toes — and that is 
the genus Equus. 1. Equus cahelus -ih^ com- 
mon " horse," of which there are a great number 
of races, breeds, and varieties, pretty much all the 
world over. 2. Ecjmis hemionus — the, "Dzeg- 
guetai," a species intermediate, in its proportions, 
between the horse and the ass, which lives in 
troops, in the sandy deserts of Asia. 3. Equus 
asinus — the " ass," known by its long ears, the 
tuft on the end of its .tail, and the black trans- 
verse line crossing the dorsal line,ovcr its shoulders, 
which is the first indication of a cross stripe, ally. 
ing it with the following species, originally from 
the vast deserts of the interior of Asia. 4. Equus 
zebra — the " Zebra," indigenous to the whole 
of South Africa, nearly of the form of the 
*Cuvler. 



ass, and everywhere transversely striped with 
black and white in a regular manner. 5. Equus 
Montanus, the " Quagga," another African spe- 
cies, inferior in size to the normally developed ass, 
but with the beautiful form of the Zebra, and 
striped with alternately broader and narrower 
black markings on the head, neck and body. 
These* five are all the distinct species, known to 
the genus Equus ; but we have only to do in this 
paper with the first named — the horse. This 
noble associate of man in the chase, in war, on the 
turf, and in the labors of agriculture, arts and 
commerce, is the most highly valued, the most 
important and carefully tended of all the domestic 
animals which have been subordinated to his use 
and service. The horse does not now appear to 
exist in a wild state in any part of the world, 
except in those countries where the offspring of 
tame individuals have been suffered to run wild, 
as in Tartary and America, where they congre- 
gate together in troops, each conducted and de- 
fended by an old male. As soon as the young 
males have attained the age of puberty they 
are expelled from the troop, but they continue to 
follow it at a distance until they have attracted 
some of the young mares, and these form the neu- 

*Some authors, however, recognize a sixth ppecies — 
namely, Equus hurchelCi, the "Zebra of the plains." 



92 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



cleus of an independent troop. The period of ges- 
tation in the female horse, or mare, is eleven 
months, and in a state servitude the lacteal period 
continues from six to seven months, but in a wild 
state this period may not be so long. 

The mule, which is a hybrid between the 
female horse and the male ass, has not been 
named in this category, but as it is specifically 
distinct from either of its progenitors, and now 
occupies a very prominent position in human 
economy, it cannot well be ruled entirely out. If 
it has never been scientifically "dubbed," it might 
be appropriately called Equus Hyhridus. But, 
then, there is another variety produced from the 
male horse and the female ass, called a " Jennet," 
but it is not so hardy as the former, and therefore 
is not so often bred. Generally speaking, mules 
have not the powers of procreation. 

There seems to be little doubt that the horse ig 
a native of the warm countries of the East, but it 
is so very long ago that the special traces of his 
origin are not easy to determine, for, according to 
the best authorities we have on the subject, the 
wild troops still existing in the old and new 
worlds, as we stated before, are domestic subjects, 
which have been permitted to run wild. The use 
of the horse, both as a beast of burden and for the 
purposes of war, early attracted the attention of 
mankind. Thus, it is recorded that the Canaan- 
ites went to fight against Israel with many horses 
and chariots, and 1650 years before Christ, when 
Joseph proceeded with his father's body into Ca- 
naan from Egypt, there accompanied him both 
chariots and horsemen. The horse was also very 
early employed on the race-course, for 1450 years 
before the Christian era the Olympic games were 
established in Greece, at which horses were used 
in the chariot and other races. If the claim of 
antiquity is a justification for modern horse-rac- 
ing and trials of speed, the patrons of the turf are 
abundantly supported. If it is difficult to deter- 
mine from whence the horse originally came, it 
seems just as difficult to determine which variety 
of the horses now in use constitutes the original 
breed — some horse savans contending for the 
"barb," while others prefer the "wild horse of 
Tartary." The horse must have been introduced 
into England at a very early period, for when it 
was invaded by Julius CiEsar he found the Brittons 
possessed of large numbers of war chariots and 
powerful horses attached thereto. The first race, 
horses, however, are said to have been imported 
into England from Germany by ^thelstan, in the 
year 930 of the Christian era, and the first organ- 



ized race-course was established at Chester in A' 
D. 1121. Although horses were known to have 
been used at a very early day for the purposes of 
war, amusement and hunting, yet the first record 
of their employment in agriculture was about the 
year 1066. 

The Norman horses were introduced by " Wil- 
liam the Conqueror," and soon thereafter the 
Lombardy and Spanish horses came in. The first 
introduction of the Arabian hoi'ses into England 
is supposed to have been about 1121, or perhaps a 
little earlier. When America was first discovered, 
in 1492, there were no horses on the continent. 
Therefore, all the horses in use now are the off- 
spring of the Arabian, the Spanish, the French, the 
English and other breeds of horses, which have been 
at various times imported. Prominent among the 
working-horses of England is the Cart-horse, of 
which there are several varieties, called the Cleve- 
land, the Clydesdale, the Suffolk, the North' 
amptonshire and the Dray-horse, the latter of 
which is represented by the illustration at the 
head of this paper. 

In addition to these, among the the English 
and Scotch breeds of horses, are the Hunter, the 
Galloway, the New Forester, the Exmoor, the 
Dartmoor and the Devonshire, and an almost end 
less variety oi ponies, prominent among which are 
the Welsh and the Shetland. Many large, thor- 
ough-bred horses arereared in the rich grazing dis- 
tricts of Roscommon and Meath, in Ireland, known 
as the Irish horses. The Percheron is a strong 
heavy horse, imported from France, and is becom- 
ing popular in this country ; but we have a num. 
ber of breeds which were long known in America 
— such, for instance, as the Canadian, the il/or" 
gan, the Goss, the Virginia, the Kentucky, the 
Mustang and the Conestoga, the last of which is 
mainly confined to Pennsylvania, and is one of the 
most remarkable in the whole list of working- 
horses for its strength and endurance. No better 
horses than this breed are known for heavy 
draught, and they also make good carriage horses. 

There are about 9,000,000 horses and mules 
in the United States alone, valued at $500,000,- 
000. Of these, there are in Pennsylvania 612,- 
000, valued at .$36,000,000, and in Lancaster 
county 24,500, valued at $2,100,000. Perhaps no 
other single government on this planet can ex- 
hibit the same amount and quality of subordi- 
nated horse-flesh. The wild troops of Africa, of 
Tartary and of America are not to be compared 
with it. This admonishes us of the immensity of 
the subject, and therefore we must stop. R. 



THE LdJ^CASTER FARMER, 



93 



AGRICULTURE. 

GOSSIP ABOUT THE POTATO. 

BY J. STAUFFER. 

*' Leek to the Welsh, to Dutchmen butter's dear, 
Of Irish swains' potato is the clieer." 

Dean Swift. 

THERE is much of interest connected with 
the eark history of the potato. Sir Walter 
Raleigh has the undoubted credit of bringing the 
potato into notice. The jDOtato was grown in Ire- 
land before it came to England ; first on the estate 
of Sir Walter Raleigh, near Youghal, county 
Cork, where it grew and bore flowers. The gar- 
dener gathered the " apples" or " berries," and in 
showing them to his master, said, "Is this the fine 
fruit from America you so highly praised ?" Sir 
Walter pretended to be ignorant of the matter, 
and desired him to dig up the weed and throw it 
away. The man, in following his directions, find- 
ing a large number of tubers, saved them. It 
took some time to introduce this valuable plant, 
and was only met with in the gardens of noble- 
men as a " curious exotic ;" yet we read that in 
the reign of James I. it was considered ^uch a 
delicacy as only to be provided in small quantities 
at the cost of two shillings a pound for the queen's 
household. Through the succeeding reign and 
the commonwealth the potato remained extremely 
scarce, and its culture was not universally ex- 
tended till more than a hundred years after the 
discovery of Virginia. 

Ray (1662) scarcely mentions it, and Evelyn 
does not name the potato in his " Sylvia," al- 
though specially asked to do so by the Royal 
Society ; but thirty years after, in his " Kalenda- 
rium Plantarium (1664), says: "Plant your pota. 
to in your worst ground ; take them up in No- 
vember for winter spending ; there will be enough 
remaining for stock, though ever so exactly gath- 
ered." Much interesting matter appertaining to 
the spread and introduction of the potato is 
recorded. And the cultivation of improved 
varieties and sorts evidence a great advancement. 
Then comes the history of its disease and retroga- 
tion, and speculations as to the cause of failure. 
This leads me to notice the article compiled from 
a late publication, by S. R. Wells and Drs. Mc- 
Laurin and Trail, on a new plan of culture, read 
by our worthy editor, S. S. Rathvon, before the 
Horticultural Society, April 7th, 1873. 

The only new things I notice are truly very 
new, and inclines me strongly to question their 



practical understanding of vegetable physiology. 
The prize essay on the cultivation of the potato, 
by D. A. Compton, 8vo. pp. 30, New York : 
Orange, Judd & Co., 1870, contains practical com- 
mon sense directions, and like Scripture passages 
in the " Koran," much that is true is found in this 
new book, and can not be controverted. Mr. 
Rathvon notices the blunder they make in regard 
to the nature of a tuber, the eyes of which are 
analogous to the buds on branches. They evi- 
dently confound matters, in assuming that if their 
" new plan" was adopted it might fail if a neigh- 
bor had his potato patch under the old plan of cul. 
ture. " The diseased potato of his patch may 
infect them more or less in the bloom." I believe 
in hybrids and crosses, but that the pollen of 
one plant could effect the bud (and that under 
ground) in another plant, is a new doctrine, truly. 
The apples, in order to raise new varieties, might 
be influenced, as seed to start from, but the tubers 
in the ground, never. The eye is a bud, and the 
tuber a thickening of an underground branch, 
arrested in its elongation by an accumulation and 
conversion of the crude sap into starch, water, etc., 
by a chemical process (of the plant-food supplied) 
within the tissues, well explained by writers on 
vegetable physiology, who have ascertained that 
one pound of fresh and good potato, contains as 
components, 

OZ. GRS. 

Water 12 

Flesh formers 100 

Starch 2 219 

Sugar 223 

Dextrin or Gum 30 

Fat 15 

Woody fiber 228 

Mineral ashes 64 

How these parts are formed, differing but little 
among themselves, and yet sufficiently distinct to 
be readily separated, is one of the mysterious pro- 
cesses of nature. 

This new book also teaches : "Never touch the 
seed potato with a knife. Drop it in the earth 
whole and sound." Farmers are advised to 
reserve their best and largest potatoes for seed ; &c. 
The idea is, by planting them whole a greater 
supply of starch is furnished and made available, 
until the plant can draw support from the soil 
and atmosphere. If the crown of a tuber other- 
wise good, or any portion having two good eyes 
or buds and flesh enough to give them a fair start, 
left on the slice, and prepared a few days before 
planting, so that the external juices of the slice 
form a starchy film by the action of the air ; 
this protects them nearly as well as the delicate, 



94 



THE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



corky skin of the outside ; and when properly 
covered, so that the moisture and action of the 
sun's stimulus puts the starchy matter again in 
motion which was ready prepared for its future 
growth, or to nourish animal life, it is now spon- 
taneously reconverted into dextrine, mingles with 
the sap, and at the expense of the portion of the 
old tuber starts a new being and plant, which,under 
fair play and proper culture, will yield full crops, 
and potatoes saved for food by the process, of 
course. Newly cleared rich land, soil not too 
heavy, all things right, a good crop of potatoes 
can be raised from cut potatoes, if judiciously per- 
formed. Once fairly started, like other plants in 
which the seed or germ is surrounded with albumen 
simply enough to start the plant, and sustain it 
until it can sustain itself; so with a bud : it only 
requires a certain amount of nourishment ; but in a 
graft, the parts remain together. Potatoes have 
been grafted by cutting a wedge of flesh to an eye 
out of one sort of potato, and a notch cut out of 
another, into which the wedge is fitted and held by a 
fine wire or hair-pin. Thus, two opposite sorts in 
habit have been combined and blended into a new 
variety or sort. Plaster of paris is of great service 
in potato culture, dusting the vines with it as soon 
as they are fairly through the soil. In short, the 
culture is pretty well understood ; not so the dis- 
ease. 

The curl is a well-known disease among cultiva- 
tors. This arises like the rot, in many cases from 
using over-ripe seed stock. Potatoes intended 
for seed should be taken up before fully ripe and 
put into a dark, dry place and covered with straw 
or dry sand— protected from the light and air. 
Those for table use may be allowed to ripen fully 
and develop all the starch, care being taken 
against exposure to rain and damp. There is a 
point or extent, if driven beyond by over-manur- 
ing with strong barn-yard or raw manure. Weak- 
ness or disease of the tissues follow the same kind 
planted in the same soil is deleterious. Besides, 
there are conditions of the air, a kmd of floating 
blight, be it fungoid or electric, has been observed, 
and which, coming in contact with a wall 
or hedge, the evil was prevented. This 
condition of the air has been observed to set- 
tle, if a fog or light rain came on during its flight, 
and to blight all kinds of vegetation more or less 
on which it settled ; hence, culture and care, how- 
ever vigilant, will not always avail ; insects can 
also weaken the growing plants, but when we re- 
flect that the same sap in the stem or tuber is dif- 
ferently affected— tubers above ground become 



hard and green, like the stem, charged with chlo- 
rophil instead of starchy accumulations formed 
into nutriment protected by the soil from th^ 
direct action of the light and air. In short, I do 
not see that the old school of experience is much 
improved, as soils and seasons differ as well as 
potatoes, and favorable or unfavorable conditions. 
It is, however, worthy of all attention to ascertain 
facts and their bearings on the main question by 
interchange of opinions and making known the 
results of certain experiments — these may lead to 
useful hints and be made available by others, as 
facts and knowledge increase. 

To conclude among many interesting experi- 
ments, I will mention but one. A person near a 
wash-leather mill took wash-leather waste, as it is 
called, in a field previously well trenched but not 
manured, he dibbled the potatoes in the ground, 
placing in each hole a piece of the leather with 
the potato, with a small portion of the dust, filling 
with soil in the ordinary way. The potatoes used 
were the common " Early Shaw," and the result at 
first sight seems incredible. Many of the potatoes 
weighed from one to two pounds each, the largest 
one noticed being within an ounce of three pounds. 
Forty potatoes could easily be found from a few 
roots to fill a bushel measure, the largest number 
of tubers on one stalk being seventy-two, and de- 
spite their immense size, none were discovered hol- 
low in the middle, nor on being cooked was there 
any bullet-like appearance in the center, so often 
found in large potatoes. I copy the foregoing 
irom Ross Murray's Domestic Economy, and 
deemed good authority, he being a member of the 
Koyal College of Surgeons, 



SEED FOR EARLY POTA lOES. 

A correspondent of the Maine Farmer writes : 
Within a few years farmers and market gardeners 
who grow early vegetables for Boston and other 
large cities, have found it to their interest to come 
north for their seed potatoes, especially the early 
varieties, as those raised in our latitude usually 
germinate stronger and mature earlier when car- 
ried south than those raised in a warmer clime, 
I have just received a letter from an enterprising 
young New Jersey farmer who markets his produce 
in Philadelphia, in which he asks at what price 
50 to 100 barrels of prime Early Rose potatoes 
can be delivered in Philadelphia during February, 
1873. They are wanted for seed. 



TEE LAJ^CASTER FARMER. 



95 



LANCASTER MAY, 1873 

S. S. RAiHVON, e.^it>r. 
Published monthly iirider the auspices of the ^ouicul- 

TUkAL ANDHo ITICULTDRAL SOCIETY. 

$1 % ^ per Year In Advance. 

A considerable deduction t » clubs of Ave or more. 

A 1 coinm-inic ttions, to Insu'C insertion, must be in ths 
hands of tlie editor betors the 'iOtti of each month. Ad- 
dress «. '-'. Ra livon. LtncJiHter, P.i. 

All ;idvi;rtisemeMt-i, subscription'* and remittances to the 
addrtss of the publisher, ,1. R. DKVELIN, 

Inqu'rer Buildine, Lancasti)r,Pa 

MEETING OF AGRICULTURAL AND 
HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

THIS society met on Monday afternoon, April 
7th, at two o'clock in the Orphans' Court 
room. The attendance was fair. The minutes of 
the previous meeting were read and approved. 

Jacob Bollinger, of Warwick township, was 
unanimously elected a member. 

Prof. S. S. Rath von read a very interesting and 
instructive essay upon the subject of "Potato 
Culture."- This was followed by an able and com- 
prehensive paper on finances from D. G. Swartz^ 
Esq., under the question " Should our Currency 
be Increased ?" 

The financial essay gave rise to a lively discus 
sion, which was participated in by Dr. Elam Hertz 
and Peter S. Reist. 

Mr. John Brady presented a new variety of ap- 
ple, raised by Mr. Ritter, of Highville, this 
county, which all pronounced a valuable apple. 
On motion, it was named the Ritter apple. 

S. S. Rathvon presented eggs of the Japanese 
silk worm, received from the Agricultural De- 
partment. 

Mr. Johnson Miller, of Warwick township, read 
the following report : 

The fields arc again clear from snow, which 
covered them for nearly three" months ; the wheat 
has come out green and promising, and the wheat 
fields look one hundred per cent, better than they 
did at the same time last year, so that with a 
favorable season from now on to harvest, we have 
a prospect for an ordinary crop; although some 
fields look poor, but these are few, and are such 
as have been sown entirely too early. Wheat 
sown on the 1st of October looks much better 
than that sown on the 1st of September ; the best 
is the late Fown without regard to variety or soil. 
As to varieties, I will report at our next meeting. 
I have a number from the Department of Agricul- 



ture, at Wnshingtoa, for experiment. It is too 
soon to report the prospect; but they look re- 
markably well, and have the appearance of being 
a success. Rye looks well all around ; and if the 
wheat crop should again be a partial failure, which 
we hope it may not, fa'-mers ought to turn their 
attention more to this crop, as the prospects are 
again very flattering for a full yield. The grass 
fields have not frozen out much during the past 
winter, and with a wet and warm spring we will 
have a good hay crop. Fields look promising. As 
to fruit, the indications are that grapes, apples, 
peaches, cherries, pears, etc., are pretty much 
winter-killed from the intense cold weather on the 
Snth of January last ; but it is too soon to give a 
correct statement ; at our next meeting the result 
can be better seen and the prospects can then be 
more correctly reported. The farmers have at last 
come out of winter quarters ; after a rest of nearly 
five months, in the enjoyments of sleighing, and 
eating apples, drinking hard cider, etc., we see 
them again in the fields, in all directions, in vari- 
ous works, such as picking stones, sowing clover 
seed, plowing for oats and corn. Spring is at 
hand, and the farmer wlio wants things in order, 
finds himself crowded on all sides by some work at 
this time. I have now given a brief report of the 
condition of the crops and things in general, set- 
ting forth prospects and indications, which we can 
all see : but the result of all is the hands of an all- 
wise Ruler, and let us hope and trust that He will 
again bless us with all we need and desire. 

The bill of Janitor Hubley, for ^12, was order- 
ed to be paid. 

Dr. Hertz thought it time to take some step 
looking toward an exhibition next fall, which gave 
rise to a discussion of the question of a County 
Agricultural Fair in the fall of 1873. The dis- 
cussion resulted in the appointment of the follow- 
ing committee to confer with the Park Associa 
tion, as to the terms of holding an exhibition on 
their grounds: Messrs. Wm. McComsey, S. S. 
Rathvon. Alex. Harris, Milton B. Eshleman and 
Levi S. Reist. 

A vote of thanks was unanimously tendered to 
the essayists for their admirable productions- 
Apples were exhibited by Messrs. Levi S. Reist 
and Jacob B. Garber, in addition to those already 
mentioned. After testing the fruit, Society ad- 
journed. 



Thr farmer who plows deep, manures liberally, 
and keeps down weeds, will prosper. 



96 



THE LA JVC ASTER FARMER. 



FISH CULTURE. 

WE are pleased to learn that Mr. H. H. 
Hershey, of Nine Points, in Bart town- 
ship, Lancaster county, is about fitting up the ne- 
cessary pond £^nd appliances requisite to enter suc- 
cessfully upon the enterprise of artificial fish 
culture. 

He is desirous to form an association of a few 
live citizens, either as a stock company or joint 
co-operative institution, as a mark of encourage- 
ment and approval. 

7'here is on his farm a large and never-failing 
spring, which forms quite a stream, that flows in 
the valley run and empties into the Octoraro 
creek. This run and stream was at one time cele- 
brated for the abundance of native trout, which is 
a guarantee of the natural fitness for the purpose. 

It is not necessary at this time to argue the 
great benefit to the public in stocking our streams 
with black bass, salmon or trout. The success 
and experience in other localities has clearly de- 
monstrated this fact. The manner of manipulat- 
ing and arranging the necessary appliances is now 
established by several years' successful culture, of 
which full instructions are had which remove all 
the risk incurred by the originators, and by proper 
attention warrants success. 

"We can see no reason why Lancaster county 
should be behind the age, nor why an enterprise 
of this kind would not command the co-operation 
of every public-spirited individual. We therefore 
cordially recommend Mr. Hershey, and do hope he 
may be encouraged and fully sustained in his laud- 
able undertaking, and that success will crown his 
efforts and rank him among our public bene- 
factors, Ed. 



THE SEASON. 



It is perhaps hardly necessary to say — except 
as a matter of record -that the season is very 
backward. At this writing (April 23) the weather 
is cold and during the preceding night, a slight snow 
with rain, has fallen. Vegetation of all kinds is at 
least a month behind that of an ordinary spring 
in this latitude. Not a single tree is yet in bloom, 
and we are yet in doubt as to the real extent of 
last winter's freeze. The grass and grain, however, 
look well, and unless the tardy spring may pro- 
duce a tardy summer, and by that means subject 
the wheat to the attacks of the " Midge," or the 
" Hessian," the prospects for a good crop of that 
staple cereal are favorable. The saturated con- 



dition of the soil, after the slow removal of last 
winter's snow, has much delayed the spring plow- 
ing and putting in of the spring crops, and those 
that are in cannot germinate and grow, with 
such a temperature as we have had since the snow 
passed away. Some good, however, may come of 
it all in the end, and, therefore, we by no means in- 
tend to indulge in complaints. 



GARDEN SEEDS. 



We have still a few of Landreth's choice gar- 
den seeds on hand — beans, peas, cabbage, beets, 
etc., etc., which we will cheerfully give (gratis) to 
our subscribers, by calling at our place of business, 
corner of North Queen and Orange streets ; and, 
as the season is backward, it may still be early 
enough to plant them after they read this notice. 
The surroundings also are well adapted for the 
necessary ponds, and, altogether, is the most desir. 
able location for an enterprise of this kind, as all 
will admit who inform themselves of. the facts in 
the case. 



NATIONAL AGRICULTURAL CONGRESS. 

President's Office, ] 
Chicago, March, 1873. j 

THE next, being the second meeting of the 
National Agricultural Congress, will be 
held at Indianapolis, Ind., commencing on Wed- 
nesday, May 24th, 1873. The necessary local ar- 
rangements for the occasion, it is now fully under- 
stood, will be ample and complete. 

By the constitution of this body, each State and 
Territory is entitled to two representatives for 
every State organization engaged in fostering ag- 
ricultural pursuits. The United States Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, Agricultural Schools and 
Colleges with an endowment of not less than 
$20,000, and Agricultural and Horticultural So- 
cieties of not less than fifty membere contributing 
to the support of this Congress, are entitled to 
one represeatative each. 

In urging the appointment and attendance of 
delegates as thus provided for, very little needs to 
be said. The purpose of the organization i,s to 
afford an opportunity annually for an interchange 
of views and opinions upon all subjects affecting 
the interests of Agriculture and its kindred indus- 
tries, and to promote cpncert of action among 
those engaged in these pursuits, in all matters re- 
lating to them and of national importance. 

The advantages to be derived from such a me- 
dium, even in ordinary times and under ordinary 
circumstances, are quite apparent, and now that 
the public mind is thoroughly aroused to the ne- 
cessity of considering with the greatest delibera- 
tion many questions touching the industrial pur- 
suits of this country, there is good reason to ex- 



THE LAJ^ CASTER FARMER. 



pect a very full representation. No similar body 
has ever assembled in the United States upon 
whose action rested a more serious responsibility 
than will rest upon the action of this, in many im- 
portant respects. I hope it will be the pleasure, 
as it certainly is the duty, of every organization 
entitled to participate, to avail itself of the privi- 
lege. The constituent bodies which have ap- 
pointed or may hereafter appoint representatives 
will please notify the Secretary, Chas. W. Greene, 
Jackson, Tennessee, who will in due time advise 
them of the subjects to be presented for consider- 
ation at the meeting. 

John P. Reynolds. 
Pres. Nat'l Ag'l Congress. 
[Do any of the leading agriculturists of Lan- 
caster county feel sufficient interest in the "Na- 
tional Agricultural Congress" as to attend its 
sittings ? Do our local societies desire to place 
themselves in representative communication with 
jt ? If so, now is the time to move in the matter.] 



FRENCH SYSTEM OF MAKING HOT- 
BEDS. 

The French do not make up a bed for a single 
frame or a range of frames, but the commercial 
gardeners collect a large quantity of material — 
manure, garden refuse, weeds, etc. — and having 
mixed and left it to ferment a time, as soon as it 
is in a fit state, they form it into one large bed 
twenty to fifty feet square, and then cover it with 
frames, just leaving sufBcient room between each 
range of frames to get between to perform the ne- 
cessary work of cultivation. The beds are made 
of the depth necessary to give the desired temper- 
ature, three or four feet, and they present the fol- 
lowing advantages : 1st, a large mass of ferment^ 
ing material in a state of slow decomposition; 2d 
a very small space exposed to the cooling effects 
of atmospheric changes, merely the pathway be. 
tween the frames ; and 3d, economy of material, 
inasmuch as the dung necessary for a two-light 
frame with ua would be sufficient for a three-light 
one on the French plan. The drawback is that 
of inability to replenish the heat when the first 
supply becomes exhausted, and no linings can be 
applied. Still as a means of growing a summer 
<yop the plan is worth following, especially fot 
market purposes. A bed twelve feet wide mighr 
be made, facing east and west; upon this two 
ranges of frames might be fixed back to back and 
close together, and upon such a bed it is fair to 
infer crops or either cucumbers or melons, or in 
fact any crop requiring bottom heat, might be 
grown with a certainty of success. — Rural New 
Yorker. 



DRIED DUNG IN FUMIGATING BEES. 

Rev. L. L. Langstroth writes to the Bee Jour- 
nal : , 

Nearly two thousand years ago Columella re. 
commended the dry dung of cattle as the best 
thing for fumigating bees. Learning soon, after 
importing the Egyptian bees, that the Egyptians 
made use of the smoke from this substance in all 
their operations upon their irascible bees, we be- 
gan to use it largely in our apiary. The smoke 
from burning cow dung, while very penetrating, 
is not offensive. It can be blown so as to diffuse 
itself very quickly through the hive, and yet it 
does not seem to irritate the bees, and our own 
experience confirms the very strong commenda- 
tions of Columella. Wherever rotten wood is not 
easily procured, it will be found of very great 
value. When thoroughly dried, it will burn 
slowly but steadily, and by slightly dampening 
the outside after lighting it, a piece not larger 
than the hand may often be made to last for sev- 
eral hours. It does not always ignite as readily 
as one could wish. Dr. E. Parmely has obviated 
this difficulty by dipping one corner in coal-oil. 
The odor is so litlle offensive that it may be used 
instead of pastils in the sick-room, a little sugar 
being sprinkled upon it while burning. Those 
who know how universally the dung of buffaloes* 
called buffalo chips, iis used for cooking purposes 
on our great plains, will feel no prejudices against 
this seemingly uncleanly substance. We shall 
call it buffalo chips. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



SS. RATHVON, Er., Dear Sir: In the 
March No. of the Lancaster Farmer, we have 
a. very interesting and lucid exposition of Veg- 
etable Physiology, in the article — "Gossip about 
Water ard Plants," by our friend J. Stauffer, Esq. 
Though I do not intend to criticise his article, 
all through I yet wish to notice what to me is 
incomprehensible, or I might say, far above and 
beyond my dull intellect. Thus : " To fill a large 
thermometer tube with water, at the temperature 
of 60°, and by placing this tube in a vessel of 
pounded ice ; the water goes on shrinking in the 
tube till it has obtained the temperature of 40°. 
and then instead of continuing to shrink, or con- 
tract, till it freezes, begins slowly to expand, and 
actually rises in the tube until it reaches the 
freezing point ! " Now I cannot understand how 
the water by contracting in the tulje down to 40°, 
and then expanding till it reaches the freezing 
point. The freezing point we know to be 32°, 
so that at 40° instead of expanding, it will have 
to still further contract to fall down to 32° the 
freezing point ! Is'ut this clear as mud ? 



98 



THE LAJ\rCASTER FARMER. 



But I wish to notice another matter, while I've 
pen in hand : The ascending and decending sap, 
or water taken up by the roots of plants and trees, 
whereby the trees and plants increase or enlarge 
their growth. There appears to be a difference of 
opinion on this subject among physiologists : some 
elaiming that the down-flow of sap is what forms 
the annual growth, or rings on the wood of trees ; 
while modern investigators claim as a new idea, 
that there is no downward flow of the sap ; yet 
all appear to agree that the sap in trees, plants, 
and vines, is received through the agency of the 
roots, from the ground, and from that source 
carried through the living and growing tree, to 
form wood, leaves, fruit, etc. etc. Which then is 
it that forms the annual growth and rings of wood 
on trees — the sap while it ascends, or when de- 
scending. 

There is a circumstance to me inexplicable about 
this circulation of sap through the tree, or inner 
bark. On cutting down chestnut trees for fence 
rails, we desire to have the bark taken off, so as 
to have the sap-wood dried and hardened, as the 
rails we know will last much longer. This we also 
know is easiest accomplished in spring, as the 
bark then peels off very freely. But when we 
wish the roots. also to throw up sprouts freely, to 
again give us sprout land for future use, there is an 
objection to felling trees when the sap flows freely, 
as then many of the stumps will die outright, and 
others throw up only a few feeble sprouts. Then 
again, if we cut down the trees in mid-winter, and 
split them into rails at once, the bark cannot be 
taken of, but will remain on the timber or rails 
for years ; worms or borers will enter the sap- 
wood, eating their way through in all directions, 
leaving openings for water to enter from rains, 
and by the time the bark comes or falls off, after 
three or four years, the sap-wood will be rotten, 
thus greatly injuring the timber. Now to steer 
clear of both these drawbacks, we cut the trees 
down in mid-winter, November, December or Jan- 
uary, and let the trees lay on the ground as 
they fall till vegetation is in full growth in spring, 
say last of April or early in May, according as the 
season is early or late. Then cut up the trees, 
split them into rails, and the bark will peel off 
quite as freely as if the trees had been just cut 
down. I have frequently had chestnut timber 
cut down between Christmas and New Year, left 
them lay on the ground until spring opened fully, 
then had them made into rails, and always found 
the bark come off freely and full of sap, and no 
worms to enter, and the sap-wood becoming hard 
as the heart-wood. 

Now the question with me is — how does the 
sap or water enter into the trees so as to loosen 
the bark, when the tree is severed from its roots ? 
In this case there can be no ascending sap ! 

I have never left the trees lay on the ground 
till fall, so as to find out if there would also be a 
descending sap, to form another annual layer of 
wood, but of course the heat of summer, would 
dry up all moisture in the trees. Some trees as 
gum and willow, if cut down in winter, and left 



lay on the ground, will throw out sprouts freely. 
From where do these trees procure their sap or 
water to make so strong an effort to continue 
their growth ? J, B. Garber. 

■ Columbia, Pa., Mar. 24, 1873. 



"THREE PER CENT." 

EDITOR FARMER : In the April Farmer I 
find an article under the above caption that 
must be very encouraging to the farmer if he can be 
induced to believe it. You suppose your farmer to 
have ten thousand dollars invested in farm and 
stock. At the end of one year he has three hun- 
dred dollars in bank and has expended one thou- 
sand dollars in "wear and tear of implements" 
and expenses of keeping family. You allow one 
hundred dollars for depreciation, and say the far- 
mer has made twelve per cent, on his investment. 
Now, let us suppose he has borroived his money 
at six per cent, and his account will stand thus : 

Farmer DR. 

To interest 8 600.00 

To keeping family 1,000.00 

To depreciation 100.00 

1,700.00 
CK. 

By family expenses $1,000.00 

By balance in bank 300.00 

Total income 1,300.00 

Loss 400.CO 

Here we have the paradoxical statement that a 
man borrows at six per cent, makes tivelve per 
cent, on his money, and " comes out at the little 
end of the horn." 

The farmer who is in debt (and a large propor- 
tion of our farmers are working partly on bor- 
rowed capital) cannot be induced to see the sub- 
ject of per cents, in any other light than this. 
If he can be induced to mortgage his farm at 
twelve or even six per cent, he will speedily "go 
up the spout." 

But suppose he has ten thousand dollars " clear." 
He invests it at six per cent, mortgage security, 
and at the end of the year he has six hundred 
dollars net in place of two or three hundred as in 
the other case. 

He and his family can, if they work as hard as 
they did on the home-farm, earn as good a living, 
for every farmer's boy is put to work as soon as 
he can pick up a potato, and girls are initiated into 
the mysteries of dish-washing at the tender age 
of four years. This much for per cents. 

The fact is, that stripped of its poetry (and few 
of us who are engaged in the business see the 
poetry of it), the life of a farmer is one of hard; 
incessant toil and little pay. 

Says Emerson ; " The farmer's office is precise 
and important, but you need not try to paint him 
in rose-color. You cannot make pretty compli- 
ments to fate and gravitation, whose minister he 
is. He represents the necessities. It is the 
beauty of the great economy of the world that 
makes his comeliness. He bends to the order of 
the seasons, the weather, the soils and crops, as 



THE LAJ^CASTER FARMER. 



99 



the sails of a ship bend to the wind. He repre- 
sents continuous hard labor year in, year out, and 
small gains. He is a slow person, timed to nature 
and not to city watches. He takes the pace of 
seasons, plants and chemistry. Nature never hur- 
ries. Atom by atom, little by little she achieves 
her work. The lesson one learns in fishing, yacht- 
ing, hunting or planting is the manners of nature. 
Patience with the dela'^s of wind and sun, delays 
of the seasons, bad weather, excess or lack of 
water— patience with the slowness of our feet, 
with the parsimony of our strength, with the 
largeness of sea and land we must traverse, etc. 
The former times himself to Nature, and acquires 
that livelong patience which belongs to her. 
fcslow, narrow man, his rule is, that the earth shall 
feed and clothe him, and he must wait for his 
crop to grow. His entertainments, his liberties 
and his spending must be on a farmer's scale, and 
not on a merchant's. 

"This hard work will always be done by one 
kind of man — not by scheming speculators, nor by 
soldiers, nor by professors, nor readers of Tenny- 
son, but by men of endurance — deep-chested, long- 
winded, tough, slow and sure and timely. The 
farmer has a great health, and the appetite of 
health, and means to his end. He Lias broad 
lands for his home, wood to burn great fires, 
plenty of plain food. His milk, at least, is un- 
watered, and for sleep he has cheaper and better 
and more of it than citizens. 

" He has grave trusts confided to him. In the 
great household of Nature the farmer stands at 
the door of the bread-room and weighs to each his 
loaf." 

In conclusion, I need scarcely add that the far- 
mer never gets rich. We have no millionaires 
among us. Ihe Rothschilds, the Stewarts, the 
McCormicks are bankers or merchants or mechan- 
ics. J, C L. 

Salisbury, April 14, 1873. 



BOOK AND SPECIAL NOTICE DE- 
PARTMi^^NT. 



Bbhind the iScKNBS IN WASHINGTON is the title of a 
book just Issued by ibe Mtttiouiti i-UDiisliing Co The ad- 
vance suet ts are on our table, anu the annexed extract 
Bhouid be sufficient to excite atiention. Tne author iu liia 
preface bays : "It i» our aim to make this a faithful picture 
of life at the Capital. The accounts of the Ureail Mobilier 
scandal, tne Loouy, and other peculiar features will be 
given Without bias." '-It Is a wc akne^g of the good people 
ot WftshiUKtou to believe that tuey are politicians. Dwell- 
ing under the shadow of the general government, they 
imagine that they inhale politics with every breath they 
draw. You will hardly find a male reideut of the Capital 
but is tirm.y convinced that he has influence with some 
branch cf the government." "Reduced to plain English, 
the story ot the Credit MubUier is simp.y this: The men 
entrusted with the management of the Pacitij Road made 
a bargain with themsetves to build the road for a sum 
equal to about twice its actual coiit, and pocketed the 
profits, which hive been estimated at about Thirtt 
Millions OF Dollarb — this immense sum coming out of 
the packets of the tax-payers of the United 8r«tes. Mr. 
Ames was not the only m«.uberof the company in placing' 
the btoce where it woul.l benefit the corpora Ivh. l>r. 
Durant , the president of the Pacidc railway, was engaged 
in securing his triends in the same way, and he received a 
portion 01 the stock to be used in this manner." Agents 
wanted, apply to National Publishing Company, Philadel- 



phia, Pa. ; Chicago, 111, ; Cincinnati, Ohio ; St. Louis, 
Mj. 

H. N. MoKiNNEY & Co., of No. 16 North Seventh St., 
Philadelphia, have just issued one of the most valuable 
books, lately published, entitled '• Evkrybodt's Own 
Physician" or " How to Aoquirk and PRtsERVK 
Health " by Dr. C. W. Gleasou. Dr. Gleason is well 
known all over the count, y, having devoted much of his 
time during the last thirty years to lecturing in the prin- 
cipal towns on medical suljects, and has acquired a high 
reputation, both as a popular lecturer and physician. 
Having now retired from the lecturing field to aevoie his 
timi^ to hij extensive practice, his miuy fritnds will be 
pleased that he has put 8'> much of his valuable knowledge 
in suoh a shape that they can obtain and understand it. 
There has been a great need for a woik that will give, in 
plain terms, the cau-es, symptom.s and remedies for com. 
mon disease. Not only dues tins book meet the want, but 
it tells how to acquire and retain health and strength. 

The volume is appropriately nau^ed and if every family 
would study it carefully, and follow its teachings, there 
would be much less sickneB>. It is beautifully printed 
and bound, anl is illustrated with over 250 engravings 
The book is sold only by subscrpltlon, and the publishers 
desire a good agent in eve-y town, to whom they otter 
liberal iuilucements. We copy tne following irom the 
advance sheets of the book : 

Diphtheria — This alarming and terrible disease usually 
first makes its appearance in the cavity of the throat, in the 
form of violent inflammation, tccompanied with high 
fever, which soon extends downward to the cavity of tue 
larynx, and is followed by the effusi.>n of small patches of 
grayish lymph, filling che cavities of the throat and larynx, 
causing difhcult breathing, gi eat exhaustion, feelings of 
suffocation, and death 

Treatment. In all such diseases early treatment is of the 
greatest importance The invalid shou d at once be placed 
in bed in a large, well aired and well-ventilated room, and 
carefully kept warm. At the commencement of the at- 
tack administer a warm tiath for ten minutes, and then 
apply fomentations or poultictis of warm water to the skin 
outside the throat, changing them often; fil an inhaling 
bottlehalff.il of warm water, and add a teaspoonf U of 
fine salt, thirty drops of carbolic acid, and a few drops of 
laudanum; inhale the hot steam or vapor from this frtjely 
several tim^s a ay. Put a teaspoonful of cholrate of 
potash in a cup of warm water, aud with a cim I's hair 
brush ai>ply freely to the inside of the throat. Keep up 
the patient's strength by the administraiiou of beef tea, 
giving 9 teaspoonful of the lohowing mixture three or 
four times a day. 

Men ARE what Women Make Them.— This isthe title of 
a new hook just issued by H. N. McKinney & Co., 16 
North 7th St., Philadelphia. We have beiore us a copy of 
this truly interesting work, and upon a glance over its 
p-.iges, feel free to confess it bears no talte iitle. It should 
meet with an extensive sale. We copy a few extracts: 
•'A thousand thunders! I dare not kill you. ' 'Do you now 
swear that setting sun betrayed me?" 'Come with me 
and you shall see setting sun." " tJ .t I .shill kill her!" 
"That is your own business, I am tlmply charged with 
your arrest." The bojk Is exciting ana lustru tive, fully 
illustrating the powers of woman over man it is a trans- 
lation from the French, and written by one oi the most 
noted novelists 



LITERARY NOTICES. 



Tlie Journal of the farm ; Gardener's Monthly ; National 
Live Stuck Journal ; Practical Farmer ; Farm'.r ami Gardener- 
Live Stock, Farm, and e'irssd: Journal; Moore's Rural NewL 
Yorker; American Farmer's Auvo:aie; Liws of Health- 
Pen ii.nd Pi.jw ; Genuantown Telegraph ; Wood's Household 
Magazine; Inuustrial BulUtin ; Oil Journal; Manhi-im Sen- 
tinel; Volhsfreund ; Strasbtirg Press ; Fvery'^oty's Juumal ■ 
and other current publications for April, ha»e been received 
all laden witti the intellectual wealthofiheir various spheres 
in the literature of life ; also, monthly. Agricultural Re- 
port for March, and a pamphlet on VVilliamson's Steam 
Plow ; the Manual of Evergreens and Forest Trees, a practi- 
cal and concise treat.se, adapted to the wants of the buyer 
—in two parts— by Geo. Plnney, Eaitor of the Evergreen 
(n^d Forest Tree Grower, Sturgeon Bay, Wisconsin ; a use- 
ful little l2mo. ol 20 pp. to those intending to purchase 
trees. 

The American Farmers' Advocatk comes to hand 
for March, a little behind time, but the delay is accounted 
for by Its Improved appearance. The publis.iers, who 
have from the commencement shown unusual enterprise 
in giving a greater amount of reading matter, and of a 
quality unexcelled, have made one improrement after 



100 



THE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



another. "With this No. they commence printing upon fine 
naner from clear, new type, furnishing as heretotore Six- 
teen large pages of reading matter, stitcHed and cut. 
Every farmer and every business man should take it, and 
the publishers have adopted a plan which enables every- 
body to obtain it without cost. By sending them a sub- 
scription for any $2 or higher priced paper or magazine 
they furnish the Advoca e as a premium, without extra 
charge. The subscription price ia singly $1, or in clubs at 
60 cents each. 

Lyceum Echo, a spirited little monthly folio, published 
at Marietta, J'a., under the auspices of the "Lyceum As- 
sociation" of Lancaster county. 25 cents a year, in ad- 
vance. B. H. B. Cameron, D. L. Besh, Frank Mehaffey, 
Editors. 

Ambkican Sundat-school Worker. The last number 
of this iour«al contains an able urticle by one ot its 
editorial committee, Rev. T. M. Post, D. p., on Early 
conversions, and a variety of choice, selected and original 
articles Inteligence, Book Notices, etc., besides twelve 
T>a?e8 eivento the education of the International Lessons. 

It is published by J. W. Mcln yre. No. 4 South Fifth 
Street, St. Lonis, at $t.50 a year. Single copies 15 cents. 

The April number of Sanitaria v, a monthly journal, 
of 48 pages, octavo, published in New York and Chicago, 
bvA. S Barnes and Company, and edited by A. N.Bell, 
M D .has been received and chee/fuly placed upon our 
list of exchanges. The typographical executiou of this 
iournal and the quality of the paper are almost fault- 
less and it contains three large charts of New York 
harbor, West Bank Hospital, and Hoffian's Island. Sub- 
scription $3.00 a year, in advance. The contents are the 
most valuable among the sanitarian literature of the coun- 
trv and judging from the ability of its contributors, and 
the subjects discussed, it cannot fail to pe form an im- 
portant use and ought to receive the necessary popular 
support, to sustain it handsomely. Address, 111 and 113 
William street, N. T. 



SPECIAL NOTICE. 



p^jjj.KiLLKR. There can be no necessity, at this late 
day> ^'^^ *^® VT^^^^ to speak in commendatory terms 
f this remarkable medicine, in order to promote its sale ; 
f .^jg a medicine that is known and appreciated the 
de world through. Whenever we speak of the Pain. 
K^ier as in the present instance, we do so in behalf of 
afflicted, rather than with the view of advancing the 
* fereets of its proprietors. For various diseases, such as 
^h uroati^^' cholera, cholera-morbus, burns, sprains 
1 \geg and so on to the end of the catalogue, we are con! 
•need that there is no remedy before the people equal to 
T)avi9' Vegetable " Pain-Killer," and we know thfH thous 
ds upon thousands entertain th« same belief. Certain- 
f!' ve cannot refer to the history of any medicine which 
uals that of the Pain-Killer. It was introduced in 1840, 
^\''from that time to this its sale, both at home and 
*^Toad has constantly and rapidly increased, and we re- 
*nloe at the high reputation it has achieyed, because 
this reputation shows that it has been the means of re- 
lieving a vast amount of liuman suflering. We hope 
the present propriet is of Davis' Vegetable 'Pain-Killer" 
will live long to eajoy the prosperity they have so fairly 
won. °^ylt-73 



CHICAGO CATTLE MABKET. 

Chicago, April 22. 
Cattle.— Market for shipping grades rather quiet;under 
unfavorable eastern advicea, but prices were steady : 
sales good to choice ranging $5 50a6, and one lot extra. 
6 cwt. brought $6 75 ; a number bunches good to extra 
Cherokees sold at i4 80a4 95 ; corn fed Texas 85 12>ia6 25 ; 
common to good^butchers' cows $3 75a4 60. Hog market 
fairly active ; prices firm ; sales common to fair at J5 25a 
6 40; good to choice $5 50a6 60. Sheep; market fairly 
active, scarce and firm for the best grades; sales choice 
lotaat$s»a50. 



PHILADELPHIA CATTLE MARKET. 

Monday, April 21. 

Beef cattle were in fair demand at about the former 
rates. 2,100 head arrived and sold at 7xa8 cents for extra 
Pennsylvania and. Western steers ; 6Xa7 cents tor fair 
to good do., and 5a6 cents per pound gross, as to condi- 
tion. 

Cows were unchanged. 200* head sold at $55a75 per head 
as to quality. 

Sheep were rather dull. 10,000 head sold at 7a8c, per 
lb. gross as to condition. 

Hogs were dull. 5,000 head sold at $8 60a8 75 per 100 
lbs. net. 

PHILADELPHIA MARKETS. 

Wednes ay, April 23. 

Flour.— There is more doing both for loeal consump- 
tion and for exportation, but we cannot record any 
change in prices. Sales of 900 b&,rre!8 Ohio and Min- 
nesota extra family on secret terms, and 1,200 barrels in 
lots, including superfine at |4 50a5 25, extras at 86a6 75, 
Pennsylvania, Ohio and Indiana extra family at »8a9 5u, 
spring wheat ext:a family at $8»9 50 spring wheat extra 
family at $7 5Da8 25, and tancy brands at $9 75all 25— the 
latter for St. Louis No change in Rye Flour Or Corn 
Me a! ; no sales of either. 

Grain.— There is a fair demand for choice Wheat at 
full prices, but poor quality is neglected. Sales ot 5,500 
bushels at $1 90 per busbel for pood Indiana red : $1 92a 
1 95 for Amber ; $1 70 for No. 1 Milwaukee spiing ; $1 80 
for amber spring, and S2 for white. Bye is worth 85c. per 
bushel ; there is not much offering. Corn is in good re- 
quest, and 6,000 bushels Penns%lvania and Southern 
yellow sold at 624463c. Oats are "active; sales of 17,000 
bus. Ohio and Indiana; white at 51a52c., and Western 
mixed at47>^a49. 

Provisions — Prices are firmer. Mesa Pork is selling 
in lots at $18al9 50; smoked hams at 14al5c. ; salted 
shouldeis at 7;!^a7>^c. ; suioki^.d do. at 8c., and Lard at 9>^ 

NEW YORK MARKETS. 

Apbil 23. 1873. 

Grain.— The Wheat market opened stronger, with mo.e 
inquiry for the lew grailes of Spring, and for these higher 
prices were obtained ; Winter i<* scarce and held higher. 
The market closes better and active, the demand chiefly 
for export, though fair for Milifng ; the sales are at $1 57a 
1 59 f r No. 3 (Jhi-'ago Spring ; $1 6U lor No. 2 Chicago 
Sprint?, in store ; SI 43 for Kej cied Spring ; $1 65i^ for 
No 2 Milwaukee, afloat; ; SI 67 tor Nos. 2 and 1 Mixed, in 
store; *2 12 for White Mich'gau. Barley is quiet and 
tame, especially for Western ; small lois co d 90a91c. Bar- 
ley Malt is quiet and heavy : Choice Canada West at 8l 40, 
short time. Oats are better, and in demand for the trade ; 
the sa'es are at 63;4a51c, afloat ; White at 5oa56J-^c; Black 
at 51a53!4c ; Western Mixed at 53>2a51r, and Old, in store, 
firm at 54c ; Whi'^e at 55a56i^ ; Stat^ Mixt d at f 2c, in store. 
Rye is less plenty, and is heTd higher; small sales of State 
at 88a88i%c. Corn is better, and in demand for export and 
the traae"; the oflerings ot Ne* are moderate; Unsound 
at 64},^<-. ; Western Mixtd at 6Kc, for Old, in store, and 67a 
671^0, for New afloat ; Western White at 72a73c; We: tern 
Yellow at 68c. 

Hay.— There has teen a good demand for prime qualiti'^'8 
of Hay, which are scarce and firmly held. Straw is more 
plenty ; the demand is fair and the market is steady ; the 
arrivals are more liberal. We quote Prime Hay at P 30a 
150; Good do. $115al25; Shipping do. at 90c.a$l, and 
Clover at 75a90c ; Rye Straw is quoted at $1 05»1 10. and 
Oat at 70c. 

Flour and Meal.— The demand for medium grades of 
Four is moderate, but there is less pressure and more 
steadiness in the market ; the low grades are firmer and in 
fair demand for the trads and for shipping; Family 
grades are steady and fairly active. At the close the mar- 
ket is better for most grades. 

NEW YOBK CATTLE MARKET. 

New York, April 21, 1873. 

The m&rket for Beef Cattle is firm with a fair demand 
at 10j^al2>^c for common to prime, with some few sales as 
high as 14cT 

Cows and Calves have ruled dull, and prices are unset-: 
tied ; we quote at $30a80 for poor to choice fresh cows. 

Veal Calves are dull and decidedly lower ; quote at 7a 
7i^c. 

Sheep and Lambs are easier ; the demand is chiefly for 
clipped stock ; quote clipped at 6J^a7^c ; wooled at 8» 
8%c; Spring Lambs quiet at $7al2 per head. 

Swine. — Live Hogs are nominal at 6a6i^c ; dressed are 
firmer at7>^a8c. 



DEVOTED TO 
Agriculture, Horticulti re. Domestic Economy and Miscellany, 

EDITED BY S. S. RATHYOX. 
'* The Farmer is the founder of civiflzat ion. "—WEBSTER. 



Vol. V. 



J TIME, 187 S. 



J^o. 6. 



ESSAYS. 



GOSSIP ABOUT WATER, ETC. 

BY J. STAUFFER. 

MY higlily esteemed friend, J. B. Garber, in 
the May number of the Farmer, com- 
ments upon my gossipping article about water 
published in the March number of the same. He 
cannot understand that matter about freezing, and 
concludes, " Isn't this clear as mud ?" To make 
mud we need a mixture of soil and water, and 
there are no two things more common than these 
same elements, and yet so wonderful in their 
properties. I am not surprised at what my friend 
says. My remarks are based on the facts devel- 
oped by actual test and experiment, by men who 
devoted especial attention to the subject. I am 
only a disciple of their school, and lay no claim to 
originality. But this will not prevent me from gos- 
siping about water. Everybody knows that water 
is said to be a compound of hydrogen and oxygen. 
But what is this hydrogen, so called ? The name is 
compounded from the Greek, and signifies, I create. 
What does it create ? The fact is, xoater is the 
onlxj source from which hydrogen can be obtained, 
and when burned in half its volume of pure oxy- 
gen, the only product of this combustion is water. 
When a boy I tried the experiment, by putting 
iron filings into an inkstand, and mounting the 
stem of a tobacco-pipe fitted into a cork, a mix- 
ture of ten parts of water to one of strong sul- 
phuric acid was poured on the iron-filings. The 
gas escaping from the pipe w;xs lit, and while ad- 
miring my philosophical candle as it burned, the 
pipe became clogged up, and an explosion was the 
consequence. I was lucky in getting off with 



singed eyebrows. This shows my early curiosity, 
if it is no evidence of good management, and I 
write it for caution to boys prone to experiment. 
I know from experience that hydrogen "will 
burn." The ancient philosophers called it in- 
flammable air, and deemed it equivalent to phlogis- 
lion, or the matter of heat. This very idea has 
much to do with it as a compound element of 
water, and produces, perhaps, those paradoxical 
conditions developed in freezing that has per- 
plexed and does perplex men of deeper research 
than myself or friend Garber. 

As regards the other element, oxygen gas, 
which is insipid, colorless, inodorous and perma- 
nently elastic, Tyndall tells us it has. in reference 
to heat, a lower absorbing and radiating power 
than other gases. Farraday has shown that it is 
the most magnetic of all gases; its magnetic force 
compares with that of the atmosphere, being as 
17.5 to 3.4, so that it occupies among gases the 
place which iron holds among metals, and, as with 
iron, its magnetic force is destroyed by a high 
temperature, but returns on cooling. Oxygen is 
dissolved by water, but only in small proportion. 
At 60^^, iOO cubic inches of water dissolve Z. 
cubic inches of gas ; and at 32°, about 4 inches. 
Water itself is composed of 1 volume of hydrogen 
and ^ a volume of oxygen, or by iveight, as 1 to 
8. The equivalent or atomic weight of water thuS 
becomes 9. So it is taught in our school books 
But, ac«ording to Gerhardt's notion, this equiva. 
lent of oxygen is doubled. 

The use oxygen may be to the aquatic creation^ 
or in promoting acidification, etc., we shall not 
stop to inquire. The fact is, we know about as 
much and no more about water now as we did be- 
fore we knew of its combination of two gase«, and 
for that matter we might call them by any other 



102 



THE la:n'CASTer farmer. 



name ; the result would be the same. Water is 
water still, and we also know that at a tempera- 
ture of 32° it becomes ice, under proper condi- 
tions. 

A cubic inch of water at the temperature of 40° 
weighs 252.952 grains, at 60° 252.72— less by .880 
of a grain, so on as the temperature increases up 
to the boiling point 212°, when vapor is given 
out, and notwithstanding heat is still applied 
the thermometer indicates no higher temperature 
of the water, so the cubic inch will expand to fill 
a tube of the capacity of 1,700 cubic inches. 
That is the effect of heat to turn the water into 
steam, an elastic fluid, increasing its volume. Here 
we have another puzzle. Since the difference be- 
tween 212° and 30° is 180°, and since ^ times 
180° is 990°, it follows that to convert the water 
into steam after it has attained the temperature 
of 212°, as much heat must be supplied to it as 
would suffice, if it were not evaporated, to raise it 
990° higher. Hence it is said this heat is latent 
in the steam, and although actually there it is not 
sensible to the thermometer. This phenomenon is 
the foundation of the whole theory of latent heat. 
To prove that this heat is actually in the steam, 
let a cubic inch of water in the form of steam at 
the temperature of 212°, be introduced into a 
vessel with b^ cubic inches of water at the temper- 
ature cf 32° the steam will be immediately con- 
verted into water; the temperature of the 5^ 
inches of ice-cold water will be raised to 212°, and 
there will be found in the vessel 6^ cubic inches 
of boiling water. Now these are facts — and facts 
are stubborn things if they — " Is'nt any clearer 
than mud." We have seen that heat erpands 
water. The expansion of water in the act of 
freezing takes place with irresistible force, and the 
frequent rupture of thick iron and leaden pipes 
from this cause is a familiar instance of this. 
ProfessorFarraday discovered the remarkable prop- 
erty of two pieces of melting ice being placed to 
gether in a warm room; the film of water between 
■them soon freezes and cements the two masses 
together, and this effect also takes place beneath 
the surface of warm water. 7'ry it — it is very 
simple. Well, we must conclude that as heat ex- 
pands water, and cold or the absence of heat also 
expands it, whether water is freezing or boiling it 
is expanded. This being clear, there is a point of 
temperature when the density is greatest, and ex- 
periment has proved that its greatest density is 
not at 32°, but somewhere above it. Some experi- 
mentalists place it at 38° ; other more modern in- 
vestigators at 40°. It is imagined that cold or the 



phenomenon of the congelation of water involves 
several conditions : 

1. the specific gravity of ice is less than that of 
water in the ratio of 92 to 100. 

2. When water is exposed in a large suspended 
jar to cool in still air of 20° or 30°, it may be 
cooled 2° or 3° below freezing ; but if any tremu- 
lous motion takes place, there appear instantly a 
multitude of shining hexangular spiculae floating 
and slowly ascending in the water. 

3. It is observed that the shoots or ramifica- 
tions of ice at the commencement, and in the ear- 
ly stage of congelation, are always at an angle of 
60° or 120°. 

4. Heat is given out during congelation, as 
much as would raise the temperature of water 140° 
or 150°. The same quantity is again taken in 
when the ice is melted. This quantity may be \ 
of the whole heat, which water of 32° contains. 

5. Water is densest at 38° (40° new scale). 
From that point it gradually expands by cooling 
or by heating alike, according to the law so often 
mentioned, that of the square of the temperature. 

6. If water be exposed to the air and to agita- 
tion, it cannot be cooled below 32° ; the applica- 
tion of cold freezes a part of the water, and the 
mixture of ice and water acquires the temperatur*^ 
of 32°. 

7. If the water be kept still, and the cold be 
not severe, it may be cooled in large quantities to 
25° or below, without freezing : if the water be 
confined in the bulb of a thermometer, it is very 
difScult to freeze it by any cold mixture above 15° 
of the old scale (Fahrenheit's) ; but it is equally 
difficult to cool the water much below that point 
without its freezing. Daltou says — "I have ob- 
tained it as low as 7° or 8°, and gradually heated 
it again without any part of it being frozen. 

8. In the last case of what may be called/orced 
cooling, the law of expansion is still observed as 
given above. 

9. When water is cooled to 15° or below in a 
bulb, it retains the most perfect transparency ; but if 
it accidentally freezes, the congelation is instanta- 
neous, the bulb becoming in a moment opaque, and 
white like snow, and the water is projected up the 
stem. 

10. When water is cooled below freezing, and 
congelation suddenly takes place, the temperature 
rises instantly to 32°. This is according to Dalton's 
new system of chemical philosophy, which, however, 
has become old, but the facts remain, account for 
them as we may. So that from 40° as a starting 
point, water may be said to begin to freeze or to 



TEE la:n'caster farmer. 



103 



boil, as the effecfcof heat or cold produce the same 
result. Should you be silly euough to clap your 
warm tongue on a pump-haudle when the temper- 
ature is at 0°, the effect between that and an iron 
at a red heat, would prove equally conclusive, that 
cold and heat are relative terms — the effects be- 
ing the same under certain conditions. 

The reader may thank friend Garber for hav- 
ing this long yarn about water inflicted upon them 
and yet I will venture to affirm that few have paid 
attention to the subject as it deserves. Chemis- 
try shows the necessity of certain proportions of 
materials to result in definite compounds ; so in the 
aboratory of nature all the diversities of products 
are brought about by a kind of arithmetical pro- 
gression ad infinitum. I shall not stop to con- 
sider the sap-question of friend Garber. The facts 
he states are no doubt correct, and are |as easily 
accounted for as other facts, whether we understand 
the explanations or not. 

The short of the whole matter is, there are latent 
forces, as well as latent heat, that are not physi- 
cally sensible until conditions arise to develop 
those latent forces. The unseen imponderable el- 
ements underlie the whole question — of water as 
well as life or vital action of any kind. The high- 
ly electrical qualities of the oxygen — the phlogis- 
tic nature of hydrogen being like a balanced scale 
at equipoise at a temperature of 40^ ; the beam 
rises or falls by a disturbance reciprocally — in a 
two-fold manner, and produces these apparently 
conflicting phenomena. 

This confliction is, however, a harmony we do 
not understand, since our knowledge at best is 
but partial — because we are finite creatures. The 
mysteries of creation in their essence are infinite 
and past finding out. Vain man may claim to 
have found out much, and dig up fossils or test 
the different planets, and ytt, after the accumu- 
lation of discoveries for ages, we do not know 
whether the center of the earth is a mass of fire 
or "iSym's hole" goes through it. Nevertheless 
let us live and learn. 

HORTICULTURE^ 

EDITORS FARMER : I send you a report 
of the condition of some things in my Beaver 
Valley fruit garden. The past cold winter has 
ruined the crop of many things for this season. 
Peach and quince trees will take a few years to 
get into bearing order ; had to cut them down 
near the ground. My peach orchard on the hill, 
250 trees, all froze. No difference in location 



with me — all fared alike. Apple trees very much 
frozen. Bark sprung loose on a few ; blossom 
buds more or less injured on all ; but a few will 
blossom middling well. Pears considerably hurt ; 
but will blossom some. Cherries all froze in the 
blossoms' buds. Sour cherries, too, all gone. 
Grapes — Telegraph, lona, Hartford, Martha, Con- 
cord, Clinton, and others — buds frozen, down to 
within about 8 inches of the ground. A few 
vines that lay on the ground are saved. No dif- 
ference in the location. Those facing south to 
east from buildings, and the lona, trained on south 
side of house, were frozen as bad as those facing 
north, etc. Currants and gooseberries are good 
and very full of blossoms. Raspberries facing 
south stood the winter well, including Ijight Red, 
Purple Cane, Davison Thornless and Mammoth 
Cluster, but the Philadelphia are considerably 
hurt. Grapes froze alongside. Raspberries 
facing north a little more frozen. Had to trim 
shorter. Lawton blackberries were all frozen. 
Kittatinny's blackberries badly frozen, but will 
have a few blossoms. Wachuset Mountain black- 
berry not much injured in buds. Canes are very 
fersh; a new variety. Had it in fruit last 
season. Berry looks well ; not quite as large as 
some Lawtons ; called thornless, but not quite 
free from thorns ; still there are not near as many 
as the other varieties have. I may have more to 
say about it when the fruit gets ripe. 

John B. Erb. 



SOIL FOR SWEET POTATOES. 

The author of a circular on sweet potato cul- 
ture says : 

The quality of the sweet potato greatly depends 
upon the soil it is grown in. On our common up- 
lands of a light, clayey texture, they grow short 
and of a light color and excellent quality.— New 
land, if dry, produces bountiful crops of fine pota- 
toes. In our loose prairie soil they grow long and 
of a darker color. Wet or very rich soil produces 
plenty of vines and few tubers. In all cases the 
ground should be well worked and finely pulver- 
ized to a moderate depth. If worked very deep 
the tubers grow long and stringy. When the 
ground is warm and moist, and your plants are 
ready, throw two furrows together with a large 
plow and form high, sharp ridges, three feet apart, 
going up and down hill. If the ridging is done 
in dry weather, and two furrows thrown together, 
the center of the ridge will be dry dirt, not fit to 
plant in until wet and settled by rain. If the 
soil in the ridges is quite moist, the planting may 
proceed all day without watering, if properly done 



10 i 



TEE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



REPLY TO " PER CENTS." 

MR. EDITOR : AVe would reply to the two 
articles, previously published in your 
magazine, on per cents. 

There is one point in^the supposition that does 
not seem very clear. A farmer is supposed to 
expend one thousand dollars for his family, yet 
they all clear but three hundred dollars. 

Figures tell the truth /rom the basis, or accord- 
ing to the basis laid down. But when the start- 
ing-point is entirely wrong, how about the result ? 

A family whose expenses on a farm are one 
thousand dollars, are either living very genteelly, 
or their numbers must be very great. If they 
live ivithout work, and use very much beyond 
what they earn, farming is not responsible for 
the result. If fine carriages are demanded ; if 
useless, high-strung horses are kept to eat up the 
crops and the profit ; if riding about is so pleasant 
and is the rule ; if a family expects to support the 
style of two or three thousand a year from a 
little over one, while the fields are half barren 
and the soil is very poorly tilled, lay the blame 
on the manner of farming and not on farming in 
general. 

But if, on the other hand, the family is large, 
there should be more work done; greater crops 
should grow ; a greater income should be found 
iu the bank at the close of the year. Certainly a 
thrifty family ought to make twice as much as 
their expenses. 

The writer can give some idea of expenses and 
income from personal experience. 

From a farm of eighty-five acres, the income 
was fifteen hundred, aside from the feed, etc., con- 
sumed on the place. Total farm expenses for the 
year, including board for self and hands, and im- 
provements, were a little less than eight hundred. 
Thus the balance was seven hundred, a much 
b etter showing than the supposition of the previ 
ous article. At least one hundred dollars were 
expended in fitting up sheds and in ditching. So 
that the strict farm expenses were less than half 
the income. 

And all of the help had to be paid for, even 
the boarding for as many as six hands, at time». 

Or take this view of the question : How much 
would it cost to keep this supposed family in 
town in the style of farm living, with farmer 
plenty and comfort, and advantages ? If one 
thousand dollars are needed on the farm, without 



rent, or retail prices for food, how great would be 
the sum for living in town ? At least fifteen 
hundred would be demanded to live cluttered up 
in a medium sized house, with none of the con- 
veniences found on a farm. And we know of 
farmers who think they are moderate in their ex- 
penses, who think they enjoy so much less than 
their merchant friends, and yet if these farmers 
lived as well, and as bountifully, and as stylishly 
in town, three or four thousand a year would be 
the expense. 

We know of many good mechanics, and work- 
men of different trades, who are compelled to sup- 
port large (and often necessarily unhelping fami- 
ilies, because of living in town) families on less 
than si x hundred a year, all told. Out of this 
must come the rent, which is more than one-fourth, 
and often nearly half. They must buy nearly 
everything at the retail price. Yet they are 
looked upon with envy by many of their farmer 
friends ; they are supposed to earn their living so 
easily ; are looked upon as doing better than far. 
mers possibly can. 

Some mechanics get large wages, are economi- 
cal and diligent and as a consequence get rich. 
So a farmer of talent and action can get rich too. 
And some are abundantly wealthy. In central 
Illinois lives Mr. Sullivant, who is worth his mil- 
lions. And he made this property by farming, 
and continues to make it thus. There are other 
very wealthy farmers in Illinois. In Kentucky 
there are many wealthy farmers ; in south-western 
Pennsylvania there are very many ; and through- 
out New York. And we can tell J. C. L., here 
and now, the reason why there are no Rothschilds 
among farmers. Generally farmers are afraid to 
give their children any chance at home. They 
are eminently selfish and domineering in their 
bearing to their grown-up sons. You scarcely 
see a farmer and his son working together as a 
firm, unless the father is boss altogether and the 
son is a boy, even at forty. The Rothschilds 
have clung together for generations, and hence 
their wealth. Any and every Rothschild lad at 
the age of discretion, has the idea and the spirit 
of family union for the dollar, well instilled into 
his brain, into his very life. They are united at 
all events ; and everyone has a place waiting for 
him, when years or ability will permit. 

So, farmers might cling together if they would. 
If they will try to learn to be business men ; if 
they will study books that tell of business and of 
the laws of trade ; if they will take, and read, 
and support their farm papers, instead of buying 



TEE LAJ^CASTER FARMER. 



105 



the trash that shall fit their children for the gal- 
lows and the haunts of crime ; if they will pur- 
chase books of value, and deny themselves the 
luxury of the chew, of the cigar, of the glass of 
rum or beer ; if the mind comes in for a reasona- 
ble share of culture so that the acres can be prop- 
erly and profitably tilled, according to wise plans, 
and for the best and noblest results ; then farm- 
ing can be successful and as aristocratic as any 
legitimate business that can be named. 

We need not say much about the figuring, when 
the base is wrong. Besides values are wrong. 
Land is'nt worth any more than ten times the net 
profit it brings. But so-nehow the price is infla- 
ted, and with this increase of price, the value of 
the acres, the fertility, is being used up. 

One thing, though, about trade. Many outsid- 
ers seem to imagine that it is easy to take ten thous- 
and dollars and go into trade, with a great hope 
of gain in the form of big hundred thousands or 
greater millions. But it is all and forever a great 
mistake. Out of ten thousand men, taken at ran- 
dom, we suppose not more than one hundred can 
make more than a fair living in trade from ten 
thousand dollars. Men and firms with one or 
more hundred thousand dollars control and cut up 
trade, so that few make anything at all from 
smaller sums. 

Tact is required in a merchant. And but few 
men have that faculty or power at all. A dealer 
must always and in every place be himself, and 
never at the mercy of another. Perseverance is 
demanded, or the profits will be losses instead. 
Diligence is needed. Yet most people imagine 
that trading is based on sitting around in splint 
chairs, or lolling on the handy counter and taking 
life easy and as it comes. 

Now, there is not one farmer in a hundred who 
can't make more money on a farm than he possi- 
bly could, or would, in trade, or as a mechanic 
Especially all farmers who scoflF at learning, who 
dread to budge from the old track ; who naturally 
and educatedly despise anything new or the per- 
son who would dare suggest that they are wrong, 
that farmers could make more if they would try ; 
all such farmers would not only not get rich in 
town, but would likely lose all they have and be 
compelled to rent a farm and begin anew. 

We have seen farmers who have tried the 
change. Great hopes were entertained ; but hopes 
are not dollars, nor is talk the secret of trade. 
Also have we seen farmers who would not change 
places with the hard-working capitalist ; for well 
they know that it is ability, a rare gift of our 



Creator, that enables a man like A, T. Stewart to 
be successful in trade. Yes, it is talent that is 
demanded; talent to be a man as well as a 
scratcher of acres ; talent to be a man with a 
heart and a soul, as well as with mere cloyed greed 
for gain. This talent is needed in every business, 
to insure success. Such talent will hunt the dol- 
lars among rocks or sands. On a farm, talent will 
gather all of the available forces for the best 
eventual gain. And combined effort and talent, 
and study of a family line, for generation after 
generation, would most certainly heap up a great 
fortune like that, (and more noble) of the world- 
renowned, Rothschilds of the East. 

J. 6. H. 
of the Farmers' Club. 

[As the discussion has taken a turn that we 
never intended when we penned our waif on 
" Three per cent," we may as well remark here, 
that successful farming does not always depend 
upon literary, or book intelligence. In the north 
part of Lancaster county, or rather, just where 
the counties of Lancaster, Berks and Lebanon 
meet, part of his domain lying in each of these 
counties, there resides a farmer who is the posses 
sor of fifteen hundred acres of as good average 
land, as can be found in the State of Pennsylvania; 
and this man reads little or nothing, if he can read 
at all ; never has subscribed for a newspaper ; 
and is said never to have had a book of any kind 
in his house, except perhaps the Bible, and an oc- 
casional copy of " Baer's Almanac." We have 
visited this immense farm, and although things, 
in general, have an untidy appearance, still, his 
stock of all kinds is fine and well kept, and his 
crops equal to any in either of the three counties 
in which the farm is located. This man (old John 
Texter) is either the son, or grandson, of a " Re- 
demptioner," his maternal ancestor having been 
" sold into service " for his passage across the At 
lantic. 

Somehow, they have made farming pay. — Ed.] 



Make a Map. It is always desirable to know 
the name of a variety of tree or vine — labels will 
decay or get broken down — but if a map or book 
record is made of the position of every tree of 
value, its name, when planted, and from whom re- 
ceived, it would give groat satisfaction to the 
owner and be one of the checks against too many 
of the present items of new productions by igno- 
rant growers, under an impression of its being a 
seedling, because they happen not to know the va- 
riety and have lost all remembrance of its period 
of procurance or planting. — Ohio Farmer. 



106 



THE LAJS CASTER FABMER. 




FAWKS' STEAM PLOW. 



OF all the departments of human husbandry- 
there is perhaps none in which less ad' 
vance seems to have been made than in that of 
plowing — bi'eaking up annually, and preparing 
the soil for the reception of the various kinds of 
seeds. During the last fifty years — which is about 
as far back as we can remember, in relation to farm- 
labor — a great many improvements have been made 
in farming implements. Any number of reapers, 
mowers, threshers, winnowers, corn-shellers, rak 
ers, tedders, grain-drills, corn-planters, culti- 
vators, harrows, apple-parers, and numbers of 
other implements for the purpose of lightening, 
facilitating and expediting farm-labor, the very 
worst of which have been a great advance upon 
modes previously in vogue among farmers, but 
the plow and plowing, during all that long period, 
have remained stationary. It is true some im- 
provements have been made in coulters, mould- 
boards, gearing, and the general shape of the 
implements, whereby some degree of ease in the 
process of plowing has been attained ; still, plow, 
ing, to all practical appearance, is the same slow, la- 
borious, and patience-enduring process it was half 
a century ago. 

Various inventions of steam-ploivs have been 
introduced and tried in different parts of our 
country — the first of which, as far as concerns the 
the county of Lancaster, was that of Mr. Fawk s , 



of Christiana — but we believe none of them have 
yet become such " fixed institutions " among the 
farming public as a thresher or a movjer, and in 
all probability it may be a long time before they 
ever will be. All the other implements we have 
named have but a secondary — some of them a 
still more remote — relation to farm labor, but the 
plow in its relations is primary; for, until the 
land is broken up, and the soil turned under by 
the plow, there can be no effectual planting, reap- 
ing, mowing, and threshing. Here, then, in this 
primary department of husbandry, is still a wide 
field for the exercise of human ingenuity, A 
good, cheap, durable, and easily handled steam- 
plow is still the great desideratum of the farming 
occupations. It seems to us that all inventors of 
steam-plows, thus far, have been attempting too 
much, and therefore have accomplished too little. 
Would not a machine that would turn one or ttoo 
furrows at a time with speed, accomplish more in 
the end than a great lumbersome and unwieldy 
affair that turns six or eight, and be nearer what 
is now wanting ? 

The largest and most powerful thresher, pabses 
a single sheaf through at a time, but it has an im- 
mense advantage over the old ways of threshing, 
by the speed it gains. A grain drill will not dis- 
tribute the seed over as great an area, at the same 
time, as broad-cast sowing will, but it does the 



TEE LAJyCASTER FARMER. 



107 



work speedier, more thoroug-hly and evenly, and 
saves the after-labor of harrowing. Now some 
thing on this line of principles seems to be want- 
ing at this time, although it must be apparent to 
the most ordinary ol)servation that there are 
localities under cultivation where a steam-plow 
never can be successfully manipulated. Although 
a plow, of some kind, is a very ancient implement 
— traces of its existence being found in the very 
earliest written records — and although plowing 
has always been considered inseparable from sue 
cessful farming, yet the application of steam to 
plowing is comparatively of very modern date. 
And furthermore, although stationary engines, by 
a system of " Rope Traction,"* have been applied 
to gangs of plows in England, and somewhat 
antedate steam-plowing in America, yet, the in- 
vention and application, as well as practical work- 
ing of " Direct Traction" steam-plowing, is due to 
America, and so far as we can recollect, Fawks' 
experiment with his invention at Christiana, in 
1858, was about the first in this country. 

After various experiments, accompanied by em- 
barrassment, discouragement, and buffetings in 
the West, Mr. Fawks and his plow are enjoying a 
kind of oblivion, and probably his name, in the 
future history of steam-plowing, may occupy the 
same relation to the subject that Fitch's does to 
the steamboat. We regret this, because we were 
present at the trial referred to — were pleased with 
what we saw — and expressed our satisfaction in a 
newspaper article on the subject, perhaps the 
first favorable notice of his plow that was publish- 
ed. During the fifteea years that have intervened 
since then, very little has been done in steam- 
plowing of a very practical character, but now we 
have a pamphlet before us, giving a description 
of the operations of the " Williamson Road Steamer 
and Steam-plow," on the seed farm of Messrs. 
David Landreth & Son, at Bloomsdale, near Bris- 
tol, Fa., in the autumn of 1872, although at sev- 
eral Agricultural Fairs, previous to that period, 
gold medals, and other premiums had been 
awarded to it. The Bloomsdale exhibition of the 
work and capacity of this plow, seems to have 
been highly satisfactory to a very large number 
of the most intelligent agriculturists and machin- 
ists who witnessed its operations, and was in a 
measure looked upon as the ■inauguration of a 



new era in agriculture. Every friend of agri. 
cultural progress no doubt desires that these 
hopes may be abundantly realized. R. 



AGRICULTURE. 

MANUFACTURING MANURE. 

I HAVE a place for the manure heap conve 
nientto the stable ; clean the stalls every morn- 
ing, or when necessary, and throw on the heap 
keep it well together, with a flat and broad top- 
it will soon commence to rot, and by the time 
there are eight or ten loads accumulated, take a 
day and haul to some suitable place for manufac- 
ture. As the manure is hauled keep it well to- 
gether, and not less than three feet deep ; keep 
the top always flat or a little concave, as in this 
way the valuable quality is better retained. When 
manure is heaped conically or spread carelessly 
far around, and remains so for any length of time, 
its value then would only be about equal to straw. 
The heap should be regulated in depth according 
to quantity. By hauling a day at intervals in 
winter, the yard may be clear by the time of turn- 
ing stock out to pasture. When the pressing 
work of spring is past, turn the manure-heap over, 
mixing it thoroughly. It should be finished square 
or oblong, with straight and nearly perpendicular 
sides well packed all through, and not less than 
four feet deep, as the deeper it is the better ; fin- 
ish the top about level, with six or eight inches 
of soil, which will prove valuable in saving the 
good qualities of the manure. When application 
time comes there will be found a rich heap of 
manure, black and greasy. 



* Nine hundred of the plows were In operation in 
EngUuul, as curly as in 1S54. Steam-engines are fixed 
tcn"ii)orarilyat each side, or end of the field, and gangs 
Of plows are drawn hither and thither by means of 
endless ropes. The Ainm-iean steam-plow, however, 
drags a gang of trom five to eighL plows after it, and 
is propelled back and forth across the field. 



DESIRABLE QUALITIES IN A PIG. 

Of all the desirable qualities in a pig, a vigor- 
ous appetite is of the first importance. A hog 
that will not eat is of no more use than a mill that 
will not grind ; and it is undoubtedly true that 
the more a pig will eat in proportion to size, pro- 
vided he can digest and assimilate it, the more 
profitable he Avill prove. 

The next desirable quality is, perhaps, quiet- 
ness of disposition. The blood is derived from 
the food, and flesh is derived from the blood. An- 
imal force is derived from the transformation of 
flesh. The more of this is used in unnecessary 
motions, the greater the demand on the stomach, 
and the more food will there be required merely to 



108 



TEE LAJ^CASTER FARMER, 



sustain the vital functions— and the more frequent- 
ly flesh is transformed and formed again, the 
tougheu and less palpable it becomes. 

This quality, quietness of disposition, combined 
with a small amount of useless parts, or offal, has 
been the aim of all modern breeders. Its impor- 
tance will readily be perceived if we assume that 
seventy-five per cent, of food is ordinarily consumed 
to support the vital functions, and that the slight 
additional demand of only one-sixth moie food, 
is required for the extra offal parts and unnecessary 
activity. Such a course, restless animals would gain 
in flesh and fat, in proportion to the food consumed, 
only half as fast as the quiet, refined animal. To 
assume that a rough, ill-bred mongrel hog will 
require only one-sixth more food than a quiet, re- 
fined, well-bred Berkshire, Essex or Suffolk, is not 
extravagant. — Harris. 



CHANGING PASTURES. 

A correspondent of The Weekly World asks 
farmers to give their experience as to the advan- 
tages and disadvantages of changing cows from 
one pasture to another during the grazing season ; 
that is, is it better that the pasture be in one field 
or in two or three, so that there may be periodical 
changes into fresh feed. This matter deserves the 
attention of graziers, and some with extended ex- 
perience have emphatic opinions relative to the 
matter, that it is far better that^there be no change, 
care being taken not to over-stock the pasture, and 
to provide soiling material (sowed corn, rye or 
oats) with which to supplement the grazing in 
case of continued drought or the falling off of 
grass supply from any cause. On the other hand, 
others deem change essential, care being taken 
that it be at regular intervals, and at such inter- 
vals as not to allow too rank a growth in the fresh 
pasture, thereby deranging the appetite and stom-. 
achs of the animals. Others think all the change 
needed — and the wisest one to make — is from the 
pasture in which the cows have foraged during 
the day to another at night after milking. Facts 
and figures, the critical experience and observation 
of our readers are solicited in reference to this 
matter ; for the time is at hand when the arran^- 
ment of pastures must be made for the coming 
season, and those who may be doubting what to 
do M'ill be glad to be aided to a conclusion by the 
testimony of their brethren. 



GROWING ASPARAGUS. 

One of the vegetables which every farm might 
have at very small trouble and cost, and yet 
which is one not often found in the farmer's gar- 
den, is asparagus. It is at the same time one cf 
the most desirable. It is very rare to find a per- 
son who does not like it. It is probable that the 
reason it is not more grown is an idea that it is a 
costly thing to start. There is some reason for 
the prevalence of this idea. Almost all the 
works on gardening would indicate that a great 
deal of labor and trouble was necessary in order to 
start an asparagus bed properly. They say the 
earth must be dug up two feet deep, that load on 
load of manure must be incorporated with the 
earth ; and possibly they will urge the importance 
of some rare and costly fertilizer as an essential 
ingredient in a proper asparagus bed. 

But all these things are unnecessary. Any rich 
garden soil is good for asparagus. It need be 
pL nted only as other things are planted. Some 
say set the roots a foot deep, but four inches be- 
neath the surface is plenty. It is not well to 
plant them too thick, or the sprouts will be 
small. Twenty inches or two feet apart is a good 
distance. Plants one year old, or two if they can 
be had, are the best. If one be at a distance 
from stores to get roots, seeds may be sown and 
the beds made the next year. These caii be sown 
in rows, like peas. 

An asparagus bed once made will last for 
years, with no trouble but an annual manuring 
and forking over every year, and one or two hoe- 
ings during the summer to keep the bed clear of 
weeds ; but, except on the score of neatness and 
cleanliness, this is scarcely necessary where an 
annual spring forking over is given. Almost all 
other crops have to be reset and otherwise cared 
for every year, while this is an enduring crop ; and 
we are quite sure there is nothing which will give 
one so much pleasure and satisfaction as a good 
asparagus bed. 



1^ Now is the time to get up clubs for the 
Fakmer. It pays. 



WHO BUYS OUR GRAIN ? 

As showing who are among our best customers, 
we give the following extract from the Boston 
Advertiser, showing the amount of wheat pro- 
duced by the New England States: 

Of the six States west of the Hudson, Vermont 
comes nearest raising its own bread, producing 
354,000 bushels of wheat in 1869, or about a 
bushel and a peck to each inhabitant. Taking 



THE LAKCASTEU FARMER. 



109 



the army ration of twenty-two ounces of flour a 
day as a basis for computing the consumption of 
bread enough to supply the people of the State 
thirty-seven days, and to make up the deficiency 
they are obliged to purchase 8,836,900 bushels per 
annum. 

Maine makes the next best showing in the cul- 
tivation of wheat, producing, in 1859, 177,100 
bushels, sufficient to last eleven days, and pur- 
chasing 8,300,000 bushels. 

New Hampshire, with decreasing population, 
was a little behind Maine, producing 194,000 
bushels — a little more than half a bushel to each 
inhabitant^aud purchasing 4,100,000 bushels. 

Connecticut makes a much poorer showing than 
New Hampshire, producing 38,000 bushels-enough 
to supply the people vvith bread for ten days — and 
purchasing 7,218,000 bushels. 

Massachusetts, though having a larger area 
than Connecticut, raised only 34,000 bushels, 
which, ground to powder, were sufficient to give 
the inhabitants of the State bread enough for 
breakfast and dinner, but not enough for supper! 
The people of this commonwealth purchase 20, 
000,000 bushels of wheat. 

Rhode Island raised 784 bushels of wheat in 
1869, and purchases 3,000,000 bushels per annum. 

The six States together purchase in round num- 
bers from forty to fifty million bushels of wheat, 
and as much of other grain ; or 100,000,000 
bushels of grain. 



FERTILIZERS FOR POTATOES— PLOW- 
IN (i OUT. 



LEACHED ASHES AS MANURE. 



Will it pay to put leached ashes on ground ? I 
have about two acres that I cultivated last sum- 
mer for the first time in a number of years ; it has 
been in grass. I put a heavy coat of good ma- 
nure on it last spring, and last fall another coat, 
and plowed it under ; and now I would like to 
know whether it would pay to haul ashes on it 
from an ashery about one-fourth of a mile ? I 
want to plant such crops as peas, onions, lettuce, 
beans, etc. N. S. L. 

Maryfiville, Union Co., 0. 

[If the leached ashes can be had for the drawing 
only, it would probably be quite profitable to ap- 
ply them, although the results are not always the 
same. In order to judge whether it will " pay," 
we want to know the cost of the dressing and the 
increase of the crop, which can be determined 
only by trial, but the experiment is well worth 
performing. A hundred bushels or two per acre 
would be a good application.] — Country Gentle- 



W. J. Pettee inquires as to best fertilizer for po- 
tatoes to be applied in the hill — whether bone, 
phosphate of lime, or fish guano. In the last 
twelve years I have tried a great many experi- 
ments in reference to the best fertilizer for pota- 
toes, and have seen many more tried. I have 
found invariably that the best yields were got by 
applying coarse Manure as a top dressing on the 
hill after planting. Take a good clover sod ; have 
it well drained (this is indispensable in such a wet 
season as the last) ; plant in hills about three feet 
apart ; give a good top dressing of coarse manure 
of two good forkfuls to each hill. Tend well and 
do nothiW; get a growth of top that will cove^ 
the land at the time the tops fall to the ground, 
and a glorious yield is insured. I have known 
this amount of top dressing more than double the 
crop. Mr. Pettee also inquires as to the feasibility 
of discontinuing the plow in digging. It is the 
opinion of potato raisers here that a plow is more 
bother than benefit. E. A. K. 

Cayuga Co. 



TO MAKE BOOTS WATER-PROOF. 

Boots that have undergone the process of 
Water-proofing are useful for occasional shooting 
and fishing, or for extraordinary inclement weather ; 
but for common wear they are unwholesome, on 
account of confining the insensible perspiration. 
Various preparations have been made to brush 
leather and render it water-proof ; these are gen- 
erally composed of oil, turpentine, rosin and wax. 
The following is an excellent recipe : Melt in an 
earthen vessel, over a slow fire, half a pint of lin- 
seed oil, one ounce of beeswax, one ounce of oil 
of turpentine and half an ounce of rosin. If new 
boots are saturated with this composition, they 
will be impervious to the wet, and likewise soft 
and pliable. To obviate the objection urged 
against the water-proof mixture, cork soles may be 
worn, which will be found to absorb the moisture 
without impeding the perspiration. 



Sixteen Good Habits, — 1. .Abstinence from 
tobacco and intoxicants. 

2. Temperance at meals. 

3. Daily attention to all the conditions of health 

4. Constant occupation. 

5. Doing at once whatever is required. 

6. Having a time and place for everything. 



110 



THE LAJYCASTER FARMER. 



7. Fidelity to all appointments and duties. 

8. Paying for everything in advance. 

9. Regular pursuit in some science. 

10. Giving as well as receiving. 

11. Aiming at harmony in conversation. 

12. Looking always on the bright side. 

13. Associating with some favorite minister and 
society. 

14. Talking on edifying subjects. 

15. Acting always in the right spirit. 

16. Realizing the presence of God at all times- 



Fruit for Pennsylvania. At the late meet 
ing of the Pennsylvania Fruit Growers' Society 
the voting indicated the following fruits most in 
favor : Apples — Smokehouse, Smith's Cider and 
Fallawater. Pears — Bartlette, Lawrence and 
Sickle. Peaches — Crawford's early, Crawford's 
late, Old Mixon and Smock. Strawberries — Wil- 
son's Albany and Triomphe de Gand. Grapes — 
Concord. Mr. Tobias Martin, of Mercersburg, 
read a paper upon improved apples and pears, in 
which he said the Summer Rambo was the best 
summer apple for Pennsylvania, and added the 
following list as the most desirable : Smith's 
Cider, Imperial, Russet, York Imperial and Hub, 
bardson's Nonsuch. Of pears, he recommended 
as among the best — Tyson, Brandy wine, Kingses- 
sing, Dana's Hovey, Dix, Glout, Morceau and 
Lawrence. 



French Fritters. — One quart of milk ; boil 
half of it ; mix the other half cold with one quart 
of flour. With this last thicken the boiling milk, 
and let all cook together till well done. While 
cooling, beat ten eggs light. Add a teaspoonful 
of salt. Beat the eggs into the batter, add a 
teaspoonful at a time until all is in. Have a 
small oven half full of boiling lard. This will 
require at least a pound. Allow not quite a tea- 
spoonful of batter to a fritter. Take them out 
before they turn dark, put them in a drainer bowl, 
in order that they may be well drained from the 
lard. Begin to fry them before your meat dinner 
is sent to table. 

Fritters (another way). — One quart of flour, 
with two eggs, or four if convenient ; one tea- 
spoonful of flour stirred into one quart of butter 
milk. Drop from a spoon into boiling lard 
Drain well. Serve with wine and sugar, West 
India syrup, or French sauce. 

Grated Cheese. — A fine appetizer is furnished 
by simpy grating up the rind of any nice cheese. 
Eat with butter, crackers or thin biscuit. 



HEAT OF ROOMS. 

The purchase of a thermometer will make 
paying returns in health. The great ten- 
dency in winter is to keep rooms too warm. 
The foundation of pneumonia, pleurisy and 
pulmonary consumption is frequently laid 
in over-heated, ill-ventilated apartments. The 
inmates become accustomed to breathing hot, 
close air ; the system is toned down and relaxed, 
and a slight exposure to cold and wet results in 
serious illness. " Some years since," says a medi- 
cal writer, " we called one winter evening on a 
friend, whom we found in a cosy sitting-room, 
with a large fire, a low ceiling, and the heat rang- 
ing about the eighties. She was suffering with a 
severe cold, but could give no account of how she 
took it. A. month later she was prostrated with 
pneumonia, and she and her sister died within a 
week of each other, and were buried in the same 
grave. The intelligent use of a thermometer 
would doubtless have'saved both of those valuable 
lives." 

The mercury in the tube should never be per- 
mitted to stand above seventy. If that tempera- 
ture is not sufficient to give warmth, it is an indi- 
cation that the person does not take sufficient ex- 
ercise, and the cure for it is more miles and more 
flannel. In the coldest weather, when the ground 
is like stone under the feet, when there is no drip 
from the eaves, and when snow lies on the roofs > 
rooms should be ventilated. Pure air should be 
admitted through the open doors and windows, so 
that the oxygen consumed by flame and respira- 
tion may be replaced, and the efiects and poisonous 
matter thrown off the body thoroughly driven 
away. As one of our best writers on household 
science remarks, ventilation is a question of 
money. 



WHITEWASH AND PLASTERING. 

" The melancholy days are come, the saddest of 
the year," wrote Bryant, of the stormy mouths ; 
but it is so especially applicable to the spring 
time, when all mankind are outlawed from their 
homes, that we cannot refrain from quoting the 
lines. The rooms are stripped of carpets, and the 
whitewasher takes possession. 

Ordinarily, whitewash is a trial. Hard-finished 
walls are far preferable in most situations, but, in- 
asmuch as they are expensive, and are not put in 
all rooms, the only recourse to clean and purify the 
living rooms and ofiices of dwellings, is lime- 
water. 



THE LAJ^CASTER FARMER. 



Ill 



When properly prepared and applied, it neither 
scales nor rubs off, but the trouble is, that in most 
cases, it is not properly put on. We have tried 
all sorts of patent mixtures and concoctions of 
lime-water, or whitewash, but, all things consider- 
ed, have found nothing better than lime-water and 
glue. The quantity of glue to a pailful of wash, 
being about three ounces. Slack the lime with 
water, stir it all up together, do not make too thick, 
and add the glue lastly, having previously dissolv- 
ed it in water, ^pply this with a whitewash 
brush, but do not put too much on at a time 
^Many people have an impression that, inasmuch 
as charity covereth a multitude of sins, much 
whitewash covereth a multitude of streaks, but 
this is an erroneous view of the matter; too much 
lime makes streaky places, and is apt to scale off. 
Very dirty, smoky walls, often require to be 
washed with strong acid, or alum -water, before the 
M-ash will lie on at all. If the walls are so treated, 
they will hold the lime much better than without 
it. A s previously remarked, but little wash must 
be put on at a time, and but a small surface covered 
at each stroke. A wash prepared and applied as 
above, will last a year in ordinary situations. 

The walls of houses being particularly exposed, 
are always requiring more or less repair. Either 
the doors have slammed against them and broken 
out holes, or other mischances have befallen them 
to their manifest detriment. It is well to know how 
to repair them, as it is not always possible or 
necessary to call in a mason to do it. More than 
this, the price these men must charge for their 
time, makes the repairs very costly, although the 
work done appears of no amount. People do not 
reflect that, although a mechanic may not be over 
an hour or two at his work, he may have come a 
long distance, and brought many tools with him, 
so that he has really lost half a day, and must 
charge accordingly. 

To plaster, or repair a hole in the wall, first 
clean the spot all around it of loose pieces, so that 
the rest will be firm and solid. Then prepare coal 
ashes (not wood), by sifting them through a fine 
sieve, as fine as meal, or flour ; no pieces of cinders 
must be left in the ashes. Obtain some plaster of 
paris (sold in all stores), and when ready to apply 
the cement, mix about half plaster and ashes to 
gether, with water enough to form a moderately 
stiff paste. Wet the wall, and lather all ove 
where the damage is, the immediate spot only, and 
then apply the cement with a broad bladed knife, 
or, what is better, a trowel ; the latter costs only 

a dollar or so, and is always a convenient instru- 



ment in a household. This mixture, above de. 
scribed, sets hard, aad dries, without cracking, in 
a short time, and a knowledge of it will save 
many dollars in repairs, to say nothing of the un- 
sightliness of a room with the plaster knocked off. 
It is more suggestive of squalor and misery, thau 
any other mark of time's tooth. 



THE DECAY OF WOOD. 

Wood being vegetable matter, is of course 
liable to decay ; but how to turn it to the best 
account with this known attribute to contend 
with may be worth inquiry. The closer the grain 
and the heavier the wood, the less liability to de- 
cay ; but for building purposes, as at present car- 
ried on, light and open grained woods must be 
used. AVe cannot, in these times of excessive 
competition, go back to the old oak timbered and 
floored houses of our ancestors. It would, how- 
ever, pay landlords to build solid, substantial 
houses, and let them even at the present scale of 
rental. For instance, in digging away the foun . 
dations of the Savoy Palace, built upward of six 
centuries ago, the oak piles were found perfectly 
sound, as was the planking which covered the pile 
heads. But houses are built on a very different 
principle now, namely, to sell again, and perhaps 
again, before the permanent owner invests in- 
thcm, and then a coat of paint and a judicious use 
of putty cover all imperfections. 

The flooring boards, bein g kept in sheds, pre. 
sent quite a different appearance to the same 
quality of wood exposed on the quays. Putting 
on one side the question of expense, the practice 
of matting up the end of the piles, as practiced in 
the north of England, cannot be recommended. 
It certainly preserves the fresh appearance of the 
wood, and makes it appear as if just discharged 
from the ship ; but it impedes the full circulation 
of air, and anything that does that is strictly to be 
avoided. Better by far have the wood shaken at 
the ends than sweating inside, with here and there 
places where the penknife blade sinks in with 
hardly any pressure. 

The decay of wood arises from internal and not 
external moisture ; hence the danger of shakes, as 
they admit it often to the very center; and so 
long as free evaporation is allowed, decay will not 
readily set in. It would be very absurd to say 
that no paint ought to be used in the interior of 
& house, but it is certain that a piece of wood 
painted on both sides will not last so long as one 
not painted at all. 



im 



TEE LAJ\rCASTER FARMER. 



The reason is evident. The paint effectually 
closes all the pores and prevents the evaporation 
of the moisture, which even the best seasoned 
plank will contain, and hence decay sooner sets in 
one shape or other. For the same reason wood, 
painted on one side only will last longer than that 
painted on two sides. Thus in an old building 
the wainscot, doors, windows, etc., will be found to 
be affected when the staircases will be sound, be- 
cause never painted. The old houses in the quaint 
city of Chester Jprove the truth of this. Some 
years ago a Liverpool! builder who had some con- 
tracts there told the writer that the numerous ex 
posed beams were generally sound, and they are all 
unpainted, but the inside work had apparently 
been renewed. The best that can be done, under 
all circumstances, is to give a coat of paint before 
leaving the workshop, and this is generally done, 
at least iu the large establishments. — Building 
News. 



TRIMMING FRUIT TREES. 

This is a subject concerning which many 
false ideas exist. This I think is especially true 
of that most important of all fruit trees, the 
apple. In a half hour's ride across the county 
in almost any direction, one may see a dozen or 
more apple orchards with all the trees trimmed 
up to anywhere from six tol fifteen feet from the 
ground, with long, black, knotty, unsightly trunks 
and little, cramped, bushy tops, looking precisely 
as if they were cultivated for the express purpose 
of affording a building place for crows and 
blackbirds. In reality such trees generally do much 
more service in this I'espect than in that of bearing 
palatable fruit. I think the owners of such orchards 
must be actuated by the same motto which once 
misled the writer. I used to commence an on- 
slaught upon the lowermost and unproductive 
branches of an apple or other fruit tree, repeating 
as I worked, " superfluous branches we lop away, 
that bearing boughs may live." After some moi'e 
consideration and observation, I have dropped 
both the ax and the motto. If we are desirous 
of raising fruit, the first requisite is a tree. In 
order to procure this, we must assist nature rather 
than resist her, judicious thinning of bi'anches is 
necessary, but if we wish a perfect tree, it will not 
do to destroy entire portions of it. Pursuing the 
same course of reasoning, if we want apples we 
desire an apple-tree. 

Here again nature should be taken for a model. 
Nature has assigned to all apple-trees the same 



general form, and we must not endeavor to change 
this form to that of the chestnut, the hickory, 
the apricot, or the pear. Now to go one step fur- 
ther in the same line of thought : we may want a 
certain specie of apple, and consequently we de- 
sire a tree of that species, and we must not expect 
the naturally irregular Smokehouse or Fallawater 
to conform to the beautiful and stately outlines 
of the Paradise, or the thick-topped Jersey Sweet 
to the ways of the Harvest Sweet, or the clubby 
Baldwin to be like the slender-limbed Russet. 
Now, having the tree, we should endeavor to make 
it fi-uitful by giving it thorough cultivation while 
young, and liberal manuring at all times. Lime 
is undoubtedly an excellent dressing for apple or- 
chards. In our climate all apple trees are vastly 
benefited by mulching with refuse straw, clover, 
chaff, bark shavings, half-rotten wood or almost 
any convenient substance. Mulching causes the 
moisture to be retained about the roots in dry 
summer weather, and also protects the roots from 
frost in winter. Care must be taken, however, 
that insects do not burrow in it in winter and 
injure the bark of the tree. I have known trees 
to be rendered extraordinarily fruitful by the 
simple accident of having the ground immediately 
around the stem covered to the depth of a foot 
or so with small stones. Another important 
matter is to keep the trunk and larger limbs free 
from insects. This may be done by scraping them 
(not too roughly) with a hoe, trowel, or large dull 
knife, and then washing with a stiff brush and 
soap-suds or weak lye. Caterpillars must be 
removed from young trees in summer. If they 
are not allowed to become too numerous, this may 
be done by cutting away the twigs on which they 
have their nests and burning them. If the tree 
is well treated in these and other respects, it will 
bear as much and as good fruit as may be expected, 
and if the lower limbs are not quite so productive 
as the upper, do not commence to chop them 
away, or you will soon find yourself in the pre 
dicament of the man who would not plant any 
outside row of corn because it always got tramped 
iu working. — J. L. Hanna., in the Intelligencer. 



Many years ago there was a scarcity of cider- 
barrels in Vermont, and linseed oil-barrels were 
made use of to supply the deficiency, with no other 
cleansing than to rinse them out thoroughly with 
water. In the following spring, it was found that 
the cider thus stored was better for drinking pur- 
poses than that kept in other packages, the reason 
assigned being that the oil tended to preserve the 
cider mainly by forming a thin film on its surface 
excluding the air. Linseed oil, being a vegetable 
production from flaxseed, cannot, in small quanti- 
ties, be very unwholesome if pure. — Cor, Rural 
New Yorker. 



TEE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



113 



©lie ^muukx ^mmu. 

LANCASTER, JL'NE, 1873 

S. S. RAIHVON, Editor. 
Published monthly under the auspices of the Aguicutl- 

TUKAL ANDHoiiTKJULTUKAL SOOIETV. 

81 3'j per Year in Advance. 

A considerable deduction to clubs of five or more. 

All communications, to insure insertion, must be in the 
hands of the editor beiore the 20tu of each month. Ad- 
dress S. !s. Kaihvon, Lancaster, Pa. 

All advertisements, subscnption-j and remittances to the 
address of the publiaher, J. B. I>E VEHN, 

Inquirer Building, Lancaster, Pa. 



MEETING OF THE LANCASTER COUNTY 

AGRICULTUBAL AND HOKTIOUL- 

TURAL SOCIETY. 

THE monthly meeting of the Lancaster coun- 
ty Agricultural and Horticultural Society 
was held at the Orphans' Court Room, May 5th, 
1873, Levi S. Reist in the chair. 

John B. Erb remarked that it was a mistake 
that the Telegraph grape had escaped the sever- 
ity of the winter any better than the other varie- 
ties. All kinds of grapes have been equally frozen 
with him. 

Mr. D. Kendig, of Manor, submitted a written 
report upon the condition of the crops. He says : 
" The extreme cold of the past winter has also 
left its impress on vegetation in our vicinity. 
Peach trees are frozen so badly that it will take 
a season for them to recover ; So there will be 
few peaches, if any. So also with the apple — 
although they show some signs of blossoms there 
is not enough vitality to develop the fruit. 
Pears not damaged so badly. Blackberries frozen 
almost entirely. Of raspberries, the Doolittle has 
passed through the ordeal almost unscathed, 
while by its side the Philadelphia is cut severely. 
A Delaware grape-vine, trained up on the west 
side of a building, badly damaged ; while one 
four feet off, and run over a Norway fir tree, all 
right — rather suggestive. Farmers are back with 
spring work ; very little corn planted yet. Wheat 
in the ground looks well, promising, with favora- 
ble weather, a good harvest. Grass also has a 
good start. Bulk of tobacco crop on hand ; 
prime lots sold at 18 to 25 for wrappers and 5 for 
fillers. Many farmers are making arrangements 
to pack it, which is advisable, as it will then cure 
well and can be safely held over for a favorable 
market." ^ 

Levi S. Reist remarked that it had been ascer- 



tained to a certainty that there will be no for- 
eign tariff on American tobacco. Such a rumor 
has been floating around, and raised, as he believ- 
ed, by the speculators, to purchase tobacco at 
lower prices. He believes there will be a less 
quantity of tobacco planted this year than last. 

Milton B. Eshleman stated that of the wheat 
sown last year, that latest sown looks the best. 
He does not believe there will be a much larger 
number of potatoes planted this year than last. 

H. K. Stoner remarked that the wheat crop in 
his neighborhood looked very fine, but as to the 
fruit crop, it is, in his opinion, going to be a fail- 
ure. Ephraim Hoover said that the cherries are to 
a great extent frozen, as also the peaches. The 
grapes are not entirely killed. The grass fields 
look well, and the wheat makes a fine appearance. 
There is going to be a good deal of tobacco this 
year again ; but perhaps not so much as was 
planted last year. Mr. McComsey said that 
there was no prospect for fruit in the city. He 
finds his peach trees have been mostly winter 
killed. 

Ephraim Hoover said the apple crop with him 
is quite promising. 

William McComsey, from the committee to 
confer with the officers of the Park Association, 
proceeded to submit the report of said committee- 
This consisted of the following letter . 

Lancaster, May 1, 1873. 
Wm. McComsey, Esq. Chairman, Coimty Agri 

cultural and Horticultural Society of Lancas- 
ter County: 

Dear Sir — At a meeting of the Directors of the 
Lancaster County Agricultural Park Association, 
held April 28th, the communication of S. S. Rath- 
von, Esq., on behalf of the Agricultural and Hor- 
ticural Society of Lancaster County, inquiring " on 
what conditions the Park Association would lease 
their grounds for not less nor more than one week, 
to be entirely under the control " of the lessees, etc., 
was read and considered. 

Your inquiry brought out several views of the 
matter, the first among which was (and it indicates 
the friendly feeling entertained by the Lancaster 
County Agricultural Park Association for the 
Agricultural and Horticultural Society) that the 
Directors of our Association thought it would enure 
to the advantage of both societies, could they by 
conference adopt a plan by which a Grand Joint 
Exhibition be given, embracing Agriculture, Hor- 
ticulture, Pomology, Mechanism, Science, Stock, 
etc., etc. The conferees to assign the control of 
the respective departments to the proper Associa- 
tion, and what portion of the expense and profits, 
if any were realized, should go to each. 

The second point in favor was, that if the Agri- 
cultural and Horticultural Society preferred, as 
their communication would seem to indicate, then 



lU 



THE LAJYCASTER FARMER. 



the Lancaster County Agricultural Park Associa- 
tion would lease them the exclusive;control of their 
grounds for the time desired at ^350 : Provided, 
That we can arrange (and we think we can) with 
our tenant of the re^taurant. Very respectfully 
yours, Jno. T, MacGonigle, .Sec'y. 

On motion the report was adopted, and the com- 
mittee discharged. 

On motion of Wm. McComsey the consideration 
of the letter from the Park Association was defer- 
red to next meeting, and the secretary was requir- 
ed to notify the members, by printed circular, of 
the time fixed for discussing the subject of the fall 
fair. Society then on motion adjourned. 



PEAT. 

ACCORDING to a statement in the Coal and 
Iron Record the supply of peat fuel in 
America is one hundred and fifty times greater 
than that of Ireland. la Orange and Rockland 
counties, New York, the peat beds contain, at a 
low estimate, 225,000,000 tons. Beds are also 
known to exist in more than one hundred different 
towns in Massachusetts. The Dismal Swamp of 
Virginia will yield five hundred million tons. 
There are thousands of acres of peat bogs in New 
Jersey ; and there is a bed in Westchester county, 
New York, which will yield nine hundred thou- 
sand tons. Long. Island has a million tons. Along 
both sides of the Kankakee river, Indiana, ex- 
tending from South Bend to the Illinois line, is a 
peat bed more than sixty miles in length, with a 
width of three miles. In some places it is over 
forty feet deep ; but even though it averages only 
half or one-quarter of this depth, the aggregate 
amount of fuel it contains is beyond computation 
This does not include one-fiftieth part of the peat 
bogs of the country. 

It is surely some consolation to reflect, even at 
this early period in the fuel-history of our country, 
that if — at some future day — our supply of wood 
and coal becomes exhausted, our posterity can re" 
sort to our immense " peat-bogs," for the necessary 
material to heat their habitations, and " to keep 
the pot a boiling." Some ingenious and patient 
arithmeticians have already calculated how many 
tons of coal are in the mines of Great Britain, 
and how long a time it will require to consume it 
all ; and perhaps, it will not be long before simi- 
lar calculations are made in America in reference 
to our beds of mineral fuel — if for no other pur- 
pose than to " create a corner " in coal, upon 
which to conduct a speculative operation. It 
may be a little premature, but we opine that our 



readers will nevertheless feel some interest in the 
subject, especially as many of them may have 
very little knowledge of what peat is, where it 
exists, and what use can be made of it. There 
are, in Great Britain, and other European coun- 
tries, vast amounts of peat, which for hundreds of 
years have been used for fuel — especially by the 
poor — and this is of two or three kinds. 

Peat, of course, originates from decayed vegeta- 
tion of different kinds, and these have something 
to do in determining the quality of the peat ; the 
largest bogs, however, both in Europe and America, 
are those containing Moss-peat. 

This substance is always found on the surface 
of the earth, and never deep down in its bowels 
"like coal and many other minerals, although 
bogs often occur where the peat— twenty to 
porty feet in thickness — covers the natural soil 
in a constantly increasing volume. It abounds 
mostly in low, damp or swampy localities, although 
it is also found on hill-sides and uplands, ihe 
principle matter which forms the peat in England 
and America is a species of moss belonging to 
the genus Sphagnum. This moss continues to 
decay below and throws out young shoots, and 
increases its volume above, hence the quantity is 
not fixed, as it is in coal. Another kind is the 
wood-peat. This is composed of decayed trees, 
shrubbery and other plants. Of this kind great 
portions of the " Dismal Swamp " of Virginia are 
formed. A third kind is the sand-peat ; where 
sands and soils from neighboring hills have been 
washed down and mixed with the peat. Peat for 
fuel is cut out in square blocks— sometimes com- 
pressed to expel the moisture — dried, and then 
hauled home and made into thatched stacks and 
used for winter fuel ; and in Ireland and other 
places the poor have no other kind. It makes a 
hot fire and leaves very little ashes. It is, also, 
together with lime, earth and other ingredients, 
formed into a compost and used ^for field and 
warden manure, and for this purpose the " wood- 
peat " is esteemed the best. 

Peat-bogs are also sometimes drained, and lime 
and earth thrown over the surface, and sometime 
thereafter broken up with the plow and converted 
into fertile fields. In this manner every kind of 
peaty-soil may be rendered available for agricul- 
tural purposes, and accordingly in England and 
in Ireland excellent crops of corn, potatoes and 
grasses have been cultivated, even where the 
peat-bed ' below the surface was twenty feet in 
depth. 

It is impossible to say what may be done with 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



115 



our peat-bogs in the far future of America. A 
time must ultimately come in the progress of this 
country, when all the land will be taken up and 
put under cultivation, and there will be no more 
room for emigrants. And as, from the very be- 
ginning of civilization, the poor have increased 
in a greater ratio than the rich, we may infer 
that it will continue so for some thousands of 
years yet to come. Therefore, if there is not an 
immense proportionate decrease in railroad and 
other freights, we may picture in our imaginations 
a class of poor people in the vicinity of peat-bogs 
engaged in cutting, drying and transporting in 
hampers slung over the backs of donkeys, the 
peaty burdens that are to constitute their winter's 
fuel. Or, in a thickly settled country, the de- 
mand for peat, as a fertilizer, may furnish new 
fields for labor and profitable employment. Ed. 



THE CROP PROSPECTS. 

FROM the "Monthly Report of the De- 
partment of Agriculture," now before us, 
we are led to infer that the prospects were never 
better for a good grain and grass crop in a very 
larger portion of the grain and grass growing dis- 
trict of our country, and especially in New York, 
Pennsylvania and California. In the last named 
State, the yield, from present appearances, will, 
perhaps, no-t be so great as it was in 1872. It is 
true, that in a few of the States south of " Mason 
and Dixon's line," there seem to be indicatioi s of 
a short crop in some localities, but this is by no 
means general. There is a much greater breadth of 
grain sown than there was last year, and wherever 
it had the protection of the last winter's long-con- 
tinued snow, it is now looking remarkably well. 
The cold rains and protracted spring, however they 
may have hindred the culture of other crops, have 
been rather beneficial to the grain and grass. 
The great V^ est will also contribute its usual 
amount— or nearly so. The large crops and the 
high rates of transportation, have been rather un- 
favorable to the interests of the farmers in that 
prolific region, but time may work a sufficient 
change in this matter, more propitious to their in- 
terests. If they cannot obtain the legislation they 
need, it will not be surprising if the matter is 
taken in their own hands. 

But this is not all ; for, there is still a prospect 
of some fruit, notwithstanding the predictions of a 
month or six weeks ago. The apple trees, in 
many places, have bloomed as profusely and as 



healthily as usual, and those trees that, were not 
overloaded with fruit last year, under favorable 
circumstances, may yield generously the present 
year. Pears, sour cherries and plums, in many 
places, look promising, so far as present appear- 
ances are concerned. The sweet cherries are to a 
great extent damaged, and are likely to be v^ fail- 
ure, although, perhaps, not totally. Grapes and 
peaches are badly frozen, and — except in a few 
localities, where the " show" for an abundant 
crop, could not be more flattering, they are likely 
to have all perished. From an article in another 
column of this number, it will be seen that the 
fruit, of all kinds, fared very badly on the premi- 
ses of Mr. Erb, at " Beaver Meadows," in this 
county. But this is only one exhibition of the 
same effects in many other places. But even 
peaches are not a total failure, especially not in 
York county. A few days ago we visited the 
peach orchards of Messrs. Engle, Spangler and 
Musser. and found by far the larger number of 
the trees therein, in sound and abundant bloom — 
as much so, indeed, as we have ever witnessed be- 
fore, at any time, or in any place. If every blos- 
som yields a peach, the trees will not be able to 
bear them. 

Now, herein is involved a meteorological problem 
that we confess we are unable — except very con- 
jecturably — to solve, and therefore we would like 
to have the views of such veterans as Freas and 
Meehan on the subject. The orchard of E., S. & 
M. contains over four thousand peach-trees, and 
a large number of apple, pear and sweet and sour 
cherry trees, at least three thousand of which, are 
almost unsurpassable in health and profusion of 
bloom ; and this is also the case with the apples 
and cherries. As we said before, it is in York 
county, about a mile and a half above " Coyle's 
( forrherly Keesey's ) Ferry," and is situated on a 
hill, the summit of which rises about^ye hundred 
feet above the level of the Susquehanna. It slopes 
both northward and southward, but the longest 
and lowest inclination is toward the south. Along 
the southern and south-western portions, the 
"locusts" of 1872 pierced the young trees very 
severely, and these exhibit the greatest amount of 
injury the present season ; but even many of these 
have pushed out a bloom wherever there is sound 
wood enough left to permit the sap to circulate. 
But farther down, and in nearly all of " Pine 
Swamp Valley," and up the southern side of the 
valley — which slopes northward — the peach trees 
are all frozen, and little or no bloom at all is visible 
This is also the case along the whole length of the 



116 



THE L A jy CASTER FARMER. 



Susquehanna valley, and from thence to Philadel- 
phia, pretty generally. 

We have noticed this phenomenon on various 
occasions, years ago, when we resided at Marietta. 
On the top of the hill opposite the town, a little 
east of the " Eound-top," peaches and cherries 
were in superabundance, when everything was 
winter killed down in the valleys. What immu- 
nity may be claimed for altitude, in these cases, if 
any ? This enclosure is only a small one — five 
acres or so — with tolerably high trees all around 
it, therefore, these contingencies may afford the 
necessary protection ; but this can hardily be ap 
plied to the orchards of E., S. & M. which occupy 
perhaps fifteen times as much ground — or even 
more — with a rather sparse and low growth of 
forest trees on the west and north. The peach 
trees under cultivation by this firm consist of the 
popular varieties in this latitude — namely : Hale's 
Early, Smock, Old Mixon, Craitford's Early, 
Stump the World, Crawford's Late, Early Eare- 
ripe, Troth's Early, Ward's Late, and Susque- 
hanna, besides, perhaps some others ; and of all 
these, only the Susquehanna seems to have been 
injured by the frost alone, and these have sound 
bloom enough to " make a crop." Of course, these 
trees are subject to the usual spring and summer 
contingencies, but now ( May 15th ) the pros- 
pects for a good average peach crop, in these or- 
chards, are more than ordinarily promising. R. 



PATRONIZE HOME. 



IT is certainly the desire of every man in a com- 
munity to see general prosperity abounding 
among all classes of his fellow citizens. If such 
desire is not in a man's heart, then he is not, and 
cannot be a good citizen. But is it possible to 
secure this general prosperity ? Most assuredly it 
is. And we propose to briefly sketch the outline 
of a plain and simple yet sure plan by which it 
may be accomplished ; and we wish it to be un- 
derstood that we are talking to home folks. The 
business of life is divided into various occupations, 
and of necessity this is so ; and all cannot follow 
one and the same trade employment or profession. 
"Every special business, (that is legitimate) is de- 
pendent on the patronage of all who are engaged 
in any other or all other employments different 
from his own. This being the condition of things 
in every community in our country, the secret of 
success lies in each business securing the patron- 
age wanted. It is included in our simple proposi- 
tion ; patronize your neighbor. Now as our ob- 



ject is to draw attention to the importance of this 
matter here at home, we ask all our readers to 
look carefully at this matter and each ask himself 
if he is doing his duty as a good citizen. Take 
the case of our home mechanics. What could we 
do without them, and what immense value are 
they as a class to our and to every community. 
They do as much, if not more, to build up a town 
or community than any other single class. Their 
productive industry enters very largely into the 
ways and means of creating wealth. 

Here is the secret of wealth* to every people, 
the creation of wealth. The speculator, trader, or 
merchant does not create wealth. Capital does not 
create wealth, it only furnishes the conditions and 
facilities out of which wealth can be created. The 
man who works produces, creates wealth. Tbe 
farmer creates wealth, by causing something valu- 
able to mankind to exist, that without his agency 
and labor never would have existed. Every pro- 
ducer or original collector of raw material is a 
creator of wealth. The men who toil in the mines, 
or he who brings materials from forest or quay, is 
in reality a producer. But what are these raw ma- 
terials worth without skilled labor to make them 
of use to man. Here comes in the mechanic, 
and by the labor of his muscles, directed by 
an intelligent brain, works up the material, which 
in its original state was valueless, into the various 
articles not only of conmierce and trade, but of 
supply, to all men's wants, in a civilized state of 
society. 

The statements above are facts which ought to 
be known and appreciated by every business man 
and citizen. "Now in order to secure that pros- 
perity necessary to the successful building up of 
our own town, let every member of our entire 
community fix it as a principle in his business, to 
patronize home mechanics, and home people 
who are engaged in any legitimate business what- 
ever. If you have a house to build, employ your 
home mechanics, if you have any work to be done, 
employ the home workmen to do it, and keep your 
money at home. If you wish to purchase anything 
iu the various line of merchandise, buy it of your 
home merchant or home manufacturer. It is often 
the case that men, to save a very small and insig- 
nificant amount of money, will send their cash 
abroad and buy of foreigners, and thus aid in 
building up other communities, to the detriment 
of our own producer, and the impoverishment of 
our own section. Suppose you could save a small 
sum by patronizing foreigners, are you justifiable 
in so doing ? Can any man who refuses to patron- 



THE LAJ^CASTER FARMER. 



117 



ize home people ask them to patronize him ? It 
should be made a rigid law among our home people 
not to patrouize any man who send his money away 
from home, and thus help to impoverish and crip- 
ple every home interest. — Paris Intelligencer. 



THREE PER CENT. AGAIN. 

WE would just remark in reply to the stric- 
tures of J. 0. L. (in our May number) 
that he has entirely misapprehended the drift of 
the article in our April number on "Three per 
cent." The subject had solely reference to the 
calculation of per cents., and not as to what a 
farmer, or any body else, might make or lose, at 
fanning or any other business ; therefore, the 
amounts invested and the profits thereon were 
mere suppositions in order to illustrate our point, 
and not a single line that J. C. L. has written 
has in the least degree effected that point. Again, 
we of course supposed that both the farmer and 
the merchant were each the possessor of $10,000, 
without regard to the contingency of borrowing 
at six per cent. ; and we very much question 
whether more than one merchant in twenty would 
succeed any better than J. C. L.'s tabular state- 
ment indicates, if he were compelled to borrow all 
of his capital— if he did, he would be compelled 
to use the same labor, perse verence and economy 
that the farmer does. We are not arguing that 
farming is profitable, or unprofitable ; we are 
merely suggesting that the same rule, in the esti- 
mate of per cents., applies to their business that 
does to any other business, and that it is subject 
to the same statement of results, and can legitimate- 
ly claim no exemptions not accorded to other busi- 
ness men. And again, we appreciate, and as 
fully endorse, what " Emerson says " as J. C. L. 
does. But if it is true universally — according to 
Emerson — that " the farmer has a great health, 
and the appetite of health, and means to its end, 
Tie has broad lands for his home, Avood to burn 
great fires, plenty of plain food. His milk, at 
least, is unwatered, and for sleep he has cheeper 
and better and more of it than citizens," then it 
seems to us safe to argue, a priori, that farming 
has in some manner " paid " much better than 
hundreds of other occupations, at which many 
people are compelled to delve during those very 
hours which it is claimed — in the above quota, 
tion — the farmer devotes to sleep. It is nothing 
to the purpose to say that the farmer has inherited 
these possessions, for this only carries the matter 
of pay one or more generations back into the 



chronology of farming, even if it had its begin- 
ing in the " palatinate," the Tyral, or the moun- 
tains of Switzerland. 

In conclusion, we differ entirely from J. C. L. 
when he says " the farmer never gets rich." Al- 
though there may be no Rothschilds, Stewarts, or 
McCormicks among them, yet, as a class, they are 
absolutely the only rich men in our country, and 
their lives and possessions make a nearer approxi- 
mation to the true riches, than those of any other 
class of men, or Emerson has perpetrated a great 
lie. If other men^had the health, content,.economy 
comforts and persevering industry that the farmers 
have, they might also claim some of their riches. 

Ed. 

— Since writing the foregoing, we have received 
a communication from J. G. H., who professes to 
know something about the other side of the ques- 
tion, which will be found in its proper place, and 
which we publish, not because it is our sentiment, 
but in order to illustrate how differently farmers 
look at the same subject, and what different con- 
clusions they come to in reference to their own 
vocation. Whether the strictness of J. G. H. are 
just or not, we are not prepared to say, so far as 
they relate to farming, but we do know that so far 
as they relate to the mercantile portion of the 
community they smack strongly of the truth ac- 
cording to the observations we have made, and the 
experience ive have had. Ed. 



[For the Lancaster Farmer. 
FRUIT-CULTURE AND KEEPING. 

IT may be interesting to your readers to know of 
the great fruit farm of Berks county, near 
Tuckerstown Station, on the C. and R. road. 

Mr. Sherer has some nine hundred apple trees 
just commencing to bear, and several hundred of 
the Bartlet pears alone. His apples and pears in 
general are of the best varieties, and, in a good 
fruit season, he will be able to supply the markets 
of Reading, Philadelphia and New York with ap- 
ples for nine months in the year, and with summer 
and autumn pears, up to January and February. I 
saw a Bartlet pear from his premises on the 15th 
of January, sound and solid, not even soft. He 
keeps his fruit in an ice-house, and has a building 
for that purpose, capable of holding twelve hun- 
dred cart-loads of ice. It has inside chambers sur- 
rounded with packed ice, and with sufiBcient capac- 
ity to store away two thousand bushels of apples 
and pears. His fruit-trees and his ice-house are 
worthy of being seen and inspected by the mos 



118 



TEE LAJ^CASTER FARMER. 



accomplished fruit-growers. In the summer season 
among other things, he retails ice, and in the fall, 
winter and spring, apples and pears. He sent 
over two hundred Bartlet pears to New York 
last year, between Christmas and New Year. 
This shows, that if fruit is liept at a proper temper- 
ature, its soundness may be prolonged any length 
of time. L- S. R. 



Reading, May 5, 1873. 
J. B. Develin, Esq.— i)ear Sir: My check 
is inclosed ($3.75) to pay three years' subscription 
for Lancaster Farmer. Don't wait three years 
before, sending bill, or call for the ready down, it 
is cheap enough without a long credit. Truly, 

Isaac Eckert. 

It gives us pleasure to make an occasional 
record of these little " green spots " in our expe- 
riences in journalism, especially since there are so 
many people in the world, who seem to think that 
editors, doctors and preachers do not belong to 
the laboring classes, and therefore are expected to 
live without pecuniary reward. Our correspon- 
dent seems to have a truer appreciation of per- 
sonal obligation, and we feel thankful for his 
cheering expressions of it.— Ed. 



The following are the ideas of an old farmer in 
Maine on seed potatoes, as given in the Lewistoivn 
Journal : We use too ripe seed when we propa- 
gate from tubers that have lain in the ground till 
dead ripe. Plants that are propagated by tubers 
require different treatment from those propagated 
by seeds. Our corn and grains that we used for 
seed we like to have stand a little longer than the 
main crop, and become perfectly matured. On 
the same principle our corn is selected from the 
ripest, best developed ears and kernels. But po- 
tatoes for seed should be dug and placed in a cool, 
dark cellar, just as soon as a majority of them 
will slightly crack open in boiling. This is most 
invariably while the tops are yet green and growing 
fast. The tubers are then in their most vigorous 
state. Disconnect them from the parent stalk at 
that time and they retain their vigor. Instead of de- 
teriorating, as most all of us know the older sorts 
have, their vitality is increased, and they yield 
better, with less tendency to rot. As long ago as 
1815, and subsequently, observations led him to 
make some experiments to test the theory, and he 
finds it the proper course to pursue. It is not 
often said that the late planted potatoes are bet- 



ter for seed than those planted early ? The late- 
ness of their planting, presumedly, prevents per- 
fect ripening, hence the principle of the above 
reasoning would be in force. 



A writer in the Western Rural says : "I have 
been inventing a machine for trimming ofiT straw- 
berry runners, and it works so well that I thought 
others might like to try it. The ' strawberry trim- , 
mer ' is a hoop of sawplate, say two or three inches 
wide and about three feet long — the lower edge 
sharp. Long, thin strips of tin secure the hoop 
to a wooden handle, about five feet long. A set 
screw fastens the lapped ends of the sawplate to- 
gether, and thus allows the hoop to be made 
larger or smaller. Use the ' trimmer ' as the 
housewife cuts biscuits with a cake-cutter, the rim 
being large enough to encircle the plant and cut 
the runners. 



According to the census returns, which show 
wonderful increase in the value and diversity of 
the manufactured products of the entire country, 
the 11 .States whose manufactured products exceed 
$100,000,000 annually, were as follows : 

New York $785,194,651 

Pennsylvania 711.894.344 

Massachusetts 553,912,568 

Ohio 269,713,610 

Missouri 206,213,429 

Illinois 205,620,672 

New Jersey 169,237,732 

Connecticut 161,065,474 

Michigan • 118,394,676 

Rhode Island 111,418,354 

Indiana 108,617,278 



CORN-FODDER. 

Persons who condemn corn-fodder as " innutri- 
tions" are invited by Paschall Morris to consider 
the ways of a prominent dairyman " whose butter 
is excelled by no other in the Philadelphia 
market," and who " pretty much sustained fifty- 
eight cows on sowed corn from the middle of last 
July to the middle of October, and that, too, from 
the product of three acres." He estimates that 
he took ninety tons of this " innutritions " sub- 
stance from the space indicated, and he knows 
that his cows did not fall off in their milk during 
these months of drought, but that some increased 
the flow, and that the butter was fully up to the 
standard. There is nothing better for wintering 
cattle on, or young horses, and especially milch 
cows, than good, bright corn-fodder, and where 
forage is scarce it is of great value to the farmer. 



THE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



119 



Feeding Milch Cows. — I am a beginner in 
the dairy business, and wish to ask a few ques- 
tions: Is buckwheat bran good feed for milch 
cows ? Is it best fed by itself or with wheat 
bran? Is it a profitable feed at 12|- cents per 
bushel, and which is the cheapest, that of wheat 
bran at 18 cents per bushel, or ship stuff at 25 
cents per bushel ? My manner of feeding is as 
follows : In the morning, one peck of buckwheat 
bran scalded to a thin slop, with a few nubbins of 
corn, and all the corn fodder they will eat up 
clean ; at noon, a little fodder, but not much ; at 
evening, for six cows, 1^ bushels of good, clean 
wheat straw, cut 1^ inch short, to which I add 
four pecks bran, mixed well with warm water. I 
think this chopped feed does them a great deal of 
good and fills up more than just slop alone, and 
seems to satisfy them. Are corn and oats of 
equal parts, ground and fed dry, good to make 
milk, or should it be wet? Is brewer's malt 
good feed for milch cows, and is it profitable feed 
at 30 cents a barrel, and haul it one mile ? I sell 
milk at 6 cents per quart S^- miles from town — 
will it be a profitable business if well managed ? 

Auglaize, Ohio. E. M. T. 



BOOK AND SPECIAL NOTICE DE- 
PARTMENT. 



"Behind THE Scenes in Washinoton," being a com- 
plete acd graphic accouui of the Credit Mobllier Investiga- 
tion, the Congressional Rirgs, Political Intrigues, Woik- 
i-gs of the Lobbies, etc.; Giving the f-'ecret History of our 
Kaiional Government, Showing how the Public Money is 
Squardered, and How Vote? are Obtained, with Kkftchea 
of the Leading Senators, Congressmen, Government Offici- 
als, etc., and an accurate description of the Splendid 
Public Buildings of the Federal Capital. Hy Edward 
Winslow Martin. Published by the National Publishing 
Company, Philadelphia. 

When we see sucu revelations as have been made In 
Wtshington during the past winter, we are naturally 
lor' ed to i onclnde that these must he but a small out- 
croppiDK of the vast harvest of corruption that over- 
spreads the country. Every ore feels a keen desire to get 
at the facts of this terrible and intensely-interesting 
history. 

It is no mere sensation-book, designed to pander to a 
morbid curiosity. Mr. Martin gives a plain ^'.^d unvarn- 
L-hed histo y of the infamous Credit lio'-iilier affair, and 
makes disclosures with which every citizen, of whatever 
I>arty, should acquaii t himself, and which are terribly 
startling. He drags the mysterious lobby and its mem- 
bers out into the broad light of day, and tells us all about 
them, giving sketches ot the noted Wcmtn of the Lobby. 
He introdBces us into the White House and to its occu- 
pants. It is a clear and lucid explanation of the manner 
in which the great departments of the General Govern- 
ment are organized and conducted, and containx full and 
aimirably-written descriptions of the magnificent build- 
ing» and other works of art, of which the whole land is so 
justly proud. 

In short, the book is Washington City in miniature, and 
we cordially commend it to all. To those who contem- 
plate visiting Wash'ngton it is invalnab'e. 

It is bOld by subscription only, and the publishers want 
agents in every county. 



*Pa. 15Cte. ftjMr. SpMiBcMMutflr**. I 



LITERARY NOTICES. 



Thk May number of the " Patent Right Gazette " has 
been received, and without a single question, is equal, if 
not superior, to any journal of the kind p\iblished in this 
country. It is published by the " United .States Patent 
Right association," 94 Chambers street. New York, at 
SI. 00 a year in advance (Box 4,.514). This is a large quarto 
of 20 pages, with tine readable letter-press, and superb 
illustrations, and moreover, is Cosrdopolitan in its charac- 
ter, being devoted to Art and Science, Industry, Com- 
merce, Navigation, Locomotion and Home Oomlort ; to 
Engineering, Manufacturing, Bu Iding, Mliniag, Agri- 
culture, Railroads, Steam-ships, Insurance, and a choice 
selection of entertaining literature. The description and 
illustration of the most valuable Patent of the day, made 
a specialty." 

The Poultry World, for the Fancier, Family, and 
Market Poulterer. Devoted exokisively to poultry. H. H. 
Stoddart, Hartford, Connecticut. — Good paper, plain 
print, and profusely illustrated, f 1.2.5 a year. This is a 
quarto of twenty pages, in whicli is condensed a large 
amount of useful inforiaition on it< -ipseialty. aril it there- 
fore oughi. to be in tne hands of every poultry-keeper. 

Thk Buildiso Associatcom Journal —A large 
quarto of four pa»es, in the interest of Building; .Associa- 
tions, issued miufhly by Chas. H. Morrot, 814 Chestnut 
street, Philadelphia, Pa , at 50 cents a year in advance. 

"Pkaotioal American Fences and Gates."— A 
royal octavo pamphlet ot twenty pages, full of" il!u.«trations 
and statistics," a^sd setting forth ■' th3 litest and mo?t 
Important achievement in this line of improvement." By 
Israel L. Landis, Lancaster, Pa. 

From the fa"r that Mr. Landis his sold over one hun- 
dredaad sixty " right*." to m-ike aud use his fence in the 
single townstiip of Manheim, aione,it must be inferred 
that his improvement really possesses miny advantages 
over the old system of farm fencing. 

" An Old Establlshed Firm— The firm of S. N.Pht- 
TENGILL & C'j., comoien-ed their Advertising Agency in 
the oldJourualbuildiiig, No. lOStatestreet, Boston, nearly 
a quarter of a century ago (February, 1849), where their 
Agency is siill located, carrying on a largi aud successful 
business. Tiiey established a branch in New York City, 
May, 1852, w lich has grown to be larger than the parent 
house, — increasing steadi'y. year by year, until now it has 
the agency of nearly every newspaper in th-i United States 
and British Provinces, and does a yearly busin>!ss of hun- 
dreds of thousands of dollars S. M. Petten^ill & Co. 
have recently opened another branch office at 701 Chest- 
nut street, Philadelphia, where they are doing a success- 
ful increasing business. They have dons advertising ex- 
ceeding ten millions of dollars since commencing Inisiness. 
This firm is favorably known not only throu ^hout this 
country, but in all parts of the w. rid. Tliey ha?e establish- 
ed a reputation for honorable and tair dealing which any 
firm might envy, and but few have attained to We con- 
gratulate them upon their success. We would recommend 
all who WAnt advertisi'ig done in any part of tlie country 
to call upon tlnm. They can point to hundreds of busi- 
ness men who have ■followed their advice, and trusted to 
their sagacity, and availed themselves of tlnlr facilitit^s, 
who have made fortunes for themselves, and thsy are 
daily assisting others in the samj ath." — B)stoi Journal, 
May 8th. 

Farmkrs' Unions and Tax Reform. — .1 12 mo. tract 
of 50 pages, by Saury K.)binson of the D nigUs C >. Kan. 
"Farmers' Union" ; puolishedat tlie oftice of American 
Farmer's Advocate. It seems to be indicat-^d in various 
ways throughout the country, that farmers have been the 
subjects of frauds and impositio is ab>ut as long as they are 
going to "stand it," and that come what will, they are com- 
bining together in "granges" aud "unions" for their indi- 
vidual protection. 

New Holland Clarion. "A family newspaper devoted 
to literature, a^jriculture, and local and general news." If 
we have Crtsually failed ti notice heretofore the appearance 
of this lively local folio uponthj stag ^ of newspaper litera- 
ture in our county, it is not because of any want of cour- 
tesy on our part, or merit in itself. We extenl to it a cor- 
dial welcome, and assure the piblic, tha* In its mechanical 
"get up", and its literary content.'', it will compire favor- 
ably with journals of longer standing, and greater preten- 
sion. Edited and published by Banok and Sandoe, at 
New Holland Lancaster County, Pa., at 81.25 per annum 
in adrance. 



IW 



TEE LAJrCASTER FARMER. 



OalifokniaAgbiculturist.— A 24-page monthly quar- 
to, at 1.50 per annum, ublished by S. Harris Herring & 
Co., In Balbach's Buildings, 8at.ta Clara street, near First, 
San Jose, California. This is a /we journal, and is filled 
with matter interesting to all elassts of society, but es- 
pecially to the farmer. Although it may not be so well 
adapted to this locality as journals published nearer home, 
sttll it is useful and interesting, fcS showing the immense 
ditl'erence in the productions of our wide and much direr- 
sified country ; and in their quantities and qualities, the 
relative value of each. 

No. 1. Vol. 1.— for May 1873— of a new 8-page small folio, 
entitled the American Miller "a monthly journal de- 
voted to the art and science of milling" ia before us. It 
is handsomely printed on tinted paper, clear type, and 
most excellently illustrated, at the low price ot 50 cents per 
annum, by the "American Miller Publishing Co.," at Otta- 
way, Illinois. 

• The Ambeioan Farmers' Advocate, published at 
Jackson, Tenn., the pioneer paper in the inauguration of 
the great farmers' mortment, and specially devoted to the 
great subject of co-operation among the tillers of the soil, 
should be on every farmer's table. It is a very large and 
well filled paper. Single, it is $1.00 per year, or in clubs of 
lour or more, 60 cents each. We wi!l furnish it to all new 
subscribers with the Lanoasthb Farmer at8l.75 peryear. 



NEW YORK MARKETS. 



Kew York, May 24. 
Floite, &o. — The inquiry for flour is light, and under 
stronger disposition to realize most grades under 89 "^ bbl. 
are easier, though there is little anxiety to realize on win- 
ter wheat brands. Ko. 2 and ordinary extras are very 
heavy. At the close the market is weak on most grades, 
with only a limited inquiry. We notice more doing in 
sour. We quote as follows : Soar, ^ bbl. at S4 50a6 50 ; 
No. 2, $4 20a6 25; superfine, 86 05a6 20; State extra brands, 
$7 15a7 35 ; State fancy do. $7 65a8 25 ; western shipping 
extra, »7 07a7 35. Rye flour is in fair supply and quiet at 
onr quotations. Sales of 75 barrels. Western, fine and 
superfine, at $4 lOai 50 ; State, 85 50a5 10; Pennsylvania, 
$5 2oa5 70. Corn Meal is less plenty and is firmer. Sales 
of 650 barrels Jersey at $3 30 ; western at »3 25a3 45 
western white at83 20a3 25; Brandywine, $3 60a3 70 ; 
puncheons, 818 ; golden ear, $3 50. Canadian Flour is sel- 
ling slowly at 88 50a9 60. California and Oregon Flour In 
moderate request at 89 OOalO 25 ^ bbl. 

Grain.— The Wheat market opened better, the wants of 
shippers compelling them to pay some advance on No. 2 
epring to complete cargoes. The offerings or good spring 
are limited. The market for Wheat closes better, and in 
demand for export ; go id qualities of spring are the most 
salable ; winter Is firm and quiet ; the sales are 37,600; 
bushels at 81 593^al 62 for No. 2 Chicago spring ; $1 54al 5.1 
for No. 3 Ciiicago spring ; SI 63al 65>^ for No. 2 Milwau- 
kee ; 82 10 for white Michigan ; 82 05 tor white Canadian. 
Barley is inactive and heavy. Barley Malt is quiet and 
time. 

Oats are firm and fairly active for swe^t. The sales are 
46,010 bushels : new Ohio mixed at 51a52Xc ; white at 56a 
58c ; black at 50a51c ; western mixed at 5la52>^c ; and old, 
in store, at 56c ; white at 56Xa68c. 
Rye is inactive and tame. 

.Corn is in fair demand and a shade firmer, the inquiry 
chiefly for export. The demand Is good. The sales are 
67,000 bushels ; damp at 62 4^»64c; western mixed at 63i^a 
64)^cfornew; 66)^c for old mixed, in store, and 67c for 
do afloat ; western yellow, 64}^a65o. 

Provisions.— The pork market is a thade stronger In 
sympathy with western markets. The demand i« firm. 
The sales, cash and regular, are 350 bbls. at 816 26 for old 
mess ; «16 87}^ for new do. ; 814 for extra prime ; 817 for 
western prime mess, 812 60 for city do., and $16 26 for 
sour and musty mess. For future delivery we hear of 
1500 bbls. mess, seller June, at $;6 65al6 6JJ^, and 600 bbls. 
mess for July at 817. Beef is steady and in fair demand. 
Sales of 70 barrels at ^Sall 25 for plain mess ; 811 75al3 for 
extra mess, and 150 half bbls. city mess at $9 76. Tierce 
Beef is quiet but heavy. Beef Hams dull and tame. Cut 
Meats are better and in demand. The supply of western 
is light. 

Bacon is easier ; the demand moderate ; buyers are tempt- 
ed by conceding to their views. Sales of 2000 bxs. short 
clear western a^ 9c, and small lots at 93ic; 70 bxs. city 
long clear at 9c ; 50 bxs. long and short clear together at 
9c. Dressed hogs are firmer and in demand. We quote at 
^}i9.1%c for city. Lard is firm, though not so active. Sales 
ar 9^c for No. 1 ; Sj^c for city ; 9afl 1-16 for fair to prime 
Steam. 



Ashes.— The receipts to-day are 37 pkgs. Pots are steady, 
with only a limited cemand at 89. Pearls are dull and 
nominal. 

Tallow dull and weak. Sales of 20 hhds. strictly prime 
at 9c ; 8,000 lbs. common in hhds. at 8>^c. 

Hay.— The market is steady with a moderate demand; 
common grades are more plenty and dull. We quote 
prime at 81 40al 45 ; good, $1 lOal 25 ; shipping, fiist 
quality, 90c. ; do. second quality, 65c., and clover at 70a 
80c. Straw is without important change. We quote long 
rye at $1 C5al 10 ; short do., 80a90c, and oat at 50b60o. 

PHILADELPHIA MARKETS. 

Babk — No. 1 quercitron is quoted at 32.50 per ton. 

Flour— The market moves slowly, there, being no de- 
mand except to supply the wants of home consumers, 
whose purchases foot up 1500 barrels, including superfine 
at$1.75a5 75; extras at»6a6.75; Iowa and Wisconsin ex- 
tra family at $7.50a8 ; Minnesota do. do. at 88a8.50 ; Penn- 
sylvania, Indiana and Ohio do. do. at$8^5a9.25, and fancy 
brands at 89.50all.50, as in quality. Rye flour sells at 
$4.75. Corn meal, no sales. 

Grain — The Wheat market is dull, and there is no de- 
mand except for prime lots to supply the wants of local 
millers. Sales of 3,000 bushels red at $1.90al.94 ; amber at 
$2 ; white at 82.05a2 15, and amber spring at $1.85. Rye 
sells at 90a91c for western and Pennsylvania. Corn is held 
with confidence, and the offerings are very moderate. 
Sales of 5000 bushels yellow at 64a65 c. and western mixed 
at 64c. Oats are steady, but there is not much doing. 
Salesof 6000 bushels western at 48a50cfor white, and 46a4fo 
for mixed. The receipts to-day are as follows : 2,108 bbls. 
flour, 16,000 bushels wheat, 16,800 do. corn, 7,700 do. oats, 
343 bbls. of whisky. 

Provisions — Prices remain about the same as last 
quoted. Mess Pork is selling in lots at 818 25al8.50 ; 
Smoked Hams Rt$l4al6c; do. sides at 10c; salted shoulders 
at 7)^0 ; smoked do. at 9c, and lard at 9)<a7-%c. 

Seeds- Cloverseed is dull ; 56 bush, pold at SaSJ^c f* ^■ 
Timothy sold at $4.25a4 50, and flaxseed at $2.25 ^ bushel. 



FARMERS' HAY AND STRAW MARKET. 

Philadelphia, May 24 — During the past week 348 loads 
of hay and 49 of straw were weighed and sold at the fol- 
lowing prices : Pi ime timothy , $1.90a2.19 ; mixed timothy, 
$1.60al.75 ; straw, $l.60al.80. 



PITTSBURO CATTLE MARKET. 

Pittsburg, May 26. 
Cattle— The receipts a* cattle to-day fair, both of 
through and way stock. The quality of the offerings is 
good and buyers for choice cattle have no diflSculty in get- 
ting the kind they want this week. The market to this 
time has ruled slow, most all the sales being made to coun- 
try dealers. New York has taken very little stock, and 
so Jar as we ean learn Philadelphia not any. Buyers 
complain about bad market and seem determined to buy 
cheaper. Trade closed dull at about the following rates : 
Extra 1500 lbs. steers, fine and smooth, $6.85 ; extra 1400 
lbs. steers, fine and smooth, 86 25a6.60; extra 1300 lbs. 
steers, fine and smooth, $6.26; extra 1200 lbs. steers, fine 
and smooth, $6a6 26. 

Hogs — The run of hogs this week, while not heavy, is 
still more than sufficient. to meet the wants of the trade. 
The market rules dull, and sales are made slowly at prices 
from ^ to %c lower than last week. Following are prices 
ruling : 

Extra Philadelphia $5.70 ; prime do. $5.50a6.50 ; prime 
Yorkers $5a5.l0. 

Sheep — The receipts of sheep heavy. The market 
opened at seven o'clock with some 28 cars on sale. The 
quality of the oflTeri .gs is good. Market bad and off at 
least ic from prices of last week. Following are the cur- 
Extra 100 lbs. 85 75 ; prime 90 lbs. 85.60 ; prime 86 lbs. 
%\15 ; prime 80 lbs. f5. 

PHILADBLPHIA CATTLE MARKET. 

Monday, May 26.— Beef cattle were in fair demand this 
week, but prices were witho nt material change. Sales of 
choice and extra at 7>ia8c; fair to good at 6a7c, and com- 
mon at 5a5Xc. Receipts, 18 head. 

Cows and Calves were dull at |50a76. Receipts, 200 
head. 

Shkep.— There were no wooled sheep in the market. 
Clipped were steady at 4a6>^c. Receipts, 10,000 head. 

Hoos were In fair demand at 88 OOaS 2S for corn-fled. 
Receipto, 6,000 bead. 



DEVOTED TO 
Agriculture, Horticulture. Domestic Economy and Miscellany. 

EDITED BY S. S. RATHVON". 
'* The Fanner is the founder of civilization." — WEBSTER. 



Vol. V. 



JULY, 187 S. 



JYo. 7. 



ESSAY. 



[From the S F. Bulletin.] 

CHINAMAN OR WHIIE MAN, WHICH? 

Discussion of the Qaestion by Rev. 0. Gibson, 
in Reply to Father Buchard. 

REV. 0. GIBSON delivered a lecture at 
Piatt's Hall, Friday evening, March 14, on 
the question " Chinaman or White Man, Which ?" 
in which he took issue with the points presented 
by Rev. Father Buchard, la a lecture on the 
same subject, delivered a few weeks since. The 
lecturer corameaced by intimating that it was not 
his purpose to defend the civilization or the 
religion of China; to offer any apology for the 
vices of that people, or to extol the virtues of the 
white race; nor to advocate any special meas- 
ures for promoting Chinese immigration. But 
he did design to defend the fundamental principle 
and the traditional policy of the Government of 
the United States. It is the principle born of 
Heaven, and as dear as life to the heart of every 
true American, that all men are born free and 
equal ; and the policy which opens our doors to 
all mankind, without distinction of race, color, or 
previous condition of servitude. He came boldly 
forth to defend this principle against the incen- 
diary invectives of an unscrupulous politician, 
and against the plausible and more dangerous 
fallacies uttered by the priest of the Church of 
Rome. 

CHEAP LABOR. 

The argument that had been advanced that 
this Chinese cheap labor would reduce ten or 
twenty millions of our people to serfdom is en- 
tirely absurd, and it was the utterance of one ap- 
parently ignorant of the genius and spirit of 



American civilization. In comparison with the 
monuments of ancient grandeur, reared by cheap 
labor, we point to our railroad and telegraph 
lines ; our free schools with an open Bible ; our 
frt e press, free speech ; our traditional Sabbath ; 
our civil and religious liberties. It is with these, 
our blood-bought institutions, that a class of 
foreigners, not Chinese', are at war. The great 
sin charged agaiust our Chinese friends is that 
they cheapen labor. If capital refuses to reward 
labor, on every hand doors of enterprise and in- 
dustry are opened wide, by means of which the 
laboring classes themselves may become lords of 
the soil ; or by combination of their labor and 
capital may monopolize to a great extent the 
manufacturing interests of the country. 

The same arguments used against the Chinese 
might be advanced by native Americans against 
the free imraigration of foreigners generally. Com- 
pared with other portions of the country, no such 
thing as cheap labor of any kind is yet known on 
these shores, and any argument built upon the 
false assumption tends only to pander to the pre- 
judices and fire the animosities of the ignorant and 
vicious. The Chinese employed in this city as do- 
mestics, receive on the average as fair wages as paid 
to servants at the East, as a comparison of the rate s 
would prove. There is no doubt that the Chinese 
immigration has helped to reduce the price of la. 
bor from the excessive rates of early days, and in 
this the Chinese have been a benefit instead of a 
curse. It is an absolute necessity for the devel- 
opment of the material interests of the State. 
At the rates of labor that would immediately pre- 
vail, were the Chinese removed from our midst, 
not one of the few manufacturing interests which 
have lately sprung up on these shores could be 
maintained a single day. Even with the competi 



122 



TEE LAJYCASTER FAEMEE,. 



tion of the Chinese, the average price of labor is 
so high that capital persistently refuses to invest 
to any considerable extent in manufacturing enter- 
prises. For the want of cheap labor we are comj 
pelled to import important commodities that might 
otherwise be produced here ; and for the want of 
labor at any price fields of wheat are left unhar- 
vested, and vast quantities of fruit rot on the 
ground. 

Thousands of families are unable to pay the ex- 
orbitant prices of domestic help, with the presence 
of the Chinese. It is a mistake to suppose that 
if the Chinese were removed from our midst there 
would be employment for more white laborers. 
The fact is that the Chinese on this coast, by the 
multiplication and development of industries, 
have caused a demand for more skilled labor than 
could have otherwise found employment. The 
immigration of Irish peasantry to our Eastern 
States, to dig our canals and build our railroads, 
for a time cheapened the price of labor ; but it 
also developed and enriched the country, and while 
it improved the condition of the Irishmen, it raised 
the native American population to higher plains 
of industry and more extensive fields of enterprise. 
The lecturer himself, while engaged as a farm hand, 
at one time, at $12 a month, had been displaced 
by a gentleman from Ireland, who did the same 
work for $8 a ;month, and he was compelled to 
seek a higher sphere for the employment of his 
energies. The presence of the Chinese, instead 
of lessening the demand for white laborers, really 
stimulates the demand and enlarges the field for 
their employment. 

SLAVES, 

We have been told that the most of the 
Chinese who come here are slaves. So far as the 
male population of China is concerned, no such 
thing as slavery in our acceptance of the term 
exists. The Chinese people always regarded 
with horror the American system of slavery. 
Chinese women are brought here as slaves, and 
for the vilest purposes, and are daily bought and 
sold in this city like dumb brutes. The lecturer 
joined with all good citizens in denouncing this 
abominable traffic, and it should be suppressed by 
legislative interference. The Chinese come here 
voluntarily, but many of them are assisted to get 
here and afterward find employment ; and for 
such assistance they gladly agree to pay a certain 
per cent, of their wages until the debt is canceled. 
Our immigration societies, importing immigrants 
from Europe, act upon precisely the same plan. 



This contract system cannot be fairly compared to 
slavery, but it is rather an evidence of the good 
faith of the Chinese. An efFert to make people 
believe that the Chinese are mostly slaves, and 
to kindle a political excitement upon such a false 
assumption, may be expected from an unscrupu- 
lous politician, but from a minister of religion we 
have a right to expect better things. 

AN INFERIOR RACE. 

The Chinese civilization is far inferior to the 
Christian civilization, but that does not prove the 
inferiority of the race. The civilization of China 
reached the highest point of development of 
which its institutions and systems are capable 
hundreds of years since, and at that time the civ 
ilization of the Chinese was in advance of the 
civilization of our ancestors. Remove the bar- 
riers that exist to Chinese progress, and the Chi- 
nese intellect will be found to compare favorably 
with that of any other class of the human race. 
The inferior civilization of any people, at any 
point in the world's history, is no gauge of the 
possibilities of that people in progressive devel- 
opment under favorable circumstances. 

Confucius, five hundred years before Christ, 
enunciated the Golden Rule in a negative form. 
A few decades since the Emperor To Kwong 
when pressed by the ambassadors of Christian 
lands to legalize the traffic in opium, exclaimed 
with vehemence, " I know that my purposes will 
be frustrated by wicked and designing men, for 
purposes of lust and profit, but nothing under 
heaven shall ever influence me to legalize the cer- 
tain ruin of my people." Does that sound like an 
inferior race ? Yang Wing, who took one of the 
graduating prizes at Yale College a few years 
since, belonged to this race. We are told that 
the Chinese are an inferior race because they can- 
not resist foreign invasion. On that principle 
what shall we say of the French ? What of the 
Irish ? Have they never been successfully invad- 
ed ? China stands before the world to-day ac- 
knowledged as having the largest population, and 
a government of the longest existence known in 
history. 

DO NOT PAY TAXES. 

It is charged that the Chinese do not pay taxes, 
that they came here only to make money ; that 
ten thousand Chinamen in the city do not alto- 
gether pay so much taxes as a single prominent 
citizen. Well, there are fifty thousand white peo- 
ple here who pay no taxes at all. ' The Chinese 
have not invested largely in real estate for the rea- 



TEE LAJ^CASTER FARMER. 



12S 



son that most of them are poor,and invidious legisla- 
tion has discouraged them from making permanent 
settlement here. Taking the poll-tax, which many 
of the Chinamen are compelled to pay two or 
three times over the same year, the license taxes, 
the internal revenue taxes, stamp taxes, etc., and 
instead of $9,000 being the aggregate amount of 
taxes paid by the Chinese in this city, as repre- 
sented by Father Buchard, the taxes received 
from the Chinese last year reached the enormous 
sum of $400,000. A part of this money is paid 
to the public school fund, but no schools are pro- 
for the Chinese. Again, for the last twenty years, 
a tax of $5 has been collected from every China- 
man landing in the country, and a part of the 
time the tax was $50 a man. Hundreds of thou- 
sands of dollars have been collected from the 
Chinese under the foreign miners' tax law, at the 
rate of $4 per month for every miner, and the tax 
has seldom been collected frotn any but China- 
men. To these facts may be added the assurance 
of the present collector, that there is less diffi- 
culty in collecting from the Chinese than any 
other class of people, and that there are less de- 
linquencies among them. Taking the taxes 
paid by the Chinese and the duties paid by 
them on their imports, the total annual reve- 
nue from this source will be found to reach $2,- 
400,000, no insignificant sum. The Chinese pay 
to the insurance agencies in this city over $.50,000 
annually. 

The lecturer then drew a large general account 
of credits to the Chinese in patronage of all 
branches of trade ; and as another offset to the 
assertion that the Chinamen take all the money 
home with them, it might be stated that the for- 
tunes amassed by American merchants in China 
and brought to this country, amounts every year 
to five times more than all the Chinamen here can 
take back as the fruits of their daily toil. 

The lecturer made an elaborate reply to the 
comments of Father Buchard on the discouraging 
progress of Christianizing labors among the 
Chinese, and contended on the contrary, that the 
results of such cff'orts are very gratifying. He 
concluded his eloquent discourse by declaring that 
according to the genius and the spirit of our gov- 
ernment and our national history, our doors are 
open equally to all mankind. The oppressed and 
down-trodden from all nations may alike find 
shelter here, and under the benign influence of 
our free institutions, and our exalted faith, with 
the blessing of Almighty God, these different 



nationalities and varying civilizations shall in 
time blend into one harmonious whole, illustrating 
to a wondering world the common fatherhood of 
God, and the universal brotherhood of man. 

[We give place to the foregoing, not because 
we are in harmony with its sentiments— for in 
good truth, we, in this latitude, lack the exper i- 
mental knowledge upon which to base a practical 
opinion upon the subject — but simply because the 
questions involved in it may be some day sprung 
upon us for intelligent and rational solution ; and 
in view of the wonderful progressive changes which 
are almost constantly occurring in the social, po- 
litical, and industrial history of our vast country, 
no man may be able to say how soon that day 
will come. But, when it does come, we ought to 
meet it " without fear, favor, or affection," and 
upon its own intrinsic merits alone ; and in order 
to be able to meet it without undue prejudice or 
partiality, we ought to be informed upon all its 
various phases, and contemplate it from every 
practical stand-point. The question comes home 
to every one who needs, or who may need hired 
aid, and especially to the farmer, the manufac- 
turer, and the public and private housekeeper. It 
not only vitally interests the employees of differ- 
ent kinds, but also employers. The question 
seems to be so liberally and so christianly dis- 
cussed by Rev. Gibson, that we cannot refrain 
from a patient persual of his paper, and no doubt 
it will be regarded with equal favor by the read- 
ers of the Farmer, if they are even opposed to 
the leading sentiment, as giving them an op- 
portunity to award a righteous judgment. 

We may, however, be permitted to say this 
much, which comes to us from an intelligent and 
practical correspondent, who has resided in Cali- 
fornia nearly twenty-three years, and is to the 
effect, that the greatest clamor made against 
Chinese labor there is by the very class of men 
who are too indolent to work at iny wages, except 
it would yield them about twenty-five dollars a 
day, and they could obtain boarding for one dollar 
a week perhaps. In spite of ourself, we are com- 
pelled to confess to a large sprinkling of conser- 
vatism in our mental constitution, but at the 
same time we could not justify ourself, by any 
means, in shutting out real light, and confirming 
ourself in the evils of conservative darkness. More- 
over, it is often only in the transition of one state of 
things to another radically different from it, that 
the chaos in sentiment and adaptability becomes 
most manifest ; and, in the midst of such a transi- 



njf 



THE LAJ^CASTER FARMER. 



tion, the real merits of the questions in conflict 
become the most morally, socially and politically 
obscured; So rapidly is the population of our 
country increasing, and its multitudinous resources 
becoming developed, that we do not think the 
prices of labor, and the productions of labor, can 
be permanently and injuriously effected, for many 
generations to come, and when it does come, it 
may bring its paliation with it. — Ed.] 

AGRICULTURE. 

f From the Examiner and Herald.] 

AGRICULTURAL FAIRS. 

THE questions at this time paramount in 
agricultural circles to all others are, 
Shall Lancaster county have a grand and united 
exhibition of the agricultural, horticultural, flori- 
cultural, mechanical, commercial and artistical 
productions of her people next fall ? Are such 
exhibitions useful, and are they in accord with 
the progressive spirit of the age ? 
"Without presuming to answer these questions defi 
nitely, either in the affirmative or negative, at this 
time, we may be permitted to offer a few suggestions 
having a bearing upon the subject. Suppose 
from hence forward every form of religious organi- 
zation were to be totally abandoned, and every 
avenue to church structures and church meetings 
were to be closed, every member becoming a 
divided and secluded unit, can it be rationally 
inferred that the same religious progress would be 
made that has been made on the united, social 
principle ? Nay, rather would not Christianity, 
and hence humanity, retrograde, and each indi. 
vidual become a selfish and morally obtuse heath, 
en? It is fair to conclude, therefore, that the 
success of the church depends upon its social and 
united efforts, its religious organizations, its forms 
of public worship, and that without these auxilia. 
ries mankind would relapse into solitarian bar- 
barism, so far at least as concerns the churchy 
Again, what political party has ever been success- 
ful without organization and combined and united 
effort in the accomplishment of its ends? And 
no matter whether those ends have been worthy 
or unworthy, a blessing or a curse to the country, 
it 'is none the less true that they still were attained 
through united and thoroughly organized effort. 
Tivo political factions in the same party, or two 
parties in the same town, county, State or coun- 
try, we believe, have never been successful at the 



same election. It is by united energies and pecu- 
niary means that all great objects have been 
accomplished. Every department of human labor 
demonstrates that combined effort has done more 
in a month than individual effort has been able to 
effect in a year. There are certain enterprises 
which, to succeed, require the united energies and 
moral support of the entire community, which are 
sure to languish when they are divided against 
themselves. The whole history of the human 
race illustrates that "in union there is strength," 
and that especially as to the three great indus- 
tries which are symbolized by "the plow, the 
anchor and the shuttle" — " United, they stand ; 
divided, they fall." With these illustrations, can 
we exclude agricultural exhibitions from the same 
category ? 

We are far from asserting or believing that 
agriculture itself would fail without the union or 
combination of agriculturists in associated effort ; 
but it is clear that the special advancement of 
general agricultural interests cannot be secured 
without such combinations. If this is not so, then 
the agriculturists of our entire country, as well as 
the world at large, are under the influence of a 
most egregious hallucination, for there are but 
few countries, empires, kingdoms or States — yea, 
or even counties and lesser districts — that have 
not one or more organizations, professedly work- 
ing in the interest of some branch of agriculture. 
For this end, agricultural books, magazines, jour- 
nals, papers and pamphlets are published, and 
scattered like seeds over the whole land. It will 
not do to say that men do these things merely to 
make money, for, although the making of money 
may legitimately be the ultimate root, or motor 
power, of all agricultural organizations, and of 
their auxiliaries; still, an immense amount of 
talent, labor, effort and pecuniary means have been 
devoted to these objects, which have been "labors 
of love," or which have made little or no pecu- 
niary return. But their moral influence has been 
immense everywhere, and they have none the less 
assisted in developing the agricultural knowledge 
and resources of the localities where they exist. 

Of course, a liberal system of premiums should 
be adopted, and these, by all means, should dis- 
criminate in favor of usefulness rather than mere 
beauty; therefore utility should take precedence 
of luxuries — things beneficial should be in advance 
of those only artificial ; things practical, and in 
which the whole community have the greatest ma- 
terial interest, should be greater objects of solici- 
tude than things merely fanciful, and whose high- 



TEE LAJ^CASTER FARMER. 



125 



est aim, perhaps, is only personal gratification or 
amusement. Mechanical genius and artistic skill 
in all that relates to agriculture and domestic hus- 
bandry, should find in such exhibitions their appro 
priate recognition and encouragement. Domes 
tic animals, which are of the greatest importance 
to the largest number of the human family, ought- 
to be given a premium over those of a less signifi- 
cance. Agricultural, horticultural, and floricul- 
tural productions, as the very types of such an 
enterprise, should occupy a prominent position — 
indeed, nothing useful need be entirely neglected- 
and discriminations, if any, should be in favor of 
local industries. The making of money should 
only be an object of the last consideration to the 
management of such an exhibition, if they desire 
the real success of the enterprise ; and yet they 
should sustain no pecuniary loss. 

We are led to these reflections because at this 
time the agricultural and horticultural organiza- 
tions of this district are seriously considering 
whether it would be best to unite their energies in 
holding one grand exhibition the approaching fall 
— that would be a credit to the great county of 
Lancaster — or whether they should pursue the 
divided, disjointed and inefficient course which has 
characterized their previous efforts. Agricultural 
organizations are, directly, neither religious, politi- 
cal nor social in their objects. They are merely 
organized to assist in developing the material 
interests of the localities where they exist, without 
intending to give aid and comfort to any element 
that is in conflict with law and order. But, like 
church and trade organizations, without yielding 
essentials it may be to their interests to concede 
non-essentials for the sake of the end they desire 
to accomplish ; and we feel confident that with such 
concession, and an honest and zealous effort in the 
right direction, an exhibition of the agricultural 
and collateral productions of this county can be 
gotten up and sustained, that will inure to its last 
ing credit ; and, furthermore, that without union 
and concession all attempts to hold two or more 
exhibitions will result in more disastrous failures 
than have ever discredited the county heretofore. 



THE FUTURE OF OUR AGRICULTURE. 

"With the rapid development of the agricultural 
resources of the great West, and the corre- 
sponding increase in the manufactures of the 
East, it has become apparent that the agricul- 
tural communities of the latter section must de- 
vote more attention to the cultivation of those 



products, the value of which depends on the im- 
practicability of shipping them any considerable 
distance. Year by year the West has become 
able to compete with this section of the country in 
the raising of cereals and culture of live-stock, and 
the increased opportunities of that section have 
overcome the disadvantages of remoteness from 
markets and excessive freight charges. With the 
rapid increase in extent and population of New 
York, Philadelphia, Baltimore and the other 
large Eastern cities, an increased demand has been 
created for household-market supplies. The build- 
ing up of large manufactories, the addition of great 
work-shops.and the rapid multiplication of material 
industries, have- compelled the suburban districts 
to engage in horticulture, dairying and " trucking." 
Large farms have been gradually subdivided 
into gardens, and the fields which a few years ago 
were cultivated in grain, now produce garden 
vegetables. Stock-raising has been superseded in 
many of our neighboring counties by a complete 
system of dairying, and the supplying of the Phila- 
delphia markets with cheese, butter and milk 
is found to be more remunerative and more satis- 
factory than the old methods of farming. This 
change has as yet been felfc but slightly in Lan- 
caster county, though the radius of market sup- 
plies for this city has been gradually extending 
with its growth, and our wide fields and extensive 
■farms have been reduced in area. 

For the past few years, however, a large number 
of farmers in the lower end of the county have 
been engaged in dairying, shipping milk and but- 
ter to the Philadelphia and Baltimore markets. 
This branch of agricultural labor has proven suc- 
cessful, and as the opportunities for its pursuit 
become enlarged, it will doubtless be carried on to 
still greater extent. With the increased facilities 
of transportation for which there is now such fair 
prospects in this county, new inducements will be 
offered to our farmers to engage in the cultivation 
of i-mall fruits and vegetables for the supply of 
the metropolitan markets. With this desirable 
improvement in our system of farming or garden- 
ing, will be found also opportunities for money- 
making. Speedy and sure returns follow horticul- 
ture and trucking, and these pursuits in themselves 
are far more interesting and satisfactory than the 
ordinary dull routine of the farm. It is greatly to be 
regretted that for the past year our husbandmen 
have given so little attention to horticulture. A 
number of our farmers have, it is true, been faith- 
ful to their duty in this respect, but a great many 
have failed therein. In view of the prospect of a 



126 



THE LAM CASTER FARMER. 



ew field being open for the operations of our 
farmers, this matter of close attention to the cul- 
tivation of small fruits cannot be too strongly- 
urged upon them, and we know of no better man- 
ner to advance this same interest than active 
agricultural and horticultural societies, in which 
our farmers can meet and discuss these questions, 
and give to their delibertition the weight of their 
combined experience and intelligence. When our 
farmers shall properly appreciate these considera- 
tions, the agricultural resources of the county 
will be rapidly developed, and the " Old Guard " 
better than ever deserve the title of " the garden 
spot of Pennsylvania." 



[From the Intelligencer.] 
CLOVER. 



BY ULKICH STRICKLER. 



A great mistake is very frequently made by 
many of our farmers in not cutting clover 
early enough. Especially is this the case when 
the crop is short, and they wish to make all out of 
it they can. They say, " I will not cut it yet ; if 
it remains another week, it will make more hay ; it 
will not dry out so much, and it will also cure 
quicker and with less work." This is all true. It 
will make a larger bulk, and more weight of hay, 
with less labor and trouble. But chemical analy- 
sis has revealed the fact that clover contains a 
larger amount of nutriment when fully in blossom 
than at any other time. After the heads begin 
to dry, the juices, the most nutritious part, are 
dried up, and the stem resembles wood in sub- 
stance. Hence, it should be cut as soon as the 
most mature heads begin to turn brown. If cut 
at this time, and properly cured, clover hay con- 
tains more nutritious substance than any other 
kind. Cattle and sheep will flourish on it, almost 
as well as on good pasture. It is also good for 
horses, but should be dampened before feeding, on 
account of the dust, which gives them a dry 
cough and sometimes the heaves. This can be 
avoided by moistening it ; it is then superior to 
any other hay. 

More clover and less timothy should be sowed. 
Clover enriches the land. As a fertilizer it has 
no equal. Alsike, or Swedish clover, is in several 
respects superior to the common red. It is a 
variety between the red and the white. Its 
points of superiority are, first, that it makes a 
finer quality of hay, while the quantity is just as 
large. Every farmer knows that in favorable sea- 



sons, on very rich land, red clover grows too rank, 
its stems being very coarse. The hay it pro- 
duces, then, is not of so good a quality. Alsike has 
a finer main stem, containing a large number of 
side branches, or lateral stems, extending from 
bottom to top of main stem. The hay consists 
of finer stems, with a much greater proportion of 
leaves and heads than red clover hay. 

Second. It is not liable to "heave" out by 
frost. Red clover contains one tap root, with but 
few side roots, none of them being fibrous, hence 
its liability to be heaved out by freezing and 
thawing. Alsike is full of long, fibrous roots, 
extending in every direction, hence it will not 
heave out. For this reason it is particularly 
adapted to low places, where the red will not suc- 
ceed at all. 

Third. It will stand more drought, owing to the 
fibrous nature of its roots. 

Fourth. It contains a large quantity of honey, 
which can be reached by the native, or black 
bees, as well as by the Italians. It is well known 
that black bees cannot work on red clover, and 
Italians, generally, only on the second crop. On 
Alsike they can work as readily as on white 
clover. 

Every farmer should give it a trial, sowing a 
small quantity side by side with red clover, thus 
testing it fairly. A fair trial would, I am satis- 
fied, establish its superiority over the red, and 
bring it into general favor. 



FAITH IN FARMING. 

The sight of a new barn eighty feet long by 
fifty in width, built in the most substantial man- 
ner, and with all the appliances for handling 
and storing crops easily, and for making manure 
on a large scale, is an indication of that faith 
which is so often wanting upon the farm. There 
is a man who believes in improved husbandry, and 
is willing to invest ten thousand dollars, or full 
half of his capital, in a good barn. He has no 
doubt that he can so manage his farm and barn as 
to get back the interest on all the money invested 
in it. In his view the barn is worth more to him 
than the same amount of money invested in bank 
stock or Government bonds. This kind of faith is 
still the exception among farmers. Very few live 
up to the light they have, and are willing to in- 
vest their money when they have every reason to 
believe it will pay well. They know very well 
the efiSciency of well-made yard manures, and feel 



THE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



127 



the need of more of them every year. Yet they 
hesitate about putting a cellar under the barn, or 
building sheds and hovels around the yard, for the 
puropse of sheltering the manure, and the men 
while they are at work upon the compost heaps in 
stormy weather. They have mulch and peat enough 
to learn its great value, and yet they hesitate 
about using labor enough to keep a Uirge stock 
al ways on hand. Few intelligent men doubt the 
great waste of feeding cattle at the stack in the 
winter, and yet they do not provide the necessary 
barn room or sheds to protect the animals and save 
the soiling of the fodder. They follow the old 
wasteful methods mainly, because custom has made 
them easy. 

It is conceded by all who have tried them, that 
we have new varieties of potatoes more prolific 
than the old, much less liable to rot, and of fair 
quality for the table. And yet the mass of the 
farmers cling to the old, in spite of the rot, be- 
cause they have a well-established reputation in 
the markets and sell well when they can be raised. 
They hesitate to buy seedlings that have been 
thoroughly tested and are fully endorsed by our 
best horticulturists. This want of faith is the rea. 
son, mainly, why agriculture does not improv- 
more rapidly, and why other callings are crowded 
with adventurers at the expense of the farm. The 
merchant makes ventures whenever he sees a good 
opportunity, not only investing all his spare capi. 
tal, but often all that he is worth, in a single en- 
terprise. The ventures of the farmer would never 
be so largely and suddenly lucrative as those of 
the merchant sometimes prove to be ; but then he 
runs no such risks. It is safe to make ventures in 
barn cellars, and in the very great enlargement 
of the manure heap, in underdraining, in lime and 
clover, in improved tools and stock, and in new 
varieties of fruits and vegetables. We should 
show by our investments that we have faith in our 
business, and that we expect to make a living by 
it, and get handsome returns for our capital. Thig 
done, our young men will quit measuring ribbons 
and tape, and go to measuring land and working it. 
Let us have iaAih.— American Agriculturist. 



LAND SALE— ORGANIZATION OF A 
LAND COMPANY AT lilLLlNGS. 

From the Springfield (Mo.) Southwest we take 
the following in relation to Southwest Mis- 
souri : 

1 he Atlantic and Pacific Railroad Company 
have negotiated a sale of a township of land, in- 



cluding the town site of Billings, with a number 
of St. Louis and eastern capitalists. The pur- 
chasers have organized a land company, purpos- 
ing to sell out the lands to farmers, mechanics and 
tradesmen in parcels of eighty acres, or in tracts 
as shall suit purchasers. Among the list of pur- 
chasers of the land and directors of ths com- 
pany are Messrs. Frick and Fisk, 1116 Pine 
street, and Garland Hurt, 805 North Fourth 
street, St. Louis, Gov. Andrew G. Curtin and 
Hon. J. P. Wickersham, Pa., Counsellor David 
Lewis, St. Louis, J. J. Goodspeed, Oswego, New 
York, and others. 

The country at that point, equal to the best in 
Southwest Missouri, will now become rapidly de- 
veloped. Eastern capital and enterprise will 
give an impetus to business and improvement 
that always accomplish desired results. The 
country possesses a genial climate, fertile soil, and 
in every respect most ample material resources. 
Springs and streams of crystal clearness are 
numerous. The forests contain an abundance of 
timber to supply all the demands for building, 
fencing, and fuel. The land is easily placed under 
a high state of cultivation, and produces annually 
large crops of corn, wheat and other cereals. Re- 
cently parties from Kentucky have engaged 
in tobacco growing at this point. Soil and cli- 
mate are said to be more favorable to the growth 
of this plant in Southwest Missouri than in any 
part of Kentucky. Fruit trees, apples, peaches, 
pears, cherries, quinces, etc., as also grapes, grow 
more rapidly and produce greater abundance and 
finer fruit than elsewhere. Society is good. 
School and church privileges are such as are de- 
sirable to all new settlers. The new railroad 
soon to be built, the St. Louis and Gulf railroad, 
having a southern terminus at Sabine Pass, Texas, 
on the Gulf of Mexico, is to make a point of de- 
parture from the Atlantic and Pacific railroad at 
Billings. Considering the natural advantages of 
the country surrounding Billings, together with 
the enterprise here mentioned, we regard the fu- 
ture prosperity of our neighboring town as se- 
cured beyond the shadow of a doubt. 



It is well known that leather articles kept in 
stables soon become brittle, in consequence of an 
ammoniacal exhalation, which affects both har- 
ness hanging up in such localities and the shoes of 
those who frequent them. The usual applications 
of grease are not sufficient to meet this difficulty; 
but it is said that by adding to them a small quan- 
tity of glycerine the leather will be kept coutinu- 
ually in a soft and pliable couditiou. 



128 



TEE LAJVCASTEE, FABMER. 




. PERCHEliON-NOKMAN STALLIONS. 



AMONG the intelligent horse-breeders and 
fanciers it seems to be conceded that for 
general farm work the common breed of horses 
are too light, and that the English " Dray-horse" 
and the " French Percheron" are too heavy, and 
therefore they are importing the afore-named 
breeds to cross with the common stock of the 
country. This produces an intermediate breed, 
better adapted to the wants of the American far- 
mer. A writer iu the American Live Stock 
Journal says : " It is possible that in this coun- ' 
try the extremely heavy breeds of Europe will 
never be required iu their purity, for our farmers 
seem to require horses somewhat lighter, and 
about the right thing seems to be produced by 
crossing stallions of the heavy breeds upon our 
common mares." 

In view of this fact, farmers are admonished 
that there is little, if any money, to be realized 
from breeding scrub-horses. Tliey meet with slow 
sale, and bring unsatisfactory prices, for the rea- 
son that the supply is large and the demand 
limited — at least, this is the case, so far as the 
Western States are concerned, and it is from 
these that our Eastern horse markets are sup- 
plied, and this accounts, too, for the great losses 
so often sustained by dealers in the precarious 
substance of " horse-flesh." 



It may be true that for heavy draft— as for in- 
stance in slow and ponderous city drayage - the 
pure foreign breeds may be preferable ; but this 
by no means is the case in the general agricultu- 
ral demands of the country where good crossed 
breeds of moderately heavy, draft horses always 
find good prices, and a greater demand than 
supply. 

The same writer, before quoted, suggests that 
a very good plan to diffuse this stock through the 
country is for the farmers of various neighbor- 
hoods to form associations for the purchase of 
stallions. The members of these associations 
having the use of them gratis, whilst their ser- 
vices to mares belonging to other parties would 
pay all the expenses of their keeping, including 
the interest on the investment, and in time also 
the principal of the investment. 

Of course, the number of stallions necessary to 
purchase and keep would depend upon the nu- 
merical strength of the associations, perhaps from 
one individual up to half a dozen or more. About 
a year ago a firm in Illinois brought over from 
France eight fine Percheron-Norman stallions, 
from three to five years old, and differing in color, 
from a dapple gray to nearly black, and this is the 
third importation of the same firm, and seems to 
evince that it is engaged in a paying enterprise. 

R. 



TEE LAJYCASTER FARMER. 



129 



SHAD: 

THE ARTIFICIAL BREEDING OF THEM. 

In the summer of 1867 Mr. Selli Green, the 
great fish culturist, wrote to the New Eng- 
land Fish Commissioners, offering to come, at his 
own expensp, and try to hatch the eggs of thg 
shad artificially, at Holyoke, provided the com 
niissioners would furnish the necessary apparatus" 
Green began his experiments in July. He put up 
some hatching troughs similar to those he had used 
at Caledonia, New York, for hatching the eggs of 
trout, and supplied by a brook flowing into the 
Connecticut ; the water of the brook being 12 de- 
grees lower than that of the river. Having 
caughi his shad by night with a seine, he express- 
ed the eggs of those that were ready to spawn in 
a tub, and sqeezing the milt of the male over them, 
impregnated them as he had trout spawn, and 
spread them to the number of some million on fine 
gravel in the hatching trough. To his mortifica- 
tion they all spoiled ; he could not hatch them 
like trout spawn. He found, however, that the 
brook varied 12 degrees from night to day-of course 
colder at night ; it was also much colder than the 
water of the river. This change in temperature 
iiiducei'' him to try the river where it was almost 
equable. Taking a rough box he knocked the 
bottom and a part of each end out and replaced 
them by fine wire gauze ; he placed the impregnat- 
ed shad spawn in this box and anchored it near 
shore exposed to a gentle current that passed freely 
through the gauze, which kept the eels and fish ofi". 
He was rejoiced at the end of (iO hours to find that 
the eggs had hatched, producing young fish, which 
swam about in the box like " wiggle tails" in a 
barrel of stale rain water. But though he had 
discovered the secret of success his contrivance 
was still imperfect, for a. large portion of the eggs 
were washed by the currreut into the lower end 
of the box and heaped up, which caused a large 
proportion of them to spoil for lack of fresh water 
and motion. He only hatched from seventy to 
ninety per cent of the eggs. At last he hit upon 
a very simple and ingenious hatching box, which 
he soon after patented, and with which he is now 
stocking our depleted rivers with shad, being at 
present engaged by direction of Mr. Spencer F. 
Eaird, U, S. Commissioner on fisheries, in restock- 
ing the Savannah, from which, as the season ad- 
vances, he will go successively to the rivers of 
Korth Carolina and Virginia. This box proved 
a perfect success. Of 10,000 eggs placed in it all 
but seven hatched, and at the end of the season 



Mr. Green had hatched and placed in the Connec- 
ticut many millions of shad fry. 

If my memory serves me. Green's patent shad 
hatching box is about two feet long, fifteen inches 
wide, and one foot deep. The bottom is of wire 
gauze, about fourteen wires to the inch ; it is 
made to set steadily in the water by having a 
float bar between three and four feet long screwed 
to each side. These bars are not. attached paral- 
lel to the top of the box, but at an angle to it, 
which tilts the end up stream, and the current, 
striking the gauze bottom at an angle, is deflected 
upward, causing such a commotion inside that the 
light shad eggs are kept constantly free and 
bouyed up, with the running water having access 
to every portion of each egg's circumference. 
The after end of the box has a little gauze cov- 
ered sliding door, whic h is raised to allow the fry 
to escape. The spawn from one full, well-grown 
shad will supply from six to ten boxes. The 
boxes are lashed end to end in a line conveniently 
near shore, and sometimes a log boom surrounds 
them to keep oif rubbish brought down by the 
stream. 

The mature shad has three sizes of ova distin- 
guishable with a common lens. The first have a 
diameter of eight hundredths or nine hundredths 
of an inch. These are transparent if the fish is 
ready to spawn. The second are four hun- 
dredths to five hundredths of an inch, and the 
third two hundredths of an inch. The two 
smaller sizes are opaque, and are still found after 
the shad has spawned. This state of a shad's 
ovaries has its parallel in the turtle, and possibly 
in all vertebratio. When exuded, an egg is about 
nine hundredths of an inch in diameter, and on 
being put in water immediately enlarges to thir- 
teen hundredths of an inch. They are almost as 
transparent as water ; those that turn white have 
spoiled. 

They cover the bottom of the hatching box to 

the depth of about a quarter of an inch ; at the 
end of sixty hours with water at seventy-five de- 
grees Farenheit, and sunshine, they are hatched ; 
and the box will be filled with tiny fry, swimming 
freely with their heads to the current. The fry 
come from the Ggg with a little yolk sack, which 
is absorbed by the young shad in from one to two 
days, after which it must find its own food. 

Green found that when he opened the little 
door in the hatching boxes to let the young shad 
out, other small fishes rushed to the spot and 
commenced jumping at them ; he also discovered 
by some most ingenious experiments that the fry 



130 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



60 far from seeking the shallows, like so many 
minnows, made directly for the main current. 
What wonderful instinct to escape from the re- 
sort of small species near shore and seek the mid- 
dle of the river, where they are too insignificant 
to attract the attention of large fish ! 

Ichthyologists tell us that there are close 
afiBnities in many respects between the salmon and 
shad ; but what a diversity in the time of incuba- 
tion of the eggs of the two, and the compa rative 
activity of the fry in their early existence. The 
eggs of a salmon require (according to the tem- 
perature of the water) from ten weeks to five 
months to hatch. The eggs of a shad — also ac- 
cording to temperature of water — hatch out in 
from fifty-eight hours to four days. The young 
salmon comes from the Bgg with a yolk sack two 
or three times the weight of its body, which at 
first weighs it down, making it an easy prey to 
any devourer, and it is weeks or months before 
this yolk sack is absorbed and it looks for food. 
The yolk sack of the shad is absorbed in a day or 
so, and it is a lively little fish seeking its food 
and well able to take care of itself almost from 
its birth. At Holyoke, Green had a favorite 
place for liberating his young shad ; a white flat 
rock in the middle of the river, to which he towed 
his hatching boxes that he might see the little 
fellows swim oS" in safety. 

It is well in matters that affect the great ques 
tion of fish food to bring the researches of scien- 
tists to co-operate vdth actual experience and 
practical every-day knowledge, and there is no 
man, who by patient application of science, and 
knowledge gained from those who follow fishing 
-as an occupation, has thrown so much light upon 
this important fish, our shad, as Colonel Theodore 
Lyman, of the Massachusetts Fish Commission 
Amongst other discoveries by microscopic exam, 
ination, is that young shad, before they go to sea, 
have teeth, which adult shad have not. He has 
found out the fly or aquatic insect and its larvas, 
that form the principal food of the young shad • 
he has also pretty clearly settled the question as 
to the growth of shad, and comparative pube- 
scence of the two sexes ; but of the two latter I 
shall treat in a subsequent number. 

A young shad remains in its native river feed, 
ing on flies that deposit their eggs on water, and 
on the larvae of the same in their various muta- 
tions from wormhood or flyhood until autumn, and 
then goes to sea. Nature gives them teeth in 
their infancy which they lose because they do not 
require them when they adults, and visit their na- 



tive stream to continue their species. For, as I 
have before asserted, shad, salmon, herring, or 
other anadromous fishes do not feed in rivers ; 
they come solely to reproduce, and on this law of 
their nature we depend for our annual supply of 
salmon, shad and herring. Either of these from 
some remnant of its old instinct which led 
it to feed on natural flies in its early days, can be 
induced to rise at an artificial fly when full grown, 
for shad and herring are deceived by such lures as 
well as salmon. 

Thaddeus Norkis. 



BREAKERS AHEAD. 



The future of our American youth is well 
calculated to causesaduess and alarm in the 
mind of every one who seriously contemplates it. 
The great generic idea of American liberty is that 
each one is free to follow out any plan of life which 
leads to his own happiness and prosperity, and 
that the republic encourages every one to follow 
some trade, profession or business which will con- 
duce to these ends. Labor is considered honora- 
ble. Our theory is that, in the absence of heredi- 
tary fortunes, each must carve out his own fortune 
and push himself forward in the world, and that 
no one, so long as the cause is honest and honora- 
ble, shall impede him or throw any obstructions in 
his way. This is the theory ; what is the practice ? 

In nearly every trade there is an organization 
generally called a union, which says that only a 
certain number of youths shall be instructed in 
that trade ; that when instructed they shall work 
in strict accordance with the rules of the asso- 
ciation, and that no matter how great their skill 
or natural aptitude for the business they shall have 
no greater wages than any idle, dissolute, careless 
bungler who has been admitted into the organiza- 
tion. Here, in the very center of free government, 
we see an organization whose purpose is to destroy 
freedom of choice of business in our youth ; who 
restrain skill and talent ; whose purpose is des- 
potism, and whose practice is tyranny of the harsh- 
est and most depressing character. Under it the 
vast majority of our youth must grow up in en- 
forced idleness ; the brightest intellect must be 
hidden and deprived of dovelopment, and thousands 
of busy brains, courageous hearts and strong arms, 
whose labor would enrich themselves and increase 
the general prosperity, be doomed to the merest 
manual labor and to lives of degradation, ignorance 
and poverty. 

We can hardly find language strong enough 



TEE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



131 



properly to state our uttter condemiiatioa and 
detestation of this state of affairs. While philan- 
thropists and statesmen are daily devising plans 
of bettering the condition of the masses, of in- 
creasing the welfare of all, of opening new chan- 
nels of usefulness, these organizations are devis- 
ing plots to thwart their measures ; to keep down 
every aspiring soul, to prevent skill from better- 
ing the condition of any man ; in fact, to prevent 
civilization and the equality of man. While our 
law-makers are considering whether education 
shall not be compulsory, whether every child 
shall not be obliged to learn enough to make it a 
better citizen, these organizations have already 
decided that ignorance shall be compulsory, except 
to the few chosen by themselves, and that the 
learning supplied by the State shall be useless for 
all practical good. 

What is to be the end of this ? We can see no 
result but that the next generation of mechanics 
will be wanting in the skill which makes the 
workman rich and happy. The want of this skill 
will cause the work to be done by foreign work- 
men, either in our country or their own, and the 
proud boast that we have here the best, and the 
best instructed, mechanics in the world be lost and 
turned to our shame, as the inevitable result of 
the practical workings of these unions. We boast 
that every career is open to our youth ; that even 
the Presidency of the United States is a fair ob- 
ject of ambition to every one ; and yet these or- 
ganizations shut the doors of the carpenter-shop, 
the machine-shop, the foundry, of every branch of 
trade and business. Is this freedom, or is it 
tyranny ? — Everybody's Journal. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL. 

" COLORADO POTATO BEETLE." 

AT the last meeting of the Agricultural and 
Horticultural Society, the president — H. 
M. Engle — somewhat incidently remarked that 
the above mamed insect had appeared near the 
locality where it had appeared in 1872 — indeed 
that it had appeared on his own farm. The sub- 
ject did not seem to impress the members very 
particularly, if they did not even forget it imme- 
diately thereafter. Of course, the real quality of 
this pest will never be appreciated by the farmer 
until his potato field is honored by a personal 
visit from Sir Droyphora. Therefore, as we 
happen to be a potato eater, and feel a corres- 



ponding interest in the subject, we think we can- 
not do better than insert the following remedy at 
this time, whether it is heeded or not : 

Potato Bugs. — The time is at hand for potato 
bugs, and their deadly foe is Paris green. But all 
who use this deadly poison should recollect that it is 
composed of arsenic and copperas, and is danger- 
ous, especially when used as a powder. In this 
state it is so volatile that it is inhaled into 
the lungs, and although we have no recorded 
death, frequent cases are reported where it has 
caused serious sickness. And it is in almost 
every case used too strong. When used as a 
powder it was used in proportions of one part 
Paris green to four of flour. But one part in 
twenty is sufficient. But later trials favor using 
it dissolved in water. If the Paris green be a 
good, pure article, two-thirds of a teaspoonful to 
ten quarts of water would be suitable proportions. 
This can be used by sprinkling on the potato 
vines in any weather or any time in the day. The 
dust can only be applied on a clear morning, 
when the dew is on the vines. If the Paris green 
is pure it will make the water deep green, but if 
it is a counterfeit article, it will be a paler color, 
and will leave the most of it a sediment in the 
bottom of the water. If it is not pure, of course 
more will have to be used, and then it may be 
none of the genuine is in it, in which case it will 
entirely fail of any good purpose. It can be 
applied to the potatoes with a syringe, or a small 
brush broom, but a rose watering-pot is best. 
The garden watering-pot throws too much, but a 
rose spout for the garden watering-pot could 
easily be obtained of any tinner. As there is no 
doubt about the sure destruction of the bug with 
this article, and as it can be so easily and safely 
applied, the dreaded Colorado bug ceases to be so 
dreaded a pest. The Paris green can also be 
used for the destruction of other insects making 
depredations on plants, shrubs or trees. Using it 
on larger trees the syringe would be best. 

The following paragraph, on the same subject, 
we clip from the editorial columns of the Marietta 
Register of the 21st of June, a paper published 
near the "Scene of Disaster," and we confess that 
we deplore the necessity of doing so, for we had 
hoped that the farmers of Lancaster county at 
least would have been able to prevent the rapid 
increase and spread of this worst of insect pests : 

"Potato Bugs. — The Colorado potato bugs 
have made their appearance in great numbers, 
and are busy in the work of denuding potato 



132 



TEE LA Jf CASTER FARMER. 



stalks. Mr. Hiram Engle informs us that already 
they can be numbered by the thousands, and that 
the rapidity with which they produce and multi- 
ply and at once enter upon their' depredating 
work is marvelous. Mr. Gottschall says one 
morning he examined and found his potatoes all 
right, and the next morning they were entirely 
stripped of every leaf. If nothing happens to 
arrest these destroyers in their work, much dam- 
age to the potato crop will be done." 

Dry weather and human neglect is their glori- 
ous opportunity. R. 



GALLS ON THE GRAPE. 

John M. Greider, Esq., of Mountville, found a 
conglomeration of excrescence on a Clinton grape 
vine, with small, round galls on the tendrils and 
leaves. These were left with Mr. Rathvon, who, 
being pressed with business, desired me to examine 
and report in the Examiner for the benefit of 
Mr. Greider and those interested. 

I made a careful drawing of it and colored the 
same with the original. On inspection I found 
the cells scattered, and many of them punctured 
and empty ; in one, however, I found four orange- 
yellow, maggot-like creatures, with the dark Y 
mark protruding from the second joint, or next the 
head ; thisis a distinctive feature, and proves them 
to be the larvas of the gnat-family — allied to the 
Cecidomyia or Hessian fly tribe. I have a number of 
galls figured, found on various plants, as also illus- 
trations in the first volume of the American Ento- 
mologist, in which I find a figure on page 247 of a 
large compound gall on grapevines, from a speci- 
men sent by A. S. Fuller, Richwood, New Jersey 
This accords so well in the general character and 
description as to incline me to consider it caused 
by the same fly. The color is said to be pale 
green and rose ; those of Mr. Greider's are deeper 
almost purple and greenish; highly polished. Those 
referred to are produced by a pale, reddish Gall- 
gnat, the Lasiopteravitis of Osten Sacken. These 
have orange yellow larvae, which come forth and 
undergo their final transformation in the ground. 
•' Sometimes a parasitic larva is found spun up in 
a cocoon, which belong apparently to the Procto. 
trypes family." Baron Osten Sacken observes 
that many of the cells or cavities are abandoned 
by their inmates and invaded by numerous Thri-ps, 
" and we noticed the same state," says Mr. Reilly . 
I may say the same, " the Thrzps being canni- 
bal and preying upon the gall-maker " 



These Thrips, then, would be beneficial, but the 
Tlirips cerealeum is almost as bad as the Hessian 
fly, called Cecidomyia destructor (Sax.) This 
relationship is by no means flattering, and we 
should admonish all who see the earliest form.atioa 
of a gall to use the knife, and " nip them in the 
bud." 

The Thrips are minute and slender insects, with 
very narrow wings, which are fringed with fine 
hairs, and lie flatly on the back when not in use. 
These live on flowers, leaves and buds ; their punc- 
tures appear to poison plants, and often produce 
deformities in the leaves and blossoms. 

But the name Thrips is, however, also applied 
to a species of Psylla, which are four- winged and 
equally mischievous, but belong to the aphides or 
plant lice. The cecidomyia are two-winged, and, 
like the gnats, belong to the Diptera. The wil- 
low gall-gnat is one of the largest of our species. 
Fitch figures and describes it under the name Ce- 
cidomyia salicis ; also, a single, orange-colored 
maggot, in galls, on the willow. 

The Cecidomyia Rohinae, of Prof. Haldeman, 
is a much smaller and more common species, inhab 
iting the locust-tree. 

The Cecidomyia deffers from the Lacioptera 
n the shortness of the first joint of its feet, and in 
the greater length of its antennae, the head like 
swellings whereof are also more distant from each 
other, especially in the males. The basal joints ap- 
pear to be double joints (14 to 17) according to 
sex, being globular in those of the male, oblong ova 
in the female — except the basal joint, in which both 
are surrounded with whorls of hair. 

The verdict is, the gall was produced by the 
Lasioptera vitis\ of Oster Sacken. — J. Stauffer 
hi the Examiner. 

HORTICULTURAL. 

BARK BLIGHT IN PEAR TREES. 

BY JACOB STAUFFER. 



T 



HE samples of bark-blight onyourpear tree 



seemed like an I the other a C cut into the bark, 
and healed over. On closer inspection I find the 
one has two punctures through to the wood, besides 
a centi'al nucleus with raised concentric rings and 
a central perforation, apparently the remains of a 
bud. The bark is cracked through the outer layer, 
with the edges slightly turned up from the crack ; 



THE LAJSrCASTER FARMER, 



133 



at a central point I notice the growth of & fungus, 
resembling, by its branching lamina?, the xylaria 
hypoxilon, or a tuft of small lychens, as found on 
old trees and stumps. This I deem as secondary 
or adventitious, and not the cause of the disease. 
The term blight, frequently used, is not yet clearly 
defined, Dr. Keith has pointed out at least three 
species. 1st. Blight arising from cold and frosty 
winds. 2d. From a peculiar vapor supposed to 
originated from certain electric conditions of the 
atmosphere ; and 3d, From the presence of min. 
ute parasitical /jm^ftts. Hence a careful exami- 
nation of all the conditions are required in order 
to be able to decide which may have given rise to 
the cracking — the freezing of certain saccharine 
or aqueous deposits under the bark, or the spores 
of a minute fungus, like the Undo, that causes the 
mildew and the like. These cracks in the bark of 
a pear tree are much like those found on many 
pears themselves, as to the cause of which many 
opinions have been advanced. One opinion is 
that, owing to a superabundance of juice, the punc" 
ture of an insect, or anything that may cause an 
excess of endosmose action over that of exosmose, 
certain cells in ' circles or lines, or both, become 
surcharged; cold winds may freeze them or so ex- 
pand the contents of the cells as to rupture the 
epidermis and cause a crack, and simply form the 
seat for the fungus. 

A dropsical condition from excess of rain and 
moisture may induce a collection of sap in excess 
between the double alburnem, that is, first a layer 
that has been injured by the frost, and then a 
layer that passes into wood, a swelling takes place 
and may turn into black knot or similar disease. 
These cracks under consideration appear to arise 
from a case showing the alburnum split into clefts 
or chinks, by the expansive force of the freezing 
sap. Such clefts often degenerate into a chilblain 
or excrescence, just as galls are raised by |the bite 
or puncture of insects. The only remedy is the 
excision of the part aSected and the application 
of a coat of grafting-wax, as the evil will spread 
and ultimately destroy the tree. 

In conclusion, it is yet a question whether 
sickly trees invite the growth of the fungus by 
a stagnation of the vital forces through the ex- 
ternal pores, which consequently become clogged 
and form the niches for the sporules of the fungus 
to hasten its decay as a secondary cause, the 
sap having been become primarily vitiated, either 
through excess or deficiency of moisture or plant 
food necessary to its health and vigor, atmospheric 



or electric conditions of heat and cold or sudden 
changes. The subject involves so many contin- 
gencies, of which we have but a partial know- 
ledge, which admonishes a modest investigator to 
be cautious, not from a lack of knowledge of the 
various opinions advanced by scientific men. but 
from the disagreement of those opinions which at 
best are but speculative in many cases, and this I 
apprehend to be one of them. 

[Under date of June 17th we received from 
Mr. Carter, of the Eastern Pennsylvania Experi- 
mental Farm of West Grove, Chester county, a 
letter inclosing two pieces of pear-bark, seeming 
to be infected by a kind of " blight," said letter 
containing a series of queries in relation to the 
matter. Mr. C, among other things, states that 
these specimens were taken from a Sickel pear- 
tree, and that said blight was killing the pear- 
trees on the farm " quite rapidly." Their trees 
had been scraped and washed in the spring, usino- 
soap-suds, sulphur and common manure, and that 
otherwise they looked healthy and vigorous. 
Being too busily engaged in other occupations at 
the time, and, moreover, considering the questions 
involved in their investigation more within the 
domain of botany than that of entomology, we 
transferred the matter to our friend g., and the 
foregoing is what he says on the subject. We 
have only to say in addition that we have fre- 
quently noticed this phenomenon before, but have 
never been able to identify the cause of it with 
the presence of insects. We once had a pear-tree 
on our premises that died from a similar " bark- 
blight," as it was called. The edges of the in- 
fected surface would turn up, and eventually 
small pieces of the bark would drop off, leaving a 
dark cavity reaching to the sap-wood, and these 
were so numerous that the whole surface eventu- 
ally became dry and scrofulous, or scruSy, from 
which time the tree became sickly-looking, and 
finally died. We regret, in conclusion, that we 
are unable to suggest a remedy any better than 
the one Mr. C. has tried. — P^ditor.] 



In answer to an inquiry as to what causes hair 
balls in cattle, the Cincinnati Times says : They 
seem to originate from a disordered and irritable 
condition of the digestive organs. This causes 
animals to lick themselves, and the wool or hair 
which is thus carried into the stomach is formed by 
the movement of that organ into a ball, which con- 
tinues to increase in size in proportion as fresh hair 
or wool is carried into the stomach. It does not 
often cause death, and we have never yet found 
any medicine to remove them. 



ISJf 



THE LAJ\rCASTER FARMER. 



LANCASTER, JL'LY, 1873 

S. S. RATHVON, Editor. 

Published monthly under the auspices of the Agricul- 
TUKAL andHoutic0ltukal Sooiett. 

$1 35 per Year in Advance. 

A considerable deduction to clubs of five or more. 

A'l commun1C''tions, to insure insertion, must he in tli'^ 
hands of the editor before tUe 20th of each month. Ad- 
dress S. S. Ea'hvon, Lancas^ter. Pa. 

All advertisements, subscriptions and remittances to the 
addressof the publisher, J. B. DKVELIN, 

Inquirer Building, Lancaster, Pa. 

EXHIBITIONS. 

WE have received a royal octavo pamphlet 
of 231 pages, containing the "Report of 
the Board of Commissioners, of the Third Cincin- 
nati Industrial Exposition," of 1872. 

This work contains the entire premium list, the 
classification and general arrangement of the ex- 
hibition, together with the reports of all the 
judges of its last exhibition, and also the awards 
of premiums— to whom, for what, and of what 
quality and value. In looking over these pre- 
miums we find that they consist mainly of bronze, 
silver, and gold medals, and that they have been 
liberally distributed. For instance, in class No. 
60, which consisted of ladies' articles, such as hair 
work, wax work, shell and needle work, embroid- 
ery, etc., forty-nine medals were awarded, mainly 
of bronze and silver. In class No. 69, including 
horticultural productions, the premiums were from 
$1 to ^150, the ^20, $30 and $50 premiums occur- 
ing the most frequent. We may instance that 
the best display of flowers, in variety and arrange- 
ment, was awarded Mason and Ilamlins' Parlor 
Organ, and $1,50 in money. The best collection 
of pears, and the best collection of grapes grown 
in the air, were each awarded $25, while the high- 
est for foreign grapes was only $10. 



ORDER OF PATRONS OF INDUSTRY. 

The object of this organization is to bring 
farmers into council, that, by the discussion of the 
various questions that affect their interest, the 
welfare of farmers in general may be promoted. 
But it is more particularly designed to enlist the 
sympathy and co-operation of farmers in all mea- 
sures that may be deemed advisable to facilitate 
the transportation and disposition of their pro- 
ducts ; to devise and execute such measures as 



may be necessary to protect themselves against 
the extortions of middlemen, and the machina- 
tions of speculators, and to secure such legisla- 
tion as may be necessary to guard their property 
against the exactions of tax-gatherers. None 
but farmers, their wives, sons and daughters can 
become members. The sons must be eighteen and 
the daughters sixteen years of age. An initia- 
tion fee of $5, for males, and $2 for females is re- 
quired, and this entitles them to all the degrees. 
There are no other expenses, save monthly dues, 
and these differ in different localities, from ten to 
twenty-five cents or more. 

Whether there is occasion or not for such or- 
ganizations in Lancaster county, or in the State, 
at large, is a question that must be determined by 
farmers themselves. One thing is certain, they 
are increasing in the whole West, the South 
South-west and in the Pacific States. They are 
also beginning to appear in the North and East. 
Things move. 



MEETING OF THE LANCASTER COUNTY 
AGRICULTURAL AND HORTI- 
CULTURAL SOCIETY. 

The regular meeting of the society was held at 
the Orphans' Court Room, June 2, 1873, Levi 
S. Reist in the chair, and Alex. Harris, Secretary- 

The condition of the crops being called for by 
the chairman, Casper Hiller reported that the 
fruit crop, so far as he is aware, is very unpromis- 
ing. Pears do not promise much, strawberries 
look well, but raspberries are pretty much frozen. 

J. B. Erb said that the winter grain looked well 
and that the oats had a good appearance. Corn 
appears yellow, the ground being dry and much 
replanting has taken place. The apple trees 
blossomed well, but the fruit is pretty much falling 
off. The curculio is busy depredating upon his 
favorite fruits. There is the appearance as if 
there might be some peaches. 

Casper Hiller said grapes with him are pretty 
much frozen. The thermometer did not sink with 
him below thirteen degrees zero last winter. 

John B. Erb said the strawberry crop with him 
would be a light one. He expects a good crop of 
raspberries. The black cap especially promise 
well. Blackberries only make a good appearance. 
Peaches need not be mentioned in his neighbor" 
hood. In the southern part of the county there 
will be some peaches. There will be few cherries 
anywhere. The currants and gooseberries first 



TEE LAJVCASTER FARMER, 



135 



looked well, but the former were drowned in the 
spring rains. 

J. Miller read the followinof report upon the 
grain aud fruit crops : It gives me great pleasure 
that I am able to report a favorable condition of 
the crops to this society. The prospects for a good 
■wheat crop are, in my estimation about three 
times as good as last year on the first of June 
"We see, occasionally, a thin field, but with a fa- 
vorable season from now to harvest, we may safely 
put duwn an average of twenty bushels per acre. 
Rye is long in straw, and has every prospect of be- 
ing a full crop. Corn is pretty well up, with the 
exception of the late or second planting, to which 
a number of farmers in my own immediate neigh- 
borhood, and I have since been informed that it 
was the case pretty much all over the county, the 
farmers had trouble with this crop, the seed not 
coming to perfection. As a matter of experience 
I will report a few facts in regard to seed corn, 
which may save all trouble in the future. My 
plan is to pick out the finest and largest ears in 
the fall, when I unload at husking time, and put 
them in a room in a house, and there let it until 
I want to plant, when I shell by hand. I have 
followed this plan for a number of years, and have 
never been compelled to plant the second time. 
This year when all around me were planting the 
second time, I was cultivating my corn, and I give 
this plan to-day to the public, with the assurance 
that if followed, there will be no necessity to re- 
plant. My neighbors got seed corn from me, 
picked out of the crib, and the result was, that 
they had to replant. The cause, in my opinion is, 
that seed corn will freeze, and the grain will be 
damaged when exposed to such severe cold weather 
as we have had during the past winter. Corn that 
has come up is growing finely, but other fields that 
had to be partly replanted, look very irregular. 
Oats, although short for the season, looks remark- 
ably well, aud is growing very fast. Grass fields 
are thickly set, and with an occasional shower and 
warm weather will make a large crop of hay. Pas- 
ture is in good condition at present. Potatoes are 
backward as everything else on account of the 
cold spring, have been slow in coming up ; the 
Early Rose is far ahead of all others in growth. 
Apples have been very full of bloom, and if noth- 
ing injures them we may have an an average crop. 
Peaches and cherries we will have a few ; of the 
former most trees have been frozen, wood and all. 
It is discouraging to see a nice row of peach trees 
all cut down for fire wood, that had bushels of 



peaches last year, yet such is the fact. Pears and 
other fruit have not suffered so much, excepting 
grape-vines and quince trees, have shared about the 
same fate as the peach trees ; but as a whole,grain 
and fruit prospects may be summed up with the 
following words : what we lose in the one we gain 
in the other. We will again be abundantly sup. 
plied for our wants. 

Israel Landis said the wheat promised as well 
as it had done for years. 1 he hay also looks well. 
His grape vines are all frozen to the ground. 
Tobacco will not be planted to the extent this 
year that it was last. 

M. D. Kendig said there would be some peaches 
on Turkey Hill, in this county, an elevated spot 
of the county, but that this was the only place in 
the county where there would be any as far as he 
knew. 

Elias Breckbill said that the grass had a fine 
appearance and that the wheat is late with him, 
and on this account he apprehends that it may be 
blighted. Fruit in general will be a failure as far 
as he knows. 

Jacob H. Musser said that the grain crop in 
East Donegal looks quite fine. 

M. D. Kendig said that at first he was doubtful 
of the apple crop, but is now satisfied they will do 
tolerably well. 

Dr. Elam Hertz said the crops in his neighbor- 
hood look well. There will be a few cherries in 
some places. The grapes are generally frozen, 

H. M. Eugle said the wheat crop promises well 
in most places, and also the grass. The corn is 
thin having come up very irregularly. The apple 
trees blossomed well but the fruit is dropping ofiT 
much and the crop will be a light one. There 
will be some peaches on high grounds, across the 
Susquehanna, in York county. Elevation, he is 
satisfied, has a good deal to do with the peaches. 
Grapes have frozen pretty generally, but the 
Concord has escaped the best. The Telegraph, 
Rodgers, Hybrids, Creveliug and many others have 
been equally frozen. The grape crop will be a 
poor one. The Colorado beetle has at length 
mae its app earance, and they have been found 
in considerable numbers. He found none of them 
on his farm last year, but they were found on 
adjoining farms; this year they are on his farm. 
The cabbage butterfly is this year again on hand. 
The caterpillars in York county are very numer- 
ous, but are not yet troublesome in this neighbor- 
hood. 

S, S. Rathvon thought his grape-vines were all 



136 



THE LAJf CASTER FARMER. 



frozen. He had a Martha, a Clinton and some 
other kinds that were partially frozen, but having 
cut away the frozen parts they are growing well 
again and some grapes will be obtained on them. 
One stem has already grown four feet. He is sat" 
isfied that the fruit on high grounds is mostly 
safe. He made a visit to an orchard in York 
county lately where he found the peach trees well 
loaded and promising a good crop. 

Lemuel S. Fry, of Ephrata, was at this point 
elected a member of the society. 

Jacob M. Frantz said that he would have a 
good crop of grapes and plenty of other kinds of 
fruit. 

S. S. Rathvon related an instance of an amber 
cherry tree having blossomed profusely this year, 
but that it will have no cherries. 

H. M. Engle remarked that when grape-vines 
are badly frozen, the old stalk should be well 
planed off and the young shoots should be pinched 
back, in order to prevent them from growing too 
compact. His plan is to train them horizontally, 
and he always pinches back considerably. 

Hiram Engle remarked that his peach trees in 
York county will have about half a crop. They 
are upon high ground. Peach trees that bore 
last year will have but few this year. 

P. S. Reist spoke of the tobacco crop and said 
that some one reported to a tobacco journal tha; 
the Lancaster crop was a very poor one in qual- 
ity, and chiefly fit only for fillers. 

Levi S. Reist said that he had sold some to- 
bacco lately, and the dealer to whom he sold it 
remarked that it was pole rotted, having been 
hung too thick. He thinks this has been the case 
all over the county. He believes the crop in the 
county has been badly managed. Some farmers 
have been getting twenty cents per pound for 
their tobacco and others cannot sell their crop at 
all. 

Jacob G. Peters thinks much of the tobacco has 
been spoiled by hanging it too close on the poles. 
He believes this is an important matter, and 
farmers should be careful in reference to this. He 
is of the opinion that the reporter who wrote to 
the tobacco journal, of which Mr. Reist makes 
mention, has nevertheless exaggerated his state- 
ment. 

Mr. William McComsey now rose and spoke as 
follows : For the purpose of testing the sense of 
this meeting on the question of holding an exhi- 
bition on the grounds of the Agricultural Park 
Association, I present the following resolution, 
without further remark than that my only ambi- 



tion is to assist, in my humble way, to promote 
the objects of the organization of the society, 
without any disposition to direct its action or 
control its policy. It is, therefore, my express 
desire that, in case of its adoption, I be left off, 
my engagements being such as would prevent a 
proper discharge of duty : 

Resolved, That, in consideration of the friendly 
and liberal disposition manifested on the part of 
the Agricultural Park Association, and with the 
view of best promoting the interests, as well as 
the object of both, five conferees be appointed by 
this Society, to confer with a like number on the 
part of the Park Association, upon the subject 
of holding a joint exhibition the coming fall, em- 
bracing agriculture, horticulture, pomology, mech- 
anism, science, stock, etc., and make report of 
their transactions to this Society on the first 
Monday of July. 

The resolution was adopted, and the following 
gentlemen were appointed conferees under it : 
Messrs. Wm. McComsey, H. M. Engle, H. K. 
Stoner, Alex. Harris and J. G. Peters. 

After the appointment of the committee, the 
society, on motion, adjourned. 



Wk are exceedingly sorry that we are unable to 
say anything definite in this number of our journal 
in reference to the exhibition contemplated in the 
proceedings of the last meeting of the Horticul- 
tural Society. There seems to have been some 
mistake or misunderstanding in the appointed 
meeting of the committees of conference, through 
which a quorum was not present, and therefore no 
action was had. In the meantime, and as suggestive 
in case an exhibition, is held we publish following 
rules of the " Fourth Cincinnati Industrial exposi- 
tion," which commences in September next. 

" First — The halls and grounds will be open for 
the reception of articles on Monday, August 4, to 
Saturday August 30. On Wednesday, Septem 
ber 3, the exposition will be opened to the public, 
and will continue open from day to day (Sundays 
excepted) from 9 o'clock A. M., to 10 o'clock P. M. 
until Saturday evening, October 4. 

" Second — all articles will be entered for exhi. 
bition only, except those specifically named in th^ 
published list of articles to which premiums will 
be awarded, Articles named in the premium list 
may be entered for exhibition or competition, at 
the option of the exhibitor, which must not be 
later than August 30. 

" Third — Articles intended for competition 
must be entered on the books as such not later 



THE LAJ^CASTER FARMER. 



137 



than Augast 30, otherwise they will be entered 
for exhibition only ; and all articles must be in 
position ready for exhibition by Tuesday, Septem- 
ber 2. The driving engines will be in operation 
one week previous to the opening of the exposi- 
tion to the public, and exhibitors of machinery 
in motion will be required to have their machines 
in running order on the day of opening. 

"Fourth — Each exhibitor (except in the ladies 
department) will be required to pay an entry fee 
of two dollars. An exhibitor competing for more 
than one premium (except in the horticultural de" 
partment) shall pay two dollars for each addi- 
tional premium competed for. 

" Each exhibitor will have the privilege, upon 
payment of two dollars in addition to the entry 
fee for his articles, of securing a ticket of admis. 
sion (positively not transferable) which will admit 
him at all hours of the exposition. Not more than 
two exhibitors' admission tickets will be issued to 
a firm or corporation. 

" Ladies entering articles in the ladies' depart- 
ment, and not desiring a ticket of general admis- 
sion, may have the privilege of entering said arti- 
cles free. 

" Fifth — All applications for space must be 
made on or before the 20th of August, on the 
printed blank forms, which will be furnished by 
the Secretary, and applicants after that date 
will not be allotted space until those entered by 
the 20th of August have been assigned. 

" Applications for space must state the exact 
amount and kind required; and for machinery? 
show cases, etc., a plan of the floor, counter or 
wall space must accompany the application. The 
exact dimensions and style of show cases should be 
particularly specified. 

" Space allotted to applicants, and not occu- 
pied by them on or before Saturday, August 30, 
may be assigned to other exhibitors. And the 
Board reserve the right to exclude from the expo- 
sition patent medicines, nostrums, and articles o^ 
an explosive, highly inflammable, dangerous or of- 
fensive character. 

"Ninth— The premium list will be published, 
and all awards shall be for the first degree of 
merit in each class. No second-class awards 
or decisions will be made or reported in any case 
excepting in the horticultural departments." 



In agriculture, as in other matters, you must in. 
vest a capital before you can receive an interest 
or profit. The capital may be in labor, or money 
or manure. 



THE CROPS. 

At this writing, June 21st, the wheat, rye and 
clover crops, generally, appear promising — al- 
though in some places the presence of the " fly " 
has been detected — but the oats, potatoes, and 
corn, and also the timothy, are much in want of 
a good penetrating rain. A continued drought 
at this time, would also seriously aSect the tobacco 
crop, although, under any circumstances, the con- 
tinued dull sale of this article may prevent as 
large a crop as would have been planted under 
more favorable auspices. The crop of strawber- 
ries has been fair, but cherries are short. Apples 
and pears not so good as they promised earlier in 
the season. Peaches and grapes very short, or a 
failure. 

Since writing the foregoing, we clip the follow- 
ing from the columns of a contemporary, as very 
appropriate to the subject at this time. It 
may at least direct the attention of those inter- 
ested toward the quarter from whence the prospec- 
tive supply is expected to come, if it does nothing 
more : 

THE PROMISE OF THE PEACH CROP. 

"We have (says the Wilmington, Del., CommeV' 
cial of May 10th) not meant to say at any time 
that all the peach orchards on the peninsula, this 
year, would bear a " full " crop, it being a well- 
known fact that in some of the largest producing 
districts the buds were completely destroyed by 
the excessive cold. In New Castle county, in- 
cluding about one-third of the peach district in 
product, there will be a very small yield indeed. 
Some large orchards will not produce fifty baskets 
of fruit. 

But south of the limits of this county, the pros- 
pect is as good as it ever was, and far better than 
it was last year. In 1872, the peach crop nearly 
all came from the latitude of Dover. This year 
the condition is reversed, and the orchards in that 
latitude and south of it will give the bulk of the 
crop. The eastern shore orchards generally prom- 
ise well, and there will probably be from the im- 
portant districts on Chester and other rivers a 
very heavy yield. 

We are, therefore, of the opinion that the 
aggregate of baskets this year will be one of the 
largest ever sent to market. The increased num- 
ber of fruit-bearing trees must be allowed for, and 
this, with the very promising bloom of the old 
orchards, leads us to the above conclusion. The 
shipments by rail to Philadelphia and New York 
may be less than last year, as it is the New Castle 



138 



TEE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



county orchards, especially those about Middle- 
town, that send a large part of them, and the 
water shipments to Philadelphia are quite likely 
to show a decrease. But the other routes to New 
York and Baltimore, which tap the central and 
lower fruit sections, will carry increased quantities. 



How THEY Raise Peaches in Delaware, — 
The Delaware Peninsula produces more fruit 
than any similar section of the world. It is esti- 
mated that the receipts from her fruit products 
are not far from $3,000,000 yearly. The freight 
trafBc alone is worth $500,000. A committee of 
one of the New Jersey Agricultural Societies, 
having visited Delaware last year, made a report, 
and the following is condensed from it, showing 
what is necessary to make peach culture suc- 
cessful : 

1. To prepare thoroughly, clear and enrich the 
soil for planting. 2. To give plenty of room 
or plant twenty-five or thirty feet apart. 3. Not 
to shorten in the branches. 4. To do a great deal 
of work among the trees — plowing, harrowing, 
cultivating, allowing no grass or weeds. 5. To 
hunt the borers once a year, in autumn. 6. No 
raising corn or potatoes except the first three 
years in the orchard, and then only provided fer- 
tilizers are applied. 7. After the third year to 
plant nothing, but cultivate thoroughly. 

The thorough cultivation was believed by own. 
ers to keep the curculios within bound, and so 
rapid was the growth imparted to the trees, that 
orchards only four years old had trees with heads 
nearly twenty feet in diameter and fifteen feet 
high. The cultivators are broad, reaching nearly 
half way from row to row, and doing work 
rapidly. 



The varieties preferred are Troth's Early, Early 
York, Stump the World, Crawford's Early, Old 
Mixon Free and Crawford's Late. Hale's Early 
has failed from its liability to rot. 



Why Clover Improves the Soil. — Professor 
Veolcker thus explains the action of clover in in- 
creasing the fertility of soils : All who are practically 
acquainted with the subject must have seen that the 
best crops of wheat are produced by being preceded 
by the crops of clover growing for seed. I come 
to the conclusion that the very best preparation, 
the best manure, is a good crop of clover. A 
vast amount of mineral manure is brought within 
reach of the corn crop, which otherwise would re- 
main in a locked-up condition in the soil. The 
clover plants take nitrogen fx'om the atmosphere, 
and manufacture it into their own substance, 
which, on discomposition of the clover roots and 
leaves, produces abundance of ammonia. In real- 
ity, the growing of clover is equivalent, to a great 
extent, to manuring with Peruvian guano, and in 
this paper of mine I show that you obtain a 
larger quantity of manure than in the largest dose 
of Peruvian guano which a farmer would ever 
think of applying. It is only by carefully investi- 
gating subjects like the one under consideration 
that positive proofs are given, showing the cor- 
rectness of intelligent observers in the field. 



Taking a Tour. — Franklin B. Gowen. Esq. 
President of the Philadelphia and Reading Rail- 
road and of the Philadelphia and Reading Coal 
and Iron Companies, will be absent from the 
country for two or three months. In his absence, 
Mr. J. W. Jones, First Vice-President, will act 
for him in the Railroad Company, and Mr. Geo. 
D. B. Keim, Vice-president, in the Coal and 
Iron Company, 



iem ^uU, ind., M' ^sik, Z.?;/. 

€nt, jeai ajki da4e, ^ fiioml/^^ io jiaf @^. ^lown oi 
oidti §mo <^unditd and Sfev^nii^.jive Wollai^ 
hi value iecewed, ai hn jiei ceni. jifi 
jfiaijaiU ai §au ^aaie, ^nd. John < 

Wnei^: Un §Joe. 



awnum, 



lealei $W when ^ /yell b^ 
moiik oi ^eedlna oUacninei 
l^ald 4tn dolla'iA, when due, lA 



lem fol 



hown. 



The above obligation shows the manner in 
■which workless and worthless sharpers "lubricate" 
simple but, perhaps, well-meaning "ruralites," 
before they " take them in." By cutting such an 
obligation through, between the words or and 
bearer, in the first line, it will be seen to impose a 



different obligation from that which had been 
originally assumed. This is done, and the paper 
is discounted or sold, and when it becomes due, 
the unfortunate signer of it finds himself also sold 
for the amount of its " face," and the scamp who 
deceived him beyond the reach of danger. 



TEE LAJYCASTER FARMER. 



139 



MISCELLANEOUS. 

FARMERS' INSTITUTE. 

THE Farmers' Institute of Eastern Pennsyl- 
vania convened at the Experimental Farm 
on Thursday, June 12, at 1 o'clock P. M., Thomas 
Baker, of Lancaster, president, calling the meet- 
ing to order. Henry L. Brinton, of Oxford, sec- 
retary, having read the proceedings of the last 
meeting, the business for the present meeting was 
announced. On motion, several committees were 
appointed to examine the diiferent kinds of ma- 
chinery on the ground. Other business of minor 
importance having been transacted, on motion, J. 
Wilkinson, Esq., General Deputy of the National 
Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry of the 
United_States, and Overseer of the State Grange 
of Iowa, was invited to address the meeting. He 
made quite a lengthy and eloquent address, show- 
ing the workings of the Order in the North-west- 
ern States and the advantages to be derived by 
the farmers in forming Granges in oi'der to pro- 
tect themselves from the thieving railroad mo- 
nopolies and middlemen in all produce trade. He 
spoke of the many advantages they had derived 
from regulating all kinds of farming implemeutSj; 
also, that they had in very great measure been 
able, through their combined etforts, to regulate to 
a large extent the prices of all kinds of store 
goods purchased by them for their families, etc., 
etc. His address was well received by a large 
majority of those pi'esent, and when he closed he 
received a vote of thanks for the information 
given, and he was requested to remain in the 
neighborhood for the purpose of forming a Grange, 
man^ of the farmers present declaring they were 
ready and anxious to join such an organization at 
once. On motion, the question of forming Granges 
was concurred in. The debate on this question 
was very interesting, but some of the speakers 
on the negative side were most too personal in 
their remarks. Among the most able on the 
affirmative were Mr. Wilkinson, of lowa,,and B. 
I. V. Miller, of Goatesville, and on the negative 
Jos. G. Turner, of Ghadd's Ford, and Willis Haz- 
zard, of near West Ghester. The debate was at 
times very animated, and occupied the remainder 
of the afternoon. On motion, the Institute ad- 
j ourned to meet at Media, Delaware county, in 
October next. 



The Cincinnati Industrial Exposition is cora- 
p osed of the " Board of Trade," the " Ohio Me- 



chanics' Institute," and the " Chamber of Com- 
merce ;" and the Board of Commissioners con- 
sists of five members from each of the above 
named institutions. We mention these facts as 
suggestive to those who desire to see a good ex- 
hibition of all the industrial productions of Lan- 
caster county at as early a day as possible. This 
object could probably be best accomplished by a 
union of all the elements in the county that are 
capable of contributing to such an enterprise, and 
working harmoniously together in that direction. 
We have in our midst a " Park Association," a 
" Horticultural and Agricultural Society," and a 
" Board of Trade," and to us it seems apparent 
that if these three organizations were to unite in 
a solid and vigorous effort, something might be 
accomplished that would be a credit to Lancaster 
county. Prominent as our county stands before 
the country in soil, in thrift and in wealth, it is 
far behind other counties less favored in these re- 
spects in that enterprise and united energy which 
are necessary in demonstrating her resources to 
the country, and in securing her that rank to 
which she is so eminently entitled. We hope our 
citizens will think and act on this subject. 



DENSE POPULATIONS. 

The Memorial Diplomatique gives the follow- 
ing interesting account of the density of popula- 
tion in the great centers of humanity throughout 
the globe : There are nine cities having a popula- 
tion exceeding 1,000,000 souls, viz. : London, 
3,251,000; Soochow, 2,000,000 ; Paris, 1,825,000; 
Pekin, 1,648,000; Yeddo, .1,554,000; Canton, 
1,236,000 ; Constantinople, 1,075,000 ; Sian-tan, 
in the province of Hunan, 1,000,000, and Tchaut- 
chaon-foe, in the province of Fokien, 1,000,000. 
It will be seen that, although London holds the 
first place, the Chinese empire can still boast of 
possessing more populous cities than all the civil- 
ized States of the W est. The number of cities 
possessing a population from above half a million 
up to a million is twelve, viz. : New York, Vi- 
enna, Berlin, Hangkaow, Philadelphia, St. Pe- 
tersburgh, Bombay, Calcutta, Fowchow, Tcheh- 
ing, Bangkok, Kioto. Twenty cities have a 
population of from 300,000 to 400,000 inhabi- 
tants, thirty-three of from 200,000 to 300,000, and 
ninety of from 100,000 to 200,000 inhabitants. 
Europe alone possesses 171 cities containing more 
than 50,000 inhabitants, at the head of which 
stand London, Paris, Constantinople, Vienna, 
Berlin and St. Petersburgh. 



UO 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



A CURIOUS CLIMATE. 

The climate of Peru is set forth by a corres- 
pondent as exceedingly peculiar and strange. 
It never rains there, we are told, but during cer- 
tain seasons, and when the atmosphere is filled 
with clouds, a " dew falls so thick, heavy and 
continuous that it will saturate the heaviest cloth- 
ing in less than half an hour." The coming and 
the going of the clouds that distill this dew is an- 
other strange thing connected with Peru. The 
changes are reported so rapid and violent as to 
startle the stranger. One may be walking along 
the street, giorying in the rich warmth of the 
sunshine, and admiring the deep, clear blue sky, 
when suddenly, and almost imperceptibly, a change 
takes place, " and from the southward a mass of 
dark clouds come rolling swiftly across the firma- 
ment, and soon the blue sky is replaced by a som- 
ber pall, and to the glorious sunshine succeeds a 
drizzling, penetrating mist." And this is also as 
suddenly changed again ; even while one is pre- 
paring to guard against the mist, the sunlight 
and the sky reappear in all their brightness and 
beauty. 



Important Dates. — The following will refresh 
the minds of our readers as to the dates of the 
most important inventions, discoveries and im- 
provements, the advantages of which we now 
enjoy : 

Spinning wheel invented 1330. 

Paper first made of rags 1417. 

Muskets invented and first used in England in 
1421. 

Pumps invented 1425. 

Printing invented by Faust 1441. 

Engraving on wood invented 1490. 

Post-offices established in England 1464. 

Almanacs first published 1441. 

Printing introduced into England by (.axton 
1474. 

Violins invented 1474. 

Eoses first planted in England 1505. 

Hatchets first made in 1504. 

Punctuation first used in literature 1520. 
Beforethattimewordsandsentenceswereputtoge- 
therlikethis. 



Tapioca Cream.— Soak two tablespoonfuls 
of tapioca in just enough water to cover it all 
night. The next morning boil one quart of milk 
^ith the soaked tapioca, add two-thirds of a 
small cup of sugar to it and a little salt. Beat 



the yolks of three eggs thoroughly, and when the 
milk has boiled for ten minutes, stir them into it, 
remove it from the fire, and stir rapidly for five 
minutes so that they will not curdle. Flavor it 
with vanilla ; beat the whites to a stiff froth, and 
put over the top of the pudding dish into which 
you have turned the tapioca ; sift sugar over it 
and brown for five minutes in the oven ; serve 
cold. This makes a more delicious desert than 
pastry to my taste, and can be prepared the day 
before it is needed. 



The Human Eye. —Many tender and beautiful 
things have been said of the eyes ; yet how infe. 
rior to the sweet things uttered by themselves ! A 
full eye seems to have been esteemed the most 
expressive. Such was the eye that enchained the 
soul of Pericles. The American writer, Halibur- 
ton, declares that he would not give a piece of 
tobacco for the nose, except to tell when a dinner 
is good ; nor a farthing for the mouth, except as 
a kennel for the tongue ; but the eye - study that, 
and you will read any man's heart as plain as a 
book. If there is any feature in which genius 
always shows itself, it is the eye, which has been 
aptly called the " index of the soul." 



Lime for Poisoning by Plants and Insects. — 
A standing antidote for poison by oak, ivy, etc., 
is to take a handful of quicklime, dissolve in 
water, let it stand half an hour, then paint the 
poisoned parts with it. Three or four applica- 
tions will never fail to cure the most aggravated 
cases. Poison from bees, hornets, spider-bites, 
etc., is instantly arrested by the application of 
equal parts of common salt and bicarbonate of 
soda, well rubbed in on the place bitten or stung 
Boston Journal of Chemistry. 



Which is the Best Breed of Cattle? — The 
question can be answered only relatively. For 
large quantities of butter the Jersey is the best 
by all odds. For working oxen, take the Devon ; 
for abundance of milk to sell, use the Ayrshire « 
for beef, take the short-horn Durham. For a 
good fair farm animal — good for milk, butter, or 
beef — the Ayrshire is most popular; but more 
money will be made if particular breeds are chosen 
for the special purposes intended. 



The Cellar. Whatever you do or fail to do 

do not neglect the cellar under the house. He, 
move everything that is decaying. Clean up. 
Whitewash the walls. Ventilate thoroughly and 
often. 



THE LAJ^CASTER FARMER. 



IJfl 



HOW TO GET ALONG. 



Do not stop to tell stories in business hours. 

If you have a place of business, be found there 
/ when wanted. 

No man can get rich by sitting round stores and 
saloons. 

Have order, system, regularity, liberality and 
promptness. 

Do not meddle with business you know nothing 
about. 

Never buy an article you do not need, simply 
because it is cheap, and the man who sells it will 
take it out in trade. 

Strive to avoid hard words and personalities. 

Pay as you go. 

A man with honor respects his word as his 
bond. 

Aid, but never beg. 

Help others when you can, but never give 
what you cannot afford to simply because it is 
fashionable. 

Learn to say " no." No necessity of snapping 
it out dog-fashion, but say it firmly and respect, 
fully. 

Have but a few confidants, the fewer the bet- 
ter. 

Use your brains rather than those of others. 

Learn to think and act for yourself. 

Be vigilant. 

GOOD RULES, 

The following eleven paragraphs are worthy of 
a place among the most valued rules that should 
govern a well-regulated farm : 

1. When fruit trees occupy the ground nothing 
else should, except very short grass. 

2. Fruitfulness and growth of the trees cannot 
be expected the same year. 

3. There is no plum that the curculio will not 
take, though any kind may sometimes escape from 
one year in one place. 

4. Pear blight still puzzles the greatest men. 
The best remedy known is to plant two for every 
one that dies. 

5. If you don't know how to prune, don't hire 
a man from the other side of the sea who knows 
less than you do. 

6. Don't cut off a big lower limb unless you are 
a renter and care not what becomes of it when 
your time is out. 

7. A tree with the limbs coming out near the 
ground is worth two trees trimmed up ten feet, 
and so on until they are not worth anything. 



8. Trim down, not up. 

9. Shorten in, not lengthen out. 

10. If you had your arm cut off, you would feel 
it at your heart. 

11. When anybody tells you of a gardener that 
understands all about horticulture and agricul- 
ture, and that he can be hired, don't believe a 
word of it, for there are none such to be hired. 
Such a man can make more than you can afford 
to give him, and if he has sense enough to under- 
stand the business, he will also have sense enough 
to know this. 



BOOK AND SPECIAL NOTICE DE- 
PARTMENT. 



LITERARY NOTICES. 



EvERYBODY'p OWN PHYSICIAN ; OF, Hm to acquire and 
preserve health, hy CW. (.ileison , M. 1). We are reading 
this excellent work, and find it all, and much more, tha,u 
anything that has been said of it by th«) public press. 
With its two hundred and fifty illustrations, and its de- 
scriptive letter press, its perusal and understandiog be- 
comes as simple and interesting as the most plainly written 
tale. It ougiit to be owned and read by every intelligen 
family in the country at least, for it is certainly a treasury 
of useful knowledge in all that relates to human physiolo- 
gy and the laws of health ; and those advanced in life who 
read it, or who may have suif-^red from ignorance or ne- 
glect, cannot but regret that they had not access to such a 
work in the days of their j'outh or early manhood. It is 
especially valuable to ^females who are afflicted through 
violation of those physical laws which come directly in 
contact withconventionalism, fashion and improper habits 
of dress. It will, however, be of little value to those who 
do not read it; understand it and endeavor to carry out 
its teachings as practical rules of life. Every page is teem- 
ing with knowledge ;!^that cannot be disregarded with im- 
punity. 

Mystkriks of New York City. — We have received a 
new volume, entitled ''The Oai-k Sl'le of New York Life 
and its Hriminal Classes from Fifth Avtnue down to Five 
Points." This hook is a complete narratire of the iiicide 
mystMries of New York life, and will be read with ab- 
sorbing interest PubMsh--d in numbers at ten cents eatb, 
and for sale by all nowsdealers. P. tJ. box 4001, New York . 

Peterson's Magazine for July, 1873, is a superb num- 
ber. The raagniticent steel engraving of "The Yonns; 
Harvesters" is full of the most suggestive beauty and 
feeling The pure, sweet b'"tath of the summer is in this 
beautiful picture. Then there isaLadj's Slipper Pat- 
tern, colored; a steel fashion plate, tinted and colored 
with exquisite delicacy, whofe perfect accuracy of fashion 
may be relied upon. Kemember, it is the cheape^t of 
the lady's books ! To .><inyle subscribers it is $'2.00 a year. 
To clubs it is cheaper still, viz., 5 copies for ij;8.00, or 8 
copies for $12 00. with both an extra copy and a splendid 
premium engraving to the person getting up the e'ub. 
Specimens are sent gratis to those wishing to get up clnbs. 
Addre34 Charles J. Peterson, 30G Chestnut street, Phila- 
delphia. 

"Farmers' Union." and Tax Rhporm."— A 12rao 
pamphlet of 56 pages, contaiuiug an address to the tarm 
ers of the country by Heury Bronson, of the Douglas 
County Farmers' Club, Ka.nsa8, in which he takes a I igh 
stand in behalf of the producers and consumers, andagaiubt 
the midd'emen or mere stpeculators, as well as the exorti. 
tant rates ot transportation by railroads and other forward 
ing companies, and makes .^ome powerful hits. 



U2 



TEE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



Proceedings of the Second Annual Meeting of the Col- 
orado Sock Growers' Association, held in Denver on the 
3lPt of Jannary and 1st of February, 1873. Also the pro- 
ceedinss of the first inet-ting of the "Farmer's Union,' 
ard the ■' Roclsy Mountain Poultry Association." A 
doublp-column octavo pamohlet of 82 pages full of inter- 
esting matter on those subjects. 



'• Farmer and Gardbner," by J. G. Kreider, pnrsery- 
man, etc. Our enterprisinir contemporary now issues an 
8-page quarto on tinted paper and highly illustrated, in 
which we wish him abundant success. 



" Chuuoh Union," a roval quarto of 8 pages, published 
weekly at $2 00 a year, at No. 4 Warren street, N.' Y. This 
journal sdvocates the union of church enterprise, and the 
relaxation of the lines of sectariauisin, as a "consumma- 
tion devoutly to be wishe.i." 



" Biographical sketch of WilHan Penn, the founder 
of Ptmiis^lvania," by Hon. A. L. Hayes. A. M. An 8-yo. 
pampblet of 39 pages. A very interesting and readable 
sketch of the biofrraphy of a man of unquestionable vir- 
tues and adniinistrative abilities, whatever else he may 
have b^en ; and with whose history every Pennsylvanlan 
should be thoroughly acquainted. 



" TwELVETH Annual Report of the Board of Managers 
of the W'men's Hospita^. of ' hiladfclphia." and the 
" Twenty-fouith Annual Announcement of the WomerVa 
Hedical Col'e.fle, of Pennsylvania," 1873-74. Two 8vo. 
Xiam; hHts of 18 and 14 pages, emhwcing the faculty man- 
age'-n'^nt, curriculum and general worklne^ of two of the 
most imT)urtant and interesting institutions in our country, 
and essentially the progressive outbirths of a new age. 



" PuLKS Rnd premium list of the 4thCincinnati Indus- 
trial Exposition," which i? to open ■ n the 3d of September 
next, and continue until October 4th. An 8-vo pamphlet 
of 52 pages. (Indeed, this, in connection with the 3d re- 
port, noticed in our editorial colunons, may be regarded 
rather as beautifully prin'ed paper-bound books) in which 
the premium lists are quite as liberal and d iversified as 
those of the 3d exposition, and no doubt this will be as 
well patronized. 



NEW YORK MARKETS. 

New York, June 26. 

Flour.— The demand for Flour is less active, and the 
low grades are tame. Medium extras are lower and irreg- 
ular, both spiing and winter wheat extras. Good super- 
fine ard No. 2 in fair demand and comparatively firm. At 
the cIo-!e the market is irregular and rather easier for 
grades under SP8, and other gr^.des are le.ss active and irreg- 
ular. S«lef of 13.500 b-irrel.". We quote as follows: 
Hour per bbl S3 25a5 00 ; No. 2 S3 50a4 40 ; superfine, $5 ro^, 
5 45 ; State extra brands, $6 20 iG 60 ; State fancy do. $6 75a 
7 50; western shippius: extra .f 6 fOa« 40; Minnesota extras, 
common to fancy, .$6 75a8 00 ; do superlative extras, S7 40a 
11 2i; good to choice spring wheat extras. $6 50a7 25; 
extra amber Indiana, <>hio and Michigan, f/ 00a7 20; Ohio, 
Indiana and Illinois superfine S5 00a545; Ohio round 
lioep extra shii^^jg, $6 10a6 50 ; Ohio extra trade brands, 
§6 7(la7 ?i ; wh'. :■ whe«t extra Ohio. Indiana and Michigan, 
$7 60a8 20; d- lible extra <)o. do.,$8 2.5a9 50; St. Louis sin- 
gle extras, $7 60aj 10 ; St. Louis riouble do., $8 20a9 00 ; St. 
T.ouis triple extras, $9 lOall 25; Genesee extra brand. 
$7a9 65. 

Grain — The arrirals of wheat are very light, and with 
easier freights prices are firmer. The demand is in part to 
complete cargoes. Winter wheat is still neglected, and 
prices uncertain. The market closes better but quiet for 
spring and uncertain and inactive for winter, ihe latter in 
limited demf.nd, for milling cbiefly. The inquiry for 
spring for the fi.ture is light. The sales are 78 000 bushels 
at S126al28 for rejected spring; SI 47i,^al 48 for Vo. 2 
rh'cago spring ; SI 41al 42 for No. 3 Chicago spring; 11 52 a 
1 53 for No. 2 Alilwaukee, anil 8000 bushels do. seller first 
half of July at $1 48 ; $1 64 for red western ; $1 88 for 
wbite Michican Kalamazjo, in store ; -SI £5 for Ciiuadian 
club, in bond. Barley is dull and nominal. Barley malt 
is quiet ana prices uncertain. 

Odts are better and in demand for the trade and to hold. 
The sales are 86,000 bushels; new Ohio mixed at 42a44c 



and warm at 40a4le ; white at 46i^fl50; black at 40a42>^c ; 
western mixed at 41a443/2C ; white at 46>^a£Ic. Rye is firm 
hut quiet ; 85o bid for No 1 Milwaukee. Corn is firmer, 
but not quotable higher ; the demand is chiefly for export 
thfugh fair for the local trade. The supply of No. 1 mixed 
and yellf>wis limited. The sales are 91,00i) bushels, damp 
and unsound at 47a51c ; western mixed at 52a53c and ''sair' 
at C0a61c in lots, the latter for choice southern Illinois ; 
western while at70a73c. and do. yellow 65c. 

Peovisions— The pork market is lower but more active; 
the demand more general and brisk for the future. The 
sales, cash and regular, are 1470 bhls. at Sl5 50 for old mess, 
$15 75a!6 12^ for new do., Sl6 50al5 for city do. and 
$18 37al8 50 lor clear. For future delivery we hear of 
3750 bbis, seller July, at $15 50. 15 70 and mess 8l7 50; sel- 
ler August, $15 75al5 80. Beef is easier and unsettled; 
sales of 270 bMs at .$8alO 50 for plain mess and $llal2 for 
extra mes.»; old mess on private terms. Tierce beet is dull 
and tame. Beef haras in better demand; sale of 36 bbls at 
$30a3l for western. Cut meats are firmer; the supply 
light ; sales of 800 pickled shoulders, 9al01b av. , 8^0 ; 700 
do hams, ]2al3 lbs av. at 13>^c; 600 fresh hams, from the 
block, at 12»,'c; 450 do shoulders at 7>4'ca8.J^, and 27 boxes 
clear bellies at lOalOi^c. 

Bacon is better and in demand. Sales of 60 boxes long 
clear city at 8 ll-16c; 4.50 boxes short clear last night at %%c, 
and 100 do to-day at 9c. Dressed hogs are better and le8=( 
plenty. We quoie at &%a.l%n for city. Lard is easier and 
fairly active, the demand fair for the future. Sales of 970 
tierces at 7)^c for No. t ; 8a8V;^c for city, and 8 13-16c for 
fair to prime steam. For future delivery we hear of 750 
bbls mess (or June ; 2280 tc«., seller July, at 8Jia8 ]3-16c; 
2750Jtiprce8, seller August at 9c; 1200 tierces seller September 
at9j^^. A large business was done in turning contracts from 
July to September. At Chicago we hear of 1500 tierces 
for July at 8o, and 128 tierces for August at 8^0. 

MoLASSi^s — We notice small sales at 38c for Barbados 
and 83c lor choice New Orleans. 

Hat— Receipts for the week are 30.800 bales. The re- 
ceipts ire falling off on account of dry w^ather,and holders 
are very firm ; we quote prime at S24a26, good |20a22 ; 
good shipning *15al6; common $10al2. Straw is firm but 
quiet, at S18al9 for long rye ; $13 for short do. and $10 for 
oat 

Tallow steadier but dull; sales of 30,000 lbs good at 8%c; 
prime city quoted at 9>^c. 



PHILADELPHIA MARKETS. 

Philadelphia, June 26. 

Bark— No. 1 quercitron is quoted at S35 per ton. 

Flour-— There is more doing, and prices rule irregu- 
larly. About 2700 barrels changed hands, including super- 
fine at $4a4 55 ; extras at $4 45a5; spring wheatext;a fam- 
ily at $6 1234a7 75; Pennsylvania and Western winter 
wheat rto.do.at $7a8 25 and high grades , at $8 e0a9 50. 
Nothing doing in Rye Flonror Corn Meal. 

Grai."*. — There is a steady demand for wheat, and we no- 
tice sa.'es of 50u0 bu.-ihels Pennsylvania and Western red .it 
$1 per bushel ; spring amber at $146, and 10,000 bushels 
No. 1 spring on secret terms. No sales of rye. Corn 
meets a limited inquiry, with sales of 3000 bushels yellow 
a*^ 56c., and 10,000 bushels Western mixed, last half of Au- 
gust, at 61c., and 15 000 hushe s mixed on private terms. 
Oats «re b&tter, and 29.000 bushels at 45a46c for white, and 
40a42c for unsound and black. The receipts t0-d=iy are as 
foUowi: 3146 barrels of flour, 24.800 bushels wheat, 28,000 
bushels corn, 46,900 bushels oats, 100 barrels whisky. 

Provisions. — There is very little movement, but prices 
are uncLauged. Mess Pork is selling iu lots at $17 60al8 ; 
smoUed hams at 14al5c. ; do. sides at 10c. ; salted shouldtrs 
at 7a7 j^c. ; smoked do. at 8xa8Xc., and lard at 9 '9j^c. 

Seed.-* — '"loverseed is dull. We quote at 8a8i^c. per lb. 
Timothy sold at $3 75, and Flaxseed at $2 20 par bushel. 



PHILADELPHIA CATTLE MARKET. 

Philadelphia, June 23. 

Beef Cattle were dull this week and prices favored buy- 
ers; 2 8)0 head arrived and sold at 7,'ia7>^c for ext'ra 
Pennsylvania and western steers ; 7^c. tor a lew choice; 
5\^?.G]/^c for fair to good, and 4a5c ^ lb gross for common 
as to (fuality. 

Cows were without change. 300 hf ad sold at $50a75 ^ 
head. 

.Sheep were dull. 9000 head sold at 4>ia6c. per ft gross, 
as to condition. 

Hogs were firmer. 5000 head sold at $7 25aS per 100 2>s 
net. 



TEE LAJVCASTER FARMER- 



151 



acteristic of the Cecidomyians or Midges ; we are 
therefore not surprised that these little atoms 
should have escaped the observation of our cor- 
respondent. At this writing (July 20th) these 
galls are about a quarter of au inch in length, of 
a pale greenish color, slightly curved, and differ 
somewhat in form from any we have yet seen, 
being more swollen in the middle, tapering ab- 
ruptly towards the base, and gradually towards 
the apex. These trumpet galls have a wide geo- 
grapical range, including the states of New York, 
Illinois, Missouri, Iowa, Ohio, New Jersey and 
Pennsylvania, where we have noticed them at dif- 
ferent times during the last five years or more. 
From observations made by Mr. Walch and others 
long ago, this individual may be refered to the 
genus Cecidomyia, but its species, so far as our 
knowledge extends, is not yet distinctly made out. 

We are not able to say whether one or more 
broods are produced in a season ; nor how, or in 
what form it manages to survive the long Au- 
tumn, Winter and Spring ; for, we believe we have 
never seen them earlier than the month of June 
on any occasion. There is still a great dearth of 
k nowledge on these important points of the natu- 
ral history of insects, and in many respects, we ean 
only form an idea of the unseen , by the analogies 
the sucjects bear to that which we have seen. 

As to a remedy ; the simplest, and perhaps the 
only one, is to immediately cut off the infested 
leaves, as soon as they are seen, and destroy them_ 
If this is accomplished before the fly or larva has 
Oscaped, it must finally end in a success. There 
would be litttle use in looking for the fly, for it is 
too small, and its coming is heralded with too lit- 
tle demonstration, even to attract the attention of 
the most careful grape grower. But, if the leaves 
are all carefully collected, and burnt or scalded, 
while the maggots are yet in the galls, even to 
the total denuding of the vine and the injury to 
the crop for the season, it is very evident there 
must be and end of them eventhally ; that is, if 
all persons pursue this course. See page 114, of 
the proceedings of the Pennsylvania Fruit Grow- 
er's Society, from 1867 to 1870, and also Fig. 23 
on plate 3 for an illustration of an infested grape 
leaf. It is very fortunate that many of the most 
noxious insects, or at their most noxious periods, 
are too sluggish or too much engaged in the work 
of physical development, to be concious of the ap- 
proach of danger, if only a universal human vigi- 
lence and observation could be exercised in that 
direction. We were on one occasion much amused 
at the simple and ignorant astonishment betrayed 



by an otherwise intelligent woman who had called 
our attention to something that was skeletonizing 
her rose bushes, when we directed her observation 
to something less than a million of "slugs" of the 
selandrioe rosce. They were quietly engaged in 
doing their "level best" to perpetuate their race, 
without sinister -intent to her, or her rose-bush, 
and she permitted it. R. 



New Illustrated Work on Butterflies. — 
Mr. Herman Strecker, of this city, who, it is 
acknowledged, is the best posted man in North 
America on indigenous and exotic butterflies, and 
who has the largest collection of these insects in 
the country, is engaged in the publication of a 
valuable work, in monthly parts. Four parts have 
already been issued, and each one contains a col- 
ored lithograph, 12 by 9 inches, of butterflies never 
before represented with the pencil or brush. The 
object of this work is " to give accurate illustra* 
tions of new and hitherto unfigured species, the 
preference being given to those of North Amer- 
ica." Each plate contains on an average about 
a dozen figures, the number placed upon any single 
one depending upon the size of the insects. Mr. 
Strecker does the engraving on stone and color- 
ing himself, and each insect is drawn life size, and 
colored from nature. The upper and under sur- 
faces are given, also both sexes and larva, with 
stages of transformation wherever possible. Ac- 
companying each plate are complete technical 
description and history of each species, together 
with such observations and facts as may be of in- 
terest to the entomologist and to the general 
reader. The text is printed with large clear typtJ 
on heavy white paper of superior quality, the pub- 
lication being in every respect of a very creditabld 
character. A limited number of copies are print- 
ed, after which the drawings are erased and others 
placed upon the stone. 

Part 1st contains representations of a magnifi- 
cent new species of butterfly from Arizona ; part 
2d new species from Colorado, Anticosti Island, 
near Labrador, New Mexico, and Vancouver's la- 
land : part 3d is devoted to North American Ca- 
tocalid?e, or underwing moths ; and part 4th to 
diurnal butterflies from our western territories.^ 

The work is both interesting and valuable, and 
has already received the highest enconAuma of 
American and European entomologists and natur- 
alists. Mr. Strecker has obtained the mastery of 
his subject, not only by devoting the spare mo-^ 
nicnts of a lifetime, but also by burning midnight 
oil for many years. He is also in constant corres- 



152 



THE LAJ^CASTER FARMER. 



pondence with the prominent entomologists in 
various parts of the world. 

We cheerfully give place to the foregoing, in 
the Farmer— which we clip from the columns of 
a late number the Reading Daily Eagle — not be- 
cause it needs our endorsement, or that we expect 
to influence any one in bestowing their patronage 
upon the work — however much it may really merit 
it — but simply because we desire to thus recognize 
the laudable efforts of one " unbribed by influence 
and unbought by gain," and who can have little 
other stimulant than an unconquerable love of 
science for its sake alone. Under the most favor- 
able circumstances, a work of this kind rarely ever 
pays those who perform the labor in getting it up, 
and who may most stand in need of pay. It is true, 
that as an economic or practical work on this 
branch of entomology, it may not meet all the 
Wants of the public ; but then, entomology can- 
not possibly be truly practical, without it also con- 
tains the scientific principles which are necessary 
in making it intelligible to the scientific world. 
No matter how commonplace the subject treated 
tnay be, it demands some scientific knowledge, in 
Order to have a thorough understanding of its de- 
tails. We think that local pride alone ought to 
induce eVefy intelligent possessor of a private 
library— in Berks county at least — to have a copy 
of this Work upon its shelves ; not so much be- 
cause of its present worth to him, as it most cer- 
tainly will be to generations coming after him ; 
for, depend upon it, the time tvill come when a 
greater interest will be manifested in natural sci- 
ence, in spite of the lumbering — and sometimes, 
perhaps, unnecessary — technicalities in which it is 
involved. We sincerely believe that to divest 
natural history of its scientific names, and to sub- 
stitute common English or German names instead 
— names which, in most cases, could not possibly 
have more than a local significance — more would 
be done to complicate the study of the subject 
than all the scientific names that have ever been 
invented. Scientific entomology is one thing, and 
and practical entomology is quite another ; and 
although the former may get along bravely with- 
out the latter, yet the latter, from a want of uni- 
formity in its nomenclature, would be like a vessel 
at sea without a compass, if totally separated from 
the former. 

Therefore, the technicalities of natural history 
must he acquired— jnet as they are in any profes- 
sional or mechanical calling — if men desire to keep 
within the sphere of the progressive spirit of the 
age. We therefore hope the public may feel a 



demand for Mr. Strecker's work, and feeling it, 
may at once proceed to supply it. R. 



West Grove, July 21st, 1873. 

S. S. Rathvon, Esq., Dear Sir : — I take the 
privilege of sending you two worms found upon 
some Kansas wheat. They have been quite de- 
structive upon a plot of this kind of wheat, but not 
noticed in any other part of the field, or on any 
other kind. They eat the grain, and if likely to 
increase will be a serious injury. When young, 
these worms are green ; as .they grow older they 
grow browner ; have narrow stripes of dark, light 
and brown colors, running lengthwise; and when 
grown are about one and one-quarter inches long. 

Any information about these worms will be 
gladly received. Yours truly, 

John I. Carter. 

The above letter, and the worms referred, 
to, came safely to hand through the U. S. mail, 
just as we were on the point of leaving home for 
a few days. Therefore had only time to place the 
worms and ears of wheat in a glass jar, about half 
filled with earth, and they still remain there. We 
can only state conjecturally that they very probably 
are the larvae of a speces of Gortyna, or "Owlet 
moth." On two occasions we found a similar lar- 
va on some rank wheat stalks that grew aloug the 
shaded margin of a field. One or two were on the 
ears, feeding on the soft, pulpy grains, but others 
were inside the stalk, excavating it through the 
j oint, from end to end. Some of the stalks had 
an aperture in the side, through which the larva 
emerged, either to ascend to the ear to complete 
its larval development, or to descend and burrow 
into the ground. Those we collected died, either 
from starvation, or the want of moist earth, in 
which to change to the pupa state. 

There are several species of these insects, and 
in the larva state they are usually called " stalk- 
borers." One pretty well known species — Gor- 
tyna nitcla — often is found burrowing in the po- 
tato stalks, but does not confine itself to this 
plant, but also occurs in the stalks of the tomato, 
the dahlia, the aster, the colia, the cockleburr, and 
other plants. Professor Riley says 'he once saw 
one boring into the pith of a green corn-cob, and 
that a specimen was sent to him that had been 
found boring into the stalk of the green corn. The 
Gortyna zea, or " spindle-worm," is found burrow- 
ing in the heart of the young Indian corn, and in 
Kentucky and South Illinois has been considered 
one of the greatest pests to the corn crop. In 
18G0 this species was particularly destructive to 



THE LAJ^CASTEB FARMER. 



153 



the corn crop of Kansas; for, according to tlie 
Prairie Farmer, a single county in that , State, 
which, in 1859, produced 486,000 bushels of corn, 
only produced 5,000 bushels of " poor wormy 
stuff" in 1860. These worms not only bored into 
the stalk, but also attacked the soft pulpy grains 
of corn in the ears, their excavations affording 
retreats for other destructive insects, aad produc- 
ing a species of greenish mould, thus finishing the 
work of destruction. It is said also to eat into 
the green fruit of the tomato, and has been found 
feeding on young pumpkins. Mr. Riley says that 
specimens of the first-named species had been sent 
to him, which had been found destroying the 
peach-buds in the Spring, and others boring into 
the twigs of the peach. Dr. Harris says speci- 
mens had been sent to him, that had been found 
boring into the stalks of green wheat. There is 
one consolation, however, in the fact that what 
• ripens too quickly, after the grain is once formed, 
to expose it to much damage from this worm ; for 
when once the grains of corn or wheat are hard- 
ened, the danger from its depredations is over_ 
The specimens you sent seem to difiPer from the 
descriptions given of the two species above named, 
and therefore it may be a new one. We must 
wait for the appearance of the moth, before we 
can say anything more about it. 

Bein^ comparatively a new thing, we know of 
no remedy for it, and even those suggested for the 
known species are either defective or altogether 
impractical and worthless. Ed. 



The " White Cabbage Butterfly," or " Green 
cabbage worm" — Pieris rapce— so far as we can 
learn, has not yet been so destructive this season 
as it was in the last ; but we would admonish our 
friends that it is the second brood which is gener- 
ally the worst, on account of the multiplicity of 
their numbers ; therefore, it would not be wise to 
indulge in exultations until we are fairly " out of 
the woods." 

So also in respect to the " Colorado potato 
beetle" — Doryphora 10 lineafa— it has not been 
so numerous and destructive as had been antici 
pated from what is known of its character else- 
where—indeed, some confident growers think they 
have nearly or quite subdued it. This also may 
be a fallacy that may put them off their guard. 
This insect undergoes its transformations in the 
earth, and sometimes, when it apparently has made 
its departure, "lo, and behold," it re-appears in 
vastly increased numbers. Nothing would lie 
more gratifying to us, than to learn that our 



friends have realized their ideas in respect to 
these destroyers of their "cabbage and potatoes. 



PREPARING FRUITS FOR PRESERVING 


Boil Cherries moderately - 




- 5 minutes 


" Raspberries " 




- 6 


" Blackberries " 




- 6 


" Plums 




-10 


" Strawberries " 




- 3 


" Whortleberries - 




- 5 


" Pie Plant, sliced 




-10 


" Small sour Pears, wjiole 




-30 


" Bartlett Pears, in halves 




-20 


" Peaches " 




- 8 


" " w7io7e - 




-15 



" Pineapple sliced ^ inch thick -15 " 

" Siberian, or Crab Apple, ivhole 25 " 

" Sour Apples, quartered - -10 " 

" Ripe Currants - - - - 6 " 

" Wild Grapes - - . -10 

" Tomatoes 20 " 

The amount of sugar to a quart jar should be : 

For Cherries - - - - 6 ounces. 

" Raspberries - - . 4 " 

" Lawton Blackberries - . o " 

" Field - - - - 6 " 

" Strawberries - - - 8 " 

'• Whortleberries - - - 4 " 

" Quince, - - - - 10 " 

" Small sour Pears, vjJiole - - 8 " 

'■ Wild Grapes - - - 8 " 

" Peaches - - - - 4 " 

" Bartlett Pears - - - G " 

" Pineapples - - - - 6 " 

" Siberian, or Crab Apples - - 8 " 

" Plums - - - - 8 " 

" Pie Plant - - - 10 " 

" Sour Apples, quartered - - 6 '' 

" Ripe Currants - - - 8 ♦' 



THE CHOLERA. 



We deem it a duty incumbent upon us to say 
something of a forewarning and forearming char- 
acter, in relation to the malignant epidemic which 
has unfortunately visited many portions of our 
country; and we feel we cannot do better, just 
now, than to insert the following, which is going 
the rounds of the newspaper press of the country. 
If "an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of 
cure," our readers may profit by it : 

Cholera. — For some weeks past the cholera has 
been raging to a fearful extent in the South and 
West : it has traveled eastwardly until it has 
reached the Potomac river. That it will continue 
to move North and East is almost certain, and in 
view of its possible appearance in our vicinity, it 
behooves everybody to prepare for it. A writ3r 
who has evidently given the subject much 
thought, writes to the Readiujg Eagle: 



15Jf 



THE LA J^C ASTER FARMER 



The exciting causes of cholera are filth, damp- 
ness, and foul air, all of which are avoidable. The 
required remedies for its prevention are cleanliness 
and pure air. Give particular attention to the 
cleanliness, ventilation, and disinfection of your 
premises Use whitewash freely about your prem- 
ises, particularly the cellars, outhouses, stables, 
&c., &c. Avoid all collection of garbages, slops 
stagnant water, or liquid filth. Sewers, house 
drains, water pipes and water-closets should be 
flushed daily with water. Be particular in the 
ventilation of your premises, especially your sleep 
ing apartments. Keep your windows hoisted dur- 
ing the day time, so that your rooms may have 
the full benefit of sunlight, and free circulation 
of pure air. If the weather is cool or rainy, keep 
a fire in the house in order to prevent dampness. 
Disinfectants arrest putrefaction, and destroy nox- 
ious gases. " They are aids in restoring and pre- 
serving healthful purity, not substitutes for clean 
liness or pure air." 

Quicklzme arrests putrefaction, acts as a rapid 
dryer, and decomposes certain moist and hurtful 
efDuvia. Strew the dry lime upon the earth, or 
distribute on plates, &c., &c. 

Chloride of Lime. — Employ this for the same 
purpose, for mixing immediately with offensive 
material ; add one pound to a gallon of water. 

Permanganate of Potassa is used as an imme- 
diate and most effective disinfectant. "Dilute 
the saturated solution of this salt in from 10 to 500 
parts of water, according to the requirements of 
the occasion." It is the most effective of all the 
disinfectants. (May be procured of any drug 
gist.) 

The Privy Council of the British Government 
gives the following advice: "When privies or 
cesspools are to be emptied, use perchlorideof iron, 
chloride of zinc, or sulphate of iron (copperas). 
But where disease is prevalent, it is best to use 
chloride of lime." Manure heaps, offensive earth 
near dwellings; &c., should be well covered with 
freshly burned lime. 

The disinfection of clothing is best obtained by 
boiling in water in which a little carbolic acid has 
been added, and then well washed in the ordinary 
way. 

Observe strict cleanliness in your person and 
clothing. Bathe; (if possible) or wash daily in 
cold water. Be regular in your habits of life, in 
your morals, meals, exercise, and sleep. Be care- 
ful to dress comfortably for the season. Avoid 
the use of alcoholic drinks, do not think they will 



prevent cholera. Where the disease attacks the 
intemperate it is particularly fatal. 

Live temperately and regularly ; avoid all ex- 
cesses in eating ; avoid raw and indigestible food, 
especially cabbage, salad, cucumbers, and unripe 
fruits ; avoid pastry. Take your meals at regular 
seasons, neither abstaining too long at a time, or 
indulging too frequently. 

Avoid bodily fatigue and mental exhaustion. 
Lead a calm and quiet life, let all exciting causes 
be avoided. If you depress or impair te vital 
forces, it is prejudicial to health. 

That there may be no delay in the hour of dan- 
ger, provide yourself with the following articles, 
and have them always at hand ready for use in 
time of need ; 

Laudanum — 1 ounce. 

Tincture of Capsicum — 1 ounce. 

Spirits of Camphor — 1 ounce. 

Solution of Sulphate of Morphia — 2 ounces. 

Flour of Mustard — 4 ounces. 

At all times during this season of the year, give 
particular attention to the slightest deviation of 
your bowels from their natural condition. Loose» 
ness of the bowels is the premouitory symptom, 
and may vary from one to five or more evacuations 
daily, with or without pain. On no account allow 
this change to pass without strict attention, as 
ninety-nine out of the every hundred cases may 
be cured ; neglected diarrhoea, which is cholorine, 
may attack with fearful violence, oftentimes hur- 
ry death ; therefore : 

1. — Lie down immediately ; give no attention to 
business or household cares ; preserve both mental 
and bodily quiet. 

2. — Take 30 drops of Laudanum, with 20 drops 
of Spirits of Camphor, and 30 drops of Tincture 
of Capsicum, mixed in sweetened water; repeat- 
ing the dose every hour, or after each evacua- 
tion, 

3. — If there should be pain or cramps in the 
stomach or bowels, with or without looseness, give 
a teaspoonful of the Solution of Morphia, with 
30 drops of Tincture of Capsicum, in sweetened 
water, every half hour. Place the feet in a hot 
mustard bath ; apply a mustard plaster, 10 by 12 
inches in size (made by mixing the mustard in 
warm water to the consistence of paste,) and 
spread on a piece of muslin ; after spreading the 
mustard, cover it with a piece of lace or tissue- 
paper (to prevent its adhering to the skin,) all over 
the bowels ; let it be retained 30 minutes ; cover 
the patient with blankets, and give ice to eat, or 
iced rice water for a drink. 

Do not, however, depend entirely upon these 
remedies, but send immediately for your physi- 



THE LAJYCASTER FARMER. 



155 



LANCASTER, AUGUST, 1873. 



S. 8. RATHVON, Editor. 

rublihbed iiionthjy under the auspices of theAoRicuL- 

TUSAL ANDHoHTICULTUKAL SOCIETY. 

91 !)9 per Tear In Advance. 

A considerable deduction to clubs of five or more. 

AH communicntlons, to insure Insertion, must be In the 
liands of the editor before the 20th of each mouth. Ad- 
dress S. 8. Kathvon, Lancaster, Pa. 

All advertisements, subscriptions and remittances to the 
address of the publUher, J. B. DEVELIN, 

Inquirer Buildinc, Lancaster, Pa. 



To Avoid Cut-worms in Corn. — This is the 
experience of a man in Indiana, as told in the 
Cincinnati Gazette: 

" A few years ago my father had a fifteen acre 
field, well set in timothy, which he wished to put 
into corn. Wc commenced breaking it up in 
February and finished before the grass began to 
grow. When the ground was dry we harrowed and 
cross-harrowed it until it was in fine order, being al- 
most as dry and free from clods as an ash heap. We 
planted in good time and it came up nicely ; but the 
cut-worm destroyed it all, so that it had to be planted 
over again, and then replanted after the second 
planting, before we could get anything like a fair 
stand of corn. 

Our neighbor had a field just across the fence 
of about the same size. It was on the same 
slope, and was the same kind of land exactly. It 
had been in timothy the same length of time that 
our field had. He broke it up late in the Spring, 
and planted it in corn the same day we did. The 
grass had gotten such a start, before he commenced 
breaking up, that after the field was planted it 
looked almost as green as a pasture. His corn 
came up nicely, and there was so little of it des- 
troyed by the cut-worms that he did not take the 
trouble to replant it. He raised a good crop of 
corn on his field, while we raised a poor one. His 
good-natured remark was that he fed his worms 
on grass instead of corn. 



The Growing Power of the " Patrons of 
Husbandry" in the Western States is constantly 
demonstrated. This rising party, in their opposi- 
tion to exacting monopolies, and their determina- 
tion to bring the unfair railway discriminations 
under Legislative control, their anxiety for cheap 
transportation, and their denunciation of " back 
pay" steals, seem to have a paramount influence 
in the Mississippi Valley. They arc administering 



to both political parties in that locality some 
wholesome lessons, and are firm in the determina- 
tion not to permit " ring" leaders or " party 
hacks" to control them any longer. They produce 
some striking effects in a new way, and by new 
means. For several days past we have been receiv. 
ing accounts of various celebrations of the Fourth 
of July throughout the Western country. Usu- 
ally patriotic speech-making and oratorical and 
other fireworks mark that happy day; but the 
" Granges" turned it to better account. Through- 
out the West they mustered in force, and forget- 
ting the miseries inflicted by King George in 1776, 
they rehearsed the manifold offenses of the politi- 
cians of this country and period against the 
people. Beyond the Alleghanies, the Fourth of 
July seems to have been observed by a general 
indictment of the political and other oppressors 
of 1873, whose illdoings endanger the prosperity 
of the country. It is quite natural that these 
things should have a profound effect upon the poli- 
ticians, and that all the " caucuses" and " con- 
ventions" held in these days should be showing 
signs of caution about their nominations and 
their movements. Hence we find the politica 
resolutions passed by party gatherings now teem- 
ing with doctrines that find favor in the eyes of 
the new organization. But the " Granges" will 
hardly be deluded by any of these old and famil- 
iar tricks. Resolutions are simply designed for 
use until the election day is over, and they are 
then immediately retired from service; and the 
successful nominees of the " rings" do the work of 
their masters, and not the work of the people. 

[The foregoing we clip from the editorial col- 
umns of the Public Ledger, of a recent date. We 
have not heard of any move being made yet in 
Lancaster County towards the forming of a 
" Grange" among our farmers. Perhaps the ne- 
cessity for their existence is not so imperitive here 
as it seems to have been elsewhere, although for 
the matter of that, we have had political corrup- 
tion and oiEcial infidelity enough to necessitate 
some sort of reforming power more effective than 
any now existing amongst us. There is, however, 
one aspect of the case that may as well be viewed 
now as any other time, and that is, " Will these 
Granges — admitting that they are necessary — 
abandon their organizations and cease to exist 
after they have accomplished the objects they 
have in view ? Are they not liable ta become 
perverted — yea, even corrupted — after they once 
become powerful enough to dictate who shall be 
elevated to ofEce, and by what policy the country 



156 



THE LAJ^CASTER FARMER. 



Bhall be ruled ? They are composed of humaa 
beings— perhaps the better and more politically 
and socially virtuous of the people — but still only 
human, imbued with human infirmities, and being 
such, is there no danger that they may be contin- 
ued as a means to attain or perpetuate merely po- 
litical power ? 

We trust not ; nevertheless, we cannot resist the 
thought that such a possibility may exist. Ed.] 



MEETING OF ARICULTURAL AND HOR- 
TICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

The regular monthly meeting of the Lancaster 
County Agricultural and Horticultural Society was 
held at the Orphans' Court Room, Monday, July 
6th., Levi S. Reist, 1st Vice-president, in the chair. 
The reading of the minutes of the last meeting, 
were, on motion, dispensed with. 

P. F. Mayer of Enterprise, and B. F. Ruth of 
Mount Joy, were elected members of the society. 

Andrew M. Frantz, Esq., one of the committee 
appointed at the previous meeting of the society 
to meet a similar committee from the Park Asso- 
ciation, reported the result of the conference and 
spoke encouragingly of the prospects of holding 
a fall fair, if both societies harmoniously unite for 
this purpose. 

Considerable discussion now took place as re- 
gards the manner of holding a fall fair, and as to 
the propriety of uniting with the Park Associa- 
tion for this purpose. H. R. Stoner, Andrew M. 
Frantz, Peter S. Reist, Jacob G. Petei's, Levi. S 
Reist, A. D. Hostetter and Elara Hertz, took 
part in the discussion. 

A resolution was offered by A. M. Frantz, 
which was adopted, authorizing the committee 
heretofore appointed, and such as may feel dis- 
posed to unite with them, to make the necessary 
arrangements for holding a fall fair in connection 
with the Park Association. 

Peter S. Reist had on exhibition a very hand- 
some box of fresh honey. Levi S. Reist exhibited 
two bunches of the Mollcen hierchey, a fine red 
cherry. 

Jacob B. Garber exhibited a box of the Her- 
stine raspberries. 

On motion of Peter S. Reist, a committee of 
three was appointed to report resolutions express- 
ive of the sense of the society with reference to 
the death of Dr. W. L. Diffenderfer, and that the 
said resolutions be entered upon the records of 
the society, and also be published in the I.ancas- 



ter papers. The chair appainted the following 
committee : Peter S. Reist, S. S. Rathvon and 
Alexander Harris. 

The said committee reported as follows : 

Whereas, This society has been ofificially in- 
formed of the death of Dr. Wm. L. Diffenderfer, 
one of the original and esteemed members of our 
organization : And Whereas, from the protracted 
and peculiar character of his affliction, his death 
was an event that, in the ordinary course of na- 
ture, must have been generally anticipated. Still, 
when the announcement of his dissolution came, 
it none the less caused a feeling of sincere regret, 
that one, who had labored with us so long, and 
who, on all occasions, had manifested such a deep 
interest in the cause of horticulture, should have 
been removed forever from amongst us : And 
Wliereas, although we would endeavor to bow with 
humble submission to the behests of that Divine 
Intelligence who orders all things for the best, we 
cannot but be impressed with the sad vacuum 
which his removal has caused in this association. 
Therefore 

Resolved, That, in the death of Doctor 
Diffenderfer, this society is deprived of one of its 
most intelligent members ; horticulture of one of 
its most distinguished advocates ; society of one 
of its most dignified constituents, and his family 
of one of its most endeared and fraternal elements ; 

Resolved, That this preamble and resolution bo 
entered upon the records of this society, and be 
published among its proceedings, and that a copy 
thereof be sent to his family, with whom wc con- 
dole in their bereavement. 

P. S. REIST, 
ALEX. HARRIS, 
S. S. RATHVON. 
Committee. 



A paper was recently read before the Scottish 
Society of Arts on " the combustible nature of the 
hemical compounds of grain." Flour showered 
from a sieve above a gas flame was shown to burn 
with explosive rapidity, and the flame to lick up 
the particles in the same way that it flashes 
through a mixture of gas and air, or that it trav- 
els along a train of gunpowder. Explosions of 
flour mills, hitherto unexplained, would seem to he 
easily accounted for when we know that the air 
filled with fine particles of flour is equally inflam- 
able as if the mixture were one of gas and air. 



TEE LAJ\rCASTER FARMER. 



157 



To Pleasure Seekers.— The famous Watkins 
Glen, located at Watkins, Schuyler Co., N. Y., 
which has become one of the most popular sum- 
mer resorts in the United States, and is annually 
visited by tens of thousands of people, from all 
sections of the country, will, with its two moun- 
tain houses, be open this season for visitors, on or 
before the first of June. The entire Glen property 
has recently been purchased by John J. Lytle & 
Co., of Fhiladelphia, who have made many impor- 
tant improvements. Nearly all the staircases, 
bridges and railings have been removed, and the 
managers will personally supervise and manage the 
Glen, and its summer hotels, during the season of 
1873, and spare no time or expense in endeavor- 
ing to make it an attractive and pleasant place of 
resort for the public. 

The Watkins Glen, manifold as are its scenic 
charms, is by no means the only feature of interest 
pertaining to the romantic surroundings of the 
village from which it takes its name. Seneca 
liake, one of the most beautiful sheets of water in 
in the world, with the magnificent views which the 
highlands around it afford. Hector Falls, two and a 
half miles north of Watkins on the east shore of 
the Lake, and the Havana Glen, which has been 
visited for several years past by great numbers of 
people, are well worth the attention of tourists, 
and will be hailed with delight by all students and 
admirers of nature. 



What do you think of the practice of breeding 
colts from perfectly idle mares, in comparison 
with an opposite one of breeding from mares in as 
full exercise and work as the nature of the circum- 
stances will allow ? The large breeders ought to 
know, that their brood mares are " brood mares," 
and nothing else — mere machines to raise colts — 
but cceteris paribus, it seems to me that in the 
case of race horses, for instance, a young mare in 
moderate training would be more likely to pro- 
duce a more vigorous foal and one more inclined to 
be a race horse by nature, than would an old mare 
that had been doing nothing but eating and get- 
ting dropsical for years.— What is the truth ?— S. 
Richmond, Va. Country Gentleman. 



The Alden process for fruit drying, which uses 
heated air, has much merit, for the fruit is far bet- 
ter than that dried in the open air, and it sells for 
one-third more at least. The proprietors are send- 
ing out circulars requesting farmers to co-operate 
on the following basis : Ten thousand dollars are 
to be raised by a company, one-half to erect 



buildings, and the other half is working capital ; 
then, certificates of stock are to be issued for $20,- 
000, half of which is to remain, and the other 
half given to the owners of the patent. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

RANDOM SKETCHES AND FARM ITEMS, 

No. 12. 

BY H. M. EN'GLE. 

THE busiest season for the farmer is about over 
and a very good one it was for the harvest- 
ing of his hay and grain. 

Although the hay crop is not an average one, 
it was housed in such good condition that quality 
will make up for quantity. The general custom, 
of letting grass get too ripe before cutting, still 
prevails. 

By this practice, best quality of hay is sacrificed 
for very little bulk. 

The wheat crop is probably an average in this 
state, but the loss from late harvesting is even 
greater than that of the hay crop; because, in the 
latter, only quality is lost, while in the wheat crop 
both quality and quantity of fine flo ur are lost 
and in addition a large per cent, by shelling in 
the field. The only increase by delay is bran. 

The united sentiment of millers is in favor of 
harvesting wheat as early as it can be cured with 
out shrivelling, as being of most value for fine 
flour. From a hygienic sta nd point — when the 
entire grain is eaten as food the case may be dif- 
ferent, but while the mass of consumers prefer the 
best white flour and are ready to pay an advanced, 
price for such, it seems strange that farmers, who 
are generally wide-awake as to dollars and centa, 
so many should overlook their pecuniary interest 
in this case. 

The corn crop will not likely be an average in 
this section of country, the season thus far being 
generally unfavorable, but one of the principal 
drawbacks has been the irregular coming up at 
planting. 

Many farmers will have learned a lesson which 
they should not soon forget, in taking good care 
of their seed corn. Although the last crop was 
pretty well matured, winter set in severe, so early, 
that where the cob was not thoroughly dry the 
germ suflercd from frost. Hence the cause of so 
much corn failing to germinate this spring, and 
very much that did come up had a sickly appear- 
ance from the same cause. 

The crop may not be so much injured for many 



158 



TEE LAJf CASTER FARMER. 



years ; it is however best always to be on tlie safe 
side, as it requires very little extra care to select 
the best and ripest ears for seed, and have them 
thoroughly dried, after which the severest cold 
will not injure it for seed. 

For many years the early potato crop has not 
been so unpromising as is the present. The con- 
tinued drouth, setting in so early in the season, 
will cut the crop short beyond hope. There is, 
however, a large area of late ones planted, which 
look promising, and with favorable weather should 
make a good yield. The Colorado beetle having 
made its appearance over a large extent of terri- 
tory will help to shorten the crop. The new- 
comer seemed to create considerable alarm some 
weeks ago, and no doubt efforts have been made 
to prevent its spread and increase, so at present 
there seems to be a little lull with regard to its 
ravages. Let no one, however, flatter himself 
that Mr. Colorado is subdued or half-conquered, 
for unless he acts differently here than he did in 
other sections, the worst of his ravages is yet to 
come. If not this season, it will be sooner than 
we shall like to see it. Although some have 
made great efforts to prevent the multiplying of 
this enemy, too many have let him have his own 
way, and thus the prospect of keeping him in 
check is not at all flattering. If one potato 
grower in ten will let him have his own course, 
the precaution and industry of many who may 
endeavor to keep the enemy in check, will be 
neutralized and of little effect. 

The cabbage worm, codlin moth and curculio, 
also do an almost incalculable amount of damage, 
yet few make any effort towards their eradication, 
as if it were a matter of fate and beyond remedy. 

We know of no insect that is so industriously 
destroyed as the tobacco worm, as if the safety of 
the tobacco crop was paramount to all other crops. 
There is, however, no doubt that if the same dil- 
igence was exercised against the above named, 
and other insects, as there is with the latter, they 
could just as easily be kept in check or entirely 
blotted out. 

It seems evident that the tiller of the soil must 
sooner or later make himself acquainted with the 
habits of insects, if he would be successful. The 
question is how to get him sufficiently interested 
to prevent the destruction of so many valuable 
products. The loss of a crop now and then might 
be sufiRcient penalty for such stolid indifference, 
were it not that his neighbor, who does all he can 
to counteract the enemy, must share the damages 
Query : Would it not be well to have a law in 



reference to noxious insects, similar to that apply- 
ing: to noxious weeds in this State ? 



THE CROPS. 



THE reports from nearly all parts of the country 
represent the crops of wheat and rye as being 
heavier and of better quality than for several 
years past. In Iowa and Nebraska the Winter 
wheat was' winter-killed, but a large breath was 
sown in Spring wheat, which gives a heavy 
yield this season. The wheat crop of Minnesota 
is said to be the largest and finest ever grown 
there. Utah, Montana, Arizona and Nevada will 
have a surplus of wheat, while California will al- 
most equal the heavy crop of last year. The 
wheat crop in the Southern States was scarcely 
an average one to the acre, but a larger breath 
was shown than usual. 

The drouth, which promised to cut the corn 
crop short, has ceased, and there are few sections 
in which abundant rains have not fallen within 
the last fortnight. Illinois will not produce as 
much corn as heretofore, but any lack there, and 
in Ohio and Indiana, will be more than made up 
by Kansas, Nebraska, North Missouri and South- 
ern Iowa. This section has received as much as 
half a million of people within the last three 
years, and most of these are engaged in farming, 
corn being the staple product. The farmers 
of the Connecticut nalley have been watering 
their tobacco plants by hand for weeks, but recent 
rains have relievedt hem from this labor and the are 
now growing finely. In Maryland, Virginia and 
Kentucky, tobacco has generally had a fair start. 
It is backward in Pennsylvania, but the recent 
rains will bring it out. The acreage planted in 
this country is fully a third less than last year. 

Oats will be an average crop throughout the 
country, its shortness in some dry sections being 
compensated for by its fine growth in others. 

Reports from Southern papers represent the cot- 
ton crop to be in very favorable condition at 
present. The rains which prevailed so extensive- 
ly in some parts of the cotton region fortunately 
subsided in time to allow the crop to be cleared 
of the grass. Only the boll-worm or devastating 
storms can prevent the planters from reaping a rich 
harvest. 

In the Southern States the fruit crop is a full 
average, and peaches and apples will soon be in 
market in good condition and at reasonable rates. 
Grapes are promising as far as heard from. 

Root crops of all kinds are in good condition? 



TEE LAJTCASTEB FARMER. 



159 



and the potato-bug is only ravaging small sec- 
tions. 

Taken altogether, the year promises to be one 
of extraordinary productiveness. 

The foregoing, from the Editorial columns of 
the Lancaster Daily Intelligencer, {?,, in the main, 
a resume of what we had intended to say upon the 
same subject, so far as the reports thereon have 
come under our observation. We may say, how- 
ever, in addition, that although the wheat crop 
Lancaster county is far better than it has been for 
years ; and the oats, although less straw, 
will be better then the drouth foreboded ; yet the 
hay crop, as a general thing, was very light ; to^ 
bacco backward and yet to show itself ; but the 
late rains have wonderfully galvanized the corn 
and potatoes; "We have seen some fields of as 
fiine corn as we ever looked at in any season. The 
peaches, however, as well as other fruit, where 
there had been a blooming prospect early in the 
season, are now rapidly falling off, the I'esult, no 
doubt, of last Winter's severe freeze. The "Colo- 
rado potato beetle" appeared in East Donegal, 
Manheim and Manor townships, and the "white 
cabbage butterfly," or perhaps more properly, the 
"green cabbage worm," is everywhere ; but neither 
of these insects have yet been as numerous this 
season as had been expected, but "wait-a-bit," 
their most destructive season is now only approach 
ing, and if the present lull is not that calm o^ prep- 
aration which precedes a battle, we may be con 
sidered fortunate. — Ed.] 



FLUCTUATIONS IN FARMING. 

The following remarks contain some very good 
advice with reference to fluctuations in farming, 
and how to avoid their consequences — applicable 
to farming generally, but especially in New York 
and other older States, where long experience of 
the land and its capabilities, of the crops and 
stocks that can be made to work together most 
advantageously, and of the markets likely to be 
available, should enable every intelligent farmer 
" to adopt a fixed and definite system of manage- 
ment, and stick to it." Mr. Harris, the author, 
has written often before in the same spirit, and 
so have we ; but it is well, now and then, to go 
back to first principles, especially in times of some 
uncertainty or trouble. There is one thing be- 
yond question, that if these home truths are ne- 
glected, permanent prosperity can hardly be ex- 
pected from the widest combinations, the wisest 
laws, a college of agriculture in every State, or — 
an omniscient commissioner of the bureau at 



Washington. We quote from the Agriculturist : 

Last year the wheat crop of Western New York 
Avas the poorest we have seen since I have been en 
this farm ; and this year it is worse than it was 
last year. That which was sown early is badly 
injured by the Hessian fly, and that which was 
sown late is thin and poor. 

Farmers are thoroughly discouraged. Said one 
of my neighbors to-day: "I had calculated on 
getting five or six hundred dollars for my wheat, 
but I shall not get much more than the seed." 

"You farmers must be getting rich," said a city 
friend, " with wheat at $2.25 per bushel, potatoes 
at .^1.15, and hay $32 per ton." 

" Yes," I said, " farming is a splendid business. 
Don't you Want to buy a farm ? Farming is not 
a monopoly. It is not patented. This is a free 
country. If you think we are getting rich, you 
will find plenty of farms for sale." 

But to be serious, taking the city vieW of th6 
matter, farmers, in this section at any tate, ought 
to be doing better than they are. There a^e two 
main reasons why we are not nlaking money. 
First, the extreme fluctuation in prices ; and sec- 
ond, the low average crops per acfe. 

There is no remedy for the fluctuation in pfices. 
It depends on causes beyond the control of ail 
individual farmer. It is not caused to any great 
extent by " middlemen," or speclilatoi's, or rail- 
road monopolies. It depends on the great law of 
supply and demand. All that these men Can do 
is to aggravate the evil. By refusing to buy 
when the supply is large, they may depress prices 
to a point far below the cost of production ; and 
by refusing to sell when there is a scarcity, they 
may force an article up to an exorbitant rate. But 
this is all that they can do. Instead of wasting 
our energies in trying to remedy this evil, it i^ 
better to accept the fact that it has always existed 
and always will exist, and act accordingly. The 
real remedy is for a farmer to adopt a fixed and 
definite system of management, and stick to it. 
At this time last year, potatoes were not worth 
here 25 eents a bushel, now they are worth over a 
dollar a bushel. Taking one year with another, 
the crop, in favorable localities, can be made prof- 
itable. Make up your mind about how many 
acres it is best to plant on your farm, and plant 
no more nor no less, no matter what the price may 
be. And so with wheat, barley, corn, oats and 
other crops. And the same is true in regard to 
raising pork, mutton, wool, beef, butter, cheese, 
etc. Adopt a system and stick to it. These ar- 
ticles will always be wanted, and will bring prices 



160 



TEE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



in the long r*n, in proportion to tlie time, labor, 
skill, capital and intelligence required to produce 
them. 

The other reason why farmers are getting such 
inadequate compensation for their labor is the low 
average yield per acre. The remedy for this is, 
to a considerable extent, under our control. We 
must farm better. It is the large area of land 
under cultivation, and the low average yield per 
acre, that is the chief cause of all our troubles. A 
favorable season floods the markets with produce 
which can hardly be given away ; an unfavorable 
season causes high prices, but we have nothing to 
sell. A good farmer would have a fair crop even 
in an unfavorable season. If I had been a good 
farmer, I should have had two hundred bushels of 
potatoes per acre ; but as it was, I had not a hun- 
dred bushels per acre — and many of these were too 
small to sell. For the good potatoes I got $1.06 
per bushel, and if I had had two hundred bushels per 
acre, and ten or a dozen acres, I should have had no 
I'eason to complain of hard times. As it is, I say^ 
"The weather was so dry that my potato crop w^s 
a failure." But, in point of fact, I know this is 
ribt the exact truth. I had a bad crop because I 
am a bad farmer. If I was a good farmer I should 
kave had a good crop in spite of the drouth. This 
I know, because on one row manured for mangles, 
but planted with potatoes, I had a large yield of 
large potatoes. 

"That is all Very well," says the Deacon, "but 
where are you going to get your manure ?" 

"In your case and mine, Deacon," I said, "it is 
doubtful whether we can afforrd to buy any fertil- 
jzier eicept gypsum. We shall have to make our 
oWn manures. We must make more manure and 
of better quality. To do this, we must either 
buy more grain, bran, oil-cake, &c., to feed to our 
stock, or we must raise more food to feed out on 
the farm. The better plan is to do both. We 
must drain our land" — 

"Draining is all very well," says the Deacon, 
"but what has draining to do with making manure ? 
The Deacon plays shy of the drainage question. 
He has a quantity of low, rich land that is so wet 
that it could not be plowed until June. I wanted 
to tell him if that land was drained it could be 
cultivated with half the labor, could be sown in 
good season, and would produce more than double 
what it does now, and consequently enable the 
Deacon to produce double the amount of manure. 
Draining, better tillage, and irrigation, are the 
means we must look to for growing larger crops 
and making more manure. We have to get the 
manure out of the soil, and when we have got it 
we must be careful not to waste it. — Country 
Gentleman. 



PLASTER. 

HOW AND WHEX TO USE IT. 

The following was furnished to Colman's Rural 
World, by Professor Joseph Luce : 

Plaster as a Fertilizer. — Among the manufac- 
ured products which ought to be employed by 
the farmer, in the beginning of the year, as fertil- 
izing agents, we will place the common plaster. 
Its applications are numerous, and the modes of 
applying vary according to the mixtures of the 
crop. 

Plaster is a compound of salt or lime and sul- 
phuric acid, known under the name of gypsum, or 
sulphate of lime ; its composition, when pure, is 
sulphuric acid 43, lime 33, water 24. There are 
often variations in the formula of commercial plas- 
ter, due to calcination and the presence of foreign 
matter, such as silica and carbonate of lime ; but 
none can be injurious in its application as a fer- 
tilizer. There are five commonly cultivated crops 
which contain gypsum in sensible proportions ; 
they are Lucerne, sainfoin, red clover, rye, grass, 
turnips ; but its transformation by absorption of 
ammonia, enables its constituents to become the 
food of other varieties of crops, such as wheat, 
barley, oats, beans, peas, and vines. 

Professor Liebig contends that the nature of 
gypsum consists in giving a fixed constitution to 
the nitrogen, or ammonia, which is brought into 
the soil, and is indispensable for the nutrition of 
plants. He says that " 100 pounds of gypsum 
give as much ammonia as 6,250 pounds of horse 
urine would yield ; four pounds of gypsum increase 
the produce of meadows four hundred pounds." 

Grasses and Bed Clover — After seeding, when 
the frost leaves the ground in the earlier part of 
Spring (April) we ought to sow plaster on the 
soil, about one hundred pounds per acre. 
When grass or clover are one, two or more years 
old, sow the same quantity per acre ; when the 
plant is three to four inches high, and, if possible 
during wet weather. 

Wheat — Upon Winter wheat there should be a 
top dressing of about fifty pounds to the acre in 
the Fall when it comes up, and another like dressing 
after it has started in the Spring. In cases where 
it has boen affected by the severity of the Winter, 
and especially in all cases where it is uneven in 
growth, with spots nearly killed out, a larger ap- 
plication should be made, full one hundred pounds 
to the acre, and making even a more liberal ap - 
plication than that to the poor spots. The effect 
will appear marvelous. Upon Spring wheat it 



TEE L A J^ CASTER FARMER. 



161 



should be sown after it is well up, about ond hun- 
dred pounds to the acre. 

Oats, Barley and Eye. — Upon oats, barley and 
rye, the arplication should be the same as upon 
Spring wheat, after they are well up, and about 
one hundred pounds to the acre. 

Potatoes. — Upon potatoes plaster should be 
sown upon the hills soon after the plants are up, 
same as upon corn, about a table-soonfuU or more 
to the hill, scattered upon the leaves as much 
as possible, and then should have at least one 
more liberal dressing upon the vines after hoeing, 
and when well advanced in growth. 

Corn. — Various opinions are entertained by 
farmers af to the best mode of application of 
plaster to corn ; of the benefits resulting from its 
use there is no doubt. 



GREEN MANURIXG. 

" W. A." asks what are the comparative value 
of peas, buckwheat, and clover, as crops for plow- 
ing under. The chief advantage of buckwheat is 
its rapid growth, which enables two crops to be 
plowed under in one season. A crop of peas fur 
nishes more nitrogen to the soil than buckwheat, 
but its bulk is no greater. Clover not only fur- 
nishes a great bulk of leaves and stalk, but a large 
(juantity of roots in addition, which, on decaying, 
leave the soil porous and open, and in the best 
mechanical condition ; besides, it will yield two 
crops of fodder or hay, and then afterward, in 
the second or third year, furnishes a crop to plow 
in. On the whole, clover is much the best ma- 
nurial crop. — Ex. 



A NEW KIND OF BUTTER. 

That there is a new kind of butter, or what will 
be called and put on the market by that name, 
there is no doubt. A company has just been 
formed in this city, with a capital of $500,000 for 
the purpose of manufacturing this new butter. In 
searching for the necessity that conceived this 
invention, for it can be called dothing else, it is 
necessary to go back to the late war between 
France and Germany, when it is found that during 
the siege of Paris the markets became bare of 
butter, as well as many other articles of necessity, 
and the idea of manufacturing something to take 
the place of it became apparent ; for butter is now 
amongst the better classes, certainly an article of 
necessity. From inquiry made of a gentleman 
and a practical chemist, who resided there during 
that time, we find that very many experiments 
were niade to find such a substitute, which was 



finally accomplished in tallow, which, chemically 
treated, produced a substitute closely resembling 
the article that it was intended to counterfeit. 
There was still something that would not deceive 
any one accustomed to eat our Orange county 
butter, and the original inventor, after continuing 
his experiments for some time, has finally suc- 
ceeded in producing an article so closely resemb- 
ling butter that he has induced some New York 
capitalists to purchase for a large sum the use of 
his invention, he having patented it. They have 
formed this company, and are actively engaged in 
perfecting their arrangements, to soon commence 
the delivery of this butter on the market. Whether 
they will convince the consumer that, chemically 
treated, tallow is as good as butter made in the 
old-fashioned way remains to be seen, and whether 
they will furnish it at prices much below the 
ruling market price for butter is not known, but it 
is made at a cost (taking the present price of 
tallow in consideration) of not over fifteen cents, 
ready for delivery in the customary butter pack- 
ages. In European countries the substitution of 
a counterfeit article is a much easier matter than 
in America, for the low price of labor, and the 
necessity of making every dollar supply, in as far 
as it can be made to, the necessities of the family, 
readily induces the poorer classes to use what 
closely resembles, even where it does not deceive ; 
but here, unless it so closely resembles the simon. 
pure article that detection is almost impossible, 
we do not augur any great success in the under- 
taking. — iV. Y. Bulletin. 



The Alta California has discovered a new and 
valuable tree, or rather has discovered the bene- 
ficial uses of a tree already well-known to garden- 
ers, the malva. It is a hardy, quick growing 
plant, and, according to the Alta, will grow in 
any place, no matter whether wet or dry. It does 
not even require planting ; will grow from seed 
carelessly thrown on the ground, and in five years 
attains the height of thirty feet. It blooms for 
nine months in the year, and bees prefer its blos- 
soms to flowers, while cattle prefer its leaves to 
clover, and give richer and better milk while feed- 
ing on it. Of these leaves there is a perpetual 
growth, a new one sprouting out as fast as the old 
one falls or is taken off. Besides, it prevents 
fevers. Its bark yields a fibre which is capable of 
every use to which flax is put, and in many respects 
superior to flax. The Alta says that " one acre 
of these trees, after the first growth, will yield ten 
times the amount of fibre that one acre of flax 
would, and with this advantage that Uttle or no 
labor is required. 



16. 



^ 



THE LAJVCASTEU FARMER. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

CALIFORNIA CORRESPONDENCE. 

Ed. Lancaster Farmer : — You will find ex- 
tracts from a California letter below, written on 
the ITth of June. Possibly it may interest souie 
readers of The Farmer to know what a diiierence 
there is in climate in the Golden State to ours in 
the Middle States. Here vegetation is suffering 
greatly from a drouth of six or eight weeks. Vege- 
tation of small plants is at a stand still. Straw- 
berry beds are dying out, and transplanting of 
such plants aa cabbage, tomatoes and tobacco, 
with many other things, is almost impossible, even 
with watering to keep them alive ; and as to 
growing, the plants cannot get started. Several 
light rains have fallen during this time, but the 
next day's sun has dried them all up again. 

In California they have had no rain for three 
months, and do not expect any refreshing showers 
for at least three months more, yet vegetation 
does not dry out as it does with us. My corres- 
pondent says : 

" "We have had no rain since the 31st of March, 
and having no Spring rains has shortened crops 
of all kinds very much. Where I am, vegetation 
is about ten days later than in Pleasant Valley 
eight to ten miles north of this, but some weeks 
earlier than around the bay counties ; and we 
think generally that it does not pay to raise vege- 
etables here, as they come in from other localities, 
and take the cream off the market, in good prices, 
and by the time our vegetables are ready for the 
market prices are too low to be remunerative. 

Now, June 17, string-beans, corn, tomatoes, 
&c., bring fair prices. Cherries and plums were 
taken to San Francisco May 30th. Cherries 
from here are all past June 4:th, but will go into 
the city from other localities till August and 
September. Apricots are now in full blast. 
Peaches were sent to market June 14th. The first 
brought $1.50 per lb. Briggs, of Marysville^ 
sent in some of a new variety about May 30th, 
and the next were Hale's Early, June 14th, from 
this locality, and Put's Creek. Early Harvest, 
and Red Astrican apples are going into market, 
ripe, from this and other places. Also, Dyonne 
d' Ete and Madaline pears. The season has been 
rather earlier than usual, on account, I think, of 
scarcity of rain ; but we have had more than ordi- 
nary cool winds from the ocean, and the nights are 
often decidedly cool ; thermometer down to 46 
and 50. For a very few days it stood 90° at 2 



p. ra. It is generally at that hour, about 75° or 
80°. The air is so dry and bracing that one does 
not even perspire at that temperature, but needs 
double blankets towards morning. ***** 

* * The past winter has been such a severe 
one throughout the East, that it has caused quite 
a rush to our genial climate ; but people will find 
that we have our troubles also, in making crops 
and getting ahead. We have had two severe 
frosts the last spring ; one of them general 
throughout California, except in our own valley, 
extending up to Putch Creek, where there was 
no damage done to either vegetables or fruit. 

" The other frost seems to have been felt only 
along the foot-hills of the Sierra Nevada, and 
both were very destructive where felt. Yet fruit 
does so Avell here everywhere, that there will no 
doubt be full crops, and low prices for everything 
shipped fresh. Wine will be a smaller crop by 
one third, but our grapes here look fine, and will 
be as good as ever. Apricots and peaches are over- 
full, and being a dry spring, will be and are small. 
Hay crop is light, and price $8.00 on the ground 
per ton, against $6.00 last year. Grain -is about 
an average through the state of 3-5 of a crop ; 
but as the average is larger, we shall probably 
have even more than last year to ship. 

"We are all glad the Modoc war has ended, as it 
is ; for there was great danger of all the tribes 
forming a league to fight us. I presume the com- 
mission will make short work of some of them. 

" Politics are all the talk now, whether we shall 
be ruled by railroads and other monopolies, or 
whether we shall rule them ! I look for great good 
through the Patrons of Husbandry and their 
Granges; they are being established in every part 
of the State. Farmers' clubs are also popular, 
and being extended to every part of the State. I 
don't see why farmers did not organize years ago, 
when they saw every day organizations of almost 
every occupation starting up and dictating their 
own terms. Why should we not do so too, and 
thereby protect ourselves against all sorts of im- 
positions? Yours, etc. 

J"M/y 10, 1873. "J.B. G." 

WORMS IN FLOWER POTS. 

We have often heard ladies, and even professional 
gardeners, complaining of the abundance of vari- 
ous species of worms inhabiting flower pots, there- 
by injuring the growth of plants growing therein 
If a little lime is dissolved in the water applied 
to the soil, nearly every species of worms that is 
found in such position will be killed, and the plants 
not injured. Tobacco will also destroy most kind 
of worms ; but lime is preferable, because it aids 
in dissolving the plant food in the soil, thereby 
stimulating growth. Watering the plants with 
lime water once a week, will be suflScient to kill 
the worms in the soil, and stimulate growth. — 
Ex. 



THE LAJ^CASTER FARMER. 



163 



C;iN HENS BE TOO FAT TO LxVY WELL ? 

A correspondent writes to the Rural Home 
as follows : Old folks used to say: If your hens 
are neglected and run down jioor, then you may get 
them too fat to lay, but if you raise a lot of 
pullets and feed them all they want to eat of corn, 
of buckwheat, ashes, burned bone, etc., lime in 
the winter, and keep doing so as long as you want 
them to lay, then you will find out as well as I 
did that you cannot have th(!in too fat to 
lay. 

I am about sixty-two j'ears old, and have ex- 
perimented with hens more or less for twenty-five 
years. I raise a lot of pullets every summer for 
layers, and dispose of the older ones. I make a 
net profit on every hen of about SL50, and not 
counting the manure anything ; get twenty cents 
per dozen for eggs ; on an average twenty to 
twenty-five cents for chickens when they are two 
months old. I could give you a list of particu- 
lars of debtor and creditor, for a number of years, 
but I don't think it necessary. I will say, how- 
ever, that I have had from twenty-four bens, in 
one year, 257 dozen eggs, and raised 70 chickens. 
That year I had a net profit of a little over $2 
per hen, not reckoning the manure. 

My hens are a mixture or cross of different 
breeds— Hamburgs, Polands and Pheasants — I 
have no blooded hens of any kind. 

We agree with the above correspondent, par- 
ticularly in selling off the old hens every year, 
and raising pullets for layers. Young hens, dur- 
ing winter, cannot well be made too fat for laying, 
when they get the variety of feed he mentions. 
With old hens, however, it is dilTerent. During 
the first and second year, hens lay the greatest 
number of eggs, and should not be kept after the 
the third year, unless wanted for hatchers. 

Cost and Profit. 



What a Heavy Sod Will Do. — The sod makes 
the corn. This may be taken as an axiom, as un- 
doubted as that a straight line is the shortest dis- 
tance between two points. If the sod is right the 
corn can take care of itself. What is wanted is a 
mass of roots, filling the soil to the depth of three, 
four, or five, inches, or more, and such a mat of 
vegetation on the surface as will inevitably belong 
to such a mass of roots. Now, what such an 
amount of vegetable matter, easily decomposed, 
and such as corn loves to feed upon, would meas- 
ure, can, very easily be estimated. It would cer- 
tainly be within bounds to say that there v/ould 



be on every square rod of ground 90 cubic feet of 
matter equal in fertilizing power to average barn- 
yard manure. This is over three-quarters of a 
cord per square rod ; and 160 rods going to make 
up an acre, there would be 120 cords of manure 
to the acre. This amount of barn-yard manure 
would seem perfectly bewildering to a farmer, and 
would be beyond the power of many to haul out 
and spread. And here it is, on the spot, in the 
most perfect shape possible to be utilized. Does 
it then need any further argument to show clearly 
that a heavy sod is the best, cheapest and most 
easily handled manure a farmer can procure or in- 
vent ? The vexed question of whether one should 
plow deep or shallow for corn, here gets a satisfac- 
tory and simple reply. With such a sod, or any 
sod, we must say plow sufficiently deep to get 
enough loose soil on the top to allow the harrow 
to work and make a seed-bed. No more, no less. 
If our sod is such a one as we lately saw cut from 
a pasture on a farm in Eastern Peunsylvauia, the 
plow must necessarily go seven or eight inches be- 
neath the surface before enough soil can be ob- 
tained to make a seed-bed. The average crop on 
this farm is over 100 bushels of slielled corn per 
acre. 



BOOK AND SPECIAL NOTICE Dfcl- 
PARTMENT. 

BOOK NOTICES. 

What Women Should Know.— This is the title of a 
book from the prefs of J. M. Stoddart & Co., Sansom st., 
Phila. It is well printed and makes a liindsome appear- 
ance, and is ably edited by a lady who notices considerable 
of her own life. Every wife and dauijhter should be fam- 
iliar with the teachings of this v ohime. It is sold only by 
subscription and can be had of the publishers. 

WKhave on our table, the advance sheets of anew book, 
trom the National Publishing Co.. North Serenth St., 
Phila. The title of this new work, is" The Undeveloped 
West, oii Five Yeaks in the Territoriks," by J H. 
Beadle. The reputation of the publishers and the brilliant 
career of the author, as a historian and wri er, are sufficient 
to make it popular. It pictures the wast in all its charac- 
ter. It is printed on elegant piper, with good, clear type, 
finely illustrated, and will be not only handuome but 
instructive. 

The Sanitarian for August comes to us freighted with 
a cargo more valuable than gold, and especially at the 
present juncture in the health history of the country. 
V.iluable papers on "School Pc)is>nln? in Now York," 
' Cholera Stamped Out," "Animal Refuse in Large Cities," 
"Why Ha Smoked," ''Defective Drainage," "Action of 
Tea on the Human System," " Death in a Damp ( eilar," 
" How to Cure Dyspepsia," "Cholera," '• Morbid Eflfec's of 
Alcohol," '' Health," " Public Health," and much other 
V iluable information are among its solid content-*. Price 
50 csnta a number, or $3.00 f> year. A. S. Barnes & Co., 
Ill and 113 William St., New York. 

" Monthly Repobt of the Departmont of Agriculture 
for May and June," occupying a wide field in the realm 
of agriculture, and governmental provicion should be 
made for a larger distribution of the work among the 
farmers of the country. 

Quarterly Report of " Pittsburg Medical News and 
Health Reporter." 36 pp. 8vo. Illustrated. 



164 



THE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



Pamphlets Eeoeived — "Tabulated results compiled 
from the Annual Reports of Railroads, Passenger Rail- 
ways, Canal and Telegraph Companies, operated in the 
State of Pennsylvania, and made to the Auditor General 
of the Commonwealth, for the year ending Dec. 31, 1872," 
from Harrison Allen, Auditor General. 91 pp. 8yo. 

" List of Premiums of the Kansas State Board of Agri- 
culture, with regulations, for 1873." 47 pp. 8vo. 

ViCK'8 Floral Gtjidk, No. 2, 1873, of 16 pp. octavo., 
tinted paper and finely illustrated. Condenses a large 
amount of information on " Work for thi Season," and 
contains the prettiest designs for flower vases, and orna- 
mental floral work that we have noticed anywhere else in 
small a space. 

" Premium List of the Kansas City Industrial Exposi- 
tion and Agricultural Fair, to be held in Kansas City, 
Missouri, September 15th to 20th inclusive. 35 pp. 8vo. 

The Pa. School Journal tor July, is out in an entire 
new dress. This journal, now in its 22d vol., and devoted 
as it is to " School and Home education," under the editor- 
ship of State Superintendent Wickersham, is certainly tke 
b"st of its kind in our country. Subscription, $1.50 a year 
jn advance. Well worthy the patronage of every friend of 
education in town or country. 

Pen and Plow.— The raciest little 8 p. quarto in the 
U. S. Progressive, and " Devoted to the culture of the 
mind and the culture of the soil." New York city. 50 cts. 
a year in advance. 

The Penn Monthly, devoted to Literature, Science, 
Art and Politics. A royal octavo monthly journal, of 83 
pp. of solid, readable and reliable matter, at $2.50 per 
annum. 506 Walnut St., Phila. 

The Patent Right Gazette.— A mouthly Cosmopoli- 
tan journal, devoted to Art and Science, Industry, Com- 
merce, Navigation, Locomotion and Home Comfort; to 
Engineering, Manufacturing, Building, Mining, Agricul- 
ture, Railroads, Steamships, Insurance, &c. , &c. Also, a 
choice selection of entertaining literature, the description 
and illustration of patents made a specialty. Box 4544, 
New York. One copy, one year for one dollar. 

The National Livb Stock Journal.— The best in its 
specialty, in the country. The "Journal of the Farm," 
the "National Agriculturist" and "Bee Journal," and the 
" Gardeners' Monthly" for July, are on our table, and each 
in their sphere, is unrivaled in variety, interest and 
influence. 

Moore'8 Rural New Yorker and the " Germantown 
Telegreph, have a "world wide" reputation. They need 
no commendation of rurs, for they are infinitely better 
known than we are. Not. to know them argues oneself 
unknown. 

The Laws of Life and Journal of Health for 
August, 1873, is upon our table, aud contains its usual 
quantity of useful and instructive matter ; discussing in 
an able, rational and physiological manner, the subject of 
female dress reform. This journal is far, very tar in 
advance of the times, so far as relates to the fashions, 
habits and conditions of American women, but then, if 
women, and also the times and fashions are ever to be edu- 
cated up to their normal and reasonable condition, a 
fte^inmns'- however bootless it may appear on the surface 
—must be made somewhere. Our limited experience, aided 
by rational reflection, we think, admonishes us that the 
greater bulk of the ills to which women are heir to, origi- 
nate in the abuses of dreps, 

'■ But when will this vice cease? " 
Edited by Harriet N. Austin and an able corps of aseist- 
ants. Austin, Jackson & Co., Publishers, Danvijle, N. Y. 
•SI .50 a year. 



NEW YORK CATTLE MARKET. 



New York, August 4th, 1873. 
The oflfenngs comprised 8143 beeves, 169 milch cows, 2738 
veal calves, 21,228 sheep and lambs, and 28,751 swine 
Beeves dull, and prices >^@?^c. per ft. lower. The ex- 
tremes of the market were 8@13c. per ft. Good stock are 
very scarce, but the poorer qualities are abundant. Milch 
cows are also lower. The choicest sell at 880@,85, an the 
poorest at t35@45. Veals are X@lc. per lb. lower ; in fact 
grassers and buttermilk calves are hard to sell at any price. 
Common to h&nt milch calvps, 6@8J-^c. ; poo'' to fair gras- 
sers, 3@4;-;;c.; dressed calves, 10a>14c. !«ieep and lambs 
dull and heavy. Sheared range from 3% to 6c., with a few 
choice at eV^c. per ft. Spring lambs, gaSc. Dressed hogs 
steady at 6J,^@7X- ; live, 5j^@5>ic. 



PHILADELPHIA CATTLE MARET. 



Philadelphia, August 4lh, 1873. 

The market for Beef Cattle is dull, and fully J^c lower ; 
we quote fair to prime steers at ll3i@12xc. Receipts, 
8143 head. 

Cows and Calves rule duU and in the buver's favor ; wo 
qnote at$80@85 for very choice Milch Cows, and$33@46 
for poor stock. Receipts, ! 69 head. 

Veal Calves have ruled dull, heavy, and )^c. lower than 
last week- We quote at 5@83^e. trom common to best 
mil'-h calves. Receipts, 2738 head. 

Sheep and Lambs.— The market is dull and heavy. We 
quote sheared sheep at 3>4'®6c.,and ^®(^%c. for choice. 
Spring Lambs are quoted at 6ffl9c., chiefly at 63.^@8. Re- 
ce'pts, 21,228 head. 

Swine The market is quiet. We quote Hvfl Hogs a 

5V^@55^c. Dressed Hogs are steady at G%®1%a. Re- 
ceipts, 28,721 head. ^ 

PHILADELPHIA MARKETS. 

MONDAT, Aug; 4, 1873. 

Pi.ouR, etc.-- Receipts of flour, 14,359 bbls. Flour Is 
quiet and heavv. Holders are disposed to realize, and the 
demand is chiefly to supply pressing wants ot home trade. 
Sales 9000 bbls. at *4 90@5 25 for superfine Western and 
State ; ft) 85@,6.20 for common to good extra West«)rn and 
State; (fS 25(017.10 for good to choice do. ; |7.05@8.25 for 
common to choice white wheat. Western extra; $6.10® 
8.50 for common to good extra Ohio ; 16 45»10.75 for com- 
mon to choice extra St. Louis, the market clo^'ing dull. 

Southern Flour is steady. Sales of 050 bbls. at 86 25® 
7 85 for common to fair extra, and 87 90;a'.10.75 for good to 
choice do. Rye Flour is a shade firmer. Sales of 509 bbls 
at S'4.30@5.30. Corn Meal is steady. Sales of 650 bbls. at 
|3.15@3.40 for Western, and $3 80@3.90 for Brandywine. 

Grain.— Receipts of wheat, 228 707 bush. Wheat open- 
ed steady and closed heavy and l@2c. lower. Holders are 
disposed to realiz<^. The firmness of freights materially 
checks the export demand. Sales of 157,000 bush, at $1 10(0 
1.21 for rejected spring; $1.15311.40 for lo^a spring; Sl.23 
@ 1.30 for No. 3 spring; !S1.25ol.44 for ungraded spring; 
$1.35 for No. 2 Chicago; 81.40ail.41 for No. 2 Milwaukee, 
and |1.50 for choice No. 1 Duluth ; also sales of 20 000 bush, 
of No. 2 Milwaukee for first half October, $1.42. Rye is 
quiet and firm at 81X@82c. Barley and malt dull and un- 
changed. 
' Receipts of corn, 166,754 bush. Corn opened without de • 
cided change, and closed slightly in buyers' favor, with a 
limited export and home trane demand. Sales 123,000 
bush, at .50®54c. for steamer Western mixed; 55(2)563^0. 
for sail • 48(a50c. fcr heated ; 50c. for kiln dried ; 57c. for 
yellow Western, and 72(^78c. for white Western. Receipts 
of Oats 20 358 bush. Oats are a shade firmer and less 
active ; the trade generally are holding oflF. Sales 48,000 
bush, at 4lX@'12c. for new mixed Western; 48@52c. for 
white Western, and 41ia!42c. for black do. 

Eggs are dull at W/2®2Qyi'^. for State and Pennsyl- 
vania. 

Hat is quiet and unchanged. 

Hops are quiet and without decided change. 

Provisions— Pork Is firmer, with more doing. Sales 
of 2000 bbls. of mess, on spot and for August, at ^ll fi"'@, 
17.75. Beef is steady and quiet. Sales of 75 bbls. at $9(® 
10.50 for plain mess, and $n@12 50 for extra do. Bepf 
hams are unchanged at $25531. Tierce beef is steady at 
$17(Sj21 for prime mess, and 822@23 for India do. 

Cut meats are quiet and without decided rhange. 
Middles are quiet. Sales of 125 bPx«-s of short clear at 
lOc. 25 boxes of short ribs at 9'/4c., and 60 boxes light long 
clear, 35 tcs. at 9c. 



DEVOTED TO 
Agriculture, Horticulture, Domestic Economy and Miscellany, 

EDITED BY S. S. RATHVONT. 
" The Farmer is the founder of civUlzation." — WEBSTER. 



Vol V. 



SEFTLMBEK, 1S7S. 



J^o. 9, 



ESSAY 



ON CLIMBING PLANTS. 



BY J. STAUFFER. 



THE Dioscorea batata, or Chinese yam plant, 
to which my attention was called by Mr. 
John Zimmerman, and of which a notice was pub. 
lished in the Lancaster (daily) Express of August, 
setting forth the peculiarity of this twining plant, 
being one of the stem twiners, that hug up the 
stem or plant to which they cling for support, 
usually with a firm grasp. But in this instance, 
being trained to a tall rose bush, exceedingly 
crowded with long and sharp thorns on all its 
branches, the dioscorea, embraced the thorny stems 
very loosely, keeping a respectful distance— evi- 
dently avoiding contact with the thorns of the 
rose bush. Mr. Z. having noticed this, concluded 
to remove the thorns from several branches out of 
the many above the twines, and, rather to his 
surprise, noticed that the ascending dioscorea avoid. 
ed the prickly branches and selected those that had 
the thorns removed from them, indicating plainly 
that some law governed which influenced the 
plant in its choice. This led to reflections and 
remarks which I design to discuss more fully. 
With regard to the motion of plants, a communi- 
cation from Prof. W. H. Brewer, of Washington 
College, Pa., published in Silliman's Journal, 
March, 1850, in reference to the common Lima 
bean, and common Morning Glory, gives the 
following data : 

1st. That during the day winding plants, like 
others, grow toward the light. 

2d. That they possess the property of turning 
toward some solid support. 

3d. That this is more manifest by night than 



by day, and the most so on cool nights following 
hot days. 

4th. That this is not controlled by any influence 
of light or its absence, exerted by he support. 

5th. That heat is the controlling cause, and that 
such plants will only turn (unless it will be acci- 
dentally) toward a support, the temperature of 
which is higher than that of the surrounding air 

6th. That the color and the material of the sup 
port exert no influence further than they influence 
the radiation and absorption of heat ; and 

7th. That when such plants are in actual.'fcontact 
with some support, the tendency to wind spirally 
around it is much greater than they manifested 
in order to reach it. 

The above seven deductions are the results of 
Prof. Brewer's observations, and are worthy of 
attention. I referred to remarks made by Prof. 
Asa Gray (in my former article) as published in 
the Proc. of the American Academy (vol. iv. p. 
98) August, 1858, wherein he endorses the views 
of Prof. Mohl— that "a dull irratability exists in 
the stems of twining plants and tendrils." Then 
he gives his experiments that tendrils will coil 
up more or less promptly after being touched, or 
brought with a slight force into contact with a 
foreign body ; and in some plants the movement 
of coiling is rapid enough to be directly seen by 
the eye ; indeed, is cousiderally quicker than is 
needful for being visible. " And," he continues, 
" to complete the parallel, as the leaves of the- 
Sinsitive plant, and the like, after closing by irri- 
tation, resume after a while their ordinary expand- 
ed position, so the tendrils, of the Sieyos angu- 
latus, where the tendril was but slightly krooked at 
the end, when slightly pressed made 1^ turn in 
four seconds ; then, in a minute after, resume its for- 
mer position ; this was three times repeated with 



162 



THE LAJ^CASTER FABMER. 



a like response, only slower in its motions." He 
considers the motion is caused by a contraction of 
the cells on the concave side of the coil. In 
conclusion he says : " But I have not had an appor- 
tunity for making a decisive experiment." The 
cause then is an open question — since we require 
to know why the " cell contracts" on any side to 
cause the coiling or movement. So, if caused by 
such a contraction, what causes that contraction? 
But alas ! such is the learned nonsense when men 
attempt to explain certain intangible movements 
in the vital organism of plants or animals. Here 
allow me to mention some of the diiferent sorts of 
climbers, such as hook-climbers, root-climbers, 
spiral-twiners, with leaf-climbers and tendril 
bearers, which agree in their power of spon- 
taneously revolving and of grasping objects which 
they reach. The latter are the most numerous in 
kinds, and most perfect in mechanism ; they can 
easily ramble over the wide-spread branches and 
avail themselves of their sun-lit surface. Tendril 
bearing plants can cling closer than mere twiners; 
in order to withstand the wind, they are not so 
easily blown from their support. In the long thin 
tendrils but little organic matter is expended in 
their development, and yet a wide range of attach- 
ment is had. 

Thefee tendrils being given for a specific purpose 
they are always destitute of buds or leaves. The 
tendril commonly grows straight and outstretched, 
until it reaches some neighboring support, such as 
a stem, when its apex hooks around it to secure a 
hold, when the whole tendril shortens itself by 
coiling up spirally and so draws the shoot of the 
growing plant nearer to the supporting object. 
The Virginia creeper, a member of the grape vine 
family, climbs the side of the brick walls of a 
building, because the tendrils are not sufiBcient, and 
no object is presented for it to twine around ; conse- 
sequently the tips expand into a fiat disk or sucker j 
like the ivy does by its sucker-like rootlets. 
Tendrils like in the common pea are at the end of 
the pedicle that supports the leaflets, and of course 
numerous modifications take place ; but always 
apparently for a definite purpose. 

In the grape family, vitis, (the grape vine), and 
Amplelopsis or Virginia creeper, which has five 
digitate leaflets, hence called A quinquefolia, is 
the only species like the vine, as its Greek name 
implies — yet differs, and instead of requiring a trel- 
lis or branches to twine around, it has chosen to 
adhere — as if it were by suction. We little under- 
stand, why as Darwin says, such selection and 
adaption is " developed" as a simple chemical laxo. 
The wisdom or origin of this law is still as much 



hidden ; we may as well admit intelligence and de- 
sign, manifesting a governing mind, which we may 
as well acknowledge as God, and the God of na- 
ture and revelation will be found the same, how- 
ever diversified in the manifestations. But as re- 
gards the motion of plants it may be well to 
refer to the recent discovery by M. Oohn, a Grer- 
man naturalist, of a contractile tissue in plants, 
identical in properties with the muscular tissue of 
animals, and adds one more striking fact to the 
accumulated evidence of indenty between the veg- 
etable and animal organizations It is affirmed 
that " well-informed biologists have for some time 
past been agreed on the impossibility of drawing 
any absolute lines of demarcation between the two. 
Instead of the marked opposition which may still 
be read in popular hand-books, thrown into the 
form of tabulated contrasts, we have learned that 
the physical, chemical, and physiological charac- 
ters, by which the plant and animal were supposed 
to be separated are enuquivocally interested in 
both. It is impossible to deny that plants have 
mobility, ands ome of them even locomotion. If 
we deny them sensibility, it is on grounds which 
will equally exclude many classes of animals, and 
these grounds are anatomical. It is because 
we fail to detect the mechaniam of sensibility, 
that we endeavor to interpret the phenomena as 
physical. It is because we associate sensibiity 
and contractibility with peculiar, nervous, and 
muscular structures that we deny that certain phe- 
nomena observed in plants are what we should 
consider them to be, if we could discover nerves 
and muscles. Take the case of the sensitive plant, 
Dionoea Musciputa or fly-trap. The fringed edges 
of the leaves, with hairs like an eye-lid. The ar- 
rangement of the hairs on the inside of the leaf — 
so that an insect alighting on any part will come 
in contact with one of these hairs, which is so sen- 
sitive as to cause action and the leaves close upon 
each other like a spring-trap and secures the in- 
sect, what then ? — it is soon digested ; as much 
so by some absorbing process, as if within the 
stomach of an animal. The whole leaf does not 
appear to be sensitive, the hairs like nerves, how- 
ever, communicate action; be it muscular, electric 
or what else you please, they close upon the cap- 
tive and seem fitted for that object. In polyps 
we find muscles, but no nerves, in the plant, neith- 
er nerves or muscles. There is contractility in 
either case, and sensibility of some kind must be 
admitted, plants have a contractile tissue; how 
does it differ from muscular tissue ? These con- 
tractile cells in the plant, and a diagram of the 



THE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



163 



muscles in a fresh-water polyp would differ very 
little from a diagram of a cellular tissue in plants. 
Thus, research and inquiry lead us to modify 
old fogy notions, without leaving the rock, to 
which we must cling by a strong cord of faith we 
must secure our anchor in the rock, that we may 
be drawn in again when out " at sea " in vain 
speculation, or scientific skepticism, and material- 
istic dodges. The true and spiritual still remain, 
however we may differ in our theories or faith. I 
verily believe a Holy Spirit can inspire me 
with high and holy thoughts, and a devilish spir- 
it with low and evil thoughts, a something outside 
of my own mind, be it positive or negative intelli- 
gent electricity as some would seem to fancy. The 
brain is not mind, but, like the muscles and organs 
of speech, simply a medium through which it mani- 
fests itself to our physical senses. I claim we have 
other senses, and are just as much a spiritual body 
as we are a physical body. This may seem out 
of place, but the same idea pertains to plants. I 
verily believe that there are fruits and flowers 
blooming in the spiritual spheres far exceeding 
anything that our natural eyes have yet seen, or 
we dreamed of. Is that a strange belief — nay, is 
it not warranted by our sacred teachings. All 
have their due relation to each other, and can only 
be matter of faith or revelation, when the mind 
enters the domain of the physically invisible. 
And yet the faculties of men differ : one accepts 
as a truth, by some law — be it that of faith or in- 
duction, which others reject as halucination, it is 
equally true that hallucinations have the same 
power over mind as truth has, hence error is as ram- 
pant and dominant as truth is strong or patient to 
submit. By the fruit we must judge the tree, so 
whether love and good-will prevails, or hate and 
selfishness, they differ, and for this difference there 
is a cause. May God help us to find it out, and 
improve by our knowledge. 



AGRICULTURE. 



EXPERIMENTAL FARM STATISTICS. 



FROM the records of the Chester county Exper- 
imental Farm we have extracted the following 
results of experiments on grain, grass and fertil- 
izers : 

For the experiments on wheat, the plots were 
laid out on oats and barley stubble ; the ground 
highly manured with an application of bone and 
ash compost, at the rate of 400 lbs. dissolved bone 
and 8 bushels of ashes per acre. The manure 



ploughed down, and the phosphate sown on top 
and harrowed in. The plots contain ^ of an acre, 
run east and west, and begin at the south side of 
west part of the field. They begin with one drill 
breadth of wheat screenings, of Lancaster early 
wheat -to compare with plot No. 1, of the same 
wheat, only perfect grains. Sown September 28. 
Namo of Wheat. Pounds per % Acre. 

Lancaster Red. ...... 230 

Rough and Ready. - ■ - 

Brittany. 

Treadwell, (failed to come up) 
Rogers. - - - - . 

Weeks White. 

Lonzelle. - • - - . 
Fultz. ----.. 
Jennings. - - - . - 
Shoemaker. - - - - . 
Tappahancock. .... 
Dot Wheat. . . - . . 
Arnold, No. O.- 
Kansas, or Italian Red. - - - 
Screenings. - - - 

Good Seed. ----- 



271 

- 22U 

- 216 
216J 

- 213 

282^ 

- 223| 
228| 

- 147^ 
22 6i 

- 204i 
22\ 

- 150 
150 



The following wheat experiments were made on 
ground manured in the Spring, and sown with 
Hungarian grass, then fertilized with 400 pounds 
of bone broadcast, and 100 drilled in with the 
wheat. Sown with Fultz wheat on September 18, 
except the first plot which was sown on Septem- 
ber 28. Plots containing oae-.sixteeuth of an 
acre: 

Pomicls per Plot. 

1. Sown September 28th. . - - . 62^ 

2. Harrowed in ; 2 bushels seed per acre. - 90^ 

3. Drilled in 2^ inches deep. - • - 88i 

4. Drilled in ^ inch deep covered with roller. 77l 

5. " U " " 57 

6. " 4 " " 71 

7. " one bushel to acre. - - 75^ 

8. " two " " " 87^ 
Experiments were made with different kinds of 

oats and barley, sown on cornstalk ground, in plots 
of one-eighth of an acre, with the following re- 
sults : 

Pounds per Plot. 
Excelsior Oats. - . . . . 176 

White Shoenen. 198 

Somerset. - 174:^ 

Surprise. - - - - - - - 195i^ 

White Poland. ...... 220i 

Black Norway. . - . . - 199 
Scotch Burlie. -.-.-- 125 
Black Hungarian. - - - - - 163 

Thanet Barley. 67^ 

Common "--.--- 66 

Probistow" 100 

Early Yellow Oats. - - - - 189 
Surprise Oats, rolled in. - - - - 157 
" " drilled in. - - - 165 

" " sowed and harrowed. - 129^ 

Experiments were also made to show the effect 
of different fertilizers on grass : 



164 



THE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



The fertilizers were sown March 19th, 1873, on 
sod field. Mown one year. The plots contained 
one-sixteenth of an acre, and were those used a 
programme plowing lots. When in wheat, fer 
tilizers were mostly sown at the rate of $10 worth 



j^er acre. 

Potash and soda equal parts. 
Sal. Ammonia. 
Plaster. - - . - 
Super phosphate. - 
Dissolved Carboli. 
Kianite. - . - - 
Sharpless' Mixture. 
Ground Bone (Harrisburg) 
Bone and Ashes 
Lime and salt. 
Cope's Ammoniated. 
Goes'. - - . - ■ 
Baughs. .... 
Berger & Bulls. 
Moro Phillips. - 
Yarnall's Phosphate. 
Nothing. . - - - 
Warring's Heated Bone. 

" Fresh Ground. - 
Pennock's Fertilizer. 



Weight of 

ibs. Cost. Hays 

16 4c. 310 

U 6| 290 

- Ipk. 252 

2^ 2i 312 

. 37| 1| 366 

47 1^ 256 

- 50 1^ 267 
27^ 2^ 273 
30 2 256 

- ^bus. 269 
Ti\ 2\ 314 
27i 2\ 374 
27^ 2^ 349 
27:i 2\ 361 
27| 2\ 400 
22 2^ 340 

234 

- 27 2^ 220 
27^ 2i 219 
39 206 



THE ECONOMY OF SOILING. 



Soiling or the cutting of green food for stock in 
Summer is by far the most profitable way of feed- 
ing the farm animals, and will, I think, become 
more generally practised than it is at present. A 
few have tried it already and find it to be a great 
advantage. 

Perhaps it would not be amiss to note down 
some of the reasons for and against this method 
and as everything that will be of benefit to the 
farmer is worthy of discussion, I propose to give 
my views in its favor. In the first place we know 
that to keep a good sized dairy or several head of 
cattle on good pasture from early Spring until 
after harvest, or through the Summer season re- 
quires about an acre to every head of stock, or at 
least we might suppose it to be a fair average as to 
the capability of Chester county land to afford 
sufficient food. By continual cropping some farms 
will no doubt do better while others not so well. 
Now, suppose a farmer owning one hundred acres 
of land, can, accordi.;g to this rule, keep fifteen 
head of stock, a dairy of that size for instance, in 
eluding the working animals, by pasturing nearly 
fifteen acres of land, could he not by keeping the 
animals in the yard on good mixed feed until the 
grass got well started, and then using a good sized 
lot, or a small field, say from 3 to 5 acres as an 
inclosure, which would probably afford about two 



weeks pasture of itself and might also be adjoin- 
ing those we expected to mow for hay. As soon 
as the grass became of any size it could be cut and 
thrown over the fence, or hauled a short distance 
and fed out to them. Now comes the clamor : " 
that's too much work," and we don't want to take 
up time that way when we can easily turn thera 
into another field and let them feed themselves 
But, remember that while you are cutting the food 
off this small portion of the field, the remainder of 
it is contmually growing and you will find when 
the time for harvest approaches that you will have 
10 or 15 tons of hay more than if all had been pastured 
Now I say that will more than pay for the extra 
work, besides furnishing a much larger amount of 
Winter provender and enabling the farmer to keep 
one-half or one-third more stock and consequently 
increasing the amount of plant food given back to 
the soil, and here lies the main secret of success in 
agriculture. Just in proportion as the soil is sup- 
plied with nutriment for the growing plant wi 1 
nature's bounty be lavished to us. Then in regard 
to the extra labor, it is very often work that has 
to be done anyhow. After going around the 
edges of the field it is all ready for a machine to 
start into it, with the fence corners already clean- 
ed out and not to bother with in harvest, and as 
to the time taken up we will find it to be like a 
great many other things. It does not take long 
when we once get at it and is very little hinderance 
to regular Spring work, besides farming cannot be 
carried on without work, nor can any useful occu- 
pation merit success unless it has earnest labor for 
its basis, and when an increased amount of labor 
brings an additional increase of profit, there is no 
reason why we should not avail ourselves of the 
advantage. We can also dispense with several 
fences, which sooner or later will become a neces- 
sity, from the rapidly diminishing supply of the 
material necessary to keep them up. Try it, 
farmers, and satisfy yourselves ; don't think be- 
cause we have had but one way, that it will always 
be the best way. The march of science and uni- 
versal progress, is continually unfolding to the 
thinking mind new lights by which to guide the 
faithful toiler and honor his calling.— Fi/^a^e 
Record. 



PEQUEA FARMERS' CLUB. 

The Club was called to order at the home of its 
President, Mr. John Bachman, Strasburg town- 
ship, August 9, at 11:15, a. ra. The members 
were all refreshed after their annual vacation 
(July being the month they do not meet), and 



THE LA J^ CASTER FARMER. 



165 



were all present except their genial friend, Al. 
Herr. Even he was present in spirit, as will be 
seen at the close of this letter. KoU was called; 
minutes read; no reports of committees. 

Mr. Elias Brtickbill was then called on to give 
his experience as to his trip to the " Beacon Stock 
Farm." "When he went there Mr. Wm. Crozier 
was in the barn unloading hay, with a horse. 
They went to the house. Mr. B. had the pleasure 
of eating a luncheon that was prepared by the 
beautiful, intelligent and accomplished wife of 
" the lord of the Beacon." The Scotch plows, 
drill plows, Scotch chain harrows, iron rollers, &c., 
&c., that he spoke of were worth seeing, but I 
have no room to describe them in this brief report. 
The engine is fifty feet from his barn, and the 
power is transmitted by an endless chain. His 
cattle are the envy and admiration of all who see 
them. The Alderneys are solid and compactly 
built, fine hair, fawn color, broad rump, narrow 
withers, small neck, and altogether peaceful. The 
Ayreshires are rather nobler looking, lean and fat, 
large udders and great milkers. Mr. Crozier is a 
Scotchman. His farm is 58 miles from New 
York, near Northport, Long Island. He brought 
his bell cow (Ayreshire) with him from England. 
She is now 17 years old — the best cow in the 
United States, and the calves she has dropped 
brought her owner the round sum of $.5,000. The 
Alderney cow (with bell) took several prizes at 
the New England fairs. She gave 3^ inches of 
cream from 8 inches of milk. He thinks nothing 
better than turnips, cabbages and corn, for soiling, 
and says a man is good-for-nothing who cannot 
take away an acre of turnips in a day. He has 
six Clydesdale and four Morgan horses. They 
are well-bred, drooped behind, weigh 1,800, took a 
premium in Scotland, and a diploma at the Mas- 
sachusetts Society, in 1864. He has Cotswold 
and Southdown sheep, and a few Cashmere goats. 
His Berkshire swine are superior animals. One 
male recently sold for $800. Another, fifteen 
months old, dressed, 6 lbs. He sent the hams, 
and other choice pieces, to printers, for a puff. 
Horace Greeley, Orange Judd, and the editor of 
the Country Gentleman were the untutored 
"starvelings" who made a note of his successful 
enterprise and shrewd generosity. Mr. Crozier 
thinks his pork the finest in the world. He 
once asked a California gentleman to dine with 
him. The Californian couldn't eat the animal 
that "had the devil in it." It was too near the 
dinner hour to prepare chicken. They moved up 
to the table. Mr. C. said to his western friend, 



"can I help you to some lamb-chop?" The 
stranger took it with a gracious acknowledgement, 
and ate it with a relish that asked for more. He 
was re-helped and told that he had been eating 
fresh pork. This bit of information did nut in- 
crease his appetite worth a cent. 

I have given you a very detailed account of "b 
flying visit to a celebrated stock farm. It will 
give our Lancaster county farmers a vague idea 
of how a first-class farm is conducted and what it 
returns. I should have added that he realized 
$4,000 from the pigs dropped by a Berkshire sow 
in eleven years. He expects to raise 120 bushels 
of corn to the acre and will be satisfied with 
nothing less. He works his fields in rotation, and 
leaves them lay in grass three years. The 
secretary now read a letter to the club from Aldus 
Oerr. Here is a synopsis of it : 

" St. Louis, Mo., Aug. 4, 1873. 
" To the Pequea Farmers' Club : — I saw much 
that was new and curious since I left you. Coming 
through Ohio, Indiana, Illinois and Missouri, I 
passed through as beautiful an agricultural 
district as man can desire. The poet or the 
materialist alike would have been pleased. I left 
Sedalia, Mo., came due south and noticed at once 
the great change which frontier life suggests — few 
ladies, and boisterous conversation. The land 
lies innocent of cultivator and plow-share. No 
one can pass through the beautiful lands lying 
idle for the amusement of the noble (?) Indian, 
and have his love for our forest brother greatly 
increased. They are a sneaking, dirty, lazy race, 
and extermination is the only medicine that Avill 
cure this complicated ailment. Texas has every 
variety of climate. Their crops are on an 
average equal to yours. Texas suffers from ex- 
tremes - too hot or too cold, too wet or too dry. 
'I'he cold spells are short, but severe from the 
sudden change. Some plant a crop and leave it to 
the mercy of the elements. Even this return is 
fair. Sherman is a small town in the north of 
Texas. I like the country around it very much 
Dallas is .58 miles farther south. If we were 
determined to become a Texan farmer these sec- 
tions would certainly receive attention. Houston 
and Austin have advantages for commercial pur- 
poses. I made it a point to gather all the infor- 
mation on stock raising that was afloat. Every- 
thing was discouraging. You must have a tract 
of your own if you want to make it pay. The 
best brander is the best man in branding time ; 
and the native Texans and Mexicans can beat us 
ten to one. Land is cheap; fencing materia' 



166 



THE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



high. I saw excellent land, six miles from Austin, 
that could have been bought for from $2.50 to $5 
per acre. And between Houston and Galveston 
hundreds of acres of beautiful pastures for even 
less. Sheep raising has been a failure. The 
mountain land is best adapted to sheep, and it is 
not cleared. Wild Indians, too, exist, and they 
sometimes gobble them up. The cattle and horses 
were superior to what I expected to find them. I 
will now leave the " Lone Star " and take you to 
the farm of Jeff. K. Clark, seven miles from St. 
Louis, Mo. This gentleman and W. T. Walters, 
of Baltimore, are the only men in the country who 
have imported Percheron horses. " Napoleon 
Bonaparte " is his favoi'ite horse. He looks like 
" Hercules." Mr. Clark sold two Percheron colts 
— one a yearling and the other a two-year old — for 
$1,000 a piece. One of them afterward trotted a 
mile in 3 10 and sold for $9,000. I asked him if 
he had a price on his French mare. He said he 
was not anxious to sell, but $5,000 would persuade 
him. 

" Your absent member, 

"A. C. Herr." 

The latter part of Mr. H.'s letter shows how 
rapidly the Percheron horses are growing in favor 
throughout the country. We feel a local pride in 
knowing that the Pequea Farmers' Club bought 
the flower of W. T. Walter's stables at his sale 
last Fall. If the farmers in the county knew their 
best interests, they would secure the services of 
the best Percheron in the country. This remark- 
able horse is now at Locust Grove farm — residence 
of Aldus Groff — and it would be worth any 
horse-fanciers while to go and see him. 

The next meeting of the Club will be held at 
the farm of Mr. Bachman. Oake Deane. 

— Examiner. 



INDIANA WHEAT. 



I send you a sample of a new variety of wheat 
that I have been raising for two seasons, and I 
think it is the best wheat I have ever had on my 
farm. I ploughed my field, (oats stubbles) early 
in August, with a three-horse team, breaking it up 
about a foot deep. Before sowing, the middle of 
September, I harrowed it, then sowed thirteen 
bushels on ten acres, harrowed again, dragged 
with a drag made of two-inch plank to smooth 
the ground,and I prefer a drag to a roller, as being 
lighter for horses, and it grinds up all lumps and 
does not pack the land. Then sowed one and a 
half bushels of timothy seed (ten acres in the field). 
On the 13th of March I sowed one and a quarter 



bushels of clover-seed, sowing it across the field 
at right angles to the direction I had sown the 
wheat and timothy, as by this means I avoid 
making unsightly strips that disfigure a field and 
will make it appear slovenly. No manure had 
been put on the field for three years, and the land 
has been in cultivation for sixty years. 

One-half the field was sown in Diehl wheat, and 
the remainder with the kind I send you. No dif- 
ference in the time of sowing or in the quality of 
the land ; but while the Diehl was all down, even, 
broken and very hard to cut, the new kind all 
stood up and could be cradled in any direction 
and will yield from twenty-five to thirty bushels 
to the acre, or from five to ten bushels an acre 
more than the Diehl. 

We have tried it for two seasons with about the 
same result. Please give your opinion of the sam- 
ple I send you, as my axe is sharp and does not 
need grinding. I have a splendid "set" of timo- 
thy and clover on my field, the best I ever saw. 
Albert M. Smith. 
Wayne County, Indiana. 

RemarTcs — The heads are larger and the grain 
plumper than the Mediterranean variety raised in 
this section. If twenty-five bushels of this wheat 
can be raised per acre, it will prove an acquisition 
of great value to the farming interests of the 
country. — Germantown Telegraph. 



Pasturing Too Much. — It is gradually getting 
to be understood that it does not pay to pasture 
good grain land in the summer. On lands that 
for any reason may not be cultivated— those that 
are too moist, too uneven, rough or stony, where 
the grass is not easily gathered or may not pay 
for gathei'ing — of course pasturing is the only 
way to secure the small income such land may 
afford. But the better way is to improve such 
land. If it is too wet, under-drain it and make it 
dry. Low, wet lands are very generally rich, and 
pay well for improving. Rough, stony lands also 
often pay well for clearing and bringing into cul- 
tivation. Hence, such lands should only be left 
for permanent pasturage when it is impracticable 
to bring them into good condition for cultivation. 
Good, permanent grass lands, sure for a fair yield 
of hay or pasture, cannot be pastured to the best 
advantage. A portion of the growth that may 
be secured for hay is lost in a pasture. Land 
covered by droppings of stock cannot produce 
grass, and the rank growth surrounding it will be 
left. The hoofs of cattle, especially of horses and 



THE LAJTCASTER FARMER. 



167 



colts, tread out and prevent the growth of not a 
little grass. And then, unless the field is fed 
very close, more or less will get old and dry and 
not be eaten at all, while, strange as it may ap- 
pear, land improves faster when in meadow than 
when in pasture. The growth in a meadow 
makes a thicker and better sod, and a much larger 
growth of grass and clover roots, and both are 
left to gradually improve the soil. True, this de- 
pends in some measure on the treatment the 
meadow receives. If fed close from the time 
the hay is removed until winter, and perhaps to 
some extent in the spring, there may be very little 
improvement while the grass will be more likely 
to run out. If not fed close, and something is 
left to protect the soil and grass plants in hot 
weather, as well as through the winter, the crops 
will be better, the grass hold out longer, and the 
improvement of the land be more sure and decided 
It may not be well to leave too large a growth on 
the land through the winter, at least not enough 
to smother the plants or induce mice to live and 
woi-k under the dead grass ; but this is seldom the 
case— most farmers err the other way. Perhaps 
two cuttings for hay, one early and the other not 
far from the first of September (the fall growth 
being left on the land.) will do well. — Cor. Coun- 
try Gentleman. 

DOMESTIC 



HUSMAN'S METHOD OF rfUMMP]R PRUN- 
ING THE GRAPE-VINE. 

WITHOUT proper and judicious summer 
pruning it is impossible o prune judiciously 
fall. If you have allowed six or eight 
canes to grow in summer, where you need but two 
or three, none of them will be fit to bear a full 
crop, nor be properly developed. We prune long- 
er in the fall than the majority of our vintners, 
which gives a double advantage ; should the frost 
of winter have injured or killed any of the first 
buds, we still have enough left ; and should this 
not be the case, we still have our choice to rub off 
all imperfect shoots ; to reduce the number of 
branches at the first pinching, and thus retain 
only strong canes for next year's fruiting, and 
have only large, well developed bunches. 

But secure these advantages, we have certain 
rules, which we follow strictly. \Ye are glad to 
see that the attention of the grape-growers of the 
country is thoroughly aroused to the importance 
of this subject, and that the old practice of cutting 
and slashing the young growth of July and 
August is generally discountenanced. It has mur- 



dered more promising vineyards than any other 
practice. But the people are apt to run into ex- 
tremes, and many are now advocating the " let 
alone" doctrine. We think both are wrong, and 
that the true course to steer is in the middle. 

1. Perform the operation early. Do it as soon 
as the shoots are six inches long. At this time 
you can overlook your vine much easier. Every 
young shoot is soft and pliable. You do not rob 
the vine of a quantity of foliage it cannot spare 
(as the leaves are the lungs of the plant and the 
elevators of the sap). You can do three times the 
work you can perform a week later, when the 
shoots have become hardened and intertwined by 
their tendrils. Remembering that the knife should 
have nothing to do with summer pruning, your 
thumb and finger should perform all the work, and 
they can do it easily if it is done early. 

2. Perform it thoroughly and systematically. 
Select the shoots you intend for bearing wood next 
year. These are left unchecked ; but do not leave 
more than you really need. Remember that each 
part of the vine should be thoroughly ventilated, 
and if you crowd it too much, none of the canes 
will ripen their wood as thoroughly nor be as 
vigorous as when each has room, air and light. 
Having selected these, commence at the bottom 
of the vine, rubbing oif all the superfluous shoots 
and all which appear weak or imperfect. Then 
go over each arm or part of the vine, pinching 
every fruit-bearing branch above the last bunch 
of grapes, or, if this should look weak or imper- 
fect, remove it and pinch back to the first per- 
fectly developed bunch. Should the bud have 
pushed out two or three shoots, it will generally 
be advisable to leave the strongest, and remove 
the balance. Do not think that you can do part 
of it a little later, but be unsparing in taking 
away what you intend taking this time. Destroy 
all the caterpillars, and all the insects you find 
feeding on the vines ; the steel-blue beetle, which 
will eat into the buds ; but protect the lady-bug, 
mantis, and all the friends of the vine. 

We come now to the second stage of the 
summer pruning. After the first pinching, 
the dormant buds in the axils of the leaves, on 
fruit-bearing shoots, will each push out a lateral 
shoot opposite the young bunches. Our second 
operation consists in pinching off these lateral- 
back to one leaf as soon as we get hold of the 
shoot above the firet leaf, so that we get a young 
and vigorous leaf additional, opposite to each 
bunch of grapes. These serve as elevators of sap, 
and also an excellent protection and shade to the 



168 



TEE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



fruit. Remember our aim is not to rob the plant 
of its foliage, but to make two leaves grow where 
there was but one before, and at a place where 
they are of more benefit to the fruit. By our 
method, our rows of vines have the appearance of 
leafy walls, each bunch of the fruit properly 
shaded, and yet each part of the vine is properly 
ventilated We come now to another one of those 
accidental discoveries, which has proved of great 
use to us in the management of the Concord, 
Herbemont, Taylor, etc. In the summer of 1862, 
when a piece of Concord, planted in 1861, was 
growing rapidly, a severe hailstorm cut up the 
young shoots, completely defoliating- them, and 
breaking the tender and succulent shoots at a 
height of about two feet. The vines were grow 
ing rapidly, and the dormant buds in the axils of 
the leaves immediately pushed out laterals, which 
made fair-sized canes. In the following fall when 
we commenced to prune we found from three to 
five of these strong laterals on each cane, and ac- 
cordingly shortened them in from three to five and 
six buds each. On these laterals we raised as fine 
a crop of grapes as we ever saw — certainly much 
finer than we had ever before raised on the strong 
canes ; and we have since learned to imitate hail- 
storms by pinching the leaders of young shoots 
when they have grown, say two feet, forcing our 
the laterals and growing out fruit on the latter, 
thus meeting with another illustration of the old 
proverb, " It is an ill wind that blows nobody any 



After the sound pinching of the fruit-bearing 
branches, as described above, fhe lateral will gen- 
erally start once more, and we pinch the young 
growth again to one leaf, thus giving each lateral 
two well developed leaves. The whole course 
should be completed about the middle of June 
here, and whatever grows hereafter may be left. In 
closing, let us glance at the object we have in 
view: 

1. To keep the vines within proper bounds, so 
that it is at all times under the conrrol of the 
vintner, without weakening its constitution by 
robbing it of a great amount of foliage. 

2. Judicious thinning of the fruit at a time 
when no vigor has been expended in its develop- 
ment. 

3. Developing strong, healthy foliage, by forc- 
ing the growth of the laterals and having two 
young, healthy leaves opposite each bunce, which 
will shade the fruit and serve as conductors of the 
sap to the fruit. 

4. Growing vigorous canes for next year's fruit- 



ing and no more, thereby making them stronger ; 
as every part of the vine is accessible to light and 
air, the wood will ripen better and more uniformly. 
5. Dectruction of noxious insects. As the 
vintner has to look over each shoot of the vine, 
this is dane more thoroughly and systematically 

than by any other process. 

« 

CHEESE MAKING IN SMALL DAIRIES 

A correspondent of the Maine Farmer writes : 
' I commenced making cheese to-day from the 
milk of two cows, and as some one else just com- 
menced as a farmer's wife may wish to use the 
milk of a few cows to the best advantage, who, like 
'myself, live far from ' cheese factories,' and who 
find that excessiveheat and frequent thunder causes 
the milk to sour too soon to make it profitable to 
make butter. I used to be troubled to get the 
curds, made different days, to adhere, but now I 
do perfectly. I strain the milk that is brought in 
at night in a large pail, and usually allow a table- 
spoonful of rennet to ten quarts of milk. After 
it ' comes' I cut it in checks and leave it in a cool, 
safe place till more ing, when I find it settled suf- 
ficiently to pour in a cloth on a basket. I place 
the corners of the cloth so that the curd will be 
covered, and set a pan of warm water on it, and 
when the morning's milk is set in a similar way 
and cut, and it commences to settle, (or the curd 
and whey separates), I pour it over the curd in 
the basket. When drained four or five hours, I 
cut it in thin slices and pour over it boiling water, 
and allow it to remain till cold, then chop it finely 
and salt, and tie it closely in a cloth and hang it 
up in the cellar. This process is repeated till 
enough accumulates to make a good sized cheese. 



MAKING SAUEIi-KilAUT. 



The best we ever ate we ni;iili' ourselves for ma- 
ny years, and for a considerable time with our own 
liauds, and always from Savoy cabbage. It was 
manufactured in this wise : In the first place let 
your "stand" holding from a half barrel to a bar 
rel, be thoroughly scalded out ; the cutter, the tub 
and the stamper also well scalded. Take oS" all 
the outer leaves of the cabbage, halve them, re- 
move the heart and proceed with the cutting. Lay 
some clean leaves at the botlmu of the stand, 
sprinkle with a handful of salt, fill in half a bushel 
of cut cabbage, stamp gently until the juice just 
makes its appearance, then add another handful 
of salt, and so on until the stand is full. Cover 
over with cabbage leaves, place on top a clean 



THE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



169 



board fitting the space pretty well, and on that a 
stone weighing twelve or fifteen pounds. Place 
away in a cool spot, and when hard freezing comes 
on remove to the cellar. It will be ready for use 
in from four to six weeks The cabbage should 
be cut tolerably coarse. The Savoy variety makes 
the best article, but it is only half as productive 
as the Drumhead and Flat Dutch. — Ed. of Cen- 
tral Union Agriculturist. 



Dutch Method of Fertilizing Fbuit Trees. — 
As I have never yet seen any notice of the Dutch 
method of applying liquid manure to fruit trees in 
any of our agricultural papers, I now send you an 
account of it, as I think it may be a useful way of 
watering trees, even when no liquid manure is 
desirable. An iron-shod stake of about three 
inches in diameter, with a piece of wood nailed on 
to one side to place the foot on, is used to make a 
circle of holes just under the ends of the branches 
about eighteen inches or two feet apart, and from 
twelve to fifteen inches deep, and the liquid 
manure poured into them : then the holes are easily 
filled up again, so that the liquid cannot be 
evaporated, or the earth baked hard by the heat 
of the sun. In wet weather the liquid manure is 
applied alone, but in dry weather an equal 
quantity of water is mixed with it. This is used 
about once a week. Two precautions are neces- 
sary ; first, not to use the liquid manure until the 
fruit is well set, otherwise the leaves will grow 
too strong, and rot the fruit, causing it to drop 
off; and secondly, to discontinue the use of it at 
the first signs of approaching maturity. I have 
used this plan on applying liquid manure to vines, 
and also in watering cabbages, or anything else 
either in the flower or kitchen garden ; but in 
these cases a common walking-stick will answer.- 
Canada Fanner. 



Sheep as Weed Exterminators. — The Pacific 
Rural Press says : " It may not be known to 
farmers in general, that it is a common practice 
in some parts of the country to turn sheep into 
the potato field to eat down the weeds. The 
-sheep will not touch the potato vine. This pas- 
turing with sheep is advantageous when the crop 
is a late planted one, so that the hoeing cannot be 
completed until after the haying or harvesting is 
finished. At the growing season it is the farmer's 
aim to keep down the grass and weeds so that they 
may be covered by the cultivator and hoe, when 
they are used. Pasturing with sheep will attain 
this object. Early planted crops, the cultivation 



of which is completed in the early part of the 
summer, frequently become grassy and weedy be- 
fore the time of digging, when the size of the top 
precludes cultivation. In this stage the sheep are 
economical weeders. It is hardly necessary to 
mention that the feed thus given to sheep, makes 
a double profit, inasmuch as it costs absolutely 
nothing, while labor is saved, and weeds pre- 
vented from seeding. 



How Much Milk to a Pound of Butter. — A 
correspondent of the Practical Farmer writes that 
he has carefully tried his dairy in order to ascer 
tain the amount of milk required for one pound of 
butter. The result, given by him, is that 241 
pounds and 11 ounces of milk gave 27 pounds 2 
ounces of cream, which made 11 pounds 2 ounces 
of well-worked butter, or 1 pound of butter from 
a little less than 22 pounds of milk. 

The American Agriculturist gives an account 
of a Massachusetts dairy of thirteen cows, whose 
milk was so rich that 18:| pounds of milk made 1 
of butter. This, we believe, is the lowest amount 
we have had on record for a whole dairy. In 
more than one case a lower figure has been shown 
in the return of only one cow. 

The lowest average we have yet noticed for a 
factory is that of the Berry factory when 4,000 
^ounds of milk made 200 pounds of butter, or 1 
pound to 20 pounds of milk. 

In the experiment with the dairy in Massachu- 
setts the cows had no other feed than grass. The 
feed of the dairy noticed in the Practical Farm- 
er is not stated, but from the date we would sup- 
pose it to have been hay and meal, or bran.— 
Weekly Age. 



Cheddar and Stilton Cheese. — The follow 
ing extractis from a precent English work : 

" The various kinds of cheeses which divide the 
public favor owe their character in differences in 
the manipulation of the curd, the character of the 
pasture, and other less-evident peculiarities in the 
manufacture. In Ayrshire the milk is heated tO" 
85 or 90 degrees Fahrenheit, when the rennet ia 
added, and the consequence is a very rapid setting 
of the curd. Cheddar Cheese is made by first 
adding rennet. The curd is afterwards finely 
broken and actively stirred in the whey, which is 
heated by drawing off a portion, placing it into a 
vessel of boiling water, and returning it to the re- 
mainder. This is done twice ; the first time heat- 
ing the whole mass up to 80 degrees Fahrenheit, 
and the second time up to 100 degrees Fahrenheit. 



170 



THE LAJ^CASTER FABMER^ 



Half a pound per cent, of salt is added to the 
crumbled curd. 

A Stilton cheese is made from nine gallons of 
new milk, and the cream of two or three gallons 
of milk. Lamb's stomach is used as the basis of 
th rennet, and when the curd is set it is not brok- 
en, as in Gloucestershire, but it is laid upon a can- 
vas strainer in a cheese basket. After a few 
hours, when sufBciently firm, is laid in the vat 
in slices, and salt is sprinkled between each layer. 
Its own weight is sufficient pressure, and is turned 
every two or thVee hours for the first day, and two 
or three times the next day. The cheese must 
remain in the vat three or four days. 



Arresting Decay in Potatoes. — Various plans 
for arresting decay in potatoes after digging have 
from time to time been made public, such as dust- 
ing with quicklime, gypsum, charcoal dust, etc. 
Prof. Church of Cirencester, England, the eminent 
agricultural chemist announces that sulphate of 
lime appears to exercise a remarkable influence in 
arresting the spread of decay in potatoes affected 
by the potato disease. In one experiment the 
salt was dusted over some tubers, partially decayed 
from this cause, as they were being stowed away. 
Some months afterward the potatoes were found 
to have suffered no further injury. A similar 
trial with powdered lime proved no be much less 
effective. 



A French horticulturist has perceived that, 
wherever a fruit — a pear, for instance — rested 
upon some branch or other support beneath it, that 
fruit always grew to a larger size. The support 
given to the fruit permits the sap-vessels of the 
stem to remain open and the fruit can receive 
abundant nourishment. Mr. Thomas Meehan 
made substantially the same observation some 
years ago. 

Egg Sauce. — Chop two or more hard boiled 
eggs, mix them with a white sauce, and serve. 

Cucumber Sauce. — Chop fine a tablespoonful 
of pickled cucumber, mix them with a white 
sauce, give one boil, and it is ready. 

Caper Sauce. — When the white sauce is made 
add it to one, two or three tablespoonsful of cap- 
ers, either whole or chopped. 

Bechamel Sauce. — Is made exactly like white 
sauce, with the exception that milk is used instead 
of water. 

Cream Sauce. — This is also made like a white 
sauce, with the exception that cream is used in- 
stead of water. 



Blonde Sauce. — Broth is used for this instead 
of water, and the rest of the process is the same 
as for a white sauce. 

Lobster Sauce. — Add two or three tablespoons- 
ful of the flesh of boiled lobster, chopped, to a 
white sauce. 

Shrimp Sauce. — Boil and clean a quart of 
shrimps, remove the shells, chop the flesh, and add 
it to a white souce. 

Oyster Sauce. —Blanch a pint or so of oysters, 
mix them with a white sauce, add lemon juice to 
suit the taste, and the sauce is made. 

MussKN Sauce.— When the mussels are boiled 
and thoroughly cleaned, chop about a pint of 
them and mix with a white sauce, adding lemon 
juice to taste. 

Celery Sauce. —Blanch a few stalks of celery, 
chop them rather fine, and add them to a white 
sauce giving them just one boil after the celery is 
in. 

Mushroom Sauce. — It is made with either fresh 
or preserved mushrooms. A tablespoonful or 
more is chopped and mixed with a white sauce ; 
then boil for half a minute, and it is done. 

Truffle Sauce. — Made like the above, using 
truffles instead of mushrooms. 

Maitre d'Hotel Sauce.— This name is given to 
the mixrure used with broiled fish or broiled meat, 
and is composed of butter, chopped parsley, and 
lemon juice when for fish, but vinegar instead of 
lemon juice may be used when it is to be served 
with meat. 

Pierre Blot saya : The majority of sauces are 
all commenced in the same way. When the but- 
ter and flour are thoroughly mixed and cooked the 
sauce is more than half made ; the rest of the 
work is comparatively easy. The most inexperi- 
enced housekeeper will be able to make almost 
any sauce after two or three experiments. 

ENTOMOLOGICAL. 

THE COLORADO POTATO-BUG. 

THE Colorado Potato-Bug(Z>or3/p/iora decen:- 
lineata, or ten-striped doryphora,) is I under, 
stand as far eastward on its travels as the Atlantic 
States. You will all soon be as buggy as we are ; 
however, we have learned something about this 
pest, and are willing to impart our knowledge. 

The potato-bug comes out of the ground in the 
spring, just when potatoes begin to show, and is 
then a full-grown beetle, of a bright yellow, 



THE LAJ^CASTER FARMER. 



171 



striped with black. It does not eat or do any 
damage, its only office is to lay eggs. These are 
deposited on the under sides of the leaves, are of a 
bright golden yellow, are in patches of about an 
inch square, quite easily found, and easily des- 
troyed by picking off the leaves and burning them. 
If the farmer has the hands to put on, he will 
have but a few bugs of his oiun. But as these 
beetles onl^/ fly at night, if his neighbors are not 
as vigilant, he will have ample employment as they 
fly from farm to farm. The old method here is to 
"bug" the vines by day. Children walk along the 
rows and knock them off into tin pans or old fruit 
cans with a small stick, and then burn the bugs. 

In a few days the eggs hatch into small bright- 
red grubs, with a double row of black spots on 
each side. These are extremely voracious and 
grow rapidly, in a very short time totally destroy- 
ing every leaf, and leaving the naked stems look- 
ing as if fire had passed through them. This of 
course stops all future growth, and the crop is lost. 

In due time these grubs mature and descend to 
the earth, and shortly emerge again as full-grown 
beetles, ready for business. 

In the grub state they are very soft, are easily 
knocked off the plants, and cannot navigate on 
loose soil. In fact this is their vulnerable state. 

Acting upon these facts, I have this season 
adopted a new plan for their extermination, which 
I believe is original with myself, and has so far 
proved very efficacious 

While the plants are small I go over the ground 
with a slanting tooth-harrow, the bars of which 
knock off the grubs while the teeth bury them in 
the earth. When the plants become too tall to 
allow the use of the harrow, I use the cultivator, 
(the one I described as being used here among 
corn.) and attach by cords three or four bars of 
wood, hanging transversely across underneath, 
just in advance of the shovels ; these dangling 
loosely against the vines, knock off the bugs, and 
the shovels bury them. There they perish, as they 
cannot travel yet in the earth. I do this in a hot- 
dry day. I have this year given up bugging en, 
tirely, and have perfect success by my new method- 
I have two acres of potatoes, and probably could 
not find a gill of bugs in all. I go over them in 
this way once a week, occupying about two hours, 
and not only keep off the bugs, but benefit the 
crop largely by the frequent cultivation. 

We read in the papers wonderful stories of their 
poisonous qualities, but I have never known any 
cases here. My children have been exposed enough 
to test that matter well. 



We are having now fine harvest weather, the 
wheat, oats and barley are all ripe at once this 
year, and farmers are very busy and hands scarce. 

The grasshoppers have done much damage to 
oats, and garden stuff is pretty much eaten by 
them. — Cor. Germantown Telegraph. 

[As the above-named insect may now be consid- 
ered permanently domicilated in Lancaster county 
— having been reported from at least a dozen lo- 
calities, including Lancaster city — anything and 
everything of a practical character in relation to 
it becomes interesting ; and accordingly, we 
publish the above, as very appropriate to the 
subject. And, in this connection, we would re- 
mark that many persons consider it too much 
trouble, and too profitless, to bestow so much time 
and labor to the destruction of the " Potato 
Beetle" and the " Green Cabbage Worm ;" and 
therefore, through despair, or wilful neglect, these 
pests are suffered to increase with apparent impu- 
nity. Now, we would respectfully beg leave to 
ask, which— on grounds of morality. Christian be- 
nevolence, and general usefulness — are the most 
worthy crops to be saved, the potatoes and cab- 
bage, or the tobacco? Any amount of vigilant 
and persevering labor is bestowed on the tobacco, 
from the time the seed is put into the ground, un - 
til the crop is delivered into the hands of the 
wholesale dealer ; and every tobacco grower seems 
to know and concede that this labor is required, to 
insure a remunerating return ; but they seem to 
think that " potatoes and cabbage" ought to take 
care of themselves.] 



HORTICULTURAL. 



THE BEST TIME TO EXTERMINATE 
BUSHES. 



A correspondent of the New York Herald 
says : 

Having been brought up on a farm I used to 
hear much said by farmers in regard to the "best 
time" for cutting bushes, etc., and remember well 
the many uncertainties that existed and the 
various opinions given on the subject. Some 
recommended to cut at one season, some at an- 
other ; some regarded the "moon," others the 
'signs," etc. I also remember that the same kind 
of under-brush, if cut at one season would start 
again and grow luxuriantly, but if cut at another 
would be completely "used up." I have also, 
within the last few years, had opportunity to 
notice the same facts ; and the conclusioa to 



172 



TEE la:n'caster farmer. 



which I have arrived is, that different shrubs of 
bushes, trees, etc., may be cut at different seasons 
of the year. Some are killed by cutting as early 
as the first of August ; and so on till October or 
even November. The rule is this : " Cut any 
plant or shrub about the time that it has done 
growing for the season, and its destruction is al- 
most certain." If cut before this it will general- 
ly start again the next year. The exceptions are 
few. So much for the fact, now for the theory. 
First, in the spring of the year, all roots are vig- 
orous ; hence, if a tree or shrub be cut at this 
time, or while in full growth, the root will send 
forth a new set of shoots. The exceptions are — 
first, evergreens generally, as pine, hemlock, 
spruce, etc. ; second, those that have a copious 
flow of sap in the spring, as the maple, birch, etc. 
Yet even some of those will start again if cut 
soon after the buds have opened ; that is, after 
the spring flow of sap has ceased ; except in the 
case of old trees, in which the root appears not 
sufficiently vigorous or the evaporation from the 
new stump too rapid to allow of the formation of 
new shoots. Second — in autumn, when a shrub 
or tree has done growing for the season, the 
active energies of the root cease, being perhaps, 
somewhat exhausted by its summer action. If, 
then the bush or tree be cut, after it has done 
growing, but while the stem and leaves are fresh 
and full of sap, the vital force of the root will 
rarely be sufficient to cause a new growth ; but if 
left till the foliage is dead or dying, the energies 
of the root are restored by the return of the sap 
and are ready for action again as soon as the sea- 
son of growth shall return. Hence too early or 
too late cutting will be equally unsuccessful. Cut 
your under-brush, then, at the time above specified, 
and it will rarely start again. If it does, the 
growth will appear stunted or sickly, and soon die 
of its own accord, or a second cutting at the 
proper time will insure success. The same 
rule applies to all plants, as Canada thistles, 
milk-weed, etc ., with greater or less certainty, ac- 
cording to the greater or less vital force or ten- 
acity of life peculiar to the root of each kind of 
vegetable. The "proper time" can easily be de- 
termined by observing whether new leaves con- 
tinue to appear at the ends of the prominent 
branches. If deferred long beyond this time, or 
till the leaves begin to turn yellow or fall, cutting 
will be of little use, as the root will be " strong " 
for a new start on the opening of a new spring. 



1^ Subscribe for The Lancaster Farmer. 



MANURE FOR FRUIT-TREES. 



It is clear that animal manures are not what is 
wanted for fruit-trees, including grape-vines, 
berries, etc. There may be benefit, and usually is 
at first, but the quality of the fruit will suffer, and 
the wood and foliage are not of that healthy 
character which is desired. This has been noticed 
by Liebig and others. "We have known prolific 
grape-vines to bear more fruit, but at an expense 
of quality, where the contents of the privy were 
freely used for manuring. We have always found 
the best success when leaves, the weedings of the 
garden, chip-manure and forest mould, either 
singly or combined, have been freely applied. 
These seem to contain the different materials in 
proper proportion, that is, the organic, the car- 
bonaceous and the nitrogenous ; the mineral 
needs to be supplied and nothing does this so satis- 
factorily as wood-ashes. It supplies largely pot- 
ash which is needed. The best success, and it has 
been fully achieved, which we ever attained, was 
by applying a coat of leaves in the fall, worked 
into the soil in the spring, followed by weedings 
from the garden, clippings of the vine with other 
vegetable refuse, as a mulch, sprinkled over with 
wood-ashes, leached or unleached ; if the latter, 
more were required. This made a healthy, not 
excessive growth, and increased both the quality 
and quantity of the fruit. It makes a sounder and 
better-keeping fruit. This with a variety of 
soils, but particularly a clay soil. There should 
be a good drainage and exposure to air, or else, 
with a green mulch kept moist by the ashes there 
might be too much humidity. For grapes this 
will not do. Nor will it for fruit-trees if there is 
a close heavy top, reaching well down, holding 
thus the moisture which evaporates, and inviting 
parasitic lodgments, which will appear in masses 
of mildew, rusted fruit, etc. Herbaceous material 
and ashes, with occasional bone-dust, we have 
found the best application for fruit-trees in gene- 
ral, for berries, and for the grape. Apply yearly 
where the soil is not rich ; and in the spring when 
the ground is dry enough to spade it Avell. Use 
sparingly, if any, the strong, nitrogenous mar 
nures. — Utica Herald, 



Nutritive Value of Feed. — The proportionate 
values of the following materials used for feeding 
farm stock are gathered from published analyses 
by the most eminent agricultural chemists, and 
have been corroborated by the results of the 
practice of many eminent English feeders. They 
include the relative flesh-forming, fattening and 



THE LAJSrCASTER FARMER^ 



173 



total feeding values of the different articles men- 
tioned, and are, probably, the most trustworthy 
information that can be gathered from all sources 
at the present time. They are as follows, equal 
weights of each being considered : 

Flesh Fat H 

Food. produc- procluc- ° 

ing. ing. & 

Turnips 15 7 

Rutabagas 17 9 

Carrots I 7 10 

Mangels and Kohl Rabi 2 8 12 

Straw 3 16 22 

Potatoes 3 17 22 

Brewers' grains 6^ 18 25 

Rice meal 6>4 77 83 

Locust beans. 7 72 8i 

Hay (early cut) 8 50 W 

Mil'letiseed) 8 76 85 

Buckwheat 9 60 69 

Malt 9 76 81 

Rye 11 72 80 

Oats 12 63 /9 

Corn 12 68 80 

Wheat and barley 12 67 82 

Dried brewers' grains 16 70 8( 

Palm-nut meal 16 98 82 

Earth-nut cake 20 40 54 

Beans (Knglish-fleld) 22 46 79 

Peas 22 60 72 

Linseed 23 112 74 

Cotton seed oake 24 401^ 8i 

Malt sprouts 26 60 bS 

Tares (seed) 27^ 57 79 

Linseed cake .'8^ 56 i^ 

Bran and coarse mil i-stuflf 3. 54 /» 

Rape cake 31 53 7S 

Decorticated earth-nut cake 39 45 7'- 

Decorticated cotton-seed cake 41 57 82 

In these estimates the flesh-forming value is in 
proportion to the nitrogenous elements contained 
in the food. The fat formers consist of starch, oil 
and fat, and as oil and ready-formed fat are esti- 
mated as double the value of starch in feeding, 
the total feeding values of different articles vary 
in somewhat different ratios to those of the fat- 
forming'elements. For instance while bran con- 
tains more carbonaceous matter, viz. : starch and 
oil together, then rape cake, and exactly the 
same flesh-forming material yet its total feeding 
value is less than that of rape cake, because the 
fifty-three parts of starch and oil in the rape cake 
have more oil and less starch than the fifty-four 
parts of starch and oil in the bran ; and the oil 
being, as we have said, more valuable than the 
starch, therefore the rape cake is worth more than 
the bran as feed. — American Agriculturist. 

[In the destruction of the potato beetle and the 
cabbage worm— even by hand-picking — the opera 
tion is nothing like as repulsive and disgusting- 
as hunting and destroying the tobacco worm. But 
the latter has long since become a matter of 
course, and the former will have to be ultimately 
so regarded, if farmers and gardeners e-xpect to 
war successfully against them and finally over- 
come them. There are conceivable contingencies 
under which all the tobacco in the country might 
utterly perish without causing a moiety of the dis- 



tress that would follow a total failure of the pota- . 
toes and cabbage. It is true, that potatoes and 
cabbage only yield, respectively, 22 and 12 parts 
out of 100 of fat and flesh-forming substance, but 
then even that is better than tobacco or nothing, 
in a wide-spread famine, such as that which oc- 
curred lately in Persia. "We confess that where 
only one, two, or even more, in an infested dis- 
trict, battle against prevailing noxious insects, 
whilst their neighbors totally neglect to do so, 
their labor may seem to be in vain, and is neces- 
sarily accomplished by great discouragment. 
Nevertheless, let them persevere, and their ex- 
ample must ultimately produce a healthy effect. 
This subject must, sooner or later, be met and di^ 
posed of, in a practical manner. R.] 



Pruning Fruit Trees. — The Kansas State 
Horticultural Society has been discussing pruning, 
and it is asserted that the best success was from 
low-headed trees little pruned ; in fact this is 
said to be proved by the very lowest orchards. 
Mr. Grubb, of Brown county, who has a large 
orchard, seventeen years old, is decidedly in favor 
of very low-headed trees, and he prunes none ex- 
cept with thumb and finger ; and the best lesson 
he said he ever got in pruning was from the late 
Reuben Ragan, of Indiana, who said when he 
found that pruning was coming into his mind, the 
very first thing he should do was to throw his knife 
into the well. 



PREVENTING ROT IN POTATOES. 

In the year 1850 the wTiter of this was engaged, 
in a small way, in the agricultural line — that is, 
he was spreading himself on a one-acre lot in the 
old Bay State, his principal crop, in prospective, 
being potatoes, which for several previous years 
had suffered greatly with the rot. Feeling nat- 
urally anxious to secure, if possible, the fruits of 
his labor, he resorted to the following as a " pre- 
ventive" against the fell destroyer with the re- 
sults here stated : In a half hogshead, partially 
filled with water, he put 20 pounds of the flour of 
sulphur, letting the tub stand open to the sun and 
air for three or four days previous to use, stirring 
it up well several times each day ; then cutting 
up his seed potatoes, many of which were seriously 
diseased, into very small pieces, he subjected them 
to the sulphur bath for 48 hours, stirring the sul- 
phur well up from the bottom of the tub at the 
time of putting them in, after which they were 
planted in hills in the usual way. Result : a crop 



TTJf 



THE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



of potatoes that elicited the commendation of a 
freshly imported Irishman who dug them, entirely 
free from rot, while others not so treated suffered 
badly, as did the potatoes in the neighborhood 
generally. It will hardly do to build a theory or 
base a fact upon a single experiment. So satis- 
factory was the result, however, that I shall treat 
my potatoes in the same way this present season, 
and also roll them in sulphur. And should the 
rot appear among them, or in the neighborhood, 
I shall sprinkle sulphur over their tops, and burn 
it in different parts of the field. — A Farmer, 
Warren Co., Penn. 



ALFALFA NOT A GRASS. 

Certain parties are sending circulars to farmers 
and others in the Western States, recommending 
the Alfalfa or Lucerne as a most wonderful pro- 
lific kind of grass, which will yield six to eight 
tons of hay per acre, and never die out. It is also 
recommended as a beautiful lawn grass ; in fact, 
t is the greatest thing ever discovered, all of 
which some persons will probably believe, and 
purchase seed of this oldest of all known cultiva- 
ted forage plants. Swindlers of all kinds are 
usually just sharp enough to tell a story contain- 
ing a small moiety of truth with a big lie attached, 
which makes their ignorance more apparent to 
those who happen to know anything of the sub- 
ject referred to. Now, as Alfalfa is not a grass 
any more than peas or beans, thoae fellows who 
advertise it as such show their ignorance at the 
start, consequently, we are not bound to believe 
them even if they should in part tell the truth. 
Lucerne is far too old a plant for any one to be 
humbugged into purchasing the seed for any other 
purpose, soil or climate, except that to which it 
is adapted. In some localities it is a most excel- 
lent forage plant, but it is not valued very highly 
where our best species of meadow and pasturs 
grasses succeed. 



The Stockton (Del.) Republican says : 
" We once knew a gentleman who supplied his 
table with grapes from one season to another. 
His plan was to gather, when quite ripe, the 
largest and finest bunches and pack them in saw 
dust, using in place of bo.xes common nail kegs 
After carefully packing the desired number of 
kegs he buried a lot in a trench dug in high dry 
ground, beneath a shed, where the water could 
neither fall nor soak in. Before using the saw- 
dust he carefully dried it, either in the sun or in 
an oven, until it was entirely free from moisture 



After being buried for months the grapes are as 
sweet aud finely flavored as if just gathered from 
the vines. The process is cheap and may be easily 
tested. If it will preserve the grape, a new and 
profitable business may be built up." 



Gum Arabic. — Most of the gum arabic of com- 
merce comes from Morocco, on the north coast of 
Africa. In November after the rainy season a 
gummy juice exudes spontaneously from the 
trunk and branches of the acacia tree. It grad- 
ually thickens in the furrow down which it runs, 
and assumes the form of oval and round drops 
about the size of an eg^, of different colors, as it 
comes from the red or white gum tree. About 
the middle of December the Moors encamp on the 
edge of these vast forests, and the harvest lasts a 
full month. The gum is packed in large leather 
sacks, and transported on the backs of camels and 
bullocks for shipment. The harvest is one of 
great rejoicing, and the people for the time being 
almost live on the gum, which is nutritious and 
fattening. 

The Mangel WuRZEL. — Mr. Dey, of Wisconsin, 
recently said : " The mangel wurzel beet I think 
the best of all roots. It will take nearly four lbs. 
of seed to sow an acre in drills, and there can be 
raised on an acre from 600 to 800 bushels. I plan 
in rows or drills 2 feet apart, and cultivate with a 
horse. Last year I planted | of an acre, and 
raised 300 bushels. I think I would have had 
more if I had not ridged my ground. I am done 
ridging for root crops. I planted three kinds, the 
yellow globe, white sugar and yellow .vooid. I 
think the white sugar and yellow globe the best. 
I think there is no root that equals the beet for 
feed, especially for milch cows. They cause a 
great flow of milk, and there is no bad flavor to 
the milk. They are excellent for sheep that have 
lambs before the grass starts in the spring; and 
to any fai'mer who has 80 acres of land I would 
recommend him to plant at least 2 acres with 
roots, which will cost but little more than the same 
amount of corn and double the profit." 



The Swede Turnip. — Mr. John Dey, in a dis- 
cussion on Root Culture by a Wisconsin Farmers' 
Club, said ; " The Swede turnip is a good root for 
sheep, hogs and young cattle. Cows fed on them 
will keep in good heart, but they are not as good 
for milk as the carrot or beet. It will pay well to 
raise them. If we do not wish to feed them, we 
can sell them; they usually bring 40 or 50 cents 
per bushel, and if we say 600 bushels to the acre 
at 40 cents, we have $240 ; and if we allow one- 
half for raising and marketing we have $120, 
which would buy 200 bushels of corn, and to raise 
200 bushels of corn, we would want 4 acres of 
ground and expend more to raise and harvest than 
we would the turnips." 



THE LAJ^CASTER FARMER. 



175 



LANCASTER, SEPTEMBER, 1873. 



S. S. RATHVON, Editor. 

PublisLed monthly under the ausi)ice6 of the Agricul- 
tural andHobticultubal Society. 

81 ^'i per Year In Advance. 

A considerable deduction to clubs of five or more. 

All commiinicHtions, to insure insertion, must be in the 
hands of the editor before tUe 20th of each mouth. Ad- 
dress S. S. Rathvon, Lanca.ster, Pa- 
All advertisements, subscriptions and remittances to the 
addrtssof the publisher, J. B. DKVELIN, 

Inquirer Building, Lancaster, Pa. 



SUPPLEMENT TO "THE LYCEUM ECHO." 



••^~T~^HB Lyceum Echo" is to-day merged 
JL into the Lancaster Farmer. The sub- 
scription to the Farmer is $1.25 per annum ; while 
'"The Echo" was but 25 cents. We will therefore 
furnish three numbers of the Parmer as an equiva- 
lent for the ten remaining numbers of "The Echo." 
We actually give our subscribers two numbers of 
"The Echo" for nothing, and five cents to boot, 
besides introducing those who are not already 
subscribers to an agricultural paper that deserves 
the support of every intelligent man in the com- 
munity. 

"The Echo" was an ainateur enterprise. It 
sought to give force and scope to the f-cientific 
and literary attainments of young men who joined 
the Lyceum to develop those talents. It sus 
pended. Why? Because it was published by 
the individual ofiBcers of the County Lyceum As- 
sociation instead of the Association itself. 

We merged "The Echo" into the Farmer be 
cause the object of the two is not very unlike. 
The subscription to "The Echo" was but a trifle, 
yet we feel grateful to those who gave it, and 
thu assisted us in giving a practical turn to 
our moral, scientific, literary and benevolent idea. 
* By the foregoing manifesto, it will be seen that 

the editors of the Lyceum Echo, for the reasons 
therein named, have supplemented that journal by 
a transfer of its subscription list to the Lancaster 
Farmer ; but that transfer does not obligate the 



subscribers, individually, to continue their sub- 
scriptions beyond the equivalent of their subscrip- 
tion to the Echo, unless they choose to do so vol- 
untarily. We hope, however, that many, if not 
all of them, will continue to do so, and according- 
ly we propose to furnish them our journal at our 
club rates, published in a former number, that is, 
one dollar a year, and a book premium for each 
club of fifty. We hope also the former con- 
tributors to the Echo will continue their contri- 
butions to the Farmer, and assist us in making 
our journal a proper medium of the agricultural, 
horticultural, literary, scientific and benevolent 
thought, of the great county of Lancaster, a dis- 
trict, in which, we hope, we all feel a legitimate 
local pride. We have long felt that Lancaster 
county, from the position she occupies in our 
great commonwealth, ought to possess and sup- 
port a periodical, by literary contributions and 
pecuniary subscriptions, that will enable it to be 
come a fair exponent of the mental and materia 
progress of our people. We look upon the sub- 
scribers to the Echo as eminently the kind of ma- 
terial, both in liberality and enterprise, that is nec- 
essary in building up and sustaining such a jour- 
nal. 

Under any circumstances the Farmer can sus- 
tain itself, as it has sustained itself though its 
infancy, childhood, and youth, for five years, but 
it is anxious to more rapidly attain its manhood, 
and take its place as "a man among men," in the 
ranks of useful literature. It enjoys a commenda- 
ble reputation abroad, not because of any intrinsic 
value it possesses over other journals in its 
special field, but because it hails from Lancaster 
County, a name that gives currency to anything 
emanating from it, over our own country. 

Ed. Farmer. 



It is said that 10,000 pounds of Spanish mack- 
erel were taken at a single catch off Orient, Long 
Island, and sent to New York. The fish aver 
aged four pounds each, the usual average being 
about two pounds. The fish dealers here expfect to 
receive daily from 20,000 to 25,000 pounds of these 
fish. The price of course is greatly reduced. 



176 



TEE LAJyCASTER FARMER. 



AGEICULTURAL AND HORIICULTURAL 
SOCIETY. 



This society met on Monday afternoon, August 
4th, in the Orphan's Court Room. President, H. 
M. Engle in the chair, and from ten to fifteen 
members present, at different times. The minutes 
of the last meeting were read and adopted, but no 
other very important business was transacted, 
many of the members being more or less interested 
in the pending meeting of the " Return Judges " 
of the late Republican primary election, beino- 
then in session up stairs. 

Mr. Johnson Miller, of "Warwick, read an inter- 
eeting report on the state of the crops, from which 
it appears— except in fruit— that Lancaster coun- 
ty will realize a very fair agricultural return, 
should nothing occur to seriously affect the corn, 
potatoes and tobacco. 

Mr. Alex. Harris reported that no special pro- 
gress, on the part of the Committee on Exhibition 
this fall, had been made in that direction, since the 
last meeting of the society. A committee meet- 
ing had been appointed, but no member of the 
Park Association was present, nor had it yet, in 
any manner, been indicated, that a similar commit- 
tee of that association had been appointed. Nor 
was there even a quorum of the committee of this 
society present ; therefore, things still remain in 
statu quo. 

Mr. Rathvon suggested that there is now no 
suitable place in Lancaster city to hold an agri- 
cultural and horticultural exhibition — the altera- 
tions and re-arrangements in the orphan's court 
room, and at Fulton Hall, placing those places 
DOW out of the question for that purpose— except 
upon the grounds of the Park Association, and 
there are a numbers of member of this society so 
far averse to a union with the Park' Association 
in an exhibition, as to either withdraw their influ- 
ence entirely, or to give the enterprise only a 
nominal support. 

Remarks on the subject were made by Messrs. 
P. S. Reist, Dr. Heistand. D. G. Swartz, L. S. 
Reist and the President, favorable to the enter- 
prise, either by the society alone, or in conjunc- 
tion with the Park Associat ion, but no definite con- 
clusion was come to, any farther than that the soci- 
ety's abandonment of the enterprise altogether, 
might have u worse effect upon its future prosper- 
ity, than an exhibition held under any circum- 
stances. It was therefore deemed advisable that 
the committee should continue its efforts to effect 
some arrangement, through which an exhibition 



creditable to the posiiion of Lancaster county in 
the agricultural history of the State, might be 
gotten up, either by the society alone, or in con- 
junction with the Park Association.. 

It was suggested by Mr. L. S. Reist that the 
original committee of conference has the power 
to c all to its aid and appoint additional members 
and therefore. In conclusion, it was thought that 
a sufficient number of influential members of the 
society would volunteer to get up an exhibition, 
and make out of it what they could leaving the 
Society free from pecuniary responsibility. So 
the matter now remains. 

Mr. Engle reported the re-appearance of the 
'Colorado Potato Beetle" in his district (East 
Donegal) in vast and destructive numbers and 
that the neighborhood had waged a vigorous war 
against them. 

Dr. Heistand reported the same destructive in- 
sect in the potato fields in and about Millers- 
ville. 

A gentleman from Farmersville in this county, 
reported the same beetle in countless numbers, 
in that vicinity and that it would cost more time, 
labor and money to destroy them all — by three to 
one — than the | otato crop would be worth if no 
beetles were present 

Mr. Engle stated that a western fanner in- 
formed him that with vigilance a moderate sized 
■'potato patch" could be saved, but that •when the 
insect became numerous in a large field the case 
became hopeless ; therefore at such times and 
places the farmers only cultivated small patches. 
Mr. Rathvon, being called upon, stated that the 
Colorado potato beetle passed its pupal or quiescent 
period in the ground and therefore often potato 
growers unacquainted with this fact after suc- 
ceding in destroying all the beetles they could see, 
and the matured larva having burrowing into the 
ground, they have relaxed their vigilance sup- 
posing that now thei'e was an end of them But 
with utter astonishment they have seen them re- 
papear in increased numbers. It . is of little use 
to destroy the beetles, if the larvae are not also 
destroyed. As these larvae in various stages of 
development may also be found on the same stalks 
that contain the parent beetle, they must be 
looked for, and be also destroyed. Farmers can- 
not regard this subject with impunity — they must , 
learn the habits and appearance of the potato* 
beetles, in all their various stages of development. 
There is money involved in it — ^just as much as 
there is in corn, wheat, flour and whisky "cor- 
ners," or in patent rights, fast horses and tobacco 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



177 



speculations. Bach potato beetle — if a female — 
is capable of depositing from one thousand to 
fifteen hundred eggs within a period of from ten 
to twenty days and each of these may ultimately 
become a beetle, and the same season deposit a 
like number. 

It is very disagreeable to crush them —but not 
more so than the tobacco worm — but it is not a 
hard matter to beat them off the stalks into some 
smooth vessel, up the sides of which they cannot 
crawl, and then to scald or burn them. The 
eggs, however, in patches of from ten to twenty, 
and the young and inconspicuous larvce, adhere 
more closely to the leaf; these must therefore be 
reached by some external application, and from 
the experience of those best acquainted with the 
habits of these insects, the best and only reliable 
application is 'Paris Green," either as a powder 
OT a solution, for the details of which consult the 
Lancaster Farmkr for August, 1873, The last 
brood of the larvas go into the ground in autumn, 
and remain there, as larviB or pup* until the fol- 
lowing spring and then come forth matured 
beetles in time to catch the early tops of pota- 
toes. Some of the matured beetles also go into 
the ground, to hybernate in the fall, but the 
larger number remain above ground and pass 
their hybernating period in chinks cracks, crevi- 
ces, or under loose bark of trees and logs, or any 
other convenient cover. These also " wake up" 
and feed and deposit eggs in the spring. For 
further details see Laxcaster Farmer August, 
pp. 143-146. 

No fruit was on exhibition, no essays were read ; 
no members were elected ; and on the whole — 
either through the heat of the weather, or the 
great outside political heat — the meeting was 
rather a tame affair and appeared to be under 
the influence of a temporary lethargy, from which 
there must be a revival, if the society expects to 
carry through a successful exhibition this fall. 

In the absence of any special business, the so- 
ciety adjourned. 

Post Scriptum. — Mr. John B. Albright 
gathered twenty-five specimens of the larva of 
"Colorado potato-beetle " off a single stalk, in a 
po.tato patch on North Lime street within the 
limits of Lancaster city, and reported that many 
other vines were similarly infested. These may 
be seen by calling at our office. 



THE BERKS COUNTY FAIR. 



The Nineteenth Annual Exhibition of the 
Berks County Agricultural Society will be held 



at Reading on Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday 
and Friday, September 16, 17, 18 and 19. This 
is the first of the fall exhibitions iu this State 
that we have yet seen announced. A very lib- 
eral premium list is offered. The fairs of Berks 
are always attended by immense throngs, the 
people of the country usually making the occa- 
sion a holiday. 

^Ve clip the above from the Daily Express, 
and would respectfully inquire what Lancaster 
County intends doing in regard to an exhibition 
of her products this year ? Perhaps our readers 
may imagine that we know all about the matter, 
but we absolutely know little or nothing about it. 
A committee of conference had been appointed a 
month or two ago, to meet a similar committee 
from a cotemporary association, in order to effect 
a union, and hold a joint exhibition on the grounds 
of the "Park Association," but the intervening 
time has been suffered to pass, without having 
made any progress in that direction, and iu con- 
versatiou with a member of that committee a few 
days ago, we were informed that the enterprise 
had been totally abandoned, because there coul(J 
not be a sufficient number found who were willing 
to assume the responsibility of " putting the en- 
terprise through." 

We regret this, and are compelled to confess 
that our neighbors of •' old Berks " are far in ad- 
vance of us in this respect. From the Reading 
Times and Dispatch, we learn that the Agricul- 
tural Society of that county has completed its ar- 
rangement.s, and has also increased it§ facilities, 
and more liberally endowed its premium list, thaa 
has obtained on former occasion.s of the kind. 
Some departments have been increased one-fourth, 
some one-third, and others are doubled. Judging 
from the latest proceedings of its committee of 
arrangements, the Agricultural Society of Berk's 
county is a " live ati'air," and is supported by the 
very backbone of its farming population. Now 
we would not pretend to infer that oar farming 
population does not possess the necessary backbone 
to get as creditable an exhibition as Berks, but 
we fear, that, with all our loyal professions, we 
lack "Uuiou for the sake of the union." a land 
that cannot po.-sibly exist without making some 
personal concession. 

At the pre.sent time, we are unable to say. 
whether or not, we shall have an exhibition of 
any kind in Lancaster county the present year. 
If the people who are conscientiously committed 
against trials of speed, or "horse-racing" as they 
call it, were to rise iu their might, and "com 



178 



THE LAJVCASTER FARMER, 



down with their dust" and their moral influence, 
backed with a rea-onable tliare of mental and 
physical energy, they might bring the whole mat- 
ter under their own control, and put an end to 
horse-racing, and we feel assured that the stock- 
holders of the Park Association themselves 
would assist them in such a consummation. Ed. 



THE LATE RAINS. 



There have been a succession of rains for about 
a month past, such as are not usual in the month 
of August, and there are about as many com- 
plaints made in regard to the " too much wet " as 
there were of the " too much dry" earlier in the 
season. At this writing (Aug. 23) the weatheris 
very warm, close, and threatening, and from all 
appearances, more rain may follow. It is true, 
that for purposes of irrigation we have had quite 
enough, perhaps more than enough, but then 
nothing has yet materially suffered, and from the 
thorough saturation which the earth has received, 
the good results which may follow will more than 
compensate all the injury we may have sustained. 
Although the rains commenced too late in the 
season to be of any special benefit to the hay 
crop, the early potatoes and corn, or the tobacco ; 
yet, it has been of immense value to the late corn 
and potatoes, and has worked an almost magic 
change in the tobacco, the tomatoes, and garden 
vegetation in general. 

But this is not all, for a handsome second crop 
of hay, or at least an abundance of fall pasture, 
may be realized through these rains, and the tur- 
nips and root crops in general be luxurantly en- 
hanced, besides affording abetter growing bottom 
for the winter cereals. We have reason to believe 
also, that many noxious insects have been "drowned 
out," or rotted in the* earth before they could come 
to maturity, because it has long been observed that 

ese pests, as a general thing, increase more ra- 
pidly during dry weather than they do during 
long continued and soaking rain. If not too 
much longer continued, and if followed by a rea- 
sonable advent of sunshine we will have very 
much more to be thankful for than to complain 
about. All our streams have an abundant supply 
of water and are likely to continue in that con- 
dition until the winter's snows and rains set in ; 
be^ides, as a sanitary contingency these rains have 
been invaluable, especially in large cities and 
towns, washing out streets and gutters, and car- 
rying away the accumulated summer filth. We 
think the good, on the whole, preponderates. 

Ed. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



Glycerine Blacking for Boots and Shoes. — 
Many of our readers will remember that some two 
or three years ago several patents were issued for 
the use of glycerine in finishing leather. We have 
not heard of any success attending the use of 
glycerine for this purpose, but should not wonder 
if the following recipe for making blacking, which 
we find in an exchange, was well worth a trial : 
Six or eight pounds of lampblack and enough of 
ivory black are to be brought to a homogeneous 
paste, with ten pounds of glycerine and ten pounds 
of molasses. About five ounces of gutta percha 
cut into small pieces are then to be melted, and, 
after fusion, eighteen ounces of olive oil added, 
together with two or three ounces of stearine, 
when the solution is complete. This warm solu. 
tion is to be stirred thoroughly into the first mix- 
ture, and nine ounces gum arabic dissolved in 
forty-five ounces of water, then added. To apply 
an agreeable odor, a few drops of essence qf rose- 
mary or lavender may be stirred in. For use, this 
polish is to be mixed with three or four parts of 
water and applied to the leather, to which it com- 
municates a brilliant lustre, and improves its dura- 
bility and suppleness. 

How TO Wash Summer Suits.— Summer suits 
are nearly all made of buff linen, pique, cambric or 
inusliu, and the art of preserving the new appear- 
ance after washing is a matter of the greatest im- 
portance. Common washer-women spoil every- 
thing with soda, and nothing is more frequent 
than to see the delicate tints of lawns and percales 
turned into dark blotches and muddy streaks by 
the ignorance and vandalism of a laundress. It is 
worth while for ladies to pay attention to this, 
and insist upon having their summer dresses wash- 
ed according to the directions which they should 
be prepared to give their laundresses themselves. 

In the first place, the water should be tepid, the 
soap should not be allowed to touch the fabric ; 
it should be washed and rinsed quick, turned upon 
the wrong side, and hung in the shade to dry, and 
when starched (in thin boiled, but not boiling 
starch) should be folded in sheets or towels, and 
ironed upon the wrong side, as soon as possible. 
But linen should be washed in water in which hay 
has been boiled, or a quart bag of bran. This last 
will be found to answer for starch as well, and is 
excellent for print dresses of all kinds, but a hand- 
ful of salt is very useful also to set the colors of 
light cambrics and dotted lawns; and a little 
beefs gall will not only set, but brighten, yellow 
and purple tints, and has a good efiect upon green. 



THE LAJ{CASTER FARMER. 



179 




THE MUSTANG. 



THIS variety of the common horse — Eqii^us 
ca/;rfW(f.s— makes, perhaps, the nearest ap 
proacli to the " Shcthind ponies," of any other in 
our country. It is the wild horse of the prairies in 
Texas, Mexico, California, and other districts of 
our vast western prairies, where they still hei-d to- 
gether in large numbers. It is small, hardy and 
easily sustained, and hence is of immense value to 
the wild, untutored, and roving bands of Indians 
that still inhabit those prairies and plains. Al- 
though it seems to be conceded that the various 
herds of wild horses which inhabit our country, 
have sprung from those introduced in the early 
invasions of the Spaniards, yet recent paleon- 
talogical discoveries seem to throw a cloud of 
doubt upon that theory. Within the last five 
years, at least seven different species of animals of 
the horse-kind — some of them not larger than a 
Newfoundland dog— have been recognized in the 
organic remains discovered on the prairies, canons 
"and table-lands of the great west, and it is not 
impossible the present race may be but the suc- 
cessors of a race that preceded them. If the 
American is the older continent, as is alleged by 
the latest geological schools, then there is reason 
to believe that the present race of wild horses 
may have existed here, long before the period of 
the Spanish invasion. The horse belongs to the 
Pachydemous, or thick-skinned animals; and as io 
company with the organic remains of this animal 



— and belonging to the same period — are found 
the remains of species of elephants, tapirs, masto- 
dons, and other animals of that order, it would 
not be in very great violence to the facts of the 
old theory, to infer that the horse is an original 
production of the American continent. The 
Mmtang may only be regarded as a larger pony, 
of which there are almost endless varieties yet ex- 
tant in England, Wales and Scotland. The 
Welch pony is said to be the most beautiful of the 
class, and is not excelled by any other, perhaps, in 
the world. But, what are called the Nexo For- 
resters in England, although hardy, active and 
enduring, yet, are ill-made, ragged, coarse, but 
easily maintained. Of the Shetland ponies, the 
Highland is the largest, and the most useful. The 
Shelties — from the islands — are, however, small ; 
often beautiful, good-tempered, and docile. The 
Mustangs, as they roam in wild troops, are also 
more beautiful than those that have long been 
under the domestication of the Indians, and bear 
a strong resemblance to the ponies of Europe ; 
and may possibly have originated in that foreign 
stock * 



Cherry Bounce.— Take one barrel pure spirits, 
and put in from one-half to one bushel black 
(wild) cherries, and six or eight pounds loaf sugar. 
You can reduce the strength by adding pure well, 
rain or distilled water. 



ISO 



THE LAJYCASTER FARMER. 



THE PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY. 

We have been requested to say something on 
the subject of this organization in our journal, 
but as we are too remote from any local society of 
the kind, and therefore know very little about it, 
we propose to let others s-peak, who are located in 
the midst of it, and who profess to have had some 
experience in the matter. We therefore insert 
the following' extracts, which not only present the 
subject in a statistical and matter-of-fact form, but 
also discuss its merits, both pro and con. 

It seems to be a power in the State of Iowa, 
where no less than seventeen hundred and seventy 
local '•'■ Granges" are in successful operation. But 
so long as Pennsylvania has only eleven Granges, 
and those probably all west of the Alleghanies, it 
is perhaps hardly necessary that we should agitate 
the subject here, at least not until our farmers 
themselves — who are chiefly the interested parties 
in them — first make a move in the matter. It is 
for them to say whether they suffer the impositions 
that the farmers in the west complain of, and the 
time and occasion for the organization of Granges 
among them. Until that time comes, we forbear 
expressing any opinion of our own on the subject. 
—Ed.] 

the patrons of husbandry. 

The growth of the Granges of the Order of the 
Patrons of Husbandry has been extraordinary, 
and shows that there is something in the organi- 
zation which takes firm hold of the farmer. As 
the Order is attracting considerable attention in 
this country, the following statistics and state- 
ment of its object will interest hundreds of our 
readers. The latest reports of the Secretary to 
the National Grange in Washington, give the fol- 
lowing as the number of subordinate Granges in 
the several States named : 

Alabama 22 New Jersey 3 

Arkansas 2(1 New York 8 

California 3.i North Carolina 41 

Georgia SO^Oliio 86 

Illinois 565 Oregon 25 

Indiana 279 Pennsylvania 11 

Iowa 1770; South Carolina 1.33 

Kansas 412 1 Tennessee 66 

Kentucky llTexas 3 

Lousiana 11; Vermont 24 

Massachusetts Ij VivKinia 3 

Michigan 42!We.st Virginia 3 

Minnesota 333] Wisconsin 189 

Mississippi 202 Colorado 2 

INIissouri 523 Dakota 11 

Nebraska 305'Canada 8 

Total 5229 

THE GRANGES AND AN IOWA FARMER. 

The Fireside Visitor, of this city, thinks the 
present farmers' movement, a mistake, and brings 
an Iowa farmer's view of the granges of that 
State to sustain it. In this light the Visitor says : 



" They who dance must pay the piper. A far 
raer in Iowa has figured on the cost of granges — 
we give his conclusions. This whole movement 
will, we have no doubt, result in great loss and 
no benefit to the farmers. That they are labor- 
ing under serious evils, we do not doubt, but we 
think they have mistaken both the cause and the 
remedy. 

" A few figures will give some idea of what this 
(xrange machinery costs the farmer : The forty 
thousand men for four degrees, at twenty-five cents 
each, even forty thousand dollars ; the thirty 
thousand women, four degrees, at twelve and a 
half cents each, fifteen thousand dollars — making 
the sum of fifty thousand dollars that goes to the 
State Grange. Section five, same article, says : 
" that the treasurer of each State Grange shall 
pay to the National Grange the annual dues of 
ten cents for each member in this State " — seven 
thousand dollars for Iowa. In addition to this, the 
sum of fifteen dollars goes to the National Grange 
for each charter, making another five thousand 
and two hundred and fifty dollars, and twelve 
thousand fevo hundred and fifty dollars that goes 
to the National Grange. Now let us sum up 
what this grange business is costing the farmers. 
For initiations, ^260,000; yearly dues, $85,000 ; re- 
galia, $70,000 ; degrees, $.55,000. Making a total 
of .$470,000— in addition to the $55,000 the State 
Grange, article 12 says that a tax of six cents for 
each member for each quarter — 24 cents a year — 
making a total of $16,800— making $71,800 that 
goes to the State Grange. 

" Brother farmers, I would ask whether the ex- 
penditure of $470,000 by us will bring our corn 
out of the fifteen cent depths ? " 

Another lowaian presents the per contra side of 
the question. When a saving in the purchase of 
one item alone — that of the agricultural imple- 
ments, amounts to $360,000, there ought surely to 
be in this ' no benefit ' scheme a crumb or two of 
comfort for the Fireside Visitor. When we add 
to the above the increased profit of ten to forty 
per cent, in selling their cattle and hogs, as com- 
pared with prices received through middlemen, and 
that one-half the elevators and grain warehouses iu 
the State are owned and controlled by the granges, 
that 5,000,000 bushels of corn were shipped on 
grange account ; that during the present year 
$100,000 will be invested by the granges in manu- 
factories and elevators all through the State— we 
think that which such results we can safely afford 
to leave it to the Iowa farmer and the Visitor to 
strike the balance. But the Patrons of Husbandry 



THE LAJSrCASTER FARMER. 



\81 



have another object to accomplish in addition to 
the improvement of their financial condition, 
namely, that of elevating themselves into a higher 
social and intellectual life. We take no little 
pleasure in presenting the following extract from 
one of the Chicago Tn'^^^twe's own correspondents, 
■writing over the signature of Mrs. Sam Jones, 
showing that — 

The farmer's movement has had the effect to 
make our people think and to read. You would 
be surprised to see how many daily papers, and tri- 
weekly and weekly papers, come to our village. 
People used to take papers that had stories in 
them ; but now they take papers for the news, 
and they are learning what is going on in the 
world. Some one of the neighbors are at the vil- 
lage every day, and they bring us home the daily 
paper, and, after the work is done, the girls read 
it to us ; and you cannot imagine how much bet- 
ter this is than when it was customary to have the 
neighbors drop in and deal out gossip or talk 
about the last new story in the Ledger, or the 
great unknown. The movement will be a lasting 
tribute to the whole country in numerous ways, 
for it will learn the people to think and to talk sense. 

The fact is, we had become too frivolous, and we 
needed something to change the current of extrav- 
agance, and cheap corn came just in time. We 
charged the railroads and the middlemen with the 
hard times, but the investigation proved that the 
most of it was due to our own folly. 

For three years Providence had aided the skill 
and the industry of the farmers to accumulate a 
large surplus of corn. Then the spring rain came, 
and thus ended the further accumulation, and we 
had better grass and better wheat, and, as we had 
no surplus of beef or of flour, some Wise Power 
changed things, and we shall come out all right in 
the end. — Coleman Rural World. 



Hickory Bark for Coloring. — Hickory bark 
will color a beautiful bright yellow that will not 
fade by use. It will color cotton and wool. Have 
the bark shaved off or hewed olT, and chopped in 
small pieces, and put in a brass kettle, or tin 
boiler, with soft water enough to cover the bark, 
and boil till the strength is out ; then skim out 
the chips and put in alum. Have it pounded 
pretty fine. For a pailful of dye I should put in 
two good handsful, and wet the goods in warm 
water, so there will be no dry spots on them ; wring 
them as dry as you can, shake them out and put 
them into the dye. Have a stick at hand to push 
them down and stir them immediately so they can 



have a chance all over alike. If the color is not 
deep and bright enough, raise the goods out of the 
dye, lay them across a stick over the kettle, and 
put in another handful of alum. Stir it well and 
di]) again. It will want to be kept in the dye and 
over the fire to a scalding heat about an hour, but 
keep stirring and airing so they will not spot. 



Plowing Out Potatoes. — A correspondent 
of the Country G entleman v/riie?. : In the absence 
of a good potato digger, the idea of plowing them 
out is not a bad one. I have tried it with good 
success. AVhere land is passably clean, and the 
potatoes lie in the centre of the hill, like the 
Early Rose, Peerless and Excelsior, take a com- 
mon double mold-board shovel-plow, hitch on two 
horses and plow out every other row. Have the 
potatoes picked up, and plow the alternate rows. 
When they are all plowed out, and those that can 
be seen picked up, run over the ground with a' 
common harrow, (Thomas' Smoothing harrow 
would undoubtedly be much better), and the pota- 
toes will be out as clean as though dug by hand, 
and in less than half the time the same help would 
do the work by hand-digging. In two pieces 
where I dug them in that way, I think there were 
less potatoes left in the ground than would be left 
by most hand diggers. The first piece I dug in 
this manner I plowed immediately for rye, and I 
was surprised to find so few potatoes left. 



BOOK AND SPECIAL NOTICE DE- 
PARTMENT. 



LITERARY NOTICES. 

JOUBNAI, OF THE AMERICAN BUREAU OP MINE'S.— 

"Denoted to the dev^lopmeut of our mineral reHouroes, 
BCientllic mining, science, art an.l mining n ws. i^up- 
lished hy the " Amenc .n Bureau of Mines," and e htedby 
W C McCarty, Cbicaso, 111. Terms. S3 00 per annum 

No 1. Vol. 1— Au«, 1873 -of this new enterprise has been 
received and if michan lal ..execution, material quality, 
liter;iry ability and solid useful matter, in the spi.ere it 
pr.iposes to operate in, ean be a meed of merited support, 
then it is bound to suceed. It is alquarto ol M pp., 
printed in clear type, on tinted paper, with heavy Klazed 
tinted covers, in colors. As a work of artistic skil', we 
cheerfully enter it u on our exchnuce list as A, No. I, 
and hope to make extracts from its columns, whenever we 
find auvthina which we deem of local or general interest 
to our readers. Ah hough published and intended to cir- 
culate in districts of county more specially devoted to 
mining tlian we are east of the Alleghanies, >et its nonnal 
fleld is the mining inierebt everywhere, " assisting m dis- 
seminating useful informition to the miner and capitalist. 
tHnding to advance our knowledge of our vast mineral re- 
sou, ces, and assisting in bringing capital in connection 
with the mine, and the investor with property. 

pPromthe Republican, August 3 ] 
OCR HoMK Journal, a very well printed and aMy con- 
ducted agricultural pap°r has absorl)ed tlie Rural South- 
land, of that ilk. Mr. Hummel has added the name ot the 
latter as a secondary ti«^le to his own publication. 
* # ♦* # * * *..* 

"We congratulate Mr. Hummel, who is a verv ei.ergetic in- 
telligen! and useful citizen, upon the success of Oar Home 



182 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



Journal, and sincerely hope he may reap the benefits from 
the new consolidation that can be reasonably expected. 
He deserves success at all events. 

We hav*- receivedthe August number of the above con- 
solidated journal-an illustrated quarto of 16 pages-and we 
confess a more practical agricu Itural paper has not come 
into our bauds for a long time. Its contents, both oricinal 
and selected, are of a useful and instructive character, and 
embracesthe whole scope of hous>!hoM literature. Terms, 
«3.eo in advance, with liberal deductions to clubs. No. 68 
Camp St., N. 0.,La, 

The abolishment of the " franking priilvige" and the 
changes in the " postal laws," have necessarily afTe- ted 
our " exchange list," but we »eel more surprised than flat- 
tered that so many of our contemporaries should desire to 
exchange with us, offering to pay the postage. Ti e Au- 
gust number of allth">se journals we nHiced last month, 
Hre upon our table, and if possible, more richly endowed. 
En passuntAt vfA^ a "small" affair for an American Con- 
gress, in the nineteenth century, to interfere with, or to 
curtail new^pape^ exch mges. That august b>dy ought to 
facilitate the cheap diffusion of newspapur intelligence, 
ratbertbau obstruct or retard it; even if it did abriger 
their own privileges— wiih pecuniary com sensation— and 
for which," newspaperdom" is not responsible. 

A VERY VALUABLE BOOK. 

"yhe Undevtloped IVest; or Five Years in th-, Terriiorieg' 
B"ong a Cnmplet". History of that vast r,gion, between the mss- 
isnppr and th^ Pacific; its Resources, Climate, Inhabitants, 
JS'itural Curiosities. etc . with Life nnd Adventure on Prairies 
Mountains, and Che Pacific Coast. B,. J. H. Beadle, W-slern 
Correspondent of thi Cmcinnati Conmerctal, and Author of 
Life in Utah^' etc. '' 

The National Publishing Co , of Philadelphia, has just 
issued one ot the most remarkable, and attractive books 
ot the century. It i^ well known to every one that far be- 
yond the Mississippi, and stretching over half th« conti- 
nent, is a vast region which we vaguely term " The Great 
West '—a region abouodins; in the mo^t wonderful natural 
formations, rich in pr -cious mineral deposits, and offering 
nie greatest attractions to the settler and the tourist. 
Tlimicph 80 often spoten of, it is almost an "unknown 
1 and." 

Wr. Beadle went into this region for the avowed puroose 
of seeing and describing it, and his journey ings and bser- 
vations were al' governed by a fixed purpose, that of dis- 
covering and making known the actual character condi- 
tion and -esources of the country visited by him. H» first 
t^versed the States of Iowa, Minnesota. Nebraska and 
Kansas, examining tbe lands, and living and conversing 
with the people of those sections. For five years he kept 
moving from point to point explorinj the Territories and 
the great and rich States of the Pacific Coast, encounter- 
ing strange people and innumerable hardships and braving 
many dingers in his wanderings among the.-avages. 

To prospective eaoigrants and settlers in the "Far 
West," this history o'ttiit vast region will orove an inval- 
uable assistance, supplying as it does, a want long felt of a 
full, authentic and reliable guid>i to climate, soil, p.-oduf.ts, 
d stances, localities, means of travel, etc It maybe relied 
upon, for it contains no second-hand information. 

It is comprised in one large octavo volume of 823 pages, 
and illustrated with 24^1 fine engravings of the scenery! 
ands. minps. peopl; and curiosities of the Great West and 
a new map of the region described. ' 

It is sold by subscription only, and agents are wanted in 
every county. 



PHILADELPHIA CATTLE MARKET. 

Monday, August 25. 

There wa.'* a better feeling in the mariret for Beef Cat He 
ih s morning, and more demtnd for the better descrip- 
tions at a shade higher figures Sales of choic-i at67^a7k'c; 
fair to good at 53,^a63.^c, and common at 4a5c. Receipts 
3,100 head. 

Cows and calves are steady; we quote springers at $35a 
50, and fresh cows at S30a55. Receipts, 215 he.id. 

«heep meet a fair demand at 4*6c for fair to 'good, and 
$2a3 50 for stock. Receipts, 15,000 head. 

Hogs are held firmly, and move with more freedom. 
Sales of Corn fed at S7.75. Receipts, 5,000 head. 

NEW YORK PRODUCE MARKET. 

New York, August 29. 
Wheat lower; rejected spring, $1.15al.25; northwest 
$1.150al.51 ; red western, f 1-56. Eye scarce at 96c. Bar- 



ley and malt dull. Corn hiavy ; high mixed and yellow 
western, 60a6lc. Oats firmer; white, 4Ga49c ; black 
42a43c. Hay fair in request at $27a29. Hops dull at 30a 
43c for '72. Pork lower at $17-80. Lard active at 83^c. 



PHILADELPHIA MARKBTS. 

Philadelphia, August 29. 

Flocb, etc.— Receipts of flour, 17,828 bbU. Flour is 
scarcely so active, and prices generallv are without deci- 
ded change. Sales of U SCO bbls., at $5a5.60 for superfine 
Western and State ; $6.20-6 55 for common to goofl ex<-ra 
Western and State; S6.60a7.40 for good to choice do.; 
S7.30a8.50 for common to choice white wheat Western ex- 
tra; S6.35a8.50 for common to good extra Ohio, and S?6.70a 
10.75 for common to choice extra St. Louis. Also, sales 
200 bbls. extra State, last half of September at $5.60a6.70, 
the market closing quiet. 

Southern flour is in moderate request and without im- 
potant change in price Sales 750 bbls. at $6,50a7 85 for 
common to fair extra, and $7.90a10.75 for good to choic do. 
Kye flour is quiet and steady. Sales of 280 bb s. at 84.60a 

5 70. Corn meal is in fair request and steady. Sales of 
490 bbls. at 83 15a3 45 for Western, the latter for fancy 
brands, and $3.75a3 90 for Brandywine. 

Grain— Receipts of Wheat. 160,018 bu-'h. Wheat Is la 
2c. bet' er. and less active. The supply offering is light, 
and holders generally are di-posed to insis' on full prices. 
Sales of 9fi,000 bush, at *1.30%1.38 for rejected spring ; *1.45 
al.47 for No. 3 spring; $i.48}^al 49 for Nos. 2 and 3 spring 
mixed ; SI 50 for 2 Chicago. Rve is in good export demand, 
and prices tend up. Salesof 83,f00 bush, at 95c. for State 
in store and to arrive sooq; 93c. for inferior Western in 
store ; 94a95c. for Western for last half and all of Septem- 
ber. Barley is dull and norrinal. Barley malt is quiet, 
without decided change in price. 

Receipts of Corn 257,195 bush. Common and inferior 
grades in good supply and heavy ; prime is suarce and in 
fair request at full prices. Sales 186,900 bush, at 55a57>^c. 
for steamer Western mixed ; 58a59c. for sail ; (;0a62e. for 
high m'xed and yellow Weste-m ; 66a67c. for white West- 
ern; 52aB5c. for heated Western mixed, and 53c. for kiln 
dried. 

Receip'^s of Oats 39,300 bush. Oats are firmer for mixed, 
and heavy and lower for white. Sales of 38.000 bush, at 
44i45c. for mixed Wt^stern, the latter for new ; 46i48c. for 
white Western; 43a44c. for black Western, and 44c. for 
mixed fctate 

Hat— Is steady at $27a29 for prime per ton. 

Hops— Are quiet And unchanged. 

PITTSBURG CATTLE MARKETS. 

Pittsburg, Aug. 28, 1873. 
CA.TTLE — The receipts of cattle this week so far are 
he^vy of through, and fair of way stock intended for sale 
at thi* point. As usual, the quality of the offerings is 
common but about as good as those of last week. The at- 
tendance of buyers is large. If the run does not prove 
heavy from this time the market will be a fair one, as a 
good many cattle have already been sold to country buy- 
ers, and generally at about last week's prices, which are 
as follows : Extra, 1,400 lbs., $6.25 ; extra, 1 300 lbs., 85.75a 

6 00 ; prime, 1,200 lbs., )li!'.25a5.50 ; prime, 1,100 lbs., $5.00a 
5.2'! ; fair, 1,000 lbs., «4.50a4.75. 

Hogs. — The run of hogs has been heavy. The market is 
dull and bad, and very little stock changing hands. No 
demand for shipments to New York. Prices are off 50c. 
per 100 lbs. sin-e last week. Following are the current 
rates: Extra Philadelphia. S5; prime Philadelphia, $4.80a 
4.90 ; prime light hog8,8:-t.75. 

Shbep— The run of sheep has been heavy, an din (juallty 
rather common. The martet is active, most of the com- 
mon stock in the pens being sold. Prices are about the 
same as l^ist week, which are as follows : Extra 100 lbs , 
fine wool, 85.56 ; extra, 95 lbs., fine wool, $5.l5a5.25 ; fair 85 
Iba., flue wool, 85. 



CHICAGO CATTLE MARKETS. 

Chicago, Aug. 27. 

Catti-k— Receipts 3,000 bea"!. Market quiet and prices 
weak, with sales of good to Ob oico shipping steers at 85 25 
aS. 70; choice butchers' steers, $4.85a5.05 ; Tcxans, through 
SI .62a3 25. Shipments, 447 head. 

Hogs— Receipts ll.OOO head. Market dull and prices 
weak and easier at 84.30a4 50 tor fair to good heavy ; $4.60a 
a4.75 for good to choice Yorkers. Shipments, 7,612 heal. 



DEVOTED TO 
Agriculture, Horticulture, Domestic EcoTioiny and Miscellany. 



EDITED BY S. S. RATHVOX. 



" The Farmer is the founder of civiJizatioti.*' — WEBSTER. 



Vol. V. 



OCTOBER, 1873. 



Jfo. 10. 



ESSAY. 



WHEAT AND CHEAT. 

BY J. STAUFFEB. 

IN view of the late discussion had on transmuta- 
tion of wheat into cheat or chess, or what the 
Germans call " Roggen-trespe," and botanists the 
Bromus secalinus, L., which has a spreading, nod. 
ding panicle in fruit, the florets elliptic with con. 
tracted margins, distinct, longer than the flexuose 
arms ; root annual, culm 3 to 4 feet high, smooth 
— the nodes pubescent; leaves 6 to 12 inches long; 
lauce-liiiear, nerved, etc.; as distinctly marked as 
wheat is — and as constant in its generic characters, 
Prof. Gray describes five species, the upright. s„ft. 
wild and ciliated in addition to the rye bromus. 
This latter is introduced from Europe, and i^ the 
well known pest among our crops of wheat and 
rye, and occasionally appears in the same fields, 
for a year or two, after the grain crop ; but being 
an annual, it is soon choked out by the perennial 
grasses. Yet the fallen seeds remain, like in many 
other cases, until the ground is again broken up or 
put in a favorable condition for their development. 
Thus, in the statement made by a farmer, that 
having spilled some seed wheat in a fence corner 
in a field in which no sign of the chess appeared or 
had been known to be at any time, yet after gath- 
ering up all the spilled wheat he could, it seems 
the hogs, in searching for the stray grains, rooted 
up the ground. In due time the chess made its 
appearance on that identical spot and seemed to 
confirm the faith that the fe.v scattered seeds of 
the wheat had given birth to the chess. 

But the stirring up of the ground or rooting up 
the perennial grass by the hogs in search of the 
grains of wheat may have simply enabled the dor- 



mant seeds of the chess to grow. What then ? 
The truth is, no positive proof of such a transmu- 
tation ha.s yet been advanced, and even when cir- 
cumstantial evidence was adduced in proof of such 
a change, after more exact investigation the facts 
were not only doubted, but it was shown how the 
transformation (apparently) was no transformation 
at all, as the seeds were recognized as those of 
bromus and not of wheat, by the husks and man- 
ner of sprouting. Dr Darlington is rather more 
severe than I feel authorized to be. I will copy 
his own words. He says : "Among the curious vul- 
gar errors which yet infest the minds of credulous 
and careless observers of natural phenomena, may 
be mentioned the firm belief of many of our farmers 
(some of them, too, good practical farmers), that 
this troublesome grass is nothing more than an ac- 
cidental variety, or casual form of degenerate 
wheat, produced by some untoward condition of 
the soil, or unpropitious season, or some organic 
injury; though it must be admitted. I think, by 
the most inveterate defender of that faith that in 
undergoing the metamorphosis, the plant is sur- 
prisingly uniform in its vagaries, in always assum- 
ing the exact structure and character of bromus." 
He then refers to "similar hallucinations " that 
prevail among the peasantry of Europe, some 
of which would really seem to be sustained by men 
of profound education; and patient experimenting', 
lengthy accounts are published, pro and co7i. on the 
subject, some denying that which others affirm to 
be proved beyond a doubt. Thus it is in relation to 
other grand truths — man at best is but superficial, 
and while those who have investigated least are 
often the most dogmatic, I hold a neutral position. 
During a term of upward of forty years I spent 
much time in collecting and analyzing plants in 
my botanical studies and rambles, and wassurpris- 



18Jf 



TEE LAXCA^TEU FARMER. 



ed to see the constancy and uniformity of generic 
characters, as well as occasionally surprised and 
astonished by the diversity found to exist in the 
same species, so much so as to make it very doubt- 
ful whether to place it with one or the other ; 
these are then considered varieties. A case in 
point occurred a week ago. The common rag- 
weed, which covers so many of our fields, is the 
Ambrosia artemisise folia, L., known also as 
bitter weed. (I cannot divine why such a nuisance 
should be named " ambrosia" the Greek signify- 
ing "immortal," the food of the gods — as nectar 
was their drink — withheld from mortals as con- 
taining the principle of immortality.) But my ob- 
ject is not to discuss the food of tie heathen gods, 
if they do fancy this bitter-weed. Some also call it 
Roman worm-wood ; this comes from the German 
name" Wermuth ;" the Artemesia, viVxoh is the 
true "wormwood;" and the leaves somewhat re- 
semble each other, hence the specific name of 
this species of ambrosia. There are several 
species. The Ambrosia trifida has the leaves pal- 
mately3-5 lobed. tall, coarse weeds abundant in 
low grounds almost everywhere. The A. integri- 
folia with undivided, oval-toothed leaves, is a 
marked variety to say the least ; both kinds are 
frequently mixed or in close proximity. On the 
Gth inst. Sept. 1873), in the alley back of East 
Orange street, near Lime street, along the fence 
inclosing the grounds of C". B. Grubb, Esq., I 
noticed the two forms of leaves of ;different 
branches on the same plant, and culled a specimen 
of each ; on a closer inspection I found a deeply 
ihreo-parted leaf, opposite an ovate 'eaf, barely 
toothed on the edges. I showed the specimen to 
Pr. Bollinger and others, and took a print from 
the pair of leaves on page 4.W of my collection of 
prints of leaves and drawings of plants, continued 
for many years past, and an:'ong which I have 
numerous examples to convince me that many 
plants we deem distinct species are dependent on 
climate and locality to produce their specific char- 
acter as a type of the same genus 

I do not affirm that generic differences will be 
established so as to transfer one species of a genus 
into another genus, and yet botanists are often 
puzzled to say what constitutes a constant generic 
character that can be relied on. It is found that 
there are many deviations and objections, and 
although the classification is well understood and 
of great assistance, snch is the couuterchange 
and diversity in plants as to make their study very 
laborious in the details of specific character. 

MM. Fabre and Dunal succeeded in producing 



the culivated wheat from a variety of grass known 
as a common Sicilian grass, and called the jEgi- 
lops ovata. This, when ripe, is gathered by the 
peasantry, who tie the heads up in bunches, and 
set them on fire ; they burn with rapidity, and so 
give the grains a slight roasting, which are then 
consumed as agreeable food. The grass under 
cultivation assumed the form of ^gilops triti- 
cides, and after twelve years of continuous culture 
it produced the ordinary wheat or form of the 
genus Triticum or wheat. Prof. Henslow gives 
various experiments to sustain M. Fabre. M. 
Gordon says, on the other hand, that the ^Egilops 
triticides is not a mere variety from the ^gilops 
ovata, but that it is a hybrid from the latter and 
the cultivated wheat. Thus we establish the 
close relationship between the grass and wheat ; 
and what shall we say ? The earth brings forth, 
cultivation presents new stimulus, better condi- 
tions, plants improve. 

These advantages may take place, naturally as 
well as artificially, through change of soil, ex- 
posure to the sun, or other beneficial influences, 
that may enable the plant to make more 
or larger cells and improve in quality. In 
the nursery of my skillful neighbor. Geo. Hen- 
sel, I frequently see great steps of advance in 
plants. Under successful management, and by the 
art of the florist, various colors are induced by 
chemical conditions and local circumstances, acci- 
dentally often, and from a source past finding 
out. But change, improvement, is allowed, and is 
the great encouragement to the horticulturist, 
agriculturist or florist to work in harmony 
with the laws of nature implanted by wisdom and 
goodness, to an ultimate perfection. 

Then let us go onward, upward, toward the 
grand mark of perfection in the vegetable as well 
as in the moral world. Even so mote it be. 



Influence of Food upon Poultry and Eggs,— 
The influence of the food of poultry upon the 
quality and flavor of their flesh and eggs has not 
generally been taken into consideration, but it is 
now well ascertained that great care should be 
exercised in regard to this matter. In some in- 
stances it has been attempted to feed poultry on a 
large scale in France on horseflesh, and although 
they devour this substance very greedily, it has 
been found to give them a very unpleasant savor. 
The best fattening material for chickens is said to 
be Indian corn-meal and milk ; and certain large 
poultry establishments in France use this entirely, 
to the advantage both of the flesh and the eggs. 



THE LAJ^CASTER FABMER. 



18d 



AGRICULTURE. 

[From the Reading Times and Dispatch.] 

MEETING OF THE FARMERS' CLUB. 

A SPECIAL meeting of the Farmers' Club 
was held at one o'clock, on Saturday after- 
noon, at the Keystone House, the President, Col. 
John A. Sheetz, in the chair. 

The Secretary, Cyrus T. Fox, announced that 
the object of the meeting was to receive a report 
from a committee, composed of President Sheetz, 
of Heidelberg, Dr. A. Smith of Lower Heidel- 
berg, and John Plank, of Carnarvon in reference 
to the best method of preparing the ground for 
wheat, the proper time and best method of plant- 
ing the same. The subject was an important one, 
particularly at this season of the year, and the 
Secretary hoped there would be a free interchange 
of opinion by the members present. 

President Sheetz stated that he had had no op- 
portunity to confer with the other gentlemen of 
the committee, for the purpose of preparing a regu- 
lar report; but, several days ago, while seated in 
a convenient spot upon his farm, where he could 
overlook a large section of land, he had sketched 
a few thoughts upon the subject, which he would 
ask the Secretary to read. 

The Secretary then read the following, which 
had been prepared by President Sheetz : 

No labor upon the farm requires greater care 
than the preparation of the soil for winter grain. 
You must wait patiently for ten months before 
you can realize any return for your labor, and 
meanwhile the growing grain is exposed to many 
dangers. I'he first start is a matter of great im- 
portance, in order to make the return for your la- 
bor more certain, and to ensure a large and profits 
able crop. The manure should be first carefully 
scrutinized. Soon after the last seeding there s 
either gold in the pile, or something that shines 
like it, but of less value. If your manure heap is 
large and well rotted, you can go ahead. Plow 
deep, and thoroughly pulverize the soil with all 
the labor you can put on it, mixing the manure 
well with the soil. Put no more land in grain 
than you can well manure. Lime is valuable to 
use in connection with manure. By following 
these directions in regard to the preparation of 
the soil, you will find that the roots will become 
larger and stronger. A coat of protection will 
cover the ground that will protect the grain from 
the severe weather of Winter, and prevent it from 
being injured too readily by the cold winds of 



Spring. When it starts to grow in the Spring, 
you will still have the strong roots fortified with 
the well cultivated and manured soil. It will, 
therefore, be seen that the soil cannot be cultiva- 
ted too much. 

The quantity of wheat to be sown to the acre 
depends, to a great extent, upon the size of the 
grain ; and the nature of the soil, whether strong 
or light, should be a subject of consideration. 
From \^ to 2 bushels per acre is the usual quan- 
tity sown. The veteran agriculturist, John Jol.n- 
son, of New York, now 85 years old. who was con- 
sidered, twenty-five years ago, the best and most 
successful wheat grower in the United States, al- 
ways said : " Do not fear that you will make your 
land too rich, or that you can cultivate it too 
much,'but always keep for your motto that you 
want to make it better;" and he always found 
that by following this rule he was amply repaid 
for his trouble. 

You should see that no stagnant water remains 
standing upon the lower portions of the field, for 
it will invariably prove destructive to the seed 
and grain. Farmers should also be careful about 
changing their .seed wheat every three or four 
years, procuring grain grown upon a different soil. 
Beardless wheat should also be sown as much as 
possible, as there is less waste during harvest than 
with the bearded varieties which readily lose their 
grain. We must also look out for the midge that 
is such an enemy of the wheat crop, and for a 
number of years proved so destructive. Every 
year we find some new enemy of the cereal crops, 
and this is the case in all other countries. In con- 
clusion, wheat sh ould be cut just as the grain be 
comes tough and doughy ; but it will be impossi- 
ble to harvest it all in that condition, as in the lat- 
ter half of the harvest the grain will have become 
fully hard. 

David B. Mauger, P]sq., of Douglas, stated that 
the subject was one which he would like to see tho- 
roughly discussed. The speaker had been farming 
since 1857, and heretofore he had always hauled his 
manure on the oats stubble and plowed it down. 
Last year he had plowed the land but once, then har- 
rowed it, and afterward rolled it. He had an idea 
of sowing some phosphate or guano upon the field 
this year, but knows too little about these manures 
to know of what benefit they would be. He had 
tried phosphate in comparison with barn-yard 
manure upon a rye field. The rye was splendid, 
and best on that portion where the phosphate had 
been applied. This had given him a good opinion 
of phosphates. The phosphate was sowed at the 



186 



THE LAJVCASTEB, FARMER. 



rate of 3"0 pounds to the acre, and cost $5o per 
ton. 

Col. Jeremiah Weaver, of Amity, gave his ex- 
perience in the use of guano, phosphates, bone, 
dust, and other fertilizers. He had at one time 
used large quantities of Peruvian guano, but 
found it productive of red sorrel, wild carrots, ox- 
eye daisy, and other pernicious weeds in his fields, 
and he had determined discontinuing its use. He 
had found out that barn-yard manure, and plenty 
of it, applied to the soil was the best fertilizer. 
As for cultivation, it is his practice to spread the 
manure on oats stubble, and plow the field a second 
time, or work the soil the second time with a 
cultivator, according to the season. He had this 
i-eason one field of 38 acres in wheat, in which he 
had tried three methods of sowing — plowing, har- 
rowing and drilling in the grain. The crop was 
exceedingly fine, and there appeared to be no dif- 
ference in the appearance of any portion of the 
field The straw stood .stiffer, and was firmer on 
that portion where the grain had been plowed in. 
The speaker had kept a mamorandum of the work 
upon this field, and the yield, together with the 
result of experiments upon a wet piece of land, 
and he regretted that he had not brought his 
memorandum book with him. 

President Sheetz expressed himself pleased with 
tlie statement that (-ol Weaver had made of his 
experiments and said that in his township, Hei- 
delberg, the excellent reputation of the farmers 
of Oley and Amity was well known. 

Squire Mauger stated that he had sowed a por- 
tion of his wheat broad-cast ; a portion he had 
harrowed in, an<l the remainder had been drilled. 
The portion that had been drilled in he thought 
stood the thinnest. 

Col. Weaver gave some more interesting facts 
in regard to his use of fertilizers, and stated as 
the result of his experience that lime and artifi. 
cial manures should never be used together, as 
the lime would completely destroy the latter. 
He was satisfied that lime is an exhaustive and 
will not benefit phosphates. He always used 
phosphate upon corn with the best results 

Dr. A Smith, of Heidelberg, stated that the 
preparation of the soil was at the foundation of 
successful farming. Let the cultivation of any 
crop be properly commenced, and a good crop 
must necessarily be expected for the labor ex- 
pended. In the first place it is necessary to 
have the soil thoroughly pulverized — the soil 
cannot be got in too fine a condition. Then the 
farmer should be careful not to plow when the 



ground is too wet, as the soil will be apt to be. 
come hard and lumpy, and this will particularly 
be the case when the lime is used. The ground 
should be thoroughly manured, and all straw 
grown upon the soil should be returned to it 
again in the shape of manure. A good crop de- 
pended upon the fertilizing substances contained 
in the soil. 

The speaker adverted to the unwise practice of 
burying manure, and putting it out of sight. 
Manure should be thoroughly decayed, and then 
be spread on top of the ground, after the ground 
had been plowed, and be worked into the soil. 
Some probably would object to having manure 
too near the surface, on account of considerable 
substance being lost by evaporation, but we know 
if we put straw on the ground, grass will grow up 
through it, and develop strength, warmth and 
nourishment from the straw, and this was exactly 
the case with manures. 

Artificial manures are unquestionably good. 
The speaker had been experimenting in the farm- 
ing line somewhat, and gave an interesting account 
of his experiments upon a tract of ten acres. It 
had been neglected, and was comparatively un- 
productive. He had the ground well prepared^ 
and applied super-phosphate of lime at the rate 
of 350 bushels to the acre. It was planted with 
corn on the 20th of May, and yielded forty bushels 
of shelled corn to the acre. The yield of the 
whole place in a former year had been half a 
bushel of corn. He has used super-phosphate 
this year, his method of applying it being to put 
a full teaspoonful around the plant as soon as the 
corn is up, and another teaspoonful at the time 
when the corn is ready to be cultivated. 

The speaker believed that lime should be used 
in connection with barn-yard manure, as the for- 
mer would cut up the latter, and the decayed con- 
dition of the manure would be obtained much 
sooner, and would prove of greater efficacy. The 
speaker concluded by hoping that the subject 
would be again considered at some future time. 

At this point, the Secretary stated that the 
hour had arrived for the meeting of the Execu- 
tive Committee of the Agricultural Society, and 
that while he very much desired that the discus- 
sion should be continued, especially as nothing 
had yet been said in reference to the different 
varieties of wheat, yet he was compelled to move 
to adjourn. The motion was seconded by Dr. 
Smith, and the Club adjourned to the regular 

eeting day, Saturday, September 6th, at 1 
o'clock p. M., at the Keystone House 



THE LANCASTEB. FARMER. 



187 



SOME FACTS ABOUT RAIN. 

No one who has traveled in the '• lake district " 
of England will need to be informed that it is 
a rainy region. If the tourist is able to devote 
two or three weeks to it, he may not unreasonably 
hope to be favored with occasional fair weather ; 
but if he can spend only three or four days among 
its wild and lovely scenery, let him congratulate 
himself if they do not all prove to be rainy ones. 
Wordsworth could never have seen and sung the 
charms of the district as he did, had he not made 
it his home for years. 

We have just seen in an English paper an ab- 
stract of meteorological observations made by Mr. 
Isaac Fletcher, M. P., among these Cumberland 
mountains. For nearly thirty years he has kept 
rain gauges at various stations, and the record of 
some of them for the year 1872 is astounding. The 
rain-fall at different points ranges from about 91 
inches up to almost 244 inches. At four stations 
it was about 175 inches. The highest result was 
obtained at a place known as " The Stye," at an 
elevation of 1077 feet, in one of the wildest passes 
of the region, between the lakes of Derwenter and 
Wastwater. Mr. Fletcher remarks : " The amount 
registered on the Stye — nearly 244 inches — is 
marvelous and is greatly in excess of any previous 
record. In 1866, 224.56 inches were recorded. 
So far as has yet been ascertained, the Stye is the 
wettest spot in Europe, and, except in tropical 
countries, the quantities I have quoted represent 
the two greatest annual falls of rain that have 
ever been recorded. 

But we presume that to many of our readers 
these figures convey no definite idea of the actual 
amount of rain that falls at this " wettest spot in 
Europe." A few other facts will serve as a basis 
of comparison, and also to show what a capricious 
phenomenon rain is — the most capricious, in fact 
of all meteorological phenomena, both in respect 
to its frequency and the amount that falls in a 
given time. There are regions where it never 
rains— as on the coast of Peru, in the African 
Sahara, and the desert of Cobi in Asia — and 
there are others, as in Patagonia, where it rains 
almost every day. At most places in our latitude, 
if an inch falls in a day, it is a pretty heavy rain ; 
but among the Highlands of Scotland and in the 
English " lake district," of which we have been 
speaking, from five to seven inches not unfrequent- 
ly falls in a day. On the Isle of Skye. in De- 
cember, 1863, 12.5 inches fell in thirteen hours. 
At Joyeuse, in France, 31.17 inches fell in twenty- 



four hours. At Geneva, 30 inches in twenty-four 
hours ; at Gibraltar, 33 inches in twenty-six hours. 
As regards the annual rainfall, the most remark- 
able is on the Khasia hills, in India, where it 
averages 600 inches, about .oOO of which fall in 
several months of the year. We do not know of 
any other place where the average rises even to 
300 inches, though at two points on the (ihauts 
Mountains, in India, it is 254 and 2')3 inches. At 
Madras it is 45 inches ; at Bombay 75 inches. 

It will be seen that the rainfall on the Stye, in 
Cumberland, approximates to that in the western, 
tropical districts. The average in the west of 
Great Britain and Ireland, in the vicinity of high, 
hills, is from 80 to 150 inches, while away from the 
hills it is only from 30 to 45 inches, and in the 
east of England not more than from 20 to 28 inches. 
In France it averages 39 inches ; in the level 
parts of Germany 20 inches ; while in some parts 
of Russia it falls as low as 15 inches. In this 
country it averages in the Southern States from 
fifty to sixty-five inches, though at some points, as 
at Athens, Ga., it is only thirty-six inches. In the 
Northern States it ranges from about twenty- 
seven to forty-five inches. On the Pacific coast it 
is twenty-two inches at San Francisco, but increases 
as we go northward— being forty-seven inches at 
Fort Vancouver, and ninety inches at Sitka. 

Though the subject cannot be called a dry one, 
we should hardly venture to indulge to such au 
extent in statistics if the variation in the figures 
were not so striking. To those of our readers who 
have not made a special study of the [subject, we 
believe they will be interesting ; and it cannot be 
denied that they fully sustain our assertion that 
rain is the most capricious of all the phenomena 
with which the meteorologist has to deal. Is it 
possible that he can make any orderly arrange- 
ment of such a medley of seemingly incongruous 
facts, and bring them into harmony with natural 
laws ? Can he explain why, within the limits of 
a little territory like England, about three hun- 
dred and fifty miles long and less than two hun- 
dred in average breadth, there should be a range 
in the yearly rain-fall from aliout twenty inches up 
to more than tenfold that amount? Are such 
problems within the grasp of " Old Probabilities'' 
and his fellow- workers ? That these questions are 
to be answered in the affirmative is all that we 
will now say ; at some future time we may devote 
another familiar article to the rain and certain 
related phenomena, and endeavor to elucidate the 
great laws by which they are controlled. — Journnl 
of Chemistry. 



188 



THE LAJ^CASTER FARMER. 



AMERICAN FARMERS' CLUB. 

li. A. Morrell — In replying to Mr. W. IT. 
King, of Venango county, Pennsylvania, asking 
what kind of food is best for sheep to keep them 
in good condition and make the most wool with 
the least expense, being ignorant of the soil and 
productions of the farm, I am somewhat diffident 
in tendering- advice. He keeps the Cotswolds and 
Southdowns. The large English breeds require 
full measure of food, with a vievv to early maturity? 
which is their principal source of profit. Abund' 
ant pasture during the grazing season and corn 
meal with a small measure of oil cake, rutabaga 
turnips two or three times a week, afford the 
(juickest means to perfect a condition for the 
butcher. Clover hay, if cut in the right time, 
which should be when in blossom, is the best 
fodder during winter, though a small mixture of 
timothy is not objectionable. With a view to in- 
crease of wool, either barley or pea meal may be 
added to ther food ; pea meal especially, as its 
jn'ominent constituent is albumen, which is also 
that of wool. Warm shelters during the cold 
season, quietude and water daily are indispensable. 
The Cheviot breed of sheep he will find in Canada, 
which are hardier than the Cotswold and Leicester. 

J. A. VVagener— White clover is most sought 
for by herdsmen. N o doubt it is one of the best 
foods for sheep. Sheep are great lovers of a 
variety of food, and help to clear land as well as 
fertilize the soil for grain, grass, and root crops. 
In many ways they are profitable stock for a 
farm. 

S. S. Gregory, Berea. Ohio, writes : " Last 
spring a peck of the highly-recommended Cooley 
corn was obtained at an expense of near $2.60. 
We think the corn sweet and good ; but a field of 
the common Ohio corn on each side of the Cooley 
variety appeared, as near as we could calculate, 
to ripen as early as it did. 

'■ I have for a few years past been in the habit 
of topping my corn about the time that most 
other people in this region of the country cut 
theirs up by the roots. By pursuing this method, 
'I moderate quantity of first-rate corn fodder can 
be secured, and the corn is generally dry enough 
to husk before the cold weather sets in. WiU 
corn that is topped and left standing in the field 
get dry and fit to husk any sooner than if cut up 
by the roots and put in large bunches, as is almost 
invariably practiced in all northern Ohio? 

"The crop of apples in 1872 was an unusually 
aViundant one in this part of Ohio. We find that 



the poor kinds, especially the sweet ones, are valu- 
able for feeding all kinds of stock. If people 
generally who have an abundance of apple? should 
use them for food for ' man and beast,' instead of 
making them into cider, with a view of drinking 
it, an advantage would be secured instead of a 
positive damage." 

Mr. Wagoner— Tliere is no great gain in top- 
ping corn unless the farmer has waste time. Corn 
ripens from the stalk, and should be cut when 
glazed, before the frost cuts the stalks. The 
whole stalk can be cut fine by a machine, and 
should be ground and mixed with meal In this 
way a great deal of food is made, and is more 
easily handled m niauure-heaps than toppings or 
the whole stalk. Apples have no great ad van- 
age over corn for feeding stock. Cider vinegar 
is of far more value than patent vinegar. 

J. Exeter, writes : " I am an old farmer ; been 
in the stock business all my days ; in the dairy 
business fifty years. I am my own doctor. If 
any of my herd is sick, I first ascertain what is the 
matter with them'; then I prescribe the same as if 
it was one of the human family. They require 
about the same treatment ; and with good care 
and right treatment are seldom sick. Always 
begin in season, though. I recommend, in the 
month of March, to shear the hair off the head 
between the horns of cows ; then rub a little 
spirits of turpentine on their heads. The heat often 
causes inflammation in the head. As for horn dis- 
temper, as some call it, I have but one medicine, 
which I have used forty years, and it seldom fails 
to cure. Take one pint of sharp vinegar, two 
large spoonfuls of pepper, one handful of fine salt, 
put them together in a bottle, shake them up well 
and turn it down the cow. That will cure by the 
second dose. I never lost a creature yet of horn 
distemper, and I have doctored a good many — 
only twice since have I resorted to bleeding. I 
give stock salt often, the very best quality I can 
get. Always have warm stables, clean and dry, 
and there is no danger of your stock being sick." 
F. D. Curtis — That letter is a concise and val- 
uable communication. I would indorse every 
word of it as sound doctrine, unless it be the prac- 
tice of putting the turpentine on the heads of the 
cattle. This I would not do . To shear the hair 
oS" in the spring is a good idea, for it is usually 
filled with dirt and scurf, and must itch intolera- 
bly, and as the letter says, causes heat in the 
head. Many farmers do not know that the top of 
the head, the base or injunction of the horns, 
is the most delicate spot on a horned animal. It 



THE Lj1J\/ CASTER FARMER. 



1S9 



should always be curried or brushed with care. 
The medicine prescribed for horn ail is good, and 
to it I would add, for three months previous, four 
or six quarts of wheat-shorts or bran. If the two 
prescriptions are followed, no animal is likely to 
die with horn distemper. I feed but twice a day- 
'i he recommendation to close the barn to let the 
hay dry out is new, and not practiced by many 
farmers ; but it is a reasonable suggestion, and 
hereafter I shall try it. I am very much obliged 
to M r. Exeter for that letter, and 1 hope we shall 
hear from him often. 



SALT AS A MANURE. 

The application of salt has been found in many 
soils to be followed with most beneficial results. 
In our western country the ordinary farm manures 
receive but little attention. On account of the 
fertile character of the soil, most farmers are un- 
willing to bestow the labor necessary for its accu- 
mulation, and hauling upon the land. But in this 
we think they greatly err. The application of 
three or four bushels of salt to the acre is a mat- 
ter of small cost and little labor, which would, in 
many instances, be repaid several times in a single 
crop ; besides the increased quantity, when ap. 
plied to wheat land, the crop is often hastened to 
maturity eight or ten days earlier than wheat on 
similar land not salted, and this gain in time 
may often save the crop by rust or the midge. 
The proper time to apply salt on wheat^land is at 
the time of sowing the seed. 

In the vicinity of towns and cities where pork 
packing is carried on to any extent, large quanti- 
ties of refuse salt may be had that will answer 
even a better purpose on land than that which has 
never been used in packing, on account of the 
animal matter it contains, and this salt may fre- 
quently be bought at a cheap rate. 

We should be pleased if some of our friends, 
would make the experiment and give us the re- 
sult for publication. If they would once try it, 
we think they would be apt to repeat it. 

A New York farmer was in the habit, for a long 
time, of applying salt to his wheat land at the rate 
of 280 to 300 pounds per acre. He found it had 
a tendency to cause the crop to mature earlier, 
gave a brighter straw, more plump and heavy 
grain, and of course a larger yield. He thought 
400 pounds might be applied to the acre with 
greater advantage, h^e sowed his wheat in Sep- 
tember and the salt immediately after the wheat, 
but said : " Were I to be guided by theory alone, 



I would say, sow before the wheat and harrow in 
with it." 

For other crops, salt may be sown after the 
ground is broken up and just preceding the sow- 
ing or planting of the crop. 



WINTER WORK ON THE FARM. 

P. T. Quinn, a correspondent from Essex co., 
New York, says : A heavy fall of snow about 
the holidays is a most fortunate occurrence, 
and one that is always turned to a profitable ac- 
count in getting ready for the spring work. I he 
heaps of farm-yard manure that have been accu- 
mulating for months back, are now hauled out to 
the different fields, and thrown in jiiles, with a 
farm sled, at about one-third less expense than if 
wagoned. Distances from the farm-yard, when 
eight loads of manure is a day's work for a man 
and a team, twelve can be more easily made in the 
same time with runners with less fatigue to the 
horses. It has been my rule for many years, that 
by the first of January the area for each crop is 
mapped off, and no chance is allowed to pass be- 
tween now and the first of April, to get every- 
thing in readiness for an active and timely spring's 
work. Located near a large city, where there is 
always a ready sale for cabbages, potatoes, and 
this kind of farming, to attempt to carry on the 
business in a slip-shod way, better far to sell out 
and go West, and raise corn and wheat, where less 
capital is required. To grow cabbages, potatoes 
and onions with profit, heavy manuring is the first 
step toward success, and where from forty to sev- 
enty two-horse loads of manure are applied to ev- 
ery acre cultivated, one can readily see how little 
chance there is for men and teams having nothing 
to do at any time from December until April. 
Besides hauling manure on fair days, on wet days 
the farm implements are carefully examined and 
put in good repair, long before they are needed in 
the spring. For the piist dozen years, the team- 
sters, at odd moments, mend all their own harness, 
saving in this way from i^ftO to §75 a year, beside 
the inconvenience of sending broken harness away 
from the farm, and the trouble of getting them 
back. Then the crops stored in the fall, have to 
be disposed of before the spring. In doing this, 
when the wagon goes to the city with a load of 
cabbages, turnips or potatoes, it returns with a 
load of manure. This plan is kept up the whole 
year. 

The tobacco crop of the county promises well. 



190 



THE LAJYCASTER FARMER. 



MANURE ON WHEAT. 



A correspondent, " F. G.," writing to the Country 
Gentltman, says : 

If a farmer wishes the greatest benefit from 
his manure, he must apply it after his land is 
plowed, spread (at once) even, and leave so till 
the land is sowed ; then mix well with the harrow 
or cultivator — if the application is heavy use the 
cultivator ; sow immediately after that. By leav- 
ing the spread manure on the surface after plow- 
ing up to the time of sowing, the rain will wash 
out the soluble parts and soak the soil — the top 
soil with them. This is an even distribution — per. 
fectly so ; and it is the only way, save by liquid 
manure, that this can be done perfectly ; in fact, it 
is liquid manure, the drenching and washing out 
by the rains. Now, an equal distribution is of 
the utmost importance, as it enables the roots to 
come in constant contact with the fertility ; they 
are immersed in it. If the manure is mixed with 
the soil (plowed under or worked in with the cul- 
tivator) only that part of the soil that comes in 
contact with the manure will receive its benefit, 
and that in excess. The rest has none, and is not 
benefited by the application. In the other case, 
where the strength is washed into the soil, and the 
remaining manure is mixed with it by the harrow 
or cultivator the seed will at once start and grow 
vigorously, and form by winter a thick pelt, which, 
with the manure, is a protection. The land, by 
this method, it will be found, is in excellent con- 
dition, the jeed-bed moist and mellow. Where it 
is wanted to seed down the land nothing is better 
than such a preparation. Sow the seed (grass 
seed, not clover) immediately after the hari'ow 
covering the wheat has left the field, and brush it 
at once. As to the other question of the corres- 
pondent, we do not appove of keeping manure 
long and uselessly on hand. The sooner the soil 
gets the soluble parts, and the surface the rest for 

protection the better. 

• 

Agricultural Notes.— The Rural Netv-Yorker 
mentions an individual who puts down his winter's 
milk the same as some people lay in vegetables, 
etc. He bottles a lot of milk in the fall, heats 
them to the boiling point, then corks the bottles 
and covers the corks with wax. This is the same 
principle which is applied in canning fruits, but 
whether it will do for the milk what it has done 
for the fruit, we have no opinion to ofFer in oppo- 
sition to that of the " individual" referred to. It 
will not cost much to try it on a small scale. 
The Prairie Farmer correctly thinks that trees 



are as often summer-killed as winter-killed. One 
fact will scarcely be questioned; that the weakened 
condition of trees passing through a trying sum- 
mer, whether from heat, coolness, moisture, 
drought, or the attacks of insects, makes them fall 
an easy prey to a severe winter. 

A "Wool-Grower" in the Live Stock, Farm 
and Fireside Jov/rnal, in referring to the weight 
of fleeces, frequently published, says that " Such 
fleeces, when ' clean-scoured' for the mill, usually 
shrink about 65 to 70 per cent., and sometimes 
more, in their weight ; and if the sheep had been 
washed before shearing, in the usual way, the 
fleeces would probably have weighed about one- 
half to two-thirds, of what they are stated." 



How TO Ascertain thk Weight of Cattle. — 
Measure the girth close behind the shoulder, and 
the length from the fore part of the shoulder-blade 
along the back to the bone at the tail, which is 
in a vertical line with the buttock, both in feet. 
M ultiply the square of the girth, expressed in feet, 
by five times the length, and divide the product 
by 21 ; the quotient is the weight, nearly, of the 
four quarters, in imperial stones of 14 lbs. avoir- 
dupois. For example, if the gir h be 6^ ft., and 
the length S^ft.. we shall have 6^X6^=42^, and 
.')iX5=26^ ; then 42^X26^=1109 1-16, and this, 
divided by 21. gives 52J stones nearly, or 52 stones 
11 lbs. It is to be observed, however, that in 
very fat cattle the four quarters will be about one 
twentieth more, while in those in a very lean state 
they will be one-twentieth less, than the weight ob- 
tained by the rule. The four quarters are little 
more than half the weight of the living animal ; 
the skin weighing about the eighteenth part, and 

the tallow about the twelfth part of the whole. 

• 

Shelter your Cattle in Winter. — The 
severity of the winter in certain sections has in- 
duced greater care and more attention to feeding. 
Farmers are learning that care and kindness to 
these useful creatures are repaid with increase of 
profit. Our correspondent in Labette county, 
Kansas, states : " I have learned from observation 
that a cow, when well sheltered and watered, can 
be kept on less than one half the feed required 
when left to the exposure of winter storms," 
Those who now neglect to provide suitable shelter 
in winter for their herds and flocks, if they would 
carefully observe and study results, would reach a 
similar conclusion. The agricultural districts in 
this country are very limited in which farmers can 
afford to winter stock without any provision for 
sheltering and feeding them. 



TEE LAJ^CASTEB, FARMER- 



191 



DOMESTIC. 



ORIGIN OF AROMA IN BUTTER. 

THE aroma of butter has a very complex 
origin. It springs from certain volatile 
oils which e.xist in the plants on which the animals 
feed. Voelcker reports butter to contain two per 
cent, of these oils. To these are given the names 
butyrin, caproin, and capryolin, and from them 
are formed the butyric, caproic, and capryolic acids> 
which are the occasion ot rancidity in butter. 
The easy formation of these acids is one of the 
greatest obstacles to the manufacture of good but- 
ter. But the volatile oils in butter are not con^ 
fined to three, nor four, varieties. Every species 
of herb upon the farm has more or less volatile oil 
peculiar to itself, on which its peculiar odor and 
flavor depend. It is easy to see how the flavor 
and odor of butter are afifected by the food the 
cow consumes. A cow eating peppermint into 
her blood, and thence into her milk, where com^ 
biuiug with the cream, it is carried into the but 
ter, giving it the flavor and aroma of the mint. 
Cows do not live on a single variety of herbage. 
Twenty different kinds are more likely to be found 
iu a single pasture than one. The mingled oils 
of all these constitute the aroma of the butter 
made from their milk, each one having its modi- 
fying influence, though some may be distinctly 
recognized, when, like onions, garlic, or cabbage, 
their influence is greater than that of all the rest. 
More people are more pleased with the aroma 
from Kentucky blue grass than with any other ; 
hence, blue grass is regarded as the best food for 
the dairy. By a little attention, every dairyman 
can determine for himself what food is most suit- 
able for his herd ; and that little attention will 
impres'i upon him the fact that if he would make 
clean flavored butter, his cows must not live on 
garbage, litter, or strong-scented weeds. 

There is another peculiarity about the essential 
oils in herbage, from which the dairyman may 
Bometimes derive advantage. It is the different 
degrees of lightness they possess, the rapidity 
with which their essential oils are evaporated by 
heat. For instance, the pungent oil of the horse- 
radish is so volatile as to escape in a short time by 
e.xposing the crushed radish to the air ; the poison- 
ous oil of the wild parsnip and of ivy escape while 
the foliage is wilting ; an offensive oil in green 
clover, which affects butter unfavorably, escapes 
while it is drying, so that the dry plant makes a 
better product than the green. The aromas of 



turnips, cabbage, onions, etc., are heavier, and are 
not entirely carried away by drying. But by heat- 
ing the freshly drawn milk, even these oils can, in 
many instances, be entirely driven out. — Corres- 
pondent Live Stock Journal. 

WINE MAKING. 

Grape culture and the manufacture of domestic 
wines being on the increase in this country, we 
publish the following directions for making five 
gallons of grape wine, by a correspondent of the 
Germantown Telegraph : Express the juice from 
twenty pounds of grapes, rinse the pulp and skins 
in as much water as will cover them ; mash them 
and strain through a coarse cloth ; add to this the 
juice, and put in two pounds of brown sugar to 
each gallon. When the sugar is dissolved, pour 
the whole into a keg, having the bung open, and 
let it stand where the temperature will be about 
seventy degrees, until fermentation ceases ; then 
bung up tight, and let it rest for a month to settle, 
when it should be drawn oS" quietly, the keg well 
washed and the wine returned to it, adding one 
pound of good raisins; and if it does not seem 
sweet enough, two pounds of sugar may be added 
to the whole. The necessity of doing this depends 
on the kind and quality of the grapes The wine 
should remain undisturbed until the keg is wanted 
the next season, when it may be bottled for use. 



Air Beds in the Morning.— The wise house- 
keeper should see to it that all the beds should be 
aired immediately after being occupied. The im- 
purities which emanate from the human body from 
insensible perspiration are made up of minute 
atoms, which, if allowed to remain long, are ab- 
sorbed by the bed, and will then, to a greater or 
less extent, vitiate the air for a considerable time 
afterward. Let the occupant throw the bed open 
on rising, and as soon as convenient, open the 
windows and ventilate the sleeping -room. One 
hour's early ventilation is worth two hours' late 
airing. 

Hens Eatino Eggs. — A correspondent says: 
" Hens eat their eggs because they desire food of 
the kind of which the egg is composed — the shell 
to procure lime, and the yolk and white to procure 
albumen and other oily substances. Now if the 
hens can obtain a sufficient quantity of these oily 
substances in their daily food, they will not eat 
their eggs. This can be effectually accomplished 
by keeping within reach of the fowls a constant 
supply of air-slaked lime, fat meat and pulverized 
bone. 



192 



THE LAJy'CASTER FARMEB. 




DURHAM BULLS. 



ABOUT the year 1750, in the Valley of 
the Tees, commenced that spirit of im- 
provement in the breeders of the old Short-horns, 
which has ended in the improved modern breed. 
These efforts, begun by Sir William Quintin. and 
carried on by Mr. Milbank, of Barmingham, were 
nearly completed by Mr. Charles Colling. The 
success of this gentleman was, from the first, con- 
siderable. He produced, by judicious selections 
and crossings, the celebrated bull, Hubback. from 
whom are descended the best short-horns of our 
day. Of this breed was the celebrated Durham 
ox which was long shown in a traveling van at 
country fairs, and which when slaughtered in April, 
1807, at eleven years of age, weighed 187 stone; 
and the Spottiswoode ox, probably the largest ever 
exhibited. In June, 1802, he measured : height 
of shoulders, 6 feet, 10 inches ; girth behind the 
shoulder, 10 feet, 2 inches ; breadth across the 
hooks, 3 feet, 1 inch ; computed weight, 320 stones 
of 14 pounds. — Farmers' Encylopoedia. 

We quote this to elicit how often, and how far, 
an ox of 4,480 pounds has been exceeded in our 
own country, and when, and where. 



must be rubbed, piece by piece, with very finely 
powdered saltpetre, on the flesh side, and where 
the leg is cut off, a tablespoonful (not heaped) to 
each ham, a dessert-spoonful to each shoulder, and 
about half that quantity to each middling and 
jowl ; this must be rubbed in. Then salt it by 
packing a thin coating of salt on the flesh side of 
each piece, say one-half inch thick, pack the 
pieces on the scaffolding, or on a floor with strips 
of plank laid a few inches apart all over it (that 
is, under the meat) ; the pieces must be placed 
skin side down, in the following order : — First 
layer, hams ; second, shoulders ; third, jowls ; 
fourth, middlings take the spare ribs out of the 
middlings. The meat must lie in this wise :— Six 
weeks if the weather is mild, eight if very cold — 
the brine being allowed to run ofl" freely. 



How TO Cure Hams. — Here is J. Howard 
McHenry's recipe : The meat, after being cut out, 



Apple Eating. — An eminent French physician 
thinks that the decrease of dyspepsia and bilious 
afifections in Paris, is owing to the increased con- 
sumption of apples, which fruit, he maintains, is 
an admirable preventive against disease, and a 
tonic, as well as a very nourishing and easily 
digested article of food. The Parisians devour 
one hundred millions of apples every winter. 
American people should profit by this hint, for 
they well know the meaning of the word dyspepsia. 



THE LA JVC ASTER FARMER. 



193 



USEFUL RECIPES. 

Veal Cutlets. — Cut off the flank and take the 
bone out, then take slices the size of the fillet and 
half an inch thick ; grate some bread crumbs and 
mix them with two yolks of eggs that have been 
beaten ; put it on the veal and press it with a 
knife or cake turner, and let them stand to dry, 
then fry them in hot lard a light brown. Take 
them from the lard and stew them in gravy sea- 
soned with wine, lemon, and curry powder ; let it 
cook fifteen minutes, then thicken with butter and 
browned flour. Leave out curry powder if you 
choose. 

Quaker Plum Puddinc. — Take slices of light 
bread, thin, with butter, and lay in a pudding- 
dish layers of thin bread and raisins till within an 
inch of the top. Add five eggs, well beaten, and 
a quart of milk, and pour over the pudding ; salt 
and spice to taste. Bake in twenty-five minutes, 
and eat with liquid sauce. Before using the raisins 
boil them in a little water and put it all in. 

Breakfast Rolls. — Into two quarts of wheat 
flour, put a piece of butter the size of an egg, a 
little salt, a tablespoonful of white sugar, a pint 
of milk previously boiled, and cold, and half a tea- 
cupful of yeast. When the sponge is light, mould 
for fifteen minutes. Let it rise again, and cut in- 
to round cakes ; when light, flatten each with a 
rolling-pin ; put a bit of butter on top, and fold 
each over on itself. Put in pans to rise, and when 
light bake in a quick oven. If the edges of the 
rolls are dipped in melted butter they will not 
stick together, 

Corn Meal Bread. — Pour over a pint of nice 
corn meal one pint of hot new milk ; beat this well, 
and add a little salt ; then stir in a large spoonful 
of nice sweet lard ; beat two eggs very light, and 
stir in also ; this must be well beaten, and of the 
consistency of thin butter; add some more milk 
should it be too thick, and mix in a large spoonful 
of yeast, butter the pans, and set it to rise in 
steam ; when risen, have the oven of a moderate 
heat, and put them in it ; bake two hours and a 
half to a light brown, and serve hot. 

A Most ExcelViEnt Domestic: Confection. — 
This is the season for oranges. The peel of this 
fruit, preserved in sugar, is one of the most delight- 
ful confections which a family can use, far superior 
to the extracts sold in the shops. The peel should 
of course be perfectly clean, and should be cut in 
long thin strips. Stew in water till all the bitter- 
ness is extracted. Throw away the water, and 
stew again for half an hour in a thick syrup made 



of a pound of sugar to one of peel, with just water 
enough. Put away in a cool place, for flavoring 
puddings, pies, etc. For this purpose it should be 
chopped very fine. No better nor cheaper flavor- 
ing can be furnished to a household. 



Proper Feeding. — The proper feeding of horses 
has much to do with their condition, and likewise 
with their remaining sound. Food should be pro- 
portioned to work, and it should also be of the best 
quality. Hay that has been much heated in the 
gtack is, above all things, to be avoided, as, from 
its powerful diuretic properties, it debilitates and 
creates thirst ; and mow-burnt or heated oats are 
equally productive of mischief. Hay which is 
produced on dry upland ground is best. Indeed, 
we are far from thinking that rich meadow-hay, 
finely-scented as it is, and apparently so full of 
nourishment, is fitted for any description of horse 
that is required to go fast ; and we are quite cer- 
tain that thousands of horses are destroyed an- 
nually by the effects of hay and water. The lat- 
ter cannot be too soft, and when not so it should 
be given with a small portion of bran in it. — 
Prairie Farmer. 



Novel Way of Serving Peaches. — Take good 
sized freestone peaches, wipe them with a towel, 
halve them, and place them flat side down in hot 
butter or lard. Let them fry to a nice brown, then 
turn and fill the seed cup with sugar, which, by the 
time the fruit is properly coated will be melted 
and form with the juice of the peach, a rich syrup. 
Serve up hot, and if you don't like them you need 
not repeat the experiment. Most persons think 
the dish a superb one. Medical writers caution 
people against eating peaches served up in any 
form in the evening. It is asserted that they are 
depressive to the circulation, and exhaust the 
system by the prussic acid which they contain. It 
is better to eat them in the morning, or not later 
than an early dinner, so that some exercise may 
follow eating to aid their proper digestion. 



Charlier Horseshoe. — A new horseshoe, pro- 
duced in Paris by M. Charlier, has been favorably 
received. It consists of a narrow rim of iron, 
thoroughly protecting the edge of the hoof with- 
out cramping its sole in the least. The material 
to be used must be of the best quality ; but the 
weight being considerably less, the cost is not in- 
creased. Thousands of horses of the many public 
conveyances in Paris have been provided with 
these shoes, and they give general satisfaction. 



19Jf 



THE LAJYCASTER FARMEB.. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL. 

THE APPLE-TREE BORER. 

AT the meeting of the Pennsylvania Pomo- 
logical Society held in Philadelphia, last 
winter a year, (it may be remembered as reported 
in our columns at the time.) there was a remark, 
able difference of opinion between two leading 
authorities as to the value of tarred paper in keep- 
ing out the apple-tree borer. One stated posi- 
tively that it would keep the insect out, for he had 
tried it ; the other contended that it would not, 
for he had tried it also. Now, there was once a 
judge who heard a case, in which two men swore 
they saw a crime committed, and a dozen swore 
they did not see it, and which said judge decided, 
in accordance with the majority of the evidence, 
that the man must be innocent ; but our sympa- 
thies in the great apple-borer case were rather 
with the other side ; for if a man really tried tarred 
paper, and still the borer got in, the man that did 
not see any get in might not have had any borers 
try, or might not have seen the damage after it 
was done. In short, we preferred the evidence of 
the one who saw, to the one who didn't. How- 
ever, there was one present who supposed the 
truth must be somewhere between these two, and 
he went right straight home from the meeting, and 
put to the test the doctrines he had heard. He 
had one hundred trees, two years planted ; and 
after going over the trees, and carefully taking out 
the borers that loere in, he wrapped old paper 
loosely about the stem for one inch below and two 
inches above the surface, and then smeared gas-tar 
all over the outside of the bark, just as he had been 
recommended. Sure enough, he had not one borer 
trouble him all the year, nor this year up to about 
a month ago, when he found four of them die away 
as suddenly as if they were pears stricken down 
by the fire-blight. An examination showed that 
the borer had penetrated above the two inches cov- 
ered by the paper, and in that way effected the 
destruction of the tree. But — and here is the im- 
portant point — in all these four cases coarse veg- 
etation had grown up around the stem, and the 
borers had gone up this sort of ladder to do their 
work. He believes they will not go over the 
tarred paper unless they can bridge it in this way. 
Still he thinks two inches hardly safe, and if go- 
ing over them again would have the paper four 
inches instead of two. 

It thus seems that after all there is something 
in this tarred paper plan ; and then it is so simple, 



so cheap, so easy of application, that he who thinks 
it too much trouble does not deserve apples. 

Our friend says he has been troubled in the past, 
by mice and by rabbits in the winter season, and 
he thinks the tarred paper as good against these 
as the borer. He had no losses last year. This 
is the time to attend to it. — Germantoion Tele- 
graph. 

[We believe, with the writer of the above, in 
the availability of the protection to the trunk of 
the apple-tree, therein named, if it is applied in 
the right manner, and in the right season. The 
eggs of the female borer are deposited on the 
trunk, near to the earth, from the first of June to 
the first of August, and if that part of the tree is 
properly protected then, there is no danger from 
the insect during the other ten months of the year. 
Outside of the two months named, there is no ne- 
cessity in protecting the trunk at all, after cutting 
out the worms, for then there are none o( the bee- 
tles in season to deposit the eggs from which the 
worms are bred. We would, however, recommend 
the protection, whatever it may be, to extend six 
inches upward instead of two, and two inches down- 
ward instead of one. The insect deposits its eggs 
at or a little below the surface, because there they 
are protected against the sun, and there is sufficient 
moisture to prevent them from "drying out" before 
they are hatched. If there is only a one or two 
inch protection, and the grass is suffered to grow 
about and shade the base of the tree, the proper 
conditions for the development of the worms will 
exist immediately above the protection, and it 
might just as well not be there at all. " What is 
worth doing at all is worth doing well."— Ed.] 

THE SEVENTEEN-YEAR LOCUST. 

[Cicada Septendecim.) 
How, and on what the above named insect 
lives, during its long larvag period, has long been 
a subject of more or less speculation, owing to the 
difficulties attending a practical demonstration of 
the subject. The observations which accomplished 
entomotogists have been able to make, have been 
so few and unsatisfactory, that the question be- 
came involved in many doubts, and, at best, the 
whole theory was based mainly on conjecture. 
Notwithstanding, Miss Margaret H. Morris — 
late of Germantow n, Pa. — as early as 1846, ir the 
proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences, 
of that year, gave a description of the larvEB, 
of the cicada, which she found in great numbers, 
adhering to the roots of a sickly pear tree ; still, 



THE LAJ^CASTER FARMER. 



195 



as nobody else seemed to have confirmed her ob- 
servations in this respect, some writers began to 
question her testimony in its details, although 
they seemed to infer that the cicadas might have 
been found in the manner she described, and was 
likely to live upon underground vegetation of some 
sort. Dr. Smith, of Baltimore, attempted to 
demonstrate that the larvse of the seventeen-year 
cicada— at least when very young — did not 
puncture the roots of vegetation at all, but that it 
lapped, or brushed up the moisture that exuded 
from the roots, and in that manner sustained itself, 
during its infancy at least, its proboscis being 
modified into a sort of brush for that purpose. 
But however and upon whatever it may subsist 
during its earliest larvae period, it is very certain 
that it does puncture, and very badly puncture 
too,the roots of certain trees, within from two to 
five years after its exclusion from the Qgg. On 
the 6th of September, 1873, Mr. Geo. Hensel, re- 
siding in East Orange street, in the city of Lan- 
caster, in digging a foundation trench for an ex- 
tension of his green-house, at three feet below the 
surface of the earth, in a compact clay soil, came 
upon a large number of cicada larvae, of various 
sizes, adhering to the roots of a smokehouse apple 
tree ; and what seemed mo.st singular, although the 
roots of a large sweet cherry tree intertwined those 
of the apple, yet no cicadas, not a single larvae, 
was found on them, nor was there any appearance 
of their having been punctured by these insects. 
They were not, however, all found adhering to the 
roots, but many occupied cylindrical burrows that 
were at right angles from the surface of the roots. 
The infested roots were from \ to 1^ inches in 
diameter, the greater number being on the smaller 
ones. Mr. Hensel gathered at least a half pint 
of these larvaj within the few feet of excavation 
he made, and he also made the observation that 
the apple tree, latterly, has prematurely dropped 
its fruit and leaves and seems greatly enervated. 
The larger roots do not seem to have been per- 
manently injured, but the smaller ones are black- 
ened into the heart, and the vitality of the bark 
and sap-wood is entirely destroyed. 

We have before us a number of these larvaj, 
from scarcely a ^ to more that a ^ inch in length, 
with the abdominal portions more distended than 
it is in the adult larvie. We have also specimens 
Of the injured roots, and a clod of indurated yellow 
clay, containing two of the burrows, or cells. 
These cells are from an inch to an inch and a half 
in length, and otherwise adapted in size to their oc- 
cupants, but they were, all of them, larger than 



was necessary for the accommodation of the body 
of the insect — large enough perhaps to turn 
around in it — and as they were not all found ad- 
hering to 'the roots, but merely, in some instances, 
occupying the cells which terminated on the sur- 
face of the bark, it would appear that they gorge 
them.selves, and then desist, until hunger compels 
them to renew the attack. The outer integument 
of the smooth bark seems to be perforated, as if 
by pinholes, and beneath it, in some instances, it is 
blackened in as far as the sap-wood of the medium 
sized roots ; but the larger ones are roughened on 
the surface only, and inside have a hftalthy ap- 
pearance. Whether these cicada larvae are all of 
the brood of 1868 or not, is something which, in 
this case, cannot be fully determined perhaps, be- 
cause Mr. H. has on his premises also the brood 
of 1872. introduced by himself from Chester county 
more than eighteen years ago. The difference in 
size is so great that they may possibly be the 
larvaj of both these broods. Mr. H. thinks the 
cicadas on his premises have become somewhat 
" demoralized," for every year since 1867 more or 
less of the mature insects have been developed, 
and not a single summer has passed in five years 
during which he has not dug up some of the larvae. 
It is very likely, therefore, that they are never 
more than from two to three feet below the surface, 
where there are roots enough for them to subsist 
upon at that depth. Notwithstanding these in- 
sects are so long and so widely known in this coun- 
try, and so much has been observed and written 
about them, every additional fact in reference to 
their'curious and^unique history is invested with 
more than ordinary interest ; a history that never 
will be fully known until the consecutive observa- 
tions of the whole seventeen years of their larvae 
development can be made. Until then such de- 
tached fragments must sufiice. — Ed. 



WiNCHESTEK, Ya., Sept 8th, 1873. 

S. S. Rathvon — Dear Sir: A large number 
of our peach trees are dead and some are dying, 
caused by a very small beetle. It punctures the 
bark near the ground at first, then passing up the 
tree, boring holes merely deep enough to cover its 
body. It seems to be very poisonous, as the bark 
is entirely dead at the ground before the leaves 
drop, and the leaves begin to wither when, ap- 
parently, but little damage is done. 

A brief account of it is given in Harris' Insects, 
(fee, on page 88, but is there supposed to be con- 
nected with the Yellows, which I am pretty sure 
our trees have not got. I mail you, with this, 



196 



THE LAJyCASTER FARMER. 



pieces of wood and bark containing insects. If 
you can tell how to check its ravages, or destroy 
it, we will be under great obligations, as it threat- 
ens to be a most formidable foe to the peach. 
Yours truly, 

0. H. Anderson. 

[The above speaks for itself, and we publish it, 
not because we feel ourselves able to prescribe a 
simple and unfailing remedy, but in order to elicit 
the attention of peach growers in general, if un- 
happily any of them may have been similarly 
troubled with this comparatively new enemy to the 
peach tree. The piece of wood received is four 
inches long and one inch in diameter, and con- 
tains more than a dozen perforations, from which 
we extracted ten little black beetles. The largest of 
these beetles is the ^ of an inch in length, and the 
smallest, little more than half that length. The 
color is black, except the avtennce, and the titial 
and tarsal portions of all the legs, which are a 
resinous brown. The insect has the habit of 
geniculating the antennae at will, the three term- 
inal joints of which are enlarged into a club, very 
similar to some species of Lamelicomia. The 
thorax is con vexed and deeply punctured, and the 
elytrcB are punctured in longitudinal rows, or 
grooves, and sparsely set with short stiff hairs. 

This little insect is the Tomi'ciis [PMoiotrihus] 
Ummanous of authors, and belongs to the family 
ScoLTTiD(E, or " Typographer Beetles," all of 
which burrow under the bark of different kinds of 
trees. They appear in the beetle form, from the 
1st of August until the 1st of October, and during 
that period they perforate the bark, and make an 
excavation between the epidermis and the sap- 
wood, in which they deposit their eggs and then 
die. As we have often caught these insects on the 
wing, on warm days in middle October, we are of 
opinion that some of them hybernate all winter. 
The legs are so short, and the dorsal convexity so 
great, that when they have fallen on their backs, 
we have seen them struggle full fifteen minutes 
before they succeeded in righting themselves. 
They have an ample pair of underwings, and in 
warm and hazy afternoons may often be seen fly- 
ing abroad. If peach trees were treated with a 
coat of dilute carbolic acid, or carbolic soap-wash, 
during the last half of July and the month of 
August, there is a strong probability that these 
insects would not approach them. Under any 
circumstances, prevention is the only effectual 
means to circumvent them, for when the eggs are 
once deposited it will be difficult to reach them, 
for the larva, in the beginning, must be very 



small. But it seems to us that the presence of 
this insect in the peaeh tree is only incidental, 
caused probably by the rapid disappearance of 
other trees, its usual habit ; and, from our observa- 
tions, the peach tree is not at all fitted for its pro-- 
pagation and development. For instance, we cut 
a number of them out with a knife, and we found 
that in each case, the short burrow they had made, 
was filled with the exuding gum of the tree, and 
the insects unable to extricate themselves. Dr. 
Harris says, p. 88, that he found this same insect 
under the bark of the beech tree. Miss Morris, 
many years ago, found this insect in peach trees 
affected with the '' Yellows," and supposed it had 
some connection with that disease. Although 
peach trees badly infested by borers are apt to 
turn yellow, yet the disease of that name is often 
present without insects having anything to do 
with it. At the same time it may be borne in 
mind, that trees of any kind that^are enervated by 
disease, are more favorable to the development of 
insects than vigorous, healthy trees are, because 
the feeble functional activity of the former pre- 
sents fewer obstacles to that development ; but 
this is by no means always the case, nor e\en a 
general rule. — Ed.] 



[From the Gerraantown Telegraph.] 

MINUTE INSECTS. 



Grape Phylloxera. 
I am calling attention to the injury done to 
the grapevine by the minute insect called phyl 
loxera, a name that I fear will be a terror to all 
who cultivate grapes, either out of dooi's or under 
glass. This insect preys on the vine in two ways. 
First, ,on the leaf. Here it, either by puncturing, 
or by laying on the outside of the leaf its eggs, 
causes a thickening of the leaf, and this bag-like 
thickening is called in Europe a ' gall," after the 
larger forms of "galls" or "boles," of which the 
nut-gail of the oak is a sample, and a useful one, 
as the nut-gall is used in medicine and the arts. 
But we Americans like no set, cant terms of arts 
or sciences, and hence retain but few of them. So 
we speak of the enlargement in small, roundish 
protuberances, simply as such and no more. By 
cutting open the leaf-nest of the phylloxera it is 
found to be the live tissue of the leaf, a sixteenth 
or so of an inch in diameter, and often several 
joined together so as to occupy a circle a quarter 
or three-eighths of an inch in its irregular diameter. 
At the proper time these little round spots, cut open, 
are full of yellow, red or brown little insects ; and 



THE LA:N'C ASTER FARMER. 



197 



as I have seen them in quite a variation of colors, 
owing to the changes of the insect development, or 
to slight sub-varieties of the phyllexora. These 
points belong to the entomologist, not to me, a 
practical writer. I have seen the " gall" spot or 
nest, with open leaflets or valve-like entrances to 
the enlargement or bag below the leaf on the un- 
der side ; and again, the bulb or bag above the 
leaf and tightly closed. Very frequently the en- 
larged spot is seen, when the most diligent search 
fails to discover an insect. The fact neetls an ac- 
curate entomologist to account for. But I have 
seen it too often to be disputed as a fact. Practi- 
cally, I consider this injury to the leaf, if excessive, 
as preventing the fall-ripening of the wood and 
the fruit of the vine. Otherwise as of little con- 
sequence. 

Second. The great injury of the phylloxera, now 
attracting so much attention of our excellent 
entomologists and others of the more intelligent 
grape-growers, is to the rootlets of the vine. On 
this I have less accurately observed its habits and 
appearances. But it is sufficient to know that it 
loves to feed under ground on the small roots or 
rootlets of the vine and produces here knots or 
bunches, each quite small, but in the aggregate 
making large masses of black or brown excrescen- 
ces. The effect is to paralyze the vine. It either 
fails to ripen its fruit, or the grapes ri. en imper- 
fectly or late. And careless grape-growers say 
. ■• it is a bad year for grapes ; " late sea.son ;" '' my 
vine^^ are full, but don't get ripe ; I must buy 
earlier sorts," and other phrases that display igno- 
nance of the cause of the mischief. 

Later, the frosts c »me on the yet immature 
canes and yet half ripened leaves, and the conse. 
quencc is the vine enters winter before it is ready 
to endure cold, and thus it easily perishes. So 
also in the following spring the wood and grape- 
buds that are ripe enough to have wintered well, 
are not early supplied with sap, and the vine dies 
even in the parts that escaped winter-killing, by 
the drying out of the buds by the hot spring sun. 
Hence one may propagate buds cut off of a vine 
that dies too near the ground, showing that the 
ripening of the buds was perfect enough, had not 
diseased roots underground caused the loss, inde- 
pendently of the buds. 

The phyllo.xera has at least two periods of emer- 
gence out of the ground, and appears as one of the 
very minute insects that we call flies. I need not 
say that in Europe it is said to kill vine, root and 
all. So far in this country it does not generally kill 
the whole vine and root, but it causes great bar- 



ren dead branches on the trellis, in irregular spots, 
and there is fruit and leaves near the ground ; and 
this is repeated until the vine sometimes dies. Old 
vines, trained on buildings or trees, are frequently 
killed to three or four feet of the earth, and rarely 
recover, or not till the year after such a phyllox- 
era year, its vigor. Vines also trained on the spur 
systems, as distinguished from the reneioal or an- 
nual cane systems, suffer most. So that if this 
insect becomes more destructive we will be obliged 
to abandon all spur training and grow short canes 
each year, or, .get no fruit. Any large and old 
vineyard almost anywhere will show to-day (June 
18th), the truth of these last remarks : its old, dead 
wood, its last year's new wood alive and full of 
fruit. 

I could continue these remarks as to the " oys- 
ter-louse" of the New-Jersey and Massachusetts 
apple-trees. Also of the minute insects of our 
grasses. No one can see a cloud of insects rise 
and fill the air, and not see the causes of barren- 
ness and injuries that he attributes to the soil or 
other reasons than the insect he considers of so 
little moment. I close by saying that though for 
these and other minute insects remedy after reme- 
dy have been proposed, I can but repeat hoio 
powerless is all man can do to resist and destroy 
any insect. With ihe kindest regards to my tens 
of thousands of readers, I am, 

S. J. ParkeA M. D. 

Tompkins County, N. Y. 

[The above insect is the Phylloxera vastatrix 
of Planchon, and is the same as that described by 
Dr. Pitch as P. vitifolia. It is indigenous to 
America, but has been introduced into Europe, 
and is making sad havoc among the grape vines 
there, especially in France, in the departments of 
Provence and A^'ancluse. Indeed, it has become 
so threatening, that the French Academy at one 
of its sittings demanded of the government that 
the premiums of 20,000 francs, offered for a reme- 
dy for its destruction, be increased to 500,000, or 
if necessary, 1,000,000 of francs. 

During the months of August and September, 
and perhaps even later, these minute insects, both 
winged and wingless, crawl over the surface of the 
ground, and if the surface is then treated with 
carbolic powder, quick-lime, ashes, sulphur or salt, 
these insects may be destroyed in millions. In 
low grounds, where the thing is practicable, sub- 
mersion with water is recommended, but of course, 
on high grounds this is not available. 

This insect is by no means as destructive in this 
country as it is in Europe, where they cultivate the 



198 



J }JE LANCASTER FARMER. 



finer and more tender varieties of the grape. We 
have seen it very abundantly on the foliage of the 
Clinton, but it also attacks other varieties, and is 
more injurious when depredating upon the roots, 
than when on the leaves. — Ed.] 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

PEQUEA FARMERS' CLUB. 

Wal-Oak Farm, Sept. 18, 1873. 

MR. EDITOR : The second Saturday in Sep- 
tember the Pequea Farmers' Club met at 
the home of Mr. Jacob Bach man. An anxious 
desire and a pressing invitation to visit a model 
club induced me to be present. 

Some farmers' clubs are nothing more than 
" dried-up sticks." T like the Pequea Club from 
the word go. Its constitution and by-laws are 
tip-top. A member is expelled if he is absent 
twice in succession. No society can sustain itself 
if it allows its members to attend every camp 
meeting and cock-fight that comes off on its day. 
We are on our way to a farmers' club. They 
will naturally inquire after the farming interests 
of the country we are passing through. We can 
tell them, many of the fences are beautifully sup- 
ported by briars, and thorns, and thistles. No 
danger of the cattle rubbing them down. We 
can also say we saw a number of pasture-fields in 
which mud-puddles had been made this spring. 
All summer these have been filled with filthy wa- 
ter. We stopped and asked one gentleman if he did 
not think the water was injurious. He said- 
"Oh,no; the cattle prefer it to running spring 
water." We told him cattle and sheep would of- 
ten eat poisonous plants in preference to delicious 
clover. 

You see that rule works both ways. But then 
Bome men don't like old cows, and this putrid 
water kills them off at the right age. The milk 
and butter they give contain the germs of fatal 
diseases ; but then a man has to die anyhow, and 
the doctors have to live. 

We left Marietta at 4 a. m., arrived at Stra.s 
burg at 10:30, passing through much rich coun 
t^-y and many well-kept farms All the members 
were present before the hour of meeting, and the 
club was promptly called to order at 11 o'clock. 
Mr. Jacob Bachman read an essay — " a discourse 
on public roads " — which was replete with practi- 
cal good sense and useful suggestions. The mis- 
erable road system which now prevails was tho- 



roughly ventilated. A diversity of opinion pre- 
vailed as to the best method of making roads ; 
but all agreed that where deep gutters and water- 
courses are now used, there should be a bridge. 
This was a charming conclusion, and every in- 
telligent supervisor should give the matter a 
thought ; for road-making is a matter of vital in- 
terest to everybody. This discussing a farm sub- 
ject, as a Lyceum discusses a literary question, 
with the view of arriving at the truth, is the best 
and quickest, if not the only method of teaching 
farmers to guard their interests and study the 
science of their profession. There is double the 
money in scientific farming that there is in bung- 
ling plowing and sowing, and reaping and mow- 
ing — and useful, intelligent, go-ahead farmer^ arc 
everywhere giving their old-fashioned neighbors a 
practical illustration of its truth. 

The "country Jakes" who disgrace the profes- 
sion of farming are not graduates of model farm- 
ers' clubs. A farmer in a great many places is 
synonymous with a man who goes it blind and takes 
his chances—don't know anything about his busi- 
ness, and don't care to learn anything concerning 
it. A great many farmers are as ignorant as 
their cii'cumstances will permit. They neither 
subscribe for a paper nor even borrow one ; yet I 
know a man who owns three farms and borrows 
his reading matter from a neighbor who labors by 
the day. I knew this fact, and asked him to sub- 
scribe for his local paper — the Marietta Register 
— and he said: "A farmer don't need a paper. 
They do well enough for folks in town." I told 
him the town people could hear the news and the 
country people couldn't. I thought they needed 
the paper. He snapped the controversy in an in- 
stant by .saying : "' All papers are wicked. I don't 
want them and won't have them." I walked 
away from that man with the firm conviction that 
canvassing for a local newspaper offered special 
inducements to students of human nature. And 
I was just as certain that a farmers' club was the 
only educating influence in this world that could 
reach that man — he having just before expressed 
a desir e to attend a gathering of " theoretical " 
farmers. 

The Pequea club teaches its members to respect 
themselves and the dignity of their calling. It 
numbers eleven. You could drive through this 
country and almost tell its members by their neat 
farms and attractive homes. The most of them 
are cultivated talkers, and they are all intelligent 
men. One black ball rejects an applicant, and 
they never think of admitting any one who is not 



THE LAJ\^CASTER FABMER. 



199 



a well-read, social, jovial, and congenial fellow 
Qne of the members lives twenty-five miles 
distant, and has not missed a meeting since he 
joined the club. This fact is more complimentary 
than all I could say. It spcakseloquently of how 
full of instruction and interest these meetings are. 
Each member comes liere to give the others the 
benefit of a month's experience. I wish every 
farmer in the county 30uld be present once to en- 
joy the happy and practical .remarks that crop 
out at every turn in tlie discussion ; and, if 1 
mii^ht be allowed to use a figure of speech that is 
more expressive thun refined, these mex^tings are- 
as interesting and attractive to the members as a 
dog-fight is to a crowd of truant school-boys. 

Oake Saxe 

HORTICULTURAL. 

WHY APPLE TREES DIE. 

IN the fall of 1846 I planted a lot of apple 
pumice or apple seeds, of the old Virginia crab 
apple variety. In the spring of 1848 we engrafted 
part of these trees about three to eight inches 
above the ground. I'alance of them we engrafted 
ust under the ground. We also took all the lar- 
gest roots and cut them up in lengths of about four 
inches and engrafted them. T hey all grew about 
the same. In the spring of 1852, we planted them 
out in the orchards. 

Now for the results: All those engrafted 
from four to eight inches above the ground are 
still alive and doing well ; those engrafted in the 
roots and under ground are nearly all dead. The 
Fallawater varieties engrafted in the roots all 
died before the year 1862, or in about ten years 
after planting out. The same kinds of apples on 
those above ground are still alive and are doing 
finely. The roots (of those from roots) all gave 
way first ; some would blow over and the rest 
died, often when they were full of apples. From 
my experience, I have cdncluded never to plant a 
tree engrafted either under ground or in roots. 
Nurserymen prefer root-grafting because they can 
do it in the winter, pack away in the sand, and 
plant out in the spring. 

Apple trees should Iw l)udded or grafted not 
less than eight inches above ground for the best 
results. It is more trouble to the nurserymen, be. 
cause they have to wait a year longer before they 
can bud or graft them at that height. — Co?-. Ger- 
mantown Telegraph. 



THE PERSIMMON. 

Friend Freas.— I think you are almost too 
hard on the persimmon in a late issue. There is a 
great range of quality, like in almost every other 
fruit good, bad and indifferent. I confess to 
never having found any in persimmons that were 
really good, although when a boy was glad to get 
them, as they were a rarity in our parts. Here it 
is difiierent. however ; we have some large ones 
with but small seeds that ripen before any frost. 
One tree in particular, the finest I ever met with, 
grew in the middle of a vinery belonging to the B. 
W. Co. The tenant frequently threatened to cut 
it d(iwn,)nit I at the time was superintendent and 
would not allow it. Intending to resign my situ- 
ation, and not knowing what the fate of the tree 
might be when my authority should cease, I took 
grafts from it, some of which are now growing, 
and some were sent to friends in the East, who 
read your paper, and may report on them. The 
tree has since been hewn down and cast into the 
fire. AV'hen dried the persimmau is considered 
quite a nice thing with our folks. 

1 his you will no doubt think is quite a puff for 
the persimmon, coming frorri one who has all the 
finest grapes, peaches, apples, melons, etc., in their 
season. The tree is certainly an ornamental one, 
and I own to the fact that a couple are growing 
on the terrace near my house. 'I'hey are seedlings 
from the big one, and if the fruit be not good, they 
will be grafted with better varieties.— Cor. Ger- 
mantown Telegraph. 



Tilling Orchards.— The injurious effect of late 
cultivation of an orchard is caused by the stimu- 
lation of a growth of wood which, not having- 
time to ripen, is killed by the frost. The chief in- 
jury which occurs to an orchard from plowing is 
the bruising of the large roots, which throw out 
shelters at every bruise, or break,' and not only 
disfigure the orchard but sap the vitality of the 
trees. If a good crop of fruit is not er.ough to 
expect from the soil, we would choose for the sec- 
ond grass or clover. Clover pastured by sheep or 
hogs, or allowed to die down upon the soil, is an 
actual gain, and it tends also to check too great 
growth of leaf and wood. When the grass of an 
orchard has run out and requires re-seeding, the 
ground should not be plowed but only cultivated 
with the broad steel-toothed cultivator to a depth 
of not more than three inches. One and a half 
bushels of orchard grass and six quarts of clover 
might then be sowed and harrowed in ; and spring- 
is the pi'oper time. 



200 



THE LAJfCASTER FARMER. 



LANCASTER, OCTOBER, 1873 



S. S. RATHVON, Edilor. 

Published monlhly under the auspices of the Agricul- 
tural andHohticultukal Society. 

91 9S per Tear In Advance. 

A considerable deduction to clubs of five or more. 

A'l communicfitions, to insure insertion, must be in the 
hands of the editor before the 20th of each month. Ad- 
dress S. S. Ra'hvon, Lancaster, Pa. 

All advertisements, subscriptions and remittances to the 
address of the publibher, J. B. DEVELIN, 

Inquirer Buildine, Lancaster, Pa. ' 



HORTICULTURAL EXHIBITION. 



THE impromptu exhibition of our local so- 
ciety, simply announced, and almost entirely 
unadvertised, was, under all the circumstances, 
more creditable to the horticulturists of Lancaster 
city and county than any previous occasion of the 
kind in the history of the society. It proves very 
conclusively two things, which are important ele- 
ments in the constitution of an active organization ; 
and those are, first, that the material for a splen- 
did horticultural display exists in Lancaster coun- 
ty, and also the will, if necessary, to bring it ou* 
before the people ; and secondly, that there is 
great need for an agricultural hall - a suitable 
central place, suitably fitted up and furnished, and 
always ready when occasion requires it. As a 
matter of choice, the first floor would be prefera- 
ble, but if this was not accessible, the second floor 
of some large hall, or other building, would do, 
where the society could meet monthly, or oftener, 
and hold its annual or semi-annual exhibitions, and 
have them entirely under its own control. We 
threw out suggestions of this kind long ago, and 
mentioned places that were then available ; but 
they were entirely unheeded. 

In this connection, we would admonish the so- 
ciety to be on the " look out," and as soon as a 
favorable opportunity occurs, to seize it, and carry 
into effect, what, we are convinced, has long been 
the chief desire of many of the most active among 
its members. 

An intelligent and liberal member of the society 
at the late exhibition (Sept. 15), fully appreciat- 
ing the great want in this respect, informed us that, 
limited as his means were, he would immediately 
invest one hundred dollars in a joint stock concern, 
having for its object a suitable hall, and if neces- 
sary, he would double that amount. A like amount 
from one hundred such men would make the snug 



sum of ten thousand dollars, which placed on in- 
terest at six per cent, would yield an annual in 
come of six hundred dollars, which would fit up 
and pay the rent of an upper room large enough 
to accommodate the society for ten years to come. 
Surely the rich and populous county of Lancaster 
can easily produce a hundred such men— men who 
take an active interest in horticultural affairs, and 
who would make any reasonable sacrifice to carry 
such an enterprise into effect, and give it their sus- 
taining influence. 

Discouraging as the fruit prospects seemed the 
present season, the fair held at the Court House, 
on the 15th of September last, was a credit to the 
society in every respect , and plainly elicited that 
this society will not favor any interest, save that 
which is purely related to agriculture, horticulture, 
floriculture and their corelatives, whatever policy 
may dictate to the contrary. We confess tha| we 
were suprised, both at the quantity and the quali- 
ty of the fruit on exhibition, and the prompt and 
disinterested manner in which it was brought out 
under such unfavorable circumstances —being free. 
Messrs. George W. Shroyer, Levi S. Reist, Peter 
S. Reist, William Roeting, Samuel Benedict, C 
Hoover, Daniel Schmeag, A. M. Zahm, Jno. B. 
Erbe, Abm. D. Hostetter, H. M. Engle, J. Bollin- 
ger, E. S. Huber, Charles F. I^ong, H. K. Stoner, 
M. B. Eshelman, John H. Beiller, J. M. Kauffman, 
P. J. Regeness, Casper Hiller, Calvin Cooper, 
Jacob B. Garber, N. K. Brubaker, George E. Zel- 
lers, John Trout, J. Shindle, William Allen, John- 
ston Miller, John Hart, William P. Brinton, Mrs. 
C. Gould, and others, had on exhibition, in variety, 
fine apples, pears, peaches, plums, grapes, tomatoes, 
egg-plants, potatoes, tobacco, wheat, rye, oats, 
corn, roses, verbenas, astors, petunias, dahlias, 
gladiolas, geraniums, fuchsias, colias, begonias, 
etc., etc., all of which combined to make a beauti- 
ful display, and were noticed in detail in the daily 
papers. 



MEETING OF AGRICULTURAL AND 
HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



The regular meeting of the society was held at 
the Orphans' Court Room Sept. 1st, 1873, Henry 
M. Engle in the chair. The reading of the 
minutes of the previous meeting was on motion 
dispensed with. 

A. Harris, from the committee having charge 
of the matter of uniting with the Park Associa- 
tion in holding a fall fair, stated the project had 
been abandoned 



THE LAJyCASTER FARMER. 



201 



Johnston Miller submitted a written report of 
the condition of crops. 

Levi S. Reist stated that the corn crop promises 
better than was expected, and also that potatoes 
are doing ■well. 

II. M. Eugle said that a good crop of late 
potatoes may be expected this fall. 

Johnston Miller remarked that Tappahannock 
wheat had not done well with him this year. 

II. M. Engle said there are those who contend 
that the Foltz wheat and the amber are one and 
the same kind. He has grown it but one year. 
In one section one kind of wheat will do and in 
another section a different one. 

Johnston Miller proposed, as a topic of discus- 
sion for the meeting, the best time for sowing 
wheat. He believes in late sowing as best, viz : 
from 25th of December to 1st of October. What 
he sowed first was half killed with the fly. 

H. K. Stoner regards it as depending greatly 
upon the season, whether late or early sowing is 
best. He thinks much also depends upon having 
the ground in proper condition. He believes it 
well to roll the ground before the wheat is sowed. 
He does not know why this is so, but experience 
has convinced him of its truth. 

S. 8. Rathvon gave the experience of a farmer 
of the county who had sowed wheat on ioept- 
1st, Sept. 15th, October 1st and October 15th. 
His last sowing proved the best at harvest time. 
and the first sowed was the poorest. The experi- 
menter was satisfied that the last sowed would 
escape the Hessian fly. 

IT. M. Eugle agrees with Messrs. Rathvon 
and Stoner. He regards late sowing as extending 
about to 10th of October. And whether wheat 
should be sowed early or late, in his opinion, 
depends considerably upon the season. Much- 
again depends upon the aspect or situation of the 
soil upon which the wheat is sowed. ^He has con 
siderable faith in the virtue of rolling ground 
before sowing wheat, and for the reason that when 
rolled the drill does not cover the wheat too deep. 
This in brief is the secret of rolling. When 
wheat is sowed broadcast there is not the same 
necessity for rolling. Wheat is sufficiently 
covered when half an inch under ground. 

Milton G. Eshleman is also in favor of the late 
sowing of wheat. Early sowed wheat is often 
damaged with weevil. 

H. M. Engle hopes the society will not let the 
idea go out that cheat grows from wheat. Weeds 
grow spontaneously where seed has never been 
sowed. Whenever ground is got in good condi- 



tion and the wheat sowed is kept clean, very little 
cheat will be found amongst the wheat. 

H. K. Stoner believed that when the wheat 
crop failed, an opportunity then existed for weeds 
to spring up and take the place of the wheat. 
The seed of weeds may remain in the ground for 
years before it germinates. About \k bushels of 
wheat was the average seed wheat for an acre. 

H. M. Engle had tried some wlieat exported 
from Russia, but having beeu sowed too thick it 
did not do well. Farming comprises much that re- 
quires great study in order to know all that is 
necessary to be known. 

S. S. Rathvon said that wheat had been culti- 
vated from an inferior kind of wheat, and not 
from something of a different genus. Different 
genera cannot be intermingled. 

Levi S. Reist is of opinion that wheat has 
originated from a degenerate plant of no intrinsic 
excellence and the want of cultivation will permit 
its relapse into its parent variety. He also 
thinks a good kind of wheat, after doing well for 
a time, will degenerate and become worthless. 
Apples and other fruits have sprung from lower 
varieties of fruit. To preserve a good quality in 
wheat, the best seed should always be selected. 

H. M. Eugle does not think that the theory of 
Mr Reist contradicts that of Mr. Rathvon as re- 
gards the origination of wheat and fruits. Al- 
though believing great improvement can be niadb, 
yet he does not think that one genus will produce 
a contrary. 

Levi S. Reist moved that the society subscribe 
for the Lancaster Farmer, and also that all the 
back numbers be procured if obtainable. 

Milton B. Eshleman is of the belief that cockle 
grows larger now than it did formerly. 

II. K. Stoner is not inclined to agree with this 
opinion of cockle. 

H. M. Engle, the President, introduced the 
subject of the Patrons of Husbandry and handed 
the secretary an article from the Lancaster Ex- 
press of August 22d, 1873, and desired the same 
to be read. This being read, several members 
expressed their views upon the propriety of the 
farmers of Lancaster county taking hold of the 
new movement. After considerable discussion on 
the grange movement, on motion of Jolinston Mil- 
ler, its further consideration was postponed until 
the October meeting of the society. 

Levi S. Reist offered the following resolution : 

Whereas, No suitable place exists in which 
the society might hold a fall Horticultural Ex- 
hibition. Be it therefore 

Resolved, That a free exhibition of fruits, vege- 



o n^. 



'01 



7 HE LAMCASTER FABMER. 



tables and flowers be held on ^Monday. Sept. 15th 
inst., in the Orphans' Court Room, and that fruit 
growers of I/ancaster county are hereby respect- 
fully invited to present of their productions 
in order that the best varieties may become knowu 
and a spirit of generous emulation and rivalry 
be fostered. 

The president appointed the following commit- 
tee to have charge of the exhibition : Levi S. 
Eeist, H. K. Stoner and Alex. Harris. 

ISIr. Martin, of Mercersburg, was present and 
had on exhibition pears dried by the new Ameri- ' 
ciui process invented by Eyder. 

Christian U. INLiller, of West Lampeter, had an 
exhibition of grapes, the Franklin, Delaware and 
Diana ; also some very fine pears. 

Samuel liinkley had on exhibition fine peaches, 
pears, ajtples and grapes. His pears consisted of 
Earlh'ti, L'lapp's Favorite and Britler pears ; and 
the L- rapes were Llartford Prolific and Delaware. 

11. M. Kiigle had Nickelson's seedling, Belle 
Lucrative, Cartland pears, and also grapes grown 
uj on a vine which had been brought by Dr. Dif- 
feiulerfer from New Mexico. 

Dr. David Musser had on exhibition Tewksbury 
AV'int.r Blush apples which had been p'cked last 
fall and which were sound and in good condition. 

MUn- the members speut a short time in social 
intercourse and in testing of the fruits, society on 
motion adjourned. 

Alexander LIarris, Sec'y. 



OUR EXCURSION TO WEST TIRGINIA. 

On the 10th, 11th aud 12th of September we 
were on an excursion, in pursuit of a lost 
appetite, and we found, it. From Lancaster to 
Mount Joy, from thence to Harrisburg, and from 
thence to Martinsburg West Virginia, and home 
agaiu by way of Marietta and Columbia. We 
finally overtook an appetite at Martinsburg, feast- 
ing on the finest Concord grapes, at five cents a 
pound, an agreeable and economical contrast to 
things of that kind in eastern Pennsylvania. The 
Cumberland Valley Railroad has been extended 
south-westwa"rd a.s far as the town above named, 
wbicl. is the seat of justice of Berkeley county, W_ 
Yirgiiiiit. 

-hOl'ho. weather was beautiful and nothing could 
have exceeded a trip through this fertile portion 
of Pennsylvania. It is true that the part of Mary- 
land' we; passed through, and West Virginia, will 
riot .at all compare with Cumberland Valley, in 
Hiur Stttte ; still, we found even these looking 
better than we expected. In most places along 



the whole route, the corn, potatoes and tobacco 
presented a promising appearance, aud much of 
the ground for fall sowing was duly prepared. In 
several places apples appeared to be abundant) 
especially in an orchard about one mile south of 
the Potomac river, wliei'e nearly every tree seemed 
to be profusely loaded with fine looking fruit, iu 
promising contrast with the orchards of Lancaster 
county and other localities in Penn-ylvania 

The agricultural fair of Berkeley county was 
being held at Martinsburg, and hither we wended 
our way, when we reached the town. The fair 
grounds are elevated and show well from a dis- 
tance, but are too rolling to admit of a view of 
the whole field, when on it. The buildings and 
shedding are well adapted to the purpose, so* far 
as they go, but the quality and display of stock 
and produce was only ordinary, except in a few 
cases. We were struck with the rather singular 
fact that there were no agricultural implements of 
any kind upon the ground, and no buildings for 
the accommodation of any. Three or four fancy 
vehicles were standing "out in the hot," and this 
was all in that line. The race course was fine, 
and seemed to have incurred the greatest amount 
of labor and expense. But our time was (too lim- 
ited to allow us to witness the trials of speed. 

This was, we believe, only the second agricul- 
tural exhibition held in this county, and therefore 
the matter is comparatively new. Time will no 
doubt work its accustomed improvement. The 
soil in this part of West Virginia seems deep and 
of good cpiality, ijmestone prevailing, but the 
country is hilly, and, as a general thing, exceed, 
ingly rocky. Stone walls are of easy accomplish- 
ment. — Ed. 



Good Effect of Mulching.— Mr. P. M. Os- 
trander, of New Hackensack, Dutchess county, 
lately left a bunch of timothy at the office of the 
Poughkeepsie. Telegraph which measured fall five 
feet in length. The lot from which it was taken 
contained ten acres, covered with a growth aver- 
aging from three to four feet in height. Mr. Os- 
trander attributes this remarkable growth in a' 
season of drouth, to the fact that "last summer, 
after haying, he allowed the after-growth to re- 
main upon the ground, keeping all stock from it. 
When the snow lifted in the spring the grass lay 
thick and green upon the soil, making a substan- 
tial mulch for the new growth, and protecting it 
from the action of the sun through the drouth," 
Farmers who insist upon the economy of pasturing 
the second growth of their meadows, can find in 
this result a little food for thought. 



THE LAM CASTER FARMER. 



203 



THE nARVp]ST IS PAST, THE SUMMER 
IS ENDED. 

ORE literal than inspiration would have 
it, is this saying true, horticulturally 
spealdng — " The harvest is past, the summer is 
ended. " With us, it is no sad wail of despair 
bemoaning neglected — and never-to-return — op- 
portunities ! No, sir, it is with right good cheer, 
and with not a little exultation and congratula- 
tion, that I shout, " The harvest is past, the sum- 
mer is ended ! Yes, and I am heartily glad of t(." 

Now comes a time of comparative quiet and 
rest to the horticulturist. The harvest has been 
abundant ; the summer has been long and full of 
labors, and rest is grateful and much needed. 
Shall we enjoy it ? Aye, and profit by it. Men 
%e not beasts of burden, to sweat and toil forever 
without hope. We do not live simply to eat and 
drink, plow and sow, buy and sell. There are 
pleasures and employments of the mind The 
soul hath reveries of immortality and of coming 
time, when we shall be not as we now are. 

Our vineyards and orchards and corn-fields have 
importance in our present relations to them, and 
it is right and necessary to care for them ; but to 
dull and e.xhaust precious life upon them is not 
good, or necessary; or Christian, And now that 
the harvest is, in the main past, and the summer 
ended, there should be a '"letting up" so to 
speak — a diversion from killing toil, and a so-far 
forgetfulness of mammon, that we can give this 
part of the year to the recreation and cultivation 
of the mind. 

I till the soil. Yes, I do; and for six months in 
the year no man worked harder. But now, I must 
have a change, and such is my course for the sea- 
son, thatiio man will accuse me of ever having 
grown a cabbage, or trained a f^rapevine — may-be. 
At any rate, since the harvest is past and the sum- 
mer is ended, we have a right to gather around us 
and in our families whatever of reading, or of pic- 
tures — or whatever may add to home and heaven- 
ly influence — that our circumstances and a life of 
comparative leisure will permit. 

If my neighbor wishes to slaoe it the year 
round, I shall not dispute his right to choose his 
course ; but I do, and must question the wisdom 
.of his conduct. 

Labor is most honorable, and it is better to "wear 
out than to rust out." But that day is past when 
men may parade, as a virtue, destruction of health 
and life through excessive toil, in any direction. 
Life is precious, and it is not a sin to make it plea- 
surable as well as fruitful and useful. 



And now, since the summer is i)ast, and the 
long winter evenings are coming on, we mean to 
have rest from murderous toil. Already the home 
fires are kindled on the hearthstone, suggestive of 
that quiet an i given opportunity favorable to the 
deve.opment of the laetter par of man. — 0. L. 

Barler in Proceedings of Alton Hart. Soc. 

^ 

Staixs. — If you have been picking or handling 
any acid fruit and have stained your hands, wash 
them in clear water, wipe them lightly, and while 
they are yet moist strike a match and shut yorr 
hands around it so as to catch the smoke, and the 
stain will disappear. If you have stained your 
gingham or muslin dress, or white pants, with 
berries, before wetting the cloth with anything 
else, pour boiling water through the stains and 
they will disappear. Before fruit juice dries it 
can often be removed by cold water, using a 
sprnge or towel, if necessary. Rul)bing the 
fingers with the inside of the paring of apples, 
will remove most of the stains caused by prepar- 
ing ink; also if it be washed out or sopped up from 
the carpet with cold water when it is spilled, it can 
be almost entirely removed. — Exrhangn. 

Pure Watrr for Cows. — A case of scientific 
investigation at Cornell University, by Prof. Low, 
is full of interest to farmers, and especially dairy- 
men. The milk furnished by the milk-man at- 
tracted the attention the Profc^ssor, by the ]iecu- 
liar appearance of the cream, which had a ropy 
look. When subjected to a powerful microscope, 
there appeared a large number of organisms of 
different stages of growth. The investigation was 
pushed by the Professor, and the cause ascer- 
tained. The milkman admitted that he allowed 
the cows to take their drink from a stagnant pool, 
instead of giving them good, pure water. It was 
shown that the foul organisms were taken up bv 
the cows when drinking such water, pass into the 
circulation, enter the blood, and even taint the 
secretions, making the milk a mass of filth. 



Book AND >PECJAL ISO'JICEDE- 
PAKlMENT. 



LlfKBARY NOriCBS. 

The American F.vkmkfis' Advucatk fijr f^eptenibvr -"s 
on our ablf. l-'or his ei t.^rpri.-.iiig jourjiaf we cannot 
s|,t?ak too highly. Wherever it goen it is a,.pr'( i tel, and 
hasdone more, perhaps, than any other B^iicu tural paptr 
to foster and promote the co-0| erative iuTorsst. Ko rea I- 
ing man should be without it, whatever may be libicill- 
ine. It cntains us fil and iiiftrurtive matter for al. It 
is published at Jack.son, Tenn., by live, wide-awaWe men. 
For .sample copits or subscription, address Advocate Pub- 
lishing Co,, Jackson, Tcnne.«see. 



^0J{. 



THE LAJ^C ASTER FARMER. 



"Picking Cherries DOWN the Lane," and "Happt 
Hours," are two new soiigs by the renowned Millard, 
botli containing all of the e'ements of popularity and both 
really excellent ; they can be had at any M usic store for 
a trifle of 40 cents each, or will be sent free of postage on 
ret IK or price by the publishers, Lee & Walkor.; 922 
Chestnut street, Philadelphia. 

PiOmptly and punctually our exrhanges for the months 
ofSeptecjber and October are "on hand," like a lively 
class of school-boys at roll call. We recognize amocg 
theiu the old familiar or impioved faces of journals of 
sufh sterlini? worth aa the Rural New Forfcer, the Pat'nt 
rirjit i-rrf'ftg^ the Journal of the Farm., the National Live 
Stock Juurnal, the Practical Farmer, the AmerUan Farmer't 
Advocate, our Home Journal and Rural Southland, the Ger- 
mmiown Telegraph, the Gardener's MuntMy, the Monthly Re- 
p^y of the Dtpar mem of Agriculture, the Peim Monthly, the 
JicaLu Jimrna!, the S iiitarium,, and many oih ra " too 
niiEierouH to mention" on this occasion; all bearing their 
Uiiijal, or an increased quota, of useful l"formation, on the 
various su^gects within their respective spheres, to the 
h'juisn iHiuily. 

Tre Farmer's Club, heretofore a monthly, is now pub- 
life; i as a weekly folio, and'is much improved in quantity 
and quality, bearing upon its face the signs of progress. 
Wp "tip our beaver" to the Club, and rejoice to see it 
grin;j aa ". conquering and to conquer." Oxford, Chester 
county, Pa. $1.50 a year. 

The Colorado Homestead, a new subject of public 
fa^or, a lively four page folio, containing a large amount 
of .s ili.t information on all subjects relating to that young 
and prOfjressing territory, all of which is of special inter- 
eft to those who intend to locate in that far off bur. rich 
end rapidly developing country. Denver, Colorado. 
E'i;r.'?fi ard publithed by Bthrr & Parke.^, who propose 
to make money, "not by publishing the paper but by 
eelliiig the !and advertised therein." 

The Republican' Beview, " A Political, Literary and 
Fa,uniiy iNewspaper," published at Albuquerqu , New 
Dicx CO. William A) cGinnis, editor and proprietor. $2 00 
a year. Four page folio. 

Rational Horseshoeing, by Wildair. Published by 
Wynkoop & Hollenbecfe, No. 113 Fulton street, New 
Yojk, 1873. This is an exceedingly well executed little 
l"a:o. volume of 49 pages, and 8 full page illustrations on 
fin<^ Uiiicil paper, giving, in eight condensed chapters, 
■with introductory and concluding remarks, the rationale 
of ho^.'^psho^ing, and the excellencies aad advantages of the 
GooDKNOuCxH horseshoe. This is undoubtedly a work 
tbr.t l3 much needed, and is appropriate to the present 
period, when the question of humanity is becoming so 
deeply involved in our treatment of "dumb animals." 

From thij following heaJs of discourses, the comprehen- 
aiv? character of the work will become manifest to all in- 
torestcd iu " hor.-eflesh," namely : Soun« horses; EvHsof 
con.mon shoeing; Frog presmre; Description of the 
Goodenoush Sh.e; Countersinki' g the nails; The 
bevel of (he foot surface; The bevel of the ground 
surface ; Toe Calks ; How to shoe sound feet ; 
Incipient unsoundness; Simple cases of contraction; 
Qua'tftr and toe crack; Toe cracks; Drop sole and 
piim ced fo..t; Seedy toe ; Contraction or drop sole, with 
sor.nuss at, the tue ; Thrush; Bent knees interf rence 
t nd speedy cut ; Interfering and speedy «ut; Working up 
lior-es; Stumbling horses; To increase comfort; Ecoro- 
my of the Goodenough shoe; Perfect shoe and hoof; 
Imperfect shoe and hoof; Final observations; Op- 
posing foTces ; and Regular work. The author, in 
his introductory appeals to the judgment of practical 



men, claims that his ^system in its results is based 
upon many "years of patient study of nature, and 
actual experiment," and has elicited "the interest of the 
most practical and canable men in America, England and 
France in the matter." Without possessing &ny positive 
knowledge on the subject, we yet feel that there is {.rcat 
room for improvement on the common mod^ of horseshoe- 
ing ; and would suggest to horse owners the duty of inquiry 
at least. 



PITTSBTTRGH LIVE STOCK MARKET. 

Central Stock Yards, East Libbjitt, ) 
Monday, Sept. 29. 5 

Cattle.— Qaotations may be fairly given as loUows: 
extra to fan<-y shipping eteers 6>^a6; medium to prime, 
4/^'i5; common to tair, 3)^a,i; inferior, 2>^a3. The run, 
as shown in our last report, was a heavy one, and 
the quality generally common ; hence, \bhile 
common -tock dropped at least 50c ^ cwt, as com- 
pared with last month, the shrinkage in the better griides 
did not exceed 25c. The market was the hardesc one we 
have hud here this year, especially for sellers, and it is 
hoptd that there will not be another one like it soon. 

Sheep.— There has been little or nothing done sinew the 
date of our la^t report, and prices are nominally unctx >iig- 
ed. The market opened hard, and nothwittistandlnK the 
heavy decline, dragged all the way through, and closed 
with quite a number left over unsold, notwi hstandinij a 
good many were shipped on in first hands, and several b^ts 
were driven out to pasture. Best Una wo 1, 95at0i) lb Kb tp 
cannot, be iairly quoted above 4^o5c, although thnre were 
some 8 lies made early in the week at from So 15a5.30. 

Hogs.— There was a very fair demand this morntne, and 
at the close there were but very tVw remaining in the 
yards unsold. Prices rantini: fi|>^m S1.75a5 10 for medium to 
prime corn fed, and 4x^4)^ for gra^se^8. 

PHILADELPHIA MARKETS. 

Monday, Sept 29- 

Bark moves slowly at $35 per ton for No. 1 Quercitron 
Tanner's Bark is nominal. 

Seeds — In Cloverseed nothing doing. Timothy is in 
limited demand, and 6(0 bags sold at $2 50 per bubliel 
Flaxseed is wantpd by the crushers at $2.2i'. 

The flour mariret is dull, but without quotable change 
in price, i he demand is mustly from the home consumers 
and only a few hundred barrels sold, including superfine 
at $3 50ffl4 50 ; extras at $4.75(§)5.75 ; Iowa and Wi c<r -iin 
extra family at $7@7.35 ; Minnesota do. at $7.50..u' .i!5; 
Pennsylvania, Ohio and Indiana do. do. at S;7.25(S/8..')0 ; 
and fancy brands at 88.7 6@ 10, as in quality. Byd Flour 
sells at 85@5.'25. In Corn Mr al nothing doing. 

The movements in the wheat market continue of a 
11mit(<d character. Sales of red at S1.50@l.-58 amber at 
$!.60ffll.65, and white at$'.7D@l. 80. Rye ranges Irom 85 
to 90c. Corn is steady with sales of l.a^O bushels yell'i"/ <\t 
67c., and 400 bushels mixed at 66c. Oats are rather woak, 
>-ale8 of 2,800 bushels western white at 49®50c., and some 
mixed at 47@48c. In Barley and Malt nothing doing. 

PHILADELPHIA CATTLE MARKET. 

Monday, Sept 29. 

The market for Beef Cattle was again dull this morning 
and the tone decidedly fl*t and uninteresting. We quote 
choice and extra at 6 jl,'«»7^4c ; fair to good at 5}/^a^j}^e.•, 
and common at 4 --jSc. Receipts, 4,000. 

Cows and Calves move slewly at 840@75. Receipts, 250 
head. 

Sheep of prime quality are in demand, but common 
move (-lowly. Sale-* of fair and choice at 4@6j!^c.,' and 
common at $2@3.50 per head. Receipts, 14,i'r)0 hod. 

Hogs attract considerable attention at 87.26 for corn 
fed. Receipts, 6,6C0 head. 

NEW YORK MARKETS. 

Monday, Sept. 29. 
Flour dull; superfine, western and Stite, «5.20@n.70 ;• 
good to choice, 86.20(ai6.30 : extra Ohio. $6.25@7.10. Whisky 
8 eady at 98c. Whejit heavy; low.^ spring, 8i.3l5@:.40; 
winter red Ohio, $1.60. Rye, barley and mait uuch-^nned. 
Corn scarce; high irixed and yellow western, 65«r66c ; 
white, 65@6'c. Oats firmer at 49(a62c. Eggs firm at 27® 
28c. Hay quiet. Hops quiet at 40f§55c for '73c. Leather 
steady at 27)^ ffl30c. Pork dull at $17.50. Beef dull at 8U 
' olOc. Midd les unsettled at 8a8>^c. Lard steadier; old 
western, 8 15-16c. 



^\u fmxtmUr Jluvmtw 



DEVOTED TO 






Agriculture, Horticulture, Domestic Economy and Miscellany. 

EDITED BY S. S. RATHVOX. 
" The Fanner is the founder of civilization." — WEBSTER. 



Vol. V. 



JYOVEMBER, 1873. 



J^o. 11. 



ESSAY. 



For The Farmer. 

PLANTS AND PHILOSOPHY. 

BY J. STAUFFEH. 

WE are confessedly a reading people, and 
some must supply the demand. But the 
question is. what have we to say that has not been 
said a thousand times before, and perhaps more to 
the purpose? We are a matter-of fact, practical 
people, and prone to ask, will it pay? before we 
give our time or attention to it. A glance at the" 
reading may suffice, and we turn to another topic ; 
hence, much is printed that is hardly read. Never- 
theles'^, since tastes differ, some perchance may 
agree with the writer, that there are other thoughts 
to engage the mind beside '' What shall we eat? 
or, what shall we drink ? or, wherewithal shall we 
be clothed?" and that the mind needs food as well 
as the body, and to turn it into the channels of 
contemplation for a orief season, is a source of rest 
from Ihe harassing cares of money-getting. This 
13 all well, and no one need despise money, wealth 
or comfort, if it comes to him as a reward for his 
frugality and industry in the honest pursuit of a 
legitimate calling. Then suffer me, dear reader, 
to contemplate the season and the scenery, as we 
look abroad over the bare fields so lately verdant, 
or glowing in the sun with its golden-headed grain, 
now cut and gathered into garners, while the 
stubble only remains. 

Yet the dews and rains restore to the soil car- 
i»ouic acid. Mater and ammonia, and aid in prepar- 
ing it for another season ; thus the atmosphere, 
the light and warmth of the sun, manifest their 
influence Shall we be sad to behold the varied 
colored leaves as the wind scatters them broad- 
cast, proclaiming that winter is at hand? The 



leaves of the sturdy oak cling tenaciously, while 
the maple, poplar and others yield them feadily ; 
the pine retains its green pyramid to wave amid 
the winter's blast. Thus the leaves are strewn 
upon the ground deprived of its verdure, and like 
a moving garment of motley colors cover the 
earth. These rot, and return the substance back 
to whence it was drawn —their mother earth. Be- 
hold the buds, the promise of a future leaf or 
branch, already formed; the tree is not dead, but 
reposing to recruit the energies exhausted in 
flower and fruit. We see but change — change. 
Here allow me to introduce a few lines, written 
by my son Frank, from a lengthy poem : 
" The world rolls on, and seasons wear away, 
And Nature robes herself In vestments green; 

March softly beckons to the blushing May, 
And April laughs with dewy face between ; 

The golden fruit the gentle south wind shakes, 
The brown nuts patter on the fallen leaves, 

Again December, with his bolted flakes 
'Mid wintry blasts his snowy fabric weaves, 

All come, and go, and die, and rise again !" 

(Then shall we be fixed to earth, and so remain ?) 
I confess that the last line is my own and differs 
from the original : not because it is better, but it 
better suits my purpose. 

I maintain there is no death ; that matter is but 
the outgrowth of a spiritual basis, and the delicious 
fruit so lavishly bestowed by the stirring of the 
earth to sustain us. by a wonderful process manu- 
factured in the tissues of plants, from inorganized 
matter, and the compounds of decayed products, 
once organized, again to enter into new combina- 
tions to perpetuate the round of supply 

Thus the science of botany and entomology, so 
lightly esteemed that those who pursue the study 
are deemed as simply collectors of " weeds and 
bugs" by men who deem themselves above such 
trifles. The mere collecting is in itself no special 
source of improvement, if to it is not added that 
of contemplation and deep thought. All branches 



206 



TEE LAJVCASTER FAPaiEB.. 



of natural science are conducive to great good, 
when with it we couple the grand truth of crea- 
tive wisdom, goodness and power, as the source 
whence all these wonders are projected and mate- 
rialized. Can we not rationally see that there is 
a plan and purpose in all this ? As if a mechanic 
could not only plan a machine to perform certain 
functions to a wise end and for a useful purpose, 
)jut with the plan and design put matter in motion 
so as to aggregate and conjoin itself by estab- 
lished laws of attraction and repulsion by the 
mysterious mental forces put forth, so as to even- 
tuate that which was primarily designed — thisim 
plies a designer and a projector — a ruling, govern, 
iiig power. We call it the creative, and the author 
the Creator, God. Does it seem strange that this 
should be true in morals as well as in physics? 
Then why not believe that a benevolent Father 
has, in the gospel of His dear Son, projected a 
moral code that demands our attention and deep 
consideration. I am aware that many who deem 
themselves wise reject the teachings of holy writ, 
and either adopt a code of " fatality" on the one 
hand, or a materialistic creed, tliat owns nothing 
that cannot be proved by their senses; and even 
these evidences they are inclined to ignore, in their 
vain conceit of being wiser than others, who ad- 
here to the good old land-marks, and strive to be 
in harmony with Him they cannot see, only by 
and through the eye of faith, or, if you please, a 
new spiritual birth. " Ye must be born again," 
remains a truth, and spiritual things must be 
spiritually discerned. I am aware that this, to 
many, is a great source of stumbling; but I wish 
to clear my skirts of such an imputation. While I 
pursue the investigation of natural science, I 
shall not, with God's help, lose sight of thecorner 
stone and the Rock of Ages, as a foundation to 
build upon — let scoff" who may. 

Having thus defined my position, let us return 
to the subject — the plant world and moralize as 
we go. Excess of nourishment may retard flower- 
ing, yet producing a luxuriant growth, a kind of 
plethoric habit, which causes the plant to " run 
to leaf," and to weaken the productive functions. 
Can you see a parallel in " great feeders," whose 
god is their belly ? Monstrosities are not always 
(nay hardly ever) as good as a natural growth 
Thus I lately bought some very large, overgrown 
potatoes. Well, I find them diseased in the heart 
and defective, and by no means nutritious. In 
plants this tendency to "run to rot" is called 
" Phyllomonia," which is an evidence of decline. 
Thus it is that vines that bore good fruit in ordi- 



nary soil, when transplanted to a rich, moist spot, 
where slops from the kitchen were constantly 
poured, grew wondrously luxuriant for shade, and 
blossomed profusely — but, alas! they were all 
staminate, so that not a single fruit was set. This 
my friend (jarber pronounced a " male grape 
vine," l)nt how came it to be a male, when pre- 
vious to its transplanting it yielded fine, delicious 
grapes ? as I can testify. No ; it was over fed 
and became a fruitless glutton of a vine. So, 
also, when flowers become double under culture, 
and the stamens turned to petals, exhausting the 
power needed to germinate, hence they seldom 
yield seed. Thus annuils, however, may become 
perennial — as the Trojpeolum minus, when 
double, has endured for twelve years ; so with 
annual species of the pink family. Our fruit 
trees seldom bear fruit very young; as a rule they 
do not flower before they are five or six years old. 
Just here allow me to refer to an illustrated 
article published in the Rural Neiv- Yorker, page ■ 
380, June 11th, 1870, as an exception to the 
general rule — subject: "A Precocious Apricot." 
John B. Kevinski, of this city, on the 2d day of 
July, 1862, took me to their garden, where I be- 
held and took an accurate drawing of an apricot, 
which grew from a seed thrown into the garden 
by his mother the previous season ; and here it 
stood, hardly lhree inches in height, with the 
thick seminal leaves at the base of the stem and 
six other leaves, the upper fully matured, crowned 
with a perfect blossom. I say and mean perfect, 
ill symmetry, stamens, stigmas, calyx and corolla 
of the full size— a pretty flower - and apparently 
calculated to make a fruit, but, alas again, like a 
precocious youth or " early ripe," it had drawn 
too strongly upon the vital forces, and died of 
exhaustion. This is another lesson ; apply it a^ 
you see fit. I dimply state a fact. 

Some naturalists consider that plan's derive all 
their nourishment from the soil, and that excess 
of moisture is death. This is partly true ; bat 
there is such a diversity of modes, or rather of 
habits, that we must make no sweeping declara- 
tions; for there are air-plants [ppiphytefi], yvWich 
are not like the mistletoe, dodder, etc., parasites, 
or which live upon the sap of the foster plant — 
(vegetation has its bummers as well as onr 
worthy farmers) — but they take their nourish- 
ment from the air. No doubt they also draw nu- 
triment from decaying organized matter which 
accumulates about them, both of animal and 
vegetable origin. Then there are aquatic plants, 
such as the alga^, that seem to draw all their sus- 



TEE LAJ^CASTEB. FAliMEB. 



207 



tenaiice from the water in which they are con- 
stantly immersed. What are termed roots, upon 
inspection, turn out to be little more than organs 
of adhesion. 

Yet nature adapts plants, like animals, to root 
on earth, fly in the air or swim in the water. Who 
can study the great diversity of objects of natural 
science and remain an infidel ? and yet, alas, some 
of our brightest intellects make a sad mistake in 
their championship aga'nst ignorance and super 
stition ; they cut and slash so lustily in '■ rooting 
out the tares" of the devil's sowing, as to destroy 
the wheat of God's planting with them, and there- 
by ojien the doors for unbelief and doubt in things 
truly spiritual, to which their haughty self-hood 
can 3'ield no attention, nor even to investigate for 
themselves - since, indeed, in order to get a re- 
valation of the mysterious magnetic spark, they 
must needs be first insulated, and get down from 
their high stilts to a lower seat ; this their '* pride 
of heart" spurns to do, and the consequence is, 
with all their research and learned wisdom, they 
remain " blind leaders of the blind." Matter — 
matter, hoAvever refined or etherealized, is still 
blind matter, or self-moving, without plan or 
guide — by impulse only. What consummate con- 
fusion must follow, if the chemist blindly or at 
random compounds opposite elements that often 
neutralize each other, or explode into vapor, or 
produce a monstrosity. Nay, God reigns, and 
let us, in all humility, become reconciled to God. 

AGRICULTURE. 



FEQUEA FARMERS' CI.UB. 

Wal-Oak Farm, Oct. 20, 1873. 

THE last meeting of the Club was held at 
the home of Aldus Grotf, Locust Grove 
Farm, October 11th, and was called to order at ] 2 
o'clock, M. Minutes were read and accepted. 
Committees then i-eported. The plow question 
came up and elicited much discussion — all agree- 
ing that D. Root & Son, cf Mt. Joy, makes the 
plow which Lancaster county farmers ought to 
buy. John H. Brackbill and others, who made a 
trial of them, spoke highly of a new plow he has 
just placed in the market, which is an improve- 
ment on an old pattern that Simon Cameron 
brought from Montour county. 

The host read a direct and pointed essay on 
general leakages in farming, and the best way to 
stop them ; the common drawbacks to farming, 
and the best way to remove them He thought 



the panic wasn't the greatest calamity which could 
have happened this country. He argued that it 
would give farmers a sound warning to put their 
money into their land and make il profitable ; and 
he held that, whether the banks failed or not, this 
was better for a farmer than to place his money 
in wild-goose speculations which were beyond his 
control. He went on to say that the late rise in 
the price of land proved his theory. The moneyed 
men of the country were selling their railroad 
bonds and buying land. If a merchant makes 
money, he enlarges his store, incn.-ases his stock, 
and makes his peace of busine.-s beautiful and at- 
tractive ; but when a farmer gets rich, as a gen- 
eral thing, he lets his farm run down, his fences 
go to rack, and, instead of liming his land and 
feeding cattle to improve his soil, he invests his 
money in a rotten railroad, or something he knows 
nothing about, and then he can patiently wait for 
a smash-up that will leave him nothing but a bar- 
ren, unproductive farm. There is no reason why 
a farmer should not enrich his soil, and make his 
farm, which no panic can affect, a savings bank, 
to pay him six per cent; and then let every farm- 
er beautify his home — have a fruit-garden and a 
pleasure-ground -a place for croquet and other 
pleasing out-door games. 

'• What is a Grange?" was the title of a paper 
read by J. H. Brackbill, which explained fully and 
explicitly the object of the Patrons of Husbandry. 
Inasmuch as some of the Club think farm machin- 
ery costs too much, that middlemen are a nuisance 
and a humbug, that farmers ought to club togeth- 
er to buy and sell, the matter of a Grange is only 
a question of time. 

J he question for discussion was " Steaming 
Food for Cattle." None of the members had any 
personal knowledge of the matter, and their re- 
marks drifted into the experience of noted feeders. 
The plan of Wm. Crozier, Northport, L. I., who 
steams daily, was conceded to be the best, but it 
costs too much. Charles Moore, of Christiana, 
steams for two or three days, and ])uts it in tubs ; 
and this plan, cost and all considered, is probably 
the best for the average farmer. Mr. Elias Brack- 
bill, who visited Crozier's farm, and minutely ex- 
amined and inquired into his arrangements for 
steaming, thinks his stock eat more steamed than 
dry feed, and says he would mix chop, corn, chaff", 
hay and fodder. Would use dry feed once a day 
and steamed feed twice. For young stock this is 
certainly the best. J. H. Brackbill said he used 
to feed dry hay; then he fed cut hay and straw; 
and he was fully satisfied that it was the best for 



208 



THE LA J^C ASTER FARMER. 



the stock, and doubly paid for the trouble it cost 
him. 

The Grange occupied much of the time and at- 
tention of the Club. It was more of a home-talk 
than a discussion — a quiet way of half-deciding 
at the next meeting, to organize a Grange. 

After dinner the members went out to see 
'■ Hercules." He is the pride of the Club and the 
gem of the county. He looks so well at present 
that the Club decided to have him photographed, 
and a cut made for advertising purposes. The 
finest Percheron mare in America is here now. 
She was imported from France and belongs to W. 
T. Walters, of Baltimore, who sent her here be- 
cause — to use hip words — " No horse in this coun- 
try can take the place of the Percheron which the 
Pequea Club bought last fall at my public sales." 

Club adjourned to meet at the farm of H. K. 
Stoner, at 10 A. M., the second Saturday in No- 
vember. Subject—" Rotation of Crops." 

Oake Saxe. 



MANURING LANDS 

The farmer who buys commercial fertilizers and 
.stimulates his land with them is every year grow- 
ing poorer ; the farmer who sows clover, pastures 
it, and plows it under, is every year growing rich- 
er. The latter may not make such large crops 
this year or next, but at the end of twenty or even 
ten years, his farm will be worth more than now, 
while that of the former will be exhausted. No 
guide for manuring is so accurate as that which 
nature herself gives. She made the rich soil by 
adding vegetable matter to it, and we may not 
only keep up its fertility, but add to it, by the same 
course. It is a singular fact that in the two ex- 
treme sections. New England and the South, are 
the greatest amounts of the commercial fertilizers 
used, and in no other two sections of this country 
Is there so much dissatisfaction with farm life, and 
so prevalent a desire for change to a new region. 
In one may now be found thousands of acres of 
abandoned lands, exhausted by continuous crop- 
ping with one plant or grain, or by the use of in- 
tensely stimulating fertilizers ; in the other hun- 
dreds of farms for sale, whereon the owners say 
they cannot make a living ; and in neither case 
have any of these lands or farms been taken hold 
of by new-comers but with success and profit. New 
England can show many a farm abandoned as 
profitless, on which thrifty Germans are making 
money ; and the South is being dotted over with 
verdant fields by immigrants whom a mild and 



even climate has induced to seek its borders ; 
while the former owners in each case are now pur- 
suing their course of exhaustion in some fields 
more fresh, some pastures new, but of which, 
twenty years hence, the old story of "exhausted" 
will be told. Robbed should be the word. 



WHEAT BAGS IN CALIFORNIA. 

The San Francisco Chronicle says: " Last year 
we needed 12,000,000 of wheat bags. This year we 
will want at least 9,000,000, and if the breadth of 
land under wheat cultivation should continue to in- 
crease as it promises to do, we will require not less 
than 20,(i0;i,0i to 30,000,000 yearly. The value of 
these, at a very low figure, would be from ^2,500,- 
000 to $3 7.50,000 We now pay $1,000,000 per 
annum to Scotland for wheat bags, which we 
could as well make ourselves, and so give employ- 
ment to over 500 people. Our future needs would 
give work to an average of 1.500 persons to be 
employed in weaving the jute into burlaps and 
converting the latter into bags. That would be 
equivalent to an addition to 9,000 to our popula- 
tion. Dundee, in Scotland, with a population of 
over 100,01 0, is almost entirely supported by this 
industry, which has been the means of doubling 
her population in tAventy years. We can obtain 
jute, laid down here, duty paid, as three cents a 
pound, quite as cheap as they can have it in Scot- 
land ; and we can sell the manufactured goods 
even cheaper than the Scotch do. We are al- 
ready pioneering the industry Let us hope that 
our moneyed men will take the matter up and re- 
lieve us from the necessity of sending 18,000 miles 
for wheat-bags " 



From the Intelligencer. 

ROLLING WHEAT. 



I am strongly disposed to favor the old prac- 
tice of rolling wheat ground after sowing, not- 
withstanding the theory which of late has gained 
such extensive credence, and is so generally prac- 
ticed — that the ridges should be left to be crum- 
bled down by the alternate freezing and thawing 
during the winter and spring, and thus feed the 
roots of the wheat. This " crumbling down" pro- 
cess takes place when the action of tlie roots is 
wholly suspended, and consequently they cannot 
be "fed" by it, and the earth so crumbled down is 
nothing to the roots in reality than a very insig- 
nificant mulch. On the other hand, if the land be 
well rolled in the fall, the earth is tightly com- 
pressed around the seed, and the plant is thus en- 



THE LAJ^CASTER FARMER. 



209 



abled to get a better foothold ; the roots are fed 
while they have an appetite and will be less af- 
fected by the action of the frost. The earth when 
closely packed does not afford so many harbors 
for insects, which will most likely prove to be en- 
emies to the plant at some stage of its develop- 
ment. If the surface be smooth it is less apt to 
retain surface water, and in conclusion, the prac- 
tice of rolling is in strict accordance with the 
nature and requirements of the plant, which 
thrives best on compact soil. 



THE CORN-FODDER CROP. 

There is seldom a subject introduced to a 
thoroughly western man, which so astonishes him 
as that an eastern man can make the corn crop pay 
on land worth perhaps from three to five hundred 
dollars an acre. With land not over thirty or 
fifty dollars, in his own region, it is often a ques- 
tion whether corn is worth growing, and on this 
high-priced land, how can such things be ? We 
have often had friends look on with astoni.-hment 
on the great breadth of corn on the valuable 
lands about Philadelphia, and express their sur- 
prise. " If," they would observe, " these men 
want to raise corn, why don't they come West to 
do it ? " The fact is — and this fact is not gener- 
ally recognized — it is not so much the corn as it 
is the fodder which is produced, which pays the 
way. To most people it is of quite as much 
value. In the west it goes for very little any- 
where, and in many cases it is an entire waste. 

It is just the same with this as with the rye 
crop. If our farmers near the large cities raised 
rye for the grain, it would be but a sorry invest- 
ment. It is the straw crop at about a dollar to a 
dollar and a-half a hundred weight, which makes 
the figures tell. 

The present autumn has been an unusually 
good one for the corn-fodder crop. The early 
•white frosts have kept away, and the damp warm 
weather has kept the forage juicy up to the last. 
During the past few weeks, immense quantities of 
corn have been cut and cured in advance of frost, 
which more or less seriously affects its value. The 
growth of corn, too, was quite up to the best 
averages, and we expect on the whole this will be 
one of the best corn-fodder seasons known. 



Filter for Cistern Water. — Perforate the 
bottom of a wooden box with a number of small 
holes ; place inside a piece of flannel, cover with 
coarsely-powdered charcoal, over this coarse river 
and, and on this small pieces of sandstone. 



HORTICULTURAL. 

NEW FRUIT-DRYING PROCESS. 

FRUIT-DRYING has been carried on to some 
extent, in Santa Clara and other counties> 
during the last year, and promis s at no distant 
day to become a most important industry. In 
some places, the fruit is dried by means of artifi- 
*cial heat ; at others, by the heat of the sun. In 
the neighborhood of Santa Clara may be seen an 
apparatus fitted up for drying fruit by artificial 
heat. On the premises is a steam engine of fifteen 
horse-power, used for sawing lumber for boxes, for 
grinding apples to make vinegar, and for other 
purposes connected with fruit-packing. Close to 
the engine is a wooden cylinder about five feet 
long and three and ahalf feet in diameter. In 
the cylinder, placed in close proximity to one 
another, are six hundred brass tubes, into which 
the air is forced by a fan worked by the steam 
engine. The waste steam from the engine is con- 
veyed by a pipe into the top of the cylinder, and, 
after becoming condensed, runs out at the bottom, 
heating, in the meantime, the air in the brass 
tubes. The heated air rushes out at the other 
end of the cylinder, and enters the bottom of what 
looks like a large chest of drawers, thirty-two 
feet long, ten feet high, and seven feet wide. 
This is the kiln. This kiln is divided into eight 
compartments, into which are fitted galvanized 
iron screens for holding the fruit. There are in 
each compartment forty-two screens, on each of 
which twenty pounds of fruit can be dried. In 
the face of the kiln there are several horizontal 
doors placed one over the other, so that in hand- 
ling the screens only a small portion of the kiln is 
exposed to the cold air. The kiln is capable of 
drying over three tons of fruit at once. Some of 
the fruit, preparatory to drying, is cut by hand, 
but more by machinery. Apples dry in seven 
hours ; pears, tomatoes, and plums, in eight or 
nine hours. Grapes require about twenty-four 
hours. The process could be completed more 
rapidly, but the result wonld not be so satisfactory 
as when sufficient time is allowed. It takes about 
seven pounds of apples, seven pounds of pears, 
twenty pounds of tomatoes, six pounds of plums, 
and five pounds of blackberries to make one pound 
of each kind of dried frjiit. During last year were 
prepared and sold at this establishment 12,000 
pounds of dried pears, 8,000 pounds of dried 
apples, 3,000 pounds of dried plums, and a large 
quantity of grapes, blackberries, and other fruits. 



210 



THE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



Sent east by rail were forty-four car-loads, each 
containing 17,500 j^ounds of fruit. Some of this 
was purchased from other fruit-growers. 

According to a fruit-grower who dries his fruit 
in the sun, from four to seven pounds of plums 
will make one pound dry. The process of drying- 
lasts from four to tin days, and the estimated 
cost amounts to three cents for each pound of 
dried fruit. It is sold in San Francisco for twenty- 
five cents a pound. The grapes dried by this pro- 
cess in different parts of the State were exhibited 
last year at the agricultural fairs, and were, in 
genpral estimation, superior to the imported rai- 
sins. The quantity of lumber required on which to 
dry the fruit is considered the greatest impedi- 
ment to the success of this process. In some 
places the grapes are dried OQ the vine. This 
process is carried on in the interior valleys, where 
they have little dew or fog, and where the ther- 
mometer ranges from 80 to 115 degrees. Though 
no one of the persons engaged in fruit-drying has 
had much experience to guide him, yet the results 
are highly encouraging. — From Overland Month- 
ly for September. 



CURIOSITIES OF TREE PLANTING. 

A proverb of Northwest India declares that 
three things make a man to be truly aman — to 
have a son born to him, to dig a well, and 
to plant a tree. It is impossible for the un- 
traveled Englishman to realize the misery of a 
treeless country. Europe has no natural deficiency 
of trees, hence bridge building took the place of 
the old Aryan tree planting, as an act of piety to 
(xod and of duty to the future, in the counsels of 
the early Christian teachers of the European na- 
tions. Both in the East and West, trees were no 
doubt the first temples, and the planting of groves 
was the primitive form of church building. Abra- 
ham, we are told, planted a grove in Beersheba, 
to commemorate his solemn covenant ; but amongst 
his descendants it became in time tlie mark of a 
pious ruler to " cut down the groves," as the seats 
of pagan worship ; the mark of a careless ruler to 
leave them untouched, and the mark of an impi- 
ous ruler to plant and dedicate new groves. It is 
not hard to find reasons why the grove naturally 
became the first temple. Men were no doubt im- 
pressed by the hoary age of trees, compared with 
the short life of man. A tree was often the cen- 
ter around which each succeeding generation 
deposited its traditions — a visible bond uniting 
the departed with the living, and the living with 



the unborn. The cool, grateful shade of trees 
was a natural type of the graciousness the wor- 
shipers sought for from the power they worshiped 
— especially in Eastern lands, where shadow is so 
precious and so exceptional. The yearly new 
birth and death of their foliage was a natural 
symbol of human life. The darkness and density 
of the grove, we must add, hid the obscia-ities and 
cruelties which belonged to the darker develop- 
ments of heathen worship. 

When an Englishman who has been long absent 
from his fatherland again catches his first glimpse 
of its roadsides and fields through the windows of 
a railway carriage, perhaps nothing strikes him so 
forcibly as the picturesqueness and the sparseness 
of the trees. He has seen trees in level lands 
stretching for miles like a thin, diaphanous wall in 
dull uniformity ; now he sees them merely dotted 
here and there upon the landscape, but each tree 
is more or less of a picture in itself. Or he has 
seen in mountain lands every spot of available 
earth seized upon to supply life to a cherry tree, a 
walnut tree, a pear tree ; he has seen fruit trees 
everywhere lining the roads and fields, instead of 
hedges, and probably wondered if English lads 
could pass to and fro every day under luscious 
cherries or pears and leave them untasted ; now 
he sees nothing but solitary trees, or scattered 
groups, which look as if they had planted them- 
selves, out of whim or playfulness, just where they 
pleased, not one of which can bring any money to 
its proprietor except by its destruction. Give a 
German or Swiss Bauer the tenancy of an Eng- 
lish farm, and he would at once begin to arrange 
himself an orchard out of the mere unused corners 
and slices of land he would almost certainly find 
in its fields and along its boundary lines. I must 
leave it to adepts to determine whether he would 
show himself a good or bad agriculturist by his 
activity. 

Tree-planting has. in fact, retained in Germany 
longer than elsewhere something of its cult char- 
acter, binding together religion, nation and family. 
In the Vosgesen. the old German farmers were not 
allowed to marry until they had done something 
fon the future good of the tribe, by planting a 
stated number of walnut trees. When the amiable 
and liberal Oberlin was pastor of Waldbach, iu 
the Steinthal. he set forward this custom of tree- 
planting as a Christian duty. 

Tree planting is as necessary a part in many 
German rejoicings as it has been of French rejoic- 
ings during each revolutionary epoch. The Trees 
of Liberty, however, were often planted to die. 



TEE LAJYCASTER FARMER. 



211 



actually, as well as metaphysically. I have 
seen trees of this kiad, stripped of all but 
a crown of leaves, planted in German Switzer- 
land to mark a local festival. The poor peo- 
ple of the village of Cleversulzbach gathered 
together, on the 10th of November, 1850, round 
the grave of Schiller's mother, and marked the 
birthday of her son by planting a lime tree "in 
the soil that covers the heart that loved him best." 
— Chambers' Journal. 



MUSHROOM CULTURE. 

The ordinary way that this valuable esculent 
is cultivated here in England is in "mushroom 
houses," constructed in an ordinary manner, /. e. 
four walls covered in with slates, tiles, or which is 
by far the best covering,' a thick coat of thatch. 

In those parts of America where the heat of 
summer and the cold of winter arc excessive, the 
walls should be hollow, that is, to have a large 
cavity up the middle of the wall, which would pre- 
vent the two extremes of heat (hot and cold being 
the same agent) from entering the house to some 
extent, and prevent the internal heat and mois- 
ture from escaping. Shelves of boards or slate, 
with sides to them, on which to make the beds. 
The droppings from well-fed houses are collected 
and thrown down in a shed to dry till a sufficient 
quantity is obtained to make a bed. When room 
is not sufficient to dry the droppings effectually, 
they are thrown into a heap and allowed to heat 
till that object is attained. They are turned o er 
once or twice and mixed up, so that a uniformity 
in color presents itself, when they are ready for 
use. About a tenth of good rich soil is mixed 
regularly through the mass, M-hich gives solidity 
to the beds and prevents an 'overheat." The 
beds are made about a foot in thickness. The 
droppings are spread on the shelf in three portions 
to obtain that thickness, and thoroughly well 
beaten down with wooden mauls each time 
" Watch-sticks" are then stuck into the bed, and 
when the heat has reached about new-milk warm, 
the bed is ready for receiving the spawn. But if 
the compound has not been sufficiently prepared 
in the first instance, it may become too hot for the 
spawn to bear, and in that case it is advisable to 
frequently examine the bed till the heat is on the 
decline. When ready for planting, holes are to 
be made about a foot apart, and about four inches 
deep, when lumps of spawn about two inches in 
diameter, must be pressed tightly down in the holes. 
As the firmness at which the spawn is secured in 
the bed is of importance to success, a round stick, 
as thick as a man's finger, is held in the right hand, 
while the fingers of the left is examining the sides 
of the lump of spawn, and whenever a hollow 
place is found, the stick is used to press the drop- 
pings tightly round it. "^I'he bed is then "moulded." 
?'. e. two inches thick of good earth is laid on it 
and beat with four-tined forks till it is as solid as 
a path. It is then " clapt" with a clean spade, 
and the work is finished — Germantoion Tel. 
The temperature which is maintained in mush- 



room houses varies from 50 to 65 degrees, the 
higher figure being resorted to when pressure is 
made by the demand for mushrooms. The high 
temperature, as a matter of course, wears out the 
productiveness of the beds sooTler than does the 
lower figure. When the atmosphere becomes too 
dry for the production of sappy mushrooms, water 
is thrown on the flues or pipes, and the beds occa- 
sionally require sprinkling with warm water. Un- 
der such a process, if well carried out, mushrooms 
appear in the course of five or six weeks. 

The mode of culture which is the best adapted for 
a farmer to carry out, is that which the market, 
gardener practices, who collects short litter from 
the stables "in town," throws it into a heap, turns 
it over occasionally till he "gets the fire out of it," 
then makes his beds into a long ridge, spawns 
and moulds his bed, when ready, in the usual way 
and to protect the bed from the two extremes of 
heat, he puts over it thatched hurdles, propping 
them some few inches above the surface of the 
bed. On these hurdles he adds straw, long litter, 
or any other fibrous refuse at hand, in thickness 
according to the external temperature. In early 
autumn the north side of a high wall is a good sit- 
uation for such a purpose The groui d I'ound the 
bed is then covered with litter several feet wide 
as a means of keep'ug down excessive heat and 
warding off excessive cold. 

By similar means to these I preserve ice on the 
surface of the ground, save that the covering 
three feet thick touches the ice. I have satisfac- 
torily proved, by thirty years experience, that this 
plan is the best of all other modes of preserving 
ice, and by far the most economical. 

I am. dear sir, your obedient servant. 

A West- Yorkshire Mushroom Grower. 

West- Yorkshire, Englan d. 

Remarks. — We consider the foregoing directions 
for raising mushrooms valuable, coming as they 
do from an old and experienced English gardener, 
and we commend them to the attention of all who 
desire to grow in perfection this delicious esculent. 
Thus far we have never succeeded in raising mush- 
rooms, though we have carefully followed several 
plans recommended to us. — Ed. 



PEARS— TO PREVENT ROT riNG ON THE 
TREE. 



To an inquiry in the Southern Cultivator, for a 
preventive of rotting of the pear upon the tree, 
and to cause it to ripen up, W. A James, Bishop, 
ville, S. C, says, " strip the bark entirely off the 



u^ 



TEE LAJVCASTER FARMER. 



bodies of his pear trees, on the 20th of June, he 
will find that most, if not all the crop upon them 
will ripen that season. jBe careful not to scratch 
the wood with the instrument used in starting the 
bark, as it will make an ugly scar in the new 
bark, which will form in a few days after the old 
one is removed. I generally start about two feet 
from the ground, and strip both up and down, 
letting it run up the limbs as far as it will, and as 
deep into the ground as it can. There will be no 
risk of killing the trees, if done at the time in- 
dicated. 

" I stripped the bark from a pear tree on the 
20th of June, 1854. It was still living when last 
heard from. I have performed the operation re- 
peatedly, but the new bark grows back so soon 
and the tree looks so natural, that unless you par- 
ticularly mark it, it would be impossible ever to 
tell it again. I once had a large nectarine tree 
that bore full invariably, but never matured any 
fruit, until after it was barked. That year it 
ripened all the fruit. The next year it was full of 
healthy fruit again, bat a storm during the Sum- 
mer uprooted it, and I lost it. I hardly think 
the barking process will shorten the life of a tree ; 
but if it did, it would be better to enjoy some fruit 
than none at all." 



BULB CULTURE. 



" Bulbs belong to a particular division of the 
vegetable kingdom ; they are all, with scarcely a 
single exception, very ornamental, and hence de- 
sirable for the very large sized of their flower in 
proportion to the entire plant, and for the brilli- 
ancy of their colors. By far the greater number 
of bulbs flower in the spring, and produce their 
flower stems immediately after they begin to grow, 
and shortly after the;y have flowered they cease 
growing and remain dormant and without leaves 
during the remainder of the year ; hence, almost 
all bulbs require to be planted in the autumn — a 
fact that most amateurs are apt to overlook, and 
frequently send their orders out of season. They 
require a free, dry and somewhat rich soil, into 
which the roots may penetrate freely. A bulb is 
essentially a bud, and contains within itself the 
germs of the leaves and flowers which are to be 
produced the following season ; thus, in one sense, 
they are of more easy culture than any other 
class of plants, because the germ being, previously 
formed, and the nourishment being provided in 
the body of the bulb, it is only necessary to sup- 
ply heat and moisture to cause them to develop ; 
this .is fully exemplified in the Hyacinth, Nar- 



cissus Crocus, early Tulips, and some of the 
bulbs, which can be flowered when placed ov^r 
water in glasses or In wet moss. The Hyacinth 
is the especial favorite for forcing in glasses. 

Soil. — The proper compost far Hyacinths, 
Tulips, Crown Imperials, Iris, Ranunculus, Ane- 
mones, Crocus, and most other bulbs, is the follow- 
ing : One-third sand, one-third well-rotted cow- 
manure, and one-third good garden mould. 

Time OF Planting. — 1 he preferable season for 
planting ail hardy bulbs is from October to De- 
cember ; but they can be set out at any later time, 
so long as the bulbs remain sound. 



GRAFTING THE GRAPE ON ITS 
LATERALS. 

I find it unnecessary to graft at the root of the 
vine and often inexpedient, but more successful to 
graft the side branches or laterals of the vine. 
Two years ago I laid down two wild vines sixty 
feet in length each, buried them in a trench ten 
inches deep, brought up their side branches above 
ground suitable distances apart for grafting. I 
then set fifty lona grafts on those branches just 
below the surface of the ground. Every graft 
lived and has made strong, healthy vines. I left 
five of the branches until the 2 th of July, and 
then grafted with Delawares. Two of them failed 
to grow, the other three grew and made about as 
much growth as the lona vines that were set 
early in the spring. 

Vines can be propagated in this way with as 
much certainty as by layering. I have found that 
cions of the Delaware do not take so well on the 
Clinton as they do on the wild, or Taylor's Buttit. 
I have not tried grafting on th e Concord ; Salera 
lona and Allen's Hybrid take well on the Clinton 
I presume Concord stocks would be equally good. 
The main object is to have hard, healthy roots for 
stocks. I have found very little difference in the 
diSierent modes of setting the grafts. 

I am reported in some of the papers to have 
said at the meeting of the Northern Illinois Hor- 
ticultural Society, at Freeport, that June was the 
best time to graft the grape. I said no such thing, 
but directly the reverse of that. I find early 
spring the best time, and that as the season ad- 
vances the chances of success diminish. After the 
20th of July, only about one-half grew, I used 
old wood of the previous years growth. I at the 
same time set a few cions cut from the same sea- 
son's growth with better success. — P. Manny, in 
Horticulturist. • 



THE LAJVCASTER FARMER^ 



21S 



DOMESTIC. 



[Correspondence ol the N. Y. Tribune. 
DAIRY FARMING. 

SAN FRANCISCO, Aug. 30.— The great val- 
leys of California do not produce much but- 
ter, and probably never will, though I am told 
that cows fed on alfalfa, which is a kind of lu- 
cerne, yield abundant and rich milk, and, when 
small and careful farming comes into fashion in 
this State, there is no reason why stall-fed cows 
should not yield butter even in the San Joaquin or 
Sacramento Valley. Indeed, with irrigation and 
stall-feeding, as one may have abundance of green 
food all the year round in the valleys, there should 
be excellent opportunity for butter making. But 
it is not necessary to use the agricultural soil for 
dairy purposes. In the foot-hills of the Sierras, 
and on the mountains, too, for a distance of more 
than a hundred miles along and near the line of 
the railroad, there is a great deal of country ad- 
mirably fitted for dairying, and where already 
some of the most prosperous butter ranches, as 
they call them here, are found. And as they are 
near a considerable population of miners and lum- 
bermen, and have access by railroad to other cen- 
ters of population, both eastward and westward, 
the business is prosperous in this large district, 
where, by moving higher up in the mountains as 
summer advances, the dairyman secures green 
food for his cows the summer through, without 
trouble, on the one condition that he knows the 
country and how to pick out his land to advantage. 
Another dairy district lies on the coast, where 
the fogs brought in by the prevailing north-west 
winds keep the ground moist, foster the greenness 
and succulence of the native grasses dufing the 
summer, at least In the ravine, and keep the 
springs alive. 

THE COUNTRY OF BUTTER RANCHES. 

Marin county, lying north of San Francisco, is 
the country of butter ranches on the coast, though 
there are also many profitable dairies south of the 
bay, in Santa Cruz and Monterey counties. In 
fact, dry as California is commonly and erroneous- 
ly supposed to be, it exports a considerable quan- 
tity of butter, and a dairyman said to me but 
recently, that to make the business really prosper- 
ous, the S'.ate needed a million or two more in- 
habitants, which means that the surplus product 
is now so great that it keeps down the price. No 
small quantity of this surplus goes east as far as 
New York, and it is one of the curiosities of pro- 



duction and commerce that, while California can 
send butter to the Atlantic it buys eggs of Illi- 
nois. One would have thought the reverse more 
probable. 

Marin county contains a large number of 
dairies, most of them of moderate extent and in 
the hands of their proprieiors. But there exists 
in that country a system of dairy farming which 
has some peculiar and interesting features, and of 
which I have recently seen one example. In this 
there was an estate of 18,000 acres devoted to the 
production of butter. The system under which 
this and several other large properties are worked 
has grown up slowly, and, as I understand, the 
land is not yet all utilized, or, as they say, "or- 
ganized." The plan of operations is this: The 
owner of the land sets apart a certain district for 
a dairy farm. This he fences in and subdivides 
fences into different large fields ; he also causes 
the natural springs ts be cleared out, and the 
water to be led in iron pipes to' convenient places 
for the cattle. He builds a dwelling, usually a 
stoiy and a-half high, and containing nine rooms, 
all lathed and plastered, and conveniently ar- 
ranged ; also a large and excellently-arranged 
milk-house, with butter and churn-room, etc., a 
barn, roomy enough to contain hay for half a 
dozen horses, and stalls for them ; and a calf shed 
and pig-pen. There must also be a corral for the 
cows. In to all these buildings water is led in pipes 
aud in great abundance, so that there is running 
water in every place. I was surprised to find that 
half and three-quarter-inch pipe is large enough 
for all these purposes; most of the dwellings have 
a little tank or reservoir to give a head and regu- 
lar flow. 

MANAGEMENT OF A DAIRY FARM. 

The owner furnishes to the tenant all that I 
have described, and cows enough to stock the 
farm. Experience has shown, I was told, that 
about eight acres ought to be alloMcd to a cow, 
and the different farms carry from 115 to 225 cows. 

The tenant furnishes all the utensils, horses and 
wagons, household furniture, and the required 
labor ; he agrees to keep the whole place in good 
order and repair, to take proper care of the stock, 
to raise for the proprietor every year one-fifth as 
many calves as he keeps cows, and to pay him 
$27.50 per head for each cow he keeps. He fur- 
thermore agrees to raise from the land only such 
provisions as are needed by his family, and his 
stock, including his horses and hogs, and to sell 
nothing from the place except butter and hogs. 
The hogs are fed chiefly on skim-milk, and belong 



2U 



THE LAJTCASTER FARMER. 



entirely to the tenant. The calves, except those 
which are raised for the proprietor, are killed and 
fed to the pigs The leases are usually for three 
years. The proprietor furnishes bulls for his 
herds and he constantly weeds out the cows which 
are poor milkers, or for any other reason bad 
stock. 

The climate of Marin county is very equal, and 
the cattle live out of doors all the year round ; 
there are no sheds, nor is any provision of hay or 
roots made for them, as they find green grass at 
all seasons on the ground. They are milked twice 
a day. being driven for that purpose into a corral 
near the milk-house. I noticed that they were all 
very gentle ; they lay down in the corral with 
that placid air which a good cow has ; and when- 
ever a milkman came to the beast he wished to 
milk, she rose 'at once, without waiting to be 
spoken to. One man is expected to milk 20 cows 
in the season of full milk, and these dairies pro- 
duce now now an average — taking nine dairies 
together - of over 17.5 pounds in the year to each 
cow. One or two dairies run, I believe, as high 
as 200 pounds per cow. Men do all the work of 
milking, churning, etc. ; and on some places I 
noticed that Chinese were employed in the milk- 
house, to attend to the cream and make the but- 
ter. I was told that t.ey are very careful and 
cleanly, precise and faithful. 

MAKING BUTTER. 

The tenants are of different nationalities. 
Americans, Swedes, Germans Irish, and Portu- 
guese. A tenant needs about ^2,000 in money 
to undertake one of these dairy farms ; the system 
seems to satisfy those who are now engaged in it. 
The milkers or farm hands receive ^'i ) per month 
and " found ; " and good milkers are in constant 
demand. Everything is conducted with great 
care and cleanliness, the buildings being uncom- 
monly good for this State, water abundant, and 
many labor-saving contrivances used. At one 
end of the corral or yard in which the cows are 
milked is a platform roofed over, on which stands 
a large tin, with a double strainer, into which the 
milk is poured from the buckets. It runs through 
a pipe into the milk-house, where it is again strained 
and then emptied from a bucket into the pans 
ranged on shelves around. The cream is taken 
off in from 39 to 40 hours ; and the milk keeps 
sweet 36 hours, even in summer. The square box 
churn is used entirely, and is revolved by horse- 
power. They usually get butter, I was told, in 
half an hour. The butter is worked on an in- 
genious turn-table, which holds 100 pounds at a 



time, and can, when loaded, be turned by a finger . 
and a lever working upon a universal joint is 
used upon the butter When ready, it is put up 
in two-pound rolls, which are shaped in a hand- 
press, and the rolls are not weighed until they ■ 
reach the city. It is packed in strong oblong 
boxes, each of which holds 55 rolls. There is 
usually a stove in the milk-house, but I was told 
that it is used only in very foggy or rainy weather* 
to dry the house. The cows are not driven more 
than a mile to be milked ; the fields being so ar- 
ranged that the corral is near the center. When 
they are milked, they stray back of themselves to 
their grazing places. 0. N. 



Wintering the Celery. — Of all the crops of 
the garden that of celery is the most uncertain, 
the most laborious and the most expensive to raise, 
It is more than all these : it is the most difficult to 
preserve in a good, sound condition through the 
winter, and to the middle of April at least, as it 
ought to be, to compensate the producer fully. 
We profess to have had a good deal of experience 
with the celery crop, and we have this year as 
successful a yield as is to be found in any garden 
in the county. 

In storing the crop for the winter, we have usu- 
ally pursued two modes which have answered 
well. The first is to remove the celery to high 
and dry ground, dig a straight trench spade deep, 
stand up a row of plants singly, then another row, 
and so on until about half a dozen rows are fin- 
ished, when commence another bed, and so on. 
The soil should be packed in firmly and then 
banked up, so that the tops of the celery are just 
covered ; then spank off, roof fashion, to turn off 
the rain. Over this two wide boards nailed togeth- 
er, should be placed, as a security against mois- 
ture, or straw can be bent over and secured at the 
bottom with bean poles. Celery put away thus 
carefully ought to keep till May. 

Another plan is to sink barrels into the earth 
so that the tops are two or three inches below the 
surface, then stand them compactly full of celery, 
without any soil ; put tight covers upon them, so 
f^s to exclude all moisture, and then a couple of 
inches of soil. 

For early consumption — that is to say in De- 
cember and January -it can be preserved in the 
rows where it is grown, properly covered and pro- 
tected against moisture. 



Thursday, November 27th, has been designated 
as Thanksgiving Day. 



THE LAJSrCASTER FARMER. 



215 




THE NAG. 



THIS is the common " Driving-horse," or 
" Buggy-horse," of Lancaster county, and 
the larger portion of Pennsylvania. These nags 
are of various breeds, " good, bad, and indiffer- 
ent," and also of various colors, sizes, and build, 
some of them bringing very readily from three to 
six hundred dollars — indeed, we rode behind one, 
a few weeks ago, that the owner would not have 
taken one thousand dollars for. Some of t'lem 
have also remarkable bottom and speed, bringing 
them legitimately within the category of "racers," 
for 2:20, 2:.30, and even 2:40 is not unusual among 
the better class of them. Times have wonder- 
fully changed in reference to " horse-flesh," within 
the past ten years, in our county. Young farmers 
are not content to " plod along," as did their 
fathers in days of yore. They want to be behind 
something that is " fast." This would be all the 
less harmful, perhaps, if it did not beget 'fast 
habits" in an illegitimate direction. * 



At this particular time an acre or two of drilled 
corn or oats will help out wonderfully. Last 
season, with a stock of twenty cows, we should have 
been compelled to feed a large amount of grain, if 
we had not had a patch of drilled corn to feed 
them. Our cows had as much of this as they 
could eat up clean twice each day, and never fell 
off in milk as they otherwise would have done. 



Providing for Short Pasturage.- — During the 
latter part of this month, and the first three weeks 
in next, is a time at which many farmers find 
themselves overstocked. The fresh Spring pasture 
and the hopes of an abundant second crop are so 
many enticements to overstock the pasture-land. 



To Have Apples Every Year. — A correspon- 
dent of the New York Tribune tells three ways 
of having apples every year. We give them for 
what they are worth, although we do not consider 
them infallible — No. 1 is certainly not to be de- 
pended upon, and No. 3 is to be demonstrated 
before we believe : 

1. Take scions from a tree in 1873, and put 
them into a good thrifty tree, and do the same in 
1874, and you will get fruit in alternate years. 

2. If you cut off the thrifty trees the growth of 
1873 in the last of June, leaving three or four buds 
that would come out in 1874, jou would force out 
the ne.xt year's buds and gain one year. 

3. If you remove all the blossoms on one-half 
of your trees in the bearing j'ear you will have 
fruit on that half the odd years. These things I 
have done successfully. 



216 



THE L A J^ CASTER FARMER. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL. 

THE APFAEEN r AND THE KEAL, 
IN NATURE. 

WE clip the following from the columns of 
the Fayette county Era, published at 
Lagrange, in the State of Texas, and which we 
consider about as interesting a contribution to 
our Entomological •' corner," as we can well give. 
We have known Dr. Lincecum from reputation 
for years, and consider him as exellent authority 
on the subject of ants, and especially the species 
that inhabit the " Lone Star" State. The reflec- 
tive reader will readily percieve what no doubt 
M. has perceived long before this time, that in- 
stead of two diffei'ent species of ants being en- 
gaged in a deadly conflict about spoils, it was in 
reality only a conflict between males of the same 
species, for the " love favors" of the females, dur- 
ing the nuptial season. But this is not a unique 
habit, for we see the same thing among the higher 
organic forms of the animal world, (instance "cats 
and canines,") and from thence up to the unregene- 
rate in the genus homo. Any person who will 
take the trouble to look into such publications, 
for a moment, as the " Police Gazette," " Day's 
Doings" and "Wild Oats," will be struck with 
the peculiarly animal and belligerent nature of 
all found in their columns. Ed. 

A KOYAL ANT BATTLE. 

Ed. Era: — To-day, in going from Lagrange 
to West Point, I witnessed a regular battle royal, 
in which all parties of either side were engaged. 

This battle was fought between the emmet or 
pismire family. All the fighting parties had 
wings ; one was a large, dark-red ant, large wings 
and very ferocious ; the other ant of less size, 
lighter color and smaller wings. There were two 
beds, some fifty feet apart, and about midway the 
two ant nations met and waged a terrible war. 
It was literally a war of extermination. The 
contending parties were united in single, double 
and quadiuple lines, and never yielded until one 
or the other party was slain. I saw also ants 
without wings, passing to and fro, without being 
molested by the fighting parties. I would like to 
know, Mr. Era, what caused this battle? Why 
were each of the parties winged? and why did 
not those ants without wings engage in the 
contest ? 

I wish my much valued friend. Dr. Gid. Lince- 
cum, could see this, for I am satisfied he could 
throw some light upon the subject. Hoping a 



subsequent number of your paper may give us a 
correct solution, I remain, etc , M . . . . 

P. S. Our neighbors are much alarmed by the 
cotton worm, though, so far, no serious injury has 
been done. The hay crop good. M. 

West Point, July 21, 1873. 

THE ANT AND IT.S HABITS — THE ROYAL BATTLK 
EXPLAINED, AND OTHER INTERESTING FACTS. 

Ed. Era : - To your polite call in your paper 
of the 1st inst., I may try to give satisfaction. 
You must not, however, expect too much. My 
old, time-worn mentality, has been too badly 
blunted to attempt more than a few plain state- 
ments of positive facts. 

The names by which the species of ant, alluded 
to by your correspondent M are known in dif- 
ferent sections of our State, are the singing ant. 
the mound-builders, the pavement ant, and the 
agricultural ant, because they do cultivate certain 
species of grass, and harvest the seed with great 
care, storing it away in cells prepared for that 
purpose. But is not with the intention of writing 
the history of the latter interesting branch of the 
emmet family that I write, but only to correct an 
oversight in the recorded observations of my jovial 
friend M . 

The wingless ants in this species are the work- 
ers - neutrals, non-procreating, and incapable 'of 
taking any part in the grand annual meeting of 
their winged superiors. 

The males and females of this, as well as all 
other species of the ant genus, have wings, which, 
with the species in question, answer the purpose 
of reaching one of those great amative gatherings 
from considerable distances with facility. 

At such a time both sexes are seen coming at 
an early hour, from all directions, and pouri)ig 
down in great numbers on the ground, that must 
have been arranged by previous appointment, 
for they all seem to know where to go. 

By 12 o'clock, M., they have all arrived, and 
they are found covering the ground, four or five 
males to one female, whirling and buzzing, whilst 
they are wallowing in an eager and ranting furor. 
It looks, sure enough, to the uninitiated, like a 
terrible battle, under the piratical waving of the 
black flag, in a dreadful struggle for victory and 
extermination. In the course of two hours, the 
ultimate^ begin to manifest themselves. Scat- 
tered about over the field of action 3,re seen dead 
and dying male ants. I'he most feeble amongst 
them, having fulfilled their mission early, die of 
exhaustion, which is now momentarily observed 
to increase. About this time a few of the females 



THE LAJ^GASTER FABMER. 



^17 



will be seen writhing themselves, with much diffi- 
culty, from the gastric embrace of the male, and 
makes her escape by climbing the first weed or 
spire of grass she comes to ; on the top of this she 
rests a few minutes, and feeling herself fully 
charged with all the attributes for the consumma- 
tion of her mission, she seems for a moment to re- 
flect, and spreading her wings for the last time, 
flies to some distant region, alights, and immedi- 
ately commences the search for a proper site upon 
which to locate a city. 

Soon she finds one and begins the work ener- 
getically. She rapidly burrows a proper sized 
hole in the ground, and when it becomes deep 
enough for her wings to prevent further progress, 
she withdraws for a moment from the labor and 
deliberately cuts off her wings at the shoulder- 
joints. Continuing the work, she burrows to the 
depth of seven inches, at the bottom of which she 
excavates a small, oval cell. The passage to the 
outer world is now stopped up, and the mother of 
the coming millions remains in a state of coma 
for ten days. When from this lethargic state she 
awakes, she reopens her burrow, deposits twenty- 
five or thirty eggs, and goes out seeking food for 
the first born of the new colony, which sonn oc- 
curs. She ceases not to perform all the nursery 
duties, foraging and the necessary enlargement of 
the cell, until the young -ones she has with so 
much labor and anxiety raised to anthood, are 
able and properly instructed to do the out-door 
work, when she retires from labor to rest and is 
no more seen in the outer world. 

All t'e newly formed ants are neutrals- — work- 
ers — a part of them are detailed to remain in-door, 
attend the nursery duties and excavate the cells. 
The remainder are consigned to do the out-door 
work. This consists 'in collecting food for the 
nursery, in-door workers, the peculiar nourishment 
for the mother ant and to keep the entrance of 
their city concealed, which they effect by cover- 
ing it very ingeniously with bits of stick. This 
mask is continued eighteen months. At the ex- 
piration of this period, they have become suffi- 
ciently numerous to be enumerated amongst the 
great nations of the land and boldly unmasking 
the gates of their city, organize a strong police 
force, about 20 ), whose duty is to clean out and 
construct an ample pavement — if on wet or flat 
ground to build a mound and guard the environs 
of the city. 

Thus, in a cursory manner, I have described the 
cours^ and the fulfilled mission of a single female 
agriciiiltural ant. All other female ants go out 



on the same mission ; but fortunately for the hu- 
manity side of the question, there is not one in a 
thousand that proves successful. 

The male ants having performed their parts on 
the grand connubial arena, are left the prostrate 
victims of excess. Many dead — thousands dying, 
and such of them as had sufficient strength to do 
so, have climbed up the little weeds, and are found 
next morning dead, wito their jaws fast clenched 
to some leaf or stem, from which they cannot be 
detached without tearing off their heads. 

This latter paragraph alludes to one of those 
magnificent assemblies that took place in that lane 
at Long Point, July, 21, 1846. Two days after 
there came a pretty north-west wind that rolled the 
dead ants into the little gullies in many heaps. 
Every one who saw them paid there could not be 
less than a bushel. 

This is but a desultory history of the winged 
agricultural ant. A carefully written history of 
the workers of this species —their agricultural 
action -their method of storing away and pre- 
serving many kinds of seeds — their police regula- 
tions, military discipline, wars, treatment of cap- 
tives, etc., would prove most interesting to the 
student and admirer of the natural sciences. 

Gideon Lincecum, 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



For The F-rmer. 

MR. EDITOR : In looking over the list of ex- 
hibitors I noticed an error, in having me 
say that the bellflower is bearing annually with- 
me, when, in fact, it has not perfected once in five 
years. I will give you a list of the thirty-three 
varieties I exhibited, and their qualities with me 
and their value and bearing, Those trees loaded 
with apples were the Redstreak. Apple Butter, 
Pittsburg Pippin, Romanite, Winesap, Paradise, 
Yellow Sweet, Early Redstreak, and Pound ; mod- 
erate crop — the Lady's Blush, Spahnhauer, Cones- 
toga Pippin, Maiden's Blush, Belle Fleur, (Sheep 
of Millport), Smokehouse, Red Winter ; not bear- 
ing much, or too young— the Baldwin, llubert- 
ston's None-such. Krauser, Golden Pippin, Sweet 
Rambo, Ilamaker, Berks County Cider, York Im- 
perial, King of Tomkins County, Northern Spy, 
Warwick, Red Warwick, nameless (3 varieties) ; 
those bearing one year a full, and the second, half 
a crop, are the Old Redstreak, Smokehouse, Mill- 
port Sheepnose, Winesaps, Conestoga Pippin, 
Pound, Spahnhauer, and Paradise. The Rambo 
has only a few apples this year; for marketing the 



218 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



Smokehouse heads the list. The Lady's Blush is 
second to none for beauty and salability. It is a 
beautiful white apple with a red blush, above 
medium size, a little tartish. Pound, Pittsburg, 
Northern Spy, Conestoga Pippin, and Millport 
Sheepuose sell well also, during January and Feb 
ruary. I have seven orchards — four in bearing ■ 
some in limestone, in rich gravel and in red shale. 
My orchards on low ground have very few apples. 
I have one on red shale ; it lies high on a south 
eastern slope, and it bears almost every year full 
crops. It had now three crops in succession. 

Pears — I cultivate the Bartlett, Hosenshenk, 
Butter, Maynard, Clapp, Favorite, Howell, Flem- 
ish Beaty, McGlaughlin, Bosc, Onondago, Seckel, 
Bell-lucrative, Brandywine, Sheldon, Buffan, Yicar 
of Wakefield Mount Vernon, Buerre Diehl, Law- 
rence, and Duchess d'Angouleme. The Maynarf] 
Butter, Bartlett, Clapp, Favorite, Howell, Flem- 
ish Beauty, Bell-lucrative, and Lawrence, are my 
favorites. The Lawrence bears every year a full 
crop; it was to be a winter pear, but it ripens in 
October, and is a sweet, delicious pear. 

What is most singular in my apple orchard, 
there are two Paradise trees, rather old, with 
scarcely any apples, while two others of the same 
kind, rather young trees, are almost yearly loaded 
with fruit. It seems that some apple trees will 
cease to bear when they get to a certain age. 

Binkley's vineyard is situated about a quarter 
of a mile from my red shale orchard, but is on 
much higher ground You can see from his lot to 
the Ephrata Hills, Millport Head, Furnace Hills, 
Rothsville, Lexington, White Hall, Sun Hill, 
Chestnut Hill, York County Hills, Lancaster city, 
Martic Hills, General Steinman's residence near 
Eawlinsville. Copp(>r Mine Hills, the Welsh 
Mountains, and the steeple of New Holland. He 
has a peach orchard and vineyard side by side yet 
he had very few peaches ; but his grapes would 
have come to full perfection if it had not been for 
a hail-storm ; nevertheless, it is supposed that he 
has the premium vineyard in the couiity. This 
year he subsoiled his ground. The loose gravel 
and little stones are all worked on the surfiice from 
the continual stirring of the soil, as he allows nO 
weeds to grow on his ground. The ground is rich, 
and the little stones are a shelter to keep the 
ground from burning out ,or drying up, like in 
other instances. His chief grapes are the Hart- 
ford Prolific, Concord, and Martha ; he has also 
started a beautiful pear orchard of one hundred 
pear trees ; sixty are the Bartlett. They are just 
coining into bearing, L. S. R. 



A Butter and Cheese Exchange. — The dairy 
interest now represented in the city of New Y^'ork 
has become so important that an exchange is es- 
tablished in that city as one of the permanent 
institutions. The New York Bulletin shows the 
relative importance of the butter and cheese inter- 
est by giving the following estimates of the pro- 
duce business of that city last year : 

Butter .^.30,0no,000 

Chee-se 1.5,000,000 

Wheat 24,(100,000 

Flour 26,000,000 

Corn 26,000,000 

Petroleum 10,000,000 

Cut Meats 12,000,000 

The two items of butter and cheese amount to 
^45,000,000, butter alone leading every other 
article in the produce market. 

Good butter and good cheese rarely overstock 
the market. The new Butter Exchange, as well 
as the figures quoted, indicate the great progress 
which this interest has made during the last few. 
years. 



Training a Heifer. — Cows usually become ad- 
dicted to kicking when heifers, from being milked 
by abusive milkers. I have never seen an old cow 
become a kicker unless abused. Instead of cows' 
being averse to being milked when giving a large 
quantity I have ever found it the reverse. When 
pasturage is good, and cows come home at night 
with udders distended with milk, our " down east" 
cows seem grateful to have it removed. Milking 
a heifer for the first time requires patience, for 
they will almost invariably kick. In such a case 
put a broad strap around her body, j ust front of 
the udder, and buckle it up moderately tight, 
as soon as she gets quiet (for she may dance 
and around a little at first), take your pail, 
set down and go to milking, for she is as helpless 
as a kitten. Do not attempt to use a rope instead 
of a strap, for it will not answer. This is a much 
better method 'than tying the legs, etc., as it does 
not hurt the animal in the least. A few applica- 
tions of the strap with plenty of patience and 
kindness will cure the most obstinate case. 
♦ 

To MEND china, take a very thick solution of 
gum arable in water and stir in it plaster Paris 
until the mixture becomes of the proper consis- 
tency. Apply it with a brush to the fractured 
edges of the china and stick them together. In 
three days the article will be thoroughly cement- 
ed. The whiteness of the cement renders it 
doubly valuable. 



TEE LANCASTER FARMER. 



219 



LANCASTER, NOVEMBER, 1873. 



S. S. RATHVON, Fditor. 

Published monthly m;der the auspices of the Agricul- 
TUKAL AND Horticultural Society. 

$13 5 per Tear lii Advance. 

A considerable deduction to clubs of live or more. 

All commuuicitions, to insure insertion, must be in the 
hands of the editor betor« tiie 20th of each month. Ad- 
dress S. S. Ra'hvon, Lincaster, Pa. 

All advertise moats, subscriptions and remittances to ths 
address of the publisher, J. R. DEVELIN, 

InquTer Building, Lancaster, Pa. 

THE FINANCIAt CRASH. 



SINCE the ivssue of our last number, a dark pall 
lias fallen upon the financial affairs of the 
country ; and the worst feature of it is, that the 
burden of distress falls heaviest upon those who 
were not in any way instrumental in producing it, 
demonstrating, as has so often been demonstrated 
before, that the innocent must suffer for the sins 
of the guilty. It is true that the direct failures 
which have thus far taken place, have been main- 
ly confined to brokers, bankers, and stock-jobbers 
but as these are generally the purse-holders of the 
people, and the custodians of financial confidence, 
when they fail to meet their obligations, agricul- 
ture, commerce and manufactures become involved 
in the general embarrassment or ruin. Millions 
upon millions of money, have been diverted from 
the legitimate and useful channels of trade, and 
have been invested in irresponsible stocks of the 
wildest and flimsiest character, simply because they 
promised to pay more than legal interest, or to 
declare an enormous dividend. 

TT'YW the jii'ople nev<'r become luise ? Will they 
continue to risk their hard-earned dollars in stock- 
gambling abroad, and bring suffering upon them- 
selves, their families, and all the local interests 
and enterprises which need development around 
them ? 

And to show that this stock speculation is not 
confined to the sharp dealers of large towns and 
cities alone, an inlelligent and well-posted manu- 
facturer informed us, a few daj^s ago, that, on a 
receut visit to the northern part of Lancaster 
county, within a comparatively small circle, a 
number of farm-houses were pointed out to him, 
whose owners held at least j^/Zy thousand doUars 
in " Northern Pacific Railroad" stock ; who pro- 
bably would not have invested a dollar in any 



stock in Lancaster county, nor yet have loaned 
their money at onl)/ six per cent., on the best un- 
encumbered mortgages in the county. 

" Can these things be and not excite our spe- 
cial wonder ?" Well, like the Coal-oil stock, of 
a few years ago, this-money — and many housands 
besides this — has taken wings and flown, and Lan- 
caster county is just so much poorer to-day. If 
this should have an Injurious effect upon the price 
of farm produce, whose fault is it ? " Grasp not 
too much, lest you lose what you have," is an old 
saw, written hundreds of years ago, and yet people 
seem to profit as little by it to-day as they did 
then. T^ie best thing that can be done now, per- 
haps, is to get another horse, and then to lock the 
stable door, and only to open it when we feel sure 
there are no thieves about. Otherwise these ex- 
pensive financial lessons will be of very little solid 
Ijenefit to us. 



THE PROSPECT. 



Notwithstanding our present financial embar- 
rassments, the prospect before us is not an irre- 
coverably gloomy one, unless we persistently con- 
tinue to make it such. There is an immense stock 
of wheat, rye, corn, barley oats, .fruit, roots and 
vegetables in the country, and the foreign demand 
for many of these will prevent much of a depre- 
ciation in the usual prices, and their exportation 
will bring back to our shores such a How of gold 
and silver, as will ultimately save the country 
from any marked distress. We have been living 
much too fast, too selfish, greedy and ungodly, 
but there is still no reason that we should now 
run into the opposite extreme, and bring on a 
state of distrust, apathy and starvation. Sinister 
combinations, to produce extortion and distress 
among the people, by all means should be avoid- 
ed, and we should always think of that 
people who have ever been the reliance of the 
country wh?n assailed by foreign or domestic foes. 
Remembering too, that the brawny arms that can 
save a State, can alst», when frenzied by oppres- 
sion, precipitate its utter ruin. We cannot get 
along, as a nation, without the aid of the laborers, 
the consumers, and the defenders of the L'nion ; 
and we should think of these. 



NEWSPAPER DECISIONS. 

1. Any person who takes a paper regularly 
from the post-ofTice —whether directed to his name 
or another, or whether he has subscribed or not — 
is responsible for the pay. 

2. If a person orders his paper discontinued he 



2W 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



must pay all arrearages, or the publisher may con- 
tinue to send it until payment is made, and collect 
the whole amount, whether it is taken from the 
office or not. 

3. The courts have decided that refusing to 
take newspapei'3 and periodicals from the post 
office, or removing and leaving them uncalled for, 
is prima facie evidence of intentional fraud. 

We respectfully call the attention of our read- 
ers to the above "' decisions ;" not because we thus 
proclaim a determination to avail ourselves of 
these protections and guarantees vouchsafed by the 
laws of our country, but because we desire them 
to have an intelligent view of their own responsi- 
bility as well as ours. It is a lamentable, and 
sometimes a disgraceful fact, that there are still 
in our country thousands upon thousands who do 
not read, besides very many who cannot. And, 
when publishers devise legitimate means, in order 
to get their publications before the eyes of the pub- 
lic, it is often as much from a desire to enlighten 
that public, as it is for the small pittance of a 
yearly subscription. Hence a liberal government 
has enacted laws, and judges have made decisions 
in their administration of them (like the above), 
for the protection of publishers, and to inculcatg 
among the people that it is their bounden duty to 
read and enlighten themselves on all subjects 
relating to moral and intellectual, as well as 
material, progress in this world. 

MEETING OF LANCASTER COUNTY 
AGRICTLTURaL and HORTICUL- 
TURAL SOCIETY. 

ITie regular monthly meeting of the society was 
held in the Orphans' Court Room, Monday after- 
noon, October Gth, 1873. In the absence of the 
President, Johnson Miller was called to the chair. 
The reading of the minutes of the previous meet- 
ing was on motion dispensed with. 

"ihe condition of the crops being called for, 
Reuben Weddel stated that the last year's wheat 
crop will average, in his neighborhood, about 
twenty bushels per acre. As to the growing crop, 
he said that it promised as well as any be had 
seen for years. The corn crop is not quite up 
to that of last year. The apple crop was not 
equal to that of 1872 and the peaches were an 
entire failure- The grape crop was a fine one, but 
their quality was only average. Some of his 
neighbors had as fine grapes as he ever met with. 
The potato crop is the finest he has ever seen in 
the county. 'I'he Peerless potato turned in the 
beet in quantity, and its quality is also good 



Johnson Miller planted his potatoes by shallow 
covering, and this method he thinks best. Deep 
covering he regards as a poor plan. Reuben 
Weaver has planted potatoes by covering them 
with saw-dust and a little earth ; and he considers 
the plan a good one The potatoes when grown 
come out of the ground very clean He thinks 
that the saw-dust keeps the ground moist : he has 
tried this plan on sandy soil with success. 

John B. P]rb reported that the wheat crop along 
the Pequea creek, was a fine one, and likely to 
average from 20 to 25 bushels per acre. The new 
crop looks very well ; the oats crop was light; 
t he corn crop seems to be but an average one, and 
yet better than was at first anticipated The po- 
tato crop in his neighborhood was about an aver- 
age one, the greater part of them having been 
planted too early. The quality of the late-grown 
potatoes was not particularly good, many of them 
being watery, owing to the season having been a 
a wet one. The apple crop was a light one. 

Reuben Weaver discovered the virtue of saw- 
dust for growing potatoes, by having a potato 
stalk shoot accidentally in some saw-dust, and 
from the one stalk he obtained fifteen pounds of 
potatoes. 

John B. Erb said the peaches had been an en- 
tire failure along the Pequea. A few mi!es south, 
in the neighborhood of Pine Hill peaches were 
rather plenty ; grapes were almost a failure with 
him. this year. The Colorado Potato Beetle has 
made his appearance in small numbers, and the 
cabbage worm was very bad ; but the crop is 
much better than that of last year The fruit 
trees look yellow and scanty affected as he be- 
lieves by the cold of last winter A great many 
people have lost their poultry this year from the 
chicken cholera. His loss in chickens this year, 
has beei; ($200 00) two hundred dollars. 

Jacob S. Witmerhad Clinton, Concord and Mus- 
catine grapes, and none of these froze for him last 
winter. His place is somewhat elevated. His Clin- 
ton grapes bore the best this year, being remark- 
ably compact in the bunches, and the vines well 
loaded. His apples were scarce, but his pears 
were plenty and very fine. The wheat crop was 
very good, both in stem and grain. The rye was 
the best he has seen for years. The Ofits crop was 
a light one, the stem being short and the grains 
light. The corn turned out a. good crop. 

Johnson Miller had written to the Agricultnral 
Department to obtain some information as regards 
the Patro ns of Husbandry, and circulars had been 
sent him. but he was not prepared to endorse the 



THE LAJiCASTER FARMER. 



221 



project, and he therefore moved its continuance 
until the next meeting of the society. This mo- 
tion was adopted. 

Johnson Miller had several varieties of seed 
wheat on exhibition. Milton B. Elshleman had 
seed wheat on exhibition, viz, : AVeeks' White 
Wheat 

Society on motion adjourned. 



SOILING FARM STOCK. 

I have often been surprised that the many own- 
ers of small farms around our city do not confine 
their stock to the stables, and carry their proven- 
der to them. In this way one acre may be made 
to carry as much stock as four under the old sys- 
tem One or two acres devoted to sowed or 
drilled corn, Hungarian grass, oats and rye, will 
keep a large number of cows or horses ; especially 
if the ground is made rich by the liberal applica- 
tion of manure. Of the Hungarian grass I have 
treated elsewhere. The corn should be sown in 
drills three feet apart, and the grains from a half 
inch to one inch apart, according to the strength 
of the ground. It should be sown at regular inter- 
vals, so as to keep up a regular succession of feed. 
On good ground it will grow ten to twelve feet 
long, and from estimates based on two acres on my 
own land last season, I am satisfied will yield 
twenty ton.s per acre ot green food. It does the 
most good if fed about the time it is fairly out in 
tassel, and if left longer becomes less nutritious 
and more like common dry corn fodder. 

A few months' experience will show what crops 

are best suited to each particular locality, and will 

lead the farmer to plant those whose surplus can 

most readily be converted into winter provender. 

« — — ■ — 

GORGED STOMACHS IN HORSES. 

(jrorged stomachs or acute indigestion, is a dis- 
ease which every year destroys a groat many val- 
uable horses. It consists either in distension of 
the stomach from food or from gas generated 
by the fermentation of its undigested contents. 

This very serious disorder often results from 
giving food in large quantities and immediately 
subjecting the animal to hard or fast work. This 
is a very common thing amongst farmers' horses. 
A journey of fifteen or twenty miles has to be 
])erforined; the owner, through kindness, gives an 
extra quantity of food ; the stomach and bowels 
are overloaded ; the horse begins his journey full, 
of spirit, and, after traveling for a few miles, he 
becomes dull and sluggish and sweats freely; he 



is pulled up, and after standing for a few moments 
shows signs of abdominal pains by cringing the 
body and attempting to lie down ; the flanks are 
slightly swollen. In a few moments he seems 
easier, and is driven on, now and then showing 
symptoms of pain ; po-ssibly he reaches his desti- 
nation, and is taken out of the harness, when he 
may exhibit very alarming symptoms. 

* * * Another coramjn cauie is feeding heav- 
ily when the stomach has been weakened through 
enervating exercise or long fasting. 

In road horses that are highly fed on oats and 
hay, it is occasionally brought on by giving a 
quantity of green clover or tares immediately 
after performing a fast journey.— Ca;iaJa Farmer. 



Manure FOR Gr.a.pe Vine^ — Prof. Bache says : 
Herbaceous plants and vegetables furnish numer- 
ous instances of the