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Full text of "The Lancaster Farmer"

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"THE FARMER IS THE FOUNDER OF CIVILIZATION."-- WEBSTER. 



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9 



A MONTHLY NEWSPAPER: 



DEVOTED TO 



AGRICULTURE AND HORTICULTURE, PRACTICAL ENTO- 
MOLOGY, DOMESTIC ECONOMY AND GENERAL 

MISCELLANY. 



EDITED BY PROF. S, S. RATHVON. 



VOLUME VIII.-1876. 



LANCASTER. PA.: 

JOHN A. HIESTAND, PRINTER AND PUBLISHER. 

1876. 

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"THE FARMER IS THE FOUNDER OF CIVILIZATION.""WEBSTER. 




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9 



A MONTHLY NEWSPAPER: 



DEVOTED TO 



AGRICULTURE AND HORTICULTURE, PRACTICAL ENTO- 
MOLOGY, DOMESTIC ECONOMY AND GENERAL 

MISCELLANY. 



EDITED BY PROF. S. S. RATHVON. 



VOLUME VIIL-1876. 



LANCASTER. PA.: 

JOHN A. HIESTAND, PRINTER AND PUBLISHER. 

1876. 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME EIGHT. 



A Plea for the Chicken-hawk, 7 
Abortion of Cows, 8 
All Hail ! Centennial Tear, 9 
A Birds-Eye View of the Build- 
ing and Grounds, 10 
A new Industry, 14 
Agricult'l Lile iu Missouri, 10 
An Open Winter, 19 
Arrival of Birds in 1S75, 29 
An. Meeting in Doylestown, 26 
All about Fruit-Grnwiuff and 

General Horticulture, 26 
Address by the Pres dent, 26 
Annual Address of Master Ja&i 
McSparran,of Fulton Grange 
No. 66, L'5 
Artichokes, 33 
A Good Investment, 35 
Ancient Gardening, 35 
Apples and their Varieties, 38 
An Essay-Hints to Farmers, i'i 
A Return to Economy, 46 
Applying Manures, 47 
A Large Poultry Yard, 48 
A Profitable Experiment, 48 
A Nut for the Botanists to 

Crack, .57 
An. and Biennial Flowers, 58 
An Acre, 62 
Ammonia as a Cure ior Snake 

Bites, 63 
A full Tobacco Vocabulary, 04 
American Tobacco, 68 
American Fruits, 68 
Adaptinir Means to Ends, 70 
A Wrinkle for Young People, 74 
Advantage of Drainage, 79 
A Simple Microscope, 79 
Ans. to Corresp'ts, 85, 101, 115 
A Pair of Texas Travelers, 85 
About Flies, 86 

A Complete Remedy for To- 
bacco Fly, 86 
About Grasses, 87 
About Cheese, 95 
Ashes for Crops, 95 
Application of Lime, 96 
A Hen, 96 

A Fact for Farmers, 96 
An Enemy of Potato Beetle, 102 
A Valuable Discovery, 104 
Adamstown & Billingfelt, 105 
Artificial Tobacco, 106 
Apples, 106 
A Fragment, 106 
A Cure for Colds in Head, 112 
A new Pest, 113 
A new Enemy in Corn Crop, 114 
A Strange Fish, 115 
American Lunar Moth, 115 
Advance of Pear Blight, 116 
About Mushrooms, 12? 
A Model Dairy, 128 
Arctic Wolverine, 132 
About Potatoes, 133 
Answers to Correspond'ts, 134 
A Rare Bug, 134 
Agricultural Papers, 138 
A Long Furrow, 142 
Apples at the Centennial, 143 
A little every Day, 144 
A Neglected Apple, 145 
American Coot, 148 
A Bit of Penn'a History, 149 
Artificial Fertilizers, 1.50 
Amer. Grapes and Wine, 153 
An Exhibit at Centennial, 156 
Agricultural Miscellany, 157 
A Cheap Carpet, 100 
Applied Science, 160 
Ants Destroy Caterpillars, 161 
A Word for the Snake, 164 
A Flat Seed-Beetle, 164 
Amateur Farmers, 170 
A Wholesome Drink, 175 
A Good Word lor the Hog, 175 
Autumn Care of the Lawns, 175 
American Poultry, iii 
Adoration, 97 

Agric'l and Hort'l Soc'y, 99 
Adulterated Clover Seed, 12 
About Plant'g Forest Trees, 31 



Ans. by George Geddes, 139 

Agricultural Hall, 184 

Arab Horse Maxims, 191 

Agriculture & Horticulture, 192 

Bermuda Grass Growing in 
Favor, 15 

Black Cochins, 17 

Best Varieties of Apples, 37,76 

Bay Windows for Winter 
Flowers, 37 

Bee-Keeking for Farmers, 45 

Borrowed Plumes, 45 

Bees and Bee -hives, .59 

Best Variety of Apple Trees 
for Planting, 60 

Brown Tree Borer, 60 

Brittle Hoofs, 64 

Biting the Nails, 80 

Be Sociable with Y'ngCatt!e,95 

Bees on a Small Scale, 96 

Buckwheat as Poultry Food,96 

Bureau of Agriculture, iii 

Barn Yard Manure and Chem- 
ical Fertilizer, 107 

Berries for Birds, 111 

Boys, do Something, 111 

Bitter Butter, 119 

Black Hamburg8,135 

Boiling Eggs, 136 

Bat Guano, 158 

Beets for Cows, 159 

Benefits Derived from Read- 
ing Newspapers and Maga- 
zines, 167 

Bread Sponge, 175 

Beets for Cows, iii 

Breeding Horses, 13 

Breeding Asses, 12 

Breeding Sheep, 12 

Breeding Swine, 12 

Baltimore Oriole, 21 

Buckwheat as Poultry Food ,96 

Benson & Burpee's Second 
Queen of Yorkshire, 165 

Buckwheat Cakes, 180 

Beefsteaks and Pies, 184 

Butter Culture, 185 

Best Food for Swine, 191 

Corn Culture, -5 

Cultivation of the Cherry, 28 

Currants and Gooseberries, i;9 

Celery, 163, 31 

Corn Starch Cake, 32 
Care of Lambs, 48 
Correctivesin Feed'gPoul'y,48 
Culture of Asparagus, 55 
Cultivat on of Wheat, 60 
Condition of the Crops, 61 
Care of Hogs, 63 
Care of Horses, 63 
Controlling Bulls, 64 
Cooking by Cold, 64 
Cabbages (BraesicaOleracea), 

82, 66 
Choice Ever-Bloom'g Roses, 71 
Choice Vegetable Crops, 72 
Commercial Value of Hen Ma- 
nure, 73 

Condition of Crops, 75 
Cutting & Curing Tobacco, 79 
Calla Lilies, 79 
Care of Fowls, 80 
Cauliflower, 82 
Care of Canary Birds, 93 
Culture of the Yam, 94 
Convenient Barns, 94 
Cutting off Lower Liaib», 96 
Confession, 97 
Crop Returns for June, 108 
Castile Soap and its Counter- 
felts, 109 
Chinese Agriculture, 119 
Cheese, I:;7 
Climatology, 136 
Christian Laconics, 143 
Covering Manure, 144 
Centennial Biscuits, 157 
Centennial Snake Story, 162 
Centennial Apples, 162 
Care of Young Orchards, 164 
Cleaning Window-Glass, 174 
Corn Cribs, 174 



Chemistry of the Fattening 

Process, 175 
Corn Cakes, 180 
Canada Frult-G rowers. Re- 
port, ill 
Cabbages — Sourkrout, 180 
Chester White Swine, 181 
Crossing for Improvement of 

Common Sheep, 190 
Collection of Pigeons, 191 
Corn Cribs, ill 
Death of the Apple Tree 

Borer, 5 
Dress Orchard Trees, 8 
Details of the Live Stock De- 
partment, 10 
Dogs, 11 
Domestic Economy, 14, 93,127, 

159, 174 
Dominique Fowls, 16 
Destroying the Bark Lou9e, 28 
Different Modes of Pruning, 36 
Discussion on Forest Trees, 

Rain Fall, etc., 43 
Dairy House Ventilation, 44 
Dried Potatoes, 46 
Dorkings, 49 

Dew — Eepec'y Honey-Dew, 49 
Don't Chop with a Poor Axe,63 
Decorating Flower Gardens, 70 
Destroying Weeds, 158, 78 
Don't Use the Hatch or Saw ,79 
Dry Buckwheat Flour, 79 
Death of a Famous Horse, 79 
Dottlngs from Leoline, 149, 87 
Drum Stick Asparagus, 93 
Dish Wash'g without Soap, 128 
Decay of the Trees in Hyde 

Park, 129 
Draining Orchards, 143 
Deranged by the bite of a 

Hog, 144 
Domestic Hints, 149 
Directions for Calclmining, 160 
Deficient Ingred'ts of Soils,169 
Dairy vs. Creamery, 176 
Ducks, 176 

Dottings from Leoline, 180 
Domestic Economy, 189 
Experimenting with Sheep, 11 
Educating Horses, 1.5- 
Experiments made at the Ex- 
perimental F'rm,WestGrove, 
Chester co.. Pa., 25 
Election of Officers, 28, 27 
Evergreens, 29 
Economy vs. Hard Times, 30 
European Artichoke, 33 
Economical Feed'g of Stock, 60 
Everlasting Fence Post, 64 
East'n and West'n Wheat, 64 
Economy, Efficiency, Safety, 69 
Early Tomatoes, 79 

Elder Bushes, 87 

Egg Custard, 87 

Expenses, 90 

Experience with Bees, 110 

Economy, 112 

Elm Tree Leaf Beetle, 131 

Edible Mushrooms, 149 

Eating too Much, 174 

Exhibition Notes, 184 

Eggs, ISO 

Fat and Draught Cattle, 11 

Fat Sheep, 11 

Fat Swine, 11 

Fish, 11 

Farming and Stock Raising on 
Continent of Europe, 11, 60, 
75, 91, 108, 155, 172 

Fruit & Veget's by weight, 14 

Fruit Trees from the North, 28 

Failure of the Beet Crop In 
France, 42 

Forest Trees and Rain Fall, 43 

Farmers' Sons and Daughters 
Must Work, 46 

Floral Speculation, 52 

Farm Mortgages, 52 

Fish Culture, 55 

Feeding Poultry, 62 

Farm Accounts, 73 



Fruit Culture In Lancaster 

City, 71 
Farm'g in Contln'l Europe, 78 
Farmers' Fruit Cake, tO 
Fried Potatoes, S7 
From Over the Pond, 89 
Fairy Rings " in pastures 

green," 105 
Farmers and the Centen'l, 109 
Food for Young Pigs, 110 
Fire Blight, 116 
French Cooking, 117 
Feed for Young Fowls, 135 
Fine Peaches, 1.36 
From North Carolina, 142 
Fertilizers for Grass, 144 
Fishbone in the Throat, 144 
Facts About Birds, 152 
Forestry, 16S 
Fru t as a Medicine, 171 
Feeding Animals, 172 
Fine Pumpkin Pies, 174 
Fall or Spring Planting, 176 
Farming Without Stable Ma- 
nure or Stock, 176 
Facts of Natural History — 

No. 8, 21 
Farmers' Club Notes, 187 
Fence Corners, III 
General Miscellany, 15, 31, 47, 

61,77,93 
General Reports and Letters ,26 
Grapes, 29 

General Arrangements, 90 
Good Thing about Rye, 95 
General Miscellany, 109, 127, 

143, 175 
Gun Barrel Buddlne, 110 
Good Farm Roads, 112 
Graham Gems, 128 
Grape Phylloxera, 130 
Germination of Seeds, 164 
Good Tillage, 170 
Good Wives, 174 
Goose Berry, The 178 
Green Fields of the Moon, 187 
History and Objects of the Or- 
der of Patrons of Husband- 
ry, 14 
Househ'd Recipes, 15, 46, 64, 93 
"Homes without Hands," 2l 
Humming Birds, 37, 22 
Hybridization of Fruits, 27 
Hurtful Reading, 32 
Home that is Home, 36 
How to Raise Oats Cheaply, 41 
Hospitals for Horses, Cattle 

and Pigs, 42 
How Butter is Tainted, 46 
How to Use Corn Starch, 46 
How to Get Eggs in Winter, 48 
Honey Dew, 72, 67, 49 
Hygrometrical Diary at Phila- 
delphia, for March, 1876, 51 
How I Raised my Tomatoes, 58 
Harrowing Wheat In Spring, 61 
How to Take Care of Lawns, 61 
Hints about Meat, 63 
Hold'g on for Higher Prices, 63 
Hollow Horn, 64 
Hay-Making In Norway, 64 
How to Make an Omelet, 64 
Houdans, 65 
Honey-Ants Again, 66 
" Holstein" Cattle, 74 
How to Prevent Robbing, 77 
Hints for the Season, 78 
How to Pour Tea, 79 
Hyacinths in Glasses, 80 
How to get rid of Rose Slugs, 84 
Horned Frogs, 85 
How to Stack Grain, 88 
How to 3ee the Great Exhibi- 
tion, 80 
How to Spend a Week Profit- 
ably, £0 
Horse Radish Sauce, 93 
Have Faith In your Business, 93 
How to Grow Them, 94 
How Plants Feed on Ammo- 
nia, 95 
SarnesslQg Colts, 96 



Heaves in Horses, 90 
Historical Sketch of Lancas- 
ter, 98 
Hygrometrical Diary at Phila- 
delphia, for June, 1776, 103 
Hints for New Beginners in 

Rural Life, 106 
How to Keep your wife's 

Love, 109 
Hold'g on for Higher Prices,lll 
Hunger, 111 
How to Keep Eggs, 113 
How to Make Old Horses ap- 
pear Well, 112 
Horse Management, 112 
Hereditary Influences, 121 
Household Recipes, 128, 175 
How to Get Along, 128 
How to Test Fungi, 136 
How Weeds are Propagated, 144 
Holland Pippin, 145 
"How to Keep the Boys on the 

Farm," 146 
Heroic Farming, 155 
How to Dispose of Our Corn 

Crop, 156 
How to preserve Cut Flow's, 159 
How do You Make Cider 

Wine » 160 
How to Keep Bouq's Fresh, 174 
Hard Soap, 174 
Harrowing, 174 
How to Manage Cuttings, 176 
Hens That Don't Set, 176 
History of Lanc. Farmek,177 
History of the"Three Earls, "ill 
Horticultural Hall, 184 
How to Cure Seed Leaf 

Tobacco, 1«5 
How Cider is Made, 186 
Home and Happiness, 187 
Household Recipes, 1^9 
How to- Clean Marble Top 

Furniture, 190 
How to Utilize a Dead 

Horse, 192 
Horticultural Notes, 192 
Is a Change of Seed Neces- 
sary ? 8 
In the Production and Repar- 
ation of Muscular Force, 12 
Is Swine Flesh a Proper Food 

for Man ? 31 
Influence of Food on the 

Mind, 32 

Interesting Essay and Reports 

of Practical Experiments, 44 

Insects and Insect Remedies 

One Hundred Years Ago, 

.53, 67 

Influence of Temperature Upon 

Milk and Butter, 60 
Insecticides, 69 
Insect Depredations, 69 
International Importance, 80 
Improv't of Grass Land, 91, 95 
Insects Never Grow, 113 
ImproT ng the Land "Inside 

the Fences," 1.7 
Insect Vitality, 135 
Improvement of Potatoes, 14S 
Ignorance in Farming, 143 
Iron and Gold, 143 
Insect Tenacity, 164 
Insect Powder, 167 
Insect Longevty, 179 
Josiah Hoopes on Yards and 

Lawns, '27 
Jeru alem Arctichoke, 33 
Jefl'erson's Ten Practical Rules 

of Life, 80 ' 

June Meet ng of the Agricul- 
tural and Horticultural So- 
ciety, 92 
Jonathan Dorwart's Fancy 

Poultry, 192 
Keep the Feet Warm, 14 
Keeping the Meals Waiting, 14 
Keeping up the Fertility, 107 
Keeping Milk and Butter In 

Cellars, l27 
Keeping Eggs, 128, 174 



Kentucky Blue Grass, 157 
Ladies' Parlor or Window 

Flowers, 8 
Look out for Canada Thistle, 9 
Live Stock, 10 
Lice on Poultry, 16 
Literary and Business Notices, 

10, :v.', is 

Lancaster Co. as a Grand Ap- 
ple Orchard, -4 

Lar?e Poultry Yard, 32 

Light Bralinias, 35 

Lambs and Calves, B2 

Literary Notices, 64, SO, 1'28 

Lawns — How to Make and 
Keep Them, 77 

Late-KecpinR Fruits, 85 

Locomotion, 91 

Labels, 9R 

Labor Necessary to Happiness, 
111 

Lightnins; & Llght'g Rods, 1^1 

Locusts as Food, 1:^5 

Late Flowering Trees, 137 

Living Within bne'sMeau's, 144 

Lovely Blooming Bulbs, 151 

Lice on Young trees, 131 

Live Gate Posts, Ipit 

Linnaeau Notes, 104 

Live Stock, 190 

Lice on Colts, 191 

Light in Stables, 19J 

Literary Notices, iil 
. Matched Teams, 11 

Miscellaneous, l.', 4'.', 44, 60 

Miscellaneous Business, M, 14 

Mental Culture among Far- 
mers, Iil 

Make Hot-Beds, 24 

Management of Orchards, i!7 

More about Apple Orchards, i:7 

M'scellaucous Topics, '.9 

Milk Transmits Infection, 46 

Meteorology of March, 1776 - 
1870, 50 

Meteorological Diary at Phila- 
delphia, for March, 1776, 50 

Meteorological Diary at Liber- 
ty Square, Lancaster county, 
March, 1870, 51 

Management of Manure, 62 

Muchor Little, 0:i 

Manure for Grass, 78 

MyExperience with Italians, 87 

Meat Safes or Closets, 93 

Management of Horses, 94 

Milk from Holstein Cows, 94 

Mulching Recently Planted 
Trees, 95 

Mellow Soil around Trees, 
144, 96 

Meeting of Millers' Ass'n, 100 

Maryland Fruits, 100 

Meteorological Diary at Phila- 
delphia, for June, 1776, 103 

Meteorological Diary at Phila- 
delphia, for July, 1776, 116 

Mushroom and Truffle, 1.'4 

Manurial Value of Clover, 139 

Mulching Grass for Winter, 159 

Manuring In Fall, 159 

Making Good Butter, 159 

Mucilage, 175 

Main Build'g & Annexes, 184 

Machinery Hall, 184 

Memorial Hall A Annexes, 184 

No. 4, Asparagus, 2 

Neat Cattle, 11 

New Process for Preserving 
Meat, 14 

New Use for Chicken 
Feathers, 66 

Neatness in Making Butter, 78 

New Potatoes, 79 

New Stock Yards, 96 

Our Centennial Greeting, 1 

Our Cultivated Vegetables, 2 

Our Paris Letter, 11, '..9,42, 
75, 90, 91, 103, 125, 140, 17j 

Our Local Organ zatlon, 12, 30 
140, 156, 173 

Our Past and Future Pros- 
perity, 13 

Our Farmers in Council, 30, 
00, 75, 6.', 99, 126 

Old Bufo, 53 

Old and New Flowers, 53 

Old Inventions &, laventora, 58 



Our Centennial International 
Exposition, 66 

Our Bee-Keepers In Council, 76 

Our Nut-Bearing Trees, 79 

Our Centennial Annlvers'y, 97 

On Bee-Culture, 105 

One Egg Cake, li;8 

Old-fashioned Reaping, 144 

Oatmeal in the Household, 159 

Our Lawns aud How to Keep 
Them, 76 

Our Nat'l Year of Jubilee, 97 

Oatmeal In the Household, 190 

Paris Green, 4 

Paris Green as an Insect De- 
stroyer, 4 

Potatoes for Stock, 5 

Poultry, U 

Proceedings of the Lancaster 
County Agricultural and 
Horticultural Society, 12, 42 

Peculiar Etl'ccts of Winter 
Heat, 19 

Practical Hints about Making 
and selecting good Cheese,V() 

Pears and their Culture, 28 

Preservrtion of Fruit by Ice, 28 

Peach Culture, '^9 

Potatoe Culture, 40 

Practical Lectures on Farm 
Animals, 42 

Profits of Raising Corn In 
Chester county, 44 

Points of a Jersey, 47 

Proceedings of the Agricultural 
and Horticultural Society, 
60, 75, 92, 126, 140, 188 

Potatoe Growing, 63 

Potatoes for Horses, 03 

Plaster for Clover, 64 

Peck's Imported Liquid 
Atomizer, 69 

Precocity in Animals for 
Milk, 75 

Proceedings of the Lancaster 
Co. Bee-Keepers' Society ,76 

Planting Ciardens Early, 79 

Poultry Manure, 79 

Packing Eggs, 84 

Poisons in Agriculture, 89 

Potatoes and Potatoe Grow- 
ing, 94 

Peas Among Potatoes, 96 

Prayer, 97 

Prologue, 98 

Peroration, 9S 

Potatoe Beetle Progress, 115 

Properties of Fuel— Wood, 118 

Penn . Fruit Grow's' Society ,145 

Pennsylvania Fruit at the 
Centennial, 145 

Pure and Impure Water, 153 

Proceedings of the Agricultural 
and Horticultural Society, 
1.50, 173 

Proceedings of Tobacco Grow- 
ers' Association, 157 

Persian Insect Powder, 164 

Protecting Garden Roots, 175 

Portable Pig-Pen, 176 

Public Acknowledgments, ISO 

Pennsylvania Fruit Growers' 
Society, 199 

Plymouth Rock, 181 

Pumpkin Pies, 190 

Queries and Answers, 3, 34, 
45, 14, 8 

Queries, 68 

Quidding Horses, 112 

Quick Work, 114 

Questions and Answers, 158 

Running & Trotting Horses, U 

Red Pepper and Vegetables, 14 

Rural Life, :5 

Raspberries & Blackberries, 29 

Roses, ■-9 

Rural Improvements, 42 

Reports of Crops, 42 

R ch and Poor Grow a Grape 
Vine, 57 

Recompensingof Teachers with 
Gold Medals, 75 

Root Pruning and Blight, 80 

Raising Chickens, 112 

Reproductive Force, 122 

Reversion of Seeds, 122 

Rules for Home Education, 128 

Remember This, 128 



TNDEX. 



Rye for Winter Pasture, 176 
Repelling the Grain Weevil, III 
Selections & Change of Seed, 4 
Successful Orchards, 9 
Shearing then Is Apparently 
Unfavorable to Nutrition, 11 
Salt for Domestic Animals, 15 
Stock-Keeping on Small 

F'rms, 15 
Spiders, 22 
Strawberries, 105, 29 
Sliade Trees, 31 
Stale Agricultural Reports, 

the, 31 
State Agriculturists, the, .32 
Slaughter of Blnls for their 

Plumage, 35 
Suiiplementary, 36 
Selection of Seed Corn, 40 
Slovenly Women, 46 
Small Fruit on the Farm, 47 
Small Potatoes for Seeds, 48 
Summer-Blooming Bulbous 

Flowers, 58 
Standard French Cattle Show, 

the, 00 
Substitute for Clipping Horses 

In Autumn, 60 
Spring Care of Sheep, 62 
Selecting Fowls for Breed- 
ing, 65 
.Seasonable Hints, 71 
Shearing Sheep, 75 
Sunlight, 79 

Something about Fir Trees, 83 
Simple Cure for Dyspepsia, 86 
Something about Bees, 88 
Scalv Legs on Fowls, 96 
Saving Seed., 99 
Scale Insects, 101 
Surface-Stirring the Soil, 107 
Sale of Short Horns, 110 
Seasonable Hints, 110 
Stick to your Farms, 111 
Something for the Sick, 112 
Swarming by Division, 139 
Something for Bachelors, 144 
Saving and Having, 144 
Sensational Agricultural Writ- 
ing, 1.54 
Seed Wheat and Fruits, 1.57 
Sowing Grass Seed alone, 158 
Seed Wheat,ltsPreparat'n,158 
Sending Plants to Sleep, 158 
Strawberry Plants, 159 
Social Life on the Farm, 171 
Sleeping Warm, 174 
Sheep— The Outlook, 175 
Substantial, 180 
Selection of Breeds, 181 
Soil of Florida, the, 186 
Scientific Agriculture, 188 
Starting a Fire, 190 
Sheep as Fertilizers, 191 
Saddle Galls, 191 
Sparrows, 192 
Salt and Lime for Horses' 

Feet, 192 
Scotch Farmers Ruined by 

Mice, 192 
Small Farms, iil 
The May-fly, 1 
The Facts of Natural History 

—No. 7, 5 
The Pilgrim's Progress, 6 
The Fruit Growers' Society, 7 
Time for Reading, 7 
The Dairy, (Nos. 1. 2, 3,4,) 

7, 36, 72, 1:4 
The Centennial Exhib'n, 10, 53 
The Foot and Mouth Disease, 11 
The Animal Food Question, 11 
The Best and Most Succulent 

Meat Is Furnished, 12 
The Beet Sugar Manufactories 

on the Continent, 12 
Two Means of Reduciner Bones, 

12 
The President's An. Address, 12 
The Grangers n Lancaster, 14 
The Cheese Production, 16 
The Progress of Invention, 16 
Toulouse Geese, 17 
The KedEchymyd, 17 
The House-moth, 18 
The "Snowflake" and "Eu- 
reka" Potatoes, 19 
The Dairy Interests, 20 



The Facta of Natural History 

—No. 8, 21 
The Grangers, 24 
Testing Fertilizers and their 

Continued Action, '.'5 
The Patrons of Husbandry, 25 
The Fruit <irower«' Society, 20 
The Codling Moth, 28 
Thoughts for March, 31 
The Pestilential East Wind, 32 
To Our Contributors, 33 
The Cent'y Weather Report, 34 
The Potatoes Enemies, 36 
The Negiecteil Hollyhoek, 41 
Transplanted Trees, 41, 151 
The Horses of Hungary, 42 
The Ltbrary ami Finances, 42 
The MeriU of Hungarian 

(irasH, 44 
The Experimental Farm Club, 

44 
The Agricultural Horse, 47 
The Bee-Keeping Industry, 47 
Travels of I'lauts, the, 50 
Tulip .Mania, the, 52 
Toads, 53, 1-7 
Thrushes, 54 

The CulH'u of Hardy Roses, 54 
Tree I-aws, 5tl' 

The Dairy iV Butter Mak'g, 56 
The Best Cow for the Dairy, 58 
The Cost of Planllug an Or- 
chard, 57 
The Culture of Vegetables, 57 
The Humming Bird, 59 
Transp'g Hardy Trees, &c., 
The Government Show of Fat 

Stock, 00 
Telller's New Process of Pre- 
serving Meat Fresh, 60 
The Best Chickens, 61 
Tree MIgnonnctte, 64 
Tobacco Crop of 1,'"75, 08 
Tuberous-Rooted Flowers, 72 
To Prevent the Birds from 

Pulling Corn, ~i 
The Hamburgs as Layers, 74 
Two Bee Questions Answ'd, 74 
The Phylloxera, 75 
The BcetSugar War, 75 
The Annual Horse Show, 75 
The Projected International 

Exhibition, 75 
The Absence of Iron lo Wheat, 

75 
The Management of Lamps 

and Oil, 77 
To Fix or to Lift a Gate Post, 78 
The Crops In Illinois, 1-0 
The Colorado Potato Beetle, ^^l 
Two "Horned Frogs" Visit 

Lancaster, 85 
Timely Garden Hints, 87 
Turnips for Milch Cows and 

Sheep, 87 
The Centennial, 90, 145, 163 
The Hawthorn, 90 
The Crop Prospect, 91 
The Edgewood Farmer on 

Fences, 92 
The Taste of Turnips In MUk 

and Butter, 93 
The Peach Crop, 95 
The Feeding of Horses, 95 
"Transplanting Evergreens, 96 
To Prevent Splitting of Han- 
dles, 96 
The Crops, 96, 163 
The Centennial InvocalloD, 97 
Thanksgiving, 97 
The Introductory Address, 97 
The Centennial Oration, 99 
Thermometer, June, 1876, 103 
The Currant, 103 
The Old Apple-Tree, 103 
The Centennial Live Stock 

Display, lOS 
The Language of Fowl*, 109 
The Grain .Movement, 112 
The Care of Canaries, 112 
The Vegetable Caterpillar, 115 
The Centennial Heat, 116 
The Temperature for the Last 

Half Century, 116 
The Birds and their Uses, 117 
The History of Cultivated 

Vegetables, 118 
The Magpie Pigeon, 124 



riL 

The Tomato or "I^ve Apple," 

118 
Transplanting Trees In Fall or 

Spring, 119 
Truffles, 1.4 

The Wintering of Plants, 124 
The Crops of the East, l27 
The LucuHt, 132 
The Barreil Owl, 133 
The (ireat Trees of Call- 

fornia, 139 
The Bee- Keep's' Sorl'y, 141 ,173 
The .Millers' Asn>elallou, 142 
Tlie Tobacco tJrow ers, 142, lh9 
T(i Use Hen Manure, 143 
The Wheat C'roirln Euro|>o, 144 
The Farmers' Centenulal, 144 
The Animal and the Vegeta- 
ble, \w 
Their Phvfleal Relation toeach 

Other, I4<5 
Thanksln.Mr.J.WIndolph,14a 
The Wurm Snake, 147 
The Morse r>r Walrua, 14S 
The l)oU)llnk, 14 -i 
The Selcellon of Cows, 152 
Test of Quality, 153 
The Im|Kirlance of Educating 

llorsi's, 151 
The Curulverous Pllcber- 

Planl, 1.54 
The Chinese Management of 

Ruses, I5S 
Top-Uresslug Wheat, 1.59 
The Hotting of Celery, 1.59 
The Dry Earth Trealmonl, 159 
The September Sn.rm, l«4 
The Dlsbemlnal'n of Plants, 104 
The Destruction of -Noxious 

Insects, lOii 
The Exiwrtatlon .if Beef, 171 
Treatment of Unmanagebla 

Horses, 170 
To Our Patrons, 177 
To Learn a Horse's Age, 191 
The Hoc Bouncer, 191 
Useful Hints, 87 
Useful Recipes, 160 
Useful Notes, 190 
Valuable Essays aud Discus- 
sions, ^6 
Value of Barnyard Dung, 69 
Veterinary Notes, 74 
Value of Road Dust, 1.59 
Vines (ironing Sinmgly, 159 
Ventlatlon, 167 
Veget'le Food, an Essay on, 182 
Whv don't Chickens Lay I 9 
Walking Hordes, 11 
Winter Yard for Sheep, 15 
What Kind of Oil I IH, 41 
Walking Horses vs. Trott'g, 31 
What It will do, 32 
Where did they come fromi 50 
Which Potato Is the Best? 58 
What Causes Honey-Dew? 60 
What will I'ayJ 62 
Whipp'g Horses Dangerous, 63 
Will Bec-Keeplng Pav t 78 
What Is the Best .Mod'e of Arti- 
ficial Swarming ? 76 
Worms In Fowls, 95,78 
White and Red Wheat, 79 
Whitewash, 79 
White Cochins, 81 
What Country Papen do, 88 
Which Ways should Drllli 

Hun I 90 
Whitc-Crestcd Bl'k Polish, 101 
Watercresses, 112 
Where the Potato Bugs go, 114 
Western Crop Heporu, 1-7 
What Is Blight! 1 9 
Wheat Growing. 1 8 
What Kind of Wheat shall w« 

Sow? 142 
What Cause* Blight? 149 
Why large Cities Escape Thun- 
derbolts, 155 
When and Why Lamps Ex- 
plode, 174 
Warmed-Up Mutton, 175 
What Shall we Eat ? 183 
Wheat Supply In England, I9i 
Waste on the Farm, 192 
Watering Winter PlanU, Ul 
Yard for Plgi, 15 
Yorkablres, IBS 



INDEX TO ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Arctic Wolvcreen, or Glut- I Bl'k Polish, White-crested, 101 

ton, 132 Centennial Grounds (Birds-eye 

Barred Owl, the, 133 View) 10 

Black Cochins, 17 Chester Whltel, 18 

Black Hamburgs, 135 I Dorkings, 48 



Houdans, 65 
Light Brahmas, 35 
Locust, the, 132 
Magpie Pigeon, the, 124 
Morse, or Walrus, the, 148 



Morell, the, 149 
Mushroom, the, 149 
Oriole, Nest of the 21 
Peck's Liquid Atomizer, 69 
Queen of torksblra 2d, 165 



Red Echmyd.the, IT 
Sloth or A , the, 5 
Swallows, 51 
Thrush, the, 54 
White Cochloa, 21 



IV. 



INDEX. 



INDEX TO SCIENTIFIC NAMES. 



Asparagus ofBcinalus, 2 

Asparagine, 2 
Agrotis scandens, 19 
Agelaius phoeniceus, 20 
Astonoinus voclferus, 20 
Articulata, 22 
Aphis, 67 

AmaraDthus bicolor, 87 
Amaranthus tricolor, 87 
Amaranthus 6ilicifolia,87 
Abies taxifolia, S3 
Abies tenuiorifolia, 83 
Abies minor, 8S 
Abies pisaifolia, 83 
Arma spinnsa, 10 ', 161, 
Asopia costalis, 114 
Atticus luBa, 11.5 
Amanita muscarlus, 123 
Agaricus procserus, 123 
Agaricus fus'pes, 123 
Agaricus deliciosus, 123 
Affaricus rophyllus, 1^3 
Aphis persica, 1-9 
Apion robinea, 1 9 
Anvbopteryx vornata, 1'.9 
Attacus cecropia, 134 
Agaricus campestris, 149 
Apium gravcolus, 163 
jEgeria cuculiets, 3 
.iEglalitis vocifcrus, 20 
Althea rosse, 41 
Althea officinalis, 41 
iEgeria exitosa, 1^9 
Andropogon, 88 
jEsculus hlppocastaneum, 129, 

135 
Acridium Americanum, 132 
Bradypidse. 5 
Bradypus dactylus, 5 
Eradypus bidactylus, 5 
Bradypus tridactylus, 5 
Bufo Americana, 53 
Brassica oleracea, 66, 82 
Bombylius, SH 
Batrachia, 85 
Buchloe dactyloides, 88 
Baletus edulus, l23 
Bascanion constrictor, 162 
Cruda, 3 

COLEOPTERA, 129, 3 

Cyanurus cr status, 20 
Colaptus auratus, 20 
Chaelaura pelasgia, 20 



Chordelles popetua, 20 

CrkiiiDM, 33 

C0.MPO8IT.*, 33 

Cyanura hortensls, 33 

Cyanura scolymus, 33 

Cyanura cinerea, 33 

ClMYKID^, 38 

Cotyle riparia, 51 

Cotyle serripeunls, 51 

Cotyle pelasgia, 51 

Ctpsclid^b, 51 

Cecidomyia trlticl, 53,. US 

Capsus, 67 

Calidum,72 

Canna, 72 

Chelonia, SS 

CratKgus, 90 

Cassidid.«, t-5 

Captocycla aurichalacea, 85 

Chrtomelid^, t-5 

Corydalus comutus, 103 

Colosoma calidum, 102 

CURCEI.IOND^, 114 

Catocala, 115 

Cathartes aura, 115 

Clytus robinea, 1 9 

Caloptinus femer-rubrum, 132 

Cychrus viduns, 134 

Calopteni, 135 

Clotho arielaus, 162 

Chrjsan themum leucanthe- 

mum, 167 
Chrysau themum vulgareum, 

167 
Daphni.*, 1 
Diceutra, 72 
Dahlia, 72 

Desmocerus cyanug, 67 
Dolichr nyx oryzivorus, 143 
Danaus archipes, 164 , 

Ephemera vulgata, 1 
Echynnus rufus, 17 
Eclopistes raigratorlus, 20 
Ellopiaribearia, 102 
Elaphideon putator, 129 
Eriosoma lanigera, 14S 
Euschistes puncticeps, 161 
Elaps fulvius, 162 
Epigasa repens, 166 
Edentata, 5 
Empretia stimuli, 134 
FvsaiT>M, 36 
Fillaria, K5 



Fulica amerlcana, 143 

Gladiolus, 53 

Gordius, ^5 

Galeruca xanthomalffina, 129, 

130 
Galeruca calmariensis, 131 
Gulo arcticus, 132 
Gulo luscaus, 132 
Gulo vulgaris, 132 
Guianaubl rosae, 59 
Herbe carella, 2 
Harelda glacialls, 3 
Htmenopteha, 3 
HarpalidjE, 19 
Hirundo horreorum, 20, 51 
Hellauthus tuberosus, 33 
TI biscuE escnlena, 41 
HlRl'NDINMD.*, 51 
Helianthus annuus, 51 
Hirundo lunifrous, 51 
Hirundo bicolor, 51 
Hirundo esculenta, 52 
Hispa suturalls, 1-9 
Hydna, 1^3 
Halolepta equalis, 164 
Hylotrupes fullates, 179 
Ichneumonidae, 3 
Icterus Baltimore, 20 
Iris, 58 

Iguana tuberculata, 85 
Iris germanica, 72 
Kalon kai agathon, 123 
Lepsima, 18 
Lacnosterna friscu, 3& 
Lyg rus re ictus, 36 
Lllium lancefolium, 53 
Lilium.'uperbum, 58 
Lilium pennsylvanlcum, .58 
Lilium philadelphicum, 58 
Lilium candidiura, 58 
Lilium thurnbergianura, .58 
Leguminosa, 88 
Lecania acerella, 101 
Lucanium abbiliuea, 102 
Lacnosterna quercina, 115 
Lycopersicum esculentum, 118 
Lycopersicum quadrundum IIS 
Lepidoptera, 1.9 
Locusta Carolina, 132 
Locusta sulpurea, 132 
Meoatherium, 5 
Meoalonyx, 5 
Mtlodon, 5 



Mykipoda, 22 
Melonotes Ineertns, 38 
Medicago sativa, 8i 
Medicago lupultina, 88 
MelllotUB, 8s 

Myrmecocystes melligrauB, 66 
Myrmecocystes ihexicanus, 66 
Macrodactylus subspinosus, 67 
Marasmius oreades, 123 
Marasraius urens, 123 
Nematus ventricosus, 102 

NOCTUID^, 19 

Ornithogalium, 2 

Ophidia, 85 

Ostracion, 115 

Orcillla, 123 

Orum, 124 

Onciderus cingulatus, 129, 230 

Oedipoda, 13.! 

Oethalium septlcum, 149 

Palingeniabilineata, 2 

Polistes fuscates, 3 

Pieris rapse, 19, ^5 

Prionus laticalis, 34 

Peronouspora infestaus, 37 

Progne purpurea, 51 

Planesticus migratorius, 52 

P(EONi.a;, 73 

Poma'a, 90 

Phylloxera vastatrlx, 84. 150, 

130 
Pel duota punctata, 103 
Pristiophora grosularla, 102 
Philampelis satellitia, 102, 164 
Procris Americana, 102 
Poma amoris, 118 
Pomum aureum, 113 
Polyporus squaraosus, 124 
Pemphigus, 14s 
Phoca leonina,143 
Phrynosoma comutus, 85 
Pynethruno eorueum, 167 
Quieeaulus versicolor, '-0 
Kibes grossularia, 17ci 
Klpiphorus, 3 
Kosa damascena, 54 
Rosa centlfolia, 54 
Rosa galitta, 54 
Rosa spinosisima, 54 
Rosa alba, 54 
Rosa rubiginosus, 54 
Rosa lutea, 54 
Rosa rulifola, 54 



Rosa arvensls, 54 

Rlbes album, 103 

Rlbes rubrum, 103 

Ranunculus, 124 

SpirEjE, 19 

Sturnella magna, 20 

Sialia sialis, 20 

Sayorlua fuscus, 20 

Sauria, 85 

■Sesteria dactyloides, 88 

Setanla celliata, 88 

Sorghum, 83 

Sambucus canadensis, 67 

Sambueus pubeus, 67 

Sambucus nigra, 67 

Salanlria rosae, 84, 148 

Sesia, 102 

Sphinx 5-maculata, 103 

Sphenophorus zea, 114 

Sniilia, 1 9 

Saperda bivittata, 129 

Salandria pyri, 133 

Strix nebulosa, 133 

Saturnia lo, 134 

Sciara thome, 147 

Serracena variolaris, 154 

Scoptophis"alleghanlensl8, 162 

Sitophiles granarius, .53 

Taraxacum denslconls, 3 

Tinea tapestella, 18 

Tinea vestanella, 18 

Tinea pelllonella, 18 

TORTRICID.«, 19 

Tardus migratorius, £0 

Turdus mustelaus, 20 

Troglodytes aedon, 20 

Troclulids, -.2, 37 

Trochilus colubris, 23 

Trochlhis gisas, 23 

Trochilus minimus, 23 

Tuberosa variagata, 58 

TURDID-E, 54 

Turdus fusceceus, 54 

Tritoma, 72 

Trifolium reflexura, 88 

Trioid^, 58 

Thy reus abbotii, 102 

TiPULiD^, 147 

Tingra wilsonii, 148 

Tingra maculata, 148 

Trlcheeus rosmarus, 148 

Trlgonocephala contortrli, 162 

Verbena stricta, 166 



I 



The Lancaster Farmer. 



Prof. S. S. RATHVON, Editor. 



LANCASTER, PA., JANUARY, 1876. 



Vol. vm. No. 1. 



OUR CENTENNIAL GREETING. 



"God and Liberty." 

Tlip n.itional "year of jubilee" has lieeii 
iisheied in, ami tlie Centennial Ainiiveisary 
of American Independenee is near itsliistoric 
advent. Aeeidents, im-idents, and impulsive 
ebullitions only oirur, liut gi-eat liistoi'ic events 
transpire. They are the develupnuMitsor visi- 
ble effects of a long line of minor auxiliary 
events that poiut to their uUiniation, and 
their permanence and einUiuuiiuce are l>ut tin; 
superstructures, based upon fundamental prin- 
cii)lcs that liad an existences anterior to the 
dcnonenient through winch tiK'y bi'camc cogni- 
zant to tlie world at large. The intelligent 
mind, noting carefully the history of the Amer- 
ican colonics, from the landing on Plyiunuth 
Rock down totheever-m'-morahlecuhniuation 
of events on the fourth of Jidy, 1770, must 
have often been impressed with the fact tliat, 
eventually, 

" America would be kuee." 

F)-ce(hm was the great boon vouchsafed to the 
human family in the "CJarden of Eden," and 
it was through the i)erversion of freedom that 
sorrow, sutfering, and moral death came into 
the world. A true huuuinhoDd cannot exist 
separated from the resiiousiliilities of freedom. 
In the absence of freedom, man becomes an 
irresponsible macliine, the plaything of destiny 
and a slave. 

The wheels of tiiui.' are rapidly carrying us 
towards the consunnnation of the lirst century 
of our national existence, and it behooves us to 
take a retrospective view of the jiast hundred 
years, and note the political, mtiral, and social 
progress we have made dining all that long 
period, and determine how far tlie present is 
in advance of the past. In almost every cle- 
jiartment of human industry, invention and 
skill, we will observe there has been wonder- 
ful progress made, some conspicuously great, 
some mediocre, and others almost impercepti- 
bly small. To all ajiiiearance, the " civilizing 
foundation of society" is far in the rear, in the 
progressive race, and this is an effcH that nuist 
have its cause in the moral, intellectual and do- 
mestic economy of the people it comprehends. 
There is hardly a human occupation that does 
not exhibit the most striking difference lietween 
now and a hundred years ag( >, in its results, sav- 
ing, perhaps, the single occupation of farming. 
It is unquesticmahle tliat the farmercannot pro- 
duce a greater quantity nor a better quality 
to the acre than he could one hundred years 
ago, and there muM be a reason for it. Has 
he made a right use of his freedom, or has he 
not used it at all ? Has he made use of liis 
brain power, or has he relied solely upon his 
muscular iiower V These questions we leave 
those to answer "whom thev most concern;" 
suffice it to say, that it is imiiossil)le for igno- 
rance to fonii a rational conception of the real 
height and depth and breadth of frceilom, for 
"he is a freeman only whom truth makes 
free." Slavery to customs because they are 
old, and prejudices against innovations because 
they are iicic, are forms of servitude that no 
freeman will endure with impunity. An in- 
fluential and iiopular agricultural cotemiiorary 
in his addpss to his patrons says, ■'farmers, 
as a general thing, do not read as much as 
mechanics. But one in a hundred reads a 
really good, trustworthy agriimUural |iaper, or 
meets a farmers' club to discuss (piestions of 
practical interest to him. The rest arc not 
well versed in matters pertaining to their own 
business," and much more to tlie same effect, 
which may be some of the reasons why farming 
has not made the same progress during the 
past hundred years that other occujiations 
have. Will they continue so through the 
coming century ? Tliey themselves must an- 



swer. The same authority also says, " [t is 
doul>tful whether there is a" farmer in the world 
worth a million dollars, or a tenth of that sum, 
who has madcithy farming. " ltiseipially(iues- 
tionable with us, if farmers ■lenerally ih.sire to 
be millionaires, or whether they .sli'iHld desire 
it. What the country most needs is more 
farmers, smaller farms and more thoro\igh 
cultivation. lunneuse overgrown farms an' 
neither evidences of gi'iu-i'al prosperity nor 
progH'ss. William 15. Astor died leaving an 
estate estimated at .:?U)tl,(H)ll.0IK), whilst i'."),!!!!!) 
poor in the city of New Vork are living in 
abject poverty or in states of semi-starvation. 
We are no agrarian, tor this would prolialily 
be the same condition of these people in a year 
or two henc-e, if a division of his estate was 
ntade am )ng tlii^m to-day. Bid there are a 
hundred thousand hardy, industrious young 
men, who would "go west" and lu'com; farm- 
ers to-morrow, if they had the pecuniary m-ans 
to locate a farm and stock it. 

True fre('dom involves not only moral intel- 
ligence, but also equality. There cannot, or 
will not, exist eciuality — even before tins law 
— where poverty and immense wealth are in 
contlict. If, in a hun(lrc<l years hence, our 
country exhibits fewer rich men, no po(U' peo- 
ple, more intelligent farmers and a higher 
state of cultivation, "all other things being 
equal," it will be a greater evidence of solid 
prosperity than is exhiljited to-day. 

But, as we remarked in the beginning of 
our article, this is our national i/nir of jubilee. 
Not a single adult individual who participates 
in it will ever participate in another centennial 
of American indepinidence. Therefore, it be- 
hooves the farming i)\d)lic to make a record on 
this occasion that will be worthy of handing 
down to their remotest posterity. 

Less exposed to contaminating social inllu- 
ences, less prolligate as a class, more constitu- 
ti(mally robust, more industrious and farther 
removed from temptation than other men, 
there is more hope for the fanner in this coun- 
try than for any other class of its citizens. 
I.,et them therefore "make friends of the 
unrighteous mannnon" — that is, imitate the 
virtues and make use of the intellectual re- 
sourcesof the worthy amougother classes, and 
they will exhibit the .same evidences of mental 
and physical jirogress; and the huinlile aim of 
The Laxcasteii FAUMKit will always be to 
assist them in this. Every physical demon- 
stration is but a manifestation, in correspond- 
ence with moral and intellectual culture. 
With these remarks we wish our patrons a 
hapi)y and prosperous CENTENNIAL year. 



THE MAY-FLY. 
{Ephrmertt vnlgnta.) 

The May-tly has been, historically, very 
badly treated", and made aiipear a much 
pi)orer creature than it really is. As children, 
we were told on the best nursery author- 
ity that there was a iioor gnat that lived a 
.single day, and then died— a story which tilled 
our little minds with wonih'rand pity. It was 
a lelief to learn afterwards that this one day 
of winged existence was preceded by three 
years of aquatic life ; but this was (pialitied by 
the intelligence that through this long period 
it lived on mud. Such, indeed, was the a.s- 
serticm of .S.wanimerdam, and this strange 
opitnon, stamped with his great authority, has 
been received and handed dowTi tor moretlian 
two hundred years almost to our own (lay. 
Mud was always found in the larva on dis.sec- 
tion ; therefiire it must eat mud and live on it. 
Messrs. Kirby an<l .Sp,'n<'e had some misgiv- 
ings on the suliject, and thought it must eat, 
in addition, decaying vegetable substances. 
The Uev. .F. G. Wood, with his usual sagacity, 
while testifying to the constant presence of I 



the mud, thinks it probable that it is taken 
invohmlarily with its other fi«>d. whatever 
that may he. In a translation of Louis Ki- 
giiier's entertaining Hummary, entitled "Tlie 
Insi'ct World." published in this country last 
year, it is correcllv slated (hat this larva'feeiU 
on small insects; liul no authority is quolml, 
and the mud (pieslion is not .slirri-d. 

.My acqnainlance with tins A'/j/u'iiwra wiw 
made accidMitally some years ago. Dipping 
for Dn/i'iiii'v and other siirill crustaceaiiK. an 
advanced larva or pupa of Kit'irinrrd cu'v.i/a 
was iiieludcd in the captine, and altoi,'eilier 
transferred to a small miwiriinn. In a fort- 
night afteiwards not a water tlea wa.s left. 
The pupa, (pnvering with ex<Mtemeiit from 
head to tail, swo(»ped with uni-rring aim on 
the doomed cruslaei'aiis .so long as any were 
h-ft and he felt an appetil". A second sn|>- 
ply was given, and siiared the like fate; and 
now the growth of the pupa was eomplet<-<l. 
One tine May m )rning the gracefid tly wiw 
founil in the window, from which it e.scaiH-d 
iido the open air. 

It had left three or four exurlir, thrown off 
from time to time, and one of these, perha|is 
the la.st, exhibits, when moimted in bals;uii. a 
perfect im]ire.ssion of the momh, and miy 
throw some light u]ion tin- nature of the ("oimI. 
The jaws, when open, form a wide fnimel for 
the more ready capture of a nimble prey ; 
when closed, they seem designed to inlerlaci? 
each other anil form a compact front to bar 
all escape. The teeth exhibit a row of .slightly 
curved bars on one side, opposed on the otlier 
to a raised block, crowned with sharp serrated 
edges, and could be brought together with 
crushing elfect on the poor little crustaceans. 
The back of the month is partly closed by a 
singular and curious contrivance; aiieep, egg- 
shaped sack extends a<rross it, opening into 
the throat by valves or slits, fenced oil the out- 
side with tine hairs, which would permit the 
downward passage of a too lively daplmia, 
l)id jirevent its return. And here we may 
probably account for the constaid preseiic-e of 
mud in the inteslinal canal. A momhful 
taken involuntarily in a struggle at the bottom 
with a liveh' l)rey, and swallowi'd with it, 
would be retained by the line sieves aerossi 
the throat, and pa.ss "into the stomach. Such 
a condiment might be evi^n benuticial (for all 
such conlingeiKMes are weighed) by dividing 
the food, or, as seems very likcdy, by inerejus- 
iug the gravitv of the body after a meal, and so 
enabling the larva to remain without effort at 
the bottom. .My a(|Uarinm contained no nnid, 
aiul yel the pupa throve well ; but in streams 
and ('ddies it might be ditf.'rent for so light a 
creature, furnished with a large bre;ulth of 
bronchial plates, lo maintain it-s jilace or re- 
main in concealment without ballast: or it 
might be useful in other ways which we cjin- 
not even guess. — .S. S., in Srirnrf (joKxip. 

.\hhough the foregoing relates to a foreign 
insect, yet surely .f>iiw of our reailers mu.st 
know \vhat an Kiilirmrrn or "May-tly" is; 
but that they <('/ do not know was made very 
mainfest la.st summer, alMiut tlu' period when 
the " Hascal Cra-sshopiHT " was coiinnilting 
such direful depredations uiMin the crops of 
the Western .Stat^.s. 

A tniin of cars pa.ssed on the railroad 
through Lancaster, ami stopivd for a short 
time to detach or attach a car, one of which 
cars caused considerable anxiety. This w-.w 
a car loaded with Imidier, and all over it. in 
groups of from ten to tifty, wen- ,Hitting Ihcso 
Ephemerans. which .some ]ie<>pU- (of the usual 
intidligence on other subjects) supposed might 
be the albre.sjjid " hop|H'r." in one of its forms. 
To those l)oin and raised, or for a numlxT of 
years, residing on the banks of a river or 
"creek, the Mav-lly miLst Im; one of the most 
familiar objects of the insect world: The 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[January, 



various species appear in the spring, and at 
dittiprent periods during the summer, and we are 
quite confident that «-e noticed tliem and made 
bates of thtm "to catch tlie little fishes" 
more than fitty years ago ; and we even at 
that early period noticed their second trans- 
formations and exuvia or cast-off skins. The 
Bank Swallows along the Susquehanna fared 
sumptuously on these May-flies in their brief 
Season. Although highly organized, they are 
rather delicate in their structure, feeble or 
sluggish in tlight, and during their brief imago 
period do not partake of any food ; indeed, 
although it is clear that they do to a great ex- 
tent live on small aquatic animals, and have 
a mouth organized for that purpose while they 
are larirF^ yet in the mature state the mouth 
is only rudimental or obsolete, and they have 
not the power, if they even had the will, to 
appropriate any kind of food. We see them 
yet, in rows like soldiers, on the fence rails 
ak>ng the Susquehanna, the Cliiques and the 
Conestoga. 

When they first evolve from the pupa and 
pseudo-pupa state they are^ usually, or nearly 
white, but they finally change to darker col- 
ors, from a sulphur yellow to a reddish brown, 
according to the species. The wings become 
hyaline or purple tinted. The two fore-feet 
usually project in fi'ont of the body, some- 
times raised upward at the ends, and the 
wings are closely held back to back, and 
nearly perjiendicular. They are further usu- 
ally distinguished by two or three long hair- 
like filaments at the'hind end of the body, and 
the eyes are proportionately large, and of a 
golden or coppery lustre. The geiuis Ephe- 
mera is the type of the now extensive family 
EpHEMERADiE, to wliicli bcloug many genera 
and species. Perhaps tlie most common ex- 
ample of these insects along our waters is the 
" two-tailed May-fly," called in some locali- 
ties in the West the "Mormon-fly" (Palin- 
fjenia bilineata of Say). Before their brief 
lamp of life is extinguished, the females de- 
posit their eggs in the water, and from these 
subsequent broods are reared. Their use in 
the economy of nature is probably solely to 
furnish food for the lugher orders of animals, 
especially fishes and birds. 



OUR CULTIVATED VEGETABLES. 



No. 4. — Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis). 

This delicious vegetable is sujiiwsed to have 
come into use as food about two hundred years 
before the Christian era ; its excellent qualtics 
are said to have been made known by that 
most distinguished and ancient writer on agri- 
culture, the elder Cato ; he has treated no sub- 
ject with greater care, the last chapter of his 
great work being devoted to this vegetable. It 
appears to have been known to the ancients as 
growing wild, under the name of Uorruda. 
Cato advised the sowing of the seed of this 
plant in the beds of the Vinedresser's reeds, 
which are cultivated in Italy for the support 
of the vines ; and they should be burnt in the 
spring of the third year, as the ashes would 
act as a maimre to the future crops. He also 
recommends that the plants be renewed after 
eight or nine years. AtheniPu.s, who wrote 
about the third century, tells that this plant 
was divided into two varieties, the mountain 
and the marsh ; and that in some parts of 
Lybia they attained the thickness of a Cyprian 
reed, and were several feet in height; he also 
informs us that the plant was used as a remedy 
in all diseases. But Diphilus, a physician, 
who lived and wrote about the same time, and 
the author of a work "On Diet fit for persons 
in Good and Bad Health," declares that as- 
paragus, was very hurtful to the sight. Pliny 
states that asparagus, which formerly grew 
wild, so that every man might gather it, was in 
his time carefully cherished in gardens, particu- 
larly at Raveima, where the cultivated plant 
was so large that three heads would weigh a 
pound, and were sold for an «.s (about three 
farthings); but, according to Martial, those 
grown at Ravenna were no better than the 
wild. 



Tlie Roman cooks used to choose the finest 
heads of this vegetable and dry them ; and 
when wanted for the table, put tliem into hot 
water and let them boil quickly for a few 
minutes; hence the proverb, "Doit quicker 
than you can cook asparagus," — when any- 
thing was required in haste. Suetonius in- 
forms us in his "Life of Augustus," that this 
was a favorite expression of that emperor, 
when he wished that any affair might be con- 
cluded without delay. Pliny states that the 
uncultivated kinds grew upon the mountains in 
ditierent countries, and that the plains of 
Tipi)er Germany are full it. Juvenal, in a 
description of a dinner given to a friend, men- 
tions the mountain asparagus : 

" Asparaijus, l)e6iiles, 
Pickled by my bailifl's plain but cleanly bride, 
Who, wlien the wheel's domestic task is o'er, 
Culls from the hills my vegetable store." 

It w-as believed by the ancients that if a per- 
son anointed himself with a liniment made 
of asparagus and oil, the bees would not ap- 
l)roach or sting him. They also had another 
absurd idea, that pounded rams' horns buried 
in the ground would produce this vegetable. 

We cannot trace the cultivation of asparagus 
in England; it is evidently indigenous to the 
country, for Gerard states that the manured or 
garden asparagus, which comesupof thesizeof 
the largest swans' quills, is the same as the wild, 
but, like other vegetables, is made larger by 
cultivation. The wild, he .says, is "found in 
Essex, in the meadows adjoining a mill be- 
yond a village called Thorpe, and also at Sin- 
gleton, not far from Curbie, and in the mead- 
ows about Moulton, in Lincolnshire ; likewise 
itgroweth in great plenty near unto Harwich." 
The same author informs us that in Queen 
Elizabeth's time it was sodden in flesh-broth, 
or boiled in fair water and seasoned with oil, 
vinegar, salt and pepper, then served at men's 
tables for salad. Evelyn, in his " Acetoria " 
(1099) says, "that next to flesh, nothing is so 
nourishing as asparagus ; it was sometimes 
eaten raw with oil and vinegar, but v,ns more 
delicate if speedily boiled, so as not to lose its 
color." He tells us he did not think the large 
Dutch kind, "which was raised in high manured 
beds, so sweet and agreeable as those of mod- 
erate size, and yet to show what sohim, ccclum, 
and industry will efl'ect, the honorable and 
learned Charles Hutton made my wife a pres- 
ent of sixteen asparagus, the whole bundle 
containing only sixty ; weight 15^ pounds. So 
allowing four ounces to each asparagus, one 
was as nmch as one would desire to eat, and 
what was most observable, they were not 
raised or forced by any extraordinary compast 
but grown in a more natural, sweet, rich and 
well cultivated soil about Battersea. " Miller, 
in his "dictionary, "states that a friend of his 
procured some seed of the wild kind, which he 
cultivated with great care in very rich ground, 
yet could not get the roots to produce a stem 
more than half the size of the garden kind 
which grew on the same bed, but he always 
found the wild sort come up ten days or a 
week earlier in the spring, and that the shoots 
were exceedingly sweet. Leonard Meager, in 
his "English Gardener," published in 1083, 
informs us, that in his time the London mar- 
ket was well su|iplied with forced asparagus ; 
the means employed were by placing the roots 
on warm manure beds. Battersea, Mortlake 
and Deptford used to be the jirincipal locali- 
ties from which the metropolis was sui)plied ; 
Mortlake alone, at one time, had more than a 
lumdred acres under this crop, and a Mr. 
Grayson, of that place, once produced a hun- 
dred heads that weighed 42 pounds. There 
are accounts of some very large heads of this 
vegetable being produced on some parts of the 
continent; thus, we read in Keysler's "Trav- 
els," that at Danustadt, in 1730, some large 
asparagus heads were grown, some of which 
weighed half a pound ; some hundreds of these 
heads were sent as a present to the Elector 
Palatine. 

The asparagus trade in France is becoming 
of more importance every year. The princiiial 
place of its culture near Paris is Argenteuil, 
from which place in 1820 about five thousand 



bundles were sent to the market, hut now the 
product probably exceeds a million. -It is 
grown to a very great size, the maximum at- 
tained at the present time being eight inches 
in circumference ; but a dish of such grass costs 
from 4U to 50 francs. In the south of France 
this vegetalile is frequently grown between the 
vines. There was an asparagus-growing com- 
pany started at Brunswick in 1809 ; several 
hundred acres are devoted to this vegetable 
and it bids fair to rival that of Argenteuil.' 
This vegetable might be cultivated in England 
with great success, in soils consisting of little 
else than sea-sand, dressed annually with sea- 
weed, on many spots on the coast that will 
hardly produce any other vegetable. A few 
years since a very large variety was introduced 
from America tmder the name of "Conover's 
colossal asparagus." 

The wild asparagus is found in many parts 
of Europe where the soil is light, containing 
an amount of salt, which appears to be neces- 
sary for this plant. The salt steppes of Russia, 
Mr. Loudon tel's us, are covered with it, and 
horses and oxen eat it like grass. In England 
it is found growing in Cornwall, MuUion 
Island, near Lizard's Point, Kyname Core, 
called Asjiaragus Island ; also on the western 
and .southwestern coast. Among the various 
virtues attributed to this plant is one given by 
Antonie Mizold, in the seventh century, who 
stat( s that if the root is put on a tooth that 
aches violently it causes it to come out without 
pain. The sprouts contain a peculiar crystal- 
line substance called aqKiragine, which 'was 
formerly used in medicine, but is not now re- 
tained in the pharmacopia. Sometimes a de- 
coctive is given as a diuretic in dropsies. 

Loudon states that the flower stalks of Orni- 
thogalum are used in some parts of Glouces- 
tershire, and sold in Bath under the name of 
Prussian asparagus ; also the stalks of the 
"salsify." The mid-rib of the beet is some- 
times dressed as this vegetable, and the young 
buds of the hop are said to be scarcely inferior 
in taste. The tender shoots of the Typha, a 
kind of reed, are eaten by the Cossaclfs like 
asparagus. Under the general name of aspar- 
gus the ancients were accustomed to class all 
young sj>routs of vegetables which were used 
in that state. The word is almost literally 
Greek, signifying a young shoot before it un- 
folds its leaves, as handed down to us by 
Dioseorides. Gerard gives nearly the same 
definition, but in English, he states, it is 
called "sperage." Parkinson says our Eng- 
lish writers "called asparagus 'sperage;' 
when these names were vilely corrupted into 
')-par7Wt'-grass, ' and thence frittered dowii into 
grass, I am unable to say." Batty Langly, 
in "Principles of Gardening" (1728) says, 
"the top of the bud is of the form of a spar- 
row's bill and from thence vulgarly called 
sparrow-grass." In low Dutch it is called 
"coralcrunt," or Herhe caralli, coral-wort, in 
respect to its berries, the seeds of which have 
been recommended as a substitute for coffee. 
The young plants gaown in pots make most 
beautiful decorations for the room or dining- 
table. — J/. G. Olusirpioolc, Svience Gossip, ISlo. 

We cannot inform our readers at what period 
a.sparagus was introduced into the United 
States, nor could such information be of any 
material advantage to them at the present 
time. It was not i)robably first introduced as 
a culinary vegetable, but as something mainly 
ornamental; at least, such is our earliest recol- 
lection of it, which extends back a period of 
about fifty years. It was then called "spar- 
row-grass," and was used to decorate rooms 
and objects on festal occasions, especially when 
it was in its beautiful red and wax-like fruit. 
Although a few stalks of it were grown in 
many gardens, and the branches twined around 
looking-glas.ses and picture frames as fly 
screens during the summer season, yet we do 
not know of its being very specially cultivated 
for culinary purposes. During the last twen- 
ty-five or thirty years, however, it has been 
coming more and more into use, and is now 
one of the cherished objects of the market 
gardener. It is now so unlilve the original 
wild plant from which it sprung, that no one 



1876.] 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



but a professed and practical botanist would 
be able to recognize tlie native plant in its na- 
tive localities. The leadins varieties which 
have been cultivated from the oii<;inal, and 
which are now the most popular in the United 
States, are the '' Litrije I'liqilc Toji"" and the 
" Co!o,s.sa(, " and seedsmen and truck jjardeii- 
crs esteem these in the main "<j;ood etionuli," 
without flivins themselves nnicli troid>lealiont 
others. On the subject of this veiiclalile, Mr. 
Landreth, in his llund Ifetjislrr ihv 1S7."), says : 
"There are, it is said, .several varieties of 
asparagus, but the ditl'erence mainly arises 
from the nature of the soil. On strong loamy 
land the growth is more rolaisl. and the shoots 
more tender than ou sandy soil. The variety 
termed Coffissdl is of extraordinary size, and 
the conciUTcnt testimony of experii'iiced mar- 
ket gardeners leaves no room for doubt that 
it really is of nuich more vigorous growth than 
ordinary — whether the habit be lixed l)y cul- 
ture, long directed to one object, or is tiie re- 
sult of accident. We feel sure, however, that 
anil variety will surely grow as large as desir- 
able, if the plants have |)lenly of room and 
niauiu'e. Market men fre(|uenily plant :i by 4 
and dress heavily every year ; the sirongslioots 
occasionally exposed in market, are produced 
under the inlluenee of excessive stiuuUation. 
The quality of asparagus will mainly depend 
on the strength of the soil ; it is a voracious 
plant, and can readily digest any amount of 
the strongest manure food, which it is better 
to apply on the surface, late in autumn, to be 
forked in early in spring. .Salt is also an ex- 
cellent application to asparagus beds. The 
brine from beef or pork b.irrels i)roduces a 
strong and vigorous growth." Asparagus, 
like peas, we only have access to for a short 
seas(m in early summer, and then we see noth- 
ing more of it again for another year. On the 
subject of " forcing " and a continuous supplv, 
"Schenk's Gardeners' Text Book" say.s : 
"With marketmen it is a matter of profit to 
produce asparagus out of season ; this must 
be accomplished by artificial heat. The first 
plantation may be made in the middle of 
autumn, and others every four weeks after- 
ward until the middle of March ; by which 
means a continued supply of shoots can be 
obtained from December up to the first cut- 
ting in the open ground. The process is sim- 
l)le and easily practiced. The materials for 
the hot bed should first undergo fermentation, 
that when under a frame tlie heat may bo 
gentle and regular ; because if it be violent, 
it is apt to bring the plants up weak and 
'spindling.' Dung may be advantageously 
mixed with ashes and tan-bark, which mix- 
ture, by insuring mildness and regularity in 
heat, is better than duug. The luaximuin 
heat ought not to exceed (5")^. " 

Select the earliest and finest seeds, and these 
will be grown on the earliest and finest shoots 
— those having large close heads — allowed to 
nm up to seed without having been cut. In 
the autumn wheu the berries are riiie they 
should be stored in a dry ])lace until spring, 
for sowing. In this vegetable, like nearly all 
others, the improvem'nt of the plant largely 
depends ou judicious sehrtiou in the first place, 
and then manure and salt culture afterwards. 



QUERIES AND ANSWERS. 

Mr. F., Lancnstfr rili/. Pit. — The beautiful 
wild duck you exhil)ited to us in December 
la,st, is a specimen of what is known among 
naturalists as the " Long-tailed Duck," (Har- 
ekla (iliu-iali.'') and what is most remarkable in 
reference to this individual is, that it should 
have been ca|)tured alive in a public street of 
Lancaster city. Although it is not considered 
rare in Jjaneaster county, yet its usual haliitat 
is seas, bays, and larger streams, or rivers, 
and rarely swamps or marshes. Fts favorite 
food consists of mollnsks, crustaceans, and 
marine worms, and presumably acpiatic; insects 
also, as well as the fruit of aciuatic vegetation, 
and so forth. This is the third wild bird that 
has l)een captured within the corporate limits 
of Lancaster city, within about six months. 
A very perceptible change takes place iu the 



idnmagc of this bird during the winter season, 
but this subject was still in its .summer garb. 
The form of its long tail ap|)roaches that of 
the common " I'in-tail," but liiat spi'cics is 
nmeh larger, and is of a mottled gn^y in lolor. 
whilst the species uudi'r consideration is black 
anil white, with the oiitlinesof color distinctly 
marked, and no admixtures whatever, except 
around and alM)ve tin; eyes, which is .a light 
bluish grey. A specimen is now in the museum 
of the Litiiuviiii Siicirty, but this one would be 
desirable should its proprietor gi't tired of it. 
./. /{. fc'., Linti- Vid'en, Lan. en., /^a.— We 
an; not able to determine positivc-lytlK; species 
of the larva' infesting your blackberry canes 
near the roots. They are comparatividy new 
to us, having never seen l)nt a single individ- 
ual on any former occasion, nor have we been 
able to find but a single nd'ereiice to it in any 
of the liooks in our possession, or to whieh we 
have access, and that is on page 1(17, vol. 1, of 
the Amrri-an Rnbiinilixji.'^t, editeil bv Prof. 
Charles V. Kilcy. This was a more practical 
and useful journal of entomology than any that 
ever came under om- observation, and yet its 
))ul>lication was snspendi'd for want of ade- 
quate support. The largest specimens of these 
"bon-rs" are fully an inch in length, and are 
of a very jiale yellow color ; the smaller speci- 
mens nearly white ; the head and feet a pale 
yellowish brown, and the jaws nearly black. 
They possess the characf eristics of Lepidop- 
terous larvic, (moths,' &(!.) and we have no 
doubt they belong to that order of insects. 
We are not ac(iuainted specifically with the 
moth, but it is very prob.ibly an /E,'erian, and 
very nearly allied in size and form to yh'/rria 
cwurbitii', which is som 'times so destructive 
to the S(iuash and puuqikhi vines, and of which 
we on one oc'casion found about twenty indi- 
viduals in a single vine, all located in the 
joints, and no where else, especially in those 
that had thrown out rootlets. The most fa- 
miliar examples of these insects are the peach 
tree borer, and one of the currant cane borers, 
another being a beetle. Some of the infested 
canes had holes near the ground, large enough 
for the entrance or escape of the larv;c, but as 
the canes were excavated above said holes as 
Well as below them, they are evidetitly aiier- 
tures of egress, and not of ingress, instinctive- 
ly prepared by the larv;c tor the escape of the, 
moths next spring. As we have never been 
very successful in breeding moths belonsing to 
this family, and as we are less favorably situ- 
ated now than form n-ly for that piu'pose, we 
would re(iuest our correspondent to siqiply us 
with some infested canes early next S|)ring, or, 
to cut off some of the caues above the holes, 
invert a bix over them having a cotton gauze 
or a muslin top, and capture the insects when 
they appear in the mi)th state in the spring or 
sununer. As they were still in the larva' state 
on the Sth of Di'cember, and very inert, they 
most likely remain in that coiKlition all winter, 
and only undergo th'ir pupal Iraiisformation 
after their sjjriug revival. These borers seem 
to subsist entirely upon the pith of the black- 
berry canes, and follow that <lown to its ter- 
mination in the roots, where they remain in 
winter quarters. We made this observation, 
that all our speciuK^nshail their heads u|)ward, 
and yet their bodies entirely tilled the chan- 
nels they occupied. They n\ust have bored 
downward, ai\<l coidd not have turned insiile 
of the channel they made. C'mdd they have 
come up from below backward, cut Uw hole 
in the side of the cane, and then by means of 
it, backed down again to their winter quarters ? 
Wc have witnessed as curious things as that 
in the econoini<'S of Ihi' insect w irld. 

As to a reiiudij for thes(^ borers, we would 
not recommend the digging up and entire de- 
struction of the " patch." Blackberry canes, 
under any circumstances, are but temporary. 
We would suggest the cutting out oidy su'di 
canes as are infested, and in most cases this 
will be apparent. Follow the excavation in 
the cane as far ius it goes downward, or until 
the borer is reached. Where the pith termi- 
nates or contracts, there the borer .stops; at 
least we fomul none below that ])oint. The 
infested portion may becut out without injury 



to the 80und portion which remains, and the 
next season the stalks may be "a.s good iW 
new." This work should be done, however, 
in the fall, or early iu the spring, to make it 
sure. 

Iliiufij Antx. — On page 172, Nov. numln'r of 
TiiK K.vitMKu, imder thecap(!ion of "Informa- 
tion Wanted," we referred to some II »(.•< that had 
been sent us from some unknown locality, and 
bv some unknown person. \ few days ago, 
.Vir. W. T. Strachan, of .Santa Fe, New .Mexi- 
co, called on us on his retm-n from that terri- 
tory to Liiicasti-r, and informed us that it w.w 
he who had seid, them, and that he had receiv- 
ed them from a .Mexican, but he could not 
give us much iiiform.iliou about their history 
or habits. These anl^are jirobably allieil to the 
■'sweet scented ants" of Texas, n'l'erred to in 
a recent paper on the subject, by Dr. (i. !.il.S'- 
CKCtTM, or they may be the victims of another 
species referred toby the same author; the latter 
which he designates as the " Kobber Ants," 
and stales that they eviscerate another species 
for tlie i»urposcM)fo!)taiinng the sweet c tntenUi 
of the stomach ; and that other species may 
be the oni' which we have received through 
Mr. S., as the great capacity of its stomach, 
or honey rei^eptacle, no il aibt woidd consti- 
tute ita "booty'" that wouhl exi'ite tliecu|>id- 
ily of a robber. Mr. .S. has kiiuJIy put us in 
cominimii'ation with Mr. F. Mi'ui'liv, of Santa 
Fe, and through him we expect, in dui' lime, 
to obtain the information we desire, and also 
more iterft'ct speciTueiis. As this is alniut all 
on this subject we are able to contribute at 
this time, we must therefore await the devel- 
opments of tlu! future, tor a more satisfiictory 
description of them. 

Dr. J. P. If. — The small brown cocoons 
whi(;h you gave us last spring, developed two 
spei'ies of wiilely difterent insects, one of which 
must he parasitii; on the other, but " which is 
which" we have not yet deterinined, especi- 
ally as one is a CahnijU-roiu^ insect, and the 
other H!/mrn'iiiternu.<<; and they emerged from 
the cocoons dm'ing our absence from home. 
When we received these cocoons we opened 
one of them ami made the following record : 

" May li, 1S7.'). A soft brownish silken co- 
coon, about lhree-<piarters of an inch in length 
anil the same iu circumference, with a com- 
pact, smooth, sei'dlike cocoon of nearly the 
same length within it, of adrabcolor. Within 
this a short, fat, white grub, or /<irca, without 
feet, and composed of a head and i:! .segments ; 
two dark eye-likespots on the white head, and 
a dark colored lahrum, or upper lip, but no 
visible m«)i(?i7/'*'.s or jaws; awhile projecting 
I'lbiiiin, or lower lip, and two labial appen- 
dages {}iH'j)i). The segmental divisions very 
distinct, with warty, or tubercular protulM-r- 
ances along the sides, especially on tho.se seg- 
ments between the thorax and the abdomen. 
About a il')7.en of the.sc cocoons were turned 
uji in plowing in a piece of new land." The 
larva' resendtles that of the chestnut weevil, 
and also that of the early stages of the com- 
mon wa-sp (PiilUttn). On the 1st of .\ugust 
we fomid the ends of live of thecooons open- 
ed, anin/i;*!'* specimens of a species of Itijiiit- 
Iwrus, and t>c:i of a species of f-lin'ttni'midtn; 
but which of the two spun the cocoons, if 
either of them, we are not able to determine. 
They are probably b ith par:tsit icon .some other 
largi'r insect, whii'h m ly have spun the co- 
coons. The necessity of earning our bread at 
an occupation that is almost entirely incom- 
patible with the continuous and succpssfiil re- 
sults of investigations of this kind, is one of 
the great " drawb.icks " Wi- are lalwring under, 
and hence we are often defeated, and our par- 
tial observ.itions amount to almost nothing.' 
We are confident that no other insect had ac- 
ces.s to these cocoons while they wei-e in our 
I)os.se-s.sion. That they were i)lowed out of 
the ground, we have only from "hearsay." 
But our record m;wh'. at the time and the sub- 
sequent development of the insects are /acta. 



The Dandelion ( TarrLitriim denskonia) was 
in bloom in Lancjuster county the iircsent 
month, a phenomenon which only realy occurs 
in this latitude. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[January, 



PARIS GREEN. 

As the discussion on tliis subject, wliich 
was going on last summer and which unsettled 
the minds of many timid iicople,' has now 
partially subsided, and in order to inform our 
readers in advance, how far our own recom- 
mendations have been justified by the opinions 
and experience of what we deem competent 
autliority, we publish the following excellent 
article from the New York Scmi-ired-ly Tribune 
of December 28, 1875. We do this the more 
readily, because two years ago we were com- 
pelkd to investigate a report that a whole 
family in the city of Reading, Pa., had been 
poisoned by eating Paris-greened jiotatoes, 
and when, by the assistance of Mr. Herman 
Strieker, of that city, the case was finally 
"holed," it was found to be clearly "bosh," 
without any foundation in/«r; whatever. 
Paris Green as an Insect Destroyer. 
The readers of the agricultural department 
of the 7'rihiM will rtmtmber that about a year 
ago the value of Paris green as an insecticide. 
and especially as a n medj-.against the ravages 
of the Colorado potato-beetle and the cotton 
worm, was fully discussed in the se columns. 
80 far as past t xiierience and the facts, at that 
time known, pennittid, its influence on the 
plant, on the soil, and on man, either indirectly 
through the soil or through the plant, was 
considered ; the conclusion arrived at being 
that, used with ordinary caution and judgment 
it was a valuable and safe remedy. This had 
long been the conclusion of practical men in 
the Mississipjii Valley who had used it exten- 
sively ; but the ijutstion was opened again by 
a paper read by Dr. J. L. LeConte, of Phila- 
delphia, before the National Academy of 
Science, which paper, from the theoretical 
side, strongly condtmned tlie use of the poison 
for the pur] osts nitntiontd, and which natur- 
ally attraetid considerable attention and wa^ 
barpid upon by the manufacturers of "potato 
bug machines," or their glib agents. The 
National Academy, after the reading of Dr. 
LtConte's paper, ajipointed a ccmmittce to 
"investigate and report upon the subject of 
the use of poisons applied to vegetables, or 
otherwise, for the destruction of deleterious 
insects and other animals," etc.; but that 
ccmmittee has, I believe, made no report yet. 
Prof. E. C. Kedzie, of the Michigan Agricul- 
tural Cejllege, has, heiwever, bttn carrying on 
a series of interesting experiments during the 
summer, and while visiting the college last 
August I had the jileasure of witnessing and 
makinguotesof the professor's operations. As 
he lias since given these results to the Ameri- 
can Public Health Association, and jiublished 
an abstract of them in the Deln H Free Press, 
I take the liberty of gi'ving them wider circu- 
lation. 

First, as to the use of the mineral for the 
Doiyphora. Does Paris green poison the 
tuber y Tubers taken f n m vines that had 
been repeatedly dosed with the ordinary mix- 
ture—as much Paris green, in fact, as they 
would bear— gave no trace of arsenic. Ee- 
garding the idea, which has been suggested, 
that the use of the jioison rendered the tubers 
watery and waxy, the conclusion is that such 
condition is brenight about by the .stunted 
growth and destruction e)f the vines caused by 
the insect, which thereby prevents maturity 
of the tuber. Does Paiis green poison the 
land ? This is meant, of course, in the sense 
of rendering the lard unfit for the growth of 
crops; and Preif. Kedzie justly consideis not 
only its immediate I ut its remote effect. Theo- 
retically, one would naturally infer that Paris 
green is converted into an insoluble jireci])i- 
tate or salt with the hydrated oxide of iron 
which exists in most soils ; but not resting the 
matter on theoretical or abstract reasoning, 
Prof. Kedzie made careful tests and experi- 
ments. He passed a solution of arsenious tri- 
oxide through common garden soil, and fil- 
tered Paris green in a solution of hydrochleiric 
acid through dry earth. In neither case 
could any poison be detected in the filtrate by 
the severest tests. Soil taken from a field of 
wheat that had been sown with Paris green 



at the rate of five pounds to the acre, showed 
no trace of the poison when submitted to any 
or all e)f the tests which the soil would get by 
natural .solvents in the field, but distinctly 
showed the arsenic when treated with dilute 
sulphuric acid. The Paris green was sown on 
the ground early in spring, and was thick 
enough to give a very distinct green tint to 
the surface. The grain and the straw were 
submitted to careful chemical examination, 
as wcie also cabbages grown in soil that had 
the year before been in potatoes and received 
a heavy siirinkling eif green. No trace of the 
pe.ison was tbunel in cither, and it was ob- 
served that the chipmueks ate large quantities 
of the grain without injury. The more prac- 
tical conclusions from Prof. Kedzie's experi- 
ments may be thus summed up : 

1. Paris green that has been four months in 
the soil no lemger remains as such, but has 
passed into some less soluble state, and is uu- 
affected by the ordinary solvents of the soil. 

2. When applied in small eiuantities, such as 
alone are necessary in destroying injin-ious in- 
sects, it does not afi'ect the health of the plant. 

3. The power of the soil to hold arsenious 
acids and arsenites in insoluble form will pre- 
vent water from becoming poisoned, unless 
the green is used in excess of any rtciuirement 
as an insecticide. 

These experiments of Prof. Kedzie's accord, 
so far as they refer to the influence of Paris 
green on man thre^ugh the plant, with others 
by Prof. McMurtrie, of the Department of 
Agriculture, which showed that even where 
the green was applied to the soil in such 
quantities as to cause the wilting or death of 
the plants, the most rigorous chemical analysis 
could detect no trace of arsenic in the conipej- 
sition of the plants themselves. They also 
fully bear out the opinions which I have al- 
wajs held, and justify the advice w hich I have 
given. 

Before leaving this subject of remedies for 
the Colorado potato-beetle, it may be well to 
say a few words about two other compounds 
that have been strongly recommended and ad- 
vertised as such. The most notable of these 
is that advertised as " Potato Pest Poi-'on" 
by the Ledi Chemical "Works of Ledi, N.J. 
It is put up in pound packages, which are sold 
at $1 each, with directions to dissolve four 
otmces in two ejuarts of hot watei', then i)our 
into a barrel containing 80 gallons of cold 
water, and use on the vines in as fine a sjiray 
as possible. Analysis shows it to be com- 
posed of one part pure salt and one lart of ar- 
senic (arsenate of copper), and it has the gen- 
eral color and appearance of ccmmon salt. 
Early in September, during epiite hot and dry 
weather. I had this poisem tested in a field of 
late potatoes belonging to Mr. W. Hinterthur, 
of La Clede, Mo., the field having been badly 
infested during the summer, but about half 
the vines having been saved by pretty con.staut 
hi nd-pie-king. These were at the time fairly 
covered with the insect in the egg, larva, and 
beetle states. Five rows were treated with 
the poison, both according to directions and 
by finely sprinkling the dry powder over the 
vines. As soon as the peiwder touched the 
larva?, they writhed and became restless as 
with pain, the powder dissolved and formed 
a translucent coating upon them, and in about 
three hours they began to die. The beetles 
were not so easily affected, tl ougli they too 
were in timekilleel by it. Used as directed, it 
destroys, but hi.rdly as efficiently as the ordi- 
nary Paris gieen mixture. A pound of Paris 
green, costing much less than a pound of the 
Lodi ]ioiscn, will go nearly as far in protect- 
ing a field of potatoes, arid I cannot see any 
advantage to a farmer frem the employment 
of a patent poisonous compound of the nature 
of winch he is ignorant when a cheaper one is 
at hand. The color of the Lodi poison is also 
very objectionable, as there is much more 
danger in the use of poisons when their color 
renders them undistinguishablefrom ordinary 
salt. The other powder is one prepared by a 
gentleman in Philadelphia, and strongly re- 
commended as a "potato-bug remedy." It 
was given to me by Dr. J. L. I.e Coute for 



trial. It is a dull, yellowish powder, which, 
when analyzed, proves to be crude "flowers 
of sulphur," containing 95 per cent, of sul- 
phur and 5 per cent, of impurity and coloring 
matter, such as yellow ochre, sand, etc. A 
thorough trial on the potato patch above men- 
tioned showed it to be entirely worthless. In 
conclusion, the fact that Paris green, cau- 
tiously handled and judiciously used, is an ex- 
cellent and cheap antidote to the ravages of 
the Coleirado potato-beetle cannot be too 
strongly urged. That it is usefid against some 
other insect pests is also true ; but it is some- 
times recommended for suctorial insects, 
which it will not afliect as it does those which 
masticate, and its too general use should be 
opposed. In an emergency it may be used 
against the canker woim, as J. B. Upson, of 
Reickford, 111., (Weekly SVj^kiic, June 2, 1875) 
and others have shown. Yet I cannot recom- 
mend it in such a case where other available 
preventive means are at hand— means which 
are as simple as they are dangerless. — Prof, 
a Y. Biky. 

SELECTION AND CHANGE OF SEEDS. 

AVe commend the remarks of our veneralile 
correspondent, J. B. Garber, esq., to the can- 
did considerations of our agricultural friends, 
based as they are on close observation, and a 
lemg life of practical experience. We believe 
that " in-and-in-breeding " of live stock is gen- 
erally considered deteriorating, and therefore 
that the crossing of breeds at certain intervals 
tends to their improvement. It is not sure, 
however, that this law obtains to the same 
extent in the vegetable kingdom. From our 
own observations and the experiences of prac- 
tical agriculturists, we would repose more 
cemfidence in judicious and thorough "selec- 
tion," than in an entire change of seed. The 
experiments with foreign seeds in this coun- 
ti y, in our view, have been anything l)ut suc- 
cessful in a general sense. Perhaps if more 
attention had been paid to proper selection, 
backed by thorough culture and judicious 
manuring, the results would have been more 
fitvorable. Even in many cases where the 
change of seed has seemed to produce a good 
efi'e ct, it has been merely a spasmodic result, 
attributable more to a favorable condition of 
the season and other latent unknown causes, 
than to a change in seed ; and, in another 
season and under diflerent circumstances, 
things have relapsed into their former condi- 
tion. A single experiment, on either a small 
or a large scale, is not always sufticicnt to de- 
teimint'^ such a question. Indeed, we are of 
opinion that in experimental agriculture, no 
greater mistake s have been made than those 
wliie-h estimated general results on the effects 
of special and limited exj'criments. If one 
hill jiioduccs a hundred potatoes it does not 
by any means indicate that ten hills will pro- 
eluce a thenis and— imless they are so far sep- 
arated tliat eme cannot by any means absorb 
the elementary substances due to another. 
Neither will a popular furore determine' the 
result, because the people scraetimes become 
psyche)logised on these questions, and rush 
pell mel! into new experiment sand enterprises, 
with.out thoroughly examining the premises. 
Still, with all this. 'tl ere jjioi/becasesin which 
the change of seeds alone, have produced a 
desirable effect, (see Dec. No., p. 187, col. 11 
and yet, even crofsivy may be of no account 
in its continuous results, if no regard is paid 
to subsequent care ful selection. 

We are compelled to defer to our February 
numVicr several japers that otherwise would 
have ajipeared in this number. Therefore, 
those of our correspondents who do not see 
their ccmniunicationsor contributions in print 
the present month, will please attribute it to 
a want of room. "First cc me, first served," 
is a rule we usually adopt unless in cases, the 
pulilication of which will not admit of a post- 
pone mcnt. We hope, therefore, our friends 
will ne)t abate their zeal to make The Fah jieb 
throughout the Centennial year, a faithful ex- 
ponent of the state of husbandry as it exists in 
the great county of Lancaster in 1876. 



1876.] 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



THE FACTS OF NATURAL HISTORY. 
No. 7. 

No animals bclDiigiui; to tliti Sloth taiuily 
(Bradyi'id.e) now exist in Xorlh Aiui'i-ica, 
and only two species in South Anipiica, nei- 
ther of which is a i^reat deal larger than the 
domestic cat. IJut in some of the Sontliern 
States, and especially in Smith Carolina and 
Georijia (as also in Soutli America) in tlie su- 
perlieial deposits of thos(f localities, fjii^antic 
remains of animals allied to the "sloth " have 
been discovered in a fossil stale, anions which 
are the Miydhn-iiuii, the Miy doai/.i: and tlic 
Mi/Iiiilon, all of wliich are of colossal size — tlie 
first named luivini: a skeleton eiL;liteen feet in 
leni;tli and ei^ht feet in lieight, tlie hones of 
the femur heins three times as thick as that 
of an elephant. These animils were ve^je- 
table feeders, as tlieir coijencrs in Soutli 
America at the presentday are— defoliators of 
forest trees; and when we tliink of the enor- 
mous quantities of tins kind of provender they 
must have annually consumed, the army 
worms and tlie Colorado potato-beetles sink 
into utter insi'^nilii'ance. "Our lines have 
fallen upon pleasant places," when our age 
is compared with those periods in tlio world's 
physical history wliich produced thase gigantic 
animals. 

The sloths, of which there are two distinct 
species, namely, B. trid i-ti/his and B. did tc- 
((y?i(.<— belong to the order Edevtata, or 
quadrupeds without teeth in the fore-part of 
their jaws; and soma bslonging to the saiiii 
order — the " Ant-eaters," tor instance — have 
no teeth at all. The family and 
generic names mean "Slow-foot,'" 
and arc Greek compounds. The 
specific names mean "tlirce-fiu- 
gered" and " two-tingered." 

Most of the accounts t)f old natu- 
ralists have rather misrepresented 
these animals than given a tru^ ac- 
count of their history and habits. 
Even the great Cuvier condemned 
the sloth as a degraded and miser- 
able animal, unable to move with- 
out pain, and misshapen and 
distorted in form ; and others have 
stated, that when compelled to 
move by hunger, it moved very 
slowly and lazily, and fairly whined 
and cried with pain. Yet it has 
been clearly demonstrated by more 
recent authorities, that no animal is 
better fitted for its position in na- 
ture than the .sloth. Wateutox 
says that in its wild state, "the sloth spands 
its whole life in the trees, an 1 never leaves 
them but through force or ajcideiit ; and what 
is mire extraordinary, not upm tlie brandies, 
like the squirrel ami the miiikey, lint wider 
them. lie moves susiieinled from the branch, 
he rests suspended from the bramdi. and he 
sleeps suspended frum the branch"— in this 
latter respect his habit being not much unlike 
that of the Ijat. In faet, as Sidney Smith 
observed, " he passes a life of susppiis", like 
a young clergyman distantly related to a 
bishop." 

In order to lit it for this singular or very 
peculiar mode of life, the sloth is provided 
with long and powerful arnn, which are fur- 
nished with strong curved claws, and these 
the animal hooks around the branches, and 
maintains its sus|):'nded position without any 
special effort. Tliese long claw-i are very in- 
convenient when it is on tlie ground, for they 
then turn in upon the jialms or soles of the 
feet, and it sliufHes along awkwardly and in- 
conveniently ; but whi'ii it is up among the 
Viranches, it is capalile of niDving with great 
rapidity, particularly in a gale of wind, when 
it can pass from branch to brancli, and from 
one tree to another, witli an activity that no 
one would suppose if they had only seen it on 
the ground. It is alsn gifted with great te- 
nacity of life — even surpassing the " opossum" 
in that respect — and will survive injuries that 
instantly prove inirtal to almost any other 
animal. Our illustration repre.sents the tuxi- 
fingered sloth {Brad;/piis didactylm), which is 



larger, has shorter limbs, a longer muzzle, and 
less tail, than the <'i(W-(ingered species (/{. 
tridnrliilu.t]^ and the artist .seems to have 
represented it under the erroneous impression 
that it only m ives in an agony of pain. Al- 
thougli our subject has only two claws on the 
front feel and Ihree on the hind ones, yet liolh 
speeies are fundamentally tive-loed animils, 
the rudiments of the undeveloped claws being 
concealed. The hair on the liead. bai'k ami 
limbs is long, coarse and elastic, bearing some 
resemlilaiice to dry grass, which gives the 
animal a forbidding aspect. The color is 
grayish, often spotted willi brown and white, 
particularly when young. 

Some writers have ma<le out a third species 
— till' liriid'ipn.i t'li-ijii ilns of (i-eof. — which 
others deem only a variety ; but it ditlVrs not 
only in color, but also in the bjuy structure of 
the' head. 

The sloth is an enormous feeder, and never 
leav(^s a tree as long as any of the foliage re- 
mains upon which it feeds, an I wlien the tree 
is isolated, it is said to let itself drop to the 
ground, ralhi'r than take the trouble to come 
down the trunk before it ascends another 
one. The fein lies bring fortli only one young 
at a time, wiiicli they constantly carry with 
them from place to place. Th -s ■ auiui lis are 
indigenous to the hot parts of South .Vm M-ica, 
anil where the forests are so d;Mise as they are 
tliere, with the branches of the trees often 
interlo'jking eaeh other for miles, it is seld im 
necessary for tiiem to eoine to the ground in 
changing their positions. ThiMr long, (Mar.se 
auJ sliaggy hair protects them from the at- 




THE SLOTH, OR Al (Bradypus didactylus). 

I tacks of in-?3Cts ; and, as Prof B ickland re- 
in irks, " t!ie peculiar conform ition of th'r-ss 
animils ouglit no mire to e.Kcite our com.ias- 
sioii than the circu.intance of lish 's bdiig de- 
I prived of feet." Tii.^y are just as aduiir.ibly 
] adapted and litly orgiaizid for th 'ir siu.;ular 
m )de of life as any other subjeets of the ani- 
mal wirld. Taeir stoni ichs are very large in 
proportion to their size, and are divided into 
four com^i irtm ^uts, som 'what analogous to 
the four stomiclis of ruininants, but without 
the network lea'.l^ts of their intern.il parts, 
while the intestines are cmi lar.itively short. 
In this respect — lltliou^h purely vegetable 
I feed 'rs— th'y dilfM" froai ruminants, in w lich 
i the intestines are Vi'ry long. Ofourse, they 
are not very desirable pjts, an i cann it bs do- 
m^sticat 'd, but thosj c.iptured and contiaed 
will continu '. their forest life by hanging to a 
pereh, if an opp irtiinity of the kind is oft 'rod. 
We often think we can disc ive.'huiu m idiir- 
acteristics that are in perfect outwird c >r- 
res]V)ndence with these anim lis in others; an 1 
perliajis, if we lo ik a little deeper, w,' may 
discover more or less of them in ourselves. 



Potatoes for Stock. 
Mr. Billings, of Xew Ilamishire, wh>ha3 
been experim 'iiting on (he subject, says he 
thinks potatoes are worth thirty cents per 
bushel to feed to stock. Thi'y arenot only nu- 
tritiou.s. but are excellent appetizers and iiro- 
moters of digestion. Kxperimeiits go to show 
that a peck of potatoes will produce as mueli 
milk us a bushel of beets, turnips or carrots. 



DEATH TO THE APPLE TREE BORER. 

I li.ivo waited for 8onio one to invr'iil an easy way 
of killiiii; the apple tree borer; but the ehlriel, mallet, 
knife unit wire are only reeoriiiiieudecl, ami In UBlng 
them I have hail lo eut a nix Ineh apple tree until I 
eoulil see daylight thronijh It lo kill u single Iwrer. 
.My way of ifetting ul this inlherable " worm of tlio 
du»l" Is an eanier one ami iii'ire elfeelual. I I'ut a 
Hiiinae or alder one foot, more or less, lou';, pnneh 
out the pith, eut one en I with a slope, liuul the 
Ixirer's hole, elean it out at the entranei' wllh a wire, 
plaee the bevelled en 1 of my tnhi' airalnst 11, take 
some pulty like elay that 1 ire't In our spriir,' braiieli, 
plaster It waler-lli;lit aronn I the end next the tree, 
nil the tube Willi very strong' soap su Is, and the thinif 
is done. No mutter how e rooked the hole Is, or 
whether It ifoes up or tlown, the suds In the tube will 
foree itself lo Hie end. I have Irled It two years and 
have not falleil nurv. Of luurse, anv kin I of small 
hollow lube will do. and anylhin;; liial will m.ike It 
water-tight will do to plaster it with.— for. .V. TT. 
Trihiiitc. 

We confess we have some faith in the abovu 
remedy, and we thank the disc )Verer of it ex- 
ceedingly, for his "of course," otherwise it 
miglit have involved the tronblesoin" necessity 
of hunting up a sum le or an alder cane, things 
which are not always on litind on farms tliat 
liave no neglected fence irorners or .b;irren 
ridges. We fully apiirchend the dillieiilty of 
reaching and dislo Igiiig the b uer by the "me- 
ch itiical me ins describe I, witluat often doing 
serious injury to the trees, the mutilation of 
which might liappi;ntobe w irse for them than 
th t depr.' lalioas of the Itirirx. It is known 
tint Ihiids, by a hydrostatic 1 iw will rise very 
nearly as high as their source, and therefore 
we woiilil recommend a tube two or even 
three feet in lei'igtli, in ordc^r to make 
sure that the lluid is i~aised high 
enough to reach the borers, for we have 
found them as mncli as eighteen 
incites above the point of ingress. 

Of course, the rise of the lluid in 
the tube is effected by atmosplieric 
pressure — whether it lie a soap solu- 
tion, a tobacco decoction or simply 
water — and to facilitate this we would 
suggest an old funnel or an old tin 
cni) attached to the top, ;i.s a sort of 
reservoir. I'erhaps an old discanled 
dinner horn, the wide end upwards 
and the narrow end proiM-rly attached 
to the aperture in the tree, would lje 
better still, provided it did not leak 
and was properly f.a,stened above. 
Now, we are not recoinmending these 
oldarti(dessimiily liecaii.se they arc old 
— as if tliat were any merit — but be- 
cause, if such old articles wen- at hand 
itwiuld save the expense of providing new 
ones. We have tested the effects of "Dr. 
Pierce's nasal douche" in forcing lluids up- 
ward, and therefore an apparatus made on 
that plan would be best of all. This is simply 
a lluid-c inlainiiig vessel with an elastic tube 
attached t) or ne ir the b ittom. This might 
be hung on a lower branch near the trunk of 
the tree, and the lower end of the tuln; securely 
attached to the aperture of the borer. If 
there were no ajiertures below through which 
the llniil might escape, it would, in time, be 
forced n|i to the borer and destroy it. 

Soiu'such kind of apparatus, acting upon 
similar philosophieal principles, might be con- 
fidently left to do its own work in its own 
good time, and if skillfully executed, wi- think 
it would be elteetive. We know that the 
simple application of hot water, inide through 
the nozzle of a tea-kettle, Ivis been destructive 
to both ants and borers, but then it could only 
affect those which were below the aperture 
through which it w;is jioured. Tlie foregoing 
apiiaralus, however, seems to cover the whole 
groun I. 

The infestations of wood-boring insects are 
becoming so numerous over the whole country 
that it becomes absolutely necessary to employ 
skilled and persevering applications in order 
to destroy them. Farmers, therefore, cannot 
afford to be negligent any longer. They m1t.1t 
do something, and whatever is done mii.st be 
done with thi'ir might. R-ui'dies are often 
applied inacareless, hurried manner, and then 
unhesitatingly denounced, when the cause of 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[January, 



failure was, perhaps, to be attriliuted more to 
the slovenly manner in whieh it was done 
than to the (iiiality (>f the reniedj'. This 
remedy seems to us to be a practical one, and 
ought, therefore, to be properly tested. 



THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS. 

1020-1875. 
[The following significantly and graphically 
expressed epitome of the past two hundred 
and fifty years of progressive American history 
is worthy of a more convenient and perma- 
nent record than the columns of a weekly 
newspaper, and therefore we transfer it to the 
columns of The Fahjiei!, as a chronological 
table of events that must be useful to all who 
are able to comprehend it, and if there are any 
among our readers who have not this ability, 
we would admonish them to learn to read im- 
mediately; and if they can read already, to 
form a habit of n ading something every "day, 
if it is but a single page of The Farjier or 
any good American history, and not omitting 
the " Scri])tui'es of truth.'!] 

1620. The Pilgrim Lands on Plymouth Eock 
and sets \\\i for himself. 

1021. Keeps Thanksgiving — in no danger of 
over eating. 

1022. Builds a meeting house. 

1023. Proclaims a fast day. 

1028. Puts down a May pole at Merry 
Moimt as a rebuke to vain recreations. 

103.5. Is crowded for accommodations, and 
stakes out a new farm at Connecticut. 

1()37. Makes war on the Antinomians and 
the Pequot Indians— and whips both. 

10.38. Starts a colleye. 

1040. Sets up a jirinting prefss. 

1043. Goes into a confederacy— the first Col- 
onial Congress. 

1048. Lays down the Cambridge platform. 
Hangs a witch. 

1649. Sets his face against the unchristian 
custom of wearing long hair, " a thing uncivil 
and uncomely." 

1051. Is rebuked for "intolerable excess and 
bravery of apjiarel," and is forbidden to wear 
gold and silver lace and other such gew-gaws. 

1051. Coins Pine Tree shillings— and makes 
the business profitable. 

1663. Prints a Bible for the Indians. 

1080. Buys a "hang-up" clock and occa- 
sionally carries a silver watch that helps him 
guess the time of day. About this period 
learns to use French forks at table ; a new 
fashion. 

1692. Is scared by iritches again, at Salem ; 
but gets the better of them. 

1701. Founds another CoUcge, which, after 
awhile, settles down at Xew Haven. 

1704. Prints his first A'(«>7 (yxr, in Boston. 

1705. Tastes Coff<_e, as a luxury, and at his 
own table. 

1708. Constructs another Platform — this 
time at Saybrook. 

1710. Begins to sip Tea— very .sparingly. It 
does not come into family use till five and 
twenty years later. 

1711. Puts a letter into his first Past Office. 

1720. Eats a Potato—tind takes one home to 
plant in his garden as a curiosity. 

1721. Is Iiwcidatcd for the small-pox— not 
without grave remonstrance from his conser- 
vative neighbors. Begins to sing hy note, on 
Sundays, thereby encountering nuii'h opposi- 
tion and opening a ten years' quarrel. 

1740. ilanufactures tin ware, and starts the 
first IVji Peddler on his tiavels. 

1742. Sees Faneuil Hall built. The cradle 
of Liberty is ready to be rocked. 

1745. Builds an On/au ; but does not yet 
permit it to be played in the meeting house. 

17.50. Buys a bushel of Peita/oes for winter's 
use — all his friends wondermg what he will do 
with so many. 

1755. Puts up a Franklin stove in his best 
room, and tries one of the newly invented 
Ligldning Bods. 

1760. About this time begins to wear a col- 
lar to his shirt. When he can afford it, takes 
his wife to meeting in a Chaise, instead of on 
a pillion, as heretofore. 



1705. Shows his dislike to stamped paper, 
and joins the " Sons of Liberty." 

1708. Tries his hand at Tiipe Foiaulinej— not 
yet successful— in Connecticut. 
• 1770. Buys a home-made Wooden Clock. 

1773. Waters his Tea in Boston harbor. 
Plants Liberty Trees wherever he finds good 
soil. 

1774. Lights Boston streets \\'\t\io\\Letmps; 
a novelty (though "New Lights" had been 
plenty, some years before). 

1775. Shows Lord Percy how to march to 
" Yankee Doodle." Calls at Ticonderoga, to 
take lodgings for the season. Sends General 
Putnam (under the command of several 
colonels) witli a small party to select a sight 
for Bunker Hill monument. 

1770. Brother Jonathan — as he begins to be 
called in the family— declares himself free and 
independent. 

1780. Buys an "Umbrilla," for Sundays; 
and whenever he shows it, is laughed at for liis 
efl'eminacy. 

1791. Starts a Cottem Spinning factory. 

1792. Has been raising Silk Worms, in Con- 
necticut ; and now gives his minister (not his 
wife) a home-made silk gown. Buys a Carpet 
for the mklelle of the jiarlor fioor. 

1793. Invents the Cottem Gin— and thereby 
trebles the value of southern plantations. 

1795 — 1800. Wears Pemtedoons occasionally, 
but not when in full dress. Begins to use 
Pleites on the breakfast and tea table. 

1802. Has the bojs and girls vaecineUed. 

180(). Tries to burn a piece of Heird Coal 
from Philadelphia; a failure. 

1807. Sees a boat go by Steam on the Hud- 
son. 

1815. Holds a little Cemvention at Hartford, 
but doesn't propose to dissolve the Union. 
Buys one of Terry's patent "Shelf Clocks," 
for S30, and regulates his watch by it. 

1817. Sets up a stove in the meeting house 
and builds a fire in it on Sunday ; an innova- 
tion which was stoutly resisted by many. 

1817. Begins to run a Steeemboett on Long 
Island Sound — and takes passage on it to New 
York alter making his will. 

1819. Grown bolder; he crosses the Atlantic 
in a steamship. 

1822. Lights Gas in Boston (but doesn't light 
Bost'm. with gas till 1829). At last learns how 
to make Bard Coed burn, and sets a grate in 
his parlor. Buys a Stiei Pen (one of Gillott's, 
sold at .183 per gross). Has his every day 
shirts made without Bvffles. 

1825. About this time, puts a Percussion 
Lock on his old musket. 

1826. Buys his wife a pair of queer-shaped 
Lidia RidAier overshoes. Puts on his first 
False Collar. Tries an " Experimental " rail- 
road by horse-power. 

1828. Tastes bis first Tojiirto- doubtingly. 
Is told that it is unfashionable to feed himself 
with his knife— and buys Silver Forks for great 
occasions. 

1833. Eubs his first Frict'on Match — then 
called a "Lucifer," and afterwards "Loco 
Foeo." Throws away the old Tinder Box 
with its flint and steel. 

1835. Invents the Berolver, and sets about 
supplying the world with it, as a peace-maker. 
Tries a Go\l Pen, but cannot find a good one 
yet— nor till 1844. Builds a real Bailroad., 
and rides on it. 

1837. Gets in a Panic— and out again, after 
a free use of " shin-plasters. " 

18.38. Adopts the new fa.shion of putting his 
letters in Ennletpes (a fashion which does not 
fairly ])revail till seven j'ears later.) 

1840. Sits for his Diiguerree}tiipe, and gets a 
picture feaifully and wonderfully made. Be- 
gins to blow himself up with "Camphene" 
and "Burning Fluid;" and continues the 
process for years, with change of name of the 
active agent, down to and including "Non- 
explosive Kerijsene." 

1844. Sends his first message by the Electric 
Tehyreiph. 

1847. Buys his wife a Seunng Meichine—in 
the vain hojie that somehow it will keep the 
buttons on his shirts. Begins to receive ad- 
vices from the "Spirit AVorld." 



1855. Begins to bore and be bored by the 
Hoosac Tunnel. 

1858. Celebrates the laying of the Ocean 
Cable, and sends a friendly message to John 
Bull. Next week, begins" to doubt whether 
the Cable has been laid at all. 

1801. Goes South, to help compose a family 
quarrel. Takes to using Pajier Money. 

1801-05. Climbs the Hill Difficulty— reliev- 
ed of his pack, after January 1, 1804 ; but 
loses Great-heart, April 14, 1865. 

1865. Gets the Atlantic Cable in working 
order at last, in season to send word to his 
Bj-itish cousins (who have been waiting for an 
invitation tohis funeral) that he "lives yet." 

1805-75. Is reconstructing, and talking about 
Resumption. Sends his boys to the Museum 
to see an old-fashioned Silver Dollar.. 

1875. Goes to Bunker Hill, to pay honor to 
the illustrious men who commanded General 
Putnam. Gets ready to celebrate his second 
golden wedding liy "a grand family re-union, 
this year, in Philadelphia. 



THE FRUIT GROWERS' SOCIETY. 

The seventeenth annual meeting of the 
Pennsylvania Fruit Growers' Society will be 
held at Doylestown, Bucks county, commenc- 
ing on Wednesday, the 19th of .lanuary. All 
fruit growers and horticulturists in the State 
are free to participate in its deliberations. 
Essays are being prepared by prominent hor- 
ticulturists on various subjects, and many 
questions of importance relating to fruit cul- 
ture and kindred topics will be discussed. 
Contributions of fruits, especially new and 
rare varieties of merit, are solicited. The 
Pennsylvania Railroad Company will issue 
orders for excursion tickets only in case .50 or 
more are guaranteed to be taken. Those, 
therefore, who desire to attend the meeting 
by this route should at once send their names 
and address to the Secretary, E. B. Engle, 
Marietta, who will secure and distribute the 
orders, for tickets, in case the requisite num- 
ber make application. 

It may be a matter of interest to many of 
our readers to know that the following topics 
for essays and discussions have been sug- 
gested; upon some of which essays are in 
course of pieparation, and others will be 
taken up and discussed during the sessions : 

1. Should Northern and Eastern Winter 
Fruiis be recommended for Southern and 
Eastern Pennsylvania 'i* 

2. The Preservation of Fruits by Ice or Re- 
frigerator Process. 

3. Should Fruit be sold by Weight ? 

4. Is Fruit or Vegetable Gardening most 
Remunerative '? 

5. Hybridization of Fruits by design. 

6. Oiu- yards, and how to take care of them. 

7. Orchards and their managements 

8. The interests of the Society at the Cen- 
tennial. 

9. The Cultivation of the Apple, including 
the best varieties, best mode of culture, and 
protection from injurious insects. 

10. Pear Culture, embracing the most profit- 
able varieties, best soil and methods of cul- 
ture. 

11. The Cultivation of the Cheny, etc. 

12. Peach Culture, including cause of yel- 
lows and other diseases. 

13. The Plum, best kinds to plant, destruc- 
tion of curculio, etc. 

14. Quince Culture. 

15. The Strawberry, best varieties and mode 
of culture. 

16. The Raspberry and Blackberry. 

17. The Currant and Gooseberry. 

18. Grape Culture. 

19. The best evergreen and deciduous shade 
and ornamental trees. 

20. Roses and Shrubbery, best varieties for 
yard and lawn. 

21. Hardy herbaceous and bedding plants. 

We invoke the special attention of our read- 
ers to the meeting of the above society, and 
hope that Lancaster county will be able to send 
a strong delegation to Doylestown. From its 
programme of proceedings it will be seen that 



i 



1876.] 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



tlie meeting this year will bo ni'>re than usu- 
ally interesting. We c;in hardly realize that 
it is already seventeen years sinee this society 
was organized, here in the. c.ily of Lancaster. 
"We were present at its christening, and also 
at several other meetings, and we liave always 
regretted that our peculiar inlirniities have 
disciualilied us for an active participation in 
its proceedings. It is Tiot i)articiilarly pleas- 
ant at a gathering of any kind where we can- 
not hear what has l)eeu transacted. Our 
various specialties now also prevent us from 
preparing essays on subjects allied to horli- 
culttUH', and our vocal weakness disables us 
from reading one when iue|)ared. We never- 
tlieless feel an interest in all that relates to its 
general efficiency and its onward progress. We 
sincerely hope that tlie imiclical " fruit grow- 
ers " of Lancaster county will duly honor 
their foster-child on the present occasion. 
Let the meeting in all respects be a credit to 
our county and a litting initiation to our 
Nalioiud Centennial. 



TIME FOR READING. 

*'I have no time to iTaO,'M8the coininon complaint, 
especially of women, \vlio.se occupations are sueli as 
to prevent continuous hook perusal. They seem to 
think, because they euniiot ilevote as much uUenlion 
to books as they are eoinpelleil to devote to their avo- 
cations, that they eamiol reaii jnythini^. Bui this is 
a great mistake. It isn't the hooks we finish at a 
sittins which always do us the most good. Those 
we devour in the odd momeuts, half a do/en pages 
at a time, often give us more satisfaction and are 
more thoroughly dii;ested than those we make a j)ar- 
tieular etVort to read. The men who have made their 
mark in the world liave generally been the men who 
have in boyhood formed the habit ofreadini; at every 
available moment, whether lor live minutes or live 
hours. It is the habit of reading rather than the 
time at our command that helps us on the road to 
learning. Many of the most cultivated persons, whose 
names have been most famous as students, have given 
only two or three hours a day to their books. If we 
make use of spare minutes in the midst of our work, 
and read a little, if but a page or a paragraph, we 
shall find our brains quickened and our toil lightened 
by just so much increased satisfaction as the book 
gives us. Nothing helps along the numotonous daily 
round so much as fresh and striking thoui^hts, to he. 
considered while our hands are busy. A new thoujjfht 
from a new volume is like oil which reduces the fric- 
tion of the machinery of life. What we remember 
from brief glimpses into books often serves as a stim- 
ulousfo action, and becomes one of the most precious 
deposits in the treasury of our recollection. All 
knowledge is made of small parts, which would seem 
iusignitieant in themselves, but which, taken togeth- 
er, are valuable wcai)ons for the mind and substantial 
armor for the soul. " Read anything eontimiously," 
says Dr. .Johnson, *' and you will be learned." The 
odd miimtes which we are inclined to waste, if care- 
fully availed of for instruction, will, in the long run, 
make golden hours and golden days that we shall be 
ever thankful for. 

We believe in the above, and it is in sub- 
stance just what we have been preaching 
through the columns of The Faumer and 
elsewhere, these seven years or more. A great 
many people who think they have no time to 
read just now, but at some future period they 
will give their attention to reading, are labor- 
ing under a fatal hallucination; because, in 
nine cases out of ten, that time is not likely to 
ever come. It is impossible to put olf reading 
to some future period, and begin it then with 
a view of "reading yourself up." You must 
/or»t a /u(6(7 of reading, no matter how little 
or how much you mtiy be able to read ;it a 
time. You must form a habit of reading jtist 
as you may form a habit for using snuff, tobac- 
co and cigars; or for using alcolndic stimu- 
lants ; or for gossiping and idleness; or for 
frequenting cock-iiits, bull-baits, dog tights, or 
other disreimtablc and demoralizing places. 
These habits, whether good or evil, becotne 
the predominating principles of the mind, and 
are controlled by tlie yearnings of the affec- 
tions, without which no rtdHiabit can be form- 
ed. If the alVeetions are perverse and evil, 
there is no remedy more efficacious than tlic 
expulsive ]>iiu;cr of a neiv afTiction; a ijnod alTeo 
tion that is in opposition to the evil one. Un- 
der such an impulse a habit for reading and 
writing may be formcdas sinely asanoi)pi)site 
one. This htibit must become a (lartofthe 
daily life, and then, if ever the time comes 



when the subject is able to relincpiish th(! oc- 
<n|)ations of physical labiu' altogether, he will 
be in a proper condition to pursue his love of 
reading with jirolit and contentment, in ol)e- 
dience to the liabits and attections he has pre- 
viously formed. Xo man who gives his whole 
mind and life to money-making, or any good 
or evil specialty, will ever be contented in do- 
ing anything else, especially if he has grown 
old in the pursuit of such specialties. There 
is an old "saw " to the elfect, that " if a man 
is not healthy at forty, wealthy at lifty, and 
wise ;it sixty, he never will hcheallliy. wealthy 
and wise.'' And tilthough there may be e.x- 
eel)tions to this as a ride, yet in its general 
application and its most obvious meaning, 
there is much truth in it. It means that if 
the proper habits to aceoniplish these ends 
have not been formed :it the periods named, 
they are not likely to be ever formetl. As to 
the ki}id of reading a man ought to do, will 
depend somewhat on his occupation or pro- 
fession, anil whether it will be compatible or 
incompatible with said occupation, erne thing 
is certain, that men and women could lind 
more time to read atid write than they do, if 
they (inly tiiiiliil it. Look at the many frivo- 
lous things in the domain of fashion which 
might be ilispensed with, and let tlii' time 
and money spent therein be devoted to things 
less conventional and more useful. 



For TuE Lancastkb Farukr. 
A PLEA FOR THE CHICKEN-HAWK. 

In the discussion of the biril (|uestion at the 
hust meeting of the Lancaster County Agricul- 
tural and Ilorticiiltural Society, while it was 
agreed that all other birds should be protected 
by law from the gunner, the society seemed 
unanimous in their verdict that the chicken- 
hawk should be the target of every rille and 
shot-gun in the country. At one time I enter- 
tained similar views in regard to the chicken- 
hawk, but I have not shot one for years, be- 
ing fully convinced that he is a friend of the 
farmer. 

Darwin shows how, in many cases, the crop 
of clover-.seed is dependent on the supply of 
cats in the neighborhood. Humble-bees dis- 
trilnite the pollen on theclover-blooom ; field- 
mice destroy the young humble-bees; cats 
ctitch the mice. But tlie chicken-hawk is a 
better mouser than the eat. Nothing hurts 
the eye of the farmer worse than to see great 
bare spots iti his grass fields, wh.'re lield-mice 
have worked under the snow ;md destroyed 
the roots of the clover. 

I have a fine large hawk that every day sits 
for hours perched on a horizontal dead branch 
of an old chestnut tree in the field. lie forms 
a fine, clear cut picture against the wintry sky 
as he sits there motionless as a statue. Xow 
and then be swoops ilown and takes up a 
mouse, with, perhaps, .some dead grass, in his 
talons. I would not exchange liim for the 
best game cock or the best Braniah in the 
country. True, he sotnetimes catches a rati- 
bit or a partridge, or l)ears olf a pullet for his 
crop, but he is fully entitled to these ;is part 
pay for his services as a mouser. 

it is true that, viewed from a sentimental 
sttmdpoint, birds of i)rey alVord but few traits 
to challenge oiu- admiration. But science 
teaches their use, and when science and sen- 
timent come in conflict, we are bound to ac- 
cept the surer results of the foriiu'i". 

The crow is also a mu(-h maligned l)ird. 
Thanks to his sagacity, this ■• bird of ill omen" 
generally escapes the shots of his [lerseeutors. 
The crow is reiu-esented as living to a great 
age. Tennyson alludes to this in the sonor- 
ous line — 

"As the many wintered crow that leads the clang- 
ing rookery home." 
The crow has a decided taste for "grubs," 
and does good .service in the corn field in early 
spring. 1 have known this bird to hook cut- 
worms out of a hill of corn with its beak, and 
leave the grain imtoiiched. 

I once was very much amused at one of 
these ebony birds that found a nest of lien'.s 
eggs near a neighbor's barn. I saw him roll 



the eggs out of the nest, and then lly otV to a 
grove near by. Presently two crows returned 
from the wood, anil had a happy time eatiii); 
tlie eggs. I judged that one of these was the 
crow that found the eggs and the oilier was 
his wife, though 1 ctninol be (|iialilied that 
such was the fact. Perhaps it Wiu* another 
crow's wife. If my first conie<'turc in regard 
to their consjinguinily was right, the bird cer- 
tainly showed more solicitude for the comfort 
of \\Ki (til jrnu than smne husbands I know of. 
I feel kindly towards these black scavengers, 
and throw the buti'heringolTal wlu'ic they can 
gel it. They get terribly hungry when the 
ground is covered with awow.—J. C. Linville, 
Salisbury, Jaawiry 4, 1870. 

Ftir 'rilK LANCASTRm FAUMSm. 

THE DAIRY. 

I proi)Ose to commence with this nimiber of 
your journal a series of articli-.s on dairying, 
for the iM'nelit of sueli as shall avail thein- 
selves of the results of my observations and 
expcri(!nce, and also invite the fair criliciiiuig 
of lho.se who may dill'er with me. 

The importance and extent of this branch of 
industry is such as will justify not only a 
UKM'c extended and thorough knowledge, but 
also closer atti^ntioii in all its departments. 
One or two facts will justify my a.s.sertion, 
viz: Theii' is entirely too large a proportion 
of inferior butler thrown upon the markets of 
the cotmtry, such a.s cannot gra<'e and 
should not disgrace the table of any that claim 
neatiu'S.s. (Jn the other hand, the demand 
has never Ijeen supplied with a lirst-elass arti- 
cle. The s.ale of milk ami cream has grown 
into such an extensive^ business that both sel- 
ler and buyer shoidd better understainl their 
mutual rehitions to each other in this depart- 
ment. 

The manufacture of cheese hits al.so grown 
into an immense business, but in this section 
it is scar<:ely attempted, and my knowle<lgo 
thereof is so hmited that I shall touch it very 
liglitly. 

I siiall divide my subject as follows: First, 
the ditlerent breeds of cattle. Second, feed- 
ing, care :uid management of milk cows, 
and calves intended for such. Third, the 
maiuigement of milk and cream suiiplied to 
customers. Fourth, the making of butter. 
Fifth, the various kinds of cheese. .Sixth, 
marketing and general remarks. 

The Different Breeds of Cattle. 

There is scarcely a breed of cattle that has 
not its advocate, and Justly so, as all have 
some points of value. The Texas "ranger" 
is valueil for his horns and hide, if for nothing 
else. Our native breed has many advocates, 
but the (piestion arises, where do we find it 
unless it be that Just alluded to":* Importa- 
tions from foreign countries have Im-cu made 
for a long time, but es|wially <Iuring the 
present century the importation of horned 
cattle has largely increased. The result is 
that wherever the resources of our country 
have been developed, progress and improve- 
ment have followed, at least to soitie extent: 
ccmse<pienlly this foreign blood has become 
diffused to "a certain degree among nearly 
every herd throughout this broad domain. It 
is therefore hardly proper to claim a native 
breed. For convenicn<e sake, however, I .shall 
(piote them as such. There are unipiestiona- 
bly iv.s good milkers among our natives as can 
1h' f<uiiid among any other brei'd. but there is 
not that uniformity of excellent milkers 
found in other breeds. The siime is the c;use 
with shorthornsor Durhams. These, however, 
have been seli-cled and bri'd more in view of 
their In-.f than milking (pialities. One a.s,ser- 
tion I will here make which I would l«e glad 
to see fairly disproven, i. c, that the best Ix-cf 
and milking <|ualitie« are rarely (if ever) foiinil 
in the same animal. That both cpialities are, 
to a certain extent, generally devclo])cd in the 
same animal is not denied: and as farmers 
gen<Tally are alxiiit etiuilly interested in the 
production of lieef and milk, it is more con- 
venient to keep stock of this kind than to have 
separate breeds for the dilTerent purijoses. For 
strictly dairy purposes, however, cows should 



8 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[January, 



be selected especially for their milking quali- 
ties ; and just here is wlieie too many are at a 
loss, whetlier by purchase, or breeding and 
rearing, in view of this object. — U. M. E, 
Marietta, Pa., Jan. 10, 1870. 

[to be continued.] 
■ ^ 

For The Lancaster Fabmer, 
DRESS ORCHARD TREES. 

Old fruit trees should be scraped in winter 
with the tree scrajxr, talking off all loose, rough 
bark and insect nests in the cavities. Look 
over the whole of every tree and clear it of in- 
sect nests ; some are easily seen, others have 
to l)e carefully looked for. One is a gluey 
patch the color of the tree bark ; look sharjily 
for it and scrajie it oil". All moss growing upon 
trees should be scraped off, as it is as inju- 
rious to trees as itch and scab are to animals. 
The scraping is as beneficial to old trees as is 
currycombing to horses and cattle. It pre- 
vents harkhoimd. The washing of stems and 
large branches of trees with a solution of car- 
bolic acid, soap dissolved in lukewarm water, 
and a portion of the ttowers-of sulphur mixed 
■with it, is a good method for destroying tlie 
insects. The best time to do the washing is 
after the spiring opens. It will then stick to 
the trees, and when the insects come out the 
poison kills them in their infant state ; and by 
that the foliage and fruits of the trees may all 
be saved. One of the most valuable features 
of The Faioier is, that it has a highly scien- 
tific Entoriioh (jist as its editor. Our crops, 
live stock and ourselves would be ruined, were 
it not for the science of entomology. Our 
mothers knew the science so far as to keep us 
clear bj' comliing our heads in our young days. 
Birds of the air and faini ])oultry are destroy- 
ers of insects. Air birds should not be shot, 
but fed well in winter with small grains and 
weed seeds from the winnowing machine. — 
Old Cultivator. 



blood of their own kind and that of other ani- 
mals. Sometimes these manifestations become 
furious, and the animals seem to be in a state 
of nervmis paroxysm, which pervades their 
whole system. Any one raised on a farm must 
have often noticed this. It is therefore not so 
astonishing that it should terminate in abor- 
tion. The remedy is to guard them against 
all improper contact. In cases where but one 
cow is kejit there is less exposure and a less 
occurrence of it. — EdA 



For The Lancasteb Faki^leh. 
ABORTION OF COWS. . 

As the question of cattle breeding was up 
for discussion before the December meeting of 
the Agricultural and Horticultural Society, 
without resulting in any special exjiression of 
opinion that could benefit any one, I would 
beg leave to ask a question in this connection 
which I think is of special importance to dairy- 
men. We had been thinking of preparing for 
the coming Centennial with a number of good 
cows, but we have been more or less discour- 
aged by a singular coincidental occurrence 
among our cows. It i)erhaps canuot be called 
a disease, yet it is very similar to contagion. 
Our cows are miscarrying to a very alarming ex- 
tent; the stock of very few cow-owners escape. 
Three of my neighbor's cows miscarried last 
winter, and one of them twice in succession. 
This singular affliction happens to all grades 
of cows : to those that are well kejit, as well 
as to those indifterently or poorly keiit. What 
may be the cause of it '? What may prevent 
it y To what extent has it hapiiened in other 
parts of the country V — Comstoya, Jan. 5, 1870. 

[We are not a ''Looney Mactwalter," and 
must therelbre confess our ignorance of the 
cause, remedy, or extent of this singular mis- 
hap among the cows, but the above may bring 
them out. In conversation with an "intelli- 
gent reading farmer from the eastern part of 
the county, in relation to this subject, he stated 
that cows are exceedingly sensitive and easily 
affected in this respect ; especially in dairies, 
or where herds are kept. The sight and smell 
of blood sometimes iiroduces abortion in cows ; 
and where one in a herd miscarries, the sight 
of the placenta or firlns will affect others, as 
it were, similarly. This is well known among 
horse-breeders, and therefore the pregnant 
dam is carefully shielded from improper sights, 
smells and sounds. 

Some aniniids, and especially rmniimntu, are 
very peculiarly constituted. When one dies 
or is slaughtered, the survivors utter the most 
melancholy moans and bellowing over the car- 
cass or the l)lood, and it is astonishing how 
completely they can distinguish between the 



For The Lancaster Farmer. 
IS A CHANGE OF SEED NECESSARY ? 

At the meeting of the Horticidtural Society, 
last Mfinday, I was somewhat surprised to 
hear all the speakers advocating the necessity 
for farmers to "change their seed grain ;" 
that wheat, potatoes— indeed, all grain and 
root cropS' — are improred by procuring seed 
from a distance, or by simply changing seed 
with their neighbors, or from a gravelly or 
slaty to a limestone soil, and vice versa. 

I know very well that this idea " of a change 
of seed" is a favorite hobljy with writers on 
tlie subject ; at least by such as jiretend to be 
scientific farmers. But have those advocates 
of " changing seed" experimented themselves, 
and for a series of years found it to be true as 
they say? or, do most of them "follow the 
say so" of pretending scientific writers ? or, 
can they bring proofs of the theory from 
their own experience V A single favorable 
or unfavoralile season will not in-ove anything 
for or against it. Or, again, have they 
been in the habit of selecting the most per- 
fect seeds for propagation, and yet found 
their grain to deteriorate after a number of 
years V or, have they taken the seed at ran- 
dom from the heap, and, in consequence, 
found their crops less than formerly V Give 
us facts, gentlemen ! 

It is now many years since a Mr. Cooper, of 
New Jersey, tested this question of "chang- 
ing seed " more thoroughly, and, I think, con- 
clusively, than it had ever been tested before, 
or since. His statement was substantially as 
follows : That when he first commenced to 
select his seed corn, with nuich searching 
through his field, he found only a few 
stalks with two ears, or nubbins ; these he se<- 
lected and planted the following season. Of 
this second crop he found many stalks with 
two ears. Again selecting the largest and 
earliest ripe ears, he improved the crop, so 
that in a few years there were but few stalks 
with less than two, and some with three ears. 
Continuing this course of always selecting the 
largest, earliest and most ears on a stalk, he 
so improved his crop during a term of thirty 
years (when he published the statement) that 
very few stalks could be found with less tlian 
three, and many with four large ears. He did 
not change his seed from one farm to anotlier, 
but coTitinued "breeding in and in " from the 
same old stock that at first produced only one 
ear or uulibin to the stalk. 

He o])erated in the same way with squashes 
and otiier vegetables, and in each case the 
improvement was truly remarkable. His im- 
jiroved corn was sought after for seed from all 
directions ; as also liis seeds of vegetables. 
These experiments of Mr. Cooper, I think, 
fully establish the fact that by proper selec- 
tion of seed grain no deterioRition of the grain 
will result ; not alone with corn and wheat, 
but with all vegetable growths suitable to the 
climate. 

Well do I remember that, about forty years 
ago. the Hessian-tties ruined oiu' wheat in 
Lancaster comity and elsewhere to such an 
extent tliat many farmers harvested less than 
the seed sown. Large quantities of wlieat 
were imjiorted from Euroi)e. ISIany farmers 
purchased this imported grain for seed, and 
some even for bread, at two and a half to 
three dollars per busliel. Like my neighbors, 
I, too, procured small samples of more than a 
di zen varieties to test their adaptability to our 
soil and climate. Xot one variety did any 
good ; all mildewed, rusted, and the grain was 
very imperfect. So I did not grow more than 



two varieties after the first year ; but as they 
did not promise well, these were also dropped. 
With the discarding of these new wheats, I 
afterwards found several new leceds had been 
received with these varieties of wheat, and 
which gave me some trouble to clean out 
again. Then I may also state that the old 
blue-stem w heat was for many years our best 
wheat ; but when the Hessian-fiiesmade their 
appearance, fiy-proof wheat (like curculio- 
proof plums) made their advent, and our old 
blue-stem wheat had to give place to newer 
kinds. These in turn were again replaced by 
other varieties. Then the Mediterranean va- 
riety came to be tried, perliai>s twenty-five or 
thirty years ago. At first it was a rough, 
thick-skinned Ijerry. The straw was soft, and 
very subject to lodge, and the grain light and 
imperfect. Yet this variety was grown on 
our farm without change of seed for at least 
twenty years. It gradually improved ; the 
straw became shorter, stiffer, not so liable to 
lodge ; the berry became lighter in color, thin- 
ner-skinned, and generally a superior wheat 
to what it was when first procured. 

Again, some years since other celebrated 
wheats had to be tried, and the old Mediter- 
ranean was discarded, in the hope of getting 
still better varieties ; but in a few years, by 
"change of seed," we again secured the old 
Mediterranean, which still succeeds about as 
well as heretofore, although I do not believe 
that this " change of seed " had the least ef- 
fect in improving the variety. 

Thus giving my exjierience and opinions for 
what they may be worth, I would say in con- 
clusion, that my experience with many va- 
rieties of wheat in this matter "of changing 
seeds " confirms me in the belief that by al- 
ways selecting the most perfect seed, there is 
no necessity for exchanging seed with your 
neighbor, or to procure the same variety from 
a distance, but select the best from your own 
crop and farm, where it has been acclimated, 
or naturalized, as it were, and with good cul- 
tivation and needed fertilizers, and favorable 
seasons, we may raise good crops to the end 
of time from our own carefully selected seed, 
and thank Providence "that our lot has been 
cast in pleasant ])laces. " All the benefit I 
ever secured by "a change of seed " was a 
fresh erop of iDCcds. — J. B. Garber, Columbia, 
Pa., Dec. 10, 1875. 



For The Lancaster Farmer. 
LADIES' PARLOR OR WINDOW 
FLOWERS. 

The lady readers of The Farmer should 
be caieful of their parlor or window plants 
now, and for two months to come. Give them 
full sunshine ; keep near the glass while the 
sun shines upon them. Draw them back from 
the glass a little when the sunshine is over, 
as there is a cold air close to the glass on very 
cold days. On mild days, the neai'er the 
glass they are kept the "better. They look 
lightsome and pretty in the winter, when all 
looks desolate out-doors ; they are also com- 
panions which give no offense ; even when ill- 
treated, the}' mildly speak of it by their droop- 
ing and yellow leaves. Those with sweet- 
scented leaves are i)leasant company now, and 
the Iilooming species will put forth their flow- 
ers in due time. On very cold nights move 
them from the windows and set them in the 
warmest part of the room until the house is 
heated in the mornings. They all should be 
sparingly watered in January and February, * 
as they then are not making fresh growths, 
and if dry. the cold of nights will not so much 
injure them. Those generally grown in rustic 
stands and hanging baskets will flourish even 
if the .sun never shines upon them. Geraniunu 
are best for pot cultiu-e, yet many other choice 
species do well. Beynnia^iinA Pouvardiashhwm 
all the winter. Crocuses, Hyacinths and Van 
Thol Tulips bloom beautifully during winter 
and early spring. Calla jiroduces its large 
white lilies in early spring. The species with 
variegated leaves look very lively all winter. — 
W. E. 



1876.J 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



9 



VorTHK I,ANr.\sTEB Farmeu. 
WHY DON'T MY CHICKENS LAY? 

Tlial is tlie (luestion I have been askiii<; my- 
self witli iiiiiisual fie(iiiency as tlic lioliclays 
draw iiigli, and in view of tlie e(inally iinpui-- 
tant fact tljat I am asl<e(l .'i") or 40 cents a 
diizen for efr^s every tinn- I go to market. 
The solntion of this eonmulrum lias fjiven nie 
no inconsiderable anionnt of eareful thonfjlit, 
and I am apiiarently ;is far from a satisfactory 
explanation of the riddle as I was in the be- 
ginniiij;, and feeldisiiosed to "fiive it up." In 
the hoi)e that some reader of TllK F.MtMlcu 
can see further into tlu^ question than myself, 
and make plain what is now obscure, 1 will 
state the facts bearing; on the case. 

Jly object in kee])in)i chickens being the pro- 
duction of egfis and poultry for household use, 
and not for sale or ;;'ecnlative pm-poses, I 
limited myself from thi' bcixiinnnf; to twelve 
hi'iis and one male bird, and by sodoinj; 1 have 
been enabled to compare each year's results 
with its laedeces.sors. I have never kept any 
of the so-called "fancy" varieties, but have 
cultivated the unpoetieal, old -fasliioned 
"diuiRhills." I am free to say that these 
have never yielded the seeminuly fabulous 
number of e,ufj;s which hens are said to lay 
.sometimes, nor have they come n|) to the liij- 
ures which the scrupulous care and attention 
I have given them would reasonably lead me 
to exjiect. ('ompared with theaccomits given 
■ in poultry journals of iirolilic bens, mine make 
il rather jioorshowing ; liut what is.slill worse, 
the long period during the autumn and early 
winter when they drop no eggs at all, makes 
the kei'ping of them very unsatisfactory. 

Without having a regularly built hennery, I 
nevertheless oiler such indncenients to my 
chickens as should insure mo better returns. 
My hen-house is a nice, warm and well-venti- 
lated one, amply large to comfortably accom- 
modate twice or thrice the number of fowls I 
keep. 1 never shut them uii in it ; the small 
door for ingress and egress is always ojjen, 
and they avail themselves of this circum.stance 
by never staying in the house except during 
the night. I have a large, dry stable to which 
they can resort dining the heat of sunuiier, 
and where they are always found during the 
cold days of winter or in rainy weather. They 
have, besides, the nm of an ample grass lot, 
and a liock of geese could not crop the young 
grass more industriously than they do. In a 
small yard there is a patch of open ground 
wherein they can dust themselves when so iu- 
eliued. To afford them the ojiportnuity of 
doing the same in winter, I have fixed up a 
corner in the stable whT're the}- can enjoy 
themselves in a bath eomiiosed of street dust 
and sifted coal ashes, and it is matter for 
astonishment to see how constantly they avail 
themselves of this luxury. 

In the matter of food, T depart .somewhat 
from the regime laid down in the books. I do 
not keep corn lying about the yard and stable 
all the time ; I feed them twice a day, morn- 
ing and evening, but never throw down more 
at a time than they can eat. I exercise a wide 
latitnte in the kind of food I give them, and 
this is constantly varied. Every refn.se .scrap 
of the kitchen is scrupulously saved ; a large 
jian is generally on the kitchen stove, into 
which apple, turnip and potato parings are 
thrown, and whatever else in the way of bits 
of meat, bread or mush that may be left at 
meal time ; often a few handtuls of cracked 
corn are added to render the eoinjionnd .still 
more aceei)table. In the fall and winter, 
when brewers' grains are to be had, I mix 
them quite freely witli the contents of the 
])au, and I lind this mixtiue more acceptable 
to them than anything else I can oiler them. 
S)metinies I boil mush, and mix it with the 
Virewers" grains; this is generally their morn- 
ing nu'al in winter. In the evening, corn in 
its natural state is given them; occasionally 
this order of feeding is reversed. At all sea- 
.sons pounded oyster shells are thrown to 
them, and if they for some reason do ikjI get 
them for a short time, they eat them with as 
much avidity as corn when they are again 
thrown dovvu. Two or three times a week i 



either ])cp]ier or [lowdered sidphur is thrown 
into the pan on the stove and boiled witli 
their food. In lieu of wood-charcoal. I burn 
corn in a pan initil it is virtually turned into 
charcoal, and give il to them ; this they eat 
re.idily, while they object to lailural charcoal. 
Owing, as I believe, to theplentilul feedingof 
sulphur and pepper, my chickeus have never 
beeji afTe<t<'d by any epidendc disease- ; they 
are, besides, remarkably free from vermin ; 
occasionally 1 have lost one, but that was 
rarely. They at all times during the sumnu-r 
have access to fresh water, and in winter 1 
take care that they have all they need. 

Theabove, I think, is very lair treatment for 
hens, and makes nic all the more cm iuus to 
know why they stopi>ed laying <in Septeud)er 
•JOtli, of this year, and have not, up to this 
writing, Deceinber 2(ith, laid a single egg. 
Last year they ipiit laying on October 1st, and 
one hen, a spring pullet, began to lay on 
December 28th and some of the rest towards 
the close of January. None of my (■hickens 
are more than tbrei; years old, while fully one- 
half were raised last year; so this long "ces.sa- 
tion from laying does not arise from the age of 
the fowls. Last smunier I raised a brood of 
pure 15lack Siianish, out of which I selected 
four choice birds; they are now nearly or (piite 
full grown, hut. so far have shown no symptoms 
of going into the business for which they are 
so noted. 

Notwithstanding the fact that such long 
intervals have occurred during which my hens 
did not lay, yet all things considered, they 
have iiaid me well for my care. My twelve 
hens laid during the year TSS eggs aiui 1 raised 
forty young ones; at the market price of eggs 
during the siiring and sunuuer, the i)roduet 
would have been §15.00 at the very lowest, 
while my yomif; chickens at twenty-iive cents 
each were worth $10.00 more ; the food I imr- 
cliased amounted to about $12.00, leaving a 
very handsome profit. Last year I got oidy 
V")4 eggs from the same number of hens; this 
is an average of oidy O.'i eggs to each one, a 
mmiber entirely to(( small. I had fowls, how- 
ever, both dnring the i)ast and the iiresent 
year, that laid as many as 75 and 80 eggs before 
they wished to sit. 

But after all. the old difficulty still remains; 
if it pays me to keep these hens, even with the 
long holiday they allow themselves, it would 
have paid me stiil better if they had laid con- 
tinuously; as they did not do so, the query 
arises, would any of the fancy breeds have 
done better? Why, with all the care and 
attention I give them do they not lay between 
September and JanuaiyV jirewcr's grains I 
was told would correct that defect ; I am satis- 
fied it does not eontril)Ute to that result, but 
it is admirably adapted to fattening ])()ultrv, 
and the chickens that come on my table are 
far superior to any I sec on market. There 
yet remains one remedy imtri<'(l. which, unless 
my cpiery is satisfactorily answered, I will put 
into practice next fall. Once, on the far off 
))lains of Kansas, seeing an honest granger's 
wife with a huge basket full of eggs, curiosity 
tenqited me to ask how she contrived to get 
so many eggs from the few liens that were 
rniniing around. " I give," she said, while a 
merry twinkle played about her laughing eyes, 
"I give them plentv of corn and run tlieiu up 
hill."—/'. H. n., Lmuwtcr, D«: 20, 1S75. 



For TiiK LANCASTEn Fahmkr. 
ALL HAIL! CENTENNIAL YEAR, 1876! 
The vear 187(1 has come iu and brings with 
it the centennial birthday of our independent 
nation. It will be an eventful one in the his- 
toiy of our republic. It now rests with our- 
selves to render it illustrious or flu' n-verse. 
\ hundreil years ago the i>eo])le ot the original 
thirteen Stales which were then settled, clam- 
ored for self-government. A congress of .sages 
assembled iu I'hiladeliihia, and after full con- 
sultation, they madi' out a "Declaration of 
Independence " and unanimously signed it. 
That, with a conflict of arms in the field by the 
lieroes of the tijne, .secured for us the inde 
pendent republican governmeut which we now 
enjoy. 



We lia ve resolved to commemorate that event 
this year by an international exhibition, that 
our country may step u](on the platform of 
nations, and he recognized a.s an eipial with 
others. Our National Congress is now in ses- 
sion to sign asecond "declaration of indepen- 
dence" iu the form of an aiipropriation sulti- 
cient to lii'lp defray the expeiKse of preparing 
ftn- the Kxposition. We fain hope that every 
member of the present Congress is a patriotic 
g<'utl<inan, and has (he honor of the nation 
and his own manly digrdty at heart ; anil that 
all of them will siiow their loyalty in voting 
for the appropriation as promptly and unani- 
mously as did the gallant heroes" and siiges of 
a hundred years ago. 

Will any free-born Amerieati sell his birth- 
right now, when the nation is at the height of 
its glory? Will any adopted citizen seek to 
demean the land which has rais<'d him from a 
sxihjfH to a Sdvi n iijn .' Was ever there a wiuni 
so noble and grand as ours is'? It lias »ur- 
mouutecl all ilillicullies that have come In its 
way, and withstood all a.s.saults tliat Lave 
sought to .sever it. 

Oil ! cl'irify the I'liUm, wlileli palrldU fnrnic<l ; 

(illd the rciimls of the past, the preiii'iit uiiil nil ; 
Oil ! wihdoiii ptill guide iib ami virtue prcborve us, 

Dear brotherly-love liiiid us — ward oil uurduwurull. 
— lla/fcr KliUr, riiilailelpliia, Jan. 1, 1870. 



For TllK l.ANrAHTKIl Fahmeb. 

LOOK OUT FOR CANADA THISTLE. 

Eastera Pennsylvania is likely to be over- 
run with '"Canada Thistle " (Cirsiwn nrvense). 
Lancaster county, as well as the rest of the 
counties ot Kastern I'emisylvania, are receiving 
hay in bales from Rochester, New York, and 
other western jiarts of that Slate. It exi.sts 
in abundance from Eliuira to (ii'iieva and 
Rochester, and iu all the surrounding coun- 
ties from whence hay is shijiped to the ea-st. 
The hay is bought by county towns and coun- 
try villages, from whence the manure is haul- 
ed out among the faniiei-s, scattering the seeds 
broadcast among them. When once on a 
farm, it will take years to make it clean again, 
as they are not easily destroyed. We may 
feel assured of this, else we would not (iud 
them growing in all Western New York. — 
L. S. I{., Ornjiiii, ]'a.. Junmu-ii '.\, 1870. 

[We hardly think that Canada thistle conld 
be brought here in baled hay. especially not in 
the "fust crop," because that is cut before 
the thistle is in .seed, or "fniil," as the Hotan- 
ists say. In "second ero)! " it would In- more 
likely; but we have had ihis noxious weeil in 
this county long since. AlMiiit fifteen years 
ago we noticed a most niagniliieut held of 
Canada thi.stle north of Lancaster, and not 
more than half a mile beyond the city boun- 
dary.— jE('.] 



SUCCESSFUL ORCHARDS. 

The Rochester /fura/ //omf gives an account 
of the orchard of S. C. Davis, in Orleans coun- 
ty, N. Y. He has ill) acres in orchard, con- 
taining 2,50') apple trees, 500 of which were 
planted iu 1858, and the remainder in 18(i2 
and 181)8, The young apple orchards <-over 
.55 acres, and are chielly eompo.sed of the Raid- 
win. Rhode Island, (ireeuing and Roxbury 
Russet, with some autumn apples. He ha.s 
besides these 2.7IHI trees or hushes of the Or- 
ange quince, covering 10 acres, and planted 
six and ten yeai^s ago. The crops from these 
quinces the last two sea.sons were .">0 and 5:{ 
barrels. Resides these, there are 2,<KH1 pcadi 
trees, 350 planted in 18.58, the rest in 18(;5 and 
18()8. The lirst ."(50 have vielded in all vears 
over S4,(HM). There are iilso 2,(KHl slaiidard 
pear trees, LiHHl of which are Hartletts. 
From the first planted (UK) in lS(i4) UK) bar- 
rels have been picked. We are not informed 
what the apple trees yielded, nor what the 
quinces sold for. 



SrBSCRinEn!» will jilease renew their sub- 
scriptions for 187(i. (Jannot each oue send us 
au additional subscriber ? 



40 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[January 



THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 



The Progress of the Great Work--A Birds- 
Eye View of the Buildings and Grounds-- 
Details of the Live Stock Department. 

A recent visit to Fairmouiit Park, on the 
occasion of tlie presence of the President of 
tlie United States, Judges of the Supreme 
Court, and Members of Congress, revealed 
remarkable progress in the great work, 
since oiu' former visit. The remarkably 
mild and open winter we are having is highly 
tavoralile to the prosecution of outdoor work, 
such as grading the grounds, and there is no 
longer reason to doubt that all the details will 
be completed in time for the opening iu May. 
The apjiropriation of a million and a half of 
dollars which has been asked of Congress to 
complete the work will no doubt be granted, 
as the repri'Sentatives of every department of 
the government wlio inspected the biuldiugs 



line seen above these buildings is the Schuyl- 
kill river, whieh runs to the right toward the 
Delaware. Beyond it lies the great body of 
the city, from which rise many steeples and 
towers. On the farther side, to the left, ap- 
pears a faint line, showing the Delaware river, 
which borders the city on the east, and runs 
southward, to the right. 

In addition to these there will be about one 
hundred and fifty smaller buildings, erected 
for the headquarters of different states and na- 
tions, and for special exhibition of the products 
of different industries, many of them present- 
ing beautiful architectural designs. 

We print below, as specially interesting to 
OIU' readers, the details of the arrangements 
made for the exhibition of live stock by Burnet 
Landreth, Chief of the Bureau of Agriculture, 
and approved l>y Director-General A. T. Gos- 
horn. These details of a siTigle department 
will give the reader a fair idea of the magni- 
tude of the enterprise. 



As to Hnlstcins, Herefords, Ayrshires, Devone, 
Guernseys, Britanuys, Kerrys, and other pure breeds, 
tliey are either imported or descended from imported 
animals on both sides. 

As to Jerseys, that they are entered in the Herd 
Register of the American Jersey Cattle Club, or in 
that of the Royal Agricultural Society of Jersey. 

As to sheep and swine, they are imported or de- 
scended from imported animals, and, that the home- 
bred shall be of pure blood as far back as the fifth 
generation. 

:l The term breed, as used, is intended to compre- 
hend all family divisions, where the distinction in 
form and cliaracter dates back through yearsof sepa- 
ration; for instance, it is held that the proa;euy of a 
pure-blood Jersey and a pure-blood Guernsey, is not 
a thorouKh-liVed, but a cross-bred animal, and, as 
such, is necessarily excluded. 

4. Iu awarding prizes to animals of pure blood, the 
judges will take into consideration chiefly the relative 
merits as to the power of the transmission of their 
valuable qualities; a cardinal object of the exhibition 
being to promote improvement in breeding stock. 

•5. In case of doubt relative to the age of an animal, 
satisfactory proof must be furnished, or the animal 
will be subject to examination by a veterinary sur- 
geon ; and 




on the occasion referred to, expressed them- 
selves highly pleased with what they saw, and 
the national honor seems now to be at stake in 
the matter. 

The accompanying engraving represents a 
correct l)irds-eye view of the appearance of 
the Centennial grounds and the relative rela- 
tions of the buildings to each other. 

The Mdin Bu'dding is the extensive struct- 
ure, rimning diagonally, near the centre of the 
cut. It covers about as much space as the 
other four united. Mwhinerii Hall is the next 
largest building, and runs toward the right, in 
the same range, with only a street between. 
Ayriruhural Hall is near the lower corner, to 
the left. Ifurticultiiral Hull is the ornamental 
structure standing next above the last in the 
view. The Art GaVery is the stone edifice 
with the large dome, standing between the 
last and the first liuildings named. This is 
also called Jlemorial Hall. It was erected by 
provision made by the State of Pennsylvania, 
and it is designed to be permanent. The white 



Live Stock. 

1 . The live stock display at the International Ex- 
hibition will be lield within the montlis of September 
and October, ISTH; the periods devoted to each class 
and family being fifteen days, and the division as fol- 
lows: 

Horses, mules, and asses, from September first to 
fifteenth. 

Horned cattle (of all varieties), from September 
twentietli to October fifth. 

Sheep, swine, goats and dogs, from October tenth 
to twenty-tifth. 

Poultry will be exhibited from October twenty- 
eighth to Novcnil)er tenth. 

3. Animals to be eligible for admission to the Inter- 
national Exhibition must be, with the exception of 
trotting stock, walking horses, matched teams, fat 
and draught cattle, of such pedigree that the exhibi- 
tor can furnish satisfactory evidence to the Chief 
Bureau, that — 

.\s applied to the thoroughbred horses, at far hack 
as the fifth generation of ancestors on both sides, 
they are of pure blood, and of the same identical 
breed. 

As to short-horned cattle, they are registered in 
either Allen's, Alexander's, orthe English herd-books. 



I 



only be brought forward, as the characterof the stock 
will be judged by the general average of those ex- 
hiliited. 

8. Exhibitors will be expected to furnish their own 
attendants, on whom all responsibility of the care of 
feeding, watering and cleaning the animals, and also 
of cleaning the stalls, will rest. 

9. Forage and grain will be furnished at cost prices, 
at depots conveniently located within the grounds. 
Water can be had at all hours, ample facilities being 
provided for its conveyance and distribution through- 
out the stock-yards 

10. Exhibitors must supply all harness, saddlery, 
vehicles and other appointments, and all such must 
he kept in their appointed places. 

11. The Commission will erect ample accommoda- 
tion for the exhibition and protection of live stock, 
yet contributors who may desire to make special ar- 
rangements for the display of their stock, will be 
attbrded facilities at their own cost. Fractious ani- 
mals, whether stallions, mares with foals, or bulls, 
will be provided with stallsof suitable character. 

\2. All stalls will be regularly and distinctly num- 
bered; coiTcspouding numbers on labels of uniform 
character will be given to each exhibitor, and uo ani- 
mal will be allowed to pass from its stall without its 
proper number attached. 



1876.] 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



il 



13. Nwinhcrs alone will flisthiiruiBli stock in the 
8how-y;inl8, prccedimj the awards ot'in-izes. 

14. The juilL'i'H of livi'Kt(ic'l< will nmki'fxaniiiiation 
of all aniiiuils mi tlif oiicliinsrilayof each serial rIiow, 
anil will for that day have exclusive entrance to the 
show-yard. 

1."). Xo premium will be awarded an inferior ani- 
mal, tliDuirh there he no conijietition. 

If). All animals will t)c under the supervision of a 
veterinary suryeon, who will examine them before 
admi.'-sion, to jruard aixainst infection, and who will 
also make a daily inspection and rciiorl. In case of 
sickness, the aninnil will be removed to a suitable en- 
closure especially prcpareil for its comfort ami medi- 
cal treatment. 

17. When animals are taken sick, the exhibitors 
nniy either direct the treutment themselves, or allow 
the veterinary surj;t(>n ap|ioinleil by the commission 
to treat the case. In this latler event the exhibitor 
will be chariicd for all exjicnscs inenrred. .Ml jiossi- 
ble care will be taken ol animals exbiliitcd, but the 
commission cannot be held rcsponsilile I'or any injury 
or accident . 

l.s. A rinff will be provided for the display and ex- 
ercise of horses and cattle. 

111. Itn the last day of each serial show, a public 
auction may be held of such animals as the exhibi- 
tors may desire to sell. Animals nuiy be sohi at pri- 
vate sale at any time duriiifr their exhibition. Dnriiiff 
the period of a serial ."how, no animal, even in the 
event of beinf; sold, will be allowed to be delinilely 
removed. 

'■ilK An ollicial catalopiic of the animals will be 
published. 

21. Exhibitors of thoroui^hbred animals must, at 
the time of makini;' their entries, tile with the Chief 
of the Bureau a statement asto their inMlijjrce, allirmed 
or sworn to belore an olticer authorized to take alli- 
davits, and the papers so tiled shall be fundshed to 
the Jury of Experts. 

22. The a;ics of live stock nuist be calculated up 
to the openinir day of the exhibitiou of the class to 
■which tliey bt'lonir. 

2'!. Sheep breeders desiring: to exhibit wool, the 
pniduee of the Hocks, will display not less than five 
fleeces. 

24. All animals must be entered according: to the 
prescribed rules, as given in forms of entry, which 
forms will be furnished on application to the Chief 
of the Bureau of AgrieulHue. 

Breeding Horses. 

Mares entered as breedinjE: animals must have had 
foals within one year of the show, or if in foal, certi- 
ficates must Ite furnished to that efleet. 

All I'oals exhibited must be the otTspring of the 
mare with which they are at foot. 

Awards will he made to respective breeds for: Pure 
bred turf stallions, six years and over. Pure bred 
draught stallions, six years and over. Pure bred turf 
stallions, over tour years and under six years. Pure 
bred draught stallions, over four years and under six 
years. Pure bred turf stallions, over two years and 
under four years. Pure bred draught stallions, over 
two years and under four years. Pure bred turf 
mares six years and over. Pure bred draught mares 
six years and over. Pvn-e bred turf marcs, over tw'o 
and uncUr six years. Pure bred draught mares, over 
two and under six years. 

Awards will be made for: Trotting .stallions, six 
years and over. Trotting brood mares, six years and 
over. Trotting stallions, over four years and under 
six. Tr()tting fillies, over four years and under six. 
Trotting stallions, over two years and under four. 
Trotting fillies, over two years and under lour. 

Running and Trotting Horses 

shall be judged according to their record up to Au^et 
15th, lH7(i, (iue regard being had to present condition. 
Awards will be made for: Running horses having 
made fastest record. Trotting stallions havingtrotted 
a niilewiihin two-thirty. Mares and geldiugs having 
trotted a mile within two-lwenty-five. 

Walking Horses. 

Fast walking horses, whether bred for agricultural 
purposes or the saddle, will compete in the ring for 
awards. 

Matched Teams. 

Awarils will be made for: Matched teams having 
trotted a mile in two-thirty- five. Matched stallions 
for heavy draught, over sixteen hands high, and over 
fifteen hnndrcd poiniils weight each. .Matched geld- 
ings for heavy draught, over sixteen hanils high, and 
over fifteen hundred pounds weight each. Matched 
mules for heavy dr:inght, overfifteeii hanils high, and 
over fourteen hundred pounds weight each. .Matched 
mules for heavy draught, over Hflecn and a half 
hands high, and over thirteen hundred pounds weight 
each. 

Breeding Asses. 

Awards will he nnide to respective breeds of: Pure 
bred jacks <ivir six years. Pure bred jacRs over three 
years and under six. Pure bred she-asses over six 
years. Pure bred she-asses over three years and 
under six. j 



Neat Cattle. 

No cow will be eligible for entry, unless accomjia- 
nied with a ecrlificatc that, within liltein njonlliK pri- 
ccdiiig the show, she had a living calf, or that the 
calf, if born dead, was born at its proper lime. 

No heifer entered as in calf will he eligible for a 
prize, unless accompanied with a ecrlificate that she 
has been bulled bchire the first of April, or presents 
unmislakable proof of the fact to the judges. 

No bull above one year old can be entered unless 
he have a ring in nose, and thealtendanl be provided 
with a leading stick, which must be used whenever 
the animal is taken out of stall. 

Awards will be made for the best herd of each re- 
spective breed, consisting as follows: One bull, pour 
cows, none under fifteen months. Neat cattle, of each 
respective breed, will compete inili vidua My for awards. 
Hulls :! years and over. Hulls over 2 viars and ini- 
der:i years. Bulls over 1 year and under 2 years. 
Cows 4 years aial ovir. Ciiws over :i years and un- 
der 4 years. Cows or heifers in calf, over 2 years and 
under :; years. Yearling heifers. A sweepstake award 
will be made for the best bull of any breed. .VsWcep- 
stake award will be nnule for the" best cow of any 
breed. ■^ 

Fat and Draught Cattle. 

Aninuils entered as fat and draught cattle need not 
be of pure blood, but will compete on individual 
mei'its. 

Eat cattle must be weighed, and, in general, those 
will be judged best which have the greatest weight 
with the least surface and offal. 

Awards will be made for; Best fatted steer of any 
age or breed. Most powerful yoke of oxen. Most 
raiiidly-walking yoke of oxen." Most thoroughlv- 
trained yoke of oxen. Most thoroughly-trained team 
of three or more yokes of oxen. 

Breeding Sheep. 

All sheep ofl"ered for exhibition must he accompan- 
ied with ecrlificatc to the elhct that they have been 
shorn since the 1st of April, and the date given. 

If not fairly shorn, or if clipped so as to conceal 
defects, or with a view to improve the form orappear- 
ance, they will be excluded from com|ictition. 

Awards will be made to respective breeds for ; The 
best pen of five aninuils of same fiock and including 
one ram, the ewes all having had living lambs the 
past spring. 

Awards will be made to respective breeds for : 
Kams 2 years and over. Shearling rams. A sweep- 
stake award will be made for the best ram, respec- 
tively of long, middle, and fine-wooled breeds. 

Awards will be nnide to respective breeds for : 
Ewes in pens of three, all having h.ad living lambs. 
Shearlings in pens of three. A sweepstake award 
will be made for the best pen of three breeding ewes, 
respectively of long, middle, and fine-wooled breeds. 

Fat Sheep. 

Fat sheep entered for competition must be weigh- 
ed, and iu general those will be judged best which 
have the greatest weight, with the least surface and 
otl'al . 

Awards will be made for : Pen of three best fatted 
sheep of each breed. Pen of three best fatted sheep 
of any breed. 

Breeding Swine. 

Every competing sow above oneyearold must have 
had a litter, or be in pig, and the owner must bring 
proof of these facts, if required. 

1 f a lit ler of pigs be sent with a sow, the young pigs 
must be sucklings, the otlspriog of thesow, anif must 
not execixl the age ofthrce nmnlhs. 

Awards will be made to rcsjicctive breeds for : Tlie 
best pen of one boar and two breediug sows. For pen 
of .«ow and litter. 

Awards will be made to respective breeds for : 
Boars 2 years old aiul over. Boars 1 year old and 
uuder 2 years. Boars between '.> months and 1 year. 
Breeding sows 2 years old and over. Breeding sows 
1 year old and under 2 years. Pen ofthrce sow pigs 
between !( months and 1 year. A sweepstake award 
will be made tor the best boar of any breed. .\ swee|). 
stake award will be made for the best sow of any 
breed. 

Fat Swine. 

Fat swine entered for competition must be weighed, 
and in general tlu)se will be judged best which have 
the greatest weight with the least surface and offal. 
1st, 2(1 and :kl prizes will be awarded lor : Pair of 
best fatlid hogs of each breed. Pair ol best lalteU 
hogs of any breed. 

Dogs. 

Awanis will be made to respective breeds for : 
Dogs of 2 years and over. Dogs of ()ne year and un- 
der 2. Pups. .\ swee[>stake award will lie awarded 
for the best df)g of any lireed dis[)Iayeil by a foreign 
exhibitor. A sweepstake award will be awarded for 
the best hoin<'-bred dog of any breed. 

Awards will be made to res|)ective breeds for: 
Bitches of 2 years and over. Bitches of 1 year and 
under 2. Bitch pups. A sweepstake awanl will be 
awarded for the best bitch of any breed displayed l)y 
a foreign exhibitor. A sweepstake award will be 
awarded for the best liome-breil bitch of any breed. 



Poultry. 

Poultry can only be exhlbiied in coops made afler 
specifications furniKlied by the Bureau of .X^rieulture. 

Awards will be made to' res[K'clive breeds for : Pairs 
ofl year aiul over, of chickens, turkeys, ducks, gceso, 
swans, pigeons, guineas and ornamental birds. For 
pairs under 1 year. 

Fish. 

Living fishes will be displayed In both ftrsh and 
salt water ntpnirla. 

Awanis » III be made for : Largest display of fish 
of each S|>eele8. Largest display of fish of all 8|>cele8. 

OUR PARIS LETTER. 



Farming and Stock Raising on the Continent 

of Europe. 
CorrMi oudeucM^ of Tiik I.ancastku Fabmrr. 

Pa Ids, December .10, 1875. 

EXPEKIMEN'TING WITH SIIKPI'. 

Ex|wrience attests that sheep, when shorn, fnf fen 
more rapidly than those left in the jKJssesBlon of their 
fleece; horses, leanor even sickly, put upllesh ijuhkly 
If clipped iu due season and with the onllnary pre- 
cautions. Animals thus treuled aeipiire an Increased 
appetite and malnlain Ihe desire for more foisl for a 
longer period. M. \Veiske,of I'roskeau, hasconducteil 
experiments with great care to test the facts fnuiul to 
be true by practice. He selected two full gn>wn 
merinos, in good health, equal in age and nearly so 
in weight. They were fed on 2'; imunds of meadow 
'"*>'> 'i poiuid of crusheil barley, and less than a 
quarter of an ounce of kitchen sail, dally ; their solid 
and liquid excrements were s|)fclally preserved and 
frequently analyzed, eontem|)oraiieously with their 
food: they were supplied wit h a fixed quantify of watir 
daily and were weighed every morning: fhetempera- 
tureof the buildingduring the experiments was nearly 
uinform. After being thus' treated for seven days, no 
perceptible difierenee was discovered In their relative 
weights. After an interval of ten days thev were 
sliorn: the appetite which had ap|H-arc>d' languishing, 
suddenly became sharp. The shearing exercised llu 
tie influence on the digestibility of the fiHsl, and any 
difi'crenee was unfavorable to'the shearing; on the 
other hand, the animals eouBumeil less water, pulmo- 
nary and insensible persjiiralion having diminisheil, 
as in practice is known to be the case. But more 
nitrogen was eliminated, that is, less went to the for- 
mation of meat, though no change had taken place 
either in quantity or quality of food. 

SIIEAHING THEN IS AI'I'A REXTI.V UXPAVORABLB TO 
XtlTHITIOS. 

The loss of the fleece is the loss of ao mueh heat, 
demanding the grealcrconsuinptionof food ; In other 
words, prodticing a more vigorous appetite. For 
draught animals this result Isbenincial, for it stimu- 
lates the sources of strength. Horses, when cllpin'il, 
become more energetic, lively and robust; and if 
they display an improved condition without any 
change in rations, the cause inusf be sought in a 
better appetite and a su|)erior assimilation of food. 
In the case of fattening stock, if this [lowerof assimi- 
lation be a little less, the amelioration of the ap|«e- 
tite is a compensalion, for the animals will thereby 
put up more Mesh ; and to maintain the apiMiiie in 
an excellent stale during the finishing stage of fat- 
tening, is the object to be realized. More foisl means 
thus more beef and mutton, and hence the advantage 
of the shorn over the unshorn animal. 

THE FOOT AND MOITU DISKASE 

eontiniK'S to make its ravages here; it Is a malady 
more troublesome and annoying f lian ilaugerims ; if Is 
unpleasanlly contagions also. es|iecially for pigs; it 
does not destroy the animals, but retanls their devel- 
opment and production. The Veterinary College of 
Alfort, reeirnmends Ihe isolation of the afVected and 
the free u.se of diluted carbolic acid In the sheds; to 
break the pu.slnles wilh a rag stopjH'r and gargle the 
mouth with a preparation of lioneyed wafer shar|H-iied 
with vinegar. alinii or brandy, several tiinesaday, ad- 
ministering linseed or ot her meal drinks requiring oidy 
to be swallowed : when the feet are sore the lieihling 
ought to be very dry and clean, and the ulcers louched 
with a mixture of alum and carliolic acid in ll.'i parts 
of wafer; if fever be declari-d along with diarrhix'a, 
half a pound of (llaubcr salts is added lo Ihe drinks 
to elean.se the bliHsl. Conncctiil with the luulady, is 
a plan of insurance iu operation Iu upixr .Savoy; the 
fanners of a lownland form a society of Insurance; 
each animal Insured pays fr. 2, and an additional 
franc as an aiuiual premium. In case of loss, the 
farmer receives the full price of the animal, providi-d 
he has folloHxtl the iustructioiis for treating It when 
diseased. .\t Lille there is a Mxiety that will Insure 
cattle against all risks, the premium being five |>er 
cent, on the estimated value of the animal ; a single 
farm can Insure as far as fr. :tlMI,lH)0. 

TUB ANIMAf. FOOD VIF.STIOV. 

When consumed green or In flower, buckwheat af- 
fects sheep and pigs by pnslucing dizziness and 
erupt Ions on the skin. .Siiorlsmcu attest that this in- 
toxicatiuu Is eonuiion witli harea thai eat the plant. 



12 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[January, 



A farmer remarks, that after storms, buckwheat ex- 
ercises its peculiar influences most strongly. 

The high anrl increasing price of oats draws much 
attention to substitutes for that food, which cannot 
be equaled for horses. Bearing in mind that the 
nutritive qualities of plants vary more in respect to 
climate than to season, it is not surprising to witness 
different results from tiie same description of aliment. 
Barley raised in southern is superior in quality to 
that grown in northern climates. In the East, in 
Spain and in Arabia, horses fed on barley acquire 
more vigor and power of endurance, while in tem- 
perate climates it is fattening and refreshing in its 
effects. To excite fowls to lay or to hatch, oats and ^ 
light wheat are given; to fatten them, barley. 
Whenever the French invaded Spain, their cavalry 
was decimated by inflammatory diseases produced by 
feeding the horses on barley. On the other hand, \ 
Arabian horses, when imported into France, can only 
be kept in good condition by being fed, not on barley, 
but on oats. Barley is a tonic in warm climates, but 
enervating in temperate ones. Maize is but an aux- 
ilary, it can never become a substitute; it has not suf- 
ficient force-producing power. M. Adenot experi- 
mented with feeds of equal rations, of nine pounds 
each, of maize and oats, on 4.S of his wagon horses, 
extending over a period of two months ; the animals 
lost one-fifth of their draught power, which they re- 
covered, however, when their ftiU oat ration was re- 
stored; the economy in the way of oats disappeared 
by loss of strength. One-eighth of maize with oats 
turned out well, but then the maize must be Ameri- 
can, not French. How nearly soever related maize 
and oats mav be chemically, in physiological eflfects 
they are widely different. Thaer and Dombasle re- 
commend buckwheat for farm horses, as being capa- 
ble of replacing in part oats; their opinion is questioned, 
but buckwheat diflcrs in richness, according as it may 
have been saved, when matured or otherwise. M. 
Adenot has found a mixture of l-'3 pounds of oats 
with six of rye, very successful; his experience 
extended over fifteen years, the stables containing not 
less than 3.50 draught horses; the mixture was not 
equal in producing vigor to oats alone, but was not 
the less a capital feed when grain was scarce. In 
former times wheat was given to stallions during the 
season of serving, and to mares when suckling, but 
wheat fattened rather than imparted strength or pro- 
duced muscle. 

IN THE PEODOCTION AND REPARATION OF MUSCU- 
L.4R FORCE, 

beans rank with oats, exciting the appetite, and ex- 
cellent for horses that digest badly their full feed of 
grain . Field peas are favored by some for post horses, 
improving their wind while forminga change of ibod. 
Oats being unrivalled, many farmers object to either 
bruise or "break them ; containing less farinaceous 
matter, they nourisli less, in the sense of fattening 
less; this quality Messrs. Magne and Baillet attribute 
to an aromatic princiide in the skin, analogous to 
vanilla, and to which the stimulating action of the 
grain is to be traced. Now mountain oats, small and 
light, are more exciting than others, because they 
contain less farinaceous and more of stimulating mat- 
ters, and hence why many breeders keep stocks of 
mountain and lowland oats, giving feeds of each 
alternately, never mixing, for where the ingredients 
of rations diiler in volume, much that is small be- 
comes unmasticated or incompletely mixed with 
saliva. M. Monclar, of Tarn, finding wine to be so 
cheap and oats so dear, has employed the former as 
an element in rations for his horses, and with excel- 
lent results. This is the first time wine has been so 
employed ; but is long known in France to be of sin- 
gular efficacy when horses are overcome with great 
fatigue ; sonie sprinkle the wine over the oats and 
others administer it as a drink. Horses are very fond 
of wine. M. Becwer is the most extensive fattener of 
live stock on the continent ; after years of experience 
he concludes, 

THE BEST AND MOST SUCCtU.F.NT MEAT IS FURNISHED 

by pigs fattened on milk, than animals fed on grain, 
the following ranking in order of merit : maize, barley, 
oats, to which may be added, peas. Potatoes pro- 
duce a meat light, flabby and insipid, losing much in 
cooking ; bran, in the case of liogs, yields a flesh poor 
and of abad taste ; oil, seeds and cake impart flaecid- 
ness and a disagreeable taste to the meat, and beans 
make it hard, indigestible and unsavory. M. Bcewer 
counsels for the finishing of pig fattening, a diet of 
boiled grain, or the latter bruised, with milk; peas 
added to the rations of pigs, four weeks before 
slaughtering, will impart an agreeable flavor to the 
meat. 

Belgium has suffered during the present year very 
much from 

ADULTERATED CLOVER SEED, 

which is mixed with colored sand and the seed of the 
plantain ; the latter is said to have been superseded 
by the seeds which escape from the refuse of imported 
■wool. The magnifying glass reveals the impurity. 

THE BEET SUGAR MANUFACTORIES ON THE 
CONTINENT 

may consider themselves fortunate if they can make 
the two ends meet this year. France produces twice 
as much sugar as she consumes, but fiscal export 
regulations prevent her from entering advantageously 
the foreigh market. Many farmers decline to sell 



their beet this year to the manufacturer, who only 
gives fr. 16 the ton for the roots, selling the pulp at 
fr. 1.5 ; net profit per ton, for the cultivator, one franc, 
to which must be added the expenses of transport 
both ways. It is thus more profitable to consume the 
roots on the farm . The new continuous presses ex- 
tract more sugar than the old hydraulic apparatus, 
but the pulp derived from the former is found to be 
less valuable. The chemists discuss the question as 
to the action of leafing the beet, for feeding purposes, 
on theproiluctionof sugar. Messrs. Corenwinder and 
Viollette assert the practice diminishes the produc- 
tion of sugar, and further, entices the plant to absorb 
salts from the soil, which resist the extraction and 
crystallization of the sugar; however, the more eini- 
inent Claude Bernard differs from both these chemists, 
alleging we are still ignorant as to how the plant 
fbrnis lis sugar, whether by the root or by the leaves 
decom]io,siiig the carbonic acid of the air, under the 
influence of the green coloring matter and the sun's 
rays, the sugar then being distributed throughout the 
tissue. 

Dr. Petermanu recommends 

TWO MEANS OF REDUCING BONES: 

throwing them into the wine tank, or mixing them 
witli wood ashes and quick lime, as a compost. Pro- 
fessor Kupfferschlaeger, of Liege, recommends their 
being burned with weeds and the ashes incorporated 
with the soil. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

Unhappily there is nothing new to record respecting 
the phvlloxera; the habits of the bug are being better 
observed, and the effects of the several remedies— in- 
undation always excepted — await the test of time. 

Dr. Pierre asserts that fruit plantations— eider 
orchards particularly— require to be as methodically 
manured as ordinary cultivated crops. 

Cider is economically prepared, by adding seven 
pounds of red garden beet to every aVj bushels of 
apples, pressing all together ; the cider must not be 
used till the following July, when it will be free of 
the beet flavor. 



OUR LOCAL ORGANIZATIONS. 



Proceedings of the Lancaster County Agricul- 
tural and Horticultural Society. 

The stated monthly meeting of this society took 
place in the Athenseum on Monday afternoon, the 3d 
of January — Johnson Miller, President, in the chair. 
The following members were present : Johnson Mil- 
ler, E. S. Hoover, Milton B. Eshleman, Martin D. 
Kendig, E. S. Hershey, Jacob B. Garber, Alex. Har- 
ris, Harvey Brackbill", Elias Brackbill, Henry Erb, 
Israel Landis, Calvin Cooper, John Grossman, 
Reuben Weaver, Martin Fry, John M. Stehman, 
Levi S. Reist, Peter S. Reist, S. S. Rathvon, Levi W. 
Gi-otf, Levi Pownall, Reuben J. Erb, John N. Eby, 
Jefferson Grosh, Aaron H. Sumray, Edwin Reinhold, 
A. C. Ilius. Jacob M. Myers, John Gingrich, W. J. 
Kafroth, John B. Erb, Elias Hershey, Abraham 
Bollinger. 

John N. Eby, A. C. Ilius and C. Coble were 
elected members. 

On motion, it was agreed that the Athenseum be 
the place of meeting until the society order otherwise. 
Johnson Miller offered a resolution in regard to 
a more stnngent law for the protection of numerous 
birds that are often slaughtered by sportsmen, and 
yet may not be strictly classified as insectiverous 
"birds, such as the partridge, woodcock and reed-bird. 
Mr. Miller announced that he would gladly re- 
ceive from farmers in the county any sample of grain 
for exhibition at the Centennial— said samples to be 
properly labeled in regard to species, locality, and 
any other particulars that may be given. Messrs. 
Mi'lton B. Eshleman, Martin Fry and Simon P. Eby 
were ajJiwinted by the chair as a committee to draft 
a suitable resolution in regard to the birds, and pre- 
sent the same to the society, with a view to seeking 
legislative action on the subject. 

The annual election for officers then took place by 
ballot. Mr. Calvin Cooper was chosen President. 
On leaving the chair, Mr. Miller returned thanks for 
the co-operation of the society during the two years 
of his service, and Mr. Cooper expressed his appre- 
ciation of the honor conferred upon him. Jacob B. 
Kafroth, Martin H. Kendig, Jacob Bollinger and 
Jacob B. Garber were elected Vice-Presidents ; E. J. 
Hoover, Cor. Secretary; Alex. Harris, Rec. Secre- 
tary ; Levi W. Groff, treasurer. On motion, Jacob 
Stauffer as botanist, S. S. Rathvon as entomologist, 
and SiuKm P. Eby as librarian, the present oflicers, 
were continued for the ensuing year. 

THE president's ANNUAL ADDRESS. 

Mr. Miller read the following address : 
(ienllemen : A kind and all-wise Ruler has carried 
us from time to time, until now we enter upon the 
year one thousand eight hundred and seventy-six — 
a period which will be the most important in the his- 
tory of this nation and country since the days of 
Washington, whose mortal dust reposes in Mount 
Vernon's sacred soil, and whose spirit appears to rise 
in the vision of true and patriotic citizens of all na- 
tions, reminding them that we have now fairly en- 



tered upon the great Centennial year of American 
Independence. 

In looking over the past record of our proceedings, 
and comparing them with the present, you have rea- 
son to be assured of success in the future. Ten years 
ago this society was organized by a few of the most 
intelligent and progressive farmers of this county, to 
whom we owe our obligations to-day for having an 
agricultural and horticultural society in this county. 
A few of them are still with us, and to them I would 
say, yours was a noble beginning. But since that 
time many were the trials through which this as- 
sociation has passed. It was, at times, only since I 
am a member, a question whether we could keep in 
existence an organization of this kind or not ; and I 
will here say, that the men who organized it always 
" stood by the Hag." 

The past year has been one of more than ordinary 
interest to this society, as well as to all farmers in 
this wide county, from the fact that the Pennsylvania 
State Agricultural Society has held its annual ex- 
hibition at Lancaster. It was natural that this so- 
ciety should give it all the encouragement it could ; 
this was done by the adoption of resolutions of wel- 
come, and the appointment of a county committee to 
encourage the farmers to become exhibitors, and 
take an in'erest in a matter in which they had not 
had the pleasure to participate since the year 18.53. 
The society, as well as the farmers in gen-ral, re- 
sponded. The State Fair was a grand success. On 
the whole, it might have been better in some depart- 
ments, but I learned from the oflicers of the State 
Society that they were well pleased, and that it would 
likely be held here during the Centennial year. 

I call your attention to this matter, that in case it 
be held here, measures may be taken to have Lan- 
caster county the in front. Tlie experience of last 
year's fair has proved to many of us that the county 
has the material to make a good fair. It only wants 
stirring up, and by so doing we can assure the State 
Society a better fair next year. The people are 
aroused now, and we hope we may have another 
chance to show our resources, and bring to perfec- 
tion what we commenced last summer. 

I have upon many occasions indicated the impor- 
tance of having a more complete organization of 
the farmers in the form of agricultural and horticul- 
tural societies — the many advantages and good re- 
sults that might be brought to all by consulting each 
other upon such matters as we farmers and fruit 
growers find ourselves daily engaged, and in which 
we often find ourselves puzzled for want of know- 
ledge. Who in all this broad land has more need of 
a thorough knowledge of his profession than the 
farmer? The mechanic must study his material and 
each piece before he can put together his machinery ; 
the doctor must first study his patient before he ad- 
ministers his medicine ; the miller must know how 
to regulate his grinders, and study the ups and 
downs of the markets ; the lawyer books himself 
upon all points of law ; and all other professions and 
callings have their organized societies for the en- 
couragement and discussion of matters pertaining to 
their respective callings ; and all for the general 
good. But when you come down to the fanner, 
where is he? Some one might say, at home, at his 
work. Too much so. It is right and proper to be at 
home and at work, but let us for a moment reflect 
how small a number of farmers of this world-wide 
known county of Lancaster come here and partici- 
pate in the discussion of questions tliat come right 
home to every farmer and fruit grower in the county. 
Instead of twenty-five to thirty regular attentive 
members in the county coming together every month 
and discussing views and opinions in regard to agri- 
cultural matters, we should have an agricultural an 1 
horticultural society in this couuty of at least a thou- 
sand members, that would have a hall of their own 
as large as the main room in our Court House. 

It appears to me it is not in accordance with the 
moving spirit of the Centennial year, that 1 stanl be- 
fore you to-day and present the facts as I do in re- 
gard to our Agricultural and Horticultural Society 
Tn this county, but I am simply telling the truth. 
The question presents itself to me— how can we get 
our farmers interested and bring them together ? It 
would Ije my desire to do so by having a society in 
each township, where they could come together once 
a month and talk agricultural and horticultural mat- 
ters over, and call these together once a year, and 
remain in session, say for a week, as a county so- 
ciety. Invite all to come, brin J sons and daughters 
and" wives; get all interested in the agricultural im- 
provements of the day for the general good of all 
classes and all people. Some say, " be' mging to an 
agricultural society don't pay." If you ask them to 
subscribe for a good agricultural paper, such as The 
Lancaster Farmer, which should be in the hands 
of every farmer in the county it represents, they will 
tell yoii in plain Dutch they know all about farming. 
This may be in some cases true, but you can best 
judge by the way they manage their farms. Scrip- 
ture says we shall not judge, or we will be judged ; 
we will' then only take things as they look, and form 
our own opinions. 

And what do we see in a majority of cases ? There 
are exceptions to all rules ; but I say, in a majority 
of cases we see the farmer who reads no paper, but 



1876.] 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



d3 



tliinks lie is made to worl; fnun nidniiiiff till iii^'lit, 
with nolliine to imimive tlie iiiiiKl fur tlie teiniKirul 
as well as the sjiiritiial welfare of the sotil ami loily, 
sueeeeiliiifr nowhere in this enlif;ht< ned age. Fastinj; 
his farm, you will at once notiee in every field some 
imi'lement left in the nuid, jii.-! w 1 ere he was done 
using it, exposed to all the ehanf;es of \v<-ather from 
one season to another ; fences blown down, euttle al- 
lowed to run at large in fields of waving grain ; in 
faet, everything out of jilaee. and no |ilaie for any- 
thing, instead of having system and orderall arounil, 
a |ilaee for everything, and everything in its plaee. 
1 do not wish t(i dielale to the farmers of Lancaster 
co\inty, hut merely throw out these hints lor ex- 
ample. I haveeiioul'li tolaUeeare of at heme to have 
things in order and syslim in all the departments of 
my farm, and I eoidiss that, much as I read and 
much as I try to have things represent the appear- 
ance of a model farm, I have plenty to do without 
minding other fainicrs' husiniss. Hut if I am to 
hold the position iiniong the agricullnral luiiple of 
this county, I want fric scope to expnfs myself, an<l 
point out to our laimcrs the miserable condition iu 
which we find entirely too many larnis in this intelli- 
gent county of Laniasler. 1 v\ouId here say to the 
members oi' this society, that the very best way to 
show the people that we mean business, is to have our 
faims in first-class trim; I'verything in order — sys- 
tem; treat our fellow-nien, our helping hands, so 
that they know we love Hum ; thai we have as much 
ret^ard for their morals an<l their pertonal heallh as 
we have for < ur own. Let us he timijcrate in all 
thiiiL'^s, kind towards all, poor or rich, ncighlor or 
friend. Itisthiii, and only then,- that pcojile will 
perceive that the Iruits of our society can be seen, 
and that we mean to show our faith by our works. 
On the other hand, what more do we gain by belong- 
ing to an agricultural society, and what do we gain 
by having these 1 roks and papers ? Why, in the fir.st 
place, we have the satisfaction of coming in commu- 
nication with our friends all over the county, and 
have a day of rest for the lody, and devoting that 
dav to the iniprovcnunt id' the mind : conse<|uently, 
we' know better h.ow to manage o\ir works ; and there 
is a saying with a great deal of truth in it, that pood 
manasiemcnt is doinir half the work. But those men 
will tell you they get the proceedings in the papers, 
and know what we have been doing, and that they 
save expenses of lime and money by not attending 
meetiufis — showing that they are still interested in 
reading the proceedings of this society, which is all 
richt and proper. But it shows that they want us to 
sp'end time and money, and when anything new pire- 
scuts itself, or we make a new discovery iu grain or 
whatever it be, they have their head open to cateh up 
anything by whichthey can make an almighty dol- 
lar. Fortius reason we would like more farmers to 
join in with us and make the improvement still 
greater. On the other hand, the advantages of 
reading hooks and papers are equally f.ood. I would 
here impress, in the strongest terms, the importance 
of reading, for our young and rising farmers. Let 
me tell you that every dollar spent for looks and 
papers will pay tcn-(old in the future ; such practice 
has a wonderlul tendency to improve the moral as 
well as intellectual faculties of the young num. For 
instance, the young man who njakes reading a study 
will naturally be at home in the evenings— ji(k( iiJure 
he oiiijlit to he. Every farmer, and everybody else 
should be at home with his family. We all have an 
example of many a young man who, instead of find- 
ins pleasure at home in reading, has made the near- 
est town, in the saloon or hotel, his [place for spend- 
ing his most precious time, and the gamesthere prac- 
ticed have led many a fine young man on the road 
that leads from misery to destruction of both soul 
and body, whiih were calculated by the Creator for 
the improvement of mankind. 

Allow me to-day, through my annual address, to 
again caution my agricultural friends throughout the 
county, young and old, airainst the terrible risk they 
are running, by spending their time, that should be 
devoted to the imiirovemc nt of minil and body, in the 
dangerous ways that lead to the deslrudion of the 
morals of any human being, (ienthnien, please bear 
with me ifldeviate from thelext that perhaps should 
he kept in view for an address to an agricultural 
society. I merely jioint out some (d' the dangers to 
which" the young and old engaged in agriiulture sub- 
ject themselves, which, in my ojiinion, can all be 
avoided by simjily supplying reading and thinking 
matter to the mind. 

Now. eomini; back to our society, we all know we 
have not made the progress that we should have made 
since we are in existence. On the other hand, we 
have done more than our predecessors, as we have 
kept alive, holding regular meetings (or the last ten 
years ; and stand to'day upon better ground than 
■we have since 1 became a member. We have had a 
little trouble in regard to a room in which to hold our 
meetings; but by consulting our new County Com- 
missioners, who have this day taken their seats, I have 
.no doubt that we can have the old room, if the one 
we now occupy does not suit. I merely suggest this. 
[ The society must he its own judge in this nuitter. 1 
-Bould only add, judge w ell before you act, and secure 
some permanent place for our meetings. 

Have we not been a little to blame for not making 
the progress we should have made ? If we would ad- 



vertise more and invite the people more generally, we 
ctmlil perhaps secure a better attendance. I know 
not the condition of our treasury, but it appears to 
nie it would allow a little expense in this direction. 
Another matter I would sugcest— that our Secretary 
should keep an a( conn! hereafter with the nienihers 
in regard to the amnuil fees. We are all honest 
enoUL'h to pay up, yet an account would alwaya show 
who has paid and w lu'U. 

The year we have just entered upon, as I said In 
the beginning of my addrcst., w ill In- one of great im- 
portance as the I iiilcnnial of our hiilcpendence. Si'- 
eured by our fathers one hundred years ago, it will 
be celebrated by an luternalional F.xhibiliou at I'hil- 
a<leliihia, to wliich I now invite your attention. II is 
proper that this Kuiety sliouhl take i>arl in the exhi- 
bition, and to do so it "becomes your duly to a|ipoiut a 
Centennial Committee to arrange upon what plan, and 
in what form, you shall be represented at the exhl- 
bil'on. I will leave this nuitter to your lonsideralion, 
hopiiu;' some action will be taken at Ihcni'Xl meeting. 
1 have been appoiuled by the Commissioner of 
Agriculture at \Vashim;lon, to make up a collection 
of grains <rom this ilislrict to be exhibited in the 
museum of the .\gricnllural Department at the Ceii- 
Icnnial KxhibiliciU. 1 will make the collccliou and 
deliver it to Washington within the next sixty days, 
and any meinber or farmer in the county who has 
anything to exhibit will ]ilease hand it to me, and he 
will rei'civc all the credit and honor for the same. 
The cxhibilion is a mailer w hich every American citi- 
zen friiin ocean to ocean should led proud of, and 
give a hcljiing hand in some way or other to make it 
a triumiihant success. I, for one, will do my whole 
duty, ill any position I may be iilaced in. The build- 
ings in progress (d' conslruclion at Fairmounl I'ark 
are very extensive, and I hope that the pco[ile of 
Pennsylvania, and this county in particular, will oc- 
cupy some space in them. 1 would like to have this 
society in some form represented. It is, however, for 
you to sav how. 

I will now call your attention to a matter in which 
you are to take some action. I refer to the resolu- 
tions 1 jircscntcd to-day. The farmers and fruitgrow- 
ers in particular have suffered extensively from in- 
sects of late years. The ravages of these insects is 
greatly owing to the fact that sportsmen are in the 
habit of shooting partridges and other birds that feed 
upon these insects, which have become so numerous 
as to injure and sometimes totally destroy fruit and 
other crops. The fanners have, time and again, 
warned the men that Ircspass over their land with 
hounds and guns, and the only reply they generally 
get, was an iusultiug remark from the scoundrels, 
who should be jiunished by law for the cruel act of 
shooting by wholesale the harmless, nay, lieneficial 
birds, bothto the fruit-grower and farmer. Believing 
that this society has the influence among our ineni- 
bers at Ilarrisburg to secure the passaire of a proper 
game law lor Lancaster county, I |ircseiit this mailer 
to your consideration, hoiiing we, as the reiirescnta- 
tivcs of the aL'ricultural and horticultural intercstsof 
this I (Hint y, will take such action as will put a stop 
to the mailer conipUiincd of. 

Ferbaps I have now occupied too much of your 
time, and will soon (ome to a close. I have now been 
two years your chairman, and conducted your meet- 
ings to the best of my kiiowlcd:;e and ability. 1 have 
done all in mv power to encourage the farmers to 
join with us, t"hat this society may be an honor to Lan- 
caster county ; and not only that, but that the im-ni- 
bers and farmers and fruit-growers might be bene- 
fited, and the cause of aL'ricullure and horliculturebe 
jircssed forward to a point at which it may overlook 
all other industries with pride. 

This is the piosition that farmers should have. His- 
tory gives evidence that the farmers have made our 
best presidents, and we should have more farmers 
upon the floors of Congress and in the State Legisla- 
ture, from the faet that agricullure is the greatest of 
all enterprises of this State and country. Let usliave 
more representation from the farm and field, and 
economy anil relrenclmicnt will mark conspicuously 
the records of both State and National ICL'islation. 
These are my principles, and I will follow them out 
in whatever "position mv friends may see proper to 
place me. Mav we all work hand in hand for the ad- 
vancement of" this society. With the heli.of Cod, 
may the Centennial year be one of health, joy and 
happiness to us all. 

Ol'll PAST ANn Ft'TtHE rROfPERITY. 

Peteh S. Heist read the following essay : 
Mr. Phesident— It affords me great pleasure in 
being able to KU'iraliilate you, and the members of 
this society, on the approaching National Centennial ; 
that it has pleased Divine Providence to permit us to 
enter the one huudrcdlh vear of our re|iublic. We 
cannot be too thankful to our Heavenly Father, the 
giver of every good and precious gift, for the privi- 
lege of enjoyi'ng such a government as ours. 

Weareiiereat this periodofour National progress, 
not by our own choice, nor by our own superior efl'orls 
or good management, but by circunistaiices controlled 
by an over-ruling jirovidence. We are enjoying piiv- 
ifeges handed down to us by our forefathers, who 
settled this country many years ago, under numerous 
privations and ha"rilsliips,'liaving tied Ircpm the op- 
pressions and persecutions of their fatherlands, to 



seek a land of freedom here. I'lider the control of a 
foreign goveriinieiit, they endured foreign dictation 
until the 4tli of July, 1771), then they declared Ihera- 
selves free and Independent— that indepcnilencc nhieh 
we now happily enjoy, and the Cenlriiiiial anniver- 
sary of w hich we are now preparing to celebrate. 

(ircal are the changes and many are the Improve- 
menls inhuman econoiiiies since the year 177(i. Then 
we had no railroads, canals, reapers, steam' eni^iues, 
threshinu' machines, and but few manufactorlcHof any 
kinil. We could not count three hundred carrlaucs 
atone funeral, nor live thousand — or even live hun- 
dred persons in atteiidunee at one canip-nieellng. 
Neither did we have so many nourishing towns ami 
cities as now, nor so many beautiful churches witli 
steeples and towers |>olntiiig up, heavenwanl. Our 
school system u as in its infancy, if it hud an cxislrneo 
at all, and our literary status was slill In Its endiryo 
slate. The arts ami sciences were only know ii to a 
favored few. Our I'uxmi consisteil of only thirteen 
Stales with a |io|inlatlon of three millions. Our com- 
merce was very small, our curreniy ami finances in a 
state of confusion, and our territories still Inhubilcd 
by Ihe "painted children of nature." 

Now wi' have railroads, canals, steam engines, ami 
thousands of other lmi>rovemenls, with Ihlrly-seven 
States ami Territories, a iMipulalion of forty millions, 
and fmmeiise product Ion of cereals, minerals and fal>- 
rics,and a commerce equal tot hat id" any other nation. 
But now ciuiies a treat problem in this our Centen- 
nial year— our long antlcipatect jubilee. Nolwlth- 
standini; we arc loaded with a heavy weight of debt, 
and arc pi-rhaps encumbered with some other draw- 
backs to our iiros|)erlty, wlia' is our appreciation of 
the benefits we d( rive from the many improvements 
we are enjoying, and of the i>rivlleges incideiilal to an 
advanceil stale of intellectual culture? If we appre- 
ciate these things as weought, what will become our 
duty to our posterity? Is there room for anymore 
improvements? Can we expect as inaiiy Inventions 
in Ihe next one hundred years as in the one just clos- 
ing ? To these (lueries, so fjir as they Hill admit of It, 
1 feel coin|>elled to give a negative response ; because 
our forests, placed here by a far-seeing Pnivldence, 
have been swept away most unmercifully, and are on 
the road of deslrucliou so rapidly, that in the near 
future our posterity will not have much left to thank 
us for — nothing to build up as line and costly cdlfleeg 
as those of the past. 

In a few years our fine prairies, now nnooeupied, 
will be scltleil ujioii, so that our posterity will not 
have the benefit of the irrisration that their predeces- 
sors have' had, and will havetofall back upon our old 
exhausted lands that have been long abandoned, 
which will bring in a new era. The deslnietlon of 
our forests is a matter which we oueht not to |)as8 
over too lightly. Scripture tells of a people who 
will reap where they did not sow. So we might say 
with recard to our forests : we reap, but do not sow. 
If any one |iers(m is more to blame than another on 
this subject, it is the slatesman, who worked more for 
himself— for power and iiolilical interest- than forthe 
people, showing that much of political economy has 
been lost. Agriculture and husbandry, to raise the 
difTcrent products of our broad acres, are the foun- 
tains ami foundations of national prosperity, (iood, 
wholesome laws, carried out by the |KOide, makea 
nation prosperous. .Suflice it, ilien, to say, that the 
more a people are united and educated on a common 
platform, the more prosperous they will he. The 
profligate must become more economical, and the 
avaricious more liberal. Indeed, It ndglit be success- 
fully demonstrated that, in many instances, Ihe miser 
is a greater hindrance to t he progress of anycommunity 
or coiintrv than a spendthrift . 

The masses of the people must be taught to select 
such statesmen and such officers, from the President 
down to county and township otticers, as will work 
for the interests of Ihe people, and not merely for 
themselves or for monoiiolics and political •'cliques:" 
for men w ho will act as men, in every sense of the. 
word. Let this society become a shining example lo 
societies in general. Let us work not only for the 
benefit of ourselves, hut alsi> for our fellow beings, and 
for our poslejily. Let us aim lo improve our seed, 
our modes of culture, and our prcnluets of every de- 
scription. Let us emieavor to Increase our average 
as well as our acrcaee, so as to raise such surplus as 
will create a balance of traile in our favor. lo pay the 
interest we larcely owe lo foreign coiintriT-s. In ad- 
dition lo all Ibis, "and as intimately associated with 
it, let ns expand ami elevate our minds by Ihe eulll- 
valion of our intellectual faenllles. Let us enlenil a 
generous support to the agricultural lileralure of our 
country. There fs no more reason that farmers, as a 
class, should be illiterate, than I here is for any olher 
class of people being so. Indeed, farmers from their 
seclnded coialllion, and their freedom fnini night oc- 
cupations, have opportunities of mental culture far 
superior lo those of most mcehanlcs. 

By doing our duly to (ioil, to our iielchbors, to our 
families, and lo ou"rselves, and e.pniinuing lo do as 
our forid'alhcrs did, adding and Incorporating Into 
our labors the Improvements which time has devel- 
oped, we shall be destined to U-come one of the 
strongest and most powerful nations U|ion the face of 
this earih : and, altliouirh we cannot ex|M-ct to see It, 
our second Ceiiteiuiial may find our country- 
"Kcdccmed, regenerated and disenthralled." 



14 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[January, 



MISCELLANEOUS BUSINESS. 

A vote of thanks was tendered both gentlemen for 
their productions. 

A pear brancli covered with a scale inseet, was ex- 
hibited by ^fr. Erb. Prof. Rathvon reeommended 
oil as an application late iu .March to destroy the eggs. 
The common name of the insect is oyster-shell bark 
louse, Aapifliofin conchiforniu. 

Mr. Cooper called attentionof the members to the 
meeting of the Pennsylvania Fruit Growers' Society, 
at Doylestown, on tlie nineteenth of January. If 
fifty members go from this section, the Pennsylvania 
road will furnish excursion tickets. On motion, a 
committee of three, consisting of Johnson Miller, 
J. H. Brackbill and Levi S. Reist, was appointed to 
represent this society at the Doyestown meeting. 

Mr. John B.Erb exhibited Pennock apples, a bot- 
tle of Blackberry wine and sweet apples. J. H. 
Byerly, East Lampeter, forwarded a small bag of 
Russian grass seed. Mr. M. B. Eshleman exhibited 
specimens of a large potato, Brownell's Beauty. 

On motion, a committee of ten was appointed to as- 
sist Mr. Miller in his contributions to the Ai;ricultural 
Bureau. M. B. Eshleman,!. L. Landis, J. H. Brack- 
bill, P. 8. Keist, H. .M. Engle, E. Hoover, J. M. Steh- 
man, M. B. Kendig, Levi W. Grotf and J. B. Erb 
were named as the committee. 

On motion, Mr. Cooper was made a committee to 
confer with the Fruit Growers' Society In regard to a 
representation at the Centennial. 

Several questions w(Te submitted for discussion : 

Mr. Erb. Is it profitable to turn land worth more 
than $100 an acre into forest ? 

Mr. Ebv. Should the planting of forest trees be 
encouraged ? 

Mr. Peter S. Reist. Is swine flesh a proper food 
for man ? 

Mr. Kendig. How can the comfort of our homes 
be increased ? 

]SIr. Pownall, of Octoraro Agricultural Society, 
was introduced. 

On motion, society adjourned to meet at the Athen- 
seura, at 1 o'clock, on Monday, the 7th of February. 



THE GRANGERS IN LANCASTER. 



History and Objects of the Order of Patrons of 
Husbandry. 

Perhaps a more intelligent and solid body of far- 
mers never before convened in Lancaster city or 
county than that which represented the State 
Granoe, of Pennsylvania, and held its sessions in 
our Court House, commencing on Tuesday, the 14th 
of December last, and continuing to the end of the 
week. Although not morbidly secret iu its organiza- 
tion and the attainments of its objects, yet in its busi- 
ness meetings its doors are closed against the intru- 
sions of the public, but the principles and the essential 
transactions of the order are usually published in 
their organs, and the newspaper and periodical press 
in general. The noit-essen.tiah — that is, non-essential 
to the public good — they usually keep among them- 
selves, for the very good reason that they do not con- 
cern the public, and are purely family secrets. As 
our space is limited, and most of the transactions of the 
late meeting have already been published in the col- 
umns of the local press, we deem it sufflcient on the 
present occasion to append the following synopsis of 
the rise, progress, and the present status of the Pa- 
trons of Husbandry, as well as the principles of their 
affiliation. 

The origin of this order is attributed to Mr. O. H. 
Kelley, a native of Boston, who, in 1866, being then 
connected with the department of agriculture in 
Washington, was commissioned by President Johnson 
to traveT through the Southern States and report uix)u 
their agricultural and mineral resources. He found 
agriculture in a state of great depression, consequent 
upon the radical changes wrought by the civil war 
and the abolition of slavery. At the same time there 
was much dissatisfaction among the farmers of the 
AVest and Northwest in consequence of the alleged 
high charges and unjust discriminations made by rail- 
roads in tlie transportation of their products. The 
farmers also complained of the exorbitant prices ex- 
acted by middle men for agricultural implements and 
stores. Mr. Kelley conceived the idea tliat a system 
of co-operation, or an association having some re- 
semblance to the order of Odd Fellows or Masons, 
might be formed with advantage among the dissatis- 
fied agriculturists. For this purpose a plan of or- 
ganization was determined ujjon by him and Mr. 
William Saunders, of the department of agriculture. 
The name chosen for the orderwas " Patronsof Hus- 
bandry," and its branches were to be called granges 
(^Fr. grange, a. biiru). The constitution of the order 
provides for a national grange, and State and subor- 
dinate granges. There are ceremonies of initiation, 
rituals and injunctions of secresy, though in some re- 
spects the order is not secret. Theoliicersof agrange, 
whether national, State or subordinate, are elected 
by the members, and comprise a master, overseer, 
lecturer, steward, assistant steward, chaplain, trea- 
surer, secretary, gate-keeper, Ceres, Pomona, Flora 
and lady assistant steward. Women are admitted to 
membership upon the same terms and with equal 



privileges as men, but only those persons interested 
in asfricultural pursuits are eligible. Regular meet- 
ings of the National and State Granges are held an- 
nually, while subordinate granges usually meet 
monthly or oftener. The constitution was adopted, 
and on December 4rth, 1867, the National (rrangewas 
or2;anizeil in Washington ; its headquarters are now 
in (icnra-etown, D. C. In the spring of 18()8 Mr. Kel- 
ley founded a grange in Harrisburg, Pa., one in Fre- 
donia, N. Y., one in Columbus, O., one in Chicago, 
III., and six in Minnesota. The number of granges 
soon began to multiply rapidly, and in 1874 they had 
been organized in nearly every State and Territory of 
the Union. In 1871, Vio granges were established; in 
1872, 1,160; in 1873, 8,667; and in the first two months 
of 187-4, 4,618. At the beirinningof 1874 the number 
of granges in the United States was 10,01.5, with a 
membership of 750,12.5. The total number of mem- 
bers in April, 1874, was estimated at about 1,. 500, 000. 
The order has its greatest strength in the northwest- 
ern and western States, and is well represented in the 
South. At the annual meetingof the National Grange 
in St. Louis, Mo., in February, 1874, a declaration 
was adopted setting forth the purposes of the organi- 
zation as follows : 

"To develop a better and higher manhood and 
womanhood among ourselves; to enhance the com- 
forts and attractions of our homes, and strengthen 
our attachment to our pursuits; to foster mutual un- 
derstanding and eo-operation; to maintain inviolate 
our laws, and to emulate each other in labor; to has- 
ten the good time coming; to reduce our expenses, 
both individual and corporate; to buy less and pro- 
duce more, in order to make our farms self-sustaining; 
to diversify our crops, and crop no more than we can 
cultivate; to condense the weight of our exports, sell- 
ing less in the bushel, and more on hoof and in fleece; 
to systematize our work, and calculate intelligently 
on probabilities; to discountenance the credit sys- 
tem, the mortgage system, the fashion system, 
and every other system tending to prodigality and 
bankruptcy. We propose meeting together, talking 
together, working together, buying together, selling 
together, and, in general, acting together for our mu- 
tual protection and advancement as occasion may re- 
quire. We shall avoid litigation as much as possible 
by arbitration in the grange. We shall earnestly en- 
deavor to suppress personal, local, sectional, and na- 
tional prejudices, all unhealthy rivalry, all selfish 
ambition. Faithful adherence to these principles will 
insure our mental, moral, social and material ad- 
vancement." 

One of the chief aims of the organization is to bring 
producers and consumers, farmers and manufactur- 
ers, into direct and friendly relations; for this pur- 
pose co-operation is encouraged among farmers in 
the purchase of agricultural implements- and other 
necessaries direct from the manufacturer. The or- 
ganization therefore is maintained for social and eco- 
nomic purposes, and no grange can assume any poli- 
tical or sectarian functions without violating a fun- 
damental principle of the organization. 



DOMESTIC ECONOMY. 

New Process for Preserving Meat. 

Many attempts have been made to discover a pro- 
cess by which fresh meat can be so preserved as to 
bear transportation or storage for a long time in tro- 
pical countries and yet retain all its essential quali- 
ties. These attempts have rarely been successful, but 
it is now claimed that a process has been found which 
will keep meat sweet and sound for any length of 
time under any conditions of climate. Mr. Gaullieur, 
a merchant at No. 36 Cedar street, New York, inter- 
ested in the process, gives the following history of it: 
For a numoer of years past Prof. F. Saec,a professor 
of chemistry at Noufchatel, Switzerland, and a friend 
of Humboldt and Liebig, has been making experi- 
ments concerning the preservation of meat. Within 
a year his experiments have reached such a point as 
practically to demonstrate beyond doubt the success 
ofhiseflbrts. His process is cheap and simple. It 
consists merely in treating the fresh meats with the 
acetate of soda, dissolved in water, and poured over 
the meat like ordinary brine. Treated in this way 
the meat will bear any infiuence of climate. When it 
is desired to use the meat, all that is necessary is to 
soak it in hot water lor a short time, when the ace- 
tate of soda will leave it. 

In order to convince the practical business men en- 
gaged in the provision business on the Produce Ex- 
change of the value of the process, Messrs. Gaullieur 
and Sacc submitted it to a test, the result of which is 
told in the following certificate: 

Onthe:^dult., Prof. F. Sacc, the recent inventor of a 
mode by which meat can be preserved perfectly fresh 
in any climate for an indefinite period, together with 
Messrs V. M. Yber and H. Gaullieur, called upon us 
to pack for them two barrels of beef. We have much 
pleasure iu certifying that the beef was brought to 
our store fresh from the Washington market, and 
after having been subjected to this peculiar chemical 
process, was packed by us the same day and allowed 
to remain close by a stove in our office tor two weeks 
in a temperature of about 70°. And that now on 
examination after its return from Havana, whither it 



had been shipped by us per steamer Vera Cruz, we 
find the meat perfectly sound, in no way unpleasant 
or disagreeable to the taste on being cooked , and that 
it has preserved all the freshness of its color and ap- 
pearance that it presented at thetimeof being put up. 
Mr. Gaullieur also sent a barrel of the meat to Key 
West, Fla., where a sample was taken by the agent 
of Mallory's steamship line, who also approved the 
condition of what he ate. The barrel was returned to 
Mr. Gaullieur who now has it on exhibition. Messrs. 
Mallory & Co. have made arrangements for a supply 
to be used on their vessels instead of the salt meat 
heretofore given to the crew. The process costs about 
one cent per pound of meat. 



Fruit and Vegetables by Weight. 

Only the other day we marketed a load of onions 
and sold them by measure. We have a standard 
bushel basket and measured twenty-five bushels. 
Arriving at the grocer's, as he had stepped out for a 
few moments, leaving a little girl in the store, we 
unloaded our onions with a basket that stood by the 
door, and had them in the cellar when he returned. 
They measured out twenty-seven bushels and a half. 
The grocer looked at the basket and then inquired 
with a dissatisfied air, " Have you given good 
measure?" "Yes, as much as the basket would 
hold." The money was paid for them, but we saw 
that his bushel basket was a sale basket and not the 
one he used in buying. 

The truth is, there is no justice in our measure- 
ments of vegetables and fruits, and just as long as 
measures are employed there will he injustice. The 
baskets sold for bushel baskets are not of the same 
capacity. The fruit baskets have diminished in size 
from a bushel down to a peck, and scant at that. 
There being no standard in the matter, each producer 
suits himself as to size. We maintain that the only 
satisfactory way of handling produce is to bring every- 
thing to the test of a scales — potatoes and peaches as 
well as corn and wheat. Purchasers have in their 
power to correct the prevalent system, and while 
there is so much talk about specie basis let us also 
have a pound basis. — Detroit Free Press. 



Keep the Feet Warm. 

Many of the colds which people are said to catch 
commence at the feet. To keep those extremities 
warm, therefore is no effect an insurance against the 
almost interminable lists of disorders which spring 
out of a " slight cold." First, never be tightly shod. 
Boots and shoes when they fit closely press against 
the foot and prevent a free circulation of the blood . 
When, on the contrary, they do not embrace the foot 
too tightly the blood gets fair play, and the places 
left between the leather and the stockings with a 
comfortable supply of warm air; second rule is never 
to sit in damp shoes. It is often imagined that unless 
they are positively wet it is not necessary to change 
them while the feet are at rest. This is fallacy; for 
when the least dampness is absorbed into the sole it 
is attracted nearer to the foot itself by its own heat, 
and thus perspiration is dangerously cheeked. Any 
person may prove this by trying the experiment of 
neglecting this rule, and his feet will become cold and 
damp after a few moments, .although, taking off the 
shoes and warming it, it will appear quite dry. 



Keeping Meals Waiting : Little things often 
interfere with our edmfort very much, and one small 
annoyance is for men to delay coming to dinner when 
called. Sometimes they have an hour or more of 
work which they will do before quitting, and then 
they go to the house to find the dinner cold and the 
cook discouraged. Nothing is more disheartening to 
a tired woman than a table full of dirty dishes orna- 
menting the table an hour and a half later in the 
day than usual. Punctuality is a virtue that men 
should learn, if they are in the habit of being uncer- 
tain about coming to meals. Any woman worthy the 
name housekeeper will be regular with her meals if 
it lies within her to have them so. 



A NEW industry has sprung up in France by 
which common chicken feathers are utilized and con- 
verted into a valuable product. The operation is to 
cut the plume portion of the feathers from the stems 
l)y means of ordinary hand scissors; the stems placed 
in a common bag, which, when full, is closed and 
subjected to a thorough kneading with the hands. 
At the end of five minutes it is stated that the feath- 
ers become disaggregated and felted together forming 
a down perfectly homogeneous and of great lightness. 
It is even lighter than natural elder down, and sells 
in Paris for about two dollars per pound. It is 
another illustration of the French talent for utilizing 
everything. 

Red Pepper and Vegetables. 

A piece of red pepper, the size of your finger nail, 
put into meat or vegetables when first beginning to 
cook, will aid greatly in kiling the unpleasant odor 
arising therefrom. Remember this for boiling cab- 
bage, green beans, onions, chickens, mutton, etc. 



1876.] 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



15 



Household Recipes. 

DRiPPiN<i Caki:. — Mix well tiiiri'tluT two inniiiile 
of flour, a (lint of wurin milk ami a taMcspooiiful of 
yoasi ; lut it I'iso about half an hour, then add half a 
pound of brown sutrar, ii (luartcr of a pound of cur- 
rants and a (juartcr of a pound of yo(td fresh bi'ff 
drippinir ; beat the wludo well for nearly a quarter of 
an hour and bake in a moderately hot oven. 

Ai'IM.K Comu.EU. — Tare, eore and sliee twelve 
lari^e tart apples; a<M to them the Jniee of two leninns, 
prated peel (d' one, aial sweeten to taste ; stew very 
slowly for two hours, and then turn into a UKuild. 
When eold, servo with cream. 

Dklkiot'S Koi.ls. — Half a teacup of butter, mix 
well with one poutul of Hour, half teacup of yi-asl, a 
little salt and cnoui^h milk to make a irood dou^li. 
Let it set in a warm ]>laec for abo\it two hours to rise. 
Then make into rolls and bake in an oven. 

Ai'ri.F. Johnny Cakk. — Scald one (piart of fine or 
medium corn meal with one (|inirt of boilins; water, 
and add one jiint of sweet apples, pared, cored and 
choiiped. Mix evenly, spread one inch thick on a tin, 
and hake forty minuii s in a quick oven, or until the 
ajiiiles arc tender. Serve warm. 

(iHAiiAM Soda Bis( iit.— One quart of Graham 
flour, one teas])oonful of soda dissolved in two-thirds 
of a teaeupful ol molasses; mix with milk and water. 

Ji'Mni.KS. — One and one-fourth pounds of flour, 
three-fourths of sugar, three esffis, a little nutmcfr, 
three-lourtlis of a pound of butter. KuU theui iu 
sujrar. 

Haiu) fiiNOEKHHEAii. — Four pounds of flour, three 
of sup;ar, one and a lialf of butter, one-fourth of a 
pound of ginser, ten e^'gs, one teaspoonlul of salera- 
tus ; seeds if you like. 

KioE Jei.i.y. — Stir one pound of rice flour with a 
half pound of loaf sugar into a quart of boilina: water; 
let it cook slowly for twenty miinitcs and put into a 
fonu to cool. To be eaten with lieatcu cream, milk 
or wine sauce. 

Huiohton BisctiT. — One cup of butter, two of 
sugar, two egfrs,half aeujiof milk,oneteaspoonful of 
eoila, and sutlicicnt flour to roll out thick. Sift 
granulated sugar over the top before baking, to give 
them a sparkle. 

C'lTUox Cake. — Eight eggs, their weight in flour, 
the same of sugar, the weight of five in butter, a 
little mace ; chop some citron fine and put in a layer 
of cake and a layer of citron alternately. 

Kte and Indian Droi- Cakes. — One pint o^ 
Indian meal, one-half pint of rye meal, two eggs, two 
spoonfuls of molasses, a little salt; work it with 
cold milk so as to drop from a spuou into hot fat ; be 
6ure to have a smooth batter. 

PooK Man's Cake. — One cup of sugar, one cup of 
milk, one tablespoonful of butter, one tcasiioonful 
of dry cream of tarter, one-half teaspoonlul i>f soda 
dissolved in milk, one egg, a little cinnamon, and 
flour to make it as still' as pound cake. 

REf'EiPT KOKMAliiNO INK. — The Ncicniflic Atnci'i- 
can gives the following receipt for the nuinufacture 
of writing ink : Twelve ounces nutgalls, eight ounces 
each sulphate of indigo and eojiperas, a lew cloves, 
four or live ounces gum arable, for a gallon of ink. 
The addition of the sulphate of indigo renders the ink 
more iiermanent and less liable to mould. It is blue 
when first written with, but soon becomes an intense 
black. 

To PuniFT Damp Closets. — For damp closets 
and cupboards whitdt generate mildew, a trayful of 
quicklime will be found to absorb the mtiisture and 
render the air pure; but ofeourseitis necessary to 
renew the lime from time to time as it becomes 
fully slaked. This last remedy will be found useful 
in safes and strong rooms, the damp air of which 
acts frequently most injuriously on the valuabledecds 
and documents which they contain. 



GENERAL MISCELLANY. 



in two cuttings from fairly good land; a gentleman 
near him cut from thirteen acres enough to sidl for 
?"i« at the price of #lW(iLMI per Ion, unbaleil, in 
Maeon. Later inttx* season this same is worth $1..'>0. 
Dr. Moody of lin-ene counly, (ia., rcpttrted lo the 
i^tate .\gricullural Snclcly that he cut Lt.^'-Hii pounilft 
from one acre. Dr. I'avanel, near Cluirlcston, by the 
use of superphosphates, produccil eight Ions of very 
superior Mermuda grass hay from an acre. Mr. 
Lumsilen says it (-an be <-ut three or four times in a 
season. This grass is propagated irithe .'<outh bythe 
roots, in the Hermuda Islands it has a seed. ItH 
botanical name is Cynodon dactylon, and it is paid to 
be the sacred grass of India. The Kev. C. W. 
Howard, now at Rising Farm, Dade county, (Ja., in 
his excellent little Jiamiibli't on '• 'I'he lirasses ni' the 
South," gives it a prominent place, and cites many 
instanecfi of its value, and <'oncludcs thtit the old 
fields of the South may be ri'stond lo their original 
fertility with Brmuda grass ami sheep. — J{. A'. C. 
Kini/Htvti, Tcnii., in X. }'. Trilmtu\ 



Educating Horses. 

Horses can be educated to the extent of their un- 
derstanding as well as children, and can be as easily 
damaged or ruined by bad management. \Vc believe 
that the great dilierence fouial in horses a.s to 
vi<*ious habits or reliability comes more from the 
different management of men than from variance of 
natural disposititm inthe animals. Horses with high 
mettle are more easily educated than those of less or 
dull spirilN, and are muri' susceptible to ill training, 
and c(insc(piently may be as good or liad, according 
to the eilueation they receive. 

Horses with dull .spirits are not by any means proof 
against bail nutnagement, for in them may often be 
found the most provoking" obstinacy ; vicious habits 
of different iharacters that render them almost en- 
tirely worthless. Could the coming generation of 
horses in this country be kept from their (lay.s of 
eolt-hood to the age of five years in the hands of 
good, careful managers, there would be si'cn a vast 
dilierence in the general characters of the noble 
animals. 

If a colt is never allowed to (ret an advantage, it 
will never know that it possesses a power that man 
eamiot eonlrol; and if made familiar with strange 
objects, it will not be skittish and nervous. If a horse 
is made accustomed from his early days to have ob- 
jects hit him on the heels, back and hips, he will paj' 
no attention to the giving out of harni'ss or of a 
wagon running against him at an unexpected momi-nt. 

We once saw an aged lady drive a high-spirited 
horse attached to a carriage, down a stceji hill, with 
no hold-back straps upon the harness, and she assur- 
ed us that there w-as no danger, for herson accustom- 
ed his horses to all kinds of usages and sights that 
eommonly drive the animal into a frenzy of fear and 
excitement. 

A gun can be fired from the baek of a horse, an 
utnbrella held over his head, a bulfalo robe thrown 
over his neck, a railroad engine jiass close by, his 
heels bumped with slicks, and the animal take it all 
as a natural condilitin of things, if only taught by 
careful manageinetit that he will not be injured there- 
by. There is a great need of improvement in the man- 
agement of this noble animal; less beating and more 
of education. — In-Uoor uitd Out. 



Bermuda Grass Growing in Favor. 

One of yourcorrespondentsof late cites an instance 
of hay being made from Bernuida (irass, and you 
ask for further information. It was once almost 
universally looked upon liy planters of the South as a 
great curse; now it is beginning to be valued at its 
true and great worth. The peeidiarities of this grass 
are that it will grow in poor soil, and will stand the I 
most lengthened drouths. The lawn around Ihc old 
Capitol at Milledgeville, (ia., was frequently admired 
and remarked upon for its perpetual verdure. It was 
a mixture of lilue grass and Bermuda; in summer 
the blue grass dried before the constant heat and the 
Bermuda flourished, while in the mild winter both 
flourislied, hut specially the blue gra.ss. At the 
Tbomasviile meeting of the (leorgia State Agricul- 
tural Society, Mr. B. L. Lumsden, of Macon, Bibb 
county, told his experience in making hay with vari- 
ous grasses. He believes Bermuda to be the best 
grass for that section (Middle and South (leorgia) 
for pasturage and hay, and that it is one of the best 
for renovating the soil. He got 10,UUO pounds an acre 



Salt for Domestic Animals. 

Salt is not only a mild aiierient or deobstruent, but 
it operates, to some extent, as a tonic. It is a very 
great rectifier of the acidity of the stomach when 
taken in proper ((uantities; and it not finly renders 
very palatable food which would bedisagrcealile and 
insipid without it, but it kecjis the functions of the 
stomach in a healthy state, and often alleviates the 
effects of debility and disease. The true way is to 
have a tub of .salt, placed where cattle, horses, and 
sheep can have access to it at all times, whelherthey 
are in the pasture or in the barnyard. Then when 
the appetite calls for a lick of salt, they can go and 
get it, at the very time it is most needi'd, and when it 
will exert the most beneticial ell'cel on digestion or 
any part of the system. 

A good plan is to keep salt in a small tubor strong, 
water-tight pail in I he pasture during the |)astiiring 
season, and in the yard during winter. Animals will 
not consume as much when they are supplied with it 
in this way as they will when they are salted once or 
twice during a week. It is slovenly and wasteful lo 
throw salt on the grounil for animals, and especially 
for sheep, as they will often waste half as much as 
they consume. 

For salting sheep, drive three or four high stakes 
around a pail, or small tub, leaving one side only, so 
that they can thrust their heads separately into it. 
For cattle and horses, encircle Ihc tub with a lot of 
boulders as high as the top of it, or drive a half dozen 
strong slakes around it letting them extend aliove it 
a few inches, to protect it from Ixing i)awed lo frag- 
ments. If the tub is water-tiglit, in case it should 
rain in it there will be nothing lost, as I hey will lick 
the salt water as tliey will the .salt; and should the 
water evajiorale, the salt will remain. When sheep 
or neat cattle are kept in pasture where there is 



niuih chiver (Irii'iilifiin prnleiiKi), Ihey usually have 
a great hankering after suit; and if they can liuvo 
aecchs to It, Ihey will go and lick, more nr less, sev- 
eral limes during the day; and Ihey will reilify 1I16 
aciiliiy iif the sliiniach, anil keep Ihem from bloating. 
.Man\' a farmer has Insl a line animal. In eoiise()Ucnc6 
of I loafing, » hich one |Miuiid of salt would have kept 
In good licullli, — sScUiiH/le Ainericait. 



Winter Yard for Sheep. 

One of the imiKirlanf things In the winter care of 
sheep is, that the yiinl where Ihey are allowed lo run 
should be absoluiely well littered and dry. They 
never should he compelled to move al«MiI or Hianil la 
yards that are covered with muddy litter, much less 
the actual mud Itself. II Is BomeHmesdllllcuIl In the 
West, with our changeable winters, with allcrnato 
freezing and I hawing, lo keep llii' yuni In pmiK-rcou- 
diflon witlioul using a large amount of litter. 

II should, however, be done at any cost ofmalerlul, 
and when once there Is a sullleleiil layer of straw In 
the litter, llie subsequent quantity wijl liefiiuiiil folio 
hut little. Since on moni western farmstherelHalways 
much straw that must go to waste, and since also ijio 
litter and drippings make most vatuuhle manure. It 
will he found to be evoiiomy In the end, from Ibis 
point of view. 

Besides this, the clean ouldfHir bed to stand on In 
wet weather, and the (dean and warm one in cold 
weather, will so promote tlu-ir well being, and con- 
sequenlly health, as to prevent the occnrrenee of those 
diseases incident lo sheep that must be subject more 
or less to wet, and, at certain seasons of the year, 
spongy pasture. 

Muddy yarils prevent sheep, and. Indeed, all ani- 
mals, from moving about and faking I he exercise ab- 
solutely necessary to comfort and health. The abso- 
lute dryness of the yards is especially suseeplihie lo 
foot rot, fouls and other <liseases incident lo mud and 
uncleanly care. 

If a little straw be seatlert^d over the yani at pro- 
per intervals after the first grxMl coating is given In 
the autumn, the sheep will pick a little of flic better 
l«irtions, and be all the belter for what Ihey tread 
under foot. — W'rstcrn llurnl. 



Stock-Keeping on Small Farms. 

It is stated in the report of the French Minister of 
Commerce, that in the department of Ihe NonI, the 
smallest farms supjiort the greatest number of ani- 
mals. While the small farms of Lille and Ilaze- 
brouck, besides a greater mimlier of horses, maintain 
equal to fifty-two and forty-six head of horned catlle, 
the larger farms of Avesnes sustain only forly-four lo_ 
flftyhcad. But the small farms cannot sup|Hirt as' 
many sheep in proportion as Ihc larger, because sheep 
require frcipient change of pasturage. 

Some later statistics prove the point more clearly 
that small farms are capable and do sustain a larger 
proportion of manure-making animals. In Ihe de- 
partment of I'uy de Dome, Dr. .lusseraud says the 
commune is divided into 4,li00 |iarcels, owned by 
't'M proprietors. In IT'.ltl seventeen occupied two- 
thirds of the whole, and twenty others the remainder. 
Since then, Ihe land has been much divided, and Ihc 
sub-division is now extreme. What has been the 
effect on the quantity of cattle? A consiilcrahle in- 
crease. In 1700 there were about SOO horncil cattle, 
and from 1,S|H) to '2,000 sheep; there are now (17fi of 
the former, and only .5:i:i of the latter. Thus 1,300 
sheep have been replai-ed by ;J7(» oxen and cows; and 
the (|uantity of manure has increased in Ihe ratio of 
■1011 lo 7'J'.I, or more than 4.S (H'r cent., not lo mention 
that the animals, being now stronger and better f*'d, 
yield a nun h better conlriliution than formerly lot he 
fertilizatiiiii of the ground. .Such is Ihe Icslimonyof 
fads on this (Kiinf; and it will be, and, we think, that 
if all the facts hearing u|ion the subjeit of large and 
small farming are once collated and estimated fairly, 
the advantages will turn In favor of the small farms. 



Yard for Pigs. 

I believe that the one great reason why pigs do not 
prove more profitable on a great iiiany farms Is, lie- 
cause they do not have enough clean yanl-riMim In 
which lo run and forage. Too often Ihey arc confined 
lo a small pen and a very small yanl, IkiIIi of whieli 
are dirty. They have not even a clean grass s|>ot, or 
grass or other green food lo eiil, hut must conslanlly 
slay in a close yard or [H'ii. For large hogs this r<*- 
striction is injurious, but for little pigs It Is very much 
worse. Young animals want liberty to exercise Ihelr 
muscles and < lean grass on which lo fcwi. A few 
farmers let their pigs run at will, but Ihey are apt to 
do a great deal of mischief. One of my neighliors, 
who raises a great many pigs, used 10 let Ihem nin 
into my ganlen.corn and [Kitaloes, tread down my 
grass, and Ihey did a great deal of damage lo my 
crops; but he always hail nice pigs, and there was no 
evident reason except that he allowiil Ihem full lil>- 
erly out of doors. Now, I do not approve of having a 
drove of pigs running Ihmiigh ganleiisanil cnips.hut 
I think it wouhl pay even small farmers to fence In 
an eighth ur a fuuftU of an acre of laud adjoining 



16 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[January, 1876. 



their hog-yarcis, and let their piffs run a part of the 
time every day in this inclosure. When they get large 
enough to root turf land, they can he shut into their 
ordinary yards or else have the tendons of their noses 
cut or rings put in to keep them from doing mischief. 
But whether it is used for large hogs or not, it would 
certainly pay farmers who raise many pigs to furnish 
them such a yard. —Life Stock Journal. 



The Cheese Production. 

A writer in Harper's Magazine gives some very in- 
teresting and curious facts in relation to the astonish- 
ing growth of American cheese production. In 1850 
the cheese aggregate value of the butter and export- 
ed from this country amounted to only $334,000. 
About this time a farmer in Oneida county, N. Y., 
named Jesse Williams, originated the cheese factory 
eystem, and his success was so great that farmers in 
other sections of the State began to follow his exam- 
ple. The system developed so rapidly that there are 
now five hundred cheese factories in New York alone, 
and in the entire country about ten times that num- 
ber. As a result the exports of cheese in 1801 amount- 
ed to S3,.323, 631, and continued to increase until in 
1874 they reached $12,000,000, and for 187.5 the fig- 
ures will" be larger still . In 1874 the exports of cheese 
from the port of New York amounted to 96,834,091 
pounds, and Canada in the same year exported 20,- 
000,000 jwunds. Tlie principal cheese producing 
States are New York, Ohio, Vermont, Illinois and 
Massachusetts. Cheese is a very nutritious article 
of food and the best substitute for meat. The scarci- 
ty of meat in England and other European countries, 
has led the laboring classes to adopt cheese as a sub- 
stitute, and to this fact is largely due the increased 
demand for the product of our American cheese fac- 
tories. 



Lice on Poultry. 



J. H. Fry, of Pilatki, Florida, in a letter to the 
Poultrrj Bulletin, says : " I noticed in your .lune 
number a communication from E. G. Lathrop, com- 
plaining of lice on his fowls; I have kept poultry for 
years, and some seasons have been troubled more 
than others with lice. I don't think I ever saw thera 
worse than this season. I have lost some valuable 
eggs by the hens being driven from their nests by 
lice — also lost two hens from the same cau.se. I have 
tried almost everything, and failed, until it occurred 
to me to use tobacco stems mixed with a little hay; 
and to test it more thoroughly, I removed a hen that 
•was literally covered with lice, and in a few days 
would have had to nm. I cleaned the eggs and put 
her in a fresh box, and to-day, June 14th, I can posi- 
tively assert that she came off clean, with several fine 
Partridge Cochins, and not a single louse could I see 
on removing her from the box. I have put tobacco 
stems in all my laying, and I am so much pleased 
with the experiments and results so far, that I should 
like to hear that scjme of our fanciers or breeders, 
whose fowls are troubled with vermin, had tried the 
above remedy for themselves. 



Dominique Fowls. 

The London Field says of this variety, which it de- 
nominates American : There are two or three useful 
and good breeds of poultry that are known in Eng- 
land. One of the oldest established, and certainly 
one of the most useful, is the Dominique. This breed 
more closely resembles our Cuckoo Dorking than any 
other English variety. It differs, however, in having 
only four toes — a great advantage, by the way, in a 
practical point of view — and in the legs being yellow. 
The Dominique cocks are very showy birds, with full 
saddles and hackles, and abundant well-matched 
sickle feathers. They should weigh from six to eight 
pounds when mature. As table fowls they should 
necessarily be short-legged, full-breasted and broad 
in the back. The ear lobes should be red, and the 
wattles and comb neat ; the former of medium size. 
The merits of this Ijreed will recommend them to per- 
sons residing in the country, as well worthy of pro- 
motion in the poultry yard, whether as makers of 
eggs or of meat ; as sitters or nurses, they are invalu- 
able. 



Agricultural Life in Missouri. 

What can be pleasanter, says an exchange, than 
the life of a Missouri farmer? At daylight he gets 
up and examines the holes around his corn hills for 
cut worms, then he smashes coddling moth larvje 
with a hoe handle luitil breakfast. The forenoon is 
devoted to watering the potato bugs with a solution 
of Paris green, and after dinner all hands turn out to 
pour boiling water on the chintz bugs in the corn and 
wheat fields. In the evening a favorite occupation is 
smudging peach trees to discourage the cureulio; and 
after a brief season of family devotion at the shrine 
of the night-flying coleoptera, all the folks retire and 
sleep soundly till Aurora reddens the east and the 
grasshoppers tinkle against the panes and summon 
them to the labors of another day. 



LITERARY AND BUSINESS NOTICES. 

The Rural Jouknal. This is a neat eight-page 
quarto, published by Hiram Young, esq., York, Pa., 
at fifty cents a year, the first number (for January, 
1876) of which is now before us. The Red Rose of 
Lancaster extends friendly greetings to the White 
Roxe of York, and recognizes in its representative 
journal a faithful fellow laborer in the cause which 
has for its specialty the moral and physical progress 
of the American farmer. Mr. S. B. Heiges is the 
agricultural editor, " assisted by a corps of able con- 
tributors," and if these auxiliaries can be secured and 
continued, the Journal must be a success, for if the 
farmers of our neighboring county do not become im- 
pressed with the high tone and sterling qualify of 
their local agricultural press, they are not the stuff 
we have been taking them for. 

Report of the Pennsylvania Fruit Growers 
Society. This is a royal octavo pamphlet of fifty- 
six pages, in covers, containing the proceedings of the 
meeting of the society, held at York, beginning Jan. 
20, 187.5. In a'ldition to the transactions of the society 
the president's annual address, and the vai^ious essaj's 
read before it ; it contains a full-page illustration of 
the leaf and fruit of the Chrintine or Telegraph grape, 
and full-page, uncolored, illustrations of Hide's Early 
and Snst/nehanna peach ; a seedling pear, raised by 
S. B. Heiges C'or7ielVs Fancy and BchnotU apple and 
the Golden Drop plum. The paper, printing and en- 
graving are of a good quality and execution, and on 
the whole, is a credit to the society and its efficient 
officers. 

Somebody has sent us a copy of " .Josh Billings' 
(Sentenial) Farmers Allminax," for 1876, on the 
title page of which, in his peculiar orthography, 
he says: "The kalkulashuns on this allminax are 
made for the latitude, and longitude; and saidititude 
of Independene Hall, Philadelphia." Perhaps 
there is no writer of the present period who 
lets off more significant, domestic and social 
truths, in his own peculiar and popular way, 
than this same Josh Billings. The following advice 
is certainly appropriate to the present /as( age : "Go 
slo young man ; if you tap both ends of your eider 
barrel at once, and draw out of the bung hole besides, 
your cider ain't a going to hold out long." That's 
just as plain as " open and shut." 

Tub Health Reformer for December is decided- 
ly the best of the j-ear. Besides a rich variety of in- 
structive articles on health topics it contains a large 
amount of interesting matter under the head of Liter- 
ary Miscellany, and Popular Science. The Farm and 
Household and News Departments, two new features, 
add greatly to the practical utility of the journal. It 
is one of the best family papers published, and ought 
to be in every family in the land. Published at Bat- 
tle Creek, Mich., at $1.00 a year. Specimen copies 
free. 

We have received from J. B. Root, Seed Grower, 
Rockford, 111., his tiarden Manual and Seed Cata- 
logue, and take pleasure in calling attention to a 
work of so much value to every owner of a garden 
and every lover of fiowers. It is tilled with practical 
hints and instructions derived from a large experi- 
ence as a market gardener and a florist, and contains 
half as much matter as §tl.50 works on the subject. . 
It is sent to applicants for 10 cents, which amount is 
allowed on the first order for seeds. See advertise- 
ment in another column. 

The annual Vegetable and Flower Seed Catalogue 
of (_iregory, the well-known seedsman of Marblehead, 
.Ma.ss., is advertised in our columns. Wo can endorse 
Mr. Gregory as both honest and reliable. The bare 
statement of the fact that he grows so large a num- 
ber of the varieties of seed he sells, will be appreciat- 
ed by market gardeners, and by all others who want 
to have their seed both fresh and true. 

Attention is directed to the advertisement of 
Ellwanger di Bakhy, Nurserymen, Rochester, N. 
Y. They are well known, and acknowledged to be 
the largest and most successful growers of Fruit and 
Ornamental trees, Shrubs and Plants, in the United 
Stales. 



THE PROGRESS OF INVENTION. 



Official List of Patents, 

Relating to the Farm, the Dairy, Apiary, &c., 

For tlie mouth eudmg January 7th, lS7(i.* 

Corn Planters; J. B. Abbott, San .Jose, 111. 
Cheese Preservers; J. G. Black, Lextonville, Wis. 
Harvesters; Jas. O. Brown, Massillon, Ohio. 
Bee Hives; Orson Colvin, Vicksburg, Michigan. 
Furrow Gauges for Plows; B. B. Hawes, Morrisville, 

Vermont. 
Gang Plows; Frank A. Hill, San Leandro, Cal. 
Corn Markers; John Mctiregor, Princeville, 111. 
Corn Harvesters; Jacob Townsend, Eaglotown, Ind. 

•Prepared expressly for The Lancaster Fabmeb by 
Louis BaKger & Co., Solicitors of I^ateflt-s, WasUiugton, D. 
C, IroHi wiiom complete copies of tlie Patents and Brawnigs 
may be obtained. 



Grain Separators; W. W.Johnston, Summitville, O. 

Potato Diggers; W. R. Martyn, San Francisco, Cal. 

Harvesters; L. J. McCormiek, Chicago, 111. 

Cultivators; Thos. J. Price, Macourt, III. 

Operating Prison Doors; R. Richter, Indianapolis. 

Corn and jeed Planters; H. P. Sullivan, Xenia, III. 

Harvester Hakes; H. 11. Bridenthal, jr., Latrobe, Pa. 

Harvester Rakes, S. F. Cranston, Lansingburg, N. Y. 

Harvesters; Jean P. Delseseaux, Milhrae, Cal. 

Potato Diggers; Nathaniel Hugg, Kichtnond, Va. 

Milking Pails; A. M. Bailey, Middlefield, Conn. 

Corn Planters; Alex. Hearst, Peoria, III. 

Sulky Plows; Geo. Moore, Fayette, Oregon. 

Processes for Preserving Eggs. 

Butter Packages; H. P. Adams, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Milk Pails; John Amole, Buckley, 111. 

Plows; Thos. E. C. Brinley, Louisville, Ky. 

Cultivators; Herman D. Green, Ithaca, N. Y. 

Seat Guards for Harvesters; E. Hale, jr., Chicago, 111. 

Harvester Cutter; P. Howell, Buena Vista, Pa. 

Grain Separators; C. B. Nichols, Troy, Pa. 

Harvester Rakes; W. N. Whiteley, Springfield, 0. 

Grain Binders; Jno. .1. Atwater, Mepford, Minn. 

Milk Coolers; Bruce C. Bort, Chateaugay, N. Y. 

Portable Hay Pi-esses; M. McCarty, Puebla, Col. 

Rotary Spade Cultivators; D. W. Brodnax, sr., Rock- 
dale, Texas. 

Mowing Machines; Wm.C.Douthett, Springdale, Pa. 

Check Row Planters; William H. Johnson, Farmers 
City, III. 

Beaters for Cotton-Openers; Richard Kitheon, Lowell. 

Bee-Hives; Elviu Armstrong, Jerseyville, 111. 

Processes of Preparing Preserved Fruit ; John F. 
Bossford, New York, N. Y. 

Grain Conveyer Shafts; Henry I. Chase, Peoria, III. 

Fences; Win. A. Couch, Hannibal, Nev. 

Corn Uncovercrs; Hugh N. Gilchrist, SwanCreek,Ill. 

Corn Planters; Conrad Goneiner, Dale, Wis. 

Plowing and Seeding Machines; D. McVaw, Galla- 
tin, Texas. 

Plows; Joseph Philip, Smithton, 111. 

Butter-Carriers; B. F. Roberts, Benington, Vt. 

Gang Plows; Timothy M.Shaw, Lebanon, Tenn. 

Hay Loaders; Chas; M. Young, Meadville,Pa. 

Sway Bar Guides for Harvesters; W. R. Baker, Chi- 
cago, 111. 

Grain Sepai-ators; D. H. Caswell, Na.shville, Tenn. 

Seed Planters and Fertilizer Distributer; M. P. Cur- 
lee, Corinth, Mass. 

Fences; John Dwyer, Marion, Ohio. 

Hand Seed Planters; Thomas J. Huhbell, Napa 
City, Cal. 

Reciprocating Churns; Wm. McKinley, Bellaire, O. 

Cultivators; E. B. Moore, Bell's Mills, Ala. 

Feeding Belts and Partitions for Coi'u Shellers; Wm. 
B. Quarton, Fremont, Ohio. 

Corn Drills; John R. Rude, Liberty, Ind. 

Grain Separators; C. F. Butterfield, Garden City, 
Miimesota. 

Adjustable Locks and Dogs for Hay Elevators; J.R. 
Fitshous, Centre Hill, Pa. 

Grain Meters; B. M. Pulliam, Toleno, 111. 

Reel Rakes for Harvesters; R. C. Taylor, Lockport, 
N. Y. 

Milk Coolers and Heaters; M. L. Bush, Huntington, O. 

Self-Hakes for Reapers: S. B. (iilleland, Salisbury, Mo. 

Potato Bug Destroyers; Isaac W. Griscora, Wood- 
buiy, N. J. 

Corn Husking Implements; H. W. Hill, Decatur, lU. 

Plows; Henry H. Hubley, .Manorville, Pa. 

Manufacture of Grain-Cradle Fingers; C. P. Kelsey, 
Richmondville, N. Y. 

Grain Separators; L. Thesbald, Plainwell, Mich. 

Churn Dashers; John R. Underwood, Nelsonville,0. 

Wheel Harrows; F. Bramer, Little Falls, N. Y. 

Churn Dashers; R. M. Case, Auburn, N. Y. 

Plows; N. G. Pinney, New Hudson, Mich. 

Combined Reels and Rakes for Harvesters; A. Stoler, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

Hooks for Harrows; J. D. Tracy, Sterling, 111. 

Plows; John Worrell, Clayton, Ind. 

Bee-Hives; Daniel Cox, Kingston, Mo. 

Convertible Revolving Harrows; Benj. G. Devoe, 
Kenton, Ohio. 

Milk Coolers; N. D. Ferguson, Carthage, N. Y. 

Grain Separators; Lewis' W. Hasselman, Indianapo 
lis, Ind. 

Potato Diggers; Robert Reydemann, Krebsow, PruB. 

Clover Separators; G. F. Metzger, West Fayette, N.Y. 

Milk Coolers; Isaac H. Wanzer, Elgin, 111. 

Churns; Daniel McCarfy, Crapiiers Depot, Ky. 

Guano Distributars; J.'T. Horton, Widemans, S. C. 

Apparatus for Storing and Preserving Grain; Hans 
P. C. Lassen, Chicago, 111. 

Gang Plows; J. R. MeCormick, Georgetown, Texas. 

Corn Stalk Knives; Peter C. Moore, La Fayette, O. 

Portable Fences; I. W. Pancoast, Libertyville, Iowa. 

Drag Rake Handles; Hugh Smith, Passumsic, Vt. 

Portrahle Fences; Horace Tell, Bristol, Md. 

Churns; James Watson, Port Colhorne, Canada. 

Stump Extractors; J. A. Hart, Lioncsta, Pa. 

Horse Rakes; Chas. B. Perkins, Kcnduskeag, Me. 

Cultivators; Joshua Pierpont, Bushncll, III. 

Horse Rakes; Wm. C. Haynor, Milwaukee, Wis. 

Sulky Plows; II. Richardson, Janesville, Wis. 

Plows; John Sewell, Bowdon, (ia. 

Drills and Fertilizer Distributors; AladanS. Wishart, 
Lumberton, N. C. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



III. 





are the best the world i>ro(lucca. They are plautetl by a 
million |)eoplo in Ami-rica, ami the n-Hult in betuitlful 
Flowers and siiU'iidid VeKetablea. A Priced t'atulogue cent 
free tn nil who inclose the pontage — a 1! cent Blunip. 

Vick's Floral Guide, VUiirierly, '25 cents a yt'iir. 

Vick'a Flower and Vegetable Garden, :t5 ceutB ; with 
cloth covei s, 1V5 cents. 

Avtdrcsft, JAMKS VICK. UochoHter, N. Y. 

' The Great Agricultural Wonder, 

llICINi; THK 

HULLESS OATS, 

\\liich eiin br obtaiht-d of 

N. S. FISHER, 

At Leesport P. 0., Berks Couuty, Pa., 



AB FOLLOWS I 



I H pounds 8 3.50 

32 " la.oo 



I ponnd 50cls. 

16 -' » «.50 

It is claimed that it will yield ii8 many meaBured bushels 
as any other variety, while it weighs 5(> pounds to the 
bushel, and ripens two weeks earlier than common oats, 
thet-eby escaping the nisty season of oats. 

ITK^'Write for circulars. 8-l-4t 

ROOT'S 

Qarden JVf anual 

Is filled with topics of interest to every owner of a garden- 
is POINTED, PRA*TIC.\L and THOUOITGH, and contains 
one-half as much as $1.50 books on the subject. GARDEN- 
EltS throughout the couuti-y commend its practical labor- 
saving methods as invaluablp to them. 

(r??~Sent for 10 cents, which will be allowed on the first 
order for seeds. Address, 

J, B. ROOT, Seed Grower, 

ROCKFORP, Illinois. 

THE ATLANTIC MONTHLY. 

The Leading Literary Magazine of America. 

Devoted to Literature, Science, Art and Politics. 

The corps of WTiters includes the foremost names in 
American Literature: Longfellow, Lowell, Bryant, Whit- 
tier, Holmes, Bayard Taylor, Howells, Aldrich, Warner, 
Mrs. Kimble, Mark Twain, and others. 

The TJ. S. Official Postal Guide. 

Bevised and rvblii^hed Qitartcrl;/ by authority of the Post 
Olfii'c Depart nieJit. 

Containing an Alphabetical List of Post Offices in the 
TJuited States, with County, State, and Salai-y ; Money- 
Order Offices, Domestic and International ; Chief Rfgula- 
tions of the Post Office Department ; Instructions to the 
Public; Foreign and Domestic Postage Tables, and other 
valuable Information. 

The American Law Times and Reports 

A monthly ]ieriodieal which gives Leadinfi Cases in ad- 
vance of regular publication, and a DigcM i»f all Case^ re- 
ported in cuutemporary American legal perlodicahi. Edited 
by Rowland Cox. 

THE BOSTON 

Medical and Surgical Journal. 

EntahlishetJ l»iS.—Pu(jli>ihed Weekly. 

With one exception the oldest Medical Journal in the 
United States, and second to none in character and standing. 

The American Naturalist. 

A Popular lUustratcd lloutbly Mag;izinc of Natural Ilie- 
tory aud Travel. Amoug the cuntrilnitors are Profs. Gray, 
Whitney, Shaler, Farlow, aud Goodale, of Harvard ; Profs. 
Marsh, Verr'll, and Siuith, of Yale, and others. 

HnbNCrlptlon RHtes. 

Atlantic Monthly « 00 

Atlantic Monthly, with Uff-Kizf portrait o/ Lonfj/eUow . . 6 00 

U. S. Official Postal Guide ^ 150 

V. 8. (HHcial Postal Guide. Single numbers 50 

America u IjUW Times aud Reporta 6 00 

Boston Sledical and .Surgical Jouinial 5 00 

American Naturalist 4 OO 

', 'Postage prejiaid by the Publishers. 

Beiuittanccs should l>o sent with each order and be made 
by draft or niouev-order. on New York or IJoston, or regis- 
tered letter to H."o. HUUGIITON 4i CO., Uiverside /Vfis, 
Cambridge^ Mans. 8-1-31 



The Lancaster Farmer. 

The DwcniluT iminliir ciC TiiK Lancaster Faii- 
MKii, cmichKliii!; Ilir si'vciith vnliime of III at most 
excL'Ilt'iit journal, lias hccii rccciveil. We cuniiot say 
tliat tin's is a liollilay immber, liccuuse all llic isstics 
ol'TiiK Kaiimku arc ol'siiih a cliariiitertliat I'ven the 
Iiolidays arc unable to improve the constmit supcrl- 
ority of this favorite lK)mc paper. The present miin- 
bcr eimfains an in<lex to the voliinie which is just 
conelmicii; more than one thousand separate articles 
have appeared in its liandsonie padres diiriiii; the year, 
Iiavini; direct hcarinir on evi'ry I'raneh of farm econo- 
my ami eontaiiiiiiir a wealth t)f useful and iiecesKary 
information to the lionest tillci-s of the sfill, that will 
repay them an hundred fohi for the sulisci-iptlon out- 
lay. Its coiiseientious editor has spared lut latsir, as 
its (MiUimns show, to keep it in the front rankof atjri- 
eultural .jotirnalism; it shotihi he a rei^ular visitor in 
every Lancaster county farmer's home. Think of It, 
fanners! only *1 per year is askeil for this home 
oriiaii ! Don't suppose the contents arc on a level 
with the price ! The latter is purposely fixed at u 
sum which leaves you no excuse to do without It ; 
if you take it one year you will never yivc it up. Take 
our advice and lieiiin the new yearby sendinjj SI with 
your name to Pi'arsol iSc (tcist of Lancaster, and you 
will have made the best investment of the year. — AVm 
lloUamJ ftiirlon. 

Somebody has said, that if you want to know the 
real character and ipiality of a man, all you have to 
do is to inrpiirc of his family or amon;; his ncishhors, 
and that their testimony will be a nearer approxima- 
tion to what he is than all tint world outside of them. 
This may he dra\\ini^ the lines too sti-oni;, neverthe- 
less a i^reat truth may be lyinir, in many instances, 
eomewliere in that direction. In any event, wc feel 
more satisfaction in the ufood opinion of those who 
?CNotr wlio and what we are, than in those who know 
us only IV<un ri'putation, althouirh we by no means 
ignore an honorable reputation. Wccoi-dially "clasp 
hands" with our appreciative brother of the Vlnrivn, 
and hope tliat we may never fall short of the endorse- 
ment of one so well qualified to speak in any behalf. 
We commend his paper as a "tip-top " local journal, 
and one that must ultimately work its way to an t'X- 
tended public favor. The New Holland Clarion is a 
"live" paper, and is willing to " let live," by a manly 
recognition of the perfections of others, and a charit- 
able criticism oi their defects. Our eft'orts shall ever 
be to keep The Fakmeu at not less than its present 
standard, and if our friends vouchsafe the needed aid 
we honestly assure them it shall he vastly more, for 
our motto is " Upicard ami Onward." 



How to Keep a Subscriber. 

An indignant farmer i-eecntly entered the office of 
the Elizabeth Xcirs, and ordered liis jiaper stopped 
because he ditl'ered IVoin the editor in liis views re- 
garding the advantages of subsoiling fence rails. The 
editor, of course, conceded the man's right to stop 
his paper, but he remarked coolly, looking over his 
list: 

"Do you know Jim Sowders down at Ilardscrabblc ?" 

"Vei-y well," said the man. 

"\\'eil, he stoppcti his jiaper last week, because I 
thought a farmer was a blamed fool who didn't know 
that timothy was a good Ihingtograft on huekelberry 
bushes, and he died in four hours." 

" Lord, is that so?" said the astonished granger. 

" Yes, and you know old George Erickson,dowiion 
Eagle ("reck ;'" 

" Well, I've heard of him." 

" Well," said the editor gravely, " be stopped his 
pajier because I said he w as the happy father of twins 
and congratulated him on his success so late in life. 
He fell dead within tWH-nty minutes. There are lots 
of similar cases, but it don't matter; I'll just cross 
your name off, though you don't look strong, and 
there's a bad color on your nose." 

" Sec here, Mr. Kditor," said the subscriber, look- 
ing somewhat alarmed, " I believe I'll just keep on 
another year, 'cause I always did like your paper, and 
come to t liiidi about it, you're a young man, and .some 
allowance orter he m.ade," and he departed, satisfied 
that he had made a narrow escape from death. 



" Bankrupt." 

The word in Italian was Imnco rolto, or broken 
hcncli. It was used by the moneychangers in Italy 
who did business in henchesor stalls in the Kxcliangc, 
and when any fell back or liceame insolvent, his bench 
was brtikcn anil he was called a Imnco rotto. When 
the word w as adopted into English, it was nearer the 
Italian than it now is, being " banker-out." 



A YOUNG GENTLEMAN remarked to his femalceom- 
pani(m, tlie other evening, " Ah 1 the most beautiful 
evening in my recollection. Luna looks peculiarly 
beautiful." " Was that her just weut by (" quickly 
asked the young lady. 



RiCKFOjjD 

AUTOMATIC 
•^NlTTER 



s 
s 

i 

« 




3 

■3 



S 9 
•• s 
a 1 

r 2 
5-' 

5 ? 



»6j:i 



A Fanuly Knitting Machine. 

Now iiltracllnK iinl\*TMal attention liy Itr* untui IhIiIdk p«r- 
fornianccH and lt» Kr*"*' I'rarticjil viihu'frtr fvco-day f«mll]r 
UHO. It knits every poMllilo variety of jdaln ur raucy work 

■WITH ALMOST MAGICAL SPEED, 

and RiveK pfrfi-et Hhupf an<) flnJMh 1<> all Kurnn iits. || will 

knit a pair or $ockf in fifteen minutes! Kvt>ry imictinm 

WAIIKAXTKI> I ' rfiit. aiul h,d„jUMf ithnt it rrprtMJitfd, 

A eniti[>ti-tf iiiNlruclioii tuxik ut-oiinpanii'M iMich inurhtue. 

No. 1 Family Machine. 1 cylinder, 11 ncedlon, $S0. 

No. 3 *' •* 2 " Vt k 100 " 40. 

A sample nuichine will t>e nont to Koy part of the Unit«<1 
StatcH or Canada, (whi^re wt^ have no agont) rxprt*n charges 
pre^paid, on rcci'ipt of the price. 

AoKNTH waut(><l iu every Htato, Connly, City and Town, 
to whom V4'rv lilH-ral cltHrountH will Im* niitdf. Atlilrcmi, 
HIOKi'OUn KMTTINd MArillNK MK<i. <^0., 

7-n-tfJ H<.lo MiiunfaolunTH. Ilrntf lolxkro. Vt. 




250 
PAPERS 

— AND — 

MAGAZINES 

SENT 



.4T 


I,<HV 


<'l,l It ItATKS 


To .'iingk- 


sill 


iscribers iit any 


]iost-oflici'. 


t<( 


iid at oncp for 


yuKK 


cireiil 


ar 


liefore onlering 


voiir 


liapiTf- 


for 


i.s7t;. 




s>. ai. 


KXRB-r. 


HkRTWICK S!M.. 




OTSEGO CO.. NEW TOfir. 




I have founded my buahiPFS on the Ix-Iief that the public 
are auxioun to t^et their weed directly frtnn the ffrotrrr, and I 
therefore offer phek to every man and woman lo the t'olted 
StiittH who cultivates a farm, tHl» a vegetable Karden. or 
plauta H flower garden, my large lUuHtnilid Catahigue of 
Vegetable and Flower HeedB for 1H7«; II cimlain*. in addi- 
tion to the choicuHt kiudu i>rodueed in Kurope, one hundred 
and fi/ty varieties of rrgetable "red aroirti on my f*mr »eed 
/antia, CuHtomere of laHt Beanon need not write for it. A» 
the original introduwr of th*- Hubbard, Marblehead and 
Butman SquaBhe«, Pbinney« Melon, the Mmrblehejttl Cat>- 
bageH, and a score of othor new Tcgotiibhu. I solicit your 
patronage. All »*eed sold under three warrunts. A hundred 
thousand cutalogueM will be iaaued and sent out the first of 
January. 
T-U-5J JAMF.8 J. H. QKEGORY. Marblebwd, MtM. 



CANVASSERS WANTED 

TO TAKE SI7BSCRIBEBS FOB 

Tfne LanG98ter Farmer. 



Farmers' Sons and other Young Men, 
during their leisure hours, 

CAN MAKE GOOD WAGES. 



We want a thorongh canvass made of every district, mod will 
pay g(X>d canvaasera lil>erallv Addrewa 

PEAESOL & OEIST, Publishers, 

7^tf LAM'AHTER, PA. 



IV. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[January, 1876. 



yl 


i?iii« 



We call attention to our imm^'nt^e Stock (600 acres ) of 
Fruit Trees, Styudaid aud Dwarf. 
Kinall Kriiits. Grapee, Currants, Raspberries, &c. 
Ornamental Trees and ^ilirnbs, deciduous and 

evergreen. 
Roses a Bpecialtv — all the finest aorts. 
Green and Hot House Plants. incUiding best nov- 
elties. Small parcels forwarded by mail when desired. 
Prompt attention given to all orders and inquiries. 
Descriptive and Illustrated priced Catalogues sent prepaid 

on receipt of stamps, as follows : 
No. 1. Fruits (new ed., with col'd plate) 15 cts. 
No. 2. Ornamental Trees, with col'd plate of Roses, 25c. 
No. 3. Greenhouse. Free, No. 4. Wholesale, Free. 

No. 5. Ijist of New Roses for 1870, Free. 
Nob. 1 and 2— Neatly bound together, forming an interest- 
ing aud valuable book for reference, 
Address, 50 cts. by mail, post paid. 

ELLWANGER & BARRY, Rochester, NY. 

8.1-3t 



FARMERS, GET. THE BEST. 



Til mum I muim 

FEED CUTTER, 



MANUFAOTUBKD FOR 



DEALEKS IN 

HARDWARE & AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS, 

No. 7 EAST KING ST., LANGASTES, PA., 

Has been demonstrated by competitive tests to be THE 
BEST FEED CUTTER IN THE MARKET. The feed-roll 
is operated by a new and novel device which completely 
overcomes the objection to the uneven action of other cut- 
ters, while the length of cut can be varied to meet the wants 
of the operator without the removal of any gear-wheels. 
The material and workmanship are of the very best class, 
and guaranteed to give satisfaction to the purchaser. Farm- 
ers are invited to call and see for themselves. 



"THE CHAMPION." 

The Champion Reaper and Mower, which we have sold 
with such entire satisfaction to our customers for the last 
six years, still maintains the lead of all competitors — 
33,74>l having been manufactured for the harvest of 18T5 
— aud we have already completed our arrangements to sup- 
ply the increased demand for next season. The Farmer 
who buys the Champion is always satisfied that he has the 
full worth of his money. 

DILLER L GHOFF, 

No. 7 East King St., Lancaster, Pa. 

7-ll-6m 



DOMESTIC" 

SEWING 
MACHINES. 



liberal terms of Exchange 
for Serond-linnd Machines 
of every fiescrlptlon. 

'DOMESTIC" PAPER FASHIONS. 

TlieBt<.stratt..rnsMiailc. S.-nd S,-ls. for i ■^il;i!,i-ut 

Address DOMESTIC SEWINQ MACHINE CO.. 

KJ- Aqests ^Vasted. -4J> new YOUK. 
7-1 l-3teom 




THE SCIENTIFIC FARMER 

Aims to unite science with practice upon 
the Farrn. 

T&e only journal in tlie worM poblisliefi wlili tMs ayowefl objeci. 

*'It is the ablest scientific agricultural publication we 
have ever seen, and covers the entire field." — Lancaster 
(Pa.) Express. 

$1.00 Per Year. On trial three months, 25c. 

CLARK W. BRYAN & CO., 
7-7-6m SprintfUeld, Mass. 



IMIPORTKR, BREEDER, J^ND SHIPI'ER OF 

IMPROVED LIVE STOCK. 

HIGH CLASS LAND AND WATER FOWLS— Etch variety bred on a separate farm. LEGHORNS— BroisTi, "^Tiite. 
Black aud Dominique of my celebrated strains a specialty. Also, an unsurpasstnl aud large collection of WATER FOWLS 
AND TURKEYS. Asiatics, Hiimburgs, Dorkings, P. Rocks, Am. Dominiques, Hoadius aud Bautums. My fowls are ail 
HIGH CLASS, aud bred with great care. My breeding pens contain extra line imported and prize birds. 



CHESTER 'WHITE SWINE A SPECIALTY. 

8to3k of all ages bred from the beat Premium Stock, aud warranted stricMy pure and choice, for Bale at moderate 
prices. Also imported Berkahires. Jersey (.'attle. Southdown and Cotswold Sheep. DOGS— Setter, Shepherd, Beagle 
Houud, Skye and Bhick-aud-tau Terriers. Only a limited stock of each, consisting of the finest imported specimens, with 
full pedigrees. Lop-Eared aud Himalayan Rabbits. English Ferrets. 




FANCY PIGEONS, ALL VARIETIES. 

Tlie Pipon Loft : Ho w to Fornisli and Manap It. 

Our new illustrated book on pitieuus. Plain, concise, original and 
invaluable. It gives many new facts not to be found 
elsewhere, and is worth dollars to any breed- 
er. Price, only 50c. postpaid. 

CS^Elegant illustrated catalogues of stock, giving descriptions and illustrations 
of fowls and pigeons, postpaid, 10 cents. 



Circulars free. 



W. ATLEE BURPEE, Philadelphia, Pa. 




J. STAUFFER, 

Its 11^ mil tji riiPtiS. 

LANCASTER, VENN'A. 
235 EAST ORANGE ST. 




is the most beautiful work of the kind in the world. It con- 
tains nearly l.'iU pages, hundreds of fine illustrations, and 
ftmr Chromo Plates of Flowers, beautifully drawn and col- 
ored from nature. Price, 35 cents in paper covers ; 65 cents 
bound in elegant cloth. 
Vick's Floral G-uide, Quarterly, 25 cents a year. 

Address, JAMES VTCK. Rochester, N. Y, 

LUMill 101 I4EM11S. 

NO MIDDLE-MEN. 

We have a large stock of Lumber, aud one of the most 
extensive Sash aud Door Factories in the State, and we are 
prepared to furnish HoiiNe and Ram Bills complete. 

Ail kinds of Manufactured Fencing, &c., making a speci- 
alty of supplying the agricultural community. We will 
make prices delivered to any Railroad Station. AJl our 
material ;;;uaraHteecl as represented. All manufactured 
work kiln-driert and warranted not to shrink. AU inquiries 
cheerfully answered. 

One of the firm can be seen at the Franklin House, North 
Queen Street, Lancaster, Pa., on Monday of each week. 



7-4-12ra] 



KENDIG, BRICKER & LAUMAN, 

Middletown Dauphin co.. Pa. 



All matters appertaining to UNITED STATES or CANA- 
DIAN PATENTS, TRADE MAKTiS, and COPYRIGHTS, 
promiitly attended to. His experience, success and faithful 
attention to the interests of those who engage his services 
are fully acknowledged and appreciated. 

Preliminary examinations made for him by a reliable As- 
sistant at Washington, without extra charge for drawing 
or description. [7-i-tf 



THOS. M. HARVEY, 

WEST GROVE, CHESTER CO., PA.. 

Breeder and Shipper of 

GUPSEYLSSI BUTTER STOCK, 

Yorkshire and Berkshire Pigs- 
Dark Brahma Chickens from the best imported 
blood. Also Bronze Turkeys. 



'^THE FARMER'S FRIEND." 

The great Grange paper. 

The farmers' own journal. 

501) farmers' write for it. 

60 farmers' wives write for it. 

Circulates in 30 States. 

Circulates in 6 Territories. 

Circulates in Canada. 

64 columns every week. 

16 pages of reading. 

Kept on file in l,20i( Granges. 

Read weekly by over lOU.OOO people. 

Only official organ of five State Granges. 

Market reports Irom the great cities. 

Practical expeiienoe by practical farmers. 

(■roi^ reports printed weekly. 

No middlemen agents. 

$1.50 a year; or 1,25 in clubs of 8 or over. 

Postage always prepaid by publishers. 

12>(, cents a month to the close of any year. 

In clubs of S or over, lOj^ cents a mouth. 

Neatly printed ; "big type ;" good paper. 

National Grange otficers ^vTite for it. 

Grange news from every State. 

Farmers are delighted with it, and say, 

" Just what we have wanted." 

Sample copy three cents, sent directly from the Grange 

Steam Printing House of five S ates. * 

Address, THOMAS & PEMMING, 

7-12-S Mechanicsbdro, PA- 

HORSE-BILLS 
PLAIN OR IN FANCY COLORS, 
Printed iu the Best Style at the office of 

THE FAEMEK. 



I 



* I Q '\^ Cid y> f T'^ Bnbucribers in 
) i rt 1 Cdl ^ Ibe county. 



SINGLE COPIES 10 CENTS. 



^'•""'»uic Sooi^/'-.r""".'"" "'} $1. 28. 




Prof. S. S. RATHVON, Editor. 



LANCASTER, FEBRUARY 



PEARSOL & OEIST, Publishers. 



FAMILIAR TALK WITH THE READER 

It is with a fculiiii; of pride that we ivfVr to the 
varieil ami sulistautial eharaeternf tlie eonteiits of 
this issue of TiiK Lancastek Fahmeu. We thiuk 
tile jiraetieal fanner will sustaiu us in prouounein^it 
the most valuable nuuiher we have yet priuteil; anil 
we luive IK) hesitation in ehalleni;iniif the world to 
proiluee another ai;rieultural puhlieation which fur- 
nishes a greater amount or lurRer variety of valuable 
informatiou for /t-jcx thuu. tt'it cents, which is all it costs 
its Lancaster county patrons. And it is gratifyins; 
to us to lie able to give a large measure of the credit 
for the value of this issue* to our many esteemed and 
jiractical contributors, the number of which are 
steadily on the increase. We have, perhaps, issued 
numbers which were more attractive in the amount 
and variety of their illustrations, but none which con- 
tained more able articles from the pens of writers who 
are iiractically versed in the topics they discuss. 

And with tills issue of The Fakmek in the hands 
of our readers, who embrace many of the leading 
intelligent and progressive farmers of this great 
county, may we not be pardoned for appealing to 
them to make a special efl'ort to increase its circula- 
tion ? We freiiuently receive letters from distin- 
guished agriculturists, horticulturists, and stock- 
breeders abroad, expressing surprise that such an 
able and valuable publication sliould eonline its 
etl'orts mainly to securing home support. Tliey say it 
is too good to limit its usefulness to the " pent-up 
Utiea " of a single county: but these kind and appre- 
ciative frii'uds do not consider that Lancaster county 
is an empire in itself — the ricliest agricultural eoiiuty 
in tlic I'nitnd States — containing material to furnisli a 
6ul)Scription list of .5,U00, with only one out ol' Uvoof 
her farmers among its patrons. If only every second 
farmer in the county would become a subscriber, we 
would be able, with facilities already at command, to 
make Tiiii Laniastkh Faumek the must licautiful 
and valuable publication of its class in llie world, for 
such is the ambition of both editor and jjublishers. 
'J' he bound volume for IST.'i.a limited number of copies 
oi' which can be furnished, is worth ten times itscost, 
and in a few years cannot be bought for any such 
sum. Then let" every one of onr present subscribers 
exert himself to send us one tir more new subscribers, 
that we may be able to still further improve The 
Faumek^ until the farmers of Lane-aster county can 
claim the credit of being represented in the Held of 
agricultural literature by a publication which shall 
stand without a rival. 

IMPROVED LIVE STOCK. 

We take pleasure in calling the attention of our 
readers to tlie adverlisement ol' W. Atlee Burpee, 
importer, breeder, and shipijcr of live stock. Mr. 
Hurix'c is a grandson of L)r. Wasliington L. Atlee, 
(brother of -Ur. .John L. Atlee, of this city,) well 
known to many of our readers. We believe there is 
no other man of his years who has \vi>n a more de- 
served and extended rc])Ulation as a reliable and con- 
scientious breeder and dealer in the kinds ol' stock 
which he makes bis specialties. We arc very careful 
about what we eonimcnd in Tni; Kaumkk, and the 
judgment now given is iia.sed only on a thorough 
knowledge of tlie man and his ability to make go>od 
all engagements with his customers. 



CONTENTS OF THIS NUMBER. 



p.\c;k. 

- 17 
17 

- 17 
IS 



EDITORIAL ARTICLES : 

Black Cochins, - - - - 
Toulouse Geese, - ' - 
The Hed Echymyd (Eehymys nifus). 
The Mouse Moth, - - - - 

What Kind of Oil, LS 

An Open Winter, .--■--]<) 
Peculiar Etlcets of Winter Heat, - - - 1!) 
The " Snowflake " and " Kuri'ka" Potatoes, lil 
The Dairy Interests (Practical Hints About 

Making and .Selecting liood Chesse,) - 20 
Arrival of Birds in 187.5, - - - - 20 

Facts of Natural History — " Homes Without 

Hands," ----- .21 

Mental Culture Among Farmers, - - 21 
Spiders, ------- 22 

The Grangers, ------ Si 

The Fruit Growers' Society, - - - 2.5 

ORIGINAL COMMUNICATIONS: 

Humming Birds. F. U. Dirt'EXDEHiFEit, 2'2 
Lancaster County as an Apple Orchard. 

Oi.i" CoNTKimvroH, - - - - 24 
Notes and Remarks on New Fruits and 

Vegetables. J. B. (iARBEH, - - - 24 
Make Hot-Houses. Walter Ei.dek, - 24 
Corn Culture. .J. B., - - - - 'i') 

Testing Fertilizers and their Continued 

Action. .John I. Caictek, - - - 2.5 
Rural Life. Wai.tei: F.i.I)EK, - - 2.5 

THE PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY, -2.5 

AiHiujI aiMrcss uf Master James Cx. McSiiarraii, of 
Kiillou (Iraiige, Nu. CO. 

The Fruit Growers' Society, - - - - 2(> 

Aiiiiujil Meeting iu Dojiestowu—Iuterfsting Ses- 
sion -V.ihnljle Kssaya and DiHCUHBiouB— All 
About Fruit Growing and Ocueral Horticul- 
ture — Geueral Uei)urtH and Loiterh- — AdtlresH by 
tlie I*resii1eiit — losiah Hooi)eH on Yards and 
LawuH— Management of OrcUards — Klection of 
OtticerB-Tbe Centennial— Mort* Alxiut Apiile 
Orrliaidt: — Hybridization of Fruits— I^-st Varie- 
ties of Api'les— Dtwtroying the Burk Loum- — 
Election of Otticern — I'ne Codling Moth— IVars 
ftnd tlieir Culture— Fruit Trees from the North — 
PruHervation of Fruit by Ice— Cultivation of the 
Clierry — I'cach < "ulture — Miscellaneous Toiiice — 
Strawberries — Haei>berrie« and Bluckbe-Ties — 
Currants aud Gooseberries — Grapea — Ever- 
greens — UOBCB. 

Our Paris Letter. 2ft 

Our Local Organizations, - - - - 30 

Our Farmers in Council— Economy r«. Hard 
Timet* — IteiJortouCrofs — Tup questiou of Plant- 
ing Foipst TieeH— Shall We Eat Pork?— Walk- 
ing Horses VM. Trottiug — The State Agricultural 

liej ortH. 

GENERAL MISCELLANY, - - - 'n 

Shade Trees — Thoughts for March— Large Poultry 
Yard— The State Agriculturist— The Pestilenlial 
l';aHt Wind — Influence of Food on the Mind — 
Hurtful Ke;uiiug — Celery— Coru SUrch Cake — 
What it will do. 



THE FARMERS HOME ORGAN. 



|l|e |anca?tBr |ariiiBr; 

A MONTHLY NEWSPAPER, 

DEVOTED TO AGRICULTURE, HORTI- 
CULTURE, DOM ESTIC ECONOMY 
AND MISCELLANY. 



PRACTICAL JENTOMOLOGY 

Made a ]iromiiu>nt feature, with special n'ferutire to Ibe 
wants of the Farmer, the Gardener aud Fruit •Grower. 



Founded mu\cr the auspices of the Lancaster County 
Agricultural and Horticultural Society. 

Edited Tjy Prof. S. S. EATHVON. 



LITERARY AND PERSONAL, 

Book> alid PerJodicids, 

Our Fence Corners, - - - - 
Fact aud Fancy, Wit aud Humor. 



- :!2 



The Lancaster Farmkh has now completed itii seventh 
year^the last having been under the auH|pir**H of the under- 
signed as ]iublishers. When we asstimeil the reiipunKiltlllty 
of the publication one year ago. It was wiDi u detenninatiou 
to make such imjirovement*' during the year as would pl»ce 
the Farmers' Organ of Ibis great agricultuml couuly iu the 
very front rank of |>ublicatiuiiH of its class. Tlnit we have 
done so, our readers will benr cheerful teHtlniony. Bui our 
work of improvement is only fairly begun. \V« proitowo to 
make the volume for ttieConluiiuIal yeiirsiill inorelniereMtiug 
aud vsluabte than its i)redeo»'M8or for 1S7.'). In this, how- 
ever, we need the co-operutiuu uf ever)' friend of the enter- 
p^1ft^^ To make it a HUccesH, e^ery one who now n'ads TiiK 
Fakmku should at once send us at least one new suttAcritier. 

The contributions of our able editor. Prof. ItATiivo.v. on 
8Ubje<'tH connected with the science of fanning, and partic- 
ularly that specialty of wliieti he is so thon>ughly a master — 
entomological science -some kuowletlge uf which has iM-come 
a necessity to the succettsful farmer, are aluue wortli much 
more than the price of this pnblicitiou. 

The Faumeu will be published ou the I6th of every 
month, jirinted on go«id paper with cle«r tyi***, in cou- 
vcnient form for reading aud bludlug, and mailed to iiut>- 
Hcribers on thu following 

TERMS: 

To subscribers resi<liug within the oouuty — 
One copy, one year, ----- $i.oo 

Six copies, one year, - ----- 5,00 

Ten Copies, one year, ------ 7.50 

To subscrilH'rs outside of Lancaster ooonty, including 
I)08tage pn'-paid by the publishers: 

One copy, one year, - - - . - $1.25 
Five copies, one year, 5.00 

All subHcriptions will commence with the January num- 
ber unless otiienvis** ordered. 

All eominuuications iuteadod for pnbllciition should be 
addrexHed to the Editor, and, to Ne4>ure Insertinii. should be 
In his hnnds by the first of the month of pnltlicitlou. 

All busincMs letters, conlalniug nulwrrlptj.ms and adver- 
tisements, should he uddn khi d to the ]>ubIishcrH, 

- PEARSOL & GEIST, 

Express Buildings, 22 South Queen Street, 
LANCASTER, PA. 



UATKS OF AltVt:itTINI\». — Ten OntN n 
line for t'Hfli limcrHoii. Twilve lium lo ilic ludi. 



II. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



FARMERS, GET THE BEST. 



Til mMB & muim 

FEED CUTTER, 



MANUFACTUBED FOR 



DIX^I^SR <Sc GrFlOFF, 

DEALERS IN 

HARDWARE & AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS, 

No. 7 EAST KING ST., LANCASTEE, PA., 

Has been demonstrated by competitive tests to be THE 
BEST FEED CUTTER IN THE MARKET. The feed-roU 
JB Operated by a new and novel device which completely 
overcomes the objection to the uneven action of other cut- 
ters, while the length of cut can be varied to meet the wants 
of the operator without the removal of any gear-wheels. 
The material and worlrraanfihi]) are of the very beet class, 
and guaranteed to givesatisfactioBto the purchaser. Farm- 
ers are invited to call and see for themselves. 



"THE CHAMPION." 

The Champion Reajier and Mower, which we have sold 
with Buch entire eatisfyction to our customers for the last 
six years, still niiiintains the lead of all competitors — 
33,761 having been manufactured for the harvest of 1S75 
— and we have already completed our arrangements to sup- 
ply the increased demand for next season. The Farmer 
who buys the Champion is always satisfied that he has the 
f uU worth of his money. 

DILLEU 8, GHOFF, 

No, 7 East King St., Lancaster, Pa. 

7-ll-lim 






Will be 
niled free 
to all a p p 1 i - 
in ts. This is 
lie of the larpcst 
ml most conipreheu- 
ve Cataloscues pub- 
ished; contains about 2-i0 
a^^s, over GOO fine enprav- 
_s, '1 elegant colored plates, 
uid gives full descriptions, 
rices, and directions for plant- 
^ ...„ over 1200 varieties of Vegt-lable 
, and Flower Seeds, Bedding Phtnts. 
Roses. &Q:, and is invaluable to Farmer, 
"Gardener and Florists. Address, 

D. M. TERRY & CO., 
Seedsmen and Florists, DETROIT. Mich. 



PATENTS 

OBTADJED BEST AIJB CHEAPEST BY 

LOUIS BAGGER & CO., 

SOLICITORS OF PATENTS, 

TTT'asb.ington, D. C. 



ly Address aU letters to P. O. Box 444. 



7-3 12m 



7-9-6m 



This includes bags and delivering on board care. 



EVERGREEN BONE DUST, 

MANUFACTURED BY 

M. B. ESHLEMIN, at LEAMAN PLACE, 

Is guaranteod Fure Saw Bone, and nothing else. 
Special paius taken in preparing it for feeding bens. 

No. 1, for feeding:, • - $l.i>0 per hundred. 
No. 2, for land, • • - 1.75 



DEALERS IN AXL KmDS OF 

FA1IIII.T and I^IME-BURNINO COAI. I 

Orders received at 

Office, No. 15 East King street, and at the 
8-l-12m) Yard, No. 618 NORTH PRINCE STREET. 




THE OLD FARM HOUSE. 

The easy chair, all patched with care. 

Is placed by the cold hearth-stone ; 
With witching grace, in the old fire-jilace. 

The evergreens ai-e strewn. 
And pictures hang on the whitened wall. 
And the old clock ticks in the cottage hall. 

More lovely still, on the window sill. 

The dew-eyed flowers rest. 
While 'midst the leaves on the moss-grown 

The martin builds her nest. 
And all day long the summer tjreeze 
Is wliispering love to the bended trees. 

Over the door, all covered o'er 

With a sack of dark green baize. 
Lays a musket old, whose worth is told 

In the events of other days ; 
And the powder-flask, and the hunter's horn. 
Have hung beside it for many a morn. 

For years have fled with a noiseless tread. 

Like fairy dreams away. 
And in their flight, all shorn of its might, 

A father — old and gray ; 
And the soft winds play with the snow-white hair. 
And the old man sleeps in his easy chair. 

Inside the door, on the sanded floor. 

Light, airy footsteps glide. 
And a maiden fair, with flasen hair. 

Kneels by the old man's side — 
An old oak wrecked by the angry storm. 
While the ivy clings to its trembling form. 



Why He Broke His Pledge. 

"See here, Mr. Jonesby, do you know that you 
cheated me out of a pound and a half of pork V 

" Why no, I was not aware of it; but how? Mr. 
Smlthers." 

Why, you see, that the 200 pound pigthat you pro- 
mised me if I kept the pledge ten weeks, only weighed 
1981^ pounds. 

Did it, indeed. Well, I am sorry for that, and will 
make good wliat it lacked. 

" Its too late now ; I have smashed the pledge. 
When a man don't keep his word with me, I don't 
keep my word with him.*' 

Poor, wronged Mr. Smithers; fraudulent Mr. Jones- 
by. When will people ever get their rights ? 

When pyviciles and not puyies prevail. 

Precocious boy, munchiug the fruit of the date tree 
— " Mamma, if I eat dates enough, will I grow up to 
be an almanac?" 

An old lady from one of the rural districts, aston- 
ished a clerk in one of the stores a few days ago, by 
inquiring if he had any "yaller developments sich as 
they did up letters in." 

A PRECOCIOUS boy was asked which was the greater 
evii of the two — hurting another's feelings or his fin- 
ger. He said the former. " Right, my dear child," 
said the gratified questioner; " and why is it worse to 
hurt the feelings?" "Because you can't tie a rag 
around them," exclaimed the dear child. 

A Vermont genius is trying to manufacture false 
hair from basswood. It is to be hoped he will suc- 
ceed. It will be more pleasant for a fellow to gaze 
from his pillow iu the morning upon the switch hang- 
ing over the back of a chair and wonder what tree it 
came from, than to speculate upon what dead woman 
it was once attached to. 

The other day a German, leaning against a hitch- 
ing post on Washington street, looked up at the sky 
and remarked: " I guess a leedle it vill rain some- 
dime pooty queek." " Yez do, eh ?" replied an Irish- 
man at his side. " Well, I want yees to understand 
thatyees have no business to come over to America 
and say anything forninst the weather. What the 
devil do yees purteud to know about American 
weather, anyhow, ye furrin galoot ?" The German 
had no more to say. 

He was a New Yorker. He had never seen the 
country before, and read when at school the great 
editor's " What I know about farming," and con- 
sidered himself posted. He came to southwest Min- 
nesota on business. A friend drove him out to see 
the counti'y; they passed by a cornfield where some 
men were pulling corn. What is that ? said the New 
Yorker. 'That is a field of corn, said his friend. 
What are those men doing? said yankee. They are 
pulling the corn, said his friend. Ah, I see, said 
yankee, they pull the corn ofl' and let the sticks stand 
for another year. The subject was dropped. 



Henry M. Engle, of Marietta, a valued contrib- 
utor to The Farmer, and well known over the State 
as a successful and enterprising fruit grower, met 
with a severe loss on the *i.5th of January in the de- 
struction of his barn by incendiary fire, with all its 
contents, including twenty-nine head of cattle, in- 
volving a loss of $.5,000, on which there was only 
$1 ,800 insurance. The stock, especially several head of 
Alderney cows, was very valuable, and the loss to 
Mr. Engle was a severe one; but he is a man of too 
much pluck to be discouraged by such reverses. 




This is a beautiful Quarterly Journal, finely illustrated, 
and containing an elegant colored Frontispiece with the 
first number. Price only 25 cents for ihe year. The first 
number for 1876 just issued. SJF^ Vick's Flower and 
Vegetable Garden, 35 cents ; with cloth covers, 65 cents. 
Address, JAMES VICK, Kochesler, N. Y. 




A FIRST CLASS 



DEVOTED TO 

POULTRY AND PET STOCK 

IN ALU THEIR BRANCHES. 

Edited by the Emiuent and Experienced Breeder and 
Fancier, W. H, TODD, of Vermilliou, Ohio. 

The Nation is a wide-awake, original, practical and high- 
ly valuable journal. No one who keeps pets or poultry can 

AFFORD TO DO WITHOUT IT. 

Only 60 Cents a Year, Postpaid. 

It clubs with poultry and other journals at very low rates. 

For instance, the Poultry World and Nation, are furnished 
postpaid for $1.40. Fanciers' Journal (weekly) and Nation, 
$2.50. American Agiiculturist and I^ation, $l.fiO, etc. 

Our circulation is very large. A splendid advertising me- 
dium. Prospectus free. Samples, (1 cents. 

Address POULTRY NATION CO., 

7-6-tf Birmingham, Erie Co., Ohio. 

R. Y. FAIRSERVICE & CO., 

613 Fourth St., East Ne-wark, N. J., 

OFFERS FOR SALE 

"XPSr .A. S TT E3 

SIX 90:^01 aPOOX. COXTOHT, 

"white," "black," and "colors." 

60 cents pound, postage paid. We guarantee one pound 
equal to five dozen '200 yard Spools. 

1875. PRE-CENTENNIAL. 1875. 

Bathvon fe Pislier, 

PRACTICAL 

Talt@r§ amd €t(atEil©rs 

CHEAP, FASHIONABLE AND DURABLE 




ESTABLISHlVIEIffT, 

Cor.N. ftUEEN and ORANGE STS., 

LANCASTER, PENN'A. 

Oil? ASSIES WAlTli 

TO TAKE SUBSCRIBERS FOE 



Farmers' Sons and other Young Men; 
during their leisure hours, 

CAN MAKE GOOD WAGES. 



We want a thorough canvass made of every district, and will 
pay good canvassers liberally. Address 

PEARSOL & SEIST, Publishers, 
7-8-tf 1lAivc'ast£r, pa. 



The Lancaster Farmer. 



Prof: S. S. SATHVON, Editor. 



LANCASTER, PA., FEBRUARY, 1876. 



Vol vm. No. 2. 



BLACK COCHINS. 

We give herewith ;i pleasing ilhistration of 
a first-elas.s pair of this variety, representing 
"Nicodomus" and ",Iet," owned liy Dr. F. 
W. ]5yers, Lena, 111., who kindly furiiishedus 
the following notes in reply toaenrr>'spandenl 
of our Aincrinin Fanciers^ (luzittr, which, hav- 
ing .sold, we will give the readers of TiiK Lan- 
C.vsTEU Fakmku the henelit of Dr. Hyers' 
cxperienee wi(h this variety, in liis own words. 
— W. Atkc Buriia; Fhiluddphia, Fth. 5. l^Tll. 



seen kept in the poultry line — never throwing 
any hrown or dingy colors. In some we find 
a little white in tli" unilerfoathering, which, 
by soniej)f our poultrynien, is not onsidered 
olijcctionalile, as black and white are corre- 
sponding colors. For this climate we do not 
believe they have any superiors. They pos- 
si'ss extreme hardiness — seem to feel w.'ll when 
other varieties are piiwhed up with cold. Tliey 
are a first-class table fowl, attain a fair size, 
and with little inclination to sit, are (excellent 
layiirs. The young 
rear with very lil- 
l\o. attention, and 
when fully matured 
are, indeed, attrac- 
tive and beautiful. 
The cock, especi- 
iilly, is an aristo- 
cratic, stately look- 
ing fellow, stands 
erect, presenting a 
very handsome and 
imposing appear- 
ance. — Fred. \V . 
Byers,- Jjena, III., 
January 25, 1870. 




BLACK COCHINS. 

A writer in the August Gazette, speaking of 
Cochins, says the Blacks are very little 
known, only one pair being shown at the Pro- 
vincial Exhil)ition at Loudon. Mr. Wright, 
in his Illustrated Book of Poultry, givesthis 
variety only a slight notice, seeming to con- 
sider them an inferior fowl as they are now 
bred in England. However, in the United 
States, and especially here in the West, they 
are regarded as a very superior breed. 

At one of our poultry shows last winter, the 
rmml)er of entries of Blacks was eijual to those 
of an}' other Cochin variety, and tlie display a 
very creditable one throughout. It is true 
they are not so large as the Bull', but careful 
breeding is bringing them to true shape and size. 
They are closer in feather, couseipicntlv do not 
show size like the loo.se feather Huffy liuff. In 
color they are glossy black, shading to bottle 
green, with bright red comb nattles and ear- 
lobe. They diti'er in sha|)o and gait usually 
from the other Cochins, and by .selecting such 
as conform to characteristics of Buff and Par- 
tridge, they are assuming the true Cochin 
type. The back is long, sloping to root of tail 
like a Game, and the tail itself is more like 
that of the Brahma. The legs are rather 
pearly, furnished with feathers, but to off.set 
this we have never seen a vulture hock or any 
ap])roach to it among the blacks. They are 
also free from ''sli]» wings" and twisted 
feathers in wings, defects so common in many 
Asiatic families. If they are ,a cross, as some 
contend, it is our opinion that they carry 
some Game blood. They are sprightly and 
active in their movements, splendid foragers, 
and are sure to come oH' " first best " in a 
fight with their cousins. Black Cochins breed 
more true to feather than anything we have 



TOU LOUSE 
GEESE. 

This variety is 
doubtless the larg- 
est known. Men in 
general have a n 
aversion to geese, 
and We don't blame 
^^ thejn cither; for 
what could the lit- 
tle noisy, vora- 
cious, unruly com- 
mon geese be con- 
sidered on a farm 
but a nuisance, un- 
less securely pemied 
in .siiuie .sivaiupy field V This natural aversion 
we were not exempt from till we tried the 
magnificent Toulouse, and then it was changed 
to a liking for these geese. 
In appearance, they are no- 
ble and dignified, and will 
thrive without water to f 
swim in, if plenty be provid- fi 
ed for drink. They are f 
never unruly, and can be 
fenced as easily as shec^p ; 
are very quiet, not noisy, 
and extremely hardy. Th(\ 
are good layers, averaginj 
about forty eggs each, in ; 
sea..son, and are seldom 
broody. If the old stock is 
not kept fat, and after .spring 
opens oidy on pasture and 
vegetables, without grain, 
nearly every egg will hatch. 
The goslings are much 
stronger when young than 
the connnon, and are more 
easily rai.sed than a pig. 
We use hens for hatching, 
and in summer have placed 
them on a fresh grass-plat, 
and reaied them without 
any mother. Their growth is so rapid that 
at four weeks old they will weigh from six to 
eight pounds each, and at three months, from 
fifteen to eighteen pounds. At four wi'cks 
old they need i further housim;, and can be 
taken from the nur.s<M-y and placed in the open 
pasture to graze and shift for themselves, pro- 
vided they have their regular meals of soft 
feed, whi('h should l)e ciMitinned till they are 
three or four months old. In France and Eng- 
land, Toulouse geese are prized for their great 



size, excelli 111 ilesh, and abundant yield of 
soft, line feathers, of which they will average 
about half a pound to tlu; "picking," and 
would be i>rotilahle lor this purpo.se. In the 
severest weather they require no sli(dter, and 
we never feed mature birds any gniin when 
the ground is bare, where tliey have access to 
pasture fields. 

In color, geese and ganders are exactly 
alike, vi/. : a uniform, handsomi' gray, with 
breast and underparlsof body a shad«r lighter. 
They are so mild and tractable in disposition, 
and pos.se.ss .so many gooil traits, that they are 
profitable when; they can be ke|it, and es|)eci- 
ally where grain and gniss an; chea|). There 
are hundreds of wa.ste places upon which, with 
a trilling expense, large numbers of tlu'se 
gee.se ctuild be raised. To sliow how prolific 
tliey are, we have known, for two .sexsons 
pitst, one hundred goslings to Ite rai.sed each 
year from the eggs of eight females, besides a 
large number being .sold for hatching purposes. 
For all pur|)0.ses, the Toulouse .should bi^ voted 
the "goo.se of the period." — Tkc I'uuUry Na- 
tion. 



THE RED ECHYMYD. 

l^K liijtnijtt rttfuH.) 

This .animal isindigei'iousto Brazil, Guiana, 
and Paraguay, in .South Amerii'a. Itisabout 
the size of the common rat of North America, 
and is also called the " Spinous rat." It is a 
reddish gray in color, and the tail is llattened 
and somewhat shorter than the body. It con- 
structs long subterranean biirrow.s. It is allied 
to the "Dormice," the last group in the fam- 
ily SciUKiD.E, according to CuviKii. It .seeni.s 
to be a connecting link between tiie .sijuirrel 
family and the rat family. Like the " Dor- 
mouse," it also has foiu' molar teeth, which 
tlilter, however, in formation from tlie animal 
named. The fur is somewhat rough, iider- 
spcrsed with short tlattened spines ori)riekling 
iiuills. These animals are true Uodkxts, or 
" gnawers, "an<l their food and fee«ling habits 
are similar to those of sijuirrels, mice, and 
dormice. Their phure is not uuaniiuou.sly, and, 




therefore, not permanently fixed, in the order 
of classification. There are two groups of 
theseanimals. belonging to the genus E:lii/my.i, 
one of which hius hairy tailsand the other .scaly 
tails, the former being more nearly allied to 
the .sipiirrels, and the latter to the common 
rats and mice. 



A i)ol,l,AltspentlorTllKLAKC.\STEli Fau- 
MElt will prove the l)est paying investment that 
can be made. .iVsk your neighbor to try it. 



d8 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[February, 



THE HOUSE-MOTH. 

The simple term Math incliules a multitude 
of ditferent siiecies of destructive insects, 
not even belongiiij;: to the same family or order; 
but it is presumed that everj' intelligent house- 
wife knows what we mean when we say House- 
Moth. That there were, or may still be some 
who do not know a moth, even when they see 
it, we have seen ludicrously demonstrated on 
several occasions. On one particular occasion 
we entered a house and found the good lady 
thereof engaged in her "shaking up" and 
mid.summer investigation of her previous 
winter blankets and woolen clothing, and 
mournfully deploring the ravages of the 
"pesky" house-moths. She painfully rec- 
ognized their pernicious work, but she did 
not seem to have an intelligent idea of the 
little creatures that caused the havoc among 
her woolens ; for just as we entered, she 
removed a bundle of old newspapers, and 
immediately seized a dusting brush, and with 
the back of it, in rapid succession, dealt a 
series of blows upon something that was as rap- 
idly making its escape to some otlier place of 
concealment, as often as it was exposed to 
view. This, she alleged, was one of the " in- 
fernal moths," and she was determined to 
summarily extinguish it with the back of the 
brush. We ventmed to admonish her that 
she was quite mistaken, and that any insect 
that could run as swiftly and hide as quickly 
as the one she was pursuing, could not possi- 
bly be the one that had so effectually scored 
lier blankets and woolen clothing — tliat the 
real author of the mischief never made any 
attemjit to run away, and indeed could not 
run. We called her attention to the true moths, 
on the carpet, on the walls, and on the furni- 
ture, slowly dragging their variously colored 
woolen cases along in the direction of the 
places from which they had been dislodged ; 
and which, on the slightest disturbance, would 
draw in their heads and collapse the ends of 
their cases. 

Hers had been a sort of " wild-goose chase " 
after a species of Lepsima, those three-tailed, 
silvery-scaled, swift-running, degraded Neit- 
ROPTERA, which, whatever else they are guilty 
of, are not very formidable as the destroyers 
of blankets and woolen clothing; althougli it 
is said they will occasionally eat woolen cloth, 
and the surface of photographs. 

"As the winter passes away and the genial 
sun once more pours his warm rays ovei' the 
earth, making all things bright and cheerful, 
l)lankets, overcoats, wraps, furs, and all arti- 
cles that can comfortably be dispensed witli, 
will be laid aside for those of thinner texture. " 
And here is just where a rational caution 
should be observed in regard to the articles 
thus laid aside during the summer season. 
The "House-Moths" {Thica taptzietla, ves- 
tianella, et pdlionella) may be seen in its 
winged state from the first of May to the 
first of July, and sometimes until the first 
of August ; but it is most aliundant in the 
month of June, and it is during this month 
that the greater nundjer of the eggs are 
deposited, although there are either several 
broods, or successive alternations of the same 
brood. About this period too it is when most 
of the winter fabrics are put away, and the 
eggs are so small, and adhere so firmly, that 
they may easily be packed away with the arti- 
cles intended to be preserved. Although such 
preventives as tobacco, pepper and cami)hor 
are recommended, and no doubt to a certain 
extent are beneficial, our experience has taught 
us that tlie most effectual remedy is in pack- 
ing the articles in fine linen or paper bags, 
with every aperture completely closed, through 
which a moth could possibly dejwsit its eggs. 
If no eggs have been inclosed with the articles, 
this precaution is perfectly safe. 

A writer from Paris under date of Januaiy 
3, 1870, states that in that city there are i)er- 
sons who make it a business to receive furs 
and woolen articles, and for a reasonable com- 
pensiition, keep them free from moths until 
they are again wanted. Where no such estab- 
lishments exist, or where people prefer to have 
their property in their own custody, the bag- 



ging process should be used, and this may be 
also exteiHlcd to woolen carpets. We would 
recommend the use of tough strong paper 
(manilla) out of which small -flour sacks are 
now made, but care should be taken that every 
hole, no matter how small, be perfectly closed. 
Cayenne pejiper. or pieces of red-peii]ier pods, 
toliacco and camphor, may also be put among 
the articles ; but if we could be certain that 
we have enclosed no eggs, these articles would 
be altogether lumecessary. Under any circum- 
stances they will do no harm if they do no 
good. 

Be sure you do not improvise a woolen bag, 
for this would only attract the insects, and 
they would destroy the covering before attack- 
ing its contents. Before bagging articles to 
be preserved tliey shoidd be violently beaten 
and shaken, and all the moths, if any, in them 
should be at once thoroughly destroyed. Some 
people are in the habit of hanging their arti- 
cles out in the sun, to give them "an airing," 
as they call it, without seriously disturbing the 
moths. The Paris writer says — "As the 
gnawing insects cannot invade linen or cotton, 
it is enough to have this envelope impenetra- 
ble at all points, provided we do not attempt 
the preservation of ;in object already infested 
with vermin or with their eggs and larvie." 
Under certain peculiar circumstances, how- 
ever, we have found that moths will invade 
both linen and cotton, but if it lie closely 
woven stout material, it is questionable if 
they coidd penetrate it as they do woolen 
cloth. On one occasion a box in our store, 
containing jiieces of canvas, padding and cot- 
ton flannel, which had been for years undis- 
turbed, was finally removed in making some 
improvements. On examining its contents 
hundreds of moths were found in it, and these 
had scored the linen and cotton material as 
well as the woolen, forming their cylindrical 
cases out of one kind as freely as another, the 
only difference being that they did not cut 
throuyh the linen and cotton as they did 
through the woolen. Ordinarily, however, 
moths are rather nice in their tastes, for we 
have found the finer and softer fabrics more 
liable to their infestations than those of a 
coarser and harder quality ; but, where opjjor- 
tunities for this discrimination do not exist 
they will attack everything and anything that 
is woolen, and rather than starve, they will 
also appropriate linen and cotton, unless its 
surface is too smooth and hard to make an 
imiiression iqion it. 

The sum and substance, then, of these re- 
marks is, that the cheapest, safest and easiest 
remedy against moths, is the perfect isolation 
of the articles we desire to preser\'e, and where 
this has been perfectly accomplished, there is 
little need of anything else; nevertheless, as 
we are liable to omissions and other inadver- 
tencies, the introduction of pulverized cam- 
phor, pepjier and toliacco will not be amiss as 
repellents, if they do not kill. 

Every iiarent moth that is seen should be 
killed — a little silvery whitish and sluggish 
day and night flier, that ajijiears most abun- 
daiitly in May and June, and just slow enough 
in its" Hight to be easily clapped between two 
shingles, made in the form of bats or paddles, 
one in each hand. Its little cylindrical cases 
should also lie gathered and destroyed, as they 
contain the lurrae. 



WHAT KIND OF OIL.' 

In the proceedings of the January meeting 
of the "Agricultural and Horticultural Soci- 
ety," reported on page 14 of the January num- 
ber of The Farmer, where we are reported 
as having stated that oil was the best remedy 
for " scale insects, " or " bark lice ; "the next 
question would naturally be, '■'vhot kind of 
oil?'''' and, indeed, that question had been 
answered briefly, before the meeting closed, 
although no report had been made of it. 

In a fuller answer of that question, allow 
us to relate one of our experiences in the oil- 
remedy as well as other remedies, and also 
the practical results of their application by 
other experimenters. Some ten or twelve 



years ago, a neighbor of ours had two fine 
young pear trees that were badly infested by 
"the " Oyster-shell ]5ark-louse, " and some one 
had reconmiended scrubbing them with fish- 
brine, aiiplied with a stifl' brush. After the 
application of the lirine and the scrubbing, 
the trunks and laiger branches of his trees 
had a reddish or rJSty appearance, but be- 
fore the end of the succeeding summer sea- 
son it became manifest that they were not 
cured, and the insects reappeared all over the 
surfece almost as numerously as tliey had been 
before the remedy had been applied. The 
projn'ietor became discouraged, neglected his 
trees, and finally one of them died, and as 
the other seemed to be slowly following in the 
wake of the first one, it was also subsequently 
removed; opposite and north of these trees, 
on our own jiremises stood a pear tree, and an 
apple tree, both of which became infested with 
these insects, as well as a number of " sweet- 
brier " or wild-rose bushes. We also scrubbed 
our trees and bushes with saline and alkaline 
solutions, as well as soap, and tobacco decoc- 
tions, but finally we had to succumb and re- 
move the trees and bushes in order to arrest 
the further spread of the infestation. Some 
years subsequently we received a copy of Mr. 
Walsh's Report of the destructive insects of 
the State of Illinois, (we think it was his first 
and only report, for, by an accident he lost 
his life sometime thereafter.) In this report 
he gave some detailed experiments in the dif- 
ferent remedies for the destruction of this 
pest, from which it appeared that oil had, on 
the whole, been the best, if not the only relia- 
ble remedy, so far as his experience extended. 

We received this Report in the winter (either 
in January or February) and in the following 
spring, after the buds of the trees had begun 
to burst, Major Howell invited us to look 
at half a dozen fine dwarf pear trees on his 
premises, with which something seemed to be 
"the matter." On viewing and examining 
his trees we immediately recognized the same 
pests that had destroyed our neighbor's and 
om- own trees, and, on the .strength of Mr. 
Walsh's experiments, we did not hesitate to 
reconmiend the oil remedy. Mr. H. imformed 
me that he had a quantity of "neat's-foot oil," 
and inquried if that would answer, and we 
rejilicd that we thought it would. 

We need hardly say that neat's foot oil is an 
oil extracted from the marrow of leg bones of 
animals, especially those of ruminants or ox- 
kind, and farmers are generally well acquaint- 
ed with it, but it is always limited in quantity, 
so that there is hai'dly enough on hand at any 
time or place to make a general application of 
it iis an insecticide. Be that as it may, Mr. 
H. applied it, and finer, cleaner, healthier 
trees we never saw than his were during the 
following summer. Every scale was loosened 
and the subsequent rains washed them ofl", 
and left the trees as perfectly renovated as 
could be reasonably expected from trees so 
badly infested ; but about midsummer it could 
hardly have been told that they had ever been 
afflicted with bark-lice. Now, it is not to be 
inferred from this that no otheroil will answer 
the purpose but neat's-foot oil, for we presume 
that any pure and clean liquid oil will answer. 
There are some oils, however, that we would 
by no means recommend, such, for instance, 
as linseed-oil, or any oil that leaves a gummy or 
mucilaginous deposit on the bark, and by 
which the yiores would be closed. Nor would 
we recommend coal-oil, camphene, or any 
illuminating compound of that kind, for these 
are known to have been injuricius to the trees. 

But lard-oil, sweet-oil, or any other liquid 
oil or fat than those excepted. Neither would 
we recommend applying the oil during cold 
winter weather, for the reason that it would 
be apt to congeal, and not penetrate sufficient- 
ly the places intended to be reached by its ap- 
plications. Moreover, during winter there are 
nothing but eggs under the dry shells of the 
females of the previous season. But in the 
warm sjiring, and just before the leaf and 
blossom buds have expanded, we would con- 
sider the most iiro)ier time ; because the oil 
would then remain liquid and gradually pene- 



187(i.] 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



19 



trate evory pnrtinn of tlio surfaco, loosen thp 
scales and kill the yoiiiii; lice, it" any slionlil 
have been liatclied out. Shoulii warm weather 
prevail in early spriiif;, iisoft piece of " baeon- 
skin " (.</)/M.'(-t-.sT,'i'r (,)■() with a thiek layer of 
fat attacheil, would answer the purpose. After 
the oil has been on the trees for a week or ten 
days, it iniiiht be advisiUile to syringe the trees 
with an jilkalious solution. This in conjune- 
tion with till! oil would form a saponaceous 
compound, especially if succeediul by a warm 
sun, and suljse(pient rains would wash the 
whole ofT, and the bark-lice alont,' with it. 

Ofcour.se, it would be ditlicult, if not abso- 
lutely impracticable, to apply this remedy to 
large standard apple or pear trees, for on such 
trees the lice do not infest very injuriously 
the rou^h bark of the truidc, but thi^ smooth 
and more tender barked branches ; and there- 
fore, they might not be conveniently aecc.ssi- 
l)le; hut on low, or even pretty larije dwarfs — 
sucli for instance as could Ix! a|)proaohed by a 
step ladder — we think it quite feasible and 
prolitable. 

A soft paint-brush we would consider the 
proper implement to apply it, and with this it 
might be applied, by a little care, even after 
thc^ buds have hursted open, l)ut we would 
reconniiend an earlier period ; because it would 
not benelit and might injure the young leaves 
and tlower buds ; moreover, there are usually 
many of these lice congregated around and on 
the buds, as the most tender placets, and affiu'd- 
ing them the most nourishment. But even if 
the bark-liceare successfully removed, through 
negU^ct tliey may appear subseiiuently again, 
therefore, the only safety is in constant vigi- 
lance. 

«■ 

AN OPEN WINTER. 

The present winter thus far (February 1st) 
h.as been a rather remarkable one, but by no 
means a unique one, even within our own re- 
collection. It can almost be said, we have 
had no snow. The slight snow that fell about 
the middleof Januxrydid not lieon the ground 
six hours, even in the open lieUls and forests, 
and could hardly be dignified with the name 
of a snow fall, when compared with those that 
save character to the winters of Lancaster 
countj' in times that have iias,sed. There were 
a few cold days, and some ice made;, liut the 
thickest was scarcely four inches— nothing in 
comparison with the twenty inch ice of last 
winter. The verj' coldest temperature was 
eight degrees above zero, whilst last winter it 
was fourteen below, before the first of Febru- 
ary. The ice crop, which a few years ago was 
generally regarded in the light of a luxury, 
that only the few could afford to indulge in, 
has come to be almost a necessity with a very 
large proiwrtion of our population; and hence 
its success or failure is a matter which creates 
considerable anxiety, [ce cream, iced tea, 
iced coffee, and various other iced summer 
drinks, as well as general refrigerating pur- 
poses, for the preservation and conveyance of 
meats, butter, fish and fruits, are now so ex- 
tensively used that they are passing out of the 
category of luxuries, and taking rank as 
necessities. 

It is on record that the winter of 177.5 and 
177(5, the first year of our national existence, 
was very similar to the present winter, and as 
it then was favorable to the initiation of the 
new era. so it is favorable now, in preparing 
to celebrate the centemiial of that era. 

The Dandelion bloomed in .January of the 
present year, occasional bees and wasps were 
abroad, and every day the busy little English 
sparrows thronged the streets of Lancaster. 
On the asth nit., the thermomi'ter rose tot;.")^ 
and continued at that point until nightfall; no 
frost at all in the ground, and the roads in an 
exceedingly muddy condition. 

The winter of ISW and 1S47 w.as very simi- 
lar to the present one. The first day of .Janu- 
ary, 1847, was even warmer and sunnier than 
the 2.St1i of .January, 1S7()— bees, bugs, beetles, 
and butterllies were abroad, and as active as 
they usually are in Ai)ril and May. Lieut. 
Cochran, who fell at lleseca de la Falraa, the 
second day of the flrat battle in the Mexican 



war, was buried at Columbia with a))propnate 
honors on that ilay; the " Jjancaster Fi'Uei- 
bles," midcr comuiand of Capl. Uuchman, 
forming part of the eS('ort, and the day was 
bright and genial as any in spring. 

What effect such a winter :is the present will 
have upon the wheat and glass crops, it is im- 
possible yet to tell. It is^snpposed that thus 
far they have not been injured, if they have 
not been greatly benefited. The winter has 
lieen characterized by copious piuielrating 
rains, and the earth has been thoroughly .satu- 
rated, and thus far tlu^ grain is in a growing 
coiiilition. Long continued cold, dry \vinds, 
with heavy freezing weather in February ancl 
March, may be injurious. 



PECULIAR EFFECTS OF WINTER 
HEAT. 

Although at this writing the weather is ex- 
ceedingly (!old and stormy, (February .'!) yet 
on the ;2Slli and 'JUth of .January, it was un- 
usually warm, (thermometer about 70) and as 
.a conseiiuenee the vegetable worM m.ide great 
strides forward. The leaf and tlower buds of 
m.iny trees were so nuich swollen that they 
seemed ready to burst forth into livif and 
bloom, whilst some shrnbbi'ry was still mrne 
advanced. Branchesof tlie S/ih-ca were brought 
to the meeting of the Linna-an Society, with 
the leaves fully half expanded, and tli(; same 
was reported of Libics and Hoaei^ in some city 
localities, and the Saow-droiis pushed up 
through tlie earth and seemed ready to jjloom; 
while the I)nnibliiiiis in the open lields, ex- 
panded tlH'ir golden flowers in their nsual 
vernal profusion. The grain and grass also 
(lut on their garb of luxuriant green. Not 
only the vegetation, but also the insect world 
manifested the ell'ects of tli(! unusually mild 
temperature. IJees and wasps sallied forth on 
their honey hunting missions, and regaled 
themselves on sweetmeats, wherevertliey could 
gain access to groceries and confectioneries 
through the open doors or windows. Darkling 
beetles — Harpnlhhv. — and (irasshoppers — 
Licmtadce — also ventured out on the sunny 
sides of fences, rocks and earthy mounds, 
seemingly content with a temporary bath 
under thi^ rays of sol. Here and there a lone- 
ly and lialf-frightened specimen of Pieria nipiv, 
or " White cabbage Butterlly," would juirsue 
his solitary tiight ; Ijut this is not extraordinary 
for this insect ; beitause last winter one was 
captured in this city, during a short int(u-val 
of mild weather in February, although there 
was six inc'hes of snow on the ground at the 
time, and many i)eoi)le were engaged in gather- 
ing their crop of ice. 

Not a particle of frost was in the earth oti the 
•28th and 'iDth of January, and had not been for 
some days previous. Several species of moths 
of the Nocluidir and 'J'urtriciibt' families were 
abroad in theevening mi houses, gaining access 
through the oi)en doons. One particular species 
of the former family has the size and general 
markings of I'rof. Ililey's A<ir<itix sraiKhus, 
except that it is very much darker in color. 
Indeeil, unless somebody takes ui) this t'aniily 
as a specialty, makes a life-study of them, 
and describes and illustrates them carefully, 
we shall remain in the dark as to theirspecies. 
Twenty years ago we gathered alxuit twenty- 
live specimens of "Cut-worms," that had 
been depredating in a "cabbage-patch. " They 
dill'ered very much in size but more in color, 
being from a light greenish-grey to nearly a 
black— a greenish-black. We placed them in 
a box with earth, and every evening gaye them 
a quantity of cabbage plants ; and, in due 
time developed about fifteen moths, and these 
differed as much as the worms did, in size, 
marking and intensity of color ; and there 
would not have been much dilliculty in' mik- 
ing six or eight species of them. When we 
submitted them to the only Kntomolgists to 
whom we had access, they did not seem to 
know .as much about them specifically, as wi' 
did ourselt, but the inference w;is that they 
were all varieties of the same species. 

But this is a digre.ssion. We are writing 
upon the efi'ect this, thus far, remarkable 



winter, will have upon the flora and entomo- 
logical fauna of the country, for at this writing 
(February .'t.) we have a very "cold snap." 
We cannot desire it to continue so ciiUl in 
order to kill off the noxious insecla, l>ucauae 
that might also involve vegetiition. 



THE "SNOWFLAKE" AND -EUREKA' 
POTATOES. 



Mes.srs. B. K. Bliss & .Sons having hust 
S|)ring ofTered 8">IHI in premiums to growers of 
the. largest (pianlity of potatoes of the varie- 
ties known ;is " Snowtlake" and " Kiireka," 
from one pound of .seed, the committee on 
the first of .lanuary awaiiled tint premiums as 
follows, tliere being six for e;ich variety, rang- 
ing from jfKti) to SID: 

Snowki.ake: 1'. C. Wood, Esther, III., 
1417 pounds ; ,L L. Perkins. Little Sioux, 
Iowa, i:j()4 pounds ; Fred'k l[. Seller, \'erona, 
K.s.sex CO., N. .L, IIJ") pounds; .J. I.Salter, 
St. Cloud, Minn., lO'.HH pounds: Alfred Hose, 
I'enn Van, N. V., losilj pounds ; Henry V. 
Rose; Penn Van, N. V., KXi'.l}. 

KrttEtvA: .1. L. IVrkiu.s, Little Sioux, Iowa, 
llidCrl |)ounds; P. C. Wood, Kslher, III., 14t):{ 
pounds; .Vlfred llose, I'enn Van, N. Y., IM'.I 
pounds; .Milton M. Rose, Penn Van, N. V.,114.") 
pounds; .J. I. Salter, St. Cloud, Minn., 1()S7 
pounds; Henry V. Rose,Penn Van,N. V.,l<J0(5i 
pounds. 

The (•ommitlee in their report say that 
" when two years ago your committee award- 
eil the first prize for the largest yield of extra 
Early Vermont potatoes from one pound of 
seed, to Mr. Salter, of Minnesota, for the then 
unpriiCedented yield of six hundred and seven 
(Gl)7) pounds, many considered the eliniax of 
productiveness reached, and not a few doubted 
that such a (piant ity had ever been grown from 
so small a cpiantity of sited. Vet so much has 
the general interest and ambition stimulated 
the cultivators of the soil, both here and in 
Europe, that in England nearly double that 
aniiiunt (11182 Iti.s. ) has been grown from one 
|)ouiid, and in our own country no less a yield 
than nearly treble that obtained then, entitles 
now to a first premium, and nothing less than 
a thousand from one can win even the Ipwest 
liremium. These niirvelons results will na- 
turally cause, with many, suspicions about the 
correctness and truth of their statements; yet 
no one who has carefully examined the reports 
and atlidavits, and has read Ihe many letters 
received from disinterested parties, all of which 
vouch for the reliability of the successful com- 
petitors, can doubt the veracity of their report.s. 
We have given above the full address of every 
successful competitor, so that any one may 
satisfy himself al)ont the standing of these 
gentlemen, and if any false statements should 
have been made, we would be glad to iiacer- 
tain the fact, that such parties may be exposed 
and exelndetl from competing for premiums to 
hi' offered hereafter.'" 

The soil on which >rr. Perkins produced his 
enormous yield is described as "a mixture of 
sand and clay, very rich in vegetable matter to 
the depth of cuihlecn feci, anil underlying this 
is a gravelly sub.soil. For three years the 
ground was used :is a stock yard, the straw be- 
ing left on the ground to rot and Ix' burned." 
Another com|>etitor describes his soil as "black 
loam, four feet deep, on the bank of a creek, 
and it has Iteen used as a cattle yard for ten 
years." Another, aa "vegetable mould and 
sandy loam, three feet deep, never cultivated 
before." Many describe their soil , as " deep, 
very rich, the be.st potato soil in the State." 

The fertilizers used eompri.se nearly every 
known manure, and the quantities applied are 
not less enormous than the crops raised with 
them. Mo.st growers have made compounds 
of various materials, and .some seem to have 
faith in complicated forniula.s, which they pre- 
pare with the accuracy of a phy.sician's pre- 
scription. About the value of wood ashe-s, 
hen manure and i)lastcr, however, there seems 
to lie no doubt, and wc find them use<l by a 
large majority. Snlphurhas been used by many. 
Tliis substance ihx's not enter into the compo- 
sition of the potato, and it would be interest- 



20 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[February, 



ing; to know if its aiiplicatioii actunlly increases 
tilt! yield. Have experimeuts to this effect 
been made ? 

The fact that single eyes and eyelets will, 
with good care, produce large crops, has been 
snfticiently proved. All the large yields are 
grown from very small sets. In some cases, 
single eyes were divided into ten pieces, and 
in one instance two himdred and forty (240) 
sets were made from one pound, nearly all of 
which grew well. The sets, with few excep- 
tions, were planted singly, yet we find a pro- 
duct of nine hundred and seventy (970) pounds 
raised from fifty-two (.52) hills, two sets to each, 
nearly nineteen (19) pounds per hill, and six 
hundred and seventy-seven (677) bushels per 
acre. Whether this large yield is due only to 
the very favorable soil they grew in— a rich 
black loam, formerly used as a hog yard— and 
the immense cjuantity of ashes applied in the 
the hills and as top-dressing— one peck to the 
hill— or to the two-set system, does not ap- 
pear. The planting, in nearly all cases, was 
done between the 10th and 26th of May, and 
one-fourth of all competitors drojiped the seed 
on the 10th of May, nearly a week earlier than 
in former years. 

The data furnished the committee show that 
although the greatest yields from one pound 
grew from hills four feet ai)art, the largest 
crops \)i.'r acre were raised at distances ol three 
feet each way, and that as the distances be- 
tween the hiils are increased or decreased, the 
yield diminishes in regular iirojiortion. In the 
first case, there remains wasted ground which 
is not reaclied by the roots of the plants, and 
in the latter, the roots are so crowded that 
they cannot obtain all the nourishment they 
are tapable of consuming. The mode of i)lant- 
ing and cultivating with a largenuniber of the 
best cultivators, consists in crossing their fields 
with furrows six and more iiichf s deep. The 
sets are drojiped at the crossings and immedi- 
ately covered with about two inches of soil or 
compost. The vines as they grow are hilled uj) 
gradually and frequently to a final height of 
twelve to eighteen inches. Then large, broad 
hills are made, using all the soil between the 
rows. 

The general testimony of the competitors 
for the prizes is to the superior quality of the 
Snowflake as a cooking potato. 



THE DAIRY INTERESTS. 

Practical Hints about Making and Selecting 
Good Cheese. 

The great majority of people do not feel as 
much interest in cheese as they do in butter, 
for the reason that they consume at least 
seven or eight times as many jiouuds of the 
latter as they do of the former. We have 
produced, this season just closed, not less than 
600,000,000 jjounds of b>itter for market, to say 
nothing of what is consumed by the producers 
that is never taken into account. This is 
fifteen pounds per capita, sujiposing the popu- 
lation to be only 40,000,000. Our exports of 
butter are hardly worth consideiing. We may 
safely say that we have produced as muclimore 
than the 600,000,000 pounds as we have and 
shall export of the butter crop. Of cheese we 
have produced not less than 200,000, 000 pounds, 
or five pounds per capita ; but of this we shall 
export not far from 120,000,000 pounds, leav- 
ing 80,000,000 pounds for home consiuuption, 
which is two pounds per capita. But if our 
people were better judges of cheese and were 
furnished a better article for home consump- 
tion, we doubt not they would be nnu.'h greater 
cheese eaters. As it is, the great majority are 
supplied with a poor article — because they do 
not know how to select a good one, or because 
they prefer to buy the cheapest article regard- 
less of (piality — and come to the conclusion 
that they do not like cheese. We jiropose to 
give them a little clue to cheese-making, and 
a few hints how to select good cheese — which 
may be of some service to dealers, especially 
retailers — for though the quality of our cheese 
is superior, on the whole, to tliat of our but- 
ter, there is still a vast amount of poor cheese 
seen in market. 



Milk cveiy way healthy and free from taints 
and bad odors is essential to the manufacture 
of good cheese ; but bad milk from sick cows, 
or friini cows that have just calved, or from 
cows eating bad Ibod, drinking bad water, or 
breathing foul air, is often made into cheese. 
Much of the soft and pasty cheese, or that 
which is porous afcd full of small holes, comes 
from this kind of milk. Milk shut up hot in 
a close can and carried to the factory in hot 
weather, makes this kind of cheese. If its 
character is concealed by skillful manipula- 
tion, so far as apjiearance is concerned, it 
never keeps well and soon takes on an otl'en- 
sive odor and bad flavor. Tainted rennets 
liroduce similar results ; so will ferments in- 
troduced by micleanliness in utensils and im- 
plements, and in the surioundings of the fac- 
tory or jirivate dairy room. 

Though the private dairyman has the ad- 
vantage of better control of his milk in all its 
stages, factory cheese, as a rule, is superior to 
private dairy cheese ; and to the factory sys- 
tem, with its better methods of manufacture 
and the superior intelligence and skill of its 
operators, do we owe a complete revolution in 
the imvirovement of our cheese since 1869, and 
jiiainly since 180.'j. Many jirivate dairymen 
have adojited factory methods, and produce as 
fine cheese as is found in market ; but such 
private dairy cheese is the exception rather 
than the rule. Still, we do not mean to say 
that all factory cheese is good. Some of the 
worst in the market comes from badly con- 
ducted factories. 

If cuids arc dipped too sweet and put to 
press, though the milk may be ever so good, 
the clieese will be soft and soon go to decay, 
unless kept at a temi>erature below 60 degrees 
after it is cured. It is soon ready for market, 
and if immediately consumed, answers very 
well.- But it has not the body and fine flavor 
of cheeses made from ciu-ds that are kept lon- 
ger in the vat and are more concentrated by 
the action of heat and acid. But dipping 
curds Soft and sweet not only ]>roduces a raji- 
idly-curing cheese that can soon lie, and in- 
deed must be, rushed upon the market, but 
gives a larger yield because of the retention 
of more moistin-e. This and the fact that the 
cheese needs to be cared for during less time, 
induces the manufacture of nmch soft cheese, 
especially on a falling market or in anticipa- 
tion of a fall, and thus in the end augments 
our supply of poor cheese. Such cheese veri- 
fies the old adage, "soon rii)e, soon rotten," 
and n)uch of it ultimately appears on the coun- 
ters of our cheap groceries and as low-priced 
cheese on oiu- market stands. 

Too nuich souring of the curd produces a 
dry, iioor, crimibly cheese. Sour milk cheese 
generally has about the same character. The 
butter in such cheese decomposes and dri])S 
out with the whey. Skimmed cheese is hard, 
tough and poor tasting, and partly skimmed 
approaches this character. The jiractice of 
putting in more rennet and dipping the curds 
softer and sweeter does not disguise its charac- 
ter. Though it prevents dryness, it does not 
entirely get rid of the tough, leathery texture 
and the imiioverished taste, nor dots it remedy 
the indigestibility occasioned by the lack of 
Imtter. Adding other fats, as in the ease of 
oleomargarine, does not restore the fine rich 
quality, nor give it the flavor of fine whole 
milk cheese. The artificial grease does not 
thoroughly incorporate with the caseine, and 
the cheese has a coarse-grained, crumbly, 
greasy and suspicious look. Rich cheese is 
not greasy, but homogeneous throughout, firm 
in texture, yet readily breaking down soft and 
mellow between the fingers at a sununer tem- 
perature, and melting almost like butter in the 
mouth and leaving a pleasant, natty flavor 
that is exceedingly relishalile. It has no otten- 
sivo or disagreeable odor, has no round holes 
in it, large or small, though there may be ir- 
regular oj)enings because the curd was not 
quite pi-essed together. There is no sour taste 
or smell, no trace of whey, no moisture of an 
extraneous character ; neither is it dry, or 
hard, or cnunbly. Kew cheese not fully cured 
may have an agreeable acid taste, but such 



cheese is not fit to cut and should not be eaten. 
It is what buyers call "curdy " or under-ripe. 
Sour cheese may be made in the curing room 
where the temperature is changeable and re- 
mains too low for several days before the 
cheese is cured, or after it is just made and 
placed in the curing room. So i)orous cheese 
may be made by too high a temperature and 
too rapid curing, but the holes in such a cheese 
are large and not seriously objectionable, un- 
less too ninnerous. The flavor is liable to have 
been injured, but it may remain all right. 
Such cheeses generally settle down and have 
square edges and the smooth faces of good 
cheeses, but the buyer should criticise such 
pretty closely. By all means let the retailer 
shun the cheese that is full of fine holes, not 
much larger and sometimes smaller than pin- 
heads. They are an unmistakable evidence 
of bad milk, either from diseased cows or 
tainted after milking and before it was made 
into cheese. Avoid all dry, tough and crumbly 
cheese. Avoid all cheese with rounded faces. 
Avoid all rank-tasting cheese as either a bad 
article originally, or as being good cheese far 
gone in decay. Avoid all sour-tasting cheese 
as made of sour milk, as soured on the ranges, 
or as bad milk disguised with acid. Avoid all 
cheese that is hard and unyielding to the 
touch on the one extreme, and all that is elas- 
tic and India-rulilier like on the other — the 
first is soured and dried to death, and the 
other is skinmied to death. It is safe to avoid 
all low-priced cheese. 

Fine cheese is always close-grained, cuts 
smooth, but has a slight, regular roughness 
of surface, yields to the pressure of the fin- 
ger, breaks easily, but does not crumble, has 
a smooth, elastic rind, breaks down mellow 
and rich, but with no harsh feeling between 
the thumb and finger, dissolves readily in the 
mouth, but has no strong or rank flavor, and 
leaves a relishable taste. Most people like 
such cheese, but, seldom getting it, they fancy 
that cheese has for them no special relish. If 
only such cheese were thrown on the market, 
the home consumption would double within a 
year, and in a few years it would be tenfold 
what it is now. It is a great mistake to keep 
home consumers feeding on the inferior grades 
of cheese, and it is a greater mistake to man- 
ufacture oleomargarine, or in any way increase 
the amount of the inferior makes. The poor 
do not want them any more than the rich, and 
will buy other food before they will eat them 
at any price that will aftbrd remuneration to 
the manufaettuer. We are glad it is .so. The 
best is none too good for any one ; and it is 
aliout time that producers and manufacturers 
of all kinds got rid of the idea of palming off 
all their refuse stuff on the poor.— 2'. I). Cur- 
tis, in the ■A7iicricun Grocer. 



ARRIVAL OF BIRDS IN 1875. 

Tvrdnx migratorivs, Feb. 3; large floeke seen Feb. 
17 — Kobin. 

Cyanurns ci-istatus, Feb. 11 — Blue Jay. 

Sialia sialis, Feb. 17 — Blue Bird. 

Stnriitlta iiiiir/iin, JIaroli K) — Meadow Lark. 

,4(/»/i"'".V^"''''''"''S>Iar.I7—Pa-d-wiiii;vd Blackbird. 

QniaaUis rtcsico/i.c, Mar. IS— Crow Blackbird. 

Colaptcs anratns, Mar. IS — Flicker. 

Sayor7i.isfvscn!!, Mar. 1.5 — Pewee. 

TvrdnK rinnfldnivs, Mar. 17— Thrush. 

^'EyiaWisvoc-iferonx, Mar. 19— Kill-Deer. 

AiUrustoians vociferous, May 2 — Whip-po-Wil. 

Chaetm-a pelasgia, May 9 — Chimney Swallow. 

Hirnndo horreorum, May 11— Barn Swallow. 

Troglodytes redon, May 1 — House Wren. 

ChordHlea popciue, May 4 — Night Hawk. 

EctopixteR migraloria, seen in large flocks Mar 31. 
and April 1 — Pigeon. 

Qiiisadix vcrixcvlor, flocking August 1.5. 

irtj-TO, of Potato-Beetle, first found June 1.— T7. 
//. Spcra, Epitrata, Lancaster county, Pa. 

Mr. S. is an accurate and interesting obser- 
ver, and although the above was primarily in- 
tended for the archives of the Linnwan Soci- 
ety, yet, as that society takes The Farmer, 
we consider it more easily referred to by a place 
in its columns. We have also received an in- 
teresting paper from the same source, upon 
the periods of frondescence, florescence, fruit- 
escence, and leaf fall of the leafing and bloom- 
ing vegetation of the county, which we will 
find a place for hereafter. 



187G.] 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



21 



FACTS OF NATURAL HISTORY. No. 8. 



Baltimore Oriole.— (Icterus baltimore.) 
"HOMES WITHOUT HANDS." 

This l)ird, tlu' iicst of \vlii(-h will be recog- 
nizi'd ill our illii.stnitioii, is in simic localitiL's, 
pcrliups, bt^ttor known under the nanii's of 
"Golden Uobiii," "Llangiiif; liiid," or "IIjuii;- 
nest," than under the one above. Hy what- 
ever name it may be calleil, it doe.s not in the 
lea,st detract from its skill, nor diminish its 
lisefuliiess ; for, in the Ionic eataloi;ue of Ameri- 
can birds, it is (luestionable if a more active, 
industrious, and persevering "Inseetor" is to 
be found. 

" Where :\p|)U's, plums ami peaches bloom, 

Anil wliere they hlDoiii profusely, 

Brave Ictcnix will he tOuuil," 

and every time he captures an insect he will 
utter a short joyful chirp, which becomes so 
familiar to the ear that his presence is recog- 
nized and bis success indicated, even when be 
hini.self may bo invisible. Later in tlie season 
he manifests some partiality for ripe cherri(w, 
but under any circumstance he does not appro- 
priate any more than what would be accorded 
as legitimate fees, toll, or perquisites, to any 
other being, for his benevolent labors during 
the blooming season ; and yet, we have seen 
this bird mercilessly shot down whi-n he was 
extracting his " toll, " and every shot bringing 
down as many cherries as the bird would con- 
sume in a week ; in which there is neither 
economy nor charity. 

AVe have a nest of tliis bird now before us, 
which was found suspended from the branch 
of a willow-tree, a few days ago, in the south- 
western part of this city, and kindly donated 
to the Liniwan Socictij by Mr. A. N, Brene- 
inan, jr. It is very compactly woven out of 
pieces of twine, linen and cotton threads, in- 
tertwined with a few horseh.iirs and narrow 
strips of calico, all being of the color of un- 
bleached linen. It bears almost an exact like- 
ness — or rather, our picture is an exact like- 
ness of the nest liefore us — iiear-shaped, and 
from the narrowed upper point where it is at- 
tached to the small willow twigs, to the bot- 
tom, outside, it is seven inches in length ; the 
inside depth, from the bottom to where the 
bml's beak is seen, is four inclies ; and its 
outside circumference at the largest part is 
nearly twelve inches. ISuch a nest is not the 
work of a single day, or even a week, and it is 
a great marvel how a creature without hands 
could possibly put together a habitation so 
•strongly and symmetrically, out of such mate- 
rial; and we regret that the birds will be under 
the necessity of building a new one next spring. 
Mr. B. had often noticed this nest when pass- 
ing the willow-tree on which it was suspend- 
ed ; but when the leaves fell it became a tar- 
get for the naughty boys of the neighborhood, 
and one day he found it lying upon the ground. 

The bird which is the architect of this nest 
belongs to all of North America east of the 
high central yilains, and is seven inches and 
a-lialf long ; the wings three inches and three- 
quarters ; "the color is black, withtlie rump, 
upper tail-coverts, le.sser wing-coverts, the ter- 
minal portion of all but two tail feathers, and 
the breast and under parts, orange red ; the 
edges of the quills and a band across the tip.s 
of the greater coverts, white. The colors of 
the female are much duller, the black of the 
head and back being rei)laced by brownish 
yellow." We have a specimen in our posses- 
sion, stufled and momited by us forty-oui; years 
ago, and it retains to this day almost tlie fresh- 
ness and brilliancy of color it had when tirst 
prepared. It belongs to the great OitDHii of 
iNSEssoiiES or " Percliers," and is the typical 
genus of the family Icteuid.i;, or " Blackbird 
family." (Jeiu'rically allied to it an; the "Or- 
chard Oriole," (Irtcrii/! xiiHi-iiix) the "Hooded 
Oriole," (ick'rii.-i eucuhitita) of the lower Rio 
.Grande; "Audubon's Oriole," {Trtcrua nmht- 
honii) alsoof theUioGrande ; "Scott's Oriole," 
(Icteriix p(trUorum) of Texas; " Wagler's 
Oriole," (L-trrus W(ifileni) of Mexico, and 
"Bullock's Oriole," (Irtcriuf Jhdh,rh-!i) of ■Wes- 
tern Xorth^Vmerica. The "Troupial,"(ic(cri(S 



VHhj(trw<) belongs to South America an<l the 
West Indies, and .sometimes, by a;rare acci- 
dent, comes within the territory of the United 
•States a large s|)ecies. 

The<)rioles lay from four to sixjeggs, ufa 
bluish-while color, sprinkled with dilfercnt 
shades of dark lirown, and in our latitude they 
are one-broodeil. From the activity and per- 
severing industry of these birds in the early 
part of t,lie season — especially our local species 
— tliey cannot but exert a benelicial inlhience 
upon vegetation, and more particularly on our 
fruit crops. Nor are they a shy bird where 
they are immole.sted. W(! have had them visit 
our plum, peacli and cherry trees not more 
than ten or lifteen feel from our kitchen door, 
and remain on them for an hour at a time, 
coming an<l going during the whole of the 
sl)ring or summer day. Our species are birds 
of passage, arriving in Pennsylvania from the 
South about the begimiing of May, and de- 
jiarting again about the end of August. It 
jirefers willow, apple, walnut and tulip trees, 
in [iroximity to farm houses, for its nesting 
places. The "Baltimore Oriole" takes its 
specilic name from Lord'Baltimon'; its colors, 
whidi are black and orange red, being] the 
colors of tlie livery of that nobleman, formerly 
the |)roprietary of Maryland. The males do 
not ac(piire their plumage in i)erl'ccliiin inilil 



a careles.s ploughboy ^whistling for his own 

anmsemi^nt." 

" Iliirli on yon jwiplnr, ehul In fflosey Bhppii, 
Ttii' iiraiiife lilnek-<iip|>c<l Ballliriore l« seen ; 
The l)m:ii| exU'mli-iI l)OU'_'h»sllll pleune him liest : 
Ueneulh Iheir ln'nillni; skirtH lie hiin^a hl« ni'Ot.'' 




they are two or three years old — the first sea- 
son they differ very little from the females, 
and hence sometimes they become confuseil. 
Although nearly all the species construct pen- 
sile nests, yet none of them exhibit the me- 
chanical skill of the Baltimore specie.s. 

Their principal food consists of caterpillars, 
beetles, bugs and worm.s, especially beetles. 

What the Baltimoie Oriole employed to 
build its nest before civilization was introduc- 
ed into tliis country is not very api)arent — 
perhaps lil)rous roots and mos.ses — but now it 
prefers twine, thn^ads and shreds of woven 
fabric. They are very naughty, and some- 
times skeins of silk or cotton carelessly expos- 
ed, linen or cotton yarn left out to bleach or 
dry, or strings of almost any kind are carried 
away, and they are. oltcn noticed iiersevering- 
ly tugging away at strings IIimI around objects, 
tlie ends of which are hanging loose. 

The .song of this binl is a pe<'uliarly clear 
mellow whistle, repeated at short intervals, 
as hi^ is busily engaged gleaning among tlie 
Ijjanches, and we never hear it without its re- 
calling 

" Tlio Ii!,'ht of other days." 

According to a distingui.shed author, "a cer- 
tain wild ])laintiveness and tutiirlc is in it, 
that is extremely interesting ; something Uke 



MENTALCULTURE AMONG FARMERS. 

It is obvious to every observing mind that 
a new era is dawning upon farming life— an 
era of intellectual (culture and improvement. 
Heretofore, soil culture, lias engrossed most of 
the attention of the. farmer. So that paying 
crops were raised, he cared for but little else. 
He was willing to doa.s others suggested about 
electing men to ri'preseMit him in the Slate 
Legisliitme, or in Congress, or el.sewliere. Ho 
lliought everybody wimld do what w;i.s right, 
make such laws as were just anil proper. 
He did not trouble himself nuKtIi about what 
was done, simply folliiwing where others led. 
I le did not st udy the (piesli<ins that came up for 
consideration, or llu' laws tliat were piuss«'(l. So 
hegotulongeven tolerably well, he was satisfied. 

Finally, however, he" learned he w;i.s not 
getting along well at all. He found liimsi'lf 
going backward instead of forward. Taxes so 
high he could not pay them. Stock and pro- 
duce so low that it did not pay to raise them. 
Jiands tumbling down in price, and no one to 
buy at even half of their former value. Money 
going out of the pockets of the many into the 
hands of the few. Millionaires hicre;i.sing 
with alarming rapidity, and absorbing all the 
gains of the i>eopIe. (Jiant monopolies, ana- 
conda-like, (aushing out the lite of the people. 
The vast imblic domain f^iven away to s(!hem- 
ers and iilundercrs. Fraud, corruption, defal- 
cation and public plunder taking the place of 
virtue, hoiK'Sty and integrity in i)ublic afi^airs, 
and a general sapping and undermining of 
our republican institutions. 

Such conduct is likely to l)ring the i>eople to 
rellection. They are the rulers, though they 
have not been. Tlie servants wlioin the people 
have elected to take care of their interests 
have usurped all power, and made laws to 
suit themselves. They have Ix'come greater 
than their masters. Through the clirpies tliey 
control, they nominate and elect whomsoever 
tlu^y please. Farmers have kept in the back- 
ground, and have seen what wa.s going on, and 
have felt powerless to resist. Others, who 
have been active and glib of tongue, have had 
everything their own way. 

But, presto ! change. Farmers, six millions 
.strong, have said such work must stop. But 
something more than saying nuist be done. 
Tliere is work to do — hard work, earnest, pro- 
tracted work. The confiict must Ix' )>repared 
for, for farmers have adroit, wily, persistent 
foes to meet, who will never give up tlie ship 
or surrender the sjioils, if they can help it. 
Something more than nmnerical strength is 
required. Mental strength, broad culture, 
ability to meet their antagonists on thestuin|), 
in the convention, or caucus, or legislative 
hall, is re(iuired, or a general rout all along 
the line will eiisiie. Thisability cannot be ob- 
tained by sighing for it, any more than good 
crops can be obtained by wishing for them, 
(.'ulturc is required in both cjuses, and the more 
generous the culture, the gicater the reward. 

We believe farmers a)ipreciafe this, and are 
pre|iaring to a,s.sert and maintain their just 
rights. They are improving their h'isure h ours 
ill reading. They sul)scrilK* for the best papera, 
meet in the grange and elsewhere, and talk 
over tlie.sc matters, take a livelier interest in 
imblic schools and pul)lic all'airs generally, and 
are in reality inaugurating a new era. It 
lakes a long tinu' to prepari' for a revolution. 
It took our forefathers a long time to airhieve 
tlieir independence, and it may take tlie far- 
mei's a long timi', to break the sha<-kles with 
wliicli wily politicians and schemers have bound 
them. But let us pray for their success and 
deliverance. But each man must remenilMjr 
that he is an integral part of that great num- 
ber to be reached, and that just as much de- 
volves upon him as upon anylKidy else, and that 
he can't shirk the resihinsibility, let him try 
ever so hard. — Cobmin^s llural Wvrld. 



22 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[February, 



SPIDERS. 

S. S. E ATHVON— 7>tar Friend : In reading an arti- 
cle of thine entitled "Peculiarities of Spiders," in 
tlie laEt number of The Farmer, my attention was 
attracted hy the following expression : " Spiders, 
properly speaking, are not insects, nor are they class- 
ed withthem, but form a distinct class of their own, 
between the insects and the crustaceans." 

Now, according to A. S. Packard, R. Leuckart, in 
1848, proposed the idea that the Myriopods, Spiders, 
and six-footed insects formed orders, and not classes; 
and was afterwards supported by Agassiz and Dana. 
Also, in his (iuide to the Study of Insects, in speak- 
ing of the Arachnida, Packard says: "The order 
shows its close relationship with the Dipterous in- 
sects, especially when compared with the wingless 
Chionea and Nycteribia, and its lowest forms (certain 
mites) bear a close resemblance to some of the lower 
Crustacea, as the young stages and embryonic devel- 
opment are remarkably similar. The typical forms 
of the order homologize too closely with the apterous 
insects to allow them to be separated as a distinct 
class. 

" In some genera there is a decided line of demar- 
cation betwc'cn the head and the thorax, which is, 
however, very distinct during embryonic life, and we 
do not perceive that gradual transition from mouth- 
parts to swimming legs which obtains in the Crusta- 
cea. The order, however, lias much lower, more 
degraded forms than the Myripods even, as the genus 
Demodex testifies, which may recall readily certain 
intestinal worms. This we would consider as but an 
example of what often occurs among all degraded 
forms, of a recurrence to the archetypal form of the 
articulate type, and not for this reason, as some au- 
thors have done, would we place the Arachnids of 
Latreille in a class by themselves, below the Myiio- 
pods ; nor on recurring to the spiders alone, with 
their high organization and wonderful instincts, 
would we follow Professor Owen and others in plac- 
ing thrm even above the true insects. 

" We must look upon the spider as a hexapodous 
insectidcgraded, wingless, and pa rtiallydecephalized. 
A part of the elements, constituting the head in in- 
sects, have been, as it were, withheld from the head 
and detained in the thorax, which has thus an in- 
crease in one pair of limbs. On the other hand, the 
sensorial, or pre-oral regiojj of the head, is wanting 
in two most important members, i. e., the compound 
eyes and the antenna?. Both Zaddaeh and Claparide 
state that there are no organs in the spiders homolo- 
gous with the antennse of insects. The simple fact 
that the homology of the organs generally is so close 
between the two groups shows that they must fall 
into the same class." 

I herewith send his classilication of the insects ; 
also those of Asassiz and Dana. Here are certainly 
conflicting opinions. The inquiry comes to the mind 
of the reader, which one is right? Now, the only 
way to come to a just conclusion is to investigate 
their comparative anatomical characters and devel- 
opment ; but as I cannot do that, I must seek for 
light from some other source. I therefore would 
like to hear from thee more fully on this subject 
through the columns of TuE Farmer. Thine truly. 
Waller A'. Wuij, Lyle, Lan. eo., J'a., 12 mo. 25,1875. 

The Articulates are divided into three classes, 
namely : Worms, Crustaceans and Insects. 

The Insects into three Orders, as follows : 



Agassiz— 1849. 


Packard— 186.3. 


Dana— 1864. 


Hexapoda. 


Hexapoda. 


Hexapoda. 


Sub-orders, 1—7. 


Sub-orders, 1—7. 


l.-Ctenopters. 


Lepidoptera, 


Hymenoptera, 


Hymenoptera, 


Diptera, 


Lepidoptera, 


Diptera, 


Hemiptera, 


Diptera, 


.\phaniptera. 


Hymenoptera, 


Coleoptera, 


Lepidoptera, 


Orthoptera, 


Hcmijitera, 


Hqmoptera, 


Coleoptera, 


Orthoptera, 


Trichoptera, 


Neuroptera. 


Neuroptera. 


Neuroptera. 

2.-Elytropters. 

Coleoptera, 

Hemiptera, 

Orthoptera. 






3.-Thysanures. 


Arachnida. 


Arachnida. 


Arachnida. 


Sub-orders, 1 — 2. 


Sub-orders, 1 — 3. 


Sub-orders, 1—3. 


Aranea;, 


Araneina, 


Araneoids, 


Acari. 


Pedipalpi, 


Scorpionoids, 




Acariua. 


Acaroids. 



Myriopoda. 



Myriopoda. 



Myriopoda. 



Asa specialist, we have been in the habit of 
ruling the si)iders out of the Class In.secjta 
for thirty years or nioi-e ; simply because we 
were early so in.structed, and liad no entomo- 
logical works that recognized them as insects. 
We are not ignorant of tlie positions these 
animals occupy in the classifications of Agassiz, 
Packard and "Dana, nor of the forty or fifty 
otlier systems of classification which have come 
under our observation, or we have heard of 
during the period above named ; but as the 
questions involved in classification were not 



then settled (and are not yet settled) and our 
time to devote to these studies was very limit- 
ed, we long since concluded to let classifiers 
figlit it out on their own line, whilst we would 
endeavor to find out sometliing more about 
these subjects of the animal kingdom than 
their mere names, and the niches they occupy 
in the great temple of classification. AVe deem 
it of more practical importance to know some- 
thing about the history and habits of animals, 
their peculiar characters, how and upon what 
they live, their transfonnations, and the peri- 
ods and places of their "coming and going." 
At the same time we fully recognize system- 
atic aiTangement, and acknowledge ourselves 
under obligations to those whose ingenious la- 
borshave been devoted to the arduous and com- 
plicated work of classification ; but in this, as 
in all other departments of human knowledge, 
we must be left in freedom to make our choice, 
so far as we understand the various .systems 
proposed, their rationality, and the principles 
upon which they are founded. The true sys- 
tem of classification is perhaps involved in 
Emlri/oli gy, but even that is not yet entirely 
satisfactory. 

Those who run down the embrj'ological 
scale to the protoplastic beginnings of organic 
life, will, of course, develop different systems 
of classifying the sulijects they investigate, 
from those wlio only study external and fully 
developed forms. Embryology is an interest- 
ing and useful study, but no single lifetime 
can fathom it. Agassiz fairly wore himself 
out at it, and had not by any means reached 
the end. Much of it is yet involved in theories 
and speculations, therefore we can only wait 
patiently, and investigate and explore the 
material most conveniently at hand. There 
is not a single class, order, section, family, 
genus or species among the articulates, that 
has not niunerous exceptions to the characters 
by which they are proposed to be distinguislicd. 
On these questions the learned in nature's 
realm by no means agree. Whether any 
group or division of the animal kingdom ought 
to be regarded as a class or an m-der is a matter 
we are willing to leave to systematists, and if 
the points at issue are decided in our lifetime, 
we may then adopt them.* 

True, there is a sense in which spiders may 
be called insects without regard to scientific 
classification — just as lice, cockroaches and 
mice are called vermin, or as certain species of 
polyjis or zoophites are called coral insects. 
The greatest difficulty, perhaps, in ruling 
spiders out of the class of insects, is to find a 
popular name by which to designate them. 
The term Aeaciinida is not popular, and per- 
haps will never become so, but if the term 
insect is to include all the articulata in the 
above classification, itwould perhaps be equally 
difficult and unpopular when we extended it to 
the myriopoda. especially the larger centipedes 
which the common people in some localities 
call vermin or reptiles. 

Although time may develop that spiders be- 
long to the .same class as insects, yet for all 
practical purposes we prefer to let them remain 
in a class of their own, whether it is properly 
aliove or below insects. It is very certain that 
works on Entomology, generally, do not recog- 
nize spiders as belonging to the same class as 
insects; nor do specialists, generally, regard 
them as such. Whether right or WTong, we 
have been so long accustomed to the Quinarian 
system of MacLeay, adopted and followed 
by Westwood in his very elaborate system of 
classification, that we now hesitate to make 
any change of our views, until doctors more 
nearly agree ; and that, probably, will not be 
while we are on "this side of Jordan." The 
question involved seems to be, whether spiders 
sliould constitute a di.stinct class, or only an 
ORDER in the class Insecta. If our prefer- 
ence has been for the first, it is because we 
had the sujiport of the most eminent aulliori- 
ties on the subject — authorities that occupied 

'CnviER sayB, in bo many words, that claBses, orde. b, 
familit 8 and genera are abBtractioue, but that it ie not so 
with SI eoifs. (/.rtters to J/a[f.) 

Geo. Henry Lewis says: "The thin<j species does not 
exist ; the tei m express au ahKtravtion, like virtue or white- 
nesB. Nature createB only individuals." 



distinguished positions long before the names 
of Agassiz, Packard and Dana were known 
to science. Their systems are, however, not 
entirely new, especially as to their Tkinal 
order of classification. Kirby and Spence in- 
troduced a system in which three annulose 
classes are formed, namely, Crustacea, Arach- 
nida and Insects ; and, although they differed 
from that of all preceding and sulisequent sys- 
tematists, they still recognize the spiders as a 
distinct class, and insects as equally distinct. 
Linna'us, in his great Division of Insects, 
included all articulated animals possessing 
articulated feet, but his chief disciple, Fabri- 
cius, separated them into several classes. 

Neither have systematists agreed as to what 
constitutes an order, or in the names and 
numbers of the sub-orders and families, nor 
yet the genera included in these. The Linnrean 
order, Coleoptera, included also the crickets, 
cockroaches, 'grasshoppers, locusts, earwigs, 
camel-crickets, &c., &c., but these were sub- 
sequently eliminated and erected into the 
separate orders of Orthoptera and Euplexoptera. 
Although neither Agassiz, Packard nor Dana 
agree in the number of their sul>orders, nor 
in the precedence that one takes of another, 
still their systems may be the "beginning of 
the end," in classification; in the meantime, 
for all practical purposes, .so far as relates to 
the habits of insects and their economic rela- 
tions to the products of ht:maii labor, it is of 
very little consequence whetlier we distinguish 
them by classes or orders. If we have not 
time or ability to investigate the various sj's- 
tems proposed (for they are all merc\y proposed 
and none of them yet a finality,) we will have 
to adopt the system of some one who has made 
classification a life-long specialty, and, in any 
event, we will always be finding some one that 
will differ with us. Under these circumstances 
we must let our correspondent make liis own 
choice, whilst we retain ours. 



For The LAncabteb Fabmeb. 
HUMMING BIRDS. 
{family TrochUida.) 

The faimer has many friends among the 
feathered tribes whose efficient and gratuitous 
seiviccs he is always ready to acknowledge. 
The few marauders who levy slight contribu- 
tions upon his choice fruits during a bri^i 
period, make him ample amends during t\v 
rest of the season. But for the Finches, Spar® 
rows, and their numerous congeners, experi" 
ence has taught him his daily toil would meet" 
with but poor requital. Freni hour to hour, 
and fiem year to jear, without stint or stay, 
the wcnderiul multiplicatit n of noxious in- 
sects goes on. The artificial means for their 
destiuction, that, are available to him, are few 
in numl er and limiti d in their application. 
The lord of ere ation here encounters an enemy, 
whom, alone, he is unable to overcome, anci 
he thankfully accepts the assistance of these 
humble allies, who, night and day, do stout 
battle in his behalf 

To the smallest and swiftest of all the birds 
that cleave their way through the air, the just 
meed of praise has not been awarded; this is 
not so much from his unwillingness to do so, 
but simply because his attention has seldom or 
never been directed to the good work they do 
for him all the summer through. The farmer 
and florist owe a debt of giatitude to the gaily 
attired Humming birds, which they have sel- 
dom acknowledged, and it is our present aim 
to set before them as clearly as we can, a his- 
tory of these beautiful creatures, and urge their 
well earned claims to consideration. 

The Humming birds belong to the Linniean 
genus Trochilus, family Trochilida', order 
Incscs.sores, tribe Tenuirostrcs. Having thus 
liriefly stated their place in the great class of 
aves, w^e will, in the future, eschew technicali- 
ties as much as possible, and tell what we have 
to say about them in language which every 
reader can understand. Their name has been 
given to them because of the peculiar sound 
produced by the rapid vibration of their wings 
as tliey dart through the air, or are poised, 
seemingly motionless, before some favorite 



187f).] 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



23 



flower, witli tlu'ir loiis, sleiulcr bills tlinist, into 
its bosom, ('xtractiiif; tlm ucctiir and iniiiiiti' 
insects to be. I'ouncl tlu-ri'. Tlio nanii' is apt 
ami wvW (U'scrvrd, dilTcrin^' in tliis particnlar 
from mncli of the t'ar-t'ctolK'd nomi'iiclatin'e ol' 
our modern ornitlioloi;ists. The family is, in 
many respi^ets, nni(iue, is easily reeo);ni/.able, 
and cannot, even by an amatenr natnralist, be 
liiistalven or eonfonnded with any other; it is 
sharply distinjjnished from all others no less in 
general appoarauce than by its technical pecii- 
liaritii's. 

No otlier s;rou]i of birds ajiproaclies the Tro- 
cliilida! nnmerieally in (loinl of species, lint 
few were known to Limuens; onrown Wilson 
was aciiuainted with but a single North Amer- 
ican species; Audnlion knew scleral more; 
]5aird, in 1S5S, enumerated seven, while Cones, 
in his "Key," (b'^T'J), describes eleven. New 
species are discovered yearly. Here, in Penn- 
sylvania, we liave but one variety, tlie l{\iby 
Throat (T. Coluhri.f). Alxiut three linndred 
and twenty-live well reeofjjiizcd ones are now 
known. In the mafjiiilieent collection of Mr. 
(ionld, whose splendid moiio^rai>li on this 
numerous and brilliant family is much the 
completest ever published, more than threes 
hundred species are reprcsenteil. Xo other 
cabini't in the world, either pul>lic or private, 
approaches it in completeness. Wlu^n westate 
that the total ntnuber of the birds of Km-oiie, 
of every order and uronji, is only live hundred 
and three, of which about one hundred are 
also eonmion to this country, some idea of the 
diversity of the Ilummin;^ bird family may be 
formed, and it is not improbable that future 
discoveries may prove this diminutive {jroup 
equal in number to the combined bird fauna 
of Europe. 

There is an unusually wide variation in the 
size of the several .si)ecies. This, however, was 
to be expected from their number. The lart;- 
est of the family, (T. Oiyus,] is nearly eiglit 
inches loug, while the smallest, (T. Minimus,) 
measures only an inch and a (juarter and 
weighs twenty grains, and when dciijiided of 
its feathers is less in size tlian some of oiu' 
luunlile l)ees. Various others are two anil 
two and a half inches in extent, while the 
general average is from three to five inches. 
The feet are very small, and the tarsi short, 
so they offer but little impediment to the bird, 
which si)ends so great a portion of its exist- 
ence on the wing; the claws are long and ex- 
ceedingly sharp, and are used l.)y sonic species 
to suspend themselves daring sleep, after the 
manner of various parrots. In the size and 
conformation of their bills, Ilunnning birds 
l)reseut most surprising variations. In general, 
they are long, slender, and of eipial thickness 
throughout; some are comparatively short, 
others long and straight; .some have a down- 
ward curve, and some arc recurved like the 
bill of the avoset, being the only' examples 
known among land birds with such a shaped 
bill. These numerous modilications seem spe- 
cially adapted to i>robe and search tlowers of 
every shaiie, and what renders this inference a 
positive certainty is, that certain groups alfect 
those kinds of tlowers with tubuLir entrances 
most in conformity with the shape of their 
bills. In .some cases the bill is so enormously 
developed as to exceed in length the entire 
body of the bird. 

The tongue of the Humming bird, like that 
of Woodpeckers, and other insectiverous 
birds, is retractile, an<l capable of being pro- 
tuded a considerable distance beyond tlie l)ill. 
It is composed of two muscular tubes united 
the greater part of their length, and termina- 
ting in two sharp i)oints, wliicli are slightly 
widened near the tips and lind)riated ; the 
tubes are of very singular structure; each con- 
sists of a lamina rolled together, but not so 
closely as to bring the edges into contact; a 
slit runs along the outer side to some distani'c 
beyond the junction of the tubes; a pin in- 
serted into this (issure is easily moved along 
its length. This tubular bilid tongue is sup- 
posed to act like a pump, and honey is drawn 
from tlowers through it by sonu; kind of suc- 
tion. The tongue tips are covere<l with a 
glutinous secretion, and admirably ailaptcd to 



abstract minute insects from the flowers they 
frecpient, and through their retnictability, the 
living prey is at once tran.sferred to the a'jso- 
phagns. 

All birds, whether large or small, subserve 
.some wise purpose in the economy of natme. 
To what a great extent is the human family 
indebted to them for food V Ihit while many 
do not directly contribute to human sustenance, 
they yet aid inm in keeping within wi.sely or- 
dained limits the exci^ssin animal and vegeta- 
ble life. The services of the Ilununers in this 
work are not so much noticed in our northern 
clime, wlittre they are comparativi'ly few, as 
in those tropical regions where insect life is .so 
abnu<lanl. and where these winged jewels of 
the air cnulribute so largely in keeping the 
almost microscopic, as wi'll as larger ins(!cts 
honles within reasonablt! bounds. 

There has, from time; to time, been nnicli 
discussion among naturalists as to the food of 
these birds. From tht^ir constantly observeil 
habit of hovering about tlowers and probing 
their inmost recesses with their slendi'r bills, 
it was once believed hoiuiy was their only food; 
but when later ouithologists proved by dissec- 
tion that their stomachs were IIIUmI with count- 
less minute insects, then the nectar tlieory was 
well nigh abandoned, and theoppositeextreme 
reached. Later and more can'ful investig.a- 
tious have proved both theories to be incor- 
rect; the truth lies midway between the two. 
While the honey that' is contained in most 
tlowers. and espeeiall^yin those most frc(jueuted 
by llununiug birds, is an important object in 
their search, the myriadsof insects, sometimes 
so small as to escape the eye, are equally so; 
insects, too, are partial to sweets, and are, in 
conse(pience, drawn to flowers where tliey 
may be obtained; here our diminutive friends 
seek them, and in satisfying their own wants, 
relieve tlu^ plants from the noxious hordes that 
infest them. 

The forests of the AVest India islands and 
tropical South America, are covered with an 
endless variety of (larasitic and other plants 
that are the chosen homes of uncoinited mnn- 
bers of the insect world ; IreO-ferns, the wild 
plantain, begonias, bromelias, uumlierle.ss or- 
chidiea and many other i)hanerogamous forms 
of vegetalile life are to be seen in endless pro- 
fusion ; amid the nectared calyx of their bell 
and trunq)ed shaped tlowers, swanns of the 
more minute l)ii)tera and Lepido|)tera sip 
honey and find a grateful shade, and these 
afford the Humming birds their most delicious 
repast. It has been aptly said the home of 
these birds is also the home of the insects. 
But they do not always take insects in that 
way; every careful observer must often have 
had his attention drawn toourowMi splendidly 
adorned visitor on warm sunnner mornings, as 
he darted like a sunbeam atabuni-h of minute 
flies in mid air, and, while seemiui;ly motion- 
less, regaled himself t<i his heart's content, 
and then took his departure as hurriedly as he 
came. 

Darwin, in his "Voyage of a Naturalist," 
(and, by tlie way, much the best book he ever 
wrote) speaks of meeting a well-known species 
on Chiloc island ; he Siiys "at the time of the 
year I refer to, there were few flowers, hence 
I was quite sure they did not live on honey; 
and on opeiiing the stomach and upper intes- 
tine, I could, with the aid of a lens, plainly 
distinguish In a yellow fluid, morsels of the 
wings of the diptera. It is evi<lent thesi^ birds 
search for minute insects in their winter 
quarters under the thick foliage. I opened 
the stomachs of several specimens which were 
shot in dilTerent parts of the contini'iit, and in 
all, remains of insects were so numerous as 
often to present a black comminuted mass as 
in the stomacli of a creeiier." An eminent 
Engli.sh ornithologist has .said that a Ilnmining 
bird will eat its own weight of insects daily. 

We have as yet said nothing conci'rningone 
of the most distinguishing features of this re- 
markalile family of birds— the gorgeously col- 
ored jilumage with which they are clothed. 
All the other feathered trilies niu.st i)ale their 
ineffectual fires in the presence of these re- 
splendent serial gems. The gaudy plumage of 



the lories and macaws yiehls to the brilliant 
slu'i'U ofthe.se veritable things of beauty. A» 
they are the smallest, so are they also the miKSt 
beautiful of all the feathered denizens of the 
earth. The colors of the emerald, the ruby, 
the .sapphire, the topaz and the amethyst are 
all reflected from the variegated splendor of 
their dre.s.s. The changeableue.ss in the hues 
of the hnnnning binls is very remarkable ; this 
is suppo.sed to be "due to the |H'Culiur organi- 
zation of the feathei-s and the manner in which 
the luminous raysare reflected on falling upon 
thi^m; each feather when minutely inspected, 
shows myriads of facets .so disposed as to pre- 
sent many angles to the ineiclence of light, 
which will be divi'i"sely reflected according to 
the position of the leather; thus emerald may 
change to a velvety black, crimson to blue, a 
vivid fire color to a rich green, and so on 
through innumerable ever-clmngiug shades and 
colors." 

It has been mooted whether Ihe-se bright 
colors are permanent or peculiar to the season 
of coiulshi|i only. Cabinets containing hun- 
dreds of specimen.s, and nearly all of rich and 
vivid hues, ))rove the former, although we 
may reiusonably conclu<le the colors are inten- 
sifieil during the nuptial seiuson. Such is the 
case with many other birds whose wondrous 
changes in dri'ss before and after thi' amatory 
period are well known. Where, however, a 
grou)) of birds breed through the entire year, 
as Hummingbirds do in (iniana and Brazil, 
we may always expect to find them in their 
resiilenilent iiarb, and individuals are rarely 
met in what miglit be considered an undress 
suit. 

During the period of nidification, temporary 
adormnents in the shape of crests, tnftu, ruBH 
and gorgets are ln'Stowed on many species of 
these already gaudy birds; language fails 
utterly to describe the almost ideal beauty of 
tlie.se nuptial decorations; nothing in the en- 
tire range of animated nature can vie with 
them in brilliancy. Nor does a cabinet collec- 
tion of sjieciniens convey an adeiiuate idea of 
their i)risniatic radiance while alive; when 
dead they lose nuich of the metallic lustre 
that belongs to the living birds. And what, 
it may lie asked, is the design and purin)se of 
all this tenqiorary splendor? Science stands 
nnite and humble when confronted with this 
([uestion. Doubtless it is conferred for .some 
wise purpose, but of its true intent we aro 
hopelessly ignorant, just ius we are of many 
other peculiarities found among the feathered 
creation. 

The wings are so much curved in their ex- 
terior outline as to be almost s;ihre or sickle- 
.shaped in .some varieties, and generally exceed 
the tail in Uaigth. The outer primary <piill is 
invariably the longest ; the shafts are remark- 
ably strong and elastic, and freciueiitly show 
an extraordinary delvelopment at their base. 
The lamina- of the quills are narrow, but .so 
compact that when in use they present a sur- 
face to the air so clo.se and rigid as to produce 
the humming sound by which they are ktiown, 
and affording in this particular a striking con- 
trast to nocturnal birds, such iis owls, the 
webs of who.se feathers are so soft and loo.se us 
to create no distinuui.shable sound as they 
swoop upon their unspeeting prey. 

As might be suppose<l from their dexterity 
on the wing and great ikiwci-s of flight, the 
tails a.s well as the wings are well develoiied 
and powerful ; lln'V show a wonderful diver- 
sity in shajie, size and otlun- iiarticidai-s ; in 
many species thy are considerably longer than 
the body and highlv ornaiueulcd ; in another 
it is composed of only six feathers, a reinarkii- 
ble anomaly in the history of the bird family, 
no other being known with so small a numlier 
nor is this an accidi-ntal variation — it is found 
to be constant, (iencrally s|M'akini,', the male 
.and female differ widely in their plumage and 
are sometimes mistaken f(U- different s|H'<;ie8 ; 
in other cases the sexes are clothed so nearly 
alike, that dissc'ction alone can determine the 
difference between them. 

The nest.sof Humming birds are lieautiful 
exam|ilesof bird architecture; they varyalmost 
as widely iuj the plumage of the birds them- 



24 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[February, 



selves ; in size they are both large and small, 
being adapted to the rcfiuirements of the par- 
ticular species; the materials that enter into 
their composition arc nearly the same through 
the entire family ; these are generally cotton, 
thistle-down, spiders' webs, hair, root tendrils, 
moss and lichens. The nest of the Euby 
Throated humming bird, which is the species 
common in our gardens, may be considered 
as representative of the entire group ; we have 
always found it attached to the upper side of 
a horizontal limb or twig, although Wilson 
states having foimd it on a moss-covered 
stump or some strong stalk or weed; the nest 
is about an inch high and slightly less in 
diameter, the upper margin being slightly over- 
hanging ; some species build dome-shaped 
nests, others conical ones, while some again 
are cup-shaped and of extremely elaborate con- 
struction, although this latter feature is not 
common to them all. In most cases the ne.sts 
resemble in color the limbs to which they 
are attached so much as to l)e taken for a knot 
or excrescence of the same. The nests are 
never more than twelveor-fifteen feet from the 
ground, and olten much less. 

In these beautifully elaborate nests, two 
piu'e white eggs of nearly oval form, are de- 
posited ; these are rather large in proportion 
to the size of the bird ; those of our own spe- 
cies measure five-eighths of an inch in length 
and three-eighths in breadth. The eggs are not 
laid at regular intervals, sometimes six or 
eight days elapse between the laying of the 
first and second egg ; the chick in the one is 
often far advanced before the other is laid, and 
this fact has given rise to the belief that some 
varieties lay but a single egg, their nest having 
been found with only one egg, and that one 
in a partially brooded condition. — Frank B. 
Diffenddffcr, Lunccister, Pa. 

[CONCLUSIOK IN NEXT NUMBEB.] 



For The Lancaster Farmer. 

LANCASTER COUNTY AS A GRAND 
APPLE ORCHARD. 

I lived in Duchess county, New York State, 
and it was, and still is called the "Garden 
county of the State." It is richly decorated 
with wealthy niral estates— highly embellished. 
The farmers mostly own their farms, and are 
descendants of Holland and Germany. Their 
farming is skillful and successful ; it is clean ; 
no wild bushes arc seen along the fences. 
They grow great quantities of tree fruits ; es- 
pecially apples. The Esopus Spitzenburg is 
grown most plentifully. It is [iroduced in 
gi-eat perfection and commands a high price in 
New York city. Kieh and poor have their 
barrels of cider for winter use. Farmers own- 
ing their lands are wealthy and happy, through 
their industry. 

I lived in Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, 
which is also well named the " Garden county 
of the State." The farmers are skillful and 
industrious; their fanning is clean, no waste 
strips at the fences. The culture of tobacco 
instead of tree fruits, is an evil ; it takes all off 
the lands without giving any return ; that will 
ruin the lands. It is an immediate gain, but 
a severe less in the end. The a])ple "Cart- 
house " was the favorite while I lived there. 
I have traveled much over six States, and 
nowhere could I find a better soil, climate and 
lay of lands than Lancaster county for the cul- 
ture of tree fruits. Yet they are not so much 
grown as they should be. They would enhance 
the value of farms it sold, or if divided among 
offspring after the death of the parents. Oh ! 
Lancaster county, make thyself the apple 
orchard of the nation.— 0/(? Cultivator, Pliila- 
delxjhia, Feb. 2, 1870. 



The Grangers : We print in this issue the 
annual address of Mr. Jas. G. McSparran, 
Master of Fulton Grange of the Patrons of 
Husbandry, which contains much that will in- 
terest, not only Grangers, but the general 
reader. Mr. McSparran is one of the most 
active and intelligent members of the order in 
this county, and thoroughly understands the 
aims and policy of the organization. 



For The Lancaster Farmer, 
A FEW NOTES AND REMARKSON NEW 
FRUITS AND VEGETABLES. 

'' To the Editor of The Lancaster Farmer: Of 
the many varieties of apples, it would be 
superfiuous even to give the names of all that 
have recently made their advent among ponio- 
logists. Still, a few worthy of notice may be 
named. The "All Summer," of Casper Ilil- 
ler, is really a most valuable apple for the des- 
sert — as a mild and pleasant eating apple dur- 
ing its seascm. The " Mcllinger " is highly 
spoken of by Charles Downing, and as both 
these are Lancaster comity seedlings, they de- 
serve to be more extensively planted. The 
"Pearl " of Chester county, and the "Creek," 
of York county, are both worthy of being bet- 
ter known. 

Of pears, the "Souvenir de Congress," 
though a foreign fruit, is highly reconnnended 
by those who have it in bearing. "Pratt's 
No. 22," Hon. M.P. Wilder tells us, isworthy 
of being placed at the head of the list. Then 
the " Ilosen Shenk " and "Neff" pears are 
not excelled by any from foreign parts; and 
being " to the Manor born," should be more 
extensively planted, instead of untried foreign 
varieties. 

Plums are so imcertain, owing chiefly to the 
depredations of the curculio, that it is dis- 
couraging to plant trees of the prunes and 
gages, so that we should turn our attention 
more to native varieties, such as the "Wild 
Goose " and " Miner " plums. These, though 
not equal to the finer kinds, are yet very valu- 
able, as both are certainly of very good 
quality, either for market or home use. Evi 
dently the curculio does not cause these to 
drop the fruit, probably owing to a difli- 
culty of puncturing the tough and smooth 
skin. As these varieties generally bear good 
crops of very beautiful yellow plums, with red 
cheeks, they are both valuable. For several 
years agents have been selling some other 
variety of plum trees for Wild Goose, thus 
creating an impression that Wild Goose are as 
liable to the attacks of the little "turk" as 
any others, which is not true, in fact. 

Of peaches we are getting so many new — 
very early and very late ones — that the peach 
season will be extended to over four months. 
Amsden June, Early Alexander, several of 
River's of England, and a new one of H. M. 
Engle's, all said to be earlier than Hale's 
Early. Then comes Salway and S. Miller's 
Steatly, prolonging the peach season into 
November. 

Of cherries, the "Liets" is highly spoken 
of; the "Black Republican," of Oregon; 
River's "Early Amber," and the " Weeping 
Bigarreau," from Canada, are all well worthy 
of a trial. 

Grapes are also "too numerous to mention." 
The many crosses between native and foreign, 
of Rogers', Underbill's, Dr. Wylie's and 
others, are certainly a gi^eat improvement in 
quality over our former native varieties, and, 
in most localities, are as hardy and healthy as 
any. Unfortunately, there is a prejudice with 
some persons, that foreign varieties crossed on 
our natives causes the seedlings to be more 
tender, as also more liable to disease. I have 
not found them so, as most of those I have 
tesetd (over thirty varieties) are as hardy and 
healthy, indeed, moreso, than our old Catawba 
and Isabella. There are now several persons 
that we know of who are experimenting in 
the crosshig, or hybridizing natives on natives; 
and from what has already been accomplished 
in this direction, if all said is true, we may 
soon have gra])es sujierior to any " we ever 
dreamed of." A Mr. Folsom, of Attica, New 
York, raised a seedling from Isaliella, named 
it "Eureka," meaning I have found it. From 
this he again raised a number of seedlings, 
some of them very early, and others of such 
remarkable keeping qualities that some good 
judges supposed them to be just plucked from 
the vines, while the fact was, they were of the 
previous season's growth, and simply kept in 
a flour barrel in the cellar alongside of a bar- 
rel of potatoes — the potatoes freezing and 
rotting, and the gr.T ■ remaining in good eat- 



ing condition for twelve months. Through 
cold of winter and heat of summer, these aeecl- 
lings, it is said, are far superior to the parent 
Isabella. At exhibitions, his grapes took pre- 
miums over all others. Another gentleman in 
southwestern Missoviri is collecting and rais- 
ing seedlings of the wild .^Estevalis or Summer 
grape, and claims that he already has several 
that are superior wine giapes, and some as 
table grapes; and that this species is free from 
rot and mildew, so injurious to others. And, 
again, there is an ex-editor in New Jersey who 
Mr. Fidler says " has been experimenting in 
raising seedlings, and in a half jocular, /air 
warning to the {)rofessionals, like Mr. Ricketts, 
Ilusmann, Campbell, Miller, and Caywood, 
that they may look to their laurels, as the ex- 
editor is certainly on their tracks, and with a 
good chance of coming out ahead on pure 
native grapes." From another source we hear 
that he has already seventeen white and six 
black grapes. His own statement is, "that 
nothing in the United States can compare with 
these gra]>es;" (!) but will not part with a bud 
until he has gi'own a hundred plants of each 
variety, when he will offer them for sale." 
Thus the " coming grape " will be along pro- 
bably before a second Centennial year comes 
round. 

As to strawbenies, "Star of the West," 
"Triumph of Cumberland," and "Colonel 
Cheney," are said to excel any that have here- 
tofore been grown. There are also several 
new rasplterries and blackberries. 

Of vegetables, the Tong Qua, or Chinese 
cucumber, is quite a novelty, weighing ten 
pounds and over, said to be eaten in China 
while small. The Bismarck cucumber, and 
the singular Russian cucumbers, are alsonew. 
The salad plant from Japan, growing into a 
bush three feet high, and very fragrant; the 
blossoms are cut off and salted, and thus form 
an agreeable condiment. The '■'■ String melon,^^ 
also from Japan, said to be excellent while 
young. Another is a squash, from Japan, of 
which, as yet, we know nothing. 

I might mention other fruits and vegetables, 
but this article is already longer then I in- 
tended. — J. B. Garber, Columbia, Pa., Jan. 

31, 1876. 

^ 

For The Lancaster Farmer. 
MAKE HOT-BEDS. 

When this gets to the readers it will be time 
to make hot-beds to raise early cabbages, 
tomatoes and egg plants to plant out in June. 
Eveiy industrious farmer wishes to make and 
raise all his requisites at home, and everj' one 
may have his own hot-bed, to raise tender 
plants from seeds, for his garden, at a small 
cost. Almost every carpenter can niake the 
frame and sashes and have them glazed, all 
ready for use. Make the frame 150 inches deep 
behind and 24 inches in front, the sides sloping 
and of the size for the sash. A frame of two 
sash will raise all plants needed. The sash 
may be five or six feet long, with fom' rows of 
glass ; the panes seven by nine inches. Four 
rows of seven inches, with half inch between 
on laths, and the outer frame three inches 
broad, will make the sashes three feet broad ; 
a strip of two inches fastened upon the cross- 
tie will make the frame six feet two inches 
broad, and the length of the sash. A lath, an 
uich thick, should be nailed upon the* upper 
edges of tlie sides, to be two inches above the 
edges, to keep the sash in their place. The 
sash slide upon the cross-tie, in the middle of 
the frame and the outer edges of the frame. 
Set the frame in a sunny and sheltered spot, 
half sunk and half banked up with soil and 
sodded over. Put horse dimg in eighteen 
inches deep, place the sash on close, aud cover 
them over night with sfraw mats or wooden 
covers. "When the manure gets very hot shake 
it loosely up, then press it lightly down, so as 
to slope from front to back. The frames 
should be set sloping towards the sun, and to 
face the south or southeast. Put soil, finely 
liroken, six inches thick, all over the dung in 
the frames. Put the sash close on and cover 
over night. In forty-eight hours the soil will 
be heated. Dress it finely with hoe aud rake ; 



1876.] 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



25 



tlien niakp sluillow drills from front to hack, 
with the linger or a small stick, six indies 
ajiart ; sow the seeds in them, then cover with 
soil and smooth thesurface with a lirm pressnre 
of tlie spade. 8ow the ^•<xfi plant seeds in tho 
middk% a.s they need the greatest heat. In 
two days after sowinj;, youni; plants of cab- 
bages and tomatoes will be thro\igh the ground. 
It may 1k> ten days before the egg jilants are 
up. The Siish should 1k' raised behind every 
day ; put in a stick to keep the sash up, say 
one or two inches on good days, and on very 
cold and windy days the sash may be closed 
all (hiy, iniluss there is much steam in the ))ed, 
if that l)i' the case raise tlie sash an ineli to let 
the steam escape and fresh air get in, but shut 
close early in aftcDioons of very cold days. 
Cover over niglit while the cold weather lasts, 
rick out all weeds and the good plants will 
grow the Ix'tter. When the soil gets dry water 
it through the .sprinkler of a garden watering- 
pot, ^lake the water bike w arm, and apply 
it about 10 o'clock in the morning; then lit 
the sash close on for an hour, to raise a steam 
from the watering, to fall upon the plants like 
dew. (Jive more air as the ilays grow longer 
and weather gets warmer. — IF. £., I'liilaxVa, 
Fib. 1, 1S7G. 



For The Lanoastbk Fabmeb. 
CORN CULTURE. 

Mr. Editok:^T noticed an article fi'om 
.T. B. G. in tlie January number of The 
Fakmeu under the caption — " Is a change of 
seed neces.sary V" As I liave made corn 
farming a specialty all my lilic, lam convinced 
more fully tlian ever, especially during the last 
four or live years, that corn is the most protit- 
tablc crop that farmers can raise. I would 
like to Ivuow more about Mr. CJooper's experi- 
ence, believing as he ihies, that "in-and-in 
breedhig" will not deteriorate grain ; Ijut that 
from the same old stock, wliich at first pro- 
duces only one car or "nubbin," two or three 
or even four ears may be produced from a 
single stalk. Does he mean to say that from 
seventy-live to one liundred bushels to the acre 
is not a crop, and instead thereof three or 
four times tliat quantity can be raised at the 
present time? I raised ninety busliels to the 
acre in 1870, when two ears to a stalk were an 
exception, selecting my seed when cribbing, 
insisting that it must be done. In 1874 mj' seed 
was damaged and I made my selections from 
the crib, and my yield that j'ear was ninety 
busliels of shelled corn per acre, in a field of 
eighteen acres. I began to make my selec- 
tions for 187.5 wlieu cribbing it, and wlien I 
came to examine it, behold, the mice had 
"milled" it to such an extent as to render it 
worthless. I again resorted to the crib, and 
my yii'ld that year (187.5) was eighty-seven and 
a half busliels per acre, in a field of nineteen 
acres — two best crops, in succession, I ever 
raised. I i)lanted one grain every twelve or 
fifteen inches aiiart, and had only one ear to a 
stalk, an<l not very large at that. Simjily in- 
creasing the numlier of ears to the stalk and 
not the number of bushels to the acre, would 
be no improvement, in my opinion, as we in 
Lancaster county consider the fodder worth 
a good deal for feed and the otfal for manure. 

Mr. J. B. G., please give us facts more fully 
of Mr. Cooper's experience, and oblige our 
Lancaster county farmers. — J. B., lioihsnlle, 
Lancaster cmaiti/. Pa. 

V. a. — What kind of fertilizers does he use 
and how does lie apply them? When does he 
plow liis corn land V How does he plant his 
corn V and how many bushels d<ies he rai.se per 
acre V The answers of these questions would 
be a great help.— .7. H. 



The FuriT Gkowetjs' Society : The in- 
teresting abstract report of the annual meeting 
of the Pennsylvania Fruit Growers' .Society, 
which we print in this issue of The F.\HMKii, 
is copied from the columns of that excellent 
weekly newspaper, Tlic Burks Cotmti/ Intelli- 
gencer. It is the first horticultural gun of the 
Centennial year, and has a decidedly healthy 
ring. 



Fop Thk Lancabtku Faumkh, 
TESTING FERTILIZERS AND THEIR 
CONTINUED ACTION. 

Experiments Made at the Experimental Farm, 
West Grove, Chester County, Penn'a. 

In 1S72, ]ilots containing one-eightli acre 
were laid out and the following fertilizei-s ap- 
plied at the rate of ifflOwortli jier acre, for the 
wheat crop. 

The fertilizers were sown broadcast and har- 
rowed in, except where otherwise stated. 
Wheat sown September 17th, 187J. The re- 
sults on succeeding crops up to this time are 
noted : 





u 


K 


i--t 




ts 


-1 


Bi 








Z.aC 




S • 


"? 


°~J 




n ii 


Si 


Sfji 




a 






1. Bone anil ashes comiKiRtcd, - 


:i().4« 


.5,.').')2 93.C.I 


3. Aeidululed South Ciirolina rock, 


:u.22 


.'■,,r,(Ki ;w.(i4 


:i Kiiinit, 


2MM 


4,1111(1 ST.Kl 


4. I'roC. Vine's "wheat food," - 


:w.2>s 


4,!m;o (11. (ih 


r,. No fertilizer, - . . - [2.5.20 


H,H20i81.(W 


6. (irouiid lione, so^vn broadcast and 








lijirrowed in, . _ _ 


29..'58 


5,648 


98.24 


7. Grouiiii bone, one-lialf ns aI)ove, 








one-halt drilled In with the 








wheat, - - - . - 


.31.44 


.5,728 


97..56 


8. Ground bone, all drilled in with 








the wheat, - - . - 


3.3.3B 


.5,680|98.fM 



In the above comparison it maylje seen that 
the Acidulated South Carolina rock gave an 
increase of il -i-CiO bushels of wheat per acre, 
over the unmanured plot, in 1873 ; also an in- 
crease of l,t)80 pounds of hay in 1874, and in 
187.5 an iiicrca.se of 11 12-72 bushels of corn. 

Now, valuing the wheat at .§1.30 per bushel 
and the hay at ?15 per ton, and tlie corn at 
50 cents per bushel, and we have an aggregate 
increase in the value of products, in tliree 
years, amounting to .1f20 '.12, from one applica- 
tion of $10 worth of Acidulated South Caro- 
lina rock. 

Note. — The Acidulated Rock eostf.30per ton, and 
analyzed — 7 per cent, soluble phosphorous acid ; 5.84 
per cent, insoluble phos|ihorous acid. 

The ground hone cost ?41, and analyzed — 

Bonephosphateof lime, 4.5. 7S, PoOs, 20.97 per cent. 

Nitrogen, '.i.'2S per cent. 

The bone and ashes compost, was 1 ton of bone 
and .50 bushels of ashes, thorouirhly mixed. 

The Kainite cost ^2.5 per ton, and contained potas- 
sium, 14 per cent. : sulphate of potassa, 2S per cent. 
— Joh}i. I. Carter, Experimental Farm, b'csi Grove, 
Chester co., Pa. 



For The Lancaster Fabheb. 
RURAL LIFE. 

Rural life without gardening would be mo- 
notonous. Even with the ainiiencc of agri- 
cultural wealth there would be an irksome 
sameness, unless relieved with some orna- 
mental emljellishments to the grounds around 
our dwelling houses. Even a shade tree at 
the humble cot, liy the wayside, takes off its 
baldness in summer; and one or two dwarf, 
hardy evergreens near to it, and a geraniura 
in its window, gives it the air of cheerfulness 
and contentment. In winter we would expect 
more about the fann lunuic. Two or three 
stately evergreen trees, with a few hardy, 
evergreen shrubs, make the place an object 
of mark upon tlie winter land.scape. The 
trees, for summer shade, may he eiierry, chest- 
nut, pear and apple, in bearing. They are 
beautiful in bloom and liandsonie in fruit, and 
unite the useful and the beautiful. A piece 
of lawn in front, decorated witli a few (lowers 
in summer, and (ilaiits in tlie windows in 
winter, makes all cheei-ful. 

About the cottages and mansions of the 
wealthy we should expect to sec a well-kept 
lawn, embeUi.shed with ornamental trees and 
shrubs ; the deciduous for blossoms and 
fragrance in summer, and lovely evergreens to 
enliven the whole in winter. The groiUKls 
may be small or larg(^ ; if well decorated they 
are admirable to look at. Even the (^mctfnj, 
on .South Queen street, Lancaster city, with 
its lovely evergreens, shine beautifully in the 
distance towards the west, especially during 
winter. — Ilorlicol, riUlMhl^ihiu, Feb. 4, 1870. 



For TuK Lanoahteb Fabheb. 
THE ADVANCING PROGRESS OF OUR 
HUSBANDRY. 

The advancing progress of our liu.slwiidry 
may lie considered by the vast extent of sur- 
face We cultivate, and the immeust^ quantities 
of our product wliieh are exported anmiallv. 
It is husbandry which opens the gateway of 
the worUl and tames all nature <hiwn to its will. 
JSolauy, Chiini.'ilri/ and FnUiiiinliiijii are its 
lamps of light. jl//yi(r«/'«/// .soon foliows; then 
all tlie various species of industry come on iit 
their limes. The various lines of'nipid transit 
and the teli'graph push their ways forward to 
carry olT all the surjilus jiroduets and news, 
and bring hack a return of other commodities. 
AV'lien the numerouH speeiiiiens of the product.s 
of hushaudry are exhibited at the Centennial 
Exposition they will liewilder even the most 
learned and skillful of our husbandmen. 
When our money getssearce husbandry makes 
it plenty by the iirices of its ex|Mirted pro- 
ducts; in sluirt, hu.slumdry is the grand panacea 
for M Worldly ills. 

It was easy to raise good crops uikmi the 
fresh virgin soils of the new lands, but now it 
reipiires high skill and industrv to raise good 
crops upon the lands which have lieen im- 
poverished by long and constant croiiping. 
By the better knowledge of manures and con- 
centrated fertilizers, and the improved liand 
and horse inipleinents and machinery, Hie 
crops are raised with less cost. That is pro- 
gress. See also the imiiiovcd species of live 
stocks anil their produce. 

To bring the subject near to ourselves; there 
has been introduced hiany new species of 
grains ; of wheal, oats, and new varieties of 
corn, potatoes and turnips, and the more 
general cultivation of lurnijis for dairy cattle 
and sheep. Cabbages and onions are now ex- 
tensively laid in for .ship stores; and indvidual 
husbandmen grow scores of acres of them. 
The Millii and Alsikv chrrr are grown to help 
the yield of pasturage and hay. Our vine- 
yards have vastly increased ; all our tree- 
fruits have lieen improved ; and the culture of 
berries is immense, lasting the whole year. 
The subsoil jiloughinghasdoiibled many farms; 
and, of late, the steam-plow, subsoil lifler 
and clod breaker have been brought into satis- 
factory use for tillage. 

Horticultural iirogres.s is no less manifest. 
Go where we may we see the country orna- 
mented with imiPioved parks anil well culti- 
vated ganlens. The great incicase of new 
species of trees, shrubs and llnwers makes it 
easy to embellish new grounds. There are 
also many new species of^ culinary vegetables 
and the skill to grow them. Arcliiticliirr, too, 
the accompanying handmaid of Horticulture, 
has greatly imiiroved. — Walter Elder, I'hila- 
(hlphia, Jan. 31, 1870. 

. — -♦.^ ■ 

THE PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY. 



Annual Address of Master James G. McSpar- 
ran, of Fulton Grange, No. 66. 
Another year has pas.eed. The anniinl liistallalion 
of otllcers in (lur ^jrange has taken place a;;ufn. You 
have thought projK'r to re-elect me Muster. lean-* 
not but express my warmest thanks to you for ttils 
expression of your conHdence and esteem. As you 
all well know,"l did not seek the |H.silloii, but, on the 
other hand, while I proteste<l acainst re-eUrlioii, Ix! 
assured my objections to it did not arise from any 
abatement of interest in or uiiwIUiUL'ness to lalKir in 
thecau.se we love — In the cause we have es|>oiiseiI 
lis the farmer's ho|M'. Let ns take a retnis|M'itlvo 
view of the past year. What is our condition now 
as a trranire, compared with what II was a year airo f 
In numbers we have Increased, and can we not wftli 
truthfulness say we have maile progn-ss in know- 
ledge also? Do we not eomprehiinl to a fuller extent 
the trreat, and at the same lime noble, aims of our 
organization? And while we mon- fully nalize the 
magnitude of the work, do we not more fully appre- 
ciate the high and holy desire to elevate the tiller of 
the soil to the position which lie is by riu'lit entitled 
to? If we have thus been eilucalinir ourselves, If our 
minds have been thus Impressed with the priiieiples 
ofour onler, then. Indeed, have we made pmirnvs, 
and eannoi but enter U|Kin the duties of the new year 
with a more carnesi devotion to our cause, and a 
stroncer determination to use individual etiort to pro- 
mote it. What aR' the alms ofour organization? 
What bcncfltg can wc hoiK to derive from our con- 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[February 



nection with it? I answer many, about all of which, 
however, arc embraced under the three heads — 
pecuniary, social and intellectual. 

Let us consider these brietiy as they are presented 
to us. Is it not true that for almost every article we 
buy (whether for domestic use, or stock, implements 
or fertilizers for our farms,) we are obliijed to pay 
numerous commissions in addition to the original 
cost ? This is an undisputed fact; even our opponents 
frankly admit it. Is it not true again that crops are 
often produced and sold by us for a figure which does 
not compensate for labor and expenses ? Is it not true 
that we who by right hold the bread that feeds the 
world have no voice as to the price that bread shall 
command ? Otlier trades, other vocations, can and 
do (which is their right) fix a price on their labor, 
but we, abject slaves' that we are, must be satisfied 
with what others are willing to give, regardless of 
what it cost us. Cai) any position be more degrad- 
ing ? Can a stronger incentive be presented to urge 
us^to prompt, vigorous, yet, at the same time, hono- 
rable action to ameliorate our condition, and place 
our calling where it deserves to stand among other 
vocations ? But some will claim we are undertaking 
too much. How can we expect to alter these systems 
which have been operating against us for ages ? How 
can we expect to change these channels through 
which business has been flowing ? The work is a great 
one we must admit, and that Patron who has entered 
the 'field expecting to reap all the pecuniary benefits 
which will be derived from our organization immedi- 
ately, has never considered the matter to its depth; 
hasnot considered that for generations past the fet- 
ters have been made more and more secure, and can- 
not be broken Avithout determined, concentrated effort 
on our part. But, truth is mighty and will prevail. 
We demand justice, and nothing more. We wage no 
war (to use the sentiment of our State Master) on any 
legitimate business. When our principles and aims 
are better understood much of the opposition against 
us will cease. 

Our strength is known; let us but concentrate it. 
Prove by our zeal that we realize our ixisition; ever 
remembering that great as the work may be the re- 
sult will fidly justify it. Important and highly bene- 
ficial as our order will ever prove in a pecuniary 
point, the social feature is equally important. There 
is no denying the fact that sociability is not suffi- 
ciently cultivated among familiesof our calling. Dif- 
ference of opinion in religious and political matters, 
together with other less potent reasons, have the 
effect of alienating us from each other. No surer 
method can be established to cultivate this social dis- 
position and to break down this barrier, than to as- 
semble together for the promotion of objects in which 
we have a common interest. I am glad to be able to 
say that some of my warmest friends differ with me 
politically, and although my own convictions in that 
direction are decided, I have the highest respect for 
those who honestly entertain opinions antagonistic to 
my own. But important as the pecuniary and social 
features are, the great, the weighty benefit to be de- 
rived is the training of the mind. The cultivation of 
the mind is the important work. We cannot over- 
estimate this. Individuals in every community (per- 
haps we have some in our midst) will tell you how 
much that they have regretted (or did not possess) 
early opportunities of improving their minds. Each 
Grange, properly conducted, must be an excellent 
school. Each meeting can be made interesting as 
well as instructive. Is there any necessity for this 
intellectual training? may be asked. Most undoubt- 
edly there is. When it is in the reach of every one, 
every mind should be capable of performing the 
duties of an intelligent citizen. How many of us 
would he willing to preside over a large public meet- 
ing or take jjart in it ? How many of us would be 
capable of doing so properly ? Would not the most 
of us experience considerable embarrassment to pre- 
side over even a township meeting? Why is this? 
Not because the Almighty has not endowed us, but 
*ecause we have never had the practical training; our 
talents have never been cultivated. And among our 
sisters, how many of them can take the pen in hand 
and write an essay, which, through well worded sen- 
tences and enlarged ideas, reflects the sentiments of 
a cultivated mind? Many will argue that these ac- 
quirements are not essential among farmers. Just 
there is the mistake. The time is past for such rea- 
soning. From this time forth the farmer and his 
wife will he expected to staud where any other can, 
where intelligence is taken as the test. The Almighty 
has given us talents, and we have no right to bury 
them, but duty compels us to develop them. On this 
point I have a few pointed words to say to members 
of our Grange, and I hojie the shoe will be put on 
wherever it fits. We have quite a number of mem- 
bers who have sons and daughters not with us. Cer- 
tainly such have not considered the advantages of 
the Grange as a school for mental training. Allow 
me to say tliey should be here; here, to assist in the 
great work we liave in liand. We need their strength 
and influence. But especially should they be here, 
that they themselves may reap the benefits of such 
an organization. Young nnnds have a stronger taste 
for acquirements, and are more susceptible of im- 
provement than older ones; and certainly it is our 
duty to encourage and foster the desire. And while 



it will lighten life's burdens to them, it will instill 
into their minds a higher respect for the calling in 
which we are engaged. In conclusion,. let us work 
with a will. Let us have no laggards, but impelled 
by a sense of justice to ourselves and posterity, let 
us assist in building this grand structure, and in the 
not far distant future the anniversary of our order 
will be hailed with delight by all who believe in the 
supremacy of justice and right. 



THE FRUIT-GROWERS'S OCIETY. 



Annual Meeting in Doylestown— Interesting 
Sessions— Valuable Essays and Discus- 
sions—All About Fruit Growing 
and General Horticulture. 

The convention of the Fruit-Growers' Society of 
Pennsylvania was held in Lenape Hall, in Doyles- 
town, this week, beginning at 3 o'clock on Wednes- 
day, January 10. The attendance on the first day was 
not over one hundred persons, a majority of whom 
were from this county. A table for the reception of 
specimens of I'ruit was placed iu tl>e front of the hall, 
and by the time the proceedines began it was well 
covered with apples of various kinds, and a few pears , 
most of them from Bucks county growers. Quite a 
number of these had been brought for the purjxjse of 
obtaining the correct name. At 2 o'clock the Presi- 
dent, Edwin Satterthwait, of Jenkintown, and the 
Secretary, E. B. Eugle, of Marietta, Pa., took their 
places. The minutes of last year's meeting, held at 
York, were reail. H. T. Darlington, on the part of 
the committee representing the local societies and 
clubs, briefly welcomed the visitors to Doylestown. 
Mr. Satterthwait responded, saying that the mem- 
bers of the society had come here as learners them- 
selves, and that the object of holding the meetings in 
ditierent places was to acquire fresh knowledge from 
the people. The Treasurer's report was read, show- 
ing the receipts of the past year, including a balance 
over, to have been |"ilO.S7, and that tlie present 
amount in his hands is §361.69. The Society then 
proceeded to general business. 

General Reports and Letters. 
H. M. Engle, of Marietta, read the report of the 
General Fruit Committee for the past year. He re- 
ferred to the difficulty of preparing a satisfactory re- 
port for the wliole State, in the absence of local inter- 
est. The apple crop of 1S7.5 was short, and of inferior 
quality, much of which was caused by the injury 
done by the codling moth. The present prospect for 
large fruit crops is not flattering. This is the opinion of 
many prominent growers. In some sections the borer 
is very destructive. In a few localities there are par- 
ticular varieties which bear freely every year, or every 
alternate year, but are little known elsewhere. The 
pear croj) was better, fewer varieties are grown, and 
public opinion is more generally agreed as to their 
merits. Keferenee was also made to the peach and 
plum crops. The Kichland is considered about the 
best variety of the plum grown in the State. The 
Mazzard cherry is generally free from insect enemies, 
and if it were better cared for it would be quite pro- 
fitable . Reports on grapes were meagre, compared with 
their importance. It is the most productive and pro- 
fitable of fruits. The Concord is still the grape for 
the million. Tlie Martha is hardy and productive, 
and objectionable to some for its sweetness. It has 
sold fifty per cent, higher than the Concord in mar- 
ket. The hybrid varieties may be indefinitely multi- 
plied, and many good kinds thus obtained. Isabella 
and Catawba are mostly discarded. Blackberries are 
neglected in consequence of the abundance of wild 
fruit. Tlie Lawton is largely superseded by the Kit- 
tatiny. Wilson's Early is being abandoned because 
of its poor quality. An insect enemy, which attacks 
the roots and stalks, has appeared in some quarters. 
Raspberries are grown mostly near the cities. The 
black caps are perfectly hardy, and many of the red 
ones. The llerstine is the most popular. As to 
strawberries, the Wilson still leads in the popular 
estimation, and the kind that is to supersede it has 
not yet been discovered. There are many other good 
kinds, which do not quite fill the bill. Currants and 
gooseberries, unless well mulched, are seldom re- 
munerative, and crops have been moderate. If the 
fruit committee were better organized, and its scope 
enlarged, its investigations might be made very valu- 
able. It is desirable that every county in the State 
be represented, so that a complete report of 1876 may 
be obtained. 

A proposition to alter the by-haws of the Society, 
brought over from the last meeting, was i-ead by the 
secretary. One was that the Society should also give 
attention to general and ornamental horticulture. 
Mr. Meelian explained tlie reasons for the [iroposed 
changes, which was also provided for in the change 
of name to the " General Horticultural Society of 
Pennsylvania." The title was framed in this man- 
ner to avoid confusion with the Philadelphia Horti- 
cultural Society. II. M. Engle moved to postpone 
the suliject for the preseut, which was carried. A 
recess of ten minutes was then taken to enable per- 
sons to become members. 

The President stated that a number of letters had 
been received from prominent fruit-growers who were 



not able to attend, and some of them would be read. 
One was from William Parry, of Cinnaminson, N. J., 
who referred to the value of the Beatrice, as an early 
peach — also the Louise and the Rivers, which have 
been lately introduced. Thomas Median said that 
Mr. Parry had been a very active member of the So- 
ciety, but was now interested in his own State Socie- 
ty. He moved that he he made an honorary mem- 
ber, which was carried. One from Rev. E. P. Roe, 
of Cornwall, N. Y., expressed much regret for his 
inability to attend. He thinks he has a new goose- 
berry and a new raspberry of value. One from Mr. 
Huidekoper, of Meadville, had reference to grape 
culture, in which he is a proficient. He trims vines 
in October, taking off most of the laterals. The first 
of November all vines are taken down and covered. 
They are doubled up and covered with light-colored 
earth, which does not thaw so easily. Early in 
spring they are uncovered, and the result is a large 
crop of fruit. The Delaware rendered the best yield 
last season — better than Concord . Sulphur is sprink- 
led on the ground to prevent mildew. In grape- 
houses the glass should be whitewashed, to moderate 
the heat. Wood ashes are very beneficial. Old varie- 
ties give better satisfaction on the whole than novel- 
ties. Mr. Meehan spoke favorably of the processes 
employed by Mr. Huidekoper in his graperies. The 
roots of the vines, outside of the houses, were thickly 
covered with leaves. H. M. Engle also approved 
very much of Mr. H.'s system of grape-growing. Mr. 
Sprout, of Lycoming county, said he had practised 
covering the earth about grape-vines with much suc- 
cess. One year he covered the ground with the crush- 
ed stalks of sorghum and had the heaviest crop he 
ever grew. Forest leaves are the best mulch for 
strawtierries he has ever tried. W. P. Magill said 
that for several years past he had mulched his vine- 
yard with green grass cut from his lawn, with excel- 
lent efl'ect. Mr. Satterthwait said tliat there was 
nothing to be compared with leaves for keeping out 
frost. They are the best protection for celery that 
he has ever met with. 

H. M. Engle, chairman of the general fruit com- 
mittee, proposed the reading of some of the reports 
received, wliich was done by the secretary. The re- 
port from Franklin county said that more attention is 
given to fruit-growing now ; the soil and climate are 
very favorable ; the culture of flowering plants is 
steadily increasing. From Lancaster county the re- 
port, written by J. B. Garber, was not f'avorable, 
peaches, plums and cherries having been injured by 
severe cold. Old apple trees have died from its 
eflects, and young ones greatly injured. Pears have 
ripened better than apples ; cherries yield five years 
in six ; peaches three years in five ; plums are no go, 
because of the curculio. Of grapes, most of the new 
kinds have succeeded pretty well, but some are ruin- 
ed by mildew. The statement in regard to the effects 
of the cold in "sickening" apple trees was question- 
ed by several persons. Mr. Sprout said that in Ly- 
coming county peach trees have sufi'ered in that man- 
ner. H. M. Engle thought that the wood growth 
was weakened by severe cold. It is the sudden and 
extreme change, probably, that does the injury. Mr. 
Pannebaker said that it is the white frost that kills 
the trees and buds. Where the elevation and the 
winds prevent the frost, the trees are not hurt. E. 
Satterthwait said that the moisture of the air had 
much to do with it. Mr. Sprout related a case of an 
orchard on the south side of a hill, from which he 
never had a bushel of peaches. The wood grew late, 
was full of sap, and was injured in consequence. On 
a northern exposure 'he had excellent results. No 
trees in the valleys have done any good. Mr. Magill 
said that there was a difierenee in the hardiness of 
varieties. Mr. Meehan told a humorous story to 
illustrate the different opinions expressed on this 
point, to the efi'eet that all the reasons given might 
be nearly right, but none altogether so. This dis- 
cussion was continued at considerable length. 
Address by the President, &c. 
On Wednesday evening several papers of interest 
were read before the Association. President Satter- 
thwait produced an essay, which embodied a number 
of useful suggestions regarding the conduct of the 
present session of the Association. He requested 
brevity in the remarks of the members ujion the vari- 
ous matters under discussion, and a close adherence 
to the subject before the meeting. He referred to the 
increase of fruit-growing in the United States; com- 
jiared it with that of other countries which helped to 
supply our markets ; said that fruit must always be 
cheap, but the business would still be remunerative 
if properly carried on ; spoke of the cheap fruits of 
Delaware ; of the general dullness of this and all 
other trades; of good and bad years noticealile in 
fruit-growing; and referred lastly to the display that 
should be made by the promologists of the country 
at the Centennial. 

Mr. Meehan, of Germantown, responded to the last 
suggestion, saying that it would be impossible for 
this or any other society to act as a body, but that 
very much could be done by individual efforts in that 
direction ; and he recommended co-operatiou with 
the American Association, in au informal manner, in 
making a creditable exhibition at the proper time. 

An essay on the interests of the Society at the Cen- 
tennial, by S. B. Heiges, of Y'ork, was read. Its main 



1876.J 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



27 



fpatiire was to co-opcrati' with tlio Poniipylvaniii llor- 
ticultural Society in tliv inattiT liy tlu^ aiiiKiiiitnu'iit 
of a joint coniriiitti-i', tlio duty ol" wliicii woulil hv. to 
make tin' nci'tssafy aiTaiigeinciits witli the Cciiten- 
uial antlioritit's. 

Mr. Sprout, of Lycominp county, favored this sug- 
gestion, on the irrnunti that it would form a nueleiig 
alxiiit whicli all the societies of the conntry niiirht 
gather. lU' exiiihiteil the iihotoirra|th i>f an ajiparatus 
designed to i)rcserve perislialile fruits when on cxliili- 
ition, consisting of a case having a glass Iront, an<l 
surroinidcil hy ice. 

(leorge li. Thomas, of West Chester, said that all 
the space in this deiiarlmcjit at the Centennial had 
been taken; that nothing could be done by the So- 
ciety as a Imdy. 

Mr. Meehan offered a resolution to co-operate with 
the American Association, wMeh will meet on the 
14th of next Seplenihcr, prohalily in Horticultural 
Hall, I'hiladelphia, and after a short session will 
adjourn to the Centennial. His resolution was 
adoptc<l. 

Josiah Hoopes on Yards and Lawns. 

An I'ssay was read fixmi .Tosiah Hoopes, of West 
Chester, who was not jirescnt, cnlilled, ■• Our Yards, 
and How to take Care of Them." The paper was 
couci.'-e, and to the point. What is needed is a more 
natural and less arliticial [ilan Ihan is commonly ob- 
served, liules applicable in all cases cannot be laid 
down, although iicncral iirinciplcs may be. Every 
place ha.s au individuality of its own, which must be 
understood in order to secure the best results. For 
lawns few walks were recomniendod, and these 
should not lie laid out carelessly. Every curve and 
bend slioidd have a reason. P<jorly kept walks are 
worse than none at all. Ground gyjisum was recoui- 
niended as a good dressing for grass, to be used annu- 
ally. The hand-mower will kill the weeds, thicken 
the turf, and by leaving the short grass where it 
falls, the soil is actually imiuovcd. In making 
walks there should be stones employed for founda- 
tion, up to within three inches of the surface. On 
that the gravel is placed, the middle of the walk be- 
ing raised two inches above the edges. Mixed 
flowers in beds are in bad taste on a well-keiit lawn. 
Position of beds, the arrangement of fountains and 
rockeries, and the selectJon of trees were mentioned. 
In front of a bay window, or in the bend of a drive or 
walk, is a suitable place lor a flower bed ; fountains 
ought to be plain in construction ; a rockery should 
not show marks of a hammer or defaced portions of 
the stones used in its construction. Avoid large 
trees on small lawns, except for shade ; avoid mathe- 
matical precision ; avoid scattered flowering shrubs. 
The training in of the branches of trees while young 
will greatly improve their ajipearance in after years. 
Evergreens properly eared ibr will add greatly to the 
beauty of any lawn" or yard. And after once getting 
a place in oriier, care is constantly required to keep 
it so. The essay of Mr. Hoopes was full of useful 
and practical information. This subject has been a 
specialty with him for years, and he has published a 
book on the evergreens. 

Mr. Meehan [lut in a plea in this connection for 
the straight box-wood borders and straight walks 
of the old-fashioned flower gardens. 

H. T. Darlington, of Doylestown, asked what 
common people were to do when the high priests dis- 
agreed. Mr. Hoopes recommended curves, and Mr. 
Meehan straight lines. 

Mr. Meehan explained himself, and eluded the 
trap by endorsing the curves for the lawns and the 
straight lines in the small gardens. 

John I. Carter, of the Experimental Farm at West 
Grove, sjioke of the beauty of t he climbing vines about 
the buildings, and of their cheapness and case of 
growth. 

H. T. Darlington spoke of the forest trees — of their 
inimitalilc characteristics — and mentioned those about 
the West Grove Experimental Farm. 

Management of Orchards. 

John I. Carter read an essay on " Orchards and 
their Management." He said orchards would pay 
for more attention than they generally receive. If 
the snpplj of fruit is increased beyond the present 
consumption, the demand will also increase in pro- 
jKirtion. The varieties of fruit reeommeialed were 
as follows: Apples— .Maiden's Hlush, Smokehouse 
and Smith's Cider. Pears— Hartlctt, Lawrence and 
Scckel. Cherries— Governor Wood and Early Kich- 
mond. Judicious nuinuring and good cultivation are 
necessary, which are not to be di6<'ontinucd after 
bearing begins. Plenty of miiu'ral fertilizers were 
rcconimendcd. South "Carolina rock was mentioned 
as adapted lo the purposi'. A wash niadcof muriate 
of potash, low manure, sulphur and copperas was 
recommended to be used after pruning. 

Mr. Purman, of Clinton (ounty, asked for practi- 
cal remarks on the management and care of orch- 
ards, lie has one hundred acres of young trees, and 
desires lo have the most intelligent manner of earing 
for them, and at the same time securing the most 
economical method that will produce the result. 

To answer this recjuctt the President callcil upon 
Walson P. Magill, of Bucks county. Mr Magill lirst 
said that from nothing you can obtain notliing. .Vn 
orchard of young fruit ought to increase in value at 



the rate of ?1 per tree per annum. In order to do 
this something mtist of course be given to the land. 
If Mr. Puruuin has 1110 acres of orchard, at the rate 
of 4.') trees to the iwre, he must exjH'nd sonu' time 
and labor to realize an increased valui' per year of 
S4,.'j(l(). If he is not prei)aied to jiroperly cultivate 
100 acres, he had belter try .lO, or even 10. Hoed 
crops were advised for the flrst six or eight years — 
potatoes being mentioned as well suited lo the pur- 
pose. Thn-e or f<»ur hundred inainds of phosphate 
to the acTC shoidd be used. The crops wouhl assist 
in paying for this cidtlvation of the trees. Aflcrlhal 
lime the orchard should go into grass, and be mown 
once or twiie a year. If the grass Is removed nninure 
shoid<l be returned. Stock ouglil to be carefully ex- 
cluded. After the grass is under the trees, the fallen 
leaves make an excellent nndeh. 

Mr. Sprout, of l.ycondng, said that his practice has 
been lo use |>lenly of potash about Ids trees, in the 
form of wood ashes; also copperas water, applied at 
intervals of two weeks, to remedy flrebliglil. 

John Easlburn, of Hucks, re<'ommcnded plowing 
uinler clover in orchards; also buck\\heat. He ob- 
jects lo the practice of planting either ry<',oals,or 
wheat, and docs not believe in plowing under sowed 
corn. He believis in perpetual culllvallon of ajiple 
trees. Last year lie nuirkeled tweiity-cight hundred 
buslicls. 

W. P. Magill referred to the orchard of Joshua 
Fell, near Doylestown, whose trees in the alumn re- 
sendile pyrairdds of fnnt. They sell at from ten to 
thirteen dollars per tree. The orchard is twelve years 
old. The grass in the orchard resendilcs a well-kept 
lawn. .Mr. .Magill favored low Iriinining. 

Mr. Gardner, a fruit-treetrimmcrof Hiickseounty, 
explained his general plan of jiruning. He allows 
three branches to form the iiillars uixin which to 
build I he head of the tree. He aims at the jiroduc- 
tion of short trunks and large tojis, and seizures, 
thereby, he states, rapid and vigorous growth. 

Mr. "Magill stated that the best time to prune or- 
chards is fnim the middle of May to flrst of July. 
For a wash or coaling lie thought a solution of gum 
shellac in alcohol would be found satisfactory. 

President Sattcrthwail said that low trimming was 
doubtless the best ; that the leaf should be as near 
the root as possible. 

Mr. Lint, of York, spoke of spring and fall prun- 
ing; he would cultivate an orchard for six or eight 
years, and then put it down in grass; and he pre- 
ferred potatoes as a crop rather than corn for the 
young orchard. 

A committee to examine the fruit on exhibition and 
to report next day was appointed. It was as follows: 
Thomas M. Harvey and John I. Carter, of West 
Grove, Chester county, and S. W. Noble, of Jen- 
kintown. 

Election of Offlcers--The Centennial. 

The proceedings of Thursday began with the selec- 
tion of officers for the ensuing year. A committee of 
three, consisting of John I. Carter, Thomas M. Har- 
vey and Alfred Sheller, was appointed by the chair 
to present nominations for the ofhccs to be Hlled at the 
afternoon session. The committee to audit the trea- 
surer's account reported that they had found every- 
thing correct. The subject of changing the name of 
the society to the " General Horticultural Society of 
Pennsylvania," brought over from last year, was 
taken up. Thomas Meehan gave several practical 
reasons why the change was not desirable. H. .M. 
Engle and Samuel W. Noble expressed the same 
views. The matter was then postponed until next 
year. John I. Carter offered a resolution looking to- 
ward a display of our fruits at the Centenrdal. It 
was proposed that the Secretary corresjiond with the 
difl'erent county agricultural societies, asking their 
aid in making such collection and ilisplay. He briefly 
advocated such action. Mr. .Meehan said that he could 
not see any practicable way of reaching this object. 
It would cost a good deal of money to make a State 
exliibition of fruit, aral he did not see where it would 
come from. This Socii'ty could not interfere wilh Ihe 
regular action of the l'entcni:ial Comnnssion. H. T. 
Darlington said that it was very <loubtful if the Soci- 
ety could act except in an auxiliary capacity. Thomas 
M. Harvey thought the dilheulty woidd nr)t be very 
great, and that the cost would not be much if the 
packages were prepaid. The subject was then post- 
poned until evening. 

More About Apple Orchards. 

Resuming the subject of the treatment of orchards, 
Thomas M. Harvey 'said that more light was wautinl 
on the jiropcr time of pruning. At onetime he had 
iiruncd eerlain trees at intervals oftwo weeks liuring 
the year, lo learn the effect. .John I. Carter said that 
the lindps cut oil in the lirst two mouths of the year, 
an<l in June, hail healed most perfectly. The result 
was favorable to winter pruuiii!.', but all had healed 
without injury. Mr. Lint, of York coiiniy, said that 
his experienee was in favor of pruning when Ihe buds 
began to swell. They heal over sooner theu than at 
any other time. Mr."Salterlhwail said that he had 
alwavs been warned against pruning at that time- 
thai there was a great confusion of ideas. Thomas 
,M. Harvey said that all agreed that we should avoid 
pruning while the sap is running, which often causes 
much injury. Mr. Meehan said that as a general 



rule a wound made in summer will heal more rapidly, 
but in practice he prefers winter pruning. It Is not 
well to remove branches while coveri'd wilh leaves. 
II. .M. Engle said that pruning was only a choice of 
two evils. If orehanls were managtHl corn-cily very 
little pruning would be nce<|ed. If the Iree can las 
trained right when young. It will never be reipiln-d 
lo eul off larL'c brunches. Prune as little as |>oskIIiIc. 
Pinch oil' surplus buds or shoots wlii'U young, and wo 
will have no need to discuss this troublesome ipies- 
lion. W. P. Magill said (hat he agneil nitli .Mr. 
Meehati as In the time of pruning. Wounds heal over 
more ipiiekly if done in summer, hut hi practice the 
winter is generally found more convenient. E.Sut- 
Icrlhwall look the same view. A. K. Sprout, of 
Lycoming, said that a gri'at deal lUiiends on llieeoii- 
dilion of the cellular tissue; if it is full of sap wlieu 
cut 11 is sure to bleed. Hut after the leaves come out 
trees may be {iruned with safety. 

Hybridization of Fruits. 
Thomas Meehan discussed the subject of the hy- 
bridization of fruits by design. We are apt to think 
we are not progressing at all, but on liMikIng hack we 
see how much has been galneil. lVo[ile may ask of 
what use are lliese Ihings^we might as well ask the 
use of a new-lioru babe — we have to wall and see the 
value of new-born llioughls. There are a great 
many selentitlc facls which seem lo be of no particu- 
lar use, but are aflerwaid found very valuable. 
Science grows continually, and In course of llnie we 
can see how miieli has Is-en gaiiieii. The hybridt/.a- 
lion of frulls is a subject of this class. Il was found 
out long ago that more and belter fruit could be had 
by mixing the imiIIcu of blossoms. Knowledge on 
this point has grown very slowly. Il Is not prohublu 
that the process is allcnded by inuiicdiate elfeels on 
fruit. Corn and sipnishes seem lo Im' exceptions, hut 
there is probably a natural allinity in Ihem. Like 
does not always produce like; no two trees of Iho 
same kind are exactly alike; fruit and mUs from 
seeds arc not alike ; there is an inhereni natural law 
of ehani;e which is always going on. The resulls of 
cros.s-ferlillzalion are not always uniform — some- 
times there are no characterislics of the female plant, 
but often there is a perfect blending of the two. 
Sometimes there are no traces of the male parent in 
the offspring. In experiments in crossing Japan lil- 
ies this had been almost always Ihe case. Itemark- 
able success has followed the mixing of varieties of 
grapes, especially in what are know n as the HoL'ers' 
hybrids. But it isdoublful whether they are as gisid 
as some natural crosses, pnnlueing new seedlings. 
The best kinds are the result of natural evolution. In 
expcrimcnls with pears but few gissl kinds have lieen 
raised. In brief, eross-ferlilizalion, so far as it has 
yet been worked up hy arliticial means, has been of 
"little practical value to fruit growers. It is iK'tter to 
wait U|X)n Ihe priK-esses of nature. H. M. Englo 
said that he had had sullScienI success in this direc- 
tion to encourage him. lie instanced cxixriments 
with strawberries, in some of which he hud made 
satisfactory crosses. He had made efforts to cross 
the peach "and the apricot, but they resulliHl In a 
seedling peach, teu or twelve days earlier than 
Hale's! He hud been much interestiil wilh his ex- 
])eriment8. We do not yet know the laws by which 
the operations of nature arc governwl. Thomas M. 
Harvey made some remarks on the hybridization of 
the wlieat plant. Mr. Burton said that lie had been 
engaged in hybridizing plants with loiisiderable suc- 
cess and satisfaction. .Mr. .Meehan said that It wag 
no object to get new varieties of fruit; we have 
enough varieties, hut we wish lo make them Ixtler. 
Florists want new varielies of plants, for that Is Ik'I- 
ter for their business. By crossing we may improve 
the character of our fruits, by mislll'ying or remov- 
ing objectionable qualities. H. .M. Engle deserlU'd 
the results of about 'ilKI crosses with strawberries, 
in nearly all of which the qualities of both parents 
were apparent. He hoped that the future would de- 
velop more satlsfuclory resulls. 

Best 'Varieties of Apples. 
Samuel W. Noble, of Jenkinlow n, read a pa|>er on 
the cultivation of the apple. He said that iiropereare 
will always eompensale the grower of apples. It be- 
gins witli"pla!iting the trees. Make Ihe holes large; 
nearly All them with giHul earth; be careful I o All Ihe 
interstices of the roots w itii line earth. The soil need 
not be raised above the level. The trees may Iw 
watered when planted in the spring, and mulched 
during the flrst summer. If planted in the fall Ihey 
need only be banked up. Orehanis should l>e kept 
cultivated, whether erop|Hd or not. The Isirer Is 
I somellmes deslruelive. Where this exists, the larva 
should be carefullv sought oul and deslroyeil. The 
insect works uniler Ihe bark, out ofsiirht. The holes 
near Ihe r<K)t show where the Insecl came out, not 
where it went In. The molh or bug makes Its ai>- 
pearanee in June, or later, aiul I hi' eggs an' then de- 
posited anil hatched. Boring inio Ihe woo.1, Ihe 
worm remains there for some months or a year. The 
lies! renmly is lo prevent the de|i<islt of egirs at the 
base of the trees by earthing up or covering wilh 
some other protect Itin. The worms can usually tic 
killed with a small wire, and when this Is ilone the 
tree will mostly recover without much damage. Driv- 
ing nulls Into trees, Ixiring holes and filling them 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[February, 



with sulphur, &c.., are useless. Lime and soapsuds 
may do some good, but preveutiou is the oiily sure 
method. The borer sometimes remains in the tree 
two or three seasons, poing deeper into the solid 
wood. As to varieties of apples, S. W. Noble stated 
that mueh depended upon a proper selection. They 
must be suited to the climate and the soil. Downing 
describes over eighteen liundred varieties. We only 
need to know the best of these for our purposes. 
There is no certain guide but experience. An apple 
natural to any locality, where it succeeds, is likely to 
be generally adopted. In this region that variety is 
the Smith's Cider. The Cornell Fancy, the Town- 
send, and the Princely, do well here. The Jackson, 
originated at Quakertown, is valuable. The Blush, 
the Hayes, aud the Fallawater, also do well here. 
The Jett'eris, the Hagloe, the Benoni, and the Krau- 
eer, are good kinds. What are winter apples north 
are fall apples here, and not suited for general plant- 
ing. The French Pippin is valued about Quakertown. 
He thought it better to plant a few varieties of known 
merit than many kinds of doubtful qualities. The 
Baldwin does not meet expectations here, because it 
ripens too soon and will not keep. It cannot be re- 
commended as a fall apple. W. P. Magill said he 
had thirty or forty Baldwin trees, from York State, 
which had done well of late years. 

The President suggested the consideration of varie- 
ties of apples iu their order. For early ones he liked 
the Prince's Harvest and the Rea Aslrachan, which 
were very salable in market. They get ripe just 
when people want apples. The Red Aslrachan is 
not very productive. Apples that come iu later are 
of little use to sell. Mr. Linn said that the Red Be- 
noni ripens early and gradually, and is valuable for 
market. S. W." Noble" spoke of the good qualities of 
the Jefteris, a late summer apple. J. Hibberd Bar- 
tram, of Chester, valued the JelTeris very mueli. He 
has a tree of the Primate, which is vigorous, and the 
fruit is number one. The apples have to be taken olf 
before fully ripe, as they will rot at the core. A mem- 
ber said the Beuoni was considered the best in Lan- 
caster county. Mr. Pannebaker, of Mifflin county, 
recommended the Early Harvest, which sell earlier 
and better than Red Astraclian, and suit the home 
market better. Mr. Satterthwait praised the Cornell 
Fancy, which originated in Bucks county. Mr. Bar- 
tram said that his most profitable apple was Summer 
Hagloe — large and handsome. John S. Williams also 
spoke in favor of this variety, and thought it better 
than the Benoni. H. M. Engle spoke o£ an apple 
grown in Lancaster called the " All Summer," 
which' ripens early and is of excellent quality. The 
Red Astrachan was not very satisfactory there. The 
Knowles Early was favorably spoken of by S. W. 
Noble, J. H. Bartram and H. T. Darlington, and E. 
Satterthwaite said that one of the best for home use 
was the Early Joe. S. W. Noble recommended the 
Early Strawberry as a mai-ket fruit, as it bears car- 
riage well. A. R. Sprout said that there was a de- 
cided diflerence between the Early Harvest and Sour 
Bough. Mr. Cooper said that there was much con- 
fusion in Lancaster as to the identity of these kinds. 
E. Satterthwait said that the Early Harvest always 
grows yellow and cracks when entirely ripe. In re- 
gard to fall apples, the Cornell Fancy was favorably 
spoken of. W. P. Magill thought the Townsend, 
which ripens at the same time, rather preferable. 
They come in peach time, when the market is not so 
good. People cannot grow to advantage all the good 
apples that ripen at that time. He would have a few 
trees lor home use. The Maiden's Blush is one of 
the very best for market, as it may be picked early 
and sold after peaches are gone. A member spoke 
highly of the Smokehouse, which was both excellent 
aud profitable. E. Satterthwait said that its weak 
point was rotting on the tree. Mr. Pannebaker said 
it was one of the best apples grown in Mifflin county. 
II. M. Engle said that it was the best selling .apple 
in its season in Lancaster county. Its keeping quali- 
ties appear to be good ; the fruit dealers have plenty 
of them yet on hand. E. Satterthwait said this was 
another proof that varieties do best iu the localities 
where they originate. Mr. Engle agreed as to the 
general rule in this respect, but there are exceptions. 
Mr. Shellcr said that in Union county the Smoke- 
house is highly prized and keeps well. In Maine 
they have been grown with success as winter apples. 
W. P. Miigill said with him it is an annual bearer, 
but the fruit is injured by worms. They do not rot 
much, but have to be marketed iu October. John 
Eastburn, in regard to the Cider apple, said that 
many of his trees have borne every year. The rea- 
son, he tlsought, was that he had taken the best pos- 
sible care of his orchard. The crops were not exces- 
sively large, but moderate, and they kept on in that 
way. S. W. Noble spoke a good word for the old 
Fall Pippin, but it is about exhausted here. Moses 
Brinton, of Lancaster, was an admirer of the Falla- 
water, as one of the best autumn fruits. J. H. Bar- 
tram said it was one of tlie first apples in Chester 
county. It generally bears well. Thomas M. Har- 
vey remarked that t.he tree is subject to borers and 
short-lived. Mr. Purman wanted to know what 
kinds he ought to plant in his orchard in Clinton 
county— the best half-dozen for winter. Mr. Noble 
said the Baldwin and R. I. LTreeuiug would no doubt 
be satisfactory in that region. Mr. Lint advised him 



to find out what sorts are now doing best in that 
county, and plant accordingly. The Wagner was 
spoken of with approval. Thomas M. Harvey said 
that in Bucks county we must notoverloOk the eider. 
He regarded it as of poor quality, but it is productive 
and sells well. You can eat ou and on at it and never 
be surfeited, as it is so weak and watery. John East- 
burn related the origin of tlie Smith's Cider. It was 
about 8.5 years ago. The original tree grew in a 
hedge row near Pineville, on the projierty now occu- 
pied by Jacob S. Livezey, in Buckingham, and he 
knew the tree very well. A man went there for a 
■graft, but it was nearly dead. Othertrees were then 
grafted, and the variety soon spread all over the 
county. The original owner took the variety to New 
York, but it did not succeed well there. 

Destroying the Bark Louse. 

Mr. Meehan changed the subject by inquiring how 
to destroy the hark louse. He had tried several pre- 
parations without much effect. H. M. Engle and 
E. Satterthwait had expressed the same trouble with 
nursery trees. The early summer is the only time 
when they can be destroyed by caustic applications. 
Thomas M. Harvey said that placing pieces of whale 
oil soap in the to])s of the trees, where the dissolved 
matter would run over them, had been found effec 
tual. J. H. Bartram had cleared trees of bark lice 
with strong common soap, applied in the water. Mr. 
Sprout related an experiment with a preijaration, 
made of copperas, blue vitriol, saltpetre, common 
soap and salt, which was placed in a bag in the fork 
of the tree. It had proved successful, and his trees 
are now in fine order. Be careful you don't use too 
mueh blue vitriol. Take 2 lbs. copperas, % lb. blue 
vitriol, >4' lb. saltpetre, 4 lbs. hard soap, 4 lbs. com- 
mon salt. It will kill all the insects. Weekly, ap- 
plied with a brush, will also do the business. J. Q. 
Atkinson, of Montgomery, had faith iu the efficacy 
of whitewash. Mr. Cooper said that S. S. Rathvon 
recommended whale or fish oil.* Mr. Pannebaker 
cleared the lice out with Babbitt's potash, mixed with 
a little turpentine. J. Q. Atkinson said that the ex- 
clusion of the air at the time of hatching was the ob- 
ject desired, and whitewash will do that as well as 
anything. John Eastburu's experience was in favor 
of scouring the trees off with soap and sand applied 
with a cloth. 

Election of Officers. 

On meeting on Thursday afternoon the hall was 
quite well filled. The committee on nominations 
submitted the following list : President, Edwin 
Satterthwait ; Vice-Presidents, Samuel W. Noble, 
Henry M. Engle, Tobias Martin; Recording Secre- 
eary, Edward' B. Engle; Corresponding Secretary, 
Wm. P. Brinton; Treasurer, Geo. B. Thomas. The 
Secretary was directed to cast a ballot bearing 
these names, and they were declared elected. Fixing 
the place of the next annual meeting was then taken 
up. Moses Brinton proposed that it be held at Lan- 
caster. This motion was agreed to by a vote of the 
members. 

The Codling Moth. 

The discussion of the cultivation of the apple was 
resumed. Mr. Noble was called upon to tell about 
the codling moth, " the worst enemy of the apple." 
This insect attacks the fruit, not the tree. The eggs 
are laid on the calyx of the young fruit, the hatched 
grub penetrates it, and toward maturity works its 
way out. It often finds refuge in the rough bark of 
the tree. The best preventive known is to keep them 
from harboring in the bark. Mr. Sprout described a 
new instrument for defeating the moths brought to 
his notice. It consists of a rubber band some two 
inches wide, formed in such a way as to flare out like 
the sides of a tin pan. They cost from 1.5 to 50 cents 
each. Mr. Meehan said that something was wanted 
to clip the wings of the moths. II. M. Engle said 
we ought to know more about the habits of the moth 
before we can fight it well. Nothing can stop the 
first brood that he knows of. The old moth flies to 
the trees ; it does not crawl up. This brood is often 
small, and not very destructive. But the eggs laid 
on the fruit are hatched ; the worms, when they 
emerge from the apples, drop to the ground or on the 
branches, and take refuge under the bark to form 
their cocoons. Now is the time to destroy them and 
keep down their numbers. He did not know whether 
tlie ruliber ring shown by Mr. Sprout would work or 
not. Mr. Meehan said that the simple plan of put- 
ting hay-bands on the stems of the trees is better than 
anything else. It costs but little, and the bauds and 
insects can be burned up to together. Mr. Satter- 
thwait said that if the rough bark is kept scraped off 
there will be little shelter afforded, and most of the 
worms can be caught under old shingles idaced around 
the trunks. All the fallen fruit should be picked up 
and fed to hogs. In that way his apple croj) has 
been' greatly improved. Mr. Sprout thought we did 
not give the insects sullicicnt credit lor their intelli- 
gence. They have sense enough to know how to 
take care of themselves. Dr. Dickie stated that since 
he had kept low Is in his orchard the codling moth 
had been much diminished. 

"Ou this subject, see au article entitled, " What Kind of 
our' ou page 18 of this uuuibor of TheFakmer, 



Pears and their Culture. 

The President, in reply to a question, said that the 
most profitable pear, coming earlier than the Bart- 
lett, is .Manning's Elizabeth. It is very productive, 
and ripens in August. Mr. Meehan remarked upon 
the great number of failures in pear trees, especially 
dwarfs. In the vicinity of (iermantown a man planted 
fifty thousand dwarfs a few years ago, but he has not 
overstocked the market. Most of them are dead. Old 
and large trees seem healthy, especially the old Cath- 
arine pears about Philadelphia. What is the reason 
why younger trees are not so ? Mr. Carter said that 
he recently saw four thousand dwarf trees, planted 
two years, in perfect health. That was in Maryland. 
Thomas M. Harvey asked whether many of the fail- 
ures were not iu foreign varieties. Even the Bartlett 
is not certain yet. Probably most of the foreign 
kinds will not last long here. It would be better to 
plant the Lawrence, Seckel, and other native sorts. 
E. Satterthwait said that was his experience. The 
Duchess is his most healthy pear, while the Law- 
rence cracks badly. Mr. Meehan said that the Catha- 
rine is one of the oldest of pears. George B. Thomas 
— the Duchess, near West Chester, is of no value. It 
does well iu Union county, said Mr. Sheller. E. Sat- 
terthwait always plants Duchess on quince. W. P. 
Magill mentioned a remedy for slugs on the leaves. 
He uses fVesli slakid lime. It was entirely effectual, 
in two applii'ations. An orcharcd, which was not 
treated thus, made no growth at all. Road dust or 
ashes will do as well, said George B. Thomas. To 
dust a large orchard is a pretty big job. It should be 
done in the morning. H. M. Engle said that the lime 
acts at once on the soft substance of the slugs, and 
can be better put on with a tin duster. Several spoke 
in behalf of the healthiness of the Lawrence. J. H. 
Bartram thought that barn-yard manure was benefi- 
cial to pear trees, and very large ones often grow 
close to yards. Moses Brinton's idea was the reverse 
of this; his trees had suffered fire-blight where it had 
been applied. E. Satterthwait had suffered much 
loss from fire-blight the last four or five years, but 
he thought it was due to dry weather. Barn-yard 
manure has done his trees no harm , but he docs not 
habitually manure. Mr. Meehan agreed with this. 
He never sawacaseof fire-blight about Germantown, 
where manure is freely used. Manuring on the sur- 
face is the only way for orchard trees. Mr. Carter 
had great faith in mineral fertilizers, especially for 
pears. The South Carolina phosphatie rock is an 
excellent thing for them, and fruit growers ought to 
try it. 

Fruit Trees from the North. 

Watson P. Magill said that Northern aud Eastern 
trees are not satisfactory in this part of Pennsylvania. 
The loss to Bucks county alone from planting these 
fruit trees has been estimated at §1,0(JO,000. To off- 
set this we have a few new varieties. John I. Carter 
said that at the Oxford fair last fall a man exhibited 
a great number of Southern apples, which were of 
much promise. They would mostlj' be long keepers. 
Southern varieties made very late winter apples. 
Thomas Meehan agreed with this; it is not quite 
correct that our own kinds always do best. He in- 
stanced the Jucunda and Triumph de Gand straw- 
berries as examples of great success with foreign 
varieties ; the Bartlett pear is another case ; the Red 
Astrachan apple conies from Russia ; our best cher- 
ries come from abroad. A Southern fruit brought 
north is often valuable, and the reverse. E. Satter- 
thwait took substantially the same view. It matters 
not where a variety originates, if it is only good. 
.Moses Brinton said that api)le trees from the North 
were not satisfactory, but there may be advantage in 
bringing Southern apples North. 

Preservation of Fruit by Ice. 

Eastburn Reeder gave a short description of the 
fruit-house of Natlian Hellings, near Bristol — built 
with thick stone walls, and a body of ice 14 feet deep 
in the upper story. A temperature of H3° is main- 
tained all through, and the ajiples are perfectly fresh 
and plump after several months. Dampness is pre- 
vented by an arrangement of screens, which carried 
off condensed moisture. Mr. Hellings claims a p.at- 
ent for his process. E. Satterthwait said that venti- 
lation is very important, and that there is probably a 
secret in that respect. W. M. Largesaid that a friend 
of his had to pay a royalty to Mr. Hellings to use his 
process. H. .\I. Engle wanted to know if there was 
a way by which individual growers may keep their 
fruit. It has been done on a large scale, why not ou 
a smaller one? He had himself an ice-house ar- 
ranged so that a room is kept cold for milk and fruit, 
which has succeeded pretty well. The moisture is 
the chief drawbai-k. There inay be a substance placed 
inside to absorli the dampness. E. Reeder saiil that 
he saw nothing of the kind at Bristol ; if the temper- 
ature is kept at f>'2° there will be little or no mois- 
ture. He had constructed a milk-house cooled by 
ice in another room ; in winter he keeps fruit in it 
with good results— some apples until August. It is 
mucli better than a cellar, but was not built for a 
fruit-house. 

Cultivation of the Cherry. 

John I. Carter said that the rearing of the cherry 
is uncertain iu many places. It will not grow to any 



]S7fi.J 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



29 



size, but weakens anJ (lies. lie tlioiii,'lit (iov. Wood 
the best kiiiil. Mr. SaltertliwaU tliouirlit it not a 
u:<«)il ni:ii*lvet vnriety. Mr- Knu-'lo linii jioor suecesB 
in rcrtriiiir it; the E;irly lUehnioiiil was mucli nmrc 
reliubh'. Tlionias .M. Harvey liad raised trees to sell 
some years ap), and peojile living aloiifr streams 
would not buy bif,'iirreaus and hearts^they took 
niazzards and dukes. Mr. Knf;lo said tliat York is 
the leading eounty lor <herries ; they seem to L-row 
with ease and withoiit eare. Mr. Sprout had tried 
many kinds, without sueeess. He now f;ral"ts culti- 
vated varieties hiijli up on the native stoeks. The 
old pie eherry is a maiiulependenee. The blaek knot 
appears sometimes on morello and sour eherries. 
The frraf'tiufroujiht toliedone very early. .Mr. Carter 
thinks the disease of the pie eherrii-s is disappearinir, 
and most of liis trees are elear of knot. Mr. Meehan 
said that there was a areat improvenn'Ut in the health 
of the eherry. The knot is caused by a funi;us(;row- 
iiii; in the wood. The success of the eherry dejiends 
nmeh on the stoeks chosen — the pie elierry (Iocs best 
on the maz/.ard or common wild stock. On the ina- 
haleb stock they nevir rcMch any size. Heljad known 
some i)rolil able trees of the Early Uiehniond ural'ted 
on mazzards. E. 8alterthwait said that the black 
knot came on gradually a few years af;o, and has 
swept all over the country. He thought the Yellow 
Spanish the finest of all cherries ; it is larire, lirm 
and handsome. Hethouulit il much better than (iov. 
Wood. J. H. Bartram had met with success with 
the Enf,'lish Morello, and tbund them i)rotit.at)le. He 
ln>s now '.too trees, and they will briui; twice as nuuh 
as pie cherries. H. M. En<^leenumerale<l tbiv. Wood, 
Uoekport Hiijarrcau and Kin land's .Mary as much 
alike. The <ine most called for is the Black Tartar- 
ian, which is the favorite in York county. There are 
eomi>laints that the tree is unhealthy. Another [lop- 
ular eherry is the Russian, the largest black eherry he 
has ever seen. He docs not know where it comes 
from. Is a little later than the Black Tartarian. 
Peach Culture. 
Watson P. Macill was calh'd on to to tell what he 
knew about peaches and their diseases. His impres- 
sion is that the "yellows" are due to severe cold; 
that often the trees are atlectcd before they are set iu 
the orchard. They are iu a soil, immature condition 
the year after budding, and very susCi'ptible of in- 
jury. Tbey get blaek at the heart, which is fatal to 
them. A temperature of live to lifteeu degrees below 
zero will cause this result. When the buds of the 
trees have lici'U killed, it is a poor season to plant a 
l)eaeh orchard. He thinks the disease contagious in 
an orchard. He has never known a tree with the 
yellow to be worth anything allerwards, and such 
trees sliould be immediately removed. The disease 
progressed gradually over his orchard, beginning, on 
the north. Last winter was steadily cold, without 
great extremes, and the trees did not sutler much. 
But last spring was not a good one to plant trees. H' 
the trees are buried over wintirin the ground, before 
planting, they will be protected. We cainiot compete 
here suecesslully with the growers in Uelaware or 
Jlaryland, but must plant kinds which come into 
market when theirs ari^ gone and there is a good dc 
niand. He would plant nothing earlier tliau Old- 
mi.xon; afti-rthat Uarcripcs, Late Craw lords. Smocks, 
and ISalaways, if they ]>rove to be good here. Late 
peaches are the only i>rolitable ones in this seetif)n. 
Thomas M. Harvey agreed as to the contagious 
nature of the " yellows." He thinks it is spread by 
the wind carrying the pollen from one to another. In 
warmer countries the " yelltjws " do not exist; and 
the disease is not known in forcing-houses. E. Sat- 
terthwait said that Mr. Magill bail the right theory. 
He saiil, in regard to the Salway, that he planted the 
trees three years ago, and the fruit last season was 
very tine. Picked carefully and sent to market they 
were sold readily at one dollar a half peck, when bas- 
kets could be bought at twenty-live cents. Thomas 
M. Harvey said that the Susipiehanna peach, so 
liighly praised, is worthless. jMr. Engle had seen 
good crops from it, and sells remarkably well, but he 
would plant oidy a few trees. Kccve's favorite he 
considered a better peach and a surer bearer. It sells 
higlier than the average. J. S. Williams said it was 
a fine peaeli but a shy bearer. As to Troth's Early, 
Mr. Magill had planted it considerably, but it came 
into eonipctition witli Southern peaches in the mar- 
ket and was not protitable. It is a pretty sure bearer. 
The Mountain Hose w-ill supplant il in most cases. 
H. M. Engle spoke highly of the Salway. It is a few 
days later than the Smock, and resendiies it in habit. 
It is of bctti-r quality than the Smock, and will grow 
where the latter succeeds. J. H. Bartram called at- 
teulion to a disease attacking the trees, causing them 
to decay and break in the fork or crotch. The bark 
ajipears to decay there. .Mr. Magill had not been 
nuieh troubled by borers: be keeps the earth banked 
around the roots. The insect is dillerent from the ap- 
ple borer. Mr. Pannebaker said he had a peach 
ripening about the tenth of October — a very line fruit, 
of which he does not lind the name in any of the 
books. Engle suggested that he must have bought 
them of a Irec agent I The practice in peach districts 
is to keep the land under cultivation. 

The afternoon session closed with a brief discus- 
sion of plums and their enemies. Thomas Meehan 
Bpoke disparagingly of the Wild Goose plum, which 



lie compared to a i)ersimmon. No one sliould grow 
Itinsteail of the lulllvaled kinds. Mel hods of destroy- ' 
ing cureulio were discussed, but nothing new in this 
direction was elicited. | 

Miscellaneous Topics. 
On Thiusday evening, as the Society would dis- 
perse after that sessit>n, Mr. .Meehan olfereil a reso- 
lution tendering the tlianks of the Soi'lely to the 
Doylestown and Solcbniy Earmers' Clubs, and the 
two county .\grienlltn'al Soelellcs foV the aceommo- 
dallon and attention aMnrded in Doylestown. His 
resolution was unanimunsly ailopted. It was an- 
nounced that an essay was produced by Mr. Stanllcr, 
of Lancaster, to be reail bidbre the Society, but owlnjf 
to its length, it was necessarily deferred. Il was (tr- 
ilcred lo be publisbetl in the anninil report. The 
eornmittec appointed to examine the specimens of 
Irnits displayed before the Society ri'ported the I'ol- ' 
lowing exhibitors: A. H. Barber, 1). W. .VIcNair, 
Casper lliller iV Son, II. M. Eiiirlc, Calvin Cooper, 
W. I'. Magill, A. S. ShelbM-, .1. W. iV II. S. I'axson, 
.lobn Eastburn, A. K. Sprout, liobert Ivlns, .lohn 1. 
Carter and N. II. Burroughs. .Many s|iecinuMi8 had i 
been brought for the purpose of having them named. [ 
Strawberries. 

The first subject of discussion for the evening was 
"Strawberries — the best varieties and nuidcs of cul- 
ture." John I. Carter thought perhaps the best was 
the Charles Downing. There are some lifteeu tir 
twenty at the Experimental l''arm, Mr. Sjirout , who 
thought he had had some i'Xperience in the malter, 
favored Wilson's Albany and Triumph de (irand, 
ndxed. Mr. Thonuis thought the Charles Downing 
the best they coulil raise at West Chester. As lo 
treatnn-nt, Mr. .Meehan said the sun w:is the cause of 
damage in tlie winter, and that a light covering only 
was nccessaiy. He described the plan of training 
runners into j)ots, etc. Mr. B:irtram, of Chester, 
liked Wilson's Albany best ; hr hiul tried a number 
of other varieties. He would plant in I hi' spring 
only. President Sattcrthwait said no regidar grow- 
ers in this part of the country woulil think of jilant- 
ing iu the fall ; that the i)raetleeof lioingso had done 
much to injure the popularity of the strawberry. ll(^ 
jilants in rows, 2'., feet apart, and works with a eid- 
tivator all suuuner, and allows all the runners to 
take root that are able to do so. In the fall he cov- 
ers with straw manure, aud is not afraid of using loo 
much. By the next season this straw is washed en- 
tirely clean, aiul serves to keep the berries out (d'the 
sand. Not an inch of groiaid is left without this 
covering. Of course it is expensive, aud weeds have 
to be kept out : but on the whole it pays. He never 
mows the tops oil'. Mr. Sprout at one time experi- 
mented {.in one-{'ightb of an acre of ground. Imme- 
diately after picking he cut the tops olf close to the 
soil. Next year the product from that piece of 
ground was 1,(H)() qmirts, which he sold readily at 20 
cents. Mr. Pennybaker, of Milllin, had also obtained 
highly satisfactory results in the same way. Mr. 
Sprout keeps a bed from three to live years. Presi- 
dent Sattcrthwait plants a new bed every eeason, 
and favors particularly the Jticunda. 

Raspberries and Blackberries. 

IJaspberries have bi'comc somewhat unpoiiular 
with fruit-growers on account of the limited demand 
for them in the market. The black varieties are not 
worth more than half as much as I lie red in the Phil- 
adelphia marki't. The most popular varieties at 
present are the Ilerstinc' anil I'biladelpbia. .Mr. Pan- 
nebaker said that in his town (Milllin) the blaek eoiu- 
mauded a better price than the red berries. 
Currants and Gooseberries. 

These sniiill fruits re({uire little trouble to pro- 
duce. The kinds of gonsi-berrii's most favorably 
mentioned by the Society wen- Smith's Improved 
Downing, Chester, and Mountain Seedling, drafting 
was suggessed. Most members do not practice trim- 
ming either currant or gooseberry bushes. To pre- 
vent mildew it was recommended to keej) the roots 
cool by mulching or placing stones about the bushes. 
Grapes. 

Popular favor ran toward the Concord, Hartford, 
Christina, Martha and Ives Seedling. Mr. Thomas 
would except the Hartford. Hich soil Is necessary 
for the i)erfeetion of the grape. Methods of training 
were given. 

Evergreens. 

Pines were recomnu-nded for the most windy situ- 
ations, including White, Austrian, and Scotch. The 
spruces come next. They are not able to withstand 
the wind. Norway and Hemlock spruces are most 
popular. Still more lender arc the lirs, and are onlj 
graceful and beautiful when perfect. Mr. Thonnis 
described a number of evergreens and ornamental 
shrubs. 

Roses. 

These flowers are now propagated in endless vari- 
eties, and hundreds of new ones arc ammally pro. 
duced. The teas, bourbons and dallies, however, 
especially the olden varieties, still retain their de- 
served rank ami place In well-kept gardens. .\ large 
number of very excellent kiixls of roses were men- 
tioned, as well as numerous llowcrs and oruamcnlal 



shrubs for the yard and lawn. Before the ailjouni- 
incntof the Society, a committee of ten was appointed 
to confer wHh Burnett Landreth In respect i<» repre- 
sentation at the Centennial, ami the eommlllce was 
cm[io\vered tvi act for the Society. A resolution was 
also adopted unanimously favoring a legal enactment 
to prevent horses and cattle from runuiiig at large. 



OUR PARIS LETTER. 



CorrospoDdenoe of TnK Ij^ncahtru FABurit. 

P.\ltis, Jaiuiary ai, 1S7«. 
French farmers have much reason to complain on 
two essential points — the great increase of expenses, 
and a dinilmitlon, rather than an augmentiilion, fff 
the |>r(sluce of the soil. I'ut I Ing aside the rich pro- 
prietor and the really-working small farmer, tliero 
remain the rich peasunt and the cltlziii ugrlcul- 
tiirist. Th4> rich peasant, If he has not i-ommenei-d 
to make his fortune, will assuredly add to it, for his 
iuilefatlgable activity, simple tastes and frugal habits 
Intluee order and enabh* him to tide over a bud year 
without drawing on his capital. He never, on liv- 
eoining wealthy, abandons his career, and although 
acute in judgnu'iit and observation, his principal de- 
fect is the absence itf a professional tHiueation. Tho 
citl/jui agrieullurlsl generally adopts the xii/iiicic sys- 
tem — sharing the profits wltji the tenants. He has a 
greater taste for rclinemcnt and social cnjoymeutB 
than the rich peasant, and despite a sclent ilic ae- 
i|Uaintance with farndng, diH'S not succeed licttcr. 
He loves the i>rincipal city or the capital, is fn*qucntly 
embarrassed to make the two ends meet, and his 
grand ambition Is to m:ike his sons lawyers. Thest; 
two culti\'ators represent the avcragi' types of their 
class, and live iin, as well as by, the pniduee of their 
farms. Now the mean price of living for each mem- 
ber of a family was, in IHW), LI sous piT day; In 
lN.").'i, 20 ; and In IXT.T, '27 sous ]>vr day. There has 
been no sensible increase in tiring, but in lighting, 
the augmentation has been .M) jK'r cent, since 1H4(). 
The wages of farm and hiAisehold servants have rigi^n 
by 2.5 and Xi |kt cent, since ISTl), or '.'(K) jxr cent, as 
compared with 1H40. It will sism be prolltable for 
Australia and the States to send "aids'' to Eraiicc ; 
even maehinery canufit allogetlier replace manual 
labor. The adoption of fermented instead of cooki'd 
food for cattle feeding is not oidy making nuich way 
in Kranci', but also in (icrmany ; ixrhaps the chief 
cause of tlic change is lo be foumi in the fuel econo- 
mized. It was a Bohenuan agriculturist — .M. .\ndre 
— who in IH'M lirst tried the plan; In bS'W Dr. 
Schncilzer, of Saxony, cxi^sed its ailvanUigcs ; 
since, ,M. .Moel, Professor of Agrlcullure in this city, 
has become the most pronunent udviKate of fer- 
mented food. Instead of cho[)ped straw he employs 
colza pods, in alternate layers with slici'd turnips 
and beet — the mass being all tro<lden in a barnd 
having a capacity of :»o(l gallons ; each layer is well 
spriidiled with water containing bruised oil or colza 
cake and a little .salt ; the mass is left to ferment for 
seventy-two hours, aud is then given to the animals 
for their noon fee<l. 

The climate being c(|Ual, continental farmers arc 
divided into two camps, res|>ecling the eullivation of 
maize for fodder — green and pressed, ami elovir, 
beet, etc. Maize recpiires giKxi manuring, ami when 
so treated succeeds well on freshly rtTlaimed heath- 
land ; clover, by its dc:iil roots, enriches the soil. Ill 
a dry summer beet is not so ecrlain a crop as niai/e, 
and opinion is divided as to their comparative yield. 
.M. d'Esterno aiuiounces that he can profitably feed 
hogs on preserved maize inilil within the three 
months rci|Uisite lo fatten them, when, of course, 
they nuist receive farinaceous loixl. The forage 
must not V:c g^iven in a raw state, but cooked, and 
chopijcil in lengths of one or two inches. The pig 
likes as a rule to be spared mastication as much as 
[Jossible. In some parts of France osiked grass, 
nettles, thistles, etc., arc given lo pigs, with one part 
of potatoes. Beet is dear, costing J'r.Vi per ton, 
while preserved chopiK'd maize is om>-half less. .M. 
d'Esterno purchasiKl two pigs on the 27lh of Sc|)- 
tembcr last, for /i'.lT2, and sold them, fatleiied, 
the Pith of November following, for /i-.'2:i.'i ; differ- 
ence, //-.I'sl, from which has to be dcHluelwl Iheir 
keep, valued at //-.1 1— thus leaving a net profit of 
/i-..')2 for 44 days' feeiiing. For the first twentylw o 
days he gave lliein for ration 27 |«)unds of cooked 
maize fislder, l'« i«)umls of mill refuse, and one-half 
a pound of potatoes ; the n-nialning twenty-two days 
they were fed on :t7 i>ounds of maize, !• JKmnds of 
potatoes and 1 ;\, |K>unds of buckwheat, dully. 

.M. Thc'nanl draws altenlion to the natural fer- 
tillly of soils. There are forests where nuinure Is 
neverdisi ribuled , aud yet sim-c centuries ago t hey show 
no diminulion in richness, although the timber Im 
rcgularlv felled and sold every thirty years. This 
timber carries off nitnigen. the vliieyaril of C'los 
Vougeat, celebrated since nearly one thousand years 
ago, receives not more than <iuarter of a ton of ma- 
nure jH-r acre ammally, yet it yields nearly four times 
that weight of fruit. In uddilUin to the shorts pruneil 
for firewiKKl ; the soil shows no fulling away in fer- 
tility. M. Truchot finds the mounlaln pasture lands 
of Auvergne, which arc never manureil, to be richer 
in nitrogen than the arable soils of Llmagnc, which 



30 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[February, 



are resiilarly enriched. In these eases, from whence 
conies the supply of nitros^en? M. Dcherain explains 
the matter thus : All the soils in question are rich in 
humus, the accumulation of years, and this car- 
bonaceous matter, in decomposing, absorbs the 
oxygen of the air tliat has penetrated into the soil — 
as is the ease in an ordinary manure heap — and the 
nitrogen thus liberated unites with the hydrogen 
disengaged from the decaying organic matter, and 
forms ammonia. Perhaps the explanation is as good 
as our present state of science can afford. 

Certain meadows in Sleswig-Holstein are remark- 
able for producing singular results iu cattle, as com- 
pared with other pasture lands in the vicinity. The 
animals, though in excellent health, remain diminu- 
tive, displaying at the same time a predisposition to 
fatten rapidlj- ; the cereals cultivated have a ten- 
dency to be laid, and the grain is not rich in flour. 
An analysis was made of the soil, and of the grain 
and hay produced, and showed a deficiency of lime, 
magnesia, potash and phosphoric acid. The inade- 
quacy, especially, of lime and magnesia in the soil, 
and consequently in tlie pasturage, did not furnish 
the necessary ingredients to build tlie skeleton, thus 
arresting the growth of the animals, and provoking 
their premature fattening. 

M. Georges Ville is well-known for his advocacy of 
mineral manures, as being in themselves sufficient to 
maintain the fertility of the soil. The crop draws 
from the land certain salts, and to return these by a 
mineral manure, is all, in M. Ville's opinion, that is 
required. Thus farm yard manure, and consequent- 
ly the rearingof cattle, are something like superfluous 
ends. M. Ville has just published a w^ork wherein 
he lays down, that the formation of animal and veg- 
etable substances is subjected to the same laws. All 
this is neither very new nor very accurate. More im- 
portant still, the consequences "to be deduced, do not 
seem to be of any practical importance. We may 
ditier about the best and cheapest manner for " feed- 
ing" crops, but the food for animals cannot be affect- 
ed by any abstract law. 

At Lozere, in the mountainous district of the Ceven- 
nes, straw is very scarce and the animals repose on 
layers of earth, their feeding troughs being movable, 
so as to be raised as the heap of earth increases. It 
is suggested that this plan be given up iu favor of 
the Swiss method, where the cattle also have no bed- 
ding, the liquid and solid excrements being run into 
tanks, from whence, after fermentation, it is distri- 
buted by piping or barrels, over the meadows. In 
the north of Holland, the urine of the cow-shed is 
gathered in small boats, and when these are full, are 
towed along the canals, to disi'harge their contents 
on the adjoining pasturages. In the district of Lozere 
sheep are reared for their milk; the Pyrenean breed 
is excellent in this respect, the ewe yielding after 
nourishing her lamb, from .50 to 11)1) quarts of milk, 
which produces from 10 to 30 pounds of cheese, and 
even excellent butter. The cheese is known as Kogue- 
fort — the French Stilton, and is of world-wide noto- 
riety — the total annual produce being estimated at 
3,000 tons. The wliey is given to pigs, which reject 
it at first, in consequence of its putridity ; afterwards 
they take to it and hecome fat. The vexed question 
of horse-breeding in that mountainous district is 
much studied ; farmci'S prefer crossing native races 
with Arab, instead of English blood ; the result pro- 
ducing animals better able to withstand sevei-e work. 

Spalt, in Bavaria, is the classic home of hop cul- 
ture on the continent; these hop plantations have the 
appearance of veritable forests ; the trenches separat- 
ing the rows of plants are very wide ; the soil is tilled 
to the depth of three feet, and the plantations are 
ever on inclined ground, the ridges being perpendicu- 
lar to the slope ; the soil can thus be more easily 
freshened; in the bottom of the trenches, at distances 
of fifteen feet, are holes a spade's blade in depth, act- 
ing as so many wells for the rain water. The hasty 
kind of hop is preferred, being more productive than 
the slow variety. Each knoll contains three plants, 
and the poles are 3-1- feet in length, the stem being 
tied to them at mid-height by reeds. Wire is not 
employed as a substitute for poles. Hops thus rear- 
ed are neither of good quality nor remarkable in 
quantity. A kind of fork-knife combs the pole, the 
cones being separated from the stems ulteriorly. 
Kapidity is essential in the harvesting. Milch cows 
relish the leaves, and the stems are either given 
green or dried, and cut into lengths of one ot^ two 
inches; they are never burned. 

Wool imijorted from Australia and South America 
is largely mixed with vegetable debris, which is no 
small drawback to its industrial employment. Vari- 
ous processes have been tried to separate this vegeta- 
ble from the animal matter by chemical means. 
Messrs. Barral and Salevat, after a series of experi-, 
ments with sixty different substances, find acid and 
other solutions eflective in destroying the woody part 
of the vegetable substance, provided the wool after 
steeping be well dried, and tlien placed for a time in 
a stove at a certain temperature. 

The discussion on the subject of the formation of 
sugar in beet continues to be warm, but is very far 
from having a satisfactory conclusion. The great 
authority, Claude Bernard, is of opinion the sugar is 
formed by the root. Messrs. Duchartre and Viollette 
believe it takes place by the leaves, owing to the con- 



version of the starch In the leaves into saccharine 
matter, the root being merely the depot for the sugar 
thus formed to nourish the seed-stem the following 
year, just as the tubercle of the potato has a store of 
starcli to feed its shoots of the succeeding season. 

There is still nothing new to record respecting the 
phylloxera; the vine bug has become a greater object 
of interested study. Some experimenters state, one 
dose of sulphuret of carbon is not sufficient, and all 
seem to agree to prohibit the importation of vine 
stocks from affected to healthy vineyards. 



OUR LOCAL ORGANIZATIONS. 



Our Farmers in Council — " Economy vs. Hard 
Times "—Shall we Eat Pork ?— The 
Question of Planting For- 
est Trees, &c. 

The February meeting of the Lancaster County 
Agricultural and Horticultural Society was held on 
Monday afternoon, February 7, at two o'clock, iuthe 
Athenaium room. Present : Messrs. Calvin Cooper, 
Henry M. Engle, Alex. Harris, Casper Hiller, Mar- 
tin Brubaker, Levi W. Groff, John B. Erb, Milton B. 
Eshleman, Levi Pownall, Dr. P. W. Hiestand, Jacob 
Bollinger, Israel L. Landis, Levi S. Reist, S. S. 
Rathvon, Abraham Kaufman, Abraham Bollinger, 
J. Stautfer, Martin S. Fry, Abraham Hostetter, Mr. 
Landis, Mr. Cooper, Simon A. Hershey, Peter S. 
Reist, Johnson Miller, D. G. Swartz, Henry Myers, 
Henry Erb, John Miller, John M. Stehman, E. S. 
Hoover, and John Gross. 

Cai,vin Cooper, the President, occupied the 
chair, and after the reading and adoption of minutes, 
Mr. McComsey arose and remarked that, although 
he could not remain, as he was serving as a juror, he 
had come here hurriedly to manifest by his presence 
his continued interest in the society, and his willing- 
ness to contribute what he was able to the interest of 
its meetings, and expressed the belief that the So- 
ciety, if properly maintained, would prove beneficial 
to its members, socially, mentally and materially, 
for by the discussion of appropriate questions of in- 
terest to agriculturalists, we gain little by little, step 
by step, in the progress of the science of agriculture 
and horticulture, as iu other sciences, through dark- 
ness to light. 

The President, after thanking Mr. McComsey for 
the expression of his interest and good-will, excused 
him. 

J. Fred. Landis, of East Lampeter, Peter C. Hiller, 
of Conestoga, and Levi Pownall, of Christiana, were 
elected members. 

THE REPORTS ON THE CROPS. 

were now read, as follows : 

WuE.VT : Israel Landis, Manheim, reported the 
future wheat crop to be iu as promising a condition 
as it generally is at this date, and it indicates that a 
favorable season may produce a full average crop. 
The rye is about the same as wheat. No summer 
wheat is ever sown; winter barley none; grass at this 
early date is pretty well set and not much damaged 
in the young fields, of last summer's seeding ; many 
second crop fields are thinly set, but a favorable 
season may bring a fair crop. 

ToBA';co : A large portion of the crop (which was 
a good one for this year) is sold, and at. a wide range 
in the prices. There is perhaps no particular way to 
give the average price. There may be some sold 
above and below the prices of 12 and 3 and 6 and 27, 
or from 3 to 13 for fillers, and 12 to 27 for wrappers. 

Corn: There is, perhaps, more corn damaged 
this year in the crib than for many years past. The 
crop was a full one, and the weather was uot favora- 
ble for it after husking. 

Oats was a good crop, but was not well secured 
on account of the wet season; the result is dark color. 

Stock of hay on hand is short; farmers are gene- 
rally economical, and save it by using fodder. 

Fruit: We prefer not stating the condition, but 
think the season so far was favorable, though we 
have made no particular investigation. 

Messrs. Cooper, East Lampeter, and Erb, Stras- 
burg, reported similar conditions of the crops in their 
districts. 

Johnson Miller, Warwick, said we have been 
favored with a snow of five or six inches in depth, 
which is a good covering both for wheat and grass 
fields, as both these crops have suffered somewhat 
from the continued process of freezing and thawing 
of the ground during the last two months. The 
weather was very mild this winter until a few days 
ago; so much so, that fruit trees have nearly, if not 
quite, pushed buds; in case they have, I have no 
doubt but that they miglit suffer from such cold snaps 
as that of Saturday morning — two degrees below zero 
The last year's corn crop is considerably damaged 
from the warm and damj) weather we have had, and 
many farmers qre compelled to remove to save what 
is in good condition yet. Corn growing in a wet sea- 
son like last fall was not matured when housed, and 
then the damp weather has caused it to get very 
mouldy; and I have reason to say that there will be 
more damaged and mouldy corn when farmers shell 
than was ever known. It is a matter of importance 
that farmers should be very careful this spring about 



seed corn, or the next year's crop might be more se- 
riously affected by not coming up after planting — the 
result of poor seed corn. I throw out this hint in 
season, so that I, and all other farmers, may take the 
lesson in time, to prevent what might result in a ycry 
thinly set and poor crop of corn during the Centen- 
nial year. 

^Some one might say, we want to be sure of a good 
crop of corn this coming summer; that is not the in- 
tention of the above suggestion; if we do our part, 
Providence will do the rest. At no point does the 
success of a good crop of corn depend more than in 
the seed we plant. If the first planting does not come 
to perfection, and your stalks will be' regularly set, 
your crop is spoiled with the best of weather that we 
have ever enjoyed; there is more danger in this, this 
year, than ever, and our farmers will do well to ex- 
amine their seed corn carefully before planting. Now 
is the time to make plans and get ready for sprin" 
work. The farmer who always waits till he want!s 
to go to work, to make up his mind as to how he is 
going to manage this, and how he is going to do this 
will find himself often iu confusion, and good man- 
agement of farm operations will be entirely unknown 
to him. Farmers will be required to economize with 
fodder, on account of the short hay crop last sum- 
mer; better commence in time to cut fodder, as there 
is no telling of an early spring and early pasture; ac- 
cording to ground hog signs, we will have a late 
spring, and consequently will be required to feed lou" 
in the stable. Let us all have our farms and stock in 
such condition as to correspond with the Centennial 
year of iinpi'ovements, and to do this, we all have 
our hands full, and each member will best know his 
own calling for the progress of agriculture. 

H. M. Engle was rather inclined in the main to 
agree with the reports of the members, just read, but 
he did not think the danger to the fruit crop was 
past — particularly in the matter of peaches. 
miscellaneous business. 

Milton B. Eshleman, from the committee ap- 
pointed to prepare a petition to the Legislature in be- 
half of inseetiverous birds, submitted a prepared 
document, which was signed by those present. 

President Cooper stated that he had attended 
the recent session of the Fruit Growers' Society at 
Doylestown, and that a committee of ten members 
had been appointed to confer with the managers of 
the Centennial Exhibition, in order to have represen- 
tatives in the Horticultural D^^partment of that great 
show. He feared our Society could not secure 
a representation at the Centennial. 

On motion, the Secretary was authorized to write 
to the Superintendent of the Centennial Horticul- 
tural Department, for printed instructions to ex- 
hibitors. 

The retiring Treasurer, Dr. P. W. Hiestand, made 
his report, showing a balance of ?99..53 in the 
treasury. 

An auditing committee of three members — Casper 
Hiller being chairman— was appointed, and their re- 
port agreed with that of the treasurer. 

The unanimous thanks of the society were tendered 
Dr. Hiestand for hi? faithful services as treasurer. 

The secretary, on motion of I. L. Landis, was in- 
structed to look up the matter of a committee which 
had been appointed some years ago to secure dona- 
tions of liooks — any person giving 810 worth to be 
considered a life member of the society. 

Milton B. Eshleman, esq., read the following 
essay on 

ECONOMT vs. HARD TIMES. 

Mr. President and fellow-farmers : Economy is a 
subject that is distasteful to most persons, and many 
wUl shut their eyes square in its face ; but it forces 
itself upon our attention at the present time, and well 
it is for that man who heeds its demands before they 
are forced too heavily upon him. These times of low 
prices on all farm produce, of small profits on all 
merchandise, of shrinkage in value of all manufac- 
tured goois and machinery, of low wages, and to a 
very distressing extent of want of employment — I say 
these htird times necessitate almost every man — I be- 
lieve it is safe to say four out of every five — to prac- 
tice economy in the living expen.ses of his family. 
Several years of prosperous times, assisted by the 
pride of life and the whims of the fashion market, 
have little by little drawn us into such an extravagant 
and expensive mannerof living, that it will yet cause the 
bankruptcy of many and the death of some men before 
they will be able to get tUeir family expenses down 
to the level of their incomes. All our necessary ex- 
penses can be embraced in three classes, viz. : Houses 
to live in, clothing to protect our bodies, and food to 
sustain life. If we did not require houses, clothes 
and food, we would have no need of money, and con- 
sequently would not be necessitate 1 to work; so the 
more nearly we can bring our requirements to that 
state, the less funds we will need, and the less work 
we will be required to do. You will be surprised, I 
know, each of you, when you consider carefully this 
matter, and note how the wants of each of the three 
classes of expenses have been enlarged, increased and 
added to, until it has liecome necessary for a society 
man to spend all the money he can get by his labor 
or business, often working day and night. In his 
very dreams he is tempted to obtain money by de- 



i 



1870.] 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



31 



IVamlinff siiinc one else, and you will yet tinil oiit luiw 
fi'W ofuH there are who can resist it wiicii a irood op- 
portunity otters. Now, my friends and neiiihhors, 
tliese thiiifjs ou^ht not so to be. The fourth eom- 
inandnunt says: " Six days shalt thou labor;" hut 
I do not believe that it ever was the intention of the 
Wvinc Maker of all, that man slionld work so hard 
or make sueh lontr days as most of us do now, and 
are Ibreed to do in order to meet the imaginary wants 
of the iamily. I eanuot forbear, at this point, to name 
some of tlie extravayanees that 1 consider worse than 
useful: For instauee, p:rand wedtlinus, expensive 
funerals, costly monuments, splendid ei|uipages, four 
changes of fasliious a year, silver sets and ih'sscrt 
alter every meal. There are some so blessed with this 
world's fjoods tliat they can support this style with- 
out any inconvenience to themselves or injury to 
others. With them 1 have nothin;,' to do; but with 
those who allow themselves to be drawn on to follow 
the fashions of otliers, instead of beinir inilependent 
enouKli to lay out a pattern for themselves, as suits 
their circnmstances. Kaeh man on;,'hl to know bet- 
ter than :iny one else what his eireiimslances are, 
how nuieh income he has, and where it comes from, 
anil if he does not live within it he alone is to blame. 
Many p<'rsoiis have, durin,:; tlie last few years, been 
able to follow fashions that they never will be again. 
Many have hitherto supported style that they will 
soon liave todrop, for 1 assure you the hard timesare 
not yet over, nor will tliey be for many montliB to 
come. Centennial or no Centenni:il, hard money or 
6(d't, inlhition or contr;ietion, has nothing to do with 
it; but each one of us must bring about easy times 
for ourselves, which will be as soon as we begin to 
regulate our family cxiienses by our reduced income, 
anil not a monu'Ut sooner. .1 havea theory about the 
c;iuscofthc hard times tliat 1 have never seen in 
print, and the more 1 consider it the more I am con- 
vinced it is correct. During the war, and for eight 
years al'tcr, every person seemed to prosjier, beeausi^ 
there were numy men ready to put their money into 
manul'acturing establislnnents, and whili' lliey nour- 
ished there was a good dennind lor all kinds of me- 
c-hauics, and for nniterial of every kind, that kept the 
furnaces and all iron works in full blast, and the saw 
unlls all running. They in turn keptup the demand 
for coal; the mines were all working, and every man 
in the country who wished, had employinent at good 
wages, and could feed and clothe his family well, and 
that made business good for every retail dealer and 
merchant, and through them for the miller, the 
unmulacturer, the coal miner. All these together 
made a good home consumption demand for the pro- 
ducts of the farm, and maintained a ])rice that paid 
tlic farmer lor his labor. All went on swimmingly, 
aiai every oue who practiced economy was able to lay 
nil something for a rainy day. But there came aday 
when oue of the shrewd manufacturers discovered 
that his business was being overdone, and that he 
had too numy machines iin hand, :ind in order to get 
Ills money out of them, he must put down the price, 
and cither stop his works or reduce liis expenses by 
paying out less in wages. The other inanufacturcrs 
were not slow in linding out what he had done and 
were forced to do the same in order to keep their old 
customers; so this lowering of values soon spread to 
every uuiuufactured article. From that you can eas- 
ily trace the progress of the downfall, and the cause 
of the universal cry of ?Mr<l limci. \Vages reduced, 
restricted the expenditures of every fandly; articles 
that sold readily before, now went slow, and thcoviT- 
stoek of manufactured goods, instead of passing ott" 
at the same rate as before, remains on bund. The 
factories running on half time with only half the 
number of hands, still made enough to kec]) the ware- 
houses full, and consequently there is no prospect of 
an advance in price. The low wages so decreased 
tlie demand for luxuries, and even substanlial food, 
that the evil linally reached the door of the farmer — 
and wlio can tell where it will end, and when the dull 
time will be over. I admit I cannot see it, foi- every 
man who has his money invested in any kind of mau- 
ufactures w ill try to make his living out of it, and in 
order to do that he must run it with the least possi- 
ble outlay, and leave all extra hands out of employ- 
ment. A good denuinil for articles of clothing, lux- 
uries of life, and even breadstutfs, can never be until 
every man is employed. F'or this reason I say that I 
believe the worst has not come yet; that wages will 
be lower, and all kinds of jiroduce will be lower, and 
we will have to learn to live on half of what we have 
been using; and the sooner we get to that state the 
better for us, and for the w hole country. I close by 
recommending Ben Franklin's patent recipe for mak- 
ing money plenty in every nuin's pocket , viz. : " Spend 
every day one cent less tlian thy clear gain." 

Mr. St.vikfeu, commenting on the essay, spoke 
of a nobleman who had \W men emidoycd at land- 
scape gardening. Every day an old nuin was observ- 
ed sitting on a fence, watching the workmen. The 
n^'blennm, whose curiosity had been arouseil ques- 
tioned the old man, who informeil him that he 
was a weaver, living in a <'ottage near by. He nuide 
it a rule to work eight hours, sleep eight hours, and 
take eight hours for recreation in every twcntj'-four 
hours. lie found no better recreation than w:itehing 
the care and labor bestowed by this uobleman and 
bis meu iu beautifying the landscape I 



D. (i. Sw.vBTZ esq., approved the general senti- 
ment of the essay, but he did not believe that mere 
economy would cover the entire ground aw a remedv 
for "hard liniee." That is not good |ihllosophy. The 
nation has been injured by over-prosperity and over- 
conlldenee. The moment Jay tlooki' failed, the peo- 
]>le saw the ueccssity for retrenchment . lint we must 
have <'oidldcnce in each other. As long as people 
feel that this is not the time to buy homis, or nuike 
other investments, there can be no recovery from the 
general stagnation. He believed we had ni'arly reuch- 
cdtlie bottom. The fact that provisions, prtnluce, 
and all kinds of numufacturcd goods are nearly as 
low in prices as they can be, argues well for the fu- 
ture. He predicted higher prices and greater general 
prosperity for us as individuals and as a nation, iu 
the near future, than has ever been known before. 
The fact that we now ndne 5<lllll,ll(H),UU0 In gold and 
silver, anntnilly, is very encouraging. 

Mahti.n S. Fiiv attributed our local hard times to 
the failure of the wheat crop last year, as well as Its 
failure three or four years ago. Histhcory, however, 
as to the i-ause of the gt-ncral depression, was that 
it resulted from a low tarltt'on Imjxjrts. He spoke at 
considerble length. 

J.KVI S. Ki:isT ascribed the general de|iresslon to 
over-trading, and cited the rise and fall of prices In 
many noted years — from IHl.*) to Is:i7; Iheiiriceof 
rennsylvania State bonds in 1S4»', (then quoted at 
:U) and the reaction whicli followed the California 
gold fever of 1N4.S. Ili^ argued that the history of 
the country will show a "crash" every 1.5 or 'U) 
years. A panic cnsui's, every article of produce and 
merchandise gets as low in price as it can get, aud 
then comes a rise and prfisperous times. 

Mr. EsiiLi-rMAN had not contemplated sueh men as 
Mr. Swartz when lie wrote his essay. It was intend- 
ed particularly as a liint to the masses — the [loor peo- 
ple. 

The discussion was concluded by Peter S. Itelst, 
who agreed with the essayist that economy in snuill 
things was a sure preventive of "hard times," and 
illustrated by citing a ease that had fallen under his 
own observation. 

On uKition of Johnson Miller, the unanimous 
thanks of the Society were tendered to the essayist. 

ABOCT I'I..\NTING FOHEST TKEES. 

The question, Is it profitable to convert land worth 
§100 per acre into forests? was now discussed. 

Mr. John B. Euu, who had iirojiosed it, opened 
the (jucstion, giving as his opinion that it would pay 
the (itivernnient to cultivate foi-ests, but it would not 
pay an individual or a company of individuals. 

isitAEi, L. Landis thought there should be some 
legislation on the subject, and alluded to Kansas and 
her young forests, brought into existence by proper 
legislation. 

Messrs. I'etku S. Heist, Jacob StaulTcr and H. M. 
Engle discussed the subject at some length, all of 
them recognizing the imiiortance of planting forests, 
and all agreeing that there should be some legisla- 
tion ou the subject. 

The next question for discussion — 

"IS swine Fi.Esn A pkopek food foh man?" 
was proposed and o])ened by I'eter S. Reist, who took 
the negative side of it. He quoted liberally from 
learned physicians in support, of his view, and also 
cited passages from the Scriplure in support of the 
same — notably from the Uld Testament, viz. : llth 
chapter of Leviticus, and both and (iUth chapters of 
Isaiah. 

Mr. Ekb was glad to have the Scripture quoted, 
but thought we were not bound by the Mosaic laws ; 
he quoted the New Testatemeut to show that any- 
thing in the shape of food could be properly partaken 
of by man in moderation. 

The question was further discussed by Messrs. 
.Jacob Stauller and Eplir;iim Hoover, who thought 
poi-k proper food if well cooked and moderately eaten. 

The further discussion of the question was [wst- 
poned uiUil next meeting. 

Ja( on Heline was elected janitor, at $1 per 
meeting. 

A committee, consisting of Messrs. A. F. ITostet- 
ter, Alexander Harris and Ephrairn Hoover, was, on 
motion of Mr. Ilostctter, appointed to confer with 
the Linniean Society, and olfcr to share the expenses 
of keeping up the room with them. 

WALKINi; HOUSES vs. TUOTTINO. 

Milton B. Esiileman otl'cred the following pre- 
amble and resolutions, which were adopted : 

Wheukas, The tendency of the times is to im- 
prove the ruuning eap:icities of the horse, to the dis- 
paragement of t he walking ; and whereas, in every 
business sense the walking gait is by far the most 
important; therefore it is 

Kinoh'nl, Thiit it is the sense of this Society that it 
would be conducive to the good of the country if 
the PeniLsylvania State Agricultural Society would 
otler several premiums for the fastest walking 
horses at its annual fairs — not requiring the presence 
of the horse on the grounds more than the day of 
trial. 

/{isolvcil, That we request said S<Kiety to otter 
such premiums at Its next exhibition, to be held in 
this city, and that we as individual members will ex- 
ert ourselves to get up a lively contest. 



Jiifulrtit, That the Secretary shall forward a copy 
of this preamble and resolutions to the ollice of tho 
I'ennsyivanla Stale Society at llarrisburg. 

t'Asi'Kit II II. LEU now called attention to a very su- 
[M'rlor fruit raised Iu this county, known as the 
Krauser apple. 

C'liAiiiMAN Cooper exhibited three flno varieties of 
apph'8 grown In this county, and which he desired the 
Society to name. On motion, one was nanieil 
"(lontncr's Fancy," and the other the ".Manor 
Beauty " — both having Ih-cii raised by .Mr. (iontner, 
of .Manor. The third apple, also originated In .Manor, 
was named "The Hitter." 

Johnson .Milllu oll'ercd the following, wtilchwaa 
adopted : 

THE STATE AORIC'fl.TUUAL IIEI-UKT8. 

WiiKiiKAS, The pr<Hee<llug» of the Agricultural 
and llorlieiiltural Society, with the essays and pa- 
pers read at each iiieetlng, have become a matter of 
interest to the general reader; and wlicri'aH, IhelOlh 
volume of the I'ennsyivanla Stale Agrlciiliiiral So- 
ciety, together with the re|i<>rt of the IVnnsylvaiihi 
Fruit (i rowers' Society, and the essays and pa|H.-r8 
eonlalnc'd therein. Is a work which tiiteresls every 
farmer and fruit grower ; and whereas, the meinlwrg 
of the Lancaster County Agrlcullural and Horticul- 
tural Society express the senllinints of the agricul- 
tural, people of this county ; therefore 

y/( sul/'id, That our S*'nators and UepreBcntatlvea 
In the Legislature, now in session at llarrisburg, arc 
reipicsted to encourage sueh ap|iroprlalion of tliia 
valuable agricultural rc|H)rt from lime to time. 

liiMilrcdy That we regard these Iwfisoi'ietlcs as tho 
representative bodies of tin' agricultural and horti- 
cultural Inlercsis of I'eunsylvania, and all feel a 
common interest in their proceedings as benelicial to 
our agricidturalists and horticulturalisls. 

Jieaolvtd, That our C*)rre8|M»nding Sei-n^tary be re- 
quested to forward a copy of the aUive resolulious to 
each of our Senators aud Uepresentatlves at llar- 
risburg. 

A large variety of apples was exiilbted by Levi S. 
Ueist, and two iHjttlcs of wine by Jidui B. Erb. 
After testing the good things. Society adjourned. 



GENERAL MISCELLANY. 



Shade Trees. 

For a list of trees to .set along the lionlers of a street 
in a city or village, or along the highways in a coun- 
try, we would rank the first the sugar of rtM-k utapio 
{Acer giu-cfuiriiiuin). It is a noble [(Kikliig trcewlieii 
fully grown, and makes a dense shade, so acceptable 
in a hot day to man or beast. The only objection to 
its being popular for this purpose Is its 6h>w growth. 
Most people are impatient to have on the start a tree 
that will grow up. like Jonah's gourti, in a single 
night; and will discard this for some quick growing 
kind — like the poplars or eottonwiMxl, lor instance — 
forgetting that, while these quick growing trees, like 
some fast people, grow, flourish, aud have their day, 
the hard ma[ile continues to grow and rear Its stately 
head and stand as a inomnncnt to the memory of lilin 
who, in his wisdom, transplants it. 

Next to the maple we would place the white elm 
(Vtiiiuii Amaiomii). This Is sometimes called the 
weeping elm, and is really a beautiful tree, and per- 
haps more universally used for street |iur|«iKe8 in the 
Northern States than any other single variety. We 
need not here give a dcseriplion of this iiiagiiillcent 
tree, as our readers are all undoubtiHlly acquainted 
with its habits and growth. A row of trees, alter- 
nately maple and elm, have a very pleasing cireel. 
Next in order comes the white ash {Fra£intni Atiu-ri- 
camu). This Iri'c is not as large in its growth as the 
two former, but excels them in the rapidity of its 
growth, and makes an excellent shade tree; its main 
aud only objection iH-iiig its habit of dnipjiing its 
leaves iu ealy fall. The linden, or more commonly 
known basswotnl (Titia Aiiiffictum), makes a beau- 
tiful shade tree; but its tendency to sucker or sprout 
makes it objectionable to many. Yet many advise its 
culture, on account of its beautiful foliage and fra- 
grant blossoms. 



Thoughts for March. 

The farmers arc now burnishing their armor; Ihoy 
can hc:ir, as it were, the sounds of approiiching actl- 
vity, and are making ready to play their part in the 
great industrial strife In which the tillers of the soil 
arc shortly to be engaged. On the farmer every other 
interest mainly dc|H'nds; bis toil sets all arts Inaitloii; 
without it other interests would of in<csslly flag anil 
die. The sound of the anvil would no longer be heard, 
the shuttle aud the spindle would Ix- still, commerce 
would be susiHMidcd, ami man himseir revert to the 
savage state, ilcpendcnt on the chase and the st>outa- 
neous products of mitiire for his daily foo*!. How all- 
Important, how ennobling, then. Is the mission of the 
farmer ! When will American husbandmen l)c duly 
Impressed by that fact, and so train their sons to be 
mentally qualified to llll their high destiny f They 
are the owners of the soil, their iiUcrest Is paramount 
to all others, they are the m;ijority In number, and 
the legitimate caudldatca for high .honor: It U they 



32 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[February, 1876. 



who should fill the posts of dignity and trust, frame 
and administer the laws, and represent the nation 
abroad. But to accomplish all this, self-reliance, 
conscious ability, and conscious worth must co-exist 
— these are not the work of a moment, nor the simple 
union of material forces. No combination alone can 
achieve permanent success. The only patron the far- 
mer needs is himself alone — educated and trained to 
fill his high destiny. 



Large Poultry Yard, 

The followine: account of the largest poultry yard 
in New York is given in the Fancier's Journal : 

It is at Greene, Chenango county, N. Y., and is 
kept by Mr. A. B. Robeson. He has 6,000 ducks, 
4,000 turkeys, and 1,200 hens. They consume daily 
sixty bushels of corn, two barrels of meal, two bar- 
rels of i)otatoes, and a quantity of charcoal. The 
meal, potatoes and charcoal are boiled together, and 
form a pudding which is fed warm. He has com- 
menced to kill them off, and employs fifteen hands to 
pick, two to kill, and one to carry away and pack on 
racks until frozen, then they are ready to pack for 
shipping. He also employs two men to cook the feed 
and feed them. He has twelve buildings for his 
fowls, from one to two hundred feet long, fourteen 
feet wide, and seven feet under the eaves, with a door 
in each end of them. 

Mr. Robeson bought most of his ducks in the West, 
and had them shipped in crates — three dozen in a 
crate. He also has an egg-house, 35 by .50 feet, and 
four stories high. The outside is eighteen inches 
thick, and built of cut stone, laid in mortar, boarded 
up on the inside and filled in between. the outside and 
inside wall with sawdust, it taking 3,000 bushels. 
Mr. Robeson claims that he can keep eggs any length 
of time in this building. He also keeps the poultry 
that he is now dressing until next May or June, 
which he sells for eighteen to twenty-five cents per 
pound, and it cannot be told from fresh dressed 
jmultry. He gets ten cents per pound for turkey's 
feathers, twelve for hen's and sixty-five for duck's. 
He says there is money in poultry, and he thinks 
he can make out of his 0,000 ducks enough to 
pay for his egg house, which cost S7,000. He intends 
to keep a great many more next season, and has 
agents out all over the country buying up poultry 
and eggs. 



The State Agriculturists. 

At the quarterly meeting of the executive commit- 
tee of the State Agricultural Society, the following 
was adopted : 

Resoli'cd, That this executive committee recom- 
mend to the incoming representatives of the Pennsyl- 
vania State Agricultural Society the propriety of 
omitting the annual exhibition of 1870, for the reason 
that the common desire of the citizens of Pennsylva- 
nia is to contribute to the success of the commemora- 
tion during the year of the completion of the first 
century of our republic as a nation. 

The following olliecrs of the State Society were 
elected : 

President — George Scott. 

Vice-Presidents — .James A. M'Crea, Geo. Blight, 
A. L. Kennedy, William S. Bissell, A. D. Levering, 
David H. Branson, Win. H. Holstein, Tobias Barto, 
S. S. Spencer, Daniel H. Neiraan, Joseph P. Connor, 
Ira Tripp, Lyman Nntting,John A. Sniull, James E. 
Carmalt, J. B. Potter, S. Baker, John S. Miller, 
Daniel O. Gehr, L. A. Mackey, George Rhey, John 
Murdoch, jr., Alex. Speer, Joshua Wright, J. B. 
Lawson, J. D. Kirkpatriek, John W. Hammond. 

Additional members executive committee — A. Wil- 
helm, Abner Rutherford, J. S.Keller, Benjamin G. 
Peters, R. S.Allen. 

Ex-Presidents, Members of the Board — Frederick 
Watts, D.Taggart, Jacob S. Haldeman, Thomas P. 
Knox, A. Boyd Hamilton, Amos E. Kapp, John C. 
Morris, J. R. Eby. 

Corresponding Secretary — Elbridge M'Conkey. 

Chemist and Cicologist — S. S. Haldeman. 

Assistant Chemist and Geologist — Hugh Hamilton. 

Librarian — William H. Egle. 



The Pestilential East Wind. 

I believe it is an admitted fact that an easterly wind 
is more deleterious to man, beast, and vegetation, 
than a westerly wind. I have observed that if an 
east wind should come while the cherry and raspberry 
were in bloom, they are sure to be mostly blasted. 
I have noticed, too, that all kinds of stock require 
more attention during an eastern wind or storm than 
in one from the west. Man, as a general rule, feels 
more dull, stupid, and inactive during an east wind. 
We read in the Bitjle of the pestilential east wind; so 
we infer that during the patriarchal days, in Asia, 
it was observed to be the more deleterious. The ques- 
tion has often been asked. Why is this so? Philoso- 
phers, who reason from cause to ettect, have searched 
for a cause. I will give my phylosophy for it, and 
those who peruse it may take it for what it is worth. 

The planet revolving from west to east, and a west 
wind going the same direction, the surlaee air, a por- 
tion at least, is thrown ofi' into space — consequently 



the higher and purer atmosphere is pressed down to 
the surface; hence we do not get all of the poisonous 
miasma in the air during a westerly wind. My idea 
may become more clear by statihg a fact that many 
have observed. By pouring water on a grindstone 
and turning it rapidly, a portion of the water is thrown 
from the surface, just so with a western wind; it 
brings into requisition the centrifugal force, a ten- 
dency to fly from the surface, while with an east wind 
the reverse is true; the centripetal force is brought to 
bear. Hence an east wind coming against the planet 
is constantly clinging to the surface; therefore we 
are subjected to all the impure air, &e. 

I have here briefly given what seems to me the 
true cause for the more injurious effects of an east 
wind, and I shall adhere to this, unless some one can 
give something which appears still more philosophi- 
cal. — A. Allen JVoe, Lancaster, January 1, 1870. 



Influence of Food on the Mind, 

Good food, a variety and enough to satisfy the de- 
mands of the stomach for the time, exercises a pro- 
digious influence on mental operations. A hungry 
man has no wide range of thought, neither has a glut- 
tou . Those are extremes which endanger the physi- 
cal well-being of the body. Just enough to relish con- 
tributes immensely toward that condition of mind es- 
sential forthe exercise of reason and judgment. When 
food is imperfectly digested, or not at all, the vital 
processes arc diminished in force, which is shown in 
direct debility and an enfeebled state of the brain. 

Great brain workers are generally great eaters. 
The blood requires frequent meals from which to 
elaborate something essential to its full contribution 
of those elements that sustain the most wonderful 
organ ever brought under the eye of a naturalist in 
the conduction of its mysterious functions. Stranger 
still, the brain quickly uses up the quickened influ- 
ences conveyed to it in the blood; and if more is not 
soon supplied, the deficiency is indicated by nervous 
disturbances and abnormal derangements which food 
alone can re-establish. 

A regular, systematical served diet, of a mixed 
character, embracing both animal and vegetable ma- 
terials, proportioned agreeably to the taste of an in- 
dividual, secures the highest condition of mind for 
carrying on those studies in literature, science or art, 
characteristic of the best types of civilized man. 
Neither savages, barbarians, mendicants in search of 
a dinner, nor gourmands write books or contribute to 
the moral progress of mankind. 



Hurtful Reading. 

A had book, magazine, or newspaper, is as danger- 
ous to your child as a vicious companion, and will as 
surely corrupt his morals and lead him away from 
the paths of safety. Every parent should set this 
thought clearly before his mind, and ponder it well. 
Look to what your children read, and especially what 
kind of papers get into their hands, for there are now 
published scores of weekly papers with attractive 
and sensuous illustrations, that are as hurtful to 
young and innocent souls as poison to a healthful 
body. 

Many of these papers have attained a large circu- 
lation, and are sowing broadcast the seeds of vice and 
crime. Trenching on the very borders of indecency, 
they corrupt the morals, taint the imagination, and 
allure the weak and unguarded from the path of in- 
nocence. The danger of young persons from this 
cau.se was never so great as at this time; and every 
father and mother should be on guard against an 
enemy that is sure to meet their child; 

Look to it, then, that your children are kept free as 
possible I'roni this taint. Never bring to your house 
a paper or periodical that is not strictly pure, and 
watch carefully lest any such get into the hands of 
your growing-up boys. 

•»• 

Celery. 

The habitual use of celery is more beneficial to us 
than is commonly supposed. A writer who is famil- 
iar with its virtues, says: "I have known many 
men, and women too, who from various causes had 
become so much affected by nervousness that when 
they stretched out their hands they shook like aspen 
leaves on windy days, and by a moderate daily use of 
the blanched foot-stalks of celery as a salad, they 
became as strong and steady in limb as other people. 
I have known others so nervous that the least annoy- 
ance put them in a state of agitation, and they were 
in constant perplexity and fear, who were also effect- 
ually cured by a moderately daily use of blanched 
celery as a salad at meal time. I have known others 
cured of palpitation of the heart. Everybody engag- 
ed in labor weakening to the nerves should use celery 
daily in the season, and onions in its stead when not 
in season." 



of sweet milk, two cups of flour, in which have been 
thoroughly mixed two teaspoonfuls of baking pow- 
der, or two of cream of tartar and one of soda, and 
flavor with one teaspoonful of extract of bitter al- 
monds (or other flavor desired) . Lastly, stir in one 
cup of corn starch, which acts both as food and 
shortening. Immediately bake in a moderately quick 
oven. 



What it will do. — If a mechanic or clerk saves 
only 3':i' cents per day, from the time he is twenty- 
one until he is threescore and ten, the aggregate, with 
interest, will amount to .S3, 900; and a daily saving of 
27y, cents reaches the important sum of $i39,000. A 
sixpence saved daily will provide a fund of S7,000 — 
sufficient to purchase a good farm. There are few 
employees who cannot save daily, by abstaining from 
the use of cigars, tobacco, liquor, etc., twice or ten 
times the amount of the six cent piece. Every per 
son should provide for old age, and the man in busi- 
ness who can lay by a dollar a day will eventually 
find himself possessed of $100,000. 



Corn Starch Cake. 

This is a simple and digestible cake, easily and 
quickly made, and generally liked. Rub well together 
one cup of butter and two cups of sugar. Add the 
whites of si.x eggs beaten to a froth. Stir in one cup 



LITERARY AND PERSONAL. 

The Pocket Guide for the Centennial Vis- 
itor, compiled by John W. Frazer, .and published 
for gratuitous circulation by .John B. Ellison & Sons, 
723 and 72.5 Market street, Philadelphia, is a 13mo. 
pamphlet of 73 pages, and contains fifty-five finely 
executed illustrations — most of which are full page — 
of the buildings, ground plans, scenery and surround- 
ings of Fairmpunt Park, and the bridges, avenues, 
&c., in, and leading thereto. 

Briggs & Brother's Quarterly Illustrated 
Floral Work for January appears in a more com- 
pact form and less ornamental than heretofore, for 
the reason that they are preparing to recognize our 
Centennial year by an elaborate work which shall be 
substantially bound, and will contain exhaustive 
treatises upon the care and culture of all the plants, 
flowers, bulbs, &c., that are of practical service in 
this country. It will be a standard work, fit for the 
parlor or library, and will be sent as a premium to 
their customers. Their lithograph of "The Great 
Tomato Race," is one of the finest things of the kind 
ever published. In rivalry to produce the best toma- 
toes, Briggs & Brothers seem to be ahead. 

The Semi-Tropical for January comes to us from 
the sunny land of orange groves in an entirely new 
dress, with a beautiful and appropriate design forthe 
cover. The paper and typography throughout are 
first-class, equal to the best of the northern maga- 
zines. It is devoted to Southern Agriculture, Horti- 
culture and Immigration ; Literature, Science, Art 
and Home Interests. Now that Florida is attracting 
so much attention from northern people, the Semi- 
Tropical forms an admirable channel of communica- 
tion of just such information as they ought to have. 
We look upon such creditable literary enterprises as 
the very best evidence of the coming reconstruction 
of the South on a solid basis. It is well edited by 
Harrison Reed, assisted by an able corps of contribu- 
tors, and is published by Chas. W. Blew, Jackson- 
ville, Florida, at ^3 a year. 

The Sanitarian : The February number of this 
admirable exponent of sanitary science comes to our 
table heavily freighted with good things. The lead- 
ing paper is on the " Effect of Loss of Consciousness 
upon the Memory of Preceding Events," by Prof. F. 
H. Hamilton, M. D. Articles from able pens on the 
" Perils of Massing of Population in Cities," " The 
Health of New York," " Pulmonary Consumption in 
Cities," " Infant Diet," " A City of Health," "Sewer 
Gas Poisoning," " Education in the United States," 
etc., help to make up an unusually rich table of con- 
tents. This journal was recently incorporated with 
the Jtledico- Legal /oio'na!, and is published by Messrs. 
McDivitt, Campbell & Co., the eminent law and med- 
ical book publishers. Dr. Bell still remaining in the 
editorial charge. §3 a year. Everybody interested 
in sanitary affairs should be a subscriber. 

Notes on the Yucca Borer : This is a beautifully 
printed pamphlet, containing notes on the Yucca 
Borer, (Jfegathijmus Yucca) by Prof. Charles V. 
Riley, M.A., Ph.D., which were furnished by him 
for the Transactions of the Academy of Sciences, of 
St. Louis, (Vol. ill, January, 1876). The subject is 
an interesting one, from both a scientific and practi- 
cal point of view, because the Yuccas — .\loes or alli- 
ed to them — with their spined or threaded fleshy leaves, 
are becoming every year more popular as ornamental 
garden and conservatory plants; and no doubt those 
having sickly or stunned plants, would be surprised to 
find a borer excavating the stems and roots, almost 
their entire length, which, when it attains its full 
size, is nearly four inches long, almost as large as 
the common tobacco worm — and an inch and a half 
in circumference. We fully endorse the quotation 
from Westwood, namely, that " He who, by a min- 
ute analysis of any animal, enables to solve any du- 
bious point connected therewith, does more for the 
elucidation of this much abused natural system than 
the greatest and most ingenious theorist who has yet 
taken the subject in hand," and we know no one who 
has more fully succeeded in undertakings of this 
kind, than Prof. Riley. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



ni. 



500,000 GRAPE-VINES 

CFTKAPF.R than anywhere elHr, Concord— 1 year, $25 
for 1,000; extni, $40; 2 ye^re, and extra spleot 1 year, 
$45 jier ],000. Xo on<» 4lnr«« iiiKlorMoll ni<». Dela- 
ware. Martlia, lorui, Diana, Kiniieliui, Norton, Herbeniont, 
Cutuwba, (.'rutim, Hartford, and all other varieCieH, cheaper 
than anywhere. AIho all HUiall Iriiit j^lantH. Addrt-t^H 
S-2-2m Dii. H. SClIIiiHHat, KiAMiMiNiiTON, III. 




are the best the world producer. They are jilanted by a 
million people in Anierici, and the rcHtilt in heanlifnl 
Flowers and Hjilcndid Vi-Ketables. A Priced Catalogue pent 
free to all who inclose the jiostage — a 2 cent nt.aniii. 

Vick's Floral Guide, (^imrterly, 25 cents a year. 

Vick's Flower and Vegetable Garden, iHS cents; with 
cloth eoverw. (if* centR. 

Addrt-sB, JAMF.S VICK. Rochesfer, N. Y. 

The Great Agricultural Wonder, 

BF.lNCi THE 

HULLESS OATS, 

Which can be olitnin^d of 

N. S. FISHER, 

At Leesport P. 0., Berks County, Pa., 

A8 FOLLOWS : 

1 ponnci 50ct9». I H ponndK l^ 3.50 

16 "• » <i.50 I 32 " la.OO 

It is claimed that it will yield as many measured bushels 
as any other variety, while it weit;h8 36 jiounds to *he 
bushel, and ripens two weeks earlier than common oats, 
thereby escajdng the rusty season of oats, 

Bgf-\Vrite for circulars. S-1.4t 



THE ATLANTIC MONTHLY. 

The Leading Literary Magazine of America. 

Devoted to Literature, Seienee, Art ami Politics. 

Tlie corps of writers includes the foremost names in 
American Literature: Longfellow, Lowell, Bryant, ^Vhit- 
tier, Holmes, Bayard Taylor, Howells, Aldrich, Warner, 
Mrs, Kimble, Mark Twain, and otJiers. 



The XJ. S. Official Postal Guide. 

Bcvised and Published Quartfrhj hi/ authority of the Pout 
OJI'trc Ocpartinent. 

Containing nn AIphMbctical List of Post Offices in the 
TJuited States, with County, State, and Salary ; Money- 
Order OtUcitf, Domestic ami International ; Chief Regula- 
tions of the Post Office Department ; Instructions to the 
Public ; Foreign and Domestic Postage Tables, and other 
valuable Information. 



The American Law Times and Reports. 

A monthly periodical which gives Lcaditu) Cnacs in ad- 
vance of regidar publication, and a ViijeM of alt Cawx re- 
ported in contemporary American legal perioiUcala. Edited 
by Rowland Cox. 



THE BOSTON 

Medical and Surgical Journal. 

EKtaUuihed I8i8.— Published Weekly. 

With one exception the oldest Medical Journal in the 
United States, and second to none in character and standing. 



The American Naturalist. 

A Pojiular Tllusfrated Monthly ^I;ig;izine of N:itur:tl His- 
tory and Travel. Among the ccntriliutors are Profs. Gray, 
Whitney, shaler, Farlow, and tioodale, of Harvard; Profs. 
Marsh, Verrili, and Smith, of Yale, ami others. 

SiibNcription Kaleti. 

Atlantic Monthly t* 0« 

Atlantic Monthly, irjV/i li/e-sizc portrait o/ Lotwi/cIIqw . . 5 (H) 

U. S. Official Postal (iuide 160 

U.S. Official Postal Guide. Sinijte nmnbcrv 50 

American haw Times and Reports 6 00 

Boston Medical and Surgical Journal 5 Do 

American Naturahst 4 00 

'^'Postage prepaid by the Pnblishers. 

Itemittances should bo sent wilh eacli order and be made 
by draft or money-order, on New \ork or Boston, or regis- 
tered letter to H. O. HOl'OHTON & CO., lUvrrMf I'rtMl, 
Camhriiliie, MnnM. .S-l-3t 

HOKSE-BILLS 
PLAIN OH IN FANCY COLORS, 
Printed in the Beist Style at the office of 

THE FAKMElt. 




s:Siii''«''*»5X''.ti''' 



A country c<litnr, in his llnaiiciul urtlcle, says — 
" .Money is clow, Imt not cldBO ('non:;h lo reiicli." 

" Xow is llie time tn t;et up clulis," remarkeil an 
editor the otlier ilay as In: was attaclieil by a dot;. 

An Iowa (>ditor recently announced tliat a certain 
patron of liis was "thieving, as usual." It was writ- 
ten tliriviiiir. 

A MKTHOI1I9T niiin'stcr licinc recently asked if ho 
had luovcil to his new appoiiitinent, saiti, '* Yes, but 
it was a ilisappoinlinent." 

A voi'Mi lady licinir asked by a rich bachelor, " If 
not yourself, who would you rather be?" replied, 
Bweelly and nn)destly, " Yours truly." 

" Wii.i. you please insert tills obituary notice?" 
asked an old (jentleinan of a country editor. "1 make 
bold to ask, ticcause I know the deceased has a (Treat 
many Irieiids about here who'd be glad to hear of 
his lieatli." 

Ill a recently published p;azeltecr is the following 
erratum : " t'or * I>ulehinan ' read * Dr. .Atlains.' " 
This is almost cfpial to the well known erratum in a 
country paper, " l'"or ' aluin water ' read ' alma ma- 
ter.'" 

.JtiST before niarryim; an olil man for his money, a 
Louisville jrirl ealletl her father asiile, and, throwincr 
herself on his neck, exehiimed, amid smilesand tears: 
"Ohjfatlicr! Y'our poor, miserable daughter will 
have a new bonnet every week." 

ChinesI': version of "the little busy bee:" 
How belly small chin-chin sting bug 

Im-ini-plove ebly sixty minnit all the time. 
Go, pickee up sting-bug .juice all day. 

All kin' places 'loun tlowels jest got busted. 

The country storekeeper said : " Here, my friend, 
those balls of butter 1 boui;ht of you last week all 
proved to be just three ounces short of a pound." 
And the farmer innocently answered : "Well, I don't 
see how that could be, for I used one of your ' pound 
bars' of soap for a weight." 

A South Boston lady was recently interrocated by 
a Bcuetlict as to why she did not i^et married. She 
replied : " I prefer to be an old in.aid." lie said he 
did not believe it, as he felt sure she envied his wife. 
" Oh, no ! that would be breaking the commandment 
— thou shall not covet thy neighbor's ass." 

Recently, as a negro was painting his house on 
Watson strei^t, and was nearly the top of a long lad- 
der, his wife came out and called to him to come 
down. .Just at the moment a rung broke and the 
man came down on his head, jumped up and said : 
" Well, honey, go on wid your remarks." 

Obitu.iht of the Cincinnatifighting jackass, by G. 
Washington Cliilds, A. M.: 

A lioness from Lybia's desert waste. 
With ratthng heels he boldly dared to paste. 
.She scratched him and the scratches mortified : 
In seventeen weeks the little jackass died. 
Gone to meet Sergeant Bates. 

An e.xchanc.e gives a catalogue of Nevada's con- 
tributions to the Centennial, which will consist of "a 
white fox, a black eagle, a blue mule, a thousand- 
pound lump of brimstone, and a baby that doesn't 
like candy." If the other States of the Union will 
do but half as well, the exhibition will be well worth 
going several miles to see. 

Dr. Allen, of Philadelphia, was preaching one day 
in Tennessee to the frecdmen, when an oUl colored 
brother came to him after the sernion ami said: " I 
like to hear you preach, for I understand your preach- 
ing." "I am vei'y gUid of it," replied the doctor. 
"Yes," he said, "I understand you jes as well a? if 
you were a nigger." Dr. Allen acknowledged the 
compliment. 

Mu. Cox, in his capital articles on Congressional 
humor, in Ifat'per^ .iluf/uzliif, omits the best things 
which iiave been said wjiile he has been a Kepresent- 
ative, his modesty preventing his rcpcalins; Ids own 
b<m tiiots. Oni: of these was when the headers off 
when the roll was called were Messrs Oaks Ames of 
Massachusetts, and Andier of .Maryland. The ayes 
and noes were called on a railroad laml grab bill, and 
Archer, in his indignant haste to vole no, first re- 
siionded to the name of Ames, and then to his own. 
This duplicate " No !" was greeted with a shout of 
laughter, and as it subsided, Cox sprang lo his feet — 
struck a stage attitude — and exclaimed in a mournful 
tone: "Insatiate Archer! would not oiieeufllce?" 
— " Perley " »;.. Bonton Journal. 

A wniTEK in the Eibicalioiial Monthly says that if 
a thin section of coal be uiacerated in a solution of 
saleralus, and afterwards washed and submitted to 
the action of nitric acid, to remove mineral impuri- 
ties, the inieroseope will show that it is made up of 
vegetable cells. They usually show no siirn of struc- 
ture, but occasionally fragments of old logs have 
been found. The change from wood to coal, in some 
instances, is not complete, as woody fibre lias been 
detected by the iodine test. 



S 5 

5 z 
e" r. 




>TOViATic I 



» 3 

r 2 



5 9 

• m 



A Family Knitting Macliine. 

Now attracMiiK nnivt-rHnl atli'ulloti by Itti aitlor tntitnif jrer- 
forTniiiicrH and iIm Krr;it praclle;il vahiefor cverj'-tlay fuinll/ 
UHO. It knlt.H every jioHHible vjtrl<-ly of platii ur fancy work 

WITH ALMOST MAGICAL SPEED, 

and jfiveM in-rfcet Kliaiic and finlKb l<» all t(armeut(i. It will 

knit a pair of took« in fifteen minuletl Kvery macblun 

W A KK A >i'ri-:i> lit rfiet. uM t„il.,juj,t what U rrprejtentfd. 

A crtinplele iiiHtriH'tioii Uxtk urrutn|>aiile« caeli tnuehliiP. 

Nn. \ Family Machtiic. 1 cylinder, 72 ni«edlwi, $30. 

No. 3 " -'2 " VI k 100 " 40. 

A namplf nuuhiw will be Rent to auy part of the UnllM 

Stad'fl or Canada, (wliere we have no BRenl) rxpre-M rharges 

prepaid, n!i receijit of the prlee. 

AoKNTM wanted iii every Htate, County, City and Town, 
to whom very lilmral dlRcountN will he mTtde. Addrt-wi, 
lUCKFOUI) KNITTIMO M.M'lIlNK MlO. CO., 
T-n-tf] 8rile Mrmiifaetiireni, Rrnf tloboro. Vt. 




260 
PAPERS 

—AND— 

MAGAZINES 

SENT 



AT IM\% (XC It KATFS 



To siii^'lc 
past-olliri*. 



subsrrilK_*rs at any 

Soinl at once for 

FHEI-: cinnlar l»off»re onJering 

ymir i)ai)ors for l.s7(i. 

X>. UK. KIRBT". 

HARTWICK SEM.. OTStGO CO.. NEW YORK. 




I have founded my IfiiHiiK ><^ oil itit htlicf that tlie pabllo 
are anxiouw to get their seed dirertii/ frimi the fjroiper, and I 
therefore ofTor kkee to every man and woman in (he ttnited 
States who cultivates a farm, title a vetfelable Kar<leD, or 
plantn a flower garden, my large Illuf*trated Catalogue of 
Vegetable and Flower Seeds for 1876; it ojutains, in addi- 
tion to the ehoiceBt kinds produced in Europe, one humired 
and fifty varietiejt of refjetnble i*eed ijroirn "n vty/our^ed 
farnin. 'CuHtoraer« of last »oawm uov!\ not write for ii. Aa 
the original introducer of the Hubbard, Marbtetiead and 
Butmau SquaeheB, Phinney's Melon, Ibe Marblebettd Cab- 
bages, and a score of other new vegetables. I suilcil your 
patronage. All seetl sold under three wurranls. A Imudred 
thousand catalogues will be Issued and sent out Ibe flntt of 
Jauuary. 
"-U-5] JAMES J. H. OllECOUY. Marbl.hwid. Mass. 

ROOT'S 

Qarden JVf anual 

Is filled with topics of interest to every owiicr of a gard'-n — 
is PtilNTED. rUACTICAl, and THOKOt'fiH, and contains 
one-half as much as $1.S0 l»ookH on the subject. OAKDEN- 
KKS throughout the country commend its practical labor- 
saving methods as invaluable to them. 

CJr~Sont for 10 cents, which will l>e allowed on the first 
order for seoda. Address, 

J. B. ROOT, N<-ed CJrow«^r, 

noiKFOItl). Illinois. 

GEORGE D. SPRECHER, 

DEALER IN AU KINDS Of 

OFFICE : 

No. 15 EAST KING STREET, 

8-l-12m 1.ANCASTEK, PA. 



IV. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[February, 1876. 




We call jitteiitioii to our immense Stock (GOO acres ) uf 
Friiil Troos, Standard and Dwarf. 
Kinall I'riiilN. Grapes, Currants, Raspberries, &c. 
Ornaiiioiital TreeN nnd Slirubs, deciduous aud 

evergreen. 
Rose** a specialty — all the finest sorts. 
Cireen aii<l Hot House Plaiiitn, including best nov- 
elties. Small jareels forwarded l»y mail when desired. 
Prompt attention given to all ordeisand inquiries. 
Descriptive and Illustrated priced Ca,talogues sent prepaid 

on receipt of stamps, as follows : 
No. 1. Fruits (new ed., with col'd plate) i.^ cts. 
No. 2. Ornamental Trees, with col'd plate of Roses, 2.'>c. 
No. 3. Greenhouse, Free. No, 4. Wholesale, Free. 

No. .'>. lAtit of XeV RosoN for isTfi, Free. 
Nob. 1 aud 2— Neatly bound together, forming an interest- 
ing aud valuable Ijook for refei-euce. 
Address, 50 cts. by mail, i^ost paid, 

ELLWANGER & BARRY, Rochester, NY. 



GOOD »iKEnS, GROWN WITH CARE, FROM SE- 
lected Stocks, always -pay. Try uiiue. Catalogue free. 
J. R. V. HAWKINS, Gosheu, N. Y. 



FERTILIZERS! 

CHEAPEST AND BEST! 



WRITE for Circular and Recipes, which aro furnished 
without charge, containing complete instructions for 
making, at home, first-class chemical manures, suited to 
the gruwth of special crops. Qui- formula have prover, in 
actual use, to be of the greatest value to all who have used 
them. 

We offer Fertilizing Chemicals of onr own manufacture, 
at lowest prices, with a guaranty as to atrength and pu- 
rity. Ask prices for 



Oil Vitriol, 
.Ground Boues, 
Land Plaster, 
Sulphate FotaBbj 



Nitrate Soda, 
Sulphate Ammonia, 
Muriate Potash, 
Sulphate Soda and Salt. 



Address 



HARRISON BROS. & CO., 

PHILADELPHIA, 



Established as Manufacturers of Fertilizing 
Chemicals iu 1793. 



[8-2- m 



I OFFER A LARGE STOCK OF 

AITLE TREES, APRICOTS, 

Irish Junipers, Gooseberries, 



Trees! 



AND A GENERAL ASSORTMENT OF 

FRUIT TREES 

AND 

ElYlEIRIGIRiEiEiNlS. 

irF~Letter8 will be answered in English, German and 
French. Address 

CiEOllOE ACHEMS, 
8-2-2m] West < heater. Pa. 

'^THE FARMER'S FRIEND." 

The great Grange paper. 

The farmers' own journal. 

5U0 farmers' write for it. ' 

60 farmers' wives write for it. 

Circulates in 3G States.- 

Circulates in 6 Territories. 

Circulates iu Canada. 

64 columus every week. 

16 pages of reading. 

Kept on file iu 1,200 Granges. 

Read weekly by over 100,000 people. 

Only otficial organ of five State Granges, 

Market reports Irom the great cities. 

Practical experieuce by practical farmers. 

Croj) reports printed weekly. 

No middlemen agents. 

$1.50 a year; or 1.25 in clubs of 8 or over. 

Postage always prepaid by publishers. 

12>; cents a month to the close of any year. 

In clubs of 8 or over, 10)<r cents a month. 

Neatly printed ; "big type ;" good paper. 

National Grange officers write for it. 

Grange news from every State, 

Farmers are delighted with it, aud say, 

*' Just what we have wanted." 

Sample copy three cents, sent dii-ectly from the Grange 

Steam Printing House of five S ates. 

Address, THOMAS & BETVIMING, 

7-12-S Mechanicsburg, Pa. 



^W. ^TLETil BURPEE, 

TlVrPORXER, UREJEJ^EFl ^ND SIIIFt>KR, OF 

IMPROVEDLIVE STOCK. 

HIGH CLASS LAND AND WATER FOWLS— Eicd variety bred on a separate farm. LEGHORNS—Browu, White, 
Blaci and Doimniiiuf' of my celebrated siraiiia a sijeoiaUy. Also, ail unsurpassed and large collection of WATER FOWLS 
AND TURKEYS. Asiatics, Hamburgs, Dorkings, P. Roclis, Am. Domiuiques, Hoiidaiis and Bantams. My fowls are all 
HIGH CLASS, aud bred witU great care. My breeding peas contain extra flue imviorted aud prize birds. 



CHESTER WHITE SWINE A SPECIALTY. 



Sto.k of all ages bred from the best Preiuiuiu Stock, and warranted strictly pure and choice, for sale at moderate 
prices. Also lmi)orted Berk.sllires. Jersey Cattle, Southdown and Cotswold Siieep. DOGS-Setter, Shepherd Beagle 
Hound, Skye aud Black-aud-tan J]erriei-s. Only a limited stock of e?cil, consisting of the fluest imported specimens, with 
" ' " English Ferrets. 



full pedigrees. Lop-Kared aud Himalayan Rabbits. 




FANCY PIGEONS, ALL VARIETIES, 

Tlie Pipon Loft: How to FQruisli M Maiiap It. 

Our now illnstratetl book on jiigeons. Plain, concise, orisrinal and 
invaluable. It f^ives many new facts not to be found 
elsewhere, and is worth dollars to any breed- 
er. Price, only 50c. postpaitl. 

irs^Elegant illustrated catalogues of stock, giviug descriptions and illustrations 
of fowls and pigeons, postpaid, 10 cents. 



Circulars free. 



Address, 



W. ATLEE BURPEE, Philadelphia, Pa. 




$125.00 in CASH PRMIUMS. 



For particulars see my Illustrated Catalogue for 1S7G, con- 
"tainiiig all the new aud Ijest varieties of fresh, true and re- 
liable Garden Seeds, carefully grown from tine selected 
stocks, and the largest and best collection of Choice Seed 
Potatoes f-ver offered. Sent free to all applicants. Do not 
fail to see it. 

J. R. V. HAWKINS, 

GOSHEN, N. Y. 



J. STAUFFER, 

tmm It ^mm, 

LANCASTER, i'ENN'A, 
235 EAST ORANGE ST. 



All matters appertaining to UNITED STATES or CANA- 
DIAN PATENTS, TRADE MARKS, and COPYRIGHTS, 
promptly attended to. His experieuce, success a'd faithful 
attention to the interests of those who eugage his services 
are fully acknowledged and appreciated. 

Preliminary examinations made for him by a reliable As- 
sistant at Washington, without extra charge for drawing 
or description. (7-4-tf 



THOS. M. HARVEY, 

WEST GROVE, CHESTER CO., PA.. 

Breeder hikI 8Iixp|>er of 

GUERNSEY ISSIBDTKR STOCK, 

Yorkshire and Berkshire Pigs. 

Dark Brahma Chickens from the best imported 
blood. Also Bronze Turkeys. 



FOR FRUIT 

And Ornament. 
500 ACBES OF TUBES 

At Wholesale and Retail. 

Pear, Apples, (Cherries, Quinces. 

Peaches, Plums and Small Fruits. 

New and Raie Ornamental Trees and Shrubs. 

Evergreens, large quunlities, large variety, cheap. 

Cut-leaved Biich, Purple Beech, Weeping Trees. 

«'S.F.IIIATIK JA<'K.HANXI.— Hardy and Perpetual, 
blooms profuselv uutil frozen up. 

l»K«l'ETrAL, WlfllTK ri^EMATIS.— 15 Sorts. 
We have over 71) vaiieties of Clematis, iu many shades of 
color, from dark rich purple to pure white — strong plants, 
safely sent by mail. 

KOKKS. ifloMH. Ten, C'liinbiiig-nnd Perpetual. 

Small Packages sent s.ifely by Mail and Exjiress. 
ffS^Catalogues free. Address 
T. r. MAXMJEE.1> A KROS., Cieneva, N. Y. 




rr7^= 



fiOV^Ei'^'YEGETABLE 



\^ 



@Z45iE)BSa^| 




is the most beautiful woik of the kind in the world. It con- 
tains nearly 150 pages, hundreds of fine illustrations, and 
four Chroma Plates of Flowers, beautifully drawn and col- 
ored from nature. Price, 35 cents in paper covers ; 65 centfl 
bound in elegant cloth. 
Vick's Floral Gruicle. Quarterly, 26 cents a year. 

Address, JAMES VICK, Rochester, N. Y. 



LIMilB lOE lAEMlES. 

NO MIDDLE-MEN. 

We have a large stock of Lumber, aud ono of the most 
extensive Sash and Door Factorins in the State, and we are 
prepared to furnish HoiiNe and Itarii Bills complete. 

All kinds of Manufactured Fencing, &o., making a sjieci- 
alty of supplying the agricultural community. We will 
make prices delivered to any Railroad Station. All our 
material ^iini*antoe<l as represented. All manufactured 
work kihi-dried and warrautetl not to shrink. All inquiries 
cheerfully auswered. 

One of the firm cau be seen at the PVankHn House, North 
Queen Street, Lancaster, Pa., ou Monday of each week. 



7-4-12mJ 



KENDIG, BRICKER & LAUMAN, 

Middletown Dauphin cc. Pa. 



$-\ Q "VtiQio (To Bubecriberg in 
1 d I Cdl ^ the comity. 



/irBclianics Sooieij j;in77 

SINGLE COPIES 10 CENTS. ro,ub«riu.r,outof t <t-| or 




Prof. S. S. RATHVON, Editor. 



LANCASTEH, MAMCH 15, 1876. 



PEAE30L ic CEIST, Fublishers. 



■THE LITTLE BUSY BEE.' 



Organization of a Bee-keepers' Society- A 
New Interest to Be Protected and Cultiva- 
ted. — Interesting Discussion, &c. 

The first imctiiii; dI' tlie Luik-ukUt t'ouiily Bce- 
Kecpcre' Soi'ifty wat lu'kl in this city on Moiuluy, 
March IMth. AiKirfraiiizalion \va.>i ctlcctoii liy olcctiiij; 
Peter S. Kcist, of .Manhcini, Trcsiiieiit ; J. F. Ilcrehcy , 
of -Mount .Joy, Vice-President; and A- B. Horr, of 
West IK'inpticld, Secretary. 

Tlic following members were jircscnt : II. B. Niss- 
ley, D. II. Lintiier, .Jolin Ihiber, Elias Hershey, John 
KeppcrlinT, A. H. Shock, .J. F. Plcrshoy, Peter S. 
Reist, S. U. (iarber, .Tod Fisher, A. B. Ilerr, and 
Leonard Flickenslcin. The above f^entlemen repre- 
sented l,:iUO hives. 

The first subject discussed was, " Will Bee-keeping 
pay?" 

J. F. Heuriiet thoiiirht it did. He realized 100 
per cent . out of the money he had invested in bees. 
During the past few years lie had sold over ?(!00 
worth of honey and queen bees. 

Peteu S. Keist believed that if hee-keepiuij^ was 
understood thorouj^ldy it would pay better than most 
any otlicr kind of business. If only 50 per cent, on 
the amount invested would be made, it would be 
paying well . 

Messrs. S. (i. Gakbeh, Em.vs Heushey and 
Leoxaiu) Fmckensteijj also spoke in favor of bee 
raising, and said they were well paid for the interest 
taken in the matter. 

" Which is the best, the Italian or the Black bee?" 
was the next question. 

Eli.vs Hekshev favored the Italian Beeon aecotmt 
of its swarming and honey-making qualities. 

.1. F. Hersiiev preferred the Italian Bee on account 
of its protecting the hives from moth. Crossed bees 
were the best for making honey. 

Leonard Fi.ickexstkin had a colony of black 
bees that made more honey than the Italian, but he 
preferred the latter on account of their many other 
good qualities. 

The next question was, " Do Bees Injure Fruit ?" 

J. F. IlEiisnEY said the bees are blamed for iiyur- 
ing grapes. They never touch a grape unless it is 
already partly destroyed by a wasp or other insect. 
He had as high as fifty swarms in his orchard at a 
time and never noticed any diminution or destruction 
of his apples. His clover crop was benefited very 
much by the presence of the bees. 

D. H. Lintner had often heard of bees destroying 
grai>e8, but after a series of experiments he found that 
it was not so. 

Peter S. Keist was of the opinion that bees were 
a great lienefit to flowers, as they carried the pollen 
of one flower to that of the other. The bee brcadJ 
which they carry with them is also beneficial to the 
flowers. 

"How long can a brood remain exposed without 



CONTENTS OF THIS NUMBER. 



EDITORIAL ARTICLES: r'A<:E. 

To our t'oiitribntors, - - - - - Xi 
Artichokes, ------ ;w 

Queries and .\nswers, - - • . - .'J4 

The Century Weather lieport, - . - :t4 

The Potato Enemii'S, S4 

A fiood Investment, ----- .".5 

Ancient (iarilcning, - . - - _ ;;,'-, 

To ICcej. Apiilcs Desirable, - - . :j9 

Linseed Oil lor fii-alc liiKccIs, - - - 41 
ORIGINAL COMMUNICATIONS: 

Light Brahmas. Illustrated, - - H.") 
W A'loiBiKice. 

The Potato Enemies, - - . . ;ic, 
Up;itl beioretbf \\\-Hi (.irove Experimeutiil Furiii 
Club l.y Dr. MiclieiRT. 

Bay Windows for Winter Flowers. 

Eden, - :i7 

Humming Birds, (Concluded), - - :i7 

Fiiiiik 11. Difrendciffer. 

Apples and their Varieties, - - 38 

Levi .S. Ileise 

Home that is Home, - - - - :i9 

Millou B. Eslileiuau. 

DifTerent Modes of Pruning, - - ,39 

Hertieela. 

The Dairy. No. 2. II. M. Engine, - 40 

Selection of Seed Corn, - 40 

-Jiieob IJ, (Tiirber. 

Potato Culture. I). K.Hekk, - - - 40 

The Neglected Hollyhock. .J.Stauffer, 41 

" \/Vhat Kind of Oil ?" A.B. K., - - 41 

Transplanting Trees, - - - 41 

How to Raise Oats Cheaply, - - - 41 

Rural Improvements. Walter Elder, 42 

Our Paris Letter, 43 

Failure of tlie BePt Crop in France — Practical 
Lectures on F.irm Auimuls — Fertillzere and 
Cultivation — Tbe Horses of HuuKary — HofllJ- 
tals for Horses, Cattle and I*iKs~.MiscelliiiiBOU8. 

Lancaster County Farmers in Council, - 42 

Proceedings of the Agricultural and Horticultural 
Society — Diecussion on Forest TreeB, llaiufall, 
Huugariau Grass— An Essay on Hints to Far- 
mers. (C. L. Hunsei'ker.) 

The Experimental Farm Club, - - - 44 

Profits of liaising (.'orn in CheslerCouiity — Dairy 
House Ventilation — Bee-Keeping for Farmers — 
Questions and .Vnswers. 

Domestic Economy, - - - - - 445 

A Iteturn to Kconomy— Farmers Sons and Paiigh- 
fers inUBt Work — How Butter ia Tainted — 
Di^ed Potatoes — Slovenly Women — Milk Traus- 
inA Infecti(ui — How to use Corn Slarcli — 
Household Recipes. 

GENERAL MISCELLANY, - - - 47 

The Agricultural Horse — .applying Manures — 
I Small Fruit on the Farm — i*oints of a .Jersey — 

I The Ree-Ke?j>ing Industr.\ — A Large Poultry 

Yard — How to get Kggs In Winter — .Small Pota- 
toes for Seed — Care of Lambs — Correctives in 
Feeding Poultry — A Profitable Experiment. 

The Slaughter of the Birds, - - - - .f.5 

Borrowed Plumes, ----- 4,5 

LITERARY AND PERSONAL, - - 4S 

Hooks and PeriodieaU. 

Our Fence Corners, ----- ii, iii 
Fact and Fancy, Wit and Humor. 



being covered by the bees and still be used for queen 
raising?" was the next question Introduced. 

Lkonaku Fi.ickenptein had a pieeeof comb lying 
expfised to a damp, chilly air for twenty-four hours, 
from which he raiseil a prolific queen. He did not 
know whether the comb eontalned any ecgs or not. 

J. F. Hkrshey knew of combs with e^'g belni; 
shipped by mail ami kept for five days, from which 
young queens were hatched.. If a brood is over five 
<lays old a queen cannot be raised. Some have Imm^d 
raise<l, but they are not iH-rfeet. 

The question, " What is the reason that a qucenV 
stiniriscurvedanda worker bee's sting is straight, and 
yet hatched from the same kind of an egg?" was be- 
lieved to have been made so by nature, In order to at- 
tack its rivals. 
" Why is a Fertile Worker Produced and How f" 
D. H.LiNTNt.K believed it was [iroduced to take 
the place of a queen. It lays eggs the same as a queen, 
sometimes as high as three to a cell, but they are i>er- 
fectly worthless. They would not hatch, and If aqueen 
would be placed in Ihe saiiu> hive with them they 
woidd kill it. The only way to save the queens, in 
this respect, is to banish Ihe fertile workers or trans- 
fer them 10 another hive. He could not t«ll how a 
fertile worker was produced. 

J. F. Hershkv said the fertile workerg prtwluced 
nothing hut drones. 

The last question brought before the Society wag, 
" Which is the Belter Plan, Natural or Artificial 
Swarming?" 

J. F. Hekshev preferred the artificial way. When 
a natural hive swarms it generally takes seventeen 
days before the hive is got in gmwl workinir condition. 
In the artificial way, a queen can be placed In the 
hive at once and thus save all this time. You can 
swarm three times by the artificial way where you 
can swarm twice in the natural way. When swarm- 
ing in the artificial way, the lices should have as 
much honey in the hive as when they go Into 
winter quarters. 

Peter S. Keist was of the opinion that natural 
swarming was the best if you had a prolific queen In 
Ihe proper place. Arlifieial swarming sliouhl be 
thoroughly understood before it isaltempted. Thous- 
ands of Im'CS are killed annually by this neglect. If 
it were not for arlifieial swarming he would not have 
near so many bees as he has now. 

LEONARn Fi.irKENSTEfN and .Iacoo Keperlfno 
also favored artificial swarming, and cited several 
cxi>eriments whic-h they had undertaken. They both 
believed thai a week or ten days were gained by arti- 
ficial swarming. 

Tlie chair ap|)oinled .1. F. Hershey, A. B. Herrand 
l,eonanl Flickenstein as a cominlltee to prepare prac- 
tical questions for discussion for the next meeting, 
which will beheld at Kaiilfinan's Black Horse Hotel, 
this city, on the second Monilay in May. 

A general invitation is extended to all persons inter- 
ested in bee culture to be present at tbe next meeting. 



II. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



FARMERS, GET THE BEST. 



THl SILVER I DIMING- 

FEED CUTTER, 



MANUFACTURED Full 



DII^I^EZFl <Sc GrFlOFF", 



DKALEKS IN 



HARDWARE & AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS, 

No. 7 EAST KING ST., LANCASTER, PA., 

Has beeu demonstrated by cojiijietitive teats to be THE 
KEST FEED CUTTER IN THE MARKET. The feed-roU 
is operjited by a. new nnd novel device which completely 
overcomes the objection to the uiie\en action of othei- cut- 
ters, while the le;'gth of cut c:iu be vii'-ied to meet the waute 
of the operator without the lemoval of any gear-wheels. 
The material and woikmansLip aie of the veiy best class, 
aud guaranteed to givesalisfacliouto theijuichaser. Farm- 
ers are invited to call and see lor themselves. 



"THE CHAMPION." 

The C'bumi'ion Reaper and Mower, which we ha,ve sold 
with such entire satisf-icrion to our cusiomers for the last 
six years, still mniutains the lead of all competitois — 
33,761 having beeu manufactured for the harvest of 1S75 
•J—ind we have already completed our arrangements to sup- 
ply the incie:sed demiiud for next season. The Farmer 
who buys the Champion is always satisfied that he has the 
full worth of his nmney. 

DILLEU & GEOFF, 

No. 7 East King St., Lancaster, Pa. 

7-n-r,ni 



^^ 

''8i^^Vi^] be 

'd /'rrti 

. all appli- 

L'an ts. Thi.s is 

I mo of the largest 

rid most com pre) 1 t-n- 

Ciitalogues pub- 

ished; contains about 2.'i0 

■.^es, over TiUO fine enp;rav- 

, 2 elegant colored philes. 

nd gives full descriplions, 

''prices, and directions for plani- 

''ing over 1200 varieties of Vegolaltle 

rid Flower Seeds, Bedding Plants. 

''Roses. &e., and is invaluable to Farmer, 

''Gardener and Florists. Address, 

D. M. FERRY St CO., 
Seedsmen and Plorista, DETROIT. Mich. 




7-1:. 



PATENTS 

OBTAINED BEST AND CHEAPEST BY 

LOUIS BAGGER & CO., 

SOLICITORS OF PATENTS, 

"WasJaiiigtoxi, D. C 



t^"Art.lrr'SS nil lietters to P. <). Box 444. 



EVERGREEN BONE DUST, 

MANUFACTURKD IIY 

M. B, Eshleman, at Leaman Place, 

Is guiranteed Pure Eaw Bono, and nothing else. 

Sjieciiil iiiiius liikeii in preparing it lor fpt'diiiR liens. 

No. 1. lor focflin^. - - S'.I.i'iO per hiiiKlrecl. 



No. 3, for I:in<l. 



I.7."« 



7-9-fim 



Thih iiichulee bags iind delivering on boiird cars. 



DEALERS IN ALL KINDS OF 

FAMILY and I.INK-BIIKIVINO COAI.! 

Orders received at 

Office, No. 15 East King street, and at the 

«-l-12ill] Yard, No. 618 NOKTH PRINCE STREET. 




" GO WORK UPON A FARM." 

Will .S. Hays, tlie eminent Soutliern eonif writer 
and composer, has published a sons: entitled, '■ Go 
and Learn a Trade.'' Just at this time, with facto- 
ries and sliojis elosina: up, and meelianics begginjf for 
bread in some sections of" the country, it seems to me 
that such a sonif is quite out of place. In view of this 
fact, I beg to ofter your readers the following agri- 
cultural song: 

The song I sing to you to-day 

Is not to learn a trade ; 
For I am sad the trutli to say — 

Tliat song aside is laid. 
The mills are running on half time, 

The shois give forth no noise. 
And it is hard to find a dime 
Among the 'prentice boys. 
Chobus. — The song that I sh:.ll sing to you 
Your tioubled hearU will calm ; 
If you have nothing else to do — 
' ' Go work upon a farm." 

Tae atoi-es are filled with idle clerks, 

Because the times are dull ; 
And he his duty plainly shirks — 
When Ehops and mills are tull — 
Who seeks to learu a trade, or tend 
, The counter oi a store, 

luhopts the future yet will send 
A fortune to his door. 
Chorus. — Ah, vain aie all such hopes as these, 
That surely end in harm ! 
Don't seek to sit 'neath shady trees — 
"Go work upon a farm." 

Oh ! why should men in cities piue, 

Or idly stay iu town ? 
Why loaf about and crossly whine. 
That "things aTe upside down?" 
Can this bring bread to wife and child. 

And make the future bright ? 
Can this turn the weather mild. 
Or furnish heat and light ? 
Chorus. — Such men should listen to my song, 
And in it find a charm ; 
It tells them how to get along — 
*' Go work upon a farm." 

Let no man starve for want of bread — 

The product of the soil — 
For all can £till be am^ly f.d. 

Who wdl but share the toil — 
The honest, manly toil that brings 

The harvest season round. 
When the glad farmer gayly sings, 
Because of fruitful ground. 
Chorus. — This, then. shaU be the song we sing. 
The whole world to alarm, 
And loudly let the chorus ring — 
"Go work upon a farm." 
— Sidney Herbert, in the .Semi-Tropical. 



A Frenchman who has lived in America for some 
years, says: " When they build a railroad, the first 
thing they do is to break ground. This is done with 
great ceremony. Then they break the stockholders. 
This is done without ceremony." 

A YOUNG minister, somewhat distinguished for 
self-conceit, having failed disastrously before a 
crowded audience, was thus addressed by an aged 
brother: " If you had gone into that pulpit, feeling 
as you now do on coming out of that pulpit, you 
would have felt, on coming out of that pulpit, as you 
did when you went up into that pulpit." 

Preparing in Ti.'me. — Profiting by the lesson 
taught by the great tire at Boston, a man living near 
Springfield, Mass., has made up his mind that he 
won't be burned alive. Once every week he gives the 
alarm of fire at midnight, at which his wife and chil- 
dren instantly arise and dress. He takes out a win- 
dow sash, puts a rope round his wife, and lowers her 
to the ground, and then throws into her arms one 
child at a time. He next puts his furniture into the 
street, and removes it to a place of safety. The whole 
time occupied is less than fifteen minutes, and he 
hopes to do it in ten. He bi-oke the arm of his second 
eldest child the first time, and his wife says the piano 
is rather nut of tune in consequence of its numerous 
and hurried removals, but otherwise he is quite satis- 
tied witlj the excellence of his plans. '^ 

One of Browni.ovv's Yarns. — Parson Brownlow 
tells a good story of an old Presbyterian bachelor 
preacher, known almo.st as a woman-hati'r until he 
was nearly fifty years old, when he married and set- 
tled somewhere among the mountains of North f'uro- 
lina. The Pai-son says: "Our bachelor friend was 
preaching on the sinner's excuses. ' I have bought a 
piece of ground, and wish to go and see it,' said one. 
'Here is want of inclination to attend to divine things,' 
said the preacher. Another said, ' I have bought five 
yoke of oxen, and must needs go and prove them.' 
This seems a case of necessity. A third said, ' I have 
married a wife, and therefore I cannot come.' ' Here 
is a case of natural impossibility, from which we may 
infer,' continued our bachelor preacher, ' that one 
woman will pull a man further from the Lord than 
ten steers.' " 




IS 'hem. St beiuhful work of the kind in the woild. It con- 
tauisne lU till iges. hundreds ot fine ilhisti ations, and 
four Chi niiw I"utei of Flowem. be; utifullv drawn and col- 
ored from Ud'nie. Puce, 3.5 cents in ] aj.er covers ; f& cents 
bound m elegant cloth. 
■'T'ick's Floral Guide, r^uarterly, 2.'> cenls a year. 

Addret-s. .TAMF..S Vlf'K. Rochester, N. Y. 




1876. PRE-CENTENNIAL. 1876. 

Mkm ft Fisher 



) 



PRACTICAL * 

CHEAP, FASHIONABLE AND DURABLE 




Cor.N. QUEEN and ORANGE STS., 

LANCASTER, PENN'A. 




'DOMESTIC 

TliellrstP:.'t.-rn^n 



DOMESTIC 

SEWING 
MACHINES. 



Liberal terms ofExchange 
for Second-hand .Macbloes 
af every description. 

PAPER FASHIONS. 

iile. .'-('■Tia ,'>cls. tori'ilalofjuo 



Addresc DOMESTIC SBWINCI MACHINE CO., 



Kif" Agents AV anted, "^a 
-u-:iteom 



NKW YORK. 



GEORGE D. SPRECHER, 

DEALER IN ALL KINDS OF 

IJOOKLN<; SI. VTE. 

OFFICE : 

No. 15 EAST KING STREET, 

8-l-12m L.\NOASTER, PA. 

PUBLIC SALE BILLS 
FOR H?:AI. ESTATKOU rURSONAL PRORERTY, 
Printed expeditiously and cheap at the olhceof 

THE LANCA.STER TARMER. 



The Lancaster Farmer. 



Prof. S. S. HATHVON, Editor. 



LANCASTER, PA., MARCH, i876. 



Vol Vm. No. 3. 



TO OUR CONTRIBUTORS. 
AVe wovilil ivspei't fully boi; leave to return 
our sineere tlmnks to the eoutril)iitors to TllK 
F.\ioiEU whohavc! so jironiptly and so contin- 
uously sustained us during the pa.st year, an<l 
who are doing the same good work for us in 
the present. M> would eheerfully pay the 
[HLstaite on their eontriliutious, if the law drd 
not demand pre-i)aynieut before they can leave 
the ollices where they are mailed, and we have 
often thoULcht that .tome exceptions in lla^ jiost- 
aL;e laws should have lieen made I'avorahle to 
lliedi.sseminalion of knowledge by such means; 
for, it is asking a good <h'al of a coidribulor 
to solicit the, results of his labor and research 
as a gratuity, and then require him to Ijuv 
his own pens, ink, paper, and envelopes, and 
also to jiay his own postage. It would jierhaps 
be a loss to the Department to grant such a 
privilege proniiscuDUsly, because such mail 
matter might not be lifted oiU. of th(M)tlice, but 
where it was intended for a res]ionsible public 
journal, it would not fail to be lifted and I'aid 
■for. 

The present mail system is imperatively 
literal in its operation, no favors to any one 
save the naked letter of the law, and it oper- 
ates in a rigid manner, perhaps not fully com- 
jirehended by all corres|)ondenls and contribu- 
tors. For instance, if a manuscrii)t is mailed 
requiringl2 cents postage thereon, and only 11 
centsare attached to it in stamjis, the 11 cents 
mean wilhiii<i, and it is immediately sent to the 
Dead Letter OHice at Washington, and cannot 
be gotten out of it without paying 24 cents for 
it, and an additional three cents for the order. 
A case in point is now before us. Prior to the 
T 19tli of Fel)ruary a letter to us, containing eon- 
triliutious to The Fahmeu, was mailed from 
Philadelphia. We cannot tell liow long prior 
to that date it was, for the date outhe outside 
isillegible, and inside it was without date ; but 
on the tilth it received the stamp ot the "Dead 
Letter" Otlice at Washington. We were in- 
formed of the fact on the 'H'Ah and reipiested to 
send 12 cents in postage stamps, and prepay 
our order for it. making 1.') cents. On Monday, 
the -iSth, we received it, al)0ut one half of its 
face covered with stamps, and post-mai^\S, and 
cancellations, and oni/ on its back, as if it had 
passed through a foreign "cii'cumlocution 
otlice." It was a double letter and required six 
cents postage, but was enclosed in a two cent 
envelope instead, which, under the law, of 
course meant nothing. Of course, anybody 
might make a mistake of this kind — we have 
often made it— but as we have all our envelopes 
impressed with our own business device, our 
gentlemaidy otlicials here always return them 
to us to have them properly stamped, without 
sending them to the Dead Letter Ollice, 
althouLrh we do not think they are under any 
obligations to do .so. In this case we valued 
the eontriliutious at far above the amount of 
postage we paid, but sometimes we receive let- 
ters in the same round aliout expensive man- 
ner, asking us to do things that cost us con- 
siderable labor or expense, and can only an.swer 
them liy paying return postage. 

AVhat we wish to suggest is this : that our 
contrilnitors and correspondents should always 
be sure to pay the full amount of postage — any 
thing .short of that, no matter how small, 
rimnts as nothing. Also that they should have 
printed on the envelopes their business, name, 
and address ; so that when they have failed to 
atlix the right amount of postage, tlie letter 
may be returned to them again, although we 
are not sure that all postmasters would respect 
it, for in a large otlice and in a large city the 
writer might be too far av.ay to receive any at- 
tention. Hut those who keep their private 
box, it would he little tnndile to throw it in 
with their other mail matter. We liave another 
.suggestion in this counection to make : when 



! a corres])ondent asks for informal ion that can- 
I not be given through the cohuuns of 'I'liK 
Fakmki!, he should enclose eitlier a three-cent 
stanii), or a postal card. These little items, .so 
1 insignilicant in themselves when singly con- 
sidered, amount to quite a "plum" during the 
course of a year, .\iiswering a (piestiou or a 
request, in which tlie asker alone is interested, 
is surely worth what the answer costs, whether 
it is in the allirmative or the negative. 

We know that our readers, coid libutoirsand 
(!orrespou<lcnts all mean to do what isfairand 
just, but it is human to forget, or even to 
neglect, and therefore we have deemed this 
admonition might do some good in (piarters 
iiutsideof thepaleofourown inunediatc house- 
hold. 



ARTICHOKES. 



We u.sc this term in the plural, because, al- 
though not all our readers may be aware of it, 
yet there are two very widely distinct plants 
that bear the name of nrlirhiki — not only dis- 
tiutil in species, but al.s<i in genera and family, 
one belonging to the family (,'YAN'.\ii.i;, ,and 
the other to the family CiiMrosrr.K. The 
most familiar suliject to the |)cople of this 
country is what they call in England the 

Jerusalem Artichoke, 

( IfcHatUhufi tubcrosun,) 

a small sun-flower, bearing nutritious tubers, 
for whiirh it is cultivated. It is a hardy pe- 
rennial of Brazil, and was first carried to 
England in the year ItJlT, where it soon be- 
came exceedingly popular as an esculent, be- 
ing thought much superior to the potato. 
Loudon says that the name Jerusalem is 
a corruption of the Italian word for sun- 
flower — (jirasole. Its name of artichoke is 
probably derived from a resemblance in the 
taste of its roots to the "bottoms " of the true 
artichoke. The stalks are large, and fre- 
quently attain the height of ten feet. The 
roots are produced in great quantity, the 
crops sometimes exceeding two thousand 
bushels per acre. During the past few 5ears 
they have been much extolled for agricultural 
piuposes ; and, indeed, they woidd seem bet- 
ter suited for the fanner than for the kitchen 
garden. 

C'liLTUKE. — The .Jeru.salem artichoke is not 
very particular in regard to soil or situation ; 
it is, however, best pleased with a light and 
moist soil, having a free exposure. It requires 
little attention, and is so much inclined to 
perpetuate itself that it may even become a 
nuisance in small gardens. It is [jropagated 
in the same manner as tlii^ potato, l)y sets of 
the large-sized tubers. Plant them in March 
or April, according to the forwardness of the 
■season, in <lrills three feet apart, an<l at dis- 
tances of tvv'elve (jr (ifteen implies in the drill ; 
cover the sets aliout three inches deep. Keep 
the soil light, and draw a little around the 
stems for tlieir support. He exceedingly care- 
ful to guard against the intrusion of weed.s. 
The tuliers can be taken up as wanted for 
use during the months of September and Oc- 
tober, but in Xiivenilier they are to be raised 
for iire.servatiou through tile winter, in .sand 
(«• earth. The smallest piece let! in the 
ground proves troublesome by vegetating in 
the following spring. The crop, however, 
may remain where grown, as it does not suffer 
from the frost. 

ITsE. — In an agricultural point of view, 
this plant deserves a high position. It is ex- 
ceedingly hardy, bearing exposure to the se- 
vere weather of winter without injury ; it can 
be grown on poor .soil, without the aililition of 
much manure; it re(piires little altention, 
and is distinguished by great pro(hictiveness. 
The stalks make very good fodder, if cut be- 



fore the llowei-s have fully opened ; while the 
tubers are thought iiarticularly valuable for 
cows, sheep and stock pigs. When preiiare<l 
plain for Ihi' table, the roots are rather a sec- 
ond-rate dish. Alter having been boile<l soft 
or tender, they are to be peeled, anil then 
sl(nved with wine and liutter. Hy many per- 
.sons they are then considered nutritious and 
possessed of a good flavor. (^:ltcnrk'i Oar- 
dene r'x Text- Book.) 

The most common use ninde of these tubers 
in Lancaster county is in the form of pickles, 
of which We havi' eaten some excellent ones ; 
and for this ]iinpose they are dressed In sev- 
eral .styles, alter the manner of walnuts, cit- 
rons, cauliflowers or cucumlK-rs. They are 
.said, also, to make an excellent .s;ilad when 
thinly sliced down and properly .sea.soned. 

European Artichoke. 

(Cyanaru horlcnitis et xcotytnuK.) 

This artichoke is a perennial from the south 
of Einope. which was cultivated in England 
as early as the year l.VSO. It is naturally a 
marine plant, and ha.s gradually been un- 
proved by (hunesticalion. The botanical 
name, according t<i Columella, is derived from 
the Latin word riiura. because the ancients 
were accustomed to apply ashes to the land In 
which the plant was gi-own. It rcsendiles a 
gigantic thistle, aiul its flower-heads, before 
blooming, have .somewhat the appearance of a 
small pine-apple, at which time they are highly 
)iri/.cd on Kuropi'an tables, [larticularly by the 
French. There are two varieties, viz. : the 
Oral Green (Ci/nnura sralymus) and the J{cd 
or Globe {C. horlenxis). Tlie latter h;is a pur- 
jile head, and is generally most esteemed, hut 
the first has the advantage of grtater hardi- 
hood and |iroductiveness. 

('ULTi'iuc— The artichoke is propagated by 
seeds, or Ijy suckers from old roofs. It flour- 
ishes best in soil which is deep, liglit and rich ; 
dry in winter, but somewhat moist in the 
summer season. The situation should l)c 
open, and free from the influence of trees. 

When you wish to raise seedlings, you may 
sow as soon as the frost leaves the ground in 
s|)rinir. One ounce of .seed will produceabout 
six hundred plants. Sow in drills one foot 
apart and two inches deep. When the stems 
are an inch high they may be thinned out to 
distances of ten inches in the drill. Keep the 
ground liszht, and free from weeds, by tlie oc- 
casional use of the hoe. At the approach of 
cold weather protect tlie bed by covering with 
litter, and in the following sjiring remove the 
plants to their permanent location, in the 
manner directed below for suckei-s. 

The suckers are afforded by the old roots 
early in spring. They are fit for transplanting 
when eight or ten inches in height. After the 
ground for the bed has been selected, it should 
be spaded deeply, and manured with good rot- 
ten dung, seaweeil, .salt, or anything of a .saline 
charai'ter. Slip the young .shoots from the 
parent root, and reject all that are tough and 
woody. The loose outside leaves ought to be 
pulled otT so that the lieart can be seen. If the 
shoots have been for .some time exposed to tlie 
air, they are much benefited by being placed 
in water for three or four hours before jilant- 
ing. They may then be set out by the dibble 
in rows three liv four feet apart, with about 
half their length below the surface. They 
ought to be watered every evening until they 
become finally established, and subsequently 
during times of drought ; by this means the 
size and suceulency of the edible parts will be 
much increa.sed. 

The only cultivation needful during spring 
ami summer, is to keep the soil clean and mel- 
low, as well as to apply water in dry weather. 
Under such treatment, a few heads for use 
may be expected between August and Xovein- 



34 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[March, 



ber, although in subsequent years the matu- 
rity of the crop will commence much earlier 
in the season. The liead is permitted to grow 
until the scales spread, and the flower seems 
about to open. The stem must then be cut off 
close to the ground, so as to encourage a new 
growth of suckers before winter. 

Although apparently possessing a hardy 
constitution, this vegetable is very sensitive to 
the frost, requiring winter protection in the 
northern States. In all severe weather, the 
plants ought to be sheltered by a larger layer 
of leaves, branches, or coarse litter. When 
spring opens, all danger of hard frost being 
passed, and the young buds having fairly 
started, the litter is to be removed, and the 
beds leveled, and the ground thoroughly dug. 

An artichoke bed seldom continues iu per- 
fection for a longer time than six years; after 
that period the flower heads become gradually 
smaller and less succulent. 

For seed, select some of the best heads, and 
permit them to flower. To prevent waterset- 
tling in the expanded calyx, the stake must be 
bent over, by being tied to a small stalk. The 
seed will be ripe in the fall. Gather it when 
dry, and store it in a cool, dry apartment. Its 
vegetative power may be depended on for at 
least three years. 

Use. — As a vegetable, the artichoke is whole- 
some, but, probably, not very nourishing. It 
is used in various ways. In Italy, the young 
tender heads are eaten as a salad, with oil, 
salt and pepper. The edible pnrts are the re- 
ceptacle of the flower, called the "bottom," 
and the fleshy substance on the bottom of the 
calyx scales. In England, the whole head is 
usually boiled plain, and the scales are pulled 
oft' at the table, one or two at a time, dipped 
in butter and pepper, and stripped of their 
fleshy part with the teeth. The stalks are 
eaten in France and Germanj^, after having 
been boiled and pickled. The flowers hava 
the property of rennet iu curdling milk, and 
the juice of the leaves and stalks when pre- 
pared with bismuth, imparts a permanent gold 
color to wool, and, when mixed with an equal 
quantity of white wine, is said to have been 
successful in the cure of the dropsj'. 

To boil. — Scrape the artichokes and put them 
in boiling water, with an allowance of a table- 
spoonful of salt to every two dozen heads. In 
about two hours time they w^ill become quite 
tender, when they may be taken from the fire 
and seasoned with butter and salt. 

To pickle. — Soak the artichokes in salt and 
water for several days. Drain them and after- 
wards rub off all the outside skin. To one 
gallon of vinegar, add one tablespoo.nful of 
alum, and a teacupful of salt, and turn over the 
artichokes when it is scalding hot. After re- 
maining a week, it should be drawn off, scalded 
and then returned, the process being repeated 
at intervals of six or seven days, until the 
heads appear to be thoroughly pickled, when 
they will be ready for use. — Schenck''s Garden- 
er'' s Text Book. 

We are not aware that this vegetable has 
received any special attention by the gardeners 
of this country, if any at all, or even that it is 
worthy of cultivation. Our object in tran- 
scribing its history, mode of cultivation and 
use, is more to inform the readers of The 
Farmer of the fact of its existence, and 
wherein it differs from the vegetable so widely 
known in this country under the name of 
" THE artichoke." 



QUERIES AND ANSWERS. 

Mr. J. P., Christiana, Lancaster county, 
Pa. — The large, white, footless, and black- 
headed grubs, which you exhibited at the 
March meeting of the Horticultural Society', 
are very probably the /arive of the "Broad- 
necked Prionus, " (Frionus laticotis). You 
say you took them out of an old apple log that 
had been lying foiu' or five years, and was 
going into decay, and ask whether they prefer 
dead to living wood, and if the former, whether 
old logs might not be a protection to living 
trees, as an attraction to these insects. We 
hardly know how to answer that question, be- 



cause if all that has been reported on the sub- 
ject be true, they infest both dead and living 
wood. We have taken them (or allied species) 
out of Lombardy poplar, cherry and oak, that 
were in partial decay; and many years ago we 
suggested that they probably were the cause 
of the death and decay of the Lombardy pop- 
lars over all this region of country ; hardly any 
now remain — all destroyed. But that is not 
the worst, for in the west, and elsewhere, they 
are knoum to infest the roots of the living 
grape, apple and pear, and from their great 
size — two and a half inches long — and their 
three years larva life, if they should Ijecome 
numerous, it is very evident that they would 
be a most formidable enemy to the fruit- 
grower, particularly because they work con- 
cealed, or imder groiuid, and therefore difti- 
cult to approach with a remedy. They also 
infest the Osage orange, and are saitl to even 
attack cornstalks; but this latter is questiona- 
ble, because they would not have time to ma- 
ture therein, unless they passed to or from 
some other substance. The beetle that de- 
velops from this larva, is a large black, or 
deep brown insect, the females of which are 
fully three inches long, but the males are much 
less. They belong to the family Prion id a in 
the great group or section of Longhorned bee- 
tles (Longicornia)- There are several species 
of them, and also others allied to tliera; there- 
fore without breeding them, it cannot pusi- 
tiveh/ be stated, to which species they belong; 
but tlie probabilities are favorable to the spe- 
cies we have named. 

Will Mr. P. send us in April or May half a 
dozen specimens of the largest he can find, 
together with some' of the decayed wood. The 
beetle appears iu .June and July, and ought to 
be killed wherever it is found. It is attracted 
at night by a bright light, and in this way we 
have captured a dozen in a single evening. 



THE CENTURY WEATHER REPORT. 

The past winter having been suffi- 
ciently remarkable for its mildness to employ 
the pens of the " weatherwise " nearly over 
the whole country, many of whom claimed 
that there was nothing like it within the re- 
collection of the "oldest inhabitant; wethere- 
fore copy the following, which goes to show 
that although the oldest inhabitant may fail in 
memory, there is still a record extant tliat is 
independent of and anterior to his pretensions 
in meteorological lore. At best, we are but 
very short-memoried mortals. We are ai)t to 
regard the immediately pending condition of 
things as the hardest, the didlest, the hottest, 
the coldest, the mildest, the wettest, the dry- 
est, the briskest or the wckedest that has ever 
before been experienced. If, however, we only 
turn over a few pages of the past, we will find 
that not only history, but also the meteorolo- 
gical phenomena of the world " repeat them- 
selves," and that the like had been seen and 
felt before. 

' ' The remarkably mild weather of the past 
month has sadly puzzled the wiseacres who 
had predicted an extraordinary cold winter, 
commencing early in November. And even 
the " oldest inliabitants " have set their wits 
to work trying to account for the backward- 
ness of the season. As a consequence, items 
are pitblished in newspapers of all sections 
furnishing parallels to tlie seemingly unpar- 
alleled mildness. Another interesting fact has 
been recalled in this connection, to wit, tliat 
the first month of this centennial winter 
closely resembles that of 177(i. The news- 
papers of tliat day speak of the extraordinary 
weather. It was even said that the lack of 
the usual ice in Boston harbor prevented 
Washington from crossing his forces and at- 
tempting a surprise of the city, and the Amer- 
icans were enabled to continually send forth 
vessels from all parts of the harbor to the 
West Indies for munitions of war. Tlie mild 
weather also allowed Gen. Schuyler, in tlie 
first days of January, to dispatch his well- 
planned little expedition up the Mohawk val- 
ley to surprise the hiahlanders under Johnson. 
On the contrary, the news that year from 



England indicated an intensely cold winter. 
The weather records of Philadelphia disclose 
many facts worthy of note in this connection. 
In comparing the mean temperature of the 
past month with that of each January of the 
last century it is found that in but seven in- 
stances was the temperature as high as in the 
month just closed. Last Friday the thermom- 
eter reached TCP, a point which, during the 
whole century, was only equalled in the years 
1790 and 1870, and was not exceeded at either 
period. The day therefore may be regarded 
as a remarkable one. The mean temperature, 
however, for the past month does not reach 
the mean temperature attained in either of 
the years alluded to, but still the weather for 
the month was unusually mild. According to 
the records of the Pennsylvania Hospital, the 
mean temperature for the last month was 38^, 
the minimum falling to only 17° above zero. 
This was 6'- above the average for January, 
and during the entire century that point was 
equaled only in this section in the years 1802, 
'23, '43, '58, '03, '70. In 1790 the mean tem- 
peratm-e was 44°, the mildest January on re- 
cord. Fogs prevailed iu the morning, but the 
hot sun soon dispersed them. At that time 
the mercury often ran up to 70° in the shade 
at mid-day. In Pierce's report of the weather, 
it is stated that boys were seen swimming in 
the Delaware and Schuylkill rivers. This un- 
usual weather was continued up to February 7. 
In 1802 the trees and shrubbery were blossom- 
ing in January, and in 1828 tlie Delaware was 
as free from ice as in June. The first month of 
1870 was tlie warmest January on record after 
that of 1790. While in nearly all these cases the 
winter has been remarkably mild, there have 
been instances noted when the winter did not 
really commence until February, and contin- 
ued far into the spring season, at one time up 
to June. Even during those winters when 
little or no snow fell, the summer following 
the unusual season was generally reported to 
be an exceedingly fine one. So it will be seen 
that the clerk of the weather is such an ec- 
centric genius as to def}' the laws of prece- 
dent, refusing to do the bidding of those fogies 
who claim to know by the color of a goose's 
breast bone under what conditions he shall 
present himself in this section. " — Fhiladelphia 
Times of 'id inst. 

^ 

The intei-esting paper on " The Potato's 
Enemies" on the 36th page of this issue, 
which originally appeared in the West Chester 
Local News, was sent to us some weeks ago 
by Mr. John I. Carter, of the " Experimental 
Farm" at West Grove, Pa., for insertion in 
The Farmer, if advisable, but it came to 
hand too late for our January number, and 
we had laid it away too carefully to find it in 
time for our February number. It is, how- 
ever, one of those things that will not spoil, 
if used before the first of April or May. and 
therefore we give it a place in our present num- 
ber. Although occasional tubers of the potato 
may be found every autumn, when they are 
raised, with cavities gnawed into them,. 
yet we do not think the depredations of 
either of the insects named (if they are cor- 
rectly named) has yet amounted to a serious 
infestation in this region of Pennsylvania. Dr. 
Hunt is probably on the right track, and in 
addition to the works to whicWhe has referred, 
we would call the attention of potato growers 
to the investigations made by the Agricultural 
Department at Washington City, which are 
published and illustrated in the reports of 
1872, 1873 and 1874, a condensation of which 
was published in The Lancaster Farmer 
of Feliruary, 1875. It is probable, however, 
that the wounded portions of the tubers may 
furnish a ]irolific seat for the development of 
the fungoid disease, but it is certain that it 
exists independent of such conditions. 
♦ 

Now that the season for practical operations 
on the form is opening, every tiller of the soil, 
whether he owns one acre or one hundred, 
should subscribe for The Lancaster Far- 
mer, if he is not already a subscriber. It will 
prove a good investment. 



I 



1876.] 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



35 



LIGHT BRAHMAS. 

LiKht Bralinias are imiliably the most jiiipu- 
lar lit' all fowls. Lately there has ln'cii iiiiieh 
di.seussioii in poultry eireles as to the orii;iiiof 
this eeleliiated variety, liiit as a reiietitioii of 
tills could be of no interest to our readers, we 
will confine our remarks to the merits of this 
breed. 

Certain it is, that whatever tlieir orijiin, 
tliey are now a well-established breed, widely 
disseminated and universally esteemed— af- 
thouu'h as there is no fowl adapted to all 
situations, to all tastes, so there are men who 
loathe, as it were, what they clioose to call 
the clumsy, stupid ways of the IJrahma fowl. 

They are readily conline(l, and especially 
adapt themselves to narrower (luarters. A 
fence four feet hijjh will easily keep them 
within bounds. They are lazy, care not to 
fora^'e much, are readily handled, of a tame, 
quiet disposition, and hence are esiiecially 
suited to small city yards. They (^an be tired 
in exceedingly small lots, if the young chick- 
ens are allowed a considerable range when at- 
taining their growth. They nnist be well fed 
when young, or they will grow u]i small and 
stunted — thus solely miprolitable. If a far- 
mer intends to breed 15rah- 
mas he must expect to feed 
more grain than is re- 
el ui red by the common 
fowls or smaller breeds of 
thoroughbreds. Hut what 
is the result y The lirahma 
will take on twice as nuich 
Hcsh, and hence is really 
the more profitable. They 
are good for broilers when 
from two to three months 
old, and are just the thing 
for early .spring markets. 
When full grown they will 
thrive satisfactorily on the 
same amount of food that 
is necessary to keep Leg- 
horns 01- other small 
breeds in couliuement, for, 
although twice the size, 
there is little muscular ac- 
ti<iii, and hence scarcely 
any waste, while, on the 
other hand, the Leghorns 
are very active. But if 
both are allowed free 
range, the Leghorns will 
almost entirely seek their 
own food, while the ]5rah- 
mas will dust themselves 
and idle the whole day, 
waiting for their meals. 
A cross of the Brahma 
and Leghorns makes an 
excellent farmers' fowl — 
b<ith (lesh and the supply 
of eggs being thus im- 
proved. 

The necessity of proper 
cannot be too stronglj- urged upon the would- 
be breeder. The best of stock will degenerate 
and become worthless as mongrels if allowed 
to shift for themselves. Bralmias are good 
layers, and give an especially abundant sup- 
ply in winter, when most needed. They are 
inveterate sitters ; when this propensity mani- 
fests itself the hen should be innuediately 
peimed u]), for the longer it is delayed the 
greater will be the difficulty in preventing it. 
The perches for fowls should be broad, slightly 
curved, and not too high from the ground. 
Especial care should be taken as to this point, 
for there is no more fruitful source of badly 
shaped, deformed fowls than im]n'oper roosts. 
A very common fault with I^ight ]5rahmas is 
a tendency to become "leggy." Xow it does 
not jiay to produce long-legged shanghais. 
The days of Burnham's fowls, that " ccndd 
eat otT of the top of a Hour-barrel and all that 
was in in it,'" are past. Now good taste and 
sound judgment are prevailing. The heat 
of the/iimre is past, and the fowl imiting the 
greatest economies of form, size, shape and 
eggs rules the day. Size is a point that must 



not be underrated. The whole country is 
Hooded with misi^rable, dwarfed specimens, 
poorly feathered, that are styled Light Brah- 
mas, and vended as such. It is easy to luo- 
duee a small, well-marked bird, but Kidy the 
best and most carefully bred strains wili pro- 
duce birds i)erfcct in feather and colos.sal in 
size. We do not advocate over-fei'ding, but 
size in the hhiad ; and this alone wii.i, tell 
in the olTs]iriMg. 

Again, in our extensive corresiioudcnee we 
occasionally have calls for '• white liralunas. " 
Now such a)e only degenerated specimens, 
and in no cousidiMation to be tolerated. Let 
US stick to the Light and Dark Hrahmas as 
the only genuine varieties, and here we will 
lind sullieient employnu^nf for the exercise of 
untiring jiatience, skill and zeal in the im- 
Jirovemeut and perleetion of the American 
Brahma. Our cut reiiresents birds belonging 
to Mr. Miner, of Illinois. — ^Y. Alice Bui-jhc, 
Pliiladeli)liia, Pa. 



ANCIENT GARDENING. 

Philip Miller says : ''We have likewise m.any 
of the famous gardens of the ancients elegantly 
described by the poets and historians as the 








care of Brahmas 



pensile ones of Semiramis, those magnificent 
ones of King Solomon, the Ilfsperian, with 
those of Arlonia and Alrinmis, the latter of 
which, described by Homer, and beautifully 
translated into EmjJish b\' Mr. Pape, I shall 
take the liberty to transcribe." 

" Close to the gates a spacious irartlen lies, 
From storms defeiuU-tl and iiicleiiirMit sliies; 
Four acres was the iUlntteil spaee ol"irrouiHl, 
Fene'il witli a green enclosure all arnunil; 
Tall tliriviiiir Irees eonfess'd the fruitful nioiihl, 
The red'ninii- n/>p/f' rijx'us here to jjoM; 
Here the hlne.rt'/ with luscious juice o'erllows, 
With deeper reii the full ponit't^ruit'tti' jjlowe. 
The hraneh here heiuls beueatli the weii^hly y>e<ir, 
The vei'dant dUrts tloiu'ish round I he year, 
The halmy spirit of the western srale. 
Eternal breathes on fruits unlausrhl to fail: 
Kaeh droppiuc: ;»'*!/• a followini^y^a/" supplies, 
On ajij)lrn tipplr.'<, ^tii/n nujhjs arise; 
The same mild season i,'ive8 the blooms to blow, 
The buds to harden and the fruits to grow. 
Here order'd I'ims in eiinal ranks appear, 
With all th' united labors of the year. 
Some to uidoad the fertile branches rini, 
Some dry the blaek'nlnij clusters In the sun; 
Others to tread the li(iuid harvest join, 
The groauiiii; presses foam with tlooils of wine. 
Here are the vines iu early flow "r descry 'd, 



Here grapes diseolored on tlie gunny side, 

.\iu\ these in autumn's riehest purple dy'd. 

Beds of various /wr'u forever uri'en, 

In beauteous order terminate the scene. 

Two pleuteous/uiJHdiiii* the pros|)eel erowu'd; 

Thin thro' llie nanlent leads its stream around, 

Visits each plant, ami waters all the ground; 

While llml in pipes beneath the palace Hows, 

.\nd theiiee its lurrenl on tlielown bestows; 

To various use their various streams they bring, 

The /i(o/(/p one, and one supplies the klnj;." 

Sir WitUnm 7Vi)i;i/r siiys, "that this descrip- 
tion contains all the ju.stesi rides and provi- 
sions which can go toward composing the best 
gardens. Us extent Wius four acres, which, in 
those times of simplicity, was looked upon a-s 
a large one. even for a ;>ri?irf. U wa.s inclosed 
all round for defence, and, for convenience 
joined close to the gates of the pularr. This is 
from the prifnre of Philip Miller's "Gar- 
dener's Dictionary," aipiaint old roytil (piarto 
volume of about onethou.sjinil pages.' dc^dicated 
to .Sii; ll.ws Si,o.\NK, Jinrl,iinil published in 
Lemdon some time previous to the year 17.")0 
or 17.")J. as the latter is the year in which Sir 
Hans Sloanc died. Miller died in 1771. 

The foregoing is, however, not a description 
of an iietual garden in Slonne'n, Milter'.i, or 
Temjjka^ times, but a far prior date—a garden 
• in the liiiu's of IIoMEU. 
Authors, however, do not 
agree as to vhtn or trhere. 
lloiner was born ; seven 
cities claiming that honor, 
and at Jis many different 
ejiochs, in which there is 
a difference of faur /lun- 
dred' jfturn. The greatest 
weight of testimony, how- 
ever, .seems to he to the 
efTcct, tliat he Wius blind, 
and was born at Smyrna, 
an Ionian city on theco.a.st 
of Asi;i Minor, about onff 
thousand years before the 
Christian era, according to 
which this description ap- 
plies to a g;irden of three 
tliouxund t/ear.'i ago. 

From this we may be 
able to form some idea of 
the antiquity of horticul- 
ture and systematic gar- 
dening, ami jil.so what im- 
provement has been made 
thereon. "The dropping 
pear a following pear sup- 
plies," might indicate that 
oratifjes or lemon.s, and not 
._ jicnrs are ii eant, that lie- 
'" ing about the manner in 
■,'" which that ripening fruit 
succeeds each other. Four 
y^ acres would 1k' considered 
=? a very respectable fruit 

^' : garden for a private fam- 

ily, even at the present 
^^^ — day, and taking Lancaster 

county as an example, there are, perhaps, more 
below that size than above it. Fnst as the 
present age is, we tltid tluit, after all, we are 
traveling but slowly down the coui-se of 
time, and that many iirir things have their 
archetyi)es in things of old. 

■ ^ 

The Slaughter of Birds for their Plumage. 
.Mr. Alfreil Xewton writes a striklni; proU>l lo the 
Tiineg ajrainst the wholesale slauirhler of blnls for 
the sake of ornamental feathers. Hequotes the pro- 
ceedings of a sin^rle sale of feathers to show that to 
supply that sale aloue !),T00 herons (or egrets) must 
have been destroyed. .\ll these feathers are said to 
haveeonu- from India last autumn.' Mr. Newton ob- 
serves that no country eould supply tO.OOO herons In 
a siiiRle breeilinir season without niMirly rootinj; out 
the sleek. Moreover, l.t.OOll Huininini; birds and 
upwartl were Included in the sale, of which 7+0 were 
of a sinirle kind. .\s far as we know, none of these 
birds really diminish the stock of fmid available for 
man, so that in destroylnir them for mere show wc 
empty the world absolutely of a certain |iortlon of IU 
beauty and happiness— « Idle the beauty is cerlalldy 
by no means made up In the ornamentation of femi- 
nine toilets wbieh is thus pro<'ured. In this aire of 
tine moralities, does no one really Ik'stow a thoucht 
on the morality of such reckless spoliation of life as 
this ? — London Spectator. 



36 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[March, 



THE POTATO'S ENEMIES. 



An Essay read before the West Grove Experi- 
mental Farm Club, by Dr. Michener, in an- 
swer to a referred question. 

You ask, Is it tlie white grub, or larvse of the 
May Beetle (Lachmostura fn$cu,\ or that of 
the False May Beetle {Lirjyrus reJictus,) which 
often do much damage "to the potato tubers ? 
And what preventive can be suggested for its 
spoliations ? 

In answer, it may be the one or the other. 
It may be both ; or it may not be either of 
them. Of tliis I am unable to afiirm until 
the terms of the indictment shall be settled. 
For we must remember that the potato is 
liable to various injuries and from various 
enemies; and that there are other parties beside 
May buys which possess a Hibernio- American 
fondness for the potato. Let us then deter- 
mine the exact offense for which these cul- 
prits stand indicted. If I comprehend the 
charge, it is not the ordinary eating of the 
tubers, but a mischievous nibbling of small 
holes over the surface, from an eighth to a 
quarter of an inch deep, wilh a black, ragged 
surface ; and thus rendering them both un- 
sightly and of little worth. 

The offense must be admitted, but I fear 
that the offenders have not been sufficiently 
identified to warrant the conviction of these 
grubs. Moreover, strong suspicion rests upon 
other parties. I allude to the wire worm (Me- 
lonotus incertus,) and to an undetermined fun- 
gus. It is fitting that you should inquire a 
little concerning all of these claims to villainy. 
First. Of the cock-chafers, or the true and 
false May beetles. These, in the larvae state, 
are well known to be underground vegetari- 
ans, and their ample, rotund forms show that 
they are generous feeders. They are, more- 
over, to be found in those soils wherein the 
potato delights to grow. I presume that they 
are too mudi like ourselves to be willing to 
starve in the midst of plenty, without making 
an appropriation of a part of the crop to their 
own use. This they no doubt do; but they do 
it boldly, and as of their right to do it. There 
is no thievish pilfering, nibbling a little here 
and a little there. They go right into the job, 
and can often be found at their work neatly 
ensconced in the excavations which they have 
eaten in the tubers. But I am utterly unable 
to co-ordinate these larvfe with the injury of 
the potato specified in the indictment, and 
therefore must refer the question back to the 
Moot Court for your further investigation. 

Second. Of the vnre worm, or larvae of the 
click-beetle. Here I must reproduce the testi- 
mony of our esteemed fellow member, W. R. 
Shelmire, and the comments of the excellent 
editors of the ^■l77i<^7-ico)i Entomologist (see Vol. 
II, p. (32.) But without having the advan- 
tage of a cross-examination of the witness, I 
fear that I may not fully comprehend and duly 
appreciate his testimony. As I understand 
him, he charges the icire loorm with injuries 
which the indictment does not exactly cover; 
viz: that it eats its way, and enters right into 
the tuber, where it not only finds an ample 
supply of sweet, palatable food, but that it be- 
comes domiciled therein during the winter, 
ready to be returned to the soil at the plant- 
ing season, to renew its annual round of plea- 
sure and of destruction; for you must know 
that both the white grubs and the icire ivorms 
continue several years in the larval state. I 
infer this to be the tenor of the bill which our 
witness has filed, from the editorial remarks 
above referred to, and from which I will read: 
"W. R. Shelmire, Tough Kenamon, Pa.— 
The elongate, cylindrical, horny, mahogany- 
colored worms, nearly an inch long, that bored 
up so badly your crop of Mercer potatoes, are 
a very common species of wire worm. This 
particular kind produces a click beetle (Melo- 
notus incertus.) There are a few that devour 
living vegetable matter, and are great pests 
to the farmer. We have known them to de- 
stroy the young corn plants to a grievous ex- 
tent, gnawing laterally into the stem, just un- 
der the surface of the ground. 

"Your neighbor is right in saying that if 



you plant these worm-eaten potatoes they will 
produce wormy potatoes ; that is, if you plant 
potatoes with the wire worm in them, for these 
wire icorms live several years in the larvee 
state, and having six good legs of their own, 
they would readily migrate from the infected 
potato sets to tlie growing potatoes. You 
must not suppose, however, that tcire ivorms 
can breed ivire icorms, for it is not until after 
the larvaj has developed into the click beetle 
that it becomes capable of propagating its 
species. There are, no doubt, plenty of them 
remaining in your late potato ground. Sow- 
ing six bushels of salt to the acre, is said by 
one of the best farmers in England— Alder- 
man Mechi — to destroy all the ivire worms in 
the salted ground. We know of no mode but 
hand-picking to destroy the wire vxirms in 
your potatoes so that they can be used for 
seed." 

This enemy of the potato, from his small 
size, and of a color simulating that of the soil 
he inhabits, is far less conspicuous than the 
May beetle larvse, and may be more easily 
overlooked ; but he does not appear to have 
the habit of nibbling on the surface, as 
the bill charges. He bolts right in just 
as his and our Creator designed that he 
should do, and, as I have said, authorita- 
tively ai)propriates the whole tuber to the 
double purpose of affording an abundant sup- 
ply of choice food and a comfortable domicile 
for the long and dreary winter season, with a 
coach-and-six to carry him back to the field 
on the return of spring. 

Here, as in the previous case, whatever or 
however great his offense may be, I think 
that you must exonerate him from the spe- 
cific injury mentioned in the bill. 

Third. "The last culprit that I shall arraign 
before you is the Fungus, alias whatever you 
may please to call him, for he has thus far 
withheld his name. He stands accused of 
the very mischief we have been considering. 
The evidence may all be circumstantial, but 
this is a necessity of the case, for, as the law 
is, no jury can receive strictly positive testi- 
mony in any case. I must, therefore crave 
your attention to the following views : 

When potatoes are eaten by larvae, as in the 
preceding cases, and the injury is recent, we 
find the flesh of the tuber fresh, white, 
smooth, and inclining to heal or skin over, as 
we observe it do when cut with a knife ; yet 
who has ever seen such an appearance in the 
disease before us ? I have not ; no, never. I 
have sought for it again and again, but with- 
out success. On the contrary, whenever and 
wherever I have seen the injury which we are 
considering, from the smallest speck up to the 
more extensive destruction of the organic tis- 
sue, the appearance has constantly been the 
same. Its features denote its parentage. Its 
dark complexion, its sunken visage, its ragged 
dress, its erratic habit, all indicate a per- 
nicious disease, reminding one of those gan- 
grenous and destructive ulcers so often seen in 
crowded and ill-ventilated hospitals, and simi- 
lar places, from the action of morbific spores, 
which empoison their atmosphere. Indeed, 
the aspect is similar, the parallel so complete, 
as to strongly suggest a consimilar origin. 

It appears to be "admitted that if we plant 
diseased tubers we may expect to grow diseased 
potatoes, even where "there are no wire worms 
present. Such as men sow, such shall they 
reap. If the disease were a mere bite, I would 
ask how could that bite be propagated, and, if 
so, how can we expect to raise whole potatoes 
when we only plant pieces ? To me it seems 
that there is a si>ecific diseased action produced 
in the tuber by whatever cause, which is capa- 
ble of producing the same kind of action in the 
new potato, either through the tissues of the 
plant or through the soil. 

Again, it has been pretty fully ascertained 
that there is something lefX remaining in the 
soil where diseased roots have been grown that 
is capable of affecting healthy potatoes planted 
therein the following year in a similar manner. 
I once planted selected potat(jes in the same 
ground for four successive years. The number 
of diseased tubers rapidly increased from year 



to year, until the last year half the crop was 
destroyed. 

An intelligent and observant friend of mine 
planted a few rows of potatoes across his lot. 
They proved to be a good deal injured. The 
next jear he planted the same ground, with a 
corresponding strip alongside, which had been 
cultivated in some other sort of crop the pre- 
ceding year. The result was, the crop in the 
old potato ground was almost worthless, while 
that in the contiguous portion was only slightly 
affected. All the conditions of soil, culture, 
manure and seed were similar. 

We know that insect depredators do often 
manifest wonderful discriminating powers in 
the selection of their food. But the Fungi, 
which constitute a still more predaceous class, 
are in a much greater ratio selective in the 
choice of their food, as well as in the places for 
their nidiflcation. They are, indeed, so numer- 
ous and so discriminating that almost every 
plant appears to have some specific fungoid 
growth peculiar to itself. 

The thing under discussion may yet prove 
itself to be a Fungus peculiar to the potato, and 
not to be found anywhere else. 

The ultimate appeal must probably be made 
to the higher powers of the microscope to de- 
termine the essential nature of this obscure 
and mysterious affection. 

So long as the cause and nature of the mis- 
chief is unknown, so long its prophylactic and 
remedial treatment will be empirical and un- 
satisfactory. But let us not despair. What- 
ever hypothesis we may adopt, it ought to sug- 
gest something as wortliy of trial. 

From what has been already said it may be 
of the utmost importance to plant none but 
the most perfect and clear tubers, and to avoid 
rei)lanting the old potato grounds. 

It may also be prudent not to plant those 
varieties which have been found most obnox- 
ious to the disease. 

If the germs inhere in, and are liable to be 
planted with, the potato, and I think tliat is 
the correct view, it would seem to suggest the 
use of some means for disinfection of the seed 
before plantijig. 

For this purpose I would recommend the 
trial of a solution of carbolic acid in water, of 
such strength as the tubers will bear without 
injury. The proper strength can only be as- 
certained by careful trials. Thus : Take car- 
bolic acid — an ounce ; water — a gallon ; mix 
when ready to plant ; immerse the setts in the 
solution for five minutes ; then remove and 
rinse the acid off before planting. 

As the Fungi are mostly found in connection 
withdiseased, ordead and decomposing organic 
substances, from which they may sometimes 
pass over to healthy, living organisms, it may 
be a question worthy of your consideration : 
How far the fertilizers used, may have aided in 
the productionofthedisea.se? To what extent 
was it known before their introduction ? And 
how far has it been increased under this use V 
The complexity of the subject, and the extent 
of the traverse must be my apology for the pro- 
lixity of my answer. 

SUPPLEMENTARY. 

Wearisome as this extended report may be, 
the end is not j'et. After it was written, it oc- 
curred to me tosend a specimen of the diseased 
potato to my excellent friend Dr. Gibbons Hunt, 
one of the most profound observers and expert 
microscopists in Philadel])hia, for his examina- 
tion ; remarking at the time, " That the my- 
celium, and stroma of the fungus could better, 
and perhaps only, be observed in the earlier, 
and growing state of the plant." 

I will now read you his report : 

Philadelphia, 13th mo. 17, 1875. 

Dr. Michener — ^^y Respected Friend : Thy note 
of the 15th inst., and also the potato, came duly to 
me. I have felt an interest in the subject of the dis- 
eases of the potato, and therefore have taken some 
pains to examine the afflicted tuber thee sent me. A 
superficial or external examination of the diseased 
spots, under a lens, magnifying from thirty to fifty 
diameters, reveals but little that is intelligible. A 
number of dark, opaque pellets, which I interpi-et to 
be the alimentary exuvia of some larva, readily 
came into view. I consider them to be of that char- 
iicter, because, when put into water, under a micro- 
scope, and submitted to pressure, they easily dislnte- 



1876.] 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



37 



grate, and prcspiit a boliavior unlike that of any or- 
ganized rcproduotivo liody. 

Not rcmaininef sat isfR'd, however, with so superfi- 
cial an examination, I placed a well marked portion 
of the potato, whieli was delective, in my section 
machine, and sliced off several extremely thin sec- 
tions, extending entirely across a s])ot, and enihrac- 
insT, also, a wide niari^in of ai)parently sound potato. 
These thin slices, I now tinlcd slii;litly with a solu- 
tion of loi^wood, then I soakeil llicin in ijlycerine. 
Tliis treatment caused all tlie air tii come out of the 
shrivelled cells: made all tlie parts very transparent; 
and the color was just sullicient to render tlie most 
delicate morpholoi;ieal elements optically viRil)lc. 

Now, these prepared sections, under a jiower ;;ivinir 
a linear ainplilication of 300, revealed clearly enough 
the character of the disease. The cells adjacent to 
the excavated spots are all shrunken, broken, and 
collapsed; and this alteration of fur in in tlie cells, ex- 
tends to a considerahle distance into the potato. Not 
only is the change in the form of the cells, hut an 
eiiual destruction has taken place in the cell mnlcnls. 
In healthy i>otatoes, the iclls arc tilled with normal 
starch grains, which a little iodine, or the use of 
polarized light, will distiiiiruisli from all other or- 
ganic products. Now, a wide zone of cells, surrounding 
the diseased spot, presents all the cells ici^Aei'/ starch, 
or, when a few starch grains are left renuiiniiig, their 
structure is greatly altered, and the surface, natu- 
rally even and polished, is uneven and granular. It 
would not he possible for an insect to reach the starch 
cells so far from the diseased spot . At a still greater 
distance into the potato, the cells and their contents 
are quite natural. 

Under this amplitication, the potato cells are very 
large, and many of them, near the points of disease, 
were crowded with beatl-like rows of cells of un- 
doubted fungoid character; anil many threads of 
separate mycelial fdarncnts (of course dead) 1 could 
trace among the cells, and still adhering to their 
transparent walls. 

I could not detect any object, in the present dried 
state of the parasite, any representative body which 
I could call a spore, unless the tf'riniuiil cell in the 
beaded rows were such a body. I did observe, how- 
ever, in very many otherwise empty cells, large, dark 
colored, oval or round, cells, transiucent, and having 
one, or more, distinct nuclei, in thera. Perhaps these 
bodies are the oogonia, or resting spores, or winter 
spores of the fungus. 

I have little doubt that the disease is caused by the 
Peronospura iiifcstnnii, an old enemy of all the sola- 
nac?e. Some very interesting jiajjers on this subject 
have appeared recently in the publications of the 
Hoyal Horticultural Society, the Oarilcncr'a Chroni- 
cle for July 10, 1875, and Monthlij Micru.-ii'opical Jour- 
nal for September of this year; by Berkely, Worth- 
iugton, G. Smith, and others. In the last journal, 
figures ofthe oogonia are given, and they hear a re- 
semblance to the bodies to be seen in the potato thee 
sent me. I cannot, however, speak certainly, in re- 
gard to the identity of this fungus, because it is not 
now in a living condition, and more time would be 
necessary for the study. These few imperfect obser- 
vations are all I can send thee at present. If oppor- 
tunity and material should otl'er, in the coming sea- 
son, I will more carefully examine the subject. "Very 
respectfully, /. O. Hunt, M.D., 12 Xortli Tenth 
street^ Philadelphia. 



For The L.\ncaster Farmer 

BAY WINDOWS FOR WINTER 
FLOWERS. 

Bay window.s are now very fashionable, and 
are admirably suited for growing handsome 
pot plants in winter. A stage, with 
shelves, may be made in the form of the 
inside of the window, and set upon castors. 
In the daytime it may be jiushed close to the 
glass for light, and if nights are very cold the 
stage may be drawn into the parlor, and 
turned with the plants inward. Gas then 
should not be much Inirned in the parlor, as 
it is injurious to the plants. When there 
is a party, and the parlor is lighted for a few 
hours only, it will not injure the plants. The 
stage, then, with the plants facing inwards, 
will look very ornamental, and the ]iei'fumos 
of the fragrant plants will scent the attiiospherc 
of the parlor. Many choice plants will Mmirish 
in bay windows which would die in jiarlors 
with stiuare windows. During day time they 
may be shut out from the parlor air liy light 
doors; then fresh air can be adniilted by 
moveable panes in tlie windows. \\'hen bay 
windows are on the north side of houses, tliey 
will be best for growing jialms, ferns, peri- 
winkle, ivy, etc. Nearly ;ill the fancy plants, 
set in vases, rustic stands, ferneries, hanging 
baskets, etc., may thrive in northern bay win- 
dows ; so they should be decorated with such 
plants and ornainents. — Eden. 



For Thk Lancahtkr Farmkr. 

HUMMING BI RDS. 
{Family Truchlllila:) 

(roNCLUDKO.) 

Considerable discrepancy prevails among 
authors ;is to llie period recpiired to hatch the 
eggs. Audubon gives it as ten days in the 
case of the Ruby Tliii>at ; others v;iiy tlie 
time from Iwevc to si,Ktcen days: the fact is, 
the lime v;iries willi the .size of the birds. !«•- 
ing longer in the largest species and shorter in 
the siii;iller ones. Auilitlioii also says the 
young are ready to lly in a week. This is an 
error, we think, on the part of our great orni- 
thologist. They are born blind and miked, 
and altliotigh they grow rai)idly, double the 
time ;illowcd them by otu" author is rei(uire<l 
before they leave the nest. Here again, no 
doubt, the time varies with the size of the 
bird. The young ones are fed ;ifter the man- 
ner of pigeons aiul canaries, by llirustinglhiMr 
needle-like bills into the mouths of the liarent 
birds, and thus rec(^iving the contents of their 
crops. The iirocess of incul);ition is c;irried 
on both by the male and fem:ile. 

Two broods are comnioiily produced in a 
season by our beautiful reiinsylvania species, 
which arrives here ;ibout the middle of April 
and leaves us near tin' close of Si-pleinber. In 
the West Indies and South Anieric;i, howi'ver, 
three and four families ;ire raised in a year. 
There the period of nidilieation runs through 
the whoU' twelve months. Mr. (iosse inforins 
us that in Jamaica he found their nests with 
young ones during every month of the year, 
but they were more plentiful during the month 
of .June tlian at any other time. Other authors 
mentiiui .laiuuiry to be the favorite period for 
incubation in tropical South America. While 
hatching, the female sits very clo.sely, and will 
permit the near approach of a person if made 
quietly ; indeed, .sometimes she will almost 
allow herself to be taken ere she quits thenest; 
even when building, she iiermits a watcher to 
remain within a few feet of the .scene of her 
operations without exlul)iting any distrust or 
alarm. If, however, much molested while in- 
cubating, or even after the chicks are out of 
the eggs, she sometimes removes them to an- 
other place. In this, Ilumining birds are not 
peculiar, as a number of other birds are known 
to do likewise under similar circumstances. 
Two Humming birds' nests are rarely found in 
the same vicinity. Their incubation is never 
enlivened by the presence of strangers. They 
exhibit much exclusiveness in this particular. 
Neither are they gregarious in a general sense. 
They never congregate in .social groups ; they 
are sometimes seen together in large luniibers, 
in the tropics, around the llowers of some favo- 
rite tree, but even then only in search of food; 
each individu;U Conies singly anil departs alone. 

In laying onl.v two eggs, the Hummers I'orm 
au exception to the almost universal liiw that 
obtains among feral birds, that the number of 
eggs is in proportion to the size of tlie birdsthat 
lay them. In the larger tribes, we almost in- 
variably find the eggs to be few. while they are 
much more numerous in the smaller ones. A 
little retlection will let us into this secret of 
nature. If the natural increase of raptorial 
birds was as great as that of the sm;iller tribes 
which constitute their jirincipal prey, that nice 
equilibrium which obtains in nature would be 
destroyed, and the rapacious kinds literally 
swarni, while the rest would graduallv dimi- 
nish in numbers, and jierhaps ultinnitely be- 
come extinct. Humming birds, from their 
minute size, their extraordiiuiry rapidity of 
wins, and their indomitable coiu-ige, ;ue ex- 
emiil from most of the dangers that continu- 
ally menace the sparrows and linches. There- 
fore, while they l:iy only two eggs, they are 
far more abundant in .Vnierica than the wren is 
in Europe, although the littler lays from twelve 
to twenty eggs. 

If the" natural enemies of the Humming 
birds are few, Iherc is yet one whose ravages 
1 of late years have far exceeded all the rest 
combined. Man has l)egun liis career of de- 
vastation amid their ranks, and at tlie beck of 
the Moloch of Fashion, countless thousands are 
now yearly destroyed to decorate female head- 



gear. Since the first part of this article wiis 
written, at a sale of orn;nneutal birds and 
feathers held in London last month, no less 
than lifleen thous;iiid of the.>*e beautiful crea- 
tines were sold; seven hundred and forty be- 
longed to a single sjiecies. This is, perliaps, 
not :> tentli part of the number wantonly de- 
stroyed every year. Has the world been made 
wiser or Ix'tter or more humane In'cause of 
this imrestricted sliiiigiiter V II;is not, on the 
conlniry, .so much Ix-auty and liappiiipss In'en 
taken out of it, and will the most slavish 
votary of fashion pretend tluit tlie lifeless bird 
fastene<l on her wearing ajiparel, can confer 
on any one a tittie of the pleasure that would 
be felt at seeing it disporting in unrestrained 
hajipiness in its native wikis, full of life and 
beauty iind jfiy V 

In the matter of geographical distribution, 
the Trocliilida- present .some striking jieculi- 
aritii's. Swallows and Falcons are <'onimon 
to all countries on the glolie. Australia alone 
has no Woodpeikers ; .Magpies range the 
woiid over in liniiieiiite kititudes. but tlie 
Iluniiniug birds, the most numerous family in 
the world, are conlined to this continent and 
its adjacent iskinds, and tlie large majority of 
the species to the torrid zone. C'omiiaratively 
few migrate Ijeyond the wiirmer latitudes ; 
this is not very wonderful, but it is very sur- 
prising that such as do leave tlic tropic heats, 
penetrate to the regions of snow and ice. (.)ur 
own viiriety, the Kuby-throat, has lieen found 
as far north as the ijlst degree of latitude, 
while another species (T. Forjiattun) has a 
range southward of •>,-)00 miles and is often 
.seen Hilling through tlip snow storms of Terra 
del Fuego, as blithely as in the w;irm, dry 
climate of I'eru. Von Tschudi, as (pioted by 
Iltimlioldl in bis "Aspects of Nature,"' saw 
them on the Andes at an elevation of 14,(itK) 
feel, while Houreicr tbuiid them breeiiing on 
the rockv sides of Chiiiiborazo, at a height of 
10,000 feet, while sheltering himself from a 
violent .snow storm. In view of tliese facts, 
and many simikir ones we might mention, wc 
liavi- sonic dilliculty in reconciling with them 
Wilson's statement, when he tells us they are 
extremely susceptible to cold, and of which 
thetny he gives us a supposed case in his very 
charming and valuable work. 

If, however, a wide migration characterizes 
a few species only, and of which we have just 
given instances," the welj-delined and ex- 
traordinary localization that marks so many 
of the faiiiily is almost iiuomalous among the 
aves. Altlio'us;li gifted with such rare powers 
of wing, the h;ibitat of some is exceedingly 
circumscribed ; a mountain, a valley, a wood, 
a marsh, an island, and even the crater of an 
extinct volcano oft-times liasa sitecial resident- 
siiecies, even though these districts may lie 
only a few miles in area; this seems all the 
more incomiirehcnsible to us when we retlect 
how widely migratory others are. That the 
m.ajor ])art of this nlimerous tribe should be 
found within the tropics, wecanea,sily under- 
stand, because there their food, both animal 
and veget;ible, is most abundant and constant, 
but this rigorous local distriliution within the 
tropics themselves, is haril to understand. It is 
unkuowuwhetlier migrations of the few extra- 
tropii-al species are performed during the 
night or in tlie davtime; from their incon- 
siderable size this "question will prove very 
dillietilt of verilication ; neither do we know 
whether these journeys are made .separately 
or in company ; perhaps the former, a.s they 
have never been obsened to manifest gregari- 
ous habits, even when the time for their de- 
parture has come. 

All ;ittenipts to keep these birds in a state of 
conlineineut for anv considerable period have 
hitherto failed. A few mouths, at most, are 
all these (lelic;ite creatures are able to bear ; 
interesting experiments, bearing on this ques- 
tion, have been tried by AVilson and others. 
In a single instance were two young ones 
taken to I-:urope under favorable circum- 
stances, but they died soon after reaching 
there. Even the non-migratory species refuse 
to thrive under such a life in their native 
regions. Sugar and honey are the principal 



38 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[March 



articles of food given them when caged, and 
on this exclusive diet they linger through two 
or three months, but then they become emaci- 
ated and exhausted, droop and die. Sweet, 
liquid food alone is not sufficient to snstain 
them ; the lack of insect food, to which they 
are accustomed in a state of nature, invari- 
ably brings on the final catastrophe. This fact 
is the best proof, if, indeed, proof were needed, 
to sliow how largely insectiverous they are. 
Some species bear their brief confinement 
more patiently than otliers ; they seem recon- 
ciled from the first to tiie change of circum- 
stances, and make few efforts to escape ; 
others, again, vainly beat against their prison 
walls nntil they become exhausted, and in 
this way often kill themselves ; a few manifest 
a sullen disposition and mope and die ere 
many days. Mr. Gosse, to whose accurate and 
long continued oljserv'ations we owe much of 
our knowledge concerning these winged sprites, 
states that when turned loose in a large room, 
they spend nuich time in insect catching ; 
they dart from their perch, then the snap of 
their bills indicates a capture, when they 
again resume their accustomed place of rest ; 
on an average, tln'ee were captured each 
minute, although more would have been had 
they been more abundant. 

Nature is wise in the distribution of her 
gifts. To the thrush, the mocking-bird and 
the nightingale she has given the sweet charm 
of melody, but a homely garb. On the Hum- 
ming-birds — those tiny sprites — she has con- 
ferred the rainljow hues of beauty, but has 
denied the enti-ancing gift of song. Their 
usual utterance is a faint twitter or an un- 
musical chirp, uttered chiefly while on the 
wing ; oftener, however, they are mute. Sev- 
eral species are said to trill forth an indiffer- 
ent song, but this statement recjuires further 
investigation. 

The Trochilidse seem gifted with an average 
amount of intelligence. The curiosity they 
often manifest indicates this. If struck at 
■while on tlie wing, or if their capture is at- 
tempted with a net, they will frequently turn 
and hover about the enemy, peer into his face 
and dart around the net, evincing much in- 
terest and curiosity. Human ajijiroaches to 
their nests also awaken a like incpiisitiveness. 
Tlieir sense of sight seems strongly devel- 
oped. The fact that the insects which they cap- 
ture on the wing are often almost microscopic 
proves this ; indeed, all their actions, whether 
flying or sitting, are confirmatory of it. So, 
too, we may say of their sense of taste. When 
we consider how much of their sustenance is 
drawn from tlie deep-tubed flowers, with their 
bifid tongue, and wliere their sight avails 
them notliing, and they are wholly dependent 
upon their sense of touch and taste, we can- 
not avoid the conclusion that their tongue is 
an extremely delicate and sensitive organ. 

It would, jierhaps, be trenching too closely 
on the borderland of imagination to suppose, 
as some have done, that Humming-birds find 
pleasure in the mere odors of the flowers 
among which they spend so much of their 
lives. We are not persuaded tliat their 
sesthetical tastes are so highly developed ; 
we believe their presence in those localities is 
attributable to a far more utilitarian object — 
the searcli for food. Tlie sense of smell is 
very inferior in all birds. Aububon and 
Bachman's experiments ])roved conclusively 
that even the common vulture possessed it in 
a very limited degree, if at all, although its 
ways of life would indicate the contrary, and 
general opinion has credited him with highly 
sensitive olfiictories. 

With the exception of a single species, the 
food of the Hummers, whether nectar or in- 
sects, is taken on the wing. Bullock relates 
that T. Gigas sometimes alights on the flower 
from which it is feeding. Wlien searcliing 
for food they often give themselves a brief 
rest ; they perch upon some slight twig, eitlier 
of tree or shrub, and carefully preen their 
plumage, seldom moving from tlie spot where 
they first sat down. It has been denied tliat 
their food is ever taken near the ground, but 
this is incorrect : we have seen it skinmiing 



the surface of small, shallow ponds, catching 
the small insect triljes tliat frequent them. 

Although theiv usual flight is not very ele- 
vated, tliey occasionally dart upward on rapid 
wing to a height of pcrliaps four or five liun- 
dred feet, wlien the sight can no longer follow 
them. They seldom alight on the ground, so 
rarely, indeed, that some ornithologists contend 
Swifts and Humming birds are the only birds 
that never do so. A well known authority 
asserts that he shot it while at rest in that 
position, and we see no reason to distrust his 
statement, as his opportunities for studying 
their habits in their native wilds have never 
been surjiassed. 

Both in confinement and in their natural 
state, they often select a particular spot on 
which to sleep or rest, and generally continue 
to frequent it for these purposes, and are driven 
from it with much reluctance; fly-catchers also 
manifest strong predilections for certain limbs 
and twigs, frequenting them from day to day, 
and using tliem as places from whence to make 
their sallies, and retm-ning to them when their 
momentary raids are over. 

Tliey are among the most pugnacious of all 
birds. When two males meet at a favorite 
fiower bush, a desperate battle is almost cer- 
tain to ensue, and is well worth seeing. The 
celerity of their movements during these en- 
counters almost baffles the keenest vision. 
They seem to take pleasure in molesting other 
birds without having received provocation. 
They care little how large their antagonist 
may be, but unhesitatingly attack birds ten 
times larger than themselves. They also de- 
light in teasing the larger humble bees, but 
when these become infuriated in their turn, as 
they sometimes do, and turn upon their annoy- 
ing adversaries, the Ilmuming birds beat a 
hasty and inglorious retreat. In sleeping, their 
heads are drawn back and buried among the 
dorsal feathers. They clasp the perch "very 
firmly, for their claws are unusually sharp and 
strong. 

In the tropics, they pay frequent visits to 
the extended webs of spiders, in search of the 
small entangled files to be found there. This 
habit has given rise to the belief that a bird- 
catching race of spiders made sad havoc with 
these living sunbeams, but later and truer 
knowledge has long since exploded this theory. 
Xo spider known spins a web tliat can hold 
for a moment even the tiniest Humming-bird. 
Even Limiceus held this belief. 

The Sun Birds (Cinnyrido') of Asia and 
Africa seem to represent, in some degree, on 
the eastern continent, the Humming birds of 
America, both in size and brilliant plumage, 
liut yet the generic differences are broad 
and marked ; they are also insectiverous, but 
apart from these general points of resem- 
blance there is no affinity whatever between 
them. 

From the impossibility of keeping these 
beautiful, fairy-like creatures in confinement, 
nothing is definitely known concerning the 
duration of their lives ; we are aware, how- 
ever, that ill most, if not all the species, the 
males attain their perfect plumage only in the 
second and third years, which fact, in an ana- 
logical point of view, leads us to believe they 
are not so short-lived as their size and ap- 
parent delicacy would indicate. 

We advise our readers who feel an interest 
in tills family of birds, to watch the arrival of 
our usual sjjring visitant; he will surely be 
here in ^Vjnil, unless the weatlier sliould be 
unusually inclement : lie will even ignore cold 
toes and slight snow storms rather than not 
be here on time ; he will also come in such 
numbers as to afford every reader of The 
Farmer ample opportunities to verify all we 
have said about him, and perhaps other and 
hitherto unknown facts al.so. By carefully 
observing his arrival at and departure from 
the flower garden, the locality of this self- 
taught architect's summer residence may be 
easily discovered. An}' attention that you 
give to his ways of life and general economy, 
will be amply rewarded in a large return of 
pleasant and useful knowledge, and a more 
profound reverence for the great Author of all 



things, who, through such apparently insignifi- 
cant means, has rendered efficient aid to the 
husbandman in his "struggle for existence," 
and conferred upon us all the happy privilege 
of gratifying, in unstinted measure, our 
heaven-born sense of the beautiful. — F. B. 
Diffenderffer, Lancaster, Pa. 



For The Lancaster Farmer. 
APPLES AND THEIR VARIETIES. 
Apples have been, generally, keeping re- 
markably well the present fall and winter. I 
have kept, even late summer and fall apples, 
up to this date, February 7th, 1876. They 
should be kept in a temperature of thirty-five 
to forty degrees above the freezing point, and 
in a dry place. We have many new varieties 
which are foreign to our soil and climate, and 
which will not do as well as some of our own 
old varieties — varieties that are to some ex- 
tent discarded, perhaps, only because they are 
old. I have asked a nurseryman for the old 
"Pennsylvania Red-streak," but he said he 
had none to sell— left them all run out — yet it 
is this day, in my locality, one of our best va- 
rieties. I have some of them at this writing. 
The tree is a fast grower and an early bearer. 
It also bears every year and is one of the apples 
for profit. The "Found Apple" is equally 
good, and needs no commenclation from me. 
The "Krauser" is a native apple of Bucks 
county — rather a fast grower and early bearer, 
in alternate seasons ; a good sized tree will 
produce from fifteen to twenty bushels, or 
more, every other year ; a very good apple, 
white, and juicy inside. The " York Im- 
perial " is a new apple, from York county, Pa. 
It is, probably, a seedling of the "Pennock," 
being of the same shape but not so large, and 
a brighter red in color ; also a fast grower, an 
early bearer, and a good keeping apple ; a little 
rough grained. The " House- Apple, " an old 
Lancaster county variety, is now rarely seen, 
if it has not become entirely extinct as a va- 
riety of general culture. There is, however, one 
tree so near my premises that you can throw 
an apple from it on my land. It had twenty- 
two bushels of perfect apples on it last season, 
and I had some on exhibition at the February 
meeting of the Society. They will keep until 
spring, yet it is an apple that is almost for- 
gotten. I will mention some of the new 
varieties which I commenced to plant some 
years ago: The Baldwin, Hubbertson Non- 
such, Griest's Winter, Smith's Cider, Russet, 
Domini, Green Sweeting, Talmon's Sweet, 
Twenty-Ounce, Khig of Tompkins,Cambridge, 
Wagner, Black Gilly-flower, Northern Spy, 
Muuson's Sweet, ISIonmouth Pippin, and Berks 
County Cider. I graft Russet on the Hubbert- 
son Nonsuch ; it is a strong grower and a good 
bearer ; a large dark red apple, very ornamental 
on the tree, but not a good keeper with me. 
Berks County Cider is a good sized red apple, 
a good grower, and a young bearer ; it keeps 
well up to the presenttime, and is worthy of 
cultivation in Lancaster county. The Baldwin 
is a fast grower, and it bears well, but is liable 
to drop its fruit prematurely. 

A Chester county orchardist had intended to 
graft some of his trees over again, but limed 
heavily under them, and that brought them to 
perfection — a thing worth knowing. The 
Northern Spy is a fast grower, but its foliage 
is late in the spring, and it comes late into 
bearing. I have trees fourteen years out of the 
nursery which have just lately commenced to 
bloom. They generally will bear when they 
bloom the first time. A friend of mine had a 
tree which bore very little until it was sixteen 
years old. It is now about twenty, and last 
year it produced seven barrels of fruit, that 
brought him four dollars a barrel. The Domini 
is a new variety and worthy of general cul- 
tivation, and so are Smith's C'der, and the 
Twenty Ounce Piiipin. The King of Tomp- 
kins County is not doing well with me. I 
grafted them over, on planting them in the 
orchard. It will do well to plant one Red As- 
trachan, and one "All-summer." I almost for- 
got to put in a good word for the " Smoke- 
house." I also wanted a few Smoke-house 
trees from a nurseryman, but he had none for 



1876.J 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



36 



sale, while our t roes are bearinsi regularly in 
my locality, and we sold the crop last season, 
very readily at from $1..")0 to ?-2.(i(i |)(>rliushel. 
In conclusion I would say bt- not discourajjed, 
we may soon come back again to the old-tinu- 
apple years in Lancaster county. Indei'd, it 
is the opinion of good authorities, that with 
proper culture, our county may eventually be- 
come tlie " Ap])le-(iarden" of Pennsylvania. 
—L. S. Heist, Warwick, Fihrwinj, ls7(i. 

[God grant it may, even if Hcsliould not live 
to see the day. If apples l)ecome al)undant, 
and cheap enough for the poor to purchase and 
consinne, it will be prrfectly agreealile to us. 
It is not desirable that they should become too 
cheap for farmers to cultivate them, but cliea]) 
enough for the poor, by a proper system of 
economy, to make a larger culinary use of them 
than they can afford at the i)resi'nt prices. 
■When we connnenced housekeeping — forty- 
two years ago — we had the fmest apples 
delivered at our door for twenty cents a bushel. 
There was no complaint ilun that it " did not 
pay" to raise them. Although tlu'y, perhaps, 
never will be sold at that price again, yet they 
should be cheaper than now.— Ed.] 



For The Lancaster Farmkb 
HOME THAT IS HOME. 

The sound of the word home is calculated 
to fill the mind with iilea.sant thoughts and 
the heart with a desire to soon enjoy its 
sweet comforts — and doubtless it does to a 
great majority of the people. But there 
are some to whom it gives quite differ- 
ent sensations and prompts them to remain 
away as long as possible, and even allow 
themselves to be burthensome to their friends, 
rather than spend an evening under their 
own roof. The love of home varies in differ- 
ent individuals, from this degree of absolute 
hatred to those who are just as well satisHed 
at home as away, and from that to those who 
cannot be persuaded to leave its sacred inllu- 
ence unless business compels them. The rea- 
son of this is obvious : because some homes 
are so much more comft)rtable, more pleasant, 
more cheerful, in short, more homelike ; and 
if each one would investigate anddiscoverthe 
reason that his home does not have that 
great attraction for him; next, find out whose 
taidt it is, and then take i)roper measures to 
remove the evil, we as a community, a peo- 
ple and a nation would be nmch farther ad- 
vanced on the road towards a higher standard 
of excellence in morality, intelligence and 
manhood. The cause of these unattractive 
homes may be from the neglect of the hus- 
band and father to provide the home with 
those things necessary to make it attractive ; 
for instance, family newspapers, periodicals 
appertaining to his business, interesting books 
and innocent games ; or it may be from the 
over-tidiness of the housekeeiier, who demands 
such a degree of circumspection from the in- 
mates that it becomes more like a prison than 
a home ; and when that feeling overtakes a 
man it don't take him long to tind some more 
congenial quarters. There are some who are 
such natural born ladies and gentlemen that 
they feel no restraint in being on their best 
behavior all the time, but it is not above one 
in a hundred, while the ninety and nine long 
for the jilace where they can throw off re- 
straint, to be their natural selves, to do just 
as they please, to be free and easy ; and home 
is the natural and proi)er place to do it. That 
man who spends his hours olf duty with his 
family, who assists in entertaining his lioys, 
and instilling into them a love for home above 
every other place, does a good work, and one 
that he will be paid for in feelings of comfort 
and just pride when he .sees them grown to be 
husbands and fathers, following the example 
which he had given them. There is no doubt 
that the lack of love of home so general in men 
in the city, and even in the country, is to a 
great degree the effect of the pattern set by 
their fathers, and it will require a determined 
effort dn the part of the present generation to 
counteract this intluence, and raise \\\i our 
boys to inherit different feelings ; but we will 



find our reward in their thanks, in after 
years, for the pains we took to make home 
pleasant to them. It is clearly a iluty that 
every man owes to his children, and coidd it 
but lie brought about that every man would 
spend his evenings at home, anil keep and en- 
tertain his boys there, we cannot reali/e the 
dillt'rence there w<iuld be in the state of ihe 
[lublic morals a generation lienci;.- The ho.s- 
pitals, the almshouses and the prisons would 
show the elfecls of it in a great degree. 

As every natural parent feels a desire that 
his sons shall turn out to be good citizens, and 
feeling so sensibly the great need of reform in 
the matter of inihuuuie on the minds of the 
youug, and in hopes llial some one may be 
awakened to a sense of the lmi)ortance of the 
subject, is the excuse for venturing to give a 
few hints as to the way it might be done. 
The writer was one of a fatnily of live boys 
and a sister, whose parents made it a special 
point not only to have us all at home in the 
eviMiings, but to providi' entertainment fiU' 
us ; and to our last days we will never cea.se 
to bless them for it. 15ecause those lirinciples 
being engrafted into our natures, renders it 
comparatively easy for us to perform the 
same duties now. The evenings were spent 
in innocent games, interesting books, reading 
by turn aloud, sijelling matches, working out 
enigmas, and other puzzles, etc., but the best 
of all the amusements was debating ; the 
father would be judge, and the six of us would 
pick sides, and taking up some simple subject 
of every-day experience, each one would be 
obliged to make some remarks on it, and we 
would often get quite warmed up with the 
importance of our points, which to our child- 
ish intellects .seemed overpowering. It is 
true, a large family has an advantage over a 
small one in these lionie amusements, but if 
two or three small families would join together 
and meet alternately at their hou-ses, it would 
answer the same purpose, and the parents 
woulil at all times know where their children 
were. We know that there are some very 
stately mansions, most beautifully situated 
and handsomely furnished, j'et those who call 
them home respect them only for their looks 
and money value, and the true feelings of 
love for them and their associations are never 
felt ; while in the most lowly and dilapidated 
cabins we often find the occupants enjoying 
that sweet comfort in each others' company, 
and of being shut off from the troubles of the 
outside world, that brings them nearer to 
heaven than any oi;her place on earth. This 
was the feeling that prompted the author of 
that beautiful hymn, "Heaven is my Home." 
— M. B. E. 



For Tub Lancaster Farmer. 
DIFFERENT MODES OF PRUNING. 

It is high time now to get all pruning done 
at once. Different species of plants reipiire 
dill'erent modes of pruning. ( )f fruit trees, Ayi- 
ple, pear, apricot, ]ilum and (piince, bear fruit 
upon the old wood ; .so does cherry, gooseberry 
and currants. Peach bears fruit upon the new 
shoots of last year's growth — so does cherry 
often ; and so do raspberry, blackberry, gra])e 
vines, it*;. So they have to be differently 
primed to produce plenty of fruit. Of ilecidn- 
ous blooming shrubs, spineas. tartareau honey- 
suckles, forsythia, wiegelia, mock orange and 
many others, produce their flowers ujiou the 
sides of the shoots. Lilacs, privet, snowball 
trees, mountain ash trei-s, Rhus. i^c. bear their 
blooms nicistly \\\»n\ the tops of the shoots. 
Their tops shoidd be left until the blooming is 
over, then shorten if needed ; but if too many 
suckers are at their roots, cut them out. The 
species that bloom from the sidesof the shoots 
have the points of the shoots cut off an inch or 
a foot, as needed, to keep the bushes in good 
sliai)e. Althea blooms from the shoots of the 
present year's growth. Honeysuckles bloom 
from last year's shoots. Wisteria blooms from 
the old branches. Evergreen trees and shrul)s 
should not be pruned until all frosts are over 
in spring or in the latter half of August. — llor- 
ticola. 



Fur The Lancaster Farmer. 
THE DAIRY. No. 2. 

In the January munber of Tiik, Eaiimer I 
promised a contmualionof " The Dairy," but 
the destruction of my barn, with all my cat- 
tle, (.Ian. 'Jotli, IHTii, ) has, to some extent, 
cooled my ardor for writing. Having emerged 
from the smoke, an'd converted what was left 
of my stock into a conqmst pile, (a rather ex- 
pensive one, too,) has brought about a cliange 
ofba.se from prospective animal to prospective 
vegetable produelions. Being thus run oil' the 
track, the leudeucy would seem to point toward 
big beets and pumpkins, instead of line stock 
aiul good butter. Xow, as certiiin vegetable, 
crops are essential to the best results of the ' 
dairy, our starling iM)int may be regained, 
although it he liy a circuitous route. With a 
little whistling to keep oil' despondency, the 
(piestion again recurs on the different breeds 
of cattle. But it may be asked, is there more 
than one breed, and if so, what are they V A 
breed is the result of selecting and mating 
animals with the object of producing a certain 
fixed and uniform cliaracti-r in the progeny. 
This being judiciously followed for a succes- 
sion of generations, tlu'iiroduct eventually lie- 
comes a tixed type, with scarcely any Varia- 
tions. Hence we see Devons, Sliorlhorns, 
.Jerseys. Ayrshires, Dutch anil others, .someof 
which show at least great uniformity of color, 
form and other characteristics. 

A race is theolTspringof one common stock, 
which, in the general acceptance of the term, 
is distinguished from breed. In establishing 
the various breeds, breeders had other objects 
in view besides external appearances. The 
Shorthorns are still the most popular breed, 
(at least in this country,) aiul it is al.so evi- 
dent that they have been bred with less 
imity of imrpose than other breeds, from the 
fact that tliey not only vary more in external 
appearances, but also in their beef atui milk- 
ing qualities. For beef, this breed stands un- 
rivaled; but as milkers, the term will not ap- 
ply. While there are individual cows, and 
even some herds that will compare favorably 
as milkers with any others, there are at the 
same time not a few of the finest animals that 
will not yield suflicient milk when fresh to 
develop their own ollspring. This breed li.is 
no doubt been nudtiplied with as much design 
as any other, but evidently for different pur- 
po.ses. While the intelligent dairyman made 
his selection, and mated his animals with a 
view to his business, the stockraiser had his 
eye on beef only. At the same time, others 
made efforts to combine both these qualities in 
the same animal; hence the utility of thi.s 
breed is already divided, although the jiedi- 
grees indicate iniiformity. This division evi- 
dently will become ti.xed and permanent by 
and bv. 

The cattle of the Channel Islands, formerly 
introduced as Alderneys. subsequently Iwcaine 
classed .as Jerseys arul tiuernseys. named after 
the islands of which they are natives. Although 
similar in character, milk and butter quali- 
ties, they may and should be noted a.s different 
breeds. " They present a remarkable contrast 
to the Shorthorns. While the latter would not 
be considered genuine without large .size, 
round, full and jilump, the same appendages 
to the Jersey would rule her out as not being 
thoroughbred. Small frame, light bones, sharp 
points from head to tail, characleri/x- the true 
Jer.sey cow. Pawn seems to be the prevailing 
color, but not uniforndy so. 

Importations of stock uiwm this island have 
long since been prohibited, consequently ft 
purer breed can hardly l>e found. TIjese have 
been bred, not so much for the production of 
milk as for the quality of cream and excellence 
of butler, their beef qualities having Ix'en 
almost entirelv ignored. It is therefore claimed 
that this breed will iirodiicea larger amount of 
butler, aiul of better quality from a given 
amount of feed than any other except the 
(iuernsey, which is .somewhat larger, a little 
more pimnp. and not .so uniform in general 
contour as the Jersey, but is, at the same time, 
preferred by some dairymen. One thing is 
especially claimed for the Island cattle, i. e., 



40 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[March, 



while the}- may not yield so much butter when 
fresh as "some others, it is more regular, and 
they continue in milk for a longer period be- 
tween calving, which will more than make up 
the difference. 

The Ayrshires, which have been more re- 
cently introduced, have gained quite a reputa- 
tion as milkers. Considering size and build 
of the animal, the yield and quality of milk 
and butter places this breed very favorably 
before the public. 

The Dutch or Holstein cattle are also of 
modern introduction in this country, and have 
already many admirers. They are of large 
size, and their unifonnity of appearance is 
evidence of being a fixed type. As milkers, 
they have probably no superiors in reference 
to quantity, but it is rather deficient in richness. 
The Devon dates back probably as far as 
any known breed, and yet they have not be- 
come so generally disseminated as some other 
breeds. As milkers they have no special re- 
putation, but a healthier breed is nowhere to 
be found. As workers they have no rival, un- 
less it be the Holstein, which also stands pre- 
eminent in that line. Whatever the merits of 
the latter breeds may be, an objectionable 
feature is their large horns, which disfigiu-es 
them in the estimation of the growing senti- 
ment, which is inclined to breed still less 
horns, and may we not hope that these un- 
necessary and dangerous appendages may be 
bred out altogether. 

The Herefords have strong advocates, but 
very few have been introduced into this sec- 
tion of country, and they are but little known 
here. 

The common stock throughout the country, 
if it will bear the title of a breed, is certainly 
a conglomerate one, as it embraces all the 
shades, colors, forms and sizes imaginable, as 
well as some of the best and poorest milkers 
that can be foimd anywhere. 

The question consequently arises, what breed 
of cattle is most profitable to the farmer ? 
This being a mooted question, it is hardly ex- 
pecte d to be settled by scribbling over a few 
pages of foolscap. It is more likely that it 
never will be settled, as farmers seem to agree 
to disagree upon this as upon many other 
questions. The selection of animals for profit 
depends very much upon the purpose for which 
they are wanted, whether for beef, milk, 
cheese, butter or show, or all these qualities 
combined. If the latter, then postei'ity may 
celebrate at least another centennial before 
the object will lie realized. That the different 
breeds possess different merits, and may be, 
or are already, to a great extent, classified as 
such, need not be questioned; but as each 
breed has advocates claiming its superiority 
over all others, there are many who would 
sell out their own and t)uy other stock, or im- 
prove it by crossing, were it not for the con- 
fusion of reports from breeders. 

In summing up these reports, the result in- 
dicates that the largest amount of milk and 
butter productions from single animals of the 
varioiis breeds, native or common not ex- 
excepted, doesnot materially vary. It is there- 
fore of primary importance to make a judi- 
cious selection of stock adapted to the ob- 
ject in view, whether it be milk, cream, 
cheese or Ijutter, for among the various breeds 
no one need go far amiss if he keep his eyes 
open and exercises proper judgment. — -H. 3f. 
M, Marietta, Pa., Mar. 4, 1876. 



For The Lancaster Farmer. 
SELECTION OF SEED CORN. 

In the February number, J. B. (whoever 
that may be) takes me to task to give him fur- 
ther information as to how friend Cooper man- 
aged to improve his crops by a judicious selec- 
tion of seed from his own farm. I rarely 
think it worth while to reply to anonymous 
correspondents. However, in this instance a 
few remarks may be advisable. 

As .1. B. has got off the track of my former 
article, I shall reply as I think most suitable. 
Evidently his object in noticing my commu- 
nication was to inform the readers of The 



Farmer that he grows large crops of corn — 
eighty to- ninety bushels on an average per 
acre. 

He desires to be informed of "Cooper's plan 
of growing corn in New .Jersey — what kind of 
fertilizers "he used, how he planted his corn," 
&c., and says " the answers would be a great 
help." Cooper's statements were published 
some forty or more years ago, either in the 
American Farmer, of' Baltimore, or in the 
Farmers^ Cahinet, of Philadelphia. I have 
these publications of that time, but do not 
care to hunt up the article at present. 

In my former article, I gave the facts and 
the rcsidt of how Cooper improved his crops 
by selecting his seed from crops on his own 
farm, showing that crops would not deterior- 
ate, but improve, and that there was no ad- 
vantage gained by procuring seed of the same 
variety from a distance, and the chances were 
liy changing seed the result most likely would 
be a fresh croji of weeds. But, as J. B. says, 
"he selects his seed corn from his own crib," 
and yet raises eighty-seven to ninety bushels 
shelled corn on an acre, I should think any 
reasonable farmer ought to be satisfied ; yet J. 
B. wishes to know the mimdkr. of Cooper's 
management, as he thinks "it would be a 
great help." Does he suppose by getting this 
" great hel]) " he could then grow four or five 
hundred bushels per acre '? Such wonderful 
progress no doubt would stimulate the whole 
farming fraternity, and by this "great help " 
such enormous crops would be produced that 
it could not be used up, unless, as in some of 
the western states, it would have to be used 
for fuel.— J". B. Oarber, Columbia, Pa., Feb- 
ruary 28, 1876. 

^ 

For The Lancaster Farmer. 
POTATO CULTURE. 
My meagre knowledge about potato culture 
may scarcely be entitled to a corner in your 
journal ; yet if in my feeble remarks Init a 
simple hint or idea may be given for the bene- 
fit of another, my efforts will be more than 
repaid ; but if, through my simplicity, others 
with larger knowledge take courage to detail 
their experience, they will disseminate a good 
that will return a rich reward. Are there 
any who feel that if potatoes need looking 
after, " give me the hoe ; I have not cultivated 
with the pen ? I feel more so. That we 
have cultivated with the hoe, gives, however, 
the very substance for the pen ; if such of us 
give but our mite to each others' experience, 
it cannot otherwise but result to the interest 
of all. 

Having nothing to boast of enormous yields 
of 40-oz. potatoes, I would merely say I grew 
the Early Rose potato since it was first intro- 
duced, investing a dollar for one pound. 
These were cut to single eyes, planting them 
in a loamy soil of medium fertility, in hills 
2x2 feet, enriched with a half-peck of finely 
broken up barn-yard manure to each hill. The 
yield was seventy-two pounds. Upon the in- 
troduction of the Snowflake potato, two 
years ago, I obtained one tuber weighing one- 
third of a pound. This was divided in halves, 
laying the pieces cut-side down on pure sand, 
and covered with rich soil two inches deep. 
After the sprouts were out a few inches the 
pieces were taken up, the sprouts carefully 
slipped off, returning the pieces to their for- 
mer situation. The slips were potted singly 
in 3-inch pots, and kept shaded and well 
watered until fully established. After grow- 
ing in the pots to the height of three to five 
inclies they were transplanted in hills, same 
as described for the Early Rose. This process 
was repeated three times with the pieces. 

The season being excessively dry, the last 
planting did very little. The yield was 5.5 
pounds. On these occasions my neighV)ors 
thought me qiiite successful ; yet I well knew, 
that with better fertilized hills, and with more 
favoral)le conditions, much better results 
could be obtained. But how immensely were 
my ideas short of what was actually achieved 
last season by several growers of Snowllake, 
using one pound of seed cut to single eyes I 
P. C. Wood, Esther, 111., raised 1,417 pounds ; 



J. L. Perkins, Little Sioux, Iowa, 1,304 lbs. ; 
Frederick H. Seller, Verona, Essex county, 
K. .J., 1,125 lbs. A number of others had re- ^H 
suits nearly as great. Enormous as these pro- ^| 
ducts mayappear, yet each party had reasons 
to conclude that still greater yields can be 
reached. One party gathered 56 pounds from 
two hills ; had all his hillS yielded similar re- 
sults, his product would have been a little 
over forty-one ban-els from one pound of po- 
tatoes. 

To gain these results, soil of great depth 
and highest fertility was selected, to which 
was added very liberal applications of wood 
ashes, hen manure and plaster, lioth in hill 
and as surface dressing. These facts are re- 
ferred to merely to show what has really been 
accomplished by giving plants plenty of proper 
food. 

lieaving these lofty attainments, we will 
i-eturn to those who are most successful in 
general field culture. It is needless to go into 
details as to the condition of soil. All will 
admit that well-drained soil of high fertility is 
the basis on which to build a good crop, but 
how to build may be a question answered more 
diversely. The ground deeply plowed and 
thoroughly cultivated, the mode of planting 
adopted by very successful cultivators is to cross- 
furrow six or eight inches deep, three feet apart, 
and drop a set at each intersection, covering 
with about two inches of soil. As the vines 
grow, cultivation begins by hilling up, which is 
continxied as the plants advance, in some in- 
stances to eighteen inches high, making large, 
broad hills. By giving the hills this distance 
apart, the roots have plenty of room to ramify 
and find abundant food without stinting their 
neighbors. Here the question may be asked, 
would it not be an especial advantage, at least 
now that we have to entertain the Colorado 
potato bug as a guest, to use every means to 
bring our potato vines to the highest degree 
of vigor ; so that if our unwelcome visitor 
gets at least a luncheon before the vines are 
seasoned with the specific remedy (Paris 
Green) the plants may suffer less immediate 
damage, and be in good condition to outgrow 
it — thiis perfecting a more bountiful crop, and 
well repaying all extra feeding. 

Descending still lower, or to my own level, 
I will say a few words more about my own 
experience. From practical tests, I have 
found that seed grown in widely separated 
localities yields better and produces finer pota- 
toes than that grown on the same place ; 
hence it is a profitable investment to obtain a 
change of seed. Growing mostly for early 
marketing, the system spoken of above was 
not practiced by myself; as the crop was taken 
up before fully grown, so much space was un- 
necessary. I have rather practiced close plant- 
ing, drawing furrows two feet apart and drop- 
ping sets of two a\id three eyes every nine 
inches. In the season of 1875, in the face of 
an excessive drouth in early summer, I had 
a fine yield of Early Rose and Snowflake, by 
drawing furrows eight inches deep, through 
which a narrow cultivator with long, sharp 
teeth was run, pulverizing the soil six inches 
deeper, on which was sprinkled a dressing of 
broken up stable manure, the sets being 
dropped on and covered with about two inches 
of soil. As the vines grew they were ridged 
up. Much advantage is gained in earliness 
by putting the seed potatoes, spread in a sin- 
gle layer, in a moderately warm light place 
two or three weeks in advance of planting 
time, to develop the eyes. To use means to 
get potatoes to mature early is not only an 
advantage for early marketing, but a great 
gain by shortening "the time of the bug war. 
To the same end, varieties with compact vines 
are desirable. 

As to varieties, it may be presumed that 
those of which I have spoken are my favorites. 
The Early Rose needs no praise; it has be- 
come a standard variety. The Snowflake is 
as yet a new comer, but it needs no further re- 
commendation than its own high merits in all 
that pertains to a first-class potato, to dissem- 
inate it with express speed to every corner of 
the land.— D. K. H., Lancaster, Feb. 26, 1876. 



1876.] 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



41 



For The Lancastkb 1-'armeb. 
THE NEGLECTED HOLLYHOCK. 

Some flirty years af;o, on a visit to an uncle 
in Rapho tinvnshi]), I was dclislited witli 
tlie showy display of nunu-rous hollyhocks, of 
various colors, that adorned the yard. Their 
toweriuj; hciijht ami majestic, stately appear- 
ance attracted my attention. 1 thought them 
grand, beautiful — alas, now deemed a com- 
mon, vulfiar i)lant, that no one deems worthy 
of cultivation ; and they are now rarely met 
with, yet we have few llowers that contriliutc 
more to the emliellishment of lari;e "gardens 
or yards than the hollyhock, whose noble 
stems apiiear like .so many banners {garnished 
with roses of every variety of color, from the 
jialest lilnsh to the deejiest carmine, and from 
a faint wliite, through every shade of yellow, 
to the richest lU'ange, from which the color is 
carried to a dark chestnut ; others are dyed 
of a reddish purjile, deepening to black. These 
give gaiety to the shrulibery till a late season 
of the year, throwing out a succession of 
flowers till the arrival of frost. For my part, 
I cannot see why this showy, stately plant 
should not be planted along every hedge-row 
around our lields, oraround our homesteads in 
thecountry. Besides, to those who keep bees, 
it affords a- supply of sweets later in the 
season, an(J of which they are remarkably 
fond. II. Smith says, truly : 

" From the nectaries of hollyhocks 
The hxnnljle hee, e'li till he fuiiits, will sip." 

This is true of our hive bee, as well as the 
" lunnble bee.'' It belongs to the family 
Malvaceip, as the cotton plant does, and it 
has been ascertained that good strong cloth 
may be made from the tibrous bark of its 
tlower stalks. It may have l)een forgotten 
that in 1^21 two hundred and eighty acres of 
land near Flint, in Wales, were planted with 
the common hollyhock tor this manufacture, 
iu the process of which it was discovered that 
the leaves of this plant yield a line blue dye, 
equal in beauty and i>ermanence to the best 
indigo. The Althcu rosea, or common holly- 
hock, originally came from China. They arc 
easily raised from seed, and will 'grow in any 
common garden. The AWuea officinalis has 
been extensively used under the name of 
Marsh-mallows, and, like the Okra, abounds 
in a bland mucilage. (Abelmosclms escidentus.) 
The flowers of the A. rosea are used in Greece 
for the same purposes as those of the marsh- 
mallows. The Okra, also known as Hibiscui 
escukntH.<i, is coming into coirimercial value as a 
paper plant, heretofore used to thicken soups, 
by its mucilaginous quality. The pods are 
gathered green and pickled like capers. The 
seeds may be boiled like barley, and the mu- 
cilaginous matter they contain is both demul- 
cent and emollient. They have also been 
recommended, when roasted, as a substitute 
for coffee. A patent has now been taken out in 
France for making paper from the fibre, and 
for this purpose it is to be introduced into 
Algeria. The fibre is prc])ared solely by me- 
chanical means in a current of water, without 
any bleaching agent, and the pulp, washed 
and bleached, makes a strong, handsome [ta- 
per called "banda paper." Our common 
hollyhock will answer just as well ; the fibres 
make clothing — hence equal to rags any time. 
I would thus call attention to this stately 
and much-neglected plant, the goodly, tow- 
ering, showy hollyhock, to beautify the home- 
stead and the fence rows, regale the honey 
bee, and glad(UMi the hearts of children, if 
you do not want to make cloth or paper, and 
cultivate it for profit. We are very apt to for- 
get the old and familiar in later introductions, 
" sighing for something new." This love of 
novelty rules us — new customs, new gauds. 
Although, did we but know it. they too fre- 
quently are fashioned after the things that 
were. I will conclude by quoting Mrs. 
Hemans : 

" Fill with forgetfnlnees, fill high ! yet stay— 
'Tis from the past we sliadow forth the land 
Where smiles, long lost, again shall light our way. 
Though the past haunt me as a spirit, yet I 
Ask not to forget !"— Tlie Hollvhock. 

— /. Stauffer. 



For The Lantasteb Fabmkb. 
"WHAT KIND OF OIL?" 

In an article iu the February ninnberof Tiik 
Fakmi:!!, with the above title, the editor 
thinks that linseed oil would not do very widl, 
because it would do.se the pores. I am not 
certain that closing up the pores of a tiee 
hurts it in any manner whatever, and in case 
it would do so, neatsfoot oil as effectually 
closes them as linseed oil. For mv part I 
would not be afraid to use the latter, and 
would unich prefer it, as it dries in a short 
time, closing up the insects so elVectually that 
they I'an never enu'rge alive from their air- 
tight i)rison ; and, besides, the trees aie not so 
unpleasant to work at afterwards, as woidd be 
the case should an oil be used that will not dry. 

As a coiToboration, I was inldinied a feW 
years ago liy a gentleman, at Millersburg, (L. 
E. Bowman, I think.) that he had a dwarf 
pear tree, that became badly infested with 
"scale insects" and ceased growing. lie ap- 
jilied linseed oil, and in a sliort time the in- 
sects were all dead and the tre<> became very 
thrifty. He said he was told that it w<iuld kill 
his tree, ;is it would close up the pores, but it 
certainly had no such elTect in his ca.se. — A. 
B. A'., Safe Harbor, Lamaster county. Pit., 
Feb. •2."), 1K7(). 

[Practical experience must take precedence 
of untried, or merely theoretical suggestion. 
We Ihowjht that linseed oil might leave a sort 
of varnisli dejiosit on the young infested 
branches of trees, that woidil be detrimental 
to their subsequent development; but if it 
does not, all the better ; it gives us another 
safe remedy for the scale insect or bark-louse; 
and with thanks to our contributor we jilace 
it on record, for the benefit of oin- readera. 

We are not sure, however, that the closing 
of the pores in the branches of trees would 
not be as hm-tful to their growth as the 
closing of the pores of the leaviw and fruit, 
would be hurtful to tluir development. Still, 
as the deposit on the bark, after the oil had 
dried, woidd likely be a very thin one. and 
the sub.sequent rapid iirowth of the tree (there 
being no more lice to deplete it.) would likely 
crack the surface of such a deposit into fissures, 
sutiicient to allow it to jierform its usual func- 
tions, there would be very little harm done in 
the end. 

In re])ly to A. B. K. 's post scriptuin, we as- 
sure him that his contributions will always be 
" welcome " to our columns, even if they come 
oftener than "now and then, "" and most es- 
pecially on the subjects he has named, what- 
ever motive may be "at the Itottom." We 
have nothing whatever to do with motives in 
such a case. If a man can impart information 
on farming and gardening his contributions 
will lie acceptable at all times, whether his 
motives are selfi.sh or benevolent. " Self- 
improvement." however, is not a very evil 
kind of selfishness ; indeed it would have been 
l)etter for human society if this kind of sel- 
fishness had miuv largely jirevailed every- 
where, and it would be better now.— Ed.] 
^ 

For The Lancasteb Fabmkb. 
TRANSPLANTING TREES. 

One important fact in regard to transplant- 
ing trees was brought out in the discussion on 
orchard culture, at the last nu'Cting of tiie 
Pennsylvania Fruit Growers' Society, held at 
Doylestown. 

The lower limbs shoidd not lie cut off when 
taken from the nursery and iilanted in the 
orchard. The reason given was, the leaves are 
the lungs of the tree, and the nearer you can get 
the foliage to the roots in the earlier stages of 
its growth the better. If too far removed after 
transiilanting, the sap in circulating is not re- 
turned in sntticient quantity to make the roots 
keep pace in growth with the top. and this was 
the cause of the trouble in keejiiuL; the trees 
in an iqiright position. Our nurserymen are 
partly to lilaine ; they trim to make the trees 
more e.a.sily baled, and we generally finish the 
job liy trinnning as high as we wish the trunk 
of the futiue tree, instead of letting them 
grow till the roots are firmly established. — L. 
P., Christiana, Lan. co.. Pa., Feb. 28, 18715. 



For 'rilE I.ANrASlEll Fahmeb. 

HOW TO RAISE OATS CHEAPLY. 

For several years past there lias been much 
comiilaining among tlie farnuMs of Lancaster 
coindy tliat the oat crop does not pay for the 
trouble of producing it. It therefore seems 
desirable, since it cannot well be dispensed 
with, either on account of the siicce.s.siiin or 
because it is desirable as feed for horses, that 
it be raised as cheaply as pos.silile. 

I.et the com stidibles Ih' broken down early 
in the spring or winter, when the ground is 
frozen hanl, by dragging over them a pole .six 
or eii;lit inches in diameter, and long enough 
to reach across six or more rows. Fasten a 
hors<' to each end of the iiole, and havi' a 
driver for each horse ; drive the horses along 
the rows, letting the pole drag over those lie- 
tweeii them at an angle of about :iu degrees 
with the direction of the rows. If once going 
over does not break off the stubbles sutli- 
ciently, go over them again in the opposite di- 
rection, when it will l»e done quite as well as 
witli the hoe, and in very much less time. 

The usual way of prefiaring thegmund is to 
plow it, but the writer and many others have 
jiroven beyond doidit that more Oats can Ite 
raised by stirring it with a cultivator, and 
with a great saving of work. 

The successive freezings and thawings dur- 
ing the winter make the siu-face of the ground 
ill much Ijetter condition for starting the 
young oats iilants than the more coiiipaci soil 
under would be if turned up by the jilow ; 
besides, the ground does not have "to he worked 
so early, and consequently has more time to 
dry, so that it does not Ijecome so cloddy as 
when plowed. 

The olijection usually made to cultivating 
in oats is, that the ground is harder t*i plow 
for the fall cro]i ; but my experience with a 
clay soil is quite the reverse, even in dry sum- 
mers. Most farmei-s plow shallow for oats, 
for the reason that more grain can lie raised 
by doing so. If the plowing is done when tlie 
ground is very wet, as is usually the case, the 
soil in the bottom of tlie furrow must necessa- 
rily lie packed down, both by the Jiressure of 
the plow and by the horse that walks in the 
furrow ; then, if the ground is dry when it is 
plowed for wheat, it is almost ini)»ossibIe to 
get the plow to run deeiier than it did in the 
s])iiiig, and if it does it will turn up cloddy. 
While, if the ground is cultivated in tlie 
spring, and then not until it is well dried, the 
plow will go as deep as is desired in the fall, 
and the soil will pulverize nicely. 

Another rea.son why cultivating is prefera- 
ble to plowing, is that nearly all the weed 
seeds near the surface are germinated and de- 
stroyed by the cultivation of the corn during 
the previous summer, .so that but few are left 
to grow among the oats. If the ground is 
ploughed, all the seeds that had collected on 
sod before it was ]iloughed for corn are turned 
to the surface, and having lain but one year, 
will grow. This differen<-e was i>articularly 
noticeable last summer, when jjloiii/hed oati 
fields were unusually full of weeds. 

If the oats is sowed broadcast, the com rows 
serve as a guide in sowing, so that furrows 
or poles arc unneces.sary. The seeds falling 
upon the smooth surfiice of the ground are 
evenly distributed, whereas, if the ground is 
i ploughed, they are liable to collect in the dc- 
' prcssioiis iK'tween the furrows and grow un- 
evenly. If the oats is planted with a drill, the 
gniuiid should be cultivated for drilling. 

The two-horse corn cultivator, now exten- 
sively used in this county, is the best invest- 
ment fin- cultivating oats grounds, because it 
can be pa.s.sed on both sides of the rows of 
stubbles ill the same way as when working the 
corn, without turning iiji the corn roots; lie- 
sides, it stirs the soil deeiier and more thor- 
oughly than the old A cultivator. It cannot 
he successfully used in "crossing," however, 
even when the corn is "checked." liecaiise it 
will choke with the roofs. It is better to cross 
the ground with an ordinary spike harrow; 
this will tear up very few roots; and when the 
, ground is rolled it will lie quite as smooth as 
when ploughed. 



42 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[March, 



Most farmers make a great deal of unneces- 
sary work in harvesting, especially when the 
oats is "short," by attempting to tie it into 
sheaves. Much grain is also lost in tieing. It 
can be taken up more expeditLously and with 
less waste with a barley fork, by " bunching " 
it, if in swaths, or if cut wath a machine, 
by taking up the Ininches as they lie. No in- 
convenience results from this mode of gather- 
ing, either in liandling in the barn or in thresh- 
ing. Anotlier advantage in it is that it packs 
so closely in the mow that rats and mice 
cannot get through it and destroy the grain. 



For The Lancaster Farmer. 
RURAL IMPROVEMENTS. 
Those who intend to make rural improve- 
ments should mature their plans before begin- 
ning the work. If they are undecided or at 
a loss how they shall improve their grounds, 
and what species of trees and shrubs they will 
embellish tliem with, they should get a gar- 
dener of skill to visit the grounds and give a 
jilan and list of trees and shrubs to decorate it, 
that will often save expenses and disappoint- 
ments. The lists of trees and shrubs should be 
sent to nurserymen a month before needed, and 
they will the more likely be delivered when 
needed to plant. A number of rapid growing 
evergreen and deciduous trees should be set 
out to make an early show, and all to be of 
stately sizes. In purcliasing lands for lasting 
homes, or for summer retreats, see that run- 
ning waters are near or upon the lands, to in- 
troduce water by plumbing for all purposes. 
Small streams of water running through the 
grounds can often be made highly ornamental 
and attractive by making ponds, dams and 
waterfalls ; fill some with hardy flsh and have 
others for fancy ducks, geese and swans to sail 
upon, and clothe the grounds around them 
with trees and shrubs. Ornamental waterworks 
were highly prized by the ancients. Isaiah 
says to Judali " Ye shall be as a garden that 
liath no water." — Walter Elder. 



OUR PARIS LETTER. 



Correspoudeuce of The Lancaster Farmer. 

Paris, March 7, 1876. 

FAILURE OP THE BEET CROP IN FRANCE. 

The beet crop has been almost a failure this year 
in France, and from a variety of causes, some of 
which are of general interest. The low price of beet 
sugar and alcohol, coupled with a heavy taxation, 
has led to many commercial disasters. Several dis- 
tilleries have closed, and sugar factories have been 
reduced to work only half time. The beet itself has 
only been of a secondary quality, and of less than 
average yield ; the warm and humid weather detei-i- 
orated the tissues of the roots, diminishing the re- 
turn of sugar. Large heaps of beet were abandoned 
to rot, and very fair roots were declined by the manu- 
facturers at the bankrupt price of/r. .5 per ton. This 
is the more unfortunate as a great quantity of beet 
had been cultivated last season, and the quality prov- 
ing bad, the expense of extracting the sugar became, 
as is ever the case, increased. The recent frosts 
achieved what the opposite extreme of temperature 
spared. Closed factories react on the rearing and 
fattening of cattle by reducing the supply of pulp. 
But other influences have been at work : the seed 
germinated badly, the manures acted capriciously, 
and the plant resumed a new vegetation at a period 
when growth ought n.aturally to have stopped. Since 
some time these matters have been the subject of 
study and experiment, and M. Vilmorin makes known 
the results of his investigations respecting the ger- 
mination of beet seed. Struck by the irregularity in 
its germination, he found that the closer the seed was 
to the mineral fertilizers — nitrate of soda especially — 
the more slowly it germinated, and in some instances 
did not do so at all. There was as much as a month's 
difference between the germination of seed sown on 
the unmauured and the manured soil. It would 
seem that these manures, intended to furnish nitro- 
gen to beet in its after stages, are injurious pending 
the period of germination. M. Vilmorin also found 
that wheat was similarly affected as beet when the 
seed was in contact with nitrate of soda and sulphate 
of ammonia. Further, not only was germination re- 
tarded at a period when its activity was most to be 
desired, but the salts in question promoted an ener- 
getic growth of the beef in early autumn, when such 
development ought to be avoided. 

ABOUT FERTILIZERS AND CULTIVATION. 

In the north of France it has been found that the 
earlier the beet is sown the more certain will be the 
results — the 20th of April is better than the 20th of 



May — also, the greater the distance between the 
plants the heavier will be the yield — an advantage, 
however, only to be sought after when the roots are 
intended for feeding purposes. The mineral manure 
most in favor with farmers, and the least so with the 
manufacturers, is nitrate of soda ; its price is rela- 
tively moderate, its assimilation easy, and its effects 
consequently immediate. But it ought to be ever 
employed judiciously, and notably with the phos- 
phates and the salts of potash and lime. Farm-yard 
manure being nitrogenous, demands that nitrates be 
associated with it sparingly. The phosphates have 
been found excellent in promoting germination, but 
phosphates cannot correct the bad effects of nitrate 
of soda; were it thus, guano might be employed 
without fear. The complaints against the use of 
nitrate of soda for beet are the consequence of the 
abuse of that fertilizer, which banefully aflfccfs the 
extraction of sugar, and reduces the fertility of the 
soil, owing to farmers relying on its stimulating prop- 
erties exehisively ; it is an error to supply a plant 
with one kind of aliment exclusively. It ought to be 
remembered that fertilizers require to be rotated as 
well as crops, and their action well studied, since 
some act on the foliage, some on the bulb, and sci- 
ence has not settled as to whether the sugar be 
formed by the roots or by the leaves. 

PRACTICAL LECTURES ON FARM ANIMALS. 

In Belgium much success has attended the delivery 
of public lectures on farm animals, how to breed, how 
to rear, and how to care for them. The lecturers 
are practical veterinary surgeons, and are well sup- 
plied with models and diagrams to illustrate their 
views. Hitherto all the lecturing has been limited to 
soils, manures and plants — excellent in their place, 
especially when practically treated. To ascertain 
the number of head of cattle of an average of S cwts. 
that a farm ought to support, French agriculturists 
generally estimate that an animal consumes in a 
year ll cwts. of hay for every 1 cwt. of its weight. 
Thus 22 tons of hay ought to support during a year 
2 tons of live stock, equal to five animals of 8 cwt. 
each. Two hundred-weights of nutritive hay being 
taken as the standard of nutrition, are found to be 
equal to S}4 stone of oats and 16 of potatoes. It 
should be borne in mind that the richness of food va- 
ries with the soil, and its feeding value will vary 
with the temperament and the digestive powers of the 
animal. 

THE HORSES OF HUNGARY. 

Since centuries ago the great plains of Hungary 
have been celebrated for their production of horses, 
which comprise races at once sober and accustomed to 
privations and climatic changes, but which not the less 
produce animals with iron constitutions ; the pastur- 
age is bad, green fodder is difficult to obtain, and ne- 
cessity compels dependence on straw and the stems 
of maize. It is not to be wondered that the Austrian 
government is solicitous about the amelioration of 
horses. It is not uncommon to find a pair of horses 
getting over a distance of sixteen miles to meet a 
train, and, without being baited, return by the same 
road in two hours. There are two and a quarter mil- 
lions of horses in Hungary, or 140 for each 1 ,000 inhabi- 
tants ; and thei'c are several races of them also, in 
addition, adapted to mountainous districts, sandy 
plains or alluvial flats. The national breeding studs, 
of which the chief is at Mezohegyes, recognize these 
distinctions ; and as the State studs are only intended 
to supply the absence of good stallions among pri- 
vate individuals, their object is to make themselves 
as soon as possible unnecessary. There are 1,800 
stallions in the four studs, serving 6S,000 mares an- 
nually in .52.5 different districts. The charge for 
covering varies from/r. 2',4 to //•.■ST, but the services 
of a stallion of pure English blood cost as much as 
//•. 1,000. The stud at Mezohegyes is a half military 
establishment, or rather colony, consisting of S6, 000 
acres, and chiefly devoted to the culture of grain and 
forage crops ; it possesses 2,400 horses, representing 
nine different races. The foal at its birth is marked 
by a red-hot iron on the sides, to recognize its race 
and its sire. Its food is not excessive : one pound of 
bruised oats, when three weeks old, and double that 
at three months, when separated from the mother, 
and as far as four years old, five pounds daily in 
summer and double that ration during winter. But 
then the pasturage is excellent. Mildness is the 
basis of the breaking in of the colts, and by patience 
and address man dominates them. They are never 
beaten, and approach the grooms without mistrust 
or hostility. For each act of submission they are 
rewarded with a caress or a morsel of sugar or a 
cake, and to conquer their timidity or efface their 
fear they are surrounded with trained animals. Pos- 
sessing thus no vices, they can transmit none. 

HOSPITALS FOR HORSES, CATTLE AND PIGS. 

The monster farm in question is provided with hos- 
pitals for horses, cattle and pigs, and clinical lectures 
take place twice a day, which are attended by the 
veterinary pupils from Pesth, who acquire a practical 
knowledge thus of their profession. Bulls are also 
bred here to ameliorate the native races, for the cli- 
mate is too trying — torrid days, succeeded by polar 
nights — to think of crossing. Milk not entering into 
the calculations of Magyar farming, milch cattle are 
not In request ; besides, such an amelioration would 



affect, as experience has shown, the value of oxen for 
lalior, and they are only secondary in point of im- 
portance to horses. If the training of. horses be ef- 
fected on the gentle system, that for oxen is the re- 
verse. In winter cattle receive but straw, chaff and 
maize stems ; those employed at work have hay. 
The annual yield of milk is not more than 900 quarts ; 
2 cwts. of hay are found to produce 23 quarts of 
milk, representing 3'^ pounds of butter. The oxen 
are never yoked until four years old, and after six 
months' apprenticeship are capable of nine years' 
work. When aged 13 or 14 years they are sent to 
the large towns to be fattened at the distilleries ; 
some of the latter fatten l,.5O0 head of oxen at a 
time. A yoke of oxen will plow an acre 14 inches 
deep in a day, and in addition to being as rapid as a 
dray horse, have feet as sure as a Spanish mule. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

Dr. de Martin draws attention to the success which 
has attended his employment of chopped vine prun- 
ings for the evening feed for his cattle. At first they 
refused it, but afterwards took to it. In the Depart- 
ment of the Aude these vine shoots are employed, 
when bruised, as litter. 

An infusion of tomato leaves has been found excel- 
lent to clear plants of bugs — the phylloxera always 
excepted. The annual report of the official commis- 
sion on the experiments conducted under its direction 
during 1875, in the affected districts, on the various 
plans for destroying the vine-bug, concludes that no 
remedy has yet been found ; that the best powder is 
too costly in application, and but partial in efficacy ; 
that the old bark ought to be removed from the 
stems ; the eggs destroyed in winter, and recourse 
had to American stocks. 

Dr. Uloth's experiments go to show that grains of 
wheat placed between two i)locks of ice and kept in a 
cellar with a temperature at freezing point will ger- 
minate and develope rootlets . He continued the same 
experiment with mustard and grass seeds, as well as 
wheat. He placed some in a hollow piece of ice, and 
others in common earth ; both were deposited in an 
ice house and covered with a thick block of ice. They 
all equally germinated, no difference being percepti- 
ble save that the mustard and grass seeds germinated 
best. M. Tisserand states thatheobtains most butter 
and of a superior quality, the more the cream is 
churned at a temperature approaching the freezing 
point. 

LANCASTER COUNTY FARMERS IN 
COUNCIL. 



Proceedings of the Agricultural and Horti- 
cultural Society — Discussion on Fruit 
Trees, Hungarian Grass, Etc. 

The regular monthly meeting of the Lrvncaster 
County Agricultural and Horticultural Society was 
held in the rooms of the Athenaeum, on Monday, the 
Cth inst. The meeting was called to order at two 
o'clock by the President, Calvin Cooper. The follow- 
ing members were present : Calvin Cooper, Milton 
Eshleman, Levi W. Groff, Simon P. Eby, Abraham 
Suminy, Casper Hiller, E. B.Engle, Henry M. Engle, 
Peter Reist, Mr. Hershey, Levi Pownall, John Ruber, 
Johnson .Miller, Martin D. Kendig, John Reist, Simon 
Hershey, Reuben Weaver, Israel G. Erb, Martin S. 
Fry, C. L. Hunsecker, J. Stauffer, S. S. Rathvon, 
James Buckwalter, Wm. McComsey, John Miller, 
John M. Stehman, Wm. P. Brinton, Henry Erb, Jacob 
K. Witmer, Dr. E. A. Hertz, John Grossman, E. 8. 
Hoover, John H. Brackbill. 

The regular secretary not being present, Milton B. 
Eshleman w.as elected secretary pro tern., and on 
motion, the reading of the minutes of the February 
meeting was dispensed with. 

Lewis C. Lyte, of East Lampeter; Henry Kauff- 
man, of Lancaster township; and Cyrus Neff and 
F. G. Melliuger, of Manor, were elected members of 
the society. 

Reports of Crops Being Next in Order, 

Mr. Kendig, of Manor, said that the prospects for 
the coming wheat crop are very favorable, notwith- 
standing the alternate freezing and thawing of the 
ground during the past winter. Rye, about the same; 
for the last two or three years this crop did remark- 
ably well, which induced farmers to sow more largely 
than usual. Grass fields of last season's sowing are 
very thin, a large portion of the seed never coming 
up on account of the drouth. Old fields promise bet- 
ter. Corn in the crib is very much damaged. Sound 
seed scarce. Tobacco crop very good ; better in 
qualify than it has been for a number of years. A 
good portion is sold at prices ranging from 12 to 25 
cents per pound for wrappers, and 3 to 5 for fillers. 
The Library and Finances. 

Mr. Eby, of the Library Committee, said that 
several books were lately contributed to the society, 
among them some from our fellow-member, Mr. 
Landis. As he was instructed at the last meeting to 
fix a price on all books received, he felt, after due 
consideration, that he was unable to do this unless 
two additional members were appointed on the com- 
mittee, mainly for the purpose of consultation. 

A motion was made that two additional members 



1876.J 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



43 



be added to the committee. It was parried, and the 
chair appoiuted Mossrs. Katlivon and .Stauller. 

Two Wlls, one of ?5.44 for chairs, aud another of 
JIO.?.") for a sign for the society, were read and or- 
dered to be paid. 

The folloninsi: essay was then read by C. L. Hi'n- 

.SEOKER : 

A Few Hints to Farmers. 

"How blest the farnier's-Riiigle life! 

How ptire the j.ty it yieldn ! 
Far from the world'n tempeatuoUH Btrife, 
Free "niiil the Hcented lielilH." 
The healtliful enjoyment of life in the cultivation 
of the soil is, perhaps, not exeeeiled by any other in- 
dustry. It is, liesides, a pursuit that escapes from 
the many temptations, vices and crimes to which man 
is exposed in the cnnvdcil city. The I'armcr's life is 
sim|ile ; itisalradc that commends itself, bccattse 
no country can maintain a lars;e ami prosperous 
Iiopulation without sUillful airricullurc, however rich 
and productive the soil may naturally he. The (jrcat 
cities of the worlil, with their immense populations, 
health. niaiuifacturesJ, ami commerce, would perish 
if the fanners failed to supply them with food. 

Aijriculturc in every civilized country, exerts a 
jiowerful inHuence in the production of wealth, com- 
merce and manufactures. It is the great and trans- 
cendent interest, employing more cajiitai, more per- 
sons, and sustaining more than all other interests 
eoml)iueti. 

The supposed population of the world is 1,000,- 
000,000 of men, who are dependent f^tr their vcrv 
existence u]ion tlie productions of the earth; 200,- 
000,000 of men probably expend their daily toil in 
pursuits connected with operations of aKrieulture, 
the parent and precursor and most important of all 
arts ; and nine-tenths of the fixed capital, perhaps, of 
civilized nations is embarlvcd in this one great pur- 
suit. 

It is the great and permanent industry of our coun- 
try ; manufactures, mining and commerce are de- 
I)endent u|ionit. Believing tliis to be indisputable, 
our agricultural friends having done so much towards 
the development of the counti-y, cannot be justly ac- 
cused of aiming to look up other matters "than 
farming, which have a near or remote bearing 
upon their interests. Hence it follows that the 
farmers of our country, who produce tliree- 
fourths in value of the exports from this country, 
and I'urnish a larjjc amount of the tonnage on the 
canals and railroads, and much of the passenger 
travel, have a deep interest in the question of the 
price of freight and fare. (Janals and railroads were 
constructed lor the public convenience — for the con- 
veyance of articles to and from market, and revenue 
a subordinate object. But it has become manifest of 
late years that quite too many of these thoroughfares 
have been converted, by watering stock, and charging 
excessive rates of freight, etc., into dangerous mo- 
nopolies, against which intelligent farmers protest as 
an innovation injurious to the industry and properity 
of our common country. 

What a man earns by thought, study and care is as 
much his own as what he obtains by his liauds, is 
true as regards the exclusive manufacture and sale 
of a valuable patent right. But when these rights, 
as has been frequently the case, get into the hands of 
merciless speculators, and become burdensome to the 
public, like Jethro Wood's iron plough, and the 
sewing-machine, the protests of the Grangers against 
the oppression of the patent laws to Congress were 
highly proper. The telegraph, indeed, arrested the 
attention of Congress, and a committee reports 
against the great injury and injustice of the telegraph 
monopoly, aud recommends that it is the duty of the 
government to provide an economical and impartial 
system of telegraphy. 

It is an important fact in the history of Pennsylva- 
nia, that for many years, up to bSijij, the pecuniary 
means lor the construction of internal improvements 
in the State were obtained to a great extent by taxa- 
tion upon real estate, and principally from the agri- 
cultural inhabitants. Peiuisylvania' has still a public 
debt. Would it not be good policy to reduce this debt 
to the amount of funds available in the coffers of the 
Sinking Fund i 

During the last year the United States exported 
fifty-four of every hundred bushels of the wheat im- 
ported by Gi-cat ISntain. Our farmers Ibllow no idle 
theories, but, like the teamster in Esop, put their own 
shoulders to the wheel and manfully pull the car of 
commerce along. - 

It is said that if we cultivate man, the improvement 
of the vegetable and animal kingdoms will surely 
follow. Ail history confirms this. The liest educated 
and most enlightened agricultural countries have in 
all ages outstripped in the race of progress their less 
A-ultivated neighbors. England, France, and Eastern 
Pennsylvania confirm this. In skillful rotation the 
land is enriched by the application of proper manure. 
If you go to Kent, in England, there will he found a 
soil that has lieen enriched by cultivation for almost 
two thousand years. Incessant labor and judicious 
Jnanagement will impiove a farm in producing better 
crops. Talk of worn out farms iu Lancaster county. 
If there are such they have not been tilled by the 
Amish, the Mennonites, the Dunkers, or the .Metho- 
dists. They know better than to exhaust farms ; 
they enrich them by their industry. 



Agricultural chemistry is the science which inves- 
tigates the properties of the (lid'crenl kinds of soil, 
and discovers and a]>plics the propir fcrlilizers. In- 
deed, numerous discoveries in ugrii ullure have l)eeii 
made by oliservant farmers, independent of a knowl- 
edge of chemistry, but a more Ihorougb knowledge 
of the nature of the soil, which cbi'inistry explains, 
is of the greatest practical benefit, andshoulil he 
beard by every farntcr. When the first cargo of 
guano was introiluccd into tills country It mcl with 
till' prcjuilieeaTilbraciti-eoal had to coiiiend wiih. .Vd 
oni' knew aiiylhing In regard to its iutrinsie value, 
and eonsei|uently every person set it down as a hum- 
bug. The farmer, near Philadelphia, that purchased 
the first lot, and had tin' courage to use \l,iH>ilriliiil,il 
it n/tnn strii'ul tu-rm of t/yuss in xurh </ntin/i/i/ '"* '" 
eiitii-fhj kill thr frv/i. lie immediately called u|Hin 
the unfortunate seller and threatened to prosecute 
him for obtaining money undi'r I'alsc pretences. 

The knowleiige and Jiropcr ap|ilieation of the dlll'er- 
enl maiuircs is of very great [iraetical importance; 
anil chemists, such as Leil)ig, i)raper, .lohiislon, and 
others, have analyzed soils and plants ; enlomologists 
have discovered the nature of destructive In.scels, and 
oriuthologists the auxiliaries in their destruction. 
Some plains have a local habitation and a place, 
w hieh is probably owing to the nature of the soil. .\ 
soil entirely deficient of lime will not produce wheat. 
The earth is full of seeds, »bieli, if thrown in a 
favorable position anil exposed to the air, will spring 
up and ]n-oduee llowers of surpassing beauty and 
richness. Every Hour and blade of grass rejoices 
when the rain falls uiion It. This is one of the ele- 
ments of farming, and the others are a g 1 soil and 

a favorable climate; and husbandmen who know 
that upon their industry and skill the crojis depend, 
will give the culture which is due to their acres ; hoc 
every weed, dress the soil, and harvest shall repay 
their toll. 

Southcy says that an animal is of more consequence 
than a plant, because It has life ; and anotlicr author 
thinks that the meanest insect is a collection of won- 
ders. True, we have the microscope and the telescope; 
one leads us to see a world in every atom, and the 
other a systetn for every star in the firmament. 

The people of Flanders, in Europe, erected a statue 
in honor of the man whoini roduced into their country 
the cultivation of the potato, and everywhere the 
man who by his knowledge and skill can produce two 
spears of grass where only one grew tielbre, is con- 
sidered a benefactor. What shall we say of the men 
in our country who have imported blooded stock, and 
thus improved the noble horse, the Durham ox, the 
Alderney cow, the Merino sheep and the Chester pig ! 
These men are entitled to the lasting gratitude of t he 
American people, and a statue would not add totbeir 
greatness, but their disinterested elforts entitle them 
to a monument in commemoration of the event. 

The rapid disappearance of our forests has of late 
years excited a great deal of discussion. The many 
uses to which timber is applied makes it important, 
and the cause of the anxiety manifested in regard to 
it is deserving of serious thought. But there are still 
millions of acres, thick set with wood, in the broad 
expanse of our country and Canada ; and if lumber 
should hereafter become scarce and dear, science will 
develop other building material to take its place, as 
stotie-coal has taken that of wood. There are men 
living in Ohio and Indiana, who have a weary life In 
clearing olf the large trees that encumber I heir acres. 
Still, as the Atlantic seaboard has been pretty well 
stripped of hs Ibrcsts, there are localities probably In 
every State of the Union that would pay better if de- 
voted to tree-raising, than the cultivation of grain. 

Science will develop employment and means of sub- 
sistence as fast as population can grow, in all time to 
come, and it is idle to fret over imaginary evils. Our 
country could sustain a populalionof a thousand ndl- 
lions of souls, and would not be as densely |x)pulated 
asseveral European Kingdoms. In Pennsylvania, one 
of the old States, not one-half of the land is under cul- 
tivation, and much of the unbroken ground is still 
covered with the primitive forests. 

The Italians have a proverb to this effect, "that he 
who has not seen Naples has seen nothing." This 
will be excm|iliHed in .\merica " that he who does not 
visit Philadelphia during this C:enlcimial year, and 
look upon the magnificent display on the Ccnteimial 
grounds, need not pride himself in after years that he j 
lias seen anything worth seeing." There all interests 
will be represented, and agriculture will have a largo 
share. 

The complaint Is that ui the distribution ofrtlHcelii 
our country the agricultural interest has been greatly 
neglei'tcd. There is some show of reason ior I his com- 
plaint. In the State Convcnlion toameiid the t'onsti- i 
tutionof Pennsylvania, a few years ago, of the one ' 
hundred and thirty-three members comprising that 
body, ninety-fiv.' were of the legal profession, and | 
the balance of thirty-eight had a respectable sprink- 
ling of .M.D.'s and l).l).'s, iron men and meiihants. 
The same proportion of lawyers, doctors, merchants, 
iron masters and manufaetun'rs, and other depart- 
ments of Industry, independent of agricultural pur 
suits, have controlled the legislation of our country, 
almost exclusively, lor many years. Probably three- 
fourths of the voles that arc cast at every liii|>ortant 
election are thrown by citizens engaged at farming. 
Why is it that the agricultural interest is thus iguurvu' , 



Why, it Is owing to the Indifference of leaving tha 
management of primary meetings, conventions, Ac., 
to persons who have no sympathy with, or interest In 
the cultivation of the soil. If ihe evils lomplaincd 
of are to be eorrecled, farmers must show llielr 
hand and arrest the evil by Bup|K)itliig nieu for office 
who are In sympathy with their interests. 

" Man shall not live by breail alone. .S<i is it true 
of nal Ions, I hat riches and aggrandizement are means 
and not objects of governinenl ; and that Slates thrive 
and nourish not only on merely physical eleinenls, but 
In pro|iortiiiii that law, onlcr, [M-ace, justice and 
liberty are hialntalned In the Commonwealths of 
Nations." 

Forest Trees and Rain Fall. 
Mil. Ehy thought the plaiiling of forest trees a 
subject of great Iniportaiiee, and elied hcveral in- 
stances III which the atleiilion of foreigners was 
attracted to this country. He held that when Ihe 
forests are cleared away Ihe streuiiibdry up. To sup- 
port this, he referred to the Potomac river, and said 
that since the forest trees which skirt lis banks are 
being cut down there Is a great falling olf as reganls 
Ihe volume of the slreain. The same falling olV Is 
nolhed In the Danube river, and Ihe Austrian govern- 
ment has become so alarmed that they have ap- 
pointed a eommitlccio investigate the cause. He felt 
eoiilideiit that that eommlllee wuuld rcjsirl that It 
was caused by the deslruellon of the forest trees. He 
then referred to the Tucquan creek, whicli runs 
through the lower end of this county. Some ten 
years ago, when he used to fish for trout there, It was 
a very rapid stream, and was supplied at. frequent 
intervals by a great many small tributaries. On all 
sideji it was surrounded by a dense wtjods, the same 
belonging to the parties who own the .Marlle and 
Coleinanville forges. .\ short time ago lic^ visited this 
locality and found that the mouth of the stream was 
greatly diininished 111 size. He traced the course of 
the stream to its source, and was greatly astonished 
to find, that where he used to catch ten Inch trout, 
the farmers had to dam uji the stream in firder to col- 
lect enough of water for their cattle, ttii every hand 
he noticed that all the old trees had disappeared, 
having been cut down by the owners of the forges as 
fuel for their furnaces. Hetlien sjioke at considerable 
length in regard to the preservation of our wcmkI lands, 
not only as a preserver of our slreaiiis, but that we 
might have plenty of timber lor our own use and 
those of coming generations. He thought that there 
was good doctrine in the essay on this subject, and 
said that If the (irangers would only pay a little at- 
tention to this great want, they would accornjillsh 
something in the mission to which they seemed to be 
called. 

Mr. Engi.e called the attention of the chair to the 
strangers present, Messrs. Carter and Harvey, of the 
FarmerB' Club of West tirove, who he llioughl 
would like to say something on this subject. The 
chair then invited the gentlemen to give tliclr views 
oit the matter. 

Mk. C.4i(TER did not think he could add any re- 
marks to what had already been said, as the ground 
had been pretty well gone over. He thought the sub- 
ject of growing trees for increasing timber was a very 
important one. The best tree he knew of for plant- 
ing was the yellow locust, which was the most valu- 
able, as it would stand more than any other tree, 
although It was somewhat subject to the attack of 
the borer. He had no time to enter into any discus- 
sion just now, as he had to leave on the three o'clock 
train for home. He closed his remarks by referring 
to the inHuence of evaporation, some streams having 
an underground current while others evajiorated by 
the sun. 

-Mr. H.tRVEV would like to speak, hut was unable 
to do so, as the hour had arrived when he would have 
to leave. He believed in the |M>sitiim taken by his 
friend Carter. 

A vote of thanks was then tendered the gentlemen, 
and the subject of forest trees was then continued. 

Mr. MoComsf.t said that during a visit to a town 
in the Slate of Ohio, he had learned from a credita- 
ble source that the stream which llinviHl by the town 
had, within a |H'riod of seventy years, decreased to 
less than half its former size. He himself had noticed 
a marked decrease in the size of the stream during 
the eighteen or twenty years which Intervened \h:- 
tween his visits to the place. A canal had formerly 
tieen built at great expense, along its banks, but had 
long since been abandoned for want of sultlelent wa- 
ter. Ohio, seventy years ago, was almost one un- 
broken forest, whereas it is now, to a great extent, 
elcarcil of timber, and the dimlnulloii of this, and 
other streams, was attributed to that fact. 

It seemed to be an almost undisputed fact that as 
a country Is strlp|>ed of ils timlwr, the rainfall and 
streams proiwrtionately decrease. This being so, may 
not our now fertile land at some fiitun" period. If not 
guanled against, iH'come, through these causes, a 
barren desert ! There was another subject to which 
.Mr. McCoinsey was pleased to~hear the essayist re- 
fer—agricultural chemistry. Perfect agriculture, as 
has been said. Is Ihe true fouiidallon of all trade and 
industry, as well as Ihe foundation of the riches of 
States. But a rational system of agriculture cannot 
l)e formed without the application of scicntiflc princi- 
ples, for such a system must be based on an exact 



44 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[March, 



acquaintance with the means of nutrition of vegeta- 
bles, and with the influence of soils and actions of 
manure upon them. 

This knowledge we must seek from chemistry, 
which teaches the mode of investigating the compo- 
sition and studying the characters of the different 
substances from which plants derive their nourish- 
ment. He thouglit the time had come when every 
intelligent farmer should acquaint himself with at 
least the elements of chemistry. 

Mr. Staupfer related an incident of his boyhood. 
In the neitfliborhood of Chiques there was a spring in 
a field which was at that time a perfect swamp. Near 
it was a hill on which were a great many hickorynul 
trees. In time they were all cut down, and now that 
which was a swamp is a nice field, perfectly dry. The 
spring is also almost dry, and so great has been the 
change that he could hardly recO£rnize it when he 
visited the sjrat a short time ago. This great change 
occurred within the past forty years. The Chiques 
creek is one-third less now than it was then. As re- 
gards rainfall, he said it is always greater where 
there was timber, instancing the lower end of the 
county, where it is one-third greater than it is in any 
other part of the county. 

Mr. EsHLEinx knew of a place where there was a 
swamp, and the only way it was drained was through 
a pipe which was laid down for that purpose. This 
was a decided improvement in respect to the drain- 
age, but before the pipe was laid the water was car- 
ried oft' somehow — cither by evaporation or an under 
ground current. He felt sure tliat the water of our 
springs and wells come from the mountains. He had 
studied this question and could see no other reason. 
It must come from a higher place. Water must seek 
its level. The more it is sheltered by trees, the less 
it is evaporated, and hence it has a longer time to 
sink into the ground, and thus feed our springs and 
wells and nourish the land. 

Mr. Ebv said that he had read that since trees 
were planted along the Suez canal, rain had fallen, a 
circumstance that never happened before. 

Mr. Sr.MMY would like to know why Donegal is 
called '' Dry Donegal," when it is a well wooded dis- 
trict. If the existence of trees produces rainfall, why 
does it not do it in this particular case ? 

Mr. Staiiffer said that the current of atmos- 
phere had something to do with it, in support of 
which he cited a few instances. 

Mr. Ebt said that after a long, dry season, when 
a heavy shower came up, it was generally followed 
by others. 

Mr. Engle said that the eastern partof the county 
is noted for having greater rainfalls than the western. 
He noticed that near his place is a mountain gorge, 
and when it rained you could not see across the 
river. In fact, the rain was so heavy you could not 
see the mountain, while one mile above this point no 
rain could be seen falling at all. He believed that the 
mountain range had something to do with it. The 
circumstance, he said, was not at all a common one. 

There being no further discussion, a vote of thanks 
was tendered Mr. Hunsecker for his essay, and the 
subject of Hungarian grass was next introduced. 

The Merits of Hungarian Grass. 

Mr. Pownall said his only experience in raising 
the grass was that wheat could not be grown so well 
after the grass had been sown. He had grown it for 
the last six years, and was well satisfied with the re- 
sult. He would not let a season pass by without put- 
ting in some of the grass. It only takes sixty days 
to mature for a good hay crop. It can be sowed any 
time between the planting of corn and July. The 
only trouble with most farmers who raise it is that 
they let it get too ripe. When this is the case it is too 
hard to feed, because it is more like straw than hay. 
It cannot be cut too early. If cut at the proper time 
it is a valuable feed. As regards his wheat, it never 
failed when sown after it, although that appears to 
be the general complaint against it. He believed that 
nine-tenths of the grass sown in this county was 
allowed to get too ripe, and, as a matter of course, it 
does not give satisfaction. When it is cut at the pro- 
per time it will not exhaust the soil, but if let go to 
seed it exhausts the soil very much. He sowed from 
one to three pecks to the acre. If the seed is good a 
half bushel is ample. 

Mr. Grossman always found good crops follow 
where he had sown Hungarian grass, but for all this 
he would rather have good timothy than any other 
kind of grass. 

Mr. Brackbill said that in his neighborhood 
there was not much of the grass sown. He was not 
in favor of it, and believed it would soon die out. The 
increased demand for Hungarian grass he thought 
was caused by the drought. It was first introduced 
in the west, and now almost every farmer in that part 
of the county sows two, three and four acres of this 
grass to fall back on. He did not think it was good 
to feed too much of it to horses, as it affects their eyes. 
In some instances in the west, where it was fed exten- 
sively to horses, it affected their eyes so much they be- 
came blind. He did not think farmers could afford 
to sow this grass, as it was so exhausting on the soil. 
For his part he preferred good grass and clover. In 
the lower end of this county it is grown to a large ex- 
tent. Instead of Hungarian grass he urged the plant- 
ing of King Philip corn. This corn brings forth a 



good fodder, and it is just as well, if not better, for 
feed than this grass. 

Mr. Kendig had no experience in the growing of 
this grass, but he has two or three neighbors who 
speak very highly of it. One of them says he prefers 
to plant it in June and cut it when it blossoms, and 
that he prefers it to good timothy hay. This neigh- 
bor of his intends to sow ten acres this year. Before 
sowing, the earth should be well warmed up. He was 
shown a sample of last year's grass this morning, and 
it was good, fine and sweet scented. Does not see any 
exhausting qualities in the land when wheat is sown 
after it. If any crop exhausts a soil, then you must 
resort to manure. 

As the president, Mr. Cooper, wished to make a few 
remarks, Mr. Engle was called to the chair. 

Mr. Cooper said he had made inquiry in his neigh- 
borhood in regard to this grass and found that a con- 
siderable interest was taken in the matter. One of 
his neighbors, Mr. John Beiler, was a warm admirer 
of it. This gentleman had been experimenting with 
the grass for several years. Last year he cut ten four 
horse loads of the grass, from a four acre field. He 
sows one bushel to the acre, and puts it in the ground 
generally after corn. When he intends to sow wheat 
after it he sows less than one bushel of the grass to 
the acre. It is raised with less care than any other 
kind of grass, and when fed to cattle it puts them in 
better condition. Wli*at follows where it was planted 
as well asoats. This was one gentleman's experience. 
He would now refer to the experience of another gen- 
tleman — Mr. Benjamin Beiler, of the same neighor- 
hood. Last year he received six four horse loads of 
the grass off a two acre field. This grass was cut on 
a Monday and left lie until Saturday before it was re- 
moved to the mow . For all this, it was nice and soft, 
and the horses were very fond of it. He recommended 
the selecting of grass with black heads for sowing, as 
it was the best. Someof the heads are white. These 
he did not think were so good. In this county the seed 
is very much mixed. Mr. Cooper said that he him- 
self had received four one horse loads from less than 
half an acre. From it he fed two horses all winter, 
and there was enough still on hand to feed until 
April. He had also fed it in the green state. If cut 
green, it is very hard to cure. He said that some of 
his Amish friends did not think their wheat thrived 
as well when sown after it, but he thought it would 
grow just as well. He would sow all the land he had 
to spare in Hungarian grass. He prepared the ground 
the same as for planting corn, and harrows the 
ground the same as for oats. 

Mr. Kendig said that his friend rolls his ground 
first, then scatters the grass seed over it, and harrows 
the same as for oats. 

Mr. Hertz said that twelve or fifteen years ago 
his brother from the west sent a peck of the seed to 
his father. The seed was sown and the grass let go 
to seed. It was then mowed and threshed. The 
grass was more like straw, and the cattle would not 
touch it. The seed could not be sold, as the grass 
was considered worthless. Two years ago he sow^d 
some of the seed in a strip of ground where oats were 
in the year before. The ground was well plouehed 
and the grass produced so bountifully that he let it 
go into seed. From this crop he produced six bushels 
of seed. He put wheat in the same place and found 
a great difference. The wheat was very imperfect. 
The next time he experimented in Hungarian grass, 
he would cut it before it became ripe. He found that 
his soil was injured more by the Hungarian grass 
than any other crop he ever raised in his short expe- 
rience of farming. There may possibly be a differ- 
ence in the soil. His was limestone. 

Mr. Pownall said that when the grass was fed 
to cows it gave a rich color to the milk and butter. 
The experience of all his neighbors was that it was 
hard on the soil. 

Mr. Brackbill said the farmers in the lower end 
grow it for the money that is in the seed. They get 
eighty cents a bushel for it. He spoke at considera- 
ble length against the sowing of this grass. 

MB.KEisTgave his experience. He had noticed 
no difl'erence in the soil after the grass was sown, 
but, after hearing the discussion on the subject, he 
thought it would be better to plant corn. 

Mr. Groff was a strong advocate of Hungarian 
grass. After giving his experience, which appeared 
to be about the same as the others who favored the 
grass, he said that he had twelve acres out last year 
and that he received $1..50 a bushel for all the seed 
he had to spare. 

The discussion was carried on for some time, but 
no new points were elicited further than it was re- 
garded as a mere " foxtail " by Mr. Brinton. It was 
only a fall grass and was entirely worthless. 
Miscellaneous. 

Mr. Kendig moved that a committeeof three be 
appointed by the chair to report the best variety of 
apple trees for planting — the committee to make their 
report at the next meeting. 

The chair appointed Messrs. M. D. Kendig, H. M. 
Engle and Casper Hiller as the committee. 

Mr. Keist moved that hereafter only practical 
questions on agriculture and horticulture be dis- 
cussed. The motion received the approval of the 
Society. 

Four apple tree borers, found in the trunk of a 



dead tree on the premises of Mr. Pownall, were pre- 
sented to the members by Prof. Rathvon. They were 
shown to he the larvse of the long horned beetle, sev- 
eral of which the professor had with him. An arti- 
cle explainingtheir nature appears in another column 
of The Farmer. 

A small bag of Russian grass was distributed 
amous the members by the Preident. It was sent to 
the Society Ijy Mr. Benjamin Beiler, of Bird-in-Hand. 
The grass was said to resemble the Hungarian in 
some respects. 

Two potatoes, known as " Bonnell's Beauty," were 
presented by Mr. Eshleman. 

Grafts of " My Favorites," an apple raised by Mr. 
Grossman, were distributed among the members. 

The subjects for discussion at the next meeting 
will be " Fruits," and " Our lawns and how to take 
care of them." 

Adjourned. 

^ 

THE EXPERIMENTAL FARM CLUB. 



Interesting Essays and Reports of Practical 
Experiments. 

At the last stated meeting of the Experimental 
Farm Club, held on the farm near West Grove, the 
proceeding were marked by unusual interest. Super- 
intendent Carter read an essa) on 

Profits of Raising Corn in Chester County. 

Many farmers do not appreciate the value of corn 
as a paying crop. I, therefore, wish to briefly call at- 
tention to a few facts and figures. Our crop of corn 
on the Farm this year was a good one, though not 
better than we have had some other seasons^ Our 
main crop, I am confident, made over one hundred 
bushels to the acre — estimating 73 pounds of green 
corn to make .56 pounds of shelled corn. This field 
was a clover sod in good heart, and had 800 pounds 
of acidulated South Carolina Rock per acre on part, 
and part had 660 pounds of Philadelphia Bone. 

We had some plots that were accurately measured 
and the corn carefully weighed, and these I can speak 
positively about. I shall therefore refer to them to 
prove what I have to state. Some of these plots made 
98 bushel per acre, with no fertilizer since seeding 
wheat three years previous. This corn was drawn in 
and shelled, and the shelled corn weighed in the grain, 
when it w'as found that 73 pounds of ears made .56 
pounds — making $.50.96 per acre of corn. An acre 
made 364 sheaves of fodder, which sold in the field at 
four cents per sheaf, or $10. .56 — making for the whole 
crop on an acre $61 ..52. These prices were only such 
as any farmer could have realized this season, and 
the amount raised per acre has often been exceeded, 
and is certainly within the reach of any good farmer 
owning natural corn land. 

The expense for labor, seed, &e., is not far from 
twelve dollars an acre. This, of course, is exclusive 
of fertiiizers, which, if judiciously selected, will not 
only increase the corn but show for several years. We 
have no other field crop that will make as good show- 
ing, or can be raised and marketed with as little ex- 
pense. 

Our plan of planting corn is to sow a good phos- 
phatic manure on the sod early, plow shallow — say 
four or five inches — cultivate well, drill corn in rows 
four feet apart, and stalks from sixteen to twenty- 
four inches apart in the row, according to the strength 
of the ground. It should be well worked and kept 
clean, but neither the plowing or planting should be 
very early. Plow the first of May and plant the second 
week. 

Moses Brinton inquired the comparative values 
of South Carolina rock and bone. Mr. Linville had 
grown better corn with South Carolina rock than 
bone. .1. P. Ambler had tried rock and bone and 
measured corn raised, and was of the opinion that 
neither of them had paid. 

Howard Hoopes inquired the best means of 
destroying ants in corn. Mr. Linville said wood ashes 
mixed with common salt would usually be found 
effectual. 

Eastburn Reeder, Secretary of the Solesbury 
Farmers' Club, of Bucks county, read an essay on 
Dairy House Ventilation. 

JIh. Reeder referred to the old plan of making 
butter in farm house cellars, where the temperature 
frequently reached seventy degrees in summer and 
would fail to forty degrees in winter ; and the fre- 
quent plan of keeping the milk pans in the kitchen, 
exposed to the fumes of cooking, which contributed 
nothing to the sweetness of butter. 

The essayist was of the opinion that milk should 
be kept at a uniform temperature of about sixty de- 
grees, thinking it would secure as good a quality of 
butter in January as in June, or in other words, have 
June butter all the year round. Being about to erect 
a dairy house he had visited quite a number of promi- 
nent dairies, and carefully observed the arrangement 
of each and the results obtained, and thus gained 
much valuable information. His plan adopted was 
to build an ice house and milk house combined , divided 
by an eigliteen inch stone wall, with a cooling cham- 
ber in it, with pipes arranged to admit the cold air 
into the milk room. He ventilated from the centre 
of the ceiling, to carry off the light gases that arose, 



1876.] 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



45 



and by drain-pipes helow the level of tlie door, to 
carry off the foul matter that was heavier than the 
air. A house, twelve feet siiu:uv and hii.'h, eon- 
strueted on this plan, would \>f sullirii'jit lor a dairy 
of twelve eows, and could be .-n shelved as to answer 
for fifty cows. The ice house adjoininir should lie 
the same size. It required from live to fifteen bushels 
of ice per week to keep the milk room at proper tem- 
perature. He favored the use of shallow pans, with 
the milk exijosed to the air, ami that it should be 
cooled gradually to exude the animal heat and ani- 
mal odor. He iiail been very successful by this pro- 
cess in obtaining a uniformly excellent quality of 
butter throughout the year. 

Mu. Ri:ki)i;u was followed by an essay on the 
same subject by L. S. Hardin, of Kentucky, whose 
views weri' radically opposed to the theories ju.st ad- 
vanced. The following is an abstract cd' his remarks: 
About four yi'ars ago I started a bultrr ilairy near 
the I'ity of Louisville, Kentucky: inaclimate liot and 
humid, where animal substances decayed raiiidly,and 
wliere insect and parasite life dcvclo[ieil spontane- 
ously and without limit. To spread the milk out in 
the usual nuinncr,was to invite the enemy I was mi>st 
anxious to avoid. To overcome my dillicultics I be- 
gan a series of experiments, beginning with shallow 
pans in the open air, an<l step by step I lowered the 
temperature and incrcasi'd the depth of my milk, un- 
til I reai'hcd what is now called the Swedish plan of 
setting milk in water at 40 degrees, with cans '-'(I 
incdies deep. I found 1 had passed the prcititablc 
point, and liad to retrace my steps until I decided 
upon -to degrees as the best temperature for raising 
the cream perfectly, and nnnle my cans S inches in 
diameter, and 12 and ill inches deep. .My butter was 
now all I desired, but the use of ice in c-ooling water 
that was in immediate contact with the hot air, was 
too expensive. I soon discoveri'd that it took less ice 
to cool a given cube of air than it did to cttol the same 
cube of water. It was equally evident that it was a 
useless waste of ice to cool off a whole room full of 
air, and reasoning from these premises I concluded to 
confine my milk anti airto the snnillest ptissihlcspace, 
in order to economize tlu^ use of ice. I then built a 
box with double sides and close fitting double door, 
putting a hciod or trap over the waste water pipe so 
as to entirely exclude the surrounding atmosphere. 
As it is the nature of heated air to ascend, I placed 
the ice shelf in the top of the box tofeeure a uniform 
temperature. A space of one inch is left openoneach 
side of the shelf to allow the air to pa.ss around the 
ice. The drippings from the ice are utilized to the 
extent of four inches in the bottom of the box. The 
cans are made with a perforated rim on the bottom 
to allow the water to pass under them. The covers 
of the cans fit outside so as to shed the water, and 
prevent any of the drippings getting into the milk. 

It is only after three years' satisfactory experience 
and trial tests, with the best butter makers in this 
country that I have concluded to introduce this as an 
improved method of butter making. In order to 
criticise my method with intelligence it is necessary 
to have before your minds all the points of excellence 
that are desirable in any system of butter making. 
To accomplish this I will submit to you a high and 
thorough standard, iiy which I am willing to have 
my method tested. The ta.ste of the butter produced; 
the aroma; the uniformity in quality ; the color; the 
grain or texture ; the (luantity produced; the keep- 
ing quality ; cost of making ; the labor in making ; 
cost of utensils ; cost of buildings ; protection of the 
milk from accidents; amount of skill required to 
make a fine article of butter, and the practicability 
of my method. 

I have made two careful experiments in churning 
sweet and sour cream. As both experiments turneii 
out exactly alike one description will answer. I took 
fifty pounds of cream that was sweet and liquid, per- 
fectly free from skins or lunijis, stirred it thoroughly 
together, and while in motion dipped out one-half by 
weight and churned it immediately. Put sour milk 
in the other half and let it stami until thoroughly and 
sharply soured. Both batches churned at lio degrees. 
Each of the four churnings came in twenty minutes. 
In each experiment the sweeC cream produced five 
ounces the more butter. Every person wlio tested 
the samples while fresh pronounced the sweet cream 
butter the better. After keeping the samples several 
mouths I am of the opinion that the sample from the 
sweet cream keeps the better. 

Milk as it comes from the cow is a pure and per- 
fect food. With my metliod, I take it while in its 
pure condition and ]ilace it in an atmosphere so cold 
that decomposition is practically arrested, and hold 
it at this temperature until the cream has all arisen, 
about thirty-six hours. Wlien 1 skim the cream it is 
liquid and sweet. The cream can, of course, be 
soured, if desired. As to the taste of butter nutde by 
my process, I have always received the top price of 
my market the year round. 

Nine-tenths of the butter bougfit in market is 
judged by the sense of smell. If in the course of 
manufacture the light flavoring oils arc exposed for a 
long time to the action of the atmosphere, they must 
in a measure disappear. By my (irocess, evaporation 
is practically arrested, and if the milk has come from 
the cow in a pure and wholesome condition, the but- 
ter is certain to possess an exquisite aroma. 



Setting milk in the dark does not seem to affect the 
butter one way or another. In making experiments, 
setting one-half the milk in the dark, and one-half in 
the light, after twenty-four hours, there was no dif- 
ference in the color of the butter. 

Too much heal is fatal to the grain of butter, and 
it reqinres a masterspirit to preserve its fine waxy 
texture with ndlk set in the open air, and the ther- 
mometer indicating a tropical range of from SO to 100 
degrees. 

In midsummer it required a fraction over nineteen 
pounds of milk to make a ]K)und of butter with shal- 
low ])ans, whili; a fraction over seventeen [Miunds was 
recpiired in deep pans. When the milk and cream 
arc alhiwed to sour together, as in shallow setting, 
and the souring jiroecss is still contiiuied with tlic 
cream after it Is taken off, there is great danger of a 
slight degree of decomposition taking place, which 
greatly injures the keeping (puilily »»f the liutter. 
Whi'U the cream is taken off swi'et and pure, and if 
churned while in this pure condition, the keeping 
quality of the butter is insured. 

Heshowed at length that by his jirocesB the amount 
of skill and laluir required was greatly retluced, and 
the cost of buildings and utensils largely decreased. 
He cxhibileil a model of his box and milk cans, the 
former of which he has patented. 

Mu. Ukkiikk maintained that if nothing was notice- 
able in the odor of the air of the ndlk room, that its 
eU'ects eoidd not be noticed in or tasted in the butter. 
Mi(. H.MtniN rej)Iied that it sowed the seeds of de- 
struction in the milk which were develoiied in the 
butter. 

Secuetakv Cakter read an essay, written by 
Prof. J. Wilkinson, of Baltimore, who was unable to 
be jiresent, favoring the ventilation of milk rooms as 
follows : 

" We want the truth and the whole truth as far as 
we understand the science of butter making, and it is 
the height of folly for any one to attempt to promul- 
gate any system, or branch of a system of this im- 
mense native industry, which cannot stand the test 
of dairy science, and the scrutiny of dairy chemists. 
I have previously advocated the importance of ven- 
tilation for dairy ro<mis, and oi)posed to cooling milk 
rapidly in the use of cold water instead of cool air, 
which latter plan I recommend. 

"Iclaimthat ventilation, by which I meana change 
of air in the dairy room with suHicient rapidity to 
prevent the possibility of the gaseous emanations 
while it is cooling, known in common parlance as 
animal odors, lieing absorbed by other milk, already 
cool, with which it may come in contact and thus 
secure the maintenance of the purest condition of tlie 
air of the dairy possible, an essentiality claimed by 
every dairyman in the world, save one or two. The 
most reliable dairy chemists have established the fact 
that milk gives off vapor and odor, which are known 
in dairy science as volatile animal oil, that is mingleil 
with natural milk, and which escapes slowly at blood 
heat, more rapidly as the temperature is raised, more 
slowly as it is lowered until it reaches IV2 degrees, 
when it remains fixed or unvolatile in the milk and 
cream. At a little below 60 degrees it is condensed 
to a liquid oil. At the natural temperature of the 
milk, the gaseous odors are given off slowly, hence 
time is required to admit of its purifying itself. It 
may, however, be greatly facilitati'd by artificial 
heating, which, if the milk is to be suddenly cooled 
by a cold water bath, would greatlyimprovetjie keep 
iiig quality of the butter made from milk so cooled. 
But carefully conducted experiments in cooling the 
milk gradually, in cool, changing air, has proved that 
it is sullieientiy purified to insure good preserving 
qualities and yet not impair its flavor. 

"It may be contended that milk, as it comes from 
the cow, is in a state to adapt it well as human food, 
but let us not lose sight of the fact that when thus 
used those properties which so impair the preserving 
qualities of the milk and butter are the active ones in 
rendering such fresh milk diet, whether of man or 
beast, readily and rapidly fermentable and assimila- 
ble qualities', the direct opjiosite of which is the aim 
of the manufacture of butter to be preserved. It is a 
well known fact that milk that has been artificially 
heated up to KiO to 140 degrees will remain sweet 
longer kept at the same temperature, than milk not 
so heated. By cooling milk in close cans, in the use 
of ice, or cold' water, we confine in it tlio.se agents of 
decay, that heat is known to set free, and the keep- 
ing quality of the milk thus suddenly cooled must be 
proportionately inlpairel^. 

•'I am willing to stake my reputation as a dairy 
chemist and a "dairy architect on the soundness of 
what I have stated. It may be denied but It cannot 
be proved by i)ractical test to be untrue. 

"Irepcat, we want truth; I also repeat what Intelli- 
gent, skillful dairy practice has everywhere, ami at 
all times sustained, tliat the cream from milk that 
has been rapidly cooled in close vessels will not make 
butter of equal" flavor and equal keeping qualities, 
that cream will from the same milk, slowly eooleil in 
pure, partially dried ami suitably cooled air changing 
air. I mean bv suitably cooled at, the tcmi«rature 
oftiOOP." 

A vote of thanks of the club was extended to 
Messrs. Hardin and Reeder, for their presence and 
instruction. 



Bee Keeping for Farmers. 
Head before the Exiierimeutal Farmers' Club by 
Hev. f)rr I.awson, Feb. •J4th, 1H7((. 

It Is not to be expectetl that farmers will or can de- 
vote that time and attcntit>n to bee keeping net-essary 
to become g.-nerally scientillc apiarians. This must 
be h'ft to men of leisure, whose tastes lead them that 
way, or to spociullsts who make bee kcepiii); their 
business. 

But at the same time a wise husbanding of the re- 
sources of Ilu" farm seems todemaud that each farmer 
should keep at least a few hives of bees, lie nuiy thus 
save a product of his Melds which would otherwliie 
be lost, and so add sitniewhat to the pnifil ot' the farm, 
or till' corn tort of his family. And Ihlhiloiihiless most 
larmers would do were they not deierreil liy the die- 
hi-artcning failures wliii-h have mi ofti'U o\ertaken 
their cntiTpriscs of this sort. It will be the object of 
this paper to give, if |Missible. siimc hints by which 
mistakes leading to failure and loss nniy be avoided. 
Here let us oliscrve that beis, like evirvlhing else 
(Ui the farm, re<|uire some care an<l attention. If left 
intirely to " take care of themselves" they will asccr- 
taiidy fail us a Held of corn or a henlof cuttle, and yet 
on the other hand a few hives require comparatively Ill- 
tie attention, anil can be eared for in fragiiieiiisofilme 
which otherwise would hanlly Ix* put tu any )ir«)llta- 
ble use.. In aiUlition to this, bees requlri' /iro/trr hii'et. 
It Is my o|iinioii that more Ih'CS are h>st from the use 
of hives of faulty construction than from all other 
causes <-ombJncd. .\ bivi- t<) give the best results in 
thin rUnt'itf, and for winteriiigou their siininier stands 
(and for this region that is, I think, the licsl plan) 
slioulil be nearly cubical In form, having IHOO to "JOOO 
cubic inches space in the main apartnu'ut ; should bt; 
math- of pine <ir souM' other soft wfKsl n<il less than 
one inch in thickness — two inches would be better no 
doubt. Should Ik- provided with moveable comb 
frames, after the simjilcst arrangement, and space 
above for honey Ihixcs, the whole of the simplest pos- 
sible construction, avoiding if jiossible all com|>licated 
arrangement of drawers, doors, moth traps, and tin- 
like. These only afford hidihg places for moths, and 
end)arras6 the bee keeper in his operations. 

The hives should lie placed not too near each other, 
and not more than six or eight inches from the 
ground. They are thus less exiKised to the wind, are 
much warmer in winter, and are much more easily 
reached by the bees as they come heavily laden from 
the lielils. The hives should be located near where 
the family constantly pass. They will thus Iw-come 
accustomed to the presence of man, and ceasing to 
fear harm at his hands will cease to sling. This, 
with proper attention, will so "tame" tliem thai, 
with care, all needful operations may Im" performed 
safely. Swarms from hives so treated rarely escaiM* 
to the woods. They are no longer iiilil biri, but 
{loinestic, and look to man for shelter and care. 

If possible the hives should be sheltered from (he 
north winds by a fence; or better, by an evergreen 
hedge. They should be protected from the sun in 
miilsummerand miilw inter, but in the spring and fall 
the sun should shine fidl upon the hives. 

.Most bee keepers b.id best let them swarm natural- 
ly, because artificial swarming requires knowledge 
and skill which but few attain, not because it is dilli- 
cull to acipure, but because study and observation 
are necessary to ae(]uire them. 

Native bees have done as well for me as Italian. 
Cnderthe same treatment I have observed no differ- 
ence ; however, many bee keepers greatly preferthem, 
and my experience may be exceptional. I think their 
introduction will be of advantage in securing a cross 
with the natives. 

Questions and Answers. 

How long do bees live ? 

Working bees live not more than four months In 
sumnu'r, and not more than eight In winter. The 
queen lives three to four years. 

How do you protect bees from the nnith '. 

By so constructing hives as to affoni no hiding 
place for moth, and by keeping the stacks always 
strong. Still we must not expect to escape losssome- 
tlmes. 

How do you prevent swarming? 

By giving them abundant space in which to work, 
remove honey boxes as siwin as full and supply empty 
ones; thus they will swarm but little. 

Mn. Hai(i>in offered to furnish his dairy apparatus 
to the Club or any dairyman for trial, and if It did 
not do all he claimed for it, aflcra fairtrial, he would 
take it away at his own ex|H'nse. The club accepted 
his proposition, and the process will be tested at the 
ExiHJrimental Farm as soon as ])racllcable. 

BuKKoWF.i) Plimf.s.— .\ naturalist in Knglund 
computes from the catalogue of a " Feather Sale," 
that to sup|)ly the stock the death of 10,000 heronsor 
egrets was required; and of Humtning binls, 1.5,.574, 
besides thousands of parrots, kingflshers and other 
birds of bright colors. The writer adds, that as the 
plumage of binls is develo|)cd in Us fullest beauty at 
the breeding season, the vagaries of fashion may 
almost make some s|K-eie8 extinct. The computations 
are based on a single catalogue, representing only one 
of many sale*. Think of t his, ladies, when you wear 
featlicrs. 



46 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[March, 



DOMESTIC ECONOMY. 



A Return to Economy. 

This is an age of extravasance. Men are living be- 
yond their means — expending beyond their income. 
Universal indebtedness prevails; individual indebted- 
ness, town, city, county. State and national indebted- 
ness. The linnest, ec(momical days of the new re- 
public have been forgotten. We are all in trouble. 
Taxes are so high and burdensome as to be almost 
insupportable. The annual running expenses of the 
government, that were ?t;0,00n,000 in 1860, have run 
up to $340,000,000 in 187.5— and this without includ- 
ing the interest on our national debt, or taking that 
into account at all. This expenditure must be lessened 
materially in some way. Something is wrong some- 
where. The blame lav-s at somebody's door. Letus 
find it. It cannot be laid upon the farmer — for not a 
farmer is in Congress. There are about twenty-five 
so-called farmers in Congress, or have been — but they 
were men of wealth, and were not in sympathy with 
the toiling masses. Although by their numbers far- 
mers are entitled to half the members of the House 
and Senate — they have not one in either to-day to 
speak for them. The politicians want all the places 
of honor and emolument, and they are pretty apt to 
get them. None of the wrongs or frauds that have 
been perpetrated in Congress can, be charged to the 
farmer. The Credit Mobilier swindles, the salary 
grabs, the steals in the Indiail department, the Dis- 
trict of Columbia rings, the navy contracts, the rail- 
road subsidies, the whisky rings, and all other simi- 
lar transactions — are not traced to the door of the 
farmer. 

An important question comes up, and that is, shall 
we ever be free from such disgraceful transactions, 
till farmers take a more active part in taking care of 
their interests ? Is it not their duty to look out for 
themselves, to strive to have economy prevail, to les- 
sen taxation that their burdens may be lessened ? We 
have got to get back into the old rut, so far as ad- 
ministering the government is concerned; and far- 
mers are untrue to themselves and their families, un- 
true to their interests — unless they take a leading 
part in this matter. 

Look at the public buildings the people have to pay 
for. In Macoupin county. 111., the toiling tax-payers 
have got to i)ay a million and a half of dollars for a 
county court house, when one could have been built 
for S25,000 that would have answered every purpose. 
A court house ring was formed, that imposed this 
heavy burden on the farmers there. The State House 
of Illinois will cost the tax-payers of that State over 
$3,000,000. Manv other States are erecting nearly as 
expensive ones. The Custom Houseof St. Louis will 
cost at least five or six millions of dollars. And to 
get an appropriation through Congress, a ring must 
be formed with various sections of the country, with 
appropriations enough for each section to carry votes 
enough to put the whole thing through; and when 
an appropriation is wanted for one, twenty or thirty 
others must have it, too — and will not vote for the 
others unless they get a slice. And this is the way 
matters work. 

Magnificent palaces are erected for paupers and 
criminals. The study seems to be, not how little 
shall we spend, but how much can we make it cost? 

Is there no relief from such a pernicious system ? 
We must each begin at home to put down extrava- 
gance, whether private or public. We must not be 
afraid to take a bold, strong stand against it, and, by 
positive and united action, we may get back to the 
honest and economical ways of our forefathers. — 
Cohnan's li. IT. 



Farmers' Sons and Daughters Must Work. 

To the sons and daughters of many farmers this 
injunction is unnecessary. They do work. They take 
a lively interest in what is going on in the household 
and on the farm. They feel personally interested in 
the success of everything appertaining tfiereto. They 
are co-workers, and everything moves on harmoni- 
ou.sly and in order. They are not drawbacks, hind- 
rances, clogs, but active and efficient helpers. 

But there are the sons and daughters of other 
farmers that feel above work. They are willing to 
see father and mother slave their lives away, to keep 
them in idleness . Great, strapping boys lie abed till the 
sun is high in the heavens, keeping back the house- 
work, because they are too lazy to get up and eat 
with the other members of the family. When break- 
fast is eaten, the next thing in order is to get ready 
to go to town, where they spend their time loafing 
about grogshops and other bad places, returning per- 
haps late at night, unless hunger drives them home 
sooner. And one day is but the repetition of another. 
Such worthless boys make worthless men, without 
exception. And then there are the ruddy-cheeked, 
healthy girls. Late rising suits them much the best. 
Breakfast must be ready and on the table before they 
appear. They have nothing to do in preparing it. As 
soon as breakfast is over they apply themselves dili- 
gently till dinner time in reading some love-sick 
novel. They imbibe false ideas, and live in an unreal 
atmosphere. Their minds dwell upon fine dresses, 
parties, beaux. Ac. They dress extravagantly, and 
are a heavy tax upon their hard-working parents. 



They help put nothing into the exchequer, but are 
very efficient in taking out all that thrift and indus- 
try putsin. And sometimes thisdon't end here. When 
such girls get married they are a millstone about their 
husband's necks. Everything is left to hired servants. 
Large bills at the store, at the dressmaker's, milli- 
ner's, etc., are incurred — and these must he paid in 
some way. Do not our readers know that we are de- 
scribing, in many cases, real life? How can the hus- 
band and father prosper when he sees he has no sym- 
pathy or assistance (rom those whose lives are linked 
with his? How dark and gloomy such a life must be I 
There is not one cheering prospect for him. Alibis 
earnings are exhausted before they are realized, and 
perhaps ere long- the farm is sacrificed to support so 
worthless a family. 

It is true, parents are to blame for bringing up 
children this way. They have loved their children, 
and humored them,and when they have seen the error 
of their ways, it was too late. The habits of the chil- 
dren had been formed, and no amountof talking could 
change them. They had brought up idle children, 
who will make idle and worthless men and women. 
"We have seen too many such instances. 

So, parents, bring up your children to work. Im- 
press them from their infancy that they must work. 
See that they have something to do. Throw responsi- 
bility upon them, andseethat they properly discharge 
it. Let no amount of coa.xing or whining, let no ex- 
cu,ses whatever, if your children are healthy, deteryou 
from bringing them up to work. If they won't work 
when they are children, they will not work when they 
are men and women, and will be a tax upon you while 
you live, and will be paupers before they die. We 
know we are speaking plainly and earnestly. But it 
is necessary, if we would save our children fiom a life 
of degradation. Labor is heaven's law. — Cohnan's 
Rural World. 



How Butter is Tainted. 

Winter and spring butter is often very much injured 
in flavor by allowing cows to eat the litter from horse 
stables. Cows are not unfrequently very fond of this 
litter, though it is impregnated with liquid manure 
from horses, and if allowed, they eat it greedily ; and 
the effect is that their milk and butter will be tainted 
with the taste of this kind of food, in the same way 
that the flavor is injured by eating turnips, but to a 
more disagreeable degree. If litter is allowed to be 
eaten, it should only be given to cattle not to milk, 
and on no account should milch cows be allowed to 
consume other than the sweetest and purest food. 
Very nice butter makers are sometimes at a loss to 
account for stable taints in butter, especially when 
extraordinary precautions have been taken to have the 
milking done in the most perfect manner, and so on 
in all the processes of handling the milk until the but- 
ter is packed for market. Still the butter has a dis- 
agreeable taint, and the cause often comes from al- 
lowing the cows, when turned out to water and exer- 
cise, to feed about the horse stable, when they con- 
sume all the litter which, on account of its being 
soaked with liquid manure, is cast out of the stable. 
— Rural New Yorker. 



Dried Potatoes. 



A German journal, Der Latidwrilh, thus describes 
the manufacture of "dried potatoes" as conducted 
at CrastKJrn's works in Lubeck: The potatoes are 
peeled with the hand, and cut into disks by a ma- 
chine. These are put in a basket, and this in a boiler, 
where the potatoes are nearly but not quite boiled. 
The disks are next put on wire frames in a dry oven, 
where they are dried quite hard. It is important to 
preserve the color of the potatoes, and to prevent 
them from turning grey, as they would, by the above 
process alone ; the material, after slicing, is treated 
with cold water, to which has been added 1 per cent, 
of sulphuric acid, or 1 to 2 per cent. of muriatic acid. 
Then it is washed in pure water, and the drying 
proceeds. The perspiration obtained, which has lost 
none of his starch, is of a slightly citron-yellow tint, 
and transparent like gum. Boiled with water and a 
little salt, it is said to resume the natural color and 
fibrous structure of pototoes, and is not distinguisha- 
ble in taste from newlv-boiled potatoes. 



Slovenly 'Women. 

The editor of Appleton's Jour7ia! has no patience 
with women who are slovenly at home . " Many 
women have little idea of how greatly they shock the 
tastes and really endanger the affections of their hus- 
bands by their unseemly domestic apparel. There is 
not a man of sense and refined feeling anywhere who 
would not prefer some simple and chaste adornment 
for his wife in the morning to any extreme of splendor 
at the evening ball. Let a woman by all means dress 
brilliant on those occasions that render it proper ; we 
have no desire to abridge her privileges nor baffle her 
instincts in this particular ; but we claim that it is im- 
portant for her, if she values her household serenity, 
that she should give equal heed to her customar}' do- 
mestic attire. Tlie female who goes about the house 
untidily dressed has no right to the title of woman. 
She is without those marks and indications by which 
she can be classified. 



Milk Transmits Infection. 

The Sanitary Record (English) states that in .Jar- 
row thirty-four cases of typhoid fever suddenly broke 
out in a limited district, in twenty different families, 
the cases being mostly confined to children. The 
houses, with two exceptions, were clean and well sup- 
plied with pure water. It was discovered that all the 
families received their milk from the same farm, 
which was at once visited. Six of the farmer's 
family were down with the fever. The water used in 
the dairy was from a well close to a ces.spit, and evi- 
dently contaminated by soakage, as it became putrid 
in two days after drawing from the well. The dairy 
was also used as a washhouse, and the linen of the 
sick persons of the family were washed in it. The 
person who milked the cows was in constant .attend- 
ance upon the sick. The niiisance was promptly de- 
tected by the health officer and immediately abated. 



How to Use Corn Starch. 

English Blanc Mange. — Four tablespooufuls, or 
three ounces, of Corn Starch to one quart of milk, 
two eggs. Dissolve the corn starch in some of the 
milk . Put into the remainder of the milk four ounces 
of sugar, a little salt, a piece of lemon rind, or cinna- 
mon stick, and heat to near boiling. Then add the 
mixed corn starch, and boil (stirring briskly) four 
minutes ; take out the rind, and pour into a mould or 
cup, and keep until cold. When turned out, pour 
round it any kind of stewed or preserved fruits, or a 
sauce of milk and sugar. 

Soiled Pudding. — Three tablespooufuls of the corn 
starch to one quart of milk. Dissolve the corn starch 
in some of the milk, and mix with it two or three eggn 
well beaten, and a little salt. Heat the remainder of 
the milk to near boiling, add the above preparation, 
and boil four minutes, stirring it briskly. To be eaten 
warm, with a sauce. 

Dehnoyiico Pudding. — A quart of milk, three table- 
spoonfuls cornstarch. Mixthe starch with cold water, 
and stir into the boiling milk. Mix six table- 
spoonfuls of white sugar with the yolks of five eggs, 
and pour into the starch. Put into a pudding-dish, 
and bake. Beat the whites of five eggs with six table- 
spoonfuls of sugar, and flavor with vanilla ; dropwith 
a spoon on the pudding, and brown slightly in the 
oven. 

Oawego Pudding. — One quart of milk, three table- 
spoonfuls of corn starch, four eggs. Beat the yolks, 
and mix them with a little of the milk and flour ; 
sweeten and flavor with vanilla. Scald the milk, and 
add the otheringrediente; boiling three minutes ; pour 
into a dish, and set away to cool. Beat the whites 
with four teaspoonfuls of sugar. Cover the pudding 
with a layer of currant jelly, and spread the beaten 
whites over the whole. 

Saratoga Pudding. — Mix four tablesijoonfuls of corn 
starch in one quart cold milk. Stir until it boils, 
when cool, stir in two tablespoonfuls white sugar, six 
eggs, whites and yolks beaten separately. Put in a 
large pudding-dish, place in a pan of water, bake IJj 
hours. 

Sauce. — One cup of sugar, half cup butter, the yolks 
of two eggs, one glass wine. Rub sugar and butter 
to a cream, add eggs and half the wine. Putthedish 
in boiling water, stir ten minutes, add the rest of the 
wine, and .serve. 

Boiled Custard. — Two tablespoonfuls of corn starch 
to one quart of milk ; mix the corn starch with a small 
quantity of the milk, and flavor it ; beat up two eggs. 
Heat the remainder of the milk to near boiling, then 
add the mixed corn starch, the eggs, four tablespoon- 
fuls of sugar, a little butter and salt. Boil it two 
minutes, stirring it briskly. 

Jce Cream . — Omitting the butter and salt, the pre- 
paration for custard will make an excellent ice cream. 



Household Helps. 

Sore Throat. — Dr. Re-snllout states that lemon 
juice, used as a gargle, is an efficacious specific against 
diphtheria and similar throat troubles. He has suc- 
cessfully thus employed it for eighteen years. 

Graham CtJP Cake. — Unbolted wheat meal, two 
cupfuls ; buttermilk, one cup; molasses, one-half 
cup ; butter, quarter of a cup ; eggs, two ; soda, half 
a teaspoonful. Bake half an hour. 

To Clean Furniture. — Take a large cotton rag 
well saturated with coal oil, rub each article of fur- 
niture with it until all the mud stains and dust have 
diappeared, then go over it with a dry cloth, rubbing 
each piece until it is perfectly dry. Clean once a 
week. 

Yeast and Homemade Bread. — Boil one pound 
of good flour, a quarter of a pound of moist sugar, 
and half an ounce of salt, in two gallons of water, 
for an hour. When nearly cold, bottle and cork it 
closely. It will be fit for use in twenty-four hours, 
and one pint will make eighteen pounds of bread. 

Potatoes are adapted to be eaten with lean meat 
— the starchy potatoes furnish the fattening and heat- 
ing elements which lean meat lacks, while the lean 
meat supplies the bone and muscle-making elements 
not afforded by potato or fine fiour bread. Fat meat 
aflibrds heating and fattening elements, like potato, 
but in a form less easily digested by most persons. 



1876.] 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



47 



Sweet M.vcaroni. — Break up a quarter of a pound 
of the best macaroni intosniall leni,'llis, lunl lioil it in 
two quarts of water wiDi a larije pineli of salt, uiilil 
perfectly tender ; drain away Mie water, adil to llie 
macaroni into the stewpan a cupful of milk and a 
quarter of a pound of sifted luiup suL'ar. anil keep 
shaking over the tire until the milk is ahsorhed ; add 
any tlavoriuir. Stewed fruit may he served with the 
macaroni. 

Hei) PEPi'EK is said to have a very beneficial elfeet 
on domestic fowls and cape birds. The article sold 
in the drug stores is not always fresh, but every one 
can cultivate the plant easily. The variety eommoidy 
known by the name of " liird's [leppi-r" is the liest , 
and the plant itself is so pretty that it is an ornament 
for a flower stand. Tlie seeds possess a stimulatini; 
and reviving property. One seed given daily to canary 
birds, if they eeem drooping, will have an excellent 
effect . 

A (■ni.EHK.\TEi) Oerinan writer — Dr. Eisner — states 
that the water in which jiarcd potatoes have been 
boih'd is admirable for cleaning silver, no matter liow 
much it lias becotne blackened and tarnished; and 
especially spoons and forks that have been turned by 
u.se in eating eggs, may all be polished and made 
bright by washing them in this water, and afterward 
rnl)iiing"witli a soft rag without any other applica- 
tion. The recipe is such a very simple one that every 
one of our readers may try it for liimself. 

Stewed Appi.es and Hke. — Peel good baking 
apples, take out the cores with a seooji so as not to 
injure the shape of the apides : put them in a dce]i 
bilking-dish and pour over them a syrup made by 
boiling sugar in the proportion of one pound to a ])int 
of water; put a little piece of shred lemon inside of 
each apple and let them hake very slowly until done, 
but not in the least broken. If the syruji is thin, boil 
it until it is thick enough ; take out the lemon peel 
and put alittle jam inside of each apple, and between 
them little heaps of well-boiled rice. This dish may 
be served citlier hot or cold. 

Rice Muffins. — Half a pint of riee boiled and 
mashed very smooth. Soften this paste by slowly 
adding one cupful of milk, three eggs beaten sepa- 
rately, and as much Hour as will make it the same 
consistence as pound-cake batter. Add salt, of course, 
and bake quickly in rings or small tins. When rice 
is properly cooked it makes a very nice addition to 
certain kinds of meats. The grains should be pre- 
served whole, and not, as is nearly always done, 
cooked until they become an unsightly mass ; after 
washing and picking over the grains, put them in a 
large tin dish or shallow pan, where they will not lie 
too closely, and, pouring on a little water, cover, and 
place on the stove or in the oven, wIutc they will 
cook very slowly ; the steam, being kejit in the dish, 
causes the grains to swell, and cooks them without 
destroying the shape. 

Wine made of the Wild (Jrape: Many a house- 
keeper feels the inconvenieneeof a protracted abseuce 
from home in summer, when she views her shortened 
allowance of stores in the way of preserves, pickles, 
and home-made wines. Yet even late in the fall she 
may find room for activity. The small wild grape, 
known to boys as the " bird grape," never attains its 
full sweetness until after the fall of frost, and makes 
an exeelleut wine for culinary purposes. Mash the 
grapes in a large bowl or tub with a mallet, and keep 
them in a warm place until there is some sign of fer- 
mentation setting in. Then strain the juice bv drip- 
ping through a flannel bag or strong yet slightly por- 
ous cotton cloth. To three quarts of juice add one 
quart of water and three poundsof light brown sugar. 
If you put it away in a demijohn, select a warm, dry 
closet, and tie up the moutii closely with a piece of 
thin muslin. Do not cork up tight until the whole 
process is complete. It will be all the better if fer- 
mentation ensues speedily, but if the jilace of deposit 
is not warm enough, never mind; as soon as the first 
warm days of spring come, it will go ou to ferment 
as though there had been no interruption to the pro- 
cess, and be none the w orsc for the delay. After all, 
it will make wine much sooner than if you waited 
even for blackberry season. 



GENERAL MISCELLANY. 



The Agricultural Horse. 
Being at a meeting recently held at Ottawa, 111., 
by a number of breeders of horses, says a correspon- 
dent,! was more .strongly impressed than ever with the 
necessity of a diflTerenl classificati(m of horses at our 
fairs. It became very evident to my mind that there 
is a very great demand for one particular class of 
horses, which, in the present arrangement, has no 
show for a prize. And, strange to say, too, this class 
was. at our last Slate Fair, represented in the greatest 
numbers. We want three distinct classes, or in other 
words, we want the roadster, the draft, and the agri- 
cultural horse. This will cover the whole ground, 
except as to the dilferent lireeds of the respective 
classes. There are the same reasons for a ring for 
the ditferent britcds of horses that there are in classes 
Of cattle, swine, sheep, poultry, etc. In the showing 
at the fairs, if the comnuttec happened to be com- 
posed of men prejudiced in favor of either of the 



many breeds, that breed undoubtedly gets the prize — 
not because he is the best animal, but because he 
hap[)cns to he of a breed in favor of which they are 
prejudiced. That we need the roadster liorse all must 
admit, for light driving and saddle use. .And it is 
ctpially as admissilde that this is all the practical use 
we have lor him. That there is a great amtiunt of 
labor that can only be performed etfectively with tin* 
heavy draft horse, is also a fixed fact. No one will 
contenil that either can perform the labor of the 
other to any advantage. While these are facts that 
are not ami lannot be disputed, it is equally as evi- 
dent that there is a class of work that nuist be per- 
formed by the horse that caiuiot t)e th»ne to any ad- 
vantage with either the good roaiister or the heavy 
draft horse. This is very suitably named, in the 
meeting referred to, the iiffricHllural /un-ff. This class 
is of more practii'al utility to the masses than all 
others comliincd ; and in my judgment, instead of 
receiving the cold shoulder, should, if any partiality 
l)e shown, have the iircference. This is the horse 
upon which all are dependent, and might fitly l)e 
compared to the laboring or producing class of men. 
The (jncstion often arises as to what constitutes 
the agricultural horse. It is a question easily an- 
swered, liut a horse is hard to descrilic, owing cUiefly 
to the diiVereiiee of opinion as to what will fill the bill. 
I would say that a lK)rse for agricidtural purposes 
should be selected solely for that pnr|H)hc, without re- 
gard to light harness or heavy draft, further than per- 
tains to agriculture. That some farmers do use tlieir 
farm horses for buggy and saddle, and all more or less 
lor heavy draft, is true. The agricultural horse can 
be used in all these capacities incases of emergency, 
but selilom profitably. Consequently most farmers 
keep a cheap, light team to do light work. I shall not 
attcmiit to describe an agricultural horse in this arti- 
cle furtherthan to say that about seventy of thceighly 
imported horses, and all of the grade Norman and 
Clydesdale, that were exhibited at our last State Fair, 
should come under that head, weighing, as they did, 
in high showing condition, from fourteen liundrcd to 
seventeen hundred pounds — but, reduced to working 
condition, would have weighed from twelve tosixteen 
hundred. That a large horse is most iirofitable for 
agricultural purposes is evident to every farmer. Suc- 
cessful farmers are scarce that would discard a horse 
weighing from fourteen hundred to sixteen hundred 
pounds, and select instead one of the same formation 
and at the same price that would only weigh from 
eleven hundred to thirteen hundred pounds. 



Applying Manures. 

Bv a series of experiments made some years ago in 
England, it was shown that barnyard manure benllt- 
ed crops most the first season, when covered about 
two inches deep with soil. This result appears rea- 
sonable, but the question is, how can farmers place 
their manure in the ground at this depth ? It is not 
practicable in any case, but they can approximate 
to it in some cases. When manure is ploughed under 
in the ordinary way, some of it is covered too deep 
to benefit the crop the same season, and it is made 
available if the land is ploughed the second year; 
some farmers plough their land, then spread on their 
manure and harrow it in, but much of it is left upon 
the surfane, and is partially lost, and the ammonia 
that goes otT in the atmosphere is the virtue of the 
manure itself. 

It is strange that we should find intelligent far- 
mers, at this late day in agricultural progress, who 
deny that barnyard manure can be injured by expo- 
sure to the air and sun; yet they do exist ! A few- 
years agoa farmerin Central New York wroteseveral 
articles for publication, in which he attemi)ted to 
prove that when manure lies upon the surface of the 
land and dries up, its fertility is still in It, concentra- 
ted in the small crusts that remain ! 

Fanners, let me caution you against the folly of 
carting your manure upon your fields, and spreading 
them for a week or longer, before you plough them 
under. If this be done in the spring, with a warm 
sun, and high, drying winds, a large portion of them, 
or rather of the fertility, will pass olT in the atmos- 
phere. Don't be deceived in this manner while your 
olfactory nerves bear a pungent evidence of the truth 
of what I say. Y'ou cannot afford to work your farms 
on this wasting principle. Manure is money, and if 
one should see you scattering " greenbacks " over 
the field, on some windy day, the evidence of your 
insanity would be but a little more tangible than 
when you spread your manure, and leave them to 
evaporate in the sun and by the winds. 



Small Fruit on the Farms. 

To advise a farmer to grow small fruits for mar- 
ket, and at the same time carry on his farming ojk'- 
rations, is something we do not do. But there are 
hundreds and thousands of farmers who have a 
natural taste for fruit-growing, and to whom farm- 
ing has become a drudgery— especially that class 
who are not strong to whom a change is desirable 
and necessary. To these we would say, if you arc 
living within three or four miles of a good home 
market, and cities not far away by rail or steamboat, 
a change to fruit growing will be both profitable and 



pleasant. The first thing to do is to rent out most of 
your lanil or let out on sfuires, reserving your home, 
and say ten or twenty acres of land for your fruit 
grow iiig operations, ancl if you have a love for the 
business, and go at It systematically and energetically, 
yon will make more money from ten acres of land 
than you have ever made from your farm, and that, 
too, Willi less real hard work. 

I'lant only of lea<liiig, well-tried sorts, that are 
tuirdy and productive, give them gornl cultivation and 
|ilcnty of mulch, and you will reap a large rewanl: 
and, too, this kind of work makes less hard work for 
tlie wonii'ii folks, and, besides, supplies the table 
with fndt dally throughout the year. 

There are farmers who have no liking for growing 
fruit; but as a rule, these have sons who do not like 
farming. These are very anxious to keep their Bonn 
on a farm, away from the city. To such we say, let 
such a son have the use of a few acres to grftw snuill 
fruits; and the longer he is engaged in it, the more he 
will like it, and consequently his altaebmeiits for 
home stri'ngthens, and. t<M>, by this the table Is sup- 
plied with luxtirics yf>u would not ilIs|H'nse with after 
one season's experic-nee. There are so many Inland 
towns not supplied with fruit and vegetables that we 
advise the readers of this paper to take advantage of 
such o|)euiiigs. 

Points of a Jersey. 

Jersey cattU' are steadily grf>wlng in favor at the 
west. Their especial value for milk and butler pur- 
I>oses are generally understfMxl. The Koyal Jersey 
.\gricultural and llortliiiltural S<K-Iety gives a valu- 
able scab' of iHiints, w hich are everywhere recognlzeil 
as the standard for Jersey cows and heifers. This 
breed Is generally admitted to be Ihi- best cream and 
butler producing breed of cows In the world, and 
though there Is still some discussion as to the proper 
color for Jerseys, that of itself Is not a |K)Int of mate- 
rial imimrtance. In England, just now, the fashiona- 
ble color is a dundeer color, but it seems harder to 
determine which is and whiyh Is not the proper color. 
As will be observed, color Is not included in the 
scale of Points given below: 

1. Head — Small, fine and ta|)ering. 

2. Cheek — small. 
■i. Throat— clean. 

4. Muzzle — fine, and encircled by light color. 
a. Nostrils — high anil open. 

6. Horns— smooth, crumpled; not too thick at bace, 
and tapering. 

7. Ears — small and thin. 

8. Ears — of a deep orange color within, 
it. Eye — full and placid. 

10. Neck— straight, fine, and place<l lightly on 
shoulders. 

11. Chest — broad and deep. 

I'i. Barrel — hooped, broad and deep. 
Ki. Well rilibed home, having but little space l)e- 
tween the last rib and hip. 

14. Back— straight from withers to the top of the 
hip. 

1.5. Back- straight from the top of the hip to the 
setting of the tail. 
IK. Tail— fine. 
17. Tail— hanging down to the hocks. 

15. Hide— Thin and movable, but not too loose. 
I'.l. Hide — covered with fine, soft hair. 

211. Hide — of good color. 

31. Foreleg.s — short, straight and fine. 

22. Forearm — swelling, and full above the knee. 
21. Hindquarters— from the hock to the point of 
the rump, long and well filled up. 

24. Hind legs— short and straight (below the hocks) 
and bones rather fine. 

2.5. Hind legs— squarely placed; not too close to- 
gether when viewed from behind. 
2fi. Hind legs— not too loose in walking. 
27. Hoofs — small. 

25. rdder— full in form; i. c. well In line with 
the belly. 

29. I'dder — well up behind. 

SO. Teats— largely and squarely placed, behind 
well ajiart. 
:tl. Milk veins— very prominent. 

32. Growth. 

:i:!. (ieneral appearance. 

:U. Condition. 

Perfection, thirty-four points. 



The Bee-Keeping Industry. 

While it is very easy to write of the pleasures and 
profits of bee-keeping, amateurs csia'clally must not 
expect to acquire great and immeiiiale wealth from 
this source without a corresiiondingoutlay of capital, 
and above all, ex(H'rienec. That " there's nullions In 
it," Is perfectly true, but It requires care, untiring in- 
dustry and close study to be able to secure these mil- 
lions. 

There are probably 70.0(X) jM-rsons In this country 
who keep more or less bees, biU If all the lime and 
money expended were closely aeeounteil for, we doubt 
If more than three-fourths of the number would find 
they realized a net profit often i>er cent, on their in- 
vestment . There are some notable exceptions to this, 
it Is true, but the men who secure the enormous pro- 



48 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[March, 1876. 



fits are men who devote their time and attention 
strictly to the business, and do not expect the bees to 
take entire care of themselves, and then yield a pro- 
fit. It is said that the income of J. S. Harbison, the 
great California honey magnate, derived from the sale 
of surplus houey, is more than ^3.5, 000 per annum, 
over and above all expenses. In the State of New 
York, Capt. Hetherington, of Cherry Valley, sold 
last year fifty-eight thousand pounds from his own 
apiaries. Adam Grim, of Jefi'erson, Wis., as much 
more. But perhaps a better idea will be conveyed by 
more general figures. The seventy thousand bee- 
keepers of this country own, on an average, a little 
more than twenty-eight hives apiece, or in round 
numbers, two millions in all. Twenty-two pounds of 
honey to the hive is considered a reasonable yield of 
surplus, worth twenty-five cents per pound, or 88,- 
800,000 for the crop. The wax produced is estimated 
at twenty million pounds, worth at least Jl(),0O0,O0O, 
making the grand total revenue presented us by our 
industrious little friends, annually, -S14, 800,000. We 
annually export $1,200,000 worth of honey, and ?700,- 
000 of beeswax. 

So much for what our honey crop is. That it may 
be increased almost indefinitely, we have no doubt, 
but it is a business which requires as much care to 
insure success, as is needed in any other business. 

We would recommend to every farmer or gardener, 
to keep a few bees; but we would caution him tliat 
unless he will watch and study^ and care for them, 
they will prove a dead loss. Kightly cared for, they 
will make a very desirable addition to his income. — 
Practical Farmer. 



A Large Poultry Yard. 

The Fancieri^^ Journal gives this account of the 
largest poultry establishment in this country: "It is 
at Greene, Chenango county, N. Y., and is kept by 
Mr. A. B. KobesonT He has 6,000 ducks, 4,000 tur- 
keys, and 1,200 hens. They consume daily sixty 
bushels of corn, two barrels of meal, two barrels of 
potatoes, and a quantity of charcoal. The meal, pota- 
toes and charcoal are boiled together and form a pud- 
ding, which is fed warm. He has commenced to kill 
them olf, and employs fifteen hands to pick, two to 
kill, and one to carry away and pack on racks until 
frozen. Then they are ready to pack for shipping. 
He also employs two men to cook the feed and feed 
them. He has twelve buildings for his fowls, from 
one to two hundred feet long, fourteen feet wide, and 
seven feet under the caves, with a door in each end 
of them. 

" Mr. Robeson bought most of his ducks in the 
west, and had them shipped in crates — three dozen 
in a crate. He also has an egg house, 3.5 by .50 feet, 
and four stories high. The outside is eighteen inches 
thick, and built of cut stone, laid in mortar, boarded 
up on the inside and filled in between the outside and 
inside wall with sawdust, it taking three thousand 
bushels. .Mr. Kobeson claims that he can keep eggs 
any length of time in this building. He also keeps 
the poultry that he is now dressing until ne.xt Mayor 
June, which he sells at eighteen to twenty-five cents per 
pound, and it cannot be told from fresh dressed poul- 
try. He gets ten cents perpound forturkeys' feathers, 
twelve for hens', and sixty-five for ducks'. He says 
there is money in poultry, and he thinks he can make 
out of his 6,000 ducks enough to pay for his egg 
house, which cost S7,000. He intends to keep a great 
many more next season, and has agents all over the 
country buying up poultry and eggs. 



How to Get Eggs in Winter. 

The American Agricnltiirisi, answering this ques- 
tion, says : " With a warm shelter and suitable food, 
pullets that begin to lay in the fall will continue to 
lay through the winter. It is mainly a question of 
feed. The staple feed is Indian corn, because it is the 
most plentiful and the most convenient. It furnishes 
plenty of fat, and keeps up the heat of the fowls, but 
is poor in albumen and the phosphates. They want a 
variety of grains and vegetables, and, to do their best, 
one feed daily of warm cooked meal and vegetables. 
Most farmers have milk, and if this can be added it 
will be all they need. Butchers' scrap cake is good, 
and may safely be kept in the poultry yard where the 
fowls can help themselves at pleasure. Boiled pota- 
toes or turnips, mashed and mixed with Indian meal, 
make an excellent feed lor laying hens. Fowls are 
particularly fond of cabbages and turnips at all stages 
of their growth, and eat them raw greedily every day, 
if they can get them. We have found so good results 
from feeding cabbages to laying hens, that we always 
lay in a large supply for winter. Refuse from the 
butchers, and offal from the fish market, also furnish 
good material for making eggs. These are accessible 
to most villagers, and can be had at small cost. A 
hen is only a machine for producing eggs. If you 
want the finished product you must put the raw ma- 
terial into the hopper. It should not be forgotten that 
there is a liberal grinding going on in the gizzard, and 
the laying bird should have free access to gravel with 
sharp grit, broken oyster and clam shells, which as- 
sist in reducing the grains and forming egg-shells. 
With the plentiful supply of egg-producing food hens 
will lay well in winter, when eggs bring the highest 
price." 



Small Potatoes for Seed. 

Says a correspondent : I have made an experiment 
the past season, the result of which, I think, explodes 
the theory that small potatoes for seed will only re- 
turn a small crop of small potatoes. Cut seed planted 
under our burning July sun is sure to rot, while the 
use of whole potatoes involves considerable expense. 
A square of ground containing 3, .500 square feet, 
from which a crop of cauliflower had recently been 
taken, was prepared and planted, July 13th, with 
white Peachblow culls. Few of them, if any, 
were larger than pigeon eggs. As is always the case 
here, some of them failed to grow, say five per cent. 
The plants began to show themselves early in August, 
at which time heavy rains set in and so continually 
saturated the soil that no working was possible until 
Septemljer ■5th. Then a plow was run through the 
rows and a dressing out with a hoe was given them. 
Soon after the vines so covered the ground that further 
cultivation was impossible. The patch was harvested 
October 30th. The product was a fraction over 
twenty bushels of the finest potatoes ever grown in 
this section. With the exception of two and a half 
pecks of small potatoes, about the size of the seed 
sown, all are large. Fully one-h.alf average one 
pound each in weight, and the remainder are of full 
marketable size and fine appearance. This yield was 
at the rate of 3.50 bushels per acre. A heavy coat of 
barnyard manure was applied to the previous crop, 
but no additional fertilizer was used. 



Care of Lambs. 

Sheep should be closely watched in order that the 
lambs may be taken proper care of and receive any 
necessary assistance immediately afterbirth. More 
lambs die when less than twelve hours old than at any 
other time, and if the farmer wishes to increase the 
number of his sheep, he must watch his flock very 
closely until the lambing season is past. Unless the 
new born lambs receive prompt attention there is dan- 
ger that they will get chilled and live but a very short 
time. If the sheep have been well fed, and are kept 
in a warm place, almost every lamb can be saved, 
and without any great amount of trouble. A few 
minutes' attention at the right time may save the life 
of a lamb, which in a few months, and a small ex- 
pense, can be made worth several dollars. At lambing 
time the sheep should be closely watched, and if any 
lambs are dropped which are unable to take care of 
themselves, they should be assisted. After they have 
sucked a few times they will generally get along very 
well. Not only should the sheep be looked to during 
the day, but also in the evening, as feeble lambs which 
are dropped at that time will not be likely to live until 
morning. It is certainly very poor policy to let a lamb 
die for wantof the little care which wouldsave its life. 



Correctives in Feeding Poultry. 

Two admirable correctives, for use in poultry feed- 
ing, may he found in charcoal and Cayenne pepper, 
judiciously provided and not given too often, to both 
young and old fowls. The best way to administer 
these condiments efficaciously, is to pulverize the char- 
coal to a powder and mix it with soft food. In this 
shape the birds eat it freely, and it is a grand purifier 
of the system. The Cayenne should be procured of 
the best quality (always the cheapest in the end), and 
a tahlesi)Oonful should be thoroughly mixed through 
a pail of water and given them to drink. This last 
method is an admirable preventive of gapes in chickens, 
and for older fowls it is found an excellent thing in 
cold or chilly weather. 

Neither of these aids should he used oftener than 
every other day in the week, and only for a week or 
two at a time, any way to be effective , but if managed 
with discretion they are more valuable, as a common 
preventive to disease, and a corrector to the internal 
composition of domestic poultry, than all the medi- 
cines that can be given fowls after they once get sick. 
Both charcoal and Cayenne can thus be easily very 
used, and after a little while, it will be found that 
the chickens become fond of this change for their 
benefit . — Fanciem^ Jonntal. 

A Profitable Experiment. 

A correspondent of The I'wiiltry Xation having be- 
come thoroughly disgusted with the purchase of stale 
and spoiled eggs, resolved to keep hens enough to 
supply the family with fresh ones, and with this ob- 
ject in view he fenced off a small yard, 30x.50 feet, 
and in one corner he built a coop 8x10 feet, and 8 feet 
high in front and 6 in the rear. It faced the south 
and east. One New Year's day, 1874, he went to 
the market and purchased eight hens and one rooster 
for 84.30. Taking them home and putting them in 
the coop with the run of the yard, he fed them all 
the wheat screenings they would eat and w'hat water 
they wanted. They commenced to lay at once, and 
he kept a correct account of all the eggs, also the 
cost of feed. In January he got 31 eggs ; February, 
91; March, 129; April," 123; .May, 98; June, 93; 
July, 46 ; August, .54 ; .September, 19 ; October, 13 ; 
November, 20 ; December, 29 ; total number of eggs 
for the year, 744 — 62 dozen. He also raised 43 
chickens. 63 dozen eggs, at 30 cents, 812.40 ; 43 
chickens, at 50 cents,''821..50 ; 9 old fowls, 84.30; 
total $38.20. Feed for the year, 818.44 ; 9 old fowls, 
?4.30 ; total, $33.74. Profit, 815.46, 



LITERARY NOTICES. 

The London Garden, published by Wm. Robin- 
son, London, is the most complete weekly epitome of 
horticulture and pomological facts published in either 
continent. Each issue now contains a full-page col- 
ored plate, executed in the highest stvle of the art. 
Price, $8.66, in gold. 

W. A. Burpee's Catalogue of High-Class 
Land and Water FovrLS. — A little 12 mo. illus- 
trated pamphlet of 20 pages. It contains pictures of 
fifteen of the leading varieties of chickens, ducks and 
pigeons, and brief descriptions or notices of over forty 
varieties. In the matter of "Fancy Pigeons" we 
"outside barbarians" are able to form very meager 
opinions from the names alone. We may instance 
Pouters, Carriers, Barbs, Owls, Turbits, Jacobins, 
.Archangels, Fantails, Bald-head Tumblers, Short- 
faced Tumblers, Inside Tumblers, Outside Tumblers, 
Booted Tumblers, Big-eye Tumblers, Black-crested 
Tumblers, .Magpies, Swallows, Nuns, Moor-caps, 
Priests, Quakers, Trumpeters, Runts, Dutchies, Hom- 
ing Antwerps, Short-faced Shows, and many others 
" too numerous to mention." 

Of course, we are too verdant to appreciate the 
highest aims of " colombo-culture," but we presume 
there must be something useful in it. Things are not 
to be valued according to the appreciations of any 
one set of men, or we should have a very prosy and 
onesided world. Variety is the spice of the life of 
anything, and especially in gallinoculture, columbo- 
culture, or any other kind of culture; and anyone 
who desires to engage in them, to any extent, will do 
well to consult this little catalogue, and then call 
upon Mr. Burpee personally, without going any 
farther, or address him at Philadelphia. 

Pacific Rural Press. — This is the title of a royal 
quarto journal, published by Dewey & Co., San 
Francisco, California, in the interest of agriculture, 
horticulture, and miscellaneous affairs. It has six- 
teen pages of four columns each, well filled with ap- 
propriate reading matter on a variety of subjects ; 
and, like every other thing of that far-off region, it is 
gotten up on a large and most magnificent scale, as 
to quantity and quality. The embellishments are 
superb, from its ornamental head down to its last ad- 
vertisement. On the first page is a fine illustration, 
the " New Grange Headquarters," a beautiful three- 
story building, built of brick and cut stone, in the 
highest architectural stj'le of art, and very substan- 
tial. Although its columns are replete with choice 
literary and domestic matter, yet it devotes a large 
space to the interests of the Patrons of Husbandry, 
both statistical, local and historical — indeed the mag- 
nificent building it illustrates is covered with such 
signs as the " Grangers' Bank," "Farmers' Mutual 
Fire Insurance," "State Grange," "Granger's Busi- 
ness Association," "Grange Buildings," "Country 
E. Association," &c., &c., indicating that the Grange 
in the " Golden State," has attained a status that is 
seen and felt. We almost envy the public spirit that 
can produce such evidences of progress, and could 
heartily wish that the farmers of Lancaster county 
might be infused with a little of the enterprise that 
distinguishes the Pacific coast, in its institutions and 
its enterprises. 

Lepidoptera, Rhopaloceres and Hetero- 
oeres. — Indigenous and exotic, with descriptions and 
colored illustrations, by Herman Strecker. Read- 
ing, Pa. 1876. Quarterly .50 cents per part. This is 
a quarto serial, commenced January, 1872, and is is- 
sued as above, and in plain English is simply an il- 
lustrated and descriptive history of butterflies and 
moths. It is published at such a low price, compared 
with other scientific works on the same subject, that 
every institution of science, literature and learning, 
ought to patronize it, if not every literary man, who 
pays any attention at all to the subject of natural his- 
tory, and especiallytothatof entomology. The author 
and publisher of this work, is, in some respects, an 
extraordinary man. We have heard of him almost 
from his very boyhood, and have corresponded with 
him, but never have had the pleasure of a personal 
interview. Lepidopterology seems io \vii\e become a 
second nature to him, and he cannot forgo it, any 
more than a duck can water. His collection is en- 
riched by 50,000 specimens of native and foreign but- 
terflies and moths, and comparatively speaking he is 
still a ?/0H^if7 man. We have received part 13 of his 
work, issued in January last, and in our opinion it ex- 
cels any that he previously issued, and they are all 
good, containing 18 colored figures and descriptions 
ofthatmany species of the family Sphingid.e (Hum- 
ming-Bird and Hawk Moths) . Mr. Strecker makes 
all his drawings from nature, lithographs them him- 
self, and colors them by his own hands. But this is 
not all; he writes out all his own descriptions, giving 
their bibliography, and sets up his own letterpress. All 
that is done outside of his own manipulations is the 
printing. L'nder these circumstances the representa- 
tions must be as accurate as the objects before him, 
or as nearly so as human skill can make them. He 
also occasionally finds time to step aside and note 
what is going on elsewhere in the world of entomolog- 
ical authorship, and to express opinions that are some- 
times anything but complimentary to the " notions" 
of others, in which he exliibits originality, or inde- 
pendence at least. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



III. 



I OFFER A LARGE STOCK OF 

Trppo|AITLETREES, AI'WTS, 

"^ ■*• ^^*^ ■ Irish Junipers, Gooseberries, 

AND A fiENKHAl, ASSOIITMENT Ol' 

FRUIT TREES 

AND 

ElVIElRIGIRIEiEiNIS. 



t??~LetterB will be uiiswered in Knf^lleh, (.lormuu »ml 
French. AddruHH 

<ji-:oiu;r aciiei.is. 



8-2-2ni) 



M'owt <'lioMler, Pn. 



FERTILIZERS! 
hoivee: Ta.A.rt^:. 

CHEAPEST AND BEST! 

O 

WUITK for Circular and Ui'cipes, which ur.\ fiirniHhed 
without ehiirgp, containin^t complete inHtructiouH I'oi- 
niaUiu^, at home, flrst-ciass chemical manuroH. suited to 
the growtli of special cropH. Our formula" Ihwh provet, in 
actual use, to be of the greatest value to ult who have used 
them. 

We offer Fertilizing Chemicnls of our own manufacture, 
at lowest prices, with a guaranty as to strength and pu- 
rity. At>k prices for 



Oil Vitriol, 
Ground Bones, 
Land Planter, 
Sulphate Potash, 



Nitrate Soda, 
SuljibJite Ammciii i. 
Muriate PotaHh, 
Sulphate Soda and Salt. 



Address 



HARRISON BROS. & CO., 

. PHILADELPHIA, 



Established as Manufacturers of Fertilizing 
Chemicals in 1793. 



[K-2- 



The Great Agricultural Wonder, 



UKING THE 



HULLESS OATS, 



Which can be obtained of 



At Leesport P. 0., Berks County, Pa., 



AS FOLLOWS : 



i ponnd. 
16 



8 pounds $ 3.50 

aa " la.oo 



...50ols. 
« 6.50 

It is claimed that it will yield as many measured bushels 
as any other variety, while it weighs 56 pounds to the 
bushel, and ripens two weeks earlier than common oats, 
thereby escaj'iug the rusty season of oats, 

t^~ Write for circulars. 8-1 -4t 



LUMBER FQE F4EMEES. 

NO MIDDLE-MEN. 

We have a large stock of Lumber, and oni.- of the most 
extensive Sash and Door Factories in the State, and we are 
prepared to furnish Il4»ii*ie and Barn Bills complete. 

Ail kinds of Manufactured Fencing, &c., making a speci- 
alty of 8Uii]ilying the agricultural comnuiuity. We will 
make prices deliveied to any Railroad Station. All our 
material ^iiiirnntced as rejiresenled. All manufactured 
work kilu-driea and warranted not to shrink. All inquiries 
cht^erfuUy answered. 

One of the firm can be seen at the Franklin House, North 
Queen Street, Lancaster, Pa., on Moiubiy of each week. 



7-4-12m] 



KENDIG, BRICKER&LAUMAN, 

Middletown Dauphin co.. Pa. 



J. STAUFFER, 





LANCASTER, jeENN'A. 
235 EAST ORANGE ST. 



AH matters appertaining to UNITED STATKS or CANA- 
DIAN PATENTS. TIIAPE MAKKS, an<l CUPVKItillTS. 
pronii»tly attended to. His experience, success u d faithful 
attention to the interests of those who engjge his services 
are fully acknowledged and appreciated. 

Preliminarj- examinations made for him by a reliable As- 
sistant at ^Vashiugtou, Without extra charge for drawing 
ur description. [7-4-tf 



THE WORLDS FAIR 



Columbia, pu/./.led wliat shi- shouUl display 

Of tiue home-made t-u 'ler Centenniul dny, 

Asked Brother .lunnthan; he scratclied his head, 

\\ liittled a while rffli-ctiv4-ly, and sai I, 

" Your own inventioii and own making, t(M) ? 

Why, liny child eouitt tell you what to do: 

Sliciw'eni your Civil Service, and exitaiu 

How all men's loss is ovry body's guin ; 

Sliow y*>ur new patent to Increase your reuls 

By paying (juhi ters for collecilng centH ; 

Show your short etit to cure tlimnclal ttls. 

By making paper collars current l>ills ; 

Stiow your new btouoliing procesH, cheaj) and brief, 

Tuwlt: a jury rhnsen by tin- thief; 

Stiow your State Legisli.niieN ; show your Kings ; 

And ehalllenge Kurupeto i roduee such things 

As high otlicials sitting half in sight 

To share the p'lunder and to llx things right ; 

It that dtm't fetch her, wliy, you only need 

To slmw vour latest style ni martyrs — Tweed • 

Slie'll hnd it hard to hide her sjdteful tears 

At such advance in one poor UuuditU yeais.** 

— Javietf Jiusne// /.okv//, in the Sation. 



177(> AND 1876. — *' Look at thifl picture, now at 
that." The tbllowin^r contniftt (the tirst lines by Dr. 
Franklin) will be read with iiilt'rcftt: 

1770. 

"Farmeis at the plow, 
Wife milkii g the cow, 
Daughter sj inning yarn, 
Sou thrashing in (he burn, 
All hat l> t'* " charm." 

1^76. 
Farmer i^one to ii Hbow, 
Daugbtof at her itiimu, 
Madiini;' t^a>ly drt'HHeil in Hutin, 
All the hoyK Ifitriiiiit;; tatiii. 
With u m()rt({ii;<e on the tarin, 

LooKiNii FouwAitn. — One liuintri'ci years from 
now, liiivi' you eviT llioii^'ht of it ? Whi'ii you sor the 
faiiin? leafi llu' opoiiiii,' l>U(i, or tlic pi-i-fi'ct blossom, 
did you ever tliiuk \vl:o will look u]«>ii the (lowers 
that will bloom, tlic buds that will mifolil, or the 
leaves that will fall and wither one hundred years 
from now ! Or, when y(iu have walked the Btrectfi, 
mcetinir the peoplt* that pass and repass like the wave 
of the oecau, did you ever think who will walk tliese 
streets an hundred years from now ? Sueh thoUf;hts 
are not pleasant, yet it is wi-11 to eherish them, that 
we may realize more fully the lleelin;,' nature of 
earthly thinss. Yes, I hey are sad thoughts ! yet the 
pulse will eease its beating-, and decay must set its seal 
on the perishiui; of time and years. We know that 
eaeh passing season bears with its many tlian(;es; but 
leaves are not all that fade, or the voice of music all 
that passes away. 

A SouTnAMPTON boy, twelve years old, told his 
brother that he wished to sec his mother, who had 
been dead eight years; and that the end of the world 
would eome in September. He then bequeatlicd his 
books to his brother, and took adose of carbolic acid, 
which killed him instantly. 

Matik Twain said, when he was proposed for Mayor 
for Hartford: " Well, all right. Who is the otiicr 
fellow i Uo you think the Common L'ouneil will elect 
me ? And, by the way, winch party do I belong to ?" 

A-MAN in Weston f Mis.sonri) tired in the dark at a 
man who was stealing' his coi-n, and the next day the 
couuty sheritl'was arounil with his arm in a sling. 

A Pennsylvania couple celebrated their wooden 
wedding last fall, and have lieeu using uo other fuel 
than clothes pins and potato-mashers ever since. 

Mb. Crow, a Nebraska lawyer, has just gained his 
first cause, and expects henceforth to carry on the 
business famously. — Alia Vnlifornin. 

A YotiNO man who was recently married to a girl 
after proposing to her eighleen times, now wishes 
that he hadn't asked her but seventeen times. 

An old Indian who had witnessed the effect of 
whisky for many years, said a barrel labeled "whisky" 
contained a thousand songs and lifty fights. 

A voiTNG lady, intending to paint her cheeks with 
rouire, put all the paint on her nose, and did not dis- 
cover her error until requested to sign ■' the pli-dge !" 

TiiK importation of kerosene iuto (ireal Britain is 
diminishing. The value imported last vear was only 

,i:r.'<l,-J.S2, as against £1,1102, .">41 in 1874. 

It is remarked that the men who tell tlic best 
stories generally, tell old ones. 

The best kind of school-tax— Syntax. — .Vcw York 
Commercial Adi'crtixcr. 

Ak Oregon girl kills deer and makes gloves of 
their skin. 

To the man with a mother-in-law, all things ar« 
relative. 



>TOMat,c 

Knitter 




3 

9 



m 7 



- 9 



A Family Knitting Machine. 

Now uttracliiig uhiversjl atterittitn liy ItM iistoi ishuig per- 
formances and its great pmrlle.il value (<»r every-<lay family 
use. It knits every | oHstble vailety ol plain or fancy work 

WITH ALMOST MAGICAL SPEED, 

nnil give* perf«*ei shape iiiul ftTils*i tn nil gnrmeiiU. |( will 

kn!t a pair of tocki in fifteen minutei I Kvery machluf* 

\V \ H IC A ^' r I-; l» I iirfe.i . itwl to ttujUMf ir/utf ii rrprrMrnUd, 

A com) lete instruction InkiIc ncmmpanlfN e icli niarhlnr. 

No, 1 Family Machine. I cylinder. Vi midh**. f.'iO. 

No. H •* •' '.' " T? k HK> •• 40. 

A Mainpte nuirfiinr will t»e sent to any part of the United 

Stales or Caiiudii, (where we have uo agent) rxprfM rharffe* 

prejiaiii. on receipt of ihe piici*. 

AciKNTs wuntt'd in t-very State, County, City niitl Town, 
to whom very Hbenil d'sconnts will be mmle, Addretui. 
BICKFOUD KMTTI>:<i MA*'IllNK Mid. (M».. 
7-11-tfl Sal.- M..nnt"actuieiH. Urn t tlchoni. VI. 




THOS. M. HARVEY. 

WEST GROVE. CHESTER CO., PA.. 

lirr«*<l«'r anti Klii|»|»rr ol 

GDEBNSEYISS; BUTTER STOCK, 

Yorkshire and Berkshire Pigs. 

Dark Brahma Chickens from the best imported 
blood. Also Bronze Turkeys. 




I hnvc fonuded ray business on the iK-lief that llio publio 
are anxious to get their seed directly f rum the (trourr, and I 
therefore oflTer kkkk to ©very man and woman in the United 
States who cultivates a farm, tills a vejjetable »iar<leu, or 
plants a flower ffardeu, my l.UKe Illustrated CataloKUe of 
Vegetable and Flower Seeds for ISTfi; it contain'*, in addi- 
tion to the choicest kinds j>rodu(KHl in Europe, om- humtrcd 
and fi/tu varietus of voirfnhlf seed (irt>in\ on mij/nur wrd 
farm«. "Custonierit of last season need not wriit- for ii. Aa 
the original introducer of the Uubbaid. MarbleheacI and 
Butman S<)nashes. Phinuey's Melon, the Marbhliead Cab- 
bages, and a score of other new vegetables, I s^nicil your 
imtronage. All seed sold under three warrants. A hundred 
thounnhd catalogues will In* issued and sent out the ttrst of 
Januarv, 
T-lt-fiJ JAMi:S J. H. GKKCIOUY. MarbleUtwd. Mawi. 

ROOT'S 

(Jarden ]V[ anual 

Ih lillr-d wifli t<M irj* of ititi'M'Mt li» cvi-ry owner <if ii Ktirdcn— 
is I'OINTKI). l"K.\(TIC.\[.jiii<l THOUormi. tiid oiulainil 
oiu .hiilf as inueh us f I..M) Inxiku on lUi- »ill.J(<-l. (iAIIDEN- 
KltS IhroudlKUit \\\f country coiiiinend ill* j.ractical labor- 
Huving methods im invHhiiitdL> to thrm. 

5?^8eMl for in cents, whieh will Ix- »llow6d on the flrit 
order for Beedn. A<ldrcns. 

J. II. ROOT. Sfp<l tirowrr, 

IIOI'KFOUI), iM.INOn. 

HORSE-BILLS 
I'L.MN lilt IN FANCY COl.OKS. 
Printed In the Heal Stylo at tbs olBce of 

THB FARMER. 



IV. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[March, 1876. 




We call ;ittentiun lo our iunuense Stock (GUO acres ) of 
Fruil 'l'r<'<'M, St^irtdaid ai d Dwarf. 
Kmall Fruits. Gia] es, ('urranta, Eaepberries, &c. 
Ornamental TrceH and Shrubs, deciduous and 

evergreen. 
RoNeN a 6] ecjiilty — «11 the tiuest ports. 
Green and Hot House Plants, including best nov- 
elties Small i^aieels forwarded by mail when desired. 
Prompt attention given to all orders and inquiries. 
Descriiitive and Illustrated priced Catalogues sent prepaid 

on receipt of stamps, as follows: 
No. 1. Fruifs (new ed,, with col'd plate) 15 cts. 
No. 2. Ornamental Trees, with col'd plate of Roses, 25c. 
No. 3. Greeuhouge, l-'ree. No. 4. Wholesale, Free. 

No. 5. l..istof Xew Roses for 13T6, Free. 
Nos. 1 and 2 — Neatly bound together, forming an interest- 
ing and valuable book for reference, 
AddresBf 50 cts. by mail, post paid. 

ELIWANGER & BARRY, Rochester, NY- 



Goon SEED!!, GROWN WITH CARE. FROM SE- 
lected Stocks, alwaj 8 pay. Try mine. Catalogue free. 
J. R. V. HAWKINS, Cioshen, N. Y. 



FARMEES, lUPROVE YCUE POULTRY DTOGEl 



EGGS FOR HATCHING 

Of the following varieties, at prices to suit the times, viz.: 

Dark Brahmas, Partridge Cochins, White Cochins, Ply- 
mouth Bocks, S. 8. Hamburgs, Brown Leghorns, Amer. 
Dominiques and Houdans. Address, 



8-3-2m] 



HAYOSr H. TSHUDY, lAtlx.. Pa. 



4)??©. 



mm. 




As MEMENTOES. SOUVENIRS. 
and ORNAMENTS 



FOR THE PEOPLE. 

As LASTING ADVERTISEMENTS 

101 ilSlIlSS 10US1S, 

MANUFACTURED OF ALBATA PLATE, 

Equal in wear and color to solid 

SZZiVSR OB. GOZiD, 

Presenting beautiful DESIGNS IN RELIEF, commem- 
orating the cue hundredth anniversary of our nation's 
birth. Size, !*« inches in diameter. Send for circular. 

Price for the Silver, 50 cents each. \ 

tiold. 75 " 
Usual discount to the trade. 



AGENTS WANTFD. 

Immense protita. ftells at sight. Extensive fields for en- 
terprise. Will be sent to any part of the country by mail, 
postpaid, upon the receipt of price 

U. S. medallion Co., P. O. Rox 5270, N. T. 



WIMBLEDON 

Long Ttange Breech, Loading 

Practice Pistol & Targets. 

Carrios a 'i inch ball with aocu- ^^^^^k ^ 
racy titty leet, without powdt^r or ^^^^^ (/) 
percussion. Brass barrel, hair trigger. For sale 
by dealers. By mail, tree for 75 cents, with per- 
manent ammunition for target practice indoors, 
and for sporting out of doors. 

AGENTS WANTED. 

A. A. GRAHAM. 67 Liberty Street, New Tori- 
8-S-6m 

E. N. FRESHMAN & BROS., 

ADVERTISING AGENTS, 

186 W. Fourth St., Cincinnati, 0., 

Are authorized to contract for advertising 
in this paper. 




Estimates luniislied tree. 



(tfj 



send lor Circular. 



SPECIAL NOTICE TO FARMERS! 



Improve Vour Peultry! 



THIS can be done at a comp .ratively small outlay by purchasing one or more sittings of eggs for hatching from choice 
thoroughbred and imported fowls. We keep a very select stock of the leading varieties of Poulliy : Brahmas, 
Cochine, Leghorns, Houiaus, Game, Hamburgs. Plymouth Rocks, D irkings, etc. Mammoth Hrunze, White, 
Blue and Black Turkeys, Toulouse, Embden and Hon*? Koug Geese, all breeds of Ducks, etc. We breed each variety on a 
separate farm — thus can guarantee purity. Descriptive Circular free. 

Handsomely Illustrated Descriptive Priced Catalogue of Poultry, etc., 10 cts., Post-paid. 



ALSO BREEDER AND SHIPPER OF AND DEALER IN 




BLOODED CATTLE. 

Southdown and Cotswold Sheep, Chester White, 
Berkshire, Yorkshire and Essex Swine, 
. Sporting and Thoroughbred Dogs. 

Descriptive Cirenlar free! All stock boxed free, and safe arrival guaran- 
teed. No inferior stock sold EvcTy farmer, ard all interested in pigeons, should send 
60 cents for a copy of our new illustrated treatise — 

The Pigeon Loft: How to Furnish and Manage»It. 

EXTRA FINE SEED CORN— Sample, Sets. 

Circulars free. Correspondence Solicited 

ADDRESS, w. ATLEE BURPEE, Philadelphia, Pa. 



$12 



a day at Home. Agents wanted. Outtit and 
terms* free. TRUE & CO., Augusta, Maine. t8-3-ly 



FOR FRUIT 

And Ornament. 
500 ACRES OF TREES 

At Wholesale and Retail. 

Pear, Apples, Cherrifis, Quincep. 

Peaches, Plums and Small Fruits. 

New and Kare Oruamemal Trees and Shrubs. 

Evergreeus, large quant ities.^large variety, cheap. , 

Cot-'fcaved Bircb^ Purple Beech ' Weeping Trees. 

CI.KMATIS JA<'KJI.4JI>ri.— Hardy and Perpetual, 
blooms profusely until Irozel, ui>, 

PEKFETUAI. WHITE CI.EMATIS.— 15 Sorts. 
We have over 70 varieties of Clemntis, iu many shades of 
color, from dark rich purple to pure white— strong piftiits, 
safely sent by mail. 

KOSES. Moss. Tea, Climbing and Perpetual. 

Small Packages sent safely l)y Mail and Express. 
t^~Cutalogues free. Address 
T. C. MAXWEE,E A. BROS., Geneva, K. T. 

[g-2-2m 



SEED POTA TOES! 
$125 

IN PRSiaiUlVIS 

WILL be divided among the five successful competitors 
who shall produce the largest quantity from one 
pound of the Mahopac Seedling, subject to conditions 
named in my Catalogue. 

MAHOPAC SEEDLING— the most productive of 160 va- 
rieties tested, quality fine, free from rot, per pound, $1 ; 3 
pound to one address, $2 — by mail prepaid, by express or 
freight, charges paid by the purchaser ; 1 peck, $4 ; 1 bush., 
$15 ; 1 bbl., $30. Also Ruby, Alpha, Snowiake. and Eureka. 
For fuU description and price list see my Catalogue, con- 
taining the largest and best collection of new and 
choice Seed Potatoes ever offered. Prices low. 

New and desirable Vegetable Seeds. Dreer's Improved 
Lima Bean, per packet, 20c.; Egyptian Turnip Beet, packet, 
10c. ; Henderson's Early Summer Cabbage, packet, 25c.; 
Early Wyman Cabbage, packet, 15c.; Earliest Dwarf Erfurt 
Cauliflower, packet, 50c.; Triumph Sweet Corn, packet, 10c. ; 
Peerless Cucumber. 15c.; Hanson Lettuce, packet, 15c.; New 
Egyptian Sprouting Lettuce, packet, 2.5c.; Russian-Ameri- 
can Water Melon, packet, 20c.; New Queen Onion, lOc; 
McLean's Blue Peter Pea. packet, 15c.; Butman Squash, 
packet, 16c.; Conqueror Tomato, package, 16c.; Golden 
Trophy Tomato, packet, lOc; Rose Mammoth Sweet Pej:- 
per, packet, 20c.; French Breakfast Raddish, packet, 5c.; 
Lane's Improved Imperial Sugar Beet, the best for feeding 
stock, ij lb., 26c.: 1 lb., 90c.; 5 lbs.; $4.00 ; Earlv Red Globe 
Onion, early productive and handsome, }^ lb., 75c.; 1 lb., 
$2.50 ; 6 lbs., $11.00 ; Ex Earlv Red Onion, the earliest, very 
fine, V lb., 90c.; 1 lb., $3.00 ; S lbs., $14.00. 

The above will be mailed at prices quoted. 

For full description of the above, and all the new and 
best varieties of strictly fine Garden Seeds, care- 
fully grown from selected stocks, see my Illustrated Cata- 
logue, sent free to all applicants. Do not fail te see it. 

J. R. V. HA-WKINS, 

GOSHEN, Orange Co., N. V. 



$5 to $20 



per day at home. Samples worth $1 free. 
STINHON & CO., Portland, Maine. 



SEE1> POTATOES sent to order as follows : Eureka, 
Acme, Snowjlake, and BrowntlVs Beauty, 50c. per lb., 
$1.00 per 3 lbs., by mail ; $1.10 per pk.; $1.75 per % buah. 
Eureka and Snoirjiake, $3.00 per bush.; $5.50 per bbl.; Ice 
Cream, Earlp Verynont, Co7npton''s Surprise, Carpe7iter^8 
Seedling, and Excelsiors, 40c. per lb., 80c. per 3 lbs., by 
mail; 60c. ] er pk., $1 per J4 bu., $1.85 per bu., aud $3.25 per 
bbl., by expi ess or freight as desired. None sent but genu- 
ine. Stock direct from the originators. Send no money in 
letters unlesa regit^t ered, . Address LA FAYETTE CAS- 
SLER & CO , Box ^fltfpff/^j Ohio. [8-3-lt 

Same^hin paper ickcn ycu icritc. 



-.a- 



NS'W PO'T.A.TOSS ! 



'i$250 



ISI PKEMIl'MS to Growers! Two New 

Vaiieties sent gratis, prepaid. Circular 

pplicauts. D. .A. COMPTON, Hawley, Pa. [2t 



AGENTS WANTED! 

Centennial Medallions, 

struck in solid Albata Plate, equal in appearance, 
we:ir and color to 

SOLID SILVER OR GOLD, 

Presenting a large variety of beautiful d*'ai.gmi in relief. 



These Medallions are larger than a Silver Trade Dollar, 
being 1 -(j inches in diameter, handsomely put up, aud aell 
readily at sight. 

Tbe most valuable Souvenirs uud 'SLetfi^ 
mentoes ever i*isued. 



A complete outfit of magoiticeut samples for agents, in 
velvet-lined Morocco cas^iirfncluding the Bust of 

" GEORGE ■WASHINGTON,*"^ GRAND ENTRANCE IN- 
TERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, MEMORIAL HALL, 
(ART GALLERY) HORTICULTURAL HALL, 
MAIN BUILDING, aud the grand represen- 
tation of the Signing of the DECLARA- 
TION OF INDEPENDENCE, 

(designed by Trumbull), in gilt, sent by mail on receipt of 
draft or Post Office order for $3.50, or will ship by express 
C. O. D. upon receipt of exprei<s charges. Agents' Circular 
and Price List and one sample sent upon receipt of 
50 cents. Immense protitB. Sells at sight. Exteusiye 
fields for enterpiise. Address all communications 

TT. S. MEDALLION CO., 

P. 0. Box 5270. 212 Broadway, N. T. 



SEND 25c. to O. P. ROWELI, & CO., New York, for Pam- 
phlet of 100 pages, containing lists of 3,000 newspapers, 
aud estimates showing cost of advertising. 

$125.00 in CASH PRMIUMS. 

For particulars see my Illustrated Catalogue for 1«76, con- 
taining all th« new and best varieties of fresh, true aud re- 
liable Garden Seeds, carefully grown from fine selected 
BtockB, and the largest and best collection of Choice Seed 
potatoes ever oflfered. Sent free to nil applicants. Do not 
fail to see it. 

J. R. V. HAWKINS, 

GOSHEN, N. Y. 



qjl d I cell \ tUc county. 



• SINGLE COPIES 10 CENTS. 



To Bill BcTibora out of ) qr-l OC5 
the county. i •+>>■• ^--^J' 




■THE FARMERS THE FOUNDER OF CIVILIZATION.- WEBSTER 



Prof. S. S. RATHVON, Editor. 



LANCASTER, APRIL 15, 1876. 



PEABSOL & OEIST, PuWichers. 



CONTENTS OF THIS NUMBER. 



i'j 



Dorkings, (TUnstrated) 
W. Alli* Burree. 

Dew — Especially Honey-Dew, Editorial, - 49 
Where did They Come From ? Editorial, 50 

Tin- Ti-;iVfl ot Pliiule.— Jouiiiul of t'lu-iuintry. 
Meteorology of March, 1776-1876, Editorial, M 
Swallows, (lUi(::ri-iilnl) Editorial, - - 51 
Floral Speculation, Editorial, - - - 53 

Tbo 'I'ulii. M.iuia.— W. It. Hooper, in Harper's. 
Farm Mortgages, Editorial, . - - 53 
Insect and Insect Remedies One Hundred 



THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. 



Years Ago, 



53 



lixtract from Beuj. Mifflin, with Ed. Comments. 

Old Bufo— Toads, Editorial, - - - 53 

Old and New Flowers, ----- 53 

JoBepliine C. Long, in Ger. Tel. 

Thrushes, (Illnstrahd) Editorial, - - 54 

The Cultivation of Hardy Roses, - - 54 

Harper's IJuzar. 

Culture of Asparagus, Gcrraantown Tol., - 55 

Fish Culture, Harper's Magazine, - - 55 

Tree Laws, Germaiitonn Tel., - - - .50 

The Dairy and Butter Making, - - - 50 

Experinu-ulal Farm Club. 

The Best Cow for the Dairy, Selected, - 56 

A Nut for the Botanists to Crack, - - 57 

F. It. DiUinticrflor. 

The Cost ol Planting an Orchard, - - 57 

Vh\ flusl'andman. 

The Culture of Vegetables, Old Cultivator, 57 

Rich and Poor Grow a Grape Vine, - - 57 

Old Ilusbi.udmau. 

Summer Blooming Bulbous Flowers, - 58 

Walter Elder. 

Old Inventions and Inventors, L.S. Rcist, - 58 

Annual and Biennial Flowers, " Flora," .58 

Which Potato is the Best? "Solamiiii," - .58 

How I Raised My Tomatoes, - - - .58 

Frank 11. Ditliiiderll'er. 

Bees and Bee Hives, Wiu. I. Pyle, - - 95 

Transplanting Hardy Trees, " Horticola," 95 

The Humming-Bird, Wm. I. Pyle, - - .59 

What Causes Honey-Dew ? A. Allen Noe, 00 

Our Paris Letter, 00 

Our Farmers in Covmcil, - - - - 00 

Ptoeeedingsof Lanc.ister Couuty Agricultural and 
Horticulturi.l Society— Best Variety of .\pple-treeH 
for Plantiiig — Condition of the Croi s— Cultivation 
of Wbeat — How to Take Care of our Lawns — Kn- 
tomological — Brown Tree- Borer, fitc. 

General Miscellany, .... 61-64 

Tlir Bent Cnickens — Spring Care of Sheep — Lambs 
and Calvee — What will l*ay t — Maliagi'meut of 
Manure — Feeding Poultry — An Acre— Don't Chop 
with a I'oor Axe^Ammouia as a t'ure for Snake 
EiteB — Hints about Meal— Holding on for Higher 
Prices — Potato Growing — Carejjf Hugs — Whipping 
HorseB Dangerous- Much iu Ijttle— Potatoes for 
Horseg- Care of Horses — Plaster on Clover— Hol- 
low Horn — A Full Tobacco Vocabularj- — Tree 
Mignonette— What Economy will Do — Hay-making 
iu Norway — Everlasting Fence Post— Controlling 
Bulls — Eastern and Western Wheat — How to 
Make an Omelet — Cooking by Cold — Brittle Hoofs 
— Various Items— Literary Notices. 

Special Displays at the Centennial, - . 1 

Our Fence Corners, .... |i-iii 



Special Displays. 

,Tnst before RoiiiR to proas \vc received cir- 
ciiliifs from Director-lieneral (roslioni and 
and ISuriii't l.iliidrelli, t^hiof of the Hiireau of 
Afii'ieiiltore, coiitaiiiiiiK the followiiiK iiiftir- 
niatiiiii relative to the f;reat Iiileriiatioiial Ex- 
liibitioii, wliicli will open in Fairiuouut Park 
on tlie lOtli of next month : 

FllUITS AND VEGKTAliLES. 
The Centennial Commission are ercctiiis a spceial 
annex for the exhihitioii of fruits ; the dimoiisionB of 
the structure, situated on the easlof the Afrrieultiiral 
BuildiiiiT, and eoiineeted with it hy a covered way, 
are one hundred and citrhty by two hundred feet, af- 
fordiiii; room for the disi)lay of eitclit thousand dishes 
of fruit at periods of special disiihiys. Althouirh the 
exhibitiim of pouiolosieal prodnels will extend over 
the entire term of the Exhibition, afrordiii<; most 
marked manifest atioii of the wiile range of our soils 
and climates, still there will be certain periods es- 
pecially desitrnated for the display of particular 
fruits, which have especial seasons, under the inlUi- 
cnees that more immediately pertain to the States 
near to Peimsvlvaiiia, and which, from their proximity 
to the jioint (if display, will afford the material for 
larire and expressive exhibits. 

The jieriods decided upon for these special displays 
are as follows, thousjli any of the fruits enumerated 
will be received for exhibition either preceding or 
subsequent to these dates : 
Pomologieal products, - - May 10 to 34. 
Strawberries, - - - June 7 to l-'>- 

Raspberries and Blackberries, - July 3 to 8. 
Southern pomologieal products, July 18 to •Z'i. 
Melons, ----- Aufr. 33 to 'H;. 
Peaches, . - - - Sept. 4 to 9. 

Northern pomologieal products, Sept. 11 to 10. 
Nuts, - ,- - - Oct. 33 to Nov. 1. 

The Poinoloifical annex will also he used foi the 
exhibition of vegetables, contimiously and at the 
stated dates of June 30 to 34 for early summer 
VCKctables, Sept. 19 to 33 for aniniiui veiretables, and 
Oct. 2 to 7 for potatoes aiul feeding roots. 

Tables and dishes for both fruits and veffctablee 
will be furnished by the Commission free of eharj;e, 
producers beiui!; simply retiuested to pay tlic Charges 
for transportation. 

You are respectfully requested to advance the dis- 
play of fruits and veiretables as much as jiossible, 
both at terms of stated displays and at all inter- 
mediate dates. 

DISPLAY OF FISH IN AQUAUIA. 

The Centennial Commission has provliled thirty 
aquaria for the display of the tish of our rivers, lakes 
and seas. The fresh and salt water will bi' of about 
equal quantities, the aKgresrale approximating U) 
llficcn thousand gallons. Kidl preparations have 
been made for thorouu'h lilteration and acratiim, and, 
when necessarv, for refrigeration. The expenses at- 
tendant u))OU the (isli display will be assumed by the 
Centennial Commission, and it is expected that fish 
will be contributed by the various State Fish Com- 
missions, by associations, and by individuals Inter- 
ested in llsh culture. Parlies so desiring may exhibit 
lish in tanks of their own contribiitioii, the care of 
which will be gratuitimsly a.><sumi'd by the Commis- 
sion. In addltiim to tlie disjilay of liviiii: llsh will be 
exhibited the processes of hatching tish, and a lull 
scries of all the apparatus used in hatching and 
transporting roe and young llsli. 



Those who arc In a condition to contribute rare 
llsh to the display will receive all necessary informa- 
tion by addressing Iieu.NET Lanuketii, Chief of 
Bureau of Agriculture. 

Special Stated Displays. 

In iiddition to the fore-joing, there will bo 
stated ili.splay3, under their rcHpi^etive dates, 
as follows : 

AOUICULTCRAL PE0DUCT8. 
Early (Jrass Butter and Cheese, - June 13 to 17. 
Honey, ------ June 30 lo 34. 

Cereals, Sept. 3;". to 30. 

Aiitumn Butter and Cheese, - Oct. 17 lo 31. 

Autumn Honey and Wax, - Oct. 23 to Nov. 1. 

FIELD rniALS. 
Mowing Machines, Tedders, and Ilay 

Hakes, June 15 lo 30. 

Reaping Machines, - - - - July 5 U> 15. 
LIVE STOCK. 

Horses, Sept. 1 to 14. 

Dogs, Sept. 1 to 8. 

Neat Cattle, .... Sept. 21 to Oct. 4.- 

Slieep Oct. 10 lo 18. 

a,vine| ------ Oct. 10 to 18. 

Poultry, - - . . Oct. 37 lo Nov. 0. 

The above dates may be favorable for the assem- 
hling in Philadelphia of Societies and Associations 
interested iu the specialties above enumerated. Ap- 
plications for entry may be now inaile, on forms 
which will be supplied by the Chief of Bureau. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 

The LANcASTEn FAaMKii has now cnmplelcd Hh seventh 
year— the last having been und'r the ausplceB of the undcr- 
aignwl aB pubhshers. When we BBSumed the re«ponslblllly 
of the publication one year ago, it w.w with a detrnidinllou 
to make such iuiprovemenl" during thi' year as would place 
the Fanners' Organ of this great ngriculturnl county in tho 
very front rank of puhlicati.iuB of it« claM. That we hmvo 
done BO, our readers will bear cheerful temlmony. But our 
work of improvement Is Oldy fairly bcguu. We proi>oiii- to 
makcthc volume for the Conleuuhil year bIIU more Intenwtiiig 
aud valuable than 11b prttlrcenaor for is".'.. In thlB. how- 
evei". we need the co-oi>enitlon of every friend of the ent^T- 
priae. To make It a bucci-«s, every one who now roadB Th« 
Fabmeb ahould at once send u« at least one new Bulmcrllier. 

The coutribntions of our at)le editor, I'rof. ItATllvon, on 
subjeclBConuec'ed with the BClenc<' of fanning, MJd partic- 
ularly that specialty of which he is so thoroughly a niaater- 
entomologic;il scieni-i'-.«ome knowledge of which has Is'i-ome 
a nect'gsity to the HUCos«ful farmer. ar<^ alone worth muoD 
more than tho price of this publicatiou. 

The FAitMEn will be published on the ISlh of every 
month, printed on go-id i«per with clo»r tyi*, Iu con- 
venient fonn for reading sud biudiug, and mailed to »ul>- 
Bcrilwrs ou Uic following 

TERMS: 

To 8ul»cribers residing within the county — 
One copy, one year, . - - - - $1.00 

Six copies, one year, - ----- 5.00 

Ten Copies, one year, .--.-- 7.50 

To BUlwcrilMTB outside of Lancaater connty, Includiug 
poBtage i>re-i aid t)y the putiUabera: 

One copy, one year, ... - - $i.>S 

Five copies, one year, ... - - • 5.00 

All BubBcripiiouB will oommonoc with Itio Jaunary num- 
ber unless otherwise ordereil. 

All communlcjitlouB intended for pnliUoallon Bhoiild iKi 
addressed to the Kdltor, and, lo secure ins. rlicii, should bo 
in his handB by the ttrsl of the moiitli n. 

All liUBlnesB letters, conlatnlng Bn udadver- 

tiflementB, should bo addresw-d to the i 



RAT»:i« or ADVKBTISING. — Ten Cmlii « 
line lor oarh Iniu'rilon. Twi-lvc llnca to the Inch. 



11. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



FARMERS, GET TH£ B£ST. 



f 11 uum & siiiii 

FEED CUTTER, 



MANUFACTURED FOR 



DEALERS IN 

HARDWARE & AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS, 

No. 7 EAST nm ST., LANOASTES, PA., 

Haa been demonstrated bv competitive testa to be THE 
BEST FEED CUTTER IN THE MARKET. The feed-roll 
ie operated by a new and novel device which completely 
overcomes the objection to the uneven action of other cut- 
ters, while tRe length of cut can be varied to meet the wants 
of the operator without the removal of auy gear-wheels. 
The material and workmanship are of the very best class, 
and guaranteed to give satisfaction to the purchaser. Fann- 
ers are invited to call and see for themselves. 



"THE CHAMPION." 

The Champion Reaper and Mower, which we have sold 
with such entire satiBfactiou to our customers for the last 
six years, still maintains the lead of all competitors — 
33,761 having been manufactured for the harvest of 1375 
— and we have already completed our arrangements to sujv 
ply the increased demand for next season. The Farmer 
who buys the Champion Is always satisfied that he has the 
full worth of his money. 

DILLER & GROFf , 

No. 7 East King St., Lancaster, Fa. 






ill be 
mailed free 
all aj) pu- 
ts. This i.s 
one of the largest 
dmoftconiprelien- 
C-atalognefi pub- 
lished; contains about 2.'>0 
pasjes. over 600 fine engrav- 
ings, 2 elegant colored ]»lntos, 
and gives full descriptions, 
ices, and directions f"r pluiit- 
ing over 1200 varieties of Vegt'iable 
id Flower Seeds, Bedding Plants, 
Roses, &c., and is invaluable to Fanner, 
"Gardener and Florist.^. Address, 

D. M. FERRY <& CO., 
Seedsmen and Floriata, DETROIT. Mich. 



7-l*2-4t 



PATENTS 

OBTAINED BEST AND CHEAPEST BY 

LOUIS BAGGER & CO, 

SOLICITORS OF PATENTS, 

T^asJiington, D. C. 



or Address all letters to P. O. Box 444. 7-3 ■X'ha 

EVERGREEN BONE DUST. 



MANUFACTURED BY 



M. B. EsUeman, at Leaman Place, 

Is gnarutesd Fue Saw Bodo, and nothing elso. 

Special pains taken in preparing it for feeding hens. 

'So. I. for feeding, • • ^a.-fO per hundred. 



No. 2. for land. 



• 1.75 



T-9-6m 



TliiB includes bags and delivering on board cars. 



DB1LEB8 IN ALL KINDS OF 

FAMIIiT and I.IB1E-B1IRNINO COAI. I 

Orders received at 

Office, No. 15 East King street, and at the 
«-l-12m] Yard, No. 618 NOKTH PRINCE STREET. 




VICK ON POETRY. 

James Vick, the great florist and seedsman, of 
Rochester, gets off some good things in his Floral 
Guide, and the following on corresjiondence, poetry 
and poets is one of his best.* Its point ■will be better 
appreciated when we state that Vick is an old printer, 
although no longer "too poor to indulge in such 
luxuries as letter paper :'^ 

OuK CoKRESPONiJENCE : We like to look over a 
basket of letters from correspondents in all parts of 
the world — from the missionary in India or Palestine, 
the merchant in China, and the wife of a California 
miner. It is a pleasure and not a task, and we can 
occasionally cull a useful fact, valuable to us and 
our readers. It is only the poetry that troubles us. 
In the first place, we are not much of a judge of 
IX)etry ; in the aeco^id place, we have no taste for com- 
mon poetry, and what we get is very common. Ouce, 
in a lit of desperation, we thought we would publish 
one of the worst pieces we had on hand, just to show 
how we were afflicted, and to deter any one from 
sending us more poetry. Imagine our feelings, when, 
a few days after the issue of the number, we received 
a letter from a lady, stating that we might as well 
put our name to our poems, as we could not disguise 
our style. 

We thought then we had done with poetry forever. 
But we have relented. We have a poem now that is 
not common by any means. It came to us without 
name, except what is seen below, and that possibly 
is fictitious. It was composed by some editor, be- 
cause it was written on printing paper, with a pencil, 
just as editors do, for they are generally too poor to 
indulge in such luxuries as letter paper. So we con- 
cluded to give it to our readers. It will be seen that 
the author possesses considerable historical knowl- 
edge : 

MEDITATIONS IN A GARDEN. 

BY CAUL I. FLOWER. 

Of all the men within this wick- 
ed world (and, Goodness sakes, they're thick !) 

There's none who knows a flowerier trick 
Than Mister James (Rochester) Vick. 

His parterres are with blooms so thick 
That Babylon's gardens, built on brick, 

Could never have looked one-half so slick 
As Rochester Nurseries owned by Vick. 

And that's the reason why the Dic- 
tionary we spelled, in times classic, 
Says Nebuchadnezzar oft did lick 
And kick 
His men, and swear he'd send for Vick. 

Those kings, you know, are terr-i-fic, 

And oft with whips and cowhides flick 
Their folks; and thrash with walking-slick 

Their gardeners, 'cause they ain't like Vick. 

When Adam said to Eve, " My chick ! 

The flowers in Eden are none too thick," 
She softly sighed in Hebraic, 

" Dear Addy, let us send for Vick !" 

And if they had, just in the nick 

Of time— ('tis best to do things quick.) 
Poor Eve had had no need to pick 

That apple, 'stead of flowers from Vick. 

All this is gospel, sound as hick- 
ory. But as my muse is sick, 

And time runs on with ceaseless tick 
And click. 
I think I'll send these Unea to Vick. 

A PATRON of a certain newspaper once said to the 
publisher : "Mr. Printer, how is it you never call on me 
for pay for your paper?" "Oh !"said the man of types, 
"we never ask agentleman lor money." "Indeed," 
replied the patron, " how do you manage to get along 
when they don't pay?" "Why," said the editor, 
" after a certain time we conclude that he is not a 
gentleman, and we ask him." "O ! — ah !— yes ! — I see ! 
Mr. Editor please give me a receipt," and hands him 
the cash. " Make my name all right on your books." 

Nursery Rhyme for the Chemical Child. 

Sing a Bong of acids. 

Base and alkali, 
Four and twanty gases. 

Baked into a pie ; 
'When the pie was opened, 

Wonderful to say. 
Oxygen and Nitrogen 

Both flew away. 

Horace Walpole said this was the worst, that is, 
the best bull he ever read: "I hate that woman," 
said a gentleman, looking at a person who had been 
his nurse, "I hate her, for when I was a child she 
changed me at nurse. This was indeed a perplexing 
assertion ; but we have a similar instance recorded 
in the autobiography of an Irishman, who gravely 
informs us that he " ran away early in life from his 
father on discovering he was only his uncle." 

A MAN from Chicago, when asked by a Saratoga 
waiter what he would have for tireakfast, replied, 
"Well, I rather guess I'll just flop my lip over a 
chicken." 




is the most beautiful work of the kind in the world. It con- 
tains nearly l.W pages, hundreds of fine illustrationB, and 
four Chromn Plates of Flowers, beautifully drawn and col- 
ored from nature. Price, 35 cents in paper covers ; 65 cents 
bound in elegant cloth. 
■yick's Floral Guide, Quarterly, 25 cents a year. 

Address, JAMES VICK. Rochester, N. Y. 




1876. PRE-CENTENNIAL 1876. 

Ratlivon ft Piglier, 

PRACTICAL 

TaU^iTS ami OfiatEibirs, 

CHEAP, FASHIONABLE AND DURABLE 




ESX-ABLISHIVIEIMT, 

Cor.N. aUEEN and ORANGE STS., 

LANCASTER, PENN'A. 

^^, DOMESTIC' 

SEWING 
MACHINES. 




ify liberal terms ofExchange 
for Second-hand Macblnes 
orerery descrlpMoD. 

"DOMESTIC" PAPER FASHIONS. 

The llestPattL.rn^m.ulo. Send Si'ls. tor Uiitaloguo, 

address DOMESTIC SEWIN& MACHINE CO., 

tar Agents 'Wantec. -<m NEW YOBK. 

7-ll-3teom 

GEORGE D. SPRECHER, 

DEALER IN ALL KINDS OF 

ROOFINC4 SLA.TE. 

OFFICE : 

No. 15 EAST KING STREET, 

8-l-12ni LANCASTER, PA. 

PUBLIC SALE BILLS 
FOR UEAI, ESTATE OR PERSONAL PRORERTT, 
Printed expeditiously and cheap at the office of 

THE LANCASTBK FARMER. 



The Lancaster Farmer. 



Prof. S. S. RATHVON, Editor. 



LANCASTER, PA., APRIL, 1876. 



Vol. VIII. No. 4. 



DORKINGS. 

We Rivp hcrowith a fine illustratinn of a 
fir.sl-cla.ss trio ol' (iicy Doi-kiiiLt.s. l)()ikiiif;s 
arc of tlin'c colorings or styles of inarkiiiiis — 
white, silver-j;rey and colored — as rccoi;iii/,ed 
ill the Ainerican standard. 15nl the standard 
is cxcecdiu^fy loose in its notice of CoKwed 
Dorking's, making no markings, other than 
uniformity in the birds of one pen, reiniisite. 
One iioticeal)le difference lietwecii White and 
(irey Dorkings is, that while the f<niner must 
i)ossess rose combs, s(juarc in front, lirm an<l 
close-fitting, ami evenly covered over with 
small points, terminatiui; in a point Ijehiiul, 
tlu^ latter are found both rose and siiij^le 
combed. Our cut represents a trio, all having 
single coml)s. It is hardly necessary to add, 
that for exhibition all the birds of oiu^ pen 
must Ije either rose or single-combed, and not 
one or two of each. White Dorkings are 
til ought by some 
writers to be the older 
variety, as they for- 
merly lired more uni- 
versally true to the 
fifth toe. l?ut the col- 
ored Dorkings are now 
well establisiied in that 
particular. In general 
characteristics both 
white and colored 
fowls are the same — a 
good idea may be had 
from tlie accompany- 
ing illustration. The 
Dorking is iire-emi- 
iiently an English fowl 
^a very old variety — 
and true to his nature, 
John Bull has, in this 
fowl, adiniral)ly cater- 
ed to his tastes. For, 
as a table fowl, the 
Dorking is unsur- 
pa.ssed. This is thi'ir 
especial claim to the 
consideration of faiu'i- 
ers. They are indiffer- 
ent, rather poor layers, 
but for the table they 
all'ordan extra portion 
of very line meat, es- 
pecially abundant in 
the parts most esteem- 
ed—the Ineast and 
wings. The Dorking 
is a lieavy-bodied, well 
put-up fowl, long, 

broad back and close 

feathered. Thus what 
they lack in (ipjionnt 
size in comparison with 
Asiatics tliey makeup in real, solid llesh, and 
of a quality very far ahead of either Urahmas 
or Cochins. We have sold liirds of this breed 
to cross with Brahmas, and for such a pur- 
pose they are excellent, as they gain in hardi- 
ness, and perhaps .somewhat in egg produc- 
tiveness. Pure Dorkings will deteriorate if 
in-bred too closely. In our oi)iiuon no cross 
could be more i)rontable than one with the 
Leghorn, as thereby not only hardiness, l)ut a 
very decided increase in the number of eggs 
would result. 

It may, jierhaps, be worthy of remark, that 
on no variety of fowl does the .st^iudard allow 
so many points for size — liftceu is the usual 
scale of one hundred. — W. Atlce liurpec, 
PhilaiUlphia, Pa. 



DEW— ESPECIALLY HONEY-DEW. 

It IN not, and perhaps raiuiot, be clearly dc- 
monstraled that dew /<tlU at all; and from 
tlu^ /'(((•( that dew is found as copiously on the 
luidersides of tla^ leaves of plants ais on the 
uppersides, tlit; conclusion reached is, that 
dew is an exhalation of ml)i^ture from llie 
earth, and condenses near tlu' earth, or 
at no very great distance from it; in short, 
that it docs not "fall" from the clouds 
like rain. An inverted tub or box will often 
have as much dew under it as outside of it; 
and that is not all, for the lower side of the 
bottom thus inverted will also becovi'red with 
d(^w. Hoar-frost is nothing but the frozen ex- 
halations of dew or moisture, and this (covers 
the entire branches of tret^s and shrubbery, 
whether they are iieudant, perpendicular, or 
horizontal, and tliis will be the cast' as well 
I with branches lying on the ground, as with 




Pit.vcTiCAL MEN are .steadily coming up to 
a due appreciation of The FAUSiERas a valu- 
able medium for transmitting the results of 
their experience. 



those on the trees; and flat sti>nes. or pieces 
of 1)oard — uidess too deeply imbedded in tb.e 
earth— will often exhibit as much hoar-frost 
on the lower side as on the ui)per side. This 
seems to demonstrate that dew is an exhala- 
tion from the earth, or from the surface of 
vegetation, and tliat instead of "falling" it 
actually rises. This can be demonstrated by 
putting very cold water or ice in a bottle, a 
pitcher, or a tin can, on a warm day. The 
surrounding invisible vapor will become con- 
densed in the form of dew, on the sides, the 
bottoms, and the lops of the containing vessels. 

Honey-Dew. 

The chief dilficulty in reference to lioney- 
dew has arisen from the attempts to reconcile 
the iiheiiomeiia with a single cause. AVhen 
we discover that there aii' ditleient kinds of 
the sul).stance generally called honey-dew, and 
that they are the etTects of ditTerent causes, 
the (litHcultj- will not seem .so great, although 



the solution may not be satisfactory to all. 
Jfimiii-fVw, from whatever source ii may 
proceed is. by iimny writi'is on veget.ible econ- 
omy, reganled as a disease, and is placed in 
the category of hliijlu, smut, milihw, driijixij, 
ganiji-cne, ctinliitinii, guffnnUion, and o >n.!iuiHjj- 
tion. It is a sweet and clamaiy substance 
which exudes from, and coagulates on, the 
surfai-e of the leaves of vegetables during hot 
weather, parlicidarly on the leaves of the oak, 
and the beech. The leaves of the beech tree 
in particular, on the occurrence of an unfavor- 
abl(^ wiml become covered with a glutinous 
coating, similar in llavor to the llnid cibtained 
from the truidi, and in every respect resem- 
bling tlie honey-ih'w of other jilants. Lust sum- 
mer, on several occasions, we have hail oak 
branches sent to us, the leaves of which were 
so thickly covered with this substance as to 
glue them together. It is well known that 
white oak and hickory trunks, when cut green 
and exposed to a hot 
sun for a time, will be 
covered with a honey- 
like .saccharine sul)- 
stance, exuding from 
the |)ores of the Wood at 
tli(^ ends, and this sub- 
stance has the siune 
ta,ste as that which ex- 
udes from the leaves of 
tluise trees. .Saccharine 
exuilalions are fru- 
(pieutly foiuul on the 
leaves of many plant-s, 
though not always dis- 
tinguished by the name 
of honey-dew ; which 
term only should be 
applied wiicn the exu- 
dation is in such excess 
as to caiLse disexse. If 
it is to be aiiplied to all 
glutinous exudations 
whatever, then of course 
they must be all in- 
cluded under honey- 
dew, but they are not 
all saccharine, for the 
exudations from the 
buds, .and yoimg leaves 
of the ''.Silver Poplar," 
for instance, are resin- 
ous, and this isthe same 
with mdiiua, which ex- 
u<les from the a.sh tree 
of Italy, as well ;is the 
'■ L<(/<(/'M<;ii," a gimi 
resin, which is collected 
by beating the shrub 
that yields it, with 
leather thongs. It is 
also iHissible that lUvse. 
exudations may oftenoccur witlnuit producing 
disease, for if it should happen to be washed 
oil soon atter its secretion, by heavy rains or 
heavy dews, the leaves woidd not suffer. 

We have an orange tree which, on several 
occasions, became covered with honey-dew, 
and we discovered at the siime time that it 
was seriously iidcsted by the "orange scale 
insect," (Cwus /n^.t/wTiV/iini,) and since these 
have Iwen all destroyed, we have not iK-en 
troubled with honey-dew. But, there are s])e- 
cies of Aiihiii which infest the tender branches 
of the api'le, jiear, cherry, plum, peach, rosea, 
and indeed, nearly all kinds of vegetation, 
which dejiosit a s.iccharine substance on the 
leaves of the trees, shrubs and plants they in- 
fest, that u.snally goes by th" name of honey- 
dew, and ;it one time, and by many piTsons, 
these insects were reganhd lus the chief, if not 
the ntilif source of this sub.stance. Whatever 
may l)e the orign of honey -dew, ajinrt froni 
that produeeii by ajihich, nothing c.iii shake 






50 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[April, 



1 



our belief tliiit much, if not all, occurring on 
the leaves above named, is the secretions of 
((pitids, or i)lant lice. We have seen them dis- 
charge it "a many a time and often" from 
the little tubular spines at the end — or near 
tlie end— of the upper side of the abdomen. 

We do not, liowevcr, intend to insist, in 
this paper, that the spines aforesaid are the 
organs through which the .saccharine fluid is 
ejected, because this has been disputed ; and 
it has been alleged that the honej-dew is the 
natural oxcreruentitious discharge of the 
Aphid, and that it is discharged from the usual 
anal oiitice. Be that as it may, we have wit- 
nessed the discharge of honey-dew from 
aphids dozens of times, and have even caught 
it on small pieces of white paper held under 
them, and have also tasted its sweetness ; and 
this, not of aiihids only, but also of the orange 
coccus. Some vegetation yields projiortionate- 
ly more saccharine matter than others, and 
these species will supply the aphids with a 
larger proportion of honey-dew. The sap of 
what is called S!ar((?c?!i vegetation, has a thin- 
ner and more aqueous constitution, and hence 
on such plants there will generally be less 
honey-dew than on those of the tree and 
shrub kind that contaiu more sugar. But 
there is another cause of the absence of this 
substance on some vegetation, and that cause 
is the presence of other honey eating insects, 
such as Bees, Wasps, Moths, Yellow-jackets, 
Hornets, Flies, but most especially of ants. 
These lap up the honey dew as fast as it is 
discharged by the Aphids, and it is even said, 
that when they do not discharge it rapidly 
enough to suit the demands of the ants, these 
little "Keepers"of tlie Aphids somehow stimu- 
ate a discharge of it by artificial m eans. 
From the fact that honey-dew is usually found 
on the upper surfiice of the leaves, it has been 
alleged that it falls down from far above, if 
not from the clouds. But when it is observed 
that the Ajjliids are usually on the underside 
of the leaves, or on the tender twigs and 
stems, and that they have the power of 
ejecting the dew a considerable distance from 
them, it will be readily perceived how it falls 
on the leaves below them. It is usually dis- 
charged in little globules which fall on the 
leaves in drops, and where the discharge is 
copious, these drops run into each other until 
the whole surface is sometimes covered with 
the liquid. 

With these facts before us, we cannot as- 
sent to Mr. Noe's theory, although we are far 
from saying it is impossible, ; but, for the fol- 
lowinji reasons, we consider it very improl)a- 
ble. Firstly, if lioney-dew is the condensa- 
tion of the aroma or odor of flowers, how does 
it happen that this substance is usually pre- 
sent in greatest quantity long after the bloom- 
ing and odoriferous season is over V Cherry 
trees, apple trees, plum trees, etc., most fre- 
quently only begin to show honey-dew after 
tlie young shoots have gi'own several inches, 
and when the fruit is already formed. 
SccomVij, if honey-dew falls from a condensa- 
tion of odor or aroma, how does it hapjien 
that it only falls upon the leaves of the trees 
and shrubs, and not ou the grass and other 
vegetation around them? Thirdly, if such, 
as lias been suggested by Mr. N., is the cause 
of honey-dew, why is it that a beech, an oak 
or a willow may have abundance of it, and 
other contiguous trees and shrubbery be en- 
tirely free from it V and no fragrance or bloom 
of any kind be near them. It is true, that 
some trees during their flowering season se- 
crete nectar so copiou.sly that it .sometimes runs 
from the flower-cujis and falls on the leaves 
belovs' them— such for instance as magnolias, 
dog-wood and tlie white pojilar or tulip-tree ,• 
especially the last named. But this is not a 
condensation from a vapory condition, it is a 
liquid exudation or secretion. .Some fragrant 
flowering plants— the white Peony, for in- 
stance—after the flower liuds have become 
much swollen, secrete considerable quantities 
of a sweet mucus, and hence become infested 
by numbers of flies, ants, wasps and bees, to 
tlie great annoyance of anxious flower grow- 
ers, and many other plants in the leaf and 



flower buds do the same, but this is an exu- 
dation. Finally, honey-dew — so-called — is 
eitlier a normal or abnormal saccharine or 
resinous exudation from vegetation ; or it is 
extracted, elaborated and discharged by in- 
sects, generally ^jj//jds or Cocci; and either 
one or both of these causes may explain every 
case where it occurs, with reasonable satis- 
faction. 

As touching the subject of condensation, 
from an abstract ])oiut of view we admit the 
hiwe jxissihility of Mr. N.'s theory; but at the 
same time we are constrained to place it in tlie 
category of ivqirobtihilities. Of course, the 
substance called houey-dew does not originate 
from nothing, and therefore must proceed from 
sovuthirig. Scent, aroma, odor, perfume, fra- 
grance, or whatever else we may call it, is a 
material sulistance, but one of the most im- 
ponderable of substances, and we opine it 
would lie more diflicult to condense it into 
as tangible a substance as honey-dew than 
it would he to condense carbon into a 
diamond. It is too refined, too ethereal, 
diffusive and volatile for condensation, with- 
out the aid of the most perfect and com- 
plicated machinery. It is said that when the 
bed chamber and drawers of the Empress 
Josephine were ventilated forty years after 
she had occupied them, they were still as fra- 
grant as they had been during her life time. 
No matter what the f)dor may be, it is still a 
highly refined material substance, and in the- 
ory may be resolved into its original form ; 
but, if it may remain forty years ethcrealized 
in a confined apartment, the condensation of 
odor in the open air will hardly account for 
the presence of honey-dew or its swatness. 



WHERE DID THEY COME FROM? 

No doubt this cjuestion often occurs to those 
who are i>osi5essed of reflective minds, and they 
would liavegiveii almost anything if tliej' knew 
where "this, that, or t'other thing" origi- 
nally came from. 

Indeed, "Where did you come from?" 
natur.ally also involves the question, "Where 
are you going to?" because if we know pre- 
cisely the origin, the latitude, and the native 
clime of a iilant, we may also know where we 
would lie justified in taking it to, with any 
prospect of success in its outdoor cultivatioii. 
No doubt the particular origin and tlie native 
country of many of our trees, shrubs and 
plants, are merely conjectural, but even that 
conjectural knowledge is Ynore satisfactory 
than no knowledge at all. The qualifying, 
" it is said," is sometimes a great relief to iis, 
and often assists us in "pointing" a para- 
graph, the responsibility of which we fiicl re- 
luctant to assume. The following will illus- 
trate the when and original whereabouts of a 
few subjects of the vegetable kingdom with 
which we may be familiar, but the origin 
aud history of which we may not always be 
able to " lay our finger on " without some 
labor or expense. 

The Travels of Plants. 

Alexander brought rice from Persi.a to the Medi- 
terranean, the Arabs carried it to Egypt, the Moors 
to Spain, the Spaniards to America. Lucullus brought 
the cherry tree (which takes its name from Cerasus, 
the city of Pontus, where he found it,) to Rome, as a 
tropliv of liis Mithridatie campaign; and 120 years 
later, or in A. D. 4fi, as Pliny tells us, it was carried 
to England. Ciesar is said to have given barley to 
both Germany and Britain. According to Strabo, 
wheat came originally from the banks of the Indus, 
but it had reached the Mediterranean before dawn of 
authentic history. Both barley and wheat came to 
the New World with its conquerors and colonists, and 
the maize wliicli they found here soon went to Eu- 
rope in exchange. It was known in England in less 
than fifty years after the discovery of America; it 
wasintroduced to the Mediterranean countries, by way 
of Spain, at the end of tlie sixteenth century, and the 
Venetians soon carried it to the Levant. Later it 
traveled up tlie Danube to Hungary, aud gradually 
spread eastward to China. While it was thus inv.-id- 
iug the regions formerly devoted to rice, the latter, 
as we have said, was establishing itself in this country. 

The sugar-cane, which, with its sweet product, was 
known to the Greeks and P.omaus only as a curio- 
sity, seems to have been cultivated in India and China 
from the earliest times. Its introduction into Europe 



was one of the results of the crusades, aud thence it 
was transplanted to Maderia, and early in the six- 
teenth centui-y from that island to the West Indies 
The original home of" King Cotton " was probably 
in Persia or India, though it is also mentioned in the 
early annals of Egypt, and liad spread throughout 
Africa in very ancient times. 

The potato was found in Peru and Chili by the first 
explorers of those countries, who soon carried it to 
Spain. It is said to have reached Burgundy in ISliO, 
and Italy about the same time. It appears to have 
been brought from Virginia to Ireland by Hawkins, 
a slave trader, in 1.5(;.5: and to England in 15S.5, by 
Drake, who presented some tubers to Gerard, who 
planted them in his garden in London, and described 
the plant in In^s Herball; and it was also introduced 
by l;aleigli at about the same date. But it was slow 
to attract attention, and it was not till nearly a cen- 
tury later that it begau to be muelr cultivated. In 
IfitW the Royal Society puljlislied rules for its culture, 
and from that time it rapidly gained favor. The 
Dutch carried it to the Cajie of Good Hope in 1800, 
and thence it made its >ay to ludm.— Journal of 
Chemistry. 



Time 9 o'clock, A, M. 

DAYS. THEEM. WINDS. 



WEATHEIt. 



METEOROLOGY OF MARCH 1776-1876. 

We have never niade.or recorded meteoro- 
logical observations, simply for the reason that 
we have not had time and opiiortunity, since 
we have attached any imiiortance to the sub- 
ject. The following record of March 1876, 1 
and Maich ii hundred years ago, illustrates in I 
a rather remarkable degree the similarity of 
the two widely separated periods, and our 
readers can make the comparisons for them- 
selves, as to details, in which they may be 
much more familiar than we are. We shall 
occasionally, during the Centennial year, en- 
deavor to furnish our patrons with mental and 
intellectual food, of the ''old iuid the new," 
just to show us how far aud fast we are travel- 
ing, and what we have gathered on the way. 
Meteorology has assumed a mighty importance 
in this country, since the establishment of the 
"U. S. Signal Bureau," and the results are 
becoming every year more perfect, more 
satisfactory and wide-extended. Its results 
are now had in hand and are transmitted by 
telegrajih and just here, we think, the "new" 
is just so far in advance of the "okl." If every 
thing else that constitutes our stiifl' as a people 
was making the same progress it would stamp 
us as a progressive people. 

Meteorological Diary, at Philadelphia, for 
March 1776. 



1 .... 13 W Fair and windy. 

3 .... 3.5 W Fair. 

3 ... 36.... S.W Foggy. 

4.... 40 N.E. .. H'v'zy. 

5.... 47 S.W. Misty. 

6 47 W Flying clouds and windy. 

7 ... 40 S.W Cloudy. (Stormy prev. night.) 

8 46 W Cloudy. 

9 ...53 S.W Fair. 

10... 33 .... N.E Cloudy. 

11 .39 .. N.E Fair. 

13 .... 49 .... S.W Foggy. 

13 35 N Fair. 

14 40 N.W.... Rain. 

15 45 N.E Cloudy. 

16 .... 51 S. W Cloudy— nain in the night. 

17 .... 52 N. W Cloudy. 

18 .... 48 N.E Cloudy— rain in tlie night. 

I'J .... 4.S ... S.W Cloudy — rain preceding day. 

20 ... il W Fair. ^ 

21 32 . . N. W Fair and windy. 

23 37 S. E Overcast. 

23 39 W Fair — much rain previous day. 

24 33 N. W Wind and Hying clouds. Frost 

in the night. 

25 33.....N.W Overcast. Hard frost in the 

night. 

36 38.....N.W Fair. 

37 33.... N.W Fair. 

38.... 39 N.W ... Fair. 

29 36 .... S. W Cloudy. 

30 41 N. E Sleet. 

31 37 N. W Cloudy — much raiu the pre- 
ceding day. 
From Pemmylvania Magazine for April, 1770. 

The average or mean temperature of the 
month of March, 1"7(), was SiljJ. There were 
eight days on which rains fell, but tlie quan- 
tity was not noted. Perhaps at that period no 
instrument was in use for that purpose. It J 
may be interesting to some of our readers to ■ 
coiiqiare 1870 and 1770, day for day, and then 
note the diiference for themselves. 



I 



1S7G.] 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



51 



Meteorological Diary at Liberty Square, Lan- 
caster County, Pa., for March, 1876. 

DAVa. THKUMnMKTEU. COITUMR OF WINDS, 

6A.M. :>1'..M. 8I>.M. OA..M. 2 1>. M. .S I'. M. 

1 -.i-Z :ili :il... N. S. N. W. 

2 23 a; :i2... N. N.W. N. 

3 20 32 (i2... N. N.W. N. 

4 3S 2H 44... W. N. 8. 

5 S5 ,5.'". ....:...4S... N. S. 8. 

6 88 69 .V,... S. 8. 8. 

7 4.5 (W (JO... S. S. W. 8. 

8 .50 47 38.. S.W. N. N. 

9 33 48 42... N. N. E. N. 

10 43 51 42.. N.E. S. 8. 

11 3.5 CO .50... S. E. S. E. S. 

12 35 48 .52... 8. E. S. K. 8. E. 

1:; 42 ....... 75 4(! .. N.W. N.W. N. 

14 30 25 35... N. W. N. 

15 20 42 3(i... N. E. N. N. 

Ifi 34 3(i 43... 8. E. E. 8. 

17 37 42 33... N. S.W. N. 

18 27 2(! 19... N.W. N. N.W. 

19 10 29 25... N. N. N. 

20 22 32 35... 8. E. E. E. 

21 30 39 28... 8. E. N. W. N. W. 

22 25 40 33... W. N. W. W. 

23 30, 40 3G... W. W. W. 

24 30 43 3B... W. 8. S. E. 

25 41 .54 4-1... 8. N.byW. N.W. 

26 3S .56 40... W. W. W. 

27 36 4.3 40... W. N. W. N. 

28 86 40 .56... E. E. 8. 

39 43 40 35... W. W. W. 

30 35 40 37... N. W. N. W. W. 

13 35 46 38... N.W. N.W. 8. 

Observations made by Rachel S. Smith. 

Average temperature for March, 1876 — 6 A. 
M., aa 5-10 ; '2 P. M., 43 ; 8 P. M., mi ; the 
general averaj^e beiiijj; about 38. Consideriuf,' 
the dilTerent liours, when the temperature was 
recorded, there seems to be very little ditfer- 
ence, in the averajife dej;rees, between March, 
1870, and the same month in 177(3. The mean 
temperature of a day, nor yet the mean dhec- 
tion of a wind, cannot be ascertained as cor- 
rectly by a single oliscrvation made in the 
early part of it, as at ditl'erent liours in it. 

Hygroraetrical Diary, at Philadelphia, for 
March, 1776. 

I>.\Ta. HOUB8. HYOBOM. 

A.M. P.M. A.M. P.M. 
1 9 3 30 36 

2 9 3 40 50 

3 No observatious made 

4 9 3 .50 60 

5 9 3 100 100 

6 9 3 80 85 

7 9 3 90 80 

8 9 3 50 61 

9 9 3 80 86 

10 -No observution ... 

11 9 3 40 .55 

12 9 3 .SO. 86 

13 9 3 90 86 

14 9 3 95 90 

15 9 3 70 80 

16 9 3 101 Ill 

17 No observation 

18 9 3 80 86 

19 9 3 70 SO 

20 9 3 70 80 

21 9 3 80 75 

22 9 3 30 41 

2i 9 3 44 47 

34 No observation 

35 9 3 86 i") 

2(i 9 3 100 110 

27 9 .... 3 75 85 

28 9 3 50 65 

29 9 3 SO 75 

30 9 3 70 80 

81 No observation... 

From Pennsylra?iia Magazine for April, 1876. 
IIil<iromctri/ differs somewhat from Barome- 
try, and relates more to the moisture in the 
air than to its density or pre.ssure, although 
both instruments may be used for a similar 
purpose. There \vere live days — Sundays — on 
which no ob.servations were made, and hence 
we have omitted making average. Tlic ob- 
servations were all made at i) A. M., before 
the true character of the day is determined, 
and do not give so fully the mean results. 

Barometrical Diary, at Liberty Square, Lan- 
caster County, Pa., for March, 1876. 
C ileuotcs cloudy; F, fair ; K, rain, 

6A.M. 2.P.M. 8P. M. IN. UAIN-. 

1 29.60 C 29.79 C 27.-10 K 

2 .50 F 62 K 62 F 17 

3 62 F 62 F 62 F 

4 SO F 74 F 74 F 



6 A. M. 2 P. .M. 8 P. M. in. ini.v. 

5 .74 F 72 F 79 F 

6 72 F 76 F .5S F 

7 4.S F 85 F 2! F 

8 27 .(IOC 30 F 30 F 72 

9 2.5C 31 F 36 F 

10 40 F 40 F 4(1 F 

11 70 C .50 C .51 C 

12 -WV 40 F 19 C Ot 

18 -.HF .50 F 60 F 37 

14 (il F (!0 F (i3 F 

15 70 F 6(!C 63 F 

16 .5011 lOlt 27.00 C 1.23 

17 28.86 C 38.87 F 2X.iM F 

18 37.07 K 39.06 C 29.25 F 

19 60 F mV 60 F 

20 78 F 70c 39 C 

31 aS.76C 28.n0C 2S.10 U 

32 29.30 F 29..50 F 2'.I.U F 

3i .50 C .500 .50 F 

34 .50 F .56 F 46 C 

25 40 8 29.000 3S.88 K 3.16 

36 39.00 F 06 29.10 F 

37 26 F 30 F 33 F 

28 (H I{ 28.75K 28..56 K 1.87 

29 38.68 90 F 39.00 F 

80 39.00 8 29.02 13 F 

31 80 F 33 70 F 

Ottservations madetnj liaehcl S. Smith, 
There wen^ eight rains during the niontli, 
in which 8.:i7 inches fell, averaging 1.04 5' inches 
at each lain fall, or ."27 in. for each ilay in tlu; 
month, lianiniilri/ has relation to lUeprcs.sioc 
or (leusily of the atmospliere ; and from the 
foregoing it will be seen that tlie/ii|//(r.vt lijrm-cs 
were recorded at 2 o'clock, P. M., (2."J7'J,) on 
the first day of the montli. 




SWALLOWS. 

" One swriUoir will nat )iiitl-c a siiriimrr,'''' 
neither will a score of tliem sometimes, for 
we have seen the latest arrivals among tliem — 
the " House Martins," or "Purple Martins," 
{Progne pnrpurcii) — .sadly mi.staken in their 
meterological calcidations ; we have seen the 
jioor little fellows looking out of their bo.xesat 
the falling snow, only occasionally uttering a 
feeble rhcr-rre-ce, or a faint ricli-cij-dirkei/, and 
.seemingly wondering what it all meant; seeing 



that the weather had lieen so beautilid and 
they had been so cheerful — even noisy — just 
the ilay jirevious. Tins, however, does not 
connn )idy occur; therefore, when the swal- 
lows make their advent, and especially tlie 
si)ecies above named, we may feel pretty cer- 
tain that summer is near. And what inno- 
cent, cheerful, industrious and, withal, plucky 
little birds they are, too, and sometimes noi.sy 
to boot. From "earlj' morn to dewy eve" 
they are on the wing, and in pursuit of their 
insect prey. The amount of this kind of food 
they daily consume we have no means at 
jiresent to clearly estimate, but when we con- 
si<ler that, with the ex('e|)tion of one species, 
perhaps, tliey feed on nothing else, we may 
conclude that the quantity inu.st be enormous. 
Their economical stitu.s is tlierefore uiuiue.s- 
tionablc, although they niay destroy a few 
bees occasionally, by way of a relish. 

Six species belonging to tlie family IIlUl'V- 
l>IN'n).K, visit Lancaster county every spring, 
make their summer altode, breed, and rear 
their little families here, (some raising two 
broods.) and leave us again in early antunm ; 
namely, the "Barn Swallow," Jliriuab) hor- \ 
reorum; the "Cliff Swallow," H. lunifrons; | 



the "Whit.'-bellied Swallow," //. hirnlor ; the 
"Hank Swallow," Oitijh: ri/dOi'd; the "l{ough- 
winged Swallow," C'. titrripeuiii.% and the 
" I'uiple Martin," Proline jiuiimrca. The 
"(.'hiinney Swallow," Clintiini ;icf<i,«/iVi, is 
now placed in the family Cyi'siklid.e, or 
SwiKi's, but for all i)ractical purpos<'s it is na 
good a swallow as any among them. They 
take a great deal of their prey, if not all of it, 
"on the wing," but some of the species do 
not conline themselves to the softer, more 
delicate, and comparatively liarmle.Hs in.sccln, 
but al.so " l)olt " May-k-t'lles, (ioldstnith.s, 
.hine-biigs. and the larger and more rigid 
kind. (Wilson found six of the.se in the 
stomach of one Purple Martin.) Kaeh female 
swallow jn'oduees from four to six young ones 
at a brood, and where she produces two br<K)d.s 
it rc'ipiires a vast nundK-r of insects to supply 
them with their needed aliment. The White- 
bellied swallow is, however, sjiid to devour 
berries in the fall, just before it leaves us for 
the sunny .South. 

We r(-niend«'r di.slinctly the time yet when 
it was believed that swallows did not migrate 
southward at the approach of winter, but that 
they remained with lis and hid in hollow trees, 
knot-holes, in the mud, or in some other simi- 
lar pla(;e, but that idea, even among the il- 
literate or ignorant, receives now but little 
credit, if any are found simple enough to )x;- 
lieve il at all. 

We once occupied a house for five years that 
had been Iho resort of the Purple >fartins for 
more than thirty years. They always ap- 
peared suddenly and about the liflei'Utli of 
May, and left just as suddenly about the 
lirst of Seiitemlier, never varying more than 
live or six days from Cliese dates. They 
occupied bo.xes "under the eaves," and when 
the colony became too large they would 
build nests outside, or on to|i of the boxes. 
They were very early ri.sers, often to the di.s- 
turl)an<;e of our own morning repose, and al- 
though they also retired early, yet they would 
avail themselves of the very latest moment of 
twilight. We think they were ab<iut the 
busiest colony of living In-ings on the ejirtli, 
that had cmiie under our oliservation. They 
Were constantly "on the go," except when it 
rained very hard. They appeared to be the 
veriest slaves to their own and their chililien"s 
stomaclis. Their coining in the spring was 
never heralded, and their dejiarture in early 
antunm was without any previous warning. 
We retired on a spring evening KirallDuttus, 
and we arose in the morning .■^indlownl, and 
inversely this was the same in autumn. 

We always fell sad at llieir departure, foril 
indicaled tiiat the summer had gone and that 
winter was approaching. Ihit during their slay 
they Were nio.st industrious •in.seetcii-s," sally- 
ing forth and returning tothciryoungasinucli 
as twenty times within an hour, and every 
time freighted with an insect rep.i.'^t. for one 
or more ot their oll'spring. On anotlier <H'ca- 
sion we ociupied a house, an unused chimney 
in whuh had been a nesting place for the 
"chimney swallows" for many years. These 
usually niade tlu'ir ajipearance a little earlier 
than the Martins. On one occa-sion one of 
their nests fell down on a hearth near the foot 
of our bed. and wa.s only .sepanited from us bv 
a jiaper screen. This nest was made of small 
sticks and twigs cemented together by a kind 
of gum, and lined inside witli a few feathers. 
When it lell the young birds made a most dis- 
tressing noise. We righleil the iie.st on the 
hearth and put the nakeil young birds into it 
again, and the parents appreciating our. services 
at once established I'onlidenlial relations with 
us. anil continuecl to feed them in that situa- 
tion until they were fully Hedged, when they 
left us without even s;iying "good-bye." Ihit 
that little family of liv("' chimney swallows was 
about the noisesl "institution" weever heard. 
Tin y could "take down" the noisiest alarm 
clock thatever was maile. Wealmo.st n-iwuted 
that we had given them domicile in ourajiart- 
meiits. That little family devoured at lea-st 
twelve breakfasts every morning Ix'fore we got 
one, and if talking during the meal facilitate* 
digestion, they were first-class physiologists. 



52 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[April, I 



Independent of tlie uses of swallows to the 
human family as insect scavengers — the value 
of which may be remotely incalculaljle — they 
have immediate commercial value in someeast- 
eni countries, the magnitude of which seems 
almost incredible. Nodoulit many of our read- 
ers may have lieard of, or read of, the famous 
"Birds-nest soup, "so popular among the higher 
classes of the Chinese. These nests are con- 
structed by a small " clitl'-swallow" — Hirundo 
esrutoita — usually called, in commerce, "edi- 
ble-birds-nests." There seem to be various 
opinions, or theories, in regard to the comjio- 
sition of these nests, but they are generally 
conceded to be largely composed — if not en- 
tirely — of a vegetable mucilage collected and 
secreted by these birds. Some have it that a 
delicate, translucent seaweed, is incorporated 
with the gum. Be that as it may, the nests 
are attached to over-hanging rocks, or in cav- 
erns along tlie seacoast of China and the east- 
ern islands ; and the whole trade is in the 
hands of the Chinese government, and that 
country is almost the sole consumer. There are 
various qualities of them, the best quality being 
worth its weight in silver. Before the birds have 
lined their nests, or laid ^their eggs, constitutes 
the finest and best quality. After they have 
laid their eggs therein they are reckoned 
second quality, and after they have hatched 
their broods in them tliey become third (piality, 
but each of these ciualities are subdivided into 
intermediate qxialities. After these nests are 
collected and dried in the shade they are 
packed in boxes of about l.'iO jiounds each, 
called a picid. The common price in the Can- 
ton market is, for the first quality, S:i,5(t0 a 
picul, something over .fiili.OO a pound. The 
second quality is worth S2,8()0 a picul, and the 
third .'SI, 00(1 for the same. Dealers assort them 
into intermediate qualities and arrange the 
scale of prices accordingly. Java, Macassar, 
Snluk, Batavia, Ceylon, and other eastern 
islands, all export, these edible swallows nests 
to China. The annual quantity shipiied from 
these idaces is 24-2,400 i>ounds and at the above 
prices, this very jieculiar property is worth 
$1,203,.519, and all this demand rests upon the 
capiicious wants of a single people. The 
business is very hazardous, but it pays pretty 
well the limited number engaged in it. We 
have never seen the liest (juality, but the in- 
ferior (pialities we have often handled while 
they were in possession of Judge Libhart, of 
Marietta. They were not a tempting morsel 
to us, looking like a rough cup of dirty white 
glue. Of course tlie poor people among the 
Chinese cannot afford to consume them, 
therefore they are exclusively the monopoly of 
tlie nol)ilily and the ricti. 



FLORAL SPECULATION. 

Tlie following, which we have seen floating 
annnid in the newsjiajier press of the country 
"long, long ago," is now going the "rounds" 
again, for the dozenth time, for aught we 
know to the contrary, and still lias an interest 
that will never diminish ; exhibitingas it does 
the trivial foundation upon which a sjxTula- 
tion may rest, its vast extent, and the ticti- 
tious value that may be attached to things 
that are almost totally destitute of anything 
but a merely ordinary value at all. 

It is ditlicult to perceive on what merit the 
"Tulip Mania" could have been liased, for at 
best, their season is short, and tliey are desti- 
tute of fruit, flavor or odor, and on" the ground 
of utility, far inferior to tlie bulbs of onions. 
Had they been jioppies they might have 
yielded opium, and have been classed with 
things connnercial ; but being merely Tulips 
they had nothing to recommend them, saving 
their beauty, and even on this score they are 
far inferior to many other flowering iilants 
that enter into the lists of the Floriculturists 
of the present day. The antiquity of the 
event, however, and its novelty, entitle it to a 
permanent record. 

The Tulip Mania. 

Of all ttnnr::s in the world in whic-li to make a cor- 
ner, to excite a speculation, to be imflt'il liy brokers, 
it would seem as if flowers would be the last. But 



that a W'liole nation sliould srrow mad over bulbs, 
that the imlustry of a jjcople shouhl be turned aside 
from tlie pursuit of airriculture to that of liorticul- 
ture, and that the mania sliould spread from the 
phlegmatic Dutchman to the phlegmatic English- 
man, seems almost incredible. Yetlu the beginning 
of the seventeenth century the desire for tulips had 
BO .sjiread over Eurojie that no wealthy man consid- 
ered his srardcn perfect without his rare collection of 
tulips. From the aristocracy the rage spread to the 
middle and the agricultural classes, and merchants 
and shop keepers began to vie with each other in the 
rarity of tlieir flowers, and in the prices jiaid for 
them. A trader at Haarlem was actually known to 
pay half his fortune for a single root, not from any 
expectation of profit in its propagation, but to keep 
it in his conservatory for the admiration of his ac- 
quaintances. 

The first tulip seen in Europe was beheld at Augs- 
burg, in Germany, in 1.5.5fl, and was imported from 
Constantinople, where it had long been a favorite. 
Ten or eleven years after this the plant was in great 
demand in Holland and Germany. Wealthy burtrh- 
ers of Amsterdam sent direct to Constantinople for 
their precious bull's, and paid extravagant prices for 
them. The first roots planted in England were 
brought from Vienna in the year piOO, and were con- 
sidered a great rarity. For thirty years tulips con- 
tinued to grow in reputation. One would suppose 
there must have been some virtue in this flower that 
made it so valuable in the eyes of so prudent a peo- 
ple as the Dutch. Yet it lias neither the beauty nor 
the perfume of the violet nor the fragrance of the 
rose. It hardly possesses the beauty of the humble 
sweet pea. Its only recommendation is its aristo- 
cratic stateliness ; and this should hardly have com- 
mended it to the only democratic republic on the 
globe. But it is by no means the first time that fash- 
ion has turned ugliness into beauty and rarity into 
wealth. 

In 16:14 the race for tulips among the Dutch was so 
great that the ordinary industry of the country was 
neglected, and the whole peojile turned to the pro- 
duction of tulips. As this mania increased, prices 
increased with it, until in 1(m.5 merchants were 
known to have spent ^4(1,000 in the purchase of forty 
tulips. At this time each species was sold by weight. 
A tulip of the kind known as the Admiral Lietkin, 
and weighing 400 grains, would sell for .SISOO ; the 
Admiral Von der Eycke, weighing 4.50 grains, was 
worth J1.500 ; a Viceroy of 4C0 grains would bring 
$1200. Most precious of all, a Semper Augustus, 
weighing only 200 grains, was thought to be cheap 
at $2200. This last species was much sought after, 
and even an inferior plant would readily sell for §800. 
When this species was first known, in Kjofi, there 
were only two roots of it in Holland, and those not of 
the best — one belonging to a dealer in Amsterdam, 
and the other was owned in Haarlem. So anxious 
were the purchasers for this new variety that one 
person offered twelve acres of valuable building land 
for the Haarlem tulip. That of Amsterdam was sold 
for $1840, a new carriage, two gray horses, and a com- 
plete suit of harness. As a specimen of the valueof 
these bulbs we give the actual copy of a bill of sale 
for certain articles given in exchange for one single 
root of the Viceroy siiecies : 

Two lasts of wheat $179 

Two lasts of rye '.i'iS 

Four fat oxen 192 

Eiubt fat ewme 9ti 

Twelve f At sheep 48 

Two bogsheails wliie 28 

Four tous beer 13 

Two tons butter TT 

oue t bousautts pouu'is clit ese 4S 

Cue bed. conjjtlete 40 

One suit clothes 32 

Oue silver cup 24 

JIOOO 
Since that day tulips have declined in value, but 
wine, butter, and cheese have decidedly advanced. — 
Wrn. li. Ifoopcr^ llarjH'T^s Marjazine, 



YP^Kyi MORTGAGES. 

Almost every one who has had occasion to buy a 
farm, and to leave lie a portion of the purchase money 
on mortgage, must have felt the injustice of being 
taxed for what he does not really own. A man buys 
a I'arm for say §10,000, and ^r),(Ki(i remains ; he pays 
taxes to the full value of the §10,1100, liesides ]iaying 
$300 in this State or f-lOO in the West for the use of 
the §.5,000 remaining unpaid on the land. But the 
Government not only makes him jiay a tax on the 
whole ten thousand dt)llars, suiiposing the farm to be 
assessed at the full value, but it comes the second 
time and takes the holder of the §.5,000 he has " out 
at interest." Now "the man who has money at inter- 
est is determined to make six per cent, at least on his 
money. He must do it to mak* it w'orth his wliile to 
have money out at all. And so he looks about to see 
how he can so fix things as to make it fall on the 
holder of the land. So he either takes it into con- 
sideration in fixing the price of the land if lie is .sell- 
ing ; or if he is a mere lender on land he extracts a 
heavy " bonus," or buys a mortgage at a discount in 
order to make him whole ; and in this way the one 
who is so unfortunate as to owe anything on laud, 



pays taxes twice on his indebted portion to one only 
when it is clear of all incumbrances. This is a curi- 
ous anomaly in law. Usually it is thought to be the 
genius of good laws to favor the honest, industrious, 
struggling debtor ; hut in this particular case of a 
tax on mortgages this law is made to operate in just j| 
the other way. * 

It seems remarkable that any tax should have ever 
been imposed on mortgages under the head of prop- 
erty. If there be any tax on income, the money de- 
rived from mortgiiges might have there a legitimate 
jjlace. But as property it is clearly absurd, as a 
mortgage is simply the evidence of debt. It is no 
more property than is a duly-attested receipt for 
money paid. It is indeed nothing but a promise to 
give property in case certain stipulations are not car- 
ried out in manner and form as aforfigaid. It is in no 
sense property, yet as property it is taxed, although 
the property which it covers is already taxed in the 
hands of the one to whom it has been deeded. 

It came up before the Supreme Court of California 
recently, by the objection of some mortgage-holders 
to pay this sort of " property" tax, and the court 
decided in favor of the holders. And now what do 
other States say, in which this anomaly exists? 

The above, from the editorial column of the 
GermaiHown Tf'leijraph, applies equally to 
town houses, and other species of real estate, 
both in town and country ; and, having had 
some experience in tliis and other systems of 
taxation, we have for twenty-five or more 
years failed to see tlie right of it in any case, 
for tliis is the jiiYictjce if not the law in Penn- 
sylvania ; a practice which we have often and 
alwiiys condemned, and which has just as 
earnestly been defl'iided, even by some of 
those who were its victims. Mankind are 
generally— almost proverbially — lax in tax- 
paying, or in making just returns of what is 
legally taxiible ; and many people either feel 
themselves justifiable, or excusable, for de- 
frauding the government, solely on the ground 
that the t;ix is not eipiitably, or is excessively, 
levied. This, of course, is not riijJd, although 
the law may be wrong; Init in any event, hun- 
dreds, thousands, yes, tens of thousands of 
dollars are annually lost to the government 
and the honest jiortion of the people, through 
the unjust duplication of taxes; to the gov- 
ernment, liecause knaves omit to make a fair 
return, on the ground that somebody else is 
jiaying the tax, and to the honest people, be- 
cau.se they are paying double ttixes. 

A comparatively poiir man owns two proper- 
ties worth one tliou.sand dollars each, and sells 
one to his poorer neighbor, taking his obliga- 
tion for the payment of thcsaine ; and if tliey 
arc both honest men, they pay tlie taxes on 
two tliousand dollars worth of real estate, 
at the usual rates of taxation, and the one 
who holds the obligation of the other is taxed 
luldilionally for one thousand dolkirs which he 
is deemed to have "out on interest." If any 
law-maker can .see justice in this he is gifted 
with a higher degree of moral penetration 
than we are — that's all. 

During the reliellion the United States reve- 
nue laws were administered in the same way, 
although we had it over the antograiih of a 
distinguished member of the Committee of 
" Ways and Means," that such was never the 
intention of the law. For instance — a marble 
ma.son was taxed six per cent, on a finished 
slab of marble ; a looking-glass manufacturer 
was taxed the same amount on a finished mir- 
ror; a hardware merchant was taxed the 
same on locks, knol)s, screws, casters and 
nails; a dealer in "cabinet findings" was 
taxed on veneers, turned work, paints, oils, 
and varnishes. AH these taxes being added 
to the first cost of all this material was as- 
■sessed ujion the cabinet-maker who used them, 
and then he was taxed on the value his labor 
added to the combining of this material into a 
piece of cabinet work, and also on the cost of 
materials with tlie previous tiixes included ; 
and yet obtuse revenue commissioners af- 
fected not to see tliat there was a dujilication, 
if not a triplication, or quadruplication of 
taxes, members of Congress or even-handed 
justice to the contniry notwithstanding. 

Human beings — unregenerated human be- 
ings at least — are morally weak ; but when 
tliey come consciously under inequitable taxa- 
tion, and see the mal-application and fraudu- 
lent appropriation of taxes after they are as- 



187G.] 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



53 



sessi'd ;iii(l cDllcctcd, il is not so siirpi-isiii<,' 
lliat tiixcs should lie so loiii; withheld, so 
gi-a<l;,'in)i]v i)iiid, and so rni'ai,'cily rclin-ncd. 
It (^ocs si'iMii, that no matter how honest and 
disinterested men nia^' appear hel'ore they K>'t 
into otHce, as soon as tliey attain sneh "posi- 
tions they Ijeeome indilVereid. or are solely al>- 
sorbed in sehenii's ot seit-a.L,'t;randi/.ement, and 
neLjleet the interest of the people entirely. 
Let us have (quilnblc taxation, whether the 
taxes are lnmiKlly paid or not. O/ict taxed is 
enough, in a country of equal laws. 

INSECTS, AND INSECT REMEDIES 
ONE HUNDRED YEARS AGO. 

Fnini the U. .V. Maijaziiw <if ITT'J. 

"Ill the fall of 17711, I iiioveil from I'liilailelptiia 
hito Kciil eiiuiily, ill tlie Di'lawaro 8late, wlii-ri', oli- 
Buiviiii; till' cli'stnietion (il'llu' lly iiiafle on lh<^ wheal, 
it rcealU'il to my iiu'iiiory liaviiii,' read in an F.ii:;lisli 
maij-azine Bome Iweiily or tliirty years siiieo, a liUe 
ealainily in Franee, wliich nearly liniiiijlit on ii 
famine, and the iiiellioil the Freiieh look to stop tlie 
devastation. .Vceonlinu'ly last ^[irini; I lu-spolie my 
year's consumption of tinit jrrain, ofa neii^hhorim; 
farmer, to be ilelivorcd to me inniiediatcly- aftei' 
harve.st ; liiit I diil not iiv\. it until two weeks'afier il. 
was cut, in wllicll time 1 olisel-ved the lly had lie!;un 
its deiuvdalioii. 1 tlii'ii put a hiast into llie oven, 
hut not sullieieiit to heat it for baUins:; when the 
wood was liunit down, I rakeil out the eoals 
witli what ashes the rake would brin;; out with them 
and havim; previously prepared a tub of w ater, and 
a Uu'L'e mop ; alternately I rinsed the mop and 
swabbed out the reniainiiiij ashes until the hearth 
was so eooled that I eould bear my linger on llie 
brieks nearly ten seeoiids. 

Iinnieiliately I then tumbled in my wheat, and 
bavins; elosely stopjied up the oven, I let it remain 
therein twenty-four hours. This process, 1 find, has 
totally destroyed the insect and its emliryo. Thus, 
while the neighborhood around nie are obliged to 
eat their maggoty, putrid grain, we have good bread, 
as heretofore. 

At first I was fearful of oue or other of three evils 
attending the [irocess; either it would kill the vege- 
tation, or it would prevent fermentation, or it would 
give the Hour a brown cast, and perhaps all three ; 
but 1 have the pleasure to tind neither is the ease, 
for we have as light and as white bread as formerly, 
aud on trying a small handl'ul of the wheat in moist 
earth, I found it take root and sprout in aljout three 
days, and I could not perceive a grain miscarry. 

iiy the best accounts I could gather, the farmers 
hereabout have lost near two-thirds of their present 
crops by the lly, and what remains is light, very dis- 
agreeable to the taste, aud I believe very unwhole- 
some. A comniou sized oven will, at one operation, 
kiln-dry si.\teen or eighteen bushels, no matter how 
full the oven is, which my be turned iu at the hole 
left to carry olf the smoke in heating. Thus, one 
oven in a week will secure one hundred busliels from 
the voracity of that destructive insect. Grinding it 
into Hour inuuediately after reaping, will answer the 
same end ; but this is an advantage tliat but few can 
obtain, aud if the whole could, iihe mills must lay 
idle the remainder of the year. 

Perusing the London iliKjar.ine for the year 1773, 
since I wrote the above, in the month of May for that 
year, I found the following experiments, addresse I to 
a member of the Royal Nockli/ ; and as I appridiend 
the rc-i>ublication may be of great utility, I shall be 
mucli pleased to see it in your useful magazine. 

Benjamin JIiiilin. 

Tlie above writer baloii<;ed to an old and 
distingnishud Pennsylvania lainily, tiiid was 
no doubt a brotlier of TlloMAs MlFFLIX, a 
Revolutionary ollicer, and one of the early 
governors of the State, under the Constitu- 
tion ; and the insect to wliich he alludes ini- 
der the name of the "Fly" was no donlit, a 
species of "weevil," for there is no ////tliat we 
wot of, the maggots of which could do any 
damagt^ to wheat after it had ripened. The 
" midge" {6Vfi(/o)/(//i(t (ri'Si'c)') after the larvte 
litis matured, goes into the earth, and ellects 
its transfoniiation there. Tliis insect tlieu 
nuist have been tlie black or "granary 
weevil" {Sitdjihilus ijrannrius) which infests 
corn, wheat and otlier grains. The tulult fe- 
male deposits its eggs on ripe grain, from 
spring to fall, and the. larvte lives and under- 
goes its tninsformations within the kernel. 
We htive often detected it on the hetids or 
ears of ripe wheat in tlu' lield ; and wlien the 
eggs are hatched the young Uiri-fc bore into 
the floury parti of the grains of wheat and 
corn, if indeed the mother does not lirst punc- 
ture the seed before she deposits her eggs. 
We have also seen teiis of thousands of tliese 



weevils in granaries, corni-ribs and old barns, 
and we happen to know that they luivea very 
ininrious elTect upon the ipiality of tiie 
wheat, ;uid the Hour that is made from it. 

Now, adniilting thtit the foregoing article 
has referenct^ to the gninary weevil, we do 
not think any bidter plan has been developed 
for its destruction during the entire century 
than that which w;is prtiiticed one hundred 
years ago, by Mr. Milllin, and which had been 
known in France a (juarter of a century be- 
fore. For this reason we reproduce it here, 
;uid also to show the antiquity of agri<adtural 
entomology, and illustrates i\w jirogress wc; 
are making in that direi-tion. Kiln-drying 
has often been reconnnended for infeste<l 
grains, nuts and seeds, and wlieie it has been 
skillfully done, it has been successful. It is 
triU', this process may be a slow on(f, but if it 
is ;i sure one it is worth trying. I'erliaps we 
have too little veneration for old things, only 
liccausi: they ;irc old. We want in some ipiick 
w;iy to "do.s(i" insects, and then let it work 
its own way, whilst we turn our atlention to 
some other speculation thtit will "n;iy" 
better. The article tdluded to in Mr. M.'s 
closing iiatagraph, we reserve for another 
occasion, fof, during the yetir, wi; intend to 
placid ISTii and 1770 in contrast where we 
think it uaii be useful. — Eu. 



OLD BUFO. 



We entertttin a feeling of iirofound regard 
for the common toad ( Hafiidiairiranii) anil also 
for those who condescend to say a kind word 
in his favor. And yet, it is in reality no act 
of co)i(^,spc)i,sJo)i to do so, but an impenitive 
duty ; for, of all tlu! ho]i|)iiig or creeping 
things that have a local haliitalion anioiig us, 
there is none more useful than the toad ; and 
yet he is almost universally despised, if not 
"hated and maltreated, lie does no harm what- 
ever, but on the contrary, a great deal of 
good, and consequiMitly he is always a wel- 
come guest to our domicile and garden. In- 
deed, they seem to know that they are wel- 
come and often conduct their scavengering 
Udiors in our iireseui^e, seemingly to show 
whiit they arc capable of doing. We know 
not how long a toad will survive, but it seems 
that we have recognized the same old rusty- 
coated blinkers for a succession of seasons. 
They have the most capacious mouths and 
stomachs of any animals of their size and 
weight, and aiipetitcs to correspond. We are 
satisfied that they answer the end for which 
they have been permitted to exist, far nearer 
thau many of the human species. 

Toads. 

The toad is a most useful thing in a garden. I 
had a plant dreailfully infested with wood-lice, almost 
destroyed by them, and a toad located himself by as 
its protector, and to be ready in an emergency he 
made in the mould a hole all but tleej) enough to hide 
himself in, but not deep eiiouirh to pruvent his liav- 
iiig a thorough good view of the plant ; and wlicn 
wood-louse, beetle, or anything of the kind appeared 
near him or the plant, out he came and jiounced 
ujion it — " You arc mine !" This was wholly his 
work. I only watched him sometimes, greatly 
l)leased at his success. Another time as I was walk- 
ing alom; a path in the garden I saw the load ap- 
proaching ; the pace was (piii-k for a toad, but I soon 
saw what Ik- was after. Just on lieforc him was a 
beetle which I expected to see caught, liut ere there 
was apparently time for them to meet, the beetle had 
disappeared, so quickly that my eye was not i|uiek 
enough to .sec it taken, but no doubt it was in the 
load's mouth, as i heard a click that told the talc of 
eapturt;. Two other toads seem to havis concerted 
between themselves how to act one evening so as to 
take a border regularly, and in order to do their 
work well it appeared to tie arranired that one of 
them should go on the liorder and this other stay out- 
side, having the box cd^'ing between tlicni ; and so 
they did their work of clcaring,"keepiiig just opposite 
the oni' to the other, as I was watching them from 
the window alKive. 1 wish we could all act with 
good feeling towards such useful creatures. They 
do much good and no harm, but I have every reason 
to believe they are sometimes treated most cruelly. — 
I{. T. in Gardener's Chronicle. 



To CoiJi!ESPONDENT8.— E. J. D.'s poetical 
elfusions will ai)pear in season. 



OLD AND NEW FLOWERS. 

I noticed an article in your paper last fall 
speaking of tlie deterioration of our old- 
fashioned dowel's, and of the inferiority of the 
new Hybrid ro.ses, when conipared with the 
old " llnndred leaf" " "^'ork ;ind I.anca.ster," 
Cabbage roses and others. I will agree with 
(he writer as regards perfume, but not its re- 
gtirds form and coloring. A gentleman re- 
siding in < 'assvillc (.Mr. I. Hamngarliier) lias 
ro.ses in his garden which usually bloom pro- 
fusely from .lime till ".lai'k Frost" putsan iiii- 
tiiiiely end to their loveliness, and tin- quality 
of the flowers will bear comparison with any of 
their kind. I do not remember Just how many 
varieties he liti.s, but ipiite a number, and most 
of them he has budded himself. Fine Hybrid 
roses are the " rule " nitluT tliiiii the "excep- 
tion " in Lancaster, (iiant county. I noticed 
very fine ones there this summer. 

Xow, as regards the old-fashioned flowers, 
such as I'iiiks, I'Idox Druinmondii, Aslein, 
I'etunias, and la.st but not least, Verbena.s, I 
cannot, so far as my ex| erieiice gotss, agree 
with the before-mentioned writer. In lH7:{-7-t 
my Asters were almo.st eipial to Dahlias. TIiIh 
year they were not nearly so line, but the fault 
W'as my own. 1 gave them a shady location 
and but little ctire, which they resented by 
giving nic small stunted (lowers. My I'Idox 
were iicrfeetly betiutiful. I counted over forty 
distinct varieties, and the flowers were very 
large and the colors brilliant. My I'etuniiiS 
were not .so large nor the colors as fme as 
usutil; my own fault again, for this most of 
them were .self-sown. My I'ortulaca, or Hose- 
Moss, was the linest I ever .saw. Three years 
siiK* I bought some doujile .Mo.ss .seed from 
.lames V^ick, florist; the first season there was 
but one kind, which proved to be double 
flowers— they wei-e red; till of the I'ink, M,a- 
genta, Yellow and White, were single. The 
next year iu the same Im'iI, .s'(/"-.-.oicyi, I found 
some fines double white flowers, and one root 
of double yellow. This year almost every root 
in the bed bore double flowers— yellow, white, 
and three or four shades of red, and the flowers 
so large that they looked like roses, the half- 
blown buds being eipially as large as rose buds. 

My Verbena bed was very line; there were 
three or four shades of red, three or four of 
ytdlow, some pure white, some variegated. 
ThelH'd and every inch of the groimcl was per- 
fectly covered with a dense nia.ss of foliage and 
flowers, some of the branches riinning out 
three or four feet from the main stalk, taking 
root at each Joint and sending up new branches 
of flowers. My A'erbenas commenced bloom- 
ing early and bloomed till long after the frost 
had killed all the other llowers, except the 
Pausies. 

I must speak a word in favor of the Tropeo- 
lum Mtijns, as a rnnning vine. Mine were 
planted in front of a high porch for the pur- 
])ose of giving shade in the afternoon, when 
the sun would shine directly on llitit side of 
the house. My plants cominencecl blooming 
when less than' two feet high, and I was quite 
.sorry to see them do .so, feeling ipiite sure that 
there would be no vines to serve as a screen 
from the sun this summer; but I was mistaken; 
they did run, soon reaching the top of the 
l)orch and then riuining over the roof quite a 
disttince, the whole length of the vines U-in^ 
lifteeii feet and blossoming coii.stantly, so thai 
the front of the vines were one continuoiia 
nia.ss of flowers. .Some of the largest in size 
and flnest in cidor were along the top of the 
porch, covering t he eave-trough. Over tmother 
porch I had Madeira vines. They are U-autiful 
with their thick waxen glossy leaves, and so 
cletin, no worms or insects about them. If 
any one wants vines with but little trouble get 
a bulb of Madeira vine and take ptiins to give 
it a rich soil, ;uid the next year you can cover 
the whole house with vines if you wish, such 
ipiantities of bulbs will you liavi' in the fall. — 
Ju.sciiliinc C. Linuj, 6'ra»( m., iri.f., Gcr. Tel. 
^ 

TnECENTEXNiAi-ExiiiniTioNwill open on 
the Kith of next month. It will be the linest dis- 
play in buildings and industrial products ever 
seeu in oue collection, and will be worthsccing. 



54 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[April, 



THRUSHES. 

" When fair Aurora blushes, 

Ami ekiee are serene and clear, 
The Linnets, Larks and Thrushes 
With music delight the ear." 

The TuKDiD^E, or Thrush family, is a pretty 
numerous one, and includes some genera and 
species that have never received the distinc- 
tive name of " Thrushes ;" therefore, to apply 
the term lltnisli, in a general sense, to a bird, 
may mean a Robin, a Bluebird, a Kuby- 
crowned Wren, or a Water Ouzel, as well as' 
the true Thrush ; and formerly the Catbird 
and the Mockingbird belonged to the same 
family, and, judging by similarity of form 
and song, they seem to be nearer allied to the 
family of Thrushes than some of those inclu- 
ded at jjresent in it. 

The term Tnrdus, from whence the family 
name of these birds is derived, literally means 
a thn(sh; but the common name of Thrush is 
not applied to all, even in the genus Tunhis, 
of which the common robin is an example. 
We have about twenty species belonging to the 
Thrtish family in the United States, (eight of 
which belong to Lancaster county,) and nine 
of these have received tfie common name of 
Thrush. All these birds are good "iusectors," 
and laws ought to exist, and be enforced at all 
times, against their destruction. Some of 
these bii ds, especially when young, are es- 
teemed good game birds, and this is particu- 
larly the case with the Robins. (Planesticus 
mujrutorius. ) Great bundles of these birds 
may often be seen garnishing the 
doors and windows of fashionable 
restaurants, notwithstanding the wise 
laws enacted by our Legislatures for 
their protection and preservation. 
This bird is an almost universal favo- 
rite, and it is beginning to increase 
very rapidly, and is re-establishing its 
confidential relations with the human 
family, where these laws are re- 
spected. 

The Thrushes sometimes migrate 
northward ju'ematurely, and we have 
on several occasions seen great Hocks 
of Wilson's Thrush [Txirdus fusces- 
cciis) overtaken by a " cold snap " in 
the month of March, and perish by 
hundreds. When rearing their young, 
they devour enormous quantities of 
insects and their lariw, daily, al- 
though litter in the season they be- 
come voracious " berryers," and this 
fact is considered sufficient in the minds of 
some to engage in their destruction. 

The songs of these birds are varied and cheer- 
ful, and the first liird-music that we became 
familiar with in the days of our youth, and in 
after years we recall them with feelings of 
pleasure, and when we hear them we are irre- 
sistibly carried back in memory to 
"The light of other days." 



Although free growers, they do not require 
evere pruning. The old "four-seasons" rose 
of the gardens is a type of its varieties. 

S. ceutifoHa, the hundred-leaved, Provence 
or cabbage rose, is a native of the Eastern 
Caucasus. The sepals or calyx leaves in this 
species are not reflexed ; the flowers are mostly 
globular in form, with large petals, very 
double, and somewhat drooping, the flower 
stems not being as strong as in most of the 
other species ; they are generally exquisitely 
fragrant. Among the many varieties ot this 
species is a section of very dwarf growth and 
free habit of blooming. This species has been 
largely hybridized with other species, and a 
very "large number of garden varieties pro- 
duced. According as to wliat they were 
crossed with does their habit of growth take 
its character ; some are very vigorous, and 
should be pruned but little ; others are more 
delicate in growth, and require close pruning. 
They all require rich soil and high cultivation. 
The old cabbage-rose of our grandmothers' 
gardens and the moss-rose belong to this sec- 
tion. 

R. galUra, the French or officinal rose, is a 
native of France, Italy and Caucasus. This 
rose is of very robust growth and erect habit. 
The flowers are generally high-colored, large, 
very double, and borne on stiff, erect foot- 
stalks, hut do not have the fragrance of the 
hundred-leaved rose ; but this is increased by 
drying, while that of the damask rose is al- 
most destroyed in that process. Nearly all of 




THE CULTIVATION OF HARDY ROSES. 

There are over two hundred species of the 
rose described in botanical works, but our al- 
most innumerable garden varieties have been 
obtained from only a dozen or fifteen species, 
which, by cultivation, by hybridizing and 
croSs-breeding, have produced almost endless 
shades of color and habit of growth. As much 
confusion exists in the nurserymen's cata- 
logues as to their proper classification, we will 
notice some of the leading species from which 
our garden varieties have originated, giving 
their most striking peculiarities. This will 
enable amateur growers to determine which is 
the most proper of the different modes of cul- 
tivation, which we shall describe, to apply to 
the varieties they may grow. 

Rosa daniaiicena, the Damascus or damask 
rose, is of Syrian origin. All of this tribe have 
rough spiny shoots, leather-like leaves, and 
long reflexed sepals or calyx leaves. They 
have a robust haliit of growth and large 
flowers, mostly in the lighter shades of red. 
It is from this species and its varieties, 
crossed with others, that the so-called hybrid 
perpetual or remontant roses were derived. 



the hardy variegated roses are derived from 
this species. All the varieties from this siie- 
cies require high cultivation and liberal prun- 
ing. 

R. spwosissimn., the Scotch rose, is a native 
of Scotland, Caucasus, and many parts of 
Europe. It is a dwarf, compact-growing 
bush, with creeping roots, and very spiny, and 
the double-flowering varieties were formerly 
much grown in our gardens, but are now sel- 
dom if ever seen, it having gone out of fashion, 
which is to be regretted, as it came into bloom 
very early in the season, and was exceedingly 
fragrant, with flowers rather small, but 
globular and very double. It requires very 
little pruning, and will thrive in poor, sandy 
soil where other roses will not. 

R. alba, the white rose, is a native of the 
central i>arts of Europe, and is also found in 
Cochin China. The foliage of this species has 
a glaucous appearance, as though covered 
with a fine gray powder ; the shoots have 
scarcely any spines. There are no high- 
colored varieties of this species. They are 
mostly of moderate growth, and require rather 
close pruning. 

R. ruhiginosa is the sweet-brier rose, of 
which there are several doul)le varieties, some 
of which have quite high-colored flowers. 

R. hitca is the yellow rose of the north of 
Italy ; of tliis there are three double varieties. 
The well-known Harrison's yellow is one of 
these, and is easily grown. The Persian yel- 
low requires to be budded on a sweet-brier or | 
Manettii stock to succeed well. It does best 
in a rather moist, poor soil, and should not be 
much pruned. There is another double yellow . 



rose, from Syria or the Levant, known as R. 
md})hurca, which is scarcely worth growing, as 
it seldom opens its buds. 

R. alpinu is the BoursaiUt rose of our gar- 
dens ; it is a native of the Alps and the south 
of France. It is a sort of half-nmning rose, 
with long, flexible red shoots, and is well 
adapted for training against fences and out- 
buildings. It will grow in almost any soil, 
and re()uires but little pruning except short- 
ening back a little. 

R. ruhifvUa is otir well-known prairie rose. 
Its varieties are all strong growers, but should 
be but moderately pruned. 

R. arvenxis, the Ayrshire rose, is a climbing 
rose of rapid growth, very hardy, and will do 
well where other roses will scarcely grow. 
The varieties of this species are well adapted 
for covering yiaXls, arbors and similar struc- 
tures. 

From these different species, crossed and re- 
crossed with each other, have originated va- 
rious classes of hybrids, which have been 
classified as follows : 

Hjibrid Prorence Roses. — These are derived 
from the Provence and French roses. Gen- 
erally they produce large, well-formed and 
very fragrant flowers, and are strong growers ; 
hence they are very suitable for growing on 
poles or pillars. They only produce flowers 
once in the season. They are of easy cultiu'e, 
and should be but moderately pruned. 

Hybrid China Roses. — These are derived 
from the Provence and French roses, crossed 
with the China, noisette and tea- 
scented roses, but in so doing have 
lost the ever-blooming character of 
the last. They are very vigorous 
growers, and make suiierb pillar 
roses, having flowers of large size, 
fine form, very full, and of exquisite 
coloring. They require to be weU 
thinned otit in pruning. 

Hybrid Bourbon Roses. — These are 
obtained from the Provence and 
French roses, crossed with the Bour- 
bon rose instead of the China or tea- 
scented. They are remarkable for 
the exquisite form of the flowers, 
some of which are elegantly cup- 
shaped, and have greater substance 
of petals than the hybrid China. 
They are also more abundant bloom- 
ers ; the foliage, too, is heavier and 
stronger. They require to be very 
closely pruned. 
Hybrid Perpetimls, or Remontcmts. — These 
are derived from all sorts of crossing and re- 
crossing, until it is diflicult to tell definitely 
from what particular species they were de- 
rived. It is a misnomer to call them perpetu- 
als in this country, for unless the parentage 
of the damask or four-seasons rose predomi- 
nates in them, they do not produce flowers 
more than once a year. When that parentage 
predominates they will produce flowers a sec- 
ond time toward the autumn. Owing to their 
mixed parentage, they vary much ui regard to 
hardiness, habit of growth, mode of flowering 
and requirements of cultivation. Some re- 
quire close pruning, and othors should be 
pruned but slightly. 

Damask perpetuals have a large infusion of 
parentage from the China rose. They are of 
moderate growth, very fragrant, of a very 
bushy habit, and do better when grafted than 
when on their own roots. They require a 
very rich, rather stiff soil and close in'uning. 
Perpetual Scotch roses are hybrids between 
the Scotch rose and the damask perpetuals. 
Only two or three really good sorts have been 
produced ; these commence blooming early in 
the season, and under proper treatment will 
produce flowers at intervals until October. 

Perpetual moss-roses are derived from the 
Provence moss-roses crossed with the four- 
seasons rose. They are but poor growers, and 
require very high cultivation, rich soil and se- 
vere pruning to make them succeed well. 

Almost ail the roses imported into this coun- 
try from Europe are budded on the sweet- 
brier or Manettii stock, as this gives them a 
stronger growth. What are called standards 



1876.] 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



55 



arc grattwl on stacks four totivi^ feet liigli, Imt 
they are jierfeetly worlliless in this flimate, 
and it is only tlu'owini; money away to liny 
them, as the liot sun in summer and tlic dry, 
cold winds of our winters kill the slock in a 
year or two. What are called dwarfs, ortliose 
budded within three to .si.x implies of the 
ground, do better, but as they are continually 
throwing up suckers from tiie stock, tliey re- 
quire constant attention to cut them out, for 
if left to grow, they so impoverisli the top as to 
destroy it. Wo therefore reconiincud the 
growing only of such sorts as can be grown ou 
their own roots; these all our leading nur- 
serymen can furnish, as in this country they 
are now sehUim grown in any other way. 

Koses are all gross feeders, and rei|niro a 
liberal supply of manure, which, however, 
should be well root<'d liefore being dug in. It 
should not be dug in with a spade, as the roots 
are thereby cut otf, and nuii-h injury thusdoue 
to the iilant ; it should therefore be done with 
a spadiug-fork. Two to three incthes of 
mulching maniu-j should be laid on the sur- 
face as far as the roots extend ; for the rose 
delights in a cool, moist soil, loams suiting it 
best. They should be pruned iu February or 
early in March every year. AVIkmi the shoots 
are very strong prune tliem back one-fourth or 
one-third their length ; if not strong, cut 
them back toone-half their length. The buds 
on these shoots will then push and jiroduce 
blooms. At the next season these secondary 
shoots should be cut back to two or three 
buds, when they will again produce blooming 
shoocs. The third season, the shoot which 
has thus produced two crops of (lowers should 
be cut clean out close to the surface of the 
ground, as it will seldom produce good flowers 
tlie third year. By proper attention to ma- 
nuring, and thus encouraging strong new 
growth, and i)runing a.s thus directed, ro.se- 
Ijushes can be grown to a large size, and made 
to produce fine llowers for tifleen or twenty 
year.s. 

Rosesare much troubled with what are known 
as the rose-bug, the rose-slug, and aphides, both 
green and black. To destroy the Hrst, syringe 
the plants with a solution of whale-oil soap. 
The slug destroys the under side of the leaf, 
and can be destroyed by dredging the under 
side of the leaves with powdered white helle- 
hore,' taking care not to inhale it, as it pro- 
duces convulsive sneezing. The aphides are 
readily destroyed by dipping the ends of the 
shoots iu strong tobacco-water, to which suf- 
ficient soft soap has been added to make it 
slightly glutinous. 

The best season for transplanting roses, if 
from the open ground, is in October, but they 
will succeed it planted very early in the 
spring. When transi>lanted from pots, the 
spring is the best time to do it ; if done in the 
autumn they are liable to be thrown out of 
the ground. 

In making a selection of sorts from the re- 
montant class, always choose the strong-grow- 
ing sorts, or those having a strong infusion of 
the four-seascms stock, as they are more likely 
to produce tlowei'S in the autunm, and the 
tlowers are generally larger and liner than the 
other hybrids. Avoid those having a large 
predominance of t'hina rose stock, as they are 
genei'ally feeble growers, liable to mildew, and 
entirely lose their ever-blooming character 
when hybridized with other species. 



CULTURE OF ASPARAGUS. 

Very much has been written on this svdjject, 
and a great deal has appeared even in our own 
columns, but with each recurring year there 
Seems to be something to learn and to nnleani, 
and hence though we were to write an article 
on it every year, in the light of continued ex- 
perience, there would iirobably he something 
new to be told each time. 

So far as the farm-culture of asparagus is 
concerned, there seems to be little new to be 
told; and yet one of the practices which the 
plow cultivators hav(^ foHn<l necessary toi)rac- 
tice — of necessity and not because it was 
thought to be absolutely the best — seems com- 



ing to be considered a good thing under any 
circmnstauees. 

It is the general practice in lield-cultiire to 
set the plaids six, eight, or even more inches 
deep, and more in light .soils. This was Tiot 
thought to be any gre;it beuelit, but because 
the grouuil could then be easily plowed and 
cultivali'd iu the spring. After theasparagus 
was lit to (uit in the spring, no farther culture 
was attempted. Wi'eds and grass may grow, 
hut when tln^ fallcomesaud the lopsdicaway, 
or the spring approa(^hes, tl.(^ wholi! can be 
plowe(I over, harrowed and cleaned, the whole 
operation being ciiuducled ;diove the level of 
the roots, which thus has the advantage ofa 
light soil to push through as wi'U as a tho- 
oughly clean surface to begin the year with, at 
least. Recent experiments which wehaveseen 
referred to recently, both in this country and 
abroad, seem to show that this ilejith of earlh 
over the roots is a great advantage; (hat the 
(inestaud sweetest asjiaragns results from Ihe 
plant having to push its way from a good depth 
ui) to the surface; and it is reconunended iu 
some instances even to have the plants as 
much as a couple of feet below. This seems so 
utterly iiu:onsisteut with all we know of food- 
culture, (for most l)lants as a rule like to have 
their roots near the surface of the ground) that 
weri' not the practice endorsed by some of the 
(irst names in horttcnitnral lilerature, we 
should hesit.ate to refer (o it. IJut tlit^ facts and 
figures undiuditedly prove that where the roots 
are some distance below th(^ surface the very 
(iuest asparagus has been the result. 

But, and here the greatest cauticm is neeiled 
to note the full force of language, tlii^ i)lants 
are not set deeply in the griuuid. They are 
planted very near the surface in tlu^ tirst in- 
stance, and the depth is gained by depositing 
on the surf.ace. Though the asparagus is a 
seaside plant and therefore supposed to be fond 
of water, it is found by experience that it loves 
rather dry gromid, or rather situations where 
the water does not lie long before it (lasses 
away; and this rather dry condition of things 
is secured by jilanting pretty near the surface. 
Where this naturally dry condition of things 
cannot be olitained in any other way, ditches 
are dug between the beds and the soil from 
them thrown on to the beds, so as in this way 
to drain off the water and make the whole 
thing dry. These ditches an^ annuaily dug 
out and the accumulations thrown over the 
pl.ants, and what with the annual mannriugs 
and the soil thrown out the beds are made an- 
nually higher and of course the jilants get to 
be farther and farther away from the surface 
from year to year. But all this time the roots 
are kept high and dry, an<l it is as much this 
elevated and dry i>osition added to the dei)th, 
that gives the plant its great advantages. 

We have heard of people who have set 
plants deep down from the ordinary level sur- 
face of the groimil, an<l always with injury, 
especially in clayey or heavy soils. In these 
cases the very fact of making the bed deep and 
loose, only increases its chances of getting 
water-logged, the water runniugover the hard, 
(Inn soil into the looser earth provided for the 
l>ed. The roots are thus always cold and 
damp ; and very often, especially when lir.st 
planted, rot away entirely. The point is to 
have the roots deej) under the surface ; but 
still the ground around the roots must be high 
and dry. 

It is interesting to note how our forefathers 
often found out good jirartices without know- 
ing exactly the reason for them. In all old 
gardens asparagus was planted iu beds with 
deep ditches between them; ami we all know 
that the asjiaragus of that tinu' was beder on 
the whole than the asjiaragus nowadays, and 
since we have adopted the Hat and level sys- 
tem of culture. Tliey all thought gardening a 
business in which one bad to learn the art, see 
how things were done, and ask no (piestions. 
Modern gardening is supposed to 1h' founded 
on the "rea.son for things, " and anyone who is 
capable or supposed to be capable of tracing 
cause from ell'cct, is regarded as likely to make 
quite as good a fellow as one who has Iw^en 
years at the business. But all these little 



things show how advantageous is experience, 
and how limch we should listen to the results 
of experience, although for the time iH-iug wo 
may see no rciison in them. — GcrnuitUown 
Tekijraiih. 



FISH CULTURE. 

As usual, the suliject of PiscAmHurc and the 
Finhirica continues to occupy a large share of 
th(^ ]>idplic attention, in view of the popidarity 
of the measures taken toward the increase in 
the supply of fresh-water lishes, and the pro- 
per ut iliziition of the products of the wati'rs 
generally. 

Of the various State Commissions, those of 
\''irginia, California and Maine have lately 
published their reports of sati-faelory work. 

The varied enli-rprises in whii'h tin; llnilcd 
Slates has been i-nuaged during the autumn 
have been suc(;essfully prosecuted — the UniKKl 
States hatching establishment on the Sacni- 
mento river, under the charge of Mr. Living- 
ston Stone, having obtained nine niillions of 
eggs, in b\dk am lunling to eighty busluds. 
Some two millions of the young were hatched 
out and plai-ed in the S.icram'nto for the pur- 
pose of keeping up its supply, and the remain- 
der of the egiis were sent east, for thc> most 
part to the Slate Commissioners of Fisheries. 
The introduction of young (ish into suitable 
waters was prosecuted maiidy iluring the 
mouths of |)ecend>er and .lanuary, and nearly 
all the waters of the United Stales east of the 
Mis.souri have their share. A very large num- 
ber were planted in the headwaters of the 
Ohio, Missi.ssippi, and <fthi-r streams in the 
central portion of the United States, as well as 
in the waters tributary to the (ireat Lakes, 
and those of the east from Maine to (Jeorgia. 
It iK not too much to \w\w that in a few years 
most satisfactory results from the experiment 
will lie experiiMiced. .Mr. Atkins has also con- 
tinued his work in (collecting and developing 
the eggs of the Eastern Salmon, at Buckporl, 
Maine, and has se<:ureil between tlirei' and 
four millions. These, sus beiiig later in the 
year, and of slower development, will be dis- 
tributed in March or April. In addition foliis 
laliors with the sea salmon, Mr. Atkins has 
also si'cured a large munber of eggs of the 
land-locked salnion from the (ireat Lake 
Stream, in Eastern .Maine, some nine humlred 
thousand eggs iu all having been jilat-ed in the 
hatching bo.xes. Iu the course of its labors 
during The sunnner of IS"."), having reference 
to the shad, about twelve milli'Mis of young 
were hatched out and distributed in vari(Uis 
waters by the United States Fish (Jomniis- 
sion. 

A very important enterprise of the s;ime 
general character is that which is now in pro- 
gress under the dini'tiouof the Fish Coinmis- 
sionersof Canada, .Michigan. ( )hio. The Miclii 
gau Connnissioners are now hatching about 
.seven millions of white lish eggs, those of Cana- 
da having almost as many. The Ohio t"om- 
missioners were nnable to complete their («- 
tahlishments in time for extensive operations 
this sea.son, but they hav<' at their four hatch- 
ing stations a considerable nundier of the eggs 
of the white lish, i)artly furuisbeil to them by 
the (Jonnnissioners of Michig-an. 

An imiiortant movement has been made on 
the Hudson river by Seth tireen, under the 
direction of the Fish Commissioners of New 
York, in the multiplication of sturgeon. The 
economical value of this (ish is only Ix-ginning 
to be appreciatcil in this country, although in 
JMU-opeit has long ranked among tho.se of most 
impoitauee. Hut already a large business in 
the manufacture of isingliuss and caviar. :is 
well as in supplying this lish for consumption, 
both fresh and smoked, bus Ih-cii prosi'cuted 
for some time. The Hudson river formerly 
abounded in sturgeon, which have In-come 
.scarce, and the object of Mr. (Jreen's work 
has been to increa.se the number. An inci- 
dental l>eiielit resulting from the multiplying 
of tliesetish.it is expected, will be the destruc- 
tion by them of th.> stake nets which at pres- 
ent do so much to prevent the natural inci-eiiae 



56 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[April 



of shad in that river, tlie nets lieing too weali 
to resist so powerful a fish as the sturgeon. 

Tlie prominence of the turbot and sole 
among the more expensive fishes of Europe 
has suggested the idea of introducing them 
into American waters; and at the request of 
Mr. J. S. Kidder, of Boston, tlie United States 
Fish Commissioner is now engaged in making 
prejiarations for a sufficient uiunlier of young 
fish from tlie British coast to that of Massa- 
chusetts to make a satisfactory experiment, 
the expenses to be borne Ly Mr. Kiddei". — Har- 
per ^S Magazine. 



TREE LAWS. 



A few weeks ago we referred to an absurd 
attempt to get Congress to pass a law in re- 
gard to patents on new fruits. The agricul- 
tural press has spoken emphatically against 
it. We See now that another sclieme is before 
the House in regard to tree laws, in which 
the agricultural press has been as emphati- 
cally against as in the patent plant matter. It 
is really astonishing how easily ill-considered 
matters like these can obtain a hearing, and 
even approval, before a body so generally in- 
telligent as are the men who compose the 
American Congress. The project now is to 
appoint a Commissioner of Forestry, to take 
charge of American forests, with a view to 
their preservation. This is, we believe, the 
third year that the attempt has been made to 
found this new department ; but though twice 
defeated, it seems bound to rise again. 

We all know now that much that has been 
said about this forest-tree subject is the veriest 
trash, and has been kept before the public sys- 
tematically, no doubt, for the interest of a few 
who want to be constituted a Board of Com- 
missioners. There is, so far as the practical 
question is concerned, nothing for such a 
commission to do that the agricultural press 
of the country has not already done. We — 
all of us — have pointed out that there is a 
waste of timber going on, but tliis waste has 
no bearing, or very little, on our future sup- 
ply. Where timber is wasted, it is generally 
in localities where it is really worth little be- 
cause it is not near any place where it can be 
marketed, nor would it be for many years ; 
and therefore it is burned down and cut to 
make way for farm crops. Wherever it is 
near to any such market, or near to a pros- 
pective market, it is seldom destroyed. It 
needs no law for its preservation under such 
circumstances. Americans can see questions 
of profit and loss as quick as any one, and will 
not wantonly destroy that which will make 
them rich. As for timber outside of civiliza- 
tion, people talk of jireserving it as if a tree 
were rocks and stones and would last for ages. 
Most of our great western forests have al- 
ready reached mature age, and are on the 
downward road. Many of these are between 
one and two hundred years old. It is impos- 
sible to preserve that which Nature has 
doomed. How are ," Commissioners " to 
"preserve" them V Even were they much 
longer-lived than they are, the chief trouble 
comes from forest fires much more than from 
the woodman's axe. Can a Commissioner 
prevent the sportsmen's wad or the spark 
from the locomoti ve V 

What we really want is not so much the 
" preservation " of the old forests in the far- 
away parts of our great country as the encour- 
ugment iif new plantations ! and this iilantiug 
is not a work for the general government to 
do, which does not propose to hold public 
lands. 

But supposing that there was nothing more 
in this proiwsition than the mere creation of 
a new bureati with a new pack of office-hold- 
ers, what is there in it more than ought prop- 
erly to fall within the existing Department of 
Agriculture ? Forestry has ever been re- 
garded as an adjunct of agricidture, and there 
is nothing proposed to be reached by this 
Commission that might not just as well be ac- 
complished by the Department of Agriculture 
as it at present exists. Indeed, the present 
Commissioner has paid considerable attention 



to the forest question, and could do more, if 
encouraged by Congress or other influences to 
do so. 

At any rate, nobody wants this Commission, 
if we i-ead aright the feelings of our agricul- 
tural exchanges. It is simply a "job," and 
nothing more. — Gcrmantown Telegraph, 



THE DAIRY AND BUTTER MAKING. 

At a late meeting of the Eastern Experi- 
mental Farm Club, at West Grove, Chester 
county, Mr. Ileeder, of Bucks county, was in- 
troduced and spoke mainly uijon the venlila- 
ticm of dairy houses. He had been much 
troubled in years past ; the spring-house would 
overflow when heavy rains occurred, and in 
the summer tlie milk would sour and thicken 
before the cream would rise, and in winter it 
was too cold to get the full value or benefit of 
the milk; so he resolved three years ago to 
build a house or aiiartnient for dairying purpo- 
ses, and before d oing so visited some of the most 
noted in New Jersey and'Cliester county. His 
observations satisfied him that liy securing a 
proper ventilation and temperature he could 
have good butter at all seasons of the year, 
and u])on philosophical principles he would 
warm his house in the winter, and keep it 
cool in summer. In the summer he would 
have a large V shaped ice box located in one 
portion of the room and regulate the tempera- 
ture by ventilation, and in the winter he would 
have artificial heat by a stove or furnace, and 
regulate the temperature as in summer. He 
took exceptions to Prof. Wilkinson's mode, 
the Gulf Stream principle, as impracticable, 
as well as expensive ; he liked the cool air 
principle much better than the cold water 
baths for milk ; and here Mr. R. explained his 
ideas to the audience, as to what he esteemed 
a model dairy house. 

After Mr. Keeder closed, Mr. Hardin, of 
Ky., was introduced, and entertained the 
club for more than an hour upon his practical 
theory of butter making. He said he started 
a butter dairy about four years ago, near 
Louisville, Ky., where the climate was hot 
and humid, and where animal substances de- 
cayed rapidly ; where insects and parasites 
were numerous, and to spread out milk in the 
usual way ill pans was to invite the enemy, 
which he was anxious to avoid. To overcome 
these difficulties he began a series of experi- 
ments by the use of shallow pans in open air, 
and step by step he lowered the temperature 
and increased the depth of the milk, until he 
reached the Swedish plan of setting milk, im- 
mersing in water at 40 degrees Fahrenheit, in 
cans twenty inches deep and 8 inches in di- 
ameter. As a matter of economy, he built a 
box with double sides and a close-fitting double 
door, and so arranged as to exclude the sur- 
rounding atmosphere. He also inserted a 
shelf ill the upper part of the Viox, for the re- 
ception of ice, which is quite a desideratum 
in warm climates. In this box he sets his 
cans of strained milk with a tight cover, and 
thus subjected to the cooling process, and left 
in at the ordinary temperature, which, in such 
cases, is about 4(j degrees, for the sjiace of 
from thirty-six to seventy-two hours. AH this 
time the milk is sweet, and the cream is also 
sweet, and is churned in this condition. Mr. 
H. contends that the points attained by his 
process of cooling and butter making, are a 
better flavor, uniformity in quality, better 
grain or texture, as well as keeping quality ; 
that the cost of the utensils and buildings are 
trifling in comparison to the present method 
of building siiring-houses with the jiatent ven- 
tilators, and with much less laljor or care. In 
this case, or with my method, the ice shelf is 
filled once a day only, and the cans, which 
hold from 30 to 35 pounds, are set in or taken 
out, as desired, and a man can do nearly all 
the work if required ; and with this economy 
in labor there is a corresponding economy in 
the cost of pans, which is about one to four in 
favor of deep cans. He also argues in favor 
of his operation as a matter of health, especi- 
ally to the dairy women, as they are not at all 
exposed to long attendance in the damp spring- 



houses or vanlts. Mr. Hardin gave satisfac- 
tory evidence from actual experiments, not 
only conducted by liimself, but by experienced 
butter makers, and in eveiy instance he made 
more butter from the same numlier of pomids 
of milk than by the old method, with a flavor 
e(iually as good if not better. The size of the 
milk box or refrigerator for a dairy of 5 cows 
is about 4 feet 2 inches high, 2 feet 2 inches 
deep and same in length, and can be made or 
sold for about S25. 

John I. Carter read an essay from Prof. 
AVilkinson, of Baltimore, upon the subject of 
butter making. It was expected that the 
Professor would be here in person, but illness 
prevented his being in attendance, and that 
the members should not be wholly deprived of 
his counsel, reported on ))aiier, as the next 
best thing he could do. The Professor was 
opposed to the sudden cooling of the milk ; 
that in so doing the animal odor was retained 
in the milk or cream. He claimed that gradual 
cooling or artificial heat would assist in throw- 
ing off the animal odor and thus produce a 
fine quality as well as texture of butter. He 
also stated that milk heated to 140 degrees or 
1.50 degrees and then cooled would keep sweet 
much longer than when cooled in the natural 
way, and also contended that cream raised on 
milk set in deep vessels will not make as good 
butter, or of as good quality, as that set in 
shallow pans. 



THE BEST COW FOR THE DAIRY. 

In treating of this subject we discard at 
once the idea of combining every good quality 
in a single animal — such as large size, nice 
quality butter, deep milking, ease of fattening, 
beef producing, &c. Such an animal never 
lived, or never will live, for the reason that 
some of these qualities are incompatible with 
each other. AVliat the butcher requires is 
heavy carcass — the very opposite of what the 
dairy desires. The latter wants all the secret- 
ing and assimilating organs to concentrate in 
the udder for the production of milk, whilst 
the butcher wants them to centre on the back 
and ribs for the building up of flesh. For this 
latter purpose, there seems to be no cattle 
equal to the Durham or Holstein, and to that 
end they have been bred for a century, just as 
the Jersey has been bred for richness of milk 
and the largest amount of high flavored butter. 

If the farmer desires a cow that will pro- 
duce the finest article of the latter, and one 
that will retain the largest money value for 
the food required, then we should say by all 
means take the Jersey. A discreet farmer, 
even had he never seen a specimen of the kind, 
would l)e very likely to describe as his prefer- 
ence just the qualities she possesses. But if 
bone and muscle, Durham or Holstein, would 
fill the bill mucli lietter, whilst the amount of 
food required to keep up their thrift and status 
would be much greater. The smaller the size, 
therefore, of a cow, so that slie unites there- 
with the faculty of secreting the largest per- 
centage of rich butyraceous matter, the better; 
and such, unmistakably, is the province of the 
Jersey. It is not so much the amount of food 
ajipropriated and taken into the stomach that 
constitutes her chief value for the dairy, as it 
is in the use made of it when so appropriated. 
The Jersey cow knows nothing of accumula- 
ting fat on the back and ribs, nor is it required 
of iier. She appropriates notliing in that direc- 
tion, but possesses in an eminent degree the 
marvelous faculty of assimilating and .secreting 
from her food, a milk rich in oleaginous mat- 
ter — the material of which the butter is 
formed — and for which especial purpose she 
seems to have been created. 

What the farmer or grazier wants is a cow 
small in stature, with the least amount of bone 
and oftiil, and somewhat wedge shaped — wide 
behind and tapering to the front, with hips 
sufliciently broad to sustain the weight of the 
bag when filled, a small head, prominent eye, 
yellow and soft skin, a capacious iiauncli, a 
flat instead of a round rib, a thin tail, a tajier- 
ing muzzle, prominent milk veins, a thrifty 
constitution, and with allagentle disposition; 



I 



1876.] 



THE LANCASTER FARMER 



57 



and then, to yiiUt milk wlia-li enn he cluinifil 
in the shortest jiossiliU' time, aixl turn out hiit- 
ler of a golOen color and otthe highest llavor. 
All these rciiiiiremeiits are to he fonnil in 
the Jersey cow, and in none other; and it tlio 
farmer has a taste lor the heaiitifid in nature 
or art, lor the line scenery and the f;reen fields, 
dotted over with the usefid as well as the 
ornamental, he would lind reseinhlinf; in a 
herd of Jersey cows, a flock of tallow dei'r, and 
for which at ii distant view they might readily 
be taken. 



For Thk Lancartkh Fakuer. 
A NUT FOR THE BOTANISTS TO 
CRACK. 

So accustomed is the botanist to he con- 
fronted with new and sinjiular forms in tlic 
vetietahle world — witli unexpected develop- 
ments and odd facts— that now-a-days it must 
he something wonderful indeed that excites 
more than a momentary suqirise. Already 
acquainted with more tlian 12U,()0() dilferen't 
forms of vegelahle life, the discovery of a new 
S|iecies, although a very plea.sant and accejita- 
lile result, sclent ilically considered, is never- 
theless an achievement that does not call for 
special remark. Sometimes, however, cir- 
eiunstances give rise to fresh facts concerning 
long and well-known mendjers of the vegeta- 
ble kingdom, that bother him more than to 
jn'operiy determine where to place a newly 
iliscovered but doubtful specimen. 

It has been the fortune of the writer to be 
brought face to face a score of times with a 
singular fact (to him at least) in the economy 
of that familiar friend, and we hope favorite, 
of every ri'ader of this, the common suntlow- 
er. (JlcUunilius (inimun.) As often as the 
circumstance presented itself, it set us to puz- 
zling over it, but inasnuich as we never 
reached a conclusion concerning it that was 
entirely satisfactory, we herewith present it 
to the "readers of The Fau.-mkk, in the hope 
that some one else may he able to oilier an ac- 
cejitable solution of the problem. 

Across the broad plains of Kansas, Ne- 
braska and Xew Mexico, are wide and well- 
beaten highway.s. over which thousands of 
wagons lailen with merchandise and drawn 
by mules and oxen, are passing and rejiassing 
during eight months of the year. In dry and 
favorable seasons no Fenn.sylvania road is 
firmer or harder, and under favorable circum- 
stances, the well-defined, grey trail can be 
traced for miles with the naked eye. During 
the great part of the year the rain-fall is but 
light, and the slow, white-shaded caravan 
moves along with scarce an imjiedimeut. But 
there are times when the windows of heaven 
arc oiiened, and the Hoods descend, and then 
what was once a road that might rival a paved 
street in hardness, liecomes little I)cttcr than 
a (piagmire. When this occurs it is custom- 
ary for the wagon trains to leave the beaten 
track and open a new road in the also soft hut 
less-yielding prairie to the right or left of the 
old highway. Each succeeding train for the 
same reason follows in the newly laid-out path, 
and the result is the entire abandonment of 
the old road ibr pnrjioses of travel. 

No sooner is this done than is seen the re- 
markable fact to which we wish to call atten- 
tion. On each side of the deserted road at 
once springs up a strong, den.se growth of sun- 
flowers, and these fringe the once traveled 
route, sometimes for miles, but more gciiierally 
until, the soil becoming harder, the new road 
again leads into the old one. I will not as- 
sert that this is the case in every instance, hut 
I believe it to be so nine times out of ten ; it 
is the rule, which a few exceptions, if there 
be any, would only conlirm. These sun- 
flower plants are from one inch to ten or more 
feet high, and at the i)roper .season laden 
with flowers. Although not a dwarf variety, 
as the tallest stalks prove, even the most di- 
minutive ones generally rejoice in small but 
well-develoi)ed discs, tm-ned sunward ; times 
without number have I measured a iilant only 
four inches high with a beautiful crown of 
golden glory, and as oftcu as I did so, I could 



not liut marvel whence and how this iihaner- 
ogannan came to take its phu'e in such an odd 
and seemingly out of the way locality. It 
must be renumbered that this occurrence is 
seen far from any settlement, often hundreds 
of ndles from any human habitation, and 
therefore very unlikely to be the result of hu- 
man agency. Naturally birds suggest them- 
selves as the involuntary disseminators of the 
seed, and thus furnish a clue to the mystery; 
hut in that dry and treeless region birds arc 
far from being iilentifnl, aTid even if they were 
so, would he much more likely to be attra<'lod 
to the new roads in search of the droppingsof 
passing animals, and thus convert them into 
long avenues bordered with a spontaneous 
growth of sun-llowers. Neither can we at- 
tribute the result to cayotes ; these, it is very 
true, will eat anything from a seed to a buf- 
falo steak when hungry, ;ind are constaidly 
])rowling along the beaten highways with thi^ 
same ]iurpose that the birdsdo, and thend'orc, 
like them, would be more likely to seek a new 
road than an aliandoned one ; therel'ori^ we 
must ae(|nit Iheni also of any instrumentality 
in the matter. Winds cannot do it, for they 
would scatter the seed broadcast over the 
prairie where the plants are not found ; the 
l>elt of snn-llowers is always well-delined along 
the roadside, and varies in width from ten to 
thirty feet or even more ; straggling stalks are 
occasionally seen at some distanci! from the 
main body, but such cases are exceptional. 

I feel assured that some other potent agency 
is at work in the (iroduction of this singular 
circumstance. The ditliculty I lind in accmfid- 
ing for it is, that every hypothesis that sug- 
gests itself ai)i)lies with even more force and 
cogency to a like condition of things along re- 
cently made roads, hut where, as we have 
seen, it is fVumd w^anting. Some one, iicrhaiis, 
better versed in the mysterious workings of 
the countless forms of vegetable lifi; that sur- 
round us, may be able to penetrate the secrecy 
that enshrouds the subject, and make clear 
what is now obscure. Perhajis if the secret 
were laid open, it would, from its very sini- 
l)licity, teach us how little we really know con- 
cerning the mysterious workings of natural 
kiws.-^i^. R. D., Lancaster. 



For The Lancaster Farmer. 

THE COST OF PLANTING AN 
ORCHARD. 

Any intelligent farmer can reckon up the 
cost of making an tn-chard of apple-trees. 
This way : Flow the land deejily, an<l manure 
it as fully as for a crop of corn ; harrow well 
along and .acrross, and roll, to break all hard 
and large clods. Fair sized apiile-treescan be 
got for twenty-live cents each. If planted 
thirty feet ajiart both ways, forty-eight trees 
will plant an acre; cost, twelve dollars. If 
set forty feet ajjart l)oth way.s, thirty-six trees 
will plant an acre; cost, nine dollars. To an 
orchard of ten acres the cost for trees will he 
from ninety to a hundred and twenty dollars, 
hut such a uundier could be got for a hundred 
dollars at the greater nundier of trees. It is 
generally now supposed that Indian corn is 
the best crop the first year upon a newly- 
l)lanted orchard, as it shades the trees 
in the hottest months, and when cut up in 
fall the trees get the benefit of sunshine and 
air, which harden them to withstand the 
winter's cold. A hill of corn is left out for 
every tree ; so the loss is very small. The corn 
cro)) should be taken off and shocked in an- 
other lot, so that the whole land of the orchard 
will be plowed and .seeded down with wheat 
and grass. The gra.ss cro)), .after the wheat, 
may remain three or four years ; then plow 
and croi) with grain. Give heavy manuring 
in the course of rotating crops ; the orchard 
will be again seeded down to gra.ss, to lie for 
live years, giving a top dressing of manin-e or 
concentrated fertilizers (if they are good). 
During these year.s the orchard will yield 
nearly as good crops as are on other open 
fields, the soil will be well stiiTed for (-rops of 
corn and jiotatoes, the trees will make largo 
growths after the second year, and when large 



enoiigli the orchard may 1«' jiastured. The 
cattle and sheep will eatiip the fallen fruits, 
and the grubs within them, and that will de- 
stroy many hundreds of noxious insects yearly. 
In time the orchard will yiidd double crops; 
say grass or grains and fruits also. Some of 
the trees may nei'd setting straight and staked 
u|> ; some may need slight pruning to balanc.o 
their heads. The best varieties that thrive in 
tlu^ locality should be got, and all purcha.sed 
from responsible iiur.servmen, who advertise 
in The Faumek.— 0/(J iltuilMndman. 

K<ir 'I'lIK I-AS<'AMTKn Karmkb. 

.THE CULTURE OF VEGETABLES. 

Many gardeners and others skilled in the 
culture <if vegetables, lost their crops of latu 
Ix-ets, carrots, |)arsiiips, .salsify, pansley, celery, 
and onions, from seeds of last year, by sowing 
them too late. The long-continued dry 
weather so dried the soil that the seeds did 
not germinate. The seeds of those crops have 
hard shells, and it reipiires much moisture In 
the soil to soften the shells mid let the geriiui 
push through to grow. 

As soon as the soil is fit to dig or plough, 
sow the seeds at once of carrots, parsiii|)H, 
salsify, parsley, celery and onion.s, and plant 
onion sets. Sow early beets plentifully, in 
case of failures of late varieties. tJeiierally, 
late beets and carrots are sown a month later 
than the early varieties, but last year they 
failed. Parsnips, salsify and celery need all 
the .season. 

The best parsnip is the Sugar parsnip. I,«ng 
Orange carrot is the Ik'.sI. While solid celery 
is best. The Curled Jiarsley is best. The Vel- 
low Strasburg onion is. best. TIk; U-.st two 
l>cas are Extra Karly, for first crop; Eugene, 
for .Second croii, sown two weeks lalerthan the 
Extra Early. Stowell's evergreen sugar corn 
is the best. Dwarf wax Iwan is the Itesl bush 
bean. I/inia pole bean is the U'st shelling 
bean. The (ieriiian wax jiole bean is the l>e.st 
pole bean whose hulls arc eaten, as string 
beans are. It needs no stringing, and neither 
does the dwarf wax bean. They have no 
strings; are both very rich and buttery. The 
Long l$loodbeet is the best for late crop. The 
Early Hose potato is the best. There are many 
new varieties highly commended by seedsmen, 
such as Extra Early Vermont, Urownell's 
Heauty. They are most excellent. There are 
several others, all sold by pound, jieck, bushel, 
and barrel. The Colossal asparagus is best. 
The dark Egyptian beet is in high repute for 
early croji. The Hanson lettuce is the Ix'st. 
For cabbages, get Large York for early, and 
Flat Dutch for hxtc.—Old (hdikaUjr. 



Kit Thk I...\NCA'^T»:it K.\nMKR. 
RICH AND POOR GROW A GRAPEVINE. 
Every householder should grow one or more 
hardy grapevines. When trained upon .irlHirs 
or fences they do not take up any surface 
space in the way of other crop.s. A neat arlnir 
over the back kitchen door is a comely appentl- 
agc to it, and furui.slies a grateful shade when 
clothed with vines. It also serves as a nick, 
on which to hang small towels in daily use in 
the kitchen. The Cmrord ijriijip. is the ln'.st 
for general culture; is of thrifty growth, and 
yields plentifully. The fruit is black, and 
rijiens early and keeps .sound long. The l.sa- 
bella is alsoa good variety. The Catawba ihie.s 
well in sunny situations anil in dry sea.sons, 
but in shady |)laees and wet .seasons it does 
not color and rii>eii its fruit well. The ]y<dler 
is a superior variety: yields large cmps. The 
fruit keejis long, and is the only native gnipc 
fit for making raisins of. If raisin-making 
ever becomes a business in our country, the 
Walter grape will be the one for the purpose. 
There are many other choice varieties for 
wealthy amateurs to cultivate with ])leasurc 
to themselves. All the varieties tlourlsh lie.st 
and yield largest cro] IS when the shoots are K'Ut 
from the periM-ndieular; a half horizontal jiosi- 
tionisliest, after risim,' some feet from the 
ground. So an arbor with sloping roof is the 
Ix'st. It is said that grapevines grown (do.se to 
the house imiiart a lively feeling to its inmates. 
Plant now. — Old Jlusinndmun. 



58 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[April, 



For The Lancasteb Farmer. 

SUMMER-BLOOMING BULBOUS 
FLOWERS. 

Lilimn (Lily) liolds tlie first rank. Tlie 
species and varieties are numerous, and of 
surpassing beauty, of many colors of blooms, 
spotted, striped, etc. Laucifalium or Japan 
lily is exceedingly beautiful ; six varieties. 
Golden lily is wonderful for large size, beauty 
and fragrance. All the above bloom in July 
and August, when other flowers are wilted. 
The White lily perfumes the whole garden in 
June ; of pure white. The famous "Orange 
lUy " accompanies the AVhite in June bloom- 
ing ; so do Superbium, Pennsylvanicum, 
Philadelphicum, etc. — all orange, and spotted 
with maroon. The Tiger lily is well known ; 
there are several new, superior varieties ; one 
with double blooms. We can remember when 
the Candidum, Chalcedonicum and the Tlum- 
bergianum — all of several varieties and of 
great splendor — were universally grown and 
highly prized. All the above species are 
hardy, and may stand in the same places for 
five years. The following genera are tender ; 
planted in spring, the bulbs kept in cellars in 
winter : QlailMus is now very popular ; of 
hundreds of splendid varieties of many shades 
of blooms, and bloom in July and August. 
/?-is, the bullions Iris, is very beautiful, with 
much blue in blooms. Tiijriduv (Tiger flower), 
two species : the blooms are beautifully spot- 
ted. Tuberose — now of several varieties of 
single and double blooms — blooms in late fall, 
and deliglitfuUy fragrant. The variety named 
Pearl is of late introduction ; grows only half 
as tall as the otliers ; it produces thrice as 
many blooms, all doulile and sweet scented. 
Variegdta has leaves striped with white and 
green ; is a gem without blooms, j'et it 
flowers as freely and sweet scented as the old 
species. — W. -E., Philadelphia, April 1, 1870. 



For The Lancaster Farmer. 
OLD INVENTIONS AND INVENTORS. 

As the Millers of Lancaster county are 
forming a " Millers' Association," I will con- 
tribute a few items about the inventors of 
the olden times, and other matters relating 
thereto. 

Why does a barrel of flour weigh 196 
pounds ? This originated in England, and 
was explained at a meeting of the "Corn 
Exchange" in London, attended by our late 
Minister, Mr. Schenck, thus : a "stone" is an 
English weight of fourteen pounds. Seven 
stone makes ninety-eight pounds, which is a 
half-barrel, and fomteen stone make 19(5 
pounds, or a barrel. 

One of the most noted Lancaster county 
mills of the olden times, was the LiTiz Mill, 
now owned by Benjamin Ritter, and upwards 
of one hundred years ago by the Moravian 
society of that place. It was then leased to a 
man by the name of Klaus Keln, who made 
and sent cargoes of his flour to Jamaica, W. I. 
On its arrival in the West Indies, on one oc- 
casion, it was discovered that the barrels con- 
tained shipstiiff.* 

On the return of the vessel information was 
madifto the Philadelphia merchants, who at 
once i)etitioned the Government for the ap- 
pointment of a Fhmr Inspectm- for the port 
of Philadelphia, and this was the origin of 
that oflice in this State, t 

The machinery in mills at that time was 
very clunisy and complicated. After the 
wheat was ground, it required the presence 
of a boy to work on the bolted stuff in the 
bolting apparatus. 

There once lived a man on Hammer creek, 
at a place now known as Brubaker''s Mill, 
but formerly Peter Staufter's mill. This 
Peter Staufier, the former proprietor, had 
seven sons, one of whom was the great- 
grandfather of the writer, aod the seventh 



son was the great-grandftither of Mr. Jacob 
Stauffer, the patent agent of Lancaster city. 

In those days it required a boy to attend 
the hopper, called the "hopper-boy." The 
Stauffers, however, went to work and invent- 
ed an attachment called the Hopper-hntj, first 
used in 1764, and continued in use from that 
day down to 1840, and is still in use in some 
localities. The Stauffers were great mill- 
men. At one time there were no less than 
eight ''Stanfler Mills," in Lancaster York, 
and Franklin counties. 

Oliver Evans, the author of the "Mill- 
wright's Guide," took out a patent for tlie 
Hopper-boy, and comnienced to collect 
patent-right fees about the year 181'2, and 
when his agents came to Lancaster county 
they were refused payment by the Stauffers 
and others, as it was a well known fact that 
the Ilopper-boy was a Lancaster county in- 
vention, and quite as well known that the 
Stauffers were the inventors. 

Evans brought suit, several cases of which 
appear in the legal records of that period, t 
These suits came off in Philadelphia. Sons 
and grandsons of tlie original inventors were 
still living, and tho.se who were too old to 
go to Pluladelphia-made aflidavit before the 
uncle of the wiiter of tliis imperfect sketch, 
who was a justice of the peace — a country 
"squire." There was one of these machines 
in Frederick's mill (now Ritter's mill) and 
Mr. Frederick took it along to Philailelphiit. 
When it was exhibited to the jury as one of 
the original machines as invented by the 
Staufters, they immediately rendered a ver- 
dict in favor of the defendants (the Staufters.) 
Inventions are often claimed by persons who 
have no right to them, and who never siiould 
have been granted a patent on them. 

Within the the last three years a writer in 
the yorth Ainerican, in speaking of Oliver 
Evans as a great inventor, among other 
things accords to him the invention of the 
Hopper-hoy. — L. S. i?., Warwick, April, 
1870. 



• How diflfereni it was with the flowr which Washington 
Bhipjed to the B;'me jiort; his "brand" was eutficient, aud 
therefore, it needed no inspection. 

t This otlice seems to have originated in conseqneuce of 
fraud, wliich perhaj'S may account for its sulisquent fraiul- 
ulent administration in bo may cases — no great credit to 
Lancaster county. — Ed. 



For The Lancaster Farmed. 
ANNUAL AND BIENNIAL FLOWERS. 

All hai'dy annual and biennial flower seeds 
should be sown in April. The new varieties 
of the well known species are very superb. Of 
annuals, Sweet Alyssum and Mignionette are 
sweet scented. Drumoiulii Phlox, Candytuft 
and Portulacca, are pretty dwarfs. Esch- 
schaltzea, Calliopsis and Larksjjurs, are 
showy. So are Marigolds, but their smell is 
unpleasant. The above may all grow where 
they are sown. The following may be sown 
in warm spots, or in frames with glass saslies, 
in May, and transplanted when two or tliree 
inches higli: Double German Asters, Balsams, 
Zinnias Browallia, Globe, Amaranthus, Gail- 
ardia, &c., all very beautiful. 

mevnials. — The new varieties and species 



t In a collection of patent cases decided in the upreme 
and Circuit Courts of the United States. By James B. Robb, 
cousclor-at-law. Boston 185A, vol. 1, page 166. Evans vs. 
Hettick, [3 Wasli. 408]. Action for an infringement 
of the plantiflF's right to the hopper-boj , described in his 
jjateiit. Plea not guilty. The evidence was the same ae in 
the case of Evans vs. Eaton (1 Peter's Rep. 322,) save that 
David Aby, one of the defendant's wituesaes.said the hopper- 
boy used by the defendant, was the Staufcr^f* hoppcr-bny. 
This consists of aii uprif^ht shaft with a cog-wheel that 
turns it, gei'red with the water-power of the mill. An arm 
or board, somewhat resembling an S, with strips of wood 
fixed on one side, and so arranged as to turn the meal l>e- 
low it, cool and dry, aud conduct it to the bolting chest. Of 
course, sundry legal quibbles were brcught to bear as to the 
identity of the original invention of Staffer and the patent 
sulwequently granted Oliver Evans. On page 193, the case 
concludes thus : "If it was in use, in any part of the world, 
however unlikely or impossible that the fact should come 
to the knowledge of the patentee, his patent for the same 
machine cannot be supported." *' Verdict for tltf dcfentl- 
an'." We find another case of the same, Evans vs. Eaton, 
[:i Wash. 443]. The defendant upon testimony of numerous 
witnesses, proved that Daniel Stauffer first saw it in opera- 
tion on his father's, Chrisaan Stauffer's mill, in the year 

1774. In 1775 or 1776, he erected a similar one in the mill of 
his brother Henry; and another in Jacob .Stauffer's mill, in 
177Kor 1779. Philip Frederick swears, that in the year 

1775, hesaw a Stauffer's hopper-boy in operation in Chris- 
tian Stauffer's mill; and another in U. Charles' mill, and 
that it was always called "Stauffer's machine," (page 19S). 
George Roup, states that in 1784 he erected one of these 
hopper-boys in liranueman's, and iu 1782, he got the de- 
scription from Abraham Staufi'er, as iu use in his father's 
mill. This case concludes on page 207, in these words, 
^'verdict firr defendant." 

These abstracts from the lengthy reports, are simply 
given to confirm the statement made by Mr. Reist, 

J. S. 



are very lovely. The seeds are sown, and the 
plants transplanted, when large enough, of all 
the species, and bloom the second year. Sweet 
Williams and China pinks of many colors, and 
double and single blooms. Canterbury bolls, 
white, sky blue and dark blue. Foxglove, the 
original rose-colored species, a white ami 
yellow-white varieties. Columbiue, a rose 
color, a blue, purple, white, violet, &c., with 
both double and single blooms. Carnation 
pinks of various colors, single and double 
blooms. Heddewigi pinks and Laciniatus 
l)iiiks are both fancy pinks of great beauty. — 
Flora. 



For The Lancaster Farmed. 
WHICH POTATO IS THE BEST? 

The potato is more extensively grown and 
more generally used than any other culinary 
vegetable; and the good varieties are, per- 
haps, the most wholesome of all vegetables. 
We have had a large number of varieties for 
trial ; many have been of good (luality, but 
not so productive as the inferior varieties, so 
cultivators have grown the inferiors for profit. 
The PcaclMow yields large crops upon sandy 
soils, but it is too much of the coarse Iwrse- 
yeim. Its hard core makes only two-thirds of 
it fit to eat. The following are good for early 
use : Early Rose, Extra Early Vermont, King 
of Earlies, Snowflake, Aljiha, &c. For late 
crops grow Late Rose, Brownell's Beauty, 
Peerless, aud White Peachblow. They are all 
good varieties. The Early Rose and Late 
Rose arc well known as first-rate, both in 
tpiality and productiveness. Brownell's 
Beauty is a splendid looking tuber, of first 
(juality ; and, so far as we have grown and 
seen it in many places, is very productive. 
The Peerless is also excellent and productive. 
We almost fear the White Peachblow, as 
coming from the old Peachljlow. It is well 
to try all new kinds, as one tuber can be 
bought, which can be cut into many sets for 
a fair trial. They may jiroduce a bushel for 
next year's planting, so the experiment is 
not expensive. — Solarium, 



For The Lancaster Farmed. 
HOW I RAISED MY TOMATOES. 

I may as well state at the outset that my 
experience in the cultivation of this delicious 
vegetable has neither been derived from a long- 
continued series of experiments, nor from its 
production on an extended scale. Nor is the 
system pursued original with me; on the con- 
trary, the hint was taken from the agricultu- 
ral corner of a counti'}' newspaper, and for 
aught I know, may be the plan continually 
followed by truck gardeners. I sim|>ly wish 
to relate my own experience, from which the 
reader may draw his own deductions?. 

The ground set apart for my tomato patch 
was only sixteenfeet long and seven feet wide: 
it is what is known here in the city as "made" 
ground; that is, not the natural surface soil, 
but made up of earths of several kinds, dug 
out of cellars and excavations, and used to fill 
up low places. This was not the most pro- 
mising sort of material out of which to con- 
struct a garden soil; Ijut there was no help 
for it, and the only thing to do was to make 
the most out of it. It was heavily manured 
in the spring of 1874 with chicken droitpings, 
dug over several times in the siiring, and again 
in the fall after the few vegetal)les that grew 
on it had been removed. Contrary to the oft 
repeated assertion that tomatoes do not require 
a rich soil, I gave the ground another heavy 
manuring of the same kind in the spring of 
1875. Tlie backward season also permitted it 
to be spaded over deeply two or three times 
before the plants were finally set out. Care 
was taken to mix the earth and the fertilizer 
as tlioroiighly as jiossible, and in this I was 
])retty successful; but even now, with a liberal 
addition of sifted coal ashes, it is iminviting 
and heavy. 

Into this contracted piece of ground, three 
rows of plants were carefully set out, the rows 
running the long way, aud each one contain- 



1876.] 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



59 



iiig six iilants. This was lallicr dose work, 
but 1 liopod to oVL'ivomc it l)y tlic plan of cul- 
tivation I had in view. Tlu' [ilauts witc of 
the Tropliij varii'ty, and wt'io purL-hascd on 
market of Mr. (norfjc AV. Scliroycr, of this 
city. They soon took root and jjriw rapidly, 
and ere lonfj re([uired additional support: this 
I all'orded tlicni in the shape of props four feet 
hiflh, to which tliey were tied near the ground, 
aud asain mar the head of the jilant, and 
sometimes a third and fourth tinii^ before they 
were ashij^h as the siistainiii}; jioles. 

As soon as the Rrowiu^ vines manifested a 
disposition to llower, I beLjan to remove with 
a sharp knife all the leavis from the jrrouud 
al)out halfway up the stalks, and to this plan 
I rigidly adhen'd from first to last. Two or 
three of tlie n ost thrifty shoots sent out from 
the main stem were permitted to grow, but 
these also were constantly freed from all un- 
necessary foliage in the shape of leaves. 
Branches of fruit would form at intervals, 
and while these, in all instances, were left, the 
leaves l)oth above and below tliem were re- 
moved as often as the occasion seemed to de- 
mand it. It was continually a matter of sur- 
prise to me how rapidly the leaves grew. I 
think I am within boimds when I say that in 
the height of the season a large ai-uiful of 
leaves was cut from these eighteen phints re- 
gularly once a week. 

When the vines were as high .as their sup- 
ports, quite narrow stripsof board were nailed 
on the hitter the entire length of the rows, and 
transversely across them other strips of the 
same kind were laid, whereon not only the 
vines might rest when they grew higher than 
their supports ami bent over, but likewise to 
sustain the branches of fruit when too heavy 
to be sujiporfed by the .stalks themselves. On 
the top of this lattice-w(uk, as 1 may call it, 
the process of leaf pruning went on, even to 
the end of the season. Bunches of fine toma- 
toes in every stage of maturity adorned the 
plants from within a foot of the ground to 
their outer extremity. 

Meanwhile the ground beneath was tho- 
roughly cultivated: every few days the rake 
was passed through it, loosening the soil, de- 
stroying the weeds, and ])re venting it from 
baking around the roots of the plants. In dry 
weather they were regularly watered by hand, 
and were not allowetl to suffer for want of 
moisture. As the lowest and first formed fruit 
I'ipened and was removed, the few leaves that 
had been permitted to remain on theljranches 
were also taken off, until finally hardly any 
foliage was to be seen within three feet of the 
ground, and the sun had free access to the 
roots of the growing, bearing vines. This I 
regard as a great advantage, and which could 
not have been secured had the useless foliage 
been permitted to remain and cover the 
ground with its dense shade. 

By this plan I obtained from twenty to 
thirty-five tomatoes from every plant : the 
average, I suppose, was about twenty-five. I 
presume this, when the quality of the fruit is 
considered, to be .a fair yield; at any rate, I 
was satisfied with it, and I saw very little on 
market that equaled it, either in firmness or 
fleshiness. Although the spring .set in very 
late, my tomatoes began to ripen not long 
after the southern article came into market, 
and before any of my neighbors could indulge 
in the home-grown article. It was with some 
pride, (pardonalile, I trust,) that I called the 
attention of chance callers to the handsome 
clusters of every shade, from a delicate green 
to darkest red, that were everywhere visible. 
It is true that before they began to ripen, the 
absence of foliage seenud at first sight to con- 
vey the idea that the vines were more thrifty 
than prolific, and my attention was called to 
this fact often enough, liut I invariably asked 
the critic to count the nundjer on a single vine, 
when he, too, came to the conclusion that 
twenty-live tomatoes was, jierhaps, as large a 
yield as was usually realized from vines that 
were permitted to grow up without support, 
only to tumble down and cover three or four 
square yards of garden ground planted with 
Other vegetables. 



I do not think the foregoing was a fair test 
of this plan. My ground is not favorably loca- 
ted. Its eastern boundry isa high board fence, 
winch prevents the sun from reaching the 
plants at that end at an early hour, while on 
the western side is a stable which obstructs 
the sun after two o'clock in the afternoon. 
With all these drawbacks, one plant attained 
a length often feet, and bore several clusters 
of line fruit within twelve (U' fifteen inches of 
the top. The severest i)ruuing did not appear 
to interfere with the growth, either of the 
vines or fruit. I feid assured that had the en- 
tire foliage been left on them, the result would 
have liicu nuich inferior tomatoes, as well as 
much lalrr ones. The free access of sunlight 
to the soil stimulated the growthof the plants, 
and its access to the growing fruit was equally 
influential in giving color and flavor to it. In 
a more favorable locality au<l better soil, muidi 
better results nnghl rea.sonable be expected. — 
F. li. U., Ldncaster, Pa. 



For T»F. I.ANCARTEH FARMCB. 

BEES AND BEE HIVES. 

Your Faumer is always a welcome visitor — 
full of information of a useful character, if 
liropcrly applied. Several corresiiondeufs have 
given tlH-ir views on 15ec Culture, and I ask a 
small jilacc in yom- colunms for a few words 
on the same subject. I have studied the nature 
of Bees for many years. It re(iuires time and 
l)atience, but now 1 think I have Ix-eii ftdly 
l)aid for all my trouble. 

First, then, as to size and shape of hive, also 
surplus honey-ho.x. I find natural swarming 
to be the best, as nature never madc^ a mistake 
in her work. The hives should be made of 
pine, one inch thick, clear of knots, ten and a 
lialf inches s(ptare on the inside, and fifteen 
inches high. In this size the Bees will build 
nine straight combs, and in the fall they will 
contain thirty pounds of honey. Twenty 
pounds will feed the largest stock during seven 
nu)ik,ths of winter. This amount can be, and 
is gathered in from ten to fifteen days during 
the white clover harvest, and I waul the 
balance as a surplus. This I get from one box 
on the top of the hive, which holds fifty 
pounds, and I seldom fail to get them full. I 
remove them in .September, therefore the bees 
are ann<iycd only once; but when small boxes, 
containing oidy five or six pounds are used, 
they are required to be removed as soon as 
full, which will be every five or six days. 
Then there is as much time lost in getting the 
boxes cleaned and all the corners puttied, 
ready for work, as it takes to fill them. Count 
this lost time of the bees and you will find 
yourself minus at least twenty pounds of 
iioney, besides the frequent disturbing and 
annoyance you cause them. 

My hives are plain, with four cross sticks to 
support the combs. The boxescontain movable 
frames, one inch and three-sixteenths wide, 
and a ipiarter of an inch space between for 
room for travel. Now, with a little melted 
Ijeeswax on the end of a stiff feather, draw a 
line along the middle of the toji and two ends 
of each frame, and the bees will wall on to this 
and fill each frame with a straight worked 
comb, and each frame can be removed with- 
out disturbing the others. 

I learned this in the year 1840, in Valpa- 
raiso, Chili, on board a (ierman sliii), which 
carried fifty stock on board, bound for San 
Francisco. I took down the model in my 
diary, and on my return home adopted the 
jilan, and have never desired a change. ' In 
the winter I always put on the boxes, leaving 
the passage way open, so that the sweat from 
the bees niay pass ui)and evaporate, otherwi.se 
it would drop to the bottom and form ice, and 
in time freeze thein. AVhen new pollen is to 
be had I shut them off from the box by ii;iss- 
inga ]iiece of tin between the hive and the 
box, until the first swarm comes off. I then re- 
move the tin that they may go up and fill with 
Iioney. believing it to be worth more than the 
.second swarming, as this is a preventive, 
having space for Ih'cs and room for work. 

I have received many solicitations to pur- 



chase Italian queens, or entire hives. I once 
did i)ureliase a hive at a big figuif, and had it 
two years, and I never got either a swarm or 
any surplus honey ; but In-fore killing them I 
hybridized my American black bee, whicli I 
think is an improvement. I came to the con- 
clusion that the Italian Ih'cs are like the 
" natives ;" so long as they have a dollar they 
will not work to accunndate a .store, and after 
the hive is full they will not gather any sur- 
plus.— M'm. I. Pijlc, Wcsl Clicster, March 
lllh, 187G. 



For The I.ancartku Fauhcb. 
THE HUMMING BIRD. 

On reading the interesting article on the 
nature of the lliunming bird, in TlIK Fahmku 
for this month, I notice dilfereiil opinions in 
regard to their mode of living, breeding anil 
the size of the bird. I think their foinl is in- 
sects taken from the flowers and sonirtinics 
from spider webs. In confirmation of this 1 
send you a tVather taken from the tail of a 
Humming bird, which 1 extracted from a 
spider's web in ('hili. South America, twenty- 
four years ago. The bird had been caught in 
tlie web just as I came to a llower liusli in full 
bloom, and in the bush was the spider's wel). 
The spider was throwing his coils around tlio 
bird, which was struggling hard to free itself. 
With a stick I set the spider off and relea.st-il 
the bird. I then knocked the insect on Iho 
grouuil. It "hissed" at me and swelled up 
as large as .a toad. It wa,s as black as coal, 
except its legs, which were brown and very 
long. I think it could stand at least four inches 
from the ground. I killed it, aud then relieved 
the bird of its netting, which was ahnosl a.s 
strong as thread. I then drew the only llirec 
feallu'i-s which composed its lieaiiliful tail. 
The middle one was stiff and of a browncolor ; 
the other two (one of whidi I send you,) were 
of a snowy white, although, as 1 liave had 
them since ls."):i, they have become somewhat 
discolored. The one I send you was a little 
longer (the length of the barnd) say a quarter 
of an inch. The bird was a chocolate color in 
the shade, with blue neck and green liead ; in 
the sun it would change colors or shades. After 
the tail was out there was not much of it— not 
much larger than a small humlile liee. It is 
called (iu((iiiaiiiliirnra,i<Vii rare variety of the 
Iluinming bird. As I brought this feather 
from a foreign country, procuring it from 
the tail of the smallest meml)er of the feathered 
tribe, and have preserved it since 18.")2, 1 
thought you might consider it something of a 
curiosity. — Wm. I. Pyle, Wtsl Clttster, March 
2U«/i, 1870. 

« 

For The Lahcakteb FABMKn. 
TRANSPLANTING HARDY TREES, &c. 

April is the chosen month of spring for 
transplanting hardy trees, shrubs, lierbaceou.s 
llowers and iiereunial vegetables, such its 
roots of rhubarb, asjiaragiis, hoi-se radish, 
&c.; lieavy loams sliould be well stirred .iml 
finely broken to put about the roots in tran.s- 
planting. The holes should be larger than the 
extent of the roots, so that they will all be 
spread out in their natural positions. If the 
farmers of Lancaster county could ])erceivo 
how much they are favored with good soil, 
good clinrite, and tlu- line rolling lay of their 
lands for the cultureof liirdy tree fruits, tliey 
woulil soon make themselves and their county 
famous for choice fruits. The farnu-rs of ( 'lies- 
ter and Delaware counties are more advanced 
in fruit culture, though less favored in soil, 
climate, &e. It is not too late now to Ix-giii. 

In plaiiliiig ornamental triH'sand .shrublHTy, 
the deciduous species should lie .set out first, 
and as soon as frosts are over and soil fit to 
dig in. Kver-rreens can be transplanted later; 
yes, in May. Hardy herbaceous llowei-s .should 
be planted early, and the more tendiT species 
can be set out in May and .June. — IIorluMUi. 



Ask Toi'n NEiniiiioR to otiliscrllK" for Tun L*y- 
CASTKii KviiMKii. It ih wiirtti tell ttmcs the ro8l to 
any farmer, ijanleiior, <ir fruit irrower. Tills Is lliu 
teslinioiiy uf some of tliu best practical mcu is Ibo 
couulry. 



60 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[April, 



For The Lancaster Fabmbb. 
WHAT CAUSES HONEY-DEW ?* 

There has been much speculation about 
honey-dew, and as yet no settled conclusion 
arrived at. There has been seen falling from 
above a moisture or a dew which is sweet to 
the taste: hence its name, honey-dew. As it 
cannot come from nothing, we conclude it is 
the result of sonieiliinfj, and below will be found 
what seems to the writer as a probable cause. 

It is a well known law of nature, that vapor 
is constantly arising from the surftice, and 
ascends to a colder strata of air, when it be- 
comes condensed and falls in the form of rain 
and dew. It is also well known that tlowers 
of the fields, forests, gardens, and widespread 
prairies, are constantly throwingoff an aroma, 
a line etherealized essence, which no doubt 
arises and becomes condensed like the vapors, 
and falls, the same as rain and dew. 

We cannot conceive from whence comes its 
sweetness, unless from this cause. — A. Allen 
iVoe, Lancaster, Pa., March 10, 1876. 



OUR PARIS LETTER. 



Farming on the Continent of Europe. 

CorrespondeDce of The Lancaster Farmer. 

PAitis, April 1, 1S76. 

INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATUBE ON MILK AND 
BUTTER. 

M. Tisserand having visitpd the dairy districts in 
tlie vicinity of tlie Baltic, draws attention to the ad- 
vantages to be gained by the conservation of milk, 
the preparation of butter and tlie making of cheese 
at lower temperatures than what are generally em- 
ployed. France, and perhaps other countries as well, 
fail to enjoy all the advantages in butter-making that 
the farmers of Denmark and Sweden reap by the 
adoption of a lower scale of temperature. In France 
It is believed that, in order to obtain good cream and 
good butter, the temperature ought to be maintained 
between 5:^ and .55 degrees Fahrenheit ; below this, 
the cream, it is alleged, will not mount. M. Tisser- 
and has experimented on milk, fresh from the cow, 
at temperatures varying from 41, 5U and ilo degrees, 
pemiiug 'M and liG hours, and found that the cream 
rose most rapidly as the temperature approached 
most to o3 degrees ; that the volume of cream ob- 
tained was greater, the yield of butter superior, and 
the quality of cheese and butter peculiarly fine. 
There is nothing surprising in all this ; it is only 
natural that cold should act on milk as it does on 
beer, wine and sueli fermentable liquids, by conserv- 
ing and ameliorating, them, by preventing those 
changes due to the action of the agents of fermenta- 
tion. The excellence of Vienna beer is owing to its 
being faljricated at a very low temperature. In the 
north of Eurojie milk Is kept at a temperature very 
low by means of ice, and the ice is preserved in 
trenches for summer use. Thus there is not a little 
ceouomj' in dispensing with fuel and its apparatus 
for heating. Milk cooled down to 37 or 39 degrees, 
by means of a running stream of spring water, will, 
according to M. Tisserand's experiments, yield 10 per 
cent, more butter than when maintained at a tem- 
perature of 57 degrees. M. Dahl, of Norway, ob- 
tains 17 ounces of butter from 13 quarts of milk, 
churned at 37 to 39 degrees, while 13 quarts were re- 
(juired to produce the same quantity of butter when 
the temperature was maintained at (ii degrees. It is 
owing to this peculiar method of preparation that 
Denmark is enabled to export butter to China and 
Japan . One drop of milk contains 45,000 globules of 
various dimensions, the largest being fewest in num- 
ber. These globules, consisting of fatty matter, re- 
semble a sky clustered with stars, and only occupy 7 
or 8 per cent, of the volume in which they move ; be- 
ing lighter than the serum in which they float, they 
mount to the surface, the largest globules first, and 
form cream. In Denmark the milk is placed in 
block-tin vases twenty inches deep and sixteen iu 
diameter ; these are placed in a reservoir, where 
water is constantly running, and to which ice can be 
added. 

THE GOVERNMENT SHOW OF FAT STOCK. 

The Fat Stock Show just held in the Palace of In- 
dustry, under governmental auspices, marks a not- 
able progress over that of last year, both in general 
entries and the symmetry of the animals. The first 
cattle show iu France dates from the year 1S44. The 
display of sheep was above all remarkably excellent. 
This year, also, bulls, rams and boars were admitted 
for the first, time, and although no prizes were 
awarded, the ela.ssification by a tried jury must tell 
by drawing the attention of breeders to those points 
recognized as superior, embodying thus sound ad- 
vice for all whom it may concern. There were some 
excellent specimens of the White Cliarolais and the 

"See page 49 of this uumber of The Farmer. 



Red Breton, as well as of that splendid race, both as 
to form and finenessof skin, the Charolais-Nivernais. 
In rams, the Merino took the lead, and perhaps next 
its crosses. The Shropshire-dowu and the Disbley- 
merino had very fine representatives, some weighing 
200 iJounds, and exhibited what is considered the 
ideal of form — absence of horns, short neck, and con- 
sequently chest well developed. The display of 
poultry was very beautiful, and a cock and five hens, 
belonging to the Crevecoeur race, which obtained the 
prix (V?tonnenr, looked superb in their jet-black 
plumage and tuft. The dead poultry were monster 
masses of grease. In fat stock, a Charolais-Durham, 
etc., weighing IS cwt., .and aged 34 months, obtained 
the first prizes, as did also a lot of three sheep, aged 
S months and 15 days, weighing collectively 4'.2' cwt. ; 
in pigs, a Yorkshire-Berkshire-Normand animal, 
aged 10 months, weighed 4J^ cwt. 

THE STANDARD FRENCH CATTLE SHOW. 

The principal fat cattle show in France is that which 
has recently taken place at Nevers; it is, in a way, 
the standard for the country. What the breeders 
and reai'crs seek, is not an animal excessively fat, for 
such would be objectionable, but an increase in tlie 
saleable meat, of good quality, tender and juicy, with 
the fat spotted, as it were, throughout the lean. In 
place, as formerly, of having only a yield of 50 per 
cent, of meat, as much as 65 and even 70 per cent, is 
now obtained, the skin, tallow, offal, &e., being thus 
reduced to 30 [ler cent. This will not diminish, how- 
ever, the price of meat, because persons who for- 
merly eat it but twice in the year, consume it at pres- 
eut every day. In the neighborhood of Nevers, the 
rent of pasture land has risen nearly flve-fold in 
twelve years — what was fr.l2 per acre is now 60. 
The locality has a special race of stock, the Nii'crnain, 
which is the product of successive crossings of the 
white Charolais with white Durhams. There is a 
large business carried on in the fattening of cows, a 
proof that the prejudice against that kind of meat — 
never a rational one, is on the decline. As a general 
rule, animals of a mean size are preferred by French 
butchers ; large races do not bring so high a price as 
average ones ; and three sheep, weighing 90 pounds 
each, are more profitable than one of 330 pounds. 

TELLIER'S new process of preserving MEAT 
FRESH. 

It is in this month that the company formed to work 
the Tellier process of preservation of meat in a fresh 
state, will despatch its first specially fitted up ship to 
La Plata. The process is this : The germs of de- 
composition are killed by a temperature of 32 degrees, 
and live only between one varying from 43 to 48 de- 
grees. Tellier, by means of inethylie ether, h.as con- 
served meat perfectly fresh and savory, save a loss of 
10 per cent, in weight, for .57 days, the ether main- 
taining the temperature at the freezing point and dry 
by the aid of ingenious generating cold machinery. 
France consumes 4,000 tons of fresh meat daily, and 
the company expects to add thereto by 100 tons, so 
the competition cannot frighten farmers, for the pres- 
ent, at least. The voyage from La Plata to France 
is expected to he m.ade in at most 30 days. The ani- 
mals will cost but fr.70 at the port of shipping, near 
which they will be slaughtered. 

SUBSTITUTE for CLIPPING HORSES IN AUTUMN. 

M. Veterinary Surgeon Felizet recommends that 
instead of clipping working horses in autumn, a good 
shining coat, free from skin dust, can be secured by 
giving the horses, from the middle of September, 
either alone or mixed with their evening feed of oats, 
one-tenth of a quart of bruised hemp seed, and the 
same quantity of buckwheat in its natural state. 

ECONOMICAL FEEDING OF STOCK. 

Very minute attention is being given to the econo- 
mical feeding of stock. For their sustenance only, 
the food ought to be in proportion to the one-sixty-sixth 
of their weight. It must also be borne in mind that 
the consumption is not so much in relation to the 
animal's weight as to the capacity of its chest, and 
that two animals, each 600 pounds in weight, will 
consume a little more than a single animal of 1,200. 
In the ease of draught animals, their rations ouglit to 
be doubled for every twelve hours of work, taking 
hay as the type of nutrition. Of course, a dietary 
wholly consisting of hay is not to be thought of, but 
grains substituted pro rata. In the case of growing 
animals, in addition to their sustenance ration, they 
will require 14 pounds of forage to add one pound to 
their weight. For fattening, 10 pounds of hay added 
to the ordinary feed, will prodpee one pound of meat, 
and a sujipleinental ration of one pound of food will 
yield an increase of one pint in the milk, provided the 
cow be of a good milking breed ; if not, the aug- 
mented food will only fatten. A point not to be over- 
looked, is to have a trustworthy cow herd, who will 
possess some clear ideas respecting the necessity of 
feeding animals at fixetl hours, and duly measuring 
their rations. He ought to exclude all damaged food, 
or adopt the usual means for ameliorating it, never 
forcing an appetite. 

THE PRESERVATION OF GREEN FODDER. 
M. Gotfart, who is one of the apostles of the move- 
ment in favor of the preservation of green maize for 
winter and spring feeding, asserts that he has received 



thousands of letters from his countrymen and foreign- 
ers, testifying to their success, and craving for more 
information. A few items on this important topic. 
The Giant Maize, or Caragua, though the seed has 
never been imiiorted from Nicaragua, is the variety to 
sow. It yields as much as 70 tons per acre. M. 
GofTarl cuts his green maize into lengths of four 
inches, by steam and hand machines. He has sup- 
pressed the angles in the trenches, and since the ends 
of the pit are oblong, the maize suffers less deteriora- 
tion. He has also employed portable doors, when the 
pits are opened, to take out the forage. This plant letter 
excludes the air. He pitted two tons of chopped green 
rye the 8th of last May, and opened the pits the fol- 
lowing September, when the cattle eat the rye the 
same as green maize then supplied to them. All green 
fodder can be similarly preserved in an uncut as well 
as in a chopped state. 

MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 

Much conversation has since a year taken place 
relative to the Telliez process for cultivating pota- 
toes. The tubers were planted iu August, and were 
ripe in .January. The agricultural society deputed one 
of itsmembers to test the experiment. He followedex- 
actly the instructions of M. Telliez, and with the tubers 
supplied by him, planting others in a like manner. 
The sample tubers vegetated, and the produce from 
six tubers just raked up, was less than half a pint, the 
potatoes not being much larger than hazelnuts. The 
other tubers planted did not vegetate at all. 

As liay is scarce this year, farmers substitute cut 
straw, steeping it with some bran for twelve hours 
with ordinary cut roots. When potatoes are employed, 
such ought to be either cooked or fermented. 

The subject of planting trees, chiefiy poplars, on the 
roadsides, is strongly opposed in many localities by 
the owners of property in the vicinity of the trees; the 
roots stretching into the neighboring land feed in a 
soil where they have no right. The state, on an ave- 
rage, nets one franc per annum by the prunings on 
each tree — proprietors estimating their loss at two 
francs. 



OUR FARMERS IN COUNCIL. 



Proceedings of the Agricultural and Horticul- 
tural Society — Cultivation of Wheat — 
Selection of Fruits — How to 
take Care of Our Lawns. 

The regular monthly meeting of the Lancaster 
County Agricultural and Horticultural Society was 
held in the. rooms of the Athen«um on Monday, 
April 3rd, inst., the President, Calvin Cooper, in the 
chair. On account of the weather the attendance 
was very small. 

Tlie committee appointed by the chair, at the last 
meeting, to report the best variety of apple trees for 
planting, made their report. Tlie committee con- 
sisted of M. D. Kendig, of Manor; H. H. Engle, of 
Marietta, and Casper Hiller, of Conestoga. The re- 
port consisted of two parts, the following being writ- 
ten by Casper Ililler, who was unable to be present, 
and the latter by the other two members of the com- 
mittee : 

Best Variety of Apple Trees for Planting. 

The task that has been laid on your committee is 
by no means an easy one. Thirty years' experience, 
to a close observer and experimentalist, might enable 
him to say pretty conclusively what is worthy of plant- 
ing on his own patch ; but, if he has also been a close 
observer, he has noticed that what is good with him 
is often worthless iu another part of tlie county, and 
often so on his neighbor's land. Different soils, dif- 
ferent elevations, different exposures, &c., make 
much difference in varieties. The list lierewith pre- 
sented may, from these causes, not prove satisfactory 
to all, but embraces such varieties as have a general 
reputation for good, or have proven satisfactory to 
your eoniniittee : 

Early Su.vimer Varieties : All Summer, Red 
Astracan, Sine Qua Non. 

Late Summer Varieties: Benoni, Mellinger, 
Jeffries, Townsend. 

Fall Varieties : Gravenstein,Hubbardston None- 
such, Smokehouse, Jersey Sweet. 

Winter Varieties : Baldwin, Dominie, Falla- 
water, Greist's Wiuter, Belmont, Smith's Cider, York 
Imperial. 

Tlie committee appointed at the last meeting to 
report on some of the best varieties of apples for 
cultivation in this vicinity, would recommend the fol- 
lowing as our choice, in order of precedence, confining 
ourselves to six varieties of each as being ample : 

Summer — All Summer, Mellinger, Strawberry, 
Duchess of Oldenburg, Garrettsou's Early Primate. 

Fall — Fall Pipjiin, Jeffries, Gravenstein, Porter, 
Mai'len's Blush, Smoliehouse. 

Winter — K. I. Greening, Hubbardston. 

Best Keepers — Smith's Cider, York Imperial, 
Golden Russet, Creek. 

There are others of equjil value, but would dis. 
courage running into too many varieties, except for 
the purpose of testing. 

On .account of the slim .attendance, Mr. MeComsey 
moved that the reports be laid on the table for dis- 



J 



1876.J 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



61 



cussion at the next nipptine, when he had no iloubl 
Oierc would ho a hn-fici- attendance. So ordered. 
Condition of the Crops. 
ReiKirts of crops Ijcinir next in order, Mr. Powuall, 
of .Sadbhnry, t-aid that tli- wheal at the close of 
winter looked better than last fall. The Koltz wheat 
lias taken the place of the Mediterranean varieties. 
It ajipears to frive fjrcat satisfaction, and he thinks it 
{rivi'? more wheat and straw than any olhcr kind of 
wheat. The clover looks very poor, is thinly set, but 
there is a chance for inipiovenient. 

KiMiiiAiM lloovEK saiil that in .Manheini and Kast 
Ilempticld townships the wheat lields dti not look as 
promising: as on previous occasions. The Koltz wheat 
appears to stand the freezing htst. The other varie- 
ties of wheat sown appear to be gettin/i; less, and 
here and there in the ticlds can be seen vacant spots. 
lie could not tell llie cause of this. Tlie (jrass looks 
proniisinir. The clover is frozen out, in souk' places 
roots and all. This is the ease all over his section of 
the county. During; the last cold snap the peach 
blossoms and yrapes do not appear to have been in- 
jured. If this is the ease we will have u largo crop 
of peaches anil t;rapes. 

Mautin Kkndio, of Manor, said the crops in his 
neighborhood were about the same us those spoken 
of by Messrs. I'ownall and Hoover. 

John Ilini'.u said that the peaeh trees lying on 
high ground wci'e not injured by the late cold snap. 
Those that were in low grounds were invariably 
found frozen. 

Mu. Cooi'EK, the President, said that as far as he 
had examined, he found all of the peach blossonis 
frozen . 

Mk. I'ownali. said that the peaeh growers in bis 
neighborhood reported some peach blossoms frozen 
that were in high places. 

Mr. Mc'CoMSKV callctl the attention of the Society 
to an article on luirrowing wheat in spring, which he 
had clipped from the I'uiinlri/ Gciillinuui.. It was a 
matter he had never heard of bidorc, and as it claimed 
to increase the crop from II) to 1.5 liusbels to the acre, 
he thought it a matter that should attract the atten- 
ti(tn of all engaged in fai*ming pursuits. Hi: hoped 
that alter the article was read every farmer would 
test the matter, aial give the result of his experience 
to the ^^oeie^y. The article was tlu'n read by one of 
the members of the press present, and is as follows : 
Harrowing Wheat in Spring. 
The advantage ol" harrtiwing wheat lands thor- 
oughly in the spi'ing, as soon as the groinal lu'comes 
dry enough to prevent the horses frimi sinking into 
it, is known to many farmers who have practiced it, 
but is unknown to the majority. Wheat is usually 
sown in Sei)tendier, upon wcll-preiKired land. This 
laud is left there sutijeet to all the slornjs of rain and 
snow, and the dry weather in succeeding spring, un- 
til after the wheat is harvested. In conse(iuenee,tho 
land becomes in May and June nearly as hard as a 
nu'atlow. At a seasoil of the year when the plants 
are in the giealcst vigor o( growtii, the laml is so 
hard as not to giveone-half the nouiishnient it would 
if kept iiudlow by anyjirocess. Suppose, for in.stanee, 
corn should be planted in the fall, under similar con- 
ditions with wheal, and that the uinterdid not injure 
it; and tliat it were left without eultivaliou of any 
sort until liarvesled— it is evident that the yield would 
be diminished over one-hall ; in fact, the yield would 
jjrobably be so light and poor as to be almost worth- 
less. 

Now, wheat, from many experiments in its cultiva- 
tion by hand in Kngland, shows as great sensitive- 
ness to cultivation as corn — the yield, by care'l'ul 
band eidtivation, being increa.scd to (iO, and, in some 
instances, SO bushels per acre. Now, a thorough 
harrow lug of w heat in the spring, in a very inexpen- 
sive manner performs the curtivation nearly as well 
as when done by hand. If the crust formed by the 
winter snows and spring rains is thoroughly broken, 
and the ground to the dejith of two or more inches 
well pulverized, the ell'eet upon the wheat is almost 
like magic. It starts mto the most vigorous growth, 
and in a few weeks has nearly or quite doubled in 
size the wheat not harrowed. In pieces of wheat 
which have come under the writer's observation, 
w bieb w ere harrowed in strips — that is, one strip not 
harrowed at all, and other strips on each side thor- 
oughly harrowed— iu the early part of .lune, the har- 
rowed wheat stood fully one loot higher than tlieuu- 
liarrowcd at each side, and in every way was strik- 
ingly ranker and more vigorous. -Mr. Kobert G. 
Swan, of bo.se Hill farm, tieneva, N. Y., who has 
heavy clay land, says he has harrowed his wheat for 
four years with the Thomas harrow, and tinds the 
yield to be inereased fully teu bushels per aero. 
Byram Moulton, of Alexander, (ieneseo county, N. Y., 
harvested from lifly acres 1,I)UU liusliels of wheat. 
His neighbors oidy obtaiueil about ten Imshels jier 
acre. The only ilitlcrence in land or treatment was 
that .Moulton's wheal was thoroughly harrowed with 
the same implemeuis in the spring, aud his neigh- 
bors' wa.s not. 

The ettect produced by harrowing barley and oats, 
after they have obtained a growth of lour or live 
inches, is equally as marked. 1 have observcil nujiiy 
instances where lully twenty bushels per acre in- 
crease, in cousequeuee of thorough harrow ing. w as 
Obtained. 



These facts and many others of sindlar character 
show clearly the great profit which farnuTs may de- 
rive from a thoroUL'li cultivation by harrtiwing of 
wheal, oats, barley and other sown crops. 

Mr. D. Smevcii knew of a L'cntleman In York 
county who cultivated his wheat, the result of which 
was a gain of 10 or 12 bushels to the acre. 

.Mr. Ken Dili said that the Thomas harrows referred 
loin XW article rcail, were entirely dillereiil from 
tho.se used around this jiarl of the country. In our 
harrows the spikes run directly Ihrouu'h the beam; 
in the'rhonias harrow they are bent back to an an- 
gle of about forty-live degrees. They iloii't cut 
clean throiiirh like ours, but merely go over the 
ground, pnlverizlni; it very nicely. He believed If 
wheat was cultivated, it would prove iK'nellcial. 

Mr. .MeC'oMsEV : All Kuininer erojis depend on cul- 
tivation to a great extent. As such was the case, he 
could not see why the same would iioi hold good in 
wheat. Hinielicved there was something in it, and 
advised all present to spend a day in a small patch 
near the house, using a hoc instead <if a harrow. 

.Mr. Ki'iiuAiM IloovEic had read an article' several 
years ago, which stated that a geiillcmaii in Kiii:land 
went over his wheal lield with a large brush, which 
loosed up the soil around the roots ofthe wheat to 
some extent. The result was a large increase of 
wheat. If the farmers had no harrow, they might 
lake a larice brush, as did Ibis irenlleiiian in Km,'- 
land. ?'or exiierimenling on a small patch, hewould 
prefer a rake to the hoe. If corn, potatoes and to- 
bacco could he raised successfully by cultivation, he 
could see no reason why wheat coiiM not. 

Mu. PowNAi.i, did not bi'lieve nuieh In harrowing 
wheat, as the harrow would destroy the young grass. 
Timothy and clover arc generally sown ibout the time 
you would do the harrowing, and he believed the 
grass was worth more than the increase of wheat you 
would derive by the harrowing. If you did not sow 
grass he would be in favor of harrowing the wheat. 

Mk. Cooi'EU received a small bag of grain from 
Mii'liigan some years ago which he sowed about 
twenty-four itiehes apart. In the spring he harrowe<! 
over the ground twice, and the result was a large in- 
crease of gr.ain, there being a perfect mass of heads, 
with large grains. The harrow he used was a small 
one, eighteen inches wide, and he harrowed the 
ground erossways. He believed there is room for a 
great deal of iniprovemeiit. 

How to take care of our Lawns. 

" Our lawns and how to take care of them," was 
the next subject brought before the .Society. 

Mk. Kendio believed this was a subject that would 
attract every one if it was brought liefore the people 
in a proper shaiie. Every family should have a yard, 
and have it laid out in walks and planted with trees, 
shrubbery and llowers. He ]ioinIed out the many 
advantages and pleasures derived from such a jilaee, 
aud said that in arranging a front yard he would lay 
out a tlagstone walk from thedoortothe gate, around 
the edges of which he woiilil have a llower bed. In 
different jiarts id' the yard he would plant all kinds 
of clioiee fruit and ornamental trees, and over the 
walk he would I'rect a gra|)e-arbor. 

KiMiKAiM IloovEU believed in having trees and 
shrubbery in the yards. Kvery person should plant 
theiii ; if not for their own benelil , for that of others. 
On the trees we should build bird houses, and encour- 
age, instead of drive the birds away, as some farmers 
do. The insects they destroy ari' worth far more than 
the little fruit tlie\' eat. In regard to the making of 
walks, he did not think curbstones should be used, as 
they injured the scythes when you cut the grass. A 
pebble walk is very nice, and much iireferred. A 
]il.iee which has a yard well jjlanted with fruits and 
llowers is always attractive, and when olfered forsalo 
will enhance the value thereof greatly. .\ few hours 
each day spent in planting llowers, liuit aud orna- 
mental trees, will soon bring out a dull yard. This 
can be done after dinner, an hour w'hieli is frequently 
sjieiit in sleeji by the farmer. 

.Mk. PiiWNAi.L believed in ornamenting our yards. 
In traveling with friends, and when they would pass 
a place where the yards were laid out in trees and 
llowers, they were sure to ask him, " Who lives 
there f" The presence of trtes and llowers makes a 
home look cozy ami comfortabkr. In making a walk 
ho would iiut lime on the ground before the pebbles 
were put dow n in order to kill the grass. Where this 
is done, grass will not grow for live or six years. 
Evergreens should be planted on the north and south 
ends of the buildings. They grow very last, and 
soon become a shade and protection to the house. 

The subject eliciting no further disciLssion, was, on 
motion of .Mr. MeConisey, deferred for lurllier dis- 
cussion at the next meeting. 

Mr. E. U.llKKsiiEV, of Columbia, was a|)polntcd 
by the chair to prepare an essay on the subject lor the 
ne.vt meeting. 

JlH. .Mc'CovsEV was also requested to pref)arc an 
essay for the next meeliiig, the subject to be selected 
by the genlleiuau himself. 

Entomological — Brown Tree-Borer. 
A bottle id' worms and a ])iei-e of an ap[ile tree was 
presented to the society by .Mr. I'ownall. The tree 
was a tlirifly grower and was blown down during the 
late .storm, 'fhe worms, etc., are thus described by 
Prol. S. S. Kathvou : 



The nccompanylnir bottle of worms are the larixt 
ofthe " Brown Tree-Horer," Vartindrn ry/ii/wr, of one 
and two years old. The tree was about eighteen 
Inches in diameter, part of a transverse section of 
which exhibits the locality of the l<ii-ri( in the trunk, 
mill the niaiiner In which they have been 0|>eraling 
In it. This section was cut about two feel from the 
ground, and It will be seen that the borers have con- 
lined their o|K'rallons, at the height nientioniil, ex- 
clusively to the heart ; the surrounding wikmI being 
perfectly Intact and solid. At the earlh-buse of the 
tree arc )H-rforatlons through which the young grubs 
seem to have entered, and for a short distance iipwunt 
their burrows are nearer the outer surface; but 
higher up they seem to have all congrcgaleil In the 
heart. In which there were more lliun (me hundred 
liulivlduals of various sizes. As there are no hori- 
zontal perforations anywhere through which the mu- 
lure beelles could have esea|H'il, If any have eKcu|H-d 
al all, it must have beenthroiigh the aperture U'low ; 
but, as It would have re(|ulre<l one year yet iH-furo 
the largest of these lamr nnilured, I Infer thul none 
have yet been traiisl'ormed to the beetle state, and 
that egirs were probably only de|HisHed In ISTI and 
1S7.5. The tree being very large, did mil seem to be 
niiiterially Injured by the preeeiice of the woriiiB. 

In addition to the foregoing allow me to say, lliat 
this apple tree was blown down by the violent equl- 
noetial storm of .March last; that {irevious I41 sawing; 
thetrunk Into sections— liceonling In .Mr. I'liwnuU's 
statement — there was no external Indicalion thul the 
heart was unsound, or that it hud been Infesteil by 
"borers" at all; lair was there anything In Its gen- 
eral health t<i lead to such u sup|Hisltion. 1 do not 
state (Misitlvely that the tari'ir were those of I'ariui. 
(Irii, and If so, that they were of the hmtIcs (jlnUr, 
as we have several Bpecics, hut I have found gliUier 
the most common. I huve often found Varandra In 
decayed wood, and on one occasion, where the trunk 
of a tree (an oak) had been broken oil' by u tlorni, 1 
found the heart decayed, [KTloratcd, and eonlalnlng 
larrtf similar to those exhibited by .Mr. Pownall, and 
In the dcbrl.s of the hollow stump I found many frag- 
ments, as well as whole siiecimeiis, ImiiIi living ami 
dead, of J'nruiutrit t/taU-r. 1 Iherelore inferred these 
to be similar, if not the very sunie. 1 have never 
found the "strilH'd apple tree borer*' {Sajtcrtt^t Urit' 
tatii) under tlu' same cireunistanees. The heart of 
this tree, for about six inches in diameter, was In u 
state of brown ilecay, ami was perfecily lioiicy- 
conibed with various sized perforalions, according to 
the sizes of the borers, which were from u <|Uarterlo 
three -(quarters of an inch in length, and of corres- 
ponding thickness. 

The while wood surrounding the heart, was |ht- 
fcclly sound, healthy liMiking and sappy. Although 
.Mr. P. took out over a huudred of these Itirvic he did 
not explore the whole trunk — probably he might 
have obtained as many more, 11 not live hiimlred. 
We have always found the larva of the slrl|H-d tiorer 
in indcpendciil burrows, iminedialely under the Ijurk, 
or ill the white wood further in — unless the tree wu« 
a small oiii — ami in pcrpendicnlar position, or nearly 
so. In this instance the galleries were in various dl- 
rcelions — iuT[iendicular, liorizoiiial, and at various 
angles — often one breaking Into unolher, and all 
within the decayeil [yirtiou of the tree. No inalure 
insects, or fragnieiits of the same, were discovered. 
If they exist they will be lound in the stump, but 
very probably lliey had yet malurcd. Subsei|Uently 
a small aperlure was discovered al the base of the 
tree, which was sup[ii^sinl lu have communleutioii 
with the decayed heart. 

Mr. Pownall very justly remarked, "If these are 
the true ajiple tree borer what becomes <if the renuily 
iyi ijoimj ttj'ttf tlu-in \\\\\\ a barbed steel wint f" for 
they are located in the heart, from two to three feel 
from the ground, or any apertup' of ingress. 

These larva', although seemingly not fully de- 
veloped, have tlic general resemblance of the Loiigi- 
coriiia, but the gl<itux of I'araiidra has fur a long 
time been considered itufnunn. 

There being no further business, the society aJ- 
jourued. 



GENERAL MISCELLANY. 



The Best Chickens. 

Not unfrequenlly we are asked which is the liost 
breed of chiekins ; but it is by no means an easy 
question to answer. If we were to ask the same 
question of a dozen men, all having dill'erent bree<ls 
in their fMisscsslon, we should not be surprised to hear 
as many answers as there were men. While men 
dlH'er, and we continue to have so many breeds of 
chickens of sU|ierior quality, it » ill lie vain lo cx|K'ct 
Ihciii lo agree as lo which is the Ih'sI. We are re- 
minded ol the genilcman who said he was glad tliut 
all men were not like lilni, or all would have pre- 
ferred his wife ; but was siH'edily met with the re- 
joinder from another gentleiuan : " And if all were 
like ine, noliody would have wanteil her." 80 with 
the choice of chickens. While some prefer a certain 
breed, and will have no other, others will prefer any 
breed but thul. flu I'uuUnj /jul/tYin coniineiids Ihu 
beauty ofthe Ulaek Spanish, and .Mr. J. Y. BIcknell 
speaks highly of lliein as layers, and as U> Iheir bar 



62 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[April, 



diness. C. Y. Wilson, of Massachusetts, extols the 
Liarht Brahma, ami, while some prefer them of a 
modified age, lie wants them as large as possible, 
and elaims tliat a blindfolded epicure could never 
distinguish the difference in the meat. 

E. S. K. writes to the I'onllrij ^Vorld: 

"As many persons are inquiring what breed of 
fowls is the best for general purposes, permit me to 
Bay, that after fairly trying Leghorns, White Brah- 
mas, Dark Brahmas, and noudans — each variety of 
the best stock that could be obtained — I find that 
Houdans are sujierior to all others. Leghorns pro- 
duce as many eggs as Houdans, but the chickens are 
tough and stringy, compared with Houdan chickens, 
while the hens are no better as setters. Both Light 
and Dark Brahmas have the defect of accumulating 
fat with such facility that, unless great care is exer- 
cised in feeding them, they cease to lay. They also 
have a constant tendency to sit, and the chickens are 
mainly legs after they get too large for broilers. 
Houdans are such restless and persistent foragers 
that an excess of grain tlirown to them does not ren- 
der them lazy." 

But the very thing E. S. K. recommends in the 
Houdans — restlessness — would be considered objec- 
tionable by three-fourths of those choosing a new 
breed, and especially those living in or near towns 
and villages, where they are likely to bother their 
neighbors. 

J. F. King writes the Poultry Aryus: 

" I have fully made up my mind to raise the Brown 
Leghorn in spite of anything. I have tried in the 
course of my exijcrience a great many breeds of 
fowls, and have settled down on Brown Leghorns as 
being the best and the most economic egg producers 
on the list ; and eggs are more profitable to me than 
poultry." 

Mr. King speaks for eggs alone ; and thus we 
might go through the list, some claiming for the 
Games great superiority for the fineness and de- 
licious flavor of the meat, which is generally eon- 
ceded. While we have not even a desire to settle 
the question as to the best, we have a word to those 
Willi wi.sh to improve their chickens on the farm by 
crofssing and grading up, thus avoiding the expense 
of starting anew at fancy prices. Several important 
points should be looked to — such as laying qualities, 
early maturity, large size of body without too great 
length of legs, meat fine, juicy and of good flavor, 
and especially thej' should be liardy. 

Our experience is in favorof the Partridge Cochins, 
but, from our limited knowledge of the Butf Cochins, 
■we believe them about equal — the bodies heavy and 
well featliered and legs short. The Partridge Cochins 
lay well w inter and summer, mature early, are good 
mothers, docile, very hardj , and meat delicious. By 
putting one cock with ten or twelve hens, the flock 
will soon be graded up. These cocks should be ex- 
changed for others, or sold aud others bought, every 
spring, and there need be but little trouble about 
sickness. Two neighbors buying one year can ex- 
change the next. Good cocks can be bought for from 
f 3 to $.5, and the increase in weight alone will doubly 
pay for them the first year. — Jountal of Agriculture. 



Spring Care of Sheep. 

This is a job that is very often neglected, to the 
great inconvenience of the sheep and loss to the 
owner. It takes but a short time for a couple of men 
to go over two or three hundred, and the amount of 
wool saved will more than doubly pay the expense, 
to say nothing about the relief it gives the animal, 
and the saving of trouble afterwards and the risk of 
losing some, for it is not uncommon that the accumu- 
lation of filth causes soreness, which the flies soon 
find out, and in a very short time all will be over 
with those so unfortunate as to become thus affected. 
I have known as many as a half-dozen to be killed in 
this way out of a flock of less than two hundred. 
Warm, wet weather is the most apt to produce these 
results, aud the merino sheep are the most apt to 
give tiouble in case of neglect. 

If the tags are put in the fleece at shearing time, 
care should be taken to have them well washed, as 
it is not an uncommon thing for people to get them- 
eelves into serioustrouble, when through an avaricious 
desire they allow tliem to he put in without this very 
necessary precaution. 1 knew one to lose fifty dol- 
lars and another fort}' dollars in this way. As good 
a plan as any is to leave them out and sell with uu- 
waslied wool ; it saves trouble of washing, aud they 
can be disposed of on their merits. As a rule, a de- 
duction of one-half is asked, wdiich in most cases is 
not too much. 

In handhng sheep care should be taken not to catch 
them by the wool, as is so often done. It is just as 
easy to grab them by the hind leg or around the 
neck, and passing the arms around the body, they 
can be lifted up with ease, (ientleness in handling 
sheep is a very essential thing, and they who practice 
it will be rewarded with quiet flocks. They should 
early learn that they are in no danger from those 
whose business it is to watch over them. 

After a winter with as much rainy weather as there 
has been during the past one, there is danger of sore 
feet, and should the season continue wet, there will 
be more or less in this direction ; and, as is very 



often the case, an oimee of caution is worth a pound 
of cure, and a stitch in time saves nine. The hoofs 
will grow long, and will require trimming, for which 
a sharp knife or a pair of toe-nippers, or both, will 
be needed. If any are lame, they should be exam- 
ined, and if in the least sore, trim well. and apply 
some pure pine tar or a little powdered vitriol, or in 
many instani'es a little salt, well rubbed in, will have 
the desired effect. If foot-rot gets among a fresh lot 
of sheep, it makes sad havoc and quick work. Never 
let a sheep limp a day without knowing the cause, 
and give immediate attention. — M. N. Russell, Ilain- 
moudsHlle, O., March S, 1S7G. — Ger. Telegraph. 



Lambs and Calves. 



Now for the calves and lambs, and there is no in- 
terest with which farmers have to do where the 
" ounce of prevention " pays better than here. Be 
sure and have the cow gaining when the calf is drop- 
ped. Give a warm, dry room, with a good bed for 
"lying in," a light but generous diet afterwards, with 
no ice water ; treat her with gentle kindness, and 
above everything else, keep her from cold draughts 
of air, and you will find that it will pay ever-so-much 
better than doctors and farriers after your cow has 
gotten out of sorts from want of proper care when 
she most needed it. 

A cow that is gaining when she calves, and is taken 
care of at and after the calf is dropped, is almost 
sure to do well ; and such a one is all ready to com- 
mence her season's work of producing butter-stock. 

It has been my invarialile practice, for more than 
twenty years, to feed my cows lightly before calving 
with ears of corn, unless they a-re in good grass ; and 
I have not had one to retain the afterbirth in all that 
time. 

So, too, care pays when the lambs are dropped in 
cold weather. Every man that has a considerable 
flock sliould have two or three small warm pens, into 
each of which he should put three or four sheep a 
few days before they are to lamb ; and if the weather 
is cold he should look after them once or twice in the 
night, and there is really no more need of losing a 
lamb than a calf. 

It is sometimes the case when a sheep has twins 
that she will own but one, unless she or they have 
help. Usually if she is put in a very snug pen im- 
mediately after the lambs are dropped she will accept 
the situation. If one stubbornly refuses to own her 
ofispring, just put her head between two stakes driven 
into the floor of the pen and let her be there. I never 
knew one I could not subdue. By all means have a 
nursing bottle on hand, and feed the lambs just 
enough to keep them hungry and smart ; and if the 
sheep are poor milkers give them shorts and potatoes 
with plenty of salt, sulphur and water. Cut the tails 
pretty short at three days' old, if the lambs are 
smart, but within the first week usually. Keep off the 
ticks and the lamb will be fit to sell in season for the 
dam to get in good order for winter, and a sheep that 
comes to the barn fat is about half wintered. 

" An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure." 
—D. II. Thing, West Mt. Vernon, Me.— Ger. Tel. 



W^hat Will Pay. 



Year after year crops are moved off without re- 
turning anything to the soil. Manures are put under 
the rains and the dropjiing of eaves until they are 
drained of their best material and rendered nearly 
useless. This could be obviated by building cheap 
sheds to cover the manure as thrown from the sta- 
bles. This can be done at a small cost and will pay. 
Winter is not a good time to build, but for such a 
purpose as this it is better to build now than not at 
all. Plaster should also be used in the stables to pre- 
vent the escape of ammonia, and care should be taken 
to keep it in as good condition as possible. If the 
barns aud yards are so situated that the wastings are 
carried off by every rain, a little time with a team, 
plow and scraper, will make a ditch (a broad, open 
one it should be) around the barn on three sides; 
then at all times keep this filled with the trash and 
litter which naturally accumulates about the barn. 
The ditch will hold ' the water, etc., from the yard, 
and cause the straw to rot rapidly and will afford a 
large quantity of good manure. When the manure 
is removed in the sin-ing, the ditch can be filled with 
wheat straw, uj^on which a few bushels of lime has 
been scattered ; then as fast as it rots pile it up in the 
ditch and fill the spaces between each pile with straw, 
and so on. In the fall there will be a fine pile of 
manure, which will renovate the worn out fiefd ; or 
to scatter on the exposed knolls on the wheat field, 
preventing winter killing. Another great waste is 
the large crop of weeds, which each year is allowed 
to go ty seed, and spread all over adjoining farms. 

Using too much hard labor is another wayof wast- 
ing on the farm. Many machines can now be used 
to save ranch of this labor. More horse-powers must 
be used. And after we have raised our crops they 
should larirely be fed out on the farm. It is much 
cheaper to ship corn, oats, etc., in the form of meat 
than to send it in the bulk as raised ; besides tlie 
soil is made richer, instead of constantly reducingits 
producing capacity. — Prairie Farmer. 



Management of Manure. 

A farmer's manure account is the next thing to his 
bank account, and everything that helps one aids the 
other. The old Hearth and Home had, while living, 
an excellent practical contributor, who was famous 
for " hammering away" at the manure heap. Here 
is a scrap from one of his papers, as good now as the 
day it was written : " Where all the stock is kept in 
one large barn, with a manure cellar underneath, 
there is little diflicultyin managing the manure, espe- 
cially if there is a large tank for the spare liquid. 
The main points are to provide sutlicient ventilation, 
so that no deleterious gasses shall penetrate to the 
hay or cattle above, and to use enough material to 
keep the manure from getting wet. On farms where 
considerable straw and cornstalks are used, and 
where the manure is kept out of doors, the main 
point is to get the manure into a compact heai>. 
Where the manure from the cow stables and pig pens 
is thrown out into a small heap by the door, it 
freezes through and no fermentation takes place un- 
til spring ; but if all the manure from all the horses, 
cows, sheep, and pigs is put together in a large, com- 
pact heap, fermentation will set in, and the frost 
will not penetrate more than a few inches on the out- 
side. Our plan is to place the heap in some central 
point and wheel all the manure daily to the heap, 
shake it out, and spread it about the heap ; endeavor 
as much as possible to mix the horse, cow, and pig 
manure together. It is necessary to insist on this 
point, as the men have a great disinclination to spread 
the manure about. If they become negligent, set 
them to turn the whole heap over. This will do the 
manure good, and teach the men a lesson. They will 
will soon learn that a manure heap carefully spread 
out, can be handled than much easier one left in 
small heaps with the cornstalks running from the 
lower barrow to the one above, as a well made load 
of hay can be unloaded with less labor than one built 
without thought or skill. It will pay to manipulate 
with as much care as if you were making a mam- 
moth hot-bed. An hour's work now, when there is 
comparatively little to do, will save two hours' work 
in the busy days of spring. Maimre so managed, if 
the stock is well fed, can be reduced one-half without 
the loss of any fertilizing material. Last year our 
manure so managed was in splendid condition by the 
first of .'Vlay to draw out and spread the ridges for 
mangolds." 



Feeding Poultry. 

It is said that a very common-looking man, and 
one who was supposed to be a very common sort of 
person, found himself in the capital this last Con- 
gress, having been elected a representative from a far 
distant State. Anticipating fun, some old stagers 
asked him what were his sensations on first entering 
so grand a building. He replied, as they thought, in- 
nocently, " he wondered how a man like him.self had 
ever had the luck to get into such a place," but, he 
added, " my second thoughts were still more surjiris- 
ing, for when I looked at you, it was a complete puz- 
zle how you got here." 

We suppose some such feeling as this must be up- 
permost in the minds of many readers on what goes 
as agricultural matter in the rounds of the papers. 
They are often tempted to write, but in their modi'sty 
hold back because they cannot conceive what they 
would like to say could get admission into a popular 
paper ; and thus they wonder still more when they 
seff-the character of the s'.uff that soofteo really finds 
a place there. Often we see paragraphs of this kind 
and wonder how it is th;it they pass as thej' do the 
ej'cs of the editors. 

Here before us is an article on chicken-feeding, 
which is made up from some floating paragrapli so as 
to appear like an original editorial note. We are told 
that the hen that eats the most is the one that pro- 
duces the most — which, in a certain sense, may bo 
true. Building on this, we are assured that one 
bushel of corn will make just twelve and a half 
pounds of eggs, and the paragraph then closes with 
this reflection : " Most farmers have a feeling that 
the corn which is fed to poultry is thrown away. They 
should look upon the transaction as just so much 
grain exchanged for eggs." 

We fancy that most farmers have never learned 
this exact mathematical way of turning corn into 
eggs. Those who have had experience in raising 
fowls know that the best success with them is when 
they are left in a great measure to scratch out their 
own daily bread. To give a fowl all the grain it will 
eat, is the surest way to make it lazy and worthless. 
The active fowl is the healthiest, and good health is 
the first essential of a good layer, as well as of along 
liver. The proper way to treat fowls is to place 
them where they can be encouraged to get their own 
food, only making up what they themselves cannot 
find. — Gcnnantown Telegraph. 



Four thousand eight hundred and forty square 
yards make an acre ; a square mile, six hundred and 
forty acres. To measure an acre, two hundi-ed and 
nine feet on each side make a square acre witliin an 
inch. 



1870.] 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



63 



Don't Chop with a Poor Axe. 

Clioppinirwitliapooraxe is like niowiuK grass or like 
crudlinsf ^rraiii with a cradle tliat is not tit tor use. A 
great many eliopjters \vill hack, /mc/i', hack ail day 
witli an old poor axe, n^;inli: np sullieient iniisele to 
eliop two eords of \V4iod, wliile willi that uhl "stiih" 
not more tlian half a enrd \\ill he ehopp<'iI. It i.*^ the 
worst sort of poliey to eliop with an old and worn- 
out tool, as a chopper with a ;;ood axe, dnrini; a few 
days, will earn more than enous;ii to eaneel the ilitlVr- 
ence between the iniees of a new axe and an old one. 
Choppiusis fatiguing labor, even when a idioppir has 
a good axe. If the steel at the edge of the axe has 
been in use so long that it will not retain a satisfae- 
torv edge, or if the corners have been broken off or 
wtuai away so that the edge is as circular as a small 
wheel, better cast the axe away and procure a new 
one. In caise there is a satifaetory amount of steel 
at the edge, let the i>art of the tool near the cutting 
edge 1)1' grouncl down to a proper thicknt'ss. Hut 
when grinding beware of redui-iiiL' the steel too thin. 
.Many a good axe has been spoili'd simply by bcin^ 
ground too thin near the ctilling I'llge. The steel close 
to the culling edge must be sullicicntly thick to pos- 
sess the necessary strength rci|Uircd to resist the 
strain when the edge is entering hard aiul gnarly 
timlier. When the steel near the cutting edge is 
ground so thin that it is no thicker than a piece of 
paper, no axe can be expected to retain a good cut- 
ting edge. Many choppers suppose that the thinner 
the steel is near "the cutting edge the more rapidly 
they will be able to chop. But there never was a more 
grave mistake. If nothing were re(|uircd when chop- 
ping but to cut oil' the grain of the wood, a vi'ry thin 
axe wonhl be the best. But the jioint of the axe lu-ar 
the edge should be of such a form as to heave out the 
chips as the grain of the timber is severed. In order 
to accomplish this jioint ino.st ctlh'icntly, Ihe cutting 
edge from the front corner to the inside eornersliould 
not he circular more than one-fourth to one-half inch. 
Then the steel should be beveled gradtnilly towards 
each corner from a imint about one inch back of llie 
middle of the cutting edge. If ground in lliis way, 
that peculiar form of the axe will heave out a chip 
at almost every blow. — I'rdclical Fanner. 



Ammonia as a Cure for Snake Bites. 

Several cases of snake bite, in which the value of 
Prof. Ilalford's renii'dy, sulicutancous injection of 
ammonia, has l.iecn demonstrated, have, says the 
Melbourne Ai-i/ii.i, lati'ly occurred in the colony. At 
Seymour, on the 14tli oi' December, a young man, 2(1 
years of age, named Dwyer, was bitten by a snake 
iietween the thumb and the first finger of the right 
hand. The wound was received at 9 o'clock, and no 
treatment was applied until half past eleven, when 
the patient was powerless and almost insensible, 
ammonia was injected into the right arm, when he 
revived at once. He sufl'ered a relapse, but the am- 
monia was again successfully applied, and he ulti- 
mately recovered. 

At Bungaree a young girl was bitten by a snake, 
aial gradually sank into a state of stupor. Two hours 
and a half after she was bitten animoina was inject- 
ed. Relief was immediately obtained and the girl 
rapidly recovered. 

A third ease happened on the -\eheron, eleven miles 
from .\lexandria, where a little girl two years of age, 
the daught<'r of a farmer named Doak, was bitten by 
a snake just above the ankle of tlie left foot. Symp- 
toms of complete coma were setting in when the am- 
monia injeetiim was used w ith nuigical cHect. The 
child sat upright and became cpiite lively. A relapse 
oei'urring, a second injection was made^ith as great 
elfeet as before, and the child from that time con- 
tinned to improve until her recovery. 

Another case is mentioned of a native woman on 
the Wirretia station, .South Australia, who was bit- 
ten by a snake on the ankle. She became uncon- 
scious, and ttie surface of the body was turiung cold 
when ammonia was injected. The woman at once 
revived and recovered. — I'all Mall Gazelle. 



Hints about Meat. 



The leg of mutton is the most profitable joint, con- 
taining most solid meat. The neck is an extravagant 
joint, half the weight consislingof bone and fat. The 
shouhlcr has also much waste in boiu'. The brea,xt 
docs w ell for dinner, nicely stutled ; it is much cheaper 
than other joints. Sirloins and ribs of meat are very 
extravagant joints, from the weight of bone. The 
roasting side of the round pari of the buttock, and 
the part called the "toiiside," are the most profitable 
family eating. The nujusc buttock is used for stew- 
ing-, shin is used for soup or stewing. The quantity 
of butchers' meat consumeil in a family is, on an ave- 
rage, tbrce-quartirs of a pound a day for each per- 
son; but when the family consists of women and 
children, half a |Kiund per'day is about the quantity 
consumed, one with another, independent of hams, 
bacon, jwultry, fish and game. .Meat should be wiped 
with a dry, clean cloth, as soon as it comes from the 
butchers; tly-blows, if found in it, cut out, and in 
loins the long pipe that runs by the bone should ly. 
taken out, as it soon taiuts ; the kernels, also, shoul 



be removed from beef. Never receive bruised joints. 
Meal will keep good for a long time In cohl weather, 
and, If frozen through, nuiy be kept for months. 
Frozen meat nnist be thawed before It is c(K)ked, by 
plunging it into colli water, or placing it bclbrc Ihe 
lire before setting it down to roast. It never will be 
dressed through if this precautitm Is not taken, not ! 
even wlien twice cooked. I'eppir is preventive of 
decay, in iIcL'ri'c ; il is well,therid'ore, to pe|iperhung 
joints. Powdered charcoal Is still more remarkable 
in itsi'll'ect. It will not only keep the meat over which 
it is sprinkleil, good, but will remove the taint from 
already dicaycil Mesh. A piece of charcoal boiled in 
the water with " high " meat or fowls, will render it 
or them qnile sweet. A piece of charcoal, or pow- 
dered charectal, should be kept in every lardc-r. 
Hams, after being smoked, imiy he kept R>r any length 
of time packed in powdered charcoal. — The J/uune- 
kee^jer. 

^ 

Holding on for Higher Prices. 

The (HU'sthui ofti'U comes up, whether It Is best to 
sell a cro|i as soon as it is ready for nnirket or to 
bold on for hisrher prices. It is a <ptestion which 
camiol be dceideil liy newspaper articles. There are 
so many tcmjiorary or local circumstances which 
lari^cly enter into the question ami on which every- 
one must decide for himself. But in a general way 
there is no doubt that it is best to sell as .soon as rca<ly, 
aial this is the advice that we have frequently given 
in these columns. 

Even tbiaigh prices be low, and there is the reason- 
able prospect of a rise in a short time, there are the 
losses from shrinkage and waste, which in a large 
mimbcr of cases are quiti* as much as any average 
increase in jiricc would be. In the arlhdes whadi we 
have before given, and to wbii-h we have alluded, we 
have pri-seiilcd this fact particularly, and we I'cmem- 
ber esi>ecially referring to the case of a friend who 
put oiH' huniircil bushels, of potatoes in the cellar in 
fiill, and which oidy turned out eighty when sold in 
spi'ing. Here was a loss of twenty per cent., and 
with interest on the reci'i|its, if they had been sold in 
fall, reciuires a good advan<:e to nuike it worth while 
to hold under such circumstances. 

We refer to tlu^ matter now hccansc we bclievethat 
this figure, twenty percent., even by those who are 
conscious of a loss Ijy keeping, is generally believed 
to be ipiite as much as is lost ; but we have recently 
seen some fig\n"es which show that it is often niueli 
greater than this. Twenty per cent, is given as ahfiut 
the loss by shrinkage in corn : hut as much as thirty- 
three per cent, is tdaimed as the loss in jiotatoes if 
kcpt'till late in the season, say -Jnnc. This isastr()ng 
argtinu'nt against the general principle of holdiniron. 
— Uennanlown Telefjraph. 



Potato Growing. 

As an article of daily food for this country, and 
some other counti-ies, the potato has no rival. Hence 
it becomes an important question — what varii'ty is 
best, all things considered? The kind that yields best 
and of the best 'quality, is a desideratinn much to be 
desired. There are so many circumstances bearing 
on both points of the (iu<'Sti<in that it is dillleult to 
arrive at eoi-i-ect conclusions. A potato that has 
proved good this year may, under ditlereiit circum- 
stances, next year jjrove a failure. 

The Early Uose for an early and the Jackson White 
for a late potato, seem now to be i)referred in New 
England markets. They are both good potatoes, 
but not one jot better than several other kinils that 
yield double what cither of these varieties do. We 
have in this country several varieties besides the two 
mentioned above, that I thiidc will prove excellent 
potatoes. The I'cerless, of which I know nothing 
pcr.sonally, but have heard it possessed considerable 
merit in quality and yield ; and lirei'se Prolilie uu- 
doubt<'dly has the same good qualities. I experi- 
mcntcil with Brooks' Seedling last year, and think it 
equal to the Early Hose in quality, while it will yield 
twice as many on the same land. I W(UiM say tii any 
one not familiar with it, that it rcsendiles the Early 
Kose, a shade darker, somewhat thicker, a good late 
potato, ready to dig first of October. There are but 
few Early Kose raised for the nnirket in this section ; 
they are good enough, but yield sparingly. 

It seems to"me, if we can find a late potato as good 
in quality as the Early liose, and a much better 
yielder, it ought to sui)ersede it after it is well ri- 
jiened. The Kose might retain its ])laee as an early 
])otato, say for .\ugust and .■September, and Brooks' 
Seedling, or some equally good one, for the remain- 
der of the year. — ./. G. Gooil/fur, in Germantuicn Tel. 



Whipping Horses Dangerous. 

I wouM caution those who train horses or use them 
niHui another iK)lnt, viz.: that of exciting the Ill-will 
of the animal. .Many Uiink they are doing finely, and 
are proud (»f their success In horse-training by nuMins 
of severe whipping, orotherwisi' rousing and stimu- 
luting the passions, aial tlu'U, from necessity, crush- 
ing the will through which resistance Is prompteil. 
No mistake <an be greater than this, and thcR' In 
nothing that so fully exhibits the ability, juili:nu'iit 
ami skill of the real horsenuin as the care displayed 
in winning Instead of repidling the action of the 
mind. Although It may be necessary to use the whip 
sometimes, it should always Ik- ujiplieil juilielotisly, 
and great care should be taken ii(»l to rouse the pas- 
sions or excite the will to obstinacy. Tin' legltliinilo 
ami proper use of the whip Is calculated to operate 
n;MUi the sense <d' fear almost entirely. The allec- 
tionate and better initnre nuist be ap|H>aled to In 
training a horse, as well as in training a clillil. A re- 
proof given may Im* lnlende<l for the giMsl of llio 
child, but if oidy the [lassions are excited the ellect 
Is depraving ami Injurious. This Is a vital principle, 
antl can be disregarded In the mamigement ')f sensi- 
tive and courageous horses only at the risk <i{ s|Kiillnt; 
them. I have known many horses of a naturally 
genth' character to be s|H>ileil by whlp|>ing oih'c, ami 
one horse that was nntde vlcli»us by Indng struck with 
a whip while standing In his stall. — J'tof. /'uirler. 



Much in Little. 

A man walks thret^ miles an hour; ii horse tn>l8 7; 
steamboats run 17; sailing vessels 10; rapid rivers 
7; shfw rivers 4; moderate winds blow 7: storm 
blows :>(> ; hurricane Hb ; a ritle ball I,OIKI; sound 
74 1; li-htTi 1,(1(10,000. A barrel of llouriveighs lOtilhs.; 
barrel of |H)rk 'iOO ; firkin of butter .'Ki; a tub of 
butter 'H. Wheat, beans and clover seed (1(( {KMiiids 
to the bushel; corn, rye and Maxseeil .'WJ; buckwheat 
IVZ; barh-y+S; oats :!.''>; bran »l ; lluiolhy seed :i8; 
coarse salt H'l. Sixty drops make a ilraehm ; 8 
drachms make an ounce; 4 ounces make a gill; 4 
gills a pint ; (10 <lrops a tUbles|M>onfnl, or half an 
ounce ; two tablesiM)onful an oimee ; -S tcas[Mionful a 
gill ; 2 gills a eollee <-up or tumbler ; (i lluid ounces a 
teacupful. Four Ihousaial eight humlreil and lorly 
square yards make an acre; a square mile (140 acres. 

To measure an acre : liOO feet on each siile making 
a s^iuare within an inch. There are «,7.'»(l languages. 
Two persons die every second. .\ general ion is :i.^ 
years, average length of life 21 years. Thcstamling 
army in I'russia, war times, 1 .2<>il.(i(MI ; A list ria , «2.5,- 
(K)0; Spain, ll)0,(IOO: Belgium, '.•4,000 ; England, 7.5,- 
000; Lnited States, 24,000. Mails in Ni'W York city 
weigh 100 tons a day. New York eonsunus (KK) 
beeves daily, 700 calves, 20,OUO sheep anil 20,000 
swine in winter. 



Care of Hogs. 
Hogs love sulphur, and a considerable amount of 
it is lU'cessary to keep them in fair health. When 
hogs run at large and fiial green food they siqiply 
themselves with what is needed, but pigs kept in 
ch«e |iens and fed on hou.sc slops or corn need some 
more laxative food. Charcoal should be fe.1 to hogs 
frequently. Keep a supply by them in small boxes. 
Mix four ([uarts of salt, two ounces of sidiilinr, and 
one bushel of wood ashes, and keep con^^antly in the 
pens in Imixcs. It tends to reduce lever, destroy 
worms aud aid digestion. 



Potatoes for Horses. 



I once came near losing a very valuable horse from 
feeding him dry hay and oats with noihing liNisening. 
1 have never believed in dosing a hor.«i' with uii'ill- 
cinc, hut something is actually necessary to keep a 
horse in right condition. Many use powders, but 
potatoes are better, and safer, ami chea|)cr, If fed ju- 
diciously. If those who are not in the liabit of feed- 
ing potatoes to horses will try them, Ihey will Ik! 
astonishc<I at the result. I have known a horse 
change from a lazy, dumpish one to a quick, active, 
headstrong animal in five ilays, by simply adding 
two quarts of jiolatois to his fei><i daily. If very 
much clean corn-meal is fed, thi'y do not need so 
iminy potatoes. T(K1 nuiny |sjtaloes are weakening, 
aial so are loo many ap|>les. When I was a lad, I 
was away fr(un home at sehoiil one winter, and had 
the care of (uii' horse, one yoke of oxen, and oik'cow, 
every one of which I had to curd or curry cviTy day. 
Thehorse had three pails ol water, four quarts of 
oats, two quarts of small [Kilaloes, and two (pnirtsof 
corn extra every day he worked, with what hay he 
wanted, and a stronger or more active horse of liis 
inches I have never yet seen. 



Care of Horses. 

The London TTume Iluok says : " All horses must 
not he fed in the same pro|K>rtion, without regard to 
their ages, their eon.slitutiou and their work, because 
the imiiropriety of such a practice is self-evident. Vet 
this is eonslauily done, and Is the basis of disease of 
every kind. Never use bad hay on accoiuit of the 
cheapness, because it brings on inllammatiiui of the 
bowels, and skin diseases. ChaO is better for old 
horses than hay, beeaust: they can chew and lilgesl it 
better. When a horse is worked hanl, its fcKsI should 
chicUy be hay — because oats supply more nourish- 
mentan.I thsii making material than any other kind 
of food ; hay, not so much. Back fecdiieg Is waste- 
ful. The better plan is to feeil with chapped hay, 
because the fotal Is not then thrown out, and Is more 
easily cheweil and digested. Sprinkle the hay with 
water that has salt dissolved in il, because il is phras- 
ing to the animal's taste and more easily digesled. 
A tahlesiioouful of salt in a bucket of water is suUl- 
cieiit. 



64 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[April 



Plaster on Clover. 

Please inform me whether it will be beneficial 
in eowiiiff clover seed in the sprina; on wheat, 
to broadcast wood-ashes or jilaster, or the two mixed. 
Or shall I wait until after the wheat is cut, and then 
BOW the plaster and aehes on the young clover? I 
wish a fertilizer to the wheat as well as the clover. 
In what pro|iortion should the plaster and ashes be 
used to the acre? — A. .S'., Jfaryland. 

[The common iiractice is to sow plaster on clover 
in the spring:, the year after sowing the seed ; but if 
It could have an additional dressing the year pre- 
vious, as soon as the wheat is cut, tins would tend to 
make a stronger growth in autumn. It would be 
less advantageous to sow immediately after the sow- 
ing of the clover seed, but the experiment is easily 
tried. In some seasons, and on certain soils, it might 
assist the growth of both wheat and clover, but gen- 
erally the result would be light or impereeiitible. 
Ashes are often useful, sometimes not ; and the only 
way to determine this point is to try the experiment. 
As both ashes and plaster must be sown dry, it will 
make no ditierence whether they are mixed or sown 
separate.] — Country Gcnl(ettuiu. 



Hollow Horn. 



If the horns of the animals are cold in the morning, 
you may expect they have the horn ail. If the eyes 
look dull and heavy, and the matter gathers in the 
eyes, and the nose is dry and lloes not sweat, it is 
another evidence of horn ail. If the hair is dry and 
stands out straight, and the droppings are dry and 
hard, it is a third indication. Take a common tea- 
cup half full of good strong vinegar, put in a table- 
spoonful each of line salt and black pepper, ground 
fine, and let it soak. In the morning put a table- 
spoonful in eadh ear of the animal atiected ; the next 
morning repeat the dose. If the case is not a had 
one, two applications will generally etfect a cure. As 
soon as the natural warmth returns to the horns then 
the cure is efl'ected. I would not recommend to bore 
the horns nor cut them off till the above remedy has 
been tried. In applying the medicine it will be neces- 
sary for one person to hold the head and another to 
apply the medicine. Be sure to hold the ear up, so 
that the licpior will not run into the head. I have not 
known a creature to die witli the horn ail, that has 
been treated with this, for forty years. 



A Full Vocabulary. 

The r'. /S. Tuhaeco Jouniid publislics the following 
list of ingenious phrases used to describe the many 
qualities and peculiarities of leaf tobacco : 

Body, veins, texture, he.avy, thick, thin, fat, tough, 
hairy, soft, hard, dry, wet, tine, common, spongy, 
silky, fleshy, ledery, short, narrow, broad, long, 
dark, light, brown, brownish, red, reddish, yellow, 
green, fiery, shrinky, shrivelled, old, new, sweated, 
heated, unsweated, mild, high-flavored, rank, dull, 
glossy, shiny, spotted, sprinkled, dotted, sound, 
rotten, touched, damaged, damaged on the butt, 
damaged — per cent., over sweated, raw, lively, 
white ash, gray ash, blue ash, spiderweb ash, bony, 
bad, burniirg, funky, rim throwing, blistering, flacky, 
coaling, wouldn't hold fire, pole liurned, frosted, 
fishy. Salty, quality, lor export, working up, low, 
high priced, siuibby, farnier'spacked, regularpacked, 
mark-weight, re-weight, worm-eaten, cured, killed, 
dead. 



Tree Mignonnette. 

This is by some supposed to he a distinct variety 
from the common kind grown in the garden, but it is 
not. The tree form is due to careful pruning and at- 
tention, and there is no variety of mignonnette which 
will assume a tree form without constant care. The 
way to raise a "tree " nugnonnette is to sow the seed 
as usual, and when the plants are about two inches 
high, select one of the strongest, and jilant in a pot 
or box bvitself,andkeepit well supported by astakc. 
Every side branch that appears must be pinched olT, 
but the leaves nuist be allowed to remain on the main 
stem as they are needed for the health of the plant. 
When the plant is about a foot or more in height, the 
Bide shoots may be pernntted to grow, but they must 
have their heads pinched otf occasionally to force 
them to form a bushy top. It will take some mouths 
to accomplish this, but it will make a beautiful 
plant. — Country OentUman. 



What it will Do. 

If ameehanic or clerk saves 2% cents per day, from 
the time he is twenty-one until he is thi-eescore and 
ten, the aggregate, with interest, will amount to 
g3,il00 ; and a daily saving of 27>i cents will reach 
the important sura of ?29,l)00. A sixpence saved 
daily will provide a fund of $7,0U0— sufficient to pur- 
chase a good farm. There are few employees who 
cannot save daily, by abstaining from the use of 
cigars, tobacco, liquor, etc., twice or ten times the 
amount of the six cent ineee. Every person should 
provide for old age, and the man in business who can 
lav by a dollar a day will eventually find himself 
possessed of §100,000. 



Hay-Making in Norway. 

Of this a correspondent thus writes : " The way 
they make hay in Norway will be new to your farmer 
readers. The grass is hung up on poles to dry, and 
I have never seen such bright colored hay in my life. 
It is almost as bright a green as when growing. In 
some fields you see strings of fences, a few rods long, 
which begin and end nowhere. These Hues of fence 
are about as wide apart as a New England farmer 
makes his winrows. On these fences the grass is 
hung till the wind and sun can cure it. The sun does 
not burn it. That is one way, and perhaps the most 
common. The other way is to plant po.stsin the fields, 
twelve feet or so apart, and in these posts insert pegs 
about one loot asunder. On these pegs poles are laid, 
and on them the grass is hung just as we used to dry 
paper at the mills down East, forty years ago. The 
result is hay that any farmer would be proud of. 



Everlasting Fence Post. 

I discovered many years ago that wood could he 
made to last longer than iron in the ground, hut 
thought the process so simple and inexpensive that it 
was not worth while making any stirabout it. I would 
as soon liave poplar, basswood, or quaking ash, as 
any other kind of timber for fence posts. I have 
taken out basswood posts, after having been set seven 
years, that were as sound when taken up as when 
they were first put in the ground. Time and weather 
seemed to have no efleet on them. The posts can 
be prepared for less than two cents apiece. For the 
benefit of others, I will give the recipe : Take boiled 
linseed oil and stir it in pulverized charcoal to the 
consistency of paint. Put a coat of this over the 
timber, and there is not a man that will live to see it 
rot. 



Controlling Bulls. 

Without a ring a bull is unmanageable, unless there 
is some contrivance which can hobble his action, and 
I know of none such. Were one obliged to incur tlie 
trouble of forwarding a full grown bull, unused to be 
handled, what would be the best aids to provide ? I 
think to provide a strong head-stall or halter, having 
rings, with a rope wound round the base of the horns, 
and its two very long ends passing through the head 
stall rings, and then allowed to trail on the ground 
behind one on either side, would be advisable head- 
gear; and what besides? The herdman's staflTshould 
not be of the ordinary form, i. e., opening with a 
snap ; but it should have a screw passed through 
both sides of the loop at the top, so as to prevent the 
possibility of the snap opening and allowing the ring 
to escape the grasp of the staft'. — A. B., in Lomloii 
Field. 



Eastern and Western Wheat. 

Eastern grown wheat has some advantage of west- 
ern grown in quality. In grinding ifp a mixture of 
western and eastern wheat adds considerably to the 
value of the (lour. A much larger quantity than 
usual was shipped this year to Ohio on account of 
the western wheat being rather below the average in 
quality. The wheat of New England, and, indeed, 
the Eastern States down to Delaware and Maryland ; 
on the other hand, is above the general average in 
quality. Climate has not only much to do with the 
quality of these articles, but the little variations we 
find from season to season has a considerable iullu- 
euce also. 



How to Make an Omelet. 

The proper way to make an omelet is to take three 
teaspoonfulsof niilk for each egg, and a pinch of salt 
to each one also. Beat the eggs lightly for three or 
four minutes, and pour them info a hot pan in which 
a [liece of butter the size of a walnut has been melted 
a moment liefore. Tlie mass will begin to bubble and 
rise in flakes immediately, and the bottom must be 
lifted incessantly with a clean knife so that the softer 
parts run in. An omelet should be cooked about 
three or four minutes, and made in this way will melt 
in the nioutli. If a little parsley and some well-boiled 
onion, cut into small pieces, be added, it is much im- 
proved. — Bertha, Clullenham, in GcrmantowH Tel, 



Cooking by Cold. 

The Scientific American says : Quite recently a 
Hungarian chemist, Dr. von Sawicezwsky, it appears, 
has investigated all the various ways suggested for 
preserving meat, (by ehenucals, cooking by heat, and 
hermetically sealing, etc.) and has found points of 
objection to all, has attempted the preparation of tlie 
material by subjecting it in a perfectly fresh state to 
a temperature (if o.>o below zero, Fah., and sealing 
it afterwards in tins. The results obtained have been 
highly 8atisfact<n-y ; the meat on being removed from 
the cans ap;)ears, in point of smell andcolor, as fresh 
as if just taken from the butchers' stall. An exten- 
sive factory is being erected in Hungary for its 
mauufacture 



Brittle Hoofs. 

Horses or mules' hoofs are often rendered brittle by 
causing them to stand on the heated manure or filth 
in the stables, and sometimes by chronic " founder " 
or fever in the feet. If the first cause is suspected, it 
should be stopped at once; if the latter is the cause, 
it should be remedied by giving the horse some cool- 
ing medicine, placing the hoofs in a bath of water so 
hot that it cannot be borne by the hand, and then 
smearing them with glycerine. The remedy may 
need to be repeated for some time, until all heat or 
fever is removed, when the glycerine dressing should 
be continued until the new growth of horn replaces 
the old one. — Auierica/i Agriculturist. 



It is stated that corn loses one-fifth and wheat one- 
fourteenth by drying. From the estimate made, it 
seems that it would be more profitable for the farmer 
to sell unshelled corn in the fall at 75 cents than to 
keep it until spring and sell it at $il, and that wheat 
at SI. 3.5 in December is equal to S1..50 the succeeding 
June. In eases of potatoes — taking those that rot 
and otherwise lost — together with shrinkage, there is 
little doubt that between October and June the loss of 
the owner who holds them is not less than 33 i)er 
cent. 

A CURIOUS statement has been made and published 
in a French paper in regard to hens. It reckons the 
number of hens in France at -10,(100,000, valued at 
§20,000,000. Of these about one-tifth are killed an- 
nually for the market. There is an annual net pro- 
duction of SO, 000,000 chickens, which in market yield 
$24,000,000. The extra value to be added for capons, 
fattened hens, and the like, at .$2,0;)0,000 The pro- 
duction of eggs per pen, worth 848,000,003. In all it 
is reckoned that the value of hens, chickens and eggs 
sold in the markets of France, is ^S0,000,001). 

For kitchen and pantry floors there is nothing bet- 
ter than a coat of hard paint ; the cracks should be 
filled with putty before it is applied, and the paint al- 
lowed to dry at least to Weeks before using. Then it 
is easily kept clean by washing (not scrubbing) with 
milk and water ; soap should never be allowed to 
touch it. " Red lead and yellow oeher I prefer for 
coloring ; the former makes a hard paint that wears 
well." — ^Scientific American. 

A FRUITFUL source of malaria is found in the 
earth adjoining ponds which are dammed for manu- 
manvfaeturing or other purposes. The soil in the 
vicinity, through the water being raised above its 
previous level, becomes soaked, and hence damp and 
very dangerous to health. — Scientific American. 

In washing calicoes in which the colors are not fast, 
be careful not to boil them ; but wash in the usual 
way with soap, and rinse in hard water. For dark- 
eolin-cd goods add a little salt to the water ; for light, 
a little vinegar. 

Yeast Dumplings: Take light bread dough, 
shorten it a little, put salt in Ijoiling water, then form 
the dough in small dumplings, drop them in the 
water and boil 20 minutes. 

Omelet : Beat the yolk and whites of 1 eggs 
together with 2 tablcspooufuls of milk ; add salt and 
pepper; fry in hot butter and lanl ; eat while hot. 



LITERARY NOTICES. 

Mentor in the Granges and Homes of P.i 
TRONS OF Husbandry. By Kev. A. B. Grosu, first 
Chaplain of the National Grange. 

This is a handsome Royal 12 mo. of 47S pages, 
something, in style, siie, and quality, like the "Odd- 
Fellows Improved Manual," by the same clever au- 
thor, whose name andliteraryreputatiou alone would 
be a sulHcient guarantee to us of the intrinsic value 
of the work without having seen it. Its object is to 
explain the origin, aims and government of the Or- 
der, answer objections, advise candidates, teach the 
lessons of each degree, duties of oflieers ami mem- 
bers, and aid Patrons to be better members of fami- 
lies, of the Order, and of society. Embellished with 
a portrait of the author, and a large number of excel- 
lent engravings of the emblems, symbols, and otticial 
insignia, this work has received, very justly, the 
commendations of the highest oHicial functionaries 
of the Order, and ought to be in the hands of every 
Patron of Husbandry in the Union. Not to know this 
work, by tho.se for whom it is designed, must inevita- 
bly argue themselves unknowing and unknown. We 
do not see how any intelligent or progressive Patron 
can deny himself the privilege of daily perusing its 
golden-freighted columns, unless he " loves darkness 
rather than light." Indeed, its domestic and social 
instructions can never be limited to the " pent up 
Utica " of the Grange, but are equally applicable to 
the " vast unbounded continent " of human society, 
wherever the spark of civilization has lighted up and 
burns. Its moral ethics are such as have received 
the stamp of approbation among the wise and good 
of all ages, and therefore we have no hesitation in 
recommending it to all cultivators of the soil ,at least, 
and especially " to the household of its faith." Pub- 
lished by Clark & Mavnaud, No. 5 Barclay street, 
New York, at §2 per copy, and sold exclusively by 
agents. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



III. 



FARMERS and TRUCKERS ! 

Btjy THE 

NITRO-PHOSPHATE, 

itiAni-: II Y 'nil': 

FARMERS' BONE AND FERTILIZING CO. 



Ouarnntoo^l AnnlyNJM, ns fullowR: 

Phosphoric Arid, suluhlo iiml uvjiilnbk-, 8 to 9 jier ceut. 

Nitrogoii, t'<iuivah'iit tu Aniiuuuiu, 3 to 'A)^ jier ceut. 

rotush, '2J^ to 3 ler ci-nt. 

Uu8uri»aP8ed if eiiviiilh'd by any otlwr fertilizer in the 
murkot, in ]tru|turtiuii to its cowt, lor iiU Bpriuj; L-roim. Thy 
obovo Kortiii/t-r, ti.K«tlier with our (ilUHTND KAW BONK 
(warrnmted aliflohittly imri') will bo found in tho ImndH of 
dealers ^jent-rully, or inny b*- had on ui'iilicjition tit the ottU-o 
of the <.\>nii>iiny. Ah a Farnicrs' tloinpiiny we iihk the pu- 
trouugo and co-operation of nil interested in the production 
of fertilizers of reliable worth. Send for circulars. 

WM. A. FISIIEU, I'reH't, I T. W. TUK(H), Trens., 

Bryu Mawr, Mont. Co. | Doylestown, Bucks Co. 

JOEL W. STUAWN, Sec'y, and (Chemist, 

119 N. l>elawaro Ave., Philadelphia. 

DTRECTOllS.— William A. Fisher, T. W. Trego, H. I). 

I^onKaker, .I»)nhna Ashbridge, Charles Paxson, Jonathan 
Kuight, and Joel W. Strawn. 

Factory at the foot of Mifflin street, River Delaware, 
Philadelphia, always opeu to the iuBjection of consumers of 
fertilizers. 

(T^'The almve named article is one of the best fertilizers 
in the market for the i)roduction of good tobjicco. Refer- 
eDces : Henry O. Shenk and M. M. Moore, of Lancaster 
coxmty. Constautly kept on hanil and for t*alu by A. F. 
BAIR, No. U2 North Duke street, Lancaster, Pa. Also sold 
by D. D. HKS3, Quarryville. S-i-lt 



FERTILIZERS! 

HOIVIE: IMC.A.DE:. 

CHEAPEST AND BEST! 



-o- 



WRITE for Circular and Recipes, which are furnished 
without charge, containing complete instructions for 
making, at home, first-class chemical manures, suited to 
the growth of special crops. Our forniulie have p^ovet, in 
actual use, to be of the greatest value to all who have used 
them. 

We offer Fertilizing Chemicals of our own manufacture, 
at lowest prices, with a guaranty as to strength and pu- 
rity. Ask i)rices for 



Oil Vitriol, 
Ground Bones, 
Land Plaster, 
Sulphate Potash, 



Nitrate 8oda, 
Sulphate Ammonia, 
Muriate Potash, 
Sulphate Soda and Salt. 



Address 



HARRISON BROS. & CO., 

PHILADELPHIA, 



EBtablished as ManufiicturerB of Fertilizing 
Chemicals in 1793. 



[8-2- m 




are the best the world produces. They are planted by a 
million jieojile in America, and the result is beautiful 
Flowers and splendid Vegetables. A Priced Catalogue sent 
free to all who inclose the postage — a 2 cent stamp. 

Vick's Floral Guide, Quarterly, *2.t cents a year. 

Vick's Flower and Vegetable Garden, 35 cents; with 
cloth covers, (>.=» cents. 
It] Address, JAMES VICK, Rochester, N. Y. 

The Great Agricultural Wonder, 

BEING THE 

HULLESS OATS, 



Which can be obtained of 



At Leesport P. 0., Berks County, Pa., 



AH FOLLOWS I 



1 ponnd .50clN. 

16 •• « «.oO 



8 pftiiiidH $ 3.30 

3a " la.oo 



It is claimed that it will yield us mauy nioastired bushels 
B8 any other variety, while it weighs 5G iiomida to the 
bushel, aud ripeus two weeks earlier than coiniuou oats, 
thereby eseai'iug the rusty seasuu of oats, 

WWrite tor circulum. 8-l-4t 




FINDING OUT THE SECRET. 

Mrs. Brown ami luT i^o.sxii), Mrs. Wlil/e, were con- 
vcreiiii; alHUit tiiisbaiids ami the secrets of Kree- 
UKisoijry. Mr. Urowii was a Freeniusoii ; ami tlie 
faetdfiiot Iieinirable to s!iare the seerets of tlie onler 
with liini iiiaile .Mrs. lii-owii very milia|i|iy. She was 
[Hiurlni; out her !;rief to Mrs. While, ami sayiii:; for 
tile thousaiidtli time, " I wonder what they do in the 
loti^^e room '" 

" I have no cioitlit but it is ilreuilfiil," rejilieil Mrs. 
While. "But if my liusbaiid was a Mason, I'll licl 
IVl Ijml out what he did." 

" Hut liow I Tliey dare not tell." 

" .Ml ! but I'd ma'lie him lell." 

"How ! oh, liow ;" asked .Mrs. Brown, anxiously. 

" llusli ! I'll till you ; but don't breathe it for the 
world, beeiiuse it is a dead secret." 

'• No, no ; I won't." 

" Well, ilo you liiiow that tiekliiiij a person's ear 
when they are asleep will make them talk?" 

" No. "Will it, Ihouirh f 

" Yes. Now you wait 'till Brown eonics home from 
the iod^e next time, and have a Ijroom straw in bed 
with you. When he y;ets asleep you liekle his ear 
with it j^ently, and he will bej^in lo lalk about what 
he has Iteeii doin^r in tlie lodt^e, and in lliis way can 
get the whole of the business out of him." 

"tiraeious me. You don't say so, .Mrs. White !" 

"To be sure I do. I always get my husband's 
secrets out of him in this way." 

"I'll do it!" 

"And you'll tell me all aliout it, won't you?" 

" Certainly. But you must never say anything 
about it?" 

"Oh, of course not. I'm very close mouthed," re- 
plied .Mrs. White, earnestly. 

So it was agreed upon, and they separated. But 
unl'ortunatcly Mr. Wliile overlicard the consjiiraey, 
and lost no time in informing Mr. Brown, who laughed 
heartily over it. 

A few nights afterward Brown attended a meeting 
of his lodge, and his wife was all anxiety regarding 
it. On retiring, she armed lierself with a spray from 
lier lirfiom and wakefully waited for her lord and 
master to return. At last she had almost broken 
down the veil of secrecy which had troubled her so 
long, and her heart beat wildly when she heard him 
open the front door and come in. 

Of course she professed to be asleep, and did not 
see the comical smile on her husband's face as he 
turned on the gas and began disrobing for bed. But 
he said nothing, and in a few minutes he was com- 
fortably tucked in and gave out premonitory indica- 
tions of approaching slumber. 

Then Mrs. Brown opened her eyes cautiously, and 
convinced herself that he had gone to that land from 
which sleepy husbands never return until sometime 
next day. Cautiously she reached under the pillow, 
and took the broom straw from its hiding place. Then 
stie readied over carefully and began to tickle her 
husband's ear, and he was all the time doing his best 
to keep from exploding with laughter. 

Finally he began to talk a little, and her cars were 
keenly alive to every syllable. 

" Yes, he must die,'' said he. " lie betrayed our 
secrets to his wife. I've got to kill him— the lot fell 
on me." 

Mrs. Browu screamed and leaped from the bed, 
while lier husliand, unable to control himself, gave 
vent to his laughter and disturbed the neiichbors for 
the next ten minutes. But they never came lo any 
understaniling about the strange atlair. She never 
asked him what he was laughing at, and he never 
asked her what it was which made her scream and 
leap out of bed so quickly. 

Mrs. Brown and Mrs. White don't speak now. She 
thinks Mrs. White played a joke on her, and she 
seems to have lost niueh of her anxiety regarding the 
secrets of Freemasonry. 

A Reflection on the Cot'KT. — When Judge 
Hewett was on the bench in tlie Western District of 
the State of New York, and Colonel Billings was 
trying a ease before his honor, the jinlire overruled 
so many of the lawyer's exceptions that Billini;s got 
out of patience, and spoke so severely lliat the judge 
at last dcniunded in a voice of thunder ; 

" What (lues the ecmnsel suppose I am here for ?" 

Colonel Billings kxiked sadly diseoncertcd, scratch- 
ed his head, thought a moment, and at last, with a 
bland smile on his face, replied : 

" I confess your honor has got me now." 

A NewHampsiiiue dealer in fancy fowls sings the 
praises of his favorite breeds in the following unique 
hymn : 

If you want some feathered st ^ 
That will not your wishes m 
Wheu at their nests you daily kn J-ock, 
Buy some e^gs or net a fl I 

Of the famous I'lyuiouth R J 

When a Chicago man loses the respect of the com- 
munity, he takes his guu and starts <mt to kill an 
alderman as the only means of belug restored to 
(xipular esteem. 



ID . 
« 

e z 



6 r 



>OMatic 

Knitter 




3 



» i 

n 

s ■» 



'tii 



A Family Knitting Machine. 

Now iittrudtitK unlverHiil att«-t)tioii by Itn aHtoi InhhiK P^r- 
formaiiC<*H and ilM (.,'rt*at priictlr;il viihn* for rvery-ilay runilly 
UBO. It kuit.s every j nhHiblt- vui itty i»f plitiii or faiiey work 

WITH ALMOST MAGICAL SPEED, 

and Kiv<'H tx-rfrrt Hlni)>*- mid fbiinh to all KamivntH. H will 

knit a pair of sockt in fifteen minutoe) Kv«*ry ninrliliio 

\l'AKICA^TI-:i» \'*rU'vt, and (tula jiiMf tr hat U rrjrrrjirntfd. 

A coiii|ilt-te inHtruction IkkiU accoinpuntftt tuch inuetilue. 

Nit. J Family Machine. 1 cyliudi-r, I'i n*t'dle»», $;tO. 

No. 3 " -'2 " T2 AlOO •• 40. 

A RainpU tnarhitie will bo sent to any jwrt pf tbo ITDiti>4l 

States or Canada, (whore we have no agent) exprens ehargr-a 

prr/iaiil, on receipt of the price. 

AciKNTM WHntcd in ev»jry HtHle, County, City and Towd, 
to whom very liberwl dtKcounte will l>e ninrte. AiIiId'hr, 
BICKFOUI) KNITTINO MACIUNK MF{}. <<i., 
7-11-tf] Bole MunufacturerN, KrHllli>lM»ro, Vt. 



LUMBER FOR FARMERS. 

NO MIDDL£-M£X. 



We have a larRo stock of !,umI>or, and one of the most 
exteuBivis Sunh un<l l>o()r Fiictori(-M ni the Stat)-, and wc are 
prepared to furnish IIoiiho and Knrn lidlH tximplcto. 

All kinda of Manufacture*! FeuciuK. A:c., makinx a upeci- 
alty of HU)>plyinR the agricultural ootniuunity. We will 
make pric^B delivered to any Itailroud Stattun. AJl our 
material ^'■■nrnHleed aa rei-reMente*!. All nianufiiclnred , 
work kihi-drii-rt and warranted not to Hhrluk. All Inqulrien 
cheerfully auHwered. 

One of the flmi can be wen at the Franklin House, North 
Queen Street, Lancaster, I'a., on Momlay of each week. 

KENDIG, BRICKER & LAUMAN, 

7-4-12ni] Middlctown Dauphin cc, Pa. 




I have foinided my buaiiieRK on the iM-lief that the pabllo 
are anxious to get their serd iiircrdy fritm the fjrotrrr, and t 
therefore offer krkk to every man and woman In the United 
States who cultiVHt''fl a farm, tills a vegelttble gardfu, or 
plauta a flower garden, my large IlluBtrate<l Catalogue of 
Vegetable and Flower S<t*ds for ls7r. ; it contains, in addi- 
tion to the choicest kinds j>n«luced in Kurope, on^ hututrM 
and fi/tt/ van'efieA of ri-ffctahle ttcfd <jroitn on mt/ /mir *^£d 
faJ-ittA. Customers of hint season iie«4i not write for It. Aa 
the original introducer of the Hubbard, Marbtehead and 
Hutman Squashes, Phmney's Melon, the Marblehead Cab- 
bages, and a %c*tTv of other new vt-geishles. I w>ilrit y«)ur 
jiatronogc. All seed sold under three warrants. A hundred 
thonsnud catalogues will Ih> issued and aent out the first of 
Januarv. 
7-11-r.l" JAMKS .1. H. GUFOOKY. MarM. head. Maail. 

NflVT POTA.TOES! 

C&Or^i^ IX l*RK.nH*MM toOrowcrs! Two New 
Twi^^yKy Varieties sent gratis, prepaid. ClrcuUr 
frtjelOMll applicants. D. A. COMI'TON, llawley, Pa. («l 

SKNP 2Sc. to G. P. ROWFIJ. k CO., Ne»- Vork. for Pam- 
phlet of 100 |<age«i, containing liala of :t,OOU uowspftpen, 
aud estimates showing cost of advertising. 

$125.00 in CASH PREMIUMS. 

For i>articul8rB pec my IlhiRtratotl Caialof^uo for 187«, OOD- 
tniniiift all th.» new ami iH'ct varietloit of frr«th, true mnd n*- 
liablo Garden S«H'.la, carefully urowii from fine w!l©ct<Nl 
ntocks, and the larKe«t and t>eRt colU^'lion of Cliolce H«*d 
FotatoM ever offered. Seut free- to all api>liraDlfl. Do not 
fail to He It. 

J. R. V. IIAWKIXN. 

OOSIIKS, N. Y. 

HORSE-BILLS 
I'l.AIN UK IN FAN<"Y COLOIW. 
Prloted in tbo Beat Style at the ofllcc of 

THE FABMBU. 



IV. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[April, 1876. 




We call attention louur imineiiee Stuck (6UU acres) of 
Fruit Treesi. Staudanl ai-ii Dwarf. 
Niiijill FriiitM. Grai-es, Currants, Raspberries, &c. 
Ornaiiieiital Treen and Shrubs, deciduous aud 

evergieeu. 
Roses a Biiecialty — all the tiueet sorts. 
Green an«l Hot House Plants. ir.cUiding l»eet nov- 
elties. Small i.iircels forwarded by mail wbeu desired. 
Promiit attention given to all orders and inquiries. 
Descriptive and Illustrated priced Catalogues seut prepaid 

on receipt of stamps, as follows: 
No. 1. Fruils (new ed., with col'd jdate) 15 cts. 
No. 3, Ornamental Trees, with col'd plate of Roses, 25c. 
No. 3. Greenhouse, Free. No. 4. Wholesale, Free. 

No. 5. I^ist of Xew Roses for 1ST*;, Free. 
Nob. 1 and a— Neatly bound together, forming an interest- 
ing and valuable book for reference, 
Addresfl. 50 cts. by mail, post paid. 

ELLWANGER & BARRY, Rochester, NY. 



GOOD KEF.nS. GROWN WITH CARE, FROM SE- 
lected Stocks, alwiiys pay. Try mine. Catalogue free. 
J. B. V. HAWKINS, Gosheu, N. Y. 



FARMERS, IMPROVE YOUR POULTRY STOCK 1 



EGGS FOR HATCHING 

Of the following varieties, at prices to suit the times, viz.: 

Dark Brahmas, Partridge Cochins, White Cochins, Ply- 
mouth Rocks, S. S. Hamburgs, Browu Leghorns, Amer. 
Domiuiques and Houdaus. Address, 

8-3-2m] HAYDX H. TSHUDY, lAUx, Pa. 



*??6. 



mm. 

t 



|intiiijiiil I'diliioB?! 

As MEMENTOES. SOUVENIRS, 
and ORNAMENTS 

FOR THE PEOPLE. 

As LASTING ADVERTISEMENTS 

MANUFACTURED OF ALBATA PLATE, 

Equal in wear aud color to solid 

SIliVEH on GOliD, 

Presenting beautiful DESIGNS IN RELIEF, commem- 
orating the cne InmdredtU anniversary of our nation's 
birth. Size, !*„ inches in diameter. Send for circular. 
Price for the Silver, 50 cents each. 
" » Gold. 75 '* " 

Usual discount to the trade. 



AGENTS WANTFn. 

Immense profits. Sells at sight. Extensive fields for en- 
terprise. Will be seut to any part of the country by mail, 
postpaid, upon the recei[it of i^rice 

IT. ». Medallion <'o., P. O. Box 5270, N. Y. 




WIMBLEDON 

Long Ttaufje Breech Loading 

Practice Pistol & Targets. 



o 

X 
Carries a \{ inch ball with acou- ^^^^^ ^ 
racy fitty leet. without powder or ^^^^^ CO 
percussion. Brass barrel, hair trigger. For salo 
by dealers. By mail, free for 75 cents, with per- 
manent ammunition for target practice indoors, 
•nd for sporting out of doors. 

AGENTS want::d. 

A. A. GRAHAM, 07 Liberty Street, New Tort 
8Sein 

E. N. FRESHMAN & BROS., 

ADVERTISING AGENTS, 

186 W. Fotirtli St., Cincinnati, 0., 

Artt authorized to contract for advertising 
in this paper. 



Estiiiiates liiniisliBd Iree. 



[tf] 



Seni lor Circular. 



SPECIAL NOTICE TO FARMERS ! 



Ixaprove Vour Poultry! 



rriHIS can be done at a comparatively small outlay by purchasing one or more sittings of eggs for hatching fr«m choice 
I thor<iughbred and imported fowls. We keep a veiy select Btoch of the leuding varieties of Poultry : Bralinias, 
J- Cocliins, Leghorns, Houdaus, Game, llamburga, Plymoutli Rocks, Dorkings, otc. Mammoth Bronze, White, 

Blue and Black Turkeys, Toulouse, Embdeu and Hon*^ Kong Geese, all breeds of Ducks, etc. We breed each variety on a 

separate farm— thus can guarantee purity. Descriptive Circular free. 

Handsomely Illustrated Descriptive Priced Catalogue of Poultry, etc., 10 cts.. Post-paid. 



ALSO BREEDER AND SHIPPER OF AND DEALER IN 




BLOODED CATTLE. 

Southdcwn and Cots"wold Sheep, Chester White, 

Berksliire, Yorkshire and Essex S"wine, 

Sporting and Thoroughbred Dogs. 

D^^scriptiv^ Circular free I All stock boxed free, and safe arrival guaran- 
teed. No inferior stock sold Kveiy farmer, and all interested in x^igeoiia, should send 
50 cents for a copy of our new illustrated treatise — * 

The Pigeon Loft: How to Furnish and Manage It. 

EXTRA FINE SEED CORN— Sample, 6 Cts. 

Circalars free. €orrespoii<Bencc Solicited. 

W. ATLEE BURPEE, Philadelphia, Pa. 



$12 



a <ljiy at Home. Agents wanted. Out til and 

terms" free. TRUE & CO., Augusta, Maine. [S-3-ly 



FOR FRUIT 

And Ornament. 
500 ACHES OF TREES 

At Wholesale and Retail. 

Pear, Apples, Cherries, Quinces. 

Peaches, Pluins aud Small Fruits. 

New aud Rare Omameutal Trees and Shrubs. 

Evergieeire, large quantities, large variety, cheap. 

Cut-leaved Birch, Purple Beech, Weeping Trees. 

CLEMATIS JAfli.H ASf Sf I.— Hardy aud Perpetual, 
blooms profusely uutil frozen up. 

fEKFETlIAl, WHITE C'I.EM ATIS.— 15 Sorts. 
We have over 70 varieties of Clematis, in many shades of 
color, from dark rich purple to pure white— strong plauts, 
safely sent by mail. 

ROSES. Moss. Tea. Climbiiigraiul Perpetual. 

Small Packages seut s ifely by Mail and Express. 
B^^Catalogues free. Address 
T. C. MAXWEI.Ii & BROS., Geneva, N. T. 

[R-2-3m 



SEED POTA TOES! 

XAT PREIIVKIUiyES 

WILL be divided among the five successful competitors 
who shall produce the largest quantity from one 
pound of the Mahopac Seedling, subject to conditions 
named in my Catalogue. 

MAHOPAG SEEDLING— the most productive of 150 va- 
rieties tested, quality fine, free from rot, per pound, $1 ; 3 
pound to one address, $'2 — by mail prepaid, by express or 
f' eight, charges paid by the purchaser ; 1 peck, $4 ; 1 buwh., 
$15 ; 1 bbl., ^0. Also Ruby, Ali)ha, Snowflake. and Euieka. 
For full description and piice list see my Catalogue, con- 
taining the largest and bost collection of new aud 
oBsoiee Seed Potatoes ever offered. Prices low. 

New aud desirable Vegetable Seeds. Dreer's Improved 
Lima Bean, jier )iacket, 20c.; Egyptian Turnip Beet, packet, 
10c. ; Henderson's Early Summer Calibage, j^acket, 25c.; 
Early Wymau Cabbage, packet, 15c.; Earliest Dwarf Erfurt 
Cauliflower, packet, 50c,; Tiiumph Sweet Corn, ])acket, lOc; 
Peerless Cucumber, 15c.; Hanson Lettuce, packet, 15u.; New 
Egyptian Sprouting Lettuce, packet, 25c.; Kupsiau-Ameri- 
can Water Melou, packet, 20c.; New Queeu Onion, lOc.; 
McLean's Blue Peter Pea, packet, 15c.: Butman Squash, 
packet, 15c.; Conqueror Tomato, package, 15c.; Golden 
Trophy Tomato, packet, lOc; Rose Mammoth Sweet Pei - 
per, packet, 2uc.; French Breakfast Raddish, packet, 5c.; 
Lane's Improved Imperial Sugar Beet, the best for feeding 
stock, hi lb., 25c.: 1 lb., 9iic.; 5 lbs.; $4.00 ; Eailv Red Globe 
Onion, early productive and handsome, >:, lb., 75c.; 1 lb., 
$2.50 ; 5 lbs., $11.00 ; Ex, Early Red Onion, the earliest, very 
fine, V lb., 90c.; 1 lb., $3.00 ; 5 lbs., $14.00. 

The above will be mailed at prices quoted. 

For full description of the above, aud all the new and 
best varieties of Ntrictly fine GarcEeii Seetls, care- 
fully grown from selected stocks, see my Illustrated Cata- 
logue, seut free to all applicants. Do not fail to see it. 

J. R. V. HA-WKINS, 

GOSHEN. Orange Co., N. V. 



per day at home. .Samijles worth $1 free. 
STINSON & CO., Portland, Maine. 



$5 to $20 



SEEI> POTATOES sent to order as follows : Eureka, 
Acvie, Snowjlake, and BrownelVs Beauty, 50c, per lb., 
$1.00 per 3 lbs., by mail; $1.10 per pk.; $1.75 per }^ bush. 
Eureka and Snoirjiake, $3.00 per bush.; $5.50 per bbl.; Ice 
Crentn, Early Vermont, C(/mpton'8 Surprise, Carpenter's 
Seedling, and Excelsiors, 40c. per lb., 80c. per 3 lbs., by 
mail ; 60c. per pk,, $1 per % bu., $1.85 per bti., and $3.25 per 
bbl., by express or freight as desired. None sent but genu- 
ine. Stock direct from the origioators. Send no money in 
letters unless registered. Address LA FAYETTE CAS- 
SLER & CO , Box 64, Canton, Ohio. t8-3-2t 

A'a»ie this paper when you write. 



CENTENITIAL 



Memorial Medals. 




Stnict in solid Albafa Plate, equal in appearance, 
wear and color to 

SOLID SILVER OR GOLD, 

Presenting a variety of beautiful designs in relief. 

These Medallions are larger than a Silver Trade Dollar, 
being 1^., inches in diameter, handsomely put ui^, and sell 
readily at sight. 

The most valuable Konvenirs and Me- 
lucutoes ever issued. 



GOOD AGENTS WANTED in every City 

and Town in the U. S. and Canada, to 

whom exclusive territory will 

be given, if desired. 



RETAIL PRICES.- For the Albata Silver, 50 cts.; Gilt, 
$1, in fancy box. Usual discount to the Trade. 

A complete outfit of magnificent samples for agents, in 
satin or velvet-lined morocco ciise, containing Six Medals, 
diifereut de.signs, one gilt, suitable for jewelers, show win- 
dows, etc., sent on receipt of draft or Post-otfice order 
for 14, or will ship Express C. O. D. 

Descriptive Circubir Price List aud one sample sent upon 
receipt of 50 cents. Immense profits. Sells at eight. Cor- 
respondence soUcited. Information free. Extensive fields 
for enterprise. Address all communications^ 

U. S. MEDALLION CO., 

P. 0. Box 5270. 2X2 Broadway, N. T. 



$1 a Year 



t To subucriberB in 
the couuty. 



SIITGLE COPIES 10 CEITTS 



To fiul>«orlberH out of > d^-l O C5 
tUe eouuty. (' »4>1.^0. 




;„^ii!v?^M.., 



Prof. S. S. RATHVON, Editor. 



LANCASTER, MAY 15, 1876. 



FEABSOL k QEIST, Fublishers. 



THE FARMERS HOME ORGAN. 




A MONTHLY NEWSPAPER, 

DEVOTED TO AGRICULTURE, HORTI- 
CULTURE, DOMESTIC ECONOMY 
AND MISCELLANY. 



PRACTICAL ENTOMOLOGY 

Made a-promiueut feature, with special reference to tlie 
wnuts of ttie Farmer, the Gardeuer aud Fruit -Gropver. 



Founded under the auspices of the Lancaster County 
Agricultural and Horticultural Society. 

Edited Ij Prof. S. S. RATHVON. 



The Lancaster Farmkk has now completed its eeveuth 
year — the last haviug beeu uuder the auspices of the uiuier- 
Bigned ae pubUshers. When we iisHumed the reBpousibllity 
of the publicutiou one year ago, it wus with a determiuiitioii 
to make such iropruvemeuts during the year as would pl.ice 
the Farmers' Organ of this great agricultural couuty iu the 
very front rank of publications of its class. That we have 
done so, our readers will bear cheerful testimony. But our 
work of improvement is only fairly begun. We propose to 
make the volume for the Contenuial year still more interesting 
and valuable than its predecessor for 1S75, In this, how- 
ever, we need the co-operation of every friend of the enter- 
prise. To make it a success, every one who now reads The 
Fabmeu should at once send us at least ou^new eaibscriber. 

The contributions of our able editor, Prof. Kathvon, on 
subjects connected with the science of farming, and partic- 
ularly that specialty of which be is no thoroughly a master- 
entomological science— some knowledge of which has become 
a necessity to the successful farmer, are alone worth much 
more than the price of this publication. 

The Farmer will be publxMhed on the 15th, of every 
month, printed on good paj.er with clear type, in con- 
venient form for reading and binding, aud mailed to sub- 
Bcribers ou the following 

TESMS: 

To subscribers residing within the county — 
One copy, one year, , . - - - $i.oo 
Six copies, one year, - . _ - . - 5.00 

Ten Copies, one year, ------ 7,50 

To subscribers outside of Lancaster county, including 
postage pre-paid by the publishers: 

One copy, one year, _ - - . - $1.25 

Five copies, one year, - - - - - - 5.00 

AH subscriptions will commence with the January num- 
ber unlcws othen\iBe ordered. 

All communications Intended for publication shouhl bp 
addressed to the F,ditor, and, to secure insertion, sUoald be 
in his hands by the first of the month of puldication. 

All business Utters, containing subscriptions and adver- 
tisemeuts. should be addressed to the publishers. 



PEARSOL & GEIST, 

Express Buildings, 22 South Queen Street, 
LANCASTER, PA. 



RATEN OF AUVEKTIKIXO. — Ten CrntN n 
Huf^ Tor each iuserllon. Twelve huea to the luch 



CONTENTS OF THIS NUMBER. 



G.5 
(!.5 

or, 

Of. 



llutidans. rituslralirl. \V. Atlee Bl'ui'ee, 
Solectiuc Fowls for Breeding, - - - . 
New Use, for Chicken Feathers, - - - 
Cabbages. {Brnxiiica Oleracea.) Editorial, - 
Our Centennial International Exposition. Editorial lit! 
Honey Ants A^ain. Editoi'ial, - - - - fifi 

Insect Remedies One Hundred A'ears Ago. Editorial 07 
" Honey Dew." Editorial, - - . - 07 
American Tobacco. Editorial, - - - - 68 

American Fruits. .Maksuali, P. Wii.ueh, - 68 
Queries. Editorial, ------ 68 

Kcduced Fareon the P. 1^ R., - . - 68 
Peek's Improved Liquid Atomizer. Editorial. Il- 
lustrated^ -------69 

Value of Barn-yard Dung. James Mitchell, 69 
Insect Depredations. |Editorial, - - - - 70 

Adapting .Means to Ends. Editorial, - - 70 
Decorating Flower Gardens. '■ Fi.ouA," - ■ 70 
Fruit Culture in Lancaster City. F. R.Diffen- 

DEUFFEU, ------ 71 

Seasonable Hints. Old Cultivatou, - - 71 
Choice Ever-Blooming Roses. Rosaca, - 71 
Honey Dew. W.P.Bolton, - - - - 72 

The Dairy— No. 3. Henhy M. Engle, - - 72 
Tuberous Rooted Flowers. Walter ELDEn, - 72 
Planting and Pruning Evergreens. W. Elder, 72 
Choice Vegetable Crops. Walteu Eldkh, - 7:i 
To Prevent the Birds from Pulling Corn. J. C. 
LiNViLLE, ------ 7:1 

Farm Accounts, ------- 7:i 

Commercial Value of Hen Manure. N. F. Journal. TA 
A Wrinkle for the Young People. A. L. O. 8., 74 
" Holstein" Cattle. Country GenUcman, - 74 
Veterinary Notes. William Horne, - - 74 
The Hamburgs as Layers. J. G. McKean, - - 74 
Two Bee Questions Answered. C. V. Rielly, - 74 
Our Paris Letter, . - - . - 7.5 

Our Farmers in Council, 7.5 

Proceediugs of the Lanonster County Agricultural 
and Horticultural Society, 
Our Bee-Keepers iu Council, . - - - 76 
Proceediugs of the Luucasler County Bee-Keep«r«' 
Society, 

General Miscellany, 77-78 

Lawns -How to Make and Keep Them-The Man- 
agement of Lamps autl Oil — CloverseeJ — Fanning 
iu Contiueutal Euroiir — Hints for the Season— 
Neatness in Making Hulter— Destroying Weeds- 
Worms in Fowls— Manure for Orass— To Fix or to 
Lift a Gate Post — Attvautages of Drainage — Don't 
ITse the Hatchet or Sitw— Our Nut-lioaring Trees — 
How io Pour Tea — How to Remove Grease Spots — 
White and Rv\ Wheal— t'uttiug aud Curing To- 
bacco— Sunliglit— lioiwood Kdgitigs— ('alia Lilien- 
Early Tomatoes Death of a Famous Horse — New 
Potatoes— Planting Gardens Early— Whitewash— 
Ponllrv Manure— A Simple Microscope — .TelTerson's 
Ten Practical Rules of Life- Boot Pruning and 
Dligbt— Hyacinths in Glanes — The Crops in Illl- 
uoia— Cure of Fowls — Fanuers' Fruit Cake— Biting 
the Nails — Various Items. 
Literary Notices, .... . .80 

Our Fence Comers, II 

Hints to Centennial Visitors . - - - 111 



— — — ^ 

THE LANCASTER EXPRESS, 

(DATLT AND -TTEEKLT,) 

Tlje Leadiipg Local Family and Business Newspaper, and the 
otjly Independerpt Republicai) Journal ir; the County. 



THE I FOUNDED ( THE 

WEEKLY, > i;v mik ] DAILY, 

1843 J PRESENT PROPRIETORS, i 1856 



The Weekly Exfrkkk haa bwn before the cltizenn of 
IjiiicaBter county for ajterlod of tliirty-thrt'C yearn, and The 
Daily Kxprkah for over nineteen years. Durlufi thia long 
lieriod, and without chuiiKe of iniiunBfnitMit, Tiik Kxpbkm 
haB fairly earned u lurge Hbure of patrona^*' ^nd flrmlv 
estnbliHhed itnelf in tbe i>iiblic conndeiice, »» un nprlRbt ana 
indeitendcnt journal, nevtr beKttuttuf; to defend I In • right 
and denounce the wrong, no matter where found to exist. 
It ban lilwayn been a journal of ]»roKrfs8. und ihe outnpoken 
friend of educutiou, teinr<^rance, HOund munilH and religiOD. 
Ab in the imat, un it will continue in the future. 

TERMS OF THE EXPRESS. 

The Weekly Express, one year, - - $3.00 

The Daily Expresa, one year, .... 5.00 

The Express and The Farmer : To any peraon realding 

within thr liniitu of I,.un\iMtiT county wc will mail- - 

The Weekly and the Lancaater Farmer, one year, $2.50 

REAL ESTATE ADVERTISING. 

The extended circulati()n of Tmk Kxi'Ukhh mukea ft tha 
beat medium for advurtiaiuK Hi:u] Estate and PeraoiuU 
Pi'oiierty in the county, n fact which can Im- alteiited by ho 
many farnuMt* and olheri* who hiive availed tliemaelvea of 
the uae of itH columns, and to which we iuvlte thu attention 
of all having proj^erty to (lisponr of. 

PRINTING SALE BILLS. 

Thk ExPBEHS printing office is one of the best fumiahad 
eatiiblinhnientH for turniuR out all kiudf of pnntiug to b» 
found in tbe interior of the State, We are j»repareU to 
print any job from tbe MniuU vifuring card to the largest sale 
or liorHC bill, poatcr, or broatlMtde, iilain or in colora, mm 
qiiicfttraait can be done at any other estabM^hment. and on 
U8 rcaa(^|ble tomie. We make the i«ituiiuf( of Oalr-bilU 
for /''arnicf*jf'« npecialty. and nu-»nmt*"*' fJitinfartlou to our 
customcrB. 

OUR STEAM POWER PRESSES 

include the varioua pattonifl adapted to printing boolm, 
jmniphlelB, p»)Bter», Hulebilla, hand-bllU, mlllera' reoeiptf, 
calaloguea of live hU'cV, aud any kind of work done in a 
tirBt-cia«H printiuK oflice; iu nhort anythitig thiii may b© 
cjtlled for by the fanner, merchant, banker, mi'cbanic, or 
buaineaa man, and we guamutf** to do the work at* aatlafao 
tory aa it can bo done lU I'liiladelphiii or elaewhcrc 

With one of the moBt c<»m]'leti* Job Offieea ui iheHlate, 
and unsuriMiHWHl convenlencen forexpediilou«ly turning out 
work by (he beat workmen, under the i^ennuiHl Mupervlaion 
of the proprietors, who ure Utth priiCtical j-rintcrM, all r>«'r- 
BOUB in ne<*d of I'rinting will t\nd it to their intereat to give 
us a trial. 

PEARSOL & GEIST, 

BOOK. NEWSPAPER AND JOB PRINTERS. 

Express Buildings, 22, South Queen-st, 
liANCATSER. PA. 



Cnnvnmienii Wanted for Tnc Fabhbb, witb whom 

liberal arraugenients will t)e mad*. 



11. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



FARMERS, G£T TH£ BESX 



Til siLfii & muim 

FEED CUTTER, 



MANCFACTTTBED FOR 



DEALERS IN 

HARDWARE & AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS, 

No. 7 BAST KING ST., LANCASTER, PA., 

Has been demoustrated by competitive tests to be THE 
BEST FEED CUTTER IN THE MARKET. The feed-roU 
is operated by a new and novel device which completely 
overcomes the objection to the uneven action of other cut- 
ters, while the length of cut can be varied to meet the wants 
of the operator without the removal of any gear-wheels. 
The material and workmanship are of the very beat claes, 
and guaranteed to give satisfaction to the purchaser. Farm- 
ers are invited to call and see for themselves. 



"THE CHAMPION." 

The Champion Reaper and Mower, which we have sold 
with such entire satisfaction to our customers for the last 
six years, still maintains the lead of all competitors — 
33,761 having been manufactured for the harvest of 1S75 
— and R'e have already completed our arrangements to sup- 
ply the increased demand for next season. The Farmer 
who buys the Champion is always satisfied that he has the 
full worth of his money. 

DILLER & GROFF, 

No, 7 East King St., Lancaster, Pa. 

7-ll-Sm 





fL&WLR>-Y| GETAg LE g 



is the most beautiful work of the kind in the world. It con- 
tains nearly 150 jiages, hundreds of fine illustiations, and 
four Chrmno JHates of Flowers, beautifully drawn and col- 
ored from nature. Price, 35 cents in paper covers ; 65 cents 
bound in elegant cloth. 
Vick's Floral Guide, Quarterly, 25 cents a year. 

Address, JAMES VICK. Rochester, N. Y. 

PATENTS 

OBTAINED BEST AND CHEAPEST BY 

LOUIS BAGGER & CO., 

SOLICITORS OP PATENTS, 

"Wasliixigtoti, D. C. 



«»" Address all letters to P. O. Box 444. 



7-3 -12m 



FERTILIZERS! 
hoivee: ivejA-de:. 

CHEAPEST AND BEST! 



WRITE for Circular and Recipes, which are furnished 
without charge, containing complete instructions for 
making, at home, first-class chemical manures, suited to 
the growth of special crops. Our formulse have prover, in 
actual use, to lie of the greatest value to all who have used 
them. 

We offer Fertilizing Chemicals of our own manufacture, 
at lowest prices, with a guaranty as to strength and pu- 
rity. Ask ijrices for 



Oil Vitriol, 
Ground Bo